(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Seynt Graal, or, The Sank Ryal. The history of the Holy Graal, partly in English verse"

^!i ' 'it- 
Mr ■¥■ 



:^' 






CORNELL UNA^RSITY LIBRARY 



ENGLISH COLLECTION 




THE GIFT OF 

JAMES MORGAN HART 

PROFESSOR OF ENGUSH 



^,\U5*»4t 



¥\\sV«\C5\ 



Cornell University Library 
PR 2029.L6A67 1861 

^ Seynt Graal, or, The Sank Rya'J|ti^,'j|i^*° 




3 1924 013 114 602 0......1 



THE HISTORY 



OF 



THE HOLY GRAAL. 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924013114602 



t^t dlpal, a\ ®li4 ^ank |lpl. 



THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY GRAAL, 

PARTLY IN ENGLISH VERSE, BY HENRY LONELICH, SKYNNER, 

(TEMP. HEN. VI., A.D. 1422—1461); 

AND WHOLLY IN FRENCH PROSE, BY SIRES ROBIERS DE BORRON, 

.jFrom tl)f ©rigmal iLatm, totttfrn bg Je sus_ <tti)rist totti) ijts otou jl^anii (p. 357) . 

BEING THE ONLY WRITING MADE BY GOD SINCE HIS UPRISING, 
And they " that otherwise heleven, they lyen ful pleyfl."— p. 359. 



I 



EDITED, FEOM MSS. IN THE LIBEART OF CUEPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AND THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 

BY FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, ESQ. M.A. 

TEIN. HALL, CAMBEIDGE, AND WOKEING MEn's COLLEGE, LONDON; CAPTAIN 19tH MIDDLESEX VOLUNTEER RIFLES; 
ONE OF THE HONOEAEY SECRETARIES OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETT, ETC. 



VOL. I. 

WITH A PREFATORY ESSAY ON THE SAGA OP THE HOLY GRAAL. 

BY SAN MARTE, that is, ALBERT SOHTJLZ, 

Author of " Heben unJj JitcSttn SUaaoKrams bon ^cf)miatf)," " ^Parc'ibatStuIiun," etc. etc. 
AND AN APPENDIX— A REPRINT OF THE EARLY FRENCH VERSE 

iSotnan? tit V cgtore irou ©laal. 



PRINTED FOR THE 

B.O):bursl)f Club. 



LONDON: 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SONS, 25, PARLIAMENT STREET. 
MDCCCLXL 



MDCCCLXI. 

THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY, E.G., 

PKESIDENT. 

THE DUKE OF HAMILTON AND BEANDON. 

HIS EXCELLENCY MONSIEUE VAN DE WEYEE. 

MAEQUIS OP LOTHIAN. 

EAEL OF CAENAEVON. 

EAEL OP POWIS, V.P. 

EAEL OF CAWDOE. 

EAEL OF ELLESMEEE. 

LOED VEENON. 

LOED DELAMEEE. 

LOED DUFFEEIN. 

LOED WENSLEYDALE. 

EIGHT HON. SIE DAVID DUNDAS. 

HON. EOBEET CUEZON, JUN. 

SIE STEPHEN EICHAED GLYNNE, BAET. 

SIE EDWAED HULSE, BAET. 

SIE JOHN BENN WALSH, BAET. 

SIE JOHN SIMEON, BAET. 

SIE JAMES SHAW WILLES. 

BEEIAH BOTFIELD ESQ. Treasurer. 

EEV. WILLIAM EDWAED BUCKLEY. 

PAUL BUTLEE, ESQ. 

FEANCIS HENEY DICKINSON, ESQ. 

THOMAS GAISFOED, ESQ. 

EALPH NEVILLE GEENVILLE, ESQ. 

EEV. EDWAED CEAVEN HAWTEEY, D.D. 

EGBERT STAYNEE HOLPOED, ESQ. 

ADEIAN JOHN HOPE, ESQ. 

ALEX. JAMES BEEESFOED HOPE, ESQ. 

EEV JOHN STUAET HIPPISLEY HOENEE, M.A. 

JOHN AETHUE LLOYD, ESQ. 

EVELYN PHILIP SHIELEY, ESQ. 

WILLIAM STIELING, ESQ. 

SIMON WATSON TAYLOE, ESQ. 

GEOEGE TOMLINE, ESQ. 

CHARLES TOWNELEY, ESQ. 



PREFACE. 



A gentle sound, an awful light 1 

Three angels bear the Holy Grail: 
With folded feet, in stoles of white, 

On sleeping wings they sail. 
Ah, blessed vision! Blood of God ! 

My spirit beats her mortal bars. 
As down dark tides the glory slides, 

And, star-like, mingles with the stars. 



There can be few readers of " The most Ancient and Famovs History of 
the Renowned Prince Arthvr King of Britaine," who have not been deeply- 
affected by the legend of Galahad and the Graal. On the dark background 
of Arthur's incest, Lancelot and Guenevere's, Tristram and Iseult's, guilty 
loves, the star of Galahad's chastity shines out pure and clear, and draws 
one to it with the power of fascination. In its centre, the focal light 
whence its beams of glory flow, is the mystic object of the hero's love and 
search, the source of his purity, the cause of his strength, — the HoiiY 
Grail. 

One tries to realize what he thought of it on its first appearance to him 
after his first jousting in the Meadow beside Camelot : " And then the 
King and all the estate went home unto Camelot' s minster, and so, after 
that, they went to supper, and every knight sat in their place as they 
were beforehand. Then anon they heard cracking and crying of thunder, 
that they thought the place should all toriue. In the midst of the blast 
entered a sunbeam more clear by seven times than ever they saw day, and 
all they were alighted of the grace of the Holy Ghost. Then began every 
knight to behold other; and either saw other, by their seeming, fairer than 
ever they saw. other. Not for then there was no knight that might speak 
any word a great while, and so they looked every man on other as they 
had been dumb. Then there entered into the hall the Holy Grail, covered 

b 



li PREFACE. 

with wMte samite ; but there was none that might see it, nor who bare it; 
and there was all the hall fulfilled with great odours, and every knight 
had such meat and drink as he best loved ia this world. And when the 
Holy Grail had been borne through the hall, then the holy vessel departed 
suddenly, that they wist not where it became. Then had they breath to 
speak, and then the King yielded thanks unto God of His grace that He 
had sent them." * 

"Clothed ia white samite, — mystic, wonderful ! " The very name of 
the vesture even stirred one's imagination. What could the wondrous 
texture be ? And the Body and Spirit it covered,— what was not that to 
Galahad ? What might it not be to us if we could but know more about 
it ? When, therefore, while reading one day for my class at the Working 
Men's College, I came on the passage in Ellis's Specimens of Early 
English Romances (p. 75 ; Bohn, 1848), which states that a metrical 
Romance of the St. Graal, said to consist of forty thousand lines, composed 
in the reign of Henry VI. by Henry Lonelich, was preserved in MS. in 
the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and had not been printed, 
I.could not help exclaiming, " Unprinted ! what a shame ! Please God, I'll 
get it printed. Why, it's almost as bad as leaving Wycliffe's Bible un- 
printed so long." — Eorty thousand lines about the San Graal with possibly, 
nay certainly, untold glories and wonders without end, lying hid in Corpus 
Library ! The thing was hardly credible ; while all our English world too 
Avas delightiag in " The Idylls of the King." However, the stubborn fact 
remaiaed that the MS. had not been printed. So to all the publishers 
whom I could get at, I dilated on the probable treasures of the Lonelich 
Romance, and asked whether they would pay for the copying and printing 
of the MS. if I would edit it gratis. One and all said No ! Eorty thousand 
lines of Early English by an unknown poet, were too much for any pub- 
lisher ; they were clearly matter for a Society or Club. Just then, a 
liberal present of Roxburghe books to the Dictionary Committee of the 
PhiLological Society from Mr. Botfield, brought me into correspondence 
with him, and enabled me to repeat to the Club the offer I had made 
mthout avail to the publishers ; it was at once accepted, and the " Graal " 

* Hist, of Prince Arthur, part iii. chap. xxxv. vol. ii. pp. 215-216; reprint of 1816. 



PREFACE. m 

was to be printed after Roberde of Brunne's "Handlyng Synne" (a.d. 1303), 
which. I had also offered to the Club, but wanted in type first. 

While busy with the sins of our ancestors in the fourteenth century, 
visions of the Graal would float before me, with its covering of mystic 
samite — a web not of the earth earthy, but spun with angel hands, divine. 
In this mood one day I turned over the pages of my friend Mr. Hensleigh 
Wedgwood's " Etymology of the English Language," and by chance my 
eye lighted on the word dimity : — 

DIMITY. — Originally a stuff woven with two threads ; from 8ts twice, and fjilros a thread . . . • 
In the same way, the German name for velvet, sammet, is contracted from exhamita, from having 
been woven of six threads. 

What ! my samite allied to dimity, — bed-ticking and dusters ! Here 
was a roll in the mud for all my rose-pink notions ! And a terrible suspicion 
followed : What if the Lonelich Romance should be dimity too ? Had not 
Ellis spoken of the dulness of an extract from it ? Was it sure that he did 
so because the grapes were sour ? Yes, it was sure, and should be. How 
could a history of the Graal be dull ? So I was reassured, and went up 
soon after to Corpus, eager to examine my treasure, hoping to gloat over 
it and handle it for three days. But Archbishop Parker had no notion of 
his jewels being thus open to the profane gaze and touch of strangers. 
The presence of two Eellows is necessary all the time that a visitor is in 
the Library, and in Vacation time one can hardly expect two College 
Dignitaries, busy with their own work in their own cosy rooms, to come 
and sit in a fireless Library while one gratifies one's curiosity by inspecting 
the College books. However, two were kind enough to give me up a 
couple of hours on the first day of my visit, and the long-wished-for 
" Romance of the San Graal "* was put into my hands — a stout folio 
volume bound in vellum, which, when opened, showed paper leaves 
covered with double columns of verse in a crabbed Henry-the-Sixth 
hand, pale from damp and age, and awkward at first to read. The MS. 

* Acta qucedam Arthuri regis is the title given it by some old cataloguer or reader. On the fly- 
leaf is " Oh quantos labores insumpserit hie Author, in rebus non ita probabilibus." 



IV PEEFACE. 

was incomplete at the beginning and end, so I started at the beginniag : — 

" And yf thou do, with owten more 
[Riwarde,] deth schal thow suifren therfore." 
["My Lor]de, ^if it be not so as I haue tlie told, 
Dis-membre thow me, Sire, manifold." 

1. 493-6, p. 106. 

and soon became convinced that the verse, alas ! was dimity unmistakeable. 
Nevertheless, dimity has its uses ; and so has fifteenth-century verse — 
however poor it be— for students of English. Moreover, the subject of 
the Grail would ennoble any covering of words ; and, after another day's 
work, I still said to Mr. Botfield that the Romance ought to be printed. 
Accordingly, Mr. Harry Seeley, then of the Working Men's College, Lon- 
don, now Geological Assistant to Professor Sedgwick, went up to Cam- 
bridge to copy the MS. as soon as he had finished B^oberde of Brunne's, 
and William of Waddington's treatises, for the Club. 

The next business was to find the missing commencement of the story. 
Not being versed in the mysteries of the British-Museum Pritited-Books 
Catalogues, I could not find that there were any books at all about the San 
Graal in the Printed Book Department, and I had therefore to turn to the 
Manuscript Boom, which, through the kindness of its officers, and the quaint 
tales of the old vellum pages on its shelves, had given me so many pleasant 
hours before. Here, the late Mr. Holmes's notes referred me to two hand- 
some folios of the " Histoire du San Graal" &c., which Mr. Bond decided to 
be of about the date of 1320, from the eyelet ornamentation of the knights' 
armour in the illustrations ; and after skimming through the first nineteen 
pages of one of these MSS. I found the point where what is left of Lone- 
lich's translation begins. These first nineteen pages of the MS., occupying 
eighty-nine in print, I copied myseK; but as I could not spare further time. 
Miss Eleanor Dalziel has copied the rest for the Club, and to her and Mr. 
Seeley I am much indebted for the care and attention they have given to 
their work. The French MS. I have followed is XIV. E. III. of the King's 
Library. It is really a royal folio, not only in size and handsomeness, 
but because it contains the signatures, some sadly faded, of Eichard III., 



PREFACE. V 

" Cest liure est A moy Ey chard Eex Anglie" (fol. 2 back), of Elizabeth 
daughter of Edward IV. {Mysaheth the hyngys Dowther), Viscountess 
"Welles {Oecyl the pryncys Dowther), and Jane Grey, whose signature is 
repeated on the last fly-leaf. 

The text is clear and bold, though written by some scribe who did not 
know French, if one may judge from the divisions of some of his words. 
The volume contains "L'Histoire du Saint Graal," except the last column 
or two at fol. 88 back ; " La Quete du Saint Graal," from fol. 89 to fol. 
139, back ; and part of " La Mort au Eoi Artu," from fol. 140 to the end 
of the MS. The other MS. was the Additional MS. 10,292 : it contains the 
" San Graal," and " Merlin," complete, and is the first of three volimies, 
the second of which (10,293) contains the "Lancelot du Lac ;" and the 
third (10,294) " La Quete du Saint Graal," ending at fol. 53, and ''La 
Mort al Eoi Artu," beginning at fol, 53, col. 2. Now, though the scribe 
who wrote this " Additional " version of the San Graal, evidently knew 
more Erench than the Royal scribe, yet, as theEoyal MS. was longer than 
the other,* and corresponded better to Lonelich's paraphrase, (and as, 
moreover, its author had told us that the revelation of the " History of the 
Grail" was made in England — hloie bertaigne, p. 3 (post), qui ore a non 
engleterre, (p. 22) — which the Erenchman, (of course exclaiming 'Perfide 
Albion ! ') had omitted t — I decided on following the King's MS. 

The next thing was to ascertain the opinion of competent judges on the 
origin of the legend of the Graal. The foreign writers best known in con- 
nection with the subject were, in Erance M. le Vicomte Hersart de la 
Villemarqu6, and in Germany San Marte, or M. Schulz. M. Villemarque 
had treated of it in his Les Romans de la Table Bonde, (3rd. edit. Paris, 
I860,) ch. vii. pp. 134-60, but not in a manner that inspired one with 
confidence. He had decided on the Keltic origin of the Graal. Turning 
then to Germany, I applied to my friend Professor Huber (the author of 

* The Additional MS. though, contains the history of the physician Hippocras, which Lonelich 
has, chap, xxxvi.-xxxvii., vol. ii. pp. 19-43 post, while the Eoyal MS. omits it. 
•f The printed versions, Paris, 1516 and 1523, also do not mention England here. 



VI PBEFACB. 

" Sketches from Spain," " The English Universities," " Co-operative Tra- 
vels in England, Erance, and G-ermany," &c. &c.), and, on his bringing my 
request before M. Schulz, the latter most kindly furnished me with the 
Prefatory Essay which adorns this volume, and for the translation of which 
I am indebted to Mr. Triibner and Professor Goldstiicker. It will be 
seen that M. Schulz does not believe in the Keltic origin of the Graal. 
Lastly, Taliesin — whose keen blade of knowledge, wielded by an arm 
of vigorous common-sense, has pricked so many wind-bags that ignorance 
and mistaken national vanity had puffed up — showed me that, in England, 
we had in Mr. D. W. Nash, of Cheltenham, an authority who really knew 
his subject. Him, though a stranger, I asked for his opinion, and he has 
been good enough to express it in the words following : — 

" I quite agree with the opinion put forward by M. Schulz, that the 
legend of the Graal was originally distinct from the histories of Percival 
and the other Arthur knights, and that it was first woven into them by 
North Erench poets. One can pretty well see, on reading the old romance 
of Arthur printed by Caxton in 1485, where the monkish ' trouvere ' took 
up the old chevaleresque story, and commenced interweaving the Graal- 
legend,* improving, in a pious sense, the popular romance, but altogether 

* " What I mean about tlie interweaving of the Sangreal romance with the Arthurian is this: — 
In the first part of the 'Prince Arthur' the knights are all jovial, damsel-loving, hard-fighting 
heroes, who trouble themselves very little about the mysteries of Christianity. Merlin plays a 
conspicuous part amongst them. The Sangreal is incidentally mentioned — in C. 36. Merlin pro- 
phecies that the adventures belonging to it are to commence after his death. In C.C. 38-44 we 
find it stated that certain adventures are afterwards rehearsed in the ' Book of the Sangreal.' 

" In the third part commences the history of a new generation, Galahad the son of Sir Lancelot, 
and Sir Bors his nephew ; and now the knights are chaste and religious, and have much to do 
with monks and hermits, who interpret their dreams or visions. The adventures in quest of the 
Sangreal accomplished, we get back to the old style of adventure. Sir Lancelot goes back to his 
adultery with Queen Guenever, with a slight show of compunction, and matters go on as before. 
King Arthur himself has nothing to do with the quest; and if all relating to the Sangreal were cut 
out of the story, the history of the Knights of the Round Table would remain sufficiently complete. 
In connecting the two stories— Arthur and the Graal, — it was necessary to introduce a pure 
spiritual knight, chaste and pious, and this is done by the union of the best knight, Lancelot, and 



PREFACE. Vll 

marring the unity of the original design by the introduction of modes of 
thought and action altogether inconsistent with those belonging to the 
genuine characters of the earlier story. 

" The legend of the Graal is clearly not of British origin, that is, there 
is nothing in the genuine remains of Irish or Welsh ' story ' which can be 
taken as the germ of the legend. It has no connection with the story of 
the Cauldron of Brigid, Bran or Oeridwen, and was clearly unknown to the 
Welsh or British writers of the sera of Geoffrey of Monmouth. The legend 
was not in the mouths of the Welsh itinerant Bards or Storiawr in the 
fourteenth century, and copies of the romance were so rare in Wales in the 
fifteenth century, that only one was known to be in existence. The poem 
composed by Gutto'r Glyn on the occasion of borrowing this manuscript 
from its then proprietor, is still extant, and, as he was sent from Denbigh- 
shire to Glamorgan for this purpose, the importance attached to the pos- 
session of the MS. is apparent. 

" It is evident from a cursory perusal of the collection of Welsh romances 
called the Mabinogion, that there are two distinct sets — ^or, as it is the 
fashion to call them, cycles — of romances, the one of native growth, which 
may be compared with the Irish romances of Fionn Mac Cumhal and 
Manannan Mac Lir, in which there is no chivalry, and little, if any, Chris- 
tianity ; the other, in which the old romance of the Kelt has been mixed up 
and interwoven with the splendid fiction of the Arthurian chivalry, a fiction 
which, though of foreign origin, was eagerly seized and appropriated by the 
Welsh bards, to whom it was recommended as much by its intrinsic merit 
as by the welcome flattery with which it consoled a vanquished and fallen 

a maiden of the race of Joseph of ArimathaBa, whose issue is Galahad, predestined to accomplish 
the adventure of the Sangreal." 

This seems to be M. Schultz's view, — Prize essay, p. 54 ; but I do not agree with him that " the 
point of union is Percival, the Peredur of the Welsh." I am not sufficiently acquainted with the 
subject to know what was the original of Sir Thomas Malory's legend, but of course he must have 
found it as he gives it, and in his story Percival occupies only the second place in spiritual value, 
after Sir Galahad. "We know little Of the genealogy of Percival, but Galahad is distinctly pointed 
out as the hero of the adventure by his birth." 



VIU PREFACE. 

nationality. The subsequent addition of the legend of the San Graal seems 
never to have taken root in Wales, and never to have been incorporated 
with the genuine Welsh or mixed Arthurian romances by the native min- 
strels or storiawr of Wales. It is in fact evident, that the story of Joseph 
of Arimathsea in the legend of the Holy Graal was known only to the 
Welsh literati of the fifteenth century from a rare MS. in Welsh, which 
had clearly been translated from a foreign original." 

The translations of the original Welsh Poems, and the arguments brought 
forward by Mr. Nash in his Taliesin, fully bear out his opinion given above 
— that the Graal had not a Keltic origin. Where, then, are we to look for 
it ? Eirst, as to the Graal or vessel itself : — with the rage for relics in the 
Middle Ages, such a vessel as the Dish in which Christ eat the Last Supper 
with his disciples could hardly fail to be sought for, if not to appear, and 
its renown might well be heightened by making it the receptacle for the 
gore from the Saviour's side, which must have been removed from the 
body before it was wrapped in fine linen with the spices. Joseph of Ari- 
mathsea would naturally be the person to possess it, and his imprisonment, 
as reported in the Gospel of Nicodemus, would supply the ground for its 
first miracle. In fact, a hexagonal green vessel said to be made of emerald, 
but showing by a bleb in it that it was of glass, was found at the capture 
of Caesarea, and was sent to Genoa in 1101 by Baldwin king of Jerusalem. 
At Genoa it was, and is, shown as the Sacro Catino. It is now flawed by 
the joins of its pieces, having been broken on its passage back from Paris, 
where Napoleon had sent it with the rest of his Italian booty. Bishop 
Thirlwall tells me that it is figured and described in aU the guide-books to 
Genoa. As to why the Graal and the quest for it should have been intro- 
duced into the Arthur legends:— I conceive that any religious poet reading 
the regular Arthur romances, must have said to himself, ' Is this fighting 
mainly for fighting' sake, this tourneying and feasting, this high-flown 
devotion to a lady-love, what a Christian knight, the servant of the Lord 
and his Blessed Mother, ought to be doing and professing ? Is this court 
of Arthur (though morality is vindicated by the king himself being killed 
l3y the son of his incest), with its amours and adulteries, to be the highest 



PREFACE. IX 

object of ambition to a follower of our Holy Paith ?' The answer must 
have taken form in the incorporation into the Arthur story of the account 
of a nobler knight, a purer man, and a more exalted reward,* than any 
which the old legends furnished, — even of Galahad and the Graal ; the 
history of the latter being probably ready to the poet's hand. With a 
monkish author, the virginity of his hero was a matter of course, while the 
Graal, as containing the blood of Christ, made a share in the common 
possession of the clergy, the most coveted privilege for the one best of the 
laity, and showed all, that with putting on the priestly garb their lives 
should end. UntU the appearance of the relic, or after the report that it 
was in heathen hands, a quest for it might well be proclaimed, and would 
give opportunity for the adventures that were the indispensable accom- 
paniment of knightly life. 

In some such way, I think, is the appearance of the Graal-legend in the 
Arthur story to be accounted for. Judgiag as well from the Arthur ro- 
mances themselves, as from other sources, — for instance, Roberde of 
Brunne's account of the evils resulting from tournaments and jousting 
(Handlyng Synne, p. 145-6,) — the necessity to proclaim to all, " Knights of 
poor faith and wicked belief, these three things faileth, chastity, abstinence, 
and truth, therefore ye may not attain that high adventure of the holy 
Sancgreall," ( Sir T. Maleor's Prince Arthur, part iii. ch. Iviii. vol. iii. 
p. 139, of the 1815 reprint,) must have been urgent, though there had 
been no Sancgreall , and I do not believe that any witch's caldron, or 
head in a platter, was the germ whence the Romance- writer's beautiful 
conception sprang. The amount of pounding that the head in the 
platter t must require to enable one to identify it with the Graal and 
its contents, I cannot conceive. 

* '' But all my heart is drawn above, More bounteous aspects on me beam, 

My knees are bow'd in crypt and shrine ; Me mightier transports move and thriU ; 

I never felt the kiss of love. So keep I fair, thro' faith and prayer, 

Nor maiden's hand in mine. A virgin heart in work and will." 

+ Mabinogion, by Lady Charlotte Guest, vol. i. p. 312. ■ " And, when the clamour had a little 
subsided, behold two maidens' entered with a large salver between them, in which was a man's head 
surrounded by a profusion of blood." ... (p. 369-70.) " Then behold a yellow-haired youth 

C 



X PREFACE. 

The order of tlie Arthur Eomances, Sir E. Madden, in his Preface (p. x.) 
to Syr Gawayne (Abhotsford Club, 1839) makes as follows : 

" 1. The Roman du Saint Oraal, sometimes intitled the Boman de Joseph 
d'Arimathie, composed by Eobert de Borron. In the printed editions, this 
is called the first part of the Saint Graal. 

2. The Boman de Merlin, by the same. 

3. The Boman de Lawncelot du Lac, composed by Walter Map. 

4. The Boman du Quete du Saint Graal, by the same. In the printed 
editions this forms the second part. 

5. The Boman de la Mort Artus, by the same, and originally distinct, 
but in the printed editions united to the Launcelot. 

6. The first portion of the Boman de Tristan, by Luces, Seigneur de Gast. 

7. The conclusion of Tristan, by Helie de Borron. 

8. The Boman de Gyron le Courtois, by the same. 

Of these, the first six were written in the latter half of the twelfth 
century, and the remainder in the first half of the 13th. To these must 
be added the metrical romances composed by Ghrestien de Troyes, between 
the years 1170 and 1195, as also the later prose compilations of Rusticien 
de Pise and his followers, in the 13th and 14th centuries." 

An early version of the legend of the Graal was published by M. Michel 
in 1841. His publishers returned no answer to my application for a 
sufB.cient number of copies for the members of the Roxburghe Club, or 
the editor's address that I might ask his leave to reprint his text. Mr. 

came, and bent upon the knee before Peredur, and besought his friendship. ' Lord,' said the 
youth, ' it was I that . . . came with the bloody head in the salver, . . . and the head was thy 
cousin's, and he was killed by the sorceresses of Gloucester, who also lamed thine uncle ; and I 
am thy cousin. And there is a prediction that thou art to avenge these things.' 

" Then Peredur and Gwalchmai took counsel and sent to Arthur and his household to beseech 

them to come against the sorceresses and then Peredur drew his sword and smote the 

sorceress on the helmet, and aU her head armour was split in two parts ; and she set up a cry and 
desired the other sorceresses to flee, and told them that this was Peredur, the man who had learned 
Chivalry with them, and by whom they were destined to be slain. Then Arthur and his house- 
hold fell upon the sorceresses, and slew the sorceresses of Gloucester every one. And thus is it 
related concerning the Castle of Wonders." 



PBEPACE. XI 

Nutt could not get enough copies from Paris, and so I was obliged to have 
the eariy version printed as an appendix to this volume, adding English 
sidenotes. As the Graal part of this version occupies only 40 pages, 
and the later one printed in the present volume is also to take up a second 
as big, the reader wUl see how the author whom Lonelich translates has 
expanded the shorter and simpler story.* This he has accomplished 
by prefixing an account of how the Book of the Graal was revealed 
from heaven, and then infixiug a long account of Joseph's missionary 
travels and the adventures of his converts. Joseph reaches Sarras, enables 
its king Evalach to conquer Tholomes, who has invaded his land (ch. 
xii.-xiv. p. 91-164), and then leaves the country (ch. xxii. p. 225). The 
journey of Joseph and his companions across the sea on his shirt, and 
their adventures in Britain, will be resumed in the second volume. The 
rest of the first volume is taken up with the adventures of Evalach 
(whose name Joseph has changed to Mordreins), his brother-in-law 
Nasciens (by name Seraphe while a heathen), and Nasciens's son 
Celidoyne. Evalach is miraculously carried away from the bed in which he 
and Nasciens are lying, to an island which Pompey took from the pirate 
Eowcairs, and is there tempted (ch. xviii. xx. xxi. to xxiv). Nasciens is 
imprisoned on suspicion of having kUled Evalach (ch. xix. p. 239); his 
accuser Oalafer is miraculously kiUed (ch. xxv. p. 313), and he carried to 
the Yl Torneawnt (an isle compounded of flame from heaven, rust or 
iron-dross from earth, and the sediment of the sea), which turns upside 
down once a day. Here he sees Solomon's ship, the making of which is 
described, and occupies chapters xxix. and xxx. because one must begin 
at the beginning of things, the Creation, and Eall of Man. Chapter xxxi. 
gives us Nasciens' s adventures on the Yl, and chapters xxxii. and xxxiii. are 
taken up by Celidoyne's adventures, he having been miraculously delivered 
from Calafer when the latter had ordered him to be thrown from the 
battlements of his castle (p. 327). In the last chapter Mordreins (or 
Evalach), Nasciens (or Seraphe), and Celidoyne all meet again, to be 
separated in the second volume. 

* The " Contents " of the Appendix are printed after those of the text, so as to enable the 
reader to compare them with greater convenience. 

c2 



XU PREEACE. 

In this suminary I have not referred to the sorrows of the king's wives 
in chapters xv. and xxvi. and to divers other matters. If the reader should 
ohject to the spinning out of the story by the introduction of so many 
episodes, I can only offer him by way of consolation the author's own 
explanation, in Lonelich's words : 

For of every thing that is Of dowte 

he it Eeherseth Er he passe Owte, 

and bringeth it to- Clere vndirstondyng 

to Every Mannes wit, bothe Old & jyng (p. 347.) 

And again 

And thowgh this Mater and Ofere longe not to Jiis storye, 
jit he that this book Made hath put it in memorye 
Forto Maken A Cler Notysyng, 
And forto declaren so Everithing 
More Openly to mannes Mynde, 
Al the mater the bettere to bryngen to an Ende (p. 477.) 

Eor, as to every such " thing that is of dowte," people 

. . . but there-offen they knewen more vndirstondeng, 

EUes wolden they holden it for A gabbyng ; 

Therefore here turneth this Storye, 

and of Anothir thing Maketh Memorye 

that is ful swete forto here, 

bothe forto lestene & ek to lere (p. 376.) 

Any one who does not find the "thing" "ful swete" can pass it by; 
enough for me to know that our great Victorian poet has glanced over 
these pages with interest ; I trust he will accept them as a slight acknow- 
ledgment of the debt of gratitude all English- reading men now owe him, 
for the perfect words, and noble and beautiful thoughts, that are the delight 
of many a working-man in his workshop, as I well know, as well as of the 
Queen in her palace. 

A word more in conclusion on matters of detail. Mr. Seeley has read 
the English proof with the Corpus MS. sheet by sheet; my work on it has 
been only to put together disjointed words, as onne this for onnethis, 
' scarcely,' and to arrange and abstract the text. The Erench proof I have 
read with the MS. myself. In the English MS. the u and n are generally 
so alike that it has not been found possible to distinguish them, and 
Evalach's city, which was at first always seemingly written (and was 



PREP ACE. XIU 

therefore printed) Orkanz, unexpectedly appeared further on as rhyming 
with hors (p. 309, 1. 34), shewing that the word was really Orca«<z. So 
with the word " have." So far as Mr. Seeley could determine, the final 
letter was u not n, and as hau it has heen printed. Also, the distinction in 
the Erench MS. between the names of Joseph and his son Josephes is not 
always preserved in the English MS. ; the Unes of which too do not start 
uniformly with capital letters, as the copier has made those of the first 
half of the text do. The Corpus MS. is evidently a copy of an unfinished 
or mutilated original, as gaps in the narrative, as at 314-17 postea, occur, 
without any break in the MS., and the history of the Yl Torneawnt is 
omitted, though the reason for introducing it is given (p. 347). 

My best thanks are due to the courteous and learned officers of the Manu- 
script Department of the British Museum, to the Librarian and Eellows of 
Corpus, who have facilitated Mr. Seeley's task of copying their MS., and 
to Mr. J. M. Ludlow of Lincoln's Inn, and to Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood, 
for their kind help whenever I asked it. 

In the Index, and at p. 376, are noted references to the short summaries 
that Sir T, Maleor, or Mallory, gives of parts of this History, — Joseph and 
Evalach's shield ; Nasciens on the Isle of Turnance, and his adventure with 
the Giant ; the History of Solomon, his Ship, &c., and David's sword. 
On the real history of Arthur, the reader should consult my friend Prof. 
Pearson's admirable " Early and Middle Ages of England," p. 56-8 ; and 
for a short abstract of the accounts given of Arthur by the early historians 
and the later Homance-writers, an article by my late accomplished friend 
Herbert Coleridge, in a forthcoming number of MacmUlan's Magazine. 

3, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, 
September 27, 1861. 



CORRIGENDA. 

p. 3, for (§ 2, p. 9), read p. 5. 

P. 7, side-note 2, after terrors, add see p. 23T, I. 350. 

P. 89 note, for lines 1-492, read '/-22, and 1-492, p. §9-106. 

P. 93, 1. 71, Fr. for soiesr amenbrans, read soies ramenbrans. 

P. 154, read 1. 544 for 444. 

P. 280, 1. 284, for Aerkene read Serkene. 

In two places (reference mislaid) therer is printed for there. 



ON THE 



SAGA OF THE HOLY GRAAL, 

BY SAN MARTE, that is, ALBEET SCHULZ. 



The Holy Graal, as a symbol of Christian salvation to the Romantic 
Poets of the Middle Ages, was, like King Arthur and the Sorcerer Merlin, 
for nearly five centuries the kernel and central point of an extensive cycle 
of poems, wherein the knights of old found edification, and in writing on 
which poets believed they should obtain final bliss. The Graal-cycle dis- 
tinguishes itself, however, essentially from the cycle of the sagas of the 
British Arthur, the Prankish saga of Charlemagne, and the German hero- 
sagas (Heldensage) — Nibelungen, Etzel, Diedrich of Berne, &c. — inas- 
much as, in its first origin, it has not, like the foregoing, historical persons 
and events for its foundation ; such, at least, have not up till now, even 
remotely, been established. Not to recorded facts does the Graal-cycle 
owe its birth ; but a deep pious thought was the fruitful germ which, from 
poet to poet, from land to land, and from century to century, transplanted 
and carefully nursed, finally acquired an outward form and being which 
the poets endeavoured to transmit to posterity as the developed history of 
a holy Vessel. This history, however, ever testifies how this Vessel could 
find its real significance only in the struggles of a piously Christian mind 
to fathom the inscrutable mysteries of faith, the miracles wrought by 
Christianity in the world, and the blessed doctrines of the New Covenant ; 
and to make them manifest in symbols, and connect them with the poetical 
and historical traditions in the spirit of Christian chivalry. At the same 
time, it is difficult to discover the first traces of the formation of the saga of 
the Holy Graal, and of its cuUus, and to give any certain authenticated 



PREFATORY ESSAY. XV 

foundation to the first history of its development, because the saga of it 
has not been transmitted to us purely and independently by any written 
document, but only in close connection with the history of Percival and 
of the entire cycle of the Arthur-sagas, and because we cannot for this 
reason any longer clearly discern what influence this connection had on 
the first original formation of the Graal-legend, and how much it has 
thereby gained or lost. Erom the circumstance, however, that our first 
informants coincide in the main in their descriptions of the holy Graal, of 
its essence, nature, and significance ; and that, on the other hand, the 
greatest deviations and differences occur in the history of Percival, and the 
other numerous and extensive adventures of other heroes interwoven with 
it and with the Graal, this much at least can be clearly seen, that the 
Graal-saga — or, better, the idea of the Graal, — was originally distinct 
from the histories of Percival and of the other Arthur-knights, and that it 
was first woven into them by North Prench poets, namely, in the second 
half of the twelfth century. 

The oldest narrator of these histories, and who is at the same time 
known by name, is Chrestiens de Troyes, in his Li Contes del Graal.* He 
left this MS. in an incomplete state, and the MSS. of his work are men- 
tioned to us in their order by three continuators of the work — Gautiers 
de Dinet, Gerbers, and Manestiers. 

Another treatment of the same matter, in the main, by a North 
Prench poet, probably a contemporary of Chrestien de Troyes, is afforded 
by the MS. at Berne, entitled Fercheval le Galois, on which Eochat 
reports in extenso,-\- and where, at pp. 165 and 176, he gives, as his result, 
that this work, in spite of many coincidences, does not emanate from 
Chrestiens de Troyes. 

A third version of the Graal- and Percival-sagas was furnished to 
us Germans by Wolfram von Eschenbach, in his Pa/rcwal (composed from 
about 1204 to 1210). J In it he followed a Prench poet, Kyot of Provence, 

* About him, consult W. L. Holland, " Chrestiens de Troyes:" Tubingen, Fues. 1854, pp. 195- 
225; where many books on the subject are mentioned. 

j" A. Eochat. On a hitherto unknown " Percheval li Galois:" Zurich, KiesUng, 1855. , 

I The original text, edited by Lachmann, was published at Berlin by Eeimer, 1833. Translated, 



Xvi PKEFATOET ESSAY. 

a Proven5al who, however, wrote in Northern Preneh as it was spoken in 
Champagne, the only dialect which Wolfram von Eschenbach understood. 
As Kyot's French poem has unfortunately not hitherto been discovered, it 
is impossible to determine what measure of liberty WoKram has taken in 
his version of Kyot's works ; but his Titurel4m^men.is, which stand in the 
closest connection with the " Parcival," prove that Kyot must have narrated 
numerous adventures, which WoKram, for the purpose of more completely 
rounding off the Graal and Parcival stories, omitted from his romance, and 
which stO aiforded abundant material for a second tale, namely, of the 
TscUanatulander and Sigune, which Wolfram, however, unfortunately left 
incomplete, and of which those two so-called TiifwreZ-fragments form only 
a small part. 

The above-mentioned omitting of many adventures narrated by Kyot, 
is confirmed by the German Later Titurel,* by a poet of the name of 
Albrecht, whose composition comes at the end of the 13th century. He 
also refers to Kyot the Provenjal, but adds the history of the final pilgri- 
mage of the Graal to the East, into the realm of Prester John.-|~ It is 
matter of doubt, however, whether he ever saw Kyot's original work ; and 
the probability is, that he took the subject-matter from other poems 
based upon Kyot, and which are unknown to us. That such must have 
existed, is proved by the names of a whole series of persons occurring 
in the Romance of Hartmann von Aue, Erec and Enide, % composed from 
1189 to 1204, which do not occur in Ohrestien's Erench E-omance of 
Erec, and are also not found in the other Erench Arthur-romances that 
have as yet become known to us, and which Hartmann can only have 

with an Introduction and explanations, by San Marte (A. Schulz) 2nd edition, Leipsic, Brockhaus, 
1858. Likewise translated by Simrock, Stuttgart and Tubingen; Cotta, new edition, 1858 

* First printed in 1477. Modern edition by K. A. Hahn. Titurel: Quedlinburg and Leipsic, 
Basse, 1842. See an extensive extract, witk notes, and an " Essay on the Graal-Saga," in San 
Marte's " Life and Poems of Wolfram von Esckenbacli," vol- ii. p. 86-294, and 361-453. 

I On the ground of the Epistola Johannis Presbyteri missa ad Gubernatorem Gonstantinopolita- 
num, in Assemanni Bibliotheca Orientalis, torn. iii. pt. ii. p. 490: published Romas, 1728. 

\ Moritz, Haupt. Ereo. Leipsic, Weidmann, 1839. The subject-matter is identical with the 
Welsh Mabinogi, " Geraint ap Erbin." 



PREFATORY ESSAY. XVU 

borrowed from Frencli literature, and which play a part in Wolfram's 
" Parzival," and, consequently, also in the works of his pre-poet Kyot. 
Prom quite a different point is our saga-cycle affected by the Welsh tale 
of Peredur,* which, in its chivalrous adventures, frequently shows a re- 
markable affinity with the Berne MS. of Perchivalli Galois (see Rochat, loc. 
cit. p. 93-125), but bears, however, so exclusively Welsh a character, and 
so entirely obliterates the significance of the Graal, which, as a platter or 
dish wherein lies a bleeding head, is hardly any longer recognisable, that 
the assumption of Rochat and Simrock, that it is a Welshified abbreviated 
version of a Prench romance, is hardly credible. Even if the composition 
of this tale be more recent, its subject-matter probably reaches back 
beyond the oldest Parcival romance. Quite certain is it, however, that 
the Welsh, Erench, and English literatures of the time of Geoffry of Mon- 
mouth (a.d. 1130), and of his Erench bearbeiter (translator and discre- 
tional editor), Wace (Roman de Brut), about 1150, know nothing as yet of 
the Holy Graal, while Welsh literature knows something of Peredur. The 
question whether this Welsh Peredur (called Percival in the Prench 
romances) originated in the Breton hero of the ninth century, Morvan 
lez Breis, as Count Theodore de la Villemarque asserts, upon the strength 
of Breton ballads, and as Rochat and Gervinus believe with him (German 
National Literature, 3rd edition,) does not concern us on this occasion. 
But, so long as the Count does not prove the date of the ballads quoted by 
him, in a better way than he has hitherto done, namely, with proofs drawn 
from historical criticism, and from the language of the baUads taken from 
the mouths of the people, I must be permitted to doubt his inferences. 
Moreover, Wales and Brittany were untU the twelfth century so closely 
connected in regard to their knowledge of the national legends, that it is 
hardly worth the trouble to institute a national contest about the pri- 
mogeniture of the heroes of the sagas. Eor the purposes of criticism, 
however, it is decisive, that Wales possesses a very ancient literature, 
while Brittany does not possess one ; that certain proofs exist in Wales, 
while in Brittany they are only presumed. In my Essay on the Influ- 

* Welsh and English in Lady Charlotte Guest's " Mabinogion from the Lyfr Coch Hergest : " 
London, Longmans, 1839. 

d 



XVm PREFATOBY ESSAY. 

ence of Welsh Tradition upon the Literature of Germany, France, and 
Scandinavia* (which obtained the prize at the Abergavenny Cymreigyddion 
Society at the Eisteddvod of 1840), will be found a short sketch of the 
development of the Arthur and Graal Sagas, which is further augmented 
in San Marte, "Die Arthur-sage und die Mdrchen des Rothen Buchs 
von Sergest :" Quedlinburg and Leipsic, Basse, 1842 ; and in the second 
volume of the above-quoted Life and Poems of Wolfram von Eschen- 
bach. But, by intimately entering into the theology and history of the 
dogmas of the twelfth century, we have been led to a deeper understand- 
ing of the significance of the Holy Graal and its cultus, as they are repre- 
sented more especially in the Parcival of Wolfram von Eschenbach ; and 
Wilhelm Wackernagel {" Alt-franzosische Lieder und Leiche :" Basle, 
1846, p. 191), has completely confirmed my opinion that most probably 
Wolfram's pre-poet Kyot of Provence is no other than Guiot von Provins, 
who for twelve years was a Cluniac monk, before that a wandering clerc 
and minstrel at many great and small courts of Prance and the neighbour- 
ing countries, and who wrote between 1204 and 1208 his celebrated Bible, 
and his sharp satirical poem against the Pope, the spiritual and temporal 
princes, and the sins of the clerical orders. t Although authorities like 
Gervinus, Bochat, and Simrock contest this point, they will not be able, 
in my opinion, to refute the proof brought forward. This circumstance 
Avould explain Wolfram's intimate knowledge of the Bible, though he, 
according to his own confession, could neither read nor write. % Wolfram 
and Guiot stand on the same free theological standpoint of ill will, en- 

* Translated from the German of Albert Schulz : Llandovery, W. Eees ; London, Longmans, &c. 
1841 : unfortunately disfigured by many horrible typographical errors. 

I " Paroival-Studien," Part I. was published in January, 1861. " The Works of Guiot von 
Provins in old French, with a German metrical translation, an Introduction and notes,'' by 
Wolfart and San Marte: Halle. 

\ The fact that several of the German medieval poets could neither read nor write, and were yet 
able to translate, or at least to work out (bearbeiten), into German, the works of French and 
Latin authors, is proved beyond any doubt. They must have accomplished this by the aid of some 
clerk learned in those languages, who had to read and translate the original to them, and to whom 
they dictated their reproduction." However strange this process may seem to our modern ever- 

• See the well-known account in Bede of the herdsman CjiDMON dictating his metrical paraphrase of the portions of 
Scripture that had been read to him. — F. 



PREPATORY ESSAT. XIX 

tertain the same free theological views inimical to the Romish hierarchy, 
and Wolfram's idea of the Graal reflects clearly and unmistakeably a 
thorough evangelical, — nay, one might almost say, Protestant — view of 
matters of faith, and by no means the ultramontane tenets of his times, * 

This point is in so far of importance as, according to the evidence of 
the later Titurel also, the Prench pre-poet of Wolfram unmistakeably 
concludes his work with Percival becoming King of the Graal, after 
having solved the problem of salvation which had been set him, that is to 
say, after he has solved it in the spirit of the New Covenant — in other 
words, of the Gospel of Love and Humanity. Those Prench Graal 
romances which continue to build upon Ohrestiens' continuators, which 
follow them and endlessly elaborate them, and ultimately end in the personal 
names which have appeaired in print — "Parcivalli Galois" (Paris,1530), and 
"Histoire du San Graal" (Paris, 1523) — have hardly a conception of such 
an idea for the solution of the problem of humanity, the attaining holiness 
and entering into the kingdom of God ; much less do they contain any 
development of this idea. Apparitions of angels and devils in abundance, 
all the mysteries and symbols of the Christian faith, and the visions of the 
Apocalypse, are certainly dragged into them; but they only serve to 
obscure the plain light of evangelical faith, and to extinguish it in a sea 
of far-fetched stories, quite in the fashion of that theological mysticism 
which, in consequence of the hierarchical reaction after a.d. 1222, and the 
suppression of the freer scholastic theology of 1200, gained ground more 
and more among the clergy of Western Christianity, and, simultaneously 
with the Inquisition, and the persecution of the Bible and of heretics, 
marched through fields of fire and blood. Grasse, in his Groszen Sagen- 
kreise des Mittelalters (The Great Saga-cycles of the Middle Ages : Dresden 
and Leipsic, Arnold, 1842), gives us very completely, and with great 

reading and ever-writing world, it stands to reason that even this very want of artificial helps 
would augment the natural powers of memory, etc., so as to enable those men to carry out this 
operation on materials of such vast dimensions, so rich and complicated, as were many of their 
originals, and still more their German reproductions. 

* " Parcival-Studien," Parts 11. and III. " On the Eeligious Element in the works of Wolfram 
von Eschenbach, and the significance of the Holy Graal in his Parcival:" Halle. 

d2 



XX PREPATOBT ESSAY. 

industry, an account of the books and literature appertaining to this 
subject. To this category of romances belongs the work published by 
M. Michel, in 18^3, of which there is in the proof-sheets sent me by my 
friend Professor Huber from Mr. Furnivall, a metrical old English para- 
phrase, which is of the highest interest for the English language and 
poetry, and the publication of which redounds to the great credit and 
honour of the Roxburghe Club, and by which the Club is sure to gain the 
greatest thanks of the learned world. So far as I am able to compare it 
with my short extracts from the above- quoted Sistoire du San Graal, the 
poem seems in the early parts to coiucide with it, but I forego giving an 
opinion before I have seen it in its entirety. 

Did I not fear to become too lengthy and importunate, I would 
venture to state briefly the leading ideas in Wolfram's Parcival relative to 
the Graal and its dominion or empire, which would lead to the observation 
— not without importance even for theology — that Guiot of Provence or 
Provins, as well as Wolfram, belonged no less to the precursors of the 
Reformation than Huss and Wycliflfe, and, previous to them, the Waldenses 
and other heretical sects did, until persecution had driven them to 
extremes. 

According to Wolfram's Farcival, the Holy Graal is a Vessel made of 
the la])is lierilis, the stone of the Lord, filled with the strength of God 
the Eather, Son, and Holy Ghost, which in the beginning was with God, 
and was served by angels (see John i. 1 and 2). After the Eall of Lucifer 
and of the Angels, it was confided to the safe-keeping of the purest and 
most faithful of men, in the same manner as God gave the Son and Saviour 
for the salvation of mankind (2 Tim. ii. 10 ; John i. 16, 17). Those who 
by God's grace, according to Augustine, were called to guard the holy 
Vessel, were the Templeisen (Er. Les Templiers), a clerical fraternity 
forrued after the model of the Order of the Templars, which Order at 
that time, about 1200, existed in its highest bloom and in untainted purity, 
as the ideal of the life of a Christian-knight. These Templeisen form the 
Graal Church. No heathen can see the Graal, for he lacks baptism. But 
no Christian even can find it or reach it by means of weapons, according 
to Eom. ix. 11-16, xii. 6 ; 2 Tim. i. 9. But the name of the one whom 



PBEFATOUT ESSAY. XXI 

divine grace has called upon, is read in writing on the Graal (Luke x. 20), 
according to election by divine grace. This election is obtained by killing 
original sin in ourselves, and the pride which brought Lucifer to his fall, 
by deep remorse, repentance, penance, and humility ; and this is the way 
which Parcival is led, until by his own exertion, in and by himself, he 
becomes ripe for the kingdom of the Graal. 

But the poem comprehends much mord still. The relation of man 
placed in creation is threefold : 1. The relation of man to God. This is 
poetically represented in the history of Parcival, and his struggle for the 
holy Graal by his inwardly conquering his sinfulness. 2. The relation of 
man to evil, which from without approaches him in the shape of a tempter, 
and an adversary of God, such as is represented in the stories of Clinschor, 
the Sehundille, and Orgeluse. 3. The relation of man to the material world 
and its glory, represented in Arthur and the Round Table,* and its prin- 
cipal hero Gawain. It should be observed, that all these personages are 
good devoted Roman Catholic Christians, who hear Mass regularly, &c. &c., 
but none of them enter the dominion of the Graal. Indeed, it is not even 
their aspiration to do so, because to them is not given the grace which 
leads Parcival, through long years of sorrow and despair, at last into glory. 

AU. these three elements are brought into natural contact and conflict 
in a most spirited manner, so that they form an artistic and finished 
whole, and so that every apparently irrelevant portion still contributes to 
the solution of the fundamental idea, as explained in (1) above. We now 
ask whether an all-pervading idea like this, is traceable with equal clear- 
ness and distinctness in the other Prench Parcival and Graal Romances ? 

* Tafelrunde, that is, the round of the table, the sitters round Arthur's Table. 



CONTET^TS. 



PAGE 

PROLOGUE ...... ... 1 

§ 1. The Salutation. § 2. The Three Eeasons why the Writer has not told his name at the begin- 
ning of the book. 

INTRODUCTION. The Revelation of the Book of the Holt Grail to a Monk . 3 

§ 1. How in the year 717 a.d. in White Britain (which is England), Christ, as a beautiful man, 
appears in a vision to a Trinity -doubting monk (p. 4), and promises to clear his doubts ; and 
(§2, p. 5) gives him a little Book. How in the Book there are four treatises, with these 
titles (p. 7) : i. Here beginneth thy lineage, ii. Here beginneth the book of the Holy GraU. 
III. Here begin the terrors [see p. 287]. iv. Here begin the marvels. How a ray as of fire 
descends from heaven, and great darkness comes, and then sweet odours, and sweet voices 
singing hymns to God (p. 8). (§ 3, p. 9), How on Good Friday an angel appears to the 
monk, and takes him up to the third heaven, and reveals the mystery of the Trinity to him. 
How the monk locks the Book up in a box. (§ 4, p. 11), How on Easter Day the monk says 
his service, and then finds the Book gone. How he has a vision telling him to go to Norway 
. and there find it (p. 12). How he goes after the Book, a wonderful beast guiding him ; how 
he is lodged by a hermit the first night (p. 13); how on the second day he comes to the 
Pine of Adventures and its miraculous fountain (p. 14), and how a lady's servant feeds him 
there, and how he is lodged by a knight (p. 15); how on the third day he finds the Book in 
a little chapel and cures a devil-possessed man with it (p. 17). How food for the man is 
sent miraculously (p. 18) ; how on the ninth day the monk starts for home with the Book, and 
the beast reappears (p. 19); how he reaches home. How he is told in a vision to copy out the 
Book (p. 20). 



THE BOOK, OR HISTORY, OF THE HOLY GRAIL. 

CHAPTER I. Of Joseph of Aeimathea, the Grail, and Vespasian the Leper . 21 

How few believed on Christ at his crucifixion (p. 21). How Joseph of Arimathea was a secret 
believer (p. 22). How good he was; and of his son Josephes (who comes to White Britain or 
England over sea, with the front of his shirt for a sail) (p. 22). Joseph goes to the house where 
Jesus eat the Last Supper, and finds the dish in which He had eaten, and carries it home. 
Joseph is one of Pilate's knights, and begs a cheap gift of him, Christ's body. How great the 
gift really was (p. 23). Joseph weeps at the Cross ; takes down the body, and puts it in his 



.XXIV CONTENTS. 

sepulchre. Gets the dish, collects Christ's blood in it. Wraps the body in rich cloths ; puts 
a great stone at the entrance of the sepulchre. The Jews' anger (p. 24). The Jews seize 
Joseph and carry him off out of Jerusalem, and give him up to two of their set, who put him 
in prison, and order him to be fed on bread and water. When Christ rises, Caiaphas tells the 
jailer to let Joseph starve; but Christ brings him the dish with the Grail into the prison 
(p. 25). Christ comforts Joseph, and assures him he shall live, and carry his name to foreign 
lands. Joseph's wife and his son Josephes are dismayed ; but she will not marry again, and 
her son will only marry Holy Church. How Joseph lived 42 years in prison, and how he 
was delivered out of it. Of the reigns of the Roman Emperors after Christ, How Vespa- 
sian, the son of Titus, was a leper (p. 26). Titus offers gifts to any one who will cure his 
son. A knight of Capernaum asks to talk with Vespasian, and tells him how he himself was 
a leper, and was cured by Jesus, who touched him and made him whole, and that anything 
that Christ has touched would cure Vespasian. Titus says he will send for something (p. 27). 
Titus asks the knight to undertake the task. The knight finds Felix governor of Jerusalem, 
and orders him to have proclamation made for anything Christ has touched. Mary brings 
the Veronica cloth, and the knight takes it to Eome. Vespasian's dream (p. 28). On seeing 
the cloth, Vespasian is healed, and declares that he will take revenge for Christ's death. He 
goes to Jerusalem. Mary names the traitors against Christ, and they are taken. Joseph's 
wife begs for her husband. The traitors cannot tell where he is, though Caiaphas knows 
(p. 29). Caiaphas is brought up, and the others are burnt. Caiaphas agrees to show where 
Joseph was imprisoned, if he is not to be burnt or killed. He takes them to the prison, but 
refuses to enter it himself. Vespasian goes down into it (p. 80). Vespasian tells Joseph 
who he is, and that he has come to deliver him. A heavenly voice tells Joseph not to fear. 
He asks after the Holy Dish : the voice says it will be in his home. Joseph is drawn up 
out of the prison. He does not know Caiaphas, or his own son (p. 31). Joseph doesn't 
know his wife, and thinks he has been only one day in prison; but Vespasian tells him 
he has been there 42 years. Joseph returns to Jerusalem, points out the abettors of Christ's 
death ; and Vespasian burns them. ' What is to be done with Caiaphas? (p. 32). Have him 
drowned, for then he'll neither be burnt nor killed.' Joseph asks that he may be spared- 
Vespasian's answer : he had vowed that he would revenge Christ's death, and had burnt the 
first set of Jews; but had promised Caiaphas not to burn or kill him, and would therefore send 
him out to sea in a boat, to live or drown (p. 33). So he is put into a boat, and pushed out to 
sea. The contrast between the Pagans and Jews (p. 34). 

CHAPTER H. Or Joseph's Mission and Baptism • .... 35 

Christ appears to Joseph in a vision, and says He has chosen him to fill foreign lands with his 
spiritual seed: Joseph is to be baptized, and go forth without money or anything but the Dish • 
but all that his people' want they shall have (p. 35). Joseph is baptized by St. PhUip. Ves- 
pasian is baptized, and all his company; but it is kept secret. Of the destructions of 
Jerusalem. How Vespasian was reproached by a cleric for warring against Christ (p. 36). 

CHAPTER HI. Joseph leaves Jerusalem and reaches Sarras • ■ • 37 

Joseph preaches to his relatives and friends and converts 75 of them. They leave Jerusalem for 



CONTENTS. XXV 

ever, and reach Bethany, where they want to lodge. Joseph tells them the Almighty will 
provide for them (p. 37). They go on to the Wood of Ambush. God's speech to Joseph. His 
mercy to the Jews ; their ingratitude to him. Joseph is to tell his people that they'll be mira- 
culously fed in the wood. He is to make an ark of wood for the Grail, or Dish (p. 38). The 
people camp in the wood, and are fed miraculously (p. 39). Joseph has the ark made. They 
start from the wood, and on the 1 1th day get to Sarras, whence the Saracens come ; for they are 
not called after Sara, Abraham's wife. How Mahomet was sent to save the Saracens, but 
damned himself and them. Of the objects of worship of the men of Sarras (p. 39), God tells 
Joseph to baptize the people of Sarras, and He will give him words to speak, and do miracles 
by his hands, and keep and defend him wherever he is (p. 40). 

CHAPTER IV. Of Joseph and Evalach the King of Sarras . . . 41 

Joseph goes to the temple of the Sun to the seat of Judgment, and finds a great assemblage of Sara- 
cens and their lord, Evalach the Unknown (p. 41). Of Evalach's prowess. But, as he was 
old, the Egyptians had taken away most of his land, and beaten his army ; and so he had as- 
senibled his Council to devise vengeance on his enemy. Joseph is glad that he has come at the 
time of the king's need. The Counsellors advise that peace be made with the Egyptians, at 
which the king is dismayed. Joseph promises him victory, and also endless joy (p. 42). 
Evalach asks who Joseph is. Joseph says that the king's victory will be the gift of the 
Almighty. Joseph tells Evalach to destroy his images, for they can neither help nor hurt any 
one, and no man should believe in a bit of wood or stone, but in Him who died on the Cross 
to save the world. Evalach's doubts (p. 43). How can one who can't save himself save 
another? Joseph explains. Evalach's further questions and Joseph's answers (p. 44). 

CHAPTER V. Joseph tells Evalach the history of Christ ... 45 

How God sent his angel to the Virgin Mary, who told her she should conceive and bear a child 
who should be called Jesus Christ. How the Spirit descended into her, and she brought forth 
a vallet who was called Christ (p. 45). How three kings of the East come to worship Christ, 
led by a star. How Herod kills 140,000 young children. How the Virgin goes into Egypt, 
and at Christ's approach all the images in the temples fall down and are broken. How at 
thirty He is baptized, and works great miracles, till the Jews bribe one of his disciples and 
cruciiy Him. He goes into Hell and releases his servants, and rises again the third day (p. 46). 
How Christ appeared after his resurrection, and ascended into heaven, and sent the Holy 
Spirit to his disciples (p. 47). 

CHAPTER VI. Joseph's answers to Evalach's objections .... 48 

Evalach asks ' Had your God a father and mother ? Then He must have been born of man and 
woman.' Joseph explains: 'God saw evils increase on earth, and, to rescue men from hell, 
sent his Son to fiilfil all belonging to man's nature; but He remained God (p. 49). The world 
could not be redeemed by a sinner, but, as Christ was clean from sin, he could redeem 
men from eternal death.' Evalach does not see it. Joseph tells him he has agreed to hear his 
proof. Evalach thinks Joseph hardly learned enough to prove his point. Joseph says he will 
first explain how Christ had a father (p. 49). God is called Christ's father, for He begat Him 
before the ages, not carnally but spiritually. For Christ was not made, but begotten of 

e 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

spiritual begetting. His birth by his mother was of flesh ; but that by his Father, of spirit, 
and immortal. Of the Virgin's virginity. But first of the Holy Ghost, who is the Comforter 
and the Purifier, who made the prophets speak, and who is worshipped like the Father and 
Son (p. 50). The Father is perfect God, and the Son too, though below the Father as to his 
manhood; and the Holy Ghost is perfect God; but they are not three Gods, but one God, 
one in nature, godhead, and power, aU equally great (p. 51.) The three are called the Trinity, 
and the one Unity. How God said ' Let us make man in our image, after our likeness,' and 
called the Son to make so high a thing as man to replace the tenth legion of angels. How, 
when man was cast out of paradise, a hard saying was spoken to him (p. 51). God's curse on 
Adam and men, and on Eve and women. How really the curse has been fulfilled (p. 52). 
To rescue men from sorrow, Christ descended on earth, and, when there, entered a strait and 
narrow prison, the Virgin's womb, and was there nine months, and then came out, but 
not, as humanity needs, with pain and sorrow and carnal assembly, but by the oversha- 
dowing of the Holy Ghost, who entered through the Virgin's ear (p. 52). How Christ's birth 
injured not the virginity of his mother, as a sunbeam hurts not the clear water. Of the three 
difierences between the conception of Christ and men. 1. it was without sin. 2. without 
carnal assembling. 8. his mother did not lose her virginity, or sufier Eve's curse, for the 
birth was painless. How Christ lived 32 years on earth, and at 30 was baptized by St. 
John the Baptist, and three years after died, and went down into hell (p. 53). How Christ 
rescued the doers of his works from hell. Joseph sums up his speech (p. 54). 

CHAPTER Vn. Part 1. Of Evalach and Joseph's companions. Part 2. Of Evalach's visions 

OF SYMBOLS OF THE TrINITY AND ChEISt's MiEACDLOUS CONCEPTION . . 55 

I. Evalach thinks Joseph's sayings neither true nor reasonable: he has said what he likes. The 
learned of the city come, and Joseph confounds them. Evalach asks Why he is named Joseph 
of Arimathea (p. 55). Evalach promises to house Joseph, and to hear him next day. Joseph 
tells him he has 75 companions who for the love of Christ have given up all earthly wealth. 
Evalach desires to see these companions, and asks them why they sufier such hardships. 
Josephes (Joseph's son) says, ' for the love of Christ, who was crucified between two thieves, 
for whom we ought to die twice over ' (p. 56). Evalach asks who Josephes is (p. 57.) The 
king has Joseph and his companions nobly lodged for the night, and the beds are very good. 

II. Evalach in bed is troubled with two thoughts: 1, how to defend his land; 2, of what 
Joseph had told him, and how the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost were three, yet one- 
and how the Virgin had borne a child without losing her virginity (p. 57). Evalach's 
vision. He sees the stock of a tree, whence spring three equal trunks, the middle one 
having an ugly bark. Under the first trunk are many people; two go to a ditch and 
jump into it; most of the others foUow them and jump in too; but some run to the ugly- 
barked tree and chop it all round. A great stream of blood flows out, and leaves the bark 
but the fruit jumps into the ditch : the tree jumps out of the ditch, dragging much people with 
it, and gets into its bark again, and becomes bright and shining (p. 58). The king sees some 
of the people wash their bodies with the blood in the ditch; it changes them: the others cut 
off branches and leaves from the tree, and burn them. He thinks it must be a dream, but 
finds he is reaUy awake, and so rouses a trustworthy chamberlain, and shows him the trees 



CONTENTS. XXVll 

and tells him not to fear, and takes the candles by his bed to look at the trees. He sees 
there are three, and that the ugly-barked one springs out of the first, and the third from the 
other two ; and that on, the first is, ' This creates ;' on the second, *■ This saves ;' on the third, 
' This purifies ' (p. 59). The three trees are truly one. The king is confounded. He looks 
at a secret door of marble in a wall, and sees a little child who has come through it without its 
opening, and who goes back through it also. The king wonders still more. The chamberlain 
lies on the ground as if he were dead, but at last speaks to the king (p. 60). The king keeps 
thinking of the wonder of the child. A voice tells him that it is a type of the Miraculous 
Conception of Christ. The people in the palace are terrified at the noise of the voice. The 
king tells them it was a clap of thunder ; he cannot sleep, but desires to tell Joseph his 
vision (p. 61). 

CHAPTEE VIII. Of Joseph's Peayee foe Counsel, and its Answee ... 62 

Of Joseph. How he cannot sleep, and kneels on the floor and prays for counsel and comfort, for 
king Evalach and his distracted city (p. 63). How a voice tells him that his prayer is heard, 
and that Evalach has seen wonders which he shall send for Joseph to explain ; and that 
Josephes shall be consecrate to Christ, and take charge of His flesh and blood (p. 64). How 
Joseph is glad, and goes to bed with his wife Helyab, but not with carnal intent (p. 64) ; 
and how they had no carnal commerce till they begot Galahad their youngest son, and then 
not for desire of pleasure, but by the command of God (p. 65). And how holy men of White 
Britain, now called England, descended from Galahad (p. 65). 

CHAPTER IX. Of the Consecbation of Bishop Josephes (Joseph's son) by Christ . 66 

How Joseph and his company worship before the Ark of the Grail in the Palace of the Spirit, 
when a noise is heard, and the Palace trembles. (How the Palace came to be called The 
Palace Spiritual, p. 67). How the Holy Ghost descends on them like a ray of fire, and how 
a sweet wind comes, and how Christ speaks to them, and urges them to love Him (p. 67-8). 
He tells Josephes to draw near and take charge of His flesh and blood (p. 69). Josephes 
opens the door of the Ark, and sees a man in a red robe, and five angels clad like Him, with 
six wings each, and a bloody sword in their left hands, and severally in their rights, a cross, 
nails, lance, sponge, and scourge, with a roU ' These are the arms by which our Judge 
destroyed Death ' (p. 69). How the Crucifixion is represented over again before Josephes in 
the Grail-Ark (p. 70), and how he is stopped from entering it (p. 70). How Joseph looks 
into the Ark, and sees angels there with the instruments of consecration (p. 71-2), and Jesus 
clad in sacramental robes (p. 72). How the company of angels go over the house purifying 
it with holy water, because it used to be the dwelling-place of devils (p. 73). How Christ 
tells Josephes that he is to receive the Sacrament of His flesh and blood (p. 74). How the 
proper episcopal garments are brought out of the Ark (p. 74) ; and how the Chair of Con- 
secration makes a Saracen king's eyes fly out of his head (p. 75). How Josephes is con- 
secrated (p. 75), and how the angel preserves the holy oil with which all the kings of Britain 
till Uther Pendragon, Arthur's father, are anointed. How Christ tells Josephes the meaning 
of the Bishop's vestments, — the shoes (p. 76), the upper and under garments (Chastity and 
Virginity), the head-covering (Humility), and herein of the Pharisee and the Publican, the 

e2 



XXviii CONTENTS. 

green garment (Suffering), that above it (Justice, p. 77), the band on the left arm (Abstinence), 
the necklet (Obedience), the uppermost (Love, p. 77), the staff (Vengeance and Mercy, p. 78), 
the ring (Marriage to Holy Church), and the horned hat (Confession, 1. Eepentance, 2. Satis- 
faction, and what they are, p. 79). And how Christ tells Josephes his duties as a Bishop, 
and promises him a rich reward if he serves Him loyally (p. 79). 

CHAPTER X. Bishop Josephes administers the Sacrament .... 80 

Josephes goes into the Ark and celebrates the Sacrament. He uses only Christ's words of Conse- 
cration, and forthwith the bread and wine become flesh and blood (p. 80). Christ makes him 
divide the bread into three parts, which nevertheless appear, and are eaten by him, as one 
body, most sweet (p. 81). He receives the wine. The angels take the vessels out of the 
Ark (p. 81). Christ tells the people He sends them his flesh and blood (p. 82). Joseph and 
his company receive the body of Christ, like a small child. Christ tells Josephes to celebrate 
the Sacrament daily, and how to ordain priests, and bishops in every city (p. 82) ; and that 
Evalach's messengers are coming for him to expound the king's dream, and that he is to be 
of good courage, as he shall beat the false prophets. How Josephes appoints his cousin- 
german Leucans to guard the Ark (p. 83). Of the office of Treasurer (p. 83). 

CHAPTER XI. Joseph before Evalach, and in the Heathen Temple . . 84 

The Eang's messengers come. Evalach asks Joseph to prove first how the Trinity can be Unity; 
2. of the Virgin's virginity; 3. of Christ's conception without carnal assemblage. Joseph 
repeats his former proof (Chapter VI.). A clerk objects, that, if all three are only one deity, 
then each cannot be perfect God ; and, if each has entire Godhead, then there are three Gods 
(p. 84). If the Holy Ghost is perfect God and one, surely the other two are nobodies. And, 
if the two are nothing, then each cannot be perfect God. Joseph is confounded ; but Josephes 
addresses Evalach, and tells him that because he has brought his false pleaders against His 
truth He wiU bring sore disaster on him within three days. And, because he has despised the 
revelation of God's secrets to him in his dream, God will give his mortal enemy power over 
him for three days and three nights (p. 85). And, to verify it, Josephes says that Tholomes, 
King of Babylon, has made ready his forces and will attack Evalach, and pursue him and put 
him in fear of death. Josephes next tells the objecting heathen clerk, that, as he has blas- 
phemed God's creed and dishonoured His name, and has been dumb and blind in spiritual know- 
ledge, God will strike him dumb and blind. The clerk becomes dumb and blind (p. 86). The 
people are angry and rush at Josephes. Evalach seizes a sword and swears he'll put to death 
all who lay hands on Josephes. He asks Joseph who Josephes is, and how he took speech and 
sight from his opponent, and whether it is true that Tholomes shall put him in fear of death, 
and have power over him three days and three nights. Evalach cannot believe it, but asks if 
he can escape it. Yes, by receiving the belief of Jesus Christ (p. 87), not only m word, but 
in heart. The clerk, struck dumb and blind, is taken to the heathen temple, to the image of 
Apollo. A devil in the image of Mars cries out that a Christian there has bound Apollo, so 
that he cannot speak. The devil offers to go out, wherever Josephes orders. It goes out, 
knocks down the image of Apollo, and breaks it in pieces (p. 88). Then the devil hits the 



CONTENTS. xxix 

image of Apollo on the nose and breaks it and its right arm; and destroys the other images. 
The people are dismayed (p. 89). Evalach asks Josephes who has broken the images; 
Josephes tells him to ask at the altar of Mars. He does, and the devil says Josephes stops him. 
Josephes gives the devil leave to speak, and it tells Evalach that Josephes has always two angels 
with him, one bearing a sword, the other a cross, and they have made it break all the images. 
The king asks the devil whether the man struck dumb and blind will recover,* and whether 
he shall prevail against the Egyptians (p. 90). The devil confesses he knows nothing about 
it (p. 90). 

CHAPTER XH. The Invasion by Tholomes of Evalach's Land . . . 91 

The invasion by Tholomes and the Egyptians of Evalach's land; Evalach's summons to his vassals 
(p. 92); Josephes's counsel to him, — Josephes tells him his history, that he was a cobbler's son 
at Miaux in France (p. 93), was sent to Rome as part of the hostage demanded by Augustus 
(p. 94-5), then on to Erl Felis of Svlie, whose son he slew (p. 96), and fled to Tholomes King 
of Babylon, for whom he conquered all the land of Sarras (p. 96); that therefore he must be 
humble, and remember God, as he will be three days and three nights in Tholomes's power 
(p. 97, 100); Evalach asks for the means of victory (p. 98) ; Josephes tacks a cross of red 
cloth on to his shield, and tells him to look on it in his need, and pray to God, and he shall 
be saved (p. 99, 100). Evalach marches to Tarabel and Valachin. Valachin described 
(p. 101-2). His army enters a forest, and sends out a spy, (p. 103); they attack Tholomes, 
but flee to Castle Comes (p. 104); Tholomes pursues (p. 104), while Evalach's men plunder his 
tents (p. 105). A spy next day tells Tholomes that Evalach is in Comes with a very few 
men (p. 105), and so Tholomes marches after him with half his force, leaving the other half 
with Vabus his steward to watch Castle Valachin (p. 106-7). 

CHAPTER XHI. Of Evalach's preparations, and of the Battle between him and Tholomes 108 
Evalach sends out a spy to see after Tholomes, and he makes a good report; Evalach is cheered 
up, and marches (p. 109). He meets the queen's messenger, reads her letter (p. 110,) and 
asks explanations (p. 110). Josephes has told the queen of his defeat; another man comes 
and tells Evalach that Tholomes has besieged Comes (p. Ill); Evalach goes towards Sarras; 
a host meets him (p. 112), that of his brother-in-law Seraphe, who comes and greets him, 
and says he is come to help him ; Evalach's answer (p. 113); Seraphe's advice to Evalach to 
go to his city Orhanz (p. 114). Evalach goes to Orhanz, and summons more knights ; he 
wants to go and fight Tholomes, but is counselled to wait (p. 115); he is besieged by Tho- 
lomes, and orders a sortie (p. 116); he gives the city in charge to an old knight, and attacks 
Tholomes successfully, for Tholomes's men had ridden all night (p. 117). Of Seraphe's deeds, 
and the pursuit of Tholomes's men to a narrow passage by a Rock of stone, from the 
slaughter called The Bloody Rock (p. 118); Tholomes comes to the rescue, asks his men 
what is the matter, and encourages them (p. 119-20). Evalach halts his men, and puts 
them in four divisions: \. Seraphe, 2. the Steward, 3. Archemedes, A. Uvalach. He charges 
Jeconias to guard the passage (p. 121), and to keep the city too (p, 122). Tholomes 
ordains eight divisions, two against each one of Evalach's (p. 122). The fight begins. 

* Lonelich's translation begins here (p. 89). 



XXT CONTENTS. 

Number of meu on each side (p. 123). Evalach's speech to his knighls (p. 123-4). Seraphe's 
division fights; Evalach's feelings,— his prayer (p. 125) ; the result of it (p. 126). The dire 
slaughter (p. 127-8). Seraphe's deeds; his axe; and his appearance (p. 127-8). Tholomes 
calls up his second division (p. 129); Seraphe's men flee, but he fights on (p. 130); Eva- 
lach's stevrard goes to his help (p. 131), and sends a message to the King. Evalach's steward 
breaks Tholomes's line, and throws Tholomes to the ground (p. 132). The steward is struck 
down by a knight; Evalach's nephew and Evalach go to the rescue (p. 133); Archemedes 
drives in Tholomes's men (p. 134), but Evalach's steward is cruelly beaten (p. 134), and 
killed by Tholomes (p. 135). Tholomes and Evalach fight; but Evalach cannot recover 
his steward's body. Tholomes rallies his men, who shoot poisoned arrows and get the best of 
the fight (p. 136). 

CHAPTER XIV. The Battle between Evalach and Tholomes, continued . . 137 

Of Seraphe; the valour of him and his men (p. 138); his deeds with his axe (p. 138); how he did 
not tire, and all fled from him (p. 139); so a messenger tells Tholomes, who sends him to his 
brother Manarcus with orders for Manarcus to fight Seraphe (p. 140) ; Manarcus comes with 
55,000 men, and routs Seraphe's 20,000 (p. 141); Seraphe weeps ; cannot rally his men; 
but he and eleven still fight on (p. 142) ; and he kiUs Manarcus (p. 142) ; whose men make 
a great cry (p. 142); Seraphe kills on (p. 143); Manarcus's men kill seven of the eleven 
knights and Seraphe's horse (p. 143) ; and then the other four knights (p. 144) ; Seraphe 
kills a knight who throws spears (p. 144); Seraphe takes his horse, and kills away (p. 144); 
Seraphe's second horse is killed, and he ridden over (p. 145). He awakes from his swoon 
(p. 146) ; mounts again, cuts one knight's left arm ofi" and cleaves another knight in two 
(p. 146). He rides into the field (p. 147) ; kills a knight, is shot through the shoulder by 
an arrow and thrown to the ground, his horse being killed under him (p. 147) ; but he 
mounts again and tries to get to Evalach's cross. There is great slaughter (p. 148). Sixty 
knights rescue Evalach from 500, and mount him again, but he is surrounded by 2,000 of 
his enemies (p. 148). Seraphe rides to the rescue (p. 149); but cannot reach him. Evalach 
is taken prisoner, beaten, and carried to a wood (p. 149) ; he looks on his shield and the 
cross on it (p. 150), sees Christ crucified, and prays to God (p. 151); a white knight with 
a cross on his shield comes out of the forest (p. 151); Seraphe fights on, he sees Evalach's 
standard, and shouts (p. 152). The white knight leads Tholomes to the Rock of Blood (p. 153); 
charges at him and unhorses him. Evalach's knights take all Tholomes's knights but eleven 
(p. 154); Tholomes surrenders to Evalach (p. 154); and Jekonias takes him to Orkanz (p. 154). 
Evalach takes the rest of Tholomes's division. The white knight helps Seraphe (p. 155); 
Seraphe's danger; the white knight kills two of his opponents (p. 156); Seraphe swoons, and 
Evalach helps him (p. 156); Evalach unhorses a knight and gives the horse to Seraphe 
(p. 157); Seraphe mounts and is as fresh as ever; the white knight gives him an axe from 
God (p. 158); Evalach, on Tholomes's horse, reassembles his men and makes two divisions 
of them; they renew the fight (p. 159); distress in Tholomes's men for their master (p. 160); 
they are slain, maimed, and taken (p. 160). How well Evalach, Seraphe, and the white 
knight fought (p. 160-1). Tholomes's men draw near the Rock, thinking it is not guarded 
(p. 161); but it is, and Evalach's men pursue and slay them (p. 162); Narbus, Tholomes's 



CONTENTS. XXXI 

steward, surrenders to Evalacli, who wants to kill him (p. 162), but Seraphe intercedes for 
him (p. 163). The end of the day and the battle (p. 163) ; Evalach, &c. go back to Orkanz, 
where there are so many prisoners, that the king tents outside (p. 164). 

CHAPTER XV. The Histoky of Evalach's Queen, Saeeacynte . . . 165 

Of Evalach's Queen (Sarracynte) in Sarras (p. 166). Sarracynte sends for Joseph, and asks how 
Evalach got on; Joseph's answer (p. 166); the heathen kings, &c. are to be cast down, and 
the poor exalted (p. 167). Sarracynte cries; she asks Joseph to pray for Evalach (p. 167-8); 
and to expound Christianity to her (p. 168). Sarracynte is a Christian, and tells Joseph of 
her Christian mother, and her father, who was a brute (p. 169); also, how her mother was ill 
of a bloody flux, and went to a good hermit, and asked help (p. 170); he tells her that Christ 
alone can cure her (p. 170); she says, ' Ask God for me, I will give you gold' (p. 171). He 
says, ' Believe in Christ, and he will heal you.' She does, and he prays to God (p. 172) ; and 
proclaims her whole; she is, thanks God; and is baptized (p. 173). She takes Sarracynte to 
the hermit (p. 174). Sarracynte cannot worship him on account of his beard, but says she 
will worship Christ if he is fairer than her brother (p. 174). A glorious man — Christ — 
appears (p. 175); Sarracynte is christened, and the hermit tells her of Christ (p. 175). Her 
mother receives the sacrament, and Sarracjmte too (p. 176); both go home, and hear of a 
great beast (p. 177). Sarracynte's brother goes to hunt it, and is lost in the forest (p. 178). 
Her mother says the hermit is a true prophet (p. 178). They rejoice in their faith (p. 179). 
Her mother sends the attendants out, and tells Sarracynte to get a box (p. 179); Christ 
comes out as bread (p. 180). She charges her daughter to keep the box, and think on Christ 
(p. 180-1); and go and teU the hermit of her mother's death (p. 181); and get him to put 
bread in the box, and look at it every day (p. 182). Christ appears over the mother's bed (p. 183). 
Her mother dies, and Sarracynte goes to the hermit, who gives her Christ (p. 184). She goes 
away, and meets a man (p. 184), who tells her the hermit is dead, and asks her to ride back 
to his cell (p. 185); they go back; the man mourns; then digs a grave (p. 186); takes the 
head of the corpse, and teUs her to take the feet; her excuse (p. 187); they bury the body. 
He scolds her servants, and then baptizes them; and remains in the cell (p. 188). The end 
of Sarracynte's answer (p. 189). Josephes says, ' Why don't you worship Christ now?' she 
answers, ' My husband is so angry; convert him' (p. 189). She asks how her husband has 
sped in the battle, and Joseph tells her (p. 190). 

CHAPTER XVI. Of the Baptism of Evalach and Seraphe, as Mordeeins and Nasciens 191 

Joseph tells Sarracynte of the White Knight (p. 191), whom Evalach and Seraphe cannot make 
out (p. 192). Evalach goes to see Tholomes (p. 198), and then returns to Sarras, taking 
Seraphe with him (p. 193). His queen receives them with great delight, and he at once asks 
after the Christians (p. 193). Joseph comes (p. 194) ; he tells Seraphe that it was Evalach's 
prayer that gave him his great strength (p. 194-5). Joseph orders Evalach's shield to be 
uncovered (p. 195); a crucified man is seen on it (p. 195). A man with a wounded arm is 
healed by it (p. 196); and then the cross vanishes (p. 196). Seraphe declares that he will 
turn Christian, and Joseph baptizes him, and changes his name to Nasciens (p. 196); he is 



XXXU CONTENTS. 

healed at once, and so preaches to Evalach, that he and the wounded man are baptized too, 
and Evalach's name changed to Mordraynes or Slow-of-Belief (p. 197-8). The rest of the 
people are baptized, and Joseph destroys the images, and converts all Sarras (p. 199). He 
leaves three of his friends there in charge of the Grail- Ark, and goes with the rest to Orcanz 
(p. 200), where he turns out of an image the devil Aselabas, and makes him explain why he 
had killed Tholomes (p. 201-2). Mordraynes orders his people to be baptized or leave the 
country (p. 203); some are killed by the Devil (p. 204), and a spear-head is driven into 
Joseph's thigh for his neglect, and left there (p. 205). The whole land is converted (p. 206), 
bishops are ordained (p. 207), and the bodies of the two Hermit-Saints procured for the 
churches in Sarras and Orbery (p. 208-9). 

CHAPTEK XVII. Or the Geail, and of the Interpretation of Evalach's Visions . 210 

How Joseph shows Mordreins ^Evalach) and Nasciens (Seraphe) the Ark and the holy things in it 
(p. 210). On seeing the Holy Grail, Nasciens is fiUed with joy (p. 211); tells them how a 
vision of his youth is now fulfilled (p. 211), and then Hfts up the ' plateyne ' over the dish, for 
which he is struck blind (p. 212). Mordreins asks Nasciens what he saw, but can only get a 
vague answer (p. 213). An angel appears with the lance whose head is in Joseph's thigh, 
and draws out the head by putting the lance to it (p. 214). With the blood from the wound 
he restores Nasciens's sight (p. 215) ; tells him, that, when the lance drops blood, the secrets of 
the Sank Byal, or Seint Graal, shall be known (p. 215-16); and predicts that the last of 
Nasciens's line shall be the only man thereafter wounded by the lance, and who shall see the 
wonders of the Holy Grail (p. 216). Mordreins asks Joseph to interpret his dream of the 
Three Trees [Chapter vii. p. 58], and Joseph does so (p. 217-221). The ugly-barked tree is 
Christ, the other two the Father and the Holy Ghost; the two people that left the others 
were Adam and Eve ; those who hewed the branches were the Jews who crucified Christ 
(p. 218). Also of the Descent into Hell, the Ascension, the Trinity (p. 219), and their names, 
Former, Saviour, Cleanser (p. 220) ; and of the Immaculate Conception and Birth of Christ 
(p. 221). Joseph orders Mordreins to burn the image of the woman that he has secretly lain 
with (p. 222). Mordreins shows the hidden chamber where he kept it, and then bums it 
(p. 223). Joseph departs from Sarras, and 207 Saracens with him (p. 224). His last charge 
to the king (p. 225). 

CHAPTER XVHI. Mordreins sees new Visions, and is borne away to a distant Isle . 226 

Of Mordreins (or Evalach). How he had a wonderful dream, which sorely troubled him, to the 
distress of his queen (p. 227): viz. ' that he was holding his Court in Sarras, and as he sat 
at meat a thunderbolt knocked the first morsel out of his mouth, and his crown off his head 
(p. 228) ; that a wind carries him away to a place where a lion brings him food, which a 
lioness carries ofi", till he hits her with his fist (p. 228) ; that he finds his crown, but with 
splendid stones in it; that an eagle carries his nephew, Nasciens's son, to a strange region, 
where the people kneel to him (p. 229); and then a river flows out of his belly, and divides 
into nine streams (p. 229); of which the ninth is troublous and foul at its rise, clear in the 
middle, and glorious at the end (p. 230); and that a man from heaven washes in a lake, and 
in three of the streams that separated ffom the ninth' (p. 230). Sarracynte, sad at Mordreins's 



CONTENTS. XXXUl 

trouble, goes to her brother Nasciens (or Seraphe), (p. 231), and begs him to ask Mordreins a 
boon, that he will tell his dream (p. 231); Nasciens goes to the king, and asks him (p. 232), 
and Mordreins tells him, and says that it came for Mordreins's ingratitude to Nasciens 
(p. 232-3). To have the dream interpreted, they go to the chufch that Joseph established, 
and hear service (p. 234-5), but none of the pastors can interpret it (p. 23G). They 
return to the palace, and feel and hear and see wonderful shakings, noises, and lightnings 
(p. 236) ; then a horn sounds, and a voice proclaims the beginning of dreade (p. 237). 
Mordreins and Nasciens fall swooning on their bed, and Mordreins is borne away by the Holy 
Ghost (p. 238). 

CHAPTEE XIX. Nasciens (or Seraphe) is accused of killing Mokdeeins, and is imprisoned 239 

Nasciens (formerly Seraphe) lies swooning in bed (p. 239); his sister, Queen Sarracynte, going to 
see a church she is building for the Virgin, finds all the attendants asleep (p. 240) ; coming 
back to the palace, she sees Nasciens weeping, and asks him why, and where her husband 
Mordraynes (or Evalach) has gone (p. 240-1). She swoons; he assures her that Mordraynes 
is safe (p. 242). The barons consult about Mordraynes' absence (p. 243) ; Calafier, a traitor, 
suggests that Nasciens killed him (p. 243); the others adopt this, go to Nasciens, question 
him (p. 244), and then cast him into prison (p. 245). The queen is greatly grieved, but 
cannot help her brother (p. 246) ; who holds to his faith, and will not reproach God, but asks 
for mercy for his sins (p. 246-7). 

CHAPTEE XX. Op the Isle whither Mordreins is carried, and of Fowcaies and Pompet 248 

The description and history of the island to which King Mordreins was carried; and herein of the 
Emperor Pompey's daring deeds. How the isle was on the way from Scotland and Ireland to 
Babylon, and Wales and Spain could be seen from it (p. i49); and how it was all bare rock, 
and was called The Roche Perilows (p. 250); and on it was formerly a house built by a pirate, 
Fowcairs, who enticed ships ashore, and destroyed them and their crews (p. 250-1) ; till Pom- 
pey heard of him, and prepared a ship (p. 251); and attacked him (p. 252). The account of 
the fight (p. 252-8); — how the pirates let down a quarter of a ship on Pompey's knights 
(p. 253); and the attack is put off (p. 254). Pompey then determines to light a fire at the 
foot of the rock and burn them out (p. 255). The pirates try to put it out, but can't, and the 
knio-hts kill four of them (p. 255); the rest nearly succeed in extinguishing the fire, but 
Pompey drives them back and kills five of them (p. 256). He is then attacked and swoons, 
but is rescued. Fowcairs is taken (p. 257); his men are thrown into the sea, and then he 
too (p. 258). How Pompey did a still more daring deed, stabled his horses in the Temple at 
Jerusalem (p. 258); and how he was rebuked by Peter for it (p. 259). 

CHAPTEE XXI. Of Mordreins on " The Eock Perilous," and the wonders he saw there 260 

Of Mordreins (Evalach) on " The Eock Perilous," and the wonders he saw there (p. 260-270). 
How Mordreins is in great sorrow (p. 260), and while he is weeping he sees a silver ship 
approach, with a fair man on board, who lands and talks to him' (p. 261-2); says he is a 
crafty man (p. 262); and his name is ' On. & Al. Only.' (p. 263). He comforts the king 
(p. 263); and tells him that God has not forgotten him, but will give him all he asks for 



SXXIV CONTEXTS. 

(p. 263-5). The king is so joyful that he is almost in a trance (p. 265), till the ship and 
man -vanish (p. 266). Mordreins concludes that the man came from God (p. 266). He then 
sees another gorgeously covered ship arrive (p. 266), from which a lovely woman lands 
(p. 267), who talks with him, and asks him to be lord of herself and her lands (p. 268), 
and tempts him to forsake his new faith, telling him of the danger Seraphe (Nasciens) is in 
(p. 269), and of the evils that will befal him — Mordreins — if he stops in the island (p. 269-70). 

CHAPTER XXH. Still of the Wondees King Moedeeins saw on the Rock Perilous . 271 

Still of the wonders King Mordreins (or Evalach) saw on the Rock Perilous (p. 271). How he 
asks the fair woman out of the ship where he is, and how far off from his land (p. 271), but 
will not go with her, and how she sails away (p. 272). How he sees a great tempest rise, and 
how he thinks over the woman's prophecy of his misery, and over his former greatness 
(p. 273). How he looks about for a place to sleep in, finds the cave (p. 274), but, on trying 
to enter it, is struck down (p. 274). How he sees a great tempest, and then a great darkness 
comes (p 275), and he lies all night in a swoon (p. 275). In the morning he is awoke by the 
rays of the sun (p. 275), makes the sign of the cross, recovers his senses, and prays to God 
(p. 276). He then sees again the first ship; and the good man lands from it, greets him 
(p. 277), and preaches to him about his want of faith (p. 278). Of how God helps his servants 
(p. 279-80) ; of the difference between the flesh and the spirit (p. 280) ; and of the members 
of the soul (p. 281). Mordreins then asks him about the fair woman (p. 281), and he says 
that she strove to become lord over him, and so he cast her out of his house, for which she 
tries to enrage him by evil doing (p. 282). [The fall of Lucifer.] The good man exhorts 
Mordreins to hold to his Saviour, andthen no good thing shall be wanting to him (p. 283). 

CHAPTER XXHI. Still of Mordreins on the Rock Perilous, and his Temptations there 284 

Still of Mordreins (Evalach) on the Rock Perilous, and his Temptations there (p. 284-307). How 
the good man comforts him, and asks him if he is hungry (p. 284), and takes him to the ship 
and offers him delicious meats (p. 285), the sight of which so satisfies him that his hunger 
goes (p. 285). He desires to know about Nasciens, and the Vision of the Streams [Chap. 
XVIII. p. 229] that he saw (p. 286); but the good man will notteU him yet, and exhorts him 
not to fear any marvels that he may see (p. 287) ; and teUs him how to know good counsel 
from bad (p. 288). Mordreins asks how long he is to stop on the rock, — ' till the devil takes 
him off by the left hand ' (p. 289). He is distressed at hearing this, and the good man disappears 
(p. 290). Mordreins sees the fair woman's ship coming, and prays to God for grace to resist 
her (p. 291). She tempts him by telling him that his brother-in-law and queen are dead 
(p. 292), and by offering him the precious stones, &c. in her ship (p. 293); but he will not 
yield to her, and will not answer to his devil-name Evalach (p. 294), She reproaches him, 
but in vain, and then departs (p. 295). A great tempest rages (p. 295) ; a wonderful noise is 
heard, and a clap of thunder which knocks off the top of the rock (p. 295-6). Mordreins 
prays to God to comfort him (p. 296); he gets wonderfully sleepy and hungry, and sees a 
black loaf, which he takes hold of, and is trying to eat (p. 297), when a marvellous bird 

swoops down on him (p. 298), and knocks it out of his hand (p. 302) The description of the 

bird, the Phmnix, a type of Christ (p. 298-301).— The king swoons, and the bird hits him 



CONTENTS. XXXV 

with its right wing, and then flies away (p. 302). The king recovers, and thanks God 
(p. 302-3). The good man and the tempting woman come to him daily, and the good man 
comforts him (p. 303-4). He sees another ship, sailorless ; a great tempest rages (p. 305) ; 
then fierce heat comes ; but he will not leave the rock (p. 306). The weather clears, and he 
ponders over his adventures (p. 307). 

CHAPTER XXIY. Still of Moedeeins ok the Rock Perilous, and how he left it 308 

Still of Mordreins on The Roche Perilows. How he sees a ship approach the Eock with his own 
and Nasciens's shields on board, and the horse he won from Tholomes at Orcans (p. 309). A 
knight lands, and tells him that Nasciens is dead (p. 310). He goes on board, sees a corpse 
like Nasciens's, swoons (p. 311), and on waking finds himself far from the Kock (p. 311); 
he makes the sign of the Cross, and man, horse, and corpse vanish (p. 311). He prays to 
God. The good man comes to him again, and tells him that he shall not be delivered till 
Nasciens comes to him alive (p. 312); and explains that it was the devil who had tempted 
him as the. knight, the lioness, and the fair woman, who had appeared to him (p. 313). The 
good man exhorts him to be wiser and warier than he had been, and then vanishes (p. 313). 
The ship drives on (p. 314); the king sees a man coming on the sea, borne up by two birds 
under his feet (p. 314), who sprinkles the ship with water, and announces himself as Salustes, 
in whose honour Mordreins had built the church in Sarras (p. 314). He explains the vision 
of the lioness (p. 314), and that of the streams flowing out of Mordreins's nephew (p. 314); 
and then tells him he had sprinkled the ship because it was the devil's and needed purifying 
(p. 315). He instructs Mordreins how to eject devils by Holy "Water (p. 315), and then goes, 
leaving the king on the ship (p. 315). 

CHAPTER XXV. Of Nasciens in peison, and his son Celidotne : and of the cuesed Calafiee 316 

Of Nasciens. How, when he was imprisoned, the cursed Calafier had charge of his lands and him 
(p. 316), and put him in a dark dungeon and bound him hand and foot, and also confined his 
young son Celidoine, whose name means ' given to heaven,' (p. 316), and at whose birth at 
mid-day the sun disappeared, and the moon and stars shone clear (p. 317). On the 17th 
night of their imprisonment, Nasciens dreams that a hand strikes ofi' his chains. He feels that 
he is free (p. 317). A light shines and a fair white hand lifts him into the air over the castle 
of Calafier (p. 319), who is stamped on the right cheek with an angel's hand, and on the left 
with his foot (p. 322). Calafier orders water to be thrown on his right cheek (p. 324), and is 
then carried up to the battlements of his castle, from which he orders Celidoine to be thrown 
(p. 326). When Celidoine is in mid-air, nine hands catch him, and bear him oflF (p. 327). 
Vengeance on Calafier is proclaimed from Heaven (p. 328). A thunderbolt strikes the castle, 
and Calafier 's body flies in pieces (p. 328). The report of his death, and of Nasciens's deli- 
verance, get abroad (p. 329) ; the barons go to Queen Sarracynte to ask pardon for imprison- 
ing her brother (p. 329) ; and she sends five messengers out to seek him (p. 330). 

CHAPTER XXVI. Of Nasciens's wife, Flegentyne, and how she sets out to seek him 331 

Of Nasciens's wife, Flegentyne. How beautiful and good she was, and how she loved her husband 
(p. 331-2). She is dispossessed of her lands, and takes refuge with an old trusty knight, 
Carsopines, to whom she has been kind (p. 332-3). He puts his goods and life at her dis- 

/2 



XXXvi CONTENTS. 

posal (p. 333) ; but she sorrows for her lord and her son. Queen Sarracynte asks her to come 
to her, that they may comfort one another (p. 334) ; but she refuses, so Sarracynte goes to 
fetch her (p. 334). Wlien they meet, their grief bm-sts out afresh (p. 334-5); but Sarracynte 
recovers first, and entreats Flegentyne to return with her (p. 335) ; Flegentyne again refuses, 
saying she must stop with her old knight (p. 335). She still sorrows (p. 336), till she hears 
that her lord, Nasciens, and her son, had escaped out of prison (p. 337). She dreams that a 
voice says they are in the West (p. 337) ; and asks a provost of the church what her dream 
means (p. 338) ; then she asks the old knight, and he advises that they set out, with his son 
Helycaors as their yeoman, to seek Nasciens and his son (p. 339-340). Flegentyne agrees; the 
knight gets money, &c. (p. 341) ; and the three start (p. 342), with four horses, towards 
Sarras, journeying westwards (p. 343); they come to the river Arecuse, lodge near the Castle 
of EmeHanz, and enter Calamyne (p. 344). 

CHAPTER XXVII. History of the Yl Torneawnt ; and Nasciens's Visions there 346 
Of Nasciens on the " Yl Torneawnt." How the hand bore Nasciens to a Turning Island, the name 
and nature of which it is the duty of the History to expound (p. 347). [The exposition 
accordingly in the French MS. only. At the beginning of all things, when God separated the 
four elements, he set the heavens above the earth and sea as a covering, as they were contrary 
to one another, the heavens being hot and light, and earth cold and heavy (p. 348). And, 
because the foul earth touched heaven and dirtied it, God divided them, making the heavens 
clear and warm, and the earth cold and heavy. The dross of the elements, the rust of the 
earth, and the sediment of the sea could not mix with earth and water, nor with the heavens, 
for they were foul and the heavens pure ; and the flame from heaven could not return to it, as 
being corrupted. (So little from the air was in the mass, that it need not be noticed.) There- 
fore, as the mass could not go to any one of its element-sources, fire or heaven, earth or 
water, it stopped in two, earth and water. For God willed it should be in the sea, and 
because one part was from heaven it swam lightly, and floated into the Western Sea, between 
Ovagrive [MS. ou a griue] and Tiger's Harbour, where was great store of adamant or load- 
stone, which loves iron above all things, and will not leave it when it once gets hold of it, 
unless it is obliged to. So, when this mass of shakings came to the place of the adamant, it 
stopt (p. 348). And its heavenly heat made the whole mass light, and the mass remained in 
the sea, and was called an island (p. 349). But no herb or tree or beast or bird was on it. 
Also the isle turned every time that the firmament or heaven turned ; and this is why it was 
called Tl Torneawnt (p. 349).] How, when Nasciens awoke from his swoon, he was much 
abashed, but stiU stedfast in his belief, like Job (p. 349). How he bore all his troubles as 
patiently as Job, and thanked God (p. 350). How the Turning Isle was barren and very hot 
(p. 350), and Nasciens was weary and bruised, and so lay down to sleep, making the sign of 
the cross (p. 351). He sees in a vision white birds (p. 352), and two come to him, and tell 
him to fly (p. 352). He perceives that he has wings (p. 352). The birds come again and 
ask him for his heart to eat. He gives it them, and they rejoice (p. 353), and speak to him 
(p. 354). On awaking he feels the Isle trembling, and hears a marvellous battle in the sea 
(p. 354); the Adamant and the Firmament trying which will turn the isle, and the Firmament 
winning (p. 355). One end of the isle turns down and the other up, though it was eighty 



CONTENTS. XXXVll 

miles round and fifty-seven long (p. 355-6) ; which is no lie, for this Holy Story was written 
by Christ with his own hand (p. 356-7); and He never wrote any thing else but the Law for 
Moses (p. 357), and the Judgment on the Adulterous Woman (p. 357); which latter is 
explained (p. 357-8). Then, " what clerk is there so hardye that dar sein openlye that God 
sethen his uprysinge made ony writinge sauf this blessid storye of Seint Graal ?" (p. 359). If 
any allege the contrary, " they lyen ful pleyn" (p. 359). 

CHAPTER XXVni. Still of Nasciens on Yl Tobnbawnt ; and of Solomon's Ship, etc. 360 

Still of Nasciens on the Tl Torneawnt. He prays to God for comfort (p. 361). The day dawns, 
and he sees on the sea a little thing like a swan (p. 362) ; it proves to be a ship, which comes 
to the island (p. 363) ; he walks to it as fast as, in his disabled state, he can (p. 363) ; and is 
going on board of it, but sees words warning him not to enter unless he is full of faith 
(p. 364). He hesitates, but prays to God, makes the sign of the cross, and enters the ship 
(p. 365-6). He looks about every where, and in the hold sees a white cloth, which he lifts 
up (p. 367), and finds a bed, vrith a crown of gold at its head, and a sword at his feet 
(p. 367); a wonderful sword, with two beast's scales in its handle, 1. of the Serpent Papag^oBi, 
a bone of which will always keep a man warm (p. 368); 2. of the Fish Tortenaus (p. 368), 
whose bones are so strong, that, if a man holds them, he forgets every thing but the bone, till 
he lays it down again (p. 368). The handle and scales are covered with a red cloth, and on 
it is declared that no one shall draw the sword but the one worthiest of all men (p. 369). 
The letters on the sword-blade say it is only to be drawn by the boldest of men ; any other will be , 
killed by it (p. 370). Nasciens then looks at the scabbard, which is rose-red, with gold and 
azure letters on it (p. 370-1) ; and out of it issue a thousand filthy branches (p. 371). The letters 
say that he who bears the sword, and is girt with the branches, shall ever be safe (p. 371-2). 
Nasciens turns the sword; the bed quakes (p. 372); the other side of the sword [?] is 
blood-red, with coal-black letters, saying that he who praises it most here will blame it 
most in his need (p. 373). Nasciens cannot make out what the scabbard is made of (p. 373), 
nor does the Story here tell us (p. 374) ; but ' al this schal ben declared sauns delay ' when 
the right time and place come (p. 375). Now for another mystery : — How, from the bed 
where the sword and sheath were, three spindles came, joined together (p. 375) ; of which one 
was white as snow, the second blood-red, and the third emerald-green (p. 375). And, because 
these things must be explained, therefore the Story proceeds to expound them (p. 375), 
beginning with Eve and Adam in Paradise, and going on with the Fall, the death of Abel, the 
building of this ship by carpenters for Solomon and his wife, who look on, and then put the 
sword, &c. on board of it. {See chapters 29 and 30.) 

CHAPTER XXIX. The History of Solomon's Ship, etc. ; and herein of Adam and Eve, etc. 377 

The Episode of Adam and Eve in Paradise, the Tree of Life, the Death of Abel, and the building 
of a Ship for Solomon and his wife. How Eve the first sinner was tempted by the Devil to 
eat of the forbidden Tree and pulled ofi' a branch of it (p. 378), and got Adam to eat an apple 
too (p. 379). How they knew that they were naked, and were ashamed ' each of others' 
members ' (p. 379). God comes to them and pronounces their doom (p. 379-80), and turns 
them out of Paradise, Eve carrying the branch of the Forbidden Tree in her hand (p. 380). 



XXXVIU CONTENTS. 

She thinks she will always keep the branch in sight, to remind her of her sin (p. 380) ; but, 
as she has no hutch to put it in, ' for at that tyme was no swich in makyng,' she plants it 
(p. 381), and by God's grace it takes root (p. 381), and signifies much gladness; for, as by 
woman Paradise was lost, so by woman (the blessed virgine Maree) it shall be restored to 
man (p. 381-2). How the branch grew into a great tree, which was wholly white, signifying 
Virginity (p. 382). Of the difference between maidenhood, purity of body, and virginity, 
purity of soul and body (p. 382-3). How Eve was a Virgin when she planted the branch of 
the Tree of Life, and till Adam lay with her at Christ's command (p. 383). They sit grieving 
under the Tree, and Eve says it is the cause of their grief, and may be called the Tree of 
Death (p. 383-4). A voice tells them to comfort one another, as life is much nearer them 
than death (p. 384). They do this, and call the tree The Tree of Life, and plant branches of 
it (p. 384). One Friday, as they sit under it, a voice commands Adam to know his wife 
fleshly (p. 385). They are greatly ashamed (p. 385). So Christ pities them, ordains that 
men shaU restore the Tenth Legion of Angels that were cast into Hell (p. 385-6), and sends 
Adam and Eve darkness, in which they copulate, and beget Abel the Just (p. 386). The 
darkness disappears, and, in consequence of the copulation, the white Tree of Life, and all 
other trees, turn from white to green (p. 387) ; and the Tree of Life, which before was barren, 
bears flowers and fruit (p. 387) : signifying Abel's good life (p. 387). How Abel gave tithes 
and his best things to God, but Cain gave his worst (p. 388). And, when they sacrificed, the 
sweet smoke of Abel's offering went straight to heaven, but the stinking smoke of Cain's 
spread over the fields (p. 388) ; on which Cain resolves to kill Abel (p. 389). One day Abel 
goes after his sheep, and lies down and sleeps under the Tree of Life (p. 389). Cain follows 
him, thinking to kill him unperceived, but Abel sees him and welcomes him (p. 389-90). 
Cain runs at him with an ' op-courbed knyf,' smites him ' vndir the pappe,' and, — ' vntrewe 
brother,' — kills him (p. 390), on a Friday, under the tree under which he was begotten 
(p. 390). How Abel's death signified Christ's, and Cain typified Judas (p. 390-1); ' for it is 
the condisciown of a cursed man tohaten a good man what that he can' (p. 391). How Christ 
condemns Cain ' be kyng Davy in the Sawter book' (p. 391). God asks Cain where Abel is 
(p. 392). Cain covers the body up with leaves and says ' with him have I not for to done' 
(p. 392). God curses Cain and the earth, but not the Tree of Life, which turned from green 
to red directly after Abel's death (p. 392-3); and grew very large, but bare no flower or fruit 
(p. 393). How the tree was held in great reverence by Eve's descendants (p. 393); and how 
they came to it in times of trouble, and called it the Tree of Counsel and of Comfort (p. 394). 
How it and its saplings continued beautiful till and after the Deluge, and were called ' Trees 
of Life ' by all who saw them (p. 394-5). 

CHAPTEE XXX. The Histoey of Solomon's Ship, Ceown, &c., continued . . 396 

The Episode of [the Fall, Abel's death, and] Solomon's buUding the ship, continued. How the 
Tree of Life continued till the time of Solomon, who was wonderfully wise (p. 397), but was 
deceived by a woman, and, when much troubled by her, spake his Book of Parables (p. 398), 
and said that not one good woman could be found in the world (p. 398). One night he 
declaims against women (p. 399), and a voice reproaches him, and says that a woman of his 
race shall bring men to greater joy than Eve lost (p. 399-400). Solomon thinks that he was 



CONTENTS. XXXIX 

a fool to blame women so, and searches the Scriptures till he knows of the Virgin Mary and 
her Son (p. 400). A voice tells him that this Son shall come of his line, but of a knight 
passing all others (p. 401). He is greatly rejoiced, though the Son is not to come for 2,000 
years (p. 402). His wife asks him to tell her what he has been thinking of (p. 402). He 
tells her, and on the third night she says she can certify him of the coming knight of his line 
(p. 403). She says he is to send for all the carpenters in his realm, and order them to make 
a ship that wiU last for 4,000 years, which she will fit up (p. 403-4). Solomon sends for the 
carpenters, and orders them to make the ship (p, 404). They say they will do their best, 
and then they set to work and finish it in half a year (p. 405). Solomon's Queen then tells 
him that he ought to provide a precious piece of armour for his descendant (p. 405), namely 
King David's sword (p. 406), to which he is to make a point of precious stones (p. 407), and 
then a pomel and a sheath ; and she will add the hangings (p. 407). Solomon does as his wife 
teUs him, and makes the point, handle, and sheath (p. 407-8). He then looks at them, and 
wishes that no one but the man the sword was made for may draw it without repenting for his 
deed (p. 408). A voice promises him that it shalLbe so (p. 409). He writes letters on the scab- 
bard, and makes fine hangings for it; but his wife wiU not have them, and puts foul and weak 
hangings instead (p 409), which she says a fair maiden (like her who will undo Eve's work) 
will change into glorious ones (p. 410). A bed is made in the ship, and the sword is put at 
its foot, and David's crown at its head (p. 410). Solomon's wife takes carpenters to the Tree 
of Life and its seedlings and orders them to cut off three sprigs, red, white and green, (p. 41 1). 
They refuse, but at last obey (p. 411-12). Blood springs out of the Tree of Life, and the 
workmen leave their work, but the Queen makes them finish it (p. 412), and tells Solomon 
that no one shall see the bed unless he thinks of Abel's death (p. 413). Solomon writes a 
letter to the knight of his line who is to draw the sword, warning him against the wiles of 
, women. This he puts into the ship (p. 414). Then he writes an account of the building 
of the ship, of the bed, spindles, &c. and puts it at the bed's head, under the crown; and then 
launches the ship (p. 414-15). His wife teUs him to have his pavilions set up on the sea- 
shore, that they may stay there and see what becomes of the ship (p. 415). This is done, and 
one night in a dream Solomon sees a man and angels sprinkle the ship with water, and say 
that it is a type of God's " New House " (p. 416). The man has a warning written to faith- 
less people not to enter the ship (p. 416-17). Solomon wakes and seeks the man and angels, 
but cannot speak or go to them (p. 417). A voice tells him that his desire is fulfilled, and 
this last of his line shall enter the ship and get. the sword (p. 417). The men and angels 
vanish : Solomon is going on board the ship, but the voice warns him that if he does he shall 
perish (p. 418). He draws back, and looks at the writing on the ship, charging no man to 
enter it who has not faith and full belief (p. 418-19). Then he orders his men to put the 
ship out to sea, and it is soon carried out of their sight (p. 419). 

CHAPTER XXXI. Nasciens's account of his Adventures is resumed . . . 420 

Nasciens's account of his Adventures is resumed. How Nasciens could not make out how the 
Three Spindles were coloured (p. 421); and said that it was by trick (p. 421); whereat the 
Ship splits in two, and he is nearly drowned. But he reaches the isle of his exile (p. 421), 
sees the letters on the Ship, and prays to God to forgive him his sin (p. 422) ; then he lies 



xl CONTENTS. 

down on the ground and goes to sleep (p. 423). In the morning he wakes, and prays to God 
to protect him from his enemy (p. 423). He looks to the east, and sees a vessel with an old 
man in it, which comes within two lance-lengths of the isle, but no nearer (p. 424). The 
vessel is richly ornamented (p. 425). Nasciens salutes the old man in it, who tells him that 
Calafer is dead (p. 425-6). He at first doubts this, but, being rebuked (p. 426), believes the 
man (p. 427), and asks the meaning of the Ship and the writing on it (p. 428). The old man 
explains that the Ship typifies Holy Church (p. 428), and the Writings forbid men to enter it 
unless they are cleansed from sin by confession of mouth and repentance of heart (p. 429). 
Therefore men must found themselves on Christ (p. 429-80); and Holy Church is here for 
their sustenance, and keeps them from deadly sin, purifying them like gold seven times refined 
(p. 430). Nest, of the bed; it means the Sacramental Table (p. 430-1), 'the Cros that 
Crist was on crucified in Ivrie londe,' the place where he liked to rest (p. 431). Further, as to 
the Spindles (p. 431): the white one means the Virginity of Christ and his mother (p. 432); 
the red one, the Charity or Love of Christ, in giving the greatest gift, his body, for man's 
redemption (p. 432). The green spindle means Patience, which ever remains in a man's 
heart (p. 433). And these three Virtues give victory over all enemies (p. 433); and 
were present vrith Christ at his death (p. 433). Nasciens now goes to sleep, and dreams 
that a serpent attacks him, and that a little worm kills it (p. 434). He awakes in wonder 
(p. 435). 

CHAPTER XXXII. Of Celidoyne's Adventures, and his inteepeeting Label's fiest Vision 436 

Celidoyne's adventures. How, when the Nine Hands bore him from Calafer, he was carried to an 
island, five days' sail from Nasciens's isle (p. 437), and it was very wild, and ' feeble comfort' 
for him (p. 437). A thunderstorm comes on, and Celidoyne gets into a cave (p. 438). Two 
ships come to the island, and an old mariner laments the hard fate of their crews (p. 438-9). 
Another tells him not to fear (p. 439). Cehdoyne approaches them : they are heathen Per- 
sians, and are going, under their king Label, to fight the Syrians (p. 439). Label described: 
he hates Christians (p. 439-40). He has his pavilions pitched on the shore (p. 440). Celi- 
doyne talks to his attendants, and they take him to King Label (p. 440), who treats him 
kindly and asks who he is (p. 440-1). Celidoyne tells him (p. 441). Label says he knows 
Evalach, and is sorry to hear that he has changed his faith (p. 441). Celidoyne tells Label 
how he was delivered from Calafer (p. 442). Label wonders at the boy, and makes him a 
knight, and lets him lie by him (p. 442-3) ; and tells his Council that he should like to marry 
Celidoyne to his daughter (p. 443). Label then goes to bed, and has a vision of a Tree from 
which flowers grow, and of a Fiery Serpent which destroys the tree and flowers (p. 443-4). 
In the morning the king's guards tell him they have caught a lion (p. 444). They then wake 
Cehdoyne and take him to the king (p. 444). Label orders his Council to be called, tells 
them his dream, and asks them to interpret it (p. 444-5). They consult, but cannot (p. 445). 
Celidoyne then rises, and tells the king that he will explain it to him (p. 446). Celidoyne 
then tells Label what he saw (p. 446), and declares that the Meadow means the World, which 
is pleasant to sinners, who think that it will abide with them for ever (p. 446-7) ; but, as the 
meadow is scorched by the sun, so will mankind be when the soul leaves the body (p. 447). 
As to the Tree, it signifies man's person, even Label's, which is feeble and poor (p. 447). And 



CONTENTS. xli 

of the Flowers, there is an unfading one, the Virgin Mary (p. 447) ; her, Label did not see, 
but only fading ones, Bounty, Prowess, Courtesy (p. 448), of which and other virtues he has 
many, but not devoted to the service of God (p. 448). The Heap of Earth signifies the mass 
of man's sins (p. 449) ; and Label has heaped sin on sin daily since his birth (p. 449). The 
Serpent signifies the death of the soul, which comes to those who will not turn from the joys 
of earth (p. 450). Celidoyne then says that he will tell Label of a secret deed done by him 
(p. 450), and warns him that he will die within four days (p. 451). Celidoyne then tells 
Label that God commands him to turn Christian, and as a sign tells him that he, Label, had 
secretly murdered his sister on the 1st of May, for refusing to let him lie with her, and had 
cast her body into the sea (p. 451). Label says no earthly man could have known this 
(p. 452). He has his bed made ready; gives Celidoyne in charge to his barons (p. 452); 
goes to bed (p. 452), and makes long and grievous lamentations (p. 452-6), calling himself a 
poor caitiff, who shall die like the poorest man (p. 453). And where shall he then go ? What 
shall he take with him ? (p. 453). He has nothing to meet death with, and none can tell him 
what he shall be after death (p. 454). Therefore, let him remember his life, and choose now for 
endless joy or pain, knowing that this world's joy is but sorrow and mourning (p. 454-5). 
Wretch that he is; yet God has warned him (p. 455). And so he falls asleep (p. 456). 

CHAPTER XXXHL Of King Label's second Vision and its Interpeetation. Of his Death 457 

King Label's Vision in his Sleep, and Celidoyne's Interpretation thereof. Label dreams that he is 
on a broad highway, where felons take all the passers-by, rob them, and put them in prison 
(p. 458). A seemly man accompanies him along the road, and suddenly disappears (p. 458-9). 
He enters on a little path, full of trees and flowers, and hears a voice calling all people to 
wash and eat meat in the High City above (p 459). Label goes on, and comes to a high 
mountain, and a fair fountain where the people are washing themselves (p. 460). He does 
not wash, but goes on to the City, and wants to enter (p. 460), but cannot, because he has not 
washed in the fountain (p. 460). He looks through a wicket in the door, and sees at the 
table the sister whom he had murdered (p. 460). She tells him to wash, and then eat with 
them (p. 461). He goes back to do it, but the thieves lay hold of him, and drag him to a 
house in a desert valley (p. 461), where foul people are, and which is filthy, black, and full of 
weeping and crying (p. 462). Label is in such a fright at this dream, that he roars for help, 
and all his lords rush to him (p. 462). Two of them ask him what ails him (p. 462) ; he 
says he has seen marvels in a dream, of which he must know the meaning, and orders Celi- 
doyne to be brought before him (p. 463). The lords wake Celidoyne, and bring him to 
Label, who asks him to expound what he shall tell him (p. 463). Celidoyne promises to do 
so, by the help of God (p. 463), and threatens Label with endless darkness if he will not obey 
him (p. 464). Label kneels to him, and promises to do all he is told to do (p. 464). Celi- 
doyne then expounds Label's dream to him : The Broad Eoad is the Old Law (p. 464), the 
Bobbers are the Devil, the Fair Guide is Jesus Christ, who took pity on Label as he had once 
pitied him (p. 465). Again, as a ship at sea in a storm, without captain or pilot, is driven 
hither or thither on the broad sea, and can only be helped by God (p. 465-6), so is a man on 
the broad road of sin in which Label has walked; but God can bring him out of it (p. 466). 
As to the Green Way, it is the New Law (p. 466); and the Strait Way shows that they who 

9 



xlii CONTENTS. 

are in it wish not to leave it, but to obey God's commandments, whicb forbid sin (p. 467). 
The Green Trees are the Pastors of Holy Church (p. 467). The Voice calling all people to 
come and eat, is God's Grace (p. 467). The Well in the Mountain is God on his Throne 
(p. 467), and the Unction of Baptism (p. 468). The City is Paradise. The refusal to admit 
him, when unwashed, into the City, shows that he (Label) cannot be God's child till he is 
christened (p. 468). The desert lands are Label's wicked works (p. 469). The dark black 
house is Hell, to which Label will go unless he amends his life (p. 470). Label promises to 
do whatever Celidoyne tells him (p. 470). Celidoyne tells him to go to a hermit in a forest 
close by, and be baptized (p. 470-1). Label says he is willing, but asks his knights what 
they advise. They declare that they will not forsake their faith (p. 471). Celidoyne then 
dresses Label in poor clothes, and they go off to the hermit's abode (p. 471-2). They reach 
it at night, and the hermit is surprised to see them ; but embraces Celidoyne (p. 472), and 
rejoices to hear the cause of their coming (p. 473). All night he teaches Label what belongs 
to holiness, and tells of the lives of holy men (p. 473). On the morrow the hermit fills a 
hollow stone with water, puts the king in it (p. 474), and baptizes him (p. 475). He then 
asks the king's followers if they will be baptized. They say No (p. 475). Label is clothed 
in a white robe, and thanks Cehdoyne for saving him (p. 475). He then tells his knights 
that he forsakes them, and will take to his new life (p. 476). They are cast down at this, but 
seize Celidoyne and carry him off (p. 476). He tells Label to remain with the hermit, and 
not to fear for him, as his God will protect him itom all perils (p. 477). On the morrow, 
Label dies, and goes to the bliss of heaven, and Christ works miracles for him on those who 
seek him (p. 477). 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Of the Meeting again of Celidoyne, Nasciens, and Moedeeins . 478 

Of the Meeting again of Celidoyne and Nasciens, and then of Mordreins with them. How Label's 
host are angry at Celidoyne's having converted Label, and take counsel to put Celidoyne to 
death (p. 479). A knight proposes to put him into a little boat, with the lion they caught in 
the island, and nothing else, and send him out to sea (p. 480). They do this. Celidoyne 
makes the sign of the Cross over the lion, and tells the men that they shall all perish and 
never reach home (p. 480-1). Celidoyne is blown about the sea with the lion for three days, 
and on the fourth he sees the fair ship with the royal sword that Nasciens had seen (p. 481). 
He boards her, and sees the bed, crown, and spindles (p. 481-2). The lion and boat vanish, 
and Celidoyne lies down to sleep (p. 482). "When he wakes, he finds that he is at an isle, and 
sees his father Nasciens asleep (p. 483). Nasciens wakes, embraces his son, and they make 
great rejoicing (p. 483). Celidoyne teUs his father how he escaped from Calafier, and was 
carried to an isle where King Label was (p. 484) ; and how Label had a vision, and was chris- 
tened; and the rest of his adventures. Nasciens thanks God, and they leave the island 
(p. 484). A storm rages for three days, and on the fourth ceases (p. 485-6); they see a ship, 
and find Mordreins there (p. 487). Nasciens hails him, and Mordreins is so overjoyed that 
he cannot speak, but jumps on board Nasoiens's ship, kisses him, and entreats him to tell his 
adventures (p. 487). Nasciens tells how he was imprisoned, and by God's grace brought to 
a desert isle which turned to and fro every day and every night (p. 488); also, of his going 
into a ship that split in two, and of another ship, and a sweet-speaking old man ; and all the 



CONTENTS. xliii 

rest of his tribulations (p. 489). He tells Mordreins that more wonders shall happen with the 
sword. Mordreins admires the sword (p. 489), and as he holds the blade in one hand, and 
the pommel in the other, the two parts join (p. 490). They hear a great noise, and a voice 
tells them to go out of the ship (p. 490). Mordreins and Celidoyne do so, but Nasciens is late, 
and a sword cuts him through the left shoulder (p. 490). He swoons ; the others go to raise 
him, and weep (p. 49 1 ) ; he recovers, and thanks God for thus chastising him as a son (p. 49 1 ). 
The ship remains becalmed for four days, and the story returns (vol. ii.) to the five messengers 
whom Sarracynte sent out to find Nasciens (p. 492). 



CONTENTS OF APPENDIX, 

The earlier French Verse Eomanz de l'Estoee dou Geaal. 

Ivet all sinners know, that, before Christ came, prophets foretold his coming and his sufferings. And 
then, Adam and Eve, and every one, good and bad, went to Hell, and the Devil thought he 
had them safe. Then Christ came on earth, and was born of the Virgin, who was full of all 
goodness and beauty, and like the rose-tree, as she bare the sweet rose within her womb. She 
was daughter and mother of God. Joachin was her father, and Anne her mother (p. 1). 
When Joachym was in the desert, an angel tells him that his wife Anne shall have a daughter, 
the Virgin Mary, who shall be sinless. He is to go home and be with his wife. For the 
people that God made must be brought out of hell. So God redeemed us by the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, three in one. The son took flesh, showing his humility when he died to save 
us, and deliver us from the Devil who betrayed us by Eve. How Eve gave Adam an apple, 
and he eat it, and knew that he and his wife were naked ; then they sewed fig-leaves together 
and God cast them out of Paradise. Eve bore a child, and all of them were in the power of 
the Devil till God sent Christ to save them. He took flesh, and was born in Bethlehem, 
(p. 2). To resume ; Christ was baptized in Jordan, and said that those who believe and are 
baptized, shall be saved. (And Holy Church has the like power, as St. Peter gives order to 
all Church ministers.) So the Devil lost his power, and his prisoners for 5000 years were 
rescued. Christ wills St. Peter to order a second Baptism, Confession. When Christ was on 
earth, Judea was under Eome, and Pilate governed it. A soldier of Pilate's, with five knights, 
loves Christ, but dares not show it for fear of the Jews. Jesus has few disciples, one bad. The 
Jews talk of how they may torture him. Judas, who took tithe, and was senescal over the 
disciples, grew envious, and the others disliked him. How chamberlains then took a tenth of 
all gifts to their lords (p. 3). Mary Magdalene comes to Simon's house, kneels at Christ's feet, 
washes them with her tears, and wipes them with her hair, and anoints them with ointment, 
and the house is fiUed with its fragrance. Judas is enraged; he has lost thirty pence by it, 
Christ's enemies are assembled under Caiaphas, and Judas goes to them. (Joseph of Arima- 
thea is among them.) They suspect Judas at first, thinking him loyal to Christ. Judas asks 

^2 



Xliv CONTENTS OP THE EARLIER HISTORY OP THE GrRAAL. 

why. They ask him where Jesus is. He tells them, and offers to sell Him, if they'll buy. 
He agrees to betray Christ for thirty pence. A Jew pays them to him, and so he gets his 
ointment-tithe back. Judas tells them how to take Christ. The priests are not to mistake 
James for Jesus, but to take the man whom Judas kisses (p. 4). On Thursday Jesus is in 
Simon's house, at the Last Supper, and tells them that one who eats with him shall betray 
him. Judas asks who it is. Christ says ' You.' Jesus washes the disciples' feet. St. John 
asks why He has washed their feet. Christ says, for an example to Peter. That as, though 
the water was dirtied by the feet first washed, yet it has washed the others' feet as clean as 
the first, so Peter and the Ministers of the Church, though sinful, can cleanse sinners who wish 
to obey God, so that nothing can hurt them. While Christ was in Simon's house, Judas takes 
the Jews there. The disciples are dismayed. Judas kisses Christ. The Jews seize Him. 
Judas says, ' Hold Him tight, he's very strong.' A Jew takes away the vessel in which Christ 
performed his Sacrament. Jesus is taken to Pilate, and the Jews accuse Him, but cannot 
condemn him (p. 5). Pilate finds no cause for death in him. The Jews cry, ' His blood be 
on us and on our children.' Pilate washes his hands, and says that, as they are clean, so is 
he clean of the wrong judgment on the just. The Jew who has the vessel gives it to Pilate, 
who puts it away safely, till he is told that they have killed Jesus. Joseph of (Arimathea) is 
angry, and goes to Pilate, and says, ' I and my five knights have served you long without pay, 
but you have promised me a gift. Now give me one.' Pilate says he will. Joseph asks for 
the body of Jesus. Pilate wonders he has asked for so little, and gives him the body, telling 
him to take it. Joseph goes to the Cross, and tells the watch that Pilate has given him the 
body. They will not let him take it, as Christ said he should rise again on the third day. 
Joseph goes back and complains to Pilate (p. 6). Pilate is angry, and sends Nichodemus with 
orders to get Joseph the body, and he gives Joseph the vessel (or Graal). Joseph returns to 
the Cross with Nichodemus, who goes to a smith's, and gets pincers and a hammer. Nicho- 
demus tells the Jews Pilate has given Joseph Christ's body, and, as it is dead, they ought to 
let him have it. They say that Christ will rise again, and that they will not give him up. 
Nichodemus declares that he will have him. They go off to Pilate. Nichodemus and 
Joseph take Christ down from the Cross, and wash him clean, which makes the blood flow 
from his wounds. Joseph puts the blood in the Graal. Joseph wraps up the body and puts 
it in a rock, covering it with a stone, which we call ' tomb' (p. 7). The Jews speak to Pilate, 
who orders them to watch day and night that Christ's disciples do not steal his body. The 
Jews set a watch at the sepulchre. Christ goes to Hell and frees his friends. Eve and Adam, 
and all good people. And then He rises again, and appears to Mary and his apostles. His 
disciples saw Him, and their other dead friends, who had risen with Him. The Jews consult, 
as the affair goes badly for them. The guards say the body is not where it was put. As 
Joseph was the cause of this, and Nichodemus, the Jews resolve to seize Joseph and Nicho- 
demus. Nichodemus is warned by a friend, and escapes. When the Jews find this, they 
break into Joseph's house (p. 8), and take him, and ask what he has done with Jesus. He 
says, he left the body in the tomb to their knights, and went home. They accuse him of 
taking the body away. He denies it. The Jews put Joseph into a deep dungeon, horrible 
and dark. Pilate is angry at it. Joseph is badly treated by the world, but God does not 
forget him. Christ comes into the prison with the Graal, and it lights the dungeon. And 



CONTENTS OF THE EAELIEB, HISTORY OF THE GRAAL. xlv 

Joseph is filled with the grace of the Holy Ghost when he sees the vessel. Christ tells him 
not to fear. Joseph asks Christ who He is. Christ answers, ' I am the Son of God, sent on 
earth by Him to save sinners from infernal torment. I came to save the work of my Father, 
which was damned through Adam's eating the apple, for which God drove him from Paradise 
(p. 9). Eve bare a child, and it and all others the Devil had in his power till I, the Son, was 
born. By woman was man cursed, and by her restored. This is why I came on earth and 
shed my blood.' ' What,' said Joseph, ' are you Jesus whom Judas sold for thirty pence, and 
who was crucified, and buried by me ?' ' Yes. Believe it, and be saved.' Joseph says, 
' Have pity on me. I am here for you. I have always loved you, though I was with those 
who plotted your death.' Christ says that Joseph was his good friend, and He knew he would 
help him at need, and get His body from Pilate. The good are Christ's, and He theirs. 
Joseph shall have everlasting life, for none know the love Christ bears him : he loved Christ 
secretly, and the love shall be shown openly, to the confusion of the evil Jews. And Joseph 
shall have the Graal (p. 10). Christ shows Joseph the Holy Graal. Joseph recognises it, 
and wonders, as he had hidden it in his house. He kneels, and thanks Christ for it. Christ 
gives the Holy Vessel in charge to him, and he is to give it only to three persons, in the name 
of the Trinity. Joseph takes the Graal which God held, — ^the sinners' salvation. No sacra- 
ment shall ever be held without remembrance of Joseph. Christ explains the Sacrament of 
the Altar. The bread and wine are His flesh and blood. His tomb is the Altar. His grave- 
cloth, the Corporal. The Graal is the Chalice. The tomb-stone, the cup-platten. All who 
see the Graal shall be Christ's, and have joy eternal; shall be pleasing to God, and shall never 
be beaten in battle. (This, I, the writer, only know from The Great Book, written by great 
clerks, where the secrets of the Graal are told) (p. 11). Joseph takes the Vessel Christ tells 
him that he is to believe in the Blessed Mother of God, and the Holy Spirit will speak with 
him; for He (Christ) must go, but Joseph is not to fear; his deliverance will be a wonder to 
aU, and the Holy Ghost will be with him. Joseph is left in prison, and no talk is made of 
him, tiU a pilgrim — who lived in Judea when Christ was doing miracles, making the blind see, 
raising three dead men to life, and was then crucified — tiU this pilgrim came to Eome when 
Vespasian, the Emperor's son, was a leper, and was kept in a tower, having his food put 
through a little window. The pilgrim's landlord tells him about the Emperor's son, how he 
was a leper, and asks him whether he had found any thing to cure Vespasian (p. 12). The 
pilgrim tells him of Christ's cures, how God wrought for Him, healing the sick, giving the 
blind sight, making rotten men whole. And how the rich Jews hated Him. The landlord 
asks the healer's name. The pilgrim says, Jesus of Nazareth : and His enemies took Him, 
stripped Him, beat Him, and crucified Him. But, if He were alive. He could cure Vespasian. 
Jesus was killed because men hated Him, in Judea, tinder Pilate, a deputy of the Roman 
Emperor. And all this the pilgrim will tell to the Emperor Cesar. The landlord tells the 
Emperor the pilgrim's story. He wonders whether it can be true, and sends for the pilgrim, 
who goes to him (p. 13) The pilgrim tells the Emperor the story (of Christ), and the Em- 
peror tells it to his Court, who think that Pilate would never have allowed Christ to be cruci- 
fied. A friend of Pilate's defends him. The Court tell the pilgrim to recount the fair 
miracles of Jesus He does, and says that he'd lay his head that the Emperor's son could be 
cured if He were in Judea ; and, if any thing of Christ's could be brought to Eome, Vespasian 



xlvl CONTEIS^TS OF THE BARLIBB HISTORY OB THB GRAAL. 

would be cured. The Court do not know how to save Pilate. The pilgrim proposes to be 
put in guard while they send to Judea and see if his story is not true. If not, let his head be 
cut off. They put him in guard. The Emperor says, it is well to send, as it would be good 
to be able to cure his son. Vespasian rejoices at the news (p. 14). Vespasian's pains go. 
He prays his father to send to Judea and ask if he can be cured, and got out of his vile prison. 
The Emperor orders all Jews, and specially Filate, to tell his messengers all about Jesus' death 
and his murderers. The Emperor sends his wisest man to inquire into the matter, and orders 
that, if Jesus is dead, something of His must be brought back to Rome. He threatens Pilate. 
The messengers depart, and cross the sea. Pilate's friend teUs him that he has hanged a man 
without trying him — a great crime to commit — and that the Emperor's messengers have come 
about it. Pilate collects his men to meet the messengers and receive them with honour. He 
falls in with them at Arimathea, and one gives him the Emperor's letter, telling the pilgrim's 
story. Pilate says he knows all that's in it. The messengers think he must clear himself, or 
be killed. He calls them into a room (p. 16). Pilate closes the room, and tells the messen- 
gers of Christ's childhood, ' how the Jews hated Him, and called Him a rebel, though He 
healed the sick ; also how they bought Him of Judas, and took Him at Simon's, brought Him 
to me (Pilate), and asked me to condemn Him to death. I said I would not. • They got 
angry, and said they would kill Him. I said, how could I answer to my lord if I did so, and 
he were to ask about it. On them and their children was Jesus' blood to be, they said. So 
they took Him, beat and bound Him, and crucified Him. But, that they might know I would 
be clean from their great sin, I washed my hands before them, and said I was as clean 
from the death of Jesus as my hands just washed were. A good knight of mine asked for 
Christ's body — Joseph was his name — and he took Christ down from the cross, and put Him 
in his own tomb. Since then I've never seen or heard of him : he may be killed, drowned, or 
in prison.' The messengers think Pilate not so wrong as they expected (p. 16). The mes- 
sengers think Pilate will clear himself before the Emperor, but they desire that within a 
month the Jews assemble to meet them. Pilate sends his messengers through all Judea, to 
call the Jews together to talk with the Emperor's messengers. He also tries to find something 
that belonged to Christ. The Jews assemble. Pilate asks leave to speak to them first, and 
tells them that the messengers want to know who Christ was, who made Himself Lord of their 
Law, and that he (Pilate) had said they had killed Him. The Jews say they did kUl Him 
because he made Himself their king. And Pilate was wrong enough not to judge Him. So 
as they would have no king but Caesar, they put Him to death themselves. Pilate says he had 
no power over them. The messengers ask if Pilate forbade them to kill Christ. The Jews 
say that they pledged themselves to hold Pilate harmless, or he would not have suffered Christ 
to die (p. 17)- The messengers think Pilate not greatly to blame, and ask who Christ was. 
They say He wrought miracles, and was an enchanter. The messengers ask for something of 
Christ's. One Jew knows a woman who has His Likeness. Her name is Verrine. She is 
sent for, and comes. Pilate receives her graciously, and asks her'-tb show him the Likeness that 
she worships. Verrine says she hasn't any likeness of Christ. Then the Emperor's messengers 
come, and tell Verrine their errand, and promise her rewards if she has any thing to cure 
Vespasian ; they wish to buy her likeness of Jesus. Verrine sees she cannot conceal her 
having it, but she will never sell it, though, if they will swear to take nothing from her, she 



CONTENTS OF THE EARLIER HISTORY OE THE GRAAL. xlvii 

will go to Rome with the Likeness (p. 18). The messengers say they will swear this, but ask 
to see the Likeness. Verrine tells the messengers to wait; then she goes home, gets the 
Likeness, and returns with it. She tells them to sit down, but on seeing the Likeness they 
aie obliged to get up again. Verrine tells them how Christ's face came on her kerchief. It 
was on her arm when she met Christ. The Jews asked her to lend it them. She wiped 
Christ's face with it, as He sweated so. (They beat Him, but He complained not). When 
she got home, she found the Likeness on the kerchief, and she is willing to take it to Vespasian. 
The messengers thank her, and take her to Rome. The Emperor asks if the pilgrim told the 
truth. ' Yes' (p. 19). ' Then, have you brought aught of Christ's ?' ' Yes, one thing,' and 
the messengers tell their doings. The Emperor praises them, and goes to Verrine, who shows 
him the Likeness. He bows down three times to it, and takes it to his son's room. Vespasian 
is cured by the kerchief, and asks what has. cured him. He orders his room to be broken 
open, and is found healed of his leprosy. The pilgrim is taken out of prison, and enriched, 
as is Verrine. Vespasian declares that Christ's murderers shall rue His death ; and tells his 
father that Christ is King over him and all (p. 20). Vespasian asks leave to avenge Christ's 
death. Titus gives it him. They take the Likeness called Veronica, a precious relic at 
Eome. Vespasian and Titus go to Judea, and send for Pilate, who puts himself at Vespasian's 
disposal. Vespasian says he has come to revenge Christ's death. Pilate is much afraid, and, 
to clear himself, suggests that Vespasian shall put him in prison, and tell the Jews this is 
for his forbidding Christ's death. It is done. The Jews are called together; Vespasian 
questions them about Christ. They answer, that Pilate supported Him, but they thought He 
ought to die (p. 21). Vespasian says he has put Pilate in prison, but he wants to know who 
was most against Christ, and hated Him most. The Jews rejoice at Pilate's punishment, and 
tell Vespasian how Jesus made Himself king, and how Judas betrayed Him. They show 
Vespasian the man who paid the thirty pence, and the men who took Christ, and complain 
that PUate would not condemn Him, though they took His blood on themselves and their 
children. Vespasian has them seized and confined. He releases Pilate, and acquits him, but 
says he'll destroy the Jews. Vespasian ties thirty Jews to horses' tails, and tells the others, 
that, unless Jesus is restored alive, they shall aU die (p. 22). ' "We gave Him up to Joseph. 
If you get Joseph, you'll get Christ's body.' Pilate says, they put guards over the body, as 
Christ said He'd rise on the third day; and they feared lest his disciples should take away the 
body, and pretend He had risen, and so lead people from their law. Vespasian kills many 
Jews and burns some. One Jew offers to find Joseph if he and his family's lives are spared. 
Vespasian agrees, and the Jew takes him to the tower where Joseph is. Vespasian asks why 
Joseph was put there. ' Because he took away Christ's body ; for which we agreed to take his life, 
and be quit of Jesus and him.' Vespasian asks if they killed Joseph before putting him in prison 
(p. 23). ' No ; but he must be dead now.' Vespasian says that Jesus, who cured him, would not 
have let Joseph die. Vespasian looks into the prison, and calls Joseph ; then asks for a rope, and 
is let down into Joseph's prison. Vespasian in Joseph's prison sees a light, and goes to it. Joseph 
welcomes Vespasian by name, to his astonishment, and tells him that he is Joseph of Arima- 
thea. Vespasian blesses God for it, and asks Joseph who it was that cured him (Vespasian) 
of his leprosy. Joseph says he will tell him, but he (Vespasian) must believe on Him. 
(p. 24). The healer was the Holy Ghost who created all things, and archangels and angels ; 



xlviii CONTENTS OF THE EAELIEB, HISTORY OF THE GRAAL. 

of whom some were bad, full of pride and hatred and sin. So God cast them out. Three 
generations fell into Hell ; three on Earth. Those who fell into Hell torment souls there ; and 
those on Earth torment women and men. The other three generations stayed in the Air, and 
dart darts at men to turn them from well-doing. These brought on earth evil, strife, and 
anger. The other angels who remained in Heaven cannot sin. Instead of the bad angels 
God made man, beauteous as Himself, able to go and come, and speak and see; and meant to 
fill the lost angels' seats in Paradise. Then God made the man a vpife, and called them Adam 
and Eve. When the Enemy saw that man would take his place in heaven, he tempted Eve 
by the apple, and made Adam eat too (p. 25) ; so they lost Paradise, and had to till and sweat. 
The Devil wanted to have all men ; but God, to save His work, sent his Son — who was born of 
the Virgin sinlessly, vyrought miracles, and was crucified — to buy us from the pains of Hell. 
The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are all one person, who has cured Vespasian, and sent him 
to see if He has kept Joseph safe. Vespasian professes belief in the Triiiity. Joseph tells 
him to seek Christ's disciples who preserve His words, as He is risen with our flesh glorified 
to Paradise. Vespasian is converted, and tells his people to destroy the tower, as Joseph is 
safe. Joseph and Vespasian are drawn up out of the prison (p. 26). The Jews are confounded. 
Vespasian asks them for Christ. They say they gave Him to Joseph. Joseph tells the Jews 
that Christ has risen, after going to Hell, and releasing his friends. Vespasian puts the Jew 
who had shown him Joseph's prison, out to sea. Vespasian asks Joseph how he can be saved. 
' By beheving on Christ, that is, the Trinity.' Vespasian offers to sell thirty Jews for a penny. 
Joseph has a sister Enygeus, whose husband is Hebron or Brons, and they rejoice that he is 
ahve. Joseph is glad when he sees them, and tells them to serve and love Christ, in whom 
all should believe. Then he proclaims that he ^viIl rescue from Vespasian all who will believe 
in Christ. They agree to do all he wishes (p. 27). Joseph tells them to leave their lands and go 
abroad with him. They agree to do this ; and Joseph gets Vespasian to pardon them. He 
sets out with them, and dwells in distant lands, teaching them, and all for a time goes well. 
But afterwards Joseph's followers suffer; all their labour turns to ill, from one sole sin. They 
complain to Hebron : ' No people ever suffered as we do. Tell Joseph : we and our little ones 
are dying of hunger.' Hebron pities them. They say they have suffered long; let him ask 
Joseph if it is for their sins or his. Hebrons tells Joseph of his people's distress, and begs 
him to pray Christ to teU him the cause. Joseph fears he has offended God, and kneels 
before the Graal (p. 28). Joseph asks Christ why His followers suffer. The voice from the 
Holy Ghost tells Joseph that he is not in fault, but that he is to set the Graal before his 
people ; and is to remember how Christ would not speak of his sufferings before the Last 
Supper, when Judas departed, whose place Joseph is to fiU. Joseph is to prepare another 
table, and Bron is to catch a fish, which Joseph is to put on the table, with the Graal in the 
middle. Joseph is then to call his people together, and the sinners among them will be 
known (p. 29). Joseph is to sit where Christ sat at the Supper, with Bron on his right. Then 
Bron shall draw back as from the seat of Judas, which shall not be filled till Enygeus's son 
by Brons is born, and fills it. This done, Joseph is to call his people to him, and tell them, if 
they have believed the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and have kept all God's commands and 
teachings, and the three virtues, and have not broken any, to sit down to the grace of God. 
Joseph does all he has been told, and calls the people ; part sit down, part do not ; all the 



CONTENTS OP THE EAELIER HISTORY OF THE (JRAAL. xlix 

places are filled but one: the sitters are filled with peace, the others not. Petrus asks the 
others if they feel no good, ' None.' ' Then you are defiled with the vile sin that you made 
Joseph ask about.' The sinners leave the house : one is sorrowful. Joseph tells them to come 
back daily. Thus was the Graal first proved. The sinners ask the pure what the Grace 
does for them (p. 30); 'More than heart can imagine is our joy.' Joseph says it comes 
from Jesus. The sinners are told that the Graal separates them from the pure, as it 
loves not the sinner, and makes known who has sinned. The sinners say they will go 
away, and ask what reason they are to give, for going. ' That we who stay dwell in 
God and Christ and the Holy Ghost.' The sinners ask the name of the Holy Vessel. 
The Vessel is called Graal ; and none see it but those to whom it is agreeahle, and their 
delight in it is like that of a fish escaping out of a man's hand into the water.' This agreeable- 
ness is the reason of the name Graal. As this book is true, it is called ' The History of the 
Graal.' One sinner, Moyses, is left behind, a hypocrite (p. 31). Moyses says he will not 
leave the pure ones, and begs them to intercede with Joseph for him. One day they agree to 
do so, and ask Joseph to pity Moyses, and teU him of the grief of this one sinner left, and his 
desire to share their joy. Joseph says it is not his to give, but God's. [_A gap in the MS. 
in which Moyses has disappeared]- Joseph prays to Christ, that as He died for men,' and 
saved him (Joseph) in his prison, and gave him the Graal, and promised to come to him when 
asked, so now He would show him what had become of Moyses. The Holy Ghost answers, 
that now has come to pass what he said before (p. 29, col. 2), about the place of Judas at the 
Table, which is not to he filled till the Day of Doom (p; 32). But the vacant place at the 
Round Table is to be filled by the third heir of Hebruns and Enygeus. Moyses has gone to 
Hell. His staying behind was only to deceive ; and he has his reward, in the abyss where he 
is lost. No more of him shall be heard till the filler of the empty seat finds him. Tell this 
to your disciples. Joseph tells Bron and his fellows all that Christ has told him, and about 
Moyses. Brons begets twelve sons on Enygeus his wife, and is bothered with them all. So 
Enygeus tells him to ask Joseph what they're to do with 'em. Brons agrees, and asks Joseph: 
' We have twelve big sons, what shall we do with 'em ?' (p 33). ' They wait till Joseph one 
day before the Graal asks God what is to be done with his nephews. God sends an angel 
who says that Brons's sons are to serve God : those who want wives are to have them, and 
serve the bachelors. The unmarried son is to be brought before Joseph. The angel departs, and 
Joseph tells Brons, that he is to teach his boys to keep God's law ; and that they may marry; 
but, if one will not marry, he is to stay with Joseph. Brons teUs his wife all this. Brons 
asks his sons what life they'd like to lead, ' What you command. Sir.' So Brons gets them 
vsdves, and tells them to be good husbands. Joseph gives them good advice too. So all 
Brons's sons marry but one (p. 34), and he doesn't want a wife. Brons asks why. The son 
says he never vrill marry. Brons takes him to Joseph, and gives him to him. Joseph embraces 
him, and tells him that God has chosen him to exalt His Name, and that he shall be chief, 
and his brothers serve him. Joseph, before the Graal, asks God how he is to prove his 
nephew. Christ orders Joseph to tell his nephew Alein of Christ's birth, and how He was 
bought, sold, beaten, betrayed, bound, and crucified; how He was taken down, and His blood 
put in the Graal ; how Joseph was put in prison, and how Christ comforted him there, and 
gave him a gift, and had great love for him and his fellows (p. 35) ; and how Christ will help 

h 



CONTEXTS OF THE EARLIEE. HISTORY OP THE GRAAL. 

and defend ttem. Then Joseph is to show his nephew the Graal, and tell him of the Blood in 
it ; and, if he believes it, his faith shall be strengthened. He is also to be told of the DevU, 
and to keep himself from anger. This shall deliver him from evil thoughts, and protect him 
from the snares of the Enemy. He is to keep also from the lust of the flesh. All this he (the 
nephew) is to tell his friends, and speak of Christ far and near. From him shall issue a male 
heir. He shall guard the Graal, and take charge of his brothers and sisters, and go to the 
West, and ever exalt Christ's name. Further, to-morrow a letter wLU come for Petrus, who 
is to read it, and go out of the land, whither he likes, which will be to the vale of Avaron. 
There he is to stop till Alein's son comes. He will not die till this son comes to read the 
letter, tell him who shall have the Graal (p. 86), and what has become of Moyses. Then he 
shall die in joy. All this Joseph is to tell his nephews. Aleins is full of grace. Joseph tells 
him all Christ's message. If it were all put here, M. Eobers de Bouron must have made this 
book one hundred times bigger, but this is enough. Joseph tells Aleins how good he ought to 
be, and tells his father and mother that he is to rule his brothers and sisters, who are to resort 
to him for counsel. And Brons and Enygeus are to confer this control on Alein with their 
own hands. Next day the letter for Petrus comes. Joseph says it is from Jesus, and is 
always to be about him. They ask Petrus where he means to go. He says, to the ^^est, to 
the Vale of Avaron; he will wait for the mercy of God (p. 37). And they are to pray God 
that he may never go against His wiU, and that no enemy may sever him from God. Hebrons 
tells his other children to obey their brother Alein as their lord, and go to him for counsel, 
and do nothing against his orders. Hebrons's children willingly obey Alein. Alein takes his 
brothers to foreign lands, and preaches Christ, as Joseph taught him. But here we must leave 
Alein, and return to Petrus, who says he must depart, as he has no wish to stay ; but for their 
sakes he'll stop till next day, Gods sends his angel to Joseph, and says that Petrus has been 
kept back that he may say truly he has seen the Graal and heard God's message (1. 3386-90) 
(p. 38). God knows Brons for a good man ; and, as He made him fish for the fish used in the Ser- 
vice, so He wills that he ( Brons) is to guard the Graal after Joseph, who is to teU him how to keep 
it, and of God's love, and put him in the right belief, telling how God came to Joseph in the 
prison, and gave him the Graal, and told him the sweet and precious words called ' The Secret 
of the Graal.' Then Joseph is to tell him to keep the Vessel, and never misuse it; and he 
shall be called by a new name. The Rich Fisher, from the fish he fished up when this Grace 
began. All Joseph's people and Brons are to go to the West, wherever his heart desires, and 
there Brons is to wait for his son (Alein), and when he comes, the Graal is to be given him ; 
and then shall the meaning of the Trinity be made known. When the Graal shall be given to 

Brons, then Petrus too is to go — as he can truly say he has seen Hebron and the Graal and 

he is to go o'er sea and land, and God shall guard him (p. 39). And Joseph is to go to per- 
fect joy, to Life Eternal, he and all his kin; and the relaters of this shall be loved and 
honoured by all men. Next day Joseph tells them the angel's message, except Christ's words 
in the prison. This he tells to the Rich Fisher, Brons. He then gives them writings, and 
shows them secret things, and then leaves them, to their great sorrow. The Graal is given to 
Brons, with whom Joseph stays three days. Then Brons wishes to depart. Joseph agrees, 
saying that he shall remain. Brons returns to his native land, and Joseph stays where he 
was. — Of M. Roberz de Beron's four other histories that ought to be : (1) Of Aleins the son 



CONTENTS OP THE EAELIER HISTORY OF THE GKAAL. 11 

of Hebron, where he went, and what heirs he had. (2) Of Petrus, and what became of him. 
3. Of Moyses, and what became of him. (4) Of the Eich Fisher, and where he went. 
These four must be got together ; but first the Great True History of the Graal must be 
told (p. 40). For till I now tell it, my Lord Walter, this Great Graal History has 
never yet been told by mortal man And, if God gives me health, I'll put these four 
parts together. But now I must go on with the fifth, the Graal, and leave the four till 
I have leisure to tell them. [2%e continuation of the Graal, commonly called MERLIN. * ] 
Of the anger of the Devils at Christ's coming into Hell, and taking His friends out to 
Paradise. The Devils ask ' "Who is this man, that does just as he likes ? No man born of 
woman can escape us : how was this man conceived ?' A Devil answers, ' Eemember how the 
prophets said that the Son of God should come and save sinners. And we tormented the pro- 
phets, but they said they did not care, and told sinners that One would come and deliver 
them. This has come to pass (p. 41). Those are out of our power who are washed in the name 
of God, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, from original sin, until they return to us, and do our deeds. 
Christ's ministers too will save men, for if they repent of their sins they are quit of them. 
Much did Christ do for men when He was born of His mother, and never sinned. "We tempted 
Him, but found only good in him. To save man from us. He died ; and we must work to get 
man back ; each of us must Strive to deceive Him so that none may succour Him.' The other 
devils think that all is lost if repentance is allowed. But some say, ' As the prophets were 
the cause of our loss, and were tormented by us for it, so that Christ had to come sooner to 
rescue his friends from us, let us now get a man vrith our will and wiles (p. 42) to talk with 
men on earth and help us to deceive them, by prophesying falsely.' The other Devils think 
this a good plan. One says he cannot get a child, though he has a woman who'll do whatever 
he wants. The others say that one of them can have a child by a woman, and that he shall 
do so, and the child shall do their work among men. (But the Devil is a great fool to think 
he can take in God). So the Devils are to make a man to deceive God. The Devil chosen 
goes to a woman over whom he has power, the wife of a rich man, with three daughters and 
a son. The Devil goes to the fields and kills most of the rich man's beasts. The herdsmen 
tell their master that their sheep are dead. The rich man is very sad. The Devil goes to his 
other beasts and ten horses (p. 43), and kills 'em all. The rich man is angry, and teUs the 
Devil to take the rest of his property. The Devil is glad, and kills the rest of the beasts. To 
enrage the rich man more, the Devil strangles his only son. He is much enraged, despairs, 
and loses his faith. The DevU next hangs the rich man's wife, and then the rich man him- 
self dies. The Devil is delighted, and plots how to deceive the three daughters. The Devil 
takes a bad youth to the eldest daughter. She resists at first, but at last the youth seduces 
her. No one knew of it (p. 44), so the Devil makes it known every where. At this time women 
taken in adultery were abandoned or stoned. The judges assemble to try the eldest daughter, 
and pity her for the sake of her father who was rich and powerful. They agree to get rid of 

* Lonelich's introduction to the Merlin, " the storye that we elepen prophet Merlynne," is given in the 1st vol. of 
Warton, pp. 150-1 (ed. 1840, 3 vols, with notes, by Sir F. Madden, &c.) See Sir Frederic's notes, pp. 119, 149. 
But Lonelich's translation contains none of the Lancelot; it ends in the middle of a battle, about two-fifths through 
the Merlin. 



lii CONTENTS OF THE EARLIER HISTORY OF THE GRAAL. 

her by night and so cover her shame. So they bury her alive. A good man talks to her 
two sisters, comforts them, and asks the cause of their disasters , ' We are hated by God.' No, 
says the good man, Christ hates no one. This is the Devil's doing. Do you know what life 
yotir sister led ? ' No.' ' Then, keep from doing evil : of it come evUs. Doing good brings 
a good end.' The elder of the two daughters receives the teaching, and learns to pray to and 
worship Christ, and does what she is told. The good man tells them to consult him (p. 45), 
and he will help them; and not to be dismayed. His house is near, let them come to him. 
The elder daughter believes and loves the good man. The Devil thinks he has lost them 
both, but he sets another bad woman on to the youngest daughter, and she asks her if her 
elder sister is kind to her. The younger complains of her elder sister's dullness, coming from 
a good man's having talked to her. The bad woman entices the youngest daughter : ' You'll 
never have pleasure as you are. If you only knew what pleasure other women have with 
their men, you'd not stay here. For we are in company that we love. And there's no such 
delight as of a man and woman together. But you have none of it, as your sister is older 
than you' (p. 46). [Srarf of the Text, the MS. being imperfect.'] 



THE HISTORY 



OF 



THE HOLY GRAIL, 



PKOLOGUE. 

§ 1. The Salutation. § 2. The Three Eeasons why the Writer has not told his name at 

the beginning of the book. 

(§ 1.) 'Chil ki la hauteche et la signourie de si haute estoire 
comme est cliele du graal, met enscrit par le commandement du 
grant maistre : Mande tout premierement salus a tous cheus et a 
toutes clieles ki out lor creanche en la sainte glorieuse trinite. 
Oh'est el pere, et el fil, et el saint esperit. El pere, par qui toutes 
clioses sont establies, et cries, et rechoiuent commencliement de vie. 
El fil, par qui tout chil et toutes cheles qui en lui ont creanche 
sont deliure des perdurables dolors, et ramene a le haute ioie ki 
dura sains fin. El saint esperit, par qui toutes les boines choses 
sont mondees et saintefiees. (§ 2.) Li nons de chelui qui cheste 

1 As a specimen of the language of Addit. MS. 10,292, Plut. clxxxv. G, and its varia- 
tions from the MS. Bibl. Eeg. xiv. E m. Plut. ix. H. printed in the text, § 1 of the 
Prologue of MS. 10,292 is put in the following note. Hardly any of the subsequent 
variations are given; though 10,292 is much shorter than the Royal MS. 

Chil ki se tient et iuge au plus petit et au plus peceor du monde. Mande salus au 
commenchement de ceste estoire a tos cheaux ki lor cuers ont et lor creance en la sainte 
trinite. Che est el peire ce est el fil ce est el saint esperit. El pere par qui toutes coses 
sont establies et rechoiuent commencement de vie. El fil par qui toutes coses sont 
deliurees des paines d'infer et ramene a la ioie qui dure sans fin. El saint esperit par qui 
toutes coses sont hors mises des mains au maligne esperit: et raempUes de ioie par 
I'enluminement de lui que est vrais enlumineres et vrais confers. 

B 



2 THE writer's three REASONS EOR NOT TELLING HIS NAME. 

estoire met en escrit n'est pas nomes ne esclairies en cliest com- 
menchement. Mais par les paroles qui chi apries seront dites : 
porra on grant masse apercheuoir et counoistre le non de lui, 
et sa uie, et son ancMestre.' Mais en chest commencliement 
ne le vent il descourir. Et si i a. trois raisons par quoi. pre- 
mierement, pour chou ke se il le nomast, et il desist ke diex 
eust par lui descouuert si haute estoire com est cele du graal : 
qui est estoire de toutes les estoires.^ li felon et li enuieus ne li 
atournaissent a uantanche. ^ L'autre raisons est pour chou: ke ceus 
peust oir son non qui le couneust, si emprisait mains I'estoire pour 
chou que par si poure persone eust este mise en escrit. Car il se 
tient pour la plus poure persone et pour la plus despite ki onques 
fust formee/ La tierche raisons est pour chou : ke s'il eust en 
I'estoire aucune chose desauenant, ou par eflfachement, ou par leuice 
des escriuens* qui apres le translataissent d'un lieu'' en autre : tous 
li blasmes en fust sour son non. Car il est ore en nos tans plus des 
bouches qui dient mal ke de cheles ki hien dient. Et plus est vns 
horns blasmes de faire vn seul mal : ke il n'est loes de faire cent 
bens. Pour dies .iij. choses : ne ueut ke ses nons soit de tout en 
tout descouuiers. Car ia soit che ke il le voelle mult couurir et 
cheler, si sera il plus apercheus qu'il ne uauroit.' Mais il des- 
couuerra et dira tout en apert comment la haute estoire del saint 
graal li fu commandee et baillie, et en quel termine, et qui li 
bailla. * 

1 Et le pais ou il fu nes et vne grant partie de son lignage. 

" estoire comme est cele du saint graal qui est la plus haute estoire qui soit. 

^ le torneroient en vielte. * Car to formee omitted. 

5 mesauenant ou par visse de mal nais escrivain. ^ liure. 

"> Plus descouers qu'il ne voldroit. ^ commandee a manifestier. 



INTRODUCTION. 

§ 1. How in the year 717 a.d. in White Britain, which is England, Christ, as a beautiful 
man, appears in a vision to a Trinity-doubting monk, and promises to clear his doubts ; 
and (§ 2, p, 9) gives him a little Book; and how in the book there are four treatises, 
with these titles. I. Here beginneth thy lineage. ll. Here beginneth the book of the 
Holy Grail, in. Here begin the terrors, iv. Here begin the marvels. How a ray 
as of fire descends from heaven, and great darkness comes, and then sweet odours, 
and sweet voices, singing hymns to God (p 8). (§ 3, p. 9), — How on Good Friday 
an angel appears to the monk, and takes him up to the third heaven, and reveals the 
mystery of the Trinity to him. How the monk locks the Book up in a box, 
(§ 4, p. 11), How on Easter Day the monk says his service, and then finds the 
Book gone. How he has a vision telHng him to go to Norway and there find it 
(p. 12). How he goes after the Book, a wonderful beast guiding him; how he is 
lodged by a hermit the first night (p. 13) ; how on the second day he comes to the 
Pine of Adventures and its miraculous fountain (p. 14), and how a lady's servant feeds 
him there, and how he is lodged by a knight (p. 15) ; how on the third day he finds 
the Book in a little chapel and cures a devil-possessed man with it (p. 17). How 
food for the man is sent miraculously (p. 18) ; how on the ninth day the monk starts 
for home with the Book, and the beast reappears (p. 19); how he reaches home. 
How he is told in a vision to copy out the Book (p. 20). 

(§ 1.) II auint apres la passion ihesus crist .vij. cens et .xvij. ans ke 
ie, li plus pechieres des autres pecheours, me gisoie en .j. petit habi- 
tacle endroit ictele eure ki est apielee la tierche vigile de le nuit. 
Ichil liens on ion me gisoie en tel maniere, com diens seit ki tons les 
penses counoist : estoit lontiens et destornes de toutes gens, Et 
tant en puis ion bien dire ke il estoit en .j. des plus sauuages liens 
ki fust en toute la bloie bertaigne.^ Mais ne pour quant mult 
m'estoit delitables et plaisans. Car quant notres sires vent ouurer 
en son crestien : il la tantost mis en tel corage ke toutes les choses 
ki li siecles prise li annuient. Ichele nuis ke ie me gisoie en si com 

1 The other MS. says nothing about ' bloie bertaigne,' having only after pecheours, 
' estoie en .j. lieu le plus souage que iou ne voel faire counoistre et eslongies de toutes 
crestiens : Mais itant vous puis ie bien dire que li lieu est mult saluages mais mult estoit 
delitables et plaisans.' 

b2 



4 THE DOCTBINE OF THE TRINITY IS PEOCLAIMED TO THE WRITER. 



On the night 
before Good 
Friday 



the writer (a 
monk) has a 
vision. 



The doctrine of 
the Trinity is 
proclaimed to 
him. 



Christ appears. 



The monli's 
doubts on the 
Trinity. 



He does not 
know Christ. 



vous aues oi : si fu la nuis M est entre le ioesdi absolut et le vendredi 
beneoit. Et se notre signour plot ke il recheust en gre. le auoie 
fait le seruiche des matines ke on apele tenebres. Et lors si me 
prist mult grans volentes de dormir, si commencbai a soumillier en 
mon lit ou ion m'estoie a-coutes. Ensi com ioi commencbie a sou- 
mellier : ne demoutra puis gaires ke ion oi vne vols ki m'apiela .iij. 
fois par mon non, et si me dist. " esneille toi et si ascoute. De trois 
coses vne et d'nne cose trois, et autrestant puet I'une comme les 
trois. Ne les trois naturelment ne sont autre cose ke vne " A chel 
mot m'esueillai, si esgardai entour moi et ui si grant clarte ke 
nule si grans ne peust issir de nule terriene lumiere. Apres ui 
vn bomme ester deuant moi si biel et si delitable ke sa biautes 
ne porroit estre contee ne descrite par lange de nul bomme mortel. 
Et quant ie le vi, si fui si esbabis que ie ne seucb sous siel ke 
dire ne que faire. Et il m'esgarda et si me dist. " As tu entendu 
ne tant ne quant la parole ke ie t'ai dite : " Et ie li respondi en 
tranlant. " Sire : ie n'en sui mie encore bien certains." Et il me 
redist " cbe est la counissancbe de la trinitei que ie t'ai raportee." 
Et cbe dist il pour cbou que i' auoie este en doutancbe : comment 
cbe pooit estre ke la trinites auoit trois persones et si n'auoit c'une 
seule deite et vne seule poissancbe. Ne onques n' auoie en nule riens 
cose doutee de ma creancbe : que seulement en cbestui point. Apres 
me dist, " pues tu en-core counoistre ne apercbeuoir ki ie sui." Et 
ie dis. " Sire, mi oel sont mortel, si n'ont pas pooir d'esgarder 
entirement la clarte de toutes les autres clartes, ne la boucbe ne 
puet encore auoir la forcbe de dire cbou dont toutes les pekeresses 
langues serroient encombrees." Et il s'abaissa vers moi : si me 
souffla en mi le vis. Et lors me fu auis : que i' oi les iex a cent 
doubles plus clers ke onques mais n' auoie eus, et ke ie sentoie dedens 
ma boucbe vne grant meruelle de langues. Et il me redist, " pues 
tu encore counoistre qui ie sui." Et quant ie ouri la boucbe pour 
respondre, si vi que vns brandons me saloit bors du cors autresteus 
com de fu ardant. Si en eucb si grant paour quant ie li vi : que 
onques n'oi pooir de dire mot. Et quant il me vit si espoente, si me 



THE GREAT MASTER. THE LITTLE BOOK, ITS TITLES AND WONDERS 5 

dist. " N'aies mie paour : car la fontaine de toute seurte est chi 

deuant toi. Et bien sachies que ie sui cM ueirns pour toi aprendre 

et ensengier de toute te doutanche. Car ie sui de toutes doutanches 

vrais ensengieres. Ie sui chil par qui toutes les boines scienses sont 

aprises. Car ie sui li grans maistres par qui tout li terrien maistre The Great 

seuent tant de bien com il ont apris. Ne maistre ne sont il mie. himseifr"^^* ^ 

Car maistres ne puet estre ; se chil non qui seit toutes les sciences. 

Ie sui cliil maistres a qui nichomedes dist : ' Maistre nous sauons 

que vous estes venus de dieu.' Ie sui chil de qui I'escriture dist, 

' Toute sapiense vient de dieu notre signeur,' et si est auoec lui et 

tous iours i a este deuant tous les eages. Et pour chou que ie sui li 

parfais maistres comme chil qui sui fontaine de toute sapiense, pour 

chou sui iou uenus a toi. Car ie voel que tu rechoiues par moi 

enseignement de toutes icheles choses dont tu seras en doutanche. 

Et si te ferai certain et sage d'une cose dont onques nus hom morteus 

ne fu certains. Et par toi sera ele descouuerte et esclairie a tous 

chiaus qui iamais I'orront conter ne deuiser." (§ 2). A chest mot me 

prist par Ie main destre, et si me mist dedens .j. petit liuret qui and gives the 

,j., 1 . ni 111 ji monk a little 

n estoit pas en nulo maniere plus Ions ne plus les ke est la paume Book. 
d'un home. Et quant ie ting Ie liuret : si me dist " veus tu sauoir 
ke ie t'ai bailliet." Et ie dis ke ie Ie sauroie mult volentiers, et il 
me dist, " Ch'est li liures v quel tu trouueras si grans meruelles 
que nus cuers morteus nes porroit penser. Ne ia de nule riens ne 
seras en doutanche dont tu ne soies auoies par chest liuret. Et si i 
sont mi secre ke ie meismes escris de ma main ke nus hom ne doit 
veoir se il n'est auant espurges par confession et par ieune de trois 
iours en pain et en iaue. Et apres che les doit il en tel maniere 
dire : ki les die de la lange du cuer si ke ia chele de la bouche ni 
paraut. Car il ni puent estre noume par nule langue mortel, que The elements 
tout li quatre element n'en soient commeUj car li chieus en plouuera ^heLtheBOTrs 
et fera autres signes. Li airs en tourbelera apiertement. Li terre ^^^^'^'^^''^ 
en crolera et li aue en cangera sa couleur. Tout chou auenra par la """''''' 'o"g"«- 
forche des paroles qui en chest liuret sont escrites. Et si ia autre 
chose, que ia nus hom n'esgardera souuent en chest liuret ensi 



6 THE JOT OF BODY AXD SOUL TO THE HEADERS or THE BOOK. TITLE 1. 



The joy of the 
body. 



The joy of the 
soul. 



He hears a 
voice like a 
trumpet, and a 
great crash, 



and falls to the 
cround: 



and finds the 
Book in his 
hand. 



The first title in 
the Book,* Here 
is the beginning 
of thy lineage.' 



comme on i doit regarder, qu'il n'i conquire les .ij. grignours ioies 
qui soient. Cli'est la ioie de Tame et la ioie du cors. Car il n'est 
nus horn morteus tant durement courchies se 0. puet dedens veoir 
ententieument ensi comme veoir i deuera que ia maintenant ne soit 
les cuers deKures de toutes ires et plains de toutes Ids ioies ke cuers 
morteus puet auoir, tant sont plaisant et delitable les paroles qui i 
sont. Ch'est la ioie du cors. Et d' autre part il esprendera si dure- 
ment petit et petit si durement del esperituel amour : que se il 
baans est as terrienes coses si sera cbou pour metre et pour despendre 
en I'ueure et en la besoigne a son creatour. Ne ia par pechie qu' H 
ait fait en chest siecle ne morra de mort soubite qui chest Huret 
ara vne fois veu ou tenu. Ch'est la ioie de I'ame." Et quant 
il ot che dit, si cria vne vols autresi comme vne buisine. Et quant 
ele ot crie, si vint vns si grans escrois de haut, ke il me fu auis que 
tons K firmamens feust kens, et ke la terre fust fondue iusk 'en 
abisme. Et se clartes eut este grans deuant: lors fu graiudre a chent 
doubles. Car i'en fui si esbahis ke bien en quidai avoir pierdu la 
veue, et si cai a terre autresi comme pasmes. Et quant vint au chief 
de grant pieche ke la vanites du chief me fu tres alee, si ouuri les 
iex. Mais ie ne ui onques as iex nule riens vivant. Xe onques ne 
me soi a quoi tenir de quan que ie auoie veu : anchois tenoie tout a 
songe, quant ie trouuai en ma main Ie liuret ensi com li grans 
maistres Ie mi auoit mis. A tant me leuai mult lies et mult ioieus 
et ting toutes uoies Ie liuret entre mes .ij. maias. Et si fui si en 
orisons et en perieres tant ke dieus enuoia Ie iour qui mult dure- 
ment me tar doit. Et quant li iours fu si clers ke ie peuch la letre 
counoistre, si comenchai a lire : et si trouuai el commenchement .j. 
title qui disoit. Chi est li commenchemens de ton linaige. Et 
quant ie vi chou, si en fui mult Ues. Car il n'estoit nule rien 
terriene : que ie tant desiraisse a oir comme la counissanche de 
mon Haaige. Et quant ie oi garde tant ke ia estoit prime passee, si 
me fui auis ke ie ni auoie rien leu, tant i auoit encore a lire. Car ie 
i ui tant de lettre ke ie en fui tons esbahis comment si grans plentes 
de paroles pooit estre amonchelee en si petit liuret qui n'estoit pas 



TITLES 2, 3, 4. HOW LIGHTNING AND THUNBER COME. 7 

au mien ensient plus Ions ne plus les en nule guise que est vne 
paume. Si m'en merueillai tant que ie en mescrisse moi meisme qui 
le veoie : se cMl ne le m'eust baillie que grant plente de choses puet 
metre en petit de lieu, et ki grant lieu puet a emplir de peu de 
choses. Ensi gardai el liuret iusques viers tierche tant que ioi 
counut grant partie de mon lignage. Si i ui les nons et la vie 
de tant preudommes, ke a paines osaisse ie ne deusse dire ne cou- 
noistre que ie fuisse d'aus descendus. Car quant ie veoie lor boine 
vie et les grans gries k'U auoient souffiert en terre pour lor creatour : 
si ne pooie pas penser comment ie peusse tant amender ma vie qu 'ele 
fust digne d'estre amentue aueuc les leur. Ne il ne m'estoit pas auis 
que ie fuisse born enuiers aus : mais fainture d'omme et reprocbes. 
En cbe pense demourai mult longement, mais toutes uoies retourna 
au liure et commencbai a lire tant ke ie oi leu iusk 'en la fin de 
mon Itnaige. Et lors trouuai vn title qui disoit. ' Obi commencbe Tuie 2. 

Here begins the 

li liures du saint graal.' Et quant ie oi leu tant que miedis fu passes took of the 

. . . Holy Grail. 

et ke il pooit estre bien pres de none, si en trouuai .j. autre qui 
disoit. ' Obi est H commencbement des paours.' Et quant ie oi cbe Title 3. 

, , -I . . . -, . -I . . Here is the 

title passe, si commencbai a lire, et vi tens cboses qui mult estoient beginning of 

till 6 tfirrors 

peureuses et espoentables a ueoir. Et sacbe diex ke a si grant dou- 

tancbe les veoie. Ne ia en uair ne lo sai se se cbil ne le m'eust [ms. 10,292 

T . 1 j_ j_ i 1 • J . omits the 4th 

commando par qui commandement toutes cboses uiuans sont meues. title.] 
Et quant ie oi asses veus de coses merueilleuses, si trouuai le quart Title 4. 

Here begin the 

title qui disoit ' Obi commencbent les meruelles. Et lors com- marvels. 

mencbai mult durement a penser. ensi com ie pensoie a cbeste cose 

et vns rais autresteus comme de fu ardant descendi de uers le cbiel 

et vint tres par deuant mes iex autresi bruians comme foudres. Et Lightning and 

1 - p thunder come; 

mult durement sambloit espars de tounoire. fors tant que la clartes 
endura plus, et fu graindres et plus espoentables. et si descendi par 
deuant moi si soudainement ke tout li oel m'estincbelerent en la 
teste cbe me fu a-uis que ie eusse la ceruele espandue si que ie kai a he fails to the 
terre tous pasmes, Mais ne me dura gaires li estourdissemens. ^™"" ' 
ancbois me tres ala si comme notre sign our plot. Et lors redrecbai 



8 THEUB COME DARKNESS, LIGHT, SWEET ODOURS, AND SONGS. 



A sweet odour 
comes. 



And a sweet 
song of praise. 



(Honor and 
glory and power 
and dominion 
be fox' ever to 
tlie destroyer of 
death and the 
restorer of 
eternal life) 

and sounds as 
of bells. 

[10,292, vnes 
champeneles.] 



[witisme.] 



and sounds as 
of flying birds 



la tieste, si oiiiiri les iex, et ui ke tous li firmamens noircissoit, et 
ke li solans pierdoit de tout en tout sa clarte si ke il faisoit autresi 
grans tenebres com il sent faire es espesses nuis d'iuer. Et quant 
ches tenebres orent dure tant ke on peust bien aaoir ale chent pas : 
si plot a dieu que eles trespasserent. et lors commencha a esclarchir 
petit et petit : si ke li solaus reuint tons en sa propre clarte. 
Et maintenant descend! el lieu ou iou estoie, vne odours si douche et 
si soues ke se toutes les espices qui sont ou monde fuissent encontre : 
eles ne rendissent pas la milisme pars de douchour ne de souau- 
tume si com ie quit. Apres oi entour moi .j. si douch chantjet 
vne si grant loenge : ke tout li estrument et toutes les melodies que 
on porroit oir en terre serroient fins niens a escouter : enuers chelui 
chant ke ie oi. Car tant i auoit vois que nule riens morteus au 
mien quidier n'en porroit Ie nombre dire. Et si estoient au mien 
ensiant si pries de moi ke se che fuissent coses veables ie les peusse 
a touchier a ma main. Mais onques tant esgarder ni soi que 
onques .j. de tous chieus qui cantoient peusse veoir. Et tant enten- 
dige bien qu'U looient en lor chant notre seignour. et si disoient tous 
iours en la fin de lor canchon. " Hounours et gloire et poestes et 
empires soit par-durablement au destruseour de la mort et au 
restoreour de la vie pardurable." Icheste loenge entendoie ie bien. 
Mais de tout I'autre chant ne pooie ie pas entendre que il voloit 
dire, mais sour toutes riens estoit dous et plaisans a oir. Et quant 
il auoient chou chante, si sounoient en haut vne grant meruelle, ne 
sai de ques estrumens, qui resambloient escheletes au souner. Et 
quant eles laissoient a soner, si recommenchoient a canter les uois. 
En cheste maniere canterent bieniusk' a .vij. fois. Et quant vint a 
la sietisme fois, si rompirent lor chant si soudainement qu'il me fu 
auis que il fussent tout ken en abisme. Et lors ne sambloit que 
toutes les eles des oisiaus ki sont en Fair s'en uolaissent par deuant 
moi. Et maintenant que les vois laissierent a canter, si remest la 
grans odours ke i'auoie si longement sentue qui si durement 
m' auoit pleu que iamais a nul iour ne quesise estre en autre maniere 



AN ANGEL TAKES HIS SPIRIT UP TO THE THIRD HEAVEN. 9 

que ie estoie mais c'au plaisier notre signeur fust. Ensi remes si The end of the 

commenchai mult durement a penser : a cheste merueille que ie 

auoie oie. Et lors vint vne vols d'en haut ki me dist. " Laisse a 

penser, si lieue sus, et si ua rendi:e a dieu die que tu li dois. Car 

bien est huimais tans et eure." (§3) A chest mot meleuai, si sardai on Good Friday 

^ -^ morning he 

en tour moi et vi que ia estoit nonne passe. Et quant ie vi rfses. 

che, si m'esmeruellai trop du iour qui si tost s'en estoit ales. 

Oar ie quidoie qu'il fust encore matins, tant durement m'auoit 

pleu li lires du liuret. Et quant ie fui leues, si Ie mis en tel 

lieu ke il fu tous iours deuant mes iex. Apres cantai mes He sings his 

hours 

eures ensi com eles font a dire a chel iour. Et quant ie les oi 

dites : si commencliai Ie seruiche si douch et si piteus comme de ^nd begins the 

Sacrament. 

la mort ihesu crist. Car a chel iour fu il uraiement mors. Et pour 
chou ne sacrefi on mie son cors a chel iour. Oar la ou la uerites 
vient avant : la figure doit estre ariere mise. Mais a tous les autres 
iours Ie sacrefie on, en senefianche ke U fu sacrefies pour nous. Et 
a chel iour ke il fu vraiement sacrefies : ch'est li venredis beneois : 
ne Ie sacrefie on pas car il ni a mais point de senefianche puis ke li 
iours est venus que il fu vraiement sacrifies. Et quant ie oich fait 
Ie seruiche a laie de dieu. lusques la ou li prestres fait les .iij. 
parties del sacrement, et ie vauch recheuoir mon sauueour, si vint 
vns angeles deuant moi qui me prist par andeus mes mains et me An angei comes 

1 . n 1 . . to him and 

dist, " Ches .uj. parties te sont deuees a recheuoir : deuant ke le t'ai raises him in 

demoustre apiertement pour quoi tu les as faites d'une seule cose et third heaven, 

ke ie t'arai de toutes tes doutances chertifiiet." A chest mot me 

leua en haut, non mie en cors : mais en esperit. Et si m'enporta el 

plus deUtable lieu : ke onques hom eust ueu a mon "ensient. Car 

nus cuers ne porroit tant penser de ioie : ne langue n'en porroit 

tant dire, ne oreille escouter : ke la n'en eust encore cent mil tans. 

Et se ie disoie ke che fust el tierch chiel : la ou saint paus fu portes 

par le saint esperit : espoir ie diroie uoir. Mais tost seroit tenu 

a uantanche : et a menchoingne. Et ne pour quant tant en diraige, where secrets 

ke la me furent monstre et descouuert li secre dont saint paus dist him. 



10 HOW HE SEES EACH PEKSON OF THE TRINITY SEPARATELY. 



The angel takes 
him to another 
stage. 



He sees the 
Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost 
separately. 



And this is not 
against Saint 
John's saying, 
That no man 
can see the 
Father ; 



for that meant 
moi*tal man, 
and not 
spiritual 



A clap of 
thunder is 
heard. 



que nule langue d'omme mortel ne doit descouurir. Et quant i' oi 
longement esgarde les meruelles dont ie veoie tant que nule bouche 
ne porroit center, si ni'apiela li angeles. et me dist, "As tu chi 
grans merueilles veues." Et ie respondi, ke ie ne pensoie mie : ke 
nulcs si grans peussent estre. Et il me dist que il me mouster- 
roit gringnours encore. Lors me prist, et si me mena en yn 
autre estage qui estoit a client doubles plus clers pue voirres. 
Et precieusement estoit couloures : si que nus liom certaine- 
ment ne deuisast la coulour, tant parestoit soutieus et esbais- 
sans. lUuec me monstra apiertement la forche de la trinite. 
Car ie i ui deuiseement Ie pere et Ie fil et Ie saint esperit, si 
que ie peucb connoistre I'une persone et I'autre. Et si vi tout 
apertement comment cbes .iij. persones repairoient apertement 
a vne sustanche et vne deitei et a vne poissancbe. Et ne por 
quant se i'ai dit que i'aie veu les .iij. persones et deuisees I'une de 
I'autre. la pour cbou ne m'en courent sus li enuieus et li felon : 
qui ne seruent fors que des autres reprendre et remordre. Ne pour 
cbou ne dient il mie que i'aie parle centre I'auctorite saint ieban Ie 
baut euwangeliste. Car il dist que nus bom ne vit onques Ie pere, 
ne veoir ne Ie puet. Et ie m'acort bien a lui. Ne tout cbil qui 
I'ont oi ne seuent pas ke il i entendi. Car il vaut dire des homes 
morteus. Car tant com li ame est el cors, tant est il morteus, ne 
il ne muert en I'omme ke la cbars. Mais puis qiie li bom est 
desuestus du cors, puis est il esperitueus. Et des ke il est espe- 
ritueus : bien puet esperitel cose veoir. Par cbe poes counoistre ke 
li sains lebans vaut dire des bommes morteus, ke nus ne pooit veoir 
la maieste del pere. En dementiers ke ie estoie ententieus et curieus 
de remier cbele grant meruelle, si souna autresi com vns escrois de 
tounoire, et si trambla cbe me fu auis trestous li firmamens. Et 
maintenant uint Uluques tant de celestiens virtus ke li nombres n'en 
porroit estre sens ne dis. Et quant ie me regardai : si se laissierent 
tout cbaoir souin tout enuiron la maiestei ausi com s'il fuissent cbeu 
de pamisons. Et quant ie vi cbou, si fui tVop durement esbabis et 



HOW HIS VISION ENDS, AND HOW HE LOOKS UP THE BOOK IN A BOX, 11 

peureus. Et li anf^eles me prist et si me remena la on il m'auoit The angei takes 

^ ^ him back ; 

pris premierement. Mais anchois ke il remesist en men cors 
I'esperit: me dist. "As tu veu grans merueilles " Et ie dis 
ke eles estoient si grans ke ki aroit eongiet del dire as gens 
teriiens. II n'est nus hom si sains ne si bien de dieu qui pas 
en fust creus. Et ensour ke tout nos cuers morteus ne porroit 
auoir la forche del retenir ne lange del dire. Et il me redist. 
" Es tu encore bien certains de che dent tu as tant doute." tears that he's 

convinced about 

Et ie 11 dis ke il n'estoit el siecle nus bom si mescreans se the Trinity, 
il me voloit deboinairement escouter : ke ie ne li fesisse apierte- 
ment entendre les poins de la trinite. par cbe ke ie en auoie veu et 
aprins. Et il me dist lors. " Or te mettrai dont la : ouietepris." 
Et lors si recbeuras ton sauueour plus certainement ke tu ne fesis 
deuant. Car tu ne dois pas herbergier oste ke tu ne counoisses. 
Et se tu as veues grans merueilles, tu en trouueras el liuret de teles : 
ke tu ne tenras mie a menours. Mais tu ni garderas, mais deuant 
ke tu aras celebree la surrection ihesu crist." A tant remist mon and then puts 
esperit dedens Ie cors. Et ie m'esperi autresi com cbil ki a dormi in'tohTs'body. 
qui s'esueille, si quidai I'angele veoir, mais il s'en etoit ia ales. Et 
ie esgardai, si ui mon sauueour deuant moi : tout en tel maniere com 
il i estoit quant li angeles m'enporta. Et ie Ie pris, si Ie recbui, et The monk ends 
vsai a boine creancbe et a grant deuotion. Et quant li seruicbes fu putsX'^Book 
fenis, si pris Ie liuret et si I'ostoiai en vne petite casse ou la boiste JocL^^up.^'"^ 
estoit en lequele corpus domini reposoit. Et quant ie I'oi mis 
dedens, si frema la casse mult bien a vne clef : Car ie me voloie du 
perdre garder : Ne ie ne Ie sauoie ou metre plus honestement. 
Car mult i auoit biel lieu et net. Et quant ie issi de la capiele, si 
vi ke il estoit ia si basse cure : qu'il anuitoit. Et lors entrai en ma 
maisonnete : et mangai tel viande ke notres sires m'auoit prestee. 
(§ 4 ) Ensi passai cbeli iour. et lendemain tant ke uint au iour de la 
surrection au sauueur. Et quant il Ie plot ke ie oi fait Ie seruiche on Easter day, 
del iour qui si est baus com de notre sauueour : cbelui meisme qui 
Ie iour saintefla, entrai a garant que ie couuri ancbois au liure pour 

c2 



12 THE BOOK DISAPPEAES. THE ANGEL SENDS HIM TO NORWAY AETEKIT. 



he unlocks his 
box and finds 
the Book gone. 



A voice tells 
him he shall 
have the Book 
again when he 
has suffered for 
it. 



He is to go on a 
journey 



to the plains of 
Walescog (?), 

[MS. 10,292, 
plains de ual 
estone.] 

and follow a 
wonderful beast 
to Norway, and 
there find the 
Book. 

[t. de negne, 
i. ach. ton 
oirre.] 

He starts on his 
journey, 



les saintes paroles veoir que ie ne fesisse a la viande prendre. Tant 
estoient douclies et plaisans a oir, ke eles me faisoient ou- 
blier la fin dn cors. Et quant ie ving a la casse ou ie 1' auoie 
mis, et ie Ie desfrenai : si n'en trouuai point. Et quant ie vi che, 
si fui si dolans ke ie ne sauoie prendre nul conroi de moi. 
Anchois quidoie bien que ie ne fuisse iamais lies a nul iour. si com- 
menchai a penser comment il pooit estre ietes hors de cbel lieu. 
Car ie I'auoie troue ferme en tel maniere com ie 1' auoie laissie. En- 
dementieres que ie pensoie a cheste cose : si oi vne yois qui me dist. 
" Pour quois es tu esbahis, et de quoi te meruelles tu ? T'esmer- 
uelles tu de che que li liures est ietes hors de son lieu sans desfre- 
mer ? Tout en tel maniere issi ihesus cris du sepulcre sans la pierre 
remuer. Mais or te conforte, et si va mangier-ke ancbois te 
couenra paine souffrir ke tu Ie tienes mais." Et quant ie oi ke ie 
encore Ie porroie auoir par paine souffrir, si m'en ting a bien paies. 
Lors alai mangier. Et quant ie oi mangie, si me retournai en la 
capiele, et priai notre signour ke il par sa pitie me dounast auoie- 
ment de che que ie tant desiroie. Et maintenant reuint vne vols 
qui me dist. " Che te mande li grans maistres, quant tu aras Ie 
matin celebreie la messe, si te desiuneras, et si t'en iras maintenant 
en sa besoigne la ou ie te dirai. Et quant tu seras issus de chaiens, 
si enterras el sentier qui va un grant chemin. Ichil chemins te 
menra tant ke tu venras au pierron de la prise. Et lors lairas Ie 
chemin, si enterras. en .j. sentier a diestre qui maine au quarre four 
.de vij. voies es plains de walescog. Et quant tu venras a la 
fontaine del plour, illuec ou la grans occisions fu iadis. Si trouueras 
vne beste com quis tele ne ueis. Et si garde ke tu Ie sieues la u 
ele te menra. Et quant tu I'aras perdue, si enterras en la terre de 
norweghe, et illuec achieueras de ta queste." A tant laissa la vols a 
parler. Et quant vint a lendemain. Ie me leuai matin, et quant ie 
oi la messe cantee, si me desiunai. Et quant ie fui issus hors, si fis 
Ie signe de Ie crois sour moi et sour mon habitacle. A tant m'en 
alai ensi com la uois m'auoit noumee la uoie. Et quant i'oi passe 



THE monk's journey. THE WONDERFUL BEAST. 13 

le pierron, si alai taut com ie ving. en .j. val ke on apiele le val des y^^^^^^^^ 

mors. Chelui ual deuoie ie bien sauoir : car ie i auoie veu iadis ^ead, 

vne bataille. des ij. milleurs chiualers du monde. Et quant ie fui 

issus du ual, si alai bien encontre demie lieue gales ke tant que ie 

ving de-sous le quarrefour. Si esgardai auant mi, si vi vne crois 

sour la riue de la fontaine, et de sous chele crois se sfisoit la beste ke ^'^ *^° ^^^ 

' ° Beast, with 

la uois m'auois dit. Et maintenant ke ele me vit, si se leua, si me ^'^'^'^p'^ ^^^ 

and neck, 

commencha a regarder, et ie li. Mais quant plus le resjardoie et white ; dog's 

mams pooie sauoir quele beste c'estoit. Et si sachies k'ele estoit woifs body and 

diuerse en toutes coses. Car ele auoit teste et col de brebis et blanc 

comme noif negie. Et si auoit pies de cbien, et gambes, et quisses, 

■et tout cbou etoit noir comme carbon. Et si auoit le pis et le cors 

et la crupe de woupil, et la keue de lyon. Et si estoit la beste de 

diuerses semblancbes. Et quant ie I'oi mult esgardee. et ele moi, 

si levai ma main et li fis signe qu'ele alast auant. Et ele s'en ala 

tout droit el quarrefour, si s'en entra en la premiere voie k'ele coisi 

a destre. Et ie alai apres si tost comme ie poi, mais cbe fu len- The monk 

-•• . follows the 

tement. Car uieUeche et flebetes me destourboient. Et quant Beast. 
nous eumes ale iuske a cure de vespres, si issi la beste hors du 
chemin et entra en vne mult espesse caurroie. Et tant ala 
aaant et ie apres, qu'il commencha a anuitier. Et lors issimes hors At even he 

/> 1 1 comes to a 

de la caurroie, et entrames en vne profonde valee plame de mult thick-wooded 

. vale, 

haute forest espesse. Et quant ie fui el fons de la valee, si vi deuant 

moi vne loge, et deuant 1' uis estoit vns vies hom uestus de reube de and sees an oid 

releigion. Et quant ie le vi, si en fui mult lies : et rendi grasces a 

notre signour de che qu'il m'auoit compaignie donnee. Et tantost 

com il me vit, si osta son caperon, et me chai as pies, si me requeroit ^^°^?^^^ ^'^ 

beneichon. Et ie li priai qu'il se leuast, car i'estoie vns hom 

pechieres, si ne deuoie pas beneichon doner, ke vous diroi ie : 

Onques tant ne li soi prrer k'il se vausist leuer, deuant que ie li oi 

beneichon donee, dont mult durement me pesa. Car diex le seit que 

ie n'en fuisse mie dignes. Et quant il fui leues, si me mena par la and takes him 

into his 

main en sa loge. Et quant nous eumes cantees toutes nos eures : si dwelling. 



14 THE PINE OF ADVENTUKES AND ITS MARVELLOUS FOUNTAIN. 

chaT ^"^ ^""^ mangames tele viande com diex auoit au saint homme preste. Et 
quant nous eumes soupe, si m'enquist mult li boins liom de mon 
estre, et de ma uoie. Et ie Ten respond! au mieus ke ie soi. Tant 
diex Ie seit ke il quida asses plus bien en moi qu'il ni auoit. Oar il 
est coustume des boins houmes ke il ne seuent quidier es autres 
gens se bien non. Pour che ke il lor est auis que cascuns ait lor 
volente et lor talent. Mult me fist grant ioie et grant compaignie 
la nuit. Ne onques en ma vie ne vi homme qui grignour samblant 
eust d'estre durement preudom et boins bom. Sans che que il n'en 

The second day moustroit Ic samblaut : se au mains non ke il pooit. Au matin me 

of the journey. -^ 

pria li sains horn ke ie cantaisse. Et quant nous eumes cantei, si 

pris congie. Et il dist que il me conuoieroit. Et quant nous fumes 

The Beast hors du postis, sl vi la beste qui me conduisoit : et si ne I'auoie mais 

reappears. ■'■ 

ueue des la nuit quant ie trouuai Ie boin homme Ensi me conuoia 
li boins bom iusc 'au chemin. Et lors departimes, si me pria mult 
qu'il me membrast de lui en mes oi'isons et en mes biens-fais, que 
diex en cheste religion li dounast demourer iusc' a la fin. Ichest 
don otriaumes li vns a I'autre. A tant nous entrebaisames, si Ie 
commandai a dieu, et il moi. Si errames entre moi et la beste 
toutela 'tinee tres parmi la forest c' onques n'encontrames ne homme 
At midday he ne fcmc. Taut qu'il fu bien miedis. Lors si entrames en une mult 

gets to the Pine 

of Adventures vUle laudc. En ml chele lande auoit .j. pin qui auoit non li pins 

and a beautiful 

fountain, whose dcs aueuturcs. Desous chel pin auoit vne fontaine la plus biele 

sand became , , 

blood-red and kc uus pcust ouques vcoir, au mien quidier. Et si auoit vne 

fire-hot, and ,,,,,, 

water ice-cold, coustume que ouqucs autre fontaine not. dont i oisse parler. 

bitter'three Car la grauelc estoit vermelle comme sans : et caude comme 

ay. ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ estoit autresi froide comme glache. Et si estoit 

autresi verde comme esmeraude .iij. fois Ie iour, et ausi amere 

comme la mers tant comme la verdeurs duroit. Quant la beste 

vint au pin, si se coucha desous, et fist samblant de reposer. Et 

[.j. uariet]. quaut ic me voil asseoir, si vi venir par mi la lande .j. vallet sour .j. 

horae'back "" cheval tout suant, et si venoit tout droit a moi Et quant il fu 

comes to him, yonus a la foutaiue, si descendi du cheual, et traist de son col vne 



A KNIGHT LODGES HIM NOBLY THE SECOND NIGHT. 15 

toTiaile, et s'agenouilla deuant moi, et si me dist. " Sire, ma dame and brings bim 
vous salue : chele qui li chiualers au chercle d'or rescoust de sa 
terre perdre : le iour ke la grans merueille fu veue de clielui que 
vous saues. Et si vous envoie a mangier itel viande com ele a." Lors 
desuolepa la touaile, si en traist oes et .j. wastel mout blanc, tout '^^^^Jj™"^^''^' 
eaut. Et si traist auant .j. bareil plain de ceruoise et .j. petit hanap. «' "} ™<^ ''^'"'^ 
Et ie mangai volentiers. Oar i'estoie tous familleus pour la voie cemoise.] 
qui m' auoit greue. Et quant i'oie mengie et but, si quelli le 
remenant, et dis au vallet qu'il en rendist a sa dame les mercbis : 
et diex Ten rendist le guerdon. A tant s'en ala li valles, et ie m'en He goes on his 

journey. 

aloi mon cbemin entre moi et la beste. Et alames toute iour, 
tant qu'il commencha a auesprir que onques uissimes bors 
de bos. Tant que nous uenimes a .]. quarrefour ou il auoit At even he stops 

_ at a cross, 

vne crois de fust. Et lors s'arestut la beste, si commencbai a 
escouter. Et ie oi maintenant venir : cbeuaus mult grant a I'eure. 
Tant que ie vi vn cbiualer venir sour vn palefroi et ii. autres auoec and a knight 

comes to him, 

lui. Et tantost com il me vit en reube de relegion : si sailli ius de 
sou cbeual et li autres apres. Si me dist ke bien fuisse iou venus. 
Quant ie oi rendu au cbiualer son salu : si me prist par le main et 
dist qu'il me menroit en sa maison pour berbergier. Et ie li dis 
que diex li guerredounoist. Et il apiela tout maintenant son escuier, 
si commenda qu'il en-menast li cbeuaus et que il fesist le plus biel 
el ostel ke il porroit. Li escuiers s'en tourna et li autres remest 
auoec nous, qui estoit fiex au signeur et cbiualers. Ensi nous en and takes him 

home, and 

alames tout troi, si ne vi onques grignour bounour : a bome faire treats him 
que il me fist, et il et sa maisnie que il auoit mult biele. Mais 
d'une cbose me mescbai plus que ie ne vausisse, que il me connut a 
.j. saing ke ie auoie sour moi, et dist qu'il m' auoit autre fois veu, et 
nouma en quel lieu. Mais comment que il m'en-quesist, ie ne 
li counui onques riens. Et quant il vit qu'il ne me plaisoit mie 
che qu'il m'en-queroit. Si laissa la chose ester. Mais toutes les 
ioies et toutes les bonnours ke on porroit faire a cors d'omme, me 
fist il la nuit. Au matin m'en parti, si les commandai tous a dieu. 



16 



THE THIKD NIGHT HE COMES TO A LITTLE CHAPEL. 



The third day's 
journey, 



he comes to the 
Queen's Lake 

and a Convent 
of Nuns, 



who feed him. 



He goes on 



and finds : 
letter ; 



'At night thou 
shalt achieve 
thy quest.' 



Sees a little 
chapel. 



Et quant ie ving hors de la porte, si retrouai la bieste. Et quant li 
sires m'eut vne pieclie conuoie. Si li priai qu'il s'en retournast. 
A tant me conunanda a dieu, et ie lui. si nous en alames toute la 
forest entre moi et la beste, tant ke il fa pres de tierche. Et lors si 
retornames vne voie qui menoit hers de la forest, et tant que ie vi 
.j. mult biel moustier et mult ricbe herbergage selonc vue grant 
praierie qui estoit sour vue riuiere Chil moustiers estoit sour .j . lac 
qui a a non li las a la roine. Quant ie ving au moustier, si trouuai 
.j. conuent de nounains, mult boines dames qui cantoient I'eui'e de 
tierche mult biel et mout bautement. Et quant eles sorent que 
i'estoie prestres : si me requisent de canter. Et ie cantai. Et quant 
nous eumes fait Ie seruiche : si me fisent les dames desiuner. Apres 
me prierent mult que ie remansise iusc'a lendemain, et ie dis qu'il 
ne porroit estre. Lors pris congie aux dames, si m'en parti. Si 
m'en alai, et la beste auant moi, tant que nous rentrames en la 
forest. Et quant nous fumes ens, si errames au lone du iour c' onques 
n'encontra mes riens terriene. Et quant il commencha a auesprir, si 
gardai bors de la voie sour me pierre plate, si vi vnes lettres ploies. Ie 
tournai cbele part, si les pris. Et quant ie les oi desploies, si trouuai 
el commencbement escrit. ' Cbe te mande li grans maistres: ke a nuit 
acbieuras de ta queste.' Et ie regardai ke la bieste faisoit, si n'en vi 
point, anchois s'en fa ia alee. Et quant ie \i cbe, si regardai es lettres, 
si i ui ke eles m'ensignoient de quankes ie auoie a faire. A tant 
m'en tournai toute ma uoie, et quant ie oi grant piecbe ale, si trouai 
vn sentier bien batu qui aloit a destre parmi la plus biele forest que 
ie onques eusse ueu, au mien quidier. Et quant ie oi grant piecbe 
ale par chel sentier, si commencbai a la fores a esclairier. Et ie 
resgardai. si ui en .j. tiertre sour vne rocbe : vne mult biele capele 
petite, bien encontre demi Heue loing. Et quant ie commencbai a 
aprocbier, si oi cbele part .j. cri si bideus que pour noient demande- 
roit on plus bideus ne plus espoentable. Mais ie ne m'en espoentai 
onques. Car les lettres m'en auoient bien acointie. Et quant ie 
ving deuant la capiele, si vi I'uis ouuert. Et en 1' entree del buis 



THE DEVIL IS CAST OUT OP A MAN BY THE BOOK. 17 

a-isoit vns horn tous pasmes autresi com se il fust mors. Et quant -*■' 't' entrance 

■*■ -'■he finds a man 

ie le vi, si courui a a;rant fianche de dieu qui m'auoit ensenffiet ke possessed witii 

ie deuoie faire. Si trouai qu'il auoit tous les iex tournes en la teste. 

si seu bien ke il auoit le dyable ou cors. Si li fls le signe de la 

crois en mi le vis. Et il se drecha en seant, si commencha meruelles 

a dire. Et ie coniurai le dyable de par ihesus crist ke il s'en issist. 

Et il me respondi que par ihesus crist i estoit il entres, et par 

lui s'en istroit. Et ie dis qu'il mi auoit enuoie pour lui metre 

bors. Et il dist qu'il ne veoit pas encore le message par qui il 

s'en issist. Et ie soi bien qu'il disoit voir, si m'en entrai en la 

capiele, et trouuai sour I'autel le liuret que ie queroie. Lors si ^he'sook!'"^ " 

m'agenouUai, et le pris. Et ie ving hors, a tout si n'oistes onques 

rien si crier com li anemis crioit. Et disoit " ne vien plus auant, 

bien voi ke issir me conuient. Ne il n'a rien en terre fors chesti qui 

m'en ietaist." Et quant il s'en vaut issir par la bouche, si ne paut The devii wants 

-,, TT .■.. .p. , -..to come out up- 

pour le signe de la crois ke le auoie fait. Et il recommencna a dire wards through 
en criant. " Se tu ueus ke ie m'en isse, si me destoupe la voie." mouth, butxhe 
Et ie li demandai, comment. Et il dist qu'il n'en istroit mie tant °° ' 
com li liures serroit si pries. Et ie dis qu'il n'en istroit mie par la 
boucbe anchois com uenroit, qu'il s'en issist par desous. Et quant 
il oi cbou, si commencha si hideusement a crier ke U me fu auis que 
on le deust oir par tout le pais. Et tantost vint illuec vne si grans 
compaignie de dyables que ie ne quidai mie qu'en tout le mont en 
eust tant. Et quant il virent les paroles du liuret que ie tenoie 
ouuert. Si ne veistes onques nul estourbillon si tost ne si hideuse- after routing a 

troop of devils, 

ment aler com il s'en alerent. Et le me trois pres del foursene, si li 

mis le liure deuant la bouche, et tantost s'en issi li dyables par d"ves him out 

desous. Si s'en ala faisant si grant tempeste : ke il estoit auis que 

il esrachast tous les bos par la ou il aloit. Et lors remest li horn 

tous autresi comme mors. Et ie le pris entre mes bras, si le portai 

a laie de dieu deuant I'autel, si le gardai toute nuit illuec iusc' au '^^^ ™onk 

watches by the 

iour. Et quant il fu aiourne, si vmg deuant lui et demandai se il ™^° a" n's'^t. 
mengeroit. Et il me demanda qui iou estoie. Et ie dis ke n'eust 

D 



18 THE BEDEVILLED VEaETAKIAN IS MIRACULOUSLY FED. 

[=et iou li de- pas paoiir : car i'estoie venus pour son preu.^ Et il dist qu'il man- 

mandai quel ^ ^ ^ ^ 

viande il fferoit tel viande com il auoit acoustumee. Et il iura sacrefianche 

mangeroit] ^ 

The possessed qu'il auoit xxxiij . ans et demi ke il estoit hermites. et si auoit 

^TwiiiTO^at passse ix. ans et .iij. mois et demi k'il n' auoit mangiet se herbes 

"'^*'' non et fruit et racMnes. Ne iamais pour tant qu'il auoit a uiure ne 

gousteroit d'autre viande se diex proprement ne li envoioit. A tant 

le laissai gisant tout vain comme chelui qui n' auoit mangiet de nule 

viande puis que li anemis le commenclia premierement a traueiUier. 

Et ie dis mes cures, et puis me reuesti, si cantai la masse. Et 

quant ele fut cantee, et ie suis reuenus au boin bomme : si le trouai 

dormant mult dureinent. Et ie qui onques de toute la nuit n'auoie 

dormi se mult pau non m'acoutai de iouste lui sour .j. escamel, si 

The monk has a commeucbai a soumellier. Et lors me vint en avision qui restoie 

vision, showing • i j i t /> j ■ • 't mt 

him where to au pic du tcrtrc dosous vne lontame, si passoit par liluec vns vies 

eet fruit for the i ' 2. '± j. ' j.ix'j.' 

hermit; hom qui portait en son geron pumes et poires a grant plentei, et si 

les versoit el mien A tant me leuai, si aloi aual le tertre et si trouuai 
quankes ie auoie veu en ma vision. Et quant U preudom eut mis 

he gets it, le fruit en mon gron : si me dist. " Obascun ior troueras cbi ta 
viande apparellie par le grant maistre." Lors me retournai, si 

and feeds the trouuai Ic frcrc esuillie, si li baillai du fruit, et il en manga 
mult uolentiers comme cbil qui auoit iune qu'il ne se sous- 
tenist sour ses pies pour tout le monde. Tant demourai en sa 
compaignie que il fu tous garis et respasses. Et chascun iour 
trouuiens votre viande apparellie a la fontaine ensi comme li 

and starts home saius cspcris Ic uous amcnistrolt. Et quant vint au neuuisme 

on the ninth 

day. iour che fu au ioesdi apres le witaules, si m'en parti. Et quant ie pris 

congie du boin bomme, si commencba a plourer, et dist. ke ore estoit 
il mult esmaies quant ie m'en aloie. Apres me conta comment 
whjthedevu c'estoit auenu que li dyables I'auoit ensi trauillie. Et che auoit 
hemit! ° este par .j. pechie ke il auoit fait. Ne ne se recordoit pas qu'il eust 
fait pechie dont chars morteus se peust garder, ke seulement chelui 
puis qu'il auoit recheu abit de relegiou. Et quant il se fu rendus 
confes, si me requist ke ie priaise notre signour. ke il par sa pitic le 



THE MONK'S RETURN HOME WITH THE BOOK. HIS VISION. 19 

gardast de faixe pechie : par quoi il iamais conquesist son mautalent. 

A taut nous entrebaisames, si nous departimes andui a grans plours 

et a grant destreche. Et se on peust iugier home par veoir : le ne 

quit pas qu'un nul homme peust auoir plus de bonte que ie vi en 

lui. Or esgardes com diex est aspres iugieres et larges guerre- P"^ ^"."^ " * ^ 

doneres. Car ki tous iours I'ara serui, se il fenist en vn mesfait, * bounteous 

rewarder. 

tous les seruiches ara pierdus. et en che mesfait sera iugies. Et qui 

tous iours H ara mesfait : s'il se raert en son seruicbe, tuit si mesfait 

sont estaint, et ses seruiches li est a cent doubles guerredounes. 

Ensi dut cil auoir perdue 1' amour de son signour. par .j. mes fait 

qui auoit este en son seruiche le plus de son eage. Et chil le dut 

auoir gaignie. par vne seule oeure : qu'il auoit tous iours fui et 

eskieue. Chiertes : mult boin le fait seruir et manuals courechier. 

A tant pris congier. Et quant il m'eut conuoie iusc' a son peustis, 

si ueismes la beste qui m' auoit amene. Et U demanda ke che pooit The beast re- 
appears. 
estre. Et ie li dis ke ie n'auoie eu autre contredit : et k'ele estoit 

de par dieu. Et il dist, ke bien faisoit li sires a seruir qui si bien 

sauoit conduire ses sergans en sa besoinge. Ne onques ne poi aper- 

cheuoir ke nus en toute la voie veise la beste : que il seulement. 

Lors me departi du boin home, si m'en reuing tout autresi com ie The monk 

i'gSig1i6& 0.0 rod 

i estoie ales, tant ke ie uing au samedi au soir a mon hermitage, on Saturday 

Mais le liuret ne laissai ie mie anchois I'en aportai. Car trop *'^''"'"^' 

desiroie le compaignie des saintes paroles qui i estoient. Et quant 

ie I'oi ostoie la u ie I'auoie mis premierement, si lis le seruiche de 

uespres et de compile. Apres mangai che que notre signour plot, 

et si m'alai couchier, car i'estoie mult las. Ichele nuit m'auint His vision. 

vne auisions, ke li grans maistres uenoit deuant moi en autel habit chnst appears, 

" , and commands 

com il auoit fait a I'autre fois. Et si me disoit " au premier iour ou- tim to copy The 

Book into 

uraule de la semaine qui enterra demam, te conuent a commen- another. 
chier a escrire en autre lieu le liuret que je te baillai, si ke tu I'aies 
escrit ains I'ascention. Car il ni ert ia veus en terre puis que I'eure 
uenra que ie montai el chiel a chiel eure meisme. Et toutes les 
coses qui te conuerront a 1' escrire : trouueras en I'aumaire qui 

d2 



20 HE BEGINS TO COPT THE BOOK OP THE HOLY GKAIL. 

est el mur derrier ton autel. Et ne t'esmaie pas de che ke tu 
ne fesis onques tel mestier. Car imle oeure ne puet estre maufaite 
qui par moi soit commenchie." A tant s'en parti. Et au matin 
quant ie fui leues, si alai a I'aumaire pour esprouer se ma 
visions estoit uraie. Si trouuai toutes les coses qui conuenoient 
On Monday he g, escriueut.* Et ouaut li dimenclies fu passes, et ie oi au lundi 

begins to copy ^ ■*- 

The Book of the jg, messe chantee, si pris Ie liuret et Ie parchemin, et commencliai a 

Holy Grail. ^ ^ 

escrire tout droit au lundi de la quinsaine de pasques. Et li com- 
meuchemens de I'escripture si fu pris del crucefiement iesus crist 
ensi comme vous orres. 

* Au matin me leuai ensi comme il m' auoit roue, et trouai tot ce qu' il oouenoit a 
escriuain, pene, encre, parcemin, et coutel. (MS. 10,292.) 



21 



LI LIVBES DU SAINT GBAAL. 



CHAPTER I. 

Of Christ on the Cross. Of the character of Joseph of Arimathea (p. 22). How he got 
the dish out of which Christ eat the Last Supper with his Disciples. How he was 
one of Pilate's knights, and begged Christ's body from him (p. 23), and put it in his 
own sepulchre, and then collected the drops of Christ's blood in the dish of the 
Last Supper (p. 24). How Joseph slept in the sepulchre, and some Jews seized 
him, and carried him away to a prison of Caiaphas's (p. 25). How he lived forty- 
two yeai'S in the prison, and how he was delivered out of it on this wise : — 
Vespasian, Titus's son, was a leper; a knight from Capernaum tells him that a 
touch from anything Christ has touched will cure him (p. 27); the knight returns 
to Judea, and gets the Veronica kerchief from Mary the Venetian (p. 28), and cures 
Vespasian with it (p. 29). Vespasian goes to Jerusalem and seizes all who were 
concerned in Christ's death. Joseph's wife tells him of her husband (p. 29); 
Caiaphas takes him to the prison (p. 30); and Vespasian goes down into it (p. 30-1). 
He releases Joseph, burns the abettors of Christ's death (p. 32), discusses what 
shall be done with Caiaphas (p. 33), and has him put into a boat by himself, and 
pushed out to sea (p. 34). 

Au iour qui li sauueres du monde souffri mort par la qui mort [s.mort,fumors 

destruite, et 

notre mors qm a nous estoit coudempnable fu racatee perdurable- notre uie 
ment : a chel iour estoit encore mult peu de ejent qui creissent en lui. 

. How few 

Ne mais ke la s?lorieuse virare puchiele sa douche mere et ses desciples believed on 

° -^ . . Christ at his 

qui a ch.el iour estoient apiele si frerev Et s il en i auoit des autres : crucifixion. 
qui creissent : mult en i auoit a cler. Car I'escripture dist que 
quant il dist. " Biaus pere, se il puet estre que ie ne sustienge cheste 
passion." que il n'en estois pas si courrechies pour I'angoisse des 
cors comme pour chou ke il veoit ke s'amours n' auoit encore nului 
radiate. Ne il ne veoit nului qui il eust conquis par sa mort, ke 
seulement le larron qui li cria le merchi en la crois. Et pour cheste 
cose dist I'escriture. " le suis autresi comme chil qui conkeut I'es- [cueiie lesteuie 
teule en le maison." Et ch'est a dire qu'il n'auoit encore nului rachate meislonj^ 
par sa mort : que le larron qui estoit nolens enuers 1' autre gent 



22 



OP JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA AND HIS SON JOSEPHES. 



a secret 
believer. 



How good he 
was. 



autresi com li estenle est noiens eriuers le grain. Et ne pour quant 

il estout mout de cheus qui auoient le commenclienient de croire, 

mais il ne I'osoient mie faire apiertement, car il doutoient les juis. 

How Joseph of Mais de de-seure tons les couuiers creans, parole li sainte escriture 

Anmathea was 

du graal du gentU homme d'un chiualer qui estoit a che tans, qui 
auoit non Joseph de Arimathie. ArimatMe estoit vne chites en la 
terre de ramathe outre le flun iordain. et si dist la letre que ele fu 
elchane le pere samuel. De chele cHte fu nes Joseph. Mais il 
s'en estoit venus en iherusalem. .vij. ans devant que ihesus cris fu mis 
en la crois. Et mult estoit piteus et dous et de grant relegion, et 
si auoit recheu la creanche iesus crist. Mais il n'en osoit faire sam- 
blant ke li iuif ne I'ochesissent. De toutes les bontes Id en homme 
niortel pooient estre : estoit ioseph gamis. Car il amoit dieu et 
doutoit. II estoit piteus et deboinaires vers son proisme. II estoit 
de grant honneur et de grant reuerence vers les plus haus de lui. 
II estoit paisiules et concordans vers ses parens. II estoit sans 
damage et sans nuisement as plus has de lui. II estoit de grant 
misericorde plains vers les souffraiteus. Toutes ches bontes es- 
toient en lui. Et de lui parole li premiere saume du sautier qui 
dist. " Li hom est boinereus qui ne s'acorde pas ne consenti : au 
conseil des felons. Et qui ne vaut aler par la voie as pecheours ! " 
Ichis ioseph etoit en iherusalem, et sa feme, et vns siens fiex 
qui ot non iosephes. Et sachies qui che ne fu mie chil iosephes 
qui r escriture trait si souuent a tesmoing, anchois fu vns autres 
qui ne fu mie mains letres de chelui. Ichist iosephes passa 
le lignage ioseph son pere outre mere iusqu'en la bloie ber- 
sea^wfthfte"'^^'^ taigQC qui ore a non engleterre. Et si les passa sans auiron et 
fora'^in^^''''^' ^^^^ gouuernal, et onques ni ot uoile : ke le geron de sa chemise, 
sans plus, ensi com I'estoire le dira cha en auant. Et quant vint au 
ior ke ihesus fu mis en crois. Joseph qui toute s'amour auoit en lui 
mise, en eut mult grant duel. Et si se pensa ke toutes les coses qui 
a lui apartenroient essaucheroit mult volentiers et honerroit. Car 
il ne I'eust pas ame a la vie se il ne I'amast a la mort. Et pour chou 



His son 
Josephes 



(who comes to 
"White Britain 



JOSEPH GETS THE DISH OF THE LAST SUPPER, AND CHBIST's BODY. 23 

dist la letre ' que nule auersites ne puet departir loial amour.' Quant 
ioseph vit chelui en la crois qui il creoit a fil dieu et a sauueour du 
monde : si ne fu pas esbahis ne mescreans pour chou que il le vit 
mourir. Anchois atendoit, et creoit certainement sa sainte resur- 
rection. Et pour cliou qu'il ne le pooit auoir uif, si pensa que il 
feroit tant qu'U aroit de ches coses a quoi il auoit touchie corporel- 
ment en sa vie. Lors en vint en la maison ou ihesus auoit tenue sa Joseph goes to 
chaine, la u il manga I'aigniel de pasques auoec ses desciples. Et jesus eat the 
quant il vint en la maison, si demanda a ueoir le lieu ou il auoit ^ "''''*'^' 
mangie. Et on li moustra vn lieu qui estoit establis pour mangier : 
si estoit li plus haus estages de la maison, lUuec trouua ioseph andsndsthe 

... ^^^ '" which 

I'escuele en quoi le fiex dieu auoit mangie, soi tresime, deuant He had eaten, 

che qu'il dounast as onse sa char et son sane a vser. Et quant 

il le tint, si en fu mult lies, si I'enporta en sa maison et si I'ostoia a°<i «*"ie8 it 

^ _ home. 

en multe honeste lieu et en mult biel. Et quant il sent que 

li sauueres du monde estoit mors, et ke cMl I'auoient trouue 

mort qui li voloient brisier les quisses autresi com as autres 

larrons. II ne vaut mie tant atendre ke li felon li desloial 

qui le mescroient le despendissent ne le mesissent ius de la crois a 

lor ordres mains cunchiies. Ancbois vint il a pilate qui chiualers Joseph is one of 

terriens il estoit. Car U auoit este ses saudoiers .vij. ans tons plains. fsoidoieJ's]'^'"'' 

Efc quant il vint deuant lui, si li pria en guerredon de tons les 

seruicbes qui il H auoit fait, li otriast .j. don qui de mult petit couste- and begs acheap 

ment li serroit. Et pilates, qui mult amoit et lui et son seruicbe : ^"° """' 

li respondi ke il 1' aroit Oar il le deuoit bien auoir plus riche qu'il 

n'auoit dit. Et iosepb li demanda le cors ibesu, et pilates li dona Christ's body. 

comme cbU qui ne sauoit ke il li dounoit. Oar il li quidoit douner 

le cors d'un poure pecbeour : et il H dounoit le pardon des pecbeours iiow great the 

, . -ri T • 1 1 1 S'f' really was. 

et le pam de vie. II li quida doner vne poure caronge pour don : 
et il douna le douneour de tous le grans et le resuscitement de toutes 
les karoignes qui en forme humaine sont fourmees. Ohe fu li plus 
riches dons que nus bom morteus donast onques. Mais pour chou 
que la conscience pilate fu tele ke il ne sauoit qu'il li douna. Pour 
chou le doit on mieus apieler despit ke don. Oar se il creist la 



24 HE BURIES THE BODY, AND COLLECTS ITS BLOOD IN THE DISH. 

grant liautece et la puissanclie dont cliil estoit qui cors il auoit 

done, il n'en presist pas toute la rikeclie et la signourie du monde. 

Et ioseph qui la grant hauteclie du don counissoit bien : en fu mult 

ioians quant il li fu otroies. Et si s'en tint bien apaiet : mult plus 

Joseph weeps que pylates ne s'en tint a bien paiant. Et quant il vint a la crois 

ou il pendoit encore : si commenclia a plourer mult tenrement pour 

les grans dolours ke il veoit qu'il auoit souifertes. Et quant il I'eut 

bo'r" and ° 't ^ despoudu Sb graus souspirs et a grans plours, si le coucba en vn 

it in his sepulcre qu'il auoit fait trencHer en la roebe : ou il- meismes deuoit 

sepulchre. ^ -*- 

estre mis a sa mort. Puis ala querre I'escuele en sa maison.* 
Gets the dish, j]t quaut 11 vlut au cors si com quelli le degout du sane tant com 

collects Christ s -■- X D 

blood in it. n en puet auoir et si le mist en I'escuele. Puis reporta I'escuele en 

sa maison, par qui diex fist et moustra puis maintes virtus et en 

[promission] tcrre dc permission et en maintes autres terres. Et quant il I'eut 

Wraps the body yj^n el plus net Hcu ke il sauoit, si prist de ses plus ricbes dras, et 

m rich cloths ; -^ ^ '■ 

s'en tourna au sepulcbre, si enseueli le cors de son signour si ricbe- 

ment et a grant bonnour com il pent plus. Et quant il I'eut 

puts a great enseucli, si le coucba el sepulcbre. et si mist a I'entree vne pierre 

stone at the . -*- 

entrance of the mult grant ct mult pcsaut, pour cbou qu'il ne voloit que nus entrast 
el lieu ou si baute cose gisoit com estoit li cors del fil dieu. Mais 

Mger^"^^ quant li iuif virent ke ioseph auoit despendu de la crois cbelui qui 
il auoient iugiet a mort et dampne : et qu'il I'auoit si bautement 
enseueli, si en furent mult courcbie et mult le tinrent a grant 
orguel. Si prisent consel ensamble, et disent ke bien estoit drois ke 
iosepb comparast cbe ke il auoit fait, et centre dieu et encontre le 

* Here follows an illustration with a different version of the blood-gathering. The 
heading is — " Ensi que iosephs recoilli le degout du sane qui issoit des plaiies notre 
seigneur qui puis fa apeles li saint graalz.'' The illustration figures Joseph sitting under 
the cross, and collecting the drops of blood from the chest and feet in a basin. Mary 
wringing her hands stands on Christ's right, and John, pointing to him, on the left. 
The cross-bars of the thieves' crosses pass under their arms behind their backs, their 
hands are folded on their bellies in front, and crosses of blood are on their folded hands, 
as if nails had been driven right through the hands and bellies. In MS. 10,292, an 
angel is carrying off the child-soul of the repentant thief on the right ; while a devil 
pounces on that of the unrepentant one on the left. 



THE JEWS PUT JOSEPH IN PRISON, AND CHRIST APPEARS TO HIM. 25 

loy. Si pourparlerent ke il le prenderoient la nuit del premier 
somme : et si 1 en menroient ' en tel lieu ke lamais n oroit on de lui peats, "la nuit 
enseignies. A che conseil se tinrent tout; si murent la nuit del somme^et^si 
premier somme et feri I'uns d'aus a I'uis. Et quant il fu ouuers si roknt"] 
enterrent tuit ens a vne bruie, et prisent ioseph. tout endormi, si The Jews seize 

■■- ^ Joseph and 

I'enmenerent loing de iherusalem Men .v. lieues en vne fort maison carry him off 

, out of Jeru- 

qui estoit I'eueske chayplias. Icliele maisons estoit en vne mult saiem, 

grant marescliiere. si i auoit ,j. pUer tout crues qui sambloit estre 

massis. Dedens clie piler auoit la plus Hdeuse chartre qui onques 

fust veue, et la plus orde. Ne nus ne s'en aperchust se il ne li fust 

dit auant. tant soutiement estoit ouuree. Quant il orent ioseph mis „"^to two^'rf 

hors de iherusalem, si le liurerent a deus seulement qui auoient iure their set, who 

■I put him m 

ke ia nus paraus n'en saroit nouueles. Ohil le menerent en la prison, and 

■■■ order him to be 

chartre, et deffendirent au chartrier ke il n'eust a manger ke vne f^d on bread 

and water. 

pieche de pain le iour et plain hanap di aue. Et maintenant s'en 
retornerent en iherusalem si qu'U i furent anchois qu'il aiournast. 
Et lors si oir-ent le tumulte et la grant plainte de ioseph qui pendus 
est. Et quant pilates le sent, si su fu mult dolens, mais U n'en sent 
que faire. car il pensoit bien que che auoient fait li iuif par le con- 
seil des maistres de la loy. si n'en sauoit que faire. Et quant uint 
au diemenche ke ihesus fu resussites, et les gardes orent dit as iuis W"™ ^i^^t 

rises Caiaphas 

comment il auoient pierdu ihesu : si manda chayphas a son chartrier teiis the jailer 

... - ... I'll. to let Joseph 

qu il ne li donnast lamais a manger, anchois le loissast morir de faim. starve, 
Mais li sires pour qui seruiche li iuif pour-cachoient sa mort, ne le 
vaut pas werpir en sa meschanche. Anchois li guerredouna a chent 
doubles son seruiche. Oar maintenant ke ses cors fu issus du 
sepulchre, vint il a lui en la chartre ou il estoit, et si li porta por tut Christ 

i J? 1. 1 • j_ 1 • ■, . brings him the 

compaignie et pour comiort : la samte escuele que ioseph auoit Dish with the 
ostoie en sa maison a tot le sane qu'il auoit requelli. Et quant prison!" " 
ioseph le vit, si en fu mult lies : et lors sent il vraiement ke ch'estoit 
diex : si ne s'en repentoit mie de son seruiche : Anchois auoit tel 
ioie ke il ne li chaloit de la prison puis qu'il auoit le confort et la 
compaignie de son signour. Ensi apparut li sauueres du monde a 

E 



26 JOSEPH STATS 42 TEARS IN THE PRISON, AND IS THEN DELIVERED. 

Christ comforts ioseph aiichois ke a autrui. Et si la conforta mult, et dist que ' bien 

Joseph, and i ■>■ 

assures him he f^g^ jj sBurs Qu'il 116 morroit. pas en la prison, ains en istroit tous 

shall live, -■■ -^ -■■ 

sains et tout saus, ne ia mal ne doleur ni auroit, et si seroit tous 

iours en sa compaignie. Et quant U en istroit, H tourneroit a 

„. merueille tout le mont qui le uerroit. Et apres serroit ses nons 

and carry His -^ _ '■ 

name to foreign portcs eu cstraiuges Hsus : et par lui et par ses oirs. Mais encore 

ne estoit pas li termes que il en issist, ains demourroit grant pieclie 

tant que tous li siecles quiderait qu'il fust mors. Et quant il Ten 

uerroient issir, si en serroit ses nons glorejBles et loes, et maintes 

gens en kerroient.' Ensi remest ioseph en la prison tant que tous 

Joseph's wife estolt oubUos et ke nus ne tenoit mais parole de lui. Si remest sa 

jo^ephesTre feme mult esgarcB, qui encore estoit iouene feme. Et ses flex 

dismayed. iosepbe qul n'auoit k'an et demi quant ses peres fu mis en prison. 

Si fu la dame maintes fois amonestee de marier. Mais ele dit k'ele 

But she will not n'aroit iamais carnel compaignie deuant k'ele seust certaine nouuele 

marry again, ^^ ^^^ marl. Car cl I'amoit sour toute creature Et quant li enfes 

uint a age de marier, si li en orterent si parent que il se mariast. 

Mais n estoit si espris de I'amour ihesu crist par I'amonestement 

and her son de sa merc, qu'il dist qu'il ne feroit ia mariage de soi que a sainte 

Hoiy°chi^ch!^ eglise seulement. Oar il creoient andoi, et auoient recbeu bap- 

tesme en la maia .s'. lakeme le menor. qui fu eueskes de iberu- 

salem : grant tans puis la mort ibesus crist. Et iosepb fu en la 

How Joseph prison, ensi com vous aues oi : tant qu'il i demoura .xlij. ans, et lors 

in'^pris^o^n.^and ^'^h geta vaspasicus H empereres de rome. Et si orres comment il 

delivered mt dcmoura .xlij. ans. Au iour que ihesus fu crucefies, tenoit tyberius 

°'''- Cesar 1' empire de rome, et apres cbe le tiat il .x. ans. Apres regna 

Thereignsof . . . • i • -pj- 1 j- • 

the Roman Em- gaius SBs uics, qui UB vcsqui KG .J. au. Et aprcs regna claudiens qui 

chri^.'' "'^ tiat I'empire de rome .xiiij. ans. Apres claudien regna noirons, 

sous qui s'. pierres fu crucefies et .s'. paus decoles. Et si ne 

tint I'empire que .xiiij. ans. Apres noiron regna tytus et vas- 

vespasian was pasucns. SBS ficx, qui fu mesiaus. Et au tiercb an que titus recbut 

a leper. .„. i'j_i . -n. i- 

1 empire, lu ioseph letes de prison. E si poes center .xnj. ans del 
cruchefiement ihesu crist iusc' au deliurement de iosepb. Et si 



HOW VESPASIAN, THE SON OF TITUS, WAS A lEPEB. 27 

ores comment il fu deliures. II avint le premier an ke titus fu 
empereres que ses flex vaspasiiens deuint mesiaus si tres durement Vespasian be. 

^ ^ ■"■ comes leprous. 

que nus ne le pooit souflPrir. De clieste cose eut titus si grant duel : 

qu'il n'en pooit estre confortes. Et fist sauoir par toutes terres ke Titus offers gifts 

to any one who 

qui porroit son fil garir de la meselerie, il li donroit si riche don wiii cure his 
com il osoroit dire de bouclie'. Et quant il *eut par tout fait sauoir, 
si ne trouua home qui 1' en seust garir. Tant qu'U auint cose c'un 
cMualers de ners capharnaum vint a rome, qui en oi la parole, a knight of 

■^ ^ _ Capernaum 

Et quant il vint deuant I'emperour, si dist qu'il parleroit uolentiers asks to talk with 

Vespasian, 

a son fil pour son preu. Et il le fist mener a la fenestre d'une 

cambre ou il estoit tous seus, si parloit on a lui par chele fenestre. 

Car on ne peust autrement souffrir le grant puasine qui de lui issoit. 

Et quant il eut son chief mis hors par la fenestre, si le regarda li 

chiualers, et vit qu'il estoit plus mesiaus que nus ne peust penser. 

Et chil H demanda tantost. se il sauoit aucune cose qui li peust auoir and teiis him 

mestier. Et li chivalers li dist. " Sire, certes ie uous j avoie, pour walaiep™!^ 

che ke ie fui ia mesiaus en m'enffanche." "Ha: biaus sire, dist by jIsuI,*'"'^ 

chU, comment en garistes vous donques." " Chertes, dit cil, par .j. 

prophete qui fu en iudee ke li iuif ochisent a grant tort." " Et par 

quoi vous engari il," che dist uaspasiens. " Chertes, dist chil, il ne who touched 

fist ke touchier a moi et tantost fui tous garis." " Coument, dist him whoi"^ * 

il : si estoit de si grant pooir. qu'il garissoit de meselerie :" " Certes, 

sire, dist li chiualers, encore faisait il plus. Car il resuscitoit les 

mors." Et il demanda pour quoi il auoit este ochis. " Certes, sire, 

dist il, por chou k'il prechoit ueritei, et ke il reprennoit les iuis de 

lor felounies. Et ie croi ke se vous tenies cose a quoi il eust anithatany. 

-'- thing that 

touche, que vous gariries maintenant." Quant chil I'oi, si en eut christhas 

touched would 

trop grant leeche, et si fist enuoier quere son pere. Et si li fist ""■■e Vespa- 

... , sian. 

center la parole, car li ne pooit mais gaires parler. Et titus dist xitus says he 
qu'U enuoieroit sauoir se on porroit nens trouuer ki a lui eust ^mel;Wng*^°'^ 
touchie. " Sire, dist uaspasiens, pries ent chest chiualer qui est 
de la terre. Et si li dounes tant du uotre ke il fache chest 
message. Car li cuers me dist que ie garirai. Et se g'en puis garir, 

e2 



28 



A KNIGHT GETS THE VERONICA KERCHIEr TO CURE VESPASIAN. 



Titus asks the 
knight to un- 
dertake the 
task. 



The knight 
iinds Felix go- 
vernor of Jeru- 
salem, 



and orders him 
to have procla- 
mation made 
for anything 
Christ has 
touched. 



Mary brings 
the Veronica 
cloth, and the 
knight takes it 
to Rome. 



Vespasian's 
dream. 



ie promecli bien an prophete que ie prendrai uenianclie de la honte 
ke li iuif li fisent. Tant pria titus Ie cMualer ke il li otria a faire 
son message. Et il li bailla mult riche harnois, et si li bailla son 
seel, ke tout cbil a qui cbes letres venroient. fesissent quanque il 
commanderoit. Lors en uint H cMualers en iudee, si tronua en 
iherusalem vn romain qui auoit non felis, qui a cbel iour estoit 
garde de iudee et de sulie ensi, com li romain metoient lor gardes 
par les terres ke il auoient conquises. A chelui bailla li cMualers Ie 
seel I'emperour. Et quant cbil ot leu les letres, si dist que il com- 
mandast son plaisir. et il seroit fais. Et li cMualers dist : ke il fesist 
crier par toute la terre, ke qui aroit nule cose ke ihesus eust tenue : 
aportast Ie auant. Et qui encheleroit riens, et il peust etre apercbeu : 
il n'en porroit eschaper per ke il n'en mourust. Ensi com il Ie 
commanda, ensi fu crie en iherusalem tout premierement. Mais 
onques ne vint auant qui riens en reconeust. Eors que vne feme de 
mult grant aage qui auoit nom marie la uemssiene. Chele vint 
a felis, et si li porta vne piecbe de toille k'ele auoit garde mult 
honorement puis Ie cruchefiement de ihesu. Et si Ie dist, " Sire, au 
jour que li sains propbetes fu menes cruchefiier, si passoie ie deuant 
lui, si portoie vne pieche de toille uendre. Et il m'apiela, si me 
pria ke ie li prestaisse cbele toille pour son vis essuer qui li degou- 
toit tous de suour. Et quant ie Ten oi essue, si I'enuolepai : et 
I'enporta en maison. Et quant ie Ie desuolepai, si trouuai la figure 
ibesu autresi parant ke se on I'eust painte en vne paroit. Des la 
en cha I'ai gardee, si ne fm onques puis si malade, se ie Ie poi veoir 
ke maintenant ne fuisse toute garie." Et ele desploia la toile, si 
sambla k'ele fust toute nouelement tissue, et la figure i paroit 
autresi bien com s'ele i eust este lors emprientee. Chele toille en 
aporta U cMualers a rome. Et '1 auint deuant che qu'il i uenist, si 
songoit vespasiiens ke vns hom venoit de uers li chiel, si Ie prenoit 
as ongles, si I'escorchoit tout. Et quant il estoit escorchies, si gar- 
doit, en j. miroir s'il se pooit counoistre. Et tous li siecles couroit 
apres lui et disoient " venes veoir I'omme mort qui est reuescus." 



VESPASIAN IS CUREB ; AND SEIZES CHRIST's PERSECUTORS. 29 

Au matin, quant il fu leues, si uint ses peres deuant lui com chil 
qui I'amoit sour toute riens. Et quant vaspasiens le vit, si li dist. 
" Sire, faites vous lie, car ie sai de uoir que ie garirai," et lors si li dist 
son songe. A ch.es paroles vint li chiualers. Et quant vaspasiiens 
le vit, qui encore estoit a la fenestre, si senti que tout li membre li 
alegoient. Si commencha a hucMer de si loing com il le vit. 
" vous soiies li bien venus, cor vous aportes ma sante." Et li chi- 
ualers desploia tantost la toille sans plus dire. Et maintenant que On seeing the 

. .jTin •nil- ;i cloth, Vespasian 

vaspasuens vit lempriente de la figure : si lu plus biens et plus is healed, 
sains ke il n'auoit onques este nul iour, Et quant ses peres le vit, 
et les autres gens, si fu la ioie si grans que nus ne le kerroit qui 
veue ne I'eust. Et lors prist vaspasiens la visiere, si I'ostoia au plus 
houneraulement que il pent. Et si dist qu'il ne fineroit iamais ^""^ declares 

■'■■'■ _ ■■■ that he will 

deuant cbe qu'il eust uengiet la bonte au signeur qui sante li auoit take revenge 

^ ° . f"^ Christ's 

rendue. Maintenant fist atourner son oirre et mut pour aler en death. 
iudee, et si enmena le cbiualer auoec lui, et si le fist signeur de toute sa 
maison. Et quant il fu uenus en iberusalem : si fist venir deuant lui He goes to 

., .. i-ijiii* J 1. . 1 Jerusalem. 

mane la uenissiene, Et chele li nouma tous cmaus qui encbore ,, 

-•■ Mary names the 

viuoient par qui forcbe et par pui conseil : ibesu crist auoit recbeu t^^'^<"'s ='g^i"st 
mort. Et vaspasiens les fist tous prendre, et si fist faire .j. grant fu, et are taken. 
dist que la les ardroit tous. Et quant la feme iosepb oi cbes nouueles : Joseph's wife 
si vint auant entre li et son fil. Et si se clama de son singneur que husband. ""^ 
il li auoient tolu, ne onques puis ensenges n'en auoit oies. Et on li 
demanda pour quoi il auoit ibesu despendu de 1^ crois : et mis en .j. 
sien sepulcre. Et quant il oi cbou, si iura qu'il les arderoit tous se 
il ne li enseignoient ou il estoit. Et cbil li respondirent ke ardoir The traitors 

, - , -T 1 • • ( 1 •! ',•,--, cannot tell 

les porroit : car il ne li porroient rendre, ne il ne sauoient qu il where he is, 
estoit deuenus. Et il disoient uoir. ke il n'en sauoient nule uerite. 
Ne des .ij. qui le menerent en la prison : ni auoit il mais c'un seul 
vif. Oar li autres eut la teste caupee dedens la semaine ke il I'orent 
enprisoune. Et li cartriers chai des fenestres de la tour a terre 
I'endemain ke il li laissa a douner a manger. Ensi ne remest que li though caia- 
vns vis, cbe fu chaypbas qui estoit euesques des iuis I'an ke ibesu '"'''" ^"°^^^' 



30 CAIAPHAS TAKES VESPASIAN TO JOSEPH'S PKISON. 

cris morut. Et quant il virent ke mourir les couuerroit : si dirent 
que d'aus porroit il faire sa uolente et son commandement, car il 
estoit uoirs qu'il avoient pris ioseph. Mais il I'auoient bailliet a 
deus d'aus, pour chou qu'il ne yoloient pas ke il seussent tuit ou il 
serroit en prison. De ches .ij. estoit chayphas li vns. Et se cliil 
n'el sauoit, dont n'en orroit il iamais nouuieles par nule homnie. 
caiaphas is Lors demaiida chayphas a veoir. Et quant il fu venus deuant lui, si 

brought up, . 

and the others le fist biou gardor : et tous les autres fist ardoir. Et quant il furent 

are burnt. . 

ars, si dist a chayphas ke U feroit de lui la grignour iustiche qui 

Caiaphas agrees ouqucs fust faltc d'omo SO 11 uc H rendoit ioseph. Et chayphas re- 

joseph was spoudoit quc ' dout en pooit il faire la iustice tele com lui plairoit, ke 

hTisToTtobe se tout cMl du moudc I'auoient iure, n'el porroient il rendre vif, se 

diex meismes non. Mais il li enseigneroit le lieu ou il auoit este en 

prison mis. Car de sa uie ne sauvoit il riens. Mais ke che fust par 

tel conuent qu'il ne fust ars ne ochis.' Et vaspasiens respondi que 

tous seurs fust, car il li creantoit loiaument ke il ne le feroit ne 

Hetaiiesthem ardoir uc ocMrrc. Et lors le mena chayphas a sa tour, au piler 

e prison, ^^ ^ estolt. Et si dist, " Sire, en chest pUer fu il mis des que 

ihesus fu cruchefiies que ie n'auoie mie .xxxiij. ans qui ore sui 

si viens con vous poes veoir." Et vaspasiiens li dist, " Ne t'es- 

maie. car chil pour qui il i fu mis : est tous poissans de lui 

garder sain et sauf et tant et plus. Oar moi qui onques serui 

ne I'auoie, a il gari de plus vU mal qui soit." Lors commanda a 

chayphas ke U entrast en la chartre. et se il ne le trouoit vif, 

but refuses to sl cu aportast Ics OS. Et chayphas respondi ke il ni enterroit s'il le 

deuoit tous desmembrer. Et uaspasiens respondi ke il n' auoit pas 

tort, car il n' estoit pas raisons que si desloiaus pechieres entrast en 

lieu ou si preudom fust com chil estoit qui de la crois auoit despendu 

Vespasian goes le sauueour du moude. Lors dist qu'il meismes i enterroit. Si le 

down into it. 

fist aualer ens a cheus ou il plus secreoit. Et quant il vint a ual, si 
vit entour lui si grant clarte, ke s'U i eust .c. chierges alumes ele 
ni fust pas si grans. Et il se tint a vne part tous cois : si fu tous 
esbahis de la grant clarte qu'il ueoit. Et quant il ot este grant 



VESPASIAN TAKES JOSEPH OUT OP PRISON. 31 

pieche, si apiela ioseph. et ioseph respondi. " Biaus sire diex, qui 

est che qui m'apiele." " le sui, dist il, uaspasiiens li flex I'empe- Jo^geph'^hote 

reour." Et ioseph s'esmerueilla, car il ne quidoit auoir demoure "' 

en la prison com tant com il auoit du uenredi insc'au dimenclie. Et 

an dimenclie li apparu ihesu cris : si ne quidoit pas ke en si peu de 

tans i eust empereour cangie. Car la clartes ke ihesu cris i aporta 

quant il li apparut : ne estoit onques puis falie, si ne quidoit pas 

qu'il li fust onques puis auuitie. Lors demanda a uaspasiien, qu'il 

uoloit faire de lui. Et uaspasiiens li dist, ke il I'estoit uenus deliurer : and that he has 

i . . T 1J5T -t o •! -nj come to deliver 

et uengier son signour des grans nontes c om ii auoit laites. hi him. 
quant ioseph I'oi, si en eut mult grant ioie. Lors se fist traire uas- 
pasiiens a mont tout premierement pour dire la sus la grant meruelle 
de la ioie qui ert a ual. Endementiers vint vne vols a ioseph qui li a heavenly 

voice tells 

dist. "Ne t'esmaie mie : mais soies tous seurs. car li terriens Joseph not to 

fear. 

vengieres est uenus. Ohil te uengera de tes anemis corporelment. 

Mais I'esperitueus uenianche sera asses plus gries. Et quant tu 

aras veu quel uenianche il en aura prise : si te mousterrai com grans 

paines il te conuenra souffrir pour mon non porter par les estranges 

terras." Et ioseph li respondi : " Sire, vos sergans est apparellies He asks after 

a souffrir toutes les coses ke votre bouche li daignera commander. * ^ ^"'^ °'^'' ' 

mais que ferai je de uo sainte escuele. Car ie vauroie mult qu'ele 

peust estre celee, et ke ia nus ne le veist." Et la vois li respondi, 

" Ne t'esmaie de 1' escuele. Car quant tu uenras en ta maison, tu the voice savs 

le trouueras en cheli Heu ou tu I'auoies mise : quant ie le te aportai ^l^^ ^^ '" '^'^ 

chaiens. Or t'en va, car ie tepren en garde et en conduit vers tous 

homes." A tant s'en teut la vois, et vaspasiiens qui ia estoit en haut, le Joseph is 

refist traire a mont. Et quant chayphas le vit qui estoit illueques, si of^ptLT' 

ne H fa mie auis ke il fust enuiellis ne tant ne quant. Anchois dist qu'il 

ne I'auoit onques veu plus biel qu'il estoit ore, Et ioseph, quant il le ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

uit, ne le peust counoistre, tant estoit enuiellies et debrisies. Ne son ^1°^ '^'T: 

' ■•■ phas, or his 

fil meisme quant il le vint baisier,n'el counut il mie : anchois demanda '""' ^''"■ 
qui il estoit. Et chil qui entour estoient, li disent qu'il estoit ses fleus : 
et il n'el crei mie. Apres le courut sa feme a coler et baisier, et il 



32 Joseph's return home, vespasian burns Christ's enemies. 

le commenclia a regarder pour che que trop estoit cangie. Et ele li 

dist, " Sire, dont ne me counissies vous. Je sui elyab votre femme, 

Joseph doesn't et cliis est loseplie votre fiex." Et il li dist ke il ne Ten kerra ia, se 

know his wife, i^ -, • i • • 1-1, .. ,.-,. 

ele ne Ten desist uraies ensegnes priuees. Et vaspasuens h dist. 

" ioseph com-bien quidies vous auoir este en cheste prison " Et 

and thinks he ioseph 11 dlst, " Slro, ie i quit auoir demoure des uenredi iuscb'a liui, 

has been only , , ,.,..,,-,, , _,. 

one day in pri- et le quit qu il soit hui diemenches. Et uenredi despendi iou le urai 



son; 



propbete de la crois pour qui ie fui en prison mis." Et quant il 
eut cbe dit. Si commencbierent a rire tout cbU qui estoient entour 
lui. Car U quidoient que il fust ensi estourdis. Mais plus s'esmer- 
uella caypbas de cbe qu'il auoit tant uescu sans boire et sans mangier. 
but Vespasian Et vaspaslleus U dlst, " Par foi, il me font entendant ke il a .xlij. ans 

tells him he has i j. i? ■ • j. i j. 1 • • 

been there 42 kc 11 propbetes lu uus en crois, et ke vous aues este .xlij . ans en prison. 

^''''"' Et quant vous fustes enprisounes tyberius cesar estoit empereres de 

rome, et puis en i a eu trois. Ore est mes peres U quars." Quant 

ioseph cbe oi, si s'esmeruella trop. Et uaspasiiens li amena caypbas 

deuant li, si li demanda si il le counissoit. Et il ne le counut mie : 

si demanda qui il estoit. Et U respondi ke il estoit caypbas qui 

I'auoit mis en la prison entre lui et vn autre. Et si li dist, " tes en- 

seignes qui quant il I'orent amene iusc'au pie de la tour, si le lais- 

sierent si durement cbaoir a terre. ke il eut vne plaie sour le sour- 

cbil." Icbas ensegnes conut bien iosepb, si lor moustra la plaie. et 

Joseph returns Quaut 11 vlut eu Iberusalem. si H coururent si ami encontre, et les au- 
to Jerusalem, 

tres gens ensamble. Mais mult en i eut peu qui il peust counoistre, 

ne des siens ne des estranges. Et vaspasiiens fist prendre tons cbiaus 

que on pent trouuer, si les fist amener deuant iosepb. Et tous 

points out the cbeus ke iosepb dlsolt Qul auoient este en aide et en consentement 

abettors of -^ -^ 

Christ's death; ([q ihesu cruclfiler, sl les fasoit tous ardoir sans raencbon prendre. 

and Vespasian 

burns them. Et quaut 11 cut tout ais cbeus qui estoient vif ke iosepb peust con- 
noistre : si fu tenus li plais de caypbas. Et uaspasiiens apiela 
iosepb et cbiaus de sa maison, si lor demanda comment il esploi- 

what is to be teroit sauf son creant. Car il li auoit creante qu'il ne seroit ars ne 

done with ^ ^ i p . 

caiaphas ? ocbls, Sl 1 But dc teus qul iugierent ke il le fesist metre en la 



WHAT IS TO BE DONE WITH CAIAPHAS ? 33 

prison ou ioseph auoit este, si mourust illuec de faim. Et li 
autre dirent ke il le pooit bien faire morir sans fanser son creant. Have him 

^ drowned, tor 

Car U n'el deuoit sarandir que d'ardoir et d'ocMre. Et s'il le then he'ii nei- 

° ■■■ ... '"®"' ^^ burnt 

faisoit noier, il ne serroit ne ocMs ne ars. Et ioseph li dist. noridiied. 

" Sire, la forche et la signorie est en vous de lui faire morir. 

Mais, pour dieu, nel faites pas ensi. Oar espoir encore amendera "'"^^^'^ ^^'\g 

sa vie, et si kerra en chelui qui si longement m'a garde sain spared. 

et sauf, et iete hors de ses mains et de mes autres anemis. Et par 

auenture encore le fera notre sires tel que il ne vauroit mie que il 

fust mors en chesti point." Et uaspasiiens li respondi. " Des ke vous Vespasian's 

■*■ ^ ^ answer : 

le loes : il sera grant masse fait par votre conseil. Oar ie ne le ferai 

pas morir. Mais en aucune maniere conuient il ke ie prenge uen- 

ianche de la mort au signeur que il fist crucefiier a tort, et se il 

plaist au signeur ke il viue, il viuera. Mais quant ie mui en cliest 

pais ie crean'^ai au signour que ie ne retourneroie deuant que ie I'eusse 

uengie a mon pooir del tort et de la honte qui en cheste vile li fu he had vowed 

faite. Et ie Ten doi mult bien uengier. Car il me gari de la grig- revenge Christ's 

... .. , .... . death , 

nour meselerie que onques cors d omme soustenist au mien espoir. 

Mais quant ie fui venus en cbeste vile, et ie fls ardoir les premiers andhadbumt 

- - 1 ■! •! -• -5 .T.. ij' the first set of 

luis par ie conseii mane la venissiene qui m enuoia la visiere dont le jew?; 
gari : si vint la clamours a moi : des iuis qui vous auoient mis en 
prison. Et caypbas me dist qu'il m'enseigneroit le lieu ou vous 
auies este mis. par couuent ke ie li creantaisse loiaument que il ne 
serroit ars ne ocbis. Et ie, qui vous desirroie a ueoir plus ke nul ^ut had pro- 

.... • 1 • !•• • mised Caiaphas 

bome, li otriai. Car i esperoie bien : que li sires pour qui vous esties npt to bum or 
en prison : ne vous auoit pas si manuals guerredon rendu que il 
vous eust laissie morir en 1' ordure de chele cbartre. Et pour cbou 
qe ie li otriai, conuient il ke ie li tienge son couuent, ne ie ne le 
ferai pas mourir. Mais pour cbou que i'en doi le baut signour 
en aucune maniere uengier : vous dirai que i'en ferai. Je le ferai and would 
metre en mer en .j. batiel. Et quant ie I'arai fait eslongier de terre him^ourto™! 
as autres nes : si le laissera on aler ensi comme il plaira a dieu que '° " *""■'' ' 
il aut, Se diex veut que il viue, il viuera. et se il veut que il muire, to iive,or drown. 

p 



34 



VESPASIAN HAS CAIAPHAS PUT OTJT ON THE SEA. 



Caiaphas is put 
into a boat, and 
pushed out to 
sea. 



The contrast 
between the 
Pagans and 
Jews. 



il n'en escapera ia. Ensi porrai mon creant sauuer : et s'il plaist au 
liaut signour ke il miiire en chest tourment ou ie le ferai metre : 
dont en sera il bien uengies. Et si il li plaist qu'U en escape : il ne 
sera pas escapes par moi : mais par sa manage." A tant feni li 
conseus. Et uaspasiiens le fist maintenant metre en .j. batel. et si 
le fist as marouniers eslonger des riuages. Tant que il le laissierent 
aler la ou auenture le menroit. 

Ensi vaspasiiens uenga ihesu crist corporelment de ses anemis. 
et non pas U tant seulement : anchois s'en nenga ihesu cris par lui. 
Et che fu pour example moustrer de la desloiaute des iuis. Car cMl 
qui n auoit apiele Mens, clie furent li paiien, ki li fisent plus d' ouneur 
qui il apieloit ses fiex, che furent li iuif. Oar li iuis I'auoient 
cruchefiiet, et li paien le vengoient. 



35 



CHAPTER II. 

How Joseph was commanded by Christ in a vision to go and preach the Gospel in foreign 
lands, taking the road to Ephrata, but carrying nothing -with him but the Holy Dish, 
as God would provide for him. How Joseph is baptised by St. Philip (p. 36) ; and 
also Vespasian and all his company ; and how Vespasian keeps it secret from his 
father Titus, till it is known by a clerk's reproaching him at the siege of Jerusalem. 

Apres s'en dut vaspasiiens retourner a rome. Et la nuit deuant 
qu'il s'en dut repairier, estoit ioseph en son Ut. Si li vint vne Christ appears 
anisions, que ihesu oris uenoit deuant lui, si li disoit. " Joseph, li '"aion^^ 
termes est venus que tu t'en iras precliier mon non. Et si te con- 
uenra laissier pour moi toute la terriene rikeclie. Ne iamais en 
clieste terre ne retorneras. anchois sera ta semenche espandue en 
si lontaignes terres ke tu ne le porroies penser ne quidier. Car i'ai and says Hehas 
esleu a emplir les estranges terres de ta semenche, ne mie de cheli fiu foreign 

,. /-^ 1 • T 1. UT f J. ■ • lands with his 

ke tu engenras. Car de losepnus ton iii : n istra lamais carneus spiritual seed : 
fruis. Car il m'a promise pardurable chaaste. Or si garde ke tu te 
faches demain baptisiier. Et si t'en iras maintenant hors de iheru- J- is to be 
salem en tel maniere ke iamais ni enterras. Et si t'en iras sans or 
et sans argent et sans mounoie et sans cauclieure. ne ia ne porteras and go forth 
de tous auoirs que m'escuele seulement. I tant porteras auoec toi, or anythi^g^but 
et si recheueras en mainie et en compaignie tous chiaus et toutes ^ '° ' 
cheles ki te vauront sieuir : et ki vauront baptesme recheuoir. 
Mais ie ne veul ke nus port peeune en ta compaignie. Car tu et 
ch.il qui loiaument me seruiront auoec toi: aront toates les coses but aii that they 
que lor cuer penseront et desirront. Et quant tu t'en vauras aler, w. * ^^ '*'*" 
si manderas tes parens, et tes amis, et les parens ta feme. Si lor 
anonche ma c'reanche, et lors si uerras li quel vauroit croire et aler 

r 2 



36 JOSEPH AND VESPASIAN ARE BAPTISED. VESP. RETURNS TO ROME. 

apres toi. Et quant tu istras de iherusalem, si t'en iras toute la 
uoie qui ua a effrate. Et ie t'ensengnerai lors que tu deuras faire, et 
comment tu deueras aler. 
Joseph is Au matin bien main se leua ioseph : et rechut crestiente de la 

baptised by St. -. ■■ . i • n i j -j -i •^ ^ -r-ij j. 

Philip. mam samt pnelippe ki dont estoit euesques de inerusalem. Et quant 

vaspasiiens I'oi dire, si I'enuoia querre. et demanda que clie senefioit 
qu'il auoit fait. Et ioseph li respondi ke cli'estoit li sauuemens 
ihesu crist. et sans che ne pooit nus hom estre sains. Et quant 

baTi^d" '^ vaspasiiens I'oi : si dist que clieste creanche {)renderoit il, si se fist 
baptisiier, et si fu iosepb ses maistres parins. Mais il fist iurer tous 
cbeus de sa maisnie : ke ia ses peres n'en saroit riens par aus. Car 
il ne voloit pas que ses peres le seust : deuant qu'il eust enquis de 
lui meismes si li plairoit la creanche a recheuoir ou non. Et ne 

and all his pour quant il fist toute sa compaimie baptisiier auoec lui. Ne 

company; but it j. o x 

is kept secret, ouques uo fu doscouuert ke il fust baptisies deuant ke il vinrent 

Of the destnie- ^ntro lul ct SOU pcre destruire iherusalem de la grant destruction 

lem^ °* Jerusa- ^^j £^ auchois kc H crestiicH s'en fuissent en la terre agippe le 

fil herode agrippe. Car dont fu la grans destructions. Mais a 

cheste destruction que tytus et vaspasiiens firent, ne fu ele pas si 

destruite com a I'autre fois. Car dont fa ele si destruite qu'il ni 

remest pierre sour autre. Ne li contes n'en parole en auant fors 

que tant que tytus et vaspasiiens ses flex orent assis iherusalem ke 

il assirent dedens I'an ke iosep fu mis hors de prison, si amnt cose 

que vaspasiens assaloit mult durement. Car il estoit plains de mult 

grant proueche et de grant hardement. Et uns clers qui auoit este 

How Vespasian g, ^^i baptisior, le counut, si li commencha a crier. ' AM : uaspasiens 

was reproached -*- ■■■ 

by a cleric for desloiaus sarraslus et puis crestiens renoies, pour quoi guerroies tu 

warring against ... i- x o 

Christ. celui qui te gari de la meselerie et qui baptesme tu rechus.' A che 

mot laissa vaspasiens a assalir que il li reprochoit che que li clers 
auoit dit. et si le cacha hors de son lieu grant pieche. Mais che ne 
content pas les estoires des emperours. Or repaire li contes la u 
vaspasiiens se part de ioseph et de iherusalem : ou il a la creanche 
recheue. 



37 



CHAPTER III. 

Of Joseph. How he converts his relatives and induces them to go vsrith him. How they 
come to Bethany, and the Wood of Ambush (p. 38). How he tells them not to care for 
lodging. How our Lord speaks to him (p. 38). How the people are miraculously 
fed. How they come to the city of Sarras, whence the Saracens take their name. 
How those are not to be believed who say that ' Saracen' is derived from Sara, Abra- 
ham's wife (p. 39). Of the worship of the Saracens. How God commands Joseph 
to preach to, and baptise, the inhabitants of Sarras (p. 40). 

A tant se taist li contes de vaspasiien, ke il ne parole plus, et si 
coirumenclie de iosepli. Et dist ke ioseph enuoie querre tous ses Joseph preaches 

J 'J."! 11 1 . I ' ^ ^^s relatives 

parens et ses amis, et si lor anonena ia creancne ensi com notre sires and wends 

I'auoit commande. Si lor priecha taut de ihesus crist qu'il en con- 

uerti .Ix. et xv. dont il i auoit de teus qui estoient baptisie. Mais il „" them™"^' ''^ 

estoient refroidie de la creanche. Et li autre qui baptisie n'auoient 

este : Se fisent maiatenant baptisiier. Lors s'en issi iosepb de la T'^^^ 'r^^ 

■^ ■■■ Jerusalem for 

ehite entre lui et sa compaignie, si estoit ia nonne passeei Et quant ^''^''' 
il fu. issus bors de la vile, si tourna la uoie qui aloit a effrate ensi 
com notre sires I'auoit commande. Et quant il vint a betbanie, si and reach 
commencba a auesprir. Et lors si li disent les gens. " Biaus sire, " ^"^' 
ou herbergerons nous, se nous passons cbeste uUe: nous ne trou- wheretheywant 
uerons humais ou berbergier." Et iosepb lor respond! " Signour *°'°'^se- 
frere et sorors, or ne vous esmaies mie. Car diex li tous poissans j ij t^ug 
pour qui amour nous somes issi de natre naite : nous conseillera en ^f^j *® ^■^^^ 
tel maniere ke il ne nous faudra ne osteus ne viande. Mais gardes p™^'<^«- 
ke vous ne vous desesperes de sa grant misericorde. Car se vous le 
voles loiaument seruir comme si crestiien, votre cuer ne penseront 
rien au matin que vous n'aies ains la nuit, Ne onques ne moustra 
tant d'amour a nos peres el desert : com il moustra a nous se nous 



38 JOSEPH AND HIS COMPANY &ET TO A WOOD NEAR BETHANY. 



They go on to 
the Wood of 
Ambush. 



God's speech to 
Joseph. 

His mercy to 
the Jews: 



theii' ingrati- 
tude to liim. 



J . is to tell his 
people that 
they'll be mura- 
culously fed in 
the wood. 

He is to make an 
ark of wood for 
the Grail-Dish. 



le seruons ensi comme peres doit estre seruis de ses enfans. Mais se 
nous le seruons comme fillastre, ausi comme notre pere le seruirent 
el desert : il ne nous fera mie comme pere, mais comme parrastres. 
Car il ne nous aidera pas, anchois nous faura : quant nous arons 
grignour besoing de s'aide." 

A tant laissa ioseph a parler, sialerent tant ke il vinrent a .j. petit 
bos : qui estoit a demie lieue de betbanie, si auoit non li bos des 
agais. Et si estoit apieles par cbel non pour cbou que en clie bos 
fu agaities herodes thetrarches quant li iuis le liurerent a retlie le 
roi de damas pour sa fille ke il auoit laissie : quant il prist la feme 
philippe son frere. Quant il furent venu a che bos. si apiela notres 
sires ioseph, si li dist. " Joseph, ie sui tes diex, tes sauueres, tes 
defenderes, cbil qui ieta tes peres de la main pharaon a grant signes 
et a grant demoustranches. Ie lor passai la mer rouge a secli, et 
les menai el desert ou lor cuer auoient quan ke il voloient desirer. 
Illuec me courechierent il en mainte maniere a li aue de contredit 
et au ueel qu'il jEirent pour anrer. Et ie toutes voies lor aidrai et 
defendrai viers toutes gens, tant ke ie mis tous lor anemis desous lor 
pies. Onques pour chou ne se recorderent ke ie lor eusse bien fait, 
ne plus uolentiers ne m'en seruirent. Anchois me rendirent en la 
fin si felon loiier que il me dampnerent el fust. Et se li pere m'ont 
mau serui, pour cbe ne harrai pas les fiex. Oar ie veul penitenclie 
des pecbies, et si n'ai cure de mort. Et pour chou ke ie ne voel 
espandre ma misericorde sour les flex as felons peres : pour chou 
t'ai esleu a porter mon non et ma creanche par les estranges terres. 
Et si seras guieres de grignour pule ke tu ne quides. et par toi 
aront il m'amour et m'aide se il me veulent tenir a pere et a signour. 
Or va a ton pule, et si le fai herbergier en che bos, et il aront toutes 
les viandes ke il vauront auoir : cascuns en son habitacle. Et an- 
chois que tu isses de cest bos : feras a m'escuele que tu as vne petite 
arche de fust en quoi tu le porteras. Et chascun iour feres uos 
afiiictions de double genoil deuant chele arche, et dires vos orisons 
pour auoir 1' amour de dieu uotre seignour. Et quant tu vauras a 



THET AEBIVE AT SAERAS, THE CITY OF THE SARACENS. 39 

moi parler, si ouuerras I'arche en quel lieu que tu soies : si ke tu 
seus uoies I'escuele apertement. Mais ie ne voel ke nus touche a 
I'escuele : ke tu sans plus, et iosephes tes fiex. Or t'en va, si atourne 
son pule, et si fai ensi comie t'ai commande." 

A tant s'en parti iosepli,et vint a son pule, si le fist herbergier The people 

^ ' ^ ^ ^ '-' ^ camp in the 

par le bos, es ramees et es fuellies. Et quant il orent lor osteus fais, wood 
si alerent a orisons. Et quant il reuinrent d' orisons, si trouua 

and are fed 

cbascuns en sa loge : cbou qu'il desiroit a mangier. Tant man- miraculously. 
gierent et burent com eus plot : et furent si a aise. Au matin fist Joseph has the 

" ... ^''^ made. 

ioseph faire I'arclie. Si com notre sires li auoit commande. et mist 

dedens I'escuele au sauueour. Et quant tons li pules eut este a 

orisons deuant I'arche. Si com notre sires li auoit commande, si 

uint deuant I'escuele au sauueour. Et quant tous li pules eut este They start from 

a orisons deuant I'arche, si s'en partirent du bos, et entrerent en lor on the nth day 

chemin. Si errerent tant par lor iournees ke il vinrent a vne chite ^^ '° 

qui auoit non sarras. Si estoit entre babilone et salauandre. De sarras, 

, . whence the 

chele chite issirent premierement sarrasin. et de sarras furent il saracens come ; 

premier ement sarrasin apiele. Ne ne font pas a croire chil qui ^r they are not 

dient que sarrasin furent apiele de sarra la feme abraham. Oar che gfr^'^Abra 

fu controuuaille ne raisons ne sambleche pas a estre. Ne che n'est ^^™'^ ■"'**■ 

pas chose mescouneue, ke sarra ne fust iuise, et ses fiex ysaac fu 

iuis. et iuis furent chil ki de ysaac descendirent. Oar par la grignour 

partie prent on le tout. Et puis k'U descendirent iuif de sarra, dont 

ne samble il pas raisons : ke li sarrasin presissent lor non de li. 

Mais de chele chite qui avait non sarras furent apiele sarrasin, pour 

che que che fu la premiere chites ou iches gens prisent certainete de 

sauoir ke il aouroient. Et la fu controuuee et establie le secte ke How Mahomet 

sarrasin maiutinrent puis uisc a la uenue de mahoumet qui fu enuoies save the 

-Mr • •! 1 • Saracens, but 

pour aus sauuer. Mais il dampna soi auant, et aus apres, pour sa damned himself 
glouternie. Oar deuant che ke la secte fust : qui establie fu en ™ 
sarras : n'auoient ches gens nule certainete d'aourer. Anchois '^^^ °*'J^'='' "' 

_ ■ ^ worship of the 

aourerent toutes les choses qui lor plaisoient, si ke che qu'il aouroient ™^" °^ s^™»- 
,j. iour n'auroient il pas a I'autre. Mais lors establirent il a aourer 



40 aOB TELLS JOSEPH TO BAPTISE THE SAEACENS. 

le soleil et la liine et les autres planetes. En-cJiele citei vint ioseph 
et sa compaignie a 1' onsime iour qu'il issi de iherusalem. Et quant 
il vint a I'entree de la ville : si I'apiela notres sires, et si li dist. 
God tells " Joseph tu t'en iras en chele cMte. si precheras mon non. Et tons 

feeThepeopre chiaus qui la ereanclie recheueront, si les baptiseras el non del pere 
otsarras, et del fil et del sajut esporit." Et lors respondi ioseph. " Sire, com- 
ment sanrai ie si bien preechier : ia ne m'etremis ie onques de tel 
cose." Et notre sires li dist. " Ne t'esmaies m.ie de che. Car tu 
and He will ne fcras ke la bouche ouurir, et ie metrai dedens grant plente de 

give him words 

to speak, paroles. Ne ia ne troueras home de si grant scienche plain qui 
puisse durer as paroles ke ie geterai hors de ta bouche. Et si te 

and do miracles fcrai parell a mes apostles par les miracles et par les uirtus ke ie 

by his hands, fgj^g^j pg^j. ^gg maius. Mais garde ke tu ne refroides de creanche. 
Car tant com tu serras vrais creans, ne m'oseras tu riens requerre. 
ke tu n'aies a ton besoing. Ore t'en ua, et si pense de ma besoinge 
si bien faire ke tu en soiies paies comme loiaus sergans. Ne ia de 

and keep and mauaches quc tu olcs, ne soies peuereus. Car ie te garderai et 

defend him t rv* t • it * li 

wherever he is. deffenderai en quel lieu ke tu soies. 



41 



CHAPTER IV. 

How Joseph and his seventy-five disciples enter Sarras, and go to the Temple of the 
Sun, to the seat of judgment, where the wise men and Evalach the Lord of the city 
were assembled to consult how to revenge themselves on the Egyptians who had 
overcome them in battle. How Joseph thanks God that he has come at a favourable 
time (p. 42). How King Evalach's counsellors advise that he cannot oppose the 
Egyptians, but must make peace with them. How Joseph promises the King victory 
and everlasting joy, and tells him of the Saviour (p. 43). How the King cannot 
understand that one who suffered death can save him from death (p. 44). 

A tant s'en parti iosepli, si entra en la cMtei, entre lui et sa com- 
paignie. Et quant li cytoien les virent uenir tant ensamble. car il 
estoient .lxxv., et il les virent aler tous nus pies, si se meruellent 
ques gens che pooient estre. Et ioseph ne fina onques d'aler par la •'°^^^^ so^s to 
vile entre lui et ses desciples tant que il vint deuant le temple au *« S"" 
soleil. Et che estoit li plus liaus temples qui fust en la cliite : et si 
le tenoient li sarrasin en grignour honour et en grignour reuerense 
ke tous les autres, pour chou qu'il estoit temples qui est li plus haus 
de tous les planetes. En I'entree de chel temple si auoit vnes loges 
mult riches et mult bieles qui estoient faites et establies a che ke li 
per de la chite i tenoient lor plais et lor afaires. Et ches loges es- 
toient apielees li siege des iugemens. En ches loges entra ioseph. judgment, " 
et li .Lxxv. ke ie vous ai dit qui estoient en sa compaignie. Et vne 
mult grant tumulte du pule sarrasinois les sieuoient. pour che que a 
grant meruelle resambloient bien estrange gent, ne onques mais si 
diuerse n'auoient veue. Quant ioseph fu entres es loges : si trouua and finds a 
mult grant assamblee de sarrasins, et le signour de la chite meismes, fiTerfsTr 
qui estoit apieles eualach li mescouneus. Et si estoit anieles li "«"' ""d their 

^ ^ lord, Jivalacli 

mescouneus pour chou ke nus horn detoute sa terre ne sauoit de quel ""^ unknown, 



42 



KING EVALACH IN COUNCIL. JOSEPH S ADVICE TO HIM. 



Of Evalaoh's 
prowess. 



But, as he was 
old, 

the Egyptians 
had taken away 
most of his land, 
and beaten his 
army; and so he 
had assembled 
his Council to 
devise ven- 
geance on his 
enemy. 



Joseph is glad 
that he has 
come at the 
time of the 
king's need. 



The Counsellors 
advise that 
peace be made 
with the 
Egyptians, 



at which the 
king is dis- 
mayed. 

Joseph promises 
him victory, and 
also endless joy. 



terre il estoit nes, ne de quel lieu il estoit venus, ne onques par nului 
n'en auoient oi enseignes en la terre. Mais il auoit este de si grant 
proeche ke il auoit par sa cheualerie conquise toute la terre iusk' en 
I'entree de egypte. Et encore estoit il mult preus et mult corageus, 
mais il estoit ia si vieus ke ses aages ne pooit mais souffrir qu'il 
soustenist le trauail de porter armes. Si n'estoit mais tant redoutes, 
ne tant cremus com il auoit este en sa iouenclie. Anchois le guer- 
rioient ii egyptiien, si li auoient grant partie tolue de sa terre qui 
marchissoit a aus. Et il I'auoient desconfit en bataille, et cachie 
de plache, n' auoit mie encore .vii. iours passes. Et pour cheste cose 
auoit il mande tous les sages homes et tous les anchiiens qui estoient 
en son pooir. Car il leur en uoloit demander consel, comment il se 
porroit vengier de la grant honte ke li egyptiien li auoient faite. 

A dies paroles vint ioseph, si entendi bien et oi ke par laiens 
tenoient lor paroles de la desconfiture le roi, et de sa mescheanclie. 
Et quant il oi la uerite de la cose, si en eut mult grant ioie. Car il 
se pensoit ke ore estoit venue I'eure et li tans ke sa parole porroit 
estre oie et mise a oeure par le grant besoing ke li rois eualach a de 
I'aide notre signour. Si en commenclia a rendre grasces a son crea- 
tour de clie qu'U auoit fait uenir laiens a si boin point. Et quant li 
rois eut parle a tous ses barons, si ni puet trouer point de conseil. 
Anchois li estoient fall tot en trauers. Et disoient ke as egyptiens 
ne assembleroient il mais. Car il auoient trop grignour forche ke 
il n'auoient. si ne lor porroit se meskeoir non. Et bien i paroit, cbe 
disoient, qtie vne fois lor en estoit il ia mes-auenu si laidement ke il 
ne quidoient mie que iamais peust estre amende. Ensi com uous 
poes oir, li falirent tout, et dirent, ke tel pais com il peust, quesist 
vers les egyptiiens : car de la guerre ne s'oseroient il mie entre- 
metre De cbeste chose fu li rois mult esbahis et mult espoentes, 
tant ke il ne sent que dire ne que faire. Lors vint ioseph deuant 
lui. et quant il le vit si tristre et si pensieu, si dist. " Hois eualach, 
ne soies tu pas esbahis. Car se tu veus croire mon conseil, tu aras 
ioie et uictoire de tous tes anemis. et conquerras auoec chou vne ioie 



JOSEPH TELLS EVALACH TO DESTROY HIS IMAGES. 43 

autre : qui iamais ne prendra fin." Quant eualach Toi ensi parler 

si le re^arda mult flerement, et si li dist. " Qui es tu, ua, qui uictoire Evaiach asks 

■"■ who Joseph is.. 

me porroies douner de mes anemis : et la ioie qui iamais ne me 
fauroit :" A cliest mot respondi ioseph et si li dist. " Par foi, rois, 
cliou ne te promet ie mie ke ie te doinse la victoire ne la ioie perdu- 
rable. Mais tant te disre bien, que se tu uoloies croire mon consel : ^■. '^r 'I'*' '^^ 

^ ■*• king 3 victory 

tu auroies et la victoire et la ioie sans fin. pour le don et pour le win be the gift 

^ ^ of the Almighty. 

grasce de chelui qui de toutes coses est poissans." Et eualacb li 
respondi, " Ie escouterai mult uolontiers ques tes consaus porra 
estre. Mais se tu me dis consel qui ne facbe a otroiier : li da- 
mages en retournera sour ton cors." Et ioseph li respondi. " Rois, 
ohe sera tes consaus qui te sera a hounour de cors et a pour- 
fit de I'ame. Oar tu en seras boneres a ton viuant, et fame en sera 
sauuee apres ta mort.^' " Par foi, cbe dist li rois : icbis consaus ne 
fait mie a refuser. Or pues dont deuiser ques il sera. Car s'il est 
teus com tu m'as dit : ie n'aurai ia home en ma maison qui ie croie 
auant toi. anchois seras creus de toutes coses ke tu me vauras 
consillier." " Rois, che dist ioseph, or enten donques comment tu Joseph teiis 

' . . Evalaoh to 

seras conseillies. II te conuenra tot premierement destruire et de- destroy ws 

r~i J. T T 1 • • images, for they 

pechier les ymages que tu aoures. Oar tu dis ke che sont ti dieu, et can neither 

SI lor demandes conseil et aie : et eles n ont nul pooir de toi aidier any one, 

ne de nuire a autrui. Et tant saches tu bien de voir : que ti anchi- 

sour en ont tot ete engingnie et decheu. Oar tout chil qui croient que 

ches ymages lor peuissent aidier, sont perdu perdurablement pour 

qu'U i soient pris au iour de la mort. Ne nus horn ne doit en chou and no man 

, 1 I • T ^ r J. 1 • should believe 

metre sa creanche, ke vne pieche de lust ne de pierre ouuree par in a wt of wood 
main d'ome le puisse garandir de mort ne de mal. Mais celui doit but'n"Himwbo 
on aourer, qui soufEri angoisse de le mort en la crois de son boin gre Cro3s°t" lave 
et de sa boine volente, pour sauuer le monde et pour deliurer des ""^ ^'"'^^' 
perdurables painesd' infer." " Ooument, che dist li rois, me ueus tu Evaiach's 
dire ke chil est poissans de moi sauuer apres la mort. et de moi 
douner hounour terriene, qui souifri angoisse de mort ensi com tu 
meismes li tesmoignes. II ne me samble mie ke chil soit vrais diex ; 

g2 



44 



evalach's doubts and Joseph's answers. 



How can one 
who can't save 
himself save 
another ? 

Joseph 
explains. 



Evalach's 
further ques- 
tions and 
Joseph's 
answers. 



qui angoisse puet tant iustickier k'ele le maine iusc' a la mort. ne 
il n'est mie auis qu'il puist estre uoirs, ne raisons, ne sambleche mie. 
Ne ie iie puis mie veoir comment cMl me garandisse de mort, qui soi 
meisme n'en puet garandir. Car mauuaisement sauuera autrui, cIllL 
qui soi ne puet aidier." Lors li respondi ioseph, " Rois, li sauueres 
du mont souffri si debonairement la mort, ke quant li fans tesmoing 
des felons iuis I'acusoient deuant pylate : et pylates meismes li 
demandoit se ch'estoit uoirs ke il disoient, il ne uoloit nul mot 
respondre encontre clie que U disoient, si que pylates s'en merueilloit 
mult durement de clie ke il ne li uoloit respondre." A chest mot 
respondi li rois, et si li dist " Or me di, biaus amis, vieus tu dire a 
cbertes et a uoir ke il soit diex pour cbe qu'U souffri la mort en cheste 
maniere :" Et iosepb li respondi. " Naie, dist il, pour che ne di ge 
mie qu'il fust diex, ne par cbe ne conquist U mie sa deite, ancbois 
estoit diex deuant tons les orages, et tous iours sera diex que ia ses 
regnes ne prendra fin." Et li rois respondi. " Coment me veus tu 
prouer : pour cbou se il morut ke U mondes fust par sa mort sauues." 
" Che te conterai ie bien, dist iosepb, comme cbU qui bien le sai. 
Ne ia cbe sacbes tu de voir, ne te ferai riens entendant ke ie ne sacbe 
uraiement. Mais or escoute, si oras comment il auint." 



45 



CHAPTER V. 

Joseph tells Evalach the story of Christ's Birth, Life, Death, Descent into Hell, Kesurrec- 
tion, and Ascension, and his sending the Holy Ghost to his disciples. 

" Av tans auguste chesar le boin empereour de rome qui 
tint r empire .xlij. ans, et gar da la terre si longement en ferme 
pais : au chief, de xxvij. ans. apres die qu'il eut este corones, auint 
que diex enuoia son angele en vne cMte de galylee qui est apielee How God sent 
nazareth, a vne pucMele qui auoit non marie. Et quant li angeies virgin Mary, 
vint deuant li, siUdist, " Diex te saut, marie, plaine de grasce, diex 
soit en ta compaignie. Tu es benoite deseure toutes autres femes, 
et li fruis de ton uentre est beneois." Quant la puchele oi la 
parole, si en fu mult esbabie, et commencha a purpenser de quel 
maniere chis salus pooit estre. Et li angeies li dist. "Marie, ne 
sois de riens esbahie. Car li sires du chiel t'a regardee et dounee sa 
grasce. Et si sacbes deuoir, ke tu encbainteras, et si enfanteras .j.fil ^e^shouid^"^ 
■ qui sera apieles ibesus crist. Cbil enfes sera de mult grant puis- ^^r^a'chnd'' 
sancbe. Car U sera fiex dieu." Et la pucbiele respondi. "Biaus who should be 

■■■ ■'■ called Jesus 

sire, comment porra cbou auenir. la ne conui iou onques borne ^'"'''*- 

carnelment." Et li angeies li dist. " Marie, li sains esperis de- 

scendera en toi : et la virtus dieu le baut en-umbrera dedens ton 

cors." Et la pucbiele respondi al angele. " Diex notre sire facbe son 

plaisir de mi comme de s'ancbiele, car ie sui apparillie a son plaisir 

eta sa volente." Et maintenant k'ele ot cbe dit, si descendi li How the spirit 

. 1 • 1 -n 1 IT 1 /. . descended into 

sams esperis dedens li, et si encbamta. Et quant ele ot le fruit her, and she 
porteiusc'a son droit terme. si enfanta .j. vallet qui fu apieles ibesu mztewhowas 
crist, ensi com li angeies I'auoit dit. Cbil enfes fu de si grant bau- 



46 JOSEPH TELLS EVALACH OF CHEIST's DEATH AND EBSUEKECTION, 

teche et de si grant pooir ke troi roi d'orient le Adnrent aourer au 
How 3 kings of tresime iour de sa natiuite. Et si aporta cascuns del plus cMer auoir 

the east come to j. j. . -».t • i • i 

worship Christ, que U puet trouuer en toute sa terre. Ne onques ni orent conduit 
ne auoiement ke seulement vne estoUe, qui aparut si tost com il fa 
nes, ne onques mais n'auoit este veue. Et quant herodes qui estoit 

How Herod rol dc iudce seut ke vns tens enfes estoit nes qui serroit rois des iuis, 

young children, si en out paour kc il ne le desiretast, si fist ochire tons les enfans de 
la terre de bethleem. de .ij. ans et demi en aual. Tant qu'il en 
i eut ochis .c. mille, et .xl. mile, et en cheste maniere se quida 
lierodes uengier del enfant. Mais li haus sires qui de tout est 
poissans sauoit bien son manuals pense. Si garda si sol meisme 

How the Virgin ^jgg maiiis as folous qu'il ne porent auoir de lui bailie. Anchois 

goes into Kgypt, -*- -*- 

I'enporta la vierge puchiele sa mere en egyp, et si i demoura iusc' 

apres la mort herode par I'amonestement d'un angele. Et quant 

rVI h'Si^'h ^^ ^^ portes en egypte. et il commencba a entrer en la terre, si fist si 

images in the grant demoustrancbe de sa venue ke il n'eut temple en toute le 

tempiea fell '-' ■*- 

down and were terro do egypto dont aucune ymage ne cbaist a terre et debrisoient 

toutes de tens en i auoit. Iteus sinefiancbes faisoit li urais dieus en 

How at 30 he is ga petitoche. Et quant il fu raportes de egypte, et il crut tant que 

works great n yijit eu aage de .XXX. ans, si recliut baptesme, et lors commencba 

miracles, ^ 

U a faire les grans miracles en apiert. Car il rendoit as auules lor 
veue. II garissoit les malades de toutes enfermetes. II faisoit les 
contrais redrecbier et aler tous sains. II garissoit de si vil enfermete 
com de meselerie. Ilfasoit les sours oir cler. II faisoit les mors reuenir 
till the Jews gj^ yjg^ Iteus miracles faisoit li vrais diex en apert, uoiant toutes les 

bribe one of his ^ 

ducipies, gens. Et quant il eut ensi oure en maint liens et par maintes fois : si en 

orent enuie li iuis. Si parlerent a .j. de ses desciples ke il prist d'aus 

and crucify .XXX. donlers, si le vendi. Et cbU le prisent, si le crucefierent el fust. 

He goes into Et quaut I'amc fu issue de son glorious cors, si ala en infer : et si 

releases his ou Icta bors : tous cbiaus qui son seruicbe auoient fait en tore puis 

, j^ commencbement du monde. Et quant vint au tiercb iour apres 

cbe que il eut este mis el sepulcbre : car ion meismes li mis, et le 

the third diy.° dcspeudi de la crois. Siresuscita, et s'en issi del sepulcbre tous en 



Christ's ascension, and the gift oe the holy ghost. 47 

cors. et en esperit, Ne onques les gardes qui estqient mises pour lui 

garder, ne le peurent si bien gaitier que il ne s'en issist. et si remest 

li sepuchres autresi fermes com li iuif I'auoieiit laissie quant il 

I'eurent fait garder. Car il I'auoient mis desous vne mult grant 

pierre. et mult grosse : si fu trouuee en tout autrestel maniere com 

ele i auoit este mise. Et quant il fu resuscites, si apparut puis How Christ 

maintes fois a ses amis qui mult estoient dolent et esbahi de la mort Ms^reTurreotTon, 

de lui. Et puis fist il deuant aus plusieurs miracles, par quoi il 

sauoient de uoir ke il estoit vrais diex. Et quant il eut este .xl. 

iours. en terre apres sa resurrection : si monta au quarantisme iour el ^^^ ascended 

chiel, voiant ses disciples. Et quant vint a I'onsime iour apres chou '"'" Heaven, 

ke il i fu montes, si lor enuoia le saint esperit de la destre a son and sent the 

grant pere glorieus, de les qui il siet et sera perdurablement." hiliJi'^ies!° 



48 



CHAPTER VI. 

Evalacli's objections to, and questions on, Christ's story. Joseph answers, explaining why- 
God sent Christ on earth (pp. 48-9); in what sense he had a father and mother 
(p. 50) ; how there is also the Holy Ghost (p. 50) ; and how the three persons are 
yet one God (p. 51). He tells, too, of the creation of men to replace the Tenth 
Legion of Angels (p. 51), of the Temptation and Fall ; Christ's taking flesh (p. 52), and 
how he went into and came out of his mother's womb without hurt to her -virginity 
(p. 53); and how he was baptised and crucified, and went into hell (p. 53); and how 
he took out of hell aU who had done his works during their lives (p. 54). 

Evaiach asks, A chest mot respondi eualach, et si li dist. " Coment di, ua, tes- 

a fethJr°and " moignes tu doiiques : ke chil diex qui tu tiens a si poissant ke tu 

mother? I'apieles signour de toutes choses, eut pere et mere:" "voirement, 

die dist ioseph, testmoig ion, et di pour voir, ke il eut et I'un et 

'Then he must I'autre." " Et puis ke U eut, che dist eualach, et pere et mere, 

ormanTnd"™ dont TUB nascui il mie sans assamblement d'ome et de feme. Car de 

woman. feme ne puet enfes naistre se il n'est engenres dedens par acom- 

paignement d'ome. Et se enfes estoit en autre maniere conclieus : 

che seroit contre nature et centre acoustumanche." " Rois, dist 

Joseph ioseph, ie te mousterrai apertement et te ferai counoistre comment il 

exp am , ^^ coucheus saQS nulle camel compaignie. Et comment il nascui 

de la puchiele sans le puchelaige maumetre ne empirier." " Cheste 

prouanclie, dist li rois, escouterai iou mult volentiers." " II auint 

increase on chosc, dlst loscph, kc H sauucrcs du monde vit les maus qui monte- 

plioient en terre, et si vit ke li bien et li mal estoient tout vn de guer- 

redon. Car autresi bien aloit chil en infer qui tons iours- auoit fait 

bien. comme chil que tous les maus auoit fais. Et li dous sires se 

pensa ke che n' estoit pas raisons ke li mal fuissent parol as biens. 

and, to rescue uo 11 prcudom. comparast la folie au manuals. Si dist qu'il raiem- 

™n" Hh^son' ' bcrrolt home de doleurs d'infer. Si prist son fil et si I'enuoia en 



JOSEPH EXPLAINS CHRIST's TAKING FLESH AND BEING GOD. 49 

terre pour acomplir toutes les coses qui apartenoient a nature d'ome. to fumi aii be- 

„ n J 1 T longing to man's 

tors que pecniet seulement. Et quant il fu uestus de mortel cnar, nature; 

1 1 . ., . . . .,.,,. 1 but he remained 

pour chou ne laissa il mie a estre diex si com il auoit tous lours este. God. 

Mais il prist chou qu'il n' auoit onques eu, che fu mortalites. Et 

pour chou que li pere uit qu'il ne pooit raiembre. tout le monde par The world could 

. . not be redeemed 

.1. home qui fust samblans as autres : pour chou i enuoia il son fil by a sinner, 
qui estoit quites et nes des pechies dont tout li autre estoient ente- 
chiet et maumis. Car il n'estoit pas raisons ne drois ke nus pechieres 
rachataist les autres pecheours. Ne puis qu'il estoient tout entechie : 
comment pooit ne deuoit garandir li vns I'autre, ne deliurer. Mais but as Christ 
pour chou ke li fieus dieu fu nes et mondes de tous pechies. et de sin, he could re- 

i.«-i. t J •11 'T 11 111 deem men from 

toutes uiiemes : pour chou eut il le pooir de racater le perdurable etemai death. 

mort del home par le mort de son precieus cors." " Pour chou, dist Evaiach does 

eualach, ke ie ne te ting pour jure. Oar quant tu m'as vne cose 

recounue et puis si le me nenoies apres. Car encore tesmoignes 

tu de ton dieu, ke il a pere. et si dis ke il ne fu pas engenres 

de carnel compaignie. et che ne puet auenir. ne raisons ne 

verites ne sambleche mie." " Rois, dist ioseph, tu m'as en conuent Joseph teiis him 

. he has agreed to 

ke tu m escouteras a prouer comment u puet naistre de char de feme bear his proof. 

sans asamblement de char d'ome, et sans maumetre le puohelaige de 

sa mere qui tous iours fu puchiele, et apres et deuant, et comment il 

puet auoir pere sans estre engenres carnelment," " Tout chou, dit le 

rois, doi iou escouter sans faille. Et ie I'escouterai uolentiers : Se tu Evaiach thiaks 

le me sauoies faire entendre. Mais tu ne sambles pas horn qui soit si leSd enough 

durement fondes de haute clergie : que tu peusses prouuer cose qui si p"oint!™ 

grant meruelle est a dire : que ele est encontre nature et encontre 

acoustumanche, ne onques mais oie ne fu." " Rois, fait ioseph, ore 

m'esooute, et ie te mousterrai comment n nascui de la puchiele : sans 

carnel compaisrnie, Iche te mouster:f ai, mais tu oras auant comment Joseph says he 

r <=> ' ■willfiretex. 

u eut pere. qui fiexilfu sans carnel engenrure. II est uoirs ke U est piain how Christ 

xin.{i fl- tilt Vi PI* 

vns seus diex : chil qui toutes choses fist de noient. Chil fu tous iours 
diex. et diex sera tous iours. Car il n'eut onques commenchement, 
ne fin ne puet auoir a nul tans. Chil est apieles peres, et ensi 

H 



50 JOSEPH EXPLAINS HOW CHRIST HAD PATHEB, AND MOTHEB, 



God is called 
Christ's father 



*^or he begat him 
before the ages, 
not carnally 
but spiritually. 



For Christ was 
not made, but 
begotten of 
spiritual beget- 
ting. 

His birth by his 
mother was of 
flesh ; but that 
by his Father, of 
spirit, and im- 
mortal. 



Of the Virgin's 
virginity. 



But first of the 
Holy Ghost, 



who is the Com- 
forter and thej 
Purifier, 

who made the 
prophets speak, 



and who is wor- 
shipped like the 
Father and Son. 



Tapielent chil qui sont urai creant. Et nepour quant se il I'apielent 
pere : pour chou ne sont il urai creant, Se il ne le croient de cuer 
ensi com la bouche le dist. Car comment que la bouche paraut. 
del cuer muet la boine creancbe et la mauuaise. Icbil diex si est 
apiel^s peres, pour chou ke chil de qui ie te parole est ses fieus, car 
il I'engenra desdeuant le commenchement de tous les aages. Et si 
ne I'engenra U mie carnelment, mais esperituelment. Ne li peres ne 
fu onques fais ne cries ne engenres, ne onques ne nascui. Ne li fiex 
meismes ne fu onques fais ne cries, mais il fu engenres si com vous 
aues oi ke i'ai dit, de I'esperitel engenrure. Et si fu puis nes de la 
virgene, Mais chele natiuites ne fu mie selonc la deite : mais selonc 
I'umanite. Ensi poes entendre, et deues, ke la natiuites de par sa 
mere fu faite carnelment. mais la natiuites ke il eut de par son 
pere fu esperitelment. Chele de par la mere fu morteus. Car chele 
humanites morut ke il prist dedens les flans a le virge marie, de qui 
il fist sa mere. Mais chele de par le pere fu perdurable. Car chou 
ke U eut de par le pere ne sou&i onques mort, che est la deites qui 
ia ne li faura. anchois durra tous iours sans prendre fin. Ore aues 
oi comment li fiex dieu fu engenres et nes del pere esperitelment, et 
comment U fu nes carnelment de la mere. Apres oras comment li 
puchelages de la glorieuse puchele qui fu sa mere remest autresi 
sain^ apres comme deuant, et autresi entirs sans maumetre et sans 
entamer. Mais ie vous dirai auant d'une persone qui de ches deus 
issi et qui est parelle et ingaus as autres deus persones. Che est li 
sains esperis. IchU sains esperis ne fa onques fais, ne cries, ne 
engenres par le pere ne par le fil. Mais il est issus et de I'un et de 
r autre. ChU sains esperis est conforteres, et consillieres, et espurge- 
mens des cuers et des pensees. Chil sains esperis faisoit as pro- 
phetes parler che ke il disrent de dieu, et si ne sauoient ke il disoient. 
nient plus ke li horn forsenes porroit faire estables les paroles qui li 
uolent hors de la bouche. Toutes ches coses ouuroit li sains esperis 
en aus. et qui urais creans est : il croit et aoure le saint esperit 
autresi com le pere et le fil. Li peres est parfais diex par soi. et si 



OP THE TRINITY IN UNITY ; AND THE CREATION OF MAN, 51 

a parfaite deite enterine et perdurable sans fin et sans commenche' '^'^''^^j^q^J'^ 
ment, et de toutes choses est poissans. Li fieus autresi est parfais and the son 

■*- ^ too, though 

diex et perdurables, et si est paraus au pere, selonc I'umanite est li beiow the 

i- ' r r ' _ Father as to 

plus bas ke li peres. Mais li flex selonc I'unianite est morteus. Li his manhood; 
sains esperis est parfais diex en soi meisme. et selonc la deite est gh^o^t'^ig perfect 
tous paraus au pere et au fil. Ensi est U peres diex, et li flex dieus, ^°^ • 
et li saias esperis diex. Et ne pour quant il ne sont mie troi dieu. tut they are 

not three Gods, 

Oar pour cbou se il sont trois choses en persones, pour chou ne sont 

il pas troi dieu, mais vns tous seus. Car soit cbe que li peres et li but one God, 

flex et li saias esperis soient trois persones, ne pour quant si ne sont 

il ke vne seule chose en nature et en deite et en poissanche. Car ""e in nature, 

. . godhead, and 

autresi poissans est li peres com est li lieus et li sains esperis. Et power, 
autresi grans est li fleus en deite com est li peres et li sains esperis. ^'i equally 
Et d'autrestel grandeche est li sains esperis com est li peres et li 
flex. Ensi uienent ches trois persones d'un seul dieu, et a vn seul 
dieu repairent ches trois persones. et autrestant puet li une comme 
les trois, ne les trois ne sont autre chose naturelment ke vne. Ches The three are 
trois persones apielent li vrai creant, trinite. et le seul dieu apielent Trinity, and 
il unite, et si aourent les trois persones. Ches trois persones furent ^°"^ ""^' 
mult bien ramenteus au comm enchement du monde quant li peres How God said 

.,-._-. , ' Let us make 

cria toutes choses, car il dist ' Eaisons home a notre ymage, a notre man in our 
samblanche.' Cheste parole dist H peres a son chier fil. Car il our likeness,' 
sauoit bien, comme chil qui toutes choses a deuant ses iex, ke li flex 
soustenroit encore angoisse de mort pour homme rachater des grans 
doleurs ou il cairoit par son mesfait. Pour che apiela li peres la per- and caiied 
sone del fil a faire si haute chose comme li hom deuoit estre. qui il make so high 
ne voloit fourmer ne establir ke seulement pour restorer la disime to repfa^ Se" 
legion des angeles qui estoit cheu du chiel par son orguel. Et quant Inglis.^^'"" "' 
li hom eut trespasse le commandement de son creatour del fruit que ^<"'' ''''«° 

■*■ man was cast 

il manffa par I'amonestement de la feme qui li dyables dechut, si fu °°' °^ paradise, 

. , , ,. .,.. a hard saying 

maintenant ietes hors de paradis. et si li fu dite vne mult felenesse ^^ ^po^en to, 
parole. Car ses sires qui I'auoit fait a la samblanche, li reproua la 
grant aaise ke il auoit perdue par son mesfait. et li nouma le grant 

52 



him. 



52 HOW CHKIST CAME ON EARTH, AND WAS BOEN OE THE SPIRIT, 



To rescue men 
from sorrow, 
Christ 

descended on 
earth, 



damaige qu'il en auroit. car il le dist. ' Pour chou ke tu as plus 
God's curse on obei a ta feme ke ie t'auoie donee, ke a moi qui t'auoie fait, pour 

Adam and men 

chou soufferras tons iours mais tel paine, at tu et ti oir, ke vous man- 

geres votre pain en trauail et en suour.' ' Et tu,' dist il a la feme, 

and on Eve and 'enfantsras ta porteure en tristeche etendoleur.' Cheste promesse a 

women. - i ) j • • /-^ 

How really the mult bisu reudue a tous cneus qui dome sont puis issu. bar nus 

CTirsp h^A heen 

fulfilled. n'enterra ia en chest siecle, tant soit de grant poissanche: qui la soit 

deHures de traual et de paine des icliele eure ke il s'en ist. Ne ia 
feme ni enfantera a si petit de dolour k'ele n'en soustienge plus ke 
ses cuers ne porroit penser ne sa lange dire. Et tant durement ont 
achate le pechiet au premier home, si oir qui de lui sont issu, ke il ni 
eut onques chelui tant fesist bienfait en sa vie ke I'ame de lui n'en 
alast en infer si tost comme ele partoit du cors. Tant que li fiex dieu 
ne vaut plus souifrir cheste grant doleur si descendi en terre pour 
chou ke il Toloit I'ome metre hors de la grant male auenture que il 
soustenoit pour son mesfait. Si uit que ore auoit U asses compare 
son outrage, et ke bien estoit de ore mais tans et eure : ke il le 
and when there rapelast eupitc ct enmisericorde. Et quant Ufa en terre descendus: il 
ne le uoloit pas maintenant aler querre en infer, et traire hors a forche, 
sans raison moustrer. Anchois entra pour lui en vne chartre qui 
mult estoit escarse et estroite a herbergier si haut home et si riche 
comme chelui qui estoit sires de toutes choses. Che fu li uentres de 
la puchele ou il se herberga. Apres quant il eut este en chele 
chartre .ix. mois en prison : si s'en issi a droite eure de naistre, ensi 
comme I'umanites le requeroit. Et ne pour quant de tout en tout 
ne fu il mie concheus ne nes. si com humanites requiert. Huma- 
nites requiert sans faille : ke hom naisse et ke il soit concheus. et 
en cheste maniere acompH il humanite, d'estre concheus et de naistre. 
Mais humanites requiert plus. Ele requiert ke hom naisse en doleur 
cara'd^mbiy, ct eu tristcche, et ke il soit carnelment concheus d'ome et de feme. 
but by the over- Eu chcste mauicre n'acompli il mie humanite. Car il ne fu mie 
theHriy°Ghost, couchcus par assamblcmcnt d'ome et de feme. Mais par la umbre- 
^"/the ^ ment del saint esperit qui descendi par I'oreUe de la puchele dedens 

Virgin. 



entered a 
strait and 
narrow prison 

the Virgin's 
womb ; and 



was there nine 
months, and 
then came out. 



but not, as 
humanity needs, 
with pain and 



NOT HTJUTING HIS MOTHER'S VIRGINITY. HIS LIFE AND DEATH. 53 

le glorieus vaissiel de son beneoit uentre- En chelui vaissiel ke li 

sains esperis vint piireflier, se herber^a le fiex dieu. et si nascui si ^ow Christ's 

■^ ■*■ '-' birth injured 

sagement ke onques li puchelaiges de sa glorieuse mere n'en fu not the virginity 
maumis ne a I'entrer ne a I'issir, Mais tout autresi com li rais du as a sunbeam 

hurts not the 

soleU luist parmi la clere iaue si qu'il est ueus iusc'au fons. sans clear water. 
che qu'n ne desoinre mie les ondes de li aue ne ne depart : anchois 
remaint autresi clere et autresi biele com ele a deuant este. Tout 
autresi entra li fiex dieu dedens le uentre de la puchiele sans son 
puchelage maumetre ne empirier. Et en son concheuement si eut The three differ- 

i- a i ences between 

•iii. manieres qui onques mais oies n'auoient este en concheuement the conception 

«< ^ ^ _ . °f Christ and 

d'ome et de feme. Oar U fu tout primierement concheus sans pecbie. men. 

■'- ^ 1. it was with- 

Che est la premiere maniere. L' autre maniere si est, qu'il fu concbeus out sin. 

. . 2. without ear- 

sans camel compaignie, ne che n'auoit onques este oi. La tierche ma- nai assembling. 

3. his mother 

mere fu de cbou ke sa mere ki pucbiele estoit, ne pierdi onques son pu- did not lose her 
cbelage, ne au concbeuoir ne au naistre. Ancbois le laissa cbil qui 
Teslut a estre sa mere autresi saine et autresi enterre com il I'auoit 
trouee. Et a son naistre fu depicbie la maleicbons qui fu faite a la "'■ ^^^'^ ^™'' 

■*■ -*■ curse, 

premiere feme quant il li fu dit ' tu enfanteras ta porteure en doleur.' 

Car U nascui si saintement ke onques sa mere n'en eut ne doleur ne for the birth 

T t ' 'n i T n T was painless. 

angoisse. Icbes manieres merueilieuses aporta li fiex dieu, et a son 
concbeuoir et a son naistre. Et quant il fu nes, pour cbou ne vaut ^°^ ^2 "^rs 
il mie tantost racbater I'omme ke il estoit uenus querre, ancbois des* °" ^^''^^' 
moura .xxxij. ans en terre, et conuersa en samblancbe d'ome auoec 
les autres homes. Et quant vint au chief de xxx. ans. si recbut and at so was 

baptised, 

tous premiers notre sauuement. Che fu baptesme. Oar il se fist 

baptisier a vne home qui il porta tesmoing ke il estoit li plus haut 

vers dieu : qui onques nasquist de feme desflourie. Obe fu sains by st. John the 

Jehans baptistes. Et quant vint au tierch an apres son baptisement, threeyearaafter, 

si soufiri angoisse de mort. Oar il uoloit acomplir toutes les coses '^ ' 

qui apartenoient a humanite, fors seulement pecbie. Et quant il 

eut souffiert si grant angoisse comme de mort pour I'amour de 

, . 1 .„.,. i.j.jj/ -1. and went down 

homme : si en aia en inter li meismes, et si en traist trestous chiaus into heii. 



54 



THE END OF JOSEPH'S SPEECH TO EVALACH. 



How Christ 
rescued the 
doers of his 
works from 
heU. 

Joseph sums 
up his speech. 



et trestoutes cheles qui ses oeures auoient faites en lor vies. Si 
grant amour moustra diex a romme : car U ne le vaut onques 
rachater des doleurs ke il souffroit par autrui mort ke par la soie. 
Ore poes auoir entendu comment il eut pere sans carnel engenre- 
ment, et comment il nasqui de feme sans compaignie d'ome, et com^ 
ment ii nasqui de la pucMele sans son puchelage maumetre ne 
empirier." 



55 



CHAPITER VII. 

Part 1. How Evalact remarks that Joseph has been saying just what he lites and 
nothing which looked like truth. Joseph answers and, confounds the doctors of the 
city (p. 55). How Evalach sends for Joseph's Companions, and how Joseph's son 
tells the king why they go barefooted (p. 56). How Evalach lodges Joseph and his 
company (p. 57). 

Part 2, p. 57. How Evalach in his bed thinks about the defence of his country, and 
the Trinity and the Virgin's virginity (p. 57). How he sees a vision of ttree trees, 
of which the middle one, with an ugly bark, bleeds when cut, and jumps out of its 
bark, and then into it again (p. 58); and how washing in the blood changes men's 
forms (p. 58) ; and how some of the tree's roots and leaves are plucked and burnt 
(p. 59). How Evalach tells his vision to a chamberlain, and they see three writings 
on the trees ' This creates,' ' This saves,' 'This purifies' (p. 59); how the three 
trees become one (p. 60). How the king and his chamberlain see a child pass and 
repass through a locked door in a wall. (p. 60) ; and how a voice tells the king— 
this is a type of the Miraculous Conception of Christ (p. 61). 

Lors parla eualach et si dist " Tu me fais entendant vnes coses ke Evaiach thinks 

. , J . T . 11. Joseph's savings 

nus ne porroit metre en uoir, ne en nule maniere ne samble raisons. neither true nor 

Car tu dis ke il ne fu pas engenres en la feme dont il nascui. et ke '■^™*^'^! 

ele estoit pucMele, ne onques ses pnchelages n'en empira. Apres me 

dis, ke li peres et li flex et li sains esperis ne sont ke vns sens diex 

et si est chascuns d'ans .iij. diex par soi." "Lors, dist ioseph., tu I'as 

bien recorde ensi com ie le t'ai dit, et ensi le tesmoigne iou Men 

encore." "Par foi, dist li rois, tu tesmoignes chou ke tu ueus. he has said what 

Mais tu ne dis mile cose qui par semblant puisse estre uoire." A 

tant fist H rois enuoier querre tous les clers de la cMte. et quant il The leamed of 

furent tout uenu : si commencha ioseph a parler a aus si durement, and josepTco'n- 

et traioit si auant tous les fors mos des escriptures, ke cbil s'en esba- ™" ^ ^™' 

hissoient tout, et disirent en la fin ke U ne li responderoient mais 

deuant I'endemain. Ensi se departi I'assamblee, et li rois apiela Evaiaohasks 

ioseph, et si li demanda comment il estoit apieles ioseph de arimathie. mmed Joseph of 

Et li rois esgarda les pies qu'il auoit nus, si les vit mult biaus et '*-''™''*''^^- 



56 EVALACH's CONVEESB with JOSEPH AND HIS COMPANIONS. 



Evalach pro- 
mises to house 
Joseph, and to 
hear him next 
day. 



Joseph tells him 
he has 75 com- 
panions who for 
the love of Christ 
have given up all 
earthly wealth. 



Evalach desires 
to see these 
companions 



and asks them 
why they suffer 
such hardships. 
Josephes (Jo- 
seph's son) says, 
' for the love of 
Christ, 



who was cruci- 
fied between 
two thieves, 



for whom we 
ought to die 
twice over.' 



mont blans, si li sambla meruelles bleu horn qui eixst este a grant 
aoise, et soupechounoit dedens son cuer ke il fust de haute gent nes. 
si Fan prist mult grant pites. Lors I'apiela, et si li dist. " loseph, ie 
te ferai herbergier a nuit mais, et si aras pour toi aaisier tout 
quanke deuiseras de bouche. Et domain parleras a moi. Car ie 
t'ai a nuit mult volentiers escoute, et plus volentiers t'escouterai 
iou demain, car ie serai de grignour loisir que ie n'ai liui este." 
" Sire, che dist iosepb, ie ne sui mie sens en cheste vHe. anchois 
i a en ma compaignie en-chore .Lxxv. ke hommes ke femes. 
Et si sacliies de voir, ke il n'en i a vn ne vne qui pour I'amour 
ihesu crist n'ait laissies toutes les terrienes richoises. Si me 
vont siewant sans or et sans argent ensi pourement com vous 
me poes veoir. Mais ne-pourquant se il vont ensi pourement, 
pour chou ne meurent il mie de faim. ains sont U assase de la 
rikecbe au glorious signour en qui il croient. ke lor cuer ne desir^ 
roient nule viande terriene dont il n'aient a lor volente." Lors dist 
li rois ke il les voloit veoir.' et iosepb. les apiela de hors la ou il 
estoient a reste, si les fist venir deuant lui. Et quant li rois les vit 
venir tons nus pies et si pourement vestus, si en eut mult grant pite 
selonc sa creanche. Si les apiela, et lor demanda pour quoi il souf., 
f roient si grant penitancbe, d'aler nus pies et d'estre vieument vestu 
et pourement. Lors li respondi li fiex ioseph qui estoit apieles 
iosephes, et si li dist. " Rois, nous souffrons cheste petite penitancbe 
pour I'amour del glorieus fil dieu, qui si grant et si angoisseuse Ie 
souffri pour nous, ke il en eut tresparchiet Ie cors et les membres si 
uieument et a si grant honte comme chil qui fu detrachies et mes- 
ames et cruchefiies en mi lieu de deus larrons. et tout ckou souffri il 
pour nous de son boin gre et de boine volente. En quel seruiche li 
porriens nous mieus rendre qui peust che seruiche guerredouner. 
Se nous nous souflfriemes a crucefiier autresi com il fist soi : ne Tau- 
riemes nous pas guerredone asses, car il commencha. La bontes 
commenche du plus haut au plus has. ch'est de dieu a home. II est 
bien drois k'ele li soit guerredonee a double. Ensi nous conuenroit 
morir deus fois pour lui se nous li voliens sa bonte guerredouner 



and the beds 
are very good. 



01" KING EVALACh'S THOUGHTS UPON HIS BED. 57 

Chertes, mult seroit de boine eure nes qui cent fois porroit morir, et 
cent fois morroit. par conuent ke sa mors fust au plaisir et a la 
uolente del glorieus signour. et ke il tenist sa bonte a bien guerre- 
donee " Quant li rois oi cbelui si bien parler, si demanda a ioseph Evaiach asks 

■■■ ^ who Josephus 

qui il estoit, et comment il auoit non. Et ioseph li dist " sire, il est is- 

mes flex, et si est apieles iosephes." Et U demanda se il sauoit de 

letres. Et ioseph. li respondi ke il en sauoit tant que nus clers de 

son eage n'en pooit plus sauoir. et si parloit si bien et si beel com il 

auoit oi. Lors apiela li rois vn sien sergant, et si li commanda que The king has 

■^ ° ^ J'oseph and his 

il herbergast ioseph el plus aaisie ostel de la uile, et si gardast ke il companions 

O i^ r ' B nobly lodged 

ne li fausist nule riens, ne a lui ne a sa compaignie. Ensi depar- for the night, 
tirent chelui iour, si en fu menes ioseph et sa compaignie a .i. mult 
riche ostel et mult aaisie, si orent a chele nuit a grant plente de mult 
boines viandes, et si orent mult boins lis ke il auoient tant longe- 
ment desirres. Car U n'auoient geu en lit onques puiske il auoient 
este meu de lor osteus. 

[ii.] Chi laisserons de ioseph et de sa compaignie. et si vous dirons P'^jo^bied with 
del roi eualach qui gist en sa cambre mult pensieus : et mult entrepris *,™ *^"2''*^ ■ 
de deus pensees. Li premiers est, de sa terre defendre encontre les ^^nd his land ; 
egyptiiens qui mult durement li auoient gastee sa terre, et lui meisme 
desconfit et cachie de la plache. De chesti pense estoit il si entre- 
pris que en nule maniere il n'en sauoit ke faire. Anchois auoit 
mult grant peur ke il ne perdist, et sa terre et toute s'ounour ter- 
riene : par che ke si baron li estoient tout failH. D'autre part estoit 2. of what 

^ _ ^ _ _ -^ Joseph had told 

si pensis de che que ioseph li auoit dit, que il le feroit venir au de- bim, 

seure de tons ses anemis. et ke il li feroit gaaignier la grant ioie qui 

ia ne prenderoit fin. se il voloit son consel croire. Mais nule riens, 

tant i pensast durement, ne li pooit faire entendre, comment li peres ^""^ ^°'^ *« 

et li flex et li sains esperis estoient trois persones, et si n' estoit c'une ^"^ soiy Ghost 

^ were three, and 

seule cose. Et si ne pooit croire ke la virge eust concheu et enfante y^' one ; 

and how the 

sans son puchelage maumetre. Iches deus seules choses ne li pooit Virgin had 

„. ,1 .. -ni J ' 1 •■! • borne a child 

nus faire entendre ne counoistre. Endementiers ke il pensoit a ches without losing 
deus choses counoistre et apercheuoir, primes a I'une et puis a 1' autre : ^"^ ™^'"' ^' 



58 evalach's vision of the three trees. 

Evaiach^ sl li auiiit ¥116 auisions, ke il veoit en mi lieu de sa maison la choke 

vision. He sees ' 

the stock of a d'uii ffi'aiit Rrbre. Mais il ne pooit aperclieuoir ques arbres c'estoit, 

tree, whence ^ x j. ± 

spring three 116 dc Quel naturc. De chele choke naissoient .iii. ieton mult ffrant 

equal trunks, ^ .... 

et mult droit et mult haut. et si estoient tout .iij. d'un grant et d'un 
the middle one gros et d'uBO manicre. Ne mais itant ke li moiens estoit couuers 

having an ugly 

bark. d'une laide escorche oscure. et li autre doi 1' auoient autresi clere 

Under the QOTTiTne cristaus. Desous le premier ieton a destre : si auoit ffens de 

first trunk ^ ° _ _ 

are many toute mauieres. et de ches srens s'en departoient doi de la compaignie, 

people ; two ^ -"■ . 

go to a ditch si s'eu aloieut iusc'a vne fosse qui estoit vn peu loing Et quant il 
and jump mto yenoieut a la fosse, si saloient dedens. La fosse estoit si laide et si 

It ; ' 

noire que nus n'en porroit tant dire qu'il. n'en y eust encore plus. 
most of the Quant chil doi estoient dedens, si convenoit a fine forche que tout li 

others follow 

them and jump autre alaisscut apres, et il i aloient tout et saloient ens, li vns apres 

in too » T , 

1 autre, sans chou ke nus n'en repairoit. Et quant il en i eut tant 

sali ke la menre partie fu remese. Si uinrent li vn de cheus qui 

theuT-\™ked ^Gmes furcut. Si coururent a I'arbre qui auoit la laide escorche, si 

tree and chop jg commenchierent a decauper tout enuiron. et quant il eurent 

it all round. ■*- -^ 

chou fait, il ne s'en vaurent pas a tant souflrir. anchois le per- 

choient a tareles en .iiij. brankes qui i estoient. Et quant il 

I'orent ensi mehaignie ke des plaies ke il li eurent faites enuiron : 

A great stream '^q (jes pai'trus QUB 11 H orcut fait as tareles : si en issi vns si grans 

of blood flows _ _ ^ ^ ... . . 

out, ruissiaus de sane, ke tot chU qui i estoient si peussent baignier. Tant 

ke il pechoia. et quant il fu cheus, si ni remest onques riens 

bark^bufthe^ de lul cu la plachc. fors ke seulement 1' escorche de hors, qui 

fruit jumps into rcmcst illucc tout en .i. monchiel. Mais li fruis dedens qui estoit 

the ditch : '' •■■ 

plus biaus et plus clers ke ie ne vous sauroie center, fist si grant 

saut au kaoir que il se lancha iusques dedens la fosse ou les gens 

the tree jumps estolcut chcucs. Et quaut 11 rols se regarda, si uit I'arbre lan- 

out of the ditch, _ -•- ° 

dragging much cliicr hors dc la fosse, et si entrainoit apres lui mult grant partie 

people with it, . i i o j. 

de la gent qui dedens la fosse estoient. et se tenoient as rains et as 

brankes enuiron. Apres chou reuenoit li arbres en son lieu, et si se 

fubfrk again, rcucstolt dc I'escorche ke il auoit deuant eue, mais ele uiuoit toute, 

toight^Ind^^ et deuenoit si clere et si resplendissans que nus hom qui deuant 

shining. 



THE TREE WITH THE UGLY BARK. THE WRITINGS ON THE THREE. 59 

I'eust esgardee ne peust quidier ne croire ke clie fust ele. Apres ^^ "^"fhr^eo- 
esgarda li rois, si nit ke vne parti des gens qui estoient remes de F'^^^^j'jj^^t^g 
salir en la fosse : prenoient le sane qui estoit a terre coules, si en ^lood in the 

■■■ •■■ ditch ; itchanges 

lauoient le cors. Et maintenant qu'il s'en estoient lane, si cangoient them-. 

tout leur samblanclies et lor figures. Et I'autre partie prenoient the others out off 

^ ^ ^ branches and 

les rains de I'arbre et les fuelles, si en decaupoient vne partie et en leaves from the 

ardoient. Oheste meruelle esgarda li rois mult longement, et de la and bum them, 
grant meruelle que il en auoit fu si esbahis, que il quidoit tout 

uraiment dormir, et ke che fu stson^es ke il veoit. Et quant il eut ^e thinks it 

' o •■■ must be a 

mult longement este en chest quidier. si se tourna et retourna, et d^eam, 
aperchut, et sent uraiement que il ueilloit, et que il ne songoit mie. ^ut finds he is 
Et lors fu il asses plus esbaMs que il n'auoit deuant este. et plus 
s'esmerueilla asses quel merueille che pooit estre. Et quant il i eut 
grant piecbe pense : si esueilla .i. sien camberlenc qui gisoit deuant t^'^gj^^™^'^^ * 
lui. en qui il se fioit mult. Si se pensa ke a chesti seul mousterroit chamberlain, 
sa vision, et ke ia autres ne le uerroit que il peust. Et quant il 
I'eut esuillie mult coiement, que li autre ne I'oissent qui gisoient en- 
tour, si le traist d'une part, et si le mena iusques pres des arbres. ^^^^^™^ ''™ 
Et chil, quant il les vit, si durement fu esbabis que il ne pent onques 
parler d'une mult grant piecbe. Quant li rois eualacb le vit si du- 
rement esbabis, 'si le prist par le main, et si le commencha mult a *"f ^ fei^™ 
conforter, et dist ke il n'eust mie paour. car de cbou ne li pooit nus 
maus uenir. Lors se traist il meismes vers sa couche, et prist les ff^ *^^]f 

' -■■ the candles 

cbierffes qui ardoient deuant son lit, et si les aporta par deuant les ^y '■'^ ^^^ 

<-'■'■ ' -^ »- to look at the 

.iij. arbres pour esgarder et pour counoistre de quel maniere il t'^es. 
pooient estre. Mais tant connut il bien que il estoient troi, et que li Heseesthereare 
moiens, qui auoit eu le laide escorcbe, naissoit del premier. Et li ae ugiy.barked 

-*■ ■'■ one springs out 

tiers si issoit et de Fun et de I'autre. Et li rois esgarda en baut, si of the first, and 

° the third from 

uit en cascun des arbres, letres escrites, les vnes d'or, et les autres the other two ; 

and that on the 

d'asur. Et si disoient les letres del premier arbe. " Cbist forme " first is, 'This 

• T • i /^i • creates,' on 

Et li arbres secons auoit letres qui disoient " Cbist sauue. Et les the second, 
letres del tiercb arbre disoient. " Cbist purefie." Et quant li rois on the third, 
se regarda, si uit que tout li troi arbre uenoient a vne tige, et ke ele 

i2 



60 TREE OP THE TRINITY ; CHILD OF THE MIRACULOUS CONCEPTION. 



The three trees 
are truly one. 



The king 13 con- 
founded. 

He looks at a 
secret door of 
marble. 



and sees a 
little child who 
has come 
through it 
without its 
opening. 



and goes back 
through it 
also. 



The king 
wonders still 
more. 



The chamber- 
lain lies on the 
ground as if 
he were dead, 



but at last 
speaks to the 
king. 



estoit si soutieus : que nus n'en peust deuiser le commenclieinent : 
tant durement i auisast. Et si estoit la tige si haute que nus hom, 
tant eust clere esgardeure, n'en peust mie la fin veoir pour nule 
paine qu'U i mesist. Mais tant estoient soutH li enlachement des 
trois arbres que quant il estoit au roi auis ke il eust deuises tous 
trois uraiment, et conneu I'un del I'autre. Apres li estoit auis que il 
ni veoit ke une seule maniere de fuelles, et de fust, et de fruit, et ke 
li troi arbre que U auoit auant deuises en trois coses n'estoient c'une 
seule cbose ore en droit. Ensi desdisoit chou qu'il auoit deuant 
iugie. Si en estoit si esbabis : que il ne se sauoit a quoi tenir. 
Endementiers que il pensoit a cheste meruelle que il ne pooit con- 
noistre du tout en tout. Si regarda vers vn mur d'une siewe 
cambre dont li buis estoit de marbre, seeles dedens le mur si soutieu- 
ment que a paines peust estre apercheu ke U i eust huis ne entree : 
tant i seust on esgarder ententieument. Ne il meismes ne quidoit 
mie ke nus de sa maison le seust ke U tout seulement. Et quant il 
regarda vers I'uis, si vit ke vns petis enfes estoit dedens, qui mult 
estoit et biaus et blons. Et si entroit en tel maniere ke li buis 
n'ouuroit ne tant ne quant. Ancbois remanoit autresi seres et 
autresi clos com il estoit deuant cbou qu'il i entrast. Et quant il 
eut vn peu demoure, si reuint bors isnel le pas tout autresi com il 
i estoit entres sans I'uis ouurir, ne onques ni parut eu nule maniere 
que il i fust entres ne issus. Et quant li rois vit cbeste ebose : si fu 
asses plus esbabis de cbeste merueUe que il n'auoit este de toutes les 
autres. Car il ne quidoit ke diex ne autres peust dedens si fort mur 
entrer que en aucune maniere ni parust. Lors commencha mult 
durement a penser H rois, et ses camberlens qui estoit auoec lui 
estoit si esbabis et si peureus que il n'osoit mot dire de la boucbe, 
ancbois gisoit tous estendus a terre autresi que se il fust tous mors. 
Et li rois vint a lui et si le leua par la main destre en baut, et si li 
dist se il auoit toutes cbes meruelles veues : et ke il I'en estoit auis. 
Et cbU regarda le roi si com D. pent. Et quant U eut le pooir de 
parler, si li dist. " A, sire, mercbi, ne me metes plus en parole de 



A VOICE SPEAKS TO EVALACH, AND ALARMS HIS SERVANTS. 61 

nule chose, mais menes moi en tel lieu que ie me voie autres teus 
meruelles comme iou ai veues. Car ie ne porroie viure en nule 
maniere pour que ie les veisse." Atant Ie prist li rois, si I'enmenoit 
en vne cambre pour faire coucMer. Et toutes voies aloit pensant a The king keeps 

•^ •^ thinking of the 

la meruelle ke il auoit veue del enfant qui ensi estoit entres en la wonder of the 

Child. 

cambre, et issus. Ensi com U aloit pensant et meruellant dedens 

son cuer comment che pooit estre auenu, si oi vne vois qui dist. a voice teiis 

-nil! . n i. Toj him that it is 

"Euaiach, de quoi te meruelles tu: autresi comme li enies est a type of the 

entres dedens ta cambre uoians tes iex, et com il en est issus conception of 
ariere sans I'uis ouurir ne depichier : autresi entra li salueres du 
monde dedens Ie uentre de la uirge sans son puchelage enpirier 

ne maumetre, et autresi s'en issi." Quant li camberlens oi la vois The people in 

the palace are 

parler, lors parent si grant paour que il ne se pent onques sous- terrified at the 

tenir, anchois cbai tons pasmes a terre. et quida bien de uoir que voice. 

tous li palais cbaist sour lui, si grans effrois fist la vois : quant 

ele parla. Et li rois meismes en auoit si grant peour que nus 

n'en porroit dire la maniere. Ne onques en tout Ie palais, ueut 

home ne cheualier ne sergant qui ne s'en esuillast, tel noise et tel 

eflfrois orient par Ie palais. Et quant il eurent demande au roi 

qui il trouuerent leue : quel cose che peust estre. Si respondi li rois The king teiis 

^ ■*• ■"■ them it was a 

que che auoit este vns effrois de tounoire. Et che dist il, pour chou oiap of thunder; 
qu'il ne uoloit mie que nus d'aus seust sa vision, se cil non qui il 
I'auoit moustree. A tant s'en rala couchier li rois, et tout li autre 
se recouchierent. Mais li rois ni dormi onques del oel, anchois li •>« cannotsieep, 

but desires to 

tardoit mult que li lours fust uenus. Car u parlast mult uolentiers ten Joseph his 

, . . vision. 

a ioseph priueement de chele vision qui li estoit aparue. 



62 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Of Joseph. How lie cannot sleep, and kneels on the floor and prays for counsel and 
comfort, for king Evalach and his distracted city (p. 36). How a voice tells him that 
his prayer is heard, and that Evalach has seen wonders which he shall send for Joseph 
to explain ; and that Josephus shall be consecrate to Christ, and take charge of His 
flesh and blood (p. 64). How Joseph is glad, and goes to bed with his wife Helyab, 
but not with carnal intent (p. 64) ; and how they had no carnal commerce tiU 
they begot Galahad their youngest son, and then not for desire of pleasure, but by the 
command of God (p. 65). And how holy men of White Britain, now called Eng- 
land, descended from Galahad (p. 65). 

Joseph ues in Or vous laiTons a taut ester del roi. Si yous parlerons de ioseph 

bed, and sor- , , . , . , , - 

rows over king qui 86 gist 611 soii lit mult p6iisis 6t mult angoisseus del roi eualach, 
comineiit il le porroit tourner a la creanche ihesu crist. Car il se 
pense ke s'il ore n'est mis el point de croire : il ni sera iamais mis. 
Car il a ore en droit trop grant mestier et de laie de dieu et del 
consel as sages gens, pour dhou ke il ne garde I'eure que il ait pierdu 
on la millour partie de sa terre on toute. par che que tons U mieus 
de son barnage li est faillis a son grant besoing. De cheste cose 
estoit ioseph. en si grant quisencon, que il ne pooit dormir del oel, 
ne ne faisoit se penser non. Et quant il eut geu vne grant pieehe 

Joseph leaps eu tel mauiere ke il ni eut ne dormi ne repose, si sali bors de son lit, 

out of bed, and . 

kneels bare- et Si se coucha a la terre a nus keustes et a nus genous, et corn- 
floor, mencha mult piteusement a souspirer del cuer et a plorer des iex. 

Et si commencba en ses plours et en ses soupirs vne orison en tel 
and calls on maiuere com vous porres oir. " Biaus sire diex, tous poissans peres, 

fontaine de confort, babundans de misericorde,qui desis a pule d'israel 
by his promises par la boucbc moysi ton saint ministre cbeste parole. ' Tsaibel, se tu 

veus faire cbe que ie te commanderai : tu n'establiras mie dieu 

nouiel, ne n' avras dieu estrange. Car ie sui li tiens dieus qui tu dois 



Joseph's prater to god por evalach and his city, sarras. 63 

aourer, qui te ieta de la signourie pharaon qui te tenoit en seruage.* 
Biaus sire, ensi com il est uoirs que il n'est autres diex que tu, et ke 
on ne doit autrui aourer : ensi uoirement demoustres tu ta grant to show his 

, power and 

poissanclie et ta grant misericorde sour chel roi pecheour, et sour les mercy on 
autres de cheste cMte. qui si sont desuoiet de la uoie de uerite : ke il the saraoens, 
ne counoissent lor creatour, anchois aourent les ymages de pierre et who worship 

J n I ' 1 images of wood 

de lust qui ne lor poent aidier. et il i ont mise lor creanclie ke eles and stone. 

les deffendent de lor maus. et eles les mainent a lor perdurable 

mort. Biaus sire, elorieus rois de toutes choses, qui, pour sauuer'le Joseph conjures 

° J X ' J. GoA, — by His 

mont qui perissoit, daignas angoisse de mort souffrir en la crois ou "i^^* on the 
iou te vi claufichie. Sire, qui par ta poissanclie me ietas sain et by his deiiver. 

f* 1 1 ' --I -i-* 1 j*-i ance of Joseph 

saui de ia prison ou le demourai .xlu. ans ke onques ne goustai de himself from 
nule terriene viande. Glorieus sire, plains de toutes pites, qui ^™°"' 
sauuas le roy dauid ton sergant centre goulias le grant qui tans by His saving 

n ' 1 n' T 111 David from 

maus auoit fait a ton pule. Sire diex perdurables, sans commenche- GoUath, 
ment et sans fin : qui garandis daniel ton prophete en la fosse ou il JL Dan^ieUn'' 
fu mis entre les lyons. Qui a la glorieuse pecheresse marie Magda- *^^ '''"'^' ^^"' 
laine perdounas ses pecMes en la maison symon le liepreus. Sire, qui ness of Mary 
susanne la feme ioacliim deliuras del faus tesmoing ke li doi viellart by His deii'ver- 
portoient encontre li. Sire, glorieus peres esperiteus, qui ietas les gu^ganmh 
fiex ysrael del seruage pharaon. et les passas outre la mer rouge a hy His rescue 
sech.. et qui les menas el desiert ou tu fesis plus pour aus que il ne of israei from 
deseruirent vers toi, car tu le raemplisoies de toutes iclies cboses que 
lor cuer desiroient. et il ne se gardoient mie de toutes lor desloiautes 
faire uoiant toi. anchois te courchierent pluseur fies, et tu toutes ^y ^^ deiiver- 

^ mg them from 

voies les deliuras de toutes lor tribulations et mesis tous lor anemis aii troubles and 

putting their 

desous lor pies. Sire, plains de misericorde, ensi com nous creons ke enemies under 

■^ . -^ . . their feet,— 

tu iches choses fesis, et que il n'est autres diex que tu sens Ensi 
uoirement enuoies tu hastieu conseil au roi eualach, qui tant est to send counsel 

to King 

desconsUlies pechieres que il ne puet estre ramenes a la uoie de Evaiach. 
uerite, se tu par ta grant poissanche ne Ten enuoies le corage et la 
uolente par le raemplissement de ton saint esperit qui est confers et 
consaus as desconsillies. Sire, ia desis tu a moi qui sui tes sergans 



64 



Joseph's peatee, and god's favourable answer. 



' Hear thy ser- 
vant's prayer, 

not for himself, 
but to exalt 
Thy name, 



and increase 
Thy church in 
this fine but 
misguided city.' 



A voice tells 
Joseph that 



the king will 
send for him to 
explain his 
dream, 



and that 
Josephus shall 
be consecrated 
to God and 
take charge of 
His flesh and 
blood. 



Joseph arises 
and goes to bed 
with his wife 
Helyab, but not 
from carnal 
desire. 



quant ie issi de ma naete par ton commandement, que tu ne m'escon- 
diroies de rien que ie te requesisse de boin cuer et de boine uolente 
pour ke ie vausisse seruir loiaument a ton commandement. Orre, 
enten donques la proiere que tes sergans qui cM est, fait a toi, et si i 
met consel selonc ta grant misericorde et selonc ta grande poissanche, 
Ne pour moi, biaus sire diex, ne Ie faches tu mie, mais po\ir ton non 
essaucMer et aleuer, et pour demoustrer : as gens, ke tu seus i es li 
tres baus dieus qui as pooir et signourie deseur toutes les creatures. 
Glorieus sire dies, cbe est drois que tu rendes a sainte eglise che ke 
tu li as promis. Car tu Ie dois essaucbier et acroistre par tout Ie 
monde, et il est ore en droit bien tans et lieus ke ele soit essaucbie 
et acreue, et tes sains nons soit aoures en cbeste biele cbite descon- 
sillie, qui si grant mestier a de ton consel et de t'aie." Ensi fu 
iosepb grant piecbe de la nuit en plours et en larmes et en orisons 
et en proieres, a keustes nus, et a genous. Et quant il eut sa proiere 
iinee. Si oi yne vols qui li dist. " Iosepb, lieue sus, car tes proieres 
sont oies et recheues de ton creatour. Et bien sacbies tu de uoir ke 
li rois mandra toi procbainement. Car il a a nuit veue vne grant 
partie de mes demoustrancbes et de mes merueilles. Et il t'en- 
uoiera Ie matin querre, pour espondre et pour deuiser cbe ke il a a 
nuit veu et oi. Et tu vien Ie matin tantost com I'aube aparistra. et 
tu et ta compaignie si me rendra orisons et proieres cbascun endroit 
soi, et si verres .i. nouiel establissement ke ie ne vous ai pas encore 
done. Car ie sacrerai ton fil iosepbe, et Ie ferai si baut menistre 
comme prouoire. Car ie li baUerai ma cbar et mon sane en garde et 
en bailie, tout autrestant com tu en despendis de la crois. quant tu 
m'enportas el sepulcre entre tes bras. Et cbeste signourie donrai 
iou a ton fil iosepbe. Et tout cbil qui autrestel ordene aront des ore 
en auant la recbeueront de lui par toutes les terres ou ie menrai et toi 
et ta semencbe " A tantlaissala uois a parler, si se teut. et iosepb 
remest mult lies et mult ioians de cbe que il auoit oi, si s'en rala 
coucbier quant vint au cbief de piecbe auoec sa feme belyab. Mais 
il ne gisoient mie ensamble a guise de gent luxurieuse. Mais gens 



OF THE BEGETTINa OP GALAHAD, JOSEPH'S LAST SON. 65 

comme pleins de religion. Oar il ne uirent onques tant ensemble How Joseph 

■'■'-' J- and his wife 

entre aus deus, puis chele eure ke il issirent hors de lor pais par le lived purely 
oommandement ihesu crist que onques cheles fragilites dont tous li 
humains lignages est conclieus les escaufast tant ke ele les peust 
vne fois a chou mener ke il souffrissent les caitis de cors auoir carnel 
compaignie ensamble : ensi comme nature le requiert di cliele ma- 
niere. Anchois estoient ambedoi si espris de la souuraine amour au . 
sauueour : ke de cliele partie ne lor pooit corages venir. Ne lors and had no 

■*■ i i-i lygf ^hen they 

n'en orent il mie corage quant il engenrerent galaad lor darrain begat Gaiahad, 

° -^ . . their youngest 

enfant par le commandement notre signour, qui le commanda que il son, 

li appariUast de sa semencbe .i. nouiel fruit de quoi il empliroit en 

auant la terre ou il les uoloit mener. Par le commandement cbe- 

lui fa engenres galaad. Et quant U fu engenres, n' assemblerent il 

mie par couuoitise que il eurent de ntde luxure : mais pour acom- 

plir le commandement de son signour, qui semencbe auoit demande 

a ioseph. De cbestui galaad descendi la haute lignie dont tout 'te ancestor of 

■'•'--' ^ the holy men 

U plusour furent saint home et religieus en lor vies, et essauchierent ^j^^ honoured 
le non notre signeur ihesu crist a lor pooirs, et si hounererent la ^hlteBritain 
terre de la bloie bertaigne qui ore est apielee engleterre : et les autres g"'^,"*"^'^ 
contrees en uiron, de lors sains cors precieus : qui i reposent ensi 
com cheste estoire le contera es paroles, qui chi apres vienent. Or 
parlerons de ioseph, si laisserons a tout de ses oirs iusc' a tant ke il 
en soit lieus et tans ke on redoie center d'aus. 



66 



CHAPTER IX. 

How Joseph and his company worship before the Ark of the Grail in the Palace of the 
Spirit, when a noise is heard, and the Palace trembles. (How the Palace came to 
be called The Palace Spiritual, p. 67). How the Holy Ghost descends on them like 
a ray of fire, and how a sweet wind comes, and how Christ speaks to them, and 
urges them to love him (p. 67-8). He tells Josephes to draw near andtake charge 
of his flesh and blood (p. 69). Josephes opens the door of the Ark, and sees a man 
in a red robe, and five angels clad Kke him, with six wings each, and a bloody 
sword in their left hands, and severally in their rights, a cross, nails, lance, sponge, 
and scourge, with a roll ' These are the arms by which our Judge destroyed Death ' 
(p. 69). How the Crucifixion is represented over again before Josephes in the Grail- 
Ark (p. 70), and how he is stopped from entering it (p. 70). How Joseph looks into the 
Ark, and sees angels there with the instruments of consecration (p. 71-2), and Jesus 
clad in sacramental robes (p. 72). How the company of angels go over the house 
purifying it with holy water, because it used to be the dwelling-place of devils 
(p. 73). How Christ tells Josephes that he is to receive the Sacrament of His flesh 
and blood (p. 74). How the proper episcopal garments are brought out of the Ark 
(p. 74) ; and how the Chair of Consecration makes a Saracen king's eyes fly out of his 
head (p. 75). How Josephes is consecrated (p. 75), and how the angel preserves 
the holy oil with which aU the kings of Britain till Uther Pendragon, Arthur's 
father, are anointed. How Christ tells Josephes the meaning of the Bishop's vest- 
ments, — the shoes (p. 76), the upper and under garments (Chastity and Virginity), 
the head-covering (Humility), and herein of the Pharisee and the Publican, the 
green garment (Suffering), that above it (Justice, p. 77), the band on the left arm 
(Abstinence), the necklet (Obedience), the uppermost (Love, p. 77), the staff (Ven- 
geance and Mercy, p. 78), the ring (Marriage to Holy Church), and the horned hat 
(Confession, 1. Eepentance, 2. Satisfaction, and what they are, p. 79). And how 
Christ tells Josephes his' duties as a Bishop, and promises him a rich reward if he 
serves Him loyally (p. 79). 

Joseph and his Au matin si tost com ioseph vit I'aube apparoir, si se leua, il et sa 

company wor- , , . 

ship before the compaigme. Si uinrent tout orer deixant Tarclie. Et quant il 
fureut tout agenoillie deuant, si oirent vn mout grant escrois qui 



CHRIST URGES JOSEPH AND HIS COMPANY TO LOVE HIM. 67 

vint de haut. ^ Et quant il orent oi I'escrois : si sentirent la terre, 

qui trambloit desous aus mult durement. Ichil lieus ou il estoient (How their 

herbergie et ou il ouroient, si estoit yns palais qui estoit apieles li was named The 

palais esperiteus. Et chest non li auoit mis danyel li prophetes spirit, by the 

quant il repairoit de la baUlie nabugodonosor le roi : qui 1' auoit pris ™'' ^ 

entre les autres iuis quant U le mena en babyloine. En che repaire 

passa danyel par chele cMte. Et quant il vit le palais, si escrit en 

la port lettres de carbon en ebrieu, et si disoient les lettres, ke chil 

palais seroit apieles li palais esperiteus, Chis nons fu acoustumes 

a dire ke onques n'en chai, et tant com li palais sera en estant sera 

il apieles esperiteuls. Mais deuant che que ioseph i fust herbergies 

n'auoient oi chil de la vile onques, ne seu, pour quoi il estoit ensi but why, the 

apieles. et lors le sorent il. si ores comment. Quant la terre eut not.) 

tr amble desous les crestiens qui el palais estoient a orisons ensi 

com nous aves oi. Si descendi K sains esperis tantost laiens. et vint The Hoiy 

en samblanche despart vns rais de fu par deuant chascun d'aus. nice a ray of 

Et li uns regardoit I'autre a grant merueille, si veoit li vns que li rais 

du fu entroit a I'autre dedens la bouche, ne ne disoient mot nus into each man's 

d'aus. Anchois quidoient estre tout enfantosme pour le fu qu'il ^ " 

veoient qui lor entroit es cors. Ensi furent vne grant pieche que 

onques nus d'aus ne dit mot de la bouche : tant durement estoient 

esbahi, Tant qu'il vint par laiens autresi comme vns sofflemens a soft sweet 

. . 1 ■ 1 wind comes, 

de vent douch et souwef, qui rendoit si grant odour ke il lor fu auis 

que il fuissent entre toutes les boines espisces du monde, Apres la 

venue de chele boine oudour, si oirent vne vois qui parla a aus ensi and a voice,— 

com vous pores oir, "Escoutes mi nouiel fll, le sui diex notre chnst says that 

, -il • •!'!.•• as he bought 

sires, votre peres esperiteuls, qui vous ai caiengies et gaaignies en- them with his 
contre tout le monde par ma char que ie souffri a desrompre et a '^^ ^" °° ' 
perchier pour vous racater : et par mon sane que ie vauch espandre, 
Et pour che que ie uous ai si grant amour moustree ke ie vous ra- 
catai de ma char et de mon sane : che ke nus peres terriens ne fesist 
a son fil. pour chou me deues vous bien samblant moustrer ke vous iovehim''with 
m'ames de grignour amour ke nus flex terriens n'aime son pere. Or Si^ iqve? 

k2 



68 CHRIST EXHORTS JOSEPH AND HIS COMPANY TO OBEDIENCE. 



He has given 
them his Holy 
Spirit, 



and put them 
in greater 
honour than 
the Israelites 
in the Desert ; 



they must not 
then fall into 
the Jews' sins, 



TV ho were called 
to the Marriage- 
Feast 

and would not 
come : 



who said He 
was not their 
God, 

who took Him 
like a thief and 
scourged Him, 



mocked Him, 
and gave him 
bitter drink, 
and then death. 



Beware that ye 
be not like 
them ; 

if ye will be 
my sons, I will 
he your Father, 



you shall have 
my Spirit, 



escoutes donqnes que ion, diex, notre sires, uotre peres, vous dirai. 
Enten cha crestientes, tu qui es nouuiaus pules, au urai cruchefiie, ie 
tant ame et tenu cliier ke i'ai mis en toi men saint esperit : qui 
i'ai enuoie en terre pour 1' amour de toi de la sus ou il estoit en la 
haute gloire de mon cMer pere. Ie t'ai mis en grignour hounour et 
en grignour signourie. ke ti anchiseur ne furent el desert, ou ie lor 
dounai .xl. ans tout chou ke lor cuer desiroient. Mais encor Ie tien 
ion a plus aaise ke il n'estoient. Oar ie t'ai dounei mon saint 
esperit : dont ie ne lor fis onques don ne baUlie. Ore gardes don- 
ques ke tu ne retraies a lor felounies. Car ie lor fis tons les biens, 
et il me fixent tons les maus. Car s'il ne faisoient honour de la 
bouche : il ne m'amerent onques del cuer. Et si Ie me mou- 
strerent bien en Ie fin. Car ie les uenoie semonre et apieler a ma 
haute feste, a ma grant ioie de mes nueches que ie uoloie faire de 
moi et de sainte eglise. Et il ni daignierent [uenjir, ne onques ne me 
vaurent connoistre que tous les biens lor auoie fais. Et pour chou 
que ie ving pourement entr' aus. Si disrent ke lor diex n'estoie iou 
mie. Et si eurent si grant despit de che que ie osai dire, que ie estoie 
lor diex, que il me prisent comme laron en repost, si me destrompirent 
ma char et parchierent mes membrens et mon cors. Et pour les 
grans honeurs ke ie lor auoie faites, me rendirent il guerredon de 
scopir et de bufoier. Et pour les dous boire ke ie lor auoie dones el 
desert, me donerent il en la crois Ie plus tU boire et plus angoisseus 
ke il peurent trouer. Et apres me dounerent il la mort : qui lor 
auoie donee la terriene vie, et la perdurable lor prometoie. En-si 
troua cheus de tout en tout crueus fiUastres : a qui iou auoie tous 
iours este dous peres. Mais gardes tous mult bien ke vous ne soies 
samblant a la felenesse lignie. Car bien deues auoir cangie la 
maniere de cheus de qui vous aues cangie la vie. Se vous vous con- 
tenes vers moi comme mi loial fil : Ie me conterrai vers vous comme 
votres deboinaires peres. Et si ferai plus pour uous ke n'ai fait 
pour mes prophetes qui si m'ont serui cha en ariere de boin cuer et 
de boiae volente. Car se il orent mon saint esperit auoec aus : au- 



JOSEPHES OPENS THE ARK AND SEES CHRIST AND ANGELS, BLOODY. 69 

tresi I'aueres vous. Et si aures en-core autre chose. Car ie morrai and i wiu dweii 

bodily with you, 

corporelment chascun iour en uotre compaignie : tout autresi com iou 
estoie corporelment en terre. Mais tant i ara de differenche, ke ie 

, . . .11 though you see 

estoie veus en terre : mais ore ne me uerres vous mie en cliele sam- me not. 
blanche. Vien auant iosephe, li miens sereans, car tu i es dignes come then 

. . . Josephes, my 

d estre mmistres de si haute chose auoir en haillie comme est li chars servant, thou 

If 1, ^ . , . ^ ji*"^ worthy to 

et li sans de ton sauueour. Car le t ai esproue, et conneu plus net et take charge of 
plus monde de tous natureus pechies ke nule morteus chars ne porroit flesh and biood, 
penser. Et pour chou ke iou couoite et sai qui tu i es mieus ke tu 
meismes ne fais. Car ie te sai unit de couoitise, et monde d'enuie, for thou art 
et quite d'orguel, et net de toute felenie, et sans partie de toute oovetousness 
luxure, et plain de toute chaeste. pour chou voel iou ke turechoiues andfuiiofaii 
de la moie main la plus grant hauteche que nus hom morteus puist '^""'^' 
auoir. Ne nus de tous les autres ne I'auera de ma main ke tu seule- 
ment, anchois I'aront de toi : chil qui des-ore-mais 1' aront." A tant Josephes draws 

near, trembling, 

se traist losephes auant, mult tramblans et mult peureus, et com- 
mencha a plourer mult durement, et a rendre grasces a son creatour weeps and 

.,,.,.. , thanks God. 

qui 1 apieloit a si grant honeur, recheuoir de quoi nus hom morteus 

ne pooit estre dignes par deserte qu'il onques eust faite selonc son 

auis, se diex seulement par la sieue grasce ne li otrioit. Et quant il 

fu uenus iusc'a I'arche, ' si ne soies mieesbahis de chouketuuerras.' 

Lors ouuri iosephes I'uis de I'arche a mult grant paour et a mult grant He opens the 

doutanche. Et quant il eut ouuert, si vit vn homme vestu d'une reube and sees a man' 

plus rouge et plus hideuse a cent doubles que n'est foudres ardans. ^ " ' 

Et si piet estoient tout autrestel, et ses mains, et ses viaires. Et en 

tour chel home, si estoient. v. angele tout vestu d'autrestel reube et and five angeis 

d'autrestel samblanche. Et si auoit chascun d'aus ,vi. eles qui sam- ^^^^^ ^■^^^ ^^^ 

bloient ke eles fuissent de fu ardant. Et chascuns d'aus tenoit en la ""'"^^ ^' ""'^ 

_,. ,. . . . and a bloody 

senestre mam vne espee toute sanglente. Et li premiers tenoit en sword in his 

. 1 1 -\r ' T n i ^'^^^ hand, 

la main destre vne grant crois tout sanglente. Mais que chose fust ^^^ ;„ ^-^ ^^-^^^ 
a counoistre de quel fust la crois estoit. Et li ange les secons tenoit b^oo^y ^^1'* '^ 
en sa main destre trois claus tou.s sanglens. Si qu'U li estoit auis ke th^/g^b^ood 
li sans en degoutast en-chore tous vermaus. Et li tiers angeles tenoit °^''^' 



70 THE CBUCIPIXION IS ACTED OVER AGAIN BEFORE JOSEPHES, 

Ion 'biold ^^ ^^ main destre vne grant lanche dont li fiers estoit tons sanglens, 

lance, g^ jg^ hanstc estoit toute sanglente ansi iusque par la on li angeles 

Iponge rttined ^^ tenoit empoignie. Et li qnars angeles tenoit par denant le uiaire 

with blood, gj home, vne esponge toute droite, qui restoit antresi tainte de sane 

the fifth a ^Q Y^^ chief iusk' en 1' autre. Et li quins angeles tenoit en sa destre 

bloody scourge, ^ ^ 

main vne maniere de corgie toute sanglente qui sambloit estre faite 

and each had a t j t • n i -r:i j ^ t ^ i 

roll, ' These are dc vBrges torsos loics onsamble. M cnascuns de cues .v. angeles 
whichTur''' tenoit en vn rolet, escrites letres qui disoient. " Che sont les armes 
qufr°ed death.' P^'^^ ^P■^^ ^^ lugleres qul chi est. uencui la mort et destruist." Et 
The writing on qI^^ hom eutour Qul 11 Eugele estoient, si auoit escrit en mi le front 

Christ's fore- J. D ' 

head, eu cbrleu de letres blanches. " En cheste samblanche uenrai iou 

iugier toutes choses au felon iour espoentable." Ensi disoient les 
^andrrun"*^ lottres. Et si Gstoit auls ke de ses pies et de ses mains couroit 
^'°°'^' sanglete rousee contreual, si que la terre en sambloit estre toute ver- 

How the Ark mello. Et si estoit auis a iosephe ke I'arche estoit bien a quatre 

seemed of 

immense size, doubles plus graus et plus lee k'ele ne soloit estre. Car li hom que 
il ne veoit estoit dedens. et li .v. angele. si en fu si durement esbahis 
de la meruelle ke il veoit, ke il ne sauoit ke dire ne que faire. An- 
chois s'enclina vers terre, si commencha mult durement a penser. 

How josephes Eusl com 11 pousolt tous enclius, et la vols le rapiela. Et il esgarda, 

S66S Vynristi 

nailed to the sl vlt chel home crucefiie en la crois ke li angeles tenoit, et les cleus 

cross, and the 

sponge put to quo 11 auolt vou teulr a 1 autre angele vit es pies et es mains del 

home, et si uit ke I'esponge si estoit apoie au menton, et il sambloit 

, , , mult bien home qui a chele eure fust en angoisse de mort. Apres 

and the lance -*■ a j. 

pierce His side, esEjarda losophes, si vit ke la lanche qu'il auoit veue en la main au 

and a stream ox ± 

of blood and tlcrch augelc estoit fichie tres parmi le coste del home crucefliet. Si 

water pour out; ° 

and the Grail- eu dcgoutolt tout contrcual la hanste vns ruisseles qui n'estoit ne 

Dish under His . i i . 

feet, tons sans ne toute iaue. et nepourquant il sambloit estre de sane 

et di aue. Et desous les pies au cruchefls vit ichele escuele. ke 
ioseph ses peres auoit fait aporter en I'arche. Si li estoit auis ke li 
dropping'^in ^aus dcs plcs au crucefiie degoutoit en chele escuele que ele estoit 
and filling It. ^^^ pj.gg piaine, si sambloit a iosephe ke ele vausist verser. et ke 
seems as [fHe'd H saus cu deust espandrc. Apres li estoit auis ke li hom voloit 

fall from the 



WHAT JOSEPH (the EATHER) SEES IN THE GRAIL-AKE. 7l 

chaoir a terre, et que li doi brach. li estoient ia escape deS cletts si que and Josephes 

H» -j^j ij -1 j-^ •I'll • runs to the 

cors s en uenoit a terre, la teste desous. Quant il vit cnou, si uaut door of the 

courre auaut pour lui redrechier. Et quant il dut meitre le premier him, 

pie dedens I'arche, si vit les .v. angeles a tout lor espees en 1' entree de but three angeis 

15" c*' ± 1 • ± T J. ' !• • 11 i^ T 1?°'^^^ their 

1 uis. oi tendoient u troi encontre lui les pomtes de lor espees, et li swords at him, 
autre doi leuoient les lor en liaut et faisoient samblant de lui ferir. two raise theirs 
Et il ne laissa onques pour chou que il ne vausist outre passer, tant ^^ stin^tries to 
desiroit a redrecMer chelui qui il creoit qui estoit ses diex et ses ®"*®''' 
sauueres. Et quant il vaut metre 1' autre pie dedens, si ne peut, ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
anchois li conuint arester. Car on le tenoit si forment deriere par 

,. 1 •! • • 1 for two angels 

les .ij. bras, ke ilnauoit pooir d aler en auant. et il se regarda, si vit hoidumby 
que doi angele le tenoient chascuns a vne main, et en 1' autre main one has a'jar, 
tenoit li vns vne ampule, et li autres .i. enchensier et vne boiste. Et censer and box. 
iosepb ses peres, quant il le vit esgarder arriere si durement, si 
s'emeruilla mult de che ke il eut tant longement este al buis de Joseph wonders 
I'arcbe sans plus faire et dire, et quel cose il pooit tant auoir esgarde. trance!""'^ 
Lors se leua iosepb de la ou U estoit a orisons, si ala vers son fil. Et 
quant iosepbe le vit si pres de lui, si mist sa main encontre, et li 
commencba a crier. " Ha : biaus pere iosepb, ne toucbe pas a moi, Mm n^t^to^"^ 
ke tu ne me toilles la grant gloire ou ie sui. Car ie sui si ellumines hTifin^e*^ 
des espiriteus demonstrancbes, que ie ne sui mais en terre." Quant ^p'"'' 
iosepb oi cbeste parole, si fu si angoisseus et si espris de cbes mer- , , , ' 

J- J- ' ~ ■*- Joseph Kneels 

uelles veoir, ke il ni garda onques deflfense. ancbois se laissa cbaoir ^^^°\^ the Ark, 

' <^ ^ and looks m, 

deuant I'uis de I'arcbe a genous. Et il esgarda, si vit dedens I'arcbe .i. ^""^ ^"^^ ^" 

" ^ altar covered 

petit autel tout couuert de blans dras, et par de sus tous les blans dras ^'th ""lite 

-■- _ _ cloths, and 

si i auoit .i. mult riche drap, et vermeil et mult biel autrestel comme beneath a red 

one like samite, 

samit. Desour cbe drap esgarda iosepb, si vit qu il auoit .iij. cleus covering 

I. /.Till/ ijTtn three nails and 

tous degoutans de sane, et .i. fer de lancbe tout sanglant a 1 un des a lance-head, 
cbies de I'autel, et a I'autre cbief estoit I'escuele qu'il auoit aportee. 
Et en mi lieu del autel si auoit .i. mult ricbe vaissiel d'or en sam- ^'^^' 
blancbe d'un banap. et .i. couuercle deseure qui estoit d'or autresi. 
Ne le couuercle ne peut U mie veoir a deliure, ne quanques il auoit 
desus. Car il estoit couuers d'un blanc drap ke on ne le pooit veoir 



all bloody, 
and the Grail- 



72 



WHAT JOSEPH SEES IN THE AEK OP THE GEAIL. 



and above the 
altar a hand 
holding a red 
cross, 

and before the 
altar two hands 
holding candles. 

He hears a door 
open, and there 
come out 

two angels 
with water and 
a watering-pot, 

two others with 
two gold basins 
and two towels. 



three more with 
three gold 
censers, 



and boxes full 
of incense, 
and most 
sweet spices. 



Another angel 
with letters on 
his forehead, 

carrying the 
Grail- Dish; 

another carry- 
ing.a head; 

on the left 
another angel 
with a sword. 



Three other 
angels, with 
three coloured 
tapers; then 
Jesus, 



ke par deuant. Et tout outre I'autel si vit vne main qui tenoit vne 
crois mult biele, toute vermelle. Mais chelui dont la mains estoit, ne 
vit il mie. Et si uit deuant I'autel .ij. mains qui tenoient cMerges. 
Mais U ne vit mie les cors dont les mains estoient. Endementiers 
ke il gardoit ensi laiens, si escouta, si oi I'uis d'une cambre m[ult 
dujrement flatir. et il tourne ses iex vers la cambre, si en uit issir 
.ij. angeles, dont li vns tenoit .i. orcbuel tout plain di aue. et li autres 
tenoit .i. jetoir en sa main destre. Et apres ches .ij. en uenoientdoi 
autre qui portoient en lor mains ij. grans vaissiaus d'or autresteus 
comme .ij. bachias, et a lor caus auoit .ij. touailles qui estoient de si 
grant biaute comme cheles qui onques bom morteus n'auoit baiUies. 
Quant cM doi fm'ent bors de la cambre, si en issirent troi autre 
apres qui portoient .iij. encbensiers d'or, enlumines de si riches 
pierres precieuses que il sambloit de uoir ke il fuissent tout espris de 
fu ardant. Et en 1' autre main tenoit cbascuns d' aus vne boiste 
plaiae d'encbens, et de mierre, et de maintes autres precieuses espises 
qui rendoient laiens si douche odour et si grant suatume que U estoit 
tres bien auis ke la maisons en fust toute plaine. Apres en vit issir 
.j. autre, qui auoit letres el front escrites, et si disoient, 'ie sui 
apieles forche del tres haut signour.' Ichil portoit soiu" ses .ij, mains 
.i. drap autresi verdoiant com esmeraude, et sour che drap estoit 
mise la saiate escuele. En coste de chekii drap. et .i. angele de uers 
destre en auoit .i. qui portoit vn teste, com ques si riches ne si biaus 
ne fu veus par iex de nul home terrien se chil meismes ne. Et de 
uers senestre en i auoit .i. qui portoit vne espee dont li poins estoit 
d'or, et li heudure d' argent. Et toute I'alumele estoit autresi ver- 
meUle comme vns rais de fu en brases. Et quant chil troi estoient 
issu hors, si venoient deuant aus troi autre qui portoient trois 
chierges de toutes les couleurs que morteus langue porroit noumer. 
Apres esgardoit ioseph, si ueoit issir hors ihesu crist, en autrestel 
samblanche com U li apparut en la chartre ou il estoit enprisones, 
quant il fu issus del sepulcre, et en cors et en esperit, au iour de sa 
resurrection. En cheste samblanche le vit ioseph venir hors fors 



THE ANGELS PURIFY THE PALACE "WITH HOLY WATER. 73 

tant seulement Ice il auoit ore vestus tous les vestemens ke prestres dad in sacra- 
doit uestir quant il veut faire le sacrement notre signeur. Et li 

angeles primiers qui portoit le ietoir, puchoit en li aue, et si aloit The angei 

ietant par desus les crestiiens qui estoient laiens. Mais nus d'aus p^'piewith^ 

tous ne ueoit chelui qui li aue ietoit : fors que ioseph. seulement et "''''* ^'^' 
iosephes ses fiex, ichil doi le veoient tout apertement. Lors prist 

ioseph son fll par la main, et si li dist, " biaus fiex, counois tu encore, Joseph asks 

ne aperchois qui cliist horn est. qui si biele maisnie maine en sa knows Christ^ 

compaignie, et va si hounoureement." Et iosephe li dist. '•' par foi, He answers, 

biaus pere, ie sai de uoir ke cli'est chil de qui dauid dist el sautier ^^' 
en vn.vers ' ke diex commande as angeles que il le gardent par tous 
les lieus ou il ira.' Ne nus bom ne porroit estre si seruis ne si 

boneres par angeles que il seulement." A tant passa toute la com- The company of 

paignie par deuant aus, si alerent auirounant tout le palais dedens, round the house 

et par tout le u il aloient ietoit li angeles li aue au ietoir. Et quant sprinkling hoiy 

water. 

il venoient deuant 1 arcbe si ni aloit nus d'aus qui n enclmast a 
ihesu crist auant, et puis apres a I'arcbe. Et quant il orent aui- 
rounee toute la maison par dedens, si reuinrent tout deuant I'arcbe. 
Lors apiela notres sires iosephe. Et iosephes li respondi. " Sire, Christ oaiia 

■*■ i X X Josephes 

vees chi uotre sergant tout apparilliet a votre uolente faire." Et 

notre sires li dist. "Ses tu ke cheste iaue senefle, ke tu as veu andteiisMm 

that the 

espandre par chaiens : Che est netoiemens des lieus ou manuals sprinkling of 

, • 1 1 'x 1 1 *^® water was 

esperis a conuerse. Car cheste maisons a este tous lours habitacles des to purify the 
dyables. Si doit estre auant mondees et netoies ke mes seruiches i had been the 
soit fais. Et nepourquant ele est toute mondee et espurgie des ke li devils. 
sains esperis i descendi qui iou i enuoiai, mais ie I'ai arousee de cheste 
iaue por che que ie voel que tu faches autresrpar tous les lieus ou mes 
nons doit estre apieles et mes seruiches fais. Et iosephes li dist. " sire, ■ 
en quel maniere puet li aue espurgier si ele n'est auant espurgie." 
"Toutautresteibeneichon, dist notre sires, en li aue del purefiiemcAt ^^^''^„^i''p^*\"', 
comme en li aue del baptesme. Car tu i feras la signe de la grant p"^^^ 
raenchon. che est li signes de la crois sainte : et si diras ke che soit el 
non du pere et du fil et du saint esperit. Et qui aura creanche en- 

L 



74 



A bishop's vestments aee brought out of the ark. 



and tells 
Josephes that 
he is to receive 
the Sacrament, 



and be made 
Sovran Bishop 
of his new 
Christendom. 



Christ takes 
Josephes by 
the hand and 
draws him to 
Him. 



A grey-haired 
map comes 
out of the Ark 
carrying rich 
garments, 



and a young 
one with a 
crook and 
mitre. 



and they clothe 
Josephes in a 
bishop's vest- 
ments and seat 
him in a chair 



of great 
richness 



terine en la forclie de cheste beneichon : ja mauuais esperis n'abitera 
en lui ou cheste iaue soit espandue. Car tons li peurs et la paine au 
dyable si est en oir le coniurenient de la sainte trinite, et en ueoir le 
signe de la sainte crois : par qui sa poestes fu destruite. Des ore niais 
voel ke tu recboiues la bautecbe ke cbe t'ai promise a doner. Che 
est li sacremens de ma char et de mon sane, et si le verra tons mes 
pules apertement. Car ie voel qu'il te soient tesmoing deuant rois 
et deuant contes, ke il ont veu la sainte enunction ke ie t'ai mise 
sour toi pour toi establir souurain pasteur apres moi de mes nou- 
uieles berbis. Ch'est souurain eueske de ma nouuiele crestiente. 
Et tout autresi com moyses mes loiaus sergans estoit meneres et 
conduisieres des fiex Israel par la poeste que ie Ten auoie dounee. 
Tout autresi seras tu garderes de chest mien pule. Car il aprende- 
ront de la toie bouche comment il me deuront seruir, et comment il 
tenront la nouiele loy, et garderont la creanche. Lors le prist notres 
sires par la destre main, si le traist pres de lui. si ke tons li pules 
des crestiens qui laiens estoient virent apertement la samblanche de 
lui. Et si ueoient tout comment iosephes estoit en estant deuant 
lui, et comment il faisoit le signe sour lui de la crois. Et quant il 
eut este vne pieche deuant lui. a tant es uous que vns horn vint hors 
de I'arche tons kenus, si aportoit soiir son col les plus riches ueste- 
mens, et les plus biaus ke nus hom terriens eust onques veus ne 
baillies. Et apres chelui issi vns autres qui estoit biaus, a meruelle. 
et de mult biel cage, si portoit en son poing vne croche, et en 1' autre 
vne mittre toute blanche, et la croche estoit toute blanche ausi, et la 
hanste toute vermelle. Quant chil doi furent venu hors : si ues- 
tirent iosephe tous les uestemens. les sandales premierement, et puis 
les autres choses qui conuienent a eueske. Et quant il fu tous 
reuestus, si 1' assirent en vne kaiere qui estoit Uluec, toute apparellie 
par la uolente notre signour : qui de toutes chose le voloit aaisier. 
Chele kaiere estoit de si grant rikeche ke onques nus hom qui le 
ueist ne sent a dire certainete de quoi ele peust estre. Et tout cil qui 
faisoient les riches oeures dont il le uinrent puis veoir maint disoient 



JOSEPHES IS ANOINTED "WITH THE HOLT OIL OP BRITAIN. 75 

ke en tout le monde n'auoit maniere de si riche pirre : dont il n'eust 

en la kaiere, Et che dient encore tout chil ki le voient. Car ele ne fu 

onques puis ietee hors de la chite. Anchois fu tous iours tenue pour st>'i ^ept in the 

saintewaire puis ke iosephes en fu partis. Ne onques puis horn ne si 

assist que n'en fust leues tous mors, ou qui ni mehaignast de son cors 

anchois que il fust leues. Et puis en auint il mult biaus miracles quant of the subse- 

1-1. .p . .1 . . ••J1J d~i quent miracle 

la chites lu prise par vn roi des sarrasms qui guerrioit la terre. (Jar, wrought by the 
quant il eut trouuee la kaiere, et il le vit si riche, si dist ke il li prisoit made'a aacrUe- 
plus ke toute la chite, et dist qu'il I'emporteroit en egypte dont il estoit I'lng^-g^eyesTy 
rois, et si serroit ded ens tous les iours ke il porteroit coroune. Et 0"^ of his head. 
quant il Ten quida porter, sine le pent onques nus hom remuer de son 
lieu ou ele estoit. Et il dist ke toutes voies serroit il dedens, puis 
ke il porter ne Ten pooit. Et maintenant ke il si fu assis, si en 
prist notre sires si grant uenianche que a.mbedoi li oel li uolerent hors 
de la teste. Ensi demoustra notre sires que che n'estoit pas sieges 
a home mortel, se a cheli non pour qui il I'auoit apparillie. Et 
maintes autres uirtus i demoustra il, dont li contes ne parlera mie 
chi orendroit. Mais quant li lieus venra, et li tans. Quant iosephes How Christ 
fu assis en la kaiere, si uinrent tout li angele deuant lui, et notre consecrate^ 
sires I'enoinst et sacra en chele maniere ke on doit euesche sacrer et ■^"^^p''®^- 
enoindre, si ke tous li pules le vit apertement. Et chele onctions The hoiy oil 
dont il fu enoins si fu prise en 1' ampule ke li angeles portoit, qui le angei into the 
prist et traist a soi par I'espaule quant il vaut entrer dedens I'arche 
si com aues oi cha en arriere. Et de chele onction meisme furent Andaiithe' 
enoint tout li roi des ke la crestientes vint en engletere iusqu' auter lanftiu uther 
pandragon, qui fu peres le roi artu, de qui tout chil qui content les AnhurSher, 
auentures ne seuent mie tres bien pour quoi il fu apieles pandragons wuh 1^°"'*^'^ 
en son sournon. Car che set on bien, ke il eut a non vters en bap- 
tesme. Mais I'estoire de chest liure lor dira cha en auant tout 
esclairiement pour quoi il fu apieles ensi, et comment ichele unctions 
fu perdue quant il dut premierement estre courones. Quant 
iosephes fu enoins et sacres ensi com vous aues oi, si li assist notre Christ puts a 
sires la croche en la main, et sa mitte en la teste, et si li mist el doit sephes's snger. 

l2 



76 



OP THE MEANINGS OF A BISHOP S VESTMENTS. 



Christ tells 
Josephes the 
meaning of 
his episcopal 
■vestments. 



His shoes to 
keep his feet 
from the paths 
of evil. 



Psalm 1, 1, 2. 



The upper gar- 
ment means 
Chastity. 



Th« under 
means Virginity. 



The head-co- 
vering means 
Humihty. 



Priests ought 
to walk hum- 
bly, 

not like the 
Pharisee in the 
Temple, 



vn anel dont nus horn morteus ne porroit I'euure contrefaire, ne la 
forche de la pierre deuiser. Et quant il eut de toutes choses ensi 
atourne com vous aues oi : si I'apiela, et si^ li dist. " Josephe, ie 
t'ai sacre et enoint a eueske si hautement ke tu as veu, et mes autres 
pules ke chi est. Or te dirai ke chist vestement senefient ke tu as 
vestus. Car nus ne les doit porter s'U ne fait chou ke la senefianche 
requiert. ChiL sauler que tu as caucMes, senefie ke ta doit tes pies 
tenir si nes ke il ne voisent en nule oeuure de malisse. mais en 
orison, et en prechement, et en consel douner as desconsUlies. En 
tel maniere dois tu trauiilier tes pies. Car ie Toel que tu aies part 
en I'escripture qui dist. ' Li horn est boineureus qui ne vaut estre 
consenteres del consel as felons, et qui ne uaut porter ses pies en la 
uoie par ou li pecheour et li desloial aloient : et qui ne sist mie en la 
kaiere de destruisement. Mais il mist sa uolente et sa poissanche 
toute a parfaire les commandemens de la loy. notre signour. et en 
cheste chose furent tout si pense, et par nuit et par iour.' En tel 
maniere doiuent aler ti pie. Car il de doiuent ia faire nul pas sans 
pourfit. Apres te dirai des autres uestemens. Chil ke tu as uestu 
desus ta cote, si senefie chaeste. Car ch'est vne virtus par qui 
I'ame quant ele depart del cors s'en ua blanche et nete, et si s'acorde 
a tons les biens ke I'ame, che est, a toutes les virtus. Ensi dois tu 
premierement chaaste dedens toi auoir, pour faire de li fondement as 
autres uirtus edefiier. Li autres uestemens desour chelui: est 
autresi blans, et si senefie virginitei. Et tout autresi com uirginites 
ne puet estre en nul Men ke caaestes ne soit en sa compaignie. Tout 
autresi ne puet nus prestres, ne ne doit uestir chelui desus, ke 0. 
n'ait auant uestu chelui desous. Chil autres uestemens dont li chies 
est couuers, si senefi6 humelite, qui est contraire a orguel. Car 
orgieus veut tons iours aler fierement, teste leuee. Mais humilites 
va douchement, tout souef, Ie chief enclin. Autresi doit aler li 
prestres a grant hunulite, Ie chief enclin. Non pas autresi com li 
pharisiiens el temple quant il oroit. qui dist ' biaus sire diex, ie te 
rench grasces et merchis de che ke ie ne sui mie autresi desloiaus 



OF THE MEANINGS OP A BISHOP's VESTMENTS. 77 

com sont mi autre voisin 1' Mais ansi com li publicans qui n'osoit But like the 

mie nis regarder vers le chiel, tel paour auoit U ke diex ne se cou- 

rechast de che qu'il estoit si pechieres. anchois estoit repuns loing 

de I'autel, et batoit son pis de son poing, et disoit, ' Diex, sire, aies 

pitie de chest pecbeour.' En tel maniere se doit contenir, qui veut 

acomplir les oeures d'umiUte. Or te dirai ke ebil apres senefle qui est 

tous vers, et si n'el doit nus prestres vestir, ne lui ne cbel autre desus : 

se n n'est eueskes. Et cbU qui est si uers senefie souffranche, qui ia ne The green gar- 

j.> ji<j* J r>i ment means 

sera vencue, tous lours est verdoians, tour lOurs est en vne lorcne, ne suffering 

nus ne ua encontre qui ele n'pmport le victoire et I'onour. Car nus ne 

puet si bien vaincre son anemi comme par souffrir. OhU autres ueste- The one above 

_ r->i • it means Justice 

mens desus chestui, qui est si blans, senefle droiture. Car tout chil qui or Righteous- 
uoelent droiture de sainte eglise garder loiaument maintienent droi- 
ture. Droiture est vne virtus de si grant hauteche ke par li sont The qualities of 
toutes choses tenues en lor droit point, ne ia nule fois ne se cangera. 
a cbascun rendra chou qu'il ara deserui. Droiture ne doune a 
nului pour amour, ne ne taut a nului pour haine. Ensi se doit 
mener qui ueut maintenir droiture. Chil loiiens qui te pent el [m.s. doiture.] 
brach senestre, si senefie abstinenche. Car li cors doit estre loiies a The hand 
abstinenche autresi com li bras est de chel loiien, et che est vne des arm means 
grans virtus d' estre en abstinenche en grant plente de bien, et cheste 
uirtus si est. : vns des membres de droiture. Et se tu ueus sauoir 
pour quoi chU loiens est plus el brach senestre ke el destre. Je le why it is on 
te dirai. pour ke la destre ne doit seruir se d'espandre non : ne la LVer^thln the 
senestre se de retenir non. Or t'ai dit delloien del brach. Apres te "^^*' 
dirai de chelui qui est entour le col. si senefie obedienche. Car autresi The nectiet 
com li hues porte le gieu au gaignour : autresi deues vous porter le gieu dienoe. 
de notre signour dame dieu. et deues estre obeissant a son commande- to°beIr the^ * 
ment. autresi com li hues obeist au gaaignour pa la forche du gieu. ox/ 
Chil daarrains uestemens qui est desus tous les autres si senefie carite. The uppermost 
Car ele est tout vermeUe. et qui a carite en soi, il est cans autresi Lo™™Joha-' 
com li carbons ardans est vermaus, et si est volentieus et curieus de "^' 
tenir chier chou qu'il doit. Che est, d'amer dieu son signour de The qualities of 

Charity. 



78 THE MEANINGS OF A BISHOP's STAFF, EING, AND HOENED HAT. 

tout son cuer et de toute s'ame et de tout son pense. et apres d'amer 
son proisme autresi com soi meisme. Charites met toutes clioses en 
vn pris, et aime toutes choses, onniement nule cliose ne tient a 
estrange : autant aime la cliose a son uoisin comme la sole. Ensi 
The staffmeans vit, qui garder veut carite. Chil bastons ke tu tiens en ta main 

Veneeance and „.,-. .-ij**! -i ii 

Mercy. seuefic .ij. chosos, venianche et misericorde, veniancne, pour cnou Ke 

il est poignans par de sous, et misericorde, pour chou qu'il est courbes 
Mercy, as it is par dcseurc. Car li chies deseure doit premierement apieler. Che 
the Bishop ' est a dire, ke li eueskes doit tout auant apieler le pecheour, et se- 
use^'lntL' *° monre de confession, et mener tant par douches paroles ke il li ait 
words fg^^^ gQj^ pechiet regehier a honeur de dieu et a honte del dyable. Et 

quant il a oint de ses douches paroles tant qu'il ait mene a miseri- 
and then the cordo 1 lors sl Ic doit poindre du chief du baston desous. Che est a 
Repentance."* dire, ko quaut li prestres a tant adouchie le pecheour ke il li a fait 
recounoistre son creatour et renoiier le dyable : lors si le doit poindre, 
car il li doit encargier le fais de la grant penitanche par quoi il soit 
poins et aguillounes pour espanir en tristeche: chou k'il ara fourfait 
en ioie. Ensi siert li chies deseure, d' apieler a misericorde, et chil 
The Ring on his dcsous sert dc prendre venianche. Or te dirai ke senefie li aiaus ke 
MfreLge?"^ tu as en ton doit. II senefie mariage. Car li eueskes est sacres : 
is"married'to°^ si ost ioius & salutc eglisc par mariage. Car, quant li eueskes est 
Holy Church, g^gj-gg . gi ggt ioins a dieu. et des lors en auant la doit il garder saine 
and must keep ct cnferme comme sa loial espouse. Et la u il rechoit le mariage : 
g°ood al'd bid' ne le doit il pus werpir, ne en prosperite ne en aduersite. Ch'est a 
sorrots!^^ ^^'' dire, ne en bien ne en mal. Et se sainte eglise sueffre tribulations 
re eats ^® mescheauchcs, n en doit estre parchouniers. Car I'ewangile dist. 
car re. dist.^ ]^q q-\^^ gont boiueure qui soustienent les paines et les anuis pour 
droiture. En tel maniere se doit contenir qu.i veut estre loiaus espous 
en sainte eglise. Et qui autrement si contient, il n'est mie loiaus 
espous, mais auoutres, car il fause son mariage ke il deust loiaument 
The homed hat gardcr. Aprcs, dois sauoir ke chil chapiaus cornus senefie qui est en 
sToT' *^°°*^" ton chief. II senefie confession, et pour chou est il blans. car con- 
fessions est la plus blanche chose qui soit. et la plus nete. Car ia 



JOSEPHES'S DUTIES AS BISHOP, AND HIS REWARD, 79 

nus horn ni ert si ors de pecMe, ne si enuenimes, se il a vraie confes- 
sion veut repairier, ke ele ne le fache tout blanch et tout net. Et 
ses tu pour quoi il i a .ij. cornes. Pour chou qu'U i a .ij. menbres why there are 
en confession. Li premiers de cbes .ij. menbres est repentanche. et The first is 
li autres est satisfasions. B/epentancbe est, quant vns yient au pro- the second ' 
uoire, et H li regehist son pecMe. et le partist du tout si ke U ni * '^ ^^ '""' 
repaire plus. IcHl vient a repentanche, mais pour chou n'est il mie 

\rrais confes. Ancbois li conuient faire auant satisfaision. Satisfai- what satisfac- 
tion is. 

sions est, quant vns pechieres a son pechie reconnu, de faire la peni- 

tanche itele com U prestres li en carche, et de souffrir la paine de 

boin cuer, de boine volente. Ensi pues entendre ke nus ne puet 

estre confes se il n'a confession le chief, et les deus membres. Li The head and 

chies est de son pechie regehir. Li vns des membres est de tenir soi confession. 

de pechie. Li autres est de mener a chief la penitanche en carchie. 

Ne ia nus horn ne sera urais confes pour ke il defaille en quel ke soit 

de ches trois. Et pour chou ke confessions [est] la plus haute chose 

qui soit : comme chele. qui restore a vn caup. tous les damages et 

toutes les piertes, pour chou est ele senefiie par che chapiel qui est 

li plus haus de tous les uestemens. Or i es tu enoins et sacres, et ie Now that 

t'ai doune 1' or dene et la hauteche d'eueske, a mon pule ensegnier et consecrated, 

confermer en ma uiel loy. Et ie voel ke tii soies garde des ames and confirm 

d'aus, et quanque ie i perderai par defaute de toi : ie te demanderai guard thefr"'' ^' 

tout, et a toi m'en prenderai au grant iour espoentable quant ie Icoountabiefor 

uenrai prendre uenianche et iustiche de tous les meffais, quant toutes Awfofoty. 

les respoistailes des cuers seront descouuertes. Et se ie te truis loial ^e'^is'^aloyai'' 

sergant de chest petit pule nouiel dont ie te commant les ames : ie *®''™"'- 

te donrai : a chent doubles grignour baillie, ensi com le ewangile le 

promet : a chiaus ki laissent lor propriete pour amour de moi. Et 

paur chou te commanch iou les ames, et si t'en fai pastour : ke ie ne 

voel ke il soit pourueres et despensiers de ches choses qui as cors 

besoigneront. Or, vien auant, et si feras le sacrement de ma char 

et de mon sane, si ke tu tous mes pules les verra apiertement. 



80 



OHAPTEE X. 

Josephes goes into the Ark and celebrates the Sacrament. He uses only Christ's words 
of Consecration, and forthwith the bread and wine become flesh and blood (p. 80). 
Christ makes him divide the bread into three parts, which nevertheless appear, and 
are eaten by him, as one body, most sweet (p. 81). He receives the wine. The 
angels take the vessels out of the Ark (p. 81). Christ tells the people he sends them 
his flesh and blood (p. 82). Joseph and his company receive the body of Christ, like 
a small child. Christ teUs Josephes to celebrate the Sacrament daily, and how to 
ordain priests, and bishops in every city (p. 82) ; and that Evalach's messengers are 
coming for him to expound the king's dream, and that he is to be of good courage, 
as he shall beat the false prophets. How Josephes appoints his cousin-german 
Leucans to guard the Ark (p. 83). Of the office of Treasurer (p. 83). 



Josephes goes 
into the Ark, 



■which grows 
larger, 

and celebrates 
the Sacrament, 



using only 
Christ's words 
at the Last 
Supper, 



and forthwith 
the bread 
becomes flesh, 
and the wine 
blood, as of a 
child. 



A taut enmena notre sires losephe iusc' a I'arche, si ke tous li 
pules le uit entrer dedens. Et si uirent tout ke ele crut tant et 
eslargi, ke il estoient tout largement dedens, et veoient les angeles 
venir et aler pardeuant I'uis. Laiens fist iosephes le premier sacre- 
ment qui onques fust fais en chelui pule. Mais il I'ot mult tost 
acompli. Car il ni dist ke clies paroles seulement ke ihesu oris dist 
a ses disciples en la chaine. Quant il lor dist " tenes, si mangles, 
clie est li miens cors qui pour vous et pour maintes gens sera liures 
a tourment." Et autresi lor dist il du vin, " tenes tout, et si buues : 
car che est li sans de le nouiele loy. li miens sans meismes qui pour 
vous sera espandus en remission des pechies." Ches paroles dist 
iosephes sour le pain ke il trouua tout aparilliet sour la platine du 
calice : ensi com li contes a dit la u 0. parla del autel qui estoit en 
Tarche. Et quant il les eut dites sour le pain et sour le vin qui el 
caUsce estoit. si deuint tantost. U pains chars et li vins sans, et lor 
vit iosephes tout apiertement ke il tenoit vn enfant, et li sanloit ke 
cliil sans qui uenoit el calisce : fust cheus del cors a 1' enfant. Et 



JOSEPHES RECEIVES THE SACEAMENT OE BREAD AND WINE. 81 

quant il le uit ensi, si en fu mult durement esbaMs, si ke il ne sauoit 

sous chiel ke il peust faire. Anchois se tint tous cois, et commencha 

mult angoisseusement a souspirer du cuer et a plourer des iex : 

pour la grant paour ke il auoit. Lors li dist notre sires. " losephe : ^^™^' *^'J^ wd'Tnto 

il te conuient desmembrer chou ke tu tiens, si ke il i ait trois pieches." "'■'^^ p^'"'^- 

Et iosephe li respondi. " Ha : sire, ales pitie de uotre serf. Car Josephes remonstrates, 

mes cuers ne porroit souffrir a desmenbrer si biele figure." Et notres 

sires li dist " se tu ne fais mes commandemens : tu n'aras point de part 

en mon hyretage." Lors prist iosephes le cors, se mist la teste a vne ''"' ^°^^ ''■ 

part, et desseura del bu tout autresi legierement comme se la chars 

de I'enfant fust toute quite en tel maniere com on quist char ke on 

a oublie sour le fu. Apres chou, fist .ij. parties du remenant a mult 

grant paour comme chil qui mult durement souspiroit et plouroit. 

Ensi com U commencha a faire les parties : Si chairent tout li angele down*°^^'^ ^' """^^^ 

qui laiens estoient deuant I'autel a terre, et furent tout a coutes et a 

genous tant ke notre sires dist a iosephe. " Quel chose atens tu : Christ teiis Josephes 

to receive what is be- 

rechoif chou qui est deuant toi, et si luse, car che est tes sauue- fore Mm: 

mens." Et iosephes se mist a genous, et bati son pis, et cria merchi, 

en plorant de tous ses pechies. Et quant U fu redrechies, si ne yi 

deuant soi sour la platine ke vne pieche a samblanche de pain, et si ^^ ^''''^s the bread, 

le prist, si le leua en haut. Et quant il eut rendu grasces a son 

creatour, si ouuri la bouche et vaut metre dedens. Et il re^arde, si f"*^ ™ Fu"*!'"! '■ '"*° 

' » ' his mouth iinds it one 

uoit ke che restoit vns cors tous entiers. et quant H le vaut traire ^'"^y> 
arriere, si ne paut, ains sentoit com li metoit tout dedens la bouche 
anchois qu'il le peust clore. Et quant il I'eut use, si li fu auis 

-, J , T -, -I ,1 , 1 ., sweeter than can be told 

ke toutes les douchours et les suautumes ke on porroit nomer by tongue of man. 

de langhe li fuissent entrees el cors. Apres rechut vne partie del •^?^p*'«^ receives the 

saint boire sacre qui estoit el calisce. Et quant il eut che fait, [ms. re^e^ts m quant 

si uit ke uns angeles prist la platine et le calisce, si les mist 

ambedeus en la sainte escuele, I'un sour I'autre. Et sour chelepla- Anangeiputsthepiate 

tine, si vit plusours pieches en samblanche de pain. Et quant li pj^^^^P""*"""^^™'- 

angeles eut prise I'escuele, si vint vns autres, si leua la platine en 

haut et che qui estoit sus auoec, si I'enportoit entre ses ij. mains iTof'tL a™ *''^°' 

M 



82 



JOSEPH AND HIS COMPANY RECEIVE THE SACRAMENT. 



Christ tells the 
people that he 
sends them 
their salvation, 
His body and 
blood, 

and that they 
■who receive it 
■worthily shall 
he saved, and 
they who 
receive it 
unworthily, 
damned. 



Joseph and his 
company 
receive the 
Sacrament. 



Each' thinks a 
child has gone 
into his mouth. 

The angels re- 
place the vessels 
in the Ark. 

Christ tells 
Josephes to 
celebrate theSa- 
crament daily. 

And directs 
him how to 

ordain priests, 

and bishops, 

who shall have 
the apostles' 
power to bind 
and looae, 

and tells him 
to make a 
bishop in every 
city, 

and anoint 
them, and all 
converted kings, 
with the holy 
anointing. 



hors de I'arclie. et li tiers angeles prist le calisce, si le porta apres 
chelui en autrestel maniere, et chil qtii portoit la saiate escuele : fa 
tons li daarrains. Et quant il fnrent hors del'arche, tont troi, si ke 
tout li pules les veoit : si parla vne vois qui dist. " Mes petis pules 
nouielement tenes de I'espiritel naissenche, ie t'enuoi ton sauue- 
ment. Che est mes cors qui pour toi souifri corporel nai'ssanclie et 
corporel mort. Or garde dont ke tu aies vraie creanclie a i si haute 
chose recheuoir et vser. Car se tn crois parfitement ke che soit 
tes sauueres : dont le recheueras tu au perdurable sauuement de 
I'ame. Et se tu ne crois enterinement, tu le recheueras au perdu- 
rable dampnement del cors et de I'ame. Car qui usera mon cors, et 
buuera mon sane : et U n'en sera dignes : il mangera son destruise- 
ment et buuera : ne nus n'en puet estre dignes se il n'est urais 
creans. Or garde donques ke tu le croies." Lors vint U angeles 
qui portoit la platiae deuant ioseph. et ioseph s'agenoOla, si rechut, 
jointes mains, son sauueour : tout isnelement, et chascuns des autres 
autresi. Et si estoit a cascun auis quant on li metoit en la bouche 
la pieche en samblanche de paia : ke il veist entrer en sa bouche vn 
enfant tout en forme. Et quant il eurent tout eu del sacrement, si 
s'en retournerent li troi angele en I'arche, et misrent sour I'autel 
les vaissieus ke il portoient. Lors apiela notres sires iosephe, et 
si li dist, '' Iosephe ensi me seruiras chascun iour des ore en 
auant, et tu et tout chil ke tu establiras a ordene de prouoire 
et d'eueske. Et se tu ordenes prouoire, tu H metras ta main sour 
le chief, et li feras le signe de la crois el non de la trinite. Mais 
a I'eueske sacrer conuient tout chou que iou ai fait sour toi. 
Car jcueskes doit etre sour prouoire. Et tout chil qui a cheste 
hounour sorront establi: aront au si grant pooir de loiier et de 
desloiier comme mi apostle eurent en terre. Desormais esta- 
bliras. vn eueske en chascune chite ou mes nons sera recheus 
par ta parole, et si serra enoias de cheste sainte onction, et tout li 
roi qui par toi venront a ma creanche. Ore aproche I'eure ke li rois 
eualach laira le desuoiement des ydoles. et se tournera a la creanche 



LEUCANS IS APPOINTED TO GUAUD THE ABK OP THE GRAIL. 83 

de la fflorieuse trinite. Oar li chiualer sont pries qui vienent querre Christ teiis him that 

° ■ . . Evalach's messengers 

ioseph pour lui chertefiier d'une grant meruelle ke ie li ai a nuit are at hand, 
movstree en auision. Or oste cest uestemens, si iras a lui entre toi andthatheandjoseph 

' are to go with them, 

et iosepli, et vous les feres certain de tout les choses que il vvous de- 

mandera. Et si ne soies pas esmaiiet se vous vees venir encontra and notbe afraid of the 

heathen olerlis, as he 

VOUS tous les boins clers de sa loy. car tu les uamteras tous. Si que shaii overcome them, 
ia a tes paroles ne porront contrester. Et si te donrai si biele fd find grace in Eva- 

J^ ■>• lach 3 eyes. 

grasce es iex le roi eualach : ke tu li diras vne partie de clie qu'il li 

serra a auenir par la forche de mon esperit. Et tout ch.il qui mon And aii who receive the 

^ , '^ . . Holy Ghost shall be 

esperit ont recheu, ou qui le recheueront. aront pooir de cachier hors able to east out evii 

les mais esperis par tous les lieus ou il venront." A tant s'ala 

ioseph.es desuestir, si laissa tous les uestemens en I'arclie sour I'autel. josephes unrobes, and 

* ..,.• . ...,,, TT .. sets Leucans to watch 

Apres apiela .j. sien cousin germam qui estoit en chele compaignie the Ark night and day. 

si estoit apieles leucans. Chelui establi iosepbes a garder 1' arcbe de 

iour et de nuit. et encore est ore a nos tans cbeste coustume maintenue And this custom stm 

T r\ ^• JXJ.1J. JIT • i. exists in great churches 

es hautes eglises. Car li vns garde tout le tresor del eglise : si est which have a Treasurer. 
apieles tresoriers. Ne onques a chil tans n'auoit este fait. Mais 
lors establi iosepbes : cbelui leucan, ensi com vous aues oi de cbelui, 
ne mie pour cbou ke il fust ses cousins, mais pour chou ke il festenoit 
plus rebgieus ke niil des autres, 



m2 



CHAPTER XI. 

Joseph and his son go before the king. Evalaoh's doubts. A heathen clerk's objec- 
tions to the doctrine of the Trinity (p. 84-5). Josephes answers, — Evalach shall 
be given up to his enemy for three days and nights (p. 85), and the heathen 
clerk is struck dumb and blind (p. 86). Evalach asks if he can escape (p. 87). 
Yes ; by believing in Christ (p. 88). AU go to the heathen temple (p. 88). The 
devil in the image of Mars smashes all the images (p. 89). Evalach asks the devil 
vrhy it has done this ( — ^because Joseph's two angels compelled it — ), and whether the 
clerk struck dumb and blind will recover, and whether he shall prevail against the 
Egyptians. The devil confesses he knows nothing about it. 

The King's j^ TANT vint 11 messa^es le roi, si dist a ioseph ke 11 rois le man- 

messengers ^ ^ 

come. doit ke U alast a lul parler. Lors en alerent deuant lui entre ioseph 

et son fil, et quant 11 issirent liors du palais si firent sour aus le 
signe de la crois, et commanderent as autres ke il fulssent en orisons 
et en prieres pour le roi eualacli, que diex, qui estoit auoiemens des 
desuoies 11 dounast venlr a la vole de uerite. Et quant 11 furent 

Evalach asks yenu dcuaut le roi : si les commanda li rois a seoir, et si dist a ioseph 

Joseph to prove ^ 

first how the qu'il 11 prouast che ke il auoit ier dit del pere et del fil et del sains 

Trinity can be ■'' -^ ^ 

Unity; esperlt. comment H pooient estre trois persones et vne seule deltes, 

2. of the g^ comment la pucMele auoit enfante sans son puclielaffe malmetre. 

V irgm s vir- J- i o 

|^°''/j,, . , Et comment 11 fiex pooit estre concheus. sans carrtal couuine d'ome 

3. of Christ s « ■■- 

conception et dc fcmo." Quaut 11 rois eut che dit : si se drecha ioseph, et 11 

without carnal ^ -*- 

assemblage. (Jist Ichelo mclsmc raisou que 11 11 auoit dite a 1' autre fois, et en 

Joseph repeats _ ^ 

his former chelc mclsme manieere 11 prouua. Et quant il eut che dit, si se 

proof (Ch. VI.) -^ -^ 

A clerk objects, drccha vns clers. OhU estoit tenus a plus sages et a plus fondes de 

la loy. OhU parla encontre ioseph, et dist ke 11 ne dlsoit riens. 

Lfoniy onV^^ Car sc 11 pcrcs et 11 fiex et 11 sains esperis n'auoient c' une deite : 

'*"'^' dont n'estoit mie cascuns d'aus trois par sol entiers diex ne 

then each can- _ _ ^ 

not be perfect parfals I Et SB 11 vololt dlrc ke 11 peres fust entiers diex et parfais : 

dont ni prendroit noient la persone da fil et du sains esperlt. Et se 

entlre&^hid^ ^^^^ auolcnt ambcdeus cascune sa deite enteriae. dont serroient 

thr^e Grds"^ chou trols deiteSj che ne porroit nus horn contredire raisnablement. 



JOSEPHES EEBUKES EVALACH, AND THREATENS HIM. 85 

Car nus liom qui clie contredit, ne porroit apartement prouer ne 
metre en uoix, ke nule des trois persones m'eust entire deite en lui, 
ou nule des autres fust amentene. Car la ou on dit ke Ji sains iftheHoiy 

„.,. . T 1 • t 1 t iT'i Ghost is perfect 

espens est parfais dies et entiers, ne U troi n ont c une seule deite : God and one, 

- . 1 1 1 1 / T j_ surely the other 

en iui ou nule des autres, par cnou moustre on que li vns vaut au- two are no- 
trestant comme li troi. Et se ch'est voirs ke li vns vaille autrestant 
comme li troi : dont est il voirs que li troi sont noiens en lieu ou li 
tiers est amenteus. Et puis ke les .ii. persones pierdent ensi lor And if the two 

■*■ <J J. X are nothing, 

forche par la tierche, dont puet tons li mons veoir et counoistre then each can- 

'■ ■"■ not be perfect 

apiertement ke chascune de les trois n'a mie deite parfaite ne entiere." c^od. 
Quant ehil eut si durement parle encontre la trinite, si fu ioseph. Joseph is con. 
mult esbaMs de fauses proeues ke cMl li a auant traites, si ne seut 
mie maintenant respondre a fauser chou k'il auoit dit. car notre 
signour ne plot mie. Lors se dreclia iosephes, et si parla haut si ke ^^^ j^^^ ^^^ 
de tons fu clerement ois, et si dist au roi premierement. " Rois, y^""^^ ^''*" 
escoute ke ie te dirai. Clie te monde par moi le diex de israel, li 
crieres de toutes choses, et si dist a toi. Pour chou que tu as andteiishim 

(^-■■-i I 1 -■•• that because he 

amenes tes laus plaideors encontre ma creancne : pour cnou ai lou has brought his 
establi a prendre si grant venianche de ton cors que tu cherras aglLst^Hir^ 
ancliois que li tiers iours soit passes en vne si grant mesauenture que bringSre'dL 
tu ne quideras que nule riens viuans te puisse garandir de perdere ^'thin"thr™ 
toute terriene hauteche primierement, et ton cors apres. Et si ^^^^• 
prendra diex cheste iusticlie de toi, pour chou que tu ne veus 
recheuoir la creanche de son glorieus non. Anchois as despite et And because he 

• tt , 1 Mxjij. -il n has despised the 

mise auers la demonstrancne que li te nst a nuit de ses secres et de revelation 
ses miracles que il te descouuri eu auision. Pour chou te mande li crets°to Mm in 
diex des crestiiens par la bouche de son sergant qui parole a toi, que God wiu'give 
il donra a ton anemi mortel : gloire et honour et essauchement enemy'^ower 
sour toi trois iours et trois nuis. Car ta forche ne porra contrester, "hree^d^ysand 
ne tes cors n'osera atendre celui: qui onkes forche ne pent auoir ''^'''^^ "'s'^'^- 
mais encontre toi. ne mais de cheste fois que U t'a desconfit : par le 
traison de tes eonsiUeurs qui se sont a lui tourne par les dons. Ensi 
te mousterra li diex des crestiens ke nule creature ne puet durer 
qui n'est appariUie a son commandement. Ne ia ne reconueras la 



86 JOSEPHES STRIKES THE HEATHEN CLERK DUMB AND BLIND. 

grant liauteclie : ke tu commenclies a perdere : se par I'aide de 
And to verify it chelui 116 Ib reQuicres. Et se tu de cheste chose me tiens a men- 

Josephes says, ■*■ 

coingeur, tu orras par tans teles nouieles par quoi tu porras sauoir 
that Thoiomes, q^ie notres sires m'a demoustre aucune chose de tes auentures. Et 

King of Baby- ■*■ , 

Ion, has made gi, sachcs bicn dc uoir, ke thoiomes li luitis, qui est rois de babylomes, 

ready his forces , , , . -ri ■ 

and will attack a tout SOU cffort apparellict : et vient sour toi mult ireement. Et si 
dist li rois des crestiiens. En la main au felon egyptiien li uerrai 
iou le roi mescouneu, par chou ke il me fuit et mescounoist. Et chil 

and pursue him qui tous louTs a cstc fuitis, cu cachera chelui qui tous iours I'a cachie, 

fear of death, et sl Ic meiira lusc' a paour de mort. Car ie li voel faire esprouuer 
ke ie seus sui li rois des rois et la forteche de tous les pules." 

josephes next Aprcs SO touma iosophes vers chelui qui auoit si durement parle 

tells the object- i,..j i.i.-i. -n 

ing heathen eucontrc la trinite, et si li dist. " Escoute tu qui as parle encontre 

la sainte creanche au dieu des crestiiens. Or enten ke il te demande 

par la bouche de ton serf qui a toi parole. Tu, fait il, qui i es ma 

creature, et qui en tous lieus deusses obeir a mon commandement, 

that, as he has tu as ma creauche blasmee et mon non deshonre. Et pour chou ke 

G^'^s creed 16 voel kc tu saches ke tu as parle encontre chelui qui a pooir et sour 

ed'mrnlm" '^01 ^t sour toutcs choses autres : pour chou te ferai iou sentir uns 

desbatemens de ma iustiche terriene. Si ke tu le soufferras, et li 

autre se castieront par toi. Car tu as en tous iours la terriene 

scienche : ne onques I'esperitel ne vausis counoistre, ne goute ni 

and has been poolcs veou" I ct sc tu cu uauslssBS pai'lcr, tu u'cu seus onques dire 

in spiritual uolr. Et pour chou ke tu as este mus et awles en I'espiritel science : 

now 6 ge, ^^^ ^^ deusses cler veoir, et de qui tu deusses tenir touts la parole : 

pour chou te mousterrai iou ke la terriene scienche ne puet riens 

God will strike cncontre I'espiritel. Car ie te taurai voiant tous chiaus qui sont 

htod."™ ^" chaiens la terriene parqle et la veue. Car mes esperis est de tel 

forche: ke il fera les bien-emparles a muir. et les cler-veans 

awlir : si ferg, les mus bien parler, et les awles cler- veoir." Tan- 

The clerk be- tost kc ioscph But cho dit : si perdi chil la parole, et quant il vaut 

comes dumb, pg^^ler, si scnti deuant sa bouche vne main qui li lioit la langhe. 

and blind. Mals 11 nc le pooit veoir. Et il se drecha pour plus efforchier de 

parler. Mais si tost com U fu leues : Si ne vit nule goute des ieux. 



EVALACH PROTECTS JOSBPHES. E. ASKS HOW HE CAN ESCAPE. 87 

Et quant il senti chou : si commencha si durement a muir que on 
I'ooit tout clerement d'ausi loing com on porroit traire vne saiete. 
Et si estoit auis a tous cMaus qui I'ooient, ke che fust vns toriaus* 
Et quant li autre virent clieste meruelle : si en furent mult coure- The people are 

angry and rush 

chiet. et coururent tout sus iosephe : si I'eussent tout depechie a lor at Josephes. 
pooirs. Mais li rois eualach sailli en pies, et prist vne espee toute E^aiaoh seizes 

■^ ■•- ^ -^ ■*■ a sword and 

nue. si iura la poissanche iouis que il feroit tous chiaus destruire et swears he'ii put 

■•■ J 1 to death all who 

liurer a mort : qui en lui meteroient la main. Oar dont I'aroit il 'ay hands on 

, . ., . Josephes. 

trai, se il I'auoit mande en sa maison, et il ne le garandissoit. Ensi 

leua le tumulte par la sale, et li rois apiela iosephe, et li demanda ^ho^oge"'^hes?s' 

qui il estoit. Et ioseph si traist auant : si dist que il estoit ses fiex. 

Et li rois respond! ke mult parloit bien. et qu'il estoit voir disans en 

maintes choses. Apres li demanda comment il auoit tolue la parole ^""J ^""^ ^® , 

■*■ J- took speech and 

et la veue a chelui qui auoit parle encontre lui. Et iosephes res- ^'s''' f™™ ^'^ 

. opponent, 

pondi qu'il ne Ten auoit rien tolu. Mais li diex des crestiens contre 
qui il auoit parle. Ich.il li auoit tolu et parole et veue. Oar 
che estoit li diex de qui la parole ne seroit ia fausee pour nului. 
Ensi com il commandoit, couuenoit toutes choses a estre. " Oou- *°^ whether it 

is true that 

ment, dist eualach, est il dont voirs ke tholomes li fuitis m'enmerra Thoiomes shaii 

put him in fear 

lusc a paour de mort, et ara sour moi pooir et forche .iij. iours et iij. of death, and 

have power 

nuis ?" " Ohertes, dist iosephes, il est uoirs que il n'est nus hom over him three 

viuans par qui il puist estre fauses." Et li rois li demanda comment nights. 

il pooit chou sauoir. " Dont, n'as tu oi, dist iosephes, que li esperis 

au dieu des crestiiens est de si grant forche : ke il fait les mus parler 

et les awles veoir cler. Oh' est a dire, ke chil qui n'ont rien seu de 

clergie counistront toute la forche des escriptures par le grasce de 

son saint esperit." " Par foi, dist li rois, s'il anient ensi com tu as 

chi conte. le vaiiroie asses miex estre mors ke vis. Mais il n'est nule Evaiach cannot 

riens ke iou en peusse croire. Ne pour quant, si ai iou veu vne de ^^''^""^ "' 

tes paroles auenir." " Rois, dist iosephes, quant tu verras qu'il serra 

auenu, dont m'en croi." " Et en .porrai iou, dist il, escaper." c^n Escape it! 

" Ohertes, dist il, oil, par vne seule chose." " Et quelg sera ele," dist Yes, by receiv 

li rois. " le le te dirai, dist iosephes. Se tu rechois la creanche j"e!u]'cLtt*°^ 



88 



THE STRICKEN CLEBK IN THE HEATHEN TEMPLE. 



notonlyinword, 
but in heart. 



The clerk 
struck dumb 
and blind is 
taken to the 
heathen temple, 
to the image of 
Apollo. 



A devil in the 
image of Mars 
jjries out that a 
Christian there 
has bound 
Apollo, so that 
he cannot 



The devil offers 
to go out, 
■wherever 
Josephes orders. 

It goes out, 
knocks down 
the image of 
ApoUo, and 
breaks it in 
pieces; 



ihesu crist, que tu le croies parfitement, de quele eure que tu le 
rechoiues, tu aras secours et deliuranclie. Mais, bien saches de uoir, 
que ia pour chose ke la bouche die : se li cuers ni est, ne sera deli- 
ures. Car diex n'est pas horn que on puisse engingnierne decbeuoir 
par samblant. Anchois est de si parfaite sapiense que il counoist 
tous les penses des gens, et uoit parmi les cuers toutes les repostailes 
qui i sont." Lors li demanda li rois, comment il estoit apieles, et li 
dist qu'il estoit apieles iosepbes. Et li rois li redist. " Ore me di, 
iosepbe : de cbelui qui a perdu la parole et la veue, se il recouuerra 
iamais." " Rois, dist iosepbes. Ore le fai porter deuant tous les 
diex ke tu aoures : et si orra ke il te responderont et de sa garison 
et de ta bataille. Lors le fist porter el temple, si i ala il meismes, et 
iosepbes, et ses peres. Et quant li prouoire de la loy I'eurent offert 
al autel appolin qui il apielent le dieu de sapiense : si demanderent 
al ymage qui estoit sour I'autel comment cbil gariroit iamais. Mais 
onques tant ne seurent demander a cbel ymage ke il onques en 
peussent parole traire. Et li rois vint auant, si li demanda que il li 
dist, a quel fin il uenroit de cbeste guerre. Mais il n'en puet onques 
auoir respons ne ke li autre. Et vns dyables qui estoit en I'ymage 
martis, ke il claiment le dieu de bataille, commencba a crier. " Eoles 
gens, ke ales vous atendant, il a en notre compaignie yn crestiien ki 
a si loie apolin par le coniurement de ibesu crist son dieu : que il 
n'a nul pooir de vous respondre. Ne ia nus diex en lieu ou il soit 
n'osera donner respons, ne ne porra, puis ke il ara coniure," et main- 
tenant que li dyables eut cbe dit, si commencba si durement a crier 
ke il fu auis a tous cbiaus qui estoient el temple : que il fust en vn 
fu ardant. Ensi disoit " ba : Iosepbe, eueske ibesu crist, laisse chou 
ester ke tu dis, car tu me fais ardoir, et ie m'enfuirai de si la u tu 
commanderas." Ensi crioit li dyables qui estoit en I'yoiage martis 
par le coniurement que iosepbes li auoit fait. Car il le destraingoit 
si durement, et tant le iusticba, ke il issi bors de I'ymage, et, uoiant 
tous cbiaus qui estoient el temple : abati I'ymage a terre, et si le 
debrisa toute par menues pieches. Et quant il eut cbou fait, si prist 



THE DEVIL BREAKS THE HEATHEN IMAGES. 89 

vn aigle d'or mult grant, qm estoit sour I'autel au consel, si en feri [^^a^'Ji^f A^riio'onttie 

si durement I'ymage appolin en mi le vis : ke il li pechoia le nes et "^^iTt'arm'^^In/de^- 

le bracli destre. Apres s'en ala par toutes les ymages del temple, sfoysthe other images. 

si ni remest onques ymage qui il ne ferist de chel aigle tant qu'il 

li pecheoit aucun des membres. De cbeste chose furent les gens '^^^^°^^^ '^^^ ^'^' 

mult espoente qui estoient el temple. Oar il veoient les meruelles 

que ichele aigle faisoit. Mais U ne pooient veoir chelui qui la 

tenoit. Et ch'estoit la chose pour quoi il estoient plus espoente 

et plus esbahi. Lors apiela li rois losephe, et si li demanda l^ho'ht^ broke'L" tife''^* 

que che pooit estre qui ensi depechoit ches ymages. et iosephes ™*se8 

li respondi que H I'alaist demander al autel martis. Et il i ala, at StofotMaJs.^''' 

si vaut sacrefier. mais iosephes ne li laissa. ains dist que s'il 

faisoit tel sacreflsse, il morroit de mort soubite. Et quant li rois eut 

^ He does, and the devil 

demande respons a I'autel: Si dist li dyables qu'il n'osoit a lui says Josephes stops him. 

parler pour iosephe. Et li rois li demanda s'il auoit si grant pooir 

sour les dieus. Et U dyables li dist que nus diex ne pooit parler 

deuant lui se il ne I'en dounoit congie. Et li rois pria iosephe que 

il li dounoit congie de parler. et iosephes li douna. Et li dyables dist feTve tolpllk '''^ '^^''" 

au roi. " Rois, veus tu sauoir pour quoi il a si grant pooir. II a and /' teiis Evaiach 

■'•■'■ o 1 thatjosephes has always 

.il. angeles auoec lui qui le conduisent et gardent par tous les lieus two angeis with him,one 

*i ^ A cj i bearing a sword, the 

ou il va, si tient li vns vne espee toute nue, et li autres vne crois. °*i^er a cross, 

Et li doi m'ont tenu en tel destroit par son commandement que il and they have made it 

,,„.,-, ifi, 1 • J • -KT ■ • break all the images. 

m ont fait depechier toutes ches ymages ensi com tu vois. Ne lamais 
nus diex n'ara pooir de doner respons ou lieu ou chis horn soit : tel 
poeste li a done ihesu cris ses diex." Apres li demanda li rois se The king asks the devii 

, ., . .J • 1 1 1 J. 1 • -J. ■ - J whether the man struck 

chil qui auoit pierdu la parole et les lex recouuerroit lamais sante. dumb and blind win 
Et li dyables li dist " rois, se U garist, che ne sera miepar notre uirtu. ''^°°''^''- 

" Por that power haven not We* Et nous n'en i poons point auoir : 

Him hoi to Maken In non degre, 

But helthe A3en to him Most gon ancliois conuenra ke chil le garisse par qui 

Be him that him it leide vppon ; 4 commandement il a eu le mal, 

* The pages containing the English lines 1—492, are bound at the end of the MS., but there is a pencil 
foot-note saying that they belong to the commencement. 

N 



90 



THE DETIL CONFESSES THAT flE CANNOT FOEETEL THE FUTURE. 



And elles but lie Wele Mm hele sende, 

Be vs get he non In non Ende." 

Thanne Axede him the king Anon the 

' Howgh A5ens the Egipciens he scholde do ; 

3if with hem he heeld Ony bataille 

In what manere it myhte him Availle.' 

Thanne the devel him Answerid ful sone, 

" J3ere OfFen Answere mown We 3even ]?e none ; 

Tyl that goddis man be Owt past 

Of vs An Answere non thow hast." 

Thanne spak Josephes there Anon Ryht, 

" I Conioure the be the vertxi of God Almyht, 

And be the myht Also Of the Trenite, 

That the sothe here thou schewe to me." 

And the devel him answerid agein 

" That he ne Cowde not In Certein 

Of thing that was to Comej he Oowde not telle 

What Aventure so that him Euere befelle." 



ou se ohe non, il n'en garira iamais."* 

Lors li demanda li rois, 

8 ' a quel fin il uenroit se il se conba- 
toit as egyptiiens.' 

Et li dyables dist, 
12 ' que il n'auoit nul pooir d'el dire 
tant com li horn dieu i serroit.' 

Et iosephes salli auant, et si li dist. 
IQ " Je te coniur 

de par la forche de la sainte trinite, 
ke tu li dies uoir." 

Et respondi li dyables, 
20 ' que il n'en sauoit rien de che qu'il li 
estoit a auenir. Ne nus ne le puet 
sauoir, se par ihesu crist non.' 



* The additional MS. 10,292, omits the question as to the recovery of the dumb and blind clerk, having 
aftjr crois, p. 89, 1. 21, ' que ia n'aurons poeste en lieu ou il soit, tant de pooir li a doune ses diex, lors demanda 
li rois ' a quele fin il vendroit s'il combatoit as egyptiiens,' et li diables li dist ' qu'il n'auoit pooir de lui dire 
tant comme li hons fust illuec, et iosephes sailli auant, et li dist. " iou te coniur de pax la sainte trinite que 
tu dies orendroit ce que tu en seis." et li dyables li dist ' qu'il ne sauoit riens de cose qui estoit a uenir.' 



91 



CHAPTER XII. 



The invasion by Tholomes and the Egyptians of Evalach's land; Evalach's summons to his vassals 
(p. 92); Josephes's counsel to him, — Josephes tells him his history, that he was a cobler's son at 
Miaux, in France, (p. 93), was sent to Rome as part of the hostage demanded by Augustus (p. 94-5), 
then on to Erl Felis of Svlie, whose son he slew (p. 96), and fled to Tholomes King of Babylon, for 
whom he conquered all the land of Sarras (p. 96), that therefore he must be humble, and remember 
God, as he will be three days and three nights in Tholomes' power (p. 97, 100); Evalach asks for the 
means of victory (p. 98); Josephes tacks a cross of red cloth on to his shield, and tells him to look on 
it in his need, and pray to God, and he shall be saved (p. 99, 100). Evalach marches to Tarabel and 
Valachin. Valachin described (p. 101 — 2). His army enters a forest, and sends out a spy (p. 103); 
they attack Tholomes, but flee to Castle Comes (p. 103); Tholomes pursues (p. 104); while Evalach's 
men plunder his tents (p. 105). A spy next day tells Tholomes that Evalach is in Comes with a 
very few men (p. 105), and so Tholomes marches after him with half his force, leaving the other half 
with Vabus his steward to watch Castle Valachin (p. 106 — 7). 



And In the mene while Of this talking 
Cometh A messenger tho to the king. 
And knelid to forn him vppon his kne, 
" Sire king, newe tydinges I bringe to jje 
That ben bothe Evel & perylous. 
Of Tholomes king so dispetous ; 
Into thi lond now Entred he is, 
And with him gret strengthe With owten Mis ; 
And Oriable thi Cite they hau take, 
And Abowtes In virown thei don Wrake, 
That so the Contre distroied is be him 
Into the Castel Of valachin. 
Eor On hors bak with him don Ride 
Twenty thonsend be his side. 
And On foote Also there ben 
Eourti thowsend Men harneysed Clen ; 
, And 3if that Castel he mown haue, 
Nothing Of thi lond Wil he saye ; 

N 2 



A ches paroles vint laiens vns mes- 
sages mult grant aleure, 

si s'agenoUla deuant le roi, et si li dist. 

4 " Rois eualach, ie t'aport nouieles 
mult males et mult perilleuses. 

Car tholomes li fuitis est entres en ta 
terre. 

8 a tout son effort, 

et si a ia pris par forche ouagre ta 
riche chite, et toute la terre enuiron 



12 



16 



iusc' au castiel de eualachin, ke il a 

assis 

a. XXX. mille homes a pie. 

[MS. Add. ,^, chiualers et a .S 
hommes a pie] 

Et se il puet chelui auoir, il ne re- 
maura en ta terre ne chastel ne chite 
qui puisse contre hii. 



92 



EVALACH SUMMONS HIS VASSALS TO THE CASTLE OP TARABEL. 



Ne thens wil he non fote gon 

Til they ben 3olden Euerichon ; 20 

[Eor] that Is now the strongest hold 

[Inj thi lond be Manye a fold. 

And 3it his Avow Made he there 

(That Alle his Meyne gan it to here) 24 

That Owt Of that Contre Wold he he not pas 

Tyl he were Crowned king In sarras," — 

Whiche that Was the Chef Cite 

Of king Enalach his lond, I telle the, 28 

And whanne the king herde him thus sein, 
Sore he him Abaschte In Certein ; 
And 3it the more Abascht was he pleiali 
Eor the Wordis that losephes spak OpenU, 32 

' That thre dayes & thre nyht 
In his Enenyes daunger to be Owtriht 
And that to the prikke of deth he schold be browht ;' 
And this Enere Was in Eualache thowhte ; 36 

But for Jiat he was a man Of so gret prowesse 
He made non semblaunt Of non distresse, 
But A3ens herte he made good Chere, 
[SJeenge Alle tho that there Were, 40 

And swor Anon be his Creaunce 
' That what so him Evere happede be chaunce, 
3if At that sege he myhte Mm fynde 
He wold don him Remeve be som kynde.' 44 

Anon his sonde he dide to sende 
Ouer al tho Into Everich ende. 
To Alle tho that of him took Ony fe, 
' Anon with him that thei scholden be, 48 

And On the Morwe to ben Gadering 
Atte Castel of Tarabe With owten Taryenge,' 
That twenty Miles from sarras Is, 
And fro valachim Sistene More ne Mis 52 



Car ch'est la plus forte deffense ke tu 
aies. 

Et si a fait .i. serement, 
oiant tout son barnagej 

ke il n'enterra mais en sa terre deuant 
qu'U ara porta coroune dedens la chite 
de sarras." 



Quant H rois oi la parole, 
si fu mult espoentes, 
et plus, 

pour che que iosephes li auoit dit que 
il serroit .iij. iours et iij. nuis en la 
bailie a son anemi. 

et qu'il serroit menes iusc'a paour de 
morir. 

Mais il auoit este de si grant proueche 
ke il n'osoit faire samblant de paour. 



Anohois iura 

ke se il pooit trouuer au siege: il 
vauroit miex morir en la bataille que 
il ne Ten fesist mult vilainement partir. 

Maintenant fist le rois semonre tout 
son pooir, et manda* 

a tons chiaus ki riens tenoient de lui : 
ke si chier com il auoient s'onor et lor 
cors, ke il fuissent au setisme iour 
tout apparilliet d'armes a tarabiel 

.j. chastiel qui estoit .ix. lieues de 

sarras. 

et a .xvi. lieues de eualacbin 



* MS. Add; et les fist assambler a carabel, a .j. castel qui estoit a .vj. lieues loins d'Uuec. 



JOSEPHES TELLS EVALACH HIS HISTOEY, — HE's A GOBBLER'S SON, 



93 



Where As Tholomes Atte Sage was. 

Thus Abowten sent Eualach Into Everi plas; 

Thus Abowtes be his sel he sente, 

' That Eche man scholde don his Ente 56 

That Weren Weldy Armes to here 

Ajens here Enemyes to fensen hem there. 

And ho that A3ens his Comandements were, 

What so he be that it doth there, 60 

His lordschepe from him Wil he take, 

And but Ryht A povre Man him Make.' 

And On the Morwe the king gan to re-meve, 
And losephes to him Cam to taken his leve, 64 

" Sire kyng, hennes thou gynnest to Go, 
But thow ne West what forto do ; 
Eor thou ne Art seker to Oomen Agein, 
But there forto dyen In Certein. 68 

But thus My God sente Onto the 
Be me his servaunt, As thou myht se, 
' That thow scholdest Remembren the Wei 
Of Whom thow Come Everydel, 72 

And of What maner kynde & of lynage 
Thow Art I-Come to this high parage ; 
But thou supposist that no man it knowe ; 
But I Can the teUen Al be Howe. 76 

Be the grace Of my God Almyht 
I schal the telle, I the A-plyht, 
Eor Conceil may Jjere non heled be 
Erom him that Sit In Maieste. 80 

Thow were born In fraynce lend. 
As the holi gOst me doth vndirstond. 
In a Old Cite Of fraunce, As I wene, 
That Miaux is Called there bedene ; 84 

And there thow Were A pore Mannes sone, 
That to Maken schon Was thanne his Wone ; 

^~*' a saint cosme et li sans esperis me demoustre que tu fus nes, 



ou chil tholomes seoit au siege. 

Et si manda par son seel 

ke il ni remansist nus qui fust poissans 
de soi deiFendre. 



Et qui remauroit, s'il estoit chiualers, 
il ne tenroit iamis terre de lui, et 
s'il estoit vilains, il le feroit, voiant 
tout son lignage, trainer a keues de 
cheuaus. 

Et quant vint a I'endemain, si vaut li 
rois mouuoir, 

et iosephes vint a lui, et si li dist. 
" Eois, tu t'en uas, 

et si ne ses comment. 

Car tu n'es seurs de repairier iamais, 
ne que tu i es de mourir la. 

Or te dirai comment dont tu feras. 
Che te mande li diex des crestiens, 

' ke tu soiesr amenbrans quetu i es, et 
comment tu venis a si grant hauteche 
com tu as eue iusc'a chi. 



Tu quides ke nus ne sache qui tu es, 
et de quel lignage, 
mais ie le sai bieti 

par la grasce et par uirtu del haut 
signour 

a qui nule repoistaile ne puet estre 
chelee. 

Tu fus neSj 

* si com li sains esperis m'a demostre :" 

en vne mout anchiene chite de franche 
qui est apielee miaus, 

et si fus fiex a .i. poure homme a-fai- 
teour de vies saulers,* 

* refaitiores de solers. 



94 



OF ATJGTTSTTJS'S TAX, AND HOW HE BEQUIBBD HOSTAGES FBOM FKANCE. 



And this Owghtest tliow to knowen ful Wei 

~Eov thow it hast Sein this Everydel. 88 

For whanne Augustus Cesar Emperour Was 

Of Rome xxxii 3er. In that plas 

He wende king of Alle kinges haue ben, 

And so it him thowhte that it Was sen ; 92 

But Crist of Marie Was born 

In his tyme, that I Rehersed beforn, 

That tho king Of Alle kynges was 

Thorwgh the World In Every plas. 96 

And Whanne here Offen herde Augustus Cesar 

Be hise Clerkis that Weren bothe Wis & War, 

Thanne he gan to Wexen Gretly in dowte 

Lest Of his Empire to putten him Owte, loo 

And that Al the Centre Of Rome Abowte 

To that lord scholden Worschepen & dowte. 

Thanne wiste he Not What forto don 

But Abowtes Al Rome he sente Anon, 104 

Thorwgh Owt Al that Centre 

Anon his Messengeres sente he 

' That Euery man & Womman Also 

To him A peny scholde 3elden tho 108 

As In manere Of a knowelechinge 

As In weye Of Soiettis to here kynge. 

And, b'encheson that Fraunce was thanne 

Of Anothir Maner kende Of Manne, 112 

To hem he sente In this Manere 

As, Sire, I the schal now tellen here ; 

An hundred knyhtes be trews Aftir he sente. 

And Aftir An hundred knyhtes dowghtren presente 

That Maidenis scholde ben Everichon, — 117 

And thus his Messages Gonne forth to gon, — 



ensi com tu meismes le ses de voir. 

Quant augustus cesar eut tenu I'em- 
pire de rome .xxvij. ans, 



si sourti vne parole que il naistroit 
vns rois qui tout le monde metroit 
desous lui, et il fu voirs que ihesu 
cris li diex des diex et li rois des rois 

fu nes en chel an. 

*Et quant augustus cesar oi la parole, 
si com li sage clerc I'auoient espandue. 
et si ne sauoient a dire qui clie seroit. 
si douta ke les teres qui estoient de- 
sous la signourie de rome ne se vau- 
sissent descorder et lui ieter del em- 
pire pour la fianclie de cheste nouiele, 

si manda par toutes les terres qui 
estoient desous rome : 



ke chascune teste d'ome et de feme 

rendist .i. denier 

de connissanclie ke il estoient 
sougit a I'empire de rome. 

Et pour cliou ke franche estoit plus 
de fiere gent que les autres terres, 

si manda ke on li enuoiast de toute 

la terre 

•c. cliiualers en treu, 

et .0. puchieles toutes filles de chi- 

ualers, 



* MS. Add. quant li rois I'oi si s'espoenta miilt si enuoia par toutes terres, et manda que chascuns 
rendist a roume de son chief .j. denier, et en france, pour ce que c'estoient la plus fiere gent du monde, si 
manda que ou li enuoiast .c. puceles, &c. 



HOW BVALACH WAS TAKEN FROM MlAUX IN FBANCB TO ROME. 



95 



And An hundred knave cMldren Al In fere 

Not passeng the Age thanne of fyve 3ere, 120 

But Eathere lasse thanne Ony More ; 

That time this was his Gomaundement thore. 

And Whanne these tydinges Weren Comen Into 
fraunce, 
Mochel they merveilled thanne Of this Chaunce, 1 24 
And thanne Chosen they In Every City 
Be lot As that time here happe myhte be. 
So thanne it happed. As I teUe now the, 
That Owt of Miaux that City 128 

That tweyne Maydenes Chosen Weren for sothe. 
And that An Erlis dowghtren weren thei bothe 
Hos Name Was Erl of Siuayn, 
That lord of Miaux was & of the Contre Certain. 132 
And Whanne the lot on him f)us gan falle, 
Thanne mosten thei forth nedis with alia ; 
And vppon the tho fyl the tother lot 
Where J>ou myhtest ben Excused not, i36 

Eor thow were At the Age of fyve 3er 
And Also these maidenis bothe briht & Cler ; 
That so Wit these Maydenes forth Were ]70u led, 
As to fore I haue here now to the Seid, i40 

And Whanne that to Bome 36 Weren I-Come 
The peple Abowtes 30W Cam On a throme 
And 30W gonnen faste to beholde 
30 hadden tho of Bewte so manifolde. 144 

And Whanne thow Were comen to twenty 3ere, 
Thanne bothe Maidenes deyden Ryht there 
Eor the ton ne lyved After the tothir 
But thre monthesj It Was non Othir. i48 

Thanne Aftyr, the took Tiberius Sesar 
That Aftir Augustus Was emperour thar, 



et .c. petis enfans tous marles qui 
fuissent de I'aage de .v. ans 
ou de mains. 



Quant li commandemens fu venus en 
franche, 

si eslurent de chascune cHte selonc 
che que ele estoit, et chele elections fu 
faite par soit, si auint cHose 

que de la chite de miaus 

i alerent .ij. puchieles qui estoient 

ambedeus fiUes 

au conte seuain. Ichil seuains estoit 
quens de miaus et de la contree en- 
uiron. 

Et des ke la sors chai sour eles, si 
conuint a forche qu'il fust tenu. 

Et sour toi chai li sors, qui estoies 



de .y. ans de eage. 

Iches ij. puchieles te *menerent auoec 
eles, et si te tenoient mult ohier. 

et quant tu fas a rome, 

si te regarderent a meruelle, et li vn 
et li autre. Car il quidoient bien que 
tu fuisses de plus haut lignage que 
tout li autre enfant, tant par-estoies 
biaus. 

Et quant tu fus en I'aage de .xx.f 
ans si furent les .ij, puchieles mortes. 
Car I'une ne vesqui apres I'autre ke 
.ij. mois. 



Et lors te retint tyberius cesar, qui, 
apres auguste cesar, fu empereres de 
rome. 



* MS. Bibl. Eeg. remenerent. 



t MS. Add. .xii. 



96 



EVALACH'S HISTOET, — HOW HE CAME TO RULE HIS LAND. 



And tlie hadde tho Eylit In gret Cherte, 

And to an Erl the sente for thi bewte — 152 

Eli Pelys he hyghte of Svlie, — 

To him Were thow lad in hie : 

And Whanne that thow to him were browht, 

Ful mochel thow Were Euere In his thowht, i56 

For the ful dere to him he held ; 

And After ful Evele didest thou him 3eld. 

For it befil that yppon a day 

His Eldest sone & thou wenten to play, 16O 

That so In Anger 36 fiUen tho bothe 

That there thow slowe his sone for sothe. 

And Whanne thou haddes thus him slo, 

Thanne to Tholomes gonne thou go 164 

That Of babiloyne thilke time king was. 

And werre he held A3ens Olifernus ; 

For Olifernus king Was riht tho with outen d[owte] 

There As now thow Art Of Al the Contre Abowte. i68 

And Anon As thow to him Were gon, 

There A knyht he made the Anon, 

And so moche love thanne he be-Caste to the 

That amongs Al his Ost he 3af the powste, 172 

And Aboven Alle Othere he 3af the powere 

Ouer Alle his Ost to Gouernen there ; 

For that thow Were Of so gret prowesse 

Of Manhod, & ful Of hardinesse, 176 

So that On his Enemys Avenged he Was 

And hem distroiede In that plas. 

And thanne to the 3af he that lond, 

And there hoUch put it Into thin hond. 18O 

Now myhtest [thou] knowen & vndyrstonde, 
That I knowe Whennes & Of What londe 
That thou Were bothen bigeten & born, — 
Lik as I haue the Rehersed beforn, — 184 



si te mist au conte felis qui il fist 
conte de surie. 

Chil felis s'en uint pour surie garder, 
si t'amena ensamble o lui, et mult 
durement te tint chier, et ama. 



Tant qu'il auint chose .i. iour 
ke entre toi et .i. sien fil, 

vous courechastes, 

si I'ooiiesis. 

Et quant tu I'eus ochis, 

si ten fuis a tholome cerastre.* 

qui dont estoit rois de babylone. 

Ichil tholomes auoit guerre encontre 

holoferne, qui a chel iour estoit rois 

de chest roiaume ke tu tiens. 

Et quant tu venis a lui, si desis que 
tu estoies chiualers. et il t'ama mult, 
et crut, 

et si grant grasce trouas vers lui 

que il se mist de tout en tout sour toi 

de sa guerre 

par la grant proueche qu'il vit en toi. 

Et tu le fesis si bien ke tu li conquisis 
toute la terre, et son anemi meisme li 
rendis tout pris, et il I'ochist, 
et si te. dona toute la terre, et tu en 
deuenis ses horn. 

Or pues tu bien entendi-e se is soi 
riens de ton estre. Et pour chou 
que tu ses bien que tu i es venus 
de si grant pouerte a si grant 



* tholomes ce iastre. 



EVALACH's duty. the invasion by the EGYPTIANS IS FOR HIS IJNBELIEE. 97 



And from so gret provert to hy dignete, 

Remembre the wel what I telle the ; 

And therfore the sente to sein be me, 

The grete God of Al Cristiente, 188 

That Of thi self thow schost hau minde ; 

And thowgh jjat vnder ]?ou hast men of gret kynde, 

And Moche peple In bataille ]?e Abowte, 

In herte scholdest thou not be prowte ; 192 

Por thi lyges they nothing ben 

But As a wardein hem to be sen ; 

And therfore haue thou this in Mende, 

Por but As On Man thow Art of kende, 196 

And As sone deyen thow schal 

As the porest Man doth Ouer al ; 

Therfore scholdest thow be powre & Mek, 

And vppon thi Oreatour beleven Ek 200 

That Into this world Ipe made forth go, 

Eor with-Owten him thow myht not do ; 

And 3if thou like not him for thi kyng to holde, 

Owt of thi regne ]?ou gost Ryht Manifolde, 204 

Eor wel may he be Clepid a kyng 

That Endeles lasteth Euere his Reyneng, — 

This is Crist Goddis sone of heuene 

That Into Ipe Maide Alyhte be th' aungelis sterene. 

Eor alle Mennes hertes he doth knowe, 209 

And Alle here thowghtes vppon A rowe : 

& ]>ai the schal putten Into thin Eenemyes bond, 

And Aftir the deliueren, thou vndirstond; 212 

Eor that ther nys non lord nepev God but he 

To whom Ony honour longeth to be. 

Wherfore, as Only On god & Almyhty 

Thow Owest him to worschepen al only ; 2I6 

Eor bothe this torment & this Noysance 

He the now sendeth, for his Creaunce 





hauteche, et de si grant vieute a si 
grant honour : 

pour chou te mande par moi li diex 
des cristiiens, ke tu soies ramenbrans 
de toi meisme, et ke tu aies tous iours 
en ton pense ke de noient es venus a 

auques. 

Et pour chou se tu uois ke tu aies 
grant plente de terre et de gent en ta 
bataille, ne te dois tu pas en orguillir. 
Car ele n'est mie toie lige, 

ne tu n'en i es ke garde, .i. de ches 
iours le te conuenra laissier. 

Car tu n'es ke vns seus horn. 

et tout ausi tost morris tu : 

com li plus poures hom de ton regne. 

Pour chou dois estre humeles et pi- 

tieus, 

et recounoistre ton creatour, 

sans qui commandement tu ne pues 
viure. 

Et si ne te dois mie vis tenir pour toi. 
Car tu ne I'as mie a tous iours le regne 
ke tu tiens, anchois le guerpiras plus 
prochainement ke tu ne quides. Mais 
chil doit estre rois apieles qui tous 
iours tenra ton regne sans prendre fin. 

Ch'est ihesu oris, 

li fiex de la uirgene. lohel te mande 
par moi : pour chou ke il veut ke tu 
saches ke il counoist tous les pensees 
et toutes les repoistales des cuers : 

ke il te metra entre les mains de ton 
anemi mortel. 



Et la counisras et apercheuras : 

ke il n'est nus diex que on doiue 

croire ne aurer que lui tant seulement. 

Et si te tnrmentera en cheste maniere : 
pour chou ke tu 



98 



EVAXACH OFFERS TO BELIEVE IN GOD IE HE TTILL HELP HIM. 



Thow hast Eefased, & Ek Ms lore 

That he in AvicioB. hath schoTred before." 220 

Thanne seide king Eualach Anon Agein, 
" Maister losephes, I preie 'pe telle me pleia 
What that A-visioun was forto Mene, 
That thou it voidest declaren me Clene." 224 

" Certes," quod losephes, " nay how so befaUe, 
Tyl thow haue broken thy mawmettis Alle, 
And that in theke high lord to hauen ful Creaunce 
That the May deliuren from Alle Xoysaunce, 228 
And AHe lyveng thing enstablisched Is 
"Wheche that ]>e hey est king is of blys." 
" [B]e my Creaunce, quod Eualach tho, 
This Bataylle myn herte goth sore vnto, 232 

And bothe 30ure fadyr & Ek 3e 
Of Riht good Conceyl behygten me, 
5if that I wolde On 30TV be-leve, 
36 seiden Ryht wel that I scholde preve 236 

Be wheche yictorie of mynne Enemys to haue 
And Aftir my deth my sowle to save." 
" Certein, Sire," quod losephes tho, 
" That Conceil I the 3af, & 3it mo, 240 

3if tho"w wilt On him beleven stedfastly 
And him worschepen As Almyhty. 
And 5if thow wilt not don As I the teche, 
be war lest god wele taken wreche ; 244 

And but thow him worschepe As me pou seest, 
In body & sowle distroyed thou beest 
Of him that Of Alle thinges Is domes man ; 
The helpen & socoure ful wel he Can." 248 

" Xow Certein," quod this Eualach J^e king, 
" And 30 wolden 3eYen me swich conseUling 
That Of Mvn Enemyes victorie to haue, 
And therto my Hf that he wolde save, — 252 



as refusee sa creanche en sa loy, et 
despite ta vision ke il te moustra." 

Et quant li rois Tent mult deboinaixe- 

ment escoute, si li dist. 

" Mais tres or me dites 

ques la visions fu, et k'ele senefie."' 

" Chertes, dist iosepies, tu ne le saras 
deuant ke tu auras depichies les 
ymages que tu aoures, 

et ke tu seras uenus a la creanche 

del tres haut signour 

par qui commandement toutes choses 
viuans sont estabHes." 

" Par foi, dist li rois, 

ie dout mult cheste bataille, 

et vous me promesistes, vous et vos 

peres, 

ke vous me donries tel consel, 

se ie le voloie croire : par quoi iou 

aroie victoire de mes anemis, 

et la grant ioie ke ia ne prendra fin.'' 

" Par foi, dist ioseptes, 

chel consel te donroie iou 

se tu voloies croire et metre a oeiu'e. 



Mais se tu ne le vous recheuoir com 
boins creans et loiaas, et loiaus ou- 
uriers: 

garde ke tu ne Je prometes mie. 

Car tu en serroies destrais en cors et 

en ame de che ckelui qui de tous sera 
iugieres, et de toutes." 

" Par foi, dist li rois, 

ie vous creant bien, ke se vous 

me dounes consel par quoi ie voie ke 

i"aie la victoire : 



JOSEPHES TACKS A CROSS OF RED CLOTH ON EVALACH's SHIELD. 



99 



On Mm Onliche I wolde beleleve, 
And Al my Creannce I wele Eepreve." 

Thanne spak Anon losephes to the kyng 
" Now herkeneth, Sire, to my talkyng. 256 

Do brynge now tM scheld to-fore me 
And Anotliir maner thing schalt thow se." 
And whanne this scheld to-fore losephes was, 
Anon he Comanded In that plas 260 

A lytel pece thanne of cloth so red 
To-fore him be browht Into that sted ; 
And the kyng Anon with j^at biddinge 
A pece of Red SHk he dyde him bringe, 264 

And kutte there offe two peces Anon 
In the sihte of hem Echon, — 
Eche pece A Eote of lengthe was, — 
Wher o|fen A Crois he made In that plas 268 

And takked it vppon the kynges scheld, 
"Wher-with he Rod thanne Into ]>& feld. 
And whanne thus he hadde don. 
To kyng Eualach thanne spak he Anon, 272 

" Syxt thow now this signe that I haue Mad ?" 
" 3e for sothe," thanne kyng Eualach Said. 
" Certes," quod losepes, " I telle it the. 
What Manere Of Man so Evere he be, 276 

And he wele stedfastli belevene on this. 
Were he neuere in so moche sorwe Ojjer distres, 
That he ne schal Anon deliured be 
Of Alle Manere deseisse And Aduersite. 280 

And therfore, honoure thou this, I charge the, 
In worschepe of him that deyde On tre ; 
And whanne that thou Art In gret Nede, 
Loke Of helpe & socour that thow him bede, 284 

And that thow sey In this Manere 
As I the schal now Rehersen here, 

o2 



ie ne me tenrai plus en cheste que 
be ie ne tieng, anchois recheurai 
tout maintenant la uotre." 

" Eois," dist iosephes, 

" or entendes dont ke vous feres. 
Faites moi aporter uostre escu.'' 

Lors commanda li rois son escu aporter 
[, et] vne pieche d'vn mult riche drap 
Vermel de sole, et iosephes prist Ie 
drap, 



si en trencha, et fist vne crois qui 
bien eut .i. piet de lone et demi pie 
de Ie, si Ie mist en I'escu deseure lea 
enarmes, 

et I'ataka mult bien a cletis menus. 



Et quant il eut mult bien atachie, si 
dist au roi. 

" Eois eualach, vois tu che signe."' 

" Oil," dist li rois, " mult bien:'' 

" Chertes," dist iosephes ; " qui bien 
parfaitement kerroit chest signe : 
II n'est nus terriens parieus: dont 
il n'en espast* pour que il Ie reclamast 
de boin cuer. [* from es-passer] 

Et seis tu ke tu feras. Tu Ie con- 
uerras de toile blanche. 

Et quant tu verras au grant besoing 
ke tu aras paour de mort, si Ie des^ 
ceure, et si reclaime de boin cuer 
chelui pour qui nous Ie tenons chiar 
et honerons. 

Et toutes les fies ke tu descouerras li 
signe dieu, si diras. 



100 JOSEPHES TELLS EVALACH THAT HE WILL CONQUER IF HE BELIEVES IN GOD. 



' O thow god that deydest vppon the Crois, 

Of me, Synnere, here thow my vols, 288 

And On the signe Of this thow suffredest ded 

Vppon the tre In thin Manhed, — 

So graunt me Of victorie the grace, 

And to thi beleve therto hauen space, 292 

And that thy man that I Moot be 

Er that this world departe from me.' 

And 3if thow this' fulliche wilt beleve, 

Thanne A trewe man schalt Jjou me preve ; 296 

For thanne In bataille schalt thow not dye, 

But bothe to geten Worschepe & victorie. 

And now that thus I haue the told, 

To gon to bataille thow myht be bold, 300 

For from deth thi waraunt this schal be 

And from AUe presonementis, I telle it the. 

sit not-withstonding, not for than 

That Tholomes this Crwel Man 304 

In distresse schal he putten the 

Thre dayes and thre Niht Sekerle, 

For so be me sente the to seye 

That Myhtful gode & verraye, 308 

And wete thow wel, 3if thow beleve On this, 

Thow schalt neuere thanne don Amys ; 

For to the schal it ben Eedempcioun, 

And to the devel sorwe & distructioun." 312 

Thanne seide he to losephes Agein 

These wordes tho In Certeiu, 

'•' losephes, that thou woldest now preyen for me 

To kyng of Cristene In Eche degre, 31 G 

Me to helpe and Euere me to save ; 

And trewly his Creaunce wil I have, 

3if it be As now thow behotest Me, 

Trewe Cristen Man thanne wil I be, 320 



' Dies, 

qui en chest signe soufFeris la mort, 

maine moi sain et saiif, et honeure a 
ta creanche recheuoir.' 



Et saches bien cheitainement, ke se 
tu reclaimes dieu de boin cuer, 

tu ni morras mie, 

anchois i conquerras victoire et lionetu'. 



Etsi tedirai comment tu porras saiioir 
et counoistre se chis t'aia victoire donee. 
II est voirs proues, et si ne puet estre 
destourne par nul home: 
que tes anemis, ch'est tholomes li 
fuitis, n'aait pooir sour toi trois iours 
et trois nuis. Car chil le t'a mande 
par moi, qui onques ne menti, ne ia 
ne mentirai. Or garde donques que 
tu aras paour de mort. et ke tu ne 
quideras iamais escaper. Et se tu 
le desceuures en tel point, et tu es- 
capes : lors porras tu bien sauoir ke 
che sera par le signe. Et saches bien 
de voir, se tu i as boine creanche : tu 
ne desiras riens que tu ne conquerras 
par le signe. Car che est li sauue- 
mens des creans, et li destruisemens 
au dyable." 

Lors li dist li rois. 



" losephe, prie 

ton signour 

ke il li menbre de moi. 
Gar, se il me fait chou ke tu m'as 
promis: chertes ie te creant loiau- 
ment ke ie recheuerai sa creanche 



EVALACH MARCHES TO TAEABEL&VALACHIN— DESCRIPTION OP CASTLE VALACHIN. 101 



Of thyn hond to Resceyven In this plas 
3if Euere I Come A3eii In to Sarras." 

And thanne An Old Serlannt he gan to Calle, 
And there him Oomaunded Amongs hem Alle, 
' The Cristene to kepen with ful gret honour, 
With Owten Ony Angwysch Other labour ; 
And that losephes haue his Oomaundement, 
Of Alle Manere thinges wit good Eutent. 

Thanne took the Kyng his leve Eyht there 
Of losephes & Of his Compenie In fere, 
With Ryht A gret Compenye Of knyhtes 
And Mochel Other peple tho Anon Ryhtes, 
And Evene to the Cite of Tarabel 
They token the E-yht weie Eueridel, 
And there Abod he fully vi dayes. 
As the Storie Of this book vs sayes. 
And be the tyme the Sixe dayes were gon 
So moche peple Of his Owne hadde he sein non 
What of So manie knyhtes & barown 
Hadde he not Sein At Anof In his town ; 
But be the tyme that heyghte dayes were gon, 
Mochel peple to him Cam Anon. 
Thanne Owt Of Tarabel thei gonne Hide 
To ward valachin At that same Tyde, 
Where that Tholomes beseged the Castel 
That kyng Eualach tho lovede ful wel, 
Eor him Self there Oifen Eoundur he was, 
And there it let Setten In that plas. 
Eor it was On of the Strengest pyl 
That Euere Man Sawgh in Ony Exyl ; 
Eor it Myhte neuere I-wonne be 
But Only thorwgh Enfamyne, I telle it the. 
Where vppon A 3ate on f>at Castel was thore 
Erom the plein Erthe A stones Cast & More ; 



325 



328 



332 



136. 



340 



344 



348 



352 



de ta main 

tout maintenant ke ie serai reuenus." 

Lors apiela chelui en qui il se fioit 
plus de tons ses baillieus : et si li 
comraanda 

ke li crestiien fuissent tenu a honour. 

et ke il eussent quanke iosephes com- 
manderolt. 

A tant s'en parti li rois 

entre lui et grant compaignie de chi- 

ualers et de sergans : 

et si errerent tant que il vinrent a 

tarabiel. 

Illuec atendi li rois ses os 
et quant uint au sietisme ior, 
si eut si grant plente de gent : 

que il n'en auoit onques eu tant a en- 
samble. Et si ni uint onques nus de 
ses haus barons. Car il li estoient 
tout falli, ensi com li liures acon- 
techa en ariere. 

Au witisme iour 



mut li rois de tarabiel, mult matin, a 
toutes ses os. et cheuauchierent grant 
aleure tout droit a eualachin ou tho- 
lomes seoit. 



Iche chastiel qui auoit non eualachin 
auoit eualach eu deen son tans, 

et si seoit en la plus fort pieche de terre 
que nus hom veist onques des iex. 

Car il ne pooit estre pi is en nule ma- 
niere, qui a forche tainsi&t, se par 
afamer non. 

Et si i auoit vne porta dont nule os ne 
pooit tolir ne I'entree ne Tissue a ohiaus 
dedens. Car ele estoit plus haute ke 
la plaine de terre : bien le giet d'une 
menue pierre. 



102 



THE DESCRIPTION OE CASTLE VALACHIN. 



And vndir wheclie 3ate Ean there 

Rylit A wondir dyspetous Eyvere, 356 

And that Rever As brod it was 

As the schot Of An Arwe In eche A plas, 

So that 3ate Asailled ne myhte not hen 

Of hem with Owte, As men Myht sen, 360 

But It were Only be an Navye, 

Thane Conde that nenere hem stroye 

Por schot And Oast Owt of that Castel, 

It was devised so wondirly wel, 364 

And no mo 3at[es] weren there vppon 

Where that [Me]n Mihte Owht owt gon, 

But A litel [Gate] In A Corner 

That there vppon was devised ther, 368 

And Of plein Erthe to-form ]?at gate was 

For two Chariettes to Meten On In Jiat plas, 

The whiche but xxx pas was Of lengthe, 

Tor it was A pyl Of ful riht gret strengthe. 372 

But AUe the strengthis Of this to discryve. 

It were to long, be my lyve ; 

Therfore to passen Over In schort Matere 

Of deelareng Of this Castel I wile now here : 376 

And In this place king Eualach this Castel made 

Eor the strengest plot In ]>e world pat he hadde. 

encor estoit la tours plus haut assise a quatre doubles, et si seoit sour vne roche tele que onques si bien 
seans, ne si desfenseule, ne in veue. De sour cliele roclie seoit la tours marbrine f si tres durement haute : ke 
on en veoit blanchoier les murs de baudas. et ondoier li aue del vil qui est en egypte.| De telforche estoit li 
chastiaus, et de tel biaute, ne ia si grant cliaut ne fesist en nul este, ke chil du chastel n'eussent iaue douche 
et froide d'une fontaine, si couroit li ruissiaus en .i. plain mult biel qui estoit entre les murs del chastiel, et 
la tour si chaoit en chel plain par .i. tuel de coiure qui cheoit en vne cuue de marbre, en quoi chil du chas- 
tiel prendoient iaue a lor besoignes. Chil plains en quoi li aue chaoit par le tuel : si estoit li abuuroirs as 
cheuaus du chaste], si estoit tous panes de marbre, et clos enuiron bien le haut de deus coutes et demi. et 
desour tout I'autre pauement. Ensi estoit li chastiaus aaisies, et si richement fermes com vous aues oi, tant 
qu'il ne doutoit nul home viuant par forohe d'assaut. Et pour chou Fauoit ferme li rois eualach que il 
n'auoit onques si forte pieche de terre veue. Et pour chou li auoit il mis non eualachin : ke il voloit ke 
tout chil ki iamais le noumeroient i ramenteussent le non de lui en ramembranche de che qu'il i auoit fait. 

* MS. Add. — taut d'entree comme .ij. gens se pooient entrecontrer et entrer et issir ensamble. 

■f — f ^lS. Add. — si estoit si iiaut com en pooit ueoir I'eue del nil qui si estoit bele et rice, et cele aigue que ie vous di, couroit 
mult parfont en egypte. 



Et si couroit par desous, 
vne iaue mult roide et mult bruians, 
qui auoit bien de le 
tant comme vns archons porroit ieter 
ou vne saiete. Chele porte ne pooit 
estre deffendue par chiaus de hors se 
il ne desfendissent auant li aue par 
nauie, et che ne pooit estre, car nule 
nes ni pooit durer de pres, ki fust en- 
contre chiaus dedens. Entelmaniere 
seoit tous li oastiaus qu'il ni auoit se 
roche non del giet d'une pierre de haut 

ne mais ke ia vne des portes seulemeut. 

A chele porte auoit* bien tant de plaine 
de terre : com I'encontre de deus 
karetes puet tenir. 

et chil plains ne duroit mie plus de 
.XX. pas de lone. 

Si ne peust nus sieges durer illuec. 
Car trop estoit pries de la porte. et 
trop petite plache i auoit. 
Et li chastiaus en haut estoit auirounes 
de mult riches murs tous quareles de 
marbre vert et Vermel et bis et blanc. 
Et se li mur seoient bien et haut, 



THE FIRST SIGHT OP THE ENEMY BESIEGING CASTLE VALACHIN. 



103 



Now whanne kyng Eualache thus Eedy was, 
Porth Took he his lorne In that plas, 380 

And Entrede Into A ful fair Porest ; 
Thus he Comandede bothe lest & Mest, 
And Comanded AUe his Men there Anon riht 
Hem Redy to Armen forto fyht, 384 

Eor he hadde Sent forthe A spye 
In that Morwening thanne ful Erlye, 
To Aspien Tholomes & his Ost 
There that they lien with so gret host. 388 

And whanne the Spie Cam Agein, 
He told Kyng Eualach thanne In certein 
' That In the Ost It was dyneng tyme, 
Eore it was ny noon, And passed ]?e pryme.' 392 
Thanne weren this Meyne Al E-edy Anon, 
And Owt Of that Eorest gonne they gon, 
And Entrede thanne In to a gret valey. 
Thanne whanne vppon the hil comen they, 396 

They Syen Alle the Ost of Tholome, 
How that they leyen In Al Manere degre ; 
And also Al the Castel Of ralachin 
Where that his meyne weren with-In. 400 

But whanne this Ost Gan hem Aspye, 
" Tresown ! tresown !" thei gonnen to Orye ; 
And Anon to Armes they ronne ful faste. 
For Of here lyres they weren Agaste ; 404 

But fewe of hem there ne ben 
That they weren Bydy Armed Olen, 
Eor Evere they hadden a supposenge 
That kyng Eualach wolde for Ony thinge 408 

That Sege Remeven 3if he myhte. 
And that he it wolde don he susposid ful rihte. 

Thanne kyng Eualach his men In that tyde 
To- ward this Ost Easte gonnen they Ride, — 412 



Quant li rois vint a vne lieue pres du 

chastel. 

si entra en vne mult biele forest que 

il auoit illuec 

et commanda a toutes ses gens 
a armer. 

Ensi com il s'armoient, a tant es vous 
vne sieue espie qui il auoit au matin 
enuoie en Tost : 



si li conta 

qu'il estoient assis au disner : 
et si estoit mult pries de nonne. 

Tout maintenant ke il furent arme 

si murent, et quant il issirent de lai 

forest, 

si entrerent en .i. grant val, 

et quant il eurent monte le tertre, 

apres si virent tout a deliure, et I'ost 

et le chastiel 

Et quant cil de I'ost le virent, 

si comraenchierent a crier " trahi, 
trahi." 

et coururent as armes chil qui desarme 

estoient. 

Mais peu en i auoit 

qui ne fuissent garni de lor armes-. 
Car il soupechounoient bien : 

que eualacli ne soufferroit mie longe- 

ment le siege entour le chastiel, si 

cremoient a estre souspris. 

Etles gens eualachlorlaissierent courre 
sour les caus, les frains a bandounes, 
de si grant aleures : com li cheual les 



104 EVALACH ATTACKS THOLOMBS, AKD IS WORSTED. THOLOMES LOSES HIS BAG&AGE. 



More vigeryousely nevere Reden Men 

Into non place thanne they diden then, — 

And Tholomes men that on foote were, 

Eualach his men here hors Slowen there ; 416 

So thanne, bothe parties On foote thei he; 

There grete Manslawghtre Men Miht Se, 

How that Eaalache men Tholomes men sloAve, 

Eor tlier was Sorwe & grynteng of teth I-nowe, 

So that of bothe partyes ded there been 421 

Bet than Eiftene thowsend. As men miht seen ; 

And there manye of his men lost Eualach, 

And whanne this he sawgh, he torned his bak ; 

Thanne he & his Meyne that On lyve were 425 

Toward A Castel fledden tho there, 

Wheche Name Of that Castel was, 

I-Cleped was ' Comes ' In Every plas,- — 428 

And thedir fnl faste gonnen they hye. 

He & his Meine ful Sekerlye ; 

That from theke bataille no more it Nas 

But As twey Miles In that plas, 482 

So that Tholomes Chased him so faste 

That it wax nyht thanne Atte laste ; 

Wherthorwgh Manye of hise Men 

Loste this Tholome In the Chas then, 43G 

Eor tho that fiedden knewen ful wel 

The next weye to Comes Castel, 

Wher-thorwgh Eualach his men goten socour sone, 

And Tholome In that Chas lost Manione ; 440 

So that Tholomes b'encheson Of the Nyht 

Erom that chas departidAnon Ryht, 

And to his loggeng hemward he wente. 

And whanne that he cam Ipeve present, — 444 

There Al his harneis beleft ]?er was. 
It was Clene I-spoilled Owt Of that plas 



porent plus tost porter: que nules gens 
plus desreement ne vinrent onques. 

Et chil les recuellirent au plus dure- 
ment que il onques peurent, si lor 
ochirent chil a pie mult de lorcheuaus 
si com il uenoient tot desree. Et les 
gens tholomes les ferirent mult vighe- 
reusement: si lor ocliirent mult grant 
partie des gens a pie dont il trou- 
uerent les pluseurs desarmes. 

La eut si grant mortalites d'omes et 
de clieuaus que il en i eut bien ochis, 
ked'une partke d'autre,.xv. milliers.* 
lUuec perdi li rois eualach mult grant 

partie de sa gent, tant que il ne peut 

plus souffrir la bataille, anchois tourna 

le dos, si I ala fuiant 
vers .i. sien castiel 

qui auoit non 

laoines, 

[* MS. Add. — .1. hommes. 'j' si se mist a la 
fuie, et li autre rencachierent au plus qu'il 
porent.] 

si estoit a mains, de 

.ij. lieues pries d'iluec 

Et quant tholomes Ten vit fuir, si en 
fu mult lies, si le cacha mult vighe- 
reusement, 

mais li nuis les departi qui lor courut 
seure, si pierdi tholomes mult de ses 
chiualers en la cache. 
Car chil qui fuioient sauoient bien 
les destrois du pais et les maupas, si 
fuioient la ou il sauoient leur garison, 
et chil cachoient a folie. 



Ensi s'en parti tholomes pour la nuit, 



si s'en retourna as herberges 



ou li harnas estoit remes quant li 
cacha commencha 



EVALACH S MEN IN VALACHIN HAVE SPOILEB THOLOMES S TENTS. 



105 



Be tlie while Of Eualach men 

That In the Castel of valaehin weren then, 

That, whiles the bataille & jje chas dyde laste, 

Eualach his men the harneys browht in faste ; 

Eor they that In Ipe castel were 

With Tholomes men so fowhten ]?ere. 

And put hem Alle to discomfiture, 

That ])ere the harneys [they] kepte Jpat owre. 

And whanne this Tholomes Resorted A3en, 

And Alle his harneys despoilled Clen, 

His tentis And his pavylons to-broke, 

And whanne this Tholome per onne gan loke, 

Eul mochel deseisse he took In herte 

Eor theke dispit. It was so smerte ; 

And thanne A gret 0th swor he there anon, 

' That he scholde neuere from Jiat Castel gon, 

Thowgh he scholde lesen half his Meyne, 

Tyl that they wyth-inne Enfamyned be.' 

And there Abod he Al that nyht 
In sweche loggeng As he geten Myht. 

And whanne the spring of day was Comen, 
To him there Cam A spie Anon 
That him tolde tho newe tydinge, 
Al of Kyng Eualache beenge, — 
" Syre Tholome," seide this Spie tho, 
" So good tydinges Cam neuere man vnto 
As now Sire Tholomes Is Comenge to the, 
But 3if it thorwgh sinne distroied be." 
" Now sey me, Bewfyl," quod Tholome, 
"What maner Of tydinges mown tho be." 
" Sire Tholome," Seyede this spie Anon, 
" Kyug Eualach Is Into a castel gon 
But with a fewe Of his Meyne, 
There schalt thow him hauen. Sire, sekerle, 

* MS. Add. parece. 

P 



Et chil dedens eualachin 



448 



452 



456 



460 



464 



472 



476 



furent tout issu hors : 
si s'estoient conbatu a chiaus 
qui gardoient le harnas 
tout gaaignie. 

Quant tholomes fu reuenus deuant le 

chastiel : 

si trouua son tref tout depechie 

et les tentes et Jes pauillons tout de- 

caupes et abatus, 

si fu si dolens ke par vn pau qu'il 

n'esragoit. 

Lors iura son serement 

qu'il n'en tourneroit iamais de deuant 

le castiel 

qu'il ni laissaist la moitie de sa gent 

iusc'a tant que il les aroit afames. 
Ensi remest ichele nuit, 



et quant uint au chief de grant pieche 
468 gi vint a lui vne espie, 
et si li dist 



" Sire, 

onques mais n'auint si bien a nul 

homme 

com il est auenu a vous, 

se par preche* ne le perdes," 
" Coument," dist tholome, 



" Parfoi," dist li espie, 
" li rois eualach est entre en lacoine:| 
a tant peu de gent com il peut traire 
de la bataille. 

480 et illuec le poes prendre a mult petit 

t MS, Add. li/cone. 



106 



THOLOMES MARCHES AFTER EVALACH, LEAVING VARUS AT TARABBL. 



And thanne, Ended thi battaille it is ; 

That I seye, it is trewe with owten Mis." 

" Sey me," quod Tholomes, " thou belamy, 

How knowest thow this so Certeinly ?" 484 

" For On him Only I hadde A spie 

That sawh him Entren J^e Castel sekerlye ; 

Eor At the 3ates so longe Abod he there 

Er he myht Entren In Oni Manere 488 

The space of Ryht A long Mile 

So abod Jjerowte A gret while." 

Quod Tholomes " In [peine] of thi lif lesinge 

Loke thou bringe me non fals tydinge ;* 492 

And yf thou do, with owten more 

[E,iwarde,t] deth schalt thow suffren therfore." 

[" My Lortjde, 3if it be not so as I haue the told, 

Dis-membre thow me, Sire, Manifold." 496 

Anon Tholomes his knyhtes gan calle, 
And told hem What Aventure gan be-falle. 
And how that Eualach In A Castel was 
But with A litel Meine In that plas ; 500 

Wherfore to besegen that castel he Avolde be-gynne 
With half his Meyne, nej>er more ne Mynne ; 
And the tother halvendel schold leven stille 
At Valachin for the drede of More ille, 504 

That was him left to kepen there 
A litel bettere thanne they diden Ere. 
That so this ordenaunce thus he Made 
Where Offen his Meyne weren ful glade. 508 

Thanne his styward Clepen gan he fonde. 
That hyghte vabus As I vndirstonde. 
And Oomaunded him there Anon Ryht, 
' As that he was A gentyl knyht, 512 

The Remenaunt of his Men to kepen stille 
Lest that EUis to hem Miht comen som ille ;' 



d'esfort. Lors, si ares uotre guerre 

achieuee." 

" Coument ses tu cheste chose,'' dist 

tholomes : 

" Je le sai " fait I'espie " si uraiement 
comme chil qui le vit entrer el chas- 
tiel, et SB vous I'eussies enchauchie 
iusc'a la, si I'eussies pris. 

Car il demoura a la porte 

bien I'errure d'une fort lieue, anchois 
que chil dedens li laissaissent entrer.'' 

" Garde," dist tholomes, '' si chier 
com tu as ton cors, que tu me dies 
uerite." 

" Sire :" fait chO, '' s'il n'est ensi com 
ie faich entendant, si me pendes." 



Maintenant apiela tholomes ses chi^ 

ualers, 

si lor a tout descouuert: 

chou ke li messagers auoit dit. 



et dist qu'il voloit aler asseoir le roi 

eualach 

a la moitie de sa gent, 

et I'autre lairoit 

deuant eualachin, 

ke nus ne s'en issist hors pour des' 

tourner chou qu'U auoient pris du 

sien. 

Ensi le loerent tout si chiualer, 
et il apiela son senescal 
qui auoit non naburs. 
si li commanda 

a reman oir deuant le castel. 



* End of MS. on the sheets misplaced. 



f The characters in ordinary light are quite invisible. U.S. 



Half tholomes's force stop before valachin, the rest march to comes. 107 



" So schalt thow kepen there with the 
Of knyhtes and Seriauntes half my Mene." 

Thanne his Steward vabus Anon 
His Comaundement was Redy to don. 
And kept there Stille half his Meyne, 
As wel Pootmen as Othere there to be ; 
And Tholomes the Remnaunt with him ladde 
Into that place As the Spie him badde ; 
And So Eod he forth Al the Nyhte, 
Eor he wolde have ben a-forn day lyhte 
At the Castel that hyht Comes, 
There he supposid kyng Eualaeh was. 



516 



520 



et retenir toute la moitie, et de chi- 
ualers et de sergans et de gent a pie. 

Li senescaus le fist 

ensi com tholomes li eut commande, 

si retint la moitie de toutes les gens, 



et tholomes mut a toute I'autre moitie 
grant pieche 

anchois qu'il fiist iours, 
524 pour qu'il voloit estre deuant le chas- 
tel de lacoine a la iournee. 



p2 



108 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Evalaoh sends out a spy to see after Tholomes, and he makes a good report; Evalach is cheered up, and 
marches (p. 109). He meets the queen's messenger, reads her letter (p. 110), and asks explanations (p. 
110). Josephes has told the queen of his defeat ; another man comes and tells Evalach that Tholomes has 
besieged Comes (p. Ill); Evalach goes towards Sarras; a host meets him (p. 112), that of his brother- 
in-law Seraphe, who comes and greets him, and says he is come to help him; Evalach's answer (p. 113); 
Seraphe's advice to Evalach to go to his city Orhanz (p. 114). Evalach goes to Orkanz, and summons 
more knights; he wants to go and fight Tholomes, but is counselled to wait (p. 115); he is besieged by 
Tholomes, and orders a sortie (p. 116); he gives the city in charge to an old knight, and attacks 
Tholomes successfully, for Tholomes's men had ridden all night (p. 117). Of Seraphe's deeds, and the 
pursuit of Tholomes's men to a narrow passage by a Rock of stone, from the slaughter called The Bloody 
Bock (p. 118) ; Tholomes comes to the rescue, asks his men what is the matter, and encourages them 
(p. 119-20). Evalach halts his men, and puts them in four divisions: 1. Seraphe, 2. the Steward, 
3. Archemedes, 4. Evalach. He charges Jeconias to guard the passage (p. 121), and to keep the 
city too (p. 122). Tholomes ordains eight divisions, two against each one of Evalach's (p. 122). 
The fight begins. Number of men on each side (p. 123). Evalach's speech to his knights (p. 123-4). 
Seraphe's division fights; Evalach's feelings, — his prayer (p. 125); the result of it (p. 126). The dire 
slaughter (p. 127-8). Seraphe's deeds; his axe; and his appearance (p. 127-8). Tholomes calls up 
his second division (p. 129) ; Seraphe's men flee, but he fights on (p. 130) ; Evalach's steward goes 
to his help (p. 131); and sends a message to the King. Evalach's steward breaks Tholomes's line, 
and throws Tholomes to the ground (p. 132). The steward is struck down by a knight ; Evalach's 
nephew and Evalach go to the rescue (p. 133); Archemedes drives in Tholomes's men (p. 134); but 
Evalach's steward is crueUy beaten (p. 134); and killed by Tholomes (p. 135); Tholomes and Evalach 
fight; but Evalach cannot recover his steward's body; Tholomes rallies his men, who shoot poisoned 
arrows, and get the best of the fight (p. 136). 

Now leven we AUe of Tholomes Or vous lairons de tholome, 

And tliat At this tyme of him we ses, 
And of kyng Eualach let vs now speke 
That On his Enemyes wold him A-wreke, 

And that Into the Castel of Come was gOn ke quant il fu entres en lacoine 

Hym. for-to SOCOUre from his Eon ; pour soi garandir, 

So that An Olde Seriaunt he Callid Anon, si apiela .j. sien sergant, 

And bad that he Anon Scholde gon 8 et si H commanda a issir 



et si vous conterons del roi eualach. 
chi dist li contes, 



EVALACH MARCHES FROM COMES. A LETTER COMES FROM HIS QTJEEN. 109 



Owt Of that Oastel Riden, for-to Aspie 
Wlie[the]re that Tholomes were there Nye, 
Other to Valachin A3en that he was gon 
With his Meyne thedir Euerichon. 12 

Thanne this Seriaunt the forth gan Ryde, 
And sewed Tholomes In that tyde 
Evene to valachin Castel tho. 

There As newe tydinges herde he Mo, 16 

' That the Meynie of valachyn Castel 
Hadde born hem ful wondirly wel. 
That In the tyme of the chas 

Alle Tholomes harneis I-trised was.' 20 

And anon To Eualach he B-etorned Agein 
And of these tydinges tolde him ful plein, 
And Of the pray his Men hadden take ; 
Where of Eualach gret loye gan Make, 24 

And swoor thanne be his Creaunce 
' That, what so behapped him in Oni Chaunce, 
With him bond be bond wolde he fyhte. 
And vppon him to proven his Myhte ; 28 

That, ryht Anon as his men sembled were, 
Erom that Sege he scholde him Here, 
That so hastely neuere Kyng I-Rered was 
Erom non sege In no manor plas.' 32 

Owt Of that Castel thanne gan he gon 
Erom thens thre Miles Ryht Anon, 
And with him seveun hundred knyhtes and seriauns 
That AUe worthy men weren & vaylauns ; 36 

And On foote Nyne hundred they were 
Of Hyht bolde men & hardy there ; 
So that from the castel weren they gon 
Eyve Miles er that day Cam hem vppon. 40 

And In the Mene while that thei thus gonne gon. 
On a palfrey Cam prekynge A messengere Anon 



hors du chastiel, et enohierkier 

se tholomes estoit pres d'illuec : 
ou s'il estoit retournes a eualaohin. 



Et chil eut tant poursui ■ I'ost ke il 
I'eut veu descendre, 

si le reuint center a eualach, etsi li dist 
le merueilleus gaiing que chil de eua- 
lachin auoient fait sour chiaus qui 
gardoient le harnas tholome. 



Et quant eualach oi cheste nouiele, si 

en fa mult lies, 

et iura son serement 

' ke se il deuoit estre tous de-caupes 

en la bataille : 

si se conbatra il a lui. 

ne ia si tost ne porra sa gent ressam- 
bler: 

que il lira si durement leuer du siege 

ke onques nus hom plus fierement 

n'en fii leues 

A tant s'en issi du chastiel 



et si en mena bien iusc'a trois et .vij. 

chens, entre chiualers et sergans a 

cheuaus, 

et bien .x. et ix. chens de gent a piet, 



si eut eslongie le chastiel 

bien ,v. lieues ains qu'il fust iours. 

Et quant il aiou:-noit, et la route aloit 

sen chemin: 

a tant es vous .i. message sor .i. grant 

destrier, poignant : 



110 



JOSEPHBS HAS TOLD THE QtJEEN OF EVALACH's MISHAP. 



As SO Swiftly as the hers mylit him here ; 

Kyng Eualach he sowhte Everi Where ; 44 

And thanne with the kyng mette he AnoQ, 

Thanne thus his Arende he gan to don 

" Sire," he seide, " my lady the qweene grteth the 

wel, 
And thus she sente to seyne Eehe del 48 

As this lettre doth Sresephie, [? certify] 
Where-with she bad me faste to hye." 
Anon king Eualach this lettres took, 
And hem Radde, & not forsook, 52 

And there In his lettre tho he radde 
' Tha,t his Qweene on him faste gradde. 
And as Euere sche his Soiet myhte be 
Owt of the Oastel of Come ]?at he wolde Te, 56 

Eor Tholomes that Orewl kyng 
There Abowtes wil leyn his Seieng.' 
And whanne this lettre thus he hadde rad, 
To him forto Come the Messenger he bad, 60 

& of these tydinges Abassched 'was he 
How that this knowlechinge to hire myhte be • 
And to that Messenger he seide Anon 
" How wyste sche that I Into Come was gon ?" 64 
" Sire," quod the Messenger witterly, 
" I ne Can not 30 w tellen Certeinly ; 
But an Old Man In Sarras is there 
That of Certein thinges doth here lere, 68 

That Maister of Cristene Called Is he ; 
A wondirful Man he semeth to be ; 
And whanne sche hath with him spoke, 
Sche wepeth as thow hire herte were broke ; 72 

And thanne Cleped sche me forth Anon, 
That this Message were sone don, 



si grant aleure com li cheuaus le 
pooit plus tost porter. 

Et la ou il vit le roi, 

si li dist, 

" Sire, ma dame la roine vous salue 



et si vus enuoie ches letres." 
Li roi prist les letres, 

et si les lut. Car il sauoit letres asses. 

si vit 

ke la roine sa femme le saluoit, 

et si li mandoit par la foi ke il li de- 
uoit que il issist tost hors de la coine. 
Car tholomes 
le venoit asseoir. 

Quant il eut chou veu es letres, 



si fu meruelles esbahis, et apiela le 
message, 

et si li dist. 

" Di, ua, comment seut ma dame la 

roine que ie fuisse en lacoine :" 

" Sire," dist li valles, " ele en oi, er 

soir, noueles." 

" Et ses tu," dist eualacli, " qui les 

nouieles Ten dist :'' 

" Parfoi, dist il, ie n'el sai mie cer- 

tainement. Mais ie le vi consiUier a 

.j. home qui on chaime le maistre des 

crestiens. 

Et quant ele eut asses consilliet a lui, 
si vi k'ele plouroit mult durement. 
Lors si m'apiela, 
et me commanda ches letres a aporter 



A MESSENGER COMES TO EVALACH FROM HIS MEN IN OASTLE COMES. 



Ill 



And that a palfrey I scholde be-stride 

Also faste As I Myhte preken Other Eyde." 76 

Thanne kyng Eualach clepid his knyhtes Anoun, 
And there told hem of this Merveil soun, 
' That losephes Cowde tellen of his discomfiture 
The wheche be-fil In that same Oure, 80 

And that he his qweene these tydynges schold 

telle 
How that thike day it him befelle, 
And how Into the Castel of Come he was fledde 
And tholomes Me to besegen In that stede.' 84 

And thus As they gonnen forto talke, 
Aftyr theke Rowte Cam a seriaunt walke 
Faste preking vppon a destrere 
Al so hastely as he myhte Ryden there, 88 

Prekynge with A bowe In his bond, — 
And thus he seide, as I vndirstond, — 
" And [they] be me Sente to 30W gretynge 
That In 30ure Castel of Come ben dwellenge, 92 
' That 30 scholden Governe 30W wel & wysly, 
And Owt of Tholomes weye to kepen 30W pleinly ; 
For he is now At Comes Castel 
& hath beseged it now Every del, 96 

For he hopeth 30W with-Inne to take. 
And there 30W to don bothe tene & wrake ; 
And there with him Is half his meyne ; 
Al the Remnaunt at valachin they be." 100 

And whanne king Eualach herd this word, 
Thus thanne dide he be his Owne Acord, 
There Cleped he bothe knyhtes & bachelere 
And told hem of that Merveil there ; ] 04 

' For there nas non thing Seid ne don 
That theke losephes ne wiste it Anon, 



si tost com chis cheuaus porroit aler." 

Lors apiela U rois ses cheualiers, 
et si lor conta la meruelle 

de iosephe, qui auoit conte a la roine 

la desconfiture : 

Si tost com ele auoit este, 



et comment il s'en estoit afuis en 

lacoine, 

et ke tholomes le venoit asseoir. 

Ensi com il disoit chou, 

a tant es vous .j. sergant cheuachant 
apres la route 

.j. arc en sa main, et si aloit 

si tres tost com li clieuaus porroit 

rendre. 

Et quant il vint au roi, si li dist 

" Sire, uotre chastelains de lacoine 
vous salue, et si vous mande, que vous 
penses del esploitier comment vous 
soies vengies. 

Car tholomes est venus 
asseoir lacoine, 

si vous quide prendre dedens, 

et si n'a amene ke la moitie de sa 

gent, 

et I'autre est remesedeuant eualachin." 

Quant li rois oi chou, 



si rapiela les chiualers, 
et si lor dist. 

" Signours chiualers, aues oi del 
crestien, com est voir disans 
en toutes choses, car encoi ne 



112 EVALACH MEETS HIS WIEE's BROTHER, WHO HAS COME TO HELP HIM. 



Tor ther nas neuere tonge So Certein 

That Of liis dedis Cowde tellen it plein ;' 108 

" And Alle thing As he to me gan telle 

What aventure Me be-Pelle ; 

And now mown 36 knowe the sothe here, 

That Tholomes Come besegeth there, 112 

Lik as my Qwene dide me vndirstonde 

Be A lettre I-wreten of hire honde." 

Thanne kyng Eualach torned his way 
Streyht to Sarras that like same day; lie 

And whanne he with his Rowte hadde B/iden 

two mile 
His meyne gan to beholden with Inne a while, 
They Sawen Comen Isswe Owt of a forest 
A fair Meyne, and Armed with the best, 120 

What On hors and Of Eootmen 
Powre thousend weren I-E-ekened then. 
And whanne this peple that gan Aspie, 
To here lord they it tolde In hye ; 124 

And whanne he that Meyne loked vppon. 
His meyne he Comannded to Armes Anon ; 
And As king Eualach In Ordenaunce was 

there, 
Owt of ])G o]?er Ost Cam on A destrer, 128 

Also faste as the hors myht Gon 
Toward kyng Eualach he prekede Anon, 
And vp his helm there he Caste, 
And toward him Eualach prekid wel faste ; 132 

And whanne that Eualach this knyht beheld 
Bothe vndir his helm & vndir his scheld, 
Thanne was it his Owne wyves brothir 
That of Men he lovede passing Al Othir, — ■ ise 

" Sire Eualach, it was Certefied to me 
That Al discomfyt scholdest thou be. 



I'ai iou trouue menclioingeur 
en nule parole qu'il m'ait fait 
entendant, 



Ore poes oir 

ke tholomes est au siege 

ensi com il dist a ma dame la roine," 



A tant s'en tourna li rois tout sou 

chemin. 

droit vers sarras. 

Et quant la route eut erre entour .ij. 

petites lieues, 

si gardent uhil de la keue de Tost, 
si voient issir hors d'une espesse forest : 

vne grant compaignie de gent 
a cheual et a pie, qui estoient arme, 
et si i pooit bien auoir quatre mile 
homes et plus. 

Et quant il les virent, 
si les moustrerent au roi. 

Et li rois commanda tantost 
toute sa gent a armer. 



Ensi com il s'armoient. 
a tant es vous ke vns se depart! de 
chiaus de la, 
et si vint 

poignant grant aleure vers I'ost. 
Si eut le hiaume el chief, et I'escu au 
col, et tint vne glaiue empoignie par- 
mi le milieu. 

Et quant li rois le vit venir, qui ia estoit 
armes, car il n'osoit cbeuauchier sans 
ses armes : si li alameismes al'encontre. 
Et quant il se furent entraprochie : si 
vint ohil de la, si osta son hiaume, et 
si dist au roi ' ke bien fust il venus.' 
Et li rois warde, si vit ke che fu vns 
siens serourges, vns des homes du 
monde k'il quidoit qui plus le haist, 
Et chil li dist. " Sire, i'auoie oi dire 
ke vous esties desconfis, 



EVALACH ASKS HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW TO HELP HIM, AND PROMISES REWARDS. 



113 



And that Tholemes, of Babiloyne kyng, 

Abowtes Come hath, there leid Asegeng ; i4o 

Thus me sente to seine my soster ]>g qweene 

That ful mochel sorwe hath, As I wene, 

And preide me, for Alle loves that evere were 

Be-twene soster And brothir dere, 144 

30W to Avengen vppon 30ure foon 

Be alle the power that I myht don. 

And this is now my Comenge, 

I sey 30W, Sire, with-Owten lesynge, 

That So As hastely As I Myhte Bide 

To 30W Am I Comen At this Tide ; 

But it is better thanne I wende it hadde be, 

Por I wende in Come to hau seia the." 152 

Thanne kyng Eualach him thanked sone 
Of the grete kendenesse that he hadde done, 
But 3it he him preide ful hertly, 
' That he wolde Abyden him by 156 

Eorto Avengen him Of his foon, 
And til that his lorne were doon ; 
" Por there may no man fuUy knowe 
What Prendes he hath in Ony Rowe, I6O 

But Euere At Nede A man May se 
What men that welen his Prendes be ; 
But he that doth In this gret nede 
Me forto helpen hym so to spede, 164 

Me thinketh amongs Al erthly thing 
It is a trewe brotheris doyng ; 
Por 30 knowen wel that I haue be 
I-Chaced from places two Olper thre, I68 

Where-OfPen I preie 30W In my gret nede 
Me to helpen with wit & dede, 
And helpe to defenden 30ure sostres lond 
That I have longe kept In Myn bond, 172 

Q 



et ke tholomes vous auoit assis en 
lacoine, 

si me manda ma siier la roine a nuit, 
a mienuit, 

se ie onques I'auoie amee, et se ie ne 
voloie ke ele fust liuree a lionte : 



ke ie vous secouriusse 
a tout mon pooir. 
Et ie vous venoie secourre au plus 
148 efTorchiement ke ie pooie com en si 
grant haste. 



Mais il m'est auis que il est mult 
miex ke ele ne m'auoit mande." 

Et li rois li rendi mult grans merchis 
de chest seruiehe. et si li dist. 

" Biaus dous gerourges, des ke vous 
aues ensi I'afaire empris, il conuient 
ke vous me faiohies aide 

iusc'au chief de fin. 

Car on ne puet tres bien connoistre 
son ami deuant chou ke li besoins 
soit venus. 

Car I'angoisse du grant besoing des- 
cueure Ie uraie amiste, et Ie fait con- 
noistre. 

Et pour chou ke li miens besoins est 
si grans et si angoisseus, oomme de 
chelui ki piert sa terre. 



et qui ia .ij. fois a este cachies de 
plaohe : 

pour chou vous pri iou, et requier, 

ke vous me soiies aidans 

a deffendre la terre votre serour, 



114 



EVELACH RETIRES TO HIS CITY ORKANZ TO COLLECT MORE MEN. 



And Of My schame Avenged to be, 

Xow goode brother I preye to the ; 

And dowble Amendis I schal 30W Make 

Aftyr that the Angwisch that 3e for my sake 176 

Scholen soffren withinne these viii dayes, 

I schal it 30W 3olden be Mani wayes ; 

And 3if Euere I Mowe rekeuere to sarras 

I schal 30-w hyghly qwyten Er that 3e pas, 18O 

And that In 30ure howshold it schal be sene. 

And Amongs AUe 30ure baronage be-dene." 

" 3e, I schal 30W tellen What 36 scholen do, 
To 30wre Cite of Arkan3 scholen We go, 184 

And there we scholen Abiden a stownde 
Tyl Mo of 30ure peple to 30W Comen sownde ; 
Eor it is the beste Cite of 30ure lond, 
And best vitaUled, As I vndirstond ; 188 

And there 30ure Meine Abyden scholen 30 
Til that to 30W Alle Comen they be, 
And Also there scholen we sounere know 
Alle the tydinges vppon A rowe 192 

Thanne And we weren At Sarras cite, — 
Sire, this is best, As thinketh to Me." 

Kyng Eualach held wel with this Consaille, 
And to Orkan3 they Reden with-Owten faille, i96 
And Alle here Meine with hem wente 
Into that Cyte there presente ; 
But it Was for-passed the Noon 
Er they weren Entred Everichoon, 200 

Thanne kyng Eualach Abowtes gan sende 
Aftyr his barowns Into Every Ende, 
' That ho that howghte him Ony worldly honour 
Scholde comen to helpen him In that stour.' 204 
And theMessengeres diden wel here Arende ]5at tyme, 
For On the Morwe, Er it was pryme, 



et a ma honte vengier. 

Et ie creant comrae rois, que vous 

ares si haute amende de la haine ke 

i'ai eue vers vous : ke ie vous en irai 

faire droit a genous dedens les .viij. 

iours 

que ie serai reuenus a sarras, se i'en 

puis repairier a hounour. 



et si sera en votre barnage " 

" Sire," fait oil, " grans merchis, et ie 

vous dirai Ite nous ferons. 

Nous en irons tout a uotre chite 

d'orcaus. 



Car ch'est li plus plentieue chites qui 

soit en uotre terre, 

si atenderes illuec vos gens 

que vous feres semonre. 

Et si ores plus souuent 

nouieles del host tholome 

ke vous ne feres a sarras, 

Li rois se tint a sen conseil, 
si s'en tournerent droit a orcaus 
et menerent toutes lor gens. 

Et quant il vinrent la, 

si fu bien nonne passee. 

Et li rois enuoie tout maintenant sea 
messages par illuec entour 

' ke qui jamais vauroit de lui tenir 
terre ni hounour 

si Ie secourust a chest darrain besoino-.' 
Et li message esploitierent si bien 
ke anchois qu'il fust prime, lendemain 



evalach's men see tholomes coming to attack orkanz. 



116 



To Orkan3 Comen of the kynges Eetenw 

Pul XVII thowsend, As I telle it 30W, 2O8 

What on hors bak and on foote, 

So' manie ]>ev [were] wel I woote 

"With-Owten tho that Eualach hadde, 211 

And with-owten po that Seraphe with him ladde. 

And whanne that Kyng Eualach this meine hadde, 

Thanne was he bothe loyful and Gladde, 

And thanne to Come he Coveyted Porto gon 

There forto hau Met with Tholome Anon. 216 

Thanne to him Answerid his knyhtes sone, 

" It were non wisdom 3it thedir forto gone 

For to Met en with kyng Tholome, 

Sire, tyl that thow haue here more Meyne ; 220 

But let vs here Abyde thre dayes or fowre. 

And be that tyme Getest thow more socowre. 

And thus tyl thow thi power have 

With him Mihtest Jjounot fyhten, And be save." 224 

And so be the ConseU Of his barouns Certein 

Anon to that Cite he tornede Agein. 

And be the tyme that it was lyht Of day, 
" Treson ! treson !" thei gonnen Crien in fay. 228 
Thanne wente the kyng In-to the towr An by, 
And there sawgh he Tholomes host pleinly ; 
And anon, " As Arme3 " they gonnen to Crie, 
That Every man to barneys wente hastelye. 232 
And whanne he say that ]?e Cite beseged was 
Oueral Abowtes In Euerich A plas, 
Mochel was the Mone that there he Made, 
And Also gret Anger & thowht he hade 236 

Eor his men that to him scholden gon, 
Lest they were taken there Euerichon 
Presoneres with hem that weren with-Owte ; 
And here-Offen Eualach hadde gret dowte. 240 

q2 



eut li rois a la chite d'orcaus. 
.xvii. mil. hommes, 
ke a pie, ke a cheual. 

Tout sans chiaus que entre lui 
et seraphe son serourge auoient 
amenes. 

Tantost qu'il fut auespri : 



si mut li rois de la chite et cheuaucha, 
entre lui et sa gent, tout droit vers 
lacoine. 

Et si chiualers li disent 
qu'il feroit folie 
d'assambler a tholome 
a si pau de gent, com il auoit. 

Mais, atendist encore ses gens qui 

uenroient iusc'a .iij. iours ou. iusch'a 

.iiij. 

Lors si porroit plus seurement com- 

batre, desque il aroit tout son pooir." 

Par le oonsel et par le los de ses barons, 
retourna li rois en la chite. 

Et quant vint a la iornee : 

si commenchierent a crier par la vile 

'' trai: trai: or as armes." 

Et li rois saut, et li chiualers si monte 

sus les murs de la tour, 

et voit toute Tost tholome qui venoit 

a desroi tout contreual les chans, 



et achaingoit la chite de toutes 
Quans li rois vit chou, 



si fu mult iries, 

non mie tant pour le siege 

comme pour sa gent. Car il sauoit ke 

ia tant n'en i uenroit :* 

que il ne fuissent tout pris 

par chiaus de hors. 

[* MS. iuneroit] 



116 EVALACh's sortie prom OKKANZ, and attack on THOliOMES's FORCE. 



Thanne kyng Eualacli Comanded Anon 

His Men to Armure thanne Euerichon, 

' And that Owt of that Cite they scholden go 

Also vigorowsly as Evere Men myhten do, 244 

That Neyere so vigerous issw Myhte be 

Nevere Owt Of Oastel ne of Cite.' 

Thanne Clepid he forth An Old knyht there 
That to him was bothe fal leef & dere, 248 

And 3af him charge with that Cite 
' It wisly to kepen In AUe degre, 
That aftyr whanne he were Owt gon, 
And with him his Meine Everichon, 252 

That no Man In thedir scholde Entren Agein — 
Were it Erl, knyht, baroun, Other sweyn, — 
Eor non kende ne for non Entent, 
But 3if it be thorwgh myn Comandement.' 256 

And thus thanne Owt gonne they pase 
Owt of that Cyte a ful wilde Ease, — 
Eor so wilde Uasyng was neuere lyown 
As they thanne Isswed owt of that town, — 260 

So that to Eore Owt Of that town "Wente 
Seraphe and the kyng presente, 
The wheche the ferst bataille hadde, 
And on Tholomes men ful lowde thei gradde, 264 
And vppon hem they gannen so faste to Ride 
Eor with hem was non abide abyde ; [mc] 
But with speris faste to-gederis they schoke 
That scheldes & hawberkis al to-broke, 268 

That they fiUen down In the feld. 
So wel they Gonne there hem beweld ; 
And Also here highe hors that here sadeles here, 
Down on the grownde weren throwe \>ere ; 272 

So that thanne King Tholomes men 
The wers hadden, Er they Wenten then. 



Lors commanda li rois 
toute sa gent ariner isnelement. 
Et quant il furent tout arme : si com- 
manda que il ississent hors si durement 
que onques nules gens n'issirent si 
durement 

hors d'un cbastel ne d'un chite. 
Apres apielachelui qui la chitei gardoit 

si li commanda ' si chier com il auoit 
son corps, ke la chites fust fremee 
tantost com il serroient hors, 

ke ia puis nus horn n'i mesist le pie 



se il meismes ne le commandoit de sa 

bouche.' 

A tant issirent hors, 



si ala auant seraphes li serourges le roi 

qui eut la premiere bataile. 
Et quant il fu assambles, 

onques puis ni eut resne tenu. anchois 
laissa tantost courre li rois, et tout 
li autre ensamble, les escus ioins de- 
nant le pis, les hanstes roides sour 
les assieles. 



Et les gens tholome, quant il les virent 
venir, 



OP evalach's and seraphb's deeds in the fight- 



117 



Eor whanne they Oomen Owt of ]?at Cite 

Swich A gret and lusty Meyne, — 276 

For they not wist that be the Eourthe del 

Hadde not there ben, they supposod wel, — 

Where Oflfe Abascht wondir sore they were 

Of that E/Owte that isswede there, 280 

And the surere they wende hau be ful sekerly. 

For twies discomfited him hadden they. 

But there At the Ferste Assemble 

Mochel peple lost this kyng Tholome : 284 

Ful al the Nyht to-Fore I-Eeden they hadde, 

And Non Reste non Of hem Nadde, 

Where [with] aUe distempred they were. 

And that was Sene vppon hem there. 288 

And Eualach Men Alle Reste took. 

For alle Nyht they slepten, & not ne wook ; 

Wherfore On hem It was tho Sene, 

For they weren bothe fers & kene. 292 

Mani Merveilles wrowhten Eualache Men ; 
But As for On Man, he dyde sweche ten ; 
For was there neuere Man of his Old Age 
That half so ful was tho of Corage. 296 

And Also was Sire Seraphe, 
That A worthi werrour hath Euere be ; 
For he there bar him so Wel that day. 
That so moche worschepe he bar Away, 300 

That Of his lyve, In Alle his dayes. 
So mochel worschepe men Of him sayes ; 
And Also Aftir whanne he was ded. 
Of him Men bothe spoken & Bed. 304 

But mochel deseisse suffrede Tholomes Men, — 
And 3it, A3ens Eualache On Man hadden thei ten, — 
So that they Tornede here bak Anon, 
And from hem ward faste gonne to gon ; sos 



si en forent tout esbahi de che que 
tant en i auoit 

Car il ne quidoient mie ke il eust en 
la ohite le quarte partie de gent que il 
en uirrent issir. 

Mais, ne-pour-quant,- il les requel- 
lierent bien, 

car il estoient mult plus seur, de che 
ke il auoient ia le roi desconfit .ij. fois, 
et cachie de plache. 

A chele premiere assamblee 

perdirent mult le gent tholome. 

Car il auoient toute nuit cheuauchie 

sans dormir et sans reposer. 

Si en estoient mult greue. 

Et chil de uers eualach auoient repose 
et dormi toute nuit. 

si en estoient plus fort et plus legier. 
Mult le firent bien la gent eualach, 
Mais il le faisoit si bien 

ke nus hom de son eage n'osast ne ne 

deust 

emprendre chou ke il faisoit. 

Et seraphes ses serourges 

le faisoit si tres durement bien : 

que il i conquist le iour par son bien 

faire 

si grant los et si grant hounour 

que on parla puis a tous les iours de 
sa vie 

et maint iour apres sa mort. 



et ne-pour-quant mult soufirirent la 
gent tholome, comme chil qui venoient 
tot desroute : f ant qu'il ne les porent 
mais souffrir, anchois s'en tournerent 
ftiiant. 



118 



or " THE EOCK or BLOOD," SO CALLED FROM THE SLAUGHTER THERE. 



Tlianne Sewede faste Euelach. the kyng, 
And so dyde Seraphe In that Chasing ; 
And there they sewede hem thanne so faste 
Into a ful streit passage Atte laste, 
Whiche was An hy Hoche of ston, 
The moste perilows J^at man Mihte be gon : — 
For the Roche In him seK was so hy 
More than fowre bowschote trewely, 
And Into the E-yht side it laste Eyene ryht 
Down to the water of Orkan}, I the plyht, 
And the lefte partie it Ran Eveun west 
Into Babyloigne, that Riuere wente ful prest. 
And [by] AUe that Roche passage was non 
But On that ful streit was there vppon, 
A^'hiche was non largere In non wise 
Thann As ten Men, As I Cowde devise, 
There Afront niyht passen therby, 
So streyt was that passage trewly ; — 
And Into that passage the men Of Eualach 
Sewed tholomes men that Torned the bak ; 
And there was sched so mochel blood 
That On bothe Sydes it Ran Into the flood. 
And so Mochel blood vppon that Roche lay 
That 3it the Colour is sene Into this day, 
And for slawhtre of peple Jjere so manifold 
' The Roche Of blood ' Into this day is told ; 
For At that Entre they fowhten so sore 
That men weren there slain Mani a score ; 
And as they Mihte, they biden that stour 
Til that hem Cam Ony more socour. 
So that the grettere partie weren forth paste 
Thorw gret distresse Atte laste ; 
So that Mochel peple was there slayn 
Of bothe parties there In certain. 



312 



Et li rois eualach et ses gens 

les encaucUerent mult durement, 

tant qu'il vinrent 
au destroit 

d'une mult haute roche 

qui estoit li plus perilleus passages de 

la terre. 

Chele roche estoit si haute 

316 com on porroit ieter vne pierre poignal . 

Et si duroit a destre partie: 
iusc'a vne iaue qui couroit a orcans, 
qui estoit apielee cordaniste, 
et a la senestre partie dujoit 

320 iusc'as desers de babiel. 

En touts chele roche n'auoit passage 

ke vn tout seul, qui si estoit estrois 

324 qu'il ni entraissent mie de front .x. 
home en nule maniere du monde. 



328 



332 



336 



340 



Iusc'a chel passage cachierent les gens 

eualach : 

les gens tholome. 

lUuec eut si grant occision, et tant i 

eut sane d'omes espandu, 

ke enchore i part la coulours en la 
roche, 

et parra iusk'en la fin du monde. 



A chel passage se deffendirent tant 
com il porent, en tel maniere que vne 
partie d'aus maintenoit le tour, et li 
autre passoient toute voie. 

tant que li plus d'aus furent outre. 

Mais mult i eut mors et ochis 
et des vns et des autres. 



THOLOMES COMBS TO THE RESCUE, AND HEARS OE HIS MBN'S DISASTERS. 119 



And for that bataille J)ere so sore was of distres, 

" The blody Roche " Evere is cleped with-outen les. 

And be5onde this Chas chased thei were 345 

Be-3onde that passage two miles there ; 

Onhorsed weren Manie of tholomes Men tho, 

And faste on Eoote there gonne they to go, 348 

And Enalache men hem Sewede ful faste 

On horsbak whiles that Chas wolde laste. 

Thanne here Eyen vpe they Caste, 

& sien there Tholome Comen Atte laste, 352 

That Comeng was tho to the sege-ward. 

Now he begynneth bataiUe strong and hard ; 
For he sente his Men there forth to-forn, 
Weneng to him non of hem to hau lorn, — 356 

Eor he wende that Of Men so gret plente 
With-Inne the Cite of Orkan3 hadden not be. 
And Whanne Tholome his mes-men he sawh so fle. 
And Also Men vn- Armed with him liadde he, 360 
Anon Comanded he In hye 
' The Armure Of the hurt men hastelye 
Of hem to taken, and hem j^er-with dyhte 
That they myhten ben Eedy forto fyhte.' 364 

Thanne this Tholomes ferst gan owt Eyde 
Afore Al the pres At that Tyde, 
And Axede his men that fled tho were 
' What Manere of thing that thei sien there ;' 368 
And they him Answerid tho sone Anon, 
And tolde him Al how it gan gon, 
' That In Orkan3 they fownden Eualach king. 
And there with him A gret gadering,' 372 

" That So Manie werrours we wenden not hau be 
In Al his lond, Sire kyng, Certeinle ; 
And there At A ryht streit passage 
On thi men dide he mochel Damage, 376 



Si en fu puis li roohe apielee " la 
roche del sane '' pour la grant mer- 
uelle du sane qui espandus i fu. 
Et quant il furent eachie 

iuskes outre le pas, et il furent bien 
fui entour demie lieue, 



et les gens eualach les orent tout a 
dies encauehiea : 

si esgarderent il, 

si virent I'ensenge tholome qui venoit 
en la keue de I'ost. Car il n'estoit 
enchore pas uenus au siege. 

ains auoit sa gens enuoie deuant, 



car il ne quidoit mie ke li rois eualach 
eust si grant gent a oreaus com il auoit. 

Et quant il vit de loins chiaus qui 
fuioient arriere, 

si eommanda maintenant 

' ke chil de sa eompaignie 

qui n'estoient arme, 

presissent lor armes.' 

Et il meismes vint tout premiers 

eneontre sa gent qui sieuoient, 

si lor demanda 
' qui il auoient eu.' 

Et chil li respondirent 

' que il auoient troue a oreaus le roi 

eualach 

a tout son pooir: 



SI en auoit 

tout oehis d'aus a .j. maupas 



120 



THOLOMBS ENCOUBAGES HIS MEN : AND EVALACH PEEPABES HIS. 



For SO Manie men they ben ded 

That no man kan nombre In ]?at sted." 

" What, how goth this," thanne quod Tholome, 

" Is Eualach isswed owt Of that Cite ?" 380 

" 36 sire," quod they, "be Owre lewte. 

And that Ryht sone scholen 36 se 

Prekyng vppon his destrer, 

And with him Al his power ; 384 

As so faste As he may hye 

Here he foleweth vs faste bye." 

And whanne Tholome herde Al this 

Pol sore abaisched he "Was I-Wys, 388 

And his Meyne Comanded to stondyn stille 

Eor to herkenen what was tho his wille, — 

He preyde hem holy AUe in this degre 

' That Neuere non of hem ne scholden fle, 392 

What Aventure that henge Ouer here hed, 

Tyl that to-Porn hem they sien him ded.' 

" Sire" quod they "thanne were late to fle 

And thow to-forn vs slayn there be." 396 

'' Lordynges," quod Tholomes, "I schal this day 

30W helpen & Socoure what that I May ; 

Not-withstonding myn hy parage 

And Jierto two & thrytty winter of age, 400 

3it stormes and bataiUes haue I seen. 

As Manye as somme that here now been ; 

And therfore As that 3e loven 30ure bodUy honour 

So beth Of goode herte now In this stoure." 404 

And whanne Eualach this gan to beholde, 
He him bethowhte In Manifolde 
What Was the Oawse of the E,estreyneng 
Of the Meyne Of Tholomes the Kyng. 408 

Thanne thowhte he As A wis werrour 
That Abyden hadde Mani An haj-d stour, 



ke nus n'en porroit dire le conte.' 

" Coument," dist tholomes, 

" est il dont issus de la chite :" 

" Par foi, font il, 

vous le porres par tant veoir 

qu'il vient apres nous 

quanke li cheual puent rendre. 

et si amaine grant oheualerie et biele." 



Quant tholomes oi cheste parole, 

si fist ses gens estraindre, et commanda 
abaisier s'ensenge. 

et si dist a tous ses chiualers 

' Ausi chier com il auoient lor cors, 

et lor honours et la sole, ke ia d'aus 

ne desroutast 

iusc'a tant que il viessent le sien cors 

auant mouuoir.' 



Et il estoit endroit soi auques boins 
chiualers, et si sauoit mult de guerre 
comme teus bachelers ke il estoit, car 
il n'auoit mie plus de .xxxvij. ans. 



Et quant eualach les vit arester, 



si se pensa com chil qui main iteus 
veus 



evajlach's order op battle in pour divisions. 



121 



' That Sum gret Strengthe Of peple Jjere was 
A3ens him Comeng Into that plas.' 412 

That King Eualach his barons dide Calle, 
And hem tolde what Aventurers myht be-falle, 
' And how that kyng Tholomes was there ny, 
With Eyht A strong Meyne J?ere faste by.' 416 

So thanne hoi to gederis thanne wente they tho, 
Tyl that they ny Tholomes Ost were Comen to,~ 
[V]nto tweyne bowe drawhtes lengthe, 
So Fer Assembled Eualach & All his strengthe. 420 

And thanne there Eualach devised Anon 
His Meyne Into fowre batailles to be don, 
Of the wheche the ferste bataiUe be-took he 
To that ful worthy werrour Sire Seraphe 424 

That So worthily hadde him ferst born, 
Lyk As I haue 30W rehersed here beforn. 
And his Steward that An hardy man was 
The seconde bataiUe hadde In that plas ; 428 

And to Anothir Old worthie werrour 
]>e thridde bataille he be-took In that strowr, 
Hos Name was Oleped Archymedes, 
As I 30W here telle with Owten les ; 432 

And him Self the Eourthe bataille hadde, 
That In theke tyme so wel koundeed & ladde. 

And whanne thus his batailles diuysed weren AUe, 
Ah Old knyght to him thanne gan he Calle 436 
That was bothe ful trewe & hardy, 
That leconiyas was Cleped trewly. 
And to him thanne for riht gret trost 
The passage he be-tok. As nedis he most, 440 

In keping it to deliuere to On Man, 
So moche Of werre wel Cowde he than, 
That non Of Tholomes men Jjere paste 
Ne non Other for non haste. 444 

B, 



ke la plache ou cheles gens estoient 

areste ne pooit pas estre sans grans 

efFors. 

Lors apiela ses chiualers. 

et si lor dist ' ke il alaissent sagement : 

car il apercheuoit bien ke tholomes 

n'estoit mie loins.' 

* 
Et cliil se serrerent maintenant et ale- 
rent tout le pas, tant que il furent 

a mains de deus archies pres de lor 
anemis. 

Lors deuisa eualach 

de sa gent .iiij. batailles. 

Si douna la premiere 

a seraphe son serourge 

qui si bien le fist en la bataille 

com vous orres cha auant. 

Et ses senescaus eut le secunde ba- 
taille, qui mult estoit hardis et preus 

et vns siens nies, 

quiauoit non archimades,eutla tierche 
bataille. 



Et il ot la quarte, 
qui mult bien se sot conduire. 
Et quant il les eut ensi deuisees, 
si apiela .j. sien chiualer, 
mult preu et mult loial, 
qui estoit apieles geroines des desers. 
A chelui, eualach commanda 
que il retournast pour garder le pas- 
sage de le roche, 



si ke les gens tholome ni peussent 

pasger 

se il i aloient a garapt. 



122 



THOLOMES DIVIDES HIS EORCE INTO EIGHT BATTALIONS. 



And Also there Charged him he 

That he scholde taken kepe to that Cite, 

" For there-Inne I lefte but fewe Meyne 

It forto kepen, As I telle the, — 448 

Not passeng Of Men Six score 

Be J)e grete hundred, lasse ne more, — 

And An Old knyht here wardein to be, 

Sire lekonyas, as As I telle it the ; 452 

And therfore that non passe be thin hond 

That Cyte to don Schame 0|jer schond." 

That lekonyas as tho forth him wente 

His lordis Comaundement to don presente. 456 

And whanne Tholome Al this be-held. 
That Eualach EnbataiUed him In the feeld, 
Thanne Anon he Ordeyned viii batailles 
Of his Meyne trith-Owten EaiUes, 460 

Of the wheche tweyn )je ferst Ordeyned were 
Vppon the steward to Assemblen there ; 
And the Secund bataille devused be 
Vppon Eualachs Nevev forto be, — 464 

The wheche hyht Archemedes, 
A worthy Man In stour & pres, 
Eor the thridde bataUle hadde he In honde 
Of Eualach, As I vndirstonde ; — 468 

And I my 3elf In the viithe bataille Wil be 
Vppon Eualach that Is so fre, 
And the Rereward schal be the viiithe bataille 
Vppon Seraphe with Owten Eaille, 
That worthy Conqwerour Evere he was, 
Theyfore he dred him In that plas. 
And 3it kepte Tholome to his AvaUles, 
In his Befrescheng, twey bataUles, 476 

That vppon Eualach Scholden Come 
Aftyr that the gret storm were done. 



Et si li commanda 

' que il eust en sa compagnie 

tous chiaus qui estoient remes en la 

chite, 

ne iamais ke client en i laissast sans 
plus 



pour la ville deffendre, s'aucuns agais 
i souruenoit par auenture.' 
A tant s'en ala gecoines, 

et si le fist ensi com ses sires li auoit- 

commande. 

Et quant tliolomes vit 

que eualach eut ses batailles deuisees, 

si redeuisa les sieues. Et quant il les 

eut deuisees, si en eut iusc'a .viij. 

Et si dist ke les .ij. premieres assam- 
bleroient a la battaille ke li serourges 
eualach conduisoit, et les autres deus 
assambleroient a la bataille le senes- 
cal. Et les .ij, comanda, ke eles as- 
saimblaissent au neueu eualach 

qui auoit la tierche bataille. 



Et il dist, que il seroit en la sietisme 

bataille, 

et si assambleroit a eualach, 

a le witisme bataille feroit I'ariere 

472 garde, 



si uenroit sour eus quant U aroient 
grant pieohe souffiert I'estour. 



THE NUMBERS ON EACH SIDE. EVALACH's SPEECH TO HIS KNIGHTS. 123 



And so to gedere Easte they Ronne, 
And this storm tho they be-gonne, 480 

Vppon Ech of Eualache, hataylles two, 
And thus to-gedere they gonnen go. 
Thanne sawgh Tholomes In that plase 
That more Meyne of his ther was 484 

That In that feld gan there gon, 
Ten Men Of his A3ens Eualache on. 
Thus bothe bataiUes devised weren there 
In Maner As I 30W haue E-eherced Ere 488 

Bothe On the ton Syde An vppon the tothir, 
So that vnder hem bothe was there fair fothir ; 
So that Eualach hadde in eche bataille, I wene, 
Ten thowsend and thre hundred men bedene, 492 
What on hors and Ek On Eoote, 
So Manye he hadde I wel woote ; 
And In Eche of Tholomes bataiUes were 
Sixtene thowsend, As it Reherseth here ; 496 

And 3it Manie Of his Men weren lost to Eore 
At theke streite passage, as I tolde 30W Ore. 
Now Eualach his knyhtes Oalleth 
Of what manere Aventure that him be-faUith ; 500 
He Olepeth forth lord, duk, Erl, & bachelere. 
And all his peple that was there, — 
" Lo sires," he seide " worthi men 30 be, 
And Mochel hau knowen of Ohyvalre ; 504 

3onder Tholome hath Ten A3ens Oure On, 
And [yet] hopen we Hyht wel to don ; 
& therfore Of good Comfort let vs now be, 
And thenketh what wrong he doth 30W & me 508 
Into My lond to Entren with Owten leve. 
Me thinketh he doth me gret Eepreve ; 
Therfore, And 30 ben goode men this day, 
Eul wel his Mede Qwyten me May 512 

2 R 



Si lor couroit si tres durement seure 
que il eeroient tout accouuete. 

Enei esgarda ke toutes ses bataiUes 
assembleroient deus et deus. 
Car il auoit 
bien plus gens 
que n'auoit 
eualach la moitie. 

Ensi furent les bataiUes ordenees 

d'une part et d'autre 

Si eut bien en chascune des bataiUes 

eualach 

.ij. mil et iij. chens, 

que a pie, que a cheual. 

Et a chascune des tholomes en eut 

bien .v. mile, ou plus, 

et si auoit mult de sa gent perdue 
au tres pas de a la roche dont li contes 
a parle, si com vous aues oi. 

Lors apiela eualach ses chiualers, et 

si lor dist. 



" Signour chiualers, vous vees hui ke 
nous auons mestier preudome, 

Car a chascun ke nous somes, sont il 
de la doi ou troi. 

Mais tant i a qui vous doit conforttr 
et douner grant hardement, ke nous 
somes en nos choses, et si sont uenu 
sour nous, si a grant tort, comma 
vous saues tout. Et chiertes, bien le 
sachies de uoir, 

ke se vous voles hui estre preudome et 

vigreus : 



124 EVALACH's speech to his knights. op SERAPHE's ' BOYSTOtrSL TOOL ' 



And tlie victorie Of the bataille this day to have. 

And therto More worschepe thanne we conne krave ; 

& ]?erto the Egipcien neuere schal 30W Abyde 

In bataylle, nefier In feld, At non Tyde. 5 16 

And this I preie 30W Enterly, 

That 30 wolden strong & Myhtly 

Tweyne the ferste schowres oipev thre ; 

And be that tyme here haste schal past be, 520 

And thanne fresch scholen 3e be to fyht 

Whanne they hau lost Al here Myht, 

And thus discomfite hem Schole we 

In this Manere as 36 mown se. 524 

Now behold What Worschepe it were 

Hem to discomfite In this Manere. 

And beholdeth now, As 36 Mown se, 

What Meyne that he hath more thanne we. 528 

I not what I schal sein More trewelye ; 

36 knowen bothe worschepe & velonye ; 

And therfore I Conceille 50W Echon 

That for drede Of deth nothing 3e don, 532 

Nethir for presonement In no weye 

That 30W Myht Torne to velonye, 

Ne that Aftir be vs Oure Children reproved be 

Whanne Owt Of this world passed ben we." 536 

And whanne that he thus hadde told his tale, 
He Sawgh twey batailles comen In A vale 
That weren Hedy to the Assemblyng ; 
Anon Seraphe was ware Of ]?at thing, 54o 

And A3ens hem faste gan he to Ryde 
As so faste As the hors Myht gon ]?at tyde ; 
And Owt he sprang As fyr OflPe brond, 
With A boystousl Tool In his bond, 544 

Tyl that Aproched they weren 30 Ner 
As the Mowntaunce Of a bowe drawht ]?er 



vous enporteres I'onour et la victoire 
de la bataille, 

si ke iamais li egyptijen ne vous aten- 

deront 

en plache. 

Et saues vous ke vous feres. le vous 

pri et requier 

que vous souffres mult au commenche- 

ment, 

et si vous les poes souifris .ij. caus ou 
trois : bien sachies vraiement ke ia si 
tost ne lor courres sus com vous les 
verres d'autre maniere ke il n'aront 
este au commencliier. 
Et nous les poons desconfire 



or esgardes com grant hounour nous 
i arons. 

Car che veons nous bien et sauons de 

uoir, 

ke il a bien de la les deus pars de 

gent plus ke nous n'auons. 

le ne sai ke ie vous die plus. 

Mais vous deues tout bien sauoir ke 

est honours et ke est bontes. 

Si gardes 

ke vous ne fachies tel chose pour 

paour de prison ne de mort : 

dont vous soies houni a uous tans, 
ne qui soit reprochiet a uos enfans 

apres vos mors. 

Et quant il eut che dit, si esgarda, 

si uit venir .ij. des batailles de dela, 

toutes aparellies comme pour assam- 

bler. 

Et quant seraphes ses serourges, qui 

auoit la premiere bataille, les eut veus 

mouuoir, 

si cheuaucha encontre tout autresi 

seurement par samblant com s'il les 

deust trouuer tous desarmes. 

Et quant il furent aprochie li vn des 

autres 

tant com on trairoit d'un arch, 



SERAPHE LEABS THE ATTACK. EVALACH's PRATER FOR HIS SAFETY. 125 



To gederis Easte tho they Eonne 

And there thoy newe game be-gonne 543 

Eche Other down there threw wel faste 

An Many On bothe sides to therthe were caste ; 

And Eualach kyng he-held Al this 

That In the Eere Warde was I-wis, 552 

And hadde ful gret Eowthe & pyte 

That for him his brother distroied schold be, 

Other be slayn Other taken presoner, 

Eul moche Sorwe In herte hadde he ther, 556 

And with his herte he sighed wel sore, 

And with his Eyen Wepte he thore ; 

Thanne his helm vp he Caste tho 

& bothe scheld & spare gan from him do, 560 

And down he Enelynede Of his destrere 

& In this manere seide As 36 mown here 

"Alas, that I so Cursed a kaytyf 

That for me my broJ>er scholde lesen his lyf ! 564 

Alas, how schold it I qwyten to the, 

Thowh My lyf thy gwerden scholde be, 

Eor this kendenesse that J?oii dost for Me 

I ne hadde neuere good to qwiten it to the, 

Therfore it is seid ful tj:'ewelye 

That In trewe herte was neuere trecherye. 

Now mote the kepen, Seraphe, Every where 

That Lord that I the Signe here Of here, 

And 3if he be rerray god As they tellen me. 

Into his Governaunce holich I betake the. 

Thy body from peryl & schame to kepen 

In Alle places where so 36 ben, 

And ]7at to )?e heyest worschepe 50W bringe 

That Evere hadde Man On Erthe levynge." 

Now behold here and se 
How ful Of Mercy & of pyte 580 



568 



572 



576 



si s'entre laissent courre tout ensam- 
ble de si tres grans aleures com li 
cheual les pooient plus tost porter. 



Et li rois eualach, qui fu ariere, es- 

garde seraplie qui il auoit si grans 

outrages fais mainte fois, et vers qui 

il auoit eu si grant haine a son tort, 

si vit que il aloit si vighereusement 

centre ses anemis, 

et pour s'amour se metoit en si grant 

peril 

comme de mort ou de prison mortel. 

Si en eut si grant pite 

ke il en commencha a souspirer del 

cuer, 

et a plourer des iex mult tenrement. 

Et la ou il Ten uit aler, le hiaume enclin, 

et la grosse hanste d'el glaiue sous 

I'aissiele, 

et I'esou sere au brach, sour le fort 

destrier isniel tout apreste comme del 

bien faire, si dist. 

" Ha: las caitis, com m' a mort et trai 
qui tel ami m'a tous iours tolu ' Apres 
dist " biaus dous amis seraphe, ia ne 
puisse mes cors morir de mort iusc'a 
tant qu'il vous ait este mult durement 
guerredoune chou que vous faites plus 
pour mi ke vous ne deussies faire. 
Car chertes ie ne I'ai mie deserui en- 
uers vous. 

Mais toutes voies est il voirs ' que 

frans cuers ne se dementira ia.' 

Or ales en la garde et en la baillie a 
chelui qui signe ie port. 

Et ke s'il est urais diex, ensi com le 

m'a tesmoigne: 

si gart il anqui 

uotre corps de honte et de peril, 

et vois enuoit si grant hounour 
com vous poes grignour auoir.'' 

Or esgardes 

com notre sires est deboinaires et 
piteus. 



126 



GOD S ANSWER TO EVALACH S PRAYEK. THE SPEAR-BREAKING. 



That is the blisM king Of hevene, 

How sone he'herde the Synful stevenne ! 

Lo ! for that so hertely he made his preiere, 

How sone that the goode lord gan him here. 584 

And grauntid him Al his hoi Entent ; 

The wheche was ]pere Anon sene verement ; 

Eor Aftir tyme that Eualach hadde thus preid 

As that to Eore 36 hau herd me Seid, 588 

Aftirward dureng that bataUle 

Alle manere Of men that him gonne Asaille 

To grownde wenten thei Euerichon, 

And his enemyes of him hadde power non, 592 

Ne non dedly wownde jjat day Cam him to 

Eor Owht J)at his Enemyes Cowden do ; 

Eor that day gat he So mochel worldly honour 

That Alle Jiat him beheld In that stour 596 

Sien neuere swich Anothir worldly man 

To smyten the strokes that he smot than, 

So that they seide Al In fere 

' That Eualach were scomfyt 3if he ne were 600 

And bothe his worschepe & his lond 

That day hadde be Rest Owt Of his bond. 

But Go we now to the E-yhte weye 
And herkene how Seraphes gan to pleye ; — 604 

Whanne the tweye batailles on him were set 
They wenden hau put him to gret thret, 
Eor so manye speris broken there was 
That it semed to Alle ]>o in theke plas 608 

That Al A forest hadde borsten In sunder 
So hidous was the Noise & so ful of wonder ; 
And whanne here speris thus to-broken were 
Here swerdis they pnlden Owt Al in fere 612 

Here knyves & here Ges armes bothe 
And grete Axes Also forsothe 



qui daigne oir les pecheours, tant que 
il lor otroie lor requestes quant il les 
requerent de boin cuer et de boine 
uolente. 



Car tout maintenant que eualach eut 

priet notre signeur,ensi comvous aues 

oi 

tout maintenant li fu otroiet. 



Car seraphes ne chai onques le iour 

es loijens de ses anemis, 

ne onques plaie mortel ne rechut. 

Anchois i conquist tant de la terriene 
hounour : 

ke trestout chil qui I'esgarderent le 
iour en la bataille, 



disoient vraiement 

ke s' il tous seus ne fust, eualach eust 
le iour pierdu, et son cors, et sa terre, 
a tous iours, sans recouurier.' 

Mais ore retournerons a droite uoie 
del conte, 

ki dist, ' ke quant seraphes fu assambles 
as .ij. batailles, 

si fu si grans li froisseis des lanches 

d'une part et d'autre, ke nus hom, se il 

I'oist sans veoir, qui ne quidast uraie- 

ment 

ke che fust grans plentes de bos qui 

chaist. 

Et quant les lanches furent pechoies, 
si furent maintenant traites les espees, 
et li coutiel, et li faussart, 
et les grans haches trenchans d'achier. 



THE PIGHT. THE DEEDS OF SERAPHS AND HIS MEN. 



127 



Aud Other wepenis mani On Mo. 

And thus A3ens Seraphe gonne they to go 616 

There forto preven here Maistrye 

Vp On Seraphe with Owten lye ; 

That so gret Occision Of Men there was 

I-feld to Grounde Annon In that plas 620 

With the hydous wepenis that weren there 

For so wOndirful strokes * were neuer sein Ere 

What vppon helmes & vppon scheldes 

And vppon hawberkes that flowen into feldes 624 

So that it semed there A gret Mownteyn 

Of hors & Men that there weren Slayn 

And Of here wepenis that lyen hem by 

So wonderful sihte it was tho trewly 628 

That no tonge ne myhte it thanne telle 

But Only he that AUe thing gan spelle. 

Of whom that Cometh AUe Oonnenge 

Erom begynneng Into the Endenge. 632 

And now soholen 30 heren More In Eche degre 

How that Aftir it fyl Of this Semble ; 

Eul Wondirfulli Wei diden Seraphes Men 

Whanne Into that Semble they entred then, 636 

But Of the prowesse and the worthi dede 

Of the hardynesse and of the Manhede 

That Seraphe dide with his Owne bond 

It is ful hard to Ony man forto vndirstond, 640 

And of the MerveUles that be him wrowht was 

Weren neuere Of Man Sein In non plas, — 

Eor A gret Ax took he betwenen both his honde 

Where with he wrowghte ful mochel schonde, 644 

Whiche that was trenehaunt Scharpur& Merveillous, 

Riht A merveillous tool & fan hidous, 

And therto him self was A large Man 

With grete thyes as I discryven kan 648 

* strokes twice in the text< t This A is intermediate in size/ 



lUuec fii grants li capleis et la meslee 
si morteus, 

ke des espees et des haches 

et des autres feremens qui feroient 

sour les hiaumes et sour les escus 

et sour les haubers, estoit auis ke che 
iust vne grans meruelle de forgeours. 
La eut tans menbres trenchies, et tant 
cors partis, 



ke il n'est en chest siecle nule langue 

qui la uerite en peust dire. 

Se chil seulement qui tout set et 

connoist ne I'en faisoit sage et chertain 

par son saint esperit. 



Mult le firent bien les gens au due 

seraphe 

a che commenchement. 

Mais nule proueche ke hom i fesist 

ne se poiet aparijer as proueches 

ke seraphes faisoit de sa main. 



Car il tenoit vne hache en sa main, 



forte et bien trenchant a meruelle. 



Et il estoit grans, et gros, et corsus, 



128 



DESCRIPTION OF SEKAPHE, AND HOW HE USED HIS AXE. 



And in the Scboldres bothe strong & large 

Where vppon he scholde beren his targe, 

With grete stepe Eyen In his bed Also, 

And strongliche boned he Was therto, 652 

With smale handes & fyngres longe 

And therto gret strengthe Evere Amonge, 

So that A merveillous siht it was to se 

Him thus On horsbak As thinketh Me, 656 

And a good hors that him bar 

Whanne into that semble he prekid thar, 

So that he Eerde like A man ful of prowesse 

Whanne that his scheld he threw downe in that 

presse, 660 

And his hors bridel he fastened Eul wel, 
And gan to sterin him with his Ax of Stel, 
So that theke day ne Eailled he nowht 
That AUe tho to Grownde ho browht 664 

That to-forn him stoden In his Weye, 
Wherfore Of him they hadden gret Eye, 
Somme the bed from the body he smot, 
Somme the Armes, somme the scboldres, foot hot, 668 
And somme the legges. And somme ]>e body On 

sondir, 
And some he so Claf As Strok Of thondir. 
And Manie hors Slowgh he ded In the feld, 
And be him Many knyht ded vndir his scheld, 672 
And Many a footman he slowh that stownde, * 
And Manie Of here hors he browghte to Grownde, 
That so Manie merveilles wrowhte he that day 
That Into this tyme 3it of him speken we May, 676 
Of his Manhod & his Chevalrye 
It were I-nowgh An herowde to dristrye. 
But To him self It was vnkowenge 
Of his Owne merveillous Werkynge 680 



et larges par les espaules, 



et si eufles bras gros et fourmes par 
le tour des os ; 

et si eut les poins maigres et quarres, 



et si auoit grant enfourcheure, 
si seoit a meruelle bien el cheual. 

Et la ou il se tenoit a toute la haste : 



comme chil qui auoit son escu iete en 
la presse, 

et les regnes del fraim mises sour le 
brach : 

si estoit durementferus qui il ataignoit. 

Et si ieta le iour maint caup dont nus 
ne fali 



que il ne caupast 

ou brach, 

ou quisse, ou teste, ou cors, 



ke d'ommes ke de clieuaus. 



II ne faisoit se meruelle non, 

et si n'auoit onques mais este grants 

paroles de sa proueche, si s'esmeruel- 

loient 

mult chil qui les gardoient, 

et il meisme ne s'esmeruelloit mie 
mains des autres enchore. 



THOLOMES CALLS HIS SECOND DIVISION TO HIS HELP. 



129 



For he supposed not with-Inne him selve 

That he hadde the Myht Of ten Men o]?er twelve ; 

For ]?e prowesse that he dyde ne knew he nowht, 

Ne what for him he wrowht that him howht, 684 

And he thowht ful litel that be Eualache preyer 

Was the prowesse that he hadde there, 

The wheche was a man bothe Joyful & Glad, 

And Alle his Knyghtes thanne beholden he bad 688 

The prowesse Of this Seraphe 

And of the Merveilles that did he. 

And of the world he was the worthiest knyht 

As that day the[m] semede be his fyht ; g92 

For Tholomes Men he made to fle, 

And of hem Slowgh ful gret plente, 

And whanne Tholomes beheld this Oas, 
And how Jjat his Men losten here plas, 696 

Thanne gret sorwe & schame he hadde ; 
Anon the secund bataille he gon forth badde. 
And whanne Seraphes Sawgh hem Comen Ny, 
With hem he thowhte to Meten Sadly ; 700 

Anon he seide to his Knyhtes bolde, 
'That stedfaste to-Gederis scholde they hem holde, 
And that a good stert they scholden Abyde 
And leten hem come vppon hem E-ide.' 704 

So that they Comen in gret haste A-down 
Abowtes Seraphes Men In virown, 
And on hem broken they here lawnces faste, 
And 3it removed not Seraphes Men til At ]?e laste ; 7O8 
And here scheldes they leiden faste vppon, 
And 3it stooden they stille as ony ston, 
And rested hem stille In that place 
Til they Sien the tyme whanne nede was, 712 

And thanne Atte the laste they torned Again 
So that Many A man was there slayn, 

s 



Car il ne li estoit mie auis que si 

meruelleuse proueche peust issir de 

tel cors com li siens estoit. 
Ne il ne pensoit mie que il Feust par 
chelui qui li auoit donee par le priere 
le roi eualach. anchois le quidoit 
auoir par le forclie de ses diex, qui 
aidier ne li pooient. Mult le fist Ijien, 
et il et ses gens, tant que il menerent 
arriere les .ij. batailles ferant iusque 
en la plache on tholomes estoit, qui si 
grant duel auoit de che que il veoit 
les siens reculer, que par vn petit 
qu'il n'en issoit del sens. Et li rois 
eualach, qui mult en estoit lies : mous- 
troit a ses chiualers les meruelles que 
seraphes faisoit. Et disoitkech'estoit 
li chiualers de tout le monde la, 
qui proueche il vauroit miex auoir. 

Quant tholomes uit 
ses gens qui pierdoient plache, 
si en eut mult duel et grant honte, 
si lor envoia les autres .ij. batailles. 

Et quant seraphes les vit venir toutes 
abriuees : 

si commanda a ses chiualers 

' qu'il se tenissent tout sere et rengie, 
et que il souffrissent vne grant pieche 
lor desroi.' 

Et chil vinrent tout a desroi si tost 
com li cheual lest pooient tost porter. 
et tant parestoient angoisseus et uo- 
lentieu del assambler, que onques en 
conroi ne se daignierent tenir. 
Et les gens seraphe ne se murent 

onques, anchois les requellirent tout 

oboi, et souffrirent que chil pechoi- 

erent lor glaiues sour aus, et que il 

lor de-trenchoient lor escus et lor 

hiaumes. et il se reposoient sour les 

caus, et chil tholomes eures se las- 

soieut. 



130 



seraphe's men elee, but he eights on. 



Where Off en was gret bretli Of hors men, 

But scars On Of Seraphes A3ens of Tholomes 



ten, 



716 



The wheche that discomfited were 

And in In that feeld lyen stille there. 

But Atte laste 'pe two fresch batailles 

Seraphes Men ful sore Asaylles, 720 

And strokes On hem leide ful sore 

So that they myght suflfren no More, 

But torned here bak & gonnen to fle 

And forsoken the grownd of Seraphe. 724 

And whanne Seraphe gan this beholde, 
Seraphe gan hem Ascrie Mani folde; 
3it Seraphe left not for than, 

But Torned A3en As a worthi Man, 728 

And his Ax in his hondys he bar, 
And Manie Of hem ]>ev with slowg he thar, — 
He to- Clef bothe habiriown & hawberk. 
And amongs hem Made a sory werk. 732 

Here helmes he to-Clef A two. 
Here Scheldis he Alto-schatered Also, 
Here hedis he Olef Into the teth. 
Thus hem he seryeth that a3ens him beth, — 736 
So that non Man his dyntes Myghte Abyde 
They weren so Merveillous At that tyde. 

And whanne kyng Eualach steward this beheld, 
That to seraphe were comen two batailles in Ipe 



feeld, 740 

And how freschly they fowhten him Agein, 
Where Oflfen he was a-drad Oertein — 
Por non Er sawgli Eualache Steward 
Ony Nede To gon to him ward, 744 

And Seraphe to socouren In that plas — 
To him ward Rod he A ful gret pas. 



Mais trop grant fais de gent i anoit 

entre les .ij . batailles qui auoient este 

desconfites et les .ij. qui estoient ore 

uenues. 

Si en furent mult cargie la gent 

seraphe, 

et chil lor commenchierent a tolir 

terre 

Et quant seraphes vit ke ses gens s'en 

aloient vilainement, 

si s'escrie, et il lor laisse courre, 



le hache empoignie, tous affichies es 

estriers, 

si lor commenche a decauper, 

et escus, et hiaumes, et haubiers, 



ke nule arrnure ni pooit auoir duree 
qui de la hachj fust biea conseue. 

Et quant li senescaus eualach, qui 
auoit la seoonde bataille, le vit si 
durement recouurer que il li estoit 
auis 

qu'il fust uenus tous fres, 

si en fu tous. esmaris. 

Car il n' atendoit ke tant seulemeut 

que il le veist lasser, pour chou qu'il 
le voloit secourre, Et de la grant 
meruelle qu'il en eut, 



EVALACH S STEWARD RIDES TO SBRAPHE S HELP. 



131 



" Now Certein " quod this Steward, 
" With Seraphe it stond so hard 748 

That Al the world him helpe ne may, 
So mochel peple vppon him lay, 
And 3if I Ony lengere Abyde 

His nis but ded At this Tyde ;" 752 

And Anon with that word there 
He prekede forth on his destrere, 
And al his Meyne holyche with him ; 
There began Anon bataille full Grym, 756 

And to the tweyne batailles Comen they Anon 
That vppon kyng Eualach scholde haven gon. 
And whanne they sy J>e steward thus Comenge, 
A3ens hem tho batailles Comen prekynge 760 

Lik As the tothere diden before 
To Seraphe, wherer-by thei hau lore 
Mochel Of Tholomes Meyne 

That be Seraphe Slayn therer be, 764 

" Now " quod Eualach " God for thy Myght 
So spede Seraphe that Gentyl Knyght." 
Thanne this Steward to his lordis seid he 
" Loke]? stedfastly that to-Gederis 30 be 768 

Por 3if we these two batailles mown brake 
I hope of Tholome kyng to ben A-wreke, 
Eor I ne thenke neuere Er to blynne 
Til that I kyng Tholemes battaile be with-Inne, 772 
And there I thenke hem forto sle 
E,yht Among Al his Owne Meyne." 
So wenten thei forth be that Ordenaunce 
To knowen how that myght ben here chaunce, 776 
And fulfilden his Comaundement 
And B.edin forth with riht good Entent. 
But that showr was As scharpe As A dart, 
Eor there many Mo weren On Tholomes part 730 

s2 



dist il. " Par foi, chis hom ne serroit ia 
las se tous li venoit sour le col. 



Et se ie atendoie tant qu'il recreist 
de conbatre. ie ni ferroie ia caup. Et 
ie aie de-he. se plus i'atea." 
A clie mot laisse courre li senesoaus 



et si oompaignon tout droit 



as autres .ij. batailles 

qui estoient deuisees a asambler au 

neueu eualach. 

Et quant chil les virent veiiir, 

si lor coururent sus, tout a desroi, 
ausi com les autres .ij. batailles 
auoient fait 
as gens seraphe. 



Et il apiela ses gens, si lor dist, 

" que il se tenissent tout serre. 

Car se nous les poons, dist il, par- 

chier : 

ie ne finerai ia 

deuant que ie sole ales ferir tholome 
entre toute sa gent, se il en i auoit 
enchore autrestant com il en i a." 
Et il se tinrent tout ensi com il eut 
commande, et chil de la tinrent tout 
desree. 



si les ferirent mult durement, 

Car il auoient eut asses grignour 
forche de gent 



132 evaxach's stewaed unhorses tholomes and hopes to slat him. 



Thanne On the Stewardis Serly, 

Therfore was that stour ful Stordy; 

But 3it Comen they neuere so faste vppon 

That the Stewardis Men A3ens hem gonne gon, 784 

Til that to-gederis they weren Met 

The lengthe of a Gleyve with owten let ; 

but Euere the Steward let hem pase 

Tyl that with CCC knyhtes Entred he wase — 788 

And somewhat Mo Of his Meyne — 

^yith Inne Tholomes battaUle Entred he, 

That Eyve thowsend hadde he with him 

Of noble knyhtes hothe stowte & Grym. 792 

And whanne thus to-Gederis weren they Met, 

Many A sterne strok there was Set 

Be-twenen bothe partyes there, 

So that of Tholomes lost manie per were 796 

As thowh they hadden falle In to the se. 

So mani of Tholomes Men lost there be. 

So that forth prekyd the steward in pat pres 
Evene Ryht to Tholome ; er woldehe not ses. 800 
And Amongs his Men him smot he so, 
That down to the erthe he gan to Go, 
This kyng Tholome, bothe hors and Man, 
Thus to th'erthe the steward smot him than ; 804 
And there he Trosted him forto hau slayn, 
"Where-Offen the steward was ful fayn. 
And at the Erthe tho stUle him held, 
And wend hau slayn him vndir his scheld. 808 

Thanne Cam ]?ere on Of Tholomes Knyhtes 
That myhtie & strong was In fyhtes. 
And smot this Steward there he lay 
Vppon Tholome his lord In fay. 812 

Betwene bothe scholdres he him thorwh smot 
As he on Tholome lay the foot hot; 



ke chil de cha n'auoient. 

Mais onques si durement ne sorent 

fet uenir que onques les peussent re- 

culer 

tant de terre com la hanste d'une 

glauetient. 

Anchois parcha li senescaus tout 
outre, et lancha parmi aus tous. 
Si ala assambler a tout .iij. cens 
chiualers, sans plus, 

a la bataille tholome, 

ou il pooit bien auoir .v. mile homes, 
que a pie que a cheual. 

et quant il vint a aus, 
si se feri 

entr'aus, et il et si compaignon. 

Et chil furent autresi esperdu 

comme se il fuissent cheu en mers. 

Et li senescaus parmi toute la ba- 
taille 

ala ferir tholome si durement, 



ke il porta et li et son cheual 
a terre tout en .j. mont. 



Et quant il quida arester sour lui et 

retenir a forche. 

a tant es vous ke vns chiualers 



le fiert par deriere d'une glaue 



entre deus espaules 
si com il s'estoit abaissies sour tho- 
lome pour ferir de s'espee, 



THE STEWARD IS STRUCK DOWN. EVALACH AND ARCHIMEDES GO TO HIS RESCUE. 133 



820 



824 



So ]?at Anon this steward Torned Agein, 
And So that knyht smot In Certein 
And vppon Tholome he made him to falle 
That Anon tho Creaunt he Gan to Calle ; 
And that Sawgh the stewardes Meyne, 
And faste to him there gonne they fle 
This Tholome to hau kept opev hau Slayn, — 
This was here purpos thanne In Certeyn. 
And Tholomes Men that gonnen Aspie, 
And to here lord they gonne faste hie 
Him forto deliueren from his Eon 
Also Paste As they Mihten gon ; 

And whanne King eualach this Melle gan beholde, 
Ful sone his herte he gan to Colde ; 828 

And whanne that he sawght this Melle 
In thre diuers places thus thanne to be, 
How that the peple of Seraphee 
With fourre bataylles fowghten hee, 
And of the Meyne of his Stewarde 
That with tweyne batailles fowhten well harde, 
And Also for his Stewardis body, — 
He was ful of Sorwen Sekerly, 
That A3ens Tholomeres bataUle 
Which that he began so sore to Asaille ; 
So Eualach Oomanded his nevew tho 
The stewardis men Socour forto do, 
" And I his Body now wele Socoure 
0]?er with him to deyen In that schowre." 
Anon bothe these batailles gonnen Owt Glide 
As Sparkles owt of fyr doth Ony tyde, 844 

And vppon here Enemyes they gonnen to go, 
Kyng Eualach and Archemedes Also ; 
Wheche Archemedes tho semblen be gan 
Eor to Refreschen there the stewardis Men. 848 



816 si le feri li chiualers si durement 

qu'il le porta sour tholome tout es- 
tender a terre. 



832 



836 



840 



et les gens au senescal 
assamblent sour aus 

pour tholome retenir ou ochire. 



et les soies gens 
laissent oourre 

pour lui deliurer. 



Et quant li rois eualach vit la meslee 



en trois lieus 

de la gent seraphe 

oontre les .iiij. premieres batailles, 

et de gens au senescal 

encontre les autres deus batailles, 

et del cors au senescal centre la ba- 

taille tholome: 

si fu mult angoisseus. 



et commanda a sou neueu 

' ke il secourust les gens au senescal, 

et il iroit secoure son cors,' 

A chest mot laissent courre ambe- 
deus les battailes a lor anemis. 



Et tantost com archimades assambla 

as .ij. battailles qui estoient mellees 
as gens au senescal : 



134 evalach's stewaed is cruelly beaten, and led beeoke tholomes. 



Thanne wolden )?ese batailles non lengere abyde 

But to here lord Tholome the gonneu thei Glyde 

Por tbey flowen to him tho ful faste, 

So Archymedes Men on hem gonnen thraste ; 852 

So fiedde they to here lord for socour, 

Tor the grete Angwich Of that stour. 

And Eualach — that to Tholome was gone 
His Steward forto don socour sone, — 856 

He saugh, & stood, & there beheld, 
How, with as grete Mases As they myht ^\•eld, 
On his Steward [they] leiden strokes Mani-folde 
That pite & Rowthe it was to be-holde, 860 

With here Mases Coronaled with Stel, — 
And Al this beheld Eualach ful wel, — 
And Thre wowndes On his body were 
That Tholomes Eoot-men hadde 30ven hem there ; 864 
Por so with Arwes was he hyrt, 
Wheche hyrt tho Mihte he not Astyrt. 
And whanne Evalach* thus Saugh him be-stad, 
And Amonges hem thanne forth So there lad, 868 
And therto his Meyne So wownded were, 
That Sore Agresyd was he there, 
So that Anon he gan forth to Ryde 
And AUe his knyhtes be his syde ; 872 

And Er that he to his Steward Myht Wynne, 
Eowl betrapped so was he hem with-Inne, 
They him hadde taken as presonere. 
And with hem forth gonne led en there. 876 

And whanne that he Cam In the plase. 
There As his Steward so Taken wase. 
His helm Of taken they hadde. 
And to-forn Tholomes they him ladde, 880 

And to the Erthe there they hem Caste. 
And thanne Cam forth Tholomes Atte laste ; 

* The MS. has Tholome, & he stad. 



si ne porent plus souiFrir chil de la, 

anchois s'en tournerent fuiant tout 
droit a Tholome. 



Et li rois eualach, qui fa assambles a 
tholome : 

garda, si uit 
ke on en-menoit 
son senescal, batant 



de grosses maches de fer cornues, 

et si auoit .iij. plaies el cors 

de saietes, ke chil a pie li aiioieut 
faites. 

Et quant li rois le vit 

si laidement mener, 

et ses compaignons detrenchier et 

ochirre : 

si en fu si dolens ke par vn petit ke 

il n' issoit du sens. 

Si lor laisse courre com li cheuaus 

pooit porter. 

et tout si chiualer apres. Et les vient 

ataignaut au pendant d'un tertre. Si 

troeuue que il 1' auoient ia abatu 

contre terre. 



et que il li deslachoient son hiaume, 



Et ke tholomes 



THOLOMES KILLS THE STEWARD. EVALAOH ATTACKS THOLOMUS; 



135 



884 



888 



892 



896 



Anon lie drowgli his Swerd So Peer 

The Stewardis had to have Smeten Of ther, 

For erthly Man was non leveng In londe 

That so moche he hated, ne wolde schonde. 

And whanne that Tholomes scholde hau smeten Of 

hi shed 
And he myht hau had leyser In that sted, 
He Sawgh kyng Eualagh So faste Comenge 
That he was let Of his purposinge ; 
And whanne he Sawgh jjat it myht not be so, 
Thanne Other wise he gan forto do, 
Vnder his hawberk in-lawnced he 
Thorwgh the body, And that was pyte. 

And whanne he hadde So I-do, 
Anon to his hors tho gan he to go ; 
And A3ens kyng Eualach gan he Hyde, 
And Eualagh A3ens him with gret pryde ; 
And so sore there to gederis they Mette, 
& there so sore strokes Ech on other sette 
That bothe here scheldes [flew] into >e feld. 
And Ech of hem bad Other 3eld. 
And whanne to-broken weren here lawnces, 
Thanne Aftyr behappid many harde Channces ; 904 
Thanne on foote gonne they Alyghte, 
And there began A wondir strong Eyghte ; 
Thanne gonnen they there A scharp schowr 
That was Angwyschschows & ful of dolowr, 
So that Mochel peple was there ded 
Of Men And Ek hors In that sted. 
And Evere kyng Eualach enforsed him faste 
Thorwgh Tholomes pres Eorto hau paste 
Into the place there that his Steward lay, 
3if he myhte it Eecovere that day ; 
But Euere theyputten him of with gret strengthe 
That entren he ne Myhte In brede ne lenghthe, 910 



900 



908 



912 



tenoit s' espee toute nue 

pour lui cauper la teste. 

Car ch' estoit li chiualers du monde 

ke il plus haoit. 

Et quant 

il vit eualach venir si bruiant, 

si se pensa ke il ue le porroit pas 
tenir longement, car il li seroit rescous. 

si traist .i. fausart, si li feri 
dedens le cors par desous. 
Apres 

sail, en .i cheual, 

si laisse courre centre eualach, vne 

glaiue en sa main : 

et eualach s' adreche a lui, 

si s' entresfierent si durement 

ke 'les pieches volent d'andeus les 

glaues ke il tenoient. Les batailles 

se meslent, li vn se iierent parmi les 

autres, 

et quant les lanches pechoierent, 

si furent sakies les espees. 

La eut mult angoisseus estour, 
mult grant batailles, 

et abateis d' omes et de cheuaus. 
et li rois eualach s' esforchoit 
comment il les peust reculer 
iusque la u li senescaus gisoit. 

Et chil se deffendoient mult durement 
si ke il ne pooient parchier outre, 
ne aus tolir terre. 



136 



THOLOMES ENCOUUAGES HIS MEN, AND THEY PREVAIL. 



Tyl bothe bataiHes weren discomfit that tyde 

That Perst Archemedes gan to B/yde. 

And whanne this Battaille discomfit was 

Thorwgh Eualache Meyne In that plas, 920 

And fllowen to here lord Tholome, 

And After of Eualache Meyne grete plente. 

& whanne that Tholome Sawgh thus his Ost 
Ouer-throwen & Slayn with great host, 924 

And Eualache Men After hem purswen tho, — 
Ful mochel sorwe In his herte gan to go ; 
Thanne Tholomes his men gan to Ascrye 
With a lowd voys, And E-yht An hye, 928 

" On Eualache men torneth 3e A3en, 
And uppon him proveth that 36 men ben !" 
And So Torned they the hedes Of here hors 
Thanne A3ens here Enemyes with gret fors ; 932 
And they on foote schotten faste 
"Wit venymed Arwes whiles they wolde laste, 
So that manye hors there they Slows, 
And moche Othir peple In that Rowe ; 936 

Eull harde and strong was the Melle, 
& Mochel peple lost In Eche degre, 
Of both partyes there Mani On 
To the deth on bothe sides were they don, 940 

But Only Of Eualache Meyne 
There was persched gret plente. 

Thanne whanne Tholome gan be-holde 
That he hadde the better be manifolde, 944 

Anon A Massage tho he Owt sente 
To bim that the viiithe bataille kepte presente, 
' That In non-wise Assemblen scholde he, 
Tyl that comaundement he hadde of Me,' 948 

Thus to him he sente Anon ful Ryf, 
Non Other wyse to don, In peyne Of his lif. 



Tant ke les .ij. batailles 
a qui archimades auoit assamble fu- 
rentdesconfites,ensi com vous aues oi. 
si s' en vinrent fuiant iuske a la 
bataille tholome qui mult durement 
se conbatoit. Et chil les sieuoient a 
dies mult ireement, si les cachierent 
tant: ke il les furent flatir entre les 
gens tholome et les gens eualach qui 
estoient feru tout pelle et melle. 
Et quant tholomes les vist 
venir fuiant, 
et ches apres qui les cachoient, 



si escrie s ensenge, 

si laisse courre as gens eualach mult 
ireement 



Et quant chil qui fuioient 1' oirent, 
si retournerent les chies des cheuaus 
encontre lor anemis 

Et chil a pie traioient grant plente 

de saietes enuenimees. 

Si oohirent mult de lor cheuaus 

et naurerent grant partie d' aus. 

Mult fu grans la meslee et li capleis, 

et mult i eut gent perdue 

d' vne part et d' autre, 

mais les eualach 

i firent trop grant pierte a chele fois . 

Et quant tholomes vit 

ke ore en estoit li mieudres siens ; 

Si prent il .i. message, et si 1' enuoie 

a chelui qui gardoit le witisme de ses 

batailles. 

Si li manda, ' si chier com il auoit son 

cors, ke il n' assanlast pour nul besoing 

ke il veist, deuant chou qu'il li eust 

mande.' 



137 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Of Seraphe ; the valour of him and his men (p. 138) ; his deeds with his axe (p. 138) ; how he did not tire, 
and all fled from him (p. 139); so a messenger tells Tholomes, who sends him to his brother Manarcus 
with orders for Manarcus to fight Seraphe (p. 140 ; Manarcus comes with 55,000 men, and routs Seraphe's 
20,000 (p. 141); Seraphe weeps ; cannot rally his men ; but he and eleven still fight on (p. 142); and 
he kills Manarcus (p. 142) ; whose men make a great cry (p. 142) ; Seraphe kills on (p. 143) ; Manar- 
cus's men kiU seven of the eleven knights and Seraphe's horse (p. 143); and then the other four knights 
(p. 144); Seraphe kUls a knight who throws spears (p. 144); Seraphe takes his horse, and kills away 
(p. 144); Seraphe's eecond horse is killed, and he ridden over (p. 145). He awakes from his swoon 
(p. 146); mounts again, cuts one knight's left arm off and cleaves another knight in two (p. 146). He 
rides into the field (p. 147) ; kills a knight, is shot through the shoulder by an arrow and thrown to the 
ground, his horse being killed under him (p. 1,47); but he mounts again and tries to get to Evalach's 
cross. There is great slaughter (p. 148). Sixty knights rescue Evalach from 500, and mount him 
again, but he is surrounded by 2,000 of his enemies (p. 148). Seraphe rides to the rescue (p. 149); 
but cannot reach him. Evalach is taken prisoner, beaten, and carried to a wood (p. 149) ; he looks on 
his shield and the cross on it (p. 150); sees Christ crucified, and prays to God (p. 151); a white 
knight with a cross on his shield comes out of the forest (p. 151); Seraphe fights on, he sees Evalach's 
standard, and shouts (p. 152). The white knight leads Tholomes to the Eock of Blood (p. 153); 
charges at him and unhorses him. Evalach's knights take all Tholomes's knights but eleven (p. 154); 
Tholomes surrenders to Evalach (p. 154); and Jekonias takes him to Orkanz (p. 154). Evalach takes 
the rest of Tholomes's division. The white knight helps Seraphe ; (p. 155) ; Seraphe's danger ; the white 
knight kills two of his opponents (p. 156); Seraphe swoons, and Evalach helps him (p. 156); Evalach un- 
horses a knight and gives the horse to Seraphe (p. 157); Seraphe mounts and is as fresh as ever; the 
white knight gives him an axe from God (p. 158); Evalach, on Tholomes's horse, reassembles his men 
and makes two divisions of them; they renew the fight (p. 159); distress in Tholomes's men for their 
master (p. 160) ; they are slain, maimed, and taken (p. 160). How well Evalach, Seraphe, and the white 
knight fought (p. 160-1). Tholomes's mea draw near the Eock, thinking it is not guarded (p. 161); 
but it is, and Evalach's men pursue and slay them (p. 162); Narbus, Tholomes's steward, surrenders 
to Evalach, who wants to kill him (p. 162); but Seraphe intercedes for him (p. 163). The end of 
the day and the battle (p. 163); Evalach &c. go back to Orkanz, where there are so many prisoners, 
that the king tents outside (p. 164). 

Now lete VS Speken of Seraphe, Orevous reparlerai 

Of Ms worthinesse, & Of his Meyne de la gent seraphe 

That 3it with fowre hatailleS don fyhte, qui encore est en la place ou ele se 

And kepen here Owun as men of Myhte ; 4 '=°''^^*- ^^ -"'J- l^^t^iUes, 

T 



138 THE WONDEUFTJL DEEDS OF SEBAPHE's MEN, AND OP SERAPHE WITH HIS AXE. 



Por As it is put Into Memorye 

For On of the most wondir Storye 

That Euere was Rad In Ony book, 

Owther In Storye, As Men Oowden look, — 8 

For so lytel A peple & so vigerous 

A3ens so Manye & so therto dispetous, 

For they myhte neuere Man hem with-stonde 

Whiles they hadden Ony wepoun On honde, 12 

So that Seraphes Men On hors & Foote 

Heeldon Tholomes Men wondir hote. 

But that storm ne dured neuer hau myhte 
Ne hadde ben thorgwh Seraphes Fyhte, le 

For So mochel prowesse was neuer In Man 
As for the Meyne that he hadde than 
As was In him Seyn that day there, 
For so they seiden that At the stowr were. 20 

For so worthy A knyht In non plase 
Ne nere to-forn there sein wase. 
For his plase wolde he not forgo 
That he and his Feleschepe hadde taken hem to ; 24 
AUe Made he here bakkes forto bende. 
And of here lyves browht hem to Ende 
That In his weye Gonnen forto stonde ; 
With his Ax he wrowhte hem mochel schonde, 28 
For hei-e hedes he smot of Faste, 
Here scheldis & hawberkes Alto-braste, 
And leyd hem dede there In the feeld, 
Many A knyht there vndir his Scheld ; 32 

Helmes, hawberkes, & ventaylles Also, 
Alle to the Gro-RTide he dyde hem go, 
Legges & Armes Of smot he there, 
And thus mochel peple slowgh in diuers Manere, 36 
That his Ax he bathede in Mennes blood 
From the point to the hylt, there As he stood ; 



Si dist li contes, 

et deuise ke a meruelle se contient 

vighereusement, 

et ke nule petite gent 

ne se contint onques mais si aduree- 

ment enoontre si grant souruenue. 

Mult le font bien, et ohil a cheual et 
chil a pie. 



Mais pour nuJe proueche, ne pour nul 
bien faire, ne se fuissent il tant tenu, 
se ne fust li bien faire seraphe. 
Mais chil fait meruelles prouees. 
Chil fait a ramenteuoir de toutes 
bouches. 

II ne troeue si hardi chiualer nul se il 

le voit vers lui tourner, qui mult vo- 

lentiers ne li guerpisse la plaohe s'il 

en puet auoir loisir. 

II fait les rens aolairier: 



la ou il puet uenir la hache en la 

main. 

II decaupe les fors escus. 

II detrenche les fors haubers. 



II pourfent hiaumes et uentailles. 



II trenche pies et gambes. et bras, et 
bus, et testes, et costes. et cuisses. 

H baigne sa hache iusq' ens espoins el 
sane d'omes et de cheuaus. 



HOW SEEAPHE KEPT ALWAYS FRESH AND STRONG. 



139 



And Al this of him Suffired this Meyne 

}?at A3ens him fowhten, & weren with Tholome. 40 

For Ipat day ne myhten they destroyen his 
powere 
For non thing that they Cowden don there ; 
But Al that day heeld him in On degre, 
And not weryer thanne Semed he 44 

Thanne he was whanne he gan ferst to fyht, 
Nether no More he lakked his myhte, — 
Of wheche him self vndirstonding he took, 
As tellith the storyer Of this book ; — 48 

[For] wery of his Armnre was he not thore 
No More thanne he was In the morneng before, 
[And] As fresch he was Evere Forto fyhte 
As in the morwneng he was, I the plyhte, 52 

And As vigorows he was Onne forto se 
As thowgh non thing to-forn him hadde be. 
And there as his Men ful wery they were, 
Al for-fowghten In that place there, 56 

He hem for-Comforted with Al his Myght, 
And Of Al that stowr he ne took but lyht, 
And hem Reqwerd ful vegerously 
That be him they scholden Abyden by, 60 

For as mochel grace In him was Alone 
As in AUe here bodyes Every-Chone ; 
For, ne hadde Only the myht Of him ne be, 
Clene hadde ben lost Al his Meyne, 64 

For Elles myhten they neuere hau kept ))at 

plase 

For the Multitude of that A3ens him wase ; 

But from Seraphe they fledden Eurichon — 

Alle Tholomes Meyne be On And be On, — 68 

And thus dured Seraphe Al that day 

Til it was past fer noon tho In fay. 

T 2 



II seus soustient si toute la gent qui 
est encontre lui : ke toute lor crieme 
est en lui, et lor paours, 

II ne sent nule fois sa virtu a feloier. 



ancliois se tient tout sereement toute 
iour en vne virtu et en vne forche, 



ke il meismes s'esmeruelle tous. 

ne iamais a nul iour ne quide estre 
lasses de porter armes. 



Et la ou il uoit le grignour fais de la 
bataille : la se lanche si tost et si uo- 
lontiers oomme chil qui autre chose 
ne bee, 

et se il uoit ses compaignons reculer et 
weepir plache, il les encarge tous seus ; 
et receueure autresi vigereusement, 
com se il eust en ses membres toutes 
lor forches et tous les pooirs k'il ont 
entr' aus tous. 



Et se li biens-faires de lui tout 
seul ne fust: ses gens: ne peussent 
auoir duree en nule maniere 



a la grant meruelle de gent qui 
centre aus estoit. anchois s'en fuissent 
ale tout desconfit et desbarete. 

Ensi dura ses biens faires toute iour 
tant ke bien fu nonne passee. 



140 



THOLOMES ORDERS MANARCITS TO ATTACK SEBAPHE. 



Thanne ganne there A messenger forth to gon Et lors vint vns messages 



To kyng Tholome, there he was Anon, 72 

And Seide to him In this manere, 

" Sire, A wondirful knyht Is now there 

That Al this day hath kept the loryne 

A3ens thy fowre batailles, Sire Tholome, 76 

And 3it discomfit Neuere they been 

In non thing that we Conne seen, 

And Euere A3ens On Of his knyhtes 

There ben tweyne Of Owre Owtryhtes 80 

And Mo Sire, 3if I Scholde Say, 

Thanne I Cowde Certeinly Rekenne parfay ; 

And, Sire Tholome, As I the now seye. 

They ne doren not Oomen In Seraphes Weye." 84 

Whanne Tholome herde here-Offen tho telle, 
Wei mochel wonder In his herte tho felle. 
What merveiUous knyht that it scholde be 
That so mochel hadde Of powste ; 88 

" Go Paste now," quod thanne Tholome, 
" To Manarcus My brothir so fre. 
And Seye that I sent him gretyng 
Him Eorto hyen Ouer AUe thing 92 

With Al the Bataille that is with him, 
That he Come Adown Also sterne & Grim, 
And that Of his bataille [he] ne leye not On, 
But with him briagen thedir Euerichon, 96 

And, as vigorously & with As gret prowesse 
As Euere Entred men Into Ony presse. 
That he on that Entren Anon, 
And As moche distroctioun As he may don, 100 

That he ne spare for non thing 
But with that knyht to haue Meting." 

And whanne Manarcus here-Offen herde telle 
That with that werth knyht he scholde Melle, 104 



a tholome, la ou il se combatoit, 
et si li dist, 

" Sire, parfoi il a. la .i. chiualer qui 

fait meruelles. 

Car il a hui toute iour tenue la mellee 

et le caple encontre .iiij. de nos ba- 

talles, 

et se il tous seus ne fust, ses gens 

fuissent toutes desconfites piecha. 

Car a chascun de lor chiualers 

soumes nous bien doi 

ou plus. 

Et chil seus les soustient si tos ke 
tout li notre furent auant lui : la u il 
le uoient uenir." 

Quant Tholomes oi cheste nouele, 

si se meruella mout 

qui chil chiualers pooit estre. 



" Or, ua," dist il au message : a " ma- 
naquit men frere qui garde chele ba- 
taille la, et si li pues dire, ke ie li 
manch 



ke il uoist assambler a aue 



si tres durement 



ke ia vns n'en remaigne en plache, 

chU fist son commandement, et mana- 
quit 



MANARCUS CHARGES SERAPHE'S MEN AND PUTS THEM TO FLIGHT. 



141 



[I]n herte he was bothe glad & blithe, 

And Tholome thanked ful mani A sithe, 

That tyme Anon was Manarcus E-edy 

And Alle his meyne that weren him by, 108 

And so faste they Comen vppon 

With dyvers wepenis manion, 

And there Maden they here Assembling 

Vppon Seraphe that wery was Of Fyhting. 112 

Now began there A mysche-Pnl stour 
That was Angwisschous And Ful of dolowr ; 
Eor Seraphe Scars there he hadde 
Twenty thowsend men that he with him ladde, 116 
And Manarcus browhte with him 
Fowrty thowsend bothe Stowte & Grym, 
And In his Rerewarde thowsendes fiftene 
Of faire harneissed Men, wel piked & Clene ; 120 
And Seraphes Meyne, So wery they were, 
And so for-fowhten to-fore tymes there. 
That non lengere ne myhten they fyhte, 
But Torned here bakkes Ipere Anon Ryhte. 124 

And whanne Seraphe that beheeld. 
His Meyne As-scomfited In the feld, 
Eul tendirly thanne there wepte he tho, 
Andmochel Morneng & sorwe he Made ]?erto, — 128 
" Alas!" quod he, " what is now myn Aventure, 
Por nedis I most Abyden this schowre, 
And my Meyne thus from Me go. 
Now what Is best for me to do ? 132 

For non Other helpe here Nys Certein 
But be taken, 0]jer ded, vppon this pleyn I" 
And At that word his Ax he took In honde 
His Meyne to Hescrye, 3if he myhte fonde ; 136 

But so Fer weren they I-fleed than 
That tornen A3en wolde they for non Man, 



en fa mult lies, 

qui grant talent auoit d'assambler. 



Si lait courre tout maintenant, 

et il et ses gens tout a desroi, si se 

fierent en aus si durement 

ke il les font bieii flatir arriere le 

lone d'une arbalestee. 

Illuec eut 

angoisseus mechief. 

Car les gens seraphe n'estoient 

mie plus de .viij. mile. 

et li autre estoient 

plus de .XXX. mile. 

Car en la darraine bataille auoit bien 
.XV. mil. homes et plus. 

si pooient pins souffrir ke nus biens 
faires ni pooit auoir mestier, 
a tourner lor conuint les dos. 

Et seraphes, quant il vit 

ke a desconfiture estoient tourne, 

si eut tel duel ke par vn poi qu'il 

n'esragoit. 

Lors commencha mult durement a 

plorer des iex del front, et dist, " ha: 

las, quel dolour quant ie m'en part 

legiers et sains et venous. 

riens nule ne m'ochist ke 

la mors qui tant me demeure." 

A chest mot enpoingne la hache, 

et rescrie s'enseigne pour sa gent ralier 

et rassembler. 

Mais il estoient si tourne en la fuite 

ke nul amonestement ke il lor fesist 
ne les peut onques faire retourner 



142 



SERAPHE CLEAVES MANABCUS IN TWO WITH HIS AXE. 



And so fer wenten they Evene streyht Anon 
To the passage Of tlie blody E.ocli of ston. 

And whanne Alle this beheld tho Seraphe 
And that it thanne Myhte non Othir wise be, 
His hors hed he torned tho Ageyn, 
And with him but Enlevenne knyhtes Certein. 
And there As was the thykkest pros, 
He with his knyhtes Entrede, & wolde not ses. 
And so it happede, As he gan forth Ryde, 
He mette Manarkus At that Tyde ; 
In the Midde weye As he gan go 
To-Gederes they metten bothe two ; 
And there left [he] vppe his Ax tho Anon 
And to this Manarcus he gan to gon ; 
There his hed he Clef down Ryht 
Evenne to the Scholdres, I the plyht, 
That ded he fyl down there Anon 
That Alle his Meyne It Syen Echon. 
And Alle that Evere 0am ny his weye, 
Of hem spared he non tho Certeinlye, 
But Other to the deth he wownded was 
Others EUes dismembred In that plas, 
Eor nethir hors ne man ne scaped him non 
That Alle to th'erthe they wenten Anon. 

And whanne Manarcus men this beheld, — 
That ]?ere Cheventein was slayn In the feld, 
And of here felawes ded Also, — 
Eul Mochel Morneng thanne Maden they tho. 
And Setten vp tho An huge Cry 
That Into Eualache Ost was herd Clerly 
There As he fawght with Tholome ; 
Eul wel Al this Cry tho herde he. 
But 3it ne knew thow not Seraphe, 
Whom he hadde slayn, ne what was he. 



140 



144 



Tout sont desconfit, si s'en vont fuiant 
tout droit au destroit de la roche ke 
lecoines des desers gardoit. 
Quant seraphes vit qu'il s'en aloient 

sans retourner. 

si tourne le col du cheual, 

et laisse courre la ou 

il vit la grignour presse, entre lui 

et .xi. de ses chiualers sans plus. 

Si auint chose, 

ke il encontra, en mi sa voie mana- 

quit qui la grant bataille conduisoit : 



si le feride la hache a .ij. poins 

si durement ke il le pourfendi 
tout iusques es espaules. 
Li cors chiet a terre, 



156 et il s'en passe outre si effreement 
ke il u'encontre nului en sa voie 



148 



152 



160 



164 



que il n'ochie ou abache ou naure. 



Manaquis gist mors a la terre, et si 
chiualer ki farent au chaoir 



commenchent a faire si grant duel 
, ,n que la noise de lor brais et de lor oris 
estoit clerement oie en la plache ou 
eualach se oonbatoit. 



172 



Mais seraphes ne sauoit mie 

ke che fust il ke il auoit mort Car 

il ne le counissoit mie. 



MANARCUS S MEN KILL SEVEN OF SERAPHB S ELEVEN KNIGHTS. 



143 



And whanne so Mochel sorwe they gan to make, 

Thanne gan his herte tho forto Awake, 

And forth he prekede In to that pres, 

And with him his knyhtes, & wolde not ses ; i76 

And there here grownd he made hem forsake, 

And Manye Of hem Slowgh, & dyde moche wrake. 

And whanne Manarcus bataille say 

That but twelve of hem weren parfay, iso 

For fal sore thanne Aschamed they were 

That they of so fewe scholden hau fere, 

And Anon vppon him E,etorned A3en 

That bothe doel and gret pete it was to sen, i84 

And Ful vegorously on him they sette 

So that with stronge Strokes they Mette 

That his hors vndir him was Slayn 

And therto vii Of his knyhtes in Certayn. i88 

Thanne weren ther left but fowre & he, 

Whiche was gret doel thanne forto se. 

Now is Seraphe In the place On foote Alone, 
But foure of his knyhtes, him self ]>e fy[ft]he 

persone. 192 

And manye merveilles there wrowhte Seraphe 
As here-Aftyr me heren teUen schole 36, — 
He slowgh down Ryht bothe hors & Men, 
Helmes and hauberkis to-kraked he then, i96 

Bothe knyhtes and bacheleris vppon A rowe 
In that Eeld he gan hem down throwe, 
Bothe palettes & scheldes he to-Craked asondir. 
That Among So moch multitude it was gret wondir 
That he and his j^owre knyhtes dyden there, 201 
So that grete hepes Of dede Men there were 
Of dede hors and wepene that there lay, 
So mochel moordre Of peple was that day. 204 

And whanne his Fowre knyhtes this beheld 
That he was so Manful In the feld, 



et quant il vit si grant duel amasser 

sour le cors, 

si retourne il arriere, et se fiert dure- 

ment entr' aus. ke il ni eut onques 

.j. seul qui n'en fust esbahis. 

A forche lor fist la plache werpir a 

si peu de gent com il auoit. 

Et quant cMl virent 

ke il n' estoient que .xij., 

si furent tout honteus de chou 
qu' il auoient fui pour aus, 

si lor retournerent mult ireement. 

A cliele espainte i fist seraphes grant 
pierte. 



car il li ochirrent son cheual desous 

lui. 

et .vii. de ses chiualers. 



Ore est seraphes a pie en la plache, soi 
chincuisme de chiualers, sans plus, 
et chil le virent sour le cors qui bien 
estoient doi mile larghement et plus. 
Illuec fist seraphes meruelles prouees, 



il ochioit chiualers. II abatoit cheuaus, 
11 detrenche escus et hiaumes, II 
maintint tant le caple 



14i 



SEEAPHE FIGHTS BOLDLY WITH HIS AXE. 



On they leyden & Fowhten ful faste 

Til alle foure weren slayn Atte laste ; 208 

Thanne was there non Other boote 

But that nedvs Seraphe besteren him Mote ; 

And whanne that his felawes he sawgh ded, 

Thanne Cowde he non Other Red 212 

But vppon bothen his feet stood ther, 

And beheld the hepes that Aho-\Tten him were ; 

Ek Also he loked 3it ferthere Abowte, . 

And Al Abowtes him -n-as a fol gret E-owte. 21 6 

Anon his Ax the[n] took he On honde, 
Hyht forth Into the pres tho gan he fonde, 
And to A knyht there gan he to glyde 
That Many speris hadde Cast In that tyde, 220 

But 3it Manie mo hadde he forto Caste, 
But Seraphe him lette tho Atte last ; 
Seraphe Anon there Mette him Avith his Ax, 
But Neuere Aftir that ful Htel he wax, 224 

Eor the Byht arm he smot Of clene 
Thorwgh hawberk and haberiown, ]jer was it sene, 
That down to the brest the strok tho wente. 
And the Arm Into the Peel[de] ]?ere fley presente ; 
His scheld from him also smot he there ; 229 

As thowgh that the body Asondir were. 
His herte Owt Of his body ther fyl, 
And he in the Feeld ded there tyl. 232 

And whanne the Bemnaunt beholden him tho, 
That sweche ]Merveilles he gan to do, 
Xon Of hem ne was So hardy 

To Entren his place, ne Comen him Xy ; 236 

And that ded mannes hors he took Anon, 
And lyhtly Into the sadel he gan to gon, 
As thowgh him hadde Eylyd non thing 
Xe non point Of Al his Armeng. 240 



ke on li ochist et decaupa ses .v. com- 
paignons Toiant ses iex. Et il auoit 
tant abatu, et homes et cheuaus, ke li 
monchiaus en estoit si grans entour 
lui ke nus ne touchoit mais a lui, se 
en lanchant non. 
Et quant il vit ses compaignons mors. 

Si ioinst les pies, 



si tressaut 1' abateis qui estoit entour 

lui. 

Si s' en keurt a toute la haclie 

a .i. chiualer 

qui mult li auoit lancbies fausars, 
et lancbes, et coutiaus. Et quant il 
le vit uenir si uaut guenchir. et au- 
guencliir qu' il fist : 

serapbes 

si le fiert la u li senestres bras ioint 
au cors, 

si durement 

ke li bras li est voles a terre 
a tout r escu et li cans deschent sour 
le coste, si li trenohe les costes et le 
banke tout contreual iuskes sour le 
braieul. II sake la hache a soi, 

et cbil cbiet mors a la terre. 

Et quant li autre virent chel caup, 

si en furent si espoente qu' il ni eut 
onques si hardi qui ne li fesist plache, 

et il iete la main au cbeual, 

si saut en la sele autresi legierement 

com s' il fust tous desaimes et venus 
tous fres. 



seeaphe's horse is slain, and he thrown to the ground, swooning. 145 



And whanne On hors that he was set, 

Thanne hadde he gret lust to Pyhten bet, 

And there his body putte In bawndoun 

To the tothere peple ful mochel distroctioun ; 244 

And forth Into the pres he wente ; 

There Nas non that he myhte hente 

That here Armes from the body he smot tho 

Here hedes Oflfe, here lemes Also, 248 

Here helmes, here harberions, he barst On sondir, 

He [re] Scheldes, here speris, that it was wondir, 

So that he drof hem forth In his weye 

Til to the Roch they Come, As this doth seye, 252 

Where As was the streyte passage ; 

Thanne weren there take, bothe bacheler & page. 

And As fele As the keperes wolde have 

Of that Roch and wolde hem save. ij56 

And whanne tho that behinden were 

At the E-och [seye] here felaws slayn there. 

And the Hemnaunt presoners take, 

Thanne Amongs hem was moche wrake. 260 

And whanne they Seyen Al this fare. 
That Eualach swich knyhtes hadde thare,, 
Ful Irowsly torned they Into that pres. 
And for no thing ne wolden they ses 264 

Tyl that to Seraphe the Comen Agayn, 
And vndir him his hors has Slayn ; 
& Er that he Myht Relevyn A3en tho, 
Two hundred hors Ouer him gonnen go, 268 

Ouer his Body there In that plase, — 
So that Ny ded forsothe he was. 
So that he lay Stille In swownyng 
The Spas of tweyne bowe drawhtes schetyng ; 272 
And thanne wenden they he hadde be ded 
Eor whom they Moornede In that sted, 

V 



Et il lor guenchist le cheual, 



si met cors a bandon, 



et, si fiert tous seus entre aus, si les 
akeut a destre et a senestre si uiste- 
ment ke nus n' el voit demourer en 
.j. lieu, anchois est auis a chascun ke 
il est partout. 



A tant retournerent li autre qui orent 

cachie 

iusc' au destroit, 



si en orent tant pris com il vaurent et 
tant ochis. 



Et quant il virrent cheus qui furent 
illuec arreste : si quidierent ke chi- 
ualers i eust asses des eualach. Et 
il laissent courre tout abrieue si dure- 
ment ke il menerent la meslee bien 
le giet d' une pierre loing par la forche 
de lor venir. 



Illueques fu seraphes abatus a terre, 
et ses cheuaus ochis desous lui . 
et anchois qu' il se releuast, 
li alerent plus de .ij. c. cheual 
par de seure son cors. 
Si en uint en pamison 
si longement 

ke on metteroit a aler vne archie de 

terre. 

Lors quidierent bien qu' il fust mors, 

si en furent mult dolent li boin 

chiualer 



146 



SEUAPHE REVIVES, KILLS A KNIGHT, AND MOUNTS HIS HORSE. 



For that he was So worthi A knyht 

And there so wel hadde born him In fyht, 276 

That they ne hadde taken him presonere 

3if that his lif Myht have be saved there. 

Alle this while lay Seraphe in swowneng 
WhUes these knyhtes Averen thus in talkyng ; 280 
And whanne Of his Swowneng tho he A-wook, 
Anon there Into a Sadel he Schook ; 
His Ax Anon On honde took he, 
Swich merveilles werkyng ]?at wondir was to se. 284 
He Mette a knyht Anon hastely there 
Of whom he ne hadde but lytel fere, 
"With his Ax he Hewardid him tho 
That his left Arm Into the feld gan go. 288 

Thanne Anothir there him mette Redily, 
And Seraphe to him was ful hasty, 
& there so him hitte vppon the hed 
That his body he to-claf In that sted, 292 

Evene to his Sadelis Arsown, 
That he In the Peld fyl ded A-down. 
Thanne theke hors be the bridel he took, 
And his ferst hors tho he forsook, 296 

His foot In the sterope Anon he sette, 
& sprang Into J?e sadel, & not ne lette, 
3it, As forbrosed As he was. 

He prekyd forth Into that plas. 300 

And whanne tho knyhtes beholden, Echone 
That beforn tymes for him Made Mone, 
That he was On horsbak Ageyn, — 
Thanne Amongs hem gonnen they seyn ; 304 

And Ech Of hem to Othir gan Schewe 
That wondirful Merville on A rowe, 
Eor they wenden tho In Certein 
Owt of that place neuere to recoueren Agein. 308 



qui le iour li auoient veu faire ]es 
grans meruelles. 

Car il amaissent mult 

ke il eussent retenu vif se il peust 

estre. 

Ensi iut seraplies en pamison. 



et quant il fa de pamison reuenus ; 

si saut sus, 

et prent la hache qui li estoit keue, 

si encontre en sa uoie .i. chiualer, 

et il le fiert si de la hache ke il tint a 
deus mains 

ke il le trenche la destre cuisse 
d' outre en outre, 



et 1' archon de la sele deuant iusques 
es auues. 

Chil chiet, 

et il ahert le cheual par le fraim, 

et met le pie en 1' estrier, 
si est maintenant sails sus, 
si lor laisse courre si defoules 
et si debatus com il estoit. 

Quant li chiualer 

qui ore le plaingnoient, 

le virent monte, 

si le commenchierent 

a moustrer 1' un a 1' autre. 



Car il ne quidoient mie 

qu' il se leuast iamais, de la plache 

ou il gisoit. 



THE ENEMY SHOOT ARROWS AND SPEARS AT SERAPHE. 



147 



Anon fortli he gan him dresse 
To the grettest maister of ]?at presse, 
And with his Ax to him he Ran, 
Vppon the helm he smot him than 312 

That he fyl down there In the plas, 
So Of that strok Astoned he was. 

Thanne Arwes to him gonne they schete, 
And Manye Speris that weren grete, 316 

So that with An Arwe they him tho smot 
That Evene thorw the Scholdere it hot, 
That the schaft thorwgh him gan go 
Eul halfendel the Schaft & Mo. 320 

[And] whanne he Eelte ]?at so hurt he was, 
Eul vrsahly he Rod Into that plas 
And him sterede As he first began, 
But he was hurt Of Mani A man ; 324 

Bothe with Arwes and with Speris 
They diden hym ful many gret deris. 
And to the Erthe there down him threwe. 
And his hors vndir him they Slewe ; 328 

And whanne that he Sawgh he myht not Abide, 
Vp in that pres he Becouerid that Tyde 
And Eelte that he hadde non dedly wounde. 
Anon vp he Stirte In that Stownde 332 

And anothir hors he sawh where stood. 
There Anon vp into the Sadel he 30od, — 
Wheche hors was bothe Ere and kende, — 
Evene streyht to-ward Eualache pe wey gan wende 
That him Ofte he bemente ful sore, 337 

In his herte neuere Man leveng More, 
That so lefte he Neuere with-Owten les 
Til that he Cam Into the grettest pres 340 

Eualaches Signe there Eorto have sein ; 
But Aftyr him they gonnen preken Certeiri, 

IJ 2 



Et il s' adreche 

vers les plus espes reus ke il peut veir, 

la hache en poignie. 



et en 1' adrechier ke il fist : 
si fii ferus d' une saiete 
parmi la senestre espaule 
si durement 

ke li fiers 

parut outre bien la moitie. 

Et quant il senti ke il fu blechies : 

si lor ceurt seule ausi vistement 

com il auoit fait au commenchier. 

et il li commenchent a lanohier 

de dars et de saietes arriere. 

tant qu' il le naurerent en pluseurs 
lie us, 

et lui et son cheual. 

Et il vit ke il ne porroit mie durer a 
lor lanchier: 

et senti qu'il n'estoit encorpas naures 

a mort. 

Si se lancha liors de la presse 



sour le cheual qui mult estoit re- 

muans et legiers. 

Si s' entourne tout droit a la melle ou 

eualach estoit, 

qui mult souuent se dementoit de M 

plus ke de nule riens viuant. 

Et quant chil 1' en virent aler, si 
hurtent apres des esporons. Et il ne 
fine onques iusques tant ke il fiert en 
la presse ou ilcounut 1' ensenge eualac. 



148 SERAPHE CHARGES THE ENEMY. EVALACH IS IN DANaER, BUT IS RESCUED. 



And him. forbarred they the weye there 

That he Eualach Mihte not Comen Nere. 344 

And that Sien tho the Men Of Seraphe ; 

Anon towards him they gonne fast fie ; 

To-wardis Tholomes Ost gonne they gon, 

And there Merveilles they wrowhten Anon ; 348 

And so hardelich they fowhten, & so sure, 

That On bothe sides was gret discomfiture 

Bothe Of Tholomes Men & Eualachs pe kyng ; 

Many weren there dede, bothe Old & 3ing, 352 

But Amongs hem kyng Eualach was lost, 

That they ne wiste Into what Cost ; — 

Eor Tholome kepte him Owte Of that rowte 

More thanne tweyne bowe-schotes with-Owte. 356 

And whanne Seraphe there- Offen herde, 
Into that gret pres tho forth he Ferde, 
And there Sawgh he where Eualach lay. 
And his swerd On honde drawen parfay, — 360 

Eor his hors vndir him was there ded, 
Whiche was to Eualach A sorweful Red. 
And Sixty knyhtes hym gonne Reskewe, 
There A3enst V hundrid they fowhten Al newe, 364 
So that they kyng Eualach Hescwed Agein 
With here grete Escryes tho In Certein ; 
And On horsbak sone was he Set, 
Thanne there Anon with his Enemyes he Met. 368 
And whanne they that him to-foren took 
On him behelden, & Connen to look, 
Thanne On Eualach they sormownted A3ene 
Eul Irowsleche there Alle be-dene ; 372 

And Eualach his Ax there took On honde 
And deperted with hem ]?at Abowtes him gon stonde. 
So that Anon there he was betrapped 
Amongs two thowsend As it tho happed, 376 



Si Tjit sa gent qui mult durement s' 

esmaioient et tournoient auques a des- 

coniiture. 

par lor signour doint il ne veoient 

point ; Et il escrie 1' enseigne roial, si 

rasamble sa gent, et ralie, et laisse 

oourre as gens tholome, 

et commenche a faire d'armes si grans 
meruelles ke tout chil de uers lui en 
prenoient cuer et liardement. 
Et pour chou n' estoient il pas tourne 
a desconfiture, ke il ne fuissent en la 
plache plus de lor gent ke des tholome : 

mais il auoient perdu eualach, 

si ke il ne sauoient de lui ensenges. 

Et tholomes le tenoit en caple 

loing de sa gent bien demie archie. 

Et seraphes en oi la noise, 

si hurte chele part des esperons. 

et le treue a terre 

r espee en la main. 

car ses cheuaus estoit ochis. 

si vit keilse deffendoit a tout .Ix. chi- 
ualers sans plus 

encontre plus de .v. Et il lor escrie, 
si se fiert en aus a toute la bataille 
qui lor sieuoit d'une part et d' autre. 
Si r auoit mult durement rescous 
et monte en .i. cheual : 
quant chil qui 1' auoient 

cachie i sourvinrent. 

Quant il les vit venir, 



si fu mult iries, et laisse 

eualach, si prent la hache a deus main, 

si lor keui-t seule. Si detrenche et 

ochist chiaus qui il encontre en mi sa 

voie. 

Et guant il quida retourner a eualach : 

si li orent ia fourclos. Si qu'il eut bien 

entr' aus deus, plus de mil homes, 



EVALACH IS TAKEN PRISONEK, AND BEATEN. 



149 



That so the syht Of him his Meyne lost there, 
And ne kowde not weten In what place ne where. 

And whanne Seraphe Saw he myht him flnde, 
Al his Meyne he lefte him there behinde, 380 

There prekyng forth Into that pres 
That for non Of hem wolde he not Ses, 
Por ded Rathere wolde he hau. be 
Thanne owt of that bataille forto Ele, 384 

Tyl king Enalach hadde he Fownde 
He nolde neuere parten from that Grownde, 
For him to lesen In that Manere tho 
He ne wolde, And Othirwise Myht it go ; 388 

But the strengthe Abowtes him was 
So Merveillous there In Many A plas, 
That him Neghen not he ne Myhte, 
Nethir Of him to hauen non Syhte, 392 

Por the Melle & the peple there was so strong 
That Enduren Seraphe ne myht not long. 
And thus As Seraphe was Evere Abowte 
To hau broken the scheltrom Of that Rowte, 396 
And Euere they him withstoden than, 
3it Neueretbeles Slowgh Seraphe Mani A man ; 
But Eualach was vppon the tothir Syde 
Betrapped Eul sore In that Tyde, 400 

Eor hvrt he was thorw his body 
With thre Gleyres Sekerly ; 
And him presoner hadde taken Tholome, 
And by the brydel forth him ladde he ; 404 

3it what with strif, & what with Othir, 
Euere Eualach' s [men] fowghten A gret fothir, 
So that At the laste this Tholome — 
With .XV. knyhtes Of his Meyne — 408 

So Eerden they with king Eualach 
That they to-brosed him bothe body and bak. 



et ke il ne peut. sauoir 

de lui nule nouele. 

et quant il vit que il ne le troueroit. 



si lura ' que 

il vauroit mieus morir 

en la bataille 



ke il le perdist.' 

En chele maniere si se fiert il en la 
presse a tant de gent com il eut. si 
quida perchier outre a forche. Mais 
che ne peut estre. 

cartropiauoitgrantfaisde gens. Illuec 
fu la mellee si crueus, et li capleis si 
grans : que meruelles estoit a ueoir. 

Si com seraphes entendoit a la presse 

desrompre et perchier, 

et chiel entendoient au detenir. 
eualach estoit de I'autre part 



de .iij. glaues parmi le cors. 

Si I'auoit pris tholomes 

par le fraim. Si I'enmenoient entre 
lui et plus, de .iij'=' 
chiualers. batant. 



Et si enmenoient aueuques lui 
.XV. chiualers montes 



150 



EVALAOH, IN HIS DISTRESS, LOOKS AT THE CROSS ON HIS SHIELD, 



So wery tliat they weren for fowghte 

That no more defenden hem ne Mowghte ; 412 

And so Eualach tho forth they ladde 

As that kyng Tholome hem badde. 

That so was he forbrosed and forbete 

That of his lif he nowht ne leete. 416 

So that the blood Ran Owt At his Mowth 

& at his Eren, that was Selcowth, 

Por so mochel blood he hadde there loste 

That In what place he was he ne woste ; 420 

His wonndes tho hadden so sore I-bled 

That In that place he was Ny ded. 

And so from his Meyne they him drowe 

Pul fer thens Into a lowe, 424 

And him there ladden Into a woode 

That there besides tho hem Stoode, 

And Ek his felawes him beside 

That with him were taken In that Tyde ; 428 

And to this woode hem ladde Euerichon 

There Forto On-armen hem Alle Anon, — 

For 3it armed waren they Alle 

That So Manye Men they dyden down falle. 432 

And whanne Eualach Sawgh ]?at grete mischef, 
That he was fallen Into so gret Repref, 
And Euere with-oute Recouringe to be, — 
Thanne Moche Sorwe & Mone Made he. 436 

"Whanne Eualach to the Woode aproche be-gan, 
Thanne wax he a wondir Sory Man, 
And caste his Eyen vppon his Scheld, 
And the vigowr Of the Cros ]>ere he beheld 440 

That In his Scheld there was it set, 
And Enere ]>e holy Signe he beheld bet. 

That so longe there he be-held Si esgardi il, 

Vppon the Rede Crois In his Scheld, 444 



ke estoient si las 

ke il ne se pooient mais deiFendre. 

Ensi enmenoient eualach, 

et si I'auoient ia tant batu 

ke li sans li saloit parmi la bouche, 
et parmi le nes. 

si auoit tant perdu del sane des plaies 
ke il auoit, ke il ne ueoit mais 
nul roi de sa vie. 

et il I'auoient ia eslongie 
de la bataille bien demie lieue. 
Car il I'enmenoient a .j. bos 
qui estoit pres d'illueo 



pour desarmer lui et ses compaignons. 
Car il estoient encore arme de toutes 
lor armes, 

et quant il se vit ensi eslongie, 

si se pensa ke or ni auoit mais nul 
recouurier. et ke il estoit ales, Se il 
en chel bos le pooient metre. 



Lors esracba la toile de-sour 
le signe de la sainte crois 
qui estoit en son escu. 



AND SEES CHRIST CRTJCIFIED. HE PRATS. A WHITE KNIGHT HELPS HIM. 151 



So longe beheld he that Crois thanne. 

That In theke Crois he Sawgh Ipe forme of A Manne 

Appon that same Crois Crucified to be, 

Thus In that Crois him thowhte Sawgh he, 448 

And Peet & hondis him thowghte Also 

That vppon A Eed blood Ronne they tho. 

And whanne Eualach this Sawgh In his Scheld, 
And these MerveiUes there he beheld, 452 

Thanne gan he Porto Syghen wel Sore, 
And 3it to wepen wel Mochel More ; 
& bothe with Mowth & herte tho he thowghte, 
But for febilte myhte he speke nowghte, 456 

" O verray God that Sittest In Maieste, 
As it is told, — On God & persones thre — 
Of whiche I here the Signe of his passioun. 
So, Goode lord, take me to savacioun 460 

That I Moot Resceyven 30wre Creaunce, 
And In Stedfast beleve Owten variawnce 
Thin holy name Porto proclame, 
That thow Art most Sothfast God Of Name 464 

And Most Miht-ful god In AUe degre. 
And non god ne lord but Only Euere 3e, — 
So Save me, Goode lord. In this grete schowr 
From Angwich, deth, and Alle dolowr." 468 

And whanne this woord he hadde I-seyd, 
Abowtes him he lokede In a breyd ; 
And he Sawgh Comen Owt of that forest 
A semly knyht there, araied with the best, 472 

And Clene Armed from Toppe to the too. 
There thus Hyaly gan he Owt Go, 
And Abowte his Nekke heng a whyt scheld 
Whiche that was seyn Ouer Al that Peeld — 476 
In whiche Scheld was a Crois so Red, 
In Signe Of him that Suffrede ded ; 



si voit I'ymage d'un home 

qui estoit cruoefiies dedens le signe, 

et sambloit ke 

les mains et li pie 

li degoutassent de cler sane. 

Et quant il le vit, 

si li atenria li cuers, 

et il commencha mult durement a 
plourer, 

et dist. 

" Ha, biaus sire diex, 

de la qui mort ie port le signe, 
ramenes moi sain et sauf 
a uotre creanche recheuoir, 

pour moustrer as autres, par moi, 

ke vous estes vrais diex 

et poissans de toutes choses.'' 



Si tost comme il eut cheste parole 

dite: 

si garde il deuant lui, 

si uoit .i. chiualer 

issir de la forest, 

tout arme, le hiaume en la teste, 

et si eut a son col vn blanc escu 
a vne uermelle crois : 



152 



THE WHITE KNIGHT, INVISIBLE, LEADS THOLOMES TOWARDS OE.CANZ. 



Therto his hors as whit as the Lilye Plowr, 

And he A worthy knyht and of gret valowr ; 480 

In his Scheld a spere Eul Redylich leyd 

"With Alle hem to Meten, As it Is Seyd. 

And whannejje knyht his horswith hisSporeshe took, 

On hym Tholomes Meyne ganne forto look, 484 

And to Tholome kyng he Cam ful sone. 

And him Torned Again there Anone ; 

Toward the Cite of Orkanz tho 

This white knyht ladde Tholome tho, 488 

And towardis tholomes Ost they wente ; 

But Tholome knew not here Entente. 

And Euere Seraphes fawht strong and harde 
A3ens Tholomes kyng his Rereward, 492 

So |?at AUe that Evere A3ens him fowghte 
"Wondred that he So duren jjere Mowghte ; 
And Atte laste Eualachs signe he gan to Ascrye 
With A wondirful voys & Ryht * An hye, 496 

That bothe Eualach & Tholome it herde 
Into that plase how that it po Eerde. 
And Thanne Seide kyng Tholome Anon, 
" Let vs Ordeyne oure Meyne, & fast hennes gon, 500 
Eor discryed now alle we been 
Thorgwh this Chasing, As I kan seen." 
Thanne destreris with spores gonne they prikke, 
And Amongis that Chasing Redyn ful thykke, 504 
And the white knyht Rood anon 
To Tholome As faste as he Cowde gon ; 
And this white knyht Tholome be ])e bridel ladde, 
That non of his Meyne ne powere ne hadde 508 

Hym A3en forto Restreyne. 
But Evere wende Tholome In Certeine 



et ses cheuaus estoit ausi blans com 
vne flours. 



Chil chiualers vint grant aleure vers 
aus et quaat il les eut aprochies : 

si iete les mains, si prent tholome 

par le fraim, et s'en-tourne 

a tout ariere vere la chite tout droit. 

Et quant il vinrent vers la bataille, 
si oi tholomes les caus de la bataille 
ausi clerement comme chil qui mult 
en estoit plus pres ke il ne quidoit. 

Et seraphes se combatoit si durement, 

ke tot chil ki estoit centre hii 

s'esmeruelloient plus d'asses ke deuant. 

Car il estoit auis que il ne fesist se 

esforchier non. 

Lors escria I'ensenge eualach si haute- 

ment 

que eualach I'oi. 



et tholomes dist lors 

" Or pensons del errer, 

car ie quit qu'il nous ont apercheus ; 
si ont la cache commenchie." 

Lors hurterent tout ensamble des es- 
perons, 

et li blans chiualers 



menoit touts uoies tholome par le 
fraim, 



et il li estoit auis 



* and Eyht, repeated in text by mistake. 



THE WHITE KNIGHT LEADS THOLOMBS INTO THE FIELD, AND UNHORSES HIM. 153 



That the Forest Al day to-Porn hym was, 

Tyl that to the streyt of the Roch he comen be 

Cas ;— 512 

But there say no man that white knyht, 
Saufe Only Eualach, In his Syht. — 

And whanne they comen to that Streit passage 
There As to-Forn was don So Mochel Eage, 516 

Tho that theke time the passage kepte, 
Pul sore For Eualach hau they wepte ; 
And whan they him In this Maner si him 

gon. 
They leten hym thorwgh passe riht Anon. 520 

But it was wondirful In here syht 
The werkyng Of this white knyht ; 
And [whan J this passage weren they past. 
In the Middis Of that Peld Anon In hast 524 

There this white knyht lefte Tholome, 
That but fewe of his Meine him Miht se, 
And gan wel fast Alowd To Crye 
" Goth to now, Goth to. And Jjat In hye." 528 

And whanne this Cry herde Tholome, 
He gan to baschen, and aU his meyne, 
And to him he Ban a ful gret Cowrs, 
& that knyght Tholome gan vn-hors, 532 

And down to th'erthe there him Caste 
Bothe hors and Man, Er he thens paste. 

Whanne that Eualach tho this beheld, 
How that Tholome was feld In the feld, 536 

Tho Owt his swerd he drowgh Anon 
Atd to-ward this Tholome gonne to gon. 
And whanne they that the passage kepte 
Syen this, thanne Anon forth they lepte 540 

To king Eualach here Owne Lord, 
There Alle Anon Bedy At On word, 

X 



ke il veoit tous iours la forest deuant 

lui. 

Tant errerent ke il vinrent au destroit 

de la roche, 

ne BUS horn ne veoit onques le blanc 

chiualer : 

ke li rois eualach sans plus. 

Et il vinrent la, 

si lor fu li passages deliures : des ke 
cU qui le gardoient 



virent eualach, 

Chil passerent outre, si ke onques ne 
virent nus de chiaus qui gardoient le 
pas. 

Et quant il furent tout passe, 

si laisse li blans chiualers le roi tho- 
lome, et les laisse en mi le camp, 

et commenche a crier 

" feres, feres." 

Quant tholomes et li sien I'oirent, 

si en furent tout esbahi, 

et il laisse courre droit a tholome, le 
glaue sous I'aissiele, 
si le fiert si durement en I'escu ke il 
le porte tout estendu a terre. 

Et quant che uit eualach, 

si traist s'espee, 

si lor keurt sus. 

et chil qui les pas gardoient, 

quant il virent lor signour courre » 

chiaus : 

si salent il apres, 



154 



THOLOMES IS TAKEN PRISONER AND SENT TO ORGANS. 



And After with lawnces gonnen they chase 

To tholomes Meu tho In that plase, 444 

And Anon ^yith here Speris down hem Caste 

Tholomes Men in Jjat plase 'peve Atte laste, 

Everichon, Sauf Only Enlevene, — 

Which was the moste wondir vndir Ipe hevenne 548 

How that they In theke feld come 

That To-fortyme Atte forest weren Al some. 

And whanne they seyen thei scholde thus to take, 

Thanne Amongs hem there was mochel wrake ; 552 

Not-withstondyng 3it A3en they fowhte 

Also longe As that they there mowhte, 

But here defens here Angwisch Miht not Slake 

Eor it was Goddis wille they scholden be take. 556 

And Enalach vppon this king Tholome 
There lay, as AUe his Men Mihte Se, 
Wheche the white knyht hadde down throwe, 
Kyng Eualach him kepte tho ful lowe ; 560 

And thereto I-Maymed Manye of his men, 
And 3it a3ens Eualachs On hadde he ten. 
Thanne this Tholome heeld yppe his sweerd anon, 
And to kyng Eualach homage gan he don, 564 

And there he be- Cam his presonere. 
And therto Al his Meyne In fere. 

Whanne Tholome to Eualach hadde mad fiaunce, 
Thanne lekonias Clepid he, with-Owten variance, 568 
That the blody Roche hadde In keping ; 
And him he Comaunded Ouer AUe thinge 
' To taken Anon this kyng Tholome, 
Hym forto leden to Orkans Cyte,' 572 

" And worschepfully that thow him kepe there 
As A worthi kyng In Alle Manere." 
That thus thanne be leconyas 
Kyng Tholome Into this Cite I-lad he was. 576 



les lanches baissies . 



si les portent il a terre 



fors ke ix. 



Et quant chil virent ke il estoient 

ensi souspris : 

si ne sorent ke faire. 

et ne pour quant il se deffendirent 

tant com il peurent. 

Mais deffense ni eut mestier. 

Car notre signoux plaisoit ke il fuis- 

sent pris. 

Et li rois eualach si fu arrestes sour 

tholome 

la u 

li blans chiualers Fauoit abatu. 



Si I'auoient ia ses gens mult naure. 
Et quant Eualach i uint, si le prist, 
et puis si li fist prison fianchier. 

Quant il eut fianchie, 

si apiela eualach 
Jecoine des desiers, 
chelui qui la roche gardoit, 
si li commanda 

a mener 

en la chite, 

et ke il fust honerablement garde 

comme rois. 

Lors le prist iecoines, 

si le mena en la chite, soi chentisme, 



EVALACH FINDS SEEAPHE HARDLY BESTED BY SEVEN KNI&HTS. 



155 



And king Eualacli Abod stille In the feld 

Til AUe tholomes gonne hem 3eld ; 

And euere As he took his Meyne, 

He dide hem leden to Orcans Cite. 580 

And whanne that Alle I-taken they were 
That Of Tholomes Men weren there, 
He gan to Resorte to that bataylle 
There Seraphe fawht with-Owten Faille ; 584 

And with him 3it ladde he there Mo 
Alle that the passage kepte tho, 
Sawf only an hundred Of his Men 
That Pul Eresch to Pyhten were they then ; 588 
And whanne they weren past that passage, 
Anon the whyte knyht was to-forn here visage, 
And In his hond that knyht bar a banere 
Of Eualachs Armes, Evene Hiht there. 592 

And Anon As they sien Sire Seraphe, 
To that bataille thanne faste prekid he 
There As Seraphe manie Merveilles wrowhte, 
That In-possible swiche Merueilles don Mowhte 596 
That Euere the body Of On Manne 
Scholde don that he dide thanne. 

Anon this white knyht prekid into Jjat pres, 
And for non thing ne wolde he Ses 600 

Til that To Seraphe he gan gon, 
Where as he Sawh sevene knyhtes Anon 
That Abowtes Seraphe there stoode 
And On him leyden as they weren wode ; 604 

Tweyne be the brydel hym J^ere heeld, 
Tweyne be the helm to maken him 3eeld ; 
And tweyne A3ens the herte leide hym vppon 
Wit hevy Maces of Irne As hard As ston, 608 

So that his Elesch they Alto-E-ente 
With here Mases there presente. 

X 2 



et eualach remest el camp 
tant ke tout li autre furent pris, 



si s'entourna tout droit 

a la bataille ou seraphes estoit. 

Si ennieaa auoec lui 

tous cliiaus ki le pas gardoient. 
fors seulement client. 

Et quant il fu hors du pas, 

si esgarda il deuant lui : 

si voit le blanc chiualer, 

en sa main portant vne baniere 

de ses armes. 

Et quant eualach le vit, 

si burte apres des esperons, tant ke il 

vinrent a la bataille 

ou seraphes faisoit les grignour meslees 

qui onques fuissent faites 

par le cors d' un seul home. 

A tant se fiert li blans chiaulers en la 
presse, 

si treue seraphes. 

ke .vij. chiualer tenoient, 



Idoi par le fraim, 

et li doi par le hiaume, tout enbronkie, 

et li doi li feroient centre le cuer et 

parmi les bras 

de grosses maches de fier. 

Si qu' il li auoient ia en maint lieu 

rompue la char parmi le haubert. 



156 



SERAPHE IS NEARLY KILLED BY A KNIGHT. 



612 



616 



620 



And whanne the white knyht Jjat beheld, 

Eul sore he prekyde In that Eeeld 

To On Of hem that Seraphe heeld; 

And him thorwgh the body he bar vndir his sheeld 

That ded he was anon ryht thare ; 

And thus sone to Ano]7er gan he fare, 

& with his swerd smot Of his bed 

fiat of it fley, and he lay ded, 

Amyddes the Feld there it lay. 

And thanne to the tothere he went In fay. 

And Made hem to dyeii vppon his poynt. 

And Made here bodyes In Evele loynt, 

So that they forsoken this Seraphe 

That from here lyves gonnen they fle. 

And whanne these Other two jjat him held 

Be his helm there In the Feeld, 

On Of hem drowgh Owt A lite knyf. 

And wolde ban be-Heved Seraphe his lif, 

Porto ban smeten him A-middes the Ease 

Thorwh the Oylettes of his helm In that plase 

But Ouercomen so was tho Seraphe 

That Comfort With him Mybte non be, 
Por he was Ouercomen so with his blood 
So it was Merveille that [he] vppe stood, 
For On hors power hadde he non to sitte, 
Ne Of that stede there Onys to flytte ; 
But for febelte that he Inne was 
Ouer the hors nekke he bowede In that plas. 
That power vp to Sitte non hadde he, 
So that Of his purpos Pailled his Eneme. 

And thus gan In Swownenge Seraphe to faUe 
Amongs his Enemyes both grete & smaUe ; 
So that they faillede his Enemyes tho 
Of the harm that they him wolde hau do. 644 



Et quant il vit chou, 

si lor lait il courre, 

et fiert le premier 

si durement que il li met le glaue par 

mi le oors a toute la baniere qui i 

tenoit. 

Apres mist main a 1' espee mult viste- 
ment, si fiert si 1' autre 

ke il en fait 

en mi le camp voler la teste. 

Puis lait courre as deus qui tenoient 

le fraim, 

si fiert si le premier ke il ataint ke il 

li fist voler le poing, et li autres le 

werpist, 



624 si tourne enfuies. 

Et quant li doi qui le tenoient 

par le hiaume virent les meruelles ke 

chil faisoit, si le laissent, 



628 



632 



636 



640 



et li vns d' aus trait .j. coutiel, 

si le quide ferir en mi le vis 
par r ouerture del hiaume. 
Mais il estoit si estourdis 



del sane ke il auoit perdu et des caus 
que chil li auoient dounes, ke il ne se 
pooit soustenir. 



car il estoit ia pasmes, 

si ohai outre par desus le col du cheual 

tantost com chil 1' orent laissie. 

Ensi fali chil qui le voloit ferir. 

Si le feri, et li vns 

et li autres en la presse. 



THE WHITE KNIGHT HELPS SEBAPHB, AND REHOUSES HIM. 



157 



And Anon As that tMs kyng Eualach 

Sawgli Sire Seraphe In Al this wrak, 

To him ward ful faste he gan to E/ide 

Por to snpporten him at that Tyde ; 648 

For seldr he wende that he ded hadde been, 

And neuere On lyve him forto have seen. 

Thanne wit a sorweful herte he gan to Crye 

Tul Petowsly, and that E-yht hye, 652 

" A wrechche ! to longe now have I be, 

That thus have lost now Sire Seraphe ! " 

And thanne Anon there with this word 
Prekyd the white knyht be his Owne acord, 656 

And Susteyned Seraphe from fallynge 
That theke tyme there was In Swownenge. 
And whanne Of his swownenge that he Awook, 
Thanne ful mochel Mone to him he took, 660 

For he ne wiste where that he was. 
In what stede, ne In what plas ; 
For wende he tho ful Sekerly 
To hau ben In the hondis Of his Enemy. 664 

And Eualach bar him ful worthily tho, 
For Into the pres forth gan he to go 
And Mette there with a worthi knyht 
Wich that was Scomfit Anon In fyht, 668 

And kyng Eualach to the Erthe him Caste, 
And hym from his hors Anon he wraste. 
And Oawht it In his hond there Anon, 
Therewith to ward Seraphe he gan to gon, 672 

" Haue now here my dere Freend," seide he 
" This litel present now of Me 
For thow bowhtest neuere so dere A thing 
From begynneng In to the Endying." 676 

Whanne that Seraphe this gan beholde, 
In his herte he Joyede ful Mani folde 



Et quant eualach, qui apres venoit 

poignant, 

vit seraphe chaoir, 



si quida qu' il fust mors. 

Et il s' escrie, 

" Alas, ■ 

tout ai perdu,'' et quant il eut che dit, 

si se pasme. 

Lors i 

courut le blans chiualers, 

si se soustint ke il ne chaist a terre. 

Et quant il fu reuenus de pamisons, 
si vit seraphe qui estoit ia leues. 

Mais il estoit estordis enchore que il 
ne sauoit ou il estoit: 

anchois quidoit pour uoir 

ke si anemi 1' eussent pris et retenu. 

Et quant eualach le vit drechie : 

si lait il courre en la presse, 

et fiert. si .i. chiauler desous la goule 

ke il le porte a terre. 

et il iete la main au cheual, 

si la amene maintenant a seraphe, 
et si li dist. '< Tenes, li miens amis, 
chest present. 

onques mais n' eustes don qui si 
chierement fust achates." 

Et quant seraphes le vit, 
si eut tel ioie 



158 



THE WHITE KNIGHT GIVES SERAPHE AN AXE FBOM CHRIST. 



That Alle his Sorwes forgat he there 

Which that his Enemyes dyden him Ere ; 680 

And vp Into the sadel he sprang Anon 

As Eresch & As lusty In ilesch & In hon, — 

And as lusty was there forto fyhte 

And thereto him thowhte As of Strong Mihte, 684 

As that he was Ony tyme be-Eorn ; 

Eut thanne his Ax hadde he lorn. 

Thanneseide he "Certes and I hadde my Ax On honde 

There scholde no man A3ens Me stonde." 688 

Thanne Anon Cam forth the white knyht 
And seide "here is On, Al Hedy dyht; 
And lo, Sere, by me it Is the sent 
Erom that God Lord Omnipotent." 692 

And whanne Seraphe this felt In his hond, 
Thanne gan he wel Eorto vndirstond 
That lyhgtere and more hondsom it was 
Thanne his Owen to-foren In that plas ; 696 

There-by wyst he, whanne he Cam Owt of swone. 
That theke Ax Eerst was not his Owne. 
So thanne Ryden they In to that pres 
And for non Men ne wolden they ses ; 700 

And Eualach On Tholomes hors Rod, 
So that with him was there non Abod. 

And whanne Al this beheld Tholomes Meyne, 
Amongs hem was sorwe ful gret plente, 704 

Be Encheson that Eualach ferst they sye 
With Tholome In warde hem faste bye. 
And now Eualach on Tholomes hors doth Ryde ; 
Wherfore they maden sorwe that Tyde ; 708 

And therto Nabure, Tholomes Steward, 
Kyng Eualach hadde taken In ward. 
3it More, this Eualach, with-Inne a throwe. 
With An horn he gan to blowe, 



ke il en oublia toutes ses doulours. 



Si saut el cheual, 



etdist apres. " Chertes, se ore eussp 

la hache, ie ne trouuaisse iamais home 

qui me peust contretenir." 

Et quant il exit che dit, si vit le blano 

chiualer qui li 

aportoit, et si li disoit. " Tien, seraphe ; 

che t' enuoie 

li urais cruchefis." 

Et quant il 1' eut prise, 

si senti 

ke ele estoit asses plus legiere 

de chele ke il auoit touts iour porte, 
par chou sent il bien 

ke che n' estoit pas la sieue. 

A tant se fiert en la presse, 

et tout li autre apres, 

et eualach sist el cheual ou tholomes 

seoit quant li blans chiualers 1' abati. 

Et quant li home tholome le virent, 

si furent tout esbahi 
de che ke il auoient veu quant tholo- 
mes enmenoit eualach tout pris. 

et de chou qu' il uenoient ore qu' il 
seoit en son cheual. 

Et naburs li senescaus tholomes 



712 prist ,i. cor, si le souna 



EVALACH GIVES FRESH ORDERS, AND DISCOURAGES THOLOMES MEN. 



159 



And Made his Meyne to Resemble A3eii ; 
And tlio that weren left Retornede ful Cleen. 
Thanne Aftir, whanne Assembled weren they alle, 



His signe he hem schewed as gan befalle, 716 

Whiche was fastenid vppon his scheld — 

To his meyne he it Schewede In that Peeld. 

Thanne his Meyne On two batailles he sette, 

And with Tholomes Meyne sone they Mette ; 720 

And Oomanded and preide tho to Seraph^ 

" That whanne he hym Sawgh in ]>e Moste Mell6, 

That Seraphe In the Rere ward scholde Ealle 

On Tholomes Men, And on hem there Calle, 724 

And with his Bataille to preren his Myht, 

As he was bothe worthi and gentil knyht." 

Thanne Gonnen they to preken here destreris 
As vaylaunt knyhtes, both worthi & Perss, 728 

And Eyere the white knyht to-forn hem was 
With the baner On honde In that plas, 
And his swerd with the tothir bond I-drawe, 
With wheche Manye A man was slawe. 732 

, Thanne gan kyng Enalach lowde forto Orie 
" As Armes ! knyht bacheler, & belamye, 
For now hath kyng Tholome lost his Men Alle, 
Swich Aventure Is now to him befalle ! 736 

'For Of hem Schal Skapyn not on, 
Eor Al the Myht that they konne don." 
And whanne this herden Tholomes Meyne, 
They niste what to done In non degre, 740 

But hem thowhte hit scholde be trewe, 
For Enalach hadde Ohongid his hors [ajnewe 
Eor On Tholomes hors thanne Rod he 
As Alle his men there Myhte Thanne se ; 744 

Thanne the drede that they hadde 
Was lest Tholome to presonn hadden be ladde, 



pour sa gent raloier et metre ensanle. 

Et quant eualach les vit serer et 

estraindre, 

si rescrie s' ensenge, et se trait a vne 

part, entre lui et ses gens. 



Et quant il les eut seures, si les depart 
il en .ij. batailles. 



Si commande a seraphe 

' ke quant il verroit que il seroit a aus 

a toute la preniere bataille, et il seroit 

durement mesles, 

si lor laissast oourre par deriere a la 

forclose a toute 1' autre bataille. 



A tant hurtent le cheual des esperons , 
si lor laisse oourre, 

et ea quelconques lieu ke il alast, si 
saloit tous iours auant li blans chiual- 
ers, la baniere en la main, 

et r espee sacbie au besoing. 



Et eualacb lor escrie. 
" Cbertes, tuit 
estes pris, 

ia n' en escaperes, ke tholome aues 
vous perdu." 

Quant chil 1' oirent, 

si ne sorent ke faire. 

et che lor sambla bien estre 

par le cheual tholomes uoirs, par le 

cheual tholome 

ke eualach cheuauchoit, 

si n' auoient pas paour, 

tant seulement de la prison tholome, 



160 



THOIOMES' MEN ARE ROUTED ANB SLAIN. 



Owther ellis In the Peld there Slayn, — 

Of wheche Of these they weren no Certayn. 748 

Kyng Eualachs Men Amongs hem thraste, 

That of theke pres but fewe there paste 

Whiche that weren kyng Tholomes Men 

0]?er taken Ojjer Slayn Er they wente then ; 752 

And lik As Men that Amased were, 

In that place So Stooden they there. 

And whanne Seraphe beheld this bekering, 
Non lengere he ne Abod Eor non thing, 756 

And Tholomes Men Closed AI with-Inne 
So ]?at from hem myhten they not twynne, 
So that Angwisschously A-scryed they were, 
And slayn, taken, &Maymed, Many weren there; 760 
Eor In distresse & Sorewe weren they AUe tho, 
Eor here lord & Governours weren AUe A-go 
And they ne wiste whedir to Springe, 
For In theke Oontre knew they non thinge ; 764 
And wel Askapen Myht they not there, 
~Eov On Eche syde here Enemys were ; — 
So that it semeth ' there the hed is Gon 
The Membres Eayllen thanne Eyerichon,' — 768 
Eor there say neuere Man So fayr A begynneng 
As hadde kyng Tholome, ne so fowl An Endyng ; 
Eor VI dowble Meyne hadde kyng Tholome 
Thanne kyng Eualach In Every degre. 772 

There wondirly wel dyde Sire Seraphe, 
And so dide king Eualach with his Meyn6, 
That neure Man that was Of his Age 
I trowe hadde neure So Mochel Corage ; 776 

And the white knyht there bar him so 
That Neure Erthly man mo Merveilles myht do, 
Eor In that Eeeld Scheldes he schatered. 
And speris & hehnes Alto-Claterid, 780 



mais de sa mort. 



Les gens eualach se fierent mult du- 
rement entre aus, et chil qui 

iurent mult durement esmaie, le re- 
quellierent 

comme gens esbabis. 



Et quant seraplies les vit durement 

mesles, 

si lor laisse courre, lui et 1' autre 

bataille, si lor vient par deriere a la 

fourclose, 

si furent mult durement escrie, 

et mult vighereusement feru. 

Illuec eut meruilleuse angoisse. 

Car chil estoient sans signour, 

et en estrange terre 

dont il ne sauoient les chemins ne les 

trespas se a fiiie tournast. Et se il 

vausissent fuir, il ne peussent mie. 

Car lor anemi estoient et deuant et 

deriere, et bien i parut. 

Car li membre falent tout, puis ke li 

chies faut. 

Car onques nules gens qui si biel 

commenchement eussent eu com il 

orent, ne vinrent a si mauuaise fin, 

ne a si laide. 

Car il auoient plus gens que chil de 

cha, bien le quarte partie, ne onques 

puis ne se tinrent ne ne pris en conroi 

d' aus desfendre, se ensi non comme 

chil qui fuir ne pooient. 

lUueques faisoit seraphes meruelles, 

et li rois eualaoh se recombatoit 

si ke onques nus hom de son enge 

ne le fist mieus, 

et li blans chiaulers faisoit 

che ke nus porroit faire d' un seiU 

home. 

II portoit escus de caus. 



THOLOMBS'S MEN DRAW TOWARDS THE PASSAGE OF THE ROCK OE BLOOD. 161 



Knyhtes & liors he slowh down riht, 

Hedis, Armes, and legges In that fyht, 

That non man hym there Askapen ne Myhte, 

Se vigerows and fel he was In fyht 784 

That thus be his Chevalrie and knyhthod 

He hem In-gaderede As he Rod, 

And browhte hem to Eualach j^e kyng 

And to-ward the passage, with-Owten lettyng. 

Whanne kyng Tholomes men had Aspied 
That thus sore they weren Anoyed, 
To that streit passage gonne they drawe 
Where-offen that weren ful fawe, 792 

And wenden that non Man hadde ]?ere be 
The passage to hau kept In non degre, 
And wenden forto A Hecouered that passage, 
That Eualach, for Al his Owtrage, 
Ne scholde not hau past be theke weye ; 
This was here Entent tho Sekerlye ; 
Where-thorwgh ]>& Cite he Schold not have, 
Where tholome & his Meyne weren ful save, — 800 
Eor An hundred men myht hau kept |?at pas 
Erom Al the world, so strong it was ; 
Eor non mo On front myhte Entren ther 
But ten men At Ones, As I seyde Er ; 804 

Eor they wenden tho ful wel 
J»at there Eualache keperis hadde left non del ; 
And so As men that weren wery for fowhte, 
Vppe to the Roche wenten As they mowhte, 808 
Eor there Supposed they forto hau Reste. 
But it fil not hem for the beste, 
Eor whanne they that kepten the pas 
Syen to that Roche so manye gonnen tras, 812 

Hem thowhte Mo thanne M* there were, 
And at )?e Roch but .0. that it kepte there ; 

Y 



II abatoit chiualers et cheuaus. 

I] faisoit testes uoleratoutles hiaumes. 
II caupoit bus et gambes et bras. 
Ke vous iroie iou deuisant toutes les 
cheualeries et les proueches : 



tant les iusticha eualach et les soies 
gens, ke il les misent entre aus et la 
788 roche. 

Et quant il les irent mis, si lor cor- 
urent mult durement sus. 



et chil tournerent en fuie tout droit 
vers le destroit. 

Car il se pensoient. 



se il pooient le pas gaaignier, 
796 iamais eualach n'i passeroit. 



Anchois porroient par chou prendre 
la chite a forche. 

Car .c. home peussent la roche tenir 
contre tout le monde. 

Ne il n 'i pooit entrer. 

ke seulement .x. home de front. Che 
dist li contes, 
et il quidoient bien 
que eualach n' i eust nule garde mise. 
Ensi s'en aloient a la roche a garant, 
et il auesprisoit ia, si lor en estoit 
mult biel. Car il estoient mult las et 
trauillie, si quidoient illuec auoir repos 
et seiour. 

Mais il n' ala pas ensi com il qui- 
doient. 

Car, si com il uenoient tout abrieue, 
et li chent qui le pas gardoient les 
escrient si durement ke il lor fu bien 
auis ke il fuissent plus de mil. 



162 



A GREAT SLAUGHTEK. THOLOMES'S STEWARD, NAEBUS, IS TAKEN. 



And whanne they sien Men kepen the pas, 

Thanne newe sorwe to hem Comen was ; 816 

And A3en ward they wolde hau gon. 

But there- Inne Socour was there non. 

For tho that on hem folwed so faste, 

And they Atte pas schotten Atte laste, 820 

So that they slowen & token Of that E-owte 

As Manie As weren hem Abowte ; 

Thanne was there Mad so gret dolowr 

That neure was sein swich a stowr, 824 

For so moche blood was In that plas 

More thanne Owher Euere seyn was ; 

For Men, hors, & scheldis, that In ]>e blood lye. 

For multitude of blood no man hem sye. 828 

And there was beten On Narbus, 
pat steward was to king Tholomus, 
And there to Eualach him 3ald anon, 
So he him wolden saven body & bon ; 832 

And there his swerd vp gan to zelde 
To kyng Eualach In that felde. 
But Eualach him ne wolde not save 
For non thing that he Cowde Crave ; 836 

But his hors desmembred he anon. 
And Al so him he wolde hau slon. 
And he tho knelid Anon |?ere down 
That he myhte be taken to Raunsown ; 840 

"Nai," quod Eualach, "that schal not be ; 
Swich Mercy getist thow non of me ; 
For my steward haven 36 Slayn, 
& so schal I the here In Oerteyn ; 844 

Therefore the Chonge it is ful hard. 
For I wele haven steward for steward." 
And his Armure he dide Of Caste 
His hed to hau smeten Of atte laste. 848 



Et quant il les oirent, 

si orent tel paour 

ke il se ferirent tout arriere. 

Et chil qui les cachoient, si lor viu- 

rentsour les cols, si en prenoient tant 

com il voloient, et ochioient. 

Et cliil qui gardoient le pas, traioient 

grant fuison de saietes, si lor ociiioient 

lor cheuaus, et d'aus meismes grant 

partie. 

Illuec eut vne si grant dolour ke on- 

ques en si peu de terre: graindre 

dolour ne fu veue. 

Tant en ochirrent qu'il n' i paroit se 

sane non, et si grant ochision i eut 

ke on n'i pooit counoistre ne deuiser le 
taint des escus ne des amies, tant 
estoient del sane couuertes. 
Illuec fu abatus naburs 

li senescaus tbolome, 

et li rois eualach s'arestut sour lui, et 
chil li tendi s'espee, si dist ke il se ren- 
doit a lui,sauue sa vie et ses membres. 

Et quant eualach uoloit I'espee re- 
cheuoir, si li remembra de son senes- 
cal qui estoit mors en la bataille. 

Si iura ' ke ia sa vie ni seroit sauue.' 



Et chil li chai as pies, 

si li crioit merchi. 

et li rois dist 

qu'il n' i aroit ia autre merchi: 



ne ia autre escange n'en prenderoit 

ke senescal pour senescaL' 

Lors le prist a forche, et le fist desar- 

mer illuec: 

si li caupast il meisraes la teste, 



SERAPHE SAVES NARBUS's LIFE. THOLOMES'S MEN ABE ENTIRELY ROUTED. 163 



And thanne Cam fortli Sire Seraphe 

" A, Sir ! what tMnken to done 3e ? 

3if youre steward ded now be, 

Tholome hath lost, Sire, swich thre, 852 

And his Owne brother so dere 

That he loved As mochel there 

As 3e 30wre Steward trewly ; 

Therefore, Sire, On ]7is man haveth Mercy ; 856 

For I him Slowgh with Myn hond. 

Sire, I do 30W to vndirstond ; 

Therfore, sire, I preie to Ipe 

That of this Man thow have pite." 860 

So Jjat there gentU Sire Seraphe 

This man Savede, As 30 mown se. 

!Pul Mochel & gret was the discomfiture 
As that tyme be-happed be Aventure ; 864 

And the Nyht drowgh On ful faste, 
For the day it was Ny paste, 
Whiche was ful deseysy to Eualachs Men, 
But 3it Atte hardest not for then, 868 

For so Manye thei slowen And token that tyde 
Atte passage Of the 'Roche of blood ' beside, 
That of hem ne pasten not J^ere Away 
Two thousend, what hurt & hoi that day, 872 

That Tholomes men ne distroied Echon 
So J>ot tyme with Eualach the grace gan gon, 
Of wheche at the begynneng were 
Sixty Thowsend wel harneised there. 876 

And thus the Egipcian, be goddes Myht 
At theke tyme weren distroyed be fyht. 

Thanne to Orcans ward wente Eualach, — 
AUe the Egipciens to Mochel wrak, — 880 

And with him Alle his Meyne 
That At theke tyme hadde he, 

Y 2 



quant seraphes se feri entre deus, et si 

li dist: 

" Ha; sire, ke est chou, ke voles vous 

faire: Se vous aues perdu uotre se- 

nescal, 

tholomes i a perdu 

son frere 

ke 11 n'amoit mie mains 

que vous faisies." 



Ensi apaia seraphes le roi : si garan- 

di au senescal la vie. 

Mult fu grans la desconfiture autres- 
pas de la roohe. et mult i eut homes 
mors, et mult en i eut de pris. 
Mais la nuit soruint, 

qui mult fu nuisans as gens eualach. 

et nepourquant 

il en prisent tant et ochirrent: 

ke il n 'en escapa mie 

doi mile, entre naures et sains, 



et si estoient bien Ix. mile au com- 
menchement de la bataille. 

Ensi furent li egyptien 

desconfit par la virtu ihesu crist, 

si s'en tourna eualach en orcans 

entre lui et sa gent 



164 



EYALACH PITCHES HIS TENTS OUTSEDB THE CITT OP 0IIKA>'S. 



For peve nas Xon Man of Non degre 

That thorwgli tlieke bataille holpen was he, — 

Bothe duk, knyht, and bachelere, 

Alle weren Encresid that weren there, 

36, And also bothe 3om.en and page, 

For alle here lyves hadden they Gage. 

And whanne Eualach Into the Cite Entred was. 
So 3Ianie presoners he fond In that plas, 
And Of here Maistres that with hem were. 
That non Spas was to walken In there, 
Xether On hors, nethir On Foote ; 
But Owt A3en nedys he moote ; 
And afom the Cite he let pichchen Anon 
AUe his pavilouns there thanne Euerichon, 
In a fair plase that was so pleign 
To-forn that Cite tho In Certein ; 
And there al that Xiht herberwed he, 
And with him al his Mevne. 



gg4 qui taut auoient gaaignie 



888 



892 



896 



900 



qu'il ni auoit si caitif ne si feble qiii 
ne quidast a tous iours mais estre 
riches et assases de son gaaig. 

Et quant il vint a la chite : 
il le trouua si plaine de prisons 
loies de chiaus qui les gardoient, 
ke nus n' i pooit son pie tourner. 

Et il reuint hors, 

si fist tendre 

les tres et les pauillons 

parmi lapraerie, qui mult est-oit biele, 

de-hors la chite. 

Uluec se herberga, 

et il et ses gens, 



165 



CHAPTER XV. 



Of Evalach's Queen (Sarracynte) in Sarras (p. 166). Sarracynte sends for Joseph, and asks how Evalaoh 
got on; Joseph's answer (p. 166); the heathen kings, &c. are to be cast down, and the poor exalted 
(p. 167). Sarracynte cries ; she asks Joseph to pray for Evalach (p. 167-8) ; and to expound Christianity 
to her (p. 168). Sarracynte is a Christian, and tells Joseph of her Christian mother, and her father, 
who was a brute (p. 169); also, how her mother was ill of a bloody flux, and went to a good hermit, 
and asked help (p. 170), he tells her that Christ alone can cure her (p. 170); she says, ' Ask God for 
me, I will give you gold (p. 171). He says, ' Believe in Christ, and he will heal you.' She does, and 
he prays to God (p. 172); and proclaims her whole; she is; thanks God; and is baptized (p. 173) 
She takes Sarracynte to the hermit (p. 174). Sarracynte cannot worship him on account of his beard, 
but says she will worship Christ if he is fairer than her brother (p. 174). A glorious man — Christ — 
appears (p. 175); Sarracynte is christened,and the hermit tells her of Christ (p. 175). Her mother re- 
ceives the sacrament and Sarracynte too (p. 176); bothgohome,andhear of a great beast (p. 177). Sar- 
racynte's brother goes to hunt it, and is lost in the forest (p. 178). Her mother says the hermit is a true 
prophet (p. 178). They rejoice in their faith (p. 179). Her mother sends the attendants out, and tells 
Sarracynte to get a box (p. 179); Christ comes out as bread (p. 180). She charges her daughter to 
keep the box, and think on Christ (p. 180-1) ; and go and tell the hermit of her mother's death (p. 181) ; 
and get him to put bread in the box, and look at it every day (p. 182). Christ appears over the 
mother's bed (p. 183). Her mother dies, and Sarracynte goes to the hermit, who gives her Christ 
(p. 184). She goes away, and meets a man (p. 184), who tells her the hermit is dead, and asks her 
to ride back to his cell (p. 185); they go back; the man mourns ; then digs a grave (p. 186); takes the 
head of the corpse, and tells her to take the feet ; her excuse (p. 1 87) ; they bury the body. He scolds her 
servants, and then baptises them; and remains in the cell (p. 188). The end of Sarracynte's answer 
(p. 189). Josephes says, 'Why don't you worship Christ now;' she answers, ' My husband is so 
angry ; convert him ' (p. 189). She asks how her husband has sped in the battle, and Joseph tells 
her (p. 190). 

Now let VS beleven Of kyng Eualach, Or vous lairons a tant del roi eualach 

And Eirtliere Into this Mater now let vs walk, ^ prisons. 

And Of these Cristene Speke we bedene Si parierons des crestiens 

That in Sarras ben, Sixty & Eyftene, 4 qui en la ohite de sarras remesent. 



166 DESCRIPTION OP QUEEN SAURACTNTE. SHE ASKS JOSEPH ABOUT HER LORP. 



Lik As vs tellith. the Storye 

Of Eualacli's wif here Sekerlye, 

That A wondir fair womman Sche was 

And ful worschepful In Eyery plas, 8 

And ' Sarracynte ' was that qwenes Name, 

A worschepful lady, and Of Noble Fame. 

And whanne that Eualach with his Ost forth 

wente, 
So moche Mone Sche Made, sche was Ny Schente 12 
Eor Eualach, that was Most In hire Mynde 
Of al Erthly thing, and that was kynde. 
Therfore sche sente Eor losephes Anon 
To weten how that the Cause scholde gon, le 

In As mochel As that Er he seide 
' That hire lord scholde hau Abreide, [bis'} 
And ]?erto thre dayes & thre Nyhtes to be 
Vndir his Enemyes powste, 20 

And that to the Prikke of deth thorwgh Tholome 
He scholde ben browht,' — thus seyde he — 
' And 3if it scholde Ony lengere laste 
Thanne thre dayes & thre Nyhtes were a paste.' 24 
And this was the Oawse Certeinle 
That sche for losephes sente, I telle it the. 

Thanne losephes to-Eore hire Gan gon, 
And with him, his sone Ryht Anon ; 28 

Thanne she him Axed there In haste 
" Whether the lorne with hire lord were paste, 
And how he spedde In the bataille," 
Hu'e forto teUe sche preyde not Eaille. 32 

Thanne to Sarraciate spak losephes Certeinle 
" Thus sente the to seine the kyng Of Cristene be 

Me 
That Of Alle thing knoweth the begynneng 
And demen schal Atte laste Endyng 36 u iugieres 



Li contes dist et deuise, 

ke la feme eualach 

estoit vne dame mult biele, 

et mult sage, et mult hounerable, 

et si estoit apielee ' sarraquite.' 

Quant eualach fu ales en I'ost, 

si eut la dame mult grant paour 
de lui: comme 

de la riens el monde ke ele plus amoit. 
Si manda iosephe deuant li 

pour chou k'il auoit dit eualach 

' ke il serroit .iij. iours et iij. nuis 

en la signourie tholome, ke il ne dur- 
roit ia a lui tant com li troi iour et les 
trois nuis durroient. et ke tholomes le 
merroit iusch'a paour de mort.' 

Pour cheste chose 

I'enuoia la dame querre, 

et il vint, 

entre lui et ioseph son pere. Et quant 

U fa deuant li, 

si li demanda 

' ke il li desist uoir, comment ses sires 

le feroit en chele bataiUe.' 

Et iosephes respond!. 

" Sarraquite, che te mande li diex des 
crestiiens : 

li commenchemens et la fins de toutes 
choses. 



JOSEPH TELLS SARRACTNTE THAT &0D WILL HUMBLE THE KINGS OP THE EARTH. 167 



And of al this v/orld Saviour Is he 

Sekerly As I telle it the, — 

And Por as Mochel as these Erthly kynges 

Ne welen non knowen In here werkynges, 40 

Nethir Eesceyven My Creaunce, 

I schal hem sende ful hard chaunse ; 

For Into bataUle I wele hem do, 

And there here Enemyes scholen hem slo ; 44 

And here londis 3even wile I 

In to the hondes of strawngeris soth-fastly. 

Por I wele that they knowen Me 

As fore here Sonereyn lord god In Al dre, 48 

Nethir of non othir kyng to holde 

But Only Of Me In Manye Eolde ; 

Por bothe to Prowde and Ek to Eelowns, 

I schal hem sende Manie distructiouns ; 52 

Thus be my Spyrit I schal hem sende. 

And In this degre I wele hem schende ; 

And therfore the Grete I wyle down take, 

And ]>e Eeble & powre lordis wil I make ; 56 

More Over kynges flesch 30Yen schal be 

To Eowles of Haveyne, that Abowten fie 

Eorto Einden Sum Careyne, 

Thus schal it ben In Certeine. 60 

And the bodyes that Of pore Men scolen be 

Worthily I-byried In Eche degre, 

Eor the E-yhte weyes alle they knowe, ■ 

And my Comandementis they welen bowe 64 

"Wit good herte And good Entenciowun, 

This Welen they Resceyven with good devociown." 

And whanne losephes this tale hadde told, 
Sarracinte gan to Wepen Mani fold, 68 

And preyde bothe losephes & his sone 
Eor Eualach to here god to bydden som bone, 



et li sauueres de toutes. 

pour chou ke li terrien 

ne me daignaissent connoistre 

ne recheuoir. 

pour chou, 

donrai iou lor cors 

en la bataille de lor anemis, 

et si departirai lor terres 

es mains as estranges pules. 

Car ie voel ke il connoissent 

ke ie sui li souurains rois, et li urais 

diex, 

contre qui nus roiaumes ne puet estre 

tenus. 

Car ie ocH les felons et les orguilleus 

par I'esperite de ma bouche. 

Pour che, osterai iou les fors et les 
poissans des grans hauteclies et des 
grans signouries, et les febles. et les 
despis esleuera-et monterai en haut. 
Les chars des rois serront douches 
a deuourer as oisiaus qui viuent 
de proie et de rauine, 



et li cors des febles et des nonpoissans 

seront 

enseueli honerablement, 

pour chou ke il connoissent les droites 

voies, 

et recboiuent les commandemens del 

tres haut signour 

a simple cuer et a boine entension." 

Quant iosephes eut chou dit, si s'asist, 
et la dame fu mult espoentee, si com- 
mencha a plourer mult durement: 
et dist a iosephe 

' ke s'il prioit tant son dieu 



168 



SARRACTNTE ASKS JOSEPH TO PRAT FOR HER HTJSBAND'S STJCCESS. 



'That Evalach with worschepe Myhte retornen 

A3en, 
That sche with hire Eyen it Myhte Ones Sen, 72 
And forto he turned to the Ryhtful Creaunce, 
That the god Of Crystene wolde senden him swich 

chaunse.' 
" And I hope thanne Tornen wold he 
Aftir a good Man for Euere to be." 76 

Thanne losephes G-anne hire Answere 
' How there-Offen the Oerteyn knew sche there ;' 
And sche Answerid losephes Agein 
" Of that Surawunce Am I In certein." 80 

" How there-offen, dame, Sure Mihtest thow be, 
Whanne thou beleves on ymages of ston & tre ; 
Eor they mowen nethir meven ne stonde, 
Ne hem to helpen haven thei nethir leg ne 

honde, 84 

And in lesu Crist he wil not beleve, — 
How Myhtest thow thanne this preve — 
That is lord Of AUe Cristiente, 
As I schal here- After declaren to the." 88 

Thanne Axede sche bim Ryht Anon 
The pointes of Oristendom forto Ondon. 
Thanne losephes be-gan Anon forto telle 
The Oreavnse of ]?e Trenite, and Jjereof gan 

spelle ; 92 

And the qweene behelde him faste, 
And Axede ' what he hyhte ' Atte laste. 
Thanne Answerid he ' that he Cristened was 
And I-clepid losephes In that plas ; 96 

And there-Offen Is there non Man 
That Me that Name bereven kan.' 

Thanne Comanded the qweene Anon 
Alle hu-e Owne Meyne from hire to gon. loo 



ke eualach en retournast a hounour : 



ele kerroit en lui, et si feroit tant ke 
ele meteroit eualach en la creanche.' 
Et iosephes li demanda 
' comment il seroit seurs,' 
et ele dist 

' ke ele I'en feroit serement et fianche.' 
Et iosephes li respond! ' qu'il n'auoit 
cure del serement de ses ymages. 

car eles ne li pooient ne nuire ne 
aidier, ne de sa foi n' auoit il cure. 



car ele n'en auoit point, des ke ele 
ne creoit en la foi : che est en ihesu crist, 
qui est toute fois et toute creanche.' 



Et ele li demanda 

' ke che estoit, la crestiene creanche.' 

Et il li commencha a dire 

les poins de la trinite. 

et ele I'esgarda, 

si li demanda ' comment il auoit non,' 
et il li dist ' qu'il estoit 
apieles iosephes.' 

" Chertes, dist ele, iosephe, de chou 

n'est il nus 

qui m'en peust entreprendre." 

Lors commanda 

■' ke tout se traisissent arriere ' 



SARRACYNTE TELLS JOSEPH HOW HEB MOTHER AND SHE WERE CONVERTED. 169 



105 



108 



112 



116 



And anon AUe tlie poyntes of the Trenite 
To losephes sche gan to declaren Certeinly, 
So that there "Was non Clerk levynge 
That there-Inne scholdehau schewed morekonnenge; 
So ferforth that losephes Merveillen be-gan 
That so moche Wit myht ben In womman, 
And where sche hadde this konnenge Cawht, 
0]?er what Maner Of Man that it here tawht. 

Thanne answered this Qweene Agein, 
" Eul ten 3er My Modir In Certeia 
FuUiche & hoi was in this Oreaimce, — 
As I the telle losephes — with-owten variaunce, 
And 3it My Fadir there-offen Nenere wiste, 
Ne non of his lyne, thow Mihtest wel Tryste, 
Sanfe Onliche Mine Owne Modir and I ; 
I Sey the losephes fal Certeinly. 
My Modir duchesse Of Orbery was, 
As in thike tyme happed be Cas, 
Whiche that good womman was, and trewe. 
And thereto worschepfal & of good thewe ; 
My Eadyr was Crwel & dispetows 
And therto Angry & Hiht Malicious ; 
And so it behappede with-Owten Mo, 
That Oner hens sevene & twenti winter ago 
That In Owre contre An holy man there was 
In An Ermytage As god 3af him gras 
That Moche dide for goddis Sake, 
And God for him Manie MerveHles gan Make, 
And his Name ' Salnstine ' Gonne they Calle ; 
In him manie vertwes gonne there falle. 
So thanne My Modir hadde an Infirmite — 
Certeinly losephes as I telle the — 
That theke tyme xix monthes hadde holde, 
Sche was In sorwe and wo Manie folde 



120 



124 



128 



132 



et ele commencha tout maintenant 
a deuiser tous les poins de la trinite 
ausi clerement com fesist li mieudres 
clers du monde, 

tant ke iosephes se commencha a 
meruiller. 

et li demanda ' ou ele auoit chou apris.' 



Et ele dist 

" chertes, iosephe. Ma mere fu bien .x. 

ans 

en cheste creanche, et fu crestiene 

sans chou ke mes peres n' en seut 

onques riens : 

ne nus de son lignaige, 

fors iou, 

et si te dirai comment chou auint. 

Ma mere fu ducesse de orberike, 

si fu mult boine dame 

et mult hounerable. 

et mes peres fu mult fiers et mult 

crueus. 

Ore auint chose 

bien a .xxvij. ans 

ke en notre pais auoit .i. boin home 
en vn hermitage, mult saint home et 
mult religieus, 

pour qui diex faisoit mult grant 
miracles, et maintes bieles virtus. 
Chil boins homestoit apieles 'salustes,' 

et ma mere auoit vne enfermete ke 
nus ne suefFre se feme non. 

Chilmaus r auoit bien tenue xix.mois. 



170 



SARRACTNTE S MOTHER GOES TO THE HERMIT TO BE CURED. 



That hire Colowr & blood was Al ago, 

So ful sche was Of peyne and wo, 136 

And alle hire Membres weren wasted eke. 

And Ipevto sche was ful feble & syke. 

So herde sche tellen of this good Man 
What MerveiUes that God wrowht In him 

than, 140 

And thowhte with him sche wolde Gon speke 
And somwhat Of hire herte to him breke, 
To tellen him Of hire Infirmite, 
3if Ony Socour there-offen Mihte be ; 144 

Eor sonnere sche hopede to ben ded 
Thanne to live to-tornen In that sted. 

Whanne jjat to-fore this good man sche gan 
to gon, 
Down On hire knees sche Pyl Anon, 148 

And there down sche fil to his feet 
And preide him of socour al so skeet. 
Tho this good Man on here there loked faste 
And Seide, "O womman, womman, Atte laste 152 
Wherto Of helpe Axest thow Me 
That hast swich An Inflrmyte ? 
Certes thou art," quod this good Man, 
" Dedlich and )jerto sinful womman, 156 

And I dedlich Am Also 
And therto Sinful withowten Mo ; 
For seker I non power no have 
Nethir Man ne womman for to save, leo 

But Onliche it is Crist & God Above 
That hem doth Save that him welen love." 

Thanne Answerid my modir •' Certeinle, 
Good sire, so preye thy lord for me 164 

That he wolde taken Me to his grace 
And helthe to sende me In this place." 



tant ke ele auoit tout perdu la coulour 

et la forche de tous les menbres. 

Et quant ele oi parler 

des miracles ke notre sires faisoit par 
les mains de chel boin home : 

si se pensa ke ele iroit a lui parler, 

sauoir, se ele i porroit, nul consel de 

s' enfermete, 

qui si estoit grans ke ele en quidoit 

mieus morir 

ke escaper. 

Et quant ele vint deuant le boin home, 

si li chai as pies, et si cria merchi, 
enplourant ke il eust merchi de la 
grant angoisse ke ele soustenoit. 

Et il le regarda, 

et si li dist. " Feme, 

ke me demandes tu 

de t' enfermete. 

Chertes tu i es 

morteus feme, et percheresse, 

et ie sui vns hom morteus 

et pechieres. 

Ne ie n' ai pooir 

de douner sante a home ne a feme. 

Mais ihesu cris mes sires, li uraisdiex, 

le doune a chiaus qui lui plaist. 

Et ele li dist emplorant. 

" biaus dous sire, pries votre signour 

ke il me regart en pite. 



SHE OFFERS HIM MONET,- &, ON HIS REFUSING IT, AGREES TO BELIEVE IN CHRIST. l7l 



Thus thanne scheide sche in alle thing 

To this goode man ful sore weeping, 168 

" For I hope thi God ne wile not werne pe 

Ony thing that thow axest Certeinle." 

" Dame, til to Morwe this may not be, 

Certeinli I telle it the." 172 

" Sire, thanne schal I Comen Agein 

And tresowr I-nowh to bringen certein, 

3if that he me now helpen wolde, 

Tresowr I-nowh of siluer & golde." 176 

Thanne answerid this good man tho 

" Of thin Tresowr wile he non, Lo, 

But Only of trewe herte Repentance, 

And stedfast beleve & ful Creaunce." i80 

And tho spake sche with good semblawnt 
To him that was goddis seriawnt, 
" What thing On Erthe thow bidde me do, 
I schal it fulflUe for peyne other wo 184 

And he wele me helpen Of this Maledye 
That doth me now so gret Anoye." 
Thanne Answerid this goodman agein, 
" And thow wUt fuUiche beleven certein iss 

In Jesu Crist, that verray lord, 
I schal behoten the hele at on word ; 
Er that thow Owt of this plase wende 
Thow schalt ben helid with-owten Ende." 192 

Thanne to his feet sche knelid A-down 
And hem kiste with good devociown, 
" Sire ! 3if that hele he wel me sende, 
On him wile I beleven with-Owten Ende." 195 

Thanne seide to hire this good Man 
" 3if stedfastli wilt Jjou beleve," quod he ]?an, 
" Anon Eiht helyd schalt thow be 
Of thin maladie Certeinle ; 200 

z2 



et ie sai de uoir k' il ne vous escon- 
dira mie." 

Et li boins horn li dist. " Dame, on 

ne doit mie venir au mire wide main.. 

quant on demande garison." 

Et ele li dist. " Sire, ie ne sui mie 

wide main venue. 

Car ie aport auoec moi grant tresor, 

ke ie laisserai a uotre dieu 

se il me garist. 

Et il li respondi 

" de tout Ie tresor n' a diex ke faire : 

se il n' a Ie cuer ensamble. Car nus 
sacrifisoes ne li plaist autant comme 
fait uraie repentanohe de boin cuer." 
Et ele li dist 

" Sergans ihesu crist: 

il n' est nule riens en chest monde : se 

vous Ie me commandes, 

ke ie ne fache par couuent ke il 

garisce de cheste grant dolour." 



Et il li respondi 

" Se tu uoloies croire 

en ihesu crist Ie urai dieu. 

Ie te prometeroie 

qu' il te donroit garison anohois que 
tu te remuasses." 

Et ele li courut au pie, 

si li baisa, et si li dist. 

" Sire, se il sante m' enuoit: 
uoirement Ie kerroie iou a tous les 
iours ke ie viueroie." 
Et li boins horn li dist 

" Par foi, se tu crois ke il soit urais diex, 
tu gariras orendroit, 



172 



THE HERMIT CTJKES SABRACTNTE S MOTHER OF HER ISSUE OF BLOOD. 



208 



212 



For hele Is there non so sone 

As in god beleve, hos wil it done." 

Thanne seide my modir Anon Ageyn, 

" Sire! I beleve it fully In Certein 204 

That Onliclie verray God is he 

That me schal helpen of myn Infirmite." 

And Anon this Goode man took 
In his hond Anon A litel book, 
And there-vppon ful faste gan Rede 
In A Corner al be him Selve, 
There preide he God and th'aposteUs twelve 
' That god wolde sende his mercy and Grase 
To that Synful womman In that plase, 
And to Ceveren here of that Maladye 
That xviii 3er contenwelye 
Here hadde holden In that degre, — 
Goode lord ]?at koverid myhte sche now be.' 

And whanne his preyere thus hadde he 
do, 
Anon to My Modir he Cam sone tho, 220 

Thus Seyenge to hire, " Aryse vp here 
Al so hoi As Evere thow Er were. 
In the Name of the Eadir, Sone, & holigost 
Wiche that Is of Myhtes Evere Most !" 224 

Thanne felte My Moder there Anon 
That As hoi sche was In flesch and bon 
As Evere Ony tyme sche was before 
Sethen sche was of hu'e Modir I-bore, 228 

And the strengthe of hire Membres Anon 
Sche hadde A3en there tho Everichon. 

Anon whanne sche felte this riht tho, 
That helthe A3en was Comen hire to, 232 

" Now May I sen," sche seide, " verrailly, 
That thi lord Is Strong & ful Myhti 



car nule chose n'est greueuse a chiaus 
ki bien croient." 



" Sire," dist ele, " ie le croi 

comme urai dieu 

qiii est poissans de moi ieter hors de 
cheste enfermete." 
' Et li boins bom prist 

vn liure, 

si li lut, si com il nous conta puis, 
I'ewangile illuec endroit ou ibesu oris 
gari la feme qui 



216 xviij. ans auoit este malade de 

cbele enfermete meisme. 

Et maintenant qu'il Tot leue. 



et il li dist, " beue sus 

el non du pere, et du fil, et du saint 
esperit." 

Si senti ma dame 

ke ele estoit ausi saine 

com ele auoit 

onques plus este. 

Et si eut tantost recouuree la forche 
du cors et de tous les menbres. 

Et quant ele se senti 

ensi garie, 

si dist, " Ha, sire, ore uoi iou bien 

ke on ne doit nului croire fors chestui 



HE BAPTISES HEE, AND SHE TAKES SABKACYNTE TO HIM. 



173 



That me hath helyd of My gret Maladye. 

For it hath me Cost Certeinlye 236 

More thanne xv thowsend besaun3, 

This Maladie wit-Owten variauii}, 

& 3it neure be non Of hem hele myhte I have ; 

But ]jou, blessed lord, now dost me Save." 240 

Thanne seide to hire this Good man Anon, 
" Baptesme to Besceiuen Er 30 hens now gon." 
And thanne sche Axede him ful sone, 
* What that baptesme Mihte done.' 244 

And hire Answered Sone Agein, 
" It Is thyn hoi Savacioun In Certein." 
Thanne Answerid sche with good wille 
" I wUe it Resceyven bothe Mekly & stille." 248 
Thanne the Goode Man hire Cristened Anon there 
In his Name that was of Most powere, 
Whiche Is Padir and sone And holy gost, 
On God and thre persones Of Myhtis Most ; 252 
And thus My Modyr there he- Cristened anon. 

Thanne Owt Of the Ohambre sche com gon 
There As I Abod with-Owten the dore, 
And Al Owre Meyne In the More ; 256 

So my Modir took me be the bond, 
And with hire to gon I myhte not withstond, 
And thus me to-forn the good man browhte 
That I ne wiste what I seyn Mowhte ; 260 

" My swete dowghter. Com now hider to Me, 
Now koverid I am Of Myn Infirmite, 
perfore swete dowhter I wolde that Jjou wost don 
As I schal the here Comaunden Anon." 264 

Thanne Answerid I with herte qwakynge 
" Modir, I wele don AUe 30wre biddinge ;" 
So that I hadde gret wondir tho 
What my Modir wolde with me do. ' 268 



dieu qm m'a garie de ma grant angoisse . 
Car ie ai doune a mires 
plus de .X. mile besans 

puis ke chis maus me prist. 

ne onques nus d'aus ne peut garison 
doner. Chestui croi iou, et kerrai tous 
les iours de ma uie." 

Lors li dist li boins hom 
' ke il conuenoit ke ele recheust bap- 
tesme.' 
Et ele li demanda 

' kebaptesmes estoit:' 

et il li dist 

' ke che estoit li sauuemens de crestiens. 

et ele li dist 

'ke dontle recbeueroit ele uolentiers,' 

et li boins home le baptisa 

el non 

du pere et du fil et du saint esperit. 



Et quant il eut baptisie, si me vint 

ma dame . 

querre de hors la maisonnete ou iou 

I'atendoie, 

et chU qui auoec li estoient venu. 

Si me prist par la main, 

et si me mena deuant Termite. Et 

quant ie fui deuant lui, si me dist ma 

dame. 

" Biele douche fille, 

ie sui toute garie, 
et ie voel ke tu faches 
chou ke ie te commanderai." 
Et ie respoadi tout en tramblant 
' ke ie feroie tout son plaisir.' 
Si m'esmeruillai mult 
ke ele voloit faire de moi. 



174 



SABRACTNTE CAN T BELIEVE IN THE HERMIT BECAUSE OF HIS BEAE.D. 



" Faixe swete dowghter, I wolde that 3e 

Wolde worscliepeii him that myn Infirmite 

Me hoi hath Mad, and taken clene Away ; 

So, swete dowghter, so worschepe Jjat man ]?is day." 

And I wende sche hadde ment that Old Man, 273 

And therfore I ne dorste not sekerly than ; 

And My Modir Axede me " wherfore ?" 

" Por Certein he hath Along herd, and an hore ; 276 

And Euere whanne I lokede vppon his herd, 

Sekir, Modir, I scholde ben A-ferd." 

Thanne Anon lowgh this good Old Man 
For that I Seyde of him than, 280 

" Nay, faire dowghter, it nam not I 
That thi Modir Speketh of trewely ; 
But Ano]?er it Is, that is ful Of Bewte 
And Of Alle goodnesse In Eche degre." 284 

And I axed him, " where that he was, 
3if I myht Owht sen him In this plas ; 
And, 3if he fairere thanne my bro)jer be, 
Him I wele loven In Alle degre ; 288 

Eor my brothir, so fair he is. 
That of bewte hath he non pere I-wis." 

And whanne to him thus hadde I told, 
To speken to Me he was ful bold. 292 

" With-Inne A litel while here schal thou Se 
Him of whom Jiat I speke to the, 
Whiche is Eairere thanne thi brothir Is 
In alle degres, and In More blis 296 

Ojier thanne thy brothir Euere thow sye, 
Owther Euere thow schalt with thin Eye." 
And Anon As this word hadde he Seid, 
A wondir Clerte to-forn me was leyd 300 

Sodeynly there In that Chapel ; 
Many wondirful swetnesse Aforn me fyl. 



Et ele me dist " biele fille, ie voel ke tu 
croies chelui qui m'a garie.'' 



Et iou, qui enchore estoit enfes et 
fole : cuidai ke ele dist del boin home, 
si dis a ma dame ' ke ie n'oseroie.' 

Et ele me demanda " pour quoi." 

et ie U dis, " pour cliou qu'il auoit trop 
grant barbe." 



Et H boins hom commencha a rire 

de chou ke i'auoie dit de lui, et si me 

dist. 

" Biele fille, che ne sui iou mie. 

anchois est vns autres qui est plains 
de toutes biautes. 
et de toutes ioies.'' 

Et ie li demandai ' ou il estoit, 

et ke il Ie me moustrast. 

et, se il estoit plus biaus de mon frere, 
ie Ie kerroie.' 

Ichil miens freres, de qui ie dis, estoit 

tant biaus 

ke ie ne quidoie mie ke nule si biele 

figure peust estre faite. 

Et tantost com ie oi che dit, 

si me respondi li hermites. 

" Biele fiUe, par tans verras, ou 

chelui de qui ie t'ai tant dit, 

qui tant est biaus, ou ton frere. 



et Ie quel ke tu uoies auant, 

ia puis I'autre ne verras." 

Et tantost com il eut chou dit. 

si vint vne mult grant clartes 

hors de la capiele. 

Si fu auis ke toutes les boines odeurs 



CHRIST APPEARS TO SARRACYNTE, AND SHE IS BAPTISED. 



175 



And the hows So ful there-Offen was, 

And therto swich delicasie In that plas. 304 

Amyddis J>at liht & swetnesse per gan forth gon 
The fairest Creature Of flesch & bon — 
The Clerest and the fairest persone 
That Evere Ony erthly Eye myhte loken vppone. 308 
This Man gan holden In his Hyht hond 
The signe Of a red Cros, I vndirstond, 
And hothe his Eyen Me thowte ferden there 
Al so cleer hrennenge As Ony fere. 312 

And thus A whille Stood he thore ; 
Where-Oflfen I was Ahasched wel sore, 
Of the wondris that I on him gan beholde ; 
Wherfore myn herte wax wondir Colde, 316 

For on him non More than Mihte I loke 
So that for drede myn herte qwoke, 
But to the Erthe I fil plat A-down 
As thowh I hadde ben In a swon ; 320 

Thanne the Ermyt took me be pe honde 
And Made me vp be him stonde; 
Of wheche Sihte hadde I gret merveilleng ; 
Andsauf my Modirand th'ermit Saw I non thing. 324 

Thanne this good man Seide to Me, 
"' Now, my faire dowhter, how thinketh the ; " 
And thanne I Answerid so Ageyn 
"This Mannes Oreaunce I wele receyven fayn." 328 
And Anon there he Cristenede Me 
In the hole Name of the Trenite ; 
So ]?at Aftir he told vs, but not be-forn, 
' How Jjat lesus Crist was Conceyved and born 332 
Of An holy virgine, Modir & Maide, 
As be Old tyme the prophetis saide. 
And how J^at on pe Cros he gan to dye, 
Man to beien from endles felonye ; 336 



ke on porroit nomer debouche fuissent 
espandues laiens. 

Apres vint hors de la capiele 

vne figure d'ome, 

si tres biele et si tres clere, 

ke il ne sont en chest monde nul oel 

si agu qui parfitement le peussent es- 

garder. 

Chil horn tenoit en sa main destre 

vne chose ke li hermites apieloit ' crois,' 
si estoit toute vermelle, et si doi oel 
ietoient deus rais autresi vermaus com 
est carbons embrases. 

Et quant il fu venus hors, si s'arestut, 

et ie fui si esbahi 

de la grant meruelle de lui 

ke ie ne peuch plus esgarder vers lui. 

anchois m'enclinai vers terre 
ausi comme pasmee. 

Et quant ie euch vne grant pieche 
este ensi, si me prist li hermites par 
Ie menton, et me drecha en haut, 
et ie regardai, si ne vi nule chose for^ 
ke lui et ma mere. 

Et li boins hom me dist, 

" Biele fille, ke vous en samble''. 

Et ie respondi tantost par la volente 

de dieu: 

' ke de chestui recheueroie iovi uo- 

lentiers la creanche.' 

Et il me baptisa maintenant 

el non de la sainte trinite. 

Apres nous ensigna la creanche, 

comment ihesu oris auoit este con- 

cheus et nes 

de la virge, sans son puchelage en- 

fraindre, 

et comment il auoit souffert mort 

pour le monde rachater des perdura- 
bles dolours. 



176 



THE HERMIT GIVES THE SACRAMENT TO SARRACTNTE AND HER MOTHER. 



And how ]>g thridde day he Ros Ageyne 
And deliuered his frendis from Endeles peyne, 
Thanne Aftir with the xlthe day 
Streyht to hevene he Wente his way ; 
And the xj day Aftir, with-Owten fantem, 
He sente to his dissiples, Into lerusalem, 
His holy gost. Anon there Right, 
In Hknesse of flawmes of fir so briht ; 
& told hem Also how that they scholde 
His bodi sacren to 3ong and Olde, 
As he hem tawhte At his sene 
Tho alle his apostelis weren Clene 
The Niht to-fore he suffirede passiown;' 
And thus tolde vs th' ermyt al & som. 

Thanne Whanne this to vs hadde he told, 
To that Awter he wente ful bold. 
And there made he J^at holy Sacrament 
"With hy devocioun and good Entent ; 
And to my Modir there it tho took, 
And sche it Resceyvede, & not forsook. 
Thanne After to me he Cam Anon, 
And In My Mowth he wold hau it don; 
Thanne thus to me he gan to seyn. 
' That I scholde beleven Certein, 
That theke same body it was 
The wheche In the virgine took his plas.' 
Where that thanne I taried Anon Ryht, 
That to beleven hadde I non Myht ; 
So thanne thowhte me anon In my siht. 
That it was theke Selve Faire Wyht 
Wheche In the Chapel I sawgh to-fore 
That I was off en Abascht ful sore. 
Thanne seide I to him Anon there 
" Sire, I beleve As thow seidest Ere." 



340 



et comment il resuscita au tierch iour, 

et ieta ses amis d'iiifier. 

et comment il monta el chiel, au chief 
.de .xl. ioxas apres, 

et comment il enuoia, a Tonsime ior 

apres, 

son esperit a ses desciples en ilieru- 

salem. 



et comment il leur ensigna 
son cors a sacrer, 



348 le iour deuant chou qu'il fust cruce- 
fiies, la on il mangoit auoec axis. 



3U 



362 



356 



360 



364 



368 



Et quant il nous eut toutes ches 
choses ensignies. 

Si fist deuant nous ichel saint saore- 
ment, 

et si en douna a ma mere, 



et puis a moi. 

Et quant il me mist en la bouche, 
et il me dist 

' lie ie creisse 

ke che estoit. Icliil cors 

qui en la virge auoit este herbergies.' 

Si en fui en doutanche, si tardai au 
respondre. 

Et tantost me fii auis 

ke cb' estoit icbele figure 

ke ia auoie veue issir de la capiele, 

si li dis tantost 

' ke ie le creoie bien comme cbele 
qui tout apiertement le veoie.' 



SAERACTNTE AND HBE MOTHER RETURN TO THEIR CITY, ORBERY. 



177 



So that from him we departed Anon 

Homward In Oure weye forto gon. 373 

Thanne charged he vs In Alle wise 

' That We scholde don non More Sacrifise, 

To jjese fals ynaages of tre ne ston 

Be no weye Sacrifise Make 3e non.' 376 

And thanne we answerid him Ageyn 

' That On God wolde we beleven Certeyn, 

And comfort & loye of him to have, 

And that at Oure Endeng he wele vs save.' 380 

In this Maner Perst of lesu Cristes lawe 

Thus lerned we, & there-Oflfen weren fawe. 

And whanne that we werern comen to Orbery, 
Thanne herden we A wondir Noise, & a gret Cry, 384 
Of A savage wilde beste 
That was broken Owt of a foreste ; 
And al tlie Contre it gan to chase 
It forto distroyen In som plase ; 388 

Eor it was so dyvers A beste of kynde, 
That ]?ere hadde non Man wit ne Mynde 
To tellen what thike beste was 
That they Chaeed In theke plas ; 392 

Eor that beste was so dispetous, 
So feers & so Angwischous, 
That he distroiede theke Contre, 
An Ete schepe & Children In Eche degre ; 396 

Men and hors he gan to distroye, 
And to womman with Childe he dyde gret anoye. 

Thesame tyme]?atwe from Jiisgoodmangonnegon, 
Theke tyme fel this Chawnce Anon, 400 

That the peple Gonnen to gederen faste, 
And my brothir in that pres forth paste. 
That so fair and so hardy he was, — 
With hem he forth wente In that plas, 404 

2 A 



A tant nous en partinies. 



Si nous chastia mult durement 

' ke nous ne retornissons a la ore- 
anche des jmages.' Car il ni auoit 
se destruisement non. Et si nous dist 
' ke bien seussons nous ke diex ne nous 
oblieroit mie. anchois. ne nous ou- 
blieroit mie. anchois nous enuoie- 
roit confort prochainement. et si en^ 
uoierent la haute renoumee de son 
non par leg lontaignes terres dont il 
vauroit le pule a traire a sa sainte 
creanche.' 

Ensi nous enseigna la loy ihesu crist 
a tenir, si presimes congie de lui. 

Et quant nous fiimes venues a orberike, 
si oimes mijlt grant oris, et grans hus 
d'une beste saluage, 
qui estoit el pais, 

ke_ les gens auoient apparellie a ca- 
chier. 

Chela beste si estoit si diuerse 

ke nus, tant durement I'auisast, ne 

sauoit a dire de quel maniero ele estoit. 

Mais tant estoit 

fiere et crueuse 

ke ele dewastoit tout le pais. Ele de- 

peoheoit les bles en herbe Ele ochioit 

les homes as carues. Ele pecheoit 

les maisons. Ele traioit les petis 

enfans des biers. 

Ele efFondroit les femes epchaintes 

quant eles les trouuoit seules. 

Ichel iour ke nous repairames del 

boin home, si auint chose 

ke les gens I'eurent acoillie, 

et mes freres, 

qui tant estoit biaus et hardis, 

le cachoit tons premiers 



178 sarracynte's bkother is lost while huntixg a savage beast. 



416 



And A good hors there he be-strod, 

And wel Armed he was, & non lengere Abod,— 

As behoved A 30ng knyht Eorto were, 

Eor a litel to-fore knyht was he mad |5ere, — 408 

Eor there dorste non Man that beste Chase, 

But he were Armed In that plase ; 

For the beste was wondirful In that stede, 

For thre homes hadde [he] In his hede 412 

That so trenchaunt An scharpe were, 

Scharpere than swerd, knyf, Olper spere, — 

For they woklen perschen bothe Irne & steel 

Thow it were wrowht neuere so wel, — 

Wheche beste mi brother gan to chase 

Aforn alle the men ])at weren In that plase. 

So that In tweyne plases he it smot 

"With a scharpe swerd that wel hot ; 

And fowre hors he slowgh vndir hym 

The beste, it was so spetous & grym. 

And whanne this beste chased was so sore. 

To the Forest he wente Alle hem before 424 

As it was sekerely thus Me told, — 

For I was not there it to behold, — 

And my brothir Aftir him prekede faste. 

To the Forest he Entrede atte laste : 428 

And sethen that to the Forest he wente. 

And Folewede the beste there presente, 

Sethen was there neuere Man ne womman 

That of him Ony tidinges tellen kan, 432 

Xe Neuere Sethen In to this day 

We ne herden neuere Of him tydinges In fay. 

Thanne seide my Modir Anon to ]\Ie 
" Behold, dowhter, here now & se 436 

How that ]>e Ermyt, this holy ]Man, 
That schal befallen, tellen he Can " 



sour .j. mult boin cheual. 
et si estoit armes de toutes armes 
comme chil qui nouielement estoit 
deuenus chiualers. 

Ne nus horn qui armes ne fust: 
n'osast pas, ne ne peust, la beste 
enuair. 

Car ele auoit en mi sen front trois 

comes, 

si agues et si trenchans 



ke nule armure, qui bien en fust coi- 
sie, ne pooit encontre durer. 

Ensi le caclioit mes freres 

deuant tous les autres. 

Si I'auoit ia en deus lieus nauree 

420 d' un espial ke il tenoit. 

et ele li auoit ia ochis .iij. cheuaus 
desous lui 

ensi com ele li gnencliisoit a le fie. 
Taut li guenchi 



ensi Com le me dist, — 

car ie ue le vi mie, — 

ke ele ni osa plus demourer, anchois 
s' en tourna fuiant, tout droit a vne 
forest qui estoit illuec pres. Et mes 
freres hurta apres des esperons si tost 
comme li cheuaus li pent aler, si se 
feri en la forest apres la beste. 

Ne onques puis ke il eut dedens la 
forest mis le pie : ne fu ne ons ne feme 
qui de lui nous seust dire ensenges. 
ne onques puis ne le veismes ne ne 
seusmes chertainement ne de sa mort 
lie de sa vie. 

Ensi apercheusmes entre moi et ma 
mere ke li hermites estoit sains hom 
et priues de ihesu crist. quant il auoit 
fait sage et chertain des choses qui 
estoient a auenir. 



HER MOTHER TELLS HER TO PETCH HER THE SACRAMENTAL BOX. 



179 



So that I held him with Crist preve, 

For that he Seide I scholde neuere se 440 

My brothir, as it fil be Cas, 

So fair as him as in the Chapel was ; 

And therefore ful soth seide he, 

For aftir that day I mihte him neuere se. 444 

And we so with Cristes passioun enspired were, 

That Al his deth forgot en we there 

For the grete joye, and Owre Creawnce 

That we hadde Rescyved to his plesaunce ; 448 

Whiche Creaunce my Modir kepte ful wel, 

And neuere aspied was non del 

Into the day and tyme Of hire deth 

That sche scholde dyen & 3even vppe the breth. 452 

Thanne comaunded sche there Ryht Anon 
That alle the peple owt of ])e chambre schold gon 
Sauf Onliche alone Sche and I, — 
This was hire Comandement trewly. 456 

And whanne they weren al owte I-gon, 
Sche bad me Schette the dore Anon ; 
And whanne to hire that I was Comen A.gein, 
Thanne seide sche to me In Certein 460 

' That owt of this world that Nyht schold sche go ;' 
Thus sche me tolde with-Owten Mo, 
" Now, faire dowhter, go 30 now Into the wones 
There As lyn Alle myn precious stones, 464 

And Also A whit Booyst and A Hyng, 
And that loke 30 bringen me Ouer alle thyng." 
Whanne that this to hire I hadde I-browht, 
Thanne vppe sche hire dressid as sche Mowht, 468 
And on hire knees sche dressid hire down 
To-forn hire bed In Orisown, 
And there gan sche to wepen ful sore 
In Sighenges and bunching Onbrestwel more. 472 

2 a2 



Pour chou qu' il m' auoit dit ke se 

ueoie auant cbelui qui m' auoit promis 

a moustrer. le ne verroie ia puis mon 

frere. 

et il dist voir. 

Car onques puis ke il m' eut cheste 

parole dite, ne vi mon frere. 

Et tant nous auoit espiree 1' amours 

ihesu crist entre moi et ma mere. 

ke nous ne fesimes onques duel de lui, 

tant auiemts grant ioie 

de chou que nous auiemes recheu la 

sainte creanche 

En cheste sainte creanche demoura 

ma mere tant com ele fu en vie. ne 

onques puis la grasce dieu ne repaira 

a la roy des mesorans. Et si li douna 

li glorieus fiex dieu si bit-le grasce ke 

ele n' en fii onques apercheue. 

Et quant vint au iour ke ele dut departir 
de chest siecle, si commanda ' ke tout 
chil ki estoient en la chambre ou ele 
gisoit, s' en issisent hors, et toutes clieles 
qui i estoient, fors moi seulement'. 

Quant tout et toutes furent issu hors, 
si me commanda 1' uis a fremer. 

Et quant ie fui reuenue deuant li, 

si me dist. 

" Biele fille, ie sai de uoir ke ie de- 
partirai enchore a nuit du siecle. 

Ore, ales, biele douche fille, a mon 

esorin, 

la u mes pierres precieuses sont, 

et mi aniel, et mi autre ioiel, 

et si m' aportes vne blanche Isoiste ke 

vous i trouueres. 

Je fis ensi com ele me commanda, et 

quant ie 1' oi aportee deuant son lit, 

si se dreoha encontre, ensi com ele pot, 

tant ke ele fu en son lit a genous. 

Et lors si conimencha mult durement 
a souspirer du cuer, et a plourer des 
iex de la teste, et batoit son pis de 
son poing, mult angoisseusement. 



180 



sarracyntb's mother receives her last sacramext. 



And whanne in this Contenaunce long hadde 

sclie be, 
Aftir the boist AnOn Sche Axede Of Me ; 
Thanne axede sche water to hire bond, 
Hem to waschen, As I Cowde vndirstonde. 476 

And whanne hire hondis I-waschen were, 
The boist Anon sche Opened there ; 
Owt of that boist there Isswed Anon 
Owr holy Saviour bothe In flesche and bon, 4&0 
In forme of bred there In hire Syht, — 
For so was the wil of god Almyht, — 
And with Manie teres and sore sighenge 
There Resceived sche that holy thinge. 484 

And whanne that thus hadde sche doon, 
Thanne seide sche to Me Anon, 
" Now that I have Resceived my Saviour 
I am sekir Erom Alle deseises & dolour — 488 

Prom the devel and Alle My Pon — 
And I am seker to hevenn to gon, 
Eor I have Hesceived of Alle Sicknesee Ipe boote 
And helthe of alle Angwiesch bo]?e Crop & Roote. 492 
Lo ! dowhter, this boist kepen thow schal 
In a ful preve plas with-al, 
And that it Come In non Mannes bond 
But In thin, I do the to vndirstond. 496 

Eor this that I have Resceyved here, 
Is Oure Saviour here & elles where ; 
Eor On God In thre persones it is. 
And thre persones In on God I-wis ; 500 

And loke 30 that this 36 kepen riht wel. 
And loke 30 |?at 36 wraththen ]?at God neuere 

A del, 
Loke that 30 taken this holy In E,emembraunse, 
And thinketh Algate vppon this Chaunse ; 504 



Et quant eut este hien longliement de 
cheste contenanche, 

si me commanda ]a boiste mettre ius, 

et dist ' ke ie li aportais de li ane 

poui- lauer ses mains.' 

Et quant ele eut laue ses mains, 

si prist la boiste, et si I' ouuri, 

et si en traist 

notre sauueour hors, 

en samblanelie de pain, 

et si le rechut a grant compaignie de 
souspirs et de larmes. 

Et quant ele 1' eut recheu, 

si dist 

' ke ore estoit ele toute seure, ne ne 

doutoit mais 

le dyable, ne taut ne quant, 

puis ke ele auoit recheu la saute de 

tons les malages, 

et la defFension de tous les agais et de 

tous les assaus d' anemi.' 

Apres me dist; " bie!e douche fiUe, ie 

vous lais, si vous met en la garde de 

chelui de qui nus ne puet estre de- 

guerpis qui a lui se voelle tenir. 

Biele fille, ch'est ohil de qui vous aues 
pieoha recheu la sainte loy. Or, si 
gardes ke vous la maintenes ensi com 
eles vous fu encarchie. Gardes ke vous 
ne repairies en F anchiene desloiaute. 
aoures vn seul dieu. en. iij. persones 
en .i. seul dieu. Gardes, vous en t(mtes 
les manieres dont nature se puet 
soufFrir et consirer de dame dieu 
courechier. Soies aparillie et aban- 
donee a ses commandemens acomplir. 



SHE CHARGES HER DAUGHTER TO GO TO THE HERMIT. 



181 



Thenke 30 how he Cam Into this word, 

And In Mannes kende here dweld he his owne 

Accord, 
And alle thing suffrede as dyde Man, — 
Sauf Only Of synne neuere knewe he ]?an, 508 

Where-offen that he was Evere klene 
& neuere ]?erwith spottid, with-Owten wene. 
Loke that 3e have Euere this In Mynde, 
How good that lord was & how kynde, 512 

That for vs he suffrede ded, 
Mannes sowle to beren from \)e qwed ; 
And loke that Al this In Memorie 30 haue 
In 30wre herte, and 36 will be save, 516 

And that Every day In 30wre compenie be. 
Now, goode swete dowhter, so thinketh on me, 
Eor, sethen that I Crestened was, 
Everiday I him worschepid In this plas, 520 

& Euery day in my Compenie mi saviour I 

hadde, 
Therwhilles was I of non man A-dradde ; 
But, swete dowhter, this wot I wel. 
That here-offen knew 36 nevere a del ; 524 

Eor I it kepte In previte, — 
The Cawse why I schal telle J?e, — 
Eor 3if thow haddest deid In -this worldrl 
Thow schost it hau Hescy ved trewly ; 528 

But sethen I deien schal to Eorn the, 
I have it Resceyed, as thow myht se 

And therfore. Anon As I am ded. 
To the holy man ]70u go. Into that sted 532 

"Where we resceyed Oure holy Creaunce, 
And teileth him of al this chavnce, 
And preieth that holy blessid Man 
My sowle In comendacion to haven than, 536 



Tous iours aies en votre ramenbranolie 

comment il daigna naistre de ferae, 

et conuerser entrel' ordure del desloial 

siecle pecheour, 

et comment il vaut esprouer et soustenir 

toutes icheles choses qui a humaine 

nature apartenoient, 

fors ke pechie tant seulement. 

dent il fu tous iours quites et nes 



Et ichele grans deboinaretes nous doit toutes 
cures estre deuant les iex, 
ke il fist quant il soufFri la grant angoisse 
merueilleuse des mains et des pies ke il eut 
tresparchies par sa propre uolente, 
pour aquiter et pourieter des paines d' infer 
chiaus et cheles qui a la sieue sainte partie se 
vauront tenir. 

Toutes ches choses deues vous amener a 
memuire dedens uotre cuer, biele tres douche 
fiUe. Car la si haute ramenbranche vous 
uenra; Laperderes vous tout corage et toute 
volente de pechie faire. Des ore-mais voel, 
et si le vous commant, ke vous seizes toutes 
cures garnie de votre sauueour, et ke vous 
r aies tous iours en votre compaignie ; autresi 
com iou 1* ai eu auoec moi puis ichele cure ke ie 
recheu sa saint creanche. Car onques puis ke 
entre moi et vous recheumes le baptesme de 
ihesu crist par la main du saint home. 
Ne fu eure ke ie n' eusse en ma compaignie 
le cors de chelui qui pour nous daigna le sien 
cors liurer a tourment. Ichelui cors ai iou 
toutes voles do la en cha. ne onques puis, dieu 
merehi, ne fu nus iours keie ne T'eusse. la 
soit che chose ke ie n* en fuisse mie digne. 

Et ne-pour-quant, biele fille, vous n'el 
seustes onques mais ke ie le gar- 
daisse. Car ne le vous voloie moustrer 
pour cliou ke trop i auoit il grant 
pechie de moi qui le veoie. 
Et si le gardoie pour chou se voUs 
trespassissies de chest siecle, anchois 
ke iou ie le vous baillaisse a vser. 
Et se ie trespassaisse ains ke vous, ie 
le recheusse ensi com vous aues veu 
ke ie 1' ai fait. 

Biele fille chiere, ie vous lais ore, si 
vous pri et commant 
' ke vous ales, tout maintenant ke ie 
serai morte, au saint home de qui 
nous recheumes la sainte creanche. 
et si li dites, 

qu' il soit pourpenses de ramenteuoir 
en ses prieres 1' ame de cheste peche- 
resse. 



182 



SARRACTNTE IS TO GET THE SACRAMENTAL BREAD FROM THE HERMIT. 



That Only Goddis Seriawnt Is, 

Por me to preyen to the kyng [of] blis. 

And, swete dowhter, thow to him go, 

And for ony thing that thow this do 540 

loke that 36 taken of him 30iire saviour 

That 30W schal saven in Everi stour, 

So that Owt of this world nenere 36 passe 

But 30 him hau to-forn 30wre fase, 544 

To Resceiuen 30ure evere-lasting savement ; 

For I wot wel }?at he wele with good Entent 

30W it taken In this degre. 

And 3e it him Axen for Charite. 548 

And whanne that to 30W he hath it take, 
Loke 36 that An Onest place ]7erfore 30 make 
30wre Saviour to kepen Inne deyntele, 
In a worschepful place & a preve, 552 

So that from alle leveng creature 
3e mown it kepen bothe saufe & sure ; 
And this wite hoist take with the, — 
Eor he him seK 3af it to Me, — 556 

And into this boist thanne putteth anon 
Swich thing as he wele there-Inne don. 
And whanne 30 haven it In 30wre keping, 
Loketh that everi day, Ouer Alle thing, 560 

That to this holy Boyst ]?at 30 go. 
And 30ure devocions doth therto 
With weping & with sore syghenge, 
With bonching on brest, and Hepentinge 564 

Of alle the sinnes that 3e hauen I-do, 
AYith high Contricionne, dowhter, Euere mo ; 
And he wolde sende 30W swich grace & povvere, 
Neuere o]?er God to worschepen here, 568 

But only him that Is 30wre saviour, 
"Wheche schal 30W kepen In Euery stour." 



Et si li requeres, 

pour la benoite amour del signour qui 

sergans il est, 

ke illacompaignie de chelui vous baut, 



ke vous ne trespasses de cheste do- 
lente vie 

sans recheuoir uotre perdurable 

sauuement, 

Et ie sai bien ke il le vous baillera 

mult volentiers. 



Et vous gardes bien, ensi com uous 
aues uotre ame chiere, ke vous ne le 
metes en lieu 



ou riens ternene ait conuerse. 

Mais chele blanche boiste prenderes, 

car il meismes le me bailla. 

et si meteres dedens 

chou ke li boins liom vous baillera. 

et si le vees chascun iour, 

et li pries 

a souspirs et a lannes, 



ke il, par la sole pitei, vous deffende, 
ke corages ne vous viegne d' autrui 
croire ne aourer. Car il n' est autres 
diex en qui on doiue metre son pense 
ne sa creanche." 



HER MOTHER SEES CHRIST, AND GIVES HER HER LAST BLESSING. 



183 



Lo, Sire, thus My Modir tawhte tho Me 
How I scholde me governe in eche degre, 572 

Lik as this storie doth me now telle 
And as 30 me heren to 30W now spelle, — 
Swich thing as to my sowle profitable scholde be, 
AUe sweche Mauere things my Modir told me ; 576 
And alle thing ]7at scholde don me Noysaunce, 
Hem scholde I flen for Ony Chawunce. 

And whanne these wordis weren spoken Echon, 
Sche bad me Opene the chambre dore Anon ; 580 
Thanne Comen In the gentil wommen Alle 
As to A dwchesse gan to befalle. 
And thanne Eowned sche In Myn Ere 
And axed me " whom I sawgh there, 534 

Abowtes hire bed Ony Man stondynge;" 
Where-offen I Merveylled Ouer alle thinge. 
Thanne saw I there the same Man 
That to-forn tynie In the Chapel saw I than ; 588 
And my Modir he held be the hond, 
And to-forn hire bed there gan he stond. 
And whanne the same I sawh there 
That the Ermyt in pe Chapel schewed me Ere, 592 
Neuere so sore abasched I was 
As I was tho In that same plas. 
And thanne My Modir Axed me tho 
"What that I sawh to-Eorn me go?" 596 

Thanne I hire tolde it was Owre Saviour ; 
And sche him dide ful gret honour : 
More-Ouer sche seide " blessid mot he be 
That Into this Erthe wil discende to me ; eoo 

Now wot I wel that I schal go 
With him to bliss for Euere Mo 
Now, goode swete dowghter, Er that I go, 
Kysseth me er that we now departen A-two, 604 



En cheste maniere me cbastioit ma 
mere, et endoctrinoit, 



de toutes icheles choses faire ke ele 
sauoit ki pourfitebles m' estoient a 
r ame, 

et de toutes iches eskieuer qui nui- 
sables me porroient estre. 



Et quant ele eut sa parole finee. 

si me commanda I'uis de la chambre 

a ouurir 

Et quant ie 1' oi ouuert, si vinrent 

auant les dames et les puchieles dont 

il i auoit mult grant plente. 

Et quant eles furent auant venues, si 

m' apiela, et si me dist en 1' oreille, 

' se ie veoie nullui 

entour son lit.' 



Et ie regardai, si vi .i home 
que li tendoit sa main, et si estoit tout 
autresteus comme chil qui ie vi en la 
uapiele ke li hermites me moustra. 



Et quant ie Ie vi, 

si en oi tel merueille 

ke ie en fui toute esperdue, 

et ele ma demanda 

' ke ie veoie.' 

et ie li respondi ' ke che estoit notre 

salueres.' 

Et ele me respondi ' ke aoures et 

grades fust il de che 

ke il se daignoit demoustrer a moi. 

Car ore sauoit ele bien 

ke il i uoloit aucune chose ' 

Apres me dist, " biele douche fijle, ie 
vous commant a dieu. 
Ore me baisies, 



ISl sakeacyxte's mother bies. sarbacynte leaves the hermit's cell. 



608 



612 



620 



For to god I schal Comaunden 30TV here ; 

And therefore, dowhter, loke ]?at In lUle Manere 

That 56 don lik as I have 30W tawht, 

And pleynly that 36 for3eten it nowht ; 

For this lord with him wile leden ]Me 

Into a plase ]pat is ful of prosperite, 

And ]5erto ful of joye and delicasie." 
Thus told me my Modir Sekerlye ; 

And Avith this word, Sire, certeinly 

Departid the Sperit owt Of hire hody. 

& anon I fulfilled hire Comaundement, 

And to that holy man I wente with good entent ; 616 

There he me tho took My Saviour Anon Riht, 

My God, my Lord, & ]?erto man most Of Miht. 

And whanne he to me hadde longe I-spoke, 

And wel of this "\^'orld to me his herte I-broke, 

Thanne schowed he me Ipe knoweng of pe trenite, 

And how pat In this World I schold Governe Me, 

& Comaunded me to Fadir & Sone & holigost 

Which that Is lord Of Mihtes Most, 

And preide me that I scholde E,etournen tho 

Into the plase A3en that I Cam fro ; 

For non lengere ne speken to Me he Myhte, 

So fehle he was tho as to My Syhte. 

And whanne Owt of his Ermytage I was gon, 
A wondirful swete Xoise thanne herde I Anon, 
And my white boyst I held In Myn hond : 
To heren this Noise ful stille gan I stond ; 
And Me thowghte tho as in my Syht 
In that song thre on that Chapel gonnen A-liht 
And whanne from that Chapel that I Avas gon 
The spas of half a myle, thanne Mette I anon 
A man that was Clothed In A Robe of blak, 
That was bothe Megre & pale with-owten lak ; 

* MS. auoit en. 



624 



628 



632 



636 



chis sires m' en veut mener: 

en la plus delitable maison qui onques 

fust, et si le voi a mes iex." 

Che fu la daarraine parole ke ma 

dame dist. 

Et tout maintenant ke ele 1' eut dite, 

si depart! 1' ame de son cors. 

Et iou, d:eu merchi, le fis ensi com 

ele le me commanda, 

Car ie alai au saint hermite, 

et il me carcha le glorieus cors de 

notre salueour ihesu crist 



Et quant il eut asses parle a moi 
des fragilites et des perieus qui el 
caitif siecle auienent : 

et il m' eut amoneste des oeuures et 
des commandemeus notre signour: 
si me commanda en la garde du pere 
et du fil et du saint esperit. 

Si m' en recommenda a repairier. 



Ke il ne pooit gaires parler a moi. 

Car il estoit mult durement cargies 

de mal qui mult F estraignoit. 

Et tant com ie oi a lui pris congie, 

et ke ie fiii issue fors du pourpris, la 

boisteen ma main enquoi mes salueres 

estoit. Si oi le grignour chant, et le 

plus douch, qui onques mais fust ois, 

au mien quidier. 

Et chil chans s' en aloit tres par desus 

la chapiele tout droit vers les nues. 

Et quant nous eumes eslongie la 
maison a 1' ermite. tant com il puet 
auoir une* demie lieue de terre, si 
encontrai en mi ma uoie vn home qui 
tous estoit vestiis d'une reube noire. 
Si estoit mult maigres et pales et chenus, 



SAREACYNTE IS TOLD BY A HOLY MAN OP THE HERMIT'S DEATH. 



185 



Pul wMt & long was his berd and her 

Of the man that I the mette thanne ther, 640 

& swich Abit me thowhte he hadde 

As the man In Chapel was In Oladde, — 

So sone was torned his Clothing 

That me Merveilled In alle thing ; — 644 

And SO faste and Sore tho gan he to gon 

That he was Al on Swot J^ere Anon. 

And Anon As he loked On Me 

He wepte ful sore with gret pite 648 

And thus he seide Anon to Me thore, 

" A ! Cristene womman, thow hastest Sore, 

For J?ou were nener so sone past from J^at good 

Man 
That his Sperit Owt of his body wente than." 652 

And whanne that Cristene he gan me to Calle, 
Anon Of my palfrey I gan down falle, 
And Mekliche I axede him Anon 
'Whens he Cam, & whedir he scholde gon.' 656 
Thanne he me Answerid there Anon Ryht ; 
Quod he, " I Am the Seriawnt of God Almyht ; 
For 30W ful sore I desire now to se, 
For bothe to-gederis A3en scliolen we — 660 

As be the Schewyng of the holy gost — 
Bothe A3en to-gederis gon we Most ; 
For Owt of this world his sowle is past ; 
Therfore thedyr Go we In hast." 664 

And I him Answerid, " Sire, For Certein 
From him Ryht now Cam I ful pleyn, 
And On lyve Sire lefte I him there. 
But ]7at with sicknesse he was Charged sore." 668 
"How may this ben, faire dowhter," seide he, 
" "Whanne thow herdest J^at Meiodie and Aungeles 
thre, 

2b 



et la barbe toute autrestele. 



En tel habit estoit li horn, 



et si se hastoit si durement d'aler 

ke il degoutoit tous de sueur, et si di- 
soit toute voie ie ne sai quoi entre ses 
dens. Et tantost com il me vit, 

si commencha mult durement a plourer ^ 

et si me dist, 

" Ha: crestiene, trop i es hastee de re- 

pairier, 

quant tu n'as tant este ensamble notre 

frere saluste : 

ke li esperis se fust partis de son be- 

neoit cors." 

Quant ie oi ke il m' apiela ' crestiene,' 

si sali tantost de mon palefroi : 

et si li demandai mult douchement 

' quels hom il estoit,' 

et il me respondi en plourant, 

' ke il estoit sergans ihesu crist, 

et ke il desiroit mult moi a auoir, 

et si estoit venus mult loing par I'amo- 
nestement du saint esperit 

pour enterrer cliil boin home 
qui estoit trespasses.' 

Et ie li dis, " Sire, 

ie sui ore-endroit departie de lui, 
si I'ai enchore laissiet tout vif. 

Mais chertes il estoit mult durement 

cachies de mal." 

" Coumeat," dist il, " biele fille, 

dont n'as tu oi les sains angeles notre 
signour 



186 THET RETURN TO THE HERMITAGE, AND DIG A GRAVE POR THE BODY. 



How In tliat Chapel they gonnen to A-lihte, 

And boren his Sowle to-forn God AlMihte :" 672 

And whanne this he tolde to me, 
Thanne wepte I ful gret plente. 
And Cleped I My men to Me Anon, 
Wheche ]?at with me J^edir gonne gon, — 676 

Por In hem bothe I trosted ful wel, 
Por of myn Nortnre weren they Eueri- 

del, 
And therto On of hem My Cosin was. 
And a Clene Maiden and ful of Gras, — 680 

That so alle thre we Hetorned Agein 
A3en to th'ermitage tho In Certein. 
And whanne that thedir we Oomen Agein, 
The good man was to god past In Certein : 684 

And wanne this goode Man saw him ]?ere lye, 
Anon he wepte tho ful tendirlie. 
And vppon that dede body fil a-down, 
And there lay he ful longe In swown. 688 

Thus whanne there longe hadde he leyn, 
Vp he Hos thanne In Certein, 
And behinde the Awter gan he gon, 
And thens with him browhte he anon 692 

Sweche maner of Instrumens, As thowht me, 
That A pyt with mad scholde be. 
Thanne to-fore the Awter gan he stonde, 
A pit Jiere forto Maken thanne gan he fonde, 696 
That the ded body there-Inne Moot Reste : 
Thus this pyt made he with the beste. 
Whanne this pit thus Ended was. 
He lift vp his hand Anon In that plas, 700 

And with the signe of the 'pe Cros pe body 

blessed he 
Er Into the pit It pvt schold be. 



qui orendroit enportent I'arme [sic] de 
son glorieus cors deuant la fache ihesu 
Crist." Quant ie oi chou, 

si fui toute esperdue, et commencha 
mult tenrement a plourer, 
et apielai .ij. de mes sers 

qui auoec moi estoient uenu, 

en qui ie me fioie mult. 

Car ie les auoie acates petis enfans, et nourria 
les auoie taut qu'il estoient grant, et sage, et 
bien conuenable a seruir en vne haute maison. 
Chil doi estoient en ma compaignie, 
et vne moie cousine sans plus, qui estoit 
puchiele, et est encbore. Car ele ne uaut 
onques signour auoir, ains dist, *ke ele n'aroit 
ia camel compaignie.'eteucbore est ele cbaiens. 

Ensi nous en retournames tout .iiij., 
auoec Ie boin home. 

et quant nous venimes a I'ermitages. 

si trouuames ke li sains hermites estoit 

trespasses. 

Et quant li boins iiom uit chou : si se 

laissa chaoir de si liaut com il estoit 

sour Ie mort, et Ie commencha mult 

durement a plaiadre et a regreter. 



Et quant il I'ot asses plaint et ploure, 

si se drecha, 

et si en ala tout droit de uers I'autel. 

Et quant il vint arriere, si vi qu'U en 

aportoit 

iteus hostieus 

com il couuient a .i. cors enterrer. 

Lors ala il meismes, 

si chaua la terre par deuant I'autel 

tant qu'il ot fait tel fosse 

ou li cors d'-ixa houme pooit iesir. 

Et quant il eut che fait, 

si leua sa main, 

et fist sour Ie cors: Ie signe de a 
sainte crois. 



THE CORPSE IS PUT IN THE GRAVE. THE HOLT MAN REPROVES THE SERVANTS. 187 



And that body took [he] be tbe bed Anon 

In to that pit for to have don, 704 

And Me the Eeet be bad taken tbo 

Into tbe pyt for to bave do ; 

" A ! Sire ! " quod I, and to bim Seide, 

" It were not wortbi on bim bond ]?at I leide, 708 

For I am Synful womman, 

And On tbis Craft non tbiag I ne kan, 

Netbir to towcben So boly a body ; 

Trewly, Sire, I nam not worthy." 712 

" A ! leve soster, whi sey 3e so here ? 

A more holy thing with 30W 30 here 

Thanne Evere was tbis holy body 

Tberfor taketh the feet ful softly." 716 

Thanne wiste I wel that he was an holy 

man. 
That so prevy tbiages Cowde tellen than. 
Thanne took I tbe body by tbe 'Feet, 
And be be tbe bed, and down it leet 720 

Into that pyt there thanne Anon, — 
That holy body bothe iiesch and bon ; — 
And thanne with Ertbe he keuered it sone, 
And seid there Ouer what was to done. 724 

Thanne of lesu Crist spak he to me 
In Mani Maners & In dyvers degre. 
And Aposed me Of my saviour. 
And Of my two Seriawnts In J)at stour 728 

Thanne seide he to vs ful wondirfully, 
[" How dow 3e] ben so bold other hardy 
Swicb tweyne Seriawntes with 30W to bringe, 
That with-Inne this holy plase Scbolden haven non 

Entringe ; 732 

For 30 Scbolden not Entren here with-inne 
That liven In wrechednesse and In synne, 

2 b2 



Et quant il I'eut pris par le chief 

pour metre en la fosse : 

si me fist traire auant, et me com- 
manda ke ie le presisse par les pies. 

Et ie li dis. " Ha : sire, 

comment oserai ion touchier a lui : 

ie qui vne feme pecheresse sui. 

II n'est mie raisons ke ie touche a si 
sainte chose, che m'est auis." 

Et il me dist tantost : " trai toi seure- 

ment auant. 

Car, plus sainte chose et plus haute 

portes tu 

ke che n'est" 

Et lors soi iou bien ke il estoit boins 
horn, quant U disoit ensi les choses cou- 
uertes. Car il disoit d'el saint cors 
ihesu crist ke ie enportoie en la boiste. 

Lors alai, si pris le cors par les pies. 

si le mesimes, entre nous deus, 

en la fosse, ke il ne vaut onques ke 
autres i touchast. 

Et quant il fa tous couuers de la terre, 

et li boins hom eut tout dit che que 

il deuoit dire, 

si commencha a parler a moi de notre 

signeur. 



Apres commencha a regarder mes 
deus sergans et ma cousine, 
et si lor dist. 
" Di ua : et vous 



qui ales querant par les sains lieus 

ihesu crist, qui n'estes digne nis de la 

maison veoir. 

Et vous estes si hardi ke vous entres 

dedens, 

qui estes en I'ordure, 



188 



JOSEPH BAPTISES SABRACTNTE S COMPANIONS. 



And worschepen the devel bothe day & NyM, 
And him j,e Serven, that fowle wyht." 736 

There sweche wordis to vs Spak he anon 
That to his Eeet we Alien Echon ; 
Thanne preyde iche him with riht good wills 
The E-yht Creaunce On hem to fufllle, 740 

And Cristendom that they myhten take 
In worschepe of that Goode lordis sake, 
For non longere that they myhten dwelle 
In Servise Of the devel Of helle. 744 

And whanne that he hem herde fiere speken 

so, 
E-iht Anon water than sette he tho, 
And Anon hem Oristeneden with-Owten host 
In the Name of the fadir & sone & holi gost ; 748 
And he hem preide ful tentifly 
That Creaunce to kepe ful worthily, 
And that ymages so fals Evere to dispise. 
That So fals ben In Al Manere wise. 752 

And he me preide hem forto kenne 
That they myhten becomen good Cristenne 

menne ; 
And there to God he Comanded vs, 
And we him to swete lesus, 756 

Eor thens owt of |jat plase wolde he neuere go, 
But there wolde dwellen for Evere Mo. 

And God for him wrowhte In that plase 
Manie Eaire Miracles In litel spase ; 760 

But I ne Cowde weten 3it what was his Name 
Of him that was so good Of fame, 
And 3it God graunted me that faire grase 
That I at his Owne beryyeng wase 764 

In the same Manor As I at the tothir was Er, 
Riht so [I] beried him bothe Eaire & Cler ; 



et el pechie du dyable ke vous aoures 

et serues de iour et de nuit." 

Tant lor parla de notre signour et de 
ses oeures, 

ke il li chairent as pies tout troi, 
et si li requisent 



ke il les baptisast tout maintenant 



' Car il ne demourroient iamais plus 
en la mauuaise creanche ou il auoient 
tant este.' 

Quant il les oi ensi parler. Si en eut mult 
grant ioie. si counit il meismes en la maisou- 
nete, et prist .j. pot, si le pucha tot plain en 
vne cjsterne ke li sains horn auoit faite qui 
trespasses estoit. 

Lors vint arriere, si les baptisa tous 

trois el non de la sainte trinite, 

et si lor pria mult, et en-orta, 

de garder la sainte creanche ihesu crist, 

et d' eskieuer les ymages 

qui nepooient aidier,anclioisnuisoient. 

Apres lor moustra les poins de lor 

creanche, 

et si me pria pour dieu, que ie lor apre- 

sisse tant de bien com ie porroie. 

A tant nous commanda a dieu, 

si nous empartimes, 
et il se remest laiens, et si dist, ' ke il 
ne s' en remoueroit iamais tant com il 
viugroit. Car il n' auoit mais gaires 
despasse de trauiUier sour terre.' 
Ensi remest, si fist puis iliesu oris par 
ses mains maintes bieles virtus. 



Mais il ne uesqui puis se mult peu 
non. et si me douna diex dont si bien 
ae grasce, 
ke ie fui a son enterement 

autresi com iou auoie este a 1' autre. 



SARRACYNTE ENDS HER HISTORY, AND PRAYS JOSEPH TO SAVE EVALACH. 189 



And from that day 3it hider to 

I have belevid In God 3it Enere Mo." 768 

And losephes Abod Alle hire Answers 
Evene to the Ende that sche seide ]>exe, 
And hire Answerid ful sone tho, 
" Sey me, dame, how myhtest J)OU don so, 772 

A Oristene woman ]?at thow sehost be, 
And dost not ]?ere aftir In non degre. 
And that thow him worschepest nowht 
That so dere In this world the bowht ?" 776 

" Sertes, sire," thanne Answerid sche, 
"My lord Is so spetows and so Angre 
That Everi day I moste A-waiten Myn Owr 
Whanne I May worschepen myn saviowr ; 
Eor and Ony-thing he Mihte Aspien with me 
That him scholde misplese In Ony degre, 
Anon he wolde me Confownde 
And distroyen me Into the harde grownde ; 
But now I hope Oure lord wil to him 

se 
In the Ryht beleve that he mot be ; 
And I the preie, that Art Goddis Seriawnt, 
Him from bodUy deth that he wolde grawnt, 788 
And him hom In worschepe forto bringe. 
And his Creawnce to Maken his End- 

enge ; 
& 3if this Ones I Mihte knowe, 
There nis non Creature, ne]?er hy ne lowe, 792 

In this world schold me disseise. 
So mochel myn herte it scholde plese ; 
But Evere, losephes, I drede me sore 
Of ])e wordis that 3e hau seide before, 796 

That thre dayes & thre Nyht 
His Enemy Of him scholde hau Myht." 



780 



784 



Et de dont en cha, ai iou tenue la 
crestiene creanche, si ke onques la, 
dieu merchi, ne repairai puis a des- 
loiaute d'aourer les fas ne les pierres. 
Quant iosephes ot escoutee la parole, 
de chief en chief, 
si li dist, 

" Coument, dame, 

puis ke vous auies recheu la creanche 
ihesu crist,pour quoi nevous contenies 
vous donques comme sa loiaus cham- 
beriere. Pour quoi n' aues vous 
piecha le roi uotre signour iete de 
cheste grant ordure ou il a tant geu?" 
" Chertes," dist la dame," ie atendoie 
tant ke notres sires par sa pite m' en- 
uoiast le point couuenable de lui metre 
a raison. Mais ie n' en fui onques ne 
point. Car mes sires est vns hom mult 
crueus, si m'eust mult tost ou werpie 
ou destruite. Se ie le mesisse en parole 
de chose qui ne li pleust. et par auenture 
tous iours mais m' en eust soupe- 
chounee. 



Ore a nostres sires, par son plaisir, amene le 
point ke il porra estre destournes des mau- 
uaises uoies. et ramenees a la droite voie qui 
maine qui onques veut croire a la perdurable 
vie, che est ihesu crist. 

Et ie te pri, glorieus sergans notre signeur, ke 

tu requieres le vrai cruchefis pour lui; 

ke il par la sole tres grant miaericorde, le 

deffende de mortel peril, 

et le ramaint sain et hounoure a la droite 

creanche de sonsaint non. Car s' il i pooit estre 

amenes, mult i aroit ihesu oris recouure loial 

sergant et uigereus. Car il i aroit gaaigniet 

lui tout premierement, et puis toute sa terre 

apres. 

Et se il le voloit croire, ie seroie tant lie 
ke il ne serroit nule riens en chest 
terrien monde qui me peust coure- 
chier. ne ia puis ne me cauroit de 
quele cure que ie mouruisse. 

Mais chou m' a mult espoente, 

ke vous li desistes 

ke il serroit .iij. iours et .iij. nuis 

en la baUie de son anemi mortel." 



190 



SARRACTNTE PEATS JOSEPH TO TELL HEE NEWS OF HEE LORD. 



" That is ful soth," quod losephe thanne, 
" For there nys non Erthly Manne 
That his word ne may with-seye, 
Ne his Coraandement, In non weye." 
" Sire ! 3it 50 Mown don this for me, 
To preien to that God In Maieste 
That he wolde schewen 30W with-owten faille 
How my lord hath sped In his hataUle." 
So longe that lady preide losephes tho, 
That Everi point he told hire to. 
And how he hadde I-sped from day to day, 
There Al the sothe he gan here Say. 



Et iosephes li respond! 'ke il estoit 
voirs, 
"0" et ke par nul home viuant 
n' en pooit estre destournes.' 

Et la dame li dist, 



804 



808 



" losephe: tantseulementmepoesvous 
bien dire 

se notre sires le vous a demoustre sa- 
uoir mon 

se il de cheste bataille escapera." 
Tant li enquist et demanda, et vne fois 
et autre, ke il li disoit toutes les choses 
si com eles aiienoient de iour en iour. 
et la dame le tenoit mult chier, et mult 
li faisoit grant hounour, et mult volen- 
tiers r escoutoit a parler et a dire les 
boins mos ke il traioit auant des es- 
critures. 



191 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Joseph tells Sarracynte of the White Knight (p. 191), whom Evalach and Seraphe cannot make out (p. 192). 
Evalaoh goes to see Tholomes (p. 193), and then returns to Sarras, taking Seraphe with him (p. 193). 
His queen receives them with great delight, and he at once asks after the Christians (p, 193). Joseph 
comes (p. 194); he tells Seraphe that it was Evalach's prayer that gave him his great strength 
(p. 194-5). Joseph orders Evalach's shield to be uncovered (p. 195); a crucified man is seen on it 
(p. 195). A man with a wounded arm is healed by it (p. 196); and then the cross vanishes (p. 196)- 
Seraphe declares that he will turn Christian, and Joseph baptises him, and changes his name to 
Nasciens (p. 196); he is healed at once, and so preaches to Evalach, that he and the wounded man are 
baptised too, and Evalach's name changed to Mordraynes or Slow-of-Belief (p. 197-8). The rest of the 
people are baptised, and Joseph destroys the images, and converts all Sarras (p. 199). He leaves 
three of his friends there in charge of the Grail-Ark, and goes with the rest to Orcanz (p. 200), 
where he turns out of an image the devil Aselabas, and makes him explain why he had killed Tholomes 
(p. 201, 2). Mordraynes orders his people to be baptised or leave the country (p. 203) ; some are killed 
by the Devil (p. 204), and a spear-head is driven into Joseph's thigh for his neglect, and left there 
(p. 205). The whole land is converted (p. 206), bishops are ordained (p. 207), and the bodies of the 
two Hermit-Saints procured for the Churches in Sarras and Orbery (p. 208-9). 



Thus losephe and his Compenies 
In Sarras weren they Sekerlye 
Worthily I-served Of that Qweene 
That Sarracinte was Clepid be-dene ; 
And As thus In talkinge they were, 
To Sarracinte goode tydinges tolde he ]pere, 
' That to Orcan3 hire lord was Come 
And with him a ful gret throme ;' 
And tolde hire of the White Knyht, 
How graciously he bar him In fyht ; 
But No man Cowde tellen what he was 
Of Alle hem that weren In that plas ; 
And 3it the King wolde hau wist ful fayn 
What he hadde ben In Certain, 
And Merveilled Sore Alle that Nyht 
& lay and thowhte Of that white knyht ; 
And so dide Also Sire Seraphe, 
Eor he ne wiste where becomen was he, 



Ensi est iosephes 

en la chite de sassarras, entre lui et 

les autres crestiens, 

mult honores et seruis de la roine 

4 serraquite, et de chiaus de sa maison. 



Ore dist chi li contes, 

ke li rois eualach est a orcans, 

lies et mult ioians, 



mult 



12 



16 



et si fait demander et enquerre nouui- 
eles du blanc chiualer. qui il puet estre, 
et de quel terre il est. 

Mais nus horn a qui il en paroleche 
ne Ten set enseignes dire. 

Mult le fist li rois querre et demander, 



et la nuit ke U vinrent de la bataille 
et I'endemain. Et quant il vit ke il 
ne seroit troues. Si en fu mult dolens, 

et mult durement se meruilla de ohe 
ke il n'en pooit oir noueles. Onques 
ichele nuit ne manga li rois, anohois 



192 WHO IS THE WHITE KNIGHT ? EVALACH GOES TO ORGANS TO SEE THOLOMES. 



And seiden 'that Glad Scliolden thei neuere 
be, 

Til of him they knewen som Certeinte.' 20 

And thus Al that Niht spoken they two 

Of the White Knyht, and Of no Mo, 

Wheche he lovede Ouer Alle thing. 

And be him gat he Conqwering ; 24 

And thus leften they not Of talkyng 

Til bothe weren Pallen in sleping, 

Por Wery of fyhteng Alle they Were, 

And Al here Compeni Jjat with hem was 

there. 28 

Erly on the Morwe, whanne ]?e kyng Aros, 

Streyht Into Orcan3 thanne he Gos 

Por to speken With tholome the kyng, 

And to knowen & sen of his governyng. 32 

And whanne Tholome Eualach Say Com, 

To his Feet he Pil Anon peve A- down, 

For ful gret drede hadde Tholome 

That kyng Eualach Wolde don him sle ; 36 

Thanne king Eualach took him be the honde 

And made him vp-Hiht forto stonde. 

Be Enchesen that A kyng he was 

And Most Of worschepe In that place ; 40 

Thanne Anon kyng Tholome 

Clepid forth [his] knihtes * & his Meyne, 

And bad hem down fallen to here lord 

And him Worschepen Ayith on Acord. 44 

Whanne they hadden thus Alle I-do, 

Ivvng Eualach from hem gan to go 

And toward Sarras gan forto E.yde, 

He & his Meyne be his Side, 48 



ne finoient, entre lui et seraphe son 

serourge , de parler du blanc chiualer, 

et dist ke iamais a nul iour ne seroit lies 

deuant dont qu'il en saroit uxaies en- 

segnes, 

Ensi tinrent toute iciiele niiit la parole 

de lui, 

et dist H rois ' ke mult le deuoit amer. 

Car ore sauoit il bien, ke par lui 

auoit il hounour recouuree.' 

Mult tint li rois parole chele nuit del 

blanc chiualer et de ses proueches 

tant qu'il s'ala couchier, et il, et se- 

raphes, et li autre. Car il auoient le 

iour tranillie asses, si estoient forment 

las et debatu : pour chou si auoient il 

plus grant mestier de reposer. 

Et quant vint au matin, et li rois fu 

leues, 

si ala 

tbolomes veoir. 



Et quant cHl le vit, 

si cliai as pies, et si li cria merchi 

comme cliil ki mult auoit grant paour 

ke il ne I'ochesist. 

Et li rois le prist par la main, 

et si le leua en kaut, 

pour ckou ke rois estoit. Si ne uoloit 
mie ke il geust longement deuant lui 
a terre. 

Apres apiela tliolome 
des barons eualach, et si lor pria ke il 
parlaissent de la pais vers lor sig- 
nour. Et quant il vinrent a eualach, 
et il li emprierent, si lor respondi qu'il 
n'en ascouteroit ia parole d'ome ki 
Ten priast, deuant dont ke il serroit 
reuenus de sarras. A tant remest la 
parole, " si en ala li rois 
a sarras, 



* Jcnihtest it is in the ^IS. The final long s's are often made with a long curl looking just like an I — pro- 
ducing words hke hoystousl, hataillesl, &c. In this knihtest the curl is crossed, and made a t. 



EVALACH AND SEBAPHE EETURN TO SABRAS AND QUEEN SAEEAOYNTE. 193 



And witli hym Sire Seraphe he ladde 

That Manye A gret womide there hadde ; 

And thanne seide Sire Seraphe 

' That horn Into his Owne Contre wolde he 52 

Where that he Scholde more Esed ben 

Thanne In Sarras As he the Cowde sen.' 

Thanne seide king Eualach to him tho, 

" Sire, with me to Sarras Scholen 30 go, ' 56 

And there grete Merveilles scholen 36 se 

Of the moste wondirful Man that may be 

That tolde me how that it schold be-falle 

Of my bataille, begynneng and Alle." 60 

And thanne Answerid Sire Seraphe 

' That gladliche theke Man wolde he se.' 

So that bothe Sire Seraphe & ]?e kyng 

To Sarras Oomen with Owten lettyng, 64 

And Alle the tothere Meyne 

Eche tornede to his Contre 

As the king hem 3af license 

Eorto gon from his precense. 68 

And whanne the king to Sarras was Gone 
With grete Joye ]?e Qweene him Mette Anone, 
And Also hire dere brother Sire Seraphe 
Of hym gret loye Made tho sche, 72 

And so dide Al that Cite tho 
Gret loye Made Of hem two ; 
Eor they Supposed In Certein 
To that Cite Neuere to have Comen Ageyn. 75 

And Anon As the kyng On-horsed was, 
After the Cristenmen he Axede In J>at plas ; 
And the qwene that wolde not vndirstonde ; 
But 3it Anon the kyng Sente his sonde 80 

To Seken thanne losephe & his Meyne, 
" Eor, dame, it Is Al trewe that he tolde me." 

2 c 



et si enmena ensamble o lui son se- 

rourge seraphe 

mult durement naure. 

et seraphes dist 

' K'il iroit plus volentiers en sa terre, 

car il i seroit plus aaise 

ke il ne seroit aillours. se au roi ne 

deuoit anuier.' 

Et li rois respondi ' qu'il voloit que il 

s'en alast o lui a sarras. 

Car il li mousterroit les grignours mer- 

uelles que nus ne porroit quidier ne 

croire, d'un home 

qui li auoit dit a son mouuoir: toutes 
les choses qui li estoient auenues en 
la bataille.' 

Et seraphes dist 

' ke chelui verroit il volentiers.' 

Ensi s'entournerent 

tout droit a sarras, 

et li autre 

se departirent, et s'en alerent chascuns 

en son pais 

desque li rois lor ot done congie. 



Et quant eualach vint a sarras, 
mult fu bien la ioie grans ke la roine 
fist de lui. 

et de seraphe son frere, quant eles les 
vit cheuauchier ensamble. 

Et toutes les autres gens en orent 
mult grant ioie. 

Car nus ne quidoit ke il eust iamais 
pas ni acorde entre aus deus : tant s' 
estoient longhement entre-hai. 
Et tout maintenant ke li rois fu de- 
scendus : si demanda des crestiens, ke 
il faisoient. Et la roine li demanda ' ke 
il li estoit auis de lor paroles, s' il i 
auoit point de verite ne de creanche.' 
Et li rois respondi, ' ke de toutes les 
paroles ke iosephes li auoit dites, ni 
auoit il onques nis une trouuee se 
uraie non.' 



191 JOSEPH COMES AND TELLS SEBAPHE THAT IT WAS GOD WHO SAVED HIM. 



And whanne tlie q-vreene liim herde so sayn, 

Thanne In herte was sche bothe loyful & fayn, 84 

And sente to seken loseplie anon 

Also faste As tliey myhten gon. 

And Anon As Evere the king saw losepe 

Ryht Anon to him he gan forto lepe,* 88 

And seide ' that he was the beste welcomed Man 

Thanne Evere was Oni prophete,' he seide than. 

And be him he made him to sittin A-down, 

And thanne to Seraphe seide he this Resown, 92 

That Sik vppon A Cowche he lay, 

As was hurt vppon the Eormere day, — 

" I sey to 30W now, brother Sire Seraphe, 

That be this Man I have Conqwest & my degre, 96 

Whiche that I wele that 3e knon^e 

And Al my peple vppon A rowe." 

" Nay, sire," quod losephe thanne, 

" It Miht neiiere Comen be Erthly Manne, lOO 

But be him In whom thow hast Creaunce, 

He hath the sent Al this good Chaunce." 

Thanne Axede Sire Seraphe Anon thanne 

" "What Manere of powere hath that Manne 104 

That he is of so gret powste, 

I preie the, Belamy, telle thow me." 

Thanne Answerid tho losephe Ageyn 
" I Schal ]>e Sein, Seraphe, In Certeyn, 108 

And what he seute the to seyne by me 
I schal the now tellen. Sire Seraphe. 
This lord that kyng Of Cristene Is, 
Be his Mowth he seide to Me I-wis, 112 

That he was the Same Man 
That from Sevene knyhtes deliuered ]>e than 



De oheste chose fu la roine 

mult lie, 

si enuoia tout maintenant querre io- 

sephe, et il i uint. 

Et tantost com li rois le vit, 
si se drecha encontre lui, 

et dist, ' que bien fust il venus com li 
plus voirs disans 
de tous les autres prophetes.' 
Lors le fist asseoir d'en coste lui, 

et si dist a seraphe, qui se gisoit en 

vne couche 

com me chil qid naures estoit et de- 

brisies. 

" Seraphe, biaus serourges, tant voel 

ie bien ke tous mes pules sache ke par 

la priere de chest home, et par son 

conseil, et par le vassalage de votre 

cors : ai iou recoure ma terre, et toute 

hounour terriene et victoire gaaignie.'i 

Lors respondi iosephes. " Eois, ne la 
proiere de moi, ne li vasselages de se- 
raphe, net'a rescous deta terre pierdre, 
ne victore^ne uictoire ne te douna. Mais 
li haus sires de qui tu portoies le signe, 
et qui tu apielas de boin corage au 
grant besoing." 
Lors li demanda seraphes 
qui sires estoit, qui si auoit grant 
pooir, et de qui il parloit si seurement. 



Et iosephes li dist. " Seraphe, ore 
escoute, et ie te dirai 

qui il est, ensi com il meismes le te 
mande par moi. 

Che dist li diex des crestiens. Ie, qui sui li 
urais crucefis, te commant, iosephe mes ser- 
gans, ke tu dies a seraphe quant il enquerra 
qui ie sui. Iche li dirastu, lie ie sui li eom- 
menchemens del monde et la fins de toutes 
choses. Ie sui chil qui te rescous de .vij. 
chiualers quant tu estoies si conrees que li 



* The marks of contraction over the p of losep and lej} are the same, and, though this losep has been printed. 
losephe elsewhere in the text — as Joseph occurs in the MS. so often — yet here it is printed /osepe on account 
of the rhyme . 



evalaoh's shield is uncovered, and cheist crucified seen on it. 195 



Whanne atte the prikke of deth ]70u were I-browlit ; 

Seraphe, thorwh thy Myht wos it Nowht. 116 

And 3if thow Supposist that Al thi Ohevalrye 

Come of thy self, — Nay, Oerteinlye. 

And 3if thow beleve now so, 

Al it is Polye Ipat thow dost do ; 120 

But knowe thow wel, Sire, for Certeine, 

That whanne Eualach the saw In sorwe and 

peine. 
And there he Made his preiere Anon 
To ]?at lord of whom he bar signe vppon, i24 

" That, as his dere bro]?er, the In bataill scholde 

defende 
From peril of deth, & to ]?e victorie to sende." 
And whanne losephes thus tho hadde 

I-seid, 
Thanne Seraphe, that vppon A Oowche was leid, 128 
Of his wordis ful sore Abasched he was, 
Of wheche no man knew tho in that plas, — 
And Seide thanne Anon king Eualach tho, 
"Certes, dere brother, It was Ryht So." 132 

Thanne Axede losephes the Signe Anon 
Of the Oros ]?at he hadde In his scheld doon; 
And whanne this scheld was vndon. 
The signe of the Orois they behelden Anon ; 136 
And there anon it semed there In Al here siht 
A wondirful Red Cros & Merveillously dyht. 
And vppon that Crois hem thowhte they sie 
A man In manere on Jjat crois was Crucifie. i40 
In the Mene whille ]?at this Sihte was, 
happed A man to comen Into that plas ; 
And losephes him Olepide there Anon, 
Por his Arm Nv from his bodv was eon ; 144 x.. ^ 1. 1 •. . 

'' JO' ^^^ Jit quant seraphes le vit porter son 

poing senestre tout caupe en la destre main : si apiela iosephe et si li dist " losephe, se tes diex a si 
grant pooir, com tu li tesmoinges, donques le domoustre ore-endroit. Et se il rent a chel home son 
poing qui trenchies est, si ke il ait autresi I'un comme Fautre. Lors dirai iou pour voir ke il est urais 
diex. et si te creant que ie le dcquerrai sans plus d'amonestement." 

2 c 2 



sans te saloit par le nes, et par la bouclie, et 
par lea orelles, et par les iex. lUuec te rescous 
iou de la mort. 

Et se tu quides auoir fait par ta sainte pois- 
sanche les raeruelles que tu fesis en la bataille, 
tu quides mauuaisement. Et si en sera tes- 
raoins la proueche que tu auoies deuant eue. 
et tu meismes qui t^esmeruilloies des grans 
proueches ke tu faisoies, ne ne quidoiespas ne 
raisons nete sambloit que nus cors peust auoir 
la forche : de si estrainges proueches faire. 
Ne de ton cors n 'issirent eles mie les proueches, 
cbe saches tu. 

mais tantost que tu veins pour ferir en la 
bataille au commenohement, si dist eua- 
lach li rois, qui chi est, quant il te vit 
mouuoir. " He seraphe, biaus dous amis, 
or en ales en la garde a chelui signour qui 
signe ie port, ke se il est urais diex si com 
le m'a tesmoignie : si gart il bui votre cors 
de honte et de perir, et si vous enuoit si grant 
hounour com vous poes grignour auoir.'' la te 
gardai iou de peril par la proiere de chelui 
qui de boin cuer apieloit mon non et recla- 
moit. Et de la terriene hounour te dounai iou 
grant partie. Car onques ne fu autant parle 
de proueche ke nus horn i fesist comme des 
toies. Et se il ne remaint en toi enchore, te 
donrai ie grignour. Car tu aras Tonour du 
chiel, et la grant ipie qui fin ne puet auoir." 
Quant iosephes eut ensi parle. si fu seraphes. 

si esbahi de che que il disoit les choses ke il 
ne quidoit ke nus horn terriens peust sauoir 

Et li rois eualach dist, ' ke uoirement disoit il 
voir, et ke il fu menes iusc'a la paour de mort 
quant il descouuri le signe. Et quant il re- 
clama le signour qui en tel signo auoit este 
mis, ensi que iosephes li auoit ensignie.' 
Lors commanda iosephes le signe a 
ueoir, et li rois fist aporter son escu. 

Et quant il fu descouuers, 

si virent tout apiertement 



vne crois vermeille. 

et dedens 

.i. c]'ucefis, de qui il estoit auis ke il 

fust tot nouuelement cruchefiies. 

Ensi com il I'orent descouuert, et il les 

gardoient, 

si auint chose,ke vns horn entralaiens, 

qui auoit tantost le poing eu caupe en 

vne meslee. 



196 A WOUNDED MAN IS HEALED. THE CROSS VANISHES. SERAPHE IS BAPTISED. 



" Certes " quod losephe " this lord is of so gret 

powere, 
That thin sore putte to him here, 
As heil & sownd thaime schalt thow be 
As euer is Oni Man In Oristiente." 148 

And this Man dide Anon As he him bad 
And Riht Anon there his hele he had. 
Thanne alle the hurte men J)at weren present 
Seiden it was don be Enchauntement, 152 

And his Arm be Cam As hoi Anon 
As was flsch that bar A bon. 

3it a grettere Merveille was in that plas 
Of the Cros that In the Scheld tho was ; 156 

It vansched Awey there tho sodeinly 
That neuere man ne wiste whedir ne whi, 
So that it was nenere More Sein 
In that Scheld Aftir Certein. 160 

Of this thing Alle Sore abasched they were 
That in theke plase f)at tyme weren there. 

And whanne Seraphe this gan beholde, 
Non lengere thanne Abiden he wolde, i64 

But Anon Oristened he wolde be, 
& On him to beleve In Eche degre 
That hath so moche strengthe & power 
Sike Men Eorto keveren there ; 168 

And he him there dressed rppe al so skeet. 
And fyl adown Anon to losephes Eeet, 
There Axede he loseph for charite 
Anon A Cristene man that he Mihte be. 172 

" In the name of ]?e Eadir, sone, & holigost, 
Whiche that Is lord of Mihtes Most, 
I the cristene", quod loseph thanne, 
" And loke ]?at thou be true cristenne Manne." 175 
In his Cristendom, his Name chonched he. 
And Clepid him Nasciens, that men myhte se. 



" Chertes, dist iosephes," enchore te 
dirai iou plus. Pour ch.ou que iou ne 
voel que tu quides ke iou i fache en- 
chantement ne fraude : fai venir rome 
a chest signe qui est en chest escu, et 
si li fai touchier son brach, et se il ne 
garist maintenant. Si me fai destruire 
maintenant sans demeure. 

Lors vint auant li naures, et toucha 

son brach a la crois, 

et tantost com il li ot touchie, 

si eut I'un brach autresi sain comme 

I'autre. 

Et si auint vne autre : 

ke la crois, si comme ele estoit enl'escu, 

se prist au brach, 



ne pnques puis en I'escu ne parut 
point. 

De cheste chose furent trop durement 
esbahi: tout chil quil el palais es- 
toient, plus asses ke du brach qui 
sanes estoit. 
Et quant seraphes vit cheste chose: 

Si dist que il n'atenderoit ia plus. 

anchois seroit orendroit crestiens. 

Car chelui doit on bien croire 

qui le poir auoit de si meruilleus ses 

uirtus faire tout apertement. 

Lors se drecha, si malades et si naures 

com il estoit, 

si vint a iosephe, et li chai as pies, 

et dist 

ke il le fesist crestien isnelement. 

Lors le baptiza iosephes el non du pere 
et du fil et du saint esperit. 



et si fu en baptesme 
apieles nasciens. 



SERAPHE IS GLORIEIED AND HEALED ; AND THEN PREACHES TO EVALACH. 197 



And Anon As lie tho Cristened was, 
Swich A Olerte On Mm fil In jpat plas, iso 

Seenge to hem that stood Abowte, 
Of diners meine a ful gret Rowte, 
And hem besemede ful verrayly 
That alle his Clothes war en taken Awey ; 184 

Hem thowhtethey sien A brennenge brond offer 
Into his Mowth how it Entrede ther ; 
Thanne herden they there A wondir vois anon 
That thus to hem seide ]?ere Everichon 188 

" The last of jje ferst hath taken Away 
Alle filthhedis this ilke day. 
Be his Owne stedfast Creavnce 
Him is be-happed this ilke Chaunce." 192 

And whanne this vois tho was past, 
Thanne vppe him Stirte Seraphe In hast ; 
And Eelt him Self As heyl & qwerte, 
And as hoi A man In body & herte. 196 

And Anon fulfillid there he was 
With the holi gost tho In that plas, 
And thanne be-spak sire Nasciens, 
" The holi gost is in my presens 200 

That Me Certefyeth Of Myn Creavnce, 
& how that I schal leven with-owten vari- 

aunce ; 
That to Owre mete ne gon not we 
With hondes vnwaschen In non degre, 204 

And him there worschepen scholen we 

thanne 
That Most Worthy Lord that becam Manne." 

And behold what God Schewed to Eualach tho 
Eor the grete A£Q.aunce he hadde him vnto, 2O8 

That Tholome theke same Owr 
Owt of this world was past with dolowr. 



Et tout maintenant ke il fu baptisies, 
si descend! sour lui vne si grant clartes 



ke il estoit auis a tous chiaus qui laiens 
estoient, 

ke toute sa ueuture fust esprise de fu 

ardant, 

et si virent apertment vn brandon de fu 

qui li entroit par mi la bouche. 

Apres oirent vne vois, 

qui dist mult haut et mtdt espoen- 

tablement. 

" Li daerrain out as premiers tolu 

Tonour del cors 

par isnelete de creanche'' 



Tantost com la vois eut parle, 

si senti nasciens ke il estoit garis, et 

sanes, 

de toutes plaies et de toutes ses ble- 

cheures. 

Et tantost fu ses cors raemplis 

del saint esperit. 

et commencha a dire asses de choses a 

auenir. et traioit auant les fors mos 

des escriptures tout autresi bien com 

fesist li plus souurains olers du monde, 

et si disoit au roi eualach. "He: 

rois, ke atens tu ke tu ne requiers le 

baptesme. Li sains esperis notre 

signour me demoustre toutes les os- 

cures choses. et si dist li sains esperis. 

Ke ales vous atendant, vous qui vees 

les tables mises, ke vous ne laues vos 

mains et ales asseoir. Che vous mande 

li vrais crucheficis par la moie bouche, 

ke li parecheus ouuriers precheuse- 

ment recheueront lor loiier. 

Et bien sache li rois eualach, pour 

chou qu' il ne me tienge pour fol ne 
pour derue: 

ke tholomes li fuitis est orendroit 

fenis et trespasses du siecle. 



198 EVALACH & THE CURED MAN ABE BAPTISED, & EVALACH NAMED MORDRAYNES. 



And tliiis him Schewed the holy gost 

That Evere Is lord Of Myhtes Most. 212 

So longe thanne there Spak Sire Nasciens 

Of goddis Myht and of his presens, 

That king Eualach Ran Cristened to be, 

And Also that Man In the same degre 216 

Whiche that his Arm was ny Offe go, 

To Cristendom faste Ran he tho ; 

And Anon As that they Cristened were 

Here Names In here Eorehed were wreten J^ere ; 220 

Eualach to ' Mordraynes ' Torned was 

And the hurt Man to ' Olamacides ;' 

Thus bothe here Names I-torned they were 

Be strengthe and vertw Of baptism there, 224 

As banarers Of that hye kyng 

The wheche hem browhte to baptising. 

Thanne seide Sire Mordrains to his qwene 
' That sche scholde Comen Cristened to bene ;' 228 
Thanne Answerid [sche] to hire lord Anon 
" That it Were Nethir Skele ne Reson 
Por on body twyes baptised forto be. 
Sire, it were non Resoun, So thinketh Me." 232 
Thanne Axede hire the kyng Anon 
How that this Cause Mihte thus gon. 
" Sire," sche seide thanne, " Certeinlye 
xxvij wynter Agon it is fullye 236 

That I Crestened womman haue be, 
Sire kyng, forsothe As I telle the." 
And the kyng Axede here how it was. 
Anon sche him tolde Al the Cas, 240 

Evene As sche to losephe tolde 
Sche him Rehersid ])Gre Manifolde, 
And seid the holy man that hire Cristened ]?ere 
Here Name Nolde chonge In non Manere, 244 



etsi le m' a demoustre li sains esperis 

Tant parla nasciens 

de dieu, et tant lor dist, 

ke li rois eualach se courut baptizier. 

Et chil qui par le signe de la crois 

auoit le brach gari. 

Ettantost com ohascuns estoit baptisies 
si trouoit en son non esciit en mi le 
front, tout tel com il le deuoit auoir 
par baptesme. Et li non ke li rois 
eualach aporta, si fu apieles li rois 
mordains. Che est vne parole en 
caldieu qui vaut autant a dire : comme 
fait en latin 'tardieus en creanche.' Et 
li non de chelui qui auoit la crois 
el brach, si fu apieles climachideus. 
Che fu autant a dire comme ' gon- 
fanonniers au glorieus.' 

Apres apiela li rois sarraquite, 

si li commanda ke ele s' alast baptisier. 

Et ele respondi qu' il ne li looit mie 

ke ele recheust baptesme .ii. fois. 

et li rois li demanda ' 

' comment.' 

Et ele dist 

ke ele estoit crestiene: et auoit este 

bien .xxvij. ans. 



Et sili conta comment ohe estoit auenu : 
autresi com ele auoit fait a iosephe. 

et si dist, keli boins horn qui le baptisa 
ne li vaut onques son non remuei-, 



JOSEPH BAPTISES THE PEOPLE, DESTROTS THE IMAGES, PURIPIES THE TEMPLE. 19Q 



" But seid to Me In his talkyng 

' Thy Name ' ful of faith ' Is signefieng.' " 

And whanne that they thus Oristened 

were, 
AUe the Remnaunt that weren there 248 

Comen Alle ful faste Hennenge 
Forto Resceyven there baptisenge ; 
And losephes took A basyn with water Anon 
And Amongs hem Faste he gan to gon, 252 

There Anon he Made hem Alle knelynge 
And there 3af he to hem Baptisenge 
And vppon here hedis water threw he Abowte 
Vppon that Meyne In theke grete Rowte 256 

Where As was v hundred thpwsend & Mo 
In that same plase Oristened be tho 
In the Name of the fadir & Sone & holigost 
Wheche that Is lord of Myhtes Most. 260 

Thanne On the Morwe Nasciens wolde gon 
Into Furthere Oontres Anon, 
And loseph with him wolde he have 
The Oontre to saunctefle & to save. 264 

But loseph him tho Answerid Anon, 
" That Owt of Sarras wolde he not gon 
Til the ymages weren broken Echone, 
And the temples Sanctified er he ]?ens wold 

gone, 268 

As Oure lord him Comaunded be his mowth 

presente ;" 
& so he dide Er he thens wente. 

And whanne Alle this peple thus hadde he wonne 
And- Goddis ful Creaunce there begonne, 272 

Thanne Abowtes In Virown Al that Contre 
The peple to torne thanne so labowred he. 
Whanne that Sarras to Cristendom was browht, 
Eul mochel loye was In his thowht. 276 



ains dist ke bien li auenoit. 

car che estoitautant adire com 'plaine 

de foi.' 

Et quant chil furent ensi baptisie, 

si uenoient li autre si espessment ke il 

n' alaissent mie si tost par samblant 

a .i. grant monchiel de deniers com- 

quellir se il fuissent espandu. Ne il 

ne voloient souffrir que nus les bapti- 

sast se iosephe non. Car ilne quidoient 

mie estre bien baptisie par la main 

d' un autre home. 

Et iosepbes tenoit .i. grant bacliin 

d' argent, 



si versoit a chascun sour la teste el 
non de la sainte trinite. 

Et tant fist ichelui iour ke il en i ot 
de baptisies bien largement .v. mile 
et .iij. cens. 

A r endemain s' en parti nasciens 

del roi et de sa serour. 

Si enmena ensamble o lui ioseph 

pour baptisier le pule par sa terre et 

pour ensengier la loi a tenir, et a 

garder la creanohe. 

Mais iosephes 

si remest en sarras, 

et fist les ymages abatre et depiclier 

les auteus, et refist auteus nouuiaus, 

et purefia les temples. 



ensi com ihesu cris li auoit ensengnics 
a faire del iaue benoite. 



Et quant il eut tout le pule de sarras 
recheu en creanche, 

si en ala par toute la terre de mirron, 
si com li roiaumes contenoit, 



200 JOSEPH LEAVES THREE PERSONS WITH THE ARK, AXD GOES TO ORCANZ. 



Thanne ^Ule the gan he with him take 
That Owt of lerusalem weren his Make, 
Excei^t Only persones thanne thre 
That he lefte with the Ai'che forto be, 280 

And that holy disch that was there-Inne 
It savely to kepen from j\Iore 0>er Mjome ; 
T^Tiiche On of hem ' Enacore ' gonn.e they Calle, 
The tother ' Manasses,' As tho gan falle ; 264 

The thridde was clepid Lwcan, 
TMke same Tyme of Every man, 
That loseph took the Arch In kepinge 
To his piu'pos As to A man of best levenge. 288 

And thus these thre leften there 
To kepen this holy Arch In this llanere ; 
And AUe the tothere gonnen forth to gon, 
Cristes Xame to sanctefien Anon, 292 

And the peple to 3even baptiseng, 
And this was alle here labowreng ; 
But of hem At theke time was non there 
But that the holigost in hem spak Every where, 296 
And Alle Maner of langage thanne dide hem have ; 
Where thorwh the peple that they myhten save. 
And with-o"wten losephe and his sone 
Weren Issij that to-gederis dide wone. 300 

Thanne losephe to Orcanz gan to gon, 
And there Into the temple he Entred Anon, 
And In ful gret thowht there was he, 
But Evere his herte was vppon the Trenite. 304 

And his letherne Gyrdel tho took he anon. 
And to An ymage there Gan he to gon 
That stood In the temple vppon the chief Awter, 
And him Anon Coniowred there. 308 

And the devel there Anon forth Byht 
Owt of the ymage isswed In Al here siht. 



si .i. fist, aler tous les crestiens 

qui auoec li estoient reuenu de 

iierusalem. 

fors ke seulement Jij. 

qtii remesent pour garder 1' arche 

ou la sainte escuele estoit. 

De ches .iij. fa li vns apieles anacor. 
Et K autxes manates. 
Et li tiers leucans. 

Che fa chil qui ioseplie auoit fait 

maistre de garder T arche. 

Si com il conte cha arriere, quant il 

parla de son secre. 

Ensi remesent chil troi, et les femes 

toutes. 

et touteU autre s' enalerent par lepais 

baptisant le pule, et preechant le non 
au urai cruoefis. 



Mais il ni auoit nul d' aus 

en qui li sains esperis ne fast si aper- 

tement 

ke il parloient tous les langages, et 

prophetisoient tout, 

et H nonbres d' aus si estoit iuscli' a 
■XT.TT. sans ioseplie et sans son pere. 

Et quant iosepbes vint a orcaus, 

si encontra tout premierement el 
maistre temple. Et quant il fix dedens, 
si commencha mult durement a penser. 

Et quant il eut grant piecbe pense, 
is se descbainst 

lors si courut tout droi vers .j. des 
auteus, sa cbainture en sa main, si 
commencbe a couiarer et a faire le 
signe de la crois sour vne ymage 
qui estoit desus le maistre autel. 

Tant que vns djables 

en issi bors, si bideus et si lais ke 

nule plus laide cbose ne peust estre. 



JOSEPH DRAGS THE DEVIL ABOUT, AND ASKS WHY HE KILLED KING THOLOMES. 201 



And whanne that Owt of the ymage he was 

gon, 
loseph thanne took his Girdel Anon 312 

And Ahowte Ms Nekke he Made it fast, 
And it drowgh to-Pore the king In hast, 
So In }jat Manere he drow it thorwgh the Cite 
That Al the peple there him Mihte thanne 

se. 316 

Thanne Axede him Nasciens Anon Eiht there 
" Whi that so sore lustefyed he were ? " 
Thanne losephe to him Sone Agein 
" In time Oomeng thow schalt weten Oertein." 320 
Thanne Axed losephe of Ipe devel A-forn hem 

AUe ]>ere 
' Why he hadde so ferd with kyng Tholomere,' 
" And whi thow Madist him so to fallen A- down 
Atte the wyndowe Of f»e towr to his Oonfucioun." 324 
Thanne spak the devel to loseph tho Certeinle 
" Goddes Seriawnt, A while that ]jou wost 

lesen Me 
And I schal to the tellen Anon Ryht 
Of kyng Tholomer, pat ]?ou clepist A knyht." 328 
Thanne losephe his Girdil tho gan to vndon 
From the schreAves Nekke there Anon, 
And so wente he forth there Al Abowte. 
And loseph him Comanded Among Al that 

Rowte 332 

' That Openly the sotlie to tellen there. 
How it So happed Of kyng Tholomere.' 
Thanne Answerid that schrewe sone him Ageyn 
And seide, " loseph, I knowe it wel for Oerteyn 
What Merveilles that God hath for the wrowht, 
For In Sarras there God wrowhte fore the. 
The Man that was Mayned ipere hoi forto be, 340 

2d 



Et iosephes li ieta sa chainture 

entour le col, 

si le trainoit hors du temple,voiarit le roi 

et uoiant tout le pule, qui le sieuoit, 

et il muioit si durement la u iosephes 

le trainoit ke on 1' ooit clerement par 

toute la cMte. 

si ke mult grant partie de la gent i 

coururent. 

Lors li demanda li rois 

pour quoi il le iustichoit si. et ke il li 

auoit fourfait.' 

Et iosephes li respondi 

' ke che porroit il par tans oir.' 
Et il li commencha a demander 



pour quoi il auoit fait tholome 

chaoir 

des fenestres de la tour a terre. 

Et il li dist, 

" iosephe, tu i es sergans ihesu crist. 
Or me laske .i. petit, 

et ie le te dirai." 



Et iosephes li osta toute sa chainture, 
et si le prist par les chaueus. 



Lors li commenda isnelement. 
dist [le] dyables, 



Et li 



336 « iosephe, ie veoie 



les meruelles ke diex faisoit pour toi 
quant tu fesis garir a sarras 
r ome qui auoit le brach caupe 



202 



THE DEVTL EXPLAINS HOW HE DECEIVED AND KILLED THOLOMES. 



Thorwii Signe of the Crois that he towched there 

Anon was he Mad bothe hoi & Tere; 

Also there Cristenedest thow kyng Eualach 

That Alle Onre lawe there gan he Forsak ; 344 

And so I supposed thow wost hau don here, 

To Cristendom hau broyrht kyng Tholomere. 

And for I suppesid that thow wost don so, 

In liknesse of Man I gan to hym go, 348 

And told him there a newe tyding, 

' That on the Morwe Sire Enalach the kyng 

"Wolde him don bothe hangen & drawe, 

And him to bringe Owt of his Hf dawe.' 352 

Thanne whanne thus I hadde hym told 

Anon his herte gan to wexen ful cold, 

And he me preide him forto helpe. 

There thus Of My Self I gan to 3elpe, 356 

Eor I tolde him ' Certeinle 

I CoTvde him helpe in Al degre, 

And Owt of ]jat Castel Eorto gon 

I him TVolde helpe Hiht Anon.' 360 

Thanne torned I Me In semblaunce of a Grifown 

Owt of that towr him to helpen A-down, 

And uppon my bak I Made him Sitten there 

Til that he Owt of that Cite were ; 364 

And whanne On My bak I-set was he, 

I let him falle & to-breste on pecis thre." 

Thanne loseph A3en took ])at schrewe Anon Riht, 
And bond him A3en In Alle Mennes Siht, 368 

And him so ladde thorwgh Al the Cite 
That al the peple him Milite there Se, 
And seide, " 3e Caytives, know Everichon 
Here Is 30ure god that 36 beleven 

vppon." 372 

Thanne Axede him loseph In that plas 
In what Manere that he Clepid was. 



pour toucher au signe de la crois. 

Sivi quetu fesis baptisier seraphe et 
le roi eualach. 

Si doutoie ke tu ne fesisses 

autrestel de tholome. 

Et pour chou 

li aportai iou les notdeles en san- 

blanche d' un home. 

Sili dis 

' ke K Tois eualach 
auoit commande ke il fust Tendemain 
traienes a keues de cheuaus, et apres 
fast pendus. 

Et quant ie li oi chou dit 

si fu mult esbahis ke il porroit faire. 



Et ie li dis ' ke se il estoit de grant 
guerredon vers moi, ie le ieteroie bien 
de la prison.' Car ie sauoie plus d' en- 
cantement: ke tout chil du monde. 
Et il me respondi tantost ' que il ne me 
prameteroit mie son auoir seulement: 
mais il deuenoit mes hom a tous les 
iours du monde: ne iamais ne feroit 
chose qui me pesast, se iou de laiens 
le pooie ieter.' Lors me muai tout 
voiant lui en forme d' un grifon, si le 
fis mont€r sour moi. 



Et quant ie 1' oi en haut leue: 

si le laissai chaoir si ke il eut le col 

pechoie, et .i. des bras." 

Lors le prist iosephes vne autre fois, 

si li remist sa chainture entour le col 

et si r emenoit par toutes les voies 

si apiertement ke toutes les gens le 

veoient, 

et iosephes disoit au pule 

" Caitiues gens, de poure entension, 

mdes de sens et de creanche: 

vees chi la figure des diex ke vous 

aues aoures tous iours, et par qui vous 

quidies vous viure sour terre." 

Apres demanda au dyable 

' comment il estoit apieles,' 



THE KING ORDERS ALL THE CITIZENS TO BE BAPTISED OR LEAVE THE COUNTRY. 203 



Thanne the sclirewe Answerid him Ageyn, 
" Aselabas My name is Olepid In Oertein ; 
And, loseph, I telle the what is Myn Offis, 
Men thorwgh false tales to bringen In to vis ; 
And thorwh my fals tydynge 
Thus bringe I hem to schort Endenge." 
And whanne the peple herden Al this Ado 
On him there wondrede Mani-on tho, 
To Cristeneng AUe ronnen they Riht faste 
As longe as that It Myhte laste ; 
And losephe was Evere Hedy Anon 
And there hem Baptised Evei'ichon, 
Thanne losephe Coniowred the devel Anon 
And Owt Of his bondes let him gon, 
That he Scholde Neuere Noyen Man ne womman 
That the signe Of the holy Cros hadde vppon. 
Thanne Anon the kyng let the banes Crye 
Thorwhe Al his lond ful Certeinlye, 
That Al his lond Cristendom Scholde take 
Only Eor lesus Cristes Sake ; 
And alle tho that wolde not Cristened ben, 
Anon Owt his lond that Scholde fleen, 
And neuere thedir Inne to Retornen Agein ; 
This was this Oomandement Certein. 
And whanne this cry was thus don 
To Cristeneng wente there Mani On, 
But Mochel peple 3it tho there were 
That Owt of theke Cite fledden there, 
Eor the ne wolden not Chongen here lay, 
Mochel of that peple thens wente that day. 
And whanne loseph beheld al this, 
Eul mochel mone he Made I-wis. 
Thanne spak the devel to loseph tho, 
" Behold what Venyaunce I wil now do, 

2d2 



376 



380 



884 



et li dyables dist 

' qu' il auoit non aselafac/ 

et si dist ' qu' il auoit baillie 

d' espandre la paour es gens par les 
noueles males ke il lor aportoit de 
fausete.' 

Quant les gens oirent ches paroles. 

si s' encourut mult grant partie bap- 
tisier. Et iosephes entra el palais le 
roi, si les baptisa illuec: quant il 1' 
eut purefiiet di aue benoite. 

Apres laissa le dyable aler, et si le 
coniura ' ke iamais nus qui eust re- 
cheu le signe de la creanche n'eust par 

lui encombrement. 
Lors fu cries li bans le roi 
392 par le chitei : 

* ke il n' i remansist nus ne nule, qui ne venist 
el palais oir son commandement/ Et quant 
il furent tout venu el palais oir son commande- 
ment, et el pourpris, si monta iosephes as 
fenestres, et lor anoncha la parole ihesu crist. 
Et quant il lor eut mult longhement preeehiet: 
Si lor fist commander par la bouehe le roi ke 
il s'alaissent tout et toutes baptisier. Et qui 
baptisier ne se uoloit : li rois li donoit boin 
congie, ke il s'en alast hors de son regne sans 
reuenir. 



388 



396 



404 



Apres cheste parole 

coururent au baptesme mult grant partie de 

In. D-pnt. 



400 la gent 



Et asses i ot de cheus si com oirent chest 
commandement qui disrent, ke 



* li voloient miex "widier le regne : ke can- 
gier tel loy et tel creanche com il auoient tons 
iours tenue.' Mult i eut grant nombres de 
cheus et de cheles qui chelui iour reehurent 
la lo; ihesu crist. 



408 



204 



THE TJNBAPTISED PEOPLE AEE KILLED AND HTTBT BY THE DEVIL. 



412 



416 



420 



For tho that Cristened wold not hau had 
Owt At the 3ates the devel hem lad, 
Of whom deyden sodeinly Manion 
As Owt of ]>e 3ates they wolden hau gon ; 
And somme the devel hurte wondir sore, 
And Owt of here wittes 3it Mani More. 
AUe the Remnaunt that Asckapen 

Mihte, 
E,onnen to loseph there Anon Ryhte, 
There that the Miscreawntes Cristened be. 
And whanne this Merveille losephe sawh he, 
Thedirward faste wente he Anon — 
Also Faste he hyede As he myht gon. — 
And aboven the dede bodyes saw he ]>ere Sitte 
The devel that Owt of ]7e Cite Made hem 

flytte, 
"A ! thow Cursid gost," quod loseph tho, 
" Whi hast thow this veniaunce thus do ? 
And to this ho that Comanded the, 
Telle me, thow devel, er thow hens fle." 
Thanne the devel Answerid him Agein, 
" Be Cristes Comaundement In Certein." 
" Tho lyest Falsly, quod loseph tho, 
" His Comaundement was it Nevere so." 
And loseph to him ward faste gan gon 
Him. forto han taken & bownden Anon, 
In his Girdel, as he to-foren was, 
Forto hau bownden him In that plas. 
And as loseph loked him tho Abowte, 
In his herte he hadde gret dowte ; 
An Aungel to-Forn him Sawh he there 
With a merveUlews contenaunce In ]?is manere, 
For his vesage As brenneug Fyr it was 
To him there semeng, ne]jer more ne las, 440 



Et quant chil s' enpartoient du palais 
qui reclioiure ne le voloient, 
ausitost com il auoient passe le daer- 
raine porte, si chaioient mort. 

de teus i auoit, et de teles, qui issoient du sens, 
et de teus i auoit qui estoient feru panni le 
cors si ke on ueoit la plaie, et si ne ueoit 
on mie chelui qui le faisoit. Et I'autre 
partie qui teus maus n'auoient: si estoient 
mehaignie ou de bras, ou de quisses, ou 
de col pechoie, ne ia li baptisie n'eussent 
mie de mal. Tant en i eut de mors et de mes- 
haignies : ke la nouiele en ala a iosephe la 
ou il baptisoit le pule. 

Et quant il oi chou 

si courut chele part tous esfres. 

Et quant il aprocha pres de la porte, 
si esgarde deuant ltd, 
si Toit le dyable ke il auois orains laissie aler, 
qui tenoit en samainvne espeetoutesanglente, 
et de si loing com il vit iosepbe, si le com- 
menoba a huchier. " Or, esgarde iosephe 
comment ie pren la veniancbe des anemis a 
ton dieu." 

Et iosephes li demanda ' par qui il 
faisoit ch.es meruelles, et qui li aitoit 
commande.' 

Et li dyables respondi: 

ke il le faisoit par le commandement 
ihesu crist.' 

"Chertes,'' dist iosephe, "cuuers, — che 
ne vous auoie iou pas commande." 

et lors si courut vers lui 

^32 po^ir chou ke il le voloit Icier. 



424 



428 



436 



En chel courre ke il fist, 

si garde il deuant lui, si voit .i. angele, 

qui auoit tout le viaire 

autresi Vermel com vn effondre ardant. 
et si pie estoient austrestel,et ses mains 
et sa vesteure estoient autresi noire 
comme poi. 



AN ANGEL DRIVES A SPEAR INTO JOSEPH FOB HIS NEGLECT. 



205 



Ful sore abascht was lie Jjer-offen tho, 

That he ne wiste what he myhte do, 

And wondred what it schold signefle, 

Th'aimgel that loked so vegerowslye. 444 

And in this Mene whille of thinJkenge 

Th'atingel with a spere he dide him stinge, 

In tho to the hipe to the harde bon 

This Angel him stang there Anon, 448 

And there lefte he the spere and pe hed 

StiUe In his hype In thast Sted, 

" Lo, losephe, this is to Signefle 

For hem thou leftest Oncristened Sekerlye ; 452 

Therfore this thy mark Schal be 

& it Contenuwe schal with the." 

Thanne th'aungel thens gan to gon, 

And loseph drowgh Onte ]>e spere schaft anon, 456 

But the hed In his hype lefte ]?ere stille, 

For that was only goddis wille, 

But it Greved him but litel thing, 

For it was only Goddis warneng ; 460 

But the blood Cowde he staunchen In non wise 

But every day newe it gan forto Reprise, 

As longe as with-Inne was the hed 

Thus it bledde In Every sted. 464 

But th'aungel bad him non Merveille have, 

' That God wold hau saved, wile he save, — 

As in tyme Comeng 30 scholen here 

In this same storie, and 30 welen lere.' 468 

Thanne loseph walked forth Anon 
And his Menie with him Everichon ; 
And of his wounde hadde he non gret dolowr. 
But he was in gret drede of Oure saviour. 472 

Thanne here-Oflfen Merveilled gretly the kyng 
What that this be In to Signefieng. 



Quant iosephes le vit en tel habit, si 
fu durement esbahis, 

et mult s' esmeruilla ke teus angeles 
pooit senefiier. Endementiers ke il se 
meruilloit ensi, 

et li angeles s' aproche de lui, et lait 
aler vne lanche ke il tenoit, si Ten fiert 
parmi la destre cuisse si durement ke 
li fiers hurta en I'os. Et tout main- 
tenant ke il Ten ot feru, 
si laissa la lanolie chaoir sans metre 
hors, et si li dist. 

" Che est li tesmoins de mon pulle, 
que tu as laissie a baptisier pour 
rescourre les despiseurs de ma loy. 

Chis reprueches te durra a tous les 
iours de ton eage, et se tu le comperes 
ailleurs, si ne t'en meruelle mie.'' 
A tant s'entourna li angeles, et io- 
sephes traist hors la lanche tout le- 
gierement. ne onques a son auis point 
de mal ne li fist au traire. Et quant il 
I'eut traite hors, si vitke li fiers estoit 
remes en la plaie. 

Mais il n'en senti onques mal ne doleur nient 
plus que se che eust este en songant. Mais 
de tant s* aperchut il bien, ke li angeles auoit 
dit voir del reprueche. Car il ne fu onques 
puis iours. tant com il vesqui, ke il ne clochast 
de la quisse ou la lanche I'auoit feru. ne 
onques ne peut la plaie estanchier de sainier. 
tant com li fiers fu dedens. Et encliore le 
compara il puis en autre lieu si com li angeles 
li auoit dit ; ke il ne s'en meruellast mie. Et 
che contera chi auant li contes, quant de 
conter sera tans et liens. Mais chi se taist ore 
li oontes de la plaie et de la lanche. fors ke 
tant ke il dist que la lanche emporta iosephes 
el palais. et si fu de maintes gens esgardee. 
Ne onques hom qui la veist ne seut a dire de 
quel fust ele peut estre. 



Ensi se remonta iosephes el palais, mult esba- 
chis et mult espoentes, non mie de sa plaie. 
Mais de chou ke il se doutoit ke notre sires 
ne se fust a lui oourechies. Et quant il eut 
sa plaie bendee : che ne li valut noient. Car 
pour chou ne laissa ele onques a sainier. 

Si s'esmeruella mult li rois, et les 
autres gens en furent mult esbahi 



206 THE OTHEE PEOPLE AEE BAPTISED, AND THE WHOLE OE THE LAND CONVERTED. 



Tlianne seide loseplie to Mm Anon there, 

" Of this Merveille 36 not In non Manere, 476 

Sire, it is, I telle the now Ryht, 

The peple to bringe Owt of the develes Miht." 

Thanne whanne ]?e peple him so herde speken J^ere, 

Ful loyful they weren that Cristened were ; 480 

And alle that vncristed weren to. 

To Cristendom faste gonne they go. 

Thus Joseph wrowhte at Orcan Cite, 

Sekerlych there baptised he gret Meyne, 484 

And his felawes there weren with hem 

That they browhten owt of lerusalem. 

So that Crist there so faire for him wrowhte 

That alle the peple of Orcans to Cristendom he 

browhte, 488 

And with-Inne thre dayes Everichon. 
Thus Goddis wille fulfild he Anon, 
So that left there nethir gret ne smal 
That to goddis la we weren torned al. 492 

And what be the holy wordis that he there 

spak. 
And be the holi gost with Owten lak, 
Mochel peple of the Centre tornede he 
Goode Men & Cristened Porto be : 496 

And alle the ymages that In the temples were 
He dide brenne & to-brast Every where : 
Al thus wrowhte loseph In that Centre 
In the temples and to the pleiple where-so went 

he ; 500 

And Into the Centre of Nascien 
He made hem alle tho Cristene Men. 

And thanne A3en to sarras loseph gan to go, 
And Nasciens with him tho Cam Also ; 504 



Et il lor dist 

' ke il n' en fuissent ia esbahi. Car 
che auoit il eu, pour chou ke il uoloit 
le pule mescreant rescourre des mains 
au dyable, qui il estoient.' 

Quant les gens oirent cheste nouiele, 
si furent mult lie chil qui estoient 
baptisie. 

Et chil qui enchore n*auoieDt baptisme re- 
cheu : coururent maintenant a iosephe, et li 
requerroient tout le baptesme pour le paour 
du dyable qui si malement auoit les autres 
conrees. Ensi recheuoient espesement la 
creauche ikesu crist. 

Si fii iosepbes en la chite d' orcaus 



trois iours, soi quart de compaignons, 
ke entre lui et iosepb son pere orent 
amene de iherusalem. 



Si fist tant notres sires par lor mains : ke il 
orent dedens le tierch iour bapetesme tous 
chiaus et toutes cheles qui en la chite estoient. 
ne onques ni remest ne petit ne grant: ke il ne 
traisissent a la loy ihesu crist. 

par les uraies paroles ke il lor disoient_ 

et par les grans virtus ke dieus faisoit 
poru' aus. Et li autre qui aloient bap- 
tisant par le pais environ: esploitie- 
rent tant que toute la terre si com li 
regnes contenoit : fu amenee. a la sainte 
nouiele loy. 

et furent arses et depechies les ymages, 



par tous les temples et par tous les 
lieus ou eles pooient estre trouees. 

Et iosepb refist tant encbois ke il s' 

en departesissent, ke il conuerti a le 

creancbe crestiene toute la terre nas- 

ciien. 

Apres s' en reuint a sarras 



JOSEPH ORDAINS BISHOPS IN EVERY CITY, AND GOES TO GET RELICS. 



207 



Per loiful In herte was lie thanne, 

Per he Converted there Manie A manne 

And fulfilled goddis Comandement, 

The wheche was holy his Entent. 508 

Thanne Joseph of his feleschepe fiere ches ful sone, 

And bisschope hem Ordred there Anone, 

And sente hem Abowte Into Eche Centre 

Goddis lawe forto prechen ful openle. 512 

Somme of hem dwelde In Nasciens lond 

And somme In Mordrayns As I vndirstondj 

Whiche was a lord of gret Seignonrie 

And Mochel peple hadde In his baillye ; 5I6 

So that loseph ches Owt thre & thrytty, 

And Sixtene with him left pleynly. 

The wheche xxxiij bischopes gan he to Make 

In forme lik As god him Ordre Gan take ; 520 

And Also the xvj that with him were 

Bisschopes he Made anon E-iht there ; 

And A-1 Abowtes the Contre they wente 

Only to fulflUen goddis Entente. 524 

And whanne AUe the Contre was Cristened 

abowte 
And in Euery Cite A bisschope with-Owten 

dowte. 
And deliuered hem from the develis chaunce 
And hem fullich browhte Into Goddis Creawnce, 528 
Be supportacion Of these goode Men 
Kyng Mordrayns And Of Sire Nascien, 
Thens wente thanne losephe Ryht Anon, 
And his Meyne with him gan to gon 532 

To seken where these holy Ermytes lyen. 
And Of here good lyvenge forto Aspien, 
Where-Oflfen they preiden Oure lord of grace 
Therto forto haven bothe lif and spase, 536 



mult lies de che qu'il li sambloit 



ke bien auoit faite la beaoigne notre signour, 

et si i uint nasoiiens ensamble o lui. Et quant 

11 furent venu, et iosephesoi lor nouielea, si en 

eut mult grant ioie. 

et si eslut vne partie de ses compaig- 

nons: 

si lor dona 1' ordene et la hauteche 

de prouoire. 



Apres en establi vne partie a enuoier 
en le terre nascien, et 1' autre remanroit 
en la terre le roi mordain, si ke il en 
aroit .j. en chascune chite. 



Ensi les eslut iosephe 

et depart!, tant que il ne remest en sa oom- 
pagnie ke seulement .xvj . 
Et xxxiij . en enuoia par lea deus terres. Mais 
anchois ke il se departisaent de lui : lor dona 
le don d' eueske, si com notre slrea li auoit 
done. Si ke il furent xxxiij. eueske. 

et li .xvj. qui auoec lui remesent, re- 
ohurent tout, ordene de prouoire. 



Et quant la terre fu toute ramenee a 
la sainte creanche: 

etlipastour furent establi par chascune 
chite : 



si se pensa iosephe ke U ne laisseroit mie 
la ricbe chite de sarras sans cor-saint. 
Lors si vint par- le conael de la boine 

roine sarraquite: 

pour aler querre les cors des deus sains/ 

hermites la u ele li dist ke il gisoient. 

Et quant • il vint la, entre lui et sa 

compagnie, 

si prie notre signour, par la sole mise- 

ricorde. 



208 JOSEPH riNDS THE TWO SAINTS' BODIES, WITH BOOKS OF THEIR LIVES. 



And that here Names he Mihte knowe 

Er he thens paste Ony throwe. 

Thanne fonde he there A lytel lyveret 

Where-Inne that these names weren set ; 540 

And the Merite3 that god gan for hem do 

In that litel leveret he fond Eyht tho. 

The Ferste lineret thus gan it sein, 

' Here lith Salnstes In certein 544 

"Wheche that was Goddis trewe Seriawnt, 

Of whom the lif Of him Make]? semblawnt 

That xxxvi wynter hermyt hadde he be, 

And that neuere worldly viannde sawh he 548 

That Euere was mad with mannis hond.' — 

Thus this liueret doth vs to vndirstond — 

' But Erbes & Rotes that In Erthe were ; 

Thus lyved he xxxvi ful 3ere.' 552 

And furthermore I-wreten ]?ere was 
' Here lith Ermonies In this plas ;' 
And thus his lif gan for to telle, 
' That XXX wynter & viij Monthes snelle 556 

Sethen that ferst Ermyt becam he ' — 
As In this liueret here mown 3e se — 
' That Neuere Othir clothing he hadde 
But swich as ferst to his Ermitage he ladde, seo 
Nethir In hosinge, nethir I schon, 
Ne non Othir thing On him to doon. 
Othir viaunde hadde he non verament. 
But Everiday swich As God hitn Sente ;'— 564 

And of Tasse he was born ; 
The to]?er In bedlem, |jat I Eehersed beforn. 

And whanne losephe gan this to vndirstonde, 
Vppe hem took he with his honde 568 

And bar hem Into the Cite of Sarras, 
Where-offen Many a man Glad J?ere was. 



ke il li daignast demoustrer les nons 
d' aus, et les merites. Et quant il 
eut faite s' orison, si le desfoui, 
et si trouua en chascune fosse vn liuret, 

ou la vie del boin home estoit escrite, 
et li nons de lui el commencliement. 



Et si disoit li premiers liui'es. 

" Clii gist salustes 

li loiaus sergans ihesu crist." 

et sa vie deuisoit 

ke il auoit .xxxvij. ans 

gouste de nule terriene viande 

qui par main de nul mortel home ne 

de nule mortele feme li eust este apor- 

tee. 

■ Et en I'autre liuret auoit escrit, 
" Chi gist hermoines," 
et si disoit sa vie 

' ke il auoit este xxix. ans et .v. mois 
en hermitage 

ke onques ne fu descauchies ne des- 
poiUies. ne puis que si premier soUer 
li falirent, ne caucha d'autres. Ne il 
ne vesti puis de reube ke la sole pre- 
meraine fa vsee. Se ensi non com 
notre sires li enuoioit. 

et si disoit enchore sa vie. ' ke il es- 
toit de tarsenes : 

et salustes estoit de la chite de beth- 
leem. 

Ensi counut iosephes la vie et les 
nons des beneois cors sains. 

Si les emporta en sarras. Si remest 
sains salustes en sarras. 



NASCIENS GETS ST. HERMOINE'S BODY TOR ORBERIKE. PRIESTS ARE ORDAINED. 209 



Thanne Nascien preide loseph tlio 

That with him to Orbery wolde he Go, 572 

And that On Of hem that he myhte have, — ' 

Holy hermoine th'ermit he gan to Crave, — 

Where that worthily his Body beried he, 

And a E-yal Chirche Mad there be ; 576 

And In Sarras Cite ful Oerteinly 

He let Eeren a Chirche ful solempnely. 

And In eche of these Chirches two 

Twelfe prestes he dide there do, 580 

Eor the bisschope Of nethir plase there 

Mihte not Suf6.sen, so moche peple were. 

The Ermyt At Sarras the Eldest they gonne 

CaUe, 
And the 3ongest at Orbery thus seiden thei 

Alle. 584 

Thus thanne Joseph worscheped there 
Bothe Cite3 with holy bodyes in fere, 
AYhere as they grete Myracles do 
Everi day dureng 3it hidirto. 588 



et nasciens si pria iosephe 



qu'il li otriast .s'. hermoine. 

Et il li otria : si 1* en fist nasciens porter en 
orberike. Et quant il fu la ; si fist metre le 
cors en mult riche uaissiel, et si li fonda riche 
eglise et honerable. 

Et a saint saluste fu vne eglise establie autresi 
de mult grant rikeehe et de grant biaute, en 
la chite de sarras. 

Et si furent establi en chascune de ches deus 

eglises 

.xij. prouoire pour faire le saint seruiohe : et 

pour oonsillier la pule desous I'eueske. 

Car li eueskes ne pooit mie souffire a 
si grant pule consillier tous seus Car 
les gens estoient enchore trop noueles. 
Et li eueskes qui fu establis en sarras 
si fu apieles ' anatistes.' Et cHl d'or- 
berike fu apieles ' iuuenaus.' 



Ensi honera iosephes li boins eures 
les .ij . chites des deus haus cors sains. 
Car li glorieus fiex dieu. i fait et fera 
iusk'eu la fin du monde grans virtus 
et grans miracles pour I'amour d'aus. 



2 E 



210 



CHAPTER XVII. 

How Joseph slioTvs Mordieins (Evalach) and Xasciens (Seraphe) the Ark and the holy things in it (p. 210). 
On seeing the Holy Grail, Xasciens is filled with joy (p. 211); tells them how a vision of his youth 
is now fulfilled (p. 211), and then lifts up the ' plateyne' over the dish, for which he is struck blind 
(p. •212). Mordreins asks Xasciens what he saw, but can only get a vague answer (p. 213). An angel 
appears with the lance whose head is in Joseph's thigh, and draws out the head by putting the lance to 
it (p. 214). With the blood from the wound he restores Nasciens's sight (p. 215); tells him that 
when the lance drops blood, the secrets of the Sank Byal, or Seint Graal, shall be known (pp. 215-16), 
and predicts that the last of Nasciens's line shall be the only man thereafter wounded by the lance, and 
who shall see the wonders of the Holy Grail (p. 216). Mordreins asks Joseph to interpret his dream of 
the Three Trees [Chapter vii. p. 58], and Joseph does so (p. 217-221). The ugly-barked tree is Christ, 
the other two the Father and the Holy Ghost ; the two people that left the others were Adam and Eve ; 
those who hewed the branches were the Jews who crucified Christ (p. 218). Also of the Descent into 
Hell, the Ascension, the Trinity (p. 219), and their names, Former, Saviour, Cleanser (p. 220); and of 
the Immaculate Conception and Birth of Christ (p. 221). Joseph orders Mordreins to burn the image of 
the woman that he has secretly lain with (p. 222). Mordreins shows the hidden chamber where he 
kept it, and then burns it (p. 223). Joseph departs from Sarras, and 207 Saracens with him (p. 224). 
His last charge to the king (p. 225). 



Thus the Contre Of Sarras & Xascien i* 

"Weren Clene becomen Cristene men. 2* 

Thanne seide the kyng and Xasciens tho 
' That -srith loseph thanne wolde they go 
To seen where that they made here preiere,' 
Thus seiden the king & jS^ascien there. 4 

Anon thanne loseph with-Owten lettenge 
To the Arch hem browhte, & made non tarienge, 
And schewede there to the kyng 
In the Arch there ful precious thing : 8 

And there the king beheld In that plas 
The vestements that loseph Sacred with was 
Bisschop of Cristes Owne hond ; 
And Also the Chayere he Say there stond, 12 



En tel mardere com vous aues oi, fu 
li regnesde sarras conquis et gaaignies 
au seruiche del glorieus ihesu crist. 
Apres dist li rois a iosephe, entre lui 
et nascien, 

' ke il voloient veoir quel saintuaire 
il portoient, et en quel lieu il faisoient 
lor orisons.' 

Et iosephes 

les mena a 1' arche: 

et si moustra a eus deus, et a la roine, 

sans plus, 

chou qui dedens estoit. 

Et quant il virent 

les vestemens es quels ihesu cris auoit 
iosephe sacre, si les prisierent mult, 

et plus asses la kaiere en quoi il auoit 



JOSEPH SHOWS THE GRAIL. NASOIENS TELLS THEM HOW HE HAD HEARD OF IT. 



211 



"Whiche Chaier he preisede wondirly faste, 

And there-offen he seide thanne atte last 

' That It was of Alls the E-yalest Sittyng than 

That Evere Ordeyned was for Erthly man.' 16 

Thanne loseph schewed hem the holy disch Anon 
Where-Inne that Sank E,yal was I-don ; 
And whanne that Nasciens loked ther vppon, 
Ful passeng gret loye hadde [he] Anon, 20 

And seide ' Of Alle the sihtes ]?at Euere 3it he 

say, 
Liked him neuere non so moche In-to J^at 

day;' 
Ne nenre so loyful was he of siht 
As that tyme was Nascien, I the plyht. 24 

Now hadde he holy his Entent ; 
That he desired to sen, was ]?ere present. 
" Now wot I wel that fulfild it is in me, 
Sire, A thing that I now schal tellen the : 28 

Eor whanne I was A 3ong Sqwyer, 
An gret hert I chasede wilde wher ; 
"Whanne I hadde lost the Noyse of myn howndes, 
And Also Alle my men with-Inne fewe stowndes, 32 
Thanne In gret thowht there I stod ; 
And there was non man that with me bod, 
Ne Abowhtes me non Man Saw I tho 
That Ony word I myhte speken vnto. 36 

And as thus I In this thowht was, 
To me a vois 0am In that plas, 
' Seraphe ! merveille thow not so, 
Eor 3it thi thowht ne may comen the to 40 

Tyl thow mo Merveilles schalt se with-al. 
And Also thing that is Clepid seint Graal.' 
And therefore now wot I ful well 
That this [is] Seint Graal Everidel ; 44 

2 e2 



et disent 

ke cli' estoit li plus biaus sieges et li 

plus riches : 

dont il eussent onques mais oi parler. 



Mais quant il virent la sainte escuele, 
si dist nasciens, ' ke tout chou qu' il 
auoit veu, estoit noiens a veir encontre 
cliel saint vaissiel. Et quant il eut 
mult bien esgardee par de-hors, comme 
chil qui de grignour cuer i gardoit, et 
de plus parfonde entention ke li autre, 
si r apielapar .i. non qui onques puis ne 
li chai. Et si dist au roi et a iosephe, qu' 
iln' auoit onques mais en sa viveu nule 
rien terriene : qui en aucune maniere 
ne li desgraast. Mais ore voit il chou 
qu' il auoit tons iours desire. Car 
chou keilveoit, liplaisoitetgraoit sour 
toutes choses ke il eust onques veues. 

" Ore vol ioubien," distil, " que tout 
mi pense sunt acompli. 

Car ie cheuauchoie, quant i' estoie es- 
cuiers, par vne grant forest, 

si auint ke ie oi perdu tous mes com- 
paignons et mes chiens, apres .i. mult 
grant chierf ke ie caohoie. Et quant ie 
oi d' aus tous pie.rdu, et I'oiret leVeoir, 
si auint chose ke ie chai en .i. mult 
grant pense. 



Endementiers ke ie pensoie si durement, 
si oi ie ne sai qui parler. Mais ie ne vi 
onques nului. Et ne-pour-quant tant 
entendiiou bien que chele vois me dist. 
" Seraphe: que vas tu pensant: pour 
noient i penses. 

Car iamais a nul iour chest pense en 
quoi tu i es entres, n' acompliras : 
deuant ichele eure ke les meruelles 

du graal te serront descouertes." 

Et pour chou sai iou bien, 
ke ch' est li graus. 



212 NASCIENS LIFTS UP THE COVER OF THE GKAIL, AND IS STBTJCK BLIND. 



Now know I wel that my pensifhesse 
Is fulfilled with. Alle Goodnesse." 

3it thowht More Sire Nasciens than, 
And that tyme wrowhte As non wis man, 
And there lefte he vp the plateyne Anon 
That vppon this glorious vessel was don ; 
And whanne with-Inne he gan to looke. 
He him withdrowh, & for drede he 

qwooke. 
And thanne the kyng Axede him Anon, 
" Sire Nascien, what hau 30 at the Arch don ? " 
" Sire," quod he there Anon Ryht tho, 
" He is a fool that don wele as I have do, — 
To knowen the Secrees of his Saviour, 
Htm forto Greven In ony Owr." 
" Why" quod thanne kyng Mordreins tho, 
" Haven 30 now lesu Crist I-Greved so ? " 
" Be my feyth, Sire," quod Sire Nasciens, 
" I knowe wel I have offendid 3it Goddis 

presens, 
For that I have sein so moche he Owtraye 
That non Erthly Man ne Owhte to have saye." 

Ttanne Axede the kyng loseph Anon 
How that this Cawse Mihte Gon ; 
And thanne Answerid Nasciens Agein, 
" Come thens loseph now In Certein, 
Beholde it Not, I preie now to the. 
That semblawnce that was schewed to Me, 
^Vhere-thorwgh that I have now lost my sight 
Be the Ordenaunce of God Almyht, 
Wliiche that I schal neuere Eecoveren A3en 
Til the spere-hed Owt of thin hype be clen, 
Where-with the Aungel At Orcanz Cite 
With that Spere there smot the." 



48 



52 



56 



Car tout mi pense 

sont acompli, puis ke ie voi chon qui 
eutoutes choses me plaist etm' agree." 
Et quant il eut ensi parle : 

si ne li fu pas asses chou qu' il auoit veu. 

Anchois se traist auant, et sousleua 

vne platine 

dontliglorieus vaissiaus estoit couuers. 

Et quant il eut garde dedens, 

si se traist arriere, et commencha durement a 

tranler, comme se il fust pourpris de fieures 

par tout le cors, si s' asist. Et quant il fu assis, 

si senti ke il ni veoit goute. et lors si fu mult 

durement esbahis. 

Et li rois, quant il le vit asseoir et tranbler, 

si s' esmeruella mult, et li demanda 

' quel chose che pooit estre qu' il auoit veue. ' 

Lors li respond! nasciens. " Chertes, 

sire, tant vous puis iou bien dire, 

ke chil est mult caitis et faus 

qui tant enclierke les priuetes de son 

signour, 

ke il en eonquere son couroucli et sa haine," 

" Coument," dist li rois : " pour quoi chose 

aues vous chou dit. 

Aues chose veue par quoi vous cremes 

auoirconquise lahaine notre signour." 

" Par foit," dist nasciens, 

" ie sai de uoir, ke il s' est a moi 
courrechies, 

pour choukei' ai veu par mon outrage: 

chou ke nus horn morteus ne deust 

esgarder." 

Quant li rois oi che, si fu mult esbahis, 

et demanda a iosephe : 

que che pooit estre. 

Et lors dist nasciens : 
68 " ke est che, iosephe : 

vieus tu garder: tant te di iou bien, 
ke se tu i gardes, 

tu ni gariras iamais dufierde lalanche 
qui te remest en la cuisse a orcaus : la 

72 u li angeles noirs te feri. Et pour le 
grant outrage ke ie ai fait, ai iou la 
grant clarte des iex perdue, ne iamais 
ne la recouerrai. luso' a ichele eure 
ke li fers te sera ostes de la cuisse par 
chelui meisme qui li embati." 

76 



60 



64 



NASCIENS WILIi ONLY TELL MORDREINS VAGUELY WHAT HE HAS SEEN. 



213 



Thanne Joseph tho him heeld ful stille, 
Al holy to fulfillen tho Goddis wille. 

Thanne Anon Gan kyng Mordreyns 
There faste Enqweren Of Sire Nasciens 80 

' "What Manere of thing that he had Seye, 
Hym it to schewen he preide Openlye. 
Quod Nasciens, " I haue sein so moche thing 
That J^ere-Offen to tellen it is non Endyng, 84 

Ne non tonge kan It now discrie, 
I sey to the. Sire Kyng, Certeinlie. 
I have sein," quod tho sire Nasciens, 
" Of Alle Manere of wykkednesse the defens ; 88 
I have Sein the begynneng, 
Of Alle wittes the Eowndyng, 
I have sein the begynneng of Religeown 
And Of AUe Bowntes, bothe Al & som, 92 

And the poyntes of Alle Gentrye, 
And a Merveil Of alle MerveUles Certeinlye." 

Aftir this word thanne Anon 
They weren Abaschet thanne Everichon. 96 

The kyng of him thanne Enqwered there 
' How his siht was lost, And In what Manere.' 
And Sire Nasciens Answerid him Agein, 
" I wot Neuere, Sire, for Certein lOO 

But for that I lokede on Jjat swete thing 
That but fewe owhten to don lyvyng. 
The wheche a merveiUe of alle Merveilles 

is; 
Sire king, I the Seye with-owten Mys." io4 

Thanne Enqwered [he] Of Nasciens Ageyn 
What that MerveiUe scholde ben pleyn ; 
"Sire," quod Nasciens, " thow gest non other 

Of Me, 
Siker, Sire, An Also In Certeinte, 108 



Lors se tint iosephes tous cois, 

et li rois commencha 
mult a encherkier, 

' ke se il li pooit dire nule choae de 
che ke il auoit veu, 
ke il li desist.' 

Et nasciens li dist 

' ke il Ten descouuerroit tant 

com nule morteus langhe I'en pooit 
descouurir, ne ne deuoit.' 

" I'ai," dist il, " veu 

la commenchaille des grans hardemens, 

L'ocoison des grans proueches. 
I'enquerrement des grans sauoirs. 
le fondement des grans felounies. 
La demoustranche des grans meruelles. 
La fin des bontes 

et des gentilleclies vraies. 

La meruelle de toutes les autres mer- 
uelles." 

Apres chest mot 

furent tout esbahi de ches meruelles 
qu'il ont ensi deuisees, 
et le rois li demanda 
' se il disoit voir ke il eust la clarte 
des iex pierdue.' 
Et nasciens respondi 

' ke il ne vauroit mie qu'il ne I'eust 
perdue par chel couuent qu'il n'eust 
ueu cbele grant meruelle et esgardee.' 



Lors li commencha li rois mult dure- 

ment a enquerre derechief 

quele chele meruelle pooit estre. et ke 

il en aucune maniere Ten fesist cher- 

tain, 

Et il li respondi ' ke pour noient I'en- 
querroit si. Car en nule guise porroit 
il sauoir autre chertainetei. 



214 



THE ANGEL TAKES THE SPEAR-HEAD OUT OF JOSEPH S THIGH. 



Eor Efthly tonge Is there non On lyve 
That Cowde tho Merveilles wel discryve." 

And whanne thus to-fore the Arch hadde }?ei ben, 
loseph In gret thowht was, as they myhten sen ; 112 
And thus sone A vois there gan to Crye 
That Al the peple it herde Sekerlye, — 
With in that Arch the vois it was 
That thus there Sownede In that plas, — 116 

" My grete veniaunce & my gret discipline, 
With my strengthe to 30W it schal propine." 

And tlius sone as this vois was gon, 
An Aungel Owt Of the Arch Ipere isswed Anon, 120 
And Al In wit I-Clothed was he. 
In A ful fayr Hobe Certeinle ; 
And In his hond he heeld that lawnce ]?ere 
Where-with that losep was smeten Er. 124 

That lawnce, In sihte of Kyng and 

qwene, 
The Awngel to loseph it bar bedene. 
And there put it Into the same plase 
There As to Fore tymes I-hurt he wase. 128 

And whanne the Awngel drow owt f>e lawnce 

Agein, 
The hed thanne folwede In Certein ; 
And the Awngel took A hoist with Oynement 

Anon, 
And to that wownde gan he gon, 132 

And it Anoynt ful Softely 
With that Oynement ful tendirly ; 
And thanne the hed on the lawnce he putte A3ein, 
Where-from Ran down blood ful Clen ; 136 

Wheche blood the Awngel In the hoist 

putte. 
And there-Inne ful worthily he it schytte, 



Fors tant seulement ke il auoi veu 

chou ke par nule mortel langue 

ne porroit estre esclarohie.' 

De cheste chose se meruellierent mult tout 

chil qui I'oirent, 

et iosephes s^estut deuant I'arche, tout pensis, 

sans dire mot, et pensa mult durement. 

Endementiers ke il pensoit ensi : a tant es 

V0U3 ke vne vois s'escria dedens Tarclie mult 

hautement, et si dist, oians tous 



" Apres ma grant venianclie, ma grant 
medicine; et apres ma foursenerie 
mon apaiement." 

Et tantost comme chele vois eut ensi 

parle. 

si vint vns angeles hors de I'arohe 

et fa tous vestus de blanche reube, et 

si tint en la senestre main vne blanche 

boiste. 

Et quant il fu hors de I'arche, si prist en sa 

main destre la lanche 

dent iosephes auoit este ferus en la cuisse, ke 

iosephes meismes auoit aportee d'orcaus et si 

I'auoit apoie au mur qui estoitdeuant Tarche. 

Ichele lanche prist li angeles, si ke li rois le 

vit apertement, et la roine, et tout chil qui 

laiens estoient. 

Et quant il I'eut prise, si- virent tout que il 

vint tout droit a iosephe, 

et ke il lo feri de la lanche desferee en ichel 

lieu meisme 

ou il I'auoit feru a I'autre fois quant li fiers 

i remest. 

Et quant il eut traite a lui la lanche, 



si virent tout ke li fiers s'en estoit hors venus 
auoec la lanche. 

Et li angeles prist la boiste ke il 
portoit en la senestre main, 

si I'asist a terre, 



et mist desus le fier de la lanche, 

si en commenchierent a kair grosses goutes 
de sane, 

et si eouloient en la boiste qui estoit desous, 
tant ke ele en fu toute plaine. Cheste 
meruelle virent apertement tout chil qui 
laiens estoient. Si furent ferment esbahi du 
sane qui couloit ius du fier a grosses goutes. 



THE AN&EL TELLS JOSEPH OE THE MARVELS THAT THE LANCE SIGNIFIES. 215 



And with the same blood Anoynted losephs 

wounde 
And Sire Nasciens Eyen, In that stownde. i4o 

Thus sone as Oleer his Eyen were 
As Evere Ony tyme weren they Ere. 

Thanne Axede Nasciens to loseph In 

hye 
' What that lawnce Mihte Signefye.' i44 

Thanne loseph him Answerid Ageyn, 
" It signefieth, Nasciens, In Certein 
Of the grete merveilles that scholen befalle 
Openly to 30wre Syhtes Alle ; 148 

Eor sweche merveilles as j,e scholen sen, 
And sweche MerveUles as to 30W schol schewed ben, 
To Cristes verray knyhtes discouored schal be, 
Whanne that tyme Cometh this scholen 3e se ; 152 
Eor Erthly knyhtes hevenly scholen been, 
That with 30wre Eyen this scholen 3e seen, 
Of wheche schal Neuere Man tellen pe Cer- 

teinte 
Tyl it be fallen In Eche degre. 156 

And 3if thow wilt here-Oflfen haven som knowyng, 
Tak kepe of this lawnce atte begynneng, 
And whanne this lawnce gynneth to blede 
Dropes Of Blood In Ony stede, I60 

Thanne Aftir Sone scholen 30 sen there 
Of the Merveilles that I Hehersed 30we Ere ; 
And Aftir that Merveille Is Agon, 
Blood on the lawnce Schol e 36 neuere sen 

non ; 164 

Thanne Scholen 30 sen of diuers Aventure 
Hiht MerveiUous, I the Ensure, 
Be the signeficaeioun Of this lawnce, 
That Al the Contre schal ben In dowtawnce ; 168 



Et li angeles prist la boiste en sa main, et 

vint a iosephe, si laua et oinst toute la plaie 

del sane qui fin la boiste estoit ooules del fler 

de la lanche, 

Apres vint a nascien, et si li laua les iex de 

chelui sane meisme. 

Et si tost com li les eut laues, si vit 

ausi cler com il auoit onques plus cler veu. 

Et li angeles redist a iosephe. "regarde:" 

Et iosephes regarde, si vit ke sa plaie estoit 

toute garie si ke il n' i paroit ke seulement 

li lieus ou ele auoit este. 

Lors ala li angeles auant, si reprist la lanche 

et si dist a iosephe 

" Ses tu ke cheste lanche senefie.'* 

Et iosephes respondi. " Naie, sire." 



' Che est li commen- 



Et li angeles li dist. 
chemens 

des mes meruelleuses auentures qui auoient 
en la terre ou diex a pourpose qu'il te menra. 
lUuec auenront les grans meruelles, et les 
grans proueches i seront demoustrees, et lors 
seront les vraies cheualeries descouuertes. 
Lors se departiront * li fans de la compaignie 
as vrais. [* MS. departirent.] 



Car les cheualeries terrienes deuenront 
chelestiaus. 

Ne nus ne sera ia asenes de ches 

auentures, ne chertains. du termine ou 

eles auenront, 

deuant ichelui terme ke eles deueront 

auenir 

Mais au tans ke eles deueront com- 

menchier, 

auenra que oheste lanche rendra sane 
tout autresi com tu as veu. ke ele Fa 
oren droit rendu. 



Ne iamais des-ore-ea-auant 

nule goute de sane n' en kerra, deuant 
ichele eure que les auentures deueront 
auenir, ensi com tu as oi. 
Et lors commencheront a auenir 

les meruelles par toute la terre 
ou cheste lanche sera. 
Et seront si grans et si espoentables 
ke toutes gens en seront esbahies. 



216 or THE ONE MAN WHO IS TO SEE THE GRAIL AND BE STRUCK BY THE LANCE. 



And thanne scholen 30 haven know- 

lecliing 
Of Sank Eyal, & Many An Othir 

thinge. 
For the Secretis of Seint Graal, 
That Somme men it Clepin sane Ryal, 
There may non dedlych Man there Se 
But I alone, As I telle the ; 
For so Mochel Of Bownte it is, 
And there-Inne so mochel worthynes. 
That it is likyng wondirly wel, 
And to the world schal ben Every del, 
As thike that is ful Of Bownte 
And of prowesses fnl gret plente ; 
For he moste ben fnl of Charite 
Of Beligiown & also of Chastite 
That wit the lawnce Smetyn schal be 
As thow me here Sye to-Fore the, 
And that schal there Nenere Man be non 
But the Kyng, I telle it the Alon ; 
For he Schal be the laste Man 
That there-with schal be smeten than, 
Ryht In A wondir-ful Manere, 
As Afterward 36 scholen here ; 
But a Merveillous lawnce it schal be 
Where- with he schal be smeten, as i telle the. 

For these Merveilles schal no Man se 
But he be Ful of Alle Bownte, 
Wheche schal ben the laste man 
That Evere of this ligne schal be than. 
And lik as to Nasciens ferst publisched was, 
So schal he be the laste In Ony plas 
That the Merveilles of the Sank Rial schal se ; 
Thus be 'pe Crwcified kyng it is certefied Me, 



172 



176 



180 



184 



192 



196 



Et toutes ches meruelles si n' auenront 

fors ke seulement par la counissanclie 
d'el saint graal et de chest lanche. Car li 
diesiriera sera si grans, entreles boinsquiachel 
tans seront, que 11 en prenderont a soustenir 
les angoisseus fais des terrienes cheualeries. 
pour counoistre les meruelles du saint graal et 
de la lanche. Et lors seroit establies les mer- 
uelleuses auentures as queles li vrai hardi 
abandouneront lor cors, et par chou seront 
conneu chil qui les proueches aront en aus. 
Ne laraais, che saches tu, les meruelles 
dedens le graal ne seront veues par nul mortel 
home, ke par vn tout seul. 

Et chil sera plains de totites icheles 
bontes ke cors ne cuers d' ome puet 
auoir, ne ne doit. 



Car il sera bbins a dieu et tres boins 
au siecle. Au siecle sera tres boins, 
comme chil ke sera de toutes pro- 
ueches et de toutes bontes plains, et de 
tous hardemens. Et apres sera boins 
a dieu. Car il sera plains de karite, 
et de grant relegion, et si sera sou- 
urainnetes de toute chastee. 
Et de cheste lanche dont tu as esteferus ; 



ne seras iamis ferus ke vns seus hom 

Et chil sera rois, et descendera de ton 

lignaige, _ 

si serra li daerrains des boins 

188 Chil en sera ferus 

parmi les cuisses ambedeus. ne ia 
n' en garira iusque a tant que les 
meruelles del graal seront descouuertes 
a chelui qui sera plains de toutes les 
bontes ke tu m' as oi nomer. 



Et chil qui de toutes ches bontes sera 
plains, et qui cheste meruelle uerra, 

si serra li daerrains bom del lignage 
nascien. 

Et tout ausi com nasciens a este li 
premiers hom qui les meruelles du 
graal a veues: autresi sera chil li 
daerrains qui les verra. 



200 Car che dist li urais cracefis. 



THE ANGEIi CONCLUDES. MOUDREINS ASKS JOSEPH ABOUT HIS VISION (CH. vii. P. 58). 217 



' Therefore bothe begynneng And Endeng 

Of My Merveilles tbey scholen baven know- 

leching, 
And on bem to my veniaunce sbal I Caste, 
That they two scholen knowen Me Atte laste, 204 
And Of My strok Me witnesse to here 
That I to the herte wasse stonge with A spere, 
Thorw wheche strok & ojjere f>e fals lewes 

certeinli 
On the Crois Me Slowen, hangeng On hy.' 208 

& knowe thow wel, loseph, with-owten dowt- 

aunce, 
That as longe as thow hast born this lawnce, 
So long scholen the Merveille3 duren to th'ende 
Into that londe where I schal the sende." 212 

Thanne the Aungel torned A3en Anon ; 
But Abasched weren they Everichon, 
Eor they ne hadden not non Cler knowlichenge 
Sauf Only of Nasciens Certifienge. 
Thanne loseph Rekened tho riht Anon 
How longe seth J^e lawnce was In him don, 
So that it was xii dayes fully 
That the lawnce hadde he born Certeinly. 

Than Anon wente kyng Mordreyns, 
And to his paleys ladde all Oristiens, 
Sauf Only thre that leften Of that hep, 
The wheche Abyde there with Joseph. 

Thanne clepid the kyng Joseph anon 
Or Ony Eote Furthere wolde he gon, 
'That of theke A-visiowns he wolde him 

Schewe 
That In his chambre he saw Al on Eewe, 
The Nyht to-Eore 1 wente to Bataille 
That thing it was that Me Gan so to saille, 

2 F 



216 



220 



'Au premier home du precieus lignaige, 

et au daerrain, 

ai iou deuise a demoustrer mes mer- 

uelles.' Et si dist enchore apres. 

' Sour le premier et sour le daerrain de mes 

menistres nouuiaus qui sont enoint et sacre a 

mon plaisir, espanderai iou la venianche de 

la lanche auenturcuse. 

pour chou ke ie voel qui il doi me 

soient loial tesmoing 



ke, par le caup de la lanche, 



fu ea la crois m' amours encherkie et 
esproutiee o les felons juis.' 
Et si saches tu bien, losephe, ke autrestant 
de iours com tu as porte le fier de la lauche en 
ta cuisse : autrestant d'ans durront les meruel- 
leuses auentures en la terre ou diex te doit 
mener et conduire,pour ton lignaige ramanoir, 
Des-ore-mais est il bien tans ke tu t' en allies. 
Car tu as tant demoure en chest pais ke tu i 
as fait grant partie de la besoigne et de la 
volente ton creatour." 

A tant 3' entouma li angeles. 

Et cliil ki ches paroles auoient escoutees 
furent mult esbahi des meruelles qu' il auoit 
dites, Et de nascien fu grans la ioie, qui 
auoit recouuree sa veue. Car il en auoient 
tout en mult grant paour. 

Et iosephes commencha a center 

combien il auoit portei le fier de la lanche en 

sa cuisse. 

Si trouua par droit nombre ke il auoit porte 
.xxii. ans entirs. 



A tant se departirent de laiens, 

si enmena li rois en son palais tous les cres- 

tiens ebrieus. 

fors seulement trois 

224 qui remesent pour I'arche garder. 

Et quant il furent el palais : si apiela li rois 
iosephe, et si li dist, 



' ke il chiertefiast lui et nasciens de la 
vision 

228 qu' il auoit veue en son palais 

la nuit deuant che ke il raeust pour 
aler en I'ost,' 



218 JOSEPH TELLS MOBDREINS THE VISION OE THE THEEE TREES THAT HE SATf, 



Neuertheles 3it wot I of som what how it 

ferde, 
But I wolde that Nascien of 30wre mowth it 

herde.' 

Thanne of these MerveUles Joseph gan telle, 
Aforn Mordreyns and Nasciens he gan to 

spelle, — 
" Sire king ! ferst In thi Chombre there pou 

Sye 
Thre Trees that weren wondirly hye, 
Alle iij of on gretnesse, And of on lengthe, 
And of on heythe, & of on strengthe ; 
And thike that hadde the Towle bark 

vppon, 
That signefled verray Goddis sone ; 
The tothere tweyne Signefled, I tellet the, 
The Padir And the holigost In Trenite ; 
And the peple that vndir the Tre was, 
The begynneng of J?e world it was ; 
The tweyne that partid from hem thanne 
Was Adam & Eve the ferste Manne, 
That to helle wenten down Ryht 
After here deth, I the plyht. 
And Alle the Eemnawnt Jjat Alien In tho : 
So dyden they Tyl God on the Cros was do. 

And tho that the brawnches gonnen for to 
hewe. 
It weren the Pals lewes vppon A rewe. 
That persehed bothe his hondes & Feet, 
And non hoi stiche On him they leet. 
And whanne the Tre Fyl A-down, 
Alle the Bark there lefte In virown ; 
The body that was the Bark with-Inne, 
In-to ]?e dich it fil, and nold not blynne. 



232 



236 



240 



244 



248 



252 



256 



" Et ne-pourquant iosephe," dist il, 
" ie sai ke vne partie en senefie. 

mais ie voel ke nasciens le sache par 
votre bouche meisme." 
Lors commenclia iosephes a parler, et 
si dist, 



" rois, tu veis en mi ton palais 



trois arbres, et si fu en cheste plache 

chi endroit, 

chil troi arbre estoient d' un gros, 

et d' un haut, et d' une samblanche, fors 

i-tant seulement ke chil del milieu estoit cou- 

uers d' une esoorche mult laide et mult noire. 

ChU a la noire escorche estoit la sene- 

fianche del fil dieu : ch' est des iiesu 

crist. qui se couuri en terre de laide 

char mortel. 

Et li autre doi senefient 

Ie pere et le saint esperit. 

et les manieres des gens qui estoient desous 
la pere, si senefient le eommenchement du 
monde. Car en chel tans n' estoit mie enchore 
la trinites conneue. Li doi qui se departirent 
de la compaignie des autres et salirent en la 
fosse. 

Che fu li premiers hom et la premiere 

feme 

qui alerent en infer 

tantost qu' il furent mort. 

et li autre lea sieuirent tout. Car il ne fu 

onques puis nus, tant eust bien fait en sa 

vie, qui n'en alast en infer tantost que 1' ame 

li departoit du cors: tant ke vint achele eure 

ke li fiex dieu souffri mort. 

Et les gens qui remesent, et qui depe- 

choient 1' arbre, et parchoient en quatre 

lieus en la tige, 

senefie les iuis, qui au fil dieu pierchi- 

erent les pies et les mains des oleus, et 

le coste d'une lanche, par quoi sa mors 

fu apercheue. Si com li angeles me 

disoit Grains oiant vous. 

Apres vint, li arbres si chai : si ke 

toute la laide escorche remest illuec 

en .j. monchiel. 

et chou dedens 

se lancha iuske dedens la fosse 



AND EXPLAINS THEM AS TYPES OP THE TRINITY, THE REDEMPTION, ETC. 219 



Where alle the peple fil In be-fore, 
And Elles hadden Al the peple be lore ; 
And whanne A while there hadde he been, 
Owt of that diche he Cam A3en, 
And Into his bark A3en tornede he sone, 
Eor wel he wiste what was to done ; 
And so Cler be-Cam that Tre withal 
As Evere dyde ony berylle Othir Cristal. 

Of Alle this thing the Signeflawnce 
I schal 30W declaren with-Owten veriannce ; — 
"Whanne the holigost from the Body was gon, 
The Body In the Sepulcre was leid Anon ; 
As A thing that ded tho was. 
So lay the Body in that plas; 
And therwhiles was the Sowle In helle 
The Eendes host al forto felle ; 
And his beloved thanne Everichon 
Owt thens with him he browhte Anon ; 
And thanne whanne thus hadde he I-do, 
Into the Sepulcre the spirit gan go, 
Al so Clere And Al so Bryht 
As Evere the Godhede was In Syht. 

And the peple that heng vppon the brawnche 
Signefied the sowles where-offen he wolde not 

stawnche, 
But hem forth Browhte Euerichon, 
And Of his welbeloved he left non On ; 
And the leves of that Tre don Signefie 
The Membres of God, I sey the Oerteynlye. 

And be these thre trees Vndirstonde thow 
wel 
The blessid Trenite Everidel,- — 
Fadir & Sone & holy gost, 
iij. persones, & but On god Of Mihtes Most. 

2f 2 



260 



264 



268 



272 



276 



280 



284 



ou tovtes lesgens estoientsaliesdevant. 



Et quant il i eut .j. peu este, 

si se lancha liors. et si en traist mult, 
grant partie des gens qui estoient dedens. 
Et apres reuint en son lieu, et reuesti 
la laide escorche ke il auoit laissie. 

Mais quant il eut uestue, ele ne fu mie autres- 

tele com ele auoit deuant este. Anchois mua 

toute, et fu a ohent doubles plus biele et plus 

clere ke cristaus. 

De cheste chose vous dirai iou bien la 

senefianclie. 

Quant lifiexdieu ot rendue 1' ame en la 

crois, 

si fu li cors mis el sepuchre, 

comme chose qui estoit morteus. Et de cheste 

chose peut bien mes peres porter loial tes- 

moing. car il le coucha el sepulchre a ses. deus 

mains. 

Et quant li cors fu ensi enseuelis : li 

esperis en ala maintenant en infier. 



Et si en traist tons cliiaus et toutes 
cheles qui son seruiclie auoient fait en 
terre puis le commencliementdu monde. 
Et quant il fu reuenus d' infier, 

il reprist son cors . 

Mais il canga. Car il laissa toute mor- 

talite, 

si reuint celestiaus. 

Che ke vous veistes, ke les gens pre- 
noient les rains d' el arbre, et les 
fueiles, si en decaupoient, vne partie 
en ardoient: che senefie les menbres 
ihesu crist. Che sont li loial ministre : 
dont li .iiij. sont ochis, li autre ars en 
fu. liautretue depierres,pourle non de 
lui essauchier, et acroistre sa creanche. 

Ensi poes entendre par les .iij. arbres, 



288 la trinite, 



les .iij. persones en vne deite. 



220 JOSEPH EXPLAINS THE NAMES ON THE TREES IN THE KING's VISION, AND 



But on Godhed & but on deyete 

Signefien tho persones tlire ; 292 

So Is On god I thre porsones, 

A.nd but on deyete In tbo wones ; 

Ne nethir Of bem More tbanne othere Is, 

Netbir strengere ne feblere witb-Owten Mys." 296 

" Josepb," seyde tbanne tbe kyng Anon, 
" Tbese vndirstonde Icb wel Evericbon ; 
But now Bibt fain wolde I wete of tbe 
Wbat Ipe Signifiaunce of tbeke tbre wordis mown 

be." 300 

" Ful gladly Sire," quod Josepb tbo, 
" Tbeke tbre wordis I scbal tbe undo ; — 
Tbe Ferste tbat " Pormere " wreten Is tbere 
Betokenetb tbe Eadir In tbis Manere, 304 

For be Pormed Ferst Alle tbing 
From begynneng Into tbe Endyng. 
And, Eor tbe persone of tbe sone Into Ertbe 

Alybte 
To saven Mankende tborowgb bis Owne Mibte, 308 
Tbere-fore to ]?e sone belongetb tbe savacion of 

Man, 
Tbus Hedely is it, As I tbe tellen Can ; 
And for tbe Cause tbat it is so. 
He Calletb bim " Saviour " witb-owten Mo. 312 
And, for tbe boligost discendid Adown 
At pentecost to tbe disciples In virown, 
Eor to Clensen, And forto Maken Clene, 
And bem Eorto Enflawmen Al bedene, — 316 

And, for alle pvrifiments be-longen to J>e boli- 
gost, 
Tberfore as " Clensere " it signefiet, As it nedis 

Most. 
Now tbe lettrure of tbese persones tbre, 
I baue declared, As 3e Mown se, 320 



et la seuele deite en trois persones, 
d'un 

grant, et d' une poissanche : 

ne 1' une meaour : ne 1' autre grignour.'' 

" Par foi." dist li rois 

" tout chou ai iou mult bien entendu. 

Mais des letres, me faites chertain, 
ke les vnes disoient. ' CHst forme,' et 
les autres disoient. ' Chist purefie.' " 

" Chou," fait iosephes, 

" est asses entendable chose. 

Chil qui forme est li peres. Car che dist 1' es- 
criptoure, ke li peres cria toutes choses de 
noient. Et pour chou dist la letre ke li peres 
fourma toutes choses. Car el commenche- 
ment del monde n' estoit pas la counissanche 
del fil venu auant. Ne li premiers pules n'en 
seut rien, et pour chou apartint la formanche 
de toutes creatures a la persone du pere. 
Et poux chou ke la persone du fil vint 
en terre 

rachater home, 

pour chou apartint li sauuemens d'ome 

a la persone du fil. 



Et pour chou ke li sains esperis vint 

en terre 

au iour de la pentecouste 

pour monder et pour espurgier les 

cuers des desciples. Et non mie tant 

seulemeut ichelui iour. mais a mains 

autres iours, et en mains autres lieus. 

Pour chou apartient lipurefiemens des 

cors et des corages a la persone du 

saint esperit. 



Oreaues oies les proprietes des.iij. per- 
sones 



THE CHILD THAT CAME MIRACULOUSLY THROUGH THE WALL. 



221 



That but On deyete And On pvsaunce 
Hauen they thre with-Owten variaunce." 

" Now vndirstonde I this Riht wel, 
From gynneng to Endeng Everidel ; 3:^4 

But of More," quod the kyng, 
' Thow most don me vndirstonding ; 
What that chambre doth signefie 
That with Min Eyen I saw so verralie, 328 

That I wende Neuere to-forn theke day 
Into Swich An hows non Man ne entren May." 
" A ! Sire," quod loseph thanne Anon, 
" jjat wele I declaren Er I hens gon ; 332 

Eor that I wolde with Al my myht 
In stedfast beleve to bringen the ryht. 
Thike Child that In the Chambre was. 
And fo-forn the Isswede In that plas 336 

With-Owten Ony wal oJ>er dore brekynge. 
Thus it is to thin & to oure Alther vndirstondinge ; — 
It signefieth only Goddis Sone 
That In the Maydeins wombe dide wone, 340 

Where as he In alihte, & Owt he cam 
Be his Owne Miht as God & Man ; 
And lik as he owt of ]?at Chambre isswed to 

fore pe, 
So dide he owt of the virgenite, 344 

And neuere hire Maidenhot was put Away, 
Neither to-forn ne After, As I the say." 
" Thanne telle me, loseph," quod the kyng tho, 
" What was that child that Into Ipe Chambre, 

entred so ?" 348 

" Sire kyng, that Child was the holigost. 
On God of Mihtes Most, 
That Into the chambre Entred thanne 
In the savacioun of AUe kynde of Manne. 352 

There-fore sendeth the to Sein be Me 
That highe lord God J^at is In Maieste, 



qui n'ont ke vne seule poissanclie et 
vne seule deite." 

" Mult nous aues bien fais chertains 

de toutes ches choses," 

fait li rois: "se tant auies fait 

ke nous seussiens la verite 

del enfant 

ke ie vi entrer en ma chambre, 
dont ie ne quidoie 

ke nule riens viuans peust sauoir 

I'entree." 

" Enchore voi ie bien,'' dist iosephes, 

" ke vous n'estes- mie parfais en 
creanche. Car ch'est vne cliose ke 
vous deussies sauoir tout par vous, et 
entendre. Ie Ie vous dirai. 

Chil enfes qui entra en votre chambre, 

et issi hors, 

sans I'uis ouurir ne maumetre, i 

senefie Ie fil dieu, 

qui el cors de la virgene 

entra, et issi, 



sans son puechelage maumetre.'' 

'' Or me dites donques," fait li rois, 
" qui li enfes fu. Car la senefianche 
ai iou bien entendue. Et cheste parole 
meisme me dist vne vols. Apres chou 
que ie I'oi veu." 

A cheste chose respondre, commenoha io- 
sephes a penser. et quant il eut vn peu pense, 
si respondi au roi. " Rois, or enten qui fu 
chil qui en aamblanche d'enfant entra en la 
chambre, et issi. Che fu li esperis notre 
signour, de la qui bouohe cheste parole issi. 
' Nule chose n'est couuerte qui ne aoit des- 
couuerte.' 

Et pour chou ke vous ne tiegnies 
cheste chose a menchoinge : pour chou 
vous mande il par moi, 



222 JOSEPH TELLS MORDEEINS TO BURN THE IMAGE THAT HE HAS LAIN WITH. 



' That thow scliost Anon putten Away 

Thike fals simylitude ]?at thow hast kept Mani day, 

And that thow do hem brennen Anon Riht 357 

Openly In Al the peplis siht ; 

That semblawnce that so longe Jjou hast had In 

kepinge, 
Thow Schalt it don brenne Oner Alle thinge.' 360 
Where thow hast don fowl dedly Synne, 
In tho pointes that thow hast Trespaced Inne, 
The holigost wele J^at it be declared Openly, 
Thi Falsnesse And thin fowle foly, 364 

That AUe the world it Mowen knowe 
Of thi meyne, bothe hyghe and lowe." 

This Semblannee that I have spoken of here, 
Lesteneth to Me, and j,e Mown lere ; 368 

What Manner of semblaunce that worschepe he, 
36 scholen Mown bothe heren and se. 
He hadde don him Mad A fair ymage 
In forme Of a woman of high parage, 372 

And A fairere ymage ne Mihte non ben 
Of tre ne ston I-Mad, As men Mihten sen, 
And with hire the king lay Enery oper nyht, 
And thereto In Ryal Robes sche was diht, 376 

And In al so E-iche & worthi Aray 
As ony man Cowde devyne oipev say ; 
And a chambre for hire he let Ordeyne, 
The most Merveillous that men herd of 

seyne, 38o 

That non Man Cowde knowen the openinge 
Nethir th'entre ne Owt-Goyng. 

Thanne Anon Clepid he forth Sire 
Nascien 
And his qwene to-Foren him to Comen 

then, 384 

And seide ' that he wolde hem Alle Schewe 
His fals leveng, with-Inne A tlirewe, 



ke tost ales oster 

la desloial samblanche ke vous aues 

toutiouTSgardee el sousterrin de chele 

chambre meisme, 

et se vous ne I'ostes, et vous ne la ietes, 

voians tous et toutes. 



li esperis notre signour me commanda 
que ie desceuure 

la meruelle grant pour quoi vous li 
aues tant tenue. 

et lors si porres apercheuoir que nule 

chose n' est si reposte k'ele ne seut 

seue." 

Chele samblanche 



si estoit vne ymage de fust, 

a meruelle de grant biaute, en guise 
d'une feme. 



Et si estoit vestue de si riches reubes com li 
rois les pooit trouuer plus riches et plus 
precieuses. A chele ymage gisoit li rois car- 
nelment. et de si grant amour I'auoit amee 
li rois bien .xv. ans ke nus horn ne peust 
auoir grignour amour a nule feme mortel. 
Ne nus hom, tant fust priues de lui, n'auoit 
onques seu chest consel. 
anchois i auoitfait lirois faire .i. huis, 

si soutil 

ke il ne quidoit mie ke nus hom mor- 
teus le peust apercheuoir, tant i seust 
esgarder. 

Et quant iosephes eut ensi parle a lui. 
Si en fa li rois mult esbahis. et dist 
' ke voirement ne pooit nule riens estre 
couuerte ne chelee en terre a dame 
dieu.' tout maintenant apiela nasciens 
son serourge, et la roine, 

et si dist ' qu'il lor mousterroit 

la grant desloiaute 



MOBDREINS SHOWS THEM THE CONCEALED CHAMBBB, AND BURNS THE IMAGE. 223 



That SO longe he hadde kept And lad.' 

Anon his Meyne he Comanded, & bad, 
' A gret Peer Forto Maken Anon 
In his'paleySj Amongis hem Echon ;' 
And whanne ]?at feer was brennenge briht, 
Anon he Comaunded hem Owt of his Siht 
And Owt of the Paleys Forto gon, 
Alle his Meyne Everichon, 
So that In his Compenye ne left not there 
But loseph, & Nasciens, & his qweene in J>ere. 

Thanne the kyng ladde hem forth Anon 
To a sotyl hows was mad of Marbre ston, 
And Alle of divers Oolowres it was, 
Ful seteli I-wrowht In that plas, 
And the Schettynge was Mad so previly 
That non Man Miht it knowen Apertly, 
With a sotil barre with-Inne I-wrowht, 
That non man th'entre ne knewe 

nowht. 
And whanne the kyng it Opene scholde, 
A sotyl Ernen keye In his bond gan holde, 
The wheche the lointours he gan vnschitte, 
So wel of that For-knew he itte. 
And thus thei Entreden Everichon 
There that ymage was Riht Anon, 
Where that disloyalte & synne he hadde I-do 
With that ymage J^at In the hows was so. 

And that ymage Took he there Anon 
Ryht 
And Into that Fyr he let it to ben dyht. 
And alle the E-iche Robes Also 
That vppon thike ymage weren I-do, 
Evene thus dide he In alle mennes Siht 
Thike Ymage to don brennen ful briht. 



qu'il auoit si lougement menee.' 

388 Lors commanda 

a faire .i. mult grant fu, 

ens en mi lieu du palais, 

et quant il fu bien espris, 

392 si commanda sa maisnie qu'il alais- 
sent tout hors, 



39G 



400 



404 



408 



412 



416 



si ke il ne remest en sa compaignie 

ke ioseplie et ioseph et nascien et la 

roine. 

Lors les mena li rois 

a I'uisqui el mur estoit seeles de pierre 

marbrine, 

et tous li mur estoit de diuerses 

coulours tains. 

Chil huis estoit si soutieument fremes, 
ke, si tost com il clooit, si chaoit par 
dedens vns engiens de fier en guise de 
bare, 

par quoi li hius estoit si fermement 
apoies, ke tous ioursi peust on bouter, 
ne ia ne se meust. anchoisle couuenist 
pechoier que on i entrast. 
Et quant li rois le uoloit ouurir, si 
auoit vne clauele de fier a meruelles 
teuene. et si tost com il le boutoit par 
entreles iointures des coulours par qui 
r entree de la clauele estoit plus des- 
aparcheuans : tantost caoitvns engiens 
de keuure en samblancke d' un mail 
sour la bare el chief derriere. et tan- 
tost sousleuoit li chies deuant, et saloit 
hors du oroket ou la bare tenoit, et 
en cheste maniere entroit ens li rois 
quant il uoloit aler a 1' ymage pour 
faire sa desloiaute et son pechie. 
Quant il orent moustre la grant sou- 
tilleche del huis, 

si les mena en la chambre, et quant 
il vint el sousterrin : si prist il meismes 
r ymage, 

et si r aporta el fu ardant voiant aus 
tous. Et quant ele fu toute arse, 
et la reube ke ele auoit vestue, et li 
fust dedens. 



224 



JOSEPH DEPARTS FROM SARRAS WITH 207 SARACENS. 



" O," quod the kyng, " goode lord God, moclie 

is ]pi Miht, 
That me Sendest grace nowe In thi Siht 420 

My fals levenge forto Eorsake, 
And Only to thi servise me take !" 
And there alle his Synne he forsook, 
And Onlyche to goddis servise him took. 424 

Thanne merveilled Alle that Meyne 
What theke semblawnce myht be, 
For there-offen herden they Neuere speken 

be-fore 
Of non Man that Evere 3it was I-bore. 428 

Alle this was thorwgh losephe's techinge, 
Him self and Al his Rem In good lif to bringe 
Thorwgh the Comandement of Oure lord ; 
Thus was the semblaunce brend at on word. 432 

And whanne loseph hadde Alle this I-do, 
And thike ymage dide brenne J?ere Also, 
And al the land browht In good beleve, — 
Prom Sarras ward he gan to meve, 436 

And took his leve at kyng and knyht, 
At Naciens, and Of that qAveene so briht. 
Thanne the kyng, the qwene, & Sire Nascien, 
Co\Tndied loseph A gret weye then, 440 

And Alle that weren In his Compenye 
Eorth vnih. loseph thei gonnen hem Gye, 
Wheche that A gret Meine it was 
That to losephe Seiden In thike plas, 444 

' That 3if loseph wolde In here Compenie go, 
From him departen they wolde they neuere mo.' 

And loseph Resceived hem Everichon 
That In his Compenye gonnen to gon, U8 

So As be nombre it was I-Eekened to me 
T^'o hundred & Sevene of theke Meyne. 



Si dist li rois ' ke mult estoit de grant 
pooir notre sire, 

qui chest corage li auoit enuoiet. Car 
il ne quidoit mie ke iamis ses cuers en 
peust estre ostes par nule paine. 

Apres counut il meismes son pechie, 
si ke tout r oirent, 

si s' en meruellierent mult durement. 



Car il n' auoient onques mais de tel 

pechie oi parler. 

de la grant mescreanche. 

Ensi destourna iosephes, par le plaisir 

notre signour: le roi et sa terre 

et amena a la sainte ley ihesu crist. 



Et quant vint le iour apres 
qu' il ot fait ardoir 1' ymage, 

si s' enparti de sarras. 
et prist congie au roi, 

et a nascien, et a la roine. 



Et il conuoierent mult longhement, et 

lui et sa compaignie. 

Et quant il se departirent, si eut entr' 

aus mult grant angoisse de suspirs, et 

mult grant espandement de larmes. 

Et quant les gens seurent ke il s' en 

aloient ; si s'en alerent apres mult grant 

partie, et disrent 

'ke se iosephes lesvoloitacompaignier, 

il ne partiroient iamais de lui.' 

Et il les retint tons 



tant ke il furent par conte 
.ij. chens et .vij. 



Joseph's leave-taking and last charge to the king. 



225 



And so of the kyng his leve there he took 

And Alle the Compenie that he not forsook, 452 

& Charged ]je kyng ' holi chirche to sosteyne 

And Neuere to his fals levenge to tornen Ageyne, 

More-Oner to kepen Oristes lawes, 

My techeng, And Jjerto Alle my sawes.' 456 

Thus departed the kyng and they tho 
"With wepinges, syghenges & Manion mo, 
Por hem thowghte forloren they were 
Whanne losephe departed from hem there, 460 

As 3e scholen heren here Aftirward 
What happes & Ohaunses befiUen hem hard. 
And whanne that loseph forth wente. 
Into what Contre he ne wiste veramente, 464 

Bnt As be Goddis Oomandement 
He it FulfiUede tho verayment. 



Si prist congie, 



et lor pria mult de sainte eglise es- 
sauohier a lor pooirs, 

et de bien tenir la loy ihesu crist. A 
tant s' enparti d' aiis, et chil retour- 
nerent 



mult pensieu, et mult ploureus, 

comme chil qui il sambloit ke tout 

eussent perdu 

puis ke iosephes s' en aloit. 



2 G 



226 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Of Mordreins (or Evalach). How he had a wonderful dream, which sorely troubled him, to the distress 
of his queen (p. 227), viz.: 'that he was holding his Court in Sarras, and as he sat at meat a 
thunderbolt knocked the first morsel out of his mouth, and his crown oiF his head (p. 228) ; that a wind 
carries him away to a place where a lion brings him food, which a lioness carries off, till he hits her 
with his fist (p. 228); that he finds his crown, but with splendid stones in it; that an eagle carries his 
nephew, Nasciens's son, to a strange region, where the people kneel to him (p. 229); and then a river 
flows out of his belly, and divides into nine streams (p. 229), of which the ninth is troublous and foul 
at its rise, clear in the middle, and glorious at the end (p. 230) ; and that a man from heaven washes in a 
lake, and in three of the streams that separated from the ninth' (p. 230). Saracinte, sad at Mordreins's 
trouble, goes to her brother Nasciens (or Seraphe). (p. 231), and begs him to ask Mordreins a boon, 
that he will tell his dream (p. 231); Nasciens goes to the king, and asks him (p. 232), and Mordreins 
tells him, and says that it came for Mordreins's ingratitude to Nasciens (p. 232-3). To have the dream 
interpreted, they go to the Church that Joseph established, and hear service, (p. 234-5), but none of 
the pastors can interpret it (p. 236). They return to the palace, and feel and hear and see wonderful 
shakings, noises, and lightnings (p. 236); then a horn sounds, and a voice proclaims the beginning of 
dreade (p. 237). Mordreins and Nasciens fall swooning on their bed, and Mordreins is borne away 
by the Holy Ghost (p. 238). 

Now goth forth loseph & Ms Compenye Ores' en vaiosephes et sa compaignie, 

Be Goddis Comandment Certeinlye, notre'signS' '* ^' ^°^^^^^^^^^^ 

But AUe here lornes devisen I ne kan, — ^-i^^-is de toutes lor iournees, ne de 

It were to moche for Ony On Man — 4 ' 

Neithir here herebegage, ne here vyaunde ; ^^ ^^ ohascun lieu ou ilherbergierent, 

„,,,., T / T ^^ parlera pas li contes chi endroit, 

But nothing hem lakked, I vndu"stonde. 

Now from loseph A wllile let VS twynne, anchois tourne la droite voie de 

And of kyng Mordreins we Moste be-gynne, s soS°le roi mordains, 

And of the Compenie that Is in Sarras Cite et sour sa compaignie qui sont remes 

That loseph there lefte of his Meyne. ™ ^'^ '^"*^ ^^ '^"^'- 



MOBD reins' S DISTRESS IN BED, AND HIS WONDERFUL DREAM. 



227 



20 



24 



Thus begynnetli this storie forto telle 
What ATenture king Mordreins Aftir be- 

felle. 12 

In bedde as he lay vppon A Nyht, 
In his slepe was there wondirly afryht, 
And there A gret dreme Cam him vppon, 
As after scholen 36 heren Everichon. 16 

In this wonderful dreme riht longe he lay 
Til that it was ny liht of the day. 
And with his Eyen So sore he wepte, 
And Evere he lay & faste Slepte, 
In Sighenges and In Storbelings sore, 
Al Evere thus he ferde More & More ; 
So that pe qwene, that by him lay. 
To hire herte it was a ful gret fray ; 
But Sche myhte not Enqweren for non thing 
Of him what Amownted this Metyng, 
Eor sche dorste not A3ens his wille 
Hym there-Offen freyne for good ne ylle ; 
Eor he was bothe feers & Crwel, 
Therfore sche ne dorst him A3en neuere a del. 

Thus Abod the kyng In this trowble Owt 
riht 
Til it was passed middes of the nyht ; 32 

And thanne In a softe Slerepe fil he, 
Eor werinesse of travaille he hadde lime be, — 
And thus In dremeng thowhte he, 
' That he was In Sarras, Jjat faire Cite, 36 

And there-In his Cowrt that was so E-iche 
And so worthi, that non was liche. 
To that Cowrt him thowghte comen there 
Manye lordis & ladyes Of gret powere 40 

That weren Arayed & Rialy dyht, — 
So Ryal Saw he Neuere In his siht ; 

2g 2 



Chi endroit dist li contes, 



ke la nuitke li rois fti couchies en son 

lit, 

si chai en vne mult grant pensee dont 

ilfutantformentpensis queil n' estoit 

nus ki peuist de lui parole traire. 

En eel pense demoura mult longement, 
en tel maniere dont vous aues oi. 

et si plouroit des iex, 
et souspiroit del cuer, 

ke la roine qui de les lui gisoit 

en estoit tout esbahie. 

Mais ele ne li pooit tant enquerre 

ke ill' en vausistnuleriens enseignier. 

Ne ele ne 1' en osoit enforchier centre 
sa volente. 

Car il li audit este mult fiers et mult 

crueus, 

si doutoit mult son mautalent et son 

courous. 

Ensi fu li rois en dolour et en messaise 

de pense 

tant ke bien pot estre mienuis. 

Et lors si auint chose qu' il s' endormi 

pour le lassete del pense qui li auoit 

greue. 

Et si entra en.i.mult grant perilleus son- 

ge. Car il li estoit auis en son dormant 

' ke il tenoit en la chite de sarras rne 

court mult riche et mult houneree. 

A chele court venoient 

tout li chiualer et toutes les dames de 
la contree. et quant il estoit issus hors 
d' un mult riche monster ke il n' auoit 
onques mais veu. 



228 



MORDREIXS S DREAM. THE LION AND LIOXESS. 



And to Mete Seten they Alle, 
As to kyng, lordes, & ladyes, don befalle. 
Him thowlite At Ms mete ]?ere that he sat. 
His mowht he opened A morsel puttyng In 

J)ere-at, — 
Him thowghte A thondir blast gan gon, 
That Morsel owt his hand it smot Anon, 
An the Crowne that was vppon his hed 
To the Erthe it Caste In that sted ; 
And whanne he stowpede the Crowne to take, 
A boistous wynd there gan to wake ; 
Hym thowghte he was born Into A straunge 

place 
A fer wey thennes, & f>ere was a long space. 
And 3it him thowhte there wel More, 
That A liown & A lioness to him Comen 

thore, 
Everi day the lyown mete to hire browghte 
And the lionesse Awey it Cawhte, 
Sauf scarsly half his lyvenge 
That the liown dide him bringe. 
And Atte laste him thowghte Agein 
That non lengere he wolde it sofPren in ser- 

tein ; 
And with his fist smot so the lyonesse 
That sche dide him no More distresse. 

Thanne him thowghte his Crowne he fond ; 
And vp he took it J^ere In his bond 
And set it A3en vppon his hed ; 
Thus thowghte him there In that sted. 
But it was Chonged thanne wondirly, 
The stones of that Crowne Certeinly ; 
Eor the stones weren so preciowse to his eye, 
That neuere non So precious stones he sye. 



44 



48 



52 



56 



60 



64 



68 



Si entroit en son palais, et s' aseoit au 
mangier si richement et si bel 
com il est drois et coustume de roi. 

Ensi com il estoit a son mangier, 

et il prenoit le premier morsel pour 
metre en sa bouche: 

si descendoit vns effondres del ciiel, 

et si li faisoit voler son morsel hers 

de sa main 

et sa couroune chaoir ins de son chief 

a la terre. 

Et quant il uoloit releuer sa couroune qui a 
terre gisoit, et il le voloit remetre en sa teste; 
si le prenoit vns grans estourbillons 
de vent, 

et si r enportoit en .i. estrange lieu 
mult loing. 

En cliellieu demouroitmultlongement, 

che li estoit auis, 

et si uenoit a lui chascun iour vns 
lions et vns leus. 

Li lions li aportoit toutes les boines 
viandes et toutes les riches du monde, 
et li leus 1' en toloit 
tant ke U ne 1' en remanoit ke seulement 
sa soustenanclie a mult grant pouerte. 

En la fin, quant il veoit ke chil leus 
le reuboit en tel maniere. si se pensa 
ke il ne li soufferroit plus, anchois se 
conbateroit a lui. 

Tant fist ke il se conbati .i. iour, et 
ke il le venqui a mult grant paine. 
Ensi s' enfui li leus c' onques puis 
point de sa viande ne li toll. 
Apres li estoit auis 
ke il tenoit sa couroune, 

et quant il le voloit metre en son chief 



si le trouoit toute cangie. 



ke ele estoit de la plus clere pierre, et 
de la plus biele 
72 ke nus horn, au sien quidier, eust 
onques veue. 



THE NINE BIVBRS FLOWING OUT OP CELIDOYNE S BODY. 



229 



And wliaiine on his lied it was set Agein, 
Thanne Cam his Nevew, Nasciens sone, 

Certein ; 
Him thowhte that An Egle him ther bar 
Eyht Per with-Inne the Se thar, 76 

Pul fer Into a stravnge contre 
His Nevew him thowghte ]jere bar he, 
And there the Egle lefte him a-down 
Ryht fer Into a strawnge Regiown. 80 

And whanne he was there set In ]?at plase, 
The peple that In the Contre wase 
To him alle they knelid a down 
In that plase Abowtes In-virown ; 
And whanne thus alle they hadden don, 
To him so Enclyned Everichon, 
And gret loie of him they made, 
And of him weren they wondir glade. 88 

Thanne thowghte him that veraillye 
That he Sawgh with his bodilich Eye 
A gret Elood Owt of his body Gon ; 
Of wheche flood becomen there Nyne Anon, 92 

Where-Offen the viij Reveres were 
Of on clernesse, of on depthe & bred him 

Jjowghte fiere ; 
But the laste flood that there was. 
Most deppest. Most Trowblest, semed I that 

plas 96 

The water was as fowl As Ony chanel, 
Riht hydows Therto & ful stordy Ech del. 
Thus Evene ferd it Atte the begynneng ; 
But In the Middis was thanne Anothir 

thing, 100 

Eor the water Also Cler was there 
As ony preciouse stones Owghere, 



Et quant il 1' auoit mise en sa teste 

arriere, 

si veoit il vn sien neueu, qui estoit 

fiex nascien son serourge, 

ke vns grans oisiaus en samblanche 
d' aigle prenoit, et si 1' enportoit voiant 
ses iex outre la mer 

en vne mult estrange terre. 



lUuec le metoit 1' aigle ius. 



Et quant il estoit a terre, 
si venoient toutes les gens du pais, 
si r enclinoieat, 
84 et venoient tout et toutes environ lui. 
Et quant il li auoient tout encline, 



et grant ioie faite. 



Si veoit 

ke vnsgrans lac li saloit hors del uentre- 

et de chil lac si naissoient .ix. flun 
mult biel et mult grant, 
dont li .viij. estoient aukes d' un grant 
et d' une parfondeche. 



Mais chil qui estoit tous daarrains 

estoit de le etde parfont plus grant ke 
tout li autre ensamble. et si estoit tant 
roides et tant bruians que il n' estoit 
nule riens qui le peust soufFrir. 

Chil fluns estoit si tourbles 

el commenchement, et si espes comme 

boe, 

et el milieu 



estoit si clers et si nes 
comme pierre precieuse. 



230 



MOBDKEINS'S DEEAM. A MAN FROM HEAVEN WASHES IN THE RIVERS. 



112 



Not-with-stonding it was boystows & scharpe 

As here to-Foren 36 herden Me Oarpe ; 1 04 

And 3it In the Ende was it in A-nothir Manere, 

5if 36 welen lestene 36 scholen here ; — 

Eor it was More Oleer An hundred fold 

Thanne here to-fore 3e han herd me told, 108 

And More Eairere thanne In the Middes it was, 

And as swete to drinken In ony plas, — 

And so delicious it was to drink e 

That More delicious Cowde non Man thenke ; 

In wheche Ende the Cowrs was so softe 

]?at there-offen was non Noise on lofte. 

3it more him thowghte l^at he Sawgh tho 

A Eair Man that Erom the heveun gan go. 

And as he lokede, him thowghte. An hy 

In his hondis he Sawgh the verray Orucyfi ; 

And to a lake he Gan to Gon, 

His hondes & Eeet he weesch there-Inne Anon ; 

And thre of the floodis wheche ]pat were 

Departid from the Nynthe there ; 

Into AUe thre he Entrede, wete ]?ou wel, 

Hondes, feet, and body he weesch Eche del." 

This Avicioun & this dremenge 
Sawgh the kyng In his Slepinge, 
Wheche that lasted Ny to the day, 
Lik As this Storye vs now doth say. 
Thanne A-wook this kyng Anon, 
And Hemembred him of these viciouns Echon, 
Where-offen Abasched ful sore he was 
Of that wonderful A merveUlous Oas. 

And the qweene that beheeld his fare. 
In hire herte hadde sche ful gret Care 
How sche Myhte Owght knowen of the lif 
Why that hire lord was so thanne pensyf. i36 



Et si roides et si bruians com vous 
aues oi. 

Enohore estoit il en la fin d' autre 
maniere. 

Car i) estoit a chent doubles plus clers 

et plus biaus ke il n' estoit au milieu. 
et si dous estoit a boire 



ke nus ne s' en pooit sooler. 
et enchore estoit il a tout chou si soues courane: 
ke nule noise ne^n issoit, ne nus escrois,ancliois 
estoit si soues ses eours et si paisieules ke a chas- 
cun qui le veist samblast bien quMlnemeust. 
Apres si gardoit, si veoit 



116 .i. home venir de uers le chiel 



qui portoit le tesmoing del vrai cru- 

cefi. 

et quant il estoit venu au lac : 

si lauoit dedens ses pies et ses mains, 

et en cbasoun des .vui. fluns autresi. 
Et quant il estoit venus au nuefisme, 



120 



124 



128 



132 



si entroit tous dedens, 

et si lauoit ses pies, et ses mains, et 

tout son cors. 

Clieste songe et cheste auision 

vil li rois en son dormant, 

et tant longement dura ke il fu mult 
pres du iour. 

A tant s' esuilla li rois, 

miilt esbahis et mult trespenses 

de cbele meruelle ke il auoit veue. 
Et la roine qui bien 1' auoit veu pen- 
sieu et courechie toute nuit, 
si fa mult espoentee. 

et ne sent coument ele peust esploitier 

vers lui 

tant k' ele seust son pense. 



SARRACTNTE ASKS NASCIENS TO FIND OUT WHY MOBDBEINS IS SAD. 



231 



Anon As sche myhte parceyven the day, 

Vppe sche Ros, And to hire brother took the way 

Sore wepinge & sore Syghenge, 

With gret sorwe & lawmentinge, — 140 

And so Cam to Nasciens hire brotheris bed, 

And down be him sat In thike sted. 

Anon Ryht vppe this Nasciens Rawghte, 

His Soster there In his armes he Cowghte, 144 

And hire A-Preyned with Al his herte 

' Why that sche hadde So manye peynes 

smerte.' 
Thanne tolde sche him of hire lord the kyng 
That Al Niht hadde ben In sweche Morneng, 148 
And the Cause for why sche ne wiste, 
" Therfore, dere brothir, as I the tryste. 
Lest he myhte falle In som dispeireng. 
Now, swete dere brothir, for Ony thing 152 

That 30 wolden of him Enqwere 
Eor what Cawse he hadde Al his fere, 
And for lesus love hevene kyng, 
Eor whom we hauen taken Cristeneng, 156 

That 36 wolden streyht to him gon, 
And a boone Axen Of hym ]>exe Anon, 
' That he wolde graunten 30W 30wre Askyng 
What so Evere it be of AUe thing,' I60 

And whanne ]?at he hath graunted to 30W J^at 

boone 
Thanne that 30 wolde Axen him ful sone 
' Why that he Eerde So that Nyht, 
& why In his sleepe he was so afryht ;' 164 

Eor I ne desire so sore non thing 
As there Offen to haven som knoweng." 

Thanne Eos him vppe this Nasciens Anon 
And to the kynges chambre gan to gon ; 168 



Et tout maintenant que ele peut le ioiir 

aperchevoir : 

si se leua. Et quant ele fu uestue et 

aparillie, 



si ala tantost au lit nascien son frere, 
mult souspirant et plourant durement. 

Et quant nasciens le vit plourer, si fu 

mult esbahis. Car il 1' amoit mult 

coreument, 

si le prist entre ses bras, 

et si li demanda mult hastieuement 

pour quoi ele plouroit si. 

Et la roine s' asist de iouste lui, et si 
li conta 1' auenture de son signour, 
des larmes et des souspirs ke il auoit 
la nuit ietes. 

" biaus dous frere,'' dist ele, " pour 
chou criem iou 

qu' il ne soit cheus en mauuais pense. 

Et ie vous pri et requier, 



pour r amor del haut signour 

a la qui creanche vous vous estes 

dounes. 

ke vous ales a lui, 

et si li demandes vn don. 



Et quant il vous creante sour sa 
creancBe a douner le don. 

Si li demandes 

ke il vous die a quoi il pense a nuit 
si longhement. 

Car ch' est la riens el monde 
ke ie plus volentiers sauroie. 
Lors se leua nasciens 
si s' en ala tout droit au roi. 



232 



NASCIENS ASKS MORDKEINS WHAT TEOTJBLES HIM AT NIGHT. 



And be that tyme lie comen thedir was, 
The kyng was Resen in that plas ; 
And Nasciens him grette J^ere Anon riht 
And seide, "Sire! as thow art bothe kyng 

& knyht, 172 

One bone, sire kyng, ]?at thow grawnte me 
With-Owten lettynge Owthir Adversite." 
Thanne Ipe king Answerid him Agein, 
" Dere brothere, 36 knowen wel In Certein, 176 

That nothing wheche Is In Myn bandown 
That Al Redy schal been at 30wre peticiown." 
And whanne Naciens ^oidirstood al this. 
That be his Creawnse he wolde not Mis, 18O 

But fulfillen his bone Al hoi & pleyn, 
Thanne to him thus seide he In Certein 
No more for his boone wolde he Crave, 
But knowliching of his pensifhesse to have ; 184 
Why Al that Xyht he ferde tho so. 
This wolde I wete Er that I go. 
And whanne the kyng herde him thus seye, 
Thanne wiste he welhis qweene gan him be-wreye, 188 
So that Anon Byht to Sire Kasciens 
He tolde his trowblynge mth-owten Offens, 
And told him clene his Aviciowun 
And of his Nevew Al & som ; 192 

" But 3it neuertheles not for than 
I ne have not 30W told how it began, — 
Eor of this 3ifte that se hau Axed me, 
Biht ful vntrewe to 30W have I be ; 196 

Eor I swor to 30W with-Inne pe viij day 
Whanne 36 token for me that iornay, 
I scholde 30W so worthily qwiten Ageyn 
That al 30ure baronage scholde it knowen 200 

Certein. 



Et quant il vint la, 

si estoit ia li rois leues, 

et il le salua, 

et si li demanda et requist 
ke il li dounast vn don. 
Et li rois respondi 

' ke bien soit seurs 

ke nils si grant dons n' estoit el monde 
pour ke il le peust doner, ke il ne li 
dounast sans escondire et sans delaiier.' 

Et quant nasciens 1' ot tant mene 
ke il r en ot iure sa creanclie, 

si li dist, 

' ke il U demandoit pour son don : 

de quel cliose il auoit 

tote nuit este si pensis, 

ke il li desist. 

Quant li rois oi chou, 

si seut bien tantost ke la roine 1' auoit 

descouuert et encuse. 

Et si dist tantost, 

et recounut a nascien 

toute sa vision, si com il 1' auoit veue 

de soi, 

et de son neueu. 

" Mais encore," dist il, 

ne vous ai iou dite 1' ocoison de che 
que ie ai este si pensis. 
Et che est, li dons ke vous me de- 
mandastes, si feroie ke desloiaus se ie 
ne vous en disoie le voir, puis ke ie 
le vous ai creante. 



MOHDREINS TELLS NASCIENS HIS TRESPASS AGAINST HIM. 



233 



Where-offen vntrewe to 30W I am, 

And thus this pensifnesse On me it Cam. 

Portheremore, As by my qweene I lay, 

I bethowghte me how Mani A day 204 

That I hadde leyn In fowl sinne. 

The fowlest ]?at Man Myhte leven Inne ; 

And myn Oonsciense me gan to Repreve 

Of myn fals levenge & Of myn beleve. 208 

And as I lay thus, & me be-thowghte 

3if to Ony Man I hadde behyght Owghte ; 

And I ne Cowde not thenken, sauf Only 

to J^e, 
To whom that I haue so longe vntrewe be ; 212 

And for wheche thing is most myn hevynesse 
That bringeth myn herte In al this distresse. 
Por there nis now no man lyvenge 
That I am so moche bownden to In AUe 

thinge, 216 

Ne that so moche that I haue trespaced vnto, 
As to 30wre persone now that I have I-do. 
And what this vntrowthe it is to mene, 
I schal 30W tellen ful wel & Clene. 220 

It is ful trewe, As 30 don vndirstonde, 
Whanne I was discomfyt be myn Enemyes 

honde 
At Tarabel, As 30 wel knowe, 

"Where as 3e Comen with-Inne A throwe 224 

A3ens Myn Enemyes to socowren there, 
Of whom Jiat I hadde Hiht gret Fere, 
Whanne to the Castel of Come jjat I was 

gon,— 
That tyme Oj>er Socour hadde I non ; — 228 

Thanne Comen 30 prekynge with 30wre Meyne 
In Socowringe, fortheringe, & helpinge of me ; 

2h 



n est voirs ke ie me gisoie de les la 

roine, 

si commenchai a pourpenser en mou 

cuer, 

ke ie auoie cha en arriere asses pechie 

et bien m' en deuoie a tant souffrir. 
et ma consciencbe me reprenoit 
que ie gisoie encore en vne desloiaute. 



Mais ie ne pooie en nule maniere 

apercheuoir quele ele pooitestre. Mult 

reuersai et enquis de mon cuer meisme 

sauoir se ie m' en apercheueroie. Ne 

onques ne peuch trouuer ke ie fuisse 

desloiaus enuers nului: ke seulement 

enuers vous. 

Et ch' est la riens du monde dent ie 

sui plus dolens. 

Car vous estes li hom viuans, 

vers quiie deuroie mains mesprendre. 



Et si vous dirai quele cheste desloi 
autes est. 

II est voirs, 

ke quant ie fui desconfis 

a tarabiel, 

et vous me uenistes 

secourre 

quant ie m' en uenoie de la coine, 



ke nous nous entrepardounames tous 
courous et tous mautalens. 



234 



THE CAUSE OP MORDE.EINS S SOBROW. NASCIENS COMFORTS HIM. 



Thanne behyglite I 30W tlio In Certein 

' That 5if euere to Sarras I Myhte K-ekeueren 

Agein 
In worschepe & In prosperite ; 
With-Innen .viij. dayes aftir Oerteinly, 
I scholde 30W so worthily Gwerdoun thanne, 
That bettere gwerdoned nas neuere Manne ;' 
Where-offen the schame is Fallen On Me 
Only, Sire, & not vppon the. 
And for Cawse of this grete,thowht, 
Into this Avicioun thus was I browght, 
As I have told 30W, bothe Oroppe & Eoote ; 
But the signefiawnee how to knowen I ne 

woote ; 
Now sethen that loseph is hennes gon, 
Man me to declaren now know I non ; 
For And he were here now present. 
He cowde me declaren Al the hole Entent ;" 
And for this Cause was he in gret thowht, 
To what Ende this viciown scholde be browht. 

And thanne be-spak the Sire Nasciens 
That thike tyme was In the kynges presens, 
" Eor, sire, this viciown May Signefie 
That 36 scholen In-to Anothir Seignorie, 
But 30 neten whanne, ne what day, 
That this sodeynly behappen 30W May. 
Eor, lik As 30 hau chonged youre lif. 
So scholen 36 30wre Regne with-owten strif ; 
Eor Every Evel wil & wikked Oownsaille, 
Echo man Owghte Eorsaken Sawn faille ; 
And Ellis diden we Contrariously 
To Owre newe feith ful Sekerly, 
Into bos Creaunse we hau vs bownde 
Bothe body and Sowle In this stownde. 



et iou, ki asses vous auoie fais ou- 
trages, vous creantai comme rois: sans 
cliou que vous ne m' en demandies 
232 rien, 



'ke dedens les .viij. iours ke ie reue- 

nus seroie: 

vous iroie iou fairs droit a votre 

maison voiant mon barnage et voiant 

le votre.' 

De cheste chose ke ie vous creantai. Je 

vous ai maluais conuent tenu. Ne la honte 

n'en repaire mie sour vous, ne sour autre ke 



236 



240 



244 



248 



252 



■/56 



260 



sour moi. 

Et par r angoisse de cheste pense, 

chai iou eans faille en la vision 

ke vous ai contee. Dont ie fui mult lies en 
vne partie, et en vne partie mult esbahis, et 
sui encore, ke ie ne sai en nule maniere com- 
ment ie puisse connoistre la senefianohe de 
chest songe, 

des ke iosephes s' en est ales. 



Car s' il fust enchore chi, 

il m' en eust mult tost la verite descou- 

uerte." 

Ensi com il che dist, si commencha 

mult durement a penser, 

et nasciens li dist. 



"Sire, de ckeste chose laissies ester 
le pense. 

Car nous soumes entre en vne signou- 
rie ou nous n'estiemes a chelui ior ke 
vous me fesistes chest couuenenche. 



Et autresi com nous auons cangie la 
vie ke nous teniemes a dont, autresi 
doiuent estre li talent cangie. 
et la maluaise volente, 
doit chascuns laissier. 

Car autrement serriemes nous con- 

traire 

as commademens de chelui 

en qui garde et en qui signourie nous 

auons mis 

les cors de nous, et les ames. 



MOEDBEINS TELLS HIS DREAM TO THE PASTORS OF THE CHURCH. 



235 



Where-fore As of 30iire Aviciown, now semeth 

me. 
To non Evel may it torne In non degre. 264 

But I rede 50W that 3e now do, — 
Coimseil Of holy Chirche to Olepen 30W to 
Wheche that losephe left In his stede 
Good Connseil there-Offen 30W now to hede. 268 
Por 30 knowen wel be vndirstondyng, 
That losephe Comanded 30W Ouer Alle thing 
' Holy Ohirche to kepen an Susteyne, 
And In Every nede to hem scholde 30 Oom- 

pleyne 272 

That Nedy were to sowle oJ)er to body;' 
Thus Comanded he 30W, 36 weten wel sothly." 

And whanne Nasciens this wordis had seid j?o 
Anon bothe to-Gederis thanne gonnen they go 276 
To the paleys Anon Of Spiritwelte — 
As to-forn Eehersid hau 36 herd Me — 
That Enstablyscht & Ordeyned weren Echonne, 
Holy Goddis Servise there-Inne to done ; 280 

So that there herden they goddis Servise, 
And Afterward that Glorious Sacriflse, 
As losephe hem Comaunded before 
In what manor to Swen Cristes lore. 284 

And Every day for the More part Oomowned 

to be 
Thus Comanded losephe tho Certeynle. 
And whanne this Servise was Al I-don, 
To-forn him he Comanded to Comen Anon 288 

Alle the provostis of holy Chirche, 
And of hem took Counseil how he scholde 

wirche. 
And told hem Clerly Al his Avicioun 
How that he dremede, Al and som. 292 

2 H 2 



Mais del songe que vous m'aues conte, 
vauroie iou mult sauoir ke il senefie. 
Car selonc m' entension ni puet il 
auoir ne ne samblanclie nule ne esper- 
anche de mal. 
Et ne-pourquant, ie vous lo 

ke vous endemandes consel as pastours 

de sainte eglise 

ke iosephes a laissies en sen lieu 

pour les ames de nous garder et consil- 
lier. Car vous saues bien 
ke il nous commanda 



' ke a tous nos besoins, fust pour le 
cors, fust pour Fame : tous iours alis- 
siemes au consel de sainte eglise.' 



Et quant il furent la, 



si oirent tot premierement le glorieus 

seruiche. 

Et apres communierentdel saint sacre- 

ment notre signour, 



ke il communiast chascun iour. 



Quant il eurent communie, et oi la 

messe, 

si apiela li rois 

tous les prouoires de 1' eglise, 



et si lor dist son songe, 
ensi com il 1' auoit songie. 



236 MOBDREINS'S PALACE SHAKEN. EIRE BRANDS SEEN. A HIDEOUS NOISE. 



But Of hem was there not On tho 

That theke Avisiown Cowde him vndo ; 

Eor they Seyden him Certeinly, 

' That there ne Cowde non Man but God Only 296 

That Ayicion to declaren In Ony place, 

Sawfe, Only God thorgh his grete grace.' 

And whanne the kyng & Nasciens herden of this, 

Anon thens they wenten with Owten Mys. 300 

Thanne wente the kyng & Nasciens forth bothe 
More hevyere thanne Er they weren forsothe, 
And [seide] that neuere In Ese they scholde 

bene 
Tyl here-Offen they hadden vndirstondiag clene ; 
And thus pensif to the paleys A3en gonne they gone, 
They two togederis, right AUe alone, 
And there they Rested hem bothe that stownde 
Te-Gederis On A Cowche vppon the grownde, 308 
And non More Eeleschepe but they two. 

Thanne felten they Aaon MerveiUes Mo, — 
How that Al the paleys Clene Alto-schook, 
Sawfe J>e Sovereyn vowtis As they Gonne look ; 312 
And thanne loked they furthermore, 
Hem thowghte Al to-scheverid it was thore. 
And In Every Chene hem thowghte they sye 
Eul of brenneng brondis ful wittirlye. 316 

Thanne so hydows A noise there be-gan, 
As it was semeng to hem bothe than 
That the Endeng of Jje world hadde be come. 
And that it hadde ben the day of dome ; 320 

So that AUe the wyndowes & walles to-brook. 
So MerveUlously tho this Noise Ontook. 
Also hem thowghte the paleis schold hau down 

falle. 
And there Sonken Into the Ottrest walle. 324 



Mais it ni eut onques nus d' aus 
qui de clie li seust dire chertainete, 

Anctois li responderent tant: 

'ke de teus clioses n' estoit il nus 
horn morteus 
qui verite en seust dire. 
Se diex proprement par la soie grasce 
ne li demoustroit.' 
A tant s' en parti li rois, entre lui et 

nascien, 

si ne fu mie mains esbahis, ne mains 
pensis, ke il auoit deuant este. 

Et dist ' ke iamais ne seroit a aise 
nul iour, 

deuant il seust de cheste auision s' ele por- 
roit nule chose estre de verite. et s^ ele de 
par dieu li estoit apparue.* 
Ensi s' en reuinrent arriere el palais, pensant. 



Et quant il furent andoi 
assis en vne couche, 
sans plus de compaignie. 
Si s' entinrent, 

ke tous li palais trambloit des le fon- 

dement 

iusc' as souuraines vautes, 

Apres si commencha si tres durement 
a espartir, 

que il estoit bien auis ke li chieus fist 

pourpris de toutes pars de brandons 

embrases. 

Apres commenchierent a ohaoir si 

grans escrois espoentables, 

ke il quidoient bien ambedui 

ke la fins de toutes choses fust uenue. 

Et a tant cheventoit vns vens, si an-. 

goisseus et si fors, ke toutes les ma- 

sieres del palais en peohoierent, et 

toutes les fremures des huis. 

Et li palais en croissoit si durement 

que il estoit bien auis que il deust 

tous orauenter 

et fondre iusk' en abisme. 



DARKNESS. A HORN SOUNDS. THE BEGINNING OE DREAD IS PROCLAIMED. 



237 



340 



And Amongs Alle this Merveillous thing, 
There Cam On hem the wondrest dirke- 

neng, 
That hem thowghte here sighte was gon Certein, 
And that it neuere to Recouerin Ageyn. 328 

And non Men Of that Cite Certeinly 
Theke Merveilles sien, neper her den, but they 
That with-Inne the paleis were ; 
And herden they, ne sien, no more there 332 

But Onliche Of that gret thondringe, 
Where-Offen they hadden gret Merveillenge. 
And Othir thinges syen they nowht 
But As hem semede In here thowht, 
A fewe sparkelis At the Openynge 
Of the Paleys wyndowes, they Syen Comenge ; 
And 3it they Abaschten ful sore of this, 
What it Myhte Amow[n]ten, with-Owten Mis. 

And As the kyng & Nasciens lien In this 

trawunce. 
3it herden they A more wondirful Ohawnce. 
Hem thowghte they herde the Sown of An 

horn 

That neuere they herden there beforn ; 344 

And the sown was so wondirful & so hy, 
That ouer al the world they supposed trewly 
The Noise Of that horn myht hauen ben 

herde, 
So wondirfully that noise tho Jjere Ferde. 348 

Thanne Anon A vois there Gan to Orie 
" Here is begynneng of drede Certeinlye." 
And whanne this Nois they herde thus seyn, 
Evene plat A down they fillen ful pleyn 352 

Lik bothe dede As they hadde J^ere been, 
Non lif In hem non Mihte Seen. 



Et parmi toutes ches choses, 
vint laiens vne si grant oscurete 



ke nus ki la veiste ne quidast mie ke 
il peust iamais veir vne eure de clarte. 

Ne nus hom de toute la chite 

ne veoit ches meruelles 

fors ke chil seulement qui estoient 

dedens la palais. 

Mais oliil n' ooient nule riens du monde. 



ne ne veoient 
336 fors ke seulement 

la clarte des espars. qui se feroient a 

la fois laiens par I'ouuerture 

des huis et des fenestres. Et se il 

s'en vausissent de laiens issir, il ne 

pooient. Car il ni veoient goute. et se 

il i ueissent ne se meussent il, tant 

estoient esperdu et esbahi des grans 

meruelles ke il veoient. 

En cheste doleur et en clieste an- 

goisse furent vne grant pieche. 

Tant que il oirent ausi com vne 
busine corner, 



et si rendoit si grant son, 
ke entre le roi et nascien quidoient, 
et bien lor estoit auis, ke ele estoit 
ausi clerement oie par tout le monde 
com el palais. 



Et [quant] la busine eut come : si 

parla vne vois, et dist. 

' Chi commenchent les paours.' 

Et quant il oirent la uois ensi parler, 

si chairent tot pasme de paour. 

et iurent el lit tout estourdi, ausi 
comme mort. 



238 



MOEDREINS IS CABRIED OrP BY THE HOLT GHOST. 



Thanne was tlie prophecie fulflld tho 
That be Olde dayes was knowen to Mo, 356 

Wheche ]?at seith, ' Two scholen liggen In a bed, 
On be taken, pe to]?er leven stille In that sted.' 

Thus sone the kyng Owt of his bed was bore 
Seventene lornes, be Goddis Myht thore. 360 

And it was wel the thridde Oure of the day 
Whanne to the kyng was Al this Affray ; 
And whanne the holy gost hyra left ful sone 
It was the hy Owre Of None. 364 

But of him talketh now non lengere this storie; 
But to the qweene & Nascien Mosten we bye, 
That bothe weren beleft In sarras, 
As woful peple In that same plas. 368 



Et lors fu acomplie la parole 



ke li prophetes dist. ' D seront doi en 

.i. lit, li vns en sera leues, et li autres 

sera laissies.' 

Car si tost com la vois eut dit, ' chi commen- 

chent les paours,' tout maintenant fu li rois 

leues du lit. et si l*emporta li esperis notre 

signour loins de sa terre: I'esrure de .xvij. 

iournees. 

Et li estoit bien tierohe de iour. 

al Feure ke il fu el palais : et leues del lit. 

Et quant li sains esperis le mist ius, 
si peut bien estre nonne. 

Mais de lui ne parlerai ore plus li 

contes : anchois s'en taist a tant. 

et si parole de nascien et de la roine, 

qui estoient remes en sarras. 



239 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Nasciens (formerly Seraphe) lies swooning in bed (p. 239); his sister, Queen Sarracynte, going to see a 
Church she is building for the Virgin, finds all the attendants asleep (p. 240); coming back to the 
palace, she sees Nasciens weeping, and asks him why, and where her husband Mordraynes (or Evalach) , 
has gone (p. 240-1). She swoons; he assures her that Mordraynes is safe (p. 242). The barons consult 
about Mordraynes' absence (p. 243); Calafier, a traitor, suggests that Nasciens killed him (p. 243); 
the others adopt this, go to Nasciens, question him (p. 244), and then cast him into prison (p. 245). 
The queen is greatly grieved, but cannot help her brother (p. 246); who holds to his faith, and will 
not reproach God, but asks for mercy for his sins (p. 246-7). 



Lo tlius tellith this Story now here 

How Nasciens And the kyng, In A bed they 

were, 
And how that the kyng was born Away, 
And stille In Swowneng this Nasciens lay ; 
And swich A Moreyne As In that paleis was 
"Was Neuere Sein In non plas ; 
And In the Cite "Was herd no More 
But the thondir & ]?e sown of the trompe thore. 

Thanne it hapyed In this Mene tyme — 
The tyde Of J>e day "Was Owr Of pryme — 
That the qwene gan forto gon 
A faire Ohirche "Werk to beholden Anon, 
That In "Worschepe Of Oure lady begonnen 

was there, 
And that chirche to sen wente sche In this 

Manere. 



12 



Chi endroit dist li contes, et deuise, 



ke quant li rois fu leues del lit de les 

nascien, 

ke nasciens remest tos pasmes : ausi 

com s'il fust mors. 

Et chele grant pestilenche qui el pa- 

lais avint. ne fu onques oie hors del 

palais, ne veue. fors ke tant seulement 

par la chiteoi on bien 1' escrois deltou- 

noire et la son de la busine. Mais les 

auentures autres ni furent onques veues. 

Et lors auiut chose, 

ke la roine venoit 

d'une eglise veoir 

ke ele auoit commenchie en I'ounour 
de la virge marie. 



240 



SARRACTNTE GOES TO THE ROYAL CHAMBER AND EINDS THE KING GONE. 



And whanne tliorwgh. that paleys sclie gan to 

goon, 
A wondirful Syhte Sawgh sche jjere Anon, — 
AUe the Seriawntes lyen there plat adown 
Pul dedlich & pale Al In virown ; 
And sche wende On Slope f>at alle hadde ben tho, 
So that Eurthermore sche gan to Go ; 
Thanne Ponde sche Alle the knyhtes & Sqwiere, 
In that Same Manere they lyen tho there. 
Thanne Merveilled the qwene mochel of this 
What it scholde Amownten with-Owten Mis ; 
Anon Somme of hem sche gan to Calle, 
But thei mihten nejjer heren ne sen, so gan 

itfal 
Por nethir hadden ])ei wit ne Memorye 
Of non worldly thing thanne Certeynlye. 
And whanne sche say that not sche Myhte 
Of hem nethir hayen word ne syhte, 
Thanne with A gret Cowrs torned sche Anon, 
And to the kynges Chamhre gan to gon. 

And whanne sche was Inne Atte Chambre dore, 
There Merveylles Gan sche beholden More ; 
Sche beheld hire brother sire Nascien 
Sat In his bed wepinge than, 
Owt of wheche bed Mordreins the kyng 
Was vppe lefte with Owten lesing ; 
And ]?ere Nasciens Made gret sorwe & Mono, 
As him thowhte nedis he most done 
Por the Noise and Ipe voys that he herde, 
That he ne wiste In what manor it Ferde. 

And whanne the qweene ]?is began beholde, 
Anon hire herte gan wexen Colde ; 
And sore tremeling & qwakyng than 
To sire Nasciens bed Anon sche Ran, 



16 



20 



Et quant ele vint en son palais, 



si trouua 

les sergans qui gisoient toute pasme 

a terre, 

et ele quida dormissent, 

si passa outre 

tant k' ele trouua vne grant com- 
paignie des chiualers le roi qui estoient 
ausi conree com li autre sergant. 

Et lors s'esmeruilla 



24 ke Che pooit estre, 
si les fist apeler. 

Mais il auoient si perdu et I'oir et le veir, 
ke il n 'auoient ne sens ne niemoire de nule 
chose, anehois estoient si pale et si des- 
couloure. ke il li estoit auis ke il fuissent 
releue de mal. Et quant la roine les vit iteus : 
si fu si esbahie ke par .1. poi k'ele ne chai a 
terre toute pasmee. 



28 



32 



36 



40 



44 



Et quant la roine vit que 

de ches ne porroit on traire parole : 
si s' entourna ele tout droit le grant 
cours vers la maistre chambre qui 
estoit apielee la chambre roiaus. 

Et quant ele vint a I'uis, 



si vit ele nascien son frere, 
qui seoit en la oouche 
dont li rois 

auoit este leues. 

Et nasciens plouroit si durement com il plus 
pooit, et tenchoit a .i. home qui sambloit estre 
deuant lui : as paroles ke on ooit qu'il s'entre- 
disoient. Mais autrement n'en pooit la verite 
sauoir. Car on n'entendoit ke la vois, ne ne 
veoitohelui dont la vois issoit, que seulemeut 
nasciens, qui parloit a lui 

Et la roine, quant ele oi la vois, et ele 

ne vit nului, 

si fu mult espoentee. 



SAERACTNTE ASKS ArTER HER HUSBAND, AND SWOONS. 



241 



And wend that som wikked Sperit be 

chawnse 
Hadd hem put Owt Of here E-yhtful Creaunce ; 
And to hire brother sche Ran In haste, 
And him Enbracen sche gan ful faste, 
& the Cawse of him Axede, why it was 
That he So wepe there In that plas. 

Thanne gan he wepe wondirly Sore, 
Eastere and hardere than he dide before ; 
Thanne ]>e queene gan lowde to Orye 
"With a lowd Tois fal petowslye, 
And Swowneng to the Erthe fyl sche there. 
Thanne Sire Nasciens Gan hire to Chere, 
And brased hire In his Armes two. 
And hire there kyste & Cherede tho, 
" A swete soster," he gan to Say, 
" What may 30W be to Maken this fray ?" 
And whanne sche Aros Of hire Swowneng ; 
Thanne Axede sche of ]?at MerveiUeng ; 
With Sorewful herte & hevy Chere 
Sche gan Axen where hire lord were. 

And whanne Nasciens this vndirstood, 
Eul Clene thanne Nasciens Chonged his mood, 
That he ne Nihte non word tho speke. 
So him thowhte his herte wolde breke ; 
As faste the water Ran from his Eeyen Adown 
As it hadde ben pored vppon his Crown. 

Whanne the qweene Say him so taken vppon, 
Sche Axede what he hadde with hire lord doon ; 
Thanne gan sche forto Swownen ageyn 
In that place there Certein Certein, 
And wende Owt of hire wit sche scholde hau 

gon, 
Swich Sorwe sche Made, & so gret Mon. 

2i 



Car ele cremoit ke auouns mauuais 
esperis I'eust asali, 

48 qui le vausist ieter hors de la sainte 
creanche. 

Et ele entra ens, si courut a son frere, 
et si I'embraclia, 

et li demanda pour quoi 

52 il plouroit si durement. 

Et quant il le vit, si commencha a 
crier de recMef, et a plourer plus dure- 
ment ke il n'auoit deuant fait. 
Et quant la roine vit chou, si ieta .i. 

mult grant cri. Et quant ele eut crie, 



56 



64 



68 



72 



76 



si chai ius a la terre pasmee, 



et il le prist entre ses bras, si le re- 
drecha contremont, 
60 et le commencha a baisier en la bouche 

et Fapielot sa douche seur. 



Et quant ele fu reuenue de pamison, 
si ouuri les iex, et nasciens fu deuant 
li a genous. si le commencha a apieler. 
Et ele ieta .i. souspir mult grant, 
et puis apres si demanda le roi. 
Et quant nasciens 1' entendi, 

si ne peut respondre 



anchois li oouroit li aue des iex 

ausi espessemmt com se on le versast a 
hanepes sour son chief. 
Et quant la roine le vit ensi plourer. 
ele a demande ke il auoit fait du roi, 

si eut mult grant paour: et ele se 
repasme tot maintenant. 

et lors orent tout et toutes mult grant 
paour de li ke ele ne chaist en pierte 
de son sens et de sa memoire, 
par r angoisse de la pamison. 



242 NASCIENS TELLS SARBACTNTE HOW MOEDREINS WAS CABBIED AWAY. 



Whanne Of Mre Swowneng sclie A-wook, 
Sche qwaked, sche trembled, sclie wepe, sche 

schook, 80 

And with a deolful vols sche gan to Orye 
" Swete Brother Nasciens," Certeinlye 
Evene thus As A wood womman 
In this Gyse took sche vppon, 84 

And evere Aftir hire lord gan to Crie 
With deolful vols, & wonderli hye. 

And whanne Nasciens hir tolde Al the verite, 
Thanne weping & morneng myhten men Jjere 

se, 88 

And how the kyng from him was taken there, 
And forth born, & In what Manere ; 
But Into what place ]3at he was I-bore 
Nasciens ne Oowde not tellen there. 92 

Whanne Nasciens this word hadde I-seyd, 
Thanne was there manie A deolful breid, 
And Owthes & Cry was In that halle 
That bothe Men & wommen In swowneng gonne 

faUe. 96 

And swich Sorewe pe qweene there Made 
That Erthly thing myhte hire non Glade. 

Thanne Cam Nasciens to hire Agein, 
And In his Armes he hire embraced ful 

pleyn, loo 

And hire Comforted In this degre, 
" Now, goode dere Soster, lesteneth to Me ; 
The kyng he is bothe Sawf & Sownde 
As we ben here In this Stownde, 104 

And bothen heyl In Sowle and In body 
I Sey 30W Sostir, now, Certeynly. 
This knowe I wel be that tydymge 
That the voys to vs gan bringe." 108 



Et quant ele fu reuemie, 



si commenclia a crier a haute vois : 

" Biau frere nascien." Lors vint 

nasciens deuant li, 

et ele li cria a guise de feme four- 

senee. 

' ke il desist la verite pour quoi il 
auoit si laide oilier e faite,' 

et il U dist tantost toute la verite. 



et ke par si faite auenture auoit este 
li rois de les lui leues 
et portes, 



ne sauoit en quel lieu. 



A chest mot 

fa la noise grans 

en la sale. La roine se pasme souuent 
et menu, et les gens le roi si com li 
chiualer et li sergantcommencliierent 
a crier. Li diels commenche par le 
palais, 

la roine fait tel duel et tant souuent 
se pasme ke ele ne puet a nule rien 
entendre ke seulement a son duel faire. 

Mais nasciens 

le prent entre ses bras, 



qui mult se paine de li conforter et 

apaisier. 

Et si li dist 'ke bien sache ele de uoir, 

ke li rois est sains et saus la u il est. 



Car chil a qui il tenchoit quant ele 
vint en la chambre, 1' en auoit dis 
les uraies nouuieles.' 



HOW THE CITRSED CALAPHEE, ACCUSES NASCIBNS OF MUBDEMNG MOKDREINS. 243 



Thanne Axede Sche Nasciens with-Owten lak, 

' Ho it myhte be that to Mm tho spak ; ' 

Thanne Nasciens hire Answerid Ageyn, 

And seide it was Oristes Messenger Certein. 112 

So gret Sorwe & Mone Made 'pe qweene 

That for non Erthly man Seced myhte bene. 

Thus sone this tydinge Gan forto springe 
Ouer Al the Contre with-Owten lettynge, lie 

How that the kyng thus was I-lore, 
And how sodeynly he was A-Wey I-bore. 

Thanne the baronage to-gederis Comen 
Anon, 
And of this OonseUleden what they myht 

don, 120 

And how the kyng Awey thus Scholde fare, 
Where-OfFen they hadde ful gret Care. 
So Amonges Alle Othere there was On 
That longe with the kyng hadde Igon, — 
A malicious knyht In Alle Manere, 
His name Was clepid Sire Calaphere — 
For he was so Orwel, & so Pelowns, 
So fals, so Cvrsid, so wikkd of Condiciouns, 
That in dedly herte ne Myhte Synke 
So moche Tretorye forto thenke. 
As that Cursed Calaphere 

In his herte Imagyned there : 132 

Eor there he seide ful Openlye the 
' That be treson Nasciene the king dide slo, 
For he wolde hauen pe Hem In gouerninge,' — 
This was Openly his talkynge— 136 

' For In that place weren there no Mo 
Sauf Only the kyng & sire Nasciens tho ; 
How myht it thanne Otherwise be 
But that Sire Nasciens dide him sle.' 140 

2 i2 



Et ele li demanda 

' qui chil estoit qui parloit a lui.' 

et il li dist ' ke che ne sauoit il mie. 

Mais ildist ke il estoit messages ihesu 

crist.' 

Mult fist la roine grant duel, 

ne onques par nul home mortel ne 
pooit estre eslecliie de sa doleur. 
La nouuiele fu espandue 

par le pais 

del roi qui estoit si pierdus ke nus ne 

sauoit de lui ensenges. 

Li baron se meruellierent tout, 

et demanderent consel li vns a 1' autre 



' ke che pooit estre, et quel fin li rois 
pooit auoir faite.' 

. A chel consel iu vns chiualers 

124 qui grant tans auoit este de la maison 
le roi, 

si estoit apieles calafier, 
si estoit fel et orueus 

128 et traitres 

outre chou ke morteus cuers porroit 
penser. 



II se traist auant, et si dist, oiant tous 
les autres, 

' ke il auoit encherkie tant del roi, et 
apris ke nasciens I'auoitmort en traison 
pour chou ke il voloit auoir le roiaume. 

Car ch'estoit verites prouee : ke el lieu 
ou il fu pierdus n'auoit 
fors lui et nasciens sans plus. Ne nas- 
ciens meismes ne sauoit dire que il 
pooit estre deuenus.' 



244 



THE BAEONS CONSULT, AND AGREE TO PUT NASCIENS IN PRISON. 



Thanne Answerid the baronage A3en, 
' That it is ful lyk thus forto ben.' 
Thanne tooken they here Conseyl Anon, 
That Into Strong warde he scholde be 

don 144 

Til that they knewen In word & dede tho 
Whethir the kyng lyvede, ojjer how it myhte go. 
And to this ConseU thanne Everychon 
Sworen alle to holden there Anon ; 148 

And thus Of Nasciens denied they there 
That ]?e kyng hadde Mordred, but |?ei niste 

where. 

And thus to Oowrt they Comen Anon 
Alle these bar owns Everichon, 152 

And fownden Sire Nasciens & the qweene 
Makenge gret sorwe Al bedene, 
That Neuere Man that was lyvenge 
Herde nevere half so moche weymentinge ; i56 

And this was the thridde day 
Aftyr the kyng was Ravischt Away. 
Thanne thus to ])e qweene gonnen they gone, 
And of this Aventure Enqwerid Anone. 160 

Thanne Anon Nasciens gan forto telle 
Alle the Mater, how it tho befelle ; 
Bothe lik as he hadde herd & sein 
He gan hem tellen In Certeia ; 164 

And Also of the kynges Swevenynge, 
AYhat he Mette In his dremenge. 
Thus to Nasciens they weren Enqweringe, 
& of Al thing he 3af hem Answeringe, 168 

And seide to hem ful Sekerliche tho 
' That In the Chambre Neren but they two 
Whanne this Chaunce there gan to falle,' 
And thus he tolde Amongs hem Alle. 172 



A die respondirent tout ' ke se ch'estoit 

voirs ke nasciens fust el lieu ou li 

rois auoit este pierdus, et il n'en sa- 

uoit plus a dire: il sambleroit qu'il 

I'eust ouure de felounie. et se il de 

cheste chose estoit atains, 

il seroit drois ke il fust bien gardes 

vne pieche 

tant ke on seuist se nule nouieles 

uraies seroient oies, 

ne de la mort le roi ne de sa vie.' 

A chest consel se tinrent tout, 

et iurerent sour sains ke il n' i aroit ia 
chelui qui ne mesist main a nascien 
prendre si tost com il orroit ke on 
Ten semonroit. 



A tant s'en alerent a la court, 

et trouuerent nascien et la roine : 
si faisoit si grant duel 

ke nus horn viuans 

ne le pooit apaier. 

Est che fu au tierch iour 

apres chou ke li rois auoit este pierdus. 

Quant il vinrent a la roine, 

s'enquisent la verite de I'auenture ensi 
comme ele estoit auenue. 
Et nasciens lor conta 

tout de chief en chief, 

ensi com il auoit vne partie veue. et 
vne partie oie. 

Apres lor conta le songe 

ke li rois auoit songie la nuit deuant 

ke che ne fust avenu. 

Mult I'encherkierent de toutes choses, 

et il de tout lor respondoit la verite 

tant ke il lor connut, 

ke il n'auoit en la chambre ke au deus 

quant il fu perdus. 



OF OALAPHEE, AND HIS COUNSEL TO THE BAEONS. 



245 



184 



188 



Thanne Anon there they him tooke, 

And Grevously On him gonnen to loke. 

And sire Nasciens hem Axede the 

' Why with him they Per den so.' 

Thanne they Answerede, & forth him ladde, 

' That suspecion to him Of the kyng they hadde.' 

And thus In preson thanne they him Caste, 

& Sesid Alle his londis Atte laste. 180 

Thanne senten they Abowtes here & there 

To don seken the kyng Every Where. 

Thus Nasciens In preson suffrede mani hard 
schowr 
Be conceil of Calapher ]?at fals Tretour. — • 
This Calafer made good semblance 
As a man Of good Creawnce, 
But fals he was In dede & thowght, 
Eor Cristene man was he nowht ; 
Por whanne Cristened he schold hau be, 
Pul faste Awey he gan to fle, 
Por he ne hateth non Creature 
So moche As Cristene, I the Enswre ; — 
So that he Cam to the barouns Agein, 
And hem thus Conceilled In Certein, 
' That Into the tyme that they myhten 

knowe 
Begynneng And Endeng Vppon A rowe, 
Nasciens In presown scholde Abyde ;' 
Swich Conseil 3af that tretour this tyde. 
And thus be the Counseil Of fals Calaphere, 
Nasciens In presown kepten thei there, 
That him & his londis both they hadde 
In here Award bothe good & badde. 

And whanne ]?e qweene beheeld Al this, 
3he thowhte In hire herte it wente Amys 204 



192 



196 



200 



A chest mot le saisirent tot de toutes 
pars. 

Et il demanda 



•■ yg ' pour quoi il le prenoient.' 



Et il li respondirent. ' pour chou ke les gens 
i'auoient souspechoune de la mort le roi. ne 
n' en mescreoient se lui non.' Mult s' en es- 
cusa durement, comme chil qui coupes n' i 
auoit. et offri a faire tous meschies se il venoit 
auant ke de la mort le roi le vausist apieler. 
Tout che ne le pueut auoit mestier. En 
prison fu mis. 

Sa terre lor offri a baillier en ostages 
ke il querroit le roi tant ke il leur 
rendroit le roi se il estoit vis en terre 
ou pules morteus habitast. Chil pri- 
sen sa terre en ostage. Et quant il 
le vaurent metre hers de prison, si en 
ala encontre kalafier, qui leconsel auoit 
doune de lui prendre. 
Chil kalafier li faisoit samblant 

d' estre crestiens, 



mais il ne 1' estoit mie. 

Car quant li autres pules rechut le 

saint baptesme par la terre, 

il ne le vaut onques recheuoir, anchois 

se repunst. 

et si haoit les crestiens sour toute 

creature. 

II vint as barons qui auoient nasoien 
en prison, 

et si lor dist, ' ke bien seussent il de 
verite, ke se il le laissoient aler, iamais 
a nul iour guerre ne lor fauroit. Et 
bien sachies, dist il, signeurs, ke il ne 
finera iamais de pourcachier cheual- 
erie tant que il ait toute la terre 
arriere. Et lors si seront a destrvc- 
tion liure: chil ki de cheste chose 
aront este centre lui.' 
Par le consel de chelui 
fu nasciens retenus en prison, 

si ke il furent saisi et del cors de lui 

et de sa terre. 

Quant sarraquite la roine vit 



246 



:n'asciexs ix prison does not forsake aoD, Brx peats 



220 



That hire lord thus was Agon, 

And Iperto hire bro)?er In presoun don ; 

It is non nede to tellen the Mone' 

That ]?e q-weene Jjere made ful sone, 208 

For there nas non Erthly thing 

Aftii" hire lord that was the kyng 

That so moche was In hire herte 

As of his brothir his peynes smerte. 212 

Eul fain wolde thanne this gode qwene 

That hire brothir Owt Of preson hadde bene, 

But sche was tho A lone womman. 

And ful litel Reed of this sche kan, 216 

To Stryven A3ens hire Baronye 

Sche ne hadde non strengthe Certeinlie. 

And Evere was ISTasciens In preson strong, 
And tempted he was viith the devel Among 
Eorto forsaken there his trewe Creawnse, 
But he ne wolde for non Maner Of Chawnse 
Eorsaken his god for non peyne ; 
But Euere to his God he gan Compleyne, 
And Cride ]Merci Eor his grete Synne 
Of 'pe wikkednesse that he hadde lyved Inne, 
" Eor moche more thanne this deservid I have ; 
Where-fore, goode lord lesus, thow me save ; 228 
Eor A gret Eool trewly I "n"as 
Thy seerees to sen In that holy plas 
"\Yich that non Man scholde hau seyn there 
But 3if Clene Of Synne I-clensid he were ; 232 

And so, goode lord, ne was not I ; 
"\^Tiere-fore, lesus, I crie the Mercy." 
And in this holy Entenciown 

Stille belefte Xascien In presown 236 

In gret Angwisch & gret Anoye, 
Thus lyrede Xasciens, As I 30W seye ; 



ke ele eut son signeur pierdu. 

et ke ses freres estoit enprisounes : 

che ne fait pas a demander 

se ele eut grant doleur et grant an- 

goisse a son cuer. 

Car ch' estoit la riens viuans 

ke ele plus auoit chiere apres le roi. 



Mult en fist grant duel par maintes 
fies, et mult volentiers le deKuraist de 
la prison se ele en eust le pooir. 
Mais ele estoit vne dame seule, 



si ne pooit mie forchoier encontretoute 
sa barounie. 



Ensi fa nasciens en prison. 

Ne onques pour mal ne pour dolour 
ke il souiFrist: li dyables ne le peut 
tant mener ke il le mesist en couroucli 
vers dieu, ne en desesperanclie. 

224 Et tous iours 

crioit a notre signeur merchi de ses 
pecMes. et disoit " biaus sire dieus, 
chest annui ke ie seufFre, ne plain iou 
mie. Car iou 1' ai mult bien deserui 



quant ie fiii si faus ke ie osai ueoir la 
grant meruelle de vos secres. ke ie, ne 
autres liom concheus d' umaine fra- 
gilite, ne porroit degnement veoir ne 
esgarder, se votre grasce seulement ne 
le faisoit deuant net et monde." 



En cheste entension 
souffri nasciens en la prison 
les grans anuis. 



TO HIM FOB PARDON FOB HIS POLLY AND HIS SIN . 



247 



Bothe be nyht and Ek be day 

In tbis Angwiscb thus Nasciens lay ; 240 

And Evere Cried God Of Mercy 

Tbat he hadde leved so Eolily. 

And now tornetb tbis Storie Ageyn 
To kyng Mordreins now In Oertein, 244 

The wheche lest J)at he ded hadde be ; 
And thus is he In A Roch with-Inne the se. 



et par iour et par nuit, 

ne onques de cheste uolente ne de 
chest corage ne peut estre meus. 

Mais a tant se taist chiendroit I'estoire 
de lui et de ses oeures, et si tourne li 
contes sour le roi mordains. 

ke on quidoit k' il fust pierdus. 



248 



CHAPTER XX. 



The description and history of the island to which King Mordreins was carried ; and herein of the Emperor 
Pompey's daring deeds. How the isle was on the way from Scotland and Ireland to Babylon, and Wales 
and Spain could be seen from it (p. 249); and how it was all bare rook, and was called The Roche 
Perilows (p. 250); and on it was formerly a house built by a pirate, Fowcairs, who enticed ships ashore, 
and destroyed them and their crews (p. 250-1) ; till Pompey heard of him, and prepared a ship (p. 251) ; 
and attacked him (p. 252). The account of the fight * (p. 252-8) ; — how the pirates let down a quarter of 
a ship on Pompey's knights (p. 253); and the attack is put off (p. 254). Pompey then determines to 
light a fire at the foot of the rock and burn them out (p. 255). The pirates try to put it out, but can't, 
and the knights kill four of them (p. 255) ; the rest nearly succeed in extinguishing the fire, but Pompey 
drives them back and kills five of them (p. 256). He is then attacked and swoons, but is rescued. Fowcairs 
is taken (p. 257); his men are thrown into the sea, and then he too (p. 258). How Pompey did a still 
more daring deed, stabled his horses in the Temple at Jerusalem (p. 258); and how he was rebuked by 
Peter for it (p. 259).* 



Now here be-gynneth kyng Mordreins Storie 
that vppon a Hoche In the se is Certeinlye ; 
that O^rt of his Hegioun xvii. lornees was 
TVith-Inne the se In A perilous plas. 

Abowtes the Owr of Noon it Avas tho 
whanne the holigoost In ]?at Roche pixt him tho, 
And there the holigost S chewed him thanne 
AI so mochel richesse as ever} Sawgh Manne ; 
And whanne vppon this Roche he was alyht, 
In his herte he was wondiiiy Afryght. 



L'estoire conte ohi endroit ke li rois 
mordains 

fu portes loing de son regne -xvij. 
iournees. 

Et quant vint en droit eure de nonne, 

ke li rois ot veu desous lui toute la 
rikeche des terres, si com li sains es- 
peris li demoustra : si fu mis a terre 
en iohele eure. 

Et quant U fu a terre, 
si commencha a esgarder entour lui : 
comme chil qui mult estoit esbahis et 
tres pensis. 



The French accounts differ considerably from the English ones, see pages 256-8 and 259. 



DESCRIPTION OP THE ISLAND TO WHICH MOEDEEINS WAS CARRIED. 



249 



Whanne Abowtes vppon tlie E-oclie he lokede 

the 
And beheld how Into A straunge Oontre he 

was I-do, 12 

Where-Oflfen he thowghte tho In his herte 
Neuere that deseisse forto Asterte ; 
And there-fore but litel wondir it were 
Thowgh Sore Abashed were he there, 16 

Por 3it hadde he non ful knoweng 
That In the paleys'he hadde of his swevenynge ; 
And Evere he MerveiUed In this thowht 
How that he thedir was tho browhte, 20 

And In him Self hadde gret Merveillinge 
Ho that thedir dide him tho bringe. 
And thus longe he gan to beholde 
That Al his herte gan wexen Colde, 24 

For Anon thing he ne Sawh bowtes hym 
But the wilde Se bothe Stowt & Grym, 
And no more lond there ne was 
Thanne ]jere the B-oche stood In that spas. 28 

This Roche stent A-Middes the se, 
Al this Storie now telleth to Me, 
Evene from Scotlond the Ryhte weye 
Into Babiloyne, As I the Seye, 32 

And from Erlond the weye Also 
Streyht to babyloyne it doth go. 
And So hygh the Boche is there 
That Ouer the Se I[s] sein Every where, 36 

And to Wales there Mihte he se, 
And Into Spayne Into that partee, — 
So hygh is the Boche In that stounde 
That kyng Mordreins there ha]) I-fownde, 4o 

Eor it is On of the most heyest plase 
That In Ony Se Evene 3it sein wase ; 

2 K 



Car il se veoit seus en terre estrange 

dont il ne quidoit 

iamais escaper a nul iour. 

Et pour chou n'estoit il mie meruelle 
se il estoit esbaHs. Car il n'estoit mie 
pas enchore bien asseures des grans 
memelles qui li estoient auenues en 
son palais. Ne il ne li estoit mie 
auis ke iamais ches meruelles li fausis- 
sent pour la grant angoisse qu'il en 
auoit soufferte. 

Et auoec tout chou ne sauoit il pas 
comment il estoit venus en chel lieu 
ou il se trouua: 
ne quel chose li pooit auoir porte. 

Et quant il eut asses esgarde entour lui, 

si fu enchore plus esbahis. 

Car il ne Tit onques se les nues non 

deseur lui, 

et enuiron soi ne vit se la mer non. 

Fors ke tant seulement d'espasse 
com vne petite rocbe tenoit. Che fu li 
lieus ou il estoit. 

Chele roche si est assiese en la mer 
occeane, en ichele partie 

ou li drois trespas est a aler en la 
terre de babyloine en la terre d'es- 
coche 

et d'islande : et es autres parties d'oc- 
cident. En che trespas est chele roche, 

et si est de si tres grant hauteche 
ke on en peut sourueoir toute la mer 
d'occident iusc'a iches lieus ou terre 
peut estre trouuee, et de I'autre part 
a destre si comme de uers galerneen 
peut on ueoir la terre de cordres et 
toute la fin d'espaigne. 

La roche est de tel hauteche com vous 
aues oi, et si est en tout le plus sau- 
uage lieu, et el mains hante, qui soit 
en nul lieu de mer habitable. 



250 



OF " THE ROCHE PERILOWS " AND THE PIRATE POWCAIRS, 



56 



And this yl So wastful Is, 

That of non Maner viaunde there-Inne peve 

nys, 44 

Ne non Erthe that is Mevable, 
But Al Clene Roche hard & stable ; 
Except ])e space Of A mannes hond 
In ]?at place Is there non Erable lond, 48 

And Elles Into the harde Se 
Clene Hoche As it May be. 
And for that Roche Is so perUows, 
So hygh, so straunge, & so Merveillous, 
That " the Roche perilows " is the Name, 
Eor it is of So perUons A fame. 

Vppon wheche roche snmtyme was diht 
A Certein habitacle with gret Miht, 
That A lerrers of the Se hyt Made, 
And Eowcairs to his name he hade. 
This lerrers was of so passing Mesure 
And of so gret strengthe, I the Ensure, 
That non Man his gretnesse Cowde dis- 

crie 
Ne his strengthe to haven In Memorie, 
So that In this Roche for certein 
His habitacle he made ful pleyn ; 
That So with Verray strengthe & Myht 
In that Roche his hows gan he dyht, 
A large hostel for twenty Men, 
Thus he gan Areyened than ; 
But In that Roche lay not he, 
But In A galeye In the Se, — 
He, & hise felawes Also, 

Vppon the Se felonie to do, 72 

And 0]?er whiles In Certein 
Vppon that Roche they wolden ful plein. 



Li lieus est si gastes et si desplaisans 

ke il n' i a ne tant ne quant de nule 
terriene soustenanclie. 

Ne il n' i a de terre muable tant com 

vns poins porroit enclore, 

anchois est toute fine roche naieue. 



iusques es ondes de la mer. 



Et pour chou ke la roche siet en si 
-^ sauuaige lieu, et en si perilleus : 

pour che est apielee des paisans de la 
roche del port peril. 



60 



68 



Et si i eut iadis 

vne maison fremee par mult grant 

orguel. 

et si li frema vns leres de mer. 

qui estoit apieles foucaires. 

Chil lerres de grant cors a desmesure, 
et de si grant forche 
ke nus horn ne peust souffiir la virtu 
de ses menbres. 



En chele roche 

64 fist li leres son habitacle de la roche 
meisme. 



Car il crousa tant ke il i eut bien 
maison a .xx. homes osteler. En chel 
ostel repairoit entre lui et ses com- 
paignons, dont il auoit a grant plente. 



Mais il ne pooient pas tout iesir de- 
dens la roche. Car il estoient bien 
nonante, et a le fois plus de chent. 
Si gisoient dehors la roche, en lor 
galies qui lor estoient toutes eures 
apparillies . 

Et quant il faisoit la nuit bien oscur, 
si metoient en la roche 



HOW rOWCAIRS DESTROYED SHIPS. POMPEY PREPARES TO ATTACK HIM. 251 



A fill gret feer wolden they make ; 

Here pray there-with forte take ; 76 

So that it semede to Ony Marchawnt 

That theke pas dide Owht hawnt, 

That Som Resteng place it hadde be ; 

But here distroction it was, As 36 mown Se, 80 

Por A3eiis that Roch they hurtelid so sore 

That Alle to-borsten weren they thore ; 

Thanne Owt of here galeyes gonne they 

go— 
These theyis that this falshed hadden do, — 84 

And tooken bothe Jjere Man & good 
That persched was there In theke flood : 
And In this Manere distroied this lerrers 
Mani A Marchannt & Mariners. 88 

Thanne be-fil A wondir Oas, 
That On, Grete Pompees, that Emperour was 
Of Romeyns, As happed that day, 
Of Alle these Merveilles herde he say 92 

As Owt of grece he seilede tho, 
Teward Gecyle he gan to go. 
And thus As he seillede Ahowte, 
And took many Garisonns, bothe strong & stowte, 96 
That Abowtes be the Se stoode 
In Ony place be ]?e salt Floode ; 
Thus Cam he toward babyloyne, 
And thidirward of this thef herde he seyne. 100 

Thanne seide this pompee with-Owten 
faille 
'That theke strong theef 3e scholen asaille.' 
And thus to his peple gan he Seyn, 
" "We scholen him Asayen In Oerteyn." 104 

Anon there Redily dide he dyhte 
A riht strong galeie, & Of gret Myhte, 

2k2 



.i. grant brandon du fu ardant. 



et chil qui la venoient maintes fois, si 
com marcheant, ou autres gens tres- 
passans, 

si n'en escapoient mie sans peril. 

Car maintes fies auenoit ke les nes i 
hurterent en lor venir si durement 
ke eles depichoient toutes, 

et chil estoient apparillie qui lor 

couuroient sus a lor galies. 

Ensi chaoient chil en deus perieus. 
Car il noioient d'une part, et si les 
ochoit on d' autre part, la u il quidoient 
estre venu a garant. 

Longhement tot en cheste maniere 
mena li lerres sa dolereuse vie. 

Tant qu'il auint chose, 

ke li grans ponpees, qui a chel iour 
estoit empereres 
de roumains, 

sen passa outre la mer de grece, 
et vint en la terre de sulie. 

Et quant il eut ale par toutes les 
terres d'orient, 

et prise la garisou des fortereches 
iusk'en babyloine. 



Si oi la nouiele de chel larron qui 
ensi oohioit tous les trepassans. Et 
lors dist il 

' ke che qu'il auoit fait estoit nolens. 
Se li de chestui larron ne seuroit la 
terre.' 



Tout maintenant fist atourner 
le plus riche nef qu'il peut trouer, 



252 



POMPET S SHIP ANCHORS NEAR THE ISLE, AND DESTROYS A GALLEY. 



And put it ful of good vitaille, 

And Of goode knyhtes that thef to Asaille. i08 

Anon whanne this was E-edely dyht, 
The Se he took Anon there E-iht. 
And fo^^T:ty goode knyhtes be ordeyned there, 
And twenty grete grapelis of Erne peve were 112 
The Galeyes to the Schippe forto holde, — 
Of yrne weren Mad bothe strong & bolde ; 
And thus they gonnen to seylen Anon 
As faste to the Roche as they myhte gon, lie 

Bothe be day & Eke be Nyht, 
Tyl of a hard roche they hadden a syht. 

And whanne the E-oche they gonne to Aspie, 
It to Aprochen they Soiled ful Nye ; 120 

And whanne faste by they weren gon, 
Heren Ancres they Oasten ))ere Anon, 
Forto Abyden there that Nyht 
Til of the Eoche they myhte hau better Syht. 124 
And whanne J>e Nyht was wel Apast, 
To- ward the E.oche they Comen In hast ; 
As Ny As man Mihte Casten A ston, 
Thus Ny to the Roche Gonne they gon. 128 

And whanne these thevis gonnen Aspie, 
Redeliche they Haped hem, & In hye. 
But ]}e maister Mariner that was with pompee 
Of that Boch knew Al the Sotelte ; 132 

And ]?ere As the feer the thevis gonne Make, 
That partie of the Boche wolde he not take. 
But be Anothir side they wente, 
]jere As they fownden presente 136 

A strong galeye that there lay 
Be-twene ]>e Booh & hem, Ipe sothe to say ; 
And they Comen with so gret A wille 
That there mani men gonnen to spUle, 140 



et le fist garnir de boines viandes, 

et de si hardis ohiualers, et de riclies 

armtues. 

Quant il eut tout son oirre appa- 

rillie, si entra em mer. 

Si eutestabli .xl.des plus fors hommes 

de sa nef. 

a vint cros de fer. 

pour retenir les galies tantost que eles 

tenoient a la nef. 

Tant eirerent 



ke il vinrent pres de la roche 

si ke il le virent si haute et si meruil- 
leuse com ele estoit, 

et lors si ieterent lor ancre 
pour atendre la nidt. 



Et quant il fa grant pieche de la nuit 

alee: 

si murent, et alerent tant ke il vinrent 

pres de la roche : 

tant com ou porroit vne pierre ruer 

a le main. 

Et quant chil les oirent venir: 

si entrerent en lor galies et s' sparil- 

lierent comme pour aus assahr. 

Et chil qui conduisoient la nef ponpee 

ne sorent mie bien le destroit de la 

roche, 

si ne vaurent pas de droit cours aler 

la u il veoient le fa. 

anchois alerent d'en coste, 

si ke il entreprisent 

vne des gaUes, 

entre aus et la roche, 

ke ele debrisa toute,et vola en pieches. 

Lors commenchierent a crier chil qui 

estoient dedens, 



THE PIGHT, — 30 KNIGHTS LAND. THE PIRATES THROW A BIT OP A SHIP ON THEM. 253 



And flllen down Into ]>e Se 
Of Men & good ful gret plente. 

Thanne they that In pe toJ)ere galeyes were, 
Wenden the grete schippe hadde persched 

Jjere ; I44 

So was there tho A ful hard stowr 
Betwene these Pelowns and the Emperour. 
And wanne they sien it gan so to go, 
The Emperour to withstonde non power hadden 



tho, 



148 



Be litel and litel they Gonne to gon 
Til that Ipe Roche they Entred Anon. 

And whanne pompee gan this to Aspie, 
Eul lowde he gan hem to discrye, 152 

And swoor that he wolde don his Miht 
Of tho theves to ben Avenged Ariht. 
And whanne the thevis vndirstood, 
Non lengere there they ne Abood, 156 

But to the heithe of the Roche Sekerlye 
Eul faste these thevis gonnen hem hye ; 
And After hem xxx knyhtes goode 
That departed Owt of that floode ; I60 

So with-Owten thritty there were. 
And with-Inne xix theves In fere ; 
Eor alle the Remnaunt of J>ese theves tho 
Weren slayn, And In-to the Se I-do : lei 

And whanne this Sawt began to gynne. 
These theves wrowhten A corsid gynne, — 
They Rolled down I that plas 

A qwarter Of a galeye Ipat broken was, les 

That hevy & boistous it was to be-holde ; 
And down it Cam with strengthe manifolde, 
And fil Anon down Into the Se, 
Where-with xi. of the Pompees knyhtes slow he, 172 



et chil des autree galies 

quidierent ke la nef fust pechoie. Si lor laia- 
sent courre tantost, et les assalent a .v, galies. 
Et si tost com il vinrent tout abriue pour 
ferir. et ohil dedens lor ietent les cros, si les 
tinrent mult vighereusement tant ke 11 autre 
furent ens sali, les espees traites et les cou- 
tiaus. Et li noutonier et li sergant alumoient 
les grans brandons, dont en la nef auoit grant 
plente. Et quant chil se verent soupris, et ke 
il ne porroient durer. si se deffendirent mult 
durement comme gent qui trop estoient au 
desous. 
Et quant il virent ke il ne porroient 

garir, si se traisent petit et petit 

vers la roche, et se ferirent dedens 

cHl qui porent. 

Et quant pompees les vit courre laiens 

a garant. 

Si escria les chiualers, 

et iura 

ke mal en esohaperoit nes uns. 



Lors se ferirent apres bien .xxx. de 
ses mellours chiualers. et li larron 
orent ia pourpris le haut de la roclie. 
si se deffendirent si durement ke chil 
ne porentonkes auoir baillie d'aus. 
et si estoient chil dehors .xxx. 

et chil dedens n'estoient. ke .xx. 

Car tout li autre 

estoient ke ochis ke iete en mer. 

Mult se deffendirent li larron longe- 
ment. et quant il commenchierent a 
lasser, 

si laissierent cheoir vn grant fust qui estoit 
d' el coste d' une nef qui auoit este pechoie a 
la roche. Quant chil fust eschapa d' en haut. 
si s' en vint par chiaus qui assanlbient. 
Et il fu grans, et gros, et pesans, 

si tua quan qu'il atainst deuant lui, et 

fist chaoir en la mer, 

A chil caup i pierdi pompes .xi. de ses 

chiualers. 



254 



pompet's knights advise him to delat the attack. 



AVTiere-offen pompee hadde so gret Care, 

Anon him Self to the Roche gan fare, 

And swoor ' that he had levere to dye 

But avenged he Were there Otterlye, i76 

That there so falsly hadde slain his knyhtes 

At thike same tyme with here fyhtes.' 

Thanne On of his knythes there Anon 
That say In what peryl that he wolde gon, 180 

And Oonseilled him " forto Abyde 
Til it were more to the day tyde, 
And I schal 30W Oertefien Everidel 
How On these theves to ben Avenged wel, i84 

Thanne scholen 30 non men lese, 
Ne putten 30wre self Into non gret deseisse." 
Thanne Pompee Axede him Anon 
In What Manere that it Mihte gon. 188 

" Sire, of this sawt 30 scholen A while reste, 
I hope it schal be for 30ure beste." 

But Evere they maden sorwe & wo 
For hise goode knyhtes weren slayn so. 192 

He forto lesen so mani good knihtes 
Eor A fewe theves In tho fyhtes, 
Eul gret schame to him he thowhte it was 
His knyhtes so to lesen In theke Oas. 696 

And On the Morwe whanne it was day lyht 
And Pompee of that Boche hadde A syht, 
So strong A thing say he neuere non 
As thike Roche that he loked vppon ; 200 

' And non wondir it hadde ben,' seide he Anon, 
' Thowgh his knyhtes hadde ben slayn Echon.' 

Thanne of Itnyhtes he Axede Counsaille 
3if to that Boche they Cowden Owght Availe ; 204 
But non Of hem that was there 
Cowde him Oownseillen In non Manere ; 



si en eut tel duel, que pax vn poi ke 

il n'esragoit tous vis. 

Lors sali il meisme apres ohiaus qui 

assaloient. 

et iura ' que il voloit mieus mourir 

en r assaut: ke il ne reuengast ses 

chiualers ke il auoit pierdus.' 



Et quant vns siens chiualers vit 

keilTen prenoit si a chiertes: si sepensake il 
se metoit en mult grant peril. Car nus assaus 
de gent ni pooit auoir master. Et se il estoit 
ochis en tel maniere. li empires de rome i aroit 
grant deshounour de cliou ke li larron aroient 
morfc V empereour. Lors apiele pompee, et si 
li dist. " Sire, se vous voles croire mon consel : 
ie voug ensegneroie bien comment vous pren- 
deries tous chiaus de laiens, 
et si ni seroit pas votre oors em peril, 
ne n' i pierderies pas vos chiualers." 

Et pompees, qui mult estoit angoisseus, 

demanda ' comment.' 
" Sire,' ' dist li chiualers, ** faite humais rema- 
noir r assaut. Et demain quant il sera clers 
iours. Si verres miex par quel lieu vous les 
porres plus legierement assalir et plus dure- 
ment mehaignier. Tant li loa, et chil et li 
autre, ke pompees fist remanoir I'assaut. 
Mais mult les fist courechies et dolans pour ses 
chiualers ke il auoit pierdus 



Et poitr chou qu' il tenoit a grant 
hotite: chou qu' il seiournoit illuec 
pour pendre .i. trope de larrons, 
Ensiremestli assaus ; iusk'al'endemain 
ke il fu grans iours et clers. 
Et lors vit pompees que la roclie estoit 
si fors ke ele ne pooit douter assaut de 
nul home viuant. 

anchois dist 'k' encore estoit il grans 
meruelles que tout si chiualers n' auoi- 
ent este mort a 1' assalir.' 

Lors apiela tous ses chiualers, et si lor 

demanda consel, comment il porroit la 

roche prendre plus isnelement, et sans 

seiourner. 

Et li ni ot onques nus d'aus 

qui de chele seust consilJier. 



POMPET KESOLVES TO SMOKE THE PIRATES OUT, 



255 



For they seiden to him Certeinle 

But 3if be Enfamyne in wolden not be. 208 

Whanne Ipe kyng of hem hadde non Oj^er 
chore, 
He be-thowghte him In Another 

Manere, 
That hem he wolde distroyen Anon 
Be Angwisch Of fyr ]>ere Auerychon. 212 

Anon A gret fere he let there dyhte 
Of Olde schepes And Galeyes, ]?at brenden so 

bryhte, 
That At theke Boche persched hadde been, 
As all the peple there Myhte it seen ; 2I6 

So that this feer there brende so longe tho 
That AUe the smolder Into J^at kave gan go ; 
!Por that feer to stawnchen hadde they non 

miht, 
But Euere this feer brende ful lyht. 220 

And they benethe gonne hem defende 
With Arwes & stones that they gonnen vp sonde ; 
And they Aboven defensed hem thore 
"With speris & Gleyves wondirly Sore. 224 

And whanne this feer gan brenen so briht, 
The thevis tooken fresch water Anon riht — 
Where-Oflfen they hadden Som plente tho — 
And In-to that Eeer they gonnen it do ; 228 

Thanne AUe the smoke & pe flawme, I ]?e plyht. 
Into that Cave wente there Anon Byht, 
And they benethe schetten ful sore, 
And stones vp threw with Engynes thore, 232 

So that they slowen fowre of the felowns 
That hadden don sweche distroctiouns. 
And whanne these thevis Syen this, 
A3en to pe Cave J)ey wenten with-Owten Mys ; 236 



Car il ne quidoient pas ke ele peust 
estre prise sans afamer. 
Et quant il vit ke il ne 1' en saroient nul consel 
doner, si se pensa un pen, et quant il ot pense, si 
dist ' ke il en quidoit bien venir a chief.' " Car 
ie me sui," dist il, " penses ke ie les estain- 
derai par angoisse de fu, ke ie lor ferai faire 
al pie de la roche, si ke la flambe ferra en 1* 
entree de la cauee. et lors si conuenra ke il i 
muirent. Car il n' i porront Ie fu estaindre 
ke nous lor deffenderons de cha a ual a saietes 
et a grosses pierres, et chil ki lassus seront Ie 
deffen deront a glaues et as espees. Et se nous 
ensine Ie poons prendre, ie ne voi mie par 
quel maniere il seront pris sans afamer." 
A chel consel se tienent tout, et il en- 
uoie a mont. xl. chiualers, si lor fait 
alumer Ie ftl des pieches des nes qui 
auoient este debrisies a la roche, dont 
il i auoit mult grant plente. 



Et quant li fus fu bien espris, 

si feroit la flamme iusk' en I'entree 
de la caue ou chil estoient. et la 
fumee entroit dedans mult grant 
partie. 



Et quant li larron virent che, 
si prisent aigue douche 

dont il auoient asses, 

et issirent hors, si verserent li aue 

dedens Ie fu. 

Et lors fu li fus si plains de fumee ke 

par .i. poi ke il n' estaingoient. 

Et chil d' aual lor traioient saietes a 

plente, 

et ietoient pierres. 

si ke il en naurerent .iiij. mult dure- 
ment. 

Et quant li larron virent ke il les me- 

haignoient si: 

si se referirent arriere en la caue. 



256 



POMPET RUSHES TO THE ATTACK, AND KILLS FIVE PIRATES. 



La furent il asses plus a mal aise que deuant 

n' estoient de-hors. 

Car la funiee estoit si espandue par toute la 

caue qu' 11 n'i pooient veir nesune goute. 

Et quant il virent ke il n' i porroient 

durer: 

si issirent tout hors, 



But Jiere weren they not wel at Ese, 
So Evel this Peer it dide hem plese ; 
And whanne they seyen it Miht not be, 
Alle Anon Owt of that kave gonnen they 

fle, 240 

And ^vith Alle here myht And strengthe ther 
The purposed to stawnchen this feer. 
And thanne these knyhtes to hem Ronne, 
And there sore begeriiige they begonne ; 244 

And the Felowns hem defendid sore, 
As they that Maymed & Greved wore. 

And "whanne this pompee gan this beholde, 
For deol his herte gan wexen ful Colde, 248 

And to that E,ooch he hentred Anon 
To-Tvard pe feer As faste As he Cowde Gon. 
Anon A^en to the Cave they gornien to 

E,onne, 
Eor non lengere nolden they blynne ; 252 

And Pompe After hem tho Sewede faste — 
Eor to hem hadde he ful gret haste — 
Where that he of hem Slow there fy^^e ; 
Thanne leften there but xiiii On lyre ; 256 

To wheche they benethen schotten ful sore, 
& Manie of hem horten tore. 
So that Pompe him-self hiu't with hem was 
In thre stedis In that Same plas. 260 

traist de coste. Ensi se mist pompees apres aus tout le sentier, et tint a deus poins vne hache, dont il 
dounoit mult grans caus : a cheus ke il venoit a tangnant. Et chil toute voie ftiiant s' en aloient droit a la 
caue. Si en i ot asses de nauies en la fuie des saietes ke cliil d' aual lor traioient : et des pierres ke cliil d' aual 
lor ietoient. Si que pompees meisme i fa naures en -iij. lieus. Et quant li larron viorent fuiant a la caue si 
ne trouerent mie 1' entree preste a lor volente, ne n'i pooient pas entrer deliurement. Et chil d' aual les empi- 
roient mult des saietes et des pierres ke il lor lanchoient, et la fumee lor auoit auques empirie la veue. Si 
ne porent pas si tost estre entre en la caue : ke pompees n' en eust : anchois illuekes a trois caupe les testes, 
et deus abatus en la mer par les caus ke il lor auoit dones de la hache. Ensi en ochist pompees .v. a 
chele cache, si ne furent mais que .xiiij. et de cheus estoient si naure .li. vij. ke petit se pooient mais aidier. 



et se misent a bandon tout 
pour le fii aler estaindre. 

Et li cbiualer lor laissent courre : 

si se combatoient mult durementaaus. 

Et chil se deffendoient mult durementj 
comme gent qui si auoient este greue et me- 
haiguie. Grant pieehe dura ia meslee : si 
furent bien blechie, et d' unepart et d'autre. 
Et quant pompees vit ke il se contre- 
tenoient tant. 

si en ot grant duel et grant honte. 
Et il saut toiit maintenant, au fu ou li 
larron estoient ia tout descendu pour 
estaindre, si les encaucba si durement 
par son cors : ke il ne 1' oserent plus 
atendre. ancbois s' enfuirent arriere a 
la caue. et pompees se feri apres aus 
tout .i. estroit sentier qui estoit en la 
rocbe trencbies par ou on aloit a la 
caue. car par autre uoie n' i pooit on aler. 
Car la caue estoit en si ruiste lieu : 
ke nus n'i peust monter. se K sentiers 
ne fust qui estoit trencbies en la 
rocbe. Et encbore i auoit il de gres 
de la pierre meisme. Cbele cauen'es' 
toit mie el plus baut lieu de la rocbe : 
ains estoit en .j. des costes de cbele 
part ou ele estoit plus lee. Et si 
estoit r entree si basse et si estroite, 
ke il n' i pooit entrer ke vns sens bom 
ensamble, et si couuenoit qu'il i en- 



POWCAIRS ATTACKS POMPEY ; — THEY BOTH PALL. POWCAIRS IS TAKEN. 257 



266 



270 



And whaune that this beheld Pompees knyghtes 

That he was so vegorous In fyhtes, 262 

Vppe to the Roche they gonnen to wynne, [ms. wynee.] 

To sosteine here Lord A3ens hem with-Inne; 

So that pompee ful Sore gan fyhte, 

And drof these Pelouns Into the Cave Anon 

Ryht, 
And putten hem Alle to Mischef 
Thike lerrers, that Errawnt thef. 

And whanne this lerrers bethowhte him tho 
That they xiiij Of On Man dispised weren so, 
Owt they Oomen Al On Abrest ; 
And this lerrers On pompees Easte threst, 
And took pompees be bothe scholdres tho 
There In that Per him forto hauen do ; 
But he myhte not AUyng for his knyhtes, 
But down Pillen they bothe Anon E-yhtes. 
But Pompee there in Swowneng lay. 
And bothen Armes of lerrers borsten in fay. 
Thanne they benethe Gonnen this beholde, 
And to here Lord Eonne Manifolde, 
And to the Schip they him gan here 
And In a Oowche they ley den hem there. 

*Thanne token they thys fals lerrers, 
And him kepte As A thef So fers. 
And Alle this whille fowghten the knyhtes 
Vppon the Boche, and slowgh down Byhtes. 



274 



278 



282 



Quant li chiualer 

virent poompee en telhardement entre : 

si s'arouterent apres lui tout le sentier 
centre mont, 

et pompes estoit ia a I'entree de la 
caue apres les larrons qui ia s'estoient 
tout mis dedens: fors ke li maistre 
d'aus. 



286 



Et quant chil vit ke pompees estoit 
tous seus, et ke il vilainement estoient 
tout entre en la fuie par i. seul home. 
Si le tint a le grant honte et a grant 
despit. Et quant il fu tous appa- 
rillies pour entrer en la caue apres les 
autres : Si ne vaut, anchois retourna 
arriere. Et pompees haucha la haclie, 
si quida ferir a deus poins parmi la 
teste, mais foucaires guenchi au caup, 
et la hache feri el costal de la roche 
si tres durement ke toute la lumiere 
fu esmie, et ke toute la hanste vola 
enpieches. A chest caup ieta foucaires 
les poins, si prist pompee par les es- 
paules, et les vaut lanchier et fu ki 
estoit desous aus. Mais li chiualer 
pompee furent ia si aprochie : ke il 
premiers feri foucaire d'une glaive ke 
il tenoit, en mi le pis, si tres durement 
ke il le fist tout cancheler la u il s'en- 
tretenoient entre lui et pompee as bras. 
Au cancheler ke foucaires fist : Si li 
cauperent andoi le pie du sentier. Et 
il fu grans, et pesans, et gros, si feri 
ponpee del pis et de la tieste au 
cheoir, qu'il fist si durement ke il li 
fist guerpir la roche. et ke il chairent 
Li chiualer pompee lieuent le cri. et 



andoi si com il s'entretenoient ens el fu qui desous aus estoit. 

chil des nes salent hors, si vienent poignant au fu, et trouuerent lor signour qui gisoit dedens, tous pasmes 
autresi com s' il fust mors. Et il Ten traisent mult tost, si li osterent son hiaume, et li habatirent sa uentaille. 
Et quant il li orent le viaire descouuert. Si le virent ausi pale com se il fust mors, ne ne traioit a lui ne 
pie ne main. Lors orent mult grant paour de lui, si le misent en son escu etl'enporterenten la nef pour couchier. 
* Et li autre orent pris foucaire, et si trouuerent ke il auoit le brach destre pechoie au chaoir ke il fist desous 
pompee. Et si estoit anques blechies et maumis del fu ou il estoit cheus. Si le prisent legierement : car il le 
trouuerent tot pasme. Lors le prisent, et si le loierent mult forment, tant ke pompees en commandast sa 
volente. Apres fu li fus alumes de rechief, et si i ot grant plente de buisse moillie, si en issoit si a grant fumee 
et si angoisseuse : kepar .j. poi ke chil de la caue n'estaignoient. Ne onques pour dolour ne pour angoisse 
ke il soufi^rirent ne vaurent issir hors, si ke chil de dehors se meruillierent trop durement comment il pooient 
tant auoir souffiert, 

2l 



258 



THE PIRATES AKE CONQUERED, AND THROWN INTO THE SEA. 



And In this mene whille Of fyhgteng 
Awook Pompee Owt Of Ms swowneng, 
Where-offen Ms Meyne ful glad they were 
"Whanne that he was Recouered there. 290 

Thanne Merveilled Pompe wondir sore 
How that In the Schippe he Cam thore ; 
Thanne his Meyne gan Mm to telle 
In what Maner and how ]7at he felle. 294 

Thanne this pompee vp Ros Anon, 
And A3en to that Roche gan he to gon 
With a ful good strong Spere In honde, 
Where- with he wrowhte pe theves schonde, 298 

And to that Cave he Entred Again, 
And there with-Inne he hath hem Slayn, 
And there threw hem Into the Se 
The Tysches Mete Al forto be. 302 

Thanne Cam he to the Schippe Again, 
Where-Offen his Meyne was ful fayn. 
Thanne Comanded he to taken this lerrers 
That was a theef So strong and fers, 306 

To bersten bothen his thyes and Ek his bak, 
And Into the se Casten him with-Owten lak. 
Thus deliured thanne Sire pompee 
That Roche Of felowns, As I telle the. 310 

And to Rome seilled he streyht Agein, 
As I telle 30W now for certein ; 



Entre ches choses reuint pompes de 
pamison, si ovuiri les [iex] et vit que 
il estoit en son lit coucliies. 



si se meruilloit comment il estoit venus 
illnec qui orendroit estoit a I'assaut. 



Lors sali sus, et demanda sa liache. 
Et quant sihomeli virent, si en orent 
mult grant ioie, et disrent keele estoit 
depechie, et si li conterent comment. 
Apres li rendirent foucaire, et il de- 
manda coument il auoiteste pris. Et il 
li moustrerentle brach destre ke il eut 
peclioie quant il chai, et ensi com li 
fus li auoit brusle tout le vis et tout 
le cors. Lors commandaqueil fust (a) 
si fist tous les cors ieter en la mer. 



Apres fist a foucaire 



pechoirle bras senestreet les .ij ouisses, 
si le fiat lanchier en la mer apres ses 
compaignons. 

Ensi deliura pompees le pais de clies larrons. 
Et che fu uas des plus hounerables fais lie il 
onques fesist. Mais de toutes les proueches 
et de tous les hardemens ke il onques fesist : 
fu chis li mains amenteus. Et si vous dirai pour 
quoi che fu. II auint chose, ke quant il s'en 
repairoit a rome, 



(a) mult bien gardes. Et il courut a .i. espiel, si sali hors de la nef. et demanda a ohiaus qui gardoient le fu. 
ou li autre larron estoient. Et li conterent la grant meruelle del angoisse ke il auoient soufferte et ke 
onques puis ne s'estoit nus d'aus tous moustres. Lors commanda pompees ke li fus fust depechies tos. Et 
quant il fu depechies, si monta pompees en haut, et viut a I'entree de la caue, I'espiel en la main. Et si 
home li virent aler chele part, si ooururent apres. Car il auoient mult grant paoui- de lui. Et il vint 
droit a I'entree de la caue. Et quant il eut asses escoute a I'uis, si oi qu'il ne disoient mot. Et lors fist il 
.i. grant hardement, car il se mist dedens la caue, et feri le premier des larrons de I'espie parmi le cors. Et 
quant il ot feru, si vit que li autre ne disoient mot, ne ne se mouuoient, si se meruilla trop ke clie ])ooit 
estre. Lors se traist avant ke il vit bien, et perchut que il estoient tout mort. Et il les prenoit, si les 
ietoit tout hors, vn a vn, voians ses chiualers qui a mult grant foloie le tenoient. Et il n'auoient mie tort. 
Car che fu li plus grans hardemens, et la graindre estoutie que il onqrtes eust faite. si en auoit fait asses de 
(jrans. Et il fii descendus de la roche. 



ST. PETER REBUKES POMPEY EOR STABLING HIS HORSES IN THE TEMPLE. 259 



And from Eome to Jerusalem he wente, 

Where that he stablede his hors presente 314 

In the holy temple Of Owre lord. 

Thanne to him Cam seint Petir At On word, 
And seide to hym In this Manere : 
" Pompee, thow forsakest thi maneres here, 318 

And dost moche wers thanne dide lerrers, 
That was a felown hothe strong and fers. 
Thy stable thus here forto Make 
The heyest hows, that for goddis Sake 322 

Was mad to don Inne his Servise. 
Now thow ]?at hows gynnest to dispise, 
Wherfore I may wel liknen the 
To Porcaus, that felown sire, perde." 326 

Thanne from Jerusalem ]>is pompe wente. 
And charged Al his Men wit goode Ente 
' They scholden neuere Of this forcaus speke. 
In what maner On him he was A-wreke, 330 

Por to him hadde it ben gret velonie 
Vppon A thef to hau set his hoi Navye ; ' 
Por it was On of the grettest prowesse 
That Evere dide Ipe Emperour In Ony distresse. 334 



et il vint en ilierusalem, 

si mist ses cheuaus iesir 

el temple notre signeur. 
Et quant il eut che fait, si en orent li 
iuis mult grant duel. Et il auoit en 
la chite i. mult preudome de grant 
eage, et si estoit mult religieus. Chil 
fu peres saint symeon : chelui a qui on 
presenta ihesu crist el temple entre 
ses bras au iour de la purification a 
la boineuree virgene marie. Quant il 
seut la grant desloiaute ke pompees 
auoit faite de ses cheuaus, ke il auoit 
es tables en la sainte maison notre 
signeur. Si dist, ' ke ore auoit il trop 
vescu : quant il veoit ke li fil estoient 
boute hors et li chien mangoient as ta- 
bles. Et quant ses cuerspooitesgarder, 
ne soufFrir, ke li ort pourchier fai- 
soient chambre priuee des glorieus (b) 
Et quant il s'enparti de iherusalem : 
si desfendi a toute sa maisnie 

ke iamais ne parlaissent de foucaire : 

Car il ne voloit mie ke on li reprouaist 

che ke il auoit toute sa forche et son 
pooir mis a .j. larron asalir et prendre. 
Ensi fu teue chele proueche ke ele ne fu mie 
escrite eutre ses autres fais. Car la ehelee de 
lui et de sa maianie : en atati le renom. Et si 
fu chou li graindres biens ke il eust onques 
fait de quoi il deust estre plus amenteus. 



(J) lieus ke nostre sires auoit saintefiies a son seruiche. Lors en ala tout droit a pompee, et quant il fu deuant 
lui, si commencha a braire et a crier ausi coms'il fust tous foursenes Apres dist a pompee " bien i pert ke 
tu t' i es combatus a foucaire. Car tu as retenu tant de ses coustumes ke tu as laissie a estre pompees. Si 
i es deuenus foucaires. Et nous quidion ke se foucaires eust ochis pompee: et eust cheste chite mise en sa 
signourie autresi com ele estoit en la toie. 11 n' i eust mie fait grignour desloiaute ke tu as : qui tes cheuaus 
as estables en la plus haute maison, et en la plushouneree, qui onques fust. Et sestuke tu as deshouneree: 
chelui qui te deshonera. Ch'est li tout poissans sires qui tout fist, qui tu as sa maison cunchie." Ensi parla 
li preudom a pompee, mais il tint tout a rage et a forseuerie. Et nepourquant chil ne dist mot chose qui 
puis mauuenist. Car il auoit tous iours este li plus renoumes chiualers ke on seust, et li plus cheans, ne 
onques puis ne fu se mescheans non. Ne onques puis n'entra en plache ou il se combatist. ke il ne 
s'en partesist honteusement. 



2l2 



260 



CHAPTER XXI. 



Of Mordreins (Evalacli) on " The Rock Perilous," and the wonders he saw there (p. 260-270). How Jlor- 
dreins is in great sorrow (p. 260), and while he is weeping he sees a silver ship approach, with a fair 
man on board, who lands, and talks to him (p. 261-2); says he is a crafty man (p. 262); and his 
name is ' On. & Al. Only.' (p. 263). He comforts the king (p. 263); and tells him that God has not 
forgotten him, but will give him all he asks for (p. 263-5). The king is so joyful that he is almost in 
a trance (p. 265), till the ship and man vanish (p. 266). Mordreins concludes that the man came 
from God (p. 266). He then sees another gorgeously covered ship arrive (p. 266), from which a lovely 
woman lands (p. 267), who talks with him, and asks him to be lord of herself and her lands (p. 268), 
and tempts him to forsake his new faith, telling him of the danger Seraphe (Nasciens) is in (p. 269), 
and of the evils that will befal him — Mordreins — if he stops in the island (p. 269-70). 



Now Of this Emperour let we now be, 
And A3en to tliis kyng now torne we 
That into this Roche Is now I-browht, 
And In what Maner ne Wot he nowht. 
And there sit he In pensifnesse & In deseise, 
& With him non thing ]?at may him plese ; 
And faste Abowtes he loked him there, 
But hevene & the se he ne sawh nowhere ; 
Ne non sustenaunce there ne was, 
But Al disolat In that same plas ; 
Also dwelling was there non, 
But hydows & sterne that Boch of ston ; 
And On ]?at Bock was there non weye 
But A path that to ]>& Cave wenten 

sothlye. 
Thanne loked he vppon the tothir side. 
He ne sawh non Comfort In that tyde, 



12 



16 



A tant se taist ore li contes de pompee, 
et si retourne au roi, 
qui est en la roche 



mult'esbahis : et mult trespenses de che 
qu' il ne sauoit ou il estoit, ne en quel 
maniere il i estoit venus. 
II esgarda entour lui. 

II ne vit nule riens fors mer et chiel : 

dont nule garisons li peust venir, ne 

nule soustenanche. 

La roche fu haute et en saluage lieu. 

Et tant d'abitacle : com il i auoit : 

si estoit lais, et hideus, et oscurs. 
11 ala en-tour le siege de la roche, tant 
com il pent trouuer voie. et tant qu' il 
entra el sentier caupe qui menoit a la 
caue. Et quant il uint a I'entree, si 
le trouua si laide et si noire ke il 
n'entraist dedens pour nule riens. 
Et quant il vit ke il ne trouueroit nul 
comfort. 



MOEDREINS SEES A SILVEB, SHIP, WITH A EAIK, MAN IN IT. 



261 



But dirkenesse & hard Eoche there. 

Thanne set he him down with hevy Ohere, 

And be-gan to sighen ful sore, 

To wepen & wringen 3it wel more. 20 

Thanne Anon thowghte he In his herte — 

Whiche thowght him myhte not Asterte — 

That Owre lord him hadde forgeten Clene 

That he there so "Was browht In tene. 24 

And thus as he was In this morneng 
The water Of his Eyen Cam renneng, 
Him thowghte ]jat the wawes of J>e se 
A wondirful Noise Maden hee ; 28 

And as he lokede tho him Abowte, 
He saw Come seiUing A schippe wel stowte ; 
The wheche schippe was ful of Bewte, 
And A wondir fair Manne there-Inne to be, 32 

That to-forn In the schippe him thowhte he 

was, 
Sitteng Al-gate In that same plas ; 
And toward that Roche he drow ful faste 
Til that to the Boche he Cam Atte laste. 36 

The schippe Al Of Silver it was, 
The Naylles Of gold In that plas 
And In Middis Of that schippe was there 
A fair Crois In that Manere. 40 

And whanne this schip to Jjc Boche gan 
Aplye, 
AUe the swete savours him thowhte sekerly 
That Evere weren groweng In Oni plas 
Him thowhte that In theke schip tho was. 44 

And whanne the Orois he gan to Aspie, 
Anon In his herte he thowhte In hye 
That non wikked thing ne myhte be 
In plas J)ere the Cros was Certeinle. 48 



si s' asist, 

et commencha mult durement a sous- 

pirer du cuer: 

et a plourer des iex de la teste. 

Et commenclia a penser en son cuer- 
ke ore auoit il tout pierdu : Se notre 
sires 1' auoit mis en oublianche et en 
nonchaloir en cheste doleur et en 
cheste angoisse ke il soustenoit. 

Ensi com il pensoit en cheste maniere, 

et plouroit, 

si entr' oi les ondes de la mer 

soner. 

Etillieuelateste, siregardedeuantlui. 

Si voit vne nef venir, 

ke vns hom amenoit qui mult estoit de 

grant biaute. 

En chele nef estoit li biaus hom tons sens, 

et si seoit el chief deuant le viaire 
toutes eures torne de uers la raohe. 



Chele nef estoit petite et toute d' ar- 
gent, et si estoit li mas d' or, et li 
voiles estoit ausi tous viermaus. 



Et quant ele fu arriuee a la roche : 

si fu auis au roi ke toutes les boines 
odeurs ke on peust deuiser ne sauoir 
en herbes et en arbres 

fuissent en la nef amasses. 

Et quant il vit el voile le signe de la 
sainte crois, si fu auques asseures. 
Car il pensoit bien dedens son cuer : 

ke en compaignie de crois ne pooit 
mie venir chose dont maus li venist. 



262 



THE FAIR MAN OF THE SHIP TALKS WITH MOEDREINS, TELLS HIM 



Owt of the schippe Cam tliis faire man tho, 

And the kyng A3ens him gan go ; 

" Sire," he seide, "welcome 36 be 

Into this plase now Certeiale ;" 52 

And with that he knelid a- down 

" Welcome Sire hider Of Renown." 

Thanne Axede this fair Man Certeinle, 

" Sire Of what Contre now be 36 ;" 56 

Thanne Answerid the kyng & seide tho, 

" A Cristen Man, Sire, I am here lo." 

Thanne Axede him this goode man tho, 

' In what Maner he gan thedir to go.' 60 

Thanne Answerid the kyng Ageyn 

" Sire, I wot Neuere now In Certein." 

Thanne the king Axede him ful snelle, 
Whens ]?at he was, he Wold him telle. 64 

Thanne Answerid the goodman him Agein, 
" Sire, A Crafty Man I am Certeia, 
That nowher non swich Is in non Contre 
So sotel A man As 30 here now Se ; 68 

Eor sweche Craftes As I kan do. 
Of Alle men In Erthe konnen it no mo." 
Thanne Axede the kyng Of him there 
' What Maner thinges tho Craftes were.' 72 

He seide " that Owther fowl man 0]?er fowl womman 
Into Grete bewte he cowde torne than ; 
Also A fool A Wis man kan I Make, 
A pore Man gret Richesse to take, 76 

And a low Man kan I Maken hye, 
I seie the, Sire, Certeinlie." 
" Xow Certes, Sire," tho quod the kyng, 
" This may wel ben A Wondirful werkyng : 80 

Now worthi Sire, And it 30wre plesing wolde be, 
30wre Name that 36 wolden tellen me." 



Lors issi li biaus horn hors de la nef 

Et li rois, quant il le 7it tors venir : 

si se drecha encontre lui, 

et dist ' ke bien fust il venus,' 



si li enclina. 

Et li biaus horn li commenclia a de- 

mander 

' qui il estoit.' 

Et li rois respondi 

' qu' il estoit crestiens.' 

Et cbil li commenclia a enquerre 

' comment il estoit illueo venus.' 
Et il li dist ' pour voir. 

ke il ne sauoit comment, ne mais ke 

en itel maniere si estoit troues.' 

Et lors li demanda li rois 

' qui il estoit,' et ke se lui plaisoit: il 

r en desist la veritei. 

Et li biaus bom respondi 

' ke il estoit menestreus de tel mestier 

qui ne fu onques mais autresteus ois. 



Et si ne pooit nus hom riens sauoir ne 
ouurer se par lui non.' 

Lors li demanda li rois 

' quels mestiers ch' estoit.' 

Et il dist " ke il sauoit bien .j. lait 

homme ou vne laide feme 

cangier en biaute quant lui plaisoit. 

Et si li plaisoit ausi bien des fols faire 

sages, 

et des poures riches, 

et des bas haus, 

quant il li venoit a uolenteiJ' 

" Cbertes, 

cliis mestiers a passes tous cbiaus ke 

nus morteus bom porroit faire par soi. 

Et, se vous plaist, 

ore me dites comment vous estes 

apieles." 



HIS NAME, AND COMFORTS HIM. MORDREINS ASKS WHAT HE IS TO DO. 263 



" Sire, Gladly Er I hennes wil gon 

My name to tellen the Anon, — 84 

• On • & • Al • Only • it is Mi Name, 

Sire, I the seie with-owten blame." 

Than quod the king, " sire, Certeinly 
That is a Pair Name and A ful hy. 88 

Sire, quod the king with mylde vois, 
Me semeth as be the signe Of ]>& Crois 
That 36 haven In 30wre Compenie here. 
That to Jesus Crist AflBawnce 3e here." 92 

" That is soth," quod this good man tho, 
"Por with-Owten him non goodnesse May be 

do 
And ho ]?at the signe Of the Crois In his Com- 

peni have, 
Erom AUe periUes he may ben Save. 96 

Therfore be war, I rede now to the. 
That what peple so Evere thou se. 
But 3if the signe of ]?e Cros be hem Among, 
With hem thow talke, I Rede, not long." lOO 

Eul Mochel spak this goodman tho 
To the kyng that In the Roche was I-do ; 
Sweche wordis Of Comfort to him he spak 
That AUe his hevynesse he gan to forsak ; 104 

Nethir Of Mete ne drinke he ne thowhte 
In so mochel Joye this good man him browhte. 

Thanne Axede him the kyng tho, 
' In what Maner he scholde do, 108 

And whethir he scholde ]?cre long Abyde, 
Owther thens to Gon with-In schort tyde.' 
" Ne seist thow," quod this good man Ageyn, 
" That thow belevest In God Certeyn?" 112 

" 56 forsothe, Sire," quod the Kyng, 
" And that I do Ouer AUe thing. 



et il li dist 



■ ke il auoit non tout entour.' 



Et li rois respondi 

'ke mult auoit haut non ethautmestier.' 

Et si dist, " Sire, 

il m' est auis a chel signe de la crois 

ke vous aues en vo compaignie 

ke vous estes de la creanche ihesu 

crist. 

et chil li dist maintenant. " di ua, pour 

chou port iou chest signe auoec moi. 

ke sans lui ne puet on faire nule 

oeure parfitement boine. 

Et tant com tu aras chest signe en 
ta compaignie: 

tant porras tu estre seurs et certains 

ke nule riens ne te serra nuisans, pour 

ke tu aies parfaite creanche. 

Ne ia nul home 

qui chest signe ne port, 

garde ke tu ne tiegnies compaignie. 

Car chil n'est mie de par dieu qui 

auoec lui ne le porte." 

Mult parla li hom de la nef 

au roi longement. 

et tant li dist paroles de solas et de 

confort 

ke il li fist toutes ses dolours oublier. 

ne de nule terriene viande ne li pren- 

droit faims. 

Et li rois li demanda consel, 

' comment il le feroit : 

se il remanroit enchore illuec. 

ou se il li looit que il s'en alast.' 

" Coument," dist li hom de la nef, 

" dont ne dis tu ke tu as ta creanche 
toute en ihesu crist:" 
Et li rois respondi ' ke voirement 
creoit il de tout en tout enihesu crist.' 



264 THE FAIB MAN ASSURES MOEDREINS THAT GOD HAS NOT FORGOTTEN HIM, 



Only & Al In Mm I beleve, 

Of wheclie schal non man me Repreve." 116 

" Sethen thanne that thow dost so," 
Quod the good man A3en to him tho — 
" Eul Sekir thanne Mihtest ]jou be 
That he ne wel Not !Por3eten the, 120 

Ne non that In him hath Rememmbraunce, 
In what degre he be, Other In what stawnse, 
In sekir, sere king, I telle it to the, 
That God we wil not for3eten the ; 124 

And therto what thing J^at thow wilt Crave, 
Sekir to be thow myht it have. 
Sire, tak thow al this for verite, 
Al that Euere now I haue told to the ; i28 

Eor who that In God doth pntten his 

Creawnce, 
Him may not faille with-Owten variance 
That he ne schal hane At his nede 
Of AUe thing that he wele him bede ; 132 

Eor man hath he In so gret Cherte, 
Of non thing so moche, I telle it the. 
Therefore man On him to taken non thing I 

rede. 
But swich thing As God him bede ; 136 

And 3if A man In him Self to Moche 
thenke. 

And with distorbilons Maketh his herte to 
swenke, 

So myhte he fallen I disperaunce, 

Swich a thing myhte ben his Chaunce." 140 

" Now, good sire," quod the King tho, 

"May I thanne Only to God trosten vnto 

Of alle thing that me nedith to have. 

Other what thing that I wele krave ; 144 



Et il horn de la nef li dist. 

" Or saches tu donques de uoir. 

ke il ae t' a mie mis en oubli. 

Car il n'oubliera ia nului qui a lui 
s'atende : ne qui I'ait en ramenbranche 
touts voie 

Et la ou li hom s'esmaie de nule chose 

qui li conuienge: la te di iou pour 

verite ke il est liors de creanche. 



Car puis ke il a mis, et le cors et le 
cuer, de tout en tout en la creanche 
dame dieu: 

dont est il bien drois 

ke il s'atende a lui 

de toutes les choses dont il est be- 
soigneus. 

Car teus est la coustume dame dieu, ke il 
aimeplus home: etengrignourchierte 
le tient : ke ne fait li liom meismes. 
Dont est il bien raisons ke li home ne 
prenge sour soi nule cure de che ki 
lui conuenra. Mais a chelui en laist 
conuenir qui plus I'aime ke il meismes 
ne se porroit amer ne tenir chier. 
Et la ou li hom s'entremetra sour 
dieu, ne de soi ne de sa besoigne : 



la chiet il en desesperanche, tout ausi 
com s'il disoit a chelui qui I'en blame- 
roit. 

' Biaus sire, voles vous ke ie m'atende 
a dieu de toutes les choses qui me 
conuenront. Quidies vous ke il ait 
toute sa pensee a moi: II a asses a 
penser ailleurs.' lUuec chiet il en 
desesperanche: ou il dist et pense 
cheste desloiaute. Car il tient la deite 



AND TELLS HIM NOT TO DESPAIR. THE KING IS MUCH KEJOICED. 



265 



And that God wele thenken On Me 

Trowe 56, sere, that this wil be ?" 

" A, sire," quod this good man tho, 

" Lo, now In disperaunce Ipou Art I-do, 148 

That thenkest & seist As thow dost here, 

In-to A fowl disperawnce ])0u fallest there. 

Therefore I rede the Ouer Alle thing 

That Into bettere ConseUle jjin herte f>ou 

bringe, 152 

And Ouer Alle thing I rede the 
Thin mynde thou sette vppon ]>e Trenite ; 
And have Minde how Salamon the kyng 
To his Sone Evere 3af teching, 156 

' That Evere God to worschepe scholde 

he 
In what maner place that so Evere he be 
Thanne dar the dredyn Of non thing,' " — 
Thus 5af Sampson to his son lerneng. 16O 

In the mene whille that this good Man 
Of the Schippe to the kyng Spak than. 
The kyng so loyful Of his worrdis was 
As he hem herkenid In that plas, 164 

So that he fyl In a gret stodye tho, 
And Merveilled how this thing myhte go, 
And whethir It were In A dremenge, 
Owther where that he was slepinge. 1C8 

And thus A long tyme he him thowhte 
In what maner that he thedir was browhte. 
Of wheche he Cowde knowen non Certeinte 
Of this Mater 3it In non nianere degre. 172 

And whanne Owt of this thowht he gan to gon, 
To his kende Memorie he Cam Anon, 
And abowtes him he lokede wel faste. 
But he ne Cowde weten how he Awey paste, 176 

2 M 



pour mortel la u il dist ' ke il a asses a 
penser ailleurs.' Et die vaut autres- 
tant com ce il disoit : ' se diex voloit 
penser a moi et a toutes les autres 
gens, et il voloit de tout chou venir 
a chief. II conuenroit ke tout ses 
pensers venist a nient. Car il ne por- 
roit mie de toutes ches choses venir a 
chief.' Et par che pees sauoir et cou- 
noistre: ke chil qui est en chest pense 
n'a de creanche, ne tant ne quant, an- 
chois est pires ke vns publicans. 

Mais sauoirs que est salemons, qui eut 
de sapienche outre chou ke nature ne 
puet douner a nul home mortel : chil 
en dist a son fil: la u il I'entroduisoit. 
' Biaus fiex,' dist salemons, ' se tu veus 
conseil pourfitable, ie le te donrai : et 
tu ne le iete mie puer. anchois le tien 
toutes les cures enclos et seele dedens 
ton cuer. Garde que tu laisses tons 
iours dame dieu conuenir de toi et de 
toutes tes choses ne ia autrement ne 
t'en entremet. :' " 
Endementiers ke li honj 
de la nef disoit ches paroles : 
si furent au roi si ti'es durement plai- 
sans ke il s'en troubli a tous en I'es- 
couter. Ne il ne pensoit ne tant ne 
quant a soi : ne de nule riens ne li sou- 
uenoit que seulement de chou qu'il 
ooit. Et tant li pleut chou qu'il es- 
coutoit, que il fu vne grant pieche ausi 
conime chil qui vne visions apart de 
nuit : qui ne seit chertainement se il I'a 
veue en dormant: ou envillant: et si 
quide a le fie qu' il dormoit, et a le fie 
quide qu'il villoit. Toute en cheste 
maniere estoit li rois, ke il ne sauoit 
nule chertainete de lui, ne il ne sauoit 
se il estoit, ou se il n'estoit mie. 

Et quant il eschapa de chest pense, 

et il fu repairies en sa memoire si 

comme il estoit deuant, 

si commencha a regardgr en-viron lui. 



266 THE KIKO THINKS THE EAlU MAN CAME FROM GOD. A BEAUTIFUL SHIP AKRIVES . 



Tor Nethir Of ScMppe ne Man lie Say 
Whecli that to liim Aperid that day. 

And -sThanne bothe Schippe & man was Agon, 
Into A gret Morneng he fyl Anon ; 180 

But In his herte he thowghte ful Certeinlye 
That thike man Erom God kam An hye, 
For he wiste wel be the Signe of the Crois 
That it was Only be goddis Yoys, 184 

For And he hadde been A dedly man 
He Co^yde not hau Spoken As he dide than. 
And Also he wiste Ful Sekerly 
He Cowde not haii gon Awey so previly 188 

syf Erthlich Man he hadde I-ben, 
Other ^s'ise he scholde hau him seen ; 
Wherfore his herte was moche the more 
On god In Al his werkis thore. 192 

Ful longe In this thowght Ipe kyng Abod, 
Other whiles he sat, & Olpev whiles he stood. 
He gau to loken yppon the lefte partye, 
And thus Sone he gan to Aspie, 196 

He Sawh where Cam a schip Anon 
Toward the Eoche Forto gon ; 
That Schippe was wondirly faire A-dyht, 
As him thowhte to his Syht ; 200 

And ]>ev nas uon thing Abowte, 
But Piialv keuered with-Inne & with-Owte, 
Into the harde wawes Of the Se 
That Schippe was keuered ful Certeiale ; 204 

But nethir ^Nlan ne womman Cowde he se 
That Schippe to Governe In non degre. 
And At the Boche it Aryved Anon 
Also swithe as it Myhte gon. 208 

And whanne the king gan this beholde, 
He merueUled J-er-offen Mani folde 



Mais il ne vit onqnes ne la nef ne chelui 
qui dedens estoit venus. Et il se drecha 
en son estant, si commenclia a regarder 
de toutes pars en la mer. 
Et quant il vit qu' il ne le porroit en 
nul sens coisir, si se rasist. 

Lors commencha mult dureroent a penser tout 
de rechief, et mult se meruilloit en son cuer 
qui chil pooit estre qui tant auoit a lui parle. 
Car mult li auoit doune grant confort. Et 
tant s'aparcheuoit il bien, si en auoit mult 
grant ioie ; ke li honi ne pooit estre se de par 
dieu non, a qui il auiot parle. 
Car s'il fust contraires a la creanche 
dame dieu: ne il ne portaist le signe 
de la sainte crois en sa compaignie, 
ne il ne parlast si volentiers de dieu 
ne de ses commandemens. 
Et se il fust hom morteus, il ne s'en 
peust pas estre si tost ales. 

ke il ne I'eust veu en aucune maniere 
ou entr'oi. 



Mult demoura li rois longement en 
chest pense: 

tant qu'il esgarda a senestre partie de 
uers galerne, 

si vit venir vne nef mult riohement 
encourtinee. 

La nef fa de mult grant atoux, et de 
mult biel : 

et fu toute couuerte d'un riche drap 
de sole tot noir. Et li voiles fu tout 
autresteus. Et li mas estoit tous 
couuers d'autrestel. 
et la nef estoit autresi couuerte et de- 
dens et de-hors : iusk'ens es bors, la u 
les ondes hurtoient. Ensi ricliement 
venoit la nef com vous aues oi : 
et si ne paroit ne hons ue feme 
qui le conduisist. 
Entelmanierevinttout di'oit a la roch e . 



Et quant li rois le vit ensi ariuee: 
si se commenclaa mult durement a 
meruillier 



THE PAIREST WOMAN WHO GOES ON FEET LANDS EEOM THE SHIP. 



267 



What tMke ScMppe Miht signefie 

That to the Roche so faste gan hie, 212 

And what maner of thing it sowhte there 

That thedir Cam In swich Manere ; 

And Evere this Schippe he beheld there, 

And of the Aray AUe the manere. 216 

Thanne sawh he there isswen Anon 
The fairest womman that of feet myht gon : 
Thanne the kyng Abaisched he was 
Of thike Merveille In that plas, 220 

Neuertheles 3it he seide, " Welcome 30 be, 
Faire womman, Into this Contre." 
Thanne Answerid sche Agein, 

" And 3e ben welcome, Sire, Oertein, 224 

As man that I most desire to se 
Of Alle men levenge, I telle it the, 
Eualach," seide this lady tho, 

" Al my lyve 3it hider-to 228 

So gret lust I haue to speken with the. 
And now Am I glad I may the se ; 
And now thow Art in this plase here. 
With the to speken I schal hane leysere ; 232 

I schal the lede, and thow wilt gon with me. 
Into \>e fairest place that euer man May se." 
" Now Certes, dame," quod the kyng, 
" I merveille me mochel Of myn hider Comeng, 236 
Por I not ho that hedir me browhte, 
Ne nethir sen him neuere I ne mowhte, 
Ne neuere hennes ne wil I go 

That til A3en he me wil Comen to 240 

That me In to this place browhte, 
0]?er wise cam It not In to My thowhte," 
" Be my trowthe, sire," quod sche thanne, 
" 3it spekist thow As A trewe Manne, 244 

2 m2 



ke che pooit estre, et senefiier. 



et quel chose chela nef estoit venue 
querre. 

Lors se drecha, et commencha la nef 
a regarder d'une part et d'autre. 

Et quant il se regarda, si vit hors issir 

vne des plus tres bieles femes que il 
onques eust veue, et des plus avenans. 
Et quant il la vit, si fu mult esbahis : 

et nepourquant il li dist ' ke bien 
fust ele venue.' 

Et la dame respondi 

' ke ele estoit bien venue sans faille, 

puis k'ele atioit trouue romme del 
TOonde qui ele plus desiroit a veoir.' 

" Kois eualach," dist ele. 

" Je ai tons les iours de ma vie 

eu conuoitise de parler a toi : ne onques 
mais n'en poi auoir ne lieu ne aaise. 

Mais puis ke tu ies chi uenus, 

or arai ioii bien loisir de parler a toi, 

Et se en toi ne remaint, ie te menrai 

en la plus delitable maison ou tu 
onques entraisses." 

Et li rois respondi, "chertes, dame, 
ie sui chi venus ie ne sai comment. 
Car ie ne vi onques chelui qui m'i 
porta. Mais ensi me trouuai en 
cheste roche. 

Ne iamais a nul iour ne quier issir, 
se chil ne m'en iete 

par quicommandement ie i fui 
dportes." 

'Par foi," dist ele, "par Ie commande- 
ment de chelui qui t'i porta t'en istras 
tu. 



268 THE FAIR WOMAN TE]\IPTS MOEDBEIXS TO FOLLOW HER, TELLIXG HIM OF 



256 



Por I the browhte Into this plase, 

To speken with the for I Avokle hau space ; 

And be me hens sehalt thow go, 

And be non Other troste wel therto. 248 

And 3if thow wilt not forsaken my Com- 

penye, 
I schal the bringen to hygh seignourie, 
And maken the Lord Ouer Al my lond 
Which that I holde In Min honde." 

" Dame," quod the Kyng to hire Agayn, 
" Of this wolde I weten ful fayn, 
What myht 36 hau forto do 
A3 now 36 sein me vnto." 
"Be my feith," quod sche, " Sire," Again, 
" Of that power I Am Certein, 
To beren A body Avhere f-at my liking Is, 
And thens him to fetten with-Owten Mis." 260 

" Dame, I vndirstond thy talkyng. 
But a man of a more wondirful werkyng ^ 
Have I herd Sein Certein there is, 
That kan don moche more than this, 264 

Tor he kan Maken of Towle men faire, 
Of Eolis, wise men & debonaire, 
And Pore Men to ben E-iche In Ech degre : 
This Man A Maister, me thinketh, is he, 268 

And this May non Man don Certeinle 
But 3if ]>e signe of ]?e holy Cros with him 

be." 
" A !" quod Eualach this womman thanne, 
" Thow Art A fool, & non wis Manne, 272 

Thow Art deceiued In thy beleve. 
And that Anon I wele the preve. 
Eor As longe As thou boldest this Creaunce 
Of wheche thow hast Mad variawnce, 276 



Car ie t'i aportai par mon sens, 
et par cho ke ie voloie auoir lieu et 
tans d'estre en ta oompaignie, ke ie ai 
tous iours desiree tant. 



Et se tu ne veus refuser si biele com- 
paignie com est la moie : 

ie t'en menrai auoec moi, 

et te ferai signour de toute ma terre 

252 dont iou ai mult grant plente.'' 

" Coument, dame,'' dist li rois, 



" estes vous de si grant poissanche ke 
vous poes ensi porter chiaus ke vous 
voles par tous les lieus?" 

" Par foi," dist ele, 

" de si grant pooir et de si grant sens 

sui iou, 

ke ie puis prendre tout chiaus ke ie 

voel, et porter la u il me plaist." 

" Dame," dist il, " de grant pooir estes, 
et de grant sens, ne ie ne quidoie mie 
ke en tous les homes n'en toutes les 
femes qui soient, eust autant de sens : 
com i'ai oi dire hui n vn home et a 
uous. Mais enchore a chil hom grig- 
nour pooir ke vous n'aues. 
Car il puet faire des lais homes biaus. 

et des poures riches, et des fols sages. 

Mais il me dist ke nus ne pooit faire 

oeure parfaite ne durable: 

se il n'auoit en sa compaignie Ie signe 

de la sainte crois." 

Che dist la dame. " Eois eualach, 

tu i es decheus. 

car ie te dirai comment. 

Tu as deguerpie la creanche par quoi 

tu as este tous iours a hounour. 

Ne iamais tant com tu tenras cheste 

loy ne cheste creanche ketu asrecheue, 



THE EVILS NASCIENS HAS STJPPERED, AND OF THOSE THAT WILL BEEAL HIM. 269 



In pes ne Reste Scliat thow neuere be 

Whiles that beleve Is In the ; 

For thou knowest not 3it the Endyng 

Of thi Sorewe, nether the begynneng ; 

Por thi Brothir Sire Seraphe 

In thi paleis lith in ful hard degre, 

That it Asckapen neuere schal he 

But 3if it the more wondir be." 

" A ! dame," quod the kyng Anon, 

" How mown 36 knowen swich thing be 

don ?" 
" For," quod sche, "I knowe this As wel 
As thi selven Everidel, 
HoAV thow were lefte Owt of thi bed, 
& he A-bod stille In that sted." 

Thanne the kyng Abasched him sore 
For ]>e wordes he herde thore, 
And was Aferd lest his brother scholde 

die 
For tokenis that sche seide so Certeinlye. 
Thanne King Eualach Anon with-AUe 
Nygh In wanhope hadde I-falle, 
And wende that God had him forgote, 
So this womman Made him tho dote. 

Thanne seide this womman to him tho, 
" Eualach, and thow my wille wilt do, 
I schal the setten A3en In-to thi lond 
And Al welthes bringen Into thin hond. 
For wete thow, Eualach, In Certein, 
Owt of this plase gost J)OU not heyn, 
But 3if it be Onlich by me 
Owt of this plase schalt Ipou neuere fle ; 
And here schalt thow Enfamyned be. 
And many mo wondris 3it schalt ]?ou se ; 



n'aras .i. iour d'ounour ne de pais. 



Et le commenchement en uois tu ia 
Car onques puis ke tu le recheus, 

280 n'eus se doleur non. Si com des mer- 
uelles qui t'auinrent en ton pais, dent 
seraphes tes serourges est remes, si 
mal atournes 
ke il n'en puet escaper, 

284 se par mal non, et par mort." 

" Ha: dame," dist li rois, 

" comment saues vous chou ke il soit 
si malades com vous m'aues dit ?" 

" Chertes " dist ele, " ie le saisi ujaie- 
ment: 
288 comme chele qui I'ai veu as iex 

puis ke tu fus del lit leues, ou entre 
vous deus esties assis." 



292 



296 



Lors fu li rois mult esbaBis : 



et creoit bien ke chela li desist voir de 
son serourge qui se morust, 

par les autres enseignes ke ele li disoit 
vraies : et ke il bien counissoit. 
Par cheste nouele fu si durement 
tourbles en son corage, ke par .i. poi 
ke il ne cheoit en desesperanche. 
Et quidoit bien ke notre sires I'eust 
oublie et mis. en noncaloir. 



Et la dame li redist. 

300 " Kois eualach, se tu me voloies 
croire, et faire ma volente. 
Je feroie encore tant 
ke tu recheueroies toute ta terre. 

Et si saches de voir, 

804 ke tu ne le pues iamais recouurer par 
home qui vine, ne par fetne, 
se par moi non. 

Ne de ohi ou tu ies orendroit, n'istras tu 
iamais: seienet'en get. Anchois t'iconuenra 
tant longement demourer : ke tu i morras de 
faim. Car ch'est tous li plus sauuages lieus 

308 1"' ^'^ ^" ""'^ partie de mer. 

Si i uerras asses souuent de tens meruelles 
auenir. 



270 



THE PAIS. WOMAN ASKS MORDBEINS TO GO AWAY WITH HER. 



For 3if thow longe here Abyde, 
Thy wittes schalt Ipou lesen pis, tyde. 
And 3if that thou wilt gon with me, 
A gret lord schal I Maken the ; 
And 3if thow wilt here lengere dwelle 
Thow schalt be lost bothe flesch & felle." 



312 



ke tu n' i porras longhement demourer 
en ton sens ke tu ne le perdes. (a) 

*et ses tu t'en uiens auoec moi, 

ie te ferai plus riche ke tu ne fas on- 

ques, pour ke tu faches mon plaisir." 



(a) Et ses tu qui chil est qui te dist ' ke il sauoit faire des lais homes biaiis : et des poures riches :' Ch'est 
vns enchanteres. Et si saches de voir ke il maime mult a grant tans. Mais ie ne vauch onques lui amer. 
Et se tu chi demeures longement : il fera tant : qu'il t'ochirra. pour che qu'il s'aperoheuera bien ke ie t'aim. 
Et si n'ai cure de lui amer. Or fai le quel que tu mieus ameras. Se tu remains chi, tu i es mors.* 



271 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Still of tlie wonders King Mordreins (or Evalach) saw on the Eock Perilous (p. 271). How he aks the 
fair woman out of the ship where he is, and how far off from his land (p. 271), but will not go with her ; 
and how she sails away (p. 272). How he sees a great tempest rise, and how he thinks over the 
woman's prophecy of his misery, and over his former greatness (p. 273). How he looks about for a place 
to sleep in, finds the cave (p. 274), but, on trying to enter it, is struck down (p. 274). How he 
sees a great tempest, and then a great darkness comes (p. 275), and he lies all night in a swoon 
(p. 275). In the morning he is awoke by the rays of the sun (p. 275), makes the sign of the cross, 
recovers his senses, and prays to God (p. 276). He then sees again the first ship; and the good man 
lands from it, greets him (p. 277), and preaches to him about his want of faith (p. 278); of how 
God helps his servants (p. 279-80); of the difference between the flesh and the spirit (p. 280); and 
of the members of the soul (p. 281). Mordreins then asks him about the fair woman (p. 281), and 
he says that she strove to become lord over him, and so he cast her out of his house, for which 
she tries to enrage him by evil doing (p. 282). [The fall of Lucifer.J The good man exhorts 
Mordreins to hold to his Saviour, and then no good thing shall be wanting to him (p. 283). 



Thanne sat this kyng in gret stodying, 
And thowMe what to don of al this thing ; 
Whethir with that lady he scholde go 
That sche seide so wel him louede thOj 
And therto so ful of Sapiense, 
Lyk As sche wede In his presense. 

Thanne Eualach Clepid this worn man tho 
And Axedo hire ' 3if sche Oowde Owht do 
To tellen him In what plase ]?at he were ; 
And how fer from his londis there, 
" 36," quod this womman tho Anon Riht, 
" Al this schal I the tellen Astyht. 



12 



A chest mot commencha li rois 

mult durement a penser ke il porroit 

faire : 

ou se il s'en iroit auoec chele dame 

qui li faisoit entendant ke ele tant 

r amoit, et qui de si grant sapienche 

estoit plaine, ke ele li disoit chou qui 

li estoit auenu : et chou qui li deuoit 

enchore auenir. 

Et quant il eut longhement pense. Si 

rapiela la feme, 

et si li dist. " Dame, car me faites sage 

en quel lieu ie sui, 

et combien des passe il puet auoir 

de chi iusk'en ma terre." 

Et chele li respondi. 

" Che te dirai ie bien. 



272 THE PAIR WOMAN TELLS MOBDREINS WHERE HE IS, & OErEES TO TAKE HIM AWAY. 



Of port peryl this Roclie bereth the 

name, 
A perilows Eoch, And Of gret Fame ; 
And Owt of thi kyngdom Art thow here 
xvii. dayes lornees, Al In fere ; 16 

For A gret lorne for A schip it were 
In a Monthe & ix. dayes from thens to ben 

here. 
So that there schalt thow neuere haue dewel- 

lynge 
Rut 3if so be that I thedyr ]je bringe." 20- 

Thanne Abasched was he mochel more 
Thanne he was Ony tym be-fore. 
That he was so fer from his kingdom 
I-browht In-to A strannge E^egioAvn : 24 

Thanne In gret thowht sat this kyng, 
And |?ere made mochel Morneng. 

Thanne seide this womman to him tho, 
" Sire Enalach, wherto thenken 30 so ? 28 

3if 36 wiLen don Aftir My biddinge, 
Into a ful delitable plase I sclial the bringe ; 
And 3if thow wilt not don as I the seye, 
Many wondir happes schalt ]?ou ban In feye, 32 
And so Manie Combrawnces scholen Comen 

to ]?e, 
That mth-Inne ful schort tyme schalt ]?ou se 
So Jjat Jjou west ben hid in Jje most Caytifes plase 
That Evere On Ertlie 3if Mad wase." 36 

Than the kyng Abasched him sore 
That to hir wordis mihte he speke no more. 
And whanne sche say ]?at it wolde not be, 
That Answere mihte non Getten sche, 40 

Sche torned hire Schippe, and Gan to go 
Streyht A3en Into the high se tho. 



Ore saches tout premierement ke tu i 
es en vne roche qui est apielee la roche 
de port peril, pour chou ke che est li 
lieus de mer ou on a plus fait traisons 
et felounies. Et se tu veus sauoir com- 
bien tu i es loing de ta terre. Che saches 
tu bien, ke il a de chi ou tu i es, iusc' au 
commenchement de ton regne -xvij. 
iournees grans. 

Car nule nes, tant 1' eust boins vens aouellie : 
ne porroit estre hors de mer, se ele mouuoit de 
chi, en mains de .ix. iours, et de V issue de la 
mer iusc' au commenchement de ton roiaume 
ne porroit nus alerke il n'i mesist .ix. iournees. 
Ensi pues veoir, ke entre clii et ta terre a 
r erure de .xvij. iours. 
Ne tu n' i pues iamais aler en ton viuant : 

se par moi n' i es menes et conduis.'' 

Quant il oi ke il estoit si eslongies de 
son regne : si fu asses plus esbahis 
ke il n' auoit este deuant, 



et lors commencha mult angoisseuse- 
ment a penser. 

Et la dame li dist : 

" Eois, ke penses tu tant. 

Se tu veus estre menes a sauuete: si 
t' en vien auoec moi. 
Et ie te menrai el plus delitable lieu del 
monde : et en chelui ou tu i es plus desires. 
Et se tu n' i vieus venir, ie m' en vols. 

Et bien s aches de voir 

ke tu verras tantd' eacombriers et tant 
d' anuis qui t' auenront: 

que il n' est nus lieus en chest, monde, 
tant soit poures ne tant caitis: ou tu 
ne uausisses mieus estre ales ke chi 
remes." 

Li rois fa si esbahis de penser, et si souspris, 
ke il ne peut onques respondre a che ke eleli 
auoit dit. Anchois estoit si tres durement tres- 
penses : ke il en estoit tons aniuis. 
Et quant ele vit ke il ne li respondroit mie ; 
si a' en tourne. Et quant ele ot sa nef des- 
riuee et mis a la voie: si dist tot souef si 
basset, ke a paines Ie peut li rois entendre ; 
" He ;'' dist ele, '* meruelles est ke nus arbres 
ni ert ia plus plentiaus de chelui qui en sa 
vielleche comraenche a porter.'' Cheste parole 
tres oi li rois, 



A GREAT TEMPEST BISBS AETER THE EAIR WOMAN. THE KING IS SORROWFUL. 273 



Thanne Anon the king Oast vp his hed 

And saw where sche seillede In that sted 

Per Amyddis the grete throwenge se, 

Where that grete Merveilles Anon say he ; — 

The grettest tempest him thowte was there, 

And the Moste wondirful that was o-where ; 

So that him thowghte ]?at Al the Se 

Ouer Al the world schold han be, 

And In Middis Of that tempest 

There was the Schippe Althermest. 

Thus Sone there 0am A wyndes blast. 

And that Schippe there Ouer Oast. 

And As the kyng On ]>e Hoch there sat. 

With his Eyen he beheld Al that, 

And wondred mochel In his thowht 

What schippe it was that the womman browht. 

Thanne this kyng bethowhte him tho, 
That Of him self it was Evel I- do 
That he ne hadde Enqwered what sche hadd 

be, 
& what hire Name was, & Of what Contre ; 
Eor he here supposed nevre to se. 
Therefore here Name haven knowen wolde 

he. 
Thanne of hire wordes sore he thowghte. 
How that In Reste he scholde be nowhte 
As long as he held that Creaunse ; 
Eul Often he thowghte vppon this Ohaunce ; 
And Eor sorwe of this tydinge 
He ne wiste to don non thing. 
Thanne gan he to Remembren him Anon 
How worthily he was wont to Gon, 
Of his Hichesse, & Of his honoure, 
And On his lordschepis In that stowur ; 

2n 



44 



48 



52 



56 



60 



64 



e,t lors si leua la teste, 

et vit ke ele estoit ia empainte 

grant pieche dedans la mer. 

Et ke vne si grans tempeste 1' i sail- 
loit: 



qu' il li estoit auis ke toute la mers 
deust fors issir de son augel : 

Et la nef s' en aloit par le plus espes 
de la tourmente : 

si tost et si bruiant ke nus soufflemens 
de vent par samblant ne volast plus 
tost ke ele couroit. 
Et li rois fu sour la roche en estant, 

si esgarda chele tempest mult longe- 

ment: 

et si se meruilla asses qui chele feme 

pooit estre qui si laides meruelles et si 

grans aloient sieuant. 

Mult pensa li rois a chele feme, 

et mult fu dolens de che 

que il ne li auoit plus enquis de li ' ke 
ele estoit. Et comment ele estoit apielee, 
et de quel terre ele estoit dame.' 
Mult li vausist auoir enquis tant qu' il 
en seust la verite. Mais che ne peut 
estre. Si 1' en poise mult durement. 
car il ne le quide iamais reueoir. 



Et de chou k' ele H auoit dit 
ke il n' aroit iamais ne ioie ne pais 
tant com il tenroit cheste creanche : 
/>o de che fu il si tres pensis 



que il ne sauoit ke faire ne ke dire: 

et lors li commencha a ramenbrer de 
sa grans rikeche ke il auoit lone tans 
72 eue, et de la grant aaise ou il auoit 
tous iours este. 

Et des grans honnours ke on li auoit portees; 
pour chou qu'il auoit tant est? doutes et tant 
iproisies. Toutes clies choses amenoit a me- 
moire. 



274 



MOKDEEIXS LOOKS FOR A EESTIKG-PLACB, AND FINDS A CAVE. 



And sethen lie thowlite tlianne A3en 
In what persecucioun lie hackle ben 
Setlien Cristen Man that he was, 
"What he hadde Suffred In diners plas ; 
And thns In disperawnce he gan to 

falle 
Tyl A3ens the Niht Sore with Alle. 

Thanne he bethowhte him Anon 
How that Ony wyse he myhte don, 
For the Roche was A wastable plase. 
And non Hesteng there-Inne Nas. 
Thanne fond the king the grees there riht 
That to thike Cave wente ful streiht, 
Whiche was bothe ful dirk & blak, 
& hidows On to looken with many A lak ; 
For long tyme was it past be-fore 
That Evere Ony levyng man was there. 
And to hym self he gan to seye 
" Sekerly, with-Owten wile I not lye. 
But entren I wiele Into this Cave, 
There-Inne Min herberwe forto have." 
And the ferste foot that with-Inne he sette. 
Plat to the Grownd he was smette ; 
For him thowhte that On with two liondis 

him took 
And Evene to th'erthe there him schook. 
And thus lay the king In swowneng In ]pis 

Manere 
Thorwgh the Fal that he hadde there. 
And whanne of his swowneng he A-wook, 
Vppon the Entre Of the Cave he gan to 

look ; 
And thus As he In this thowlit gan dwelle, 
A wondirful tempest there befelle 



apres recontoit en son cuer 

76 les paoursetlesanuiskeilaiioitsouffert 

puis k' il auoit recheu le baptisms 

ihesu crist. 

Si en estoit si durement tourbles en 

son cuer 

ke par .i. peu qu'il ne chaoit tous en 

desesperanohe. 

En chest tourblement de cuer de- 
80 moura iusc' a la nuit. 

Et lors si se oommencha a pourpenser 

comment il porroit esploitier de soi 

meisme. 

II vit la roche gaste el hideuse comme chele 

qui en trop sauuaige lieu estoit : et destourne 

de tous trespas se ensi non com auenture 

i" amenoit auoune nef. 

Lors monta li rois les degres, 

et vint a la caue: 

si le trouua laide et oscure et noire. 



84 



88 



92 



Car maint iour estoient passe : puis 

ke horn viuans n' i auoit entre ne geu. 

Et com il ot este grant pieche a 1' uis : 
si dist a soi meisme, 
' ke de-liors ne giroit il mie a des- 
couuert.' Lors se baissa pour entrer ens . 



Et quant il vaut metre dedens le pre- 
mier pie: 
96 Si cliai arriere tous pasmes. 

Car il senti que on le tenoit par les 
caueus. Etsi li estoit auis ke .ij. mains 
i auoit. 

En cheste maniere se pasma. 



100 

Et quant il fu reuenus de pamison, si 
fu mult estourdis, et vit ke li huis de 
la caue estoit tous estoupes. 

Etil escoute, si otke vne si grant tem- 
■^Q^ peste venoit de la mer vers la roche, 



HE PASSES AN UNQUIET NIGHT, AND IS WOKE BY THE SUN's BAYS. 



275 



That him thowghte the wawes of the ])e se 

Into the hevene wolden fle 

And Al to-berste bothe lond & ston, — 

Thus him thowghte there Ryht Anon. i08 

Thanne Cam there so grete A dirknesse 
That browhte him in moche distresse, 
That him self he ne myhte not se 
No more thanne In A pit he hadde be. 112 

And whanne Of alle thinge he hadde lost Ipe 

siht, 
And ]?at non thing he sen ne myht, 
More Abasched thanne he tho was, 
Was neuere Man 3it In non plas, — 11 6 

But Aftir this gret drede Anon 
Good Comfort to him was sent ful son. — 
And whanne In this dirknesse he hadde longe 

be, 
And for drede lost bothe wit & Memore, 120 

He ne wiste for drede what to do, 
And In this thowht longe Abod he so. 
And al the nyht lay this kyng 
As In Maner he hadde ben In Sowneng, 124 

That from him Self he was ful Clene, 
For On him non Otherwise ne was it sene. 

And whanne that it was goddis wUle 
The Clernesse Of day there to fulfille, 128 

And the hemes of the sonne Bryht 
Into* Alle the Erthe it schon ful lyht, — [* ms. into to] 
The kyng that vppon the Grees lay 
To-fore the Cave dore. As I the Say, 132 

Vppon his Face the sonne j;ere schon, 
Where-with he A-wook Uyht Anon, 
And his Eyen Open he gan to Caste, 
And Abowtes him he loked ful faste 136 

2n 2 



qu'il li estoit auis ke les ondes 

denssent monter iusc' au cliiel. 

et abatre tout a la terre le firmament. 

Apres chou vint vne si grant oscurte 



qu'il ne pooit nule rien veoir des iex, 

nient plus ke s'il fus descendus en 

abisme. 

Et quant il vit qu' il auoit pierdu le 

veoir de toutes choses : 



si parfu trop espoentes 

que nus ne pooit dire le conte del grant 
paour ke il eut : 

Se chil non seulement qui apres le 
grant paour li douna grant confort. 

Et quant il ot longement este en cbes 
tenebres, 

si ot pierdu si le sens et le memoire 

par le grant paour ke il auoit eu : 

ke il ne sauoit en quel lieu il estoit.' 

Ne de toutes les cboses qui estoient 

auenues ne li souenoit. 

En tel maniere demoura li rois en la 

roohe toute la nuit : 

ke il ne li menbroit de soi ne d'autrui. 

Anohois estoit tout autresi com chil 

qui gist en pamison : qui a pierdu le 

sentir, et le veoir, et Toir. 

Et quant notre signour vint a plaisir, 

ke il espandi la olarte de son iour par 

les terres : 

et li rai du soleil ieterent lor clarte et 
lor calour par tout: 

li rois, qui enohore se gisoit sour les 
degres deuantl'uis de la caue,ensi com 
vous aues oi : 

senti r ardour du soloil dont li rai li 
feroient sour la fache. 

Et lors ouuri les iex, autresi comme 

chil qui s' esuelle : 

Si commenche a regarder entour lui. 



276 



MOKDEEINS S PRAYEE AND THANKS TO GOD. 



And wlianne that the Se he loked vppon, 

And Ek the E,och that he lay There on, 

He lefte vppe his Riht hond An hy, 

And the Signe of the Crois made devoutly. uo 

Thanne Cam he to his Mynde Agein 
As he to-forn was Al In Certein, 
And kneling, to God made his preyere 
In this Maner As 30 scholen here, 144 

" O thow swete lord God Almyhty, 
That Comfort And Ese dost to Alle Sory, 
And me hast deliuered of Manie gret dis- 

tresse. 
Of Mani Aventures, & Of Mani heveynesse, 148 

And Of Mani hevynesses which* weren Co- 

menge [* ms. we] 

Thow me deliveredest, thow Glorious kynge ! 
O goode lord god, I am thi Creature 
To whom thow hast heen ful deboneure, 152 

And to me hast Schewed gret Mercy, 
To Me, lord, that ne Am no thing worthi, — 
And my Sowle to helle Scholde hau went, 
Ne hadde ben thy Mercy God lord Omni- 
potent, 156 
And thy Mercy from helle it gan to with- 

drawe, 
And browhtest it Into the Cristene lawe, 
So goode lord me kepe & defende. 
And Euere thy Grace that thow me Sende ; 16O 

And that the devel ne tempte not me 
"Whom I haue forsaken, & Only take me to 

the; 
Whose werkis & him I have forsake. 
And to thy mercy Onlich lord I me be- 
take " 164 



Et quant il vit la mer, 

et la roche sour quoi il se gisoit : 

si leua maintenant sa destre main en 

liaut, 

et fist sour lui le signe de la sainte 

crois. 

Et tantost recoura tout son sens et sa 

memoire 

si com il auoit deuant eu. 

si se mist a keustes et a genous, et 

commenclia sa proiere a ihesu crist 

en ces paroles. 

"Biaus sire diex, 

qui i' es vraies consillieres a descon- 

silHes, et vraies comfors as perillans 

qui de boin cuer et de simple volente 

reclaiment ton saint non glorieus : toi 

aour iou, et ren grasces et merchis: 

de chou que tu m' as garandi et deliuerei 

des grans mesauentures et des grans 

liontes ke il me couuenist soustenir; 

se ta seule deboinairetes ne fust. 

Sire, ie sui ta creature, 

en qui tu as moustre si grant miseri- 

corde : 

et si grant mestier m' as eu a mes be- 

soins 

ke r ame de mi aprochoit a aler en 

infier : 

quant tu, par ta grant doucliour 



et par ta grant pite, Ten traisis arriere, 

et le rapielas a la droite vole de toi counoistre, 
et cremir, et aorer. Glorieus sire, comment 
ke ie sole ehi venus : aoures en soies tu, et la 
moie volente i seroie ie venus par ta grasce et 
par ton commandement. Car plus legierement 
en soustenroie Ie paine et le traual. Sire, vees 
moi ehi a vo commandement et a vo plaisir 
tout apparillie. Mais de tant me deffendre 
votre douche pites : 

ke ie ne sole declieus par le tempta- 
tion du dyable, 

de qui iou ai werpi, et les oeures et 
les consaus. 



THE GOOD MAN OP THE SHIP COMES AGAIN TO MORDRBINS. 



277 



Whanne he thus his preyere hadde I-do, 
Ful faste Abowte him lokede he the. 
Owt Of the Est he Saw Comen tliore 
The fair Schip that he say ]>& day before, 168 

Where-Inne that was the goode man 
That of so mochel goodnesse to him spak than. 
And whanne he Saw that it was he, 
Ful glad and blithe he gan forto be, 172 

And alle his Sorewes for3at he thanne 
For Joye to speken with this good Manne. 
Thanne ful faste he gan to Crie 
Of Alle his trespas there to god Mercye. 176 

And whanne he Say the Schippe to the Roche gon, 
Evere to the foot of the Roch he Cam Anon, 
And Into that Schippe he lokede there. 
And Say there-Inne thinges of diuers Manere, i80 
Bothe Richesse, Jowelles, & vitaille Also 
That to Ony lyveng Man belonged to, 

And whanne the Same good man he Say 
That to him hadde spoken the formere day, i84 

And seide, " Sire, Ryht welcome 3e be 
Into this Roche ful Certeinle." 
Thanne this goodman Owt of ]>e schippe wente 
Vp to the Roche tho, veramente, 188 

And Axed the kyng how he dide fare 
Sithen pe tyme that he was thare. 
"Eorsothe, sire," quod the king tho, 
" I Was neuere so ful of Sorwe & Wo. 192 

As that Goode sire I have I-be 
Sethen the tyme 36 partid from me." 

Thanne gan he him forto telle 
What Aventures that him befelle, 196 

And Of that Eairre wommans Comeng, 
And of mani Anothir Aventures thing. 



A tant se drecha li rozs quant il ot fenie sa 
proiere. Et quant il se fu drechies, 
si esgarda loins de la mer 

encontre orient, et si reuit venir 

la biele nef ke il auoit veue le iour 

deuant, 

ou li biaus hom estoit venus 

qui tant auoit a lui parle : 

Et quant il le counut, 

si fu mult durement asseures : por las 
boines paroles ke il li auoit oi dire, 
ke toutes ses doleurs li auoient fait 
oublier. 

Lors se commencha mult durement a 

repentir del corage, qu'il auoit er soir eu 

en son corage, et en crioit a dieu merchi 

mult durenient. 

Et quant il vit la nef aprochie, 

si descendi en haut, et si vint au pie 

de la roche a ual. 

Et il esgarda, 

si vit dedens la nef toute la plente et 
toute la rikeche ke on porroit deuiser 
de toutes icheles viandes 

qui a cors d' ome sont conuenables. 

Et quant il vit le signeur de la nef, 

chelui a qui il auoit tant parle a 
I'autre fois, 

si le salua. Et li dist 'ke bien fust 
il venus.' 

Lors vint li sires de la nef hors 
sour la roche, 

et demanda au roi : ' comment il estoit 

puis contenus 

ke il s' estoit de lui partis.' 

Et li rois li dist, "biau sire: 

chertes ie n' oi c'onques puis se doleur 
non et pesanclie 

ke vous fustes de chi tournes." 

Lors li conta 

toute s' auenture si com ele li estoit 

auenue, 

et de la feme qui vint en la nef, 

et des autres meruelles ke il auoit 

toute nuit souiFertes. 



278 



THE GOOD MAN REPROVES MORDREINS EOE WANT OP EAITH, 



Thanne Answerid Mm tlio this good Man 

With a smyleng Chere Anon than, 200 

" thow Man ful litel of heleve, 

Pul litel thing May the Greve. 

And thou stedfast In beleve wost be, 

Jjer nys non thing that myhte Greven the, 204 

~Eor And thow wost thenken on hem ]?at the bowht, 

Troste thow wel, he forgeteth the nowht ; 

And 3if thow Attenden wilt to his Servise, 

He nele the forgeten In non mse ; 208 

As dauid seith In the Sawter book — 

Hos wele there aftir there-Inne look — 

' 0-wre lord is Redy In AUe wise 

To hem that hym Clepen In his Servise.' 212 

In this loke thow have stedfast Creaunce, 

And thanne schalt thow with-Owten variaunce 

[Have al] where vppon thin herte wil thenke 

Redy to the, whethir ]?ou wake 0]?er wynke. 216 

And thowgh A whille that here thow be 

Here In preson As thow Miht Se, 

Abasche the not for thy beyng ; 

Ful wel hens he wyl the bringe, 220 

And qwiten the A hundred fold More 

Thanne for him dist thow Owht fore, 

And more Gwerdoun schalt thow have 

Thanne Evere thin herte kan thenken opev krave, 224 

As witnesseth david the prophete 

Where As he Seithe these wordes swete, 

' God vnbindeth that is I-bownde, 

& of here peynes hem loseth In a stownde ; 228 

For God, the hurte men he keuereth sone, 

And pe wikked to goodnesse torneth Anone, 

Oure God ]?e Uyhtwos loveth Ryht Wel, 

The Orphanees he gouerneth Ech del.' 232 



Et li sires de la nef li respondi 

tout en riant. 

" He : di ua, horn de petite creanclie, 
peohies de couuoitise et enlachemens 
de desesperanclie ralie. 
Tu ne deusses de nule mesaise estre 
dolens ne repentans de souffrir, 

puis ke tu la souffrisses pour 1' amour 
de ton sauueour. 



Car ch' est chil qui n' oublie nului qui a son 
seruiche entende. 

Et cte dist dauis li vrais prophetes, 

la u il parole de la grant deboinairete 

au creatour. 

Notre sires est tous iours apparillies 

a seoourre tous chiaus ki 1' apielent de 

boin cuer eu uerite.' 

Et en chou dois auoir ta fianche. Car 

se tu parfitement le crois: tu aras 

quanke tes cuers pensera sans faille, 



se tu i es Hies et enprisounes : 

de chou ne tu dois tu pas esmaiier. 
Car se tu te mes du tout en sa manaie, 
et soiies abandounes a sa volentei : 



tu aras de lui plus biel secours, et plus 

riclie, 

ke tes cuers ne seroit penser. 

Car che dist dauid en chele saume 

ou il semont soi meisme de dieu loer. 
' Notre sires,' fait il, ' deske les en- 
prisounes. Notre sires rent la veue 
del cuel as awles par les terrienes 
fragilites. 

Notre sires garist et redreche: les 
blechies et les maumis, 

Notre sires aime chiaus et tient chers : qui 

sont droiturier 

II soustient et gouuerne les orphenins et les 

veues. 



AND SHOWS HOW GOD HELPS HIS SERVANTS. 



279 



" This OwMest thow to have In knowenge, 
And holych In thy sperit Remembringe, 
And thow In thyn herte that ]70ti Synne 
It Cometh on of him self More ne mynne. 236 

But On Of thy flesches frelte, 
Here-offen Sekyr Myhtest jjou be, 
Tor the Mesch dedlich it is, 

And so thin herte sekerly It Nis ; 240 

For thin herte it is speritwel. 
And speritwel thing to don Ech del, 
For thine herte is thing of speritwelte 
The goode from Evel to knowen, I telle the. 244 
And this is Only hise Mesteere, 
]?erfore the Sihte of ]>e sowle he is cleped there ; 
Thus sendeth the goode lord Above 
Sihte of sowle to hem that him love, 248 

That dedly thinges wile forsake 
& Only to his Oonseil hem take ; 
Ful seker of welthe mown they be. 
And Owt of al Maner Aduersite ; . 252 

For thus witnesseth the profecie 
Of holy prophetis that don not lye.* 
[It is ful trewe] with-owten lesing, 
[He that] In Synne is dwellyng, 256 

In ful strong preson he is I-Caste 
Whiles that he In Synne doth laste. 
For thanne he is bownden In strong peine 
With the develis Combrauns in Certeine. 260 



Or puea entendre qui ki a pierdue la 
veue du oner : ch' est a dire la con- 
nissanche de son creatour. II n' a (a) 

Et nepourquant se il auient aucune fie que li 

cuers peohe : 

pour chou ne dois tu mie quidier que che soit 

de la cure de lui. 

Mais che li auient par la grant fra- 

gilitei de la char dont il est cargies. 

Car la char est morteus, si ne pnet na- 
turelment a nule chose penser qui ne 
soit morteus. 
Mais li cuers est esperiteus : 

si doit as esperiteus choses entendre. 

Mais or dois donques sauoir ke est li 

cuers, pour che ke ie te fai entendant 

ke il est esperiteus. 

Li cuers n'est nule autre chose ke la 

connissanche de bien et de mal. 

Et pour chou ke il est connissans de 

I'un et de I'autre, pour chou doit 

il estre apieles la veue de I'ame. Ensi 

rent li tres haus rois 

ja veue du cuer a cheus : 

qui es morteus choses ont awles, 

quant il voelent requerre sa medicine 
et son consel. Et comment deske il 
les enprisones dont dauid parole, si 
com ie t'ai dit. 



II est voirs 

ke quant com li hom gist en pechie : 
tant est il en prison. 



Car il est liies 

des loiens au dyable. 



(a) mie pour chou son creatour pierdu. Car si tost com il vaura repairier a sa droite connissanche : chil qui 
nului ne refuse ne escondist est tons apparellies de recheuoir. Et si li rent tantost la clarte de ses com- 
mandemens entendre. Ch' est la veue du cuer. Et chele des iex est autre. Car il ne sont abandone a nule 
chose esperitel counoistre mais es terrienes choses est toute lor connissanche. Ensi pues sauoir ke li oel ont 
la veue de I'esperit. 

* End of a Chapter in the English MS. 



280 HOW CHRIST DELIVEBS HIS SERVANTS FROM THE DEVIL, AND HEALS THEM. 



" And 3if Owt Of preson lie wil ben vnbownde, 
To tlie welle of Cownseil he moste In a 

stownde, 
The wheche is openly now Confessiown, 
That is to the devel Riht fowl Confuciown ; 264 

Anon Of presown he is vnbownde 
Thorwgh Confesciown that ilke stownde ; 
Thanne the develis Cownseil forsaketh he, 
And alle pe werkes that to him longen to 

be, 268 

And In this Manere wele oure Saviour 
His Servauntes bringen owt of dolowr, 
And Owt of presown thus hem bringe 
That to-fore the devel hadde In Chalenginge ; 272 
And thus the Brosed hoi doth he Make 
That Ony thing wele don for his sake. 
For Manie Men In this wolrd there be 
That Maymed In here Membres ben Se- 

kerle, 276 

And so harde here Membres ben hurt Echon 
That On non foote ne mowen they Gon ; 
And sweche Men forsothe they be 
That the Membres of the sowle hau lost Si- 

kerle, 280 

And the Swetnesse of ]?e herte with-drawe, 
Be worldly lustes they they hau hem slawe ; 
But Otherwise scholden they do, 
As I schal the seye, now kerkene me to, 284 

Wliat the swetnesse of the sowle it is, — 
Ful delitable thing & ful Of blis. 

The membres of the sowle these bene : 
Swetnesse of herte Is On ful schene, 288 

Good Eeligiows, Avith pyte, 
Lowliche reuerence to God, & divinite, 



Et tantost com il vient a la fontaine de 
consel, 

ch'est la voie de confessions, 

tantost a pierdu li dyables clie ke il 
i a eu, 

et lors est il desloies. Car puis ke il 
guerpist et renie chou qu' il a tenu du 
dyable : dont est ses houmages quites. 
Ne des illuec en aiiant ne pent en lui 
riens calengier. Ne en ses loiens 
ne r ara il ia puis. Se il a ses oeures 
ne retorne. 



Ensi en itel maniere desloie li sauueres 
cheus qui sent loie des Icnens d' infer : 

Et comment esdreclie il les debrisies 
et les centrals. 

II sont maint home en chest siecle qui 
mult Men sont fourme de tons les 
membres du cors: 



et si sont si durement contrait 

ke il ne puent aler. 

le ne sai noient d' ome plus contrait : 

ke chil 

ki a perdu les membres de 1' ame 

est. 



Che sont les boines tekes del cuer. 

Si comme relegions. pites, 
reuerenche. concorde. 



OP THE MEMBERS OF THE SOUL ; AND THE FAIR WOMAN. 



281 



Innocense, & ful therto of Meroye : 

These ben the Membres of ]?e sawle sekerlye, 292 

!For the sowle sosteined here-bi et is. 

And what sowle that of these Membres don 
Mis, 
It may not wel Governed thanne be, 
Por these ben the hondes & feet sekerle 296 

That to Mannes Sowle belongen Echon, 
And elles May it nethir Meven ne gon ; 
For Anon As the sowle ]?ese membres hath 

gete, 
Thanne to the body it is dressed ful swete ; 300 

Ful wel is that body At E-este & Ese 
That with the membres of ]>e sowle can him plese. 
Lo thus E-edesteth God of hevene 
Hem that him loven woth Milde stevenne." 304 

Sweche wordis & Other Mo 
The goode Man of ]>e schippe the kyng spak 

vnto, 
And Comforted the king moche In this Manere 
With tho wordes Jiat he to him Spak there. 3O8 

Thanne the kyng this good man gan to re- 
freine. 
And Axede him of that faire womman Certeine, 
That with him was the formere day 
And with hire him wolde hau had Away. 312 

Anon the goode man him Answerid thanne, 
" Eul wel know I that ilke wommanne 
That to the Semede so fair and E-iche, 
And In aUe the world the thowhte non swich ; 316 
3it, whanne sche was In Myn howshold, 
Eairere sche was be an hundred fold 
And bettere At Ese thanne sche now Is, 
And moche more In welthe with-Owten mis. 320 

2 



Innocense : miserioorde. 

Ches uirtus sont li membre de I'ame. 

Car par eles est I'ame menee, et 
ftrouee, et soustenue. 



Che euntles mains de 1' ame, et li pie. 



Et 1' ame qui est sans ches uirtus : bien 
puet sauoir k' ele n' a nul membre. 
dont est verites ke ele est contraire. 
Mais si tost com 1' ame puet ches vir- 
tus recouurer: 
tautest est redrechie 

Car bien est li cors soustenus : 

la u li membre sont sain et entier. 

Ensi redreche litouspoissans, etgarist, 

chiaus qui par 1' ordure de lor cors 
sont contrait et mehaignie en ame." 
Ches paroles, ou autresteus, 

dist asses li sires de la nef au roi 



et. mult le conforta par ses dis et par 
son conseil. 

Et li rois li demanda 



se il connissoit chele dame 
qui estoit a lui venue : 
et ki mener 1' en voloit. 

Et chil li respondi, 

" Tu le veis 

mult biel et mult riohement uestue et 
atournee. 

Et bien saches de voir, k' ele eut tele 
cure fu ia biaute et rikeche a chent 
doubles plus k' ele n' a orendroit. Et 
en chele grant biaute fu ele en ma 
maieon si a aise et si dame ke ele ne 
voloit nule riens qui ni fust faite. 



282 



OP THE FAIR WOMAN, OK LUCITEB, AND HOW SHE WAS TURNED OUT 



And whanne sche An-liawnsed so was 

In that ilke delitable plas, 

And wlianne Myn hows thus was I-Mad, 

And sche alle delicasies there- Inne sche had, 324 

Anon In herte took sche gret pryde 

So ful of welthe sche was that tyde — 

And Anon thowhte that sche lady wolde hau 

be. 
As I was Lord In myn Owne Sovereinte, 
And that of hire I scholde haven non 

powste. 
But heyere than I sche thowhte j^er to be ; 
For so mochel bewte was hire tho vppon, 
That Erthly man was there neuere non 
That Into hire face myght haven a siht ; 
So fair sche was, so Oler, & so briht. 

And whanne that I knew Al hire thowht- 
As that from me is hid ryht nowht — 
And that to me sche thowhte swiche felonye, 
That in thike plase non lengere myht I hire 

drye; 
But threw hire owt of myn hows Anon 
Into A wers plase that sche scholde gon, 340 

AVhere that non thing so wel At Ese 
Sche ne Is not ne nei]?er doth hire plese, 
Ne so gret bewte hath sche now non 
As that tyme was hire vppon. 344 

And from that tyme 3it hidixto 
Alle hire Miht and power hath sche do 
Me to wraththen what sche May ; 
The wheche is hire labour bothe i Nyht & 

day. 348 

And for that sche sawh that I Cam to the, 
The to visite & Comforte In this degre, — 



Mais quant ele vit ke ie 1' oi tant 
essauchie et houneree 

ke ie oi tout ma maison mise a sa 
volente : 



si s' en orguilli, 



et si pensa ke a tant ne souffiroit ele 
mie, anchois feroit tant k' ele seroit 
ausi dame 

328 com iou estoie, 

et ke n' aroie nule poeste sour li. 

Ensi pensa ke ele Ie feroit. 



332 



336 



Et si toat com ele 1' eut pense, ie Ie soi. 

Car ie sui de tous penses chertains 

counissieres. 

Et quant ie vi ke ele pensit tel felou- 

nie vers moi. 

si ne vauch souffrir ke ele fast plus en 

ma maison ne en ma compaingnie. 

Anchois Ie ietai tantost hors de ma 
maison par te conuent. 



ke ele n'ot onques puis si grant biaute, 
ne si grant. 

Et des dont en encha, ne fa onques 
puis nus qui ele quidast ke iamais k' 
ele nemesistvolentiers engien et paine : 
comment ele Ie peust envers moi cou- 
reohier tant ke il me werpist et lais- 
sast. 



Et pour cliou ke ie te sui venus 
viseter, et k' ele voit ke i' ai pite de toi : 



OP god's house, and how she labotjks to make men forsake him. 283 



It was the Cawse Of hire Comenge, 

Owt of this plase the forte brenge, 352 

And Al hire wyl thanne to fulfille, — 

Thus ful of wikkednesse sche is, & ille, — 

And to don the forsaken thi Creatour 

That the Supported & holpenln Mani a 

stowr. 356 

Therfore As longe As to thi Saviour thow 

kepist ]?e 
And from him ne Plechest in non Manere degre, 
There ne schal non Manere thing the faille 
That to thi body Or Sowle May Availle, 360 

That to the it schal Anon I-grawntid be 
Ful Sekerley Sere, As I teUet the," 



pour chou assaie ele sauoir se ele te 
porroit tant esmouuoir 

ke ele te tournast a sa volente, 



et ke ele te departesist de la compai- 
gnie a ton creatour par ses mauuais 
ensengemens. 

Mais puis que tu del tout ti es mis en 
la garde a ton creatour : si pense tant 
a lui ke nule pramesse d' aise ne de 
rikeche ne te puisse flecliier, ne ploier. 
ke tu ne soies toutes eures abondones 
a acomplir ses commandements." 



2o2 



284 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Still of Mordreins (Evalach) on the Eock Perilous, and his Temptations there (p. 284-307). How the good 
man comforts him, and asks him if he is hungry (p. 284), and takes him to the ship and offers him 
delicious meats (p. 285), the sight of which so satisfies him that his hunger goes (p. 285). He desires 
to know about Nasciens, and the Vision of the Streams [Chap. XVIH. p. 229] that he saw (p. 286) ; but 
the good man will not tell him yet, and exhorts him not to fear any marvels that he may see (p. 287); 
and tells him how to know good counsel from bad (p. 288). Mordreins asks how long he is to stop on 
the rock,- — 'till the devil takes him off by the left hand' (p. 289). He is distressed at hearing this, 
and the good man disappears (p 290). Mordreins sees the fair woman's ship coming, and prays to God 
for grace to resist her (p. 291). She tempts him by telling him that his brother-in-law and queen are 
dead (p. 292), and by offering him the precious stones, etc. in her ship (p. 293); but he will not yield 
to her, and will not answer to his devil-name Evalach (p. 294). She reproaches him, but in vain, and 
then departs (p. 295). A great tempest rages (p 295) ; a wonderful noise is heard, and a clap of thunder 
which knocks off the top of the rock (p. 295-6). Mordreins prays to God to comfort him (p. 296); he 
gets wonderfully sleepy and hungry, and sees a black loaf, which he takes hold of, and is trying to 
eat (p. 297), when a marvellous bird swoops down on him (p. 298), and knocks it out of his 
hand (p. 302). — The description of the bird, the Phoenix, a type of Christ (p. 298-301). — The king 
swoons, and the bird hits him with its right wing, and then flies away (p. 302). The king recovers, 
and thanks God (p. 302-3). The good man and the tempting woman come to him daily, and the 
good man comforts him (p. 303-4). He sees another ship, sailorless; a great tempest rages (p. 305); 
then fierce heat comes; but he will not leave the rock (p. 306) The weather clears, and he ponders 
over his adventures (p. 307). 

Thus In this Manere spak this good Manne Ensi parla li hom 

Pul long with the king In ]>e Roche thanne, mult longement au roi. 

Ajld with so Manie WOrdeS SWete Et si U diat toutes les manierea de boines 

paroles 
Thus taAvhte him the develeS lore to lete. 4 parquoiilpooitestretenusenfermecreanche 

1A1T ^* eslongies dea uoies au dyable. 

And the kyng Alle his tales wel Abod, Et li rois I'escouta mult volentiers 

& ful wel hem likede, & stille he Stod, et mult ententieument, 

For so Wel him liked his Talkyng si li plaisoit mult chou ke il li disoit, 

That it was ful loyful to the kyng. 8 et memelles en estoit a aise. 

Thanne this Goodman took him be the bond, Lors vint auant H sires de la nef: si 

.T1T--NT i-/-n TT t;i Is prist par la destre main. 

And be his Name him Cleped, I Tndirstond, et si le noma par son non 

That he took be his Crestenenge, de batesme. 

Sire Mordreins, that was ferst Eualach Ipe kynge. 12 

Thanne Axede this goode Man there Anon, et puis li demanda 

( 3if he hadde Ony honger him vppon.' • s'il auoit faim' 



THE GOOD MAN OITERS MOBDBEINS DAINTIES TO EAT AND DKINK. 



285 



Thanne the kyng Answerid Anon there 

Witli faire wordes In this Manere, 

" That 3if In his Compenie he wolde Abyde, 

And not from him gon At that tyde, 

Al his hevynesse he Scholde Porgete, 

And hothe hunger & thurst scholde he lete." 

Anon he the hond he gan him lede 
Down to the Schippe In that stede, 
And there him schewed AUe Maner Of Richesse 
Of Mete & Of drink gret pletevousnesse 
That Ony herte On kowde bethenke 
In that Schippe was Of mete & drinke. 
Thanne seide to ]?e king this good man Anon 
" Lo ! AUe these deintes In thi wil wile I don. 
To taken there-Offen what Euere thou liste 
To Eten & to drinken Al Of the beste, 
And At thi wUle Al this Schal be 
In this Manere, as I telle it the." 
And whanue ])e kyng Al this Merveille beheld. 
With AUe deyntes Anon he was ful fyld 
That hunger ne thorst ne felte he Non 
Thanne streyht from his Mete he hadde gon. 

3it More seide the kyng to this good man tho, 
" Sire, I wele 30 wete that it be So, 
That with 30wre wordis that ben so swete, 
& Of ye Sihte of this drinke & Mete 
Wheche that ben In this present plase. 
That In this Schippe Schewed ]?ou me has, — 
That Sithe So fulflUeth Me 
And maketh me ful Of delicase, 
That to Eten ne drinken have I non lust ; 
Eor so Mochel In thy wordis I trust. 
And sethen 36 sem that 30 knowe 
AUe Mennes thowhtes vppon A rowe, 



16 



20 



24 



28 



32 



36 



40 



44 



Et li rois respondi, 



qu' il n' estoit nule si grans mesaise ke 
il n'oubliast se il pooit estre longemeiit 
en sa compaignie." 



Et oliil le prist, si le mena 

iusk' a la nef: 

et si li moustra la grant rikeche 

des bieles viandes dont il i auoit a mult 

grant plente 

de toutes les manieres dont cuers por- 

roit penser et langue parler. 

Apres li dist 

" de toutes icheles viandes dont tu 
chaiens pues veoir, te met iou a bandon 
ke tu en prenges, et de teles com toi 
plaira." 



Et tantost que li rois eut veu cliele 
grant meruelle, 

si fu si sooles seulement del veoir 
ke il ne sentoit mais nul faim, 

nient plus ke sell eust lues droit mengie. 

Et lors si li dist 

" sire, tant voel iou ke vous sachies 

ke ie sui orendroit si refais, et de vos 

boines paroles 

et del veoir de ches bieles viandes 

qui cki sont. 

ke se tous iours me tenoit chis corages 



de mangier ne de boire n'aroie iamais 

talent. 

Mais puis ke tant m' aues conforte : si me 

consellies, s' il vous plaist, ke ie ferai. 

Car puis kevous estesvrais consillieres 
48 de tous penses : 



286 



MOBDHEINS ASKS TO HAVE HIS VISION OP THE STREAMS EXPLAINED. 



Thanne knowen 30 Myn witli-Owten faille ; 
Wherfore I preye 30W Of good Cownsaille." 

Than Answerid tMs good Man Anon, 
" Thy thowhtes I knowe Wei Echon ; 52 

Thow thenkest On Nascien thy brother dere 
That the Wonunan tolde the of here. 
For him wele I not Eorgete ne]?er vppe ne down ; 
Thow schalt him Seen In A-visiown 56 

Decende from the hevene Adown ful Rathe, 
And In the Nynthe Elood he schal him bathe, 
That largere and deppere it is to Seye, 
Thanne the to]?ere viij. ben In feye." 60 

And whanne the kyng herd him Sein so, 
Eul sore Abasched was he thanne tho. 
And Merveilled mochel what this Man were 
That swete wordes Spak to him there, 54 

How that he Scholde haven knowenge 
Of Sweche A Maner Strawnge thinge. 
There-by he thowhte Certeinly 
That he was non Man to ben dedly, 68 

But so bold dorste he not thanne ben thore 
Of him Enqweren there Ony More. 

And whanne he hadde Avised him In this Manere, 
Anon him preide. And gan to Enqwere, 72 

" That he wolde tellen him Alle & Som 
The Signefiawnce Of his Avisiown, 
And that 36 "Wolden for god Almyht 
It me declaren now Anon Riht ; 76 

Eor I have Eul longe In grete thowht be 
What signefiaunce it Mihte ben to Me." 
Thanne Answerid this good Man Agein, 
" That schalt thow neuere weten In Certein so 

Into the tyme & Into that day 
That this viande owt Of this plase the bringe away. 



dont connissies vous bien le mien. 
Et se me denes consillier selonc che 
ke ie pens. 
Et chil li respond!. 

" Je sai bien," dist il, " qiies tes penses 

est. 

Tu penses a nascien ton serourge 

qui de lafeme te dist er soir les nouuieles. 

Mais de lui ne soies tu ia esmaies. 
Car chil ne 1' oubliera mie. 
qui tu veis en ta vision 
descendre du chiel, 

et baignier tout son cors el neueuisme 
flun: 

qui estoit graindres 

ke tout li autre .viij." 
Quant li rois oi chest chose 

si fu mult esbahis, 

et mult se meruilloit en son cuer qui 
chist horn pooit estre 

qui il ne Quidoit que nus nus morteus 

horn peust sauoir 

jes choses ke il li disoit. 

Et pour chou se pensoit asses en son cuer 

ke che n'estoit pas horn morteus. 

Mais il n' estoit tant hardis 

ke il en enquesist plus. 

Et quant il eut grant pieche atendu, 
si li dites toutes voies. 

" Biaus sire, 

de chest auision 

me dites, pour dieu, se vous plaist, 

ke ele puet senefier. 

Car i' en ai este esbahis mult longe- 
ment." 

Et chil li respondi. 

" Che ne trouueras tu ia qui te die 

deuant a chele eure ke tu aras vainou et cachie 
ensu8 de toi le leu ki ta boine viande te vaura 
tolir. Et lors saras tu ohertainement qui chis 
leua est, et pour quoi il te vauru tolir ta viande. 



THE GOOD MAN PUTS HIM OFP, AND TELLS HIM NOT TO FEAE FUTURE MARVELS. 287 



And thanne Sclialt thow knowen [the certeinte] 
What that thy vicioun doth signefe, 
Al from begynneng to the Ende 
Thanne schalt thow knowen how it schal 
wende. 

And be this I Chastise the wel, 
But from hens-forward, neuere Adel, 
What Maner Merveilles that Euere thow se 
Loke that abasched no more thow be. 
3it Merveilles here-Aftir schalt thou se, 
As the vols In thy paleys told to the 
Whanne Nasciens and thow On bedde were 
Vppon on Cowche liggeng there. 
Where that 30 fillen In Swownenge 
Por gret drede of that Noise herenge ; 
Where As the vois Seide In this manere 
' Of more dredes & Merveilles scholen 3e 

here 
Thanne Euere 30 diden to-fore this day.' 
And thus the vois to 30W gan Say. 
Wheche is the wille of goddis sone 
That Alle these thinges scholen ben done, 
And that here- After he wele Schewe 
Swiche Merveilles vppon A rewe. 
To hem that him liketh ful wel 
They scholen hem sen Every del. 
The wheche AUe Othere Merveille scholen pase 
That Euere 3it to forn tyme of 30W sein 

wase, 
And 3if J)Ou wUt In trewe Creaunce the 

holde. 
And In herte stedfast stable and bolde ; 
What so euere hens forward that thow se, 
Eul wel from pe devel |jou myht kepen the. 



84 



88 



Et apres counistras tu 
ke toute ta visions senefie 
de chief en chief. 



Mais de tant te castie iou bien, 

ke ia de nule chose ke tu uoies, 

ne soies esmaies ne espoentes. 

Car de grant meruelle veoir par tans 

pues estre tons certeins. 

Et pour chou dist la vois en ton palais : 

quant entre toi et nascien 

vous seies el lit. 

la u vous chaisties de pamison. 

A chele eure dist la vois. 

' Chi coumenchent les paours.' 



100 Che fii a dire. 



92 



96 



104 



108 



112 



Apres che mousterroit li vrais cruchefis 

tes choses 

a ches qui li plairoit, 

qui passeroient toutes les choses 

qui deuant aroient este de meruelles 
espoentables. 

Et se tu en boine creanche 

et en estable cuer te veus consentir 
encontre toutes le choses ke tu verras. 

Itant i aras gaaignie ke ia meruelle 
ke tu voies ne t' aparra pour ton da- 



288 



MOEDRBINS IS TOLD HOW TO KNOW GOOD ADVICE PROM BAD. 



And more Stedfast to be In thi Creaunce, 
What so befalle the In Ony Chawunce 
And hens forward 3if Oni Aventure Come to 

the 
Be man Other womman, what so he be, 116 

That faire Casten the forto deceyre, 
Loke In AUe weye from hem thow weyve. 
That nethir for 3iftes ne for beheste, 
Loke )jou ne troste to leste ne meste ; 120 

Nethu" for fair speche, ne Glosing, 
Prom thi Creatour Make |jou non parting. 
And loke that thow have Evere In thy 
Mynde 
The dede of Adam l^i form fadir be kynde, 
How that be the devel deceyved he was. 
And owt of paradis Cast, l^at blessid plas ; 
Por he fulfilled the devellis wylle 
Be Counseil of his wif wheche was ylle. 1 28 

And loke that thow have this In Remem- 
brawnce 
What so the behappe In Oni Chaunce, 
And therby myhtest thow knowen ful wel 
AUe Manere of Cownseilles Everidel, 
Whethir it be for good Olpev for ille, 
0|3er the forto save, Owther forto spiUe. 

And for thow scholdest knowen AUe thing 
That scholde ben to thi lordes plesing, 
Therfore schalt thow leven non Cownsaille 
That to his wiUe scholde dis-AvaiUe ; 
And thowh they the behoten 3iftes & 

Hichesse, 
Be war, pntte not jje in distresse 140 

Eorto don A3ens his plesinge, 
Be war Jjere-offen Ouer AUe thinge 



maige, mais pour plus hair le dyable 
et eslongier. Et pour toi plus con- 
forter : et confermer en sainte creanche. 

Et se il auient chose, 



ke aucuns hom ou aucune feme te 
voelle decheuoir, 



ou par promesse ou par dons : 



pour toi departir de la compaignie a 

ton creatour: 

si garde ke tu aies tous iours en toi 

ramenbranche. 

124 Ensi com adans, li premiers horn 
fu decheus: 



pour qu' il consenti a I'amonestement 

del dyable 

par le consel de la feme. 

De cheste chose soiies tous iours ra- 

menbrans. 



Et par cheste porras counoistre : 
132 li quel consel te seront done 



pour sauuement, et Li quel pour peril. 
Et pour chou ke tu ti es abandounes 
du tout en tout a la volente de ton 
signour : 

pour chou ne dois tu nul conseil croire 
qui soit contraires a sa volente. 
Et se on te pramet grans dons et grans 
rikeches 



136 



pour faire chose qui centre son plaisir 

soit, 



THE &00D MAN COMPORTS MORDREINS, & SAYS WHEN HE'LL LEAVE THE ISLAND. 289 



And bethenke the Alwey In thy Mynde 

That Erthly 3iftes ben not so kynde 144 

As ben the 3iftes Of hevenly good, 

Hos that it wel vndirstood ; 

Por Erthely 3iftes ben freel & Mevable, 

& heyenely ben stedfast & Euere durable. 148 

And loke thow that now hens-forward, 

Of these 3iftes that thow take good Award, 

And thow take not On 3ifte for Anothir, 

Be war ther-Oflfen for Ony Othir ; 152 

Sethen thow knowest whiche ther be, 

The goode thou take, the Evele thow fle. 

And be this Alle wikked temptaciouns 

Erom the Scholen passen, and trebulaciouns ; 156 

And to Evere lastyng Consail Jjou schalt be 

take. 
And be browht from wo & wrake." 

And there Ryht thus In this Manere 
This goode Man of the schippe to hym spak 

there ; 160 

Eul Mochel his wordis liked him tho. 
And to gret prophit torned hym Also. 

Thanne Atte laste Axede hym the kyng 
' How long In that Eoche scholde ben his 

dwellyng.' 164 

Thanye Answerid the good man A-gayn 
" In this Roche Schalt thow by den Certain 
Tyl that the devel Owt the take be ]?e left 

bond, 
And the Roche to forsake, thou it vndir- 

stond ; 168 

Eor Erst Owt Of this Roche shalt Jjou not 

fle; 
And of Al this, Sekir Mihtest now thow be," 

2 p 



si soies de tant recordant : 

ke li terrien don ne se puent appa- 

rilJier 

as oelestiaus 



Car li terrien sont fraille et decheant : 

Mais li celestien sont enterin et per- 
durable. 
Et se tu seis 
ensi contreprisier 

les vnes choses par les autres ; 



ke tu saches eslire 

et atourner desus toi les pourfitables, 

et refuser les nuisans. 

Par che seront toutes les temptations 

del anemi perdurable caohies ensus de 

toi, et eslongies. 

Et tu en seras aprochies de perdurable 

conseil," 



En cheste maniere 

parla li horn de la nef au roi mult 
longement. 

Et mult li plaisoient ses paroles, 

et tournerent a grant confort. 

Et en la fin, li redemanda li rois. 

" Sire, car me dites se ie demourrai 
longement en cheste roche 

Et il li dist. 

" Tu i demourras 

tant ke li dyable t' en ietera par la 
senestre main. 



Ne ia deuant dont n' en isteras." 



A tant se teut, que plus ne parla. 



290 



THE GOOD MAN DISAPPEARS. MOEDBEINS IS SORROWFUL. 



Thanne was the kyng Abasclied ful sore ; 

Of tlie wordis that he thanne spak there ; 172 

That the devel Owt Of the Roche him scholde 

bringe, 
It was to him tho An hevy tydynge ; 
Thannece to the Erthe he fil Anon, 
And ful gret Morneng him fil vppon. 176 

And In this Mene whille tho 
This good man to the schippe gan go. 
Anon As he Owt of his thowht Awook. 
Vp gan he stonde and Abowtes him look, 180 

And jSTethir Man ne Schippe Sawh he 
As fer As he loked Into the Se ; 
~Eov In the same Maner As he to-fore wente, 
Hiht so dide he tho to his Entente. 184 

Thanne this kyng Merveilled wondir sore 
What Manere Of Man that this were 
That so him Certefyed Of Alle thing, 
As wel Of begynneng As Of the Endyng. iss 

Thanne ful sore him self he gan to blame 
That he ne hadde Enqwered his Name, 
And Enserched what he hadde be, 
Owther Grod Owther Man In Ony degre, 192 

Evere vppon this point ful sore he thowhte, 
That theke Man to knowen Myhte he 

Nowhte ; 
3it Anothir thing him Rewede sore tho, 
Whanne that this good man was Ago, 196 

That he ne hadde Enqwerid of him there 
' 3if he scholde ban lyved In that Manere, 
Tyl that to him he hadde Comen Ageine,' 
And this of him forgat he to Refreine. 200 

Al thus the kyng longe to him Self spak 
Til Atte laste he herde A gret Noise with-owten lak, 



et li rois fu mult esbahi et espoentes 

de cheste parole ke il li ot dite 

d' el dyable qui hors de la roche le 
ieteroit. 



Lors s' enbronka vers terre, 

si commencha mult durement a penser. 

Et el pense ou il estoit entres : 

si entra li sires en la nef arriere. Et se mist 
en la mer maintenant tout sans plus dire. 
Et quant ii rois eut tant este en son pense ke 
il 1' ot mene a fin, 

Si commencha entour lui a regarder. 
Mais ii ne vit onques ne 1' omme ne la nef. 
Et il remonta arriere tous les degres iuske a 
1' uis de la caue. Et esgarda mult loins de- 
dens la mer. Mais il n' en peut onques point 
veoir. 

Et il se ramenbra ke en autrestel ma- 
niere : s' en estoit il ales a 1' autre fie. 

Lors s' asist li rois, et commencha 
mult durement a penser, 
qui chil horn pooit estre 

qui si li deuisoit les choses 

ki auenues li estoient, et qui encore li 

deuoient auenir. 

Et mult durement blamoit soi meisme 

de che ke il ne 1' auoit asses plus enquis 
et encherkie. Et ke il ni li auoit de- 
mande tout plainement, 
se il estoit diex ou non. 



Et de tant s' afichoit mult durement 
en son cuer 

ke il li demanderoit tantost 
si il iamais pooit tant viure 
ke il le veist 

Ensi parloit li rois a soi meisme : 
tant ke il oi 



THE FAIE, WOMAN COMES A&AIN TO MORDREINS, WHO PBAYS TO GOD POR GRACE. 291 



Cryeng of wawes Of the se ; 

But ful gretly he Merveilled what it myhte be. 204 

Thanne he gan him to dressen Anone 

Vpward, & Into the Se he loked ful sone, 

And westward him thowhte Cam seilyng J>ere 

The same schippe, & In the selve Manere, 208 

That the faire womman Cam In to-fore, 

Where-Offen Abasched he was ful sore, 

Tor he him dradde sore as he stoode 

That sche ne Cam for nonne Goode. 212 

Thanne to God preyde he ful faste 
His sowle forto kepen, so was he Agaste, 
What so Evere become Of his fLesch 
He ne Rowhte, whej>er hard Ojjer Nesch. 216 

And thus In his preieres was he stedfast 
Al the while thar It Myht last, 
That of his goode purpos not left schold he 

be; 
Thus preide he to God In Maieste. 220 

And whanne his Orisown thus was I-do, 
Into the Est Anon he torned him tho, 
And there Anon Made he his devociown — 
In Minde of lerusalem, that worthy town 224 

Where-Inne thei gonnen Crist Crucifye, 
That blessid body the Sone Of Marye, — 
Owt Of his Caytyvite him forto bringe, 
& deliueraunce of the womman that was 



Comenge. 



228 



With this Cam Ipe Schippe to ]>e Roche Anon 
Also faste As it Myhte gon ; 
Also & as Riche As it was Ere, 
Thus there him thowhte In AUe Manere. 232 

And whanne to the Roche Aryved sche was, 
Owt of ]>e schippe sche Cometh a ful gret pas ; 

2 p 2 



les ondes de la mer, qui sounoient et 
demenoient mult grant noise. 

et lors le drecha, 

et esgarda 

vers Occident, si vit venir 
ichele nef des maintenant 

en quoi il auoit veue Ja dame a 1' autre 

fois. 

Et quant il vit la nef, si fu mult efFrees. 

Car il doutoit 

ke chele feme qui dedens venoit, ne fust de 

mauuaise part, et ke ele ne fust uenue pour 

lui souduire, 

Lors si commanda mult a dieu, 

' ke il fust garde de s' ame, 

comment ke il auenist du cors. Et 
que la chars ne fesist oeure 



par quoi il fust desuoies de son boin 
proposement : ' itel com il 1' auoit em- 
pris.' 

Com il ot sa proiere finee : 
si se tourna vers orient. 

etenclina chele part demult boin cuer, 

en r ouneur de la glorieuse chite de 
iherusalem, en quoi li benois fiex dieu 
auoit este vrais crucefiies 

pour ses amis ieter hors de la pardu- 
rable caitiuete. 



A tant vint la nef, 

autresi riche et autresi biele com il 
1' auoit veue a 1' autre fois. 

Et quant ele fu ariuee, 
si vint la dame hors, 



292 



THE FAIR TTOilAX SATS THAT SEBAPHE AND SAREACYXTE AUE DEADj 



But the king 3af hire ]>exG non Greting, 
Xe non Word to hire spak At here Conieng. 236 
And Trhanne sche Sawh ]?at he -nolde not speke, 
Anon there sche gan to him to hym Reke, 



And gan him Axen ' how he hadde fare 



240 



244 



248 



252 



Sethen the tyme sche was last thare.' 
Anon he seide ' sche ne hadde not to do 
Of no thing Viim to Refreinen so ;' 
And Opev Answere tho hadde sche non, 
Ches whethir sche wolde Abyden Ojier gon. 

And whanne sche him herde thus Answer, 
Anon to lawhen be-gan sche there, 
" Kyng Eualach," sche seide, " I se by the, 
Thow hast lost bothe mynde & Memore ; 
For sethen that thou took this CreAunce 
The hath behapped ful 3iIoehel Xoisaunce, 
Ful Mochel sorwe and trebulaciown. 
And 3it Mochel More is the forto Com ; 
And 3it there-offen 3evest fiou neuere Adel, 
But, As me Semeth, it liketh the wel 
As Ony worschepe J^at Evere haddest ]jou. 
And as moche it were for thy prow. 
Xeuertheles thanne, I kan the telle 
Tydinges newe bothe fresch & snelle 
That I have seia with bothe Myn Eyen, 
Eor it is ful soth I schal the seyen. 
Streyht from sarras I Come to the ; 
That I schal Sein, thow myht leven me ; 
Eor wete thow wel Eul Certeinle 
That ded Is thi goode frend Seraphe ; 
Eor Xeuere schalt thow him se with Eye, 
Xejjer Saracynte thy qwene Certeialie." 

"Whanne that the k}-ng thus herde here seyn. 
Anon fowle Astoned was he tho Certein ; 268 



256 



260 



264 



et li rois ne le salua onques, 

ne mot ne li dist. 

et quant ele vit ke il ne li diroit mot, 

si r araisna auant. 

Et apres li demanda ' comment il 1' auoit 

fait 

puis ke ele ne 1' auoit mais veu.' 

Et il li respond! 'keeleen auoit a faire. 
II ne li deuoit mie respondre, puis ke 
ele n' estoit de la creanche ihesu crist 
autresi com il estoit.' 



Quant ele 1' oi, 

si commenclia a rire ausi comme chil 

qui escarnist autrui. 

Et si li dist, " rois enalach, or uoi ion bien 

ke tu as perdu le sens, et de te memoire le 
grignour partie. 

Car tu ses de noir ke onques puis que tn 
recheus cheste creanche dont tu paroles : 
ne t'auint biens ne honeurs. anchois as 

puis en toutes les doleurs et tous les 
anuis. 

Et pour chou ne te chasties tu, ne tant 

ne quant. 

anchois i es ausi fers 

com se toutes les hounours te fuissent 

por ckou venues, et tout li bien. 

Ore te dirai 

nouueles iteus com ie les sai de uoLr. 

Car ie ne te dirai chose que ie n' aie 
veue a mes ies. 

II est voirs proues ke ie ring ore en- 
droit de ton regne, et si ai este a sar- 
ras puis ke ie parti ier de toi. 
Et si saches bien de uoir. 
ke seraphes, tes mieudres amis, est 
mors. 

ne iamais a nul ior de ta vie ne le verras, 
ne ta feme serracuite.'' 

Quant li rois 1' oi ensi parler, 

si li fu tous li sans pour la grant 

angoisse qu'il en ot. 



AND OFFERS HIM PRECIOUS STONES AND RICH GOODS IP HE WILL DO HER WILL. 293 



But 3it Neuertheles he ne leved it Nowht, 

So Mochel On Jesus Crist was his thowht ; 

But for the grete love ]?at he hadde to his wif 

And to his brothir, with-Owten Strif, 272 

That Cawsed him moche more mone to Make 

!For his Qweene & sire Nasciens Sake. 

But for Owht that sche Oowde sein him to 

Owt that Roche Nolde he not Go. 276 

And whanne sche Saw that with non falsnesse 
Him Ouercome ne hringen In distresse, 
Sche bad him " Come sen the E/iche thinge 
That In that schippe sche dide him bringe." 280 
Thanne to hire seide the kyng Ageyn 
]?at " In tlie Schippe I ne wele not Comen Certein, 
Ne for non thing that thow kanst do 
Owt from this Roch I wele nowht go." 284 

Thanne Onkeuered sche the scliippe In haste, 
And preide him loken Atte laste. 
Thanne the kyng loked In for the Nones, 
Where-Inne he sawh many preciows stones 288 

As that him thowhte there to his Eye, 
And mochel Other B-ichesse Sekerlye. 
" Lo, kyng Eualach, thow wenest that I be 
Eor non goodnesse I-comen to the, 292 

But ful wel mystest thow weten & knowe 
That Al this Richesse ])at here Is On A rowe 
May Not Comen from non Eyel plase, — 
Eor ful mochel loie there is there this wase, — 296 
And 3if thow wilt with me now go, 
Owther My Cownseil Assentyn vnto, 
Al this Richesse schalt thow have, 
And 3it Mochel more 3if ]pow wilt Crave." 300 

Lo Al this Counseil 3af this wommanne 
To this kyng Eualach there thanne ; 



Et nepourquant il ne creoit mie uraie- 
ment ches nouieles. 

Mais la grant cHertes ke il auoit vers 
son serourge et vers sa feme, 

Ten faisoit estre en doutanche, et en sous- 

pechon. Ensi le tourbla la feme, et courecha, 

par ches paroles et par autres ; dont ele li disoit 

asses qui toutes estoient appareillies a son 

courous et a son damage, 

Et nepourquant ele ne peut onques tant faire 

ke ele le mesist en corage d' aler en sa com- 

paignie, ne de la roehe werpir. 

Et quant ele vit ke d' ilueo ne le por- 

roit ieter : 

si li dist ' Ke il venist veoir la biaute 

et la rikeohe 

ke dedens sa nef estoit.' 

Et li rois respondi 

' Ke en se nef n' enterroit il ia, 

ne pour nule chose qu' il oist, ne veist, 

la roobe ne werpiroit.' 

Et la dame descouuri tantost la nef del drap 

noir dont ele estoit encourtinee toute. 

si dist au roi. " Ore esgarde, eualach." 

Et li rois esgarde dedens, 

si vit ke ele estoit toute plaine de 
pierres precieuses par samblant, 

et des plus riches dras ke il onques 
eust veu. 

Et ele li dist "Kois eualach. Tvt quides 
ke ie ne soie pas de boine part : pour 
chou ke ie ne croi ta fole creanche. 
T' est il auis 

ke si grans rikeche et si precieus tresors 
vienge de manuals lieu. 



Toute cheste rikeche qui est si grans, 
dont tu ne veis onques mais autrestant, 
fust toie: Se tu ne vausisses contenir 
a mon los et a mon consel." 



Ensi amonesta chele dame 

le roi, et par paroles et par promesses. 



294 MORDREINS T^'ILL NOT ANSWER TO HIS NAME EVALACH, BUT HOLDS TO GOD. 



But for alle hire wordis & hire faire promyse 
Thens wold he not Gon In non wyse ; 304 

And 3it ful moche distorbeled he was 
Por his qweene & Seraphe In that plas, 

And whanne sche beheld him Atte laste 
That In his Creaunee he was so stedfaste 308 

So whanne that Eualach sche Cald him 

there, 
~Eov that Name he wolde not Answere ; 
For, he seide, the devel he hadde forsake, 
And Onlych to God be baptem him take ; 312 

Thanne Gan sche to lawghen Eft sone. 
And seide, " Evalach, litel hast thow to done, 
Eor be that Name, I the now Say, 
Worschepe and Oonqwest hast Jjou geten mani 

day ; 316 

But be that whiche now thow hast to Name, 
Ne Gote thow neuere but thowht sorewe & 
schame."* 

Ful longe it lasted, this temptacioun 
Toward this kyng with gret tribulaciown, 320 

That so sche him Reproved of his distresse, 
Of his Angwisch, & of his porenesse. 
And Euere Answerid this kyng Agein 
Onlich Of goddis myht tho In Certein, 324 

And Also of Goddis Rihtful Creaunee, 
' "VMiiche that I wil holden with-Owten 

variaunce ; 
And for Alle the 3iftes & the beheste, 
Nejier for Alle the Richesse lest ne Meste, 328 

Ne schal me tornen Owt Of my thowht 
From him that me dere hath bowht." 



Mais onques pour nule chose ke ele li 

desist 

a son voloir ne le peut mener. 

Et nepourquant ele le tourbla mult et 

courecha en son corage, et d' autres 

paroles dont ele I'assaloit mult souuent. 

Mais ele le trouvoit 

si ferin et si eatable es commandemens 

de son creatour. 

Que quant ele 1' apieloit eualach : il li 

disoit 

ke a chest nom ne responderoit il iamais 

Car il r auoit laissiet au dyable, de qui 
il I'auoit tous iours tenu.' 

Et chele rioit en escarnissant, 
et disoit, 

' ke en cheste non de eualach auoit il 
toutes les hounours conquises, et la 
grant hauteche ke il auoit eue. 

Mais a chesti nom ke il auoit ore: 

n auoit c'onques se doleur non et pes- 
anche.' 

Mult durerent les tenchons longement 
entr' aus deus, 

ke chele li reprouoit les grans aaises 
ke il auoit tous iours eues, et les grans 
honours. 

Et il li ietoit encontre 



la grant hauteche precieuse de la sainte 
creanche au sauueour urai ke il auoit 
recheue, 

si le priisoit asses plus, 

et mieus la uoloit soulFrir en pouerte 
terriene : ke auoir les grans rikeches 
ke li dyables li soloit douner, par quoi 
il alast en perdurable destruisement." 



* End of a Chapter in the English MS. 



THE TEMPTRESS DEPARTS. A TEMPEST RISES. A WONDERFUL SOUND IS HEARD. 295 



Whanne ]?at sclie sawgh that in non degre 

Owt Of that Roche to don him fle, 332 

Nethir for 3iftes ne non qweintise, 

Ne for non thing Ipai sche Cowde devise, 

Thanne Anon to ]>e Schippe sche torned Agein 

As to fore tymes sche dide ful pleyn. 336 

Anon E-iht thanne As sche was Gon. 
A fowl strong tempest there Eos Anon, 
E/iht As fowl & hidows it was there 
As it was the tother day there before. 340 

Thanne here-Offen Merveilled pe kyng Anon 
How that this womman was so gon, 
And that Al the Richesse hadde him browht, 
"Whethir that it were Owht Ojjer nowht, 344 

And that In schort while sche hadde I-be 
At Sarras, & to him I-comen thedir A3e, — 
The wheche xvij dayes ionrne scholde be 
As to forn tymes sche told it to Me. 348 

And whanne this tempest he Sawh thus fare, 
In his herte he hadde ful Mochel care. 
And so gret dirknesse fll him vpon. 
That sihte there myhte he sen non 352 

But 3if it were tyme of Of lyghteneng 
That to him Cam beforn the thondring ; 
And Erere this tempest trowbled faste 
That seker Euere he wende it wold han laste. 356 

And whiles he was In this thenkyng. 
Him thowhte he herde A wondir sowneng 
"Wheche that scholde Comen from An hy, 
As tho him thowhte ful trewely ; 360 

So, what for ferd & that sown, 
Streiht to the Erthe he fyl Adown, 
That he ne myht steren foot ne bond, 
Nethir non lyme where-Onne to stonde, 364 



Et quant chele vit ke ele ne le porroit 
de son boin proposement ne mouuoir 
ne fleohir. 



si s' en tourna tot 

autresi irement com ele auoit fait a 
I'autre fie. 
Et tantost 

resourdi apres li vne tempeste, 

plus grans asses et plus espoentable 
ke chele qui auoit este deuant. 

Et li rois fu remes tous pensis 

de chele feme : qui ele pooit estre 

qui si grans rikeches li auoit moustrees 
et offertes. 

et ki en si peu d' eure estoit venue 
de son pais. 

Et si tesmoignoit ke il estoit .xvij. 
iournees Icing de chele roche. 

Et quant il vit la tempeste si grant et 

si hideuse: et si fu si espoentes. 

Et il commencha mult durement a 

touner et a espartir. 

Et li chieus en oscurchi si durement, 

et tous li airs, ke a paines pooit li rois 

goute de clairte veoir, 

ke seulement des espars du tounoire 

et de la luour de la mer. 



Et quant il ot grant pieche toune et 
esparti : 

si cliai de haut vns escrois. 



Et li rois fu si estourdis, 
ke il ne se peut soustenir, 
ne des menbres aidier. ^ 



296 A THUNDERCLAP KNOCKS OFF THE TOP OF THE EOCK. MOBDKEINS PEATS. 



But that Onne this with his hondis two 
To the Greces of the Eoche he Cleved tho. 

And whiles that he lay In this degre, 
Anon A thondir Clappe Cam there tie 368 

That Al the heyest partye of that Roche Anon 
Into the se-botme gan forto gon, 
So that there lefte but a litel s'pase 
The kyng Onne to Reste ]?at there wase, 372 

And the Remnaunt that was smeten Away 
"VVas neuere more sein Into this day. 
Anon the kyng for drede fil there A-down, 
Eul longe there liggeng In a swown. 376 

Whanne O^vt of his swowneng Awaked was he 
Thorgwh the Oomforteng Of the Maiestie, 
Al the tempest was Ouer gon, 

That noise ne thondring herde he non ; 380 

Therto the See In pesible stat it was 
That to fore tyme was hidows in Ipai plas, 
So that of tempest herd he neuere A del 
Wheche to forn times he herde ful wel. 384 

Thanne Abowtes him loked he ful faste, 
And the Roche he Missede atte laste, 
Whiche |7at was the heyest partye ; 
Thanne In his herte hadde he gret Anoye, 388 

And In his Mynde was gretly Abascht 
How that Roche was so de-dascht. 

Thanne Anon gan he forto Make 
The signe Of the Crois for Owre lordis sake ; 392 
Botlie vppon his hed and vppon his body 
He made the Signe of God Almyghty, 
And besowhte God, for his special grace, 
Him to Comforte & kepen In that place 395 

In Riht wit, Mynde, & Memorye ; — 
Thus this kyng tho to God gan Crye. 



Fors itaiit seulement ke il s' aliert a deus 
mains si com il peut, tant ke toutes 
voies se retint as degres de ]a roche. 
Endementiers ke il se tenoit en tel 
maniere 

si descendi vns eiFoudres, 
et feri si durement el plus haut de la 
rocke, ke il le fendi toute iusc' au fons 
de la mer. 

Et fu si a droiture fendue par le mi- 
lieu, ke la moitie reiuest tout en es- 
tant autresi com ele auoit este deuant. 
Et sour cheli remest li rois. 
Et I'autre moitie qui de cheli esquartela : chai 
el fons de la mer, en tel maniere ke onques 
puis ne fu vcue par nul home viuant. 
Et H rois iut tous pasmes ausi com s' 
il fust mors sour I'autre moitie qui 
remese estoit, et si fu en pamison mult 
longement. 

Et quant il reuint de pamison 
par le plaisir notre signour ■ 
si fu la tempeste toute passe. 



Et il ouuri les iex, 
et paisieule, 



SI uit la mer ooie 



ne ne uit nule rien, ne n' oi, de tout 
chou qu' il auoit deuant oi et veu. 

Et quant il fu bien desestourdis : si se 
drecha et commencha a regarder tout 
entour lui. Si vit la roche, ki estoit 
fendue de la uirtu iusc' au fons de la 
mer. 

Et lors fu il si durement esbahis. ke 
par .i. pen. ke il ne ckai en la mer, 
tous esperdus de paour et de deses- 
peranche. 

Lors fist 

le signe de la sainte crois 

sour son chief, et sour ses membres, 
et sour son cors. 

Et pria le glorieus sauueour du monde, 
'ke il, par la soie misericorde, 
li dounast si ferin cuer, et si enterin 
ke il peust estre seurs et vigereus en- 
contre dies meruelles et ches paours.' 



MOBDREINS IS HUNGRY. HE FINDS A BLACK LOAF AND TRIES TO BITE IT. 



297 



And whanne thus his preieres he hadde I-do, 
A wondirful lust thanne Cam him to 400 

That he moste slepen Nedelye, 
As here vs telleth this storye ; — 
So that On the Roche there he slepte 
Vppon swich A spas As him was lefte ; 404 

And whanne Of his slepe Jjat he A-wook, 
Swich An hunger there him took, 
That him thowhte ded forto be 
But 3if of Mete he hadde plente. 408 

And whanne thus longe he had mad his Mone 
To him Self there All Alone 
Of his Misaise and hunger ful strong, 
So that lyven him thowghte myhte he not 

long : 412 

And as Abowtes him he lokede there. 
He say, him thowghte, In a qweynt Manere 
Ligeng vppon A grees Of ston 

A wondir blak lof there Anon ; 416 

And whanne this lof beheld he tho, 
A wondir strong pas he gan forto go 
To-ward thike lof [it] for to take, 
Lik As gret hunger it gan to Make. 420 

And whanne he hadde it In his bond, 
It forto breken tho gan he fond. 
But therto hadde he no Miht ; 

But al hoi to his Mowth Anon riht 424 

He it there putte to hau biten vppon. 
And therto his Mowth he Openede Anon. 

And In the Mene whille him thowghte he 
herde 
O wondirful noise, and qweyntely Ferde, 433 

As thowgh AUe the fowles of the Eyr 
To him ward they gonnen Repeire ; 

2q 



A tant se rasist li rois, 
si li prist si grans talens 
de soumellier 



ke par fin est o uoir s'endormi au 
pie de la roclie 

sour tant peu d' espaisse, com il i auoit. 
Et quant il fu resuillies, 

si li prist vns si grans fains, et an- 

goisseus, 

ke il quidoit bien vraiement ke il n' en 

escapast ia se parmi la mort non. 

Et quant il se fu mult longement com- 
plains, et dementes 

de sa mesaise : 



si esgarda derriere lui, 

et vit 

iesir desour i. des degres. 

.i. pain mult durement noir. 

Et quant il le uit, si en eut mult grant 

ioie. 

Et il se leua pour 1' aler prendre, 

comma chil qui li fains destraingoit a 

desmesure. 

Et quant il le tint, 

si ne se vaut pas tant del^ier que il 
r eust pechoie: 

anchois le mult tout entir a sa bouche 
pour mordre. 

Et tantost com il ot la bouche ouuerte 
et li vaut les dens fichier el pain. 
Si oi de uers le ohiel 

venir .j. si grant bruit; 

ke il li fu auis qu' il auoit les eles de 
tous les oisiaus de Fair. 



298 



THE WONDERFUL BIKD THAT SWOOPED DOWN ON MOEDBEINS. 



Eor wheche gret drede In that Manere 

Anon his hed he lefte vp there ; 432 

And to him there Cam distending Adown 

A merveillous fowl with a wondirful sown ; 

For SO wondirful he was, & so divers, 

That neuere to forne tyme tonge Cowde 

Rehers ;— 436 

The hed of him was as blak As pich, 
Ne non Othir Colowr was it lich, — 
And therto bothe his Eyen & his teeth 
As brenneng Eir forsothe they beth ; 440 

But the schape Of his hed it was 
Lik An Orible dragon In that plas. 
And therto two homes In his hed ; 
It was A wondirful sihte In that sted : 444 

Also A fui long nekke like to a dragown ; 
A wondirful brid, & of a qweynte faciown ; 
His brest like a lyown Schapen was there, 
His feet like an Egle In A qweynte Manere ; 448 
And from pe Joyntes Of his feet to the 

scholdres vpriht, 
Wondirful wynges, & swyft to flyht, — 
As swift they weren In alle thing 
As to-forn the thondir is the lyhgtenyng — 452 

And therto As hard As Ony steel, 
As scharpe As A Rasowr bytyng ful wel; 
Therto his fetheris white weren Also, 
As scharpe as storm Of hail therto ; 456 

And whanne that scliarply he fyl A-down, 
This ilke brid made A wondirful sown. 

And therto the bek of his hed that was there, 
It was as scharpe As Ony spere, 46o 

And Also brennenge vppon forto se 
As lyghteneng that to-fore the thondir doth fle. 



Et pour le grant paour de que il en 

eut, 

leua il sa teste en haut, 

si esgarda. et vit tout droit a luis des- 

cendre. 

.i. oisel grant, et meruelleus, 

et si diuers 

ke onques mais n'auoit autrestel veu: 
ne parler n'en auoit oi. 

Chil oisiaus auoit la teste autresi noire 
comme poi : 

et les iex 

autresi rouges comme fus en brases. 
Et si dent estoient tout autrestel. Et 
la teste estoit toute figouree a maniere 
de sarpent cornu. 



Et si auoit le col tout autrestel comme 
lions. 

Et si pie estoient ambedoi tout au- 
trestel de fachon : comme chil d'aigle. 
Et a la iointoure del pis etdes espaules 



si auoit vnes eles 



autresi brunoians comme vns achiers : 
et ausi trenchans par deuant com est 
vns glaiues bien acheres. 

Et deriere parmi les rains, en auoit 

vnes qui estoient ausi blanches comme 

noif: 

et ausi bruians comme tempeste de 

graille quant ele chiet par fort vent en 

grant espesete de brankes. 

Et li chies de sa keue 

estoit ausi agus comme vne espee. 

Et autresi enilames 

comme est vns coins des foudre des- 

cendans. 



HOW BIRDS & BEASTS PEAR IT. HOW THREE GO ALWAYS TOGETHER. HOW BORN. 299 



TJppon this Maner lik As 30 here 
Was this brid On this Manere, 
As E-ecordeth here the devyn storye 
That to vs hath put In Memorye, — 
So that this Bryd ne fieeth be non weye 
But that alle briddis & bestes of hym haven 

Eye; 
Be whom ]>e Saviour Of al this world 
In this brid scheweth, be his Owen Acord, 
Bothe his miht & Ek his drede, 
And alle Creatures of hym took hede ; 
Eor that brid is so dowted, I telle it the, 
That be what weye that Evere he fle, 
Bothe brid & beste they don him fle, 
Lik as be figiure I schal Schewen to ]>e. 
Behold how J^at derknesse to forn pe sonne 

doth fle, 
Riht so Alle briddes & bestes, I telle it the. 
So fleen the sihte Of this brid, lo, 
That to forn tymes I declared 30W so. 

And of swich kynde this brid it is. 
That As thre to-gederes with-Owten Mis — ■ 
As the Scripture Recordith now here — 
That As thre Overal he flikth In fere, 
Lik as he that of a womman was born 
With-Owten compeine of Man, As I have re- 

hersed befern ; 
And whanne Bedy to ben born they be, — 
Of A wondirful kynde this storie scheweth 

to me ; 
Eor so Cold they been In Alle thing there, 
That non wiht duren it May In non Manere 
Sawfe Only the modir of the same, — 
Wihche is a brid of a Merveillous fame ; 

2q2 



de tel maniere com vous aues oi 
4g4 estoit li oisiaus. 

Et si tesmoigne la deuine auctorites : 

ke il ne vole nule fie 

se pour espoenter non chiaus et cheles 



468 



472 



476 



480 



488 



en qui li sauueres de monde 



vieut sa crieme et son paour espandre. 



et tant est doiites de toute creature, 

ke ia en son voler ne se mousterra 
nus oisiaus ne nule beste, anchois 
fuient ausi tout deuant lui 



com les tenebres fuient devant la 
clarte du soleil. 



Et si est de tel nature 

ke il n' en puet estre. ke .iii. ensam- 
ble. 
^g . Car che dist li verites de I'escripture : 



' ke il naissent de fumiele sans com- 
paignie de marie.' 

Et quant il sont apparilliet a naistre, 
et il doiuent issir hors des oes : 



492 



si sont de si grant froidure plain, 

ke nule riens ne porroit la froidure 

souffrir 

fors ke la mere seulement. 



300 HOW THE bird's MOTHER FIXDS A STONE, AND WARMS HERSELE WITH IT. 



Per whanne this long suffrede hath sche, 

And non lengere with that Cold may sche be, 

Hu'e Eyren sche leveth, & taketh hire iiyht 

Into a fer Contre there Anon Ryht, 496 

Where that sche hopeth forto fynde 

A precious ston of MerveiUous kynde, 

Wheche In the vale of Ebron is at alle dayes. 

Of a \Tondirful kynde, as the storye sayes ; 500 

For Of his owne kynde he is so hot, 

That non man therwith him self drar frot 

Til it gynne Chawfe Of his Owne kynde, — 

Thus fareth theke ston So good & hende. 504 

For there as Cold is, it loketh pale. 

As kyn.de telleth vs be Olde tale ; 

And whanne Cold thing A-chawfed is Owht, 

Anon to Red Colowr it is I-browht, 508 

And thus be frotyng Of that ston 

It be-Cometh Red as Ony Blood Anon. 

And whanne this brid this ston hath fownde, 
Therwith sche hii'e Chafeth In that stownde, 512 
And litel & litel sche schawfeth hire so, 
Til that hire Cold be ful nygh Ago. 
And 3it In hire beek sche taketh it thore 
And hire self doth chawfe 3it wel more ; 5 16 

And 3it sche thinketh ful litel there 
For the grete Cold jjat sche soffred Ere ; 
And whanne that hete sche feleth plente, 
A3en to hire Eyren thanne doth sche fie. 520 

Whanne that In place sche cometh there 
As to forn tymes hire Eyren were. 
So hot sche semeth to been with-Inne, 
That Al hire body on fyr doth brenne, 524 

That hire Self helpen sche ne May, 
So hot sche is with-Inne, ]?e sothe to say ; 



Ne la mere meisme ne la puet mie de 
tout en tout souffrir ke ele ne puet en 
auant. 

si laisse eles ses oes, et vole 



tant ke ele troeue 

vne maniere de pierre: 

qui est tous iours en la ualee ke on 
apiele ebron. 

Chele pierre si est de si oaude nature : 

ke ele ne puet a nule chose froiier: 

ke tantost ne se prenge la chose a 
quoi ele froiera. Mais tous iours le 
porroit on tenir en sa main: anchois 
que la mains en escaufast sans froiier. 
IMais tantost com on la froie a aucune 
chose : si mue sa ooulour de chele 
part ou onlefi'oie. Car ele est natu- 
relment toute blanche. ' Et tantost 
com ele froie, si deuint toute vermelle 
comme sans, deuers la froiure. Et 
lors esprent sans estaindre toute la 
chose a quoi ele touche. ne ia la flambe 
n' i parra. 

Ec quant li mere a chiaus oisiaus a 
trouee chele pierre : 
si se frote tant a li, 



et hurte de son bee 

ke ele le sent escaufer. 

et lors ne li est mie asses de chele 

calour, car ele li samble estre petite pour 

la tres grande froidure ke ele a tant 

soufferte, si froie plus et plus. 

tant ke ele sent la grant calour, 

et lors si prent sa voice, si en retourue 

arriere a ses oes. 

Et quant ele vient la: 

si I'a li fus si durement arse par dedens 
le cors : 

ke ele ne se puetaidier. Et pour chou 
k' ele sent la grant ardeur ke ele a el 
cors, dont ele ne puet refroidier, 



now THE BIRDS EAT THEIR MOTHER'S CINDERS, AND ARE PROUD, AND EIGHT. 301 



And therfore thanne weneth sche 

That hire Eyren Alle I-brend scholde be, 528 

So that sche withdraweth hire there fro, 

And with hire body not neigheth hem tho, 

But l^at A good spas from hire nest, 

As hire self it liketh hire best ; 532 

So ]jat be the hete of hire body so fer fro. 

Hire briddes sche bringeth forth Alle po 

That for Cold scholden Ellis dye ; 

This is here kynde ful Certeinlie. 536 

And thus thorwgh Chawfyng of this ston 
The Modir to powdir is brend Anon. 

An whanne hire briddes thus browht forth be, 
Abowtes the Asches of hire Modir gonne they fie, 540 
And there-Offen taken here sustenawnce 
That was theke time to here plesauuce, 
Tyl that they haven bothe lif & membres ; 
Thus Eten they of here Moder Syndres. 544 

And whanne Alle they ben Eton Eclion, 
The Syndres Of here Modir, & not ]jeroffen 

left on. 
Anon So prowde they wexen Alle thre 
That prowdere briddes ne Mown neuere be ; 548 
Thanne Comen the tweyne that males be, 
That neither Other may suffre In non degre ; 
And whanne here ful strengthe fully they 

have, 
Eche of hem Of ]?e thridde Maistrie doth Crave 552 
To hau the femele At his owne wille ; 
Thus to Othir forseth him vntille, 
So that Anon thorwgh gret pride 
The ton the tothir Sleth that tyde. 556 

Scipilions, is Clepid this brid. 
As thus In this storie it is red. 



si set bien, 

ke ausi arderoient li. oef se ele se met- 

oit deseure. 

Lors se traist .i. peu loing de lui. 



et la grant calours qui de li resourt, 

escaufe si les oes ke li oisiel en es- 

cloeiit 

qui dedens morroient de froit se che 

n' estoit. 



Et quant la mere es toute arse et mise 
en chendre: 

si se traient li oiselet entour, 

et de chele pourre se soustienent. 



Si en menguent tant qu'il ont .i. peu 
de forche, et es cors et es menbres. 

Et quant il ont mangie la pourre qui 
est de lor mere : ia puis d' autre viande 
ne gousteront a nul iour. 



Lors vienent li doi qui sont marie, 

si sont si orguilleus, et si fier, ke li uns 

ne puet 1' autre souffrir. 

Et quant il sont venii en lor grant forche. 



Si sont de si grant orguel ke chascuns d' aus 

deus 

vent auoir la signourie du tierch oisiel que est 

fumiele. 

Par che monte entr' aus deus la grant 

haine et la grant me.Uee. 

Tant qu'il s' entrecombatent, et ke li 

uns ochist 1' autre. Ensi s'entrochient 

li doi malle, 

si n' en remaint ke la femiele qui est 

apielee ' serpolions.' Et la pierre de 

quoi ele s' art, est apielee ' piratiste.' 



302 THE BIBD SCIPILIO^'S HITS IIORDKEIXS. HE SWOOXS ; AND IS HUXGIIT ALL NIGHT. 



Swich. was the brid that decendid Ipeve 
Down to the kyng In this ]Manere, 5G0 

And smot the lof Owt Of his hond 
That to his niowth to putten gan he fond, 
And Into the see he threw it there, 
Eiht fer In a Merveillows Manere. 564 

And whanne he hadde so I-do, 
He took his flyht & ileygh him fro ; 
And Aftirwardis he torned Ageyn, 
And the kyng to the Erthe was fallen pleyn ; 568 
And with his Eyht wynge he smot him so 
That his Clothes & his Skyn he barst vn to, 
And from the haterel In to the foot, 
Into the harde flesh that strok it bot ; 572 

And thanne this brid took forth his flyht 
From that kyng Anon Tho Uyht. 

And pe kyng In swowneng at the Erthe lay 
Eor drede & sorwe of that grete Afray 576 

Tyl that the day was Xygh Agon, 
And to the Xyht faste Entrede vppon. 

And whanne he was waked of his swowneng, 
Eul feint & feble he was In alle thing 580 

That of the grete hunger he hadde to fore, 
Whiche that him Greved so sore, 
Thowgh Alle worldly mete thanne had he sein, 
There-Offen to Ete he ne myhte Certeia. 534 

And thus Abod he Al that Xyht 
Tyl on the Morwe it was day lyht ; 
And whanne the day be-gan to dawe, 
Thanne ]5eroffen was this kyng ful fa we ; 588 

Thanne he bethowghte him In his mynde 
Of that brid so Mervetllous of kynde. 
That his lif so hadde Casten Away, 
Many thankynges to God he 5af that day, 599 



Teus estoit li oisiaus ti descendi 
an roi sour le degre quant il ot mis a 
sa bouche le pain ke il auoit troue 
sour le degre. Et quant il 1' oi 
Yenir si com il descendoit bruiant : si 
ot mult grant paour. Et li oisiaus de 
si grant forcbe com il descendi: feri 
le pain si tres durement ke il tenoit: 
qu' il U fist tors des poins voler, 
et cbaoir en la mer. 
Et quant il ot eke fait, 

si monta en kaut mult isnelement. 

et puis reuint arrere bruiant. 

Si trouua le roi gisant tout estendu 

a terre. 

Et il lait la destre ele aler deuant, si 

le feri si qu' il H rompi toute la crigne 

res a res du katerel. 

Et H trencka toute sa uesture iusc' a. 
la ckar. 

A tant s' enparti li oisiaus, si tres dure- 
ment bruiant ke nus n'en porroit la 
verite esponre se veu ne 1' auoit. 
Et li rois se vit a terre pasmes mult 
longement. onques ne s' en leua, ne 
ne revint de pamison deuant ke U fu 
pries de la nuit. Car grant partie du 
iour estoit ia passee a 1' cure qu' il se 
pasma. Car ilpooit estre bas uespres, 
Et quant il fu uenus de pamison. 
Si fii si Tains et si estourdis : ke il pooit 
a grant paLue goute veoir. 
Et se il ot eu grant faim deuant onques 
ne s' en senti nient plus ke il eust 
mangiet toutes les viandes ke ses cuers 
desirast. 



Ensi demoura ckele nuit 

tant ke U ^•int au matin, ke U vit 

aiourner. 

Et quant il vit aiourner 

si fa mult a aise a uers che ke il auoit este 
toute la unite en paour et en male auenture. 
Et quant il 1' ot ramene a memoire che qu' il 
auoit eu si grant faim : 
et I'oisiel qui le pain li auoit tolu: 

si commencha mult profondement a 
souspixer del cuer et a plourer des iex, 



MOEDBEINS PRAYS TO GOD. THE MAN FROM THE SHIP COMPOETS HIM. 



303 



And seide, " lord God, I-worsclieped thow be 
That from AUe these sorwes hast deliuered 

me, 
& wilt that I do bigge my synne 
Ere than I Owt Of this world twynne ; 596 

Eor swich wordis Of solace 30 hau me 

sent, 
That Of hunger have I lost myn talent, 
Sowfe Only hunger Of sowle to susteyne, 
Therfore lord I me to the Compleyne. 600 

Now knowe I wel that this Maner thing 
To me hidir Cam for non forthering, 
But me to deceyven be weye of Eichesse, 
Be 3iftes, Owther be fayr promesse ; 604 

And Jierfore schal I neure In tyme comenge 
My Mowth to Opene for non Swich thing, 
Thowgh the body Scholde suflfren ded 
Rathere thanne to Eten Ony bred, 608 

But 3if it be, lord, thorwgh thy sonde, 
Ony to handelyn with Myn honde ; 
Ne nevere Owt of this Roche wele I gone, 
But evere here dwellen Alone 612 

Tyl that, lord, thy wille It be 
Owt of this Roche to taken Me." 

And thus vi dayes beleft the kyng 
In that Roche, with-Owten lesyng, 616 

And Eche Of these dayes Cam this good 

man 
And him comforted As he wel can : 
Thanne swed the womman After Eche day 
Of him to fonde to geten hire pray. 620 

This Man Euere him tolde wordis Of Com- 
fort 
As Often As to him he gan Resort, 



et disoit. " Biaus sire diex urais, ra- 
chateres qui [de] perdurable destruc- 
tion m' aues iete. Je vous aour, et 
rench grasces de che ke i' ai veu 
qu' il vous apese de mon peohie ke ie 
voloie faire. 



Car vous m' auies tant enuoie paroles 
de solas et de oonfort, 

ke bien deusse le faim del cors oublier. 
pour le faim de 1' ame sooler. 



Ore sai ie bien ke chil par qui chis 
pains m' auoit este apparellies, 
ne le faisoit mie pour mon preu. 

Mais pour tel damage comme de moi 
mener a mort. 

Et pour chou ke si apierte demous- 
tranche en aues faite : ne goustera ia- 
mais ma bouche en cheste peril ou ie 
sui de nule viande, comment que li 
cors en soit angoisseus. 

se vous par la votre deboinairete ne le 
m' envoies. 

Ne Jamais hors de cheste roclie ne 
metrai le pie: 

se vous, par qui volente ie croi ke ie 

i sui venus, 

ne m' en metes hors. 

En cheste maniere demoura li rois en 

la roche .vi. iours. 

Et chascun iour venoit auant a lui li 
hom de la nef, 



et la dame apres. 

Et si li disoit li hom toutes les paroles 
qui a lui solagier et conforter pooient 
auoir mestier. 



30i 



THE GOOD MAN TELLS MOEDREINS HIS DELIVERANCE IS AT HAND. 



And Euere spak the womman of Naysannce 

To him, And Euere Of distorbaunce. 624 

And whanne it was Comen to ]?e seventhe 

day, 
This good man to him Cam with-Owten delay. 
And thus to him seide there in haste, 
" Thin Ovvr of deliuerannce Aprocheth faste, 6-28 
3if thow wilt hennes-forward 
The kepen from temptaciowns hard 
Of the devel, whiche he wile Asaye 
In many weyes the to be-traye." 632 

Thanne Axede him the kyng ' In what 
Manere 
Erom him he myhte defenden him there.' 
Thanne seide A3en this goodman tho, 
"Wrath the not thy God, what so thow 

do, 636 

And Owt Of this Roch delinred sclialt 

]?ou be 
With-Inne schort tyme Oerteinle, 
But 3it Manye dredes schalt thou se 
Er that owt of ]?is Hoche taken thow 

be." 640 

Thanne thus partid this good man Away ; 
The kyng there lefte, sothe to say. 
Eul glad & Joyful he was In herte, 
That non thing ne myhte him smerte, 644 

And thowhte, ' thowgh that he schold 

dye, 
Owt Of that E-oche wolde he not hye, 
But Rathere ded there he wolde be 
Thanne Owt of that Boche forto fle.' 648 

Thus longe In this thowht gan he d^elle. 
That Aftir tyme So it be-felle 



Et la feme li dissit toutes cheles paroles 
qui pooient estre nuisables a 1' ame et 
au cors de lui. 

Et quant vint au estisme ioux : 

si reuint a lui li horn de la nef. 
Et mult le conforta. Et si li dis, 

' ke ore aproclioit li termes de sa de- 
liuranche : 
se il se sauoit 

gaitier encontre les agais 
du dyable.' 

Et il li demanda ' comment.' 



Et chil li dist 

" se tu te pues hui toute iour garder 
de ton signour courechier: 

tu seras tantost deliures de tous 
paours et de tous maus terriens qui 
auenu te sont: se tu ne le coureches. 
Se tu te gardes de croire conselqui soit 
encontre sa Yolente. Si comme d' issir 
hors de cheste roche: tu aras tres- 
passe grans doleurs et paours meruil- 
leus, dont il t' auenra tant se tu ne 
t' en daignes garder. ke a grant paine 
t' en venras deliure." 
A tant s' enparti chil. 

Et li rois remest 

mult lies et mult ioious. 



Et s' afica mult en son ouer ' ke ia 
pour nule chose qui il veist, de la roche 
ne se mouueroit.' 



Ensi demoura mult longement: tant 
ke bien peut estre nonne passee. 



A FAIR SHIP COMES TO THE ISLAND, AND A FIERCE TEMPEST RAGES. 



305 



He loked ful fer Into the See, — 

A fair ScMppe Cam l^ere seylleng, thowt 

te, 652 

botlie gret & Riche him thowghte it was ; 
bote nejjer man ne womman In that plas 
that Schippe to Governe, nethir to Gje, 
thus him thowhte ful Certeinlye. 656 

and whanne longe it hadde so go 
In the hyghe See bothe to & fro, 
atte laste towardis the Roche he drawgh 
A ful gret speed & faste I-nowgh. 660 

and thus sone began there In the see 
wondirful tempestes J^ere Anon to be, 
So hidous & so Angwischous in eche Manere 
that so hidows tempest saw he nere neuere. 664 

this tempest this Schippe to the Roche 

browhte, 
that it scholde Alto-breken him thowghte ; 
It snew, & haillede, & thondrede faste, 
So that Jjere was manie A bitter blaste, 668 

So that it Semede that Al the firmament 
On peces hadden borsten verament ; 
Por he wende the Ende Of ])e world jjat day 

had be ; 
thus thowghte the kyng thanne ful sekerle. 672 

And the kyng in |jat Roche had non sted 
Where that he Myhte hyden In his hed, 
For the part Of the Cave was blowen Away 
Into the See, As 36 hau herd me Say. 676 

And this faire Schippe beheld he thanne, 
but he say nethir Man ne wommanne. 
and so thikke Abowtes him Cam the thon- 

dring, 
and Many A wondirful lyghteneng, 680 

2 R 



Et il esgarda mult loing en la mer, 
si vit venir vne nef 

mult grant et mult riche. 

Mais il n'i vit onques nehome ne feme. 

La nef fu de mult grant biaute,et gar- 

nie de mult riches estages, et de mult 

biaus. 

Et quant ele eut mult longemeat ale 

parmi la mer waukerant : 

si se vint a trainant vers la roche. 



Et maintenant commencha a le.uer 
vns grans orages parmi la mer. Et la 
nef toutes voies se traist vers la roche : 
plus tant ke li orages commencha mult 
a esforchier. Et fu si grans et si hi- 
deus ke il n' estoit nule riens viuans : 
qui n' en deust auoir paour se ele le 
veist. Et tant ala chele nef auant 
le vent, vne eure cha, autre eure la ; 
ke ele s' acosta a la roche. 
Et que li vens le tenoit si seree contre 
la roche de chele part dont il venoit: 
ke ele ne s' en pooit desaherdre. Li 
tans fu mult angoisseus et fors. il plut 
et gresla. 11 touna, et esparti. 
II estoit auis ke tous li firmamens 
deust cheoir par pitches. 
Nus ne le uoit qui ne qujdast bien ke 
la fins de toutes choses fust venue. 



Li rois fu sour la rophe enseant. la 

plueue li feri de toutes pars. II n' ot 

ou mouchier en la roche. 

Car chele partie ou la caue estoit, fu 

cheue en la mer par le caup de 1' ef- 

fondre qui i auoit feru, si com li liures 

r a dpuise cha arriere. 

II esgarda la nef, si grant, et si haute, 

et si riche. et si biele, comme ele estoit. 

II ne vit nului dedens, ne oi : 

Li tans ne fist se esforchier non toute 

voies. II espartoit espessement. Li ef- 

fondre chaioient entour lui si menue- 

ment ke il n' en sauoit le conte. Ne il 



306 APTBR THE TEMPEST MORDKEINS's CLOTHES ARE TOKN, AND THE SUN BURNS HIM. 



that Neuere he wende to asckapen theime, 
so wondirfully 'pe lyghtenyng gan to brenne ; 
thus Suflfrede the kjnig Al that tempest, 
whiche After it torned him for for the 

best ; 684 

Al this was disseisse to his herte, 
for he soffred peynes Many & smerte ; 
but for alle the peynes he suffrede tho, 
to the Sehippe from the Eoche wolde he not 

go. 688 

And whanne this tempest hadde longe be, 
thanne Atte laste gan stillen the See, 
and the wedir to Cleren faire, 

and the sonne to Schewen vppon the Ayre ; 692 

and whanne he sawgh the wedir thus slake, 
Pul gret loye he gan tho to Make. 

thanne the Sonne there vppon him Schon, 
and thanne the kyng lokid vp Anon 696 

and sawh his Clothes Al to -Rent, 
where-Oflfen he Merveilled verament. 

and thanne so sore the Sonne chawfed him 'peve 
that he wende Al the Roche hadde ben on fere, 700 
and that the sonne scholde hau brend Alle thine. 
Of this world to hau Mad An Endeng. 
and al was don for this Skele tho, 
3if ])e kyng Into the Sehippe wolde hau go, 704 

Perst for Cold, and sethen for hete ; 
but for nethir the kyng ]>e Roch wolde not lete ; 
for Rathere ded there wolde he hau be 
thanne his lord to wraththen In Ony degre ; 708 
0]>ev that from Jje Roche he wolde gon, 
Rathere the deth to suffren Anon. 

and thus In this Anguisch longe bod he there, 
and In swowneng fyl In hard manere ; 712 



ne baioit mie a escaper de chest peril, 
tant le voit grant et meruilleus. an- 
chois en auoit ius mise toute 1' esper- 
anclie. Si ke iamais a mil lour, n' en 
quidoit escaper. 

Ensi souffri li rois V angoisse del dolereus tans 
en cors et en cuer. Car il souffri la pluie et la 
gresle et la forche del uent, che fu en cors. 
Apres souffri les espars et le tounoire et les 
asaus des effoudres qui cheoient, tout chou 
souffri de cuer. 

Ne onques pour tous ches mesaises 



ne peut estre a chou menes ke il en- 

trast en la nef, et guerpist la roche. 

Et quant li orages ot mult longement 

dure: 

si commencha 

li chieux a esclaxchir. 

Et la olartes des rais du soleil se res- 

pandi par tout: 

li rois vit le tans cangie, 

si en fu mult lies. 

la calour du soleil se respandi par tout, 
si feri sour lui. II commencha sa 
uesture a tordere pour li aue qui de dens 
estoit remese. Li tans escaufa mult, 
tost fu sa reube essuee. 

Apres che vintvne si tres grans calours, 
qu'il li estoit auis ke toute la terre 
deust ardoir iusk' en abisme. 
Et ke li solaus descendist a terre pour 
toutes choses metre en chendre. 
Li rois senti chele grant ardure Et se 
il ot este bien a malaise deuant ore li 
enforcha sa doleurs et sa mesaise a 
chent doubles. La calours 1' angoissa. 
II vit deuant lui la nef toute apparel- 
lie au soleil eskieuwer: se il se vausist 
metre dedens. 

Mais il doutoit tant le courous de son 
signour: ke il estoit tous apparellies 
asouffrir la mort. 
anchois ke il la roche deguerpist 



Mult souffri ehele dolour de chaut longement, 
tant ke la virtus du chief li fall. Et fu si vains 
ke il ne peut plus durer, si se pasma. 



HE SWOONS, BUT RECOVERS, AND THINKS IT IS ALL A DREAM. 



307 



and so longe lay lie Stille As A ston, 

That wit sygMe ne Mynde hadde non. 

And whanne that he of swowneng A-wook, 

Por drede & sorewe ful sore he qwook, 716 

and lift vppe his hed, and beheld ful faste 

3if that strong hete 3it dide Owht last. 

and "Whanne he sawh the day ]?at mesurable was, 
and but Mesurable hete In that plas 720 

As betwenes noon & hevesong scholde be, 
bothe glad & loyful thanne was he ; 
thanne Asaied he Anon vppe forto stonde 
Eor the vanite In his hed that hadde ben longe ; 724 
And whanne J^at he gan vppe forto dresse. 
In hed, body, ne Membres, felt he non Siknesse. 

thanne stood he vp On his feet, 
and there abowtes him loked ful sket, 728 

and Merveilled Of the grete Aventours 
That he hadde there suflfred Of dolours ; 
and Of AEe this thanne felt he Ryht nowht, 
Where-Offen he Merveillede In his thowht ; 732 
and Otherwhille he thowghte A dremenge to be, 
and Otherwhilles he thowghte it for Oerteinte, 
and Otherwhilles he Cowde Remembren him wel 
Of the Aventures thanne Everidel. 736 



Et quant il se fu pasmes, si chai as dens. 

Et iut a terre grant pieche oomme chil 
ki anoit pierdul'oir et le sentir et le veoir, 
Et quant il fu reuenus de pasmison, 



si drecha i. peu la teste pour sauoir 

se li tans se tenoit enchore en tel ardour 

com il auoit veu deuant. 

Et quant il vit le iour tempree, 

et I'air douoli et net, 

si com il deuoit estre entre nonne et uespres ; 
ke la calours du iour eat onques alee ; 

si fu mult a aise. 

Lors assaia se il se porroit drechier 

pour la vanite del chief. 

Et quant il se vaut leuer, 

si senti ke il n' auoit ne mal ne dolour 
en la teste, ne en nul des autres menbres . 
A tant se leua en son estant, 

si se commencha mult a meruillier des 

grans auentures 

qui li estoient auenues, ke eles pooient 

senefiier : 

Car il auoit trop grans doleurs soffertes, che li 

estoit auis : et or ne s' en sentoit. 

si se meruilloit si tres durement 

ke ilquidoit a le fie que il eust songie. 

Et a le fie se ramanbroit bien 

de toutes les auentures si, com eles li 
estoient aueniies. 



2r2 



308 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Still of Mordreins on The Roche Perilows. How lie sees a ship approach the Eock with his own and 
Nascien's shields on board, and the horse he won from Tholomes at Orcans (p. 309). A knight lands, 
and tells him that Nasciensis dead (p. 310). He goes on board, sees a corpse like Nasciens's, swoons (p. 311), 
and on waking finds himself far from the Eock (p. 311); he makes the sign of the Cross, and man, 
horse, and corpse vanish (p. 311). He prays to God. The good man comes to him again, and tells 
him that he shall not be delivered till Nasciens comes to him aUve (p. 312); and explains that it was 
the devil who had tempted him as the knight, the lionness, and the fair woman, who had appeared to 
him (p. 313). The good man exhorts him to be wiser and warier than he had been, and then 
vanishes (p. 313). The ship drives on (p. 314) ; the king sees a man coming on the sea, borne up by two 
birds under his feet (p. 314), who sprinkles the ship mth water, and announces himself as Salustes, in 
whose honour Mordreins had built the church in Sarras (p. 314). He explains the vision of the 
honness (p. 314), and that of the streams flowing out of Mordreins's nephew (p. 314); and then tells 
him he had sprinkled the ship because it was the devil's and needed purifying (p. 315). He instructs 
Mordreins how to eject devils by Holy Water (p. 315), and then goes, leaving the king on the 
ship (p. 315). 



Thanne thowghte the kyng al In Ms lierte 

Of Manie trebulacions & of peynes smerte, 

that the day was past, & wax to Eve, 

thanne the kyng fal sore gan him Meve. 4 

Anon thanne lokede he fer Into the See ; 
A fair schippe fast seillyng Comen sawgh he, 
therto so Hichely arayed him thowhte it was, 
but he nyste Of his Comeng what was j^e cas, 8 

for so Riche A schippe, him thowghte, sawgh he 

neuere non 
To fore tymes On non water neither Seylen ne gon. 

and whanne the Schippe Aproched him ny, 
Anon Into Jjat Schippe he lokede An hy, 12 



Ensi pensoit en son cuer, et deuisoit. 

Li iours passa toutes voies Tant que 
il commencha a auesprir, 

Et lors esgarda mult loing en la mer. 
Si vit uenir vne nef, 



si biele et si riche: ke onques mais 
nef de si riche afaire ne fu veue. la nef 
vint mult tost et mult bruiant. 



Et quant ele fa auques aprochie de lui : 



MORDBEINS PINDS IN THE SHIP HIS SHIELD AND HORSE, AND NASCIENS's SHIELD. 309 



and Sawgh. where that hengen scheldes two ; 

In ]>e forcastel Of the Schippe they weren I-do, 

Where- Inne was A towr ful Rialy I-dyht, 

As semed Jjat tyme to the kyng In Syht ; 16 

On wheche towr. As I vndirstonde, 

bothe scheldes to-gederis diden they honge ; 

Of wheche the ton scheld was his, 

the tother Nasciens wit-Owten Mys : 20 

thus him thowghte wondirly Sore, 

but Evere he Merveilled how they Comen thore. 

And whiles that he stood In this thowght, 
to ]>G E,oche this Schippe Anon was browght : 24 
and as it was to that Roche Comenge, 
Of An hors he herde A wonderful Neyenge, 
and so bonchede & ferde with his feet 
that it thowghte the schippe to bersten In f>at 

fleet. 28 

Anon the kyng gan to herkene this Neyeng, 
and Merveilled ful Mochel of that thing ; 
Por that hors he knew there Anon 
whanne he him herd so taken vppon, 32 

And wiste wel that it was the same hors 
that from kyng Tholome he gat At Orcaus,* 
Whiche that In the bataille he wan there ; 
And the same hors he wende it were, 36 

what be Neyenge and Other fare, 
The same hors he wende hadde ben thare. 
And thus wondred he mochel In his thowght 
how hors & scheldes thedir weren browght. 40 

thanne to the E-oche it Aplyede Anon ; 
and tho to the schipward the kyng gan gon 



si vit .ij. escus qui pendoient a deus 

deffenses, 

d' un petit chastelet trop biel qui 

estoit ei chief deuant. 



De ches .ij. escus conut, ke li vns 
estoit li siens. 

et li autres sen serourge nascien. 
Et quant il les counut, si li fui tous 
lisans tant durement a penser, [qu'il] 
fuesbahis. Si commencha si tres dure- 
ment a penser ke il s' en oublia tres tous. 
Endementiers ke il estoit en che pense : 
et la nef aprocha toutes voies. 

Et vns cheuauE commencha si tres 
durement a lienir en chele nef, 
et a fronchier et a grater des pies, 

ke il estoit auis ke il deust toute la 
nef brisier. 

Et li rois escoute le cheual : 



si le conut bien 
au henir. 

et sent de uoir ke cli' estoit ses cheuaus, 

chil ke il auoit conquis sour tholome 

en la bataille a orcaus. 

Et a cheli estoit auis ke che fust il : ke 

il estoit diuers de tous autres cheuaus, 

et au henir et en autres teches, 

et pour chou le quidoit il bien cou- 

noistre. 

Multsemeruilla du cheual et des escus, 

comment il estoient en si estrange lieu venu, 
ne quele auenture les i pent auoir amenes. 

Lors vint la nef iusc' a la roche. 

Et li rois se dreche 



* In the English text hitherto this word has been printed Orcans, the doubtful letter looking more like 
n than u. In the French MS. both Orcans and Orcaus occur frequently, and the text has followed the MS. 



310 MOBDREINS'S TEMPTATIONS. A KNIGHT TELLS HIM THAT NASCIENS IS DEAD. 



To beliolden what peple and wliat Meyne 
In that Schippe that he Cowde se. 44 

and whanne that he gan there-Inne to beholde, 
he Sawgh Mochel peple, & Mani-folde. 

And Owt Of that schippe there isswed Anon 
As In Maner Of a knyht, and to him gan gon ; 48 
and whanne that he gan the kyng to Aprochen Ny, 
the kyng him beheld ful witterly ; 
hym thowghte that be his persone & figure 
an hygh Old knyght of his, I the Ensure, 52 

that Brothir to his steward schold hau be 
that Slayn was- at Orcaws ful sekerle. 

and whanne this knyht to the kyng gan gon, 
he him grette with hevy Chere Anon ; 56 

and the kyng Ran to him ful faste, 
and thanne him Axede atte laste 
' Why that so Sore Abasched he was, 
he scholde him tellen Al the Gas.' 60 

" A, sire," Anon quod this kniht tho, 
"Eor the hevy tydinges 30W Oomen vnto !" 
" Sey me," quod the kyng, " what May it be, 
Belamy, I preie the that thow telle it to me." 64 
" Certes, Sire," quod this knyht Anon, 
" th-e beste friend ]?at 36 hadden is now Agon, 
the wheche is Nasciens 30wre brother dere, 
that In this Schippe he lith ded here." 68 

and whanne the kyng herde him thus telle, 
Anon In swowneng to the Erthe he felle ; 
and Whanne Jjat he of his swowneng a-Wook, 
Aboutes him faste he gan to look, 72 

and axede his brothir forto Se 
if that Sekerly he ded there be ; 
And Evere Criede like a wood man, 
So for his brother ferde he than. 7g 



pour veoir chiaus dedens, quels gens 
che pooient estre. 

Ei il esgarde, 

si voit ke il i auoit grant plente de 

mult bieles gens. 

Et uit hors venir .j. home 

qui mult bien sambloit chiualers. 
Et quant il rois le vit pres de lui : 

si vit ke il auoit le cors et la figure : 

d' un sien ohiualer. 

qui estoit freres a son senescal : 

chelui qui auoit esteochis enlabataille. 

Et quant li chiualers le vit, 

si le salua, mult laide chiere faisant , 

Et li rois le corut tantost acoler. 

et si li demanda 

r ocoison de sa chiere, pour quoi ele 
estoit si laide et si tristre.' 

Et li chiualers li dist. "Ha, sire, 
pour chou ke ie vous aport mult laides 
nouieles,et mult dolereuses, dont vous 
ares le cuer trop dolent." " Comment," 
dist li rois, " ke ai iou dont pierdu." 

" Chertes, sire," dist ohil, 

" vous aues pierdu le millour chiualer 

de tons vos amis, 

ch'est nascien vostre serourge, 

qui gist mors en chele nef." 

Et quant li rois 1' oi, 

si se pasme maintenant, et chai a terre 

tous estendus. 

Et quant il fu reuenus, 



si le demanda a veoir. 



Et braioit si durement comme vns 
hom foursenes fesist. 



HE SEES HIS DEAD BODY. IT AND THE SHIP VANISH AT THE SIGN OP THE CROSS. 311 



The knyht to the kyng gan him dresse 
that him hadde browht In this distresse, 
and the kyng took Ipere be the left hond 
to ]?e schipward to leden he gan to fond, 
So that the kyng Niste what he dede, 
So ful of sorewe he was In that stede. 

and whanne the kyng ]?e schippe was with- 
Inne, 
he Han to the here, & nolde not blynne, 
and the Cloth anon vp he Caste,— 
to beholden, that body hadde he gret haste, — 
There Anon thanne Sawgh he there 
his brother Nasciens, As that it were, 
be face, semblawnce, & body Also, 
as whanne on lyve pat he dide go. 
thanne Anon fyl he down In swowneng 

there 
hardere thanne euere to-fore dide he Ere, 
that Neuere to Asckapen wende ]pan he, 
but Certein ded forto hau be. 

Whanne he was waked of his Swowneng, 
Of this hadde he gret Merveilleng, 
And thowhte to axen of this knyht there 
how this myhte happen, & In what Manere. 
and whanne he loked Abowtes him tho ; 
Ful fer from the K-oche thanne was he tho, 
thanne for sorwe he fyl down Anon 
In swowneng ded as Ony ston ; 
to-fore that here so lay he there 
ded In swowneng In this Manere. 

and whanne of his swowneng J)at he Wok, 
Anon vp his Riht hond he took. 
And the Signe of the Crois he Made Anon, — 
thanne thus sone AUe weren they Agon, 



80 



84 



96 



100 



104 



Lors le drecha chil 

qui les nouueles li auoit dites. 

Et si le prist par le senestre main. 

et r enmena a la nef. 

si grant duel faisant. ke .i. petit ke 
il ne s' ochioit. 

Quant li rois fu en la nef entres, 



et il vit la biere : 

si courut chela part tout droit. 

Et si sourleua vn mult riche drap 

dont ele estoit couuerte, 



et vit 
88 le vis et le samblanche nascien 



tout ausi apertement com il auoit 
onques mieus veue par samblant. 
Et tantost com il ot veu: se se re- 
pasme, 

92 si tres durement : 

ke, ki le veist, il ne quidast mie ke 

il en escapast 

sans estre mors ou mehaignies. 

Et quant il fu releues, 



et il Taut demander au cheualier 

commen che li estoit auenu. 

Et quant il se regarda arriere vers la 

roche : 

et vit ke il en estoit si loing ke a grant 

paine le pooit il mais veoir. 

Et quant il vit che : Si ot si grant duel 

ke il ne pot onques mot dire, anchois 

rechai arriere 

tous pasmes 

deuant la biere. 

Et quant il reuint de pamison : 



si fist sour lui le signe de la sainte 
orois. 
108 Et tantost com il 1' ot fait • si 



312 THE GOOD MAX COMES TO HOKDREIXS, AND TELLS HIM THAT XASCIENS IS AXIVE. 



that netliix here, liors, ne Man, 

In that schippe cowde he Se than. 

and thanne ganne he to "n-epen ful sore, 

And !Morneng & wringeng he made wel ^lore, 

" A ! Merciful God In Maiestie, 

jS'ott Wot I wel that I have Greved the." 

and TVhanne he hadde thus I-Spoke, 
Perth Into the See he gan to loke ; 
there sawgh he to-forn hym Comen Anon 
the goode man that In the Schippe gan 

gon, 
wheche that him Comforted Often Sithe, 
and ^vith his goode wordis Made him blithe, 
and whaime he sawgh him In that Manere, 
TVel ful he was Of Sorwe & Eere ; 
" A, sire ! " quod he, " I am deserved Sekerly 
Of that 36 boden me to kepen trewly ; 
Eor ful Certeinly ^e tolden Me Ere 
that the devel In this Manere 
Me scholde Owt taken be ]?e left bond, 
As thow didst me to vndirstond." 

anon gan he for to wepen tho ; 
And whanne this good man say him do so, 
he seide, "Sire kyng, wepe thow no More ; 
he hath the tempted Often tymes sore, 
but here-Aftir the behoveth Eft-sone 
To taken good keepe that Is to done." 

Thanne seide the kyng to this good man 
tho, 
" Xow, goode sire, telle me what I schal do ; 
and as thow knowest AUe thing, 
So wisse me Of begynneng & Endeng, 
And how that I schal Governen Me ; 
Eor Goddis love. Sire, this preie I the." 



112 



ne vit en toute la nef ne ne home, ne 
feme, ne la biere meisme ne vit il mie. 

Et lors commenclia mult durement a 

plourer des iex, et disoit. 

" Ha, biaus sire diex, tant malement 

me sui gaities. Ore puis ie bien sauoir 

ke vous estes a moi coiireoliies. Et ie 

1' ai bien fourfait." 

Et tantost com il ot che dit: 



116 si esgarda, 

et vit el chief de la nef deuant 
I'omme de la biele nef 



120 



12-4 



128 



132 



136 



qui les boines paroles li auoit dites 
toute Ie semaine. 
Quant il Ie Tiit, 

si fu tons espierdus. 

Et dist. " Ha, sire: com m' a decheu 

chil de qui yous me commandastes a 

garder, 

voirement me desistes vous voir 

ke U dyables 

me ieteroit de la roche par Ie senestre 
main," 

lors recommencha a plourer : et a faire 
mult grant duel: 
Et H horn 

li dist. "Ne pleure mie tant. 



Tais toi, et si te garde de faire duel. 
Car il t' est bien mestiers." 
Et li rois li dist. 

" Ha, biaus sire, 

qui toutes les choses saues : 

or me faites sage, pour dieu, ke ie 
porrai faire, et comment porrai con- 
tenir." 



140 



HE SATS IT "WAS THE DEVIL WHO HAD BEEN TEMPTING MOEDREINS, AND VANISHES . 313 



thanne tMs good [man] seide to him Aj^e, 
" 3it manie spitful Merveilles schalt ]30U se ; 
and Eten Ne drynken schalt j^ou neuere More 
til thy brothir Nasciens Come the before, 
As Oristen Man, and qwyk levenge ; 
Now take \>oxx. this for newe tydynge. 
And whanne thou sixt him In that degre, 
thanne After thy leveraunce Sone schal be. 

"Eor wete ]70u wel ful Certeinle, 
It was the devel that was with the, 
that told the how that Nasciens was ded, 
and that 3af the Swich Oonceyl & Red ; 
For he is Redy In feld & In town 
Goddis schep to don distrocciown. 

" and the devel it was Also 
that In thin Avisiown Cam J^e to ; 
the Mete that J^e lyown \>q brovvghte, 
he it Awey bar, & lefte the Nowghte. 
and 3it I wele that J>ou knowe More Also, 
that it was the devel that Cam the to 
In liknesse Of A womman, 
and sweche wordes to the spak than ; 
Also the devel ful Sekir was he 
that Owt of the Roche he browht ]?e. 

" Therfore hens forward I warne the, 
that bothe wisere & warere ]?at thou be ; 
For swich thinges here-After schalt ]jou se 
that to Endeles deth wolden bringen the, 
3it thou the bettir wit ne have 
thy body thi sowle forto save." 

and non More to hym he gan to Say, 
but with that word he partid A- way, 
that he ne wiste where he becom 
Owt of his syhte bothe Al & som. 

2s 



Et chil li dist 

" Asses verras auentures espoentables 

qui t' auenront. 

Ne iamais ne buueras, ne mangeras, 

144 deuant ke tu verras nascien ton serourge 
venir a toi 
com crestien vrai. 



148 



152 



Et tantost com tu le verras ensi com 

crestiens doit aler: 

si aaohes ke ta deliuranche est venue, et le leu 

dont iou te dis huimain ke tu vainteroies. et 

ke deuant chou ne pooies sauoir ta vision : de 

che te dirai iou le uoir. 

Chil qui te dist gehui 

ke nasciens gisoit en la nef mors : chil 
fu li leus. 



Car ch' estoit li dyables, qui tous iours 
est leus 

contre les brebis ihesu crist et encontre 
son pule. 
Ch' est li leus 
154 qui en ta vision 

te toloit toutes les boines viandes. ke li aigniaus 
t' aportoit. Et de chel aigniel saras tu bien en- 
chore ke il senefie, Mais che ne saras tu mie ore. 
ains ert vne autre fois. Lora te sera toute ta vi- 
sions descouuerte, quel chose ele puet senefiier. 
Et bien saches 

1 go ke chil dyables qui par le main te ieta hors de 
la roche, 

che fu la feme qui chascun lour venoit a toi, 
et te disoit les paroles mauuaises et 
desconfortables. 

164 

Or ten iras, et si garde 

ke tu te gaites mieus viers lui : ke tu 

n'as fait iusch' a chi. 

Car tu verras souent de teus choses : 

168 qui mult tost t' aront mene a pardur- 
able mort 
se tu ne ti gardes.'' 



A tant se teut ke plus ne parla, 
'^ anchois s' esuanui tantost: 

ke onques li rois ne le vit puis. 



314 



SALUSTES COMES TO VISIT AND COMEORT MORDREINS ; HE 



and thus in the Schippe Alone lefte he 

Ploteringe Amyddes the hye Se ; 

the wynd him blew, now here, & now there ; 

thus Nyht and day he ferde In fere, 

that Resting plase ne fond he non 

til On the Morwe it was passed noon 

thanne the kynge vppe him dressed tho, 
And to-ward the forschippe he gan to go, 
and loke ful fer Into the See ; 
A man there Comeng him thowghte say he. 



176 



180 



Ensi remest tous seus en la nef. 



Et li vens si feri ou voile: si le mena 

aukes loing ancliois ke il trouuast 

onques riens nule. Tout le iours ala 

en ichele maniere, et la nuit toute nuit. 

Et tant qu'il vint a 1' endemain en droit 

nonne. 

Lors se seoit li rois 

el maistre estage de la nef, si esgarda 

deuant lui, 

et vit mult loing en la mer 



184 -j. home qui venoit (a) 



that Of leveng Schold he be bothe good and hye.* 



The man is borne up by 
two l)irds under his feet. 

He makes the sign of 
the cross and talces up 
water in his hands, 

sprinkles the ship, 

and tells the king that 
he is his defender Sa- 
lustes whose church he 
built in Sarras, 



(a) sour li aue ausi com tout a pie. Et quant il fu pries, si vit de-sous ses .ij. pies, deus 
oisiaus qui le soustenoient et le portoient si tost et si isnelemmt com nul oisiel peussent 
plus tost uoler. Et quant il vint a la nef, si s'aresta, et commenclia a faire le signe de la 
sainte crois sour la mer : et prenoit a ses deus mains li aue de la mer. sans dire mot. Et 
li rois r esgardoit, si se meruilloit mult durement qui il pooit estre. Et pour quoi il faisoit 
cliel arousement par la nef. Et quant li horn eut toute la nef arousee : si parla au roi, et 
si li dist. " Mogdanis." Et li rois se meruella mult quant il s' oi apieler par son non de 
baptesme. Si respondi, " sire :" Et li boins hom li dist " Je sui tes delFenderes, tes garans: 
apres ihesu crist. Je sui salutes, chil en qui non et en qui honeiir tu as establie la riche 
esrlise : en la chite de sarras : site sui venusconsillieretconforter. Et site mande li aigniaus 



and that the lioness who par moi, chil en qui est (sz'c) ta uision t' aportoit les boines viandes ke li lens te toloit, 
took his food away . , , ., i i i • i i i 

cnil te mande par moi, pour cliou ke il veut ke tu le saones mieus; ke tu as le ieu uencu. 

Et che fu par le signe de la crois ke tu fesis. sour toi quant tu te veis si eslongie de la 

roche. Lors te laissa li leus, che fu li dyables qui s' en fui qui deuant t' auoit tolues toutes 

les boines viandes ke li aingniaus t' aportoit. Ch' estoient les boines paroles ke li hom de 

la nef te disoit toute iour. Chil home estoit li aigniaus : qui en ta vision t' aportoit les 

boines viandes. Et saolies que ch' est chis aigniaus qui pour 1' umain lignaige fu crucefiiies, 

et ch' est ihesu crist, li fiex de la uirge : chil qui chascun iour te uenoit conforter. Chil 

m' a chi enuoiet a toi pour desconurir ta uision ensi com il le te demoustra. Si ke tu 

saches ke ele senefie. Tu ueis de ton neueu issir .i. grant lac, et de che lach si naissoient 

•ix. flun. si estoient li .viij. parel, d' un grant et d' une samblanche. Et li nueuismes qui 

tout daerrains sourdoit, estoit ausi grans et aussi biaus com tout li autre ensamble. Li 

homme venir qui 



was the Devil 

and that the Lamb who 
brought him meat was 
Jesus Christ. 



Salustes explains the 

vision of the Lake and 

Niae Streams (ch. 18, 
p. 239). 



The Lake means a Son . . , . . . 

of Mordreins's nephew, las estoit mult clers et mult biaus. Et tu esgardes en naut, si veis .j 



* There is no break in the English ]MS.,but it goes straight on with the new subject of Celidoyne in 
prison, p. 317. The copier of it must have left out a column or page of his original. 



EXPOUNDS HIS VISIONS TO HIM, AND TEACHES HIM THE USE OE HOLT WATEB. 315 

auoit le samblanche del urai cruchefi. Et quant il fu descendus a terre. si entra el lac, 

tous nus pies, et ses gambes el lac. Et en tout les .viij. fluns ausi. Et quant il auoit en 

tout les .viij , fluns fait ensi com uous aues oi : si uenoit au neuefuisme. Lors se despoilloit 

tous nus. et si se baignoit trestous desdens. Chil las ki de ton neueu naissoit: senefie. vn 

fil qui de lui istra. Et en lui baignera ihesu crist ses pies et ses gambes. Ch'est a dire, 

ke il sera soustenemens urais. et fine colombe de la sainte creanche au sauueour. De 

clielui istront li .ix. flun: che seront .ix. persones d'omes qui de lui descenderont. Et si and the 9 streams, 9 

,, . . . ^, , . T -, T . -,. T , successors of his, 

ne seront il mie tout ix. si nl. anchois descendront par droite engenreure li vns del autre. 

Et tout li .viii. seront auques parel de boine vie. Mais li neueuismes sera asses de grignour to the 9th of whom 

hauteche et de grignour merite. Et pour chou qu' il vaintra tous les autres de toutes bontes : 

pour chou se baignera en lui ihesu cris. trestous. Et si ni baignera pas uestus, mais tous 

nus. Car il se despoillera deuant lui en tel maniere: ke il li descouuera ses grans secres, Christ shall disclose his 

• liiddfin sGcrcts 

oheus ke il n'ara onques desoouuers a nul homme mortel. Chil sera plains de toutes ioheles ' 

bontes : ke cors d' ome ne cuers doiuent soustenir. Et si en passera tous chiaus qui deuant 

lui aront este. Et tous chiaus qui apres lui seront : qui de porter armes s' entremetront. 

Che sera chil de qui li angeles parla a sarras : quant il feri iosephe de la lanche uengeresse. and of whom the Angel 

Quant il dist ' ke iamais les meruelles del graal ne seroient descouuertes a homme mortel gpo^g ' ^"'^ °'^^ 

fors cha .i. tout seul. Chil sera li nueuismes des oirs qui descendront del fil a ton neueu. 

Et si sera teus com tu m' as oi deuiser. Mais les grans miracles et les bieles uirtus qui whose body shall work 

par lui auenront en la terre ou ses cors girra, ne seront pas seues quel auiegnent par lui. 

Car a chel tans sera mult peu de cheus ki sachent uraies nouieles ne ensegnes de sa 

sepulture. Or t' ai auques parle de ta uision. Ore te parlerai de cheste nef pour quoi Salustes next explains 

iou 1' ai arousee ensi com tu as veu : La nef si fu au dyable : qui la sainte crois encacha ship 

quant tu en fesis le signe. Et pour chou que ele estoit sole : ne pooit il estre qui ni 

reuenist aucune fie se ele ne fust mondee. mais ore est ele toute purefiiee des ordures et to purify it from the 

des malices qui conuers i ont : par 1' aro^^sement de li aue, qui par le signe de la sainte 

crois est saintefiie, et par le coniuremeut de la sainte trinite. Ne iamais nus mais 

esperis n'i enterra : Car il ne doutenrt tant nule riens : com il font le siane de la crois et le ■'^°'' devils fear the sign 

. .,.,.. of the Cross, 

conuirement de la sainte creanche. Et se tu uiens en lieu ki soit doutables a entrer : si At any bad place, Mor- 

pren de li aue, et si le purefie tout auant par le signe de la sainte crois : et en apres par le ™'"^ '^ water, 

coniurement du pere et du fil et du .s'. esperit. Et par cheste beneichon : sera li aue toute 

netoie et mondee de toutes ordures. Et en quelconques lieu ke ele soit espandue par and wherever it is 

, . 1 . 1 1 n . -1 .11 1 ■ r- • i • IT, sprinkled, no devil will 

bome creanche: la dyables ne sera si oses que ii aille. anchois luira tous lours le lieu et „o_ 

eslongera. En cheste maniere fai, si porras estre seurs ke ia en lieu ou tu le faches: 

dyables n' ara pooir de faire nule chose a ton cors pour quoi 1' ame de toi soit dampnee." 

A tant se teut li sains horn, si s' en parti. Et li rois remest en la nef ensi com vous 

1' aues oi. si se taist a tant li contes de lui : et parole de nascien. 



2 s 2 



316 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Of Nasciens. How, when he was imprisoned, the cursed Calafier had charge of his lands and him (p. 316), 
and put him in a dark dungeon and bound him hand and foot, and also confined his young son Celi- 
doine, whose name means ' given to heaven,' (p 316), and at whose birth at mid-day the sun disappeared, 
and the moon and the stars shone clear (p. 317). On the 17th night of their imprisonment, Nasciens 
dreams that a hand strikes off his chains He feels that he is free (p. 317). A light shines and 
a fair white hand lifts him into the air over the castle of Calafier (p. 319), who is stamped on the right 
cheek with an angel's hand, and on the left with his foot (p. 322). Calafier orders water to be thrown 
on his right cheek (p. 324), and is then carried up to the battlements of his castle, from which he 
orders Celidoine to be thrown (p. 326). When Celidoine is in mid-air, nine hands catch him, and 
bear him off (p. 327). Vengeance on Calafier is proclaimed from Heaven (p. 328). A thunderbolt 
strikes the castle, and Calafier's body flies in pieces (p- 328). The report of his death, and of Nasciens's 
deliverance, get abroad (p. 329); the barons go to Queen Sarracynte to ask pardon for imprisoning 
her brother (p. 329); and she sends five messengers out to seek him (p. 330). 

Chi endi'oit dist li contes, ke nasciens fu mis, en tel maniere com vous aues oi, en la 

How Calafier had prison. Et si le prist en garde chil chiualers mescreans : qui estoit apieles calafier. Et 

charge of Nasciens in - . . _ , . . ,. t . , 

pjjgon ki tant estoit desloiaus et traitres: comme h contes a deuise cha en arriere. Et par le 

consel de chestui fa il pris : plus ke par tous les autres. Chis chiualers le prist en garde 

sour toute sa terre auant: et sour la vie apres. Et quant il 1' eut en sa baillie: si fu 

and put him in a darli niult orguiUeus vers lui. et lui fist mult dure prison et mult felenesse. II fu mis el fens 
dungeon, i^ r 

d une fosse noire et tenebrouse. 11 fu destournes de toute la compaignie et del solas as 

gens. II manga peu, et but. II ne se pooit aidier de nul menbre que il eust. Car 
and chained him hand il avoit les mains ausi enchainees: comme les pies. Toutes eures estoit d' une seule 
^" °° ' contenanche, sans estre desuestus ne descauchies, anchois gisoit par ntdt eu sa reube: et 

en sa caucheure. Et quant il ot mis en si angoisseuse prison : encor ne li fu il pas asses 

and also put his young de lui tourmenter. Anchois fist ke il ot .i. sien fil ensamble o lui qui mult estoit de iouene 
son in prison with him, ^ .,,.,, .. 

cage. Car il n auoit enchore ke .vij. ans et .v. mois . Chil estoit mult biaus, et mult 

whose name was sambloit estre de gentil lignage estrais. Si estoit apieles el baptesme celidoines. Et 

Celidoine, gjjjj jjQjjg ^ jj^^jj l^jg^ conuenables a 1' enfant: selonc la vie ke U mena puis. Car 

thatis/giventoheaven;' celidoines vaut autrestant a dire et a senefiier en latin : comme ' dounes au chiel.' Car 

il eut toute sa uie son cuer et s' entente mise en celestiaus oeures : Et seut d' astrenomie 



NASCIENS DREAMS THAT AN AN&EL DELIVERS HIM OUT OF PRISON. 



317 



tant com nus en peut plus sauuir en boine entension et en droite. Et a son naisse- and at whose birth 

ment aiunt en la chite d' orberike une mult grant meruelle qui n' estoit mie acous- 

tumee a auenir. Car il nascui en .i. mult caut iour d' eate, et mult biel, en droit miedi. at mid-day in June 

Et si fu el secont iour des kalendes en iunget. Et quant il fu nes a tel eure com vous 

aues oi. Si auint chose tout maintenant ke li solaus qui en sa grignour caleur deuoit ^^^^ 

estre, a chel eure s' aparut ausi apartement com il fait au matin quant il lieue. Et la and the moon and stars 

. T-. 1 shone clear, 

lune fu ausi clerement veue comme s' il fust nuis, et les estoiles tout ensement. En che 

fu chertaine senefianche: ke il serroit de toutes les celestienes uirtus curieus et encher- 

kieres et urais counissieres. Par icheles demoustranckes fu la natiuites a 1' enfant senefiie. 

Et il fu raisons. Car sa vie fu puis tele: com la senefianolie demoustra. Et les 

paroles qui cki apres venront en esclairont la verite. 



and tMs Child had Oalefere In priso\\'n ]?ere 
Pul xvii dayes In that Manere. 

So it be-happed, that the Sevententhe Nyht 
As he there sat, I telle the Ryght, 4 

Vppon his Oowche to Slombren hym list, 
he was so hevy what to don he Nyst ; 
and as he was In his Slombrenge 
hym thowghte he hadde a wondir Metenge, 8 

So that him ]50uhte An hond there was 
that be bothen Armes him held In that plas ; 
and, As A man that Slepte ful sore, 
the hond he wolde hau put Awey thore, 12 

and the Same hond him Oawht Ageyn, 
And A3en In his Slepe he it voided ful pleyn. 

thanne thowghte him that the hond tho 
alle his Chenes to barst vnto, 16 

Mochel mawgre Of him that there lay, 
Where- Oflfen he hadde A ful gret fray. 

and whanne he felte that it was so, 
Nethir Cryen ne speke ne myhte he tho ; 20 

thanne Abasched was he ful sore 
Of the noyse that he herde thore. 
and whanne that vppe he gan him dresse, 
and felte him Self Owt of distresse, 24 



Chelui enfant eut calafier en prison 

auoec son pere nascien. 

Si demoura nasciens bien .xvii. iours 

en tel prison com vous aues oi. 

Et tant ke vint al disesetisme nuit 

ke il estoit en son lit tout en scant. 

car il ne pooit iesir: 

Si commencha a sousmillier. 



Endementiers ke il soumilloit: 



SI senti vne main 

qui le tenoit empoignie par le brack, 

Et il fu angoisseus de dormir, 

si le bouta arriere. 

Et la mains le prist la tierche fois. 

Et il la tierche fois le bouta arriere. 

Et quant il se quida endormir : comme 

chil qui mult en estoit entalentes: si 

senti ke la mains 

le prenoit parmi les caueus, 

ou il vausist ou non. et si le drechoit 
contremont, maugre sien. 

Et quant il senti chou, 

si vaut crier: mais il ne peut onques 
mot dire de la bouche. 
Si se meruilla mult ke che peut estre : 
et mult en fu esbahis. 

Et quant il fu dreches : 



318 



A FAIR WHITE HAND PROM HEAVEN BEARS NASCIENS ALOET, 



hyse hondes & Feet lie gan drawen him to 

and Pelte vnbounde that he was tho, 

and that AUe his Chenes to-forn him lye ; 

thanne thanked he god M Solempine. 28 

Whanne he was Oomen to the presown dore 
That ful blak and dirk it was to fore, 
there Cam Owt tho A schyneng lyht 
as thowh it were of A lyghtenyng so briht ; 32 

thanne loked he Aboven his hed, 
And him thowghte he sawgh In ]?at sted, 
Owt of the hevene there Aperid An hy 
A fair whit hond, hym thowhte Trewly, 36 

AVhich that him bar, as him thowhte, 
and Owt of that preson there him browhte 
Sowfe ; the arm, Red as feer it was, 
as thike tyme him thowhte In that plas, 40 

Wiche hond him took by his her ; 
and Owt of that presown bar him there ; 
and the sieve lokede as be semblanns 
As Red as fir with-Owten variaunce ; 44 

but nonthing Ellis ne Myhte he Se 
but Onlyche the hond there Sekerle, 
Sowf be the Arm, thowghte, I-voluped was 
the semblaunce of a body In that plas ; 48 

but the body Openly ne was not sein 
As I sey 30W In Certein ; 
and In this manere sawh Nasciens tho 
hond and body to-Gederis bothe two. 52 

And whanne that Aboven the Erthe he was there, 
that the Erthe he fealte in non Manere, 
Wondirly Abashed he was Certeinlye, 
that what to done he Ne wiste trewlye. 56 

and thus the hand On lofte it bar him thar 
that he ne wiste whedir ward ne whar. 



si senti ses mains toutes desloies, et 
ses pies. 

Et quant il marclia le premier pas : si senti 
ke ses caines gisoient toutesdeuant luiaterre. 

Lors fu mult lies et mult a aise. 

Et quant il fu au chief de la chartre 

qui tant estoit noire et tenebrouse : 

si 7 it une clarte naistre ausi tout com 
s' ele fust issue del mur. 

Et il esgarda en haut, 

si vit deseure lui ausi comme vne nue 
vermelle. et hors de chele nue si pa- 
roit la mains ki le tenoit, et si estoit 
toute blanche comme noif. Et la 
manche du brach paroit iusc' au 
couste, 

et si estoit ausi uermelle comme fus 

embrases. 

Ensi paroit la mains tout apertement 

qui par les chaueus le tenoit. 



Et la manche tant com vous aues oi. 

Mais en auant ne pooit il nule riens 

veoir : 

del cors dont la mains mouuoit. 

ne mais ke la samblanche seulement 
qui estoit enuolepee en la nue, 
tout autresi com la Hamblanehe seulement d^ 
un cors enseueli pert enuolepee el suaire. 
Et si n' est pas li cors veus aperte- 
ment, pour chou ke il estoit couuers. 

Tout en tel maniere veoit nasciens 

le cors, et la main qui le tenoit le leua 

en haut, 

et il sentoit ke li pie li eslongoient de 

terre, 

et il auoit si grant paour de chele 

meruelle : 

ke il n' osoit nul samblant faire de 

chose ke il oist ne sentist. 

Ensi le portoit la mains tout contre- 

mont. Et il le veoit tout apertement. 



ABOVE WHERE CALAFER IS SLEEPING. THE PLACE CATCHES FIEE. 



319 



Wheclie that greved him Nothing, 

Nethir hire ne there In non thing ; 60 

Nethir be the beryng Of his her, 

It Greved him right nowher. 

and whanne In the Eir he was so hye 
that Onne the to J>e preson he myhte sen trwlye, 64 
J>ane lad him forth this hond In hye— 
lik as this storie doth vs to vndirstond fully e — 
tyl he Cam to-fore Calafer, 
In his bed as he lay Sloping ther. 68 

and whanne to the dore that he gan gon, 
A3ens him it Opened there Anon — 
bothe dore posterne, and Ek the gate, — 
and Owt this hond lad him there- Ate ; 72 

and Euere to fore the hond wente, 
& he it folwede with good Entente 
til the Maister Gate that he was past, 
Whiche gate gan to Ohirken In hast, 76 

as though A man hadde ben there 
That Owt hadde stalked for drede & Eere. 
Whanne Nasciens was thens A stones cast, 
A3en he lokede Anon In hast ; 80 

anon him thowghte there In his Mynde 
that Al On fyre It was him behinde. 

and whanne the peple Of the plase 
Aspiden that it On Eire wase, 84 

Gret Noise they maden, and doelful Cry, 
Wherwith Calafer Awook Sekerly, 
and Open he fond bothe dore & Gate 
As Nasciens was gon Owt there-Ate. ,88 

anon thanne to the presown dore he wente, 
that Al Open there was veramente ; 
Wondirly abasched thanne was he tho 
that vndir hevene he Niste what to do. 92 



Ne si ne li greuoit 

ne tant ne quant 

che ke la mains le tenoit par les caucus. 

Et quant il fu bien en haut, 

iuso' au chief d' une vaute ki estoit oouuer- 
ture de la chartre, si vit encontre lui ouurir 
.i, huis de fier qui estoit en la vaute par quoi 
ou aualoit en la ckartre cheus ke on i metoit. 



Et quant il eut chel huis passe : si le mena 
toutes voies la mains. Et il s' en ala tres 
pardeuant le lit ou oalafier gisoit. 

Et quant il venoit as huis et as portes 

de la maison, 

si les veoit ouurir centre lui. 



Et la nue passoit tous iotu-s auant : 

et il apres. 

Et si tost com il fu hors de la maistre 

porta: 

Si oi crakier 

ausi com .i. home. 



Et tantost com il orent la porte eslon- 
gie le giet d' une pierre menue, 
si esgarda nasciiens arriere : 

et vit 

ke ele estoit toute esprise de [fu], et si 
ardoit. Lifus fu grans. II fist grant noise. 
Cliil de la maison 

s' en aperchurent 

si commenchierent a crier mult dure- 

ment. 

Quant calafier oi le cri, si sali ius de 

son lit. 

Et si tost comme il vit les huis ouuers par 

ou nasciens s' en estoit issus : 

Si courut tantost a 1' uis de fier. 

Et quant il le vit deferme et ouuert, 

si fu si esbahis 

ke il ne sauoit sous chiel ke faire ne 

que dire. 



320 CALAFEE FINDS NASCIENS GONE, AND RIDES AFTBE, HIM. THE HAND SAVES HIM. 



On Of his Seriawntes lie Oleped Anon 

and bad him Into ]>e presown to Gon ; 

and whanne J^e presown he was with-Inne, 

Of Nasciens ne sawh he neper more ne Mynne ; 96 

and whanne Calafer herde tellen Of this, 

Owt Of his wit he was with-Owten Mis, 

and so gret Sorwe he gan to Make 

that Neuere Man gan so On take. 100 

thanne was browght to him An hors there, 
and Into the Sadel sprang Calafere, 
With a scharpe Swerd On honde ; 
and Al his Meyne that there gonne stonde, I04 

hem he Charged Aftir to hye, 
Euery Man be his weys sekerlye ; 
So that a path there fond he Anon, 
And In-to that path gan he to gon, 108 

& Evere was the hond Schineng to-fore, — 
a Wondirful liht As him thouhte thore ; — 
the nyht, Pesible and fair it was, 
Ne A softere Nyht neuere there Nas. 112 

his hors he prekid wondirly faste, 
& loked forth to forn hem atte laste, 
and saugh where that Nasciens wente, 
for him he knew ful wel veramente, 116 

as he him Often to forne hadde sein, 
him thouhte it was he In Certein. 

and whanne Nasciens Say him come thauue, 
Anon wax Nasciens A ful sory Manne ; 120 

but Evere the hond him held ful faste. 
And him Ouer spradde there In haste, 
that Openly thowght tho Nascien 
the body to the hond Sawh he then ; 124 

and so faste him thowhte it took him ther 
that Neuere Erthly tonge Cowde telle Er ; 



Lors fist tantost. j. sergant 

entrer en la chartre. 

Et il quist par tout la chartre : 

Si dist ke nascien ne tromioit il point. 

Et quant chil 1' oi : 

par .i. peu ke il n' issi hors de son sens. 

Si commencha si grant duel a faire 

ke iamais nul horn grignour duel ne fera. 

Lors sali en .i. sien cheual, 

et prist vne glaue : 

Si commanda ke tout li sergant 

alaissent apres, 

ckascuns sa voie. 

Et il s' en entra. en .i. sentier qui 

aloit adrechant au grant chemin. 

Et la [nue?] luisoit biele et mult clere : 

et la nuis estoit aukes pasieble 

et soues. 

Et quant il ot erre par le chemin bien 

demi lieue, si tost com li cheuaus pooit 

aler, 

Si esgarda deuant lui, 

et vit nascien, 

si le counut mult bien, 

comme chis qui m' auoit veu. Et il 
hurta des esperons apres. 

Et nasciens-, quant il le vit venir. 

Si ot mult grant paour. 

et la mains le tenoit toutes uoies. 

Et lors s' espandi la nue toute sour lui, 

si ke il vit tout aperteinent 

le cors dont la mains estoit. 

Si li ert auis ke il estoit si durement 

grans : 

kenule lange n' enpeust la verite des- 

courir. 



CALArEB LOOKS FOR NASCIENS, SEES THE BED AEM, AND SWOONS. 



321 



Por it Was Of so Merueillous Olarte tho, 

so ful of brihgtenesse, & hot Scliineng therto, 128 

that In the hattest day Of the 3er 

]?e Sonne not so briht is as the body was ther, 

Not be An hundred part Of Clernesse ; 

this putte Nasciens In Moche sekernesse. 132 

but Natheles ful wondirfuUi sore Adrad he was 

that he fyl In Swowneng In that plas, 

So that nethir he ne saw ne felte non thing, 

So sore was this Nasciens In Swowneng. 186 

thanne prekid ful faste this Calafere, 
and loked Abowtes bothe here and there, 
and In plase where j^at he say Nasciens ; 
But tho was not he In his presens; 140 

and Evere Abowtes he loked faste, 
and Nothing he ne Say til at the laste, 
that AUe the weye & al the plas 
there As him thowhte that Nasciens was, 144 

him thowhte it was On flawmeng fer, — 
As him thouhte that tymes Calafer ; — 
And the Arm that was voluped In Cloth so Red, 
him thowhte it brenneng fer In that sted, 148 

that so wondirly Sore Abasched he was, 
that for AUe the world he ne dorste In that plas 
Not Ones Owt of his Sadil Alyhte, 
but down I swowneng he fyl anon Ryht, 152 

Por Of this Merveille so Sore Abascht he was, 
That ded I swowneng lay he In that plas. 

thus lay Calafer long In Swownenge, 
and homward his hors ful faste E-ennengo 156 

From the place that he Cam fro, 
A gret pas homward gan he to go. 
And whanne that the peple of the howshold 
this hors thus Comenge Gonne beholde, 16O 

2t 



Et si estoit de si meruilleuse clarte 
plains ; 

ke lisolaus, quant il est en sagrignour 
calour el tans d' este : 
n' a pas centisme part de clarte ke li 
cors auoit. 



Et pour la grant meruelle ke il en ot, 

fu il si esbahis : 

ke il en perdi tot son sens 

ke il ne seut v il estoit. Et fu en tel 

maniere venus de pamison 

ke il ne veoit nule rien ne ne sentoit. 

Et quant calafier Tint au lieu ou il 

r auoit veil. 

Si esgarda auant et arriere 



et ne vit nule riens viuant 
fors la nue qui tout le chemin s' en 
aloit autresi com vne vndee de fu ki 
est enpains par forche de uent. 



Mais che ke il le ueoit uermelle et 
enflammee, 1' espoenta si durement 

ke il ne remansist 

as archons de 1' asiele pour tout le 

monde. 

Anchois chai ius a la terre, si vint la 

nue pardesus son cors. Et cliil qui 

dedens la nue estoit, mist sa main souj 

sa destre fache, et sour la senestre 

mist son pie. 

Et si vit calafier en pamison, 

et ses cheuaus s' en fu toumes fiiiant, 

si tost com il peut plus aler, 

al' ostel toutdroit dout il estoit venus. 

Et cHl de la maison 
qui le virent reuenir 



322 



C.VXAFER IS FOUND WITH THE MARKS OF A HAND AND FOOT OX HIS FACE. 



And here lord was left beliinde ; 

this was gret wondir In here Mynde, 

and Siker wenden here lord hadde hen ded, 

be Comeng Of the hors In that Sted. 164 

and whanne it TTas On the IMorwe lyht of day, 

Eche man Of his Meyne wente his way 

For to seken hem with here powere, 

3if Ony Of hem myhte him fynden there ; 168 

but they ne Cowde weten In non Manere 

What weye that took this Calafere. 

but it happed, As they sowhten bo]?e to & fro, 
that somme of hem there gonne to go ] 72 

Into the weye there that he lay ; 
"\^"liiche was to hem A gret Afray, 
"WTianne they syen here Lord j^ere ded. 
To Alle here syghtes In that sted, 176 

There they gonnen him vp dressen Anon, 
but foot On to stonde hadde he neuere On ; 
thow A man scholde hau smeten Of his hed, 
he ne myhte meven non lyme In that sted. i80 

and than beholden they In his face. 
And On the Riht side J^ere was a space. 
As it were the forme Of An bond 
that him hadde towched, I vndirstond, 184 

And On the lefte side hem ]50uhte they sye 
the forme Of A foot wel Sekerly, 
that loyned to the bond it Avas, 
Wondirfully Hed In that plas 188 

As Owt Of the Eorneys Comen fiawmes of fire ; 
So thowht hem the Markes of Calafere ; 
but Only the Mark that Of the foot was. 
As blak As pich was In that plas : 192 

and his Xose, as ys it was Cold, 
Al thus his Meine On him gonnen behold. 



sans lor signour: 

en furent mult esbahi ; et mult oreut grant 

paour de lui. Mult furent grant duel la 

maisnie calafier. 

ear il quidoient uraieraent ke il fust mors 

pour le cheual ke il auoient veu 

reuenir sans lui. 

Et quant vint a I'endemain ke il fu 

aiourne, 

si murent 

pour lui querre. 



Mais il ne sauoient chertainete nule : 

en quel voie il estoit entres pour 
sieure nascien. 

Tant le quisent, et a mont et a ual, 
ke il le trouuerent 

en mi le cheniin, ou il gisoit enchore 



ausi com il fust mors : 

Et il le prisent, et si le drechierent 

contremont. 

Mais il estoit tens conrees ke il ne soustenoit 

sour ses deus pies 

qui li deust la teste cauper. 

Et il esgarderent, 

si virent en sa destre faclie : 
le saing de le main 

qui lui auoit touchie. 

Et en la senestre uirent 

le saing del pie. 

Si estoit li sains de la main ausi 

vermaus 

com est li fiers: quant li feures le 

trait hors de le fournaise. 

Et li sains del pie estoit 

tout ausi noirs com est pois. 
Et si estoit li noirs ausi frois com est 
glache: et li vermaus ert ausi caus 
comme fus : 



CALAEER IS CAHRIED HOME AND PUT TO BED. AT NOON HE CIIIES OUT. 



323 



Per whanne he was Oomen to his Ostel, 

and Adawed he was Eche del, 196 

he cowde wel tellen Of Al thing, 

Where-Offen he hadde gret Merveillyng. 

and whanne they him fownde In this Manere, 
they gonne him dresse horn forto here, 200 

but In gret drede they weren Echon 
that memhre ne Meven Myhte he non — 
Nether Eye to Opene, ne mowth to speke ; 
lo ! thus god On him Nasciens gan wreke ; — 204 
but Sekir they wende he hadde ben ded, 
Eor Of him ne Oowden they non Oj^er Hed. 
And thus they boren him In this Manere 
hom to his plase with drede & fere, 208 

that neuere spak word be Al the weye, 
nejjer Eye ne Opened Certeinlye, 
Ne Nethir foot ne hond myhte to him drawe, 
this was to hem A wonderful Sawe. 212 

and whanne to his hows with him they Come, 
Wif, Child, & his Meyne Al & some, 
Abowtes him gannen to drawen wel faste, 
and AUe Of him weren sore Agaste, 216 

that ded In the plase he hadde I-be, 
Ne non Othir thing Of him ne Cowde they se ; 
So that In A bed they dyden him leye 
Al so Eselye As they Cowde Certeinlye, 220 

and alle gret Mone Abowtes him they made, 
Eor there nas non that 0|jer cowde glade. 

And whanne it was abowtes the Noun, 
Wondirly to Cryen he gan Jjere Anon ; 224 

and his wif to him Ran ful faste 
as a womman that hadde gret haste, 
and wondirly Sore Afrayed 3he was 
Of his noise sche herde In that plas. 228 

2 t2 



Car il raeismes le conta quant il fu a 
r ostel. 



Et quant chil qui 1' orent troue 

le drechierent, et il le leuerent centre 

mont, 

si le virent ensi conree: si en orent 

mult grant paour. 

Car il n' auroit nul pooir 

de dire mot, ne des iex ouurir: 

si quidoient tout pour uoir ke il fust 
mors. 

En tel maniere 1' enporterent 

iuso' a sa maison 

ke onques .i. mot de sa bouche ne parla : 

n' onques les iex n' ouuri. 

n' onques pie ne main a lui ne traist. 

Et quant il fureot a la maison : 



si le couchierent en .i. lit. 



Et sa feme et si enfant: et s' autre 
maisnie: faisoient mult grant duel 
entour lui. 
Et quant vint a eure de nonne : 

Si ieta .i. mult haut cri. 

et sa feme courut cliele part toute eiFree : 



Si senti ke il puoit si tres durement 
ke par .i. peu ke ele ne se pasma de la 
grant angoiese ke ele en eut. 



324 CALAFEB, HAS WATER THROWN ON HIS EACE. HE FEELS DEATH COMING, 



et il ouuri 
entour lui, 



les iex, si esgarda tout 



et si dist ' ke on li aportast del iaue 
a estaindre le fu dont il ardoit. 



And wlianne lie of Lis swowneng Awook, 

lie Opened his Eyen, & gan vppe to look ; 

and abowtes him thanne he loked pure faste, 

and water bad bringen At the laste, 232 

Forto qwenchen that far so stronge 

that In his fase hadde brend so longe. 

thanne Honnen forth his Seriawntes Anon, 

And Aftir water they gonne to gon, 236 

And Casten it On bothe Sides Of his face 

To quenchyn J?e fyr in ]?at place. 

thanne it semede to hem Euerichon 

that thike side was brent In to ]?e bon, 240 

And the bon As whit it lay 

Lik as doth Chalk In ]?e Clay ;* 

And the flesch that was Jiere Abowte, 

It semed ful Hosted with Owten dowte. 244 

And thanne the lefte Side they gonne beholde 
wheche Jiat was bothe blak & Colde 
Of wheche he myhte suffren non towcheng 
Eor non good Of Erthly thing ; 248 

and whanne ]>e water On that side they gonne 

to caste, 
A wondirful Cry he made atte laste, 
& with that he fyl In Swowneng 
So that Of lif of him hadde non man supposing, 252 
but that fully ded he hadde I-be 
Euere with-Owten Ony Recouere. 

and whanne Of swowneng he Cam Agayn, 
his Eyen Opened he thanne Certein, 256 

and seide, & pleynede him wel More, 
and seide that deth negheden him wel sore. 

chaine.' 

* i.e. Boulder-drift clay, sucli, for example, as is well seen near Ely, where, by a great down-throw fault, 
the chalk having been brought to the surface, subsequent denudation cut away the great cliff so formed^ 
and a new deposit, in which the pieces of chalk are scattered about like suet in a badly made nlum nuddinEr' 
filled the hollow.— H. S. J i- t by 



Et quant il li orent li aue ietee sour lo 
vis d' une part et d' autre : 

Si uirent 

ke la destre fache estoit toute desnuee 

de char, 

si ke li OS de la ioee paroit tous blans. 



Et la chars 

estoit tout entour ausi roge comme fus. 
et il esgarderent ke la senestre fache, 

si le virent ausi toute plaine devers, 

et si puoit tant: ke a paines le pooit 
nus souffrir. 

Et tantost com il orent li aue ietee sus : 

si recommencha de rechief a crier, 

et se pasma si durement 

ke nus ne le ueoit 

qui ne quidaist que il fust mors 
sans recouurir. 

Et quant il fu reuenus de pamison, 

si ouuri les iex: 

et si recommencha mult durement a 

plaindre. 

et dist ' ke il sentoit la mort mult pro- 



HE ASKS FOE, NASCIENS, AND ORDERS CELIDOYNE TO BE KILLED. 



325 



thanne gan lie to wrathen Anon, 

And seide, " schal I deyen thus son 260 

that thus am fallen In Maledye, 

and neuere In better poynt I was trewlye 

to hau lyved be 3eres and be day, 

and now I trowe I passe my way ; " 264 

thanne Cursed he the tyme that he was bore 

that In Swich manere Scholde deyen there. 

thanne whanne he was Awaked wondirly wel, 
after Nasciens Enqwered he Every del ; 268 

thanne they Of his howshold Snelle 
Of him non tydings ne Cowden they telle, 
Nethir tokene ne Signe In non degre, 
and thus him they tolde thanne Certeinle, 272 

and whanne that he herde this tyding, 
Anon he fil A3en there tho In swowneng. 

and whanne Of his swowning Awook he Ipeve, 
he Comaunded Anon J>at In AUe Manere 276 

Anon Nasciens sone to-foren him bringe, 
and he scholde tellen him newe tydinge. 
and whanne to forn him this ChUd gan gon, 
Thanne seide this Oalafer to him Anon, 280 

' That On him he wolde Avenged be 
Por his fader from him wente In that degre, 
and for his deseisse he Suflfred therfore 
On hym Avenged he wolde ben thore.' 284 

thanne Comanded Sire Oalafere 
that Child Anon forto Slen there ; 
thanne fil down Calaferes wif Anon, 
and preyde him this thing not forto don ; 288 

" and 3if Algates 30 welen him Sle, 
In presoun stille so let him be, 
and Rathere hym Enfamyne there, 
thanne him to slen In this Manere." 292 



Lorssecommenchamultdurementacourechier: 

et a dire ' ke mult auoit grant duel 

de chou ke il moroit en tel maniere, 

et en tel mal estoit oheus en tout le 
millor point : ke il onques eust eu a 
nul iour.' 

Et del grant duel ke il en auoit: en 

maudissoit il chelui qu' il auoit fait 

naistre : quant il si tost en tel point 

deuoit mourir. 

Apres, 

demanda nouieles de nascien. 

Mais chil de la maison respondirent 
' ke il n' en sauoient a dire 
nules enseignes.' 

Et quant il ot oi chou : 
si se repasma autre fois. 

Et tantost com il fu reuenus de pa- 

mison. 

Si commanda ke 

on li amenast le fil nascien deuant lui. 

Et quant il fu amenes deuant lui. 

Si dist 

' ke a chesti uengeroit il son duel 

et son mautalent, 

et de son pere qui fuis s' en estoit, 

et de la mort qui il auoit recheue 

par lui cachier.' 

Lors commanda 

ke il fust maintenant ochis : 

et sa feme li chai as pies. 

et si li pria ' ke il ne le fesist pas ensi. 

Mais s'il le uoloit faire morir. 

si le fesist tant inner ke il morust de 

faim en la prison, ou d' autre mesaise.' 



326 



CALAPEE HAS CELIDOYNE THROWN OVER THE CASTLE WALL. 



And he that was ful Of Coruptioun 
as Ony tigre, Other wilcle lyown, 
Owther Ony Other Savage beste 
that hau non E-esoun, ne]?er lest ne meste, ' 29G 
' but algates On him Avenged wolde he be 
thowh that him self there scholde [him] Sle.' 

thanne Cleped he his Seriawntes Anon ]?ere, 
And Comaunded J?at In to pe towr they scholde 

him here 300 

In his bed, Al so sik as that he was 
he wolde be born In to that hye plas ; 
and he Comanded Aftir him to bringe 
Nascien's Sone with-Owten tarienge. 304 

and they fulfilden his Comandement ; 
him they vppe boren verament, 
and Aftyr him Celidoyne, Nasciens sone, 
Por hym they maden ful gret Mone. 308 

and whanne this Celydoine was vppe I-bi'owht, 
Calafer this Terant for-srat it nowht 
there that Child forto spille, 

Wit venamous hertc & Evel wille. 312 

thanne Anon his seriawntes he gan to Calle, 
And Comanded the Child to throwen ouer the 

waile, 
that with his Eyen he myhte it sen, 
For sekir non Othirwise ne scholde it ben. 316 

"Wherfore deol & Sorwe they maden Echon 
Eor that dede that thev seholdeti don, 
but they ne dorst not Offenden his Comaimdement, 
but Anon it fulfilde there present. 320 

they token vppe this Child Anon, 
And leften him Above Alle ]>g werk Of ston ; 
and whanne Calafer him Sawh so hye, 
do'wn him to Caste he bad hem hye ; 324 



Et chil ki plus auoit felounie en son 

cuer 

ke tigre , ne lions, 

ne autres bestes saluages, 



respondi. ' ke il ne uoloit mie que 11 
viesquist outre lui. ancliois uoloit ke 
il meismes le veist a ses iex morir.' 
Lors apiela ses sergans deuant kii. 

et si lor comnianda ke il prisissent 
son cors, et si le portaissent, 

si malade com il estoit, 

as batailles de la tour en haut. 



Chil fi?ent son commandement. 

Et quant il li orent porte, 

si comnianda ke ckelidoines, li fiex 
nasoien, fust aportes apres. 

Quant li enfes fu a mont. 
si apiela calafier ses sergans. 



et lor comnianda ke il le ietaissent, 

uoient ses iex, des batailles del mur 
de la tour a terre anal. 
Car il meismes en uoloit ueoir faire la iustice, 
et dont ne li chaloit de quele eure il se morust. 
Chil qui il le commanda, furent mult 
angoisseus 

pour la mort del enfant. 
Mais il n' oserent refuser le commande- 
ment a lor signour. 



Lors le prisent, 

et si le leuerent en haut par desus les 

crestiaus. 

Et quant calafier le vit en haut, 

si commanda ke il le ietaisent a ual. 



NINE HANDS CATCH HIM AND BEAR HIM AWAY SAFE. DEEP DARKNESS COMES. 327 



Anon his biddeng fulfil they there, 

and threwen him down In here Manere. 

thanne this tyraunt gan vp to Rise 

To sen this Child taken his I-wise, — 328 

So ful he was Of Crwelte 

As Evere Ony tyraunt myht be ; — 

And whanne ]?e Child was Middis his fallynge, 

AUe Aftir him loked with-Owten tarienge, 232 

and wende that to ]?e Erthe he schold haue gon, 

and his lemes to-borsten Everichon ; 

but Anon As that they lokeden Owte, 

they sien ix. hondes that child Comen Abowte, 336 

that lik As Snow they weren so whit — 

Whiche to soimme Of hem was gret delyt ;— 

and this Child they henten Anon 

In this Maner tho Everichon, 340 

two hondes to the E-yht Arm they wente, 

and tweyne to J)e left Arm veramente, 

tweyne to Ipe left leg, & tweyne to |?e Ryhte, 

and On to hed Openly In her syhte ; 344 

And In this Manere these Nyne hondis 

browhte Celidoyne Owt Of Califeris hondis 

With-Owten Ony Of the Erthe towching ; 

this was to Calafer gret Merveillyng ; 343 

and Evere he lay and beheld ful faste 

tyl that the Child was fer from him paste ; 

and whanne this beheld Sire Calafere, 

that this Child was boren so fer, 352 

Eor sorwe he fil In swowneng Anon. 

thanne Owt Of that towr Gan Jjere gon, 
of wondirful dirknesse gret plente, 
that non Of hem Mihte 0]7er there se ; 356 

and aftir this dirknesse there spak A voysse, 
that AUe they herden A wondirful Noisse, 



Et chil le laissierent tantost cheoir aual. 
Et li tirans se fu fais dreohier : 
car il le voloit veoir, 
tant estoit de grant cruaute. 

Et quant li enfes vint iusc' au millieu 

de la tour. 

si esgarderent chil d' amont : 

oar il quidierent que il fust ia cheus 

a terre, 

et ke il fust tous depechies. 

Mais si tost com il 1' orent regarde : 

si uirent ke .is. mains le tenoient. 



les .ij. par vne des mains, 
et les deus par 1' autre, 
et les .iiij. enuiron le cors, 

et la nueuismeletenoitparle menton. 

En cheste maniere 

r enportoient les .ix. mains 

sans touchier a terre: tant ke eles 
r orent porte grant pieche loins. 



Et quant calafier Ten vit 

porter en tel maniere. 

Si en ot tel duel en son cuer ke il 
chei a terre pasmes. 
Et maintenant desoendi sour la tour 
vne si grans oscurtes 

ke a grant paine pooit li vns d' aus 
veir r autre. 

Et apres cliele osourtei parla vne vols, 
qui dist si haut ke il 1' oirent tout. 



328 CALAFER IS SPLIT IN PIECES BT A THUNDER-BOLT, AND GOES TO HELL. 



that to him whiclie was Goddis Enemy, 
veniawnce to Mm scliolde Neyhen ful ny. 

and Anon As tliis word was seide there, 
Eul wondii'fol Noise & In dredful Manere 
It Gan to thondren & lyhtene ful faste, 
that semed Al the Eyr scholde to-herste, 
and that it were ful domesday ; 
thus weren they Alle In gret Afray, 
So that Alle the Meyne that weren there 
Eorsoken here lord Calafere 
that stille lay swowneng In that tour ; 
hym they forsoken with mochel dolour. 

And Anon As from him they weren I-Avent, 
A Eyr from hevene Cam there present, 
and Of that towr hit smot the left partie 
down Into the Middes ful Sekerlye, 
In whiche partie that lay Sire Calafere. 
So veniahly was he Slayn there, 
that Er to the Erthe he Cam A- down, 
the pecis of his hody fledden In-virown, 
and non of his Other Meyne 
hadden non harm In non degre, 
Sawf Only for drede In her syht 
that In here hertes they weren Afryht, 
for Cristened thei weren Everichon, 
and Chosen his plesaunse to don, 
and to the Trinite they hadden hem take. 
And forsaken Alle the develis so hlake. 

behold what God wile for his man do, 
him kepen from Evel for Evere Mo. 

And thus, now As 30 hau herd here told, 
paste this Calafer, that was So hold. 
From worldly lif to Evere-lastyng peyne, — 
As this storie thus doth vs to seyne. 



"Qui chin' est anemis auurai cruciiefi, 
si s' enfuie bien tost. 
360 Carlaveianchedesesanemisaproclie." 

Et si tost com ele eut clie dit : 



S64 



368 



372 



376 



380 



S84 



388 



Si commenclia a tonner et a espartir 
si tres durement. 

ke il sambloit ke toutes choses deus- 
sent fenir. 



Lors tournerent tout li sergant cala- 
fier en fuie hors de la tour, 
si laissierent lor signour 



tout pas me. 



Et si tost com il s' en furent fui : 

si descend! li fus du cMel, 

et feri en la senestre partie de la tour 

si tres durement ke il en abati 1' une 

moitie des cretiaus en liaut iusc' al 

moien estage. 

En chelepaniequicliai, gisoitcalafier, 

si fu mors si uieument : 

ke il fu tous depechies en menues 

pieohes anchois ke il fust uenus iusc'a 

terre. 

Ne onques toutes les autres gens 

n'eurent mie de mal, 

fors seulement le paour ke notres sires 

les i auoit mis pour veuement : * 

comme cbiaus ke il auoient esleus a 
son seruiche. Car il auoient tout la 
lay recheue : et estoient baptisie 
el non de la sainte trinite. 

Ensi sauua li urais cruoefis chiaus qui a sa 
creanclie estoient atourne. et liure a mort 
chelui qui encontre son glorieus non estoit 
reueles. Car eli'est chil encontre qui toutes 
les poissanclies sent morteus. 
Ensi com uous aues oi : et entendu : 



trespassa calafier 

de vie temporel a mort perdurable. 

39^ [* ? venement.] 



SAEBACTNTE REJOICES OVER HER HUSBANd'S AND SON'S ESCAPE. 



329 



" and thus sone tliorw al* the Oontre r*MS. vs.] 
this word gan Springe Certeinle, 
how that Nasciens Owt of preson was gon — 
Where-Offen weren glad ful Manion, — 396 

And Of his Sone Also there, 
how that he Aschaped, & in what Manere. 

And whanne Saracynte herde Of this tydyng, 
!Ful loyful sche was In Alle thing, 400 

And beleved it ful Certeinlye 
that it was thorwh goddis Mercye, 
and thorwh him they weren vnbownde 
Where so Evere they weren that ilke stownde ; 404 
Wei wiste sche be Crist it Was I-don 
Alle these poyntes thanne Everichon. 

thanne Alle the Barowns that Of ]?e K-em were, 
To Sarras to qwene Saracynte Comen there, 408 
Whanne they wisten the trewthe Of deliueraunce 
That Nasciens was happed Swich A chaunce, 
and Of the veniaunce Of Calafere 
That God Sodeinly On him took there ; 412 

thanne thus they dowted hem Everychon 
lest God veniaunce hem Wolde senden vppon 
Eor here fals Wil and Concentyng 
Of Nasciens & his sones presoneng. 416 

thanne Comen Alle to the qweene Anon, 
and Oriden hire Mercy Everichon 
that hire Brothir On-prisoned so was 
be here Oonsentyn In that plas ; 420 

And seyden ' ]?at it was Only Al & som, 
Only be Calaferis ymaginacioun ; 
Wherfor. God hath veniaunce on him take 
Openly, As we knowen, for Nasciens sake.' 424 

and for they Syen that God Of his Myht 
hadde schewed swich miracle to Alle Mennes siht, 

2u 



Et la nouiele de sa mort fu tost espan- 
due par la contree. 

et de nascien qui escapes estoit: 



et de son fil 

qui en tel maniere en auoit este portes. 

Et la roine sarraquite, quant ele en 

seut la uerite, 

si en fu mult lie, et mult s' en recon- 

forta. 

Car ele cieoit chertainement 

ke la uirtus ihesu crist 

les auoit desloiies: 

et ke par lui estoient il en quelconques 
lieu que il foissent. 



Et li baron del roiaume, par qui con- 
seil nasciens auoit este pris: 

quant il seurent la verite de sa deliu- 
ranche, 

et de la mort calafier. 



Si en furent en mult grant doutanche 

ke pour la venganche ke diex auoit 
prise de lui: ke pour la proueche ke 
il sauoient en nascien. si vausissent 
bien tout: li plus hardi: ke il ne 
I'eussent onques pense. 
Lors vinrent a la roine tout, 

si li crierent merchi 

de che ke il auoient consenti 1' ovtrage 
de son frere 

ke on li auoit fait 

par 1' amonestement calafier, 

et diex en auoit prise si haute ven- 
ganche com il auoit deserui. 

Et pour chou que il auoient bien veu 
ke diex 

en auoit fait uraie demoustranche : et 
ke nasciens coupes ni auoit: 



330 



SAKRACTNTE SENDS FIVE MESSENGERS TO SEEK NASCIENS AND CELLDOTNE. 



there-fore Mercy they gonne to Crye 

To qweene Saracynte ivl lowlye, 

" Now, goode lady, 30ure brother don seken 3e 

In what Contre that So Evere he be, 

And we scholen putten vs In his Mercy — 

bothe Owre bodes, & Owre Good pleynly, — 

"With vs to done At his plesaunce, 

To what presown, or to what Noisaunce." 

and whanne qwene Saracinte herde hem thus 
seye, 
Wei gladed hire herte was Certeinlye. 
Anon sent sche Messangeris fyve, 
And Charged hem Alle vppon here lyve, 
And took hem I-nowh of gold & Pee, 
& Charged hem to Serchen In Eche Contre, 
Al so longe As Good & hors wolde Endure 
To sechen hire Brothir sche made hem Ensure ; 
And for non man Schold hau hem In 

Suspescioun, 
letteres Enseled with Good Entencioun — 
Enseled vndir hire Owne Sel — 
the bettere men hem to knowen & leven wel ; 
And In that lettre dide sche don wryte 
As wel as that sche Cowde Endyte, 
Of hire lordis Avicion Certefyenge 
Jjat he hadde the Niht to-foren his goynge. 

thus the Messengeris here leve took 
that lorne to done, & it not forsook ; 
Eorto fulfillen hire Comaundement, 
Alle forth they wenten with good entent. 

Xow Mosten we leven A while this storye. 
And to Anothir Storye ^\e Mosten hye 
Whiche that Certefleth Of Nasciens Wif, 
That leveth In Wo, bothe Sorwe & stryf 



pour chou r en uenoient il crier merchi. 

428 

"Dame," disent il, "enuoies querre 

votre frere, 

et si le faites tant cherquier ke il soit 

trouues. 

Et nous nous meterons en sa merchi : 

432 et nos cors et nos terres, 

pour faire tout chose ke lui plaira, et 
ke boin K ert." 

Quant la roine sarraquite les oi ensi 
parler. 



436 si en ot mult grant ioie. 

et prist maintenant de ses messages 
iusc'a .v., 

et si lor bailla mult grant auoir, et mult 
riches cheuaucheures, 
440 ^^ ^^ ^^^ commanda, si chier com il auoient 
lors cors ; ke il ue finaissent d' aler querant 
nascien par tout tant com li auoirs et li cheual 
porroient durer. 

Et pour chou ke il ne mescreust rien 
de clie ke il li feroient entendant: 



444 lor bailla ses letres 
seelees de son seelet, 



448 



452 



auoec che i fist ele metre les enseignes 
de che ke ele U auoit dit 1' angoisse et 
le tourment 

ke ses sires li rois auoit soufFert 

la nuit toute nuit deuant chou ke il 

fust pierdus. 

Ensi lor encarcha la roine son message. 

et chil murent ensi com ele lor ot com- 

mande tant que il achieuerent de lor 

queste: ensi com li contes dira cha 

auant. 



Jlais a tant se taist ore de la roine et 
des .V. messages: 
456 et si parole d'une autre queste 

dont il traira auant a chief ke de 

chesti. 



331 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Of Nasciens's wife, Flegentyne. How beautiful and good she was, and how she loved her husband (p. 331-2). 
She is dispossessed of her lands, and takes refuge with an old trusty knight, Carsopines, to whom she 
has been kind (p. 332-3). He puts his goods and life at her disposal (p. 333); but she sorrows for her 
lord and her son. Queen Sarracynte asks her to come to her, that they may comfort one another (p. 334) ; 
but she refuses, so Sarracynte goes to fetch her (p. 334). When they meet, their grief bursts out 
afresh (p. 334-5); but Sarracynte recovers first, and entreats Flegentyne to return with her (p. 535). 
Flegentyne again refuses, saying she must stop with her old knight (p. 335). She still sorrows (p. 336), 
till she hears that her lord, Nasciens, and her son, had escaped out of prison (p. 337). She dreams that 
a voice says they are in the West (p. 337); and asks a provost of the church what her dream means 
(p. 338); then she asks the old knight, and he advises that they set out, with his son Helycaors as their 
yeoman, to seek Nasciens and his son (339-340). Flegentyne agrees; the knight gets money, &o. 
(p. 341) ; and the three start (p. 342), with four horses, towards Sarras, journeying westwards (p. 343) ; 
they come to the river Arecuse, lodge near the Castle of Emelianz, and enter Calamyne (p. 344).* 



Thus this Storie forthere gynneth precede, 
that whanne Nasciens to preson gon they 

lede 
and his sone there- Inne with him I-do, 
Whiche was to him. bothe peyne & wo, 
And al his lond I-sesid it was tho ; 
and his wif Owt put Of Euery plas also, 
that an hy horn womman was, & of good 

lyvenge, 
and therto here fadir was a kynge. 

this lady was So ful Of bewte, 
Eor a fairere womman Myhte non man se, 



Chi endroit dist li contes, 

ke quant nasciens fu mis en la prison 
calafier 

et ke ses fieus fu enprisounes ensam- 
ble o lui: 



et toute sa terre saisie : 

sa feme qui estoit iouene dame, 

et si haute feme comme chele qui 

estoit fille au roi des mesdiens, fu mise 
8 hors de la terre. 

La dame estoit de si tres grant biaute 
plaine : 



* In the Additional MS. 10292, this chapter — or rather, the illustration at the head of it — is headed " Ensi 
que .j. cheualier amaine j enfant a la duchoise le femme nascien ;" and Helycaors is represented as a small boy. 

2 u 2 



332 HOW BEAUTIFUL AND GOOD FLEGENTYNE, NASCIENS's WIFE, "WAS. HEE, LANDS 



for thus Of hire telleth the Storye, 

that more bewte hadde sche Sekerlye 

thanne AUe the wommen Erthly bom 

that Evere Ony Man Sawh leveng beforn ; 

And to thes bewtes sche hadde bownte, 

Corteys and gentil In AUe Maner degre ; 

lowlich to Every Creature, 

and large to God, I the Ensure ; 

and A3 ens hire lord & Soverein 

debonewre & ful trewe Certein, 

and Chast Evere In his Absence, 

bothe humble & Mek In his presence ; 

therto sche him louede aboven al erthly thyng ; 

Non wondir thowh this lady made Morneng ; 

Eor so gret sorwe & morneng sche Made 

that non ]Man ne Myhte hire herte glade. 

thus was the Condisciown Of this lady fre 
as 36 hau herde E-ehersed here be me ; 
and this ladyes Xame was Elegentyne, 
A ful worthy lady and A benyngne. 
AVetes wel whanne sche hadde knowenge ]>o 
that hire lord was In presown I-do, 
Eul gret sorwe sche took to herte. 
And Manie peynes sche hadde. & smerte. 

and In the moste Sorwe that sche was Inne, 
This false Calafer ne wolde not blynne, 
but putten hu'e Owt Of alle hire londis 
and be-Eefte Clene Ow of hire hondis. 

thanne was this lady At Orbery tho, 
In ful mochel deseisse sche was do ; 
and thedir here lorne tho sche Mad, 
Weneng hire lord Owt Of prison hau had, 
but Euere Calaferis Conseyl was presente, 
and for nothing thereto wolde assente, 



12 ke tot chil qui le veoient, le tenoient 
a souuraine de toutes biautes les 
biautes qui en cors ne en vis peus- 
sent estre trouues. 

Et auoec les biautes ke ele auoit en li : 

16 estoit ele si bien entechie 



ke ele estoit larghe vers dieu et de- 

boinaire au siecle. 

Et priuee uers son signour 

20 et loiaus 



et chaste. 



Et si I'amoit de si tres grant amour. 

24 ke nule riens ne peust sen cuer metre 
en aaise ne en ioie, se ele ne seust 
auant le cuer de son signour a aise. 



28 



32 



36 



40 



44 



De tele maniere estoit la dame com 
vous aues oi: 

et si estoit apielee par non ' flegetine.' 



Quant la dame seut 

ke ses sires estoit en prison ; 

saoHes ke ele en eut asses duel et 
annui, 

et en sa grignour dolour ke ele de- 
menoit 

le vinreiit li baron del roiaume des- 
saisir de toute sa terre. 

Et ele estoit a orberike a cliel iour : 
qui estoit li maistres sieges de la du- 
chee. Et ele dessaisi mult volentiers : 

pour chou ke son signour eu quida 
rauoir de la prison. 
Mais li oonsaus calafier 

ne laissa ke il n'en issist: 



ARE TAKEN ; AND SHE GOES TO CARSOPINES, WHO RECEIVES HER WELL. 



333 



As this Storie here After doth telle 
Al to-gederes how it be-felle. 

and whanne Ipis goode lady say it was so, 
Than husbonde Child & lond was a-go, 48 

thanne was sche In passinge Mornyng 
Whanne sche herde tellen Al this tydyng ; 
Thanne wiste sche nenere what forto do, 
but to An hygh good levere sche drowh here 

vnto, 52 

An old vauasour, A ful gentil knyht 
that Inne shee trosted with AUe hire Myht, 
Por norre he was to hire sone so dere, 
that him tauht bothe norture & Manere, 56 

and sche hadde him Encresed Also, 
From poyerte In to worschepe I -do. 
And him 30ven to-forn that Owr 
Manie lowelis of gret honoure ; 60 

Wherfore In him gan sche hire Affye 
Aboven AUe Other tho Sekerlye. 
thanne flegentyne to thys vauasour wente, 
A sorweful womman, and ful dolente 64 

and whanne this vauasour gan hire Aspie 
that it was his lady Certeinlye, 
Anon with herte body & thowht 
he thanked God j^at thedir hire browht, 68 

And Resceyued hire ful worthily 
As his lady & soverein ful debonerly, 
With herte Body & Al his good tho 
At hire Oomandement to ben I-do. 72 

but Evere this lady hadde In herte 
hire lorde, hire sone, that dide here smerte, 
Wheche sche lovede Ouer AUe thing, 
So that to hire myhte Comen non Comfort- 

eng 76 



ensi com li contes a deuisee cha arriere. 



Et quant ele vit ke a tant estoit 
montee la chose ke de son signour ne 
de sa terre n' aroit ele mie : 
si fu asses plus dolente. 



Lors vint la dame, si s' en ala chies. 

j. sien vauasour, viel home, 

plain de grant loiaute, 

et chil auoit este tous iours maistres 
a son fil. 

et la dame 1' auoit tous iours mult ame : 



si li auoit asses doune par maintes 
fies, et a lui et a sa feme, 

si li fu auis ke en chestui troueroit 

ele grignour amour et plus de foi, pour 

chou que ele 1' auoit mis en grant 

rikeohe de grant pouerte. 

Chies chelui vauasour s' en ala la 

duchesse flegetine, 

mult dolente et mult esgaree. 

et chil [a] qui ele auoit les grans 

dons dounes et faites les haustes hou- 

nours, 



le rechut a mult grant hounour. Et 
mult grant ioie le fist se che peust 
estre ke il eust ioie: entre gent qui 
tant auoient anui et corous. Mult fu 
li uauasours lies de la venue sa dame, 
et ioious, en tant comme ses cuers en 
pooit grignour samblant moustrer. 
Mais ele ni eut gaires demoure : quant on 
reuint prendre son fil pour metre en la prison 
auoeo son pere. Et lors fu la dame de si tres 
grant angoisse plaine : ke tout estoit nolens 
quanque ele auoit sentu de dolour a son cuer ; 
a uers che ke ele sentoit ore : Ele fist vn duel 
de si tres grant maniere que nus qui li veist 
ne quidast mie ke ele en peust en nule ma- 
niere viue escaper. Car il n' estoit nule riens 
viuans, ne horn ne feme, par qui ele peust 
prendre solas ne comfort de sa pesanche. 



334 



SABRACTXTE SENDS, AND THEN GOES, TO COMFORT ELEGENTTNE. 



Thanne the qweene Sarracynte, hire soster dere, 
To flegentyne sente In this Manere 
and preide here ' for Alle Gentelnesse, 
Por sosterhed & for Alle kendenesse, 80 

and In slakyng Of hire peyne & wo, 
that sche wolde Comen hire vnto, 
that Ech of hem Other myhte Comforte, 
and Ech In here Angwisch to Other Resorte.' 84 

thanne Elegentyne thanked here of hire mes- 
sage 
as womman that was of high parage, 
' and hire preide ]7at sche scholde not with hire 

mysplese, 
Eor to here it ne were nethir Comfort ne Ese ; 88 
Sethen Jjat with hire lord sche hadde loye & 

honour. 
It is worthi be hire selves to sni&e peyne & 

dolour ; 
Eor I ne Am not to good therto, 
Eor my lord to suffren bojie sorwe & wo ;' 92 

and In this Manere sche sente to Say 
To qwene Saracynte this ilke day. 

and whanne the qwene herde of this tydynge, 
that Elegentyne wold Comen for non thinge, 96 

Sche wente hire Self In hii-e persone 
that lady to hringen Owt of hire Mone, 
So that this Sarracynte wente forto seke 
this duchesse Elegentyne that was so meke. 100 

and whanne to-Gederis Metten these ladyes 
trewe 
thanne gan Alle here sorwes Henewe ; 
to GroAvnde bothe In Swowneng fiUe 
that non Of hem Myhte speken Other vn- 

tnie ; 104 



La roine sarraqinte sa serourge, qui 
mult r auoit chiere, pour 1' amour de 
son frere et pour le grant bien ke ele 
sauoit en li : oi dire cheste nouele de 
la dolour ke ele menoit, et par iour et 
par nuit. 

Si li manda ' ke ele s'en venist avoekes 
li, si donroit 1' une confort a 1' autre.' 



Mais flegetine n' i vaut onques aler. 



ancliois dist 



' ke ele ne queroit nule compaignie 
a son duel: 

ains en uoloit toute seule, en auoit eu 
le bien.' 



Et quant la roine vit 

ke ele n' i voloit venir pour message 

ke ele i enuoiast : 

si r ala quere ele meisme. 



Et si tost com eles se peurent entre- 
trouer : 

si fu toute la dolours renouelee. 



HOW THEY WEEP. FLEGENTYNE WILL NOT LEAVE HER KNIGHT CAESOPINES. 335 



For so gret sorewe they Maden bothe 
that to J>e peple Abowtes it was ful lothe, 
Eor Grettere Sorwe Sawgh neuere Manne 
that be-twene the two ladyes was thanne ; 
Eul mochel was the Cry & the weping, 
that be-twene hem two was, & pe Morneng ; 
And longe it was Er they myhten Spake, 
0]?er Ony word Eijjer myhte Owt-Breke. 

3it Atte laste this qweene Sarracynte 
Of hire Morneng Som what gan to stynte, 
And As a wis womman and a Redy 
To this dwchesse sche spak ful gentelly. 
And hire sche peyned In AUe thing 
To Restreynen hire from weping, 
And spak ful goodly to this dwchesse 
hire to bringen Owt Of hire distresse ; 
and In the Ende sche preide hire So 
that sche wolde with hire Go, 
" And swich Comfort I wolde 30W make, 
Eor my dere brothir 30ure lordis sake 
that we ben so mochel bownden to ; 
3if ony Comfort to 30W Oowde I do." 

but this duchesse, this lady fre, 
Nolde therto Assente In non degre, 
and Excused here ful ladyly, 
" that In non Othir felischepe trewly 
thanne In that vauasour, that Olde knyht, 
sche nolde not Comen be day ne be nyht ; 
and Ek to hire were it worschepe non 
Erom that vauasour forto goon, 
Eor my Compenye he Nele forsake, 
Ne I ne may his, Anothir to take ; 
Eor In his Compenye have I be 
Sethen myn Exil was put to Me, 



108 



112 



116 



120 



124 



128 



132 



Ne nus horn ne vit onques si grant 
dolour faire a deus femes : 
ke chis ne fust graindres ke la roine 
et la ducesse faisoient. 



Mult dura licris etli plours de lor duel 
et de lor angoisse. 

Mais la roine, 



qui mult estoit boine dame et sage : 

apiela premierement la ducesse a 

comfort : 

et mult se pena 

de li apaiier. 

Et quant ele li ot asses paroles dites, 
et pluseurs choses moustrees: 

si pria en la fin 

ke ele s' en alast auoekes li. 



Mais la ducesse 

ne vaut onques metre a oeure : parole 

ke ele li desist, 

ancliois li dist. 

" Dame, ie sui uenue en la compaignie 

a r onie del home : en qui iou ai tous 
iours grignour loiaute trouuee. Che 
est vns miens vauasours. 

Et bien sachies ke ses cuers seroit 
mult a malaise se ie guerpissoie en 
chest point sa compaignie. 



136 Ne ie ne Ie guerpirai mie, dame : 
Car puis ke il m' a acompaignie 
el commenchement de mon essil. 



336 



SARRACTNTE CANNOT INDUCE FLEGENTTNE TO UBTUEN WITH HER. 



and In Ms Compenie I wele Abide 

Tyl to my ducherie A3en I Come som tyde. i40 

Per, goode lady, moclie lasse deseisse Suffre I 

here 
tlianne In 30wre Oompenye yd I were, 
Per nether Of vs Other Myhte se 
But Owre sorwe A3en renewed scholde be, 144 

Ne nethir Of vs Of Oure lordis to spoke, 
the Sorwe wolde maken Owre hertes breke ; 
to heren Ony thing Of here deseisse, 
In AUe thinges it scholde vs Misplese ; i48 

and therfore Myn Owne lady & Soster so dere, 
haueth me Excused In this Manere." 

Pul Mochel hevynesse & sorwe made this 
qweenne 
Whannathat sche Sawh it wold not bene, 152 

and that the vauasour sche nolde forsake, 
Eul mochel sorewe sche gan to Make, 
and that sche nolde for non preyere 
With hire forth gon In non Manere. 156 

And whanne non Other wise thanne it Myhte 

it go, 
homwardes a3en thanne torned sche tho ; 
and to hire Self sche Made gret Mone 
that ]5e duchesse non Otherwise wolde done. 16O 

And Every day thus ferde this qweene, 
that sorwen & Weping made bedene ; 
and thus ferde sche ful Manye A day 
that Man ne womman hire Oomforten 



may; 
And Euere beleft this duchesse stille 
With the vausour. As it was hire wille, 
And Evere hire Sorwe was lich newe, 
So good sche was, & Of love so trewe, 



164 



le le deurai bien acompaignier 
quant diex me donra venir en restrore- 
ment de ma ioie et de ma hauteclie. 
Et mains de paine et de doloTir souffer- 
rai ie clii 

ke ie ne feroie se ie estoie auoec 

vous. 

Car r une de nous deus ne verroit ia 

r autre de chele eure : ke tantost ne 

fust notre doleurs renouelee." 



JIult mist la roine grant paine ; com- 
ment ele en peust mener sa serourge. 



Mais ele ne vaut onques guerpir le 
vauasour 

pour nule preiere ke on Fe seust faire. 



Ensi tournasent la roine 

mult dolente et mult oourecliie. 

Et chele remest, 

qui de son grant duel demener point 
ne recrut, 

anchois euforchierent chascun iour 
si plour et ses doleurs. 

Cheste vie mena la dame grant pieche : 



168 



FLEGENTYNE HEARS THAT HER HUSBAND AND SON HAVE ESCAPED. 



337 



tliat Neuere man ne non womman 

In that digre myhte Comforten hire than,— 

til that it fyl vppon A day 

that tydynges to hire Comen verray 172 

that Nasciens hire lord So fre 

Owt of prisoun was skaped Oerteinle. 

and whanne Of this tydinges herde sche telle, 
Somme Comfort In hire herte hefelle, 176 

and better Semblaunce sche gan to Make, 
that hire lord Owt of preson was take ; 
And also that hire Sone so dere 
"Was Asckaped In that Manere. 180 

So it be-fyl that the seventhe Nyht 
After that Nasciens owt of presown was dyht. 
And as In hire bed that Niht sche lay, — 
and hadde not slept ful mani A day 184 

What For gret Mone & for Weping, — 
at the last sche fyl In A slombering, 
So what for weping & werynesse 
hire herte hadde longe ben In distresse ; iss 

And as sche lay In hire Slombering 
Sche thowghte sche hadde A Mervillous Metyng, 
Sche thouhte sche Say In hire Avisiown 
Nasciens hire lord, bothe hoi & sown, 192 

stonding to fore hire bed there, 
that to hire Seide In this Manere, 
" Swete soster, sixt thow not Me 
that thus here stonde to fore the ? 196 

Into a fer Centre I am I-browht 
thorw him that vs alle hath bowht. 
Into a place fer be weste, 

there that goode lord liketh beste ; 200 

wheche plase & wheche Centre 
he hath me Ordeyned In forto be, 

2 X 



ke Cliques hons ne feme 
ne le peut atraire a confort. 
Et tant que vint au iour 

que nasciens ses sires 
fu escapes de la prison, et ses fiex. 
Et quant ele en ot oies vraies noueles : 
si s'en commenclia i. peu a conforter: 

et fist plus biel samblant ke ele ne 
soloit. 



Et tant que vint a la sietisme nuit 

apres che ke nasciens fu escapes do 

prison. 

Ichele nuit auint ke ele se gisoit en 

son lit, 

si soumelloit comme qui de grant tans 

n'auoit dormi. 

Si commenchoit dont a reposer. 



Ensi com ele soumilloit 
si li auint vne auisions, 



ke nasciens venoit deuant li, 

et si li disoit 

" biele seur, sues moi : 

Car ie m'en uoie 

en la precieuse terre d' Occident 



ke diex a pourueue a croistre et a 
hounerer 



338 riiEGEXTTNE ASKS A PEOVOST OF THE CHTJIICH TTHAT HER DREAM MEANS. 



and there my seed forth forto bringe, 

hym to worschepe & honourenge." 20i 

and On the Morwen "whanne sche Awook, 
Gret merveil Of this Avisioun sche Took ; 
and In as moche As sche hadde non ful 

knoweng, 
Of that Avisions Signefieng, 208 

the firste werk sche dide tho, 
To holi chirche sche gan to go, 
there forto heren Goddis Servise 
As Everi day it was hire Gyse. 212 

And Tvhanne Alle the Servise was I-do, 
Anon to A provost sche gan to Go, 
And told him Of hire A visiown 
how J)at it was, Al & so^ma, 216 

And preide that provost, for Charite, 
For hire to preyen to the Trenite 
that he wolde senden hire som Tokeneng 
Of that Avisiouns Signefieng. 220 

And thus sone sche torned Ageyn 
To vauasoui's hows In Certein, 
that hire Comforteth As he Can, 
For to hire he was A ful trewe man. 224 

thanne this ladi this vauasour In Cownseil Gan 

to CaUe, 
and him tolde how that hire it gan be-falle 
In hire Avisiown this Othir Xiht ; 
Al him sche tolde Evene Owtriht. 228 

thanne Answered this vauasour to hire Ageyn, 
" that theke Avisiown in Certein — 
be the helpe of God and the holy Eoode — 
Scholde here torne to weischepe & goode ; 232 

Neuertheles, lady, vndirstonde 36 Me, 
that I wele ben Eedy in Eche degre 



de ma semenche et de la uotre.'' 



Et quant ele s'esuilla au matin, 

si li membra de son songe. Et mult 
se meruilla ke clie pooit estre ne sen- 
efiier. Et se il i sambloit auoir aucune 
chose de ueritei. 

A tant par matin 

ala tout premierement a sainte eglise 

orer. Et sainte eglise estoit enchore au iour 
de dont mult tenre et mult nouiele : et com- 
ma ehele qui estoit en chel pais nouuiele et 
commenchoit. 
Et si tost com ele ot escoute le seruiche : 

si regehi au prouuoire 

sa vision, 

et li pria, pour sainte carite, 

ke il proiast notre signour ihesu crist 

ke il I'endounastprocliain auoiement, 

A tant s' en toiima la dame 

a I'ostel au uauasour. 

qui en toutes les manieres ke il pooit 

et sauoit, se penoit de li conforter et 

soulagier. 

Et la dame F apiela d' une part a consel, 

et si li regehi toute la verite 

de sa vision: si comma ele li estoit 
auenue. 

Et li vauasours li dist, 

" dame, cheste visions, 

se dieu plaist : 

ne senefie se bien non 

Et nepourquant ke en aues vous en 

talent a faire : 

Quel chose ke vous en uoellies em- 



SHE ASKS HER OLD KNIGHT TO GO FORTH WITH HER TO SEEK HER LORD, 



339 



to fulfillen 30ure Comaundement 

In alle degrees, And 30ure Entent." 236 

and wlianne the lady herde of his benyngnete 
In Alle thinges that so profred he — 
For loye In herte sche gan to wepe 
that of hire he took so gret kepe ; 240 

thanne Answerid sche, " with herte & wille 
And myn preceptis thow wilt fulfiUe, 
the behoveth with me forto go 
Into what plase that I preie 30W to." 244 

thanne Answerid this vauasour Ageyn 
to that worschepful duchesse Oertein, 
" 36 ne Connen not Seyn, ne Comaunden me, 
that I nel fulflUe In eche degre 248 

Evere As 30wre Owne pore Bedeman," — 
And thus to hire the vauasour Seide than — 
" And what Oompenye that sche wele have, 
I schal 30W gete to bringen 30W Save." 252 

thanne Answered the lady tho 
" that Oompenye wele I no mo 
but Only 30ure Owne Sengle persone, 
We tweyne to gederis to gon Alone ; 256 

Eor I wolde kepen it So prevyle 
That non lyveng man wiste but I & 3e." 

Thanne Answerid this vauasowr 
" lady, I desire 30wre Greta honour ; 260 

I wele 30W telle now my Oownsaille 
3if Owht to 30wre wit it May Avaylle, 
Myn Eldest Sone with vs schal go 
3if 36 thinken best that it be so, 264 

and stonden vs In 3omannes Servise 
In what degre that 30 welen him devise. 
And wete 30 wel, that In Certeyne 
he wolde Suffren As moche peyne 268 

2x2 



prendre: vees moi chi tout aparellie 
a faire toutes les choses ke vous m' 
oseres commander." 

Quant la dame 1' oi si durement pour 
offrir de la volente toute faire: 

Si commenclia mult durement a 
plourer. 

et dist 



' ke il conuenoit que il s'en alast auoec 
li : la u ele auoit en talent a aler.' 



" Dame," dist li vauasours, " ie ne sai 
ke vous voles faire. mais toutes les 
eures ke vous uaures mouuoir, com- 
mandes le. 



Car notres oirres est tous apparellies, 
et de cheuaucheure et de compaignie 
et d'auoir." 
" Par foi," dist la dame: 

" compaignie ni voel iou auoir nule 

ke seulement la uotre. 



Carie m'envaurai si oheleement aler: 

ke ia nule riens viuans n'en sache mot, 
ke iou et vous." 



" Dame," dist il, " uotre commande- 
ment. 

Mais se il vous plaisoit: et il vous 
soit auis : ke ie bien die : 
nous enmenrons auoec nous mon fil 
le grignour. 



Car ie ne vi onques nul vallet 

qui grignour paine peust souffrir ke il 

fait. 



340 



THE OLD KNIGrHT URGES FliEGENTTNE TO TA.KE HIS SON WITH THEM. 



As Ony man here myhte Endure 

50W to plese, I 30W Ensure ; 

but, lady, take 36 this speche in non swich 

degre 
In Ony thing that I scholde wraththen the, 272 
but that I -n'ele ben Redy bothe Nyht & day 
To don thing that 30W plesen May, 
And for 30W to suifren peynes & Owtrage 
As Ony man May don Of My Age. 276 

But, worschepful lady, vndirstonde 30 me, 
that it Eallet nouht for 30wre degre, 
With-Owten A servaunt forto gone 
Into Ony plase, 30 & I Alone. 280 

and 3if with-Owten Servaunt ]?at we go. 
And Ony mysaventure Come 30W to, 
Goode lady, how scholde I 30we be-welde 
that Am Old man & smeten Into Elde ? 284 

and whanne we Oomen Into Ony straunge 

Contre, 
and Ony mys-Aventure befalle to Me, 
thanne my Sone May don vs bothe Ese, 
lady, bothen 30W & Me to plese. 288 

and how so it stonde In Ony Other degre, 
30ure Man & Servaunt I wil ben sekerle. 
And my sone schal ben Owre Servaunt, 
lady, 3if 30ure herte Mowe )?erto grawnt ; 292 

and I as non knyht ne wil not be, 
but as 30ure Servaunt In Echo degre ; 
Eor what deseisse that I Suffre may 
for 30W I wele don Every day. 296 

Now that 3e hau herd myn Entent, 
Of 30W now wolde I weten present 
how that 30 thinken be this Cownsaille, 
3if it Ony thing to 30W may Availle ; 300 



Si nous ara mult grant mestier, se 
vostre volentes est ke il i uiegne. 

Et bien sachies, 



ke pour chou n' el di iou mie ke ie ne 
sole pres et volentieus 

de souifrir toutes les paines 

ke nus cors d' ome qui de mon eage 

fust, porroit souffrir. 

Mais nule dame de uotre hauteche 

ne doit aler si escarsement 

ke ele soit atendans au seruiche d' un 

seul home. 

Car, se nous en alons entre mi et vous, 
sans plus. 



et il mesauenoit de moi: vous series 
toute esgaree comme ohele qui en es- 
trange terre seroit sans connissanclie. 



Et se mes fiex vient auoec nous : 

pour chou ne ferai iou mie comme 

chiualers