Skip to main content

Full text of "The fiddle fancier's guide; a manual of information regarding violins, violas, basses and bows of classical and modern times, together with biographical notices and portraits of the most famous performers on these instruments"


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


a THE 











Author of "Old Violins and their Makers, &-c., &-c. 


With Facsimiles of Violin Tickets 







The Reader wha may be interested in the subject of this 
Guide will, I hope, find the contents of the book to be of 
some value to him — how much, if any, more than usual, is 
not for me to say. I think, however, I may, without 
egotism, state that there is hardly a maker of any irnport- 
ance, from the earliest to the latest, about whom, or about 
whose work, something fresh in the matter of descriptiye 
detail may not be gleaned from these pages, while a very 
large number of the more ordinary class of craftsmen 
have had certain points of their work briefly elucidated 
in a manner calculated to be helpful for purposes of 

Everything in the book has been, to employ a comriion 
phrase, brought up to date, and although, as a matter of 
duty to my readers and to' myself, I have, in writing 
The Fiddle Fancier's Guide, consulted and collated 
afresh, with great a;dvantage, every source of information 
known to me, I think I may yet fairly claim that the 
results which have been tabulated throughout, are very 
largely those of my own observation, and practical 
experience, and where these have failed me, the harries 
of the authors on whose assistance I have drawn, will be 
found duly recorded in the body of the work. 

.London, 1st Octohev, 1892. 



The Bow AND Ceuth ..' .. .. i 

.... I 


The Bow and Cruth (continued) .. .. ., .. 12 

The Cruth and Viols 18 

On Old and New Violins ;. ; .. 25 

'Classical and Post-Classical Makers 30 

Second Series of Classical' and Pos't-Classical Makers 135 

Violin Bow Makers .. 230 

Violinists . . 244 

Basses and Bass Players ;' .. .. 301 


Corelli .. 


.. ... 249 





Nicolo Paganini 


Louis Spohr 




Henri Vieuxtpmps 

,. 293; 

John Tiplady Carrodus . . 


Martin Meliton Sarasate. . 





^hc ^oto anil (Eritth. 

THE Arabs have a saying that the best discourse 
is that which is " short and clear." No doubt 
they mean " clear and short." That is, at least, how 
I should prefer to understand the apothegm — lucidity 
first, and brevity afterwards, in as far as. it may 
be possible. In whatever order they appear, I trust 
both virtues may be found illustrated in the method 
of this manual, but I shall make, at any rate, a 
sincere effort to secure the presence of one of 
them by beginning at once the consideration of 
my subject. 

Eleven years ago, when writing a work on the 
history of the violin, I began by referring to what 
was then, in my view, the more important factor in 
dealing with the antiquity of the instrument, namely, 
the violin bow, and I pointed out that the hard and fast 
conclusion which then prevailed with regard to the age 
of this 'adjunct was not altogether a very philoEophical 


one. ' Writers of eminence, who, at that time, might 
l)e said to represent the literary view of the subject, 
had stated that it was theti proved that the Greeks 
and the Romans were not acquainted with the use 
of bowed instruments. I suggested that the investiga- 
tions which led to that conclusion had not been so 
thorough as to justify its expression in these absolute 
terms, and I offered some evidence in support of my 
conception that niore proof of the bow's antiquity 
might be available if due care were observed in 
seeking it. Since then the question has been in some 
measure revived, aijd it is now admitted that the 
Greeks and Romans probably did know something 
.about the archaic representative of the fiddle bow, 
and were very likely practically acquainted with its 
uses. From subsequent investigations, I confess it is 
to me almost impossible to believe that they could 
have been ignorant of it, when we take into considera- 
tion the antique monuments in existence which display 
figures of musicians with stringed , instruments and 
rods in their hands, the latter of which could be of 
little or ilo use to them in any capacity other than 
that which the violin bow has to us. < 

The evidence which I offered on the , above point 
was a drawing from an Etruscan vase, in \\rhich 
an implement like an early bow was placed across 
the strings of a musical instrument, and in calling atten- 
tion to this drawing, I said that the bow was placed 
so close to the strings as to appear as if it had no 
hair, and that it might on that account be claimed 
as a kind of plectrum, with which the ancients were 


understood to strike or twang the strings. I said 
then that if we remembered how Paganini is reported to 
have played exquisitely with a rush on the occasion of a 
contest which he had with a young man in Italy, there 
would be no difficulty in supposing that the ancients may 
have excited the vibrations of their strings by a similar 
contact before hair came to be used. A year or two after 
the publication of this view, it appears to have been 
accepted in a tentative manner, and it is now admitted 
as a highly probable explanation. I may here em- 
phasise the view which I then expressed by pointing out 
that had the artist who decorated that vase intended to 
depict a plectrum for striking the strings, he would 
hardly have placed it across them, but would probably 
have shown it hanging parallel to the instrument. The 
position in which this implement is found — across the 
strings at the very place where the musician would use 
his bow, is, in my view, evidence of a conclusive kind 
that in those times, they were acquainted with, and 
practised, the method of producing musical sounds by 
means of Continuous friction over strings. Indeed I 
do not see how evidence of this kind could be more 
decisive, for the Greeks were under the most stringent 
laws with regard to the reproduction, in the domain of 
art, of instruments which were in established use. 
Artists were not allowed to invent forms Which did not 
actually exist. They were not permitted to make 
innovations or alterations pictorially in the instruments 
which they represented — special mention of " musical 
branches " being actually iliade in the law of which 
Plato informs us. In the scene depicted on the vase 



referred to there are two musical instruments — one on 
each side of the principal figure. In this case they 
indicate the profession of the person whom they flank, 
and the personage represented on the cup to which I 
refer was Chiironeis, a learned Greek musician and 

Since these views were expressed in 1881, the ten- 
dency has been .to pursue the subject on similar lines, 
and even the mounds of Nineveh are now, and I think 
rightly, supposed to yield their quotum of evidence in 
the same directioti. Whether it ■vyill ever be possible tO' 
bridge over the gulf which separates the eighth or ninth 
century of the Christian era from the time of the fulfil- 
ment of Jonah's prophecy — and bridge- it 6ver in such 
a manner as will yield a firm footing to the historical 
inquirer — it may not be at the present moment easy to 
say, but I am very hopeful of such a solution, and I am 
sure it will come all the more quickly the less people are 
anxious to have their personal theories and fads accepted 
at all cost and at every hazard. As one of the very 
mildest instances of the results of unconscious bias 
towards a preconceived idea I mayhere quote a few lines 
from an old Welsh poem which has been printed in a 
■\'oIume entitled " Musical and Poetical Relics of the 
Welsh Bards," by Edward Jones (1794) for the purpose of 
showing that the early Welsh Crwth or Cruth was played 
with a bow. The precise date of the composition of the 
poem is not known, but the liame of the author is, and it 
is supposed by those whoclaim to have a knowledge of 
Welsh literature, that the verses were written in the 
fifteenth century. The poem contains a detailed account 


of the instrument, but four lines will be sufficient for my 

"A fair coffer with a bow, a girdle, 
A finger board and a bridge ; its price a pound. 
It has a frontlett formed like a whqel 
With a short-nosed bow across." 

Now the comment on these lines by a distinguished 

writer is that "it is by no means certain to the 

unbiassed enquirer that it (the bow) is alluded to in the 

above description of the instrument. The bow which is 

mentioned may possibly refer to the curved shape of the 

frame." If the first line were the only one in which the 

word " bow " occurred, I could understand how one 

might maintain that it was a reference to the shape of 

the instrument, but how the fourth line could be 

supposed ,to be a repetition of the same description 

passes my comprehension. I confess it seems to me as 

clear an account of a primitive fiddle bow as could well be 

put in English words. If literary evidence of, that kind 

is to be rejected, or even discredited, one may 'as well 

reject everything that has ever been written by any 

writer in any ^country of the world. I am almost 

inclined to believe that the author of the above, comment 

had forgotten all about the details given in the poem, 

and had turned to the first line only when penning his 

curious remark. There is no mistake in the translation, 

as even a reader accustomed to very old English will 

see on comparing it with the original : — 

" Prennolt t6g bwa a gwregis, 
Pont a bran, pun,t yw ei bris ; 
Athalaith ar waith olwyn, 
A'r bwa ar draws byr ei drwyn, etc." 


It SO happens that the rejection of this evidence would 
not, in this case, be of great importance, but it might have 
been, and at any rate, it is not a right way to .deal with 
evidence, however slight it may be. The same author 
says, " sure enough, in Wales they found a curious sort 
of fiddle, said by the natives to have been in use with 
them from time iriimemorial, as people always say when 
they possess something peculiar, the origin of which 
they are unable to trace. Thie supposed high antiquity 
enhances to the people the value of their relic,, especially 
if they find it admired by foreigners and learned anti- 
quaries." So much for the claim of poor Wales. Just 
previously the same distinguished writer had given an 
illustration of a Burmese " Thro," which happens to be a 
very near approach to violin form, and which appears to 
have been unearthed from a bdok of travels (Embassy 
to Ava in the year 1795). The only evidence which 
is adduced in support of the conjecture that this instru- 
ment is of Burmese invention, or, at least, not a repro- 
duction from a European model, is the statement of the 
person who was of the Embassy. " I at first imagined 
it had been of Eui'opean introduction, and brought 
to Pegu by the Portuguese; but I was assured that 
it is an original instrument of the country." This simple 
statement of a traveller, together with the circumstance 
that the Burmese name " Thro "is said to be a deriva- 
tive froin a Sanskrit root sarva, which means " entii^e " 
or " universal," and from which a number of Indian 
musical instruments' have received their names, is to be 
Accepted as evidence that the Burmese fiddle is ancient 
and indigenous to the country in which a member of a 


diplomatic mission saw it, while a three or four hundred 
year old Welsh poem minutely describing an instrument, 
then in existence is to be rejected as evidence of that 
existence for no reason whatever — ^unless it be that 
" people always say these things when they possess, 
something peculiar, the origin of which they are unable 
to trace " — the Burmese people, of course, alone excepted. 
I merely mention this to show how lightly scientific 
modes of reasoning weigh sometimes with cultured minds, 
and how utterly unreliable are the conclusions which ar& 
drawn in such fashion. If the circumstance that the 
name of the Buirmese " Thro," derived from a Sanskrit 
root sarva, meaning , " entire " or " universal " be 
considered an element sufficiently weighty to make 
evidence pointing to its Oriental origin, why' should I 
hesitate to trace the Welsh Cruth in a much more direct 
manner to the Hebrew participle Cruth signifying " cut " 
or " engraved ? " It has never been suggested before, 
but suppose I do so in this Fiddle Fanciers's Guide, 
merely to show how easy it is to work out a plausible 
conclusion on paper with the aid of etymology. The 
ancient Eastern lyre had an arched back cut and 
engraved to imitate the shell of a tortoise. The Greeks, 
who had their letters — ^if not their literature and sciences 
— largely from the citifes of the plain, seeing this, called 
it chelys (x«^«) their name for a tortoise, and the 
Romans called it testudo, which is the Latin name for 
the same creature, and also, secondarily, for any stringed 
instrument whose body is of an arched character. Now, 
how is it that the Anglo-Saxons and the Welsh,. alone 
among all occidental peoples,retained the original Hebrew 


word in almost its primitive phonetic purity — for that the 
two words are identical 1 have hot a doubt ? The Anglo- 
Saxon word is Cruth, and the Welsh Crwth, in old French 
Carotk. In old high German chrota, whence it degene- 
rated to chrotta, from that to Motte, thence to rotte, with 
intermediate modifications, such as crotia,, and the English 
£rowd, until it ultimately became rote. There are besides, 
these, some dozens of different forms of the same word and 
its degenerations, such as the Irish cruit, kruit'h, and the 
Cornish kroud. In Halliwel's " Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words " croud and crouth are found as nouns 
signifying a fiddle, while, the verb crowd is " to move one 
thing across another, to make a grating noise." It is 
more than merely interesting in this last connection to 
note that the old Hebrew verbal root ghrad or ghroud is 
Almost identical in phonetic power and meaning. It 
signifies "to scrape "or "scratch." Suppose we go a 
little further and point out that long before the Greeks 
and Romans knew, anything about the British Isles, the 
Canaanites (Phenician). had colofiised a considerable 
portion of the mainland, and were busy working its 
mining resources. The Cassiterides islands were no 
doubt known to the later Greeks by name, but Diodorus 
Siculus confesses that he did not know where they were. 
He had merely heard of them as places to which the 
early Phenicians had gone. Although some modern 
scholars — ^for reasons which do not appear to be very 
cogent— have relinquished the notion that the 
Cassiterides of these Canaariitish settlers are the Scilly 
, Isles off the Cornish coast, Cornwall itself, and all the 
southern district teem with etymological reminiscences 


of' these almost prehistoric colonists. They baptised 
the streams by. which thfey squatted, giving them 
designations which have come down to our own 
day. The Taff, the Tawe, the 'Teiffy, the Tavy — these 
are all names of rivers at the " end " of the landj and 
are formed from the Pheniciain Tauv, Tav, Tau, or Te 
— the final letter of the ancient Hebrew alphabet 
and signifying a mark, limit, or boundary. There is 
at the extreme limit of farther India another river so- 
called by the same colonising race, namely, the Tavoy, 
and we have another instance of it in the Tay, which, in' 
Scotland, drains the Southern boundry line of the 
Grampians. In addition, we have in the North the Yare, 
the Yore, and the Yarrow — all niodifications of " Yeri," 
a river. We have the Plym, the Tamar, the Thames — 
and how well they named this Jast great stream, may 
be realised by anyone who visits Heme Bay or Southend, 
and observes the steady manner in which the great 
estuary still performs the duty which earned for it the 
title it has now borne, for, it may be, three or four 
thousand years. It is still " melting away " the land — 
carr)ring the " London clay " in solution out to sea. In 
the matter of names in almost their original purity the 
country, as I havfe said, teems with these ancient 
Hebrew words — and the Phefiician or Canaanitish 
dialect is nearly identical with ancient Hebrew. 

What does all this point to ? That the Cruth is 
the progenitor . of our present violin ? Most certainly 
that, and nothing less — ^if etymology is to have its say 
in .the matter. Of the score of spell^ings in which this 
musical instrument's name is to be found throughout 


Europe and Asia the purest is that .still current in the 
British Isles, and all the others are corruptions of it. 
Charuth, C'ruth or Cruth is the Hebrew form. Cruth 
and Crwth the British and Welsh. Kruith and Cruit 
the Irish, Caroth, old French. Chrotta, Crotta .and 
Chrota, Latin and German. The initial sound of the 
Hebrew word is a strong gutteral like the ch in the 
Scottish word loch, or in, the German hoch. By variety 
of vocalis3.tiDn this gutteral became a strong aspirate, 
and then we have on the Continent of Europe hrotta 
and hrota. Still further softened it becomes rotta, rota, 
rotel, roet, and has about a dozen other changes, among 
which are rotteh, rote, riote, rott, rotha, rothes, rottem 
But in whatever forms this narne appears they are all~ 
corruptions of the primitive Hebrew word Cruth, instead 
of Cruth being a corruption of Chrotta. That is, as it 
appears to me, the conclusion to which etymology points 
and in a ^ery decisive manner. 

With regard to the actual delineation of these bowed 
instruments in historical records there are, in existence, 
manuscripts — dating from about the tenth and eleventh 
centuries^-which contain drawings of them in various- 
forms called the crowd, the crout, and rote, and on 
architectural edifices dating a century or two later 
sculptures of them are found, but it is a mistake to 
suppose that the dates of these manuscripts and sculp- 
tures indicate in even the vaguest manner the time or 
period of the instrument's introduction to use with the 
people among whom it is found thus commemorated. 
This is, however, a common error, and many- writers do 
not seem to realize that before such musical instruments 


could in those old times become conventionalized decora- 
tive adjuncts of architectural structures — especially when 
connected with edifices erected for purposes of religious, 
worship — they must, have been part and parcel of the 
people's life for ages-^one might say, if not froni time 
immemorial — a phrase to which some of us object for no- 
particular reason, but which, in the circumstances, is 
strictly accurate. Although I look with a kind of 
respectful terror on that magnificent hyperbole of 
Michelet's where he describes the sixteenth century as. 
extending " from Columbus to Copernicus, from Coper- 
nicus to Galileo ; from the discovery of the earth to that 
of heaven," I would point out in somewhat of theisame 
spirit, but in less beautiful, and epigrammatic form, that 
these drawings and sculptures of the tenth, eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, with their fiddle bows 
and fiddles of all sorts and ,sizes, indicate that the 
objects which have lent themselves in this way to schools 
of decoration or folk-lore treatises, have been in existence 
a^d famiUar to the people for ages before the time of the 
chroniclers who wrote about them, or the Cathedral 
builders who used them. They are of little or no use 
either in fixing the comparative age, or in tracing the 
development of any one of them. They are merely 
valuable monuments of their existence, but a;re not 
evidence capable of fixing priority of use. The changes 
found in their appearance are almost certainly the 
results of selection on the. part of the decorator, and, in' 
the matter of manuscripts, the differences probably 
indicate the, limits of their writer's research. 

%ht §OiXi mb (ErUth (continues,). 

rHE earliest known literary reference to the cruth 
is contained in two well canvassed lines of a 
itin poem written by Venantius Fortunatus, a bishop 
Poitiers — the capital of the old French province of 
)itou, and ,which is now called the department of 
ienne. This rather important poet — from a fiddle 
ncier's point of view — was born in the yea r S^\o. 
:ar Ceneda, in the vicinity of Treviso, in Italy, and 
ed early in the following century at Poitiers. The 
ro lines, which have, for many years afforded oppor- 
nities of discussion to musical antiquarians, occur in 
1 ^ode to be found published in a volume in 1617, 
lied " Venahtii . Fortunati Poemata." They are as 
Hows :-■ — 

" Romanusque lyra plaudat tlbi, Barbarus harpa, 
Grsecus Achilliaca, Chrotta Britanna canat." 

he passage has been translated in several ways to 
i referred to later on, but, in the rneantime, we may 
ke one rendering which is, perhaps, the least faoilty. 

^t the Roman praise thee on the lyre, the Barbarian on the harp, 
The Greek on the Achilhaca,' and let the Britan Crouth sing." 

What the Achilliaca was is not certainly known. 

is supposed to have been the Cithara, or Cyther. 

hat is, however, of little importance to us at present. 


except as a passing matter. What we are chiefly 
concerned with is that portion of the extract formed 
by the words, " Chrotta Britanna; canat." That this 
word, taken along with its context, means that the- 
British Cruth sang, appears to me to be quite beyond 
dispute. Why the bishop should have described the- 
cruth as a singing instrument has been explained by 
Welsh commentators as a complimentary allusion to- 
the excellence of the technique of British performers, 
and people have made merry in gentle fashion over 
what appeared to them to be an interpretation having- 
about it a soujicon of egotism. I do not think there is . 
any particularly good reason for banter of this kind, 
"because it appears to me that the conclusion was . a 
very natural • one to draw, although I do not think 
it was the correct one. When His Grace of Poitiers 
was writing poetry he would doubtless choose his- 
similes much after the manner of his kind when 
seeking to describe some distinction either of appear- 
ance or eifect. He did not scruple, for example, to- 
employ, or compound, the term " Achilliaca," to ■ 
describe the Greek instrument', although for it there ■ 
were already then at hi? disposal one Or two names 
which would have been clearly enough " understanded , 
of the people " — such as Cithera or Chelys. But it is 
just possible that- he thought the term "chelys " to be ^ 
derived from " Achilles," and made a new name for 
the instrument on that account— -although such a 
dreadful supposition should perhaps be advanced only 
with the greatest diffidence. But a scholarly man like 
Fortunatus, having such an impression on his mind, . 


would undoubtedly seek to discredit what he con- 
sidered to be a corrupt form ; of the name, and en- 
deavour to restore it to a closer relation with its origin, 
and hence we might well have, instead of " Chelys," 
the mediaeval substitute, " Achilliaca," Ivhich nobody 
■texcept Venantius Fortuhatus appears to know anything 
^about. That is not the -first time in the history of 
musical nomenclature where' a new name > suddenly 
appears in a well developed literature, and of which 
no trace, can be found either before or after the solitary 
instance of its materialisation. At any rate, whatever 
^' Achilliaca " may mean, we know that canere means 
■" to sing." Now it does not appear to have struck 
any one of the numerous commentators on this precious 
couplet of the bishop's, . to enquire why he used this 
term to describe the cruth, if he does not mean that 
the sounds emitted by that iilstrument when played 
were continuous sounds such as are characteristic of 
the voice in singing. In other words, I think the 
bishop is, of set purpose, describing the sounds of an 
instrumeiit played with the bow. I am supported in 
this belief by another circumstaiice which also appears 
to have entirely escaped the notice of those who have 
engaged in this discussion. Fortunatus does not say 
"Let the Romans extol thee on the lyre,',' etc., in a 
general fashion, but in quite a particular ' manner. He 
is indeed very much concerned to be accurate. He 
does not employ laudaye, which woiild have suited well 
enough had his purpose merely ,been to invoke th6 
-imanimity of nations and races in their musi9fp.l praises. 
He wanted to indicate their methods, and _tiierefore he_ 


used plaudare. " Let the Romans praise (applaud) 
thee (by beating, striking, plucking, twitching, twang- 
ing — by any kind of percussive action whatever) on 
the lyre, the Barbarians on the harp, the Greeks on 
the Achilliaca," and " let the British Cruth sing.'' 
He could not well have been more explicit. Plaudare 
signifies to clap, to beat, to strike,, to stamp, and, 
secondarily, to applaud in that fashion, and this 
mediaeval writer seems to be most emphatically specific 
in his choice of words to describe the marked, distinction 
between the instruments which were struck or twanged, 
and the British or Breton cruth which was bowed. It is 
rather a curious thing that several ti'anslations have been 
made which appear to go pretty wide of the original. 
For exainple, M. Vidal renders it as follows : — 

" Le Romain t'applaudit sur la lyre, le Barbare sur la harpe et 
le crouth breton, le Grec sur la Cythare." 

This, in English, would be : — 

"The Roman praises thee on the lyre, the Barbarian on the 
harp and the Breton CroUth, the Greek on the Cithara." 

Why he should have so translated it does not very 
clearly come out. I hope it is not uncharitably to 
suppose that it was merely not to seem to literally 
copy M. Fetis, who had previously translated it thus : — 

" Le Romain t'applaudit sur la lyre, le Grec te chante avec la 
cithare, le Barbare avec la harpe, et le croUth Breton." 

This in, English, would be :■ — 

" The Roman praises thee on the lyre, the Greek sings to thee 
.with the Cithara, the Barbarian with the harpe,, and the Breton 

l6 THE fIDDLE fancier's GUIDE. 

M. Fetis' translation is quite as unsatisfactory as 
■ M. Vidal's. We have another version from Herr Abele 
which runs : — 

" Der Romer lobt dich auf der Leier, der Barbar singt dir iJiit der 
Harpe, der Grieche mit der Cyther, der Britannier mit der crouth." 

This becomes, in English : — 

" The Roman praises thee on the lyre, the Barbarian sings to thee 
with the harp, the Greek with the Cyther, the Briton with the crouth. ' ' 

Then we have in English, direct from the Latin 
of Fortunatus :— 

" Let the Romans applaud thee with the lyre, the Barbarians with 
the harp, the Greeks with the cithera ; let the British crouth sing.'l 

I confess I like none of these. They all appear to 
have been, made without a careful consideration of the 
original. I take the liberty of offering another trans- 
lation which, I imagine, is more faithful to, the words-, 
construction and intent of the author. 

" To thee the Roman strikes the lyre, the Barbarian the harp, 
the Greek the Chelys, and the British Crouth siftgs." 

At the risk of being considered a little prosy, I should 
like to point out ihat the literal and fully extended 
meaning of the mediaeval bishop— who died just when 
the Latin tongue had ceased to be a living language: — is 
as follows, with those words added which poetic usage 
elided from his verse. 

"The Roman the lyre strikes to thee, the Barbarian (strikes to 
thee) the harp, the Greek (strikes to thee) the Chelys, and (tp thee) 
the British Crouth sings." 

And now I have done with this valuable couplet — 
for it certainly is valuable as evidence of the existence 


of the bowed form of the cruth as early as the sixth 
century in literature, and when we realise that these 
literary and architectural witnesses testify tp the preva- 
lence of forms long prior to the periods when they 
are themselves found in the witness Ipox, the real 
importance of their evidence is enormously enhanced. 
' A representation of the crouth tnthant, or three 
stringed crouth,, played with a bow, was iound in 
a manuscript of the eleventh century in the abbey of 
Saint Martial of Limoges. That manuscript would not 
be a register of new inventions any more than the 
bishop's reference to harps and lyres indicated new 
instruments. It is, however, a far cry from the sixth 
to the eleventh century^ but the instrument, neverthe- 
less, existed during all that time and down to a much 
later period. The Welsh cruth only went out of use 
with the death of John Morgan, of Newbury, in the 
island of Anglesea, in the end of the eighteenth century. 
He was aliv6 in 1776. 

I have also, in a previous work, indicated that 
evidence of the cruth having been played with a bow 
as early as the tenth century in Wales, might be found 
in the prizes awarded to musicians by Howell Dda, a 
king of Cambria who reigned from 904 to 948. The 
first, second, and third prizes consisted respectively of 
a harp, a cruth, and a bagpipe. I have thought I 
recognised in these, representatives of the various 
methods of producing musical sounds for purposes of 
melody and harmony, namely, the harp by percussive 
sounds, the cruth by bowed sounds or continuous 
friction, and the bagpipes as representing the wood wind. 


%iu Crutk i\nb Wxoh. 

AFTER the early Cruth period of Fortunatus, 
literature and the arts are, for nearly five hundred 
years, almost silent about this primitive instrument. 
But it had not disappeared during that time. On the 
contrary, it was quite as much ah item in the life of 
Occidental nations in the eleventh century as it had been 
in the sixth ; quite as familiar to them, and found to be 
quite- as suitable as the decorative adjunct of a monk's ■ 
manuscript as it had been deemed fitting to adorn a 
poet's line. In the Latin illuminated work of the 
eleventh century already referred to and which was 
discovered at the abbey of Saint Martial of Limoges,, 
but whiph is now in the National Library of Paris, the 
body of the three-stringed Cruth or Cruth trithant, is 
not unlike that of a Guitar, having three strings led 
over a bridge from one end of the instrument to the 
other, and having no neck nor fingerboard, but a some- 
what large oblong opening on each side of the strings; so 
as to permit the hetnd to pass through from the back in 
order to stop them. Coeval with this cruth trithant of 
the eleventh ceintury we- find a large variety of stringed 
instruments played with a bow, and which^perhaps on 
account of their irritating nlultiplicity^appear to niany 
to have claims to separate classification as of distiqctly 
different origin! I have ' grave doubts of the necessity 


for such a classification, but the pages of a brief manual 
like the present, which is chiefly concerned with the 
modern violin, are hardly a suitable medium for more 
detailed expression of those opinions. I will content 
myself with saying here that I still harbour the 
conviction that the cruth — through the viols— ^is the 
progenitor of the violin, and that I have found no 
reasons adduced; in any quarter sufficiently cogent to 
change the tendency of this belief, but that most results 
of subsequent research have, on the contrary, tended to 
confirm it." I have shown, I think as clearly as words 
fairly dealt ^yith can, that the Cruth of the ^ivth rpntury 
was pla yed with a bo w, and there is very little room for 
doubt— rseeing that almost everyone is agreed — that 
the cruth of the eleventh century is a similar instru- 
ment. And. now I want my readers particularly to 
notice the falct that for a period of five hundred 
years there has not been found a single literary refer- 
ence to, or artistic reminiscence of, this instrument 
between the twp dates over the whole area of the then 
civilised world. I am not concerned at present with 
the reason for this teniporary oblivion, I am merely 
asking an interest in it as a fact, for the purpose of 
enquiring if such a fact as this should not teach us 
to be chary in drawing conclusions. Should it not 
inoculate us securely against the inroads of the fever 
for immature classification ? I certainly think it should.. 
Here we have a popular instrument existing through a. 
period of five centuries without the slightest reference 
to it being fpund in any literary .or' artistic .ift'onument 
of the period intervening these two dates ! We may 



well pause when we are asked to believe that certain 
■other instruments were not known at all, merely' because 
no trace of them has been found in literary or artistic 
remain's. In face of a circumstance like this, I shall 
not venture at present to follow too dogmatically any 
.particular line of classification in dealing with the 
ancestry of the violin. I will merely point out that among 
all the forms which have been marshalled to show their 
kinship to the monarch of string instruments, not one 
■of the earlier , species has a sourtd-post except the old 
viols. That circumstance alone is, in my view, sufficient 
to prove their direct descent from the cruth, which, 
although ' it had no sound post in the sense in which 
we now understand that term,, namely a movable sound 
post, it certainly had one in principlie — the long, left 
foot of the bridge going through the left sound hole and 
being supported on the inside of the back. 

.The only other instrument which has been set up — 
with any particular claims to notice — as the ancestor of 
the violin is the rebab. It, however, had no sideis, and 
although it may be called a contemporary of the cruth — 
seeing that illustrations of it have been found as far back 
as th e ninth century — I am afraid its claims must be 
lightly passe3'5Ver. Its form was that of a heart-shaped 
block of wood, hollowed, out and narrowed" towards the 
handle. It had, at different times, one, two, and three 
strings, and its name rebab — supposed to be an Arabic 
word — is quoted as meaning " emitting melancholy 
sounds." I think this derivation is a mistake. The 
word rebab is, I fancy, an Arabic variation of the old 
Hebrew word " lebab " — the Hebrew letters r and 


being interchangable. " Lebab " signifies the heart, 
and it appears to have had also the meaning of " hollow"^ 
if we may follow Gesenius .and Principal Lee. It has, 
further, the rrieaning of "hollow-hearted" an epithet 
which admirably describes the primitive form of the 

The earliest known illustration of a viol — the instru- 
ment which seems to me to be clearly the only direct 
descendant of the cruth — is contained in a work entitled 
" T^^ ^^'"°^ ^""^ "^ '^""C^," and printed at Verona in 
^i49ijThis illustration will be found reproduced in No. 5 
of '' The Violin Monthly Magazine." The instrument 
is a five-stringed viol having, in addition, two deep-toned 
strings under or outside of the fingerboard and apparently 
for a purpose similar to that which the two detached 
strings of the Welsh Cruth serve, but which, on the 
latter instrument, are placed on the opposite side of the 
fingerboard. A most interesting feature of this very 
early viol is found in the circumstance that although it 
has no middle bouts as we now know them it possesses 
an a,pproiximation to- what we are familiar with as the 
Brescian violin corner. I am quite sure that we cannot 
in every case depend on the entire accuracy of these 
early drawings, for we find in them many little details 
which are visibly absurd, but in their main features, and 
in their outline I think, they are quite trustworthy, and 
in this, the very earliest known illustration of such an 
instrument, there is a clear and unmistakable approach 
to violin form in the rounded end, the. corners, the 
position of the sound holes in relation to the corners, 
and the position of. the bridge in relation to the sound 


holes. There is also a tail piece to this viol attached to 
the end of the. instrument in precisely the same fashion 
as many old specimens of tail pieces are still attached. 
In addition there is in this drawing a most important 
feature, which must not be ' overlooked. The finger- 
board is quite a long and broad one, and displays no frets. 
A drawing of this kind having such a striking resemblance 
to violin form, and found in a work published in Italy 
in _i49i-^long before we have any historidal trace of lute 
or viol makers anywhere, should dispel for the present all 
the hazy speculative notions regarding the post-historic 
Arabian origin of either the violin or the bow, for, side 
by side with this viol there is the drawing of a bow as 
like the modern violin bow in principle and in measure- 
ment as could well be expected in so early a specimen. 
It is a little longer than the instrument and has a 
mechanism shown on the stick quite evidently for the 
purpose of increasing or decreasing the tension. The 
original bow might even have a backward curve when 
in a relaxed condition as the hair in the drawing 
is represented to be tight while the stick is drawn 
straight. In view of all this, in the picture of a viol 
coeval with the cruth, and almost identical in style 
and stringing with known forms of the latter instrument, 
it appears to me difficult to avoid at least one tentative 
conclusion, namely, that the " First Book of Songs " of 
Augurellus temp 149 1, confirms in a singularly cogent 
fashion my previously estpressed- ppitiion that the cruth 
was the progenitor of the violin. ' 

Subsequent to the publication of the above, work, one 
or two musical treatises came from the early printing 


presses, and in these are found illustrations of viols of 
various shapes, until we come to the large work of 
Athanasius Kircher issued from the Roman press in 1650, 
and entitled " Musurgia Universalis." The illustrations 
of viols in this book represent violin form as it is at the 
present day. In every point, these illustrations conform 
to our present outline and model. He calls them 
Chelys major and Chelys minor. They are four-stringed 
instruments — large and small — having volute and scroll 
precisely like our present 'violin. The shaping of the 
neck and fingerboard is much the same as we have them. 
The outline of the instruments almost exactly corresponds 
to that of our violin. The design of the sound holes, 
and the placing of them are what might well be called 
identical with our methods. We are only shown the 
front of the viols, but the shading round the margins, 
combined with that on the fingerboards, and the evident 
curve of the bridges, plainly indicate the nature of the 
arching to be broad and long. Kircher, in describing 
these instruments, says that the larger one was commonly 
called violone, and that it had at the utmost four strings. 
That the stopped portion of the strings was a third part 
of their whole length, he further adds, with regard to the 
violone, but, in describing the lesser " Chelys," which 
he calls a noble instrument, he says that although it has 
at the most four strings, one can ascend as far as 
the fourth octave. , This imphes a much longer finger- ' 
board than is shown in the drawing, which, for the rest > 
is remarkably accurate in its general features. The 
only other point in which its absolute faithfulness might 
be questioned would be the indication of the precise 


spot in which the bridge is placed. With us it occupies 
a position between the notches in the sound holes, but in 
Kircher's drawings the bridge stands just a little nearer 
the tail piece. Whether the backs of these viols were 
flat or arched in the same way as the fronts, is not of the 
slightest importance. There they are, violin forms from 
head to tail, and at the present time instrumepts claiming 
to be violins are sent out into the world with similar in- 
felicitous outlines, similar heavy-looking sound holes, 
similar crude scrolls and volutes, and almost as stinted 
fingerboards. What, if any, particular individual can claim 
to have been the inventor or designer of this vioUn form 
will be considered in another portion of this book, but 
here it maybe said that it can be traced in various ways 
tlirough many models and fanciful variety of outline back 
to the viol of 1491, and that the violin, as we have it, 
also actually , existed long before Kircher's book was 


(Dn ®lb anb ^^eto lioUns. 

BRESCIA and Cremona are, no doubt, the chief 
centres of interest for the intelligent fiddle 
fancier — that is, the fancier of old fiddles. If it is not so, 
it should be so, for, although ther-e are many other 
places where fine fiddles have been produced in times 
past, the great majority of these places are still producing 
fine instruments of much the same class — if people only 
knew what to look for, and where to look for it — but 
there are no places in the world producing violins of 
the same high character in all respects as those which 
have come down to us from the great masters of the 
Cremonese and Brescian schools, and here it may be, I 
think, just as well to say a word or two about new fiddles. 
It is, undoubtedly, a general opinion current among pro- 
• fessional and amateur players that new violins are. usually 
new in the matter of tone. That means that the tone 
is " woody," " hard," or " metallic." These are really 
the only terms that may properly describe the supposed 
defect. Now, that opinion is, in regard to the vast bulk 
of ordinary trade violins, perfectly sound', and these three 
terms very accurately portray the kinds of tone which 
new violins of the trade class . possess. Curiously 
enough, the same three terms will exactly describe the 
tones of ninety out of every hundred fiddles of the old 
type to be found in the market at the present time. I 


am speaking now principally of violins from twenty-five 
and thirty pounds downward to eight, six, five, .four, and 
•even fewer pounds: These sums are freely given for 
common, old rubbish,; such as are really only fit to be 
broken up when compared with new instruments at 
similar prices. The reader will observe that T have ' 
said ninety out of every hundred-^a rough and ready 
way of indicating the proportion of bad tg good instru- 
ments. And by " bad " I here mean not intrinsically 
bad, but bad by coijiparison with new instruments at 
equal prices. It is now going on for half a century since 
I began to take an interest in violins, and few aspects 
>bf the subject have caused, me more surprise from time 
to time than the apparently fixed determination of 
people to have an old fiddle at all hazards. It is not so 
much that they want a beautiful old violin, or an' 
exquisitely toned old violin,, for these distinctions cannot 
:generally be promiscuously secured at such prites as they 
are willing to give, but they want an old violin, because 
they consider that its age will be a kind of guarantee of its 
•excellence. Few notions could well be more absurd than 
Ihis. Age guarantees nothing, except the possibility that 
there will be a few cracks here and there in the wood 
•of the instrument, a few square inches of varnish rubbed 
■off, a fracture or two in the ribs, a scroll defective on one 
side, or some such ipdication of abuse or wear, but age 
^u^rantees nothing with regard to excellence of 
manufacture or quality of tone. If the instrument has 
■originally been a good violin, with a good quality of tone, 
age and use undoubtedly improve that quality in a 
manner which no person- — scientific or unscientific — has 



as yet been able satisfactorily to explain'. A great many 
people have, from time to time, advanced more or less 
plausible reasons for this impbirtant betterment of violin 
tone through kindly treatment and the beneficent 
influences of the lapse of years, but . the best of these 
explanations are merely careful examinations of, and 
researches into, the mechanism of phenomena which 
have nothing to do with the question of improvement, of 
tone, but only concern its production or existing 
quality. If a scientist were to set about subjecting; to 
practical analysis the constitution of one of the eternal 
verities, he would probably find himself involved in. 
■conditions of work and experiment, which would render 
his efforts of little use to his fellow man, and although 
I daresay it will not be found quite so hard a task to 
investigate the causes of' improvement in violin tone, 
I do not think it will be accomplished in a trustworthy 
manner under present limitations. To shake together, 
as it were in a box, a few choice selections from a 
technical terminology and sprinkle them', with a little ink 
and more or less taste and skill, over the surface of a 
sheet of paper is one way of explaining this curious 
phenomenon^and a good many other much more 
important phenomena, be it said, without offence — but it 
is never resorted to by genuinely scientific writers. It 
is the stock-in-trade of the secondary hand, wlio, having 
nothing particular to say, but, convinced in deadly earnest 
that he must say something for his own preservation, 
riishes with a sensation of fierce hunger in his literary 
.stomach, and clutches at the little store of some patient 
worker who has modestly placed the results of his 


research before the world in some out-of-the-way corner 
of the country. Lucubrations of this kind are valueless, 
because they are generally compiled by those who only 
in a very superficial manner understand what they are 
.writing about, and who indeed do not always appear to 
comprehend the precise meaning of the terms they cull 
from the works upon which their efforts are based. 
Many felicitous instances of this kind of misplaced confi- 
dence in what are frequently considered quite legitimate 
authorities might be quoted, but this is hardly the place for 
them. Now, whatever may be the cause or causes — few 
or innumerable — of this improvement through age and use 
in a violin's tone, the general reader may rest assured that 
any instrument possessing it in a marked degree in com- 
bination with those excellences which now characterise 
the better classes of modern -work, will be well looked 
after. There is always, of course, the chance of a fine 
old violin of the second, third, or fourth rank coming 
within reach at a moderate price, but a " moderate 
price " is not now determined by the figures employed, 
but by the quality of the instrument to be sold. Forty 
pounds may be a moderate price for one violin, and two 
thousand pounds may be a moderate price for 
another. But it is now one of the rarest things to find an 
instrument of good quality and finish, having that round 
maturity of tone so much desired, at anything like forty 
pounds. And under that and down to five pounds, if a 
buyer only knows how to choose, modern instruments 
will put old Ones entirely out of court. I say this 
unhesitatingly,' and with regard to almost every point in 
which one violin can excel another. The difficulty is in 


the choosing of them. In the matter of tone and capacity 
there are hardly two viohns ahke, and one does not meet 
a great many people who are really good judges of tone. 
It appears to be a faculty something, like tea-tasting, 
and for which no amount of training seems to be a very 
good substitute. Many grocers' assistants could tell you 
a fairly sound tea by closing their hand on a small 
quantity, and others could indicate a similar quality by 
scanning the roll of the leaf, but standards, of that kind 
are the result of an experience which might fail any day. 
No man during this century had better opportunities of 
training himself in the matter of proper violin tone than 
the late J. B. Vuillaume of Paris, and few men have spoken 
with a calmer assumption of supreme knowledge than 
he, and yet few — I was about to say not. any — have been 
so thoroughly hoaxed on this subject as he was. He 
made splendid violins with a most excellent quality of tone 
in a great many instances, but he did not know appar- 
ently — although he professed to know — the differences 
when he heard them. -My advice to all readers of this Guide 
who think of laying out five, ten, fifteen, twenty, or even 
twenty-five and thirty pounds on a violin, is to purchase a 
sound, new instrument — unless, of course, they have some 
exceptionally rare opportunity of getting one of the finer 
old ones at the same money — a chance .which is not 
likely to occur. And if they have no knowledge them- 
selves of what a vioHn tone should be, let them seek 
the services of someone who does know. 


Classical anb §ost-chsskid 'Bxolxn Jttahers. 

THE reader will find the following alphabetical 
arrangement easy of reference. I^e will be able 
to turn at once to the name of the maker, and find 
there explained such points of his work as I have 
found it possible to differentiate. There is a very. 
l9.rge number about whom little or nothing can be said, 
arid these have been excluded from this list, and given 
in one later on, but, the. latest particulars are given in all 
cases where any particulars were available. I have ex- 
cluded certain names which are found in tickets in old 
violins sold at the present day, because in the mean- 
time, I am inclined to the belief that they are absurd 
concoctions of violin dealers and others. Such names 
are Raccomodes, Revisto, Renisto, etc. I have seen 
Renisto gravely described as a pupil of Carlo Bergonzi. 
To me all these names appear to be concoctions 
suggested ' in the following fashion. Italian makers, 
when they repaired a violin, have occasionally put in a 
ticket intimating that circumstance as follows, generally 
in handwriting, but now and again printed, " Revisto 
da me,'' followed by the repairer's name. .This means 
in our idiom, "overhauled by me," literally, "revised 
by me." I have seen a ticket of Carlo Bergbnzi's — 
which is, I think, reproduced somewhere — containing 
this expression, " Revisto da me Carlo Bergonzi." 


Sometimes these inscriptidns are not very legible, and 
I daresay an enterprising man coming across one of 
the half erased tickets, and not, perhaps, acquainted 
with Italian, might readily think Revisto was a maker's 
name and that da mea'nt, in this case, " from " and not 
"by." I could conceive him, then, in the interests of 
his art, getting a few tickets printed to put into violins 
which he was absolutely certain were made by the sartlfr 
hand. Having accomplished this, these tickets might, 
in their turn, become partially illegible, and some other 
dealer might very readily misread v for n, and feel that 
he also had a duty to perform to society, and hence we 
have Renisto. At any rate this is my present view with 
regard to these names, but, of course, I , am quite open 
to change it on proper evidence being adduced that 
persons bearing them, and who were fiddle makers, 
really existed. There are many queer names in the 
world. I have the same opinion with regard to 
" Raccomodes," which appears to be a corruption of 
the French participle raccommode, and which signifies- 

Acevo and Sapino have long been suspected as 
fabricated names, and I h.ave not included them either. 
They were at one time supposed to have been pupils of 
Cappa. The first name appears to be a corruption of 
acero which, in Italian, means maple, and sapino means, 
pine, the two woods of which a violin, is generally made. 
Of course we have, in this country, both these names, 
the owners of which both work in wood,, the one in 
fiddles, the other in furniture, but there is, an air of 
mystery in addition attached to Acevo and Sapino^ 


which has never been dispelled, and there seems to be 
little ground for supposing them to be the names of 
actual makers. 

Acton, W. J. Contemporary. One of our good 
native makers. Violins. 

AiRETON, E., London, 1727^1807. A very good 
maker who made for Peter Wamsley and afterwards 
for himself in Piccadilly. Model Amati. 

Albani, M., B6tzen, 1621 — 1673. An old Tyrolese 
maker. Good quality, but tubby Stainer model. 

Albani, M., Botzen, 1650 — 1712. Son of preceeding 
maker. Totally different style of work from that of his 
father. In some cases it is really of a very high class, 
and might very readily be mistaken for Cremonese work. 
Beautifully figured wood. 

Albani, M., Gratz. I know nothing of this maker. 

Albani, P., CremOna, 1650 — 1670. I know nothing 
of this maker. He is supposed to have been a pupil of 
Nicolas Amati, and to have made instruinents of that 
model and of good workmanship. 

Aldric, . Paris'j 1792 — 1840. Some of the work of 
this maker calls for the highest praise. He made 
beautiful copies of Stradivari, not only in model . and 
arching, but in some cases succeeded in getting the 
Cremonese quality of tone to quite a marvellous degreed 
His varnish is sometimes very spiritless and common- 
looking, but one might say it is his only defect. The 
heads of his violins are strong and massive-looking, and 
finely designed. The grain of the belly is sometimes 
irregular in width, which in some people's eyes indicates 
carelessness in selection, but the tone tells a diffefpnt 


tale. His sound holes are prettily cut, .but just a little 
pot-bellied. His arching is very fine, and his ribs of a 
full height. His finest varnish is of a dark reddish 
brown, and a perfect specimen of this maker's work 
might be played along with many a fine Stradivari and 
not suffer much by the comparison. 

Alletsee, Paul, Munich, 1726-^1735. A, very artistic 
and in some respects — chiefly in matters of design— an 
original worker. Sometimes has beautifully grained 
wood, such as even A. and H. Amati might have been ' 
proud of. Made large instruments mostly. Tickets 
generally in German letters " Paulus Alletsee Geigen- 
macher in Miinchen." 

Amati, Andrea, Cremona, was the founder of this 
family of violin makers. The date of his birth is not 
known. It is conjectured that he was married to his 
first wife in 1554, and that his sons Antonio and 
Hieronymus were borh in 1555 and 1556, respectively. 
By this marriage he had also a daughter, Valeria, who 
was herself married for the first time on 3rd May, 1587. 
This is the earliest fixed date regarding the Amati family 
ttat has been ascertained firom documentary evidence. ' 
The father, Andrea, was married a second' time in 1609, 
and of this, union was born another daughter, Caildida, 
who did not survive a month. Of the work of Andreas it 
is only possible to speak in very limited fashion. I have 
Only seen two specimens which could claim to be from., 
his hand. One was the fariious " King Andreas Amati " 
'cello which, it is said, was presented by Pope Pius to 
Charles IX. It is a magnificently decorated instrument 
with somewhat narrow but. finely finished, margins, and 



having beautiful golden-brown varnish over wood of which 
it is not very easy to see the quaUty, or to say anything 
that could not be said of its very clever copy by John 
Betts. "The purfling certainly is of exquisite quality, 
but there does not appear to have been the same care in 
the -selection of wood as makers displayed later on. 
The second was another of the same suite, but a violin, 
the outline of which did not strike me as being particu- 
larly good. Instruments by this maker are scarcely 
known, and are chiefly of antiquarian interest. 

Amati, a. and H., Cremona. Antonius and Hieronymus 
Amati were the sons of Andreas, and aris supposed to 
have been born in 1555 and 1556 respectiyely. Hierony- 
mus died on the 2nd November, 1630, and there is no 
trace of his brother Antonius either having lived or died. 
There is an Antonius mentibned in the documents of 
another parish in Cremona as having died in 1595, but 
those who have carried out the researches believe that 
he was only distantly related to the fiddle family. The 
instruments of this firm are of the highest merit in their 
class. , They are finished in the most perfect manner, and 
covered with varnish passing froni a warm maple brown 
to a beautiful golden brown with a tinge of red. The 
wood selected is of the finest character, and the sizes 
of the instruments are generally small. The arching is 
somewhat high, but finely and gracefully " carried 
out, and has, of course, nothing of the grotesque 
and tubby character displayed in imitations. All 
the work is of a refined and delicate nature, and 
harmonises Well with the choice of wood, which may be 
described as fine, and delicate too. I have seen some 


of this firm's wood of a nice open grain, but it is usually 
close. Many of their two-piece backs are beautifully 
matched, and have a clearly defined figure. The sound 
holes are graceful, and well placed, and have a slightly 
peculiar look which has given rise to certain extremely 
odd effects in the imitations. The' inner side of each 
sound hole being, to a certain extent, on the rise of the 
long and graceful arch, these have a slightly misleading 
appearance given to them, as if they were in fact, just a 
little knockkneed, so to speak. The result of this mis- 
apprehension is that in so cutting them in many of even 
the best ijnitations, the grossly exaggerated arch of the 
copies gives to these sound holes quite a ludicrous 
appearance in the eyes of a connoisseur, although it 
might not be so easily observed' by anyone not acquaijited 
with the originals. Some of their work, like that of 
Andreas Amati, was painted and gilded, and otherwise 
decorated — or abused — as many might not think it 
unseemly to say. The tone of the A. and H. Amati 
violins is generally exceedingly rich and sweet, although 
it is not usually very powerful. 

Amati, Nicolas, Cremona. This maker was the 
great artist of the family. He was a son of the 
Hieronymus Amati previously mentioned, by his second 
wife, Madonna Laura Lazzarini, who died of the jllague 
some six days before her husband, on the 27th October, 
1630. Nicolas was the fifth child of the second union, 
his brothers and sisters by the two marriages numbering 
in all thirteen. He was born on the 3rd December, 1596, 
and died on the 12th April, 1684, being buried in the 
CarmeHte Church of Saint Imerio. His work is very 
■ D2 


rare, although one would not readily suppose sq from the 
number of instruments claiming to be original specimens 
from his hands. He somewhat flatteneid the model of 
his father's firm, arid brought the ~ arching nearer to the 
itiargins. Indeed I have seen late specimens of his, work 
in which the contour of the arch might almost be described 
as quite rounded. In work again dating forty years 
before his death, the arch is quite high, but all his work 
is, o'f course, fine. ' That goes without saying. One 
peculiar characteristic of his early period may be seen 
in the very pronounced corners. They are so fully 
developed that they are not unlike a dog's nose. Later,, 
that peculiarity almost disappears. > At any rate, it 
ceases to be so strongly in evidence. The figiire of his 
wood, both back and ribs, is generally very full. The 
sound holes are narrow in early work, and in later a 
little wjder. His varnish is a beautiful golden yellow, 
through brown, to golden red. The model of, a 
Nicolas Amati of the grand 'pattern has a distinctly solid 
look about it. The width of the upper portion of the' 
violin is much nearer that of the lower portion than in 
the work of his predecessors in^ the firm, namely, A- and 
H. Their violins have a more tender, less robust look, 
chiefly because of this difference between the width of 
the upper and lower portions. The sound holes^that 
is, the main stems of their design — in a fine specimen 
appear as if infinitesimally drawn toward each other at 
the lower half of the stems. They are, irl reality almost 
parallel, and that delusive appearance is the will o' the 
wisp which leads copyists astray. Nicolas Amati was 
married on 23rd May, 164^, to Lucrezia Pagliari, who 

CLASSICAL And post-classical violin makers. 37 

was his junior by thirteen years. They had nine children, 
of whom only one followed the father's calling. Among" 
the pupils who resided in the house of Nicolas Amati,. 
as is evidenced by extracts from the parish records, 
may be mentioned, in 1 641 Andrea Guarnieri, fifteen 
years old. Five years afterwards, Andrea Guarnieri is 
not mentioned. Then, in 1653 he reappears, and is 
described as being then married, and next year dis- 
appears for good from the house of his master. 

Amati, Hxeronymus, Cremona. Born 26th February,, 
1649, died 2ist February, 1740. This, was the only 
member of Nicholas Amati's family who followed the 
father's calling. He appears to have done so chiefly as 
a dealer, for the styles of the instruments bearing his 
name are of such remarkably varied character as to 
leave one strongly doubting that they were all made by 
one man. 

Ambrosi, p., Brescia, Rome, 1730. Reputedly some- 
what common work. 

Anselmo, p., Cremona and Venice, 1701. Very 
little known about him. Described as good work. 

Assalone, G., Rome, 17 — . Poor work. 

AuBRY, Paris, 1840^ A nephew of Aldric, ailready 
referred to, and who succeeded to his uncle's business, 
but not to his skillof fame. 

AuDiNOT, Nicolas, Paris. .An excellent French 
maker, born in Mirecourt ih 1842, and trained by his 
father, who Was established there. He was afterwa,rds 
employed by Sebastien Vuillaume (who was a nephew 
of the great J. B. Vuillaume) and was in business in 
/ Paris. His instruments are of great merit. 


AuGi^RE. Avery good Parisian maker, established 
about 1830. 

Bagatella, Antonio, Padua, 1786. Chiefly known 
as the author of a work on violins which is of great 
interest even yet. He was a fine repairer of old violins, 
and was employed by Tartini. 

Balestrieri, T., Cremona and Mantua, 1720 — 1772. 
A very good maker indeed. Some of his work is re- 
markably like that of Stradivari in almost all points, 
except finish. Powerful arid good quality of tone. 

Balestrieri, P., Cremona. Brother of preceeding. 
Poor work. 

Barnia, Fidele, Venice, 1760. A Milanese trained 
maker, who was' established in Venice. Fairly good, 
neat work, yellow varnish. 

Banks, Benjamin, Salisbury, 1727 — 1795. One of 
our finest English makers. Quite equal in style, finish, 
and tone to many of the fine Italian makers. His margins 
are splendid. His edges beautifully rounded. His 
corners full, and of true Nicolas Amati early style. His 
arching is exquisite, and the tone of his violins fine and 
ringing. The grain of the wood is generally remarkably 
equal, and of medium width. His varnish is decidedly 
rich, of a beautiful purplish cherry colour, and fairly 
transparent. His bigger instruments are also superb, 
and grand in tone. 

Belosio, Anselmo, Venice, 1720 — 1780. A pupil of 
Santo Serafino, but a mediocre worker. Dull, thicker 
varnish than his master's. 

Barrett, J. London, 1714 — 1725. A copyist of 
Stainer whose model he has much exaggerated, like 


dozens of other makers who have tried it. It may 
indeed be said that the bulk of Stainer copies are so 
exaggerated as not to merit the title of Stainer copies 
at all. They are caricatures. Barrett's work is, 
however, by no means bad. His tone is of fairly good 
quaHty with a certain amount of breadth in it. His 
sound holes are quaint looking— the lower turn having 
a long sweep. Varnish a warmish yellow. Edges 
round ; pur fling not particularly good. 

Bergonzi, Carlo, Cremona, 1716 — 1747. This 
maker is one of the finest of the Cremonese artists. 
A member in fact, of the quartet pav excellence, Amati' 
Stradivari, Guarnieri, Bergpnzi. It is not known 
yet when he was born, .but he began working 
on his own account in the year first mentioned, and died 
■'in 1747. He was a pupil of Stradivari when the latter 
was doing his finest work, as seems to be borne ovit by 
the grand outline of .Carlo's own work, which is akin to 
the best of Stradivari, and of Nicolas Amati. The 
sound holes are very pure, and sometimes approach the 
style of Nicolas Amati, except that they bend slightly 
outwards at the lower turn. The model is grand, 
although his violins are sometimes small, being slightly 
under fourteen inches. There is that approach towards 
equality between the upper and lower portions of the 
instrument which gives that magnificent appearance to 
what is called the "grand" pattern of both Stradivari 
and Nicolas Amati. His arching is flat, and his varnish 
of rich quality, and exceedingly fine in colour. In many 
of his violins it is of a beautiful, rich, transparent brown 
on reddish orange, and is occasionally rather thickly laid 


in. In some instruments it has crackled all over, not 
inlike the manner of the famous Vernis Martin on some 
lid French pieces of furniture: His scroll 'is very fine. 
There is a marked peculiarity about the ear, or eye, 
Ls it is sometimes called. More properly it would be 
he boss of the volute, or terminal stem, which shows 
tself on each side sticking out at the last turn. This 
ast turn coines suddenly out, although the immediately 
previous turn is almost parallel to the vertical axis of 
:he volut^ viewed from the back. The toiie of his 
nstruments is generally splendidly full, broad, smooth, 
md magnificently equal. ■ - 

Bergonzi, M. a., Cremona, 1720 — 1760. ■ This maker 
was a son of Carlo. His work is not equal, by many 
degrees, to that of his father, but that is not saying a 
very great deal against him, for his father, as has been' 
said, was one of the greatest of the Cremonese. 
Michael Angelo Bergonzi's style is, however, heavy, and 
perhaps many fastidious judges would not appreciate 
him on that account, but he employed good wood, both 
in back and front, and plenty of it. His work is solid 
and massive, and not so artistically finished, but there 
is no doubt about the quality of his tone being of a high 
character. His sound holes are after his father's style, 
but longer — of very fair design, but slightly unequal./ 
Purfling not particularly good, but his varhish is of good- 
quality. His outline is not so good as his father's, and 
his middle bOuts are set in much deeper, but' with all that 
there is a sense of strength and individuality about his 
work which, when combined with the quality of his tone, 
:niakes a fine specimen of his something to be cherished. 


Bergonzi,. NicoLAUs, Cremona, 1739 — 1765. Son of 
Michael Angelo Bergonzi, made better finished instru- 
ments than his father, and much after same model, but 
worse varnish, and as far as I have been able to judge, 
I do not like them so well. 

Bergonzi, Zosimo, Grempna, 1765. Another son of 
Michael Angelo, made somewhat highly arched instru- 
ments for a Bergonzi,- but having a pretty enough tone. 

BASSOf, Joseph, Paris, from about 1788. This is 
reckoned a good French maker. Anything I have seen 
of his did not strike me as being of very high class, 
but it was of sound construction and the tone of good 
quality. Model . somewhat high;, and boxy. Varnish 

Bernardel, Sebastien Phillipe, Paris. Born at 
Mirecourt in 1802. He learned violin making there and 
went to Paris, where he got employment from the famous 
Nicolas Lupot at first, and afterwards from ■ Charles 
Fran9ois Gand, another' famous Parisian maker. He is 
called in the trade Bernardel pere, and many of his 
violins are of a class reckoned only inferior to Lupot. 
Bernardel indeed made instruments very like those of 
his first employer, as was to be expected. They are 
highly esteemed in France, but not much appreciated 
here. He retired from business in 1866, and died on 
6th August, 1870. Previous to his retirement, his two 
sons were taken into the business, and the firm became 
Bernardel and Sons. After his retirement in 1866, the 
late Eugene Gand became a partner of the two 
brothers, and the firm was changed to Gand and 
Bernardel Bros. 


Betts, John, London. He was born at Stamford 
Lincolnshire, in 1755, aild died in 1823. This maker 
and dealer has become famous chiefly through two things, 
the first, being his copy of the King Andreas Amati 'Cello 
before referred to. This copy is certainly a fine pro- 
duction, which, besides showing paint in what was 
apparently the primitive abundance, also shows the 
wood, a very great advantage over the original, which is 
rather ancient now, and dingy-looking. The second 
circumstance was that singularly fortunate, and most 
exceptionally lucky windfall^ — as it might be named — in 
his direction of the now famous "Betts Strad," one of 
the handsomest of Stradivari violins. Nothing definite 
appears to be known about the date of 'this transaction, 
but it occurred probably between severity and, eighty 
years ago. Some person sold a violin over the counter 
to one of the Messrs. Betts, in their shop at the Royal 
Exchange — No. o, — one of the shops, probably, which at 
present face the front of the Bank of England; The 
price asked, or agreed upon, for the instrument was 
twenty shillings, 4he person selling it, not having, of 
course, the slightest idea of its value. ' Mr. Betts, how- 
ever, knew what it was, and bought it, keeping it beside^ 
him for years, and declining very handsome offers of as 
much as five hundred guineas for it. The story is a 
striking one, but it is not without its parallel, even in 
recent times. John and Arthur Betts are said to have 
made a copy of this Stradivari. These were descendants 
of the original John, who does not seem to have been a 
prolific violin maker. This copy has very handsome 
wood in the back, as it ought to have, in order to match 


its original, but the sound holes appear rather weak, and 
the volute of the scroll just a Httle topheavy. Anything 
I have seen of the original John Betts was good, solid, 
square work, without any great display of taste, and 
with rather bad sound holes. There was an Edward 
Betts, who did better work as far as concerps appearance. 
They were both pupils of Richard Duke, but they 
chiefly employed other people to make for them, and, as 
far as I can judge, a considerable quantity of rubbish 
passed through their shop along with a great deal that 
was good, and much that was splendid, and which will 
be referred to under the actual makers. 

BoQUAY, J., Paris, 1705 — 1735. This maker was 
famous in his day, and many people like him yet. His 
model is high, and his varnish is not bad, of a reddish 
brown, tending to yellow. I do not think much of the tone. 

Bachmann, C. L., Berlin. Born 1716. Died 1800. 
One of the best Ge;rman copyists in Amati and Stainer 
models. He was a professional musician at the 
Prussian court, a distinguished connoisseur of his time 
and the inventor of the system of screwing the double 
bass pegs, which led to the adoption of machine heads. 
His instruments are soundly made, and covered with a 
kind of oil varnish. 

Breton, F. " Brevete de S. A. R. Me La Duchesse 
D'Angouleme a Mirecourt," so runs the ticket of this 
maker who seems to have worked in Mirecourt from 
about 1800 to 1830, or later. His instruments frequently 
have a light brownish yellow varnish, not unpleasant 
to look at, though of rather common type, and such as 
one might expect to see on a good class of trade instru- 


ment. The tone is not without breadth, and is, to a 
certain degree, sympathetic. The arching is flat, and 
altogether the work is by no means bad, but is what 
people think common-looking, no fault at all in a good 

Briggs, James W., Leeds. Contemporary. A pupil 
of William Tarr of Manchester. Violins, violas, and 

CoLLiNGwooD, JosEPH, London, 1760. A fine old 
English maker of considerable originality. Fine wood, 
and pleasing, light yeUpw varnish. His sound holes are 
well designed, but very wide Amati-Stainer model, with 
remarkably good quality of tone. 

Camillus, CAMiLLi,JV[antua, about 1740. A maker 
who copied Stradivari to a certain extent, and employed 
good wood and fairly good varnish. 

Cappa, Joffridus, Saluzzo. This was a Piedmontese 
maker, about whom a good deal has been written without 
much foundation. Fetis had authoritatively said that he 
was born in Cremona, and had been a pupil of A. and 
H.' Amati, giving other apparently well ascertained 
particulars regarding him which very naturally led 
people to suppose that he had acquired them in some 
specifically authentic fashion. An Italian connoisseur 
of much distinction also took some trduble to find out ai 
little about this maker, but failed. Conjecture appears 
■ to have been very busy with him and his work. It now 
seems that he was at work in Saluzzo and in Turin 
during the first half of the seventeenth century, and this 
information is derived solely from tickets found in 
instruments claiming to be by him.- Anything that I 


have seen which I could be persuaded to admit might' 
possibly belong to the period in which he is siippo'sed to 
have lived, although of fairly good style, showed poor 
eare in the wopd, a generally tubby look, and rather 
tasteless sound holes. Other examples equally claimant 
for the hopourof his parentage showed discrepancies in 
style, varnish, model, and everything else, which were so 
palpably absurd, that I think him one of those dummies 
in regard to whom the fiddle-fancier should be particularly 
cautious. There are some very fine instruments bearing 
this name, whether they are by Cappa or not. He had 
sons who followed the business, but whose work is of 
little importance. 

Carcassi, Lorenzo and Tomasso, Florence, 1738 — 
1758. I have seen a number of instruments professing to 
be by these makers. A few of them were fairly good. 
This is a name which is, unfortunately, largely used to 
put into any kind of absurd rubbish which it is thought 
may be got rid of in a sale room. 

CastaGneri, Gian Paolo. An Italian maker who 
settled in Paris, and whose violins appear to be remark- 
ably rare and of mediocre quality to boot. 

Castagneri, Andrea, .Paris, 1735 — 1741. This maker 
was a son of above, and made somewhat better instru- 
ments than his father. The dates given aipe those found 
on two of his instruments. 

Castro, Venice, 1680 — 1720. jPoor work. 

Castello, Paolo, Genoa, 1750. Poor work. 

Ceruti, Giovambatista, Cremona, 1755— -1 8 1 7. This 
maker is, in Italy, supposed to have been a pupil 
of Storioni, on what ground it is difficult to guess. He 


succeeded to Storioni's business in 1790, or, at least, 
removed into the premises previously occupied by 
Storioni at No. 3', Contrada Coltellai, near the square of 
Saint Domenic. Perhaps this circumstance may have 
given rise to the notion, for there is very little in common 
between Ceruti and Storioni. The instruments of Ceruti 
are very good, chiefly of the Amati model, but having a 
tone quite French in style. The varnish is of a soft and 
elastic character, but not particularly spirited in appear- 
ance, and not very transparent. It is frequently of a 
dull, cherry colour, rather scumbly. Guiseppe and 
Enrico were son and grandson of Giovambatista, and 
carried on the traditions of the house with credit. 
Enrico, the last of the Cerutis, died oh • 20th October, 
1883 — his father, Guiseppe, having predeceased him in 
i860 — and thus the direct line of communication which 
had subsisted between makers of modern times, and the 
last of the more important Cremonese artistes was 
severed, as Giovambatista was the depository, through 
Storioni, of much of the traditionary lore regarding the 
greatest of the Cremonese, School. As the irresponsible 
talk to which that kind of information gives rise has 
something to do with the confusion of knowledge 
regarding the subject, the drying up of such a stream of 
gossip is not so much to be regretted as the disappearance 
of the firm of Ceruti itself from the contemporary annals 
of fiddle lore. 

Chanot, Francis. Born at , Mirecourt, 1788. Died 
at Rochefort, 1828. He was a naval engineer, and a 
scientist who distinguished himself greatly in the study 
of violin acoustics and construction. He invented 


a new violin which did not succeed permanently, 
although it made a considerable sensation at the time. 
He continued to make and sell specimens of it for 
about seven years from 1817. They differed almost 
wholly from the classical shape and in their principles 
of construction, but are now interesting in many ways. 
Guitar-shaped, they had no protruding margins, no 
blocks ; back and front were in single pieces, sound 
holes parallel, bass bar in the centre, and so on. A 
specimen was tested by a commission of distinguished 
musicians, and pronounced superior to the best known 

Chanot, George. Brother of preceeding, was born 
at Mirecourt in 1801. Learnt violin-making there and 
went to Paris in 1819. Became one of the finest makers 
of his time, and worked first for his brother, then on 
the regular fiddle with Clement, a Paris maker. Then, 
in 1 82 1, with Gand for two years. In 1823 he began on 
his own account, and continued until 1872, when he 
retired. He was reputed the finest connoisseur in 
Europe, and his instruments have a very high deputa- 
tion; He died in January, 1883. • His son, George, learnt 
his business with his father in Paris, and afterwards 
came to London, where he has been a maker and dealer 
for upwards of forty years. One of the finest modern 
copies of Joseph Guarnerius that I have seen — as far as 
outward look and wood goes — was made by this latter 
George, who has also sons (F. and G. A.), worthily 
carrying on the family name and reputation in London 
and Manchester. 

CoMBLE, Ambroise de, Touriiay, 1720 — 1755. This 


maker has undoubtedly high claims to acknowledg- 
ment. He has the reputation of having been actually 
at Cremona under Stradivari. His work is of a very 
high character. The outline of his larger instruments is 
extremely beautiful, and bears quitfe recognisable 
evidence of having been guided by a Stradivari motif, 
but his sound holes are cut much lower than in Stradivari 
instruments, which is a curious circumstance in a maker 
who came so directly under the influence of the great 
Cremonese. Oddly enough, they do not detract much 
from the fine feeling of the ensemble. There is not 
that sense of entire compactness with which a Stradivari 
'cello inspires one, but that is all., De Comble's scrolls 
are very beautiful specimens of sculpture.' Varnish a 
fine brownish red, pretty closely resembling Italian. 

CoMiN§, John, Loildon, .about 1800. A very good 
worker who, it is said, was a pupil of Forster. Made 
instruments pretty deep in the ribs. Light yellow-brown 
varnish. Fine wood. 

CoNTRERAS, JosEPH, Madrid, 1745. Very good style 
and work. Not very many specimens about. 

Cross, Nathaniel, London, 1700 — 1750. ,1 cannot 
say that I greatly admire this maker's work. Somewhat 
large and deepsided, his violins have rather tasteless 
sound holes, very .short corners, and common outline'. 
They are covered with a light yellow varnish. He 
worked in conjunction with ' Barak Norman. His 
scrolls are certainly fine. 

Derazey, H., Mirecourt. From about 1820. A good 
copier of J. B. Vuillaume in outward appearance, 
especially in the figures of the backs of some of his 


violins. The varnish on the back is a Uttle crackly 
sometimes, more like that of the elder Gand than of 
Vuillaume. His scrolls are also not unhke those of Gand 
pere, but not nearly so powerful looking, and not so wide 
at the bottom. His varnish is a fed, slightly inclining to 
purple. Tone fairly good, but decidedly nasal. 

Duke, Richard, London, 1754 — 1780. This is a 
magnificent maker. His outline is very pure — Amati or 
Stainer. The sound holes in the Stainer models are, 
curiously enough, not particularly fine, but those in 
Amati copies are better. The latter are cut a little 
narrower at the top than at the bottom turn, which 
gives them a slightly quaint look. His scrolls are very 
fine, and the tone of his instruments is of a most exquisite 
character. I consider that he is quite entitled to walk 
in line with the Italians of importance in everything 
except his varnish, and that chiefly excepted yvith regard 
to its colour, but not in regard to its pate. It is of a 
beautiful soft, but dull brown, with little or no life in it;. 
Richard Duke violins are, it hardly need be said to 
experienced fanciers, very rare indeed. 

DoDD, Thomas, London, 1786 — 1823. This was a 
clever man who did not make violins himself, like sO' 
many others, about his time. He employed first-class 
men to deliver them to him unvarnished. Among these 
workers were such as Bernard Fendt and John Lott, 
both men of the highest skill. , Dodd varnisTied the 
instruments himself. It is a nice oil varnish, but nothing 
to set the temse on .flre^ The instruments, such, at 
least as were made by Fendt, are splendid examples of 
Violin making. Dodd professed to be "the only 


possessor of the recipe for preparing the original Cremona 
varnish." This statement appears on his tickets, and 
may be quite true, but he certainly never seems to have 
used the recipe. 

DuiFFOPRUGCAR, Gaspar, Bologna, Paris, Lyons, 
1510 — 1540. This is an early lute and viol maker, who, 
having once ,got into books about violins, seems destined 
never to get out of them. Every now and again some 
person starts the discussion as to whether or not he 
made violins. The latest fight was in May, 1 891, in a 
Leipsic paper, where a writer took the trouble to review 
che whole question, because a Mr. F. Niderheitmann, 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, believes that he has discovered three 
vi6lins by this splendid old viol maker, although every- 
one to whom he has shown them, and who professes to 
know anything about the subj.ect, has told him that 
they are modern French reproductions — rthat is, modern 
in the sense that they are probably some of J. B.' 
Vuillaume's clever — fac-similes — as I suppose they 
should be called. The whole question has been threshed 
out over again, and the fever of battle has spread 
to New York, where an esteemed correspondent of my 
own has taken the trouble to translate the article and 
reproduce it in the form of a srrlall brochure of seven 
or eight pages, " Was Caspar Duiffoprugcar really the 
First Violin Maker ? " I never saw any viojins by the 
great Bolognese. 

, Eberle, J. U., Prague. About \ 1750 — 1759. A 
clever maker of the old style ; fine finish, but thin, poor 
quality of tone. High model and good quality of 
varnish, but somewhat dark in colour. AH the Eberles 


— there were several of them — appear to have been of 
a highly artistic turn. Such work of theirs as I have 
seen was of a refined and decorative style. 

Ernst, Frank Anthony. Born in Bohemia, was a 
musician, writer and violin maker who did good service 
to the- art in Germany by teaching Jacob Augustus 
Otto how to make instruments. I have not seen any 
by either master or pupil. Ernst , began business in 
Gotha. about 1 778 . as a musician at Court, and having 
a little leisure he turned his attention to making violins 
and succeeded, as is reported, in producing very 
good ones. 

Fent, taris, 1763 — 1780. This maker has the 
reputation of being one of the highest class in France 
of his day. I . have never been able to understand why 
his violins have not ranked above those of any French 
maker, unless the circumstance that he' has been so 
unfortunate in the matter of worms has told against 
him, and, perhaps, in addition, the darkening down of 
his vairnish. In all other respects his work is of the 
finest. His model was Stradivari. He spelt his name 
" Fent " in his tickets alid his calling " lutier." 

Fendt, Bernhard. This maker was, it is supposed, 
a nephew of the Paris Fent. He was born at Inns- 
bruck in 1756 and died in London in 1832. His name 
is spelt differently from that of his Parisian relative, 
who was not partidularly good at spelling either in his 
own or in his adopted language, as may be seen by 
reference to last article. Bernhard learnt violin making 
with this mftcle in Paris, and at the time of the French 
Revolution came to London, where he found employ- 



ment with Thomas Dodd already mentioned. His 
initruments are beautiful specihiens of his art, having 
a tone which is exquisite in quality and may quite 
truthfully be described as Cremonese in that respect. 
The varnish which Dodd put on, although not exactly 
what he professes it to be, is a very fine varnish, and 
might readily mislead people who have not seen 
examples of Cremonese. Bernhard Fendt also worked 
for John Betts.. 

Fendt, Bernard Simon, London. Born in 1800, 
died 1 85 1. He was a son of the previous maker. He 
spells "Bernard," as will be observed, without the 
letter " h." Like his father, he was a splendid maker, 
and has produced work which will rank with some of 
the finest Italian. Indeed, in the prime matter of tone, 
his earlier instruments are now almost quite in line with 
the best of the Italians for quality. There is a rich 
roundness on all the strings which is rarely found in any 
-instruments other than Cremonese. His work, is of fine 
Italian style, haying a brilliant orange varnish, spacious 
margins, full and handsome sides, elegant arching, and 
very good and neat purfling, while his scrolls are 
exceedingly fine. Altogether his earlier instruments 
are splendid productions. He also made a number of 
excellent double basses and 'cellos, and in 185J he 
displayed at the great International Exhibition in 
London a quartet consisting of violin, viola, violoncello 
and double bass, which, in the opinion of almost every 
competent judge in the country, surpassed anything 
exhibited in that show. The most competent judges 
did not, however, happen to be the ' jury on that occa- 


sion, and although B, S. Fendt got a prize medal, the 
one which he should have had — the grand council medal 
—went to J. B. Vuillaume, of Paris. The. jury on the 
violins in the 1851 Exhibition consisted of Sir H. R. 
Bishop, Sigismund Thalberg, W. Sterndale Bennett, 
Hector Berlioz, J. R. Black, Chevalier Neukomm, 
Cipriani Potter, Dr. Schafthauk, Sir George Smart and 
Professor Henry Wylde. They were assisted by the 
Rev. W. Cazalet, James Stewart and WiUiam Telford. 
Only one of these gentlemen could even play the violin 
when he was a young man, namely. Sir George Smart. 
The others were general musicians, pianists and organ- 
ists — distinguished, of course, in high degree, but who 
knew little more about the question of fiddles than the 
man in the moon. One was a pianoforte maker, another 
an organ builder, a third a geologist and metallurgist, 
a fourth a physician, a fifth a clergyman who happened 
to be superintendent of the Royal Academy, and the 
rest were professors there, or elsewhere, of the piano 
and organ. The very same gentlemen, in fact, who 
awarded prize medals to successful competitors in barrel 
organs or big drums distributed the honours for the 
most wonderful instrument in the world, and it is not, 
therefore, surprising that the object rewarded in this 
case- was, in the words of Sir Henry Bishop, " New 
modes of making violins in such a manner that they are 
matured and perfected immediately on the completion 
of the manufacture, thus avoiding the necessity of 
keeping them for considerable periods to. develop their 
excellencies." That is the deliberate statement of the 
chairman of the jury as, to the reason why they gave the 


Council medal to J. B Vuillaume. A decision like that 
was quite enough to take away any violin maker's 
breath for all time, and it is not in the least astonishing 
that B. S. Fendt died that same year ! Seriously, 
however, that decision will remain a curious comment 
on the astonishing ignorance of fiddle matters which 
prevailed in distinguished musical circles forty or more 
years ago. I yield to none in my admiration of J. B. 
Vuilla,ume's fine violins» and I also know that B, S. 
Fendt in his later instrurrients tried somewhat similar 
ways, but to accept an honour for processes of that 
kind, argues as much ignorance on Vuillaume's part at 
that time as the jury themselves displayed, or else an 
unusual amount of hardihood in the arts of self 

The instruments of almost every member of the 
Fendt faniily have for years back been steadily advanc- 
ing in public favour. The beautiful character of the 
tone which they possess is ' sufficient to account for this, 
but apart from tone, there is a style about Bernhard, 
Bernard Simon and Jacob, which so forcibly recalls the 
finest efforts of the greater Cremoriese, as to make one 
almost realise, in the latter's absence, what it is to have 
a fine Crerriona violin. The varnish on his later 
instruments is, occasionally a little dull. In his tickets 
his name is printed " Bernard S. Fendt, Junr." 

Fendt, Martin, London. Born 1812; This maker 
was another son of Bernhard Fendt, and was in the 
employment of the Betts firm. I have not seen any 
instrurrients which were made by him, and it is probable 
that he was chiefly occupied with repairs. 


Fendt, Jacob, London. Born 1815. Died 1849. 
Another son of Bernhard Fendt. The whole conception 
of his instruments is generally higher than the work of 
other members of his family.. His wood is generally 
very fine and regular, while some of his backs are really, 
in regard to figure, most beautiful. In his Guarnerius 
copies, the sound holes are rather exaggerated 
reproductions of that great maker's, style, but in this 
respect he is in very good conipany, as the best 
copyists that ever lived have failed in exactly hitting off 
the striking pecuHarity of Joseph del Jesu's sound holes. 
I have heard it urged that these great makers, both 
English and foreign, did not try to " slavishly copy " the 
individuality of Joseph Guarnerius, but I cannot say that 
I have great faith in the V9.1idity of this kind of reasoning. 
I believe that they tried to copy him and Stradivari, as 
well as Nicolas Amati, in the most minute particular, 
and that " they simply failed to do it perfectly. 
When Vuillaume turned out, under stress of circum- 
stances, his reproductions of the old masters, and 
put in imitations of the old tickets — and very 
clever imitations too — we may be absolutely certain 
that he left nothing undone that he could have 
done, and so it is with any maker, who has set himself 
to copy the old masters in tha:t fashion. With the 
exception of putting in old tickets, discolouring the wood 
by artificial means, and otherwise imitating the aged 
appearance — barring, perhaps, the artistic breaking up 
of varnish — ^makers could not do better than "slavishly " 
copy such productions as the Cremonese masters have 
left us. Like Vuillaume, Jacob Fendt, in order to live. 


was constrained to- turn out the modern antique, and 
the man's genius is visible in the circumstance that he 
could do the latter thing, and at the same time turn out 
a splendid violin. In tone, style, and everything, a good 
specimen of Jacob Fendt is magnificent. 

Fendt, Francis, London. This was another son of 
Bernhard, of whom little is known. 

Fendt, William, London. This maker was a son of 
Bernard Simon, and was employed with his father. He 
did not make many violins, but was at work with his 
father in the making of double basses. 

Ford, Jacob, London, 1790. A very clever maker, 
who imitated in a remarkable manner the great favourite 
of most 1 8th century workers, Jacob Stainer. His scrolls 
are a little stiif-looking, and in other respects, the model 
is not really Stainer, but borders very closely on' it. 
For example, Stainer's margins, which few English, or 
even Continental makers, have copied well, are very 
faithfully reproduced by Ford. Stainer's margins, 
though not so large as the Italians, are much less 
niggardly than the great majority of his imitators would 
have us believe, and although there is no great credit, 
perhaps, in the mere reproduction- of the design of a 
fiddle, when we find a man doing this in a faithful 
manner we have reason to cherish tlie hope that he may 
have his heiad screwed on properly with regard to other 
things. . The sound holes are not Stainer, nor is the 
archiiig, and one may well ask, " What is there about 
the work that is Stainer ? " Just the general look and 
tone feehng, the finish of the work, which is great, and 
the choice of wood. Varnish a deepish tinted yellow. 


FoRSTER, John, Brampton. Born 1688. Of interest 
chiefly because it is supposed that he was the , father 
of William Forster, who follows. It is understood that 
John Forster made one violin. 

Forster, William, Brampton-. Born 1713 — 4. Died 
i8oi. He is chiefly of interest because he was the 
father of the next Forster. 

Forster, William, Brarnpton. Born about. 1738. 
He was a spinningwheel maker, violin maker, and 
violinist, celebrated throughout the country side in 
Cumberland for his performance of Scotch reels. He 
also composed and published reels. He came to London 
in 1759, and tried spinningwheel making in Commercial 
Road, East, but not successfully. Then he manu- 
factured gun stocks, and occasionally a violin for the 
music shops. By-and-by, after some hardship, he 
•entered the service of a maker in Tower Hill named 
Beck. There is no trace of this Beck anywhere except 
in the biography of the Forsters. William Forster was 
successful with Beck, and asked an advance of wages, 
was refused, and left. In 1762 he began business on 
his own account in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane. 
-Success came there in the form of aristocratic patronage, 
and between last date and 1782, he. added music 
publishing to his business, and at this time used the 
title page of one of these works as a label. In 1781, he 
was in St. Martin's Lane, and three years later in the 
Strand — -No. 348. Royal patronage now came, arid the 
climax of his success was attained. He negotiated with 
Haydn for the publication of his works, and among his 
customers were the famous engraver, Bartolozzi, and the 


no less famous litterateur, Peter Pindar (Dr. Walcot). 
This William Forster (called in the trade " old Forster") 
died in 1807. That he made instruments of high 
quality goes without spying. His violoncellos are very 
good, and much coveted. I confess I do not altogether 
admire the style of his tenors and violins — -thait is, of 
course, judging them by the highest standard, and his 
violoncellos do not always appear to me to be very 
gtaceful instruments ^s far as outline goes, but rather 
broad at bottom, and narrow at top ; but their tone is 
decidedly good. His varnish is dull, staid, but of a 
refined character, if one may employ such expressions 
with regard to. varnish; The colour of much of it is like 
a reddish brown, not too dark, with an almost entire 
absence of polish on its surface, but having an air of 
eminent respectability, like the surface of a well-worn 
piece of dull grain goatskin leather. His wood is 
always fine. About 1762 he adopted the Stainer model, 
and worked on it for ten years, when he turned to 
Amati; — (A. and H. and Nicolas). What I have said 
about his varnish refers to his later work, from about 
1780, or, a year or two before that. In the early work 
he appears to have stained the wood before varnishing. 
On these it is dark red with a, blackish tinge. He made 
only four double basses. His commoner violins, etc., 
had no purfling. Labels, William Forster,' Violin 
Maker, in St. Martin's Lane, London. 

Forster, William, London. Born 176^. Son of 
above. He began to make violins early, his first one 
being entered when he was fifteen. His work is generally 
highly finished, but is not of equal merit in other respectSj 


and is inferior to that of his father. He only made two 
or three violins of any worth, and about a dozen common 
ones. His varnish is same as his fathier's best. He 
died in 1824. Added "Junior" to his name in his 
labels, and " Music Seller to the Prince of Wales and 
Duke of Cumberland." 

FoRSTER, William, London. Born 1788. Died 1824. 
Son of above. Made very few violins. I have not seen 

FoRSTER, Simon Andrew, London. Born 1781. 
Died 1869. Made few instruments personally, and not 
of great merit, as far as I can learn. He is best known 
as the joint author, along with Mr. Sandys, of a " History 
of the Violin " which contains a deal of valuable 
information regarding the ' English School of Makers. 
He states in this work that he made fifteen violins, four 
violas, thirty-eight violoncellos, and five double basses, 
all of the best class, and that he also made other forty 
instruments, of ^ all classes, of an inferior quality. That 
would be in all over a hundred instrunients. I have 
only seen two or three claiming to be by him, and they 
were violins of rather poor qualityJ But I am not in a 
position to say that I recognised his work in these. 

FuRBER, London. A family of violin makers regarding 
the early members of which very little is known. They 
have been chiefly employed making for others. The 
first was David, of whom nothing appears to be known. 
His son, Matthew, died in 1790. A subsequent Matthew 
and a John Furber worked for the Betts' firm, and Mr. 
Hart states that this John made fine copies of the 
" Betts' " Stradivari, while that instrument remained 


with the firm. There should therefore be some excellent 
•copies of this famous ' fiddle about, and for which time 
will have done some service — all other things being 
•equal. The last-mentioned Matthew died about 1830, 
and John sometime after 1841. ' The present representa- 
tive of the family is Henry John Furber. 
, Gabrielli. a Florentine family of violin makers 
from about the beginning of last century. Christoforo, 
Barlolomeo, Gian-Battista, and Antonio. Gian-Battista 
is the best known, and has sometimes attractive looking 
wood in his instruriients. Of second and third rate 
quality, but carefully made. Yellowish varnish, and 
somewhat tubby model. 

Gagliano, Alessandro, Naples. Born about 1640. 
The biographical details regarding this maker corruscate 
■around, a duel, which he is said to have fought, arid 
which drove him to the manufacture of violins. The 
story has taken various shapes, the most recent being 
that from his youngest days he studied music, and 
amused himself by making mandolines" and l,utes. That 
in his time the Kingdom of Naples, being under Spanish 
Dominion, was affected by an unusual disregard of the 
value of life. That duelling was constantly practised — 
which is quite correct^ — and that the inhabitants, in order 
to be able to defend themselves, or from a love of fighting, 
learnt and taught their children assiduously the art of 
fencing, and the general management of lethal weapons. 
Alexander Gagliano, in this way, acquired consummate 
skill in the art of duelling while yet he was young, and 
one evening he had a quarrel with a Neapolitan gentle- 
man, a member of a family called Mayo. They had no 


sooner crossed swords, when Gagliano's opponent 
received his death wound. The duel occurred in th& 
Httle square of New St. Mary's, near the Church of th& 
Franciscan's, which was sacrilege according to the bull 
of Pope Gregory XIV. The friends of the murdered 
man were sufficiently powerful with the viceroy df the: 
Kingdom, and Gagliano, alarmed at the possible conse- 
quences of the deed, sought asylum with the brotherhood, 
and put himself under their protection. The viceroy — 
one Count Penneranda — was vehemently opposed to 
the practice of duelling, and missed no opportunity of" 
treating offenders with the greatest rigour. The^ 
murdered man was, in this case, one of his most 
intimate friends, and naturally, his resentment was- 
considerably accentuated. The Spanish Government 
made determined efforts to upset the privileges of the^ 
monastical establishments, the inmates of which had 
more than once, however, shown themselves to- 
be powerful defenders of their rights, and Penneranda 
had, at last, to retire repulsed. This, of , course,, 
increased his anger, and he at length threatened to 
assault the convent ifj within a given date, the culprit: 
were not delivered up to him. In the meantime, the 
Neapolitan Cardinal, Ascanio Filomorino, had mixed', 
himself up in the affair, and supported the brotherhood 
in their efforts to keep Gagliano safe by getting him out 
of the way. Rearranged all the means, and by night 
and accompanied by a well-armed escort, he dispatched 
him to Mignamillo, in one of his districts, from whence^ 
he sent him off to Rome. Gaghano, from this jioint, 
directed his steps northwards, and it is. not unlikely that: 


Jiis thoughts turned to Cremona. At any rate, he 
travelled from town to town until he arrived there, and 
•came to know Stradivari, and arranged to enter his 
shop as a pupil. He worked, it is said, with Stradivari 
for about thirty years, and, having received intimation 
of a pardon, returned to his native place at the end of 
1695. The chief point of interest in this narrative is 
that it places Gagliano as pupil of Stradivari at a date 
when that great maker was himself working with Nicolas 
Amati, or had, at least, just begun business OU' his own 
account, namely, in 1664 or 1665. Now the violins of 
Alessandro Gagliano are of a type totally different from 
those which Stradivari is supposed to have been working 
at during the period' intervening these two dates. 
Gagliano's violins are of a fiat model, much flatter, and 
indeed, larger, than anything Stradivari is supposed to 
have made, until long after his pupil was peacefully 
settled in his native town. The varnish on his instru- 
ments is generally of a sickly-looking yellow tint, but is 
also of reddish brown. His wood is of a fine quality, 
and his general proportions are also good. The figure 
shown in his wood is usually of a large kind — 
the sides being of ordinary height, and his purfling and 
•corners cajreful. The tone of his violins is very good, 
and of a pure and silvery quality in the upper strings, 
and fairly round and full in the lower. He died in 
Naples in 1725. He seldom used labels. 

Gagliano, Nicolas,, Naples. Born about 1665, just 
about the time his father had to flee from Naplesi He 
was rather a finer workman than his father, and had a 
detorative turn as well, some of his violins being orna- 


mented round the line of purfling. His instruments are 
of an altogether different type^ more graceful, and softer 
in outline, and somewhat more highly arched. The 
varnish is also different, being of a darker yellow, and 
very transparent. The tone is altogether very beautiful 
in a fine example. He made a large number of violins, 
violas, and 'cellos, and into some of them, he, or some- 
body after him, put Stradivari tickets. His own tickets 
run " Nicolaus Gagliano filius Alexandri fecit Neap,'i' 
then date. He died in 1740. 

, Gagliano, Gennaro, Naples. He was second son of 
Allessandro. He was probably born about i6g6, and 
was the finest maker of this name. His works are very 
rare. He seems to have used Stradivari tickets chiefly, 
and when he did use his own, he never put a date in 
them. They simply ran " Gennaro Gagliano fecit 
Neapoli, 17 — " the two figures which would have located 
the instrument in point of time being omitted. He had a 
fine varnish, and a recipe for varnish in his own hand- 
writing still remains with the Gagliano family, but it is 
very likely not for that which he used, as his, successors 
have never been able to reproduce it. He employed 
beautiful wood, and his style is not unlike that of' his 
father, AlessandrOj except that his sound holes are shorter 
and wider. He died in 1750. 

Gagliano, Ferdinanijo, Naples. Born 1706. Died 
1 781. This maker was eldest son of Nicolas Gagliano, 
and grandson of Alessandro. His instrilments are in 
some respects like his father's, but more arched. 
Indeed the arch is a very long one, and rises somewhat 
suddenly at the top, continuing at about an equal, height 


as far as the notch of the sound holes, where it appears 
to begin to fall away gradually to the lower nlargin. 
The arching of the back is not so pronounced, and is 
more equally distributed. His outline cannot be called 
I graceful, but rather heavy-looking. The sound holes are 
well cut and very well designed, long and open. Fine 
wood and well finished work. Varnish a warmish 
yellow, of a common-looking character. Scroll not very 
artistic in design, but well cut. Looking at it from 
front, volute spreads rapidly out at bottom turn. 
Altogether very good violins. Tone a little thin, but 

Gagliano, Guiseppe and Antonio, Naples. Brothers 
of Ferdinanci, made instruments of no great importance 
so far as concerns violins, but made fairly good 
mandolines and guitars. An early ticket of theirs is 
dated 1707, and Guiseppe died in 1793, while Antonio 
lived on to the end of that century. 

Gagliano, Giovanni, Naples. Another brother of 
Ferdinand. He was rather better as a violin maker 
, than the previous firm, but has left nothing of importance 
as far as I know. He died in 1806. 

Gagliano, Raffaele and Antonio, Naples. Sons of 
Giovanni. They worked in partnership, but appear to 
have made nothing worth remembering. Raffaele died 
gth December, 1857, and Antonio 27th June, i860. 

Gagliano, Vincenzo, Naples, is the last of this 
numerous fiddle family. He is not a vioHn maker, but a 
maker of strings; His first strings have a high reputa- 
tiofa in Italy. As he has neither wife nor children, I 
suppose the name will die out with him. 


Gand, Michel, Versailles. This maker was the first 
of the famous family of this name. He was born in 
Mirecourt, and went to Versailles in 1780. His instru- 
ments are not much appreciated. He had two sons. 

Gand, Charles Francois, Versailles. Bo.rn 5th 
August, 1787. Died loth May, 1845. He first began 
business in his native place in 1807 and continued there 
till 1810. He then removed to Paris, where he died. 
He was taught partly by his father, but chiefly by 
Lupot of whom he was an acknowledged pupil. He 
became Lupot's son-in-laW and succeeded him in 
business. The violins of C. F. Gand, or, as he is 
called in the trade, Gand pere, have a majestic outline. 
They are distinctly individual. The scroll is a most 
powerful piece of cutting. Viewed at the back, it has 
a broad, massive appearance not found in ■ the work of 
any other — at least not to such a pronounced degree. 
The varnish is a strong red brown, tending to red, on a 
yellow ground. He was in the habit of leaving patches 
of yellow near the margins where the hands are 
supposed to catch a violin in handling it. It is a kind 
of family mark, which has been modified by his 
successor slightly, and, of course, imitated by all who 
wished their instruments to pass as having been made 
by him. It is generally left on each shoulder and also- 
at the bottoni on each side. The tone of his instruments- 
is very fine. 

Gand, Guillaume, Paris. Born 22nd July, 1792.. 
Died at Versailles 31st May, 1858. This maker was a 
brother of C. F. Gand, and was also a pupil of Lupot,, 
after leaving whom he returned to Versailles and 


tecame successor to his father. Hi^ instruments are 
well appreciated in France. I have not seen any of 

Gand, Charles Adolphe, Paris. Born nth 
December, 1812. Died 24th January, 1866. This 
malcer was a son of C. F. Gand and succeeded to his 
father's business in 1845, and also to the appointment 
of maker to the King's musicians and to the conserva- 
toire and later to the Emperor's Chapel. The two 
first appointments had been continued to the firm 
since the time of Lupot, to whom they were first 
granted. C. A. Gand did not make many new 
instruments. In 1855 he took as partner his brother, 
Eugene Gand. 

Gand, Eugene, Paris. Born on 5th June, 1825. 
Died at Boulogne sur Seine on the 5th February, 1892. 
This maker— ^the brother above referred to as associated 
with C. A. Gand^-has played a somewhat important 
part in the history of this famous house. While he 
studied violin making under his father and brother he 
also studied violin playing under the celebrated 
Baillot at the Conservatoire, and left it only at the 
death of that great violinist in 1842. On the death of 
his brother in 1866, the two brothers Bernardel already 
referred to became his partners and the firm then 
became Gand and Bernardel Freres. For a number of 
years the instruments of this firm had ceased to be 
personal works. Their business extended considerably, 
and could only be done in that fashion, namely, in 
employing clever workers to do what their fathers 
were supposed to have carried out with their own 


hands. Of course all violins were understood to 
be subjected to the supervision of the masters 
during their progress. A supervision quite sufficient, 
no doubt, to ensure that the instruments would 
sustain the reputation of the concern for style, 
finish, and tone. One gigantic order which ithe firm 
had was for the orchestras in the. Trocadero at the 
International Exhibition of 1878. My recollection of 
that is sufficiently vivid. This firm alone furnished 
51 violins, 18 altos, 18 'cellos, and 18 double basses. 
The greater number of these were bought by the 
Conservatoire. In the violin department of that 
Exhibition the jury awarded the grand gold medal to the 
firm. An award of this kind does 'not always mean 
much, but instruments of theirs which I have seen are 
decidedly good violins of exquisite outline, and fine 
Stradivari model. They are covered with a kind of 
traditional family red varnish, and have a powerful, 
ringing tone, which when it settles down will doubtless 
be highly appreciated. Eugene Gand received a good 
many decorations. He' was an officer of the Legion of 
Honour, a commander of the order of Isabella the 
Cathohc, a chevalier of the order of Leopold of Belgium, 
a chevalier of Nircham — whatever that may be — 
president of the Association of Artiste Musicians, an 
officer of the French Academy, violin maker ta the 
Conservatoire, to the Opera, and to the Opera Comique. 
He was also a good judge of old violins, although his 
opinions occasionally required confirmation. His 
recent death will certainly leave a great gap in the 
ranks of the trade. He was a man of culture and 



judgment, and had seen almost all the fine violins in, the. 
world — at least, almost all the fine Stradivari violins. 

Gasparo da Salo, or, to give hitn what has now been 
discovered to be his proper name, Gasparo di BertoloUi, 
was a violin maker in Brescia who has hitherto had the, 
honour accorded to him of being the inventor or de- 
signer of the violin in. its present form. It, now appears 
that not only was his father, Francesco di BertoloUi, a 
violin maker before him, but that others — such as one 
Gio. Battista D'Oneda in 1529 — were also makers of 
similar instruments. The origin of these important 
discoveries is as follows : On the 12th of January, ' 1890, 
Professor D. Angelo Berenzi , delivered a very interest- 
ing lecture in the Athenaeum of Brescia on the subject 
of the ancient Brescian violin makers, and at the 
conclusion of his lecture he expressed a hope that 
Brescia might be induced to follow the example of. 
Cremona, and seek to commemorate in some permanent 
manner the fame of her most distinguished workers in 
this art industry, namely Gasparo da Sal6 and G. P.- 
Maggini, and suggested that it might convenietitly be 
done in the form of a memorial stone with their names- 
inscribed upon it. Some of those present advised that 
if he would make investigations in th« State archives, 
and in those of the municipality and suburban parishes 
for the purpose of finding out where these two dis-- 
tinguished violin makers lived, or had their shops, it 
would be all the easier to obtain .from the authorities 
permission to place the stones in the most suitable 
localities. He at once set about his task, and after the 
most laborious researches, in a few months laid before 


' the public the results of his investigations. These wer.e 
published in October, 1890, and consist of a great many 
valuable facts coilnected with Maggini, his father, wife, 
family, house, business, &c., &c., and which will be noted 

' under the maker's name. . Professor Berenzi was unques- 
tionably the pioneer in these investigations. He, and no 
other, initiated and carried them out — cleared the jungle 

" in fact, and made a path through the wood, so that 
whoever iriight follow him would have little or nothing 
to do beyond verifying for themselves the discoveries 
which he had made, and acquainting themselves with 
the facts which he had already brought to light. 
Having accomplished this for Maggini, his friend, 
Cavalier Livi, who is the keeper of the State Archives • 
in Brescia and had greatly assisted him in his investi- 
gations, entered the now cleared path on his own 
account and penetrated farther in search of Gasparo 
da Sal6. His journey was also successful and resulted 
in the discovery of some very interesting particulars 

/concerning this maker, of whom so little was previously 
known. Cavalier Livi published these particulars in 
August, 1891, in the " Nuova Antalogia." They are 
in substance as follows : Gasparo di Bertdlotti — ^known 

.to us hitherto as Gasparo da Sold— was the son of 

r Francesco di Santino Bertolotti of Sal6, and was born 

. there in 1542. The exact dates cannot be ascertained 
because two pages — -224 and 225 — of the register in 
which the birth entry should have appeared are missing. 
But subsequent documents prove that he was born in 
the J, ^ar mentioned. These are income tax returns for 

, the yeai;s 1568 and 1588, in the first of which' Caspar 


declares that he is twenty-six years old, and fprty-five 
in the second. There is no mention of him before 1565, 
but he then appears to have acquired the title of 
maestro, and may have had a shop. There is some 
reason for supposing that Gasparo was a pupil of one 
Girolamo Virchi, a maker in Brescia, who was sponsor 
at the baptism of one of Gasparo's children — a son 
named Francesco. In 1568 the rent of his house and 
shop was about ^"20 per annum, and he had a stock of 
musical instruments which he valued at close on ^60. 
Twenty years after that his stock had increased con- 
siderably. He says then that he had violins finished 
and unfinished which he valued at about ;^2oo. In 
1599 he bought another house in Brescia in a street 
called St. Peter the Martyr^ and from 1581 to 1607, a 
few small places situated chiefly in Calvagese near 
Sal6. This maker died in Brescia on the 14th April, 
1609, and was buried in Santo Joseffb. 

The work of Gasparo da Sal6 (di Bertolotti) is the 
work of an artist. His violins are arched rather full, 
but the contour of the arch is as if the instrument were 
blown out like a silken bag under certain specified 
restraints. There is a fine large feeling about Jais 
sound holes, which are pretty nearly parallel thrpu^out. 
That is to say, their width is pretty nearly the \same 
until the stem approaches both top and bottom cirdjles. 
They are not parallel in the sense of being in line wkh 
the long axis of the fiddle. The corners are very shorti 
and the margins rather narrow. His varnish has^j^ 
some cases, been a golden red, passing through H* ^"^ 
and in others a beautiful rich brown — a toas^^ before 


His' sound holes are remarkably expressive and are seen 
to great perfection in his violas. In the matter of outline, 
his instruments are exquisite. The purfling has, been 
double in those violins and violas which I have seen, and 
the scrolls beautifully cut. In his violins I have observed 
the grain of the front wood to be as wide almost as in 
many a 'cello, and the arching to rise from the margins 
almost equal to the style of Stradivari. In face of 
these works of this early master, it is quite surprising that 
the later Amati School should have departed from his 
, type. His instruments are of the greatest possible rarity. 

Gedler, J. A., Fiissen, 1750 — 1757. His instruments 
are certainly original in outline, and are intended to be 
of Stainer model. The arching is, as usual, much 
exaggerated, and the groove around the contour of the 
instrument is very deep. The outline is flattened at top 
and bottom, and gives a peculiarly square look to the violin, 
and is accentuated by the upper portion being consider- 
ably nearer the dimension of the lower part than is usual. 
The sound holes are rather stiff-looking in consequence 
of being pretty long, and cut alrhost quite parallel to the 
long axis of the fiddle. The upper turns are not exactly 
circular — as the great majority of the imitators of Stainer 
try to make them — nor are the bottom turns either, and 
although they are fairly well cut, they have not a very 
graceful appearance. Varnish reddish brown. Tone, 
thin and clear. 

Gedler, J. B., Fiissen, about 1790—^96. Pxobably a 
^Em or other relative of above. Work same in type, but 
the fioner. 
theyearvjLLER, Mattheus, Venice, 1700 — 1740. This 


maker was a fine workman, especially in his violoncellos. 
These are decidedly original to a certain extent. The 
upper portion is a little narrower than is usual, and 
shorter, which gives to the part bet^yeen the middle bouts 
an appearance of being wider. His model in his best, 
'cellos seems to have been A. and H. Amati, only his 
curves are not so flowing as we find them in instruments 
by this fampus Crem'onese firm. The curves of GofFriller's 
C's are also different, their cutting in being like that of 
Stradivari in some cases, and the C's themselves look 
very long^an appearance produced by the shortness of 
the upper portion of the 'cello. The sound holes are 
quite beautifully cut, and are evidently based on 
Stradivari instead of A. and H. Amati. The design of 
the whole is, in fact, a congeries of one or two styles, tjie 
result of which is by no means unpleasing. The sound 
holes, thoiigh beautifully designed, as I have said, are a 
little wider than usual, and have the appeairance of being 
. long, also because of the stunted look of the upper portion 
of the instrument. His varnish is a very transparent and 
rather deep orange, with fine golden flashes here and there. 
'It is sometimes cracklied all over those parts near the 
corners and middle sides. They have ,a very fine tone, 
and Goffriller rarely put labels in his work. When he did, 
it ran as follows : — "Mattheus Gofiiriller, faciebat anno — ." 
It is not yet known when he was born, nor when he died; 
GoFFRiLLER, Francesco, Venice. Brother of above and 
worked for him . The instruments which he made for him - 
self have very rarely anything in the shape of a ticket. 
Like his brother's, they are pure in tone and strong. Indeed, 
great sonority is a distinguishing characteristic in them. 


GiLKES, Samuel, London. Born 1787. Died 1827. 
He was born at Morton Pinkney, Northamptonshire, 
and was taught violin-making by Charles Harris, who 
was a relative. After leaving Harris, he was employed 
by Forster. In 1810, he began business- on his own 
account in James Street, Buckingham Gate. The 
outline of his violins is exceedingly fine, the upper part 
■being beautifully proportioned to the lower, so that there 
is not that excessive disparity, between the two, which 
is not uncommon, even with very good makers. He 
•copied Amati chiefly, but his Stradivari, instruments are 
.really excellent, the sound holes being remarkably well 
idesigned, although cut just a little wide. Very hand- 
.some scrolls. Yellowish brown varnish. 
, GiLKES, William, London. Born 1811. Died 1875. 
A son of above maker, and a more varied worker than 
his father, but not so good. He chiefly made double 
basses. These are excellent. 

GoBETTi, Franoiscus, Venice, 1690 — 1720. A so- 
called pupil of Stiradivari, in whose work, so far as I 
have seen, it is difficult to trace any influence of the 
great maker. The outline is of the Amati type, but 
large in style. Short corners, deep middle bouts, and 
rathei;' highly arched. Tone, however, very good. 
Scroll cleanly cut, but somewhat monotonous looking, 
and of same width almost to the first turn. Sound 
holes much more like Amati or Rugerius than Stradivari, 
and slightly gaping. Varnish transparent and weak- 
looking red, but of fine quality. His tickets run 
•" Franciscus Gobetti fecit Venetiis," and date. 

Gosselin, Paris. 18 14 to about 1830. An amateur 


maker — so-called — ^who has considerably surpassed in 
style and finish, many a professional with a high deputation. 
His instruments are, undoubtedly, of a high class, and 
have a superior quality of tone. His choice in wood 
was original and felicitous, the figure of his backs 
running in an extremely picturesque manner in th« 
direction of the long axis. The belly wood of exquisite 
selection, and the varnish^a fine red. He may be called 
a. pupil -of Kolliker, the famous Parisian maker and 
restorer towards the end of the eighteenth, and beginning 
of the nineteenth century. Gosselin's instruments have 
a splendid outline, and the design of his sound holes is 
good and original, based on Stradivari, and a little longer. 
The finish of the work is of a high class, and his scrolls 
very handsome. His tickets run " Fait par Gosselin, 
amateur, Paris, ann6e — ." 

Gragnani, Antonio, Livorno, 1741 — 1785. Coarse 
work, but a sympathetic and sweet tone. , Poor quality 
of varnish, and not particularly fine wood. His initials 
sometimes branded on the ribs below tail pin. His 
tickets run " Antonius Gragnani, fecit Liburni anno — ." 

Gragnani, Onorato, Livorno.^ A son of above and 
inferior work. 

GranCino, Paolo, Milan, 1665 — 1690. A fine maker in 
many respects. Supposed to be a pupil of Nicolas Amati, 
whose style he has followed in most particulars except the 
scroll. His violoncellos are his best works, and are of high 
character in the matter of tone. Varnish lightish yellow. 

Grancino; Giovanni, Milan, 1694 — ^73°- Son of 
above. A superior maker to his father. Sometimes has 
very handsome wood in back, unlike the majority of 


Milanese makers, and his belly wood is often distinguished 
for being remarkably fine and straight. It is also some- 
times pretty wide. Light varnish — almost colourless. 
The outline of his instruments is occasionally a little shaky, 
but the tone is good. Tickets " Giovanni Grancino in 
contrada largha di Milano al segno della Corona — ." 

Grancino, Giambattista e Francesco, 1710 — 1750. 
They are, perhaps, the best of this name. Their violon- 
cellos and double basses are very good. Roughish work 
and ordinary wood, but good tone. Transparent yellow 
spirit varnish. Tickets " Giov. Battista and Francesco, 
fra. Grancino in contrada larga di Milano — ." 

Guadagnini, Lorenzo, Piacenza, 1695 — 1760. This 
maker worked for a number of years with Stradivari — so 
it is said — and returned to Piacenza about 1730. His 
violins are grand instruments, and, curiously enough, a 
goodly number of them bear Nicolas Amati labels. They 
are highly finished. Their quality of tone is exceed- 
ingly fine, though not always equal all over. The fourth 
string is sometimes a little weak. His varnish is a deep 
yellowish red, and of very fine quality. Tickets " Lauren- 
tius Guadganini Pater et alumnus Antonij Stradivari 
fecit Placentise anno — ." This ticket is probably the 
foundation for the notion that he worked with Stradivari. 
At any rate the work is well worthy of such a master. 



GuADAGNiNi, GiAMBATTisTA. Son of abovc. Is Said 
to have been born in Cremona during his father's stay 
there, and to have also been a pupil of Stradivari. His 
instruments are valued as highly as his father's, although 
they are not so powerful. He went to Piacenza after 
his parent, and worked there a long time, then went to 
Turin, where he died in 1780. His instruments are 
'covered with a slightly yellowish red varnish, and his 
tickets run " Joannes Baptista Guadagnini Cremonensis 
fecit Taurini (or Placentiae) Alumnus Antonij Stradivari." 

Guadagnini, Giovanni Battista, Milan, from about 
1695 to 1750. This maker was a brother of Lorenzo 
Guadagnini, and he is sometimes confounded with his 
nephew, the preceeding maker. Although he was not 
always so good a maker as his brother or nephew, 
he certainly made some magnificent instruments, 
sometimes of Stradivari type, and sometimes of Amati. 
Middle bouts pretty deep, fine, equally-balanced outline. 
Excellent wood, and finely-designed sound holes. 
Varnish frequently of a very deep orange red. Tickets 
" Joannes Baptista Guadagnini Placentinus fecit 
mediolani." His arching is of a rather flat character 
and his sound holes a little longer than usual. 




GuADAGNiNi, GuisEPPE. Son pf the precceding. Was a 
violin maker in Milan, Como, and Parma,, and employed 
his father's tickets. His instruments have a fairly good 

GuADAGNiNi. There were a number of this name, 
subsequent to above, and settled in Turin. Almost all 
the Guadagnini violins have good tone. 

GuARNERius, Andreas, Cremona. The first . maker 
of this celebrated name is supposed to have been born 
there about 1626. He was married on 31st December, 
1652, to Anna Maria Orcelli, and had seven children 
born to him. He died at Cremona on 7th December, 
1698. When he was fifteen years old he was working in 
the shop of Nicolas Amati, and four years afterwards he- 
was one of the witnesses mentioned in the register as- 
being present at the marriage of his master. His 
instruments are of beautiful workmanship, and. of the early 
Amati model iii rnany cases, and also of the later style of 
his master. His varnish is of a golden yellow, bright 
orange, with a brownish tint, and is occasionally of a 
fine brown. It is sometimes thickly laid on, but is- 
always of the finest quality. 

Guarnerius, Pietro Giovanni, Cremona. Eldest 
son of above. Born i8th February, 1655, and remained 
at home until about 1680, when he went to Mantua. 
Three years before this he had rriarried Caterina Sussagni. 
About 1698, he returned to Cremona, and appears to. 
have remained there until after the death of his father in 
that year.. He went back to Mantua after this event, 
and lived there a longtime, going late in life to Venice^, 
where he died at an advanced age. His violins are very 


beautiful specimens of work, of exquisite tone and style, 
and covered with lovely varnish. He varied a good 
deal, however, and there are examples of his which do 
not command the same unstinted admiration. His 
sound holes are often lower than usual, and their cutting 
parallel for a certain distance on each side of notch. 
They also have the appearance of being placed straight 
with the long axis of the fiddle. His outline also looks 
somewhat full, and just a little heavier than in his greater 
contemporaries ; but there are occasions when he sur- 
passes himself. The tone of his instruments is very fine. 
The ribs often have very pretty figuration, and his varnish 
is a beautiful golden amber, occasionally passing to a rich 
brown. His 'cellos have a superb tone, but are often 
plainly wooded, and have a slightly reddened brown 
varnish. He also used spirit varnish of similar colours 
to his oil varnish. Although his baptismal name was 
Pietvo Giovanni Guarnieri, he always calls himself simply 
Petrus Guarnerius as under. 

Guarnerius, Guiseppe Gian Battista, Cremona. 
Second son of Andreas was born 25th November, i566. 
Died about 1739. He apparently lived with his father 
all his life, and when his brother Peter was back at home 
waiting, seemingly, on the death of the old man, Peter 


made some "fiddles and put his brother's name in them. 
This maker is called "Joseph son of Andrew " from the 
inscription found in his tickets. He was the cleverest 
of that family. He chose very handsome wood which, 
for figure, has rarely been surpassed. His margins are 
generally small, and his purfling sometimes close. His 
varnish is superb — golden red. The corners of his in- 
struments, when perfect, show with what extreme care 
he finished his work, as they come out quite pronounced 
and sharp. His sound holes have not the vigour of his , 
greater brethren. His tickets run ^' Joseph Guarnerius 
filius Andrese fecit Cremonae sub titulo Sanctse 
Teresise — ." 

Guarnerius, Joseph (called del Jesu), Cremona. Born 
October i6th, 1687. Date of death unknown. This 
was the greatest of all the artistes called Guarnerius. 
He was only a very distant relative of the family, his 
grandfather haying been a cousin of Andreas Guarnerius. 
It is not known where he learnt his business, nor where 

he carried it on. His tickets date from Cremona ^-'\t 
. , , , . _, ae IS 

there is no trace of him there alter 1702. The f 

known tickets date from 1725, and the latest b^-" . ^^ 

. . r ^^ copies N. 

The story that he died in pnson was iQf^ , , •, 

circumstance that a person named Gir , 

'^ . >rcely perceptible, 

died there in the year 1715. This tr^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^. 

triously circulated, and a great r/Tj^ .^ ^ yellow-not 

fiddles were called "prison Jos. , , , , , 

^ •' c tint, but not unpleas- 

genuine. All that sort of thing 1 , , 

° . ° ats, when m proper 

man was an artiste of the highest 

these inferior fiddles. His ins/g.^^^ ^g^^_ ^.^^ ^g^g^ 

arch rising gently from the p4 ^^^j^^^,^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 


outline is very perfect and restful. Many of his instru- 
ments are small, and do not exceed fourteen inches in 
length, but the peculiarity which will strike most people 
will be found in the sound holes. These are of an early 
type, and designed in a most masterly way. At the top 
the circle has the appearance of a miniature arch of 
Gothic type. That is to say, the impression made on 
the mind of an ordinary observer is of that character. 
They then slope away a little towards the margins and 
are fairly wide at the middle, the notch being cut at 
an angle of about forty-five degrees to the longer axis. 
His margins are large and massive, his edges round and 
solid. His ribs are about i-J- at the top, i^^^ at the 
corners, and about i| at the tail pin. In a good many 
of his violins there is a peculiarity which indicates that he 
possessed at one time a goodly piece of pine. It is a streak 
of what is called grey wood, and runs down from the top 
on the left of the fingerboard. I have also seen it on the 
right of the fingerboard. It can easily be seen through the 
\a^-sh This grev strip looksjust as if the wood under 
,( ."(-"^^t-nish at that point were dirty. It is about an 
fW^*t1S£g^^'^vidth, sometimes less, and travels in certain 
down as the top of the left sound hole. 
.% fiddles are often of the finest figure, 
H in a few instances, extremely fine 
^ „ ^ne is grand, round, and sonorous, 


c- J r » 1 =:nce between him and Stradivari 

becond son of Andreas wa, 

T^- J 1 , TT )erhaps, because there are fewer 

Died about 1739. He api ^ ^ ' 

,, i_- IT , , , . , choose irom. His varnish is a 

all his hie, and when his brotx ^ , 

■ , • . , , , m tints of the most entrancing 

waiting, seemingly, on the dear. , , , ^ 

ot surpassed by any other 


maker. The middle bouts are generally cut in at the 
top without any tendency to travel upward, and sweep 
out towards the lower corner in a beautiful curve which 
leaves the indention quite shallow by the time the 
curve is ended. The grain of a Guarnerius belly is 
usually of a fairly wide guage. He made no violon- 
cellos that-I know of, and I have only heard of one 
tenor, but never saw it. 

GuERSAN, Louis, Paris, 1735 — 1766. Many of his 
instruments are attractive looking. They vary consider* 
^bly in style, but tone rather deficient. He made a 
number of 'cellos, and employed a varnish which in some 
cases might be called " golden." There is no doubt he 
■ could make very beautiful instruments when he chose 
to do so. He was a pupil of Claude Pierray. 

Ha,rdie, Matthew, Edinburgh, about 1800 — 1825. 
This maker has produced singularly fine copies of 
Nicolas Amati. I question if he has been surpassed in 
that respect by any one of our native makers. His 
wood is of first class quality. His outline is 
a very accurate reproduction. His sound holes 
slightly err, where almost every maker who copies N. 
Amati does err, in being just the least bit knockkneed, 
but in his case it is so trifling as to be scarcely perceptible. 
He has caught the general proportions of the N. Amati 
model with great feUcity. His varnish is a yellow— not 
of the finest degree — of rather light tint, but not unpleas- 
ing. The tone of his instruments, when in proper 
.condition, is quite of a high class. 

Hardie, Thomas, Edinburgh. Born 1804. Died 1856. 
Son of above. Worked in his father's shop. He has 



not the same reputation as his father, but I am not in a 
position to say anything about him. 

Harris, Charles, London, about 1800 to 1815. This 
is another splendid native maker, whose work is entitled to 
rank with that of the best Continental copyists. His out. 
lines and modelling are beautiful, and the design of his 
sound holes exceedingly graceful. The cutting of his 
scrolls is also most satisfactory. The sides of his violins 
are somewhat low, but in almost all other respects, his 
conceptions are of the best. His varnish is of fine quality 
and of a good, yellowish brown. 

Hart, John Thomas, London. Born 1805. Died 
1874. This is a famous name in fiddle Iqre. He was 
articled to Samuel GiUcfes previously mentioned, and 
duly learnt the art of violin making. Just at the time he 
started business the fever for Italians became accentuated 
and he turned his attention to the study of the classical 
instruments. His opportunities were great, and by-and- 
by he became a judge of violins of quite a European 
reputation. Some of the finest collections of the time 
were formed by him, including the celebrated Goding 
Cabinet, and also that of Plowden. He also supplied a 
large number of the fine instruments for . the Gillott 
collection — the largest ever made by one private 

Hart and Son. This became the style of the 
preceeding firm, when the late Mr. George Hart 
became a partner of his father. Mr. George Hart 
also acquired a world-wide reputation as a connoisseur 
and dealer — forming many beautiful collections, and 
becoming acquainted-^like his father— with almost every 


known instrument of importance. He was entrusted 
with the arrangement of the Gillott collection, and the 
<;ataloguing of it when it came under the hammer of 
Messrs. Christie and Manson, and ntimberless other 
important commissions with respect to the finest instru- 
ments in the world were placed in his hands. He is 
known wherever a fiddle-fancier has his habitat, as the 
author of what is, perhaps, the most reliable work 
on the violin that has ever been written, and he is, 
besides, the author of a work on " The Violin and its 
Music," which, for interest in that branch of musical 
literature, can hardly be surpassed. He was bdrn in 
1839, and died on April 25th, 1891. His son, the present 
Mr. George Hart, carries on the business under the 
same style, and the name has become a household word 
in the vocabulary of fiddle-fanciers. 

Hel, Pierre-Joseph, Lille. This maker was born 
near, Mirecourt in 1842. He learnt violin-making there 
in thorough fashion, and afterwards went to Paris, where 
he worked with Sebastien Vuillaume. He also was 
at Aix-la-Chapelle with Darche, and started on his own 
account in Lille in 1865. He is a good restorer, and 
claims to have a means of aging wood without using 
acid or heat. He is also the inventor of a system 
of tuning which can be apphed to existing violin 
heads, and which is said to peripit the player to tune 

Henry. A family of violin makers of this name has 
existed in Paris for about a hundred and fifty years.. 
The work is good in regard to several members of the= 
family, such as Jean-Baptiste, born in Mirecourt, 1757, 



•his son, Jean-Baptiste-Felix, born in Paris, 1793, and 
died in 1858, and one of his grandsons, Charles, born 
1803, and died 1859. Eugene Henry, son of the lastr 
mentioned, was born in 1843, and is a good restorer. 

Hill. A family of English violin-makers, which 
has existed in London for about as long a period as the 
Henry's existed in Paris. The first of the name appears 
to have been — ' " . 

Hill, Joseph. A pupil of Peter Wamsley. The 
' only instruments of this maker which I have seen were 
a tenor and a 'cello. The tenor was in the exhibition of 
1885, and 4eserved, in my opinion, high commendation 
for its finish and the appearance of the varnish. The 
sound holes might have been more artistically designed, , 
but the style of the instrument, and the. brilliancy of its 
varnish, as it hung in its case, really seemed to be 
•dangerously near the genuine Italian article. 

Hill, Lockey, London, about 1720. A violin by this 
malcer was exhibited at the same exhibition, and had, 
I -remember, a very beautiful back. 

Hill, Joseph and Son. 1770. This firm was repre- 
sented at the same show by a very clever-looking 
violin, and I have seen a fine 'cello by them of 
Ruggerius model, with 'ornamental purfling, and of 
excellent tone, especially on the two lower strings. 

Hill, Lockey, About 1810. There must have been 
two Lockey Hills, I • should think, if the dates in two 
violins bearing this name are correct, orcorrectly printed in 
the catalogue of the exhibition in which they were shown. 
The 1720 violin was a very clever looking instrument, but 
the 1 8 10 specimen was quite a little gem, in a plain 



varnish, and with wood of the most exquisite regularity.' 
The sound holes. were almost perfect, the corners charm- 
ing, and the margins fine and full. Of the subsequent 
work of this family I know nothing. The present firm is 

Hill and Sons, W. E. The senior member of this 
firm is Mr. William Ebsworth Hill, a practical violin 
maker, and for many years knoWn as a highly competent 
judge of classical instruments. He is assisted by his 
sons, William, Arthur, and Alfred Hill, and, in addition 
to their ordinary business, the firm have brought out 
several highly interesting monographs on fine violins in 
which they have embodied the results of the most recent 

Jacobs, Peeter, Amsterdam, 1690 — 1740. This maker 
copied Nicholas Amati with remarkable fidelity in almost 
every point. In the choice of his wood even, he sought 
to reproduce the 'figure generally associated with the 
name of the Cremonese master. %^ He is very successful 
with the outline and arching. His work is, however, 
easily recognised by the purfling. He always used 
whalebone for this instead of the black stopping, and 
where the varnish has been worn off the purfling, a little 
rubbing will bring up on the whalebone a most glassy 
surface — if one cannot detect the maker in any other way. 
It glistens in a way unknown in any other case. His 
instruments are very good. Varnish, a red brown. 

Jacobs, Amsterdam. I do not know anything of this- 
maker, who was perhaps related to the above Peeter. 
His instruments -are reported to be coarse, but of good 
tone, and having a deep red varnish — transparent. 

Jacquot, Charles, Paris. Boirn at Mirecourt, 1808. 


He was a pupil of Nicolas Aine and Breton, and began 
to learn his business when quite a child. When he was 
fifteen years old he went to Nancy, where he worked for 
the trade in .co-operation with a few others. In 1827, he 
began in Nancy on his own account, and continued 
there until 1853, when he went. to Paris, where he 
remained until liis death in 1880. His workmanship 
was of a good character. Varnish of a common red 
on orange type. Tone of the t'v^fangy, nasal kind, 
but instruments soundly made, and of a quality to 
improve in the course of time. 

Jacquot, Pierre Charles. Son of preceeding, and 
born 1828, in Nancy, where he succeeded to his parent's 
business after the latter went to Paris. His instruments 
are of a type similar to his father's. 

Jeandel, Pierre Napolkon. Born at Courcelles sous 
Vaudmont in 1812, he was taught 'at Mirecourt by 
Charotte. He went to Roiien in 1835, where he worked 
for the brother of his Mirecourt master. His employer 
died in 1836, and Jeandel and another took the business. 
These partners ultimately separated, and Jeandel 
carried on on his own account from 1848 to ■ 1878. 
Infirmities then obliged him to relinquish active work on 
any extended scale. He fell , into, poor circumstances, 
and the sudden death of his daughter, in whose place he 
stayed, withdrew his only shelter, and he was admitted 
to the hospital at Rouen, where he died in 1879, some 
five months after admission. He made very good 
violins, and received prize medals from three different 
exhibition juries. His work is of a type similar to that 
of the previous maker. 


Jay, Henry, London, 1744 — 1777. Made a number 
of instruments for dealers among which are some good 

Johnson, John, London. About 1750 — 1758. This 
maker seems to have confined himself largely to Stainer 
models, and he does not appear to have been personally 
a maker. His instruments are frequently large and 
heavy looking, although of good outline. Very narrow 
margins, and pitched up from the groove which goes 
quite round the outline. The edges are flat, or rather 
elliptical, and the corner's mean-looking. Frequently 
linpurfled, but having painted lines instead. Altogether, 
work of rather a common type. Varnish, light brown. 
Tone fairly good. 

Kennedy. A family of violin makers for a very long 
time — since about 1700. The best known of the name 
was Thomas, who made a great many instruments of no 
great value. Dark coloured varnish. 

Kerlino, J., Brescia. A maker of little interest to the 
modern fiddle-fancier, except from his connection with 
the early Brescian school. I used to think he was an 
imaginary character, but in' a work published in 1890, 
entitled " La Musica in Mantova," by A. Bertolotti, and 
issued by Ricordi of Milan, a reference to him dating in 
1493 has been found, and appears to prove con- 
clusively that he was a celebrated maker of viols at 
that date. 

KiAPOssE, S., , St. Petersburg. 1748 — 50. This 
maker's instruments are of the " odd " character. 
Fairly well made and proportioned, they are of the usual 
size — but perhaps a little thin in the wood. The back 


and front are worked off straight to the margins, and 
rounded with the sides. That is, the usual violin edges 
are wanting. The ribs or sides are of considerable 
thickness. Everything is " rounded •" off. The Sound 
holes are not badly designed. The general result is not 
distasteful in appearance, but a mistake technically. 
The varnish is of a commonplace character. The tone 
is of a thin nasal quality. 

Klotz, Edgidius, Absam and Mittenwald, 1675. 
This maker's instruments are very finished performances, 
both inside and but. When they are in ^ gocid condition, 
they are extremely attractive looking, but they are very 
rarely in condition. 

Klotz, George, Mittenwald. About 1754. Another 
good maker of this family. His instruments are of larger 
style, but sound holes jiot very pretty, and poor varnish. , 

Klotz, Sebastien, Mittenwald, 1700— 1760. Also 
good when in genuine condition. A large number 
of Klotz' instruments are not worth carrying away. 

Landolfi, C. F., Milan. 1735 — 1775. This is a fine 
Italian maker, who made some very good 'cellos of small 
size. The outline of his violins is good, but the middle 
bouts are long and deeply cut in, giving a somewhat 
gaunt look to the instrument, the lower portion of which 
seems to spread out a deal in consequence, and cause 
the upper portion to appear smaller than it really is. His 
sound holes are not badly designed. His varnishes, as 
well as the details of his instruments, vary a good deal, 
some are a brilliant red,' and others a dark, red, 
while others again tend to a yellowish orange. Much of 
his work certainly does not look very ' pretty, but the' 


tone is by no means bid. He has often narrow 

Lenz, J. N., London. 1803 — 1807. I have Httle to, 
say in favour of this maker. Anything I have seen of 
his was of a very tasteless description.. Very " scoopy '" 
and unequal. 

Lenz, Jacob, London. I suppose this maker was a 
son of the proceeding. His work was of a superior kind,, 
and he was a fine maker of double basses. He made, I 
believe, only two violins, one of which I have seen. It 
is a copy of Joseph Guarnerius, and is, in many ways, a 
very clever copy, except that the sound holes are far toO' 
wide. In other respects of arching and scroll, he has- 
caught the points of Joseph very well. The wood in 
this instrument is fine. 

LoTT, G. F., London. Born 1800. Died 1868. Was 
a son of the famous John Lott, mentioned below. He 
was a clever maker oi old fiddles. 

Lott, John Frederick, London. 1775 — 1853. This 
was father of the preceediiig, and following maker of 
same name. He was a German, and originally ' a 
cabinet maker, whom Bernard Fendt induced to take tO' 
fiddle making under Thomas Dodd, already mentioned. 
All his work is of a high character, especially his double; 
basses, which are really chefs d'ceuvres. 

Lott, John Frederick, London. Son of above, and 
hero of Charles Reade's Romance, " Jack of All Trades." 
He certainly was a clever violin maker, and took a long 
time to get up those imitations, with which, I daresay^ 
a good many people were at one' time hoaxed. There is r 
for example, an appearance of a kind of brutal hardihood,,- 


in the seeming recklessness with which he copied, and, 
in some cases, travestied, the saUent points of Joseph del 
Jesu, and yet he may have laboured over the instrument 
for months, getting up those antique fractures, indenta- 
tions, scratchings, and rubbings, which give an air of 
genuine age to some of his productions. He was a 
man of many adventures, which have been duly recorded 
in Mr. Reade's novels. He died about 1871. 

LupoT, Nicolas.. The greatest of a French family of 
violin makers which has flourished for about two 
centuries. The first was a Jean Lupot in Mirecourt, 
whose son Laurent was born there in i6g6, and became 
a violin maker .also. Travelling about a little, he settled 
in Orleans, and about 1762, disappears from fiddlehistory. 
This son, Fran9ois Lupot, also violin maker, after moving 
about in similar fashion, settled temporarily in Orleans, 
and then in Paris, where he died in 1804. The last 
mentioned had two sons, the above Nicolas born in 
Stuttgard in 1758, and Franfois born in Orleans in 1774. 
Nicolas was the great maker of the family, and was 
trained by his father in Orleans, where he continued to 
work until he was about forty years of age, and then 
went to Paris, where he started business in 1794, and 
died in 1824. The violins of this maker are undoubtedly 
of the highest character. There is great variety in his 
style,, and many of those hailing from Orleans, one would 
hardly recognise, if placed side by side with some of those 
which he made in Paris later on. This is chiefly, but 
not wholly, seen in his varnish, however, for there is 
the same masterly, solid style about all his instruments. 
A great many of his early violins are covered with a dull, 


brown varnish, which looks very well when a considerable 
portion of it has been worn away. His Paris instru- 
ments are covered with much variety of varnish, from 
brown, through orange to a red that would almost knock 
one down. Those covered with the red upon Orange are 
splendid instruments — of taassive style, and tone clear 
and pure, and of rocklike firmness. Some ,of his 
varnishes have gone very nearly black, and here and 
there are specimens which have it so thickly laid on, that 
one might say there is almost as much varnish as wood. 
Some of his Paris instruments are slightly smaller than 
those large orange instruments, and these, as indeed all 
his violins, are finished most exquisitely. Stradivari was 
his favourite model, but he also copied Guarnerius, and 
succeeded with the sound holes remarkably well. But 
the manner in which he has caught the " grand " out- 
line of Stradivari is quite exceptional. His sides and 
margins' are full, and there is a fine feeling of solidity, 
even in the handling of his best instruments, which does 
not escape one's notice when a nice specimen is en- 
countered. Some of his very fine work is really entrancing 
in the matter of finish and style. His father, Fran9ois, 
was also a splendid maker, and the. fitting instructor of 
his son. 

LuPOT, Francois. The brother of Nicolas, the only 
other distinguished member of the family, was a bow- 
maker, and is referred to in the chapter on bows. 

Maggini, Giovanni Paolo, Brpscia. This distinguished 
early Italian maker was born in Botticino Sera on the 
25th August, 1580, and the precise date of his death 
is not yet known, but in an income tax return of the 


year 1632, his son, Carlp Maggini, is spoken of as 
" filius quondam Johannis Pauli," son of the late 
Giovanni Paolo. As alrekdy stated in' the article, Gasparo 
da Said, Professor D. Angelp Berenzi delivered a lecture 
in Brescia-in the month of January, 1,890, on distinguished 
Brescian violin makers, and at its conclusion, it was 
mooted that a search should be made by him in . the 
Municipal and State archives for the purpose of 
discovering what could be known about " these great 
early artistes. Professor Berenzi set about his task at 
once, and, as I have already said, in a few months he 
was able to publish the results of his researches,, namely, 
in October, 1890. Nothing whatever had been previously 
known about" Maggini, except what was based upon 
tradition — ^if that can be called knowledge — and observa- 
tion of his work. There was not a scrap of documen- 
tary evidence known to exist, either regarding him or 
the other great maker, Gasparo da Salo, of whom he was 
conjectured to be a pupil. AH was guess work, com- 
bined, of course, with the traditionary gossip to which I 
have alluded. - But the researches of Professor Berenzi, ■ 
have now set all these matters at rest in the case of 
Maggini. In a little pamphlet entitled " Di Giovanni 
Paolo Maggini," and published in Brescia in 1890, he 
gave to the world his discoveries in a separate, form, 
although they had appeared previously in his first 
communication to "II Bibliofilo " in October of the 
same year. This communication related that he had 
found mention made of Magginis during the first half of 
the sixteenth century in the returns of Gerola and West- 
Botticino — ^two small places in the vicinity of BresciafHj 


.and during the second half of the same century in those 
of West Botticino, and, of Brescia. And later, in other 
returns of Brescia, Bagnolo, and Manerbio. All thi§ 
means a considerable amount of very patient labour, arid 
when he had thoroughly examined these various 
sources of information regarding people of the name of 
Maggini, he fixed on those of Botticino Sera^or West 
Botticino — and Brescia as being what concerned his quest. 
He unearthed from the archives two returns, one dated 
1568, and the other, 1588. The first relates to the father of 
G. P. Maggini, and begins " Boticino de Sera. — Poliza 
de mi Zovan q Bertolino di Magini," etc., arid gives 
particulars of the ages of himself, his wife, son, and 
daughter, and his brother. .The second" (dated 1588) 
beginning " Brescia^ — 300, p Johannis Polizza de mi 
Giovanni f. q. Ser BertoUno Magini, cittadino et 
•habitante in Bressa," etc., and gives his own age, and 
that of his wife — erroneously, apparently — and then 
continues with that of a &on, and son's wife, followed 
by the mention of " Gio Paolo, mio figliolo, d'eta d'anni 7." 
'This is the first official documentary reference found in 
Brescia having regard to the existence of G. P. Maggini. 
A later search by the same cultured writer at Botticino 
Sera revealed an earlier one--the baptismal entry. In the 
Book of Leaseholds, or Rent Book of St. Agatha in 
Brescia, and among the entries between the years 1500 and 
1636, Professor ^erenzi found that Gian Paolo Maggini 
bought from Ser Ludovico Serina, the house which 
stands opposite the Old Mayor's Palace, (or, as -s^e would 
call it, the Old Mansion House) and that the said 
^' Gio Pavolo Magini, che fa k cetere" as proprietor of the 


said house began to pay to the parish of St. Agatha 
about two pounds, sixteen and sevenpence per annum 
for the perpetual lease. He then discovered a return 
dated September loth, 1614, and another dated 1617, 
which confirmed the purchase of property, and gave 
particulars of ages, debts, and assets. This begins, 
" Polizza del estimo di M. Gio Paolo Maggirii, maestro 
.di violini in contrada del Palazzo Vecchio del Podesta," 
and gives his age as thirty-six, his wife's age as twenty- 
two, and his son, Gio Pietr6's, as one year. The return 
finishes up after giving particulars referred to with the 
following estimate of, his stock in Jiand at that date. 
" Item mi ritrovo in mercantia di violini, lignami et 
cordi di essi violini — lire cento pi. — ^^100." — ^Item. I 
have stock in violins, furnishings, and strings for these 
violins, ;^43 6s. 8d. If we strike a balance at this 
time, Maggini was in debt to the extent, of £2^ 5s. 
But the next return which Professor Berenzi discovered, 
tells a very different tale. It is dated 1626 and 
1627, and begins, " PoUizza del estimo di me 
Gio Paolo Maggini che fa violini in contrada delle 
Bombasa.rie a Santa Agatha," and gives his age as forty- 
six, that of his wife as thirty-two, that of his daughter 
Cecilia as five, another daughter, Veronicha, two, and a 
son. Carlo, six months. During ' the ten years which 
elapsed between the dates of these two returns, Maggini 
could show a balance to his credit of about two thousand, 
three hundred and ninety-six pounds, and a few shillings. 
For those days, this was undoubtedly good progress. He 
had become the owner of property in the 'country, and it 
will be observed, he had changed his place of business. 


The next important discovery which Professor Berenzi 
made, was the marriage enti-y of January 20th, 1615, 
from which we see that Maggini was married to Anna, 
daughter of Fausto Foresto on that day. Continuing 
his investigations, Professor Berenzi made out a list of 
Maggini's children — ten — with the dates of birth and 
death, and, further, the approximate date of the violin- 
maker's death, fronj. the return made by the son Carlo, 
and already referred to. The Professor's next discovery 
was the, entry recordings the date of the widow's death, 
namely, November 24thj 1651, and he concludes his 
very interesting article by speculating as to the identity 
of the maker whom we have hitherto called Pietro Santo 
Maggini. All these particulars were published in detail 
in theyear 1890, in a periodical published in Brescia, 
and called " II Bibliofilo." After this very satisfactory 
search. Professor Berenzi continued his investigations 
for the purpose of bringing to light, if possible, the place 
and date of Maggini's birth. After a deal of patient 
searching in the parishes in the neighbourhood of Brescia, 
he discovered the entry in the records of the small parish 
of Botticino Sera (West), and published it in a little 
pamphlet entitled, " La Patria di Giovanni Paolo 
Maggini," in i&gi. The credit of these discoveries from 
first to last, and almost verbatim et literatim, belongs to 
Professor Berenzi, and apparently to no other person 
whatever, with the exception of Cavalier Livi, whose 
counsels and assistance he gratefully acknowledges as 
well as the services of Messrs. A. Coen, and D. L. 
The instruments by G. P. Maggini which I have seea 

■^6 THE FIDDLE, fancier's GUIDE. 

were all of the highest type in finish and style. The 
,jnost striking peculiarities which they show in contrast 
, to great violins of a later make are their soutld holes, 

■ .their corners,, and their arching. ' | The highest point of 
Maggini's arching is, as far as I have been able to ascer- 

" tain, always as near as possible fifteen thirty-seconds of 
• an inch above the upper plane of the sides — that is, above 
,-what is called the symmetrical plane. If my readers will 
suppose that, instead of the upper table, a flat sheet of 
glass is placed absolutely level on the rims of a fiddle, 
the lower surface of the glass will represent the symmetri- 
cal plane, and Magini's arch at its highest point would 
be the above height from it. This height does not de- 
crease at once, but is maintained for about two inches 

■ and three-eights on the long axis, and on each side of 
the central point, after wluch it gradually and steadily 
■decreases to the margins,! Doubtless no one who has' 
seen a fine work by Maggini can help wondering why 
the Amatis or anybody else , kept on arching fiddles to 

■ such an extent, and for so long a time, after his name 
and fame were so widely spread as to make people .curious 
to see his work. But so it was, and the reason is not 
far to seek. It can be found at almost any stage in the 
history of fiddle-making, and is more closely associated 
with individuality and opinionativeness than with tech- 
nical skill. Maggini never seems to have varied in his 
arching from the time when he was twenty years of age 
until he .laid down his tools, and it would be, bfeyond 
■question, a serious blunder to disguise from oneself that 
nowhere can be^een anything grander or more majestic 
.than the lines which are visible in his work. The 


strength bf his broad arching seems to claim for him a 
place side by side with Stradivari. Another peculiarity 
is seen in his sound holes, which are intensely Gothic in 
feeling. They are wide, and inclined at such an angle^ 
that two straight lines, one drawn through the middle of 
each opening, parallel to, and equi-distant from their 
edges, would, if produced, intersect each other at the centre 
of the top edge of the violin. The corners in the upper 
and lower circles of the sound holes have not the broad 
terminals of later and Cremonese makers. They are 
finished square, but narrow, and in many cases, appear 
almost pointed, but that' is more the result of wear, and, 
perhaps, interference, than design. His varnish is a 
yellow, having a slightly red tint, and is chiefly spirit 
varnish, but he also used oil varnish of similar colour, 
and sometimes it is a brownish red. A great many of 
his backs are slab backs. The outline corners of the 
middle bouts are very short and stunted, but not on 
that account ungraceful, while the middle bouts them- 
selves are rather shallow, and formed by a simple curve, 
which almost looks like part of a circle, except towards 
the lower corners, where the curve is slightly elongated. 
A great number of Maggini's instruments are double 
purfled, and have also decorations in purfling on the 
back, some at top and bottom, and some in the centre. 
These decorations take the form of a conventional 
trefoil, finishing off the limbs of a St. Andrew's Cross in 
the centre, and are all done with purfling. The decora- 
tion varies. Sometimes a lozefige is projected between the 
limbs of the cross, and sometimes the trefoil gives place 
to three small squares. Of course thfese decorations 


have been copied, and reproduced in the imitations more 
■or less accurately. Some of his violins have only a 
single line of purfling, like ordinary instruments. It is 
supposed that he never dated his tickets. 

Medard, Nicolas, Nancy and Paris, about 1655. 
One of the finest of Frenfch copyists of Amati^so far 
as appearance goes. Beautiful wood, and fine, rich, 
golden red varnish. The reproductions by this maker 
are really as faithful as one could wish. The sound holes 
are finely imitated, and the, choice of wood quite of a 
high class. There were a number of tnakers of this 
name from early in 1600. Toussaint-Medard, Antoine 
Medard, Fran9ois, and Nicolas. Their instruments are 
very rare. 

Montagnana, Domenico, Cremona and Venice. 
This maker is supposed to have been a fellow pupil or 
workman in Nicolas Amati's shop, along with Stradivari. 
There is no doubt about the quality of his work. It stands 
in line with the finest. The outlines of his violins are 
almost identical with those of Nicolas Amati's best 
model, except that at the upper and lower bouts they 
are slightly fuller, while the inclination of his sound 
holes is distinctly outward to^jrards the 'lower corners. 
The middle bouts are also deeper and longer, and the 
c;orners fine and full. The arching is of the Amati type. 
There are very few specimens known to exist. His 
'cellos are really grand, the outline sometimes — in 
contrast to that of his violins — appearing to droop some- 
what from the shoulders, and , in other instances, being 
fuller and finer. There is a certain feeling of parsimoni- 
ousness in the outline of his bigger instruments, with 


regard to which the character of the wood may have had 
something to do. His varnish is magnificent — of a 
beautiful red orange, or deep golden red. His wood is 
always of the very finest, and his instruments are so 
scarce, that they are probably unobtainable except at 
prices for which one could get very good specimens of 
the greater Cremonese. 

Nicolas, Didier (Aine). The best of a family of 
Mirecourt violin makers. He was born in Mirecourt, 
1757, and died there in 1833. His genuine instruments 
are very good viohns by this time. He copied Stradivari. 
Varnish a fine, lively, yellowish brown, sometimes 
slightly red. He has good margins, but rather irregular 
purfling. Tone very good. This maker was in fashion 
at one time, and his own violins are fashionable yet for 
that matter, but one result of his vogtte is that a very 
large number of instruments are branded with his mark, 
although he had nothing to do with them. His brand, 
" A la ville de Cremonne D. Nicolas aine " is formed 
into a triangle, with a small circle having D. N. and a 
small cross inside, placed in the middle of the triangle. 
He was succeeded by his son Joseph, who signed his own 
violins " J. Nicolas fils," and the widow of the latter 
sold the business, and the right to use the brands to 
H. Derazy, a Mirecourt maker already mentioned. 


Norman, Barak, London. 1683 — 1740. A highly 
artistic maker of viols, violas, violoncellos, and violins. 
His work is often of a very refined character, with 
fruity decorations of a tasteful description. The style 
of his violins deserves the highest commendation except 
in the cutting of the sound holes, which are very much 
below par in the matter of design. But in' other respects, 
the lines on which the instruments are built are exceedingly 
fine. His varnish is really nowhere by this time in point of 
colour, but it is of good quality. He was a partner of 
Nathaniel Cross, already mentioned, at " The Bass Viol- 
in St. Paul's Church Yard, London-" 

Otto, Jacob Augustus, Halle and Jena. This maker 
was a pupil of Ernst, already mentioned, and is chiefly 
known for his work on the violin. I never saw any of his 
instruments. He had also four sons, who carried on the 
business or businesses, which were established by one or 
two of them in above and other places, but their work is 
hardly known, apparently, except by their father. 

Panormo. a family of violin makers, about the 
earlier members of whom there is a great amount of 
confusion. Vincent, the first bearer of the cognomen, is 
supposed to have been a native of Palermo, in Sicily, 
where he is said to have been born in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, and to have gone to Paris about 
1735, where he attained a splendid reputation. His 
tickets there date from 1738 to about 1778, namely forty 
years, according to one authority, while, according to 
another, he was only a few years in Paris, and orily a 
few violins are dated from it. He visited Ireland also, 
it is said, and made instruments there from an old 


billiard table (maple) which he bought. At any rate, 
he appears to have been a maker working under stress 
of canvas, and from hand to mouth. He made magni- 
ficent double basses, some of which, are, however^ of 
veiry poor wood. But his workmanship is always fine. 
The appearance of his instruments varies much. Some- 
times his varnish is a splendid rich amber, almost 
worthy of Cremona, and at other times, as if he had 
chosen altogether different materials to make it. The 
style of his work is splendid ; very full margins— one 
might almost say too full. His favourite . model is 
Stradivari, but he copied Guarnerius and Amati as well. 
Indeed, he did pretty nearly anything h6 was asked to 
do, and, it is quite evident, he changed about a good 
deal. As I have said, tickets in Paris fiddles are found 
from 1738 to 1778, and I have seen fiddles having 
Palermo tickets and London tickets between these 
dates, and to crown all, it is said that he died in 1813. 
If all these dates refer to the same Vincent Panormo, he 
appears to have attained a ripe old age. There were 
also a number of Panormbs after him — three sons, 
Joseph, George Louis, and Edward, the first and second 
being good violin makers. George Louis also for bows 
and guitars. The last of the Panormos died a few 
inonths ago, at Brighton, in very poor circumstances. ■ 

Parker, Daniel, London, 1715 — 1785. This is one 
of our fine English makers. His tone is pure and clear, 
and in his varnish he has caught a great deal of the 
brightness of the Italians, although he has not caught 
the pMe. It is very rich and pulpy-looking. His violins 
show very full margins, which is a characteristic of the 


better class of Italians, and his sound holes are cut in a 
very masterly way. His choice of wood also displays great 
judgment and a fine eye for Italian style. In some 
instances, his varnish is of a dull red, and a great many of 
his instruments appear to have been made for the music 
shops, and to have been sold under other names. 

Perry, Thomas, Dublin, 1767^ — 1800. This maker has 
certainly turned out many good violins and some of them 
merit high praise in every respect. The tone is sweet and 
clear. Workmanship generally most excellent. Scrolls 
very fine. Varnish usually almost colourless, but of good 
quality, and quite transparent. Copied Amati largely, 
but, like many a good copyist of the same school, the 
droop in the top part of his outlines shows pretty clearly 
where his model came from— namely from some of the 
finest German copyists, but not from an original Amati. 
About 1820 he became a partner with WilliamWilkinson, 
and the firm was Perry and Wilkinson for a period of 
about ten or fifteen years. 

PiERRAY, Claude, Paris, 1714 — 1730. Well made, 
but somewhat thin-wooded violins were produced by 
this maker. Red varnish of fairly good appearance. 
Tone of rather poor quality. 

Pique, F. L., Paris, 1788 — 1822-. A fine maker, whose 
instruments are of remarkably good style. His favourite 
model was Stradivari, and he certainly niade exceedingly 
correct cofiies. Tone very fine. The wood is all excel- 
lent in such instruments as I have seen. His margins 
are beautifully full, and his corners and sound holes 
exceedingly well designed. The varnish, although some- 
times somewhat " gummy " in appearance, is often of 


good quality and transparency, and of a colour which 
may be described as of a nice brown. 

Plane, Walter, Glasgow, 1820— 1860 or later. A 
very fair Scotch maker who turned out neat and taste- 
ful work, and who could, with a model before him, copy 
an old master with considerable skill, but who never 
was in a position to be particularly ' chpice about his- 
wood. I have known very good Amati copies by him. 
Light yellow varnish. 

RoMBOUTS, P., Amsterdam, 1720 — 1740. I cannot say 
that I admire this maker's work, although it may be called' 
good in its way. It might be described as " fat and fine," 
but his purfling is very careless. I have not, however, 
seen much of his work, but in what I have seen the 
varnish had a dry resinous look which was not pleasant. 

Rayman, JacGb, London. 1620 — 1650. This maker's 
large work merits the highest praise. Some of his- 
'cellos for the excellence of the wood and dignified char- 
acter of the design deserve to be placed in line with the 
best. I cannot say so much for his violins. They ar& 
pretty enough in some respects, but the outline of such 
as I have seen is very poor, as is also the design of his 
sound holes. These might, indeed, be called disastrous. 
The workmanship is good, but had his reputation 
depended on the appearance of his violins it would never 
have reached the point to which it attained. Fortu- 
nately, his big" instruments show us, beyond a possibility 
of error, what he really could do, and raise him to the 
rank of an artiste in his calling, while some of the wood 
which he uses in this large work' is as fine as anything; 
to be seen. 


RoGERi, GiAMBATTiSTA, (commonly called G. B. 
Rugerius) was a native of Bologna but it is not known 
when he was born. He was a pupil of, or, at least, a 
workman with, Nicolas Amati about the same time as 
Stradivari, and made remarkably fine violins on his own 
account when he started business. It is not known 
precisely when he began in Cremona after leaving the 
service of Amati, but after i66p he was established in 
Brescia and continued in business there until after 1730. 
His instruments are very fine, have the finest, wood, and 
■the finest varnish, and it is said that many of the in- 
struments which we now call Nicolas Amati's were 
made by him— a very likely thing no doubt — the same 
may be said of all the great pupils of Nicolas. G. B's 
instruments are modelled very much after the style of 
Amati, of exceedingly fine wood, and highly finished in 
all but the purfling, which often looks as if carelessly 
done. The figure of his backs is often quite striking. 
His margins are full and flat. There is a charming look 
about his sound holes which it is not very easy to describe. 
They are of the N. Amati style, but the inner edge looks 
like a beautiful, clean, straight cut for a considerable 
distance before it merges into the lower curve, or turns 
round to the top corner. His varnish is fine and not 
unlike that of his master. His 'cellos are magnificent 
insti;uments, and his varnish on them is not always so 
transparent, besides leaning to brbwn. 

RocjERi, PiETRO, GiACOMO. A SOU of the preceeding 
whose special excellence lay in tenors, 'cellos, and double 
basses. His work is said to be very little, if at all, inferior 
to his father's, but I am not in a position to speak of it. 


RuGiERi, Francesco, Cremona. This maker was a 
pupil of Hieronymus Amati and no relative of the above 
Bolognese family. He was thus of a somewhat earlier 
school — namely that in which Nicholas Amati was him- 
self trained. His vioUns are very beautiful, of the A. 
and H. Amati type, with the pretty, ridgy arch, the 
beautiful finish, fine varnish, and pure tone. ' But he 
did not always make like his master, and gradually 
crept away from the model until as we get on to 1690, 
or a little before, we find him leaving it almost entirely — 
becoming flatter in his arching, enlarging his model, 
and changing and lengthening the design of his sound 
holes. Then later — a year or two — back he goes in his 
violins to the old, beautiful, sweet toned arch. His scrolls 
have large-headed volutes. His outline is not quite so 
graceful and complete as that of his master or of his fellow 
pupil, and his middle bouts are pretty deep and long, 
but they are exceedingly handsome instruments for all 
thati and very rare indeed. Many of his backs are cut 
on the slab. His varpish is of a somewhat dull golden 
brown. His tickets run, ^' Francesco Rugier detto il 
Per in Cremona." 

Rugier, Vincenzo, Cremona. Son , of preceding. 
He also used the phrase " detto il Per " in his tickets to 
distinguish his work, presumably, from that of the 
Rogerius family. So, at least, it is thought. His work 
is not reckoned so good as his father's, and is called 
coarse by some, but anything that I have seen was of 
quite a refined style, and displayed a most excellent 
judgment in the selection of wood. I have seen wood in 
his instruments not in the least unworthy of even the 


finest grained examples of the Amati, who was his 
father's master, and with a varnish for colour and 
quality not second to the same distinguished makers. 

There were other members of these two families of 
whose work I do not know anything. One is named 
Giacinto, and he calls himself in his ticket a son of 
Francesco, and there is another palled Giambattista 
Ruggeri, who also calls himself " il Per," but whether he 
was a scion of the Bolognese Rogerius, or of the 
Cremonese Rugier, is not kiiown. They are both credited 
with good work, but there has been considerable confu- 
sion with regard to these two families in consequence of 
the names having been similarly spelt, and their precise 
relations to the two have n6t yet been defined. 

Saunier, Paris. About 1770. This maker is chiefly 
known because he is credited with being the instructor 
of F. L. Pique. 

Sanctus, SERAPHiN,Venice, 1710 — 1748. Santo Sera- 
fino was an exquisite maker in many ways. The artistic 
and picturesque functions of the violin maker were un- 
doubtedly exercised by him to a considerable extent, and 
anything more lovely so far as regards outward appearance 
than some of his work both big and little could scarcely 
be found. His double basses are most magnificent, but 
adjectives of that kind are not quite fine enough to de- 
scribe his other classes. His basses are his best for tone, 
the smaller instruments not being quite equal in that 
respect to the hopes their splendid appearance raises. 
For beautiful wood, finished work, splendid varnish— a 
rich and brilliant golden brown — if' Santo Serafino does 
not rival Stradivari, it is diificult to say who does. His 


margins and corners are exquisitely finished — the 
margins being rather narrow — and, altogether, he makes 
bright and beautiful instruments such as even Stradivari 
might have been proud of had they only possessed the 
proper tone. In the latter respect they are considerably 
behind, but not in any other. His instruments are some- 
what rare, And his tickets run " Sanctus Seraphin 
Utinensis fecit Venetijs anno." He was born in Udine, 
a town of considerable size in the extreme north-east of 
Italy, and far enough from Cremona where the two 
famous men lived whose works ha made his models. 
Where he learnt his business is not known. He 
went from Udine to Venice. " Utinensis " means 
" Udinese" just as " Cremonensis " meafis " Cremonese." 
He copied Amati and Stradivari. 

SiLVESTRE, Pierre, Lyons. Born 1801. Died 1859. 
This maker was born at Somerwiller. He was taught 
violin making by Blaise of Mirecourt. He afterwards 
went to Paris, and worked first for Nicolas Lupot, and 
after-wrards for Gand. He is a splendid maker, using 
magnificent wood, and very good varnish. His outlines 
are of surpassing beauty, and the finish of his work 
beyond reproach. The fluting of his heads is bounded 
at the bottom by a quaint line which slightly squares off 
' the corners. The corners of the middle bouts are full 
and perfect, his sound holes most graceful, and the tone 
of his instruments is of exceedingly fine quality. He 
had a brother who was taught by the same Mirecourt 
maker, and who went to Paris also, and entered the 
service of J. B. Vuillaume. This brother, Hippolyte, 
and Pierre became partners, and started business in 


Lyons in 1829. In 1848 Hippolyte retired, and Pierre 
■continued until his death. When the brothers were 
together, the tickets ran in Latin, " Petrus et Hippolytus 
Silvestre fratres, fecerunt Lugdun," and when Pierre 
was by himself he used his native tongue, "Pierre 
-Silvestre a Lyon." Pierre made a goodly number of 
vioUns himself, but they appear to have been picked up 
rapidly, as they are now somewhat rare. The firm's 
instruments are not quite so good. 

Stainer, Jacobus, Absam near Inspruck. This great 
maker was born on July 14th, 1621, at Hall — a short 
■distance from Absam where he settled, and where he 
"died in 1683. He was first put to work with an organ 
builder in Inspruck named Daniel Herz — who appears 
to have been also an organ player. It is said that 
-Stainer's constitution was not robust enough ' for this 
calling— although the work, ig not particularly heavy — 
-and that Hferz recommended him to try violin making. 
We are next informed that the parish priest of Absam 
was instrumental in getting Stainer placed at work in 
Cremona, and with Nicolas Amati. This incident in 
Stainer's life is supposed to be an ' apocryphal interpola-. 
tion, because no particular resemblance to Cremonese has 
been found by the doubters in what they considered to be his 
work when theyplaced it along side of that of the Cremonese 
makers. Those who are not inclined wholly to, discredit 
the story, suggest that it is just possible the doubters 
never really saw Stainer's finest workj and have come 
to their conclusions from observations^ of instruments 
which were not his at all. This is not an unlikely 
explanation of the matter, for a fine, genuine Stainer 


violin is almost the rarest thing in fiddles. People who- 
talkabout Stainers as'if they were faniiliar with them 
to their finger tips are generally talking about instru- 
ments which have never had the impress of his tools. I am 
not how referring to the tubby, or even to the untnhhy,. 
vioUns, which are usually called Stainers all over the 
country, but to good, well made, and really old, instru- 
ments of considerable merit — sometimes Italian, some- 
times German, sometimes English, and sometimes 
French, which responsible people often accept, and speak 
of, as Stainer's. The pampered instrument, which has 
been in one family for over a hundred years, is not thfr- 
only guilty thing in this connection ; and even if it were, 
its pretensions would be quite lost on a London dealer, 
and perhaps as completely on a provincial dealer, if 
he happen to have had a little real experience. But 
there is another, and much more dangerous candidate- 
for Bavarian honours, wearing the remains of a nice- 
golden-tinted sizing, and a suspicion of cherry-coloured 
varnish — you can almost see the bloom of it hiding away 
in the shadow of the corners — and had, the details of" 
Stainer's life only been known to us a little earlier, 
together with the knowledge that he was a kind of 
peripatetic wholesale maker, who attended fairs, etc., 
for the purpose of disposing of his stock, we might have- 
had this instrument handed down to us as the " Market 
Stainer " — a fitting companion to the " Prison Joseph," 
and the " Early Maggini." Though a finely-finished 
violin, however, it is generally too delicate about the 
edges, too narrow in the margins, and having sound 
holes too much of all sorts. It has little or no resem- 


blance to Cremonese work, and just as little to Stainer's, 
and is, I fancy, the kind of violin which makes people 
imagine that Stainers are by no means uncommon, and 
which clearly proves to them the absence of Italian 

influence in his work. It appears to me that the Italian 
influence in his work is very evident, and I should not 
be greatly surprised if the old tradition that he did 
business in Cremona at one time, had some foundation in 
fact. It seems a far cry from Absam, but it is really little 
more than a journey from Liverpool to London would be 
to us. In those days there was considerable traffic from 
market to market, and fair to fair, and had he even 
started on foot on the old road over the Brenner pass, he 
could have done the whole distance merely as a tourist 
in three or four' days, but in such intervening towns as 
Schonberg, Sterzing, Brixen, Klausen, Botzen, Ngu- 
markt, Trent, there would be lots of opportunities for 
such business as he appears to have cultivated. The 
Albanis were in Botzen even in his own day, and there 

- are traces of a large fiddle trade between the Tyrol and 
Cremona, of which a maker, such as he was, would not 
be slow to take advantage, whether he made all the 
instruments himself or not. Trent — ^^half way — was 
one of the busiest and gayest towns in the Tyrol. 
Koveredo, was another lively, commercial place, and 
when there, one is within hearing of the heartbeat of the 
classical fiddle country. Many a bit of fine Tyrol wood 
has, no doubt, gone down to Brescia and Cremona, and 
hroughout Lombardy, and elsewhere in Italy, oVer that 
old post road, across the Brenner. In some such 
fashion, one might link Absam with Cremona ; but it is 


not a very satisfactory way of dealing with the subject. 
There is not, however, the slightest doubt that on his 
finest work, the varnish is of exa,ctly the same character 
as is found on Cremonese instruments. The violins 
which were formerly called " Elector " Stainer's, because 
it was supposed that he made one for each of the German 
Electors, are magnificent instruments. The story about 
them is a bit of romantic rubbish, woven into the old 
, biographical accounts of him, and has been exploded 
for a few years now. But there is no mistake about the 
violins. They are really grand, about I4J- inches 
from margin to margin lengthways. Width across the 
bottom about 8 inches, across the top, about 6^. The 
margins are of good width, and gracefully thrown up a 
little from the purfling. The edges are circular. The 
corners are not so pronounced as those of Nicolas Amati, 
and the purfling is rather wider than usual with Stainer. 
It is not, however, so very neat as in many an inferior 
maker, but of an entirely satisfactory character for all 
that. There is a perceptible groove running round the 
margins of both back and front. The tops of the sound 
holes are circular, and so are the lower turns, but larger. 
The arching is greater on the front than on the back. 
It starts to falllongitudinallyat the same points from upper 
and lower margins, but as the arch below the sound 
holes is perceptibly higher than it is above them, the 
fall at the former point seems more sudden than 
appears above, whefe it seems to occupy about a third 
more of the distance in falling. The tone is of a lovely 
quality; full, round, and resonant. He made niagni- 
ficent. double basses. He was married on 7th October, 


1645, to a Margaretha Holzhammer, and had nine 
children. He was unfortunate in his business, fell into 
debt, and died, out of his mind, in 1683. His house is 
pointed out in Absam, and the bench to which he was 
bound when he died mad. His label is written. 

Storioni, Lorenzo, 1751 — 1798. A Cremonese maker 
who is generally called the last of the fine school. His 
instruments cannot be called pretty, but the wood is very 
fine, and gives a most excellent tone. He employed^a 
spirit varnish which sometimes app'ears to have actually 
sunk into the wood. Many of his instruments are of 
very broad grain in the upper table, and he certainly is 
not graceful in his outline, as, frequently, his work looks 
almost shapeless.' Many instruments having this broad 
grain and unattractive, appearance are called Storioni 
work. His model is Joseph Guarnerius. He made 
some magnificent double basses, and the tickets 
" Laurentius Storioni fecit Cremonse — " are not so often 
genuine as one could wish. 

Stradivari, Antonio, Cremona. This maker is, as 
every one probably knows, the greatest artiste in the 
matter of violins that has ever lived. The year of his 
birth is supiposed to be 1644, and the place Cremona. 
The interest which his work has aroused regarding him 
has been so keen that people, for lack of information 
directly concerning himself, have taken to hunting up 
the name in old registers in Crempna for the purpose of 
finding, presurnably, how far back they can trace it. 
Up to the present the year 12 13 is the earliest redorded 
date concerning ail entry of a name bearing a likeness 
to that of our great fiddle maker. In a practical work 


like this, lucubration of that kind may be limited 

to the statement that bearers of the* name ot 

Stradivari have occupied honourable positions in 

Cremonese history from very early times, but no direct 

relationship has been traced between Antonio, the 

violin maker, and these distinguished people. His 

fame is not much in need of it, having spread 

far enough and wide enough in all conscience 

through the merits of. his own work. Indeed, those 

lawyers, doctors, etc., etc., of old times have had their 

names rescued from oblivion solely because of Antonio 

Stradivari, the violin maker, and we may therefore in a 

brief work like this leave them in peace. Stradivari's 

father and mother were AUesandro Stradivari and Anna 

Moroni, and they had anothet son, Joseph Julius Caesar, 

whose birth in Cremona has -been, found registered. 

The entry of Antonio's has not been found. Stradivari 

was twice married, first to a widow lady, a Signora 

Capra in 1667, who died in 1698, The lady had a ' 

daughter before her marriage with Stradivari, and there 

were six children born to them. On the 3rd June, 1680, 

Stradivari had bought the house in- the square of St. 

Domenic and it remained in the possession of his heirs 

for forty years after his death, when it was sold to some 

persons called Ancina, and in 1801 changed hands 

again, this time becoming the property of a Signor 

Bono. Fifty years after this it was purchased from his 

heirs by one Vigani, then in 1862 by a draper called 

d'Orleans. It is at present No. i, Piazza Roma and is 

a modest house of three floors looking over the square. 

The shop floor has two windows at one side and the 


door at the other. The upper floors have, each, three 
windows. In these unpretending premises the great 
vioUn maker resided and worked for nearly fifty-eight 
years, having on the 24th August, 1699, married .his 
second wife, Antonia Zambelli. Five children were 
born of this second union, of whom only two followed 
their father's calling. These were Francesco, born ist 
July, 1671, and Omobono, bbrn 14th Nov. 1679. The 
exact date of Stradivari's death is not known, but he 
was carried out of his house on the 19th December, 1737, 
and laid, not in the farriily tomb he had prepared for 
himself, biit in one Francesco Vitani's vault in the 
Chapel of the Rosary Church of St. Domeflic. His 
second wife had preceefied him in death by nine months. 
Stradivari is supposed to have been a pupil of Nicolas 
Amati. His name has 'not been found entered in any 
return as an ■ inmate of Nicola^ Amati's ^s is the case 
with Andreas Guarnerius — that other' pupil of his. But 
observation of his work reveals the fact that he made 
violins which bear Amati's name, that is as early as 
•1666, at which date he also began to put in his own 
name. If we place implicit reliance on the integrity of 
the^e tickets— a matter which, by the way, it is im- 
possible to decide — and if we believe that they have 
remained in the violins in which they were originally 
placed, we are thrown into the utmost confusion in 
attempting to trace any gradual development in his, 
work. Since his death, no person has shown himself 
possessed of any specially authentic data from which 
eould be deduced the theories regarding his various 
models which have for so long a time prevailed. When; 


probed to the bottom these theories are found to be, 
very largely, guess-work. It is very reasonable guess- 
work in a great many cases, but it never is more than 
that. It is, of course; highly reasonable to suppose that 
while he was — if he was — in the employment of Nicolas 
Amati, he made violins as Nicolas Amati liked them to 
be made, and that after he left his employer he would 
probably continue to make them somewhat after the 
same style, unless, or until, he discovered something 
better. It is not however a very profitable subject of 
discussion, arid is now largely confined to one or two 
authorities on the subject, and to those who do not 
yet know very much about it. What chiefly concerns 
the fiddle fancier is thatStsadivari had several models, 
but when, (luring" "his active working life on his own 
account, he began, interrupted, renewed, or finally dis- 
continued, the use of any one of them is more than any 
person can now tell. 

What is considered to be his earliest style after he 
■ceased -forking for N. Amati — if he ever did work for 
him — ^is the amatisi model. That is, ,an instrument' 
having, to a certkin extent, the long, and somewhat 
ridgy, 'but graceful arch, which is characteristic of Amati 
style.' This model he is supposed to have used until 
about 1690, or a year or so after. Then from 1690 or so 
until 1700, he is supposed to have made what are called 
" long " Strads. That is, a model having a total length 
of about 14J inches. From about 1700 onwards what 
is called his "grand'' period . prevails, in which the 
length is generally somewhat less, while the widths of the 
upper and lower portions are slightly greater. These 
r 1 2 


are the general appearances of what are known as his 
three periods, but whether thfe instruments were actually 
made in this succession or not is a matter which cannot 
now be decided. In some of his so-called early instru- 
ments, he employed a kind of poplar for the back. There 
are very few examples of the amatis6 model in this 
country, and the " long " pattern is quite as great a 
rarity. The distance from corner to corner of the, 
middle bouts in the " long " rnodel is about 3jin. — rather 
. under than over — and in the " grand " pattern it is 3 in. 
The sound holes in both " long*' and ''grand " are the same, 
and it is very difficult to give any indication in writing of 
their perfect beauty. The grain of the wood in the upper 
table of a Stradivari /'olis .is^generally of a medium, 
width, but it is frequently very ci65e'and regular. I 
have, now and again, seen it as wide >as is found in 
Joseph del Jesu's violins. Throughout aiV these styles 
there is great variety in individual instruments, and. 
solidity of construction, combine'd with refineds finish is 
characteristic of them all. In the " long " pattern the 
middle bouts are cut in very sweetly. The top; curve of 
these does not, as in the case of the " grand " .pattern, 
appear to almost rise a little into the upper po^stion of 
the violin before it turns down. In the " grand " jpattern 
this gives these bouts somevfrhat of the appearanta of an 
ellipse of more pronounced character, and as an instance 
of how Stradivari reverted to what is called a previous 
style, the middle bouts of the " grand " pattern of, ,say 
1 71 6, or thereabout, may be found in instruments of 1(690, 
of distinctly amatise model. The outline of a " graiid " 
pattern is fuller than that of a " long," and gives tdt the 


instrument the appearance of having — ^what it really has 
— a greater approach to equality of dimension between 
the upper and lower portions of the body. The top 
curve of a " grand " does not droop so quickly from the 
level of its start at the neck as that of a " long," but, 
though constantly falling,'keeps traveUing out a bit, so to 
speak, nearer the level of its start. The result of this is 
that fulness already referred to. 

The varnish of Stradivari is of various colours. That 
of his so-called early work is often of a beautiful golden 
brown, golden yellow, and also a kind of cherry brown, 
The " long " has much the same range of tint in golden 
brown tinged with red. The " grand," as far as I have 
seen, has a .wider range of colour, from a clear straw 
tint (almost) through toast brown to golden brown, 
orange, red orange, and golden rfed. AH these ate 
extremely transparent and beautiful, and soft to the' 
touch like velvet. Such descriptions can, however, only 
apply in a general sense, for I have seen them in all 
styles, just as I have seen a highly arched back — which 
might, indeed, almost be Called amitise — dating from the 
very heart of' the "grand" period, while I have also 
seen a model of about 1680, repeated line for line more, 
than forty years afterwards so far as tickets are con- 
cerned. The quality of the varnish is almost always 
fine. Sometimes it is of a dull, scumbly character, and 
it is barely possible that the few instruments where I 
observed it of this appearance^ had been treated to some 
cleansing process which might easily cause the dis- 
appearance of the polish. There is also some variety 
in the p^te of the varnish. On many instruments it is 


thin, soft, and gleaming, on others, thick and luscious, 
like a flaming ruby gum. On a back which has been 
treated by Stradivari himself to imitate the picturesque 
appearance of age, it cari be seen vanishing away in 
thinnest scales at the borders of wear. In one of the 
earliest instrtiments I ever saw, the margins were large, 
and that appears to have been in almost all cases, a sine 
qua noft, but not in all. Fourteen years later, they grew 
small, while in the immediately proceeding year they 
were large and magnificent. They are generally of a 
handsome width,' and, When not worn away, there is 
present a fine sense of solidity, combined with lightness 
of construction. The scrolls are of the finest and most 
artistic contour, having broad and full sides for the peg 
box, and they are usually of the same material apparently 
as that employed for the back. But the grafting of new 
■necks has given opportunities of changing scrolls in earlier 
times which are now well past recall in a great many 
instances. These changes have been made for the 
purpose, sornetimes, of supplying a well preserved scroll 
to a violin whose head had been either lost, broken, or 
worn down. A great many of them are worn down on 
the side of the fourth string because of the habit, not 
yet extinct, of placing that side of the volute against 
some firm support while tuning up. In some cases that 
wear, has been so excessive as to tempt makers and 
owners to have a fresh piece inserted, and the contour 
in some measure restored. When the wood is well 
matched, and the work accomplished in an artistic 
manner, it is quite a right thing to do. Stradivari 
scrolls vary a little in appearance, early ones having 


deeper fluting at the back than later work — ^but their 
dimensions do not vary much. From the bottom of the 
fluting at the back to the apex ■ of the volute, 
they measure about four inches. Their width across 
from boss-edge to boss-edge is about i-| inches. The 
" boss " is the protuberant terminal of the volute, 
which sticks out on each side. It is sometimes called 
the " ear," and at other times the "eye," and it would 
be just as rational to call it the " nose,"- or the " mouth." 
The width of the widest part of the fluting is about an 
inch, and that of the narrowest part of the volute at the 
top is about -f^ of an inch. Width of the first curl of the 
volute, measuring, as it were, right through from boss- 
edge to boss-edge, and along their tops is about i^ in. 
Width of second curl across top, and in same direction,. 
Af in. Depth of sculpture of first curl, at boss, about 
J in. Width of under turn of volute at its junction 
withpegbox i in. Greatest width of pegbox, a!t the nut, 
f in. , and then diminishes to f in. at top. Width of fluting 
at back, opposite bosses, f in. Depth- of side of pegbox 
across second peghole from top about i in. Depth from 
back of second curl at level of boss tops to fluting about 
ij in., and then diminishing gradually, as it turns round 
to where it -overhangs pegbox at same level to Jin., and 
further diminishing until lost in the boss on the up cut, 
the sculpture widening from the front uq^il it is flush 
with the boss end. In some the cutting is hollow from 
about J of an inch above the A peghole. The 
thickness of the pegbox sides is about -f^ of an inch. 
These measurements m&y be of service to the fancier, 
although, of course, they must not be understood to be 


an unvarying standard. Viewed sideways a Stradivari 
scroll looks very perfect, curling in towards the boss in 
ever lessening depth until the cutting ends just as ■ it 
reaches the top. The undercut where the ipegbox joins 
the volute is as highly finished as any other portion, and 
comes slightly out to meet the under turn in a most 
graceful manner. The wood is usually very well marked 
and the whole appearance of very refined, and strong 
character. Of course in those cases where the splicing 
of a scroll has been carelessly done, and the pegbox 
sides, or cheeks,, thinned away on the inside to conceal 
a poor job, the front view of that portion will not 
harmonise with what is said of their thicknesses, and 
where the joint has been made too high up, it will 
often destroy in a distressing manner the beautiful 
appearance one expects to fine even there. • 

Stradivari, Francesco, Cremona. Born the ist 
February, 1671. Died nth May, 1743. This maker was 
a son of Antonio, and the elder of the only two merhbers 
of his large family who followed their father's calling; 
As a maker Francesco did not attain to the ' level of his 
father, which is not saying very much in his dispraise, 
seeing that none of the other great Cremonese makers 
permanently attained to that level. What I have seen 
of Francisco's work was heavier in style, but it had 
exactly the same quality of varnish as is found on his 
father's instruments. There, however, the resemblance 
may be said , to cease, although that circumstance will 
not, as the fancier knows, lesseri the interest in 
Francesco's work, for he has qualities which are personal 
to himself. His margins for instance are relieved in the 


most beautiful manner-^like a thickish cord rising up 
from the. marginal groove — and his edges are rounded 
very sweetly. His arching is. somewhat after that of 
his father in the earlier style of the " grand " pattern — 
not so graceful in any point, but having a little of the 
paternal feeling for all that. The cutting in of his 
middle bouts betrays the same influence^ but they are , 
not so artistic and have the appearence of being deeper 
and longer— which they really are except in regard to 
the father's model, which is called the "long," pattern. 
His varnish — in what I have seen — ;is of a reddish, 
golden brown, soft and transparent like his father's, but 
not so brilliant. His sound holes appear more straightly 
cut than his father's, and have their terminal wings not 
so square or broad. They are also placed a little 
lower. The corners of his middle bouts are also more 
pointed. His scrolls are slightly different, the volute 
appearing to be rather long, but not ungraceful, in front, 
and narrowing steadily towards the top. He made very 
few instruments, and they are exceedingly rare. His 
tickets run " Franciscus Stradivarius Cremonensis 
Filius. Antonii faciebat anno." 

Stradivari, Omobono, Cremona. Bom 14th Novem- 
ber, 1679. Died gth June, 1742. This maker is the 
only other son of Antonio who -became a violin maker. 
I am not acquainted with his work. He appears to 
have been chiefly employed in making repairs. There 
is a ticket which, it is said, he used, an4 which runs 
". Omobonus Stradiuarius figlij Antonij Cremone," etc. 
I should very much doubt that he ever was such a 
donkey, or at least, that he used such an inscription 


twice. The clerical patrons of the family were too 
numerous to permit such a thing, I should say. 

Tecchler, David, Ronie. This was a fine maker, 
who — ^if we may trust to the accuracy of inscriptions on 
tickets — was born in Salzburg in 1666. Anything that 
I have seen of his work was of very high character and 
altogether Italian in style. It is said, however, that he 
made highly arched instruments when he , was in 
Salzburg, which is very likely. He certainly was in 
Rome when he was about thirty years old, and his work 
was Italian in character then. It displays finely and 
massively moulded corners and margins, and altogether 
a noble and grand appearance. The wood is of the 
finest kind and beautifully figured, back and sides.. His 
violoncellos are superb instruments. His varnish is a 
golden brown of somewhat scumbly appearance. How 
long he lasted I cannot say. It is generally supposed 
until about 1742 or 3. It is also said that he worked in 
Venice and had a quarrel there with the other makers, 
who threatened him in some way, so that he removed 
to Rome. I am only acquainted with his, Roman 

Testore, G. G., Milan, 1690 — 1715. Well finished 
instruments of Guarnerius model. Brown varnish. 

Testore, C. A., Milan, 1720 — 1745. Eldest son of 
preceeding. He made very good copies of Guarnerius, 
' Amati, and Stradivari, \3ood tone. Varnish of a some- 
what thickish brown pkte. He made fine 'cellos and 

Testore, P. A., Milan, 1720 — 1759. Similar work 
to preceding. Varnish yellow, and yellowish ^brown. 


TftiBOUT, J. P., Paris. Born at Caen, 1777. Died 
near Paris, 1856. This was an excellent French maker 
who started business in Paris in 1807. His workman- , 
ship is very fine, and distinctive in many instances by his 
corners, where the joinings of the sides are not made in 
the usual way, but square, through carrying out' the. 
corner blocks, and facing apex of these until about' an 
eighth of inch surface appears. His margins are quiet, 
and finished looking, and fall over, so to say, on the 
sides, not greatly projecting over these. His sounct 
holes have something of the straight inner cut of Rogerius.. 
His arching is flat, and his varnish a red mahogany, 
with' a very slight tinge of brilliant brick red. His 
scrolls are beautiful, not so deep nor so long as other 
French or Italian specimens, but of exquisite line and 
curve ill profile. Strong pegbox, and most finished 
volute^ His tone is French, powerful, and good. 
Altogether his style is restrained, strong, and artistic, 
and his finish very fine. 

Thompson. Name of a nuinber of London violin 
makers beginning with " Charles and Samuel Thompson, 
in St. Paul's Church Yard, London," as the tickets run. 
None of the work is very good, that of Charles and 
Samuel being of poor outline, poor wood, poor, tasteless- 
sound holes. Everything about it, indeed, more or less, 
mean. Thin tone, and weak, inartistic scroll. Their, 
instruments have generally a pronounced groove round, 
margins both back and front, and the varnish is of a 
lifeless, maple stain tint. This firm carried on business- 
about 1720 — ^48. Other firms of the name are Jho. 
Thompson, 1753 — 9, and thereabout. R. Tfiompson. 


about 1749, Thompson and Son (S. and P.) about 1764. 
Some of the work of these firms is rather better than the 
founders', but none of it calls for particular mention so 
far as I have known it. 

ToBiN, Richard, London, 1800 — 36. This was a 
fairly good maker, who worked at one time for John 
Betts. He died in poverty in Shoreditch. His instru- 
ments are good-looking, and well varnished. He was a 
pupil of Perry and Wilkinson, Dublin, and he had the 
reputation of being the finest scroll cutter ever known in 
'this country. His scrolls are certainly very good. 

ToDiNi, MicHELE, Rome. About 1620 — 1676. A 
native of Saluzzo, who used to be credited with the 
invention of the four-stringed contra basso, a notion 
some time ago exploded. 

ToNONi, Felice and Guido, Bologna. They made 
very fine violoncellos of exquisite work and considerable 
power. Their titkets run " Tononi di Bologna fecero 
168—" '^ 

ToNONi, Giovanni, Bologna. Son of Felice. A 
better maker than preceding firm. He made large 
'cellos and tenors, which are very fine, and of Nicolas 
Amati model. His tickets run " Joannes de Tononi's 
fecit Bononioe in Platea Paviglionis anno 17 — " 

Tononi, Carlo, Venice, 1716— 1768. Son of pre- 
ceding. His violins are well sha.ped instruments, and 
have a very good quality of varnish. 

Urquhart, Thomas, London, 1648^1666. This 
maker is one of the finest of the early English school. 
His work is that of an artist in all points, from 
the quaint, pure cutting of the sound holes, to the 


beautiful golden varnish, which hardly can be . named 
second to even the best Italian. 

Vaillant, F., Paris. About' 1738. This was a very- 
good maker, who produced some fine instruments on the 
lines of Nicolas Amati. His outline is very pure,' with 
somewhat long middle bouts. His tickets run " Fran9ois 
Vaillant rue de la Juiverie a Paris." 

VuiLLAUME, J. B., Paris, 1798 — 1875. In some 
respects this distinguished maker is the greatest that 
France has ever had. In other respects he is not. He 
certainly had the capacity to be the greatest in all 
points, had he so chosen, but he did not so choose, with 
the result that he never gained on Lupot except in one 
or two points of comparatively slight importance. He 
was born in Mirecourt on' the 7th October, 1798, and 
all his biographers, without exception, state that his 
father, Claude Vuillaume, was a violin makier there. I 
have, myself, adopted that statement in making reference 
to him elsewhere, and even the late highly esteemed 
Gustave Ghouquet, keeper of the museum of thq 
Conservatoire at Paris, , has apparently drawn his 
information from the same source, namely, Antoine 
Vidal. It has even been recently stated that his grand- 
father was a violin maker, although he does not appear 
to have gone quite so far as that himself. In 1874, when 
M. Vidal was writing his book, he asked Vuillaume to 
make some researches , in his native town, in order to 
ascertain the history of his family. What came of these 
searches will be referred to presently, but long previous 
to that date, namely, about 1856, when M. F. J. Fetis, 
Chapel Master to the King of the Belgians, and Director 


■of the Brussels Conservatoire, was compiling his, mono- 
graph on Antonio Stradivari, mainly from material 
supplied to . him by Vuillaume, we find incorporated in 
■ this work a statement that there was a Jean Vuillaume, 
-who had been employed in the establishment of Stradivari,, 
,and who had made good violins from about 1700 to 
1740. The only known specimen of a violin by this 
maker appears to have been one which was in the 
possession of J. B. Vuillaume, and which was seen by M. 
Vidal, who describes it as a very common piece of work, 
with painted purfling, narrow edges, and yellow varnish, 
and in which no connoisseur could find the slightest 
trace of the magnificent example and tuition of Stradivari. 
When the researches as above referred to were made, no 
trace of relationship between the two families could be 
found.- It is not even said that this Jean Vuillaume had 
been discovered to be a real personage. However that 
may, be, the most remote ancestor of the family then 
reported was Vuillaume's own father, Claude, who is 
■called a violin maker, and the prentice master of , his 
four sons, Jean Baptiste, Nicolas, Nicolas-Fran96is, and ■ 
Claude Fran9ois. It does not appear that the informal 
tion supplied in this way to M. Vidal was verified by 
him when he published it in the year following 
Vuillaume's death, namely, in 1876, and I am beginning 
to fancy that J. B. Vuillaume, however clever he was as • 
a violin maker and dealer, was a practical joker of a some- 
what serious turn of mind, or else that those to whom he 
conveyed such 'details had failed to comprehend their 
precise significance. At all events, the biographical 
account of the family which is at present current from 


the pens of the late Gustave Chouquet and Antoine 
Yidal, and which is adopted by all others with the 
addition of a grandfather, whom these gentlemen do not 
mention, is to the effect that Claude Vuillaume, born in 
Mirecourt in 1771, according to Chouquet, and in 1772, 
according to Vidal, was a violin maker in that town, and 
the first known member of the family ; that he trained 
his fous sons in the business, who continued it under his 
direction ; that he was a maker of trade instruments, 
etc., etc., and had used as his trade mark, " Au roi 
David, Paris," branded in the backs. I am now 
informed that this Claude Vuillaume was not a violin 
maker at all, but was what we would call the " carrier," 
between Mirecourt and Nancy. 'There may be people 
alive in both places at the present time who will 
remember the old man quite well— r-he died in 1834 — ^^^ 
who could confirm this, I daresay, -if it were necessary. 
Assuming, for the nonce, that he was even a dealer in 
cheap instruments in Mirecourt, what a strange fancy it 
was to start a " violin " ancestry in this way ! And if 
he was not a violin dealer, and had nothing whatever to 
■do with the business,except as the carrier of the goods from 
one town to the other, what a lurid light the circumstance 
throws on the eagerness to establish by some means a 
connection — if even only a nominal one — between an 
undoubtedly talented personality, and the glorious old 
shop in Cremona. It is very unpleasant to have one's 
confidence in the accuracy of biographical detail shaken 
in this fashion, and 'although it appears that his brother, 
Claude Vuillaume, never made any s.uch pretensions and 
laughed at the idea when the subject was broached in 


his presence, the matter has really a much gravei' aspect 
than that of a practical joke. If the late J. B. Vuillaume 
led Vidal to believe that his father was a violin maker,' , 
who himself trained his four sons in the art, and this 
information has no foundation in fact, the circumstance 
is sure to cast discredit on anything he ever said. And 
further, if he, more than .a quarter of a century before 
that, supplied Fetis with the story of the " Jean 
Vuillaume " violin and its maker's supposed connection 
with Stradivari, without having any foundation for his 
statements, then he certainly would be called an untrust- 
worthy authority, who did not scruple to divert with the 
most unpardonable audacity, the ordinary channel of 
musical history in a direction which it would not other- 
wise have taken in that particular respect, and people in 
such an event would not be slow to believe that he did 
this for purposes of self advertisement as a violin maker 
and dealer. 

Whether his father was a violin maker or not, he him- 
self was one, and a great one, without any doubt ^hat- 
ever, and had he not descended to, very reprehensible 
practices in the treatment of the wood, etc., in such a 
manner as could only aid in deception, he would have 
occupied even a higher position than he at present holds. 
In 1818 he went to Pa,ris and began work with Francis 
Chanot, who was then making his guitar-shaped violins. 
Remaining there for two years, he next went to an 
orgfaii-builder named Lete, who kept a fiddle shop as 
well. In four years' time he, became a partner there, 
and the firm was Lete and Vuillaume. Three years later 
he separated from Lete and started on his own account. 


InJ 1826 he had married a lady named AdMe Guesnet, 
through whqse acquaintances he came to know Savart. 
the acousticien. Vuillaume is made to explain that when 
he began business he tried to sell carefully made new 
instruments — instruments made with all the skill of which 
he was capable — but that he found they sold very cheaply 
and slowly, and that the rage for old Italian violins had 
set in. He suited himself to the times, and produced 
old instruments, placed sham tickets in thenl, and found 
his customers. In order to produce'a prematurely old 
tone, he destroyed its capacity for endurance. ' In order 
to produce an old appearance he destroyed the wood to 
a certain extent with acid. He is not the only maker 
who has done this sort of thing, and his excuse is the 
same as -that of others, namely, "he had to live." AH 
things considered, this excuse does not appear to be, in 
his case, quite valid. In 1825, when he was only 
twenty-seven years of age, his ability procured for him a 
partnership in an old established concern. In 1826, he 
had married into a good family. In 1827, he had gained 
a silver medal at an exhibition in Paris at a time when 
Aldric, Chanot pere, C. F. Gand, and many other high 
class makers were alive and working. In i828,he had made 
over one hundred and thirty vioUns, exclusive of tenors, 
'cellos, and double basses, and in that year he started on 
his own account with an excellent reputation. He was 
then only twenty-nine, and I certainly cannot see that 
he had much to complain of, yet in that very year he 
began making those imitations of old instruments . to 
which I have already referred, and he confessedly made 
them to satisfy the demand for " old Italians." I put it 


that in view of the progress indicated above, to say th4t 
it was with him a question of either " living by imitations 
or starving by th!e fabrication of new violins " is simple 
nonsense, unworthy of a serious historian. The true 
secret of those clever productions is probably that 
VuiUaume was in a hurry to make money, and it is 
admitted that they were the origin of his fortune. 
These instruments he sold at ;^i2-— the violins-^and the 
'cellos at £10. He clearly does not appear to me to 
have laid the foundation of his fortune in a legitimate 
manner. Many people profess tb believe that he did 
not sell those instruments as genuine old Italian violins. 
He may not always have so sold them — we know al 
about that — ^nevertheless he does not occupy a higher 
position in this particular respect than many a man to 
whom we apply names which sound really quite harsh . 
It is also said on his behalf that he was no worse than 
the people who expected old Ita,lians at such prices. I, 
do not think so. He did not confine himself to Strad. 
and Guarnerius imitations, and in those days, and for 
long after, £\'2, was not a small price for outside Italian 
makers. Had he limited his skill to external imitation 
only there would have been no ground of complaint, but 
the colouring of the wood inside and out with acid, has 
siniply made a great many of these instruments almost 
useless when combined with the thinning away in parts 
which is also characteristic of them. In 1834 ^^ ^'^^ 
another silver medal, and in 1839 and 1844 he had gold 
medals. These were for Paris exhibits, but in 185 1 he 
sent to the Great Exhibition here two quartets and the 
great octobasse which he had previously , invented and 


•which gave four notes lower than the ordinary double 
"bass. In this Exhibition he carried away the only 
grand council medal that was given. But ^he grounds 
upon which he got it are so curious, and display so 
much ignorance on the part of the jury, that the 
distinction was a very , questionable' one indeed. 
Although I have, quoted this award already in the article 
Bernard Simon Fendt (which see), it will be as well to 
reproduce it here. ',' Niew modes of making violins, in 
such a manner that they are matured and perfected 
immediately on the completion of the manufacture, thus 
avoiding the necessity of keeping them for considerable ' 
periods to develop their excellencies." It has all the 
air of a splendid trade advertiseinent and, no doubt,- 
served as one. Fortunately, Vuill^ume also made 
violins in an absolutely legitimate manner — ^liot by any 
" new mode," but by the old mode. These had all to be 
developed and perfected in the usual way, nan;iely, by 
careful playing and the flight of time. These are grands 
instruments of which any man might well be proud, and 
they are what place him in the front rank of French 
makers. His favourite model was Stradivari, hut he 
made copies of all the great makers, almost without 
exception, and these instruments taay one and :all , be 
called chefs d'cetwre in the highest significance of the 
phrase. If they , have a fault it is that the uppe'r table 
is not always strong enough to resist the pressure where 
it should be able to do so. In all other respects they 
are superb. His edges are properly massive and the 
margins always righf with the model he might be 
copying. Every . point of his work is of an artistic 


character, and he must have been, a most indefatigable 
worker, as he says himself that he made 3000 violins. 
That does not mean that he personally made all. In 
his early days he undoubtedly did so, but I imagine 
that after 1829 or 30 he must have had people constantly 
wotking for him besides his own brothers, although 
every now and then he turned out a violin made entirely 
by himself, or almost wholly. His early instruments are 
spirit varnished, generally of a deep, red orange, and 
later, he used a kind of covering which is neither spirit 
varnish nor oil. varnish, as we understand the terms 
now-a-days. It is a sort of nondescript production 
which can hardly be called a varnish at all. At this 
period the colour becomes a rich red brown, appears 
exceedingly well, and feels quite elastic. It has the 
look of a kind of paint. His sound holes in the 
Stradivari models of early days are very good, but they 
are not reproductions of Stradivari fs. They are too 
round in the upper curve, and too wide in the middle. 
His Guarneriiis models are also clever, but the sdund 
holes are exaggerated.' The tone, however, of the latter 
model is powerful and very suitable for orchestral work. 
With the exception of those doctored violins, his instru- 
ments are very fine specimens of violin making, and 
when they are perfect, will, be much .sought after. He 
was an inventor of one or two things which have never 
come into extensive use, and was a large dealer in old 
violins. He died 19th February, 1875: One of his 
daughters was married to the famous French violinist, 
Delphin Alard. His brother Nicholas worked with 
Vuillaume in Paris for about ten years and then returned 


to Mirecourt and the making of cheap instruments. 
NicoIas-Fran9ois, also worked with his brother in 
Paris until he was about twenty-eight, when he went to 
Brussels, and started on his own account there, and was 
a good maker. He died in 1876. Claude Fran99is, the 
fourth brother, became an organ builder, and then a 
fiddle case maker. There was a nephew of J. B. 
Vuillaume called Sebastien — a son of Claude's — who 
began business in Paris but died in the same year as 
his uncle. He was not a particularly good maker. 
The name then disappeared, from the trade. 

Wamsley, Peter, London, 1727 — 1740. This was 
a good old English maker, some of whose work is of a 
fine class. The wood isj however, left far too thin. He 
made copies of Stainer of a sornewhat tubby style. His 
sound holes are not particularly tasteful, and those 
instruments which have a kind of dull brown varnish 
inclining to black are reckoned his best. 

Wise, Christopher, ■ London, 1650 — ^^56. This 
maker was undoubtedly an artist in his way, and 
occa.sionally indulged in decorative purfliing, sometimes 
all over the back. His ribs or sides are of a good 
height. He was an East End London artist like some 
of the best makers of his time and after. His place was 
in Vine Court, Halfmoon Alley, Bishopsgate Without, 
and has only recently been cleared away. 

Widhalm, L., Nuremberg, 1765' — 1788. A very good 
maker, who copied Stainer well, but, as usual, in 
exaggerated fashion. His instruments are, nevertheless, 
of fine quality and finish. Brownish red and pale, 


Withers, Edward, London. This was a capital 
maker, whose instruments are gradually rising in value. 
He succeeded W. Davis of Coventry Street,who flourished 
about the first half of the present century., There are 
two branches of the firm now existing. Edward Withers, 
in Wardour Street, and George Withers in Leicester 


^zconh Scrks of (EksBical anb Post-Classical 

Many of the following are mere names and' dates 
which have simply been carried on from one treatise 
to another. Wherever it has been possible, information 
is given. Where none is found it is to be understood 
that nothing further than the names, etc., has hitherto 
been known. 

AaChner, Philip, Mitten wald, about 1772. 

Absam, Thomas, Wakefield, 1810 — 1849. His tickets 
are in English "Made by Thomas Absam, Wakefield," 
and he appears to have been particular enough to put 
in the date to the very day. 

Abbati, Gianbattista,, Modena; 1775 — 1793- A 
fine maker of double basses and other large instruments. 
He was trained in the establishment of Antonio Casini, 
another Modenese maker — or, at least, followed his 
stj^le. His model is, good, his work careful, capital 
wood and brown varnish. 

Adams, C, Garmouth, Scotland, about 1800. 

Addison, William, London, 1670. 

Adler, Paris. A Swiss maker who settled in Paris 
beginning of present century. 

Aglio, Guiseppe Dall, Mantua, 1800 — 1840. 

Albanesi, Sebastiano, Cremona. About the middle 


of the 1 8th century. Said to be a pupil of Carlo 

Alberti, Ferdinando, Mikn, 1749 — 1760. Fairly 
good work. Light yellow varnish. 

Aldred, London. An old English viol maker of 
1 6th or 17th century. 

Aldrovandi, Emilio, Bologna> 1850 — 80. 

Alessandro (called the Venetian), i6th century. A 
violin of this ' maker's was shown in aij exhibition in 
Turin in 1880. 

Alvani, Cremona. Said to be an imitator of Joseph 
Guarnerius. I have never seen any of his instruments. 

Allegretti, Massimiliano, Soliera, 1870. 

Amelot, Lorient, 1829. The only reminiscence of 
this maker appears to be a ticket. 

Anciaume, Bernard. A French maker of whom 
nothing is left but the name. 

Andrea, Venice, about 1640. 

AiRAGHi, Cesare, Milan. Modern. 

Antognati, Gian-Franceso, Brescia, 1533. 

Antonio (called the Sicilian). An old viol maker of 
whose work a specimen exists in the museum of 
Bologna (Philharmonic). 

Antonio (called the Bolognese). Another old viol 

Antoniazzi, Gregorio, Colle (Bergamo), i8th century. 

Antony, Girolamo, Cremona, about 1751. A fairly 
good maker. Good arching and model. Good finish 
and nice yellow varnish. 

Artmann, Weimar. i8th century. Amati model. 
Good work. Golden varnish. 


AsKEY, Samuel, London. About 1825 — 40. 

AssALONE, Gaspare, Rome, .i8th century. Said to 
be good work. 

, AuBRY, Neveu, Paris. Nephew and successor of 
Aldric, whose business he took over in 1840. 

Bachelier, Paris. About 1788. 

Baffo, Gian- Antonio, Venice. 1630. 

Bagoletto, Antonio, Padua. 1782. 

Baines, London. 1780. 

Bajoni, Luigi, Milan. 19th century. 

Baker, F., London, 1696. An old viol maker, whose 
instrument bearing above date, at present owned in 
Paris, is described as possessing a ravishing quality of 

Baker, John, Oxford, 1648—88. Another old viol 

Balcaini. An Italian maker about 1760 who. copied 

Baldantoni, Guiseppe, Ancona. 19th century. 

Ballantine, Edinburgh. About 1850. Compara- 
tively poor work. 

Bandl, Joseph, Oiffern. 1765. > 

Bantis, Jean, Mirecourt. About 1730. Fairly good 
work. ' 

Barbanti-Silva, Francesco, Correggio, 1850. Violins. 
Made also a number of double basses. 

Barbe Pi!RE, J. An old French maker of no great 
merit. He also made 'cellos. 

Barbey, Guillaume, Paris. i8th century. Viol 
maker. ' 

Barnes, Robert, London. About 1780-^1823. 


Became partner in the firm Norris and Barnes, which 
subsequently became R. and W. Davies and is now 

Barton, G., London.' About 1810. 

Barbieri, Pietro, Mantua, 1864. 
' Barbieri, Guiseppe, Mantua, 1879. 

Baraldi, Alfonso, Modena, 1879. VioUns. 

Saraldi, Giovanni, S. Felice, 1766. 'Cellos. 

Baracchi, v., S. Martino. 19th century. Violins. 

Barbieri, Francesco, Verona, 1695. After the style 
of Andreas Guarnerius. 

Bassi, a., Scandiano, , 19th century. Chiefly a 
maker of 'cellos. 

Bastogi, Gaetano, Leghorn. i8th century. Chiefly 
lutes and guitars. 

Battani, Antonio, Frassinoro. 19th century. 
Chiefly repairs, but also makes violins. 

Baud, Versailles, 1796 — 1810. 

Baur, Carl Alexis, Tours, 1789 — 1810. This maker 
tried to abolish the tail pin. 

Bausch, C. a. Ludwig, Leipsic. Born 1815, died 
1873; , Pupil of Fritsche, Dresden. Had also. two sons, 
Ludwig and Otto, who carried on the business. 

Beckmann, S., Stockholm, 1706. 

Bedler, Norbert, Wurtzburg. 1723 — 50. Chiefly 
viols. : 

Bellon, J. F., Paris, 1832. Invented a new mute. 
The one for the 'cello was adjusted by a pedal. ■, 

BELCidNi, Antonio, Italian, 1663. 

Bellone, PIerantonio, Milan, 1690. Old viol 


Bellville, Paris, 1828. Violins. Tried new forms 

Belviglieri, Gregorio, Bologna, 1742. Violins very 
well made. 

Bente, Matteo, Brescia, 1570 — 1600. Lutes and 
guitars chiefly. 

Bendini, G. B., Italian, 1668. Violins. 

Benecke, S,., Stockholm, 19th century. Violins 
\ Beratti, Imola. 19th century. Violins. 

Berge, Toulouse. 1771. Viols. 

Beretta, Felice, Como, 1784. Calls himself a pupil 
of " Joseph Guadagnino." Poor work. Yellow varnish. 
Wretched wood. 

Bertasio, LuiGi, Piadena. i8th century. 

Berti, G., Fium^lbo. 19th century. 

Bertrand, N., Paris, 1701 — 35. Viols. 

Besancenol, Dijop, 177.6. Violins. 

Bessard, Louis, Paris, 1753. Dean of the Violin 
Makers' Guild for that year. 

Beveridge, W., Craigh, Aberdeen. Modern. 

BiANCHi, N., Nice. Modern. Native of Genoa. 
Formerly in Paris. Chiefly repairs, but also new 
violins. Died in Nice. 

Bindernagel, Gotha and Weimar. Associated with 
Otto and Ernst in Gotha. Subsequently with Otto in 
Weimar. Ordinary workman. 

BiTTNER, David. Another modem Viennese restorer. 

Birmetti, G. B., Florence. About 1770. Employed 
fairly good wood and varnish. Stradivari model. 

BizAN, Brussels, 1749. 

Blair, J., Edinburgh, 1820. 


Blaise, Mirecourt, 1820. 

Blanchard, p. F., Lyons. Born at Mirecourt, 1851, 
where he learnt his calling. Afterwards worked with the 
Silvestres in Lyons. Began on his own account 1876. 
Red oil varnish and well made. 

BocQUAY, Lyons. i6th and 17th century. Not to' be 
confounded with Jacques Bqquay, Paris. 

BoDio, G. B., Venice, 1792. 

BoFiLL, S., Barcelona. About 1720. Good maker 
who copied J. Guarnerius. ^ 

BoiviN, Claude, Paris, 1744 — 52. A good maker w'fho 
was Dean of Makers' Guild for the latter year. 

BoLELLi, Bologna. 19th century. 

Boll;es, London. An early viol maker. i6th or 17th 
century (1675). 

Bomberghi, Lorenzo, Florence. 17th century* 

Bono, G., Venice. 18th century. 

BoNORis, C, Mantua, 1568. School of Dardelli. 

BoNViciNi, Phillip, Spilamberto, 1790, Chiefly a 
repairer. - 

Boom, Pierre, Brussels, 1758 — 73. 

Booth, William, Leeds, 1779' — 1857. 

Booth, W., Junr., Leeds, 1838 — 1856. - 

BoRBON, Casper, Brussels, 1689. Viol maker, and 
also violin,, tenor, and double basses, very early, style. 
Yellow varnish. 

Borelli, Andrea, Parmia, 1746, Violins, Guadagnini 
style. , 

BoRGOGNONi, Senigallia, 19th century. An amateur 
maker of double b asses who had some success in Italy. . 

Borlon. (See Porlon). ■ 


BoRtolotti, (or Bertolotti) Luigi.. Careful, modern 
Milanese style of work. Yellow varnish inclining to 
orange. Time about 1810 or 1820. 

BoTTE, D. I. B., Brescia, 1770. 

Bous'su, Eterbeck-les-Bruxelles, 1750 — 1780. Good 
work. Amati style. Yellow orange varnish. 

Boucher, London, 1764. 

BouLLANGiER, Londou. Modern. 

BouMEESTER, Jean, Amsterdam, 1637. Good maker. 
Yellow varnish. 

Bourbon, Caspar, Brussels, 1601 — 1692. Chiefly 

Bourbon, Pierre, Brussels, 17th century. Made a 
very large number of violins, tenors, and double basses. 

Bourdet, Jacques, Paris. Another Dean of the 
Parisian Violin Makers' Guild for 1751. 

Bourdet, Sebastien, Mirecourt. Early 18th century. 
A good maker. 

Bourgard, Nancy. A maker after the style of 

Bourlier, Laurent, Mirecourt. Born 1737. Died 1780. 

Braglia, Antonio, Modena, 18th century. Violins 
and bows. 

Brandiglioni, Brescia, i8th century. 

Brandl, K., Pesth. Modern. 

Branzo-Barbaro, Francesco, Padua, 1660. 

Brelin, N., Grum, 1690 — 1753. 

Brensius, Girolamo, Bologna, i6th' century. Viol 

Bresa, Francesco, Milan. About 1708. Not pa'rticu-. 
larly good work. 


Broschi, Carlo, Parma. End of i8th, beginning of 
19th centuries. (1744.) 

Brown, James, London. Born 1770. Died ,1834. 
Style of Kennedy. 

Brown, J AS., London. Son of preceding. Born 1786. 
Died i860. Ordinary work. 

Browne, John, London. Middle of i8th century. 
Amati style. Good work, but poor varnish. 

Brown, A., London, 1855. 

BrugSre, Francois, Mirecourt. Born 1822. Died 

Buchstadter, Ratisbon, i8th century. Stainer copies, 
not particularly jfine. 

BuDiANi, G., Brescia, i5tli and i6th century. Lutes 
and viols. 

BuoNFiGLiNOLi, P. Fj di L., Florence, 1653. 

BusAS, DoMENico, Venice, 1740. 

BussETO, G. M. del, Cremona, 1540 — 1583. Viols 
and perhaps violins. 

BuTHOT, Mirecourt. Modern. 

Cabroli, Lorenzo, Milan, ,1716. 

Cabroly, Toulouse. About 1747. 

Cabasse, Paris. Ordinary class of work.i 

Caeste, Gaetano, Cremona, 1677. 

Cahusac, London. About 1788. Common work. 
Varnish frequently gone almost black. 

Calcagno, Bernardo, Genoa, 1720 — 1750. A fine 
maker. Varnish of a reddish amber tint. Model 
Stradivari. Tickets run, " Bernardus Calcanius fecit 
Genuae, anno — ." 

Calonardi, Marco, Cremona. 17th century. 


Calot. a native of Mirecourt, who worked in 
Paris for Clement, and in 1830 entered into partnership 
with Augi^re, already mentioned. He was a finished 

Calvarola, Bartolommeo, of Torre Baldone 
(Bergamo), 1753 — 1767. Of the early Cremonese type, 
with the Amati style of arching. Medium work. It is 
said that he. also dates from Bologna. Small scrolls. 

Camillio, D., Cremona, 1755. 

Camploy, J., Verona. Modern. 

Capo, Milan, 1717. His work is marked with a 
*' spread-eagle." ; 

Caprari, Fraijcesco, Rolo, 1846.' 

Carcanius, Cremona. i6th century. His tickets are 
printed on parchment.- 

Cardi, LuiGi, Verona, igth century. 

Carre, Antoine, Arras. i8th century. An old 
viol maker. , 

Carlo, J., Milan, 1769. 

Carlomordi, Carlo, Verona, 1654. 

Carl-Issep, Milan, 1800. 

Caron,- Versailles, 1777 — 85. He was a court maker, 
in the reign of Louis XVI., and was patronised by the 
ill-starred Marie Antoinette, At ~ least, his tickets lead 
one to suppose so. Three years after this unfortunate 
lady's husband succeeded to the throne, Caron was in 
the Rue Royale, Versailles, and he calls himself 
"'Luthier de la Reine." He held this position until 1785, 
when he was in the Rue Satory. After this date we 
hear no more of him. A couple of years later, the pre- 
revolutionary troubles began, and by-and-by, the court 


of Versailles vanished for a time. Caron was a good 
maker. Brown varnish. 

Carter, John, London, 1789. This rhaker was one of 
those whose instruments went into the shop of Betts, and 
helped to swell the fame of that dealer, but not greatly. 

Gary, Alphonse, London. Modern. 

Casini, Antonio, Modena, 1630 — 1690. A maker of 
considerable importance, who is celebrated over a large 
part of Italy for his work. His model is not unlike that 
of Rugier of Cremona, and his varnish of a somewhat 
dull, cherry brown. He made a very large number of 
'cellos and double basses, which are exceedingly popular 
in Italy, and sought after with some eagerness. His 
corners are elegant, the sound holes pretty correctly 
designed, while the tone of his violins is brilliant and 
sweet generally, and in some very full. His inlay is 
sometimes a composition which' appears to ' have been 
put into his commoner work. The quality of the wood 
varies considerably, but on the whole he is a good maker. 

Cassanelli, Giovanni, Ciano, 1777. 

Cassini, Antonio, Modena, i8th century. Probably 
a descendant of the previously mentioned maker of the 
same name. His tickets are printed, and run, " Antonius 
Cassinus fecit Mutinse anno." " Muttinse " or " Mutinse" 
is the Latin form of " Modena." 

Castellani, Pietro, Florence. Born about 1760. 
Died 1820. A good maker of violins and guitars. 

Castellani, Luigi, Florence. Born 1809. Died 1884. 
Son of preceding. He was a fine repairer of violins, and a 
restorer. It is not known -that he made any, but he 'made 
many firstclass guitars; hewaSa capital doublebass player. 


Caspani, Giovan-Pietro, Venice. About 1658. A 
maker who copied Amati and Andrew Guariierius. 

Castendorfer, Melchiorre di iSxEFANO, Erfurt. 
15th century. Old viol maker. 

Casteni?orfer, Michele di Stefano, Erfurt. 15th 
century. Old viol maker. 

' Catenar, Enrico, Turin. About 1671. This maker is 
called a pupil of Cappa. 

Cattenaro, Pa via. About 1639. A maker of bassei 
and viols. 

Catignoli, Guiseppe, jVIilan. 19th century. 

Cavalorio, Genoa, 1725. 

Cavallini, Luigi, Arezzo.. 19th century. Viol maker 

Cavani, Giovanni, Spilamberto. 19th century. 

Caussin, F., Neuchatel. i860 — 81. Violins of 
Italian style. 

Cellini, Giovanni, Florence. 15th century. This 
was the father of the illustrious Benvenuto Cellini, whose 
testimony regarding his parent's skill. in the art of 
making string instruments is of a very conclusive 
character. He says that his father " had the reputation 
, of making violas of rare beauty and perfection — the 
finest that- had ever been: seen." Giovanni Cellini died 
in Florence in 1527 or 1528. He was also amusician of 
a kind, and in some«faVour with ecclesiastics in authority. 
He was born about the middle of the fifteenth century, 
and it does not appear to me[^to be unlikely that he was 
a professional maker. 

Celoniato, Francesco, Turin. About 1715 — 25. 

Geloniati, Gian-Francesco, Turin. About 173^. 
He is said to have been a good copier of Amati, with 


yelloNv varnish. In Italy they describe his work as of the 
school of Cappa. HiSlicket runs, "Joannes Franciscus 
Celoniatus fecit Taurini. Anno 1732;" this being the 
only known inscription of this maker. It is not unlikely 
that he was a son of the preceding. 

Cerin, Marcantonio, Venice. A pupil of Bellosio in 
Venice. This information is derived from a ticket which 
runs, " Marcus Antonius Cerin alumnus Anselimi Belosij 
fecit Venetiae anno 1793." 

Cervella, Giovanni, Italian. i8th century. 

Challoner, Thomas, London. About 1750. High 
Stainer model. Brownish' yellow varnish. 

Champion, Rene, Paris. About 1735. This maker 
appears to have been a pupilor imitator of Boquay. 
The work is of that style, and well finished. Varnish of 
same character as Boquay's. His ticket runs, in one 
case, " Rfene Champion, rue des Bourdonnois, a Paris." 

Chappuy, Nicolas Augustin, Paris, 1762 — 94. This 
maker made some very e,xcelfent instruments, but he- is 
also responsible for a number of poor specimens. The 
initial N. is branded on tlie button, and nothing else 
indicates, in many cases, the maker's name. Some' 
tickets which he used bear the inscription, luthier to Her 
Royal Highness the Dvichess of Montpensier — in French, 
of course, namely, " luthier de S. A. R. la duchesse de 
Montpensier." He employed a yellowish spirit varnigh 
mostly^of poor quality. 

Chardon, Joseph, Paris. Modern. This maker is a 
son-in-law of George Chanot pSre of Paris, to, whose 
.business he succeeded in 1872. The firm is known as 


Charotte. a native of Mirecourt, who worked in 
Rouen from 1830 to 1836. 

Chastelain, Martin, Warwick,' Flanders, 1580. Vio 

Cherpitel, Nicolas Emile, Paris. Born in Mire- 
court, 1841. He became a workman with G&.nd Freres 
in Paris in 1850, left in 1873, and started on his own 
account. His tickets run " Nicolas- E'mile Cherpitel, in 
Paris, 13, Faubourg Poissonniere, N.E.C." His first 
address was in the Rue Saint-Denis. 

Chevrier, Andr6 Augustin, Brussels. Born in 
Mirecourt,. this njaker, had a good training. Hife violins 
liave mostly a good outline ; solid, ' and not unlike 
Lupot's bfest style, but heavier. The corners are full, 
and the sound holes well designed. The scrolls are also 
good. Indeed, if the tone were equal to the general 
work they would be excellent instruments. The wood 
chosen is of fine quality, ahd nothing seems to be 
-wanting but fine tone. His varnish is a red orange, 
sometimes webbed all over like Vernis-Martin. 

Chiarelli, Andrea, Messina, 1675 — 99.. An did lute 
player, and improver of the instrument to such an, 
extent as to claim for him a place. 

Chiavellati, Domenico, Lonigo, 1796. A viol maker. 

Chiocchi, Gaetano, Padua, 1870. A good maker 
and repairer. 

Christa, Joseph Paul, Muliich,' 1730^0. A maker 
of whom nothing, appears to be known. 

CHRisTOfORi, Bartolommeo, Cremona or Padua 
claims him. He was living in the Amati house- 
hold in Cremona in 1680, and was then thirteen 



yeairs old. This information is from a parish record,, 
and is conclusive with regard to the date of his. 
birth, namely., 1667. In a musical museum in 
Florence, there' is a double bass with the following- 
inscription Written on the inside of the back, " Barto-- 
lommeo Crlstofori Firenze, 1715," and, it is not 
known. . -whether he ever made any other instru- 
ments of the violin kind. It seems to me to be in the 
highest, degree probable. This double bass is not a 
pa,fticularly fine instrument. It is generally Supposed 
that this maker invented the piano, and, indeed, this 
supposition amounts almost to a certainty. A very- 
interesting description of this phase of his career will be; 
found in Sir George Grove's Dictionary, where the 
dates are all wrong, or in " Hipkin's History of the: 
Piano," where the dates are equally wrong, as, indeed, , 
all dating with regard to him prior to 1886 must be, 
seeing that the above parish record was only published/ 
- theuv It is said, for instance, that Prince Ferdinand, 
son of the Grand Duke Cosimo Medici III., visited Padua 
in 1687, and induced Cristofori then, or shortly after,, 
to reniove from Padua to Florence. If this is correct,. 
Cristofori must have invented his piano and become, 
famous throughout Italy when he was a very young man, 
about tw,enty years of age, say,. not an impossible thing- 
by any means, but showing that these valuable notices. 
of him are now in need of revision. It is said that: 
Cristofori died at the advanced age of eighty in 1731. 
He Was really only ^ixty-four at this period, Supposing th& 
identity to be established. His name used to be spelt 
Christpfori. In Italy it, is Cristofori, and there they do> 


not appear to know anything definite with, referenqe to 
the date of his deaths 

CiNTij Gui.SEPPE, Bologna, 1856. A niaker: and 
restorer, or repairer. 

CiRCAPAj ToMAsso, Naples, 1735. Another of the 
same of no particular distinction. 

Clark, London. A raere name. 

ClaudoTj Augustin. • An old French maker, who 
■stamped or branded his name on the inside of the backs 
of his violins. The work is of a somewhat common 
character, with yellow varnish, but has a fairly good 
outline. He was also a maker of English guitars. 

Claudot, Charles. A Mirecourt maker of an 
•earlier date than the preceeding, but having similar 

Clement, Paris, 1815 to 1840. This was a maker 
who, like our John Bfetts, made comparatively few 
violins himself, but employed first class men to do, so, 
such as Georges Chanot- pere, Augiere, Calot, etc. 

Xliquot, Louis-Alexandre, and Henri. Two 
brothers not in partnership, but who were successively 
deans of the Paris Violin Makers' Guild for the years 
1756 and 1765 respectively. It appears to be their only 

Cleinmann, C, Amsterdam, 1671 — 88. An old viol 

Clusolis, Antonio De, Clausen, 1784. This was a 
fine double bass maker of the Tyrolese school, who 
worked in Roveredo. He was probably a native, of 
Clausen, a Small town on the Trent, so small, that' it 
consisted of one narrow street in his time, so narrow, 


that people could shake hands across it through their 
open windows. The. wonder is that he ever was able to 
make a double bass in such circumscribed surroundings, 
or that, having made one, he ever was able to get it out 
of the, street. Perhaps that was the reason he followed 
the course of his native stream, through its magnificent 
scenery down to Roveredo, where he was in the society 
of a busy, prosperous, commercial people, who, na 
doubt, largely, bought his instruments. His is, ?it any 
rate, evidently fine work, of a grand model, and he used 
the following inscription, " Antonius De Clusolis faciebat 
Roboreti opus," then follows the nuinber of the work in 
Roman numerals. Although he is of the Tyrolese 
schools, his style makes it quite clear that he was 
acquainted /with the work of Stradivari. His inscription 
' is ' a corroboration of this, if there were no other. 
Stradivari, as I have elsewhere pointed out, was 
the first to use the historical tense, "faciebat."' Here 
we have- Antonio of ClaUsen copying Antonio of 
Gremona, in even this small point. But he copies him 
in greater as well. 

Cocco, Cristoforo, Venice. About 1654. ^^ °^^ 
lute and viol maker. 

Cole, T., London, 1690. 

CoLLicHON, Michel, Paris, 1693. An old French 
viol maker. 

Collier, Samuel, London, 1750. 

Collier, Thomas, London,. 1775. 

Collin, Claude-Nicolas, Mirecourt. Died in 1865. 
The father of the better known maker CoUin-Medn. 

Gollin-Mezin, Charles Jean Baptiste. Born in 


Mirecourt in 1840., Was taught by his father, the 
preceding maker. . He went to Paris' in 1868. There 
appears to be Uttle doubt that he has made a number 
of instruments of a high character, and which have been, 
examined and reported upon by various artistes very, 
favourably. Those which it has been my good foftune 
to see and try, were probably not of the same class. 
They were, however, artistically made instruments of 
good outline and appearance. 

CoMUNi, Antonio, Piacenza, 1823. 

CoNTURiER. A French common maker. Yellow 

Conway, William, London, 1750. 

CoRDANO, Jacopo Filipo, Genoa. A ticket of his 
runs, "Jacobus Philippus Cordahus fecit Genuae, anno 
sal, 1774." 

CoRNELLi, Carlo, Cremona. His ticket r^ns, 
" Carolus Cornelli fecit Cremonae, anno 1702." 

CoRSBY, Northampton. About 1780. Made double 
basses. There was George Corsby in London, a dealer 

CoRTE, Dalla, Naples, 1881. 

Costa, Genoa. 19th century. 

CosTA, Agostino, Brescia. 17th cenfury. 

Costa, Marco Dalla, Treviso, i65o. Imitated the 
style and varnish of A. and H. Amati. 

Costa, Pierantonio Dalla, Treviso and Venice. 
He copied Amati also. 

CosTA, PiETRO Dalla, Treviso. This member of 
the family also copied Amati brothers, using, like the 
others, an amber coloured varnish of fine quality. 


Cramond, C, Aberdeen, 1821 — 34. 

Crask, George, Manchester. A prolific maker of 
copies of - the classical schools. . His period ranges from 
about ,1826 onwards. He made for the For-sters, Dodd, 
and Clementi, ' and generally for any firm to whopi he 
could sell. Much of his work is said to be very 
clever, and in a, circular issued by hi^ successor in 
business, Mr. Crompton, it is stated that he made ' 
over 2,000 violins, 250 .tenors, 250 'cellos, and 
20 double basses; It has not been my good fortune 
to see one of these to my knowledge, : although, I 
have no doubt, I have seen many of them , in my 

Cristoni, Eusebio, Modena, 19th century. 

Crowther, John, London, 1760 — 1810. 

Crugrassi, ViNCENZo, Florence, 1767. 

CuCHET, Gaspard, Grenoble, 17^9. 

CuNAULT, Georges, Paris. Born 1856. Learnt his 
business in Paris and worked for Miremont from 18^4 
to 82,, and afterwards for himself. 

• CuNY, Paris. i8th century. Common work. 
Branded inside of back " Cuny a Paris." 

CuTHBERT, London. 17th century. Good wood, 
flat model, dark varnish. 

CuppiN, Giovanni. An .old Italian viol maker,- 
yellow varnish. 

Cu-YPERs (See Koeuppers). , 

Daitlanst. A m^ker whose habitat, style and date 
are quite unknown. 

Daniel, Antwerp. A famous old maker of double 


Darche, Aix-la-Chapelle. Copies of the classical 

Darche, C. F.,- Brussels, Modern. 

Dardelli,. Fra' Pietro, Mantua. This maker was 
alive in 1493 — 1497, and a member of the Franciscan 
Convent, Mantua. The latter date was ascertained from 
an instrument of Dardelli's in the possession of a painter 
named Richard in Lyons, about 1807. It was a highly 
decorated lute. This instrument seems to have dis- 
appeared, and all that was known of Dardelli was 
founded upon it. A few yeairs ago, however, a docunjent 
dated 1493 was found to contain a reference to a magni- 
ficent quartet of larger instruments, which excited the 
utmost enthusiasm in the writer. Some of these large 
viols, etc., are in public and, private museums, and in 
some cases> they show rather coarse work, which is 
accounted for by the supposition that just then there 
was a kind of renaissance in this tribe of musical . instru- 
ments, and a new departure taken to a certain extent. 
He also made rebecs, lutes, and viols, which are lovely 
works of art, and decorated in gold, silver, enamel, 
ivory, and ebony. , 

David, Paris. About 1730. Ordinary work. 

•Davidson, Hay, Hantly, 1870. 

Davini, Giusto, Lucca, 19th century. 

Davis, Richard. A workman with Norris and. 
Barnes, and ultimately became partner with the following. 

Davis, - William, ' London. The . firm then became 
R. and W. Davis, Coventry Street, and is now Withers 
^nd Co. 

Dearlove and Fryer, Leeds. About 1840. . 


Dearlove, Mark, Leeds, 1828. 
' Dearlove, Mark, W., Leeds. Modern. 

De Canus Nunzio. An old Italian professor who, in 
the end of the ,18th century, endeavoured to equalise 
matters between good and bad fiddles by scraping the 
wood out of the fine ones. In this regard he advertised 
himself as a kind., of public benefactor, and offered his 
services to any one who wished them. It is as well tO' 
add, however, that he was under the impression that he 
was improving the old ones. How long he had been at 
large is not known, and, of course, no estimate can be 
formed of the number of instruments which had passed 
through his hands, or been scraped by him, but when 
last heard of, he was a contributor to the Tuscan Gazette,. 
and his latest offer appears in the issue of that newspaper 
of 7th November, 1789, when, fortunately, he was at 
" an advanced age." 

Decomble, Ambroise. See " Comble, Arnbroise de.'* 

Deconer, Mechael, Venice, i8th century. 

Deconet; Andrea, .Venice, 1785. 

Deconet, Michele, Venice, 1769 — 71. 
- Deconet, Michele, Padua, 1722—69. 

Deconeti, M., Venice, 1742. 

With regard to these five makers there is really noi 
information. " Michael Deconer fecit Venetiae, An. 
Dom.,' 17 — ," is the supposed ticket of one, and 
"Michele Deconet fecit Venetiis, anno 1754," is the 
supposed ticket of another, but I have not seen an 
instrument by any one of them, and I am not acquainted 
with any person who has. Of course, the tickets may 
now and again be seen. 


Deckert, G. N., Grotbrutenback, 17th century. 

Defresne, Pierre, Rouen. About 173 1 — 1737. This, 
maker has recently been included among violin makers, 
not because any violins of his have been discovered, but 
because he had a dispute with the members of the^ 
Rouen guild of makers. He was a master of the Paris. 
Guild, and had advertised himself as such whbn he 
settled in Rouen in 1731. This raised the ire of the 
local guild, and they prosecuted him. Ultimately the 
quarrel was arranged by Defresne paying a sum of' 
money to be admitted to the Rouen Society. 

Degani, Eugenio, Montagnani, 19th century. 

Delany, John, Dublin, 1808. A maker who used a. 
curious ticket occasionally, " Made by Johii Delany in 
order to perpetuate his memory in future ages. DubliiJr. 
1808. Liberty to all the world black and white." 

Delaunay, Paris, 1775. A vielle maker. 

DelannoiX. A Belgian maker in 1760. 

De Lannoy, H. J., Lille. About 1747. A very good 
maker, and probably the same as the preceding, whose, 
name may have been so mis-spelled. 

Deleplanque, Gerard, Lille, 1766 — 70. An artistic, 
maker who employed a reddish tinted amber coloured 

Della Corna, Giovan Paolo, Brescia, i6th century. 
A maker mentioned by a writer named Lanfranco, but; 
who is not known to any other. 

Dennis, Jessie, London, 1805. 

Deroux, Sebastien Auguste. Born in Mirecourt, 
1848. His father was a maker there, and taught his. 
son, who afterwards worked with Silvestre in Lyons for 


three years. He became a soldier at the outbreak of the 
Rranco-German war, returning to his lousiness in 1873, 
this time with Mir emont in Paris, and with whom he 
remained for eleven years. In 1884 he started on his 
' own account. Hjs ticket runs, " S. A. Deroux, 16, Rue 
' GeofFroy-Marie, Paris "^with A. S. D. inscribed over 
the date, 

Despons-, Antoine, Paris, 17th century^ 

Desrousseau, Verdun. 

Devereux, John, Melbourne. Contemporary. This 
is the only maker in Australia whose name J have seen. 
He formerly worked for B. S. Fendt. He certainly had 
a splendid guide. 

Dickeson, John, 1750 — 80. Born in Stirling. It is 
not known where he learnt violin making, but his work 
has many of the fine points of Italian style, He was 
undoubtedly an artist, and his model was- chiefly Amati. 
His instruments are dated both from Cambridge and 

Dickinson, Edward, London, 1750. An ordinary 
maker on Stainer lines, exaggerated, as usual. 

Diel. The name of a family of violin makers, the 
■different rnembers of which date from about i6go down 
to the present day. Nicolas, Martin, Nicolaus, Johann, 
Jacob. These all spell the name " Diel." Then Nicolaus, 
Louis, Friedrich, Johann, and Heinrich spell it " Diehl." 
They severally date from Mayence (Maintz) Prague, 
Frankfort, Hamburg, Bremen, and Darmstadt. 

DiETZ, Christian, Emmerich, 1801. 

Dietz, Johann Christian, Darmstadt, 1805. 

DiEULAFAiT, Paris, 1720. A viol inaker. 


DiNi, GiAMBATTisTA, Lucignano, 1707. A maker of ~ 
double basses chiefly. 

DioNELLi, Gaetano, Mantua, 1869. 

DiTTON, London. , About 1700. The " Small Coal 

Man " — a famous musical London personage of last 

century— had an instrument by this maker in his 

possession. Perhaps the similarity of the two names 

may account for the conjunction of maker and owner. 

" A fiddle by Ditton, 
Possessed by Tom Britton, 
Is sometiiing to spend a small muse's small wit on." 

Ditton was also a harp maker. 

DoBRucKi, Mattia, Cracow, 1602. 

DoDi, Giovanni, Modena, 19th century. A maker of 
double basses. 
' DoLLENZ, Giovanni, Trieste, 1841. 

DoMANSKi, Alberto, Warsaw, 1830 — 1850. 

DoMiNCELLi, Br^escia, i8th century. 

Dominicelli, Ferrara, 1695 — ly^S- Amati models. 

DoMiNicHiNi, A. E., Bologna, 1708—66. A maker' 
and repairer. < 

DoNATO, Serafino, Venice, 1411. 

DoNi, Rocco, Florence, i6co— ,1660* A Florentine . 
priest, who worked at instrument making, and was the 
father cif the illustrious musical writer, Gian Battista 
Doni, who died in 1669. Rocco Doni made lutes and 
violins, and his son, G. B., invented the lira Barberina. 

Doerffler, C. F. A German maker about the end 
of eighteenth century. A good kind of ordinary work.. 

DOpfer, Nicolaus, Maintz. A violin maker who : 
taught Martin -Diel, and whose daughter his pupil 
married. ^ . - 


DoRANT, W., London. 1814. 

Dosi, PiETRO, Bologna. 19th century. 

Drinda, Giacomo, Pianzo. i8th century. 

Droulot, Paris.. About 1788. 

Drouot, Mirecourt, 

DucHERON, Mathurin, Paris. A maker in th£ 
•«arly part of the 1 8th century. 

DuiFFOPRUGCAR (or TicfFcnbrucher), Magnus, Venice. 
About 1607 — 12, A lute a:nd viol maker. This name 
■appears in a variety of spelljiigs and hails from various 
places. There is DiefFenbrucker of Padua, Tieffen- 
"brunner of Munich, arid, Tie'fFenbrucher of Venice. 
Whether they represent the same' establishment one 
-cannot, of course, say. They all made the same clasp 
■of instruments, and their dates run from about i559to 
about 1612. 

DuLFENN, A., Li vorno ( Leghorn ) 1699. 

DuLiG, M. A Geman maker who copied Stainer 
-fairly well about the middle of last century. 

Du Mesnil, Jacques, Paris. About 1655. An 
"exceedingly artistic , maker of the decorative class. 
•Cherry-red varnish. 

Duncan, Aberdeen, 1762. 

DuRAND, Mirecourt. 19th century. 

DiJRFEL, Altenburg. i8th century. A maker of 
•double basses which are highly praised. 

DuvRARD, Paris, 1745. A viol maker. 

Eberspacher, Bartolomeo, Florence. 17th century. 

Eberti, T. About 1750. 

Edlinger, T., Prague. About 1 715. A fine maker. 
His instruments are chiefly on Stainer lines and covered 


■with an exceedingly good amber coloured varnish with 
a slightly red tinge. 

Edlinger, Joseph Johann, Prague. Son of the 
preceding and a good maker. About 1748. 

EoLikGER, T., Augsburg, i8th century. 

Eesbroeck, Jean Van, Antwerp, 1585. An old lute 

Eglinton, Londo;^. About 1800. 

Ehlers, J., Vienna, 1825. 

Esler, J. J., Maintz, 18th century. A good old viol 
maker. ' 

Emiliani, Francesco de, Rome. Beginning of 
r8th century. Highly arched violins, having a 
light orange varnish. Very fine wood, and good 
finish. • 
.EngleQer, a., Carlsruhe, 19th century. 

Engleder, a., Munich, 19th century. 

Engleder, L., Bamberg, 19th century. 

Ertl, Carl, Presburg. Fine quality of varilish. 

Evangelisti, Florence, i8th| century. 

Evans; Richard, London, about 1750. 

Eve, Paris, about 1788. Model somewhat high, 
deeply grooved around borders, good work, orange 
spirit varnish. 

Fabbris, Luigi, Venice, igth century. 

Facini,. Agostine, Bologna, 1732^-42. This makejr 
was a monk of the order of St. John of God in Bologna, 
and made several violins of good character, with a fine 
quality of varnish, Stradivari Sound holes, and very 
excellent outline. 

FaLaise, a French maker who copied Amati and 


Stradivari, but where or when is not known.. Good, 
wood and yellow varnish. 

Falco, Cremona, rSth century^ A so-called pupil 
and follower of Bergonzi. 

Farinatq, Paolo, Venice, iSth century. : A fairly good 
maker, who followed the style of ' Santo Serafino, in. 
wood and varnish. 

Faron, Achille, Ratisbon, a"bout 1701. 

Faustino, Lucca and Modena, 17th century. 

Febsre, Amsterdam, 1762. 

Felden, Magnus, Vienna, 1556. A viol maker. 

Feldlen, Magnus, Vienna, 1722. I am inclined to- 
think this maker has only had a nominal existence on a 
ticket fabricated by some one who did not know the 
precise date of Magnus Felden's activity, an^i" had not 
caught the exact spelhng of the name. Still, it is only 
an inclination so to think. One can never he quite sure 
about these names, apart from conclusive (iocumenta^'y 
evidence. A great many of them are muen alike, as in 
the case of our own nomenclature, and I/nave, therefore, 
preferred to leave them ipthe list without jnore than the 
present comment. 

Ferati, Pietro, Siena. About i764.^^Qmewhat 
common work, broad purfling, and thick, brown varnish.. 

Feret, Paris; About 1708. According to his own 
account of himself, this inaker was a pupil of Medard, 
and the style of his work bears out the statement. He 
employed a brown varnish. 

Ferguson, Donald, Huntly, 19th century. 

Fejiguson and Son, Edinburgh,. 19th century. 

Ferraresi, Vincenzo, San Felici, 1869. 


Ferrari, Agostino, Budrio, i8th century. 

Ferrari, Alfonso, Carpi. About 1738. A maker 
6i double basses. 

Ferrari, CArlo, Siena. About 1740. Violins. 

Ferrari, G. B., Modena, 19th century. Violins and 

Ferri, Primo, Mirandola, 1848 — 51. 

Feury, Francois, Paris, Dean of the Violin Maker's 
Guild for 1757. 

Fevrot, Lyons. About 1788. 

Feyzeau, Bordeau, about 1760. The instruments ' of 
tl^is maker are well made. The varnish is a sort of 
weak brown, but the work is very good under it, the 
sound holes being well designed, and the corners 

FiCHER, GuiSEPPE, AND Carlo, Milan. These makers 
sometimes spell their name " Fiscer," and both spellings 
are found on tickets, namely, " Guiseppe e Carlo fratelli 
Ficher fabbricatori di strumenti in Milano vicino alia 
Balla," and " Guiseppe, Carlo fratelli Fiscer fabbri- 
catori d'instrumenti in Milano Vicino alia balla." They 
were German by origin, and it is possible that they may 
have liibdified the spelling to suit Italian pronunciation. 
Their work is well made, with varnish of fine, amber' 
tint, having a light tinge of red, 

FicHT, J. U., Mittenwald, i8feh century. 

FicHTL, Martin, Vienna, about 1750. A good 

FiCHTHOLD, HAi^s, about 1612. A lute mak&r. 

Ficker, Johann Christian, Neukirchen, about 1722. 
Highly arched violin, somewhat ordinary looking. 


FicKER, JoHANN GoTLiEB, probably also Neukirchen, 
About 1789. 

FiLANO, DoNATO, Naples. AJ^ut 1782. A general 
maker of violin?, mandolines, and guitars of very .refined 
taste and skill in decorative work. 

FiLANO, LuiGi, Naples. About 1859! Similar work, 
but chiefly guitars. 

FiLLE, La, a French maker of the 18th century, whose 
scrolls are cut into shapes of animal's heads. and human 

!Filippi, Filippo, Rome, 19th century. 

FiNDLAY, J., Padanaram, 19th century. 

Finer, Fratelli (Finer Brothers), Milan, 1764.- 
■ FiORi, Amilcare, Casinalbo, 19th century. 

FiORi, Antonio, Modena, 19th century. 

Fiori, Gaetano, Modenk, 19th century. 

FioRiLLO, Geo., Ferrara. About 1780. This maker's 
instruments are highly arcjied, and a little after the style 
of Stainer. His basses are good. 

FiORiNi, Raffaello. Born in Pianoro. This maker, 
.is somewhat interesting.' When a child, a friend of the 
family named Jadolini, who had a brother a violin 
maker, used to make little fiddles for the boy. This 
excited his attention, and he began to make them him- 
self. As time passed; the interest in the subject 
increased, and by and by (1867) he went to Bologna, 
and worked and studied there for some years, and finally 
opened a shop there. His son is 

FiORiNi, Guiseppe, born in 1867. He showed the 
same instincts as his father, but the latter gave him a 
fairly good education first, and then,' when the lad was 


about sixteen, he put him in the shop, and taught him 
all he knew. They now enjoy a good repute, and gained 
prizes at the exhibitions of Milan and Turin. 

Firth, G., Leeds, 1836. 

Fischer, J., Landshut, 1722: The solitary relic of 
this, maker appears to be a specimen of the one-stringed 
instrument called the marine trumpet. It is in the 
museum of the Society of the Friends • of Music in 
Vienna, and bears above date. 

Fischer, Zacharie, Wurtzburg, 1730 — 1812. Not 
so much a violin maker as he was a violin baker, from a 
mistaken notion that it matured the wood. 

Flette, Benoist, Paris, 1763. Dean of the Paris 
Guild of Violin Makers for this year. 

Fleury, Benoist, Paris, 1755. Dean of the Violin 
Makers' Guild for this year. There is a bass viol 
of his of the same year in the museum of the Paris 

Florentius, Fiorino, Bologna, 1685 — 1715. 

Florenus, Guidantus, Bologna, 1716. 

Florenus, Antonio, Bologna. 

Florenus, Guidantus Giovanni, Bologna, 1685 — 

There is considerable confusion with regard to these 
four Bolognese makers. The inscriptions on tickets 
vary in the most distracting, and, at the same time, 
the most amusing manner. Sometimes it is " Florentus 
Florinus," " Florentius Fiorino," " Florenus Florentus," 
" Fiorino Fiorenzo," and so on. The horticultural 
variations are very suggestive, and although they may all 
be variants of the same name, it will be as well if I confine 



myself to the description of one specimen of work. I Eave 
no doubt, however, that there were three makers of this 
name in Bologna. The specimen I refer to is. a viola da 
gamba of beautiful wood and beautiful carving, and 
shows transparent golden varnish, and the. most exquisite 
workmanship. There may be violins by one or other of 
these makers. I cannot say that I have seen any at all 
approaching the style or intelligence of the work visible 
on the viols bearing the name. 

FoNTANELLi, Gio. GuisEppE, Bologna, 173,9; — 72. A. 
lute maker of exquisite taste in decoration. 

FoRADORi, Giovanni, Verona, 1855. Violin maker. 

FouRRiER, Francis Nicolas, Miirecourt, 1784 — i8i5- 

Franck, Ghent, 1800 — 1830. This maker was a 
sculptor, and a clever repairer of violins, but made few> 
if any, new instruments. ■ - 

Francois, Paris, 1755. A viol maker. 

Frankland, London, 1785. 

Franz, Jacob, Havelberg, 1748. 

Frebrunet, Jean, Paris. About 1760. Well 
made instruments. Reddish varnish of fairly good, 

Fredi, Fabio, Todi, 1878. 

Frey, (or Frei), Hans, Nuremberg, About 1450. A 
lute and viol maker. He was also a splendid performer 
on the lute, aiid was married to a daughter of the famous 
Albrecht Diirer. His last will and testament is in San 
Sebaldo. It is said that he alsO'wbrked in Bologna. 

Fritz, Hans; Nuremberg. A mere. name. . ' 

FritsChe, Leipsic. End of i8th century, A. 


reputedly clever maker, who was a pupil of C. F. Hunger 
of the same place. 

Fryer, C, London and Leeds. Died about 

Fux, JoHANN Joseph, Vienna, 17th century. Maker to 
the Austrian Court. 

Fux, Matthias, Vienna. A late maker. 

Gaffino, Joseph, Paris, 1755. _ An ; Italian maker 
settled in Paris. He was dean of the makers' guild in 
1766, and made instruments after the style of 
Castagnery. The firm was in existence as late as 1789, 
but was then carried on by the widow. 

Gaillard-LajouE, Mirecourt. About 1855, in which 
year he received a medal at Paris exhibition. 

Galbani, Jacopo, Florence. About 1600. An old 
■viol maker. 

Galbani, Piero, Florence, 1640. Son of preceding. 

Galbicellis, G. B., Florence, 1757.. 

GAlbusera, Carlo Antonio, Milan. About 1S32. 
He was a retired military officer who attempted some 
improvements — as they were then called^— on the 
existing shape of the violin. It is said that he had no 
knowledge of violin construction at all, biit started his 
notion in conversation with some friends, and meeting, 
.probably, with opposition. to his views, set abput iiiaking 
a fiddle on the lines which he projected. It turned out 
to be nothing new: — an instrument with the corners 
rpunded off, and somewhat after the style of the guitare. 
He thought it. was more elegant, stronger and lighter 
than* the Stradivari model, etc. This kind of 
experiment had been carried out before — fifty years 


before — and had been found sCb idle one so far as 
concerned any improvement in either "'Sfeaj)e or tone. 
Nevertheless, just as in the case of previous eiPpedments 
— and as will likely be the case in many future OTies 
— there was a commitee of professors and connoisseurs 
to pronounce a laudatory judgment on the result of 
Galbusera's efforts, and the instrument was exhibited in 
the town hall of Brera. The Milan Academy of Science 
awarded him a silver medal for the invention, arid the 
Leipsic Musical Gazette published the usual gushing 
article filled with amazement that it had taken centuries 
to give this perfect form to the violin. , In due time the 
amazement and the violin subsided, and Galbusera 
proceeded to construct others of a different model 
and heavier make, and he appears to have succeeded 
in improving the quality of tone of his own fiddle — 
which was, without doubt, a highly meritorious 'act, as 
they gave him^ another medal. I fancy I should have 
myself condoned an award like that. But Stradivari was 
still untouched, and perhaps Galbusera's conscience told 
him so, for in spite of his medals — he had in all three — 
he began experiments with chemicals for the purpose of 
extracting the gummy substance from the wood. 
Facilis est descensus Averni, and from this point we hear 
no moire of him. He made violas and 'cellos — a few — 
on the same system, and, if he made them himself, hei 
was no doubt, a handy man, but perhaps he merely 
" invented " them — as his fellow professionals some- 
times invent " flying machines " — and got other people 
to make them for him. He died in 1846. 
Galerzeno, Piedmont, 1790. 


Galland, Jean, Paris, 1744. A dean of the Paris 
Violin Makers of this year. 

Galliard, C, Paris. About 1850. Good style. Red 

Galtani, Rocco, Florence. 17th century. 

Galram, Joachim Josef, Lisbon, 1769. 

Ganzerla, Luigi, San Felice, 1861. Violin maker.. 

Garani, M. a., Bologna, 1685 — 1715. A good maker. 

Garani, N., Naples. Also a good maker of a later 
date. Yellow varnish. Somewhat refined style with, 
light edges, but rather deeply built. 

Gaspan. An early viol maker of whom nothing is- 
known but the name and nationality — Italian. 

Gattanani, Piedmbnt. Another mere name. 

Gattinara, Enrico, Turin, 1670. Violin maker (?) 

Gattinara, Francesco, Turin. About 1704. Early 
Guarnerius model generally. Well made instruments 
but too highly arched. Warm brown varnish. 

Gaulard, Troyes. About 1835. 

Gautrot, Mirecourt. 

Gavinies, Francois, Bordeaux. Some time in the 
early part of the i8th century. He removed to Paris 
in 1741. He was dean of the Paris Makers' Guild for 
the year 1762, although he never made other than 
common instruments. His son became one of the 
finest of French violinists and is well known among" 
amateurs for his studies for thei instrument. 

Gazzola, Prosdocimo, Crespano. About 1822. A 
maker of double basses, and a good repairer. 

Geiffenhaff, Franz, Vienna, 1812. Good work. 
Copied Stradivari. Branded F.G. on back. 


Gemunder Senr., George, Astoria, New York. 
Contempory. Born at Ingelfingen in Wurtemburg in 
1816. It appears that he learnt violin makipg early 
and had a great desire to work in Vuillaume's shop in 
Paris. Aftet knocking about for a while-in Presburg, 
Vienna, and Munich, he turned his steps towards Paris 
and, on' the way, got employment in Strasburg, but on 
going to the establishment found the man was a maker 
of brass instruments. Gemtinder-had not brass enough 
for that, and was for a time a little upset, but one day 
while lying asleep in the, English Park, he heard a 
voice saying to him " Cheer up Sam " — or words to that 
effect^and he cheered up. On the third day after this 
dream he received information -from a friend who had 
written to Vuillaume on Gemiinder's behalf to the. 
eifect that he was to go to Paris and see the great 
maker. This he did, and etitered his employment, ■ 
staying with him for four years, during -which time he 
says he distinguished . himself considerably. He then 
went to America where he has since remained. Some 
of his copies of the old masters are quite surprising in 
external appearance, and recall the work of Vuillaume 
himself at certain times when he imitated every little 
rift and scratch with such marvellous ' and questionable 
fidelity. Gemunder's two brothers were in America 
before him. 

GemundeRj August and Sons, New York. Contem- 
pory. Another large establishment of violin makers 
whose instruments have been highly praised. 

Gemunder, George, Junr. A son of George, Senr. 

Gentile, Michele, Lucca;, 1883. Violins. 


Gepans, p., Cremona, 1614. 

Geranie, Turin. About ly^o. 
, Gerles, . Nuremberg. Old lute makers. 15th and 
1 6th century. 

Geroni, DoMENico, Ostia, 1817. 

Germain, Joseph Louis, Paris. 5orn in Mirecourt 
1822. Learnt business there. Went to Paris 1840, 
where he worked, for Gand pfere'. At his ' death went 
to Vuillaurrie whom he left in 1850, and returned to the 
Gands, where he remained unt^l i86i2,.when he started 
for himself. He returned to Mirecourt in 1870 and 
died there same year. It is needless to say that he was 
a fine maker and that much 'of his work is to be found 
in Gand's and VuiUaume's. 

.. Germain, Emile. Son of preceding. Borii 1853, 
and sent in 1865 to Mirecourt to learn. He .returned 
to Paris in 1867 to . his father. At the death of the 
latter he became a partner with a M. Dehommais, an 
arrangerhent which ceased in 1882. Since this date in 
business alone. 

Gherardi, Giacomo, Bologna, 1677. A maker of 
double basses of early style. 

GiAMBERiN,i Giovanni, Florence. About 1700. 

GiAMB^RiNi, Alessandro, Florence. Son of preced- 
ing. A maker of violins and guitars. 

GiANNOTTi, AcHiLLE, Sarganza, 1872. A repairer. 

GianOlli^ Antonio, Milan, 1731. 
_ GiBBS, James, London. A maker who worked for 
others, such as Gilkes, etc. 

GiBERTiNi, Antonio,, Parma and Genoa, 1830 — 1845, 


or later. Good maker, who copied Stradivari, and 
employed a red varnish of fine, quality. 

GiBERXONi, GuisEPPE (called Paninino), Modena, 
19th century. 

GiGLi, Julius C/ESAr, Rome> 1700 — 61. 

Gilbert, N. L., Metz. About 1761. Viol maker. 

Gilbert, Simon, Metz. About 1737. V;iol maker. 

Gioffreda, B., Turin. About i860. 

Giordane, a., Cremona, 1735 — 40. 

GioRGi, Nicola, Xurin, T745. 

■Gtra-niani, Leghorn, 1730. Good maker. Fine 
yellow varnish, thin. 

GiovANNETTi, L., Lucca, 1855. Violins. 

Giquelier, Cristoforo, Paris, 1712. Viol maker. 
It is said that this maker had his instruments varnished 
in Japan. 

GiRON, Girolamo, Troyes,, 1790. Violins. 

GiNGLiANi. A 'cello maker of the 17th century. 

Giuliani, 1660. An old viol maker — Amati school. 

Gottardi, Antonio, Treviso, 1878. 

Gouffe, Paris., A maker of double basses. ' 

Grabensee, J. T. Dusseldorf. About 1854. 

Gragnant, a. a Tyrolese maker. About 1780. 

Gramulo. Italian, about end of 17th century. This 
maker's name was first discovered in a novel by Dumas ! 
It was communicated to Count Valdrighi, who wrote to 
the late Gustave Chouquet, and asked if he ever heard 
of him. M. Chouquet set up inquiries, and a friend of 
his assured him that he had the actual instrument 
alluded to in the novel ! The great French writer 
makes his character say that Gramulo was highly 


esteemed by Tartini, and on these circumstances is 
based the supposition that there was a maker of this 

Grand-Gerard. An ordinary French (Mirecourt) 
maker, of end of last century. 

Grandson fils, Mirecourt. A maker who obtained a 
medal in 1855. 

G'RAN^iNi, Verona, 1620 — .25. Viol maker. 

Gray, J., Fochabers. About 1870. 

Greffts, Johann, Fiissen. About -ifiaa. 

Gregorj, Bologna, 1793. Violins. 

Gregorio, Antoniazzi, CoUe. About 1738. 

Grenadino, Madrid, i8th century. Violins. 

Griesser, Mathias, Inspruck. About 1727. A viol 

Grimm, Carl, Berlin, 1792 — 1855. This firni 
originally, declined to make more than thirty violins per 

Grimm, Louis and Helmich. Same business, later. 

Grimaldi, Carlo, Messina, 1681. Said to be 
Cremonese in style. 
'Griseri, Filippo, Florence. About 1650. 

Grobitz, a., Warsaw, i8th century. An imitator of 

Grobliez, Cracow, i6og. A maker of 'cellos, it is said. 

Groll, M., Meran, 1800. 

Grosset, p. F., Paris. About 1757. This maker is 
described as a pupil of Claude Pierray, and to be an 
ordinary workman, using a bad model with very high 
arching, bad thicknesses, etc., and a common orange 
spirit varnish. He made 'cellos also. 


Grossi, Guiseppe, Bolognk. About 1803. 

Grulli, Pietro, Cremona. Modern. 

GoARMANDi, FiLippo, Bologna, 1795. 

GuASANT, F., French. About 1790. 

GuDis, Hieronimo, Cremona, 1727. A viol maker of 
^exquisite taste in decorative -work. Varnish light golden 
orange. Beautiful wood. 

Guerra,. GiACOMO, Modena, 1810. Violins, reddish 
l)rown varnish. 

Guerra. A family of this name settled in Cadiz as 
:guitar makers. 

GUGEMOS, Fiissen, iSth century. This, maker's name 
"is spelled in several ways, Guggemos, Gugemmos, and 
as I have given it. His work is poor. 

GuGLiELMi, G. B., Cremona, 1747. 

GuiDANTUs, Joannes Florentus, Bologna. See 
"' Florentis Florentus,"etc. 

GuiDANTi, Giovanni, Bologna. About 1740. I do 
not know anything about this maker. .He appears to 
have been a maker of viols also, and his violins are said 
to be very tubby, and inartistic in several points. 

GusETTO, NicoLA, Florence, iSth century. This 
maker's instruments are very careful imitations of 

H.ENSEL, JoHANN Anton, Rochsburg. About iSii. 
At this date he invented a violin which he said he had 
invented before, nameily, ill iSdi. ^I'e was a musician 
in the Duke of .Schoenburg's band. . He wrote ain article 
in thq^ Leipsic Musical Gazette about his violin, but does 
aiot appear to have mad&any more of them. 

Haff, Augsburg, 17 — . 


. Hamberger, Joseph, Presburg, 1845. ■ 

Hamm, Johann Gottfried, Rome, I'Sth century.. 
His instruments are of the decorated sort. Ivory- 
borders, etc. 

Harbour, London, 1785 — 6. 

Hare, John, London, 1700 — 20. Neat, artistic work.. 
Somewhat prim-looking sound holes, and fine varnish. 

Hare, Joseph, London. About 1720. Similarly 
go6d work. 

Harham, London, 1765^85. 

Harton, Michele, Padua, 1602. A lute maker. 

Hartmann, Weimar, 18th ceiitury. One of the^ 
pupils of Ernst in Gotha. Poor work. 
. Hassalwander, Johann, Munich. About 1855. H& 
made lutes, violins, zithers and guitars. 

Hassert, Eisenach, i8th century. Common work, 
. HasseIit, Rudolstadt, 1 8th century, Common 

Hayden, Johann, Nuremberg, 1610. A sort. of. 

Haynes, Foucher and Co., London. This busitiesg- 
hats been in existence for many years, being first 
established by W. Haynes in the north of London, about 
the year 1859, They produce high class instruments at 
exceedingly moderate prices. Their chief model in 
violins, violas, and 'cellos is Stradivari, but they have^ 
also Amati,.Guarnerius, and Maggini ;nodels as well. I 
have seen a large, number pi their instruments, and. I 
can say that they deserved the highest praise in regard 
to tone, style of work, and> finish. 
_.Haynj;s, Jacob, London. Abolat 11752. An old. 

174 "^"^ FIDDLE fancier's GUIDE, 

English West End maker, who used the Stainer model. 
One of his instruments was highly prized by the late 
Samuel Summerhayes, of Taunton. "Jacob Haynes, 
in Swallow Street, St. James', London, Fecit — " is the 
tenor of his ticket. 

Heaps, J. K., Leeds, 1855. A maker of 'cellos chiefly. 

Heesom, E., London. About 1748. Highly arched 
vioUns on the usually exaggerated lines, which were 
supposed to be Stainer's. 

Heidegger, Passau. 

Held, Beule, near Bonn. Modern. 

Heldahl, Andrew, Bergen, 1851. Violins. 

Hel, Ferdinand, Vienna. Modern. 

Helmer, C, Prague; 1740 — 51. Good: instruments. 
Varnish a brownish colour, of a warm tint. He was a 
pupil of Eberle. 

Helmer, Garl, Prague. About 1773. Son of pre- 
ceding. He also made lutes and mandolines. 

Helmer, Carl, Prague. Later. Son of preceding. 

Hemsch, Jean Henri, Paris, 1747. Dean of the 
Viohn Maker's Guild for this year. 

Hemsch, Guillaume, Paris, 1761. Dean of the 
Violin Makers' Guild for this year. 

Henderson, D., Aberdeen. Modern. Very poor 
work. Common spirit varnish of a cold character, like 
an ordinary maple stain. 

Henoc, Jean, Paris, 1773. Dean of the Paris Violin 
Makers' Guild for this year. He also made zithers. 

Hesen, -Giacomo, Venice. About 1506. [ A lute 

Hesketh, T. E., Manchester. Contemporary; A 


pupil of Chanot of Manchester. Violins, violas, and 

Hetel, G., Rome. About 1763. Lutes and guitars. 

Henry Eugene, Paris, 1855. Violins. 

HiLDEBRAND, M., Hamburg, 1765 — 1800. Violins, 
violas, 'cellos,- and double basses. 

HiLDEBRANDT, M. C, Hamburg, 1800. A repairer. 

HiLTZ, Paul, Nuremberg, 1656. A viol maker. 

HiRcuTT, London. About 1600. 

HocHA, Gasparo. Dall', Ferrara, 1568. A repairer. 

HocHBRucKER, Donawcrth. About 1699. Besides 
making some good violins he inveiited the pedals for 

HocHBRucKER, Douawerth, 1732 — 70. He was a 
nephew of the preceding, was a violin maker and also 
continued to improve the harp. in the direction initiated 
by his uncle. 

Hoffmann, Martin, Leipsic, 1680 — 1725. A lute 
and viol maker who has become famous not only for his 
own special work, but also because he was the first to 
make the violapomposa suggested by John Sebastian Bach. 
This was a five-stringed 'cello tuned to C, G, D, A, E. 
It did not succeed, although Bach w'rote. music for it. 

Hoffmann, Johan Christian, Leipsic. Son of 
preceding. A lute maker. 

Hoffmann, Ignazio, Wulfelsdorf. About 1748. A 
violin, lute, and harp maker. 

Hoffmann, Martin, Leipsic. Another lute and viol 
maker, probably some relative, about same date as 
previously mentioned Martin. 

HoFMANS, Mathys, Antwerp, 1720 — 50. This 

1730 to present, time. 


maker was very clever in imitating the' Cremoijesg 
varnish.' His instruments are also very well made, and 
covered sometimes with a fine golden varnish, and 
at other times with a dark, red — very transparent. 
The tone of such violins of his as I have seen,- 
does not, however,, come altogether up to one's 

HOhne, Dresden. Modern. 
Hollow AY, J., London, 1794. 
ttoMOLKA, F., Kuttenburg. Modern. 
HoRiL, GiACOMO, Rome. About 1742. 
Horenstainer, Andrew. 
Horenstainer, Joseph 
Horenstainer, Matthias 
Horenstainer, Martin 
This is a trade firm in Mittenwald, Bavaria. For more 
than 150 years, there has been a representative, 
apparently, in existencfe. The instruments are in many 
cases fairly good. 

HosBORN, Th. Alf., London. About 1629. An old 
viol maker, a specimen of whose work was in the Paris 
Exhibition of 1.878. 

Huber, Johann George, Vienna, 1767. Viol maker. 
HuLiNski, Prague, 1760. Good maker. Warm 
brown varnish. . ' ■ 

Hul'ler, August, Shceneck, 1775. 
Hume, Richard, , Edinburgh, 1535. The earliest 
known viol maker in Great Britain. 
HuMEL, Christian, Nuremberg, 1709. 
Hunger, C. F., Leipsic. Born in Dresden ,1718. 
Died in Leipsic' 1787. A fine maker. He was a pupil 


of Jauch of Dresden and a worthy one of a worthy 
naaster. His instruments are Italian in style. 

Instrumenti, Marco, Dagli^ Ferrar'a, 1541. A yioL 

Indelami, MatTeo. a lute maker. Unknown either 
when or where. 

jACOBii Meissen. i8th century. Violins. 

Jacobz, Heindrik, Antwerp, 1693 — ^704- 

Janck, Johann, 1735. An old viol maker. 

Jaspers, Jahn, Antwerp, 1568. A lute maker. 

Jais, Anton, Botzen. About 1760. 

Jais, Johann, Botzen. About 1776. 

Jauch, Dresden. 18th century. A fine maker 
in the Italian style. 

Jauch, Johann, Gratz, 1740. A lute maker.. 

JoRi, Leander, Sesso. About 1819. 

JoRio, ViNCENZo, Naples. 19th century. 

Joseph, J.,' Vienna, 1764. 

JuLiANO, Francesco, Rome. 18th century — about 
the beginning of it. 

JuLLiEN, Louis, Antoine, 1813^60. This was the 
great bandmaster, who, although not a violin maker, 
was one of those whp invent fiddles. His idea was a 
violin tuned afourth above the usual pitch. It never 
came to anything. It was to be the same size as the 
ordinary violin, w;hich, probably, made, it difficult to 
invent the strings. 

Kaiser, Martin, Venice. About 1609. A lute maker. 

Kamblj Johann Andrew, Munich, ^635 — 40. ^ 

Kanigowski, Warsaw. About .1841. Besides being 
a violin maker, he also made bows. ^ ' 



Karb, Konigsberg. A viol maker. 

Kembter, Dibnigen, 1725. Violins of highly arched 

Kessel, Anton, Breitenfeld. Contempoirary. Violins. 

KiRCHHOFF, A. W., I^openaja, 1855. Violin maker. 

KiRSCHSCHLAG. A Tyrolese maker. About 1^80. 

KiTTEL, St. Petersburg, 19th century. A fine repairer, 
and also an exquisite bow maker. 

Klein, A., Rouen. Modern. This establishment is 
under the management of M. Antoine Rubach of 

Klei;simann, Cornelius, Amsterdam, 1671. Violin 
maker. ^ 

Kloss, E., Bernstadt, 1855. Violin maker. 

Knittle, Joseph, Mittenwald, 1791. 

Knitting, P., Mittenwald, 1760. 

Knoop, W., Meiningen. Modern. 

Kohl, Johann, Munich. About 1599. A lute maker 
to the Bavarian court. 

Kceuppers, Johann. The Hague, 1760 — 80. Has the 
reputation of being the finest of the Dutch. Thick 
varnish, but well made violins. 

KoLB, Hans, Ingolstadt, 1666. A viol maker. 

KoLDiTz, Jacob, Ruhmburg. Died 1796. The work 
of this, maker is highly appreciated in Germany. 

KoLDiTZ, Mathias Johann, Munich. 

Kolliker, H., Paris, 1789 — 1820. A repairer of 
great ability. 

Kramer, H., Vienna. About 1717. A viol maker. 

Kriner, J., Mittenwald, 1786 — 91. 

Kugler, Max, Munich. A violin maker. 


KiJNTZEL, Berlin. Modern. 

Lapleur and Son, London. Contemporary. 

Lagetto, Luigi, Paris. About 1753. 

Laine, Paris. About 1773. 

Lambert, Jean Nicolas, Paris, 1745. Dean of the 
Paris Violin Makers' Guild for this year. The business 
was carried on for a considerable time by his widow for 
about half a century after above date. . Lambert made 
also viols, one of which is in the museum of the Paris 
Conservatoire. He branded his name on the side of 
this instrument, and used a ticket in his violins which 
runs, " J. N. Lambert, rue Michel-le-Comte Paris," 
surrounded with arabesque decoration, supported by a 
violin and lute- 

Lambert, Nancy. About 1750. 

Lambert, J. A., Berlin. About 1760. 

Lambin, Ghent, 1800 — 30. Violin maker and repairer. 

Lamy, J. Thibouville, Mirecourt and London. 
Contemporary. ' 

Lancellqtti, Ottavio, Barigazio. Modern. A 
maker of double basses. 

Lancillotto, Jacopino, Modena, 1507 — 51. One of 
the oldest known of makers and " dealers in viols and 
other musical instruments. 
. Landi, Pietro, Siena, 1774. Violins. 

Lanza,, Antonio Maria, Brescia, 1650 — 1715. He 
was a contemporary of Stradivari, but copied Maggini, 
and other Brescian makers in what has been called a 
" slavish " manner. His instruments have not a good 
tone. He also made viols. 

Lapaix, Lille. Mpdern. Violin maker and medallist. 



Laprevotte, Paris,, 1825 — 1850. . He was an ordinary 
Mirecourt maker, and subsequently in Paris. Died 
in 1856. 

Larne, p. M., Paris, 1767. Dean of tha Makers' 
Guild for this year. , 

Laska, Joseph, Ruhmburg. Born 1738'. Died 1805,.. 
,He worked with Kolditz in Prague, but chiefly made: 
mandolines and viols. 

Laurentius detto PApiensis, Pavia, This, was a 
distinguished old maker of the fifteenth and sixteenths 
centuries. He was a maker' of all sorts, but his 
lutes and viols were highly-decorated musical instru- 
ments. He was patronised by Isabella D'Este, ^nd 
carried on some correspondence with her in regard to> 
different instruments, between the years 1496: — iSJS- 

Lavazza, Antonio Maria, Milan, 169/5 — 1708.. 

Lavazza Santino, Milan, 1718. 

Leb, Presburg, i8th century. 

Leblai^c, Paris. . About 1772. 

Leclerc, Paris, i8th century (i77i)> He was 
chiefly a repairer. 

LecompTe, Paris. About 1788. 

Leduc, Pierre, Paris. One of the most ancient 
Parisian makers. About 1646. 

Le Dhuy. About 1806. A Frencii maker of th& 
bowed lyre. 

Lefebvre, Amsterdam, 1720 — 40- His model was 

Lefebvre, Paris. About 17S8. 

Lei, Domenico, Formigine. About 1848. This was. 
an am.ateur repairer of some sMlL 


Le Jeune, Francois, Paris, 1764. Dean of the 
Makers' Guild for this year. There is a vjpl by him in 
the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire, and the name 
was in the trade until 1870, I believe, when it became 

Lemme, Brunswick, i8th century. A maker, or 
dealer, who invei^ted things for the fiddle. Among these 
was an improvement in working the upper table or belly, 
which does not appear to have been of any use. He 
also invented a mute. J know nothing about either.- 

Lembock, G., Vienna, About 1875. . He was a 

L'Empereur, Jean Baptiste. Dean of the Makers' 
Guild for 1750. 

■ . Lt LiiiVRE, Paris, about 1754. Made fairly good 
instruments. Yellowish orange varnish. 

Leoi»i, Ferdinando, Parma, 1816. 

Leper, Dominilo, Rome. 19th century. 

Le Pileur, Piero, Faris. About 1754. 

Lesclop, Francois Henri, Paris, 1746. Dean of the 
Paris Makers' Guild for this year. 

Lessellier, Paris, 1640 — 60. A lute maker of whora 
Gustave Ghouquet has a good word to say. 

Levien-Mordaunt, Paris, 1825. 
• Lewis, Edward, London, About 1700. Good work 
good wood and varnish. 

Liebich, Johan, ' Breslau, i8th century. A viol 

Liebich, Ernest, .Breslauj 1796 — 1862. Violins, 
harps, and gmtars. 

Liebich, Geoffrey, Breslau, i8th century^ Violins'. 


Light, Edward, London. About 1798. A lute and 
harp maker. 

LiGNAMARO, PiETRO, Mantua (San Martino). Died 
1569. Lutes and zithers. 

LiGNOu, Andrea, Florence. About 1681. Vidlins. 

LiEDOLF, GuiSEPPE Ferdinando, Vienna, 18th 

LiNAROLO, Ventura, Venice, 1514 — 20. An old lute 
and viol maker. 

Lipp, Mittenwald. About 1761. Violins. 

LipPETA, J. G., Neukirchen, 1771. 

LivoRNO, ViNCENZO Da, Leghom, i86i. Violins. 

LocicERO, Luciano, Naples. About 1830. Chiefly ■ 

LoLio, Giambattista, Voltezza, i8th century. 

LoLY, Jacopo, Naples. About 1727. Ordinary 
maker. Light yellow varnish. 

LoRENzi, G. B. DE, Vicenza. About 1878. Violins, 
and also organs. 

Lorenzini, Gasparo, Piacenza, i8th century. 

LouvET,. Jean, Paris. Dean of the Makers' Guild for 
1759. One of his viols is in the Paris Conservatoire 

LouvET, Pierre, Paris. Dean of the Makers' Guild' 
for 1742. One of his viols is also in the Paris Con- 
servatoire Museum. 

LovERi, Naples. Modern. 

Lucarini (or Lucatini), Faenza. About 1803. A 


LuDGE, Geronimo Pietro De, Conegliano, 1709. A 
repairer. This maker is also called " Ludici." He was 
an amateur, it is supposed, from the ticket he used, a 
manuscript one. It runs, " Hieronymus Petrus de 
Ludice animi causa faeciebat Conegliani, A.D." The 
inscription does not in any way justify such a conclusion. 

LuGLONi, Guiesppe, Venice. About 1777. An 
imitator of the Cremonese style. 

Lupo, Peter, Antwerp. About 1559. Violins. 

Luppi, Giovanni, Mantua, 19th century. 

Macintosh, Dublin. Said to be a pupil of Thomas 
Perry, Dublin. Macintosh published a work on the 
construction of the violin, and of this book it seems 
impossible to obtain a copy. It was issued some- 
where about the year 1837. Macintosh is supposed to 
have died between that date and 1840. 

McGeorge, Edinburgh. About 1800. 

Maffeotto, Guiseppe, Roveredo, i8th century. 

Maffei, Lorenzo. An Italian repairer about end of 
1 8th century. 

Magno, Ferrara. a lute maker, middle of i6th 

Maier, a. F., Salzburg. 1746^50. 

Malagoli, Fulgenzio, Modena, 1856. 

Maldonner, Fussen. About 1650. ^ maker of 
double basses. 

Maller, Laux (or Luca), Bologna, 1415 — 1475. A 
famous old German maker of lutes., 

Maller, Sigismund, Bologna and Venice, 1460 — 
1526. Another lute maker, also of German origin — 
judging, of course, only by the name. 


Mann (or Man), Hans, Naples, 1 8th century.- 

Mandoti, Guiseppe, Piacenza, 1713. Violins. 

Manni, Pjetro, Modena. About 1827; Guitars, 

Mansiell, L., Nuremburg. About 1728. 

Mansiedl, L,, Wurzburg. About 1724. 

Mantegazza, Carlo,' Milan, i8th century; 

Mantegazza, FrancescOj Milan, .1760. 

Mantegazza, Pietro and Giovanni, Milan, 1737 — 
800. This family of violin rhakers and repairers were 
■distinguished in their day— chiefly, hOweveir, as repairers 
and irestorers. There is a quartet of instruments by the 
"brothers P. and G., which appear to be the only speci- 
mens of new instruments known to one or two writers, 
and the varnish on them is black. They, however, ifeed 
all kinds of varnishj and when they did make fiddles they 
copied Amati, Stradivairi, and Guarnerius — indeed, all 
sorts-^even Stainer arching was not rejected. They 
werfe so famoiis in their day that all sorts of rubbishy, 
dirty fiddles have got ticketed accordingly. 

■MantoVani, Parma, 1850 — 83. A violin rep'stirer. 

Maratti, Verona. About 1700. 

Marcelli (or Marcello), Giovanni, Cremona, about 
1696. A maker of double basses. Large pattern and 
of powerful tone. A decorative maker who used inlay 
and carving. Inlay on sides sometimes. 

Marchetti, Enrico, Turin, igth century. Violins 

Marchi, Giannantonio, Bologna. About 1806, 
Violins. Highly arched. Beautiful wood. Varnish of 
a golden orange. 

Marco, Antonio, Venice. About 1700. 


Marconcini, Gaetano, Ferrara. i8th century. 

Marconcini, Guiseppe, Ferrira. i8th century. 

Marconcini, Luigi, Ferrara and Bologna. It is 
said that this maker was a pupil of Omobono Stradivari, 
■Gaetono and Guiseppe were his sons, and Guiseppe is 
reported to have been a pupil of Storioni. .The 
instruments of the latter have a fair reputation but I 
am not in a position to speak of any of them. 

Marconi, Antonio, Conegliano; About 1878. 

Marcus, Johannes, Busseto, 1540—80; A viol 

Maria, GiuESPPE de, Naples. About 1779. Chiefly 
a maker of mandolines, etc: 

Mariani, Antonio, Pesaro; 1570 — 1646. School of 

Marino, Bernardino, Rome, -1805. Violins. 

Maris, Ferenzuola. Violins. 

Marquis, de LaiRj Mirecburt. A igth century 
:maker of comparatively small interest. He inade very 
big fiddles, and out' of proportion. His sound holes are 
not so bad in the matter of design, but they are poorly 
cut and far apart. His margins are usually large, but 
vulgar. Edges round. Ribs good height and figure. 
Scroll tastelessi Varnish of a brown colour with a 
-slight dull orange greenish tint about it here and there. 
' " Marquis de Laiir d'Qiseau " branded across the ' back 
, just, under the button. 

r Marshall, John, London, 1750 — 60. A good maker 
who used the Stainer niodel, and also made flatter 
instruments. He inscribed on one of his tickets " Good 
Beef id. A pound But trades all very Bid." He seems 


to have been an observer of the times with a fancy for 
big, big B's. 

Martani, Antonio, Reggio-Emil, 1804 — 66. A 
violin repairer. 

Martin, London, 1790 — ^4. 

Martinelli (dettp il Gobbo — called the hunchback), 
Modena, 19th century. A maker of double basses. 

Martinez, Alonzo. A Spanish violin maker. 

Martino. An Italian maker — chiefly of 'cellos.. 

Masenger, Giovanni de, Brussels. Violins and 

Mast, Jean Laurent, Paris. 18th century. A 
fairly good maker. Thick, dark spirit varnish. ^' J. 
L. Mast, Paris" branded at the top of the back and 
in the inside where the ticket is generally seen. 

Mast Fils, Toulouse. Son of above. Worked with 
Nicolas ain6 at Mirecourt and subsequently went to 
Toulouse. Branded his violins " Mast fils Toulouse 
(date) " in the same places. His instruments are rather 
highly archedj and have an orange and a red orange 
varnish. They are fairly good violins. 

Maucotel, Charles Adolphe. Born in Mirecourt 
in 1820 where he learnt violin making. He went to 
Vuillaume in 1839, and five years afterwards began 
business on his own account. He committed suicide in 
1858. He was a fine maker, and turned out some high- 
class instruments of all sizes except double basses. 

Maucotel, Charles. Born in Mirecourt in 1807. He 
also learnt in Mirecourt and went to C. F. Gand in 
Paris, 183^. Ten years afterwards he came to London 
and was employed by R. and W. Davis of Coventry 


Street (now Withers).- In a few years he started for 
himself and continued in Rupert Street till he went back 
to France in i860. His instruments are also good and 
have a fine style about them I do not know whether 
he was related to the previous maker or not. It is said 
that he was a brother and I suppose that is correct. 
He was the first employer of Mr. George Chanotj the 
elder (of London). 

Mansseil, Leonard, Nuremberg. , About 1745. A' 
good maker of Stainer copies. Light yellow varnish. 

Mayerhoff, Andrew Ferdinand, Salzburg, 1740 — 6-.. 

Mayr, Adam, Munich. i8th century. A viol makers 

Mayr, Andrew Ferdinand, Salzburg, 1726 — 77. A 
violoncello maker. He was maker to the court in 

Mayson,' Walter, H. Contempory. Violins, violas 
and basses. His better class instruments are excellent. 

Meares, Richard, London. About 1677. A viol 

Meiberi, Francesco, Livorno. About 1750. 

Melegari, Enrico Clodoveo, Turin, i860. Violinsi 

Melegari, Pietro, Turin. About same date as 
previous maker of same name. 

Metelli, Luigi, Ferrara. 19th century. A pupil of 
Marconcini, and, consequently, of a good school by 
descent and according to report. 

Mellini, Giovanni, Guastalla. About 1768. 

Meloni, Antonio, Milan, 1694. 

Menichetti, Luigi, Faenza. About 1851. This, 
maker was an inventor of a new kind of violin. It was 
a combination of wood and metal and was thought to be 


suitable for military bands. The belly was of brass, 
and the tone, although of an abominably diverse, 
character on the different strings, had a, certain amount 
of strength. It was exhibited in 1851 at Bologna, but 
I don't think it has ever been heard of since. 
. Mennegand, Charles. . Born at JJancy in 1822. 
Like so many othet fine makers, he was taught his art 
in Mirecourt, and in 1840 went to. Paris. There he 
worked for Rambaux for five years, and became a first- 
class repairer of old instruments. He was a year with 
Maucotel, and thfenwent to Amsterdam. In five years 
lie returned to Paris, and died in 1885. He made good 
instruments, but his chief distinction was gained in the 
repair of old ones. 

Mennesson, Emile, Rheims. About 1878. This 
paker started a business in: a kind , of trade instrument 
which he called the Gwawm violin. I suppose it was a 
trade mark. He made violins, . tenors, 'cello's, and 
■double basses. They have a red, transparent varnish. 

Mensidler, JohanN', Nuremberg, 1550. A viol 
; Merighi, Antonio, Milan, 1800.' 

Meriotte, Lyons. About 1755. A faiirly good 
maker, Up to 1770, his tickets are written " M6riotte, 
Juthier, sur le pont, presle change, a tyon," but after 
that date the inscription, is Latinised and printed. His 
instruments are, at the .same time, of improved quality. 

Merlin, Joseph, London, ■ About ^780, His instru- 
ments are highly b'uilt. . - ; 

.. -Merosi, Guiseppe, Firenzupla.. About 1846. 
. Methfessel,Gustave, Berne.; About 1883. 


Mette, Father, Rouen, i85'5. 

Mezadri, Alessandro, Ferrara, 1690 — 1720. A. 
maker of some little merit, but poor Amati model. 

Mezadri, Francesco, Milan, 1700 — 1720. A fairly 
good maker. Nice golden varnish with a reddish tinge,, 
transparent and thin. 

MicHAUD, Paris. About 1788. 

Michelot, Paris. About 1788. 

MicHiELS, GiLLES, Brussels, 1779. 

Milani, Francesco, Milan, 1742. This mdker was a 
pupil of Lorenzo Guadagnini, and an accurate imitator 
of Stradivari. 

MiER, London. About 1786. 

MiLLE. A maker at Aixin the Benches du Rhone in 
-the 1 8th century. Violins. 

Miller, London, 1750. 

MiNELLi, GiovAN>fi, Bologna. About i8o8^-9> 

MiNozzi, Matteo, Bologna, i8th century,! 

MiQUEi,, Emile, Mirecourt., Contemporary. 

Miremont, Claude Augustin. Born at Mirecourt 
in 1827.,, He learnt under his father Sebastian, whO" 
was a maker in Mirecourt, and afterwards worked for 
three years with C. N. CoUin-Mezin. Miremont went 
to Paris in 1844, and was first with Joseph Ren6 Lafleur, 
who was a bow maker, chiefly. Miremont soon left him. 
. and engaged with Bernard'el Pere, with whom he 
remained until 1852. He then went to New York for 
ten years, and returned to Paris in 1861. He retired 
from business in 1884, and died in 1887. He was a fins 
maker, and received several medals. 


MiRANcouRT, Joseph, Verdun. About 1749. A viol 

MoiTESsiER, Louis. About 1781. Made some good 
violins. One was a very curious instrument, having a 
.belly of maple the same as the back. It is described as- 
.being well made, and of good tone. 

MoERS, Jean Henri, Paris, 1771. Dean for this 
year of the Paris VioUn Makers' Guild. 

MoHR, P., Hamburg. About 1650. A viol maker. 

MoLDONNER, Fussen, 1756 — 98. 

MoLiNARi, Antonio, Venice, 1672 — 1703. 

MoLiNARi, Guiseppe, Venice. He made various 

: stringed instruments, such as mandolines, etc. He also 

•jaiade violins. There are two of the former ' in the 

;Tnuseum of the Paris Conservatoire, and bearing dates 

1762 and 1763. 

Mollenhaver, London, About 1881. This is an, 
; inventor, who proposed to make violins, violas, 'cellos, 
..and double basses with two bellies, one under the other, 
.■dividing the interior of the instrument into two compart- 
ments. He claimed for his suggestion that it would 
Jargely increase the volume and roundness of the tone of 
the violin tribe, without altering its quality. The 
principles of the invention are explained in Musical 
Opinion of ist November, 1881. 
, MoLZA, Nicola, Modena, 1620. A repairer. 

MoNCHi, P. de, Lyons, 1633. -A- viol maker. 

Mongenot, Rouen. About 1763. 

Montade, Gregorio, Cremona, 1720^ — 35. A maker 
who copied Stradivari. 

Montaldi, Gregorio, Cifemona. About 1730. This 


maker, is said tp have used the safne model as the 
preceding, to have Uved in the same place at the same 
time, and he has .the ..same -Christian name. ' On the 
whole, it may be reasonably supposed that there has 
been some error in reading his surname. But a conclusion 
of that kind, for the reasons already stated, should only 
be of a tentative character. We have Smith, Smyth, 
and Smythe ; Brown, Broun, and Browne. These 
might all be called John, they might all be anywhere in 
this country at the same time, and any two of each 
group might be drapers or grocers. 

MoNTANi, Gregorio, Cremona, i8th century. This 
name may also be another " variant "of " Mpntade " — 
but then again, as Uncle Remus would say, it mightn't. 
In the meantime, they are merely names. 

MoNTicHiARO, Zanetto, Brescia, 1533. A lute and 
viol maker. 

MoNTRON, Paris. About 1788. 

MoNTURRi, Guiseppe, Piuniazzo. About 1840. 

MoNziNO, Antonio, Milan, 19th century. Violins 
and violas. 

MoRELLO, MoRGLATO, Mantua, 1540. Lutes and 

Morella-Odani, Guiseppe, Naples, 1738. Made 
good viohris, having a very dai;k-coloured varnish. 

MoRETTi, Antonio, Milan. About 1730. Chiefly 

Mori-Costa, Felice, Parma. About 1812. Violins. 

Morona, Antonip, Isola. About 1731. 

Morrison, J., London, 1780 — 1823. 


MouDoiT. A maker of viols in the i6th century. 
He is said to have reduced the nunaber of the strings. . 

MuccHi, Antonio (called Bastia,), Modena, 1800. 
Died ,1883. He was a magnificent restorer of old • 
violins. He was a pupil of a Modenese maker named' 
Soliani, and his instruments have, something of the style 
of Guadagnini. Varnish golden amber. 

Murdoch, A., Aberdeen. Modern. 

MusAN, DoMENicb, Venice, 1756. A maker of double 


Nadermann, Jean Henri, Paris; 1774. Dean of the 
Paris Violin Makers' Gi4ild for this year. He was not a 
violin maker, but one of a farnily of harp makers. 

Nadotti, Guiseppe, Piacenza. About 1767, 
Violins. ' 

Naldi, Antonio, Florence. About 1550. He was a 
musician, and is said to have invented the theorbo. 

Namy, Paris, 1772 — 1806. A famous repair6r regard- 
ing whose talent in this direction the Abbe Sibire went 
into raptures, stating that he could tell at a glance when- 
ever he saw a violin repaired by Namy, just as he could 
tell at a glance whenever he saw a Cremona violin. 
This is a speciinen of corinoisseurship " unconditioned "■ 
as philosophers would say, and now-a-days is charac- 
teristic only of those whose self-confidence has 
surmounted the level of their experience. Had the Abbe 
just qualified his statement with " sometime," " often," ; 
" very frequently;" or even " nearly always," one would 
have had less inclination to discount his enthusiasm. 

Naylor, Isaac, Leeds, 1778 — 92. 


Nella, Raffaello, Brescia. About 1740. A fine 
maker who practised the art of decorating his instru- 
ments with inlay after the manner of Maggini and the 
earUer Brescian school. On the backs and round the 
sides of his instruments he used the legend, " Viva fui in 
sylvis : sum dura occisa- securi : dum vixi, tacqui, 
mortua, dulce cano." DuifFoprugcar had used it before 

Neuner, Luigi, Berlin. 19th century. 

Neuner, Mathias, Mittenwald. About 1817. 

Like Hornstamr, the name of Neuner occurs frequently 
in Bavarian work and the members of the two families 
have been in one firm. 

Newsiedler, Giovanni, Nuremberg. Died 1563. 
Lutes and viols. 

Newton, Isaac, London, 1775 — 1825. 

NezoT, Paris. About 1735. There is a six stringed 
viol by this maker in the museum of the Paris 

Nigetti, Francesco, Florence. About 1645. A viol 

NiGGEL, SiMPERTius, Fussen, 167a — 1755. He made 
violins on the Stainer model, and employed a dark 
coloured varnish. Instruments of a fiat model are also 
noted as having been seen with N. S. branded inside. 

Norborn, John, London. About 1723. 

NoiiRis, John. Born 1739. Died 1818. Trained in 
the Wamsley school, having been a pupil of Thomas 
Smith. The firm became Norris and Barnes. 

NovELLO, Marcantonio, Venice. i8th century. 

NovELLO, Valentino, Venice. i8th century, 

194 "^^^ FIDDLE fancier's GUIDE. 

NovEBci, CosiMO, Florence. About 1662. A lute 

NovERSi, CosiMO, Florence. 17th century. Looks 
very like the same name as preceding written down 
from a foreign pronunciation. 

Obbo, Marco, Naples. About 1712. A dealer some- 
what after the style of Dodd and others, who had the 
instruments made for him and placed his own manur 
script tickets inside. Ordinary work. 

Obici, Bartolomeo, Verona. About 1684. 

Obici, pROSPERO, Marano. 19th century. A repairer. 

Odoardi, Guiseppe, Ascoli. Died 1695. He was 
only twenty-eight years old when he died. He was a 
young man of considerable genius, and is said to have 
made upwards of two hundred instruments of exceed- 
ingly great merit, into which subsequent dealers have 
put Cremonese and Brescian tickets. , A writer named 
Galeazzi says that he rivalled the finer Cremonese makers. 

Ohberg, JoHANN, Stockholm. About 1773. A good 
maker.. Chiefly yellow varnish. 

Oliveri, Felice,, Turin, 1883. Violins. 

Olivola, Francesco De, Rome (Sarzana), 1667. 

Ongaro, Ignazio, Venice, 1783. Violins. 

Orlandelli, Paolo, Codogna. 17th century. A 
dealer of the same type as Obbo. 

Orzero, Tommasso, Turin, 19th century. Violins. 

Ostler, Andrew, Breslau. About 1730. A viol 
maker. Yellow orange varnish. Common work. 

Ott, Johann, Nuremberg. About 1463. A lute 


Otto, Jacob, Augustus. Born at Gotha,. 1762. 
Died in 183b. He was a pupil of Ernst, and wrote the 
work which is popularly known iii this country under 
the title of " Otto on the VioUn." It is, to this day, very 
useful. I have never seen aliy of his own work, nor that 
of his numerous sons, who were settled in various parts 
of the continent. George August, in Jena. Christian, 
in Halle. Heinrich, in Berlin. Carl, in Mecklenburg. 
C. U. v., in Stockholm, Ludwig, son of George 
August, in Cologne. Louis, son of Carl, in Diisseldorf. 
Hermann, son of Ludwig, in St. Petersburg. Thus five 
sons and three grandsons all went into the fiddle 
business, and judiciously chose to settle in different 
towns. Some of them are now dead. 

OuMiR, Khosro, Punjab, India. About the end of 
15th century. 

duvRARD, Jean, Paris, 1743. Dean for this year of 
Violin Makers' Guild. Style of Pierray. 

Pacherele, Michel, Paris. About 1779. An 
ordinary maker, orange varnish, style of Louis Guersan. 
Narrie branded at the top of back. 

Pacherele, Pierre. Born at Mirecourt 1803. 
Died at Nice 1871. He was first at Nice in 1830. 
He also worked at Genoa and Turin. At the latter 
place with Pressenda. In 1839, he returned to 
Nice and settled there. He was a good maker, 
and a fine repairer, but employed a thick-looking 
style of varnish. 

Pacquet, Marseilles. About 1785. He was born in 

Aix, and was, besides a violin maker, an inventor of a 

harp guitar. 


Padevvet, J., Carlsruhe, 1855. Violins, guitars, etc. 
Padewet, Carlo, Munich, 1855. Violins, Stradivari 

Pagani, J. B,, Cremona, 1747. A fairly good maker. 
Pagani, PiETRO, San Martino, 1836.. 
Paganini, Luigi, Faenza, 19th century. 
Paganoni, Antonio, Venice, 1712 — 50. 
Palate, Liege, i8th century. A fair maker who 
copied the Italian style. 1 

Pallotta, Pietro, Perugia, 1821. Violins. 
PalmA, p., Lucca, i8th century. 

Paltrinieri, Giovanni. An Italian maker of 'cellos, 
about the year 1840. 

Pamphilon, Edward, London, 17th century. Very 
high model, but magnificent varnish. 

Pandolfi, Antonio, Venice. About 1719. 
Pansani,' Antonio, Rome, 1735. 
Panza, Antonio, Finale-EmiHa, 1873. Violins. 
Paquotte Fr^res, Paris. A firm of violin makers 
founded in 1830. 

Pardi, Paris. About 1788. 
Pardini, Bastiano, Florence. 

Parlt, Michael Andrew, Vienna. About 1764. 
A viol maker. 

Parth, a. N., Vienna, i8th century. 
Pasciuti, Ferdinando, Bologna, 1882. A rnaker and 

Pasenali, Giacomo. An Italian maker of mandolines 
chiefly, i8th century. 

Pasta, Venice. About 1661. 

Pasta, Domenico, Bresda. .About 1718. 


Pasta, Gaetano, Brescia, 1700 — 1730. High model. 
Good instruments, and nice looking varnish. 

Patzelt, J. F., Vienna. Modern. 

Pazzini, Giovanni, Gaetano, Florence, 1640 — 60. 
This maker, in one of his tickets, calls himself a pupil of 

Pearce, G., London, 1834 — 5^- 

Pearce, J., London, i8th century. 

Pearce, J. and T., London. About 1780. • 

Peccenini, Alessandro, Bologna. About 1595. A 
lute maker. 

Pedrazzi, Fra Pietro, Bologna. About 1784. 
Another maker among the ranks of the Dominican 

Pedrinelli, Antoni'i, Crespano. Born 1781. Died 
1854. This maker -wa, s originally a carpenter and 
undertaker. He was a most wholly deaf, and took to 
copying violins of the fine makers, such as Maggini, 
Stradivarius, and Guarnerius. He was successful in 
selling them in Russia. He made the backs of very old 
beech from fragments of oars, the remains of the old oars 
used in the Venetian galleys. These, it is said, -he 
procured, by means of some patron's influence, from the 
Venetian arsenal. To some firms he sold his instru- 
ments in the white, and he made all sorts, violins, tenors, 
'cellos, and double basses. In 1854, ^^ exhibited some 
specimens of his work at the Industrial Exhibition in 
Venice, and had a medal awarded to him, but he was 
then dpng, and never knew of his success. 

Pelignino, Zanetto, Brescia, 1547 — 50. An old 
viol maker. 


Pemberton, Edward, London. About 1660. 1 

Peron, Paris, 1755 — 881 A court maker, namely, to 
the Duchess of Orleans. He appears to have made 
few violins, and to have been chiefly engaged in 
fabricating other kinds of string instruments, such as 
zithers, etc. 

Petroni, Antonio, Rome, 19th century; 

Petz, Fiissen. About 1770. 

Pezard, Brescia, 1560 — 80. A follower of Maggini. 

Pfub, Hamburg. Modern. 

Pfretyschner, Neukircken. Common work, 

Pfretzschner, J. G., Cremona. 1750 — 94. Common 

Pianassi, Domenico, Ginglia, 1770 — 80. A viol 

Piane, Delle, Genoa, 1800. Violins. 

Piccaiti, Ippolito, Persiceto, 1850 — 56. Violins and 
double basses. 

Piccinetti, Giovanni, 1677. An Italian viol maker. 

PicHOL, Paris. 

Picino, Padua, 1712. 

PicTE, Natale, Paris, 1760 — 1810. Violins and 
double basses. 

PiERi, Costantino, 1865, An Italian repairer. 

Pierret, Paris, i6th and 17th centuries. 

Pierrot, Lyons. 

Piete, N., Paris, 1760 — 80. 

PiETRi, Pietro, Venice, 1690. 

PiETRO, Alberto, Rome. About 1581. A lute 

PiLLEMENTi, F., Paris. About 1760. His name is 


branded on the inside. Not particularly good 'work. 
He made tenors and 'cellos also. 

PiLOSio, Francesco, Gorizia. i8th century. About 

PiNGRiER, Paris, 1882. A inaker and repairer. 

PiNi, Bartolomeo, Florence. About 1664. A maker 
and dealer. 

PiNi, l!.uiGi, Florence. 19th century. A repairer. 

PiROT, Claude, Paris, 1803 — 13. A maker wh6 
employed a thick brown varnish having a red tint. His 
instruments are fairly good. Arching somewhat high, 
but otherwise well designed. 

PiTET, Paris. About 1675. A maker of the decora- 
tive sort who inscribed on the sides of the instruments 
his name, etc. 

PivA, Giovanni, Modena. 19th century. Violins, 
violas, 'cellos, and basses. 

PiVA, Giovanni, Piacenza. About 1883. Possibly 
the same maker as the preceding. 

PizzoRNO, Davide, Genoa, 1770. Violins and basses. 

Plach, Francesco, Schcenbach, 1781. Violins. 

Placht, Vienna. About 1873. Instruments of a 
trade character. 

Plani, Agostinox)e, Genoa. About 1778. Ordinary 
kind of instrument. 

Platner, Michele, Rome. About 1747. A maker 
whose instruments resemble those of Tecchler. 

Plumerel, Paris. About 1740. A maker of basses. 
Not particularly good work. Orange varnish. 

PoGGi, Francesco, Florence, 1634. Various kinds of 


PoLi, Giovanni, Milan, 1850^82. Violins. Tenors 
and 'cellos. 

PoLis, LucA De, Cremona, 1751. Instruments in the 
style of Andreas Amati. 

PoLLASTRi, Antonio, Modena, 1765. A viol maker. 

PoLLASTRi, GuisEPPE, Modena, 1783. Viols and 

PoLLASHA (or Pollusca), Antonio, Rome, 1751. 
Violins and 'cellos. 

Pons, Cesare, Grenoble, 1750 — 60. An old hurdy- 
gurdy maker. 

Pons, Paris, 1827 — 51. Chiefly a guitar maker. 

PoNTiGGio, v., Como, 1853. Violins, tenors, and 

PoPELLA. An Italian 'cello maker of the 17th 

PoRLON, Peter, Antwerp, 1647. There is in existence 
a bass by this maker, bearing above date. 

PoscH, Anthony, Vienna. About 1753. Violins, 
etc. Highly arched, common fiddles, with very dark 

PossEN, Laux, Schevengau. About 1564. A maker 
of lutes and viols. 

PosTACCHiNi, Andrea, Fermo. About 1824. Violin 
of a somewhat ordinary character, of flat arching, and 
reddish-brown varnish. 

PosTiGLioNE, VincenzO, Naples, 1881. Violins, etc. 

Powell, R., London, 1785. 

Powell, Thomas, London, 1793. 

PozziNi, Gaetano, Brescia, 1671 — 90. Instruments 
in the style of Maggini. 


PozziNi, Gasparo, Brescia, 1691 — 99. A maker of 
the same school. 

Prediger, Anspach, 1694 — 9^- Violins and tenors. 

Preston, John, York. About 179 1. 

Pr-essenda, Giovanni Francesco, Turin. This 
maker was one of the finest of the post-classical period. 
He was born on the 6th January, 1777, in Lequio- 
Berria, a small village in the neighbourhood of Alba in 
Piedmont. His father was^ a locaLl violinist of some skill. 
Young Pressenda as a child, played the violin, and 
frequently astonished those who heard him. He 
apparently, however, liked the idea of making violins 
better than playing them, for when he was barely ten 
years old, he determined to learn the art of constructing 
them in the famous city of Cremona. It was rather a 
long tramp for a lad of his years, but he took his fiddle 
with him and played for a living from place to place, 
until he entered within the renowned walls. At this 
time, all the the great ones he had heard of had passed 
over to the majority except the l^st and least, Storioni. 
He got employment with him, and so pleased that fag 
end of the Cremonese school that the boy at the 
termination of his engagement returned home with two 
fine Violin moulds which his master gave, him as a mark 
of his satisfaction. He played his way back, as he had 
forward, and remained at home until he was thirty-seven 
years old. In 18 14 he went to Alba, and began fiddle 
making there without great results. In 181 7 he went to 
Carmagnola, and was not more successful. At last he 
thought of Turin, and went there in 1820. He was now 
forty-three, but he triumphed. Four years later, the 


great violinist', Polledro, settled in Turin, and recognised 
the excellence of Pressenda's work. This recognition, 
->not being a mere advertisement, was the making of him, 
and from that time his instruments' have surely though 
slowly risen in the estimation of fiddle-fanciers, and 
now deservedly occupy a high place in the esteem of 
really good judges. He died in Turiii on the 4th 
December, 1854. 

The style of his work is large and massive, and 
possesses a vigour not unlike that which charactises 
much of Lupdt's later and best eiforts. In Pressenda's 
later specimens, the figure of his backs is often of an 
unusually bold marking, whether the backs are two 
pieced or whole. This trait is indeed so prominent that 
many people imagine he never used any other kind of 
wood, quite a mistake, of course. His arch is broad, 
long, and flat, can hardly, indeed, be called an arch, but 
his sides are fine and fujl. His varnish is a good 
quality of spirit — colour from darkish mahogany to a 
light amber brown. The tone of his violins is generally 
very fine, having much of the clear a:nd firm timbre 
which distinguishes many of Lupot's best efforts. 

Prevot, Paris. About 1788. 

PuppATi, Francesco, Udine, 1883. 

PuPUNAT, M., Lausanne, 1855. Violins and bows. 
Another member of a religious confraternity who has 
devoted himself to fiddle making for some reason. 

Pyne, Georg-e, London. Contemporary. A clever 
maker who has done some good work. 

QuERCi, Vincenzo, Florence, 1634. A maker of and 
dealer in violins and various musical instruments. 


QuiNOT, Jacques, Paris. About 1670. There is, in 
existence a pochette by this maker, and it is of a 
decorative character. Orange varnish. His name is- 
branded on the back of it. 

Racceris, Mantua. About 1670. 

Railich, Giovanni, Padua. , 

Rambaux, Claude Victor. . Born at Darney in 1806^ 
his parents removed to Mirecourt, where, like so many 
fine makers before and after him, he was taught his art. 
He was fourteen . years old when he was apprenticed to 
Moitessier, and afterwards worked for him as journeyman^ 
In 1824 he went to Thibout, at Caen, and in 1827 to 
Gand pere in Paris. By this time he had attained 
unrivalled fame as a restorer and repairer. He was 
eleven years with Gand, and then began for himsel 
opposite the Conservatoire. He retired to Mirecourt in 
1857, where he still employed himself at his favourite; 
pursuit until he died in 1871. 

Ramftler, Francesco, Munich, 1882. Modern. 

Ranta, Pietro, Brescia, 1733. 

Raoul, J. M., PariS) 19th century. 

Raphael, Brescia, About 1840. Violins, violas, and 

Rastelli, Genoa, 19th century. Violins, violas, and 

Rasura, Vincenzo, 1/Ugo. About 1785. 

Rau, J. F., Nuremberg. Modern. 

Rauch, Hans von Schratt. An old German viol- 

Rauch, JohanN, Breslau, 1 6th and 17th centuries. 

Rauch, Jacob, Manheim. About 1747. High model.. 


Rauch, Wurzburg. This maker was a brpfher of 
iixe preceding, and made instruments of similar type. 

Rauch, Sebastien, Lietmente, Bohemia, 1742 — 1763. 
Work somewhat coarse. Model, the highly built style. 

Raut, Giovanni, Rennes, 1790. Violins after the 
style of Guarnerius del Jesu. 

Rautmann, Brunswick. Modern. 

Ravenna, G. B., Lavagna, igth century. Violins, 
violas, and basses. 

Ravilio, G. B., Ferrara, i5fh century. A maker of 
various string instruments. 

Raenzo, C, Barcelona, 17th century. 

Razzoli, Felice, Villa Minozzo, 19th century. A 

.Reali, Cosimo, Parma, 1667. A maker of pochettes. 

Rechardini, Giovanni, Venice, 1605. Violins, 
violas, basses. 

Reggiani, Francesco, San Martino.' About 1836. 
A maker of violins and guitars. , 

Reichel, Johann Gottfried, Absam. About the end 
of the 17th century. He was a pupil of Stainer, accord- 
ing to his own account, but the arching of his instru- 
ments is, like that of a great many imitators of this 
master, absurdly high. 

Reichel, Johann Conrad. About 1779. A kind of 
trade maker in Neukirchen. . 

Reichers, August, Berlin. Contemporary. A pupil 
•of Bausch of Leipsic, it is said. He is chiefly a repairer 
of considerable reputation from a German point of view. 

Reina, Giacomo. About 1708. An Italian maker of 


Remi, or Remy, Cremona, i8th century. It has been 
said there was a maker of this name in Cremona, who 
made ordinary violins so far as concerns quaHty. He 
branded his name on them, and carved heads of 
monsters, etc., on the scrolls. Dark coloured varnish. 
I have not seen any. Another maker of this name was 
in- London about fifty years ago, who doctored the wood 
of his instruments. He came from Paris. In Paris 
there were established — '■ 

Remy, Nicolas, Paris. About 1760. He made 
yiolins, violas, and basses after the style of the earlier 
French makers, such as Louis Guersan. 

Remy, Jean, Mathurin, Paris. Born 1770. Died 
1854. Son of preceding. Somewhat of the same kind 
of work. 

Remy, Jules, Paris. Born 1813. This maker was 
in business until recently, and was a son of Jean 
Mathurin Remy. 

Renaudin, Leopold, 1788 — ^95. A maker of double 
basses which are sought after in France. He' made 
himself busy in the excesses of the French Revolution, 
and was one of those political splutterers who, 
untrained in the art of agitation, blunder intO' 
murder, and then whimper when they are them- 
selves condemned to death. That is the most charit- 
able view of his character, but if history is accurate 
in its details, he was one of those sanguinary creatures 
whose birth in the ranks of the human specie 
appears to be quite inexplicable. He was beheaded 

in 1795- 

Renaudin, Ghent, 1 78 1. A repairer. 


Renault, Nicolas, Nancy. About the end of the 
1 6th century. Said to have been a pupil of Twersus. 

Renault, Jacques, Paris. First half of 17th century. 

Renault, S. B., Paris. There is a curious instrument, 
a kind of lyre,,by this maker in the Paris Conservatoire, 
but nothing more is known of him. 

Renault and Chatelain, Paris, i8th century. This 
firm state in their tickets that they " make, sell, hire, 
Tauy, and repair all kinds of mUsical instruments." 

Reynaud, Andreas, Tarascon. About 1766, 

Requeno, Y., Vivez Vincenzo, Calatrato. About 
1743. Violin repairers. 

RicEVATi, AuRELio, Florence, About 1650. 

Richard, Robert, Paris, 1756. Dean of the Paris 
Violin Makers' Guild for this year. i 

RicoLAZi, LuDovico, Cremona. About 1729. 

RicozALi, LuDOVico, Cremona. About 1729. 

These makers, one might almost be certain, are one 
and the same. They made violins. 

RiESS, Bamberg, 1740 — 60. A very good imitator of 
Stainer. The name is som^tirnes spelt " Ries." 

RiGHi, Antonio, Modena, 1817. A maker of double 
basses. He was a painter also. His fiddle work is not 
of a high character. 

RiNALDi, Celeste, Modena, 19th century. Violins, 
violas, and basses. 

RiNALDi, GiOFFREDO, Turin. Contemporary. Chiefly 
a dealer. 

Risueno, Tommaso, Madrid. About 1783. ; Got their 
new instruments made,- probably, in Mirecourt. 

RiTTiG, Cristoforo, Genoa, 1692. A maker of 'cellos. 


RivoLTA, GiAcopo, MilSti, 1800^22. , A fairly good 
maker, who was one of that class of egotists who keep 
US in a constant condition of pleasant excitement by 
threatening to revive the glorious epoch of Stradivari, 
either by rediscovering the varnish or reproducing the 
iftiagnificent tone. Rivolta's work is not very refined, 
but his tone i^ good. 

RizzoTTi, Nicola, Novellara, igth century. Violins, 
violfis, and 'cellos. 

Rocca, Joseph Antonio. About 1840 — 1865. 
Violins, violas, and basses. He was a pupil of Pressenda, 
and a maker of undoubted ability. 

Rocca, Enrico, Genoa, . 19th century. Chiefly 

Rodiani, Giovita, Brescia, i6th century. This is the 
maker whose name is usually given as " Javietta 
Budiani." The error has probably arisen through 
partial illegibility in the ticket of some rare specimen of 
his work. His work is in the style of Gasparo da Sal6 
and Maggini, having golden amber-coloured varnish, 
finely tinted with red. His tickets are 

"GiouiTA Rodiani in Brescia." 

Roddli, Luigi, Nancy, 1511. An early viol maker, 
who was patronised by the then Duke of Lorraine. 

RoiSMANN, JoHANN, Breslau, 1630 — 80. A fancy 
fiddle maker. Porcelain fiddles, and such like. 

RoL, Paris, 1753. A violin maker. 

RoLiNi, GiAMBATTisTA, Pesaro, 1471. A very ancient 
maker, it is said, of violins ! 

Romano, Pietro, Pa via, i8th century. 

RoMANiNi, Antonio, Cremona, i8th century. 


RoMARiNi, Antonio, Cremona, i8th century. 

These two appear to be one and the same. A ticket 
of the latter runs, " Antonio Romarini fecit Cremonse 
anno 17 — ." 

RoNCHiNi, Raffaello, Fano, 19th century. A maker 
of violins and bows. 

Rook, Joseph, Carlisle. About 1777. 

RoPiQUET, Paris. About 1815. This maker was a 
player in the opera band, and made several violins. 
An amateur, in fact. 

RosiERO, Rocco, Cremona. About 1700. Violins, 
■violas, and 'cellos. 

RosMANN, JoHANN, Breslau. 17th century. 

Ross, John, London, 1562 — 1598. A viol maker. 

Ross, John, London. About 1596. A son of pre- 
ceding. Also a viol maker. The name is occasionally 
spelt Rosse. 

RossELLi, GiAMBATTiSTA, Sassuolo. i8th century. 
Violins and violas. 

Rossi, Enrico, Pavia, 1883. Violins. 

Rossi, Ferdinando, Modena. 19th century. A 
• Rossi, Gaetano, Milan. 19th century. A maker of 
double basses. 

Rossi, Giovanni, Perugia, 1820. Violins. 

Rota, Giovanni, Cremona, 1705. Violins, violas and 

Roth, Johann, Darmstadt. About 1675. A German 

Roth, Christian, Augsburg. About 1675. 

Rotta, Carlo, Lecco. An Italian maker — violins. 


RoTTEMBQURG, Albert, Brussels. Died 1764. 
Violins, violas and basses. 


RoTTEMBOURG.G. G., Brussels. Born 1672. Died 1756. 

RoTTEMBOuRG, G. A., Brussels, 1758 — 73. 

RoTTEMBouRG, G. A., Brussels. Born 1705. Died 
1783. Son of G. G. 

RoTTEMBOURG, G. A. G., Brussels. Born 1642. 
Died 1720. 

ROTTEMBROUCK, BruSScls, 170O— 7-25. 

Several of the members of the Rottembourg family 
seem to have copied the Amati model. Some of 
instruments have a warm btown varnish. 

RovELLi. An Italian maker about 1744. 

RovETTO, Bergamo, 1840 — 70. 

RozE, Orleans. About 1757. A fairly good maker. 
Yellowish varnish. Wide sound holes and solid looking 

RozET, Paris. About 1691. A court maker of the 

Rub, Augusto Da, Viterbo, 1771. Violins. 

RuBATi, Milan. About 1700. A maker of porcelain 

RuBiNi, Bologna, 19th century. Chiefly guitars. 

RuBRECHT, Vienna, 19th century. A repairer. 

RuDET, P., Warsaw, 19th century. Violins, violas. 

RuELLE, Pierre,' Paris. Dean of the Paris Violin. 
Makers' Guild for this year. 

RuF, Hall, 1780 — 1877. A maker chiefly interesting 
for the labour and care with which he collected informa- 
tion regarding Jacob Stainer. 


RuFFiNO. An Italian maker of pochettes or kits. 

RupPERT, Erfurt, i8th century. A maker of 
violins, violas and 'cellos. He neither purfled his 
instruments, nor put corner blocks in them. They are 
all of flat model, and have a dark brown, amber varnish, 
according to Otto. . 

Sacchni, Sabatino, Pesaro, 1686. A violin maker 
who copied Maggini, but was also familiar with the 
Cremonese models of that tinie, and who succeeded in 
combining the two styles by giving to the back some-' 
thing of the Amati arching while he retained elsewhere 
many points of Maggini's habit. One of hjs known 
specimens is of small size. 

Sacquin, Paris, 1830^ — 60. A fine maker, who has 
produced some excellent double basses, as well as good 
violins and violas. 

Sainpra, Jacques, Berlin, 17th . century. A viol 
maker. ' 

Saint-Paul, Pierre^ Paris. About 1741. - An 
ordinary maker of violins, violas, and basses. Poor, 
dull, yellow' varnish. 

Saint-Paul, Antoine, Paris. Dean of the Violin 
Makers' Guild for the year 1768. He succeeded Louis 
Guersari, and eiilployed an orange varnish. 

Saint-Cecile Des Thermes, Paris. About 1855. A 
maker of 'cellos. 

Sajot, Paris. About 1734. 

Salzar, Paris. A mere name. 

"Salle, Paris,' 1 825 — 1850. A very fine repairer, and a 
great authority on old instruments, even among Paris 
dealers. ^ 


Salomon, Jean Baptiste Deshayes, Paris. Dean 
of the Paris y.M. Guild in the year 1760. He made 
some fine-looking basses. Tone not so fine. Hard 
varnish. He died before 1772. 

Salomon, Rheims. About 1747. A maker of the 
school or style of Louis Guersan. Yellow varnish, and 
plenty of wood, but poor workmanship. 

Salomon, B., Paris, i6th and 17th century. Violins 
and basses after the style of Boquay. 

Saltinari, Giacomo, Marano, 19th century. A 

Salvador!, Guiseppe, Pistoia, 1861. Violins. 
Sanoni, G. B., Verona. i8th century. ' 
Santagiuliana, Giacinto, Vicenza. About 1770. 
Sante, Pisaro, 1670. Violins, violas, and basses. 
Sante, Guiseppe, Rome, 1775. Violins. 
Santi, Guiseppe, Rome, 1778. Violins, violas, and 

Santo, Giovanni, Naples, 1730. Violins, violas, and 
'. basses. 

Sanzo^ Santino, Milan, i8th century. Violins. 
' Saracini, Domenico, Florence, 1655. Violins, violas, 
and basses. 

Sardj, Venice, 1649. Violins and violas. 
Sassi, Alessio. About 1784. An Italian 'cello 

Saunier, Paris. A French provincial maker who 
started in' Paris about 1770. His violins are fairly well 
' appreciated in France, and he is said to have been the 
instructor of f . L. Pique. 

Saunier, Bordeaux. About 1754. 



Savani, Guiseppe, Carpi. About 1809. A maker of 
double basses. 

Savitzky, Vienna, i8th century. 

Sawicki, Vienna. About 1830. 

ScARAMPJELLA, GuiSEPPE, Florence, 19th century. 
Born in Brescia in 1838. His father was a carpenter, 
and also made violins, but after learning the elernents of 
his business in Brescia, Guiseppe went to Paris, where 
at that time a countryman of his, Nicolo Bianchi, was 
famous as a judge and repairer. Scarampella soon 
made himself expert under Bianchi's guidance, and 
returned to Italy, where in 1866 he started on his own 
account in Florence. There he has been entrusted with 
work of very considerable importance, not only from 
private amateurs, but also from the Florentine- Royal 
Musical Institute, for whom he restored the famous 
viola and violoncellb made by Stradavari in i6go for the 
Grand Duke Ferdinand, son of Cosmo III., of Medici. 
In 1884 he was appointed Conservator of their Museum 
— an office which, I believe, he still holds. 

ScH.ENDL, Anton, Mittenwald. About 1753. 

ScHEiNLEiN, Joseph Michel, Langenfeld. Born , 


ScHEiNLEiN, Mathias Friederich, Langenfeld, 
1710 — 71. This maker was also a musician. His instru- 
ments are well made, but of a high model, and too thin 
in the wood. Dark coloured varnish. The preceding 
Joseph Michel was his son. 

Schell, Sebastian, Nuremberg. About 1727. A 
lute maker. One of his instruments is in the Conser- 
vatoire Museum at Paris. 



Neukirchen. About 1743. 

ScHLick, Leipsic. 

Schleget, Elia, Altemburg, 1730. Violins and 
other string instruments, such as- harps and lutes. 

Schmidt, Cassel, 1800 — 1825. Not a particularly 
fine maker. Stradivari model. 

Schmidt, Carlo, Coeten, i8th century. Invented a 
keyed violin. 

Schmidt, C. F., Vienna, 1873. Violins, violas and 
basses. • 

Schnceck, Brussels, 1700 — 30. Violins, violas and 
'cellos. Amati model. 

Schonger, Franz, Erfurt, i8th century. His instru- 
ments are of large size, and good looking, but of poor 

Schonger, Georg, Erfurt. He was a son of pre- 
ceding maker, and a fine repairer, chiefly. 

ScHORN, Johann, Inspruck. About 1680 — 99. Violins 
and viols. His violins are tubby. Good varnish. Also 
at Salzburg. 

ScHORN, JoHANN Paul, Salzburg, 1699 — 1716. Violins 
and viols. He was patronized by the Court. 

ScHLOssER, Hermann, Ehrlbach. Contemporary. 
Violins, violas, basses. 

ScHOTT, Martin, Prague, i8th century. A lute 

ScHOTT, Mayence. About 1780. Various instru- 
ments. Chiefly a dealer. 

ScHROT, Jacob, Inspruck, 1838. A repairer. 

ScHULz, Peter, Ratisbon, 1855. Violins and guitars. 


Schuster, Michel, Markneukirchen. About 1873. 

Schwartz, Bernard, Strasbourg. Died 1822. 

Schwartz, George Frederick, Strasbourg. Born 
1785. Died 1849. Son of preceding. 

Schwartz, Theophile Guillaume, Strasbourg. Born 
1787. Died 1861. Also a son of Bernard Schwarz, 
who trained his two sons,' and they succeeded to the 
business under the style of " FrSres Schwartz." George 
Frederick made bows, his brother Theophile violins, etc. 
The first violin of this firm is dated 1824, and down to 
1852 they turned out 80 violins and 30 'cellos. In that 
year succeeded to the business 

Schwartz, Theophile Guillaume. Born 1821. Son 
of the pi^evious Theophile Guillaume. 

Schewitzer, Pesth. About 1800. Violins and 
violas. Good work, flat model. 

ScoTTO, Verona, 1511. Viols and violins. He was 
also a musician — a lute player. 

Secco, Del, Venice, 19th century. Violins, violas 
and basses. 

Segizo, Girolamo Maria, Modena. Died 1553. 
Violins, violas, basses, viols and, lutes. 

Sellas, Matteo, Venice. About 1639. Chiefly 
mandolines and guitars. 

Seni, Francesco, Florence, 1634. Violins and violas. 

Senta, Fabrizio, Turin, i8th, century. Basses. 

Serafin, Georgio, Venice. About 1747. Violins 
violas and basses. Probably some relative of Sante 
Serafin (Sanctus Seraphin) already mentioned. 

Seresati, D., Naples, i8th century. Violins, violas 
and basses. 


Sgarbi, GuisEPPE, Finale Emilie, 1841 — 75. Violins, 
violas and bas~ses. ' 

Shaw, J., London, 1656 — 98. Viols aiid violins. 

Siciliano, Antonio, Venice, 1600. Varnish of a dark 
red, very thickly coated. The terminal squares in the 
sound holes very small. The tops smaller than the 
lower, ones, the main stem having no notches. 

SiGNORiNi, Serafino, Florence, 1877. A repaiirer. 

Simon, Paris. About 1788. Violins and basses. 

Simon, iSalzburg, 1731. Violins, violas and basses. 

SiMONiN, Charles. Born at Mirecourt, he was sent 
to'Paris and apprenticed to J. B. Vuillaume, and-gradu- 
ated with him a high-class workman. He returned to 
Mirecourt for a time, and moved to Geneva in 1841, and 
eight years afterwards to Toulouse. He has gained 
several medals. , 

Simpson, John, London, 1785 — 90. A city maker at 
the back of the Royal Exchange. 

Simpson, J. and J., London. Later. 

Sirjean, Paris, 1818. Violins, violas, and basses. 

SiROTTi, Nicola, Spilamberto, 19th century. A 

SiTT, A., Prague. Modern. 

Slagh-Meulen, Vander, Antwerp. About 1672., 
An old maker of good traditions. Varnish dull brown. 
Decorative sort of work. A curious specimen of his 
'cellos was in the 1878 Paris exhibition. The head was 
open at the back, and the volute terminated in a 
carved head with a crown. One singular feature was 
seen on the inside of back, namely, purfling and gilding. 

Smith, Henry, London, 1629 — 33. A viol maker. 1 


Smith, Thomas, London, 1756 — 99. A pupil of 
Peter Wamsley. Chiefly 'cellos. 

SkiTH, W., London, 1770 — 86. ; 

Sneider, Guiseppe, Pa via. About 1703. Violins, 
violas and basses. Amati arching. 

Snceck, Egidius, Brussels, 1731. Copied Amati. 

Snceck, Henri Augusts, Brussels, 1672. Same 
kind of work as preceding. 

Snueck, Mark, Brussels, i 8th century. A repairer. 

SoccHi, ViNCENzo, Bologna, 1661. Pochettes. 
There is one of this date in the Paris Conservatoire 

SocoL, Pio, Genoa, 19th century. Violins, violas, 

SocQUET, Paris, i6th century. A maker of very 
common violins. , 

SoLiANi, Angelo, Modena, 1752 — 1810. A fine maker, 
whose instruments have an exquisite silvery tone and 
considerable power. A golden, amber-coloured varnish. 

SoMER, Nicolas, Paris, 1749. Dean of the Maker's 
Guild for this year. 

SoNciNi, LuiGi,'San Martino, 1831. Violins. • 

Sarsana, Spirito, Cuneo, 17 14 — 34. 

SouzA, Gio Guiseppe De, Lisbon. 17th century. 

SovERiNi, Bologna, 1883. Violins, violas and basses. 

Stanguellini, C, Modena, 1883. A repairer. 

Speiler. a Tyrolese maker. 

Statelmann, D., -Vienna,- 1730 — 50. Copied Stainer ■ 
excellently. Varnish yellowish. 

Statelmann, J. J., Vienna. About 1759. Also a 
fine copier of Stainer. 


Stautinger, M. W., Wurzburg, 1671. A viol 

Staube, Berlin, 1775. A repairer. 

Stecher, Carl, 1880. Violins and basses. 

Steffanini, Carlo, Mantua. Chiefly mandolines. 
1 8th century (1790). 

Steininger, Francois, Paris, 1827. A good maker 
of 'cellos. 

Stephannis, Cremona, 1507. Violins, violas and 

Sterningre, Jacob, Mayence, 17015. A repairer. 

Stirrat, Edinburgh. About 1815. 

Statwolf. a German maker of double basses. 

Stauffer, Vienna. i8th century. 

Stoff, Francesco, Fiissen, 1750 — 98. Violins, 
violas and basses. 

Stoss, F., Fiissen, 1750 — 98. These two names 
Stoss and Stoff appear to represent the same person. 

Stoss, Prague. i8th century. 

Stoss, Bernard and Martin, Vienna. End of last 
and beginning of Ihe present century. Good model. 
Not the high tubby models of so many German makers. 
The work is also good. 

Straus, J., Neustadt. About 1745. 

Strauss, 'Michele, Venice, 1680. Pochettes. 

Straut, Michele, Venice, 1686. Violins and violas. 

Stregner, Magno, Venice, 17th century. A lute 

Strobl, Johann, Hallein, i8th century. 

Strong, John, Somerset, 17th century. A viol 


Struad, Gasper, Prague. About 1789. Viol maker. 
Also made 'cellos. 

Sturdza, Vienna, 1873. Violins, violas and basses. 

Sturge, H., Bristol and Huddersfield. 1811 — 53. 

SuLOT, Nicolas, Dijon, 1829 — 39. A violin maker 
who took out patents for original notions, with regard to 
violins and basses. One of these was for a second belly 
in the interior of the violin and which was put in com- 
munication with the upper belly for the purpose of 
reinforcing the tone. This notion, propounded in 1839, 
seems to be almost the same as that proposed by 
Mollenhaver some fifty years later. Sulot called his 
instrument a "violon a double echo." The patent 
is dated 5th May, 1839, and,' fifty years hence, it may 
again be resuscitated, with a few additioijs or alterations 
in detail, and with probably similar success. 

Suover, Giovanni, Florence, 1637. A lute maker. 
' Tachinardi, Cremona, 1689. A maker who copied 
the Amati style. 

Tadolini, Guiseppe, Modena, 19th century. Origin- 
ally of Bologna. " Settled in Modena as a repairer of 
old and a maker of new instruments and bows. 

Tanegia, Carlantonio, Milan, i8th century. A 
ticket of his runs, " Carolus Antonius Tanegia fecit .in 
via Lata Mediolani anni 1730." 

Taningardo, Georgio, Rome. About 1735. 

Tantino, Sesto, Modena, 1461 — 90. A maker to the 
Court of Ferrara. 

Tardieu, Tarascon, i8th century. An old French 
writer, Laborde, stated that the bearer of this name 
invented the violoncello. He was an ecclesiastic, and 


his brother was a chapel niaster, but as the 'cello was 
known in Italy a hundred and fifty years before Father 
Tardieu's day, this little romance has not had very 
extended belief. He is still, however, in some quarters, 
supposed to have been a maker of 'cellosj and I cannot 
well exclude his name. 

Tarr, Manchester. About 1855. 

Tartaglia, Francesco, Stroppiana, 1883. Violins. 

Tassini, Bartolomeo, Venice, 1750 — 54. A some- 
what common maker. His tickets run, " Opus 
Bartholomsei Tassini Veneti." 

Taylor, London, 1780—- 1820. Made very good 
violins, but they are not, very numerous. 

Teoditti, Giovanni, Rome, 17th century. , Violins, 
violas and basses. 

Terapatini, Sant Agata Lugo, 1879. A maker of 

Termanini, Guiseppe, Modena, 1755. Violins. 

Teslar, Giovanni, Ancona, 1622,. A viol maker. 

Testator, II Vecchio, Milan, 15th and i6th 
centuries. This is the maker who, in the irresponsible 
days of fiddle history,, had assigned to him the credit of 
inventing the violin. The notion is, at present, quite 
discarded, nothing whatever being known regarding this 

TheRess, C, London. Aboijt 1850. 

Thibouville-Lamy, London, Paris, and Mirecourt. 

Thierriot, Prudent, Paris, 1772. Dean of the 
Paris Makers' Guild for this year. 

Thin, M. and G., Vienna, i8th century. 


Thiphanon, Paris. About 1780—88. Tickets 
*' Tiphanon, rue St. Thomas-du-Louvre, a Paris." 

Thir, Johann George, Vienna. About 1791. 
Chiefly mandolines. 

Thomassin, Paris. From about 1825 — 1845. Previous 
to 1825, he worked with Clement. He was a good 

Thorowgood, H., London, i8th century. 

■Thumhardt, Munich, i8th century. 

Thumhardt, Strasburg, i8th century. 

TiELKE, Joachim, Hamburg, 1539 — 1686. In the 
way of decorated instruments of the antique class, this 
maker may, perhaps, be justifiably called a peerless 
artist in his particular style. The business was carried 
on for' nearly a century and a half, and any one who has 
seen the beJiutiful Kensington lute by this maker will 
not fail to realise the great interest which his work 
arouses in the bosoms of antiquaries and' lovers pf 
artistic bric-a-brac. 

TiLLEY, T., London. About 1774. 

Tirler,, Carlo, Bologna, i8th century. A decorative 
maker, chiefly of guitars. His " ticket " sometimes took 
the form of inlay, and would then run as follows, 
" Carlo Tirler, Leutar in Bologna face." 

TivoLi, AuGUSTO, Trieste, 1873 — 83. Violins. 

Tolbecque, Auguste. Born at Paris 1830. Son of 
a clever Belgian musician, he became a 'cellist of 
considerable distinction. He began to make instruments 
under the guidance of" Claude Victor Rambaux, whose 
shop opposite the Conservatiore used to be frequented 
by numbers of intelligent amateurs, and professionals. 


Tolbecque had taken first prize at the Conservatoire 
for 'cello playing, and one can realize how eminently 
qualified he was in that direction, to begin with. After 
he made some new instruments he turned his attention 
to the reproduction of old ones, and became extremely 
clever at it. His ticket, in manuscript, runs " Ate. 
Tolbecque fils fecit, Parigi, anno." He also made 
organs, and acquired considerable fame by reconstructing 
perfectly Winkel's Componium, referred to by Fetis. 
This instrument had been piurchased by an amateur of 
some little mechanical skill, and in his -efForts to repair 
it he occupied himself for twenty-five years to no 
purpose. At the end of that time he had pretty nearly 
destroyed its identity, for there was hardly a single piece, 
that did not defy recognition. After his death the case 
was bought by one, and the mechanism by another 
organ builder. The latter sold the mechanism to 
Tolbecque, who, in eighteen months, completely 
restored the instrument which took its previous owner 
a quarter of a century to almost ruin. It is now in the 
collection at the Brussels Conservatoire. Tolbecque's. 
violin work is not often seen. 

ToMASi, Carlo Gaspare, Modena, 17th century. A 
viol maker chiefly. Fine varnish. 

Toppani, Angelo de, Rome. About 1740. Highly 
arched instruments with a golden yellow varpish. Style- 
of Tecdhler. 

ToRELLi, Verona, 1625. Violas and 'cellos. 

ToRRANUS, Turin, 1700. Violins, violas and basses, 

ToRRESAN, Antonio, Crespano. Bom 1802. Died. 
1872. Instruments of a common type. 


ToRRiNG, London. 

ToRTOBELLo, Rome, 1680. Violins, violas and 

TouLY, Jean, Nancy. About 1747. 

Trapani, Raffaele, Naples. Beginning of 19th 
century. Made instruments of a large size, and of 
rather curious style, the top and bottom portions of the 
soiind holes not being cut through. Thick reddish 
brown varnish. Model flat, and coarse purfling. 

Trevillot, Claude, Mirecourt.' About 1698. An 
old violin maker. 

Trinelli, Giovanni, Villalunga, iSth and 19th 
centuries. Viols and 'cellos. 

Troiani, Francesco, Rome, 19th century. Violins, 
violas and basses. 

Trunco, Cremona, 1660. ' 

Trusk, S. J. About 1734. 

Turner, William, London. About 165Q. A very 
fine viol makef who had his place of business in Gravel 
Lane, E.G. An instrument by this maker is described 
, as superb. It is jn the collection of A. Gautier of Nice. 
The' ticket of this highly creditable representative of 
English work runs as follows, " William Turner, at 
ye hand and crown in gravelle lane neere aldgate, 
i London, 1650." There was another Turner who 
stamped his name under the button of his violins 
and who was of a much later date. His work is in no 
wa:y to. be compared with that of William Turner of 
" gravelle lane." 

Tywersus,' Mirecourt, i6th century. This was a 
court maker in LorraiRe, some of whose Princes are 


said to have been his patrons. That traldition appears 
to be all. that remains of him. = 

,Udene, Natale da, Udine. , Violiiis, violas, and 

Ugar, Crescenzio, Rome, 1790. A viol maker. 

Ugar, Pietro, Arezzo. About 1802. . A repairer. 

Ulrich-Fichtle, Johann, Mittenwald, i8th century. 
Violins and basses. 

Ungarini, Antonio, Fabriano, 1762. A viol maker. 

Unverdorben, Marx, Venice, 1415. An old lute 

Vaillot. a French maker of 17th century. 
■ Valentine, W., London. Died* about 1877. An 
excellent maker of double 

Valenzano, Naples. A violin maker. 

Valdastri, Modena. About 1805. Pochettes. 

ValleRj Marseilles, 1683. 

Vandelli, Giovanni, Fiorano Modena. Born 1796. 
Died 1839. Violins and basses. 

Vanderlist, Paris, i8th century. This maker was 
apparently an excellent workman, judging by a copy of 
the Guadagnini School which he made. He marked 
his instruments under the button by branding his name, 
and placing inside a ticket, " Vanderlist, Luthier, rue 
des Vieux Augustins, pres de I'egout de la rue Mont- 
martre, Paris." 

Vanvaelbeck, Louis, Valbeke, 1294 — 1312. A maker 
of rebecs and viols. This maker is within measurable 
distance of being the oldest known. He is supposed to 
have been the inventor of the mechanisrn for organ 


Varotti, Giovanni, Bologna, 1813. Violins and 

Vauchel, Damm. Modern. 

Vantrim. a French maker of double basses of the 
igth century. 

Vecchi, Orazio, Modena, 19th century. A maker of 
small-sized double basses. 

Venere, Undelio, Padua. About 1534. A lute 

Ventura, Anibale, Viadana, i8th century. Violins. 

Venzi, Andrea, Florence, 1636. Violins and basses. 

Verbeeck, Gisbert, Amsterdam,' 1671. Violins. 

Verini, Serafino, Arceto. Born 1799,. Died 1868. 
A sort of amateur maker of 'cellos and double basses, 
not much above the common class of work.' He 
ultimately became a bee farmer. He was a bee fancier 
all his life. 

Veele, Francesco, Padua, 17th century. Violins. 

Vermesch, Beaumont sur Oise. About 1781. 
This maker was called, and calle^ himself, le pfere 
Vermesch. He was an ecclesiastical amateur fiddle 
maker, and not very skilled. > 

Veron, Pierre Andr6, Paris, i8th ceiitury. A maker 
of the times of Boquay. 

Veronesi, Camillo, Bologna, 19th century. Violins. 

Verrebrugen, Theodore, Antwerp, 1641. A maker 
of double basses. 

Vetter, Johann Christopher, Strasburg, 1744. A 
maker of 'cellos and other basses. 

Vettrini, Brescia. 

Viard, Nicolas,, Versailles. About 1760. 


ViBRECHT, GiSBERT, Amsterdam, 1700 — 10. This 
may be the same maker as " Verbeeck." 

ViGONi, A., Pavia, 19th century. VioHns. 

ViLLAUME and Giron, Troyes. Beginning of i8th 
century. Work fairly good. 

ViMERCATi, PiETRO, Brescia. About 1660. 

Vi MERC ATI, Gasparo, Milan. A maker of mandolines, 
probably also viotins. Ticket runs, " Gaspare Vimercati 
nella contrada della Dogana di Milano." 

ViNACciA, Naples, 1736 to 19th century. A family of 
four in succession. Antonio, Mariano, Pasqualino, and 
a son of the latter. All chiefly lutes and guitars. 

ViNCENZi, ,LuiGi, Carpi. Born 1765. Died 1881. 
Violins and double- basses. Well made instruments. 
Varnish of a light amber colour. Tickets " Aloysius 
Vincenzi Carpensis." 

ViNZER, GrIsgory Ferdinand, Augusta. About 1737. 
Violins, violas and basses. 

ViR, HiERONiMO DI, Brcscia. 

VivoLi, Giovanni, Florence. About 1642. Violins. 

Voboam, Paris, 1682 — 1693. A famous luthier but 
chiefly decorative. In the. museum of the Paris Conser- 
vatoire, there is a beautiful guitar by him made of 

VoEL, E., Maintz. About 1840. A fine maker. 
Good Stradivari model and varnish. 

VoGEL, Wolfgang, Nuremberg. Died 1650. 

VoGLER, J. G., Wurtzbur'g, 1750. 

VoLPE, Marco, Spilamberto. Died 1839. He made 
viols, violins and double basses. 

VoiGT, Martin, Hamburg. About 1726. Viols and 


lutes. , Same beautiful class of work as that of the 
Tielke firm. 

Wachfer, Anthony, Fiissen. About 1772. Violins. 

Wafple, Conrad, Mittenwald, 17th century. 

Wagner, C. S., Medingen, 1786 — 1800. Violins, 
violas, basses, etc. 

Wagner, Benedict, Estwangen. About 1769. He 
calls himself in his tickets a court maker. ■ His instru- 
ments are very highly arched and of common work. 

Wagner, j., Constance. About 1773. , 

Waldaner, Fiissen, i8th century. 

Walker, A., Aberdeenshire. Modern. 

Walther, Jean Baptist, The Hague, 1727. Violins. 

.Weaver, S., London, i8th century. 

Weber, Prague,' i8th century. 

Weigert, J. B., ■ Dinz. About 1721. A small viol 
by this maker is in the collection of the Musical Society, 

Weiss, Jacob, Salzburg. About 1733. 

Weisz, Jacob, Salzburg. About 1733 — 1777. 

These two are evidently the same. A ticket with 
above date, 1733, runs, "Jacob Weisz, lauthen und 
Geigenmacher in Salzburgh." 

Wettengel, G. a., Neukirchen. About 1828. He 
is. a maker who published a book about repairing and 
making, but his own instrument-s are not Anuch, if at all, 

Wenger, G. F., Salzburg, 1761. Violins. 

Werner, Frankfort, 1855. Chiefly a lute maker. 

Wey, H., Besancon. 19th century. An amateur 
vjolin maker., 


Wyemann^ Cornelius, Amsterdam. 17th and i8th 
WiGHTMAN, London, 1761. 

Wilde, John, St. Petersburg. i8th century. This 
niaker distinguished himself by making an iron 

Willems, Antwerp, 1730 — 60. A violin maker who ' 
followed the Italian school. . 

Willer, Prague. i8th century. 
Woldemar, Michel. Born in Orleans in 1750. 
Died at Clermont-Ferrand 1816. He invented a violin 
with five strings, or, at any rate, suggested the notion 
w;hich was never, probably, carried into practice. It 
was the reverse of JuUien's five stringed fiddle, being 
intended to have a C string (below G), instead of one 
above E, as was Jullien's idea. Woldemar was a 

WoLTERS, J. N., Paris. About 1749. A decorative 
viol maker. 

Wood, G. F., London. Contemporary. A decidedly 
careful maker, who has caught, very felicitously, many 
of the characteristics of the finer kinds of modern 
French work. 
WoRNFE, George, Mittenwald, 1786.1 Violins. 
WoRNUM, London, 1794. 
Wright, Daniel, London, 1743. 
Young, J., Aberdeen. Modern. 

YouNGE, John, London. About 1728. This maker 

was famous in his day. He had a son who was a 

violinist, and both have been made, in a sense, immortal 

by the English composer, Purcell, who has put them 



into one of his catches. It is quoted by Mr. Hart in 
his valuable work on the violin. 

Zabel, GeoIffry, Tausermunde, 1792 — 1803. 
Violins, etc. 

Zach, Vienna. Contemporary. A very clever maker 
and restorer. 

Zanabon. An Italian maker. 

Zanfi, Giacomo, Modena. Born 1756 — 1822. A 
maker of considerable inerit. He made violins, tenors 
and basses, and generally emplayed a clear yellow 
varnish. He was one of those handy men who manage 
to combine one or two separate professions. For , 
example Zanfi was a government -servant, and he was a 
music teacher. His instruments are in the style of 
Casini — another Modenese already mentioned — and how 
he succeeded in teaching music, making double basses, 
'cellos, violas and violins, while, at the same time not 
neglecting his official duties, it is hardly worth while 
now to enquire. One ticket runs "Jacobus Zanfi, 
musica; professor fecit Mutinoe, i8og." 

Zani, Francesco, ReggiOrEmilio,i765. Violins. 
Zanoli, Giacomo, Verona, 1730. Viols and 'cellos. 
Zanoli, Guiseppe, Verona, 1730. Violas and 'cellos. 
These two are probably the same. 
Zanoli, Giambattista, Padua, 1740. 
Zanotti, Antonio, Lodi and Mantua. About 1727.' 
Zanotti, Guiseppe, Piacenza, i8th century. 
Zanti, Alessandro, Mantua. About 1765 — 70. An 
imitator of P. Guarnerius. 

Zanure, Pietro, Brescia, 1509. A viol by this maker, 
and exhibited in London in 1872, bore this date. 


Zeitter, ,Fr., Brunswick, 1835. This maker — if he 
was a maker — combined pianos. with violins. 

Zenatto, PiETRO, Treviso. About 1634. A ticket 
bears this date. 

ZiNBELMANN, FiLippo, Florence, 1661. A viol maker. 

ZoLFANELLi, GuisEPPE, Flofence, 1690 — 97. 

ZwERGER, Anthony, Mittenwald, 1750 — 60. A 
fairly good maker. Varnish of a coldj weak-looking 
brown, but in other respects, nice violins of their type. 


Molxn §o\a MuIizxb. 

VIOLIN bow making has come to be such a delicate 
kind of work that it is now quite a special 
industry. Ever since the days of the Tourtes the 
importance of a fine bow has been increasingly recog- 
nized, until, in the present day the better Tourtes are 
quite beyond the readh of ordinary players. The two 
finest Tourtes in the world are now in America, and 
cost, together, about a hundred and forty pounds. That 
may seem a somewhat bold and startling statement to 
make, but it is quite correct. One of these two bows I 
have been , acquainted with for a considerable time, 
having frequently played with it, and I confess I 
experienced a slight feeling of regret when it was sent 
across the Atlantic. It was not that I grudged it to our 
kinsmen, but I had become familiar with the lovely thing 
in its exquisite furniture of Oriental pearls, sapphire, 
and all the rest of it in the shape of jewellery. These 
were merely tasteful bagatelles, having, of course, their 
decorative value,' but the stick was so superb a specimen 
pf Tourte's skill and judgment, and was in such 
splendid condition, that I felt I should probably never 
see it, or its like again, unless I happened to be visiting 
the States, and had an opportunity of seeing it' there. 
When once our American friends get hold of these 


perfect things, they usually keep them steadily. The . 
other grand Totirte stick was made for Larochefoucauld, 
and is also in America. Th^re are many very fine ones 
in this country, and on the Continent, and their prices, 
according to style and condition, run as high as forty 
pounds. Under twenty pounds they are not worth 
having. A great deal of nonsense is written . about 
Tourte and Lupot sticks, in regard to which the 
connoisseur amateur should be oh his guard. It comes 
chiefly from the pens of those who have not seen any 
Tburtes, and are not acquainted with their current 
value, their information being drawn from published 
sources, ten, fifteen, t^yenty, and perhaps fifty years old. 
One result' of this writing is, that when an amateur 
finds he is offered a genuine Tourte at ten or twelve 
pounds, it does not strike him that there is anything 
abno;rmally low in the figure, ,and he expects to have a 
first-class stick for the money. Two or three years ago 
a very good Tourte niight have been had for twenty*- 
five ppunds, but not now;. It will be a very ordinary 
stick indeed which that money will, at present, buy, and 
in a year or two more they will be almost, as our 
neighbours say, introuvaUe. 

The other good makers will be referred to in their 
places, biit I would like to say here that although the 
difference between a fine Tourte and the finest of modern 
bows is quite measurable, it is not a difference which 
need alarm any but the very highest class of artistes. 
Even among them there are individuals who manage to 
exist without a Tourte, aiid many who, by preference, 
play with a modern bow. Fiddle fanciers, and bow 


fanciers, should do their best to keep level-headed, and 
not allow themselves to be driven from the exercise of 
their own judgments. If they are not in a position to 
, form a decision, let them go to one who knows. Some- 
times a. fashion is set by a leading player — quite uninten- 
tionally on his part. He may have dropped some 
remark, either in public or private, which is immediately 
seized, and made the basis of almost a revolution. He 
may be trying together two Tourtes — one a round stick, 
the other an octagon. He prefers the round, as it 
happens. Inimediately all the owners of Tourtes ^vithin 
the circle of his influence seek to exchange their 
octagons for rounds. Then is the opportunity for the 
bargain hunter, and a beginning of the season of regrets. 
It so happens that a fashion has set in for the round 
stick, ..but the lovely Tourte to which I have already 
referred is an octagon.' Almost all modem bows are 
round, they are much more easily made, and a fine 
-round stick can be got for much less money than an 
octagon, but the latter, when well worked, is a delightful 
bow to use. Finally, let me say that unless you can get 
a good example of the older makers, leave them for the 
cabinets of collectors — -that is, if your object is a bow 
to play with. 

Adams, Jean, Mirecourt, i8th century. 

Adam, Jean Dominque. Born Mirecourt 1795. Died 
1864. Son of preceding. His father taught him his 
business. A great many of his bows are very ordinary, 
but those marked with his name, Adam, are sometimes 
good, and his octagon sticks are the best. 

Baroux, Paris. About 1830. A fairly good maker. 


Bausch and Son, Leipsic or Dessau. About 1840. 
?airly good bows. They are highly esteemed in 

Braglia, Antonio, Modena. About .1800. 

DoDD, E., Sheffield and London, 1705 — 1810. Not 
nany of this maker of great importance. 

DoDD, James, London. About 1864. I do not know 
hese bows. 

DoDD, John, Kew; Born 1752. Died 1839. This 
vas the. greatest of English bow makers. He passed 
lis hfe in. struggles, and died in Richmond Workhouse. 
Dr. Selle, of Richmond,, was very kind to him many a 
ime, and so was Mr. Richard Piatt, of that place. 

A perfect " John Dodd " bow is an exquisite piece of 
rork, but of proper length, and in good condition, they 
.re by no means common. The great majority of them 
re either worn out at the nu-t, or otherwise destroyed, 
'eople seem to have experimented with not a few of 
hem by thinning down the stick. I suppose their 
riginally graceful proportions had awakened in some 
lersons what they recognized as their artistic sense, and 
bey proceeded to make them still more slender. Of 
ourse these are quite destroyed, and not worth buying 
t all, except as all that remains of the " English " 
'ourte. They are generally quite dark in colour, and 
ave his name "DODD" stamped on the stick, and also 
n the side of the nut. All the good sticks, however, 
r many of them, have been re-mounted in various ways, 
D that the name may only be seen on the stick. They 
re usually slender, and very light'. Many of them are 
lort, and that is a decided disadvantage. 


DoDD, Thomas, London, 1786^1823. He was a bow 
maker only in the sense in which he was a violin maker. 
He employed other people to make for him. 

EuRY, Paris. About 1820. A very fine maker. Some 
•of his bows are exceptional in quality. He stamped his 
name under the whipping, or thread covering above the 
nut — but not always. 

FoNCLousE, Joseph, Paris. Born 1800. Died 1865. 
He learned bowmaking with Pajeot in Mirecourt, and 
-afterwards went to Paris, where he was employed by J.. 
B. Vuillaume. He afterwards started for himselfj and 
usually marked his name on his bows. He was a fine 

Gand and Bernardel, Paris. Contemporary. This 
firm stamp their name on their bows, which are of fine 

Harmand, Mirecourt, 1830 — 40. 

Henry, Mirecourt. Born 1812. After learning in his 
native town, and working there for some time, he went to 
' Paris when he was twenty-five years of age. He was 
-employed first by Chanot, then by Peccate, and latterly 
was partner with Simon. The laSt arrangement endured 
from 1848 to '51. He then commenced to work alone, 
and died in 1870. He was also a fine workman, and 
sometirries marked his bows " Henry, Paris." 

Kittel, St. Petersburg, 19th century. This maker's 
bows are about as nearly equal to Tourte's as those of 
any maker that has lived sijice his day. There are not 
many of them to be found here. 

Knopf, HeiNrich, Berlin, 1882. 

Knopf, Ludwig, Berlin, 1882. 


Lafleur, Jacques. Born at Nancy 1760. Died in 
Paris 1832. This inaker's bows have the reputation on 
the continent of being quite equal to Tourtes, which 
may be quite justified in some cases. 

Lafleur, Joseph Rene, Paris. Born 1812. Died 
1874. Son of preceding, and a very good maker. 

Lamy, Alfred Joseph. Born at Mirecourt 1850. 
He learnt when very young— between thirteen and 
fourteen — and worked with the firm of Gautrot at 
Chateau- Fleurry. In 1877 he went to Paris to F. N. 
Voirin, and remained with him for feight years. Voirin 
then died, arid Lamy started on his own account. He 
is also a good maker. 

LuPOT, Francois. Born at Orleans in 1774. Died 
in Paris 1837. This maker, in his finest efforts, stands 
next to Francois Tourte. He was the brother of the 
famous Nicolas Lupot, but did not make anything but 
bows. He made a great improvement in the mechanism 
of the nut, being the inventor of the rnetal groove 
which is cemented to the ebony where it slides over the 
slot in the stick. This prevents the wear of the ebony. 
There is considerable diversity in the quality of Lupot's 
bows, some being very fine indeed, while others are 
quite ordinary. A great many of them are stamped 
" Lupot," but whether he did that himself or not I 
cannot say. I am inclined 'to think it has, been done for 
him by dealers afterwards. It is by no means an easy 
matter to make absolutely sure in every case when a 
bow is by Lupot. It is sometimes rnuch easier to tell a 
Tourte. . At any rate, whenever there is any doubt 
about the quality of the stick, as a stick, it is safe to 


reject it. They are generally strong, dark coloured 
sticks, and not quite so light as Tpurtes, but I have seen 
them in grey wood also. 

Maire, Nicolas. Born in Mirecourt; A pupil of 
Jacques Lafleur, afterwards went to Paris. 

MiQUEL, Emile, Mirecourt. Contemporary. 

Pajeot. Mirecourt, 1830 — 40. This maker taught 
Joseph Fonclouse, who became one of Vuillaume's best 

Panormo, George Louis, London. Modern. Made 
some very gcTod bows, more especially double bass sticks. 

Peccate, Dominique. Born at Mirecourt 1810. Son 
of a barber, he forsook his father's calling for that of 
fiddle and bow making. In the latter he became expert, 
and in 1826 J, B. Vuillaume heard of him as a clever 
apprentice oh the look out for a master. Vuillaume 
employed him and he soon justified his choice. He 
remained there eleven years, and then took over the 
business of Franfois Lupot who had just died. In 1847 
he went back to Mirecourt, but continued his connection. 
He died in 1874. He was a splendid maker. 

Peccate, Jeune, Paris. A brother of Dominique. 
He also worked for Vuillaume. He died about 1856. 
His work is finely finished and the wood good, but the 
sticks are heavy, and lack balance. 

Pellegri, Parma. 19th century. ■ 

Persoit, Paris, 1823- — 41. One of thpse skilled 
workmen whom J. B. Vuillaume succeeded in securing; 
Those which he made for the great luthier were of course 
marked Vuillaume, but those he sold for himself were 
marked P. E. S. 


PupiNAT, Padre, Lausanne, 1855. 

Rakowsch, a., Paris, 1834. 

RoNCHiNi, Rafaello, Pano, igth century. 

Schwartz, George Friedrich, Strasburg. Born 
1785. Died 1849. A good maker. Marked' his work 
" Schwartz, Strasbourg." 

Simon. Born at Mirecourt, 1808. Went to Dominique 
Peccate in Paris for a short time in 1838, then to 
Vuillaume for seven years. In 1845, he began for 
himself, and two years later succeeded to Peccate's Paris 
shop, and entered into partnership with Henry for three 
years. In 1851, he was again alone. I know little of thfs 
maker's work, having only seen one or two specimens. 
These were fairly good sticks. 

Sirjean, Paris. About 1818. 

Tadolini, Ignazio, Modena, 19th century. He made 
violin and violoncello bows, and originally hailed from 
Bologna. He and his brother Guiseppe were established 
in Modena as instruitient makers, the latter being as 
well a distinguished double bass and 'cello pla.yer at 
the Modenese Court. Ignatius, the bow maker, was 
born in 1797, and died in 1873. 

TouRNATORis, 'Paris, i8th century. Died 1813. 

TouRTE, Sav^re (called " Tourte-l'aine," the elder) 

TotJRTE, Francois (called " Tourte jeuiie," the 
younger), Paris. Born 1747. Died 1835. 

The latter of these two artistes is universally recog- 
nised as the finest bow maker that ever lived. I think 
this must be admitted. One or two of his own com- 
patriots, and according to report, such a maker as 


Kittel, of St. Petersburg, run him now and again very 
close indeed, while John Dodd of Kew, in the matters 
of slender elegance, and lightness of stick, occasionally 
actually surpasses him. But elegant slenderness and 
lightness are not the only things, wanted in a bow, they 
are not even the chief things,. When I was quite a ]^d 
a very artistic cabinet maker whom I knew, wishing to 
do me a service, offered to improve my own bow, which, 
he pointed out, was not elegantly finished. I consented 
with pleasure, arid when I had it returned, it certainly 
was elegant and light beyond conception. It was like 
a feather in my hand, but it was also like a feather on 
my strings, and besides, its back was gone, as flexible 
almost as the top of a fishing rod. Thinness and lightness 
are only tolerable when they are accompanied by strength 
and balance. Strength, elasticity and balance are really 
the main points in a bow. The strength of a stick is 
determined by the regular manner in which, and the limit 
to which, its tapering is produced. Of course, the wood 
must be of proper quality to begin with, but there should 
be no weak place, none unduly weak, in the whole length. 
In some bows of ordinary make, the strength in the back 
is obtained by keeping a certain thickness after a time, 
well on towards the end, and then suddenly dropping 
thin to finish with. A stick like that will be strong 
enough probably, and will riot yield where its maker 
knew it would be tested, but it will not be a properly 
balanced , bow. A certain addition is made to the 
strength of. the stick by the camhre, that is, the bending 
backwards. If this camhre is properly done, the line of 
pull will almost coincide with a symetrical axis. That 


is, of course, an exaggeration, but it may indicate how 
the cambre aids the strength of a stick. The balance of a 
stick is that equipoise which is secured by the regular 
grada,tions in its thinning, so that when the player 
holds it lightly by the thicker end in his hand, 
there does not— so to speak^appear to be quite 
sufficient weight at the thin end to cause it ta 
fall. That is a rough' way of trying a bow so far 
as concerns balance, but its success will largely depend; 
on the player's sense of weight. One way of testing the- 
strength and cambre of a bow is to screw it up a turn or 
two until the hair is straightened out, and is just free of 
the stick. Then press the thumb on the hair at the. 
nut as far down as it will - go, watching in the mean- 
time the movement of the stick from beyond the middle 
to the end. If it loses the curve very much, or goes out 
to either side, it is not likely to be a good bow. This, 
however, is a pretty severe test, and any stick will 
yield to it if the hair is sufficiently tightened. Another 
way is to screw the hair up until the stick has lost its 
backward curve, and watch if it gives to either side.. 
This is the fairer way to judge an ordinary bow. The 
best bows will, however, all stand the former test., 
Besides the ordinary backward curve, a maker who 
knows his business gives a little side as well. That is, 
he slightly 'cambres the stick to the left, looking from the 
nut outwards, so as to resist the tendancy to the right, 
which proper bowing always' gives. In examining^ 
finely tempered bows, this should be remembered, 
otherwise a very knowing person might fancy a stick 
was just a little off the straight. The next point is. 


elasticity. Too much of that is a nuisance, and makes 
a very good bow in other respects, powerless. But 
there must be some, and the quality of the wood is 
responsible for it. It is not the flexibility of a piece of 
cane which is required, but the firm, yet responsive elas- 
ticity, which, to a certain extent, guarantees a pure and 
even tone. All these points were splendidly illustrated by 
Fran9ois Tourte, and, in some slight degree, by his 
brother; I have never seen a bow by Tourte pere, and 
I am beginning to think there was no such person 
employed in this business. The name was first 
published by Fetis— I suppose, on the . authority of 
Vuillaume — but I do not know of any other source frorn 
whence the information comes. The bows of Tourte 
ain6have rather quaint-looking, small heads, not.unUke 
the profile of the bell of a trumpet, but having ' the top 
line of the head a little shorter than the under line. The 
head of a Fr^ngois Tourte has a much fuller outline of 
the same kind, but infinitely more graceful and artistic. 
Some of the finest Tourtes are of a lightish coloured 
wood called grey Pernambuco, which is very rich 
looking. - The majority are darker. 

The Tourtes never marked any of their sticks, but in 
two instances, Franfois Tourte is said to have glued into 
the slot a very diminutive little ticket containing an 
inscription to the effect that he made the article. From 
one of these inscriptions the date of his birth has been 
deduced. It runs, , " Get archet a ete fait par Tourte en 
1824, kge de soixante-dix-sept-ans." (This bow was 
made by Tourte in 1824, aged seventy-seven years). 
F. Tourte invented the ferrule for keeping the hair flat. 


and applied the tortoiseshell slip to the nut for keeping it 
concealed at that part. 

Tubes, London. A well known family of bow 
makers, much of whose work is of excellent 
ViGNERON, A., Paris. Contempory. A fine maker. 
VoiRiN, Nicolas Francois, Paris. Born at Mire- 
court 1833. Died in Paris 1885. He was taught his 
business in his native town, and afterwards went to 
Vuillaume in 1855, where he remained for fifteen years, 
during which time he made probably the great majority 
of the finest bows which bear Vuillaume'suame. In 
Vuillaume's show case in the Paris Exhibition of 1,867, 
Voirin's name appeared as a workman in bows, and he 
received honourable mention on that occasion. Three 
years afterwards he started on his own account. 
Almost all his work is of a very high character, and 
deserves all the praise it has got. ' Some of his 
sticks — both violin and 'cello — are really quite beautiful 
works of art, technically and decoratively, and, of 
course, there are a flood of sticks in the market, bearing 
the stamp " N. F. Voirin a Paris," and which have all 
been made since his death. His own heads are strong 
and beautifully finished. 

He was stricken down by apoplexy on the 4th June, 
1885, while he was carrying a bow home to an amateur. 
The occurrence happened as he was passing along the 
Faubourg Moritmartre, and the. bystanders seeing " N, 
F. Voirin. Bouloi 3 " on the paper case in which the, 
bow was, concluded to take him there. So he was 
carried home dying to his wife. He did not rally from 


the stroke and died the same evening between nine and 
ten. His widow carried on the business. 

VuiLLAUME, J. B., Paris. If this distinguished crafts- 
man was not himself a bow maker — except in the sense 
that he could make, and may have made a few, in his 
day — he certainly was instrumental in keeping before 
others the grand qualities of Fran9dis Tourte. This was 
a great service. He knew Tourte well, and, on his own 
admission, frequently watched him at his work. During 
all his business career, however, he^ never was withdut 
one or more, competent bow makers in his employment, 
and it will be safe to say that almost every one of those 
beautiful sticks for which in his time he was famous, 
was made by one or other of the clever bow hands 
already referred to. From the earliest date of his own 
period, when he was a kind of managing man to L6te, 
down to the time , of his death he was always well 
supplied in that respect. Persoit, Fonclouse, Peccate, 
Simon and Voirin, themselyes cover the whole time. 
He invented a steel tubular bow which he induced some 
artistes to employ, and he also invented the fixed nut — 
which was to secure that a player will also always have 
the same length of hair to use. It was a curious over- 
sight to suppose that because the nut changes position 
in tightening or relaxing, the length of hair available 
was, in consequence, variable. Its chief advantage 
was that the hand could always hold the bow in 
exactly the same place. However, both of these 
inventions were discontinued. Vuillaume stamped his 
name on all the bows which he sold as his own make, 
and, of course, there are thousands of bows so stamped 


at present, which are not genuine. He was not par- 
ticularly well liked among the " trade " in Paris, but 
almost all his workmen remained with him for many- 
years, whicht is fairly good evidence that he was a 
considerate employer. 


As the face of the heavens on a clear night seems 
crowded with stars, so the vista of musical 
history appears filled with the more or less lustrous 
presences ofindividual artistes whose combined radiance 
lights up the past for those who have a deep interest in 
the record of their achievements. They are quite as 
numerous as the fixed stars, but, like them, hot all of 
equal magnitude. I shall include in these brief bio- 
graphical notices the more important of the performers 
known from early times, and it will be more interesting 
to do this in chronological order than it would be to do 
it alphabetically. ' 

There were, no doubt, performers on the violin who 
played pieces " all by themselves " long before the time 
of the publication of the first known solo for the instru- 
ment, but nothing definite can be said about them as 
yet, and I will therefore begin with the author of' that 
remarkable " piece." 


This artiste was born in Brescia about the end of the 
sixteenth century. Date information of that kind is 
provokingly vague, but nothing more precise with regard 
to him can be given. It might have been in any year 
between 1560 and 1600, and there may come a time 
when, if more definite information is not available, some 


irresponsible writer will feel disposed to say he was 
borri in 1580. That time has not yet arrived, and we 
only know one or two incidents of his career, and that 
he died in 1660 at Padua. He was chapel master first 
in Brescia, then in Vincenza, and subsequently seems to 
have had some kind of appointment either in Venice or 
the neighbourhood. He was a distinguished violinist, 
without doubt, and issued three separate musical 
pubhcations which are at present known. Other two 
he appears to have printed and published, but they are 
not known. The violin solo alluded to is called La 
Romanesca, and is quite an attractive and original piece 
of music which is still played at odd moments. Marini 
enjoyed court- favour, visited Germany, and was made 
a Knight. 


This player seems to have been also a native of 
Brescia, although that is not an ascertained fact. He 
was the inventor — or, is at least, the earliest known 
writer — of -the violin sonata form. He appears to have 
died in Padua, and his works were collected and 
published for the first time in 1641. He is described 
by contemporary eulogium as a distinguished player and 


This distinguished player was, according to report, 
born in Bologna in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. He certainly was alive and active on the 19th 
October, 1685, for on that date he signed a petition to 
his patron, begging him to send someone to overhaul 


two swindlers who had sold him a " Franceco Rugerius '' 
violin, as a " Nicolas Amati." " Other times," as the 
French say, but — the same ways. The beautiful 
Chaconne which has made Vitali's name famous, is still 
often played. He was patonised by the Court of 
Modena. ' 


I suppose this great artiste should be called a 
Bohemian. At any rate, he was born on the Bohemian 
frontier, Wartenburg, somewhere between 1638 and 
1650. It has not been found possible to specify the 
time of his birth within closer limits. He was a famous 
player in his day, a favourite composer, and one who 
had his share in modelling the sonata. The date of 
his death has not been ascertained with certainty. 
Fetis gives it as in 1698, which is' wrong, a document 
bearing Biber's , signature, and of date 1704, having 
been discovered; Another positive statement makes 
his death occur in 1710, but no authentic record of it, or 
other specific indication has been seen. He was much 
favoured by several courts, having been ennobled by 
Leopold I. at Vienna, treated with distinction by two 
Dukes of Bavaria, and appointed by the Bishop of 
Salzburg to an important office. He travelled through 
Italy, France, and Germany, arousing great enthusiasm 
wherever he went. He piibUshed two or three sets of 
violin music. First, a set of six sonatas, second, g. set 
of twelve, third, a set of pieces with seven real parts, 
called Harmonica Avtificiosa, and two other works in 
Salzburg. His music, some of it,' is decidedly of a 


most refined character, and of a Very advanced type 
for his day. 


This distinguished violinist was born in Florence 
about 1633. His parentage is not clear, but he was 
taught the guitar by an old Franciscan. When he 
was very young^quite a child — a member of the French 
royal family who happened to be travelling in Italy 
heard him play, and as he had a commission from his 
sister. Mile, de Montpensier, to get her a page boy irom 
Italy, he selected this gifted lad and took him to France. 
Lulli's youthful soul had not been assigned a very suit- 
able shrine for the antechamber of a princess and when 
she saw him — a. little imp twelve years old — she 
jrelegated him to the kitchen. Lulli's love of music was 
not, however, to be extinguished by the noise of pots 
and pans or quenched by a flood of dripping, so he 
.bought a cheap fiddle and by-and-by was the delight 
of the kitchen, and indeed, of the whole livery.. One 
day while he was playing, he was overheard by a 
person of some importance, who communicated with 
his mistress, and the result was that she procured a 
teacher for him under whose instruction he made 
amazing progress. The age was not a delicate one, 
and he was silly enough to be misled into the perform- 
ance of a coarse jest which brought about his dismissal. 
After some little trouble he was admitted to the King's 
band, and considerably astonished them there, pleased 
the King, and was promoted to the leadership of a 
junior band which very speedily surpassed the senior 


one. From this point his fame is derived from his 
operas and ballets, etc., etc., and the violinist merges 
in the composer. He entirely reformed, and considerably 
advanced the character of French music and holds 
a highly -honoured place in the roll of her great 
composers. He died in the greatest favour with Louis 
XIV., who had covered him with honours and rewards. 
He was made director of the King's music, was made a 
noble, one of the King's secretaries, etc. His death 
was caused by an accident. After the recovery of the 
King from an illness LuUy composed a Te Deum and was 
conducting it when he smashed his toe with the cane he 
used in directing his orchestra. An abscess formed arid 
in spite of varied treatment he succumbed a few months 
afterwards, viz., 22nd March, 1687. 


This player was born in Padua about 1657, and- was 
chapel master of the Cathedral in Bologna. He was 
not only a violin virtuoso, but he was also a highly 
appreciated composer and orchestral conductor of his 
day. He went to Ferrara about 1685 and became chapel 
master there, while he had other distinctions of a more 
honorary character conferred upon him. He is known 
chiefly in violin literature as the supposed teacher of 
Corelli. It is merely a statement which has passed 
current without having any particular verification. He 
was four years younger than CorelH. He died in 1716 
at Ferrara. 




This great player was born at Fusignano on i6th 
February, 1653. His father's name was also Arcangelo, 
Corelli and his mother was Santa Raffini who died 
just before her child saw the light. He was not intended 
for the musical profession and was sent to Faenza to 
school. While there, however, he acquired the rudi- 
ments of music and kept up the study at Lugo, and 
subsequently at Bologna, where he practised the violin 
in regular fashion for four years. This is probably the 
circumstance which has given rise to the ancient 
suggestion that Corelli was a pupil of Bassani. The 
suggestion is, I think, an absurd one. In 1680 COrelli 
was seen at the' Court of the Duke of Bavaria as a 
famous performer who had been travelling about Ger- 
many. In 1 68 1 there is a vague reference to him as 
being in Rome, and in 1683 his first work was published 
there, and in 1685, his second. In 1686 he was playing 
the violin in the Opera band, and was chosen that year 
to lead the orchestra at the fete given to Lcwrd 
Castlemain in Rome by Christina, ex-Queen of Sweden. 
Here Cardinal Ottoboni saw him and took to him. 
From this time Corelli played at the Cardinal's Monday 
concerts, and looked after the music. Here it was 
where the famous interview between Corelli' and Handel 
took place, when the latter rudely caught the fiddle out 
of the Italian's hand in order to show him how to play 
something of Handel's own which happened to be on 
the desks. I have no great faith in the accuracy of the 
tale, which is, I imagine, one of those growths on the 
free of history caused by the puncture of some 


biographical insect. Corelli's fourth work wa-s pubUshed 
in 1694, and his fifth in 1700. People flocked to these 
concerts in Rome from all parts of the civilised world, 
and it must have been a dreadful experience to the 
great player when,, a few years later, he visited Naples 
and found Scarlatti's orchestra so perfect that he 
probably- felt as if he were little more than a npieno in 
it, instead of a great solo player. It must, however, be' 
borne in mind that these stories of his failure in Naples 
are entirely on the authority of Geminiani, who was 
himself a pupil of Correlli's and became leader of this 
very Neapolitan orchestra, but was dismissed .from the 
post because he could not keep correct time, and that 
not long previous to the period when he says Corelli 
failed. There is a great deal of confusion about these 
stories, and when they are put together they involve 
such improbabilities as to render them almost incredible. 
This visit to Naples appears to have been made a few 
years before his death, for, when he returned to Rome,, 
a young violinist named Josefo Valentino had become 
the popular favourite — so it is said- — and that the 
circumstance so weighed on Corelli's sensitive nature 
as to seriously affect his health. This last conjecture — 
for it is nothing more — rests on as slight a foundation as 
the previous stories. Among the traits of personal 
character which have been noted are mentioned 
" sweetness of disposition," " parsimoniousness of habits " 
— a quite exceptiona,Ily curious combination of qualities, 
not, of course, absolutely paradoxical or impossible, 
but, at the least, distinctly interesting. His dress was 
plain and unassuming, and his ways were simple. On 


this circumstance, combined with Handel's remark that 
Corelli liked to see pictures without paying for them — 
a merely passing epigrammatic touch probably — seems 
to be raised the theory of parsimoniousness. These 
conjectures appear to be more like penny-a-liner 
reminiscences than anything approaching the dignity of 
historical facts. He was the greatest and ■ rnost 
honoured musician of his day, and' lived a simple life, 
apparently in the midst of considerable pomp. He 
composed and published some ■ of the most noble and 
beautiful music for violin and orchestra that is in 
existence, and he 'died full of honours on the i8th of 
January, 171 3. There is a monument to him in the 
Pantheon in the form of a marble statue, bearing the 
following inscription, "Corelli princeps Musicorum " — 
" Corelli first (greatest) of Musicians." The portrait of 
him is from a good print in my possession. 


This very clever violinist was born at Lucca about 
1680. He was reckoned to be the best of all Corelli's 
pupils, but he had the advantage of previously passing 
through very good hands. He began his musical 
studies with Alessandro Scarlatti, and was taught the 
violin by a very able man, C. A. Lu'nati, whose bodily 
deformity interfered with his success as a public per- 
former. After this preliminary training, Qeminiani 
went to Corelli, where he developed fine tone and style. 
He first went to Naples, where Scarlatti had, at this 
period, gone for the second time, and who gave him the 
appointment of leader in the orchestra there. 


Geminiani's nature as a player' was so uncontrollable 
that he could not keep time himself, and was, therefore, 
useless as a leader. This would be between 1709 and 
17^4, when Geminiani came to England. Here he met 
with the greatest success professionally, and published 
all his works, besides editing some of his master's. In 
addition, he published various theoretical books on 
music and musical style, as well as a work on memory. 
He made plenty of money, but spent it as rapidly as he 
made it — and more rapidly sometimes — in bujring 
pictures, etc. His .nature was a restless one — ke could 
not keep time — but he was, according to all contemporg.ry 
testimony, a glorious player. His great work from a. 
violinist's point of view is his " Art of Playing on the 
Violin." He moved about a little, and went to Paris 
in 1750, remaining there for about five years. Coming 
back, he rfesumed his career with similar success, and 
visited Ireland in 1761. His- pupil, Dubourg, was then 
master of the King's band, in Dublin. He and the old 
man were very fond of each other, and a curious 
accident happened to the latter during this visit. He 
was not without his enemies, and a conspiracy seems to 
have been got up to rob him of the manuscript of a 
Treatise on Music which he had been working on for 
many years. Such a heartless piece of blackguardism 
against a 'man of eighty-two years appears hardly 
credible. But Dubourg's son duly authenticates the 
story. A domestic servatit was recommended to him by 
the thieves, who were among his so-called friends and 
acquaintances, and she stole the manuscript frpm his 
bedroom, and handed it over to his enemies, who, pre- 


sumably, destroyed it, as it was never afterwards seen. 
This cut the old man up terribly, broke his spirit, and 
he died the same year, namely, on the 17th September, 


This great violinist was born in Bergamo in 1693. 
He was also a pupil of Corelli, and distinguished himself 
in a manner which, as appears to us, should have 
astonished his master. But , the truth is, people have 
judged Corelh's technique far too exclusively by the 
standard of his published music. It may all be 
described as of the most dignified and excellent 
character, but, at the same time, of comparatively great 
' simplicity. It gives no indication whatever of his 
technique. He turned out far too many masters of the 
highest character to justify us in supposing that he knew 
no more than he published. Locatelli established him 
self in Arhsterdam, and published his fanlpus works 
called "The Labyrinth," and "The New Art of 
Modulation," which set Paganini to compose his 
celebrated "Twenty- Four Studies." He also published 
various other things, among them being one called 
" Harmonic Contrasts," which establishes his reputa- 
tion as a musical scholar. He remained in Amsterdam 
till his death in 1764. 


A- distinguished performer, born in Venice about 1660. 
His father was a musician in the Chapel of St. Mark. 
Antonio travelled about a little, and went into the 


service of the Court of Hesse-Darmstadt, but returned 
to Venice in 171 3, where he died in 1743. He was a 
voluminous composer for his instrument, and also ot 
vocal and other instrumental music. He is the putative 
author of the well-known " Cuckoo Solo," and was 
called in Venice the " red priest." 


This artiste was born in Florence about 1685. He 
was a pupil of Antonio Veracini, his uncle. He did not 
play in public until he was about . thirty years old. In 
1 714 he played in Venice,, and at once took his position 
as a virtuoso. In the same year he came to London, 
and led the Italian Opera Band here. In 1716 he went 
back to Venice, where he was engaged by the Elector of 
Saxony for his chapel in Dresden. Here he remained 
for five .years, when, in. August, 1722, he; in a moment of 
mental aberration, threw himself from his bedroom 
window, and was lamed for life. When he recpvered 
he left Dresden, and went to Count de Kinsky in 
Prague. There he stayed for some years, returning to 
London, about 1736. For ten years he remained here> 
composing operas and pla3dng, and in 1747 retired to a 
small property he had at Pisa, where he died in 1750. 
He is credited with being the possessor of two violins^ 
one or both of which were said to be by Jadob Stainer, 
and that he lost these in a storm while crossing from 
here to the Continent. 


It would, perhaps, be difficult to select a vioHnist 
whose memory is entitled to greater respect than that 



of Tartini. As a musician and virtuoso combined, I 
doubt if anyone has surpassed him. He is a colossus 
of refinement and grace, as Corelli was one of strength 
and simplicity. He was born at Pirano in Istria on the 
8th April, 1692. He received the elements of a good 
education in the College of the Padri Delle Scuole. He 
may, in fact, be said to have been very well educated^ 
as matters of that kind went in those days. About 
the beginning of 1709, he was sent to Padua to study 
law. In the monastic schools in Pirano he had been 
taught, along with other things, music and the violin, 
and although, while in Padua, he took to fencing very 
seriously, with, apparently, a little swashbucklering 
thrown in — he still kept up his violin playing. It has 
not been hinted, in any source of information with 
which I am acquainted, that Tartini ever heard Corelli 
play, and there has not even been a suggestion of such 
a thing. But it is not a very unlikely circumstance. 
We have very little information as to Corelli's travels in 
the early part of his career, but we know that he was in 
Germany, in Bavaria, in fact, and as the most direct 
and cheapest route to that district was through the 
north of Italy, and over the Brenner pass, it would 
almost appear certain that he took the chief towns of 
Northern Italy on the way. Padua would, in such a 
case, be directly in his route. The only weighty 
objection to this would be that when Corelli was seen 
in Bavaria, Tartini was not born. But during the 
years 1701 and 1710 we have exceedingly little informa- 
tion regarding Corelli's movements. We know he was 
absent from Rome, and that by the time he got back, he 


had, we are told, fallen somewhat out of public favour. 
That leaves plenty of time for an artistic tour , or two in 
Italy, and also, in Germany, and if he were anywhere 
near Padua, we may be pretty certain Tartini went to 
hear him. In 1708 or 1709, Tartini was there, and four 
years after that' date he was a magnificent violinist. It 
is a curious coincidence that in the very year Corelli 
died, 1713, Tartini had his celebrated Dream that the 
Devil came to his bedside aad played to him the 
" Trillo del Diavolo." This famous and most beautiful 
piece of music is familiar, no doubt, to all violinists, and 
if not, it should be. He was then twenty-one, and earning 
his bread by music and fencing. About this tinjie he 
secretly married the daughter of Cardinal Cornaro, 
which created a great uproar, and placed him in consider- 
able danger. He fled disguised as a pilgrim, and 
after wanderirig towards Rome, found refuge in a 
religious establishment in Assisi. He remained con- 
cealed here for a short time, and carried on his musical 
studies with the help of an organist in the fraternity 
named Boemo, and astonished the neighbourhood by his 
violin playing in the services. He was one day recog- 
nised here by an old acquaintance, -vvho told him that 
matters were mending in his favour, and by-and-by 
he became reconciled to his distinguished relative by 
marriage, and returned to Padua. How long he was 
absent in this' way from his home is uncertain. It is 
sometimes definitely stated as two years, but com- 
parison of dates do not support this conclusion. 
Shortly after this, he and his wife went to Venice, 
where the lady had relatives, and while there he 


met Veracini, and heard him play. This is generall 
supposed to be about 1714, I presume because Veracir 
was playing in Venice in that year. But I think tha 
date is wrong. It seems to, have been forgotten tha 
Veracini was also playing in Venice in 17,16, after hi 
return to Italy from London, and I think it more likel 
to be the date of this meeting, as the former date crowd 
a great deal of incident into the life of Tartini during 
very brief period of time. When he heard the grea 
Florentine player, who was only seven years his senior, h 
determined to renew his studies, arid for this purpose 
retired to Ancona. He there made that • famou 
discovery of his which has been called the Tartini tone: 
a phenomenon which has, puzzled the most celebrate 
acousticians for a hundred and fifty years. Only a 
recently as, 1862 was the cause of them found out b 
Professor Helmholz. Tartini's splendid ear enabled hir 
to tabulate them all correctly, with the exception of on 
or two, which he fixed an octave higher than they real! 
are. The discovery was of the following nature. Whei 
any two notes were played together, ■ he detected a thir, 
sound in the harmony which no one has left any record c 
having discovered before. He found this phenomenoi 
constant, and made Exhaustive studies of it, tryinj 
to make it the basis of a system of harmony which h 
published in 1754, entitled a "Treatise on Music accord 
ing to the True Science of Harmony." Any player whi 
is not already acquainted with it may test the thing fo 
himself. These Tartini tones are best heard when th 
player takes truly stopped major thirds and sixths, bu 
they are present when any two notes are played, whethe 


concordant or discordant. They are not so clearly 
discriminated when one note is stopped, and the other 
an open string note^ Tartini had indicated the pitch of 
a great many of them, and that was, of course, a valuable 
lead to a scientific investigator, who knew that all 
musical sounds had fixed vibration numbers. Still, 
Professor Helmholz has the credit of having, settled 
the matter. He found that the third sound was due to 
the difference between the vibration numbers of the two 
notes played. The reader who may not be acquainted 
with this side of musical study will understand when it 
is explained that every musical sound is the result of a 
fixed number of beats on the air, from some body. In . 
the case of the fiddle these beats are produced by the 
friction of the bow on the string in the first place. The 
string throbs and communicates this throbbing to the 
bridge, which transmits it to the upper table or belly. 
From that it passes by way of sound post and ribs to 
the back, and the whole fiddle throbs on the air inside, 
and so the original weak sound of the string is reinforced 
and strengthened until it comes out through the sound 
holes of the loudness which we hear. All the throbbing 
is at the same rate so long as one note is played. Each 
note has its own rate of throbbing. Lpt us take any two 
notes, such as treble C, and the major third above it, E. 
To make the pitch of treble C, 5.12 throbs in a second 
are required, and to make the pitch of E. above that, 
-640 throbs in a second are required. Now when these 
two notes are truly played together, a • third sound is 
heard along with the other two notes. It is the same, 
in this case, as the C, but two octaves lower. Helmholz 


discovered that this low C was produced by 128 throbs 
and the difference between 512 and 646 is 128 
Throughout the whole scale of musical sounds whenevei 
two notes are played together they seem to generate i 
third sound, very weak, of course, but which is always 
that which the difference of the vibration numbers 
would naturally produce. From this circurtistance thesf 
tones are now called by scientists the " difference tones,' 
but they have always hitherto been knoXvn as th( 
" Tartini tones." They are sometimes called harmonics 
but that is not correct. A harmonic is generated by om 
string, while these third sounds are generated by, thf 
simultaneous vibrations of two strings. 

When Tartini was twenty-nine he became director o 
an orchestra in Padua, and when he was thirty-one h( 
went to Prague, and remained there for over three 
years. He made a great impression among people o: 
distinction, and considerable pressure was tried in ordei 
to keep him with them, but he was in bad health, anc 
was dreadfully troubled by family worries in connectior 
with his brother and his children. He stayed with b 
friend named Antonio Vandini, a 'cellist, while on this 
visit to Prague, and returned with him to Padua in 1726 
He soon began to recover health, but the family troubles 
continued to worry him for many years. He was a mar 
of great patience, and very high character, and bpre 
himself throughout them all, during a period of, ovei 
twenty years, in the most exemplary fashion. His first 
work was published in Amsterdam in 1734, and another 
in Rome in 1745. These published works are not 
numerous, but he left a great many in manuscript. His 



theoretical works comprise the already mentioned 
" Treatise on Music," a pamphlet replying to some 
strictures on it he published in Venice in 1767. In the 
same year " A Dissertation on the Principles of Har- 
mony " saw the light in Padua, and a " Treatise on 
Musical Embellishments" was issued in Paris in 1782. 
The famous letter of instructions on violin playing has 
been frequently printed, and besides this he left a 
manuscript treatise which has never been printed. It 
was called " Practical Lessons on the Violin." This 
great master of the violin died on the 26th February, 
1770, after a period of great suffering. He never was a 
robust man. His eager face, full of nervous apprecia- 
tion bf his surroundings, shows a very highly strung, 
nature, and he appears to have lived a self-sacrificing 
life. When he died it may be said that Padua went 
into mourning. He was buried in the Church of St. 
Catherine, where an imposing funeral service was per- 
formed, and it has been said that his demise was 
considered in the light of a public calamity. 

Although his fame had spread all over Europe, and, 
indeed, to all parts of the civilized world, he does not' 
appear to have left Italy after his professional journey to 
Prague, where he managed the music for the coronation 
of the Emperor, Charles VI. He was pressed to go to 
Germany and France, and Lords Walpple and Middlesex 
did their best to get him over here, but failed. He wrote 
a very nice letter regarding a proposed visit to London, 
and in it referred in cornplimentary terms to the judg^ 
ment of English musicians and scientists in regard to 
his discovery of the third sound. His most famous 


pupils were Pugnani, Nardini, Pagin, Ferrari, an( 


This master was born in Piedmont in 1676. He was 
quite evidently from contemporary testimony, a playe 
of broad and fine style, but the chief interest attaching 
to him lies in the circumstance that he has always beei 
considered one of the finest pupils of Corelli, and know] 
to have been the teacher, or one of the teachers, 
Pugnani, thus forming a Hnk in the direct chain whic] 
binds our finest modern players to the 'earlier gran( 
Italian Schobls. I confess I am not quite satisfied tha 
he was a pupil of Corelli. He was, undoubtedly, ' 1 
great admirer of the latter, and, in the days of his youth 
included Rome in his travels, the object of which was t( 
hear the best executants and composers of his time 
But I have not found in the course of my reading an; 
definite information in regard to his connection wit-1 
Corelli, while his visit to Venice on the other han< 
resulted in an acquaintance with Vivaldi, which appear 
to have had ^ most lasting effect on his style. He, ii 
fact, took Vivaldi as his model, and carried along witl 
him to Turin, where he settled, the traditions of th< 
great Venetian performer. 

The King of Sardinia' appointed him to the post 
director of the music in the Chapel Royal, as also of th^ 
Court music, and he enjoyed an extended reputatioi 
throughout Italy. In the spring of 1733, he went t( 
Paris, and performed there at the " Concerts Spirituels, 
where his success was of a marked character for th 

purity of his tone, and the brilliancy of his technique 
He died in Turin in 1763, leaving the traditions of his 
school in the hands of Pijgnani, who is, perhaps, the 
most important of his pupils, seeing that he combined ir 
his own style the results of the tuition received not onl} 
from Somis, but also, according to report, from Tartini 
Somis had a brother named Lorenzo, who was also e 
violinist, and, to some extent, imitated the style OJ 
Corelli. G. B,. Somis published in Paris, six sets o: 
sonatas for the violin and bass. 


This magnificent player who, it is generally supposed, 
had the advantage as explained in the previous article, 
of tuition both, from Somis and Tartini, was born either 
in the Canavese in 1727, or in Turin, in 1728. Both 
dktes are given. He succeeded Somis as principal 
violinist at the King of Sardinia's Court, and as 
director of the music. He was also a great operatic 
conductor, and succeeded in a marvellous way in bring- 
ing the various elements in such representations into the 
most complete harmony. He visited Paris in 1754 ; 
had a great success, and made the European tour. He 
also came to London more than once, and on one 
occasion stayed for a year or two. He had, of course, 
resigned his appointment in Turin to enable him to make 
these lengthened absences j but when in 1770 he left 
London for good, and returned to Turin, he was at 
once reappointed music director. The story about his 
tuition from Tartini is a curious one, and wears such a 


pleasantly simple look that it may be worth recounting. 
When Pugnani was in Paris he heard much about 
Tartini, and, determining to see him, went to Padua, 
and called on his distinguished countryman, by wh6m 
he was asked to play something. When Pugnani had 
got over a few bars, Tartini caught him by the arm — I 
suppose the bow arm — and said, " Too loud, my friend, 
too loud." When Pugnani tried again, Tartini 
repeated the interruption at the same point, and said : 
" Too soft, my friend, too Soft." Thereupon Pugnani 
desired Tartini to take him as a pupil. This patheti- 
cally concise description of the manner in which one 
famous and accomplished performer listens to another 
distinguished artiste's playing only suggests to my mind 
one comment, which might reasonably be addressed to 
the author of the story : " Too thick, my friend, too 

It is related of Pugnani that he snubbed Voltaire 
about his verses on one occasion when that brilliant 
genius is said to have shown a little under-breeding by 
talking loudly during oi^e of the former's violin solos. 
One or two triflings gossipy anecdotes of this kind, if 
true, indicate that the great Piedmontese violinist was of 
a slightly irritable and impressionable nature. He was 
a prolific composer of secular, as well as sacred music, 
and those of his violin pieces which have been published 
display a fine sense of melody. He had a violin school 
in Turin, and trained a number of fine players, among 
whom was Viotti. The circumstance th^t Pugnani 
was the teacher of this father of modern violin playing 
is alone sufficient to stamp him as an artiste of the 


highest grade. He died in Turin in 1803 — an old man. 
His works include four grand operas, two or three 
comic operas, and ballets, aad cantatas, some nine 
concertos for the violin, and a lot of sonatas, duets, 
trios, quartets, quintets, symphonies, etc. yery few 
have been published. 


This was another disfinguished pupil of G. B. Somis 
of Turin. , He was born there in. 1716, but was sent to 
Milan while quite a child to learn music and was one 
of the choir boys in the Cathedral there. He received 
instruction in singing from Paladini, but having shown 
a decided inclination for the violin, his father sent him 
back to Turin and placed him with Somis, with, whom 
he remained for a number of years. Giardini's first 
attempt on his own account was in Rome, where he was 
not successful, and repaired without delay to Naples. 
There he was more fortunate and got employment in 
the orchestra of the theatre. He was a somewhat florid 
perforrner who was in the habit of adding decorations of 
his own to the music of the composer, and that not only 
in leading parts but also in ordinary accompaniments. 
The public were not accustomed to this, but they took 
to it, and used to applaud him. How he ■frould have 
relished this sort of thing done to his own music by any 
other man, we do not know, but we learn what Jomelli 
thought of it. One evening when Giardini was playing 
in the orchestra while an opera of Jomelli's was on, that 
composer sat down beside him. He had, very likely, . 


either heard, or heard of, Giardini's style of doing 
things. At any rate, when, as usual the latter began 
to'decorate his part in the approved manner, Jomelli 
suddenly gave him a smack in the face with his open 
hand, which brought the florid embelHshments to 
an end. Giardini was very young, and it is to his 
credit that the rude lesson appears to have been 
learnt — even in a story book. 

When he was twenty-eight years old he appeared in 
London and stayed there for a year or two. In 1748 
he went to Paris and became very popular. In eighteen 
months he returned to London and had increased 
success in every way. He was a favourite in Court 
circles and made large sums of money both by teaching 
and playing. In an evil hour in 1756, he undertook 
Italian opera and in a very short time lost every penny 
he had made. In 1763 he began again teaching and 
giving concerts, but, in a year or two the tide of fortune 
turned, and another violinist divided with him the 
public favour. He left this country in 1784, and 
returned to Naples as poor as he had come. Sir 
William Hamilton was of service to him there and he 
spent a few years in the place of his earlier triumphs. 
He then went to Russia and died in Moscow in 1796. 
He composed a good deal, and almost all his work was 
published in London. He composed the operetta 
" Love in a Village " and one or two grand operas, the 
oratorio of " Ruth," and a number of Italian songs, 
duets, catches, etc., and a good deal of violin music in 
the shape of solos, duets, trios, quartets, quintets, and 
also several concertos. 



This player was by far the greatest performer of his 
-day, and many a day previous to his appearance. He,! 
Tartini, and Corelli, share the highest honours of 
virtuosity awarded down to Viotti's time and the last', 
named is very justly called, as already noted, the father! 
of modern violin playing. He was born in Fontanettoj 
in Piedmont in 1753. His father was in a comfortable 
position in life, and being a good amateur musician 
gave his son some elementary instruction in music. 
He had his first cheap fiddle when he was eight years 
old and when he was eleven he had a year's tuition in, 
music from a guitar player, who was an excellent' 
musician and also played the violin. For two years 
after this he had no personal supervision but studied 
from books. In 1766, he was noticed by an ecclesi- 
astic who afterwards became Archbishop of Turin, and 
who had him sent there for tuition. In several tests 
to which young Viotti was submitted the lad acquitted 
himself in quite an amazing manner, and showed himselfi 
possessed of a musical memory which was absolutely 
astounding. He was at once placed under Pugnani as| 
soon as that artiste opened his famous school, which was 
shortly after Viotti's arrival in Turin. Altogether the 
cost of Viotti's education was about ;^iooo, and this 
was borne by the Prince of Cisterna in the most! 
munificent and kindly manner. So for as concerns 
patronage and encouragement I do not know that any 
other viohnist has had the opportunities with which' 
Viotti was favoured in his youth. He bore himselfi 
throughout in a manner which has done honour to his 



profession. When his studies under Pugnani were 
drawing to a close that master personally introduced 
him to all the musical centres of Europe, finally parting 
company in Paris where they arrived in 1782. Viotti 
had, in the French capital, an overwhelming reception 
■pn his first appearance, and he was soon taken up by 
the court. But his popularity in France continued 
only for about two years. For some unexplained 
reason he was very coldly received by a small audience 
^t one of the Concerts Spirituels, while at the very next 
f the same series an inferior performer had quite an 
vation. This was towards the end of 1783. Whether 
Viotti read between the lines or not one cannot say but 
the circumstance galled him so much that he resolved 
never to play publicly in Paris again, and only once> 
twenty years afterwards, did he do so. He continued 
to play at Court, however, and in private circles. In 
this year (1783) he paid a hurried visit to his native 
place, and bought some property there, returning to 
aris in the following year, where he enjoyed honours 
nd emoluments — having been appointed to the post, 
mong other offices, of musical director of the Italian 
Opera — until the period of the French Revolution, 
when (1792) he came to London in an almost ruined con- 
dition pecuniarily. In this country he at once succeeded 
professionally, but the government fancied he had better 
not remain — goodness only knows why. Probably 
; some panic-notion that it would be as well not to give 
unnecessary offence to the revolutionary party. At any- 
rate he went to the neighbourhood of Hamburg and 
'remained there until 1794, when he was at liberty to 


return to London. He made his home here and is 
supposed to be one of the founders of the Philharmonic 
Society. He revisited Paris twice. Qnce in 1802, and 
again in 1819, when he stayed two years directing the 
opera.' He came back to London in 1822. He had 
started a wine business in London which was not very 
profitable, and this, and his wantof success in the opera 
management, appears , to have, greatly depressed him. 
His brother died at this time and the intelligence of his 
deniise weighed him down still farther. He died in 
London on the I oth March, 1824. Viotti's works are 
too well known to require special mention. They 
consist of concertos, sonatas, duets, trios, quartets,' 
symphonies, etc., almost all of which are still played. 


This distinguished French violinist was born at Eassy. 
in 1 771. He began to play the violin when he Was 
about seven years old. His family had moved about a 
little and, when the lad's father died, they were in 
Corsica. The Governor offered to have Pierre educated 
along with his own children,' and he was sent with them 
to Rome, where he was placed with a violinist named 
PoUani, who had been a pupil of Nardini. He returned 
to Corsica in 1785, and then relinquished the violin as a 
profession for that of secretary to the Governor. In this 
office he remained until 1791, when he went to Paris. 
The revolution was just about to burst, but they still 
had the play and " Baillot got employment as second 
violin in the Theatre Feydeau, where he became 
acquainted with Rode. He remained' in this orchestra 


only for a few months, until he obtained an appointment 
at the Treasury. He was at the Treasury for ten years, 
and laid aside the fiddle except as an amateur. That 
does not, however, mean that he relinquished practice. 
He merely did not play professionally. After that period 
he went into the army and served for nearly two years, , 
but returned to Paris in 1795. ' From the last named 

' date until he died in 1842, he was exclusively devoted to 
his instrument, became professor in the newly-founded 
Conservatoire and added one more name to the illus- 
trious roll of French violinists. But it is a mistake to 
say that he was a pupil of Viotti's. That he never was. 
Viotti was driven out of Paris a ruined man just as 
Baillot entered it. Baillot published a quantity of music 

• for the violin, besides being one of the joint authors of 
the fine violin school which is known under the name of 
" Rode, Baillot and Kreutzer." 


This artiste was the most distinguished of the splendid 
band of performers who owed their training to G. B. 
Viotti. He was born in the Rue du Loup, Bordeaux, . 
on the 1 6th February, 1774, died at Damazan' on the 
26th Novernber, 1830, and was buried at Bordeaux. 
He played the violin as a boy in his father's shop, and 
used to be heard and adrnired by the .nfeighbours and 
passers by. His first . teacher was A. J. Fauvel, whp 
was himself a pupil of Gervais. When Rode was 
twelve years old he was known in Bordeaux. as a young 
virtuoso, and as he had been with Fauvel for six years 
it will be seen that he began young. He went with his 


teacher to Paris when he was fourteen, and had an 
introduction to Viotti, who was so struck with the boy's 
ability that he received him as a pupil. In three years 
time (1790) he made his first appearance with his 
master's sixth concerto and gained a distinct success. 
He th^n entered the band in the Theatre Feydeau, and 
was soon promoted from the sixth desk in the first to the 
second desk in the second violins. In the same year 
(1791) Baillot joined the second violins and these two 
became fast friends. Next year he met Kreutzer, and 
the three joined to produce the famous violin school 
referred to in the notice of Baillot. From 1793 to 1797, 
there is a large amount of confusion in the biographical 
accounts of this artiste. Some say he became a soldier, 
or rather, played the clarionet in a regimental band at 
Angers. Others that he sailed for Hamburg, but was 
driven towards the English coast, and took the people of 
this country by storm. We catch sight of him again in 
Paris in 1797, where he entered the opera as solo violin, 
and the Conservatoire as professor. Two years later he 
went to Spain and was splendidly received there. In 
1803 he made a progress towards Russia,- where he 
arrived in 1804- and remained until 1808, when he 
reappears in Paris. He was still a young man — only 
thirty-four — but he now began to fail, and from this 
point onwards, his career was rather a downward one. 
He started a new tour in 1811, and married a wealthy 
lady in Berlin — a widow named Madame Galliari. He 
stayed there for some years but did not play much in 
public. About 1820 he returned to Bordeaux and 
worked at his compositions. Eight years afterwards he 


thought he would like to play again in Paris, but the. 
reception which he had when he did it so thoroughly 
broke his spirit, that he went back to Bordeaux really a 
dying man. His wife took him to a country seat she. 
had bought at Damazan, but he lingered on in the same 
condition till the 15th November, when a stroke of 
paralysis brought the end of this melodious soul near, 
9.nd, as already stated, he died on the 26th of the same 
month. Every violinist knows " Rode's Air in G," his. 
" Martial Air in A," his Concertos and Caprices — the 
last named being really indispensible to every player. 
He composed altogether between forty and fifty pieces 
- for violin and voice, in addition to his share in the. 
famous Conservatoire " School " already mentioned. 


The third member of the famous trio who made up 
the magnificent violin school: for the then recently 
founded Conservatoire, this artiste claims, and receives, 
a high place among the ranks of great violin players- 
He was born in Versailles in 1766. His father was a 
musician in the king's chapel there, and so was young 
Rodolphe's teacher, Anton Stamitz, the second son of 
the founder of the Mannheim School. Kreutzer began 
early, for it is said that he played a Concerto of his own 
composition when he was thirteen. He had, of course, 
almost lived in an- atmosphere of music, but so have 
other distinguished composers, such as Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven, and I think the statement that Kreutzer's 
musical nature was so gifted that he composed by 
instinct, and without having received a single lesson in 


harmony is one which need hardly be pressed. He is 
sufficiently famous without its aid. When he was 
sixteen his father died, and Marie Antoinette, who. 
had taken an interest in him, had him promoted to 
the desk of first violin, vacant through his father's 
decease. In 1782, he heard Viotti in Paris, and then 
set himself to developing his own talent until he became 
one of the greatest exponents of the fiddle fingerboard of 
his day. In 1790 he was admitted as first violin in the 
opera, and he began then to compose dramatic music. ■ 
He travelled Germany and Italy, a short time, and then 
returned to Paris. The Conservatoire had just been 
founded during the revolution, and he was appointed 
professor. He held a great many appointments in his 
time, and "whatsoever King did reign," he was there. 
Solo violin at the opera, member of the music in the' 
First Consul's Chapel, solo violin of the Emperor's 
private band. Chapel Master tt) Louis Philippe, and 
Conductor at the opera. Throughout all these changes, 
ranging from 1792, when he was in Louis XVI. 's band, 
till 1827, he was professor at the Conservatoire. In the 
last named year he ceded the chair to his brother 
Auguste, another fine performer. 

He had to relinquish public performing through an 
accident to his left shoulder, sustained by a fall from 
his carriage, or rather, his carriage was upset, and he 
was thrown out. The dislocation was never properly 
adjusted, and his health greatly deteriorated in conse- 
quence. He had several strokes of apoplexy, and died 
at Geneva in June, 1831. Every violin player, it may 
.again be said, is familiar with " Kreutzer'S Studies," 


an absolutely colossal work, without which it would be 
difficult ' to imagine how violin classes could now-a-days 
get on, although we all know that they got on very well 
indeed for perhaps a century and a half before they were 
written. Still, such is the force of habit, if they dis- 
appeared from our curriculum, it would be like dropping 
a book from the canon of scripture. 


This great representative of an earlier French school 
was born in Paris in 1781. His mother was a good 
player, and she gave him his early lessons. His 
' mother's ■ brother was Isidore Berthaume, quite a 
distinguished performer of the pre-revolution school, and 
he afterwards took the child in hand, and by the time 
Lafont was eleven years of age, he was playing solos at 
concerts in Germany — his uncle was settled in Olden- 
burg. Somewhat later Lafont became a pupil of Rode, 
and afterwards travelled over all the con,tinent, receiving 
the most enthusiastic plaudits everywhere. He challenged 
Pagaiiihi to a contest, and although the latter considered 
it extremely injudicious for two public performers to 
engage in such a warfare, and he was qiiite right, the 
affair came off, and Paganini is reported to have 
courteously, admitted that Lafont " probably excelled 
him in tone." In 1808, Lafont was at St. Petersburg, 
and remained there for six years, occupying the post of 
first solo violin player to the Emperor. On his return 
to France, he was appointed first violin of the 
King's private band, and filled other appointments. 
After 1815, Lafont went on the Continent again, and also 

T ' 


travelled about France. In the year 1839, an accident, 
similar to Kreutzer's befell him, but with more 
immediately fatal results. He was on toujr with the 
pianist Herz, and was sitting outside the diligence, when 
it was overturned between Bagneres de Bigorre and 
Tarbes. Lafont was killed oii the spot. 


There can be very little doubt as to the position 
which this wonderful man occupied in his day, and 
there need be as little doubt regarding the place he 
holds in the ranks of violinists dowij to the present. 
An easy first he still remains as a violin player. The 
most striking testimony to his matchless skill is the 
almost unimpeachable unanimity of judgment in his 
favour displayed by the artistes in his own profession. 
And what astounded them, subdued theim, and, in one or 
two cases one might almost say, appalled them, was not 
his manual dexterity^-that was chiefly what astonished 
his general public, and was wonderful enough, appar- 
ently, in all conscience — but that seemingly superhuman 
power of intense expression which drew the majority of 
artistes to his shrine, and those who were without envy 
— to speak freely — to his feet. We can surely in some 
measure realise what it must have been to hear him 
when we find men of all nationalities unij:ing in rapturous 
plaudits of this man's genius. It was the daily practice 
of these men to use, in their profession, the highest 
possible means, within their capacity, of emotional 
expression in their music, and when, as I have said, we 
find them almost unanimous in looking on Paganini as 



the " despair of their art " — to use an expression which 
is not particularly happy, but, judging from its frequent 
employment, seems intelligible enough — ^we may well 
risk still placing him at the head of all violinists. 

Hfe was born in Genoa on the i^th February, 1784. 

His father Antonio Paganini was a musician of some 

skill, and taught him the guitar, an instrument on 

which our hero became a magnificent performer. It is, 

indeed, reported by those who heard him, that his 

ability was as distinguished on that instrument as it 

was on the violin. His mother's maiden name was 

Teresa Bocciardi. She was also a musician, and she 

must have held the art in very high esteem indeed, 

when she felt that the wish nearest her heart was that 

her son should become the greatest violinist in the 

world. It was undoubtedly a curious dream which 

Paganini used to say she had. An angel appeared to 

her — people would now say a spirit — and desired her to 

name her dearest wish and she named it as above. His 

first instruments were the mandoline and, probably, the 

guitar, but soon he took up the violin under the 

instruction of a player named Servetto. When he really 

commenced to play, the violin is not known, but it is said 

that he was about five when he began the mandoline. 

He must have made great progress, because about this 

time Kreutzeir was in Genoa, and Paganini was brought 

in to play to him, and the child actually played some of 

Kreutzer's difficult music, as " difficult " was then 

understood, at sight. It is recorded that the great 

French player was " amazed," and from that day the 

fame of little Nicolo increased so rapidly, that by the 



time when he was seven years old, he was quite famous. 
It would be impossible to embody in a brief notice 
like this anything approaching to detail in recounting 
his career. His success was so marvellous, and the 
exhibition of his exceptional powers on his instirument so 
entrancing and inexplicable that people who cannot live 
happily unless they are in a position to explain every- 
thing in a natural or a supernatural way, people to whom 
a cpnfession of ignorance is a shameful humiliation, and 
the expression of wonder an utter impossibility — the more 
ignorant portion, in short, of his public — began to cast 
about for reasons which might appease their, hunger and 
thirst after explanations. The devil was, of course, the 
inevitable resource of these people — they never dreamt 
of falling back on the mother's angel. Perhaps they did 
not know the story of the dream — one may almost say 
certainly not. Still, it never struck them to try the angel. 
The man himself was, apparently, now and again a little 
reckless in his way of living, and, of course, angels never 
trouble themselves about people of that sort. All 
history, religious and profane, had made that quite clear. 
They therefore fixed on the devil, and saw him at 
Paganini's elbow, and they saw his cloven hoof also. 
His Satanic majesty must be a sublime idiot after all, to 
walk about all these centuries with cloven hoofs. But, 
seriously, stories of this kind were circulated about ■ 
wherever he went. By-and-by, they found out that he 
had murdered his sweetheart, had been imprisoned for 
many years, and, during his imprisonnient, had done 
nothing but practise the violin, etc., etc. We can look 
at all this now as extraordinary foolery, but these horrible 


stories followed this man to every town, and upset the 
comfort of his life. On one occasionj he appealed to the 
Italian Ambassador when he was in Vienna, and that 
gentleman published a declaration in the newspapers to 
the effect that he had known Paganini as a respectable 
man for twenty years. This quieted the ridiculous tales 
in that city for a time, but wherever he went they were 
revived. Even in enlightened Paris he was made the 
subject of all kinds of -lampoons, and virulent attacks, 
having not a shadow of truth , about them, \yhen in 
London if he ventured to Walk, pfeople followed him in 
the street, ran in front, and Stared at him, while others 
had the temerity to touch him, handle his clothes, etc., 
I suppose, in order to ascertain if he -really was flesh 
and blood. The man's life must have been made a 
complete misery to him. , He had been before the 
public since he was fourteen, constantly giving concerts, 
and he had held, at sixteen, the post of leader and 
director of music at the Court of Lucca, and yet there 
were actually people at that time who asserted and 
promulgated publicly the story about murdering his 
sweetheart or his rival, and that he had been eight years 
in prison for it. They did not stop to calculate that 
this made him a murderer at the advanced age of six 
years, with a sweetheart and a rival to operate on. We 
laugh at the absurd stories. They were not laughing 
matters to Paganini. They worried the man to a degree 
of which we have no conception. They caused people 
in these days to shun him who might have had his 
life brightened by their society. Even during his 
latest visit to Paris, he had to get Fetis to draw 


up a declaration embodying the truth about the 
malevolence of these tales which were revived 
against him at that time, not only concerning the 
murder and imprisonment, but all sorts of horrible 
crimes which were imputed to him. I do not in the 
least wonder that the man became soured in nature. 
The mother of his son was, apparently, a violent 
tempered woman who moved about the household, 
threatening to smash his iiddles,and so on. Altogether, to 
put it mildly,he seems to have had his fair share of troubles. 
His affection for his son was of a deep and tender l^ind. 
He was always thinking about him when absent, sending 
his love to him, begging the friends to whoin he was 
writing to be sure and give the rhessages, emphasising 
them every other sentence, and beseeching them to let 
him know about his Achilles — his' son's name. In his 
lodgings he used to have sham fights with him, when the 
little chap, with his woodeni swOrd, would drive his long 
lean parent up against the . bedstead, and threaten him 
with the direst consequences unless he consented to die, 
which he always had to do. Paganini tried to teach him 
■the violin, but he did not take to it. This greatest of 
all violinists died ' at Nice on 27th May, 1840. 


This artiste is the only known pupil of Paganini, He 
was born on 6th June, 1817, in Genoa, and is still alive. 
Paganini's art of teaching was a peculiar one. When 
Siyori went for his lesson it consisted often of a good 
deal of scolding and interruptions, ending by Paganini 
playing the exercise, or whatever it was, and telling 



Sivori not to coine back until lie could do it in .the sanie 
style. Since 1836, Sivori has travelled a great deal in 
Europe, and America in 1846 to 1848. He was highly 
appreciated in this country and is at present living in 


This great violin master and musician occupies a very 
high place — if not indeed the very highest— among 
German artistes. It inay be pointed out, by the way, 
that he never calls himself " Ludwig " but always 
" Louis," in his Autobiography, as has been indicated by 
the author of the article in Grove's Dictionary, I may 
add to this, from documents in my own possession, 
that he also signed his name "Louis" and not 
"Ludwig," not only in his correspondence, but also if 
he had to sign a jiiece of his own music. Sometimes 
he also signed — in what may seem a rather imposing 
manner — " Dr. Louis Spohr." He was born at 
Brunswick, in 1784. When he was two years old, his 
father, who was a doptor, moved to the small town of 
Seesen, and Spohr spent there the early years of his 
childhood. Both his father and mother were musicians 
of some culture, and when he was five they bought him 
a little violin on ' which he found out the notes for 
himself — and played over, to his mother's piano accom- 
paniment, the music they were in the habit of singing 
or playing. The rector of the place, whose name was 
Rieraen Schneider, gave him his first lessons. They 
were necessarily of an amateur kind, and so were those 
of his second instructor, but he was a more advanced 

28o THE FIDDLE fancier's GUIDE. 

player, named Dufour. At the latter's instance young 
Spohr was sent to Brunswick — to the grammar school 
there — and at the same tinie began the serious study of 
the violin under a player named Kunisch, who was in 
the Duke of Brunswick's^band. He was also taught 
counterpoint by Hartung, an organist, and never 
received any other instruction in musical composition. He 
had further instruction in violin playing from the leader 
of thp band, Mancourt, and when he was fourteen, or 
rather younger, he played- a concefto of his own at a 
school concert. He then tried a tour and went to 
Hamburg, but could not get up a concert. Returned to 
Brunswick sorely depressed and without money, or very 
little. He wrote to the Duke asking for means to con- 
tinue his studies. The Duke heard, and gave hirri an 
appointment in his band, and by-and-by arranged for 
him to receive further violin instruction from Franz 
Eck. They were to travel together, and in 1802 meant to 
go to Russia but made a prolonged wait at Hamburg 
and Strelitz. By-and-by theyarrived in St. Petersburg, 
and after remaining through the winter there Spohr 
returned to Brunswick the following summer, where he 
heard Pierre Rode play. This made a great impression 
on Spohr. He then gave a concert himself and started 
to go to Paris, but had his Guarnerius stolen from him, 
and had to return to Brunswick in order to arrange for 
another instrument. He next went to several German 
tow:ns and in 1805 became leader of the Duke of 
Gotha's band. In the following year he married 
Dorette Scheidler, a harp-player, and began to write 
•arge instrumental and other works. Between 1805 and 


1813 he toured through Germany, accompanied by his 
wife, and in the last named year accepted the appoint- 
ment of conductor at the Theatre-an-der-Wien, Vienna. 
In 1815 or 1816, the two went to Italy on a concert tour 
with great success and returned to Germany in the follow- 
ing year. In 1818 he was conductor of the opera at 
Frankfort where he produced his Faust. In 1820 the 
Philharmonic Society invited him to London, and he 
paid his first visit to this country. From that date his 
career was one continuous triumph till a few years 
before his death. He was immensely pleased with the 
Philharmonic, admitting that he had never heard such 
splendid performances. He frequently came here after 
he accepted the life appointment of music director at 
Cassel in 1822. The last time he was over was in 
1853, and shortly after that his health began to give 
way. He lost his wife in 1834 ^^^ married again in 
1836. In 1857 ^^ broke his arm, and had to give up the 
violin, and his last public appeiarance of importance was 
in 1858, when he conducted the jubilee celebration at the 
Prague Conservatoire. He died in Cassel on October 
i6th, 1859. These facts are almost wholly taken from 
his Autobiography, which is one of the most interesting 
musical works of a personal character published during 
the present century. 


This artiste is, perhaps, the best known representa- 
tive of the Belgian school of the past. He was born 
in Louvain in 1802, and although he attended the 
.Conservatoire in Paris for a- few months under the 


guidance of Baillot, he really derived no assistance in the 
development of his powers from that school. Before he 
went to Paris in 1821, he was an artiste of the highest 
■class, and. when he consulted Viotti ,, on reaching the 
French Capital, the latter strongly advised him to follow 
his own bent, seeing he had nothing to learn which he 
could not teach himself. He was a magnificent per- 
former for brilliancy and delicacy of touch, with a fine, 
melodic sense. The latter quality is strongly rnarked in 
much of his music, and especially in his " Airs Vari6s." 
He is one of those examples of the developing power of 
individual genius, of which we have instances in Paganini, 
Ole Bull, and one or two others, for although, like them, 
he received instructions from a resident teacher, a violinist 
in Louvain named Tiby, he was not burdened with the 
traditions of any school, although his style is classicEtl 
enough for all that. He met with successes wherever 
he played, and, beginning with Paris, he travelled all 
•over Europe except Russia. His fifst appearance in 
this country was in 1826, and he was very often here 
after that. He married the celebrated singer, Madame 
Malibran, but I am' sorry I am not in a position to say 
when with any sense of exactitude. The event occurred 
before I was born, and I have not yet had an opportunity 
of examining into the matter at first hand, so I give a 
selection of the various dates given by various authorities. 
One important biograpical work gives the date as 1830. 
Another says 1832. One of the finest and most authorita- 
tive works in existence, and which is also the most recent, 
states that they were married in 1835, and in another place 
of the same work that the date was 1836. If it is any 



satisfaction to the reader, I may say that I lean to the 
opinion that they were married on the 26th March, 1836. 
She died in Manchester a few days less than six months 
after that date, and JDe Beiiot went oiF s.t once to 
Brussels' to look after the propeirty. But they had 
known each other for some years, and had given many 
concerts together. After his wife's death, De Beriot 
remained in Brussels for four years, and his first 
appearance afterwards was in Germany. He was 
appointed chief of the violin school at the Brussels 
Conservatoire in 1843, and remained in the thair for 
nine years. He became blind in 1852, and retired. He 
died at his native place in 1870. One important 
publication gives the year of his birth as 1770. This is 
an error. His music, as every violinist knows, has been, 
and is yet, very popular. Some of his melodies are 
exceedingly beautiful. He also wrote a great many 
duets, soriie books of studies, seven concertos, and a 
" school." 


This great Norse magican was born in Bergen on 
February 5 th, 1810. His father and mother were 
musical, but an " Uncle Jens " used |to have quartets on 
Tuesday evenings, and to these Ole Bull cbuld probably 
have traced his earliest musical longing^. Even as a , 
baby he would be found under the table or sofa listening 
to the quartets of Hadyn, Mozart, and Beethoven. His 
uncle, who played the 'cello, would put him inside the 
case and play to him, while he bribed him with sweet- 
meats not to move'. This was when he was about three 


years old. When he was five, his uncle bought him a 
violin, and his widow relates that when the child played 
his first tune on it he felt as if he had ascended to the 
clouds. All young children are delighted when they 
accomplish something which they see done by their elders, 
but the after career of this magnificent man places 
beyond a doubt that the joy he felt was more than the 
ordinary glee of childish satisfaction. The whole life of 
Ole Bull was a poem, and one of the most elevating 
kind. He had the highest possible appreciation of the 
power of executive art, and he employed that power in 
the rtoblest manner. His first teacher was a Dane — a 
Mr. Paulsen — but the little fellow really played the violin 
tolerably well almost from the first moment he handled 
it, although he had to stand at his mother's knee while 
she screwed the pegs for him — his baby fingers not 
being strong enough for the duty. This Mr. Paulsen 
probably exhausted his own knowledge in the teaching 
of Ole, for on one of the Tuesday evenings when 
Paulsen should have led the quartet, he was so drunk 
as to be useless. Ole's uncle called out to him, " Come 
my boy, do -your best and you shall have a stick of 
candy." Ole Bull at this time was eight years old. He 
took up his violin, and, to the amazement of all, played 
through a qualrtet of Pleyel's which he had frequently 
heard, atid played all the movements accurately. After 
this Paulsen's lessons were given more regularly, but be 
soon suddenly left Bergen, and the boy had no regular 
instruction from the time he was nine until he reached 
the age of twelve. Then a Swedish player named 
Lundholm took up his abode in the town, and tDle was 


sent to him. WJien he was fourteen his grandmother 
got him, at his earnest request, Paganini's Studies, and 
he actually mastered these in a very short time, and 
nonplussed his teacher. By-and-by he was sent to the 
University at Christiania to study for the church and 
was duly plucked — and little wonder, seeing that he 
played the violin all night previous to the day of his 
examination, and as far on as seven in the morning;-' 
while his " exam." came on at nine ! The professor 
remarked, to him, " It is the best thing that could have 
happened to you,"' and had him appointed Director of 
the Philharmonic and Dramatic Societies o!f Christiania. 
From this point his artistic career may be said to begin, 
and it was, with two notably exceptional periods, a 
triumphal progress through the whole civilised universe. 
The first exception was on the occasion of his visit to 
Paris in 1831. He had gone there to take his place in 
the world of art, having in his pocket the proceeds of 
some concerts he had given just before leaving Norway, 
He met with no encouragement, could not even get heard 
— and to crown all, an old rascal who stayed in the same 
hotel in which he lodged, robbed him of all his money 
and belongings, leaving him nothing but an old suit of 
clothes. Absolute want stored him in the face, but he 
happened to meet an accquaintance who introduced him 
to his own landlady, and became security for him to the 
extent of sixty francs per month until he could hear from 
his friends in Norway. This is the time when that 
singular stroke of luck befell him at play, and which is 
so often referred to in a vague and inaccurate manner. 
The circumstances are as follow : His landlaldy and his 


friend ^were beginning to look askance at him when, one 
morning, a stranger of somewhat odd appearance was 
at the breakfast table, and Ole Bull's friend remarked 
that he was a detective. The former replied that he 
suspected as much, and these comments being overheard, , 
the' visitor became very angry, but on Ole Bull respon,ding 
in a quiet, gentlemanly manner, his mood changed, and 
he presently began to take an interest: in the Norwegian. 
He appeared to divine Ole Bull's position, and requested 
him to go with him to a small public house in the 
vicinity, as he had Something to tell him. When they 
arrived there the stranger said to Bull, " I know you are 
in want. Follow my advice. You must try your luck 
at play.'' "But I have no money." ''You must get 
five fr'ancs .; then go to-night, between ten and eleven 
o'clock, not earlier, to Frascati's, in the Boulevard 
Moritmartre. Mount the stairs, ring the bell, and give 
your hat boldly to the liveried servant in attendance ; 
enter the hall, go straight to the table, jiut your five 
francs on the red, and let them remain there." Ole Bull 
did -as he was told, exactly, and when he found himself 
at the table in puttin'g his money on the red he did it 
awkwardly, and -it rolled over to the black and was lost. 
He almost lost consciousness, but at the next coup he 
heard the cry, " Play, Gentlemen," and he called out, 
cinque francs but his Norwegian accent made it soun4 
like cent francs, and a hundred francs were passed over to 
him. He placed these on the red and won, again, and 
won, and again, and again, until eight hundred francs 
were lying beside him. Suddenly a small diamond- 
decorated hand shd over the table and covered his pile. 


He seized it, and there was a scream and an uproar. 
-Immediately a clear and comjnanding voice said, 
" Madame, leave this gold alone," and, to 6le Bull, 
" Take your money. Sir, if you please." When th& 
violinist turned to look at the speaker, he found him to 
be his friend of the morning, and afterward learned that 
he was Vi(Jocq, the chief of the police. The. other ' 
exceptional period of his life was when he found himself 
utterly ruined, after pa3dng the price of an American 
estate on which to settle a Norwegian colony, and having 
to restore the land to the rightful owner — ^the company 
from whom he bought it having no title whatever. H& 
was a man of marvellous energy, or he could never have 
recovered from that shock, but he started again 
with his vioUn and bow, and righted himself completely. 
Another interesting episode in this artiste's career is. 

' his meeting with his first wife. The cholera was raging 
in Paris shortly after the time of the Vidocq incident, 
and a house to which he removed was invaded by it. 
He could find no employment, and night after night h& 
used to wander about the street in positive want — ^for 
his eight hundred francs, after paying his debts, did not 
last very long. One day, while roaming through th& 
streets, he saw a little ticket in the window of, a house 
in the rue des Mart3rrs, " Furnished rooms to let." He 
ascended the stairs, and when he rang the bell and the- 
door was opened, a young lady cried, "Look at him, 
Grandmama." Grandmama put on her glasses, looked 
at him, and the tears welled up in her eyes. He was 

' the picture of a son she had just lost, and was told tO' 
come back next day. It was high time. He had 


stopped opposite that house because he felt as if he could 
go no farther from sheer exhaustion, and he was no 
sooner in it than he was attacked by brain fever. 
When consciousness returned, the old lady was sitting 
by his bedside nursing him as if she had been his own 
mother, and the young lady was Alexandrine Felici6 
Villeminot, his future wife. 

Sometimes his irrepressible sense of humour proved 
an impediment in his path. Shortly after, his recovery 
from fever he applied for an appointment in the Opera 
Comique band. Competitors for the place were tested 
in playing at sight, and when he went forward to the 
desk the music placed for him was so extraordinarily 
simple, that on the spur of the moment he asked at 
which end he was to begin. The examiner did not see 
the fun of it, but, without replying, rejected him without 
a hearing. He had another very laughable experience 
with fiddle varnish. A gentleman named Lacour had 
made the discovery — like so many others — that by the 
use of his particular varnish an ordinary fiddle could 
be made equal to a Cremonese instrument. Ole Bull 
was then a little over twenty-one, and a good old chest- 
nut like this was quite a novelty to him, so he arranged 
with Lacour to play on a fiddle varnished by his pro- 
cess. It was to be at a Soiree given by the Duke of 
Riario, the Italian minister at Paris, and^was a splendid 
opportunity for the young man, so, armed with the 
precious instrument, he determined to make it, if 
possible, the turning point in his career. The heat of 
the apartment, filled with a brilliant company, was so 
intense that the varnish on the fiddle began to smell in 


a most oSensive degree. Assafoetida entered largely 
into the composition of the varnish, and it was com- 
p^iratively new. At first it merely annoyed him slightly, 
but g,s he played on and the heat of his chin and neck 
worked up the varnish at the tail piece, the smell was 
dreadful just under his nose, and when he realised that 
the horrible odour must be permeating the room in his 
immediate: neighbourhood, he became quite excited.- 
The warmth of the contact between fiddle and chin 
increased, the heat of the room increased, and the 
odour seemed to treble in pungency. He was a 
player who could turn his head round a good bit, 
but he could not remove the fiddle, and the agony 
became almost unendurable. Furiously he played on, 
the hideous odour growing worse and worse, until he 
quite expected to be saluted with smiles and laughter 
amid a general stampede from his vicinity. When he 
had finished, the smiles were his, but they were smiles 
of congratulation from all sides, no one seemingly 
haying observed what was so painfully near his own 
olfactories. It was an awful experience, however, which 
probably made him duly cautious in similar circumstances 
for the whole term of his natural life. From this time 
onward his evil fortune passed away and almost every 
important town in the civilised world had a visit from 
him, and many of them more than one. 

His first appearance in this country was on May 21st, 
1836, a feat which he succeeded in achieving after the 
most extraordinary, tricky "intrigue against him on the 
part of that curiously envious' violinist, Nicolas Mori. 
After this, his successes were of an altogether exceptional 


character, and for about eighteen months, he . alrnost 
wore himself out giving concerts. The Duke of Devon- 
shire had him down at Chatsworth for rest and quiet, 
and forbade him to play, but on one occasion, he played 
there till midnight, with results which caused the Duke 
to make the prohibition absolute, and take means to see 
that it was enforced. In this year he was married in Paris 
to the young lady whose grandmother had been so kind 
to him, and they returned to London. Shortly after, 
he at;ranged for a tour in the United States, and subse- 
quently passed many years of his life in Arnerica, where 
he evolved that scheme for Norwegian settlers, which 
ended so disastrously, but so honourably. All the 
circumstances of his life are delightfully told by his 
widow in her memoir of her distinguished husband, and 
the above details are taken froqi that work. When I 
was a young man, I had the honour to receive some 
slight personal directions in violin playing from him, 
and I have a very vivid recollection of the extreme 
kindness of his manner, and the dignity of his bearing. 
He was an exceedingly tall, and exceptionally handsome 
man. He was a very enthusiastic student of old violins, 
and was fond of carrying out, and seeing carried 
out, experiments in the direction tending to reveal the 
supposed mysteries of their manufacture.- He possessed, 
at different tjmes, many fine instruments, and the one 
which he called his " Gasparo da Salo," has become 
quite famous. He is, I fancy, the only violinist who 
ever played a solo on the top of the pyramid of Cheops, 
a curious feat which he accomplished on his sixty-sixth 
birthday, completely enthralling the Bedouins about 


him until he had finished, when they sprang tq their feet 
on the summit of the old world structure, as if suddenly 
charged with electricity, and shouted the name of 
" Allah ! Allah ! " 

In the month of July, 1880, Ole Bull was taken ill in 
Liverpool after landing from his last trip from America. 
When the symptoms grew violent, he insisted on sailing 
to his home in the island of Lysoe, where he had built him-, 
self a beautiful house. Dr. Moore, of Liverpool, accom- 
panied him and attended him to the last. When the 
melancholy home' coming was ended,' and the great man 
was laid in his music room overlooking the waters of the 
Bjorne Fjord, after a short period of fitful hopes and 
fears, there he died, regretted by the whole world of 
music-loving people high and low. 

He. is buried in the centre of the old Bergen Cemetery, 
and the finest of all tributes paid to his memory was- 
when after aU the funeral orations had been delivered, 
and the wreaths put on his grave, and the regular 
mourners had departed, poor peasants from all . parts of 
the country around Bergen slipped up to the grave, and 
in hundreds, placed their green boughs, ferns, and 
flowers on the last resting place of their great friend. ■ 


This master was born in Nuremberg in 1802. He 
had his first tuition from his father, who filled some 
civic post as musician. King Maximilian L of Bavaria, 
noticed young Molique's talent, and had him sent to 
Mimich to be trained by Pietro Rovelli. Two years 
later, MoUque accepted a position in the Court Chapel 



in Vienna, and a year after that Rovelli died, and the 
young violinist was recalled to Munich to fill Rovelli's 
place. Spohr is understood to have given him some 
suggestions both in regard to violin playing and 
composition. Molique made his first tour in 1822. In 
1826, he went to an important appointment in Stuttgart, 
aijd from there he made annual tours throughout Europe 
during his vacation, and until 1849, when he almost per- 
manently settled here in London. He remained twenty 
years in this country, and wrote concertos, quartets, trios, 
and grand sonatas. Some of his melodies are extremely 
pathetic, and of an exceedingly refined character. He 
tried Paris in 1836, but did not please the taste there. 
In 1861 he was appointed professor of composition at 
the Royal Academy of Music, and retired five years 
later. He went back to Germany, and died at Cann- 
stadt on loth May, 1869. He was a distinguished 
orchestral conductor. 


This exceptionally fine German master was born at 
Briin in 1814. He was trained at the Vienna Conserva- 
toire under Joseph Boehm, who was, himself, a pupil 
of Rode's, and a player of great eminence. It is said 
that Ernst also had instruction from Mayseder, another 
German master of distinction. He was, besides, a 
close student of Paganini, who probably influenced 
his style largely. Ernst was touring when he was 
sixteen, and two years later he went to Paris, and 
remained there for six years. He never appears to 
have enjoyed robust health, even when travelling. 



which he did for about sixteen years, visiting all the 
chief towns "in Europe. His first appearance in this 
country was in 1844, but he ultimately resided perma- 
nently in London. In the course of time he had to 
relinquish violin playing altogether in consequence of the 
nervous trouble to which he eventually succumbed at 
Nice on 8th October, 1865. No one who has heard him 
play his exquisite " Elegie," will readily forget the 
remarkably beautiful character of tone which he 
succeeded in drawing from his fine " Stradavari." In 
addition to above " Elegie " he is author of a number of 
high class works for the instrument — some of them 
being exceptionally difficult. 


This great Belgian player was born at Verviers in 
1820. He displayed a very early likmg for the violin, 
and his father, through the kindness of an amateur 
friend, had him placed with a loca:l teacher, arid his 
progress was so rapid that when he was six years old 
he played one of Rode's concertos in public. Then the 
touring began. In Brussels, De Beriot heard him, and 
took him in charge for a few months, ultimately exhibit- 
ing him in Paris successfully. The boy returned homcj 
but with no doubt as to his future career. In 1833, he 
started with his father on his first professional tour on 
his own account, and for forty years after that date, the 
whole civilised world became familiar with his splendid 
ability. His first visit to this country was in 1834, ^^^ 
seven years later he came again, a young man of twenty- 
one. He had a magnificent tone and style, apd received 


a very flattering reception. He visitfed America once 
or twice, where the same enthusiasm — perhaps greater 
— greeted him. He settled in Russia for six years, but 
resumed his journeyings over the face of the earth, and 
continued them until he settled down in Brussels in 
1 87 1, to fill the place of De Beriot at the Conservatoire. 
A few years afterwards a stroke of paralysis disabled 
the whole of his left side, and ended his violin playing. 
The terrible nature of the deprivation could only be 
realised by the artiste himself. He bore it, however, 
very nobly, and was able to compose for his instrument 
afterwards. He died in Algiers in 1881, and has left a 
large number of compositions of various kinds, among 
them being six concertos. 


This artiste is one of ' that distinguished band of 
Hungarian violinists, which has emanated from the 
Vienna Conservatoire. He was born in 1830, and was 
for three years under Boehm. Soon after he left the 
Conservatoire, he joined the insurrection and had to 
change his domicile. He went to America, where he 
resumed his art, and in 1853 returned to Europe. In 
1854 he came to London, and in i860 went home 
to Hungary. In 1865 he was in Paris, and in 1877 
in London again, and, since then, he has been, 
in America, all over Europe and, indeed, in most 
parts of the world. In 1.89 1 he visited once more the 
British metropolis, but he was not heard in public. In 
my opinion, he is an artiste of the highest grade, 
who should be more frequently en evidence than he has 


been during the last twenty years. Apart from his 
splendid technique, I carinot recall the name of any 
player who has with greater delicacy, grace, and feeling, 
interpreted the' national airs of whatever country he 
might fix on for purposes of musical exposition. When 
he came here in 1854, he was made "solo violinist to 
the Queen," and when he returned to Hungary in i860, 
he received an appointment of equal importance at the 
Austrian Court. 


This artiste is almost universally acknowledged to be 
the first of living violinists, and it appears to be certain 
that when Time once more lets his curtairi descend on a 
great" violin epoch; the doctor's name will be found in 
line with those of Corelli, Tartini, Viotti, Paganini, and 
' Ole Bull. He was born at Kitse, in Hungary, on June 
28th, ,1831, and began to play the violin at five years of 
age. His first instructor was the leader of the Pesth 
Orchestra, and when he was ten, he was, sent tp the 
Conservatoire a.t Vienna, where Joseph Boehm had still 
charge of the violin classes. Two years later he went to 
Leipsic, to Ferdinand David, where Mendelssohn, who 
was head of the Conservatoire, took special interest in 
him. He had, before this, played in public, though not, 
perhaps, under such distinguished auspices for, on the 
occasion of his first appearance in Leipsic, Mendelssohn 
himself accompanied him on the piano. From that 
period his career has been one of uninterrupted success 
and ever increasing distinction. The first occasion on 
which he played in this country was when Mendelssohn 


came to conduct the Philharmonic season in 1844, when 
he appeared at a concert at Drury Lane, and again on 
May 27th, at the Philharmonic. He was then only 
thirteen years of age, but already a master, and for more 
than fifty years, season after season, he has maintained 
his high position. It must be the wish of every true 
lover of art that Dr. Joachim may long remain with us. 
He has received a large number of decorations from the 
various fountains of earthly honour, and he -tvould be a 
very pretty sight indeed if he wore them all. The most 
appreciative mark of affection and esteem which he ever 
had, may not be the beautiful Stradivari violin pre- 
sented to him on his Jubilee, by friends and admirers in 
this country,' but it will not come very far behind it. 


This fine performer is another pupil of Boehm's. He 
was born at Pressburg in 1835, and early distinguished 
himself, becoming a colleague of Mayseder's in concerted 
music. He has occupied several high posts on the 
Continent, and has gone through the usual touring 
curriculum with Signor Piatti, and other important 
players. He first came here in i860, and then per- 
manently in 1864, and is a solo player of great distinction. 


This great English violinist was born at Keighley in 
1836. He started very early, and was a public 
performer before he was twelve years old. At that age 
he came to London to study under Molique, who was 
here a;t the time, and he. accompanied that artiste to 

(President of the College of Violinists). 


Stuttgart, where he remained until he was about eighteen; 
He then returned, and filled an appointment in Glasgow. 
Soon after this, he attracted the attention of Sir Michael 
Costa, whose judgment recognised - in the young 
violinist those qualities which ultimately brought him to 
the very front. Costa invited him to join the Royal Itallian 
Opera, and soon after he passed to '' Her Majesty's " 
as leader, and finally, back to the R.I.O- in the same 
distinguished capacity. His master, Molique, was a 
magnificent leader, and his mantle has fallen on Mr. 
Carrodus, who, at present, leads the most important 
orchestras in this country. He has published a number 
of original compositions for the violin and piano, as well 
as educational works for his instrument, and as a solo 
player, he is immensely popular. 

Lady Halle (nee Neruda). 

This lady is one of the most distinguished players 
of the age. She was a very little girl indeed when she 
first appeared here at a Philharmonic Concert, but the 
magnificently incisive tone which now responds to the 
stroke of her bow, is not surpassed by that of any 
performer who visits these shores. For nearly, twenty- 
five years there has been no more popular artiste in this 
country. She was a pupil of J ansa, before he came to 
London, but the art of violin playing runs in her blood. 
For nearly two hundred years the members of her 
family have been violinists, and, if ther^ is anything in 
the influence of heredity, one need hardly be surprised 
that her splendid style and technique should make many 


a fine male performer quail. A few years ago, she was 
married to Sir Charles Hall6, the distinguished conductor 
and pianist. 


This favourite violinist was born in Pampeluna, in 
Navarre, on loth March, 1844. He is sometimes called 
Pablo de Sarasate, and is said to have been born in 
Saragossa, in 1846. Why there should be such 
diversity of information regarding a great modern artiste 
such as he is, may be explained as follows. In 1879 a 
writer named Hans Hoffman published a farce in which 
the hero, a certaii; famous violinist called Nicotini, is 
toririented by two silly women who are his passionate 
admirers, and who get themselves and others into trouble 
by their stupid conduct. Nicotini is desirous of travelling 
incognito, but these curious dames find him out to be 
Sarasate, and the naine of the farce is " Pablo de 
Sarasate." I suppose the distinguished man has, in this 
way, come to be' baptised in this name. I/also fancy 
that Saragossa has been given as his birthplace through 
some phonetic confusion between its name, and the first 
sounds of " Sarasate." It is not very farfrom Pampeluna, 
certainly, but it is in the province of Aragon, and a man 
cannot be born, in an earthly sense, in two places. The 
discrepancy in the dates I do not attempt to explain. 

Senor Sarasate was quite young when he was taken 
to Paris, and entered the Conservatoire in 1856, but 
previous to that he had appeared at public concerts in 
Spain, it is said as early as 1851, and, had received 
substantial tokens of approval from very exalted quarters. 

•"^ i' m f^t ^si^ ' ^iiimm s fmi^ — '^^^r^'^'H^'W^'wr^" ""-"fwr^ 



one of these tokebs being in the form of a violin worth 
£^1,006. There is probably some exaggeration in this 
statement. Forty years ago there were no violins valued 
at such a sum, at- least none which could be alienated 
from their surroundings. But it is a clear enough indica- 
tion of the esteem in which this wonderful vioUnist was 
held at even that early age, and there can be little doubt 
that the instrument wiU be worth that sum now, and 
probably more. Delphin Alard, the then head of the 
violin classes in the Conservatoire, and himself a 
virtuoso of the very highest rank, recognised the genius 
of his pupil, "and young Sarasate gained the first prize 
in two subjects, violin and solfeggio, in 18^7. Two 
years later he had another success in the harmony classi, 
but did not then follow it up. He was preparing for 
those, great triumphs which he had not long, to wait for. 
In Paris, all over France, Spain,' Portugal, Germany, 
Scandinavia, Russia, Italy, India, America, and last, 
though, probably, not least in his estimation, in this 
country, the rapturous enthusiasm which his graceful, 
accurate, sympathetic, and altogether superb styld of 
playing has aroused has rarely, if ever, been surpassed. 
His first visit to London was in -1874, and his second in 
1877. He carne again in the following year. Recently 
he has not missed a season, to the great delight of music- 
loving people, and devotees of his instrument. The amount 
of work which he will go through on one platform, and 
without a note before him, is something astounding, and 
might well fill one with a sense of deep humiliation at the 
cruel exactions which his greedy audiences sometimes 
make upon him. But with unfailing courtesy, he always 


" comes up smiling," and destroys their chances of 
learning to be considerate by playing some lovely thing 
which simply enlarges their appetites. 


This artiste, who at present directs the violin classes 
at the Royal Academy of Music, won his spurs in this 
country nearly a quarter of a century ago. He was 
born in 1852 in Dun le Roi, and received his earliest 
musical tuition at home. Shortly afterwards he was 
sent to the Paris Conservatoire, and later to that of 
Brussels, and became a conspicuous representative of 
of the French and Belgian Schools. His first visit to 
this country was in i856. In the three years following 
he toured through France and Italy. From 1870 to 
1874 ^6 "^^^ ^^ America. In 1877 he returned to 
Europe and is now the distinguished successor to the 
late Professor Sainton. 


Masses anb ifiass Pagers. 

THE origin of the violoncello and the double bass 
must be sought in the same direction as that of 
the violin, but there is no specific date at which it can 
be said that either of them sprang into existence any- 
more than a similar statement can be made in regard to 
the smallest of the tribe. There is plenty of more or- 
less ingehldus speculation on the point, and some par- 
ticularly dogmatic conclusions, which, however, owe 
their apparent finality entirely to the peculiarly positive 
individualism of the writers. The double bass — or, as it 
is called in Italy-^the contrabasso, is supposed to represent 
the Violone, which probably existed there as early a-s the 
fifteenth century, and the 'cello is merely a smaller bass. 
Their names will be better understood if it is explained 
that viola was the generic term for all the members of 
the tribel Violone means a " large viol," and violon'cello 
(for. violonecello) means a " lesser large viol " and the 
names of the most celebrated makers of them from 
Gasparo da S*16 (Bfertolottis) onward to Panormb will 
be found in the two lists already given. 

There is no trace of .either of these instruments 
having been used for solo purposes until long after the 
violin, but that is no proof that they were not so 
employed. It merely suggests that the interest which 
the basses evoked was of a character too evanescent to 


justify recording the achievements of their exponents. 
One of the earliest performers on the 'cello was 


This player was born in Italy in 1682. He was 
first heard of in England in 1728, when he became a 
member of the Drury Lane band in that year. He- 
was known by the name of Cervetto, a nickname which 
signifies a "little stag." He afterwards became 
manager of the Theatre and made a handsome fortune 
for those days. He died in 1783, leaving his money — 
a,bout ;^2o,ooo^to his son James, who was .also a 'cello 
player, but who retired after his father's death. 


This player was held in high esteem by the famous 
violinist Tartini, and the two travelled about a little 
together, Hardly anything is known of Vandini apart 
from his connection with Tartini. They were in Prague 
together and both were in the orchestra of St. Anthony 
of Padua. Vandini ^as alive in 1770, and was then an 
old man. 1 


This 'cellist was born in the vicinity df Milan in 1692, 
and lived for a time in Holland, where he published 
some music. He was also in London for many years 
and died in Milan in 1776. 


A great player of whom nothing is certainly known. 
No music of his has been discovered'; and no trace of 


hjs birth or death is accessible. The only references to 
him are three or four in number, but these are by such 
eminent musicians, and are generally couched in such 
enthusiastic terms that one must conclude that hei 
was a violoncello plAyeTpar excellence. Quantz, the great 
flute player, heard him in Naples in 1725. Benda, a 
German violinist, heard him in Vienna in 1730, and 
speaks of him as a marvel. One or two other references 
complete the sources of information, and they yield little 
but praise. 


Was a very distinguished 'cello player, and was born , 
in London in 1751. He was musically educated at 
.Westminster in the choir, but became a professional 
'cellist, appearing at Gloucester for some years as 
principal bass at the festivals. He was also appointed 
to the leading desk at the Concert of Ancient Music, 
when that institution was started in 1776. In addition 
he held an appointment in the Chapel Royal, and was 
a meniber of the King's Band, as well a.s chamber 
musician to Queen Charlotte, and 'cello tutor to George • 
IV. He rnarried a wealthy lady^ in 1788, and retired 
from ordinary professional' work, but continued to hold 
his official appointments until his death which occurred 
in Yorkshire, in 1825. He was a member of the Royal 
Society of Musicians, and left them ;^i,ooo. 


This Italian'master was born at Lucca in 1740. He 
was a magnificent performer on the 'cello, although he 


is, probably, better known as a composer. He went to 
Paris in 1768, but there were two or three very dis- 
tinguished players in the French metropolis at that time, 
and his performances, on that account, were not so 
highly appreciated. He ultimately settled in Madrid, 
where he died in 1805. 


This artiste was borh at Valenciennes in 1742. His 
first appearance in Paris was ■ made when he was about 
fourteen. He then travelled a good deal, and when the 
Paris Conservatoire was established, he was appointed 
professor of the 'cello. He died in Paris in 1803. He 
is said to have given lessons to John Crosdill, when the 
latter was in Paris, which appears to be a mistake. 


A great 'cellist, who was born at Paris in 1741, and 
died in Berlin in 1818. His first appearance was made 
at the Concert Spirituel when he was twenty years old. 
He came to this country in 1769, and in 1771, went to 
Spain. In 1773 he went to Berlin, where he remained 
the recipient of various court favours and appointments. 


A brother of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1749. 
His brother had the chief duty of training him, and soon 
made him a splendid player. He made his first appear- 
ance in 1768. He went to Berlin, to his brother, after 
the revolution, and there he was treated with similar 
appreciation. Returning to Paris in 1806, he astonished 


his audience by the^ purity 4rid vigour of his style, and 
maintained his supremacy until within a year or so of 
his death, which occurred in 1819. 


This great artiste was born at Dinklage, in Germany, 
in 1767-. He was one of a family of most talented 
musicians^ nearly all of whom played diiferent instru- 
ments. Bernhard's first important appearance was at the 
Concert Spirituel in Paris, when he was eighteen, and 
from that date gradually acquired the distinction of being 
the head of the German School of 'cellists, if not the 
leading player in the world 'of his day. He travelled all 
over the European Continent, making short engage- 
irients here and there, and this country seems to have 
bSen the only one in which he did not play. He was 
one of the professqrs in the Conservatoire at Paris for a 
short time, and died at Hamburg in 1841; 


This famous 'cellist was the son of a Protestant 
clergyman at Hoesselrieth, near Hildburghausen, and 
was born in 1783. He began the study of the instru-' 
ment early, and was put under Kriegek at Meiningen in 
1799. He was with him for a year, and was then 
appointed a musician at the Court of the Duke of 
Coburg, a place he held for four years. In 1805, he 
went to Leipsic, and in 181 1 to Dresden, to the Chapel 
Royal there, a connection which he retained until his' 
death. He is author of a splendid " School " for the 
'cello, and a number of -other works. ^ 




A distinguished native player, was born at Rotherham 
in 1776. His father taught him the violin and the 
'cello, and when he was about sixteen, he became a 
pupil of James "Cervetto," s6n of the previously named 
Jacopo Bassevi. When Lindiieiy was eighteen he was 
principal 'cellist at the opera, and, until 1851, when he 
retired, ho one succeeded in unseating him from the 
various distinguished positions which he occupied. He 
was a beautiful player in every sense of the word. He 
-died in 1855. 


This great Italian artiste is now, and has been, for 
nearly half a century, the acknowledged King of 
'cellists. He, was born in Bergamo, in 1822, and was 
trained by his grand uncle Zanetti, and, on his death, 
at the Milan Conservatoire under Merighi. He made 
.his first piiblic appearance when he. was fifteen, and, 
seven years afterwards, came to this country. He is 
-one of those artistes whom Mendelssohn loved, and is a 
truly golden link connecting us with that great musical 
epoch. Year after year, since 1844, t^e London musical 
public have been charmed by the functioning of those 
splendid qualities which have placed him' in almost 
solitary greatness among his confreres, and during that 
time of active work with the fingerboard he has contrived 
to form, besides, a well-nigh perfect school of playing 
through the media of published pieces, both original 
.and transcribed. , 



A son of the famous double bass player, is one of our 
fine native artistes. He was selected as principal 'celi<> 
at the Royal Italian Opera, and his popularity on the 
concert platform is familiar to all lovers of chamber 
music. The exquisite sweetness and purity of his tone 
once heard is not easily forgotten, 


Almost everyone has heard of this great coiitra-bassist^ 
Who may be called the first to acquire a European 
reputation for his performance on the large bass.. 
He was born in Venice in 1755, and was, like almost all 
the great artistes on any instrument, early distinguished 
for the musical ability which he displayed. He first of all 
played the guitar and violin, and when he took to the 
double bass. His teacher, Berini, had speedily to 
relinquish the attempt to teach him anything, and also 
relinquished the place which he occupied in the ofchestra 
of St. Mark, in order that Dragonetti might be in it. 
He was then eighteen, and played on his big fiddle as if 
it were a 'cello, a tenor, or even a small violin, and no 
difficulties of that day were difficulties to him. A story 
is current that in his very early days he used to accom- 
pany the famous singer, Brigitta Banti, when she sang 
in the streets and cafes of Venice. It seems to lack 
confirmation. He came to London in 1794, and made his 
first appearance at the King's Theatre. His success 
was instantaneous, and it does not appear that he went 
back to Italy, except when on tour. In the same year 
Robert Lindley had been appointed principle 'cellist^ 



and Dragonetti and he remained in the orchestra for 
over half a century, playing at the same desk. When 
he was ninety years old he led the basses at the 
Beethoven festival at Bonn. This was in 1845, and 
eight months afterwards, he died at his home in Leicester 
Square (1846), He is buried in St. Mary, Moorfields. 


A famous double bass player who was born in 1757 in 
Milan and became professor at the Conservatoire there. 
There is not much known regarding him. He was in 
the orchestra of the great Milan opera house, La Scala, 
and died in 1832. 


This fine double bass player was born at Plymouth. 
He was a precocious musician, singing in public when 
he was ten years old. He was also a versatile genius, 
as he played the clarionet and the piano besides the 
double bass, but the last named was the instrunient on 
which he excelled. He became its professor at the 
Royal Academy of Music, where he had been a pupil 
since the time he came to London ■ (1824), and after 
Dragoiietti died in 1846, Howell became the most im- 
portant of the double bass players in this country. 

After. Dragonetti — perhaps quite on a'leviel with him 
— the world has honoured 


He was born at Crema in Lombardy in, 1823. His 
first instrument was the violin, but when he was 
thirteen years old he went to Milan, and studied the 


double bass in the Conservatoire there'. His master 
was Louis Rossi, another great player, of whom little is 
known. Bottesini was seventeen when he began his 
niusicai tours throughout Italy. These lasted, about 
six years, when he went to Havanna as leader of the 
theatre there, and shortly after became musical director. 
He was five years in Havanna, and during that time 
composed his opera " CriStoval Colon " (Christopher 
Columbus). He also visited the United States when 
occasion offered, and made a great name. He came 
back to Europe in 1851, and returned to the States with 
Jullien in 1853. A year later he went to Mexico, and 
then returned to Europe. He made a great sensation 
in this country, and was called the " Paganini " of 
double bass players. During a stay in Paris of two 
years he produced his " Siege of Florence," and started 
once more on his travels through France, Belgium, 
England, Holland, and Germany, and finished up with 
Italy in 1859. .Another opera, " II Diavolo della Notte," 
there saw, the light, and from that date until his recent 
lamented decease (1890) he was constantly before the 
public, composing operas, playing solos, or founding 
societies. No one who has heard him will readily forget 
the amazing beauty of his tone, the wonderful vioUn 
like rapidity of his' execution, or the exquisite sweetness 
of his music. He was, all over the wbrld, enthusiasti- 
cally admired, whether as head of the opera at Cairo, or 
producing his " Ali Baba " in London, but I think I 
shall never forget one bright afternoon, when the great 
artiste came before what should have been an overflow- 
ing house of his own countrymen. The veteran was 


Hearing his three-score and ten, and he played as 
divinely as ever I heard him play. He and th^ 
artistes who rallied round him made the few who were 
present 'immensely happy, and those who were absent, 
and might have been there, have one delightful memory 
the less. 




The Author of this Book, and Well-known Violin Expert, 
writes thus at page 122 in "OLD VIOLINS and THEIR 
MAKERS." " It is much wiser to purchase a soundly-constructed 
instrument of modern manufacture, which may be had from many 
good and respectable makers, than to seek after a genuine Old 
Master at the risk of losing much money and helping to keep up 
their present ridiculous' prices.'*— And see Ijjs" remarks at page 173 
in this work, " THE FIDDLE FANCIER'S GUIDE." 

Messrs. HAYNES, TOUGHER & Go., 




of various descriptions, all of which fulfil every requirement of the 
Violinist, and may be entirely relied upon. The most important are : 




Full particulars of these most beautiful instruments will be 
sent on application. 

On January 13th, 1881, Mr. Fleming wrote us as follows : — 

Dear Sirs,, — I am very much pleased with the "Carrodus" Violin you 
were good enough to show me. I consider it to be quite a remarkable instrument 
for the money. 

Yours faithfully, 

Author of " Old Violins and their Makers," and 

" The Fiddle Fancier's Guide." 

This judgment of Mr. Fleming has been fully endorsed by 
public opinion, and no modern Violins stand so high in the estima- 
tion of Violinists. 



PROFESSORS, AMATEURS, and the TRADE will find a most 
useful variety of New and Select Music for the Violin in 


Comprising Solos, Duets, Trios, and Quartets 
tvith or without JPia/no Accompaniment. 

Two Hundred New Original Pieces for Violin and Piano in the "First 
, Position." Each No, Separate. 


(Dedicated by special permission to H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh) 

Is the most modern and complete work for the Violin. The 
Ninth and Enlarged Edition contains over 


In Four Parts, each part 4s. net, complete los. 6d. net. 
Bound in Boards, 12s. net, 




CASES, STRINGS (a Speciality), RESIN, ETC., ETC, 


(Facing Messrs. NOVELLO, EWER & CO.) 
Ici on parle Fransais. — ^ P. O. O., F. W.'Chanot, London. 





These Violins, which 
were first introduced in 
1890, have already at- 
tained to the very 
highest position amongst 
contemporary German 
violins, and lovers of 
that school will find 
none more worthy their 
attention, as well for 
artistic beauty as for 
fine pure tone. 

The large and small 

«ize violins, violas and 

oellos by Mr. Schlosser 

ire characterised by a 

lemarkable similarity of 

ippearanee. As one of 

our- customers expressed 

itj " They all appear to 

be made from the same 


Also made in Ladies' and Three-quarter Size 

Haynes, Foucher & Co.i 14, Gray's Inn Rd., London 

Price £5 5s. 



Dealers in Cremona& other Instrumentsi, 


Guaranteed Englisli-made Violins, 

Artistically Finished, Kichly Oil Varnished 

12 gs., 15 gs., 20 gs., 25 gs. 

Importers of the finest qualities of Italian Strings.. 

Tested strings prepared expressly for HART & SON. 

Good Violins from Two Guineas each. Violins for 

Beginners. Bows, Cas^s, Guitars, Italian Mandolines. 


Repairs of all kinds carefully executed by experienedd 
workmen on the Premises. 

Have an unique Collection of Violias, Violas, Violoncellos 
and Bows, by the Old Masters. 

Violin, Viola, ViolonceUoi Guitar, MandoKne, and 
Zither Methods. 

Music for Violin, Viola, and Violoncello. 





(OIF I'^E.IS), 

Which have the high honour of a Testimonial from ■ 

9 V^,^^ 

and for which we are the only authorised agents, are 
very fine instruments in every respect. 

It is well known that Old Violins readily sell for prices far 
in excess of their intrinsic value, and we woidd suggest 
that it would be. greatly to the advantage of the 
Professor or Amateur to invest in Pine New Instru- 
ments of this description, which are perfectly ready for 
immediate use and which will rapidly mature 
and increase in value. 

Model W. Model B. Model G. Model Y. Model R. 

£8:8:0 6:6:0 4:74:6 3:18:6 2:12:6 

Special Grand Model 20 guineas, Magnifique). 

' . [ '- ; 





Violin, Viola, and Violoncello Maker, 

% piiii¥ &ii¥i. lifii. 

Instruments entirely HAND MADE from choice old seasoned 
wood and coated with Cremona Amber OIL Varnish. 

Editor of " The Strad " for August 189I, says : — " The Instru 
ment submitted o us was exceedingly well made, had a free and 
easy tone, and was Varnished with Whitelaw's Varnish." 

All kinds of Bow Instruments Artistically 
Mepai/red or Reva/rnished. 


Violin, Viola, Violoncello, and Bow Maker, 


Yiolins of Krsi Quality 

- - 

- 4 4 


Violas „ „ 


- 4 14 


Violoncellos - 


- 8 

Tlie above are all well made, handsome Instruments, 
Constructed entirely by Hand from Good Old Wood. 


SAYJSTES, FOUCHBR & Co., 14, Gray's Inn Boad, 
London, W.C. 







It will be sent Post Eree on Application to any 
Part of the World. 




A list of Marches, Selections, &c., from Modern and 
Ancient Composers, most effectiyely and easily arranged. 

Post Free. 

'' '■*. '■ 

J, GUEST, 7, Paternoster A uenue, E,C. 



BRIDGE ^m^ Instruments. 

Musical sounds, on all stringed instruments, are produced by the 
strings being made to vibrate. ' The vibrations produced are then 
communicated to the body of the instrument by the Bridge, and it 
is well known that the strings directly over the two feet are always 
the most brilliant ; in other word, that the two inner strings, which 
cross the Bridge at points where there is , no bearing on the belly of 
the instrument, lack a great deal of brilliancy, and are never so 
powerful' as the outer ones. In fact, they are vpry much weaker. 

Bonn's New Bridge is the result of many years' study and 
experiment, and possesses these advantages : — 

The Inner strings obtain their full power of sound, and are as 
brilliant as the outer ones. Outer strings improved in sonority. 
Full, clear, ringing tone in all positions. Clearer pizzicato notes oh 
all' strings. Harshness in ppp tremolo passages on the third string 
removed. The instrument acquires greater carrying power. Wolf 
or false notes improved and made playable musical sounds. Notes 
in the higher positions rendered more mellow and clear. 

Prospectus Post Free. Sample Violim fridge is. id., Post Free. 

Boot "^^^mM" Vioi<i>f ^¥l(iK^^. 

The production of the " Premier " Strings is the result of a series 
of chemical experiments conducted by J. Edwin Bonn, M.S.C.L, 
M.S. A., L.Mus. In their preparation they are subjected to 
chemical treatment which renders them comparatively unaffected 
by moisture and heat of the hand, at the same time giving them a 
more briiliant volume of tone, greater durability, and such strength, 
that the " E " will bear pulling up to " A," thus standing a greater 
strain than any other string ever produced. Each is subjected 
to a test before leaving the hands of the inventor. ' 

Prospectus and Price List post free. 

Sample Packets, is. id., is. jd., 2s., 2s. 6d., or 5s. post free. 

TECHNICAL NOTES on the Choice of Keeping and VIOLIN 
STRINGS. By J. Edwin Bonn, M.S.C.I., M.S.A., F.C.V. 
Seven stamps. Every Violinist should read it. 

J. EDWIN BONN, Brading, Isle of Wight. 


The Largest Sale amongst Violinists of any Paper in the World. 


PRICE TWOPENCE.] [Annual Subscription, 2s. 6d 

A Monthly Journal for Professionals, and Amateurs of All Stringed 
Instruments Played with the Bow. 

THE STRAD. Every number contains beautifully engraved 
portraits on plate paper of leading artists. Amongst those 
that have already appeared are — Dr. Joseph Joachim, 
Pablo de Sarasate, Jean Gerardy, Miss Rose Lynton, 
Edgar Haddock, J. T. Carrodus, the Hann Family, 
Paganini, Carl Fuchs, Eugene Ysaye, Bottesini, Guido 
Papini, Dr. Louis Spohr, Mdlle. Marguerite Baude, 
Walter H. Mayson, Bromley Booth, Niedzielski, and Ole 

THE STRAD contains articles of special interest to Violinists by 
the best authorities, amongst which are the following : — 
A revised edition of " Technics of Violin Playing," by 
Courvdrsier, " How to make a Violin " (with illustrations), 
" German Violin Makers," " The Pawnbroker's Fiddle," 
" Sketches of Celebrated Violinists," " Some Accounts of 
a Fiddler's Haunt," " The Origin of Ernst's Elegie," " Old 
Violin Frauds," "A Strad found in China," "Violin 
Makers and their Earnings," " Opinion of Experts," &c. 

THE STRAD contains Reports of all the important Fiddle, 

disputes. Our Report of the celebrated Glasgow Fiddle 

case occupied 30 columns. 
THE STRAD contains reviews of all new music published for 

strings, and indicates the degree of difficulty. 
THE STRAD contains a series of exhaustive articles on " The 

Chief Schools of Violin Making,'*' with photo reproductions 

of genuine labels. 
THE STRAD chronicles the performances and movements of 

Violinists under headings "Violinists at Home,'.' and 

"Violinists Abroad." 
THE STRAD is the best mediuni for advertisers for anything 

connected with the Violin. The charge is 5s. per inch, 

column measure. 


Subscriptions should be addressed to the Editor, The Strad, 
38, Warwick Road, Earl's Court, London. Wholesale Agents: — 
■ Haynes, Foucher & Co. 


Special Tools and Materials 



Sound Post Setters — Peg Hole Cutters^ 

Peg Tapering Machines — Planes — ^Violin 

Makers' Knives — Bending Irons and all 

other Tools 



I ill iWIiS Pill 

(Bois de Chalet) at various Prices 

Wood for Guitar Making and Repairing 
Guitar Frets 



eiiiiiii ▼i©£ii ftiAiiii 

Detailed Price Lists of all Requisites on Application to 




1>|(4 ''|(ttjjj[i4llt" Wiiflm. 

Our- justly celebrated "CARRODUS" Violins were in- 
troduced for the purpose of supplying Artists, Professors, and 
Advanced Students with a Perfect Instrument of high finish 
and at a very low price ; but it has been represented to us by many 
dealers, and also by Professors of Eminence, that there is a large 
and increasing number of Violin Students who require a really 
good and well-made Instrument at a still lower price than the 
" CARRODUS " can be produced at. In order to supply this 
want we have made arrangements with one of the best Luthiers in 
France for a supply of really excellent reliable Violins, which 
we can recommend as being suitable for Educational purposes, and 
also well adapted to Orchestral and Solo Work. These Violins 
wecallthe "RUGGIELLI." They are built upon the lines and 
thicknesses of a fine Italian Violin of great beauty and fine tone, 
which has been faithfully copied in every detail. , The wood is 
mature and naturally seasoned, the tables having a good straight 
even grain. The backs are of good curled maple well matched by 
the ribs. The necks and scrolls are well carved and the / holes 
characteristic. The Varnish is thoroughly good, and they are 
finished either in new style or imitation old. Every Instrument of 
this class is adjusted and made ready for the player under our own 
supervision. From the care with which they are made they may 
be relied on to have a delicate, powerful, and " traveUing " quality 
of tone. Being oiriginally good they will with care and use rapidly 
increase in value, and we ask attention to them as being the very 
best and cheapest Medium Class Instruments before the 

£3: 3: 


£4 8 


, H^ Gray's Inn Road, London, W.C. 




Registered " R'NENTRON." 

These Strings — which, are manufactured by a scientific 
PROCESS and with the greatest care, from the finest gut, are 
warranted to be of the very best quality — are perfectly true, stand 
well up to pitch, are accuratetly guaged, very durable, and give an 
Professors as thoroughly reliable strings. 

tS" We have numerous Professional and Trade Testimonials as to the 
Quality of these Strings, and shall be pleased to forward copies of them on 

Bundle Half Quarter 
of Bundle of Bundle of Single 
30 Rings. 15 Rings. 7 Rings. Strings. 

First Strings, E, 3 full lengths (60in. long) . . IB/6 8/0 4/0 9d. 

Second „ A, 2 lengths 15/6 8/0 4/0 9d. 

Third „ D, 2 „ 16/6 8/6 4/6 9d. 

Fourth „ G, I „ perdoz. — — 6/0 8d. 

Fourth ,, G, I „ .. sterling silver covered, each 2/0 

The G strings are spun upon fine Arnenteron Gut while at a 
tension of over 2olbs., being about double the tension requirled for 
Concert Pitch. 

For the convenience of Artistes WE SUPPLY THESE 
STRINGS IN SETS— cpnsisting of three lengths of Firsts, 
two Seconds, two Thirds, and one Fourth — carefully packed to 
protect them from atmospheric influences. 

Price, 2/6 per Set. 

All the Sets are gauged to perfect fifths, and may be had in , 
either light or heavy gauges. In the light gauge, the tension of the 
strings at Concert Pitch is such as to carry a weight of 55'2o lbs. ; 
or separately, the E ig'22 lbs., A I4'89., D I2'i6 ,lbs., G 9*93 lbs. 
With heavy gauge strings the tension is considerably more. 

Full particulars of the celebrated Arnenteron Strings for Violin, 
Viola, Violoncello, and Banjo, on application, to 


14, Grey's Ihn Road, London, W. 




Instituted 1890. Incorporated lS91r 





Principal Vtolin,- Royal Italian Opera ; Professor of the Violin, Trinity Celkget, 

London, etc., etc. 


Erskine Allon, Esq. 
Basil Althaus, Esq., F.C.V. 
A. Coward-Klee, Esq. 
Theo. Bonheur, Esq. 

L. F. Bentayoux, Esq., F.C.V. Member of the Paris Conservatoire. 
Officier de VAcademie. 

Sinclair Dunn, Esq. 

Jas. M. Fleming, Esq., Author of "■ The Fiddle Fancier's Guide" 
" Old Violins and their Makers,'' etc. 

Rev. Fred. K. Harford, M.A., Minor Canpn.of Westmnster, 
R. O'Reilly, Esq., Professor Royal Irish Acadimy of Music. 
Percy M. Hewitt, Esq. 

Ed. Heron-Ali-en, Esq., Author of " Violin Making" " De Fidi- 
culis Bibliographia," etc. ■ ■ ' ■ 

W. H. Longhurst, Esq., Mus. Doc, F.C.O., Organist of 
Canterbury Cathedral. 

CarL Schneider, Esq. 

Wm. Spark, Esq., Mus. Doc, F.C.O., Organist to the Corporation 
of Leeds. 

Rev. a. H. Stevens, M.A., Mus. Bac. 

Berthold Tours, Esq. 

W. J. Westbrook, Esq., Mus. Bac, Cantab, 

For Full Particulars of next Examination, List of Provincial 
Centres, ^ Syllabus, Entry Forms, &t., apply to 

Mr. G. FOUCHER, Hon. Sec. 

14, Gray's Inn Road, London, W.C. 



Miquel's "Archet Economique.", 

The Cheapest Bow ever introduced to the public bearing the 
name of the actual maker. Best wood, German silver mounted, 
well balanced, and thoroughly reliable, each lOs. 

The "Carrodus" Bows. 

Exact Copies of a genuine Tourte, full-mounted with sterling 
silver, £1 lOs. 

The "Corelli" Bows. 

The graceful and beautifully worked heads of these bows are 
very much admired. They are great favourites with Lady 
Violinists. Plain Ebony and Silver mounts, £1 lOs. 

Emile Miquel.Bows. 
Prices, £2 2s., £3 3s., £4 4s., £5 5s. 

The H. F. Special Gold Mounted Violin Bows. 

The Cheapest Gold Mounted Bows in the Trade, £2 lOs. 

Full Particulars of the above Bows on application to 

SATJV^ES, FOJ7CHEB. & Co., 14, Gray's Inn BoacL, 

London, W.C. 


List of Selected Studies and Pieces for Stringed Instruments. 
Music for Contra Bass (Double Bass). 
Adagio in C for Double Bass, with pianoforte accompanimen t. 
By J. P. Waud, 4s. 

Andantino in A for Double Bass, with pianoforte accompani- 
ment. By J. P. Waud, 4s. 

Music for Violoncello. 

Une larme d'Amour — Reverie Nocturne — for Violoncello with 
pianoforte accompaniment. By Bentayoux, 5s. 

This beautiful Nocturne may be Performed in Public without 
Fee or Licence. 

Music for Violin. 

Six Petits Duos, with pianoforte accompaniment. By 
Bentayoux, each 3s. 

(On the Official List of the College of Violinists.). 


HAYWES, FOUCHEB <& Co., 14, Gray's Inn Boad, 
London, W. C. 


Win probably be completed in Ten Parts. Nos. I., 11., III., IV., V., VI., 
and VII. Small qUarto. Price 2s. 6d. net. Now Ready. 




And all other Instruments Played on with a Bow in Ancient and 

Modern Times. 


Of all Bod&s, Pamphlets, Magazine and Newspaper Articles, Book 

and Dictionary Extracts, Dramas, Romances, Poems, Methods, 

Instruction Books, and Theoretical and Scientific Works relating 

to Instruments of 

¥S3E[, VIOI<I]Sf i'SMll<Y 

Hitherto found in Private or Public Libraries, or referred to in 
Existing Works on the Subject. 



Author of " Violin Making : as it was and is," " The Ancestry of the 
Violin," " Hpdges versus Chanot," " A Fatal Fiddle," etc. 


MUSIC IN SONG-— From Chaucer to Tennyson. By L. M. 
Carmela Koelle. 32mo. Price 2S. 

MUSIC AND THE PIANO-— By Madame Louis- Viard. Crown 
8vo. Price 3s. 6d. 

SING- ME A SONG- — Twelve New and Original Sacred Songs 
for Children. By Edward Oxenford, with njusic by Alfred 
Scott Gatty. Crown 4to boards. Illustrated on every 
page, and 8 coloured plates. Price 2s. 6d. Music size, 
without plates, is. 6d. 

HOLY GLADNESS- — Twelve new and priginal sacred songs for 
Children. By Edward Oxenford. With music by Sir 
John Stainer, Mus. Doc. Illustrated on every page, and 
8 coloured plates. Crown 4to boards. Price 2s. 6d. 

GBIFFITM, FAMMAJ^f & Co., Newhery House, 
Cha/ring Cross Moad, London. 


•7b ail Students of Violin Literature, all Public Librarians, 
and all Booksellers and Agents. 

For the purpose of completing my library of Violin Literature, 
I am anxious to acquire the books named below. I shall be happy 
to give the Full Market Value for any of them, and, possessing a 
large collection of duplicates I can give ■ in exchange for them 
Almost any work on the violin that is named in my " Bibliography 
of the Violin." 

Edward Heron Allen^ 
c/o Griffith Farran & Co., Newbery House, 

Charing Cross Road., London, W.C. 

Baligmann, P. " Notis sans portte d'un Violoncelliste. Nice,i88o. 

Statuts ordonnances, lettres de creation de la communaute des maistres faiseurs 

d'instruments de Musique. Paris, 1741. 
Statuts et reglements des maitres de danse et joueurs d'instruments tant hauts 

que bas. Paris, 1752. 
Riflessioni d'un professore di violino sopra un discorso morale e politico intomo 

il teatro. Piacenza, 1781, i2mo. 
The Division Violin : containing a Choice Collection of Divisions for the Treble 

Violin to a Ground-Bass. London, 1687. Playford. 
Baillot, P. F. M. de S. Notice sur J. B. Viotti. Paris, Hoy«ef, 1825. 8vo. 
Barnard, C. Camilla, a Tale of a Violin; Boston, U.S.A., 1874. i2mo. 
Antolini, F. Os^ervazzioni su due Violini esposti nelle sale dell' I. R. Palazzo 

di Brera, etc. Milan, Perola, 1832. 
Brijon, E. R. Reflexions sur la musique et la vraie mailiere de I'executer surle 

violon. Paris, 1763. 4to. 
Gueroult, A. Baillot. Paris, n.d. 

Gehring, F. Zur Geschichte der Violiiie. Leipzic, 1877. 8vo. 
Giehnej H. Zur Erinnerung an Ludwig Spohr. Karlsruhe, 1869. 
Leoni di Pienza, A. R. Elogio di t'ietro Nardini. Firenze, 1793. 8vo. 
Miel, Wl. Notice Historique sur J. B. Viotti. Paris, Everat, 1827. 
Mackintosh. Remarks on the Construction of, and Materials employed in the 

Manufacture of. Violins. Dublin, 1837. 
Pancaldi, C. Elogio a Felice Radicati, maestro di Musica. Bologna, 1829: 

Nohili. 4to. 
Muzzi, S. Al modesto Tumulo di Guiseppe Manetti. Bologna, 1858. 

Monti. 8vo. 
Pollto, E. Nicolo Paganini ; dal Tedesco per L. Ravasini. Milan, 1876. 

Treves. i2mo. 
Otto, J. A. Ueber den Bau und die Erhaltung der Geige und aller Bogenin- 

strumente. Halle und Leipzig, 1817. , 

Paine, J. A Treatise on the Violin, &c. London, n.d. 
Purdy, G. A Few Words on the Violin. London, 1858. 8vo. 
Tagliapetra, G. Guiseppe Tartini-Cantica. Trieste, 1853. Weis. i2mo. 
Taglini, C. Lettere scientifiche sopra varii dilettevoli argomenti di Fisica. 

Florence, 1747. 
Tartini, G. . Lettera alia signora Maddalena Lombardini. London, 177 1. 
Tartini, G. Letter to Signora Lombardini, etc. London, R. Brcmner, 1779. 

Second edition. 
Sibire, I'Abbe. La Chelonomie, ou le parfait Luthier. Paris, MiZ/ci, 1806, 
Simpson, O. Chelys, the Division Viol. First edition. London, H. Brome, 

1665. Folio. 
Terrasson, A- Dissertation Historique sur la Vielle. Paris, 1741. 








The Timber of which the Bellies of 
these Violins are made has been seasoned 
for 150 years. All instruments are " Oil 
Varnished," and the tone is mature and 

Specialities /— " Grafts " or " Sphces " 
to old instruments, and the conversion of 
Double Basses from 3 to 4 strings. 


giiiiiis" froiiis 

So named by permission of J. T. GARRODUS, ESQ.. 
the Eminent Violinist 

The attention of Connoisseurs, 
Professors, Amateurs, and the 
Music Trade is called to ^ese 
which have received the appro- 
bation of some of the greatest 
including — 


President of the College of Violinists, S'C^ 


Author of " Fiddle Fancier's Guide." , 


Editor of " The Musical Standard," Author 

of " The Student's Helmholtz," "How 

to make a Violin," etc., etc. 


Editor of "The Strad." 

Price ^8 8s. 

Full Particulars of these Violins, also of the Violas 

and 'Cellos of the Same Quality, on Application to 

14, Gray's Inn Road, London, W.G.