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Full text of "Biographical sketches of American artists"

CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY 




COLLEGE OF 

ARCHITECTURE 

LIBRARY 



cornenunwersltyuwarv 
N 6536.M5E7 jj^t 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tinis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020704668 




JULIAN ALDEN WEIR. 
President of the National Academy of Design, New York. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OF 



AMERICAN ARTISTS 



FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 



MICHIGAN STATE LIBRARY 
~ LANSING ' 

1916 



FOKEWOED. 

This bulletin is the result of an increased public demand for biogra- 
phies of American artists and other information relative to the growth 
of art in America. The demand has made it advisable to issue a fourth 
edition, revised and enlarged. 

Many names are omitted because the bulletin being a departmental 
publication is necessarily limited in size. 

This publication is not intended to be a history of American art nor 
a directory of American artists; the endeavor has been to select such 
artists as have received international recognition or attracted the at- 
tention of the most impartial and authoritative art critics. An exami- 
nation of the list of material to which reference has been made will 
show the faithful work which has been done by the compiler, Miss Helen 
L. Earle, of this department. 

MARY G. SPENOEfe, 

State Librarian. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

Abbreviations 18 

American Art in the Luxembourg 16 

BibKography 295 

Biographical sketches 19 

Etchers 14 

Illustrators ■ 13 

Members of the Legion of Honor 16 

Michigan Artists 17 

Miniature painters 14 

Mural painters and stained glass designers 15 

Painters 9 

Sculptors 12 



PORTRAITS 

Weir, Juhan Alden Frontispiece 

Abbey, Edwin Austi;i .-,... 20 

Alexander, John White : 24 

Barlow, Myron 30 

Beckwith, J. Carroll 38 

Blakelock, Ralph Albert 44 

Inness, George : ". 140 

LaFarge, John 152 

Melchers, J. Gari 178 

Nourse, Elizabeth 198 

Rolshoven, JuUus 230 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus : 234 

Sargent, John Singer 236 

Tanner, Henry Ossawa 258 

Whistler, James McNeill : .-. 284 



PAINTERS. 



Abbey, Edwin Austin 
Aid, George C. 
Alexander, John White 
Allston, Washington 
Anschutz, Thomas Pollock 
Armstrong, D. Maitland 
Baker, Elizabeth Gowdy 
Baker, Ellen Kendall 
Barlow, Myron 
Beaux, Cecilia 
Beckwith, James Carroll 
Belcher, Hilda 
Bellows, George Wesley 
Benson, Frank Weston 
Bierstadt, Albert 
Bisbing, H. Singleton 
Blakelock, Ralph Albert 
Blashfield, Edwin Howland 
Blum, Robert Frederick 
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard 
Blumenschein, Mary Shepard Green 
Bogert, George 
Borglum, J. Gutzon M. 
,Bouguereau, EUzabeth Gardner 
Bowen, Benjamin James 
Breckenridge, Hugh Henry 
Breuer, Henry Joseph 
Bridges, Fidelia 
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur 
Brown, George Loring 
Brown, John George 
Browne, George Ehner 
Brush, George DeForest 
Cadwalader-Guild, Emma Marie 
Carlsen, EmU 

Carpenter, Francis Bickwell 
Cassatt, Mary 
Champney, James Wells 
Chapman, John Gadsby 
Chase, William Merritt 
Church, Frederick Edwin 



Church, Frederick Stuart 

Clarke, Thomas Shields 

Cole, Thomas 

Coman, Charlotte Buell 

Cooper, Colin Campbell 

Cooper, Emma Lampert 

Copley, John Singleton 

Couse, Eanger Irving 

Cowles, Genevieve Almeda 

Cox, Kenyon 

Cox, Louise 

Craig, Charles 

Crane, Bruce 

Crowninshield, Frederic 

Curran, Charles Courtney 

Dabo, Leon 

Dabo, Theodore Scott 

Daingerfield, Elliott 

Dannat, William T. 

Davies, Arthur B. 

Davis, Charles Harold 

Deakin, Edwin 

Dearth, Henry Golden 

DeCamp, Joseph Rodefer 

DeHaven, Frank 

DeKay, Helen A. iMrs. R. W. Gilder i 

Deming, Edward WiUard 

Dessar, Louis Paul 

Dewey, Charles Melville 

Diewing, Maria Oakey 

Dewing, Thomas Wilmer 

Dillaye, Blanche 

Dodson, Sarah Paxton Ball 

Dolph, John H 

Donoho, Gaines Ruger 

Dougherty, Paul 

Dufner, Edward 

Dunlap, Mary Stewart 

Duveneck, Frank 

Eakins, Thomas 

Eaton, Charles Harry 



10 



Eaton, Wyatt 

Elliott, Charles Loring 

Elliott, John 

Enneking, John Joseph 

Famy, Henry 

Fenn, Harry 

Fisher, William Mark 

Foote, WiU Howe 

Forbes, Edwin 

Foster, Ben 

Fournier, Alexis Jean 

Fowler, Frank 

Frieseke, Frederic Carl 

Promuth, Charles Henry 

Fry, John Henning 

Fuller, George 

Garber, Daniel 

Gaul, William GUbert 

Gay, Walter 

Genth, Lillian Matilde 

Gibson, Charles Dana 

Gies, Joseph W. 

Gifford, Robert Swain 

Glackens, William J. 

Grayson, Clifford Provost 

Groll, Albert Lorey 

Gruppe, Charles Paul 

Guerin, Jules 

Gutherz, Carl 

Haggin, Ben Ali 

Harding, Chester 

Harding, George 

Harper, William A. 

Harrison, LoveU Birge 

Harrison, Thomas Alexander 

Hassam, Childe 

Hawthorne, Charles Webster 

Healy, George Peter Alexander 

Henri, Robert 

Higgins, Eugene 

Hitchcock, George 

Homer, Winslow 

Hopkin, Robert 

Horton, William Samuel 

Houston, Frances C. Lyons 

Hovenden, Thomas 

Howe, WiUiam Henry 

HubbeU, Henry Salem 

Hunt, William Morris 

Hutchens, Frank Townsend 

Inman, Henry 

Inness, George 



Inness, George, Jr. 
Isham, Samuel 
Ives, Halsey Cooley 
Ives, Percy 

Johansen, John Christen 
Johnson, Eastman 
• Johnson, Marshall 
Johnston, John Humphreys 
Jones, Hugh Bolton 
Keith, William 
Kendall, Wilham Sergeant 
Kirk, Maria Louise 
Knight, Daniel Ridgway 
Knox, Susan Ricker 
Koopman, Augustus 
KoSt, Frederick W. 
LaFarge, John 
Lauber, Joseph 
Lawson, Ernest 
Leigh, WiUiam R. 
Leroy, Anita 
Leutze, Emanuel 
Lie, Jonas 
Linde, Ossip L. 
Little, J. Wesley 
Loeb, Louis 
Longpre, Paul de 
Low, WiU H. 
Lucas; Albert Pike 
Luks, George Benjamin 
MacCameron, Robert Lee 
MacEwen, Walter 
McLane, M. Jean 
MacMonnies, Frederick W. 
Macomber, Mary L. 
Marin, John 
Martin, Homer Dodge 
Maynard, George W. 
Melchers, J. Gari 
Metcalf, WiUard Leroy 
Miller, Richard 
Millet, Francis Davis 
Minor, Robert Crannell 
Mitchell, John James 
Monks, John Austin Sands 
Mora, F. Luis 
Moran, Edward 
Moran, Mary Nimmo 
Moran, Peter 
Moran, Thomas 
Mosler, Henry 
Murphy, John Francis 



11 



Nast, Thomas 
Newcomb, Maria Gviise 
Newell, George Glenn 
Nicholls, Rhoda Holmes 
Noble, John 
Nordfelt, Bror J. Olsson 
Nourse, Elizabeth 
Ochtman, Leonard 
Osthaus, Edmund Henry- 
Page, Walter Oilman 
Palmer, Walter Launt 
Pape, Eric 
Parker, Edgar 
Parker, Lawton S. 
Parrish, Stephen 
Parton, Arthur 
Paulus, Francis Petrous 
Paxton, WiUiam McGregor 
Peale, Charles Watson 
Pearce, Charles Sjirague 
Peixotto, Ernest CliBEord 
Penfold, Frank C. 
Perrault, I. Marie 
PickneU, Williain Lamb 
Piatt, Alethea Hill 
Pope, Alexander 
Potthast, Edward Henry 
Powell, William Henry 
Prellwitz, Edith Mitchell 
Prellwitz, Henry 
Proctor, Alexander P. 
Pyle, Howard 
Quinn, Edmond T. 
Ranger, Henry Ward 
Read, Thomas Buchanan 
Redfield, Edward WiUis 
Reid, Robert 
Remington, Frederic 
Reuterdahl, Henry 
Richards, William Trost 
Robinson, Theodore 
Rolshoven, Julius 
Ryder, Albert Pinkham 
Sargent, John Singer 
Sartain, WiUiam 
Schille, Alice 
Schneider, Otto J. 
Schofield, W. Elmer 
Scott, Emily Maria Spaford 
Shannon, James Jebusa 
Shinn, Everett 
Shirlaw, Walter 



Shulz, Adolph Robert 

Simmons, Edward Emerson 

Singer, William H., Jr. 

Slade, C. Arnold 

Sloan, John 

Smedley, William Thomas 

Smillie, James D. 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson 

Smith, Jessie WiUcox 

Smith, Letta Crapo 

Sonntag, William Louis 

Stanley, James M. 

Steele, Helen McKay , 

Sterne, Maurice 

Sterner, Albert E. 

Stewart, Julius L. 

Stuart, Gilbert 

SuUy, Thomas 

Sylvester, Frederick Oakes 

Symons, George Gardner 

Tanner, Henry Ossawa 

TarbeD, Edmund C. 

Taylor, William Ladd 

Thayer, Abbott Henderson 

Tiffany, Louis Comfort 

TiUinghast, Mary Elizabeth 

Trumbull, John 

Tryon, Dwight WiUiam 

Tucker, AUen 

Turner, Charles Yardley 

Turner, Ross Sterling 

Twachtman, John Henry 

Ulrich, Charles Frederick 

Vail, Eugene 

Van Elten, Kruseman 

Vedder, Elihu 

Vinton, Frederic Porter 

Volk, Douglas 

Vonnoh, Robert William 

Walden, Lionel 

Walker, Henry Oliver 

Walker, Horatio 

Walter, Martha 

Watkins, Susan 

Waugh, Frederick J. 

Webster, Herman A. 

Weeks, Edwin Lord 

Weir, JuUan Alden 

Wendt, JuUa M. Bracken 

Wendt, WnUam 

Wentworth, CecUe de 

Whistler, James Abbott McNeiU 



12 



White, Thomas Gilbert 
Whittredge, Worthington 
Wiggins, Carleton 
Wiles, Irving Ramsey 



Williams, Frederick Ballard 
Woodbury, Charles Herbert 
Woodwell, Joseph R. 
Wyant, Alexander Helwig 



SCULPTORS. 



Adams, Herbert 

Aitken, Robert I. 

Ball, Thoinas 

Barnard, George Grey 

Bartlett, Paul Wayland 

Baxter, Martha Wheeler 

Beach, Chester 

Bitter, Karl Theodore 

Blumenschein, Mary Shepard Green 

Borglum, John Gutzon M. 

Borglum, Solon Hannibal 

Boyle, John J. 

Brenner, Victor David 

Burroughs, Edith Woodman (Mrs. 
Bryson Burroughs) 

Cadwalader-Guild, Emma Marie 

Calder, A. SterUng 

Clarke, Thomas Shields 

Couper, WiUiam 

Crunelle, Leonard 

Dallin, Cyrus Edwin 

Davidson, Jo 

Demming, Edward Willard 

Donoghue, John 

Donoho, Gaines Ruger 

Duveneck, Frank 

Eberle, Abastenia St. Leger 
Elwell, Frank Edwin 
Evans, Sudulph 
Ezekiel, Moses Jacob 
Fairbanks, Avard 
Fraser, James Earle 
French, Daniel Chester 
Fry, Sherry Edmundson 
Grafly, Charles 
Hosmer, Harriet , 
Hyatt, Anna Vaughn 
Kelly, James Edward 
Kemeys, Edward 
Konti, Isidore 
Ladd, Anna Coleman 
Lamb, EUa Condie 
Lauber, Joseph 
Lewis, Edmonia 



Linder, Henry 

Dringman, Evelyn Beatrice 

Lopez, Charles Albert 

Lucas, Albert Pike ^ 

Lukeman, H. Augustus 

Macdonald, James Alexander Wilson 

MaMconnies, Frederick W. 

MacNeil, Carol Brooks' 

MacNeil, Hermon Atkins 

Manship, Paul 

Mears, Helen Farnsworth 

Nadelman, Eli 

Neandross, Sigurd 

Ney, EUzabeth 

Niehaus, Charles Henry 

Partridge, WilUam Ordway 

Pope, Alexander 

Potter, Edward Clark 

Potter, Louis 

Pratt, Bela L. 

Proctor, Alexander P. 

Quinn, Edmond T. 

Reed, Earl H. 

Remington, Frederic 

Rhind, J. Massey 

Rogers, John 

Roth, Frederick G. R. 

Ruckstuhl, Frederick WeMington 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 

Schuler, Hans 

Scudder, Janet 

Shrady, Henry Merwin 

Taft, Lorado 

Tilden, Douglas 

Vedder, Ehhu 

Vonnoh, Bessie Potter 

Walker, Nellie Verne 

Ward, John Q. A. 

Warner, OUn L. 

Weinman, Adolph Alexander 

Wendt, JuUa M. Bracken 

Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt 

Yandell, Enid 

Young, Mahoni 



13 



ILLUSTRATORS. 



Abbey, Edwin Austin 
Ahrens, Ellen W. 
Alexander, John W. 
Bellows, George W. 
Birch, Reginald Bathurst 
Blashfield, Edwin H. 
Blum, Robert F. 
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard 
Borglum, J. Gutzon M. 
Breuer, Henry Joseph 
Chandler, George W. 
Christy, Howard Chandler 
Church, Frederick S. 
Clark, Walter Appleton 
Cory, Fanny Y. 
Cox, Kenyon 
Cox, Louise 

Crowninshield, Frederic 
Daingerfield, Elliott 
Deming, Edward WiUard 
Dewing, Maria Oakey 
Dielman, Frederick 
Dillaye, Blanche 
Eaton, Charles Harry 
Elliott, John 
Emmet, Lydia Field 
Fenn, Harry 
Fisher, Harrison 
Flagg, James Montgomery 
Foumier, Alexis J. 
Fowler, Frank 
Frost, Arthur Burdett 
Gaul, William Gilbert 
Gibson, Charles Dana 
Glackens, William J. 
Green, Elizabeth Shippen 
Guerin, Jules 
Harding, George 
Harrison, L. Birge 
Hitchcock, George 
Hitchcock, Lucius Wolcott 
Hutt, Henry 
Keith, William 
Keller, Arthur I. 
KeUey, James Edward 
Kemble, Edward Windsor 
Kinney, Margaret West 
Kinney, Troy 



Kirk, Maria Louise ' 

Lamb, EUa Condie 

Leigh, William R. 

Leroy, Anita 

Loeb, Louis 

Low, Will H. 

McCarter, Henry ^ 

McLane, M. Jean 

Maynard, George W. 

Millet, Francis Davis 

Mora, F. Luis 

Moran, Thomas 

Nast, Thomas 

Newell, Peter 

NichoUs, Rhoda Holmes 

Oakley, Violet 

Pape, Eric 

Parrish, Maxfield 

Peixotto, Ernest Clifford 

PenneU, Joseph 

Plowman, George Taylor 

Potthast, Edward Henry 

Preston, Mary Wilson 

Pyle, Howard 

Reinhart, Charles Stanley 

Remington, Frederic 

Reuterdahl, Henry 

Robinson, Boardman 
Robinson, Theodore 
Seton, Ernest Thompson 
Sherwood, Rosina Emmet 
Shinn, Everett 
Shinn, Florence Scovel 
Sloan, John 

Smedley, William Thomas 
Smith, F. Hopkinson 
Smjth, Jessie Wilcox 
Steele, Helen McKay 
Stephens, Alice Barber 
Sterner, Albert Edward 
Stilwell, Sarah S. 
Taylor, William Ladd 
Turner, Ross Sterling 
Vedder, Elihu 
Wenzell, Albert Beck 
Wright, M. Louise Wood 
Yohn, Frederick Coffay 



M 



ETOHEKS. 



Aid, George C. 
Bachef, Otto 
Beatty, John W. 
Benson, Frank W. 
Blum, Robert F. 
Brown, George Loring 
Cassatt, Mary 
Chandler, George W. 
Chapman, John Gadsby 
Church, Frederick S. 
Dielman, Frederick 
Dillaye, Blanche 
Duveneck, Frank 
Farrer, Henry 
Fenn, Harry 
Forbes, Edwin 
Gifford, Robert Swain 
Greatorex, Eliza 
Hassam, Childe 
Higgins, Eugene 
Hornby, Lester G. 
Hyde, Helen 
Lauber, Joseph 
Loeb, Louis 

MacLaughUn, Donald Shaw 
Marin, John 
Merritt, Anna Lea 



Mielatz, Charles Frederick WiUiam 

Mitchell, John James 

Monks, John Austin Sands . 

Moran, Mary Nimmo 

Moran, Peter 

Moran, Thomas 

Myers, Jerome 

Nordfeldt, Bror J. Olsson 

Parrish,. Stephen 

Paulus, Francis Petrus 

Pennell, Joseph 

Pitts, LendaU 

Plowman, George Taylor 

Potter, Louis 

Reed, Earl H. 

Roth, Ernest David 

Schneider, Otto J. 

Sloan, John 

SmilUe, James D. 

Sterne, Maurice 

Stevens, Helen B. 

Van Elten, Kruseman 

Washburn, Cadwallader 

Webster, Herman A. 

Weir, Julian Alden 

Whistler, James McNeill 

Woodbury, Charles Herbert 



MINIATURE PAINTERS. 



Ahrens, Ellen Wetherald 
Baer, WiUiam J. 
Baker, Elizabeth Gowdy 
Baker, Martha Susan 
Baxter, Martha Wheeler 
BayUss, Lillian 
Beckington, Alice 
Coudert, Amalia Kussner 
Dix, Eulabee 
Emmet, Lydia Field 
Fuller, Lucia Fairchild 
Hallowell, George H. 
HiUs, Laura Coombs 
Humphreys, Marie Champney 
Inman, Henry 



Josephi, Isaac E. 

Kendall, Margaret Stickney 

Malbone, Edward Greene 

Marsh, Alice Randall 

Otis, Amy 

Peixotto, Ernest Clifford 

Redfield, Heloise Guillou 

SchiUe, Alice 

Sherwood, Rosina Emmet 

Southwick, Elsie Whitmore 

Stanton, Lucy May 

Thayer, Theodora W. 

Welch, Mabel R. 

Whittemore, William John 

Wright, M. Louise Wood 



1^ 



MURAL PAIjSITERS AND STAINED GLASS DESIGNERS. 



Abbey, Edwin Austin 

Alexander, John W. 

Armstrong, D. Maitland 

Ballin, Hugo 

Benson, Frank W. 

Blashfield, Edwin H. 

Blum, Robert F. 

Burd, Clara Miller 

Cowles, Genevieve Almeda and Maud 

Alice 
Cox, Kenyon 
Crownioshield, Frederic 
Daingerfield, Elliot 
De Camp, Joseph Rodefer 
Deming, Edwin Willard 
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer 
Diehnan, Frederick 
Dixon, Maynard 
Dodge, W. DeLeftwich 
Duveneck, Frank 
Elliott, John 
Frieseke, Frederic Carl 
Grover, Oliver Dennett 
Guerin, Jules 
Gutherz, Carl 
Heinigke, Otto 
Herter, Albert 
Hunt, William Morris 
LaFarge, John 
Lamb, Charles RoUison 
Lamb, Ella Condie 
Lamb, Frederick Stymatz 
Lathrop, Francis 
Lauber, Joseph 



Low, Will H. 
MacEwen, Walter 
Marsh, Fred Dana 
Maynard, George W. 
Melchers, J. Gari 
Millet, Francis Davis 
Mora, F. Luis 
Mowbray, Henry Siddons 
Oakley, Violet 
Parrish, Maxfield 
Pearce, Charles Sprague 
Peixotto, Ernest Clifford 
Potthast, Edward H. 
Pyle, Howard 
Reid, Robert 
Sargent, John Singer 
Sears, Taber 
Sewell, Robert V. V. 
Shinn, Everett 
Shirlaw, Walter 
Simmons, Edward E. 
Sperry, Edward Peck 
Steele, Helen McKay 
Thayer, Abbott H. 
TiSany, Louis Comfort 
Tillinghast, Mary E. 
Turner, Charles Yardley 
Van Ingen, William B. 
Vedder, Elihu 
Walker, Henry O. 
Weir, J. Alden 
Whistler, James McNeill 
Wiles, Irving Ramsey 
Willet, William 



16 
AMERICAN ARTISTS 

OP THE 

LEGION OF HONOR. 

(The Legion of Honor of France is the most vital and democratic 
order in the world. It is an order of merit and has a genuinely inter- 
national significance. 

In the Paris salon the insignia of the order— the "red ribbon"— is the 
highest award given to exhibitors. 

The following American painters and sculptors have received this 

coveted prize.) 

Abbey, Edwin Austin MacCameron, Robert Lee 

Alexander, John White MacEwen, Walter 

Armstrong, D. Maitland MacMonnies, Frederick William 

Bartlett, Paul Wayland Melchers, J. Gari 

Bierstadt, Albert MiUet, Francis Dalvis 

Bisbing, H. Singlewood Hosier, Henry 

Bridgman, Frederic Arthur Pearce, Charles Sprague 

Cassatt, Mary Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 

Dannat, William T. Sargent, John Singer 

Gay, Walter Stewart, JuUus L. 

Harrison, T. Alexander Tiffany, Louis Comfort 

Howe, William Henry Vail, Eugene 

Johnston, John Humphreys Wentworth, Cecile de 

Knight, Daniel Ridgway Whistler, James McNeill 
LaFarge, John 



AMERICAN ART IN THE LUXEMBOURG. 

M. Benedit6, curator of the Luxembourg Museum, Paris, is quoted 
by the correspondent to the New York Sun as stating that the foreign 
schools of art in the Luxembourg are represented as follows: 

American 35 

Belgian 29 

British 30 

Dutch 8 

German and Austrian 11 

Italian 30 

Russian 4 

Scandinavian 17 

Spanish and Portuguese 10 

Swiss 6 

Turkish 2 

It will be noted that the American works purchased by the French 
Government outnumber those of any other country. 



17 



MICHIGAN AKTISTS. 

Barlow, Myron Ionia, 1873 

Church, Frederick Stuart Grand Rapids, 1842 

Couse, E. Irving Saginaw, 1866 

Dabo, Leon Detroit, 1868 

Dabo, T. Scott Detroit, 1870 

Foote, William Howe Grand Rapids, 1874 

Frieseke, Frederic Carl . '. ■ Owosso, 1874 

Gies, Joseph W. Detroit, 

Horton, William Samuel Grand Rapids, 1865 

Houston, Frances C. Lyons Hudson, 1867-1906 

Ives, Percy Detroit, 1864 

Marsh, AUce Randalls Coldwater, .... 

Melchers, J. Gari : Detroit, 1860 

Newell, George Glen Berrien County, 1870 

Parker, Lawton S Fairfield, 1868 

Paulus, Francis P Detroit, 1862 

Perrault, I. Marie Detroit, 

Pitts, Lendall Detroit, 1875 

Rolshoven, Julius Detroit, 1858 

Smith, Letta Crapo FUnt, 1862 

Wenzell, Albert B Detroit, 1864 

White, Thomas Gilbert Grand Rapids, 

3 



18 



ABBEEVIATIONS. 

P. — painter; S. — sculptor; I.— illustrator ; E. — etcher; Min. P. — Minia- 
ture painter. 

Am. M. — ^American magazine 

Am. M. of Art — ^American Magazine of Art (continuation of Art and 

progress) . 
Arch rec — ^Architectual record 
Art & P. — Art and progress 
Arts & D. — ^Arts and decoration 
Bookm — Bookman 
Brush & P. — Brush and pencil 
Canad M. — Canadian magazine 
Cent — Century 
Ohaut — Chatauquan 
Cosmopol — Cosmopolitan 
Cur lit — Current literature 
Delin — Delineator 
Good H — Good housekeeping 
Harper — Harper's monthly magazine 
Ind — Independent 
Int studio — International studio 
Lit digest — Literary digest 
Mo illus — Monthly illustrator 
New Eng M^ — New England magazine 
New repub. — ^New republic 
19th Cent — Nineteenth Century 
No Am — North American review 
Outl— Outlook 
Pub opin — Public opinion 
Quar illus — Quarterly illustrator 
R. of Es. — Review of reviews 
Scrib M. — Scribner's magazine 
W. work — ^World's work 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 




Copyright by J. E. Purdy, Boston. 

EDWIN AUSTIN ABBEY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Abbey^ Edwin Austin, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., April 
1, 1852; d. London, England, August 1, 1911. At the age of four he 
produced pen sketches worthy of more than passing attention and when 
not more than fourteen, Harper accepted some of his pen illustrations. 
He studied a year in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and 
in 1871, went to New York, where he joined Harper's art staff. In 1878 
he was sent by that publishing house to England to gather material to 
illustrate Herrick's poems. His first painting in oil, "May day morn,'' 
was exliibited at the Royal Academy, London, in 1890 and "Piametta's 
song" in 1894. He was unexcelled by any living artist in rendering 
mediaeval subjects. His notable paintings in this line are "Richard III 
and Lady Anne," "Hamlet," "Trial of Queen Katherine," "The penance 
of Eleanor," "Daughters of King Lear," "Crusaders sighting Jerusalem," 
"Columbus in the new world." 

His series of decorations in the Boston Public Library embodying 
the -story of the "Holy Grail" is the most popular wall-painting in 
America. 

In 1909 he was commissioned tO paint the coronation scene of King 
Edward VII. This painting now hangs in Windsor Castle. He declined 
the invitation to paint the official picture of King George's coronation. 

Mr. Abbey was honored by membership in the leading art societies of 
Europe and America and received decorations from several European 
governments in recognition of his artistic ability. He had a marvelous 
technique, was an illustrator of the greatest power and originality and 
has been mentioned as one of the four greatest draughtsmen of the 19th 
century. 

Of his brushwork, Henry Strachey says: "He knows how to wield the 
magic of the brush so that his painting apart from its color or form is 
eloquent." 

At the time of his death he was engaged upon the commission from 
the state of Pennsylvania for decorative panels in the state capitol at 
Harrisburg; less than half of the work had been accomplished. 

Royal Cortissoz, the art critic, says: "He was very gay and likeable, 
you felt in him honesty and force and you could see just how his sterling 
nature poured itself into his work. In it he sought the truth, he wanted 



22 

to make it live; with all his strength and with all his conscience he 
strove for a reality that would touch men, make them think and feel. 
He achieved this aim and made his best monument in the decorations 
at Harrisburg." 

In the Craftsman, Louis A. Holman, closes an article on the late Mr. 
Abbey and his work as follows : "I feel confident Abbey will hold his 
place as one of America's foremost colorists, as one of her rarest 
draughtsmen, as the most poetic painter of mediaeval subjects in his 
time and as the greatest illustrator that America has yet produced." 

Adams, Herbert, (S.) b. West Concord, Vt., January 28, 1858. He 
studied sculpture five years under Mercie, Paris. On his return to the 
United States in 1890, he engaged as art instructor in the Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., where for eight years he criticised the modeling. Mr. 
Adams is a member of the Society of American Artists; associate mem- 
ber National Academy of Design, 1898; full member, 1899. 

Hartmann says: "The best bust ever made in America is, in my 
opinion, Herbert Adams' bust of his wife." 

Taft in his "History of American sculpture," says: "In Mr. Herbert 
Adams, the whole fraternity recognizes a master almost unequaled in a 
certain form of sculpture as rare as it is exquisite — the creation of 

beautiful busts of women There is nothing so distinctive in his 

figures of men." 

Mr. Adams' experiments in coloring his busts are exceedingly inter- 
esting. He has shown a beautiful color bust of "St. Agnes," a "Portrait 
of a young lady" in tinted marble in bronze decorations, and the "Rabbi's 
daughter" in pink marble, with dress and ample" wide spread sleeves in 
wood with gold decorations. "It is in his choice and treatment of these 
heads that Mr. Adams reveals his true personality." (Lorado Taft.) 

In his love of details he is closely akin to M. Dampt and M. Rivifere- 
Th^odore, the French sculptors. 

His latest work is a group which surmounts the fountain in McMillan 
Park, Washington, D. C, erected by citizens of Michigan in honor of the 
late James McMillan, U. S. Senator from Michigan. 

Ahrbns, Ellen Wetherald, (Min. P., I.) b. Baltimore, Md., June 6, 
1859. Pupil Boston Museum of Fine Arts under Grundemann ; Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts under EakinS; Drexel Institute under 
Pyle. 

Received second Toppan prize School of Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, 1884, and other prizes for oil painting and miniatures. 



23 

Aid, George Charles (E., P.) b. Quincy, 111. A pupil of Laurens and 
Benjamin-Constant in Paris. 

Mr. Aid won quite an enviable reputation for painting while in Paris, 
being a follower of Richard Miller, and like Frieseke revived Frago- 
nard's subjects — women in interiors. 

Taking up etching and choosing architectural subjects, he was first 
attracted to Holland, then to the cathedral towns of France; later fell 
under the spell of Italy. 

He etches "with a grace and spirit that Whistler would have enjoyed 

He is an excellent observer and does not disdain accuracy." 

(Arts& D. 4:446.) 

AiTKBN, Robert I., (S.) b. San Francisco, California, May 8, 1878. 
Pupil of Mark Hopkins Institute, San Francisco. Won the Barnett 
prize of the National Academy of Design, JL908. He is a member of the 
National Sculpture Society and recently has been elected a member of 
the National Academy. 

Mr. Aitken began his art work by painting. After studying sculpture 
for six months under a French master, he decided to work alone. Later 
he went to Paris. His monuments to the navy and to President Mc- 
Kinley are among the finest works of art in San Francisco. He has com- 
pleted a statute of the late Frederic Remington to be placed at the new 
station of the Boston, Westchester & N. Y. E. R., which runs through 
the Remington property at New Rochelle, N. Y. (American Club Woman, 
Nov., 1912.) 

His busts are said to possess evidence of perception of character and 
of subtle discernment. Those most characteristic are, 

George Bellows; 

Willard Metcalf ; 

Prof. Nathaniel Shaler ; 

Henry Arthur Jones, playwright; 

John W. Gates, financier. 

"That he possesses those subtle qualities distinguishing the genuine 
portraitist becomes more and more apparent from close study of his 
busts." (Overl 60:108.) 

Mr. Aitkin's latest and most ambitious undertaking is for the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. For the Court of Honor he has evolved four heroic 
figures typifying the elements — Fire, Air, Water, Earth. His Court of 
the Universe is of elaborate and complicated symbolism. "He has in- 
jected much personal charm, shown the grandeur of life, along with the 
physical perfection of man and womanhood in their alluring quality of 
youth, and the figures pulsate with life." (Int. studio 54:xv.) 




JOHN WHITE ALEXANDER. 



25 

Alexander, John White, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Allegheny, Pa., October 
7, 1856, d. New York, May 31, 1915. A pupil of Prof . Benczur of the Eoyal 
Academy, Munich, and of Frank Duveneck in Munich, Venice and Flor- 
ence. He was awarded many medals and won much distinction at home 
and abroad ; was elected chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 1901 ; a mem- 
ber of Soci(§t6 Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, Munich Secessionists, 
International Society of Artists, London, and Vienna Society of Paint- 
ers; president of the National Society of Mural Painters; asso- 
ciate member of National Academy of Design, 1901; full member, 1902, 
and later president. 

Mr. Alexander was a painter of portraits, of mural decorations and 
of many figure pictures with a distinct decorative purpose. His "Woman 
in gray" hangs in the Luxembourg; "The green bow" and "The picnic" 
have also been purchased by the French government. His "Pot of basil" 
reveals his talent for ideal figure subjects. Of his "Sunlight" which was 
awarded first-class medal at the 1911 spring exhibition of the Carnegie 
Institute, it was said: "For grace of lines, relative beauty of color and 
tone, and illusion of light — sheer necromancy of the painter — this work 
is without a peer in the exhibition." 

Other characteristic pictures are: 

"The mirror" "A butterfly" 

"Woman in pink" "A rose" 

"Flowers" "Pandora" 

"The piano" "Quiet hour" 

"A summer day" "In the cafe" 

"A ray of sunlight" "A little mother" 

"Peonies" "Study in black and white" 

"The blue bowl'" "The ring" 

"Memories" "Autumn" 

"Tenth muse" "A meadow flower" 

"A toiler" "The gossip" 

His artistic instinct was decorative, but his portraits of Mrs. Alexan- 
der, Auguste Rodin, Walt Whitman, Prof. Chandler of Columbia, Mrs. 
Wheaton and others, show he could also master character. 

Armand Dayot, the French critic, says: "From simply caressing the 
canvass, his brush has become penetrating and the pictures he now shows 
us possess — and this we consider the highest praise that can be bestowed 
upon his talent — not only the charm of life but also an intensity of 
thought." 

"He sees, as did Constable, only the beautiful, and the beautiful life 
is normal." 



26 

His mural paintings, "Apotheosis of Pittsburg" in the Carnegie Insti- 
tute, and "The evolution of the book" in the Library of Congress (both 
represent the glorification of labor) are among the noteworthy achieve- 
ments of this branch of art in America. 

His combination of piquancy of form and piquancy of color is known 
as the "Alexander liquid style." "This liquidity is simply music ex- 
pressed in terms of painting." With Mr. Alexander the real subject is 
a pictorial harmony based on the human form. (Outl. 95:171.) 

"The distinguishing traits of Mr. John W. Alexander as a painter of 
portraits are quality of line, candor of impression and novelty of tone." 
(Harrison S. Morris,-^ Scrib. 25:340.) 

Allston, Washington, (P.) b. Waccamaw, S. C, November 5, 1779; d. 
Cambridge, Mass., July 9, 1843. At six years of age his favorite amuse- 
ment was making little landscapes about the roots of an old tree near 
his home. In 1800 he graduated from Harvard and in company with Ed- 
ward Green Malbone soon after went to London where through the assist- 
ance of Benjamin West, who was then president of the Royal Academy, 
he studied at that school. In 1804 he visited Paris and spent four years 
in Rome where he obtained the name of the "American Titian." 

His first work of importance, "The dead man revived" gained a prize 
of 200 guineas from the British Institute and was purchased by the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. This was followed by "St. 
Peter liberated by the angel," "Uriel and the sun" "Jacob's dream" 
and several smaller pictures which are in private galleries in England. 

In 1818 he opened a studio in Boston and spent the remainder of his 
life in his native country. The most choice of his works were done after 
he returned to the United States, and are now in Boston. His wonder- 
ful wealth of color was his great distinction. 

AUston's reputation as a poet and novelist was second only to that he 
enjoyed as a painter. 

Anschutz, Thomas Pollock, (P.) b. Newport, Ky., October 5, 1851; d. 
Fort Washington, Pa., June 16, 1912. He studied art at the National 
Academy of Design, New York, and at the Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia ; also with Doucet and Bouguereau in Paris ; was 
a member of the faculty of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, and had served the institution for an uninterrupted period of 
thirty-two years. He received medals and prizes for his canvases shown 
in competitive exhibitions and was the painter of the popular Sketch 
Club portraits which form the artistic frieze of the club rooms in Phila- 
delphia. 



27 

Mr. Anschutz painted in pastels, water color and oils but devoted his 
time mainly to teaching. As a teacher his popularity was almost with- 
out precedent. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts owns two 
of his finest works : "The Tanagra" and "Becky Sharp." 

Aemstkong, D. Maitland^ (P., Stained glass designer,) b. Newburg, N. 
Y., June 12, 1836. He graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., 
1858; practiced law a few years; studied art in Paris and Rome; was 
United States consul to Italy; director American Art Department, Paris 
Exposition, 1878 ; member of the Society of American Artists, 1879 ; also 
Architectural League. Associate member National Academy, 1906; 
also a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France. 

Mr. Armstrong is now a professional decorative artist, specializing in 
stained glass work. The round dome of opal and amber glass, also the 
side windows of the court room in the New York appellate court building 
are his work, and rank with the best in this line of art produced in 
America. 

Bacher, Otto, (E.) b. Cleveland, O., March 31, 1856; d. Lawrence 
Park Bronxville, N. Y., August 16, 1909. Began his career as an art 
student in 1874. In September 1874, he went abroad and spent some 
time at Munich, from there he went to Venice with Mr. Duveneck and 
his band of pupils. His first experiments in etching were made in 1876, 
and were not successful. He established himself in Europe and again 
took up the work in 1879, this time with success. 

Member of Society of Painter-Etchers, London; associate member of 
National Academy of Design, 1906. 

His first etchings were mostly of picturesque German villages and 
bits; but later works portray the beauties of "Venice. 

He has produced a large plate of Milan cathedral; one of the interior 
of Saint Marks and another of the Grand canal, Venice. 

Mr. Bacher was one of our ablest etchers. Sir Seymour Haden said 
that his series of Venetian etchings evinced a strong artistic feeling and 
was characterized by "bold and painter-like treatment." , The London 
Times speaks of him as "a most formidable rival of Whistler." 

Knauflft says "Celebrated as an etcher, draws landscape in pen and ink 
that nearly equals his etching, and he is unsurpassed in pen renderings 
of still life." 

"Unlike Mr. Duveneck, he dwells more upon the human than upon the 
architectural elements in the Venetian panorama. His most character- 
istic plates show work people of the sea-city at their labors, show lace- 
makers and bead stringers and washerwomen, either in some dim interior 



28 

or in some sunny courtyard, or under some shadowy archway by the 
water." 

Babr^ William J. (Min. P.) b. Cincinnati, O., January 29, 1860. Pupil 
of Loeflftz in Munich Royal Academy. The history of miniature-painting 
of the present generation in this country began with the work done in 
this field by Miss Laura 0. Hills and Mr. William J. Baer, both of whom 
were inspired by a love of small things, and admiration for the paintings 
of the old masters which is more or less reflected in their work. There 
was a revival of a demand for portraits on ivory and in 1899 the Ameri- 
can Society of Miniature Painters, was founded. 

In Mr. Baer's ''Primavera" he combines many of the best qualities of 
a good oil painting with a luminosity and brilliancy of texture only to 
be achieved on ivory. This and such productions as his "Golden hours" 
will no doubt in time rank with the best work of Malbone, while his only 
rivals in portraiture today are Josephi, Miss Beckington and the late 
Theodora W. Thayer. (Int. studio 33 :c.) 

"In his ideal pictures, such as "A girl with a rabbit" he accomplishes 
much of his best work. (Critic 47:522.) 

His flesh tints are exquisite. 

He has chosen to erect a very high standard in miniature painting. 

At a recent exhibition of the American Society of Miniature Painters, 
"Mr. Baer showed one large ivory — a" full-length female figure, entitled 
"Egeria" painted in richer, heavier colors than is his custom, also four 
small portraits done in his usual masterly style. The likeness of Mrs. 
William Arrindell Shearson in lavender and white lace revealed his skill 
in exquisite finish and delicacy of touch." (Int. studio 43:sup. xxi.) 

Bakee, Elizabeth Gowdy^ (P., Min. P.) b. Xenia, O., 1860. A pupil 
of the' Cooper Union, Art Student's League of New York, New York 
School of Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Cowles Art 
School, Boston; under Frederick Freer, William M. Chase and H. Sid- 
dons Mowbray. 

Received medal at Cooper Union ; is a member of the Boston Art Stu- 
dents' Association and Art Workers Club for Women, New York. 

Mrs. Baker's specialty is portraits in water-color. She is especially 
successful with pictures of children. 

In her work she uses a heavy imported paper and claims that her 
method enables her to get the strength of oil with the daintiness of 
water-colors. 

Mrs. Baker rarely exhibits and her portraits are in private homes. 



29 

Bakee, Ellen Kendall, (Mrs. Harry Thompson), (P.) b. Fairfield, 
N. Y., d. December 4, 1913 at her home. The Croft, Ohalfant, St. Giles, 
England at the age of 74 years. Studied in Paris under Charles Miiller, 
Paul Soyer, and Harry Thompson, an English artist, whom she married 
in 1896. 

Mrs. Thompson has exhibited in the Paris salons since 1879, also at 
Munich, St. Petersburg, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and Detroit, 
and is represented in Buffalo, Detroit and Minneapolis. 

A characteristic painting "The young artist," was exhibited in the 
Paris salon of 1885, and is now owned by the Detroit Museum of Art. 

Baker, Martha Susan, (Min. P.) b. Evansville, Ind., December 25, 
1871 ; d. Chicago, 111., December 21, 1911. A pupil of the Chicago Art 
Institute, she won the Municipal Art League Purchase prize, 1895 ; first 
prize , for miniature in the Arch6 salon Chicago, 1897 ; bronze medal 
for miniature painting at St. Louis Exposition 1904; silver medal Art 
Institute, Chicago, 1905, and received honorable mention for oil paint- 
ing at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1904. A well-known writer 
in a review of her work, says: "Her subsequent progress has been as 
steady and brilliant as it has been well-deserved." She was instructor 
both in the Art Institute and at the Academy of Fine Arts and one of 
the four Chicago artists represented at the Paris Exposition in 1900. 

At the 12th annual exhibition of the American Society of Miniature 
Painters, she exhibited a large composition entitled "Springtime" — a 
nude child playing with chrysanthemums on the floor. Two small heads 
were also exhibited— "Master Gifford Ewing" and "Miss Marion Tooker" 
painted against pure ivory background. Although less ambitious, these 
miniatures were more representative of Miss Baker's gift for strong 
penetration of character and showed her individual technique. 

She has also done some mural work — decorations in the hall of the 
Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

A gem in water-colors is her" "Lake front — Chicago." 

"Her style is characterized by an almost masculine force and direct- 
ness, a naive obedience to truth and a delightful simplicity. Her knowl- 
edge of form is ably expressed in her unerring draughtmanship." (Int. 
studio 21 :85) 

Ball, Thomas, (S.) b.. Charleston, Mass., June 3, 1819; d. December 11, 
1911. His first studies were devoted to portrait painting and his most 
celebrated painting is a full length portrait of Daniel Webster. He also 
painted several scripture subjects which were highly praised for fine 
coloring. 




MYRON BARIiOW: 



31 

Among his first works in sculpture was a small bust of Jenny Lind. 
After studying in Europe he returned to America and made busts of 
Rufus Choate, statuettes of Webster and Clay and the equestrain statue 
of Washington for Boston. Mr. Ball returned to Florence, Italy, in 1865 
where he resided until 1897. His works considered his best are the colos- 
sal Webster in Central Park, New York, Edwin Forrest as "Coriolanus" 
in Philadelphia, Governor John A. Andrews of Massachusetts in Boston 
and the group "Emancipation" in Washington, D. C. 

As a musician, Mr. Ball ranked high and for years was known as a 
famous baritone singer. During his early struggles in art he supported 
himself entirely by his musical talents. 

Ballin, Hugo, (Mural P.) b. New York City, 1879. His father was a 
manufacturer but his grandfather had been a court artist and very 
early he was encouraged to take up painting. After studying at the 
Art Students' League of New York, he went abroad to continue his art 
studies in Italy. While there he was privileged to travel with Robert 
Blum and to study with him the mural decorations in Lombardy and 
Umbria. Since his return to the United States he has won many medals 
and prizes. He is a member of the Society of American Artists and an 
associate member National Academy of Design, 1906. His works have 
been reproduced in the Critic, Century and International studio. 

In writing of his art, H. St. G. (Critic 47:497) says: "Though in 
theory Ballin lays greater stress on color and composition than on draw- 
ing in decorative work, yet for the most part in practice" he applies his 

skill as a draftsman to aid in conveying his museful conceptions 

His drawing discloses in place of assertion an elusiveness and insinua- 
tion of contour. The fluency of his lines and the masses of his broad and 
simple drapery never become angular or extravagant or pale." 

Barlow, Myron, (P.) b. Ionia, Michigan, 1873. A pupil of the Art 
Institute, Chicago ; G6rome and Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. He re- 
ceived his first medal in 1894 when he exhibited at the Academic Cola- 
rossi; and when elected a member of the Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux 
Arts in 1907 he was the only American to receive the honor at that 
time. He is a member of the Paris American Artists Association. 

One of his salon pictures, "The fisherman's pride" has brought Mr. 
Barlow much favorable comsoent. 

Lena M. McCauley in writing of the twenty-third exhibition of the 
Chicago Art Institute (Art and Progress 2:49), says: "The blue-toned 
interiors with figures — "Fatigue," "A chat," and "Embarrassing ques- 
tion," — by Myron Barlow, have been displayed with discriminating tact 



32 

which permitted none of their delicacy to be lost. They are novelties in 
color but so harmonious and individual that they are a pleasure to look 
upon." 

E. A. Taylor in writing of American artists in Paris says of Mr. Bar- 
low's art: "To simplify an understanding of his art, I might say he 

paints the luxury of the poor Mr. Barlow designs his work ; 

he is not a slave to nature ready-made; his work is always decorative, 
not decorated, and his color, broad and simple; though bright at times, 
it is never disturbing by a lack of harmony." 

"He claims to be one of the first in the art world to point blue pic- 
tures. These are high in key, and his figures are generally placed 
against a very light or white background. Vermeer is the old master 
whose work he constantly studies." (Int. studio 54:xxviii.) 

For several years Mr. Barlow lived at Etaples, Prance, where he 
found his favorite subjects — the French peasants. He has recently re: 
turned to the United States. 

Barnard, George Grey, (S.) b. Bellefonte, Pa., May 24, 1863. As a 
youth he developed a taste for natural history; became familiar with 
birds and their habits and, self-taught, attained skill as a taxidermist. 
Apprenticed to a local Jeweler, he became a skilled letterer and en- 
graver. At the age of sixteen he went to Chicago and entered the Art 
Institute. With $350 which he was paid for a portrait bust, he went 
to Paris and studied in the Atelier Cavelier. After three years he took 
up a studio at Vaugirard, near the port of Versailles, where in 1885 
he finished the' "Boy" in marble and in 1887 began the "Brotherly love" 
for a Norwegian monument. He began the group called "Two natures" 
(suggested by a line from one of Victor Hugo's poems) in 1890, and put 
it into marble in 1894. That year his work was exhibited in the salon 
of the Champs de Mars and he was iminediately elected an associate of 
of the Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux Arts. 

The Figaro said: "Mr. Barnard is possessed of very great qualities, 
the first of which is the freshness of eternal youth." 

M. Thiebault-Sisson, art critic of the Temps, said: "We have a new- 
comer, George Grey Barnard, who possesses all the qualities of a great 
master." 

Mr. Barnard returned to the United States in 1896 and made a public 
display of his works in the Logerot Gardens, New York. His "Pan" 
surmounts the fountain at Columbia University, New York, and has 
been pronounced "one of the strongest and most original things yet done 
in sculpture." "The hewer" shows not only sculptural "bigness" but 
"reveals an unusual emphasis in the matter of straight lines and planes, 
which gives it remarkable carrying power." The "Eose maiden," a 



33 

memorial figure, is a work in which a new and tender element has en- 
tered. "The figure is a poem of sweetness and mystery, and grows frag- 
rant with the dew of spring." 

William A. Coffin says: "He is an analyst in thought, and a syntheist 
in execution. His work shows decided psychological bent. He appar- 
ently cares more for force and vitality than for so-called beauty 

The splendid vigor and pure artistic power of his work entitle it to be 
received with enthusiasm." 

A late triumph is his work — two groups composed of more than 
thirty heroic figures— for the facade of the Tennsylvania capitol. 

On Fort Washington Heights — One hundred and .eighty-ninth street, 
New York, is located "The cloisters," the first Gothic museum in the 
United States— the latest personal achievement of George Grey Barnard. 

The story of the assembling of this collection is an interesting one. 
Mr. Barnard says that he has long been ambitious to reconstruct the 
outlines of a great epoch in art and gain for himself, and others, a nev/ 
inspiration from the labors of the sculptors who lived and wrought in 
mediaeval times. While studying in France he took long tramps through 
the peasant districts and there discovered and personally excavated 
these relics of the 12th and 13th centuries. During the French Revolu- 
tion, abbeys, chapels, churches and cathedrals were stripped of their 
treasures and practical use made of them ; columns, statues and memo- 
rials were used to support and strengthen walls, wine vats and farm 
outhou'ses of the peasantry. Mr. Barnard's account of how he gained 
possession of some of these rare relics is most interesting. 

In writing of the interior, of "The cloisters," Elbert F. Baldwin says : 
"Within is one. of the most remarkable collections of sculpture ever 
exhibited in this country. Indeed, outside of the Louvre and Cluny 
museums it may be the finest of any collection of French Gothic statues, 
bas-reliefs, capitals and alter carvings." (Outl. 109:199.) 

Baetlett, Paul Wayland, (S.) b. New Haven, Conn., 1865. As a 
boy modeling in the garden of his home at Marly, France, he attracted 
the attention of the famous sculptor Frfemiet who gave him instructions 
in his class in animal sculpture and drawing in the Jardin des Plantes 
in Paris. At the age of fourteen he exhibited in the salon a bust of his 
grandmother, and a year later he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; at 
twenty-two his group "The Bohemian bear tamer" was shown in the 
salon. He did some remarkable things in bronze casting, and a collec- 
tion of his bronzes was exhibited in the salon of 1895 and won for him 
honors. Later achievements occupy places of honor in the United States. 
In the reading room of the Library of Congress are three well-known 



34 

statues by him— "Law," "Columbus" and "Michael Angelo." Of the last 
mentioned, the editor of "The artist," says: "One of the noblest modern 

statues in America is undoubtedly that of Michael Angelo by 

Paul Wayland Bartlett, in the Library of Congress." 

His "Dying lion" is a work of appealing strength and beauty. His 
statue of General Warren, the early martyr of the revolution, is at 
Roxbury. The "Death of Warren" in low relief on the pedestal, has 
been called "a funeral march in bronze." His equestrian statue -of La- 
fayette, which the school children of the United States presented to 
France, stands in the court of the Tuileries, "the most coveted site in 
Paris." 

Carries, the French potior sculptor, says of him : "He reminds me of 
those artesans of the renaissance who had nothing but art in view and 
mind." (New Eng. M. 33:360.) 

"Mr. Bartlett is primarily a sculptor of the specific. What he most 
delights in is the presentation of actual characters of history or of 
definite emotions." (Craftsman 10:437.) 

The French have showered upon this American sculptor nearly every 
honor in their gift; he was elected chevalier of the Legion of Honor at 
the age of thirty, since which time his works have been hors concours in 
the Paris salons. Elected an associate member National Academy of 
Design, 1916. 

Mr. Bartlett was selected from a list of sculptors submitted by the 
National Sculpture Society to design the group of figures to be placed 
in the pediment of the House wing of "the Capitol at Washington, D. 
C. The work, nov/ nearing completion, has consumed seven years of 
timi The subject is the "Apotheosis of Democracy." "Peace" is the 
central figure protecting "Genius." Figures in one half of the pediment 
represent agricultural and pastoral occuijation; in the other, various 
forms of industry — printing, ironworking, textile manufacturing. The 
ciuls symbolize the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

"The entire composition is remarkable for its variety and interest. 
The figures are grouped in masses of light and shadow, avoiding the 

monotony of the usual pediment groups Mr. Bartlett has shown 

in his work how sculpture can become modern without ceasing to be 
monumental." (Arch. rec. 39:265.) 

Baxter, Martha Wheeler, (Min. P., S.) b. Vermont, 1869. A pupil 
of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Art Students' 
League of New York under Mowbray, Cox, Beckwith and F. V. DuMond. 
Studied miniature painting under Mme. de Billemont-Chardon and Mile. 
Schmitt in Paris and Mme. Behenna in London. 



35 

Beceived honorable mention at the Paris Exhibitiott of 1900. Is a 
teacher. 

Batliss, Lillian^ (Min. P.) Has received recognition as a miniature 
painter. Her ivory work of Madame Gabrielli displays a distinct power 

of characterization As a whole she produces results peculiar 

for a refinement, a simplicity of tone and surface and a dignity of the 
use of Color. (Critic 47:527.) 

Beach, Chester (S.) b. San Francisco, Gal.', 1881. Pupil of Verlet 
and Roland in Paris. Received Barnett prize National Academy of De- 
sign, 1909. Associate member National Academy, 1908; also member 
Paris American Artists Association and National Sculpture Society. 

Of his small bronzes, a critic writes : "His expression is symbolic to a 
considerable degree and is the outcome of a serious and thoughtful mind. 
His statuettes suggest beautiful pictures that direct themselves princi- 
pally to the ima^nation and by their gentle and graceful motion re- 
mind one of passages of music beautifully phrased and perfect in 
rhythm." (Arts & D. 2:106.) "Of the more purely imaginative sculp- 
ture, the largest and in some respects the most ambitious work in this 
exhibition (110th P. A. F. A.) was Chester Beach's "Unfolding of Life" 
— figures in white marble of about half life-size" (Scrib. M. 55:666.) 

Beattt, John W., (E.) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., July 8, 1851. Director of 
Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh since 1896. Student of Munich 
Academy of Fine Arts. He was a member of the jury on painting for 
Pennsylvania and New York at Columbian Exposition, 1893, member 
National advisory board Paris Exposition, 1900, fine arts committee 
Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, and National advisory commit- 
tee St. Louis Exposition, 1904. 

Executed the etching "Return to labor." His two well-known land- 
scapes are "Plymouth hills" and "Chiltonville." Author: "An apprecia- 
tion of Augustus Saint-Gaudens." 

Beaux, Cecilla (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1863, and is of French de- 
scent. Mrs. Thomas A. Janvier gave her her first lessons in drawing; 
she was also a pupil of William Sartain and won general recognition as 
an able portrait painter. The first of her works to bring her fame was 
"Last days of infancy," which was exhibited at the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy in 1885, and won the prize for the best painting by a resident 
woman artist; she also won the same prize in 1887, 1891, 1892. Miss 
Beaux spent the winter of 1889-90 in Paris studying in the life classes 
of the Acad6mie Julien under Bouguereau, Robert-Fleury and Benjamin- 



36 

Constant; also at Colarossi's where her drawings were criticised by 
Courtois and Dagnan-Bouveret. Spending the summer at Goncarneau, 
she was aided by suggestions from Alexander Harrison and Charles 
Lasar. After a visit to Italy and England she returned to Philadelphia. 
In 1893 she won the gold medal of the Philadelphia Art Club for the 
portrait of Dr. Grier; also the Dodge prize of the National Academy 
of Design for her portrait of Mrs. Stetson. Miss Beaux was the seventh 
woman to whom the honor of an election to membership in the Society 
of American Artists was. awarded. In 1894 she was elected associate of 
the National Academy of Design, being the third woman to gain admis- 
sion; elected full member in 1902. She is recognized here and abroad 
as the most distinguished of living women painters. 

To the salon of the Champs de Mars, Paris, 1896, she sent six paint- 
ings. These were hung in a group, an unusual distinction and brought 
to her an election as an associate of the Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux 
Arts. (Nat. Cy. Am. Biog.) 

Her figures are usually represented in repose or at least in arrested 
action, but "Dorothea and Francesca" shows her power, in rendering 
motion with -equal success. Her portrait of Mrs. Koosevelt is one of her 
happiest creations. "The dreamer," "New England woman," "Sita and 
Sarita," "The Cynthia," "Ernesta and her little brother," are all por- 
traits. Miss Beaux's portraits are never composite; they are not in any 
sense types. Her individuality is developed in two characteristics: 
brilliancy and refinement. (Int. studio 41:337.) 

Her "Banner bearer" is referred to as "a work of compelling strength 
and convincing simplicity — a work utterly without mannerism." 

Giles Edgerton says : "It is not once in a generation that a woman so 
subverts her essentially characteristic outlook on life to her work that 
her art impulse becomes universal as that of the greatest men often is. 
One feels that Cecilia Beaux has done this in her portrait work, as 
George Eliot did in her stories." 

Beckington, Alice, (Min. P.) b. St. Charles, Mo., July 30, 1868. A 
pupil of Art Students' League, New York ; Lefebvre, Benjamin-Constant 
and Lazar, Paris. 

She received honorable mention Pan-American Ex. Buffalo, 1901; 
bronze medal St. Louis Ex. 1904; is a member of N. Y. Woman's Art 
Club, also American Society Miniature Painters. Instructor, at Art 
Students' League, New York. 

Miss Beckington's work reveals a feeling for the impressionistic and a 
charming application of it. The portrait of Mrs. Buford is the best 
(example of her work. 



37 

■ "She treats her sitters with a clear directness and absence of non- 
sense, selecting and refining her essentials with sanity and taste 

Her portraits increase steadily in naturalness an an unwavering yet 
delicate definition of facial character. (Critic. 47:525.) 

Beckwith^ James Carroll^ (P.) b. Hannibal, Mo., September 23, 
1852. Studied painting in Chicago where his father was a merchant. 
Began his art studies in 1868 under Walter Shirlaw and in 1873 entered 
the studio of Carolus-Duran, subsequently studying at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. Eetumed to the United States in 1878, opened a studio 
in New York and began his- profession as a portrait painter. He was 
at once elected an instructor in the Art Students' League. Became an 
associate member of the National Academy, 1886 ; academician,. 1894. 

Mr. Beckwith received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 1887, 
and has painted portraits of many distinguished residents of New York. 
His works are always signed "Carroll Beckwith." 

At the Paris Exhibition in 1878, he exhibited "The falconer" painted 
when he was only twenty-five years old. His portrait of Mrs. R. H. 
McCurdy, shown at the Academy Exhibition of 1879, gave him a definite 
position among the painters of New York ; that of Captain Joseph Lentil- 
hon, exhibited in the Paris sa,lon of 1887 and at the Universal Exposi- 
tion of 1889, received awards in both cases. His picture "The authoress" 
has been called a modern Mona Lisa. In "A baptism at Onteora" all 
the figures are portraits, and the lartist and his wife are. viewing the 
procession from the shadow of the chimney to the right. 

Mr. Beckwith's skill in figure drawing is shown in the following: 

"La Cigale" "Under the lilacs" 

"The nautilus" "The Christian martyr" 

"Danse antique" "Mother and child" 

"The awakening" "The blacksmith" 

"The falconer" "Judith" 
"Azalia" 

"Mr. Beckwith's work is distinguished by a breadth of style and an 
unerring grace which is rarely met with outside of continental schools." 
(American artists.) 

Mr. Beckwith writes and lectures on art and conducts a summer 
school in painting at Onteora-in-the-Catskills. 

Belcher, Hilda, (P.) b. Pittsford, Vermont. Studied at the New 
York School of Art. 
The International studio (46:2.37). writes of her "Little Boston girl": 




J. CARROLL BECKWITH, 



39 

"It is one of those delightful portrayals of the ingenuous child charac- 
ter that are always acceptable as subjects of the painter's analytical 
study." 

A few of her best paintings are: 

"Sibyl" "Unrepentant" 

"The checkered dress" "Young girl in white" 

"Portrait of Miss P" "The old ladies" 

"The mother" "Fellow traveler" 

"Red mitts" "Listening" 

"Speculation" "The fairy book" 
"Auburn and white" 

Bellows^ George Wesley, (P., I.) b. Columbus, O., Aug. 12, 1882. A 
B. Ohio State University in 1905. Studied in New York School of Art 
under Robert Henri. Exhibited at International Exposition, Venice; 
Royal Academy, Berlin ; Royal Society, Munich ; Kensington Museum, 
London; and in principal cities of the United States. Elected an asso- 
ciate member of tlie National Academy in 1908;academicit\n, 1913. 

Mr. Bellows is one of the modern impressionists. He shovrs a liking 
for the sharp contrast of snow and water, snow and houses and snow 
and distant hills. An example of his work is "The palisades" snow- 
covered. 

Critics compare this snowscapist to the old painters of Holand. 

His "Polo game", and "Football game" are extraordinary examples 
of action in art — full of strength and power as well as action. 

"Blackwell's bridge" is a well-known painting of his. 

"Picturesque American terminology would describe his art as having 
"breeziness," "snap," "plenty of go." "red blood," "gumption," etc. 

"He loves to paint the prize fight, the polo game, the circus, children 
swimming — anything that has in it life, joyousness, action, the move- 
ment of humans at play." 

"In more sober moods he paints laborers excavating, the traffic of 
the streets, the men at the docks, and like scenes of manly exertion." .... 

"He seems to illustrate a single phase of Walt Whitman, 

that phase which sees glory in all bodily movement As a 

painter of the propitious strenuous or dramatic moment he indeed 
lives up to his intention." 

Recently exhibited pictures are: 

"Forty-two kids" "Men of the dock" 

"Polo crowd" "Houston street. East Side" 

(Int. studio 56.242.) 



40 

Benson, Frank Weston, (P. E., Mural P.) b. Salem, Mass., March 24, 
1862. Studied art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, also under Bou- 
langer and Lefebvre in Paris. He has been the recipient of a remarkable 
number of artistic distinctions, the chief significance of which is that 
they have been awarded by the artistic profession. Is a member of Ten 
American Painters. Since 1892 he has been instructor in drawing in 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. In 1905 he was elected to full mem- 
bership in the National Academy and his list of honors and prizes re- 
ceived is a long one. He has also won distinction by his sympathetic 
and understanding interpretation of child life. 

"Open-air work is. the most familiar side of Benson's art, and figure 
subjects in the open air have made him a student of the sea as well as 
landscape, and especially of both viewed under the effect of sunlight." 

'^'Against the sky," which Mr. Benson considers one of the best things 
that he has ever done, like "Eleanor," has the quality of freedom for 
which the "Ten" seceded. His "Moonlight at sea" has all the beauty of 
romance and technique. "Summer" is one of his most successful decora- 
tive paintings. 

A few of his representative canvases are: 

"Orpheus" "My little girl" 

"Winter storm" "Lamplight" 

"Girl with veil" "Girl with black hat" 

"Portrait of three sisters" "Calm morning" 

"In an old garden" "Girl playing solitaire" 

"Woman reading" "In the spruce trees" 

"The hill top" "Portrait in white" (his wife.) 



".«! 



Summer afternoon" 

"He set before us visions of the free life in the open air, with figures 
of gracious women and lovely children, in a landscape drenched in sweet 
sunlight and cooled by refreshing sea breezes. The purity and' charm of 
the sentiment match the purity and charm of the color." (Arts & D. 
1:195.) 

Mr. Benson's paintings (apart from his portraits) have much shim- 
mering color and radiance of light, a subtle effect of seeking the decora- 
tive in nature herself." (Int. studio 35:xcix.) 

"His paintings of women have something of the sweetness of the old- 
fashioned ideals of high-bred feminine grace and loveliness, with the 
breadth and looseness of the modern style of workmanship. His pic- 
tures have the refinement of the 18th century English female types with 
the freedom and vivacity of the 19th century American girl." (Brush 
& P. 6:145.) 



41 

Mr. Benson's touch is light and there is a painter-like quality in all 
his work which lends potency to interest as well as to charm. 

"His work is broad, simple and direct ; he uses clear, fresh color and 
selects almost invariably very agreeable subjects." (Art & P. 4.) 

Mr. Benson has also done mural painting. "The graces" and "The 
seasons" in the Library of Congress, being his work. 

Forty-eight etchings by Mr. Benson were recently dispayed at a New 
York gallery. This was his first appearance as an etcher and shows 
that "he has a bold and strong line and as in his paintings, a fine com- 
position, sense of the picturesque and love of nature." 

BiERSTADT^ Albeet. (P.) b. Dusscldorf, Germany,- January 7, 1830;. d. 
New York, February 18, 1902. 

When one year old he was taken to New Bedford where his youth was 
spent. At twenty-four he returned to his native town in Germany and 
studied art under Lessing for four years, and in Rome for one year, 
making summer sketching tours to Switzerland. He returned to the 
United States in 1859 but made frequent trips to Europe. In 1857 ac- 
companied General F. W. Lander's expedition to the Eocky, Mountains 
and collected material for his most important pictures. 

"Settlement of California by the Spanish priest. Father Junipero 
Serra" and "The discovery of the Hudson river" in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington, "View on the Kern river" and "Sunset among the Sierra Nevada 
mountains" in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, "Great trees of California" 
in the Imperial palace, Berlin, "Estes Park" owned by the earl of Dun- 
raven, "Laramie Peak" in the Academy of Fine Arts, Buffalo, and "A 
mountain peak" in the Corcoran gallery at Washington, are among some 
of his- best known works. 

Tuckerman says: "No more genuine and grand American work has 
been produced than Bierstadt's "Eocky mountains." 

Medals were awarded to him in Austria, Germany, Bavaria and Bel- 
gium. He was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France, re- 
ceived the order of St. Stanislaus of Eussia and the Imperial order of 
the Madjidi from the sultan of Turkey. Mr. Bierstadt was elected mem- 
ber of the National Academy of Design, 1860. 

BiECH^ Eeginald Bathurst^ (I.) b. London, England, May 2, 1856; 
came to the United States at the age of sixteen; later studied art in 
Munich and Italy. He has drawn much with the pen, mostly for "St. 
Nicholas," and may, indeed be called the "Children's Gibson." Illus- 
trated "Little Lord Fauntleroy," "Lady Jane," and "The story of Betty." 

Mr. Birch is the illustrator par excellence for children's stories and 
fairy tales. His line is graceful and his use of blacks exceedingly skilful. 



42 

BisBiNG, H. Singleton; (P.)— American cattle painter— b. Philadel- 
phia, Pa., January 31, 1849. Began his artistic career by studying wood- 
engraving. In 1872 he was employed on Appleton's Art Journal. He 
entered upon a course of study under Profs. Barth and Loefftz at Munich 
in 18T6 and three years later became a pupil of J. H. L. deHaas, the 
celebrated aminal painter of Brussels. In 1884 he removed to Paris 
where lie continued his studies under Felix du Vuillefroy, also a noted 
animal painter. 

His pictures, mostly animal subjects, have been exhibited at the Paris 
salon. 

He teceived third-class medal at Paris salon in 1891; Temple gold 
medal at the exhibition of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1892, 
and was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France in 1902. 

His works are in Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadel- 
phia, Berlin National Gallery and in pi-ivate collection of royal family 
of Saxony. Mr. Bisbing is a member of the Paris Society of American 
Painters and his paintings are hors concours at the Paris salon. 

"Bisbing paints large landscapes, saturated by light and air, with 
cows somnolently resting in the sun." (Mtither.) 

Bitter, Karl Theodore, (S.) b. Vienna, Austria, December 6, 1867; 
d. New York City, April 10, 1915, of injuries received when he was run 
down by an automobile. Studied art in the Vienna Academy of Fine 
Arts. From the age of sixteen he made efforts to come to America but 
did not receive the consent of his parents until 1889 when he sailed for 
New York. The first year in New York, unknown and practically friend- 
less, he won in competition the order for one of the Astor Memorial 
gates, of Trinity Church. 

Mr. Bitter was connected with the Columbian Exposition as a decora- 
tor, with the Pan-American and St. Louis expositions as official director 
of sculpture, and with the Panama-Pacific as chief of the department of 
sculpture. 

Of his "Standard bearers" in heroic size (a personal contribution to 
the Pan-American Exposition), Lorado Taft says: "They were the finest 
things ever devised for any exposition." His "Villard memorial" and 
"Hubbard memorial" "are beautifully modeled and have about them an 
atmosphere of poetic gravity quite unfamiliar in Mr. Bitter's sculpture." 
His bust of Dr. Pepper, provost of the University of Pennsylvania, is a 
gratifying success and shows beyond its admirable workmanship a subtle 
union of kindliness and reserve which makes it a convincing expression 
of individuality." 



43 

Among Mr. Bitter's works are many figures and figure reliefs for the 
residences of the Vanderbilts, C. P. Huntington, John Jacob Astor and 
others. More numerous are his decorations for public buildings, libr- 
aries, churches, stores, etc. Notable are the enormous reliefs for the 
Broad street station of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Philadelphia. His 
groups of children are happy ideas for small fountains. 

He was elected an associate member of the National Academy of De- 
sign, New York, in 1902; academician, 1903 and was a member of the 
National Sculpture Society, New York "^ Arch. League and Society of 
American Artists. 

Mr. Bitter's statue of Thomas Jefferson for the University of Vir- 
ginia was unveiled a few days after his death. He was to have been the 
guest of honor at the ceremonies. His last work was the Hendrik Hud- 
son statue to be placed- on Spuyten Duyvil Hill. 

BlakelocKj Ralph Albert^ (P.) b. New York, October 15, 1847. The 
son of a physician he was educated with a view to adopting his father's 
profession but he was naturally gifted in the line of music and painting 
and the science and practice of medicine did not attract him. Renounc- 
ing the career of a physician and resolving to take up the profession of 
painting, with no art training whatever, without guidance or assistance, 
he opened a studio in New York. The story of his life is a pitiful one — 
one of the saddest in the history of American art. The hardships and 
privations which he endured unsettled his mind and he was confined in 
an insane asylum for nearly seventeen years. 

After fifteen years confinement, the National Academy of Design 
elected him to associate membership — a tardy recognition of his genius. 
It is now believed that his dementia has been arrested — he has been 
calm for a long period of time and has again taken to painting. He 
has been freed from the asylum and was permitted to visit the exhibi- 
tion of his paintings held in April, 1916, at the Reinhardt Gallery to 
raise a fund for his benefit. Since this latest exhibition he has been 
advanced to full membership in the National Academy of Design. 

Eleven paintings which brought Blakelock less than $2,000 were re- 
cently sold in the Lambert collection for |46,990. "Brook by moon- 
light" was bought by the Toledo Museum of Art for $20,000 (Blakelock 
sold it for $500). This is the third highest price ever paid for an 
American's work — an Inness sold for $25,000, in 1903, and a Homer 
for $30,000, very recently. A few years ago another "Moonlight" which 
Blakelock sold for $50 was purchased by a well-known art collector for 
$14,000. 

Characteristic examples of his. work are : 




RALPH ALBERT BLAKELOCK. 



45 

"Moonrise" "October sunshine" 

"At nature's mirror" ''Redwoods, California" 

"Solitude" "Indian girl, Uinta tribe" 

"Sunset, Nevarra Ridge" "Navajo blanket makers" 

"The mountain brook" "Indian fisherman" 

"Sunset ofiE the coast" "Bannoch wigwam in peaceful 

"Sunset through the wood" vale" 

"Morning" "The captive" 

"Moonlight" "The canoe builder" 

"Cool wooded shades" "Abode of the stately deer" 

"The oak tree" "Story of the buffalo hunt" 

"Blakelock's canvasses are little less than a revelation of his wide 

range of expression and of his varying moods They include 

peaceful and poetical pastorals, sunsets glowing even to the point of the 
garish, moonlight suffused with a bewitching silvery sheen, landscapes 
in which there is no suggestion of human life, Indian groups for which 
the landscape serves but as a setting The canvases convey the im- 
pression of a strong poetic temperament dominated with a moodiness 
which struggles with and finally extinguishes free, glad, artistic expres- 
sion. 

"He was essentially a colorist, and the peculiar charm of his work 
lies in the fact that he had the audacity to attempt and the ability to 
obtain tonal effects that at once stamped his canvasses as remarkable 

It has been said of him that he stands quite alone among 

American artists as an original creative genius whose endowment was 
unusually artistic and whose sense of the beautiful was peculiarly 
acute." (Brush & P. 9:257.) 

"It is then a sentiment or an emotion that Blakelock conveys, rather 
than' beauty of form or harmony of color, rather than idea or story. 
But his sentiment or emotion does not appear to be one of the common 
sentiments or emotions. It is not that he makes us melancholy or cheer- 
ful; it is something different, something elusive, something that we call 

romantic His world is suggested by reality but it is his own. 

It is a painter's world and to come to it you must come by the painter's 
way." , (Edward E. Hale in Dial 57:384.) 

Blashfibld, Edwin Howland^ (P. Mural P., I.) b. New York, Decem- 
ber 15, 1848. Was educated in Boston Latin School. Studied in Paris, 
1867, under Leon Bonnat, also received advice from G6rome and Chapu. 
Exhibited at the Paris salon 1874-9, 1881, 1891, 1892; also several years 
at Royal Academy, London. Returned to the United States 1881. A" 
member of the National Academy of Design, New York, since 1888. 



46 

President National Society of Mural Painters. He has exhibited genre 
pictures, portraits and decorations and lectured on art at Columbia, 
Harvard and Yale and in prominent cities of the United States, his 
lecture on "Municipal art" being regarded one of the best lectures on 
art ever given in this country. 

In collaboration with his wife he prepared numerous illustrated ar- 
ticles for Scribner, Century and other leading magazines on subjects con- 
nected with mediaeval or renaissance art, or noted places of the old 
world. Among the most noteworthy and interesting of these may be 
mentioned: "With Romola in Florence," "The man at arms," "Castle 
life," "A day with a Florentine artist of the 15th century," "Ravenna 
and its mosaics," "The Paris of the musketeers," "Afloat on the Mle." 

Most notable of his paintings are: 

"Christmas bells" "All souls day" 

"The choir boys" "Inspiration" 

"The angel of the flaming sword" "Young poet" 

"Spring time" "Toreador" 

Mr. Blashfleld's strength lies in decorative painting in which his draw- 
ing is as elegant as his color is fragile in tone. His best mural work is 
seen in the Library of Congress, Washington; court house, Baltimore 
and the Minnesota and Iowa state houses. He painted the design for 
the dome piece for the new state capitol at Madison, Wis., said to be 
the largest canvas ever painted in America, and the figure which typifies 
the state of Wisconsin is thirteen feet sitting, the largest figure ever 
painted. 

"In his art he demonstrates his understanding of drawing, elevated 
without losing strength, of refined felicitous light, of controlling unified 
tone, of the grace, sweetness and reticence in simple gesture and of the 
power in an organized whole." (Int. studio 35:lxix.) 

Mr. Blashfield is the author of "Mui-al painting in America" — an au- 
thoratative and much valued work. 

Blum, Robert Frederick, (P., I., E., Mural P.) b. Cincinnati, O., 
July 9, 1857 ; d. New York, June 8, 1903. He was apprenticed in a litho- 
graphing shop in 1871 and attended night classes at McMicken Art 
School of Design, Cincinnati ; studied nine months at the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; went to New York in 1879 
and made trips to Europe during the years 1880-89. In 1890 he accom- 
panied Sir Edwin Arnold to Japan in order to illustrate his "Japonica." 

His "Lace makers" won a medal at the Paris Exposition in 1889; 
"Bead stringers" occasioned his election as an associate of the National 



4T 

Academy, and the exhibition of his "Ameya" (Itinerant candy vender") 
brought him into full membership of the academy in 1893. At his elec- 
tion he was the youngest member of the association. 

Upon his return from Japan in 1892, after completing his Japanese 
drawings and paintings, he took up mural decoration and reached the 
highest perfection of art in the magnificent decorations in Mendelssohn 
Hall, New York, illustrating the "Moods of music." 

The charm of Blum's pictures lies iu the execution rather than in the 
subjects which are chosen from every land except America. His "Itin- 
erant candy vender" in the Metropolitan Museum of New York is full 
of color, with exactitude of line and a charming sense of foreign parts. 
(I sham.) 

His pen dra^ftigs of Venice, dated 1880, have in all the progress of 
that special art, never been excelled. 

"He paints Japanese street scenes full of sunlight and lustrous color." 
(Mftther.) 

A few Japanese pictures are: 

"Flower market, Tokio" "Musse-night" 

"The geisha" "Siesta" 

"Cherry blossoms" "The terrace" 
"The bath" 

While Mr. Blum's reputation as an illustrator and etcher was well es- 
tablished, it is probable that he will be longest remembered by his work 
as a colorist. 

Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, (P., I.) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., May 26, 
1871. Pupil of Cincinnati Art Academy ; Art Students' League of New 
York; Benjamin-Constant, Laurens and Collin of Paris. Member of 
Society of Illustrators and Paris American Artists Association. 

Illustrator for Century, Scribner's, McClure's, Harper's, American 
and other magazines and books ; also portrait painter and teacher. 

Blumenschein, Mary Shepard Green, (P., S.) (Mrs. E. L. Blumen- 
schien) b. New York. Pupil of Herbert Adams of New York, Collin of 
Paris. Received third-class medal in the Paris salon of 1900; second- 
class medal in salon of 1902 ; silver medal of St. Louis exposition 1904. 

Mrs. Blumenschein was the first American woman to receive a medal 
of the second class from the Soci6t6 des Artistes Francais. 

Bogert, George, (P.) b. New York, 1864. Pupil of National Academy, 
also of Puvis de Chavannes, Aime Morot and E. Boudin, Paris. Received 
honorable mention at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1892 ; 



48 

Webb prize, Society American Artists, .1898; first Hallgarten prize Na- 
tional Academy, 1899. Associate member of National Academy of De- 
sign, 1899. 

"October moonlight" is much admired, as is also "Approach of evening, 
Venice," ablaze with the vibrating colors of the sky at sunset. 

"He has done a great amount of work, much varied not only in sub- 
ject — landscapes, marines, views of cities chosen from all over the world 
— but also in handling and in color scheme." (Isham.) 

His work is largely reminiscent, the works of Constable, Diaz, Maris, 
being reflected in his canvases; but his two most interesting canvases, 
"Approaching storm" and "Day after the storm" are strong works and 
derived evidently from independent study and a personal outlook. (The 
artist, 24:*:lxi.) 

"His technique is strong, and if his ideals were simpler and more 
direct, his art could be enthusiastically admired. He has force, dra- 
matic quality, and knows how to put a picture together." (Brush & P. 
4:125.) 

Other popular pictures are: 

"Eventide" "Rainbow at sea" 

"The last rays" "Summer morning, Manomet" 

"Chateau Gaillard, moonrise" 

BoRGLUM^ John Gutzon Mothb^ (S P., I.) b. California, March 25, 
1867. Pupil of San Francisco Art Association and Academie Julien in 
Paris; a member of the JJoyal Society of British Artists and Soci6t6 
Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris. 

As a lad in a western Jesuit college he carved crucifixes on his slate 
and copied in his books reproductions of pictures by the old masters. 

After studying in Paris and spending a year in Spain he returned to 
the United States. but in 1896 went to London and remained there un- 
til 1901 ; settled in New York in 1902. 

His earlier works in sculpture were western in subject — "Indian 
scoTits," "Death of a chief," "Apaches pursued by U. S. troops." Later 
works are "The seer," "The Boer," "Eemorse," gargoyles for dormitory 
building at Princton, bronze statuette of John Euskin and portrait bust 
of Lincoln. Of this bust of Lincoln a writer on works of art says : "In 
profound insight into character and in subtleness of portrayal, Gutzon 
Borglum's "Head of Lincoln" must be accounted among ithe greatest' 
achievements in portrait sculpture that have been made by any Ameri- 
can artist." (Craftsman 14:26.) 



49 

The masterly rendering of "The mares of Diomedes" places this group 
among the great works of art. Here he has given movement — the fury 
of high-strung steeds. 

In 1898 he was commissioned to make the decorations for the Queen's 
Hotel at Leeds and chose for his subject the story of "Pan." Here his 
real personality showed itself and his special genius came into play. 

In his New Yqrk studio he painted a series of mural decorations for 
the Midland Hotel Concert Hall at Manchester, England — subject : "The 
coming of Guinevere," also painted twelve panels illustrating "Mid- 
summer night's dream" for a private residence in New York. 

His statuette of John Euskin evinces that broad thought with which 
he approaches his subject. 

In writing of the art of the Metropolitan Museum of New York 
(where are his "Mares of Diomedes" and the bronze statuette of Ruskin) 
David C. Preyer says: "Nothing could be in more striking constrast — • 
the mad stampede of the tumbling mass of horses and the quiet dignified' 
repose of the writer and thinker." 

A contributor to the International studio says: "A certain impres- 
sionistic tendency shows itself in Mr. Borglum's recent work." 

His works are so varied and his manner so versatile that classifica- 
tion and general exposition is almost out of the question. 

"The reason for building any work of art," he says: "can only be for 
the purpose of fixing in some desirable form a great emotion, or a great 
idea, of the individual or the people." 

Mr. Borglum is preparing to execute on Stone Mountain, Ga., (six- 
teen miles from Atlanta) the largest sculptural work in the history of- 
the world — a memorial to the confederate armies, to be built by the 
south of today. On the granite mountain will be carved a frieze 2,000 
feet long, 50 feet wide and five stories high at an expenditure of 
$2,000,000. Eight years will be the time required to complete the work. 
The New York Times, January 2, 1916, gave a detailed description of 
this unprecedented undertaking. 

Borglum^ Solon Hannibal^ (S.) b. Ogden, Utah, December 22, 1868. 
Was reared among the frontiersmen in a typical prairie town and worked 
on a stock ranch while young. In 1893 he decided to give up ranch life 
and to study art; became a student in the Cincinnati Art School and 
studied under Louis E'ebisso and Premiet in Paris. Associate member 
of National Academy of Design, 1911. 

When he went to Cincinnati he obtained admission to the U. S. stables 
and began to model his first group which, when exhibited in the annual 
school exhibit, won him a special prize of |50, and during his second 



50 

year at the art school he won the prize of a scholarship. In Paris his 
groups were accepted by the salon and he received encouraging words of 
approval from Fremiet, the French sculptor. 

His group called, "Lassoeing wild horses" was his first exhibit in the 
Paris salon; "Stampede of. wild horses" was next, and "The lame horse"^ 
brought him honorable mention. Returning to the United States in 1900, 
he made a special study of western life, living among cow-boys and 
Indians. 

"In such works as "The last round-up," "Our slave" and "On the bor- 
der of white man's land," Mr. Borglum has hit upon a very large and 
impressive treatment which is distinctly sculptural in its inspiration; 
while in the tiny "Burial on the plans" there is a mysterious emotional 
note which has been touched by few indeed of our sculptors, a sentiment 
that might easily have been dissipated by a more insistent technic." 
(Taft's "History of American sculpture.") 

"There is that in his work which challenges the shams and insinceri- 
ties of our drawing rooms and which makes the money-getting occupa- 
tion of our trammeled lives seem suddenly trite. His art is not the ex- 
pression of his personality, but of that part of the universe by which 
he was environed and is therefore as untrammeled as nature." 

"He stands pre-eminently as a sculptor of American life in one of its 
distinctive phases .... His groups embody in marble and bronze the free 
primitive life of the great west." (Craftsman 12:382.) 

BouGUEREAu ELIZABETH GARDNER, (P.) (Madame W. A. Bouguereau), 
b.**Exeter, N. H., 1851. Received honorable mention in Paris salon, 1879 ; 
gold medal, 1889 ; hors concour. Her professional life has been spent in 
Paris where she was a pupil of Hugues Merle, Lefebvre and Bouguereau 
whom she married. 

When Miss G.ardner went to Paris to study art women were not ad- 
mitted to the Julien Academy but determined to have the benefit of the 
teaching there given, she donned boy's clothes. Bouguereau was her 
teacher and his interest ,and kindness won from her a confession of her 
secret. The great French artist's sense of justice was aroused and 
through his efforts the doors of the famous academy were opened to 
women, and the name of the first woman artist to be enrolled in the 
academy was that of Elizabeth Gardner of the United States. Twenty 
years later, after the death of Bouguereau's mother who opposed the 
marriage, he and Miss Gardner were married. (Cur. lit. 39:391.) 

BowEN, Benjamin James, (P.) b. Boston, Mass., February 1, 1859. 
After receiving his education he went into business for some time. Later 



51 

became the pupil of Lefebvre, Robert-Fleury and Carri^re in Paris, and 
after studying the works of the old masters in the various art galleries 
of Europe he took a studio at Concarneau, France, and there painted his 
first successful picture. He has exhibited in the Salon des Artistes Fran- 
cais and in America. 

"The first thing that strikes us in Mr.-Bowen's pictures is the skillful 
management of light^ — fine shadow masses illumined with bursts of 
light; this is admirably illustrated in his three salon pictures: "Le 
mousse bless6," "Mending the sail" and "Pardon de .Notre Dame de la 
joie." 

"His work is honest and strong, and in looking at his pictures one 
seems to share the simple homeliness of the life they reveal." (English 
Illustrated Magazine, 47 n. s. :10.) 

BoYLil, John J., (S.) b. New York, January 12, 1852. Pupil of 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Pine Arts, Philadelphia, under Thomas 
Eakins; Ecole des Beaux Arts under Dumont, Thomas and E. Millet in 
Paris; received honorable mention Paris salon 1886, and has also won 
many medals. 

Lorado Taft says: "His. most valuable contribution to our national 

art is undoubtedly in his favorite field of aboriginal subjects 

For the expression of power, for monumental simplicity and integrity of 
conception his groups "The alarm" in Lincoln Park^ Chicago, and "The 
stone age," in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, have not been surpassed." 

Breckeneidge^ ^UGH Henry, (P.) b. Leesburg, Va., October 6, 1870. 
Pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and 
Bouguereau, Doucet and Ferrier in Paris. Received honorable mention 
at Paris Exposition in 1900 and several prizes and medals since that 
time. Member of the Philadelphia Water Color Club and instructor and 
secretary of the faculty of P. A. F. A. since 1894. 

Mr. Breckenridge's portrait of Dr. James Tyson was exhibited at the 
107th annual exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 
and the International studio says that it "was painted with thoroughly 
masterful technique and was decidedly the most creditable example of 
the artist's work ever seen on the Academy walls and certainly added 
tremendously to his reputation." 

Other representative paintings .are : 

"A thread of scarlet" "The nautilus" 

"Autumn" Portrait of Dr. Edgar Fobs Smith 

"Moonlight" Portrait of Howard B. French. 



52 

Brenner, Victor David, (S.) b. in Eussia, 1871; came to America at 
the age of nineteen. Later in Paris he studied under the great Eoty and 
soon reached a high stage of proficiency in the art of the Medallist. 

"In honor of motherhood" is characteristic of his work and excellent 
in itself. 

"For the expression of a large idea, indeed, a medal is to sculpture 
what a sonnet is to poetry, and each calls for the greatest ability of the 
artist or the poet." (Warren Wilmer Brown, Arts & D. 2:24.) 

"The Motherhood medal is the fourth of a series being struck under the 
auspices of this circle of connoisseurs and admirers of this expression of 
art." 

Breubr, Henry Joseph, (P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., August 18, 18'60. 
Began his art studies in BuflPalo, N. Y. Was a Rookwood pottery decora- 
tor in Cincinnati, 1880-2 ; lithographic designer, 1882-4 ; mural decorator, 
New York, 1884-8 ; illustrator San Francisco Chronicle, 1890-2 ; art editor 
California magazine, 1892-3; landscape painter since 1843. Studied in 
Paris where he come under the influence of the Barbizon school and was 
especially impressed by Co rot. Is a member of the Society of American 
Artists of Paris. 

"As an aid to development along individual and original lines he has 
spent many years in California where the "atmosphere" is individualistic 
in all activities, and he was there isolated to an extent from the 
"schools" and of necessity studied nature more than art." 

"Having a splendid eye for details, he applies it in a creative imagina- 
tion evidenced in his synthetic method, which gives a balance and sense 
of completeness to his compositions." (Int. studio 89:xlix.) 

He was commissioned to paint pictures of the Arroyo Seco of the San 
Gabriel Valley for the St. Louis Exposition in 1904. 

Characteristic works are: 

"Yosemdte valley" ' "Mt. Brewer in the Sierras" 

"A California sunset" 

Bbidges, Fidelia, (P.) b. Salem, Mass., May 19, 1834. One of the few 
pupils of the late William T. Richards. She was elected associate mem- 
ber of the National Academy, 1874. 

At the forty-fifth annual exhibition of the American Water Color 
Society she exhibited two paintings of characteristic charm and finesse ; 
"Flowers in the beach grass" and "A wide beach." 

"Miss Bridges is unique in her remarkable application of the princi- 
ples of Japanese art in landscape painting and in the delineation of 
flowers and birds, the last, indeed, being as inseparable from her name 
as are cats from the name of Henrietta Ronner." 



53 



Bridgman, Frbdbeic Arthur^ (P.) b. Tuskegee, Ala., November 10, 
1847. Was an apprentice in the engraving department of the American 
Bank note Company, New York, 1864-5. Studied in Brooklyn Art School 
and National Academy New York and was a pupil of GSrome and at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1866-71. Since then he has had a studio in 
Paris, occasionally visiting New York. A member of the National 
Academy since 1881. 

Mr. Bridgman has a well-established reputation for his Oriental and 
archaeological pictures. He paints almost exclusively scenes from 
Algiers. The first picture by which he became widely known was "The 
burial of the mummy." This won for him the decoration of the Legion 
of Honor. Of this picture the severe critic of the Paris Figaro said: 
"G^rome himself might have signed it, so high is the merit." This paint- 
ing with "The pastime of an Assyrian king" and "The procession of the 
sacred bull Apis" are his chief pictures. 

He has mad.e special study of Algiers, Egypt and Nubia and the Nile, 
and is regarded as the authorized painter of the south shore of the Medi- 
terranean. In 1881 he brought together in all 330 pictures of the East 
at an exhibition in New York. His favorite studies are curious mix- 
tures of Arab camel drivers, French zouaves and cosmopolitan tour- 
ists. These pictures belong to what is called Mr. Bridgman's salon 
manner. 

"White draperies, dark skin tints, shining marble and keen blue at- 
mosphere, ethnographical accuracy and a taste for anecdote are the 
leading characteristics of his pictures." (Muther's "History of Modern 
painting.") 

Some of his Brittany studies, chiefly landscapes, are more interest- 
ing — they possess a different quality. The effects of light are subdued 
and very delicate. (The artist, 29:138.) 

His works are now hors concours in the Paris salon. 



Well-known paintings are: 

"Up early" 

"Apollo bearing ofiE Gyrene" 

"Illusions of high life" 

"The American circus in Paris" 

"In the Pyrenees" 

"Chapel^ — noon" 

"Greek girls on the seashore" 

"The morning bath" 

"Lady of Cairo visiting" 



"Girls in the way" 
"Interior of the harem" 
"Bringing in the corn" 
"A Moorish interior" 
"Tete-a-tete in Cairo" 
"Bay of Dinard, moonlight" 
"Hour of reverie" 
"In the silence of the evening" 
"Gathering seaweed" 



54 

BrowN;, Geoegb Loeing, (P., E.) b. Boston, Mass., February 2, 1814; 
d. Maiden, Mass., June 25, 1889. At the age of twelve he was appren- 
ticed to Alonzo Hartwell, an artist, to learn the art of wood-engraving ; 
when sixteen he went to Europe with money"" earned "by painting and 
through the influence and assistance of John Cheney, an American en- 
graver living in London, he was enabled to study in Paris, enduring 
many hardships, however. Two years later he returned to Boston, opened 
a studio and worked with Washington AUston. In 1840 he went 'to 
Paris again and studied under Isabey, then took up his residence in 
Rome where his brilliant and poetical pictures found ready sale. 

Among his famous paintings are: 

"Doge's palace and Grand canal" "Bay of Naples" 

"Doge's palace at sunrise" "Fountain of Trevi" 

"Palermo" "Niagara by moonlight" 
"Atranti" 

The Art Museum in Rome owns his "Moonlight scene" a prize pic- 
ture) and the late King Edward VII bought his "Crown of New Eng- 
land" when, as the Prince of Wales, he visited the United States. 

Art Journal, May, 1875: "Brown's "Sunset, Genoa," is one those gor- 
geous idealized, hazy Italian scenes for which this artist is so much 
noted in the vein of Turner." 

His etchings executed in Eome are much freer in handling and more 
suggestive in color than are those of JohUi Gadsby Chapman. 

Brown, John George, (P.) b. Durham, England, November 11, 1831; 
d. New York City, February 8, 1913.. As a boy he lived at Newcastle- 
on'-Tyne and there served seven years apprenticeship in learning the 
glass trade. He studied art' in the Newcastle School of Design and at 
the Eoyal Academy and began to paint portraits before he came to the 
United States in 1853. In 1861 he was elected an associate member of 
the National Academy of Design, an academician in 1863 and vice 
president in 1899. 

Mr. Brown was the most popular of American painters of genre. He 
belonged to the earlier school of painters; he was always "telling a 
story," and was widely known as the painter of newsboys and boot- 
blacTis. 

"His first cigar" was his first work to attract attention. "Curling 
in Central Park" painted for Robert Gordon elected him to membership 
in the National Academy of Design. "Allegro and Penseroso" and "The 
Longshoreman's noon" are in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D. C; 



55 

"Jack in the box," Detroit Museum of Art; "Meditation," Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 

Well-known pictures: 

"Passing show" "Training the dog" 

"Dress parade" "The gang" 

"Three (scape) graces" "The thrilling moment" 
"A merry air and a sad heart" 

For more than fifty years Mr. Brown worked in the same studio in 
New York. 

Browne, George Elmer, (P.) b. Gloucester, Mass., May 6, 1871. 
Studied at Museum of Fine Arts and at Cowles Art School, Boston, and 
Acad6mie Julien, Paris; ejchibited in Paris salon and has been repre- 
sented at nearly all prominent American exhibitions. Received medal 
at the' Charitable Mechanics Association, Boston, 1895, and the Inness 
Jr. prize. Salmagundi Club, Jifew York, 1901. 

His painting entitled "Selling bait at Cape Cod," exhibited in the 
Paris salon 1904, was purchased by the French government. 

Popular paintings are: 

"Fishing boats at Boulogne-sur- "On the beach at Scheveningen" 

mer" "The old gate at Moret" 

"A peasant's cottage" "The wain team" 

"Storing the grain" 

Many of his best subjects have been the depicting of city life and 
scenery along the water front and streets of New York, also life and 
scenery along the Seine, from the Parisian boulevards, the banks of the 
Thames and the canals of Holland. 

The eminent art critic, W. Lewis Fraser, in Brush and Pencil, 14: 
107 says: "The charm of his pictures is the tender elusiveness of their 
somewhat somber airtones." 

Correctness of line enables him to express unmistakably what he 
wants to say. 

Brush, George db Forest^ (P.) b. Shelby ville, Tenn., September 28, 
1855. Pupil of G^rome. He received the first Hallgarten prize of the 
National Academy of Design, New York, 1888; Temple gold medal of 
the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1897; gold medal at the 
Paris Exposition, 1900; Saltus medal of the National Academy of De- 
sign, New York, 1909. A member of the academy since 1901. 

Began as a genre painter of Indians and in his story-telling pictures 



56 

of Indians he represents the most poetical treatment of the subject that 
has yet been achieved. Best examples are "Silence broken," "Mourn- 
ing her brave," "The Indian hunter," The Indian and the lily." For 
a number of years he has confined himself to one subject — the modern 
madonna, his wife and children serving as his models. His "Madonna" 
in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, is one of his strongest 
works. "In the garden" and "The family" are more pictorial. 

Technically Brush's work does not attract, but intellectually it is full 
of beauty. (Brush & P. 11.) 

"His drawing is strong and distingu6 and his figures are interpreted 
with truth of expression." (Hartmann.) 

Another critic says : "He has not yet solved the mysterious affinity be- 
tween certain colors and certain emotions." 

Kenyon Cox says : "George deForest Brush is one of the few i)ainters 
outside the ranks of the mural decorators who concerns himself pri- 
marily with line and a severe conception of form. He has often fine 
color, also in a restrained key, and always a profound feeling for char- 
acter and for the beauty of childhood. In its composition of long flow- 
ing lines, its firm clean drawing, its subtle modeling and above all in the 
beautifully expressive heads and the radiant charm of blond infancy, his 
"In the garden" is worthy of one of those fifteenth-century Florentines 
with whom Mr. Brush has much more affinity than with the average 
painter." 

"In his 'Madonna pictures' he shows the. pathos of motherly love." 

BuRD^ Clara MillbE;, (Stained glass designer) b. New York City. 
Studied art at the National academy of design, also with Wm. M. Chase. 
Later she studied with Courtois and Benarde in Paris. 

Since returning to the United States, Miss Burd has been known as a 
stained glass artist and specializes in memorial windows for churches. 

The Architectural record 35 :163 has a very interesting article on Miss 
Burd and her ideas on art. 

Burroughs^ Edith Woodman (Mrs. Bryson Burroughs), (S.) b. Kiver- 
dale-on-Hudson, N. Y., October 20, 1871; d. Flushing, L. I., January 6, 
1916. A pupil of the Art Students' League, New York, under Saint- 
Gaudens; also studied with Injalbert and Merson in Paris. Mrs. Bur- 
roughs was a member of the National Sculpture Society and was award- 
ed the Shaw prize of the National Academy of Design in 1907. 

At the exhibition of the National Sculpture Society held in Balti- 
more, April, 1908, her "Summer sea" was shown; and at the academy 
exhibition in New York, 1909, she presented a marble bust "Scylla" and 
her portrait-bust of John LaFarge. 



57 

In Mrs. Burroughs' work— statuettes, portraits in low relief, busts 
and decorative sculpture— "the fine quality of what we may call the 
lyric subjectivism is noticeable,' because of its fineness, its delicacy." 
(Scrib. M. 47:639.) 

"Her figures have dignity and refinement, reached through lessons of 
art, perhaps, but nevertheless captivatingly expressive of life." 

"Her work has a charm and -a strength that are purely womanly." 
(Arts & D. 5:190.) 

An exhibition of Mrs. Burroughs' sculpture was recently held in New 
York and thirty-nine examples were in the collection. Pour especially 
mentioned are "At the threshold," "Acquiescence," "Summer sea," 
"Fountain design." In these the sculptor is seen at her best. "Here she 
is severe without being cold, dignified without being pompous." 

Her "Fountain of Youth" at the Panama-Pacific Exposition balanced 
Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney's "Fountain of El Dorado" at the other end 
o| the court. 

Cadwalader-Guild, Emma Marie, (S., P.) was born in New England 
but most of her work has been done in England and Germany, and is 
better known there than here. 

Ambassador White after seeing her work in Germany urged her to 
return to the United States and make a bust of President McKinley. 
Through correspondence, sittings were agreed upon; she came but they 
were not given; she then modeled the bust from prints. Mr. Hanna 
entered a bill in Congress for the purchase of the bust, so pleased was 
he with it, and it is now in the president's room of the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. 

Mrs. Guild has also made a striking bust of Lincoln. John Hay said 
of it: "The power of the head is remarkable. It is a great expression 
of the personality of the man." 

■Her two busts of Gladstone — one in bronze, one in marble, are the 
only ones for which Mr. Gladstone gave sittings. 

When her bust of George Frederick Watts was completed he said: 
"When I look at that bust I can understand how that man could have 
painted that picture" (pointing to one of his own.) 

Mrs. Guild numbers royalty among her distinguished patrons. 

Her idealistic heads and statues are as remarkable as her portraits. 
Of her "Lotos," the German Times says: "This psychic masterpiece 
stamps Mrs. Guild unequivocally as an artist of the very first rank." A 
bronze statuette called "Freed" has, been exhibited in the Paris salon, 
at the Royal Academy, London, and at Munich. Her "Head of St. Moni- 
ca, the mother of St. Augustine" is a charming study. The German gov- 



58 

ernment purchased her "Electron" and placed it in the Post-museum at 
Berlin. The pose of her "Endymion" is not to be found in either modern 
or ancient sculpture. 

"Mrs. Guild is careful in her anatomical study but works without 
model; and her results strengthen the suspicion that in poses involv- 
ing a representation of movement, however slight, the appearance of a 
stationary model is false in detail to the exact appearance in motion." 

Mrs. Guild is a painter as well as sculptor and known abroad as one 
of superior merit." 

CalIdbr^ Alexander Stirling, (S.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1870. He 
studied four years. in the Academy of Pennsylvania and two years in 
Paris under Chapu and Falgui6re and has been connected with the Phila- 
delphia school ever since his return to America. 

He made the statue of Dr. Samuel D. Gross for the army medical 
Museum, Washington, D. C. ; six figures of heroic size for the exterior 
of the Witherspoon building, Philadelphia — six representative Presby- 
terians.. "The rugged figures are admirably characterized." 

Among the more ideal themes treated by the artist are: "The man 
cub" "Child playing," "Mother and baby," -*'The miner," "Naftissus," and 
"Primal discontent." (Brush and Pencil 13:225.) 

Mr. Calder lived in the west several years studying the Indians. 
"The past, the present, and the future of the red people is beautifully 
delitieated in Calder's subtly modeled figures." (Craftsman 28:154.) 

Mr. Calder designed the "Fountain of energy" for the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition 1915. 

Carlsen, Emil, (P.) b. Copenhagen, "Denmark, October 19, 1853. Was 
educated in his native city and came to the United States in 1872. He 
has what the late Prank Fowler has described as a kind of specialized 
vision, very charming and very fine. Coming from Denmark he brought 
with him the old Vikings love of the great waters. His poetic interpre- 
tation of their beauty has met with universal recognition. Medals and 
prizes have been awarded him in many exhibitions and he was elected a 
member of the National Academy in 1906. 

"He contents himself with quiet middle'tones, never forcing his gamut 
to extremes of light or shades, but his surfaces are lovely, his paintings 
invariably mature." (Int. studio 39:10.) 

"His landscape work has the quality of his still-life studies of game 
or fish; broad unbroken masses of color strongly relieved against each 
other, whether sunlit trees against a deep blue sky or a white swan 
against a dead wall, the contrast not being relied on alone for the effect, 



59 

— but the color being made as absolutely true as in his vigorous works." 
(Tsham.) 

Admired paintings are: 

"The quiet sea" , "Wild swan" 

"Meeting of the seas" . "May morning" 

"The open sea" "The panel" 

t r 

Kenyon Oox says : "Beauty is his aim, and the facts and the force of 
nature are both subordinated to decoration. In the "Open sea" it is 
the exquisitely varied blues and grays of sky and water that have 
charmed him, while in his "Surf" it is not crash and roar that we are 
mad.e to feel, but the bold pattern of black and white and blue." 

At the one hundred and tenth annual exhibition of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts was shown Emil Carlsen's "O, ye of little 
faith," a vision of Christ walking on the waters. The artist refuses to 
sell this work and calls it his religion. 

"In an infinite glory of sea and sky, in a burst of silvery light, un- 
matched by anything in art since the days of Rembrandt, along the 
luminous pathway trod the Son of Man It was almost too pre- 
cious for public display, too far above the heads of those in the motley 
throng who commented on the perfect framing or wonder why the figure 
was drawn so small." (Book news monthly^ 33:378.) 

Carpenter, Francis Bickwell, (P.) b. Homer, N. Y., August 6, 1830; 
d. New York, May 23, 1900. He was a pupil of Sanford Thayer at Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. Won much fame as a painter and also possessed much liter- 
ary ability. 

His painting "Arbitration," representing the signing of the treaty of 
Washington, was accepted by Queen Victoria and hung in her .private 
collection. His portrait of President Fillmore was purchased by the city 
of New York and hangs in, the City Hall. "First reading of the Emanci- 
pation proclamation before the cabinet" now hangs on the stairway of 
the House of Representatives, Washington. 

Mr. Carpenter was elected associate- member of the National Academy 
in 1852. 

Cassatt, Maey, (P., E.) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1855. Her first studies in 
art were at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. 
After traveling extensively in Spain, Italy and Holland she settled in 
Paris, and Degas, convinced of her ability and sincerity, consented to 
take her as a pupil and for fifteen years she studied -and worked with 
him, achieving in time a position not far below his own. 



60 

At various intervals Miss Cassatt has devoted herself to painting in 
oils and pastels, to color-etching, dry point and even lithography. While 
her range of expression is wide, her choice of motive is restricted. For 
the most part she transcribes the intimate relationship of mother and 
child. She always avoids a sentimental version of child life. "Beauty is 
there, but not a sugary, waxen beauty." 

Among her most characteristic works are : 

"The toilet" Earlier works are: 

"Women and child" 

"The caress" "At the French theater" 

"Baby arises" "After the bullfight" 

"The cup of tea" "Music lesson" 

"The reading lesson" "On the balcony" 

"Children playing with a cat" 

"Mother and child" 

"Supper-time" 

Miss Cassatt, a follower of Manet, sends her canvases , to the Im- 
pressionists' exhibitions in Paris, but she refuses to exhibit in the salons, 
and in her indifference to their applause she stands alone. All other 
American artists in Paris have regularly displayed their works in the 
great competitive exhibitions. Miss Cassatt is a member of the Legion 
of Honor of France, and her work takes rank beside that of the fore- 
most modern masters. 

"Her work is resolute, thoughtful and lucid. Much of her master's 
strength of line is there, and much also of his solemn, almost classic 
restraint. Miss Cassatt has never faltered in her allegiance to the tenets 
of Impressionists." (Int. studio 27 :i.) 

"She has succeeded in creating a new style and lending to prose and 
realism a decorative quality best displayed in her colored etchings. In 
sheer force and breadth of view few men artists could rival her "Mother 
and child" pictures." (Hartmann.) 

Perception of and sympathy for the wonderfully intimate relation 
existing between mother and child are qualities which stand out promi- 
nently in the work of Miss Cassatt. (Elizabeth Anna Semple.) 

Chief distinction of Miss Cassatt's art is closeness of interpretation 
united to the impressionist's care for the transitory aspect of things. 
(Elizabeth Luther Cary.) 

"The secret of compressed statement is hers, of condensed signifi- 
cance." . (Frank Weitenkampf.) 

At the exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, held 
in 1914, Miss Cassatt was awarded the gold medal of the academy. She 



61 

accepted it. It is the only honor which she has accepted in her long and 
distinguished life. 

CHAMrNEY^ Jambs Wells^ (P.) b. Boston, Mass., July 16, 1843; d. 
New York, May 1, 1903. Began his art education with a wood engraver 
in Boston. Studied in Europe under Edouard Fr6re, Paris, and at Ant- 
werp under Van Lerius, 1868-9. In 1882 he was made associate member 
of the National Academy. An exhibitor of oil paintings at the Centen- 
nial Exhibition, 1876, and of pastels at World's Columbian Exposition, 
1893. 

On account of the number of Boston artists bearing his surname, he 
signed his early pictures "Champ," but latCT gave his, full name. 

Early and popular pictures : 

''Not as ugly as he looks" "The best scholar" 

^'Boy shelling peas" "Which is umpire" 

"Hearts and diamonds" "Grandma's pet" 

"The sear leaf" "Don't touch" 

"Your good health" "Children roasting apples" 

"Speak, sir" 

The most successful paintings are genre subjects, quiet and simple in 
their nature. 

During the last few years of his.life, Mr. Champney made a specialty 
of pastel pictures and achieved remarkable success in this branch of art. 

A few of his later pictures are: 

"The squire's daughter" "The flower of New England" 

"Ophelia" "Sylvia" 

"Indian summer" "Mignon" 

"A song without words" "Little Mistress Dorothy" 

"The best scholar" 

Chandler, George W., (E., I.) b. Milwaukee, Wis. He early evinced 
artistic tendencies and was employed as an illustrator on the New York 
daily papers. After some foreign travel, entered the Academic Julien, 
Paris in the classes of Jean Paul Laurens. In 1908 received honorable 
mention at the salon. 

India forms the setting for some of his finest plates : 

"The minarets, Benares" 

"The burning ghats, Benares" 

Parisian scenes: 

"Les travaux du M6tro" "Le dejeuner" 

"Dans I'Avenue de Saxe" "Aux bords de la Seine" 



62 

Evid,eiice of his versatility, as well as his understanding of pastoral 
beauties may be found in "Le Moulin Moret," "The old lock," "Cour de 
Cerf" and "Cour h pent I'Arche" ; "Le portail de St. Maclou, Rouen," is 
an expression of sombre beauty. 

"He gives us not only the lacy fret work of the vaulted doorway, but we 
enter with him into the shadow of a dim interior, heavy with the in- 
cense of a by-gone age." (Marie Bruette.) 

Chapman, John Gadsby, (E., P.) b. Alexandria, Va., December 8, 
1808; d. Brooklyn, N. Y., July 6, 1890. One of the most important of 
the early etchers in the United States, made his first attempt at etching 
in 1843 ; etched in Rome from 1852 to 1857, where he studied art. First 
became known as an etcher in New York City where he did much good 
work for Harper & Bros. 

His versatility was remarkable — portraits, landscapes, engraving and 
etching being alike within the compass of his ability. For fifty-three 
years he was a member of the National Academy of Design. 

His "Baptism of Pocahontas" in the rotunda of the Capitol at Wash- 
ington, is the painting by which he is best known. 

Mr. Chapman was the first American to write on etching. 

Chase, William Mebeitt, (P.) b. Franklin, Ind., November 1, 1849. 
At the age of nineteen began the study ^of art in Indianapolis; also 
studied in New York, Jater in the IMLunich Royal Academy and after- 
wards had Alexander Wagner for a teacher; also was a pupil of Karl 
von Piloty. He refused a professorship in the Munich Royal Academy 
and returned to America. In 1885 he was elected president of the So- 
ciety of American Artists and re elected every year thereafter for ten 
years. After conducting winter classes at the Art Students' League for 
eighteen years, in 1897 he organized a distinct school of his own known 
as the "Chase School for Art." Aside from his work in New York, he 
has taught for a number of years at Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts and at the Hartford Art School. His suinmer school at 
Shinnecock, L. I., is famous. His influence as an instructor is the 
most far-reaching of any artist in America and probably of any country, 
and his traveling classes abroad are a feature in the progress of Ameri- 
can art. He is one of the foremost landscapists and portraitists, and 
the best "still-life" painter in America. A member of the National 
Academy of Design since 1890. 

In 1876 he exhibited his "Court jester" and established his reputation 
as a painter; and five years later his "Smoker" (portrait of Frank 
Duveneck) won prizes in Paris and Munich. 



63 

His most famous portraits are those of his mother, "My daughter 
Helen," Mrs. Tyler, Dr. Osier and Thomas Dolan. Among his fanciful 
pictures are "Alice," "Dorothy and her sister," "The red box," "Ring 
toss," "Girl with dog," "Eeady for the ride," "The gray kimona," "The 
open Jananese book." These serve weU to illustrate the distinctive 
quality of Chase's color sense. 

"One of Chase's most significant contributions to the history qf Ameri- 
can art, hovsrever, is his painting of the figure in relation to its environ- 
ment — the figure in relation to the interior (not the figure against a back- 
ground), the figure in the landscape." (Craftsman 18:38.) 

Mr. Chase is world-famous for painting of brass and other metals; 
and he paints the gold frame of the picture within this picture with suffi- 
cient skill to stand comparison with the rekl frame. 

Mr. Chase's portrait hangs in the Ufflzi, Florence, Italy, in the famous 
gallery devoted to the portraits of painters by themselves. This is an 
empthatic recognition of his achievement and his standing in the pro- 
fession of art. Only two other American artists have been thus hon- 
ored — Healy and Sargent. 

In 1903 he was elected a member of "Ten American Painters" to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of John Henry Twachtman. 

Christy^ Howa-rd Chandler^ (I.) b. Morgan county, Ohio, January 
10, 1873. Was educated at Duncan Falls, Ohio. At the age of twenty he 
entered the National Academy of Design, New York, and in two months 
had won honorable mention and one bronze medal. He studied under 
William M. Chase and later became instructor in Cooper Union, the 
Chase School, New York School of Art and the Art Students League. 

During the Spanish-American war was with the Rough Riders before 
Santiago and established his reputation by his Cuban pictures and 
types of the navy and army men. He wrote war stories and illustrated 
them for Scribner's and Leslie's Weekly, and has made hundreds of 
illustrations for other publications. 

Among his best known and most popular works were his pictures il- 
lustrating "Miles Standish" and "Evangeline." Mr. Christy is famous 
as the painter of the American girl. 

His art is of a high romanticism in conception and academic in its exe- 
cution. 

Church, Frederick Edwin^ (P.) b. Hartford, Conn., May 4, 1826; d. 
New York, April 7, 1900. The pupil of Thomas Cole, he resided with 
him at Catskill, N. Y., thus gaining the first inspir-ations along the shores 
of the Hudson and amid the beautiful regions of the legendary Catskills. 



64 

He established a studio in New York and was elected an academician 
of the National Academy in 1849. Made sketching tours in South 
America in 1853 and 1857; later, on the coast of Labrador and in Ja- 
maica. In 1868 visited Europe and the Holy Land ; Mexico in 1883. 

Church's "Niagara" was immediately recognized as the first satis- 
factory delineation in art of one of the greatest natural wonders of the 
western world, and this is in itself extraordinary praise. It received 
medal at the Paris Exposition of 1867. When Ruskin first saw this 
painting he pointed out an effect upon water which he declared he had 
often seen in nature ^mong the Swiss waterfalls, but never before on 
canvas. 

Among his works sketched on his extensive tours are: 

"Icebergs" "Rainy season in the tropics" 
"A South American landscape" "Heart of the Andes". 

"The afterglow" "p]l Khasm6 Petrk" 

•'Andes of Ecuador" "Cotopaxi" 

"Chimborazo" "Twilight in the wilderness" 

"Morning in the Cordilleras" "View of Quebec" 

"Jerusalem" "Aurora borealis" 

Church's works are generally composite rather than a transcription 
of actual landscape. 

Chiuech, Frederick Stuart, (P., I., E.) b. Grand Rapids, Mich., De- 
cember 1, 1842. Studied in the Chicago Academy with Walter Shirlaw 
and later in the National Academy of Design and Art Students' League 
of New York, and for some years has occupied a studio in that city. His 
first popularity was gained by his drawing in black and white; he fur- 
nished book and magazine illustrations for Scribner's and other publica- 
tion houses; then oil and water-color work attracted attention. 

Mr. Church is a member of the National Academy of Design, New 
York, Society of Painter-Etchers, London, and the New York and Phila- 
delphia etching clubs. 

"Una and the lion," "The lion in love," "Beauty and the beast," "The 
black orchid," "The sorceress," and "Twilight" are familiar examples of 
his graceful realization of purely fanciful themes. 

Of his works, Isham in his "History of American painting," says: 

"They are not profound, they are not subtle yet if they have the 

simplicity of a story told to children, they have also freshness and 
charm. If the drawing is loose, it is also graceful." 

There are probably no more popular etchings than his, wherein a 



65 

graceful and humorous fancy charms us all. His "Mermaid" is a well- 
known plate. 

Ci^ARK, Walter Applbton, (I.) b. Worcester, Mass., June 24, 1876; d. 
New York City, December 27, 1906. With a purely local art training of 
some three years, he established himself as one of the leading illustra- 
tors of the day. Taught classes at the Art Students' League and Cooper 
Union, N. Y. and at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 

A picture of his on the wall of the Art Students' League, while a 
student, attracted the attention of the art editor of Scribner's maga- 
zine; this led to his being employed to illustrate one of Kipling's stories. 
Among his last works was the illustration of the modern version of 
"Canterbury Tales" by Percy Mackaye. 

"Mr. Clark's strong point is his execution, he has a nice clean dexterity 
of touth, employed with nobility and ease." 

"In finish he obtains the feeling noticeable in the color work of Vibert 
and his compositions are handled with the adroitness of Fortuny, with 
less dash, however, but with more delicate sympathy and refinement." 

Olaeke, Thomas Shields, (S., P.) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., April 25, 1860. 
Graduated at Princeton University in 1882. While a student at the Art 
League in New York, he made illustrations for magazines. Going to 
Paris, he studied drawing under Boulanger and Lefebvre, modeling un- 
der Chapu and painting under G(§rome in the Ecole des Beaux Arts; 
later was instructor by Dagnan-Bouveret ; also studied art in Florence, 
Rome and Venice. Associate member of National Academy of Design, 
1902. 

His paintings and sculpture have brought him honor at home and 
abroad, he having been represented at international expositions at Ber- 
lin, Madrid, London and Paris. 

His "Night market in Morocco" received official recognition at the Ber- 
lin Exposition in 1891 ; "A fool's fool" was shown at the Paris salon, and 
upon its merits he was admitted to membership in the Society of Ameri- 
can Artists, New York. "A gondola girl," "Morning, noon and night" 
and other Venetian works are attractive. 

His bronze group — fountain design — "The cider press," displayed at 
the Madrid Exposition, brought him a medal of honor, presented person- 
ally by the King of Spain. 

Four caryatides — "The seasons" — on the New York Appellate Court 
building are dignified and graceful. His more important work in sculp- 
ture is "Alma Mater and her son Alumnus," for Princeton University. 

"These figures are splendidly modeled and thoughtfully conceived." 
9 



Mr. Clarke has also done some notable mural decoration. (Brush & 
P. 6:195.) 

OoLE^ Thomas, (P.) b. Bolton-le-Moor, Lancashire, England, February 
1, 1801; d. Catskill, N. Y., February 11, 1848. He was of American 
parentage, and in 1819 the fainily returned to America taking up their 
residence at Stubenville, Ohio, where he began the study of painting 
under a portrait painter named Stein. Not successful in portrait work, 
he took up landscape painting. In 1825 he went to New York, sub- 
sequently became intimately acquainted with Durand and Trumbull. 
He was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design and had 
a picture at its first exhibition in 1826. A patron sent him to Europe 
in 1829 to complete his art education and he remained there about three 
years sketching and painting in England, France and Italy. After his 
return he painted two allegorical series, "The course of empire" and 
"Voyage of life." These soon won him great contemporary popularity. 
(Noble's "Life and works of Thomas Cole." These paintings were 
exhibited in the rooms of the New York Art Union in 1848 and were 
visited by a half million people. Other paintings depict scenes from an 
extreme range of landscape. 

"AH are remarkable for imagination, composition and the most re- 
fined and picturesque truth to the details, as facts and influences of 
nature." (Tuckerman.) 

His most beautiful illustrations of Italian scenery are "I'Allegro" 
and "II Penseroso," companion pieces. Of American views one of the 
most attractive is "The hunter's return." One of his most highly finished 
works is a picture illustrating Mrs. Hemans' poem "The cross in the 
wilderness." "The tone of the picture is quite Claude-like." (Tucker- 
man.) CaflSn says: "Cole forms a link between the new enthusiasm for 
nature study and the older predilection for historical and 'grand style' 
subjects." According to this authority his more enduring claim, how- 
ever, to be remembered consists in his having aroused an appreciation 
of the pictorial possibilities of the Catskill, and of American landscape 
in general. He makes nature the vehicle for moral allegories. 

Co MAN, Charlotte Bt'BLr., (P.) b. Waterville, New l^ork, 1833. 
Studied in Paris with Harry Thompson and Emile Vernier; spent six 
years in France and Holland and exhibited at the Paris salons for two 
years. Mrs. Coman's specialty in painting is landscapes and she was 
thirty years of age before she commenced the study of art. , She received 
the Shaw memorial prize of ,the Society of American Artists, and the 
second prize of the Washington Society of Artists, 1906. Was elected 



67 

associate member National Academy of Design, 1910. Mrs. Coman is 
represented in the Evans collection, Washington, D. C, the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York, and in the permanent collections of several 
western clubs. 

"Clearing oft" is 'one of her strongest, and "A misty morning at the 
fann" one of her best. 

Craftsman 21 .-491 : "But to return to the academy walls one seeks 
again and again Charlotte Coman's beautiful painting of hills and 
clouds. What sunlight pours over the friendly little house nestling in 
the shadowy meadoAvs, a deli^tful study, tenderly painted, a thing to 
remember and rejoice in." 

Mrs. Coman was one of a hundred representative American artists 
chosen to exhibit at the Detroit Museum's exhibition of "best pictures 
from current shows." Her "Well-worn path" was selected by the com- 
mittee. 

Critics of high repute declare that Mrs. Coman is doing her best work 
now at the age of eighty. 

CooPEE^ Colin Campbell, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa. Studied in 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Academic Julien 
and other art schools in Parife. Is a member of many leading art clubs 
in this country, and has been awarded many medals and prizes; is an 
associate member of the National Academy. He has spent much time- in 
Europe painting figure and architectural subjects, architecture and 
street scenes being his specialtj'. "Beauvais cathedral," one of the 
notable historical structures of l^rance, is considered his finest work. 
Mr. Cooper's notable achievement is his long series of canvases depicting 
the picturesque charm of the modern sky-scraper; he began this wol^k in 
1902. He sees beauty, sublimity and grandeur in the structures that 
the average person is wont to call monstrosities. 

He handles water-colors on canvas so cleverly that his water-colors 
can scarcely be distinguished from oils. 

"Broad street. New York," "Rush hour Brooklyn bridge," "Broadway," 
"The chain gate," "The Flatiron building," "Walton hotel, Philadel- 
phia," and a scene in Penn Square, are additional proof of his skill in 
clothing the commonplace "brick and mortar of the business block with 
rich warm colors of their own. 

"That Cooper has the qatural gift of seeing the beauty of what to 
most people are prosaic structures, and the patience and persistence to 
perfect his delineation of street and building, is the secret of his success 
as an architectural painter." (Brush & P. 18:72.) 

Mr. Cooper has recently returned from the far East and has exhibited 



68 

Indian paintings in New York. Among his architectural works which 
are said to possess "such charm as to make them dreams of beauty" are 

"Taj Mahal, Agra" 

"White Mosque, Bombay" 

"Maharajah's palace, Udaipor" (Venice of India) 

He has also given his poetic version of the famous "Bathing Ghat, 
Benares" and "Akbar's Baths, Agra." "Bombay harbor at sunrise" is 
an impressive and splendidly painted view of the Himalayan peak of 
Kungchenjunga. 

"Perhaps the most striking work in the display is the "Palace gate, 
Udaipor" which pictures the inner gate in the Maharajah's palace dur- 
ing a procession, a remarkable portrayal of the rich colored moving, 
strange life of an ancient city under tropic skies." 

Cooper, Emma Lampert (Mrs. Colin Campbell Cooper), (P.) b. Nunda, 
New York. Began the study of art at the Cooper Union and Art Stu- 
dents' League in New York and later was the pupil of Harry Thompson 
in Paris, J. Kever in Holland and William M. Chase in New York; has 
also studied in Italy. 

Mrs. Cooper has had charge of the art department at Foster School, 
Clifton Springs, also of the painting classes at Mechanics Institute, 
New York. 

Interiors and street scenes from France, Holland, Belgium, Italy and 
Switzerland, painted in oils and water colors, are her favorite Subjects. 

Representative pictures are: 

"Morning near Riverdale" "News of the day" 

"High noon. Cape Ann" "Weaving homespun" 

"Mother Claudia's fireside" "Swiss fireplace" 

"The breadwinner" "Canal at Lisieux" 

"Breton bakery" "Old dye house" 

Copley, John Singleton, (P.) b. Boston, Mass., July 3, 1737; d. Lon- 
don, England, September 9, 1815. At the age of seventeen he produced 
his first grouped picture — an allegorical study of Mars, Venus and Vul- 
can. From that time he was recognized as a painter. Through the in- 
fluence of Benjamin West his "Boy with the squirrel" was exhibited in 
London in 1766, and in 1772 lie was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Artists. In 1774 he settled in London and became a notable painter of 
historical scenes. In 1776 he was elected associate of the Royal Acad- 
emy, and in 1779, academician, and presented, on admission, his 
"Tribute money." His "Death of the Earl of Chatham" established his 
fame in England. 



GO 

He opposed the classical productions of the age by his vigorous repre- 
sentations of events of history and war. Among his numerous subjects 
in this line are : "Death of Major Pierson," "Siege of Gibraltar," "Sur- 
render of Admiral de Windt to Lord Camperdown," "Charles I demand- 
ing the five impeached menibers," "Charles I signing Stafford's death 
warrant," "Offer of crown to Lady Jane Grey," "Assassination of Buck- 
ingham." He also painted religious subjects and large portrait groups 
of noted English families. But of his earlier work — -that done before 
he left Boston, which consists of a long series of portraits of our colonial 
dignitaries, divines, judges and merchants — Isham says: "These paint- 
ings are the most authentic records of our pre-revolutionary ancestors 
which have come down to us." 

Copley's best known portraits in America are those of John Adams 
and John Hancock. 

CaflBn says : "Copley was the most distinguished in skill of craftsman- 
ship of all the pre-revolutionary painters." 

Copley was not poetical, but he produced splendid prose. 

Cory, Fanny Young (Mrs. F. W. Cooney), (I.) b. Waukegan, 111., 
October 17, 1877. Studied art at the Metropolitan School and the Art 
Students' League of New York. Married to F. W. Cooney, 1904. 

Mrs. Cooney has made illustrations for the Century Company and 
Harper Bros., and illustrated numerous books, including "Alice in 
Wonderland," "Through the looking glass," etc. 

Favorite children pictures are: 
"Do you make saucer pies?" 
"On the dark stair" 
"Shoo!" 

CouDERT, Amalia Kussner,. (Miuu. p.) b. Terre Haute, Ind., March 26, 
1876; began her artistic career in New York -in 1892 and afterwards 
went to London and painted miniature portraits of King Edward and 
most of the- highest aristocracy of England,- later she was summoned to 
Russia to paint portraits of the Czar and Czarina and the Grand 
Duchesses Vladimir and Ellen and also went to Africa to paint the 
portrait of the late Cecil Rhodes. 

CouPBR, William, (S.) b. Norfolk, Va., September 20, 1853. Pupil of 
Thomas Ball and Cooper Institute in New York ; also studied in Munich 
and Paris. ; 

Lorado Taft says: "His 'Moses' in the appellate court building is a 
magnificent conception and justly admired, its only weakness is over- 



70 

elaboration Mr. Couper has made particular and sympathetic 

study of winged figures. They are not merely pretty but they are beau- 
tiful, radiant creations, gracefully conceived, carefully drawn and ex- 
quisitely carved." 

Mr. Couper is a member of the National Sculpture Society. 

CousE^ Eangee Irving, (P.) b. Saginaw, Mich., 1866. Pupil of Na- 
tional Academy, New York, Bouguereau, Eobert-Pleury and Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris. Eeceived the Shaw prize for black and white, at 
Salmagundi Club, 1899; second Hallgarten prize National Academy, 
1900; Proctor prize. Salmagundi Club, 1900; honorable mention, Paris 
Exposition, 1900 ; first Hallgarten prize National 'Academy, 1902. Asso- 
ciate member National Academy of Design, 1902; academician, 1911. 

Mr. Couse devotes himself to the Pueblo or town Indians of the south- 
west, painting them in their actuality or with ideal touch in their home 
in New Mexico. Part of the year he passes at Taos, for the portrayal 
of the Taos Indians is his particular art 

He had much difficulty in securing interesting and picturesque models, 
as it is a matter of belief with these Indians and in fact with others, 
that the soul of the sitter passes out into the portrait when the picture 
is completed, and naturally, until the prejudice is overcome, there is not 
much enthusiasm about posing. 

"He paints the Indian not primarily as the actor in a wild savage 
drama, as Remington and Schreyvogel have, but as the peaceful dweller 
in primitive scenes, revealing them often as more poetical and philoso- 
phical than the more so-called civilized races." (Craftsman 18:619.) 

Admired works are : 

"The mountain hunter" "The weary hunter" 

"The magic forest" "Bear cubs" 

"Trout ripples" "Returning to camp" 

"An Indian shepherd" "Medicine fires" 

"The voice of the falls" "The trout streams" 

"Elk-foot" "The brook" 

"San Juan pottery". "The torn torn maker" 
"Mending the war bonnet" 

At the winter exhibition of the National Academy of New York the 
Carnegie prize of $500 for the most meritorious oil painting by an 
American artist went to Mr. Couse for his "Indian making pottery." 

. CowLES^ Genevieve Almeda and Maud Alice (twin sisters), (Mural 
P. and stained-glass decorators) b. Parmington, Conn., February ^3, 



71 

1871. These sisters always lived in an atmosphere favorable to the culti- 
vation of their naturally artistic tastes. They took up drawing at the age 
of seven ; a little later they were taken to Europe and in Florence, Giotto, 
Fra Angelico and Botticelli impressed their imaginations deeply. Their 
first series of children were drawn for Scribners. They have done much 
work for magazines, executed stained glass windows in various churches, 
also specialized in mural decoration. 

Their mural decorations in Christ Church, New Haven, Conn., are 
especially noteworthy. They represent: "Prayer of the prisoner," 
"Prayer of the soul in darkness," and "Prayer of old age." These are 
paintings of states of the soul and of deep emotions. They are records of 
human lives and not mere imagination. 

Other works are. Memorial window and a decorative border for the 
chancel of Saint Michael's Church, Brooklyn; a window in memory of 
the deaconess. Miss Stilllnan, in Grace Church, New York. Have exe- 
cuted many windows and other decorative work for churches. 

Miss Maud Alice died during the summer of 1905. 

Miss Genevieve writes: "I desire especially to work for prisons, hos- 
pitals and asylums — ^for those whose great need of beauty seems often 
to be forgotten." 

She contributed to the Craftsman 10:97 a most interesting article 
on "Building a stained glass window." 

Cox, Kenyon, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Warren, O., October 27, 1856. 
Studied in Cincinnati and Philadelphia; also in Paris under Carolus- 
Duran and G6rome, 1877-82; returned to New York. 

Received second Hallgarten prize at the Academy exhibition in 1888, 
and the same year received two prizes for works at the Paris Universal 
Exposition. His pictures are principally portraits and figures. He 
painted two decorations in the Library of Congress, one in Walker Art 
Gallery Bowdoin college, one in Iowa <^tate capitol, also frieze in court 
room of appellate court building, New York. Associate member of Na- 
tional Academy, 1900, full member, 1903; also a member of American 
Academy Arts and Letters. 

"A lady in black" was exhibited in the. salon during his Paris student 
days and on the merits of this work he was elected to the Society of 
American Artists. 

Uest known paintings are: 

"Jacob wrestling with the angel" "Painting and poetry" 
"Vision of moonrise" "Flying shadows" 

Mr. Cox is regarded as a colorist of distinction, but especially excels 



72 

as a draughtsman. He is also well known by his critical writings of 
art and by his work in black and white, including his illustrations to 
Rossetti's "Blessed damozel." (Int. studio 32:3.) 

Ooxj Louise, (Mrs. Kenyon Cox), (P. and I.) b. San Francisco, Cal., 
June 23, 1865. Pupil of the National Academy of Design ; Art Students' 
League under Kenyon Cox in New York. Received third Hallgarten 
prize National Academy of Design, 1896; bronze medal Paris Exposi 
tion 1900. 

"Mrs. Cox makes a specialty of children's portraits and some of her. 
happiest results have been obtained when her own charming children 
have acted as the models." (Overland monthly 40:111.) 

Craig, Charles, (P.) b. Morgan county, Ohio, November 1, 1846. He 
went west in 1865 and lived among the Indians for four years. In 1869 
he came east for technical instructions and , became a student at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts remaining there until 1873 
when he entered the studio of Peter Moran. Eight years later he re- 
turned to Colorado, opened a studio at Colorado Springs and became 
known as a painter of Indians and western scenes. 

Mr. Craig has exhibited in eastern galleries and many of his pictures 
have gone to Europe. Count Orloflf Davidorflf of St. Petersburg and 
the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos are among distinguished peo- 
ple who own his pictures. Representative pictures are, 

"Trailing in" "Medicine man" 

"Scouting party" "Hualipi" 

"A Sioux lookout" 

"Mr. Craig's knowledge is so accurate that the student of Indian cos- 
tume may be sure that every detail is correct. If a Sioux warrior is 
depicted on the war path his streaks of paint are in the proper place and 

of the proper color Ea"ch canvas is a historical record. (Int. 

studio, 52:xciv.) 

Crane, Bruce, (P.) b. New York, October 17, 1857. Studied art under 
Alexander H. Wyant. At the age of seventeen while residing in Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey, he entered the oflSce of an architect and builder and 
there had actual experience as a practical draughtsman. In 1878 he 
went abroad visiting the galleries of Liverpool, London and Paris. His 
first picture, "An old mill pond on Long Island," was exhibited at the 
National Academy in 1879. The summer of 1882 he spent in the historic 
old town of Grez, near the forest of Fontainebleau. 

He received the Webb prize. Society American Artists, 1887; bronze 



73 

medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; the George Inness memorial gold medal 
National Academy, 1901. An associate member of the National Acad- 
emy in 1897, full member, 1901. He belongs distinctly to the plein air 
school of landscape painters and chooses only native subjects. As a 
teacher he has met with remarkable success. 

Mr. Crane has produced a long list of charming, poetic canvases, be- 
ing one of America's most idyllic landscape painters. 

His most notable canvases are: 

"Winter" "November woods" 

"A haystack" "Peace at night" 

"Apple blossoms" "A black cloud" 

"Brown and sere" "Waste land" 

"Eipening grain" "White fields" 

"The gray hill" "A New England meadow" 

"Rainbow" "Harvest field" 

"Indian summer" "After the rain" 

"Awakening hills" 

He writes : "A work of art is not a scientific statement. It is enough 
if it be true to itself, that is to say, harmonious." 

"It is by the simple selection of colors and the conscientious pains- 
taking methods that Crane has achieved, his notable successes." (Brush. 
& P. lid.) 

Crowninshibld, Frederic, (P., I., Mural and stained-glass designer) 
b. Boston, Mass., November 27, 1845. Mr. Crowninshield was educated 
at Harvard and studied art with Rowbotham in London. For a number 
of years he lived in Italy and in Rome studied with Jean Achille B6nou- 
ville. For three years he lived in Siena where he learned the technical 
secrets of "buon fresco," almost a lost art. To this period belong many 
oif his delightful water colors. He visited Paris frequently and studied 
under Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and worked with Couture in 
his studio at Villers-le-Bel, near Paris. Shortly after his return to the 
United States in 1878 Mr. Crowninshield was appointed instructor of 
drawing, painting and decorative art in the school connected with the 
Boston Museum of Pine Arts. This position beheld until 1885 during 
which time he lectured on artistic anatomy. 

After moving to New York he executed a memorable series of stained 
glass windows. At this time he did his most important mural painting. 
During the past few years he has developed another side of his talent — 
landscape painting. Much of his time is devoted to guiding the activi- 
ties of the art societies in New York. He has been president of the Fine 



74 

Arts Federation of New York since 1900 ; director of the American Acad- 
emy at Rome 1909-11 and is an associate member of the National Acad- 
emy of New York. His book "Mural painting" is a standard work. 

As a painter, poet, craftsman, illustrator, teacher, lecturer, after- 
dinner speaker, organizer, he holds an unique place in the art world of 
the United States. 

Ceunelle, Leonard, (S.) b. Lenz, Prance. His family emigrated to 
America and found work in the coal mines near Decatur, 111." Leonard 
amused himself after work by modeling figures out of coal. Lorado 
Taft, the sculptor, discovered him and later became his instructor in 
Chicago. 

Mr. Crunelle first won recognition through his models of babies. "The 
squirrel boy" is perhaps the most popular of his later studies. 

Christine Bennett says: "His work has made for itself a permanent 
place and Tiis future promises a fulfilment that will rank him among the 
greatest of American sculptors." (Arts and D. 1:406.) 

"Crunelle's Art," said Lorado Taft, "reminds me of the purity and sim- 
plicity of the old Florentines. He rejoices in youth and in the spring- 
time of life." 

CuRRAN, Charles Courtney, (P.) b. Hartford, Ky., February 13, 1861. 
Began to study art at the Cincinnati School of Design then became a 
pupil of the Art Students' League and the National Academy of Design 
of New York; later studied with Benjamin-Constant and Doucet in 
Paris. In 1900 he became a member of the American Arts Commission 
at the Paris Exposition and was assistant director of fine arts at the 
Pan-American Exposition. Has taught at the Pratt Institute and Art 
Students' League. A member of the Society of American Artists and 
other art associations ; elected associate member, of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, 1888; academician, 1904. 

In 1888 his picture "A breezy day" received the third Hallgarten prize 
and his "Lotus lilies of Lake Erie" won honorable mention in the Paris 
salon of 1890. 

Among his most important canvases are: 
"The sirens" "The enchanted shore" 

"The Peris" "The perfume of roses" 

"A deep sea fantasy" "Catching minnows" 

A series of twelve views of the Jungfrau. 

"His subjects include domestic genre and outdoor life, ideal groups 
and figures and compositions in which his imagination takes free play 



75 

in the depiction of the fanciful realms inhabited by the fairies." (Nat. 
Cyc. Am. Biog.) 
"He enacts the doctrine that the truest appeal of oil and canvas should 

be almost as abstract as that of musical sounds He neither lays 

an undue emphasis on drawing nor on elaborate or super-reflned color- 
ings, though clean and well-controlled in the former direction and clear 

and as a rule full of sunlight in the latter Rather he controls 

and marks his painting with the needed sentiment of peace and relish in 
man and nature." (Critic 48:39.) 

Dabo, Lbon^ (P.) b. Detroit, Mich., July, 1868, of French parents, and 
educated 'at Saint Ann's school, Detroit; was also a student at Ecole 
des Arts Decoratifs and under Daniel Urabietta Vierge, Paris, and re- 
ceived instructions from Galliardi in Rome and Florence ; lived in Sicily, 
Sardinia and Corsica; returned to the United States. in 1892. Is repre- 
sented in collections at Berlin, Dresden, London National Gallery, New 
York, Washington Museum of Art, Detroit and other American cities. 

The works of this "poet in color" for years were uniformily rejected 
by the juries of our American exhibitions as regularly as they were sent. 
But when M. Leonce B6nMite, director of the Luxembourg Museum, 
was in this country in 1907 he bore back to Paris in glad triumph for 
the Luxembourg one of Dabo's pictures that had been uniformly re- 
jected by our exhibitions. 

Artists like Edmond Aman-Jean and Auguste Rodin, critics li^e Paul 
Vallorbe and Camille Mauclair, poets like Maurice Maeterlinck and Ana- 
tol de Braz, and such responsible authorities as M. Leonce B6n6dite 
of the Luxembourg and Alexander D. Goltz, president of the Modern 
Society of Painters, Vienna, have joined in appreciative praise of this 
painter. (Craftsman 13 :26L) 

Most of Dabo's work has been done around New York bay and along 
the banks of the Hudson river. 

"Each picture is made up of a succession of harmonious tones which 
blend together in pleasing symphonic effects." (Brush & P. 17:3.) 

A few of his works are:- 

"The Hudson, Fort Lee" "The Hudson near Kingston" 

"The Hudson river" "The cloud" 

"The Hudson in winter" "The sea" 

"The Weehawken basin" "Early morning, Hudson river" 

"Evening on the Hudson" "Golden days" 

"He is a mystic of color. He believes that colors have the power to 
invoke moods directly and also that by closing one's eyes at any moment 



' 76 

one can see the color which is expressive of one's mood at just that time. 
"His preference in color is for iridescent shades, for subtle golds and 
soft blues and for the mystic darks of night. He avoids the garish 
hours of the day, and all obvious aspects of things ; he never wearies of 
trying to catch on the wing — with sense grown ever finer and keener 
those elusive, impalpable fleeting subtleties of color and light which 
give one the sense of spirituality so characteristic of his -best work." 
(Louise M. Kueflfner in Sewanee Review, 22:96.) 

Dabo, Theodore Scott, (P.) b. Detroit, Mich., 1870, of French par- 
ents, and educated at Saint Ann's school, Detroit. When his father, 
Ignace Scott Dabo (himself an artist) died in 1885, the family moved 
to New York City. Leon, the oldest son, went to work for a decorator, 
that this gifted brother, T.' Scott, might study without turning his talent 
to commercial profit. For sixteen years the paintings of the brothers 
Dabo were refused admission to the art exhibitions in this country. Bd- 
mond Aman-Jean, the French painter, was the first to recognize the ar- 
tistic value of their work and took T. Scott to Paris where his canvases 
were accepted by the salon and he greeted as an artist of rare individu- 
ality and strength. 

M. Henri Pene DuBois says : "T. Scott Dabo's works are hymns to 
nature. They are skies with vermilion mists exhaling praise as from a 
censer, marshes of melancholy, rivers of peace and forgiveness, fairy 
spectacles of land and water." Mr. DuBois also suggests Poe as a source 
of inspiration. Another saw in his work the influence of Mallarme. 
Octave Mirbeau recently wrote that T. Scott Dabo had the charm of 
Puvis de tJhavannes and the transparency of Carrifere. 

Reproductions can give no adequate idea of the depth of light and 
charm in color in T. Scott Dabo's "Tour St. Jacques in the rain," or 
his "Evening on the Seine." 

"We are the painters of atmospheric conditions," they say: "every 
thing in nature moves, we, therefore endeavor to paint movement." They . 
make color a vehicle of music-like vibrations. (Int. studio 27:174.) 

Daingerfield, Elliott, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Harper's Ferry, Va., 
March 26, 1859. Studied drawing and painting in New York with a 
private teacher, also at the Art Students' League. First exhibited at 
National Academy of Design in 1880. Studied in Europe during 1897. 
Is professor of painting and composition at the Philadelphia School of 
Design. A member of the National Academy, 1906. A writer on art 
subjects. 

Mr. Daingerfleld's productions are largely figure and landscape, and 



77 

his studies are usually taken from rural life, the toiler of the field being 

his favorite subject. 

In his paintings, color quality and depth of feeling are the dominant 

features and pervade the rough exteriors in which his characters are 

dressed. ' (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 
Among his noted canvases are: 
"Two women shall be working "The lost sheep" 

in the fields" "The mother" 

"My lady rhododendron" "A madonna of the fields" 

"Child of Mary" "Christ in the wilderness" 

"A garden of dreams" "A wood-cutter" 

"Labor and plenty" "Story of the madonna" 

"Planting" "The tanagra" 

Mr. Dangerfield was commissioned to paint the "Lady Chapel" of the 
Church of St. Mary the Virgin, New York, in 1902. 

"He is an imaginative painter with a strong sense of decorative beauty 
and he subordinates realistic facts to the effect of the ensemble." 

Dallin, Cyrus Edwin, (S.) b. Springfield, Utah, November 22, 1861. 
The first eighteen years of his life were spent in the mountains of Utah. 
When only seven years of age he attempted to model heads of his favor- 
ite Indian chiefs, and at the age of eighteen when sifting ore in the 
mines he modeled two heads in clay. These were so admired by the 
miners that they sent them to a fair in Salt Lake City. Two wealthy 
mining men in Utah saw the heads, became interested in the young 
genius, and made it possible for him to go to Boston where he com- 
menced study with Truman H. Bartlett, the sculptor. Later he went to 
Paris and studied under Chapu and Dampt. While in Prance he became 
acquainted with Eosa Bonheur and during the time that Buffalo Bill and 
his company of Indians were in Paris they — Dallin and the great French 
artist — ^worked together, frequently from the same model. 

Mr. Dallin has made a remarkable series Avhich tells the story of the 
Indian's relation to the white man : 

First, "Signal of peace ;" the welcome. 

Second, "Medicine man;" the warning. 

Third, "The protest;" defiance. 

Fourth, "Appeal to the Great Spirit;" the last hope of the Indian. 

The fourth of the series — "The appeal to the Great Spirit" — was 
awarded the gold medal in the Paris salon of 1909. "This statue is one 
of the greatest pieces of sculpture in modern art and is comparable witli 
the antique in its simplicity." (Arts & D. 4:153.) 



78 

"This series is an example of the sculptor's synthetic insight and Ms 
skilful interpretation of psychological moments." , 

His bas-relief of Julia Ward Howe is commented on as being "of 
exquisite sincerity of line, a reticent self-contained work and an ac- 
curate likeness." (New Eng. M. n. s. 48:408.) 

A bronze statue of "Don Quixote" was exhibited in the Paris salon and 
critics refer to it as "one of the most delightfully original and imagina- 
tive of American sculptures It is conceived in an absolutely 

ideal spirit and is enveloped in an atmosphere of romance which is com- 
pletely in harmony with that of Cervantes." 

He modeled the gilded bronze angel which surmounts the spire of the 
Mormon Temple in Salt Lake City ; also modeled the statue of Sir Isaac 
Newton for the rotunda of the Library of Congress. 

His "Despair" is an extremely graceful nude. (New England. M. n. s., 
21:196.) 

Dannat^ William T., (P.) b. Hempstead, L. I., July 9, 1853. Going 
abroad at an early age, he was educated in art at the Royal Academy of 
Munich ; studied also in Italy and Spain, after which he settled in Paris. 
No foreign painter has ever received greater praise from the French 
people. 

His first picture to attract attention was his celebrated painting en- 
titled "The quartette," exhibited in the salon of 1884. This picture was 
also exhibited at the Universal Exposition 1889 and was given a place 
of honor in the American section. It procured the artist the rank of 
chevalier in the Legion of Honor. He was elected oflScer, 1897; com- 
mander, 1900. Mr. Dannat is president of the Paris Society of American 
Painters and has been the recipient of numerous medals and diplomas. 

Popular paintings : 

"After the mass" ^ "Mariposa" 

"Otera" "Une Saduc^enne" ; woman in 

"Spanish women" white. 

"Aragonese smuggler" "Un profil blond" ; study in red. 

"A sacristy in Aragon" 

"Degas is his ideal, and the study of artificial light his field of ex- 
periment." (Muther.) 

"In Mr. Dannat's work we find the qualities of the most gifted artists 
— a vision of singular acuteness and sensitiveness, a refinement and deli- 
cate intelligence, perfect command of the means of drawing and paint- 
ing and finally that taste and that aesthetic tact which enables him to 
avoid every excess whether of commonplace or of eccentricity — these 



79 

two extremes on the verge of which the masterpiece is conceived and con- 
summated." (Child's "Art and criticism.") 

Albert Wolfif voiced the current opinion when he declared Dannat's 
"Quartette" to be the best piece of painting in the salon of 1884. 

Davidson^ Jo ( S. ) . Born in Russia, April, 1884. He came when very- 
young, with his parents, to New York and grew up on the East Side, ex- 
periencing all the vicissitudes of poverty and genius. At fifteen he 
had begun to earn his living. When sixteen he won a high school scholar- 
ship for drawing and entered the Art Students' League, supporting him- 
self by doing burnt wood drawings. In 1905 he received his first com- 
mission for a "David" and two years later sailed to Europe, arriving in 
Paris with f40 in his pocket. 

In a short time he brqke away from the academic precepts and the 
accepted form of art, for the subject of light and its effect on sculpture 
had begun to interest him. He says -that the first satisfactory result of 
his study of the relation of light to form was in the little group he calls 
"Rapture." 

A portrait bust of a Swiss girl was purchased by Mrs. Harry Payne 
Whitney. This success relieved financial pressure. A short time after 
this he sent the "Violinist" to the Autumn Salon, 1908, and it was ac- 
cepted. In 1910 he gave his first exhibition in New York City. He now 
exhibits in London, Paris and New York. 

Holbrook Jackson, the English author, has a very appreciative article 
in an English publication, T. P's Magazine, on Davidson and his art. 
He says: "Jo Davidson stands for distinction and imaginative power 
among the best of the new sculptors .... He is a representative of the 
new individualism. He sings his songs in bronze and creates tone-poems 
in elay .... The sculptures of Davidson suggest classical statues trans- 
figured by actuality .... In "Earth" we feel the reawakening of the 
classical in the modern. The "Russian dancer" is motion caught on the 
wing and frozen into bronze ... 

"Davidson's work is impressionistic, but it is not the impressionism 
of the painter. His art is more allied to impressionism in music than 
in painting — it has the same reflective emotion, the same self-contained 
sense of design. Whilst looking at his later work your mind is instinct- 
ively swayed by musical rhythm." 

His most characteristic portrait-busts are: John Duncan, the Scotch 
painter; Joseph Conrad, novelist; Georg Brandes, the Danish critic; 
Lord Northcliffe, owner of the London Times; Rabindranath Tagore, 
the Bengali poet; Frank Brangwyn, the English artist, Israel Zangwill, 
the Hebrew novelist; Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the eminent New York phy- 
sician. 



80 

"Of all these recent portrait-busts that of Georg Brandes is the most 
interesting. The Great Dane, as he has so often been called, is an ex- 
traordinary mixture of kindliness and cynicism, of enthusiasm and des- 
pair." The Conrad bust is to be used as a frontispiece in a com- 
plete edition of his novels." 

Da VIES, Arthur B., (P.) b. Utica, N. Y., 1862. Eeceived silver medal 
at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, and is a member of the New 
York Water Color Club. 

An art critic recently writing on the American art of the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, New York, refers to the strange somnambulistic 
intensity of his "Dreams" "With an entire absence of color and its great 
beauty of tone, the sense of slow continuous movement secured not by 
the drawing of the figure itself, but by the imaginative composition of 
the background." 

William J. Glackens writes enthusiastically of the art of Arthur B. 
Davies : "He is the most, important man in this country. But his art 
is not national; it is universal. He is a symbolist, a painter of ideas. 
Davies has felt the influence of the modem Frenchmen or of the old 
Italians, or Mantegna, for example, and insisted upon harmonious ar- 
rangement, upon order, which is the battlecry of the post-impressionists. 
He aims straighter, perhaps, than any other man here at beauty." (Arts 
&D. 3:164.) 

Davis, Charles Harold, (P.) b. Amesbury, Mass., January 7, 1856. 
Very early he displayed marked artistic ability. He was a pupil of 
Otto Grundmann and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, three years; 
also studied under Lefebvre and Boulanger, Paris, and remained in 
France ten years exhibiting in the salons during that time. Mr. Davis 
has resided at Mystic, Conn., since 1890. 

He is represented at Metropolitan Museum, New York, Corcoran Gal- 
lery of Art, Washington, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Phila- 
delphia, Art Institute, Chicago, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, and has 
been awarded prizes and medals at many competitive exhibitions; also 
received honorable mention in the Paris salon and in 1889 a second- 
class medal at the Universal Exposition, his works thereby becoming 
hors de concours. A member of the National Academy since 1906. 

Mr. Davis is one of the strongest American landscape painters. He 
gives the actual tone of the hour, whether it be sunrise, noon or sunset, 
in which his own personality while evident does not crowd out the per- 
sonality of nature. 

"Conquering light" is one of the most dramatic of his canvases and 
"September cloud" is quite beautiful. 



81 

Among his most famous productions are; 

"Winter evening" "Eocky pasture" 

"Summer" "Oak boughs" 

"The brook" "The hillside" 

"Twilight hour" "Summer breeze" 
"The time of the red-wing black- "Autumn clouds" 
bird." 

Speaking of his works at a recent exhibition, a well-known critic 
said: "Everywhere is dash, freedom, personality, nature, charm." 

In his pictures, Mr. Davis intends to record artistic sensations. "Each 
one has a particular motif which has been rendered in a fresh spon- 
taneous and thoroughly pictorial fashion." 

"The science of his art is secondary to what he is trying to say, and in 
its entirety of science and art, of technique and sentiment, these pic- 
tures by Mr. Davis rank him among the great landscapists of the day." 
(Brush & P. 4:122.) 

Dbakin, Edwin^ (P.) b. Sheflfield, England, 1840. Received early edu- 
cation in his native town. From the outset of his career he had a fond- 
ness for landscape and architecture. After following his art in Eng- 
land and France he came to America and settled in Berkeley^ Cali- 
fornia, and selected the .Spanish missions of- California as a specialty. 

Mr. Deakin began his work in 1870 and the series, comprising twenty- 
one missions, was completed in 1899. The series of structures painted by 
Mr. Deakin was begun under Father Junipero Serra, the leader of the 
Franciscans, who came to California in 1769. (Brush & P. 15:1.) 

Dearth, Henry Golden, (P.) b. Bristol, E. I., April 22, 1863. Pupil 
of Ecole des Beaux Arts; also studied with Morot and Merson. He 
won the Webb prize Society American Artists 1893; bronze medal, 
Paris Exposition, 1900; silver medal Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 
1901 ; was elected associate member National Academy in 1902 ; academi- 
cian in 1906. 

Mr. Dearth's specialty is landscapes on the Coast of Normandy. He 
has a home and a studio at Montreuil-sur-Mer in Pas-de-Calais, along 
the English Channel where he works several months each year. The 
keynote of his work is simplicity. He suggests details. This is most 
apparent in his "Sunset in Normandy." His pictures have dignity and 
poetry. (Century 48:157.) 

Db Camp, Joseph Rodefer, (P., Mural P.) b. Cincinnati, O., Novem- 
ber 5, 1858. Studied art with Frank Duveneck, at the Cincinnati Acad- 
11 



82 

emy and at the Royal Academy, Munich. Later accompanied Duveneck 
and Whistler to Florence and Venice. Won first prize city hall decora- 
tive competition Philadelphia; Temple gold medal, Pennsylvajiia Acad- 
emy of the Fine Arts, 1889; received honorable mention at Paris Exposi- 
tion 1900; gold medal at St. Louis Exposition 1904. Member of the so- 
ciety of Ten American Painters. Has been instructor in the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts and a member of the faculty in the 
schools of the Boston Museum of Pine Arts. 

Mr. De Camp is known chiefly from his portrait and figure painting, 
although his landscapes are among the finest painted by A.merican artists. 

For years he has had steady patronage from soldiers, statesmen, 
musicians, artists, writers and educators. His portrait of Col. Eoose- 
velt which he was commissioned by a committee of the members of the 
class of 1880 at Harvard to paint and which hangs in Memorial Hall, at 
Cambridge, is considered a wonderful achievement. Mr. De Camp's work 
is not frequently seen in New York except at exhibitions of the Ten 
American Painters. 

Arthur Hoeber, the art critic, says: "None of the modern painters, 
either in this country or in Europe is better equipped technically than 
is Joseph De Camp ........ He draws with academic correctness, has a 

thorough knowledge of anatomy and construction and for- facility of 
brush work yields to no one." 

Julia de Wolf Addison says that one of the best pictures ever painted 
by Joseph De Camp is owned by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts — 
"Guitar player." 

Popular figure paintings are: 

"The blue cup" "The Window" 

"The pink feather" "The violinist" 

"The gray turban" 

Db Havens, Frank, (P.) b. Bluffton, Ind., December 26, 1856. With 
money he earned at the age of sixteen he bought his first box of paints. 
In 1886 he went to New York and became a pupil of George H. Smillie. 
He won the Inness prize in 1900; Shaw prize, 1901, and received hon- 
orable mention at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Elected 
associate member of National Academy in 1902. 

"Moonrise and sunset" he regards as his most important work. It 
has warm color and a hazy glow— the russet of autumn, lighted by the 
sinking sun. "Autumn twilight" with its deep clear blue sky, in which 
the evening star twinkles near the horizon, is full of mystery. "A Maine 
farm" is a study of early autumn with the neutral atmospheric grays of 



83 

the waning year. His "Winter night" and "Indian summer" are in direct 
antithesis. 

His versatility is simply another expression for his breadth of interest, 
and his various tonal schemes for his mastery of color. 

"His subjects are simple and poetical, the last glow of the sun, a windy 
day, a threatening sky, or struggling clouds throwing a stream of light 
on the plain, furnish the principal themes of his pictures." — Hartmann. 

"His chief interest is to manipulate his color so as to make his canvas 

the means of imparting an emotion His scenes are bona fide 

scenes, simple bits in which he has seen beauty; and the emotion he 
seeks to arouse is the genuine emotion that he himself has experienced 
and that he strives to make others feel." (Brush & P. 17:179.) 

De Kat^ Helen A. (Mrs. R. W. Gilder), (P.). It was in Miss De Kay's 
studio that on June 1, 1877, she with Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Wyatt 
Eaton and Walter Shirlaw met and organized the Society of American 
Artists. . 

Mrs. Gilder has retired from the profession but Isham in writing of 
her pictures says: "She showed a charming feeling for subtle color in 
her ideal heads and especially in her flower studies." 

Dbming^ Edward Willaed^ (P., S., I., Mural P.) b. Ashland, Ohio, 
August 26, 1860. Studied in the Art Students' League and under 
Boulanger and Lefebvre, Paris. 

Mr. Deming's work divides itself into painting, mural decoration prin- 
cipally, and modeling. 

It is in his pictures /illustrating Indian folk-lore that Mr. Deming 
takes the greatest interest. "The Hiawatha legends are the subject of 

his most charming canvases he delights in scenes in which there 

is the mystery of twilight." (Craftsman 10:150.) 

"Perhaps no one has more exquisitely revealed the first blush of dawn, 
the majesty of moonlight, the changing gray of twilight, the tragic depths 
of loneliness in the first daybreak in woods and prairies." (Craftsman 
21:456.) 

"E. W. Deming perhaps as much as any man in sculpture has brought 
us the very intimate soul of the aboriginal western folk." (Craftsman 
28:153.) 

The bufl'alo frieze in the residence of Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton, by 
Mr. Deming, is a transcript of the open plain "under the unappeasable 
sun of the south west." (Int. studio 27:xv.) 

Mr. Deming has illustrated many stories and books dealing with In- 
dian life. He is now engaged in painting panels of Indian scenes for 



84 

the American museum of natural history. The panels are eight in num- 
ber and will illustrate the history of the principal tribes. 

Dessae, Louis Paul, (P.) b. Indianapolis, Ind., 1867. Studied at the 
National Academy in 1886; later went to Paris and studied under 
Bouguereau and Eobert-Fleury and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

Awarded third-class medal salon 1891;. received honorable mention 
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1897; second Hallgarten prize National 
Academy, 1900 ; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900 ; an associate mem- 
ber National Academy, 1900 ; full member, 1906. 

"An artist with a most delicate color sense. Paints the decorative 
landscape rather low in key, rich in color, and paint laid on solidly." 

It is by his sheep pictures that he is best known in this country. 
"Evening" was one of the prize pictures at the Columbian Exposition, 
Chicago, 1893. 

Among his well-known works are: 

"Going home" "Nocturne" 

"Return of the flock" "Moonrise" 

"The fold in the woods" "Clearing after the rain" 

"Ploughing" 

His wife is the original of the charming subject "Elizabeth." 
"He does not seem to care so much for composition or for assimilat- 
ing the ingredients of the scene and representing them in synthetic form, 
as for surface play of color in certain portions of the picture. (The 
artist, 24:lix.) 

"He is fond of the atmospheric effects of sunset and moonrise, . and 
often finds an aid to his composition in his interest in animal life." (Int. 
studio 27:lxvi.) 

Dbwey, Charles Melville, (P.) b. Lowville, New York, July 16, 1851. 
As a child he displayed artistic talents, earning the money for his first 
painting materials by building the fire in the country schoolhouse. In 
1874 he went to New York and became a pupil in the National Academy; 
two years later he went to Paris and entered the atelier of Carolus- 
Duran and was honored in being selected as one of three pupils to assist 
his master in the decoration of the "Plafond" of the Louvre. He re- 
turned to the United States and opened a studio in New York in 1878. 

He early became known as a truthful delineator of familiar phases 
of American landscape. 

"His landscapes are synthetic in treatment, for he seeks to interpret, 
rather than to transcribe an effect." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 



85 

Characteristic paintings are: 

"Edge of the forest" "Gray robe of twilight" 

"The close of day" "River at night" 

"The queen of night" "Eeturn of the hay boats" 

"An autumn pastoral" "The harvest moon" 
"The star and the shadows" 

His pictures have a liking for the subdued light of morning and even- 
ing, the trees massed dark against the sky, the depth and mistiness of 
the twilight foliage and the glow of the twilight sky. 

Dewing^ Maeia Oakley, (Mrs. T. W. Dewing), (P., I.) b. New York, 
October 27, 1857. Pupil of National Academy of Design and John La- 
Farge in New York; Courtois in Paris. Received bronze medal at Pan- 
American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 

Specialty: Figure and flower pieces and portraits. 

Dewing, Thomas Wilmee, (P., Mural P.) b. Boston, Mass., May 4, 
1851. Pupil of Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris. Won the Clarke prize. 
National Academy of Design, 1887; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; 
Lippincott prize, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1906; first 
medal, Carnegie Institute, 1908. Member of Ten American Painters. 
Elected a member of the National Academy of Design in 1888. 

"The exquisite poem 'In the garden' is one of the few perfect master- 
pieces which American figure painting has produced. "The south wind" 
is a very beautiful allegorical conception." 

Characteristic paintings are: 

"Sorcerers" "Before sunrise" 

"The blue dress" "The carnation" 

"After sunset" "The garland" 

"Yellow tulips" "The mirror" 

"Girl with lute" "Early portrait of the artist's 

"A lady playing the violincello" daughter" 

"The spinet" 

"The quality in Dewing's work which appeals to me [Hartmann] be- 
yond every other, is its personal character; it reflects the man's mind, 
that of a refined epicureanism, choosing naturally to live among dainty 
surroundings and beautiful women." 

Caffin says: "The technical' summary of Thomas W. Dewing's work is 
impressionism, based upon skilful draftsmanship and the facile interpre- 
tation of a color sense, not catholic, but deeply felt?' 

Dewing paints amber- toned interiors. 



86 

DiELMAN^ Frederick^ (Mural P., I. E.) b. Hanovjer, Germany, TDec. 
25, 1847. Came to the United States in childhood. Graduated at Cal- 
vert College. His first artistic work that appeared was entitled "A 
scene from a confederate raid in Maryland," and this was published 
when he was sixteen years of age. He studied art under Diez at the 
Eoyal Academy, Munich, returned to New York in 1876 and opened a 
studio there. 

Mr. Dielman was one of the founders of the Society of American 
Artists, and was elected a member of the National Academy of Design 
in 1883; also was one of the founders of the New York Etching Club; 
was president of the National Academy of Design 1889-1909; professor 
of descriptive geometry and drawing in College of New York since 1903. 
. He has contributed largely to the illustration of current fiction in 
leading magazines, and in editions de luxe of the works of Longfellow, 
Tennyson, Eliot, Hawthorne and others. 

Mr. Dielman is a well-known designer of mosaic and mural work; his 
panels "Law" and "History" in the Library of Congress, the large mo- 
saic "Thrift" in the Albany Savings Bank and six mosaics in the state 
capitol at DesMoines, la., rank with the best in this line- of art in 
America. 

Mr. Dielman also paints in oil, the subjects chosen being usually genre 
or historical. A few are: 

"The marriage of Francis Le "Old time favorites" 

Baron" "A girl I know' 

"The Mora player" 

His "Pomona," "Gabrielle" and "Christine" are dainty bits of exe- 
cution. 

DiLLAYE, Blanche, (P., I., E.) b. Syracuse, N. Y. Educated at Ogontz 
school. Studied art in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and 
in Paris; a pupil of Stephen Parrish in etching; has exhibited in Paris 
salons, and in England, as well as at all the principal exhibitions in the 
United States. Eeceived silver medal for etching, at Atlanta Exposition, 
and at Universal Exposition at Lorient, France, 1903. She is repre- 
sented in art collection of Syrapuse, N. Y.; is vice-president of Phila- 
delphia Water-color Club; member of Women's Art Club, New York; 
Women's Art Association in Paris ; first president of Plastic Club. 

Miss Dillaye has a penchant for odd nooks and narrow alleys — a 
"Quebec sail loft," being very characteristic. 

Dix, EuLABEB, (Min. P.) b. Illinois, October 5, 1879. Pupil of St. 



87 

Louis School of Fine Arts, William- J. Whittemore and I. A. Josephi 
in New York. 

"Jewel-like color resembling the earliest stained -glass is the effect Miss 
Dix has most zealously striven for. In the miniature of Mrs. Michael 
Dreicer the sitter is clothed in emerald green, a color which contrasts 
most effectively with her reddish brown hair. The miniature of Mark 
Twain in a gown of an Oxford doctor of letters shows a prevailing tone 
of gray, the broad red band of the gown lighting the whole picture. The 

miniature of Mrs. Purdon-Olarke is exceedingly beautiful Miss 

Dix's sense of color values is peculiarly happy." 

''Miss Dix thoroughly understands the art of miniature painting as 
distinct from portrait painting 'in the large.'"" (Int. studio 40:xciv.) 

"Eulabee Dix paints in the careful style of the old miniatures." 

Dixon, Maynard, (Mural P.) b. Fresno, California, 1875. A western 
artist who specializes in scenes from the mountains and desert, having 
spent many years in the Northwest, Mexico and Arizona. 

One of Mr. Dixon's latest successes is a series of panels for the Indian 
Hall in the Baldwin home in Santa Anita Canyon, near Pasadena. 

There are four panels and they depict the life of the Western Indian. 
"The victory song" represents savage Indians returning with their 
captives. "Envoys of peace" is the contrasting panel. The single figure 
standing in advance of his companions has dignity and repose. "The 
pool" represents: Indian women and children going down to bathe. The 
fourth panel is "The ghost eagle" and well expresses the fear and su- 
perstition of the Indian. 

"Mr. Dixon is to be congratulated upon having achieved a signal suc- 
cess in his interpretation of the mystery and silence of the Great Plains 
and in developing an art which is truly national in that it is distinctly 
American." (Int. studio 55:xcii.) 

Dodge, William db Leftwich, (Mural P.) b. Liberty, Va., March 9, 
1867. Studied in Munich and with G6rome in Paris. Received two third 
class medals and prix d'atelier while studying with G6rome ; two medals 
Cours Yvon; medal at Paris salon,- 1888; gold medal prize fund exhibi- 
tion. New York, 1886; bronze medal Paris Exposition 1889; also medal 
at Columbian Exposition, 1893. Member Society of Mural Painters. 

Mr. Dodge has executed mural paintings in the Library of Congress 
and in many New York City hotels. 

DoDsoN, Sarah Paxton Ball, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1847; d. 
Brighton, England, August 8, 1906. First began art studies in the 



88 

Pennsylvania Academy schools in 1872. Her training was continued in 
Paris where for three years she worked under Evariate Vital Luminals 
and afterward under Jules Lef ebvre, enjoying also the privilege ^at a later 
period in her career of criticism from Boutet de Monvel. Her first pub- 
licly exhibited work was "IVamour menetrier" shown in the Paris salon 
of 1877. Her decorative painting "Pax Patriae" was an especial feature 
of the Pennsylvania state building at the Columbian Exposition. "La 
dance" is an exemplification of her early style and "Deborah," recently 
acquired by the Corcoran Grallery of Art, Washington, D. C, well repre- 
sents the second period of her art development. Her most important 
historical work is "The signing of the Declaration of Independence in 
the state house, Philadelphia, Fourth of July, 1776," and "The invocation 
of Moses" in Saint Bartholomew church, Brighton, England, is her most 
important decorative work. In her landscapes "there is a marked deli- 
cacy of feeling." 

"Her limitations were the limitations of her temperament. In her 
painting there can be heard no strident call for recognition, but always 
the soft voice of beauty makes last appeal Through each suc- 
ceeding step of her artistic growth there is a sympathetic intimacy with 
the more subtle truths of nature." (Int. studio 45:xxxvii.) 

DoLPH, John H., (P.) b. Fort Ann, N. Y., April 18, 1835; d. New York 
City, September 28, 1903. He studied portrait painting with Allen 
Smith at Cleveland; began his career by painting portraits in Detroit 
in 1857 and went to New York a few years later. Going to Europe he 
studied apimal painting under Van Kuyck at Antwerp, specializing on 
horses. In 1875 he painted a Persian cat which was greatly admired, 
and from that time he painted cats and dogs almost exclusively. 

He was made an associate member of the National Academy of Design 
in 1877, and full member in 1898. 

An art critic has written : "Dolph's cat pictures are second only to 
Brown's bootblacks though from the technical side Mr. Dolph's work 
ranks much higher. In what the painters call qualities — the representa- 
tion of texture — he is particularly successful. When he puts one of 
his cats on a piece of velvet you rather feel that it is velvet." 

Dolph's cats are as famous in America as are Eonner's in Europe. 

DoNOGHUB, John, (S.) b. Chicago, 111., 1853; d. New Haven, Conn., 
July 3, 1903. Of very humble parentage ; had a short period of art study 
at the Academy of Design, Chicago; later studied with Jouflfroy in the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Exhibited a head "Phaedra" in the salon 
of 1880 and returned to Chicago the same year. When Oscar Wilde 



89 

visited this countijy in 1882 he called attention to Donoghue's artistic 
promise and through his efforts Donoghue was able to return to Europe 
the following year. Received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 
1886. In Rome he produced a number of remarkable works. "Young 
Sophocles" undoubtedly his highest inspiration, stands among the most 
perfect examples of ideal sculpture yet produced by an American. 

It was Donoghue's dream to be represented in his native city by a 
great work of art. He conceived the idea for an immense statue to be 
known as "The spirit." (Milton is said to have been the inspiration.) 
This colossal statue was intended for the Columbian Exposition, 1893. 
Arriving too late, no arrangements were made to receive it in New York 
and it was left on the dock. The artist could not pay the transporta- 
tion bill. This and the failure to show his work in public caused him 
grevious disappointment. He lost enthusiasm and ambition and but 
little was known of him until his dead body was found on the shores of 
Lake Whitney, near New Haven, Conn., he having committed suicide. 
(Taft's "History of American sculpture.") 

DoNOHO, Gaines Rugbr, (S., P.) b. Church Hill, Miss.^ 1857. Pupil 
of Art Students' League of New York and R. Swain Giflford, Lefebvre and 
Boulanger. 

Received silver medal at Paris Exposition 1889. 

Kenyon Cox says : "Mr. Donoho is a painter who has produced too 
little and exhibited' too little of what he has produced, but this picture 
["La Marcellerie"] decoratively designed and closely studied shows us a 
talent at once rebust and fine." 

Another critic refers to the same picture as fully up to the best salon 
standards and especially as "being beautifully painted." 

Dougherty, Paul^ (P.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., September 6, 1877. Gradu- 
ated from the New York law school, 1898. Soon after he decided to 
abandon a legal career and pursue art. He studied perspective and form 
under Constantin Hertzberg and then traveled ; and later studied art 
five years in Paris, London, Florence, Venice and Munich. It is by his 
marines that he won fame. 

International studio 36 :iii says of him and his art : "Never anecdotal 

he is always picturesque He would in rock representation show 

compactness and texture so clearly that its geological history may be 
read by a scientist. He would in ocean convey a profound impression 
of its depth, its latent cruelty and its almost resistless and rhythmic 
power of wave. "Northern sky" suggests the tremendous speed of a high 
billow hurled at a towering rock mass with the fury of the whole ocean 



90 

behind it More wave history is told in "The cleft." "The Twisted 

ledge" is a study in perspective of rock form "The black wave" 

represents the dynamics of ocean currents The nearest ap- 
proach to impressionism is "Sun and storm" Mr. Dougherty 

should not be judged entirely as a painter of marine; cloud, mountain 
and plain as well as rock, sea and sky have been depicted by him." 

"Better than others has he interpreted atmospheric effects on luminous 
spray — the evanescent charm of the ever-changing sea." (Art & P. 2:7.) 

His "Land and sea" is in the Corcoran Gallery of Art and his "Sun 
and mist" is in the National Gallery. 

"Paul Dougherty in his "Kock channel" shows us that he understands 
the placid beauty of undisturbed blue waters as well as the splendor 
and terror of Cornwall storms." (Craftsman 24:315.) / 

A member of leading art clubs ; elected associate of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, 1906; academician, 1907. 

DuFNBR, Edward^ (P.) b. Buffalo, New York. Studied art in Madrid, 
and was a pupil of Whistler and Laurens in Paris. Received honor- 
able mention in the Paris salon of 1902. Is a member of the Paris. Amer- 
ican Artists Association, New York Water-Color Club, and many other 
leading art clubs. Elected associate member of the National Academy 
in 1910. Instructor in the Art Students' League of New York. 

Most important work is "Portrait of a young lady in pink." 

DuNLAP, Mary Stewart^ (P.) b. in Ohio. Now resides in Pasadena, 
California. Her first art studies were in New York after which she spent 
four years in Paris at the academies Delecluse and Whistler. She 
sketched and painted in oil and water-color through Brittany and Nor- 
mandy. Her work in Paris was followed by artistic pilgrimages to Rome 
and Florence. Returning to the United States she decided to make 
Southern California her home. 

"Her delineation is elusive to the point of impressionism ; it is rather 
the spirit of a certain hour of a certain day that she wishes to record 

Nature in Miss Dunlap's paintings does not necessarily mean 

a literal representation of natural objects Her work suggests 

rather that the color and the atmospheric transitions of nature are a 
Avorthier subject. In Pasadena she found a field for a wider diversity 
of material she is most desirous of interpreting — ^the portrayal of tran- 
sient color effect." (Int. studio 45: xxiii.) 

DuvENECK, Frank, (P., S., E., Mural P.) b. Covington, Ky., 1848. 
When eighteen years of age he was employed by a church decorator in 



91 

Cincinnati and soon became an exceedingly valuable assistant. In 1870 
he went to Munich and entered the Royal Academy. After three months' 
work in the antique class under Strahuber, he was admitted to the paint- 
ing class of Prof, von Dietz. His progress was looked upon as phenom- 
enal ; he took all prizes of the academy from antique drawing to compo- 
sition. In 1878 he opened a school of painting in Munich which became 
so popular that when he decided to go to Florence, nearly half of his 
pupils insisted on going with him ; so he continued his classes in Flor- 
ence and Venice for two years. 

He has received a number of medals and honors of many kinds. He 
was elected member of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 
190C. Sigce returning to Cincinnati, he has devoted much time to teach- 
ing a painting class in the Art Museum of that city., 

Typical works are: 

"Turkish page" "The woman with forgetmenots" 

"Whistling boy" "Venetian shrine" 

"Man with ruflf" "Interior of St. Marks, Venice." 
"Prof. Loefetz" 

In addition to painting and etching, he has done some remarkable 
work in sculpture, receiving an award in the salon for a monument he 
made to his wife. His mural decoration in the new Catholic cathedral 
Covington, Ky., is spoken of as being a serious and dignified piece of 
work. 

"Duveneck's works with the paint brush are, with few exceptions, 
distinctly paintings in the complete and full sense of the word, because 
they are emphatically made with paint and the paint, brush and not 
drawn and colored. It is the expressive use of the paint brush itself 
that is a large factor in the artistic value of his work." (Arts and D. 
1:382.) 

Mr. Duveneck was awarded the special grand prize at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition, 1915. 

Eajsins, Thomas, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., July 25, 1844. Studied 
art in Philadelphia, at the Fcole des Beaux Arts, the Atelier Bonnat, 
and under G6rome and Dumont in Paris. 

He has received many medals and prizes. Was elected a member of 
the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1902. Instructor in the 
Pennsylvania Academy of tlie Fine Arts. 

Since his return to the United States he has taught in life classes, 
lectured as demonstrator of anatomy and become professor of painting 
and director of the Pennsylvania academy. 



92 

His pictures are very varied in their subjects. He has painted many 
small pictures of domestic scenes in the early days of America, of Ameri- 
can sporting and athletic games, studies of the American nega"o charac- 
ter and also portraits. 

" Eakins with a like grasp of the personality of his sub- 
jects and an even greater enjoyment of the picturesqueness of their 
attitudes and apparel, yet fails of the popular appreciation that he 
merits because of his neglect of the beauties and graces of painting — not 
the beauties and graces of his subjects." (Isham.) 

"Cello player" and "Salutat" are finished paintings and better indi- 
cate his power as an artist than the "Dancing lesson" and portraits 
earlier exhibited." (Brush & P. 6:130.) 

Eaton^ Charles Haeuy, (P., I.) b. near Akron, O., December 13, 1850, 
d. Leonia, N. J., August 4, 1901. As a painter and illustrator, was self- 
taught. First exhibited at the National Academy of Design, New York, 
1881. Eeceived silver medal, Boston. Associate member of the National 
Academy, 1893. Won the Evans prize in 1898 with his painting "The 
brook," and received the gold medal of the Art Club of Philadelphia for 
his "Willows," in 1900. "Lily pond" is another popular picture of his. 

Eaton, Wyatt, (P.) b. Philipsburg, Province of Quebec, Canada, May 
G, 184.9. Studied art in New York at the National Academy of Design 
before going abroad in 1872. He spent a few weeks in London where 
he met Whistler, then went to Paris where he worked under G6rome; 
made the acquaintance of Millet, also Munkaczy. For four years his 
time was divided between Paris and Barbizon, in the forest of Fon- 
tainebleau. 

In his "Hay makers" we trace the influence of Millet and Bastein- 
Lepage. 

While in France he painted figure subjects, landscapes and portraits, 
exhibiting in the salon of 1874 his "Beverie" and two years later his 
"Harvesters at rest." In 1876 he returned to America and became a 
teacher in the life and antique classes in drawing at Cooper Institute 
and was active in the formation of tlie Society of American Artists. 

Upon his return to America his first important works were life por- 
traits of Bryant, Longfellow, Emerson, Whittier and Holmes. His 
portrait of Mrs. K. W. Gilder and painting entitled "Man and violin" 
have an undisputed place among the best pictures produced in this 
country. 

"His characteristic note was not strength but rather delicacy of feel- 
ing: feeling for tone and color in his "Reflection," feeling for grace in 



93 

-his little classic figures, feeling for character in the crayon heads that 
he did of Emerson and Holmes and Whittier and others." (Isham.)_ 

Ebeele, Abastenia St. Leger^ (S.) b. in Iowa, April 16, 1878. Studied 
sculpture with George Grey Barnard and Gutzon Borglum. 

Miss Eberle was an accomplished musician which line of artistic en- 
deavors she abandoned for sculpture. There is a touch of mystery and 
grace prominent in her small works, as in "The dancer" where the wind 
of her movements draws her flying draperies against her body. This 
work was sold at the International exhibition in Venice, 1909. "Windy 
doorstep" won the Helen Foster Barnett prize. "In "L'Isol6e" we have 
the nude; in "Bacchante" a classic theme; and in "Indian Fighting- 
Eagle" we see the aboriginal portrayed in a dramatic manner. 

The rendering of motion especially appeals to Miss Eberle. She says: 
"If I were a painter, I would be an Impressionist." 

Her collaborations with Miss Anna Vaughn Hyatt have received com- 
mendation and praise from those qualified to pass upon their artistic 
merits. 

Giles Edgerton says : "One of the most impersonal of the women sculp- 
tors is Miss Abastenia St. Ledger Eberle. Her work does not suggest an 
effort to overcome a feminine point of view or to ape the masculine way 
of achievement. She just seems to present people, little children, old 
beggar women, Indians, more absolutely than individually." 

"Miss Eberle is interested in settlement work and makes many jour- 
neys to the East Side, and is perfectly acquainted with the youngsters 
whose natures she reveals to us in bronze. "Coal picker" and "Rag 
gatherer" give the somber aspect of her work." (Arts and D. 2:105.) 

Elliott^ Charles Loeing, (P.) b. Scipio, Cayuga Co., N. Y., Decem- 
ber, 1812; d. Albany, N. Y., September 20, 1868. Became a pupil of 
Trumbull and painted portraits while still a young man ; opened a studio 
in New York early in his career. Was elected associate member of the 
National Academy of Design in 1845, and full member in 1846. Is said 
to have, painted more than seven hundred portraits of eminent people. 
At the exhibition of the National Academy in 1868-69 many of his paint- 
ing were shown, including: 

"Don Quixote" 

"FalstaflE" 

"Andrew Van Corlear, the trumpeter" and 

"The head of Skaneateles Lake," the only landscape he ever painted. 

Tuckerman says: "No one can mistake the rich tints and vigorous 
expression, the character and color which distinguish Elliott's portraits." 



94 

Elliott stands among the first American portrait painters, especially 
for old and character hedas. His portrait of Fletcher Harper is con- 
sidered by artists and critics to be a masterpiece, and the committee 
who selected "American pictures to be sent to the Paris Exposition 
unanimously chose it as a typical and clever American portrait. 

Elliott, John, (P., I., Mural P.). b. England, April 22, 1858. A 
student in the Julien Academy ; also pupil of Carolus Duran and of Jose 
de Villegas at Eome. While in Eome he painted his , first important 
mural decoration, and occupying apartments with Mrs. Elliott's cousin, 
F. Marion Crawford who had collected many death masks, he was fascin- 
ated with one of Dante. Two pictures of Dante in exile were the result; 
one of them n.ow hangs in the living room of Queen Margherita of Italy, 
the other, in tlie home of Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears of Boston. 

A pastel study of Dante thrown into a waste basket and rescued by 
Mrs. Elliott, is now better known than either of his paintings, and in 
reproduction has gone all over the world. 

His great mural painting, "Diana of the tides" for the National 
Museum in Washington, D. C, was painted in Rome. "The vintage," 
frieze and ceilings in the home of Mrs. Pottor Palmer, Chicago, and 
"The triumph of time," ceiling decoration for the children's room in the 
Boston Public Library are his most notable mural decorations in. 
America. 

Twenty-four pastel drawings made to illustrate Mrs. Anderson's fairy 
tale "The great sea horse" were exhibited in America. 

Of his portrait of Julia Ward Howe, it is said : "The picture is utterly 
simple '. It is tender, reverential, a sweet and solemn glorifica- 
tion of old age, and of the old age of a distinguished spirit." He said 
"I was painting the author of "The battle hymn of the republic." 

Mr. Elliott made the well-known silver-point portrait of the late King 
Humbert which Queen Margherita carries with her on all her journeys. 
(Everybody's M. 23:95.) 

Mr. Elliott has been honored with several decorations. (Arts & D. 
2:359.) 

Elwell, Frank Edwin, (S.) b. Concord, Mass., June 15, 1858. Studied 
in the United States under Daniel Chester French, and in Paris at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and under Jean Alexander Falguiere. He is a 
member of the Institu|;e of Prance; has exhibited in the Paris salon, 
Eoyal Academy, London, Royal Exhibition, Brussels, Philadelphia Art 
Club and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Elwell enjoys the distinction of being the first American sculp- 
tor who modeled in America a statue to be erected in Europe. 



95 

Best known works are: 

"Death of strength," a monument at Edam, Holland ; 

Bust of Lord Provost of Aberdeen; at Aberdeen, Scotland; 

Equestrian statue of General Hancock, at Gettysburg; 

Monument to EdWin'Booth at Mount Auburn, Cambridge, Mas^s. ; 

Two fountains — "Ceres" and "Kronos" — at Pan-American Exposition; 

Statiie of Dickens and Little Nell, Pairmount Park, Philadelphia; 

Busts of Levi P. Morton and Garret A. Hobart in the senate chamber 
at Washington, D. C. 

Was associate editor of the Arena magazine and also compiler of the 
first history of American sculpture. 

At an exhibition of the Cincinnati Art Club, of which Mr. Elwell is an 
honbrary member, was shown his bronze statue "The orchid." "A beau- 
tiful young woman in a dancing attitude is gracefuly poised on one 
foot, which hardly seems to touch the earth. The upward action of the 
arms, the spring of the foot and the suggestive airiness of the drapery 
all tend to convey the idea that she is of Ihe air, as is the orchid." 
(Brush & P. 6:76.) 

Emmbt^ Lydia Field, (Min. P., I.) b. New Rochelle, N. Y., 1866. Pupil 
of Bouguereau, Giacomotti, Eobert-Pleury, Collin and MacMonnies in 
Paris; Chase, Mowbray, Cox and Robert Eeid in New York. Associate 
member National Academy of Design, 1909. 

Won many prizes and medals. 

"Miss Emmet's color is exquisite and her daring but positive use of 
vermilion is unusual. Nearly every one of her miniatures might be called 
a flower of portraiture, for these dainty things suggest gardens of lilies 
and lilacs." (Brush & P. 6:26.) 

"She is a painter of aristocracy, of the American aristocracy, which 
is dintinct from any other. Her women have intellect, her children 

health Miss Emmet has successfully conquered the . matter of 

grouping before which so many other painters have met with disaster." 
(Guy du Bois.) 

"Olivia" won honorable mention at the last exhibition of the Carnegie 
Institute. 

"Her child portraits invariably carry conviction and have pictorial 

charm Her brushwork is strong and her treatment of surfaces 

and textures adequate." 

ElNNBKiNG, John Joseph, (P.) b. Minster, O., October 4, 1841. Was 
educated at Saint Mary's College, Cincinnati, receiving his first lessons 
in drawing from Bishop Eosecrans, then principal of the institute. 



96 

Served in the U. S. army jiuring the civil war ; took up mercantile pur- 
suits in 1865; went to Europe in 1872 and studied art with Schleich 
and Lier, Munich, and special figure painting with Bonnat and Daubigny, 
Paris ; later took up landscape under the advice of the latter. ' Returned 
to Boston, 1874. Has wan several silver and gold njedals in America. 
He excels* in depicting New England landscapes and among his best 
works may be mentioned: 

"Summer twilight" "Calf in the lane" 

"Cloudy day in summer" "The clam-digger" 

"Indian summer" "The brook" 

"November twilight" "Sheep and lambs" 
"December thaw" 

His earlier but much^ admired works are : 

"Moonlight on the Giudecca" "Farm yard scene in France" 

"Venice" "The Obersee" (considered by 

"Freshly picked" some to be his best) 

"Mr. Enneking is a colorist, but not a riotous colorist. He does not 
startle, he satisfies He is acknowledged to have created, ar- 
tistically speaking, the "November twilight." 

He is one of the most individual of American painters, and withal one 
of tlie most developed and rounded of personalities. (Brush & P. 10: 
335.) 

Frederick W. Coburn says : "His ideal is the picture that shall be the 
perfect expression, not of a locality, but of a thought." 

EvANS^ RuDULPH, (S.) b. Washington, D. C. A pupil of Falguifere 
and Puech in Paris ; is a member of the American Artists Association of 
Paris. 

Mr. Evan's work is more widely known abroad than at home. The 
French government has honored him by purchasing a replica of his 
"Golden hour" for the Luxembourg. The original figure — exhibited at 
the Paris salon, was cast in bronze to adorn the garden of Mr. F. A. 
Vanderlip at Scarborough, N. Y. The figure has been repeated again 
in marble for the Metropolitan Museum of New York. 

"It has the repose of the Greek ideal, yet speaks of modernity 

The figure is modeled with deep appreciation of subtlety in curve and 
texture, and one feels by the eye alone the softness of flesh and the 
strength of construction. But above all this shines the glowing heart 
of young womanhood. 

"The art of Rudulph Evans is one full of poetry, especially in portrait- 



97 

ure. Particularly does he feel the delicate atmosphere of aloofness sur- 
rounding childhood, and this he imparts to the portraits." (Int. 
studio 55:lxxxiv.) 

Two charming busts of children are: 
Granddaughter of James Stillman. 
Granddaughter of Thomas F. Ryan. 

EzBKiBLj MosES JACOB, (S.) b. Richmond, Va., Oct. 28, 1844. Gradu- 
ated at the Virginia Military Institute in 1866 ; studied anatomy at the 
Medical college of Virginia. In 1869 he went to Europe, entering the 
Royal Academy of Art in Berlin and remaining there until 1871, work- 
ing later in the studio of Erof. Albert Wolf. 

In 1872 he was admitted into the Society of Artists, Berlin, on the 
merits of a colossal bust of "Washington," and in 1873 with his 
"Israel" he gained the Michaelbeer prize, a stipendium for two years 
study and residence in Italy. He was the first foreigner to win this 
prize.' 

The Emperor of Germany and the Grand Duke of Saxe-Meiningen have 
conferred upon him the cavalier croses for merit in art and science; 
the King of Italy bestowed on him the cross of an "OflScer of the Crown 
of Italy" ; he has won the gold medal of the Royal Association in Paler- 
mo, the Raphael medal at Urbino, and is a member of the Societies of 
Artists in Berlin and Rome, and of the Academy of Raphael in Urbino. 

Since 1874 he has resided in Rome, where his studio itself is a notable 
place. 

Mr. Ezekiel's first important work, a marble group representing "Re- 
ligious Liberty" is now in Pairmount Park, Philadelphia. His "Thomas 
Jefferson" is in Louisville, Ky., and a series of eleven statues of famous 
artists, in Carrara marble, decorate the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The development Of patriotic themes is a specialty of this sculptor. 
"It is probable that in sounding this greatest and best chord of human 
nature, patriotism, Sir Moses Ezekiel touches and holds his highest 
level." (World's Work, 19:12255.) 

He has made many busts of beautiful women scattered throughout 
Europe and America, but none really so perfect as that of the Dowager 
Queen of Italy. His "Napoleon" is a notable work. The late F. Marion 
Crawford called it the history of Napoleon, and Cesareo, the Sicilian 
poet and art critic, writes of it : "Rarely or never has the tragedy of 
Napoleon been signified with more severe sorrow, with such intense 
truth, with more heroic grief, than in the sculpture of Ezekiel." 

Liszt, who has a personal acquaintance with all the best artists of 
13 



98 

Eome, selected Ezekiel to make his portrait-bust for the Academy of 
Music at Pesth. Cardinal Hohenlohe, an intimate friend of Liszt, also 
an authority on art, after having viewed the work critically, turned to 
it again on leaving the room, and said, "Adieu, Liszt! I thus hand thee 
dowii to posterity." 

An Italian publication, "Publica Opinione," closes a critical review of 
Mr. Ezekiel's works with these Avords : "We conclude this brief notice by 
expressing our admiration of the great American sculptor in whom we 
feel Italian pride because his genius was cultured beneath our sky, and 
was inspired by our great men to become more great." 

Fairbanks, Avaud, (S.) b. Salt Lake, Utah. As a child he camped in 
the mountains with his father and brother and came to know much 
about wild animals. He was also much impressed with the stories of 
pioneer experiences with Indians. He first modeled in clay his pet 
rabbit, and when fourteen years of age his "Indian scout," and "Poriy 
express" won for him the title, "Boy wonder in sculpture." 

Crowds gathered around him in the Zoological Park, New York City, 
as he placed his modeling stand against the cages to study and model 
the animals. Before he was fifteen he won two scholarships at the Art 
Students' League; the first for his "Fighting pumas," and the second 
for his "Study of fighting panthers." The committee agreed that his 
drawing was crude and his composition defective, but the action repro- 
duced in animals was so lifelike that the prizes wez*e bestowed upon 
him. At sixteen his ability as a sculptor was recognized by expert 
critics; and at nineteen he was the sensation of artistic Paris as he 
studied and worked at the art schools there. 

Of his "Pony express" an enthusiastic critic Avrites: "So lifelike was 
the figure that one could readily hear in imagination the clatter of the 
pony's hoof as he leaped in swift bounds along the rocky trail that skirt- 
ed the base of the mountains.'' (Technical world 22:204.) 

Farny, Henry, (P.) a native of Alsace, was born in Kibeauville in 
1847. His family came to this country in 1853, and later took up their 
home in Cincinnati where his father died in 1865. 

His first efforts in art were decorations on water coolers. Afterwards 
became designer for lithographs, one of his widely known productions of 
that period being a caricature of the escape of Jeff'erson Davis. 

In 1867 he went to New York and entered the employ of Harper and 
Brothers; later worked his passage to Europe in a sailing vessel. In 
Rome he met Eegnault, who engaged him to make tlie sketches which 
appeared in Francis Wey's elaborate work on Eome. 



99 

Being a Frenclimau by birth, -Farny was admitted to fellowship of 
the French artists in Kome. Went to Diisseldorf, where he became the 
pupil of Munkaczy. Returning to America in 1870, and being unsuccess- 
ful in disposing of his paintings executed abroad, he was compelled to 
gain support by making designs for the large showbills used by circus 
companies. Later gained Considerable reputation as a cartoonist. 

In 1878 in company with Duveneck, Dehgler and Twachtman he again 
went to Munich and there gained honorable mention in the competition 
for composition. 

For many years he has been chiefly engaged in Cincinnati in design- 
ing illustrations for school books and magazines. 

Farney has been most successful in his delineation of Indian life and 
character; in this field he has done pioneer work. A popular specimen 
is "Song of the talking wire." 

"The silent guest" is perhaps the best of his works in oil. 

Faeebr, Henry, (E.) b. London, England, March 23, 1843; d. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., February 24, 1903. He came to America when he was nine- 
teen years of age. His first serious attempts at etching were made about 
1868. Necessity compelled him for a time to abandon etching for more 
lucrative pursuits, but at the formation of the New York Etching Club 
in 1877, he again took up the work. 

In 1879 he became secretary to the American Water Color Society 
and in 1881 president of the New York Etching Club. Was elected in 
1882 a fellow of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, London, and in 
1885 honorary member of the Philadelphiia Society of Painter-Etchers. 

Among the best known of Mr. Farrer's earlier works was a series of 
eleven plates illustrative of "Old New York." These plates have been 
withdrawn from publication. 
His most important and interesting plates are: 
"Old oak tree, twilight" "On the marshes" 

"Chickens" . "Twilight" 

"The washerwoman" "October" 

"A cloudy day" "Sunset" 

"A November day" "Winter" 

"Twilight on the creek" "Staten Island shore" 

"December" "On New York Bay" 

"Sunset, Coast of Maine" "Sandy Hook light" 

"Winter in the woods" "A shady spot on a sunny road" 

"Old house by the roadside" "Sunset on East River" 

"On the beach at Bay Ridge" 
(American Art Review, 1880.) 



100 

Penn, Hakry^ (P., I., E.) b. Richmond, England, September 14, 1845; 
d. Montclair, N. Y., April 21, 1911. At the age of nineteen he came to 
America, ostensibly to see Niagara Palls. He remained in this country 
for six years and then went to Italy to study. Shortly after his return 
to the United States he illustrated his first book, Whittiei-'s "Snow- 
bound," which was soon followed by the "Ballads of New England." 
These were the first illustrated gift books produced in this country and 
marked an era in the history of bookmaking. In 1870 he made an ex- 
tended tour of the United States tp' gather material for "Picturesque 
America." 

He was one of the founders of the American Water Color Society, a 
member of the New York Water Color Club, the Society of Illustrators 
and the Salmagundi Club. (American Art Annual, Vol. 9.) 

PiSHBE^ Harrison^ (I.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., July 27, 1875. He mani- 
, fested artistic inclinations at the age of six and was early instructed in 
drawing and painting by his father who was an artist. His family re- 
moved to San Francisco and he studied at the Mark Hopkins Institute 
of Art. At sixteen he did drawing for a San Francisco newspaper. Two 
sketches accepted by tlie editor of "Puck" secured him a staff position. 
Later he did serial work for the "Saturday Evening Post," and went 
abroad for material to furnish the pictorial part of some articles for 
McClure's magazine. He has illustrated for "Life," "Ladies' Home Jour- 
nal," Scribner's, etc. 

The creator of the"Fisher girl" it has been estimated has turned out 
of hand more than a thousand studies of the American girl. 

"In a personal way he reflects a boyish sincerity with a philosophic re- 
gard to essentials." (Bookman, 11:140.) 

Fisher^ (William) Mark, (P.) b. in Boston of English and Irish par- 
ents; educated in the public schools; studied art at Lowell Institute, 
later was a pupil of George Inness at Medfield. At twenty went to 
Paris and studied in Gleyre's atelier; settled in Boston, but had small 
success; went to England to live where he now is well known as land- 
scape and animal painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy and else- 
.where. He is very highly regarded in England and his works are in the 
finest public and private collections. 

Best known paintings are: 

"The meadows" "A scotch hillside" 

"On the Cam" "Early summer" 

"Noon" "Evening" 
"A canal jump on the Oise" 



101 

George Moore in "Modern painting" says: "Mark Fisher's painting is 
optimistic. His skies are blue, his sunlight dozes in the orchard, his 
chestnut trees are in bloom. The melodrama of nature never appears in 
his pictures; his lanes and fields reflect a gentle mind that has found 
happiness in observing the changes of the seasons." 

In January, 1911, Mr. Fisher was elected associate member of the 
Royal Academy, London. 

Flagg, Jambs Montgomeey^ (L., P.) b. Pelham Manor, Westchester Co., 
N. Y., June 18, 1877. Educated in New York public schools. Dr. Chapin's 
private school; studied at Art Students League, New York, four years 
in Herkomer's Art School, Bushey, England, and also under Victor 
Maree in Paris. Became illustrator for St. Nicholas magazine, 1890-; 
has been drawing for' "Judge" and "Life" since 1892 ; illustrator for the 
various magazines. ,Painted portraits in Paris, 1900; also in St. Louis 
and New York. Exhibited portraits in the Paris salon of 1900; also 
portraits in oil and water color in National Academy of Design and 
New York Water Color Club. Life member of the Lotus Club. 

FooTE^ Will Howe^ (P.) b. Grand Eapids, Michigan, June 29, 1874. 
Pupil of the Art Institute, Chicago, Art Students' League of New York, 
Julien Academy under Laurens and Benjamin-Constant in Paris. Re- 
ceived honorable mention at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, 
third Hallgarten prize National Academy of Design, 1902, bronze medal 
at St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Member Paris American Art Association. 
Instructor at Art Students' League of New York. 

Forbes, Edwin, (P. E.) b. New York, 1839; ,d. Brooklyn, N. Y., March 
6, 1895. Began the study of Art in 1857 and two years later became 
pupil of A. P. Tait. At first devoted himself to animal painting; after- 
wards gave more attention to genre and landscape. During the civil 
war he was a special artist of Prank Leslie's Illustrated newspaper, and 
his studies of battle scenes were done in etchings, he being the first 
etcher in America. These etchings called "Life studies of the great 
army" have a value as a record of military Jife during the civil war. 
General Sherman bought the first proofs of these sketches for the U. 
S. government, and they are now in the war 'department, Washington. 

The most noted are: 

"The reliable contraband" "Coming through the lines" 

"The sanctuary" "A night march" 

"Returning from picket duty" "The reveille" 



102 

In New York in 1865 he produced "Lull in the fight." This picture 
contains thirty figures and represents a scene in the battle of the wilder- 
ness. 

. In 1878 he established a studio in Brooklyn, N. Y., and devoted him- 
self mainly to landscape and cattle pieces. 

Honorary member London Etching Club. 

Foster, Ben, (P.) b. North Anson, Maine, July 31, 1852. When eight- 
een years of age he went to New York where he was employed in mercan- 
tile business until he was about thirty when he decided to devote him- 
self to art. 

Studied with Abbott Thayer and at the Art Students' League of New 
York. Went to Paris in 1886 and continued his studies under Olivier 
Merson and Aime Morot ; exhibited in the Paris salon ; returned to New 
York in 1887; regularly represented at the exhibitions. Associate mem- 
ber National Academy of Design, 1901; full member, 1904. 

Mr. Foster has given much attention to the painting of landscapes 
and sheep; his favorite subjects are night effects and woodland scenes. 
His compositions are marked by a large feeling of unity. "He treats a 
morsel of landscape, but as a part of the big mysterious scheme of 
things." (The artist 29:xx.) 

Among his most important works in oil are: 

"A dreary road" "Fontainebleau forest" . 

"A Maine hillside" "First days in spring" 

"All in a misty moonshine" "A windy night" 

"The evening star" "Now the' day is over" 

"A wet day in the pines" "Sunset in the Litchfield Hills" 

"In the Green Mountains" 

Also in water colors: 

"The day is done" 
"The laggard" 
"The shepherd" 

His painting "Lulled by the murmuring stream," exhibited at the 
Paris Exposition 1900, was purchased by the French government for the 
Luxembourg Gallery. 

Ill autumn of 1900 he was awarded the silver medal and the |l,000 at 
the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, for "Misty moonlight," and in the 
spring 1901, at the exhibition of the Society of American Artists, he was 
awarded the Webb prize for the most meritorious landscape painted by 
an American. 



103 

FouRNiEE, Alexis Jean, (P., I.) b. St. Paul, Minn., July 4, 1865. At 
the age of fifteen, ambitious to accomplish something with brush and 
color, he found employment in a Minneapolis sign shop; soon after this 
he engaged to assist in scene-painting. In the fall of 1893 he went to 
France and entered the Acad&nie Julien, Paris ; studied also under Jean 
Paul Laurens, Benjamin-Constant, Gustav Courtois and Henri Harpig- 
nies. 

One of his earliest paintings, "A spring morning near Minnehaha 
Creek" was exhibited in the salon of 1894. Of his last painting exhibited 
in the salon and which was hung next to a Gerome, the .Figaro com- 
menting on its merits, said that it was one of the best paintings in the 
room. 

In the summer of 1907, Mr. Fournier went to the village of Barbizon, 
France, to paint the studios and homes of the great French painters 
known as the "Men of 1830." These canvases, which are full of the at- 
mosphere and spirit of the place, are: 

"Studio of Millet" ''River Oise — Uaubigny's house- 

"Home of Diaz" boat" 

"Dupre's studio" "Corot's home" 
"Rousseau's cottage" 

Other characteristic works are: 

"Moonlight on the lagoons" "Peaceful night, Normandy" 

"Old orchard, Normandy" "Sunset after rain" (particularly 

"When golden evening fades" noteworthy) 
"The shepherd's return" 

His "Crepuscule" exhibited in the Paris . salon is called perfect in 
tone. 

"He is not a painter of ideal scenery but a painter of nature, inter- 
preting her moods with a true poetic feeling. He believes the mission of 
a painter of out-of-doors is to show Nature in her fine moods — her har- 
mony and music, as it were." (Brush & P. 4:243.) 

FowLBR, Feank, (P., I.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., July 12, 1852; d. New 
Canaan, Conn., August 18, 1910. Pupil of Edwin White in America, and 
('arolus-Duran and Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Received bronze 
medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; brojize medal, Pan-American Exposition 
1901. Elected a member of the National Academy of Design, New York, 
in 1900; member of the Society of American Artists, 1882. Specialty, 
portraits; among his noteworthy portraits are those of Governor Tilden, 
Governor Flowers, William Dean Howells and Madame Modjeska. Mr. 



]04 

Fowler is also a teacher and the author of several works on art, among 
them being "Portrait and figure painting." 

Feaser^ Jambs Eaele^ (S.) b. Winona, Minn., November 4, 1876. When 
eighteen years of age he entered the Art Institute at Chicago and six 
months later went to Paris to enter the Ecole des Beaux Arts. "His 
work in the salon exhibit of 1897-98 not only won the prize offered to 
American artists but so impressed Saint-Gaudens who was a member of 
the committee of awards that he wrote to the young sculptor. The re- 
sult was that Fraser went to Saint-Gaudens, returned to the United 
States with him in 1900 and worked with him until 1902 when he estab- 
lished himself in New York. At present ^he has the distinction of being 
the oldest resident in the artists colony in Macdougal Alley, and he is 
an instructor at the Art Student's League. Mr. Fraser is, perhaps, the 
first among the successful pupils of the late Augustus Saint-Gaudens. 

Helen Christine Bennett writes (Arts & D. 1:375: "The relief of the 

Whitney children upon their horses is particularly attractive 

The bust of Cornelius V. Whitney is that of a very handsome boy to 
whom the sculptor has done justice. The head. of June Evans, especially 
in profile, shows great delicacy in handling and a certain subdued 
piquancy of expression which indicates a depth of treatment not shown 
in the other two." 

A relief of Horatio Hathaway Brewster was the first relief portrait 
done by Mr. Fraser which caught the popular fancy. A bust of Col. 
Eoosevelt shows not only skilful but powerful treatment. An impres- 
sion of Mary Garden as "Melisande" reveals a poetic side of the work of 
the sculptor. "End of the trail" was one of the most popular works on 
the grounds of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 1915. 

French, Daniel Chester, (S.) b. Exeter, N. H., April 20, 1850. Was 
educated in his native town and at Cambridge, Amherst and Boston, 
Mass. At the age of eighteen he began to model and his efforts met with 
encouragement from Louisa M. Alcott who suggested that he seek syste- 
matic instruction. His first subjects were animals, portrait reliefs and 
busts of friends. He attended Dr. Bimmer's lectures on artistic anatomy 
and studied the antique sculptures in the Boston Athenaeum. Is hon- 
orary president of the National Sculpture Society. 

Mr. French received his commission for the "Concord Minute-man" 
when he was twenty-three years of age. This was finished in 1874 and 
he then went abroad for the first time. He studied two years in Flor- 
ence with the American sculptor Thomas Ball. In 1886 he again went 
abroad, this time to Paris where he drew from the models in the class of 



105 

M. L^on Glaize. ■ Since his return to the United States in 1887 he has 
permanently resided in New York. Received honorable A. M., Dart- 
mouth, 1898. Associate member National Academy of Design, 1900; 
full member, 1901. 

Busts of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Bronson Alcott, a frieze repre- 
senting Greeks, carrying offerings and several portraits in the round, 
low and high reliefs are his early works. 

In collaboration with Mr. Edward Clark Potter, Mr. French has pro- 
duced three equestrian statues of high value. "Washington" presented 
to France by the Daughters of the Revolution, placed in the Place 
d'Lena, Paris, "General Grant" in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and 
"General Joseph Hooker" in Boston. 

Mr. French's monumental architectural reliefs are distinguished speci- 
mens of this new phase of art. "Death and the sculptor" — the Milmore 
memorial — won him a medal in the Paris salon of 1891. The John Boyle 
O'Reilly memorial, Boston, is a work of rare strength and beauty. In 
the "Alice Freeman Palmer memorial," Wellesley College, executed in 
Carrara marble, the technical details have been rarely wrought. The 
"Gallaudet group" at Washington, D. C, is one of his most pleasing 
portrait monuments. His imposing "Alma mater" now adorns the ap- 
proach of the Library of Columbia University, New York, and he fur- 
nished two monumental groups for the Cleveland, Ohio, federal building. 

Other important creations are : A. R. Meyer monument, Kansas City, 
Francis Parkman monument, Boston; Melvin memorial monument. Con- 
cord, Mass.; Hunt memorial. New York; Marshall Field memorial, Chi- 
cago ; statues of General Cass, John Harvard and Rufus Choate and Gov- 
ernor Oglethorpe of Georgia; bust of Phillips Brooks, the well- remem- 
bered "Statue of the Republic" at the Columbian Exposition, 1893, and 
the bronze doors of the Boston Public Library. Mr. French was the 
unanimous choice of the Lincoln memorial committee to design the 
bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln to be placed in the Lincoln Memorial 
building in Washington, D. C. Low relief work is one jjf the final tests 
of a sculptor's skill, and here Mr. French has shown his skill to be quite 
equal to his refined taste. 

Since the death of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Daniel Chester French 
stands at the head of modern American sculpture. 

Frieseke, Frederic Carl^ (P., Mural P.) b. Owosso, Mich., April 7, 
1874. Studied at Chicago Art Institute and in Paris under Benjamin- 
Constant, Laurens and Whistler. Exhibits in Europe and America. In 
1904 one of his pictures, "Before the glass" — was purchased by the 
French government for the Luxembourg Gallery. He is also represented 



100 

in the Modern Gallery in Viennii ; is the possessor of a gold medal from 
Munich and won a ]>rize from the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, 
D. C. At the Panama-Pacific l']x]!osition IDIH, was awarded the grand 
prize for oil painting. In 1908 he was elected soci6tarie of the So- 
ci6t6 Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, since which time his works are 
accepted by the salon without the inspection of a jury. In 1912 he was 
elected an associate member of the National Academy of New York 
City, full member, 1914. 

Among Mr. Frieseke's figure subjects bis decorative. canvas "Youth" 
illustrates the firmness of his modeling, and "The Chinese parasol" and 
"The girl with bird cage" ai-e also typical examples of bis work. 

Other popular paintings are : 

"The green sash" "Eepose at noonday" 

"Misty morn" "Among the hollyhocks" 

"Lady on a gold couch" "Autumn" 

"Breakfast in the garden" "The toilet" 

"The yellow room" ,( 

"One strong feature, more pleasing in the work of Frieseke than in 
that of many other members of the American colony in Paris, is his 
sense of design and balance." (Int. studio 43:273.) 

Brilliant sunshine has been his particular study for several years. He 
delights in rendering effects of sunlight upon green foliage. 

Clara MacChesney in writing of the work of this artist, says: "The 
charm of Frieseke 'is in the light and color of bis canvas. His color is 
purer and higher in key but lacks the mystery of Aman-Jean's. His 
pictures are more crowded as to composition, but decorative in design 
like Blanche's. Brilliant garden scenes, palpitating with light and color, 
landscapes, interiors representing intimate scenes of the toilet or pic- 
tures of nude women, and mural decorations form his chief line of 

work > . He knows nothing about flowers and cares less, nor does 

he make a careful study of them nor of different kinds of gardens, but his 
one idea is to portray the dazzle of light and of color of flowers seen in 
sunlight." 

Among Mr. Frieseke's later works are: 

"Afternoon tea," recently shown at the Anglo-American exhibition 
in London; "At the seashore," (painted in the brilliant sunshine of 
Corsica), one of the fascinating exhibits in the Salon of 1913; "Sum- 
mer," a marvel of execution (a reclining figure in a blaze of sunlight) ; 
"A girl sewing," an interior subject. 

As a mural decorator he is best known for his large decorations at 
John Wanamaker's store in New York. Of his decorations in Hotel 



107 

Shelbourne, Atlantic City, also of his mural painting in the Rodman 
Wanauiaker Hotel and the Amphitheater of Music, New York, a corre- 
spondent and art critic says: "Frieseke's decorations are subdued and 
harmonious." 

Mr. Frieseke lives in France and has a charming home at Giverney. 

Fromuth, Chakles Henky, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., February 23, 
1861. Pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under 
Thomas Eakins. Received second class gold medal at the International 
Exposition of the Fine Arts, Munich, 1897; silver medal, Paris Exposi- 
tion, 1900; gold medal St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Associate Soci6t6 
Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, Member London Pastel Society, So- 
ciete des Peihtures de Marine, Paris; Berlin Secession Society of Paint- 
ers. Specialty, marines. 

The English Illustrated Magazine for April, 1912, refers to Mr. Fro- 
muth as "an artist of undisputed distinction, recently acknowledged to 
be the leading pastel painter in the world . . . . " 

"The works of this master of pastel are nearly all scenes in harbor 
and groups of sardine boats painted under varying conditions of light." 

"Mr. Fromuth's pictures reveal his extraordinary knowledge of wave 
movement and cloud form, his sensitivenes to light and shade and his 

complete mastery of color and effect When a painter names 

his pictures "Fluid water at evening," "The mirror of the storm," "Har- 
bor waters caressed by overhead clouds," "In the jungle of the sardine 
"fleet," etc., we feel that the subjects are chosen for their spiritual mean- 
ing as well as their pictorial message." 

Frost, Arthur Burdeit, (I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., January 17, 1851. 
He began his career in a wood-engravei-'s establishment and later took 
up lithography at the same time devoting his evenings to the study of 
drawing. In 1872 he furnished a number of illustrations for "Out of 
the hurly-burly" by Charles Heber Clarke, which was very successful and 
since then he has illustrated works by various authors. Frank B. Stock- 
ton (whose works he illustrated) said of him. "By nature Mr. Frost is 
essentially a humorist." 

In 1877 he went to England to study and work, but preferring Ameri- 
can life and atmosphere, returned in 1878. 

As a chronicler of phases of American life he has been called the Mark 
Twain of the illustrators. 

"His compositions are apparently done so easily, he realizes his scenes 
so perfectly himself and is so convincing in his placing of the accent that 
one has no hesitation in saying that it is that of a cheerful, healthy opti- 
mism bred in sunny American country life." 



108 

"In his execution, he relies mainly upon sketches oT white paper and 
an equal distribution Df parallel-tint and cross-hatch shading." 

"How wonderful it is that week in and week out, drawing a hundred 
landscapes to Ruysdael's one, a hundred tramps to Callot's and Ostade's 
one, he is able to suggest so vividly the effect of sunlight upon distant 
meadow, and the homely poses of what, were Aflierica the old world, ' 
would be called the peasant class." (Knaufft.) 

No one else drawing animals realistically can make them so truly 
funny. (Ind. 59:1397.) 

Fry, Joi-in Hbnning, (P.) b. Indiana. Studied with Bougereau and 
Lefebvre in Paris; also studied in Rome. 

His work is little known in this country but a recent exhibition of 
his paintings was held in New, York. 

Mr. Pry has been called a modernizer of the Greek ideal. His subjects 
are the legends of the classics. 

"He paints his women heroically and with a plastic sense that is rare." 

"Though avoiding a high-keyed palette, Pry is a strong colorist, ob- 
taining strong dramatic effects by simple untrained methods." (Int. 
studio 58:xi.) 

Representative works are: 

"The eternal drift" "Seafoam" 

"Thetis" "Qceanites" 

"Dryad" "Paolo and Francesca" 

Pry, Sherry Edmundson (S.) b. Oreston, la., September 29, 1879. A 
pupil of the Art Institute, Chicago, under Taft; also studied with Mac- 
Monnies in Paris. An associate member of the National Academy, 1914, 
and the National Sculpture Society. 

Mr. Fry received honorable mention at the Paris salon, 1906; medal, 
salon of 1908; scholarship American Academy at Rome, 1908-11. 

Best known works : 

"Indian chief," Oskaloosa, la. 

"Au soliel" fountain, Toledo museum of art. 

"Turtle" fountain, Mount Kisco, N. Y. 

"Victory compelling peace" memorial fountain to tlie late Major Clar- 
ence P. Barrett. 

"His art is very complete. For sheer beauty of form his sculptures 
would be difficult to surpass." (Cent. 90:198.) 

All the sculpture on. Festival Hall, Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915, 



109 

was made by Mr. Fry. The "Boy Pan" was the most popular statue of 
the many figures symbolizing the moods of music. 

Mr. Fry first became famous for his studies of western Indians. 

Fuller, George, (P.) b. Deerfleld, Mass., January 16, 1822; d. Boston, 
Mass., March 21, 1884. Studied in New York, Boston, Loidon and on 
the continent of Europe. He was made associate of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, New York, in 1853, but his painting was unremujierative 
and on the death of his father 'he took up farming. After fllteen years 
of farm life, he went to Boston and found purchasers for his paintings, 
meeting with success as a professional artist. 

"The, berry pickers" placed him among the first painters of the world 
and to his "Romany girl" he owes his greatest renown. Among his best 
works are : "Winifred Dysart," "Turkey pasture" and "She was a witch." 

A memorial exhibition of his works at the Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- 
ton, 1884, comprised 175 paintings, of which the following are best 
known : 

"Cupid" "Puritan boy" 

"Romany girl" "Fagot gathering" 

"The quadroon" "Arethusa" 

"Nydia" "Negro nurse with child'' 

"Turkey pasture" "Shearing the donkey" 

"Pasture with geese" "Maidenhood" 

"Fedalma" "Driving home the calf" 

"JEvening— Lorette" "Priscilla" 

"At the bars" "Twilight on prairie" 

"Hannah" "Girl and calf" 

"Psyche" and portrait of Henry B. Fuller. 

'•'Berry pickers" 

"He was preeminently an idealist, possessed of a genius for dreamy 
light effects, somewhat akin to Corot's." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"The soul of his art was selection . . He believed the province of art 
is to call attention to the beauties of nature, not to insist upon the de- 
fects, the deformities and the vulgarities of man or nature 

He never painted a brutal head. If he saw brutality he did not like it 
and would iiot i^epresent it." (F. D. Millet, Harper's 69:517.) 

Fuller, Lucia Fairchild, (Mrs. Henry B. Fuller), (Min. P.) b. Bos- 
ton, Mass., December 6, 1872. Received bronze medal at the Paris Ex- 
position, 1900 ; silver medal at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 
Is member of the Society of American Artists. Was elected associate 
member of the National Academy of Design, New York, 1906. 



110 

Mrs. Fuller stands side by side with Miss Laura Coombs Hills in 
method and in nature of results. "With her women and with her chil- 
dren she swings into play all the tenderness of drawing and all the 
fascination of transparent flesh tones." (Critic 47:524:.) 

"Her portraits relate to the olden times when the art flourished under 
the masters who created it and her technique is above reproach." 

Her "Mother and child" from a background of blue brocade, beautified 

by age into faded purple recalls the feeling that touches the heart 

in Delia Robbia's babies. (Cent. 60:820.) 

"Mrs. Fuller's achievements are achievements" and her "Portrait of a 
boy" is splendidly painted, "soft and rich in color and of a simplicity 
equal to the drawings by Boutet de Monvel, withal of greater depth." 
(Gardner C. Teall, Brush & P. 6:26.) 

Successful imaginative figure compositions are: 

"In the days of King Arthur" 
"The Chinese jacket" 

Her "Artemidora" at the 12th annual exhibition of the American So- 
ciety of Mural Painters, shows a full appreciation of the beauty and 
purity of the material on which the miniaturist works. Alice T. Searle 
says: "In this nude, study of a woman's figure of classic beauty in an 
unusual pose, the delicacy and sensitiveness of line in the drawing was 
suggestive of an etching with a slight staining of color over the whole." 

Mrs. Fuller charms and delights the lover of miniature. 

Gaebee, Daniel, (P.) Pupil of Cincinnati Art Academy under V. 
Nowottny, and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Anschutz. 
Won the Cresson scholarship Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 
1905, first Hallgarten prize National Academy of Design, 1909 ; also the 
Potter Palmer gold medal carrying with it the sum of |1,000, at a recent 
exhibition. A member of National Academy of Design, 1913. 

Of his "Towering trees," a writer for Art and Progress (3:454) says: 
"It is an unusual composition, decorative in effect, showing a screen of 
lofty blue-green pepper trees on the marshy shore of a stream, beyond 
which one catches a glimpse of a distant landscape and bits of enchant- 
ing sky." 

Gaul, William Gilbeet, (P., I. b. Jersey City, N. J., March 31, 1855. 
Educated in the local schools of Newark and at Claverack Military Acad- 
emy. Began the study of art in New York City with J. G. Brown, and 
is one of our best known illustrators. 



Ill 

In 1872 his first picture was exhibited at the Academy of Design. 

"While Mr. Gaul has treated other subjects with sympathy and charm, 
it is in a painter of battles and soldier life that he is most widely known. 

Many of his paintings represent the picturesque features of 

army life on the plains of the far west." 

He has illustrated a number of books and his work in black and white 
has appeared in all the leading magazines. 

"Holding the line at all hazards" won a gold medal from the Ameri- 
can Art Association in 1881, and "Charging the battery" elected him a 
member of the National Academy of Design in 1889. At the World's 
Columbian Exposition, 1893, his illustiations won a medal. (Nat'l. Gyc. 
Am. Biog.) 

"Mr. Gaul's work, often spirited, is always forciful and interesting." 
("American art and artists," p. 359.) 

Gay, Walter^, (P.) b. Hingham, Mass., January 22, 1856. His youth- 
ful efforts in painting were flower pieces. At the age of nineteen he went 
to Paris and entered the atelier of Leon Bonnat who chose one of his life 
studies to be placed on the wall, where it hung for many years, being the 
only one thus honored. In 1879 he visited Spain and that same year ex- 
hibited in the salon of the Champs Elysees his picture entitled "The fenc- 
ing lesson." It was placed on the line. He is a regular contributor to 
the Paris salon. 

Eeceived honorable mention Paris salon, 1885 ; third class medal salon 
of 1888; gold medal, Vienna, 1893; gold medals Antwerp and Munich, 
1894; gold medal Berlin, 1896; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 1891 ; cross, 1906. Associate member 
Soci(§t6 Rationale des Beaux Arts ; member Soci6t6 des Amis du Louvre, 
Paris. His works are hors concours at the Paris salons. 
Mr. Gay paints chiefly the peasants of Western France. 
"Saying Grace" was awarded a gold medal of the third-class, and this 
painting and the "Cigarette makers," were purchased by the French gov- 
ernment for the Luxembourg. 
Other popular paintings are: 

"Young girl with a geranium" "The sewing lesson" 

"Plain chant" "^ master stroke" 

-Mass in Brittany" "Knife grinder" 

"The spinners" "Trained pigeons" 

"A weaver" "Conspiracy under Louis XVl" 

Mr. Gay is lepresented in the Tate collection, London, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, Mu.seum of Fine Arts, Boston, and in many 
private collections. 



112 

"Through large windows hung with thin curtains, the bright daylight 
falls into the clean rooms of peasants gleaming on the boards of. the 
floor, the tops of the tables and the white caps of the women who sit at 
their work sewing." It is a familiar problem of light. (Mtither.) 

r r :r,j ;■-:;■ 

Gbnth, Lillian Matilde^ (P.) b. 1876. Graduate of the School of De- 
sign, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1900, (fellowship to Paris) ; studied under 
Whistler and at Atelier Colarossi.- Won Mary Smith prize, Pennsylva- 
nia Academy of the Fine Arts, 1904; Shaw prize, National Academy, 
1907; gold medal American Art Society, Philadelphia, 1907; won Hall- 
garten prize on "Depth of the woods." Associate member of National 
Academy of Design, 1908. 

"Birdsong" has been purchased by the Carnegie Institute for the per- 
manent exhibit. "The lark" capably executed and of excellent color, 
won the Shaw memorial prize. "Golden days" is one of her most charac- 
teristic paintings. "Spirit of the earth" and "Sun maiden" are also well 
known, and "The promenade" is attractive. "A June afternoon" — one of 
her latest — is an analytical refinement of sunshine. 

"Mother and child" is singularly tender and beautiful and painted 
fearlessly. It is wonderful to think that at last we may enjoy in art 
as well as in life the impression of kind, generous, beautiful mother- 
hood without the Puritan streak of horror at facing the real beauty of 
the thought." ( Craftsman 24 :315. ) 

Miss Genth makes a specialty of nude female figures, symbolical 
nymphs in sunshine and shadow. 

Gibson, Charles Dana^ (I., P.) b. Roxbury, Mass., September 14, 
1867. Began his studies at the Art Students' League of New York at the 
age of seventeen and continued in that institution during 1883 and 1884. 
In 1886 he made his debut as an artist for the periodicals, his first draw- 
ing accepted being "The moon and I" which, appeared in "Life." Three 
years later he gave up work and went to Paris where in 1889 he was 
enrolled as a student in the Academie Julien. After this period of study 
he resumed work as an illustrator ; has a studio in New York. 

In 1893 he went to Paris, in 1895 to London and in 1898 to Munich 
acquiring material for pictures subsequently published. 

"Mr. Gibson is doubtless to be regarded as one of the foremost of mod- 
ern illustrators. His technique is admirable. He works in three media 
—pen, chalk and brush. His versatility, however, is that of ideas and 
not of types. Few artists have acquired equal reputation with as few 
distinct characters. His American girls are one American girl — his 



113 

favorite, and for a certain class of pictures almost his sole female 
model." (Brush & P. 7:277.) 

The drawings of Gibson have been characterized as genteel pictorial 
comedy, and probably no happier nor truer phase could be devised to 
describe them. 

Gibs, Joseph W., (P.) b. Detroit, Michigan. Pupil of Bouguereau 
and Eobert-Eleury in Paris ; Koyal Academy in Munich. Member Society 
Western Artists. "Lady in pink" and portrait of Kobert Hopkin are 
in the Detroit Museum of Art. 

GiFFORD, Egbert Svtain, (P., E.) b. Naushon Island, Mass., Decem- 
ber 23, 1840 ; d. New York, January 15, IQOS.'' Educated in the public 
schools of New Bedford, Mass. ; studied painting under Albert VanBeest, 
Rotterdam, Holland ; settled in New York in 1866 ; made sketching tours 
through California and Oregon in 1869, in Europe and North Africa in 
1870-71, and again in 1874-75 in Brittany and other parts of France. 
Was elected associate member of the National Academy of Design, New 
York in 1867; full member in 1878. Member of the Society of Painter- 
Etchers, London. 

Mr. Gilford's range of landscape is unusually wide; he has painted 
the heights of the Sierras, the plains of Brittany and coast of New Eng- 
land, as well as Eastern scenes. He is best known through his Eastern 
pictures in which his rendering of Oriental life and atmosphere is pe- 
culiarly happy. 

In 1867 he sent three marine paintings to the National Academy ex- 
hibition, — "Scene at Long Beach," "Cliff scene, Grand Menau," "Vine- 
yard Sound light ship,"^and on their merits was elected associate mem- 
ber of the institute. 

Oriental paintings: 

"An Egyptian caravan" "Halt in the desert" 

"Fountain near Cairo" "Entrance to a Moorish house in 
"On the Nile" Tangiers" 

"View of the Golden Horn" "The palms of Biskra" 

"Evening on the Nile" "Scene in the Great Square of the 
"Rock of Gibraltar" Rumeyleh, Cairo, Egypt" 

His autumn landscapes or sketches of shore are rich in harmonies of 
tone. Of his "Woodland pastures," Mr. Gifford writes : "The subject is 

from nature, sketched near my place at Nonquit I have painted 

many of my best pictures in this locality." 
15 



"The glen" is an excellent example of his style. His "Near the coast" 
won the $2,500 prize of the American Art Association in 1885. 

"We have stood spell-bound before his drifting October clouds, and 

the wide expanses of his cold and cheerless skies We have 

wondered how a man could bring before us such a dreary scene and yet 
force us to bow before it." (New Eng. M. 14:148.) 

Mr. Giflford was one of the best of American etchers and his plates 
have been praised by the most competent critics. Of his "Evening" 
S. E. Koehler, in his work on "Etching," says : "In my hUmWe opinion, 
it is about the completest bit of American landscape etching yet ac- 
complished without loss of freedom or breadth." 

GiiACKENS^ William J., (P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., March 13, 1870. 
Received early training in Pennsylvania Academy and studied scenes and 
types several years in Europe ; exhihited at the Paris salon, 1896 ; Paris 
Exposition, 1900. McClure's sent him to Cuba during war with Spain. 
He has received medals and honorable mention at the exhibitions of 
various art societies in this country; was elected associate member of 
the National Academy of Design, 1906. 

A revolutionist in art, he is from an American standpoint the first 
of illustrators. The art editor of Scribner's has made his work a feature 
of that magazine's pages. 

"His work is distinct and decidedly radical in its purport and incep- 
tion. He may not please the general public, but has won the unstinted 
appreciation of his confreres in art, and of those who value originality 
and forceful thought." (Bkm. 11:244.) 

"Glacken's paintings are invariably interesting for the artist is pos- 
sessed of an exceedingly fresh and engaging point of view. And yet with 
all its originality the art of Glackens is closely linked with that of Degas 
and Manet 

"Glackens possesses much knowledge of the technique of painting in 
oils — that most diflftcult of all media; his composition and his palette 
are very amusing. His drawings fairly reek with character and his 
wonderfully expressive line records types in such a truthful and far- 
seeing manner, his penetrating gaze sees so far beneath the surface of 
things, that one can only marvel at the simple manner in which he at- 
tains his ends." (Int. studio 40:lxviii.) 

"In approaching the slums he does so purely as an artist Mr. 

Glackens is a logical impressionist — one who could never be anything 
else. He does not see the details at all. He receives simply general 
impressions." (Bookm. 34:4^0.) 



115 

In writing of his recent work,. A. E. Gallatin divides them into three 
classes — beach scenes, portraits and flower studies. 

"In all of them he displays his great color sense, besides a splendid 
feeling for form and a technique rational and normal." (American M. 
of art, :2762.) 

Grafly, Charles^ (S.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., December 3, 1862. At the 
age of seventeen he entered a stone-carving establishment in order to 
gain practical knowledge of the sculptor's craft; he remained there for 
five years. Studied modeling and painting under Thomas Eakins at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Pine Arts and in 1888 went to Paris and 
entered the Academie Julien and studied in the department of sculp- 
ture under Ohapu ; later studied in the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

Received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 1891 ; honorable men- 
tion Temple Fund, 1892 ; gold medal of honor, Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, 1899 ; gold medal Paris Exposition 1900 ; gold medal Pan- 
American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Elected associate member of the 
National Academy of Design, New York, in 1902, academician, 1905. Mr. 
Grafly is instructor of sculpture in the Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts; also member of leading art clubs in the United States. 

In the salon of 1890 he made his debut with two heads — "Daedalus" 
and "St. John" ; the former was subsequently exhibited in Philadelphia, 
purchased and cast in bronze by the academy and is now in the perma- 
nent collection. His life-size female nude figure "Mauvais presage" was 
accorded honorable mention in the salon of 1891; is now in the Detroit 
Museum of Art. Since 1896 he has resided in Philadelphia. 

The most original of his diminutive works is "The symbol of. life." In 
the Paris Exposition of 1900 five of his. works — "The vulture of war," 
"The symbol of life," "From generation to generation," "Portrait of my 
mother" and portrait of Mrs. Charles Grafly— were exhibited and they 
were awarded a gold medal. , 

"The pioneer mother," a statue to motherhood, is a tribute to the 
pioneer women of California, suggested by the Woman's Board of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. Mr. Grafly was selected as the sculptor 
after a competition in which ten American sculptors entered designs. 
' After the close of the exposition the monument will be placed per- 
manently in the civic center of San Francisco. 

He executed the main fountain "Man" for the Pan-American Exposi- 
tion, Buffalo, 1901. 

Lorado Taft says that there is a leaning towards symbolism in Mr. 
Grafly's work — "He seems to think that this is what sculpture is for — 



116 

the expression of one's ideas, in form .... Mr. Grafly lost himself for a 
time in an Egyptian chimera." 

Grayson, Clifford Provost, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., July 14, 1859. 
Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1878. After studying 
at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, he went to Paris the 
same year and studied in the Ecole des Beaux Arts and in the Atelier 
Gerome. Then he went to Pont Aven and Concarneau where some of his 
most successful pictures were painted. Subsequently he opened a studio 
in Paris, and became a regular contributor to the salon. 

His first paiijting shown in the salon of 1882 was "A Breton idyl." 
This was followed by "Going to market." In 1883 his "Eainy day at 
Pont Aven" was hung in a most prominent place on the line and received 
favorable comment. "Ahoy," was exhibited in the salon of 1884, and 
"Fisherman's family," 1885. "Midday dreams" won |2,000 prize in 1886 
at an art exhibition in New York. 

Mr. Grayson returned from Europe in 1891 to become director of the 
art department of Drexel Institute. In his work he reminds one of Jules 
Breton. 

Grbatorex, Eliza, (E.) b. Manor-Hamilton, Ireland; d. Paris, Prance, 
1897. In 1840 she came to New York with her family, and in 1849 mar: 
ried Henry W. Greatorex, a well-known musician and organist. Being 
early left a widow with three cliildren slie made art her profession and 
went to Paris where she studied under Lambinet for a year and later at 
the Pinakothek, Munich. After this period of study she returned to New 
York and in 1869 she was elected an associate member of the National 
Academy of Design, New York — an honor which at that time only one 
other woman, Mrs. Bogardus, shared with her; she was the first woman 
to be elected a member of the Artists Fund Society of New York. 

It is by her pen-and-ink drawings — a series of pictures of old New 
York — that she is perhaps most widely known. 

In 1873 she determined to take up etching and in 1878 settled in 
Paris and made etching her cliief study. In the summer of 1880 she 
went to the valley of the Chevreuse (Seine et Oise) and at Chevreuse 
and Cernay-la-Ville etched directly from nature her "Pond at Gernay-le- 
Ville." Her "Old Dutch church" is most characteristic and attractive. 
The work of Mrs. Greatorex is delicate rather than strong in its incep- 
tion as well as in its execution. (Koehler's "American etchings.") 

She etched her famous plate "The old Blooraingdale tavern" in 1869. 

Green, Elizabeth Siiiri'EN, (Mrs. Huger Elliott), (I.) Studied at 
the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, also with Howard Pyle; 



117:. 

guided and encouraged in her childhood by her father, a lover of art, 
who with her mother lived also at the "Red Eose." 

Studied six years abroad. Began by illustrating for advertisements; 
then entered the wider field of drawing pictures for children's poems 
and stories. 

"Her love of the dainty mysteries of elves and fays has free expres- 
sion." Her work appears especially in Harper's. 

GrolLj Albert Lobby, (P.) b. New York, December 8, 1866. Most of 
his student yeairs were spent in Munich where he studied at the Royal 
Academy. Has been a landscape painter since 1895. A member of the 
National Academy of Design, New York, 1910. 

In his student days he gave much attention to figure painting but 
there came a time when he could not afford models for figure pieces; 
this forced him to find his models in the trees and rivers, hills and fields. 
His earlier pictures are studies of the familiar atmospheric effects of 
dawn, twilight, moonlight, mist, sunrise and starlight as seen at Cape 
Cod, Sandy Hook and in New York City. 

Mr. Groll accompanied Prof. Stuart Culin of the Brooklyn Museum of 
Arts and Sciences on an exploration trip to New Mexico and Arizona 
and the sketches that he made of the Colorado desert furnished material 
for his now noted "desert" pictures. His "Arizona" won the gold medal 
in 1906 at the exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 
"It is only a sketch of desert and sky and low-lying hills, but it glows 
like a gem with the indescribable never-to-be-forgotten color of the Colo- 
rado desert." (Craftsman 9:826.) "The sandstorm" is another remark- 
able production; "The rainbow" still more daring: In "Clouds" he is 
seen at his best. "Lake Louise" was awarded the Inness gold medal. 

He shows the desert in all its moods — placid and savage, bold and 
mellow. "Groll is the musical dreamer in colors." (Int. studio 27:lxvi.) 

Geovee, Olivbe Dennett, (Mural P.) b. Earlville, 111., January 29, 
1861. Studied in Royal Academy, Munich; with Frank Duveneck in 
Florence, with Boulanger, Lefebvre and Laurens in, Paris. Received the 
first Yerkes prize, Chicago, 1892, for his painting, "Thy will be done." 

Geuppe, Charles Paul, (P.) b. Pictou, Canada, September 3, 1860. 
Studied in Holland but is chiefly self-taught. Received gold medal at 
Rouen gold medal of American Art Society in 1902 ; two gold medals in 

Paris. 

Is a member of the Pulchre Studio, The Hague; Arti. Amsterdam; 
American Water-color Society, New York; Art Club of Philadelphia; 
New York Water-color Club. 



118 

GuBRiN^ Jules, (P., I., Mural P.) b. St. Louis, Mo., November 18, 
186C. Going abroad after preliminary studies, he entered the ateliers 
of Benjamin-Constant and Jean Paul Laurens in Paris. Keceived honor- 
able mention at Paris Exposition 1900; also honorable mention at the 
Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, and silver medal at St. Louis 
Exposition 1904. An associate member National Academy of Design, 
1916. 

Mr. Guerin is an architectural draughtsman, a successful decorative 
painter, and a well-known illustrator. In recent publications, he has 
collaborated with Eobert Hichens, the author, using many of his sub- 
jects from Egypt and Palestine. 

Among his interesting paintings are series of French chateaux, Vene- 
tian scenes, and public buildings of historic interest in the United States. 

In estimating the artistic qualities of Mr. Guerin, the International 
studio says: "He studies a building with the trained and informed in- 
telligence, the assured restraint of an architectural draughtsman of the 

better sort He is careful of design and bold, almost arbitrary in 

color, conventionalizing like a decorator." 

He has painted six enormous topographical landscapes as mural decor- 
ations for the new Pennsylvania E. E. station in New York City. They 
represent chiefly the country traversed by that railway company. 

Mr. Guerin was responsible for the color scheme' of the buildings of 
the Panama-Exposition, and he has the distinction of being the first 
director of color ever appointed for an international exposition. 

GuTHEKZ, Carl, (P. Mural P.) b. Schoeftland, Switzerland; d. Wash- 
ington, D. C, February 7, 1907. Catne to this country with his parents 
in 1851 and settled in Memphis, Tenn. He became a mechanical draughts- 
man. In 1868 he went to Paris and studied art with Cabason and Pils, 
and later with Stallaert and Eobert in Brussels and Antwerp; finally 
settled in Eome in 1871 where he studied with Simonetti. There he exe- 
cuted his first important work "The awakening of spring," and on the 
strength of this painting, he was elected in 1872 a member of the Cercle 
Artistique Internationale; after spending some time in Munich he re- 
turned to the United States in 1873 and became associated with Prof. 
Halsey G. Ives. In 1880 Mr. Gutherz married an accomplished and cul- 
tured lady of a distinguished Alabama family and they soon after re- 
moved to Paris where they lived until 1896. While in Paris, Lefebvre, 
Boulanger, Gabriel Ferrier, Jules Breton, Oliver Merson and Puvis de 
Chavannes were among his intimate associates. He exhibited in every 
salon and in 1876 received a medal from France that rendered his works 
hors concours in the salon. His work assumed "that dignity and pro- 



119 

portion of color symphouies, significant in mystic symbolism." Being 
awarded tlie commission for decorating the ceiling of the Representa- 
tives' reading room in the Library of Congress, led to his establishing his 
home in Washington where he was for many years connected with the 
art department of the Washington University. 

His mural paintings in the Library of Congress are seven panels rep- 
resenting "The spectrum of light." He also has a series of mural paint- 
ings in the Peoples' Church, St. Paul, Minn., the theme being to repre- 
sent allegorically life in both the physical and spiritual worlds. In the 
Courthouse at Fort Wayne, Ind., he has a series of six splendid decora- 
tive panels.. 

In portraiture Mr. Gutherz painted many distinguished men. Among 
his ideal works are the beautiful "Ad angelis" where two angels are 
bearing the ethereal body to the realm of light, "The golden legend," 
"Ecce homo," "Sappho" and "Midsummer night's dream." 

Lilian Whiting says: "The story of Carl Gutherz is the story of an 
ideal embraced in youth and followed in manhood with increasing fidel- 
ity. It is the story of a painter whose entire life has been singularly 
responsive to the artist's vision and the poet's dream." (Int. studio 
24:lxxxi.) 

Haggin^ Ben Ali^ (P-)- Won third Hallgarten prize of the National 
Academy of Design, 1909. His technical knowledge was acquired by 
studying the work of the masters. 

"In his portrait of a 'Japanese actress' the fabric of the gown and 
the manipulation of light is almost Whistlerian, without being in the 

least like Whistler Another thing that Haggin has in common 

With Whistler is the handling of white. Few contemporary painters get 
the same quality in the lightness of the heavier white fabrics." 

"In his 'Little dancer' the figure stands in the center of a stage, 
against a golderr curtain that blends into the shadows of the dress — ■ 
shadows that are golden, transparent and luminous, not dull gray or 
blatk. His blacks have the same harmonizing quality, for black is piled 
on black in a most bewildering fashion." 

"He gives to all his portraits a 'dramatic efifect'. 'Perhaps the por- 
trait of Mrs. Wilfred Buckland will be reckoned by a later generation 
of critics as one of the most essentially brilliant canvases which have 
ever emanated from his brush.' " 

"His charming portrait of Miss Kitty Gordon is now famous. Otis 
Skinner as Hajj, the beggar, is considered to be technically the best 
thing he has handled of late. This characterization was done at one 
sitting. (Arts & D. 2:320.) 



120 

His portrait of Mary Garden as "Thais" sold for |25,000. 

"He is obsessed with a sense of color It is in the painting 

of the nude, however, that Haggin has found his most complete expres- 
sion . : . . The flesh is transparent, blue veined and coolly shadowed." 

I' 
Hallo WELL^ Gbokgb H., (Min. P.) b. Boston, Mass., December 5, 1872. 

Pupil of Benson, Tarbell and H. B. Warren in painting. 

At the tenth annual exhibition of the Society of Miniature Painters 
Mr. Hallowell showed an interesting group. 

"His paintings are representations of a more or less conventionalized 
nature, and he pays so much attention to the surface of his picture that 
he produces an effect not unlike the wonderful glaze of the porcelains of 
the Eoyal potteries at Copenhagen. His design is always beautiful and 
his color of an unimpeachable harmony, though purely arbitrary." 

Harding^ Chester^ (P.) b. Conway, Mass., September, 1772; d. in 
1866. A remarkable personality. He was noted as an axeman — was im- 
prisoned for debt — worked as a house painter;— finally became a famous 
portrait painter. ■ 

For a time was a student of art in the Academy in Philadelphia. 
Finally settled in Boston where he achieved great popularity. Went to 
England in 1823 where he became popular. Returning to the United 
States he painted most of the political leaders of his time — Webster, 
Clay, Calhoun, Marshall and many more. (Bookm. 31:55.) 

Tuckerman in his "Book of the artists" says : "In 1823 Harding was 
the fashion in Boston; even Stuart was neglected and used to ask sar- 
castically "How goes the Harding fever?". 

His portrait of Daniel Webster was much esteemed. His last work 
was a portrait of General Sherman. 

Harding, George, (I., P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1882. Studied at Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Pine Arts and with Howard Pyle. Member of 
the Philadelphia Water Color Club and Society of Illustrators. 

Representative pictures: 

"Coast of Cape Race" "Busy day at the docks" 

"The fisherwoman" "A wreck on Florida reefs" 

Harper, William A., (P.) Born of colored parents near Cayuga, Can- 
ada, December 27, 1873 ; died in the City of Mexico, March 27, 1910. 

In 1895 he entered the Art Institute School, Chicago. Later he taught 
drawing in the public schools of Houston, Texas. In 1903 and again 
in 1907 he went to Paris where he was associated with Henry O. Tanner. 



121 

The subjects of his paintings were mostly French and American land- 
scapes. Of a memorial exhibition of his paintings held in Chicago soon 
after his death, a local art critic writes : 

"The showing of Harper's work was interesting for the. variety of 
sketching grounds represented, for the dignity of the point of view, and 
for a consistently high aim in the conception of his pictures." 

Hauuision^ (Lovell) BiegEj (P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., October 28, 
1854. Son of ApoUos Wolcott and Margaret (Belden) Harrison. Known 
most widely as a painter of snow. Eeceived an academic education. 
Went to Paris in 1876; entered the atelier of Carolus-Duran ; two years 
later entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts and studied under Oabanel for 
four years. Going to Pont-Aven, Brittany, he painted his first important 
picture, "November" which was exhibited in the salon of 1882 and Sub- 
sequently purchased by the French government. Associate member Na- 
tional Academy of Design, 1902; full member, 1910. 

His work is marked by a love of evanescent effects, — moonrise over a 
majestic shadowy landscape, winter twilight after snow, the harbor ice 
in moonlight. 

Important works are: 

"The return of the Mayflower" "Moonrise off Santa Barbara" 

"Moonlight on the snow" "Winter sunrise in New England" 

"Morning on the Eel river" "The sentinel" 

"Moonlight on the marshes" "The heights of Levis" 

"The Flatiron after rain" "Woodstock meadows in winter" 

"Sunlight and mist" "Eoad near Santa Barbara" 

"The lower town, Quebec" "Madison avenue iu winter" 

"A writer on his art, a teacher and experimenter, he has played with 
the whole gamut of high and low sunshine on snowy fields." (Innes 
('Schools of painting," p. 375.) 

His paintings are hors concours in the Paris salon-. 

Harbison^ Thomas Alexander_, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., January 17, 
1853. Son of ApoUos Wolcott and Margaret (Belden) Harrison. In 
1879 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, also under Bastien-Lepage 
and G6rome, Paris. The same year he joined the colony of artists at 
Pont-Aven, Brittany, and in 1880 he sent his first marine entitled "The 
Brittany coast" to the Paris salon. His first popular success came in 
1882 when he sent to the salon a charming picture called "Castles in 
Spain." In the salon of 1884 he again obtained great success with a 
marine called Cr^puscule" (Twilight). This he followed in the salon 



122 

of 1885 with "The wave" for which he received honorable mention, and 
in the salon of 1886 he exhibited "Arcadia" which was later purchased 
by the French government for the Luxembourg. These four mentioned 
pictures all figured in the Universal Exhibition of 1889 and represent 
the artist's greatest and most successful efforts. 

Other representative paintings are: 

''The River Loing — evening" "Breton garden" 

"Nymph" "The amateurs" 

"Lunar mists" "Marine" 

"Shipwrecked" "Misty inorning" 

"Harbor of Concarneau" "Golden sands" 
"Pebbly beach" 

Although demonstrating his ability to' paint in many directions it is 
mainly by reason of his great power as a painter of the sea that Mr. 
Harrison's reputation stands, and in this work none approaches him in 
the delineation of light and movement and color of wave forms uder 
. sky effects .... "Very notable is the hue of the foam and curdle, not 
white but an attenuated tone of the same blue which pervades the mass 
of water." (Brush & P. 4:133.) 

"Of all American painters of the sea, Alexander Harrison is 

the most scholarly." (CafSn.) 

"The key note to Mr. Harrison's art is truth to nature ; he is a disciple 
of the plein air movement and of the evolution which was determined 
in French art by Manet." 

He has a studio in Paris where he has large classes of students. 

His paintings have obtained for him medals and prizes in Paris, 
Munich, London, New York and Philadelphia. Is a member of popular 
art clubs in Paris, Munich, London, New York and Philadelphia. Was 
elected associate member of the National Academy of Design, in 1898; 
full member in 1901. 

Hassaaf, Childe, (P., E.) b. Boston, Mass., October 17, lS.~>n. ICdn- 
cated in Boston public schools and studied art in Boston nnd Paris, 
1886-9. Is the best known follower of Monet in this country — our fore- 
most impressionist since the death of Theodore Robinson. 

Has been singularly successful in competition, winning medals in 
Paris, Mnnicli, Chicago, Philadelphia, I'ittsburgh, Buffalo and St. Louis, 
and awarded prizes by many American art clubs and societies. He is a 
member of the Ten American T'aintcrs, Soci(§t6 Nationale dcs Beaux 
Arts, Paris, The Secessionists, Munidi, and National Academy of De- 
sign, New York. 



123 

"Subjects" he says, "suggest to me a color sch€me, and I just paint; 

some one else might see a riot of color where I see only whites and drabs 

and buffs." 

"June" is one of his prize paintings. Other well-known works are: 
"Improvisation" ".The green, New Haven" 

"Paris — winter" "Winter nightfuU" 

"Inner harbor — Gloucester" "Plaza Centrale — Havana" 

"Rue Lafayette on a winter even- "Cat boats — Newport" 

ing" ., "The abilone shell" 

"The Chinese merchants" "Summer sea" 

"North shore, moonlight" "Penelope" 

"October haze, Manhattan" "Lorelei" (prize painting) 

"A bowl of nasturtiums" "A New York window" 

"He is primarily a great painter of air and soil, sea and sky. He feels 
the repose and beauty,, the strength and immensity of nature in the 
simplest scenes. He has a definite aim, and every picture brings him 
nearer the goal. (Int. studio 29:267.) 

"When Coquelin, the French actor, was in America, he bought two of 
Hassam's impressionistic canvases to take back with him to France, die- 
claring at the time of purchase that the artist was the most able im- 
pressionist painter. The compliment was not ill-advisedly spoken and 
Hassam will easily maintain the rank assigned him." (Frederick W. 
Morton.) 

Mr. Hassam is a designer with a sense of balance and of classic grace 
almost equal to that of Corot, and he uses the impressionist method to 
express otherwise the shimmer of delicate foliage that Corot loved. 

"Isles of Shoals" series is of recent date. "These water-colors of 
rocky coast and blue water are glorious in color and even greater inter- 
pretations of nature than Sargent's. His concern is with color, not with 
form." (Arts & D., 6:279.) 

Mr. Hassam has recently taken up etching and an exhibition of sixty 
of his subjects was held in New York last autumn. 

"Mr. Hassam carries over into etching the convictions of a delicate 
luminist. He refuses consistently the broader and more idiomatic 
means of expression — the areas of dazzling white paper balancing areas 
of velvety black, which are common to Eembrandt and the recent Eng- 
lish etchers under his domination In setting himself a definite pic- 
torial ideal identical with that of his painting, Mr. Hassam goes far 
to asking the impossible of the etched line." (Nation 101:698.) 

Hawthorne^ Charles Webster^ (P.) b. Maine, 1872. Student of Na- 
tional Academy of Design and Art Students' League, New York. Teacher 



124 

in New York schools of art; owner and mstructor of Cape Cod School 
of Art, Provincetown, Mass. Associate meijaber National Academy, 1908. 

First painted still life, then figures ; after a trip to Italy painted land- 
scapes; also paints portraits. 

"He is essentially a figure painter, a painter of "types" surrounded 
by a jumble of still life. The fishing folk of Cape Cod are his specialty 

In his men with oar and fishing tackle and his Portuguese 

fisher boys, we feel a whiff of the ocean and their environment is actually 
dripping with brine Hawthorne's art has not yet that expres- 
sion of joy in expansive life which clings to Winslow Homer's figures, 
nor has it that anatomical grasp in character which is Eakin's strength. 
But it is just as vital, natural and wholesome." (Int. studio 26:261.) 

Arthur Hoeber writes : "The return" has a sentiment rarely secured 
by modern men. The expression of the young lad is splendidly caught 
and is full of youth, hope and courage, while as craftsmanship it is un- 
surpassed. "The iiuctioneer" is a type of the Provincetown fisherman 
that is to' the life, while the painting is a veritable tour de force. One 
cannot mistake here the man's call to the arts, for the painter is ob- 
vious in every brush stroke The little Venetian "Lemon girl" 

is a gem in its way." (Int. studio 37:lxv.) 

"The trousseau," now owned by the Metropolitan museum, was award- 
ed the Clarke prize in 1911 on the first ballot without a dissenting voice 
— an unprecedented honor in the history of the National Academy of 
Design. 

Other representative pictures are: 

"Fisher boy" "Home with the catch" 

"Fisher children" "The auctioneer" 

"Portuguese fisher boys" "The doyen of the fish market" 

"The fisherman's daughter" "Youth" 
"The boatman" 

Healy, George Pbtee Alexander^ (P.) b. Boston, Mass., July 15, 1813; 
d. Chicago, 111., June 24, 1894. At the age of sixteen he began to copy 
prints and make likenesses of all who would sit for him. His first suc- 
cess was a copy on canvas of Guido Reni's "Ecce homo" which a 
Catholic priest purchased for flO and placed in his church. He studied 
in Paris in 1836; went to Chicago in 1858; revisited Europe in 1869 and 
resided long in Rome. While in Rome painted portraits of Longfellow, 
Pope Pius IX, Princess Oldenberg and other distinguished presons. 'He 
also painted the portraits of Louis Philippe, Guizot, Thier, Gambetta, 
Webster, Clay, Lincoln and Grant, and many hundred more distinguish- 
ed persons. The number of portraits that he painted was enormous. 



125 

At his best, his heads are strong, dignified and characteristic. 

He also produced large historic pictures, his "Franklin before Louis 
XVI," won the third-class medal at the Pails salon in 1840 and his 
"Webster's reply to Hayne" now hangs in Paneuil Hall, Boston. 

Hbinigke^ Otto, b. Brooklyn, New York, 1851. A mural painter, but 
makes a specialty of stained glass. Also a writer. 

Henri^ Kobeet^ (P.) b. Cincinnati, O., 1865. Eeceived his education 
in the western cities and in New York. Studied art in the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts, also studied without instructions for years 
in France, Spain and Italy. Has exhibited at Paris salons and won 
several prizes at competitive exhibitions in the United States. Member 
of the National Academy of Design, New York, since 1906. 

"The snow" was purchased in 1899 by the French government for the 
Luxembourg. "Girl in white waist" was purchased by the Carnegie In- 
stitute, Pittsburgh, for the permanent collection. 

Other pictures are: 
"Grirl with red hair" 
"Happy Hollander" 
"Little girl holding her hat" 

Isham says: ''Mr. Eobert Henri is the most characteristic of the 

younger group of painters his best works are from carefully 

chosen models His girls are modern, complex and rather mys- 
terious. His workmanship is broad and sure, insistently masterly, with 
great richness of surface and harmony of tone in the simple scheme of 
black and white and flesh color." 

Hartmann says of Henri : "A street scene painter whose aim is rather 
to seize the mystery, the passion, the despair as well as the gaiety of a 
modern metropolis, than to describe its merely topographical features." 

"Woman with cloak" is much admired by the artistic few; its soft and 
harmonious background suggests Whistler. (Brush & P. 4:200.) 

"Mr. Henri's Irish types are full of life and color, splendidly charac- 
terized and modeled. He would do well to subdue a tendency to over- 
punctuate with dashes of flesh color of very violent reds and crimsons." 
(Int. studio 52:iii.) 

"Eobert Henri's portrait of Mr. Lloyd Roberts' little daughter Pa- 
tricia has become so famous in America that she has been nicknamed 
the Henri baby." (Craftsman 29:256.) 

Hertbr, Albert, (Mural P.) b. New York, March 2, 1871; He studied 
art with Carroll Beckwith; also with Laurens and Cormon in Paris. 



126 

Mr. Hertei' has won many medals and prizes and received honorable men- 
tion p the Paris salon of 1890. In 1910 he was elected an associate 
member of the National Academy of Design. 

Five years ago he brought over from France weavers and looms and 
established a factory for tapestries and textiles, designing the patterns 
himself. 

His latest achievement has been in mural painting, and among recent 
wall paintings of note is a series of decorations for the dining room of 
the St. Francis Hotel, San Francisco, which he painted in his studio in 
East Hampton, L. I. Seven wall spaces are covered with an allegorical 
pageant marking the progress of civilization. (House B. 37:12.) 

"The color effect of the decoration as a whole is remarkably har- 
monious. In each panel there is brilliant red, considerable blue and 
pageant marking the progress of civilization. 

HiGGiNS^ Eugene, (P., E.) b. Kansas City, Mo., February, 1874. At- 
tended the art school in St. Louis, Mo., and later studied in Paris under 
Laurens, Benjamin-Constant, Gferome and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

Poverty is Mr. Higgins' art inspiration and he is called the Maxim 
Goi-ky of painting. 

His mother died when he was four years of age and he thenceforth 
lived in cheap boarding houses with his father who was a stone-cutter by 
trade. Here "he came in close contact with types of dissolute and luck- 
less humanity, such as he now loves to paint." 

When a lad of twelve, an article on Millet gave him his first impulse 
to be a painter. Millet and Victor Hugo have largely moulded his en- 
tire life. 

During his sojourn in Paris his paintings were shown in the exhibi- 
tions of the American Art Association and a few of his works were well 
hung in the New Salon. He returned to the United States in 1904. 

John Spargo, in the Craftsman 12:141, says "The question has been 
raised whether such subjects as Mr. Higgins chooses are suited to the 
medium of canvas and paint or whether they do not belong rather to 
literature." 

Higgins in defense says: "There is longing, envy, and unrest in the 
slums and there is feeling, sentiment and poetry as well." 

He portrays the pathetic, the helpless, the ruined, the despised and 
the rejected of humanity. 

Hills, Laura Coombs, (Min. P.) b. Newburyport, Mass., September 7, 
1859. Pupil of Helen Ii|:. Knowlton, Art Students' League of New York 
and Cowles Art School in Boston. 



127 

Received medal at Paris Exposition, 1900; second Corcoran prize, 
1901; silver medal Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; associate 
member National Academy, 1906; vice president American Society of 
Miniature Painters and the first miniature painter to be elected to the 
Society of American Artists. Although never taught miniature paint- 
ing, Miss Hills is recognized as a most skilful miniature painter and has 
gained honors both at home and abroad in this particular ^orm of art. 

Her first exhibit was "Seven pretty girls of Newburyport." "The 
bride" a harmony in gray, gold and blue, was one of the most eva'nescent- 
ly delicate pieces at a recent exhibition. "The black mantle," "Fire 
opal," "Butterfly" and "Goldfish" represent the most modern develop- 
ment of all, the essentially pictorial miniature. In these fanciful sub- 
jects she takes a place among colorists of the first rank. Her minia- 
ture of Alice Brown is full of insight and penetration; the portrait of 
Mr. Arthur Harlow has all the breadth and dignity of a large portrait 
with the charm peculiar to the miniature; the charming little head of 
Dorothy S. is frank and altogether lovely; the pprtrait of little Miss 
Hale is as wholly delightful a child portrait as one could ask. (Int. 
studio 41:xlvi.) 

Frances Duncan in writing of Miss Hills' work said: "Her portraits 
are not large portraits done small, but essentially miniature ; they have 
that exquisite jewel-like quality peculiar to the miniature in the hands 
of the few masters of this exquisite and lovely art, the quality which will 
make miniature painting a thing apart." 

"She understands the emotion of color and by a graceful dexterity 
masters its adaptation to its subject." (Critic 47:523.) 

"Her portraits are always big in conception and she appears to be 
little hampered by the tiny brushes and the elusive quality of the ivoi*y." 

The portrait of Master Donald Mofliat was the chef d'oeuvre at a re- 
cent exhibition of the Miniature Society. 

Alice T. Searle says : "Miss Hills is never dull but in the center one of 
her group of three large ovals [at a recent exhibition], the portrait of 
Miss Isobel da Costa Green, she outshone her own brilliant past." 

HiTCHcoGK, Georgh, (P., I.) b. Providence, E. I., September 29, 1850; 
d. at Island of Marken, Netherlands, August 2, 1913. Graduated froan 
BroAvn University in 1S72 and from Harvard Law School in 1874 ; ad- 
mitted to the bar both in Providence and in New York, he remained in 
the law until twenty-nine when he definitely gave over jurisprudence 
for the palette; was a pupil of Lefebvre and Boulanger in Paris and of 
H. W. Mesdag at The Hague, an academic painter in Paris and a marine 
painter under Mesdag, he did not really discover himself until he found 



128 

the tulip fields of Egmond near Amsterdam. The Egmond school is the 
result of his paintings. While he resided there seventeen studios sprang 
up and three hundred pupils came to him. 

Mr. Hitchcock's "Tulip culture" was the foundatiori of his reputation 
in the Paris salon of 3887. 

"Pew artists before him have been impressed as he was by the Haarlem 
tulip beds and the great brilliant tapestries formed by the variegated 
hyacinths of the Low Countries." 

Mr. Hitchcock prefers Holland in one mood. "Holland flooded in 
sunlight and covered with a multi-colored floral carpet is the Holland 
Mr. Hitchcock puts on canvas." "A figure painter quite as unmistake- 
ably as a landscape painter, he combines both elements on even terms." 
(Cent., 48:318.) 

Among the most engaging of his Dutch compositions are : 

"The mob cap" "In Brabant" 

"Hyacinths" "Holland morning" 

"Maternity" "Sun-flecked" 

"The epitome of Holland" "Sunday in Zeeland" 
"Flower girl in Holland" 

Mr. Hitchcock's art is not limited to Dutch subjects. He has painted 
a number of pictures dealing with religious and mythical subjects. 

Among these may be mentioned: 

"Annunciation" "Vanquished" 

"Flight into Egypt" "Ariadne" 

"Mary at the house of Elizabeth" "Sappho" 

"Saint George" "Calypso" 
"Hagar and Ishmael" 

Mr. Hitchcock received honorable mention, gold medals and other 
coveted prizes. He was a member of the Munich Secessionists, Paris So- 
ciety of American Painters, the Vienna Academy and an ofiScer in the 
Order of Franz Josef; also an associate member of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, New York, 1909. 

Hitchcock, Lucius Wolcoi% (I.) b. West Williamsfield, O., December 
2, 1868. Pupil of Art Students' League of New York, Lefebvre, Benjamin- 
Constant, Laurens and Colarossi Academy, Paris. Eeceived honorable 
mention at Pan-American Expositioji, Buffalo, 1901 ; silver medal for il- 
lustration and bronze medal for painting at the St. Louis Exposition, 
1904. Also a teacher. 



129 

Homer, Winslow, (P.) b. Boston, Mass., February 24, 1836; d. Scar 
borough, Maine, September 29, 1910. At the age of nineteen he entered 
the employ of a lithographer in Boston. In 1859 he settled in New York, 
studying in the school of the National Academy of Design and under F. 
Rondel. He was elected associate member of the academy in 1864; aca- 
demician in 1865. 

During the civil war he was special correspondent and artist for 
Harper, and his first works in oil which brought him prominently be- 
fore the public as an artist were "Prisoners from the front," "Home, 
sweet hohie," "Zouaves pitching quoits." Then came studies of negro 
life and character, his "Visit from the old mistress" being one of the 
best pictures of negro life. Later he painted the landscape of the Adiron- 
dacks, then the seafaring people of the New England coast whose life 
he has interpreted with remarkable poetry and understanding. But it is 
in his delineation of the ocean, however,' that Homer's genius reached its 
greatest heights. 

"It is not the charm of the ocean that he paints. The mood in which 
he excels is morose, — it is threatening, lowering, savage." 

"He is unquestionably the most strictly national painter America has 
produced, and for that reason he is one of the greatest^ if not the great- 
est. His sea is the watery waste, an expression of tremendous force, 
mystery, peril ; his landscapes are redolent of the primeval forests of the 
new world, its bleak hills, its crags, his men and women are pioneers, 
fishermen, seafaring folk." (Brush & P. 10:40.) 

"Cannon rock" is oneof his greatest works; "Gulf stream" and "Un- 
dertow" are sttongly dramatic. 

He has made delightful records — joyous and brilliant notes — of his 
trips to the Bermudas and Bahamas in a group of water colors. 

Among his marine masterpieces are: 

"A light on the sea" "On a leeshore" 

"The breaker" "The lookout— All's well" 

"The wreck" "A summer night" 

"Watching the breakers — a high "The fog warning" 

sea" "Kissing the moon" 

"The life line" "A summer squall" 

"Sunlight on the coast" "High cliff, coast of Maine" 

Walter Pach, the writer, considers Winslow Homer the greatest 
American artist. "Homer's renunciation of the joys of color marks him 
as tiie stern puritan of the north," he says; and later he compares him 
to Milton. "Eenouncing color, his genius sought consolation in the im- 
pressive orgauization of grand forms, in respect for the individuality of 
17 



130 

the sea, the sky and the earth in the almost Tanagra-like grace of human 
figures." 

"Winslow Homer is an absolutely original and national artist; he 
is the first exponent of pictorial art in the new world. He presents the 
unique phenomenon of an American painter whose work has in it not 
the least scintilla or hint of Europe or of Asia." (Brush_& P., 10 :40.) 

HoPKiNj EoBERTj (P). b. Glasgow, Scotland, January 3, 1832; d. De- 
troit, Michigan, March 21, 1909. Went to Detroit, Michigan, with his 
parents when eleven years of age and lived there practically all his life. 

Mr. Hopkin as a boy grew up on Detroit wharves; received his ap- 
prenticeship in mixing colors for decorators and made his living as a 
scenic artist. For many years he was the leader and patriarch of De- 
troit artists.' At one time was president of the Detroit Association of 
Arts; also a member of the Society of Western Artists and of the De- 
troit Water Color Society. His most important work is a series of six 
paintings for the Cotton Exchange, New Orleans, La. He also painted 
many drop curtains for Chicago, Denver, Toronto and other cities. 

C. Lewis Hind, the English art critic, when in Detroit saw Hopkin's 
works for the first time and said of them : "No critic could deny to them 
a place among the very first pictures. They are wonderful, enchanting, 
powerful, great." 

The director of the Museum of Art, Detroit, said: "I believe his 
modesty, charming as it was, was a great injustice to himself and to 
the world Modesty robbed him of fame due a master's hand." 

His landscapes, figures and interiors are just as suggestive of his 
poetic power of expression as are his marines. (Detroit Free Press, 
March 22, 1909.) 

Hornby, Lester G., (E.). Began to etch in this country and pro- 
duced many plates descriptive of New England before he went to Paris 
in 1906. He has traveled much in foreign lands and has been a regular 
exhibitor at the Salon des Artistes Francais, and at many of the lead- 
ing art exhibits held throughout Europe. 

Among his most attractive plates are those made in Tunis during the 
winter of 1908. 

"Story teller" , "Passage Arabs" 

"Vegetable dealers" "Marabout tombs" 

"The musicians" 

His French plates are enthusiastically regarded by those who love 
Paris: 



131 

"Pont Neuf (rainy day)" "The old court in Rue Vercinge- 

"Buildings of the Quai"^ torix" 

"L'Hiver au Jardin du Luxem- "St. Nicholas des Champs" 

bourg" "Little balconies" 

"Cour des Eeines" "Boulevard de Montpamasse" 

"La lettre d' Amour" 

Light heartedness of the Paris of the Boulevards, melancholy beauties 
of the Old Quarter, and the mystery which pervades the life of the far 
East are interpreted with equal facility. 

, "It is the life of the city that has attracted Lester G. Hornby . . 

All seem as parts of a picture of Paris in which houses and streets 
and people form a characteristic ensemble. Hornby's pictures thus 
seen and rendered in quiet nooks and corners of Paris, breathe an air 
of unprejudiced observation recorded with light yet precise indica- 
tion.." (Weitenkampf.) 

HoRTON, William Samuel^ (P.) b. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Novem- 
ber 16, 1865. Pupil of Art Students' League and National Academy of 
Design in New York; Laurens and Julien Academy in Paris. Received 
gold medal at the International Exposition at Nantes, 1904, and medal, 
second-class, at Orleans, France, 1905. Member of the New York "Water 
Color Club ; Cercle Volney and Salon d'Automne, Paris. Also a writer. 

HosMER, Haeriet, (S.) b. Watertown, Mass., October 6, 1830; d. 
' Watertown, Mass., February 21, 1908. She was educated at Lenox, 
Mass., and displayed a taste for art at an early age ; studied drawing and 
modeling in Boston. In 1850 she went to St. Louis, Mo., to study 
anatomy as she could not obtain a course in anatomy from any college 
in New England because of her sex. Through the influence of friends 
she was admitted to the medical department of the Missouri State Uni- 
versity. In 1852 with her father and Charlotte Cushman she took pas- 
sage for Italy. In Rome she became the pupil of the English sculptor 
Gibson with whom she remained seven years. 

Her first works were ideal heads — "Daphne" and "Medusa." They 
were enthusiastically praised by Gibson and Ranch and were exhibited 
in Boston in 1853. "Sleeping faun" was exhibited at the Dublin Exhi- 
bition of 1865 and was sold on the opening day for $5,000. The Lon- 
don Times said: "In the group of statues are many works of exquisite 
beauty, but there is one which at once arrests attention and elicits ad- 
miration. It is the "Sleeping faun and satyr" by Miss Hosmer." An 
Italian publication of the same date contained the following: "The gem 
of the classic school, in its nobler style of composition is due to an 



132 

American artist, Harriet Hosmer." Sir Charles Eastlake said: *'If 
it had been discovered among the ruins of Rome or Pompeii it would 
have been pronounced one of the best Grecian statues," and John Gibsori, 
the sculptor said, "It is worthy to be an antique." 

"Beatrice Oenci" has much grace and beauty is of a very intelli- 
gible kind ; it is now in the Public Library of St. Louis. "Puck" was so 
popular that thirty replicas were made. The Prince of Wales and the 
Duke of Hamilton each ordered a copy. Its companion, piece, "Will-o'- 
the-wisp" is pretty and fanciful. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne speaks of Miss Hosmer's "Zenobia" as "a very 
noble and remarkable statue indeed, full of dignity and beauty." ' 

While in Rome she received a commission for a memorial to Madame 
Falconnet's daughter to be placed in the Church of San Andrea delle 
Fratte. This w^s a great distinction, for she was the first artist other 
than an Italian to be permitted to place her work in one of the churches 
of Rome. 

Her much criticised statue of Col. Benton in Lafayette Park, St. 
Louis, Mo., was satisfactory to his daughter, Mrs. Fremont, who at the 
unveiling said: "She has caught my father's very expression and his 
attitude." 

The "Browning hands" were brought to the United States by Miss 
Hosmer and presented to her niece although she was offered $5,000 to 
leave them in England. A cast of these hands was given to the Art Insti- 
tute, Chicago. 

Jarvis, in his "Art idea," says: "She (Miss Hosmer) has no creative! 
power, but has acquired no small degree of dignity and beauty." 

Miss Hosmer made a number of discoveries and inventions, including 
a process of giving Italian limestone the hardness of marble. 

Houston, Frances C. Lyons, (P.) b. Hudson, Mich., January 17, 1867; 
d. Windsor, Vt., October, 1906. 

Mrs. Houston studied with Lefebvre and Boulanger in Paris; then 
returned to Boston where she married William C. Houston. She was 
a member of the Boston Water Color Club, the New York Water Color 
Club, and the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. 

'■The two qualities that gave distinction to Mrs. Houston's work were 

undoubtedly her sense of style and her sense of beauty She 

worked quietly, satisfied with the joy of creating many forms of beauty 
in pottery, goldsmith's work, and gardening, in which branches of art 
she was also an adept. Mrs. Houston's canvases have great technical 
value." (Cent. 75:956.) 

Her portrait of Ethel Barrymore — her las£ work — is a charming ex- 
ample of her work as a painter. 



133 

HovENDBN^ Thomas^ (P.) b. Dunmanway, Ireland, December 28, i840; 
was killed on August 14, 1895, in an unsuccessful effort to save an un- 
known child from being killed by a railway train. He studied in the 
Cork school of Design. Came to the United States in 1863 but it was 
not until 1872 that he began to follow art as a profession. In 1874 he 
went to Paris and entered the studio of Cabanel where he remained un- 
til 1880 when he returned to the United States. He was elected asso- 
ciate member of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1881; 
academician, 1882. 

His first notable painting ^as a "Breton interior of 1793." "Break- 
ing home ties" was one of the most popular paintings at the Columbian 
Exposition, 1893^ "Last moments of John Brown" which hangs in the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is an especially characteristic 
canvas. Critics concur in esteeming "Elaine" as his masterpiece. "As 
a powerful allegorical picture it stands unrivaled among the produci 
tions of American genius." 

Popular paintings are: 

"Jerusalem the golden" "Thinking of somebody" 

"The two lilies" "News from the conscript" 

"A Brittany woman spinning" "Pride of the old folks" 

"Pleasant news" ' "Peasant soldiers of La Vendee" 

"The image seller" 

His is the story-telling picture and the story is told clearly and 
beautifully. 

Howe, William Henry, (P.) b. Ravenna, 0., 1846. Pupil of Otto de 
Thoren and F. de Vuillefroy in Paris. Received honorable mention, New 
Orleans, 1885; honorable mention, Paris salon, 1886; third-class medal, 
Paris salon, 1888; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; Temple gold 
medal Pennsylvania Academy of the Pine Arts, 1890 ; grand medal, Crys- 
tal Palace, London, 1890; ofiflcier d' Academic, Paris, 1896; chevalier Le- 
gion of Honor, 1899 ; member of National Academy of Design, New York, 
1897. 

Mr. Howe has won fame as the painter of landscapes with cattle. His 
earlier work shows strongly the influence of such masters as Van Marcke 
and Troyon. His later work is of rare quality and possesses a distinct 
personal style. 

Among his best known paintings are: 

"The truants" "Korten Hof meadoTvs" 

"In the orchard" "Cattle at rest" 

"Morning" "Returning from the heath" 



134 

HuBBELL, Henry Salem, (P.) b; in the United States, Pupil of Art 
Institute, Chicago, Whistler, Collin, Laurens and Benjamih-Constant in 
Paris. Received honorable mention in the Paris salon, 1901. Is a mem- 
ber of the Paris American Artists Association and Paris Society- of 
American Painters. Was elected associate member of the National Acad- 
emy, 1905. 

His original training was in illustration, and it was not until 1900, 
two years after his arrival in Paris, that he "entered upon the study of 
painting proper" and then visited Spain. In the salon of 1909 he was 
represented by two canvases — "Caprice" and "Autumn leaves." "JJach 
of these compositions presents a decorative pattei-n of forms, and spaces 
and a color scheme that is choice and reserved." (Harp.- 118:289.) 

Of an exhibition of eleven canvases by this artist at the Art Institute, 
Chicago, Art and Progress (2:47) writes: "With the exception of an ex- 
quisitely painted interior and a study — ^"The black fan," all are por- 
traits. His prize picture, "The departure," a life-size portrait of a lady 
in a long green cloak and a large hat enveloped with a veil, is a harmony 
in green with a setting of browns. Mr. Hubbel paints with virile and 
robust temper; and in the portrait of Miss B, a beautiful young woman 
in pirik evening gown, in "Serena," a young girl in gray in a shaded 
room, in "Sylvia," another young girl, in "Winthrop," a boy, and the 
extraordinary likeness of "Aunt Lizzie Aiken," there is a strength. and 
truth as well as joyousness of interpretation, which command attention." 

Humphreys, Marie Champnby, (Min. P.) b. Deerfield, Mass., 1867; 
d. New Eochelle, N. Y., December 1, 1906. Was married November 22, 
1899, to John Sanford Humphreys. 

Was a miniature painter. Exhibited in Europe and America. 

HuNT^ William Morris, (P., Mural P.) b. Brattleboro, Vt., March 31, 
1824; d. Appledore, Isles of Shoals, N. H., September 8, 1879. He be- 
gan his art studies in the Eoyal Academy, London, and later went to 
Diisseldorf. Originally he intended to become a sculptor but abandoned 
this design and studied under Couture in Paris. While in Paris he was 
brought into intimate relations with Diaz, and at Barbizon was asso- 
ciated with Millet. In 1855 he returned to the United States and settled 
in Boston. 

The present admiration in this country for modern French art can 
be directly traced to his advocacy. In his art he liked better to suggest 
form than to portray it with strong outlines. 

He painted many portraits of noted people and also made many origi- 
nal sketches of types of Parisian life; among them, "The street musi- 
cian," "Girl at the fountain," "Child selling violets." 



135 

Among his more important works are : 
"The drummer boy" "Buglfe call" 

"Boy chasing a butterfly" "The Marguerites" 

"The morning star" "The belated kid" 

"Girl reading" "Girl with cap" 

Of Mr. Hunt's "Bathers" a well-known connoisseur has said: "It is 
one of the three or four paintings of the nude in the nineteenth century 
which a Greek would have understood and admired." 

In 1878 his mural paintings were put up in the Senate Chamber in 
the Albany state house, and in this .work — "Plight of night" and "The 
discoverer," he had a true conception of mural painting. 

Lubke says: "He was the first American to give to the world large 
mural paintings of artistic importance Many of his smaller pic- 
tures have great charm, and he is always a forceful technician." 

Hunt's place in art can never be overestimated for his power of per- 
sonality made him exert tremendous influence on the students that 
flocked around him. 

HuTCHBNS^ Frank Townsend, (P.) b. Canandaigua, N. Y., June 7, 
1869. Pupil of the Art Students'. Institute of New York under Wiles, 
Dumond and Mowbray; Julien Academy under Benjamin-Constant and 
Laurens and Colarossi Academy in Paris. 

"Hutchens is a painter of moods. A peculiar atmospheric condition, 
a sweep of wind across the landscape, or a sudden luminosity of sky is 
sulHcient to him to lend a simple road or bit of forest land a peculiar and 
permanent fascination. 

He is particularly fond of sunlight, and its golden lustre embellishes 
the simplest objects with a true touch of poetry. But it is the poetry of 
nature, of contrast and color, or in other words an expression of com- 
plete pictorial sanity." 

He is an excellent draughtsman — perhaps best shown in his figure 
Work. 

Many of his canvases have hung on the walls of the Eoyal Academy, 
the New York Academy and the leading galleries of America. 

"The marriage column" 

"A song in the sky" (Int. studio 47:160.) 

HuTT, Henry, (I.) b. Chicago, 111., December 18, 1875. After a short 
season in instruction at the Art Institute of Chicago, he opened a studio 
in New York City, his commissions warranting the step. His first im- 
portant undertakings were the illustrations for a continued story for 



136 

the Saturday Evening Post ; has illustrated many leading magazines and 
periodicals, books, etc. 

Mr. Hutt likes women and children for his subjects, depicting them 
with finesse and daintiness of execution. His characters suggest spon- 
taneity and human naturalness but they are usually in a setting too 
decorative for reality. 

"His line is quaint and often whimsical with an almost picturesque 
ensemble, and he conveys his interpretation . with sentiment and a re- 
dundant sense of beauty." 

"He makes clothes tell their portion of the story, but perhaps he is 
more an apostle of the well-dressed than is Mr. Fisher." (Bk-buyer 
22:23.) 

Hyatt, Anna Vaughn, (S.) b. Cambridge, Mass., March 10, 1876. 
A musician — an artistic performer on the violin — during an attack of 
nervous prostration. Miss Hyatt found recreation in modeling clay. This 
diversion was the means of her abandoning her musical career, for upon 
recovery of health she chose sculpture for her life work, studying with 
Henry Hudson Kitson and at the Art Students' League, New York. She 
has been represented in many of the leading exhibitions throughout the 
country during the past ten years, and was represented in the salon of 
1910. Elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design, 
1916. 

At an exhibition of her works in New York, 1914, there were dis- 
played forty- three animal subjects. A few were: "The Whirlwind" 
showing a lioness and crane; "Jaguar," "White Horses of the Sea," 
"A Yearling Colt," "Bull's Head," "Eolling Bear," "Fox and Geese," 
and "PigSs Under Fence." 

"Her animals are most assertive in character and away from the con- 
ventionalized forms we have seen for years by the hundreds .... Miss 
Hyatt seems to comprehend the psychology of each and every animal 
she models." (Arts and D. 2:106.) 

Anna V. Hyatt's group of eight plunging horses is a remarkable piece 
of work and is accorded by critics a place of equality with Borglum's 
famous "Mares of Diomedes." (Arts and D. 2:296.) 

Among other things Miss Hyatt has restored prehistoric animals for 
the Brooklyn Museum. 

Her most important bronzes are: "Winter," "A steep grade," "Colts 
playing," "Colts in the storm," "Goats butting," etc. 

Miss Hyatt in her early work collaborated with Miss Abastenia St. 
Leger Eberle another American young woman who abandoned music 
for sculpture. Their first group, "Men and bull" was awarded a medal 



13T 

at the St. Louis Exposition; "Boy and goat playing" is another fiiie^ 
group done in collaboration. (Craftsman 8:623.) 

"In Miss Hyatt we have.no doubt the greatest woman exponent of 
animal life in this country , . . v She presents the animal to us as only 
one who knows and understands it can, and reproduces a living thing 
in all its fullness of strength and natural expression." (Arts and D. 
4:229.) 

Miss Hyatt's statue of Jeanne d'Arc, placed on Riverside Drive, New 
York City, is her latest and most finished work. Several years ago 
while in Paris, she executed an equestrian statue of Jeanne d'Arc. It 
was exhibited in the salon of 1910, favorably received and awarded 
honorable mention. When a group of American citizens decided to 
erect a monument to the Maid of Orleans, this early statue (which 
was submitted in competition of designs) was selected by the committee. 

Miss Hyatt had much difficulty in her efforts to model the suit of 
armor historically correct, for experts gav^ the information that there 
is not in existence a complete suit of armor of that period. But from 
fragments of wood, bronze and stone sculpture and old tombs tracings, 
she worked out the details. 

The pedestal is Gothic in design and- is particularly appropriate and 
interesting, for the stones which form the arches were taken from the 
floor in the cell of the prison in which Jeanne was confined at Rouen. 

Hyde^ HELEN;, (E.) b. Lima, N. Y., April 6, 1868; pupil of Emil Carlsen 
in New York; Raphael Collin in Paris, Skarbina in Berlin, and Kano 
Tomanobu in Japan. Specialty: Japanese subjects in colored wood 
blocks and etching. 

Among the artists in Europe and America who have adopted the 
Japanese form of art for the expression of their own ideas. Miss Helen 
Hyde, a gifted young American, takes high rank. After devoting two 
years to the task of acquiring the Japanese method of wielding the brush 
she was rewarded when her Japanese master asked her to paint a kake- 
mono for the annual spring exhibition. She did so, calling her picture 
"A monarch of Japan." This picture was awarded first prize on the 
strength of excellent handling of a particularly diflScult brush — for it is 
by the merits or demerits of skillful brushwork that Japanese pictures 
are chiefly valued. 

Miss Hyde reproduces her compositions in the form of color prints, 
and has become famous in this field of art. 

A few of her popular prints are: 



138 

"Secrets" "The bamboo fence" 

"The lucky branch" "Belated" 

"The mirror" "The blossom child" 

"Happiness flower" "Day dreams" 

"The greeting" "Baby San" 

"Baby and toy" "In his father's shoes" 

"Rainy evening" "Child of the people" 
"A snowy day in Japan" 

One of Miss Hyde's most successful etchings is "Little cherry blos- 
som." 

"Perhaps the greatest triumph in Miss Hyde's work lies in the success- 
ful rendering of atmosphere whic^ is delicately suggestive of the flower- 
blossom country In "The rainy day" we have this quality at 

its best." (Int. studio 24:239.) 

Miss Hyde has recently painted in Mexico ; also written of the "Color 
lure of Mexico." Several of 'these paintings are particularly interesting 
because of the evident Japanese influence upon the artist's style. 

Inman, Hbney, (P., Min. P.) b. Utica, N. Y., October 20, 1801; d. New 
York, January 17, 1846. He displayed talent for art as a lad but he 
inclined to a military career and had secured a commission to enter 
the West Point Academy when he saw Westmtiller's famous "Danae" 
in the studio of John Wesley Jarvis in New York. He immediately pre- 
sented himself as a candidate for artistic instructions; was accepted 
and studied with Jarvis several years. For years he executed miniature, 
cabinet and life-size portraits, practiced lithographic drawing and 
sketched scenery with rare assiduity and success. He was one of the 
founders of the National Academy of Design in 1825 and was elected 
its first vice-president. 

Mr. Inman went to Europe in 1845 and while in England painted the 
portraits of Wordsworth, Macauley, Dr. Thomas Chalmers and others; 
returning to America he also painted the portraits of many distinguished- 
persons. 

His landscapes and genre compositions include: 

"Scenes from the Bride of Lam- "The newsboy" 

mermoor" "The brothers" 

"Eydal FaUs, England" "Woodland scene" 

"Mumble-the-peg" "Rip Van Winkle" 

"The siste'rs" > "Boyhood of Washington" 

"Ruins of Brambletye house" "Lake of the Dismal Swamp" 
"Birnan wood" 



139 

"In his happiest efforts at portraiture wherein there was great in- 
equality viewed as a whole, Inman has been compared to Sir Thomas 
Lawrence; his rapidity of execution was uncommon; a "delicate mot- 
tling" was often admired in his color, a completeness and neatness of 
style in his landscapes, and skillful manipulation in the works under- 
taken con amore, while it is conceded that he was the first American 
artist who attempted genre with success." (Tuckerman.) 

Inness^ George^ (P.) b. Newburg, N. Y., May 1, 1825; d. Bridge of 
Allan, Scotland, August 3, 1894. At the age. of sixteen he began to 
study engraving in New York; studied art in the studio of Regis 
Gignoux, New York ; in 1846 he began the practice of landscape painting 
and in~1850 went abroad where he became acquainted with Corot and 
Rousseau, and enjoyed, for a time the close companionship of Millet. 
He is generally considered our greatest landscape painter. "American 
sunset" was selected in 1867 by the Paris salon as a representative work 
of American art. He was elected member of the National Academy of 
Design, in 1868. 

"With him the inspiring idea is principal, form secondary being the 
outgrowth of the idea. His pictures illustrate phases of mind and feel- 
ings. He uses nature's forms simply as language to express thought." 
(Tuckerman.) 

" 'Moonlight' fully represents Inness' idea of the night. He had a 
strong leaning to the occult ^nd many of his paintings have a spiritual 
and allegorical significance. Inness' paintings stand in American art 
where those of Rousseau and Corot do in that of France." (Nat. Cyc. 
Am. B.) 

"Inness gives with equal felicity the drowsy heat, hot shimmer and 
languid quiet of a summer noon, or the storm weighed atmosphere; its 
dark masses of vapor and the wild gathering of thunder clouds with 
their solemn hush before the tempest breaks. He uses sunlight sparing- 
ly, but it glows on his canvas and turns darkness into hope and joy." 
(Jarves "Art Idea.") 

"Delaware valley" is considered by many to be his masterpiece. 

Arthur Hoeber says : "At his [Inness'] best he yields to no man in his 
profession as an interpreter of nature out of doors." 

Van Dyke says: "Inness is more allied to Corot than to Meissonier. 
He never was the perfect master of the brush that we have heard him 
called, though he was an acceptable and often a very satisfactory tech- 
nician It was with color, light and air that Inness scored his 

greatest success." 

"His subjects are related to human life and possibly our interest in 




GEORGE INNESS. 

By George InnesS( Jr. 



141 

his pictures is due to the fact that he shows thoughts, emotions and 
sensations comprehensible of humanity " 

"Inness must be ranked here as the discoverer of the American meadow 
and woodland — a new realm of beauty. It is possibly his most lasting 

title to fame And Inness found all the material he 

needed within fifty miles of New York. It was the original discovery 
of this material, his point of view regarding it, what he did with it and 
what he made us see in it, that gives him high rank in the history of 
American painting." 

Ltibke says: "He was like Corot in his indifference to the minute 
facts -of the country before him, and like Corot in his disposition to 
harmonize sombre foliage and pale distant sky into a lovely harmony, 
but he was more eager than was Corot to seize the brilliant color of 
sunset and to use his gray-green trees as a solid frame for those glowing 
effects." 

A list of Inness' principal paintings in public collections, also bibli- 
ography and magazine article references are given in "Masters in Art," 
VoK 9. 

Inness^ George, Je.^ (P.) b. Paris, France, January 4, 1854. The son 
of George Inness. Was a pupil of his father in Rome, 1870-4 ; studied one 
year with Bonnat in Paris. Obtained gold medal in Paris salon 1899; 
also gold and silver medals at various exhibitions in the United States. 
Has a studio in New York. Devotes himself to animal painting. Has 
exhibited at the National Academy of Design-, New York, since 1877, 
when he sent "The ford" and "Patience." 

A few of his paintings are: 

"Monarch of the farm" "At the brook" 

"The pride of the dairy" "Abandoned" 

"Waiting for the master" "Maternity" 
"New bom lamb" 

Member of the National Academy of Design, New York, since 1899; 
and of the French Academy since 1902. 

Of his landscapes and atmospheric effects, Miither says : "The younger 
Inness has a fondness for departing thunder showers, rainbows and 
misty red sunbeams penetrating in the form of wedges through a sea of 
mist, and resting upon stony fields." 

IsHAM, Samuel, (P.) b. New York, May 12, 1855; d. Easthampton, 
L. I., June 12, 1914. Graduated from Yale College in .1875. Had his first 
instruction in drawing in the art school under Professor Niemeyer. Dur- 



142 

ing a three years' sojourn in Europe he had drawing lessons fr'om Jac- 
quesson de la Ohevreuse. On liis return to the United States, he took up 
(.he study of law and practiced the profession for five years. In 1883 
he again took up art and went to Paris and entered the Acad6niie Julien, 
studying four years under Boulanger and Lefebvre. A member Society 
American Artists, 1891; associate member National Academy, 1900, 
academician, 1906. Author of "History of American Painting." 

Mr. Isham both by his brush and pen did work effectively for the 
prestige of American art." (Outl. 107:438.) 

In reviewing Mr. Isham's "History of American painting," Charles 
Henry Hart, the art critic, writes : "It is an interesting and invalu- 
able work although it is not a history in the scientific sense of the word 

as understood today It is a most delightfully sane, scholarly, 

catholic and intelligent criticism of the work of American painters, and 
as sucli is entitled to the very first rank in the small library of true 
art criticism." (Dial 41:8C.) 

IvEs^ Halsey Cooley^ (P.) b. Montour Falls, N. Y., October 27, 1847; 
d. London, England, May 5, 1911. Was a pupil of Alexander Piatowsky. 

In 18G4 he entered the government service as a draughtsman and in 
1869 he began a study of decorative art; later he became an instructor 
in the Polytechnic school of St. Louis. In 1881, at the establishment of 
the Museum of Fine Arts, St. Louis, he became its director. He was 
decorated by King Oscar of Sweden with the Order of the Vasa and by 
King Christian of Denmark with the Dannebrog Cross. He received a 
silver medal at the St. Louis Exposition for his landscape "Waste lands," 
and has received decorations and medals for art services in this coun- 
try. Prance, Austria, Japan, China, Portugal, Belgium, Bulgaria, 
Sweden and Denmark. A member of the National Sculpture Society, 
the National Art Club, the Academy of Science and other organizations. . 
(American Art Annual Vol. 9.) 

Ives, Percy, (P.) b. Detroit, Mich., June 5, 1864. At the age of 
eighteen he entered the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 
1885 he visited Europe, spending six. months traveling in Scotland, 
England, tlie Netheilaiids, Germany and Italy. He studied three years 
at the Academic Julien, I'aris, under Boulanger, Lefebvre, Benjamin- 
Constant and Cormon. After a second visit to Paris in 1890 he was 
appointed dean of the Detroit Museum of Art. In 1893 he studied at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts under G6rome and in the same year exhibited at 
the salon. 

Returning to Detroit in 1895 he resumed his position at the Museum 



U3 

of Art, since which time he has painted the portraits of many dis- 
tinguished Americans; has also done some landscape work. 

Mr. Ives Avas one of the organizers of the Society of Western Artists 
and is an incorporator and .trustee of the Detroit Museum of Art. 

JoHANSEN, John Christen^ (P.) b. Copenhagen, Denmark, November 
25, 1876. Was brought to this country when an infant and had a course 
of art study at the Art Institute, Chicago, in early boyhood. He studied 
under Duveneck, Freer and Vanderpoel, then went to Paris and con- 
tinued his art studies with Benjamin-Constant and Jean Paul Laurens; 
later entered the class of Whistler. In 1901 he returned to the United 
States to become a member of the faculty of the Art Institute, Chicago, 
and at about that time identified himself with the Society of Western 
Artists. Resigned as a teacher that he might devote more time to 
portrait painting, and in 1906 went to Italy sojourning long in Venice. 
On his return, a special exhibition of his Venetian pictures was held 
in London. Instant recognition came to him and several of the canvases 
found places in prominent British collections. Arthur Hoeber in writ- 
ing of this exhibition says: "Mr. Johansen scorned precedent. Hie de- 
picted Venice in a way entirely his own .There were pictures 

of the city at dawn, under golden haze at sunset, in suggestive opal fogs 
and always there was palpitating color with admirable drawing and 
construction to her streets, buildings and canals .... And the composi- 
tions were so generalized that the spectator delighted in their simplicity, 
seriousness and beauty. The color which was used generously was 
piled on in simple masses, broken and vibrating." (Int. studio 42:iii.) 
iii.) 

At a later exhibition of American art held in Chicago, Mr. Johansen 
had ten canvases. "Each specimen proclaimed its separate personality," 
writes a critic. "At sundown" is remarkable for its unusual coloring. 
"The picture book" is a charming arrangement of light. "Autumn 
afternoon" is riotous in those subdued bright colorings with which Mr. 
Johansen is so clever. "When the day is done" is a poetic conception. 
"Evening calm" is a majestic essay of the hour. "Golden mists" demon- 
strates his skill in rendering. (Int. studio 26:264.) 

"Mr. Johansen handles his architectural drawing firmly and well, 
but in a summary enough fashion to subordinate it to its more fluent, 
pictorial purpose." (Int. studio 40:lxxviii.) 

"Technique with Mr. Johansen is a medium of expression and in that 
guise is never employed to excite wonderment." 

As an illustrator Mr. Johansen has also been very successful and many 
consider that in this field he shows as much promise as in his pictorial 
productions. 



144 

Johnson^ Eastman, (P.) b. Lovell, Maine, July 29, 1824; d. New York, 
April 5, 1906. As a young man he began the practice of Ms profession, 
by the execution of portraits in black and white, showing considerable 
skill and meeting with some success. 

In 1849 he went abroad and shared the studio of Emanuel Leutze at 
Diisseldorf, Prussia. He studied art four years at The Hague and then 
.proceeded to Paris. Eeturned to the United States in 1856. 

His first important works were "Card players" and "Savoyard boy." 
He opened a studio in New York upon returning to the United States 
and was made a member of the National Academy of Design, in 1860. 

Here he painted those pictures of American domestic and Negro life 
in which he so decidedly excelled. In accurate delineation of character 
''The old Kentucky home" is hardly surpassed. 

Tuckerman says : "In his delineation of the Negro; Eastman Johnson 
has achieved a peculiar fame. One may find in his best pictures of this 
class a better insight into the normal character of that unfortunate race 
than ethnological discussion often yields." 

He was a power in American art life to the very last. He painted a 
large number of portraits, and his self-painted portrait, painted in 1899, 
is technically superior to anything executed by him during the first fifty 
years of his life. (Artists of the Nineteenth Century.) 

Johnson, Marshall, (P.) b. Boston, Mass.; pupil of the Lowell Insti- 
tute; member of the Boston Art Club and Copley Society. Address: 184 
Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 

Painter of "United States Frigate Constitution." 

Johnston, John Husipheeys, (P.) b. New York, November 2, 1857. 
Studied art under John LaFarge. In 1899 he went to Paris where he 
studied under Lefebvre and Doucet, and later to Madrid; has resided 
mainly in Prance and Italy since, and has a studio in Venice. 

One of his pictures, "Domino Eose" is now owned in France, and the 
portrait of his mother is in the Luxembourg. "Light nights in Norway" 
and "Mystery of the night" are characteristic paintings. 

In 1898 he painted the portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as "Lorenzaccio," 
and the "Vision of St. Paul at Lystra." Spain and Brittany have fur- 
nished many of the subjects he has used. 

Mr. Johnston was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1901. 
Is associate member of the Soci6t^ Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris and 
International Society of Painters, Gravers, etc., London. 

Jones, Hugh Bolton, (P.) b. Baltimore, Md., October 20, 1848. 
Studied art in France. Received bronze medal at Paris ExDosition ISSfl: 



145 

bronze medal at Paris Exposition 1900; Webb prize Society American 
Artists 1902 ; Shaw fund prize 1902 ; gold medal at St. Louis Exposition 
1904. Is a member of the National Academy. Specialty, landscape. 

He visited Europe in 1876 and studied there four years, becoming a 
member of the artists' colony at Pont Aven in Brittany, and traveling 
in Spain, France, England, Italy and Morocco. 

Principal paintings are: 

"Brittany" "The road through the poplars" 

"October" "Summer in the Blue Eidge" 

"On Herring Run" "Spring" 

Mr. Jones' paintings are in the Metropolitan Museum, New York; 
Peabody, Institute Baltimore; Erie Art Club; Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington; Shaw collection, Philadelphia Art Club. 

"His work possesses sterling qualities of color and drawing, belongs 
to the natu^'alistic school and is widely known at home and abroad. 
(Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

JosEPHij, Isaac E., (Min. P.) b. New York City. Pupil of Art Students' 
League, New York; also of Leon Bannat in Paris. First president of 
American Society of Miniature Painters ; member Eoyal Society of Min- 
iature Painters, London. Mr. Josephi is accredited with the conception 
of the American society. His "Portrait of a lady" shown at the first 
exhibition of the society was the subject of much controversy. Some 
miniaturists insisted that it was far too modern for their art's limit- 
ations^ while others insisted that their art had no limitations. 

Keith, William, (P., I.) b. Aberdeen, Scotland, 1839; d. Berkeley, 
California, March, 1911. When a lad he came to this country with his 
parents. Began his career in New York as a wood engraver; afterward 
worked for Harper. 

In 1859 Mr. Keith went to California and began his out of doors 
painting; sketched in black and white and also did water color work. 
I]i 1869 he went to Dusseldorf, then to Spain. 

He was employed by the Northern Pacific Railroad Company to paint 
some of the characteristic scenes along its route. "Some of his redwood 
pictures are very beautiful, giving vivid impressions of the magnificent 
scenery of California, but pastoral scenes with distant mountains are 
his characteristic subject, and these he has rendered under many vary- 
ing conditions of light and atmosphere." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"He delighted in rich strong color and in dramatic aspects of nature. 
His paintings are toneful, poetical and decorative." (Art & P. 2:227.) 



146 

Keith's paintings "deal with emotions aroused or suggested by land- 
scape under certain conditions of light and atmosphere." (Int. studio 
33:36.) 

His paintings are included in the permanent collections of the Chi- 
cago Art Institute, the Brooklyn Institute, the Corcoran Gallery of Art 
and the National Gallery of Art, Washington, as well as in many .pri- 
vate collections. 

When George Inness visited California in 1890 he made William 
Keith's studio his headquarters. 

KellbRj Arthur I., (I.) b. New York, July 4, 1866. Pupil of National 
Academy of Design -under Wilmarth and Ward, Loefiftz in Munich. Has 
won many prizes for drawings, water color, illustration and painting 
and is a member of leading art clubs. 

Of his illustrations shown at the last annual exhibition of the Society 
of Illustrators, the International studio for December, 1912, says: 
"They are so ably executed, so full of technical brilliancy, of learning 
in the value of accent and contrast, in the animating power of spirited 
brushwork, that one wonders if he might not make dancing compositions 
without the introduction of solid figures. He has a sense of color, that 
intuitive feeling for value that is essentially a painter quality." 

Among his best works are : 

"At Mass" "The sisters" 

"Lead, kindly light" "The finishing touches" 

Popular books that he has illustrated: 

"The first American George "Hanging of the crane," Long- 
Washington" fellow 

"A poor man" "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," 
"Autobiography of a quack" Irving 

"The Virginian" Bret Hart's stories 
"The right of way" 

KellYj James Edward, (S., I.) b. New York, July 30, 1855. His first 
pictures were historical compositions and from his earliest childhood 
he studied everything he could find touching upon American history. In 
1871 he was apprenticed to a wood engraver and studied in the Academy 
of Design. Also studied with Theodore Robinson and Carl Hirschberg. 
He assisted in organizing the Art Students' League. Entered the art 
department of Harper & Brothers in 1878 and opened a studio with 
Edwin A. Abbey where they began illustrating for magazines. His first 
statuette was of "Sheridan's ride." 



147 

Mr. Kelly was chosen to model the five bas-reliefs around the base of 
the Monmouth monument. The subjects selected were: 

"The council of war at Hopewell" 
"Washington rallying his troops" 
"Eamsey defending his guns" 
"Molly Pitcher" 
"Wayne's charge" 

Other well known works are: 

"Arnold wounded in the trenches;" "Schuyler giving his plans to 
Gates before the Battle of Saratoga," for the Saratoga monument; 
statue of General Grant at Dpnelson, for which the general posed; statue 
of "Call to arms," for the Troy monument; statue of "General Buford 
at Gettysburg;" "Knowlton at Harlem Heights," at Columbia College 
for the Sons of the Revolution. 

His later works are an equestrian statue of General Sherman; Col. 
Roosevelt at San Juan Hill, and the Fitz-John Porter monument for 
which General Porter selected Mr. Kelly to be the sculptor. (Nat. Oyc. 
Am. Biog.) 

Kemble^ Edward Windsor^ (I.) b. Sacramento, Gal., Jan- 18, 1861. 
Educated in the public schools of New York. Self-taught in art. 

Since 1881, has been connected with various magazines and weekly 
periodicals as illustrator and cartoonist; specialty, negro characters. 
Has illustrated many notable books, such as Mark Twain's "Huckle- 
berry Finn," and "Puddin' Head Wilson" ; Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
He is author of books entitled "Rosemary," "Virginia Creeper," "Kem- 
ble's Coons," "Kemble's Pickaninnies," "Billy-goat" and other comicali- 
ties. 

He has exhibited in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis and 
other cities in the United States. 

Kemeys^ Edward, ( S. ) b. Savannah, Ga., January 31, 1843 ; d. George- 
town Heights, Washington, D. C, May 11, 1907. Received his education 
in the schools of New York City. Upon leaving school he entered mercan- 
tile business which he gave up for federal service during the civil war; 
and it was not untif after the close of the war and he was employed in 
the civil engineering corps of Central Park, New York, that he made his 
d^biit as a sculptor. His specialty is Indians . and wild animals of 
America. 

In 1878 he exhibited in the Paris salon his now famous group "Bison 



148 

and wolves." Returning to New York he produced "Still hunt," 
"Wolves," "Panther and deer," and "Raven and coyote." 

In 1892 he went to Chicago, executing there a number of large groups 
for the Golumbian Exposition. Also modeled the large bronze lions in 
front of the Chicago Art Institute building. 

Julian Hawthorne in 1884 in writing of Mr. Kemeys' art said that we 
And "not merely nor chiefly the accurate representation of the animal's 
external aspect, but what is vastly more difficult to seize and portray — 
the essential animal character or temperament which controls and actu- 
ates the animal's movement and behavior Here is an artist who 

understands how to translate pose into meaning, and action into utter- 
ance, and to select those poses and actions which convey the broadest 
and most comprehensive idea of the subject's prevailing truth." ("Amer- 
ican wild animals in art." Century 6:214.) 

Kendall, Maegaeet Stickney (Mrs. William Sergeant Kendall), 
(Min. P.) b. Staten Island, N. Y., November 29, 1871. Pupil of J. Alden 
Weir, Julius Rolshoven and William Sergeant Kendall. 

Received bronze medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Member of the 
American Socieiy of Miniature Painters. 

Kendall, William Sergeant, (P.) b. Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y., January 
20, 1869. At the age of fourteen he was painting and modeling with 
Thomas Eakins in Philadelphia; from seventeen to nineteen he worked 
in the Art Students' League, New York, then went to Paris where he 
studied with Luc-Olivier Merson and later at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

4.t twenty-one he exhibited in the salon and the next year, 1891, 
received honorable mention for his "Penitents." This picture has ob- 
tained for him several medals and prizes ; other paintings have brought 
him flattering recognition. , "Narcissa" won the Harris prize; "Alison" 
won the Potter Palmer gold medal and |1,000. Is a member of the So- 
ciety of American Artists; associate member of the National Academy 
of Design, New York, 1901; full member, 1905. 

Mr. Kendall has been called the "painter of children." His own 
charming children are his models. In his mother and child subjects, he 
shows the tender joy of motherly love. 

Other favorite pictures are: 

"A fairy tale" "The end of day" 

"Beatrice" "The seer" 

Three portraits" "The critic" 

"An interlude" "The green gnome" 

"L'AUegro" and "II Penseroso" 



149 

"Mr. Kendall is tliat somewhat rare type of artist, a classical intiinist. 
His vision is eminently classic. All his forms are generalized from re- 
peated observation Kendall is not afraid of putting into a pic- 
ture a good deal that the memory contributes to the eye; he is, one might 
say, anti-impressionistic." (Arts and D. 1:16.) 

"With ideals unimpaired, Kendall finds himself today the master of a 
self-evolved technique eminently congenial to their interpretation." 
(Harper 117:568.) 

"He is a skilful technician Surfaces in his paintings are ex- 
quisitely rendered." 

Kinney, Margaret West, (I.) (Mrs. Troy Kinney) b. Peoria, 111. 
Pupil qf Art Students' League of New York; Julien Academy in Paris 
under Eobert-Fleury, Collin, Merson and Lefebvre. Has illustrated 
many books. 

Kinney, Troy, (I.) b. Kansas City, Mo. Pupil of New York School of 
Art. Member of Yale Club of New York. Has illustrated "The white 
Christ" and in collaboration with Margaret W. Kinney "A ladder of 
swords," "The ward of King Canute," "Barlash of the guard" and other 
books. 

Kirk, Maria Louise, (P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., daughter of George 
H. and Harriet (Craig) Kirk; studied at Philadelphia School of Design, 
and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia Art Club. 
Eeceived Mary Smith prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, 1894. 

Is illustrator of "Alice in Wonderland," and other children's books; 
also a portrait painter. 

Favorite pictures: 

"Jack and Jill" "Little Miss Muffett" 

"Little Bo Peep" "Mistress Mary" 

"Little Boy Blue" "Queen of hearts" 

"Little Jack Horner" "This little pig" 

Knight, Daniel Eidgway, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1850; of Quaker 
parents. Few men who have won distinction with the palette and brush 
have started under less favorable auspices ; a ban was placed under the 
parental roof on pictures and music. His grandfather was convinced of 
his artistic talent, and through his influence Eidgway was permitted to 
enter the classes of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Later, 
with parental sanction and support, he was settled in Paris. He studied 



150 

in the atelier Gleyre, then spent three years at the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; 
later studied at the British Academy, Eome; returned to the United 
States and took a studio in Philadelphia for a time painting portraits 
and genre pictures and teaching. 

In 1871 went to Paris and in 1873 with his family moved to Poissy 
where he met Meissonier. This acquaintance ripened into warm friend- 
ship, and Mr. Knight ever afterward acknowledged the great French 
painter as his master. 

He received honorable mention at the Paris salon of 1884 ; third-class 
gold medal, Paris salon 1888 ; was honored with the Cross of the Legion 
of Honor, France, 1889, and with the Cross of Saint Michael of Bavaria, 
1892. 

To the salon of 1873 he sent "The fugitives" and to the salon of 1875, 
"Washerwomen." 

"The Shepherdess of Rolleboise," "A summer evening," "On ' the ter- 
race," "The gardeners' daughter," "July morning," "Quietude," and 
"Curiosity,?' are all salon pictures, and give a fair idea of the character 
of his work. 

"Those familiar with Knight's paintings will recognize in them a sort 
of family resemblance, due to likeness of models and similarity of land- 
scape backgrounds." 

He is for the most part the painter of a single class of models^ — 
demure little peasant girls with their wooden shoes and picturesque cos- 
tumes. 

"He glories in the fact that he is a painter of popular pictuTes, 

in which happy conceptions successfully worked out meet public ap- 
proval arid command public patronage." (Brush & P. 7:193.) 

Knox, Susan Bicker, (P.) b., Portsmouth, N. H. She received her art 
training in the art schools of Philadelphia and New York ; also studied 
in Europe; is a member of several art societies and her paintings have 
been exhibited in the larger cities of the United States. 

Miss Knox is known as a painter of portraits and especially the por- 
traits of children. 

"In the painting of hair, Miss Knox is particularly happy Miss 

Knox has been at work for a number of years on a series of canvases 
depicting some special phase of motherhood where the spiritual relation 

is expressed as well as the physical "The usurper" is a charming 

example of Miss Knox's art. (Int. studio 49:lxxvii.) 

KoNTij, Isidore, (S.) b. Vienna, Austria, July 2, 1862, of Hungarian 
parents. Entered the Imperial Academy at the age of sixteen; won 



151 

several scholarships and finished his studies at Meisterschule of Prof. 
Karl Kundmann, Vienna. After two years in Rome he returned to 
Vienna and executed numerous works, including a marble bust of 
Emperor Francis Joseph. Came to the United States in 1890. 

Associate member of the National Academy in 19j}6; full member in 
1909. Vice president of the National Sculpture Society; one of the 
directors of the Architectural League and a member of the leading art 
societies of the United States. 

Decorative monumental and ideal work is his specialty. 

Among the more important works which Mr. Konti has executed is 
"The despotic age," a monumental marble group in the Metropolitan 
Museum, N. Y. Another beautiful work, the "Edward Beale and Kit 
Carson" monument, is now in the National Museum in Washington, D. 
C. The McKinley monument in Philadelphia was executed in collabor- 
ation with the late Charles Lopez. (Int. studio 45:197.) 

Among Mr. Konti's ideal works may be mentioned the figures "lu- 
spiration" and "Orpheus," the groups "Pan and Cupid," "Awakening of 
Spring," and a fountain symbolizing "The brook." 

"Mr. Konti is always refined, but this coy figure ("The brook") is a 
veritable embodiment of sinuous grace:" (Taft.) 

His "Mother and Child" has been purchased by the mayor of Boston 
for Fenway Garden, on the recommendation of the Boston art commis- 
sion and the Metropolitan Improvement Association. 

KooPMAN, Augustus, (P.) Born Charlotte, North Carolina in 1869; 
died Etaples, France, January 30, 1914. He studied art in Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia ; later in Paris at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, also under Bouguereau and Robert Fleury. 

Mr. Koopman belonged to the American colony of artists in France, 
wintering in Paris and spending the spring and summer at Etaples. He 
was elected an associ§ of the Society Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1912. 

In 1913 he had a successful exhibition in the United States, and while 
here painted in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. 

"In much of his early work his color and composition, had many of 
the qualities characteristic of the modern Dutch artists." Some of his 
later pictures gained a unique popularity for their impressionism. 

Koopman loved the sea but he was not essentially a marine painter 
for he rarely painted it except as seen from the shore. His pictures 
that he valued highest were figure subjects — his own children being his 
models. 




JOHN LA FAROE. 



153 

A few of his paintings are known as: 
"Launching the boat" "The parting word" 

"With might and main" "Winter" 

"After the storm" "Hoisting sails" 

(Int. studio 52:215.) 

Kosx, Frederick W., (P.) b. New York, May 15, 1861. Pupil National 
Academy of Design. Received honorable mention at Paris Exposition, 
1900; bronze medal at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; silver 
medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Associate member of National 
Academy, 1900;, full member in 1906. Member Society Landscape Paint- 
ers, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Specialty, landscapes and marines. 

Ladd, Anna Coleman (Mrs. Maynard Ladd), (S.) Received her art 
education in Europe. She first exhibited in Boston, Philadelphia and 
New York in 1907. Since then her work has been included in every 
American exhibit of sculpture. 

Mrs. Ladd prefers imaginative subjects but she has modeled a number 
of successful portrait-busts and reliefs. 

"The American," which first attracted thoughtful artists stands for 
the universal human qualities of strength, determination and moral 
force. "Beasts of prey" portrays the low, earth side of man. "Pan" and 
"Youth" personify the American spirit of the woods. "The sundial" 
and "Bird fountain" stand in an Italian garden in Manchester-by-the- 
sea. 

"Her work has not only originality but strength and unusual signifi- 
cance. While it stirs the emotions it also provokes thought." (Anna 
Seaton-Schmidt in Art & P., July, 1911.) 

Among Mrs. Ladd's later works is a bronze portrait-bust of Eleanor 
Duse. The famous Italian actress is also the owner of the "Wind and 
spray" fountain. 

Her group "The rock and the flower" was placed in the Pine Arts 
building at the Panama-Pacific Exposition with a collection of her mar- 
bles and bronzes. 

La Parge, .John, (P., Mui-al and Stained-glass designer) b. New York, 
March 13, 1835; d. Providence, R. I., November 14, 1910. His boyhood 
was spent in Newport, R. I., where his environment was such as to 
foster and develop his strong sense of color. From his earliest youtli 
flowers were his intimate and loving companions, and from them he 



154 

learned the secret of delicate gradation and harmony of color. At the 
age of twenty-one he went to Paris and entered the studio of Couture. 

Mr. LaFarge's work is so varied in subject; in feeling, in scale, it is 
executed in so many different mediums (he worked in oil, in water-color 
and on wood; was a mural decorator, a painter in stained glass and a 
sculptor) that generalization is impossible. 

A member of the National Academy of Design since 1869. 

He received the honorary degree M. A. Yale, 1896; L. L. D. Yale, 1901; 
Princeton, 1904. He was an art critic and lecturer, as well as the most 
learned painter of our times. From the mystics of early China to. those 
of Barbizon, the history of painting was an open book to him. It was 
one of his strongest convictions that color symbolizes character and can 
be made to express the hidden meaning of things. 

In his purely imaginative works in oil, he drew from the realm of 
fairyland and witchcraft for subjects: "The pied piper of Hamelin," 
"The wolf charmer," "The sorceress," "The fisherman and the genii," 
"The siren's song." 

At a London exhibition one of his landscapes was hung between, a 
Kousseau and a Delacroix, and the French government bestowed the 
insignia of the Legion of Honor upon his when he exhibited the Watson 
memorial window at the Paris Exposition in 1889. 

A triumph in mural decoration are his four paintings in the Supreme 
Court room in the Minnesota state house; and his "Ascension" in the 
Church of the Ascension, New York, is one of the most beautiful things 
done in modern religious mural painting. 

It was his color again that proclaimed his authority in glass, and 
recalls the richness and splendor of the old masters. He invented the 
"opaline glass" and his new. method for making stained glass windows 
changed the entire art of glass stainer. His masterpiece in glass work 
is the famous Peacock window now preserved in the Art Museum at 
Worcester, Mass. 

"A great colorist who expressed in the language of color all the 
emotion of the human soul. He has placed an indelible mark upon 
American art." (Jarves "Art idea.") 

"With his mastery of color he created new forms of devotional beauty 
unsurpassed since the renaissance." (Art and P. 3:379.) 

"He had probably the most complex nature in our artistic history, and 
indeed he had in this respect no parallel among the masters of his time 
abroad." (Cortissoz.) 

Lamb, Charles Rollison, (Stained-glass designer), b. New York. 
Studied art at the Art Students' League of New York. Specialty: re- 
ligious and municipal art. 



155 

The artistic decoration of the Sage Memorial Chapel at Cornell Uni- 
versity, was designed by Mr. Lamb. The lower wall surface in mosaic— 
a processional— expresses the idea of education; the center subject is 
that of life and character, and the ceiling that of religion. 

The paintings and studies of detail in the processional were made by 
his wife, Ella Condie Lamb, and the mural paintings on the ceiling in 
the groined arches, by his brother, Frederick Stymatz Lamb. 

In describing this work, the Outlook 70 :571 says : "This mosaic is one 
of the most important in size and character of anything^ executed in the 
United States. It ranks with the work of William E. Richmond, of the 
Royal Academy, in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, the great processional 
by Charles Lehmair in the Madeleine Church, Paris, the panels of the 
new facade of the Cathedral in Florence, or what has been wrought by 
the late Sir Edward Burne-Jones in the American Church at Rome." 

Mr. Charles Rollison Lamb has unusual quality as an artist-decorator. 
"He sees things 'in the whole,' with rare judgment and art feeling." 
(Craftsman 13:420.) 

L.4MB^ Ella Condie (Mrs. Charles R. Lamb), (Mural P., S., I.) b. 
New York. Pupil of William M. Chase, C. Y. Turner, Walter Shirlaw 
in New York, Courtois and Collin in Paris, and Herkomer in England; 
has received many prizes and medals for her work shown at various 
exhibitions in this country. 

Mrs. Lamb specializes in decorative designs for public edifices. 
Among her works are "The Advent angel," "The Christ child," for the 
Conrad memorial (in mosaic), St. Mary's church, Wayne, Pa., and "The 
Arts" and "The Sciences" for the memorial chapel at Cornell University 
in collaboration with her husband, Mr. Charles Rollihson Lamb, who 
designed the elaborate interior decoration of this marvelous art tribute . 
^ to Henry W. Sage and wife. 

Lamb^ Frederick Stymatz^ (Mural and stained-glass designer) b. 
New York, June 24, 1863. Pupil of Art Students' League of New York ; 
also studied under Lefebvre and Boulanger in Paris. Specialty: stained- 
glass. 

Received honorable mention at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
1893; medal from the French government for window at Paris Expo- 
sition 1900, and was one of the four glass workers invited to represent 
the United States at that exposition. 

He has received commissions for important mural decorations, among 
them a large canvas for the Bethlehem Presbyterian Church, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; work for the Bethesda Church, Saratoga, New York, and St. 



156 

Peter's Church, New York. Designed the window in Emerson Memorial 
Chapel, Titusville, Pa. — "Friendship" (David and Jonathan), "Eeligion" 
is an especially fine window in the Jones Memorial Library, Lynchburg, 
Va. ; as is also "Gloria in excelsis" his mural painting in the Sage 
Memorial Chapel at Cornell University. 

His most important recent design is a series of eight windows in the 
old Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

"Hampden and Pym appealing for the Bill of Eights before Charles I" 
"Milton writing the plea for the liberty of the press" 
"eJohn Robinson's prayer on the Speedwell — Departure of the Pilgrims 
from Delfshaven" 

"The signing of the Compact on board the Mayflower" 

"The landing of the Pilgrims" 

"Founding Harvard College" ' 

"John Eliot preaching to the Indians" 

"Cromwell announcing to George Fox personal liberty of worship." 

Besides these, are three other windows, showing in the central one, 
Abraham Lincoln as president; on one side, Henry Ward Beecher 
speaking on the platform of Exeter Hall, London, in favor of the anti- 
slavery bill, on the other, Harriet Beecher Stowe in a groilp of women 
prominent in the movement for the higher education of women. This 
work is gorgeous in color and beautifully harmonizes with the architec- 
ture and decorative scheme of the church. 

"There is a human quality in the art of this artist and even where the 
utmost conventionality of form has to be respected, there is a story with 
picturesque surroundings." (Craftsman 13:420.) 

Latheop^ Feancis, (Mural P.) b. at sea near the Hawaiian Islands, 
June 22, 1849 ; d. Woodcliffe Lake, N. Y., October 18, 1909. 

In 1862 he went to Dresden, Germany, and studied painting at the 
Royal Academy of Fine Arts ; afterwards studied in London with Ford 
Madox-Brown and Sir Edward Bume-Jones and acted as assistant to 
R. Spencer Stanhope and William Morris, devoting special attention to 
stained-glass work. After 1873 was engaged in portrait and decorative 
painting. 

Among his chief decorative works are the mural paintings entitled: 
"The Light of the world" over the altar of St. Bartholomew's Church, 
"Apollo" over the prosenium of the Metropolitan opera house, New 
York ; "Moses with the tablets of the Lord" a wall-painting, in the 
Bowdoin chapel, Brunswick, Me. 

For the Marquard memorial window in Princeton college chapel, he 
received a gold medal in 1889. 



157 

Mr. Lathrop -executed many mural paintings and much stained-glass 
work for numerous churches and residences in New York, Albany, Bos- 
ton, Baltimore and other cities. 

A member of the National Academy of Design, 1906 ; also a member of 
the leading art societies and clubs. 

Laubbr, Joseph^ (P., S., E., Mural P. and stained-glass designer) b. 
Westphalia, Germany, August 31, 1856. Pupil of Walter Shirlaw and 
William M. Chase, in painting. He assisted John LaFarge in sculptural 
decorations of Cornelius Vanderbilt's residence, 1882; executed a number 
of etchings, 1887-94, and has painted a conception of the Christ which 
has been widely noticed. 

Among his best known mural painting and stained glass work are : 

"Redemption" window, Westminster Presbyterian church, Bloomfleld, 
N. J. 

"The pilgrimage of life," First Congregational church, Montclair, N. 
J. 

"Christ's admonition to Thomas" window, Church of the Ascension, 
New York. 

"Christ before the doctors," Lutheran Church, New York. 

"Christ as the True Vine" window, Church of Transfiguration, New 
York. 

"The Spirit of Grace and the Spirit Triumphant" window, Trinity 
Church, Lancaster, Pa. 

"Hope," Presbyterian Church, Lafayette avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

"St. Agnes," St. Andrew's Methodist Episcopal Church, West 76th St., 
^New York. 

"Te Deum" window, St. Paul's church, Eichmond, Va. 

"Adoration" (painting) over the altar, Trinity Church, Ossining, N. Y. 

"Virtues of the upright judiciary," panels in court room, appellate 
court building, JNew York. 

"Psyche at the spring" window in the library of J. P. Morgan. 

"Greek dance" mural painting in the library of Whitelaw Reid, New 
York. 

Lawson, Ernest, (P.) b. California, 1873. He studied art in France 
and has won many prizes for his paintings. An associate member of 
the National Academy of Design since 1908. 

Mr. Lawson's work is distinctly impressionistic. 

"No American painter of the day contains more of the qualities, such 
qualities as are jlictured with charm and light, admired by the order 
of connoisseur in preponderance Mr. Lawson is a painter of the 



158 

order of Kembrandt and Monticelli — a traditional colorist and in no 

sense an inventor He is nearer to the Renaissance than to the 

moderns He has added quality to the color of Manet and 

done it because his love of air or of light is combined with a sensuous 

realization of the weight of materials If he is not the greatest, 

he is one of the greatest American landscape painters." (Arts & D. 
6:240.) 

"Lawson has a very good impressionistic canvas, at times metallically 
inharmonious, at others competently imitative of nature." (Forum 55: 
333.) 

Leigh, William Eobinson, (P., I.) b. Berkeley county, W. Va., Sep- 
tember 23, 1866. He studied art at the Maryland Institute, Baltimore, 
and in Munich. His paintings received honorable mention in the Paris 
salon of 1892 and silver and bronze medals from the Munich Academy. 

Mr. Legh depicts scenes of ranch life in the west and desert episodes. 
A reproduction in colors of "Poisoned pool" appeared in the American 
magazine, March, 1913, and without seeing the original, the directors 
of the Munich galleries cabled their agent in the United States to secure 
it for their exhibition. As a representative of the western type of art 
for the Anglo-American exhibition at London last year, "The stampede" 
was selected by Mr. Hugo Reisinger. "The Great Spirit" also attracted 
much interest at last summer exhibitions. 

Other notable scenes of western life are: 

"An argument with the sheriff" "Sacred Mountain of Zuni" 
"Sunset over the Badlands" "The old story" 

"Eoping" 

Mr. Leigh's canvases give an impression of immense space and possess 
a deep feeling for the finer romance of nature." 

"His work is almost invariably compared or contrasted, as may be the 
conviction of the critic, with that of Frederick Remington." (Cur. op. 
57:269.) 

Lb Roy, Anita, (P., I.). Studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and under Whistler in Paris. Has ex- 
hibited in the large cities of the United States. Member of the Plastic 
Club, Philadelphia. 

A few popular paintings are : 

"Dutch canal and boat" "Dutch woman sweeping snow" 

"Dutch children" "Dutch fisherman" 



159 

Leutze, Emanuel^ (P.) b. Emingen, near Reuthiugen, in Wurtemberg. 
Bavaria, May 24, 1816; d. Washington, D. C, July 18, 1868. When a 
child came to Philadelphia with his parents. By the sale of numerous 
drawings, he realized enough money to carry him to Europe in 1841. 
He went to Dusseldorf and entered the academy there, and as a pupil of 
Lessing soon acquired a name in historical art — a branch to which all 
his tastes and talent inclined. ' Elected a inember of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, New York, in 1860. 

' In 1860 he received a commission from Congress to decorate a stair- 
way in the National capitol building, and painted the "Star of empire." 
"This painting stands quite alone in this country as an example of 
German decorative work." (Isham.) 

He painted a long series of historical compositions, many of American 
subjects. 

Among his most dramatic and elaborate pictures which have won pop- 
ular favor are: 

"Washington crossing the Dela- "Knox and Mary Stuart" 

ware" "First mass of Mary Stuart in 

"The settlement of Maryland" Scotland" 

"An Indian contemplating the "Landing of the Norsemen" 

setting sun" "Columbus before the queen" 

"The flight of the Puritans" "Cromwell and his daughter" 

"Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn" 

Among his portraits of eminent men, that of General Grant is a fine 
example. 

"In all his works, Leutze shows himself a typical Dusseldorfian, with 
the enthusiasm and admirations of the German romantic period, ex- 
pressed in a smooth, dull technique." 

He represents the culmination of a certain type of historical painting 
in America — that besides the story told, the picture shall have a moral 
significance. 

Leutze resembles Carlyle — both teach hero worship. (Tuckerman.) 

LewiSj EdmoniAj (S.) b. in the state of New York. Descended from 
both Indian and African ancestors. Comparatively untaught, she dis- 
played a natural genius for sculpture and in 1865 exhibited in Boston a 
portrait-bust of Colonel Shaw which attracted much attention. In 1867 
she exhibited a statue called "The freed-woman." Soon after she went 
to Rome where she has since resided. She sent to the Centennial Exhi- 
bition in 1876 the "Death of Cleopatra" in marble. Her "Old arrow- 
jnaker and his daughter^" "A^l^p," and terracotta busts of Sumner, 



160 

Longfellow, John Brown and others are well known to visitors of her 
studio in Eome. The Marquis of Bute bought her "Madonna with the 
Infant Christ," an altarpiece. Her groups illustrating" Longfellow's 
poem of "Hiawatha" are charming bits, poetic, simple ajid natural and 
"no happier illustrations of Longfellow's most original poem, were ever 
made than by the Indian sculptor." (Revolution, April, 1871.) 

Lie, Jonas, (P.) b. Norway, April 29, 1880, comes from a family noted 
for genius in one form or another. 

When twelve years of age his father dies and after spending a year 
with his famous uncle in Paris, he came to America to join his mother 
Avho was an Aiherican and he has resided here ever since. 

He attended evening classes of the Academy of design and also did 
hard work in the night school of the Art Students' League. While still 
a student at the academy he sent a canvas, "The gray day" to the jury. 
The picture was accepted and well hung. Three years later he sent a 
painting to the exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy and it was not 
only accepted but • purchased by William M. Chase. He was awarded a 
silver medal at the St. Louis Exposition for his "Mill race," and is now 
represented in many of the best private and public galleries in America. 

"He I'ikes best to paint a snow-covered hillside with a gray leaden sky 

There is a force about his work, a mastery of composition/ whi^h 

goes far to atone for an occasional artificiality of expression or crudity 

of coloring He likes nature in motion he likes the whirl 

of wind and storm through his pictures ...... Jonas Lie has found out 

the secret of his art which sends a gale across canvas from frame to 
frame." (Craftsman 13:135.) 

This painter knows how to handle bridges. 

Int. studio 53 :lv in commenting on American art in recent exhibition 
at Shepherd's Bush, says: "Jonas Lie gives a glorious rendering of 
New York's skyscrapers , after dark. It comes near to justifying the 
claims of the artist's friends. It is majestic and highly romantic. Look 
at the original at 6 o'clock on a winter evening from the North river 
and you will see like majesty in a line that no other part of the world 
can compete in." 

A recent exhibition of Mr. Lie's oil paintings displayed seventeen 
subjects tbe treatment of which is described as remarkably efiCective. 
"To meet the day" has a brilliant crimson sky over a wide stretch of blue 
and green sea. 

There were fishing scenes, near shore, landscapes and flower composi- 
tions. 

"Jonas Lie has the real painter's vision in his picture 'Lower ,Bay, ice- 



161 

bouud.' A flower composition of iiis, too, is remarkably strong in color 
and pleasing in arrangement." (Int. studio 54:cxii.) 

The American Art News in writing of his notable group of paintings 
of the Panama Canal says that he has succeeded in portraying the ma- 
terial side of the canal with the same convincing force as he has his 
landscapes. His "Heavenly host" is dramatic, "The conquerors," a valu- 
able record; "Across the canal" has bigness and breadth, "Palms in the 
wind," grace and movement, "Gatun Hill," true artistic quality, and 
"Culebra Slide" is painted from an original and interesting view point. 

LiNDEj Ossip L., (P.) b. Eussia, but for many years a naturalized 
citizen of the United States. A pupil of the Art Institute, Chicago, he 
also studied with Laurens in Paris and received honorable mention in 
• the Paris Salon ; has won many medals and prizes. 

As a child in Russia he painted war pictures on strips of paper and 
made statuettes of soldiers out of soft stone and sold them to boy friends 
for military buttons of which he accumulated a fine assortment. 

In 1902 he purchased his first box of oils from a fellow-student in 
Bruges ; with these he painted his first picture in oils in the market place. 
It was accepted by the salon judges and well hung; in 1910 he received 
the gold medal. 

Mr. Linde has been called the "eulogist of Bruges and Venice." 

"His color is luscious but restricted, his technique free and unfatigued 

Added to gem-like quality of color, his shadows are luminous, 

his figures well drawn and modeled, his houses solidly painted." (Int. 
studio 55 :xiv.) 

LiNDER, Hbney^ (S.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., September 26, 1854; d. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., February 7, 1910. At fifteen he was apprenticed to a marble 
firm, and when seventeen went with his mother to Germany. He studied 
art with Adam Bock of Lauterecken, then went to Munich and studied 
three years with Prof. Knabel, director of the Munich Academy. A 
year's study in Rome followed; he returned to New York in 1878. A 
member of the National Sculpture Society, National Society of Crafts- 
men and of the Albrecht Durer Verein. 

Mr. Linder was eminently successful in child figures. A memorial 
exhibition of his works was held at the American Fine Arts Building 
under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society in April, 1910. 

Little, J. Wesley, (P.) b. Forkville, Pa., August 24, 1867. Studied 
art at the National Academy of 'Design, New York and with Leonard 
Ochtman ; also studied in Europe in 1899 and in 1905. Is a member of 
21 



162 

the Washington Water Color Club, Philadelphia Sketch Club, Phila- 
delphia Water Color Club and Chicago Water Color Club. Specialty, 
landscapes. 

Some of his best known pictures are : 

"A Dartmoor border" "Green and gold" 

"Westman's wood" "Parting day" 

"A Devonshire lane" , "Under autumn skies' 

"Late pasture" "Threshold of night" 

"Breakfast" ; 

LoEB, Louis, (P., I., E.,) b. Cleveland, O., November 7, 1866; d. Canter- 
bury, N. H., July 12, 1909. An illustrator, etcher and figure painter. 
Studied under G6rome in Paris. Exhibited in the Paris salon of 1895, 
and received honorable mention; also third medal in 1897, Hallgarten 
prize of the National Academy of Design, 1902, and Webb prize of the 
Society of American Artists, 1903. Was elected associate member of 
the National Academy of Design, in 1901; full member in 1906. 

In his "Temple of the winds, sunset" a work of distinction, the drawing 
is full of spirit, and the pure coloring and sense of air and sunset light 
are very fascinating. "The breeze" was more of a success, and "Morn- 
ing" Avon the Carnegie prize in 1905. 

Other pictures are: 

"Blossoming" 
■■The siren" 
"The gilt shawl" 

He painted symbolical pitcures in which the landscape plays a great 
X)art. 

LoNGJiAN, Evelyn Beatrice, (S.)' b. Winchester, O., November- 31, 
1874. To lighten her father's burden of caring for a large family she 
found employment — at the age of fourteen — in a large wholesale house 
in Chicago and at the same time attended night school at the Art Insti- 
tute. Six years later she went with her savings to Olivet College, Mich- 
igan, then returned to Chicago after a year and a half to become a pupil 
of Lorado Taft. Miss Longman became a teacher and took charge of 
the summer school of modeling. Going to New York she worked with 
Hermon A. MacNeil and Isidor Konti, and later became a valued assist- 
ant in the studio of Daniel Chester French. 

Her first piece of importance was a "Victory" which she was chosen 
to execute for the St. Louis Exposition. Contrary to tradition she de- 



163 

signed "Victory" as a male figure, and it proved her victory in actual 
fact; it won for her a silver medal. 

The bust of Kate Parsenow, a German actress (called by the sculptor 
"Aenigma"), has generally been accepted as one of Miss Longman's 
masterpieces of character study: 

She has made two remarkable pairs of bronze doors; one for the 
entrance chapel of the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis ; the other for 
the library building at Wellesley College. 

Jonathan A. Eawson, Jr., says (Int. studio 45:ciii) : "Mr. French with 
just pride in the renown that has come to his former pupil is fond of 
saying that Miss Longman is the last word in ornament." 

"Miss Longman's art is noticeable for its refinement and strength, 
characteristics infrequently found together." 

In writing of the winter exhibition of the National Academy of Design, 
a well known art critic says : "Evelyn Beatrice Longman's contributions 
were many and dignified; they showed an individual appreciation of 
' classicism which drove them above servility, the classicist's danger." 

Miss Longman recently won in competition the |50,000 commission for 
the design for the monument to tlie late Senator Allison of Iowa. 
Her marble two-figure group "L'Amour" was exhibited at the San Fran- 
cisco Exhibition. 

An art critic says of the group: "The piece is worthy successor in 
purity and beauty of that early American sculpture, Power's 'Greek 
slave.' " 

A member of the National Sculpture Society, the American Numis- 
matic Society and the American Federation of Arts; associate member 
of the National Academy of Design, 1909. 

LoNGPRE, Paul de, (P.) b. Lyons, France, April 18, 1855; d. Holly- 
wood, Los Angeles, California, June 29, 1911. 

At twelve years of age he was in Paris painting flowers on fans, and 
at twenty-one his first oil painting was accepted at the salon. He came 
to the United States in 1890 and in 1896 gave his first exhibition in New 
York which consisted entirely of floral subjects. Three acres of flowers 
surround his home in Hollywood. His father and two brothers were also 
painters. Although Mr. DeLongpr6's proper title was Marquis Paul 
Man.cherat de Longpr^, closely related to the ducal houses of De Luynes 
and De Chevreuse and descendant of the celebrated statesman, the Mar- 
quis de Mesmer, he desired to be known as a plain American citizen. 

Lopez, Charles Albert, (S.) b. Metamora, Mexico, October 19, 1869; 
d. New York, May 18, 1906. Came to New York when a youth. Studied 



164 

in the studio of J. Q. A. Ward in New York; later studied with Fal- 
gui^re and at the Ecole des^ Beaux Arts, Paris. 

He received first prize in a sun dial competition; first prize in a flag 
staff competition in New York, and first prize for the McKinley monu- 
ment at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. He was a member of Societj' 
of American Artists; associate member of National Academy in 1906. 

Mr. Lopez had just completed the working models for the McKinley 
memorial when he died from an operation. This work was done in 
collaboration with the sculptor, Isidore Konti. 

Low^ Will Hicok, (P., I., Mural P., Stained-glass designer) b. Al- 
bany, N. Y., May 13, 1853. Pupil of Ecole des Beaux Arts under G^rome 
and Carolus-Duran in Paris. His pictures in oil were exhibited, in the 
Paris salon. In 1881 he became a teacher in the antique and life classes 
of the Woman's Art School of Cooper Union. Was elected a member of 
the National Academy of Design, 1890. His illustrations of Keats' 
poems were exhibited at the Paris Universal Exposition in 1889, and won 
a medal. 

Mr. Low acquired his first knowledge of stained-glass from John 
LaParge and has since furnished cartoons for stained-glass windows 
for many churches and public edifices. He is also one of the best ex- 
ponents of the art of mural painting, his ceiling decorations of the ladies 
reception room in the Waldorf-Astoria hotel. New York, gracefully en- 
titled "Homage to woman" being most noteworthy. 

His painting "The maids of Cashmere" has for subject the Feast of 
Roses, a charming oriental fete which Moore has pictured in "Lalla 
Eookh." 

Mr. Low has also achieved success in literary pursuits. 

At a recent Chicago Art Exhibition Mr. Low made a thoroughly repre- 
sentative display of his work ; one hundred and forty drawings, sketches, 
cartoons and easel-pictures. Features of the display were the mon- 
ochrome illustrations for Keats' "Lamia" and "The odes and sonnets," 
and the original studies for the celebrated decorations of the ball-room 
of the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York. 

LucAS^ Albert Pike^ (P., S.) b. Jersey City, N. J. As a child he drew 
plants and animals and modeled in clay. He studied at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris, under Hubert and Boulanger during the years 1882-8, 
and was also a pupil of Courtois and Dagnan-Bouveret. Later he trav- 
eled in Holland, Belgium and Italy, studying the representative masters 
of each country. Returning to France he made that country his home 
for twenty years, exhibiting regularly in the Paris salon. He was made 



165 

a member of the Society Nationale des Beaux Arts and his well known 
painting "The call" held one of the places of honor. It was later 
awarded a medal at the Pan-American Exposition. 

His bronze bust, "Sambo, a native of Alabama," was exhibited at the 
Paris Exposition, 1900; 'Extaze," a beautifully chiselled head of a 
woman also in bronze, is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York Oity; 
"Laughing faun" is one of his recent sculptured \Yorks. 

"Golden madonna" is so called from the wonderful golden light. 
"Susette" is a charming delineation of childish character. "The red 
shawl," now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, was placed in the 
"honor circle" in the Paris salon a few years ago. 

"The marvel of all this artist's work (painting) is his management 
of diffused light. There is never a sense of the light streaming on the 
canvas reflecting from wall or mirror ; it comes out through the painting 

and radiates beyond it It is always the lyric note in Mr. Lucas' 

work, never the dramatic, the tragic, the morbid." (Craftsman 19:284.) 

"To a lover of lyric poetry, of fairy stories, of MacDowell music, the 
art of Albert Lucas will most strongly appeal." (Int. studio 54:xxiii.) 

LuKEMAN, (Heney) AUGUSTUS^ (S.) b. Richmond, Va., January 28, 
1871. His parents took up their residence in New York City when he 
was a boy. He supplemented his art studies at the National Academy 
of Design with a course in anatomy at Bellevue Hospital. After this 
technical preparation he became a pupil and later an assistant of Daniel 
Chester French, doing some of the group work at the World's Columbian 
Exposition; he also studied in Paris under Falguiere in the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. Preparatory to his architectural collaboration he had a 
course in architecture. His earliest work in this line was two groups 
— "Peace" and "PoAver" — on the Memorial bridge at the Pan-American 
Exposition. This was followed by designs for the group "Music" and 
the figures "Speed," "Heat," "Light" and "Power" at the St. Louis 
Exposition. 

His architectural sculpture for buildings in Pittsburgh, Boston and 
New York are well known. The statue of "Mann," the lawgiver, of India, 
on the appellate court building. New York, is a remarkable conception 
and strikingly effective as an example of architectural sculpture. Mr. 
Lukeman is exceedingly versatile as a sculptor, doing equally well por- 
trait busts, bas-reliefs, memorials and monuments. 

"Mr. Lukeman has practically mastered the sculptor's chief problem 
of distributing broad, simple masses in their true relation to the smaller 
and more decorative parts (Arch. rec. 35:415.) 



166 

LuKs, Geoege Benjamin^ (P.) b. Williamsport, Pa., August 13, 1867. 
His father, a physician, was a clever draughtsman and his mother a 
painter of talent. He studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts and in Dtisseldorf, Paris atid London. 

A radical worker in art, he has a disdain for art schools and conse- 
quently has little or no academic training. He is a natural draughtsman, 
however, and the charm of accuracy and poise distinguish his work. 
Most of his work has been of the city types. He finds his subjects in 
the debris of the human struggle. He is the painter of the East Side of 
New York. Luks sees artistic possibilities in the dock laborers — ^both 
man and animal. "The patient waiting horses, the gray overcast river 
and the straining movements of the men as they work are registered 
upon the canvas with astonishing rapidity and fidelity." (Craftsman 
12:599.) 

In 1907 the National Academy of Design refused at its annual exhi- 
bition to accept a canvas of Mr. Luks, notwithstanding Robert Henri 
made a spirited appeal for recognition of this artist's work. 

"With a grim and appalling psychologic power of a Gorky he paints 
creatures such as Higgins paints, but without Higgins' dramatic effects." 

"As a painter he uses his palette with a riotous disposition of tone 

He sees nature with warmth and vitality, and his work is full of 

light and shade." 

"His method, perhaps, resembles Millet's. It is likely that if Millet 
paiitted streets and caf^s instead of meadows and peasants' huts, he 
would have painted them very much as Luks paints them." 

His most admired picture is "The spielers" — a joyous canvas-move- 
ment, the dominating note. 

"Old clothes man" is impressive for "its dignity of composition, its 
lustre of color and above all for its character." (Int. studio 56:241.) 

His recent Parisian sketches have been referred to as "pencil bio- 
graphies" of Parisian types, and as quite superior to his earlier work. 
"Paris seems to have made George Luks more quick of eye and more 
certain of hand than he has ever been before. There is nothing maudlin 
or sentimental about his drawings. He never pities or patronizes the 
rich or poor. No nice little socialistic sermon is tucked away in any 
of his studies. They never suggest the posed model of the studio. His 
personages are caught — working or playing — ^haphazard in the street 
or in the caf^." 

"George Luks knows the slums and his canvases are vibrant with that 
knowledge." (Bookm. 34:400.) 



167 

Mac Cameron, Robert Lee, (P.) b. Chicago, 111., January 14, 1866; d. 
New York City, December 29, 1912. His early boyhood was passed in 
the wild forests of Wisconsin where he played with Indian children and 
became an expert rifle shot. At fourteen years of age he worked in the 
log drive, earning a man's wages — $2.50 a day and board — and was able 
to save sufficient money to commence an art career, taking lessons in 
the Y.. M. C. A. of Chicago. Going to New York he studied painting 
under William M. Chase. In 1888 he went to London where he found 
employment on the staff of a paper called "Boys' own," published in the 
interests of youth. Later he continued his art studies at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts in Paris under G6rome and Collin, also studied with 
Whistler. Received gold medals in the Paris salon of 1905 and his works 
have been hors concours since 1907. He was made a member of the 
National Academy of Design in 1910 and a chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor of France in 1912. 

Since 1908 when his picture which is popularly known as "The ab- 
sinthe drinkers" was shown in the Paris salon, Mr. MacCameron has 
been accorded recognition as one of the most original artists of the day. 

"Not satisfied to be merely a clever painter, he aims at an interpreta- 
tion of abstract aesthetic qualities. He believes that art should be an 
interpretation of mental spiritual impressions." 

The recent presentation by J. P. Morgan to the Metropolitan Museum 
of New York of the painter's "August Rodin" speaks for the distinction 
in which his work is held. He has painted portraits of many prominent 
persons. 

"Les habitues" is owned by the Memorial Museum of Philadelphia. 

"The absinthe drinkers" was bought for the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Daughter's return" is in the Whistler room of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 

A memorial exhibition of his paintings was held in New York on 
January 28, 1913. 

McCarter, Henry, (I.) b. Norristown, Pa., July 5, 1865. Began ex- 
pressing himself as an illustrator when a boy student at the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts. The Century and the Magazine of Art 
accepted his first work. Later he studied in Paris under Puvis de 
Chavannes and also came under the influence of Rixens, Bonnat and 
Alexander Harrison. 

The "Lourdes" of Zola was the beginning of his important book illus- 
trations; he also furnished notable drawings to illustrate the poems of 
Paul Verlaine. 



168 

"Mr. McCarter seems essentially equipped for the pictorial interpreta- 
tion of poetry; he has the most sentient appreciation of both delicacy 
and strength and a love of nature that is almost archaic. To these 
qualities he adds a psychology of beauty that is vividly real and through 
them all he gets the dramatic and forceful with still a persuasive grace 
and elusiveness." (Bkm. 11:244.) 

"A colorist of exquisite clarity of tone, the value of which is apparent 
in his black and white medium." 

"He does not so much suggest a pronounced individuality as he con- 
veys a pervasive identity, a conscious medium of nature and life." 

His illustrations of Verlaine's poems, notably "Claire de Lune" and 
"Le piano" are veritable triumphs of suggestiveness in the sense that the 
French symbolist poets apply the word. Of special technical interest 
was also his "Easter hymn." 

MacDonald, James Alexander Wilson, (S.) b. Steubenville, Ohio, 
August 25, 1824 ; d. Yonkers, N. Y., August 14, 1908. 

A St. Louis publisher at the age of thirty devoted himself to art. He 
made the first portrait-bust cut in marble west of the Mississippi — that 
of Senator James T. Benton of Missouri. After the civil war he came 
to New York and his bust of Charles O'Connor is in the appellate court; 
and that of James T. Brady is in the law library, while his bronze statue 
of Fitz-Greene Halleck is in Central Park and his Washington Irving in 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn. (American art annual, vol. 7.) 

MacEwen^ Walter, (P., Mural P.) b. Chicago, 111., February 13, 1860. 
Pupil of Cormon and Eobert-Fleury in Paris. Keceived honorable men- 
tion in Paris salon of 1886 ; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889 ; silver 
medal, London, 1890; gold medal from city of Berlin, 1891; medal of 
honor, Antwerp, 1894 ; small gold medal, Munich, 1897 ; large gold medal, 
Munich, 1901 ; medal Vienna, 1902 ; Lippincott prize, Philadelphia, 1902 ; 
gold medal Liege, Belgium; chevalier of Legion of Honor of France; 
ofScer, 1908; chevalier Order of St. Michel, Bavaria; oflScer Order of 
Leopold, Belgium, 1909. Associate member of National Academy of 
Design, New York, 1903. First vice-president of the Paris Society of 
American Painters. 

"Paints interiors with delicate light, moist sea air and monotonous 
dunes with laborers returning in the evening from their work." 
(Miither.) 

Successful in the lighting of his subjects drawn from the private life 
of the Dutch bourgeoisie, while his portraits are excellent — ^well drawn 
and well painted. 



169 

"Woman of the empire" exhibited in the Paris salon of 1903 is re- 
markable for its unusual finish . rather than for originality or force of 
conception. "Holland interior" and "The secret" are two popular works. 
"Phyllis" is a prize picture. 

Other paintings are: 

"The yellow robe" "At the window" 

"The betrothed" "The letter" 

"The secretary" "Confidences" 

"Judgment of Paris" "Head of young Dutch girl" 

"Idyl of summer" "At the burgomaster's" 

"The shepherdess" 

"It is MacEwen's consummate ability to represent textures and to 
produce a soft harmonious effect that imparts charm to the canvas." 
(Brush & P. 11:301.) 

His mural decorations in the Library of Congress are a series illus- 
trating the stories of Greek heroes. (Brush & P. 19:21.) 

McLanb^ My'rtle Jean (Mrs. John C. Johansen), (P., I.) b. Chicago, 
September 14, 1878. Studied in the Art Institute, Chicago, and under 
Duveneck and Chase. Has illustrated for Harper's and Scribner's maga- 
zines. Studio residence is in N^ew York City. 

Her "Mother and child" was awarded the Shaw prize and given a 
place of honor at the annual exhibition of the National Academy of De- 
sign, New York; she has also won several other prizes. 

"Her work is strong, colorful and convincing." (Art & P. 3:612.) 

"On the hilltop" exhibited at the Paris salon, was particularly attrac- 
tive. "It was a buoyant canvas, alert with the abounding wholesomeness 
and spacious exhilaration of the upper air." 

"The impression that her art creates is of breadth of vision and clear 
comprehension. These qualities are felt in her standing portrait "Girl 
in gray" with which she first attracted particular notice." 

"Wholesomeness is a distinguishing quality of her art." (Harp. 
118:291.) 

MacLaughlan^ Donald Shaw, (E.) b. Boston, Mass., November 9, 
1876. Studied art with W. D. Hamilton, later went to Paris to continue 
his studies. 

Received silver medal for etching at the Pan-American Exposition, 
Buffalo, 1901 ; medal of honor, Limoges, 1903 ; bronze medal at St. Louis 
Exposition, 1904. A member of the Paris American Artists Society. 

Mr. Frederick Wedmore, in a lecture on "Etching" delivered January 
23, 1911, before the Royal Society of Arts, said: "America, since 



170 

Whistler, has given us one etcher of importance, Mr. MacLaughlan." 

In the short period of Mr. MacLaughlan's activity — he has been be- 
fore the public less than ten years — he has catalogued more than sixty 
etchings and dry-points. 

One of the -International studio's critics writes: "Looking at the etch- 
ings now reproduced one is quickly convinced of this truth — that even 
coming after the greatest among the masters .... such as Diirer, Rem- 
brandt, Callot, M6ryon, Whistler, Seymour-Haden, Flameng and Buhot, 
an artist endowed as MacLaughlan is endowed with the feeling of 
modernity and strong in his impeccable craftsmanship, may yet be able 
to add a personal page to the history of engraving." 

Minuteness added to a broad and sure sense of general effects ; here in 
few words is the essence of his art. 

His "Lauterbrunnen" was found by one critic to be "one of the few 
pictures that realize the vastness of the mountains .... Space, sweep, 
grandeur, rudeness and power are found in this remarkable plate which 
also is beautifully obedient to the canons of the art." (Weitenkampf.) 

Mr. MacLaughlin has found his principal subjects in the streets of 
Paris, although Parma, Pavia, Bologna, Tuscany, Roman Campagna, 
Tivoli, Neapolitan district all in turn have attracted him. 

MacMonnies, Frederick William, (S., P.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 28, 1863. At the age of sixteen he attracted the attention of 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens who received him as an apprentice in his 
studio; later he went to Paris and Munich where he spent some time 
studying painting which he considered so closely allied to sculpture as 
to be a necessary preparation. On a second trip to Europe he entered 
the atelier Palgui^re in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, also worked in the 
private studio of Antonio Merci6. 

In Paris he speedily achieved the most gratifying success, carrying off 
for two successive years the prix d'atelier, the highest award for which 
foreigners in Prance may compete. Among the many flattering recogni- 
tions of his gifts are decorations of the Legion of Honor of Prance, and 
the cross of Saint Michael of Bavaria; he has also won the first prize of 
the National School of Pine Arts. A member of th6 National Academy 
of Design, 1906. 

In 1889 his first exhibit, a "Diana," obtained honorable mention from 
the Paris salon. He exhibited in the salon of 1891 the statues of Nathan 
Hale and James S. T. Stronahan and was awarded a second gold medal, 
this being the first and only time that an American sculptor has at- 
tained that honor. 



171 

His "Bacchante" was purchased by the French government for the 
Luxembourg, he being the first American sculptor to be so honored. 

These were followed by "Pan of Rohallion" and "Faun with heron" 
which obtained for him such a reputation in the United States that he 
was chosen to execute the colossal fountain of the Columbian Exposi- 
tion, containing twenty-seven gigantic figures. 

Mr. MacMonnies is busy at this time on a monument to commemorate 
at Princeton, N. J., the Battle of Princeton. It is to be a group in 
high relief, Washington one of the principal figures. 

MacNeil, Carol Brooks (Mrs. H. A. MacNeil), (S.) b. Chicago, 111., 
January 15, 1871. Pupil of Art Institute, Chicago, under Lorado Taf t ; 
MacMonnies and Injalbert in Paris. Member of N. Y. Woman's Art 
Club; National Sculpture Society. 

"She might be called a miniature sculptor, if there is such a phrase, 
for her creations are iiot of statuesque proportions. Portrait busts she 
has done and they are well done; but her originality has run rather to 
unique designs for vases, inkstands, fountains and other articles of 
practical utility." (W. Work 14:9403.) 

MacNbil, Hermon Atkins, (S.) b. Everett, Mass., February 27, 1866. 
Pupil of the Massachusetts Normal Art School in Boston, Chapu at 
Julien Academy and Falguiere at Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. On 
his return from Paris he went immediately to the Northwest where he 
sojourned with the Indians making sketches for the four bronze reliefs 
that now adorn the Marquette building in Chicago. These reliefs sym- 
bolize four dramatic incidents in the life of Pere Marquette. 

Mr. MacNeil taught in the Art Institute, Chicago, for a time then he 
won the Einehart scholarship and studied in Rome for four years. He 
was the first instructor in drawing and modeling at Cornell University, 
also served as instructor in Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, in the Art Stu- 
dent's League and the Academy of Design in New York. He has won 
many medals and prizes; was elected associate National Academy of 
Design, 1905; academician, 1906. 

"The coming of the whitie man" is perhaps the best known of Mr. Mac- 
Neil's Indian groups, and the McKinley statue at Columbus, Ohio, is the 
first masterpiece of the kind that he has produced." (W. Work 14:9403.) 

In 1888 he went to Paris and in 1890 exhibited a bust in the salon. 
While living in Eome and working in the Villa dell' Aurora, he produced : 

"The moqui runner" "From chaos came light" 

"A primitive chant" "The sun vow" 



172 

Taft says: "There are few American .sculptors who manipulate the' 
clay as charmingly as does Mr. MacNeil. His work is full of delightful 
touches and felicitous passages, yet the firm construction is never sacri- 
ficed to the superficial graces Two busts of women modeled by 

him are among the finest works yet produced by an American — Herbert 
Adams alone has surpassed the "Agnese" "Beatrice" is less beau- 
tiful in execution." 

Macomber^ Maey L., (P.) b. Fall Eiver, Mass., August 21, 1861; d. 
Boston, Mass., February 4, 1916. Pupil of Duveneck and Boston Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts. Specialty, ideal figures. 

With the exception of a few weeks in England, France and Holland, 
her life was spent in the United States. 

Her ancestors were New England orthodox with direct and easily 
traceable line from the Plymouth Pilgrims. She was shocked because 
the religious atmosphere of her earliest creations caused some to think 
her a Roman Catholic and she gave up the religious subjects of the old 
masters and began the delineation of her ideals by means of winged 
figures representing allegories of love. This style giving rise to the 
charge of sentimentality, she abandoned the winged figures for her 
present types. 

Many of her pictures in recent years have been in the panel form, and 
as decorations have proven highly satisfactory. Her "Hour of grace," 
"An Easter carol" and "The magdalen" are among such works. 

Miss Macomber's early work shows the influence of the Burne-Jones- 
Kossetti- Watts school and in such of her early creations as "Memory 
comforting Sorrow," "Night and her daughter Sleep," her partiality to 
this group of idealists is plainly traceable. 

In more recent years, however, her originality of subject is unques- 
tioned in such as: 

"Springtime" "The nightingale" 

"Life" "Kissed fruit" 

"Singing stars" "Spring" 

(Charles A. Parker in Int. studio 47:lxi) 

Malbonb, Edward Greene, (Min. P.) b. Newport, R. I., August 1777; 
d. May 7, 1807. "What Gilbert Stuart was to the larger portraiture of 
America, such was Edward Green Malbone to the miniature work of his 
native land." 

From childhood he was ambitious to become an artist, and at the age 
of seventeen he was working professionally drawing heads in miniature ; 
and in the spring of 1796 he was fairly established as a miniature 



173 

painter in Boston. Meeting Washington Allston, a strong friendsiiip 
was formed which lasted during the life of the younger artist. In 1800 
Malbone and Allston went south where the former painted many min- 
iatures. Later they went to London where Benjamin West, then presi- 
dent of the Eoyal Academy, gave them a cordial reception. Here Mal- 
bone painted his celebrated picture known as "The hours." It is upon 
ivory and is exquisite in composition and color. It is now owned by 
the Athenaeum at Providence, E. I. Of this achievement Benjamin West 
said: "I have seen a picture painted by a young man named Malbone 
which no man in England could excel." 

This picture remained for nearly a hundred years an isolated example 
of American art, when its influence was worthily carried out by Mr. W. 
J. Baers' "Aurora" and "Golden hour," and the interesting figure pieces 
by Lucia Fairchild Fuller. "He had the happy talent," writes Allston, 
"of elevating the character without impairing the likeness. (Heirlooms 
in miniatures" Anne Hollingsworth Wharton.) 

"Malbone was easily at his best in portraiture. His famous com- 
position "The hours" now owned by the Athenaeum at Providence is re- 
markable for its brilliancy and harmony of coloring and execution. Mal- 
bone's reputation rests on the correct drawing and acute discernment 
of character always present in his portraits, coupled with harmony and 
truth in coloring." (Scrib. 47:564.) 

Manship, Paul, (S.) Was born in St. Paul, Minn., and is about 30 
years of age. While attending school in his native city he became in- 
terested in modeling and decided to be a sculptor. Later he had instruc- 
tions from Charles Grafly, the sculptor, and won in 1909 the Eoman 
prize of the American Academy which gave him three years' study in 
Eome and also travel in Greece. About two years ago he returned to 
the United States and his bronzes at once became the most attractive 
feature of art exhibitions. 

At a recent exhibition of the National Academy of Design his "Cen- 
taur and Dryad" took the Helen Poster Barnett prize (the only prize 
offered by the academy for sculpture.) Four replicas of this bronze 
group have been made; the Metropolitan Museum of New York has pur- 
chased one, but the original is now owned by the Detroit Museum of 
Art. 

"What impresses the observer of Mr. Manship's work is the combina- 
tion in it of classic precision with western virility and reality 

The bronze at the academy which drew most comments from the artists 
was the one entitled "The awakening of spring." (Outl. 106:335.) 



174 

"His groups are full of the direct observation of life and of an 

essential modernity He applies to figures an archaistic treatment 

in unarchaic freedom movement, doing things that no archaic sculptor 
would have thought of making them do." (Nation 96:162.) 

"Playfulness" as example represents the "slim young mother with the 
wide-open archaic eyes slightly uplifted at the corners gayly playing at 
ride-a-cock-horse with the baby." 

It is in his fountain figure, "The duck girl" (awarded the George D. 
Widener memorial medal) that he shows what he can really do. "It 
seems to me an original work of true classic inspiration which the 
ancients themselves would have cared for as I do." (Kenyon Cox.) 

His small bronzes are technically exquisite, spontaneous afid free in 
their conception and fascinating because, so unusual. (House Beautiful 
35:126.) 

At the last exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 
Mr. Manship was represented by thirteen groups, and he is referred to 
as the new sculptor "who is carrying everything before him." (Int. 
studio 52:xiii.) 

During the month of December, 1915, an exhibition of forty-four 
pieces of sculpture by Mr. Manship was held in the Detroit Museum of 
Art. The following excerpts are taken from the bulletin issued by the 
museum in January, 1916: 

"The exhibition covers a wide range of themes, the treatment of which 
shows Mr. Manship to be a man of ideas and versatility. He seems to 
look at things, primarily, from the standpoint of design, and in carrying 
out his ideas he has adopted certain suggestions of the ancient past, and 
adapted them to his treatment of modern decorativie themes. In some 
of his things one finds a suggestion of that quality which made the early 
Chinese bronzes great; others in the treatment of the hair, and the 
orderly and- decorative arrangement of the drapery suggest -archaic 
Greek. This expression of modern ideas in primitive terms is most in- 
teresting." 

"Pour panels in relief symbolizing the elements, "Fire," "Water," 
"Earth," and "Air," show the quality of the sculptor at his best 

"One finds in the 'Salome' of Manship a charm of line and a verve sel- 
dom encountered in a representation of this subject." 

"The 'Portrait of a baby three weeks old,' a high relief in colored mar- 
ble, is as decorative and plastic as the best thing of the Italian Renais- 
sance." 

"Through the work of Manship one finds him fascinated with the 

animal kingdom, and in using beasts and birds as the motives of his 



175 

decoration he gives them a conventional quality, yet they are expressive 
of life." 

His groups "Dance" and "Music" were placed in the Court of the Uni- 
verse at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. "These are typical examples 
of Manship's power to combine classic restraint, sculptural dignity and 
grace of line with complete freedom' and untrammeled ease of method." 
' Elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design, 1914. 

Marin, John, (E., P.) b. Rutherford, N. J., 1875. A pupil of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Art Students' League, New 
York, he studied etching in Paris. 

Of a recent exhibition of his water colors, a critic writes : "No matter 
how harshly we may criticize him for not having finally found himself 
and with himself, something vital, he has nevertheless undoubtedly made 
an excellent start along little trodden lines. The influences one de- 
duces are of the Chinese and C6zanne, although there are no symbols 

common to either of them Marin's color in his later works is 

pale and not always complete, but his sensitivity is such that as he 
progresses, a desire for the complete chromatic gamut will instinctively 

be felt by him, and his color will no doubt become strengthened 

Marin is a man to watch and buy and to encourage." (Forum 55:331.) 

In an article on some masters of the water color, Arts & D. 6:279, 
is: "Cezanne is another master as is John Marin who has been so in- 
fluenced by him Very abstract in character, impossible at 

times to follow them; their- art is nevertheless pregnant with beauty, 
selection, taste: these are the virtues that count in art." 

Int. studio 58:xviii: "Marin's personality stands forth healthy and 

strong, not dependent on the crutches of second-hand inspiration 

From the very simplest types of order (such as a slight block form 
of objects) he has attained to a rhythmic conception of his subject mat- 
ter until it has become almost abstract. In this sense iie at times re- 
veals a certain inevitable Chinese aspect." 

Mr. Marin belongs to the Post-impressionist movement in Paris. 

"He has achieved brilliant success in etching, showing much original- 
ity and power in his flexibility of line and depth of color." 

Marsh, Alice Randall (Mrs. Fred Dana Marsh), (Min. P.) b. Cold- 
water, Michigan. A pupil of the Art Institute, Chicago, she later studied 
with Merson, Collin, Whistler and MacMonnies in Paris. 

Mrs. Marsh is a member of ^the American Society of Miniature Paint- 
ers, and her work in this line of painting has been very favorably re- 
ceived. 



176 

Marsh, Fred Dana, (Mural P.) b. Chicago, 111., April 6, 1872. Pupil 
of Art Institute, Chicago. Won bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; 
silver medal, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; bronze medal, 
St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Member Society American Artists. Asso- 
ciate National Academy of Design, 1906. 

His most notable work is a series of mural paintings . symbolic of 
modern progress in engineering, executed for the New York Engineers' 
Club. 

Martin, Homer Dodge, (P.) b. Albany, N. Y., October 28, 1836; d. St. 
Paul, Minn., February 12, 1897. Established a studio in New York in 
1862. Was elected member of the National Academy of Design in 1874. 
His first trip to Europe was made in 1876 when he met Whistler who 
promptly recognized his qualities as a painter and invited him to work 
in his studio ; he resided in France during 1882-6. 

Among his most important works are : 

''White Mountains from Ran- "Morning on the Saranac" 

dolph hill" "A fire-slash lookout" 

"Lake Sanford" "A lake in the wilderness" 

"Honfleur lights" "Evening on the Thames" 

"Source of the Hudson" "Sand dunes of Lake Ontario" 

"Old Normandy Manor" "The sun worshippers" 

"The mussel gatherers" "Golden sands" 
"On the Seine" (Harp of the 
winds) 

"Winchester hills" and "Adirondack scenery" are considered his mas- 
terpieces. His painting "The old church at Criqueboeuf" — Normandy 
landscape — was called by M. Boutet de Monvel, the late well known 
French painter, "The greatest landscape ever painted in America." He 
further declared that it was equal to the best of Rousseau's work, and 
yet was unlike anything that Rousseau had done. 

During his lifetime his pictures did not sell or were purchased by 
admiring friends, among whom were artists, critics, editors, poets, musi- 
cians, physicians and bankers, but now it is practically impossible to 
buy a really important example of his work. 

"The harp of the winds," "The Normandy farm," and "The Adiron- 
dacks" were painted after he was practically blind; the optic nerve of 
one eye was dead and a cataract partly clouded the other. The story 
of his failure to interest the buying public together with ill-health and 
approaching blindness, is most pathetic. He never looked with bitter- 
ness on the success of men far inferior to himself. 



177 

"His work is that of a poet painter, but of one who felt more deeply 
the grandeur of mountain scenery than he did the pastoral beauty of 
simple scenes." "More than one critic has accorded to Martin the high- 
est rank among the poet painters of American landscape." (Nat. Oyc. 
Am. Biog.) 

Hartmann says: "He was one of the men who brought our landscape 
art to its highest pinnacle of perfection." 

Ltibke says : "It was in his study that his composition was made and 
it was there that he produced those astonishing pieces of truth in the 
anatomy of hillside and rocky cliff in which no landscape painter has 
ever surpassed him." 

Maynaed, George W., (P., Mural P., I.) b. Washington, D. C, March 
5, 1843. A student at the National Academy of Design in 1868. A year 
later he went to Antwerp where in company with Francis D. Millet he 
entered the Royal Academy of Pine Arts and studied under Van Lerius. 
After four years in the academy and the museums of Belgium, he and 
his friend made a trip through central and southern Europe, returning 
to New York in the spring of 1874. The following year he became assist- 
ant to John LeParge in company with Saint-Gaudens, Millet and Lath- 
rop in the interior decoration of Trinity Church, Boston, the first im- 
portant work of this character done in America, the merit of which has 
hardly been excelled. 

In 1877 he again visited Europe, making a special study of mural 
painting. He was elected associate member of fthe National Academy 
of Design in 1881, full member in 1885 and taught drawing for many 
years in the schools of Cooper Institute and at the Academy. 

In 1884 he won the Temple gold medal at Philadelphia, and in 1888 
the American Art Association medal of honor was awarded to him by the 
artist exhibitors. His picture "Sappho" was purchased by the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1889 and "Sirens" won the Evan 
prize. 

Among his numerous pictures are: 
"The angelus" "Strange gods" 

"Water carriers of Venice" "Old and rare" 

"An ancient mariner" 

"He is a decorator in the truest sense. He is broader than a regiment 
of studio men, for he brings to his canvas a born colorist's pallette, and 
a style and comprehension of what is purely beautiful beyond the mere 
prettiness of ordinary drawing room motives. His picture entitled "In 
strange seas" is a captivating group of sportive sirens gamboling amid 

23 




J. GARI MELCHERS. 



179 

the blue billows of the real ocean, an almost possible vision, attractively 
mingling the poetic and the actual." (New Eng. 14:148.) 

Meaes^ Helen Farnsworth^ (S.) b. Oshkosh, Wis., 1876; d. 1916. 
Studied art in New York and Paris ; later was an assistant of Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens. 

Her first success was "Genius of war." This was followed by "The 
fountain of life" and busts of George Eogers Clark and Dr. William L. 
G. Morton and portrait reliefs of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Louise Col- 
lier Willcox and Edward A. McDowell. 

Miss Mears' most notable work was the execution of the statue of the 
late Frances E. Willard placed in the Hall of Statues in the capitol at 
Washington, and unveiled on February 17, 1908. This is the first statue 
of a woman by a woman to be placed in the building. 

Melchers, J. Gari^ (P., Mural P.) b. Detroit, Mich., August 11, 1860. 
At the age of seventeen he went to Germany, studying art in Diisseldorf 
under Van Gebhardt; later he studied under Lefebvre and Boulanger, 
also at the Cour Yvon (famous class at Ecole des Beaux Arts), Paris; 
after this took up his residence in Holland and has a studio at Egmond- 
aan-Zee. 

Mr. Melchers has received many honors in recognition of his fine 
artistic ability. He is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France; 
Knight of the Order of St. Michael, Bavaria; Knight of the Red Eagle,' 
Germany and has received honorable mention in the Paris salon; also 
won medals of honor from Amsterdam, Antwerp, Munich and Vienna. 
He is a member of the International Society of Artists, London; The 
Secessionists, Munich, Soci6t6 Rationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, and 
professor -at the Grand-Ducal Academy of Art in Weimar ; was elected 
associate member of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 
1904; full member in 1906; is first vice-president of the Paris Society 
of American Painters. 

Mr. Melchers' first effort in Dutch painting, "The Sermon" won honor- 
able mention in the Paris salon of 1886. In 1889, when twenty-eight 
years old he received the blue ribbon of art — a medal of honor in Paris. 
Only three American painters have won this coveted distinction — ^Whist- 
ler, Sargent and Melchers. 

His "Family" hangs in Berlin ; "Maternity" in the Luxembourg ; "The 
ship builder" in Dresden; "Man with the cloak" in Rome; "Supper at 
Emmaus" owned by the Krupp family; "Girl in church" is in the Koyal 
Gallery, Munich. 

Brinton says in "Modern artists": "It is not alone the homely pic- 
turesqueness of peasant or fisherman, the vast mottled skies, or the play 



180 

of constantly diffused light which atract him to Holland. It was also 
the sterling artistic tradition of the country itself." 

His frescoes "Peace" and "War" in the Library of Congress at Wash- 
ington share with Sargent's frieze "The prophets" in the Boston Public 
Library, the distinction of being the finest frescoes in America. 

Landscape painting is Mr. Melchers' relaxation — "Green summer," 
"The arbor," "Winter," "Under the trees," are studies in sunlight and 
reflection. • 

Melchers was the first artist to apply for permission to copy the 
Botticelli frescoes when they were put in the Louvre. 

He has painted a great many portraits in America and abroad. CaflSn 
says : "Melchers is a searching analyst, stating without comment of his 
own, exactly, what he sees, but — he sees below the surface." 

Among his finest works are: 

"Married" "Penelope" 

"Sainte Gudule" "Child in church" 

"The communion" "The green mantle" 

"Stevedore" "Mother and child" 

"The skaters" "Pilots" 

"A Holland lady" "Young mother" 

"A fencer" "The kiss" 

"Audrey" "Sailor and his sweetheart" 

"The nativity" "The China closet" 

"The bride" "The Delft horse" 

"The wedding" "Vespers" 

"Little Constance" 

"The work of Mr. Melchers is full of that essential quality — person- 
ality." (C. Lewis Hind in World's work 15:10092.) 

Merritt, Anna Lea (Mrs. Henry Merrit), (E.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 
September 13, 1844. Began painting at the age of twenty-one but never 
had the advantage of academic training. She traveled four years on the 
continent with her parents and sisters, and in 1871 exhibited her first 
picture, a portrait, at the Royal Academy London. Since then she has 
been a constant exhibitor at that institution, and is a member of the 
Society of Painter-Etchers, London. She married Henry Merrit, artist 
and author, London, who died within a few months, and it was to fur- 
nish by her own hand etchings for a memorial work to her husband that 
she learned to etch. 

Mrs. Merritt is one of the few women in this country who have etched 
the human figure. Her portraits of her husband, Sir Gilbert Scott, the 



181 

celebrated architect, Louis Agassiz, Lady Dufferin, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes and others rank among the best of modern etched portraits. 

"She has executed many charming plates, principally portraits of dis- 
tinguished men and women of the time, with an occasional plate of river 
scenery, landscape or interpretation of her own paintings. Her vigorous 
portraits of Miss Ellen Terry and a large head of Mr. Leslie Stephens are 
striking examples of good etching." 

Mrs. Merritt was the first woman painter whose work was purchased 
by the Chantrey fund. "Love locked out" was the subject. The picture 
is now in the Chantrey collection of the Tate gallery, London. 

Metcalf, Willaed LeEoy, (P.) b. Lowell, Mass., July 1, 1858. Edu- 
cated in the public schools of Massachusetts; apprenticed to a wood 
engraver of Boston in 1875; then to George L. Brown, a landscape 
painter, Boston, 1876-7. Student in Lowell Institute, Boston Normal 
Art School, Boston Art Museum School, Acad§mie Julien, Paris; also 
studied under Boulanger and Lefebvre in. 1883. He is represented in 
the leading art galleries of the United States ; received the Webb prize, 
society of American Artists, 1896, and awarded the Temple gold medal, 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, also Corcoran gold medal; 
member of the Ten American Painters. 

Mr. Metcalf is numbered among the foremost of the American land- 
scape painters. During his six years' study in Paris his most successful 
picture was the "Arab market" which received honorable mention in the 
Paris salon in 1889. Most of his painting is portrait work; taught 
antiqxie and life classes at the Cooper Institute; traveled in the west 
two years with Prank Cushing, getting the benefit of his profound 
knowledge of the Indians. 

Well known works: 

"A family of birches" "Golden screen" 

"May night" "Mid- winter" 

"Unfolding buds" "The snow bearers" 

"Spring fields" "Green canopy" 

"Ice bound" "The white veil" 

"Light and air are to him matters of serious concern, but also are form 
and motion. Unlike the majority of those who follow the impression- 
ists teaching, he cares not merely for the effect of sunlight but for the 
object upon which the sunlight falls, and paints now always in a high 
key." (Int. studio 39:8.) 
'Mr. Metcalf is quite remarkable in the field of flower painting. 

By general consent Mr. Metcalf's "Trembling leaves" has been labeled 
notable." 



182 

MiELATz^ Charles Frederick William, (E.) b. Buddin, Germany, 
May 24, 1864. A pupil of the National Academy of Design, and F. 
Rondel. 

Member of the International Jury of Awards, St. Louis Exposition, 
1904; member of New York Etching Club; was elected associate member 
of National Academy of Design, 1906, and is a teacher of etching in 
the academy. 

A. L. Baldry says in "Modern etching" that Mr. Mielatz "possesses a 
power of rendering a great variety of subject-matter with success. Bulk 
and masses of architecture, characteristics of street people and buildings, 
he sets down always with grace and conviction." 

Miller, Richard E., (P.) b. St. Louis, Mo., March 22, 1875. A pupil 
of the St. Louis School of Fine Arts, he later studied with Benjamin- 
Constant and Laurens in Paris. In 1900 he received the third-class 
medal in the Paris salon, and in 1904, the second-class medal. Since 
1905 his j)aintings have been hors concours in the salon of the Soci6t6 
des Artistes, France. He is a member of the Legion of Honor and second 
vice-president of the Paris Society of American Painters. 

Mr. Miller lives in France and has had very many artistic honors 
bestowed upon him both there and in the United States. 

Two of his paintings, "The mother" and "The puppet" are hung in 
the permanent collection of the Luxembourg, Paris, and another has , 
been placed in the Petit Palais. "The dressing table" (a portrait of Mrs. 
Miller) has been purchased by the Italian government; "Lady with fan" 
is in the Gallery of Modern Art, Rome; "The Chinese statuette," "Metro- 
politan Museum, New York; "The boudoir," Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C. ; Examples of his work are also in the Royal Museum 
of Christiania, King of Italy's private collection. Museum of Fine Arts, 
Antwerp, and Modern Gallery of Venice. 

"The open window" (also called "Spring") was shown in the Salon 
des Artistes Francais in 1914. A nude exhibited at the Chicago Art 
Institute Annual Exhibition of last year, was awarded the Potter Palmer 
prize. It has been pronounced one of his best works. 

Other popular paintings are: 

"In the garden" "The green parasol" 

"The mirror" "Lady with red hair" 

"The Chinese coat" "The cafe" 

The play of light on objects whether indoors or out presents innumer- 
able problems of alluring interest. It is in the solution of these that 
Mr. Miller has found special delight and success. 



183 

"Art's mission," he says, "is not literary, the telling of a story, but 
decorative, the conveying of a pleasant optical sensation." 

"His exteriors are vividly if pleasingly green, relieved always by the 
presence of ilesh and light summer gowns, and invariably somewhere a 
touch or red." 

"The Miller pictures, to analyze their popularity, are all suggestive 

and broad in treatment Everything is selective, but harmonious 

through a clear general concept of values." 

Millet^ Francis Davis^ (P. I., Mural p.) b. Mattapoisett, Mass., No- 
vember 3, 1846. Lost his life in the S. S. Titanic disaster, April 15, 
1912. Pupil of the Royal Academy of Arts in Antwerp under Van Lerius 
and De Keyser. * 

Received silver and gold medals of honor, 1872 and 1873, at the Royal 
Academy, Antwerp; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor of France. He was special correspondent for the 
"Daily News" during the Russo-Turkish war, 1877. For this work he 
received the Roumanian Iron Cross and the Order of Chevalier St. Anne 
and of St. Stanislaus from the Russian government; was also special 
correspondent of the "London Times" at Manila during Spanish war. 
Director of decorations, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. Member 
of the National Academy of Design since 1885. 

He was vice-chairman of the Federal committee of Fine Arts as well 
as secretary and executive officer of the American Academy in Rome. He 
organized the American Federation of Arts and was its secretary from 
the beginning. 

Mr. Millet painted a number of portraits, the most important being 
those of Charles Francis Adams, Jr. and Samuel L. Clemens (Mark 
Twain) both exhibited at thtc National Academy of Design, New York, 
in 1877. 

A few of his paintings in oil are : 

"Off duty" "A cozy corner" 

"How the gossip grew" "A handmaiden" 

"A diflScult duet" "Piping times of peace" 

"Love letter" "The black sheep" 

"Wandering thoughts" "Between two fires" 

"Fireside companions" "Rook and pigeon" 

"Lucky at cards, unlucky in love" 

"Mr. Millet does not revel in painting considered as being by itself one 
of the fine arts ; his intention is almost as much literary as it is artistic ; 
an episode of life, an anecdote, a state of soul rendered manifest in a 



184 

pleasing manner and in the midst of curious amusing accessories, studied 
witii the minuteness and neatness of touch of the later Old Dutch 
masters — such is Millet's conception of his art." (Child's "Art and 
criticism.") 

"In his pictures of episode he reveals the situation, not by acting but 
by suggesting it; therefore they have the charm of repose. His can- 
vases have incipient or completed action — rarely the suspended motion 
that tires us by its arrest or vehemence." 

His "Thesmophoria" or harvest feast, in a Pittsburg bank, is a fine 
piece of mural painting. 

"Fine as his easel pictures are, it is as a grpat mural painter that his 
fame will last. His masterpiece is his monumental work for the Balti- 
more custom house — "The evolution of navigation." (Art & P., 3:635.) 

MiNOR^ Robert Crannell^ (P.) b. New York City, 1840; d. Waterford, 
Conn., August 3, 1904. 

First entered a business career but later decided to become a painter. 
He studied painting for two years under Alfred C. Howland, then went 
to Europe, studying with Van Luppen and Boulanger in Holland and 
Belgium. After three years in Paris he joined the colony at Barbizon 
where he was more or less under the personal influence of Diaz and 
Gorot. In 1872 he exhibited "The silent lake" in the Paris salon, then 
spent two years in England during which time he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and Grosvenor Gallery. 

"Moonlight" secured honorable mention at the Paris Exposition and 
"Close of a day" won a bronze medal. 

Among his best known paintings are: 

"Studio of Corot" "Under the oaks" 

"Wold of Kent" "Cradle of the Hudson" 

"Mountain path" "Gray day in September" 

Coffin wrote of his work: "Poetic sentiment with fine resonant color 
effects are found in the landscapes of Robert C. Minor who is an avowed 
'Barbizon man' Simplicity of subject and completeness of com- 
position are the main factors in his creations and particularly in sunset 
and in tv,'ilight effects does he appear as a sympathetic interpreter of 
nature's subtle changes." 

Mr. Minor was vice-president of the Soci(5t6 Artistique Litteraire of 
Antwerp, president of the Salmagundi Club in 1898 and elected a mem- 
ber of the National Academy of Design in 1897. 

Mitchell^ John Jambs, (E., P.) b. New York, 1845. Lived abroad from 
1867-70, studying architecture which profession he practiced in Boston 



185 

until 1876. In that year he again went to Europe and devoted himself 
to the study of drawing and painting under Boulanger and Lefebvre 
and Albert Maigman until his return in September 1880. His first efforts 
in etching were made in Boston but he did not begin the practice of this 
art until 1876 when he received instruction from Brunet-Dehaines, one 
of the best French etchers of our day; he learned from him a delicacy 
and refinement in the management of his tools which stood him in good 
stead in several series of small figure subjects published some time ago 
in Paris. He is especially clever if at times a bit theatrical in his man- 
agement of strong floods of light." (Century 25 o. s. :497.) 

Monks, John Austin Sands, (P., E.) b. Cold Springs-on-Hudson, 
N. Y., November 7, 1850. I'upil of George N. Cass and George Inness. 

As a young man he was an engraver, but after a trip to Boston he 
took up landscape painting. Inness saw his study of an old willow tree, 
sent for him to come to his studio and later invited him to become his 
pupil. "Not only has he painted sheep indoors and out, at play, sleeping 
in sunishine, in twilight, but he has modeled them in clay." He has also 
painted the sheep of the various localities in this country until he has 
become known as America's painter of sheep." (Craftsman 22:619.) 

"Mr. Monks studied his sheep from the standpoint of a practical 
farmer as well as a poet and painter, hence the solid construction of his 
pictures, and the convincing reality of every incident and detail of their 
action and environment." 

"As a painter of sheep this finely trained artist has attained a mastery 
that allows him to speak the whole art language through the vehicle 'of 
the simple life incidents of these most humanly suggestive of our domes- 
tic animals." (New Eng. M. 42:755.) 

Mora, Francis Luis, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Montevideo, Uruguay, July 
27, 1874. He received his art education in ihe School of the Boston 
Museum under Benson and Tarbell and at the Art Students' League of 
New York under Mowbray. Beginning about 1892 he did illustrating 
work for all the leading magazines and periodicals. He has won many 
prizes and medals and is a member of the leading art organizations; 
an associate member of the National Academy of Design, 1904, academi- 
cian, 1906. For nine years was a teacher in drawing and painting classes 
of the New York School of Art. 

Mr. Mora's father was a Spanish painter, his mother a Frenchwoman 
and his early life was spent in South America. "Perhaps it is these very 
conflicting conditions in the life of Mr. Luis Mora that has evolved the 
unusual quality of his art, an art essentially Spanish in subject and 



186 

feeling and wholly modem and American in expression The quality 

of Mr. Mora's paintings of gardens is a thing one returns to again and 
again in memory as one likes to see them over and over again in his 

studio In these gardens there is Spain's past magnificence 

The women are slow-moving and graceful, the children joyous, and be- 
hind all the radiance of these line silent gardens hovers the shadow of 
a tragic, barbaric nation." (Craftsman 17:402.) 

"Picnic on the beach" is a most affirmative picture, capital in fresh 
white and blue, composed with utmost wisdom of technique, but efflore- 
scent with nature both in composition and in gaiety of spirit." (Int. 
studio 35:lii.) 

MoEAN, Edward, (P.) b. Bolton, Lancashire, England, August 19, 
1829; d. New York, June 9, 1901. Elder brother of Peter and Thomas 
Moran. He arrived in Philadelphia in 1844 and was a pupil of James 
Hamilton, marine painter, and of Paul Weber, landscape painter. In 
1862 he went abroad, studying in the Eoyal Academy of London for a 
few months. In 1869 he settled in New; York, going to Paris in 1877 
where, he lived some time. He was a member of Pennsylvania Academy 
of the Fine Arts and elected associate member of the National Academy 
ot Design in 1873. 

His first pictures were exhibited in Philadelphia in 1853. The Balti- 
more Gazette, July 1, 1873, in commenting on Mr. Moran's painting 
entitled "In the narrows," said: "The great charm of the picture is 
motion." 

He printed in 1872 the first illustrated catalog printed in this coun- 
try. He worked chiefly in marines, in both oil and water-color. 

A series of historical paintings, thirteen in number, was completed in 
1899. These represent thirteen epochs in the marine history of America 
from the landing of Leif Erickson in 1001 to the return of Admiral 
Dewey in 1899. 

MoEAN^ Mary Nimmo, (E., P.) b. Strathaven near Glasgow, Scotland, 
1842; d. September, 1899. Came when a child with her family to the 
United States. In 1863 she married Thomas Moran, the well known 
landscape painter; in 1867 accompanied him to England, France and 
Italy and in 1874 traveled with him in the far west. Her work was 
principally water-color until 1879 when she made her first attempts 
in etching as a pastime during her husband's absence on an- extended 
trip. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer says Mrs. Moran found her true ar- 
tistic voice only when she took up the etching needle. In 1887 an ex- 



187 

hibition of the work of the women etchers in America was held at the 
Museum of Pine Arts, Boston, and while Miss Gabrielle D. Clements, 
Miss Mary Oummings Brown, Mrs. Edith Loring Peirce Gretchell, Mrs. 
Eliza Greatorex, Mrs. Anna Lea Merritt, Miss Margaret M. Taylor, and 
sixteen other talented women were represented, Mrs. Mary Nimmo 
Moran took rank both in number and quality of plates. This position 
she held until the time of her death. 

Her "Twilight" is a plate of extraordinary power and beauty. "East- 
hampton Barren" which possesses a poetic charm, and "Bridge over the 
Delaware" (her first plate) are two of the four original etchings made 
in 1879 that were sent to the New York Etching Club and which gained 
her recognition as a master of the needle. "Solitude" is one of her best, 
as it is one of her strongest etchings. "Goose pond" was the diploma 
etching that secured- her election to the Society of Painter-Etchers, Lon- 
don. (Birush & P. 8:3.) 

"In etching, Mrs. Moran finds a language that accords entirely with 
her ideas and modes of expression. She treats her subjects with poetical 
disdain of detail, but with a firm grasp of the leading truths that give 
force and character to her work. While her etchings do not display the 
smoothness that comes from great mechanical dexterity, her touch is 
essentially that of the true etcher." (Koehler's "American Etchings.") 

"Her etchings are marked by energetic emphasis and bold directness 
rather than delicacy or smoothness." (Scrib. 46.) 

MoEAN^ Peter, (E., P.) b. Bolton, Lancashire, England, March 4, 1842; 
d. Philadelphia, Pa., November 13, 1914. He was brought to America by 
his parents when three years of age. When sixteen he was apprenticed 
by his father to learn the trade of lithographic printing in Philadelphia. 
Later devoted himself to painting, becoming in 1859 the pupil of his 
brothers— landscape, with Thomas, and Marine, with Edward. He 
studied the works of Lambinet and those of Troyon and Rosa Bonheur 
for animal painting, which subject chiefly attracts him. His plate 
called "The return of the herd" may possibly be called his best. 

Prom 1875 he devoted much time to etching, and reached the first 
rank in that branch of art. His etching "Chariot race in the Circus 
Maximus" is a masterpiece, and is considered one of the most important 
of the kind produced in America. 

A few of his original plates are: 

"Low tide on the Schuylkill" "An old New England orchard" 

"A burro train" "Passing storm" 

"An August day" "A summer afternoon" 



188 

Of the last three, Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, the distinguished 
art-critic, wrote: '"If we will ask for pictures from our etchers, we 
should rejoice when they give them to us of so complete a kind and yet 
with so much of the intrusive charm of etching, properly so-called, as 
does Mr. Peter Moran." 

To Peter Moran and his brother, Thoma^, belong the honor of having 
been the first among the artists to recognize the picturesque qualities of 
the scenery of the southwest, and of the life of its aboriginal inhabitants 
— the Pueblo Indians. 

Jules Breton, the distinguished French painter, on seeing some of 
Mr. Moran's etchings exhibited in Paris, exclaimed: "The man who 
etched those plates, is a master !" 

Moran, Thomas, (P., E., I.) b. Bolton, Lancashire, England, January 
12, 1837. Came with his family to America in 1844. Of the talented 
Moran family, he displayed artistic tastes at an early age and was 
apiieiiticed to a wood-engraver in Philadelphia, remaining with him 
for two years. At twenty-three he painted a scene from Sheila's "Alas- 
tor ' and from 1866-71 studied the masters of France, Italy, and Ger- 
many. Returning to America in 1871, he sought subjects of the most 
impressive character, and joined the exploring expedition of that year 
to the Yellowstone country, making sketches for his two great works, 
"The great canyon of the Yellowstone" and "The chasm of the Colo- 
rado." These were bought by Congress for $10,000 each and are now 
in the Capitol at Washington. 

Noted paintings are : . 

"The mountain of the Holy "The groves were God's first 

Cross" temples" 

"The cliffs of the Green river" "A dream of the Orient" 

"Ponce De Leon in Florida" "The children of the mountain" 

"The last arrow" 

He made a series of remarkably fine designs in illustration of Long- 
fellow's "Hiawatha" and original water-color drawings of the Yellow- 
stone National Park. 

In etching his achievements have been both numerous and valuable. 
Among his niost excellent plates are: "Sounding sea," "The gate of Ven- 
ice," "Harbor of Vera Cruz, Mexico," "Venice," "Dordrecht." 

"His knowledge of form and constructive ability is quite remarkable, 
and his skill in composition reveals itself best in the black and white 
reproductions of his works." (Hartmann.) 

"He has found congenial themes in the wierd scenery of the Yellow- 
stone, he has dreamed of Turner in his dreams of the Orient and has 



189 

painted us lovely mornings in. the harbor scenes for which he brought 
home his sketches from Cuba and Mexico." (Koehler.) 

For some time in addition to his many paintings and etchings, he de- 
signed 250 illustrations annually. JEis etchings won hearty praise from 
John Kuskin. Associate member National Academy of Design 1881, full 
member 1884. 

MosLEE, Htsnry^ (P.) b. New York, June 6, 1841. Removed to Cincin- 
nati in 1851 and to Nashville, Tenn., in 1854; studied wood-engraving 
and painting without much outside aid; v/as draughtsman on "The 
Omnibus," EC Cincinnati comic weekly in 1855. Pupil of James H. 
Beard, 1862-3. Appointed on staff of Gen'l R. W. Johnson. Studied art 
in Dusseldorf and Paris, 1863-6. 

In 1874 he again went to Europe, going to Munich where he studied 
under Wagner and also received private and special criticism from 
Piloty. When in Munich he won the medal of the Royal Academy. In 
1877 he removed to Paris, and the following year "The quadroon girl" 
and "Early cares" were exhibited in the salon. His "La retour," better 
known as "The return of the prodigal soii," received honorable mention 
in the salon of 1879 and was purchased by the French government for 
the Luxembourg. This was the first picture that France purchased from 
an American artist. Mr. Mosler has never surpassed the technical skill 
displayed in this Luxembourg picture. 

His "Harvest dance," a Brittany scene, received the gold medal in the 
salon of 1888, which placed his works hors concours in the salon. "The 
last moments" won the only gold medal awarded to a foreign artist by 
the Arch-Duke Carl Ludwig of Austria at an Exhibition in Vienna. He 
received in 1892 the titles "Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur" and "Offl- 
cier d' Academic." In 1894 returned to New York. Is a member of the 
National Academy of Design, New York. 

"The qualities of Mr. Mosler are homely sentiment, a talent for telling 
an obvious story such as ordinary people can comprehend and enjoy, 
and an execution which is always adequate and often excellent, so far 
as it goes." (Child's "Art and criticism.") 

The number of his Avorks is considerable. Their titles like the sub- 
jects treated are generally anecdotic, such as: 

"The return of the prodigal son" "Visit to the marchioness" 

"The village clockmaker" "Breton harvest dawn" 

"The coming storm" "The birth of the flag" 

"Forging the cross" "Ring, ring for liberty" 
"The wedding gown" 



190 

Mowbray, Henry Siddons, (Mural P.) b. Alexandria, Egypt, August 
5, 1858, of English parents. In 1875 he received an appointment to the 
U. S. Military Academy but remained there less than a year ; took up 
chemistry; in 1879 following a preference for art, he went to Paris and 
entered the school of Leon Bonnat. For three years occupied himself 
with genre subjects, of which the best known perhaps is "Aladdin." 
Settled in New York in 1885. Since 1886 has been an instructor in the 
Art Students' League. 

Has won many prizes and medals. "His Evening breeze" won the 
Clark prize in 1888 and he was made full academician in 1891. 

"In many of his works, Mr. Mowbray gives pictorial form to the 
romantic days of Florentine chateau life during the renaissance; in 

others he has chosen oriental subjects other paintings are purely 

fanciful, of these an excellent example is found in "Floreal" with its 
graceful maidens treading a measure to the sound of the pipe and tam- 
bourine." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"In H. Siddons Mowbray we have a colorist and man of imagination, 
a wonderful narrator of fanciful tales, with ample knowledge and 
manual skill in the practice of his craft." (New Eng. M. 14:143.) 

He also paints portraits of women with sympathetic interpretation 
and exquisite technique. Of late years has given much time to mural 
painting, and among his most recent achievements in this branch of art 
is "The transmission of the law" in the appellate court building, New 
York. 

"It is a beautiful decoration; very individual and refined, with a 
purity of color and general spontaneity of feeling and execution most 
captivating." (The artist 27:ix.) 

Murphy, John Francis, (P.) b. Oswego, N. Y., December 11, 1853. 
Went to New York City to live in 1875. First, exhibited at the National 
Academy of Design in 1876. In 1885 he was elected an associate and 
two years later an academician. 

"Tints of a vanished past" won the Hallgarten prize of the National 
Academy in 1885 ; "Brook and fields" won the Webb prize of the Society 
of American Artists in 1887, and "Under gray skies" won a prize in 
1894. ' 

Mr. Murphy is one of America's simplest and at the same time most 
poetic landscape painters. 

At an exhibition in 1910 he contributed the following: 
"The opal sunset" "The music boats" 

"A twilight in Venice" "The path to the village" 

"An upland cornfield" "After the frosts" 



191 

"Edge of the pond" "Stony fields" 

"Sunny slopes" "April weather" 

"The brook" "Approach to an old farm" 

"Sunset" "An October day" 

"The charcoal burners" "Landscape" 

"Early fall" "Sundown" 

"A cloudy afternoon" "The yellow leaf" 

"A gray morning" "Neglected lands" 

"He has developed a special fondness for autumn scenes, but these are 
suffused with a flood of yellow or golden tints. They have the season's 
inherent melancholy, but this minor note is vague and tender. The 
nature that Mr. Murphy paints is invariably nature in repose." 

"Simple in the selection of his themes, unpretentious in his composi- 
tions, synthetic in his treatment, not given to sharp contrasts of form 
or color, he has relied for his effects on simple straightforward rendering, 
told in plain terms of personal interpretation." (Brush & P. 10:205.) 

"Others have sounded stronger, deeper notes, others have possessed 
an infinitely wider range of expression; no one of his countrymen has 
surpassed Murphy in the accuracy of his touch, his mastery of values." 

"Murphy is a painter last and primarily a lover of the open, a kind 
of unmethodical naturalist, with something ineradicably primitive and 
rural in his blood." (Int. studio 53:vi, viii.) 

Myers, Jerome, (E.) b. Petersburg, Va., March 20, 1867. Studied at 
Cooper Union and the Art Students' League, New York. 

"Mr. Myers, whose crayon and pastel and pencil and water color 
drawings have for a long time been the subject of general admiration, 
has recently turned his hand to the biting of the copper plate. The 

result surpasses the most roseate expectation Not one of our 

draughtsmen has more individuality of line and design. Not one has 
a deeper, truer love of life or a more solid philosophy." 

"Usually the first delight one secures from an etching is the quality 
of the man's technique, his lightness of line or column, the richness or 
scantiness, but from Mr. Myers' etching, as in all his work, there is the 
joy of receiving his knowledge of humanity, his kindness, his humor, 
his understanding of all the great and small tragedies of humble life 
His sketches are never rounded into a picture ; they are frag- 
ments of life — ^you feel some one coming into the picture at one side; 
and at the others, some one moving out." 

"Mr. Myers' work presents the ebb and, flow of the vital life 

of the common people — the alien on the East Side, the shop folks and 
their babies in the Luxembourg Gardens." (Craftsman, 29:32.) 



192 

"There is stability and character in his work and hi.s slightest sketches 
evince a depth and aesthetic sensiti\ enet-s rare in a gereration so ap- 
])alingly devoted to the superficial and the tri\ial." (Bookm. 34:404.) 

Of American etchers, John Sloan, Eugene Higgins and Jerome Myers 
alone are interested iu life as life, says Arts and Decoration. 

Nadblman, Eli, (S.) b. Warsaw, Poland, and studied in the art 
schools of his native country, then went to Paris where he lived for 
twelve years. When the European war broke out he was one of the 
first foreign artists to come to the TTnited States. 

While Mr. Nadelinan can liardly be classed as an American artist, his 
presence has been felt in artistic circles and his works are exhibited in 
American art exhibits; his recent exhibition of drawings and sculpture 
brought forth much comment from our art critics. 

'•His treatment of draperies is at times distinctly oriental; and while 
the pure Archaic Greek and Phidian era have influenced him, there are 
works of his which show a development not unlike Chinese art just 

after the dissemination of Greek ideals In his lightness of 

touch and the ethereality of his inventions he expresses a genuine poetic 
spirit He is at all times a serious artist. His work is as pure- 
ly beautiful as a Watteau, but not so profound as a good Picasso." 
(Forum 55:215.) 

Another critic writes: "He may indeed arouse your feelings, but 

primarily plastic art is not concerned with love of patriotism 

His art savors indeed of mathematical formulae At times it is 

almost pure architecture in miniature He is for the private 

study and the glass cabinet, rather than for the open air. The intellect- 
ual note and aloofness is intensified by the extraordinarily high polish 
which he gives to his surfaces. 

Some of his heads "fixed forever in marble mcditaticn display a beauty 
of rare delicacy, a kind of spirituality which forever disposes of those 
detractors who believe that he is an apostle of ugliness." (Int. studio 
i>T:lv.) 

Nast, Thomas, (P., I.) b. Landau, Bavaria, September 27, 1840; d. 
Guayaquil, Ecuador, December 7, 19(12. Game Avith his parents to 
America in 1846; was educated in the New York jaiblic schools and dis- 
played a decided talent for art. At the age of fourteen began the study 
of art with Theodore Kaufman and at the age of fifteen furnished 
sketches and draAviiigs for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, his 
first assignment lioing the illustration of an account of a prize fight. 
Later he went to England to make sketches for the New York Illustrated 



193 

News. He followed Garibaldi's army through Sicily and Calabria and 
contributed numerous battle pieces to the illustrated press of New York. 
He returned to United States in 1861 and became a member of Harper's 
staff in the following year. 

Mr. Nast was first to introduce caricature work into America and his 
pictures of war scenes, of Andrew Johnson and of the Tweed Ring had 
great influence on the politics of his time. His war pictures for Harper's 
Weekly are among his most notable works. 

"A particular feature of Mr. Nast's work apart from his wonderful 
portraits was the ability to portray the individuality of his subject by 
some characteristic pose or peculiarity of apparel." 

His historical paintings in oil hold high rank in America for beauty 
■ of conceptioh and execution. The most notable of these are: 

"Peace again" "The seventh regiment going to 

"Lincoln entering Richmond" war" 

"Saving the flag" "Appomattox" 

"During the civil war" "The day before the surrender" 

"Garibaldi" 

"Mr. Nast's reputation will probably rest on his cartoon work but it 
was his ardent desire that his name should be handed down as a great 
painter of historical scenes." (Brush & P. 11:470.) 

Neandeoss, SiGUED, (S.) Born of Norwegian parents, on the Pacific 
ocean, while they were en route to the United States. With his nativity 
the ocean, ancestry Scandinavian, a Greek sounding name, and having 
lived several year.s in Denmark, Sigurd Neandross classes himself with 
American sculptors. 

One of his earliest works, "The sound of the sea" was made for a 
monument at Copenhagen. 

Two groups representing contrasting views of life are his "Mother and 
child" — the happiness of life, and "The Egyptian widow'' — hopeless sor- 
row. 

"He belongs to that rarer kind of sculptor who makes one think 

He is a sculptor with temperament who goes his own way endeavoring 
to express lovely and innocent and poetic feelings to the best of his 
ability through his chdsen art." (Int. studio 52:xxi.) 

Newcomb, Maeia Guise, (P.) b. New Jersey. Pupil of Edourd De- 

taille in Paris. She studied horses and dogs under Schenck the animal 

painter, and sheep with Chialiva and traveled in Algeria aiid the Sahara, 

studying the Arab and his horses. "Very few artists can be compared 

25 



194 

with Mrs. Newcomb in representing horses. She has a genius for por- 
traying this animal and understands its anatomy as few painters have 

done." "Her studies in Paris were comprehensive and her work 

shows the results and places her among the distinguished painters of 
animals." (Women in the Fine Arts, p. 248.) 

The first picture that Miss Guise sent to the Paris salon was a golden 
haying scene with farmers and Brittany horses; it was accepted and 
well hung. Her greatest work, as she considers it, is entitled "The work 
horses need" — the heads of four horses drinking from a street fountain. 
(American art and artists, p. 13.)" 

Newell, George Glenn, (P.) b. Berrien county, Michigan, 1870. 
Pupil of the National Academy of Design under Ward ; teachers college, 
New York under Will S. Robinson. Member Salmagundi Club. 
Specialty, landscapes and cattle. 

His best known paintings are: 
"Mists of the morning" 
"The toilers" 
"Through shower and sun" 

Newell, Peter, (T.) b. McDonough Co., 111., March 5, 1862. His 
childhood was spent in Bushnell, 111., and at the age of seventeen he 
went to work in a cigar factory. Later did pencil work and crayon 
enlargements of photographs. A student at the Art Students' League, 
New York, for three months, then made drawings which were used by 
illustrators on Harper's magazine. 

Mr. Newell is an author as well as an illustrator and gives pictorial 
interpretations of his writings. He won his reputation with his book — 
"Peter Newell's pictures and rhymes." 

"While Mr. Newell's art is so distinctive and individual as to make 
it conspicuously personal, he has not found the interpretation of an- 
other's text a diflficult task." 

Popular book having Newell illustrations: 

John Kendricks Bangs "House boat on the Styx," "Pursuit of the 
house boat" and "The enchanted typewriter"; 
Guy Wetmore Carryl's "Fables of the frivolous"; 
Frank B. Stockton's "Great stone of Sardis"; 
Albert T-iee's "Tommy Toddles" ; 
Lewis Carroll's "Alice in "Wonderland." 

"He has evolved his own technique— a technique, by the 



195 

way, that suffers nothing by comparison in its adroitness and direct 
charm with the illustrations of the day." (Bookm. 11:335.) 

"Mr. Newell is a painter as well as an illustrator and he cares most 
for the qualities of tone in his studies and compositions." 

Ney^ Elizabeth^ (S.) b. in Westphalia, Germany, in 1830; d. Austin, 
Texas, June 30, 1907. Studied art in Berlin and Munich under Christ- 
ian Rauch. She lived for a time in Georgia, then settled in Texas. 

"Miss Ney was one of the most interesting characters as she was one 
of the best equipped of women sculptors. Nothing could be fnore roman- 
tic than the life of this gifted woman who was patronized by the "mad 
king" Ludwig II of Bavaria." 

Among the great men who sat to Miss Ney were von Humboldt, von 
Liebig, Jacob Grimm, Schopenhauer, Joachim, Garibaldi and Bismark. 
She also executed statues of Sam Houston and other noted Texan char- 
acters. 

Of her memorial to General Albert Sidney Johnston for the cemetery 

of Austin. "The conception is vivid This is a work of high order, 

one of the most expressive and eminently sculptural con- 
ceptions among recent American ideals." (Lorado Taft's "History of 
American Sculpture," p. 214.) 

NiCHOLLS, Rhoda (Holmes), (P., I.) b. Coventry, England. Pupil of 
Bloomsbury School of Art, London. Studied landscape in Rome with 
Vertunni, and the human figure with Cannerano. While living in Italy 
her work attracted the attention of the queen who summoned her to 
receive compliments on her attainments. Three years later, she went 
to South Africa and returned to England with many canvases. Previous 
to this she had received recognition in England, her pictures having 
been hung on the line in Royal Academy exhibitions. In 1884 Miss 
Holmes married Mr. Burr H. NichoUs and immediately came to America. 

Her pictures are chiefly figure subjects, among which are "Those even- 
ing bells," "The Scarlet letter," "A daughter of Eve," "Indian after the 
ctase," "Searching the Scriptures." 

In the Studio, March 1901, in writing of the exhibition of the Amer- 
ican Water-color Society, the critic says: "In her two works, "Cherries" 
and "A rose," Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nicholls shows us a true water-color 
executed by a master hand." 

Mrs. Nicholls is also known as an illustrator; her work ranges all 
along the line of oil painting, water-colors, wash drawings, crayons, 
pastels. As a colorist she has few rivals and her acute knowledge of 



196 

drawing and genius for composition are apparent in everything she 
does. 

"Quickness of conception, bold treatment and fine color mark all her 
work, while the wide reach of her subjects is remarkable." 

Mrs. Nicholls has been vice-president of the New York Water Color 
Club, member Women's Art Club, New York, also of Canada ; member of 
Aquarelle Club, Kome. 

"At a recent exhibition held in Knoedler Galleries, New York, two 
canvases of Mrs. Nicholls' attracted attention. One was a slender girl 
holding a bowl of roses ; the other, a Venetian water-color sketch, "Gam- 
ins" lightly and delicately painted, yet full of expression and vivid effect 
of tones." (Giles Edg^rton.) 

NiBHAus, Charles Henet, (S.) b. Cincinnati, O., January 24, 1855. 
Pupil of McMicken School in Cincinnati, also Koyal Academy in Munich. 
He received a gold medal at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; 
was elected associate member of the National Academy of Design in 
1902; full member in 1906. 

While at the McMicken school he won the distinction of obtaining at 
the time of his matriculation a first prize, medal and diploma for a 
composition entitled "Fleeting time." After studying at the Munich 
Royal Academy he returned to Cincinnati and received commissions for 
statues of Garfield; one for Cincinnati, the other to be placed in th^ 
rotunda of the Capitol, Washington, in the name of the State of Ohio. 
After successfully executing these commissions he returned to Italy, 
establishing a studio in Rome. Merit of the work done there brought 
about his election as a Fellow L'Associazione della Artistica Inter- 
nationale di Roma. He has been a resident of New York since 1885. 

Mr. Niehaus has a pronounced leaning toward classic subjects. "The 
Greek athlete using a strigil" is considered his best study of the nude. 
This work is known to the artist world as "The scraper" and is un- 
doubtedly, says Taft, "one of the few good nude figures in American 
sculpture." 

He has made statues of many distinguish^ed citizens of the United 
States, (the most celebrated being the bronze statue of McKinley in front 
of the stately mausoleum at Canton, Ohio), a pair of doors for Trinity 
Church, New York, done in high relief, equestrian statue of General 
Forrest for Forrest Park, Memphis, Tenn., contributed to the Library 
of Congress two figures, "Moses" and "Gibbon." Among his latest un- 
dertakings is a large nude figure, "The driller," an important feature of 
a monument at Titusville, Pa., to the memory of Col. Edwin L. Drake, 
who sank the first oil well in Pennsylvania in 1859. 



197 

Several critics have remarked that "the admirable breadth and smooth- 
ness of his treatment recalls the antique draperies in which the Greeks 
found delight." (Taft's History of American Sculpture.") 

NoBLE^ John, (P.) His early life was spent in the Osage Indian 
Reservation, now a part of Kansas. After many adventures as a sheep- 
herder he found his way to the Cincinnati Academy to study art. From 
there he went to Paris and studied under Laurens at Julien's. For 
nearly ten years he has lived in Brittany and painted the fisher-folk; he 
is a member of the art colony near Etaples in the north of France. 

Clara T. MacChesney says: "He generally sees nature in a mist of 

blue and rose He sometimes advances far into the field of the 

impressionist and gives us bold, crude decorative effects in direct con- 
trast to his more finished pictures." 

Of his "Moonlight on the sea" enveloped in a fog, a French critic 
says : "An artist must be both painter and poet to bathe his pictures in 
an atmosphere so poetic and true. He has given with an infinite delicacy 

the pale, unreal light of the morning fog His technique is marvel- 

ously suited to the subjects he treats." 

NoEDFELDT, Beoe J. Olsson, (P., E.) b. Scauia in the south of Sweden, 
1878. When thirteen years of age his parents came to America and 
settled in Chicago. He was put to work as printer's devil on a Swedish 
newspaper. At nineteen he took up the study of art in the classes of 
Frederick Richardson at the art institute; also studied drawing under 
John H. Vanderpoel. He became assistant of Albert Herter in painting 
mural decorations, and in 1900 went to Paris to study. His first effort 
was hung in the Paris salon of 1901. Also in the same year he had a 
product on the line at the jRoyal Academy, London. 

Mr. Nordfeldt was awarded a silver medal by the Italian government 
for an exhibit at the Milan Exhibition 190G. 

"He works directly from nature, composing his etchings or his canvas 
with the scene before him." His etchings "have been a surprise to his 
friends who have known his portraits, his landscapes and woodblock 
prints." 

The Provincetown series takes us among the boats along the water 
side with reflections out at sea. "Mothers" is an excellent composition 
including many figures and nursemaids in Washington Square; it re- 
calls groups familiar to that locality. 

NouESE, Elizabeth, (P.) b. Mount Pleasant, Cincinnati, O., 1860. At 
the age of thirteen she showed remarkable talent for painting and her 




ELIZABETH NOURSE. 



199 

parents sent her to. the Cincinnati Art School. Later the family fortune 
was lost in a financial panic and she earned money to continue her 
studies in Paris by designing and decorating the interiors of homes in 
Cincinnati. At the age of eighteen she entered the Acad6mie Julien. Her 
drawing was so good that Boulanger advised her to take a studio and 
work alone, that her style might develop uninfluenced by academic train- 
ing. She followed his advice and the same year her painting "A mother 
and child" was accepted in the salon and hung on the line, an unpre- 
cedented honor for a new-comer. Today she is one of the strongest 
American painters in Paris. 

When Puvis de Chavannes, Dagnan-Bouveret and others formed the 
Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux Arts, Miss Nourse sent her pictures to the 
New Salon. They were received "with acclamation" and three years 
later she was made an associ§e. Puvis de Chavannes was the first to 
congratulate her ; and when she was made a soci6taire in 1901, Dagnan- 
Bouveret, Cazin, Besnard, Eodin and others showered upon her congrat- 
ulations. Miss Nourse was the first American woman on whom this 
coveted honor was conferred. 

One of her happiest interpretations of a mother's joy in her children 
is her "Happy days" (owned by Detroit Museum of Art), and one of the 
most appealing canvases is "Thirst," now in a gallery in Rouen, France. 
"Closed shutters" has been purchased by the French government for the 
Luxembourg. 

A. Dubuisson, a French art critic, says : "There is no painter who has 
reproduced better than Miss Nourse the naivet6 of a baby's attitude and 
the tenderness of motherly love " 

Other characteristic paintings are: 

"On the dyke" "Among neighbors" 

"Evening" "In the country" 

"The Madeleine chapel at Pen- "The pardon of St. Francis d' 

march" Assisi" 

"In the sheepfold" "In the fields" 

"Good Friday in Rome" "The procession of Our Lady of 
"Morning toilet" Joy, Penmarch" 

"The first communion" "The close of the day" 

"Little sister" "Grandfathers feast" 

"The children of Penmarch" "Consolation" 
"The family repast" 

Her pictures are not portraits of models, but types of human char- 
acter. Some of her most beautiful pictures are landscapes of Brittany 



200 

or bits in the old forest of Rambouiilet, where she has spent many sum- 
mers. In the oriental exhibition held in Paris in 1905, her sketches of 
African desert of Tunis held a place of honor. Years of study in Paris 
have broadened her technique — her brushwork has become more firm, her 
color more beautiful, but the character of her painting remains un- 
altered. "She believes in art not alone for art's sake, but also for the 
sake of a humanity which it can uplift and spiritualize." (Int. studio 
27:247.) 

Her goodness to her models is well known in Paris. A profound sym- 
pathy exists between her and the humble people whom she paints. 

Oakley, Violet, (Mural P., I.) b. New Jersey, 1874. Began her 
studies at the Art Students' League in New York ; after studying a year 
with Carroll Beckwith she went to Paris and became the pupil of Aman- 
Jean; she also was a pupil of Charles Lasar in England. Upon her re- 
turn to the United States she settled in Philadelphia where she re- 
ceived instructions from Cecilia Beaux and others. As her work led 
naturally toward illustration, she entered the class of Howard Pyle. 

In the illustrations for "Evangeline" published by Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co. in 1897 she and Jessie Wilcox Smith were collaborators, and in 
that color work came the first suggesti,on for stained-glass. 

In 1898 she executed mural decorations, a mosaic reredos and five 
stained-glass windows in the Church of All Saints, New York ; has also 
designed and decorated a window in the Convent of the Holy Child at 
Sharon Hill, Pa. 

She has been a frequent exhibitor at the academy in Philadelphia with 
studies and compositions in color and in black and white and her window 
for the Church of the Epiphany in Boston was exhibited in New York 
before being placed. 

In 1893 Miss Oakley was commissioned to decorate the walls of the 
governor's reception room in the capitol at Harrisburg, Pa. This is the 
first work of its kind to be confided to an American woman. The decora- 
tions consist of thirteen decorative panels forming a frieze of heroic 
size. Under the title of "The founding of the state of liberty spiritual" 
they impressively record events in the life of William Penn. These de- 
signs were exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and 
they won for her a special gold medal from the academy. An art critic 
writing of this work, now completed, says that her grasp of the subject 
in union with great technical skill has placed Miss Oakley in the fore- 
most rank of American artists. 

Miss Oakley was chosen to complete the important mural decorations 



201 

in the capitol at Harrisburg, Pa., that were planned and begun by the 
late Edwin A. Abbey. She is now at work on her $20,000 painting, 
"The constitutional convention" for the new Cuyahoga county court 
house, Cleveland, Ohio. 

OcHTMAN^ Leonard, (P.) b. Zonnenmaire, Zeeland, Netherlands, Octo- 
ber 21 , 1854. Came with his family to this country and settled at Albany, 
N. Y., in 1866. At the age of sixteen he entered an engraving oflflce as a 
draughtsman. A winter course at the Art Students' League of New York 
was practically the extent of his art education. His specialty — ^land- 
scape — ^was entirely self-taught. He first exhibited at the National 
Academy of Design, in 1882 and has since that time been a regular ex- 
hibitor at the art institutes and associations in the United States. 

In 1885 he traveled in England, Prance and Holland. 

Frederick W. Morton writes : "He is the exponent of home — a home 

that he knows intimately and deeply loves He sees broadly 

and paints as simply and sympathetically The scenes he loves 

to depict are essentially idyllic." 

His "Night on the Mianus river," a prize picture, holds the spectator 
in a sense spellbound, as do his "The light of night," "An autumn moon- 
light," "Moonlight night" and other night scenes. "The enchanted vale" 
is one of his typical canvases — painted in the reds and yellows of early 
autumn. The same qualities are found in "In the mountains," "views 
from Woodwild," "Seaside farm," "Buds and blossoms." 

"If they (his pictures) could be translated into words, as expressive 
as are the artists' pigments, they would all have the simple rhythm, the 

grace and beauty of lyrics He has approached nature like an 

Inness." (Brush & P. 9:65.) 

Associate member of National Academy of Design 1898, full member 
1904. 

OsTHAus^ Edmund Hbnry^ (P.) b. Hildesheim, Germany, August 5, 
1858. Studied art in the Royal Academy of Arts, Dusseldorf, 1874-82 ; 
pupil of Andreas Muller, Peter Janser, E.. V. Gebhardt, E. Deger and C. 
Kroner, (a noted landscape painter). Came to United States in 1883; 
was principal of the Toledo Academy of Pine Arts in 1886 ; now devotes 
"his time to painting principally pictures of shooting and fishing, hunters 
and dogs. 

"A born sportsman and a student of animals, explains his adoption of a 
specialty, and his study and life explain his art." 

"One of the most successful painters of animals. He paints animals as 
they are in a natural environment. His dogs are in action or in char- 



20L 

acteristic attitudes ; his canvases are for the most part skilful combina- 
tions of landscape and animal figure painting A careful draughts- 
man and a good colorist His works are documents of dog life." 

It is related that he commenced to draw as soon as he could grasp a 
pencil, and that he used the white pine floors (his mother's pride and 
despair) as material on which to express his youthful inspiration. 

The action and postures of his animals are those that can be properly 
termed characteristic. 

Favorite paintings: 

"Slow music" "The leaders" 

"Stumped" "A first effort" 

"Full cry" "My old coon dog" 

"The dog's glory" "On the bay farm" 

(Brush & P. 18:81.) 

Otis, Amy, (Min. P.) b. Sherwood, N. Y. Pupil of Philadelphia School 
of Design and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; also studied 
under Courtois and Garrido in the Golarossi Academy in Paris. Member 
Plastic Oliib, Philadelphia Water Color Olub, Pennsylvania- Society 
Miniature Painters, Fellowship Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 
. Miss Otis has either drawn or painted portraits of many prominent 
persons, those of Dr. Horace Howard Furness, Prof. Corson of Cornell 
University and Mrs. Julia Ward Howe being her best work. She has 
also done much in the line of landscape. 

Page, Walter Gilman, (P.) b. Boston, Mass., October 13, 1862. Was 
educated in the private schools of Boston. Studied art in Paris at the 
Acad^mie Julien. Exhibited three years in the salons, also at leading 
art exhibitions in United States. 

Mr. Page was one of the founders of the first public school art league 
in the United States. 

Palmer, Walter Launt, (P.) b. Albany, N. Y., August 1, 1854. Pupil 
of F. E. Church in Hudson, N. Y., Carolus-Duran in Paris. Received 
second Hallgarten prize National Academy Design, 1887, and many 
medals and prizes since that time. Member National Academy, 1897.. 
Specialty, winter landscapes. 

Charles C. Curran, former instructor at the Art Students' League, 
N. Y., writes: ''In Mr. Palmer's 'White world' we have a remarkable 
example of the transformation of a homely spot behind the old farm 

barn The sky is a story in itself, thin vapors taking on the color 

of the delicate morning sunlight " 



203 

Ehoda Holmes NichoUs comments on the same painting: "Exquisite 
and tender as Walter Palmer's snow pieces always are, this one is per- 
haps more subtle than the rest. Its extreme simplicity is its most ap- 
pealing quality." 

Other fine examples of his painting are : 

"Morning light" "November snow" 

"Red barn" "The snow mantle" 

"Evening star" 

JPapb, EeiCj (P., I.) b. San Francisco, Cal., October 17, 1870. Pupil of 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, and of G6rome, Laurens, Blanc, Lefebvre, Bou- 
langer and Delance in Paris. The list of honors and medals and decor- 
ations that have come to Mr. Pape is said to be overpowering. 

Under the age of twenty, he entered the Acad6mie Julien, Paris and in 
his examination for admission to the Ecole des Beaux Arts his drawing 
was marked "No. 3," the competitors numbering several hundred. His 
first salon picture — ^'Zevener Spinnerin"— was exhibited when he was 
nineteen; the following year he had three pictures and a bas-relief 
medallion at the same salon ; has been a frequent exhibitor since. His 
largest and most important picture "The two eras" shared with another 
the chief attention in the salon of 1 893. His first work in the illustra- 
tion line was executed for the Century Company when he was still in 
Paris. Upon his return to the United States in 1894 he made a large 
number of drawings for the "Life of Napoleon" published by the same 
firm. Perhaps the most important single commission that he has per- 
formed was for Houghton, Mifflin & Co., in their exquisite edition of 
General Lew Wallace's "Fair God." His series of thirty-five water-color 
drawings made in illustration of "The life of Mahomet" in 1900 is well 
remembered, as are the illustrations for an edition de luxe of Haw- 
thorne's "Scarlet letter" published in 1905. "The romaunt of the oak" 
is one of a group of paintings to adorn a five-volume edition de luxe of 
the poems of his personal friend Madison Cawein. 

Mr. Pape spent several years in Egypt studying the ancient people and 
typical architecture. "The romantic, the archaic and the mediaeval are 
attractive to him, the sumptuous, the oriental and the pageantry of bar- 
baric splendor." 

He conducts the Eric Pape Art School, Boston, and his wife who was 
Miss Alice Monroe, a skilful artist, was his assistant in this school until 
her death May 17, 1911. (New Eng. M. 39:455.) 

Parker^ Edgar, (P.) b. Framingham, Mass., 1840. Spent Ms pro- 



204 

fessional life in Boston. Had no instruction in painting. Three of his 
portraits are in Faneuil Hall — Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson and Bear 
Admiral John A. Winslow. 

Whittier gave him sittings in 1875 for a portrait which is the only 
original likeness of that great poet in existence, excepting one by Hoyt, 
painted in Whittier's youth. 

He painted the popular "Embarkation of the pilgrims" after a paint- 
ing by Robert Weir. 

Parker^ Lawton S., (P.) b. Fairfield, Michigan, Au^st 7, 1868. When 
a young boy he won a prize offered for the best drawing by a person who 
had no artistic instruction, and a member of the jury was so impressed 
by the effort that he offered young Parker free instructions if he would 
come to Chicago. The boy eagerly accepted the offer and soon won a 
scholarship at the Art Institute. In Paris he was instructed by G^rome^ 
Laurens, Benjamin-Constant, Besnard and Whistler. Mr. Parker be- 
came director of art at Beloit College in 1893 ; president of the New York 
School of Art in 1898 and president of the Chicago Academy of Fine 
Arts in 1903. An associate member of the National Academy of Design, 
1916. 

While studying in Paris Mr. Parker received honorable mention in the 
salon of 1900 ; two years later he won the third medal and in 1905, the 
gold medal at the International Exposition at Munich. 

A great distinguishing honor came to Mr. Parker when in 1913 the 
Soci6t6 des Artistes Francais awarded him the gold medal. This is the 
highest award of the Old Salon and he is the first foreigner upon whom 
it has ever been bestowed — an American, and a western American at 
that. 

"The quality in his work which has called forth particular praise from 
critics is its luminousness ; it is emphatically what the French call plein- 
air, full of the atmosphere of summer months spent near the little vil- 
lage of Giverny, of its opalescence and shimmering greens against which 
the figure stands." (Outl. 107:55.) 

Parrish, Maxfibld^ (I., Mural P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., July 25, 1870. 
Son of Stephen Parrish who is a painter and etcher of ability. Gradu- 
ated at Heverford College and then entered the Pennsylvania Academy 
of the Fine Arts; after this he studied under Howard Pyle at Drexel 
Institute. Received honorable mention at the Paris Exposition, 1900; 
silver medal for drawing at the Pan-American Exposition, 1901. Mem- 
ber of Society of American Artists, 1897; associate member of the Na- 
tional Academy of Design, New York, 1905 ; full member in 1906. 



205 

After living in England and France for several years he returned to 
the United States. Mr. Parrish has become celebrated as an illustrator 
but his first productions were of a decorative character. The first work 
to bring him into prominence was a cover design for the Christmas num- 
ber of Harper's Weekly, 1895. In 1894 he was elected a member of the 
Society of American Artists on his pictures "The sandman" and "The 
bulletin board." He has contributed designs for Century Magazine, Har- 
per's Weekly, the Round Table, Scribner's Magazine and the Book Buyer ; 
illustrated Kenneth Grahame's "Golden age," Irving's "History of New 
York," Eugene Field's "Poems of childhood," Edith Wharton's "Italian 
villas and their gardens," E. Stannard Baker^s "Great northwest" and 
"Great southwest." 

"Mr. Parrish is at his best in color. His palette is rich and full; his 
use of color strikingly effective, both as a means of artistic and of poetic 
expression .... His imagination finds expression not only in warm, rich 
tones and a glow of color, but when other ends are sought it employs 
the most subdued effects, and at times it rests on empty space .... Mr. 
Parrish is one of those rare illustrators who never disappoint. There 
is always something to admire in his work, and in most of his pictures 

a cause for genuine delight His pictures and decoration have a 

distinct place of their own in modern American art." (Outl. 78:839.) 

"A calm completeness and faultless finality are in everything he does. 
His color schemes are as synthetic and clearly understood as his archi- 
tectural settings." (Ind. 59:1398.) 

"Decorative it is to exaggeration and whimsical and quaint and so in- 
dividual as to be personal — but withal so full of humor and sentiment 
as to make genial its Gothic spirit." 

Mr. Parrish has made the mural decorations for the Curtis Publishing 
Company of Philadelphia in their new building. This series is on the 
top floor and is by far the finest thing he has ever done. There are seven- 
teen paintings. Sixteen of these occupy the space between the windows 
and form a sequence of glimpses of an architectural garden-terrace and 
above the terrace may be seen vistas of a wonderful turquoise sky, 
through the branches of venerable and fantastically gnarled cedars .... 
A carnival is depicted in the last panel and shows the loggia of an 

Italian palace The drawing is at once masterful and exquisite 

Each figure is a study in itself Of the color what can be 

said other that what has been said above — that it is like a painting of 
Maxfield Parrish. (Int. studio 47:xxv.) 

Parrish^ Stephen^ (E., P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., July 9, 1846. After 
the age of thirty-one he applied himself to art, studying under a local 



20G 

teacher; took up etching and produced his first plate in 1879. Has ex- 
hibited in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Vienna and Dresden. Is a 
member of the Eoyal Society of Painter-Etchers, London. 

Mr. Parrish takes the very first rank in American etching. He has 
experimented widely with his art, especially in the matter of sky treat- 
ment. 

Exhibited "Evening, low tide" in the salon of 1885, and "On the Ranee, 
Brittany" in 1886. Koehler says that Stephen Parrish's "Annisquam" 
is a convincing argument that the etching process is fitted to express 
broad sunlight as well as twilight effects. 
Among his best prints are : 

f'The shepherd's Christmas eve" "Fishermen's houses. Cape Ann" 

"Old fish-house" "Coast of New Brunswick" 

"Low tide, Bay of Pundy" "Midsummer twilight" 

Parton, Aethue, (P.) b. Hudson, N. Y., March 26, 1842. Began to 
draw and paint while still a schoolboy and early entered the studio of 
William T. Richards in Philadelphia; also attended the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts. Spent a year in travel and study in Europe 
in 1869. Returned to New York. Associate member National Academy 
of Design, 1872; academician, 1884. 

The works that brought him prominently before the public were "On 
the road to Mount Marcy." "A mountain brook," "Sycamores of old 
Shokan," "Delaware river near Milford," "Nightfall," "The morning 
ride," "Winter on the Hudson," "Evening, Harlem river." 

His "November," "LochLomond," "Solitude," and "Stirling Castle," 
(four splendid pictures) attracted much attention at the Centennial Ex- 
hibition of 1876. It was this group that gave a national scope to his 
reputation. 

Partridge^ Williasi Ordway, (S.) b. Paris, Prance, April 11, 1861, of 
American parents. A pupil of Elwell in New York and of Pio Welonski 
in Paris; is a member of the National Sculptural Society. 

Taft says: "His general culture has broadened the range of his inter- 
ests, and one is not surprised to find him at his best in picturing the 

great poets The expressions of his "Shelley," "Tennyson," 

"Burns," "Whittier," etc., are those of inherent refinement, not untouch- 
ed with the deeper glow of creative fire." 

Of his "Alexander Hamilton" in Brooklyn, N. Y., Prof. Goodyear 
says: "As the ideal of an orator, it appeals to me the most successful 
work in modern art." 



207 

Before beginning Ms statue of Shakespeare (which is in Lincoln Park, 
Chicago,) Mr. Partridge went to England to gather information upon 
the subject. "Henry Irving introduced him to Seymore Lucas, who later 
designed the costume used for this statue, the costume being made by 
Mr. Irving's costumer. Mr. Lucas claimed tliat it is the first accurate 
costume made for any statue of Shakespeare. The time of life at which 
he is represented is the period of James I, rather than the Elizabethan 
period, which was fifteen or twenty years before Shakespeare died. 
The site chosen is near the greenhouse, surrounded by flowers where 
Shakespeare is represented sitting in his garden, at his ease, with a book 
in one hand, as if reading, his face turned toward .the sunset." 

There is a place left on the statue for two bas-reliefs, one of Henry 
Irving, and one of Edwin Booth." (Int. studio 58:xlviii.) 

Paulus^ Francis Petrus, (P., E.) b. Detroit, Michigan, 1862. Studied 
first at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, then 
under Bonnat in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, and Prof. Loefftz in 
Munich; finally traveled and studied in Italy, Portugal, Holland and 
Belgium. He is a member of the Internationale Soci6te de la Gravure 
Oi'iginale en Noir of Paris, Munich Society of Etchers, and was one of 
the founders of the Society of Western Artists; has received recog- 
nition and. honors at the salons in Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent and Paris, 
and his works are equally well known in America. 

Mr. Paulus was a teacher of art in Detroit for some years, but a few 
years ago he, with his charming wife, took up residence in the old city 
of Bruges, where he has made great use of the material there offered. 

"Mr. Paulus finds a special fascination in sunlight, moonlight and fire- 
light, and perhaps he is never better than when he introduces the con- 
flicting lights of sunlight and artificial light as in his clever picture 
called "The forge" in which he reveals himself as a master. 

"In his love of light he resembles Rembrandt. Mr. Paulus is frankly 
an impressionist, and a believer in the supremacy of a great idea over 
technique." 

A portrait of Mrs. Paulus won great praise when exhibited in the salon 
of 1904. The most interesting portrait he has ever painted — that of his 
friend, Alfred Gilbert, the English sculptor — hangs in his studio. One of 
the finest pictures Mr. Paulus has painted is "The house of the lowly." 
"The golden curtain" is a homely subject exquisitely treated, showing a 
group of busy peasant women working at the washtub. The light com- 
ing through the yellow curtain illuminates the clouds of steaming vapor 
and the women intent upon their work. 



208 

"On "The old market," I. G. McAllister comments: "It is a grand 
example of what Mr. Paulus delights in painting, a subject vibrating 
with life and movement." 

"Work and gossip" gleams with the brilliant life of southern latitudes. 
The entire scale of color is given in remarkable gradations of tone." 

Mr. Paulus is wide in his range of subjects from portraits to charming 
interiors, landscapes, subject pictures and pastels. 

He has never chosen the hackneyed sensational subjects likely to ap- 
peal to the public. (English 111. M. 47:411.) 

"He has an unusual gift of the power of penetration into the deeper 
meaning and poetical side of his subjects so that the^ homeliest theme is 
invested with a dignity and grace under his hand and realism is never 
allowed to master refinement of treatment." (Int. studio 46:141.) 

Paxton, William McGrbgok, (P.) b. Baltimore, Md., June 22, 1869. 
Pupil of Ecole des Beaux Arts under G6rome in Paris ; Denis M. Bunker 
in New York. 

Received honorable mention at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 
1901; bronze medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904. A teacher. 

Among his recent works which have been notable are: 

"A string of pearls" "At the telephone" 

"The white sunshade" "The huntsman" 

"The bride" 

Frederick W. Coburn, New England Magazine 39:37, says: "Mr. 
Paxton became an interesting figure in American art a few years ago 
when it was announced that he takes account in his painting of the 
facts of binocular vision. It was observed during his large exhibition 
at the St. Botolph Club, Boston, in the winter of 1905, that he had under- 
taken to render nature as seen with both eyes, instead of as nearly every 
other painter has done, as seen with only one eye. A certain doubling of 
vertical lines, in other words, that are visible just outside of the visual 
focus has ordinarily been presented, if at all, simply by a device of 
blurring or lowering the tone of accessories. Mr. Paxton, so far as I 
know, was the first painter to render naturalistically this overlapping of 
images in such a manner as largely to increase the optical illusion . . . . " 

"Velasquez, Vermeer, Gainsborough and Ingres seem to be Paxton's 
masters so far as he is indebted to the past. As to affiliation with 
present day artists he stands somewhat aloof, although generally ac- 
cepted as one of the "Boston impressionists." 

Pealb, Charles Watson, (P.) b. Chestertown, Md., April 16, 1741; d. 



209 

Philadelphia, Pa., February 22, 1827. At thirteen he was apprenticed to 
a saddler and afterwards established himself in the business. Becoming 
interested in art he took lessons from a German painter to whom he gave 
a saddle for the privilege of seeing him paint. Influential friends pro- 
vided the funds necessary for him to go to England to continue his art 
studies. He studied under John Singleton Copley at Boston and in 1770 
went to London and became a pupil of Benjamin West. Eeturning to 
the United States he established himself in Philadelphia in 1776. He 
commanded a corps of vplunteers in the revolutionary war, became in- 
terested in politics and later lectured on natural history ; was one of the 
founders of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts at Philadelphia 
in 1805. 

His fame rests mainly on his achievements as a portrait painter and 
the circumstances of his association with Washington, who gave him 
fourteen sittings. "He was the only portrait painter at that time and 
his genius was in great demand." 

The first of the fourteen portraits of Washington by Peale was in the 
uniform of a Virginia colonel and is the only one now extant of those 
painted before the revolution and is highly valued as the first authentic 
likeness of him. 

His portraits gathered in Independence Hall, Philadelphia — one hun- 
dred and seventeen— include most of the celebrities, native and foreign, 
associated with American history and society. 

"His likenesses," says his son Eembrandt, "were strong but never flat- 
tered ; in execution spirited and natural." 

Peaecb, Charles Speagub^ (P., Mural P.) b. Boston, Mass., October 13, 
1851; d. Paris, May 18, 1914. Certain success as an amateur painter 
led him to regard art as a possible profession and after five years in 
mercantile business he took up painting as a profession. He went to 
Paris in 1873 and entered the school of L^on Bonnat, where he remained 
three years. 

Ill-health made it advisable for him to pass the winters in a warmer 
climate and he visited Egypt, ]!^ubia, Algeria, Italy and southern France. 
Afterwards he lived at Auvers-sur-Oise. His first painting publicly 
exhibited was shown at the paris salon of 1876. 

He has received prizes and medals from exhibitions and salons in the 
United States and Europe and been accorded the distinction of an elec- 
tion as a member of the Order of Dannebrog, Denmark, Order of the Red 
Eagle, Prussia, Order of Leopold, Belgium, and chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor, France ; is a member of the Paris Society of American Artists 
and of the National Academy of Design, New York.- 
27 



210 

He has painted portraits and figure subjects but has made his greatest 
success picturing the rustic landscape and the peasants of northern 
France. 

"His shepherdesses, peasant girls and women chopping wood or mind- 
ing their herds are the work of a man who acquired iorcible technique 
under Bonnat and studied Bastien-Lepage with understanding." 
(Miither.) 

"The shepherdess" is probably his masterpiece. 

Other works are: 

"Across the commons" "Abraham's sacrifice" 

"Death of the first born" "Pet of the harem" 

"Beheading of Saint John" "Water carrier" 

"Prelude" "Toiler of the sea" 

"Return of the flock" "Evening" 

"Saint Genevieve" "The shawl" 
"Un chemin a Auvers-sur-Oise" 

Pbixotto^ Ernest Clifford^ (P., I., Min. and Mural P.) b. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 1869. Pupil of Benjamin-Constant, Lefebvre and Doucet in 
Paris. Received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 1895. Elected 
associate member of the National Academy 1909. Instructor in the Art 
Institute, Chicago, 1907-8. 

Has illustrated Henry Cabot Lodge's "Story of the Rebellion;" Roose- 
velt's "Life of Cromwell," "Hemstreet's "Nooks and corners of old New 
York" and numerous articles and stories in current magazines. 

Penfold, Prank C, (P.) b. Buffalo, N. Y. Received honorable mention 
in the Paris salon of 1889 and honorable mention at the Pan-American 
Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 

A good specimen of his work is "Stormy weather. North Sea." 

Pennell, Joseph, (I., PI) b. Philadelphia, Pa., July 4, 1860. He was a 
pupil in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and his unusual 
ability in etching was early recognized by his instructor, James L. Clag- 
hom. He has won honorable mention and medals at Philadelphia Chi- 
cago, Paris and elsewhere and has acquired no small measure of fame as 
a public lecturer and as a critic and author. Associate member National 
Academy of Design, 1907; full member, 1909. 

Mr. Pennell is represented in the Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, Cabinet 
des Estamps, France, Uflfizi Gallery, Florence, Modern Gallery, Venice, 
Berlin National Gallery, Dresden, Buda-Pesth, South Kensington gal- 
leries and in many collections in the United States. 



211 

As an illustrator for a time he worked in New Orleans in collabora- 
tion with Cable, the novelist; in 1881 he went to Europe to illustrate 
some of the Italian writings of W. D. Howells. Here he received recog- 
nition from Philip Gilbert Hamerton who secured his services in illus- 
trating a book on a tour along the Elver Saone. "The fame of his work 
soon brought him all the commissions he wished, and he collaborated 
with Henry James, Justin McCarthy and Sir Walter Besant in illus- 
trating the picturesque streets and buildings of London; with Andrew 
Lang: in doing the same service for Edinburgh ; with Mrs. Schuyler Van 
Eensselaer in portraying the majesty and beauty of the English cathe- 
drals; with his wife Elizabeth Bobbins Pennell in recording the charms 
of European travel ...... His drawings are legion in number arid must 

be seen to be appreciated. His etchings [he has destroyed all his early 
plates to prevent inferior prints from worn-out plates finding their way 
into the market), run up into the hundreds and have an average ex- 
cellence rarely maihtained by a devotee of the needle ; his Philadelphia, 
New Orleans, Italian and London series, all have their own charm and 
their own excellence." 

"No American illustrator has won for himself a more enviable fame 
than Joseph Pennell. His art is unique, peculiarly his own. As a 
draughtsman the world has produced few equals and no superior. With 
rare exception everything he has done has in an eminent degree, the 
quality of the artistic." (Brush & P. 12:81.) 

"As Gibson is the leader among figure draughtsman, Pennell is the 
leader among landscape draughtsmen." (Ernest KnaufiEt.) 

"Among modern etchers there are few whose work so consistently 
show the characteristic touch of a master etcher as does the work of 
Joseph Pennell. It has been said that he is the greatest of contemp- 
orary etchers." (Canad. M. 38:334.) 

Hans Singer writing in the International studio says that he person- 
ally places Pennell's architectural etchings even above Whistler's. 

Mr. Pennell's latest work is a series of twenty-three lithographs of the 
Panama Canal. 

The Italian government has just purchased for the Uflflzi gallery, Mr. 
Pennell's lithographs of the Panama Canal, of the Grand Canyon and the 
Yosemite. It is the first time lithographs have been acquired for the 
Uffizi and confers distinction upon this popular American artist. 

Perrault, I. Marie, (P.) b. Detroit, Mich. Studied at the Detroit 
Museum of Art School and for the past seven years in Paris, The Hague 
and Brussels. 

Mrs. Perrault's work is very well thought of in Holland and she is 



212 

well represented in the collections of that country. She is pre-eminently 
a painter of children, her later work being influenced by Carri6re. 
Member of several art clubs abroad. 

Her best works are : 

"Maternite" "The dream" 

"Springtime" "The yellow flower" 

At a special exhibition of her paintings and sketches held in Detroit, 
Michigan, October, 1911, Mrs. Perrault was represented by thirty-five 
interesting and characteristic canvases. 

PiCKNELL, William Lamb, (P.) b. Hinesburg, Vt., October 23, 1854; d. 
Marblehead, Mass., August 9, 1897. Went to Europe in 1874, studying 
with George Inness in Rome, later for a few months under G6rome in 
Paris. From France he went to England and for a number of years was 
an exhibitor at the Koyal Academy, London ; also lived and painted in 
Brittany, working under Robert Wylie until the death of that artist. 

Received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 1880; awarded 
medals in Boston, Mass., 1881 and 1884; won Lippincott prize, , Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1896. 

Member of the Society of American Artists, New York, and the Society 
of British Artists, London; associate member of the National Academy 
of. Design, New York, 1891. 

Mr. Picknell is represented in the Luxembourg, Paris, Institute of 
Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 
Boston Museum of Art and Carnegie Art Gallery, Pittsburgh. 

The first picture to bring him recognition and standing as a painter 
was his^ "Route de Concarneau" painted at Pont Aven, Brittany. His 
"Breton peasant girl feeding ducks" was exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
London, 1877, and "The fields of Kerren" received honorable mention in 
the salon of 1878. "Wintry March" was purchased for the Walker Art 
Gallery of Liverpool and hung in the apartment occupied by Queen Vic- 
toria on her visit to that city. "On the borders of the marsh" was one 
of the first pictures purchased by the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts and "A toiler of the sea" was the first picture bought for the 
Carnegie Art Gallery, Pittsburgh. His marine "Plowing deep while 
others'sleep" won the £100 prize of the Society of British Artists. 

The French and English critics gave unstinted praise to the strength 
and distinctipn of his pictures. 

"Art to him was holy; there must be no hypocrisy, no shirking, no 

secrets. All his knowledge he was eager to impart without price " 

An Italian gentleman and painter paid this tribute to him : "It is the 



213 

sad privilege and pi-erogative of such natures to leave darkness where 
their spirit threw light, for he was one of those enthusiasts in the 
etymological sense of the word, possessed, carrying with them a power — 
a god if you like — and such guests are felt even in ordinary surround- 
ings." (Cent. o. s. 62:710.) 

Notable examples of his art are: 

"A stormy day" "Among the olives" 

"Coast of Ipswich" "A gray morning, Moret" 

"Sunshine and drifting sand" "Late afternoon, Moret" 

"A sultry day" "Morning on the Loing" 

"After the storm" "Morning on the Mediterranean" 

"The edge of winter" "Twilight on the Mediterranean" 

"Where broad ocean leans "Mid-winter on the Litorel" 
against the land" 

"Picknell does not compose pretty scenes, but he drives home the facts 
of his subject with sledgehammer blows. He is a sort of second Oourbet 
in his strength and in his virility." (New Eng. M. 14:148.) 

"Picknell made extensive use of the palette knife, gaining thus some- 
thing of the purity of tone, the vibration and the marvelous amount of 
atmosphere that distinguished many of his canvases." 

PiTTSj Lendall^ (E.) b. Detroit, Michigan, November, 1875. ~ Pupil of 
Jean Paul Laurens in Paris. 

E. A. Taylor in writing of American etchers (Studio special number), 
says: "In color, American etchers with but few exceptions have not 
shown any notable examples, the most distinctly personal and interest- 
ing results yet attained being those by Lendall Pitts, who exhibited some 
remarkable results of his experimental achievements in the St. Louis 
Museum of Pine Arts in 1908. In his studio in Paris he works heedless 
of recognized methods and public appreciation, producing many little 
masterpieces with delightful simplicity. "Sunset on the lake," "Castle 
of Sigiienza, Spain" and "The cascade" are unique illustrations of his 
color-etching and aquatint." 

Platt, Albthba Hill, (P.) b. Scarsdale, N. Y. A pupil of Henry B. 
Snell, Ben Foster and Art Students' League, New York. She received 
first prize for water color New York Woman's Art Club, 1903, and is a 
member New York Woman's Art Club, Pen & Brush Club, National Arts 
Club, and New York Water Color Club. 

In writing of the exhibition of the New York Water Color Club, 
Palette and Bench, February, 1910, has this: "The 'scrub method' orig- 



214 

inated by Mr. Henry B. Snell was well represented by one of his ablest 
pupils, Miss Alethea H. Piatt in her fine interior, "An old world kitchen" 
There are some delicious bits of color in this old kitchen scene." 

The art critic of one of the New York papers writes: "One of the 
most interesting displays is made up of thirty paintings by Miss Alethea 
Hill Piatt in the Powell gallery. The artist presents scenes from the fair 
land of Devon and from the coast of Brittany. Charming interiors 
showing the homely life of the peasantry on both sides of the channel, 
of which Miss Piatt has made a specialty in her European sojourns, are 
already well known. 

"There is something entirely new, however, in several landscapes which 
she shows. They are brilliant in tone but true to the colors found in sky 
and plain and vale. Those familiar with her earlier work will be deeply 
interested in the new departure as revealed in "The sunlit moor," and 
"Tors on Dartmoor," which are bathed in the soft airs of England. A 
water color "A Moorland shepherd" represents a herdsman returning at 
eventide to his cottage and there is wonderful charm and feeling in this 
peaceful bit of rural Engand, which includes his cottage and its sur- 
roundings." 

-'" 

Plowman, George Taylor, (I., E.) b. Le Sueur, Minn., Ocliober 19, 
1869, and studied architecture in Paris and elsewhere; studied in the 
Eoyal College of Engraving at South Kensington, London, under Sir 
Frank Short; also traveled and etched on the continent. Although 
young in etching he is represented in the permanent collection of Eoyal 
College and Crystal Palace, London, Art Museum, Boston, Public Li- 
brary, New York, and Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 

The Berlin Photographic Company has reproduced many of Mr. Plow- 
man's etchings. 

Mr. Plowman has written a book on etching which explains the 
methods of Sir Frank Short. (Int. studio 51:cxxxiv.) 

Pope, Alexander, (P., S.) b. Boston, Mass., March 25, 1849. At the 
age of seven he did creditable work in sketching animals, and was self- 
taught with the exception of instruction in perspective drawing and 
anatomy from Dr. Rimmer. At twenty he was a devotee of wood-carving 
and modeling. He originated painted game birds carved out of pine 
wood, two of them being purchased by the Czar of Russia. Later he 
was ambitious to become a sculptor. His first notable canvas was "Call- 
ing out the hounds," and his two most noted pictures are his "Martyr- 
dom of St. Euphemia" and his "Glaucus and the lion" (taken from 
Bulwer's "Last days of Pompeii"). 



215 

One of his most realistic productions is the painting of a white swan 
hanging to a door. "Just from town" shows two peacocks and is one of 
his simplest and most pleasing paintings. (Brush & P. 8:105.) 

Mr. Pope's portraits of dogs have won for him the title "American 
Landseer," and his lions and horses have brought him an even wider 
reputation. 

Supplementing the fundamental grounding he received from Dr. Rim- 
mer by individual study and constant practice, he haunted stables, 
aviaries and kennels and spent much time in the zoological gardens of 
New York and Philadelphia ; also at Bridgeport, Conn., when Barnum's 
winter headquarters were there, where he especially studied and sketched 
lions. 

Mr. Pope has published a series of game bird plates entitled, "Upland 
game birds and water fowls of the United States," also "Celebrated dogs 
of America." 

Potter, Edward Clark;, (S.) b. New London, Conn., November 26, 
1857. He was educated at Amherst College; studied sculpture under 
Merci6 and Fremiet, Paris, 1888-9; has been a member of the National 
Academy of Design, New York, since 1906. 

Mr. Potter's first prominence was due to his collaboration with Mr. 
Daniel Chester French at Chicago in 1893 where their Columbus Quad-, 
riga and other groups were among the most admired of the many decora- 
tions. 

Lorado Taft says it is probable that no American sculptor knows the 
horse quite so well structurally, as does Mr. Potter. 

Mr. Potter has not restricted himself, however, to animal sculpture nor 
to partnership enterprises. His delightful little "Sleeping faun" is in 
the Art Institute of Chicago ; his Governor Blair of Michigan stands in 
an admirable repose before the state capitol at Lansing. His equestrian 
statue of General Slocum on the battlefield of Gettysburg is considered a 

striking portrait "There is no more impressive sculpture upon the 

famous battlefield." (Taft's "History of American sculpture.*') 

Mr. Potter has also executed two noteworthy bas-reliefs of Dante and 
Savonarola. 

Potter, Louis, (S., E.) b. Troy, N. Y., November 14, 1873; d. Seattle, 
Wash., August 29, 1912. He graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, in 
1896, and received first instructions in art from Charles Noel Flagg. In 
1896 he went to Paris and remained there for three years, studying 
painting under Luc-Olivier Merson and modeling under Jean Dampt. 
His first exhibition was a bust of Boutet de Monvel. 



216 

Mr. Potter spent some time in Tunis and while there was commissioned 
to represent Arab life at the Exposition. For this service the Bey con- 
ferred upon him a decoration of Officer du Mcham Iftikar or "Order of 
Renown." After his return to the United States he devoted himself to 
distinctively American subjects. The Indians", particularly, both Alaskan 
and American, became one of his favorite subjects. 

Mr. Potter took up the investigation of the occult science for the pur- 
pose of arriving at some higher spiritual insight. This he abandoned 
declaring the practice of no value, possibly harmful. 

"The earth man" and "The earth's unfoldment" were accepted unani- 
mously by the French salon of 1912. "The man" is groping for light; 
this is realized in the "Earth unfoldment" — the spiritual awakening of 
the woman. (Int. studio Nov., 1912.) 

PoTTHAST, Edward Henry, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Cincinnati, O., June 
11, 1857. Pupil Cincinnati School of Fine Arts. Studied in Antwerp, 
Munich and Paris. Won Clarke prize N. A. D., 1899; also several gold 
and silver medals. Member Society American Artists ; associate member 
National Academy, 1899; academician, 1906. 

Powell^ William Henry, (P.) b. New York, February 14, 1823; d. 
New York, October 6, 1879. 

He began the study of art under Henry Inman in New York City in 
1843 and continued his studies in Paris and Florence. He first exhibited 
at the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1838 ; was elected an 
associate member of the academy in 1854. 

Probably no historical work of art is more familiar to the American 
people than his painting, "The battle of Lake Erie." It was originally 
executed for the state of Ohio at a cost of |10,000. In 1873 Mr. Powell 
reproduced the work on a larger canvas for the national government and 
this painting now hangs in the senate wing of the capitol at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Other historical paintings are: 

"DeSota discovering the "Landing of the pilgrims" 

Mississippi" "Washington at Valley Forge" 

"Siege of Vera Cruz" 

He also produced famous portraits of Albert Gallatin, Peter Cooper 
and Washington Irving. His portrait of General McClellan and that of 
Major Anderson are m the city hall. New York. 

Pkatt, Bela L., (S.) b. Norwich, Conn., December 11, 1867. At the 



217 

age of sixteen he entered the Yale School of Fine Arts where he studied 
under Profs. Neimeyer and Weir. In 1887 he entered the Art Students' 
League of New York, continuing his studies under Saint-Gaudens, El- 
well, Chase and Kenyon Cox. He went to Paris in 1890 where he 
studied under Chapu and Falgui6re. While in the Ecole des Beaux Arts 
he received three medals and two prizes. In 1892 he returned to the 
United States; was commissioned for two colossal groups on the water 
gate of the Peristyle at the Columbian Exposition, 1893, and in 1895 and 
1896 he shared in the decorations of the Library of Congress, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Mr. Pratt's contributions to the Pan-American Exposition 
were numerous and certain of them of great beauty. He has produced 
many works in sculpture, statues, memorials, groups, tablets, busts, 
medallions, etc. 

Recent works are, "Spanish war soldier," at St. Paul's school, Con- 
cord, N. H. ; "Andersonville prisoner boy," erected at Andersonville, Ga., 
by the state of Connecticut; "Barefoot boy" mounted on a native bouldeT 
in the t9wn of Ashburnham, Mass. ; "Peace and War" for the Butler 
memorial at Lowell, Mass.; "Nathan Hale," at Yale University; and 
"The whaleman" for the monument to native seafarers erected at New 
Bedford, Mass., in 1913! 

"Spirit and action characterize the stalwart figure of a New Bedford 
whaleman who is portrayed with long harpoon poised in the air, and 
standing in a whale boat dashing through the surf, in pursuit of some 
great leviathan of the deep." 

"The sculptor is revealed at his best in the full-length figure of 'Youth' 

fraught with charm and the naivete of tender years He is gifted 

with unusual feeing for his subjects, has imagination and is a subtle 
draughtsman. His art accords him a foremost place with illustrious 
American sculptors of, today." (Arch. rec. 35:508.) 

Three large decorative panels for the facade of the Opera House, Bos- 
ton, are interesting examples of Mr. Pratt's art. They are molded in 
blue and white terra cotta, after the Delia Eobbias, and form a frieze 
just beneath the cornice. The subjects are "Music," "Drama" and the 
"Dance." "Music" is one of the most effective panels in the series and is 
poetic in conception and subtle in modeling." 

As a sculptor Mr. Pratt has made portraits of many eminent person- 
ages identified with the history of New England. 

In 1910 he was made an associate member of the National Academy of 
Design. 

Peellwitz, Edith Mitchell (Mrs. Henry Prellwitz), (P.) b. South 
Orange, N. J., 1865. Pupil of Art Students' League of New York under 



218 

George de Forest Brush and Kenyon Cox; Academic Julien in Paris 
under Bouguereau, Eobert-Fleury and Courtois. 

Eeceived second Hallgarten prize in 1894 for her "Hagar and Ishmael ;" 
Dodge prize in 1895 ; bronze medal at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 
1901. Elected associate member of the National Academy of Design, 
New York, in 1906. 

Peellwitz, Heney, (P.) b. New York, 1865. Pupil of T. W. Dewing 
and Art Students' League of New York; Acad6mie Julien in Paris. 

Eeceived third Hallgarten prize National Academy of Design, 1893; 
bronze medal Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; medal St. Louis 
Exposition, 1904 ; Clark prize. National Academy of Design, 1907. 

Member of the Society of American Artists, 1906. Instructor in life 
drawing and painting at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Elected associate member of the National Academy of Design, New 
York, 1906. 

PrestoNj, Maey Wilson (Mrs. James Preston), (I.) b. New York, 
August 11, 1873. Educated at Oberlin College. Studied art in New York 
art schools 1896-7; Whistler School, Paris, 1899-1900. Began illustrating 
for magazines in 1902. Has illustrated : 

"Seeing France with Uncle John" "The incubator baby" 
"The smugglers" "The diary of Delia" 

Peoctoe^ Alexandee Phimistee, (S., p.) b. Bozanquit, Ont., Canada, 
September 27, 1862. Pupil of National Academy of Design and Art 
Students' League in New York ; Puech and Injalbert in Paris. 

Eeceived gold medal for sculpture and bronze medal for painting at 
St. Louis Exposition, 1904. Elected member of the National Academy 
1904. ■' • 

For years Mr. Proctor was a huntsman, living in the Eocky Mountains 
where he made a study of wild animals. Eealizing that he needed better 
training in 1887 he went to New York and entered the classes of the 
National Academy. Being awarded the Einehart scholarship he went to 
Paris for five years' study in technique. 

At the Paris Exposition 1900 Mr. Proctor's well known panthers kept 
guard at the entrance on the Place de la Concorde. His "Bison" shows 
evidence of the sculptor's close observation and acute sense of the ani- 
mal character, as do his "Fawn," "Bear" and "Striding panther." 

Of his famous bison, Mr. William Walton says: "To the formidable 
bulk and weight and strength which are this animals obvious monu- 
mental qualities the scillptor adds an action, an alertness, head and tail 



219 

up, also founded on truth, which gives him that air of power and menace 
necessary to symbolic animals." (Scrib. M. 55:B66.) 

Mr. Proctor is represented in public parks, New York, Denver, Pitts- 
burgh, Buffalo and other cities of the United States. 

Pylb, Howard, (P., I., Mural P.) b. Wilmington, Delaware, March 5, 
1853; d. Florence, Italy, November 9, 1911. Was educated in private 
schools and in the Art Students' Ijeague of New York ; an instructor at 
the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, a member of the National Institute 
of Arts and Letters, associate member of the National Academy of De- 
sign, 1905, academician, 1907. 

At first being unsuccessful in art he went into business, but some of 
his drawings finally being accepted by a magazine he again took up the 
profession of his choice. 

His first assignment in illustration — a picture called "Wreck in the 
offing" — brought him steady employment in the field of art. His most 
important work was done in periodical ilustration. 

Mr. Pyle ranked as our foremost American illustrator. Both in his 
stories (he was an author as well as an artist) he exhibited a well- 
defined style, characterized by vigorous and sustained imagination and a 
certain charming quaintness eminently adapted to tales of fairyland or 
olden days. 

His principal publications are: 

"The merry adventures of Kobin "Twilight, land" 

Hood" "The garden behind the moon" 

"Pepper and salt" "Semper idem" 

"Within the capes" "Rejected of men" 

"The wonder clock" "The story of Arthur and his 
"The rose of Paradise" knights" 

"Otto of the silver hand" "The story of the champions of 
"A modern Aladdin" the Round Table" 

"Men of iron" "The story of Launcelot and his 
"Jack Ballister's fortunes" companions" 

"The stolen treasure" 

"His plates, rich and often gorgeous in color as they were, pictorial in 
intent and spirited in movement, showed- the hand that was acquainted 
with the shortcomings as well as the successes of the reproductive pro- 
cess." 

"Throughout his career he held pronounced views as to the disadvant- 
age of foreign training and association." (Nation. Nov. 16, 1911.) 



220 

Isham says : "Howard Pyle is the only man who seems to know thor- 
oughly the colonial and' revolutionary epoch." 

"He liked to draw for the accompaniment of text, and did much to 
dignify the practice. His later work generally shows him the complete 
artist-writer, decorator, illustrator and spiritual thinker as in the im- 
aginative "Travels of the soul" and in the "Pate of a treasure town" 
so diiferent in character." 

Several creditable paintings bear his signature: "One hoss shay," 
"Old violin," "Trotting match" ; these are well known. 

Arthur Hoeber in the International studio for January, 1912, says: 
There was something convincing about Pyle's work; his knights and 
ladies, his revolutionary soldiers and his men and women of colonial 
times were to the manor born and not posed models dressed up for the 
occasion .... The death of Mr. Pyle leaves a distinct void and his 
place will in all probability never be filled for his work was entirely 
personal, full of the liveliest interest with great literary as well as artis- 
tic charm." 

QuiNN, Edmond T., (S., p.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., December 20, 1868. 
A pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Pine Arts, also studied un- 
der Injalbert in Paris. A member of the National Sculpture Society 
and Architectural League of America. 

The following comments are taken from the International studio 
55:sup.-x: "Mr. Edmond T. Quinn's work is besides all its other quali- 
ties, eninently unaffected. It is this attribute of his work — this lack of 
straining and the power of being subjective rather than objective in the 
carrying out of it — that earned for him the honor of being given in com- 
petition with seven other sculptors the Booth Memorial statue to be 
placed in Gramercy Park by the Players Club." 

"Quinn's well-known bust of Edgar Allan Poe is a complete, vital 
rendition of the fantastic poet." 

"Great picturesqueness has been attained in the bust of Allan Pollock, 
the actor." 

"In the bust of Mr. Prancis Wilson, all the alert, intelligent, inherent 
humor of that well-known actor has been used admirably as a motive 
for a striking character study." 

Best known works are: 

John Howard, portrait statue, Williamsport, Pa.; 
Battle monument reliefs, King's Mountain, S. 0. ; 
Zoroaster statue, Brooklyn Institute of arts and sciences; 
Swanstrom Memorial, Borough Hall, Brooklyn; 



221 

Busts : Edwin Markham, Francis Wilson, Albert Sterner, Miss Donez 
Halstead, C. H. Chavant. 

Mr. Quinn did the decoration of the Pittsburgh Athletic Club and also 
paints portraits. 

Eangbr^ Henry Ward, (P.) b. near Rochester, N. Y., January, 1858. 
Practically self-taught. Went to New York and took a studio in the 
early 70's where he became acquainted with the works of the Barbizon 
men by which he has ever since been influenced. He studied many years 
in England, Prance and Holland where he enjoyed an intimacy with 
Israels, Mauve and other leaders of the Dutch school. Was elected asso- 
ciate member of the National Academy of Design in 1901; full member in 
1906. 

Although the artistic public knows little of Henry W. Ranger, yet he is 
unquestionably one of the few great artists America has produced. This 
is largely because he rarely exhibits in public displays. He is opposed to 
competition for honor of any sort, objecting on principle to distinctions 
other than come from the ability of his canvases to attract serious atten- 
tion. I 

In viewing Mr. Ranger's pictures one feels the presence of a single 
dominating idea. This dominating central idea is the mastery of tone. 
This tonal quality is defined as "a close and sympathetic adjustment of 
the hues and values of a picture to its dominating key — which is the 
index of its emotional meaning." (Brush & P. 16:.39.) 

This tonal quality in Mr. Ranger's work is joined with a strong sense 
of structure and rhythmical composition. 

Among his best known works are : 

"Autumn woods" "Hawk's nest pool" 

"Golden evening — Noank" "On Mason's island" 

"Bow bridge" "Sentinel rock" 

"Bradbury's mill-pond No. 2" "Noank shipyard" 

"Spring woods" "Noank street" 

"September gale — Noank" "Flying point" 

"Peaceful moonlight reveries" "The edge of the woods" 

"The last of spring" "Willows" 

"Spring pastures" "Entrance to the harbor" 

"A gray day" "Top of the hill" 

"Saunders' hollow" "High bridge" 

"Connecticut woods" "Sea and sky" 

"These are ample to show that underlying all this wide range is one 
perfectly definite personality that is itself throughout able to command 



222 

moods that range from the tender and persuasive to the vigorous and 
powerful." (Int. studio 29:33.) 

"His art is based on a profound and sympathetic appreciation of 
nature. An artistic selection from her various and at times conflicting 
moods, it is with all its science, emotional." (Brush & P. 16:41.) 

Read^ Thomas Buchanan, (P.) b. in Chester county. Pa., March 12, 
1822; d. New York, May 11, 1872. 

Mr. Read is better known as a poet than a painter. At the age of 
seventeen he removed to Cincinnati and studied sculpture, then took up 
painting. In 1841 he established himself as a portrait painter in New 
York. In 1850 he went to Europe and resided several years in Rome and 
Florence. Of his ideal pictures the "Lost Pleiad" and the "Water 
Sprite" are the most characteristic. 

"The tone of mind of this artist is essentially poetical." (Tuckerman's 
"Book of the artists," p. 460.) 

"With the exception of a few historical and fancy pieces he has con- 
fined himself to portrait painting." (National M., 6:292.) 

Redfield, Edward Willis, (P.) b. Bridgeville, Delaware, December 19, 
1868. At an early age he developed a love for art and was sent to a local 
academy where he was instructed in free-hand drawing; later studied 
in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and under Bouguereau 
and Robert-Fleury, Paris. He is a member of the Society of American 
Artists; was elected associate member of the National Academy of 
Design, New York, in 1904 ; full member in 1906. 

Mr. Redfield has received many competitive medals. 

Winter is his constant theme. He is a pioneer in this country in the 
realistic painting of winter, in which field he has few equals today. The 
French government has purchased his "February" for the Luxembourg 
Gallery. 

A few characteristic-landscapes are: 

"Grey days" "The crest" 

"Landscape in April" "The red barn" 

"Brook in winter" "December" 

"Hill and yalley" "The briar patch" 

"The road to center bridge" "Cedar hills" 

"Foothills of the Blue Ridge" "The canal" 

"The hemlocks" "The old bridge" 

"Surf" "The fallen tree" 

"Winter" "On the banks of a river" 

"The three boats" "Center bridge" 



223 

"In his manner and method of painting, his work is a reflection of the 
methods of impressionists, which he has adapted to his own use." (Int. 
studio 41:xxix.) 

B. O. Flowers writing of Mr. Redfleld and his art (Arena 36:20) refers 
to him as "an artist of winter-locked nature," and names "The three 
boats" as a typical picture of his work. He also says: "No one can look 
upon this canvas without feeling the spell of winter's icy hand. The 
shroud of snow, the skeleton trees, the somber river and the idle boats 
speak more eloquently than words of the sleeping time of nature." "The 
crest" won second medal and the award of one thousand dollars at the 
Pittsburgh art exhibition given at the Carnegie Institute in 1905. Many 
consider his best painting to be "Center bridge" which has been pur- 
chased for the permanent coUecton of the Chicago Art Institute. 

Redpield^ Heloise Guillou^ (Min. P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1883. 
Pupil of Martha S. Baker, William M. Chase and Cecilia Beaux ; Madame 
LaForge and Delecluse in Paris. 

Mrs. Redfield's miniatures "are remarkable for their 'paint quality' 
and a carrying force equal to that of life-size painting." 

"She h^s developed a form of expression which is really painting al- 
though the medium is water color and the scale miniature. 

"Her work shows that she has a strong mental conception at the 
outset, virile enough to bend the means of expression to serve the artist's 
will." (Int. studio 48 :xix.) 

Reed, Earl H., (E.; S.) b. Geneva, 111., July 5, 1863. Studied art at 
the Art Institute, Chicago, and later specialized in etching. 

At the annual exhibition of American etchers held in N^w York, 1913, 
Mr. Reed's- group of ten plates was very popular; four of these — "Voices 
of the dunes," "Among the sandhills," "Marsh haystacks," and "Edge 
of the forest" — had previously been seen in the Paris salon. 

"The poetry of the sea, the shore, a flight of birds, an oncoming storm, 
the driven sand, the play of the winds, a tangled root, the light waning 
through the trees are subjects which arrest his attention." (Int. studio 
Slrlxxxi.) 

It was mainly owing to the initiative of Mr. Reed that the Chicago 
Society of Etchers came into existence in 1910, and he was its president 
until recently. 

Mr. Reed has recently taken up sculpture. 

Eeid, Eobeet, (P., Mural P.) b. Stockbridge, Mass., July 29, 1862. 
Studied at the Museum of Pine Arts, Boston, 1880, and for three years 



224 

was assistant instructoi*. From 1885 to 1889 he studied in tlie Art 
Students' League, New York, later went to Paris and studied in the 
Acad^mie Julien under Boulanger and Lefebvre. Exhibited in the salon 
of 1889 ; had a studio for the summer in Etaples-pas-de-Oalais ; returned 
to New York in 1889. He is a member of the Ten American Painters 
and one of the eight American artists who painted frescoes on the dome 
of the Liberal Arts Building at the Columbian Exposition, 1893. Mr. 
Reid has been instructor of painting in the Art Students' League and in 
Cooper Institute and was elected member of the National Academy of 
Design, New York, in 1906. He has received many medals and prizes. 

In the decoration of the Library of Congress five octagons on the 
ceiling of the second floor and four circular panels on the wall are his 
work. 

His decorations for the International Navigation Company mark a 
new line of work in marine architecture and decoration, 

"Autumn" is considered by some critics the best picture he has ever 
painted. 

A few characteristic paintings are: 

"Gladiola" "White parasol" 

'*Canna" "Water sprite" 

"Tiger lily" "Tennis girl" 

"Pink carnation" "Butterfly" 

"Vine" "Village Juno" 

"Pleur de lys" "The mirror" 

"Azelea" "Little country girl" 

"Yellow flower" "Meditation" 
"Goldfish" 

His work is devoid of any spiritual, philosophical or philanthropic 
pretensions. It exists for itself alone, and persistently sings of youth, 
sunlight, flowers and supple rhythmic forms and contours." (Brinton 
in "Arts and Decoration" Nov., 1911.) 

Many titles of his pictures are chosen from the particular flower which 
is given prominence in the composition. 

Royal Cortissoz writes of Mr. Reid's work: "His paintings have a 
durable charm. The liveliness of his flower-laden girls does not fade ; his 
windows and his mural decorations are as persistently persuasive: The 
reason, I think, is that he has a true perception of beauty and never 
wearies in his pursuit of technical excellence." 

"He has secured from impressionism, what could be of service to him- 
self — the delicate discrimination of color and the subtleties of various 



225 

kinds of light and assimilated tliese facts into liis own vigorous person- 
ality." (The artist 24:lxiv.) 
Mr. Eeid is one of the leading impressionists. 

BeinhArt^ Charms Stanley, (I) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., May 16, 1844; 
d. New York, August 30, 1897. Served in the civil war; later engaged in 
mercantile business four years. In 1868 went to Europe to begin a sys- 
tematic study of art. He spent one year in Atelier Suisse, Paris, and 
then became the t»upil of Profs. Echter and Otto, Munich; returned to. 
the United States in 1870 and began illustrating for various publishers ; 
regularly employed by Harper & Bro. from 1871-7. He was an associate 
member of the National Academy of Design, New York. 

Mr. Reinhart was best known for his excellent work in black and white 
in which he is without peer. He is equally effective- in color work, and 
was a regular contributor to the Paris salon during the ten years he 
resided at the French capital. 

He was one of the first to introduce "painter qualities" into illustrative 
Work. 

Bbmington, Predeiric, (P. I., S.) b. Canton, N. Y., October 4, 1861; d. 
Eidgeville, Conn., Decembei* 26, 1909. He was educated at Yale Art 
School (and it is said that his eminence at college was on the football 
field rather than in the art classes) ; also studied at the Art Students' 
League of New York. He was clerk in a business oflSce, then cowboy and 
stockman on a ranch in the west; subsequently illustrator for magazines 
treating military and American subjects and during 1897-8, Cuban 
scenes. Associate member of National Academy of Design, 1891. Mr. 
Remington was the most eminent and successful of a half dozen painters 
■who have made the field of Indian warfare and cowboy adventure their 
own. Essentially an illustrator, he never became a "painter's painter" 
but he was the people's favorite through the subjects he chose. "The 

Indian appealed to him not in any histrionic way but just as a 

human creature." 

Cortissoz says : "His night scenes are both veracious and beautiful 

and they exert a very original charm. He knows how the light of 

the moon or of the stars is diffused, how softly and magically it envelops 
the landscape. His picture "The gossips" is one of the handsomest and 
most convincing Indian studies ever painted." 

Familiar paintings are : 

"The luckless hunter" "Trailing Texas cattle" 

"The moose country" "The chieftain" 

29 



22f6 

"The buffalo runners" "Picture writing" 

"The fall of the cowboy" "The winter campaign" 

"Coming to call" "Among the led horses" 

"An Indian trapper" "Driving cattle on the plains" 

"Downing the nigh leader" "Indian runner" 

"Advance guard" 

In writing of an exhibition of his pictures, an eminent art critic says : 
"Two aspects of his ability as a painter of life were brought out in sharp 
relief by his collection of pictures — his authentic interpretation of the 
Indian, and his fidelity to things as they are amongst our soldiers arid 
cowboys." 

His ponies are full of "horse character" and connoisseurs agree that in 
the painting of the horse. Remington surpassed Meissonier, Fromentin 
and Detaille. His equestrian bronzes are picturesque and spirited. He 
approaches sculpture from the pictorial rather than the monumental 
side. 

Lorado Taft says: "Mr. Eemington is not an interpreter, nor is he 
likely ever to conceive a theme sculpturally." 

His "Broncho buster" and "Wounded bunkie" are his leading sculpture. 

Rhuteedahl^ Henry, (I. and P.) b. Malmo, Sweden, August 30, 1871. 
Member Society of Illustrators and American Water Color Society. 
Represented at the 45th annual exhibition of the American Water Color 
Society. 

"Henry Eeuterdahl stands alone in his wonderful realistic paintings 
of steamships laboring in tempestuous waters. He has dramatized the 
warship, the destroyer, the liner and the 'tramp' as no other painter and 
shows in his exhibition pictures a high indication of his attainment as 
an illustrator — and vice versa." 

Rhind, J. Masse-y (S) b. Edinburgh, Scotland, July 9, 1860. From 
his earliest childhood Mr. Rhind has modeled in clay. His father, John 
Rhind, R. S. A., gave him instractions in art and while still very young 
he was sent to an art school in Lambeth where he became a pupil of 
Delau, the French sculptor, at that time a political exile. Later Rhind 
studied at the Royal Academy. He took three gold medals in one year 
at South Kensington, being the first student who ever -scored such a 
success. Later he went to Paris, then back to England and came to the 
United States iii 1889. 

When he submitted the design for the bronze doors of Trinily church, 
the world in general recognized him as a powerful sculptor. His design 
for a fountain in Washington Park, Albany, to be erected as a memorial 



227 

to Senator Rufus King, was accepted. "For originality and dramatic 
effect, there is nothing in America to surpass it." 

Mr. Rhind's work is to be seen in several of the great business build- 
ings erected in New York City and in the decorative figures on the front 
of the Alexander . Commencement Hall at Princeton. One of his latest 
works is the Calhoun statue, and one of his finest examples of interior 
decorative work is the mantel in the great hall of the Yerkes New York 
house. (Munsey 14:671.) 

New York sculptors say that the eighteen symbolic figures in the frieze 
of the Farmers' Deposit Bldg., in Pittsburgh, are the finest examples of 
architectural sculpture in the United States. 

Richards^ William' Trost^ (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., November 14, 
1833; d. Newport, R. I., Noveniber 8, 1905. ,At an early age he turned his 
attention to the study of art and received his first instructions from Paul 
Weber. In 1855 he went to Europe, studying in Florence, Rome and 
Paris. He was an exhibitor in the Paris salon, the Royal Academy and 
Grosvenor Gallery, London, and was ■ an honorary member of the Na- 
tional Academy of Design, New York. 

A painter of landscapes and marines, his best works in oil are: 

"The Wissahickon" "Mid-ocean" 

''Jaiew England "coast" "At Atlantic City" (Paris salon, 

"Mid-summer" 1873) 

"June woods" "Wood scene'' 

"Spring" "Summer laf tei-noon" 

"Ebbtide" "Old orchard "atrNewport" 

"The inlet near Newport" "Out in the couujtry" 

"Tulip trees" "Sea and sky" 

"Land's end" 

"So carefully painted in some of Richard's landscapes are the leaves, 
grasses, grain-stalks, weeds, stones and flowers, that we seem not to be 
looking, at a distant prospect, but lying on the ground with herbage and 
blossoms directly under our eyes." (Tuckerman.) 

"Richards was one of the first American painters who adopted the pre- 
Raphaelite style of treatment in their pictures; this was in 1858, and 
since that time no artist in this country has achieved greater success in 
the profession, fiis drawing is never at fault and the crispntss of his 
touch is charming." (Art Journal, Aug., 1877.) 

In writing of the art of William T. Richards in "Masterpieces of the , 

sea," Harrison S. Morris, saj'S : "He was a realist the things he 

painted, the sea, the sky, all outdoors — these things were real to him 



228 

and were not things to play tricks with. He did not paint a sunrise 
effect, he painted 'Sunrise.' He did not paint 'Fog — an impression — ' 
be painted fog an actuality." 

EoBiNsoN, BoARD'MAN^ (I). A member of the Society of illustrators 
since 1909, and has taken an active part in the new movemeut^a sort 
of renaissance of the art of the cartoon. 

"Of all the newspaper artists in this country," says William Marion 
Reedy of the St. Louis Mirror, "Boardman Robinson has the finest, free- 
est, swashing stroke, the greatest daring in massing his black and let- 
ting in the white." 

The editor of Cartoons, says : "His ideas are refreshing, the spirit of 
his work being attack on sham and on things, animate or not— cus- 
toms, habits, individuals, corporations, and so forth — that obstruct the 
path of progress." 

' "Mr. Robinson is no unworthy successor of the Frencli masters of 
caricature, Gavami and Daumier, and his work shows kinship with that 
of Forain, the brilliant artist of the, Figaro." (Cur. lit. 53 :461.) 

Herbert Adams, the sculptor, also pays a tribute to the art of. Mr. 
Robinson. 

Robinson^ Theodore^ (P., I.) b. Irasbui"g, Vt., June 3, 1852; d. April 
2, 1896. Studied art in Paris under Carolus-Duran and Gferome. He 
spent the years 1884-88 with Monet at Giverny, then returned to his 
country and devoted himself to the Delaware and Hudson River Canal 
scenery. In earlier year's he did a great deal of mural painting in New 
York; and he was well known as an illustrator. 

"He accepted the impressionist theory that the first consciousness we 
receive of an object consists of a confusion of color dots. But he painted 
merely in prismatic color strokes, varying in size according to the sub- 
ject."' (Hartmann.) 

"In many of his works, especially in 'The girl and cow' he shows the 
real benefit the impressionist doctrine may convey to those whose indi- 
vidual strength repels ill-digested imitation. He revelled in light and 
analyzed it with subtle iiatuition growing emotional at every sunburst." 
Was strictly a neo-impressionist. 

"Robinson had the faculty to impress one with the spontaneity of his 
expression. His work always seems to be done wtt premier coup. He 
possesses the true tonality of nature." The same tone of nature is found 
in his "Winter landscape" as in his "The girl and cow." 

While studying under Carolus-Duran and Gferome he painted his 
^'Study of a girl" the first of his pictures to be accepted by the Paris 



229 

salon. In 1890 "Winter landscape" was awarded the 'Webb prize as the 
best landscape by an artist under forty years of age. In 1892 he won the 
Shaw prize of $1,000 for the figure painting in his "In the sun." 

Soon after his death in 1896 one of his pictures was offered as a gift 
to the Metropolitan Museum, Kew York, and the gift was declined. 
Within the last four years the museum has acquired three of his pictures 
and exhibits a fourth which is loaned. 

Cox writes of the "cold and intellectual gaiety" of "Robinson's views 
of Giverny. 

RoGEiRS, John, (S) b. Salem, Mass., October 30, 1829; d. New Canaan, 
Conn., July 26, 1904. ;. 

He was compelled to abandon the profession of civil engineering on 
account of weaji eyes andentei-ed a machine shop and modeled in clay 
during his leisure moments. With the exception of three months in 
Rome in 1850 when he worked in- the studio of Mr. Spencer, an English- 
man, he was self-taught. In 1859 he executed the first of his small plaster 
groups which met with such popular success. He sent twenty-nine 
"Roger's groups" to the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, 
and received the htghest award at tjie Columbian Exposition in 1893 for 
his dignified seated figure of Lincoln. 

Mr. Rogers was elected" a member of the National Academy in 1863, 
and belonged to the National Scii'lpture Society. (American Art An- 
nual, Vol. 5.) 

ROLSHO'VEJN, Julius, (P.) b. Detroit, Mich., October 28, 1858. Studied 
art in Diisseldorf and Munich where he met Frank Duveneck vnth whom 
he also studied, accompany him to Italy. In 1882 he went to Paris 
and worked in the studio of Robert-Fleury. He has exhibited in Paris, 
Munich, Berlin, London, ..JBrussels, Vienna and Florence and in the 
principal cities of the USiited States and receiverd honors and medals 
and artistic recbgnitionfrom these exhibitions. 

Mr. Rolshoven has instructed art classes in Paris, London and 
Florence, and is a member of the Munich Secessionists, the Soci6t6 
Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, and the Chelsea Art Club, . London. 
His present address is 15 Viale Michelangelo, Florence, Italy. 

Drawing is perhaps the most noticeable strength of Mr. Rolshoven 's 
work. He is also noted for the poetic way in which he treats interior 
and out-of-door scenes. 

His beautiful nude "La Venere bruna," an echo of his Paris period, 
done in pastel, was given the place of honor in the first pastel exhibition 
in London. His work has of late years rebuilt itself upon a stronger 




JULIUS ROLSHOVEN. 



231 

and finer line. This the discriminating critic finds in "The girl with 
the kitten." 

"He recently exhibited two paintings in the salon of the Chicago Art 
Institute that are particularly interesting: in "The cloister, Church of 
St. Francis d'Assisi" he gives a peaceful solemn vision of the interior, 
radiant in sparkling sunlight ; while "The prayer" bathed in mysterious 
silence, gleams cool in the. pale evening light." (Int. studio 27:ciii.) 

In his Venetian pictures there is nothing of the sunny play of light — • 
on the contrary, powerful greenish-blue tones are spread out with an 
effect of dark and solemn gravity. (Miither.) 

"Great grandmother's finery" is charming in treatment. 

There are two distinct influences clearly, traceable in Mr. Eolshoven's 
work: the eye and hand for form, for line, learned in his goldsmith 
period through Duveneck from the Dutch and Flemish schools. (The 
artist, 26:185.) 

The Rome correspondent writing on American artists at the exposition 
of 1911, says : "One of the best portraits of women in the exhibition is 
that by Julius Kolshoven. This fine painting is rich in color and de- 
lightful in its treatment." 

Mr. Kolshoven recently exhibited his latest paintings in Paris and the 
Paris edition of the New York Herald contains a flattering commenton 
the work of this Detroit artist, mentioning particularly "Expectancy," 
"The three Graces," "The. dancer in white" and the Salon of Mona Lisa." 

Mr. Kolshoven'^ last visit to the United States was the occasion of. a 
most interesting exhibition of his recent paintings of Tunis, North 
Africa and Central Italy. 

The exhibition was held at the Detroit Museum of Art and was a 
collection made up of eighty works. Twenty-seven were of Tunis-r— a 
series of studies in light. There were also small groups of Venetian life 
and of Tuscany, and one nude subject. 

"Her inward monitor" — two beautiful Early Italian Gothic panels — 
shows figures of Purity, in the one, listening to her conscience or "In- 
ward monitor"; in the other, a commanding figure with a halo, sugges- 
tive of the divine source of the admonition. "It is an allegory so, beauti- 
ful' in design and color that it would bear the test of hanging beside the 
great Renaissance masters." 

Other subjects were interiors of the Castello del Diavolo, a 13th 
century Florentine castle, and the courtyard painted in the bright sun- 
light, (the home of Mr. Rolshoven when in Florence). "These interiors 
are painted in the charming low tones for which the artist has a wide 
reputation." 



232 

"All in all it is a most versatile one man show, in which every touch 
is aesthetic and every subject satisfying to one's sense of the beautiful." 
Bulletin of the Detroit Museum of Art, January, 1912. 

"The masquerade" one of the finest pieces of work ever done by Mr. 
Rolshoven, is loaned to the Detroit Museum of Art. The figures were 
painted from models in England and the background finished in Italy. 

RoTH^ Ernest DAvm^ (E.) b. Stuttgart, Germany, January 17, 1879, 
came to America with his parents when he was very young. Being 
obliged to work by day he attended the evening classes at the National 
Academy of Design, studying etching with the late James David Smillie. 

For a number of years Mr. Eoth exhibited his paintings in New York 
and Philadelphia. Not meeting with' success he went to Europe and 
worked exclusively at etching. Locating in Italy, he fell under the spell 
of Florence, and so caught the spirit of Old Florence that the director of 
Uffi'zi Gallery purchased a series of his Florentine etchings for the Ufflzi 
print department — a distinguishing honor. 

"In developing his plates he does not make use of the three baths in 
customary use among etchers. His method is to apply the acid, touch 
by touch, with a feather, blotting paper at hand. By this method, in- 
volving almost infinite labor, he is sometimes able tO' secure as many 
as twelve values." 

Mr. Eoth's work has been welcomed in America as promising well for 
the future of the art." (Int. studio 54:13.) 

KoTH^ Fkbderick George Richard, (S) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., April' 28, 
1872. A pupil of Hellman in Vienna, 1892, and Academy of Fine Arts, 
Berlin, 1894. He received silver medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904,- 
and was elected full member of the National Academy in 190(5. A mem- 
ber of the National Sculpture Society, and has exhibited in Europe and 
the United States. 

Mr. Roth works in clay, glazed porcelain, bronze and marble. His 
group of polar bears won his election to the National Academy. He 
designed the architectural tigers for one of the gates of Princeton Uni- 
versity. 

"He is capable of producing a portrait of an individual creature as 
well as a symbol of the species." (Arts & D., 2:222.) 

RucKSTUHL., Frederick Wellington, (S) b. Breitenbach, Alsace, Ger- 
many, May 22, 1853; came to America when one year old. Pupil of 
Academic Julien under Mercife, Boulanger and Lefebvre. He received 
honorable mention in the Paris salon 1889. For many years was secre- 
tary of the National Sculpture Society. 



233 

"Without question Mr. Buckstuhl's most beautiful work is his marble 
figure "Evening" which he modeled in Paris and which won him an 
honorable mention at the salon of 1888 and a medal at the Columbian 
Exposition. It is a poetic conception very simply expressed in a pose 
of unusual grace, and reveals a close study of nature." (Taft.) 

Other well known works of his are : 

"Mercury teasing the eagle of Jupiter," in St. Louis. 

"Solon" in the Library of Congress and 

"Wisdom" and "Force" the two seated figures which guard the en- 
trance of the appellate court in New York City. 

One of his latest and most popular works is "The spirit of the confed- 
eracy." 

(Taft.) 



Eydeb^ Albert Pinkhaji, (P.) b. IS'ew Bedford, Mass., March 19, 1847. 
Studied art under William E. Marshall %nd at the National Academy of 
Design, New York. Practically self-taught. -Meittber of the National 
Academy of Design, New York, since 1906. "'■'-'--. ^-^ 

The titles of 'some of his characteristic Avorks give an idea of the scope 
of his subjects : 



"Jonah and the. whale" 
"Christ appearing unto Mary" 
"The story of the cross" 
"Charity" [-^ '■'''' 
"The forest of Arden" 
"The little maid 'of Arcady" 
"The two lowers-'? 
"Constance" 
"The sisters" 
"Desdemona'' 
"Macbeth on horseback" 
"Meeting the three witches" 
"Autumn landscape" 
"Moonlight" 

Charles DeKay, the art critic, who really discovered Eyder, writes of 
him as "a colorist quite apart from schools and masters who, like Homer 
D. Martin,. is what might be called an instructive colorist " 

Generally small in size, often jewel-like, inwardly more glowing and 
charming than Limoges enamels, his pictures deal in color as the works 
of a great born composer deal in music. 

"His moonlight scenes are imbued Avith the witchery and mystery of 



"The old m>lF' 
"The wandering cow" 
"The race" "i^,., 
"Chasfe" .i ", f 
"The passing song" 
■~"Si6gfli&*V*;- : 
'tF%lng::Dij.tchman" 
"The. templfe'ii^f the mind" 
"The'terap€^t|' 
'Toet_oiiiJPegasus 'visiting the 

muses" 
"The horseman" 
"Twilight" 




AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS. 



^35 

night, as perhaps no one else has presented it His is that obscure 

illusive quality that is to painting what Browning is to poetry." 

Isham, in his "History of American Painting," says: "Ryder's pic- 
tures differ from Whistler's as well as from Fuller's in being not tran- 
scriptions from nature but creations of the imagination, and in striving 
to convey ideas, vague but poetic." 

-Walter Pach, the writer, in the L'art et les artistes, names Ryder as 
one of the three great American painters and says : "His art is like the 
playing of some master violinist, color and form and other painters' 

harmonies being the strings of his fine instrument He chooses his 

subjects from the poets ...... and out of them he produces pictures of 

])rofound and poignant beauty, intensely personal expressions of his 
own rare spirit." 

"We know of no living artist who fills us \vith such rare and charming 
poetical thoughts, none who transports us into such a mysterious, de- 
lightful unreal, fairy realm of the fancy." (New Eng. M. 14:150.) 

Saixt-Gaudens, Augustus, (S.) b. Dublin, Ireland, March 1, 1848; d. 
Cornish, N. H., August 3, 1907. At the age of six months he came with 
his family to Atnerica. When thirteen he was apprenticed to Louis Avet 
a cameo cutter. From 1864-7 he studied drawing at night at Cooper 
Union and at the National Academy of Design, and in 1867 went to 
Paris to study sculpture. In 1869 he entered Jouffroy's studio in the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts. While in Rome, 1870-2 he produced the statues of 
"Hiawatha" and "Silence"; also experimented in painting, making stud- 
ies of the Campagna. He returned to "the United States in 1874. An 
associate member of National Academy of Design, 1888; full member 
1889. 

His five monumients in the remarkable series of memorials to civil 
war heroes are the^^'arragut statue and the equestrian statue of Sherman 
in New York, Shaw memorial in Boston, and the statues of Lincoln and 
Logan in Chicago. 

The "Head of Christ" for the Phillips Brooks memorial was one of the 
last things that Saint-Gaudens did with his own hands. 

An eminent critic has called the Sherman monument the third greatest 
equestrian statue in the world, placing only the "Colleoni" of Verrocchio 
and the "Gattamelata" of Donatello before it. His "Deacon Chapin" is 
probably the finest embodiment of Puritanism in our art. 

Kenyon Cox says : "I believe Saint-Gaudens is the most complete 
master of relief since the fifteenth century." His technical perfection 
in this rare art is best seen in the relief -portraits af the "Butler chil- 
dren;" "Sarah Redwood Lee" and the "Schiff children." 




Dopyright by J. B. Purdy, Boston. 

JOHN SINGER SARGENT. 



237 

Of the ''Adams memorial" now placed in Eock Creek cemetery near 
Wa'shitigton, D. C., the above mentioned critic writes: "One knows of 
nothing sinde the tombs of the Medici that fills one with the same hushed 
awe as this shrouded, hooded, deeply brooding figure, rigid with con- 
templation, still with an eteriaal stillness, her soul rapt from the body 
on's6me distant quest .'..... Her meaning is mystery; she is the ever- 
lasting enigma." 

France made him an officer of the Legion of Honor and the art societies 
of France elected him to the highest position Avithin their gift. But the 
honors which he valued most of all were the degrees conferred upon him 
by Harvard and Princeton— the gratifying token of recognition by great 
centers of learning of the fact that he had done notable work in raising 
American sculpture to its present heights. (Craftsman 13:59.) 

Sargent^ John Singer^ (P., Mural P.) b. Florence, Italy, January 12, 
1856, of American parents. From his infancy he breathed an atmosphere 
of culture and art. He began his art studies at the Academy of Fine 
Arts in Florence and continued them in the studio of Carolus-Duran, 
Paris. At the age of twenty- two he received honorable mention in the 
Paris salon for his "Fishing excursion." In 1879 he sprang into noto- 
riety with his portrait of his 'Blaster, Oaroliis-Duran. His "El Jaelo," 
a dancing girl, created a sensation in 1882; Madame Gauthereau's por- 
trait made him famous and "Carmencita" was purchased by. France for 
the Luxembourg Gallery. His charming "Caniation, lily, lily, rose," was 
purchased for the 'B«yal Academy, -Iwndop,; and. his great .canyaa "'El\fi 
four doctors" was presented to the John Hopkins University in 190.7; 

It was his "Frieze of the prophets" in the Boston Public Library that 
brought to the name of John Singer Saj-gent popularity in ihe United 
States, but his portrait painting hasgiven him world-fame. 

Isham says: "With all limitations and reserves made, he has talents 
manifest and unmistakable that give him securely his position as the 
first portrait painter since Reynolds and Gainsborough." 

Kenyon Cox writes: "Since the death of Whistler, Mr. Sargent holds 
by all odds, the highest and most conspicuous position before the world 
of any artist whom we can claim in some sort as American — indeed, he 
is today oiie of the most famous artists of any country, easily the first 
painter of England and one of the first wherever he may find himself." 

"Sargent's canvas vibrates with the exquisite quality of the theme 
itself, in all its integrity. That is his great gift If there is a liv- 
ing painter in whose interpretations of character, confidence can be plac- 
ed, it is Mr. Sargent His range is apparently nnlimited." (Cortis- 

soz.) 



238 

Child in his "Art and criticism" has this: "Mr. Sargent is an artist, 
in the noble sense of the term ; he will never consent to be commonplace ; 
he loves rarity ; he interests always by the distinction of an effort which 
is not that of ordinary men." 

"Possibly the feature of Mr. Sargent's work that excites the greatest 
admiration in his fellow-artists is his facile handling of the brush. The 
final result of it gives one the impression of work done easily — in fact 
rather improvised than premeditated. But the impression is somewhat 
misleading, every stroke is calmly calculated, every touch is coolly de- 
signed." (John C. Van Dyke.) 

Mr. Sargent is a member of the Eoyal Academy, London, of the So- 
ci6te des Beaux Arts, Paris, National Academy of Design, New York, a 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor, France, and his works are hors con- 
cours in the Paris salon. 

The highest honor of artistic distinction came to him in 1897 when he 
was invited to paint a portrait of himself to be hung in the famous por- 
trait gallery of the Uflfizi, Florence, Italy. As none but truly great and 
world-famous artists are thus honored, this compliment ensures to him 
undying fame. 

Mr. Sargent is noAv in the United. States engaged in placing his last 
decoration in the "Ti-iumph of religion" series in the Boston Public Li- 
brary. 

Sabtain^ William, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., November 21, 1843. A 
pupil of Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Bonnat and Ecole des 
Beaux Arts in Paris, he also studied in Italy and Spain; won silver 
medal in Boston ; received honorable mention Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts and bronze medal Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 
He_is an associate member of the National Academy; was one of the 
founders of the Society of American Artists; president New York Art 
Club and taught life classes in Art Students League, New York. 

"There is in Mr. Sartain's work a delicacy of tone in the simple masses 
not striking at first, but whose absolute justness is recognized on longer 
acquaintance. Some of his Moorish street scenes have a depth of lumin- 
ous atmosphere enveloping the figures in the way comparable to that of 
Pieter de Hooge." (Isham.) 

Cox writes of the romantic feeling and deep golden tone of Sartain's 
"Kasba." 

ScHiLLB, Alice, (P., Min. P.) b. Columbus, Ohio. Ptipil of Columbus 
Art School, Art Students' League and New York School of Art under 



239 

William M. Chase, and Prinet, Collin and Courtois in Paris. Won the 
Kew York Woman's Art Club prize in 1908. 

"Sufficiently an impressionist to be clever and not sufficiently pledged 
to impressionism to run into. the amazing technical vagaries of that cult. 
(Int. studio 45:xliii.) 

Schneider, Otto J., (P., E.) b. 1875, and spent his childhooci in At- 
lanta, 111., moving to Chicago at the age of twelve. He received instruc- 
tions at the Chicago Art Institute ; was employed as an illustrator for a 
number of years in <the art departments of various meti'opolitan news- 
papers, and later took up etching. 

Mr. Schneider's portraits of men exhibit his strongest work. The pro- 
file portrait of Ealph Waldo Emerson has the idealistic qualities of a 
great portrait. The portrait of the late President McKinley in the calm 
dignity that was part of the man, inspired a memorial etching. Again 
power is, shown in the analysis and presentment of the unique personality 
of Elbert Hubbard; in the di'y-point of Dr. Quinn the musician, in pro- 
file; in the full face of Mr. A. F. Brooks, the painter, and again in the 
portrait of Bror J. Olsson-Nordfeldt, the etcher and painter. In each 
the salient characteristics are portraj^ed in their true light. "His por- 
traits of women are fantasies on the motif of grace; those of men pene- 
trate character and are documents of human endeavor; the street study 
opens to another impersonal interest and in the landscape Mr. Schneider 
has reached a point worthy of the highest appreciation. Into his picture 
"A quiet nook" there is reflection of the artist's own consciousness and 
his belief "that nature never did betray the heart that loved her." (I^na 
M. McGauley.) 

"Schneider's swing and easy mastery of line has produced direct and 
virile characterizations of notabilities: Lincoln, Emerson, Mark Twain. 
In contrast to these free and vigorous character studies are his graceful" 
female portraits with a suggestion of Helleu, but individual neverthe- 
less." (Weitenkampf.) 

ScHOFiBLD^ W. Elmbe, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., September 9, 1867. 
Pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and under Bou- 
guereau, Doucet, Ferrier and Edmond Aman-Jean in Paris. Received 
honorable mention at exhibition of Art Club of Philadelphia in 1898," 
also at Paris Exposition, 1900 ; Webb prize, Society of American Artists, 
1900; first Hallgarten prize. National Acadeniy of Design, New York; 
honorable mention Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh; Sesnan gold medal 
of honor, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1904. Member of the National 
Academy of Design, New York, since 1907. 

Represented in permanent collections in Buffalo Museum of Art, Penn- 



240 

sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Cincinnati Museum, Carnegie Insti- 
tute, Pittsburgh, John Herron, Art Gallery, Indianapolis, and Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington. 
Best known paintings are: 

"January evening" "Sand dunes near Lelant" 

"i^Vinter — snow study" "The packet boat" 

"Winter in Picardy" "Early evening, Boulogne" 

'JThe wood road" "Below the lock" 

"February morning" "Early days of spring" 

"Midwinter thaw" "March snow" 

"Mr. Schofleld is a landscape painter who favors snowscapes ; he paints 
his landscape;s after the fashion of the Manet impressionism — of seeing 
things flat, as broad masses." 

"Schofleld lays on his pigment in broad touches, and the picture has 
a tendency to lie on the surface of the canvas as a decorative pattern. 
His subjects have the quality of a tapestry of delicate gray and buff 
spots." (Isham.) 

"Essentially a man of the open, Mr. Schofleld makes the spectator con- 
scious of a rugged quality dominating his canvases wherein detail is 
subordinated to mass and general effect .... To his excellent draughts- 
manship Mr. Schofleld added a distinguished feeling for tone and color, 
ana'always he had "iin innate sense of the pictorial grasping intui- 
tivj^ly the possibilities of the picturesque in a composition- way." (Ar- 
thur Hoeber.) 

ScHULEOi, Hans, (S.) b. Alsace-Lorraine in 1874. When flve years of 
age he came with his parents to the United States. Living in Baltimore, 
he attended the Maryland Institute and studied with the Charcoal Club. 
When the Einehart School of Sculpture was opened he was one of the 
original four students who received instnictions. Here he studied for 
three years then went to Paris in 1898 and studied at the Academic 
Julien under Baoul Verlet. During the j'ear he was in Paris he won two 
class medals, and in 1899 the Prix Honoraire. Saint-Gaudens became 
interested- in the young sculptor and through his influence he was 
awarded the Einehart Scholarship for Paris. 

Hifi "Ariadne" was sent to the salon in 1901 and it was awarded the 
coveted Gold Medal; "Paradise lost" was exhibited in the salon of 1908 
and- "Memory,"' a tomb figure in bronze, was completed in 1904. Return- 
ing t:o theUnited States in 1905 he received many commissions for por- 
trait busts of distinguished people. 

One of his most beautiful works is "Aphrodite" springing from the 
sea. foam. 



241 

"Scliuler's work is strong. His ideas are original, his conceptions are 
inspiring, life-like — almost hiiman." (Int. studio 53:xxix.) 

ScoTTj Emily Maria Sfaford, (P.) b. Springwater, N. Y., August 27, 
1832. Mrs. Scott's first attempt at drawing was in the' copying of fashion 
plates, because when she was young pictures in the family were few and 
far between and even chromos were scarce. She was educated in the 
public schools of Springwaier and at Ann Arbor, Michigan. In 1871 she 
went to New York City to study at the National Academy of Design and 
later entered the Art Students' League. In 1872 she went to Europe 
speiiding two years in study in Paris and. in the cities of Italy and other 
countries.. Since 1876 her home has been in New Yqrk City. March 1, 
1853, Miss Spaford Avas married to Charles Scott of Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan. 

"Roses have been Mrs. Scott's favorite study and she paints them with 
a tenderness and sentiment rarely seen in flower pictures." 

ScuDDER, Janet, (S.) b. Terre Haute, Ind. A pupil of Rebisso in Cin- 
cinnati and Lorado Taft in Chicago; in Paris she studied lirst in the 
Vitti Academie and Colarossi's night school, then under MacMonnies. 
After an absence of three years. Miss Scudder returned to the United 
States and opened a studio in New York. Her first commission was for a 
lamp post design and her second, the seal for the Bar Association of 
New York. After receiving commissions for several memorial tablets 
and portraits in relief, she again went to Paris and from there to Flor- 
ence, Italy,, where she had a studio ior several years. ;.: 

Miss Scudder has been honored in Paris, five of her medallion portraits 
having been purchased by the French government, and these are the first 
work of an American woman sculptoi: to be admitted to the Luxembourg. 
These medallions are in bas-relief in marble, framed in bronze; casts of 
them have been made in gold and silver. One is said to be the largest 
medallion ever made in gold, being about four inches long. (Glements- 
"Women in Fine Arts.") 

Her portrait medallion of Bishop Hare is especialjy notable. Delight- 
ful also, is the portrait of Master Billy Fahnestock. Her "Sun goddess'-' - 
for the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, representing Japanese 
Art, is a gravely dignified and significant sculptural creation. Miss 
Scudder is the only woman among the contributing sculptors. , 

While residing in Italy, Miss Scudder became interested in fountains, 
and in this line of work she has made her largest contributions to con- 
temporary art. "It is these -which give the keynote to her art, establish- 
ing its individuality and to a degree measuring its worth. - ' Her theory 
is that sculpture can be at the same time both gay and serious, enlivening 
31- 



242 

and uplifting ...... In Tier figures of children she has embodied the very 

essence of childish glee while keeping invariably in mind the prerogatives 

of plastic expression While her fountains are merry, they are in 

nowise trivial." (Int. studio 39 :lxxxi.) 

Miss Scudder has been selected to design a decorative memorial foun- 
tain to the late D. B. Burnham, the architect, to be placed in Burnham 
Green, Manila, Philippines. 

Several of Miss Scudder's charming fountain centers were displayed 
at and became a part of the decorative exhibits at the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition. 

"Her fountains and garden pieces are small and sportive, but intense- 
ly sincere and never trivial." 

The favorite subjects are : 

"Young Diana" 

"Little lady of the sea" 

"Young Pan" 

"Plying cupid" 

"Frog" fountain, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

"Fighting boys" fountain, Art Institute, Chicago. 

Sears, Taber, (Mural P.) b. Boston, Mass., 1870. Pupil Acadamie 
Julien in Paris under Benjamin-Constant and Laurens; also studied Avith 
Merson in Paris, and in Florence and Eome. 

Mural paintings: 

"Spirit of Niagara" in Buffalo historical society. 

"New York among the nations," New York city hall. 

Frieze of the apostles, Epiphany church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Stained glass window : "Presentation in the temple." (Art & P. 2 :315.) 

Seton, Ernest Tho^ipson, (I.) b. South Shields, England, August 14, 
1860. Lived in the backwoods of Canada 1866-70; on the western plains, 
1882-7; educated at Toronto Collegiate Institute and Eoyal Academy, 
London; studied art in Paris in 1890 and again in 1894, a pupil of 
G6rome, Bouguereau and Ferrier. Exhibited in the salons paintings and 
drawings of wolves, his favorite subject. 

He was one of the chief illustrators of the Century Dictionary con- 
tributing fully a thousand drawings of animals- and birds; was also ofiB- 
cial naturalist to the government of Manitoba, and is well known as. an 
artist, author and lecturer. 

Seiwell, ROBEE.T V. V., (Mural P.) b. New York, 1860. Pupil of Le- 
febvre and Boulanger in Paris. Received first Hallgarten prize Na- 
tional Academy of Design, 1889; also won many medals. Elected asso- 



243 

ciate member of National Academy, 1902. Member of leading art clubs. 
His mural painting "The Canterbury Pilgrims" in the great hall of 
Georgian court, Lakewood, and several others are widely known. 

Shannon^ James Jebusa, (P) b. Auburn, N. Y., February 3, 1862. 
Spent early boyhood at St. C'atherines, Ont. First painted bill posters 
for agricultural fairs; at the age of fifteen he went to London. Worked 
three years in South Kensington School where he took gold medal for 
figure painting; has also taken medals for portraits at exposition in 
.Paris, Berlin, Vienna and Chicago. Associate member of Eoyal Acad- 
emy, London, in 1897; full member in 1909; associate member of the 
National Academy of Design, New York, 1908. 

While a student he painted by command of Queen Victoria the por- 
trait of Miss Horatio Stopford, one of the maids of honor, since which 
time he has been overrun with commissions. 

Among his notable works are his "portrait of the young Duchess of 
Portland, Marchioness of Granby, Lady Marjorie Manners, Duchess of 
Sutherland, ''Miss Kitty," Lady Carbery and children, Miss Clough, and 
Sir Alfred Lyall. His "Iris" a portrait of his wife, has won high praise 
and was, together with "War" nd "Flower girl" purchased for the Tate 
Gallery. 

Hartmann says : "He is today one of the most brilliant and certainly 
one of the most fashionable portrait painters of London. In forming his 
style he has been chiefly influenced by Bastien LePage and Whistler." 

"The portrait which J. J. Shannon paints may be designated as pic- 
torial Shannon belongs to those who will first and last see an 

object and render it with reference to its value as a picture." 

"This priceless quality of the art to which Shannon and his colleagues 
are the heirs is its ability to suggest the special atmosphere and environ- 
ment of a given period." (Brinton's "Modern Artists.") 

In England Mr. Shannon enjoys a popularity as a portrait painter 
second to John Singer Sargent. 

Mr. Shannon received the unique distinction of a "m6daille d'hpnneur" 
for his portrait of Phil May, exhibited at the International Exposition 
of Fine Arts at Barcelona, Spain, 1911. 

Commenting on his recent portrait of Princess Mary, a London art 
correspondent says: "The artist has done full justice to his subject in 
the delightful freshness and simplicity of style which he has brought tp 
bear on it, skilfully avoiding the usual stiffness and conventionality of 
the average royal portrait." 

Sherwood, Eosina, Emmet (Mrs. Arthur M. Sherwood), (Min. P., I.) 



244 

b. New York City, December 13, 1857. Pupil of William M. Chase in 
New York ; Academie Julien in Paris. 

Mrs. Sherwood has received many prizes and medals for drawing and 
miniature work, and was elected associate member of National Academy, 
1906.' 

SiiiNN^ EvEfeEtTT^ (P., I., Mural P.) b. Woodstown, N. Y., November C, 
1873. Studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for 
five years. Mr. Shinn did illustrating for Philadelphia newspapers and 
for two years furnished drawings for the New Yoi*k Press. He has been . 
represented in all leading magaz-ines, and the Boussod, Valadon Com- 
pany sent him abroad to make pictures of the street scenes and typical 
life in Paris, exclusively for their trade. 

^'Shin is a master of the pastel ; he knows thoroughly the possibilities 
and the limitations of his medium." (Int. studio 30:84.) 

"Matin§e crowd, Broadway"; "French music hall" and "Outdoor 
stage, France," are admirable examples of his work in this medium. 

In his mural decorations he revives the eighteenth century French 
jjainting, copying the style of Watteau, Fragonard and Boucher., ' " 

Mr. Gallatin says of Shinn's decorations : "We have very charming ' 
souvenirs of the joyous days when Louis XVI sat upon the throne of 
France." His latest and most successful effort in this line is a series 
of panels painted for W. M. Salisbury's house at Pittsfleld, Mass. . 

Mr. Shinn has been grea'tly influenced by Degas with whom he studied 
drawing. ■■< ■ ■ 

Shinn, Florence Scovel, (I.) b. Camden, N. Y. Studied art at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; an illustrator since 1897. 

Her keen sense of humor crops out in every group, and the turn of a 
line gives a comical effect. The peculiar gift that Mrs. Shinn is en- 
dowed with is that she can draw the most pitiful little figures and j'et 
infuse into the picture a happy, healthy atmosphere that impresses us 
with the worth and joy of living. Her characters are never caricatures; 
they are appealing and provoke the laughter that bears no malice. 

Shirlaw, Walter, (P.) b. Paisley, Scotland, August 6, 1838; d. 
Madrid, Spain, December 29, 1909. Began his career as an engraver and 
illustrator; Avas thirty -two years of age when he Avent abroad to study. 
After seA'en years in the school in Munich imder the instruction pf 
Wagner and Kaulbach, he returned to this country and devoted himself 
to the interests and advancement of national art. He was one of the 
first instructors at the Art Students League, New York. One of the 
founders, and the first pi'esident of the Society of American Artists. 



245 
Earlier pictures: 

"Toning of the bell" "A study of a head" 

"Sheep-shearing in the Bavarian "Feeding the poultry" 

highlands" ','Good morning" 

"The young patrician" "Sheep" 

Other words : 

"Capelmeister" "Indian girl" 

"The fiddler" "Eager for the fray" 

"Very old" "Autumn" 

"Sleep" "Brittany" 

"Gathering seaweed" "Among the old poets" 

"Roses" "Rhubarb green" 

"The dancer" "Checker players" 
"Marble quarry" 

Mr. Shirlaw received medal of the Boyal Academy, Munich; honoraljle 
mention at the Paris Exposition in 1889; associate member of the Na- 
tional Academy of Design, New York, 1878; full member, 1888. 

"The' 'name and fame of Walter Shirlaw will, however, be more certain- 
ly perpetuated through his gifts as a master of decorative arts arid by 
the Influence and effect of his rare personality and noble character on 
conternporaneous art development." (Int. studio 43.) - " . 

Shirlaw's strong point is not color; he shows a decided leaning to 
Sculpture. (Innes "School of painting.") 

In the Morgan Memorial Art "Gallery at Hartford, Conn., there has 
teif^ntly been hung one of Mr. Shirlaw's important canvases — -"The mar- 
ble quarry." It is an Italian landscape. "This landscape more than 
holds its .own in proximity to an exquisite Corot, as well as in close 
association with worthy examples of Daubigny, Troyon and' Jules Du- 
pre." 

Shulz^ Adolph Robert^ (P.) b. Delavau, Wisconsin,' June 12; 1869. 
Studied abroad at the Academie Julien under Lefebvre, iBenjamin-Con- 
'^tant, Laurens and others. Specialty: landscapes; also a teacher. 

At an early age Mr. Shulz became interested in the study of trees, 
their formation and color. He also became familiar with their individual 
aspect while the moods of the sky were his delight. 

"Autumn fog" 
"Spring song" 
,i '/Frost and fog" 
i(Arts&D. 2:332.) 



246 

Sheady, Hetmey MeiRwin^ (S.) b. New Yoi'k,-October 24, 1871. A son 
of Dr. George P. Shrady, one of General Grant's physicians, he gradu- 
ated from the law department of Columbia College, but never took up 
the profession. Recovering from, an illness he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness until 1900 when a financial failure caused him to take up drawing 
and modeling. His first effort was the painting of a mouse. His wife 
offered it to the National Academy of Design for exhibition. If was 
accepted and hung and later sold for f50. A study of kittens followed — 
this brought a fair price. Sketching at the Zoological Gardens he in- 
terested Karl Bitter, the sculptor, who invited him to share his studio ; 
here he modeled the colossal figures which decorated the bridges in 
th grounds of the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, 1901. 

In 1909 he was elected an associate member of the National Academy 
of Design. 

Designs by thirty-four competitors were submitted for the Grant 
Memorial to be erected in Washington, D.- C. Mr. Shrady was awarded 
the commission — 150,000. He had previously won the commission for 
the Washington statue, Brooklyji, N. Y., and also been commissioned 
by the Holland Society of New York to make an equestrian statue of 
William the Silent. 

Writing of the Grant Memorial, a critic says of the artillery group : 
"Nothing in monumental sculpture could well be more spirited and 
imposing then the view from the front of these three great artillery 
horses." Mr. Shrady again illustrated his intimate knowl- 
edge and anatomical familiai'ity with his subjects in seizing upon and 
arresting the happy moment which presents less stress and strain in 
conveying the spirit of life and motion." (Jour, of Amer. Hist. 7:1013.) 

Simmons, Edward Emekson, (P., Mural P.) b. Concord, Mass., Octo- 
ber 27, 1852 ; a nephew of Ealph Waldo Emerson ; graduated' from Har- 
vard in 1874. Studied art in Boston, then went to Paris and studied 
under Boulauger and Lefebvre in the Acadamie Julien, winning the gold 
medal of the studio at the end of his first season. He has been a pro- 
fessional painter since 1879. Is a member of the Ten American Painters. 
Has lived much abroad in Brittany, France, and in Cornwall, England, 
but since 1893 has lived chiefly in New York. 

It was from Brittany that he sent to the Paris salon of 1882 his 
painting "The washerwoman" which brought him honorable mention. 
This model was rendered famous by serving as the heroine for Blanche 
Willis Howard's novel, "Guenn" which was written that year at Con- 
carneau. 

Mr. Simmons painted Breton themes exclusively until he took up his 
residence in St. Ives, Cornwall. Here he became associated with a colony 



247 

of Eng^lish artists and here he p.ainted his successful "Mother and child," 
and a. splendid marine of the Bay of Lelant. His pictures of the Bay of 
St. Ives are among the most beautiful and poetic works of the liind that 
we owe to any modern artist. They have been exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, London. (Brush & P. 5:241.) 

Among other popular paintings may be mentioned : 

"Study at Concarneau" "Bout de la cour" 

"Comer of the market" "Low tide" 

"Summer" "The carpenter's son" (considered 

"Breakfast" one of his best works) 

"The winnowers" 

His mural decorations have been highly praised by critics. Of those in 
the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. (a series of nine paintings 
representing the Muses) Arthur Hoeber says: "The work is thoughtful, 
serious and able; and besides the admirable technical excellence dis- 
played there is felt the intellectual power behind the composition." 

"His decorations of the Astor gallery of the Astoria, New York, rank 
among the finest artistic achievements that the country can boast; and 
the artist has never surpassed the standard that he has here set for 
himself." (King's "American mural painting.") 

"Mr. Simmons is a painter of remarkable versatility and his work is 
distinguished by freedom of execution, exquisite drawing, repose and 
much charm of color." 

Singer, William H., Jr., (P.) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., July, 5, J868. Mr. 
Singer had very little instruction in the art schools. In 1900 he went 
to Paris and studied for a short time at the Academie Julien, then went 
to Laren, Holland, and later to l^forway. The following year his first 
exhibition was made in the Old salon in Paris ; later he exhibited in the 
New Salon. Elected an associate member of the National Academy of 
Design, 1916. 

Mr. Singer paints from nature and does not retouch his work, main- 
taining that "he cannot in the quiet of his studio obtain any of the 
thrills produced by the open." 

"In the matter of color the man is entirely personal.' He sees the 
tenderness of tones, the poetry and charm of atmosphere, the envelop- 
ment and the harmony of the open " 

"The movement of his 'Salmon river,' the dignity of his 'Birches,' the 
refinement and subtlety of his snow in 'My garden' and the delicate 
analysis of his 'The falls' are aJl refreshing and novel, presaging much 
for the future and giving satisfaction in the present accomplishment." 
(Int. studio 54:cxxiv.) 



248 

Sladb^ C. Arnold^ (P.). Studied under Laurens and sketched in the 
East as well as in Italy and France. One of the few American painters 
who are specializing ii^ religious subjects. Some of his canvases remind 
one of Tanner's; they have found their way into several famous collec- 
tions. His "Christ on the mountain" is considered to be a masterpiece — 
"full of the spell of the East and the solemnity of the occasion." 

William B. Lester writes that Slade's viewpoints are original and 
pictorially interesting; that his pictures "have the distinctive note of 
the modern French school— vibrant, clear, luminous and imaginative." 
(Int. studio 51:cxxxi.) 

Sloan^ John^ (P., I., E.) b. Lock Haven,- Pa., August 2, 1871. Studied 
in the evenings for a short time at the Pennsj^lvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but in general he may be said to be st If -taught. 

For several years he was staff artist on the Philadelphia Press; later 
was instructor in Art. Students' League, Philadelphia. 

The following extracts are from an article which appeared in Crafts- 
man 15 :559 : 

"He early learned to handle the etcher's needle with a measure of dis- 
tinction, but he did not take up painting until about ten years ago. 

"In 1904 he left Philadelphia and since then he has made his home in 
New York City, just outside the Tenderloin district. 

"John Sloan is classed as a member of what is known in our academic 
art circles as the Kevolutionary gang, or the Black school. . ■' 

"One finds a literary analogy to Sloan's art in the works of both 

Dickens and Balzac John Sloan, both in his paintings and in the 

brilliant relentless little etchings which give such vivid glimpses of. New 
-York life, shows no tendency to grasp human wretchedness in the mass 
but rather to show here and there a detached bit of life which has the 
power of suggesting the whole turbid current. 

"The coffee line" received honorable mention at the Carnegie Insti- 
tute 1905 and was the most talked of picture of the entire exhibition. 
The scene of "The coffee line" is Madison Square on a bitter blustery 
night in winter where the shivering unemployed are forming a ragged 
waiting line at the rear of a hot coffee wagon. Startling in its fidelity, 
the picture displays Sloan in one of his most tense and_ dramatic moods." 

Smedley, WILLIAM' Thomas, (P., I.) b. Chester county. Pa., March 26, 
1858. Entered newspaper office at fifteen; studied engi-aving in Phila- 
delphia and art in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts ; went to 
New York in 1878, and later to Paris where he studied under Jean Paul 
Laurens. He opened a studio in New York in 1880 and has since been 
actively engaged as illustrator for Harper's and other standard period- 



24D 

icals. In 1883 he was engaged by publishers of "Picturesque Canada" 
to travel with the Marquis of Lome through the west aud Northwest 
Canada and illustrate the work ;• has since made several sketching tours 
in United States and in 1890 around the world. 

In 1881 he made his first contribution to the National Academy of 
Design, New York, and in 1888 Avas represented, for the first time, in the 
Paris salon.- In 1890 won the William T. Evans prize with "A Thanks- 
giving dinner." 

As an illustrator, Mi-. Smedley depicts high and low life with equal 
skill. 

His illustrations of Warner's "Golden house" and Howell's "Their 
silver wedding journey" may be cited as examples of his success in one 
direction, and those of T. A. Janvier's "Casa Napoleon" and Miss Mur- 
free's "Strange people's country" of his success in the other. 

Elected member of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 
1905. 

Burlington magazine says: "Smedley seems like an American Ghir- 
landajo." 

"His pen execution, free and unrestrained, displays the habit of the 
sketcher." 

Smillie, Jambs D., (P., E.) b. New York, July 16, i833; d. September 
14, 1909* The son of a jeweler and silversmith, he did etching before he 
was eight years old. The sentimental bias of early years is shown in 
a weeping willow and tombstone, while a struggle to break the bonds of 
conventionality is evident in a processional line of six or eight black- 
looking buffaloes. He says : "If I remember rightly, sun, moon and 
stars appeared, in the firmament." At fourteen years of age he made 
ambitious illustrations of Milton's "Paradise lost." 

In 1862 he went abroad to study, having previously been employed in 
bank-note engraving. In 1864 lie abandoned engraving and took up 
painting. In 1865 he was elected an associate member of the National 
Academy of Design and an academician in 1876. Was the founder of the 
American Water-color Society, serving as president and treasurer. It 
was to the efforts of Mr. Smillie and Dr. L. M. Yale, an amateur etcher 
of merit, that the organization of the New York Etching Club was 
effected. 

He etched almost the entire work on the large plates, "Childhood," 
"Manhood" and "Old age" after Cole's painting entitled "Voyage of 
life." 

Upon the formation of the Painter-Etchers Society of London in 1860, 
(Sir Francis Seymour-Haden, president), he was made one of the "orig- 
inal" fellows. Representing American etchers, he made a collection of 



250 

their productions and sent tlieni to the first exhibition of that society 
in London. 

"He is possessed not only of the qualities needed by an original etcher, 
but the powers of adaptation." 

Smith^ Fuancis Hopkinson, (P., I.) b. Baltimore, Md., October 23, 
1838 ; d. New York City, April 7, 1915. He belongs to a family of art- 
ists, his great grandfather, Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, being an amateur in water-color and his grand- 
father, Judge Joseph Hopkinson, the first president of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts. When a boy Mr. Smith began to paint and 
has made thousands of sketches and studies in the open air. He not 
only seems at his strongest in charcoal but he prefers it to lead, in oils 
or to water-colors; as an artist he is substantially self-taught. 

His paintings are all of a summer-like character. "Franconia Notch" 
is remarkably successful in the delineation of falling water and the moss- 
covered rocks which line the ravine. 

Of his views of Venice, Isham says: "They are not emotional, they are 
not subtle, they are not tonal, but they are very charming with their 
delicately colored skies, their luminous air, their soft sunlit marbles and 
clear cool shadows." ir: . 

"His water-color sketches have a softened brilliancy, a breadth of 
treatment and a simplicity that gives evidence of practical skill and 
carrrying the idea that the effort was one of expression and that he has 
portrayed the scene just as it was at the time he sketched it." (Nat. 
Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"In his cloud effects and in his representation of limpid water Mr. 
Smith shows very exceptional ability." 

He achieved distinction as an artist, author, lecturer, critic plaj'- 
wright, engineer and expert bridge constructor. 

Smith^ Jessie Willcox, (P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa. Educated in 
private schools; studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts and under Howard Pyle at Drexel Institute. 

Miss Smith was a kindergarten teacher until her health failed ; she has 
been engaged as an artist and an illustrator since 1890 and her work is 
seen in all the leading American magazines. Her first actual work was 
in the advertising department of the Ladies' Home Journal. 

"Jessie Willcox Smith's particularity is the decorative use of every 
day subjects. She paints or draws in broad flat masses and is almost 
Japanesque in her use of the planes of her composition." (Bookbuyer 
24 :201.) 

"Her gardens smell of roses and old-fashioned blooms." 



251 

The series of her pictures entitled "A mother's day" is an idyll of 
American motherhood: "Morning," "In the garden," "Checkers," "Bed- 
time." 

"Miss Smith's aim is definite and frank, her method vital and strong, 
and she is also a colorist of charm." 

In critically viewing the paintings in the American exhibit at the 
Roman Exposition of 1911, the dowager queen of Italy (herself a skilful 
painter) expressed special delight with the picture entitled "The dark," 
the work of this talented artist. 

Jessie Willcox Smith is best known by her illustrations for Epbert 
Louis Stevenson's "A child's garden of verses"; "A child's book of old 
verses" and "A book of old stories" ; series of pictures : "Five senses," 
"Children of Dickens'," "Seven ages of childhood," and "Child calendar." 

Smith, Jmiita Orapo, (P.) b. Flint, Mich., July 4, 1862. Studied art 
at the Academie Julien, Paris ; also pupil of Julius Eolshoven and George 
Hitchcock. 

Received bronze medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904, for "The first 
birthday." 

This pE(i"nting is now in the Detroit Museum of Art. Other v.'orks have 
been exhibited in Philadelphia, New Yoi'k and Chicago. 

President Detroit Society of Women Painters. 
A 

SoNNTAG^ William Louis, (P.) b. Pittsbuj:gh, Pa., March 2, 1822; d. 
New York, January 22, 1900. Went to Cincinnati to study art in his 
boyhood; also studied in Europe. Made his home in New York City- in 
1854. Associate member of the National Academy, 1860 ; academician, 
1861. 

"Some of his best landscapes illustrate the picturesque scenery of 
Western Virginia." 

South WICK, Elsie. Whitmore^ (Min. P.) b. Providence, R. I. Pupil of 
Prinet, Dauchez and Madame Chennevi^res, Paris. 

Besides interesting miniatures that are pui'ely pictorial, Miss South- 
wick has been unusually successful with her portraits. 

"Her nudes are wonderfully delicate in line and color, subtle shades 
of pink and rose predominating. 

"Vividness of color is characteristic of Miss Southwick's work. She 
loves Vermillion — gay blues and yellows and violet she likes ma- 
roon and brown and the other dull tones are almost tabooed in her work. 

The peasants of Brittany are a source of interest to her as subject 
matter" 

She also paints in oil and pastel and sketches in crayon. In all her 



252 

work she shows the Arm and direct drawing, the vigorous and gay color- 
ing, the strong character that are evident in his miniatures. (Arts & 
D. 1 :205.) 

Speiiry^ Edward Peck, (Mural P.). Member of American Society of 
Mural Painters, and New York Arch. League. Specialty, stained glass. 

Stanlet^ James M., (P.) b. Canand^igua, N. Y., January 17, 1814; d. 
April 10, 1872. 

In 1834 he removed to Michigan and in 1835 commenced the profession 
of portrait painting in Detroit. Went to Chicago in 1837 and for tlie 
following two years he painted portraits of Indians and took sketches of 
the Indian country in the region of Ft. Snelling, Minn. Subsequently he 
followed his profession in New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Troy, N. Y. In 1842 he traveled extensively over the western prairie, 
painting the portraits of the leading warriers (in full costume) around 
Fort Gibson, Ark., and iu^Texas and New Mexico. After spending some 
time in the Hawaiian Islands he returned and lived in Washington, D. C, 
then took up his permanent residence in Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. Stanley, placed a valuable collection of portraits of the Indian 
chiefs of America in the Smithsonian Institution; these were destroyed 
by fire in 1865; there were 152 paintings. One of the most important 
paintings, "The trial of Bed Jacket," was exhibited in all the principal 
cities of America and EurQpe and finally placed in Detroit, valuable 
both historically and artistically it was appraised at $30,000. His por-' 
traits of distinguished men from all parts of the United States won him 
deserved renown. 

Mr. Stanley was the organizer of the Western Art Association and one 
of the founders of a gallery of painting that in later years became a 
permanent and valuable acquisition to Detroit. (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog. 
C :467.) 

Stanton^ Lucy May^ (Min. P.) b. Atlanta, Ga., May 22, 1875. Pupil 
of Colarossi Academy, Simon, Blanche, Gandara and A. Koopman in 
Paris. Member Pa. Society of Miniature Painters. Specialty : portraits. 
Also tfeachef . 

Miss Stanton's name is included in a group of miniature painters 
whose work is commented on as follows : "Their miniatures are executed 
in a broad, free style, difflcult to attain on ivory, but very delightful 
when douie with the spontaneity and freshness of color exhibited in the 
work of these artists. The color in these is spread on the ivory like a 
stain and is left untouched save for a few accenting touches here and 
there." 



258 

Steele, Heilkn McKay (Mrs. Brandt T. Steele), (P., I., Stained glass 
designer) b. Indianapolis, Ind. Pupil of T. C. Steele and William For- 
syth. Specialty: portrait sketches and designs for stained glass. 

Stephens, Alice Barber, (I) b. Salem, N. Y., 1858. Was educated in 
the public schools of Philadelphia; received her art education in the 
Philadelphia School of Design for Women and in the Pennsylvania Aca- 
demy of the Fine Arts. She has been wood-engraver for, Scribner's and 
illustrator for Harper's, Century and other magazines ;■ has also illus- 
trated for the Ladies' Home Journal, and taught portrait and life classes 
in the Philadelphia School of Design for women. Although Mrs. Stephens 
has studied in Paris in the Acadfemie Julien and at Colarossi's she re- 
gards her development due to her Philadelphia instruction and exper- 
ience in her own studio. 

There is a peculiar tenderness in her conception of childhood ; entirely 
free from prettiness and sentimentality. 

"Alice Barber Stephens is a talent somewhat akin to Sterner. She is 
known for her imagination and facile powers of expression." (Hart- 
mann.) 

"Although nearly all of her pictorial compositions are constructed and 
executed' with understanding, they are seldom spontaneously dramatic 
and it is therefore in pictures of quiet scenes and rural incidents that 
Mrs. Stephens excels." She regards the illustrations for "Fishin' Jim- 
my" as among her most satisfactory achievements. The Bret Harte 
pictures and the illustrations for "John Halifax, gentleman," and "Mid- 
dlemarch" are in another vein and one in which Mrs. Stephens is not 
quite so convincing." 

The beautiful illustrations for James Lane Allen's "In Arcady" were 
made by her for that story at the author's own request. She was Conan 
Doyle's selection, also, of an illustrator for his "Stark Monroe" papers. 
(Brush &P. 6:241.) 

Sterne, Maurice, (P., E.) b. Libau, Russia, 1877. When fourteen 
years of age emigrated with his widowed mother to New York. He 
attended night school ; later joined a class at the old Academy of Design 
and attended other art schools in the city. He won prizes with ease. 
William M. Chase encouraged and honored him by purchasing one of 
his canvases for a substantial sum of money. He also achieved local 
fame by making a series of etchings, chief among them the Coney Island 
set; he assisted the late James D. Smillie as instructor of etching. He 
went to Europe in 1904, and studied in Greece and the Orient. 

"Sterne's plates are notable for their sincerity, freshness and novelty, 



254 

and they received special and veiy favorable mention when they were 
afterwards exhibited in the Paris salons.'' 

"In balance and color, transition of tones, and in their savage nudity 
they resemble the work of Matisse, but Sterne is not a reflection of the 
French so-called post-impressionistic movement." (Int. studio 46:iii.) 

"Rockaway beach" and "Harbor scene" are probably his most import- 
ant plates, though "Maggie" Avas a prize Avinner, and many of his por- 
traits particulai'ly "The reader" and "A profile" are especially delicate, 
and finely etched.^' (Brush & P. 10 :99.) 

Sternkk^ ALBEiiT Edward, (P., I.) b. I^ndon, England, Xovember 8, 
1863. At the age of eleven, his family went to Birmingham, England 
to live and he entered King Edward's School at the head of a competitive 
list of seven hundred students ; took the prize in drawing and after study- 
ing at the Birmingham Art Institute, where he won a scholarship, went 
to Germany in his fifteenth year. When he was eighteen he came to his 
parents who had preceded him to Chicago. Here he took up lithography, 
scene painting and drafting on wood for engravers and designeijs. 

In 1885 took up his residence in New York, where he illustrated for 
"Life," "St Nicholas," and "Harper." Three years later Avent to Paris 
and studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and at Acad^mie Julien under 
Boulanger and Lefebvre. Received honorable mention in 1891 for a 
painting in oil "The bachelor" exhibited in the salon, to Avhich; he was a 
regular contributor. Associate member National Academy of Design, 
1910. 

He has illustrated "Prue and I" by George William Curtis, works of 
Edgar Allen Poe and "Eleanor" by Mrs. Humphrey Ward. 

"He is an admirable painter, a soft, rich and brilliant colorist. This 
quality of color finds its Avay into his black and white. His chief quality 
is his artisticness. He is a conservative radical in art." (Quarterly Il- 
lustrator Yol. 2.) 

Mr. Sterner has recently appeared in a neAV role — that of making por- 
traits in red chalk — called by the Frencli "sanguines." (Int. studio 

35:iiv.) :,-.-,:.;^,. 

Ernest Knaufft says: "The nihiitle of Edwin A. Abbey has fallen upon 
the shoulders of Albert E. Sterner, Avho is almost the sole representative 
of sentiment in illustration. His technique is not so expert as that of 

Abbey but at his best he far transcends the average illustrator, 

and Ave find the genuine ring of art, the true poetic feeling dominating 
his productions." 

"Like Blake and Poe in their poetry. Mr. Sterner sets aside the rules 
of convention and breaks loose from the leading sti'ings of schools, his 



255 

toncli uow poignant, now languid, is the touch of a musician turned 
draughtsman, and the result is most elusive." 

• 

STmvENS, Helen B. (E.) b. Chicago, 111., February 8, 1878. Pupil 
of the Art Institute, Ghicago, and of Frank Brangwyn in England. 
Teacher of etching at the Art Institute, Chicago. 

Stewart, Julius L,, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1855. Was a pupil of 
Zamacois, Gferome and R. de Madrazo. ~ 

Received honorable mention at Paris salon, 1885; third class medal 
jsalon of 1890; gold medal, Berlin, 1891; grand gold medal, Berlin, 1895; 
gold medal, Munich, 1897; Order of Leopold of Belgium, 1895; Legion of 
Honor, 1895, oflScer, 1901; grand gold medal, Munich; 1901: Associate 
Soci6te Nationale des Beaux Arts, 1895 ; member, 1899. 

"In result of Fortuny's influence Stewart has become a thorough man 
of the world, a painter of society, and one of captivating grace, whose 
'Hunt ball' and 'Five o'clock tea' were amongst the most refined pictures 
of the P^ris Exhibition of 1889." (Muther.) 

STiLL^tBLL^ Sarah S., (I.) is known as the delineator of fully clothed 
little girls, as for instance the pair investigating the lions' den in the 
back of Ji recent Harper. 

She was a student in the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia and owes, as 
do all the j^ounger artists of this group, much to the instruction of Mr. 
Howai'd Pyle. She is a close observer of child life; has illustrated a new 
edition of Mrs. Dodge's "Rhymes and jingles" which shows her char- 
acteristic style. She rarely uses other medium than oil in her work. 

Her work is done in her Philadelphia studio. 

Stuart. Gilbekt, (P.) b. Narragansett, R. I., December 3, 1755; d. 
Boston, Mass., July 27, 1828. Began painting at the age of ten and 
Avhen thirteen years old was commissioned to paint portraits of Mr. and 
Mrs. John Bannister, which shows his early precocity. His first tutor 
was a Scotch painter of sOme note, Cosmo Alexander, who came to New- 
port when the boy was fifteen. Two years later Stuart traveled through 
the south with Alexander and later accompanied him to Scotland where 
he was established in the University of Glasgow and under the care of 
Sir George Chambers, but both' peer and painter died within a short in- 
terval of each other, leaving Gilbert alone, friendless arid penniless in a 
strange country; he worked his way back home, reaching his father's 
house in I'ags. 

In 1775 he went to England where through Benjamin West, who recog- 
ni2ie£l M.s talent; he obtain^ much favor and distinction in London. He 



256 

painted three kings and many celebrated people. His representation of 
Kemble, the great actor, as "Richard the third," is considered one of the 
strongest examples of brushwoi'k ever produced in England. Returning 
to the United States in 1792, he opened a studio in Xew York. 

His famous portrait of Washington — the "Athenaeum portrait" — now 
in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, is the only one to be universally 
accepted as a faithful likeness of the father of his country. The "Gibbs- 
Channing" Washington — the one showing the right side of the face — 
is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Gilbert Stuart still holds his place among our best painters, and even 
among his great contemporaries in England. Tuckerman says: "His 
best portraits are glimpses of character." 

SuLLY^ Thomas^ (P.) b. Horncastle, Lincolnshire, England, June 8, 
1783; d. Philadelphia, Pa., November 5, 1872. His parents were actors 
and in 1792 with their family of nine children came from England to 
Charleston, South Carolina. Lawrence Sully, his brother, was a minia- 
ture painter in Richmond, Va., and in 1799 Thomas joined him and 
painted with him until his (Lawrence) death in 1804. 

In 1806 he removed to New York; then for a short time resided in 
Boston for instruction from Gilbert Stuart. He studied under Benjamin 
West in London in 1809, and settled permanently in Philadelphia in 
1810 when he became the most fashionable painter of the day. 

He visited England in 1837 and painted a full-length portrait of Queen 
Victoria. Between 1820-40 he exhibited ten portraits at the Royal Acad- 
emy. 

At an historical portrait exhibition at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, 1887-88, Thomas Sully was represented by 106 pictures, 
"showing great versatility and extraordinary powers of conception and 
execution." 

"Sully is the connecting link betAveen the dawn and meridian of Amer- 
ican art." (Tuckerman.) 

"Thomas Sully was called the 'Sir Thomas Lawrence of America.'. . . . 
His general style is similar to that of the famous painter of English 



StLVESTER^ Fredekick Oakes, (P.) I). Brocktou, Mass., October 8, 1869. 
Mr. Sylvester Avas professor of drawing and painting at Newcomb Col- 
lege; New Orleans, 1881-2 ; instructor in drawing in St. Louis high 
school, 1892-1909. He has done mural work and is the author of "The 
great river" poems and pictures, but is better known as the "Painter of 
the Mississippi." 



25T 

One of his best canvases is of the Eads bridge, St. Louis. The painting 
was awarded a medal at the St. Louis Exposition, 1904. 

Stmons, Gboege Gardner^ (P.) b. Chicago, 111., 1861. He studied art 
at the Art Institute, Chicago, in Paris, Munich and London ; is a mem- 
ber of the National Academy of Design, Eoyal Society of British Artists, 
Union- Internationale des Beaux Arts et des Lettres and Society of 
Washington Artists; has been awarded the Carnegie prize. National 
Academy of Design; Evans prize. Salmagundi Club, prize and gold 
medal of National Arts Club and many others. 

Several of Mr. Symons' best and most favorably received paintings 
have been snow scenes and he stands exceptionally high as a snow 
painter. In his western scenes he shows the gorgeousness of the Grand 
Canyon or the sombre green of the desert. He has painted the Berk- 
shires in all seasons. 

"Mr. Symons has painted many admirable snow scenes but his aut- 
umns have an immense charm and poetic quality and his springs a 
Chaucer-like freshness and undertone of potent life ...... In color Mr. 

Symons is vivid and powerful and in his distances particularly happy in 
the sense of far-reaching depth and the gradation of values." (Outl. 
105-:8S6.) 

"Winter sun" is owned by the Art Institute, Chicago^; "Snow clouds," 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. ; "Opalescent river," Metro- 
politan Museum, New York. 

"Winter evening" was accorded a position of honor in the 1914 spring 
exhibition of the National Academy. It shows the late afterglow seen 
across snowfields and reflected in a brook in the foreground. 

Other notable paintings are: 

"Winter" stood at the gate" "Under a blue sky" 

"Eock-ribbed hills in winter" "Snow clad ,:&elds in morning 

"Winding river" light" 

"Winter glow" "Sorrow" 

"Youth" "The brook" 

Mr. Symons is an out-door painter; he does his painting entirely out- 
of-doors. 

Taft, Loeado, (S.) b. Elmwood, 111., April 29, 1860. He was educated 
at the University of Illinois where his father, Don Carlos Taft was a pro- 
fessor of geology. His artistic training was completed in Paris where he 
studied three years at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

Mr. Taft has been instructor in the Art Institute of Chicago^ since 
1886- lecturer of art, university extension department, University of 
33 




HENRY OSSAWA TANNER. 



259 

Chicago, 1892-1902; professional lecturer on art since 1909. He was 
elected associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1909; 
full member, 1911. His "History of American Sculpture" is a standard 
work. 

Mr. Taft's first great success was the commission for two groups which 
were at the entrance of the Horticulcural Building of the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition-r-"The sleep of the flowers" and "The awakening of 
the flowers." The "Mountains" and the "Prairie" at the St. Louis Expo- 
sition were his next conspicuous work; "Solitude of the soul" won for 
him a gold medal. 

"The spirit of the lakes" the group on the summit of the Ferguson 
Fountain erected near the Art Institute, on the lake front, Chicago-, is 
the first large and purely ideal group erected in America. It represents 
the great lakes typified by five beautiful female figures grouped on a 
pyramid of rocks pouring water from shells — "Superior" poised on the 
summit bends to "Michigan" and "Huron," below are "Erie" and "On- 
tario." 

"The blind" suggested by Maeterlinck's "Les aveugles" is placed by 
scholarly critics among his most important works. 

His colossal statue of Washington for the campus of the University 
qf Washington at Seattle, is also an important work. The Columbus 
Memorial Fountain which stands on the Plaza in front of the Union 
station at Washington, D. C, was dedicated last summer and is among 
his later works. 

On Eagle's Nest Blufl' at Eock River, 111., a lofty promontory 150 feet 
high stands his colossal statue of the Indian Chief Black Hawk. It is 
made of concrete, is 50 feet high and weighs 300 tons. 

One of the greatest civic projects for beautification ever undertaken by 
a city has been started by Chicago. It is to convert the Midway Park 
into a beautiful boulevard. The trustees of the Ferguson fund have com- 
missioned Mr. Taft to start the work, he having offered to devote the 
remainder of his life to the transformation. There will be commemor- 
ated in sculpture persons and events in American history. 

Mr. Taft is original, impressive, artistic and emotional. 

Tanner, Henry Ossawa, (P.) b. Pittsburg, Pa., June 21, 1859, the son 
of Bishop B. T. Tanner of the African Methodist church, is an Afro- 
American painter who became famous in Paris. He studied in the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine. Arts under Thomas Eakins ; was a pupil 
of Jean Paul Laurens and Benjamin-Constant, Paris. Is a member of the 
Paris Society of American Painters, and Soci6t6 Internationale Peinture 
et Sculpture^ Paris ; associate member National Academy of Design, 1909. 

Since 1895 has exhibited every year in the Paris salon. His first work 



260 

was "The sabot maker." In 1896 he entered his "Daniel in the lions' den" 
which received honorable mention. In 1897 he showed "Raising of Laz- 
arus" which won a medal and was purchased by the French government 
for the Luxembourg; "Christ and the disciples at Emmaus" has also been 
placed in the Luxembourg. 

In 1898 "The annunciation" was exhibited and proved one of the suc- 
cesses of the year. "The picture has spirituality so far that if suggests 
the mystery of the conception. (CafHn in "Artist" 24::xiv.) 

In 1900 he showed "Nicodemus coming to Christ." In his "Plight of 
Judas" his idea of dramatic power seems to be carried to the most force- 
ful expression yet achieved; it has the accent of inspiration." (Outl. 
64 .'796.) 

His "Five wise and five foolish virgins" was given a place of honor in 
the salon of 1908. 

M. M. Benjamin-Constant, G^rome, and in fact all the leaders of 
French painting today have recognized Mr. Tanner a true artist and man 
and have come to esteem him for his personal qualities as for those which 
he has shown in his work. 

An eminent art critic says: "In religious feeling Mr. Tanner seems 
nearer to Fra Bartolommeo than to any other artist past or present." 
A marked and welcome quality in all his pictures is atmosphere. 

Tarbell, Edmund C, (P.) b. Groton, Mass., April 26, 1862. Pupil of 
Grundmann at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; also studied under 
Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris. He has been instructor in drawing 
and painting in the Boston Art Museum since 1889 and been awarded 
many prizes for his paintings including Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts medal of honor, 1908, and gold medal of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, 1908. 

Is a member of the Ten American Painters. Associate member Na- 
tional Academy of Design, 1894 ; full member, 1906. 

Tarbell's interiors compare favorably with the paintings of the famous 
Dutch painters and none better than he has pictured our contemporary 
home life. Sunlight and atmosphere pervade the rooms which Tarbell 
pictures. "To Tarbell his art is primarily, almost exclusively, a medium 
of expression of abstract beauty." 

Philip A. Hale, the well known artist critic, wrote in 1898 : "Tarbell's 
'Venetian blind' is the best picture that has been done in America" and 
the jury of the Carnegie Institute endorsed this opinion by awarding the 
picture the gold medal. 

"One of the things that makes Tarbell's paintings different from that 
of other men is the way he treats shadows." (Arts and D. 2:129.) 

Caffln said: "Girl reading" seems a lesson in the holiness of beauty. 



261 

His art, in fact, has the quality of symbolism by which the modern mind 
in endeavoring to interpret "the substance of things hoped for, the evi- 
dencfe of things not seen." His vigorous, dashing brush work is always 
sure to attract attention. This was the principal merit of his prize pic- 
ture— "The bath." 

"Tarbell's characteristics are brilliant versatility, dexterity with the 
brush, and spontaneousness of eifect ; all regulated by innate good taste, 
for he has little of no reserve power." (The artists, 27:xxvii.) 

Frederic W. Colburn, in an appreciative article on Tarbell, says: 
"Among various groups and factors of painters and by the public at 
large, he has come to be regarded as among the most able of living 
painters." 

In writing of "Girl reading," Julia de Wolf Addison, says: "Tarbell 
is past master in making intentional effects appear quite accidental, 
giving this picture a peculiarly natural and easy quality both in color 
and form." 

"Tarbell regards the human brain merely as a medium for 

preeeiving effects of light." (Miither.) 

Kenyon Cox has written: "In the work of Mr. Tarbell there is an 
elegance of arrangement, a thoroughness in the notation of gradation of 
light, a beauty and a charm that were learned of no modern." 

And again: "The best example of Mr. Tarbell's draughtsmanship is 

perhaps the head of the 'Girl mending.' The head of the' girl in 

'Preparing for the matinee' is not so fine in type, but its modeling in the 
delicate half -shadow cast by the hat and the upraised arms, is nothing 
less than masterly." 

"JNo one since Vermeer himself has made a flat wall so interesting-rhas 
so perfectly rendered its surface, its exact distance behind the figure, the 
play of light upon it for the amount of air in front of it. (Burlington 
Magazine 14:259.) 

Taylor, William Ladd, (P., I.) b. Grafton, Mass., Dec. 10, 1854. Edu- 
cated at Worcester, Mass., and in art schools of Boston and New York 
and studied 1884-85 under Boulanger and Lefebvre, Paris. Traveled ex- 
tensively, making a particular study of mediaeval architecture, costumes 
and customs. Settled in Boston 1888, and has since that time been a 
well known painter and illustrator. 

The work which has given Mr. Taylor most reputation, and rightly, is 
his illustration of Owen Meredith's poem entitled "The earl's return." 

Illness and a year's sojourn in Colorado resulted in several paintings 
of the Eocky mountains. "The Caribou hunter" and "Shooting the Eap- 
ids" are excellent works of the period. 

Recent works as an illustrator are selections froin Longfellow's poem, 



262 

the psalm series, a series of New England scenery, and a book of pictures 

of American life. 

"The boy Christ" "The building of the ship" 

"Evangeline" "The golden legend" 

"Minnehaha and Hiawatha" "Priscilla and John Alden" 

"The village blacksmith" "Eosita" (Illustrating Bret 

"The hanging of the crane" Harte's "The mystery of the 

"Maidenhood" hacienda") 

"The old clock on the stairs" "The children's hour" 

Psalm series: 

"When I consider the heavens." (Ps. viii.) 

"The Lord is my Shepherd." (Ps. xxiii.) 

"When I meditate on Thee in the night watches." (Ps. Ixiii.) 

"He shall give his angels charge over thee." (Ps. xci.) 

"I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills." (Ps. cxxi.) 

"Children are an heritage of the Lord." (Ps. cxxvii.) 

Thaybe, Abbott Henderson, (P., Mural P.) b. Boston, Mass., August 
12, 1849. Began to draw and paint before he was ten years old. He was 
educated at Chauncy Hall School, Boston, and before he was eighteen 
received as high as fifty dollars for dog portraits. 

He was first known in New York as an animal painter and it was not 
until he went to Paris (1875) and studied in the Ecole de's Beaux Arts 
under G^rome and Lehmann that he began to make portrait painting 
a specialty and do some landscape work. Is a member of the Aca- 
demia de San Luca, Rome, and of the National Academy of Design, New 
York. 

"Sleep," an idealized likeness of his eldest daughter as a sleeping 
infant, was one of Mr. Thayer's earliest pictures to attract general atten- 
ion. His three masterpieces are "The virgin," "The virgin enthroned" 
and "Caritas." (His children were his models.) 

His chief work is the finely conceived mural decoration in Bowdoin 
College, Brunswick, Maine — a fresco representing "Florence" forms one 
of four lunettes. 

A few landscapes are: "Sketch of Cornish headlands," "Capri," "Mon- 
adnock in winter." 

The keynote of his art is simplicity and the chief characteristic of the 
subjects he chooses is a deep spirited meaning. 

"Abbott H. Thayer merited his inimitable position as a painter of the 
essential spirit of man since no one has fathomed deeper than he the 
mystery of infusing concrete human beauty with the most elusive of 
divine significance." (Critic 46:423.) 



263 

Craftsman : "He paints symbolical figures and groups of great beauty 
in an austere but impressive style." 

"It is however as an interpreter of virginity that this painter is especi- 
ally distinguished His virgins, it has been well said, are obviously 

intended to be adored, but they are at the same time essentially human." 
(Int. studio 39:187.-) 

Thayer, Theodora W., (Min. P.) b. Milton, Mass., 1868; d. August 6, 
1905. Studied with Joseph DeCamp, Boston, and was an active member 
of the American Society of Miniature Painters and of the Copley Society 
of Boston ; taught for several years in the New York School of Art and 
was one of the instructors at the Art Students' League ; was recognized 
as one of the best of teachers. 

Her fine portrait of Bliss Carman is one of the memorable achieve- 
ments in American miniature painting. At one of the society's exhibi- 
tions, she showed "a wee miniature of a wee speck of humanity, a baby's 
head painted in a cloud of sweet mist." (Brush & P. 6:26.) 

Her work is wonderfully full of character and charm. She painted 
with grace and nobility of treatment. 

Tiffany^ Louis Comfort, (P., Stained-glass designer) b. New York, 
February 18, 1848. Pupil of George Inness and Samuel Colman in New 
York and I^eon Bailly in Paris. Received gold medal for applied arts at 
the Paris Exposition, 1900 ; elected chevalier of the Legion of Honor of 
France, 1900; grand prize at Turin Exposition, 1904; associate member 
National Academy of Design, 1871; academician, 1880. Is art director 
of the Tiffany studios. 

It is Mr. Tiffany's achievement in stained glass work that has brought 
him world fame. It is acknowledged by all experts that the great ad- 
vance made in this country in both colored windows and wall mosaic 
work is largely due to the discoveries and inventions of Mr. Tiffany, 
particularly that of Pavrile glass. He has received many personal hon- 
ors, such as being made a member of the Soci6te National des Beaux 
Arts, Paris, also of the Imperial Society of Pine Arts, Tokio, Japan. 

In painting, Mr. Tiffany makes a specialty of oriental scenes. Well 
known subjects in oil: 

"Street scene in Tangiers" "Market day at Nuremberg" 

"Feeding the flamingoes" "Study of Quimper, Brittany" 

"Dock scene" "Duane street, New York" 

"The cobblers at Boufarick" 

TiLDBN, Douglas, (S.) b. Chico, Cal., May 1, i860. At the age of five 
he lost his hearing as a result of scarlet fever and was educated in the 



264 

state institute for the deaf, Berkeley, Gal. He taught in the institute 
from 1879-87. It vras not until 1887 that he took up the study of sculp- 
ture. Among his early work, the first to attract favorable comment, was 
the "Tired wrestler." This he produced while a teacher in the school at 
Berkeley. In 1887 he went to New York and became a student at the 
National Academy of Design. Later he went to Paris and became the 
private pupil of Paul Chopin, himself a deaf mute. After spending 
seven years in- Paris, he returned to the United States and from 1894- 
1900 was instructor in modeling at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Tilden's "Baseball player," in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 
was exhibited in the Paris salon, 1889. "Tired boxer" won honorable 
mention in the salon of 1899. This v/ork, unfortunately, was destroyed 
by fire. "Indian bear hunt" was exhibited in the salon, 1892, and has 
been placed in the grounds of the asylum for the deaf at Berkeley. 

Of the last mentioned group, a sympathetic critic says: "Tilden has 
caught the unmeasured power of the Indian to endure torture unflinch- 
ingly; for he represents him as all unheedful of the bear's savage grip 
upon the bare arm, while he fights for the life of his companion." ( Sun- 
set M. 30:818.) 

A recent work of Mr. Tilden's is a monument in honor of Abbe de 
I'Espee, the first teacher of the deaf. It was seen at the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition. He is now working on a statue of Joaquin Miller to be 
placed in an Oakland park ; has also executed commissions for memorial 
monuments at Portland, Ore., Los Angeles and San Francisco. 

"Considering Mr. Tilden's work as a whole it impresses one princi- 
pally by its simplicity, directness and strength ; its absence of mere senti- 
mental prettiness." (Overl. 31:153.) 

TiLLiNGHAST^ Mary ELIZABETH^ (P., Stained-glass designer) b. New 
York; d. December 15, 1912. Pupil of John LaParge in New York; 
Carolus-Duran and Henner in Paris ; won several gold aiid bronze medals. 
Specialty : designs for stained-glass. 

Trumbull^ John, (P.) b. Lebanon, Conn., June 6, 1756; d. New York, 
November, 1843. The son of the colonial governor of Connecticut, Jona- 
than Trumbull, he was the greatest historic painter of America. A 
graduate of Harvard University, his artistic taste was awakened by 
familiarity with the portraits of Copley and Smibert. He served with 
distinction in t^ie armies of Washington and Gates. Early in 1777 he 
resigned from the army and devoted himself to art as a profession, 
going to London. In 1784 he conceived the idea of his historical pictures 
of the revolution and went to Paris where he painted his "Declaration 



265 

of Independence" assisted by the information and advice of Thomas 
Jefferson. 

In 1789 he returned to America. As an inaugurator of serious histori- 
cal painting, Trumbull bore a very worthy part, and he carried por- 
traiture to its highest limits by making portraits from life for all the 
chief figures introduced into his canvases. His portrait of General 
Washington (in the New Haven collection) must be regarded as a 
standard portrait of the father of his country. When Lafayette first be- 
held a copy of this picture on his visit to this country in 1824, he was de- 
lighted with its resemblance. Tuckerman says: "The most spirited 
portrait of Washington that exists— the only reflection of him as a sol- 
dier of freedom in his mature years, worthy of the name, drawn from 
life — ^is Trumbull's." 

Trumbull was commissioned to. paint four of the eight commemorative 
pictures in the capitol at Washington. He was eight years at the task 
and received $32,000 for the four paintings: 

"Declaration of Independence" "Surrender of General Burgoyne" 

"Surrender of Lord Comwallis" "Eesignation of Washington" 

Other important historical paintings are: "Battle of Bunker Hill," 
"Death of General Montgomery," "Battle of Trenton," "Battle of Prince- 
ton." 

"Trumbull's works still hold their rank not only for their historical in- 
terest but for their artistic merit." Critics rank his "Death of Montgom- 
ery" as the most spirited battle-piece ever painted. His portrait of 
Alexander Hamilton is one of the best portraits he ever did. 

Trumbull was the first president of the Academy of Arts, New York. 

Teton, Dwight William, (P.) b. Hartford, Conn., August 13, 1849. 
Pupil of C. Daubigny, Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, A. Guillemfet and H. 
Harpignies in Paris. Eeceived gold medals of the American Art Asso- 
ciation, New York, 1886 and 1887 ; third Hallgarten prize of the National 
Academy of Design, New York, 1887; gold medal of Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh, 1898; was awarded the Webb prize in 1889 for his "First 
leaves," and first-class medal at the Munich International Exposition in 
1892 for his "Kising moon." He is a member of the National Academy of 
Design, New York, and professor of art in Smith College. 

"He masters, like no one else, the uncertain tonalities of dawn and twi- 
light. Tryon's pictures are almost, literally speaking, musical in their 
effect, not unlike the pizzicato notes on the 'A' string of a violin. His 
parallelism of horizontal and vertical lines is like melodic phrasing .... 
Tryon has reached the calm perfection of Japanese art." (Hartmann.) 



266 

Characteristic color melodies : 

"Before sunrise — Juue" "October" 

"A lighted village" "December" 

"Sea — morning" "Twilight" 

"Sea — sunset" "The evening star" 

"Sea — night" "Springtime" 

"Daybreak" "Summer" 

"Morning" "Autumn" 

"Moonlight" "Winter" 

"April morning" "New England hills" 

Mr. Tryou has added much to the world's store of poetic interpretation 
of nature. Equally refined as his "poems of early spring" are his moon- 
light scenes and his snowy landscapes. He has interpreted sunsets, 
storms, mountains and rugged nature with as powerful a brush as has 
any painter. 

"In his pictures may be seen, as in Daubigny's, a silvery grey atmos- 
phere against which the tracery of young foliage stands out in relief, 
green shining meadows and softly rippling streams, cornfields, apple 
trees and fruit gardens." (Mtither.) 

Tucker, Allen, (P.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y., June 29, 1866. He has exhib- 
ited at the Paris Salon and international exhibitions held in New York. 

"The two painters who appear most obviously to have affected the 
work of Allen Tucker are Monet and Van Gogh It is the land- 
scapes by Allen Tucker that most successfully indicate his attainments 
But it is Mr. Tucker's portraits that perhaps most clearly illus- 
trate both his strongest and his weakest points." 

"Ice storm" one of his characteristic landscapes is "brilliant in key 
and delicate in color." (Int. studio 52:xix.) 

Turner, Charles Yardley, (P., Mural P.) b. Baltimore, Md., Novem- 
ber 25, 1850. In 1872 he went to New York and entered the National 
Academy of Design ; after spending three years in the school and taking 
a bronze medal and a money prize, he went to Paris and studied under 
Laurens, Munkaczy and Bonnat. In Holland he found the subject of his 
famous picture "The grand canal at Dordrecht" ; his best water-color is 
"Dordrecht milkmaid." 

Mr. Turner was assistant director of decoration at Columbian Expo- 
sition, Chicago, 1893, and director of color at the Pan-American Expo- 
sition, Buffalo, 1901, and is a member of the National Academy of Design. 

His finest mural work is a series of wall paintings in the corridor of 
the Baltimore court house, the subject of which is the incident of the 
brig Peggy Stewart entering the harbor of Annapolis in 1774. 



267 

His puritan subjects are particularly fine, and great favorites. Most 
noted are: 

"Courtship of Miles Standish" "The bridal procession" 

"John Alden's letter" "Martha Hilton" 

Mr. Turner has painted four panels for the Capitol at Madison, Wis. 
• The subject is "Transportation" and depicts the earliest mode of travel 
from the primitive canoe to the most modern automobile. 

His mural work is a,lso on hotels Manhattan, Waldorf-Astoria, Martini- 
que, and Bank of Commerce building, New York. 

Turner^ Ross Sterling, (P., I.) b. Westport, N. Y., June 29, 1847; d. 
Nassau, Bahamas, February 12, 1915. Studied in Munich and in Italy. 
Was instructor Mass. Normal Art School and Mass. Institute of Tech- 
nology, 

A few of his best known works in oil and water colors are: 
"A small court in Mexico" "Flying Dutchman" 

"El Jardin, Modesto" "A Bermuda wedding" 

"A painted ship" 

The inspiration for his "Golden galleon" is said to have been derived 
from Lockhart's Spanish ballad, "Count Arnaldo's gallery." 

"Above and beyond any qualities he possesses, and they are many. Boss 
Turner is a cplorist. His is the rare sense which discriminates between 
'colors' and 'color.' " 

TwACHTMAN, JoHN Henry^ (P.) b. Cincinnati, O., August 4, 1853; d. 
Gloucester, Mass., August 8, 1902. Pupil of the National Academy of 
Design, New York, and of Frank Duveneck in Munich and Italy ; studied 
also at the Acad^mie Julien and under Boulanger and Lefebvre, Paris. 

He won the Webb prize, 1888; Temple gold medal, 1895, and was a 
member of the American Art Club, Munich. In 1898 he founded the 
organization known as the Ten American Painters.* 

CaflSn says : "In his 'Brook in winter' it is the soul, as it were, of the 
still cold dormant world that he has rendered. Never has been better 
expressed through the subtle resources of modern methods of painting the 
suggestion of the abstract." 

His artistic qualities are also well represented in 
"The hemlock pool" "The end of winter" 

"Drying sails" "Round Hill road" 

"The torrent" "Landscape in spring" 



♦Society of the Ten American Painters was organized January, 1898. No particular aim except 
ttiat of exhibiting independently of juries once a year. Original members; Benson, DeCamp, De- 
wing, Hassam, Metcalf, Raid, Simmons, Tarbell, Twachtman, Wier. 



268 

"He recognized as few can, the poetic side of snowy pastures and snow- 
bound woodland rills and marshes. His painting of the damp winter 
.weather surcharged with latent snowfall has never been surpassed." 
(Innes "School of Painting.") 

In his handling of the elements of natural scenery, particularly in 
representing snow upon the branches of trees, he shows a high degree of 
skill. (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

Mr. Twachtman is supposed to have been the first American artist to 
employ blue shadows. 

From "An appreciation" published in the North American Keview 
shortly after the death of Mr. Twachtman, the following extract is made : 

"In defining the quality of Twachtman's paintings, one would say that, 

first of all he was a master of 'values' — as much so as Whistler 

One of his paintings instantly arrests the eye of the connoisseur by a 
certain aspect, as original as Thoreau, and sometimes curiously like him." 
(T. W. Dewing.) 

"The great beauty of design which is conspicuous in Twachtman's 
paintings is what impressed me always His use of line was rhyth- 
mic, and the movements were always graceful His work as 

color had delicate refinement and truth." (Ohilde Hassam.) 

"He painted as all men have done who have made great art; he painted 
the atmosphere of his time." (Robert Eeid.) 

"In the death of John H. Twachtman we lose one of our best land- 
scape painters The canvases which Twachtman has left us like all 

work of signally original merit, may prove for a time too fine a food for 
the general palate." (Edward Simmons.) 

"To my mind, he was in advance of his age to the extent that like 
many others, he lived ahead of his epoch." (J. Alden Weir.) 

None of our landscape painters surpass him in subtle delineation of 
atmospheric eflfects and values generally. To many art critics, Mr. 
Twachtman ranks as the greatest American landscape painter. 

Uleich, Charles Frederick, (P.) b. N. Y., October 18, 1858; d. Berlin, 
Germany, May 15, 1908. Studied at the. National Academy of Design in 
New York and with Loeflftz and Lindenschmidt in Munich. In 1884 he 
was the first recipient of the Clark prize at the National Academy of 
Design and this picture "The land of promise" now belongs to the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 

His painting "The glass blowers of Murano" is now in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, N. Y., and marked the climax of his success. 

An associate member National Academy of Design, 1883. 

He resided in Venice for many years and was recognized in art circles 
in Germany, France and England. 



269 

"Critics praised his pictures for their exquisite technique, their finish 
in detail, their purity of color and their strength of character." 

Vail, Eugene, (P.) was bom of American parents at Saint Servan, 
Brittany, September 29, 1856; studied in Art Students' League, N. Y., 
under Carrol Beckwith and William M. Chase and at Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, Paris, under Cabanal, later under Dagnan-Bouveret and Raphael 
Collin. Medals, prizes and distinguishing honors have come to Mr. Vail 
in recognition of his artistic ability. 

Pour scenes of seafaring life, very beautiful in color and among the 
very strongest and best pictures of the kind at the Paris Exposition, 
1900, were "Eeady about," "Port of Concarneau," "The widow," and 
"On the Thames." 

Other admired works are: 

"The hour of prayer" "A rainy day" 

"Evening in Brittany" "Twilight" 

"Autumn near Beauvais" "Rio della Madonetta, Venice" 

"Chemin de foi" 

Vail's landscapes are marked by an exquisite sense of nature, at once 
delicate and full of force. The flsherfolk of Brittany are a favorite sub- 
ject with him, as are the Dutch peasants with Melchers. 

Muther says that Vail was influenced by Mesdag and DeNittis in his 
Dutch sea-pieces and pictures of the port of London, which are shrouded 
in a heavy, melancholy mist. 

CafiSn says: "Eugene Vail while seeing into the soul of his subjects, 
views it with a personal sympathy and interprets, so to speak, in terms 
of spirit rather than matter. That is to say, he does not compel your 
attention to the physical properties of the figures and the landscape ; he 
envelopes the whole in atmosphere, enriching it with somber but tenderly 
impressive harmony of color; so that the picture is as full of mystery as 
of suggestion. It puts us into spirit-communion with the place and its 
inhabitants ; which as I understand it, involves a superior knowledge and 
at the same time an acknowledgment of how much there is unknowable. 
It represents the vision of a poet." 

Van Elten^ Hbndeik Diek Keuseman, (P., E.) b. Alkmaar, Holland, 
1829; d. Paris, France, July 12, 1904. When fifteen years of age was 
sent to Haarlem to study painting under C. Lieste, a landscape painter 
of repute. He won a gold medal at the International Exhibition at 
Amsterdam in 1860 and was made a chevalier of the Order of the Lion of 
the Netherlands. He was a member of the Amsterdam and Rotterdam 
academies; came to New York in 1865, was elected academician of the 



270 

National Academy in 1883 ; also a member of the American Water Color 
Society, New York Etching Club, and the Royal Society of Painter- 
Etchers of London. 

S. E. Koehler writes in the American Art Review, 1880 : "Perhaps it 
would be permissible to class him as an 'international' artist for at the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he exhibited as an American in the Amer- 
ican department and as a Hollander in that of the Netherlands 

Mr. Van Elten's claim to be considered an American was long ago recog- 
nized by the National Academy of Design by his election in 1871 to the 

position of an associate in that body In his choice of subpjects Mr. 

Van Elten seems to betray the Dutch blood that flows in his veins. He 
loves the flat expanse of the grain flelds and the meadows, the quiet copse, 
the dilapidated hut or the river bank grown with reeds in which the fish- 
erman may hide his boat, and he finds these subjects both here and in 
his native Holland." 

A group of 200 of his paintings was sold at the American Art Galleries 
in New York, April 27 and 28, 1905, under the auspices of the Artists' 
Aid Society of New York, bringing |9,335. 

Van Ingbn^ William >Beantley^ (Mural P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 
August 30, 1858. Pupil of Eakins in Philadelphia; LaParge in New 
York ; Bonnat in Paris. Member Mural Painters ; fellowship P. A. F. A. 

His best known mural work is a series of sixteen panels in the senate 
chamber of the state house, Trenton, N. J., entitled "The cause of inde- 
pendence and prosperity." "He has done much mural work in private 
residences in Philadelphia." 

"His attack of the subject is bold and candid, his sketches carefully 
wrought, his brushwork adequate." (Arch. rec. 13:323.) 

Vbddee, Elihu, (P., S., I., Mural P.) b. New York, February 26, 1836, 
of parents whose ancestry is in the Netherlands. It is related that as a 
child he chewed sticks into brushes and spent his money for cheap paints. 
Very early he received instructions in art and in 1856 went to Europe, 
spending the winter in Paris studying in the Atelier of Picot. In the fol- 
lowing spring he went to Italy and spent four years there; returning 
to the United States in 1861 he opened a studio in New York. He was 
elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1863 ; 
full member in 1865. 

Mr. Vedder returned to Rome in 1866 where he has since resided rarely 
exhibiting in the United States. 

"A note of mystery, a recognition of the infinite and unknowable forms 

a characteristic of Vedder's work It is calm, virile, intellectual, a 

mystery of which Darwin and Huxley might well approve." (Isham.) 



271 

Julia de Wolf Addison says : "His message seems to embody the spirit 
of the past; not alone the classical, not alone the mediaeval, nor the re- 
naissance, but in a subtle manner all his own he makes his admirers feel 
the atmosphere of all these fused together " 

Vedder's "Head of Lazarus" is the best representative of his decorative 
art; "Sea serpent" shovs^s his naturalistic painting, and in his "Sphinx" 
he becomes realistic in portrayal. Of his "Keeper of the threshold" an 
enthusiastic admirer says that if it is possible for a picture to hypnotize, 
he feels sure that this one has such power. "Its fascination for me is as 
strong even yet, and I am still under its spell though an ocean lies 
between us." 

"Compositions like "The refuge" are full of deep suggestions and wierd 
attempts in psychology of color." (Hartmann.) 

A few other characteristic paintings are: 

"The African sentinel" "Cumean sibyl" 

"The monk upon the gloomy "The lost mind" 

path" "The crucifixion" 

"The death of Abel" "Greek actor's daughter" 

"A scene on the Mediterranean" "Young Marsyas" 

His illustrations of Edward Fitzgerald's translation of the "Eubaiya,t" 
of Omar Khayyam, published in 1884, won him world-wide renown. His 
mural work at Bowdoin College and in the Library of Congress, Wash- 
ington, has that peculiar element of personality which is so true in its 
import and yet so mysterious and eluding when trying to define its 
character. 

Elizabeth Luther Cary says : "His human forms are the abodes of for- 
eign spirits, great unhuman powers personified His mind is of an 

austere tendency and he holds us to the contemplation of these abstrac- 
tions with an almost noble, but seldom fiery, line and without allure- 
ments of color or surface." 

"Like a poet he chooses his lines with the utmost tact and felicity in 
order to obtain a rhythmic sweep and movement." (New Eng. M. 
14:143.) 

In 1880 an art review said : "If it be the mission of an original talent 
to bring into the world not peace but a sword, Vedder has had the com- 
pliment of creating this kind of a disturbance. 

Mr. Vedder is a painter of ideas. His style is naturalistic as relates to 
truth of illustrating, but ideal and intellectual in motive. (Jarves "Art 
idea.") 

Vinton, Frederic Porter, (P.) Bangor, Maine, January 29, 1846; 
d. Boston, Mass., May 19, 1911. Pupil of William Hunt and Dr. Rimmer 



272 

in Boston, Bonnat and Jean Paul Laurens in Paris, also at the Royal 
Academy of Bavaria, where he studied under Mauger and Dietz. Hon- 
orable mention in Paris salon, 1890; member of the National Academy, 
1891. 

"The early life of Mr. Vinton was passed in mercantile business in 
Boston, butthe later years were devoted entirely to art. At a memorial 
exhibition of 124 of his paintings held at the Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- 
ton, fifty were portraits. 

"Vinton's sterling qualities as a portrait painter are well known. He 
was a strong, incisive and thorough draughtsman, a serious and studious 
observer, with a deep respect for his art and for himself as an artist." 

"His grasp of character in his men sitters — and he was almost ex- 
clusively a painter of men — is in the best of his portraits and on 

a par wiih that of the great portrait painters. A large number of men 
who sat for him were statesmen, jurists, philanthropists, authors, sol- 
diers and successful professional men." (Art. & P. 3:474.) 

"His landscapes were made chiefly for recreation, for play, and in the 
intervals of more arduous undertakings. Based upon a silvery gray prin- 
iiiple of coloring, they were delicate and sober, but free from dullness and 
heaviness." 

VoLK^ Douglas, (P.) b. Pittsfield, Mass., February 23, 1856. When 
fourteen years of age accompanied his parents to Rome where he became 
interested in painting and studied in the Saint Luke Academy. In 1873 
studied in Paris with Gferome. His "In Brittany" was exhibited in the 
salon of 1875. 

He was instructor in Cooper Institute, New York, 1879-84; has been 
awarded many medals and prizes; was elected associate member of the 
National Academy of Design, New York, in 1898; full member, in 1899. 

He writes and lectures on the subject of art with a view to the intro- 
duction of more artistic methods and a higher standard of teaching as 
opposed to the usual mechanical system in art institutions. 

"Mr. Volk is a figure painter who relies upon the subject of his work 
to suggest Americanism." 

Generally he paints a bit of the pine forest, rude and solemn, and 
places in it a girl or boy with such differences of motive as are suggested 
by the titles. 

"Song of the pines" "Thoughts of youth" 

"The woodland maid" "Accused of witchcraft" 

"A winter walk" "Young pioneer" 

"The boy with the arrow" "A belle of the colonies" 
"A colonial youth" 



273 

"The spirit of the nation's past and of its best hopes for the future 
seems to be figured in these types." (The artist 29:xx.) 

VoNNOH, Bessie Potter, (Mrs. Robert W. Vonnoh), (S.) b. St. Louis, 
Mo., August 17, 1872. Pupil of Chicago Art Institute under Lorado Taft. 
Spent four months in Paris in 1895 and four months in Florence in 1897. 
Was married to Robert William Vonnoh, September 17, 1899. Is a 
member of the National Sculpture Society, and was elected an associate 
member of the National A.cademy of Design in 1906. 

Mrs. Vonnoh's specialty is modeling diminutive portraits. Her work 
is suggestive of the figurines done in terra cotta by the sculptors of 
Tanagra, whose work was entirely unknown to her when she began her 
little figures. She presents modern life and modern costumes and con- 
ditions. Her work is impressionistic, suggesting character without ex- 
pressing it. "At her best the figurines are a joyous and lovely expression 
of a charming side of our life. They are like flowers in their poise and 
delicacy and in their exquisite fragility." 

"Dancing girl," the personification of the modern skirt dance, has grace 
and rhythm, and "Young mother" is the finest thing she has ever done. 
A little bust called "Mildred" is charming and shows an intimate knowl- 
edge of character; and a recent figurine of a little girl who is industri- 
ously engaged in eating a potato with a wooden spoon is delightful, and 
suggests Boutet de Monvel "in its frank acceptance of the peculiarities 
which are really the charm of childhood." (Brush & P. 2:29.) 

"Mrs. Vonnoh's 'figurines' and little groups have the bigness of true 
plastic conceptions and at the same time that exquisite refinement pos- 
sible only to works of small scale. Because of inherent merit the ques- 
tion of size does not sigiiify. These bronzes have a charm and grace 
peculiarly their own. Her young mothers are essentially maternal, her 
young women delightfully feminine, yet womanly, her children are child- 
ish, lovable, sincere. Thus in her little groups, Mrs. Vonnoh touches 
upon those human relationships which are elemental, and stirs emotions 
both deep and profound. Her message is delivered with a lightness of 
touch and outward serenity, but it makes universal appeal." (Art & P. 
January, 1913.) 

In writing of the winter exhibition of the National Academy of De- 
sign, a critic comments: "Bessie Potter Vonnoh with small, graceful 
figures preached the sermon of idealism captivatingly." 

"It has been her aim to sound the human note sweetly and reticently, 
without a sacrifice of a certain degree of gentle strength. She achieves 
the precious and delightful distinction of that kind of inconspicuous- 
ness which" signifies proportion and restraint." (Int. studio 54:lii.) 
35 



274 

VoNNOH, Robert William, (P.) b. Hartford, Conn., September 17, 
1858. Pupil of Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, also of 
Acadfemie Julien, Paris, under Boulanger and Lefebvre. Instructor 
Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, Cowles Art School, Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. A mem- 
ber of the National Academy, 1906. 

Exhibited in the salons of 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891. Received honorable 
mention, 1888 ; medal at Paris Exposition, 1889. Exhibited several years 
at Munich expositions. Specialty : portraits. , 

After studying at Grez sur Loing, near the Forest of Fontainebleau he 
said : "I gradually came to realize the value of first impressions and the 
necessity of correct values, pure color and higher key, resulting in my 
soon becoming a devoted disciple of the new movement in painting." 
(Nat. .Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

Some highly decorative compositions are: 

"Hydrangeas" "In costume" 

"Reverie" "Phoebe" 

"In his technique the artist is never ponderous, on the contrary there 
is a degree of elegance which shows the discrimination and elasticity of 
his mind." (Harp. 116:254.) 

Walden, Lionel, (P.) b. Norwich, Conn., May 22, 1862. Studied with 
Carolus-Duran, Paris. Received honorable mention in the Paris salon; 
silver medal ait Paris Exposition, 1900 ; third-class medal in salon of 1903. 

Represented in the Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, Memorial Museum, 
Philadelphia, and Art Gallery, Cardiff, Wales. 

Member of the Soci§t6 Internationale de Peinture et Sculpture, So- 
ci6t6 de Peintre de Marine, Paris, and Society of Paris American Paint- 
ers. 

A noteworthy American in Paris, Mr. Walden is a painter of marine 
scenes and a proficient delineator of shipping and harbor life; has also 
painted some figure and landscape subjects, such as: 

"The torrent" "Out for a sail" 

"The end of winter" "Summer evening" 

"Night on the Mount of Olives" is one of his pictures exhibited in the 
Paris salon. 

Walker, Henry Oliver, (P., Mural P.) b. Boston, Mass., May 14, 1843. 
After a common school education he took up mercantile pursuits, but 
soon gave up up this line of work for the profession of art, going to Paris 
in 1879 to study under M. Bonnat. Returned to the United States three 
years later; settled in Boston but later removed to New York City. 



275 

Member of the Society of American Artists and of the National Acad- 
emy of Design. In 1894 he received the Shaw fund prize for "The 
Singers," and the following year, the Clark prize for "A morning vision." 
"The boy and the muse" is another celebrated picture. Aside from his 
reputation as a figure painter, Mr. Walker is well known for his achieve- 
ments in mural painting. His best wall decorations are to be seen in 
the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, appellate courts. New York ; 
the Massachusetts and Minnesota state capitols. 

Walker^ Horatio, (P.) b. Listowel, Ont., 1858. Studied miniature 
painting under J. A. Fraser, Toronto, also in New York. . Has been 
awarded medals at exhibitions in Paris and United States. Member of 
the Eoyal Institute of Painters in Water-colors, England; also member 
of the National Academy of Design, New York since 1891. Largely self- 
taught, his achievement constitutes one of the most notable conquests in 
the history of art. 

He paints the rustic life of the peasant types on the Isle of Orleans in 
the St. Lawrence river. His subjects are the same as Millet's but he 
treats them in a more impersonal manner. "To Walker these peasants 
going to their daily tasks are a symbol of the eternal stability of life, 
of a quiet harmony with nature's laws." 

"Horatio Walker handles his brush broadly. His color is always rich, 
pure and true, whether inclining to the sombre and deeper notes, or to 
brighter keys where it is joyous and vibrating, full of the intimate charm 
of sunshine." He combines realism and classicism to a decorative as 
well as Suggestive art, which satisfies the most modern taste." 

Characteristic works: "A summer pastoral" 

"Morning milking" "The harrower" 

"Wood cutters" "Hauling the log" 

"Oxen drinking" "Tree fellers" 

"Shepherdess and sheep" "A spring morning" 

"Sheepfold" "Man felling a tree" 

"The potato pickers" "Sheepyard — moonlight" 

"Girl feeding turkeys" "The thresher" 

"Walker's art while immediately concerned with the local and indi- 
vidual character of that portion of the visible world he has chosen for his 
particular study, is concerned also with beauty in the abstract, and with 
the psychological relation of what is finite and temporary to that which 
we conceive to be universal and eternal." (Oaffln.) 

"Harmony is the word which sums up the character of Walker's art ; 
he interprets in harmonies of color." 

Mr. Walker exhibited at the Eoyal Academy, London, in 1901 and of 



276 

one of the collection, a leading art journal said: "Mr. Horatio Walker 
shows a Millet-like realism which is yet charged with poetry. Charm, 
the outcome of power, and not of mere desire to achieve the pretty, is 
the characteristic of this water-color. England should give welcome to 
Horatio Walker." 

Walkek, Nellie Verne, (S.) b. Bed Oak, la., December 8, 1874. Her 
father was a marble cutter and as a child and a young girl she played 
and experimented with the material and implements of the trade. At 
the age of sixteen she elected to become a sculptor and studied with 
Lorado Taft and at the Art Institute, Chicago. 

Portrait busts and ideal groups for memorials are her specially. One 
of her finest groups is "Her son" — "a mother gazing in awe and amaze- 
ment at her son who stands erect, elated with the vision which he may 
not share with her He is the son of her body but his spirit tran- 
scends her in knowledge and in dreams." 

The Stratton monument, Colorado Springs, Col., memorials of the Dig- 
gins family, Cadillac, Mich., and the Decker family, Battle Creek, Mich., 
and a statue of Chief Keokuk at Keokuk, la., are well known. 

Miss Walker is a member of the Chicago Society of Artists, Society 
of Western Artists and the National Sculpture Society. 

Walter, Martha, (P.) b. Philadelphia, Pa. Studied art in the Phila- 
delphia Art School and with William M. Chase; also a pupil of the 
Julian Academy and the Grande Chaumiere in Paris.. 

Miss Walter has won many prizes and has the distinction of winning 
the first award of the Cresson traveling scholarship in 1908 which made 
it possible for her to travel and study in Germany, Holland, Italy and 
Spain. For a short time she had a studio in Paris and received criti- 
cism from Prinet and Simon M6naud. She exhibited in the Paris salon 
and her pictures are now to be seen in exhibitions held in the cities of the 
the United States. In 1909 she won the Mary Smith prize for the best 
work by a woman. 

Miss Walter has been called the painter of joyous children. "She can 
never depict poignant misery without some note of cheer." 

A few of her best known pictures are : 

"Fresh air children" "A parasol tea" 

"Brittany family" "The outing" 

"The shore" "Motherhood" 

"She has a sense of form as well as of color, a feeling for composition 
which is rather rare and she has attained to a mastery of the tools of 
her profession which places her in a position to attain the highest in 



277 

the artist's career Her brush work is broad and applied without 

hesitation, avoiding as far as possible the less important details." (Arts 
& D. 1:303.) 

"Miss Walter shows all the range of tone white may have, from the 
sunlit white of a summer gown to the grey hues of a white dress in 

shadow Her use of color is delightful, her treatment of draperies 

is broad and free." (Int. studio 52:xlii.) 

"Indeed color, air, light and motion are Miss Walter's strong points 
and she is very clever with her little sketches of beaches with their 
tiny figures. 

It all starts with Potthast and ends up with something very suggestive 
of Boldini." (American Art News.) 

Ward, John Q. A., (S.) b. near Urbana, Champaign Co., Ohio, 1830; d. 
New York, May 1, 1910. Displayed a talent for plastic art at an early 
age. Studied under H. K. Brown in Brooklyn, N. Y., remaining his 
pupil for six years. In 1857 made his first sketch for "The Indian 
hunter" now in Central Park, New York, studying his subjects in the 
aboriginal state. lii 1861 opened a studio in New York ; was elected 
associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1862 ; full mem- 
ber in 1863 and president in 1874. Was, first president of National 
Sculpture Society. 

In 1866 he executed the group of "The good Samaritan" now in Bos- 
ton) in honor of the discovery of anaesthetics, and in 1867 presented his 
design for the Shakespeare statue in Central Park, New York. 

His "Freedman" was an early- work, and of this bronze statuette, 
Jarves says: "We have seen nothing in our sculpture more soul-lifting 
or more comprehensively eloquent." 

Tuckerman says : "Although Mr. Ward has never practiced modeling 
in any academy or foreign or famed studio, he has labored with rare as- 
siduity to master the principles of his art. He understands proportion 
and anatomical conditions." 

In the field of portrait statuary, Mr. Ward is one of the masters of the 
day. Perhaps his finest achievement in this field is the statue of Henry 
Ward Beecher in Borough Hall Park, Brooklyn; also statue of Commo- 
dore Perry at Newport, R. I., and statue of Israel Putman of Hartford, 
Conn. Other triumphs are "Horace Greeley," "Lafayette" at Burlington, 
Vt., monument to President Garfield and equestrian statue of General 
Thomas, Washington, D. C. 

"Mr. Ward is essentially a sculptor His technique may lack at 

times that charm of surface manipulation in which his younger colleagues 
excel, but it always shows a quiet simplicity, an impressiveness of mass, 



278 

which is the first element in good monumental sculpture. (Taft's "His- 
tory of American sculpture.") 

Warner, Olin L., (S.) b. West Suffleld, Conn., 1844; d. New York, 
August 14, 1896. The son of an itinerant Methodist minister, it was not 
until 1869 that he was able to sail for Europe. He went to Paris and 
studied sculpture in the Ecole des Beaux Arts under JouflEroy and after- 
wards in the studio of Carpeaux, making the acquaintance of Falgui6re 
and Mei'ci^. He returned to New York in 1872 and was one of the orig- 
inal members of the Society of American Artists. Associate member 
National Academy of Design, 1888; full member, 1889. 

Among his most important works are statuettes entitled "May" and 
"Twilight," a colossal medallion of Edwin Forrest, a bust of J. Alden 
Weir (which excited profound admiration in the Paris salon) and the 
beautiful fountain in Portland, Oregon; also the fountain and spandrel 
figures for the entrance of the Library of Congress, Washington,' D. C. 

"His short. career as an artist was sufficient to place him aiAong the 
immortal masters of sculpture — those who have created a style of their 
own." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"His portrait of William Lloyd Garrison is among the best that our 
country has produced." (Taft.) 

Washburn, Cadwalladbe, (E.) b. Minneapolis, Minn. A pupil of the 
Art League, N. Y. ; he studied under Mowbray and Chase; Joaquin 
Sorolla in Spain. Eeceived second prize of the American Art Associa- 
tion of Paris. An artist whose paintings were well known in leading 
art centers of Europe, it was in the year 1903 that Mr. Washburn first 
employed etching as a mode of expression. A series of Venetian plates 
revealed his harmony with the medium, and admitted him to the ranks 
of painter-etchers. 

The direct influence of Sorolla is far-reaching, for not the least dis- 
tinguishing quality of his plates, strikingly illustrated in the Mexican 
series, is his masterly interpretaton of atmosphere and sun. His plates 
classify naturally: 

Italian set— Venice, Padua and Verona ; 

Japanese portfolio, etched in 1904; 

"The Nordlands" a series of landscapes ; 

A group in Havanna ; Cathedra] of Old Mexico. 

') 

With the passing of the master Seymour-Haden, recent attention has 
been called to the school of landscape etching. With the exception of a 
few scattered plates, Mr. Washburn is the only American in the list of 
the younger men to turn a sustained interest to landscape subjects. 



279 

It is of significance that he has revealed powers capable of worthily 
upholding its traditions in America. 

Watkins, Susan, (P.) b. California, 1875. A pupil Art Students' 
League in New- York; Collin in Paris; she received honorable mention 
in the Paris salon of 1899 and third gold medal in the salon of 1901. Her 
painting entitled "The fan" is well known and a critic refers to the 
"quaint yet alluring figure of the young woman." 

Waugh, Frederick Judd, (P.) b. Bordontown, N. Y., September 13, 
1861. A painter of American marines, comes from a family of artists; 
his father S. B. Waugh, was a Philadelphia portrait painter ; his mother, 
Eliza Waugh, was a miniature painter, and his sister, Ida Waugh, is also 
a portrait painter and an illustrator of children's books. 

At eighteen he began the study of art in the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts under Thomas Eakins, after that he went to Paris and 
worked in Acad^mie Julien under Bouguereau and Eobert-Fleury. 

Associate member National Academy of Design, 1909; full member, 
1911. 

The first beginnings of his marine work were laid while he lived on the 
Island of Sark, Channel Islands. He crossed the ocean frequently, thus 
familiarizing himself with every changing aspect of the water; and he 
also acknowledges the fact that the time spent at miniature portrait, 
decorative work, landscape and figure painting, gives him strength and 
power in his marines. 

"The surf off Cape Ann" is a powerful marine; this is permanently 
placed in the National Academy of Design, New York. 

Other marines are : 

"The great deep" . "A heavy sea" 

"Outer surf" "Little harbor, Bailey's Island, 

"Eoaring forties" Maine" 

"Incoming tide" "Docks at Gloucester" 

Mr. Waugh has a wonderfully trained "eye memory" and he produces 
his seascapes from memory : "He declares that if he never saw the sea 
again he could still go on painting it and constantly improving in his 
representations." (Arts and D., Jan. 1911.) 

The real idealized is the art of Frederick Judd Waugh. 

Webster, Herman A., (P., E.) b. New York City, 1878. Family home 
is Chicago ; occupies a studio at No. 6, Rue Furstemberg, Paris. Gradu- 
ated from Yale University in 1900 and in October of that year went 
abroad. After a winter in Paris among the studios and artists of the 



280 

Latin Quarter, he joined Burton Holmes and Senator Albert J. Bev- 
eridge on a trip to the Orient. Returning to the United States he engag- 
ed in commercial work also doing journalism in the offi.ce of the Chicago 
Eecord-Herald. 

In February 1904 h^ returned to Paris and entered the Academic Ju- 
lien under Jean Paul Laurens. In 1905 four of his plates were accepted 
at the salon. In Grez on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau, Mr. 
Webster etched his first plates during the autumn of 1904: "Studio 
windows" of which there are two plates, "Rue del'Abbaye," "Loing at 
Grez," and "The Court, Bourron," the first of a series of Courtyard 
studies. 

Spring 19(J& etchings were "St. Martin's bridge, Toledo," and "Mirada 
de las Eeinas, Alhambra" seen from the Hall of the Ambassadors. 

December 1907 Mr. Webster's name was enrolled in the associate mem- 
bership of the Royal Society of Painter-etchers in London, of which the 
late Sir Francis Seymour-Haden was president. He is the first etcher 
from Chicago, and one with less than a dozen other American who have 
been admitted to the Royal Society since its foundation in 1881. 

"In some of his plates definite sureness of touch is linked with a certain 
severity; while in others there is a richness which in some original 
drawings becomes a lusciousness that makes one regret that he has not 
tried the lithographic crayon." (Weitenkampf.) 

Weeks, Edwin Lord, (P.) b. Boston, Mass., 1849; d. Paris, France, 
November 16, 1903. As a youth he studied art in Paris at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts and afterwards under L6on Bonnat and G6rome. At the age 
of twenty-nine he began to exhibit at the salon. 

Received honorable mention in the Paris salon of 1885, and a medal 
in 1889 ; medals of the first-class at the Universal Exposition, Paris, 1889 ; 
gold medal from Philadelphia Art Club, 1891 ; a grand diploma of honor 
at Berlin, 1891; medal at London, 1896; Dresden, 1897; Munich, 1897; 
special medal and prize at the Empire of India Exposition, London, 1896 ; 
the same year was elected a chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France, 
and in 1898, an officer of the Order of St. Michael, Bayaria. 

Mr. Weeks is particularly famous for his pictures of life in Cairo, 
Jerusalem, Damascus, Tangier and India. He made frequent trips to 
Eastern cities, traveling extensively in India. 

"The last voyage" shows his dramatic and scenic qualities and his 
careful observation of oriental air and color. 

Other famous paintings are named: 

"Jerusalem from the Bethany "Pilgrimage to the Jordan" 

road" "Alhambra windows" 

"Scene in Tangier" "A Moorish camel driver" 



281 

"Arab story-teller" "Departure for the hunt, India" 

"A cup of coffee in the desert" "Packing the caravan" 

"Three beggars of Cordova" "The porter of Bagdad" 

"A rajah of Jodhpore" "Steps in the mosque, Lahore" 
"Hindoo marriage" 

His pictures are notable for their rendering of sunlight effects, fine 
color and artistic truth. 

A well known art critic says : "Mr. Weeks is gifted with great facility ; 
his skill and sureness of eye and of hand in dealing with vast scenes are 
remarkable. No one has treated with greater effect and with such un- 
hesitating directness, the great architectural backgrounds of India with 
their pluri-color richness and splendor of detail." 

"He is a skilful draughtsman and an excellent colorist." (John Rum- 
mell.) 

WbinSian, Adolph Alexander, (S.) b. Karlsruhe, Germany, December 
11, 1870; came to America in 1880. Pupil of Art Students' League of 
New York under Augustus Saint-Gaudens and of Cooper Union. He also 
studied with the late Olin L. Warner and later was an assistant to 
Charles H. Niehaus and to Daniel-Chester French. He won the Mitchell 
Vance pr^ze for drawing at Cooper Union and the prize in the modeling 
class at the Art Students' League. Member National Sculpture Society, 
Society of American Artists; associate member National Academy of 
Design, 1906. 

His monument to Major-General Alexander Macomb erected in Detroit, 
Michigan, in 1908 placed him in the front rank of the younger American 
sculptors. His portrait statue of the late president of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad system, Alexander J. Cassatt, is a conspicuous ornament of the 
new Terminal Station in New York City. 

He has also executed a number of works of decorative purpose such 
as panels for the facade of the Library of J. Pierpont Morgan, for the 
uew Terminal Station of the Pa. R. R., the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church, and other important structures. 

His medallic work includes the medal of honor of the National Insti- 
tute of Arts and Letters, the medal of honor of the National Institute 
of Architects, the medal of award of the St. Louis Exposition and the U. 
S. medal for life-saving on railroads. 

Mr. Weinman has recently completed the magnificent heroic bronze 
memorial of the late Mayor Maybury of Detroit. Has also executed : 

Maryland Union Soldiers and Sailors monument, Baltimore; 

Lincoln memorial erected at Hodgenville, Ky., (Lincoln's birthplace) ; 

Lincoln memorial at Madison, Wisconsin. 



282 

Weie^ Julian Alden, (P., E., Mural P.) b. West Point, N. Y., August 
30, 1852. Studied art under his father, Eobert Weir, who was instructor 
in drawing at West Point Military Academy, and with Gferome at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Eecelved honorable mention in the Paris 
salon of 1881, also numerous medals and honors. Was elected associate 
member of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1885; full 
member, in 1886; president, 1915. Member of the Ten American Paint- 
ers. 

Portraits and genre pictures ai-e his specialty. An exquisite painter 
of flowers and a bold original etcher. He sent from Paris to the National 
Academy of Design, New York, in 1875 "A Brittany interior," in 1877 
"At the water-trough," "Brittany peasant girl," "Brittany washerwo- 
man," and "Study of an old peasant." 

His heads have attracted great attention in Paris, his symbolical can- 
vases such as "Muse of music" gave him a high rank in this field of work. 
During student days he was intimately associated with Bastien-Lepage. 

In his later works — "The flower girl" and "Pussy-willows" his innate 
reserve and charm appear. 

Guy Pene DuBois says : "His work has a subtle quality and most of 
it idyllic peace or optimism," and of his "Ploughing for buckwheat" — 
"Weir has painted on it for more than three years and put his soul into 
it — the soul of a modest American who intuitively shuns the vulgar side 
of materialism and yet makes of its most successful models vivid symbols 
of the spirituality of the world." (Arts & D. 2:78.) 

"Upland pasture" is a characteristic picture and his "Early morn- 
ing" is strongly suggestive of Corot. 

Other well known paintings are: 

"A bough of green apples" "Silver flagon and Delft plate" 

"China bowl with flowers" "The young student" 

"The lane" "The open book" 

"A winter day" "Lengthening shadows" 

"Breton interior" "The plowman" 

"The good Samaritan" "Young girl" 

"Ideal head" "The miniature-' 

"Return of the fishing party" "Oriana" 

"A gentlewoman" "Dorothy and Cora" 
and many portraits. 

Kenyon Cox writes: "The paramount quality of his "Green bodice" 
is the perfection of tone and a delicate observation of the gradations of 
light which would make it hold its own in any company." 

At a recent Carnegie Institute exhibition, thirty-seven paintings of 
this artist were a special feature, and of this collection a critic writes: 



283 

"Both landscape and figure paintings are shown and to an extent they 
epitomize the spirit of American painting." (Arts and D., June, 1911.) 
"Always full of space and light, his paintings are distinguished for a 
broad handling, truthful and luminous color and harmony of tone." 

Welch, Mabel R., (Min. P.) b. New Haven, Conn. PupU of Kenyon 
Cox, New York ; Courtois, Paris. Member Art Students' League, N. Y., 
also American Society of Miniature Painters. A teacher. 

Her miniature works possess much charm of color, much judicious 
placing of the subject within the frame, and no inconsiderable excellence 
of technical treatment. 

Aside from color, the interesting quality of Miss Welch's miniatures 
is their breadth of treatment. "Breadth is easy of achievement given the 
artist to do it on a 5-foot canvas, but breadth which has to compromise 
with refinement on less than a 5-inch ivory, is another matter. (Int. 
studio 39:xcii.) "Miss Welch is one of the most promising of the newer 
miniature painters and her work has attracted much interest." 

Her "Study of a child" is a delightful rendering of sweetness and in- 
nocence. 

Wendt, Julia M. Bracken (Mrs. William Wendt), (S., P.) h. Apple 
Kiver, 111., June 10, 1871. Pupil of Art Institute of Chicago under 
Lorado Taft. 

The Craftsman 22 :495 says : "Mrs. Wendt has already won distinction 
through the merit of her portrait-busts and bas-reliefs, her symbolic 
statues and the naive characterful studies of animals, but this imagin- 
ative work (a bronze group representing Art, Science and History) 
places her among the foremost sculptors of America." 

Wendt, William, (P.) b. Germany, 1865. Settled in Chicago, 1880. 
Self-taught. First conspicuous successes were made as a result of a 
long sojourn in California. He has exhibited in the Paris salon, Royal 
Academy, London, and in leading American galleries. 

Mr. Wendt is president of the California Art Club and recently elected 
associate member of the National Academy. 

"Wendt is a colorist and he is a success whenever he is reveling with 
warm tones and brilliant effects. He is original and his paintings have 
a distinct personal character and value." 

"Scarlet robe" is a picture full of air, space and movement and is pro- 
fessionally painted. "Old age" shows a village street empty of team and 
person. Its color scheme suggests the gray harmony of Cazin. "Wilder- 
ness" and "Canon Diablo" are notable California scenes. "Cornwall 
coast" is dramatic in treatment. "Autumn melody" wars exhibited in the 
New Salon of 1899. 




JAMES McNeill whistler. 



285 

In his catalogue of some fifty works a considerable number were done 
in California and show at his best his love for strong color. (Brush & 
P. 6:257.) 

At the 23d annual exhibition of American paintings at Chicago, a 
room was set apart for his paintings. An art critic writes: "The best 
trio of landscapes it is generally conceded is that by William Wendt. 
"The silence of night," which received honorable mention is a landscape 
with slender birches in the foreground beyond which the darker reaches 
are illuminated by a subdued light. 'The land of the heart's desire" is as 
satisfying in a decorative sense and in mood more joyous, the golden sun- 
light gilding the open country. 'The Arcadian hills' is in the same 
manner a strong, independent painting." (Art & P. 2:49.) 

"His work has the rare quality of standing true uuder a glaring light, 
and whenjn shadow it seems to radiate a light of its own. He has done 
much to raise the standard of art in the west, spending his energy 
lavishly in its service at all times." 

Wbntwoeth/ Cecile db, (P.) b. in New York City. Pupil of the 
Sacred Heart Covent and of Cabanel and Detaille in Paris. 

Received gold medal at Tours, Lyons and Tufin; honorable mention 
Paris salon, 1891; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor of France, 1901; ofQcer of Public Instruction of 
France, Order of Holy Sephulchre from Pope Leo XIII. 

Represented in the Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, and in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, New York. 

Wenzell^ Albekt Beck, (I.) b. Detroit, Mich., 1864. Pupil of Stra- 
huber and Loefftz in Munich, and Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris. 

Received silver medal at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901 ; 
silver medal at St. Louis Exposition, 1904. 

His work as an illustrator is marked by great originality of treatment. 

•Whistler, Jambs McNeill, (P., E., Mural P.) b. Lowell, Mass., 1834; 
d. Chelsea, England, July 17, 1903. Was taken as a child to Russia; 
after his father's death he returned to America and entered the Military 
Academy at West Point. Being a poor student and failing in chemistry, 
he was recommended to be discharged in 1854 ; after a short employment 
in the United States Coast Survey at Washington he went to Paris and 
entered the studio of Charles Gabriel Gleyre, where Degas, Bracquemond 
and Fantin-Latour were his favorite companions. Two or three years 
later he left Paris and took up permanent residence in London. In 1860 
"At the piano" was exhibited at the Royal Academy, London. His suc- 
cess began with the "White girl" exhibited in 1863 in the Salon des 
Refuses, Paris. 



286 

In 1883 Mr. Whistler sent the portrait of his mother to the Paris salon 
and received a third-class medal; in 1S89 he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. 

He was a member of the Socifet^ Rationale des Artistes Francais, hon- 
orary member of the Royal Academy of St. Luke, Rome, commander of 
the Order of the Crown of Italy, honorary member of the Royal Academy 
Bavaria, chevalier of the Order of St. Michael, and honorary member of 
the Royal Academy of Dresden, but most unjustly he was never elected to 
the Royal Academy of London. 

Elizabeth Luther Gary, in her recent work on Whistler gives a tentative 
list of Whistler's works. She catalogs 528 oils, water-colors and pastels, 
161 lithographs and 426 etchings as his principal works. 

He always called his pictures "harmonies," symphonies," "nocturnes" 
and "arrangements." The portrait of his mother, the "Thomas Carlyle" 
and "^Miss Alexander" are usually considered the height of his achieve- 
ments. 

C. H. Caffln most interestingly writes : "None but a man of ■{)eculiar 
sweetness of mind could have conceived that masterpiece in the' Luxem- 
bourg, "The portrait of my mother." 

"It was with the night that Mr. Whistler set his seal and sign manual 
upon art," writes George Moore; "above all others he is surely the 
interpreter of the night." 

0. H. Gafl[in also says: "His art was the product of most delicate 
selection; a hybrid derived from the intermingling of many strains — 
Velasquez, Rossetti, the impressionists and Japanese — with his own 
rarely gifted personality, itself a curious mingling of artistocratic 
hauteur and spiritual sensibility." 

William C. Brownell, the art critic, has spoken of Whistler -as, "per- 
haps the most typical painter and the most absolute artist of the time." 
His fame is now an international one; his works and personality have 
been before the public for more than forty years. 

Of Whistler's etchings, Bryant, in "Pictures and their painters," 
says : "But two men in the whole history of the world — Rembrandt and 
Whistler — have been able to use the etching needle with such skill that 
every object in the scene becomes as much a piece of portraiture as 
though it were a portrait. Both of them produced etchings that were 
without flaw." 

White^ Thomas Gilbert, (P.) b. Grand Rapids, Michigan. Pupil of 
Art Students' League in New York City under Twachtman ; Julien Acad- 
emy under Benjamin-Constant and Laurens, also Whistler and MacMon- 
nies in Paris. Specialty: portraits. 



287 

Whitney. Gertrude Vanderbilt, (Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney), (S.) 
Has devoted mnch time to the study of modeling, principally with the 
well known American sculptor, James Earle Fraser. 

Among her first work to attract attention was a male figure of heroic 
proportions called "Aspiration," placed before the New York building 
at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 

"Well modeled and carefully executed this work expressed great orig- 
inality in design, winning much praise from artists and layman." 

Mrs. Whitney won the $50,000 commission for the design of the Ti- 
tantic Memorial to be erected by the women of the United States as a 
tribute to the men who lost their lives in the great ocean disaster of 
1912. 

"She has had| a thorough education in craftsmanship and is a serious 

and sometimes imaginative sculptor She has a sense of color, 

and a sense of color in terms of life is emotional power." (Arts & D. 
6:342.) 

Her "ipl Dorado" fountain was one of the most important fountains 
at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 1915. 

Whittemorb, William John, (Min. P.) b.'New York City,. March 26, 
1860. Pupil in New York of William Hart, National Academy of Design, 
•and Art Students' League under Beckwith; in Paris, Lefebvre and Ben- 
jamin-Constant. 

Received silver medal for drawing at Paris Exposition, 1889. Member 
American Society of Miniature, Painters ; associate member of National 
Academy, 1897. 

His first success was a water-color landscape, and his most serious 
work has been in portraiture. 

A critic calls attention most visibly to his sympathetic though never 
mawkish portrait studies of children. 

"The burgomeister" has much strength and a wonderful color. "Pan- 
dora" is an interesting figure composition. (Critic 47:535.) 

Whittredgb, Worthington, (P.) b. Springfield, Ohio, May 22, 1820; 
d. Summit, N. J., February 25, 1910. When very young he studied land- 
scape and jportrait painting in Cincinnati. In 1849 he went abroad and 
continued his art studies in London, Paris, Atwerp and in Diisseldorf 
under Andreas Achenbach. In 1859 he exhibited in the National Acad- 
emy of Design his "Roman campagna" and was at once elected an asso- 
ciate member, and in the following year was made an academician. He 
was president of the academy for the year 1875-6. "He possessed great 
faculty and originality as a landscape painter." 



288 

Among his most celebrated pictures are "A brook in the wood," "Plains 
at the base of the Rocky Mountains" and "Sunshine in the forest." 

For many years Mr. Whittredge was active in art circles in New York 
City. 

Wiggins, Carleton, (P.) b. Turners, N. Y., March 4, 1848. Educated 
in public schools of Brooklyn, N. Y. Studied art with H. Carmiencke of 
Brooklyn, drawing at the National Academy of Design, New York, and 
landscape painting with Inness. He was unsuccessful from both an 
artistic and commercial standpoint with his landscape work, and turned 
his attention to cattle painting. He met with immediate success and is 
now the most distinguished painter of cattle and sheep in the United 
States. (Innes' "School of painting.") He was elected associate mem- 
ber of the National Academy of Design in 1890 ; full member in 1906. 

The Paris salon accepted his "Shepherd and his flock." 

"A Holstein bull" "Morning on the hills" 

"The wanderers" "Normandy bull" 

"Plough horse" "Evening — Forest of Fontaine- 

"Down the lane at twilight" bleau" 

"The pasture lot" ' "Near Great South Bay" 

"Ploughing in France" "After wind — rain" 

"Three oaks"- 

"He chooses principally American motives and his pictures carry the 
evidence of their truth to nature. His technical skill is great, his color 
warm and vibrant and his construction shows he has a thorough knowl- 
edge of form." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

"Mr. Wiggins is at his best when he paints landscape with animals 
rather than animals with landscape." (The artist 29:iv.) 

Wii.Es, Irving Ramsey, (P., Mural P.) b. Utica, N. Y., April 8, 1861. 
Was educated at Sedwick Institute, Great Barrington, Mass. His 
father, a gifted painter of landscapes was his first instructor in art ; he 
was also a pupil of William M. Chase and although he subsequently 
studied in Paris with Carolus-Duran and Jules Lefebvre, he returned to 
America to work, definitely to express himself as an American artist. 

He has never been identified with any special school or any new move- 
ment. Has received third Hallgarten prize of the National Academy of 
Design, New York; honorable mention in the Paris salon and several 
medals. Was elected member of the National Academy of Design, 
New York in, 1897. He has been called the "Artist's painter" and 
chiefly busies his brush with portrait and figure paintings. His illus- 
trations are well known to art readers of Century, Harper, Scribner, etc. 



289 

"If low tones appeal to him with the greatest strength^ however, the 
bright luminous colors come often into his canvases with brilliant 
effect." (Arts and D. 1:403.) 

His work is characterized by a charming simplicity of idea and treat- 
ment, and "Memories" now owned by Mr. Carnegie, is an admirable 
example of those qualities of his art." (Nat. Cyc. Am. Biog.) 

Among his works are: 

"On the beach" Portrait of "My father and 

"The student" mother" 

"Quiet corner" "Girl and horse" 

"Sunshine and flowers" "Noon" 

"Sunshine in the studio" "The green gown" 

"The southwest wind" "The window" 

"A breezy day" "With hat and veil" 

"The black shawl" "Among Canada thistles" • 

"An Autumn stroll" (Portrait of "Discouraged" 

Gladys Wiles) "Brown kimono" 

Portrait of Julia Marlowe "The Sonata" (prize picture) 

"Girl with peonies" "In summertime" 

His portrait of Mrs. Gilbert is a masterpiece of portraiture. 

"The wholesome realities of life are depicted in Mr. Wiles' canvases — 
the gladness of childhood, the dignity of age — and the glory of good 
work." 

He represents no intricate symbolism in his work; no revelation of a 
nature complicated beyond power to express its thoughts. He has found 
the ideals of art in the realities of life. His daughter has been the 
inspiration. of some of her father's most distinguished works." (Arts 
and D., Aug., 1911.) 

WiLLET, William, (Stained glass designer) b. New York City, Novem- 
ber 1, 1868. Pupil of Whittaker, Chase and LaFarge in New York ; . 
studied also in France and England. Author of "Stained glass in our 
churches" ; lectured on applied arts at Carnegie Technical Schools. 

The most important representative of the new school of stained glass 
workers. Beginning his art career as a portrait painter, he turned to 
decorative work. "It is this feeling for design joined with a subtle ap- 
preciation of color, that makes his work notable." 

The design for "The spirit of the water lily" a memorial window in 
the home of Mr. George I. -Whitney of Pittsburgh, shows exquisite 
draughtsmanship and mastery of symbolism. 

In the "Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca" the artist has more scope for 
color. The finest work is undoubtedly the window recently executed in 
37 



290 

the Third Presbyterian Church at Pittsburgh, depicting the parable of 
"The wise and the foolish virgins." "It bears brilliant witness to the 
vitality and promise of American art." 

Williams, Fbedeeick Ballard, (P.) b. Brooklyn, N. Y.', October 21, 
1872. When a little more than a lad he studied at night at the Cooper 
Union in New York City. Then for a while attended a school conducted 
by John Ward Stimson, an idealist. Later studied at the National Acad- 
emy of Design and spent a short time traveling in England and France. 

"Mr. Williams' landscapes are not painted out-of-doors He 

transcribes what he feels rather than what he sees .... The scenes are 
imaginative, gay and fanciful. Their charm lies in their joyous spon- 
, taneity, their ^rhythm of line and color." * 

"The women he paints are intensely feminine but are pictured im- 
personally, their object being, as it were to decorate the earth." 

"His pictures are atmospheric, without resort having been made to 
mists and vapors and they are peculiarly spacious in suggestion." 

"Form and color are paramount and light and shade take their places 
as in a purely decorative scheme." 

A few paintings are: 

"A glade by the sea" "Chant d'amour" 

"The confidantes" "The inner harbor. Block Island" 

"On the cliffs" "Garrets Mountain, N. J." 
(Int. studio 42:liii.) 

Woodbury, Charles Herbert, (P., E.) b. Lynn, Mass., July 14, 1864. 
A pupil of the Mass. Institute of Technology in Boston and of the 
Academic Julien in Paris under Bouguereau and Lefebvre. A member 
of the National Academy of Design, 1907. 

"A few painters have painted the ocean with a more familiar knowl- 
edge of its aspects, a closer sympathy with its various moods or in a 
'larger imaginative style." (Art & P. 4:762.) 

His best marines are: 

"The breaker" "Ground swell" 

"A quiet sea" "The steamer" 

"The open sea" , "Maine coast?' 

"Mid-ocean" '<0n a lee shore" 

"A heavy sea" 

Many who admire Mr. Woodbury's marines and landscapes will be 
surprised to learn that he has recently taken up etching. The Print di- 
vision of the Library of Congress recently exhibited a group of his 
etchings. 



291 

"He pictures the stern, 'rock-bound coast of Maine with a few lines 
and gives an adequate impression of its bold grandeur; with a few 
more lines he brings before our vision the open sea and awakens the 
same sensibility that the limitless restless waves themselves may have 
stirred; he gives a picture of the mountain tops and the observer is 
bound to comprehend their lofty stateliness; or he presents a scene on 
the beach and instantly one is transported to the gayest center of an 
American summer resort." (Am. M. of art 7:224.) 

WooDWELL, Joseph R., (P.)) b. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1843; d. Pittsburgh, 
Pa., May 30, 1911. Mr. Woodwell was chairman of the Fine Arts Com- 
mittee of the Carnegie Institute and one of the best known of the Pitts- 
burgh artists. He studied for four years at Barbizon and was the friend 
of both Millet and Jacques. In Paris he was associated with Monet, 
Sisley, Renoir and Pissaro. 

Weight, M. Louise Wood, (Min. P., I.) b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1875. 
Pupil Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Whistler and Acadfemie 
Juilen, Paris; F. W. Jackson, England. 

Received Toppan prize Pennsylvania Academy of the Pine Arts. A 
teacher. 

Wtant, Alexander Helwig, (P.) b. Port Washington, O., January il, 
1886 ; d. New York, November 29, 1892. First occupation was that of a 
sign painter in his native village. At the age of twenty-two he consulted 
Inness on art matters ; later went to Dusseldorf and studied under Hans 
Gude, subsequently in London he studied the works of Turner and Con- 
stable. Settled in New York after 1864. Losing the use of his right hand 
from paralysis, he learned to paint with the left with no diminution of 
skill. 

The work done with the left hand is considered by some critics to be 
superior to that done previously. Long before his death he was ranked 
with Innes as a landscape painter. In a certain delicate refinement 
none of our artists have equalled him. 

His first picture exhibited in New York "A view of the valley of the 
Ohio river" was at the National Academy of Design in 1865. He was 
elected associate member of the academy in 1868 and full member in 
1869. 

"Manv of his landscapes are truly idyllic in character and full of 
tender and poetic sentiment. Others are beautiful interpretations of the 
more dramatic moods of nature or representatives of the wild and 
rugged scenery of the Adirondacks." ("Aims and ideals of representa- 
tive American artists.") 

38 



292 

Of the exquisitely poetic feeling with which he loved to invest his 
scenes, "Early morning" is a gorious example. (Caflfln.) 

There is a combined realism and impressionism in Wyant's work; 
"Early spring" is a characteristic landscape. 

"Wyant always looked for and grasped the specific essential truth of 
a scene ...... Some of his twilight scenes breathe only ineffable peace, 

others are astir with suggestions of- the infinite mystery of the final 
sleep." (Eleanor Richardson Gage.) 

"He loved the gray sky and somber tints of November, the subtle 
mystery of twilight the fading glory of the sunset." (Arts & D.' 
2.:349.) 

Many critics have rated "Passing clouds" as Wyant's most dramatic 
composition "which in its way he never surpassed." 

Of his "Moonlight and frost" (painted at a single sitting) it is said: 
"It is bathed in the mystic sheen of the moonlight which has impressed 
itself on the soul of the painter and is instinct with the very spirit of 
frost, chilled to intensity in the .picture, as it must have been in the 
artist." 

A few of his pictures in oil are: 

"Staten Island from the Jersey ^ "The wilds of the Adirondacks" 

meadows" "The old road — Evening" 

"The bird's nest" "Hoosatonic valley" 

"Scene on the Upper Susque- "Early twilight" 

hahna" "A glimpse of the sea" 

"A view on Lake George" "View in County Kerry, Ireland" 

"Broad silent valley" "Spring" y 

"Gray days had more allurement than sunny ones and his works are 
found to have a lyric quality which in a measure Inness' lacks. 

Yandeill, Enid, (S.) b. Louisville, Ky., Octobea- 6, 1870. A pupil of 
the Cincinnati Art School; Philip Martiny in New York; MacMonnies 
and Kodin in Paris ; is an officer de I'academie, French government, and 
has the distinction of being the first woman member of the National 
Sculpture Society. 

At the Columbian Exposition in 1893, Miss Yandell was represented 
by the caryatids of the Women's building and a figure of Daniel Boone. 
At the Tennessee Centennial Exposition her Athena (in heroic size) 
stood before the Art Palace. This figure is gaid to be the largest figure 
ever designed by a woman. At the Pan-American Exposition in 1901 she 
exhibited two busts: Honorable John G. Carlisle of Kentucky and the 
Baroness de Braunecker; also the Carrie Brown Memorial Fountain, 
given to the City of Providence, R. I., by Paul Bagnotti of Turin, Italv; 



293 

in memory of his wife. "The lines of the composition are large and digni- 
fied especially noticeable in the modeling of the individual figures which 
is well studied and technically excellent." (Outl. 70:82.) 

"Miss Yandell has made many small figures with admirable skill and, 
abounds in happy inventions." (Taft.) 

YoHN, Febdbeick Copfay, (I.) b. Indianapolis, Ind., February 8, 1875; 
made his debut when he was nineteen, in the pages of Harper periodicals. 
From his home in Indiana he went to New York to study at the Art 
Students' League where he was a pupil of Mr. Siddons Mowbray. 

Was selected to supply the drawings that accompanied the frontier 
sketches of Theodore Roosevelt. This recognition was followed by a com- 
mission to illustrate Cabot Lodge's "Story of the American Eevo- 
lution." 

He makes the story-telling quality of a picture easily felt in his com- 
position, and projecting his motive with admirable appear. 

"Mr. Yohn's ultimate purpose is to paint battle-pieces, but in illustrat- 
ing he prefers to do character work — it is the soldier type that has so 
far identified him." 

"His military compositions have suggested him as a successor to De 
Neuville." 

Invests his versatile compositions with stirring vigor and dramatic 
interest. 

Noted for his spirited battle scenes. (Brush & P. 2:161.) 

YouNG^ Mahonri, (S.) b. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1877, and is a grandson 
of the famous Mormah leader, Brigham Young. Studied in Julien Acad- 
emy, Paris. 

"His best work is distinguished by nobility and breadth of conception, 
close and conscientious observation of nature, a predilection for virile 
form and plastic line of great beauty and power." His bronze figure of 
an Alsatian boatman, Bovet Arthur, received honorable mention at Bue- 
nos Ayres, and was awarded the Helen Foster Barnett prize at the Na- 
tional Academy exhibition of December, 1911. Has recently been elected 
associate member of the National Academy of Design. 

Mr. Young's latest noteworthy achievement is the "Sea gull" monu- 
ment erected in Salt Lake City, Utah. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



GENERAL. 



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Bryan's "Dictionary of painters and engravers." 

Champlin and Perkins "Cyclopedia of painters and painting." Charles 

C. Perkins, critical editor, N. Y. 1887. 
Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Stephen & Lee, London and 

N. Y. 1885-1900. 
Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of United States, Boston, 1900. 
Levy, Florence, "American Art Annual," vols. 1-11, -New York. 
The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, N. Y. 1898. 
The New International Encyclopedia, N. Y. 1892-1904. Pub. A. N. 

Marquis & Co. Chicago. 
"Who's who in America." Vols. 1-8. 



SPECIAL. 

Addison, Julia de Wolf, "The Boston Museum of Fine Arts." Boston. 
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Amory, Martha Babcock, "Domestic and artistic life of John Singleton 
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Benjamin, S. G. W. "Our American artists." 1st and 2nd series. Bos- 
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Blashfield, Edwin H. "Mural painting in America." N. Y. 1913. 

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Bryant, Lorinda M. "Pictures and painters. N. Y. 1907. 

Caffin, C. H. "American masters of painting." N. Y. 1902. 

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Caffin, C. H. "How to study pictures." N. Y. 1912. (Whistler and 
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Caffin, C. H. "The story of American painting." N. Y. 

Carr, Cornelia. "Harriet Hosmer : Letters and memories." N. Y. 1912. 

Gary, Elizabeth Luther. "Artists past and present." N. Y. 1909. 



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Child, Theodore. "Art and criticism." N. Y. 1892. 
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Cox Kenyon. "Old masters and new." N. Y. 1905. 
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American School, Chap. VI; Saint-Gaudens, Chap. VII.) 
Downes, William Home. "Twelve great artists." Boston. 1900. 
Downes, William Home. "Life and works of Winslow Homer." Boston 

and N. Y. 1911. 
Dunlap, William. "History of the rise and progress of the arts of 

design in the United States." N. Y. 1834. 
Eaton, D. Cady. "A handbook of modern French painting." N. Y. 19D9. 
"Famous etchers." Boston. 

French, H. W. "Art and artists of Connecticut." Boston. 1879. 
Hartmann, Sadakichi. "A history of American art." Boston. 1902. 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The French and Italian note-books." N. Y. 

1899. 
Henderson, Helen W. "The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts." 

Boston. 1911. 
Hind, C. Lewis. "Augustus Saint-Gaudens." N. Y. 1908. 
Hoeber, Arthur. "The treasurers of the Metropolitan Museum of Art." 

N. Y. 1899. 
Innes, Mary and DeKay, Charles. "Schools of painting." N. Y. and 

London. 1911. 
Isham, Samuel. "The history of American painting." N. Y. 1905. 
Jarves, James Jackson. "The art idea." Boston and N. Y. 
King, Pauline, "American mural painting." Boston. 1902. 
Eiiowlton, Helen M. "The art and life of William Morris Hunt." Bos- 
ton. 1900. 
Koehler, S. R. "Etching." N. Y., London, Paris, Melbourne, 1885. 
Koehler, S. E. and others. "American etching." Boston. 1879. 
Lanman, Charles. "Letters from a landscape painter." Boston. 1844. 
(Cole's imaginative paintings, p. 64, Our New York painters, p. 
233.) 
I^aurvik, J. Nilsen. "Catalogue de luxe" of the Department of Fine 
Arts, Panama-Pacific International Exposition (Vol. 1, Chaps. 1- 
XII). Paul Elder & Co., San Francisco. 1915. 
Leonard, John. "Men of America." N. Y. 1908. 



299 

Lester, G. Edwards. "Artists of America." N. Y. 1846. (AUston, In- 

man, Stuart, Trumbull.) 
Mabie, Hamilton Wright. "American ideals." N. Y. 1913. (Chap, vii.) 
McSpadden, J. Walker. "Famous painters of America." N. Y. 1907. 

(Abbey, Chase, Copley, Homer, Inness, LaFarge, Sargent, Stuart, 

Vedder, Whistler.) 
Mauclair, Camille. "The French impressionists." London. (Mary Cas- 

satt.) 
Maynell, Wilfred. "The modern school of art." Vol. 4. (Vedder.) 
Meynell, Mrs. "Works of John Singer Sargent." 
Moore, George. "Modern painting." N. Y. 1898. (Mark Fisher.) 
Miither, Eichard. "History of modern painting." N. Y. 1896. 
Noble, Louis L. "Life and works of Thomas Cole." N. Y. 1853. 
Partridge, William Ordway. "Art in America." Boston. 1894. 
Pennell, F. E. and J. "The life of James McNeill Whistler." PhUa. 

1911. 
Preyer, David C. "The art of the Metropolitan Museum of New York." 

Boston. 1909. 
Eadcliffe, A. G. "Schools and masters of sculpture." N. Y. 1894. 
Eathbun, Eichard. "The National Gallery of Art" (Washington, D. C.) 

Washington. 1909.. 
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BufEalo. 1901. 
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Sparrow, Walter Shaw. "Women painters of the world." N. Y. 1905. 

(Cecilia Beaux, Mary Cassatt.) 
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48, 49, 50. 
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Van Dyke, John C. "The meaning of pictures." N. Y. 1903. 
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London. 1898. (Edward Greene Malbone.) 



PERIODICAL REFERENCES. 



Abbey, Edwin Austin 

Art & P. 2:347 

Artist 29:169 

A*ts&D. 1:444 

Craftsman 21:11 

Cur. lit. 51:319 

Harper 100:875; 105:525 

lilt, studio 15:sup. Ivi; 17:sup. tadx; 
44:sup. Iv 

Nation 86:384 

R. of Rs. 44:300 

Scrib.M. 44:656)51:1 

W. to-day 21:1218 

W. work 16:10191 
Aitken, Robert I. 

Arch. rec. 33:518 

Int. studio 50:sup. iii; 54:xv 

Overl. 60:108; 61:218 
Alexander, John White 

Arts & D. 1:147 

Cent. o. s. 70:642; 90:957 

Craftsman 10:46 

Critic 35:60?; 46:239 

Harper 99:694; 114:845 

House B. 15:67 

Int. studio 34:sup. Ixxxv; 56:sup. xxi 

Lit. digest 50:1466 

Munsey 39:744 

Outl. 95:171 

Scrib. M. 25:340; 45:45; 58:385 

Studio 20:71 

W. work 9:5682, 5993 

W. work (Lond.) 5:373 
Anschutz, Thomas Pollock 

Brush & P. 4:277 
Barlow, Myron 

Int. studio 46:284; 56:sup. xxviii 
Barnard, George Grey 

Arts & D. 5:129 

Cent. o. s. 53:877 

Cosmopol. 49:667 

Craftsman 15:270; 19:212 

Critic 33:364 



Harp. W. 60:299 

Int. studio 36:sup. xxxix 

Munsey 20:456 

Outl. 109:198 

R. of Rs. 19:49; 38:689 

W. to-day 16:273 

W. work 5:2837; 17:11256 
Bartlett, Paul Wayland 

Arch. rec. 39:265 

Art & archeology 1:163; 3:135 

Craftsman 16:437 

NewEng. M.n.s. 33:369 

Scrib. M. 45:309; 48:125; 54:527 

Studio 4:245 
Beaux, Cecilia 

Brush & P. 6:81 

Cent. o. s. 80:581 

Critic 47:39 

Harper 128:870 

Harp. B. 45:119; 47:221 

Int. studio 41 :sup. iii 

Scrib. M. 22:477 

Studio 17:215 
Beckwith, J. Carroll 

Artist 26:lxvii 

Arts & D. 6:343 

Scrib. M. 47:449 
Bellows, George Wesley 

Art & P. 3:679 

Arts & D. 4:370 

Cur. lit. 63:342 

Int. studio 56:242 
Benson, Frank Weston 

Art & P. 4:760 

Arts&D. 1:196; 6:137 

Brush & P. 6:145 

Harper 119:105 

Int. studio 27:sup. Ixxxiv; 35:sup. xcix 
Bitter, Karl Theodore 

Art & P. 6:295 

Booklovers M. 3:599 

Brush & P. 13:466 

Bui. Pan-Am. union 40:424 



302 



Craftsman 28:2 

Lit. digest 50:1150 

Nation 100:406 

Outl. 109:904, 980 

R. of Rs. 51:745 

Survey 34:112 
Blakelock, Ralph Albert 

Artist 29:xviii 

Brush & P. 9:257 

Dial 57:382 

Int. studio 27:sup. Ix 

Lit. digest 62:1147, 1166 

Outl. 112:823 

Scrib. M. 34:640 
Blashfield, Edwin Howland 

Arch. rec. 18:107 

Artist 27:sup. viii 

Critic 47:233 

House B. 33:51 

Ind. 53:1800 

Int. studio 24:sup. bcxxvii; 35:sup. Ixix; 
43:sup. liii 

Outl. 67:292 

R. of Rs. 22:191 

Scrib. M. 44:125 
Blum, Robert Frederick 

Arts & D. 4:20 

Int. studio 21 :sup. clxxvii 

Lamp 26:473 
Brenner, Victor 

Cur. opin. 9:50 
Bogert, George H. 

Artist 24:lxi 

Brush & P. 4:125 

Int. studio 21 :sup. cclx 
Borglum, John Gutzon 

Craftsman 14:27 

Ind. 82:492 

Int. studio 28:sup. xxxv 

Lamp 27:625 

Outl. 109:875 

Overl. 60:106 
Borglum, Solon Hannibal 

Cent. o. s. 68:247 

Craftsman 12:382 

W. work 3:1857 
Bouguereau, Elizabeth Gardner (Mme. W. 
A Bouguereau) 

Cur. lit. 39:391 
Breuer, Henry Joseph 

Int. studio 39:sup. xlix 
Bridgman, Frederic Arthur 
Artist 29:138 



Browne, George Elmer 
Brush & P. 14:107 
Int. studio 36:286 
Brush, George DeForest 
Arts & D. 6:187 
Brush & P. 5:266; 6:205 
DeUn. 88:16 

Int. studio 34:sup. xlvii; 39:187 
Cadwalader-Guild, Emma Marie 
Cur. Ut. 40:42 
Int. studio 27:sup. xliv 
Carlsen, Emil 
Arts & D. 6:239 
Int. studio 27:sup. xlui; 39:10 
Cassatt, Mary 
Arts & D. 3:265 
Cent. o. s. 57:740 
Craftsman 19:540 
Cur. Ut. 46:167 
Delin. 74:121 
Good H. 50:141; 58:152 
Harper 123:596 
Harp. B. 45:490 
Int. studio 27:sup. i; 35:sup. xxxi; 

64:6, 11 
Scrib. M. 19:353; 46:734 
W. to-day 21:1659 
Chase, William Merritt 
Craftsman 18:33 
Critic 48:515 
Harper 78:549 
Int. studio 39:sup. xxix 
Studio (Lond.) 21:151 
Cooper, Colon Campbell 

Brush & P. 18:72 
Couse, Eanger Irving 
Artist 27:xii 
Craftsman 18:619 
Cox, Kenyon 
Arts & D. 6:343 
Int. studio 32:3 
Dabo, Leon and T. Scott 
Brush & P. 17:3 
Craftsman 13:261 
Cur. lit. 41:524 
Int. studio 27:173; 39:sup. Iv 
R. of Rs. 41;219 
Sewaunee R. 22:96 
W. to-day 12:76 
Dallin, Cyrus Edwin 
Catholic W. 79:426 (illus.) 
Int. studio 58:109 
New Eng. M. n. s. 21:196; 48:408 



303 



Overl. 54:435 

Scrib. M. 57:779 
Dannat, William T. 

Craftsman 6:154 
Davidson, Jo. 

Arts. & D. 3:170 

Cur. lit. 52:99 

Int. studio 56:133 

W. work 22:14746 
Davis, Charles Harold 

Brush & P. 4:40, 122 

New Eng. M. n. s. 27:422 
Dearth, Henry Golden 

Cent. o. s. 70:157 
Deca&ip, Joseph R. 

Art & P. 4:919 

Arts&D. 1:248 

New Eng. M. n. s. 39:239 
Deming, Edward Willard 

Arts & D. 2:107 

Craftsman 10:150; 21:456 

Int. studio 27:xv 
Dessar, Louis Paul 

Artist 24:lix 

Brush & P. 5:97 

Int. studio 27:sup. Ixvi 
Dougherty, Paul 

Craftsman 25:510 

Int. studio 30:180; 36:sup. iii; 38:sup. 
xxxvii, xlvi 
Duveneck, Frank 

Arts&D. 1:382 

Scrib. M. 58:643 
Eberle, Abastenia St. L. 

Arts & D. 2:105; 6:290 

Craftsman 8:623; 18:475 

Cur. opinion 65:124 

Good H. 53:179 

lUus. W. 24:328 

Survey 30:196 
Elliott, John 

Arts & D. 2:359 

Everybody's 23:95 

New Eng. M. n. s. 50:26 
Enneking, John 

Brush & P. 10:335 

W. to-day 16:517 
Evans, Jludulph 

Cent. o. s. 90:208 

Int. studio 55;2up. 84 
Ezekiel, Moses Jacob 

W. work 19:12255 



Fisher, Harrison 

Bkmn. 11:53 

Cosmopol. 49:135 

Harp. B. 50:13 (Aug. '15) 
Flagg, James Montgomery 

Cent o. s. 90:320 

Harp B. 50:13 (Jul. '15) 
Eournier, Alexis Jean 

Arts&D. 1:18 

Brush & P. 4:243; 11:140 
French, Daniel Chester 

Atlan. 75:223 

Brush & P. 5:145; 8:43 

Cent. o. s. 59:871 

Ind. 83:288 

Int. studio 41:sup. Ix; 46:211; 53:sup. 
bd; 56:sup. Iv 

Mag. of art 25:314 
Frieseke, Frederick Carl 

Art & P. 3:747 

Arts & D. 3; 13 

Harper 118:291 

Int studio 43:273; 53:259; 54:sup. xxiv 

Scrib. M. 58:643 
Fuller, George 

Brush & P. 6:209 

Harper 69:517 

Int. studio 35:sup. xcii 
Fuller, Lucia Fairchild 

Brush & P. 6:26 

Cent. o. s. 60:823 

Critic 47:524 
Gay, Walter 

Art & P. 4:1023 
Genth, Lillian M. 

Arts & D. 3:54 

Int. studio 50:sup. Iv 
GifFord, Robert Swain 

Brush & P. 15:201 
Glackens, William J. 

Am. W. of art 7:261 
' ArtsD. 4:404 

Bookm. 11:244 

Int. studio 40:sup. Ixviii 
Grafly, Charles 

Booklovers M. 2:499 

Int. studio 54:sup. xc 
GroU, Albert I. 

Brush & P. 18:43 

Craftsman 9:826 

Int. studio 27:sup. Levi; 28:sup. Ixxviii; 
29:270 



804 



Guerin, Jules 

Cent. o. s. 90:797 

Lamp 39:293 
Gutherz, Carl 

Int. studio 24:sup. Ixxxi 
Harrison, L. Birge 

Alt & P. 3:379 

Craftsman 13:397 

Int. studio 44:sup. iii 

Scrib.M. 42:576; 43:283 ' 

Studio 13:149 
Harrison, T. Alexander 

Brush & P. 4:133 

Studio 13:248 
Bassam, Childe 

Art & P. 2:137 

Artist 27:xxviii 

Arts & D. 6:136, 278 

Brush & P. 8:141 

House B. 23:19 (Jan.) 

Int. studio 29:367; 45:sup. xxix; 57:sup. 
Ixxxiii 

Nation 101:698 
Henri, Robert 

Arts & D. 2:213; 4:423; 6:33, 88 

Craftsman 21:454; 27:459 

Critic 49:130 

Cm-, lit. 52:464 

Ind. 64 (pt. 2) :1427 

Int. studio 30:182; 56:239 
Herter, Albert 

Int. studio 57: sup. xhv 
Higgins, Eugene 

Craftsman 12:135 

Cur. Ut. 43:401 
Hills, Laura Coombs 

Brush & P. 4:227 

Critic 47:533 

Int. studio 41 :xlvi 
Hitchcock, George 

Arts & D. 3:401 

Brush & P. 2:258; 9:315 

Gent. o. s. 70:318 

Hearst M. 22:131 

Int. studio 26:sup. i 

Mag. of art 22:577 
Homer, Winslow 

Amer. M. of art 7:68, 74 

Arts & D. 6:278 
-Brush & P. 6:202; 10:40; 11:271 

Critic 43:548; 46:323 

Cur. Ut. 45:54 

Dial 581333 



Porum 54:670 

Int. studio 34:sup. cxxv 
■ Nation 100:206 

New Eng. M. n. s. 14:131 

Outl. 96:338 

R. of Rs. 38:102 

W. work 21:14009 
Hornby, Lester G. 

Int. studio 27:123 
Hosmer, Harriet 

Eel. M. 77:245 

Liv. age 56:697 

Nation 86:203; 95:340 

New Eng. M. n. s. 46:265 

Outl. 102:545 
Hunt, William Morris 

Am. M. 61:24 

Bookm. 11:187 

Chaut. 49:86 

Dial 28:20 

Int. studio 27:122; 35:sup. xciv 

Masters in art 9:319 

New Eng. M. n. s. 10:885 

Scrib. M. 57:125 
/ Hutt, Henry 

Bkbuy. 22:92 

Bookm. 11:55 

Brush & P. 2:15 
Hyatt, Anna V. 

Am. M. of Art 7:313 

Art & P. 4:773 

Arts & D. 2:106 

Craftsman 8:623 

Int. studio 57 :sup. xlvii 

Lit. digest 51:1476 

St. N. 43:402 
Hyde, Helen 

Brush & P. 11:241 

Craftsman 15:186; 28:380; 29:337 

Harp. B. 40:12 

Int. studio 24:239; 45:51; 51:26 
Inness, George 

Cent. o. s. 49:530 

Cosmopol. 55:518 

Critic 26:17 

Forum 18:301 

Masters in art 9:215, bibliog. 

Mo. lUus. 3:258 

Outl. 73:535 

Pub. Opin. 18:207 
Johansen, John C. 

Int. studio 26:264; 40:sup. Ixxviii; 42:sup. 



305 



Keith, WiUiam 

Craftsman 20:528 

Int. studio 33:36 
Kemeys, Edward 

Cent. o. s. 28:213 

Int. studio 26:sup. x 

MoClure 5:120 
Kendall, William Sergeant 

Arts&D. 1:15,40)6:343 

Cent. o. s. 50:478 

Harper 117:568 
Ladd, Anna Coleman 

Art & P. 2:251 

Craftsman 28:344 

Harp. B. 50:39 (Mar. '15) 
LaFarge, John 

Craftsman 8:312; 9:369; 19:330 

Cur. lit. 50:93 

Int. studio 15:sup. xxxvi; 38:sup. Ixxxiii, 
eiii 

NewEng. M. n. s. 14:136 

Outl. 84:479; 90:518 

R. of Rs. 11:535 

Scrib.-M. 26:3; 37:604, 638 

W. work 21:14085 
Lamb, Charles RoUison 
Lamb, Ella Condie 
Lamb, Frederick Stymatz 

Craftsman 13:420 

Int. studio 40:sup. xUv 

Outl. 70:571 
Lie, Jonas 

Bui. Pan- Am. union 38:679 

Craftsman 13:135; 21:455 

Cur. lit. 52:222 

House B. 35:126 

Int. studio 51:sup. cxcii; 53:sup. Iv; 
54:sup. cxii 
Liade, Ossip L. 

Arts & D. 4:437 
Loeb, Louis 

Artist 24:sup. xiii 

Bookm. 10:548 

Cent. o. s. 79:74 

Harper 115:138 

Harp. W. 53:33 (July '09) 

Int. studio 27:lxxxvii 

Outl. 92:871 
Longman, Evelyn Beatrice 

Good H. 53:178 

Harp. B. 45:360 

Int. studio 45:sup. xcix 

W. today 14:526 



Luks, George B. 

Arts & D. 3:164; 4:335; 6:238 

Craftsman 12:599 

Int studio 56:241 
MacEwen, Walter 

Brush & P. 11:301; 19 :2i 
MacLane, M. Jean (Mrs. J. C. Johansen) 

Arts&D. 3:299 

Harper 118:292 
MacLaughlin, Donald Shaw 

Print col. Q. 6:111 
MacMonnies, Frederick W. 

Brush & P. 10:1 

Cosmopol. 53:207 

Int. studio 29:319; 58:sup. xl 

Mimsey 34:415 

Scrib. M. 18:617 

Studio (Lond.) 6:17 

W. work 11:6965 
McNeil, Hermon A. 

Craftsman 16:709 

W. work 14:9403 
Macomber, Mary L. 

Int. studio 54:sup. bcvii 
Manship, Paul 

Arts & D. 6:291 

Harp. W. 62:246 

Int. studio 58:sup. xviii 

Lit. digest 52:1278 

Newrepub. 6:207 

Outl. 112:542 

Scrib. M. 55:664 
Marin, John 

Arts & D. 6:278 

Forum 55:331 
Martin, Homer Dodge 

Harper 59:678; 126:916 

Int. studio 35:255 

Nation 95:622 
Melchers, J. Gari 

Brush & P. 5:267 

Cosmopol. 55:4 

Harper 114:430 

Int. studio 31:sup. xi; 48:sup. xxvii 

Mag. of art 24:145 

W. work 15:10092 
Metcalt, Willard Leroy 

Appleton's bkl. 6:511 

Cent. o. s. 77:155 

Int. studio 39:8 

New Eng. M. n. s. 39:374 

Quar. lUus. 3:93 
Millet, Francis Davis 



306 



Art & P. 3:635; 4:1087 

Artist 26:lxiv 

Craftsman 15:426 

Int. studio 32:sup. cxi; 48:sup. xxxiv 

Nation 94:410 

Scrib. M. 51:253 

W. work 19:12378 
Mora, Francis Luis 

Arts & D. 6:343 

Craftsman 17:402 

Harper 123:888 
Moran, Edward 

Brush & P. 8:188 
Moran, Mary Ninimo 

Brush & P. 8:3 

Scrib. M. 46:731 
Moran, Peter 

Art journal 31:26 
Moran, Thomas 

Brush & P. 7:1 

Harper 59:677 
Mowbray, Henry Siddons 

Harper, 122:724 
Murphy, John Francis 

Arts&D. 3:191 

Brush & P. 10:205 

Int. studio 53:sup. iii 
Myers, Jerome 

Craftsman 29:25 

Int. studio 55:sup. cxvi; 57:sup. cxxv 
bourse, Elizabeth 

Art & P. 2:262 

Cent. o. s. 59:481 

Cosmopol. 29:25 

Cur. lit. 48:90 

Int. studio 27:247; 54:sup. xxvi 
Oakley, Violet 

Arch. rec. 22:455 

Cent. o. s. 70:265; 81:734; 85:239 

Critic 36:521 

Good H. 54:470 

Lit. digest 48:64 

Scrib. M. 41:637 

"W. work 23:606 
Ochtman, Leonard 

Artst24:lix; 27 :v, xi 

Brush & P. 4:125; 9:65 
Osthaus, Edmund Henry 

Brush & P. 18:81 
Pape, Eric 

Bookm. 11:140 

New Eng. M. n. s. 39:455 
Parker, Lawton S. 



Int. studio 57:sup, xxvii 
Parrish, Maxfield 

Bookm. 11:55 

Critic 46:512 

Ind, 59:1403 

Int. studio 29:35 

Outl. 78:839 ' 
Paulus, Francis P. 

Int. studio 46:141 
Pennell, Joseph. 

Art & P. 4:766 

Bookm. 36:158 

Brush & P. 12:81 

Canad. M. 38:333 

Cent. o. s. 84:567; 89:340 

Craftsman 20:113; 29:132 

Int. studio 30:312; 38:22; 40:200; 48:132 

Outl. 81:172 
Picknell, William L. 

Cent. o. s. 62:710 
Pratt, Bela L. 

Arch. rec. 35:508 

Art & P. 2:295; 4:1105 

Cent. o. s. 78:722 

Int. studio 38:sup. iii; 67:sup. cxxi 

New Eng. M. n. s. 39:632 
Pyle, Howard 

Craftsman 15:502 

Harper 124:255 

Int. studio 45:sup. Ixxi; 54:sup. Ixxxv 

Nation 93:479 

Outl. 85:453; 101:270 

St. N. 42:644 
Ranger, Henry W. 

Brush & P. 16:39 

Cent. o. s. 70:636 

Int. studio 29:sup. xxxiii 
Redfield, Edward W. 

Arena 36:20 

Arts & D. 6:135 

Country Ufe 13:194 

Int. studio 27:sup. xxxviii; 41:sup. xxix 
Reed, Earl H. 

Art & P. 6:269 
Reid, Robert 

Artist 24:lxiv; 27:ix 

Arts & D. 2:13 

Craftsman 7:699 

Int. studio 36:sup. cxiii, 
Remington, Frederic 

Cent. o. s. 86:354 

Craftsman 15:658 

Cur. Ut. 33:653; 43:521 



307 



Nation 89:662 
Scrib. M. 32:408; 47:181 
Reuterdahl, Henry 

Everybody's 32:339 
Robinson, Theodore 
Brush & P. 4:285 
Scrib. M. 19:784 
Rolshoven, Julius 
Artist 26:185 
Int. studio 27:ciu 
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 

Arena 38:385 
Bookman 26:23 
Brush & P. 12:262 
Cent. o. s. 74:968 
Chaut. 38:460 
Craftsman 9:369 
Cur. Ut. 43:279 
Int. studio 33:sup. cxxiii 
Nation 85:115 
No. Am. 177:725 
R. of Rs. 36:290 
Outl. 84:199 

W. work 7:4403; 14:9285 
Sargent, John Singer 
Arch. rec. 15:422 
Arts & D. 6:278 
Brush & P. 19:95 
Cent. o. s. 52:163 
Critic 47:236 - 
Forum 54:232 
Harper 75:683 
. Ind. 51:1140 
Munsey 36:265 
R. of Rs. 36:692 
Scrib. M. 34:515; 52:509 
Studio (Lond.) 19:3; 107 
Schofield, W. Elmer 
Arts&D. 1:473 
Int. studio 48:280 
Scudder, Janet 
Arts&D. 2:106 
Craftsman 28:343, 345 ■ - 
Good H. 53:.181 
Harp. W. 62:370 
House B. 36:10 
Int. studio 39:sup. Ixxxi 
Scrib. M. 56:664 
Shannon, J. J. 
Harper 111:204 
Mui;isey 14:129 
Studio (Lond.) 8:67 
Shrady, Henry M. 



Jour. Am. Hist. 7:1005 

Munsey 29:545 

Scrib. M. 49:381 
Simmons, Edward E. 

Brush & P. 5:241 

Ind. 53:1798 
Sloan, John 

Arts & D. 6:142, 237, 238 

Int. studio 58:sup. xxv 
Smith, F. Hopkinson 

Bookm. 41:247 

Outl. 109:910 

R. of Rs. 51:514 

Scribner' 58:305 
Stephens, Alice Barber 

Brush & P. 6:241 
Sterne, Maurice 

Cur. Opin. 59:425 
Sterner, Albert E. 

Brush & P. 5:193 

Int. studio 35:sup. liv; 55:sup. x 
Symons, G. Gardner 

Outl. 105:881 
Taft, Lorado 

Arch. rec. 36:12 

Craftsman 14:12; 29:485 

Cur. lit. 44:515; 51:562 

Ind. 83:122 

Lit. digest 51:297 

W. today 14:191 
Tanner, Henry O 

Artist 26:lxv; 27:v; 29;xii 

Brush & P. 6:97 

Cosmopol. 29:18 

Cur. Mt. 45:404 

Ind. 65:1600 

Int. studio 46:288; 50:sup. xi; 54:sup. 
xxvii 

Outl. 64:793 

W. work 18:11661, 11769 
TaAell, Edmund C. 

Artist 27:xxvii 

Burhngton M. 14:254 

Critic 48:136 

Int. studio 32:sup. Ixxv 

W. today 11:1077 
Thayer, Abbott Henderson 

Brush & P. 6:207 

Critic 46:423 

Int. studio 33:sup. Ixxxi; 39:187 
S udio 6:247 
Tiffany, Louis C. 
Artist 24:iv 



308 



House B. 34:179 
Twachtman, John Henry 

Am. M. 61:599 

Bookm. 27:355 

Brush & P. 12:243 

Craftsman 14:597 

Forum 52:245 

Ind. 58:147 

Int. studio 35:sup. xxiv; 38:sup. li 

No. Am; 176:554 
Van Ingen, William B. 

Arch. rec. 13:322 
Vedder, Elihu 

Artist 27:xv 

Bookm. 35:145 

Cent. o. s. 86:917 

Int. studio 35:sup. xciv 

Outl. 96:693 
Volk, Douglas 

Cent, o, s. 68:654 

Int. studio 54:sup. xlviii; 55: sup. Ixxiii 
Vonnoh, Bessie Potter (Mrs. Robert W. 
Vonnoh) 

Brush & P. 2:29 

Good H. 53:183 

House B. 35:125 

Int. studio 54:sup. xlvui 

Mag. of art 24:522 

Scrib. M. 19:126; 55:663 
Vonnoh, Robert W. 

Art & P. 4:999 

Artist 29:xii 

Arts & D. 2:381 

Harper 116:254 

Int. studio 27:sup. Ixxxvi; 54:sup. xlviii 
Walker, Henry O. 

Int. studio 27:sup. Ixxxvi 
Walker, Horatio 

Arts&D. 1:63 

Brush & P. 6:82 

Canad. M. 18:495 

Craftsman 14:138 
Harper 117:947 
Ward, John Q. A. 
Artist 26:224 
Harper 57:62: 

Int. studio 40:sup. Ixxxi; 58:sup. xxxvii 
R. of Rs. 41:694 
Scrib. M. 32:385 
Warner, Olin L. 
■ Arch. i-ec. 16:488 
Cent. o. s. 46:436 
Scrib. M. 20:429 



Waugh, Frederick J. 

Arts &D. 1:111 
Int. studio 51:273 
Webster, Herman A. 

Int. studio 40:sup. vi; 45:208 
Weinman, Adolph Alexander 
Arch. ree. 33:519 
Cent. o. s. 81:705 
Int. studio 39:sup. xliv 
Weir, J. Alden 
Arts&D. 2:55 
Burlington M. 15:131 
Cent. o. s. 57:956^ 
Cosmopol. 32:596 
Harper 114:296; 131:246 
Outl. 110: 120, 136 
Scrib. M. 59:129 
Wendt, William 

Am. M. of art 7:232 
Wenzell, Albert Beck 
Good H. 61:860 
Harp. B. 50:15 (July '15) 
Whistler, James McNeill 
" Brush & P. 12:334 
Cent. o. s. 80:219; 86:694; 90:710 
Int. studio 21:3, 208; 25:224 
Masters in art 8:503, bibUog. 
W. work 6:3923 
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt 
Arts & D. 6:342 
Good H. 53:176 
Wiles, Irving Ramsey 
Art&D. 1:402 
Bkbuy 11:387 
Cent. o. s. 54:799 
Craftsman 14:602; 18:347 
Harper 109:802; 114:608 
R. of Rs. 34:40 
Woodbury, Charles H. 
Art & P. 4:761 
Brush & P. 6:1 
Int. studio 42;sup. Ixxi 
Wyant, Alexander Helwig 
Am. lUus. M. 61:34 
Brush & P. 11:184 
Harper 59:678; 110:802 
Yandell, Enid 

Good H. 53:182 
Yohn, F. C. 

Brush & P. 2:161 
Young, Mahonri 
Cur. Opin. 57:200 
Int. studio 47:sup. Iv