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Full text of "Introduction to the study of the Greek dialects; grammar, selected inscriptions, glossary"



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Introduction to the study of the Greek d 




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COLLEGE SERIES OF GREEK AUTHORS 

EDITED DNDEK THE SUPERVISION OF 

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE AND CHARLES BUETON GUUCK 



INTEODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE 

GEEEK DIALECTS 

GRAMMAR 

SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS 

GLOSSARY 



BY 

CARL DARLING §UCK 

PBOFESSOK OF SANSKRIT AND INDO-EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGT 
IN THE UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO 



GINN AND COMPANY 

BOSTON • NEW YORK • CHICAGO • LONDON 



Entered at Stationebs' Hall 



Copyright, 1910, by 
John 'Williams White akd Charles Burton Golick 



ALL rights reserved 



910.1 



(He attenanm gteg< 

GINN AND COMPANY • PRO- 
PRIETORS • BOSTON' U.S.A. 



TO 

THE MEMORY OF 

THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR 



PREFACE 

The aim of this work is to fnrnish in concise form the essential 
material for an introductory study of the Greek dialects. Hitherto 
there has been no single volume intended to fulfill the requirements 
of college and graduate students who wish to gain a first-hand 
knowledge of Greek dialects, whether for a better understanding of 
historical Greek grammar, or for a greater appreciation of the vari- 
ety of speech in the Greek world, only half suspected from the few 
dialects employed in literature, or as a substantial foundation for a 
critical study of these literary dialects, or merely for the ability to 
handle intelligently the numerous dialect inscriptions which are 
important in the investigation of Greek institutions. 

It is now more than ten years since the author formed the plan 
of publishing a brief collection of Greek dialect inscriptions with 
explanatory notes for the use of students, and made a selection for 
this purpose. At that time Cauer's Delectus inscriptionum Graeca^ 
rum (2d ed. 1883), which proved useful for many years, had already 
ceased to be a representative collection of dialect inscriptions. In 
the case of several dialects the material there given was quite over- 
shadowed in importance by the discoveries of recent years. In the 
meantime this situation has been relieved by the publication of 
Solmsen's Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas dialectos selectae. 
But another need, which it was equally a part of the plan to supply, 
namely of more explanatory matter for the assistance of beginners 
in the subject, has remained unfilled up to the present time, though 
here again in the meantime a book has been announced as in prep- 
aration (Thumb's Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte) which pre- 
sumably aims to serve the same purpose as the present one. 

With regard to the explanatory matter, the first plan was to ac- 
company the inscriptions not only by exegetical, but also by rather 
full grammatical notes, with references to the grammars where the 



vi PEEFACE 

peculiarity in question -was treated as a whole. But tlie desire to 
include all that was most essential to the student in this single vol- 
ume led to the expansion of the introduction into a concise " Gram- 
mar of the Dialects," and the author has come to believe that this 
may prove to be the most useful part of the work. Without it the 
student would be forced at every turn to consult either the larger 
Greek Grammars, where, naturally, the dialectic peculiarities are 
not sifted out from the discussion of the usual literary forms, or 
else the various grammars of special dialects. For, since Ahrens, 
the works devoted to the Greek dialects, aside from discussions of 
special topics, have consisted in separate grammars of a single dia- 
lect or, at the most, of a single group of dialects. Some of the ad- 
vantages which this latter method undoubtedly possesses we have 
aimed to preserve by means of the Summaries (pp. 129-153). 

Highly important as are the dialects for the comparative study 
of the Greek language, this Grammar is distinctly not intended as 
a manual of comparative Greek grammar. It restricts itself to the 
discussion of matters in which dialectic differences are to be ob- 
served, and the comparisons are almost wholly within Greek itself. 
Furthermore, the desired brevity could be secured only by elimi- 
nating almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points and 
citation of the views of others, whether in agreement or in oppo- 
sition to those adopted in the text. Some notes and references 
are added in the Appendix, but even these are kept within narrow 
limits. Several of these references are to articles which have ap- 
peared since the printing of the Grammar, which began in Septem- 
ber 1908, was completed. 

Especial pains have been taken to define as precisely as possible 
the dialectic distribution of the several peculiarities, and it is be- 
lieved that, though briefly stated and without exhaustive lists of 
examples, fuller information of this kind has been brought together 
than is to be found in any other general work. Biit, as the most com- 
petent critics will also be the first to admit, no one can be safe from 
the danger of having overlooked some stray occurrence of a given 
peculiarity in the vast and still much scattered material; and, further- 
more, such statements of distribution are subject to the need of contin- 
ual revision in the light of the constantly appearing new material. 



PREFACE vii 

The reasons for not attempting in the Grammar a fuller account 
of the peculiarities exhibited by our literary texts in dialect are set 
forth on p. 14. 

The Selected Inscriptions show such a noticeable degree of coin- 
cidence with the selection made by Solmsen, in the work cited above, 
that it is perhaps well to state expressly that this is not the result 
of having simply adopted a large part of his selections with some 
additions, as it might appear, but of an independent selection, made 
some years before the appearance of his work, and, except for some 
necessary reduction, adhered to with probably not over half a dozen 
substitutions. Eor a brief collection the choice of the most repre- 
sentative inscriptions from a time when the dialects are comparar 
tively unmixed is fairly clear. The later inscriptions with their 
various types of dialect mixture are of great interest, and some 
few examples of these have been included. But to represent this 
phase adequately is possible only in a much more comprehensive 
collection. 

The transcription employed is also identical with that used by 
Solmsen in his second edition, but this again is the result of long- 
settled conviction that this system, as used for example by Baunack 
in his Inschriften von Gortyn (1885) and his edition of the Delphian 
inscriptions (1891), is the one best adapted for a work of this kind. 

The brevity of the notes is justified by the assistance given in 
other parts of the book. If, before beginning the inscriptions of a 
given dialect, the student familiarizes himself with its main charac- 
teristics by the help of the Summaries (180-273), he will not feel 
the need of a comment or reference for a form that, from the point 
of view of the dialect in question, has nothing abnormal about it. 
Furthermore, the Glossary makes it unnecessary to comment on 
many individual words. Detailed discussion of the problems of 
chronology, constitutional antiquities, etc. which are involved in 
many of the inscriptions is not called for in a work the principal 
aim of which is linguistic. 

It is sometimes advisable for a student to depart from the order 
in which the inscriptions are given, and to begin his study of a dia- 
lect with one of the later inscriptions, e.g. in Arcadian to read first 
no. 18, leaving until later the more difficult nos. 16, 17. 



viii PEEFACE 

The Glossary and Index, besides serving as an index to the Gram- 
mar, is intended to include all words occurring in the Selected In- 
scriptions which are not to be found in Liddell and Scott, or exhibit 
unusual meanings. 

Some time after this book was first planned, I learned that the 
editors of the College Series had already arranged for a volume 
dealing with the monuments, inscriptional and literary, which rep- 
resent the different dialects of Greece, by Professor H. W. Smyth. 
But, finding that Professor Smyth, because of other interests, was 
quite willing to relinquish the task, the editors invited me to con- 
tribute my contemplated work to the Series. The late Professor 
Seymour, under whom more than twenty years ago I had read my 
first dialect inscriptions, gave me valuable counsel on the general 
plan, and before his lamented death read over a large part of my 
manuscript. I am also under obligation to Professor Gulick for the 
great care with which he has read the proofs and for important sug- 
gestions. ■ The proofreading in the office of the publishers has been 
so notably accurate and scholarly that I cannot omit to express my 

appreciation of it. m r. r, 

C. D. B. 

Chicago, Novembek 1909 



CONTENTS 



PAET I: GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS 

INTRODUCTION Page 

Classification and Interrelation of the Dialects . . 1 

The Dialects in Literature . . . . 12 

PHONOLOGY 

Alphabet ... .15 

Vowels . . . 17 
a 

O FOR O BEFORE AND AFTER LiQDIDS ... 17 

FOR a IN Other Cases .18 

e FOR a . . . ... . . 19 

a 

i; FROM d IS Attic-Ion K' . . . 19 

c 

1 FROM e BEFORE A VoWEL . 19 
1 FROM e BEFORE V IN AuCAnO-CYPRIAN ... 20 

1 BESIDE e IN Other Cases . . ... 21 

a FROM e before p ix NoRTinvEST Greek: ... 21 
West Greek a = East Greek e . . .... 22 

1 

* o from ij IN Elean . . . ... 23 

£1 FROM 17 IN ThESSALIAN AND BOEOTIAN . . .23 

Lesbian ai = -q ... .... 23 

£ FROM 1 AFTER p IN AeOLIC 23 

Consonantal i from Antevocalic t in Lesbian and Thes- 

SALIAX . . . ... 2-t 

Interchange of i and v . . . .24 

i ..... . 24 

o 

V FROM 0, ESPECIALLY IN ArCADO-CyPRIAN . . . 25 

ov FROM u) IN Thessalian . . . . 25 

V AND V . . . . . 25 

ou IN Boeotian etc. . . 25 

Secondary e AND 0. "Spurious Diphthongs" . . . .26 



CONTENTS 



Diphthongs 



ij FROM at IN Boeotian 
ei FROM oi in Thessalian 

e FROM ei . . . 
t FROM ei IN Boeotian . 



V FROM 01 IN Boeotian . . . . 

ai, ei, ot BEFORE Vowels 

av, CD, ou 

In General .... . . 

ao, CO, FROM au, ev IN East Ionic . 

Monophthongization of o« 

CM, (V BEFORE VoWELS 

In Lesbian ... 

Insertion op f. Loss of u 

Long Diphthongs 

In General . . 

a, 7;, w, from dtjtjt, qjl . 

fit FROM 7;t ......... 

Non-Diphthongal Vowel Combination (Contraction etc.) 

In General 

a OR o + Vowel 

e + Vowel . 

Tl + Vowel 

o + Vowel . 

Notes to Preceding 
Assimilation op Vowels 
Epenthetic Vowels 
Anaptyctic Vowels 
Vowel-Gradation . 
Consonants 

F 

In General 

jS FOR f . . 

Initial f before a Vowel 
Intervocalic f 



Postconsonantal , 



f before Consonants 
Consonantal i . 
Spiritus Asper. Psilosis 
«r. Loss of Intertocalic c 

RlIOTACISM 

Change of t to o- 



Page 



28 
28 



28 
29. 



29 
29 

30 
30 
30 

31 
81 

31 
32 
33 

33 
34 
36 
38 
88 
89 
40 
41 
41 
41 

43 
44 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
61 
62 
63 



CONTENTS 



XI 



Page 

P, 8,7 ... . 54 

<!>>', X .... 55 

Lacoxian <r FROM 6 55 

Interchange op Surds, Sonants, axo Aspirates . 56 

Interchange of it and itt . . 67 

Interchange op Labials, Dentals, and Gutturals ... 58 
Nasals and Liquids 

Nasal before Consonant . . ... .59 

Transposition of a Liquid, ou Loss by Dissimilation . 60 

Cretan u fkom X .60 

trr, ve, from Xt, xe . ... . .60 

Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian 

P, >•, + i 61 

Xk . .... . . .61 

Jntervocahc 0- + Liquid or Nasal . . . 61 
v<r 

Original Intervocalic ko- 62 

K7 + Consonant 62 

Secondary Intervocalic kj- 62 

Final v<r . . . . 63 

X<r, p<r 6'1 

fr<r, TT ........... 65 

cr, mr, tt ........ 66 

Original a-a- . . .66 

J, 88 ... . 66 

o-e 67 

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants 

Assimilation in Consonant Groups 68 

Transposition in Consonant Groups . . . . 69 

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition, between 

Non-Contiguous Consonants . . . . 69 

Doubling of Consonants . . . . . . 70 

Changes in External Cosibination 

In Gener.vl . . . 71 

Elision .... 72 

Aphaeresis . .... .72 

Shortening of a Final Long Vowel ... 72 

Crasis ...... 72 

Apocope . . . . . . . 74 

Consonant Assimilation 

Final , . . . . . . 75 

Final s . . 76 

FlN.VL p . ■ ■ ■ '7 



xu 



CONTENTS 



Pinal Mute . 

l^,iK,is .... 

Consonant Doubling . 

p Movable .... 

Accent 

INFLECTION 

Nouns and Adjectives 

Feminine .a-STEMS . 

Masculine d-SiEMS 

o-Stems 

Consonant Stems in General 

it-Stems 

i-Stems . . . . 

w-Stems . . . . 

Nouns in -evs 

Some Irregular Nouns . 

Comparison of Adjectives 
Numerals 

Cardinals and Ordinals 

Pronouns 

Personal Pronouns . . 

possessives 

Reflexive Pronouns .... 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns . 
Adverbs and Conjunctions 

Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and 
Manner .... 

Prepositional and Other Adverbs .... 
Prepositions 

Peculiarities in Form 

Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction 
Verbs 

Augment and Reduplication 

Active Personal Endings . . . 

Middle Personal Endings ... . . . 

Imperative Active and Middle 

Future and Aorist .... ... 

Perfect . . 

Subjunctive 

Optative .... 

Infinitive .... . . .... 

Unthematic Inflection of Contract Verbs .... 



Page 

77 
77 
78 
78 
79 



80 
81 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
8.5 
86 
87 

87 

90 
91 
91 
92 
93 



95 
97 

99 
100 

103 
103 
105 
106 
107 
109 
110 
112 
112 
114 



CONTENTS xiii 

Page 

Middle Participle in -ei/iei/os 114 

Type 0t\i}cD, (neipaviliiti . . 115 

Transfer or /ii-VEKBS to the Type of Contract Verbs . .115 

Some Other Interchanges in the Present System . . . 115 

The Verb " To Be " ... 117 

"WORD-FORMATION 

On the Form and Use of Certain Suffixes and Certain Peculiari- 
ties OF Composition 

-7)tos = -eios 119 

Type xop'"s ... . . . . .119 

-Tis, -(n%, -afis . . 119 

-a-fws, -tr/jui . . 120 

-Trip = -T))S . . 120 

-los = -eos ... . . 120 

-■qv = -<ov 120 

-uvSas, -ovSas ....... 120 

Individual Cases of Variation in Suffix 120 

-Tepos .... . . . . 121 

-iSios . . 121 

-rpoc . . . . . . . . 121 

~€0}V^ -wv ... . . . . 121 

Proper Najies in -kX&s . . 121 

At6foTos, Gtifbros ... ... . . 121 

Interchange of Different Vowel Stems in First Member of 

Compound, etc 122 

Patronymic Adjective instead of Genitive Singular . . 122 
SYNTAX 

The Cases 

The Genitive 124 

The Dative . 125 

The Accusative 125 

The Moods 

The Subjunctive ... 125 

The Optative . . 126 

The Imperative and the Infinitive . ... 128 

Word Order 128 

SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL 

GROUPS AND DIALECTS 
East Greek 

Attic-Ionic 129 

Ionic ... • • .... . . 130 



Arcado-Ctpeian 



132 



Arcadian '■°" 

Cyprian 1^* 



xiv CONTENTS 

Page 

Aeolic . ■ • • ■ 135 

Lesbian .... • . 135 

Thessalian . . . . . . . 136 

Boeotian .... . ... 139 

West Greek .... . . . 141 

Northwest Greek .... . . . 142 

Phocian 143 

LOCRIAN .... 144 

Elean 144 

Doric 

Laconian . 146 

Heraclean 147 

Argolio . . 148 

Corinthian ... 148 

Megarian 149 

Rhodian 149 

COAN 150 

Theran .... 151 

Cretan 151 

SURVIVAL or THE DIALECTS ; GROWTH OF VARIOUS EORMS 

OF KOINH 154 

The Attic Koivii 156 

The Doric Koiirfi .... .... 157 

The Northwest Greek Koi;'^ . . 158 

Hybrid Forms, Hyper-Doric Forms, Artificial Revival op 

Dialects 160 



PAET II: SELECTED INSCEIPTIONS 

IONIC 

East Ionic ... . . .... 164 

Central Ionic . . . .... 169 

West Ionic (Euboean) . .... 171 

ARCADIAN .... . ... 174 

CYPRIAN .... . . 180 

LESBIAN .... . . . .183 

THESSALIAN 

Pelasgiotis .... . . 190 

Thessaliotis . . ... 195 

BOEOTIAN . .... 196 

PHOCIAN 

Delphian .... 205 

Exclusive op Delphi 212 



CONTENTS XV 

Page 

LOCRIAN 214 

ELEAN 219 

NORTHWEST GREEK KOINH 223 

LACONIAN 225 

HERACLEAN .* 231 

ARGOLIC 239 

CORINTHIAN ... 247 

MEGARIAN . . 249 

RHODIAN 251 

COAN 255 

THERAN 259 

CRETAN 261 

APPENDIS 

Selected Bibliographt 281' 

Notes and Referexces 287 

GLOSSARY AND INDEX . . 299 

CHARTS ILLUSTRATING THE DISTRIBUTION OE IMPORTANT 

PECULIARITIES Plates I-IV 

DIALECT MAP OF GREECE Plate V 



ABBEEYIATIONS 



The following abbreviations are employed for languages, dialects, and local sources 
of the forms quoted. 



Acarn. = Aoamanian 
Ach. = Achaean 
Aegin. = Aeginetan 
Aetol. = Aetollan 
Agrlg. = of Agrigentum 
Amorg. = of Amorgos 
And. = of Andania 
Arc. = Arcadian 
Arc.-Cypr. = Arcado-Cyprian 
Arg. = Argive (of Argos) 
Argol. = Argolic (of Argolis) 
Astyp. = of Astypalaea 
Att. = Attic 
Att.-Ion. = Attic-Ionic 
Av. or Avest. = Avestan 
Boeot. = Boeotian 
Calymn. = of Calymna 
Carpath. = of Carpathus 
Chalced. = of Chalcedon 
Chalcid. = Chalcidian 
Cnid. = Cnidian 
Corcyr. = Corcyraean 
Corintli. = Corinthian 
Cret. = Cretan 
Cypr. = Cyprian 
Cyren. = of Cyrene 
Delph. = Delphian 
Dodon. = of Dodona 
Dor. = Doric 
El. = Elean 
Eng. = English 
Ephes. = Ephesian 
Epid. = Epidaurian 
Epir. = Epirotan 
Eretr. = Eretrian 
Eub. = Euboean 



Germ. = German 

Gortyn. = Gortynian 

Heracl. = Heraclean 

Herm. = of Hermione 

Ion. = Ionic 

Lac. = Laconian 

Lat. = Latin 

Lesb. = Lesbian 

Locr. = Loorian 

Mant. = Mantinean 

Meg. = Megarian 

Mel. = of Melos 

Mess. = Messenian 

Mil. = of Miletus 

Mycen. = of Mycene 

Nisyr. = of Nisynis 

N.W.Grk. = Northwest Greek 

Olynth. = of Olynthus 

Drop. = of Oropus 

Pamph. = Pamphylian 

Phoc. = Phocian 

Eheg. = of Rhegium 

Khod. = Rhodian 

Selin. = of Selinus 

Sicil. = Sicilian 

Sicyon. = Sicyonian 

Skt. = Sanskrit 

Stir. = of Stiris 

Styr.= of Styra - 

Sybar. = of Sybaris 

Syrac. = Syracusan 

Teg. = Tegean 

Thas. = of Thasos 

Ther. = Theran 

Thess. = Thessalian 

Troez. = of Troezen 



In abbreviating the names of Greek authors and of their works, Liddell and Scott's 
list has been generally followed. Note also the more general gram. = grammatical 
(forms quoted from the ancient grammarians) , and lit. = literary (forms quoted from 
the literary dialects without mention of the individual authors) . 

For abbreviations of modern works of reference, see under the Bibliography, 
pp. 281 fe. 

Other abbreviations which are occasionally employed will be readily understood, 
as cpd. = compound, dat. = dative, Imv. = imperative, 1. = line, pi. = plural, sg. = 
singular, subj. = subjunctive. 



PAST I: GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS 

INTRODUCTION 

Classification and Inteeeelation of the Dialects ^ 

1. When the ancient grammarians spoke of the four dialects of 
Greece — Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, and Doric, to which some added the 
Koiv^ as a fifth — they had in mind solely the Literary dialects, wliich 
furnished the occasion and object of their study. But these hterary 
dialects represent only a few of the many forms of speech current 
in Greece, most of which play no part whatever in literature, and, 
apart from some scattered glosses, would be entirely miknown to 
us were it not for the wealth of inscriptions which the soil of 
Greece has yielded in modern times. 

The existence of Ionic, Aeolic, and Doric elements in the people 
and speech of Greece is an undoubted fact of Greek history, and 
one of first importance to an understanding of the dialect rela- 
tions. But there is no warrant, either ia the earUer Greek tradition 
or in the linguistic evidence, for making this an aU-inclusive classi- 
fication. These three elements were precipitated, as it were, on the 
coast of Asia ilinor, where their juxtaposition gave rise to the his- 
torical recognition of the distinction. And as the lonians, Aeolians, 
and Dorians of Asia Minor were colonists from Greece proper, it 
was a natural and proper inference of the historians that they re- 
flected ethnic divisions which also existed, or had once existed, in 



1 See also the Summaries of Characteristics, 180-273, and Charta I and la 
at the end of the book. 

1 



2 GEEEK DIALECTS [l 

the mother country.^ As to who were the Dorians of Greece proper 
there was of course no mystery. They formed a well-defined group 
throughout the historical period, and the tradition that they came 
originally from the Northwest is completely home out by the close 
relationship of the Doric and Northwest Greek dialects (see below). 
That the lonians were akin to the inhabitants of Attica was an 
accepted fact in Greek history, and the Athenians are called Ionic 
both in Herodotus (e.g. 1.56) and Thucydides (6.82, 7.57). The 
linguistic evidence is equally unmistakable. The only uncertainty 
here is as to the extent of territory which was once Ionic. There 
are various accounts according to which lonians once occupied the 
southern shore of the Corinthian gulf, the later Achaea (e.g. Hdt. 
1.145-146, 7.94), Megara (e.g. Strabo 9.392), Epidaurus (e.g. Pans, 
2.26.2), and Cynuria (Hdt. 8.73). If these accounts in themselves 
are of questionable value, yet we cannot doubt that the lonians 
before the migration were not confined to Attica. The close rela- 
tions of Epidaurus and Troezen with Athens, in cult and legend, are 
significant for the Argolic Acte, and it is reasonable to assume that 
at least the entire shore of the Saronic gulf was once lonic.^ 

The affinities of the Aeolians were more obscure, for theirs was 
the earliest migration to Asia Minor, the most remote from the 
historical period. But Thessaly was the scene of their favorite 
legends, the home of Achilles, as also of their eponymous hero 
Aeolus, and many of their place-names had their counterpart in 
Thessaly. In Herodotus we find the tradition that the Thessalians 
of the historical period were invaders from the west who occupied 

1 It is equally natural, and quite iustiflable as a matter of convenience, to 
apply the same names to these earlier divisions. That the name Ionian, for ex- 
ample, did not gain its current application on the mainland, but in the east, is 
of no consequence. Such generic terms are everywhere of gradual growth. 

2 That is, in a period contemporaneous with the Aeolic and Achaean occupa- 
tion of other parts of Greece (see below). Of a still remoter period the view has 
been advanced that the lonians formed the first wave of Greek migration, were 
in fact the much-discussed Pelasgians, and for a time occupied also the territory 
which with the next wave of migration became Aeolic or Achaean. This is, 
naturally, much more problematical. 



1] INTEODUCTION 3 

what had hitherto been an AeoUc land,i and with this the hnguistic 
evidence is in perfect accord. For Thessalian is of all dialects the 
most closely related to Lesbian, and at the same time shai-es in some 
of the characteristics of the West Greek dialects, this admixture 
of West Greek elements being somewhat stronger in Thessaliotis 
than in Pelasgiotis. See 201, 202, 210, and Chart I. The Boeo- 
tians also are called Aeolians by Thucydides,'' and the Boeotian 
dialect is, next to Thessalian, the most closely related to Lesbian. 
These thr-ee have several notable characteristics in common (see 
201 and Chart I), and are known as the Aeohc dialects. But in 
Boeotian there is an even stronger admixture of West Greek ele- 
ments than in Thessalian (see 217 and Chart I), the historical 
explanation of which must be the same. If we credit the state- 
ment of Thucydides that the Boeotian invaders were from Arne, 
whence they had been driven by the Thessalians,^ we should recog- 
nize in these Boeotians, not a part of the old AeoKc population of 
Thessaly, but a tribe of West Greek invaders from Epirus (cf. Mt. 
Boeon), like the Thessalians who forced them onward. The Aeolic 
element is to be ascribed rather to the tribes, or some of them, 
comprising the early stratum, as for example the Minyans of 
Orchomenos. However obscure such details may be, the evidence 
is perfectly clear that both Boeotia and Thessaly were once Aeolic, 
but were overrun by West Greek tribes which adopted the speech 
of the earlier inhabitants in greater or less degree. 

It is a natural presumption, of which there ai-e some specific 
indications, that not only Thessaly and Boeotia but the interme- 
diate lands of Phocis and Locris, and even southern Aetolia — in fact 



1 Hdt. 7.176 Are! e«r<roXoi ^XfloK ix eetrwpwrwv olicTljiTOVTes y^v riiv Alo\lSa, tiJi' 
rep vSf ^rr^rai. 

' Thuc. 7.57 ovroi Si AtoK^s AtoXeB<rt Tofs KTl<ra<rt Bouirrorr tois /lerel ZvpaKOtrlav 
(COT ivAymiv iiiAxoTo, i.e. the Aeolians of Mediymna, Tenedos, etc., were com- 
pelled to fight against the Aeolians who founded these cities, namely the Boeo- 
tians; id. S.2 Boturuv (vyyeviop 6rTuii (of the Lesbians). 

s Thuc. 1. 12 BotoiTof re yip oi vvv iii)Ko<rTV ^rei /isri 'Tklov iXairiy (i 'Apvris iva- 
rrdvres diri Geo-o-aXw* Ti)» yOr Souarlav, Trpirepov Se 'S.aSp.iilSa. y^v koKouiUvtiv ^Kriaar. 



4 GREEK DIALECTS [l 

all that portion of Greece north of Attica which plays a r61e in the 
legends of early Greece — was once Aeolic. Phocaea in Asia Minor, 
which, though later Ionic, surely belonged originally to the strip 
of Aeolic colonies, was believed to be a colony of Phocis, and in the 
dialect of Phocis there are actually some relics of Aeolic speech, as 
the dative plural of consonant stems in -ecrai (107.3), which is also 
found in eastern Locris. As for southern AetoHa, the region of 
Calydon and Pleuron was once called Aeolis aecordmg to Thucyd- 
ides,i and the probability is that the Aetolians of the Homeric period 
were Aeolic, though their name was taken by the later. West Greek, 
invaders. The Aetolian occupation of Elis was an accepted tradi- 
tion, and the existence of an Aeolic element in the dialect of Elis, 
like the dative plural in -ecrai, may be brought into connection with 
this if we assume that while the invaders were Aetolians in the 
later sense, that is West Greek, as Elean is distinctly a West Greek 
dialect, they had nevertheless adopted certaiu characteristics of the 
earlier Aeolic Aetolian and brought them to Elis. Corinth was 
also once occupied by Aeolians according to Thucydides,^ and it is 
a noteworthy fact that the dative plural in -ecro-t, which is unknown 
in other Doric dialects, is found in various Corinthian colonies (107.3). 
But we have passed beyond the limits within which the term 
Aeolic, or in general the division into Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic, can 
with any propriety be applied to the peoples and dialects of the 
historical period. It is only in Strabo that these three groups are 
made into an all-inclusive system of classification, by means of an 
unwarranted extension of Aeolic to include everything that is not 
Ionic or Doric. And yet it is, unfortunately, this statement of 
Strabo's,^ the error of which has long since been recognized, that 

1 Thuo. 3.102 ii T^v XloXlSa Ti]v vSv KaKaviiirrfV 'KaKvSwva Kal nXevpwva. 

2 Thuo. 4. 42 iirkp ov b 'LoKiyeioi XAi^os itTTly, iifl ov Aupiijs tA irdXai ISpvBirres . 
rots iv T% irfiXct KopivBioK iiroX^fxovVj offtrty Alo\eO<rt. 

' Strabo 8.333 irivres yd,p ol iKris 'lirSiwO irXiiv 'AOrivaluv xal Meyapiui' xal ruv 
irepX rbv IIo/ii'ocro'Ai' Aupiiuv /to! vvv en A2oXeis KoXoBvrai. . . . Kal ol ivris (sc.'lirfl/ioO) 
AfoXets Tp&repov ^(rav, etr iii,lx9i](sa.v, 'Iiivuv pip ix rijs 'Attik^s riv Ai7ioX6i' koto- 
vxiiTuv, Tuv S' 'HpaKXeiSflK Tois Aapiias KaTayayivTur, ... o! piv otv'luves i^iireaov 



1] INTRODUCTIOI^ 5 

has often been taken as representative of ancient tradition and 
still colors, in the literal sense, our maps of ancient Greece. The 
historical Phocians, Locrians, Aetohans, etc., were not, as Strabo's 
statement implies, called Aeolic. Neither in Herodotus, Thucydi- 
des, nor any early writer, are they ever brought under any one of 
the three groups. Their dialects, with that of Elis, which Strabo 
also calls Aeolic, all of which may be conveniently designated the 
Northwest Greek dialects, are, in spite of some few traces of AeoHc 
as mentioned above, most closely related to the Doric dialects. 
There is scarcely one of the general characteristics common to the 
Doric dialects in which they do not share, though they also have 
certain peculiarities of their own. See 223 with a, 226, and Chart I. 
If we were to classify them under any one of the three groups, it 
is unquestionably Doric to which they have the best claim, and if 
Strabo and our maps so classed them there would be no very seri- 
ous objection. Indeed modem scholars do often class them under 
" Doiic in the wider sense," calling them then specifically " North 
Doric." But on the whole it seems preferable to retain the term 
Doric in its historical application and employ West Greek as the 
comprehensive term to include the Northwest Greek dialects and 
the Doric proper. 

In fact the most fimdamental division of the Greek dialects is 
that into these West Greek and the East Greek dialects, the terms 
referring to their location prior to the great migrations. The East 
Greek Eire the " Old Hellenic " dialects, that is those employed by 
the peoples who held the stage almost exclusively in the period 
represented by the Homeric poems, when the West Greek peoples 
remained in obscurity in the northwest. To the East Greek division 
belong the Ionic and Aeolic groups, though, of the latter, Thessalian 
and Boeotian, as explained above, are mixed dialects belonging in 

TdXir TOxAiis irwb 'Axtuav, AloKixcS eBrov! ■ fKct^Sti S" ir tJ IleXoiroFiTJo-^i rd Sio ^Bni, 
t6 tc AtoXurdc xal ri Awpixiv. &roi fi^w o?>» ^ttop tois AwpiEwriv irewX^KOFTO, Kaddrep 
ww4pri Tots re 'ApKdirt Koi rots 'HXeiots, . . . , ofroi otoXurri fitcX^ffqcrar, oi 5" SXXot /aurrj 
Tin ixP't'^'"^" ^ afi0o», oi /i^ fiaWof oi S* ^TTor alo\t{>)rT€S. 



6 GEEEK DIALECTS [l 

part also in the West Greek division. And to East Greek belongs 
also another group, the Arcado-Cyprian. 

No two dialects, not even Attic and Ionic, belong together more 
obviously than do those of Arcadia and the distant Cyprus. They 
share in a number of notable peculiarities which are unknown else- 
where. See 189 and Chart I. This is to be accounted for by the 
fact that Cyprus was colonized, not necessarily or probably from 
Arcadia itself, as tradition states, but from the Peloponnesian coast, 
at a time when its speech was like that which in Arcadia survived 
the Doric migration. This group represents, beyond question, the 
pre-Doric speech of most of the Peloponnesus, whatever we choose 
to call it. The term Achaean is used in so many different senses ^ 
that it might be well to avoid it entirely. But it is convenient to 
apply it to this group, which actually has the best claim to it, 
whenever the need is felt of some other term than Arcado-Cyprian, 
which, whUe describing accurately what is left of the group in 
the historical period, is strikingly infelicitous when applied to 
prehistoric times. The relations of this group to the others of the 
East Greek division, especially Aeolic, are the most difficult to 
interpret historically. Strabo, of course, calls the Arcadians Aeolic, 
but without warrant in earlier usage. For example, Thucydides, 
in describing the forces engaged at Syracuse (7.57), makes the 
most of the distinction between Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic nations, 
but does not class the Arcadians with any one of these. Yet the 
Arcadian and Cyprian dialects show notable resemblances to the 
Aeolic dialects which cannot be afecidental (see 190.3-6 and Chart I), 
and some would class them all together under the head of " Aeolic 
in the widest sense" or "Achaean" (Aeolic in the usual sense 
then appearing as " North Achaean "). On the other hand, many 
of the characteristics common to the Aeolic dialects are lacking, 

1 ' ' Achaean ' ' is applied by some to a supposed stratum intermediate between 
that which survived in Arcado-Cyprian and the later Doric. But there is no 
good evidence, either linguistic or otherwise, that any such intermediate stratum 
ever existed. 



1] INTEODUCTION 7 

and there are certain points of agreement with Attic-Ionic (see 
190.1, 193.2,3, and Chart I). One may surmise that the latter, 
which are in part confined to Arcadian, are due to contact with 
lonians on the coast of the Peloponnesus (see above, p. 2), and 
that the connections with Aeolic are earlier and more fundamental, 
reflecting a period of geographical continuity with Aeohc peoples 
somewhere in Northern Greece. But that brings us before the " mys- 
tery of the Achaean- name," that most difficult problem of the 
relation between the Achaeans of the Phthiotis and the pre-Doric 
Achaeans of the Peloponnesus, and of those again to the historical 
Achaeans on the Corinthian Gidf, whose dialect is West Greek. 
Conservative procedure here consists in recognizing Arcado-Cyprian, 
or Achaean, as a distinct group intermediate between Aeolic and 
Attic-Ionic, and conceding that the precise historical background of 
their interrelations is hopelessly obscure. Arcadian shows some few 
West Greek peculiarities which we may properly attribute to the 
influence of the surrounding Doric dialects in the historical period. 
Just as in the Northwest Greek dialects some traces of the 
former Aeolic speech have survived, as noted above, so it is not 
surprising to find some traces of Achaean speech in the Doric 
dialects spoken in lands formerly Achaean. For example, in 
Laconia Poseidon was worshiped under the name of IlohoiSdv, 
which recalls Arc. HoaoiSdv, the true Doric form being Hotoi- 
Sdv (49.1, 61.5). Here possibly belongs Iv = iv in some Cretan in- 
scriptions (10). Besides survivals which bear specifically either the 
Aeolic or the Achaean stamp, there are others of forms which are 
common to both, and so from the linguistic poiat of view might 
be called Aeolic-Achaean, only their provenance leading us to 
infer either Aeolic or Achaean source (e.g. probably Achaean, 
Te\etr<f>opevT€<; 157, TreSa 137.5, ypo<f)ev<} etc. 5, 6) ; or again others 
which might be called simply East Greek without further differ- 
entiation. But, apart from some few striking examples, the ques- 
tion of survival versus accidental agreement or historical borrowing 
is a very delicate one. 



8 GEEEK DIALECTS [l 

The classification of the dialects is then, in outliae, as follows : ^ 
West Greek Division East Greek Division 

1. Northwest Greek: Phocian, 1. Attic-Ionic. 

Locrian, Elean, etc. 2. Aeolic : Lesbian, Thessalian, 

2. Doric : Laconian, Corinthian, Boeotian. 

Argolic, Cretan, etc. 3. Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean. 

2. The Greek dialects, classified in accordance with the preceding 
scheme, and with their important subdivisions noted, are the fol- 
lowing. For summaries of the characteristics of each, see 180-273. 

EAST GREEK 

I. The Attic-Ionic Group 

1. Attic. 

2. Ionic. 

A. East Ionic, or Ionic of Asia Minor. The Ionic cities of the 
coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands, Samos, Chios, etc., 
together with their colonies, mostly on the Hellespont, Propontis, 
and Euxine. There are some local varieties, of which the most 
marked is Chian, containing some Lesbian features. 

B. Central Ionic, or Ionic of the Cyclades. The Ionic Cyclades, 
Naxos, Amorgos, Paros with its colony Thasos, Delos, Tenos, An- 
dres, Ceos, etc. 

C. "West Ionic, or Euboean. Chalcis (with its colonies in Italy, 
Sicily, and the Chalcidian peninsula) and the other cities of Eu- 
boea. A local dialect with marked characteristics is the Eretrian, 
seen ia the inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus. 

1 Pamphylian, of which the meager remains permit only a very imperfect 
knowledge, and which is therefore, barring occasional references, ignored in this 
book, shows notable affinities on the one hand with Arcado-Cyprian (u = o, i^ 
with dat., etc.), on the other with West Greek (<l>lKa.Ti, lap6s, Sko, etc.). As 
Thessalian and Boeotian represent a mixture of Aeolic and West Greek, so 
Pamphylian of Achaean and West Greek. Quite probably the earliest colonists 
were Achaeans from the Peloponnesus, later followed by Dorians. 



2] INTRODUCTIOZSr 9 

II. The Akcado-Cypeian oe Achaean Geoup 

1. Arcadian. The most important material 'is from Tegea and 
Mantiaea. 

2. Cyprian. There are numerous short inscriptions, and one of 
considerable length, the bronze of IdaJium. All are iu the Cyprian 
syllabary. 

III. The Aeolic Geoup 

1. Lesbian, or Asiatic Aeohc.^ The inscriptional material is fairly 
extensive, but late. There is nothiug approaching the time of the 
poems of Alcaeus and Sappho, and very little that is older than the 
Macedonian period. Most of the inscriptions are from the chief 
cities of Lesbos, but a few are from other islands and to-wns of 
the Aeolic mainland. 

2. Thessalian.^ Two subdivisions with marked differences are 
formed by the dialect of Pelasgiotis and that of Thessaliotis, which 
may be conveniently, if not quite appropriately, designated as East 
and West Thessalian. 

From Phthiotis there is an early Thessalian inscription, but most 
of the material is from the period of Aetohan domination and in 
the Northwest Greek Koivri. See 279. From Histiaeotis, Perrhaebia, 
and Magnesia the material is very scanty. 

3. Boeotian.^ The material is very extensive, and representative 
of all the important Boeotian towns, but is meager for the early 
period. 

WEST GREEK 

IV. The Noethwest Gkeek Group 

1. Phocian. A large part of the material,including nearly all that is 
of an early date, is from Delphi, and is quoted specifically as Delphian. 

1 Sometimes called simply Aeolic. But, to avoid confusion with Aeolic in its 
wider sense, the designation Lesbian is to be preferred in spite of the formal 
impropriety of applying it to a dialect not restricted to Lesbos. Most of the 
material is actually from Lesbos. 

2 That Thessalian and Boeotian are only in part Aeolic, in part West Greek, 
has been explained above, pp. 2, 3. 



10 GEEEK DIALECTS [2 

2. Locrian. The early and important inscriptions are from west- 
ern Locris. From eastern Locris the material is meager and late. 

3. Elean. All the material, much of which is very early, is from 
Olympia. 

4. The Northwest Greek Koivri. Employed in Aetolia and other 
regions rmder the domination of the Aetolian league. See 279. 

Note. Only Phocian, Locrian, and Elean are known to us as distinct 
dialects of this group. Of others which presumably belong here we have 
practically no material from a time when they retained their individuality. 
In Aetolia, for example, before the rise of the Northwest Greek Koivq there 
was undoubtedly a distinct Northwest Greek dialect, probably most nearly 
related to Locrian, but of this pure Aetolian we have no knowledge. Of the 
speech of Aeniania and Malis previous to the Aetolian domination we have 
no remains. It is natural to suppose that Northwest Greek dialects were 
once spoken also in Acarnania and Epirus. But here the influence of the 
Corinthian colonies was strong from an early period, as shown by the use 
of the Corinthian alphabet in the few early inscriptions ; and in later times, 
from which nearly all the material dates, the language employed is not the 
Northwest Greek Kowq, but the Doric koivtq, like that of the contempora- 
neous insci-iptions of Corcyra. -See 279. Hence the actual material from 
Acarnania and Epirus is more properly classified with Corinthian. From 
Cephallenia and Ithaca we have decrees in the Northwest Greek kolvti from 
the Aetolian period (see 279), but from earlier times not enough to show 
whether the dialect was Northwest Greek or Doric. From Zacynthus there 
is almost nothing. The dialect of Achaea (i. e. Peloponnesian Achaea in 
the historical period) is generally believed to belong to this group. This 
is probable on general grounds, but there is as yet no adequate linguistic 
evidence of it. For, apart from the inscriptions of Achaean colonies in 
Magna Graecia, which, both on account of their meagemess and the mixed 
elements in the colonization, are indecisive, nearly all the material is from 
the time of the Achaean league, and this is not in the Northwest Greek 
Koarfj, but in the same Doric Kotvij that was used in Corinth and Sicyon. 

V. The Doric Group 

1. Laconian and Heracleata. Laconia and its colonies Tarentum and 
Heraclea. Heraclean, well known from the Heraclean Tables, has 
peculiarities of its own, and is treated as a distinct dialect. 



2] ESTTRODUCTION 11 

2. Messenian. There is scarcely any material until a late period, 
when the dialect is no longer pure. 

3. Megarian. Megara, and its colonies in Sicily (especially Selinus) 
and on the Propontis and Bosporus (as Byzantium, Chalcedon, etc.). 
Except from Selinus the material is late. 

4. CorintMan. Corinth, Sicyon, Cleonae, Phlius, and the Corin- 
thian colonies Corcyra (with its own colonies ApoEonia and Dyrrha- 
chium), Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia, etc., and, in Sicily, Syracuse 
with its own colonies. Material from places other than Corinth, 
though coming under the general head of Corinthian, is generally 
quoted specifically as Sicyonian, Corcyraean, Syracusan, etc. 

5. Argolic. Argos, Mycenae, etc., and the cities of the Acte, as 
Hermione, Troezen, and Epidaurus together with Aegina.^ Argolic 
(abbreviated Argol.) is used as the general term, while Argive (Arg.) 
refers more specifically to the material from Argos (with the Argive 
Heraeum), as Epidaurian to that from Epidaurus. 

6. Rhodian. Ehodes (Camirus, lalysus, Lindus, and the city of 
Eliodes) with the adjacent small islands (Chalce, etc.) and Carpathus, 
Telos, and Syme, the settlements on the mainland (the Ehodian 
Peraea) and Phaselis in Pamphylia, and the Sicilian colonies Gela 
and Agrigentum (an inscription of Ehegium, though not a Ehodian 
colony, is in the same dialect). The material is very extensive, but 
little of it is early. 

7. Coan and Calymnian. The material is considerable, but not early. 

8. The dialects of Cnidus, and of Nisyrus, Anaphe, Astypalaea, 
and other small islands. The material is late, and insufficient to 
determine whether any of these should properly be grouped with 
Ehodian, Coan, or Theran. Nisyrus, for example, was nearly always 
connected politically with either Cos or Ehodes. 

9. Theran and Melian. Thera with Cyrene, and Melos. Early in- 
scriptions are numerous, but brief. 

1 From Aegina there is not much material from the period before the Athe- 
nian occupation, but enough to show that the dialect was Argolic (note tapios 
with lenis, 58 &). 



12 GEEEK DIALECTS [3 

10. Cretan. This is now the best-known of all the Doric dialects, 
owing to the very extensive early material, especially from Gortyna. 
The dialect of Gortyna and other cities of the great central portion 
of the island is also known more specifically as Central Cretan, to 
exclude the divergent type seen in the iascriptions, mostly late, 
from the eastern and western extremities of the island. See 273. 
But the term Cretan alone is to be understood as referring to this 
Central Cretan, unless otherwise stated. 



The Dialects in Liteeatuee 

3. Of the numerous dialects of Greece a few attained the rank 
of literary dialects, though for the most part in a mixed and arti- 
ficial form not corresponding to anything actually spoken at a 
given time and place. Moreover, in the course of literary develop- 
ment these dialects came to be characteristic of certain classes of 
hterature, and, their r61e once established, the choice of one or the 
other usually depended upon this factor rather than upon the native 
dialect of the author. 

The literary development of epic songs began with the Aeolians 
of Asia Minor, whence it passed into the hands of the neighboring 
lonians, and the language of Homer, which became the norm of 
aU epic poetry and strongly affected subsequent poetry of all classes, 
is a mixture of Aeolic and Ionic, — in the main Old Ionic but with 
the retention of many Aeolic forms, such as dfifie<; beside ■^fiel's, 
genitive singular in -do beside -eco, etc. The language of Hesiod is 
substantially the same, but with some Aeolic forms not used in 
Homer, also some Boeotian and Doric peculiarities. The elegiac 
and iambic poets also use the epic dialect with some modifications, 
not only lonians like Archilochus, but the Athenian Solon, the 
Spartan Tyrtaeus, the Megarian Theognis, etc. 

Of the melic poets, Alcaeus and Sappho followed very closely 
their native Lesbian dialect, though not entirely unaffected by epic 
influence. The language of these and other Lesbian poets was 



3] INTEODUCTION 13 

directly imitated by some later writers, notably by Theocritus in 
three of his idyls, and contributed an important element to the 
language of many more, e.g. Anacreon of Teos, who in the main 
employed his native Ionic (New Ionic), and, in general, to the 
choral lyric, which Xv^as mainly Doric. 

The choral lyric was developed among Doric peoples, though 
under the impulse of Lesbian poets, who we know were welcomed 
in Sparta, for example, in the seventh century. Its language is 
Doric, vnth an admixture of Lesbian and epic forms, no matter 
whether the poet is a Dorian, or a Boeotian like Pindar, or an 
Ionian like Simonides and Bacchyhdes. This Doric, however, is not 
identical with any specific Doric dialect, but is an artificial com- 
posite, showing many of the general Doric characteristics, but with 
the elimination of local peculiarities. An exception is to be made 
in the case of Alcman, whose Doric is of a severer type and evi- 
dently based upon the Laconian, though also mixed with Lesbian 
and epic forms. 

The earliest prose writers were the Ionic philosophers and Ms- 
torians of the sixth century, and in the fifth century not only 
Herodotus, but Hippocrates of Cos, a Dorian, wrote in Ionic. In 
the meantime, with the political and intellectual supremacy of 
Athens, Attic had become the recognized language of the drama, 
and before the end of the fifth century was employed in prose also, 
though the earlier prose writers as Thucydides, like the tragedians, 
• avoided certain Attic peculiarities which were stUl felt as provin- 
cialisms (e.g. TT = crcr, pp = per). Henceforth Attic was the lan- 
guage of literary prose. 

The dialects mentioned are the only literary dialects known and 
cultivated throughout the Greek world. But some few others were 
employed locally. Epicharmus and Sophron wrote in their native 
Syracusan Doric, as did, later, Archimedes. A form of Doric prose 
was developed among the Pythagoreans of Magna Graecia, seen in 
some fragments of Archytas of Tarentum, Philolaus of Croton, and 
others, though the greater part of the writings of this class are 



14 GEEEK DIALECTS [3 

spurious. The comic poet Ehiuthon, from whom the grammarians 
sometimes quote, used the Doric of Tarentum. The fragments of 
Corinna of Tanagra, whose fame was scarcely more than local, are 
in Boeotian, and the Boeotian dialect, as well as Megarian and 
Laconian, are caricatured by Aristophanes. But the great majority 
of the dialects play no role whatever in literature. 

Even for those dialects which are represented, the literary re- 
maias must for the most part be regarded as secondary sources, 
not only because of their artificial character but also because of 
the corruptions which they have suffered in transmission. Excep- 
tional importance, however, attaches . to the language of Homer 
because of its antiquity, and to the Lesbian of Alcaeus and Sappho 
because it is relatively pure and much older than the inscriptional 
material. 

Note. In the following exposition, dialectic forms from literary and 
grammatical sources are not infrequently quoted, especially where the 
inscriptional evidence is slight, as it is, for example,' quite naturally, for 
the personal pronouns. Such forms are sometimes quoted with their spe- 
cific sources, sometimes simply as literary Doric (lit. Dor.), literary Lesbian 
(lit. Lesb.), literary Ionic (lit. Ion.), or grammatical (gram.). But a de- 
tailed treatment of the dialectic peculiarities observed in our literary texts 
is so bound up with questions of literary tradition and textual criticism 
that it is best left to the critical editions of the various authors. It would 
be impracticable in a work of the present scope, and would, moreover, tend 
to obscure that more trustworthy picture of the dialects which is gained 
from inscriptions, and which is so important as a basis for the critical study 
of the mixed literary forms. 



PHONOLOGY 

The Alphabet 

4. The numerous diEFerences in the local alphabets, so far as 
they consist merely in variations of the forms of the letters, need 
not be discussed here, important as the}- are to the epigraphist in 
deciding the age and source of inscriptions. But certain points in 
the use of the alphabet and its development as a means of express- 
ing the Greek sounds should be noted. 

1. In the most primitive type of the Greek alphabet, as it is 
seen in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Thera, and Melos, the 
non-Phoenician signs <|), X, Y have not yet been introduced, and the 
I is not in use. The sounds of <fi, y^ are represented by ttA, k/i 
(or fh), or, as in Crete, where B (H) when used is tj not A, are not 
distinguished fi-om tt, k ; those of yjr, f , by ttct, Ktr. 

2. In the next stage of development, after the introduction of 
<l>, X, Y, the alphabets fall into two classes, according to the values 
attached to these signs. The eastern division, to which Ionic 
belongs, employs them as <|), %, '^, and also uses the i as ^, though 
a subdivision of this group, represented mainly by the Attic aljdia- 
bet, uses only the first two and expresses fjr, f by <f>(r, x'^- The 
western di^ision,^ to which belong the majority of the alphabets 
of Greece proper as weU as that of Euboea, whence it was carried 
to Italy by the Chalcidian colonies and became the source of the 
Latin alphabet, employs <l>, X, Y as ^, f, x. not using I at all, and 



1 This distinction of eastern and western alphabets, the distribution of wliich 
is clearly shown in the Chart in Kirchhoff s Sludien zur GeschictUe des griechi- 
schen Alphabets, has no connection with that of East and West Greek dialects, 
and is anything but coincident with it. 

15 



16 GREEK DIALECTS [4 

generally expressing yjr by ttct or, oftener, ^a (only in Locrian and 
Arcadian by a special sign *). 

3. In the earliest inscriptions nearly all the alphabets have the 
f (van or digamma); and many the 9 (koppa), which is used before 
or V, and that too even if a liquid intervenes, e.g. ioptvdodev, 
h6ppo<!, Aop/30?, ippore, IlaT/aopXo?, XepvOof, 2\vtos (in other posi- 
tions it is very rare). 

4. Two signs were available for o-, namely ^ or 5 (sigma) and 
M (san), and most alphabets use one of these to the exclusion of 
the other. But there are some few examples of a differentiation. 
In an early Arcadian inscription of Mantinea (no. 16), the charac- 
ter \A, a simplified form of the san, which is known from other 
sources, is used to denote a sibilant of specifically Arcado-Cyprian 
origin, as in v^t? (transcribed a;i<;) = Cypr. o-ts, Att. tk. See 68.3. 
A sign T, which is also probably a modification of the san, is used 
in some Ionic inscriptions of Asia Minor for the usual acr = Att. tt, 
e.g. from Hahcarnassus ' KXiicapvwve{(o)v beside ' AXiKupvacrcrecov, 
from Ephesus TeTape;, reTapaKovra = reaaapei;, etc., from Teos 
\ff\d\wvr]'i beside OaKaacrav. 

5. In Boeotian, V, a compromise between E and I, is sometimes 
used for the close e, later i (9.2). At Corinth and Megara there 
were two characters, & and E, for the e-sounds, but usually dififer- 
entiated. See 28. 

6. In most of the alphabets the H (early B) is the sign of the 
spiritus asper, and neither 77 and co nor the lengthened e and ("spu- 
rious et and ow") are distinguished from the short e and 0. But 
in East Ionic, where the sound of the spiritus asper was lost at a 
very early period, the H, which was thus left free, was turned to 
account as a vowel sign, not so much to show a difiference in quan- 
tity (in the case of a, I, v no such need was felt) as one of quality. 
It was probably used first only for the extremely open e coming 
from d, that is for the specifically Attic-Ionic -q (8), which for a 
time was more open than the sound of the inherited e, though this 
was also open as compared with the short e, and both soon became 



S] PHOXOLOGY 17 

identical and were denoted in the same way. To be sure, no such 
distinction is to be observed in East Ionic inscriptions, but it is 
seen in some of the Cyclades, to which the use of the H had passed 
from East Ionic, e.g. from Naxos (no. 6) NiKcivSpr), popr], etc., but 
avedeKev (with E in the penult). Siinilai- examples from Ceos (e.g. 
no. 8) and Amorgos. 

The use of H = ?/ extended not only to the Ionic but also to the 
Doric islands, Rhodes, Thera, Melos, and Crete, where it is found 
in the earliest inscriptions, though in Crete it went out of use for 
a time, not appearing for example in the Law-Code. In Central 
Ionic, where the sound of the spiritus asper still survived, as also 
in Ehodes, Thera, and Melos, the sign was used both as t) and as 
k It occurs also with the value of he, at Delos, Naxos (no. 6), 
and Oropus (no. 14.46). 

The Ionic alphabet is also characterized by its distinction of o 
and o) through dififerentiated forms of (usually Q = (o, but in 
some of the islands, namely Paros, Thasos, and Siphnos, Q = o, and 
or G = w). 

7. In 403 RC. the Ionic alphabet was officially introduced at 
Athens, and not much later replaced the native or "epichoric" 
alphabets in other parts of Greece. Inscriptions of the end of the 
fifth or the beginning of the fourth century often show a transi- 
tional form of the alphabet, partly epichoric, partly Ionic. Even 
with the full Ionic alphabet, f was generally retained where it was 
still sounded, and sometimes a form of H was used for the spiritus 
asper, as h in the Heraclean Tables and occasionally elsewhere 
(Elis, no. 60, Sicyon, Epidaurus). The Delphian Labyadae inscrip- 
tion (no. 51) has B = h, H = ?/. 

For the Cyprian syllabary, see no. 19. 

VOWELS 
a 
5. o for a before or after liquids. Examples are most numerous 
in Lesbian, mainly from literary and grammatical sources, as 



18 GREEK DIALECTS [5 

(7t/jo'tos = arpaTO^, hpoaea)<i = Bpaaewi, ^oKaicri = y^dXcoai, etc. 
So an^p[6]Trjv (no. 21) = dfiaprelv, like Horn, rjn^porov = •^fj.ap- 
Tov (fjL^p from iu,p, as regularly). Both arporayoi; and a-Tpdrayo'; 
occur in inscriptions, Kkewise in Boeotian crrpoTo^ in numerous 
proper names, a-TporicoTa';, ia-TpoTevaO-rj, but also a-Tparo^ in proper 
names, arpaTay(ovTo<i. The forms with a, which are the only ones 
attested for Thessalian, are to be attributed to icoivri tafluence. 
Cf. Boeot., Thess. iporo'i = e/aaro?, ^pox"<i == ^paxv<;, attested by 
proper names, Boeot., Lesb. ttojovot^ = Trdpvoyjr, whence Lesb. 
IlopvoTricov (Strabo 13.613), Tiopvoiria (no. 23). 

In Arcado-Cyprian also we find Arc. i(ji6opKd><; = e^BapKm, 
TravdyopcTK = iravrjyvpL'i but iu form belonging with West Ion. 
(Naples) dyappa (49.2), crTopirdo<; = aa-rpairaloi; (also Arc. a-Topird, 
Cypr. arpoTrd in Hesych.), Cypr. Kop^Ca (Hesych.) = KapSia, Kare- 
fopyov = *KaTepapyov aorist of *icaT-epepyco {icaTelpyoa) with the 
weak grade of the root as in eSpaKOv from SepKOfiai (49.2). 

In various West Greek dialects occur derivatives of ypd^ca with o, 
though the verb itself always has a. Thus ypo^ev<; in EUs, Argolis, 
Sicyon, in Argolis also ypo<l>evco, (Tvyypo(j)o<;, etc., Heracl. aveiriypo- 
</>09, Cret. aTToypo^ov, eyypo^ov, Mel. Tpocfxov. Cf. also Cret., Epid. 
KaTaXo^ev<i = *Kara\a/3ev';, support, Cret. a/3Xo7ria = a^Xa^Ca. 

a. Some of tlie examples, if taken by themselves, might be regarded 
simf)ly as inherited o-grade forms (cf . 49.2), e. g. Arc. i(j>dopKioi (cf . i<j)9opa). 
But an actual substitution must be recognized in Lesb. o-rporos etc., and, 
■while the precise conditions and scope of the phenomenon are not clear, it 
is evidently one in which all the Aeolic dialects and Arcado-Cyprian had a 
share. Whether ypoc^eiJs etc. are anything more than inherited o-grade 
forms may be less certain, but it is probable that these are Achaean sur- 
vivals (see p. 7), and belong in this same connection. 

6. for a in other cases. 6v = avd in Lesbian, Thessalian (Pe- 
lasgiotis), and Arcado-Cyprian {iv, see 22). Lesb., Arc. SexoToi = 
Se/earo?, also Arc. Ssko = Se'/ca, heKorov = ewoToV, and Lesb. evoro^ 
— evaTO's. Thess. k^ofieivvov = e^dfirjvpv. Delph. evTo^rjia, burial 
rites, Heracl. to</)kbi^, hurial-plaee (cf. ra^os). Kodap6<i = Kadapo^ 
in Heraclea, Sybaris, Locris (Heppodapidv), Elean Kodaptni;. 



9] PHONOLOGY 19 

a. The explanation is uncertain, and not necessarily the same for all 
the forms cited here. For example, it is possible that the o of SeKoros etc. 
is to be viewed in the same light as that of cIkoiti = West Greek piKaTi. See 
116 a. But the preference for o appears to he, here as in 5, an Aeolic- 
Aohaean characteristic. 

7. e for a. For forms with e beside a which fall within the 
regular system of vowel-gradation, see 49.2-4. 

An actual change of final a to e is seen in Thess. Sie = Sid. Of. 
Thess. -ec = -at (27). 

d 

8. Attic-Ionic r/ from d. Original a, which remains unchanged 
in all other dialects, becomes tj in Attic-Ionic. Thus ti/j,'^, ^rjfii, 
la-Trjfii, but in other dialects Tifia (a-stem), (j^dni (Lat. farl), la-Tdfii 
(Lat. stare). For the contrast between this rj and that which repre- 
sents an inherited e-sound and is common to the other dialects 
also, note Att.-Ion. lirjT'qp, elsewhere /MaTrjp (Lat. mater). 

But Attic differs from Ionic, in that it has d, not 17, after e, i, 
and p, as yevea, olicid, x'^P^ = Ion- jeve'^, oIkCtj, x^PV- 

a. The change of a in the direction of ij began in the Attic-Ionic period, 
and was universal. The d in Att. X'^^P^ ^tc. is not the original d unchanged, 
but a special Attic reversion to d, which occurred, however, before the new 
sound had become completely identical with that representing original e, 
and hence did not affect the latter (so Att. ■jrpa.TTOi, but pjjTwp). That is, 
the 17 from d was at first an extremely open e-sound, even more open than 
that of original e, and even in the historical period the two sounds are 
distinguished in the spelling of some inscriptions of the Cyclades. See 4.6. 

6. The d arising from lengthening of a in connection with original inter- 
vocalic vcr, (TV, etc., undergoes the same change, e.g. Att.-Ion. i<j>rjva. from 
l<^va,, original *£^av<Ta. See 76, 77.1. But in rds from Tavs and irStra from 
irdva-a, original *iravTia., the d was of later origin and was unafiected. See 
77.3, 78. 

£ 

9. t from e before a vowel. 

1. Even in Attic an e before another vowel had a closer sound 
than in other positions, and was frequently written «, as 0«o'? = 
6e6<;, veiuK = vew. So, sometimes, in Ionic, as £?&)? = em?, Seto'/iei/o? 
(Oropus) = Seoiievoi. 



20 GEEEK DIALECTS [» 

In several dialects the e progressed so far in the direction of t 
that it was frequently, or even regularly, written i. Thus : 

2. Boeotian. The spelling is usually i, but sometimes e, ei, or H 
(see 4.5), as diof, OeLot = 0e6<;, aveOiav, avedeiav beside avedeav, 
Ylo\vic\V-e<i = IloXvKXer]';, lovTO'i = iovTOi, piovrof = peovTOi. 

a. Boeotian € in general had a relatively close sound, and the spelling a 
occurs occasionally even before a consonant, as HevapEiVo) = 'Sivaperov, ®i6- 
<l>euTTOs = *®£66€(TTOi (68.2), ■jreiroLOVTtuTa-t = -eero-t. In ev ©eurirt^s, ©etoTrteus, 
etc. the spelling a is so constant that it perhaps stands for original ij (16), 
which in other dialects was shortened as if the name of the town were 
connected with OicnrK etc. 

3. Cyprian. At Idalium the spelling is regularly t, as 6i6<i, 
l6(v)Ta = iovTU, peiTija = eirea. 

4. Cretan. We find t regularly, except where the e was once 
followed by f . That is, the change was prior to the loss of inter- 
vocalic p; and the e which later, with the loss of f, came to stand 
before another vowel, was unaffected. Thus 16vto<; = e6vT0<;, Kokimv 
= KoKeatv, TrXte? = Hom. 7r\ee9, — but vleo';, ponceo's, hpop,edv. 

5. Laconian. We find i, with the same restriction as in Cretan, 
in early inscriptions (also in Alcman and Ar. Lysist.), e.g. Bioi, 
avioxeov = ^vioxecov. In later inscriptions the spelling is usually e. 

6. Heraclean. Verbal forms show i, with the same restriction 
as in Cretan, e.g. aSiKiav, ep^eTplcofiea, but peovra, Seofieva. In 
other words, TifiOKpario';, but usually e, as pireo'i, owing to Koivrj 
influence. 

7. In Argolic and Thessalian, both of which usually show e, 
there are some examples of t, as Arg. ^to'?, irehiov = fiereatv, Thess. 
dio^, Aimv. 

10. t from e before v in Arcado-Cyprian. Iv = iv is the regular 
form in Arcadian and Cyprian, also in compounds as Arc. Ivdym, 
ifi^aivo), lvcf)op^ia), lyKexvPVicoi, ivBiKO'i, ivTratni, IvrroXd, lyyvo^, 
lviiev<l)ri<i and IV/ioi/^os, hlameworthy (opp. to afiep,^^^, ap,op.<^o<;), 
Cypr. ivaXCva (lva\a\ia-p.eva). Cf. also early Arc. (Mantinea, no. 16) 
airexop.ivo'}, a7ruSeSo/u,t'v[o?] = -pAvovi. But €V occurs in other 



12] PHONOLOGY 21 

words, and the more precise conditions of the change are not yet 
clear, iv = iv is found also, possibly an " Achaean " survival (see 
p. 7), in some Cretan inscriptions of Eleutherna and Vaxus, and ia 
an Achaean iascription. 

11. t beside e in other cases. The occasional interchange of i 
and e in related words, as irCrvrifii beside weravvvfii (a kind of 
vowel-gradation, but not of the common types given in 49), is occa- 
sionally seen among dialectic forms of the same word. Horn, iriav- 
pes = iretyervpes, Tecrcrepe;, Att. ■xtXioi from *j^i(7\toi, while Ion. 
j^eCXioi, Lesb. j^eXXiot, etc. are from *;^eo-Xtot (76). Att. earta 
appears with i in all other dialects, so far as quotable, e.g. Ion. 
ia-riTj, Lesb. larCa, Thess. 'lo-o-Ttateio?, Boeot. 'la-Tirico, Delph. 
'lo-Ttto, Locr. laria, Hera;cl. 'ItrTieto?, Syrac. 'laria, Ehod. IcrnaTo- 
piov, Coan larCa, Cret. '\aria. Arc. Fto-rtau. In this case the t, as 
well as the early substitution of ' for /r ia most dialects, may he 
due to the influence of la-Trjfii. 

12. a from e before p in Northwest Greek. Locr. ^dpeiv, irardpa, 
cLfidpa, av(f>6Tapo<i, peairdpio<s (but p-epo';). Here also hapicTTai 
(no. 55 ; hut heXearai no. 56) = eXeaOai, with p ioT \ after the 
analogy of the present alpeto (as, vice versa, Cret. alXea = aipeco, with 
X from the aorist)'. EL <f>dpev, pdpyov, irdp (= Trepi), bw6Tapo<i, 
varapiv, but the spelling ap is not quite uniform even in the early 
inscriptions, and later gives way to ep (see 241). Delph. <^dpev 
in a fifth-century inscription (no. 50), and Mpfiara, irevTafiapi- 
reiav (no. 51), show that in Phocian too p had a similar effect on 
the pronunciation of a preceding e, but except in these instances 
the spelling is ep {<j>epev even in no. 51). Cf. also Ach. Zeus 'Afid- 
pto9, and Pamph. virap = v/rep. 

a. Elean has a also after p, as XoTpai[d/to'ov] beside XaTpuoiievov, pa- 
arpdai from *iuuTrpe.la (31), KartajoatW, Karuxpavaoi in contrast to fjtvyaBdrjv, 
<t>vya8cuavTi (see 161.1); also before final v,asfiav = p-hr, yvoiiav = yvZfiev, 
3 pi. opt. aTTorCvoiav, iniOeuiv, (Twrnv, etc. ; occasionally elsewhere, as eim- 
/8eoi = cuo-£)8eot, (TKevdov = -io>v, showing that Elean e in general had a very 
open sound. Cf . El. d = ij (IS)- 



22 GEEEK DIALECTS [l2 

b. Epid. Kpa/juxa-ai = KpejjAa-ai and /mvroL = fLfinoi, thougli more isolated, 
and open to other possible explanations (fjulvToi contamination with /xav = 
/xiyv, Kpa/jiaa-ai weak grade or assimilation), are perhaps to be viewed in the 
same light as the Elean forms under a. 

13. West Greek a = East Greek e. Besides the examples of 
dialectic interchange of a and e cited under the head of vowel- 
gradation (49.2-4), in which the distribution of the a and e forms 
is various (e.g. apa-rjv, epar]v, — /SaWto, SeWco), there is a group 
of by-forms in which the preference for the a forms is a marked 
West Greek characteristic. 

1. lapog (or lap6<;) is the regular form in early inscriptions of 
aU West Greek dialects and Boeotian, iep6<; occurring only later 
and plainly due to kolvti influence. The situation is probably the 
same in Thessalian, though the occurrences of both forms are late, 
te/ao's (or te/jo'?) is Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian, whUe a third 
form is seen in Le'sb. lpo<; (likewise ipev;, Ipeia, IprjTevco, late xarei- 
pmv with €1 = I), Ion. ipd'i, ip6<; beside lepo';, lepo'i (probably from 
*la-po- beside *la-apo-, *la-epo-). There are many other words with 
variation between -epoi and -ap6<;, as fiiep6<i, fjLiapoi, but with 
widely different dialectic distribution. 

2. "Aprafii';, so far as the name is quotable from early inscrip- 
tions, is the form of all West Greek dialects except Cretan, and of 
Boeotian. In later Doric and Delphian inscriptions this is usually 
replaced by "Apre/it?. 

3. Ku = Ke (dv) is the form of all West Greek dialects and Boeo- 
tian, while Thessalian has ks, like Lesbian and Cyprian. See 134.2. 
The same ku in oku, toku, ttoku, which are also West Greek (and 
doubtless Boeotian) = Att.-Ion., Arc.-Cypr. ore etc. (but Lesb. o'to 
etc. See 132.9). 7a = 76 is likewise West Greek and Boeotian. Ad- 
verbs in -da = -9e, -6ev, belong to some, but not all. West Greek 
dialects. See 133.1. 

a. wrtpiK = iTepos is not confined to West Greek dialects, but is also 
quotable from Arcadian, Boeotian, and Lesbian, and even for Attic is 
implied by artpoi with crasis. So far as we know, Irtpos belongs to Attic- 
Ionic only, all examples in other dialects being late. 



18] PHONOLOGY 23 

14. Original r), that is r) representing original e, remains un- 
changed in nearly all dialects. Contrast the special Attic-Ionic tj 
from d (8), both being seen in Attic-Ionic /iijTTj/ci = ixaTtjp of other 
dialects. On the introduction of the character H, see 4.6. 

15. d from -q in Elean. The sound of r} was so open in Elean 
that it approximated that of d, and was frequently, though by no 
means consistently, denoted by a. Thus nd (but also /ie, /i^) = 
ixri, fpdrpa = prjrpa, ^aai\de<; = -ije?, ea (but also eU) = eirj, Safio- 
aioia = -oiT), irXadvovra beside irXedvovri. Of. a for e (12 a). 

16. ei from r) in Thessalian and Boeotian. In these dialects the 
sound was so close that with the introduction of the Ionic alpha- 
bet it was uniformly denoted not by tj but by et, which at that 
time represented a close e. Thess., Boeot.-/tiet = yn??, dve6eiKe = 
aveOrjKe, fieiv6<; = fiTiv6<;, Thess. ySacriXetos, Boeot. •ypaixfjLareio'i = 
-fjO<;, Thess., Boeot. a-Tarelpa'i, Boeot. /idreip, iraTeip = -rrjp-. 

a. In late Boeotian inscriptions the spelling t is sometimes found, as irapt's 
beside wapeis (eis = ^s, Att. -rjv, 163.3). 

17. Lesb. al/jitaecov = r)p.ia-eoav, also (Etj'm. Magn.) alp.Lovo'; — 
■fjiiiovo';, Kiaioho'i = 'HcrioSo?. The explanation is difficult, since 
in all other cases rj remains unchanged in Lesbian. Perhaps t) was 
more open initially than in other positions, and this, in connection 
with the epenthetic vowel (47), led to ai. 



18. e from i after p in the Aeolic dialects. An open pronuncia- 
tion of I after p is indicated by occasional spellings such as Lesb. 
Aa/iOKpeTQ) = Aij/iOKpiTov (but Kpivvat, KpiTiov), Thess. Kpevvdfiev 
(Lesb. KpCvvm), 'T/Sjoe'o-Ta? beside 'T^piarwi, direkevOepeaOevaa 
from cnreXevdepi^Q}. Lesb. reprot is perhaps from *TpeTO<; = rpl- 
To<;, but cf. also 19.2. A probable Boeotian example is rpeireSSa, 
TpeTreSSira?, beside rpdireSSa. Cf. Hesych. rpOire^av ■ rrjv rpdire^av. 
BoicoToi. But vowel-assimilation (46) is also possible. 



24 GEEEK DIALECTS [18 

a. Lesb. Kcpvav = Kipvdvai owes its c to the influence of inipfura etc. 
6. El. ■TTo'Xtp = ttoXk, and y3ei/coi = fiwioi, though isolated occurrences, 
indicate an open pronunciation of the i. Cf . El. a = e and a. = rj (12 a, 15). 

19. Consonantal t (t) from antevocalic i in Lesbian and Thes- 
salian. The consonantal pronunciation of antevocalic i might 
occur anywhere in rapid speech, but was especially characteristic 
of AeoUc, as indicated by the following related phenomena in 
Lesbian and Thessalian. 

1. Lesb. §■ from St in ?a', Kcip^a, ZoWuo-o?, from glosses or late 
inscriptions, the usual inscriptional spelling being Stti etc. Cf. 
also Ziovv{aLos:) on a coin of Phocaea, Cypr. icop^ia- KapSi'a 
(Hesych.). 

2. Lesb. fi€T€ppo<s, aXXoVe/a/aos, lieppap.o'i (Herodian) = /ier/ato?, 
aXKoTpiQ';, Ilpia/jLO';, -the development being pi, p^, epi, epp. 

3. Thessalian doubling of consonants before i, which may then 
be retained or omitted in the spelling, as ISSiav, Tro'Wtos, irpo^ev- 
viovv, Kvppov beside Kvpiov, apyvppoi beside apyvpioi, Mvacraa = 
Mvaaid. Cf. Att. ^oppai from /Sopedf. 

4. Omission of i, as Lesb. apryvpa = apyvpia, Thess. rpaicdhi = 
rpiaKaSt, etc. (see also under 3). 

20. Interchange of i and v. Assimilation of t to w of the fol- 
lowing syllable is seen in rj/xvav — •^fiiav, which appears in Attic 
in the early fourth century, in other dialects only late ; the oppo- 
site assimilation in /3t/3\to)c beside ^v^Xiov. Influence of the pre- 
ceding ev, or of the suffix -avvr), in Lac. 'EXeuAwta = 'EXewff/wa 
(also Olynth. 'EXeuo-vvto?, name of a month). Other by-forms, the 
relation of which is uncertain, are 'A/x^tKribi/e? and 'AfKpiKTvovei, 
Meg. alcTifivd.Ta'i, ai(7if»,vSivre<; = al<Tvp,vrjTri<; etc. 



21. I remains unchanged everywhere. But in late inscriptions 
it is sometimes denoted by ei, which had come to have the sound 
I, as Tet/tta or Teifirj = tI/ii]. 



34] PHONOLOGY 25 



22. V from o, especially in Arcado-Cyprian. In both Arcadian 
and Cyprian, final o neariy always appears as v. Gen. sg. -dv = -ao, 
as Arc. KaWiau, Cypr. 'Ovaaijopav. Cypr. 3 sg. mid. -tv = -to, as 
yevoiTv, ifpeTcia-aTv (in Arcadian there are no early examples of 
the ending, and -ro in a late inscription may be due to koivt] influ- 
ence). Arc, Cypr. airv = airo, Arc. kutv formed after airv, Arc. 
dWv = dWo. But d-irv is also Lesbian and Thessalian. Cf. also vv 
for 6v = dvd (6) in Cypr. vvedeKe (once) bfeside ovedeice, and Arc. 
vveOvae (no. 15 ; in later inscriptions dvd, due to the Koivrj). 

a. In Lesbian there are several examples of initial v = o, especially 
before ]tl, as v^ioicus, v/jLoKoyux. 

b. ow/jua = ovofia is common to nearly all, perhaps all, dialects except 
Attic-Ionic. Cf. the compounds dvuint/xos etc., which are universal. 

c. In Chalcid. hmrv = inro, and 9ijpvDs, the second v is due to assimila- 
tion to the first. 

d. In Pamphylian, o in final, syllables regularly becomes v, written v 
or ov. 

<i> 

23. ov from w in Thessalian. Long 6 in Thessalian, •whether 
original or secondary (25), became a close o, then it, and, after the 
introduction of the Ionic alphabet, was regularly denoted by ov. 
Xovpa = ;^<»/3<x, <j)i\dv0povira = (pikdvdpmira, rovv rayovv irdv- 
Tovv = Twv raywv irdvTmv. Cf. et from i? (16). 

V and u 

24. Instead of becoming a sound like German u, French u, as 
it did in Attic at an early period, the original M-sound (English oo 
in food) was retained in several, perhaps the majority of, dialects. 
This is most obvious where, the Attic values of the letters being 
taken as a basis, the spelling v was replaced by ov. 

In Boeotian, ov begins to appear beside v about 350 B.C., and is 
frequent after 300 B.C., though v is not vmcommon until the last 
quarter of the century. Thus ovirep, Kovpio<;, dpryovpiov, a-ovvypa- 
^ov, Tov)^a, ovovfia (22 I), etc. In the tliird century the spelling 



26 GEEEK DIALECTS [24 

lov (pronounced like English u in cuhe ?) is also employed, though 
never consistently, after t, S, 6, v, and \, as Tiovj(^a, Siovo = Svo, 
'WlovSiko^, oviov/ia, Ai(oviovcno<;, Aiov/cia/cco, etc. ; also once after <r 
(J,i,ow£en<;) and once initially (lovico = vlov). Another, but compara- 
tively rare, spelling in Boeotian is o, as oTrep = inre'p, Qoaia = dvaCa. 

a. Except in Boeotian and Pamphylian, where ou is also frequent, the 
spelling V is retained in inscriptions. So in Laconian, for which the reten- 
tion of the «-sound is amply attested by the numerous glosses spelled with 
ov in accordance with Attic values, and by the pronunciation of the modem 
Tsakonian. In various other dialects, as Arcadian, Cjrprian, Thessalian, 
Lesbian, Cretan, Euboean, there are indications, of one kind or another, of 
the same pronunciation, such as the occasional spelling ov or o for v, or v 
for (22 a), use of 9 before v (Chalcid. 9v9vvs, X-qifvOcK, etc.), or-present- 
day pronunciation. 

Secondary i and 5. " Spurious Diphthongs " 

25. In many dialects, as in Attic, e and o differed in quality 
from T) and «, being close vowels \e, q). Consequently the long 
vowels which came from them by contraction or compensative 
lengthening, since they retained the same quality, were not iden- 
tical with Tj and <o, but were e and o, the latter becoming u, and 
eventually came to be designated by et and ov after these original 
diphthongs had become monophthongs in pronunciation (28, 34). 
But in other dialects they were identical with t) and to, and were 
so written. Hence such dialectic variations as rpets and Tprj<: from 
*rpeie<i (42.3), eljjii and r)ixi from *e(Tp,C (76), <f)6eip(o and (i>6rip(o 
from *^6epia) (74), ^eivo? and ItjVo? from f eV/ro? (54), x^^'^i-oi- and 
XV^oi from *%e£rXtot (76), ^ovXij and /SmXa from */3o\va (75), 
Kovpr] and Kcopd from Koppd (54), gen. sg. -ov and -to from -oio 
(106.1), ace. pi. -OK? and -to? from -01/9 (78). 

The dialects which regularly have 7/ and a in such forms are 
Arcadian, Cyprian, Elean, Laconian, Heraclean, and Cretan. Boeo- 
tian has to, but et as for original rj (16). 

a. Other dialects which occasionally show iy and u, though « and ou are 
usual, are Argolic (^A,eTo beside tiXtTo, tj/jlcv, ySuXas, etc.; at Hermione 



25] PHONOLOGY 27 

gen. sg. in -m, ace. pi. in -us), Rhodian (^/tt, k^vos, BojXios, HjjvtdSa, etc.), 
Coan (ij/i.ei', k^vos, St^Ko/ml, KapTruivri, etc.), Theran (^/At, Tfsrj's, ButXaKparrp, 
etc.; at Cyrene, a colony of Thera, regularly rj, (o). It is probable that 
these dialects belong properly with those which have ?;, <o regularly, and 
that their usual a, ov are due to the fact that with the introduction of the 
Ionic alphabet they also adopted in the main the Attic-Ionic orthography 
of such words. 

6. XOP' ~ X"P" (-'^tt. ^ap, x^pos) is even more widespread, e. g. not only 
Cret. Ktpavs, Arc. lyKejfi/pijKoi, Cypr. v^pov, but Epid. )(rjpas and even Delph. 
iK£)(ripiav, Corinth. cvcK^iypov. But it is probable that this xijp- does not 
rest whoUy upon *^ep<T- (79), but is due in part at least to the influence of 
a nom. sg. ^(^p (quoted by Herodian as Aeolic) formed after the analogy 
of inherited p-stems in -j/p. Cf. Att. /xi^v in place of /ias (112.3). 

c. SmXxK, Dor. SuXos (Cret., Theocr., CalUm.) do not belong here. 8ov- 
Xos has a genuine diphthong, as shown by the spelling ov in early Attic 
inscriptions and in Boeotian, while Su>A.o9 must come from a by-form *8o>i;- 
Xos. The relation of Lesb., Boeot., Dor. Stv to Att. ow is obscure, since av 
is also Ionic. 

d. It is to be remembered that the early inscriptions of most dialects have 
simply E, 0, which we transcribe e, o, no matter whether the later spell- 
ing is et, ov, or rj, la. Among the ij, to dialects the actual spelling rj, *) does 
not occur, of course, until the introduction of the Ionic alphabet about 
400 B.C., except that in Crete, Rhodes, etc., where H = i; is much earlier, 
we find -q/u etc. in the earliest inscriptions. 

Of the ei, ov dialects, Coriuthian is the only one in which the identity of 
genuine and spurious et, ov belongs to the earliest period, ovring to the very 
early monophthongization of the diphthongs (28, 34). The spelling even 
of the earliest inscriptions is El, OV at Corcyra (e. g hviov, api), and 
OV (but E, not El) at Corinth. In Attic-Ionic examples of El, OV occur 
in the fifth century (E\pl even earlier), but E, are more common until 
after 400 B.C., and occasionally appear much later. In general El becomes 
established earlier than OV, and many inscriptions use El uniformly but 
vary between and OV. In Ionic the gen. sg. -0 is especially persistent. 
In Locrian no. 56 has only E, (e.g. hayev, tos), while the somewhat 
earlier no. 55 has El (<j>a.pE\v etc.), and OV in the ace. pi. (tovs) but 
in the gen. sg. (Sa/io). This last difEerenee, though only a graphic vagary, 
is observed also in several Ionic inscriptions. In other dialects El, OV 
come in with the introduction of the Ionic alphabet, and even then the 
spelling varies for a time. 



28 GEEEK DIALECTS [36 

Diphthongs 
ai 

26. 7] from ai in Boeotian. The diphthong is retained in the 
earliest inscriptions, sometimes as ai, sometimes as ae, especially 
at Tanagra, e.g. Aecrxoi'Sa?, 'Otci^ae. But it came to be pronounced 
as a monophthong, an open e, and with the introduction of the 
Ionic alphabet was regularly denoted by r), e.g. /c^ = Kai, rj = al, 
@ei^rio<s = @r]^aio<;, dat. sg. and nom. pi. -v = -«', dat. pi. -j?9 = at?, 
infin. -ar), -f^^V = -<^a*. -a-0ai. In very late inscriptions even et is 
found, as @et;8etos. 

27. ei from at in Thessalian. ' In general at, remains, but at 
Larissa we find ei for final ai, e.g. e'T|ra0to-Tet = iyjr'q<f)ia-Tac, ^e'Wet- 
Tei = ^ovXtjtm, yivveirei = jiyvr]Tai, and, with added v (139.2, 156), 
Treireiareiv = ireTrela-daL, 6v<ypd'\{reip = avaypdy^ai, e^dvypevGeiv = 
e(j)aipovVTai, ^eWovvdeiv = ^ovXavrai. 

ei 

28. Sooner or later ei became everywhere a monophthong, a close 
e (e), though the speUing was retained and extended to the e of 
different origin (25). In Corinthian this had taken place at the 
time of the earliest iuscriptions, and, while at Corcyra the spelling 
was El (25 d), at Corinth the sound was nearly always denoted by 
a single sign, though generally differentiated from the open e or tj, 
e.g. ApEvia, i.e. Afevia=AeLviov, HoteSuvi, i.e. JloreSavi (rarely 
UoTBiSdv), but uvsObkb = aveOrjKe. Cf. also reSe = reiSe in an early 
Megarian inscription (here & = e, E = t; and genuine or spurious ei). 

a. At a late period the i progressed still further to an i, usually mth 
retention of the old spelling a, which then came to be used also for original 
i (21), but sometimes with phonetic spelling i. In some words this late 
spelling with i became fixed in our texts, e. g. ritrio, erura, cktio-is, of which 
the proper spelling, as shown by inscriptions of Attic and other dialects, is 
Titcu), tTeicra, eKTacris. 

b. But before vowels it remained e for some time after it had become i 
elsewhere, and, to distinguish it from a = I, was often written rj, e.g. iroXi- 
Tijav, Uprja, etc., especially in the Augustan period. 

c. For Elean ai from a after p, see 12 a. 



31] PHONOLOGY 29 

29. t from ei in Boeotian. The change in pronunciation which 
took place everywhere at a late period (28 a) occurred very early 
in Boeotian, and here showed itself in the spelling, which in the 
fifth century varies between et, h (4.5), and i, but later is regularly 
t, e.g. Ti-a-ifievei = Teto-t/ie'i'ij?, eTrt = ivei, eTrtSet = iireiBij (cf. also 
16), e;^i = e'xei, Kinevw; = K€ifieva<;. 

01 

30. V from ot in Boeotian. The diphthong ot was retained much 
longer than ai (26) or ei (29), appearing as oi, but also, in some of 
the earhest inscriptions especially of Tanagra, as oe, e.g. Xoe/>i\o9, 
YheKuSd/jLoe. But in the third century it became a monophthong, 
probably similar to the German o, to denote which, approximately, 
the V, with its Attic value of m as a basis (cf. ov for v, 24), was em- 
ployed with increasing frequency from about 250 b.c. on, though 
not uniformly till the end of the century, e. g. fVKia = otKi'a, dat. 
sg. and nom. pi. -v = -oi, dat. pi. -v<; = -ot?. Where ot is followed by 
a vowel it is usually retained (in contrast to at, 26), as BottoTu?, 
though ButoTftij' occurs once, also o ttvh? = •^ irola. 

In some late inscriptions of Lebadea and Chaeronea the spelling 
« is also found, indicating the further progress of the sound to t 
(see 28 a), e.g. aurei? = avTol<;. 

ax, €1, 01 before vowels 

31. In the case of ai, et, ol, also vi, before vowels the omission 
of I, consequent upon its consonantal pronunciation with the follow- 
ing vowel, is to be observed in various dialects, though the spelling 
is anything but constant, and it is impossible to make any general 
statement as to the conditions of the loss. Thus, as in Attic 'KBtj- 
vaia, later 'KOjjvda, 'A0r]va, Scoped beside Smpeid, evvoa beside ev- 
voia, vo'?, vik beside vto'?, vlv<;, so e.g. Ion. aTekerj beside areXeirj, 
•jroiricTeav = iroiriaeiav, Lesb. hiKdw; = StKaito?, evvoav = evvoiav, 
Thess. Tewdot = TevvaCov, Arc. aTopnrdo'; = aa-Tpa7ralo<;, El. ea 
beside ete = et?;, fiacrrpda = *ixaa-Tpeia (12 a), Cret. ayeXaoi = 



30 GEEEK DIALECTS [31 

ajeXaloi, Delph. ^amro'; = *(f)aiaT6<i {^aw). So especially in forms 
of TToieco, as Att. Troei, iroija-co (but ttoicov), Lesb. Troj^criB, IpoTrorjrai, 
Boeot. i-TToeia-e, Arc. iroevTco, El. etrnroevTcov, Coan vmroav beside 
vaTTOta?. 

a. Owing to the variation in forms like the above, the diphthongal spell- 
ing sometimes appears in words where it has no etymological justification, 
as late dySoojs, oySou^KovTa, Poirfiiia. 

OM, €V, Ot) 

32. In av, ev, ov, the v remained an M-sound, not becoming ii as 
it did in many dialects when not part of a diphthong. This is shown 
not only by Ionic ao, eo (33), but by occasional varieties of spelling 
such as Coriath. 'Ajj;tX\eow, Coreyr. apvrdv, Att. apvTap, Ion. 
afVTO, Cret. ctfiefvcraadai,, where f iudicates the natural glide be- 
fore the w-sound, and Locr. ^afTruKTiov, Cret. (nrofSSdv, etc. 

33. ao, eo from av, ev ia East Ionic, ao, eo appear in East Ionic 
inscriptions (eo also in Amphipolis and Thasos) of the fourth cen- 
tury (eo once in Chios iu fifth century) and later, e.g. aoT6<s, raora, 
eovota, eoepyeTT}';. This spelling is frequent even in kolvij iuscrip- 
tions of this region. 

a. For El. av from eu after p, see 12 a. Some late Cretan inscriptions 
show ov = £V (of. Att. ov from eo), as eXovOepos, iiriTdSovfia. The explana- 
tion of (1) = ov in I)elph. averwTos, late Lao. w™ = avrov, etc., is doubtful. 

34. ov became, in most dialects, a monophthong (first g, later u), 
though the spelling ov was generally retained and eventually ex- 
tended to the secondary o. In Corinthian this had taken place at 
the time of the earliest inscriptions. See 25 d. 

a. Occasionally words which contain genuine ov are found with the 
spelling o in early inscriptions when o for secondary o was usual, e. g. ok = 
ovK, ^6v = Povv (or = |8(ov? See 37.1). In forms of ovtos, which in gen- 
eral have genuine ov (e.g. Cret. tovto etc.), this spelling is so frequent in 
early Attic, e.g. toto, totov {toto also in Thasos; cf. also Orop. ei/ro^a, 
i. e. ivravBa = Ivravda), as to point to some special cause. Possibly, as has 
been suggested, there existed beside the usual forms with genuine ov 
(e. g. TOVTO from *to-v-to), a gen. sg. toto (tovtov), formed by doubling of 
TO (jm}), which then influenced the other forms. 



37] PHONOLOGY 31 

av, e\) before vowels 

35. Certain words show a v diphthong in Lesbian (and in Homer) 
in contrast to other dialects, e.g. aiio)? = Dor. etc. a(/r)a)? (cf. Hesych. 
a/Sto • irpai), Horn, ijw, Att. em?, from *avcrQ><; (cf. L. aurora from 
*ausds-d), vavo<; = Dor. etc. vd{f)6'; (cf. Lac. vapov), Hom. V7)6<;, 
Att. veei?, probably from *vaa-p6<i (54/), 8ev«B = Att. ^eco, need, from 
*Sewo-<B. 

a. In such forms u comes from a combination containing u or ^, not from 
simple intervocalic p, which in Lesbian, as elsewhere, regularly drops out 
without affecting the preceding vowel. Forms like eviSe from *ipSi are 
poetical only, and due to metrical lengthening or doubling of the p under 
the ictus. The consonant-doubling in hypocoristic proper names (89.5) 
accounts for the diphthong in Thess. KA.£vas, from *KA.c/rds, Calymn. KAeu- 
avTos, Cret. ^vos, Neuavros. 

36. In words with regular antevocahc ev the natural ghde be- 
tween V and the following vowel is often expressed by p, as Boeot. 
Ba«ev/rat, Cypr. KareaKevpaae, Lac. Ev^aXKrji; (/S = p, 51). 

In late inscriptions v is sometimes omitted, especially in deriva- 
tives of (T/cewo?, as Att. •jrapea-Keao'fieviuv, Lesb. einaKedaavTa, 
Corcyr. iirurKed^eiv, aKeo6riKa<;, Delph. KUTaa-KediirrjTai. 

Long Diphthongs 

37. 1. The original long diphthongs di, du, ei, eu, 6i, ou, except 
when final, were regularly shortened in prehistoric times to ai, au, 
ei, eu, 01, ou, or, in some cases, lost the second element. Hence such 
by-forms as ySow? from *^a>v^ (cf. Skt. gdus) but Dor. ^m (cf. Lat. 
bos, Skt. ace. sing, gdm ; ySwv also once in Homer), Zevs from *Zi;t5? 
(cf. Skt. dydus) but ace. Zrjv (cf. Lat. dies), whence, with transfer to 
consonant declension, Z^va, Zijvo'?, etc., Cret. Afjva, T^va (84). 

2. The Greek long diphthongs may be original when final, but 
otherwise are of secondary origiu. Most of the latter arose by loss 
of an intervening consonant, as «\ats, kXtj^, from *«\af t? (cf. Lat. 
cldvis), and in the earlier period these were not diphthongs but 
were pronounced in two syllables. So kXi;i9, xPV^^fo, iroXefi'^io^, 



32 GEEEK DIALECTS [37 

iraTpmio';, etc. regularly in Homer, and often in the later Ionic 
poets. This pronunciation is also indicated by occasional speULngs 
such as Iriuoi, 6mii]v, leprjua, xRV'^^^'^! i^ lo^^c inscriptions. On 
the other hand the change of iji to ei (39) or the loss of the i (38) 
presupposes the diphthongal pronunciation ; and where we find e.g. 
XP'n^o>, leprjov, and p^/jj^f^w, kprjiov, side by side, the latter must be 
understood as %jO?;t^a), lepijiov. But in general it is impossible to 
determine just when the change from dissyllabic to diphthongal 
pronunciation took place, and hence it is often uncertain whether 
we should accent e.g. ic\r]k («:\r;is) or «X^t9 («^27?)) %/»;''?'*' or 
Xpi^iK^^, ol/crjio'i, olicrjiov, or olicrjio';, oIkijiov, and editors of the same 
texts differ in their practice. We employ the accentuation which 
goes with the earlier pronunciation, though without the mark of 
diaeresis, for the early Ionic inscriptions ; and likewise in general, 
simply as a matter of convention, in citing forms of this kind in the 
grammar. 

38. d, T], 0), from at, r)i, mi. In Attic the i ceased to be pro- 
nounced in the second century B.C., and the spelling without i 
(the iota subscript is a mediaeval device ; in inscriptions t is written 
like other. letters or omitted entirely) became more and more fre- 
quent, and may be found in late inscriptions from all parts of 
Greece. But in some dialects this dates from an earlier period. 

East Ionic has occasional examples of dat. sg. -7} = -t}i, from the 
sixth century B.C. on, though -Tjt is the usual spelling. 

Lesbian has rd 'iiiKiaCoi, in a fifth-century inscription (no. 20), 
though this is possibly only an error due to confusion with the 
genitive construction which follows. For no. 21 (first half fourth 
century) and no. 22 (324 B.C.) have uniformly dat. sg. -at, -at 
(3 sg. subj. -7)1 in no. 21, -77 in no. 22 ; see also 149). But from the 
end of the fourth century the forms in -a, -w, -77 predominate. 

Thessalian has from the fifth century dat. sg. Ta^poSirai to,, 
and raya beside arayiai (in no. 33), and in inscriptions in the 
Ionic alphabet we find regularly dat. sg. -a, -ov (= «, 23), 3 sg. 
subj. -et (= T], 16). 



40] PHONOLOGY 33 

Cyprian has dat. sg. -a, -o, beside -di, -oi, but in the Idalium- 
bronze (no. 19) only in the case of the article when followed by i, 
as TO ipovi. 

a. The loss of i probably began in the article, which was proclitic. 

6. The fluctuation between the historical and the phonetic spelling in late 
inscriptions introduced confusion in the spelling of forms with original -q, w ; 
hence such spellings as nom. sg. ^ovXi^i, gen. sg. tS>l Sa/iui, imv. e^erwt. 
Such imperative forms in -twi and -a-6<M, where this spelling was favored by 
the subj. in -^i., are especially frequent, notably in Cos. 

39. €1 from rji. The history of tji differs in some dialects from 
that of at, mi, — especially in Attic, where it became et (i.e. f) some 
two centuries before at, an became a, a. 

In the case of medial i/t of secondary origin (37.2) the spelling 
et is frequent in the fourth century and from about 300 B.C. is 
almost universal, e.g. aXet? from ic\rji<!, Xeio-r^s from Xtjicttij's, 
XeiTOvpyea from XtjiTovpyeeo, 

In inflectional endings et is also frequent in the fourth century 
and predominates in the third and second, e.g. dat. sg. /SovXel, 
3 sg. subj. etTret. But here, owing to the analogy of other forms 
with 1/ of the same system, as ^ovX'^<;, ^ovXriv, etTriyre, rjt was 
never given up and eventually was fully restored, so that the nor- 
mal speUing in imperial times was rji or 17 (38). 

The spelling et beside ijt, partly at least due to Attic influence, 
is also frequent in third- and second-century inscriptions of other 
dialects, or even earlier as in the Heraclean Tables, where we 
find 3 sg. subj. vifiei, ^epei, etc. (so usually, but twice -r}c, once -rj). 

a. The change of iji to a is also Euboean, where it was accompanied by 
a change of tot to ot. In Eretrian this was effected about 400 B.C. Some- 
what later a occurs beside tji at Amphipolis, and pt beside wi at Olynthus. 
Dat. sg. -£t is found also in an inscription from Naples. 

Non-Diphthongal Combinations of Vowels 
(Contraction etc.) 

40. Owing to the proethnic loss of intervocalic i and o-, a 
large number of new vowel-combinations arose, and these were 



34 GREEK DIAIECTS [40 

subsequently augmented by the dialectic loss of intervocalic f (53). 
An exhaustive treatment of their history in the several dialects 
would require not merely that each of the numerous combinations 
should be considered by itself, but that further distinctions should 
be made according to the character of the consonant which was lost, 
that of the sound which preceded the combination, the accent, the 
number of syllables in the word, etc. See 45. Only some of the 
most important facts can be stated here. 

a or d + vowel 

41. 1. a + e, e (spurious et), or r?. Attic-Ionic a, but elsewhere 
77, at least in West Greek and Boeotian. Similarly di or tji from 
a + et, -qi. Examples are forms of verbs in -a<o, as Att.-Ion. vi/care, 
viKciv, etc., which have 77 in West Greek and Boeotian, e.g. Cret., 
Arg. viKrjv, Lac. evUe, Ehod. dotvfJTai, Meg. ^oiT-qTas, Corcyr. 
Ttfiijv, Locr. (TvXiv, Delph. crvXrjv, Boeot. <^variTe (Ar.), etc. 

a. In Lesbian, Thessalian, and Arcado-Cyprian there are no such forms 
■with 77, but also no certain examples of d from ae, since the contract verbs 
in these dialects show other types of inflection (see 157, 159). But rj from 
o£ in crasis is Lesbian, Thessalian, and Arcadian, as well as West Greek 
and Boeotian. See 94.6. So far as we know, d from ae is Attic-Ionic only. 

2. a -1- o or (B. When contracted, the result is ta in all dialects. 
So regularly in forms of verbs in -d<o, as Att. nfi&fj.ev, nfiSivTi, 
Meg. (SeHnus) WKo/ne?, vlkovti, Locr. avKovra, Boeot. o-ouXwi/Te?, 
Lac. he^ovTi (subj.), ivhe^6hai<; (^/3wo-at9 from •^/SatocraK), but also, 
rarely, uncontracted as Boeot. laovrv;, Locr. aireXdovTai. Of. also 
Heracl. rerpapov, group of four boundary-stoties, from *T€Tpa-opov, 
irafi&'xp'; (7rayi«»;^;ecB) from *7ra/Ma-o'x,o<;. ao from apo is uncon- 
tracted in Boeotian (as in Homer), but in most dialects yields co, 
as (^w? from <f}do<! {*<^aFo<;, cf. Hesych. (pavo^opa), Boeot. KaWt- 
^dcov etc., 'A7Xft)- from ajXao- (*dj\aF0-), Boeot. 'AjXaoSeopof 
etc. ('A^Xao- occasionaEy elsewhere), am, aw-, Sco-, from o-a/r 0? (cf. 
Cypr. lapoKXefei}), Boeot. ^dwv, lavKparei'!, l.avyevei'i, etc. (av 
from ao is otherwise unknown in. Boeotian and is here perhaps 



41] PHONOLOGY 35 

due to the influence of a *'S.avo<i like Cret. f^avoi etc., 35 a). Arc. 
2aKjoenj9 etc. have 2a- (not 2a-), abstracted from Idcov etc. 

3. d -t- €. Attic-Ionic i), elsewhere d. Att.-Ion. ■^\to? (Horn. 
^eXto?) from d/re'Xto? (Cret. gloss d/Se'Xto?), ae'Xto? in Kndar etc., 
Dor. d\to?, Lesb. dXto?. 

■i. d+ o or 0). Attic-Ionic eta or w, elsewhere d or uncontracted. 
In Attic-Ionic first rjo, ijm (cf. 8), often preserved in Homer, 
whence em (with shortening of the first vowel, and, in the case 
of 7)0, lengthening of the second; cf. 43), which often has the 
value of one syllable, and which may be further contracted to <» 
(in Ionic mostly after vowels, cf. 45.2 ; in Attic not so restricted, 
but the conditions are comphcated and not whoUy clear). In 
the other dialects the uncontracted forms are most general in 
Boeotian. 

Gen. sg. masc. d-stems. Ion. -ew, -a> (also -jjo in no. 6), from 
-do as in Homer (here Aeolio, beside Ion. -eto) and Boeotian (rare 
in Thessalian), Are.-Cypr. -dv (22), Lesb., Thess., West Greek -d. 

Att.-Ion. ew? (Hom. e!o?,i.e. 1909) from *d/ro? (Skt. ydt'ai), Lesb., 
Boeot., "West Greek d?. 

Att.-Ion. Xew?, vem, ew? (Hom. Xjjo'?, i'ijo'?, ^to? ; Eub. 'Ayaa-i- 
Xifd) fi-om Xdp6<; (seen in proper names of several dialects), vdp6<;, 
dpdk (but see 35, 54/), in most dialects Xd6<;, vd6<;, drii?, but \d-, 
I'd-, in compounds as Ad«/3i'i^9, vaKopo';, vdirolai. See 45.3. 

Gen. pi. d-stems. Ion. -ecov, -&v (also -r)6v in no. 6), Att. -a>v, from 
-dcov (*-da-(ov, Skt. -dsdm) as in Homer (Aeolic), Boeotian (but 
always rav, see 45.4), Thessalian (rav Koivaovv etc. at Crannon, 
but otherwise -dv), Lesb. -dv, "West Greek -dv. 

Att.-Ion. Oeeopoi from *6edp(op6';, Boeot. didwpia, Lesb. dedpo';, 
West Greek 6edp6<:. 

Att Koivd>v, ^vvmv. Ion. ^wemv (Hes. ^vvqova'i) from *-dfa)v, 
*-dfovo<;, ^vvaovei Pindar, Arc, West Greek Koivdv. So Epid. 

KVKav = KVKeOOV. 

Att. Iloa-eiS&v, Ion. Tloa-eiSemp, Hom. Ilo(TeiBamv (-ocdj/os), 
Corinth. HoriSafdvi, IloTe8avi, UoreiSav, Boeot. HoretSaovi, 



36 GEEEK DIALECTS [41 

Cret., Ehod., Delph. TloreiSdv {-avo<i), Lesb. Jloaei^dv, Arc. Hoaoi- 
Sdvo';, 'Lac. TLohoiSav (-dvi). 

a. In Ionic, beside usual eo), there are some examples of eo or tv (cf . 33), 
as Oeopos, Oevpoi (Paros, Thasos), gen. sg. -ev (Erythrae etc.). 

b. In Ionic some of the older forms with unshortened r], as in Homer, 
are employed also by later writers, as vrjos, Xr/os- So ^<os in Herodotus and 
in an inscription of Oropus (no. 14). 

o. In Thessalian there are some examples of o, ou (from co, 23), where 
we expect a, as gen. pi. irpo^evvutw, Toij-^ltovv, Oeovpoi, TloTaSovn, hvXopi- 
ovTos (cf. ik^wpoi, iXcopos). But the first three are probably kolvt] forms 
with dialectic coloring (for such hybrids, see 280), TloraSowi is a hypo- 
coristic in -mv, and hvXopiovros from vXio- beside vXd- (see 167). 

£ + vowel 

42. 1. 6 + o. In general Attic rj, elsewhere uncontracted ea or 
la (9), as ace. pi. Att. errj, elsewhere (f)eTea, (F)eTia. But occa- 
sionally rj in other dialects, as Ion. dvrj (no. 8 ; fifth century) 
beside usual erea etc. (cf. 45.2), Ehod. ace. sg. XeioXr] (no. 93 ; sixth 
century), Lac. ace. sg. ©to/cXe (sixth century), besides later exam- 
ples (e.g. Lac. KXeoje'vj], Heracl. f er??, Ehod. err], Delph. ivSoyevfj), 
some of which may be due to koiv-^ influence. 

Even ea from efu, which is uncontracted in Attic, sometimes 
becomes ?? in West Greek dialects, as Delph. ivvrj = ivve'a, Ther. 
^fiia-Tj = r)fiia-ea, K\r]y6pa<i = KXeayopav, Ehod. 'Ayrjva^ = 'Aye- 
ava^. Dor. k/jj}? (Theocr. etc.) = Kpea<;, rjp (Alcman etc.) = eap, 
Sicil. (Acrae) j)priTiov = j>pedTLov (cf. <^/}7/ti CaUim.). Cf. also Dor. 
^acyiXri (43, 111.3). 

2. e + a. Proper names in -eas, as Ti/^ea?, A'^fiea'i, usually 
remain uncontracted in Attic (Ep/jirj<s is the Ionic form) and most 
dialects, though in late times partly replaced by -a?, as Arjfia';, 
Aafid^. But -^s regularly in Ionic (from -«??), as At?/^^?, 'ATreX- 
\^9, and sometimes elsewhere, as Ehod. 'Apia-Trj<}, Ther. KuS/o^?, 
®a(p)prj<s (archaic). Cf. Ehod. XaXKrj from XaXxed. All the cer- 
tain examples of Dor. r] from ed are from the islands (Syrac. TvKrj 

is doubtful), and hence are possibly due to — very early lonio 

influence ; but not necessarily so, cf. Dor. rj from ea, above. 



48] PHONOLOGY 37 

3. e + e. Eegularly contracted to e (et) or 97 (see 25), as Att. 
rpets, Ther. rp?}?, from *T/)e'tes (Skt. trayas). But uncontracted 
forms also occur, as Cret. rpee<s, Spofiee<i, TrXies (9.4), Boeot. fiKa- 
Tff 6Tte9. See 45.5. 

4. e + et, rji, or 7/. Eegularly contracted to et, -qi, rj, as ^tXet, 
^ikrii, (f>iXfJTai. Uncontracted forms, like Locr. SoKeii, av^opeei, 
Delph. aSiKer), Boeot. tei, SoKiei (9, 16), are rare. See 45.5. But 
.forms like Ser/i, SerjTai, (from efr], see 45.1) are usually uncontracted. 
Names in -K\er)<; occur in some dialects, though most have only 
-«\9j?. See 108.1 a. 

5. e + o. The contraction to 6 (ou), as in yevovi from *<yeve<To^, 
<j>i\ovfj^v from *^t\eto/iei' (but ijSeo? etc., see 45.1), is Attic only. 
Most dialects have eo or to (9), as yeveo^ i-''°^)> (f>i''Xeofiev (-lofiev). 

In Ionic eo often has the value of one syllable in poetry, and 
this diphthongal pronunciation came to be represented by ev (cf. 
eo = original ev, 33). This spelling, though found in our texts 
of earKer authors (sometimes even in Homer, as fiev, <f>i\evvTa<;), 
does not appear in inscriptions until the fourth century B.C. From 
Ionic, eu spread to the Doric islands, and from the third century 
on is frequent in Ehodes, Cos, Thera, etc. At this time it is also 
found in continental Greece, as at Megara, Delphi, etc. 

a. Boeotian has some examples of iv, lov, beside 10 (both original and 
from £o), but mostly after dentals, where it was supported by the prevalence 
of the spelling ton = v (24). Thus Nfu/Ae6'nos, viov/jLeivLrj, ®ioi>Tt/u,v, AtovKXeis, 
but once also 'BiovTrj. 

b. Heraclean has to) = eo before a single consonant, as ifnerpiaiijiis, iierpua- 
IXjoioa. (but Sed/xcva from £fo). 

c. Contraction to u) is found in certain parts of Crete (see 273) before a 
single consonant, as ei)(apuTTu)iJi,e's (but koct/xovtcs, see d). Cf. also €^aipS)v- 
T£s in an inscription of Phaselis. 

d. For £0 we sometimes find simply e or o. So in Megarian proper names 
compounded of 6e6i, in which, nearly always, 0e- appears before a single 
consonant, ®o- before two, e.g. ©c'Sfapos, OtyEiTos, ®£ti^os, but ©oKptVr/s, 
®0KA,£t8as, ®6yv€LT<K. Such forms in ®£-, ®o- occur elsewhere, but are com- 
mon only in Megarian. Other examples of o from co (so-called hyphaere- 
sis, cf. 44.4) are Ion. op-r^, voo-o-ds, from iopn^, v£o<r<rds, Cret. (Hierapytna 
etc.) Koa-p^vTC'S! KaroitKovTW, ETreo-TOTOv, Delph. miovTOiv (but also Troteovra, 



38 GEEEK DIALECTS [42 

OoKovTuiv), Heracl. TroLWTacrcn, e^eiroiov, Mess. Trotovn, Arc. ttXos from 
*7rAeos (113.2). 

6. e + ft) or Of. In Attic regularly contracted, as 4>t\a>vn, <f)i\ol 
(but -^Bemv etc., see 45.1). In other dialects regularly uncontracted 
em, eoi, or to), loi (9), but sometimes ft), ot after a vowel (see 54.2). 
Ion. elSecoaiv but ttoioxtlv, avcoOeoirj but iroiot, Lesb. avaredeeoai, 
Delph. ivKokeoi, evSoKecovTL but iroimvri, Locr. eoi'Tt, irpo^evioi, El. 
i^aypeov, SoKeot but iroiov, ivTrotol, ttoioIto (also Troieot), Heracl. 
aSiKicov, eyfTjXrjdicovTi, but ttoimv, Trotaivn, Cret. evdCcofiev, irovioi 
((fxoveoi). 

■t\ + vowel 

43. In the declension of nouns in -eu? the 17 of the stem is re- 
tained, as in Homer, in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian, Elean, and 
Cyprian (a few examples also in early Ehodian and Coan), but is 
shortened in the rnajority of dialects (/SacrtXeo? etc.), and in Attic 
this is accompanied by lengthening of the second vowel, if o or a 
(/3oo-t\e'ft)?, /3ao-t\e'a). See 111. This "quantitative metathesis" 
seen in Attic is in many other words Ionic also (as usually from 
Tjo = do, 41.4), e.g. iXeft)? (Herodas — Hdt. t\eft)? or i\eo? ?) from 
tX7?o? (49.5), xpe'<"f^"'i' (161.2 a), TroXeft)? (109.2), Mil. t'epea)? (111.5), 
also re'Xeft)? (Herodas, and, borrowed from Ionic, in Coan) = Cret. 
tcXjjo?, though the usual Ionic form is reXeto?, re'Xeo?. 

Cf. also the subjunctives with tj retained in Horn. OrjOfiev {OeCo- 
fiev), Boeot. KovpovOeCei, etc., but shortened in most dialects, as Ion. 
detofiev (Att. 6a)fiev), Cret. iv6icofiev, etc. See 151.2. 

Contraction of rja to tj (but probably through ea, cf. 42.1) is seen 
in Eub. 3 pi. elprjrat from *elpriaTai (cf. Hom. fie^Xijarai), elpearat 
(Hdt.), and in ^aaiXfj etc. of Delphian and most Doric dialects 
(111.3). 

+ vowel 

44. 1. o + a. When contracted, the result is o) in all dialects 
(cf. ft) from a + o, 41.2), e.g. Att. ijSt'ft), Heracl. /teto) from -o{(7)a, 
Tt/ift)i/a|, 'iTTTTwm^, etc. in "West as well as East Greek dialects, 



48] PHONOLOGY 39 

from -o-{f)ava^ (for Ehod. Ti/jLcival see 167). Cf. also co in crasis, 
as Corinth, rcoyadov = to ayaOov etc. (94). 

2. + a. Usually uncontracted (Att. ori), but in Ionic regularly 
o), in other dialects sometimes a, e.g. Eliod. ^oddeco, Cret. ^oddim, 
Aetol. /SodSoeo), Att. fior)9ea), but Ion. /Sw^e'w, Lesb. ^ddoeco, Att. 
^orjBpo/Mov, but Coan, Ehod. l3dBp6fj,io^. For Ionic <» from 077, no 
matter whether ?? is from a or original ?y, cf. also oySm (once) = 
078o'j;t, and oyBtoKOvra from ovSoT^Kovra (with original ??), and 
Hdt. PSiaai, v&erai, aX\oyvd)(Ta<;. 

a. In the termination of jSodflds, /Sor/^os beside ^00.660%, /3(yqd6oi, whence 
also fiodOim, fio-rfiim beside Lesb. ^aOoiio, Aetol. /Sod^octo, hj-phaeresis has 
taken place. See i. 

3. + 0. Eegularly contracted to 9 (on) or w (see 25), as gen. 
Sg. -ov or -co from -oto (106.1). 

4. + e. '\^^len contracted, the result is the same as from + 
(3), e.g. Att. eXctTTOu? (nom. pi., from -o(o-)e?) but Lac. eXao-o-o)?, 
Att. BTjfiiovpyo^ (Ep. Brjfitoepyo^) etc., but Boeot. Xeirmpyo';, Heracl. 
afji.7re\at)pyiK6<;, Att. \ovTp6v (Hom. Xoerpov), but Heracl. Xmrripiov. 
So Heracl. ■7rpaiyyvo<s from *'7rpoeyyvo';. Cf. also the crasis in Att. 
toStto?, Lesb. (ovtavTo<;, etc. (94.2). But we also find uncontracted 
oe, mainly from ofe, and, before two consonants, sometimes o 
(" hyphaeresis," cf. 42.5 d), e.g. Lesb. ofiovoevre;, Xoeerad/jbevo's, 
MaXoevTi, Arc. 'Eivoevri, Locr. 'OTro'efTt and in the same inscrip- 
tion '07rovTiov<i (see 45.4), Meg. "EeXivoevri but "Eekivovrioi, Cret. 
BoXo'ez'Ta, BoXoei'Ttwi/, later 'OXoVrt, 'OXoi'Tt'ot?. So beside Att. 
Sij/iiovpyo^, Ep. SijiJ-ioepyo^, and Saiiiepy6<; (with ehsion, after the 
analogy of compounds with original initial vowel in second mem- 
ber, cf . <j>tkepy6<s) at Nisyrus and Astypalaea, the form of most dia- 
lects is BriiMopy6<! (Ion.), Sap.iopy6<i (attested for Arc, Argol., Boeot., 
Cnid., Cret., Delph., El., Locr., Meg., Mess.). So Ion. dXopyo^ in 
Teos and Samos. 

45. Notes to 41-44. Some of the factors which help to account 
for divergence in the treatment of the same combination of vowels 
in the same dialect may be understood from the following. 



40 GREEK DIALECTS [45 

1. A combination which arises by the loss of f, being of later origin than 
that arising from the loss of t or tr, may remain imcontracted, or be con- 
tracted only later. So Att. TrXeo/nei/, ijSeos, ijSax, ij8e<i)i', in contrast to ^t\oS- 
/t£V, yei/ovs, yevr\, yeiimi, Locr. 'OTrdevrt, later 'Oirmnm. 

2. A combination which is otherwise uncontracted may be contracted 
after a vowel, Att. ySao-tXems but aXtfis, Ion. MeyafSaTew but Uavafi-vu} (-ai 
sometimes after consonants also, but not usually), erm, ereWbut Ovrj, 0vS)v, 
aviodfOLri but iroioi. El. Sokcoi but irounro etc. (see 42.6). 

3. A combination which is otherwise contracted may remain uncon- 
tracted in dissyllabic words, Att. ircos, Bioi, £,iat, and likewise, though be- 
longing also under 1, Att. veos, Dor. vd6%, Aads. Such words may be 
contracted when forming the first member of compounds, as Att. ©ovrtfios, 
vovfirivia, Dor. vaKopoi, Ado-flei/jys. Cf . also Meg. ©eSwpos, ©OKpivrp- Perhaps 
these forms, as regards their origin, belong under 4. 

4. The position of the accent on a following syllable is sometimes a 
factor. So Locr. 'Ottoo/tl (later 'OttovvtC) but 'Oirovrtotis, and perhaps all 
cases of " hyphaeresis " (42.5 rf, 44.4) originated in like conditions, though 
other factors also must be involved in part, and the whole phenomenon is 
still not wholly clear. 

The article, as proclitic, is often the first form to show contraction. 
Cf. Boeot. Tov /jLoxraoiv, Thess. rav Koivaow (Crannon ; elsewhere -ai' in 
nouns also), Eub. tZv 8/oa;^/xe<ov. Here belongs probably Dor. as in con- 
trast to vdds. 

5. The analogical influence of grammatically related forms in which the 
vowel, either of stem or ending, is not subject to contraction often counter- 
acts the normal phonetic development. So Cret. rpees etc. with -cs after 
forms like TrdSes, Ion. ^axrikio? etc. (not -ews) after ttoSos etc., Locr. Sokeci 
etc. after SoKm/xcv etc. 

Assimilation of Vowels 

46. The assimilation of vowels is comparatively rare in Greek, 
and not characteristic of any particular dialect. Here may be men- 
tioned 'Opxofievo'i from '^pxo/J^evo';, the regular native form of the 
name of both the Boeotian and the Arcadian town, Tpo<f)ol)vio<s from 
Tpe(pcovio<;, name of the Boeotian local hero, Thess. Fe/ce'Sa/^o? = 
Boeot. F/ie«aSa/io?, Delph. ^avareik beside ^avorev^. For exam- 
ples of I and V, see 20. For Boeot. rpeireSSa, see 18. For Ilocrot- 
Sdv, 'AirSWmv, o^oXo'?, in which assimdlation is a possible but 
pot necessarj^ assumption, see 49.1,3, 



49] PHONOLOGY 41 

Epenthetic Vowels 

47. Lesb. (f>aitii (from <l>afii), (\>al(7i, yeXaifJn, etc. in Sappho and 
grammarians, but not found in inscriptions. Cf. Lesb. alfiia-emv 
etc. (17). Por epentliesis in the case of origiaal vi, pi, \i, see 74 a,b. 

Anaptyctic Vowels 

48. 6/3So/tos and e^Se/*o? (114.7) from *e^Sij.o-, *eTrT fio-. Other 
examples are of only exceptional occurrence, as Att. 'E/»e/*^? = 
'E/3/X77?, El. l-aXa/xo vd = "EaXfitovr], Thess. 'Aa-KaXairio^. ireXedpov 
= irXeOpov, in Cretan, Delphian, etc., as in Homer, is perhaps an 
inherited by-form. 

Vowel-Gradation 

49. In the system of inherited vowel-gradation the dialects gen- 
erally agree in the grade shown by corresponding forms ; e.g. Xeiirco, 
XeXoi-rra, eXi-Trov, in all dialects alike. But there are some examples 
of dialectic differences, of which the following may be mentioned.^ 

1. Series, et, oi, i {Xeiira>, XeXoiira, eXtTroj'). Cret. hUvvfii (trpo- 
hiKWTi) = Att. SeiKWfii (cf. hiKT] etc.). Ion. SeKw/M is perhaps due 
to contamination of SeiK- and Slk-. Lesb. oeiyw (*6feiy-) = Att. 
olyo) (*6fiy-). ffveiKa and fjviKa in various dialects (144 a). Yloau- 
Sajv, HoTeihdv, etc. (41.4) with et (JloTihdv very rare), but usually 
I in derivatives, as Att. noo-i'Seto?, Ion. Iloo-tSjjto?, Boeot. Hoti- 
hdixo'i, Carpath. TioTi^atov (but the famous Potidaea was nofet- 
haia), also oi (assimilation?) in Arc. Iloo-otSai', Lac. noAotSai/, 
TlofioiSaia, and Lesb. (?) Il]oToiSavi from Pergamum. 

2. Series ep, op, ap or pa (Be'pKOfiai, SeBopKu, eSpuKov). reWepe?, 
rerope;, renape;, etc. (114.4). Ion., Lesb., Cret., Mess., Epid., Coan 
eptrifv, but Att. appriv, Arc. appevrepov, Lac. apari<s, Tlier. dptrr^v (also 
Ionic and Coan beside epa-qv). Cf. also El. pdppevop (from a by- 
form with initial f ; cf. Skt. vrsan- beside Avest. arsan-), later ipae- 
vairepo^ (Koivrj influence, see also 80). depa-ov = 6dpao<i in Aeolic 



1 Some cases where the variation is quite possibly not inherited, but vhioU 
fall into the same system, are included for convenience, 



42 GEEEK DIALECTS [49 

(gram. ; Lesb. Oepa-eia in Theocritus), and in proper names most 
frequently ia Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian, and Arcadian, as Lesb. 
©e/JcrtTTTTo?, Thess. ©e/scrtTa?, Sepaovv, Boeot. ©epadvhpixo'i, Arc. 
@epcria<;, etc. /c/jeVo? = Kparo^ in Aeolic (gram.), but in proper 
names characteristic of Arcado-Cyprian, as TifioKpeTr]^, StB/c/jeV?;?, 
etc. Ion. Kpeaacov (in Kpeiaamv, Kpeirrcov, the ei is not original), 
but Cret. KcipTwv (cf. /caprepo^, KpaTep6<;). Cret. Tpdirco = rpeirco, as 
sometimes in Herodotus, Cret. rpd^co = Tpecfxo, as in Pindar etc., 
Delph. a'7ro(TTpd'\]rai = airoarps-^aL. East Ionic a'yepa-t,<; assembly 
(ajeipco, ayopd), "West Ion. dyappK (Naples), Arc. Travdyopai'; (see 5) 
= 7ravi]yvpt,<; (with obscure u). For iepo^, iap6<;, ipo<;, see 13.1. For 
7/3o^ev?, aTpoT6<;, etc., see 5. 

a. The weak grade varies between ap and pa, as in Horn. KpaTos and 
KopTos, Kpanpoi and KapTcpo^, etc. So Cret. KapTtrs, KapTamcK, Kaprcpos, 
KtipTiov, likewise o-TapTos = o-rpaTos, Arc, Cypr., Corcyr., El. SapyQw., Cret. 
SapKva = Spa^fii?, Epid. <j>a.p)(/ia, <j>a.p^K = t^paypa, *<j>pdii'S, Boeot. werpa- 
Tos (Horn. T€TpaTos) = Terapros, Lesb. dp,/3p[o]T»;v (6) = apapreiv- This 
variation is in part due to metathesis, and clearly so in Cretan, which has 
op uniformly, as it also has TropTi = ■n-pofri. See 70.1. 

■ 3. Series e\, ok, oK or Xa (crreXXto, utoXo?, icrrdXrjv). Arc. 
SeXXm = /SaXXo) (cf. /Se'Xos etc.). Arc, Cret., Delph., Epid. oSeXo'?, 
Boeot. 6/3eXo'? (rarely early Attic), Thess. o/3eXXo'? (89.3) = o/SoXo? 
(assimilation ?). West Greek SeiXo/iat, 87jXo/i.at, Boeot. ^eiXofiai, 
Thess. ^eXXo/jLai, all from a grade in eX, = ^ovXofiai. See 75. 
Cypr. SaXro? = SeXro? (but this is a Semitic loanword). Coan 
eVeXoi', Lesb. eraXov, yearling (cf. Lat. vitulus). Cret, Corinth., 
Lac, Pamphyl. 'ATreXXwi' = ^AiroXXwv (o due to assimilation ?), 
Thess. "AttXowi' with weak grade ttX. 

4. Series ez^ (e/i), o;^ (o/i), o or av (ap,) {reivm from *T€i'6a), t6vo<s, 
TUTO'i). Ion., Coan, Heracl. rdp^vm = Tep,v<o, with a/it from erafiov. 
For f ^Kart = eUoa-i, etc., see 116 a. For participles with ar beside 
evr and ovt, as eacrcra, iarra = ovaa, evrei = ovre^, see 163.8. 

5. Series ??, «», a (p'^yvvp.i, eppcoya, ippdyrjv). iXrjo'; (Lac. AtXe/ro?), 
whence Att.-Ion. iXeca?, Cret. ?Xeo?, but Arc. iXao<;, as in Homer 



60] PHONOLOGY 43 

etc. For Heracl. ippriyela = iapmyela, Dor. etB«a = etKa, see 146.4. 
eyKTrjo-K in Attic-Ionic, also in Lesbian and various West Greek 
dialects (though the examples are late and so possibly due to koiv^ 
influence), but ey/crao-t? in Thessalian (also eVrao-t?), Corcyraean, 
Epirotan, etc. 

a. Corcyr., Meg. IfLiraa-K, Boeot. lirTrao-ts, Arc. ivTratrts contain a differ- 
ent root ira-, like va/m = Ki^fm. See 69.4. ■n-a./jia and related forms, fre- 
quent in literary Doric, were employed in preference to ktyjim etc. in most, 
perhaps all, the dialects except Attic-Ionic. Cf., besides I/xtoo-is etc., Cret. 
wa/ia, iraoras, owner, ireTrdTai perf. sub]., iratrcTat aor. subj., Arg. 7ra/«i, 
Heracl. ■/rafuoyfei, Locr. i^eTrafiiov, Trajuaroc^ayertrTai, El. ireiraxTTo, Boeot. 
TnrdiMTa, Cypr. UaminrtK, etc. 

CONSONANTS 
F 

50. In Attic-Ionic the f was lost at a very early period. In 
East Ionic there is no trace of it even in the earliest inscriptions ; 
it is very rare in Central and West Ionic ; and in Attic the only 
evidence of its existence is its occasional use to express the glide 
sound before v, as apvrdp (32). In Thera, too, it is absent from 
the earliest inscriptions (seventh century B.O.) ; likewise at Ehodes, 
Cos, etc., though here early material' is scanty. In Lesbian it 
existed, initially at least, in the time of Alcaeus and Sappho, but 
is ];iot found in inscriptions, of which, however, none of any extent 
is earlier than the fourth century. 

But in most dialects it is of frequent occurrence initially, where 
it survives till the fourth century or later, in Cretan and Boeotian 
till the second. Between vowels it occurs in the earliest inscrip- 
tions of many dialects, after consonants in several, and before 
consonants in a very few. 

a. In some cases the disappearance of p from inscriptions is due to KOLvq 
influence rather than to an organic loss of the sound within the dialect. So 
evidently in Laconian, as shown not only by its reappearance in the spell- 
ing /3 (51), but by its survival in some words in Tzakonian, the modem 
representative of Laconian, e.g. ^awe (vanne), lamb (papv-^. 



44 GREEK DIALECTS [so 

b. Even where there is no reason to doubt the actual loss of the sound, 
the spelling, ^s is natural in such cases, only gradually adapted itself to the 
pronunciation, and often there is an interval of considerable length in 'which 
the older spelling with p and the later spelling without p occur promiscu- 
ously, even in the same inscription. In the Heraclean Tables the presence 
or omission of initial p is constant for certain words, e.g. always p in pe^, 
pUari and derivatives, also percK, piSios, iypr/X-qdiiovTi, but oikik, Ipydtp/juic, 
AexacTTos, itros and hicros, etc. 

51. /3 for f . /^ is represented by /3, which we must understand 
in its later value of a spirant (Engl, v), in numerous glosses and 
in the later inscriptions of several dialects. So frequently in 
Laconian from the fourth century B.C. to the second century A.D., 
e.g. /Si'Seot, ^iSvoi, title of officials (ftS-), Bcopde'a beside Feopdea 
(cf. nos. 70-73) = 'Op6ia, Trpo^enrdha'; =:'7rpopenrdaa<!, StaySeVij? = 
SiapeTr]<s, (o^d from *copd, etc. ; and in Cretan, e. g. Bo'/a^to?, ^oXoevra, 
^epSrji, ^e/cdrepoi, hia^enrdixevo's, vtro/SoiKoi, etc. Cf. also Arg. 
'Bopdajopa^, Tivp^aXicav = older TlvpfaXiov, Corcyr. op^o<; = earlier 
h6ppQ<;, El. ^oiKLup = poiKia<; (no. 61, in the stereotyped phrase 
jap Koi ^oiKiap, otherwise p lost). Eor initial /3/3 = pp, see 55. 

a. Conversely, p is used in place of /S in afwipd = dfioipd of an early Co- 
rinthian inscription. The name of the Cretan town Fa^os was sometimes 
represented by 'Oo^os, as Lat. -Nerva by Ncpoa. 

52. p initially before a vowel. Examples are numerous in in- 
scriptions of most dialects, e.g. peTO<; (cf. Lat. vetus) in eleven dia- 
lects, polKo<; (cf. Lat. vlcus) in twelve dialects, pUari (cf. Lat. 
mginti) in eight dialects, /ra'mf in ten dialects, further, in various 
dialects, f"'PV^,i F"'°'TO'i, /^eVo?, penr-, fepyov, p^ppco, piBio<i, pi(TO<s, 
potvo<s, and many others (see also a, h, c), especially in proper names. 

a. In several dialects which otherwise preserve p it is lost before o and 
0) (but not before ot), as in Homer, e.g. in Gortynian forms of opao), oii/ij, 
i>6iu>, etc. without p beside piKwn, piKoxTTOi, poiKetk, etc. (p6v, povhy anal- 
ogy of pa, piv, etc.). But the precise dialectic scope of this phenomenon is 
not yet determined, and po is by no means unknown, e.g. Arc. po(t)XiKoa-i 
(no. 16, fifth century; in no. 17, fourth century, 6<^A.ei' beside paarov, piKo.- 
g-Tov, etc.), Fop6a<7(a, Cret. Bdpftos, Lac. Btupdia, etc. (see 51). 



63] PHONOLOGY 45 

6. Initial (rp yields hp, occasionally written ph (cf. Eng. which) but 
usually simply p, wliich, however, was pronounced as hp (or a sui-d p), as 
shown by the fact that after the loss of p such words have the spiritus 
asper. Thus Boeot. FAe/ca-&£/ioe, Thess. FcKc-SaiiAos, Cret., Locr., Delph., 
El., Arc. pnauTTfK, later cKacrTos. In some dialects this p Vas lost earlier 
than p in general, e.g. in Boeotian, where If (from pi^, i.e. phii, from 
*sueks) and iKacrros are frequent in inscriptions which otherwise have ini- 
tial p, as piKacrnj kcu. Iktu) (no. 43.8). 

c. There are also some words with original initial p, not coming from 
ap, which have ' in their later forms, e.g. Att. lo-Tcop, lo-Topui (cf. Boeot. 
pumap, from piS-, Lat. vid-), hw/u, cx/jia (cf. Cret. prjfua, Lat. ves-tis), Iotte- 
pos (cf. Locr. psoTrdptos, Lat. vesper), eKiav (cf. Locr. pefovrai, Skt. vaf), 
oXuTKOjLuu (cf. Thess. paX((T<TKeTaLi, Goth, tvilwan). The explanation, as in 
some other cases of secondary ', in which p is not involved, is uncertain, 
but the following a and analogical influence are the chief factors. 

53. Intervocalic p. This was lost sooner than initial p, hence is 
found in fewer dialects, and in most of these only in the earhest 
inscriptions. Often we find forms with and without p from the 
same period or the same inscription, showing that it was either 
weakly sounded, or wholly lost in pronunciation and retained only 
in the spelling. This inconstancy is much greater than in the 
case of initial p. The spelling with p often persists in proper 
names, and sometimes in certain conventional or solemn expres- 
sions, longer than elsewhere. 

Examples are most frequent in Cyprian, where it appears almost 
uniformly except in some later inscriptions, e.g. alpei, ot/ro?, p6po<;, 
Sopevai, /Sao-tXe/ro9, etc. (hut always 7rat9, TratSo'?, with loss of p). 
Eub. 'AyaffiXepo with p in the proper name beside iiroiea-ev 
(no. 9). Thess. Adpov, but otherwise lost, as in hvKopeovTO'i, iaoae 
(no. 33). Boeot. liroiipi, eiroipea-e, xa'P^F^Trav, KapvKepio, etc., 
but not found after 450 B.C. except in a late archaistic inscription 
with TpayapvSo'i etc. Phoc. /cXe/ro?, alpei (Crissa ; sixth century). 
Locr. Karaipei (also eVif oiko5, fierapoiKeoi, pepaSeKOTa, but see a) 
beside ttoj?, 'O-n-oevn, Safiiopyov<;. El. [-n-ojipeoi once (also awope- 
Xe'ot, but see a), but usually iroieoi, even in the same inscription, 
fiaaiXde?, etc. Lac. hiXipoi, vapov, Taiapoxo, apdraTai (cf. Lesb. 



46 



GKEEK DIALECTS 



[53 



aiidra, El. avdarop, elsewhere contracted to drd, drrj, as Cret. dra, 
aTraro?, Locr. dvdT6{<i)), late tJ/Sa (51). Arg. At/rt, Aipovvaio, 
itroCpehe (also irehdpoiKOL, but see a). Corinth. UoreSdfovt beside 
HoreSdvi, AXpa<;, AafoirroXefio?, etc. Corcyr. phopalcri, o-tovo- 
fe(a-)a-av, etc. There are no examples of intervocalic f in even 
the earliest inscriptions of Arcadian (cf. 'iXaov no. 16), or Cretan 
{alei, va6<;, f oi/ceo?, etc.) except in compounds (a). 

a. Even where intervocalic p is regularly lost, it may appear in com- 
pounds or in augmented or reduplicated forms, owing to the influence of 
the simplex or of the forms without augment or reduplication, where p has 
survived as initial, e. g. Cret. irpoptLiraro, epaSe, and late SiajSenrdfjia/os. Hence 
in any dialect such forms are not necessarily evidence of the survival of true 
intervocalic p. 

b. The use of p to indicate the natural glide before or after v (see 32, 
36) is also no evidence for the survival of the inherited intervocalic p. 

54. Postconsonantal p. The combinations vp, pp, \p, and also 
a-p (in some cases ; see /) are preserved in the earliest inscriptions 
of some dialects. The loss of p was accompanied by lengthening 
of the preceding vowel in East Ionic, Central Ionic (in part; 
see a) and Eastern Doric (Crete, Thera, Cos, Ehodes and colonies), 
while in the other dialects, as in Attic, the vowel was not affected. 

Corinth. Bevpov, Bev- Ion. ^eivo<;, Cret. irpo- In most dialects 

^r)vo^, Cyren. ^iko- ^evo<;,'irp6^€vo^ 

^r]vo^, Rhod. GelvK, 

Wir]VOKXrj<; 
Ion. eovaro^, Cret. rivaTo<i 
Ion. eiVEKa, fiovvof 
Ion. Kovpr), Cret. Kcopa 
Ion. ovpo'?, Cret. mpoi, 

Ther. ovpo^ 
Ion. dpi] 
Ion. KoXSi} 
Ion. o5\os 
Ion. Icrof 
Ion. vova-o^ 



f okXt)?, Corcyr. tt/jo- 
^evpoi;, aevpdpeo'i, 
El. Sevpdpeop 

^evpaTO<; 

*4vpetca, *fji6vpo<; 

Arc. Koppa 

Corcyr. h6ppo<s 

Arc. /cdrappo'; 
Boeot. Ka\p6<s 

*6\po<! 

Boeot., Cret. plapo<s 
*vda-po<! 



evaro<} 
eP€Ka, fi6vo<! 
Kopa {Koprf) 
opo'i 



apa 

KaXdii 

o\o<s 

tcro9 

v6c70^ 



55] PHONOLOGY 47 

a. To the lengthening in East Ionic there are possibly some local excep- 
tions, but, in general, forms like ^ci/os, and especially ■n-po^cvK, are due to 
Attic influence. Similarly in Rhodian etc. where ^aj/os has survived. only 
in proper names, and in late Cretan where Trpd^tvos is far more common 
than Trpoliji/os. In Central Ionic the lengthening is attested for Paros and 
Thasos, but it is uncertain how far west this extended. From many of the 
islands, both Ionic and Doric, decisive material is lacking. 

6. Lesb. ^ewos, ewexa, in grammarians and late inscriptions, are probably 
hyper-Aeolio, due to the frequency of w from vi, a-u, etc. (74, 76, 77.1). 
Cf. also lara-oOeotcri in an inscription of 2-14 A. D. For Thess. irpo^ewtoBv 
see 19.8; for Boeot. Aa/io^eivo, 92 a. 

c. Diiierent from oppos etc. is Corinth. Uvppos (cf . Arg. Uvpflai, TJvp- 
foXiov), probably standing for IIvpp^os (from *IIijp(r/ros with early assimi- 
lation of pa before p), whence the IXuppos of most dialects. 

d. An example of p after a mute is Corinth. ApivCa = Auviov. Cf . Horn. 
eSSetcrev for e8pewev. 

e. Tp yields tt or a-a-, with the same distribution as for original kl etc. 
(81), e.g. Att. TiTTapa, Ion. TOTo-epes, etc. (cf. Lat. quattuor, Skt. catmras). 
In West Greek reropes the t, instead of a-cr or tt, is due to the analogy of 
other forms such as xcTpaTos, in which p was expelled between the conso- 
nants. Cf. also ijpA^a-cK from *7jfuTpos (61.6). 

/. The history of ap in pia-pcK etc., probably of secondary origin, is to be 
distinguished from that of original intervocalic a-p, the treatment of which 
is apparently parallel to that of tr/x etc. (76). Thus Lesb. vav<K, Dor. vdos, 
etc. probably come from *va(rpo? (cf. vaita, vacr-crat), which in Lesbian be- 
comes first *vapp<K (like dp-p-e), whence *vavp<K, vaBos (35), elsewhere vapos 
(like a/xe), whence vcids, vecos (41.4). 

55. p before consonants. Corresponding to Att. pijTpa, epprjOrfv, 
etc. (from ppt]- beside pep- in epeoa, cf . Lat. verhum) we have El. ppd- 
rpa (15), Cypr. ppera (70.3) with its denominative pperdco {eppe- 
Taaarv, also spelled evpperdcraTv indicating an anticipation of the 
p. Cf. a and 35. So also Kevevpov from Kevepov), Arg. peppejMeva, 
appereue (with prothetic a), later apijreve, was spokesman, presided. 
El. apXaveo'i, wholly (cf. Hesych. aXaveax; • oXoa-'x^epo)';, also aWa- 
VTj? • aa<paX'i]<; and aXavi'i ■ aXr]6e<;), is from a-pXa-, and related to 
aeXkij<; (a-peX-), aoW.i]'; (a-pa\- with Aeolic o, cf. 5), aXjj?, Dor., 
Delph. aXia, assembly, Ion. (Hdt.) aXir} (also from apaX-, with Ion. 
d from apa as ia dTtj, avakiaKw). 



48 GEEEK DIALECTS [85 

FP appears as ^p, indieating a pronunciation vr, in Lesbian 
words quoted by grammarians and in our texts of the Lesbian 
poets (^prJTcop, ^poSov, etc.), though this has become simply p at 
the time of our earliest inscriptions. Cf. also Boeot. Bpavi8a<; beside 
Fdpvcov. 

In most dialects p was lost before the time of our earliest in- 
scriptions and we find, as in Attic, initial p, medial pp or p. See a. 

a. In the case of medial pp, which would occur only in compounds and 
augmented or reduplicated forms of words with initial pp, the p unites with 
the preceding vowel to form a diphthong in Lesbian (cf. 35), e.g. evpayrj, 
avpr/KTOs (Herodian) from *i-ppa,yrj, *a-/rp7;KTos (Att. ippdyrj, apprjKro^'), 
Horn. raXavpivoi from *TaA.o-/rptvos. But elsewhere the syllabification of 
the simplex (or form without augment or reduplication) was retained 
(i. e. pp with the following vowel), and later this pp became pp or sometimes 
p, e. g. Arg. pf.pplp.eva., appireve, later dpijTeue. In Attic and most dialects 
augmented and reduplicated forms have pp, as Att. ippridriv (etp-^Ko. is formed 
after the analogy of forms like eiXricjia, 76 b), ippdy-qv, eppmya, Heracl. 
ippyjya., while compounds also usually have pp but sometimes p under the 
continued influence of the simplex, as Att. avapprjOm but also 6.vapyj6a<i, 
Delph. hlpj.pprivwv (from. *-^pI-pp7]v, like ■^p.i-ovo's, cf. Horn, irokv-ppr/v), but 
also h-qiuprp/aw.. Cf . pp and p from a-p, 76 h. The development of medial 
pk was probably parallel (cf. El. d/rXaveos etc., above), though there is no 
example in Lesbian. 

Consonantal i (i) 

56. Original i almost wholly disappeared from Greek in prehis-. 
toric times, giving ' or, rarely, g" initially, as in 6'? (Skt. yas), rjirap 
(Lat. iecur), t.vyov (Skt. yugam), etc., yielding various results iq 
combination with a preceding consonant (71, 81, 82, 84), and being 
dropped between vowels, as in Tpeli from *Tpeie<: (Skt. trayas), etc. 
But between t and a following vowel, as in 'iinrio';, it always 
existed as a natural glide in pronunciation, and in a few dialects 
this is expressed in the spelling. So, by the repetition of i, in 
Pamphylian, as Sad, huapolai, etc., and sometimes elsewhere, as 
early Arg. hd\uo<;, St/eeX/ia?, Ion. (Priene) Auoc^avr;?. Cf. also Arg. 
Kapveiia<!, Ion. T^uot, dmuijv (37.2). In Cyprian a special char- 
acter, which we transcribe j, is generally employed, though not 



58] PHONOLOGY 49 

uniformly, as in the Idalium bronze (no. 19) regularly before a, 
but not before e or o, e.g. ijaripav but lepifijav, feirija but ei.6v. 

The Spiritus Asper. Psilosis 

57. The spiritus asper generally represents an original a- (59) or 
I (56), but in some words is of secondary, and sometimes obscure, 
origin, e.g. iVTro? (of. Lat. equus; tTTTro? regularly as the second 
part of compounds, ''AX«t7r7ro9,''Ai'Tt7r7ro9, etc., rarely "Ai/^tTTTros), 
^/iet9, a/*e? (cf. Skt. asmdn) with ' after the analogy of vfieh (with 
' from t). The sound was denoted by H (earlier B) until the intro- 
duction of the Ionic H = ??, after which it was generally left un- 
designated.i But see 4.7. 

Psilosis, or the loss of the spiritus asper, is characteristic of East 
Ionic (whence the sign was left free for use as t] ; see 4.6), Lesbian, 
Elean, Cj^rian, and Cretan (i. e. Central Cretan). 

a. Psilosis is shown, not only by the absence of H = A, but by the pres- 
ence of phrases and compounds in which a preceding mute is not changed 
to the aspirate, e.g. East Ion. d.Tr' exao-Tou, abr' ov, KaTawep, El. KaTUTTcdl, 
Cret. Ka.TUTTa.iLa/. But psilosis is no bar to the retention of aspirated mutes 
in phrases and compounds which were formed prior to the loss of the asper. 
For they would be affected, if at all, only by the analogical influence of the 
simplex, as Cret. KaTtoTa/xcv by LO-Ta.fi.ev. Hence East Ion. xaSoSos, El. Trofle- 
Ad/xevos, etc. Cf. Mod.Grk. KoBiaTiqiu, dijiov, etc., in spite of the loss of the 
spiritus asper. 

58. Even in those dialects which generally preserve the spiritus 
asper, and which, in distinction from those with psilosis, we may call 
the A-dialects, there are many irregularities, partly ia special words, 

1 In quoting forms from inscriptions, wherever the sign for the spiritus asper 
appears in the original it is transcribed h, to be distinguished from ', which is 
supplied as a purely diacritical sign, like accent marks, and the employment of 
which is, in many special cases, of doubtful propriety. That is, the evidence is 
often insufficient to determine whether the omission of the sign of the asper is 
merely graphic, in which case we should transcribe the form with ', or due to an 
actual loss of the sound, in which case we should transcribe with '. As a work- 
ing rule we employ the lenis in quoting forms without h from inscriptions which 
have the character or are of a period when it was certainly in common use. 



50 GREEK DIALECTS [58 

where by-forms evidently existed, partly due to the weak pronun- 
ciation of the sound in general (cf. the variations in Latin speUing). 

a. In several dialects the forms of the article, o, a, etc., appear regu- 
larly or frequently without h, showing that in these proclitic forms it was 
either wholly lost or more weakly sounded than elsewhere. So in Locrian 
(nos. 55, 56) always d, never ho (cf. also k d), feni. d and ha once each; in 
Delphian (no. 51) d as article (A 30, 38, C 19), but demonstrative ho (B 53); 
Thess. KOI = Kol ot (no. 26); d likewise in some early inscriptions of Boeotia, 
Pamphylia, Syracuse, Metapontum, and Sybaris. The same is probably to 
be inferred for Arcadian from the omission of h in the relative, as av = a av 
(nos. 16.14, 17.7), with which compare Boeot. 6s = tos (no. 40) and Delph. 
as (no. 51 A 28) beside usual ho, hoa-n's, etc., though in most dialects the h 
of the relative is uniformly retained. 

b. Other forms which regularly have the spiritus asper, but for which 
by-forms with the lenis are to be recognized, are : fi/i-ipa, but even in Attic 
inscriptions frequently l/tepa. Mess, /car afiepav, Ther. eV dfiepas, Troez. 
Kiirdinpov, Locr. afjiApa. tepds (hiepos, huapo's, in numerous dialects) , but with 
lenis in Ehodian and Argolic, as Rhod. in icpems, Arg. lapofji.va.fji.oves (nos. 76, 
77, with ho etc.), Epid. tapo/x/nm/ioves (no. 83, with Ao/iovoois etc.), Aegin. 
lapwi (beside Aoikos = 6 oucos, xo = ki^' o)- So i-n-' iapeus in the Megarian 
inscription no. 92, in contrast to huapov at Selinus, is probably due to the 
Epidaurian graver. For Mant. lepds, see d. rifj.w (see 57), in Doric dialects 
a/i,€S .(Lac. TToff afii, Heracl. hafj.h), but also d/i€s (Coan ju.er' apjiov etc.). 
Thess. d/ti/ie or afifiif ea-TrjKa, but also ta-raKa (cf . lo-TaAxa, for which, vice 
versa, sometimes co-raXKa), as Thess. emfrrdKOVTa (no. 33), Mess. Kareara- 
fitvoi, Amorg. KaTta-Tutarj's. 

c. Several words which regularly have the lenis show secondary forms 
with the asper in various dialects. Thus Iros (from /reVos), but Heracl. 
iraira-htrriptha (beside /tctos), Epid. irevO' err/, and frequently Kaff Iros etc. 
in the koivt^ (cf. Mod.Grk. e<^€Tos), probably after the analogy of ■q/iepa in 
similar phrases. tSios (from /ri&os), but Thess. Kaff I&Smv, and so often in 
late inscriptions of various dialects (really koivj;), probably after Koff tKa- 
<TTov. lo-os (from /riirfos), but Heracl. AtVos beside to-os, and e<^' mttjs in 
the KOLvrj, probably after ofMioi. Locr. Ivre (cf. ta-rt), but Delph. hevTe, after 
as = €a)s. Heracl. Aoktu (also Theran), hoKraKanoi, htwm, Delph., Ther. 
Atrards, all after cTrTd. So probably by a still further extension of the asper 
(e. g. after iweaKaiScKa) Ther. hiKaSi = ctxdSi (no. 107). dxpos, but Heracl. 
haKpoa-KLpm.1, Corcyr. Ad/cpos, and perhaps Delph. haKpodiva (?no. 51 D47). 
Delph. f(j)LopKiw, also frequent in the kolvt^, is a contamination of lirvopKem 



69] PHONOLOGY 51 

and ec^opiceo), while Delph. icjiaKioiJuu from d/cco/xat is obscure. In Thess. 
avypiw (i<f>a.vypa/dav) = Lesb. aypio) the asper, as well as the v, is probably 
due to contamination with some other word. 

d. Besides such special cases as have been noted in a, h, and c, there are 
in some dialects irregularities which seem to be due to confusion in spell- 
ing consequent upon the asper being weakly sounded or on the verge of 
total disappearance, though even some of these may possibly be due to spe- 
cial causes. Locrian has -irevTopKuiv beside hopKov, 6<tw., 'kttux., Karifofievov, 
vSpiav (A before v in hmro), and, vice versa, once Hottovtiov beside 'Ottovtiol, 
and hdyiv for ayiv (cf . iiriyov). In Arcadian, no. 17 has ipMru beside hiiXuru, 
iJoTcpas, and once hdv for av, and the very early Mantinean inscription, 
no. 16, shows no example of h, though containing not only oiSe (see a). but 
otria, lAaov, and tepos for which hiepoi is fully attested in the other Arcadian 
inscriptions as no. 16 ; and among the brief archaic inscriptions there is a 
notable lack of agreement in this matter. Heraolean has, besides the cases 
mentioned under c, opcK, opL^ot, where we expect hopoi, and hdpvrjO-Ls, hoi- 
a-ovTi, for apvrjcrK, oitrovri. At Epidaurus, no. 83 has always drtpoi not hdrtpoq. 

IT. Loss of Intervocalic a 

59. Original initial s became the spiritus asper in proethnic 
Greek, as in eSo? (Lat. sedeo, Skt. sad-), eiroiiai (Lat. sequor, Skt. 
sac-), etc. At the same time intervocalic s was changed in the 
same way and then lost, as in ^eVeo? (Skt. yawasas, "La-t. generis), 
etc. Nevertheless there are many Greek words with intervocalic 
0-, either retained by analogy as in the aorist, or of secondary origin 
as o" from t (61). 

This Greek intervocalic a was subjected to a similar process, 
namely became h and was later lost, in Laconian, Argohc, Elean, 
and Cyprian. 

1. Laconian. Early iiroiehe, viicdha<;, evhe^ohai<;, TlohoiBavi, 
AvhiTTTTOv, 'E\evhvvia, etc. ; later Tlahi(f)di, Tr/ao/SetTraAa?, vLKda<s, 
'OvaireXrji; (Ovacri-), UeuKKeiSa (lieicri-), /SatXe'o? (/3ao-£X.eo?), 
etc. Cf. also 97 a. Examples of o- omitted are also in Ar. Lys. and 
in glosses. This was a characteristic of Laconian speech from the 
earliest known period, and is faithfully represented in the spelling 
of most of the early inscriptions. But it was felt as a provincial- 
ism and ignored in the spelling of some few early inscriptions 



52 GEEEK DIALECTS [69 

which were set up outside of Laconia (no. 64, ^Xeidaioi, though 
the retention of o- in this non-Laconian name is natural anyway; 
no. 65, yvea-ioi, e^daovTi), and in the later inscriptions, which 
usually show cr. See 275. 

2. Argohc. From Mycenae, early ^pahcapiSa<; (no. 75, fifth cen- 
tury), late iTToXvcoprje (197 B.C.); from Argos, early ewoCpehe, 'ApKe- 
hC\a<;, \ha^o\hCai, etc., later Safioioi, (Sa/xoaioi), djjavpop (drjcravpov), 
TeXeiTTTTO? (TeXeo-t-), ©pdvWo'; {®paarv-), etc. But forms with fl- 
are also frequent at all periods, e.g. 6eaavp6<;, KaTa6eaLo<; (no. 78, 
fifth century), Kvaiinrov in the same inscription with TeXewrTro?. 
This inconsistency in the spelling, which is even greater than in 
Laconian, has the same explanation. See 1, and 275. 

a. Nearly all the examples are from Argos and vicinity, from which one 
might conclude that the change was specifically Argive, not general Argolic. 
But there are some traces of it at Epidaurus, and the absence of other ex- 
amples may be due to external influence. 

3. Elean. In no. 60 (middle fourth century) aSeaXrcihaie, <f>vya^ 
SevavTi (aor. subj.), beside SafioaicoiJiev, Safioaiaia. In no. 61 (after 
Alexander) iroirjaaa-ai (irof^a-acrffai), iroirjarai (aor. subj.), beside 
avaOeaiop etc. In all the earlier inscriptions intervocalic a- is 
unchanged. 

4. Cyprian. (f)pove6i {^povewen), •iroe'xpfievov (Troa-exop-evov), 
also in sentence combination (cf. 97 a), as ku a(v)Tv («a? avri), ra 
vj(epdv (tw ixvpoiv). But generally a is written. 

Rhotacism 

60. Ehotacism, or change of o- to p, is found in Elean, late 
Laconian, and Eretrian, rarely elsewhere. 

1. Elean. Final ? appears uniformly as p in the later inscrip- 
tions, nos. 60, 61, e.g. rep, aip-arop, oircop, irdXiop. Most of the 
earlier inscriptions show -? and -p side by side without any appar- 
ent system. Ehotacism of intervocalic a is unknown (cf. 59.3). 

a. In the earlier inscriptions p is relatively most frequent in forms of the 
article and the indefinite or the relative pronoun, e.g. roip, rip, op, and 



61] PHONOLOGY 53 

possibly the rhotacism began in such enclitic and proclitic forms. But even 
here there is great fluctuation in the spelling. 

2. Laconian. Ehotacism of final s is seen only in very late inscrip- 
tions, e.g. viKoap, Bev^iTTTrop, etc., confirmed by numerous glosses. 

3. Eretrian. Eliotacism of intervocalic o- is frequent in inscrip- 
tions of Eretria and Oropus, e.g. Eretr. exovpiv, Ovtopiv, iiriSrjfiew- 
piv, avveXevOepcopavTi, iraipiv, airrjpiv, 'ApTSfitpia, Crop. Srjfiopicov. 
But there are many exceptions, and the use of p is gradually given 
up under Attic influence. Although Plato, Cratylus 434 c, remarks 
that the Eretrians say a-KXrjpoTrjp for <TKXT)p6rr)<i, there is no inscrip- 
tional example of p for final ? except once oirap dv, for which 
see 97 a. 

4. Rhotacism of a- before a voiced consonant is seen in Eretr. 
M//3709 = Mtb-70?, late Cretan (Gortyna) Kopfioi = koctixoi, Thess. 
(Matropolis, Pharsalus) ®e6pSoT09 = ©eoo-Soro?. In most dialects 
a- in this position was pronounced as a sonant (z), and in late times 
often indicated by ^, as ■\jrij<f)i^p,a. 

Change of t to (r 

61. T is changed to a- very frequently before i, and sometimes 
before v. The more precise conditions are uncertain, and the change 
is in part independent of dialectic variation, t being retained in 
some words in all dialects, e.g. avri, and in some words becoming a- 
in all dialects, e.g. most words hke ^outk (Skt. ga-ti-s), crrda-i';, etc. 

But in a considerable class of words there is a distinct dialectic 
distribution of the t- and u-forms, the retention of f being a nota- 
ble characteristic of the West Greek dialects, in which Boeotian 
and ThessaUan also share. 

1. Verb forms with the endings -ti, -vn, as hi^oan, ^epovrt = 
SiBcocn, <f)€povcn (Arc. <f)epovcn, Lesb. ^epoiai). Examples are plenti- 
ful in all the West Greek dialects and Boeotian (-rt, -v6i), and for 
Thessalian are indirectly evidenced by -vOi. See 139.2. 

2. The numerals for 20 and the hundreds, {f)iKaTi = eiKoa-i, 
-Karioi = -KOtrioi (Arc. -Kaaioi). 



54 GREEK DIALECTS [61 

3. Some nouns and adjectives in -rt?, -rto?, -ria. Most words of 
this class have o- in all dialects. But ' Apra/jLiTio<; = ' ApreixCcno-i in 
numerous "West Greek dialects, Boeot. EvTprjri'i = 'EvrpTjarig (the 
Aeolic form in Homer), Coan, Delph. iviavno? = iviava-io<;, etc. 

4. iropTi in 'Cretan, TroTt'in all other West Greek dialects, with 
Boeotian and Thessalian, = Att.-Iou., Lesb. tt/jo'?, Arc-Cypr. tto's. 
But Homer has irporC, ttoti, as well as tt/jo'?. See 135.6 a. 

5. IIoTeiSdwv, IloTeiMv, etc. = lioaeiStov, the forms with t being 
attested for numerous West Greek dialects, with Boeotian and 
Thessalian. Lac. UohoiSdv is a relic of the Pre-Doric (Achaean) 
form (cf. Arc. IlocrotSdv), with the Laconian change of a- to h. Tlo- 
aeiSdv in some later Doric inscriptions is probably due to the influ- 
ence of the usual TlocretScov. 

6. TV in Hterary Doric and an inscription of Epidaurus, Boeot. 
Tov = Att.-Ion., Lesb., Arc. av. Cret. [^]/AtTi;-6KT0, Epid. hefilreia, 
but Att.-Ion., Arc. r/fuav;, Lesb. aifuav;, with suffix -tv, beside 
which we find Arc, Delph., Epid., Meg., Thess., late Cret. ijfMo-ao'; 
from *rifUT(:o'i, with suffix -rpo-. 

p. 8,7 

63. In general /3, S, 7 remained simple mediae, but in some dia- 
lects there are indications of their pronunciation as spirants, which 
eventually prevailed even in Attic (cf . Mod.Grk. /3 = », S = " soft " 
th, 7 = guttural spirant). Such are : 

1. The use of /S for f in later Laconian etc. See 51. 

2. The representation of 8 by f in three of the very earliest 
Elean inscriptions, e.g. fe, ^e«:a, ^iicaia, ^((jjviov, ^a/Mopyia, fei^o^, 
though the others have B, following what was the usual spelUng 
elsewhere. Cf. also early Ehod. t6^' = ro'Se (no. 93), and early Arg. 
fia^eie (for a^ see 89.1) = elSeirj. 

3. The occasional omission of 7 or substitution of i, as in Boeot. 
Id), ld)v, (Ar., Corinna) = €701, Arc. eiriBudve {iTndiyydvrj), Pamph. 
p,heid\[av] (ij,eydXr]v), and oXto? (oX/709) in late inscriptions of 
various places. 



64] PHONOLOGY 55 

4. The occasional representation of 7 by fin Cyprian, as fa (7a), 
a^a96<; (a<yad6<;). 

5. Cret. a-TTopSSdv. See 89.3. 

«!>. e, X 

63. In general (f>, 6, x remained true aspirated mutes, and in 
the earliest type of the alphabet, wliich had a sign for 6 but none 
for ^ or x> these two were represented by ttA and kH, as at Thera, 
or, where a sign for h was not in use, simply by tt and «, as in the 
GortjTiian Law-Code (e.g. Kp6vo<; = xpdvo^, TrvXd = <j)vXij). Spell- 
ings like yeypaTr(f>a, SeSoKxdai are mostly late, an exceptionally 
early example being Delph. XeKxoi (no. 51 D 13 ; dat. sg. of Xexco). 

But the pronunciation as spirants (Engl./, " hard " th, Germ, ch), 
which eventually prevailed even in Attic, may have existed at a 
much earlier period in some dialects. Such a pronunciation of is 
certainly presupposed by Lac. a- = 6 (64), and probably by Cret. 
68 = <t6 etc. (81 a, 85.3). So too en = (t6 in Locrian, Elean, etc. 
(85.1) is most plausibly explained as due to the fact that 6 had 
become a spirant iu other positions, but remained an aspirated mute 
after a and so, in contrast, was denoted by r. A similar explana- 
tion probably holds for some other cases where t is used for 6, as 
Cret. Tvaro? etc. (66), and Cret. IIvtio?, ie. Ilv^to?, the originally 
Delphian epithet of ApoUo, with its hallowed pronunciation re- 
tetined (also sometimes spelled IIoi'Tto? with 01 to denote the pro- 
nunciation of V as ii, Cretan v being u ; see 24). 

64. Laconian a = 0. The use of o- by Aristophanes in the 
Lysistrata to iadicate the sound of the Laconian 6 (and there is 
no good reason to doubt that this belongs to the original text) 
shows that it had become a spirant which would strike the Athe- 
nian ear as cr, even if not yet fully identical with it. The Laconians 
themselves retained the spelling 6 in all the earlier inscriptions, 
but avea-tjKe (avSrjKe) and aio) (0eov) occur in a fourth century 
inscription, and ia very late inscriptions avearjKe, Jiapa-ea (Fop0ca), 
Kaaa-TjpaTopiv beside KaOdrfparopiov, etc. 



56 GREEK DIALECTS [65 

Interchange of Surds, Sonants, and Aspirates 

65. Dissimilation and assimilation of aspirates, or transposition 
of the aspiration. The dissimilation seen in Tidrjfu from *6i0r)/ii, 
rpexo} from *dpe'X(o (cf. dpe^ofiai), etc., belongs to the proethnic 
period. But there are some examples of later, dialectic, assimila- 
tion. So Cret. didefievoii = TLde/jLevof, dvxa (i.e. 0v%o) = tvxVj West 
Ion. (Cumae) 0v<f>\6<; = TV(f>X6^, Arc. (f)ap9evo<; = •7rap0evo<; (also in 
sixth century Attic inscriptions), dvadev = rvOrjvai (in part ana- 
logical, 0v(7- as in dvariK etc.), Lac, Epid. deOp.o'i, Locr., El. de0fiiov 
= TeOpLO^, rSfuov, Att. 0ea-fJb6v, 0eafiiov (164.4), Att. (iascr.) ev- 
6av0a = usual Att. ivTav0a. Ion. ev0avra is the more original form 
(from ev0a), whence Att. ivrav0a through transposition of the aspi- 
ration and influence of raCra, Cf. also Eub. ivTOv0a like Toina 
(124). El. ivravTa is from ev0avTa, through influence of Tavra (but 
cf. also 66). Eor transposition cf. also Ion. a')^avTO<; = aKav0o<;, 
Cret. Kav^of = ;\;a\«o'?, Thess. IleT^aXo? from •I'eTToXo'? (68.2). 

66. There are scattered examples of variation between surd and 
aspirate, surd and sonant, etc., especially before a nasal. Locr. 
TBKva = re'xvi], Cret. TuaT6<;, TervaKoi; = OvqTO'i, reOvrjKO'i, Heracl. 
SiaKvovTcov beside Siaypovreov, Eretr. a7roSeiyvva0ai, Ther. ipSeiyvv- 
fjLevo<; to SelKvv/M, Aetol. a'^^vrjKOTa'; beside ayvrj/cw (ayveco = dyco). 
Ion. (Chios) Trprij^^a = TrprjyfJba, Epid. ^dpxP'a = <})pdyfjLa, wdp- 
heixp-a = irapdSeiyfia, probably contain the suffix -a/Ma. Cf. Te'xvr] 
from *Te'KCTvd. (So perhaps Delph., Locr. ix0o<s from *e;^To's, this 
from *e/co--To'?. Cf. early Att. eBox<re etc.) 

In Pamphylian vt becomes regularly {v)B (v not written, 69.2), 
as Tre'Se = TreVre, i^dyoBi = i^dyavn. In Cret. dvTp6iro<i (cf. also 
Pamph. arpoTroiai) = dv0pa)iro^, dvrpfjiov = dvSpeiov, it is uncertain 
whether the preceding p or the following p is the more important 
factor. Locr. (j)piv = Trpiv is obscure. 

El. irda-Kco = ird(Txa> is probably due to the influence of other 
verbs in -o-zcw (but possibly like (tt = (t0, cf. 63). For Att.-Ion. 
hexofxai with analogical x (to Be^ofiai, after ^pexeo to ^pe^co, etc.) 



68] PHONOLOGY 57 

other dialects (and Ionic in part) have the original SeKo/iai {61 
Att. SaipoS6Ko<:). ovSeK, firiBei<!, are replaced by ovdei-:, fii^dek, with 
6 from B + the spiritus asper of el?, in later Attic and elsewhere. 

It. Very late inscriptions show numerous examples of confusion, not 
confined to any special conditions, as dSeXwos = dSEA.</>ds, <^peo-|8ur£jOos = 
irpio-fivTipiK, Lesb. vwapKOurav = WTrap^ouaav, Lac. 7roiSi;^dv = TratSiKw. 

Interchange of it and ttt 

67. Of the Homeric by-forms of ttoXj? and wo'Xe/ios, ttto'Xis is 
f omid also in Cyprian, rarely in Arcadian and Cretan, and in Thes- 
salian after a vowel, as ol rro\Cap')(oi, ap^cTToXiap')(^evTo<! (tt from 
TTT, 86.2) ; TTTo'Xe/ios is found in Cyprian (gloss) and Cretan (rare), 
and in many dialects as the second member of proper names. 

Interchange of Labials, Dentals, and Gutturals 

68. 1. Those sounds of the parent speech which are called labio- 
velars and are commonly designated as qU, git, gV-h, appear in 
Greek regularly as (1) labials before the back vowels a, o, m, and 
before consonants, (2) dentals before the front vowels t, e, -q, (3) 
gutturals before and after v. Thus ttou, irodev (Lat. quod, cf. Osc. 
pod), oirolo^, but ti? (Lat. quis), re (Lat. que), Cret. oreto?, — 7re/i- 
TTti?, ■n-efiTTTO';, but Trevre (Lat. quitique), — Xvko's (Eng. wolf), yvvq 
(Eng. queen) beside Boeot. ^avd. But before t usually /3, <^, e.g. 
/Sio9 (Lat. vivus), with 8 only in Heracl. ivSeSim/coTa = ifi/Se^ias- 
Kora. Many exceptions are due to leveling between related forms, 
e.g. ^eXo<; after /SaWto, Cypr. ireia-ei, = reiaei after -iroivd, etc. 
Instead of irpea^v;, with analogical /S, several dialects have forms 
with 7, which is regular before v, e.g. Cret. irpeiyv^ etc., Boeot. 
irpKryele^ (see 86.3). Examples of the normal relation are Arc. 
SeXXco = ^dXXco, West Greek ^Xop-ai, heiXop.ai (75) = ^ovXofiai, 
Delph. etc. oSeXoi (49.3) = oySoXo? (but if from the rare early Att. 
o/8e\o'9, /8 is analogical, as in o/8eXto-«09. Boeot. 60eX6^, Thess. 
o/3eX\o'? may belong under 2, below). 



58 GKEEK DIALECTS [68 

2. But it is a notable characteristic of the Aeolic dialects that 
they very frequently show a labial even before a front vowel, 
where the dental is regular elsewhere. Thus Lesb., Thess. Trefiire = 
irevTs, Lesl). irea-avpef (Hesych., of. Horn. ■jriavpe<i), Boeot. TreV- 
ra/ae? = reTTa/se?, Thess. irelirai,, aTnreicrdTOv, Boeot. iroTairoin- 
a-ciTco = relcrai etc., Lesb. TrijXvi (Sappho), Boeot. IletXe-a-T/JOTtSas 
to T7j\€, Thess. /3e'A,Xo/iat, Boeot. ^elXoixai = West Greek SijXofiai, 
heiXofxaL, Lesb. Be'Xc^ot (gloss), Boeot. BeX^oi = Ae\<f>oi, Thess. 
BeXcj)aiov = *AeX(f>aiov, Boeot. ^e^vpa = Cret. 8ecj}vpa, Att. y€(f)vpa 
(y unexplained), Boeot. ©Locffeia-TO^ to 'EpiJ,6-0ea-TO<;, ©eo-rtSas 
{Oea-aaadai), Lesb. 1^77/) (gloss), Thess. irecjieipaKovTe'; = dijp, Tedrjpa- 
/co're? (though this is a case of original ghu not 5'2^A), Boeot. ^er- 
TaXo'?, whence Thess. IleT^aXo? with transposition of the aspiration 
(65) = Att. @eTT(xXo'?, Ion. etc. ©ecro-aXo'?. Yet some words always 
have the dental, e.g. re, rt?, rtytta, the reason for this being obscure. 

3. In Arcado-Cyprian there is evidence that the sound arising 
before a front vowel was not, as elsewhere, identical with the 
ordinary dental, but, at least under certain conditions, was a sibi- 
lant. Thus Cypr. o-t? = Ti? (no. 19), a(=Ti (Hesych.), and Arc. 
<Tt9 = Tts, eicre = etre (for the character transcribed a, see 4.4) in 
an early inscription of Mantinea (no. 16), though all other Arca- 
dian inscriptions have the usual rt? etc. Cf. also the glosses ^epe- 
6pov beside SepeOpov = ^dpadpov, and feXXw beside inscriptional 
hiXXas = ^aXXto, and see note to no. 65 B 2. 

Note. The fact that in Arcadian only the one inscription named shows 
anything but the dental spelling need not indicate that the peculiar pro- 
nunciation was locally restricted. It was probably colloquial throughout 
the dialect, but not usually followed in the spelling, owing to external 
influence. Cf. El. ^= 8 only in the earliest inscriptions (62.2), and see 275. 

4. There are some pronominal forms with « in place of the 
usual TT or t. Thus Ion. kw? = tto)?, KOTepo^:, etc. (but only in 
texts of Ionic authors, inscriptions always showing the usual forms), 
Lesb. oKai = ottj), Thess. k^ = rk, etc. Possibly such forms arose 
in phrases like ov kqx; etc. with regular k after v (above, 1). 



69] PHONOLOGY 59 

a. Puzzling is Thess. Savxva = 8di>vr, (cf. also Hesych. Savx/nw- €VKav- 
(TTov ^v\ov Sai^wjs). Unless due to contamination with another root (e. g. that 
of &IMO, SESav/xei/oi/, cf. Hesych. ^vOixov Ifnrprja-fiov), there is an anticipa- 
tion of the « element of the consonant, as in Xvkos. 

5. A change of 6 to (f>, that is, doubtless, of spirant th to /, is 
seen in (})€S)v, ^vovre^ = de&v, Ovovte^, of an inscription found at 
Dodona. 

Nasals and Liquids 

69. Nasal before consonant. The nasal was always assimilated 
to the character of the following consonant, but was less distinctly 
sounded than in the intervocalic position. With this are con- 
nected the following facts. 

1. The letter v is freely used for the guttural and the labial nasal, 
as well as for the dental, e.g. 'OXuvTrto?, avjti, \av)^dva. 

2. The nasal is omitted in the spelling, occasionally in aU dia- 
lects, and regularly in Cyprian and Pamphyhan. 

3. Complete assimilation to a following mute, though not regu- 
lar in any dialect, sometimes occurred in careless pronunciation, as 
shown by occasional, and mostly late, spellings, e.g. Att. ^n/S/SaX- 
Xeadai, Boeot. 'OXi'7r7ri';;;^7;i'(late Koivij inscription), Delph. "A ^aj8/8o? 
beside usual "A^a/i/3o?.. From Crete, where in general consonant 
assimilation is most extensive (86), there are several examples, as 
•jToinrdv = irofiirdv, acfxpavco — aix<l>dva), and the assimilated form 
was usual in the name of the town Lappa, whose coins show Aair- 
Traimv. In some cases the dissimilative influence of a preceding 
nasal was probably a factor, e.g. Delph. aveKKk-qrwi = aveyK\i]Toa'!, 
iirdvaKKov (papyr.) = eTrdvayieov. Thess. i^^avaxd^ev = i^avayxd- 
^eiv perhaps belongs here rather than under 2, i.e. is to be read 
e^^ava (k) «a(S) Sev. 

4. A special case is Boeot. eWao-t? (uniformly so speUed) = 
efiTrdcri,';. This is from *efj.-Tr7rd(Tt<; (cf. rd ■jnrd/ji.aTa, @i6-'7nra(TTO<;, 
rwo'-TTTrao-TO?), the root being Trird- (with tttt from original ku, 
as in iTTTro?), which is simplified initially to ird-, as in Tra/ia etc. 
(49.5). 



60 GEEEK DIALECTS [69 

a. Assimilation of a nasal to the character of the preceding mute is per- 
haps to be seen in Coan 'Ap«rrm;^i/os = 'ApurToxxfi^CK, and Cret. SapKva = 
Sapx/Jui, SpaxfiT]- Cf. Mod.Grk. IlaTvos from UdrfjuK, Xaxvo'S from AaxA'ds. 

70. Transposition of a liquid, or loss by dissimilation. 

1. Transposition within the same syllable. Cret. iropTi^ -rrpoTi, 
'A-^ophCra = 'A<ppoSiTTj, also Kapro';, a-Tapro';, etc. for which see 
49.2 a. 

2. Transposition between different syllables. Heracl. rpdif)o<!, 
Amorg. Tpd^T) = Td<j)po<;, rdcjjpr], Syrac. Spitjyo'; = hC(j>pQ<i (Hesych.). 

3. Loss by dissimilation. Cypr. f/jera = /5»;T/3a, Epid. /aoTrroi' = 
poTTTpov, dvpcoTov from *6vpaTpov, (^arpia = (ftparpia in various 
dialects (Delphi, Cos, Chios, etc.), vice versa <f}pi]Tapxo^ at Naples. 

71. Cretan v from X. In Cretan the \ was a deep guttural I 
closely resembling u (cf. French autre from alter, etc.), and was so 
written occasionally, e.g. Gortyn. aBev'jnai= aSeX^ai (but usually 
aSeXTTto? etc.), pev/Meva<; = feKfievai, Kav^o'! = %ix\ko'9. There are 
numerous Cretan glosses in Hesychius with v = \, e.g. avao<; = 
aXa-of. 

a. Cretan t from p in fuurus = paprvi is without parallel, and must be 
due to some kind of dissimilation between the two p's of papTvp-. 

72. VT, v6, from Xr, \d. Several examples of vt = \t are found 
in Peloponnesian Doric and the Sicilian and Italiot colonies, e.g. 
Meg., Mess., Heracl., Syrac. ^ivrav {^iXrav), ^ivria^, etc., Arg. 
MivTcav (MiXtcov), kgvto {xeXro) in Alcman, ^CvTaTO<; {<piXraTO<;) 
in Epicharmus, jSevnaTO'; (/BeXTiaTo? ) in Theocritus. iv6elv (iX- 
delv) occurs in Alcman, Epicharmus, Theocritus, and at Corcyra ; 
also in an Arcadian (Lycosura), a late Delphian, and a late Cretan, 
inscription. 

Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian 

73. The combinations treated in 74-76, also 77.1, 79, have in 
part a common history, since they all become double liquids and 
nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian, but in other dialects a single 



76] PHONOLOGY 



61 



liquid or nasal accompanied by lengthening of the preceding vowel 
(if e or 0, to ei, ov, or r), w, according to the dialect ; see 25). 

74. p, V, + 1, when preceded by any other vowel than a or o. 
From *(f>eepiQ,, Lesb. (j^eeppm (gram.), Att. etc. (I>eeipa>, Arc. <j)e^pca. 
From *KpU(o, Lesb. Kpivvco (gram.), Thess. Kpevvco (18), Att. etc. 
Kptvm. From *«TeVtto, Lesb. KTevvm (gram.), Att. etc. KTeivco. 

a. But if a or o precedes, epenthesis takes place, the result being the 
same in all dialects, e. g. xatp<o from *xapi<», fioipa from Vo/ow, /Saivio from 

6. Xi gives XA. in nearly all dialects, e. g. oAXos (Lat. aliun), o-riXXto from 
*<ttIXiw. But Cyprian has aUos (beside aA.(X)d), and Elean once aikorpux 
(beside oAAa, oreAAw). 

75. Xv. From *(7TdXvd, Lesb., Thess. a-TciWd, Dor. etc. aTaXd, 
Att.-Ion. a-TrfKi]. From */36\vd, *^6\voiJLai {*Se\vop.at, *^e\vop,ai, 
49.3, 68.2), Lesb. fioWd, Thess. /SeXKo/Mai, Att.-Ion. /3ovXij, ^ov\ofj.ai, 
Boeot. ^(o\a, ^ei\o/xai, Locr., Delph. BeiXofiai, EL, Coan, Heracl., 
Ther. 877X0/^04. From *f e'Xi/w, *pe\ve(o, Lesb. cnreWco (gloss), Ion. 
etXa), etXe'ci), Delph. etXe'cr^o), El. aTro/reXe'oi, -eoiav, Heracl. £7^?;- 
Xrjdimvri. (In these forms the meaning is debar, prevent. Cret. 
F€V/ieva<; = /reX/ieVos and KarafeXfievov are perf. pass, participles, 
like Horn. eeX/MeVo? from the same root, but meaning assembled.) 

a. Forms like oXXd/xi with XX in all dialects represent a later treatment 
of Xv (with V restored by analogy of SeiKvviu etc,). 

b. j3dXo/xai, from a form without v, is Arcado-Cyprian, and occurs also, 
beside ^ovkofjuu, in Ionic (Homer and Eretrian). 

76. Intervocalic o- + liquid or nasal. From *^e(r\ioi (cf. Skt. 
sa-hasra-), Lesb., Thess. j(^eWioi, Ion. etc. ^et'Xtot, Lac. ;^»;Xiot (Att. 
j(;tXtot from *;y;i'o-Xtot). From *ea-fil (Skt. asmi), Lesb. e/i/it, Thess. 
cVa"' elsewhere et'/^' or ■^fii (25). From *da-fie (cf. Skt. asmdn), Lesb. 
a/i/ite, Thess. a/i/^e, elsewhere a/^e, Att.-Ion. 95/ie'a?. From *aeXdavd 
(o-eXas), Lesb. aeXdwd, elsewhere aeXavd, Att.-Ion. aeXrjvq. 

a. For o-p cf. Hom. Tpi;p(i>v from *Tpaa-pa)i'(Tjoe'(D from *Tjoa7(D). Butthere 
is no example of Lesb., Thess. pp; and the development was not parallel 
to that of crX etc., assuming that Lesb. tpos is from Hcrpo- (13.1). 



62 GREEK DIALECTS [76 

h. Initial trX etc. became A\ etc., later simple A etc. The earlier stage 
is represented by occasional early spellings with \h etc., e.g. Aegin. \ha.- 
jSuiv, Corcyr. phofauri, Mheiiios. 

Compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms of such words only 
rarely show the development proper to intervocalic crX etc., as Att. akt)^ 
from *(ria-Xa.<j)a. Usually this was checked by the analogical influence of the 
simplex, and the subsequent development was to XA, etc., later (under the 
continued influence of the simplex and of words with original initial X. etc.) 
simply X. etc., e.g. Hom. e-Wa/Se, a-WrjKTOi, t-ppeov, e-vveov, <^tXo-/A/ia8i;s, 
later eXa/3e etc. But pp usually remained, e.g. Att. Ippvrjv beside cAajSc, 
Dor. -eppvd, though here there is considerable variation, especially in com- 
pounds (Att. irapapvpaTa and irapappvpaTa, etc.). Cf pp from pp, 55 a. 

VS 

77. 1. Original intervocalic va. From *fjL7)va6^ (cf. Lat. mensis), 
Lesb. /ifjvvo^ (also /j,rjvo<;), Thess. ixuvvo'i (also fjueivo^), Att. etc. fi,r)v6<! 
(in this word the vowel was already long). From *eKpiva-a, Lesb. 
eKpivva, Att. etc. eKplva. From *efiev<ja, Thess. efievva, Att. etc. 
ep,eiva. From *e(f>av(Ta, Dor. etc. e(j>dva, Att.-Ion. e<j>rjva. Similarly 
fia; as, from *evefjLa-a, Lesb. eve/i/Ma (gram.), Att. etc. eveifia. 

a. The dat. pi. of v-stems, as Troi/jLea-i, Saijuotrt, is not formed from -ej/o-i, 
-ovtri, but from -acn (cf. <f>paa-i Pindar) with substitution of the vowel of 
the other cases. But in Arc. hi^popvapjova-i the v also is introduced from the 
other cases, and this secondary v<j is retained (cf. 3). 

2. va + consonant lost its v in proethnic Greek without effect 
on the preceding vowel, e.g. /eeo-ro? from *Kevo-To'? (cf. Kevrew), av- 
a-Kevd^co from *avv-aKevd^(o, etc. So also Epid. acrTd<! from *avaTd<; 
= avaard';, Delph. a^eroco perhaps from *av^eT6a> = *ava^eT6a) (but 
see no. 53.17, note). 

3. Secondary intervocalic va, in which a- comes from rt, dental + 
0-, or T before i, had an entirely different history from that of 
original va, which was changed before the new va came into 
existence. This va is retained in Cretan (i.e. Central Cretan, cf. 
273), Argohc (mainly Argive, cf. 251), Thessalian, and Arcadian, 
while in other dialects it loses the v with lengthening, in Lesbian 
with diphthongization, of the preceding vowel. Thus from *7rdvna, 



78] PHONOLOGY 63 

Cret., Arg., Thess., Arc. Trdva-a, Att. etc. iraaa, Lesb. iralcra. Prom 
*fj,6vTia, Cret. etc. */j.6va-a (not yet quotable), Lesb. fiolcra, else- 
where nova-a or /iwo-a. From nom. sg. fern. pres. part, -i^r-ta, Cret. 
exovffa, dyova-a, efiiovaa, etc., Thess. Xeiropevaavaa, aweXevde- 
pe<T0ev(Ta (Arc, Arg. examples lackmg), Lesb. exoLaa, apfi6^oi(7a, 
Sdfj,eia-a, etc., elsewhere -ova-a or -coaa, -daa, -eicra. From dat. pi. 
pres. part, -vr-ai,, Cret. ein^dWovai, iXovai, viKaaavai, etc., Arg. 
iirayyeXKova-i (Arc. examples lacking ; Thess., Lesb. -vreacri), else- 
where -ovtra or -cBcra etc. From aor. *eaTrevBa-a, Cret. ecnrevcra, 
Att. etc. ea-ireia-a. From 3 pi. -vrt (West Greek ^epovn etc.). Arc. 
Kpivmvai, iroCevai, etc., Lesb. exoia-i, ypd^coiai, TiOeia-i, etc. (so also 
Chian Xd^miaiv, irpri^oKTiv, cf. 184), Att. etc. ^epovai. Observe 
that 3 pi. -vai is exclusively Arcadian, since this is the only dia- 
lect which belongs both to the va and the ai from n (61) groups. 

a. In derivatives in -<tk from verbs in -vm, vo- is kept in all dialects, 
e. g. not only Cret. av7rav<ns = ava.<f>av<Tvs, Epid. oXxiktvs, but Att. irp6<f>av<Ti':, 
v<l>av(TLs, etc., owing to the influence of the verbs. 

78. Final v<;. Since i'9 -|- consonant lost its v in proethnic Greek 
(77.2), the same wOuld be true of final v^ in close combination 
with a folloAving word beginning with a consonant. Hence there 
arose doublets such as 1) before vowel t6v^, rdv;, 2) before eon- 
sonants ToV, Tw. Such doublets are found in Cretan, the Gorty- 
nian Law-Code still adhering very closely to the original distribution 
in the case of the article, e.g. tov<; eXevOepov;, but to? tcaSea-rdv;. 
But elsewhere the use of one or the other set of forms has ceased 
to depend at all upon the initial of the following word. 

Accusatives in -09, -a? are the regular forms in Thessalian, 
Arcadian (so probably Cyprian -os not -09), Theran, are frequent 
in Coan (-09 beside -0119), and are occasionally found in other Doric 
dialects and in literary Doric (e.g. frequent in Theocritus). Other 
dialects have -ov<;, -av<;, or forms coming therefrom by the same 
development as that seen in the case of secondary intervocalic 1/9 
(irdva-a etc. 77.S), e.g. Arg. to'v9, rdvi (for Argolic in general, see 
251), Lesbian rok, rak, in most dialects tou9 or tm? (25), Ta9. 



64 GEEEK DIALECTS [78 

Only Elean, in spite of iraaa, has here a development similar to 
the Lesbian, yielding -ai'i and later, with the rhotacism (60.1), 
-aip, -oip. At the time of the early Elean inscriptions the diph- 
thong was not yet fuUy developed (pronounced -a*?, -0*9 with 
incipient diphthongs) and we find the spelling -o?, -o? beside -at?, 
*ot9 (there happen to he no o-stem accusatives in those inscrip- 
tions which show -aK). 

Similarly the preposition eV? in Cretan (beside more usual e?) 
and Argive (cf. 251), whence ek or e? (note that Lesb. ek has a 
genuine diphthong, like rok, and so differs from the ek of other 
dialects). 

Cf. also the treatment of final v<; from -vt-?, e.g. nom. sg. part. 
Cret. vLKda-av<s, Karadev; (also viKaOe'; Latos), Heracl. kutoXv- 
HaKcodi]';, Att. etc. n6ek, Lesb. o-rot^ew, Thess. evepyere';, Arc. 
hiepoOvTei, Ther. alpe6i<;. 

\<r, per 

79. From *ea-Te\aa, Lesb., Thess. ea-reWa, Att. etc. eareiKa, Cret. 
ecTTTjXa. From *e^^e/3o-a, Lesb. *e^6eppa (cf. reppat = relpai), Att. 
etc. e^deipa. From *xepcr- (cf. Skt: haras, grip) Lesb. x^PP' iX^PP"''' 
Theocr.), Att. etc. x^t/s-, Epid. xvp- (but see 25 6). 

80. But in another set of words \a and pa did not have this 
development, but" remained unchanged in most dialects, while in 
several this pa was assimilated to pp. Cf. Horn. aXaoi, KeXaai, 
eKepaev, (Spare, apa-rjv, ddpaov, Ion., Lesb., Cret., Epid., Coan eparjv, 
Lac. apa-ri<;, Cypr. [ej/ee/jo-ei/, and Odpao^ or 0epa-o<: in most dialects 
(partly in proper names only). 

The assimilation to pp is Attic as dpprjv, 6dppo<;, etc. (so in the 
earliest inscriptions ; pa- in early Attic writers is Ionic), West Ionic 
as appeviK&v (Cumae), dyappi<s (N'aples), @appnriS7]<:, etc., Arca- 
dian as (l)6epai, (for (f)0eppai, corresponding to ^Oepaai, like (j)6ep- 
aavre'! in Lycophron, not to ^delpai, which would be 4>^fjpai 
in Arcadian), appevrepov (but also @epaia<i, and ■7ravdyopai<: for 
which see below, a), Elean, as fdppevop, 6dppo<;, Oappev (in later 
epaevakepo<;, pa is due to Koivrj influence), Theran as \a\{p)peva, 



81] PHONOLOGY 



65 



®a{p)pfj<;, ®ha{p)pvij,apbo<;, etc. (aU archaic ; in later dparjv, ©dpacov, 
pa is due to Koiv^ influence). Proper names with pp = pa- occur 
also in Phoolan (Delph. @app{Kcov, @dppav^po<;, Amphiss. &dppv^), 
and, beside more usual pa, in Boeotian (e.g. &dpoyjr, but &epaav- 
Spov etc. usual) and Megarian (e.g. Xeppia<:, but edpao<i etc. usual). 
Cf. also Kdppmv from *Kdpaa(ov (Cret. Kdprav, 81), in Alcman, 
Epicharmus, and Sophron. 

a. Even in dialects which regularly have pp, p<r may be retained by 
analogy, e. g. Att. drjpai etc. after other datives in -crt, KaOapaKs etc. after 
other nouns in -<ns. So Arc. Travayopcrts. But even in these words there is 
sometimes assimilation, as Att. Seppts, West Ion. ayappK. 

b. The divergent development of Ao-, pa; as given in 79 and 80, probably 
depended originally on the accent, the retention of \cr, per (later pp), being 
normal when they immediately followed the accent. In aorists there would 
be leveling in both directions, and the development is usually that given in 
79, but sometimes that of 80 (Horn. Kc'Atrat, Spcre, Arc. <j>6epaL). 

(T(T, TT 

81. Att. TT = Ion. a-a- comes from ki, %t, and (apparently, see 82) 
from Tt, or 0i, and is chiefly seen in presents like (jivXaTTco, ^v- 
Xdaaw (ki), KopvTTco, Kopvaam (di), in femiuines like yX&Tra, 
yX&a-a-a (p^t), neXirra, fieXiaaa (tj), and in comparatives like ^ttiov, 
TJacrcov (ki), Kpeirrcov, Kpeaatov (tj). t/t gives the same result, e.g. 
T€TTape<!, reacrepei (54 e, 114.4). Inscriptions show that Attic had 
TT from the earliest times, the acr of the early writers being due 
to Ionic influence. Most of the dialects agree with Ionic, but the 
Attic TT is found also in Boeotian ((pvXdTTO), ddXaTTa, TreTTape<s), 
Cretan (laTTa = Arg. eaaaa, KupTcov from *KdpTTcov), and Euboean, 
at least in Styra, Eretria, Oropus (eXdTToav, irprjTTw, KiTTirj<;). 

a. (T<j in late Cretan, as irpaxxaia, OdXacra-a, ^/aicto-os (from *rifu.Tp(K, 61.6), 
is due to KOivri influence (in kolvti inscriptions crcr is more common than the 
strictly Attic rr); after these also oaacys for earlier otto^ (82). Some of the 
late inscriptions have 66 in words of this class, as 6a\a66a, tadda, also for 
those belonging under 82, as 666aKiv, for original o-cr, as fereddi, and for 
or, as id6avT£'s. For ad it is earlier (85.3). 



66 GEEEK DIALECTS [81 

b. Although the Thessalian inscriptions usually have a-cr, there is some 
evidence that the dialect had tt originally, or at least in certain localities. 
Aside from OdXaTra, ttitto., which are quoted as Thessalian, cf . the proper 
names Kottu^os, ^vmoi, etc., and especially IleT^aXos from "ScttoXos (65). 

a, <j<y, TT 

82. Tt and ^t give Att. <t not tt, and Ion. a (early era often in 
poetry, but never in inscriptions) in o(70<;, cnroao'; (rt), /ieio-o? 
{*tie0io<!, cf. Skt. madhyas). A dental + o- gives precisely the same 
result, e.g. eKofita-a, eZUaaa, etc. In all such cases most dialects 
have a-a- or o- (for era- cf. Lesb., Thess., Delph., EL, Heracl., ArgoL, 
East Cret. oacro<;, Heracf. fiecrcroi}, eSaaa-d/jLeda, ArgoL SiKaaa-eco, 
ihiKaaaav), but Boeotian and Cretan have tt, e.g. Boeot. fierTO'i, 
otto'tto?, iylra^LTTaTO, aTToXoyiTTacTTr}, Cret. fj,eTTO<;, ottoi, otto'tto?, 
haTTadOai. In some very early Cretan inscriptions we find ^, as 
0^09, avSd^adai. 

Note. This is to be recognized as the normal development of rt and 9i. 
The different result seen in the classes of words mentioned in 81 is due to 
the influence of the forms containing gutturals. After a consonant ri gives 
T in all dialects ; e. g. Trdva-a, naxra, from *ird.vTta. 

Original <7ff 

83. Original acr, which becomes o- in Attic (ireXea-a, ryevea-i), is 
retained, as in Homer etc., in several dialects (cf. ocro-o? etc., 82), 
e.g. Lesb. eaa-ovTai, Thess. eacreadeiv, Heracl. icra-rJTai, Ther. eo-- 
a-eiTui, Lesb. a-vvTekecra-avTa, ofwaa-avTe'i, Boeot. a-ovvKakeacravTei 
(143), dat. pL Lesb., Thess., Boeot., Delph., EL -eaat, HeracL -aaai 
(107.3). For late Cret. pereddi. etc., see 81 a. ■ 

84. Attic-Ionic ^, which was pronounced zd and comes from zd 
{6^o<;, Germ. Ast, 'Adijva^e from -a{v)<;-S€) or, more often, from yi 
(fiei^av, ne^mv) or S_, (Trego's), is also f in the majority of other dia- 
lects. Lesb. o-S, found in our literary texts and in a few late inscrip- 
tions, is only another spelling of the same sound, adopted perhaps 
because ^ was used with the value of 2 in fa = Sid, etc. (19.1). 



85] PHONOLOGY 67 

But assimilatioQ to 8S, initial S, is Boeotian, Thessalian, Elean, 
Cretan, Laconian, and Megarian (?). Boeot. ypa/ifiaTiBSm, i|r a^i'SSw, 
BoKtfidSBa, lapeidSSm, rpeveSSa, Stow (^coco), Aeu?, Thess. i^^ava- 
Kd{S)Sev (no. 33 ; the only example, so possibly BS only in Thessa- 
liotis, but there is no evidence against its being general Thessalian). 
El. 8iKd{S)Sm, xpai{S)Sa>, Cret. BiKaBSw, ■\jra<l>iBSa), ipydSSofiai, j>pov- 
TiSSo), hmm, B(o6<;, Bvyov, Arjva (Zrjva), Lac. yv/jLvaBBoiiat etc. in Ar. 
Lys., fiiKKixtBSofievoi, 6'n-i{S)B6[/j,evo'i], Aev? in inscriptions. Aevf 
occurs also on a vase from Ehodes, and is perhaps genuine Eho- 
dian. Cf. the occasional assimilation of <tS in external combination 
in Ehodian, 97.4. Meg. SS is doubtful (Ar. Ach. fidSSa, xpyBBco, but 
only f in inscriptions). 

In Cretan and Elean the spelling tt is also found, as Cret. ^pov- 
TiTTft), iaTrpefifiiTTm (eKTrpe/Jivi^a)), Trfjva, Tfjva (ZTJva), El. voa-riTTot) 
(yoaTi^o)), aTTdfj,io<; (ofjy/Ltto?). 

a. There is some interchange between presents in -o-tro) or -tto) and those 
in -^0) or -88(0, owing to the identity of their future and aorist forms. Thus 
Att. <T<f)dTT<i) = Ion. (T<f>d^<i>, Boeot. cr<l>dSSio, Thess. iji^vLtrau) = Att. i/jL^a- 
vi^oi, and, vice versa, Cret. ■ttjooSSoj = Att. irpaTTO), crwetrcraSSa) = Att. -o-arTco. 

ae 

85. 1. (TT = a-6. The use of ar for a-6 (see 63) is mainly charac- 
teristic of Northwest Greek. It is the regular spelling in Locrian, 
as he\e<TTai, hapea-rai, and early Elean, as ;)^;/3eeo-Tat, Xva-daro, and 
occurs with some frequency in Phocian, as Delph. irpoa-ra, hiKa^d- 
cTTo, later r^iveaTm etc.. Stir. Oeerrcov, cnroTroXiTeva-aa-rai. It occurs 
also in Boeotian, in late inscriptions of Orchomenus {cnroXoyiTTa- 
a-TT] etc.), where it is perhaps due to Aetolian influence, and twice 
in Thessalian {TreTreiaTeiv, eXeareiv, Larissa). But there are some 
early examples in other dialects, as Cret. p.iaro'i (Vaxos), Lac. airo- 
a-rpvOea-TM, ;)^/37ja-Tat, and in late times it is found in many parts 
of Greece, even at Athens. 

2. crcr = a-d. This is found in late Elean, as aTroSoaaai, (no. 60), 
iroirjaaaai (no. 61). 



68 GEEEK DIALECTS [85 

3. 66 = <t6. This is usual at Gortyna and some of the other 
cities of central Crete, as Xv(ra66ai, hare 66 ai, Tpd<^e(6)6ai, etc. 
(also, rarely, t6, e.g. SeKerdai). But a-6 is found m most of the very 
earliest inscriptions, and in the latest (here koivtj influence). 

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants 
86. Assimilation in consonant groups. Many of the changes 
belonging imder this head have been given already, e.g. under 55, 
69, 74-77, 79, 80, 84, 85. See also under external combination, 96- 
100. No notice is taken of assimUatioji which is common to all 
dialects and presumably proethnic, as S\ to XX, etc. 

This class of phenomena is one in which the difference between 
colloquial and careful speech is most noticeable, as may readily be 
observed in English. While some assimilations are so uniformly 
effected that the unassimilated form is completely displaced and 
forgotten, others remain colloquial only, the unassimilated form 
being still preferred in careful speech and writing. This accounts 
for much of the lack of uniformity in the evidence as regards some 
of the changes mentioned in this and the other sections. In some 
cases the spelling varies greatly even ia the dialects where the 
change is best attested. Sometimes the assimilation is imiform iu 
certain dialects, but evidently existed colloquially in others also 
and only sporadically made its appearance in the spelling. 

1. KT to TT in Cretan, wtti' = vvkti, Avtto? = Avkto<;. For 
Locr. e(T) ra?, see 100. Cf. also SiaXeXerrai, ia an inscription of 
Cumae. 

2. ITT to TT iu Cretan and Thessalian. Cret. ^yparrai = yeypa- 
irrai, irevTO'i = Tr^/ttTTTOS, Thess. Aerrivaio^ (AeTrTiWto?), ol tto- 
Xiapxoi, apxirToXiapxevTo<! (■n-ToXi's, 67), also ar tS? etc. ia external 
combination (99.2). Cf. also Thess. 'At66v€ito<; = ' K^dovqTO's. 

3. 0-7 to 77 (7) in Cretan, irpelyv; probably from irpeiayv'; 
(Boeot. Trpia-yele^, 68.1), irpeiyevTo.^, irpdyav, nrpeiyiaro^, late Trprj- 
yia-Tov {Trprjjia-Tevw also Coan). A parallel change of aic to kk is 
seen in Laconian glosses, as KaSixKop = KaSiaKOi. 



88] PHONOLOGY 69 

a. Note that the forms cited, as also Thess. irptur/Sim., are formed from 
irpacr- (cf. also Cret. irpa'v beside irpiv), not irpeo-- as in Att.-Ion., Lesb. 
wpia-^vi. Late Cret. Trpeyyevras is a hybrid form. 

4. <7T to TT in Cretan, Laconian, and Boeotian. Cret. fierr e's 
beside fiea-ra, Lac. /Serrov, dress, = *pear6v (Etym. Magn.), Boeot. 
tTTO) = i<rT(o (At., Plato), eVre = eVre. But in the great majority of 
cases (7T remains in the spelling of inscriptions. 

5. pv to vv in Cretan. avvioiTo = apveoiro, ovvida = 6pvi0a, 'E\ev- 
Oevvalof = '^\ev6epvaio<;. 

6. /JLV to fifi in Cretan. icrTrpefifiiTTco = eKirpefivl^o). 

7. 7^ to v. yiyvofiai appears as yivofiai in most dialects except 
Attic (here also, but late), or as yiwfji,ai (Thess., Boeot.). yivco- 
(TKco = yiyvduTKO) occurs in Lesbian and in Ionic prose writers (Att. 
yeivma-KO) very late), and in some late. Doric inscriptions. This is 
not really assimilation, but loss of 7 by dissimilation from the ini- 
tial 7, supported, in the case of yivofiai, by the 761' of other tenses. 

87. Transposition in consonant groups. As tlktco from *titkq), 
so probably SuktuXo^ from *SaT«y\o9, to which points Boeot. 
SaKKv\io<; (kk from tk as in Thess. ttoa; kl from ttot k(, whereas 
KK from KT would be contrary to all analogy, cf. 86.1). But most 
examples are of colloquial and transitory character, more or less 
frequently repeated slips of the tongue, or sometimes, without 
doubt, only graphic. Thus from Attic inscriptions crxvvap'XpvTeov = 
^ervv- (^vp-y, ev(Ty(^dfji,evo<; = ev^o'dfievo';, a^V')(rj = '^v')(rj, eypaa^ev 
= eypa^jrev (often on vases), fiea-ojjLvq = necroSfiri (Sfj, first to Vfji. 
by assimilation). 

88. Assimilation, dissimilation, and transposition, between non- 
contiguous consonants. Except for the regular dissimilation of 
aspirates in proethnic Greek (65), these phenomena are of the same 
occasional character as the preceding (87). They are most fre- 
quently observable in the case of aspirates, or of liquids, for which 
see 65, 70. A na^al may interchange with a mute of its own class, 
by assimilation or dissimilation with another nasal, e.g. Cret. vvva- 
fiat, = Bvvafiai, (cf. Mod.Grk MevreXTj beside UivreXr}, name of 



70 GEEEK DIALECTS [88 

the monastery on Mt. Pentelicus), or, vice versa, Att. Tep^ivOoi 
beside Tepfuv6o<;, Att. Kv^epvdco from *KVfiepvdco beside Cypr. kv- 
fiepevai, and ^dpvafiai = fiapva/jbai, which occurs in certain inscrip- 
tions in epic style from Athens, Corcyra, etc. (nos. 88, 90). See 
also 69.3, end, and 86.7. Among examples of transposition may be 
mentioned Ion. afM0peco = apidfiem, Delph., Epid. /36Xifio<! = fioXi- 
ySo? (Att. usually fj,6\v^So<;), also, with assimilation, Ehod. /36Xi- 
ySo9 (prepi^oXi^aerai). 

a. A few dialectic examples of haplology, or syllabic loss by dissimila- 
tion, may be added here. Epid. Ae/xtSt/ti/xvoi/ from ^|nt(/ie)8i;u,vov, as Att. ij/tic- 
Sifivov from ■q(fiL)fi.i8ifa/ov. Cret. veoras, body of young men, gen. vtoras from 
V€6Ta(To)i, ace. veoTa from vedraTa. 

Doubling of Consonants 

89. A single consonant is sometimes written double, this indi- 
cating a syllabic division by which it was heard at the end of one 
syllable and the beginning of the next. 

1. cro-T, <raK etc. Such spellings as dpia-aro^, oa-aTi<;, ypdyjraa-- 
adai, 'Aa-crK'\ijTno<;, KoacriJiol, are frequent, and not coniined to 
any particular dialect. For examples in external combination, see 
101.2. Similarly o-f (= z-zd) and |^ (= ks-s), e.g. Arg. SiKaa^co, 
Delph. SouXwrfa), Locr. yjrd^i^^K, Boeot. Ae^^Linra, Thess. i^^a- 
vaKd(S)Sev. 

2. Before consonantal t in ThessaUan, as Tro'Wto? etc. See 19.3. 

3. Between vowels. This is confined to continuous sounds, 
especially Kquids and nasals, mostly after a long vowel or diph- 
thong. Thess. fivafJLfJi^Lov, AafjLfidTpeio<!, Lesb. irpoa'^prfp.iievco, Ehod. 
eifi/ieiv, Dodon. dfifieivov, Boeot. ddWa-trav, Thess. o/SeXkov, Delph. 
©e\7rovo-<rto5, El. avTaTroSiS&a-aa, Cret. (nrofBSdv (spirant S). Cf. 
also 101.1. Delph., Cret. a/jLtjuWeya) is from afijiUT-Xer^to, though 
Meg. dfi^eWeyov shows that it was felt as afi<f)t-\\€y(o. 

4. Epid. fieSififivov, hifiiStnnvov, laponfivdfiove^ (no. 83). Cret. 
aXk6TTpio<s, Arg. 7reT|TjOii;oi' (cf. Osc. alttram etc., frattre etc. ia 
Latin inscriptions). 



90] PHONOLOGY 71 

5. In hypocoristic proper names, where it originates in the voca- 
tive and is due to the emphatic utterance in calling. Examples, 
though found elsewhere, are by far most frequent in Boeotian, e.g. 
AyaOOm, Bi'otto?, MeVi^et, etc. 



CHANGES IN EXTEENAL COMBINATION » 

90. The phenomena of external combination, or sentence pho- 
netics, such as elision, crasis, consonant assimilation, etc., are found 
in all dialects. But in Greek, as in most other languages, there is 
a tendency to limit more and more the scope of such changes, and 
to prefer, in formal speech and its written form, the uncombined 
forms. The iascriptions, Attic as well as those of other dialects, 
differ greatly in this respect according to their time and character. 
The following general observations may be made. 

1. The changes occur mainly between words standing in close 
logical relation. Thus oftenest in prepositional phrases, or between 
the article, adjective, or particle and the noun with which it agrees ; 
frequently between particles like Kai, Se, /^eV, etc. and the pre- 
ceding or following word ; less often between the subject or object 
and the following verb, and very rarely in looser combinations. 

2. While the less radical changes, such as the ehsion of a short 
vowel or the simpler forms of consonant assimilation, are least 
restricted in scope and survive the longest, the more violent forms 
of crasis and of consonant assimilation are the most infrequent and 
the soonest given up. Thus, in the matter of consonant assimila- 
tion, the partial assimilation of a nasal to a following mute, espe- 
cially a labial, as in rafi irokiv, is very common in all dialects down 
to a late period and sometimes observed even in loose combinations 
(cf. 96.1), but examples like toX Xoiyov, roiiv v6fiov<;, etc. are compara- 
tively infrequent and practically restricted to early inscriptions. 



1 Some matters which strictly belong under this head have been discussed 
elsewhere, as the rhotacism of final s, treatment of final ys, etc. 



72 GEEEK DIALECTS [90 

3. Although the dialects differ in the extent to which they 
exhibit these phenomena and ^ some details (e.g. Cretan shows 
the most extensive and radical series of consonant assimilations), 
the differences depend more upon the time and character of the 
inscription, the degree to which the language has been formalized. 

4. There is no consistency in the spelling, even as regards the 
milder changes, combined and uncombined forms often standing 
side by side in the same inscription. 

Elision 

91. Elision is common to all dialects, but, as in Attic, subject 
to great inconsistency as regards the written form, which even in 
metrical inscriptions is very often not in accord with the demands 
of the meter. In general elision is most frequent in the conjunc- 
tions and particles such as Se (^oSe, ovSe, etc.), re, ku, aXXd, etc., the 
prepositions, and, among case-forms, in stereotyped phrases like 
TTo'XX' ayaOd etc. The elision of a dipththong, e.g. Locr. Sei- 
Xer' av^opelv, is comparatively rare. For elision in place of usual 
crasis, see 94. 

Aphaeresis 

92. Examples of aphaeresis, which is only a form of crasis, are 
rare. Ion. rj '?, firj 'Xda-aove^ (Chios, no. 4), Locr. I 'SeXcfiiov, e 
''Xeird/iov, fie 'TToa-rafiev, El. fie 'vrroi, fie 'irtiroeovTOV, fie 'iridelav, 
Lesb. cr[TaX\]a Vt. 

Shortening of a Final Long Vowel 

93. The shortening of a final long vowel before an initial vowel, 
so well known in poetry, is occasionally seen in inscriptions, e.g. 
Cret. jxe eKrfi (fir) exo), fie evSi/cov, etc., Meg. cTretSe "lKd<no<s. So 
Cypr. e| (^ e|) with t from e (9.3). 

Crasis 

94. Crasis, mostly of icai or forms of the article with the fol- 
lowing word, is found in the early inscriptions of all dialects, 



94] PHONOLOGY 73 

though the uncomhined forms are more frequent. As between the 
« phonetic principle," where the result of crasis is in accordance 
with the regular laws of contraction, and the " etymological prin- 
ciple," with lengthening of the second vowel as in Att. avrjp = 
6 avrip, the former is almost, if not wholly, predominant outside 
of Attic. 

1. o, 5 (ow), (o, + a (cf. 44.1). Ion. covrip, Tcoya>vo<; (rod ay&vo's), 
with the regular contraction to to, where Attic has dv^p, TdyS)vo<;. 
Similarly I^sb. (ht.) mvrjp, Arc. Karoppevrepov (Kara to appevre- 
joov), Delph. TcoTreXXaiov (rov ' AireXkaiov) , tcottoXKcovi (t&i 'AirdX- 
XtBw), Boeot. roiroXKovi (rol 'AiroXKcovi), Coruith. T07re(\)\ovi 
(tmi 'A-rreWcovi), rcoyaOov (to ayaOov), Meg. op'^eSafie (cS 'Apye- 
Safie), and so regularly in literary Doric. Elision, rather than crasis 
according to the " etymological principle," is probably to be assumed 
in the few examples like Corinth. rapia-Tepov^ (to apiaTepov), 
Arg. Tapyeloi (toI 'Apyeloi), TiayeXaiSa Tapyeio (6 'AyeXacSa tov 
'Apyeiov), Cypr. Ta(iJi,)<f>iSe^i6i (ra 'A/iw^tSe^to)). 

2. o, o (ov), + e (cf. 44.3). Att.-Ion. rovvofia (to ovofia), Lesb. 
(oviavT0<; (6 eviavro's), Locr. OTrdyov (6 eirdymv). 

3. a + o (cf. 41.2). Att., Dor. x'^ (''«' o)> Ioh-j Cret. k&J (koI 6), 
Lesb. (Ut.) KWTTi, (koL ottl). El. KoiroTapoi (koI oirorapoi). Cf. 
Aegin. y^oXetfta'i (kuI 6 iXe<f>a<;) with double crasis, hke x'^"^ {""■^ o 
e/c) in Theocritus. 

4. a + o (cf. 41.4). Meg. aXvvin,d<; (a, 'OXvv'ind<;). 

5. a + e (cf. 41.3). Locr. ha/mpoiKCa (a eiripoiKia). 

6. a + e (cf. 41.1). Att.-Ion. Kdyw (koo iyco), k&ttl (koi eiri), rav 
(t^ iv), etc.. West Greek ktjv, ktjk, KTpri (koi ev, koI ex, Kal iiri), 
etc. So also in Thessalian (no. 33) Kip and re? (ra e?). Lesbian has 
Kifie (koI i/jie) in an early ins^cription, though the texts of the Aeolic 
poets have mostly kcL- (KafjLo<i etc.); and Arcadian has Ke-rri. 

1 We continue, as a matter of convention, to transcribe in tlie form of crasis 
where the combination belongs to those which commonly suffer crasis, even in 
cases where we believe the phenomenon is elision. For it is impossible to draw 
the line between crasis and elision with certainty. See also under 7, 8, 9. 



74 GREEK DIALECTS [94 

7. With words beginning with a diphthong. Inscriptions some- 
times show the regular crasis with ev-, as Delph. KTjiiKKeia (ical 
Eu/eXeta), Ehod. ovSa/Mo (o Ev8d/Xov), but otherwise the diphthong 
unchanged, that is, what is probably elision rather than crasis, e.g. 
Thess. Kol ^ (Kal ol), Ion. TolKoireSov (to olKOTreSov), koIvottiStj'; (jeal 
OtVoTTt'S?;?), Delph. Kovre (km ovre). Similarly kov, kovtc, etc. in 
Attic and Ionic literature (also %ot = kuI ol, and xev- = xal ev-), 
and in Theocritus. Forms like wurd? (6 avro'i) in Herodotus and 
Theocritus, amoXo'i (o aliroKosi) in Theocritus, iccovSev (koX oiiSev) 
in Epicharmus, are rarely attested in inscriptions (once Ion. coiav- 
fivjjTr]<; = 6 alav/j.vqTrj';). But the proper transcription of forms in 
the pre-Ionic alphabet is sometimes uncertain, e.g. Thess. Kevpep- 
yerav {icaX evepyerav) or Kevfepyerav, Boeot. rivTpiTicfxivTO (ral 
EvrprfTK^avTw) or TevrperitpavTo , Aegin. hoiKo<! (o oIko<;') or hoiKo<;. 

8. With words beginning with i or v. Cret. Kvlee<: (kuI utVe?), 
El. KvTraBvKioi (kuI vtto-), Delph. KlSimrai (ical ISiMTai). 

In such cases there is of course no evidence as to whether the 
V or t was lengthened, as usually in Attic-Ionic, but probably we 
have here simply elision. 

9. In Elean in the forms of the article the final vowel or diph- 
thong disappears, sometimes even the vowel with final consonant. 
Thus riapov {to iapov), napo (rS iapSi), Ttapol (rol lapoi), Teiridpoi 
(tol eiriapoi), and even tuvto (to)? avTco), Top lapofxdop ToXvviriai 
(Tft)/) lapoixdap Tcop 'OXwrriai). This is clearly not crasis proper, 
but an extension of the principle of elision.^ Cf. Ovlwi (t&i viai) 
in an Attic inscription. Once El. toI 'vtuvt iypafievoi with 
aphaeresis. 

Apocope 

95. Apocope of prepositions is almost unknown in Attic-Ionic 

inscriptions, but is usual in other dialects for at least some of the 

prepositions. All of them have av (or 6v, iiv) and irdp (even Ionic 

has av in literature and a few cases of wdp in inscriptions). waV 



^ See footnote, p. 73, 



96] PHONOLOGY 75 

and TTOT are found in nearly all the West Greek dialects (but not 
ia Cretan, and rarely in Argolic), and in Boeotian and Thessalian. 
But these are mostly confined to the position before dentals, espe- 
cially forms of the article. Before other consonants they occur, 
with assimilation, in Thessalian and sometimes lq Boeotian and 
Laconian; /car also in Lesbian and Arcado-Cyprian (lq Arcadian 
icd before all consonants in early inscriptions, later only before the 
article, otherwise /carv formed after awv). irep occurs iq Delphian 
(cf. also Tre/aoSo? = 7repioSo<;), Elean {•>rdp), and Thessalian ; also in 
Lesbian (Alcaeus), and in a few proper names ia Locrian (Ile/jpo- 
dapidv), Cretan, and Laconian. ostt, ctt, vtt are Thessalian only, 
except for two examples of eV in Boeotian before ir. An apocopated ■ 
form of TreSa is seen in Arc. ire rot? i.e. -n-eiS) rot?. 

Apocope is most extensive in Thessalian, which has av, Trap, kot, 
-TTOT, irep, air, iir, vir. Tlie Thessalian genitive singular in -oi is also 
best explained as arising from -oto by apocope, beginning with the 
article, which was, of course, proclitic like the prepositions (cf. 45.4). 

Apocopated forms are more common in early iascriptions than 
later, when there is a tendency, partly due to Koivrj influence, to 
employ the full forms. 

a. Forms like /carov, wordv, instead of kcit tov, ttot tov, occur not only in 
early inscriptions where double consonants are not ■mritten, but also in the 
later inscriptions of some dialects. For the most part the matter is one of 
spelling only, but in some cases such forms represent the actual pronuncia- 
tion, due in part to actual simplification of the double consonants, in part 
to syllabic dissimilation or haplology, as in later Attic KaraSe from Ka(Ta) 
TctSe. So in Arcadian the spelling is almost uniformly Ka (early KaTovw, 
KOKpive, etc., later KwraTrtp, Koxaixhiav). In doubtful cases it is better to 
expand the forms to Ka(T) Toi/etc. in our texts, if only f<?r the convenience 
of the student. 

Consonant Assiinilation 

96. Assimilation of final v. 

1. To the class of a following labial or guttural. Cases like t^/x 
iroXtv, roy KrjpvKa, vvp. fiev, are frequent in Attic inscriptions, and 
likewise ia the other dialects. So also between object and verb as 



76 GREEK DIALECTS [96 

Delph. TOKiofi {jtepero), Arc. iroa-o^on iroevTw, and in looser combina- 
tions as Att. iaTl/i irepl, Arc. iv eiriKpLai^ Kardirep, Arg. ■Trotoiey 
Kara. 

2. To <r. Att. e? ^d/Mcoi, Ion. rm (Tv^niravrav, Delph. a? 2e\eu- 
Kos (a? = dv), ecrTQ)(?) avXeovre^, Epid. to? aaKov. Cf. Ion. iraaav- 
Sirji beside TravavSirji, and Lesb. TraeravSidaavro^. 

Before cr + consonant. Att. e'.cr arijXrji but oftener e arriXtfi, also 
Te a-reXep. So Ehod., Cret. e crraXat, El. ra crrdXav. These do not 
arise by assimilation but by regular loss of v. See 77.2, 78. 

3. To X. Att. eX XifivAK, rb\ Xoyov, Ion. eX Aapva-crm, Delph. 
TwX Aa^vaSdv, Lac. e'X AuKeSuLfiovi, Epid. roX XCOov, t&X Xcdtov. 

■ Cf. a-vXXeyco, aXXvco — dvaXvw, etc. 

4. To /3. Att. ip 'PoScoi, Top 'PoSiov. Cf. crvppiirTco etc. 

a. In Cyprian, where v before a consonant is always omitted in the inte- 
rior of a word, it is also frequently omitted in sentence combination as 

Ta(v) TTToXlV. 

97. Assimilation of final ?. 

1. To V. Delph. Toiiv v6p,ov<;. Cf. YieXoirowTja-oii (IleXoTro? 
vrjcrov). ' 

2. To fi and f . Cypr. pewo^ii) fieya = feiro's p^eya, Ta(/r) fa- 
vda(a)a'; = ra? pavdaam. In the same way arose «a = /ca? (icai) 
iu Cypr. ko, fiev, Arc. ko, f otKtot?. 

3. To X. Att. ToX Xido'i, Cret. toiX Xeiovai, tIX XSi (rt? Xijt), 
Lac. eX AuKeBaifiova (eX = e?), toi(X) AaKehaifiovioK. 

4. To S. So regularly in Cretan, e.g. rdZ hai(no<;, raS Se, eS Si- 
Kaa-reptov, iraTpoB SoVtos. Earely elsewhere, but cf. Ehod. Zev{S) 
Be (no. 93), fiaTp6{S) Be, Ta{B) Bevre'pat. Assimilation in the oppo- 
site direction is seen in Arg. /ScoXa? a-evrepat (no. 81). 

5. To e. Cretan only, as t^O Ovyarepa'i. Cf. Cret. 00 = ad 
medially (85.3). 

a. Before a word beginning with a vowel final s may be treated as intervo- 
calic, e. g. Lac. AtoAi/ceVa AioXevOepiS = Aios IkItov Atos iXevOepiov (cf . 59.1), 
Cypr. KO a.(v)n, to. v)(£pov (59.4), Eretr. oirtop av (60.3). 



100] PHONOLOGY - 77 

98. Assimilation of final p to S. So regularly in Cretan, e.g. aveS 
Boi, vaTeS Soei and 7raTe(S) Soei, inre(S) Se. Of. Cnid. ■7ra(S) Adfia- 
Tpa (wap Aa/nar/aa). 

99. Assimilation of a final mute. 

1. Final t. The apocopated forms of Kara and ttotl, so far as 
they occur otherwise than before r (cf. 95), are generally assimi- 
lated (sometimes with further simplification; cf. 95 a), e.g. Thess. 

KUTT TVaVTO'i, TTOK kL (tTOT Kl = TTjOO? Tt), BoeOt. TToS Ad(pVr], TTOK 

KaTOTrTw;, Lesb. kuk Ke(f>dXa<; (Alcaeus), KUfi ixev (Sappho), etc. So 
in compounds, e.g. El. Ka{h)Ba\eoLTO, Ka{6)9vTd^, Lesb. /ea/S/3aXXe 
(Alcaeus), KaXX.vovro<;, Arc. Kaieei/j-evav, icaKpive, Lac. Ka/Sara (Ka- 
ra^aTov), KajSatvcav (Alcman), etc. But tO is often unassimilated. 

2. Final tt. Thess. cnr, em- = airo, iirl. are assimilated in dr ra?, 
er Tol. Cf. 86.2. 

3. Final k. See 100. 

100. e|. In most dialects, as in Attic, e| becomes e/e before a 
consonant, this appearing often as 1% before an aspirate, and 67 
before sonant mutes and X, /x, v, p, until late times when m is 
usual before all consonants. The general rule is, then, e^ before 
vowels, and e/c (i'x^, iy) before consonants. But the antevocalic form 
ef occasionally appears before consonants in various dialects (so 
regularly in Oyprian, as e^ toi etc.). 

In Locrian it is fully assimilated to all consonants, whence, with 
the simphfication of double consonants in the spelling, it appears 
simply as e, e.g. e Ta<;, i Sd/io, etc., i.e. e(T) ra?, e'(S) Sdfio, e'(p) poi- 
vdvov, e(9) OdXaa-a-wi, e(X) Xt/ievo';, i(y) 'NavirdKTO. 

In Thessalian, Boeotian, Arcadian, and Cretan the regular form 
before consonants is e?, e.g. Thess. es rdv, ia-So/jLev, Boeot. e's tS>v, 
iaXiaivco (cf. also ia-K-qSeKaTrj from ef). Arc. e? rol, eVSe'XXoi'Tes, 
ifTTrepaa-ai, Cret. e? top, ia-tcXTja-ia, Thess., Boeot., Cret. ea-yovoi; = 
eKyovo<;. AH these dialects have ef before vowels except Boeotian, 
where e%? appears in an early inscription, but usually eo-?, as eo-? 
i^ei^mv, ecrtTeifiev. This is probably a transfer of the anteeonso- 
nantal form in an intermediate stage of its development (e^, eVs, e's). 



78 GREEK DIALECTS [lOO 

a. There are some traces of es in other dialects which generally have ck or 
e'^, e.g. Cypr. es ttoO' IpTrti- iroOev i]Kfis (Hesych.), Arg. e(s) St/ceA-uas, and 
according to some es irdAtos = «« iroXios (but see note to no. 75), Sicil. I<7k\ij- 
Tos (Syracuse, Rhegium), Delph. tayovoi (? no. 51, C 45). 

Consonant Doubling 

101. 1. Before vowels. Cret. raw e/^iWi/, o-vw-lt, Boeot., Corintli. 
avv-eOrjKe, Att. ^vvv-ovtl, also iji'i' e^wy, toi'!' av, in a Koti'^ inscrip- 
tion. This is a compromise between phonetic and etymological 
syllabification, and the examples, though rare, are mostly earUer 
than those for the similar doubling in internal combination (89.3). 

2. With oo-cttk; etc. (89.1), compare Att. etV? ti]V, Epid. eV? to, 
etc., or Epid. to craKeXo'i, Coan tov a<rT€^dvov. 

V movable 

102. The V movable in the dative plural in -a-i(v) and in the 
verb forms in -ai(v) and -e(i') is a marked characteristic of Attic- 
Ionic, where it appears from the earhest inscriptions on with in- 
creasing frequency and before both vowels and consonants. (In Attic 
its use becomes gradually more and more uniform before vowels, 
and it is also somewhat more common before a pause in the sense 
than elsewhere.) Only in the dative plural does it appear in other 
dialects, and even here only in Thessalian (xpefiaa-iv, no. 33) and 
Heraclean (evTaaaiv etc.). In verb forms it is wholly unknown in 
the older inscriptions of other dialects, and where found is a sure 
sign of K0CV1] influence. 

Note. In the dat. pi. -cnv the v is due to the analogy of pronominal 
datives like Att. ij/tiiv. Dor. d.fi,iv, Lesb. afifuv and aixfii, in which v is in- 
herited (beside a form without v). After the dat. pi. -<7i(v) arose the 3 pi. 
-o-i(v), e.g. 3 pi. <j>ipov(n(v) after dat. pi. part. <^€joou<ri(v), then also 3 sg. 8t- 
8ft)cri(v), TiOrfTiiv), etc. Another source is 3 sg. ^ev (originally 3 pi. with 
etymological v, 163.3) to 1 sg. ^a, after the analogy of which arose -£(v) to 
aU forms with 1 sg. -a, as olSev, W-qKev, from which it extended later to 
forms with 1 sg. in -ov, as eXcyEi/, iXajSei', etc. which are not found in the 
earliest inscriptions. 



103] PHONOLOGY 79 

ACCENT 

103. Of the dialects outside of Attic-Ionic, Lesbian is the only 
one of whose accentual peculiarities we have any adequate knowl- 
edge. This was characterized by the recessive accent, e.g. TroVa/ios, 
a6(f)o<!, ySacrt'Xeu?, XeO/cos. 

The Doric accent is said by the grammarians to be processive in 
certain classes of forms, e.g. iXd^ov, ardaai, alye'; = Att. eXa/Sov, 
(TTrjaai, alye^. But the statements are too meager to admit of gen- 
eralization as to the system as a whole, nor is it known whether 
all Doric dialects had these peculiarities. Hence the practice now 
frequently adopted, and followed in this book, of giving Doric forms 
with the ordinary Attic accent. In general our accentuation of 
dialect forms can be little more than a matter of convenience. 

o. A question of detail, touching -which there is considerable difference 
of practice among editors of dialect texts, is whether, in the case of inflec- 
tional forms which differ in their quantitative relations from the corre- 
sponding Attic forms, to adopt the actual accent of the Attic forms or to 
change the accent to accord with the Attic system, e. g. infin. xpivev lite 
Kpiviiv, or Kptvev, ace. pi. <j>ipoix,ivfK like ^epofievmn, or <^EjQo/xevos, Cret. Kaip- 
Tovavs, cTTaTyjpavi like KpuTTOvws, (TTaTTJpa^, or KapTovavi, (rraT-qpavs- The 
question of the true accentuation is a complicated one, differing in each 
class of forms, and impossible of any certain answer. But practical conven- 
ience favors the use of the Attic accent in some cases, as in the accusative 
plural to distinguish it from the nominative, and we adopt this alternative 
in all the cases mentioned. 

The pronominal adverbs in -a, -at, and -m we accent as perispomeua, 
following here what the grammarians laid down as the Doric accent, since 
this affords a convenient working rule, and, for -a), serves to distinguish 
e. g. Tovrm from gen. tovto). But it is far from certain that the accent was 
uniform, and that we should write e.g. dAAei, oAAat, TravrSi, as we do, and 
not, with some, aXXa like Att. oixa, and oXAou, ■n-d.vra.i like Att. aXX-g, 
TravTj;. And as between mrei and oiret, etc., about which the grammarians 
were in doubt, we definitely prefer oTrei, oirai, oTrrt, oirrj, oirui (cf . Att. oirov 
beside ttov, in spite of avrov etc.). We accent evSoi, e^ot, ^x°'' ^*°'' ^^^^ 
oiKoi, though evSot etc. (cf. ivravdoi) may also be defended. 



INFLECTION 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 



Feminine a-Stems 

104. 1. NoM. Sg. -d, Att.-Ion. -17. 

2. Gen. Sg. -a?, Att.-Ion. -579. — Arc. -dv after the masculine, as 
oiKiav, ^afiiav, but only at Tegea, and here -d<s beside -dv in early 
inscriptions, and always ra?, 

3. Dat. Sg. -di, Att.-Ion. -rji, whence also -d, -rj, -ei. See 38, 39. 
— Boeot. -at {-ae, -r), 26), and this is to be assumed in the other 
dialects which have -ot (106.2). 

4. Aco. Sg. -dv, Att.-Ion. -ijv. 

5. NOM. Pl. -di (Boeot. -ae, -t), 26). 

6. Gen. Pl. -awv, -eav, -mv, -dv. See 41.4. 

7. Dat. Pl. In early Attic, -dcn(v), -7]cn(v), sometimes -dicn(v), 
-riia-i(v), after 420 B.C. -at?. — In Ionic, -r)iai(v) regularly, -ai? being 
rare and probably Attic. — In Lesbian, -aicri (but always rat?), 
and this occurs, rarely, elsewhere. — Most dialects have -at? from 
the earliest times. 

8. Ago. Pl. -av;, with the same development as has -ov? from 
o-stems, namely (see also 78) : 

-av^, -ov; 



-av<i, -ov;, Cret., Arg. 




-a?, -0? 
Cret., Arc, (Cypr.?) 
Thess.,Ther.,Coan 




-a?, -ou? or -60? 
Most dialects 
80 



-at?, -ot? 
Lesbian 



-a?, -ai<i, -aip 

-o?, *-0t9, -oip 

Elean 



106] INFLECTION 81 

Masculine d-Stems 

105. 1. NOM. Sg. -a? (with secondary ?, after the analogy of -09), 
Att.-Ion. -■»??. 

a. Forms without s also occur, several in Boeotian (Trvdiovuca, KaXXla, 
etc.), and a few from other parts of Northwest Greece. Cf. also El. tc- 
Xeora, though this is possibly a form in -to. like Horn. hnroTa. 

2. Gen. Sg. -do (with o, in place of s, after that of o-stems), 
whence Are.-Cypr. -dv (22), elsewhere -a, Ion. -e<o, -ta. See 41.4. 
Att. -ov is not from -do, but the o-stem form taken over as a whola 

a. -dfo, in TXa<T«i/ro, Ila<naSapo, of two metrical inscriptions from 
Corcyra (no. 87) and Gela, is a reminiscence of the epic -do (the spoken 
form was already -d, which appears in other equally early inscriptions, as 
'ApvuiSa no. 88, A/rcvux no. 85) with the introduction of a non-etymological 
p, either representing a glide sound before the following o (cf. dfvrav, 
no. 88. See 32), or due to a false extension from forms with etymological 
p, as XapAs = Hom. Xdo^. 

b. Forms in -ds, with the old ending unchanged and belonging with the 
nominatives in -d (above. In), occur in scattered examples in Megarian 
(no. 92) and from various parts of Northwest Greece. 

c. Att.-Ion. proper names in -ip, from the fourth century on, frequently 
form the genitive after the analogy of cr-stems, e. g. Att. KoAAtdSovs (after 
Aij/MxrOeyov; etc.), Ion. AcaSeos, ' ApurrclBeiK- This type spreads to other 
dialects, e.g. Rhod. MvcoviSevs. 

0-Stems 

106. 1. Gen. Sg. -010 (from *-oo-to, cf. Skt. -asya) as in Homer, 
whence, with apocope, Thess. (Pelasgiotis) -01, as rot, XP°^°'-' ^*'°- 
Elsewhere, with loss of t and contraction, -ov or -m (25). — In 
Cyprian -ov beside -o (at Idalium fiurdov, apyvpov, ^iXoKvirpov, 
etc., and so usually -ov in nouns, whether vowel or consonant fol- 
lows ; but also apyvpo, dXpo, before a consonant, and always to). 

a. -oto is often employed in metrical inscriptions, in imitation of the 
epic, e.g. nos. 87, 88. But in Thessalian it also occurs in a few prose in- 
scriptions, and the grammarians often refer to the Thessalian genitive in 
-010. This, together with the fact that apocope is more extensive in Thes- 
saJian than in any other dialect (see 95), makes the derivation of the usual 



82 GEEEK DIALECTS [lOG 

Thess. -ot from -mo far more probable than other explanations which sepa- 
rate it entirely from this and so from the forms of all the other dialects. — 
For the added v in Cyprian no explanation that has been offered is adequate. 

2. Dat. Sg. -at in most dialects, whence also -co (38 ; Thess. ov, 

23). ot in Arcadian, Elean, Boeotian (-oe, -v, -et, 30), and in later 

inscriptions from various parts of Northern Greece (Delphi, AetoUa, 
Acarnania, Epirus, Cierium in Thessaly, Euboea). 

a. In Euboea -ot replaces, earlier -m and may be derived from it, like 
-£t from -rji (see 39). But in general -ot is rather the original locative (cf. 
oiKot) in use as the dative. In some dialects the history of the dative is 
obscure, owing to the lack of early mateHal or the ambiguity of -01 in 
the pre-Ionic alphabets. 

, 3. NOM. Pl. -ot (Boeot. -oe, -v, 30). 

4. Dat. Pl. -oia-i(v), as in Homer, in early Attic, Ionic, where 
it lasts somewhat longer than in Attic (but some early examples 
of -ot?, especially in West Ionic), and Lesbian (but here always 
T019). — Elsewhere only -ot? (Boeot. -v?, -et?, Elean -oip). 

5. Ace. Pl. -01'?, with the same development as -av<;. See 78, 
104.8. 

6. Gen. Dat. Dual, -ouv as in Homer, whence -oiv in most 
dialects in which the form occurs at all. — Elean -oiok, -oioip, 
after the analogy of the dative plural, as Swotot?, airoioip. 

Consonant Steins in General 
107. 1. Ace. Sg. -av in place of the usual -a, with 2; added after 
the analogy of vowel stems, occurs in Cypr. Ijarepav, a(v)Spijd{v)- 
rav, Thess. Kiovav, El. a'yaXp.aToj>5spav (but possibly -(fxopdv from 
nom. -^topa?), and among late inscriptions of various dialects. 

2. Nom. Pl. -ev for usual -e? occurs in late Cretan, having 
originated in pronominal forms. See 119.2 a. 

3. Dat. Pl. -eaai, as in Horn. TroSeercn, probably an extension of 
the form of o--stems, is characteristic of the Aeolic dialects, Les- 
bian, Thessalian (Pelasgiotis), and Boeotian, and is also found in 
early Delphian, East Locrian, Elean (cjivydSea-a-i no. 60 ; elsewhere 
-ot?), and in inscriptions of various Corinthian colonies (Corcyra, 



108] mrLECTION • 83 

Epidamnus, Syracuse). — Heraclean has -aaai in pres. part. evTaa- 
a-iv (perhaps originally *aa-(7i. = Skt. satsu, then evraa-a-i by fusion 

with ei'T- of evTei etc.), irpaa-aovTaaai, etc. oi'i, as Travrot? etc., 

after the analogy of o-stems, is characteristic of Locrian, Elean, 
and the Northwest Greek Koivrj, whence it finds its way iato 
various dialects in later times. 

4. Ace. Pl. -69 in place of -as, i.e. the nom. for the ace, per- 
haps first used in the numeral rerope? owiug to the influence of 
the indeclinable irevTe etc., is seen in Delph. heKareropei (no. 49, 
early fifth century), reropes, SeX^iSe? (in an inscription of early 
fourth century ; but otherwise in Delphian only TeTopa<! etc.), and 
regularly ia Elean ([Tero/aje?, sixth century, irXeCovep, ■^^dpiTep, 
no. 61, etc.) and Achaean (iXda-a-ove'i, Safiocno<f>vX,aKe<;, etc.), also 
in the very late inscriptions of various dialects, even Attic. 

-av<:, after the analogy of a-stems, in Cretan, e.g. OvyaTepavs, 
a-Taripav;, etc. 

(T-Stems 

108. 1. All dialects except Attic have the uncontracted forms. 
Gen. sg. in most dialects -eo?, whence -to? in Boeotian, Cretan, etc. 
(9), -€v? in later Ionic, Ehodian, etc. (42.5). — Ace. sg. masc. and 
ace. pl. neut. -ea, whence -la (9), occasionally »? (42.1). 

a. Proper names in -kXci^s, -kX^s. Cypr. -KXe/res, whence -icXei^ in Attic 
(beside -kA^s), Boeotian (-xXres, -KA.t7s) till about 400 B.C., and regularly 
in Euboean (gen. -Kkim, 2), but in the other dialects regularly -kX^s- Gen. 
sg. Cypr. -nXipttK, Boeot. -kXcios (= Horn. -kX^os, cf. 16), Att. -kXeous, but 
in most dialects -icAeos. 

For names in -icXeas instead of -likeifi, see 166.1. 

2. Proper names often have forms which are modeled after the 
analogy of the masc. a-stems, and this not only in Attic-Ionic 
(e.g. Att. 1,a>KpdTT]v, ^coKparov, Eretr. gen. EvKpaTco, TifioKXew), 
where the agreement in the nom. -rj<; was especially favorable to 
this, but also in the other dialects. Thus ace. sg. in -fjv {-rjv : -779 = 
-dv: -as), e.g. Boeot. AafioreXeiv etc.. Arc. ^iXokX^v, and even in 
appellatives in Lesb. SajJLOTeXrjv etc., Cypr. itreXev. — Dat. sg. in 



84 • GKEEK DIALECTS [108 

-jjt, Lesb. KaX\UXr]i. — Gen. sg. in -v (like -d) in Lesb. @eoyepv 
etc. ; also, perhaps, -??? (like -a?, 105.2 I) in Thess. 'liriTOKpdTet'i 
(or nom. for gen. by mistake ?), ^epeKpdre'; (no. 33 ; or ^epeKpa- 
xe(o)? ?). — Voc. sg. in -rj (like -a) in Arc. 'AreXrj etc., Delph. 
IIoXw/ejoaTT;. 

The numerous Boeotian hypocoristic names in -ei as Mevvei, 
^iWei, @dX\ei, Bevvei, are also best understood as vocatives of 
this type used as nominatives. They correspond to names in -i;?, 
-7]To<;, in other dialects, but in Boeotian follow the analogy of 
(T-stems (gen. sg. -tos, ace. sg. -eiv). 

i-Stems 

109. 1. In all dialects except Attic-Ionic, and, for the most 
part, in Ionic too, the regular type of declension is that with t 
throughout, namely -ts, -to?, -I, -iv, -tes, -icov, -uri, -is (Gret. -tz/?) or 
-ia<i (rare). 

2. The type in -t?, -eoj? (from -r)o<i, as in Homer), -ei, pi. -et?, etc. 
is almost exclusively Attic. In Ionic TroXem? occurs in early in- 
scriptions of Chios (no. 4) and Thasos, and Swdp^i in Teos (no. 3). 
But otherwise in Ionic, and always in other dialects, forms of this 
type are late and to be attributed to Attic influence. In general, 
the Attic datives, -et and -eai, are the first to be adopted, next the 
nom.-acc. pi. -eis, and lastly the gen. sg. -ea><;. Thus in the later 
inscriptions of many dialects it is common to find gen. sg. -io<;, but 
dat. sg. -ei. 

A gen. sg. TTo'Xeo? is found in the Koivrj, and in later inscriptions 
of various dialects. 

3. Lesbian has a nom. pi. -Z? (Trb'Xt?, no. 21), perhaps the ac- 
cusative used as nominative. 

4. Cyprian has such forms as gen. sg. Tifioxapipo^, dat. sg. 
iTToXipt. The p is certainly not original here, and is perhaps due 
to the analogy of v- and 9;u-stems (gen. -vfo^, -ipoi). 

5. A transfer to the type -ts, -tSo?, as frequently in Attic, is 
characteristic of Euboean proper names in -t?, as ArjfjLO')(dpiSo^. 



UlJ INFLECTION 85 

\)-Stems 

110. Nearly all the iuscriptional forms occurring are the usual 
ones of the type -u?, -vo?. Boeot. [f]dano<; (i from e, 9) agrees 
with the dareoi of non-Attic literature. For vti5? see 112.2. 

Nouns in -£us 

111. The stem is t]v, rjf throughout, nom. sg. -eu? (from -tjw, cf. 
37.1), gen. sg.^-jj/ros, etc. 

1. The original forms in -7?fo?, -Tjfi, etc. are preserved, with or 
without the f, in Cyprian (;8a«riXef 09, 'ESaXtl/rt, 'ESaXte/res), Les- 
bian (^aa-i\rjo<; etc.), Boeotian (IlToiepL, ypafinaTetoi}, etc.), Thes- 
salian (/Qao-tXeto? etc.), and Elean (ySao-tXae?), as also in Homer. 

2. Attic only are /Sao-tXeo)?, ^aaiXed, with quantitative metathe- 
sis. But from the beginning of koivi^ influence 0aai\.€a)<; is one of 
the Attic forms most widely adopted by other dialects. 

3. Most dialects, namely Ionic and the West Greek dialects ex- 
cept Elean, have /3acrt\eo9, ^acriXel, etc., with shortening of the rj. 
Generally these are the forms of even the earliest inscriptions 
(Cret. foiK€o<; etc.), but we find Coan teprji, TloXifji, etc. (no. 101, 
which has also 'AX/cTytSe? etc. ; later always iepel etc.), and once 
Ehod. 'ISa/i€Vrjo<; (cf. TlovTooprjiSo';). Beside -eo? sometimes -eu? (cf. 
42.5),as Meg. lapds, but, owing to the confusion with the nominative, 
this spelling is far less common than in the genitive of o--stems. 

Ace. Sg. -ea in Ionic, Locrian, Cret^an. But in Delphian and 
most of the Doric dialects -ij (see 42.1, 43) is the regular form, e.g. 
Delph. te/ji}, /3acn\rj, Lac. ^acnXri, Mess, iepri, Meg. ieprj, Mycen. 
Hepae (no. 76, fifth century), Arg. ^aaiXrj, Ehod. ^aa-tXrj, rypafi- 
fiarfj, Coan jSaa-iXrj, etc. In these dialects -ea is of later occur- 
rence, and due to koivt] influence. 

Nom. Pl. -ee? in Cretan (e.g. Sjoo/aees) and elsewhere, but usu- 
ally contracted to -eli. Also -jj? (in part at least directly from -^es) 
in early Attic, Coan (reTajOTTj?), Laconian {Meyape<i etc., no. 64), 
and Arcadian {Mavnvi)<;). At Cyrene occurs nom. and ace. pL 
lape;. 



86 GREEK DIALECTS [ill 

Ace. Pl. -ea<! in Ionic and Doric (Cret. Spofieav;, cf. 107.4), 
when not replaced by -ei<s of the koiv-i]. 

4. Arcadian has nom. sg. in -?;?, as lep7]<;, rypa(f)i]<;, ^ove<; (Cyprian 
also once ye/sl?, but usually -ev?), ace. sg. hiepe v (cf . 108.2), nom. pl. 
'M.avnvrj';. Some proper names in-?j? = -ev? are also found elsewhere. 

5. In Miletus and colonies occurs nom. sg. I'epeeos, gen. sg. lepeat, 
likewise at Ephesus gen. sg. <E>\e«t) belonging to <I>\eu?. 

Some Irregular Nouns 

112. 1. Zew. Zew or Aev? (84). A((f)o'?, At(/r)t (also Atet, of 
uncertain origin, in an inscription of Corcyra and one of Dodona ; 
cf. Att. AieiTpe<j>rj<;, Cypr. Aipei6efiK), Ai(p)a, in most dialects. But 
also in various dialects (attested for East Ion., Coan, Ther., Cret., 
El.), as in Homer, Ztjvo';, Zrjvi, Zrjpa (Cret. Afjva, Trjva, etc., 37.1). 
Late forms with a are hyper-Doric. 

2. vlo'i, viv<i. Aside from the o-stem forms, the inscriptional 
occurrences are as follows, mostly from a stem viv-: 

Nom. Sg. vw? Cret., Lac, Att. (Att. also vv<i, us). 

Gen. Sg. uteos Cret., Att. ; Thess. Auto? (no. 33). 

Dat. Sg. vlel ArgoL, Phoc, Att. 

Ace. Sg. vivv Arc, Cret., Locr., etc. 

Nom. Pl. utVes Cret. (as in Hom.) ; Att. vleh. 

Dat. Pl. vicun Cret. (as in Horn.), after analogy of iraTpaxn etc. 

Aco. Pl. vlvvf Arg., Cret. ; Att. vlel';. 

3. fi'qv. Stem *p,7)vc7- (cf. Lat. mensis), whence (77.1) Lesb. 
p,rivvo<s, Thess. fieivv6<;, Att. etc. iJLrjv6<;. The nom. */jli^v<; became 
*/aei's (vowel-shortening before- v + cons., but later than the assim- 
ilation of medial va), whence regularly (78) Ion., Corcyr., Meg. 
fiek, Heracl. /^?j?. In Attic, /xet? was replaced by /jltjv formed after 
the analogy of original v-stems m -rjv, -rjvo<;. Elean fi€v<s is perhaps 
due to the analogy of Zeu?, Zt]v6<; (above, 1). 

4. \a?, Hom. \da<;. Originally a neuter o--stem to \da<!, becom- 
ing 6 \ao9, o Xa9, after the analogy of o \i6o<; etc Hence in geni- 
tive beside Xao? also Att. Xaov (Soph.), Cret. \a6. 



114] INFLECTION 87 

5. Cret. f rj/ia nom.-acc. sg. = e^yiia, but gen. sg. ra? prjiiofs from 
a stem in -fia. So also Cret. *afi<^Lhr)fjia, ornament (cf. StdBrj/jia), 
but gen. sg. a/jbiriBT^fian. 

6. x°^'>> which in Attic is declined as a consonant stem (gen. 
sg. xoo'f); is properly a contracted o-stem (from x°F°-) like TrXoO?, 
and remains so in Ionic, e.g. ace. sg. X"^^} g^n. pi. x^^- 

7- Xe'P. XW- See 27 6, 79. 

Comparison of Adjectives 

113. 1. Beside /ieifft)!' and K/oetTTtoi', both with anomalous et, we 
find the normal fie^mv (from *iMeyia)v) in Ionic and Arcadian, and 
Kpeaaav (from *KpeTia>v) in Ionic. For Dor. Kappwv, Cret. «a/3- 
T<ov (both from *Kdpria)v) see 49.2 with a, 80, 81. 

2. Beside TrXe'tai', pi. TrXeove?, ir-stem forms, like Horn. TrXe'e?, 
7r\e'a9, occur in Lesbian (-TrXewi no. 21) and Cretan (e.g. Gortyn. 
TrXies, ifKiav^, ifKia, beside ttXlovo^, irXiova, ifKiov. ifklacriv, Dre- 
ros, is in origin a I'-stem form, cf. 77.1 a). Cf. also Arc. ttXo? (from 
*7r\eo?, cf. 42.5 d) adv. = irXeov. 

Heracl. TroXtcrTo? = TrXeto-ros is formed directly from ttoXu?. 

3. El., Lac. a(a-)(Ti(TTa (also in Aesch.) = a7jj;to-Ta, is formed 
from the compar. aatrov (this regularly from *d<yxi.°'')- 

NUMERALS 
Cardinals and Ordinals 

114. 1-10. 1. Nom. sg. masc. Att. etc. eh, Heracl. 979 (cf. Lac. 
ov8i<s), Cret. eV? {evS S- = evs S-, Law-Code IX. 50 ; see 97.4), from 
*evs. Cf. 78. — Fem. fiia, but, of different origin, Lesb., Thess. i'a, 
as in Homer. Also mase. to? (cf. Hom. dat. sg. neut. la>) in Cretan, 
but with pronominal force = e/eeti'o?. [Boeot. la now in Corinna.] 

Att. etc. ■n-pSiTO';, West Greek and Boeot. irpdro';. The source of 
irpdro^ is uncertain (not *-7rp6aTO';, cf. 44.1). 

2. Svo (Boeot. Siovo, 24) in aU dialects. Lac. once Sve with the 
ending of consonant stems.— Sveiv = Bvolv in late Att. and koivi^. 



88 GEEEK DIALECTS [ll4 

— Plural forms in various dialects, e.g. Chian, Cret., Heracl. hv&v, 
Cret. hvoK, Thess. 8m?, and hval{v) in late Attic and Koivrj. 

3. Att. etc. T/aet?, Cret. r/see?, Ther. t/st}?, froiji *T/3«e?. See 25, 
45.5. — Ace. T/ot9, Cret. t/>ui'? (for t/jiV? with t introduced anew 
from rpiSiv etc.). Under the influence of the indeclinable numerals, 
the nominative or the accusative is used for both cases in some 
dialects, namely nom. r/jet? in ^Attic and elsewhere, and ace. r/at? in 
Boeotian, Heraclean, Delphian, Troezenian, and perhaps in Lesbian. 

TpiTo^, Lesb. repro^ (18). 

4. Att. TeTTa/aes, Ion., Arc. reacrepe'i (also Teacrape; in Ionic and 
Koivrj), Boeot. ireTrape'i, Lesb. ■jreaavpe'i (Horn. Triavpei), West 
Greek TeTope<;. From *qTi'etuer- (cf. Lat. quattuor, Skt. catvdras), 
the differences being due to inherited variations in the second 
syllable {tuer, tuor, tur, tur), and to the divergent development of 
gM (68) and tu (54 e, 81). 

TeTapro<;, Hom. TeV/aaTo?, Boeot. Trerparo';. See 49.2 a. 

5. irevTe, Lesb. Thess. irefiire (68.2). 
irefjj'rrTO'i, Cret. irevTO'i (86.2). 

6. e^, Cret., Delph., Heracl. f e'f. See 52 6. For Boeot. ecr-Kj;- 
SeKOTrj, see 100. 

7. cTTTa. — e/38o/tto9, but Delph. Ae'/3Seyu.os (cf. Delph., Heracl. 
i^SefiijKovTa, Epid. e/SSe/^ato?). 

8. oKTw, Boeot., Lesb. okto (like Swo), Heracl., Ther. hoKrm (58 c), 
Elean ottto (with tt from eiTTd). 

9. ei/i-ea, Delph. eVvj} (42.1). But *ei'f a in Att. ei'ttro?, ivaKoa-ioi, 
Ion. eiVaro?, elvaKocrtoi, Cret. fivaTo<i, etc. See 54. Heracl. hevvea, 
Delph., Ther. AeVaro?, see 58 c. Lesb. eVoro?, see 6, 116 a. 

10. Se'wa, Arc. Se'/co (SutoSe/eo). — Se/caro';, Arc, Lesb. Sckoto?. 
See 6, 116 a. 

115. 11-19. evSexa, rarely Sewa el? (e.g. Heracl. SeKa hev). — 
Att. and Hom. SmSeKa, but in most dialects BvcoSeica, rarely SvoBexa 
(e.g. Boeot. SvoSe'/caro?), Delph., Heracl. Bexa Svo (also late Attic). — 
T/3et9 /tat Se«a, also indecl. rpeia-KaiSeKa (Attic after 300 B.C.) and 
rpia-KaiheKa (Boeotian etc.; cf. 114.3); also heKa rpeh, especially 



117] INFLECTION 89 

when the substantive precedes (so Attic even in fifth century). 

Similaa- variations for 14-19. 

ei/Se/caro?, StoSe/taTO?, SucoSeKiaTo?, hvoheKaTo<i (see above). — 
13th-19th, Att. TpLTO<; kuI Se'/earo?, etc., but Tpeta-KaiSeKaTO'; or 
Tpia-KuiBeKhTo^, etc., in East Ionic, Boeotian, and Lesbian {-S€koto<:). 

116. 20-90. ecKoai (from *i-fi'Koa-i) in Attic, Ionic, Lesbian, 
Arcadian (no occurrence in Cyprian), but fUari, ikutl {I, cf. Ther. 
hiKaSi, no. 107; for h see 58 c) in West Greek with Boeotian and 
Thessalian, with t not et, and t retained (61). The ei of Heracl. 
feiKan beside pUari is due to the influence of Att. eiKoai. — 
Att. etc. TpiaKovra, Ion. rpii^Kovra. — TerrapaKOVTa, reaaepaKovra, 
Tea-a-apaKovra, TreTTapuKovra (see 114.4), Delph., Corcyr., Heracl. 
reTpatKovra (so doubtless in all "West Greek dialects previous to 
Attic influence). — TrevrriKovTa, e^ijKOvra {pe^rjKOVTo), etc., with tj 
in all dialects (but Ion. o'ySaiKovTa, 44.2). — '■ Delph,, Heracl. he^Se- 
fiiJKOVTa, Heracl. hoySon]Kovra, hevevijKovTa. See 114.7-9. — Gen. 
Tea<T[ep']aK6vTO)v, "TrevT-qKovToav, etc. in Chios, where the use of such 
inflected genitives (also SeKcov) is one of the Aeolic features of the 
dialect (cf. Trefiireav, Sexav in Alcaeus, also rpirjKovrwv in Hesiod). 

Att., Ion. etKocTTo? etc., Boeot. fixaa-To^ {-KacrT6<; doubtless in all 
West Greek dialects also ; but Thess. Ikoo-to's), Lesb. et/cota-ro?, rpid- 
Koia-TO<;, i^i]KOia-TO<;). 

a. The earliest form of the ordinals is that in -kootos (from -kmt-to-, 
cf. Skt. trihfat-tama- etc.). Under the influence of the cardinals in -Kovra 
this became -koo-to'; in Attic etc.; in Lesbian, under the same influence, 
*-KovoTos, -whence -koujtik (cf. 77.3, 78). To the same analogy is due 
the o of a.K(Kn, and of the hundreds in -koctioi (e.g. rpiaKoa-ioi after' rptaKovra), 
instead of the more original a in pUaTi (Skt. vihfati-, Lat. vigintl), -Kanoi, 
-Kacrioi (cf. e/cardv, Skt. fatam, Lat. centum). It is possible that a still further 
extension of this analogical o is to be assumed in explanation of Arc. 
hcKOTOv, Arc, Lesb. Sckotos, Arc. 84ko, Lesb. tvoros. 

117. 1. 100. Att. etc. eKarov, Arc. heKorov. See 6, 116 a. 

2. 200-90Q. Att.-Ion., Lesb. -Koa-ioi, West Greek, Boeot. (and 
doubtless Thess.) -kcitioi. Arc. -Kacnoi (with East Greek a, but 
West Greek a). See 61.2, 116 a. 



90 GREEK DIALECTS ["7 

The a of TpLCLKoaioi. {Ion. rpivcoaioi) is extended to Simcocnoi 
(Ion. ScrjKoaioi.), and the a of TerpaKoaioi, e-n-TaKoaioi, evaicoaiot. to 
irevTaKoatoi, iJ^aKoaioi, oKTUKoaioi (but Lesb. oktcokoo-ioi). 

3. 1000. Att. x'>-">' from *x«J-Xtot, but Ion. xe''A.toi, Lac. x^Xtot, 
Lesb., Thess. j(;eXXiot, from *xea^\i'Oi. See 76. 

PRONOUNS 
Personal Pronouns ' 

118. Singular. 1. The stems, except in the nominative, begin 
with : 1. e/A- or /u.-. — 2. original tu, whence East Greek a-, "West > 
Greek t- {Teo<;, riv, re). But enclitic rot is from a form without u 
(cf. Skt. fe), and occurs also in Ionic (Horn., Hdt., etc.). Horn, reolo 
and reiV are from the possessive stem teuo- (120.2). — 3. original 
su, whence p- in some dialects {feo<;, poi, flv), otherwise '. 

2. NoM. 6706, e^div (Boeot. tw, Iwv, 62.3). — Att.-Ion., Lesb., Arc. 
(7v, Dor. TV, Boeot. tov. See 61.6. 

3. Gen. a. -eio (Horn, ifieio etc. like tolo), whence -eo, later 
Ion. -ev, Att. -ou. — &. -eo? in West Greek, as lit. Dor. e/xe'o?, reo?, 
Locr. f eo9. — c. -0ei', as lit. Dor. ifieSev, Epid. e^ei'. 

4. Dat. a. -ot, as ifxoi, jjlol, aoi, croi (lit. Dor. rot' rot, lit. Ion. 
Tot), ol, ot (Arg., Cret., Delph., Cypr., Lesb. /rot). — 6. -tv in West 
Greek (where also -01, but mostly in the enclitic forms, as fJLoi, 
never ifioi, poi, ol, and rot, though also rot'), as Cret., Calymn., 
Ehod., Delph., and lit. Dor. efiiv, lit. Dor. tCv, Cret. piv. 

5. Ace. 1. e'/ite, /^e. — 2. Att.-Ion., Lesb. o-e, lit. Dor. re (Cret. 
Tfc, written rpe, in Hesych.); also lit. Dor. and Epid. tv (nom. 
used as ace). — 3. e (fe); also lit. Dor. and Epid. vCv. 

119. Plural. 1. The forms of the first and second persons con- 
tain, apart from the endings, aa-fi- (cf. Skt. asmdn etc.) and uo-ju.- (cf. 
Skt. yusmdn etc.), whence Lesb., Thess. a/i/^-, Lesb. v/ti/i-, elsewhere 

1 As the personal pronouns, especially in the singular, are of comparatively 
rare occurrence in inscriptions, some forms are added which are quotable only 
from literary sources, — but only a few out of the great variety, for which see 
Kiihner-Blass I, pp. 580 ft. 



121] INFLECTION 91 

a/i- (Att.-Ion. rittr) or a/A-, vfx,-. See 76, and, for the spiritus asper 
or lenis in the first person, 57, 58 6. 

2. NoM. -€S in aU dialects except Attic-Ionic, where it was 
replaced by -et?. Lesb. a/i/xe?, u/i^e?, Dor. etc. o/ie?, i/xe?. 

a. In late Cretan a/ies was frequently replaced by d/iiei/ under the influ- 
ence of 1 pi. verbal forms in which Dor. -;u.£s was often replaced by the KotviJ 
-/lev. That is, aft-iv for d/u.€'s after ^ipoiixv for ^ipofxjei. From d/xei', -ev was 
extended to other pronouns and to participles, as ^jucv, tivcv, dKoixravrei;, etc. 

3. Gex. -etwr (Horn. ■rjiieCwv), whence -etov, -uov (9), -Siv. Lesb. 
afip,€(ov, Thess. afifieovv. El. afieav, Dor. afiecov, a/iicov (Cret.), 
later dfiav. 

4. Dat. -t(i'). Lesb. dufuv, dfifii, etc.. Dor. a/niV, ir/iti/, Att.-Ion. 
^/ity, vfuv. So Dor. o-^ti', <r<^t, but Att.-Ion. a-^icri, Arc. a^ei<i, the 
latter not satisfactorily explained. 

5. Ace. -e in all dialects except Attic-Ionic, where it was re- 
placed by-ea9,-a9. Lesb., d/ifie, vfifj-e, Thess. dfifie, Dor. etc. dfie, vfie. 

Possessives 

120. 1. iiju)<i. — PL Dor. etc. dfi6<; (Lesb. d/j,fio<;) and a/xeVe/ao? 
(Lesb. afiixerepo';, Att.-Ion. 57/ierepo9). 

2. a. tuo-, Att. etc. cro'i?. 6. teuo-, Dor., Lesb. reo'?, Boeot. rto? (all 
in literature only). Both forms in Homer. — PI. v/xoV and vfj.eTepo<i. 

3. a. SUO-, Att. etc. 09, Cret. /roV. 6. seuo-, Dor. (lit.), Thess. eoV. 
Both forms in Homer. — PI. a^6^ and a-<f>eT€po^. 

Reflexive Pronouns 

121. Aside from the reflexive use of the forms of the personal 
pronouns as given in 118, 119, especially that of the third person 
which is itself a reflexive in origin, various forms of expression are 
employed, as follows : 

1. Combinations of the personal pronouns with avT6<;, each keep- 
ing its own inflection, as in Homer (a-ol avrai etc.). So Cret. piv 
avrSi = eavra. Cf. also, with the possessive, Cret. ra pa auras = 
TO, eavTT]';. 



92 GEEEK DIALECTS [l2l 

1 

2. Compounds of the same elements, with contraction, leaving 

only the second part declined. Att. i^iavrov, aeavTov or aavTov, 
eaVTOv or avrov (also late earov, drav, with a from dv ; Coan tjvt&v 
with 7] from ea ; Thess. euTot, evrov). Ion. (lit.) ifiecovTOv etc. The 
forms found in Ionic inscriptions are like the Attic, and probably 
are Attic. 

3. avToi alone, as sometimes in Homer. Thus Delph. avrov = 
ifiavTov (SGDI. 2501.4), El. avrap = eavrrj'; (no. 61.17), Lac. avrS 
= eavTov (no. 66). 

4. avTo? aiiTO'i, either with each declined separately, or, oftener, 
merged into compounds of somewhat varying form. 

This combination is comparatively late, replacing the earlier 
types mentioned under 1 and 3. It is most frequent in Delphian and 
Boeotian, but is found in several of the other West Greek dialects, 
and probably even in Attic (Kiihner-Blass I, p. 600, anm. 5). 

a. avros a^Tss. Delph. avroi TrortaiTous, Boeot. xar'airii (= airoi) avroii'. 

b. avTocravTos. Delph. avTocravTov etc., Boeot. {nrip avrocravtii), Heracl. 
fitT airrocravTlov, Cret. aiTotravTois, etc. 

c. averavTos. Delph. aixravrov etc., Boeot. ava'avrutv, Cret. avcratiTaSi 
Argol. (Calauria) avo-auTas. 

d. dcravTos. Boeot. derauTv (late). 

e. avo'WTO's. Delph. aicrwras etc. See 33 a. 

f. avrauTos. Heracl. a.vra.vTo.% (as in Sophron and Epicharmus), Aegin. 
avravTOv. 

g. Sicil. gen. sg. airoira (Segesta), gen. pi. avriivra (Thermae). Prob- 
ably from avraTov, avTarSiv (cf. late earoij, above, 2), with transposition of 
the last two syllables. 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

122, The article. Nom. pi. rot', tui, as in Homer, in the West 
Greek dialects except Cretan, and in Boeotian. Att. etc. oi, ai, after 
the analogy of o, fj. For o, a in some dialects which in general 
have ', see 58 a. 

Forms with added i, used like ohe, are found in Elean (ro-i, ra-i) 
and Boeotian (rav-i, toi-i, tv-i). 

For the relative use, see 126. 



126] INFLECTION 93 

123. Thess. o-ve, Arc. o-vi, Arc.-Cypr. S-vv, = 6Be. Thess. rove, 
reive, and, with both parts inflected (cf. Horn. Tota-Secn), gen. sg. 
Toti/eos, gen. pi. Tovvveow. — Arc. roovC (gen. sg.), Toivi, etc. Cf. also 
Boeot. TrpoTTjvi (136.1). — Cypr. ovv, Arc. raw, tovvv, also (late)' 
rdvvvv, Toavvv. Cf. Horn., Boeot., Cypr. vv. 

124. 0VT09. Nom. pi. roOrot, ravrai, like to(, rai, in West Greek 
(examples from Cos, Delphi, Ehodes, Selinus). Att. etc. ovroi, avrai, 
after ovtov etc. Boeotian, with t replaced by ' throughout, ovrov, 
ovTcov, etc. — Interchange of av and ov. Att. gen. pi. fern, tovtwv 
after masc, neut. ; vice versa El. neut. tuvtcov, due to influence of 
Tavra. ov throughout is Boeotian (ovto, ovto) and Euboean {tovtu, 
rovret, also ivTOvOa = ivravda). So also Delph. rovra, rovTa<; (but 
also TavTai). For the spelling with instead of OV, see 34 a. 

125. 1. iKelvo<;. Ion. Keivo's, Lesb., Cret., Ehod., Coan Kfjvo<;, both 
from *Ke-evov. Cf. 25 with a. — Trjvo';, of different origin (*Te-ei'09), 
in Delphian, Heraclean, Argolic (Aegina), Megarian, as well as in 
Sicilian Doric writers (Theocr., Sophron, Epicharmus). 

2. aiT6<;. Neut. avrov in Cretan, as sometimes in Attic inscrip- 
tions. 

Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns 

126. The relative o? occurs in all dialects. But the relative use 
of forms of the article, frequent in Homer and Herodotus, is usual 
in Lesbian (so always in the earlier inscriptions and nearly always 
in Alcaeus and Sappho; o? in later inscriptions is due to koivij 
influence, as shown by the spiritus asper, kuO' oy, etc.), Thessalian 
(rd, KaTTairep, but also o? in an early metrical inscription), and 
Arcado-Cyprian (Arc. o-jrep, rai, rol'i, etc., Cypr. o, tov, etc., but also 
Arc. dv, Cypr. oi, oi). So also in Boeotian in a fourth-century in- 
scription (no. 41), but later only 09 (cf. Lesbian). It is also Hera- 
clean (tov, rd, etc. ; so often in Epicharmus), but in most West 
Greek dialects it occurs, if at all, only in later inscriptions (so in 
late Delphian and Cretan, never in the earlier period). 

For the demonstrative .use of o?, cf. Heracl. at fiev . . . Si Se 
(L33). 



94 GREEK DIALECTS [i27 

127. Cret. orepo-;, which of two, is the true relative correlative of 
■n-oTepo-! (cf. Skt. yataras- beside kataras), and so related to the 
usual oTTOTe/oo? as otos to oirolo^, ore to mroTe. 

128. Ti9, Ti?. Cypr. at';, Arc. ffi?, see 68.3, Thess. nk, Kt? (/cti'e?), 
see 68.4. Cret. dat. sg. tIixl, m. oTifii = orivi, and fi-^Sifii = fj-ijTivi, 
from *Ti-aiu with the same pronominal sm as in Skt. kasmin, • 
kasmdi, Umbr. pusme, esmei, etc. — Meg. (Ar.) ad = Tiva from *Tta, 
cf . Att.-Ion. cLTTa, aaaa from *aTta. 

129. The indefinite relative oarK;, otk. 

1. offTK, with both parts declined, in various dialects, e.g. Locr. 
hoinve'i, Cret. ol'rti'es, Boeot. mariva';. 

2. oTt?, with only the second part declined, in various dialects, 
e.g. Delph. ortvo?, otivl, Cret. orifii (128). Lesb. otti, regularly from 
*6B-TL, and by analogy oTTtre? etc. Cf. also Lesb. oinraxi, oirira, etc. 
La all other dialects the double consonants are simplified, presum- 
ably under the influence of the simple rt? etc. 

a. On account of Locr. /roTi (no. 56) it is generally assumed that the first 
part of OTIS is not from a form of the relative stem seen in os, oerris, which 
was originally jp- (Stt. ya-') , but a generalizing particle o-f o8, related in form 
and use to the so in Eng. whoso, whosoever (Old Eng. swa hwa swa). But so 
long as the one occurrence of Locr. port is the only example of a form with 
f (even the other early Locrian inscription, no. 55, has Adrt), there is decid- 
edly a possibility that this is only an error. 

3. Neuter forms in -ti, with only the first part declined, in Cre- 
tan, e.g. an = driva, on i.e. Sn = ovnvo^. 

130. Cret. 6Teio<; = ottoioi;, but used hke adjectival o(Tn<;, as 
oreto? Se Ka K6a-fio<; firj jSepSrji, yvvd oreia Kpe/jbara fie exei, oreiai 
Se (sc. yvvaiKi) irpodff eSoKe. For the form (also Hesych. Teiov ■ 
TToiov, KpTjre?), cf. Horn, reo, reo), etc. 

131. Interrogative pronouns used as indefinite relatives. So regu- 
larly in Thessalian, e.g. /ci's ke 'yivveiTei = oo-rts dv yiyvrjrai, Sie ki (in 
form Sid Ti) = Sto'rt, ttok ki (in form irpo'i ti) = on, <f>vXd<} Trotas kc 
ySeWetret = (^wXtj? ottoiIi? (^crrtvo?) dv fiovXrjTai. Elsewhere the 
use of Tt'? = oo-Tt? is, with some rare exceptions in literature, found 
only in late Greek. In Cypr. oiri ai<; Ke = oa-n<; av, the indefinite rela- 
tive force is given by the oVt, an adverbial form of obscure formation. 



132] IKFLECTION 95 

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS 
Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and Manner 
132. 1. -ov. Place where. Att.-Ion. ttov, oirov, avrov, o/xov, etc. 
These are of genitive origin, and are specifically Attic-Ionic. 

2. -ei. Place where. These are the West Greek equivalents of 
the Attic-Ionic adverbs in -ov (above, 1), occurring in various Doric 
dialects, in Delphian, and in Boeotian, e.g. el, irel, irei (Cret. ai wei = 
eX TTOv), oirei, reiSe, Tovrel, rrjvel, avrel (Boeot. avri), aWei, dfiei, 
li-qhajxel, ovOufiei. Here also, by analogy, Heracl. worexei = irpoae- 
X&J?, and Delph. iirexei. The ending is of locative origin, and occurs 
even in Attic-Ionic in ixel (cf. also eVei). 

3. -Of. Place whither (also where), ol, irol, ottol, etc. in numer- 
ous dialects, as in Attic. With -?, Delph. 049. Cf. also Crop. tJxoi, 
where, formed from ^%{ (5 a). This ending, like -ec, is of locative ori- 
gin, and means simply ^Zace where (cf. oiicoi, 'la-ff/xol), but in these 
pronominal adverbs the prevailing force is whither. 

4. -VI. Place whither (also where). Cret. vt, oTrut, with -9, giving 
-VK or -U9, Ehod. vh, Arg. u9 {for whatever purpose), lit. Dor. irvi, 
Ehod. 07ru9. Cf. also Cret. ttXioi (to 7rXie9, 113.2), lit. Lesb. TvlSe, 
TTTjXvi, aXkvi, Delph. evSv<;. This type originated in *Trvi, ottvi, 
from the stem ttu- (I.E. qifi/^, cf. Skt. Icu-tas, whence, Osc. pu-f, where). 

5. -at (Att.-Ion. -7)1). Place where, whither, and especially maru- 
ner. Thus ai, irai, ottui how and where in various Doric dialects, in 
Delphian whither, Lesb. ^inra where, aXka elsewhere (a from -di, 
see 38), Cret., Corcyr. aXXat otherwise, Heracl. iravrac in all direc- 
tions. The indefinite ttui (cf. Corcyr. oWm irai in any other way) 
is used in Cyprian as a strengthening particle, anyhow, indeed (ko,'; 
Trai, and indeed, iSe irai, then indeed, no. 19.4,12). Cret. ol, oTrat 
are used in the sense of as, in whatever way, but also as final con- 
junctions, and at is also used as a temporal conjunction. 

a. Beside these dative-locative forms in -at there existed a type with 
original -a (Att.-Ion. -1;), probably of instrumental origin, to which belong 
Lac. ravTo. ha.T = ravrrj gre, in such a way as (no. 66), Dor. a^i, where (Etym. 



96 GREEK DIALECTS [l32 

Magn., Hesych.) = Horn, ^x'- ^'^^^ particle -xt- But for the most part it is 
impossible to distinguish this from the commoner type in original -at, to 
which many forms in -d may equally well belong (as such we have reckoned 
Lesb. oTTira etc.). In Attic-Ionic there is the same ambiguity (the tradi- 
tional spelling varying between -y and 1;), with the added possibility that 
a given form (e.g. owrj, where) may belong under 6, below. 

6. -■»;. Place where and time when. Cret. 17, where, but usually 
when, oire, where and v}hen, Lac. AoVe, as, ire-'KOKa = irco-iTOTe, El. 
ravTe, [rJeSe, in this place, Meg. rlSe, aXke, here, elsewhere. Of this 
same formation are rj whether, Cypr. e = el (134.1), El. eire = eireC. 

7. -to. Place whence (Att.-Ion. -^ei'). Lit. Dor. (S, ttw, etc., Cret. 
o, OTTO, TwSe, Locr. ho, hoiro, Coan, Mess. tovtS). Similarly Delph. 
foiK<o,from the house. These are of ablative origin (I.E. -6d, cf. early 
Lat. -od, Skt. -dd). 

a. These adverbs are not to be confounded with another class, mostly 
from prepositions, meaning /)Zace where or whither and occurring in Attic- 
Ionic also, as av<i>, Kario, l^a), etc. To this belong Delph. tvSoi, within, Coan 
kKariput, on each side of (ci. iKacrripu)). 

b. Although probably all the West Greek dialects formed the pronominal 
adverbs of place whence in -u, forms like odiv being late, the -Oar appears in 
adverbs derived from place names, as Arg. 'iopaiOoOev, Corinth. TiepaioOev. 
Cf. also 133.1. 

8. -6)9. Manner, co?, tto)?, oTraj?, etc. in all dialects. 

a. Final conjunctions, ws and oirtos are the usual final conjunctions, and 
of these oirojs is by far the more frequent, though &s is not uncommon, 
especially in the earlier inscriptions. Early Cretan uses neither, but rather 
OTrai or, once, ai (above, 5). ha is rare, except in very late times. 

9. -re, -Ta, -ica. Time when, ore, rare, irore in Attic-Ionic and 
Arcado-Cyprian (Arc. tots, Cypr. ore, fieiroTe), ora, ttStu in Les- 
bian, oKa etc. in West Greek (and presumably Boeotian), e.g. Cret. 
oica, Toica, iroKa, Lac. TreTroica, El. toku, Delph. oxa, -voku. (oKKa, 
occurriug in Ehodian, Laconian, and literary Doric, is for oku «a.) 
Even Attic has -ra and -ku in some words, as etra, eireiTU (Ion. 
also eireiTe), •qvlKa. 

a. Temporal conjunctions. Besides ore. etc. and liru (above, 2), note the 
temporal use of Cret. ai, ^, oire (above, 5, 6). For so long as, until, we find 



183] INELECTION 97 

1) lojs, as (41.4), 2) loTE, ei/TE (cf. 135.4), 3) Cret. /icerro (also prep, ixerrk), 
Arc. ixvtt', Thess. /u.eWo8t, Horn. jaaT</)a, all related, but of obscure forma- 
tion, 4) /J-ixph °-XP^> ^th and ■without oE, 5) eis o, e's o, 6) Boeot. iv toi' 
(cf. 136.1). 

Prepositional and Other Adverbs 

133. 1. -dev, -8e, -6a. In adverbs like irpoadev, Lesbian has 
usually -6e (nearly always in inscriptions ; in the lyric also -dev 
and -6a), while the West Greek dialects show -6a (which is also 
Attic in evda etc.), but also -6e, -6ev. Lesb. irpoade, evep6e, Dor. 
(gram.) irpoada etc., Heracl. ep,Trpoada, avmOa, Cret. irpodda (85.3), 
Delph. TTpoa-Ta (85.1), but also Meg. irpoade, Argol. ep-nrpoade, Cret. 
€vSo6ev. Cf. also Arc. irpocrdayevi^i;. 

2. -Se {-^e), -So. Arc. -Ba is seen in dvpSa (Hesych.) = 6vpa^e, 
and probably avoB' (no. 16.17) is avwSa. Cf. avadev, dvw6a. 

3. For Delph., Locr. ej(66<! = c/ero'?, see 66. Hence, after the anal- 
ogy of other adverbs in -o) (132.7 a) and -ot (132.8), Delph., Epid. 
ex6a), Epid. ex6oi. 

4. From ei'Sow are formed — besides Att.-Ion. evSo6ev (also 
Cretan), evBodi, Ion. evSoVe (Ceos) — Cret., Delph., Meg., Syrac. eVSo's 
(after ei/ro's), Delph. evSa, Lesb., Epid., Syrac. ewSot, Delph. evSw?. 

5. Beside e^ta (132.7 a) are formed, after the analogy of other 
adverbs, Lac. e^ei, Cret., Syrac. efot, Dor., Delph. e^o^ (after aero? 
etc., cf. ivSo'i). 

6. -49, -IV, -t. Forms with adverbial -? or -v sometimes inter- 
change with each other and with forms without either -s or -v, as 
the numeral adverbs in -kk, -klv, -kl. Thus in most dialects -Kts, 
sometimes -ki, but -kiv in Lac. rerpaKtv, hrraKiv, oKraKiv, Cret. 
6d6dKiv = 6adKi<i. Likewise -iv in other adverbs of time (cf. Att. 
irdXiv), as Cret. ainiv, Eheg. avOiv (Hdn.) = avTi,<;, av6K, avOi, 
Cret. avrap.epiv = av6r]p,epov. El. varapiv = vffrepov. Here also 
Thess. div beside Lesb. at (also aliv Hdn.), Ion. au' (also aihaap.o's, 
under perpetual lease) = usual ate?, ot'et, atVi/ (all from *at/ri, *at- 
/riV, *a4fe9, etc., cf. Cypr., Phoc. alpeC), while a corresponding form 
in -49 is to be seen in Cypr. iipak, forever, a combination hke Att. 



98 GEEEK DIALECTS [l33 

ets aei, containing i) = etri and ak from *alfi<s (omission of f pecu- 
liar, but cf. Trat?, 53). 

Cf. also Epid. avevv, El. avevf = avev (Meg. and late lit. avi<s is 
formed after xw/ot'?), Dor. efiirdv (Pindar) beside e>7ra? = efi-irTj<i, 
Coan, Rhod., Ther. e^av = e^fj<;. 

134. 1. The conditional conjunction, el in Attic-Ionic and Ar- 
cadian ; al in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian (^), and all the West 
Greek dialects ; e (^) in Cyprian. 

a. ■^ in other dialects than Cyprian is ^mply whether, e. g. Heracl. Tab. 
(no. 74) 1.125. In Cretan there is no true conditional ^ beside at, as was 
once supposed, but rather a temporal ^, for which see 132.6. 

2. av, Ke, Ku. dv is only Attic-Ionic and Arcadian. In all other 
dialects the unrelated «e, /ca is used, — tee in Lesbian (also icev), 
Thessalian, and Cyprian, ku in the West Greek dialects and Boeotian. 

a. Arcadian once had kc, like Cyprian, and a relic of this is to be seen 
in the k which appears, where there would otherwise be hiatus, between d 
and a following av, which had regularly replaced k£ as a significant element 
(probably through prehistoric Ionic influence, cf. p. 7). Thus regularly ei 
K &v, or better tix av, since eik has become a mere by-form of « (like ovk 
beside oi), but « 8' av. Once, without av, cIk tTrt So/ua Trvp hroiai, where 
some assume a significant k in place of usual Sv, but best classed with the 
subjunctive clauses without av (174). 

h. In Attic-Ionic, ti combines with av, — in Attic to eav or dv, in Ionic 
to rjv- 

c. The substitution of d for al belongs to the earliest stage of Attic 
(Koarq) influence in the West Greek dialects, but that of av for xa only to 
the latest, being rarely found except where the dialect is almost wholly 
Koarfj. Hence the hybrid combination a ko. is the rule in the later inscrip- 
tions of most West Greek dialects. 

3. KaC. Arc-Cypr. wa? (also kol, for which see 97.2), the relation 
of which (as of the rare Cypr. kot') to icai is obscure. In Arcadian 
this occurs only in the early Mantinean inscription, no. 16, else- 
where Kai. See 275. 

4. he. Thessalian uses jxa, related to fiev, for 8e', e.g. to fik yfrd- 
^UTfia, TUfi fiefi lav . . . Ta/i /icL aWav (no. 28.22; rdv Be aXXav 
L 45 is due to koiv^ influence). 



135] INFLECTION 99 

5. vv, identical with -w in Arc.-Cypr. 6vv = oSe (123), and with 
Horn, vw, vv, occurs as an independent particle in Cyprian and 
Boeotian, e.g. Cypr. Svfdvoi vv, Bokoi vv, Boeot. aKovpv vv 'ev6a>. 

6. tSe, in form = Horn, the, occurs in Cyprian introducing the 
conclusion of a condition {IMirai then indeed, ISe then no. 19.12,25), 
or a new sentence (tSe and no. 19.26). 



PREPOSITIONS 
Peculiarities in Form 

135. 1. For apocope of the final vowel, see 95. 

2. For assimilation of final consonants, see 96, 97, 99. — e? = 
e/e, 100. 

3. For 6v = avd, see 6. — Iv = iv, 10. — cnrv = utto, 22. — Karv 
= Kara., 22. — vTrd = vtto, formed after the analogy of Kara etc., in 
Elean (viraSvycoK) and Lesbian (gram.). 

4. iv, ek. The inherited use of iv with the accusative (cf. the 
use of Lat. in) is retained in the -Northwest Greek dialects (El., 
Locr., Phoc. ; but once e? in an early Delphian inscription, no. 50) 
together with Boeotian and ThessaHan, and in Arcado-Cyprian (Iv). 
Elsewhere this was replaced by an extended form iv-i, whence ets, 
e?. See 78. 

Similarly evre = eare in Locrian, Delphian (hevTe, 58 c), and the 
Northwest Greek koivi]. But Boeotian, in spite of iv, has erre 
= etrre. 

5. fJ.€Td, -TreSd. weSd, unrelated to fierd in origin, is used in its 
place in Lesbian, Boeotian (probably in Thessalian too, though not 
yet quotable). Arcadian (ttc, 95), Argolic, Cretan, and Theran. 
(Most of these dialects show also /lerd, but at a time when koiv^ 
influence is probable.) So also in compounds, as Cret. ireBexeiv, Arg. 
ireSdyayov, irehdpoiKoi = /leTOiKoi, ireSiov = neremv, and proper 
names, as Boeot. YlehdKOiv, Argol. IXeSa'/cptTo?. The name of the 
month HeSaryeiTWO';- or (by fusion of IleSa- and Mera-) Hera- 
j€iTWO<i (or -to?) = Att. MeTayeirvuov occurs in Ehodes, Cos, 



100 GREEK DIALECTS [l35 

Calymna, Megara, Sicily, and Magna Graecia, where ireSd alone is 
not attested. 

6. •jrp6<!. There are two independent series of forms, one with 
and one without the p, each with variation between final -? and -n. 
1) Horn. TTjOOTi (cf. Skt. prati), Cret. Tropri (70.1), Att.-Ion., Lesb. 
TTjOo'?. Cf. also Pamph. irepT, I^esb. (gram.) Tr/ser. 2) itoti (cf. Avest. 
paHi) in the West Greek dialects (except Cretan) with Thessalian 
and Boeotian, Arc.-Cypr. 'jr6<i. 

a. Although the relation of tt/oos, ttos to irporC, irori can hardly be the 
same in origin as that of StStucrt to Si'SmTt (irpoa-C, iroari are unknown, and 
moreover the assumption of apocope is unlikely for Att.-Ion. tt/jos), and 
indeed is far from clear, yet, barring the appearance of irporri, ttoti beside 
irpds in Homer, the distribution of the t and cr forms is the same. See 61. 
But note that Trpds is universal in wpoa-Oa etc. (133.1). 

b. Another form, Trot, is most frequent in Argolic, where it occurs regu- 
larly before dentals, e.g. iroi tov Oeov, iroidip^v, iroiTa(Tuav (but irori^Xeipwi, 
irtrr avTov). There are also several examples in Delphian, all before dentals 
except TTOiKecjidXaun', and one each in Locrian, Corinthian, Cretan, and 
Boeotian (IIoiSikos, very likely an alien). 

Just how this Trot arose is uncertain. Of the various suggestions offered, 
the most plausible is perhaps, since with but few exceptions iroi' occurs only 
before dentals, that ttoti became wot through loss of t by dissimilation. 

7. aw, ^vv. ^vv, as in Homer, in early Attic, elsewhere avv. 
But Ion. ^vvo'i fromi *^w-to'?. Cypr. vyyep^o'; • avWa^'i] (Hesych.). 

8. Cypr. v = eTrl, e.g. v Tv%a = evrt rvy^r), ix^pov = eTriy^eipov. 
Probably cognate with Skt. ud, Engl, out (cf. va--Tepo<; = Skt. ut- 
taras). There are traces of the same prefix in a few Ehodian and 
Boeotian proper names. 

Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction 

136. 1. Dative instead of the usual genitive construction in 
Arcado-Cyprian. 1) airv. Arc. airv rat (sc. a/iepai), Cypr. airii rai 
^ai. — 2) e'|. Arc. e? rol epyoi, Cypr. e'^ tm ^ai. — 3) irepL Arc. 
wepl Toir-vl, Cypr. irepl TratSC — 4) virep. Arc. vTrep rat ra<i Tro'Xto? 
i\evdepiai. — 5) viro. Arc. irdvToov tS>v yeyovorcov evyvfo/Movav inrp 



136] INFLECTION 101 

ral iroXi. — 6) irapd. Arc. irapa rai ISiai ■ir6\i,from their own city. 
— 7) TTeBd. ire rot? foiKidTai[<;]. — 8) ivC iirl ie[pofivdfjLocri To]t?. 
e| with dative occurs also in Pamphylian ; -n-po with dative in 
Boeot. irpoTqvi, formerly, i.e. irpo rai-vi (sc. ajxepai. Cf. Thess. 
xnrirpo ray, sc. afiepa<;, just previously, no. 28.43, and Boeot. iv rdv, 
sc. a/iepav, until, no. 43.49). 

a. This growth, at the expense of the genitive, of the dative (locative) 
construction, which in the case of most of the above-mentioned prepositions 
was also an inherited one (cf. irepi, wro, etc. with dative), and its extension 
even to airv and ii, was probably furthered by the influence- of the most 
frequent locative construction, that with iv (tv). 

2. Trapd at, with, with accusative instead of dative. This is found 
in the Northwest Greek dialects, including Thessalian and Boeotian, 
and in Megarian and Laconian, e.g. Thess. rot m-ap' afifie TroXirevfia- 
Toi; (no. 28 ; corresponding to rov irap'vfilv iroXnevfiaTO'; of Philip's 
letter in the KOLvrj), Boeot. d crovyypacfyo'; Trap Yi<j>idSav, Delph. ira- 
pajxeivdrm he ^ikw irapa M.vaa-t^evov, El. -rreTroXiTevKoip Trap' ap-e. 

a. Much later, and rarely seen in dialect inscriptions, is the more gen- 
eral confusion between the dative with verbs of rest and the accusative with 
verbs of motion, and the final supremacy of the accusative construction, as 
ifuivav as tov mkov- 

3. TTjOo'?, by, in the sight of, with accusative instead of genitive, 
in Elean. ofioaavTei irbir) rov Oeov tov 'OXwinov, — on Sokcoi 
Ka(X)\iTepo<; ey^ev 7ro(T) rov Oedv,^ — peppev airov 7ro(T) rov Aia, 
he shall he jvdged guilty in the eyes of Zeus. In a later Elean 
inscription the same idea is expressed by (jtevyerco irbir) tm Aiop 
rmXvp.irim atfiarop, where both the genitive construction and the 
use of ^evyco instead of the genuine Elean peppco are concessions 
to Attic usage. This Elean use is only a step removed from that of 
7r/>o'?, in relation to, with accusative. 

4. El. dvev^ = dvev, with ace. instead of gen., as dvev; ^oXdv. 

5. Kard, according to, with genitive instead of accusative, in 
Locrian. Kaff cSv = kuB' d, — Ka(T) rovSe = Kara rdSe, — Ka(T) 
tSs ffwy/SoXas. 



102 GKEEK DIALECTS [l36 

6. eVtwith the dative of the deceased person, in epitaphs. This 
occurs in a few early epitaphs in Lesbian, Phocian, and Locrian, but 
is especially common in Boeotian, e.g. eTrt YheKaSdfioe efii, iirl '0«t- 
/Sae. In most dialects the name of the deceased appears in the 
nominative. 

7. afji,^i. In most dialects afi^i is obsolete. In the phrase ol 
afi^i nva, which survives also in Attic prose, it occurs in Argive 
and Ehodian ; in Argive also once in purely local force. In Cretan 
it is used freely in the meaning aboul^, concerning (as in Homer), 
with dative' or accusative, e.g. at Se k awl SdXoi fioXidvn, if they 
contend about a slave, — avirl rhv halaiv, about the division. 

8. avTi. Besides the usual meanings instead of, in return for, 
which are found everywhere, the following uses are worthy of note. 
1) The original local meaning, before, in front of, occurs in an 
Attic and in a Delphian inscription. So frequently Cret. avn fiai- 
Tvpov, in the presence of witnesses. 2) From the use of uvtI, in 
return for, with verbs of buying, selling, etc., arose a freer distribu- 
tive use, e.g. Arc. rpi? o^eko'i o<^\ev avrl peKaerTav, one shall pay a 
fine of three obols for each (wagon). So Delph. avrl /rereos (no. 
51 A 45) is probably /or each year, yearly (cf. Hesych. avrl fifjya- 
Kara firjva), though generally taken as in course of the yeair, in the 
same year (cf. Hesych. avTerow • rov aiiTov eVon?. AaKtoves) and 
explained otherwise. Coan avrl vvKr6<; (no. 101.43), during the 
night, though without distributive force is perhaps of the same 
origin. Cf. Hesych. av6' •^/lepa^ ■ Si o\r)<; ttJ? rffjJpa's. 

9. e|. An extension of the regular use of ef (or aTro) with the 
genitive to denote material and source, is seen in certain expres- 
sions of amount or value, e.g. Att. a-recfxivcoi airb ;)j;t\itBi/ Bpax/J-oiv, 
with a crown worth 1000 drachmas, — Ion. (7Te<\>avS)aai M.avcraw- 
\ov fxev eK SapeiKMV irevTijKOVTa, 'Aprefiia-irjv Se iic TpirjKovra 
SapeiKwv, crown Maussolus with a crown worth fifty darics, Arte- 
misia with one worth thirty, — Att. KpiO&v . . . •n-padeiaayv iic 
Tpi&v hpaxp-SiV Tov (lehifivov eicaaTov, barley purchased at three 
drachmas a medimnus, and even more freely Ther. irupSiv iy 



138j INFLECTION 103 

fiehijxvov kuI tcptO&v iy Svo jMehitivrnv, a medimnus of wheat and 
two of barley. 

10. Noteworthy combinations are Thess. vir-irpo, just before, and 
Arc. eTre? from iiri and e? = e^ (cf. uTre'/c, Ste/e, irapeK), meaning for 
and on occasion of, hence emphatic just for, in particular for. 

VERBS 
Augment and Reduplication 

137. Most peculiarities are such as are due to divergence in the 
form of contraction where a consonant has been lost (elj^oii or ri')(ov, 
cf. 25), or in the treatment of consonant groups, as Att. elXT]j>a, 
Phoc. elXd(j)ei, from *(7ea\d^a (76 h), but Ion., Epid. XeXd^rjKa 
after XeXonra etc. with original initial X, Arg. fefpifjJva, but Att.- 
lon. etpjjKa after forms like eiXr](}>a (55 a), Cret., El. eypa/Mfiai = <ye- 
ypa/ji/jLai, like Ion. eKTijiiai = Att. KeKTqfiai, eyvcoKa in all dialects. 
Note also Cret. i^rypaiMftai, with which compare rjOeXov, ■^^ovXofirjv. 

Active Personal Endings 

138. 1. Second singular. The original primary ending -si (Skt. 
-si) is preserved ia Hom., Syrac. icra-L, also in Epid. avvTiOrjai, and 
so perhaps regularly in West Greek dialects (inscriptional examples 
of the second singular are, naturally, very rare), the retention of 
intervocahc o- being due to the analogy of iaai. But in the East 
Greek dialects, where 3 sg. TiOrjn became TiOrja-i (61.1), Ti0rj<; etc., 
with secondary ending, were employed. 

Thematic ^e/aet? etc. in nearly all dialects, but there is some 
evidence of ^epe?, probably due to the secondary ec^epe?, in Cyprian 
(glosses of Hesych.) and Doric (Theocr. and gram.). 

Also -ada, starting from olada, rjaOa, with the original perfect 
ending -6a, is widely used in literary Lesbian and Doric, as in 
Homer (Ti9r}a-&a, ^dXoicrOa, etc.). 

2. Third singular. The original primary ending -ti (Skt. -ti) is 
preserved in "West Greek Tidrjn, BiBcori, etc., whence East Greek 
TidTjcri, SiScoa-i. See 61.1. Thematic (jjepei etc. in all dialects. 



104 GEEEK DIALECTS [l38 

3. First plural. West Greek -/^e? (of. Skt. -mas, Lat. -mus from 
■mos), originally the primary ending, — East Greek -jxev, originally 
the secondary ending. See 223 a. 

■; 4. Third plural, primary. "West Greek -vtl (Skt. -^ti), East Greek 
-(v)(ii. Thus, in thematic verbs, West Greek ^epovn, Boeot., Thess. 
(pepovdi (139.2), Arc. tpepovai, Lesb. (and Chian) <f>epoiai,, Att.-Ion. 
^epova-i. See 61.1, 77.3. 

So also in jtw-verbs. West Greek ivn, (fiavri, riOevri, SiSovn, 
whence Att.-Ion. elcri, <f)aa-i, Ion. (with the accent of contract forms, 
see 160) jidelcri, SiSovcrt. But Att. ndedai, SiSoacri, etc. represent 
a later formation, with -avri (^-dat) added to the final vowel of the 
stem, as also iu Boeot. perf. SeSoavdi. Of. Boeot. e6eav etc., below, 5. 

In the perfect the earliest type is that in -an (-nti, Skt. -ati in 
redupl. pres. dadhati), whence also -dcri. Thus Phoc. lepTjTevican, 
Delph. KaOea-Tciicari, Hom. ■7re(j>VKacn, Arc. [po](f)\eaa-i. But in most 
dialects this is replaced by -avri, as Cret. icrraXKaPTi, Att.-Ion. -dcri. 
Late inscriptions of various dialects have also the secondary -av, 
as Cret. earaXKav. 

5. Third plural, secondary, -v (from -nt) in e^epov etc. So also 
in the /ii-forms, as eOev, ehov, which are retained in most dialects, 
as in Homer. Likewise pass. eKvffev, iXeyev (from -i]vt, with regu- 
lar shortening), but also sometimes -tjv (with rj from the other per- 
sons), as Hom. pLidvdtjv, Cret., Epir. SieX^yrjV, Corcyr. ia-re<f>avd>0rjv, 
Delph. aireKvdrjv. 

But Attic-Ionic has edeaav, eSoaav, iXvdrja-av, etc., with -a-av 
taken over from the o--aorist, as also ^a-av, where most dialects have 
^v (163.3,4). Similarly -v is replaced by -av (also mainly after aorist 
forms like eXva-av or fjviKav) in Boeot. avedeav, avedeiav, avidiav 
(9.2), irapeiav (irapricrav), Cypr. KUTeOtjav (from KUTeOeav, cf. 9.3) ; 
and in Thessalian by -ev (an inherited ending seen in Hom. ^ev, or 
perhaps from -av, cf. 7, 27), as eSowaefi {eBcoKav), ovedeUaev (beside 
oV^deiKav), and, with diphthongal ai from ae, aveOeiKaiv, erd^aiv {ci. 
iScoKaiv, probably due to Thessalian influence, in a Delphian inscrip- 
tion), also once even in a thematic form, ivefavia-aoev = iveAdvi^ov, 



189] INFLECTION 105 

a. In the koivt^ the ending -aav spread even to thematic forms and to the 
optative, and such forms occur in late inscriptions of various dialects, e.g. 
Boeot. iXA^ocrav, Delph. €)(oiaav. 

6. Third dual, secondary. Att.-Ion. -rrjv, elsewhere -rdv, e.g. 
Boeot. avederav, Epid. avedyjicdTav. Similarly 1 sg. mid. Att.-Ion. 
-fi-qv, elsewhere -/^ai/. 

Middle Personal Endings 

139. 1. Third smgular. Primary -rat, Boeot. -jr) (26), Thess. 
-ret (27). Arcadian has -rot (perhaps also Cyprian, but not quot- 
able), due to the influence of the secondary -to (before its change 
to -TV), e.g. jevrjToi, Se'aroi, ^oXeroi. Cf. also 2 sg. Ketoi = Keia-ai, 
and 3 pi. -vtol is to be assumed, though not quotable. 

Secondary -to, Cypr. -tv (22). 

2. Third plural. Usually -vrai, -vto. But also -arai, -aro, mostly 
in the perfect and pluperfect after a consonant (e.g. yey pd(j)aTai), 
but also after a vowel in Boeotian (-adt], see below) ; and so regu- 
larly in Ionic in the perfect (e.g. Horn. ^e^X'^arai, later elpearai, 
contracted elpijTai), pluperfect, and optative, and even in untlie- 
matic presents and imperfects, e. g. TcOearat and also Swearat, lapve- 
arai, to SvvrjfjLi, KLpvrj/M (with suffix vd, weak va), after the analogy 
of Tidearai to riOrfixL. 

Boeotian and Thessalian have d in these endings, doubtless owing 
to the influence of -fieOa, -ade, and from these the 6 was extended 
to the third plural active endings. Thus : 

Middle. Boeot. ahitciwvOr) {-vrai), ia-TpoTeva6ij, fiefuadwadr} 
(-arai), i-n-oieiaavOo, a7reypd-s{ravdo, etc. Thess. iyevovOo, eiXovOo, 
and i<f)dvypevdeiv = etpatpovprai, ^iWovvQeiv = ^ovKwvrai, with 
et from at (27) and an added v (perhaps the active secondary end- 
ing ; cf. the double pluralization in the imv. -vrmv). 

Active. Indicative and subjunctive. Boeot. iwvQi, Sdcovdi, a-n-oSe- 
Soavdi, etc. Thess. KaToiKeiovvOt (pres. subj., 159). — Imperative. 
Boeot. evOco, avypa'^dvOm, etc. So also from the Phocian Stiris, 
near the Boeotian frontier, $e'Ka)v6i, la-rdvOm, la-rdvOiov, 



106 GREEK DIALECTS [140 

Imperative Active and Middle 

140. In the third plural the dialects exhibit the following types. 
Observe the divergence between the active, where 3 a and 4 a are 
the usual types, and the middle, where the corresponding 3 & and 
4 6 are rare, the usual type being 2 h. 

1. The same form as the third singular. Rare, and only in the 
middle. Corcyr. KpiveaQio, iTriSavei^ea-0(o, Calymn. eTna-afiaivea-da), 
Coan aipeia-Oa, Thas. Oecrda. 

2. a. -Tcov, formed from the third singular by the addition of 
the secondary ending -v. earcov, as in Homer, in Ionic only. A 
corresponding thematic (f>ep€Ta)y is unknown. 

l. -<t6(ov. ^epea-dojv etc., the usual form in most dialects. Lesb. 
i-TTifieXeadov (cf. -vrov, 5). 

3. a. -VToo, formed after the analogy of 3 pi. indie, -vn. ^epovrco, 
TiBeuTco, etc. in Arcadian, Boeotian (-vdm, 139.2), and the Doric 
dialects except Cretan. 

Note. Later Doric inscriptions often show the Att. -vt<ov beside -vt<o. 
Conversely the later Delphian inscriptions often have the general Doric -vtw 
beside -vtwv, which is the form of the earliest Delphian. 

6. -(v)a9(o. Epid. (pepoaOo, Lac. aveKoaOo, and so probably here 
(rather than under 1) Heracl. eTreKaaOw (cf. Coan iireXavra). For 
-oaOa from -ovadco, see 77.2. But Corcyr. iKXoyi^ova-dm comes from 
-ovffdco of later origin and with later treatment of va (77.3, 78), and 
it is possible to read (f>ep6a6o etc., likewise early Att. -oadrnv (4 6). 

4. a. -VTav, with double pluralization, a combination of types 2 
and 3. (fjepovrav, nOevreov, etc., as in Homer, in Attic-Ionic, Del- 
phian, Elean, Cretan. 

b. -(v)a0c0v. Early Att. eiritieKoadfov etc.. El. ti/mo^tov. 

5. -VTOV, -(tOov, probably from -vrwv (4 a), -adiuv (2 &) with -ov 
after the analogy of 3 pi. e^sepov etc. This is the regular type in 
Lesbian, e.g. (fiepovrov, KoXevrov, iinp.e\e(76ov, and Pamphylian 
(e.g. ohv = ovTov), and also appears, probably through Pamphylian 
influence, in an inscription of Phaselis which is otherwise in the 
Ehodian dialect, and in a Ehodian decree at Seleucia in Cilicia. 



142] INFLECTION 107 

6. -Taa-av, -adwa-av, with -v replaced by -aav (ef. 138.5). Att. 
ea-Tioaav, ^epeToxrdv (more rarely <f>€p6vTeoaav), iTniMeXeaOaxrav, 
etc., after about 300 b.c., hence in later iascriptions of various 
dialects. 

Future and Aorist 

141. « Doric future " in -aea. Except for a few middle forms in 
Attic-Ionic (Hom. ea-arelrai, Att. irXeva-ovfiai, etc.), this type is con- 
fined to the West Greek dialects (examples in most of the Doric 
dialects and in Delphian ; in Locrian and Elean no futures occur). 
Thus, from the very numerous examples, Delph. rayevaeeo, KXeyjreco, 
Cret. atr&xrim (i from e, 9), 7rpa^iofj,ev, ^oaOrjaiovri, TeiaTJrai, irpa- 
^rJTai, Epid. ^XayjreiaSai, Coan, Cnid. Troirja-elrai, Ehod. uttoSo)- 
aevvTi, Thpr. OrjaeovTi, -n-pa^ovvn (with Att. ov, as often in the 
Doric KOLvq, see 278). 

Heraclean has eaarfTai, ipja^rjrai, etc. (the active forms are 
ambiguous, but probably to be accented iroiTjael etc.), but in the 
third plural cnrd^ovTL, ea-a-ovrai, apparently of the ordinary type, 
since from the -a-eco type we should expect -aiovn (cf. avavyeXiovn). 
In all other Doric dialects, however, forms of the ordinary type are 
late, and clearly due to kolvi] influence. 

142. I in the future and aorist of verbs in -^<b. The extension of 
I, which is regular in the case of guttural stems, to other verbs in 
-fft), which regularly have era-, a- (SiKacrco, iSi/cacra), is seen in some 
isolated examples even in Homer (TroXe/xi^Ofjkev, as, conversely, 
'^piracre beside rjpira^e) and Hesiod (^7}fii^(oa-i). But as a general 
phenomenon it is characteristic of the West Greek dialects, where 
it is almost universal except in Argolic, together with Boeotian (in 
part), Thessalian, and Arcadian. Thus, from the countless examples, 
Cret. Si/caKo-ei, Ehod. Sioopi^avro, Coan ipyd^aa-Oai, Ther. Seiirvi- 
|ev, Meg. erepfiovt^av, Corcyr. cnroXoyi'^aa-Oai, Heracl. irepfia^av 
(f in forms of 12 verbs, but also icaTead)ia-afie<!, probably influ- 
enced by eacoa-a from o-cow), El. -n-oTapfio^aiTO, (Locr. i|ra'<^t|^ts, 
see below, a), Delph. ayMvi'^aro, Thess. ■facj)i^a<70€iv, Are, Trape- 



108 GEEEK DIALECTS [142 

But in Argolic the f formation is avoided when a guttural pre- 
ceded, e.g. Arg. iSUaaaav, ipydcra-avTO, Epid. ipydaaadai, ava^io'- 
crai, beside aywvi^aer9ai,, 7rpoae(f>a.vi^€. 

Boeotian has, from different localities, both f and tt (= Att. a; 
82), e.g. iKO/ii^d/ieffa, eireaKeva^e, ifiept^e, iapetd^acra, and KOfurrd- 
fievoi, Kara(TK€vdrr7], iy}ra(})iTTaro, aTroXoryiTTatTTrj. 

a. A similar extension of guttural stems is sometimes seen in other 
forms, e.g. Heracl. iroTt/cXotyo) = ir/joo-KXa'o), ArgoL, Mess. kXiu^ (as in 
Theocr.), KXaiKToi, Lac. KcKe^ = KeA,i;s, lit. Dor. opvti, gen. opvix''' = opvK, 
6pvi6o<s, Cret. \pa.<j)iyixa (also ypd.i^ip.iia) = tj/rj<f>icriMi, Lesb. ij/d<j>iyyi = i/fi/<^t8t, 
and especially the frequent abstracts in -|ts = -o-ts, as Aetol. \pd.<t>iiK, Locr. 
^a.<fiiiii<; (89.1), Corcyr. X'^ipiii^, Cret. ^ijjouiti^is. 

143. (TO- in the future and aorist of verb-stems ending in a short 
vowel. The Homeric extension of era from ereX^cr-aa to iKdXe-trcra 
is an Aeolic characteristic. Lesb. [KaXejaa-drcoa-av, op.oaeravre'i, 
Boeot. crovvKa\ecTcravTe<;. Other dialects may have era- from stems 
ending in cr or a dental, as ireXeaaa or iSiKacrcra (Boeot. tt), iSatr- 
a-dfjLTjV (Cret. tt), later with one a (82, 83), but always eKaXeaa, 
wfiotra. 

144. Aorist in -a. ehra and r]ve^Ka, TJveiKa, or IjviKa in various 
dialects. Arc. part, airv^oat = aTroSow, Lesb. e^eva, elsewhere 
e%ea (e.g. Ion. av<y')(eaL, no. 2). In late times this type is extended 
to many other verbs, e.g. rfxOa, 'yevdfjLevo's. 

a. ijvaKa or ^vLKa, not ^veyKa, is the form of most dialects except Attic, 
e.g. Ion. ijveiKa (Horn., Hdt.), ivaKavTwv (Chios), also i^ivixO^i (Ceos); 
Lesb., Delph., Argol., Calymn. •^vi/ca, Boeot. ivevixOaa (i probably original, 
not = ei) and 3 pi. eiVi^av, the latter showing a fusion of ^vtKav with the 
usual aorist forms in -crav. 

145. Future passive with active endings. Ehod. e-Tnp.eX-qOr]- 
aevvTi, airoa-TaXrjcrel, Ther. crvvw^^OrjaovvTC, Cret. avaypaefyr/crlel], 
and ^avTjaelv, Seix^rjaovvTi in Archimedes. Although the inscrip- 
tional examples are, as yet, confined to the Doric islands, it is not 
improbable that thig wEis a general Doric or West Greek charac- 
teristic, 



147] INFLECTION 109 

Perfect 

146. 1. K-perfect. This is usual for vowel stems in all dialects. 
But there are some few forms without k, outside the indicative sin- 
gular, like Horn, fie^daa-i beside ySe/3j;«a9, KeK/jLTjax: beside KeKfir)Ka^, 
etc., e.g. Boeot. airohehoavdi, Kara^e^deov, SeSwcoar) = SeSwKvlai, 
fefVKOvofieiovTtov = oikovquijkotcov, 7reTriT€v6vT€<Tai, TreTTOiovTeia-a-i, 
Arc. [fo]<^\eao-i, [po](j)\eoi. (but part. fo^\e«o'o-t). 

The gradual extension of the K-type to other than original vowel 
stems is by no means confined to Attic (cf. e.g. Arc. itpOopKw^, 
Att. e<f>6apKa but also e<f>6opa), and some verbs which usually have 
the strong perfect show dialectic forms with a vowel stem and «. 
So dvSdvco, Xafi^dveo, with usual edSa, eiXrj<f>a (eiXacjia), but Locr. 
fSfaSeKora, Ion., Epid. XeXd^rjKa (also in Archim.), formed from 
the vowel stem which is present in many verbs in -ava (cf. rerv- 
XV"^! fj^fidOijKa, etc.). Usual e\ip\.vda, but rjXdrjKa in Boeot. Stecr- 
aeiXOeiKe (part. aTretXdeiovre's without k, see above). 

2. Aspirated perfect. Examples occur in various dialects. Even 
in the case of the K-perfect, where it is unknown in Attic-Ionic, 
the aspirate is seen in Arg. Se'So);^[e]. Cf. iKeKparepixv H-^'' in Sophron. 

3. In Heraclean occur 3 pi. indie. <ye^pd-\jraTai, with a- probably 
due ultimately to the influence of the 3 pi. aor. -crav (cf. 3 pi. perf. 
la-acTi after the analogy of 3 pi. pluperf. laav from *tS-a-av, whence 
also Dor. la-a/ii.), and 3 pi. subj. /jLefJ^iadmacovTai (to an indie. *iJLeiM- 
aOdxrarai ? Or formed to the fut. perf. fieniaOoiaofiai ?). 

4. Dialectic variations in the grade of the root (49) are not infre- 
quent, e.g. Cret. dfiTreXri\ev6ev = Att. a/j.cjieXri'KvOevai (Hom. eiXij- 
Xov0a), Heracl. eppriyela = Att. ippcoryvla. Dor. etc. «»«:«= Att. eka 
from iTifii (cf. eppcoya from priyvvfjn), also, in the middle, Heracl. 
avhemaOai, Arc. a^emcrdoi) (so aviwvTai Hdt., d<^ecovTai N.T.). 

5. For the reduplication, see 137 ; for the third plural ending, 
see 138.4. 

147. Thematic forms in the perfect. Aside from the subjunctive, 
optative, and imperative, which regularly have thematic inflection, 
Ve find : 



110 GREEK DIALECTS [l47 

1. Indicative. Forms inflected like presents are often employed 
by the Sicilian Doric writers, e.g. Theocr. SeSoLKco, -jreTrovdeK, Tre^v- 
Kei, Epich. yeyddei, Archim. reTfiaKei, and occur in some iascriptions 
of Cnidus and Carpathus, e.g. T£Ti/j,dK€i, yeyovei, ia-Taicei, and occa- 
sionally elsewhere, as Phoc. elXd^ei. 

2. Infinitive. Forms in -eiv {-ev, -rjv) instead of -evai {-efiev etc.) 
are found in Lesbian and in some "West Greek dialects, e.g. Lesb. 
TeBvaKTjV, Te6ea>prjK7)v, Delph. airoTeTeiKev, Cret. ainrekifkevOev, 
Calymn., Nisyr. BeSwKev, Ehod. jeyoveiv, Epid. XeXa^'^iceiv. So Pin- 
dar KexXdSeiv, Theocr. SeSvKeLv. 

Cf. also Heracl. ire^vTevKruiev etc. from -e-e/iev instead of simply 
-ejjLev. 

3. Participle. The thematic inflection is regular in the Aeolic 
dialects; e.g. Lesb. KaTeKrjXvdovTO^, KaTearaKovrcov, Thess. ire^ei- 
pdK0VTe<;, iTreardKovra, Boeot. pepvicovofietovTcop, BeScocoa-r] (146.1). 
Cf. Hom. Ke/cXijyovTe'i. 

a. There are some feminine forms in -ova-a in later Delphian (e. g. Se8ci>- 
Kou'cras), and elsewhere, but these represent a more restricted phenomenon, 
quite independent of the preceding. Cf . also Hom. lo-raSo-a, Att. inrrSxra. 

148. The participle in its regular (unthematic) form usually has 
the feminine in -via. But forms in -eta are found in late Attic 
and elsewhere, e.g. Heracl. ipprj'yela, Ther. ia-TaKeia. 

Subjunctive 

149. The subjunctive of thematic forms. The mood-sign is 
everywhere V/^^ as in Attic. But the third singular sometimes ends 
in -7), not -r]i. So uniformly, from the earliest times, in Arcado- 
Cyprian, e.g. Arc. Xeye, ex>], Cypr. \vcre, i^opv^e (also 2 sg. feC- 
o-e?). Lesbian has earlier -rji, but from the last quarter of the fourth 
century on nearly always -??, e.g. i^eXOrji etc. in no. 21 (first half 
fourth century), but ififievr] etc. in no. 22 (324 B.C.). Cf. also El. e/e- 
Tre/xird (a = r], 15), Epid. TreTTj, Coan Xddrj. 

a. It is the prevailing view that these forms are not equivalent to the 
Attic, but represent the more original formation, in which the endings 
were added directly to the rj (ixV'^' ^X'I'(j))> without the t, which is due to 



161] INFLECTION 111 

the analogy of the indicative forms in -«?, -a. But this is far from certain, 
as it is quite possible to view the --q as coming from ->ji. Even in the case 
of the Aro.-Cypr. forms there is nothing decisive against this, and it is dis- 
tinctly more probable that the later Lesbian -r] comes from the earlier -Tjt (in 
spite of the fact that in no. 22 the i is still written in the datives). See 38. 

150. The subjunctive of the o--aorist. As in the case of other 
unthematic formations (of. Horn, i'o/xei' to tfj^v), this was originally 
a short-vowel subjunctive in %, and only later came to follow the 
more common long-vowel type in '^. Aside from Hom. ^rjaofiev 
etc., short-vowel forms are found in East Ionic, Lesbian, Cretan, and 
occasionally elsewhere. East Ion. ironfjaei, Kard^ei, eKKoyjrei (no. 3, 
Teos), airoKpvip-ei, iirdpei, i^ofioaei (likewise, from the a-aorist, 
KaTeCirei) beside fieOeXriL etc., further KaraKTeivoaiv (i.e. -ova-i, not 
-too-t), Cliian irprj^ouTiv (with Lesb. otcr from ova, 77.3). Lesb. (with 
extension to the thematic aorist) reKoiat. Cret. heUaei, ahucqaei 
beside aireXdr]!, etc. (hence the forms of the Law-Code are to be 
transcribed -ei not -ei), iKa-avvrjcreTai beside einhiriTai, o/ioaovTi 
beside Xaxcovn, etc. Cf. also Coan viroKvfei, Astyp. So'^et. 

151. The subjunctive of unthematic vowel stems. There are two 

distinct types. 

1. The endings are added directly to the long vowel of the stem. 
With very few exceptions, this type is found only in those forms 
of which the correspondiug indicative has the short vowel. So espe- 
cially in the middle, e.g. Cret. Swafiai, vvvarai, vvvavn, beside 
indie, hvvdnai. Arc. eirurvviaTaTai beside indie. t'o-raTow, Searot (cf. 
Hom. Searo), but also, when the indicative also has d, Cret. ireird- 
rai, Ther. -ireirparai. Further, in the active. Mess, rid-nvri beside 
indie. TiOevTi (hence also, beside evrl, Mess, fiv-rai = <S<n, Delph. 
^^„j ^ ^)_ rfpdcjirjvn beside indie. eypa<pev, etc., but also Calymn. 
e[y]pvai to indie. Epid. i^eppvd. 

After the relation of lo-Tarat to icrrdTai there arose also an 
aor. subj. aa beside indie, ad, e.g. Cret. Trapevadrai, Arc. ^(oXev- 
advrai, likewise in Elean, with loss of a {59.S),<f>vyaSevavTL (no. 60), 
TTotTjarat (no. 61). 



112 GREEK DIALECTS [l5l 

2. The usual type is that in which the long vowel of the stem 
was followed by the short vowel subjunctive sign %, this being 
generally replaced by the more usual % (cf. 150). Further change 
is due to the shortening, in the majority of dialects, of the long 
stem vowel before the following vowel (43). Hom. 0'^ofiev (deio- 
fiev), dijrj'i, hmojiev, hanj, Boeot. /cadia-rdei, a-TroScoei, Delph. Bmi], 
avnirpiariTai, Heracl. ^avn (from *<j}acovn), Thess. Svvaerai, but 
with shortening Ion. 0ea>fji,ev, Att. dcofiev, Cret. evdicofiev (i from e), 
etc. Similarly in the aorist passive, Hom. Bafi-qrf;, ixur^rirp, Boeot. 
Kovpcodeiei, iirifj^Xeideiei, KaraaKevaadeiet, ivevix^eiei, Arc. KUKpi- 
6ee, but with shortening Ion. XvOea/jiev, Att. \v6ebfiev, Cret. ireiOdi- 
covTi (cf. ivdicofiev), Heracl. ijfrjXrjdicovTi, Ehod. ipjaa-Oecovn, etc. 

Optative 

152. 1. Thematic. Late Delph. 3 pi. 6e\oiv, Trapey^^oiv, etc., with 
-ev replaced by -v after the analogy of e<j)€pov etc. 

2. Unthematic. The extension of irj to the plural, as often in 
Ionic and late Attic, is seen in late Delph. airohihoirjaav, doubtless 
due to KOLvrj influence. 

3. Unthematic type in contract verbs. See 157 h. 

4. (T-aorist. The so-called Aeohc type in -eia<;, -ete, -eiav, common 
in Attic-Ionic, is seen in El. KaTiapavcreie, later aSeaXrcohaie with 
a from the iudicative (as in the usual -ai). But most dialects have 
at throughout, as Cret. vcKdaai, Locr. avKdaai, Arc. (jtffepai, etc. 

Infinitive 

153. The infinitive of thematic forms. Att. (j>epei,v. 

1. -eiv or -r]v, according as the dialect has et or r) from e -|- e (25). 
So Att.-Ion., Thess. (Thessaliotis), Locr., Corinth., Ehod. -eiv, but 
Lesb., EL, Lac. -r)v. 

. 2. -ev. So in Arcadian (but --qv at Lycosura, near Elis), Cyprian 
(or -ev ?), Delphian, and many of the Doric dialects (Heracl., ArgoL, 
Cret., Ther., Coan, etc.). 



155] INFLECTION 113 

3. Some of these dialects have -ei; even from verbs in -eco, e.g. 
Cret. Ko<7iJ,ev, ivpocicev (but also KaXrjv, fjLoXfjv ; both types at Gor- 
tyna), Ther. Stot/ceV, Coan Seivve'v, Calymn. /xaprvpev, Arg. -rrcoXev. 

154. The infinitive of vmthematic forms. Att. ehai. 

1. -vai. So in Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian, e.g. Att.-Ion. 
elvai, Bovvai, Cypr. Sofevai (probably -fevai, like -/j^evai), KVfiepevai, 
Arc. ^vai. 

2. -fievai. So in Lesbian, as in Homer, e.g. ep-nevai, deiievai, 
Bofievai. 

3. -fiev. Sofiev etc. in Thessalian, Boeotian, and nearly all the 
West Greek dialects. 

4. -firjv. Cret. TjMvetc. (but also ^fiev; both types at Gortyna). 

5. -fieiv. So/Meiv etc. (probably formed from -/lev after the analogy 
of -eiv) in Ehodes and vicinity (Carpathus, Telos) and the Ehodian 
colonies (Phaselis in PamphyHa ; Gela and Agrigentum, in Sicily ; 
also at Ehegium no. 100). 

155. Interchange of thematic and unthematic types of infinitive. 

1. -/lev is extended to thematic forms in Boeotian and Thessahan 
(Pelasgiotis), as sometimes in Homer (cf. el-n-efiev, and elirefievai), 
e.g. Boeot. ^epe/iev, Thess. vTrapxep'SV. Cf. also Cret. irpopeiirenev in 
an early inscription of Lyttus. 

2. The aorist passive infinitive, which is regularly unthematic 
(Att. ypatfxfjvai, Dor. ypa<j>fj/jLev), foUows the thematic type in Les- 
bian and Arcadian, e.g. Lesb. i'n-ifieX'^djjv, ovredrfv, etc.. Arc. Bvadev 
or 6va6ev (i.e. -■q-v with v added to the aor. pass, stem, or -ev with 
complete assimilation to virdp'^fev etc.). 

3. In Lesbian the present infinitive of vmthematic vowel stems, 
as well as of the contract verbs, which otherwise follow the imthe- 
matic type (157), ends in -v, not -p-evai, e.g. SiScov, Kepvav, op,vvv, 
koXtjv, crTe<f)dvcov, KareCprnv (KaOiepovv). Once also aor. infin. tt/jo- 
arav (but usually -fievai, as Oefievai, Sofievai). 

4. For the thematic forms of the perfect infinitive in various 
dialects see 147.2. 

5. For Euboean ndelv etc., and even eh beside ehai, see 160. 



114 GEEEK DIALECTS [1S6 

156. The infinitives in -aai and -adai. Thessalian (Larissa) has 
ovypd-tp-eiv, SeSoadeiv, ea-aeadeiv, ■jreirelareiv, eXea-reiv, etc., with -ei 
from -ai (27), and v added after the analogy of other infinitives. 
Boeot. -ffdr), -arr) with tj from m (26). For ar = aO, see 85.1. 

Unthematic Inflection of Contract Verbs 

157. The /tw-inflection of contract verbs, sometimes known as 
the Aeolic inflection, is characteristic of Lesbian, Thessalian, and 
Arcado-Cyprian, e.g. Lesb. KoKrjfu (Sappho), icaXevTov, KardypevTov, 
evepyevTea-cn, [oJ/tovoei'Te?, uTotpjjet? (78), Thess. e(j>dvypevdeiv = 
i^aipovmai,, evepyere; (78), crTpaTayevTO<; (but hvKopeovTO'i in no. 33, 
and so perhaps always in Thessaliotis), Arc. iroievai, iroevrm, aSi- 
K€VTa, Kveva-av, fuepodvre'; (78), ^a/Miovrco, KaTa(^povrivai, Cypr. kv- 
fiepevai. TeKe(T<\)opevTe<s in an inscription of Cyrene is probajjly a 
relic of the pre-Doric (Achaean) element in Thera. /xt-forms are 
also quoted as Boeotian by the grammarians, but the inscriptions 
show only the usual type (crTpaTayiovTo<; etc.). 

a. The stem ends in a long vowel, which is regularly shortened before vt 
(though also, with analogical tj, Lesb. KaToiKi^vTwv in contrast to usual eiiep- 
ye\nta(TL etc., and vpovorjvTcu, Siaira^ijvrat, like Att. St^ijyrot, in contrast to 
Thess. €<l>dvyp£v9av), but is otherwise retained throughout, e.g. Lesb. oinj- 
Tot, koXtjcOcu,, eirt/teXijcrfla), tfufxiuxTOio, irotij/xevos, irpoa.ypyjfLfx.evto, Thess. aTre- 
Xeu^epo«(7^etv, Sieaatftfi/xa'a, Arc. dSuc^/iei/o;, ^ajuuxrOot (no. 18.28, but reading 
uncertain). This type, then, follows the analogy of that seen in I/SXtji/, 
PX^To, j8\ij/tevos, hliripiai, etc. rather than that of TiOr/fu, nOtp-ev, rSipuarcK, 
with vowel-gradation. But even the latter sometimes shows an extension 
of the long vowel from the singular active, e.g. Lesb. [ir/3oaTt]6ij(r[flov], 
SiSmrOaj., like Horn. TifliJ/xevoi, TtSij/icvos. 

6. The more limited extension of the /ux-inflection to the optative of con- 
tract verbs, as in Att. tjjiXoirp/, pMrdoCr/v, etc., is occasionally found elsewhere. 
Ion. a.vu>6(.ovq beside irotoi, El. o-v\ate, hapjocnoux (= -oiij) beside 8oKeoi, iroieoi, 
enrol. Cf. also the infinitives El. hapoaiSipiai, Cret. ^a/uB/ui/. 

Middle Participle in -ei(i,€Vos 

158. The middle participle in -eifievo<! (or -rjfj.evo';) from verbs in 
-eco, as if from -e-e/tevos instead of -e-ofievo^, is characteristic of the 



161] INFLECTION 115 

Northwest Greek dialects and Boeotian, e.g. Locr. ewaXei/ievo?, 
Delph. KaXet'/ievos, Troiei/ievoi, etc., Boeot. Set>ei/os, El. Ka{S)Sa\e- 
fievo<}. This is due to the analogy of forms which regularly had ei 
(or ri) from e-e, as the infinitive KaXelaOaL. Cf. Phoc. iroieivTai. = 
TToiovvTai, formed after voielaOe. 

a. Lesb. koXij^evos, Arc. dStKiJ/no/os, etc. do not belong here, but among 
the other /u-forms of these dialects. See 157 a. 

Type <|>iXT\a>, o-T€(|>av(0(o 

159. Forms in -ti<o, -tow, with the long-vowel stem of the other 
tenses extended to the present, are found in various dialects, e.g. 
Lesh. aStKjjet, Thess. tcaroiKeiovvOi, (3 pi. subj.), Delph. o-Te^ai/tueToj, 
hov\a)T)i, Phoc. KXapweiv, Boeot. hafiuoefiev, haynmovTe; (only in late 
inscriptions of Orchomenus, and probably due to Aetolian influ- 
ence). Ther., Ehod., etc. crTe(f)ava)i, Calymn. a^im may be from -taet, 
and so belong here, but contraction from -oei is also possible (cf. 
25 a). 

Transfer of |jli- Verbs to the Type of Contract Verbs 

160. The transfer of certain forms of /it-verbs to the inflection 
of contract verbs is found in various dialects, as Att. iriOei, iSiBov, 
Delph. a.7roKadiardovTe<;, SiBeova-a, but is most wide-spread in Ionic. 
With Tidel etc. in Homer and Herodotus, compare SiSot (MUetus) 
and the Euboean infinitives ridelv, BiSovv, KaOicrrav, and even elv be- 
side eivai. 

Some Other Interchanges in the Present System 

161. 1. Verbs in -evto form their present in -eiw in Elean, as 
(jivyaSetTjv = (ftvyaSeveiv, beside aor. ^vyaSevavn, also (with a after 
p, 12 a) Kariapauov = KaGiepevav, beside aor. KaTiapavaeie, and \a- 
rpailofievovj, Xarpeiofjievov = XaTpevofievov. So also fiaa-reieL = 
fiac7Tevei, in an inscription of Dodona. This represents the normal 
phonetic development from -efuo, the usual -evco being due to the 
influence of the other tenses. 

2. Verbs in -aco show forms in -em in various dialects, but, with 
few exceptions, only where the e is followed by an o-vowel, e.g.. 



116 GREEK DIALECTS [i61 

aside from Kterary examples (as Horn, fievoiveov, Alcm. ope'eov, 
Theoer. opeOa-a), Delph. avXeoi, av\eovre<; (but (TvXrjTco), eTririfieov- 
rey, dcoeovrmv (Ait. 6dav, Locr. ffoiea-To), Aetol. viKe6vT0i<;, Ehod. 
TifiowTe'i and also rt/jielv (Agrig.), El. ive^eoi, Cret. (with t from e, 
9.4) i^iov, iirapioiievov, /jioiKtov (fiotxao)). According to some this 
rests upon an actual phonetic change of ao to eo, the ao (w) in 
Attic and elsewhere being a restoration due to leveling with the ae 
forms. But we may have to do simply with a transfer to the -eco 
type, which was mainly favored where it offered uncontracted forms 
(in most dialects eo was uncontracted until late, but ee contracted ; in 
all forms like Ehod. TifiovPTe<; the ov is an Attic substitution for eo). 

a. Conversely Delph. ^rjda/Mu for usual )(pr]iofjuu seen in Meg. ■ffp-qtUrOia, 
El. ^pelcrdai, Boeot. T^eteio-flat, Att., Ion., Heracl. ffpija-dai (Att. )(p3xTdiu is 
late), Cret. ^TJdOai, Lac, Locr. y^crrai, Ion. p^pEai/uei/os, Rhod. ^ev/icvoi, 
Delph. ^tifjitvo's (158). 

162. Among other, more individual, cases of variation in the 
present stem, may be mentioned : 

1. -1^(0 = -00), especially in West Greek. Boeot., Phoc. BovXi^a 
(Delph. BovXoco intrans. = Att. BovXevco), Delph.,' Thess. aTreXeu^e- 
pi^co, Delph., Ehod., Mess., Cret. opKi^a (but also Ionic and Attic 
sometimes). Dor. a-Te^avi^co (ia-recjidvi^a Ar. Eq. 1225). 

2. -aco = -oco. Lesb. a^idw (a^udaei), Thess., Dor. icoivdm, Phoc. 
(TKavev (also Att. a-Krjvav) = cricrjvovv, Heracl. apdco (apdcrovn) = 
ap6(o. Cf. Cret. dparpov — dporpov. 

3. -oco. Delph., Arg., Meg., Cret., Ther., Sicil. a-Kevoco = aKevd^co, 
Boeot. inOom = ireidco, Heracl. irptoa) (subj. irpiSa from *7rpLd>rji, 159) 
= Trpiai. 

4. jeXafii, = yeXdco, in Epid. SieyeXa, KaTayeXdfievo<!. eXafu = 
iXavvco, in Coan eXdvrco, Arg. TroreXdro, Heracl. iireXdadm (140.3 h). 
Locr. aireXdovTM, though it could be from eXdai, probably belongs 
here. 

5. Boeot., Thess. yivvp,ai = <yivop.ai, with transfer to the vw-class. 

6. Aetol., Lac, Cret. ayvem — dyw, but mostly in the perfect, as 
Aetol. ajvrjKm^ etc. beside other tenses from ayco. 



163] INFLECTION II7 

7. For Att. rw, ?^? from *^i^to etc., most dialects have ^dom 
(Boeot., Cret. Staw) as in Homer. These are from inherited by-forms 
of the root. 

8. Cret. \aya(a>, release (cf. \7y7ftj, Xaya-pd';), aor. Xarydcai, like 
Horn. Kepaico (also Delph.), aor. «e/3a'(a-)a-at (cf. 143), but also Xa- 
yd^to, aor. Xaydaaai (cf. airoXdya^Ks, like XP'ni^o-ri^i-'i, 142 a). 

9. To Trevdo/iai, coveo/iai, iXevaofiai Cretan has the active forms 
Trev^w, inform, mvem (ovev, mvioi), sell, e-rreXevael, will bring (cf. 
Hesych. iXevcrio) • oia-co), aor. eirekevaaL, iireXeva-av, etc. 

10. Cret. Siofiai = Bicoko), as sometimes in Homer. 

11. Cypr. Svpdvco, Scok(o = fitSca/it. 

12. Arc. Tetft) = ti'vco, formed to reiaco, eTeicra (cf . cret'co, a-etVo), etc.). 

The Verb to be 

163. 1. First singular present indicative. *eV/ii^ whence Lesb. 
e/M/Mi, Thess. eVA"', elsewhere elfii or ^yiii'. See 76. 

2. Third plural present indicative. *evTL (cf. Skt. santi, Osc- 
Umbr. sew^), whence, with substitution of e after the analogy of the 
other forms, West Greek evTi, Att.-Ion. elai. See 61.1, 77.3. 

3. Third singular imperfect. ^9 (from *^a--T, cf. Ved. Skt. as) is 
attested for various West Greek dialects (Acaru., Corcyr., Delph., 
Epid., lit. Doric), Boeotian (Tra/set?), Arcadian, and Cyprian, and is 
probably the form in all dialects (for Locr. ev, see no. 55.9, note) 
except Attic-Ionic, where it was replaced by ^v (Hom. ^ev), the old 
third plural (from *^aev, cf. Skt. dsan). 

4. Third plural imperfect. Most dialects had ^v (see above, 3), 
examples of which are found in literary Doric, Delphian, and Lo- 
crian. For Boeot. Trapelav, Att.-Ion. rjcrav, see 138.5. 

5. Third singular imperative, earm in most dialects. But late 
fjTO), with Tj of rjv etc. after the analogy of e.g. o-Tj?Tto to ecrrqv. El. 
7](7T(o, also with analogical rj but with retention of a: 

6. Third plural imperative. Arg. evTw, Boeot. evOco (139.2), Cret. 
evTcov, formed from 3 pi. indie, ivri. Also thematic iovTw, iovrwv, 
e.g. in Delphian. Ion. earcov, Attic ovtcov and late earaa-av. 



118 GREEK DIALECTS [163 

7. Present infinitive. The difference in the form of the ending 
(154) and also in the development of cr + nasal (76) explains the 
great variety of forms, Attic-Ionic elvai (also Eub. elv, 160), Arc. 
rival, Lesb. efifievai, Thess. e/xfiev, "West Greek and Boeotian el/iev 
or ^/iev (25), Ehod. eifieiv, Cret. ^nr}v. 

8. Present participle. eo>v in most dialects, Att. oov. But there 
are also unthematic forms, as Heracl. eVre? (also quoted from Ale- 
man ; from *6VTe? vsdth e as in evTi, above, 2), fem. Lesb., Epid. eo-cra 
(also in some Doric writers ; cf. eaaia = ova (a Plato Crat. 401c), 
Arc, Arg., Mess, eatrcra, Cret. Xarra, ladOa (all from *aTia = Skt. 
satl, with the substitution or prefixing of e after the analogy of the 
other forms). 

a. This unthematic feminine formation in -arta (from -ni-ia) is seen also 
in some forms quoted by Hesychius, namely iKoxraa (d£Kacr(ra), Cret. peKadda 
(ycKaOd) = iKovcra, lacrcra ('EiruMTcra) = iovaa. 

9. Middle forms, as imperf. ijfiriv etc., are late. Cf. 3 sg. subj. 
jjrat at Delphi, 3 pi. subj. ^vrat at Andania. 

10. In a Cretan inscription of Dreros (no. 113) we find reXo/iai 
= ecrofiac, avvreXeaOai = avvea-eaOai. 



WORD-FORMATION 

On the Form and Use of Certain Suffixes and Certain Peculiarities of 

Composition 

164. 1. -Tjto? 1 = Att. -eto9. Att. -eio': is in part derived from -r]io<! 
(this again in part from -rjfio's, cf. Boeot. KapvKepio), which is re- 
tained iQ various dialects, e.g. Ion. lep-qiov, Delph. lepijiov, Lesb. 
IpiJLov, Ion., Cret. oIk^io';, Ion., Lesb., Cret. TrpvTavtjiov, Ion., Cret. 
avSp7jio<;, Ion. ^aaiK'qio'i, tjtoiviKijta, Delph. -n-atSijia. On the ac- 
centuation of these forms, see 37.2. 

2. Adjectives of the type xaptew are from -fevr- (Skt. -vant-). 
The feminine was originally -faria (Kke Skt. -vatl, from the weak 
stem -unt- ; cf. eaaaa 163.8), whence, with substitution of e for a 
from the analogy of the forms in -pevr-, arose pena, this yielding 
-[f)ea(Ta or -(/r)eTTa (81). Cf. Boeot. ;)(;a/3tfeTTai', Corcyr. arovo- 
pe{<r)a-av, Pamph. Tiixdpe{(r)aa. The genuine Attic forms have tt, 
as ixeXtTovTTa {Ax.), MvppivovTra (iuscr.), those with aa- being 
poetical and in origiu Ionic. Most adjectives of this type are 
poetical only, except in substantive use especially the numerous 
names of places in -o«?, for which see also 44.4. 

a. A relic of the weak stem -par- is seen in a few derivatives, as $Xta- 
arioi (cf. $Aioi)s) or 'Avayvpdcnoi (cf. 'Avayupom), from -o(/:)dTioi (with 
hyphaeresis of o), in contrast to the usual -ovriot, -ovvrioi, or -ovo-lol, from 
-opevTioi. 

3. -Tt9 -o-t?. See 61.3. For -^t? see 142 a. We find -aa-K instead 
of usual -(TK in Arg. a\ida-aio<;, Epid. CTeyda-crioi;, Troez. epp-daa-io'i, 
Boeot. ayopaa-aiv, in which the first er is due to the influence of 
forms like crTejaa-TO';, areyaa-fia. 

'' For convenience the form of the nominative is cited, rather than that of 
the stem. 

119 



120 GEEEK DIALECTS [164 

4. -a-fio^, -ana. In most words a has replaced, by analogy, an 
earlier dental, which is sometimes preserved, as in Horn, ohfiri = 
Att. oafirj. So for Att. 0eo-/io's, eea-/j,io<;, we find Dor. redfio^, Te0fiio<i 
(Pindar; Ted/J.d'i also Delph., tS/juov Boeot.), and Lac, Epid. 6e- 
Bfio:;, Locr., El. deOfiiov (65). After the analogy of forms in -(Tfia, 
especially y^ri^iaiia, vofucrfia, arose Arg. ypdcra-fia = r^pafifm. For 
Cret. ■\jtd(f)iyij,a, yjrd^i/ifia, see 142 a. 

5. -Ttjp = -tt;? (-Ttt?). As a productive suffix of nouns of agency 
the older -Trjp has been very largely displaced by -tjj? (-rd<s), but 
most fully in Attic prose. As forms with -rrjp = usual -tt;? (-ras) 
are not infrequent in poetry, e.g. Horn. edeXovTrjp, Hes. avXrjrijp, 
so they occur also sometimes in the dialects, e.g. Locr., Pamph. 
SiKaaT'qp (but in most dialects SiKaa-Ta<;, like Att.-Ion. Si/eao-T^s), 
Delph. /Sey8atti)T7?jt), Corcyr. SiopOarijp. Cf. also Cypr. Ijarijp like 
Horn, larrip = usual larpoi}. 

6. -to? = -eo9. In adjectives of material Lesbian and Thessalian 
have -to9 (which is not from -eo? ; Boeot. -to? may be -to? or -eo?), 
as Lesb. j^/ouo-to?, ^a\Kto?, apyvpio'i, Thess. \t^to? (cf. Horn. Xt^eo?, 
but in most dialects \l6ivo';). 

7. -r]v=-a)v. Hypocoristic proper names in-T/vinstead of the usual 
-cov, as 'Apxv^jT^i'M^, are very frequent in the Corinthian colonies of 
ApoUonia and Epidamnus, and are occasionally found elsewhere. 

8. -mvScK, -ovScK. Patronymics in -covSa/;, as 'ETrayiteti'wi'Sa?, are 
most common in Boeotian, but are not infrequent in Phocian and 
Euboean (-oji'St;?), while elsewhere they are rare and probably im- 
ported. The parallel, but less common, -oKSa? is attested for Boeo- 
tian, Thessalian, Loorian, and Euboean. 

9. Individual cases of dialectic variation in suffix are of course 
frequent. So, for example, Thess. \i6io'; = Xidivo<i (cf. above, 6), Ion. 
v6fiaio<;, Locr. vofiioi = vo'/it/io?, Thess. ovaXa (but also ovaXovixa) 
= avaXcofia, Boeot., Epir. Trodohajxa (after avaXwiia) = TrpoaoSo';, 
Thess. avvKXek (stem -kXtj-t-, cf. ivpo^Xri^ etc.) = avyKXijTO'; skkXt)- 
aia, Cret. rjixlva = to rj/ji,i,a-v (also Sicil. rip.iva, used, like Epid. hifiC- 
reia, in the sense of rifxCeKTov), Cret. 6lvo<i (from *di-iv6i; formed 



166] ■ WOED-FOEMATION 



121 



from ei6<i after the analogy of hvdpcim-ivo'i), hdivo^ = delo'i, evBeo^, 
Att. aSeX<j>6<i but aSeXcfyeo^ in other dialects, Delph. jdiMeXa (cf! 
ycifierr)^) = yafiijXia. 

165. 1. -Tepo<i. Noteworthy examples of the use of this suffix to 
denote contrasted relations (not merely those of degree as in the 
comparatives), as in Be^trepos, apia-Tepoi, are Arc. appevrepo'i, El. 
epo-em irepo? (for at cf. yepairepoi, iraXacTepo^), e-qXvTepo'i. 

2. -tSto? forming adjectives from adverbs or adverbial phrases, 
as ai^io^, eiriffaXaa-a-iSio^. So El. 7rpoa0iSio<i (irpoa-TL^Cdv), Cret. 
ivSoOiSiov (ivSodiSiav BoXav household slave), Epid. ivSoadiSioi 
{ivSo(70iSia entrails ; so ivToadiSia Arist., Hipp.), Cret. i^apxiBio'i 
= e^ "'PXV'' 'ytyvofievoi;. 

3. -rpov. From words like Xirpov means of release, hence ran- 
som, the suffix came to be used freely in words denoting reward 
or amount paid, as viKatrrpov reward of victory, Epid. larpa per- 
quisites for healing. Ion., Coan reXearpa expenses of inauguration 
(of the priest. Cf. Coan reXeto inaugurate), Cret. KOfiia-rpa gifts 
(more specific?), and, even from a numeral, Cret. rpirpa the three- 
fold amount. 

4. -€(ov, -(ov in nouns denoting place, as avSpcov (Ion. avSpemv, 
Pamph. a(v)Spuov), afiireXcov, vexpcov, opviOdiv. To this large class 
belong Heracl. TO(f>uov (t = e, 9.6) = ra^etoi' lurial-place, yaiwv heap 
of earth (cf. yaemv from Halaesa), ^o<i)v cow-shed. Ion. a-Te<f>a>v ridge. 

This class is not to be confused with nouns of agency in Ion. 
-ewv but Dor. etc. -amv, -av, as Ion. ^vvedv. Dor. Koivav. See 41.4. 

166. 1. Proper names in -«\ea?, instead of -/cXe?;?, -kXjj?, as 'Itttto- 
xXeas, are most common in Thessahan, but also occur in Boeotian, 
Phocian, and Aetolian. -/e\eas is a modification of -KXer}^ under 
the influence of hypocoristics in -eas. 

2. Aio^OTO'i (i.e. Ai6a--SoTo<;, cf. Aiocr-Kovpoi) and ©eLoa-SoTa, 
@€6^oTo<;, Slo^otoi (formed after Ato'o--SoTo?, cf. 6e6a-SoTo<; in He- 
siod), instead of usual Ato'Soro?, @e6SoTo?, are frequent in Boeotian, 
and Thessalian also has @e6^oTo<;, ©toforo?, and &e6pSoTO'! (60.4). 
Elsewhere such forms are rare and doubtless imported. 



122 GREEK DIALECTS [l67 

167. The interchange of diiFerent vowel stems in the first mem- 
ber of a compound, or before a derivative suffix, is sometimes dia- 
lectic. Thus TifioKXrj^, TifjuoKparrjii, etc. in most dialects, but Ion. 
TifjLr]K\rj<;, T!ifirjKpdTri<;, Cnid. Ttfi,dK\ri<s, Ehod. TifJLdKpa,Tr)<;, Ttfia- 
iroXi'!, Likewise Ehod. Tifiava^ {*Tifji,a-(f)ava^) instead of usual 
Tifiava^ (*Tt/io'-(f)amf). Thess. vKa>p6<; {hv\6 peovToi) from *v\o- 
pwpo'i, and so related to i)\?;a)/5o? from *v\d-pa)p6'i as v\0T6p.o<; to 

Arc, Locr., Thess. otKiara^ (or poiKiara'i) from oIkIu, for usual 
olKerr}'; from oiKog (f otweu? is the form used in Cretan, as sometimes 
ia Homer). Ion. iroXi-qTr]^, Cret., Epid. iroXiaTa'i (also Pindar), Cret. 
TToXidTevaj, Arc. TroXtart?, for usual ttoXitt;? etc.; cf. Heracl. TroXta- 
voixo'i, Ion. TToXi.rjo'xo'; (Epic), Lac. •TroXidy^o'; (but Att. iroXiov'^^o'; 
with -ovxo'i from KXrjpovxo'S etc.). 

Late Att. iepdrevo}, Locr., Phoc. leprjrevco (also in some kocv^ 
inscriptions), Lesb. Iprjrevai, Cret., Cyren. lapiTevm, Mess, iepnevco, 
Chalced. iepa)Tev(o, lepaneCa (cf. Att. iepaxrvvrj). 

Carpath. Safierw;, like oliceTq<;, for usual haixora';, hrjp.oT'q'i, as 
conversely oIkottj'; in an Attic inscription. So Cret. yStero? (cf. 
Astyp. Bt'eTTo?) = Kioto's. Ehod. 'iTTTre'Sa/ios = 'l7r7ro'Sa/io?, but 
Ehod. ' ApxoKpdT7]<! = 'Ap')(eKpdTr]<;, Cret. MevoKparrji; = MewK/aa- 
tt;?, Meg. 'AyoXao!; = 'A7eXao9. 

After the analogy of names containing inherited t-stems arose 
also forms lilce 'Ap'x^iXo^o';, 'Ap-)(iSaiJ,o<;, etc. (cf. apxireKTcov) in 
various dialects, Ehod. MeviSaiJt,o<;, El. Sai'/cXa/jo?, Coan, Msyr., 
Mel. AaLcrTpaTO<s, Nisyr. Aaccrdevrj^. 

a. The well-known lengthening of the initial vowel of the second mem- 
ber of compounds, as in aviavu/ws, iraviljyvpi's, is seen in Ion. avnpideuTiK = 
Att. avcpLOeuTo^. To the analogy of forms like eirdfcoos, einyKOos, which are 
of the same kind, is due the iira- of Cret. kwapoXa share (cf. Hesych. iinj- 
^oX-q ■ /xcpos) and Hom. e7ri?/8o\os. Cf . Karrj^oX-^ in Euripides. 

168. Use of a patronymic adjective instead of the genitive sin- 
gular of the father's name. Though occasionally found in literature, 
as in Horn. TeXa/Movios Al'a?, this is the regular practice in prose 



168] WOED-FOEMATION 123 

only in the three Aeolic dialects. Thus Lesb. MeXavxpo<; IliO(oveio<:, 
^Apx^'TTra 'Adavdeia, Thess. Ivxovv 'Avriyoveio';, Nt/co'Xao? 'A7€t- 
o-iato?, Boeot. ©toTrojUTro? 'OXuyLtTri^^to?, 'Ep/^ato? NiKt?jo9. 

a. When the father's name is itself a patronymic form ia -8as or -tos, 
the genitive is regularly employed in Boeotian ; so also in early Thessalian, 
but later the adjective forms like 'EiriKpariSatos, Ti/xowiSaios are usual. 

6. Under Koanq influence the use of the adjective was given up in favor 
of the ordinary genitive construction. Thus in Boeotian the genitive is 
usual after about 250 B.C. and occasionally found earlier. There is some 
evidence that the Plataeans adopted the Attic usage at an early date. See 
no. 42. 

c. There are also examples in Thessalian and Boeotian of adjectives in 
agreement -with appellatives, in place of a genitive of possession. Thess. 
UoXviofaia cju/xi (sc. d <7T<iAAa), etc. See the following. 

d. A genitive may be used in apposition to that implied by the adjec- 
tive, as in Hom. TopytiTj Kefjiakij Setvoto ireX.utpav. Boeot. Ka(X)Xui«i e^i (sc. 
a KvAif) TO Kcvrpovos, Topyivioi e/u,t o kotuXos koXos K[aX]6, Lesb. (r[TaAA]a 
Vt 'SiOfveuu l/x/u TO NtKtai'oi (dat.) to TavKio (gen.) the son of Mcias, the son 
of Gaucus, where VavKLo is also a patronymic adjective, but in apposition 
with the genitive implied in NiKiatoi. 



SYNTAX 

169. Although the syntax of the dialects deserves fuller investi- 
gation than it has received, yet syntactical differences between the 
dialects are much less striking than those of phonology and inflec- 
tion. To a considerable extent they consist merely in the conserva- 
tion in some dialects of early forms of expression which have become 
rare or obsolete in literary Greek, and in a less strict formalization 
of usage. Some peculiarities have already been mentioned in con- 
nection with the forms, e.g. in the use of certain pronouns (121- 
131), adverbs and conjunctions (132-134), and in the meaning and 
construction of prepositions (136). It is necessary to add here only 
a few comments on certain uses of the cases and the moods. Some 
other, more isolated, peculiarities are observed in the notes to the 
inscriptions. 

CASES 

The Genitive 

170. Genitive of Time. The genitive of the 'time within wliich' 
is especially frequent in the early Cretan inscriptions, although iv 
with the dative is already the more usual expression. In both cases 
the article is used, while in late inscriptions we find only ev with 
the dative and without the article. Of. Law-Code, 1.25 Tuiyda-ai, rdv 
TreVr a/xepav release within Jive days, but 1.6 iv rat? Tpial afj,epai<:. 
So in Locrian, but without the article, rpiov fievov beside iv rpcd- 
povT afidpaK, as also in early Attic inscriptions. 

Aside from the adverbial phrases vvkt6<; etc., the use of the geni- 
tive of time is most persistent in dating, as /i?;vo9 e^S6/j,ov etc., the 
usual expression in most dialects. More noteworthy is the phrase 
Kal troXeiMov (-co) kuI elpr)vr)<; (-a<s) which is common in the prox- 
eny decrees of various dialects, though eventually replaced in many 
by iv TToXefiai kt\. 

124 



174] SYNTAX 125 

The genitive of time is used distributively in various dialects, as 
also in Attic, e.g. ra? a.fxepa'i or ra? aixepa<; f€Kd(Tra^ daily, beside 
Kar afiepav. 

171. Genitive of the Matter involved, in legal phraseology. Al- 
though the genitive of the charge or penalty is common to all dia- 
lects, the genitive is nowhere else used so freely as in Cretan to 
denote the matter involved, e.g. KaTaSiKaKa-drd ro eKevdepo SeKa 
ararepav^, ro SoXo ireine shall condemn Mm to a fine of ten staters 
in the case of a freeman, five staters in the case of a slave, tS Se 
Kpovo Kpivev decide as to the time, di peKacrro eypajTai as is pre- 
scribed for each case. 

The Dative 

172. The adnOminal dative is more common than ia literary 
Greek, and is especially frequent in the introduction to inscriptions 
or their separate sections, e.g. El. d ppdrpa rok faXeioi^, Locr. rb 
refffiiov rot's HvTroKPa/MSioK Aoppots, Phoc. 6fji.o\oyia rd iroXei 
"Zreipicov ical rd Tro'Xet MeSemviav, Boeot. hiaiypa^d NiKape'rri, Att. 
drrap'X^e rddevaiai, ypafifiureii^ rrji ^ov\r]t Kal ran hdixa>i. 

For the dative instead of the genitive construction with various 
prepositions in Arcado-Cyprian, see 136.1. 

The Accusative 

173. A noteworthy accusative absolute construction is seen in 
Arc. el fj.e rraphera^afJLevo^ ro^ irevreicovra e to? rpiaKocrio<; unless 
the Fifty or the Three Hundred approve. This is an extension from 
instances where the participle agrees with the accusative of a pre- 
ceding clause, as Arc. fie vep,ev fie re ^evov fiere pacrrov, el p-e eiri 
doCvav hiKOvra. Of. also Arc. Kardrrep ro<; i-ma-vvicrrafievo'} . . . ye- 
yparrroi as is prescribed in the case of those who conspire. 

THE MOODS . 
The Subjunctive 

174. The subjunctive without dv or ica in conditional, relative, 
and' temporal clauses, where the particle is regularly employed in 



126 GEEEK DIALECTS [l74 

Attic prose, though frequently omitted in Homer and sometimes 
elsewhere (Kiihner-Gerth II, pp. 426, 449, 474), is attested for 
several dialects, though always as the less common construction. 
Locr. at SeiXer avxopelv, at rt? avxopeei (no. 55.7,26 ; ten exam- 
ples with Ka in the same inscription). Arc. ei Se rts iinOudvi (Co- 
tUum), and so, probably. Arc. sIk iirl Sofia nrvp e-iroiae (no. 17.21) in 
contrast to usual eU av (see 134.2), Cypr. o i^opv^e, ol . . . loai 
(no. 19.25,31), Cret. dvyaTpl I SiSoi, when one gives it to the daugh- 
ter (Law-Code VI.l). Examples are not infrequent in later Locrian, 
Phocian, and Delphian inscriptions. 

The Optative 

175. In Elean the optative with Ka is the usual "form of prescrip- 
tions, e.g. crvvfiax^a k ea e/carov perea let there he alliance for a 
hundred years, fe/ca fivak Ka airoTivoi peKaa-ro'; let each pay a fine 
of ten minae. Similarly in Cyprian, but without Ke, e.g. ScaKoi vv 
^aa-iXeiK; the king shall give. 

The subjunctive without Ka is used in the same sense in a late 
Elean inscription (no. 61.32,36). 

176. 1. The optative in conditional clauses survives in several 
dialects, although, except in Elean, it is much less frequent than 
the subjunctive, and indeed is almost wholly eliminated in favor of 
the subjunctive in Attic-Ionic inscriptions, and in Lesbian, Thessa- 
lian, Boeotian, Cyprian, Heraclean, Theran, Coan, Ehodian, — in 
fact in the majority of dialects. Where the optative survives, it is 
sometimes used with a still recognizable differentiation from the 
subjunctive, but oftener without such. In the Gortynian Law-Code, 
which offers the fullest material, there are in conditional clauses 
about 50 optatives to about 80 subjunctives. Some of these occur 
where the contingency is obviously one more remotely anticipated 
(e.g. VII.9, hut if there should not he any free persons, as contem- 
plated in the preceding subjunctive clauses ; I.ll, hut if one should 
deny), others as mere variants of the subjunctive for parallel or 
even identical contingencies (e.g. opt. IX.18 = subj. VI.25). In 



176] SYNTAX 127 

Locrian, no. 56 A has the optative onlj- (cf. also the relative clause 
pon crvXda-ai), whereas no. 56 B and no. 55 have the subjunctive 
only. In Delphian, no. 51 has the subjunctive usually, but al S'e^t- 
opKeoifii A 17, in an oath, where Attic also -would have the optative, 
also ai 8' i^iopKeoi C6 (here indirect discourse), and ai Se n tov- 
Tcov irapfidXKoiTo 025, C50, Dl7; and in the numerous Phocian 
and Delphian manumission decrees the optative is of very frequent 
occurrence. The optative, beside the subjunctive, occurs also lq 
Corcyraean, Achaean, and in the Northwest Greek kolvti (e. g. no. 62). 
In Argolic, the archaic nos. 76 and 78 have the optative only, and 
this occurs in some of the later inscriptions (but in no. 84 the opta- 
tives are in iudirect discourse). In Arcadian, nos. 16 and 17 have 
the subjimctive only, but in no. 18 there are some examples of the 
optative. Even in the same clause the alternation of subjunctive 
and optative is not infrequent, e.g. Delph. ei he Ka fir] iroiTJ rj jii) 
irapa/Mevoi or el 8e firj nroieoi rj fir) irapafievrf. See also no. 18.6, note. 

2. In relative and temporal clauses of future time, the predomi- 
nance of the subjunctive is even more marked. Noteworthy is the 
Tean curse, no. 3, where oan<: with the optative is used in the curse 
proper, 11. 1-34, while in the postscript warning against harming 
the stele on which the curse is inscribed, U. 35-40, we find o? dv 
with the subjunctive. There are a few examples of the optative iu 
Cretan (Law-Code IV.14, and a few others), Locrian (see above), 
Delphian, and elsewhere (see 177). 

3. But in Elean the optative is uniformly employed in condi- 
tional, relative, and temporal clauses. For examples in conditional 
and relative clauses, see nos. 57-59. In the later no. 60 the sub- 
junctive also occurs, but with future perfect force. 

4. In final clauses the optative occurs, e.g. Heracl. Tab. 1.53 £f. 
eo-rao-a/ie? . . . avx<opi^avTe<; . . . , Aw? fir) KaraXvfJ.aKcoOrj': dBrfXco- 
deCrf, Lesb. no. 22.13 ff. eTrifJ.e'KecTdai . . . , tcardypevTov . . . , <u9 ice 

ififievoiev. But it is very rare, and most dialects have only the 
subjunctive with or without dv (ku, we), or sometimes the future 
indicative. 



128 GEEEK DIALECTS [ill 

177. There are some examples of xa with the optative in con- 
ditional clauses, etc., as sometimes ia Homer (Kiihner-Gerth II, 
pp. 482, 453), e.g. Locr. al k aSitcof avXoi (no. 56.4), Cret. at Ka . . . 
/IT) vvvaTo<i e'iri, Epid. at ica vyirj viv Troi'^a-ac (no. 84.60), Delph. el 
Se [Ti'i] Ka icjjdTTTOiTO, i-jret icd n irddoi, Corcyr. a^' pv k ap^d ye- 
voiTO, Ach. ecrre Ka airohoiev. 

The Imperative and the Infinitive 

178. Both the imperative and the infinitive are freely used in 
prescriptions, often side by side in the same inscription. In general 
the infinitive is more frequent in early, the imperative in later, lq- 
scriptions. For the Elean use of the optative with the same force, 
see 175. 

WORD OEDER 

179. A peculiarity of word order which is worthy of mention is 
the position of rt? before Ka in the phrase at rk Ka, al he rt? Ka. 
This is the regular order in the West Greek dialects, as contrasted 
not only with Att.-Ion. edv ra, rjv tk, but with Arc. el S' dv rt?, Cypr. 
e Ke <TL<;, Lesb. at Ke tk, Thess. al [fi)d «e at?, Boeot. rj Se Ka rt?. 
Boeotian has also, though less frequently, the West Greek order 

7] Tt9 Ka. 



SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF 
THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS 

180. The following summaries, while not exhaustive, are intended 
to call attention to the most important characteristics of each group 
and dialect. These are indicated in the briefest manner, sometimes 
by a mere example, sufficient to identify, but not always to define, 
the phenomenon in question, and these brief indications are always 
to he interpreted in the light of the sections to which reference is 
made in each case. Of peculiarities in vocabulary only some few 
of the most striking are mentioned.^ 

To avoid needless repetition, many phenomena which are pecu- 
liar from the standpoint of Attic or Attic-Ionic, but are common 
to all or most of the other dialects, are usually omitted, e.g. 

1. Original d unchanged. 8 11. icov = div. 163.9 

2. d from do, dco. 41.4 12. al = el. 134.1 

3. 7) from ae. 41.1 13. arepo<s = eTepo<:. 13 a 

4. Absence of v-movable. 102 14. to-ria = ia-ria. 11 

5. Apocope of prepositions. 95 15. <yivoixai = jiyvo/jLai. 86.7 

6. itoXk, TTo'Xios, etc. 109.1 16. SeKOfiai = Se')^ofiai. 66 

7. d/jie}, vfi€<;, ace. dfie, vfj.e= 17. ovvfia = ovona. 22 h 

■qfieK etc. 119.2,5 18. Sa/jLtop<y6<;=Sr]fii,ovpy6<;. 44.4 

8. Infin. -/iev. 154.3 19. ■>jveiKa,7jviKa^7]veyKa. li^a 

9. 3 pL edev, eSov, etc. 138.5 20. irap.a = KTrjfia. 49.5 a 
10. ri<; = riv. 163.3 21. lkq) = ■^kco. Glossary 

EAST GREEK 

Attic-Ionic 

181. Important characteristics of Attic-Ionic (1-7 specific Att.- 
lon., 8-9 in common with Arc, 10 with Arc-Cypr.) : 

1 An exhaustive list of peculiarities would- also include proper names which 
are peculiar to, or especially frequent in, a given dialect. 

129 



130 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



[181 



1. T) from a. 8 

2. Quantitative metathesis (Xem? 

etc.). 41.4, 43 

3. I'-movable. 102 

4. 5j/i€ts, ace. -ea?, -a?. 119.2,5 

5. TTOv, oirov, etc. 132.1 



6. edeaav, eSoaav, etc. 138.5 

7. ^1/ 3 sg. imperf. of elfii. 163.3 

8. Conjunction el. 134.1 

9. Particle ai'. 134.2 

10. Infin. -vai. 154.1 

11. Very early loss of f. 50 



Ionic 

182. The chief characteristics of Ionic, as compared with Attic, 
are as follows. Some few of these are Ionic only (notably 1, also 
8, 9, 14, 20, 22), but most are common to various other dialects, some 
indeed to all except Attic, being repeated here from 180 to bring 
out the contrast with Attic more fully. A few peculiarities which 
are not general Ionic, but are common to all branches except West 
Ionic, are included. 



1. 7) from d even after e, t, p. 8 

2. ea, eo, eco, eoi usually uncon- 

tracted. 42.1,5,6 

3. ev = eo, from IV cent. on. 42.5 

4. Crasis of o, o (ou), a},+a = co, 

as TcoySivo^ = Att. Tayai- 
vo<;. 94.1 

5. ^elvo<;, Kovpr/, etc. 54 with a 

6. O-O- = Att. TT. 81 

7. pa- = Att. pp. 80 

8. rjv = Att. idv, av. 134.1 h 

9. a-stems, gen. sg. m. -eco, -m, 

gen. pi. -eav, -av, dat. pi. 
-r}i(n.{v). 41.4, 104.7 

10. 7ro'\i?, TTo'Xios, etc. 109.1,2 

11. ^aa-iXevi, -e'os, etc. 111.3 

12. -k\7j<;, -K\eos. 108.1a 



14. 3 pi. nOearai eto. 139.2 

15. ia>v = Att. mv. 163.8 

16. Suffix -5;to?= Att. -eto9. 164.1 

17. ^oXofiat = ^ovXo/iai. 75 h 

18. t/3o'? (t/Jo?) beside lepo^. 13.1 

19. /ieftBi/ = Att. fiel^av. 113.1 

20. SeKVv/ii =Att. SeiKWfu. 49.1 

21. Keivo<; = Att. eaetvo?. 125.1 

22. fuvo? = Att. Koivoi. 135.7 

23. KapTep6<; = Att. KpaTep6<;, in 

meaning = KvpLo<;. 49.2 a, 
Glossary 

24. S9?/ttto/37o'9=Att.-ouj0'yo'9.44.4 

25. to-Tta (to-Tia)=Att. eo-Tt'o. 11 

26. rjveiKa, jjviKa = Att. ijveyKa. 

Hi a 

27. t6l,;? = Att. ei6'i5?. Glossary 



13. /it-verbs inflected Mke contracts, as nOel, ndelv. 160 



188] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEKISTICS 131 

183. East Ionic is further characterized by : 

1. Psilosis. 57. 2. ao, eo = av, ev from fourth century on. 33. 
3. Short-vowel subj. of o--aorist. 150. 

184. Chian. The dialect of Chios contains a few special charac- 
teristics, which are of Aeolic origin : 

1. 3 pi. Xd^coiatv, irprj^oLo-iv, etc., with la from va: 77.3. 

2. Inflected cardinals, Sskcov, TrevTrjKovrmv, etc. 116. 
Note also jeymveco call aloud, as in Homer. 

a. The Aeolio doubling of nasals (73 ff.) is seen in tlie names of the 
mountain XltXiwaiov in Chios and the promontory "Apyevi/oi/ opposite Chios, 
also in the personal name ^awodtfiK in an inscription of Erythrae. Like- 
wise Aeolic is the Phocaean Ztovi;((7ios) , 19.1. All these features are relics 
of a time when the line between the Aeolic and the Ionic colonies was far- 
ther south than in the historical period. 

185. Central Ionic differs from East Ionic in the absence of psi- 
losis, etc. (183). Note also the restricted use of H, i.e. only = i? from 
a, in the early inscriptions of some of the islands. 4.6. 

186. West Ionic, or Euboean, differs from the other divisions of 
Ionic as follows : 

1. TT as in Attic, not aa-. 81 5. tovtu, rovrei, ivrovOa = tuv- 

2. pp as in Attic, not pa: 80 ra, TavTrjL, evravda. 124 

3. |e'z/09 etc. as in Attic, not |et- 6. -kXc't??, gen. -Kkea. 108.1a 

1^0?. 54 7. Proper names- ra-i?, gen. -tSo?, 

4. -et, -04 from -Tyt, -cot (in Ere- as often in Attic (East and 

■tria about 400 B.C.). 39 a Central Ion. -to?). 109.5 

8. elv beside eti^at. 160 

187. Eretrian. In addition to the other Euboean peculiarities, 
the dialect of Eretria, seen in inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus, is 
specifically characterized by the rhotacism of intervocalic <y, as 
exovpiv = exovaiv, 60.3. The use of av (Oropus), idv (Eretria) is 
due to Attic influence. 

188. Attic influence. Ionic was the first of all dialects to yield 
to Attic mfluence, and after the fifth century there are few inscrip- 
tions that are whoUy free from Attic forms. See 277. 



132 GREEK DIALECTS [l89 

Aecado-Cypkian ^ 

189. Special characteristics of Arcado-Cyprian : ^ 

1. Iv = ev. 10 5. a-L<i, aL<; = rt? (but Arc. usu- 

2. Gen. sg. -av. 22 ally t«). 68.3 

3. ir6<; = tt/so'?. 135.6 6. ovv = oSe. 123 

4. /ea's = «ai (but Arc. usually 7. Dat. with aTro, i^, etc. 136 

/cat). 134.3 8. -Kperj}'! = -Kparrj';. 49.2 

190. Characteristics common to Arcado-Cyprian and various 
other dialects (1 Att.-Ion., 2 Ion., 3-6 AeoL, 7 KW.Grk.) : ^ 

1. Infin. in -vai. 154.1 9. e? = e| before cons, (but 

2. ^oXofiM = ^ovXofiai. 75 & Cypr. also e|). 100 

3. aTTu = aTTo. 22 10. Masc. o--stems, ace. sg. -j]v 

4. 6v (vv) = avd. 6, 22 (Arc. also voc. sg, -■»;). 108.2 

5. op = ap.5 11. te/3^s = te/36W, etc. (but usual 

6. /ii-inflect. of contractvbs. 157 only in Arc). 111.4 

7. iv (iv) = ek. 135.4 12. Subj. -f??, -v- 149 

8. r), (0 = spurious ei, ov. 25 13. Article as relative. 126 

191. Noteworthy is the considerable number of words or mean- 
ings which are otherwise known only, or with rare exceptions, as 
poetical, mainly Homeric. Some of the most striking examples are : 

1) In Arcadian and Cyprian, ala-a share (also Lac), ot(f)os 
alone, evxo\d prayer or imprecation. 

2) In Arcadian. Seafiai, airvat summon, KeXevdo^ road, Zcofia 
temple, afiap (but see no. 16.21, note). 

3) In Cyprian, pdva^, avcbym, avrdp, e'A,os meadow, Ijarijp, KaaC- 
yvTiTO'! (also Lesb. ; possibly Thess. KaTiyv[eiTO<;'\), y(^pavofjiai border 
on (Horn. XP'^vco graze), iSe, vv (also Boeot. 134.5). 

1 Several of the characteristics cited below under the head of Arcadian or of 
Cyprian, for which corresponding forms are lacking or ambiguous in the other 
dialect, probably are also Arcado-Cyprian. See also 199. 

" In this and similar captions "special" is not to be taken too rigorously. 
Some few peculiarities of which occasional examples are found elsewhere are 
included, e. g., in this section, Iv = iv, which is regularly found only in Arcado- 
Cyprian, but of which there are a few examples elsewhere. 



19S] 



SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS 



133 



Arcadian 

192. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics. See 189-191. 

193. In common with various other dialects (1, 2 Att.-Ion., 3, 4 
Lesb., 5 Aeol., 6, li, 15 West Greek) : 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



part. 



Conjunction el. 134.1 
Particle dv. 134.2 
SeKOTO<i = Se/taTO?. 6 
Pass, infin. -t]v. 155.2 
TreSd (Tre) = //.era. 135.5 

6. Traperd^covcn etc. 142 

7. pp = pa: 80 

8. "Trdwra etc. 77.3 

9. Ace. pi. -0?, nom. 

hiepoBvTe^. 78 

10. Dat. sg. -01. 106.2 

11. Subj. Se'drot etc. 151.1 
194. Special Arcadian: 

1. Gen. sg. fem.-aw(Tegea). 104.2 

2. 3 pi. -vtri. 77.3 

3. 3 sg. mid. -rot = -rac. 139.1 

4. BeKO, heKOTOv = Se/ca, eKarov. 6 

5. Numerals in -Kcunoi = -k6- 

aioi. 117.2 

6. ovi = oSe. 123 



12. Infin. -€v. 153.2 

13. 3 pi. imv. -vTto. 140.3 a 

14. ^iJua-a-o<i = TJfiia-vi; (but also 
the latter). 61.6 

15. loSeXo? = 6^oX6<:. 49.3 

16. /ieo-T Mwfo7. 132.9 

17. Peculiarities in the use of 
the spiritus asper. 58 a, d 

18. /r in early inscr. initially and 
after cons., but lost be- 
tween vowels ; iuitially 
tillabout300B.C. 52,53,54 

7. Karv = Kard. 22, 95 

8. ttXo's = TrXe'oK 113.2 

9. eoK dv. 134.2 a 

10. dirvh6a<; = dirohov^. 144 

11. Se'XXto = /SaWo). 68.1 

12. 'n.o(roihdv='n.o<r€ihS>v. 49.1, 
61.5 

195. External influence in the dialect. The fact that ko? and 
£49, agreeing with Cyprian, are found only in one early iascription 
(no. 16), while all others have kuC and rt?, is probably due to ex- 
ternal influence, though not specifically Attic. See 275. The Tegean 
building inscription (no. 18) of the third century shows some few 
Attic KOLvrj forms, as irXeov instead of ifXo'i, once gen. sg. -ov, etc. 
From the latter part of the third century on, when the chief Arca- 
dian cities belonged to the Achaean, and for a time to the Aetolian, 
League, the language employed in most of the inscriptions is neither 



134 GREEK DIALECTS [195 

Arcadian nor Attic Koivq, but the Doric, or in part Northwest Greek, 
Koivri. See 279. But the decree of Megalopolis (Ditt. Syll. 258) of 
about 200 B.C., though showing a remarkable mixture of forms, is 
mainly in the native dialect. 

Cyprian 

196. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics. See 189-191. 

197. In common with various other dialects : 

1. t from e before vowels. 9.3 7. Dat.sg.-o,-abeside-ot,-at.38 

2. Glide sound after t expressed, 8. Ace. sg. Ijarepav etc. 107.1 

as Ijarepav. 56 9. ^aa-iXem, -epos. 111.1 

3. al\o<; = aXKot. 74 b 10. 3 pi. /eare'^ijav. 138.5 

4. Psilosis. 57 11. Ke = av. 134.2 

5. Tret'o-et ^ = reiaei. 68.1,2 12. f in all positions. 52-55 

6. Occasional omission of intervoc. and final a. 59.4 

198. Special Cyprian : 

1. Gen. sg. -ov. 106.1 6. irai indeed. 132.5 

2. TTToXifi etc. 109.4 7. e = el. 134.1 

3. 3 sg. mid. -TW = -TO. 22 8. Bvpdva),Sc!}KO)=BiSto fit. 162.11 

4. fa = ya, etc. 62.4 9. fpera, fperda. 55 

5. v = e'iri. 135.8 

199. It is uncertain whether the infinitive should be transcribed with 
-ev or -ev, the accusative plural with -os, -os, or -o(v)s. In the absence of 
any evidence to the contrary, we assume -ev and -os in agreement with Ar- 
cadian. But the dative singular is to be transcribed -ot, in spite of Arc. -ot, 
on account of the frequent omission of the final i (38) ; and the third plu- 
ral ending is transcribed with -trt, not -(y)(Ti, in spite of Arc. -vo-i, on account 
of <t>pov€oi (59.4). 

200. All dialectic inscriptions are in the Cyprian syllabary. The 
inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, beginning with the Macedonian 
period, are all in the Kocvq. 

1 Given under this head because of the agreement with Thessalian and Boeo- 
tian, although this agreement is accidental, Cyprian not sharing in the general 
phenomenon to which the Thessalian and Boeotian forms belong. 



205] SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 135 

Aeolic 

201. Aeolic characteristics, common to Lesbian, Thessalian,^ and 
Boeotian (6 also Delph. etc., 7 also Arc.-Cypr., 8 also Arc.) : 

1. Labial instead of dental in 4. ta = fiia. 114.1 

7re/*ire = TreVre, etc. 68.2 5. pe = pi. 18 

2. Perf.act. part. -0)1', -oi'To?. 147.3 6. Dat. pi. Tro'Seo-o-i etc. 107.3 

3. Patron, adj. instead of gen. sg. 7. po = pa, etc. 5 

of father's name. 168 8. ®epa- = @apa--. 49.2 

202. Aeolic characteristics, common to Lesbian and ThessaUan ^ 
(4-7 also Arc-Cypr.) : 

1. Double liquids and nasals in 4. /it-inflection of contract verbs. 

ifi/ii, a-ToXXa, etc. 74-76, 157 

77.1, 79 5. 6v = avd. 6 

2. aype(o(dvypeoi))=aipea>.G\os- 6. airv — airo. 22 

sary 7. ks = dv. 134.2 

^3. t from I before vowels. 19 

203. Aeolic characteristics, common to Lesbian and Boeotian (2 
also Arc, Cret., etc.) : 

1. ixaXe-aaa etc. 143 2. veSd = /lerd. 135.5 

204. Characteristics common to Thessahan ^ and Boeotian only 
(of which, however, only 1, which is Homeric, belongs to the Aeolic 
elements of these dialects) : 

1. Infin. 4>€petiev etc. 155.1 5. %e6^0T0';. 166.2 

2. 3 pi. -vOt etc. 139.2 6. e\e|e = etTre in the official 

3. et = t;. 16 . language of decrees. 

4. yivv/xai = yiyvo/jiai. 162.5 

Lesbian 

205. Aeolic characteristics in common with one or both of the 
other Aeolic dialects. See 201-203. 



1 In some cases only East Thessalian (Pelasgiotis). See 214, 



136 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[206 



206. In common with various other dialects (8, 9 with Arcadian) ; 

7. Article as relative. 126 

8. Infin. -rjv. 153.1 

9. Perl infin. -vv. 147.2 

10. Pass, infin. -r)v. 155.2 

11. SeKOTO<i = SeKUTOi;. 6 

12. Early loss of f. 50 



1. 1), ci) = spurious ei, ov. 25 

2. Pinal -a, -r), -co = -di, -rji, -coi, 

from end IV cent. on. 38 

3. PsUosis. 57 

4. Dat.pl.-ato-t,-otcrt. 104.7,106.4 

5. /SatriXeu?, -Tios, etc. lli.l 

6. Masc. o--stems, ace. sg. -tjv, gen. sg. -r), etc. 108.2 

207. Special Lesbian (1 in part Elean) : 
1. 1(7 from v;, as ace. pi. Tai5, 6. Infin. efifjievai etc. 154.2 
TOi<;, 3 pi. (f>epoiai. 77.3, 78 



2. aifMtrv; = '^fjucrv;, etc. 17 

3. avco'!, vavo<;, etc. 35 

4. ora = ore. 132.9 

5. oTTt, oinrci'i, etc. 129.2 



7. Infin.StSfi)i',«e/ji'ai',etc. 155.3 

8. 3 pi. imv. -VTOv, -adov. 140.5 

9. Eecessive accent. 103 

10. TT/ooVaw? (rarely Att.)=7r/3u- 
ravK. Glossary 



208. External influence in the dialect. Prom the Macedonian 
period on — and very few of the inscriptions are earlier — there is 
usually some admixture of Koivq forms, as avd beside 6v, nerd be- 
side TreSa, ore beside ora, etc. But in the main the dialect is 
employed in inscriptions till about the middle of the second cen- 
tury B. c. Its use in inscriptions of Eoman imperial times (cf. no. 24) 
represents an artificial revival. See 280. 

Thessalian 

209. Aeplic characteristics in common with one or both of the 
other Aeolic dialects. See 201, 202. 

210. West Greek and Northwest Greek characteristics (cf. 
223.1,2,4,6, and 226.1,4,8) : 



2. 



Eetention of t in BiSmrc etc. 
(-Tt not quotable, but -vdt 
from -vTi), iKari, ttot, Tio- 
reiSovv. 61 

'(/can = ^LKOQ-i, U6 



3. yfra^i^aa-Oeiv etc. 142 

4. iap6<! beside lep6<;. 13.1 

5. €v = ek. 135.4 

6. (TT = ad (rare). 85.1 

7. irapd at, with with ace, 136.2 



213] SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTERISTICS 

211. In common with various other dialects : 



137 



1. t from e before vowels (but 

oftener e). 9.7 

2. Final -a, -ov (from -co), -ei 

(from ri) = -di, -COL, -r)i. 38 

3. es = e| before cons. 100 

4. Trdvcra etc. 77.3 

5. Ace. pi. -o?. 78 

6. TT = ITT. 86.2 

7. TTToXt? beside ttoXi?. 67 

8. SS = §: 84 



9. Psilosis in article. 58 a 

10. f init. till about 400 B.C. 

11. Gen. sg. -do, usually d. 41.4 

12. Gen. pi. -aovv, usually -av. 

41.4 

13. /8a<rtXeu9, -etos, etc. 111.1 

14. Plural inflection of Sveo, as 

Sva<;. 114.2 

15. Nt«oK\^as etc. 166.1 

16. Article as relative. 126 



212. In common with Boeotian only. 

213. Special Thessalian: 



See 204. 



1. ov = CO. 23 

2. Gen.sg.-ot(butsee214). 106.1 

3. Ki? = rk (but see 214). 68.4 

4. More extensive apocope than 

in any other dialect, name- 
ly in /COT, tto't, Trap, trep, 
ov, air, err, xnr. 95 

5. Consonant-doubling in tto'X,- 

Xt09, ihhiav, Kvppov = kv- 
piov, etc 19.3 

6. Sie = Sid. 7 

7. 3pl.eve^ai'icro-o€V, eSov/caea, 

etc. 138.5 

8. 3 sg. mid. iy}rd^icrr€i etc. 

Larissa only. 27 

9. 3 pL mid. icftdvypevQav etc. 

Larissa only. 27, 139.2 
10. Iiifin. SeSoo-Oeiv etc. Larissa 
only. 27, 156 



11. ove (rove, TotVeo?, etc.) = oSe. 

123 

12. Relative use of kk, ttoZo?. 

131 

13. fJi.d = 8e. 134.4 

14. fiecTTToBi = eo)?. 132.9 a 

15. "AttXow = 'ATTo'Wa)!'. 49.3 

16. UerdaXo'; = ©ecrcraXo'?. 65, 

68.2 

17. fieXKofiai = ^ovKoiiai. 75 

18. Xi^to? = \i6ivof. 164.6,9 

19. Savxva = Sd^vrj. 68.4 a 

20. ovdXa = avdXco/xa. 164.9 

21. Xifi-qv = ayopdviarket-place 

(ayopd being = iicicXrja-La) 

22. /ciftJi' often used in place of 

o-TciXXa (o-T'^Xtj) 

23. Ta7o'? as title of a state or 

municipal official 



138 GREEK DIALECTS [214 

214. Differences within Thessalian. The form of Thessalian 
which is best known is that of Pelasgiotis, represented mainly by 
inscriptions of Larissa, which show some special local peculiarities 
(213.8-10), Crannon, and Phalanna.^ The dialect of Thessaliotis, 
represented mainly by inscriptions of Pharsalus and Cierium, dif- 
fers from that of Thessaliotis in two important respects, 1) gen. sg. 
of o-stems in -o, -ov, not -oi, 2) pres. infin. of thematic verbs in -ev, 
-eiv, not -efiev. The early inscription, no. 33, from Thetonium in 
the neighborhood of Cierium, shows, in addition to these two points 
of difference, tli not Kt?, dat. pi. of consonant stems in -aiv (xp^- 
fiacnv) not -ea-at (as at Pharsalus as well as in Pelasgiotis), hv\d- 
peovTOi not -evroi, uncontracted gen. sg. in -ao, gen. sg. of father's 
name instead of patronymic adjective (? see no. 33.11, note). Late 
inscriptions of Cierium have dat. sg. -oi, -at, though at Pharsalus we 
find -ov, -a, just as in Pelasgiotis, and in no. 33 eV Taya beside iv 
arajiac points to -at, -oi. On SS = f in i^^avaKd(S)Sev, no. 33, see 
84 ; on tt beside crcr, see 81 &. 

From Histiaeotis and Perrhaebia the material is very scanty. 
From Magnesia there are a few fragmentary archaic inscriptions, 
but most are late and in the Attic koiv^. An early inscription of 
Phthiotis (Me^iVra? Uidoweio-; "ArrXovvi IG. IX.ii.l99) shows con- 
clusively, what was only natural to expect, that its dialect was also 
Thessalian. But nearly all the inscriptions date from the period of 
Aetolian domination and are in the Northwest Greek Koivq (279). 

Many of the characteristics cited in the preceding sections are 
as yet attested only in the inscriptions of Pelasgiotis, but, except 
where there is evidence to the contrary as stated, it is to be as- 
sumed provisionally that they are general Thessalian. For the 
points of agreement are more pronounced than the differences. 

215. External influence in the dialect. Occasional koiv^ forms 
appear in the inscriptions of the third and second centuries B.C., 
especially avd, cnro, irepl, Kara, he, gen. sg. instead of patronymic 

1 Really in Perrhaebia, so far as this was recognised ^ 9, distinct divisioil of 
Thessaly, but in the part near Pelasgiotis, 



219] 



SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS 



139 



adjective, t) (not et), yivofj.ai (not yivv/iai), etc. But the dialect as a 
whole is employed in inscriptions until about the end of the second 
century b.c. and occasionally later. 

Boeotian 

216. AeolLc characteristics in common with one or both of the 
other AeoKc dialects. See 201, 203. 

217. West Greek and Northwest Greek characteristics (cf. 
223.1-10, and 226.1,2,8): 



1. SiStoTt, piKUTi, etc. 61 

2. fiKan = ei/coa-i. 116 with a 

3. irevraKarioi etc. 116 a, 117 

4. e'7reo"/cewa|e etc. (but oftener 

tt). 142 

5; Toi, rat = 01, at. 122 

6. iap6<; = lep6<;. 13.1 



7. "Apra/iK; ^''Apre/j.K. 13.2 

8. Ka = Ke, av. 13.3 

9. Trparo'i = Tr/aaJTO?. 114.1 

10. avTl,ve.avTei = avTov. 132.2 

11. iv = el<;. 135.4 

12. Seifievo<; = Seoftevo^. 158 

13. irapd at, with w. ace. 136.2 



218. In common with various other dialects (20, 21 mainly 
Boeotian) : 



1. { from e before vowels. 9.2 

2. co = spurious ov. 25 

3. TT in ddXaTTa etc. 81 

4. TT in /xerTO?, i-^a<j)iTTaTo, 

etc. 82 

5. SS, initial S = ^. 84 

6. e? = e^ before cons, (see also 

220.1). 100 

7. Trpiayeth = 7rpecr^ev<;. 68.1 

8. p between vowels till about 

450 B.C.; initial till about 
200B.C. 50,53 

9. Nom. sg. m. -a beside -a?. 

105.1 a 
10. Gen. sg. m. and gen. pi. in 
-ao, -dcov (but rav). 41.4 



11 



(-V). 



12 
13 



Dat. sg. -ai (-7)), -01 

104.3, 106.2 
^aiTL\€v<;, -etos, etc. 111.1 
avTOcravTO^, ava-avrd';, etc. 

121.4 

14. rav-i etc. 122 

15. 3 pi. avideav, aveOiav, etc. 

138.5 
3 pi. imv.-VTo) (-vdco): 140.3 a 
Perf. aTToSeSoavOi etc., with- 
out K. 146.1 
evTco (evda>) = ovTtov. 163.6 

19. AtoKXe'as etc. 166.1 

20. Consonant-doubling in hypo- 

coristics. 89.5 

21. Patronymics in -aJi'Sd?. 164,8 



16. 
17. 

18. 



219. In common with Thessalian only. See 204. 



140 GEEEK DIALECTS [220 

220. Special Boeotian. Most of the peculiarities of the vowel- 
system (221) also belong here : 

1. eV? = ef before vowels. 100 4. eivi^av = rjveyteav. 144 a 

2. eTTTrao-t? = e'/t7raa-t9. 69.4 6. ^eiXofj^ai = ^ovXofiac. 75 

3. ovTO<;, ovra, etc. 124 6. Hypocoristics ia -ei. 108.2 

221. The Boeotian vowel-system. ' The most striking and obvious 
characteristic of Boeotian lies in its vowel-system. One peculiarity 
consists merely in the retention of the original sound, namely that 
of V as 11. But even this led to a change ia spelling to ov, while 
on the other hand the v with its Attic value of m as a basis was 
used to indicate approximately the sound, probably o, which the 
diphthong oi had come to have. See 24, 30. The other peculiari- 
ties consist in changes of diphthongs to monophthongs and of more 
open to closer vowels, such as eventually prevailed everywhere and 
led to the Modern Greek pronunciation. 

The chief orthographical peculiarities, with the approximate date 
of their introduction, are as follows : 

I = e before vowels. 9.2. V cent. B.C. (in the epichoric alphabet 
t, e, ei, h) 



I = et. 


29. 


V ceni 


b. B.C. 


(in 


Tj = ai. 


26. 


About 400 


B.C. 


ei = T], 


16. 


f( 


a 


« 


ov = V. 


24. 


t( 


350 


te 


lOV = V. 


24. 


<{ 


300 


" 


V = 01. 


30. 


" 


250 


it 


ei = 01. 


30. 


II cent. 


« 



(but great inconsistency in the spell- 
ing. v = v and ot = ot also fre- 
quent till near end of III cent.) 

(rare) 

222. External influence. Although Boeotia was for a short time 
in the Aetolian League, there are no Boeotian inscriptions in the 
Northwest Greek Koivrj. But there are some scattered examples of 
the dative plural of consonant stems in -oi<;, as ^'71;? (al^ot?) etc., 
and the appearance of o-t = ad (85.1) and Sa/jLieoe/iev, SafjLio)ovTe<; 
(159) in some late inscriptions of Orchomenos is also probably due 
to Aetohan influence. The influence of the Attic Koivri becomes con- 
siderable toward the end of the third century B.C., and some inscrip- 
tions or portions of inscriptions are wholly in /coh'tj, e.g. the formal 



224] SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 141 

contract in the Nicareta inscription (no. 43. VI). But most of the 
inscriptions are substantially dialectic until the second half of the 
second century B.C. 

WEST GEEEK 
223. General West Greek characteristics : 

1. SiBcori etc. Eetention of t in the verb-endings -ti, -vti, in /rt- 

KUTi and the hundreds in -kcitcoc, in ttoti (Cret.Tro/art), IIoTet- 
Sdv, TV, and some other words which show the change to o- in 
the East Greek dialects. 61 

2. (/r)iKaTt = eiA:oo-i. 116 witha 12. otto) = dTro'^ei/, etc. 132.7 

3. rpt.aKa.TiOL etc. = -Koenoi. 13. <^epo|i€S etc. 138.3 

116 a, 117.2 14. 'Fnt.-aeoi. But restricted in 

4. iBiKa^a etc. But restricted Heraclean. 141 

in Argolic. 142 15. Put. pass, with act. endings. 

5. Toi,Tai — oi,ai. But Cretan 145 

ot, ot. 122 16. TeTope<; = TerTa/oe?. 114.4 

6. iap6<; (lap6<i) = iep6<;. 13.1 17. TeTpdoKOVTa^reTTapaKOVTa. 

7. "A/ara/iii? ="A/0Te/it9. But 116 

Cretan 'A/STe/it?. 13.2 18. ifj,iv = ifioi, etc. llSAb 

8. Ka, TOKa, TTOKa, oku, ya. 13.3 19. e/u.e'o? = i/xov; etc. 118.3 h 

9. ■7rpaT0<; = Tr/seoTO?. 114.1 20. rj/Mcra-o'} = rj/jLia-v;. 61.6 

10. oTrei = oTTOv, etc. 132.2 21. 6Se\6^ = o/3o\o?. 49.3 

11. OTTT} etc. 132.6 22. Word-order at rt? ku. 179 

a. Although, only a part of these characteristics are actually quotable 
from every one of the West Greek dialects, some indeed from only a few, 
it is probable that, except for the divergence of Cretan in 5 and 7, they 
■were common to all, and that the absence of examples in any dialect is 
accidental. Thus, forms like <^£/9o/xc$ are attested for Phocian and most of 
the Doric dialects, but there is no occurrence of a first plural form in Lo- 
crian and Elean, and in Rhodian only from the time when -/itv had been 
introduced from the kolv^, just as it was at Delphi before the end of the 
fourth century b. c. The early substitution of the kolvq forms of the numer- 
als and the rare occurrence of the personal pronouns in inscriptions, account 
for the incomplete representation of 2, 3, 16-19. 

6. The first ten of these characteristics are also Boeotian (217), several 
also Thessalian (210), and a few also Arcadian. 

224. There are various other phenomena which are common to the 
West Greek dialects, but are not confined to them even iu the widest 
application of the term. Several of those mentioned in 180 are often 



142 GEEEK DIALECTS [224 

casually referred to as " Doric," e.g. al = el, ^? = ^v, a/ie?, edev, ira/ia, 
iKco, but none of them has any claim to be regarded as specifically 
West Greek, with the possible exception of 77 from ae (41.1 with a). 

a. Even of the peculiarities cited in 223 some consist merely in the reten- 
tion of the original forms which must have! been universal at one time ; and 
that TOL, Tat or pron. datives like i/uv still existed in East Greek in the his- 
torical period is shown by their appearance in Homer. Some others also 
may prove to be of wider scope, e.g. ottci, since ottov is, so far as we know, 
only Attic-Ionic. But so far as the present evidence of inscriptions goes, 
the peculiarities given in 223 are distinctly characteristic of West Greek. 

225. The declension of nouns in -ev<; with gen. sg. -e'o? ace. sg. -97 
is common to Delphian and the majority, but not all, of the Doric 
dialects. See 113.3. The 3 pi. imv. -i'to) is common to all the Doric 
dialects except Cretan, but the distribution of -z'tw and -vrmv does 
not coincide at all with the East and West Greek divisions. See 
140.3,4. There are various peculiarities which are West Greek in a 
limited sense, but demonstrably not general West Greek, e.g. t^w? 
= e'/BCiTO? (125.1), avToa-avTo'i (121.4), irpocrda = irpoaOe (133.1), 
'AireXKwv (49.3), \w = eeXat (Glossary), vt, ve'= Xt, Xd (72). The 
use of -tfcr) = -o'(B in certain verbs (162.1), of a-Kevom = (TKevd^co, and 
of yeXafii, e\afj,i (162.1,3,4) is West Greek, but how wide-spread is 
not yet clear. 

Northwest Greek 

226. The chief characteristics of Northwest Greek as distin- 
guished from Doric, including however some which are not com- 
mon to all the dialects of this group and some which are not 
strictly confined to them, are : 

1. eV = ek. Also Thess., Boeot., 6. TraWois etc., dat. pi. But in 

and Arc-Cypr. (Iv). 135.4 Delph. only late and due to 

2. /caXci/xez/o? etc. (El. -T]ij,evo<s). the N.W.Grk. Koivq. 107.3 

Also Boeot. 158 7. TeVopes etc., ace. pi. El.,Ach., 

3. <f>a.pa) etc. But rare in Delph. but not Locr., and rare in 

12 Delph. 107.4 

4 o-T = a-e. 85.1 8. irapd at, with w. ace. Also 

5. 4We, Delph. AeWe = ¥<rTe. No Boeot., Thess., Meg., Lac. 

example in El. 135.4 136.2 



231] SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTEEISTICS 143 

o. There are various other peculiarities the scope of which coincides even 
less definitely with the Northwest Greek dialects proper, but the spread of 
which in the northern part of Greece is noticeable, e. g. masc. ci-stems with 
nom. sg. -d, gen. sg. -as (105.1a, 2i), patronymics in -wSas or -dvSas (164.8), 
proper names in -K\eas (166.1). Note also the peculiarities common to Boeo- 
tiali and Thessalian only (204), most of which are not Aeolic. 

Phocian (Delphian) 

227. West Greek characteriatics. See 223-225. 

228. Northwest Greek characteristics. See 226. 

229. Aeolic elements : Traz^Tcaori in all the earlier inscriptions. 
107.3. Here also, perhaps, the words Tayoi; (also Thess., Cypr., and 
poetical), KepaCm (also Horn.) = Kepdvvvfu, 8iBrjfj,i (also Boeot. and 
Horn.) = Seo). 

230. Other characteristics, mostly in common with various other 
dialects : 

1. f initial till about 400 B.C.; 11. rffvoi (Trivei)=iKetvo<;. 125.1 

intervocalic only in a VI 12. poUfo — o'lKodev. 132.7 
cent, inscr. 52,53 13. ex^o'?, exdo. 133.3 

2. Pecuharities in use of spir. 14. evSo's, evSa, eVSw?. 133.4 

asper. 58 a, c 15. iroi (beside ttoV) = tt/jo'?. 

3. Tft)\ Aa^vaBav, rovv w'/ious, 135.6 h 

etc. 96,97 16. 3 pi. perf. in -an. 138.4 

4. afi^iKXeyeo. 89.3 17. Infin. -ev. 153.2 

5. SeiXofiai = ^ovXofiai. 75 18. crvXem = avXdco. 161.2 

6. lapr\iov etc. 164.1 19. (nej,av(iia> = (7Te4>av6(o. 159 

7. ivvri = evvea. 42.1 20. ttolcovti, ttolovtcov. 42.5 d, 6 

8. he^Beixo^ = el3So(io<;. 114.7 21. iroieivTM. 158 

9. avTocravTo'i, avaavT6<i. 121.4 22. fjTai (late). 163.9 
10. Tovra = ravra. 124 

231. External influence in the dialect. The temple accounts of 
353-325 B.C. show plain evidences of Attic influence. With the 
Aetolian domination (278-178 B.C.) a new element is added, that 
of the Northwest Greek Koivrj (see 279), resulting in the striking 
mixture (e.g. dat. pi. iravTeaai, iravToi's, Traat) seen in the numerous 



144 GREEK DIALECTS [231 

proxeny and manumission decrees, some of them as late as the 
first and second centuries a.d. There are even some few traces of 
Boeotian influence, as in iaTuvdco, deXwvdi, KXapmal (t = el) from 
Stiris, near the Boeotian boundary, and the spellings kti (= Kai), 
aa-ovXov in a decree of the Phocians. The Amphictionic decrees 
immediately following the Aetolian conquest are in the pure Attic 
Koiv^, but the dialect was gradually resumed, in the mixed form 
which it shows in the other classes' of inscriptions. 

Locrian 

232. "West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

233. Northwest Greek characteristics. See 226. 

234. In common with various other dialects : 

1. Ko6ap6<; (TIeppoOapidv). 6 5. Ka(T) tov, iroir) tov, etc. 95 a 

2. '07r6iVTi, 'OTTOi'Tt'ou?. 44.4 6. ix^di = iKTo^. 133.3 

3. f initial and sometimes inter- 7. Trot = Trpo'?, once. 135.6 6 

vocalic. 52,53 8. Set Xo/xat = /So y\o/iat. 75 

4. Peculiarities in use of spiritus asper. 58 a, d 

235. Special Locrian : 

1. Assim. of eK in e(T) Ta<;, e'(\) 3. hapea-Tai = eXea-Oai. 12 

\tyueVo9, etc. 100 4. Kara according tow. gen. 1S6.5 

2. (ppiv = Trpiv. 66 5. pon beside Hon. 129.2 a 

236. The only inscriptions in the pure dialect (nos. 55, 56) are 
both from the early fifth century and from western Locris. All 
other material is from a much later period, when the Northwest 
Greek kolv^ was used, at least in western Locris. See 279. In the 
few inscriptions from eastern Locris the appearance of datives like 
y^prj/jidTecra-i (107.3) is noteworthy. 

Elean 

237. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

238. Northwest Greek characteristics. See 226. 

239. In common with various other dialects : 



241] 



SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS 



145 



1. ■>?,(» = spurious ei, ov. 25 

2. Psilosis. 57 

3. SS (also tt) = ^. 84 

4. pp = jOff. 80 

5. Ehotacism of final ?. 60.1 

6. Loss of intervocalic a- (late). 

59.3 

7. f init. even before conso- 

nants,rarely intervoc; late 
^oiKiap= olKLa<i. 51-55 

8. aiKorpia = aXKorpia. 74 & 

9. Omission of t in ea = elr), 

etc. 31 

10. 'ypotf)ev<i = ypa(j)ev<!. 5 

11. S'^Xo/iai ^ ^ovXa/iai. 75 

12. Nom. sg. TeXeard. 105.1 a 

13. Dat. sg. -ot. 106.2 

240. Special Elean : 

1. a = Tj. 15 

2. a = e, not only before p, but 

after p, before final v, etc. 
12 with a 

3. iroXep = 7ro'\t9. 18 6 

4. ?■ = S (only in earliest inscr.). 

62.2 

5. (TO- = a-6 (late). 85.2 

6. fiev<; — iMrjV. 112.3 

7. Dual hvoCoi's, avroioip. 106.6 

8. Verbs in -etw (-aito) = -euoa. 

16L1 

9. riaTW = effTCO. 163.5 



14. Ace. pi. -at?, -at/3, -oip. 78 

15. Dat. pi. ^i;7aSe<ro-t (but usu- 

ally -ok). 107.3 

16. /3ao-t\ei5?, -fjos. 111.1 

17. dcra-ia-Ta = dy^^ta-Ta, 113.3 

18. TOt, rat = To'Se, raSe. 122 

19. varapiv = varepov. 133.6 

20. U7ra = iTTTo. 135.3 

21. Infin. -r]v. 153 

22. 3 sg.subj.-Tj (iKirefiTra). 149 

23. Aor. subj. in a {(jmyaSevavri, 

Troi'^arai). 151.1 

24. 3 sg. opt. -aeie (-haie). 152.4 

25. /it-forms a-vKaie, 8ap,oaioia, 

8afj,0(7ia>fj,ev. 157 & 

26. eypa(fi)fievo<! = yeypafi/Me- 

vo<i. 137 



10. Trd(TK(o = irdajfoa. 66 

11. rlapo, TeTTidpoL, etc. 94.9 

12. avevi = avev, and used w. 

ace. 133.6,136.4 

13. Opt. w. Ka in commands; 

also subj. (late). 175 

14. Opt. regularly in fut. condi- 

tions etc. 176 

15. ForpecuUarwordsandmean- 

iugs, see, in Glossary, 7/3a- 
^09, SiKaia, 8ic}>vio<;,p€ppo), 
KaTiapaico, IfiderKto, drfKv- 
Tepo<;, eperevaiTepoi;. 



241. Koivrj influence. In the ammesty decree (no. 60), from the 
second half of the fourth century KC.,ap from ep is, with one excep- 
tion (va-rapiv), given up, as in drjXvrepav, ipa-evairepav (note also 



146 GEEEK DIALECTS [241 

ipcrev- = earlier pappev-), and TrepC (earlier Trap, with apocope), 
though pa from pe is seen in Kanapalmv ; Trcio-^m has its usual form 
(earlier ■jrdaKw) ; the characteristic Elean words feppm = (fievyco in its 
technical sense, Sl(J>viov (^i<f)viov), and 'ypd^o<; have given place to 
the usual (fjevyto, hiirXdcnov, and ypdfifia. The Damocrates decree 
(no. 61), from the first half of the third century B.C., has ep, never 
ap, viro not inrd, and shows considerable koiv^ influence in the 
vocabulary, e.g. Kadap {ica6d)<s), ejiCTr)cn<}. 

On the other hand most of the characteristics of the dialect per- 
sist, and, in contrast to earlier inscriptions, the rhotacism of final 9 
is uniformly observed. Some of the differences between these two 
inscriptions and the earlier ones are due to chronological and local 
variation within the dialect, e.g. in both aa, not o-t, = ad, loss of 
intervocalic a ; in no. 60 tt, not SS, = f, dat. pi. (^vyd^ecrcn (not -ot?) ; 
in no. 61 subj. in prescriptions. Even in the earlier inscriptions 
there are some indications of local differences, but it is impossible 
with the present material to define their scope. 

The definite substitution of the Attic koivij in public inscriptions 
of Elis belongs to the end of the third century B.C. 

Doric 
Laconian 

242. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

243. Other characteristics, mostly in common with various other 
dialects : 

1. 77, 6) = spurious ei, ov. 25 9. o^to? reflex. 121.3 

2. t from e before vowels. 9.5 10. rerpaKiv etc. 133.6 

3. h from intervoc. cr. 59.1 11. Adv. Tavrd, hdr, ireiroKa. 

4. Ehotacismof final? (late). 60.2 132.5a,6 

5. a = 6 (late in inscr.). 164 12. da-a-ia-Ta = dyxiara. 113.3 

6. IIoAoiSai' = nocretSoJi'. 49.1, 13. Infin. -r)v. 153 

61.5 14. 3 pi. imv. -vtco. 140.3 a 

7. 'ATreXXcov = 'AttoXKcov. 49.3 

8. F initial tiU about 400 B.C.; intervocalic in early inscriptions; 

later sometimes /S. 50-53 



248] 



SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 



147 



244. Koivq influence. Inscriptions from the second century B.C. 
(from the fourth ajid third there is very little material) and later 
are not even in the Doric koiv^ (278), but substantially in the Attic 
Koivq, with but slight dialectic coloring. On the revival of the use 
of the dialect in some inscriptions of the second century a.d., prob- 
ably representing crudely M'hat still survived as a patois, see notes to 
nos. 70-73. 



Heraclean 

245. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

246. In common ^ith various other dialects : 



8. Si]\oiiai = ^ovkofiai. 75 

9. Tpi<; nom. pi. 114.3 

10. T>]VO'! = eKecvo^. 125.1 

11. ava)6a, efiirpoa-ffa. 133.1 

12. Infin. -ev. 153.2 

13. 3 pi. imv. -vT(o. 140.3 a 

14. evre; = ovre;. 163.8 

15. avhewaOai. 146.4 

16. Article as relative. 126 



1. 7j, 0) = spurious «, ov. 25 

2. t from e before vowels. 9.6 

3. ave7riypo<f>o<;. 5 

4. Ko6ap6<i, TO^idiv. 6 

5. Tafiva) = TCfivto. 49.4 

6. F initial, but with many irreg- 

ularities. 50 b 

7. Peculiarities in use of spiritus 

asper. 58 c,d 

247. Special Heraclean : 

1? li/TaffO-i, TrotoVrao-o-i. 107.3 5. ippijyeia = ippayvia. 146.4, 

2. yeypd.-\jraTai, fiefnaddxrcovrai. 148 

146.3 6. KXaiyco = KXeico. 142 a 

3. efi€TpioifJ.e<;,fi€rpiafJ.evaiA2.5b 7. TroXtcrTo? = TrXeto-ro?. 113.2 

4. m-e<f>VT€VKr]fiev. 147.2 

248. Koiv^ influenca koivtj forms appeal- now and then ia the 
Heraclean Tables, especially in the nimierals. Thus TpeK beside 

rpi<! Teaa-ape;, reaaapaKovra beside rerope;, TerprnKovra — 

-Koaioi beside -kutioi — x^^''°'- ^^^ XV^'-°'- — F^^Kari, with ei 
from etKoa-i, beside fiKuri — el beside al — hoi beside tol. 



148 GEEEK DIALECTS [249 

Argolic 

249. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. But Siicda-a-ai, 
not SiKa^M, 142. 

250. Other characteristics, mostly in common with various other 
dialects : 

1. Intervoc. o-toA,andlost.'59.2 11. tu ace. sg. 118.5 

2. Trdvaa, iv;, tov;, etc. 77.3, 78 12. viv ace. sg. 3 pers. pron. 118.5 

3. Iap6<s with lenis. 58 h 13. ttjvo^ = eKelvo<;. 125.1 

4. iroC = 7r/3o?, before dentals. 14. ex^oi, cpSol. 133.3,4 

135.6 & 15. dvevv = dvev. 133.6 

5. dXCa(y(yL<i etc. 164.3 16. avvridrjai. 138.1 

6. 17, to = spurious ei, ov, some- 17. Infin. -ev. 153.2 

times. 25 a 18. 3 pi. imv. -vrco. 140.3 a 

7. t from e before vowels, some- 19. ecrcra, eacra-a = overa. 163.8 

times. 9.7 20. ypdacrna = ypdfifia. 164.4 

8. ypocfyevi; etc. 5 21. d(f)pr]T€vco preside. 55 

9. TreSa = p^rd. 135.5 22. TjOeiiB = (j)evyo} he Vanished. 
10. f in all positions in earliest No. 78.5, note 

inscriptions ; initial till 23. dprvvai, official title. No. 
about 400 B.C. 52-55 ' 78.2, note 

251. There are some differences between the dialect of Argos 
and that which appears in most of the inscriptions of Epidaurus 
and other cities of the Acte. But these are mainly, if not wholly, 
due to the fact that Attic influence was earlier and stronger in 
the east. Thus the loss of intervocalic o- and the retention of va 
are characteristics which persist in Argive inscriptions till within 
the second century B.C., but of which there are only a few exam- 
ples from Epidaurus. In general, Attic forms fere frequent in Epi- 
daurian inscriptions of the fourth century B.C., and later. 

Early inscriptions of Mycenae have e? and rd'; (less probably ro';) 
in contrast to Arg. iv<;, t6v<;. Of. Cret. toi beside t6v<;, 78. Erom 
Hermione are also found genitive singular and accusative plural 
in -ca, -ft)?. 



259] SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 149 

Corinthian 

252. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

253. In common with various other dialects: 

1. ivOeiv = eXOelv. 72 7. ivS6<;,evSoi,e^oi. Syrac. 133.4^ 

2. Xm = deXto. Glossary 8. 3 pi. imv. -vrm. 140.3 a 

3. 'ATreWcoi' = 'ATro'X.XeBi'. 49.3 9. f in early inscr. in all posi- 

4. iiei<; = fii]v. 112.3 tions; init. tUl about 400 

5. Hypocoristics in -7)v. 165.7 B.C.; sometimes /3. 51-55 

6. TTo'Seao-i etc., in various colonies. 107.3 

254. Special Coriuthian. Very early monophthongization of et 
and ov. 28, 34 

255. After the early but brief inscriptions in the epichoric alpha- 
bet, there is but scanty material until the third and second cen- 
turies B.C., when the admixture of koivt] forms is considerable. 

Megarian 

256. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

257. In common with various other dialects : 

1. aiJ.^i\\eyto. 89.3 4. Gen. sg. m. ^dyd<; etc. 105.2 h 

2. eu = eo, late. 42.5 5. fiek = fiijv. 112.3 

3. f initial in V cent., but lost 6. Xw = 0eX(o. Glossary 

between vowels. 7. 'Kd^oftai,=\an^dvco. Glossary 

258. Special Megarian : 

1. 06So)po9, ©OKXetSa?, etc. 42.5 d 2. ad = Tiva. 128 

3. alcn/jLvdrat;, aia-i/jivda) = altrv /jiv>]T7]<;, alcrvfivdw. 20. Apart from 

the difference of vowel, the words are peculiar to Megarian 

and Ionic. 

259. Except for the early inscriptions of Selinus and a few others, 
the material is from the end -of the fourth century or later, and 
shows KOLvq influence. 



150 GEEEK DIALECTS [260 

Rhodian 

260. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

261. In common with various other dialects : 

1. ev = eo. 42.5 6. e^av = e^ij?. 133.6 

2. 7j,co = spurious ei, ov, in some 7. 3 pi. imv. -vtoo. 140.3 a 

words. 25 a 8. Tt/^iea) = rifidco. 161.2 

3. 16(00? with lenis. 58 6 9. Tt/idv/j ar?;? etc. 167 

4. OTTW, vk. 132.4 10. XPV''^^ = ^e\o). Glossary 

5. oKKa = oA;a kos. 132.9 

262. Special Eh odian: Infinitive in -yueti'. 154.5. ktoiW, denoting 
a territorial division like the Attic deme, is found only in Ehodes 
and Carpathus. fiaarpoi as the highest officers of the state are 
peculiar to Ehodes. 

263. Koiv^ influence shows itself to a slight extent in the fourth 
century B.C. Most of the material is from the third century or 
later, and is in the Doric koiv^ (278), though with frequent reten- 
tion of the characteristic infinitive in -fieiv. In this mixed form 
the dialect is one of the longest to survive, many peculiarities still 
appearing in inscriptions of the first and second centuries a.d. 

Coan 

264. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

265. In common with various other dialects : 

1. ev = eo. 42.5 7. e^dv = i^rj'i. 133.6 

2. ■q,co = spurious ei, ov, in some 8. Aor. subj. mroKv^ei. 150 

words. 25 a 9. Infin. -ev ; also in contract 

3. Ta/JLVO} = Te/jLva). 49.4 verbs. 153.2,3 

4. Si]\ofiat = j3ov\oij.ai. 15 10. 3 pi. imv. -i'toj. 140.3 a 

5. Ace. pi. -0? beside -ov?. 78 11. xP'n''^<^= GeXm. Glossary 

6. ^aaiXevi, -ios, -r\, but early -fji, -t]S. 113.3 

266. There are no very early inscriptions, and only a few even 
from the fourth century B.C. The most important of these, the 



271] SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 151 

sacrificial calendar (nos. 101-103), already shows some Koivq forms, 
as iepevv beside iapev'i, elKd<s beside t«as, ace. pL rpek, ea-ria beside 
t(7Tta, etc., but preserves some forms which are never found later 
as leprji, Teraprrj^ (later always -ei, -ew, etc.). There are also some 
specific Ionic forms in use in Cos, as reXeo)?, cnroBe^avTO). Most of 
the material is of the third and second centuries, and in the Doric 
KoiviQ as described in 278. 

Theran 

267. "West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. 

268. In common with various other dialects : 

1. ev = eo. 42.5 7. Acc. pi. -09. 78 

2. ■q,m = spurious «, ov, in some 8. irehd — fierd. 135.5 

words. 25 a 9. i^av = ef tj?. 133.6 

3. ovpo'i from opfo<;. 54 10. Subj. weirpaTai etc. 151.1 

4. f lost in the earliest times. 50 11. Infin. -ev; also in contract 

5. pp = pa. 80 verbs. 153.2,3 

6. B'TjK.op.ai, = ^ovKojiai. 75 

269. Except for the numerous, but brief, archaic inscriptions, 
the material is all from the period of Koivrj influence. The longest 
inscription, the WiU of Epicteta (SGDI. 4706), exhibits most of the 
characteristics of the dialect, but also many Koivq forms. 

The inscriptions of Gyrene, though late, have regularly rj, (o = 
spurious et, ov, and show some special peculiarities, as iape^ nom. 
and acc. pi. of iapev<} (111.3), Te\eo-(^OjoeVTe9 (157). 

Cretan 

270. West Greek characteristics. See 223-225. But ol, al, not 
Tol, Tai, and "Aprefui not "A/jra/tw?. 

271. In common with various other dialects : 

1. 7), co = spurious et, ov. 25 6. Psilosis. 57 

2. fjjvo? from ^evpo-s, etc. 54 7. f iait- till HI cent. B.c. ; 

3. I from e before vowel. 9.4 sometimes /8 ; pia-Fo<; ; in- 

4. TpoLTrm, Tpa.(f)a). 49.2 tervoc. only in cpds. 50-54 

5. ■A7re'X\Q)i'='A7ro'\X<Bi'. 49.3 8. Trctvaa etc. 77.3 



152 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



[271 



9. ToV? beside roi;, etc. 78 

10. TT in -TT-pdrTto etc. 81 

11. rr in ottotto^ etc. 82 

12. 5S, S (sometimes tt, t) = f. 

84 

13. TT = TTT. 86.2 

14. TT = 0-T (rare). 86.4 

15. e? = e^ before cons. 100 

16. avTov neut. = avro. 125.2 

17. oTTVi = oiroij etc. 132.4 

18. TrpoeOa. = irpoade. 133.1 

19. evho';, e^oi. 133.4,5 

20. avTiv, avTUfiepiv. 133.6 

2 1. Trefia = /^cTa. 135.5 

272. Special Cretan : 

1. v=X before cons., sometimes. 

71 

2. 60 (rarely t6') = aO. 85.3 

3. ^^ = era, late. 81 a 

4. TT = KT. 86.1 

5. vv = pv. 86.5 

6. /i/i = yttl". 86.6 

7. Trpecyv^, Trpeiymv, Trpeiyi- 

uTO'}, etc. = 7r/3e'a-/3u? etc. 
86.3 

8. /jiaiTvp- = fidpTvp-. 71 a 

9. Assimilation in sentence 

combination more exten- 
sive than elsewhere. 97.4,5, 
98 • 

10. Aec. pi. of cons, stems in 

-av<;. 107.4 

11. Ace. pi. T/otiz/?. 114.3 



22. avTi in presence of, afj,(j)l 

concerning. 136.7,8 

23. Aor. subj. Xa^ao-ci etc. 150 

24. Subj. TreirdTai etc. 151.1 

25. Infin. -ev; also in contract 

verbs. 153.2,3 

26. Verb-forms in -ew (-i«) = 

-ato. 161.2 

27. iuTTa = ovaa. 163.8 

28. Xa> (\eia>) = deXco. Glossary 

29. TTo'Xts = Sfi/jio<!. Glossary 

30. /capTepof = KpaTepof, in 

meaning = Kvpiov. 49.2 a, 
Glossary 



12. plv avToi, TO, pa avTa<; = 

eavT&i, TO, eavT7J<!. 121.1 

13. OTK, gen. sg. oti, ace. pi. neut. 

an, dat. sg. oTifjii. 129.3, 
128 

14. OTeio'; = 07r0409. 130 

15. oTepo'; = oTTOTepo';. 127 

16. otrai as final conj. 132.5,8 a 

17. TTopTi = ■7rp6<;. 70.1, 135.6 

18. alXeo) = alpem. 12 

19. Infin. -pi,r)v beside -ixev. 154.4 

20. dlvo<; = 6elo<;. 164.9 

21. TeXofiai = ecrofiai. 163.10 

22. coz/eift), Trew^Q), iXevereco. 162.9 

23. XayaiQ) release. 162.8 

24. K6afio<;, official title. Glos- 

sary 



273] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS 153 

273. Cretan, as commonly understood and as described above, is 
the dialect of the inscriptions of Gortyna (which is by far the most 
fiilly represented) Cnossos, Lyttos, Yaxos, and the other cities of the 
great central portion of Crete. This is also known more specifically 
as Central Cretan. Eastward, at Olus, Dreros, Latos, etc., the dia- 
lect is much less uniform ; and m the inscriptions of cities of the 
eastern extremity of the island, as Hierapytna, Praesos, and Itanos, 
and again in those from the cities of the western extremity, as 
Aptera, Cydonia, etc., many of the most striking Cretan character- 
istics are wholly lacking. Hence the terms East Cretan, usually 
reckoned from Hierapytna eastward, and ^^'est Cretan, from Lappa 
westward, are sometimes employed. But there is no sufficient 
ground for the behef that the East, West, and Central Cretan are 
fundamental divisions of the dialect, or that they reflect to any 
degree the various constituent elements in the population. The 
East and "West Cretan inscriptions, the latter very meager, are com- 
paratively late, and show a large degree of obvious koivij influence, 
partly Attic, pai'tly the Doric Koiv-q of the other islands. The 
absence of many of the Cretan characteristics may well be, and 
probably is, due to external influence, which was felt earlier and 
more strongly than in Central Crete, where, especially at Gortyna, 
most of the peculiarities persisted until Roman times. However, an 
actual divei'gence of development, for which external causes are at 
least not apparent, is to be recognized in the treatment of eo, which, 
instead of becoming lo, appears as o in close, (o in open, syllables 
(42.5 c, d), e.g. KOfffiovTe;, i-jraivrnfiev, at Hierapytna, Allaria, Cydo- 
nia (Koer/jL6vre<} also at Aptera, Oleros). There are also a few other 
local vaiiations. But, if we had ample material from the early 
period, it is highly probable that we should find that in the main 
the characteristics of Central Cretan were also general Ci'etan. 



SUEVIVAL OF THE DIALECTS. GEOWTH OF VAEIOUS 
FOEMS OF KOINH 

274. Not only in earlier times, but also, in most parts of Greece, 
long after Attic had become the norm of literary prose, each state 
employed its own dialect, both in private and public monuments 
of internal concern, and in those of a more external or interstate 
character, such as decrees in honor of foreigners, decisions of inter- 
state arbitration, treaties, and, in general, communications between 
different states. Thus, for example, an honorary decree of a Boeo- 
tian city is in the Boeotian dialect, no matter whether the recipient 
is a citizen of Athens, Delphi, Alexandria, or Tarentum. If the 
Eleans honor Damocrates of Tenedos, the decree is in the Elean of 
the time (no. 61). If Mytilene honors Erythrae, the decree is in 
Lesbian and a copy in this form is set up at Erythrae. Such is the 
usual practice, examples of which could be cited by the hundred, 
and any departure from which is the exception. 

A decision of the Argives in a dispute between Melos and Cimo- 
lus is in the Argive dialect (no. 81). And so in general such deci- 
sions were regularly rendered in the dialect of the arbitrators, and 
inscribed in this form by the states involved in the dispute, usually 
at home, but sometimes also in one of the great religious centers, 
as Delos or Olympia. The extant texts of treaties are, as a rule, in 
the dialect of that party in whose territory the text was found, and 
it is to be assumed that the version inscribed by the other party in its 
home was likewise in its dialect. Thus, for example, the monetary 
agreement between Mytilene and Phocaea in the Lesbian version 
found at 'Mytilene (no. 21), the treaty of alliance between Elis and 
Heraea (in Arcadia) in the Elean version found at Olympia (no. 58). 

In communications between states using different dialects each 
party employs its own. For example, when Philip V of Macedon 

164 



275] YAEIOUS F0E:MS of KOINH 155 

sends certain recommendations to tlie city of Larissa, he writes in 
the Attic KOLvi^, which had long been the language of the Macedo- 
nian court, but the decrees which the city passes in response are in 
the Thessalian dialect (no. 28). An inscription of Mytilene contains 
the text of a decree of the Aetolian league in favor of Mytilene, in 
its original Aetolian (Xorthwest Greek Koivq) form, a copy of which 
had been brought back by the Mytilenaean envoys, followed by a 
decree of ilytilene in Lesbian, quoting from the former decree and 
ordering the inscription of both. The regulations of the religious 
sanctuaries of Greece are drawn up in the dialect of the state which 
has direct charge of them, no less in the great Hellenic centers 
than in those of local fame. So, for example, an Amphictionic 
decree wliich is known to us only in the copy set up at Athens is 
in the Delphian dialect. 

275. In the period before the rise of Attic as the language of 
literary prose, no one dialect was in a position even to influence 
other dialects except \\"ithin narrow geographical limits. Yet it is 
probable that even then external influence was not wholly absent. 
There was no lack of intercourse to awaken consciousness of the 
peculiarities of one's own dialect as compared with those of others. 
Some of these pecuharities, especially such as were at variance 
with the practice of all or nearly all other dialects, might come to 
be regarded with disfavor as pro^^ncialisms, and be avoided in 
writing, and even in speech, or at least less consistently observed. 

For example, the Laconians and the Argives, who were well 
aware that under certain conditions they omitted, or pronounced 
as a mere breathing, what was a o- in the speech of most other Greeks, 
may have felt that this, unhke some of their other pecuharities, 
was a sort of weakness, wliich did not deserve to be exploited in 
writing. This would explain the inconsistency in the treatment of 
intervocalic <r (A or a) which is to be observed even in the early 
inscriptions of Laconia and Argohs, before any specific Attic influ- 
ence is possible. See 59.1,2. The fact that Arcadian £*? and /ca?, 
agreeing with Cyprian o-t? and /ca?, are found only in one early 



156 GEEEK DIALECTS [278 

inscription (no. 16), while all others have tU and Kal, may also be 
ascribed to the combined influence of the other dialects, just as in 
a later period, when specific Attic influence is more probable, ttXo? 
was replaced by the usual irXeov, in spite of the fact that other 
equally marked peculiarities like Iv = iv were unaffected. The 
Eleans gave up even in the sixth century their use of f for the 8 
of other dialects, and if, as is likely, this was a concession in 
spelling only, it is none the less in point. 

276. Traces of Ionic influence are seen in the Doric islands, 
though the earliest evidence of this belongs rather to the history 
of the alphabet, namely the spread of the Ionic H = ■>? ■(4.6). . It is 
not accidental that ev for eo, though occasionally found in conti- 
nental Greece, is mainly found, outside of Ionic, in Ehodes, Cos, 
Thera, etc. In Cos occur such specific Ionic forms as TeXea^ and 
aTToSe^avTco. Even in. the fifth century the coins of the Ehodian 
lalysus show 'leXva-iov beside 'laXvaiov. Through the medium of 
the Doric koivt] of the other islands (278), some Ionic peculiarities 
have even spread to Crete, e.g. at Itanos ev=eo, eo=ev, and y^peco/ieda. 

277. The Attic tcoiv^. The foundation of the ultimate suprem- 
acy of Attic is to be sought in the political conditions of the fifth 
century B.C. In this we refer to something more than the fact, 
important as it is, that in this period Athens became the intellec- 
tual center of Greece and Attic the recognized language of literary 
prose. It is within the sphere of influence represented by the con- 
federacy of Delos and the Athenian empire that Attic made its first 
advance as an ordinary medium of communication. Of all dialects 
it is Ionic which shows the first signs of Attic influence and is the 
first to lose its identity as a distinct dialect. Some traces of this 
influence &ve seen even in the Ionic inscriptions of the fifth century, 
especially in the islands, and in the fourth century the majority of 
inscriptions show at least a mixture of Attic forms, and some, even 
from the early part of the century, are substantially Attic. After 
this, Ionic practically ceased to exist as a distinct dialect, though 
some Ionic peculiarities are occasionally found in much later times, 



278] VAEIOUS FORMS OF KOINH 157 

mostly in proper names and certain conventional words or phrases. 
It is this Attic, already well-nigh established in Ionic territory, and 
in some respects modified by Ionic, that the Macedonians took up 
and spread, and whicb is henceforth termed the Koivrj, or, more 
specifically, the Attic koivij. 

The Macedonian period, indeed, forms the principal landmark in 
the evolution of a standard language in Greece. For in it the Attic 
Kocvq was spread over a vast territory and permanently established 
in places which were to become leading centers of Greek life. Yet 
this is only a stage, marking neither the beginning, as we have seen, 
nor, still less, the end. Excepting Ionic, and Cyprian, of which we 
have no later record, the other dialects, though showing more or 
less Koivi^ influence, remained in common use in inscriptions from 
one to upwards of three centuries later. But eventually the koivij 
attained complete supremacy both as the written and the spoken 
language, and from it is descended Modern Greek. The only .im- 
portant exception is the present Tsakonian" dialect, spoken in a 
small portion of Laconia, which is in part the offspring of the 
ancient Laconian. 

278. The Doric KOLvq. In most of the Doric dialects Attic influ- 
ence shows itself, to some extent, even in the fourth century B.C., 
and there was gradually evolved a type of modified Doric which 
prevails in the inscriptions of the last three centuries B.C., and is 
conveniently known as the Doric koiv^. This is substantially Doric, 
retaining a majority of the general West Greek characteristics, but 
with a tendency to eliminate local peculiarities, and with a strong 
admixture of forms from the Attic koivi]. In spite of some variety 
in the degree of mixture, and the retention of some local peculiari- 
ties, e.g. the infinitive in -fj-eiv at Rhodes, there is yet a very con- 
siderable unity, amply sufficient to justify us in speaking of a 
distinct type of kolvti. 

That the mixture is not a haphazard one is shown, for example, in 
the fact that the substitution of el for al, side by side with the re- 
tention of Ka, resulting in the hybrid e? «a, is very general, while the 



158 GREEK DIALECTS [278 

opposite, al av, is unknown. Iap6<s is replaced by iepo';. The numer- 
als show the forms of the Attic Koivrj, e.g. aoc. pi. rpeh for t/jw, 
reacrepe'; (or Tea-aape<;, TeTTape<;) not TeTopei, elicoai for l/can, recr- 
aepaKovra (recraapdicovTa, TerrapaKOVTa) for rerpcaKOVTa, ScaKotrioi 
etc. for -KaTLoi. In t-stems we usually find 7ro'\to9, 7ro'\te? retained, 
but TToXei, TToXea-i, ace. pi. iroXeif. Nouns in -eu? follow the Attic 
type except in the accusative singular, e.g. ^aaiXeco';, nom.-acc. pi. 
^aa-iXeh, but ace. sg. ^acriXr). So Att. ^acnXe<o<; is usual, but Att. 
TToXeffl? rare. The substitution of 04, ai for rot, tuC is frequent, but 
there is great variation in this respect, roi and ol occurring not 
infrequently even in the same inscription. Attic ov from eo is fre- 
quent, especially in verbs in -em. In some places, as far apart as 
Ehodes and Corcyra, we find inscriptions which have the verb-forms 
uniformly in ov, but the genitive singular of c-stems in -eos or 
-ev9, e.g. Ehod. iyKoXovvrai; etc. but 'IcroKparev; etc. (SGDI. 3758), 
Core. iroioiivTe's etc. but 'A-pi(TTOfji,eveo<; etc. (SGDI. 3206). Attic a 
from eft) is also more common in verbs than in nouns. In dialects 
which have ^iji'o? or fetvos etc. (54), such forms are often replaced 
by the Attic, especially in the case of •jrpo^evo'i. The first plural 
ending -yue? is generally replaced by -fiev, though it persists in some 
places. 

There are various other Attic forms which are not infrequent, 
but much less common than the dialect forms, e.g. (Sv beside emv, 
imperative ending -vtcov beside -vrca, tt/jcoto? beside Trpdroi, Trpo? 
beside ttotl. Many of the dialectic peculiarities persist with scarcely 
any intrusion of the corresponding Attic forms, e.g. d = Att.-Ion. tj, 
Ka, verb forms like SlScoti, (pepovTi, Doric future, future and aorist 
in f (142), dfie<; etc. Att. r], dv, and verb-forms like SiScoai, <f)e- 
povai are almost unknown except in the very last stages when the 
Attic KOivr) as a whole is practically established, a is sometimes 
found as late as the tMrd century a.d., but only as a bit of local 
color, perhaps artificial, in what is otherwise the Attic Koivrj. 

279. The Northwest Greek Koivri. This is very similar to the 
Doric Koivrj, showing about the same mixture of Attic with West 



279] VAEIOUS FORMS OF KOINH 159 

Greek forms. But it differs from it ia that it retains two of the 
most characteristic features of the Northwest Greek dialects as 
compared with Doric, namely eV = ek, and the dative plural of con- 
sonant stems in -ot?. The use of this type is closely connected with 
the political power of the Aetolian league. We find it employed, 
in the third century B.c. and later, in Aetolia and in all decrees 
of the Aetolian league, in Western Locris (Naupactus was incor- 
porated in the league in 338 B.C., the rest of Western Locris some- 
what later), Phocis (Delplii was in the hands of the Aetolians by 
at least 290 B.C.), the land of the Aenianes, Malis and Phthiotis, 
all of which became Aetohan in the course of the third century B.C. 
Without doubt it was also used in Doris, from which we have no 
material, and in Eastern Locris. In Boeotia, which was in the 
Aetolian league but a short time (245-234 B.C.), it was never 
employed, though there are some few traces of its influence (222). 
The only extant decrees of Cephallenia and Ithaca, of about 
200 B.C., are in this same Northwest Greek koiv^, reminding us 
that Cephallenia, of which Ithaca was a dependency, was allied 
with the Aetolians (Polyb. 4.6). Parts of the Peloponnesus were 
also for a time under Aetohan domination, and the characteristic 
dative plural in -ots is found in Arcadia, Messenia (also iv = ek), 
and Laconia. There is one example even as far away as Crete 
(\t/ieVots SGDL4942 6; 159-138 B.C.), but clearly an importation. 
Aetolians had taken part in the internal wars of Crete, and Cretans 
had served in the armies of both the Aetolian and the Achaean 
leagues (Polyb. 4.53). 

The inscriptions of this period from Acarnania, Epirus, and 
Achaea, including decrees of the Acarnanian, Epirotan, and 
Achaean leagues, are not in the Northwest Greek Kotvrj as de- 
fined above (they do not have iv = el<:, or the dative plural of 
consonant stems in -ot?), but in the Doric koivij. At this time 
at least the speech of Acarnania and Epirus was not essentially 
different from that of Corcyra, nor that of Achaea from that of 
Corinth and Sicyon. 



160 GREEK DIALECTS [280 

In the Arcadian inscriptions of this period the native Arcadian 
forms are wholly or in part replaced by West Greek forms, and 
this is probably due in large part to the influence of the Doric 
K0IV1J of the Achaean league. But the Aetolians also held parts 
of Arcadia for a time, and, as noted above, there are some exam- 
ples of the dative plural in -oi<; borrowed from the Northwest 
Greek Koivrj. 

280. Some more detailed observations upon the time and extent 
of Koivrj influence in the various dialects have been made in connec- 
tion with the Summaries of Characteristics (180-273), and in the 
notes to some of the late inscriptions. 

What has just been noted in the case of the Doric Koivri is true 
in all dialects, namely, that of the dialectic peculiarities some are 
given up much earlier than others. Furthermore it is nothing xm- 
usual to find hybrid forms, part dialectic, part Koivrj, e.g. Doric 
future with Attic ov, as troirja-ovvn etc. frequently, — Boeot. aws, a 
contamination of a? and eco?, — Heracl. feiicaTi, a contamination of 
fUan and e'Uoa-i, — Boeot. ^uxovffi with dialectic present stem and 
personal ending, but Attic ^ (pure Boeot. SauovOi), — Boeot. eKjovoK 
with dialectic case-ending, but Attic ex- (pure Boeot. i(ry6v(o<;), — 
Thess. ace. pi. yivofievof; with dialectic case-ending, but Attic stem 
(pure Thess. 'yivv/ievo';), — Epid. eiopr) with Doric ending -rj from -ae, 
but Attic stem e<op- from *^o'/3-. 

Besides such hybrids, hyper-Doric or hyper-Aeolic forms are 
occasionally met with in late inscriptions, though less often than in 
our literary texts. Thus the Attic term e(f>ri^o<; (with original t), 
cf. Dor. rj^a), when adopted in other dialects, was sometimes given 
the pseudo-dialectic form e<j)a^o<;, e.g. in some late Doric and Les- 
bian inscriptions, in imitation of the frequent equivalence of dia- 
lectic a to Attic T). Conversely the Attic form was sometimes 
retained in opposition to what would be its true dialectic equiva- 
lent, as in Boeotian usually e<j>ri^o<;, rarely e<^et/3os. Similarly the 
Doric 'KpaicXrji! and its derivatives keep t) in Boeotian. Cf. also 
on Cret. IIvtio<;, 63. 



280] VARIOUS FORMS OP KOINH 161 

In Eoman imperial times the antiquarian interest in local dia- 
lects is reflected in the revival of their use in parts of Greece where 
for some two centuries previously the Attic Koivrj had been in gen- 
eral use, at least in inscriptions. So, for example, in the case of 
Lesbian (cf. no. 24), Laconian (cf. nos. 70-73), and to some extent 
in Elean, where examples of rhotacism reappear in the first and 
second centuries A.D. It is impossible to determine in every case 
whether this was a wholly artificial revival of a dialect which had 
long ceased to be spoken, or was an artificial elevation to written 
use of a dialect which had survived throughoiit the interval as a 
patois. The latter is true of Laconian (see 277, end, and note to 
nos. 70-73). But for most dialects we have no adequate evidence 
as to the length of their survival in spoken form. 



PART II: SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS 

The brief introductory statement to each inscription gives its provenance 
and approximate date, with references to several of the most important col- 
lections. The extensive bibliographies in these collections make it unneces- 
sary to cite the numerous special discussions in periodicals etc., except 
in the case of a few recently discovered inscriptions. For the abbreviations 
employed, see pp. 281 ff. References to the collections are by the numbers 
of the inscriptions, unless otherwise stated, while those to periodicals are 
by pages. 

It has seemed unnecessary to state in the case of every inscription whether 
the alphabet is the epichoric or the ordinary Ionic, since this is generally 
obvious from the date given, as well as from the transcription. It may be 
taken for granted, unless otherwise stated, that inscriptions of the fifth cen- 
tury B.C. or earlier are in the epichoric alphabet, those of the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. or later in the Ionic. Hence comments on the form of the alphabet 
employed are added only in special cases. 

The transcription of texts in the older alphabet is such as to give the 
student some assistance, without confusing what is in the original and what 
is a matter of editing. The signs E and 0, when representing long vowels, 
no matter whether the later spelling is rj, to or «, ov, are transcribed simply 
e, o. The spiritus asper, when expressed in the original, is transcribed A, 
leaving the use of ' as a matter of editing. See p. 49, footnote. The use of 
the following signs is to be noted. 

[ ] for restorations of letters no longer legible. 

< > for letters inscribed by mistake, and to be ignored by the reader. 

( ) for 1) expansion of abbreviations, 2) letters omitted by mistake, 
3) corrected letters. Obvious corrections are given thus, without 
adding the original reading. Less certain corrections are sometimes 
commented on in the notes, with citation of the original reading, as 
are also obscure readings due to the mutilation of the letters. But 
often this is not done, it being thought unnecessary in a work of this 
kind to repeat the full critical apparatus of other collections. 

- - - - for a lacuna, where no restoration is attempted. 

163 



164 



GfiEEK DIALECTS 



[No. 1 



. . . . for a similar lacuna where it is desired to show, at least approxi- 
mately, the number of missing letters, each dot standing for a let- 
ter. In general, these are employed only for short lacunae. 

I for the beginning of each new line in the original. 

I for the beginning of every fifth line in the original. 

I for the division between the obverse and reverse sides, or between col- 
imans. Used only where the text is printed continuously. 



Ionic 

East Ionic 

1. Sigeum. Early VI cent. b.c. SGDI.5531. Hicks 8. Hoffmann III. 
130. Michel 1313. Koberts 42 and pp.334fE. The second version (B) is 
in Attic. 

. ^avoSiKO I efjkl Topfji,oK\pdTeo<i to | TlpoKovvrj^alo • Kpr)Trjp\a he KaX 
10 vTTOKiprjTTJpiov kIuI Tjd fiov £? lApvTavrjLov II eBcoKev ^[lyelevo'ijv. 

B <^avoSiKO eifil to H^epfiOKpaTot to 'n.poKo(y)\ve(rio- Kayo xpa- 
5 Tepa I KairiaTaTov KaX he&^jMV e? irpVTaveiov elSoKa fivefia 2f- 
10 7e(t)|e£)crt, ehv Se n 7rao-j^|o, fieXeSaivev fie, o | St^etes. xai fi e7ro||(ie)- 
aev HatVoTTO? xal haSe\<j)oi. 



1. Monument of Phanodicus of Proc- 
onnesus, recording his gift of a mix- 
ing bowl, a stand for it, and a wine- 
strainer, to the Sigean prytaneum. The 
pillar was prepared and furnished with 
its Ionic inscription at Proconnesus, 
which was a colony of Miletus. The 
Attic version was added at Sigeum, 
which was already at this time occu- 
pied by Athenians. 

The divergence between A and the 
corresponding portion of B is partly 
due to the normal differences of dia- 
lect, e. g. Ion. KpriTrjpa with i; after p, 
irpvrav^utv = Att. irpvTaveTov^ and Top- 
liOKpireos with psilosis and consequent 
crasis and unoontracted -eos in contrast 
to Att. TO Hfp/WKpirSs. So iwoKpifT'^piov, 
in contrast to Att. iTrla-Tarov, is an Ionic 
form found elsewhere. Other differ- 



ences are due merely to the absence of 
signs for ri and w in the Attic alphabet, 
or are accidental, as efi,l in A, etfU in B, 
where the spelling ei at such an early 
date is as exceptional in Attic as it 
would be in Ionic, or dat. pi. -eSa-iv in 
A, -euo-i in B, where the use of v mova- 
ble is "variable in both dialects. 

8. Decree of the council of Halicar- 
nassians and Salmacitians and Lygda- 
mis regarding disputes over real estate. 
Lygdamis is the tyrant who drove He- 
rodotus into exile and whom a revolu- 
tion eventually expelled from the city. 
It is probable that this inscription dates 
from a period when the citizens had 
arisen and restored the exiles, but had 
come to terms temporarily with Lyg- 
damis. The disputes would then be 
concerning the property of the former 



No. 2] IONIC INSCRIPTIONS 165 

2. Halicarnassus. Before 454 B.C. SGDI.5720. Ditt.Syll.lO. Greek 
Inscr.Brit.Mus.iyi.886. Hicks 27. Hoffmann III.171. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp. 
Iff. MicheUSl. Roberts 145 and pp. 339 ff. Solmsen45. For the char- 
acter T, see 4.4. Letters which, though now lacking, are found in Lord 
Charlemont's copy, are printed without the marks of restoration. 

Ta'Se o <7i5\Xo[7]o? i/SoXevaaro | o ' A\iKapvaT[eca']v kuI ^aXfjia- 
Ki\Tea>v Kol AvySafiK iv riji te/3'>j[t] | ayopi)i, fir}vo<; '^piJ.aiaivo<; 
7re'/x||7rTijt larafievo, e-rrl Ae'oi'TO? 7rpv\Tav[evov]TO<; to 'OaraTto? 5 
/ca|[i] 2a[jOiiT]wX\o to ©e/cutXco i'e|[(B7r]ot[a). tJo<; fivi^fiovai firj 
'7rapa\SiS6\yail nrjTe yfjv fiijTe ot/«;[i]|a] toI<; fivijfioa-iv iirl 'AttoX- 10 
\a)\viSea) to AvySdiJ.io<; iJ,V7)fiove\vovTO<; koI Tlavafivio to Katr/SmlX- 
Xt09 Kal 'EaXfiaKiTemv ixvr}\iJ.oveu6vTO)v MeYa/Sarea) to ' AM)vdaio<; 15 
Koi ^opfiLavo<; to Il[a'\\vvcvrio^. r^v Se tk deXrjt EiKci^elcrdai irepl 
yrj<i rj oiKiav, e7rt«aX[e]|T(B iv oKTcoKaiSexa fiTjcrlv cnr OT[eo] I o 
aSo<; iyeveTO • voficoi Se «OTa7r[e]||jO vvv o/)K6o<t>o-(a)t to<; SiKaa-Td<! • 20 
otIi] I av ol fivijfiove<! elBeeocnv, tovto I KapTepov evai. rjv Se rt? 
vaTepov I eTTiKaXfji tovto to 'X^povo tmv I oKTcoKaiBeKa firjvwv, opxov 
evai "7J]a)i vefJLOfievmi Trjy yfjv rj to, ot/i;|[i]a, opKov he to<s SiKaa-Tat 25 

exiles (cf. no. 22), although this is be only tentative and subject to fur- 
nowhere stated. Salmacis was a town ther litigation. The phrase used in 
partially merged with Halicarnassus, 1. 30 'whenA. andP. werecommission- 
and reptesented with it by a common ers' has reference to future suits, and 
council, though still retaining its own is not inconsistent with the view that 
ofBcials. Halicarnassus was originally these men constituted the incoming 
Doric, but had already become Ionic in hoard at the time of the decree. — 
speech. Many of the proper names are 16 fi. 'Any one wishing to bring suit 
of Carian origin. must prefer his claim within eighteen 
8 ff. 'The mnemones or commission- months of the time of the decree. The 
ers are not to transfer lands or houses dicasts shall administer the oath (to 
to the incoming board consisting of the one bringing suit) in accordance 
ApoUonides and his colleagues. ' That with the present law. Whatever the 
is, apparently, property which had commissioners have knowledge of (e.g. 
been in the hands of the commission- through their records) shall be valid.' 
ers for settlement, or perhaps in seques- — 22 ff. 'If one prefers a claim after 
tration, was now to be turned over to the prescribed period, the one In pos- 
the presumptive owners instead of to session of the property shall take the 
the new board, in order to secure an oath (that is, he shall have the prefer- 
immediate disposal of these matters, ence in taking the oath ; cf . the use of 
even though this might in many CEi§es dpKnirepos in th§ Gortynian Law-Code), 



166 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 2 

^fiL\[e]KT0V 6e^a//.eVo9 ■ rbv Se opicov el\v\ai Trapeovro'; to evearr)- 
30 KOTO'S • K\apTepo<; 8' elvai jfj^ Kal oIkIcov oItivc^ || tot el^ov OTe 

' A.iToXKiovC8r)<i Kal Ilava\iivrji eiJivr}p,6vevov, el firj va-Tepo\v aireire- 

paa-av. tov vojxov tovtov | rjV Til deXrji avyx^ai, rj 7r;OO0^Ta|[i] 
33 ■\{rfj(f>ov Sa-Te fir) elvai tov v6p,o^ tovtov, to, iovTU avTO ireirpr]- 

ada> I Kal tcottoXXcovo'; elvai lepa Kal a\vTOV <f}evyev aleC- rjv he fir] 

fji avT\S)i a^ia SeKa o-TaTijpcov, avTov [ir^eTrprjadai eV i^aymjrii 
40 Kal iJ,7i[B]\\a/JLa KtidoSov elvai e? 'A\iKapv\ria-<T6v. ' AXiKapvaaaecav 

Se TO}(T crlvfnrdvTcov TOVTcoi eXevdepov i^ai, 09 av TavTa fnfj irapa- 
45 ^aivTji, KaT^^ep to, opKia eTa/iov Kal a>s yeypain'^ai ev tSu 'AttoX- 

X(B[i/t']cot iiriKaXev 

3. Teos. About 475 B.C. SGDI.5632. Hicks 23. Hoffmann 111.105. 
Michel 1318. Roberts 142 and pp.336 f£. Solmsen42. 

A "OffTt? <l)dpfiaKa hrfXriTr^ia iroiol eirl lUrjiouTi^ to ^vvov ^ 

5 eir iSicoTTji, Klevov airoXXvaOai Kal al^^vrbv Kal lyeVo? to Kevo. | 6(TTi<i 
e? yrjv TTjV TrjiTjV K\a)Xvoi criTOV eadyecrOai | rj TS'^yrji rj firj'x^av'^i 17 

10 KaT\a ddXaaaav rj KaT fjireipo^ rj ecraxdevTa aveodeoirj, kSi^ov 
airoXXvadai Kal avi'^v Kal y eve's to Kevo. 

B [1, 2 fragmentary] octti? Trjicov e^udlvvooi | •^ ala-v[^fi]vi]Tr)i [aTret- 

6 deo^(ir]) rj II eiraviCTTalTO {rj aiavfAvrjTrji), airoXXva-dai Kal | avTOV 

The dicasts shall administer the oath, allowed to return.' — 41 ff. 'Of all the 

receiving a twelfth of a stater as fee, Halicarnassians any one who does not 

and the oath shall he taken In the transgress these things such as they 

presence of the plaintiff. Those who have sworn to and as is recorded in 

held the property when ApoUonides the temple of Apollo, shall be at liberty 

and Panamyes were commissioners to prefer claims.' — two- o-unirdvTuv : 

shall be the legal possessors, unless they tQv (runrdiiTay. 96.2. 

have disposed of it later.' — air£ir4pa- 3. Imprecations against evil-doers, 

o-ttv: d7ro7r«rpi£o-Kai,notfound elsewhere. A 1 ff. Against those who manufaCT 

— 32ffl. ' If any one wishes to annul this turepoisons. — t6|dv6v: adv.acc.,osa 

law or proposes a vote to this effect, his community. — 6 ff. Against those who 

property shall be sold and dedicated interfere with the importation of grain, 

to Apollo, and he himself shall be an — avuScolt]: contrasted with 7roiorl.2. 

exile forever. If his property is not See 42.6, 1676. 

worth ten staters, he himself shall be B3fl. Againstthosewhoresisttheau- 

sold for transportation and never be thority of the magistrates. The eOSuKos 



No. 4] IONIC INSCRIPTIONS 167 

Koi 76110? TO Keiv\o. outj? to Xoitto alcrv/Avcov iv Tewt ■^ jfji ttii 
Trj\\^r)i [aSiK](<o)9 ap(Sp)[a]<i a[7ro«]T|ei'et[e] . . . apov va [etS]|(B9 lo 
7rpo8o[t7; . . .] TTjly] 7ro'|\[ti' KaX 7jjv] ttjv 'Y7){\a>v rj To\y<s] dvSpa<: 

[iv v]\\i]a-o}i rj 0a[Xao-(77ji] to | fiere eV | ap6[p]r]i irepl 15 

■7r6[Kiv . . .] I \oivo TrpoSo[irj rj Ki^a]\X\evoi rj «(|a\X,a? VTrollSe- 20 
j^otTO 17 Xrji^oiTO r) X]77tcrTo? inrohe')(piTO et|Sa>? ew 7^? rffi Trjirj'i 
17 [^]|a\aT7/9 KJiepovTw; rj [ti K]\aK6v ySouXeuoi irepl T[r}i]\\(ov to 25 
^vpo elSa><; rj 7r[po<;] | "EXXiyva? 97 ttjOo? ^ap^dpo\v'i, airoXXvcrOai 
KUL av^Tov Koi ryevo'i to Kevo. | oiTive<: Tifioj(^eovTe<s 11 Tr/v eiraprfv jjut] 30 
7rot770-ea|i' eTrl Svvdp.ei Kadr/fievlo TcoyS)vo<i ' AvdecrTTjpiokaiv Kal 'Hpa- 
KXeoicrtv | Kat A.ioia-iv, iv T^Trapfl\\i e^x^ecrdai. 09 av Ta(?) crT^Xla?, 35 
ei' ^laiv rjirapr) yeyp\a7rTai, ^ KUTU^ei rj <^oiv\t,Krjia iKKO^yfrei rj d<f>a- 
ve^a<} TTOtijo-et, kSvov a7ro'X||Xv<70(Zi Kai avTov KaX 7|ei'09 \to Kevo]. 40 

4. Chios. V cent. B.C. SGDI.5653. Hoffmann 111.80. Michel 1383. 
Roberts 149 and pp.843 ff. Solmsen 41. 

-09 • airo TOVTO p-ixP'' \jV'^'\ \ TpidSo, rj '9 '^ffficovocraav [^Jle/aet, A 
T/3e9 • diro T7J9 TpioSo d[')(\^i 'Epfi(ov6crarj<; 69 Trjv TpioSAov e^9 • 5 
cnrb TovTo /^^/ot to | AtjXi'o T/3e9 • avvTravTe^ oplot i^So/iiJKOVTa 
irevTe. | 0(717 ''''^'' opa)i' tovtoiv eWco, irdcra A.o(J>Iti<!. rjv ti^ TJItva 10 
TMV opcov TOVTCov I rj i^eXrji rj ixe6eXr)l rj d\<^avea iroirjcrei eV dhi- 
Kl\r}t, 7179 7ro'Xe(i)9, iKUTOV a\TaTripa<i o^eiXeroi) «oTt|Uo9 e<TT<o, irprj- 15 
^dvTcov 8' o^o(f)vXaK€<; • rjv Se /i^ 7rj097|f ottrti', avTot o^etXoVTtuli', 

must have been a superior official to assembly at the Anthesteria, etc' — 

the ordinary cWukoi or auditors. The 35 ff. Against those who damage the 

alaviiviTTji is often an extraordinary stele. — Kard^ci etc.: aor. subj. 150, 

official like the Roman dictator, but 176.2. 

possibly a regular magistrate at Teos. 4. Decree fixing the boundaries of 

• — 8ff. Against unfaithful and treason- a district called Lophitis, followed by 

able magistrates. The restoration of provisions for its sale and a list of the 

11. 8-18 is uncertain. — 29 ff. Against purchasers. 

magistrates who fail to pronounce the FortheLesbianelementsintheChian 

imprecations. — The ti;«oOxoi are prob- dialect, see 184 with references. For 

ably the regular annual magistrates, irpijloio-ii', short-vowel subj. like Troiiio-ei, 

like the archons elsewhere. — ■iroi'/)o-e- see also 150. For 7r6Xeus, see 109.2. 

ov: iroiijo-eioj'. 31. — Svvdftci: see 109.2. /Sao-tXeis (C 8) is the earliest example of 

— Ka6T]|i4vo Tu^uvo; ktX. ; ' during the eo = eu (33). 



168 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 4 

20 TrpTj^dvTfov 8' ol 'KevTe\KaiBeKa to? opo<^v\aKa's ■ || rjv Se jMrj Trprj^oi- 
(TLv, iv eVIajO^t earwv. 

■? [ol 7r[|e]i'Te«a[t Se«:]|a e? ^o\rj[v iv]\eiKdvTa>v ' [iv] | Trevr rjfjLe- 
5 j07;[t]||o-ti' • T0<; Se Krj^vKa<; hia'ire\fi-^avTe<; e? rja? X(opa<; Kr)[p'^viT- 
10 (TOVTcav KaU Sia rrj'i 7ro'\|e(B9 aSrjvea^ | 'ye7(BJ'eoi'Te|?, a7roSe«wi'|Te? 
15 T^v ^/U.edl?;!', 17J/ ai/ Xa/Sojltcriz', Kcti to •7r\pfj')(^fUl TrpoffK^rjpvcrcrovToov, | 
20 on a/M fieWrjlli irprj^eaOai • I Kar/SiKaadv^rcov rpiTiK0(7^i(ov f/,r) '\da- 
25 o-olz/e? avrjpi6SjT0i eoVre?. 

C [■^v Se Tik To^ -Trpiafievo'i a-TroKXi^iWiji] rj ScKd[^riTai, to? a7roK\|77]t- 

Ofievoi 7) 7r[o']\t? he^afi[e\v\r] BiKa^eadco Kav o(J)\t]1, [v]\Trepa7roS6Tco ■ 
5 Tail Se 7r/Jta[/U.]||eV(»t ■jrprj'X^fia ecTTCO fiTjSev. [o]]? av to,'! irprjiri'; aicpa- 

Tea[?] I TTOlrjl,, eirapdcrdoi KaT auT[o] I o ySacrtXeo'?, eirrjv Ta<i vo- 

/u.[a]|ia? eTrapaf TroirjTai. 11 
10 Ta? 7ea? koI to,^ ot/ci<e>a[?] | iirpiavTo • twv 'Avviko) 7ra[t]-| 

Sav 'I/ce'crto? •H7e7ro'Xfo? '7r\evTaKicT')(eiXieov Tpi,T]K[o']\a icov Te(ra-[ep']a' 
15 KOVTCOV, ' A6['r]'\^va'y[6']p[ri'\'; 'H[/3o8o']to j^eiXt'[a)]|i' iirraKoo'imv 

®apye\eo[<;'\ | 4>t\oKX'»j? ZrjvoSoTO tclv [^'^vdhrjicriv BLa'x^eiXimv 
20 i[7r]\TaKOCTi(ov, @eo'7r/307ro? /i;o[t]||z'07ri'S7;? ray K.ap,ifj,iJT]i ■x^[e\k\uov 

KoX oKTUKOcricov [iirj^rd ' K^^to? to, ip, M.'e\aLVr][i\ | 'Akttji Tpia- 
25 '^eXioiv eTrTaK\oa-ia)V evevrjKOVTCov Bia[?] || 'Ao-kS. 

5 . . toi' I ['X^eiXicov eva\Koaia)V • Aev«:|(7r7ro? UvBo) tII^I' oIkCt)V 

10 t[^]|j' 'Ai'SjOeo? 7r[e]]i'TaK0trta)i' Trlez/TT^/co'i'TtBi' I Si'aii' • "Acr/xto? 11 @eo'- 

15 TTO/iTTO? 'A|7i'ato rai' Oi.'|(Bt ■)(eLkicov T\pir]KO<riaiv Slexcov Svaip ■ 'I|ke- 

aio TO $^\|(Bi/o? 2T/3aT[i|o]? AfCTftj TOi«|[o']7re8oi' 8t7;K|[o]o-t(Bi/ ew'?. 

B 'Inthecaseof alawsuit(5r/)^X*«'), from litigation. Whoevermakesthe sales 

the Fifteen are to bring it before the invalid, him shall the jSao-iXeiis curse, 

council within five days and make pub- when he makes the customary imprecor- 

lie announcement of it in the villages tions. — lOS. There purchased lands and 

and in the city.' houses: from the sons of Annices, Hi- 

C 1-8. If any one excludes the pwr- eesius, son of Hegepolis, for BS40 {sta- 

chasers from possession or brings suit ters), Athenagoras, son of Herodotus, 

against them, the city, taking up the for 1700; from Thargeleus, Fhilocles, 

cause of those that are excluded, shall son of Zenodotus, the property in Eua- 

sustain the suit, and, if it loses, reim- dae for S700; etc. — 19, 20. Kolvoir(- 

Ifv^rse them. The purchaser shall he free 811s : koI OlvoirlSm. 



No. 7] IONIC INSCEIPTIONS 169 

5. Errthrae. About 357 B.C. SGDI.5687. Ditt.Syll.107. Hicks 134. 
Hoffmann III. 96. Michel 501. 

["ESo^ev] rrji. ^ov\[rji kuI rmi \ S-tjficoi M]ava-(rQ)'K.Xo[v 'E]«;aT[o'- 
fJ-vo) I MoXacrjea, iirel av^p aya66<i [iye\veTO 7r]epl ttjv iroXiv rr)V 
'E/>u||[^pai]a)j/, elvai eoepyeTrjv tjj? | [TroXJem? kuI irpo^evov koI 5 
7roXi'|[Tjji'] • Koi eairXovv koI eKirXovv | [/cat] TroXe/to koX elprjvr)^ 
a(TvKe\i | /cat] aa-rrovBei, koI areXeiav «a[i || TrploeSpiijv ■ raora Se 10 
elvai a6\[Ta)i\ Kal iKyovoK. a-rrjaai Se a[6\T0 K]at eUdva y^aXKrjv 
iv riji a\[yopr)]i Kal 'ApTefiia-iT)<: elKOva | [kiOiJvrjV iv tmi 'KB-q- 
vaimi, Kai || [aretfi^avaiaai MavcraaXXov fiev I [e'/c Sap^etKcov irevTrj- 15 
Kovra, 'ApTe\[fJ.t(7irjv'] Se eK rpiijKOVTa Sape[i\Ka)v. ypd-^^ai raora 
e(9) <TrriKri\y | Kal o-tjjo-oJi e? ro 'AdTjvaiov, || [eVt/ieX7;^](77)i'ai [Se 20 
Tou? eferacTTa?]. 

Central Ionic 

6. Naxos. Found at Delos. VII or early VI cent. B.C. SGDI.5423. 
HofemannIII.30. Michel 1150. Roberts 25. Solmsen46. 

^iKcivSpr) fj.' aveOiKev heKTjfioXoi io')(eaipr}i, 
lop-q Aeivo^SiKTjO ro NaAcrio, €hao')(0<; a(\)Xriuv, 
Aeivofieveoi Se Kacnyverrj, I ^hpdhao S" aXo)(^6<; v[yv]. 

7. ISTaxos. Found at Delos. YII or early VI cent. b.c. SGDI.5421. 
Hoffmann III.33. Roberts 27. 

[rjo apvTO XiOo e/u avSpia<; Kal ro a<^eXa<;. 

5. Decreeinhonorof Maussolus, the as a sign for f and transcribe Nafo-io 
satrap of Caria, to whose memory the etc. 

famous Mausoleum was erected by his ■ 7. On the base of a colossal statue 

widow Artemisia. — 15 fl. See 136.9. of Apollo at Delos, dedicated by Nax- 

6. Inscribed on an archaic statue of ians. I am of the same stone, statue and 
Artemis found at Delos. B is used as pedestal. For Afvro see 32. 

A and he, and for rj from a, but not for 8. Burial law directed against ex- 
original 17. See 4.6, 8 a. In Acivodlicrio travagance in the funeral rites, like 
and a{X)\-^oi/ the endings, as the meter those enacted at Athens under Solon, 
shows, have the value of one syllable, and at Sparta under Lycurgus. 
like eu in Homer. See 41.4. The char- 'With two exceptions (ffdi'i;!, Stapai/- 
acter which appears before 0- in NaAffio d^i) H is used only for the 1; from 
etc. is D, probably only a difierenti- a (or from ea, as hr-fiv, e&r]). See 4.6, 
ated form of B, though some take it 8 ci. 



170 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 8 

8. lulls in Ceos. Last quarter V cent. B.C. IGr.XII.v.i.593. SGDI. 
5398. Dltt.'SyU.877. HoffmannIII.42. Inser.Juri(i.I,pp.lOfe. Micliel398. 
Solmsen47. Ziehen, LegesSaorae 93. 

OtSe v6[/j,]oi irepl rwy KaTa(})0iix[e]va)[v. Kara | T]dSe 0d[7rT]ev 
TOP Oavovra ■ ev efii,aTio[c? T/3|t]cri \evKol<;, crrprnfiaTi aal iv8vfiaTi 
5 [Kal I e]7rt/3\e/iaTt, i^epai Be Kal iv i\da-[a]oa[i, /i||e] TrXeovo'i a^i- 
OK TOi<; rpLal eKarov Sp[a\x]lJ'e(ov. ex<f>epev Be iy K\.ivr)i a-^rjvo- 
7ro[S]t [K]\al /te Kokvirrev, to, S' 6\[o]a-xep[e]a Tot[? e/taT]|iot?. 
<l)€pev Se olvov eirl to (rrjfjba [/a]e [TrXe'oi'] | TpiS)V x^v Kal eXaiov 

10 P'S 'ir\eo\y\ ev6\<;, to, Se || ajyyela airojiepeaOai. rov 6av6\y'\Ta 
\^epev I KJaraKeKaXvfifjLevov a-KOTrrji P-eypi [iirl to | (r~\rjfia. irpo- 
a<f>a'YLa}i [y^^pecrOai KaTo, to, 'n\aTpi\a. T^qy kXivtjv airo To\y] ai^- 
[jit]aTo[?] KOI T[a] crlTpSJ/jbaTU ecr(j)epev evBoae. Trji Se va:Tepai\r]i 

15 ahr]opaLvev Tr)V olKirjv iXevffepov 6aXd[(TcrTj\i] TrpwTov, eireiTa S[e] 
vadnrcov o[lK]eT7][v i/jL^]\dvTa • eTrrjV Se Biapavdrib, Kadaprjv evat ttjv 
oIkitjv KOI OvT] 6vev e(^t'[a-Tt|a.] ra? yvvaiKai to,'; [r|oucr[a]9 [c'JttI 

20 TO Ki)S[o';'] I ainevai TrpoTepa<; twv {av)avBpa>v airb [tov] || arjfiaTo<;. 
eiri T&i Oavovn Tj0t7jKo'o"T[ta fie I Tr]oiev. fie inroTidevai kiiXiku vtto 
TTfy [^KXiMrfV fjiiSe to vScop eK'X^ev fieSe to. KaXXv[c7fj,d]^Ta <j>epev 
CTTt TO afjfia. OTTOV av Odvrji, eirrfly e]|^ew;;^^et, fie levai yvvaiKa<; 

25 7r[/oo]? T[r)V orVjcirjV aXXa9 e ra? fiiaivofieva'; • fiia\lve(T6'^aL Se fiTf- 
Tepa Kal yvvaiKa Kal aSe[X(^eA? K\a]l dvjaTepa'i • tt/oo? Se ra^rat? 
fie 7r[\e'oi' 7r|e']i'Te yvvaiKwv, iralBat: Se t\S)v 6'\vy\aTpS)v K\a\ve:<^l,S)V, 

3. o-TpdjioTi kt\.-. 'a clotli under- liome,.instead of being left at the tomb, 

neath the corpse, one wrapped about — 15 f. ' The house is to be purified 

it, and one over it.' — 7. (le KaXiirrev first with sea-water by a free man, then 

ktK. -. they are not to use a special cov- with hyssop by a slave. ' But the resto- 

ering for the bier, but cover all, the ration d[i/c]^r)[<' ^;itj3]tlKra is uncertain, 

bier and the corpse, with the cloths — 20. At Athens ceremonies in honor 

before mentioned. — 9. x^v: see 112.6. of the dead were performed on the 

— 12. irpo(r(t>a7t(i)i kt\.. 'they are to third, ninth, and thirtieth days. The 

perform the sacrifice according to the last are expressly forbidden here. — 

ancestral custom.' By the law of Solon 21. Directed against certain supersti^ 

the sacrifice of an ox was forbidden. tiouspraotices,thesignificanceofwhich 

— 13 f. The bier and the coverings, is not clear. — 27. rairais : dat. in -ais 

like the vessels (1. 10), are to be brought due to Attic influence. 



No. 12] IONIC INSCEIPTIONS 171 

aXXov Se fi[€]8eva. tov'; /ita[{i'o/ie'||i'ov?] \ova-afievov[<;] - 30 

I [{JSarJo? [xjvo-i Ka[6ap]ov'i evai eco - . 

West Ionic (Euhoean) 

9. VII cent. B.C. SGDI.5292. Rev.Arch. 1902 1,41 ff. 
'n.v{p)po<; IX iwoieaev ' Ay aaiXif 5. 

10. Cumae in Italy. Yl cent. b.c. IG.XIV.865. SGDI.5267. Hoff- 
mann III.6. Roberts 173. 

Taraies e/il X|epv0o? • Ao? 8' dv /jLe /cXe<^cr|et, 0v(j)Xov ea-rai. 

11. Cumae in Italy. VI cent. b.c. IG.XIV.871. SGDI.5269. Hoffmann 
III.4. Roberts 177 a. Solmsen48. 

hviri) rei xXivei Tovrei Aevo? hvirv. 

12. Amphipolis. 357 B.C. SGDI.5282. Ditt.Syll.113. Hicksl25. Hoff- 
mann III.14. Michel 324. Solmsen49. 

ESofei' Tftjt hrjiimi • $i'|A,Q)i'a Koi Sr/oaTOKXe'la (fyeoyeip 'A/i^iVo- 
Xi\v Kal Trjy •yfjv Tr)v 'Afi(jJlf,TroXiT€cov a€i<f)vyi\Tjv Kal avro<; koX to? I 5 
TratSa?, koL rifj, tto aXi\cyKa)VTai, irdcryeiv aulro? a)9 TroXeyitios kuX 11 
vriTTOLveX reOvdvai, | rd he y^prjixaT avrcbv ^Tifioaia etvai, to S' eVItSe- 10 
Karov ipov to 'AlTro'XXftji/os Koi to '^TfJkifj-ovo';. to'; Se 7rpocrT\dTa<; 15 
dvaypdi^ai aurlo? e(?) <rTi]Xrjv Xidivrjv. | -^i/ Se Tt? to ■\{ri](f>iafj,a I ai/a- 
■\lrri<f)i^ei 17 «:aTa8||ej^j;Tat tovto? TeYi"!??! ?; fji-qyavfn OTetoiov, Ta XPV' 20 
yiittT' auTO S7;/i|o'o-ta eo-TO) Kal aiiTO^ (fyeoyeTco 'AfJ,<j}iTroXiv | dei(j)vyir]V. 

9. On a lecythus, now in the Boston ment of his opponents. Cf. Dlod.16.8. 

Musemn of Fine Arts, the provenance Among this number were the two men 

of which is not stated. Probably manu- against whom this decree was enacted, 

factured in Boeotia by a Chalcidian one of them, Stratocles, being Itnown 

potter, or at least inscribed in the as one of the two envoys who were sent 

Chalcidian dialect. Note the retention to Athens for aid. Cf . Dem. Olynth. 

of intervocalic f in the proper name 1.8. Amphipolis was a colony of Ath- 

'AyaaOdfo (which later became !47a(ri- ens, but the population was mixed. Cf . 

Xeifl), though not in ivoleiTev. Thuc.4.102ff. At this time evidently 

11. In this niche of the tomb rests Le- the Chalcidian element predominated. 
nos. — Toixii: see 124. — kviev: vircffri. 3. <|>cd7eiv : cf. 0eo7^<<>, 1.24. These 

12. When Philip captured Amphip- are the only West Ion. examples of eo= 
olis in 347 B.C., he caused the banish- cu(33). — 19. dvai|(T](|>C|» : « for rii, 39 a. 



1'72 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 13 

13. Eretria. (A) End of V cent. B.C., (B) middle of IV cent. B.C. 
SGDI.5308. Ditt.Syll.47,48. Hoffmann III.19. Michel 341. 

A @eoi. I "ESo^ev Tel ^ovXrji '-UyeXoxov | tov Tapavrivov irpo^evov 

6 el\vai Kal evepyerrjv Kal avrov || «[a]l TraiSas Kal a-LTrjptv e2va\i koI 

avTWL Kal traiplv, OTav e|[7r]t87;/xe(B|0ti', /cal areKeriv Kal | 7rpoe8pir]P 

10 e? Tovi; aywva'i ft5s a\vveXevdepcopavn ttj/j, iroXiv || air 'Adr]vdeov. 

B . "ESo^ev Tel ^ovKel Kal toI ^jmoi. \ 'UpuKXeiTov tov TapavTlvov | 

5 irpo^evov elvai ''EpeTpi&v av\rov Kal iKjovov;, elvai Se aiiTol || Trpo- 

eBpLTjV Kal criTrjpiv Kal aii\Tol Kal iraiplv, oaov av y^povov | iTriStjfiea)- 

piv, Kal TOL aXXa, Ka6\d'rrep toI^ dWoi<; Trpo^evoK. 

14. Oropus. 411-402, or 386-377 B.C. IG.Vn.235. SGDI.5339. Ditt. 
Syll.589. Hoffmann 111.25. Michel 698. SolmsenSO. Ziehen,LegesSa<;rae65. 

@eoi. I Tov lepea tov ' Afi(j)i,apdov (poiTav ek to iep^v, eweihdv 

■yei/Miiv irapeXOei, /"■£%/» apoTOV (Bjo|7j? firj ttXeov SiaXeiTrovra r] Tpel<; 

5 rifiepa<; Kal 11 /ieveiv ev toI iepol fir) eXaTTOV rj BeKa ^fiepa\<; tov 
firivo<; eK\d'\(rTO. Kal iiravaiyKdi^etv tov v\ea>K6pov tov re lepov etri- 
fieXelarOai KaTo, toIv vofiov Kal twv a<j)iKve(o)iJ,eva)v eh to lepov. [ 

10 av he Tt? dStKel ev toI Iepol t) ^evo<; rj St^/xo'tJI?;?, ^r)fuovT(o 6 lepeiK 

13. This and no. 14 are in the Ere- the Boeotian and the subsequent A the- 
trian variety of Euboean, for which nian domination. But from the end of 
see 1 87 (60.3). the fourth century the inscriptions are 

A. Ships of Tarentum formed part of in Attic. 

the Peloponnesian fleet which defeated 1 fi. Tlie priest evidently passed the 

the Athenians off Eretria in 411 B.C. and winters in the town, leaving the tem- 

so led to the Athenian loss of Eretria. pie entirely in the charge of the custo- 

Cf. Thuc.8.91,95. It is in gratitude dian. Butwiththeendof winter, when 

for this that Hegelochus of Tarentum visitors became more frequent, he was 

and his sons are honored in this decree. expected to go to the temple regularly, 

B. This decree is later than A, but never missing more than three days at 
was inscribed on the same stone, be- a time and remaining there at least 
cause both recipients of honor are from ten days each month. He was to see to 
Tarentum, and possibly relatives. it that the custodian took proper care 

14. Regulations of the temple of of the temple and its visitors. — 9ff. 'If 
Amphiaraus at Oropus. Oropus seems any one commits sacrilege in the tem- 
to have been an Eretrian possession pie, the priest shall have the right to 
before it passed into the hands of the impose a fine up to the sum of five 
Thebans in the sixth century, and pre- drachmas and take pledges of the one 
served the Eretrian dialect throughout penalised. If §UQh a one offers the 



No. 14] 



IONIC INSCEIPTIONS 



173 



liexpi TreVre Spax/iecov \ «upt«? kuI ivexvpa Xafi^aveTco tov i^rjfjuco- 
fj.\evov ■ av 6' eKrivei to apyupiov, irapeovToi to | lepeo<; e>/Sa(X)\eT<B 
ek TOV 0T}(Tavp6v. SiKd^ei\v Se tov lepea, av rt? ISiei aSiKrjOei rj tuv 
^e\\v(ov 97 Twi/ BrjuoTecov ev toI lepol, /xexpi Tpi&v | hpaxp-emv, to, Be 15 
ixe^ova, j;;j^of eKao-Toi? ai hU\at ev toI<; vo/mok elpfjTai, ivToda ycve- 
trdcov. I ■KpodKoKeladai 8e Koi avOrj/jLepov irepl t&v e\v toI lepol aSi- 
Kicov av Se o avTiSt/co? fj.rj a-vvxleopei, ek t^v vaTeptjv f) hUr) 20 
TeXeio-06). eirap\x'>]v he hiBovv to/jl /ieXkovTu Oepaireveadai ihro 
TOV 6eov fir] eXaTTOv evveo^oXov SoKifiov apy\vpiov kuI ifi^dWeiv 

et? TOV Briaavpbv TrojOejo'i'TO? tov vecoKopov - - - - 11 

KaTevxeadat Se tmv iep5>v kuI e7r|i tov ^(Ofiov e-jnTiOelv, 25 
OTav Trapel, tov lepea, | oTav Se p,rj irapel, tov dvovTa, Kal Tel Ova-iei 
a\vTov eavTol KuTevxeadai exaaTOV, tS>v Se SjjLuopts)!' tov lepea, twv 
Se 6vofievo)v iv rot ie||pot iravTOiv to Sepfia [Xa/ji^dvetv]. Oveiv Se 30 
i^eiv airav oti av ^oXtjTai eKaaTO'; ■ t&v Se KpeS)\v fir) elvai iK<po- 
prjv e^Q) TOV Te/ieVeo9. toI Be | lepei BiBovv tos dvovTa<; wiro tov 



money, he must deposit it in the treas- 
ury in the presence of the priest. If 
any one suffers a private wrong in the 
temple, the priest shall decide matters 
of no more than three drachmas, but 
the more important cases shall be tried 
before the proper courts. The sum- 
mons for wrongs done in the temple 
shall be made on the same day, but if 
the opponent does not agree, the case 
may go over till the next day.' — 
16. IkcLittois : for the several offenses. 
— 17. clp{]Tai: see 43. — 4vT66a: see 
34 a, 134. — 10. dSiicCuv: dSUiov = idl- 
KTi/jM. — 21 fi. 'The one who is to be 
treated by the god shall pay a fee of 
not less than nine obols of current 
money (no bad coin was to be palmed 
off) and put it in the treasury in the 
presence of the custodian.' — ivveop6- 
\ov is crowded into a space where a 
shorter woi-d had been erased, presum- 
ably Spaxi^vs- Since the law was first 



inscribed, the amount of the fee had 
been raised, ^nd at the same time an- 
other provision, which followed after 
veuK6pov in 1. 24, had been abrogated 
and erased. — 25 ff. 'The priest shall 
make the prayers and place the victims 
ou the altar, if he is present, but, if he 
is not present, tlie one who gives the 
offering. At the festival each shall 
make his own prayer, but tlie priest 
shall make the prayers for the sacr'i- 
fices in behalf of tlie state, and he shall 
receive the skin of all the victims.' — 
30 ff. 8utiv Sc IJeiv ktX. ; there was no 
i-estriction as to the kind of victims to 
be offered, such as is often made in 
temple regulations, but in any case the 
flesh was not to be carried off. — 31. P6- 
\T)Tai : so, not |8o\TjTat (^oiiXijrai), for an 
Eretrian inscription of laterdate, which 
never has o = ou, reads pSXrirai, /3oX4- 
fi€vov. — 32 ff. TOI 8€ Up€i kt\. : ' the 
priest is to have the shoulder of each 



174 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 14 



36 iepriov ewla'ffTO tov w/jlov, ifKrfv orav fj eoprr) el- rare Se a7r|[o tu)V 
SjjfjLopicov 'Ka/M^aveTco wfjiov a(^' eKciaTov I tov leprjov. eyKaOevSeiv 

Se TOV Seco/ievolv \ vav - - 

7reid6iJ,\evov toI<} vofioif. to ovofia tov 

40 iyKadevSoiJlh-oi;, oTav efi^aXXei to apyvpiov, ypa^ecrdai, t\ov vecoKO- 
pov Koi avTOv Kal Trj<; Tro'Xeo? kol iK\Ti0e2v iv toI iepol <ypd<j)OVTa ev 
•TreTevpoi a-lKOTrelv tov ^o\op,evoi. ev Se toI KoifiriTr]pio\i xaOevSeiv 

45 %&>/3k fiev Tos avSpwi, %&)/3t9 || Se ra? jvvatKa<;, Toiii fiev dvSpai iv 
Tot "jrpo rjio'i TOV ^w/iov, ra? Se yvvaiKa^ ev toI Trpb neaTre\y)r)<; . . . 

TO KOifjLJriTripiov tov<s iv\[KadevSovTa<i 

. . . X]6yov I 

Arcadian 

15. VI or early V cent. B.C. SGDI.373. Ditt.Syll.625. Roberts 23Ia. 
A.M.XXI,240fE.; XXX,65. 

Ka/Ao vve6v(7e rat Koppai. 

16. Mantinea. Vcent.n.c. rougeres,B.C.H.XVI,568ff. Homolle,ibid. 
580 fE. Baimack, Ber.Sachs.Ges. 1893,93 ff. Keil,Gott.Naclir.l895,349fl. 
Danielsson,Eraiios 11,8 ff. Foug6res,Mantin^e,523 ff . For na, ■which is tran- 
scribed ff, see 4.4. 

[Fo]^\eacTi ocSe Iv 'AXeav [11. 2^12 proper names]. ^\efia\v- 
15 8/309 I [fo]^\eot av y^pecTTepLov KUKpive. || e'[t a]v oaiai Kaicpidee 

the women to the west. ' — 46. t|os : see 
41.46. — hE(rir4[pi)s : Ae designated by 
H, as in no. 6. 

15. Dedication inscribed on a bronze 
cymbal, which, according to the more 
probable of two varying reports, was 
found near the modern Dimitzana in 
Arcadia. Formerly read Kifuivv ^6vae 
kt\. and ascribed to Thessalian, later 
as Ka/ib vv iSvae. But the use of ivi- 
Bvae = aviSi^Ke is confirmed by a later 
dedication reading iavKias iviBvae rot 
Havl, in which the earlier iv (6, 22) is 
replaced by i,vi.. 

16. Judgment against certain per- 
sons guilty of sacrilege toward Athena 
Alea, whose temple had been made the 



victim, except when there is a festival, 
and then only from the victims offered 
for the state. ' — 38. Up'fjov: Upijvov. 37, 
38. — 36. 8»6|i,€vov : Se6/j,evov. 9.1. — 
39 ft. ' The custotiian is to inscribe the 
name of each one who consults the ora- 
cle, when he has paid his money, and 
place it on a tablet in the shrine so 
that any one who wishes may see it.' 
— lYKaBciSovTos : as elsewhere, those 
wishing to consult the oracle went to 
sleep in a room of the temple assigned 
for this purpose (see following), and 
received the oracle in a dream. — 
43 ff. Iv S« Tot KOiii'qTTipCoi ktX. : ' the 
men and women are to lie in separate 
places, the men to the east of the altar, 



No. 16] 



AECADIAN INSCEIPTIONS 



175 



Tov ■x^pefj.a.TOV, | ire rot? f otKtaTat(s) ra<s Bed ivai, | ko, poiKia^ Sd- 
aaa-adai Ta<; avoS' id(cr)a-a';. | [e7r]et rot? fo^Xiicocn iirl rolS' iSiKci- 
aaiiev, | a re ^eo5 «a? ol BiKaaaTal, a'7rv[S]eSo/iiv[o<;'\ || rov y^pefidrov 20 
TO Xa'x^o^, cnre)^ofj,{vo<; | Karoppevrepov <yevo^ ivai | afiara irdvTa cnrv 
Tol lepol, tXaov ivai. I el 3' aX[Xo] cti? [ejarot Karovvv, lv/iev<f>e'; 
evai. I Eu;^o\a [S'] aSe e[-\|r]eTot toi a[XtTe^tot] • 11 el at? iV To(t) 25 
lepol TOV T6r\e cnrvdavovrov | (j)ove<! ecrrL, eia aiiro'; e'icre [tov eayo- 
vov'\ I aK Karoppevrepov, elae t[ov avSpdv'\ | etcre rd<; (j)apOevo, ivfiev- 
^[e? evai «a]|TO j^peareptov el Se fie, tKaov evai. || et ^e/iavSpoi; 30 
<f>ove<; e(Ta-r[i ettre] | toi' avSpov eiae ra? 0a/3^eV[o] I toi/ Tore aTTV- 
Oavovrov Iv [rot tepot] I «a? /te Trpocrcr0ayeve<s ro pe^pyov toOJIto 



scene of a bloody fray. Most of the 
difficulties in the reading and interpre- 
tation have been cleared up, but some 
points are still uncertain. 

1 . The following are adjudged guilty 
towards Alea. — [F'o]<j>Xea(ri : uxfiMiKaai. 
146.1. Cf. , with the more usual aorist, 
iipXkv Iv SSLfiov, no. 17.4, and for the whole 
episode, Att. otSe cJ^Xo;' Ari\lav Airepdas 

, rb TlfiTjfia t6 i-Tri'yeypafifjiJvQv Kal 

deKpvyia, Sn ix tov iepov tov * AirdWajvos 
TOV AriXiov ^yov Toii AfiiptKTtiovas Kal 
iTvwTov. IG.II.814,p.281. — 131 *^- 
lutpSfms, as the form of the name 
shows (cf. 1. 30), was a foreigner from 
Attic or Ionic territory. As such, and 
because his guilt was in question, his 
case is treated separately, and his pen- 
alty depends upon the decision of the 
oracle. — av: adv. 58a. — Kaxpive: Ka- 
Taicphr) aor. subj. 95, 149. — 15 ff. If 
he is condemned hy divine judgment to 
forfeit his property, this together with 
the slaves shall belong to the goddess, and 
one shall divide (between the goddess 
and the state ?) the houses which he pos- 
sesses (on the heights, referring to coun- 
try houses in the mountains?). — l[i 
o]v: uncertain, but more likely than 



Hv. We should expect elx iv (134.2 a). 
— KaKpiSei: aor. subj. pass. 151.2. — 
18 fE. Inasmuch as we, the goddess and 
the judges, have passed judgment upon 
the guilty parties as follows, namely 
that, having given up their inheritance, 
they shall forever be excluded from the 
temple, in the male line, it shall be well 
(propitious). But if any one permits 
anything else, contrary to these things, 
it shall be impious. — dirv[8]e8o|iCv[os], 
dTrExofiCvos : see 10. — 22. Karoppevre- 
pov : Kara rb &pp4vT€pov. 94.1. — 22. 
afiara irovro : a formulaic expression, 
Horn, ^/xara Trdvra, retained here in the 
imprecation, although i/ifpa is the ordi- 
nary prose word for day in Arcadian 
as elsewhere (cf. no. 17). Similarly 
v6/u)s lep&s Iv fi/xaro irdrra in a Tegean 
inscription. — 24. The following impre- 
cation shall pursue the sinner. Or, in- 
stead of ^[^]eTot from iwoimi, read 
?[cr]cToi shall be ? — 30 ff. If Phemander 
is a murderer of either the men or the 
maiden who perished at that time in the 
temple, and the deed of that time was not 
,of prior .dale, in that case he shall be 
punished as an impious person. Appar- 
ently Phemander had set up an alibi 



176 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



35 To're e(?), ovto<! ivfiov(j)ov 0€[nt^ecr6at,]. \\ 
fepy[ov TOVTo], | «a? fie (jiove';, iXaov ivai. 



[No. 16 
el Se trpoaaOa'^eve'; to 



17. Tegea. Early IV cent. b.c. HofEinannI.29. Miohel695. Solmsenl. 
Ziehen,LegesSaci'ae62. Alphabet transitional; E = £, 0=o, B = A; Ion. 

Toy hiepev irevre Kal eiicocn oh vefiev koX ^ev'^o\^ kuI alya ■ el 

S'av KaTaWdaae, lv(^op^iafJi,ov evai ■ T\bv hiepd/ivdfiova lv^op/3iev • 

el B' av XevTov fie IvSop^ie, he/corov Sap'x^fia'i 6(j}\ev Iv Scifiov Kal 

5 Karaplilpov evat. — Tov hiepoOvrav vefiev Iv ' AXeai on av a|o-Ke^e? 



to the effect that the deed of violence 
took place before he entered the tem- 
ple. — 34. Tirs l(s) : the reading is 
TOTEE, which some transcribe t6t' ^e. 
But ^e = Hom. ^ev is impossible. The 
form to be expected is ^s, though unfor- 
tunately we can get this only by assum- 
ing that 0- has been omitted by mistake. 

17. Eegulations of the temple of 
Athena Alea. The first five para- 
graphs, 11. 1-20, deal with the rights 
of pasturage in Alea, the district in 
which the temple was situated and 
which was included in the temple 
property. The temple officials men- 
tioned are the hieromnemon, the chief 
administrator of the affairs of the tem- 
ple (also, in the plural, the board of 
administrators), the priest, and the hie- 
rothytes, a minor official charged with 
the technical details of the sacrifice, 
though in some places this title came 
to be one of high rank. The Fifty and 
the Three Hundred were, doubtless, 
civic bodies. 

The critical and difficult words 
are Ivipoppiev, ivij>opPurij,l>ii, plainly con- 
nected with tjiippa feed, ipopP'/i fod- 
der, (pop^ela halter. Starting from the 
derived meaning seen in tpop^ela, one 



may translate tie up, seize, but in 
11. 14-15 the seizure of small animals, 
contrasted with a tax of a drachma for 
large animals, seems extreme, espe- 
cially in connection with 11. 18-19. The 
interpretation impose a pasture tax is 
on the whole more satisfactory, though 
by this too the expression in 11. 14-15 
is strange, by apparent lack of con- 
trast. One must assume that the pas- 
ture tax was a fixed and merely nominal 
sum, and that the tax of one drachma 
for the larger animals was in excess of 
this. Hesychiushas^/i06p/3ioi'- reXJivriiui, 
which is parallel to ivoUiov house-rent, 
iWipAvMv harbor-dues, etc. From this 
would be derived h<f>oppiev impose a 
pasture tax, and from this again, as if 
from -(fu, IvipopPiap^Ss the imposition of a 
pasture tax. Cf. Solmsen,K.Z. XXXIV, 
437 ff. 

2. elS'avKaTaWdo-a-e: if he acts other- 
wise {KaraWdcrato intrans.), that is goes 
beyond the number allowed. — 3. Xm- 
Tov : probably an adv. \cStov, or a part. 
Xeirop, mea,mugwittingly, intentionally, 
but there is no certain etymon. — 5 fE. 
TOV hicpoOirav kt\. : the hierothytes may 
pasture in Alea animals without blemish 
(and so suitable for the sacrifice), but 



No. 17] ARCADIAN INSCRIPTIONS 177 

e ■ TO, S" avaa-Kedea lv<j)op§iev ■ fji.eS' ia-Trepaa-a\i Trap av Xeiye hiepo- 
dvre;- el 8' av ia-irepda-e, Sv68eK\o Sapx/J-aii 6<f>\ev Iv Sa/Jiov. — Ta? 
rpnravay6pa-io<; T|as va-repa^ rpli afie'pa<; vijxev on hav 06\eroi o? || 
fie Iv Tol irepixopoi- el 6' av Iv roi Trepixopoi, lv^o]p^iev. — '\v lo 
'AXe'at fie ve/iev fiere ^evov /iire farrrbv | el p,e iirl ffoivav hiKovra ■ 
Tol Be f eVot Karayo/xei^oi e^evai afiepav ical vwra ve/iev ewi^vyiov ■ 
el S" I av Trap raw vefie, to fiev fie^ov Trpo^arov Sapxfiav 6\\<f>Xev, 15 
TO Se /xelov Ivtpop^iev. — To, hiepa Trpo^aTa fie | vefiev Iv 'AXe'at 
ttXo? afiepav koI vvkt6<:, eU av Si^Xavvofieva TV^e ■ el S' av vefie, 
Sapxfi^v 6<f>Xev to 7r/3o]ySaTOi' pmacrTov to fie^ov, rov Se fieiovov 
Trpo^dr^v .oBeXov fexaa-Tov, Tav a-vov Sapxfiav peadiTTav, e\i] || fie 20 
TrapheTa^afievo<; to? TrevTCKOVTa e to? TpiaKa\cr(o<;. — Et'/e eVt Sofia 
TTvp STToCae, SvoSeKo Sapxfia<; | ocfiXev, to fiev efiiav Tai 6eoi, to 
S' efU(TV Tot? hiepo\fivdfiovai. — Et«r av irapafia^evS Ovadev Ta<; 
Ke\.e[v6'\\o ra? Kaxeifievav kclt 'AXeav, Tph 6Se\b<; 6^Xe[v av^h-l 25 
fexda-Tav, to fiev hefiiav Tal deal, to S" efiia-[v Tot]|? hiepofivdfiova-i. 

— Tat Travay6p<7i to? Atejo[o;iti'a/i]|oi'a? apTvev to, Iv Tat? tVTroXai? 

TrdvTU [ t]|o? Safiiopy6[<;. — ] Tov Koirpov tov aTrvS6afi\iov 

I .] Tat he^Sofiai to Aea-xavaaio fiev6<; ■ [et Se fie, SapyA\fi,^'\v 30 

6<f)Xe'v. — Tov Uavaydperiov fieva [31—35 only a few words left.l 

for those not unblemished (and so suit- uncertain, but probably If one drives 

able only for personal use) one shall in a wagon to the sacrifice off the high 

impose a pasture tax. He shall not go road leading through Alea, one shall 

beyond what he declares in his function pay afine of three obolsfor each (wagon), 

ofhierothytes. That is, his oflScial state- etc. — Suo-Oiv : aor. infin. pass, withmid- 

ment as to the condition of the ani- die force, to q^ersaeri^ce. — KaKafi^vav: 

mals is final. — 7. xdp ov : irck/j a (a) «». Karaicei/i^j'Tjs. 95. — 26 ff. The officials 

58a. — hicpoSiiT^s: UpoBuriav. 78, 157. are to make all arrangements for the 

9. hdv: 41'. 58 d. — os |i«: used like market, which was held at ancient 

S<rov li-f). — 20. Unless the Fifty or the festivals as at our modern fairs. Cf . 

Three Hundred approve. Ace. abs. con- Ditt.Syll.653.99ff. — 28. diripS6o-|i,[iov]: 

struction. 173. — 21. Sifia: temple. probably to be restored thus, and taken 

— Iirobri: aor. subj. to fut. ofo-u, cf. as an adjective agreeing with Kbvpov, 
Hom. ola-iiiievai, Hdt. dKofo-oi. For ab- but the meaning is uncertain (sale- 
sence of &v see 174. — 23 ff. Meaning able?). 



178 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 18 

18. Tegea. Ill cent. B.C. .SGDI.1222. HofEmamiI.30. Michel585. Solm- 
sen 2. 

7re ^i . Xo . \ elic dv n yivr/roi roh epymvaK 

Tot? Iv Tol avTol I epyoL, oa-a irepl to epyov ■ airveaOo) Se o doiKTj- 
5 fievo<; 1 Tov ahucevra Iv ajMepai'; rpicrl cnrii Tat av to dBL\\KT)p.a yevrj- 
TOi, vcrrepov he p-r) ■ Koi on ay Kpivwvai ] ol ia-Sorr}pe<;, Kvpiov earco. 
— Et 8e 7r6\ep,o<; StalKwXvcrei n raiv epycov rmv iaSodevTcov r) roiv | 
r)pya<Tpev(ov ti ^Oepai, ol rpiaKaaioi Siayvovrco | rt Set ylveadai • 

10 ol he aTparayol iroaohop, TroevTco, || elK av hearoi <T</>ets 7ro\e/i09 
^vai 6 KOiKiicov rj i\cf>6opKQ)'; to, epya, Xa^vpoircaXiov eovTO<; Karii 
Ta? I TTo'X-to?. el he Ti(?) epyav-qcra'; p,r} lyicexvPV'""' ''""'' I epyoi<;, 6 
he iroXepo'; hiaKcoXvoi, aTruSo'a? \t~\o dpyvpiov, ] to av XeXa/3T]K0t)<; 

15 TvyxaVT), d^ecocrOo} tm epyco, 11 etK av KeXevoovaL ol iahoTrjpe^. — : 
Et h' d[v'j Tt? eTrilcrvvia'TaTOi rat? ecrhoa-ecTi Tmv epycov rj Xvfj,aivr]yoi 
KCLT el he Tiva TpoTrov ^Orjpcov, ^ap,i6vTa) | ol e(ThoTrjpe<!, otrai av 
heaTol cr(pei<; ^afiiai, Kal I dyKapva[<T6v^T(o Iv eTriKpto'iv Kal iva- 

20 yovTCO II Iv hiKaa-Tijpiov to yiv6p,evov toI irXriOei tos \ ^ap.iav. — 
M^ i^ea-Tco he p,T]he KOivdva<; yevecrOai | 7r\eoi' rj Bvo iirl p.rj- 
hevl Tuv epycov • el he firj, ocjjXeTco j eKacrT0<; irevTriKOvra Sapj(^fid(;, 

18. Regulations governing building- whatever money he may have received 

contracts. and withdraw from the work, if those giv- 

1 ft. — , if any trovble arises between ing out the conlraxts so order. — 15 ff. If 

the contractors on the same work, as re- any one makes opposition to the allot- 

gards the work. — 4. diru xai : from the merits of the works or does an injury in 

time when, relative use of the arti- any way, etc. — kAt A hi riva: el Si 

cle, as in 1. 14 etc. See 126. — 6fE. If tk, detached from verbal phrases, has 

war shall interrupt any of the works corb- come to be used independently in the 

tracted for, orshoulddestroy any of those sense of a simple indefinite, as is some- 

completed. Note the change of mood. times ef tis in Attic (e.g. Thuc. 7.21.5). 

For 0S^pai see 80. — 9. ir6(ro8a|ji irocvru : Ci. kclt el 84 ti \. S2. — 18. o<rai kt\.: 

introduce the matter, Att. irp6aoSov iroi- with whatever penalty seems best to them. 

eiaBai. — 11. \ai|>upoirci>X(ov : Att. form — 20. to the court which is constituted 

of gen. Instead of sale of plunder the to suit the amount of the penalty. — 

word must mean here simply plunder- irX^Sei : this, not irXiJfli, has recently 

ing, ' the city being subjected to plun- been shovrn to be the correct reading, 

der.' — 12 ff. But if any one who has — 21 ff. 'No more than two partners 

made a contract has not begun on the for any one piece of work, and no 

works and war interrupts, he shall return contractor to have more than two 



No. 18] AECADIAN INSCEIPTIONS 179 

eireXaaaaOmv | 8e ot aXiaerraL • l/j^aivev Se rofj, ^oXofievov iirl rot (I 
■fjfiiaaoi, tS? ^afiCav. Kara aira Se kol ei k av [rji? | irXeov ^ Svo 25 
epya exv t&v lepav tj rSiv ^a/i[o]o-i'c»i' | kut el 8e riva rpoirov, 
OTivi Afj, fjLT] 01 aXiacTTall] | Traperd^covcn oixoOvfiahov iravre;, ^afu- 
<b[o-]0q) I Ka6' maa-rov tosv -rrXeovcov epymv Karii firjva 11 irevTrjKOVTa 30 
Sapx/J-al'i, p.€(7T av a<^rj\TOt\ | ra epya ra irXeova. — Et [8'] av n[<; 
. . .]t«ijTOt Tail' I !7repl ra epya erv - - - - - Kar el Se ri, firj | 

- . V el Be nrj, firj ol earw IvSikov | p,r)heiro6L aX\' 7} 

Iv Tepfiai • el B" av IvSiKti^rjTot, || aTrvretcraTO) to %/3eo? BnrXdcnov 35 
TO av SiKci^TjTOi • I e<7TO) Be Kal twvI to) eiri.^ap.ifo 6 avTo<; i'yyvo<; 
oirep I Kal tw epyca ■^y Iv eaTeicriv. — Ei B' av ti? epyavijaa'; I epyov 
Ti iroo'KaTV^Xa-yjrrj tl aXXv tS)V vTrapxpvTcov I epyav etre iepbv etre 
Safioaiov etre iStof || 7ra/3 rav a-vyypa(f>ov ra? iaBoKav, airvKaOi- 40 
CTaTO) I TO KaTV^Xa<f>dev toi? tSiot? avaXmfiacriv fi-q fjcrcTov I ^ 
vTrdpxe Iv toI xpovoi to,': epycoviav • el B' a/j. fj,f) I KaTva-Tciai], to, 
eTn^dfita airvTeierm, KaTajrep \ evrt TOi? aXXot? epyoK toi^ virepa- 
fiepoii TeraiCTOi. || — Et S' ai/ ti? tuiv ipyavav rj tcov ipya^op-e- 45 
v(ov I eirrfpeid^ev BeaTOi Iv to, epya rj cnreidrjvai tok I eiriixeXofievoK 

pieces of work -without the unanimous tvSiKos, like Cret. ej-Sims, is used imper- 

consent of the heliasts. ' — 24. t)L4>aCvcv sonally with the dative of the person 

ktX. ; any one who wishes may be in- who is liable to suit. For IvSiKdi^Tiroi, 

former, receiving half the fine as a re- cf.Aemaji.TohivSmaj^oiiivoisthelUigants 

ward. — 25. Kara oird : Kara ri aird. SGDI.1432a, andDelph. ^vSi/cafi/ieKoii/ 

So Kariwep (11. 43, 50) for kcitA. rdirep, subjected to suitSGT)I.n95.— 37 &. 'If 

Att. KaBdirep. — 28. £a|uu[(r]6<ii : the a contractor injures any of the exist- 

f ourth letter from the end is uncertain, ing works contrary to the terms of the 

but probably u not o. See 157. — 33 ff. contract, he must at his own expense 

Owing to the preceding lacuna, the oc- put it in as good condition as it was at 

casion and intent of this prescription the time of the contract. Otherwise he 

is not clear. Otherwise he (the con- must pay the same penalties that are 

tractor) shall not be liable to suit any- fixed for other pieces of work over- 

where else than in Tegea. But if he is due.' — 45 ff. ' If a contractor or work- 

subjected to suit, he shail pay double the man seems to be abusing the works, or 

amount for which the suit is brought. disobedient to those in charge, or dis- 

And the same person who was (the regardful of the established fines, the 

surety) for the Work, shall be surety for workman may be expelled from the 

this fine, for its payment, h Eo-TCKrii- work, and the contractor brought to 

refers back to hri^aiila, not to ipyw. trial and fined in the same way as is 



180 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 18 

^ Karv(j)povr]vai rmv eTri^afiicov | rav rerwyfievtov, Kvpioi eovrco ot 
50 icrSorripe<! I rofi fiev ipydrav eaSe\Xovre<! e? toI epyoi, || rbv Se epyw- 
vav ^afMovre'i Iv eTriKpicri'^/ Kardvep | to<; eTricrvvLcrTafievoi rat? 
iaSoKah ryeypaTrlrjoi. I — "On S' av icrSodf} epyov etVe iepov ecre 
Saii6a-i[ov], I vTrdp^ev ray Koivav avyypacjjov Tai'[i']t icvpi[av] \ tto? 
rat eVe? rot 6/370^ yeypafifievlai av^yypd^loi]. 

prescribed for those who make oppo- The giving out of the contracts and ac- 

sition to the allotments. ' — 50. Iafi,i6v- ceptance of proposals is the same thing. 

T£s Iv lirCKpio-iY : condensed expression — 53 ff. 'This general contract shall be 

for iaiu&vres Kal ayKapiffffovres ktK. Cf. in force in addition to the special con- 

11.17-19. — 51. Tos eirio-Ton^vos: acc. tract for the particular piece of work. ' 
abs. 173. — lo-SoKais: iaSbtrtai. in 1. 16. 

Cyprian 

The Cyprian Syllabary 

Nearly all the Cyprian inscriptions are written in a special syllabary. 
This consists of signs for each of the five vowels — these being used where 
no consonant immediately precedes, that is initially and for the second 
element of diphthongs — and signs for each combination of consonant and 
following vowel, as ma, rne, etc. But there is no distinction between long 
and short vowels, nor, in the case of mutes, between surd, sonant, and 
aspirate. Hence the sign te (the transcription with t is a matter of conven- 
tion) may stand for te, rrj, Se, 87;, 6e., or 6ri. Nasals before consonants are 
not written, e.g. ati= a.(y)rL^ 

For a final consonant the sign containing the vowel e is used, e.g. kase 
= Ko.^. For groups of consonants the first is indicated by the sign contain- 
ing the vowel of the syllable to which this consonant belongs. That is, its 
vowel is determined by the following in the case of initial groups and con- 
sonant -I- liquid ; by the preceding in the case of liquid -t- consonant, and 
also o- -I- consonant (cf. 89.1). 1\ms potoline = tttoXlv, patiri= iraTpl,, 
euvere la sa tu = tvpptT&craTv, a ra leu ro = apyvpo, e se ta se = t<rTa<T€. Exam- 
ples of other groups are rare.^ 

1 In the Greek transcription the mutes are distinguished and the nasal before 
consonants is supplied in parentheses. But e and o, not 7;, a, are used, in accord- 
ance with the practice adopted for other inscriptions where the signs 77 and a are 
not in use. For some uncertainties in regard to the proper transcription, see 199. 

2 We find me ma name no i = luiivaiiAvot, ka si ke ne toise = Ka'a^iyverois but i ki 
mamenose = Ixixaixivoi, terekinija = Tipxvija, tipetera- = SupBepa-, -vanakoto 
se = -fdvaKTos. 



No- 19] CYPRIAN IXSCEIPTIOXS 181 

Words are separated by a special sign, but this is commonly, though not 
uniformly, omitted after the article, and sometimes in other groups of 
words. In such groups a final consonant is often treated as medial, hence 
tapotoline = Ta(v) irToki.v, et<^. 

19. Idalium. Probably V cent. b.c. SGDI.60. Hoffmannl.135. Sobn- 
sen 3. The first five lines only are given in the more exact syllabic tran- 
scription. In this I denotes the word separator, not the line division, 
which is indicated by numerals. 

1 ote I tapo toll nee tali one | ka te vo ro ko ne ma to i | kaseke 
ti e ve se | i to i | pi lo ku po ro ne ve te 1 to o na sa ko 2 ra u | pa si le 
use I sa ta si ku po ro se | ka se a po to li se ] etalievese | anokone 
onasilone | tononasikupo 3 ronetonijaterane | kase | tose | 
kasikenetose | ijasatai | tose | a to ro pose | tose | itai | ma 
kai I iki 4 ma me nose | aneu | mi si tone | kasapai | euvereta 
sa tu I pa si le u se | ka se { a po to li se | o na si 5 lo i I ka se I to i 
se I ka si ke ne to i se | a ti to mi si to ne | ka a ti | ta u ke ro ne | to 
ve na i | e xe to i | etc. 

'Ore ra(y) tttoXiv 'ESaXiov Karcfopyov MaSot Ka<; Kerte/re? 
i(v) Tot ^iKoKVTrpov perei to 'Ovaa-ay(^av, /3aa-i\ev<; l^raaiKvrrpo'; 2 
Kos a trroKi'i 'ESaXte^e? avoyov 'OvdiriXov tov ^OvaaiKVir^ov 
Tov Ijarepav /ca? to? Kaaiyvero^ XjaaOai to? a(v)6po7ro<i to? l(v) rdc 
fid^ai lK\ixanevo<i dvev fuadov. kck iraL eipperduraTV ^aaCKevi i 
Ka^ a TTToXi^ 'Ovatri\\\di /ta? Tol<; Kaa-iyveroK a(v)Ti to fuaOov Ka 
a(v)Tl TO, lyyepov Sofdvai i^ toi I poiKoi toi ySacrtXe/ro? «a? ef tm 6 
•nroKjLfi apyvpo Td(\avTOv) a Td(kavTOv) • e Bvpdvoc w o(j')tI to | 
apyvpov ToSe, to Ta\d(v)Tdv, /Sao-t\eu? «a? a tttoXk 'Ovaa-iXoi /ca? 
tok KacriyvcTOK ottv tm ^ai tm ^aaiXefo<; to, l(v) to Ipovi toi 8 ' 
' A.'Ka(ji)irpijdTaL To{y) y^opov I tov l{v) toi eXet to(i') jf^pavojievov 
'0(7)Ka(i')T0? aXpo Ka<; to, Tep'xyija to, iiri6(v)Ta |{ 7rd(v)Ta e^ev 10 

19. Agreement of the king and city between the withdrawal of the Athe- 

of Idalium with the physician Onasilus nian expedition of 449 b.c. and the 

and his brothers for the care of the union of Idalium and Citiumimder the 

wounded during the siege of the city Phoenician king Melekyathon, about 

by the Persians and the inhabitants of 391 b.c. 
the Phoenician city of Citium. 9. fiXfo : cf . Hesycli. iXouo • ic^iroi. 

This siege is to be placed somewhere But i\fov here is not identical with 



182 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 19 

iravoviov if ah ^av cneKev. e ice ai<! 'OvdcriXov e t6<; | /caa-i'yveTOi 
12 I T09 TratSas To(y) TraiSov rov 'OvaaiKVirpov i^ roi X°P°'' '^^'■^^ \ ^6 

opv^e, Ihe irai o i^ 6f)v^e ireCaei 'OvaaiXoi kcl<; toI<; KaaiyveTOi\^ e 

T0t9 -jraicrl top apyvpov T6(v)Se, apyvpo rdiXavrov) a Td(XavTOv). \ 
14 Ka<i 'OvaaiXoi olpoi dvev To(y) Kaacyverov tov aiXov efpSraa-arv 

/Sao-iXeiJI? Ka<i a ittoXi'! Sopevai a{v)Tl to, v')(epov to fuaOov apyvpo 
16 7re(Xe«efa9) S' 7re(Xe«;e/ra9) | /S" h{p.vala) 'E{SdXia)- e Soicoi, vv 

^aa-iXev<; Ka<s a tttoXj? 'Oyao-t|||Xot a(v)Tl to apyvpo ToSe onrv tui 
18 fat TCLi ^aaiXepo'i to, i(v) MaA.ai'i/a|t rat ireSijaL to(v) X°P^^ to(v) 

Xpav^o/xevov 'Afievija dXfo ««? tA Tep^^vija to, e'iri6(v)Ta 7ra(p)Ta, 
20 To(i') troexpiJ^vov tto? To{y) p6po(v) to(v) ApvfMov /fo? 7ro||? rav lepe- 

pijav ra? 'AOdva'i, «a? to(v) kcLttov rov l(v) 1iifi.iBo<; apovpa\i, t6(v) 

AipeWefii'! 6 'Apfiavei"; e^e dXfo(v), tov iroexop^evov ttos Ilaa-ayo- 
22 pa\v TOV 'Ovacrayopav /ca? tA Tep^vija to, e'in6(y)Ta Trd(y)Ta e^ev 

iravovio'i u|/rat9 ^av areXija l6(y)Ta. e ice ai'i 'OvdcriXov e to<s Tral- 
24: Sas TO'; '0\va<7iXov i^ toli ^di TaiSe i ef toi tcdiroi TOiSe ef opv^e, 

tliSe o ef opv^e ireia-ei 'OvaaiXoi e toI<: waial tov dpyvpov T6(v)Se, 
26 apyvpolv T-eiXeKefai) 8' 7re(Xeicefa';) /8' Si^fivaia) '^(SdXia). iSe 

Td(v) SdXTOv Td(y)Se, to, peirija rdSe ivaXaXia/xeva, 1 /Sao-tXeu? «a? 
28 d tttoXk KaTedijav l{y) Td(v) Oiov tAv 'AOdvav tclv irep' '^\SdXiov 

aiiv opKoif fie Xvcrai ra? ppera'i TaaSe vpai<; ^av. | otti ai<; Ke to? 
30 ppeTa<s TdaSe Xvae, dvoa-ija poi yevoiTV. Td<; ye 11 fa? Tdcrhe kuI 

TO'} icdiro'; ToaSe oi 'Ovaancuirpov TratSe? /ca? to(i') iraiSov ol Trajt- 

Se? e^oai aipei, o{l) i{v) to Ipovi toi 'E8a\teft loai. 

kcLtos (of. 11. 20, 21) and is probably fa-, but this is very uncertain. — 

plantation or orchard. — 10. iravoviov : 29. Whoever violates these agreements, 

with all salable products (wpos), adj. may impiety rest upon him, that is he 

agreeing with t6(i') x^P"", tlie interven- shall be held guilty of an impious act. 

ing Td. ripx'i-ja being disregarded, as For the force of tin, the formation of 

not ooSrdinate. So in 1. 22 iraxowos is which is wholly obscure, see 131. But 

ace. pi. agreeing with Th(v) x^pov and it may also be taken as a conjunction 

Tb(v) Kd-Tov (11. 18, 20). — *fols Sav : els («<^i?). 

itldid,ptov(?). i/rats forever, 1Z3.6. fai/ ao. Monument to Stheneias, son of 

is possibly connected with fi}tu and fiiu, Nicias and grandson of GaucUs. See 

live, on the basis of a third by-form 168 d and 38. 



No. 21] LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS 183 

Lesbian 

20. Cebrene. V cent. B.C. SGDI.307. HoffmaimIH32. Roberts p.324. 
Solmsen 4. 

S[Ta'\\]a Vt lOeveiai e/t/it tS Nt«tat'oi ro FavKio. 

21. Mytilene. First half of IV cent. IG.XII.ii.l. SGDI.213. Hicks 94. 
Hoffmann 11.32. Michel 8. Solmsen 5. 

~ - - e . ^oTTi I Se Ke al] •n-o'Xt? 

[a]/i<l>dr[€pai | - . ] ypdcjiwiai ek rav [aTciX- 

Xav rj eKK\oXdir\T(oi,ai, kv[p]lov eara>. t\ov he KepvaiJka to] ■)(pv- 5 
(Tiov virohiKov elfi/ievai aii(l>o\Tep]aiai rat? iroXiea-a-i, BiK[d(TTai^ 
Se I ei*]/ievai t&i p-ev e> MvTiX'^vai [Kepvav\ri] rah dpxaK ■jraiaai'; 
rah i/j, MlvnX\')j]vai irXea^ rav ai/jLiaeav, ip. <^a>Kai Se [TJllat? 10 
apxaK Trato-'ai? rah ep, ^cokm 7rX[e']|a9 r&v alpia-€(o[v]- rav Se 
SiKav ep,p^vai, | eVet' xe (oviavTO<i i^eXOrji, iv ef p'qvv^{(7)ai. al Se 
Ke Karaylp^eOrji to ■y^pvaiov Kep\vav vSapecrTe[p]o[v] OeXoov, ffavd- 
TO)i ^api\\a)tr6(o ■ al Se «e airv(f)[v'\'yrii /i[^] OeXav ap^p\p^T'qv, 15 
TipaTco t[o] SiKaa-TTJpiov otti xPV a\vT(o)v irddrjV rj Kade^p^evai, a 

81. Monetary agreement between The Mytilenians are to issue the coins 

Mytilene and Phocaea. Coins of elec- first (the cities alternating each year), 

trum, a compound of gold and silver, The agreement goes into effect under 

were issued by Mytilene and Phocaea, the prytauis succeeding Colonus at My- 

down to about 350 b.c, and it is to tilene and Aristarchus at Phocaea. ' 

these that the inscription refers, though 4-5. t[6v S« K^pvavra]: Kipvayn, if 

the term used of them is xp^aiav. correctly supplied here and in 11. 7-8, 

' Any one debasing the coinage is re- has the same meaning which is more 

sponsible to both cities. If at Mytilene, forcibly expressed by Kipvav iBapiartpov 

the magistrates of Mytilene are to con- in 11. 13-14. Another restoration is 

stitute the majority of the judges. Simi- T[hii itpedpKovra] here and [k6wtoi>ti] in 

larlyat Phocaea. The trial falls within 11. 7-8. The arrangements for trial im- 

sixmonthsof the expiration of the year. mediately following show that the 

If one is convicted of intentional adul- meaning required here is debase, not 

teration, he is to be punished with death. make the alloy, i.e. simply coin, as often 

But if he is acquitted of intentional taken. Moreover the electrum coinage 

wrong-doing, the court shall decide the of this time and place was based upon 

penalty or fine. The city is not liable. a natural, not an artificial, alloy. 



184 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 21 

Se ■rroXi's avai\no<; kuI a^dfjLio'i [eo-Jrw. eXaxov MvTi\i]\vaoi irpo- 
20 ade KOTTTT^v. apxei Tr/soVaw? 6 || ireSa KoXtovov, i[fi ^]d>Ka(. Se 6 
•jreSk ' Ap la^rWap^ov. 

22. Mytilene. Soonafter324B.c. IG.XII.ii.6. SGDI.214. Ditt.Orient.2. 
Hicks 164. Plofemann 11.83. Inscr.Jurid.II,pp.344ff. Michel 356. Solm- 
sen6. 

[/cal ol /3]ao-t'[\7;e9 ■TrpoaTi]dr)a-[6ov rait KareXTjXv- 

0ov\n (U9 re^vav Te;)^i'a]/u,eV[(B] rm e\v rdi] iroKi irpoade [eovroi. ai, 
Se Ke Tt9 I Tcav KaTe\r]\v06v'\T(ov /Mr) efifievq iv rat? Sta\i'<Tt[ecr](rt 

TavT[ai,ai, \ fit] je^eado) Trap ras Tro'Xto? KTi]iMaTo<; fnjSe- 

6 vo'i iir][Se crTl|et;)^eT(o eVt fifj'\Sev too p. irapeymprja'av avrcot ot ev rdi 
TToXi irpolaOe | eovrei, dWa ajreixovrov eVl ravra rd KT'^p.ara ol 
7rapx<i>pi]a'av['Ae<; avrcot, e« t&ji'] iv rdi iroXi irpoaOe eovrcov, Kau ol 
crrpoTayoi eh I [avdt<; diro<^epov\rov eiri rov iv rdi ttoXi trpoade 
eovra rd KTi^p^ara | [m? p,r] (rvvdXXaj]fjieva tm KaTe\7j\v6ovTO<i • 
10 Kal ol ^aaiX-qe; TrpoarlMBrfa'dov rSa iv rjat ttoXi irpoade eovn 
CO'; rexvav Texvap,ev(o tq) Ka\[Te\'r]'S.v6ovTOi! ■] /U.7?S' at we rt? SiKav 
jpdcjiTjTai Trepl T^o'^vrmv, p,r] ela-d\[jovrov ol Tre pc'\Spop,oi Kal ol 
SiKaaKO-jTOi firjSe d\\X]a dpxO' P'rjBeia. | [iTripeXecrddi Se] rot? 
a-Tpordjoi'; Kal roh /3[ao-iX]7;a? Kal toU ire\[pi8p6p,oi<! Kal rjoi? 

88. Measures taken for the settle- any of the property which those who 
ment of disputes arising between the remained in the city have surrendered 
exiles who returned under Alexander's to lilm, but rather those who surren- 
edict of 324 B.C. and the reinaining citi- dered it shall enter into possession of it, 
zens of Mytilene. and the generals shall return the prop- 
Most of the restorations adopted are erty to the one who remained in resi- 
those preferred by Dittenberger I.e. dence, on the ground that the returned 
But in many cases others are equally exile has not conformed to the agree- 
possible. ment. And the /3a<r(\»;cs shall favor the 
1 ff. ' The |8a(r(XTjes shall favor the one who remained In residence on the 
returned exile on the ground that the groundthat the returned exile has been 
one who remained in residence has guilty of fraud. Nor, if any one brings 
been guilty of fraud. But if any one suit, shall the clerks of the court and 
of the returned exiles does not abide inspectors of justice, or any other 
by these terms of settlement, he shall magistrate, introduce it.' — 13 fi. 'The 
not receive any property from the city, officials are to intervene if all things 
nor shall he enter into possession of prescribed in the decree are not carried 



No. 22] LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS 185 

SiKua-KOTTOK Kul Tflt? [(xXXaJt? apxaK ai Ke || [nr) jivrjrai a.Trav]Ta 15 
(B? iv T&i ■\(r[a<f)i(Tfian yeypa7rT]ai, KardypevTov | [8e top aderevrd 
Ti Tav iv TMi ■\jra<f)ia-fj.aTi yeypa]fjij/j,€vcov, co? Ke fifjB\[ev Sid^opov 
ell) ToZ? KaTeXijXvdovTecra-i ■ir]p6'; roh iv rai iroXt | [wpoa-de eov- 
Ta?, aXXa Sidyoiev ol 6taXe]Xu/ievot ■jrdvre'i tt/jo? a\|[A,aXot? avv- 
woTrTQ)? Kal ave-7ri^ovXev]T(i)<i Kal ifipAvoiev iv rat d\\[TrvKpi<TL rat, 20 
TW ^aaiXr)0'i Kal iv rajt SiaXvai rdi iv tovtcoi to)i ■\{ra\[^ia-fj,aTi. 
SiaXXaKTUfi S' eXeo-^]at rbv SdfJi,ov dvSpa'i eiKoai, SeKa I [p,€v iK 
TO)V KareXBoVTcov, Scko] 8e iK tS)v iv tm tto'Xi irpoerde iovrmv. I 
[ouTOi Se -irpSiTov fiev (f>vXd<Ta'\ovTov Kal iwifieXecrdov gj? firjSev 
ea\[a-€Tai Sid<f>opov rot? KaT]eXd6vT€a-cn Kal rot? iv rat iroXi irpo- 
o-||[0e iovrea-a-i. Trpd^oitri Se] Kal irepl tS)v d/jL(f>ia0aT7]fjieva)v Krrjfid- 25 
T(ov I [qj? 04 re KaTeX6ovTe<; K']al tt/oo? toi? eV rat iroXi €0VTa<s Kal 
TTjOO? I [aXXa'Xot? naXuna pi^ev hiaXvOrja-ovrai, ai Se fit], ecra-ovrai 
6)S St«:|[ato'TaTot, Kal iv rajt? BiaXvcriecrcn, rat? o /Sao-t'Xeu? eTre- 
Kpivve, I [real ey rat o-uiiaXXaYjat ip,p^veoicn iravre; Kal oiKija-oia-i 
rap, 7ro]|[Xn' /eat raY j(^a>pav ojpovoevre^ vp6<; aXXaXot? • «at Trept 30 
y(pr]p,dT(OV I [vreSa to 7ra/3a8e'8e;!^]0at rah SiaXvaK (b9 TrXeto-ra /cat 
TrejOt opKW I [to'i/ /ce cnrop,6aaa)iai ot] I TrdXirai, -jrepl tovtcov irdv- 
Tcov ocra-a Ke o/io|[Xo7e(Bto-t tt/jo? aXXaXoJt?, ot aypedevre^ dvSpe<: 
^epovTOV eVi t|[oi' Sdp,ov, 6 Se Sa/tio? a/co]ua-at? at «e ayrjrai crvp- 
^eprjv ySoXXeuero). || [at Se' A;e o hdpo<s dyrjTai to] opoXoyrjpeva Trpb<; 35 
dXXdXoi'i irvp,(j)6pov\[Ta, ■^a(f>ia-aa-6ai Kal rots Ka^TeXOovrecrcn iirl 
^p,i0{va irpoTavLO'; I [ocrcra Ke rot? Xoltrouri ■^jracfj^iaOTj. ai Se we rt 

out, and condemn any one who dis- ciled, or, if not, that they shall be as 

regards them, so that there may be just as possible, and abide by the terms 

no disagreement between the two par- of settlement which the king decided 

ties and they may live amicably and upon and the agreement, and dwell 

abide by the decision of the king and in harmony.' — 80-31 ff. 'Regarding 

the settlement reached in this decree.' questions of money, after the terms of 

— 21 ff. 'Twenty men are to be chosen settlement have been accepted as far 

as mediatore, ten from each party. as possible, and regarding the oath and 

They are to see to it tliat no disagree- other matters, the men selected shall 

ment arises, and in the case of dis- report to the people, who shall take 

puted property they are to bring it such measures as seem advantageous, 

about that the parties shall be recon- If the people approve the matters agreed 



186 GKEEK DIALECTS [No. 22 

ivSevT] TW ■yjracjiia/jiaTov, \ [irepl tovt(o a Kpicn<; eara i-7r]l rai ^oX- 
Xai. KvpoidevTO^ Se ro) ■>^a(/)io-|[/LiaTO? inro tm Sdfico, avfj.TravTa] tov 

40 Sdfiov iv TM elKoicrrai tw nfjvvo<; || [TreSa rav Ovaiav ev^acrdai] toI^ 
Oioiai i-n-l aa)T7]piai Koi ev^ai^fiovCai Toijx iroXiTav iravTcov] ye've- 
adai rav SiaXvaiv rol^ KaTe7\\[66vTe(Ta-i koI toI<; irpoaOe] ev tui ttoXc 
eovrea-cn- TOt[? B]e i!prja<; T|[ok SafioaioK aTravrw; kuI] raU IpeiaK 
oeiyrjv T[ot]? vavoi'i Kal \ \tov Scifjiov tt/jo? evxa-v a-vveX]6r)v. ra 8e 

45 ipa TO, 6 Sa/i09 [e]v^aro, ore e|:||[e7re/Lti/re roh ayyeXoK; tt/jo?] tov 
^aa-CXrja, airvSofievai Toh /3aai\[Xr)0<! jevedXioicri kut eviav]rov ■ 
Trapenfievai Se rat dvaiai Kal [T|ok eUocn iivSpa^ Kal roh a]'yje- 
XoK Tok TTjOO? TOV ^aaiXr/a •ire[p.(p\6evTa^ toU airv twv irpocrBe] ev 
Tai ttoXl iovTcov Kal Toh a[Trv tmv | KaTeXdovTwv. to Se ^fra(f)la■f^a 
tJoCto avaypd-ijravTa'i Toh T^a/xtaK 

23. Nesos. Between 319 and 317 b.c. IG.Xn.ii.645. SGDI.304. 
Ditt.Orient.4. Hicksi 138. HofimannII.129. Michel363. SolmsenT. Only 
the text of side A is given here, the more fragmentary B being omitted. 

Ka]l ' AXe^avSpo[<; | xl'^'P"''^ 

rac iroXi, Kal | [ oTa 8e] 'AXe^avSpo<; SidX[Xa\^e rop, 

5 Trap avdpa)\ir(ov ^iov, <I>tXt7r7ro? Se [o || <E>tXt7r7ra) KaX] ' AXe^avSpo<; 
6 ' AXe^dvSpco T[a|/x ^acnXeilav irapeXa^ov, Sepcmr-Trov ecav | [rot? 
^a(T\iXriearai (piXo'; Kal rot? crTpoT^dfyoiai] Kal Toh dXXoiai Ma/ce- 

10 SovecTcri, p,\e\'ydX~\Q}V aydOayv atrto? yeyove rat Tro'Xt. 'A[/^|Tt7r]aT/3a) 
yap eTTiTd^avTOV j^^Tj/iOTa et? I rop, 7r6Xep,ov elcT(f>epr]v Travrtov TOiv 
dXXcov I eicT^epovTCOv &epannro^ vapyevop.evo'i | tt/so? rot? ^aaCX'qa<s 
Kal 'AvTiTraTpov e'«[ov]|^to-o-e Tap. ttoXiv, eTrpa^e Be Kal tt/so? KXe[t-|| 

15 t]ov irepl ra? et? ^virpov cTTpaTeia'; Kal i\[j'\ p,eydXa^ Sairdva'; eh 

upon, they may decree the same prlvi- be made annijally on the anniversary 
leges for the exiles returning in the of the king's birthday in the presence of 
prytaiiy of Smlthlnas as for the others. ' the twenty men and the messengers. ' 
• — 38-39 ff. ' When the decree has been 83. Decree in honor of Thersippus 
confirmed, the people are to pray that for using his influence with the Mace- 
the settlement may be for the general donians in behalf of the city. For the 
welfare. The priests and priestesses are historical references see Hicks and Dit- 
to throw open the temples. The sacrl- tenberger. I.e. There are some koiv/i 
fices which were promised when the forms, as tieri for ireSi, iviypa^ai. be- 
messengers were sent to the king are to side iyKapvavirw. 



No. 23] LESBIAIT INSCEIPTIONS 187 

lUKpov avvdyaye. | [iyeveT]o Se kuI irepl rav criToSeiav av-i][p | 070- 
po?] Kal Trap t&v a-aSpdirav elcraycoyalv I criT(o KajrecrKevaaae, . 
eSa)Ke Se Kal rat ttoKi || [;;^p^/naTja ek (Ta>Tr]piav Kal tokok iXdcr- 20 
[o-o|va? atTJjjcre ray Karea-raKOVTCov, evador) | [Se p(;/3j;]/iaTeo-(7t /cai 
TOi? TToXiTaicTt, ek [(7i\Tavia]v. Kal TloXvTrep'x^ovTO<; ek rav 'Aa-i[av I 
CTTaXeJi'TO? SuoiKijae ^i\ov avrov tm '7ro|[Xt v7rd'\p'x^r)v, Traps- 25 
iTKevaa-cre 8e Kai 'Appd^ai\[ov Kal'] toU dWoa rot? iiri nvoav re- 
To|[7/iei;o]t? ^tto t&v ^aaiXijcov ^i\oi<; tm 7r[o]\t Ka]l raWa 
irpda-aei fier evvoia'; tt/so? | [tov S^d/jiov iravra- BeSocrOai avraa 
areXeilav || Trdvrtojv rop, Trdvra ^(^povov Kal avTco Kal [e'/ckoVjoto-t, 30 
aTaaai Se avroa Kal eiKova p^a\[«:^|aI'], SeSoadai Be Kal airrjcnv ip, 
7r/30Tai'ij[t|to, K^al ora /ce a ttoXk Ipo-irorjTai, pepi<; B[i\B(o](TOa) @ep- 
fftTrTTft) Kal Twv eKyovcov di tw y[d\paLJTdT03, KdXrfaOai Be Kal ek 35 
irpoeBpCav • | [a-reJc^ai/WTa) Be avTOV 6 ■)(opoaTdTa^ di 6 iv[e\oov ijv 
t5> dycovi Kal oyKapvaaeTca dvBpay\a\6 C]a'i eveKa Kal evvolat Ta<i 
irpix; TOV Bd^pov\, Xva yipdicrKCOiai irdvre^ on 6 Bdpo<; 6 || [Najo-ito- 40 
rav Tok dyddoK dvBpa<! \_K~\al eue[/3|7e']Tat9 Tt'[//.at] Kal acoBevro'i 
avra icrTe(f)a\lva]^6prja-€V dpepai^ rpk Kal evayyeXia | Kal atorrfpia 
e\d]vae Kal 'irav\dyvp'\tv crvvd\yaye BapoTe\X\r)V Kal vvv Tipai 
BiKda)<;. d\\vdypa-\jrai Be rot? TapiaK rok per 'Hpa^KXeiro) to ^jra- 45 
<j)ia-pa ek o'TdWav \iOlvav I t<u eK ®eppa<i Xi6(o Kai ardtrai oinra 
Ke ©e[/3]|o-tTr7r(B crwa[p]e'(7K7j pe'x^pi Hopvoirca'; • efe'[o-]|T£B Be ®ep- 
o-i[7r]7r£0 Kal dWa oirira Ke 6e\r) t<o[v || fjptoz/ a-Td(7a[i] to yjrd- 50 
(jiia-pM, Kot Ke Ti de'Xi] ■7r[p]\oa-ypd(j)7jV, eppevai avTco, Tuy Kev 
eiiepyeWr) Tap iroXiv. 

47. Ik 0^p(jias XtOu: o/marfite/rom Labeo. This is a characteristic exam- 

Therma, a place in Lesbos near Myti- pie of the artificial revival of the dia- 

lene. — |i^pi IIopvoTrtos : site of the lectinRoman imperial times (cf. 280). 

temple of Apollo Parnopius, the epi- ^Yith the genuine dialect forms are 

thet being derived from ■rrdpm\j/, Lesb. interspersed koiit) forms as Trapij7-7)o-aTo, 

Boeot. Tdprnf (5). — 48 ff. : ' Thersip- irpiravis, iva-, nerd, lepras, Kadi, iip' otaiv, 

pus may also have the decree set up etc. ; hyper-Aeolic forms as i^iipav, 

elsev7hei« in any sanctuary that he TrXdfeos (vyords with original 1;, not a); 

chooses and add to it a statement of and examples of late spelling as Tci^ais, 

any of his other benefactions.' Karetpuiv vfith et = t (21), iiruTKeda-avra 

84. Decree in honor of L. Vaccius (36), Kopaylav, ivdpKoiaav with k = x 



188 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 24 

24. Cyme. Between 2 B.C. and 19 a.d. SGDI.311. Hoffmann II. 173. 
[Safi]ocriai[<;\ - rah v'7rapK0t]a-ai<; avrco /cT7j|[(7ta? ep ros 

Zfiapayijco] 7} tovtokti tS> Sa[//.a)] | ovia Traaavoia- 

5 (7avT0<; ical || [fj,eyaKo']TrpeTrea-(T(i)TaL<; Teip.ai'i Soyfiari^ovTo? Kai 
vav\(o ev roi <yvfi[v)acTCa) /careipcov Trpoayprj/ifievo), iv co rah Tet-| 
fiai<; avTco KanSpvaei, KrCcTTav re kuI evepyerav TrpocrovvlfidcrSea-Oai, 
eiKOvdi; re y^pvcriai'; 6vTedr)v, icada T0t9 ra fie\'yicrTa rov Sa/j,ov eiep- 

10 'yeTrjcrdvTecTcn vofMfiov iari, fidlrd re rav i^ dvdpdiyirmv avrai fjLera- 
(TTacTLV Kol TCLV iv\rd(j}av Kal 6eenv tw crd)fiaTO<; iv rm yvfivacriai 
•yevijOrjv, I aTroSe^a/iez/o? vTrepd'Ufi,co<i rav Kpiaiv ra^ •TToXto'; Aa^^ewv, 
crroi'xel'; toI's irpovirapyiievoicn avrco Kal •7rpo(Tfie\r pel's rav iavrco 

15 rvy^av rot? icftiKroiaiv avdpdnra), rav || p,ev vTrep/Sdpea Kal 0eoiai 
Kal Tot? I(7<7o6eoiac apfj,6^oi\aav rat re rS> vavco Kareipao'io's ra? 
re ra) Kricrra | Trpoaovvfiaaiaf reCfxav irapr^rrjaaro, apKerjv vofii-^ 
^cov rhv Kpiaiv rSi Tr\ddeot Kal rccv evvoav e'irLre6e\a)prjK7)V, rah Be 

20 T049 ayddoicri ra)v dvSpmv TrpeTroillraK aa/jievi^oiaa p^a/oa avverre- 
vevae reip.at'i • icj)' ol\cnv TrpeircoSeararov iari rwv ivvoficov eovrtuv I 
y^^povcov rav rravreXea rSiv eh ap,oi^av avrjKovrcov I eiraivcov re 
Kal rei/jiiav rrepl ra<; Ka\oKayadia<; avrco | jxaprvpiav cnrvBeBocrdai ■ 

25 Si d Kal rvy(a dydda SeSo)(^6ai 11 ra /3o'Wa Kal rai Sdfico • iiraiVTjv Aa- 
^ecova Trattra? eovra Tet|/u.a? d^iov Kal 8ia rav Xoirrav ixev rrepl rov 
^lov crefjkvorara | Kal hid rav ^iXoSo^iav Se Kal rhv fieyaXoSdrravov 

(66a). ipKiifv (infin.), avvreKii} beside with ' and Lesbian accent). But it is 
the normal ;i«-forms K6.\riv, a-Tetpdvav, impossible to determine whether in 
etc. (155.3) are probably artificial. such cases the koixi) form was adopted 
miiji (1. 5), if correct, is a contamina- as a whole or only in part (cf. 280), 
tion of vavov with Att. veii. 4ireypd<priv and moreover by this time little, if 
(1. 36-37) is an aor. infin. pass., like anything, was left of the sound of the 
6vT40riv, with e carried over from the spiritus asper even in the koiv/i. So the 
indicative (perhaps only by the en- transcription chosen is of small con- 
graver). With regard to psilosis, we sequence. 

find Karelpuv, KariSpiaa, but 4(plKTouriii. 15 ff. He deprecated the excessive 

The forms of the relative, being bor- honor, suitdble only to gods and demi- 

rowed from the Kotvij (126), are tran- gods, of dedicating a temple and nam- 

scribed with ' throughout (cf. also ing him founder, thinking it to be enough 

i<t>' ot(Tiv etc.); and one might also pre- to have observed the judgment and good 

f er iep4us and iavrdv (instead of ^ovtok will of thepeople, but the honors suitable 



No. 24] LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS 189 

et?^ I T^v TToXiv Sideea-iv, Kal exnv iv rd KaXkiaTa 8iaXdfj.yjrei, re 
Kal I airvSoxa, Kal KoXyv ek irpoehpiav, Kal a-T€<j)dvcov iv 7rdv-\\ 
reaa-i^ toi? aydivea-a-iv, oi? Kev a ttoXj? avvreXer), ev rd rdv \ Karev- 30 
Xav afiepa iirl rdv airovBav kcit rdSe ■ 6 Bd/xo's aT€\<j)dvoi AevKiov 
OvuKKiov AevKia vlov Al/j,i\c'a Aa^eava, 4>i\\oKVfiaiov evepyerav, 
(TTe^dva xpv<rim apera? eveKa \ Kal (t)i\ayaeia<; ra? eh eavrov ■ ov- 
red-qv he avTw Kal €i\\Kpva';, ypdirrav re iv SirXco irfxpva-w Kal 35 
XaXKiav, KUT rd ai\Ta Se Kal fiapfiapiav Kal xpva-iav iv t£ yvp-va- 
o-i'o), it})' av iir^ypd^Tjv o Sdfio^ irei/iacTev AevKiov Owkkiov 
AevKim I vlov AlfuXia Aa/Se'wm, ^iXoKVfiaiov evepyerav, yvp.va- 
(n\apxvo-avTa KdX(o<s Kal fieyaXoSo^o)^, ovOevra Se || Kal to fiaXd- 40 
I'j^oi' TOt? ve'oia-i Kal 7rpo<; rdv et? avro KopayC\av rah virapKoCa-ai'i 
avToa KTrjaia'i iv Zixapayrjco, Kal i\nrL(7Keda-avTa to yvp.vdai.ov, 
Kai eKuaTa iiriTeXea-avTa \ Xdp,Trpa)<; Kal p.eyaXo-ylrvxto'i, dpeTa<: 
eveKa Kal evvoai \ Tdi ek eavTov. Kal eVet Ke Se TeXevToa-rj, KaTe- 
vexOeJ^\Ta avrov xnro twv i(j)d^(ov Kal raiv veoov ek Tav dyopav I 45 
aTe<f)avd>drjV Sid tcS ra? TTo'Xto? KdpVKO<; xaT TdSe ■ 6 Sa|/io? a-Te<f>d- 
voi AevKLOv OvdKKiov AevKia vlov AlfuXia Aa\^e(ova, (j)iXoKvp.aiov 
evepyerav, aTe<f>dva) xP^o'^co dpe\Ta<; eveKa Kal euv6a<; Td<i ek eav- 
Tov • eicrevexdrjv Se |[ avTOV ek to yv/j.vd<Tiov vtto re tmv iipdjSmv 50 
Kai, T(bv I vemv, Kal ivTdtfyijv iv tJ k dv evdeTov ep.p,evai ^aCvrjTai 
toIttjo. to Se ylrd<f>ia-p.a To'Se dvdypa-^ai ek CTTdXav Xi6<o Xeu|Ka) Kal 
ovaeptevai ek to yv/xvaaiov irdp Tak SeSo\yp.aTi(Tp,evaK avTto teC- 
p-aK. pfjvov ^paTpico SeKUTa || dtriovTO'; iirl lepeeo^ ra? 'Vcopa^ Kal 55 
AvTOKpdTopo<i I Ka to- a/309, Oea via>, d&a 2e/3ao-T(o, dpxiepeo<; p.eyC- 
iTToa Kal 7ra|T/309 ra? irdTptSo'i IloX€pcovo<; t&j ZtJi'wi'o? AaoStVeo?, 
irpVTdvLO'i Se AevKico OiiaKKieo AevKim via AipiXila Aa^ecovo^, ^i- 
XoKvp.ai(o evepyera, aTe<j)ava<f)6pco Se 11 I.TpdTcavo'i tS) 'UpaKXeiSa. eo 

to good men he accepted with gratifica- tions. — 56 f. 'whenPolemonwaspriest 
tion. — 47. AtfiiXIa : name of the tribe of Kome and Augustus.' 
in tlie nom. sg., as in Latin inscrip- 



190 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 25 

Thessalian 



25. Larissa. V cent. B.C. IG. IX. ii. 662-663. SGDI. 343-344. Hoff- 
mami II. 42. Roberts 240. 

a. lioXv^evaia ififit. h- YeKeSafio:;. 

26. Site of unknown identity, southeast of Larissa. V cent. B.C. IG.IX. 
ii.l027. 

a. "KifKovi Aeo-j^a[t]o[t]. 

h. 'KptaTCov oveOiKs koI (TvvSav'xi'a(l}6poi. 

G. IIjOoVo? ipyd^aro. 

27. Phalanna. V cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.l226. Hoffmann 6. 

5 No'/i09. I At Ke Tov I pacrarov | Ki? paXC^aKerali] | Koiva x[p]\^' 
10 fiara e[x]\ov kuI /i[e] | Si;j/a§T[a]||t a7r7re[t(r|at] to 

28. Larissa. About 214 b.c. IG.IX.ii.517. SGDI.345. Ditt.Syll.238- 
239 (only the letters of PHlip). Hoffmann 11.16. Michel 41. SolmsenQ. 

\Tay~\ev6vTovv 'AvayKiTTTroi lierdaXeioi,, ' KpuTTovooi 'EiVvofieCoi, 
2 'E7rt7e'i'eo9 'lacroveioi, ELiSt«:o[t | ' ASajfj-avreioi, 'AXe^ia KXeapp^etot, 

'^vfjLvacyiap'x^evro^ 'AXeva AafMoadeveioi ■ ^bXiiriroi rol jSaaiXeloi; 

iiricrToXhv c^ir^ucTTeXXavTo^ ttot toi^ raybi Koi rav iroXiv rav 

VTTO'ye'Ypafifi.evav • 
4 "Bao-tXeii? ^ iXiinro'; Aapi,aai\cov rot? Tayoi<; koi ttji TroXet 

^(aipeiv. IIeTj0ato9 KaX 'Avdyicm-iro'; Kal 'A/oto-ToVow? tos otto tij? 

irpeiT^eia'i iyevovro, II ive<f>dvi^6v fioi on koi r/ vfierepa ir6Xi<s 8ih 

as. IloXu^evaCa : sc. a-rdWa. See Aco-xixip'os, an epithet of Apollo, oc- 

168 c. — FEK^Sap.os : see 46, 52 6. curs in Plutarch, and Aeo-xttpipios is the 

26. Aristion and his fellow Sacpvri^S- name of a month in Thessalian and 

poi set up to Apollo of the A^a-xv- A Cretan. 

late inscription of Phalanna (IG.IX.ii. as. Decrees of Larissa made in ao- 

1234) reads "AttXouw Kep5[o](ou ^ova-lira- cordance with recommendations of the 

T/)o! I Uo\eiJ,apxlSaios 6 Biras | iviBeixe ie- Macedonian king Philip V, whose let- 

poii.va.ij.!>vel\(ra^ Kal ApxiSavxm<f>opela-as. — ters, dated 219 and 214 B.C. and writ- 

Ato-xa[l]o[i] : or Ae<rxa[/J6 (cf. 38)? ten in the Kotci}, are included. The 



No. 28] THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS 191 

Toil? TToXe'/iou? TT/ooo-Setrat TrXeoWi' oIktjt&v eo)? av ovv koI ere'-l 
povt iinvo'qa-cofiev a^iov<; tov Trap' vfilv iroXiTevfjLaTo^, eVt tov ira- 6 
poVro? Kpivto ■^r)cf)L<Ta<76ai \jixa<i ottqj? rot? KaTOL\Kov<7iv irap vfilv 
@€(Tcj-aXa)V rj rSiV aXKav 'EXXtji/cdi' hoOrji TroXtreta. tovtov yap 
avvTeXecrd evTo<; koI avvp^eivdv^av 'irdvrcDV Sia to, (^iXdvOpaira 8 
TreTreia-fiai erepd re 7ro[X]Xa tmv '^^pijaifiav eaeaOat koI ifiol koI 
Trji TToXei Koi TTjV | %C()/3ai' /laXKov e^epyaa^drjaeadai. eTOV<; /S' 
"Tirep^epeTaiov ku." 

■>^a^i^ap,eva^ Ta<; ttoXlo's ■\jrd^ia-/J,a || to viroyeypafifievov • "Ha- 10 
vafifiot TO, e/cra eir t/eaSt o"ui'«;XetTO? <yevoiJ,eva<;, ayopavo/xevrovv 
TOvv Tayovv 'irdv\TOVv • ^ikiTnroi toI ySao-tXeto? ypd/jb/xara Trefiyjrav- 
T09 TTOT To^ Tayb<; Kal rav woXiv Bi(e) kL IleTpaio<; Koi 'AvdyKiir- 
7ro9 Kal I 'A/Jto-ToVoo?, ou? ar ra? TTjoeto-ySei'a? iyevovdo, ive(paviaao€v 12 
avTOv, TTOK Ki Kal a afifieovv Tro'Xt? Ste to? TroXe'/cto? TrolTeSeieTO 
TrXeto'i'oi'i' ToOf KaroiKeicrovTOvv ■ fieairohC ks ovv Kal eTepo? eTTt- 
voeiffovfiev af ib? to4 Tra/a a/i/Lie | TroXiTev p.aTO';, er toI irapeovro'; 14 
Kpevvefiev yjracfyi^aaOeiv a/Xfie 0(5)9 «e Toi<} KaroiKevTecrai irap a/M/jLe 
IieT6[a'\VXovv Kal rovv dXXovv 'EWdvovv Sodel a 'jroXireia ■ rolveo<; 
yap avvTeXecrdevroi Kal (7Vvp,evvdvT0vv TrdvWovv hie to (jiiXdvOpovira 16 
ireireicrTeiv dXXa re ttoXXo, tovv y^peicri/iovv ecraeaOeiv Kal euToO Kal 
TO, TTo'Xt Kal I rav ^ovpav fiaXXov i^epyacrOeicrecrBeLV ■ iyjrdipia-Tei ra 
TToXiTet'a wpaaaefiev irep rovvveovv kclt to, 6 ^a\cnXeiK eypayfre, Kal 18 
TOK KaToiKevreo'a'i Trap dfine YleTdaXovv Kal tovv aXXovv EXXa- 
vovv SeBoaOeiv rav 7roXt|Tetai' koI avTol<; Kal iayovoK Kal rh Xoiira 
Tip-ia {nrap'xeixev avToh irdvra oaa-airep A.acraioi';, <^uXa? eXo/ie-|| 
voLif eKdtTTov TTota? Ke jSeXXejTet • to p,a ■\jrdif)icr/ia Tove Kvppov 20 
enfiev KCLTT TravTOt 'x^povoi Kal toi Tafiiwi i(78(^p,ev ovypdy^eiv avTO 

Thessalians at this time were nominally o-a£ois: Aapta-alon. Cf. Hesych. Ad<ra>'- 

independent, btit actually subject to t^v Kipiaav. But in other inscriptions 

Macedonia. Cf. Polyb. 4.76.2. only Adpuraor (later) Ad/jiiro-a. — 19f. <|)u- 

10. oTivKXeiTos : avvKKils (167.9) is Xo.^kt'K.: choosing eachthe tribe to ivhich 

used, like Att. o-i^kXijtos iKK\ii<rLa, of a he wishes to belong, tto/os gen. sg. with 

specially summoned assembly. — 16. ti- tiiiicv understood, ^uXas gen. sg. by at- 

ToS : iavTov. So also evToT, eilr^s in two traction to irolas. Cf. Att. eXicrBai dk 

otherinscriptionsof Larissa. — 19. Ao- airois (pvKi/v Kal drjfwv Kal ipparplav, ijs 



192 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 28 

eV aTdXKa<; \i6ia<; Sua? koI to, ovvfiara tovv TroXiToypa^eidevrovv 

22 Kal KarOefiev] rdfi fiev lav iv to iepov toI " A'7r\ovvo<! rot KepSoioL, 
rdfi lid aXXav iv rdv aKpoiroXiv, Kal rav ovdXav, /ct? «e 'fi\vveiTei 
iv rave, S6/xev" Kal varepov ^iXiinroi rol ^aacXeio^ iiTLCTToXav 

24 aXXav dTrv(TTeXXavTO<; ttot | Tb<; ra'yo'; Kal rdv ttoXiv, rayevovrovv 
' ApicTTovooi ^vvop,eioi, EuStKot 'ASufiavreLoi, 'AXe^iTnroi 'IttttoXo- 
X^^oi, II 'E7rt7eVeo? 'laeroveioi, '^vp.eivioi DAvaataioi, yvfivaa-tapxe'v- 
T0<; TifiavviSa TifiovviSaioi, rdv vTroye'YpafifJLevav • | 

26 " Bao-fXeu? $t\t7r7ro? AapKraicov rot? rayoh Kal rfji jroXei xai- 
peiv. TTVvOdvofiai toii? TroXLToypa(f)rj0evTav Kara \ ttjv Trap' e/iov 
i-TTiaToXfjV Kal to '^■^cfyierijia to v/xeTepov Kal dvaypacf)evTa<; et? tA? 

28 aTTjXa^ iKKeKoXa<f>0aC • eXhrep ovv iyeyovei tovto, 7J(TT0X'n''^eia'av ot 
(rvv^ovX£V(TavTe<; vfuv Kal tov a-Vfi<^epovTO'; tyji traTpiSi | Kal t^? 
ifjirji Kpi(7ea)<;. ' on yap irdvTcov KdXXiaTOV ianv o5? irXeCaToav p,eTe- 

30 xpvToav TOV TroXiTevft,aTo<; || ttjv re iroXiv ia^yeiv Kal ttjv j^wpai/ firj 
Sairep vvv atV;)^/)&)? ^^paeveadai, vofii^co p-ev ovS' vfi&v oideva dv 
dv^TeiTretv, e^ea-Ti Se Kal tov<; XoiiroiK tow Tali op.oiai'i ttoXito- 

32 ypacj)iat<; xpcfievov; Oewpelv, Sv Kal oi 'P<B/iat|oi elaiv, o't Kal toik 
oiKeTa<s, OTav iXevdeptocraxj-iv, Trpocrhexpiievoi eh to iroXiTevp,a Kal 
TOiV dp^eCcov //.e|[TaSt]So'i'Te? Kal Sid tov tolovtov Tpoirov oi pAvov 

34 Tr}v ISiav iraTpiha eTrijv^iJKaaiv, dXXd Kal d-jroiKia'; (a-)'x,eS6v j [.ei? 
e^]Sop,'^KOVTa TOTTOv; eKireirop.^acnv. 7rX[^]j' eVi Se Kal vvv irapa- 
KaX& vfjLd<i d(f>iXoTip,a)<; irpoaeXdelv || [tt/oo? to\ trpdyp,a Kal toxk 
fiev KeKpi/jLevovi viro t&v ttoXitcov aTroKaTacrTTJa-ai etV? ttjv ttoXi- 

36 Teiav, el Se \ [Tive<; ajvi^KeaTov ti ireirpdxaaiv etc-? Trjv ^aaiXeCav 
r) TfjV TToXiv rj Si oXXtjv nvd aiTiav p,7) d^ioi ela-iv j [p.eTeyAeiV 
TJj9 <7T7j\779 TavTt]'!, TTepl TOVTfov Tr]V {nrepOe(Tiv Troirja-aa-Oai, eito? 

38 dv iyw eVto-T/aei/ra? aTrb tt}? | [o-T/saJreta? SiaKovao) ■ toi<; p,evT0v 
KaTijyopeiV tovtcov p,eXXov(Tiv irpoeitraTe OTrto? p-r) <f>ava>a-iv Sid 
^[i\Xo']Tipiav TOVTO TTOiovvTe's. eTOv; f TopiriaCov iy." 

6.V poi\u»TM efrai. — 28. T|(rTox''iKCL<rav : now attested from some half dozen koiv^ 

3 pi. plpf . of do-Tox^u, miss the mark, sources. It is probably due to the anal- 

fail. Both word and ending are post- ogyofadverbslike7rpfiToi',Xoi7rij',ete.— 

claBsical.— 38. |i.Ivtov: /i^ptoi. This Is 40. irepUpovv: apparently equivalent, 



No. 29] THESSALIAK INSCRIPTIONS 193 

■\p-a(f)i^aneva<; ra? iroXio'; yfrdtpicr fji,a to Li7ro7€||[7]/3ajU./;6e'i'oi' • " @e- 40 
fiuTTioL TO, vaTepojxeivvia ayopavofj.evTO': 'AXe^iTnroi irep lepovv, 
AXe^-iTTirot Xe^a[i']|T09 iyjra^iaTei to, TroXtreta, ocrcrovv p,ev i(f)dv- 
ypevdeiv Kivei tovv 'ireiro\i,TO'^pa(^eifji€vovv, to? Tayb<; e77/3a[i|rai']-| 
TWi iv XevKOV/jia eadep-ev auTo? ei' rov Xifieva, rov^v fija Xoittovv 42 
TOVV •jreTToXi.Toypa^ei.fj.evovv kclt tclv i'7naT[o']\\av toI ^acrt\eio<; to, 
ovv/MUTa Kal ras eTrtcrroXa? toi /SocrtXeZo? Kal to, ■<{ra(f>caiJi,aTa to 
Te vmrpo [tJos yevofievov | Kal to Tdp.ov oyypdyjravTa'i ev crraXXa? 44 
Xidiat Bva<; KaTde^iev Tav fj,ev Xav ev tov vaov rot " KirXovvo'; toI 
Ke/)Soiot,|| TCLV he SXXav ev tclv aKpoiroXiv ev tov vaov Ta<; 'A6dva<;, 
Kal Tav ovdXav tov ev Tdve yivvfievav to? | <to9> Tafiia<; Sofiev aT 46 
Tav Koivdv TToOohovv • TO fid ■xjrd^iafJLa Tove Kvppov kfifiev Kair 
travTO'; ypovoi • " ot ireTroXiTolypacfieLiJLevoi udT Te Td<s eTrtuToXas TOt 
j8a(7tXeto9 Kal KaT to, 'ip'a<f)ia'fiaTa tS? tto'Xjo? ■ | 

1,a/i69paKe<; • "A/j^itttto? JLaXXiipovvTeto^. 48 

Ivpavvovvioi • 'A.yeta-ivoo<s AvKiveto^, ^dXa\Kpo<; 1,ifiiaio^, [ktX. 
49-78]. 

TvpTovvcoi ■ 'EvOotvo'i AeTTivaLo<i, ^iX6Safio<s AeTTtWto?, Boi'- 79 
(TKO'i AafiiJidTpeio<;, [ktX. 79—92]. 

29. Larissa. II cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.553. Hoffmann 11. 18. 

"S-Tpiifiovv MoXoTOi [o] <^dp.evo<; dweiXevO{e)povcrdeLV diro | Mo- 20 
XoVot Tol ^oiviKO'i t6<; yLVOfJ,evo<; Ta iroXi KaT tov vofiov dpyv- 
pioi I o-TttTet/ja? SeKdirefMire. 'AXi6Sovpo<; XloXufe'vetos o (f)dfj,evo<; 
d\n-eiXevdepov(yOeiv diro UoXv^evoi 'Apfio^eveioi to'; ytvop.e'vo'; \ Ta 24 
TToXi KUT TOV vofMov dpyvploi (TTaTeipa<; Se/ca7re/x7re. 

in the language of adulation, to irip 136.1. Similarly ™ iwTpb rds yevo/i^- 

PaaLXtKwv. 41. oo-o-ouv kt\. : whom- mi rip drSiv ^/zaifilvimTos in another in- 

ever of those that have been enrolled any soription of Larissa (IG.IX.ii.512.30). 
persons accuse. i<l,6.vyi>^vB.iv in mean- 89. The whole inscription of 44 lines 

ing not ^^aipoCrrai, but KaTTryopavvTai contains a list of manumissions, all m 

(of. 1. 38) .— 43. Kal Ttt \|/a<|)£o-(iaTa kt\. : the same phraseology. 
and the decrees, both the one just previ- 20. (|)i|i.«vos a.va\(v6tpov<r9av: perf. 

ously passed and the present one. iirwpb infin. = dirT/Xcueepuffeoi, with (pdpems, 

Tas, so. iiiipas. Cf. Boeot. Tporrivl, declared free. 



194 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 30 

30. Larissa. Late II or early I cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.536. 
[Nt«;o]«;Xea[s A-]vTO/8o[u]Xeto[?]. | Xeiropevovro^ "K<yei\aia Se- 

5 vovveioi 01 1 Tov ravpov '7re<f)eipd\]fcovTe<; • \ Nt/co/cXe'a? AvTO^ov\ei.o<;, | 
'Apiariovv YlapfieviaKeiO';, | Upa^ia's Elpaic\eiSaio<;, | Aap.ea<! ®pa- 
o-tTTTreio?, II [ktK. 10—19]. 

31. Crannon. II cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.461. SGDI.361B. Hoffmann 11.54. 
Michel 302. 

[ST/oaTa]7eWo? tow ne[T^aXow | Aioz^to?] JlavaaviaCoi Ma- 
T/307roX[tTa, I Ta'yevo]vrovv "Likdvoi ' Aa-ro[/Ma'x^eioi, | ^tXjowo? 

5 ' AvTiyeveLOi, Tev[vdoL 'A(T||crToi']oeioi, Tevvdoi, Attr%i'X[eiot, - | 
- - 'K-'\aXKc(T9eveioi, rap,ie\y6vTovv - \ 'A]vTiyoveioi, ^eiSovvo^ 
Ei[So^et'ot], I - 7 09 ' AvTtyeveLOi Xe^ai'To[? • i7rei\Sel Ai]ow Hav- 

10 cTav(aio['i] MaT/)07r[dXiTa9 || Stere'JXet evepyerh to kolvov [ras f 
TTo'XtJo? ev re rot? 'irp6repo\y 'x^povoi'i | Kai e]x/ ra o-py^a ra eavrot 
Kai K\oiva to, | tto'Xj K\aX Ka0' ISSiap alv tov ^petap [ey^o^vri, eSo]^£ 

15 TOV kolvov Ta? TToXio'i [eVatllvecrat] AiovTa eV ra ■jrpoavype[a-i 
Tav I ej^et «ai ttIot tov ttoXiv koI iro^ff sKaaTOV | tovv] TroXiTaovv 
KoX heh6ar\6ai ical ai\Tov] Ka(l) Toi'; ia-jovoii; aT[e\ei,av irdvTOVv | 

20 KaX\ acrvXiav Kot la-OTi/xiav Kal [wdyTa || to, XotJTra avTOv iiirapxe- 
pLev Ttpiia [Sacra | wat] rots XoiTrot? 'rrpo^evoi'i, koI [(ppovTicrai | Tbv'\ 
Ta/ji[i'\av ,^eiSovva EuSo'fet[oj' ous /ce | ar ra?] tovz' Tayovv yvov- 

25 /^a? [rove to | yjrdcjjiapja ovypacpel ev Kiova Xidiv[av || wat T]e[0et] 
uKpovp ev T0Z9 iapoVToh, \to | /w.A oJi'aXou/.ia to yevopevov [ev 
Tdve I eyypa<f)e'\pev ev rot? Xo70t? Ta[? TroXto?]. 

32. Phalanna. Ill cent. IG.IX.ii.l233. SGDI.1330. HofEmannII.il. 
Michel 1126. 

[^A^Odva TloXidSc ol TToXiapj^^oi ove\6eiKav a.p')(iTTo\iap')(ivTO<; \ 

5 'AcrKXaTTioBovpoi Alaj^^iviaiof \ IIoXu71'outo? 2t/x.fitato9, H ' Aff/cXa- 

•TnoSovpo^ 'SevoXdoi, | Ei/Sioro? 'ETrtYoVot, ETriVtKoi? Xlauo-az/iato?. 

. 30. Refers to the Thessalian bull- si. Decree in honor of Leon of Ma- 

fight, the Toupo/cofld^ia, or Tau/)o9i;p(o as tropolis. — 24. SlkpovvktX.. in the con- 
it is called in another inscription of secrated places of the heights (?). But 
Larissa, Ditt.Syll.671. in aKpow one suspects some error of 

the engraver. 



No. 33] 



THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS 



195 



TTiessaliotis 

33. Thetonium, not far from Cierium. V cent. b.c. IG.XII.ii.257. 
Solmsen 10. 

-e? hvkopeovTO<; <i>iXoviKd Auto?. | 

@eTovioi eSoKav lidraipoi Tot K.\opiv9ioi KaiiToi kol ^evei Kal 
p\oLKiarai<i Kal y^pe ixaaiv aavXC^v KwreXeiav Kevfepyerav il-jroie- 5 
(rav K€v Tayd Kiv aTay\iai,. ai tk irap^aivoi, to\v rayov tov eVe- 
a-TaKovra i\^^avaKd(S)Sev. ra xp^t^ia Kal to || apyvpia re? BeX^aio 10 
uTToT^o fieva ecrocre 'Opea-rao ^epeKpdr- 



33. Decree of the Tlietonians in 
honor of Sotaems the Corinthian, who 
had recovered the gold and silver ob- 
jects that had been lost from the tem- 
ple of Apollo. Por the special dialectic 
peculiarities, see 214. 

5. KevFcpverav : or Kcifepy^av ? See 
94.7. — 6. Kivra'ya Kevdra'yCai: inwar 
and peace. The phrase is plainly the 
equivalent of the usual koX iroKd/Mv xal 
dp-qiri)! (or iv TToXi/ujii ktX.), and is ex- 
plained by the fact that in early times, 
as also later in the time of Jason of 
Pherae, the raySs vf as the military head 
of the united Thessalians, appointed 
only in time of war. Jason of Pherae, 
in boasting of the military strength of 
the Thessalians on a war footing, ex- 
press this last by Srav rayevTjTai Ger- 
Ta\Ut, Srav rayds ivSdSe KaratTT^, Srav 
TayeiTfrairi, xard, QerToXlav (Xen.Hell. 
6.1.8,9,12). So To7d(one would expect 
Tayla) and arayla (cf . amaida time wJien^ 
no K6<rfu}s was in office) were times of 
war and peace respectively. But the 
use of the phrase does not necessarily 
show that the institution under which 
it originated was in vogue at the time of 
this inscription ; and, in any case, the 
To74sof 1. 8 is the municipal official, like 
the Tayol of no. 28. 



1, 10. It is obvious that the text as 
it stands is incomplete' both at the 
beginning and the end, although the 
bronze tablet on which it is inscribed 
is intact. A horizontal line was cut in 
the bronze to indicate that 1. 1 did not 
belong with the following. Either this 
is one of a connected series of tablets, 
in which case 1. 1 forms the conclusion 
of a decree given on a preceding tablet, 
while the present decree was concluded 
on the following tablet; or, as seems 
on the whole more likely, 1. 1 is the 
conclusion of the present decree, and 
was added at the top \Ylien it was 
found that no space was left at the 
bottom. In this case we read "Op^o-Tao 
icpe/cpdres (cf. 108.2) or, with correc- 
tion, $epe(cpdTe(o)! huKopiovros ^CKovIko 
hvios, when Orestes, son of Pherecrates 
son of Philonicus, was u\ap6s. The use 
of the gen . instead of the patronymic ad- 
jective would be only another instance 
(see 214) of divergence from the usual 
Thessalian. The addition of the grand- 
father's name is unusual, but not un- 
precedented (cf. e.g. no. 20), likewise 
the use of vl6s instead of the gen. alone 
(cf . e.g. SGDI. 1 183, Arc. ; Ditt. Syll.478, 
Stratus ; irais often so used in Lesbian 
and Cyprian). i\ap6s occurs in Arist. 



196 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



[No. 34 



34. Pharsalus. Ill cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.234. SGDI.326. HofimaiinII.65. 

'A[7a^a rvxci-] a ttoXl'; <^apcra\iovv rot? Kal ou? e^ apxa^ 
avu'TroXiTevofievoi^ ical a-u/i7ro|\[6/ieto-ai'Te]o-o-t irdvaa irpoOviiM 
eSov/ce rav iroXiTeiav KaTTairep ^ap<TaKi,OL<; Toh \ e[f ap%as tto- 
Xyrevofievoi'!, iSovKaep, p,a ep, Maicovviai'; ra? ixop-eva'i tov Aov- 
epxov I (7)a[5 p^opav '7r\e]dpa e^eiKOvra eicdaTOV ei^aTU e^etv 
Trarpoveav Top, irdvTa xpovov. || T[a7et;o'z'Tpii]i' 'EvpeiXiSa Ni/cao-t- 
aiov, AvKov ApoviraKeiov, 'OioXvkov Mvaannreiov, Avkov | <E>e/3e- 
Kpareiov, 'Avrioxov Awareiov. (Four columns of names follow.) 



Boeotian 

35. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. VI cent. B.C. Br^al, 
M.S.L.VII,448. Holleaux, ibid. VIII, 180. Buck, Class. Phil. IV, 76fi.,437. 

K.aXfov dyaXp^a pdvuKTi f\eKa^6Xoi ' ATr6(X)Xovi 
?Aa/*]ocrtSas -KoCpecre p' 'E%eo-T/30T09. avrap eirep,^crav 



Pol. 6. 8. 6 as the title of an official simi- 
lar to the iypovifios, but nowhere else 
than in this inscription as an eponymous 
officer. 

34. Pharsalus grants citizenship to 
those who have assisted it, and gives 
land to each youth. 

1 H. Tots Kal ovs kt\. : ' to those who 
have already from the beginning been 
politically associated (non-technical 
use of (rvfivoKcrevoiiimis, not tJiose who 
have already enjoyed citizenship), and 
to those who have zealously assisted in 
war, just as to those who have been 
citizens of Pharsalus from the begin- 
ning.' — Kol oi's : even as it is, already. 
Cf. SGDI.2160 dovXeiav KaSiis Kal ws 
serving just as at present, SGDI. 1832. 11 
jUeTct Ticv Kal tSs trvvTipTjfi^vojv with those 
already chosen. — 3. k\i. MaKOwCais : ' in 
the district known as the Poppy (^ijkwi/) 
Pields.' 



35. An epigram of four hexameter 
verses inscribed pova-rpoipTiSSv on asmall 
tile, broken at the bottom. 

Vs. 1. avaXfia : not statue, but used 
in its earlier and more general sense 
of ornament, pleasing gift, about = 
ivie-oim. Cf . CIG. I,p. 7, SGDI. 5507. — 
F[EKaPi\oi]: or /r[Ae)co;34Xoi], cf. fhena- 
Siixoe, no. 38 (626). 

Vs. 2. It Is possible that the second 
letter is not <r but p, in which case we 
should read some such name as Neo-rjo- 
plSas (Wilamowitz). In either case va- 
rious restorations of the first syllable 
are of course equally possible. The 
form is in agreement with 'Ex^crporoi, 
and is either an epic patronymic or a 
designation of the gens or phratry to 
which 'Ex^iTTpoTos (a Boeotian; note 
-arpoTot, 5) belonged. 



No. 41] BOEOTIAIf INSCRIPTIONS 197 

L" " - - - - - ]ov Uroiifi. 

rh TO, fdvaxt, ^e<t>vXax<ro, St'Sot S' ap{e)Tciv [re Kal SX^ov.] 

36. Vase probably from Tanagra, VI cent. b.c. 'E</>.'Apx.l900,107. 
Aefi.o0e{p)pe^ hiapov ' A-tto (X)Xdvo<; KapvKefio. 

37. Vase from Thebes. VI cent. b.c. 'E(^.'Ap;^.1000,107. 
Hiapbv TO Ilvdio Ftcr/ro'StKO? avSeKe. 

38-39. Tanagra. VI cent. b.c. IG.VII.593, 606. SGDI.876,885. 

38. 'EttI I'heKaSdp.oe i/j,i. 39. 'EttI 'OKijSae. 

40. Vase of uncertain origin. Probably V cent. b.c. IG. VII. 3467 
SGDI.1133. 

Moyea SlSoti ral yvvaiKi Sopov Fii^dpi revrpeTi^avTO kotvXov, 
0? X, o-oav Trie. 

41. Thebes. Middle IV cent. b.c. IG.VII.241S. SGDI.705. Ditt. 
Syll.120. Hicks 135. Michel 617. 

[Toti ;)^/3et']/AaTa 'avve^\aXov6o ev tov -n-oXefiov | tov] e7ro[\e'- 

fuov] BottoTOi 7re[pl Tcb iapSi tS) ep, BeX^ot? I ttJot tq)? atre^iovTa^ 

TO iap6[v Ta> 'AttoWcbi/o? toj ( njou^t'o). || 

Vs. 3. Here stood the subject of elsewhere, and, if the E is correctly 

eTre/ujurar, the names of the donors. read, the dedicator was an Athenian or 

The form of which the final oc is pre- Euboean. 

served may be an adjective in agree- 38-39. Examples of the early spell- 

ment with, or a noun in apposition ing oe and oc, 26, 30. For /rAera- see 

with, 47a\/ia undei-stood. 526. For ^i with dat. see 136.6. 

Vs. 4. (t>c<|>v\ax<ro : Horn. ire^tfAofo, 40. MoY^a: masc. in -a. 105.1a. 

cf. 65. — 8£Soi : a rare imperative form — TijiTpiTi4>a,vTo (or reO- ? See 94.7): 

which occurs in Pindar, and in another rat Ei)-, daughter of EuTprrri^dn-os. The 

Boeotian and a Corinthian inscription, first part of the name is identical with 

and is formed, like iyei, 7r(«, by the that of the Boeotian town which ap- 

addition of a particle (cf . oiroal etc.). pears in Homer as Eurpijo-is. Cf. Eirpei- 

For the whole verse ending, compare riSeies in a later Boeotian inscription, 

h. Hom. 16 and 20, and Callim. 1. 96. See 6 1 . 3. — 6s : ws. 58 a. 

36. Cf. Paus.9.20.3 Io-tiv . . . iv Ta- 41. List of contributions for the 

vdypf, Kai tpos KtipiKtov, tv8a "EpiuTjv re- sacred war (365-346 B.C.). Byzantium 

xS^TOi \iyov(ri. But here the epithet was at this time allied with the Boeo- 

Kapixeiot is applied to Apollo. Ae/to- tians (cf. Dem.9.34). Note the reten- 

$i{p)pet is the same as Aaiju>64p(rris found tion of the older spelling e beside ei, 



198 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 



41 



5 'Apiaricovo^ dpxovTO<s ■ "AXv^tjol "I irpia'yee^ Xdpo^{r 

AaSoji/o?, 'Apia-TO "I 'Am«To/3tle9 rpidicovTa p-vai ■ 

7r/3t[o-7ees] - | ^6pp,w, "Apico'; Te/>eo?. | Bvi^dvrioi xpov(TLCO 

10 AafiyjraKava) crT[aTetjOa?] || oySoeicovTa TreTTapw;, dpjvpico 'AT[Tt- 
Kcb Bpa]\xP'a'; SeKae^- crvveSpoi Bv^avTicov [e'ivi^av] \ to xP^^'^o^ 
KepKivot; Elporiixco, 'Ay \ AtjXo-tttlx'^, Ata)vvcrto<; Et- 

15 pai(ovo<;. I 'A6av6Ba)po<i Aiavva-ico T!eve[8io<;], || ■jrpo^evo'i Boicot&v, 
Xec[\]ia<; B[paxfi'd';]. \ 

NtKoXao) dpxovTo<; • 'A\i'?'[jyot - - - -] I dWm rpidKOvra 

ixvd<; eX\yL^av] ■ \ Trpia-yelev 'AXv^aiwv @eo - | ['AjXefctz'- 
Spov, Ac(ov noXu\[abii]. || 

20 ['A]'yeLa-iVLiceo dpxovTO^ • 'Bv^avriot [a-vve^d\X\ov0o d\\co<; irev- 
TaKario)<; <rraTeipa[<; ;)(;pu|(7] liws Aa/tii^a/cai/a)? eV rbv ■rroXep.ov tov 
v\Trep Toj] I iap5) rco ep, BeX(j)ol<s iiroXep^tov Boia)T[oi] ■ | crvveSpot 

25 eivi^av Swcrt? }i.apa\i\ix<o, || [IIJa/a/iej'icrKO? Tlvpdp.ov. 

42. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. Beitween 312 and 304 b.c. 
IG.V1I.2723. SGDI.570. Michel 1105. Solmsen 13. 

BottBTOt 'ATTo'XXoJI't TlTWi'Ol dveOiUV dpXOVTO'S BoKBTOt? <l>tXo- 

Kcop.(o 'A[i'T]t7[ej'e]ii(B @eto-7rie[to9], | a<f)eSpiaTev6vTcov 'E/X7re8o- 
[«]XeZo9 ' AOavoKpLTiai Tavaypijco, Uov6tovo<i A[ii]TO/LtetSe[it]a) 
'Epxop'epio), I 'iTTTTOTttoi'o? ¥a(TTvp€iSovTLa) K.opcoveto'!, 'Ei7npa\X- 
rlto? MaxtuvLo) ©ei^'^to, Nt/ctwz'o? r[/3]iiX[i](Bi'o? nXaraeto?, I 
'AjOtcTTOKXeio? 'Ayaairjco 'AvOaSovcco, 'S.dmvo'; ©to[T]t/Ai(B @et<77rt- 
etos, fj,avTevofJi,eva> 'Ovvp,daT(o ^iKoXaico ®eia7nelo<i. 

as 7rpio-7ee! beside irpuryeles, Attic ai in iAe dedication. From iSpidw used like 

'AXufaiwj' beside 'AXi/f^oi, and Attic Att. ISpiu. Cf. Att. i^lSpvfia used of a 

gen. sg. in -ov beside -a. slirinemade after the model of another, 

22. TOV virep ktX. : relative use of the as that of Asclepius modeled after the 

article, unknown in the later Boeotian one at Epidaurus (cf . Roberts II.66.13). 

inscriptions. See 126. Observe that in the catse of the repre- 

4,8. Dedication of a tripod to Apollo sentative of Plataea the gen. sg. of the 

Ptous by the Boeotian league. This is father's name is used, not the patron, 

one of a series of four belonging to the adj. as in the case of the others. The 

same period (IG.VII.2723-27246). same holds true in the otlier three dedi- 

d,4><Spi.aTev6vT(DV : those who serve as cations, and it is probable that this is 

*i.fedptS,Tai. or official representatives at npt accidental, but that the PlataeanSj 



No. 43] 



BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS 



199 



43. Orchomenos. Between 222 and 200 is.c. IG. VII. 3172. SGDI. 
488. Inscr. Jurid. I, pp.276 ff., 509 f. SolmsenlS. The sections of the text 
are given in the order in -nhich they were inscribed (cf. 11. 30 ff.), but the 
numbering of the original publication is added in parentheses. 

Tot iroXefiapxoi toI eTri UoXv/cpdrio^ | apy^ovTO<; ^iXofieiXo'i .^ 
^i\(ovo<i, I Ko^tcrdStOjOos AicovvaLO), 'Adav68a)\po<; "Ittttcovo^ ave- 
ypaylrav Kadw<; 11 i-TroeiaavOo rav cnroBocnv tmv Sa\veia)V tS>v l^iKa- ^ 
peras /car to ■\jra\<j)ia-fj.a tco Sd/jLa>. 

(Met)i'(o)? 'AXaX.ico/j,evLai\piKaaTrj kt) eKTrj, iTreyjrd^iSSe I <l>iXo'-,^, 
/ietXo? ^iXcovoi, K.a<pia68a>po^ \\Auovovaia) eXe^e- irpo^e^coXevfie- l" 
vov I eifiev avrv "ttotI 8ap,ov, iinSel e7rei|ra|<^tTTaT0 6 Bafio'i a-rrohonev 
^iKapeTr){i) | ©tiai/o? tov rafiiav tov irpodpyovTa I rav rpCrav 
Trerpa/jieivov airo [rjai* vTrep^p.epidoov rav laxrdcov kut ra? TTo'Xio?,' 1^ 



so long associated politically with the 
Athenians, adopted the Attic usage at 
an early date. 

43. The Nicareta inscription. Nica- 
reta, daughter of Theon, of Thespiae, 
had lent various sums of money to the 
city of Orchomenus, for which she held 
against it certain notes, generally re- 
ferred to as oiirepa/uplai (once, 1. 55 f., 
as rds iiarpd^is). These are recorded in 
rV. When Nicareta appeared at Or- 
chomenus to collect these (11.44H.), the 
city was unable to meet them, and an 
agreement was entered into according 
to which the city was to pay her the 
sum of 18,833 drachmas within a cer- 
tain time and the polemarchs were to 
give her a personal contract for the 
payment. The text of the agreement 
(o/mkoyi) is given in VII, and of the con- 
tract ((roiJ77po0o!), written in the koiv-^, 
in VI. The sum of 18,833 drachmas is 
more than the total of the notes re- 
corded in IV (17,585 dr., 2 obols), but 
probably less than they amounted to 
with the normal penalties for delayed 
payment, For the phrase 5 M0w7a,y 



(1. 135, cf. 1. 16), which they persuaded 
her to accept, implies some concession 
on her part. Finally the city passed a 
vote (III) to pay the amount and take 
up the notes and the contract. When 
this had been accomplished it passed a 
further vote (II) ordering all the docu- 
ments to be inscribed in a specified 
order. This was done as stated in I, 
which serves as a heading to the whole 
inscription. 

10 ff . irpoPcP(DXEu|i,Evov kt\. I that he 
had a probouleuma to present to the peo- 
ple, Whereasthe people had voted that the 
treasurer in charge for the third period 
of four months should pay tj Nicareta, 
in settlement of the notes which she h£ld 
against the city, the sum which the city 
persuaded her {to accept), 1S,833 drach- 
mas, and that the polemarchs should 
take up the contract they gave for the 
money against themselves, they and the 
treasurer and the ten whom Nicareta 
selected, and cancel the notes against 
the city (maturing) in the archonship 
of Xenocritus, and since the polemarchs 
had orranged these matters and the 



200 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 43 

o ^-n-lOaxre avrav a ■n-oXti, apyovpim Spaxf^a<; \ /^ovpia<i oicTaKicrxi- 
Xta? oKraKaTia'i Tpid\KOVTa rph, kt) toj? ■7ro\ep,dpxo><; avekea\dr) rdv 

2^ re a-wypacfiov, dv eSaicav omrep || \o']vTa)v t5)V xpetfJ'dTcov Kar a[v]TV 
avTOilv] I KTj 6 Tafiia<; /crj cov irodeiXeTO NiKape'ra 'SeK[a], \ kt} ra? 
v7repafJkepia<; Siaypdyfraa-Orj rai [Kar] \ t«s iroXio'i Ta<; eirl Sevo- 

25 KpiTco dpxovTO<; I iv ©eia-infj^, kt] ovra pepvKovofieiovTmv || ra>v 
■jroXeixapxiov Kt) tco rafiiao. a7roS6v\To<; to, ;;^jOei/ttaTa kut to o/ioXo- 
yov TO Trap \ ®i6(l>ecTT0V @iqSd>pa) ©eicnnela TeOev, | SeSox^V '''^ 
Sd/iv TO)? TToXe/xdpxax;, \ eirl Ka to ■y^d^iap.a Kovpiov ryeveiTj], 

^ ayypdVr\lrrj iv cTTdXav \idlvav to re yjrd^iafia ovto (II) | ktj to 
ovirep To,^ aTToSoVto? (Ill), Ka{T) TaiiTO, Se ktj | ras vTrepdfiepia'i 
Ta{<;) KUT Td<i TTo'Xto? ra? Ni|KajoeTa? (IV) kt) to 6[v]iovfia tS) ypap.- 

^5 fiaTelo<; too S[i]\a'ypdyjravTO<; avTo,'; (V) tcrj tclv crvyypa^ov Tav || re- 
Oeia-av irdp Fi^tdSav (VI) kt) to dvTiypaj>ov {kt) | to dvTi'ypa<f)OV) 
TM ofioXoytJO TO) TedevTO<; -Trap @i6\(f>ea-TOV (VII) ktj Tav Siaypa<f)dv 
tSiv xP^i'H'dTaiv (Sv I eypa'\]rav aiiTrj Sid T/)e7reSSa? (VIII), kt) to 

^ dXmfia I cnroXoyiTTaa-Trj ttotI KaTo'7r[T]a[?, ttJojooj' S' el/iev || aTTO 

tS)V TToXlTlKCOV. 

Ill Aa/iaTpio) viovfi^ivii] | ireTpaTr), iTre'\jrd<f}iSSe K.[a]<j>i<r6Sa)poi At- 
w\vova-ta), ' AdavoScopoi; "Ittttwi'o? eXe^e • 'n-po^^[lS](oXevfievov el- 
fiev avTV ttotI Sdp,ov, inriBel, | irapyevo (leva's 'HiKapera's @ia)vo^ 

*5 @ejo-7rt«a? || [/c]^ TrpaTTwcra'i to Sdveiov Tav iroXiv kclt ra? ov- 
'7re[/3]|a/u.e/3ta[9] ra? Idtaa'i avTrj, [dva]yKda'[d€'\v tv 7roXefiap\xv kt) 
6 Tafj,(a<; aovyxo>pe.(o'avTO<; tS) Bdfia Sofiev | [/cjar au[Ti'] av- 
lT]a)v a-ovvypa<j}OV ttot Trj ovirapx'i'O"'] ovirelp^fifiepiTj, e\y T'\dv aa 

treasurer had paid the money according upon provided. This is the only satis- 

to the agreement deposited with Theo- factory interpretation of the most 

pJiestus, be it voted by the people, etc. troublesome passage in the inscription, 

40-41. viou|i.EivCi] irerpdrii : TerdpTj; though one difficulty remains, the use 

lo-Ttt^^cov.- On nou- from WO", see 43.5a. of the singular oiirepa/ieptri where we 

— 46 ff. The polemarchs and thetreas- shouldexpeettheplural. — 49. i[vT]Av; 

urer were obliged, with the assent of the until, originating in iv Tav 6.iiipav. Cf. 

people, to give a contract against them- 136.1 and note on 28.43. — kvovTo: for 

selves in addition to the existing oirepa- this purpose. Cf . ir6pov iv ovto 11. 59, 60. 

p.epla, until the levy for this purpose — ivevixBelei, not ivevix^ei, is declared 

should be made and the amount agreed certain by Baunaok, Philol.XLVin, 



No. 43] BOEOTIAN INSCRIPTIONS 201 

ivevLxOeUi a av^opa iv ovro, «:[^] || KO/jiiTT[eiTri] to, avvxtopeidevTa ^0 
Xpeifiara, | SeSd^dr) tv Sd/iv rov TafiCav rov [Tr]podpxovTa | [rav] 
rpiTaly] ireTpap^ivov a-n-oSo/jLev TreSa timi/ | TroXefidp'x^cov Ntaa/aeTT; 
apy[v]pia) 8paxiJ-a<; fivpia<; \ [6K]TaKLaxei\La'; o/<:Ta«aTta[?] rpid- 
K[o]vTa rpl'i noXull/CjOaTto? dpxovro^ eV tv AafMarpiv /xeLvl ktj Ta?^| 
e[/it]|7rpa^t? Ta<s lmaa<! 'NiKa[peT7) kut] Ta<; TroXto? Bev[o]\KpiTco 
dp'xpvro'i iv ^eia-iriri'i irdaa^ SiaXidvacrlBr]] | to)? 7ro\e/xa/);;^ci)?, k^ 
Tiii' aovvfpa^dv, dv ep^t /car T[cii'] | iroXefidp'^cov Krj tco ra/jLiao, 
aveXetrdr], iropov [S' et]||/iei' eV outo a-Ko t&v ra? Tro'Xto? tto^oScb-,™ 
fidroov 7rai'T[(Bi']. I 

BevoKpiTfu, ^AXakKO/ievio). — NtKa/oeVa ©ewvo? ra? 7r[o']|\tos ,^, 
'"Epy^ofievicov kt] tw iyyvm &icovo<; Swvo'/uoj • tA 7r|7ra/xaTa ixovpnq 
oySoeiKovra ireme htov^o] 6/3o\(o} ' Ikt] t<S reBfiim piaTcop 'ApiaTO- 
viKO<; Iljoa^tteXto? • || Aiovkictko), ©iovlco, to aovvdWayixa. — Ni-,™ 
Kapera &i(o\vo<! to? Tro'Xto? '^pj^o/ievicov ktj tw iyyovco ©itoi/o? I 
1,ovpv6fJi,a) • rd irirdfjLara Sttr^etXti; 7rez/TaKaTt[j;] • | /c^ tm reOfiico 
fia-Tcop 6 avTO'i • Aiovkio-kw, 'OfioXoo'io), ] [t^o a-ovvdWajfia. — 
NtKajoera ©^'a)^'o? ra? Tro'\i[o? || 'EJjOj^o/iei'tiBJ' «^ rco iyyova) ©tiu- J^, 
1/09 '^ovvvonco • TO, irlTrdfiaTa "KeTpaKLCxelXiT] • kt) tm TeOulm 
fiarcop I o avTO'i • y^povo'; 6 avTO^. — Nt/ca/jera ©wai/o? ra? Tro'Xto? | 
pEJ/sj^o/xez/iift)!' «^ TO) iyyovo) ©ioovo'i 1,ovvv6p,(o • to, inrd^fiaTa j^ei- 
XiTj- KTj TO) Ted/iiO) fia-Ttop 6 avTo'y Afow«tcr«:[&), || @e]i\ovdio), ro^^^^ 
(TovvdWay fia. 

Aiajpd-\jrr] ra? ovTrep[a\fJ.]ep{a'i ra? Nt/cdjoeTa? ev ©etcrTrtTj? ra? ^^ 
year ra? I [7r]o'\tos • t&v Tedp.ocjiov'KdKCOv ypafifiarew 2a . . . . | 

'ESaVetcrei' NtKapeVa ©eeoi/os | @eo-7rtK^, TrapovTO'; avTrji kv^Iov ^ 
tov dvSpo<; Ae^iTT-jTOV E[v]\vofiiSov, Ka<f)icroBd)pQ3L Ai[o]\vvaLov,<^^^ 
413, and agrees with uncontracted date given at the end of each is the time 
forms found elsewhere, as KoupaBeiu of the loan (rAo-ouvdWavMa). Cf.Thal- 
(151.2). — 50. K0(iCTT[6iTt|], not KO/nfr- heim.Berl.Phil.Wooh. 1893,267. The 
t[7j], also after Baunacli I.e. expression throughout is condensed. 

61 ff. The first date, archonship of SevoKpha (ipxovTos), (/xeii-Js) 'AXaXm/te- 
Xenocritus, month of Alalcomenius, via, Nirap^o e^ucos (kotoi) tS.s irSKios. 
applies to all the following notes (cf. 78 ff. The text of the contract is in 

11. 23, 56, 136, 151) and is probably the the mii-i), though dialect forms are re- 
time at which they fell due, while the- tained in some of the proper names, 



202 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 43 

^iXofiriXcoi ^(Xeovov, \ 'AOavoSapcoi "Ittttww?, Ilo[Xv]\KpiTcoi ©o- 
fg^ poTTO? Kal iyyvoK || ek eKreicTLV rov Baveiov \ Mvda-cov Meicyao, 

TeXeo-ia? | MeKyao, AatriTnTmi 3evoTt\fiov, Evdpei, Evj^wpou, Ile- 
^^3° pi\Xd(oi 'Ava^icovo-;, Aiovva-c\\Bd)pQ}i Ka^icroSmpov, Keofii\vai Te\e- 

o-iTTTTOK, 'OvacTifj-mi I @eoyetT0V0<;, Ka()>ia-oS{opa)i, | Aa^ar/Jt^ow, 
95 NtKO/cXeZ 'A^alz/oSMOow 'Opxop-evioK; apy\J^iov S/ja%/ia9 //,v/3ia? 

(18) - 



6KTa\Kia-xei\M'i oKTaKOtrim Tpi\dKOVTa rpeh utokov e'% Becr\7nS)V 
100 et? TO UaiM^oKOTia t^ e|7r' "Ovaaifiov dpxovTO<; Bot(BTOt[s]. || aTTO- 

SoTcoa-av Se to Sdveiov | oi Savetadfievoi rj oi er/yv\oi, 'Nucaperai ev 

Toi<; nav/SoflcoTt'ofs tt/so ttj? Ovaia<; ev fifie\pai'i Tpiaiv. iav Se fir) 
j^, dTroSa)a-[i,] \\ irpaxdv^'ovTai icaTa rov v6\ixov ■ [r)] he ^pa^K e<TT(o ea 

re I avr&v r&v lavetaapAvmv \ Kal Ik rSiv eyyvmv, Kal i^ evb[<;] \ 
"0 Kal eK nfKeiovmv Kal eK TrdvWrwv Kal sk rSiV virapxovrav \ avrol<;, 

irparrova-qL 6v av rp(hrov ^ovXr/rai. f) Se avyypai^r] \ Kvpla ecrro), 
115 Kav dX\o<; e7ri|^e/>7?t virep NiKapera<i. Ma/3||TU/3e? ' Apiaroyelrmv 

'ApiMo\^epov, 'ldiovSiKO<; 'Adaviao, \ 'FicjitdSa'} Tt/iio/cXeio?, <^ap\(Td- 
1^0 xtos EvBUov, Ka\\ea<; Av\(Ti(f>dvrov, ©eocjiearoi ®eoSdifpov, Ei- 

^eviSa<; ^tXtovSou | ©ecririeK. d (TOvyypa(^o<; \ Trap Yi4>idBav 

Tt/UrO/cXeto?. I 
y^J 'Ovaa-L/jico dpxovro<; Bo«btoZ[?,] | fieivcx; Havd/xa, ofioXoy^ \\ 
1^5 NtKa/jeVr/ @ia)vo<; @eto-7«K?j, | Trapi6vT0<; 'NiKaperrj Ae|i7r|7r(» Eu- 

vofiiSao Tftj dvSpb'; @e[i]\a'Tnelo<;, kt) rrj ttoXi 'Kpxop'ev[t]\aiv 
]m) "■"PS'*" ovirep ra? 7ro'X[t]||o? -KoXefiapxoi Ka<^to-o'Sa)|/309 Aitovou- 

crCai, ^iXofieLXa | ^tXcovo?, ' AdavoSwpo'i "IttttibIi'o? ■ cnroSofiev rcLv 
l|5 TTo'Xti' 'Ep\xoiJ'€vi(ov 'NiKapenj ©iwi'o?, || 5 iiriOoKTav oinrep rdv 

ovTrelpa/jbepidcov rdv i-jrl BievoKpi\TCi) dpxovro^ ev ©eicnnfj';, dp^yov- 
1*0 pico BpaxP'd'i fiovpla<i 0Kr\a^Ki<TxeiXia^ 0KraKarCa<; rp\id'^ovra 

rpl'i, ecrxarov 'Oz'ao-[t]|//.ft) dpxovrm ev rv 'AXaX[Ko]|/iei'toi p.eivi • 

(70vyypa^ov Se | ypdyJracxBr] rat dpyovpico to)? | (tw?) iroXep^apxt^'i 
J*5 ''Eipxofievlcov II KTj iyyovco^, to? Ka So«:tj[Aa88[et] | Nt/eajoeVa, «?; 

BeaOr) fieaeyy\y'^ov rrdp Yi^idSav Tt/Lio/cXeto? | OetcrTrteta. eirl Be 
J^g^ /ca «;o/titTTe[t]|Tr; NtKa/aeVa to dpyovpiov || Tra;!) Ta? tto'Xio?, etrXta- 

The names of the first two sureties are but with the third the error is recti- 
given by mistake ia th? nominative, . fled. — U3-114- lirii|>^pTji ; jirei^nts ^< 



No. 43] BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS 203 

vdrco NtKapeVa ra? ov7rep\afxepLa<;, a? ext kut ra? tto'Xio?, to? eVt 
aevoKpiTto I dp^ovTO^ iv ©etcTTrti)? irdtra'i, kt] rav a-ovy'ypa<j)ov utto-] 
SoTco Ft^taSa? TOt? TroXefJ.dpxv': ktj toI Tafivr] kt] To[t?] I iyyovoi<;. 
■q he Ka fiel a-iroBcoei d Tro'Xt? ISiiKaperrj to apihovptov iv tv yeypafi- l;'-'' 
fiem xpovv, ra? fiovpia<; ktj o«;T[a]|«:tcr;)^«\ta? oKTatcaTim rpid- 
Kovra rpK, diroSoTa) | rdv crov'y'Ypa(f>ov kt] ra? ovirepafiepia'; ra? 
KOT Ta? I TToXio'!, d-jrav to apyovpiov to iv tv 6fio\6[y'\v yeypa/j\iJ,e- 
vov (ji hi Ka) iv tv xRovv tv yey pa fifievv fiel edeXei K[oft]t8S[e]-|| 
<rdj] Nt/eape[T]a to dpyovpiov, airohoTOi Fi^idSa^ tclv I <TOvyypa(l>ov '^'^^ 
TOt? TToXep.apxoi'; K-q toI Tafilr} ktj toI<; I iyyovoi^, ktj TroTairoTn- 
aaTto NiKapera Trj ttoXi '^pxo\fievLcov Krj toZ? iroXefJ.dpxoi'i kt] toI 
Tafiit) KT) TOK ir^yovoL<; apyovpico Spaxiid<; ■jrevTaKia-fi.ovpia':, Krj 
Trj II oinrepa/Mepir] aKOvpv vv evOco. pi(TTope<; 'Apig-Toyi\ra>v 'Ap/j,o- J^ 
^evw, 'IdovSiKO<; 'AOaviao, Fi,<f)idSa<; Tt/Lio[KXet|o]?, OapcrciXto? 'Eii- 
hiK(o, KaXXea? Aiova-i<pdvTO), @to'(^eto-|T09 ©loScopoo, Eu^ei'tSa? 
^iTiMivSao @eto-7rtete<t>?. to 6/j,(}(Koyov irdp &i6cj)eta-Tov @ioBd)pa) 
®eitrTrieia. 

Aiaypa^d || l>i iKapenj Sid TpaTreSSa's Ta? Ilta-TOKXeto? iv @et- r™ 
o-7ri|i79 ■ 'ETTtTe'Xto? dpxovTO<; iv ®eia-'7nrj<;, fj,eiv6<i 'AXaXKOfidvim 
SeVTepo) dfiepr] ivaKrjSeKdTij, iirl to.'; IltcrTO/cXeto? | TpaTreSBwi Nf- 
Kaperrj irapeypd^et, irdp UoXiovKpiTa) ®dpohro<i '^pxofievico Tafiiao 
oinrep to? Tro'Xto? to a-ovvxa)pei\\6ev tclv ovirepafJLepidcov Tav iiri ,gg, 
SevoKpiTco dpxovTO's, I •irapi6vT0<; •jroXefj.dpxco 'AffavoBmpco "Ittttq)- 
vo<; 'Epxofievi[a>^, | apyovpico Spaxf^^ fiovpirj OKTaKicrxeiXii] OKTa- 
KdTlT) Tpid\KOVTa Tpi<;. 

154 ff. If tlie city fails to pay Nica- 169-170. Sia^pacttd Nikop^ttj ktX. -. 

reta in the time specified, it will have memorandum of payment to Nicareta 

to pay the amount stated in the con- (adnom. dat. 172) through the bank of 

tract and the sum of the notes besides, Pistocles. duiypaipd cancellation (of. 

that is substantially double the amount Si.a.yp6.<t>aaeri 1. 22) , and so payment. So 

loaned. But if Nicareta refuses to ac- 11. 172 ff., at the bank of Pistocles there 

cept the amount named in the con- was paid over to Xicareta by Polycritus 

tract, as she might do in order to the treasurer in behalf of the city the 

secure the exorbitant penalty for de- sum agreed upon of the notes (^a,Tt. gen.; 

lay, she forfeits both contract and notes cf , &irb ray {nrepa/ieptduv 11. 14-15). 
and pays a heavy penalty. 



204 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 44 

44. Lebadea. Ill cent. B.C. IG.VII.3083. SGDI.425. Inscr.Jurid.II, 
p. 238. Michell392. 

@t09 TOV')(a (v^a^d. I 'SacTTiao dpy^ovTOi | Boudti)?, iv Se Ae/3a-|| 
5 SeiTj AopKcavo'i, A(bi\o9 | '\pavrjco avrWeiri top | fiSiov BepdirovTa 
10 'Av^pLKOv TV Al TV BacrtXea | Krj tv Tpe<j)coviv lapov et^ev, irap- 

fieivavTa Trap | Tciv /iiaTepa ' KOavohtiifav pena Seica, Ka6w<; 6 | 

TTUTelp iroTeTa^e- r) he Ka | en Scoei 'Adavo8(opa, [jjiai [airjj] 11 
15 'AvSpiK6<; <f>6pov tov iv ttj I deiKr) rYeypa/iiAevov ■ rj Se ti I ica irddei 

'AffavoScapa, •7rap/M\evl 'AvSpcoviKO'i tov -jrepnTov | y^povov Trap Aioi- 
20 \ov ■ [e^TTiTa talLjo? eo-TO) p-e^c] Trod[L'\Kcov fiei\0evl fieiffev ■ (lel 

etrcret/ueli' Se KUTaSovXiTTacrdT] I 'AvBpiKOV fieidevi' 'Ai^piKov Se 
25 XeiTeopylp.ev 11 iv Trjl ffoairj'i tmv diwv I {(ov) ovtcov. 

45. Lebadea. II cent. b.c. IG.VIL3080. SGDI.430. 

^awv - avTidetn to fiSiov I Trr)JSdpiov 'Addvcova tv At 

Tel Bao"t\ej kt/ ret 'Tpe<f>Qiviei iapov el/Mev tov Trdv^ra I ^polvoj' utto 
TaaSe tw dfji,epa<;, fiel TrpodiKOVTa p.eiTe avTet ^daivi fieiTe dWei I 
[fjLJeidevl KaTct, fieiOeva TpoTrov. rj Se «a rt? dvTnroieiTr] ' AOdv(ovo<i 
5 el dWo TI, aSiKi || [«]a0' ovTiva av TpoTrov, ovirepSiKiovdco ktj Trpoi- 
aTdvdco TV T€ lapete'i kt] Te\l | lap^dpj^r) tv ■^l avTiTiovv^dvovTei 
KT) t5)V dXXtov 6 ^etK6fjbevo<;. f icrTope[?] | . . . . Xei? 'S,dcovo<i, Eii/3a)- 
\os ^a)KpdTio<s, NtKa/3709 kt] K.pdTcov Eui'OCT-TtS[ao]. 

46. Chaeronea. II cent. b.c. IG.VIL3303. SGDI.385. Michel 1394. 
K.aWiKOJvo'i dp^(b p,eivo<; Aa/xaTpio) TrevTeK-qSeadTT) I IIowjOtTrTro? 

Tlpo^ivo) dvTideiTi iapav tclv piSiav 6epdTrrj^va'\v ' At^poSiTiav tv 

44-48. Manumission decrees, of vhnov no. 47 (of. kIi.t rhv vbiwv no. 46), 

which there are over one hundred ex- vapapuelvaaav nos. 46, 47 (cf. irap/ul- 

amples from Chaeronea alone, all of vavra no. 44), in wpoeiKovra no. 45 (cf. 

about the same period. Even from the voeiKav no. 44), in Troioii/ici/ei no. 47 (cf. 

same year some are in dialect, some in voXiiixvoi no. 46 = TrouA/iei-os), iieiiicv no. 

the Koii/iJ, and some in a mixture of 48 {iaaunev no. 44). 

both. In those given here Koivi influ- Note ei for usual v from oi in nos. 

ence shows itself in dvafl.i).' no. 46, in 45, 47 (see 30). For eoir/ijs no. 44, see 

the i of fi6ui'9(, iavBi nos. 46, 47 (cf. 24. For crT^ae and Sa/xtcioiTes, in no. 

Siiei no. 44, 5oj[tn4oiAres no. 48), xarh, rbv 48, see 88.2. 



No. 49] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS 205 

^apd-KL, ■n-apafj.eivaaav acravrv Ki, r^ yov\[vr)]Kl avrS, ar^aO^v 5? 
Ka ^moavBi, rhv avdOeaiv 7roio>e||[i;o9] hh tw (Tovvehplco kcLt tov 5 
v6ixov^ Ki)KaT^^a\e rv ra/xir, | [i]-n-l rmv lapSiv rh yiviovtievov 
^pax/^"''^ ftKart ■rrap"axpe[i]//.a. 

47. Chaeronea. II cent. b.c. IG.VII.3352. SGDI.395. 

'Apxeiva apxSi p.eivo'i ®ovi(o \ irevTeic-qheKdrT] AiovKXeii kt) Kco-\ 
TtXa avTidevTi tuv fiBiav epe\irTdv, rj oviovfia Zeovovpiva, lap[av] \\ 
ret ^epdirei, Trapafieivaaav avT^U a? ku ^mvdi avevKXecrax;, r^v \ 5 
avdOeaiv Troiovfievei, Sia toj a[o]\vveBpiQ) Kara rov v6/iov. 

48. Orchomenus. II cent. b.c. IG.Vn.3200. SGDI.497. Inscr.Jurid. 
II.p.237. Michell393. 

'' 'ATToWcoviSao dp)^ov\TO<;, lapeidSSovro^ ' Avrt\yevio^ l.a>Kpdno<s, 
lapapxtdvfrmv 'Ayei<nvtK(o lovKpdTio^, || l.coai^ia} UovOiX\io<;, | 5 
avridein %Cmv Ao/iaT/3i;n;[[<B] tov fiSiov fVKerav 'AKpiaiov I iapov 
el/i€v TW lapdirio"; ktj Td[<;] \ "Icno^, kt) fiel i^ei/jLev ixei\\6evl e(f)d- lo 
irrearr] fieiSe Ka\TaSov\iTTatrT7) ■ t) Se Kd t49 i(f>d\TrT£iTT], Kovpio'; 
ecTTco o iapev<! ktj tv | lapdpj^rj kt) tv crovveSpv a-ovXwvTei ktj Sa- 

flld)OVT€'i. 

Phocian 

Delphian 

49. Delphi. Early V cent. B.C. SGDI.1683 (with n,p.722). Roberts 
229. 

Toi 7r€VTeKaiSeK[a] | tov Aaj3va8dv, toi [vrep] | ©[pjaav/ia^ov 
Kat, I . . 1 1 . . a, iirl Tpi')(d dp)(^[ov'\\\TO<;, cnreSei^av [/ivaJI? SexaTe- 5 
To/se? [icai] I hifu/jLvalop [/cajlt Spay(nd<; 7rei'[Te]|A:ej'Ta kuI f e|. 

As in similar deci-ees from other ate effect, but is subject to various con- 
parts of Greece, the act of manumis- ditions, such as remaining in service ' 
sion takes the form of a dedication or during the lifetime of the master (nos. 
sale {air^SoTo at Delphi, e.g. no. 53) to 46, 47) or for a term of years (no. 44), 
the divinity of the local shrine, thus payment of an annuity, etc. Cf . no. 53. 
securing religious sanction and pro- 49. Statement of the disbursement 
tection of tlie rights of the slave who of funds by the officials of the phratry of 
has purchased his freedom. Often tlie the Labyadae, whose proceedings form 
manumission does not go into immedi- the subject of no. 51. 



206 GREEK DIALECTS - [No. 50 

50. Delphi. V cent. B.C. B.C.H.XXIII.611. Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 73. 
Tov polvov lie ^dpev e? ro [E]uS/)|o'yu!ou • al Se /ca <f)dpei, hiXa^d- 

(XTo I Tov debv hoi ku Kepaiirai Kal | fieTaBva-aTO Kairoreia-aTO 
5 ireiMrre Spaxfj^ct'! ' tovtov Se toi KaTa\'yopeaavTi to he/xia-crov. 

51. Delphi. About 400 B.C. SGDL2561. Ditt.Syll.438 (with II,pp. 
819f.). Inscr.Jurid.II,pp.l80ff. Michel995. Solmsen36. Ziehen,Leges 
Sacrae 74 (o and d). Ionic alphabet, but with F, and B = A (in contrast to 
H = rj); lengthened o usually OY, but sometimes 0. 



[o Se Ao'/JKO?] I eo-Tco • "Taye[v]aea) St[«:at'(»? «:]|aTa roi/v vofioiK 

Tw; [7r]o'[Xt]|o? Koi tov<; t5)v Aa^vaS\av\ | nep raiv inreXkamv Kal 
5 rdllv Sapardv • Kal rk y^^ptj/Mara I av/j,Trpa^ea) KcnroBei^eo) [S|t]«;at(B? 

TOW Aa^vdSat^ [Kjovre KXe'^eco ovre [/S]\a[-i|r]«B | ovre Te-)(vac 
10 ovre /na;i^ai'[a||t] TOiV rSiX Aa^vaSav y^^pr] fji[d'j\T(ov ■ Kal tos rajovly 

iirja^ela tov hopKov tov<; [iv v]ea)\T]\a Kar ra yeypafi^ieva. h6pK\o'i- 
15 hviria'yoiiaL irol tov At||o9 tov iraTpmiov • evopKeolvTi fiefx fiot dyada 

eHrj, al S' | e(f)iopKeoini, \hd\jravTa Ka\Kd uvtI toiv dyaOSiv." | 

50. The inscription is on a wall con- into the phratries and offerings for the 
nected with the stadium, and Eudro- occasion were made by the parents. — 
mus, though otherwise unknown, was 5. Saparolv: cakes. Ath.3. 110d,114b 
probably a sort of guardian hero of cites a S6.po.Tov meaning urdeavened 
athletes. Hence the interdiction of bread and says the word was used by 
wine. Note 0iipey (12), ^s t6 where we the Thessalians. The Sapdrai at the 
expect ^p t6 (13S.4), and Kepalw {Kepale- Delphian festival were of two kinds 
Toi) = Kepdvmiu, as in Homer. — |i.ETa6v- (of. 1. 25), the yificXa or cakes offered 
o-dro : begin the sacrifice again. in behalf of the newly married wives 

51. Regulations of the phratry of that were introduced into the phratry 
the Labyadae. The Labyadae have al- by their husbands, and the TraiSflia of- 
ready appeared in no. 49. fered for the children that were intro- 

A 3. Toiv vdpious : Toii vifiovs. So duced into the phratry by their parents. 

' TOV vd/iovs B16, but usually s unassim- — 6. a-vfiirpa^ia KdiroSeil^u : I will eol- 

ilated. 97.1. — 4. dircWaCuv: victims led and disburse. dTroSekwAu, like Att. 

for the 'kwiWai. a. 11. 44-46 where iTroipalvu, render account for, disburse, 

iyev is used with dTreWaia, in con- Cf . iw^Set^av no. 49. — 10. t»\ Aa^iia- 

trast to ipipev with Sapdrat. 'Air^Wai Sdv: TUKAajS-, elsewhere unassimilated, 

is the name of the Delphian festival as 1. 3. 96.3. — 11. I will impose the 

corresponding to the Attic 'AirciToipLa, oath upon the rayol for the next year. 

at which children were introduced Cf. B.27. 



No. 51] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS 207 

"ESo^e Aa^vdBat<! BovKa-T\\iov /^tji/o? SeKarai eVi K[d]\fi7rov iv 20 
Tat aXi'ai trv/j, i/ra^lot? heKUTOv 6ySoi]KOVTa | Svolv ■ toii? Ta70ii9 
M^ BeKlea-dai fi^re SapuTai^ yd/i^\Ka fi'^re -rraiSfjia fiT^r' aTreX\\aia, 25 
at fir) ras varpia^ i'rr\aiveov<ra'; Kal 7r\r)evoa-a\; d? ku rji. ai Se 
Ti Ka TT^p vo]fiov KeXevatovTi, rrnv KeX^\vcrdvTa}v 6 klvSvvo^ earw. I 30 
TO, Be aireXXaia ayev 'A7reX|\ai? Kal p.^ SXXai ap,epai \ /ijjVe ayev 
Toh dyovTai p.\^Te roi^ rayoi)? SeKeadajt ■ al Se ku [S]e^covTaL 35 
dXXai I afiepai rj 'ATreXXaiy, a7roTe|to-aTa) Fmaaro'; SeKa Spa\xfid': ■ 
6 Se xPn^^v Karajoplelv tS>v Be^ap.ev(ov eVt r&lv hvarepwv raya)v 40 
KaTayo\peiT(o iv rdi dXi'ai tcLi p-^rb. BovKdria, ai k dp^iXXe\ya)VTi. 
Tol rayol toI S€^d\p.evoi. dyev Se TcnreXXala || dvrl /reVeo? Kal ra? 45 
Sapd\Ta<; (fiepev. /iocttk Be Ka p.r) | dyrji TcnreXXala tj tclv Bap\dTav 
f-V 4'^P'ni-, dp.p6viov K\aT6eT(o a-TaTfjpa e-Trl feKa\\Te'pa)i, tm Se hva-re- 50 
pcoi /re'lret dyerco TaireXXala Kal | rdv Sapdrav (j)epeTO) • al Be I Ka 
prj dy-qi, p.r]KeTi BeKea6\a)v dppovia, dXX' rj dyerca dir^XXala rj 55 
dwoTeia-dTco fiK^an Bpa^P'd^ ?; hviToypa<f>(^pevo<; roKiop ^epera • 
Kai I T^i' Bapdrav tS>i hvcrrepak ferei (jtepeTo) rj dTroTeicr\\[dTa> — .60 

B 

[1—4 fragmentarj'. T]||ot Aal3vdBa[t EuKXeibt]]? Trepl rdv Ba[pa- 5 

TOLV eTri^KpivovTOiv Kal ['A7re\\a]|i? Trepl rSiv dTreX\Xa(wv, I 7r]a- 

peovre; p-ij /ieto[? Af||i»]o? Kal heKarov • Ta[i' Se] | ■^d(fiov (l>ep6vTa)v 10 

ai'S[e|-]|a/iei'ot irol ro 'A7ro'X\a)[i']|o9 kuI tov TloTeiBdvo'; 1 tov <^pa- 

rpiov Kal TOV A||t09 iraTptoiov BiKacco<; I oiaelv Kar tov vopovi I tS)v 15 

AeX<f>o!>v • KriTrev)(ecr6\ai SiKaico'i Tav ■\jrd(j)0V ^elpovTl iroXX' dyaffd 

23 ff. nierayolareto receive neither, beside As B55, Mo-ns A46, B30, C19. 

tji the case of the cakes (lit. of the See 5 8 a. — 38 ff. ' Any one wlio wislies 

cakes), the ya.n£\a or the Traidijui, nor the to accuse the rayol of having received 

direXXata, unless the gens to which one the offering at other than the stated 

belongs approves in full session. The times shall bring the charge when their 

approval of the gens (iroTpui, as in Elis ; sucoessoi'S ai-e in office.' — 45. oIvtI p^ 

rirpa in most Doric dialects) was a tcos : during the year, in the same year. 

prerequisite to the introduction into See 136.8.2). — 50. Or let him sign a 

the phi-atry, which was the larger body note (for the twenty drachmas) andpay 

including several gentes. — 30. 6: with- interest. 

out h, as also A 38, C19, but Ao (cle- B ll-l'i. d.vSe^d|iicvoi : undertaking, 

monst.) B53, Ao5e C19. Cf. as 'A28 promising. They swear by the gods of 



208 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 51 

20 TOii[? II ^Jeoir? SiSofjLev, al he a[S]|i«;Q)?, to, Kaicd. rovra Se r\oi rayol 
25 eTriTeXeovToilv Kal tSu Seo/xevat crvv^ayovTcov tov<; Aa/Suaoojl? • at 

Se Ka fjLT] TTOiSiVTi kc^t] to, yeypa/ifieva rj //.r) to|[u]? rayov; top 
30 hopKov iWrarydyrnvn, a7roTeK7(ZT|[Q)] peicaaTO'i i'lrl /reKaTe'||[jo]Q)t SeKa 

Bpa')(fJLd<;. /io'crT|[t]9 Se Ka fir) ofiotrtji, fir) Ta\[y^eveTco ■ al Se k ava- 
35 /iOTo|9 TwyevrjL, irevTriKOVTa | Spa^fia'; aTroTeLo-drco. \\ ai Se ica Se^tov- 

rai Tol [rllayoi rj ydfieXa rj TratS'ijtja irap ra ypdfJLfiara, cnroT^etcrdTa) 
40 irevTrjKOvra Sp\a')(^iici'; peKacTTo<s t&v Sdl^a/Mevcov • al Se Ka firj airoA 

reiarju, dnp.o'i ecTToo ey j Aa^vaSav Kal eVl tovt^coi Kal iirl Tal<i 
45 dXXaK I ^afiiaK, hevre k airoTi^iarfi. Kal ho Ka Se^a>VTa\t rj Sapd^ 

rav 7) aireWaia | irhp tA ypdfifiara, fir) ec7T\(o Aaj3vd8a<; firjSe 
50 KOivalveLTco rmv koivcop '^prjpM.TQyv firjSe tmv Oefidrav. \ ai Se rk 

Ka tS)v rayStv K\aTa<yoprji, iroirja-aC n "jrld-p tA ypdfifjLara, ho Se 
55 ai'|Tt[0]at, rol rayol ev rat || 

C 

[6fj,\vvTa) Trot Tov 'Atto'Wwi'os xlal UoreiSavo'; tow ([)p']ar[pUov 

Kal Aio'?, Kal St«]a^o[i'|Tf fiev SiKaia)<; e7r]ev)(^ea-[6\a> iroW ayadd, 

5 tJow deov<; [8||iSo'yuei', at S' e]^iopKeoi, «:a|[«a • al Se Ka fi]rj Si/co- 

^r/i hai\[pe6eL';, dTr]oTeia-drQ} 7rei'T|[e SpaxP'd<i], dWov S' oi'^eXo'|[/i6- 

10 I'ot TJdv SiKav TeA,eo'i/TH[a)i'. h6(T'\Ti'i Se Ka irdp vofiov | [ri] iroieovra 

rdi SiKai he\^r)i, to hrjfua-a-ov e^eTco. to|i Se rayol t&i Karayope- 

15 oi'|ti rdv SiKav e-rrLTeXeoi^^asv ■ al Se fi-q, to SiirKov f e/cjao-TO? diro- 

Teia-dTm. /io'crTi|[?] Se Ka ^a/ilav 6(f>ei\rjt, aT|[i]/io? etrTo), hevTe 

20 K d7roTei\(Tr]i. — Ho'S' o Tedfib'i Trep Toy\\v evTO^rjimv. fir/ irXeov 

•7rev\^e Kal TpidKOVTa Spaxix[djv evOe/iev iirjTe 7r/)ta/tei'o|[i'] firire 

the city, phratry, and gens. — 50. fteiid- pay five drachmas, and (the rayol) shall 

Twv : probably established rites, institu- bring the case to issue by appointing 

tions, though this meaning of ei/m is another in his place. Whoever convicts 

not quotable. Cf . Ted/ids = Scir/ttAs, law, one guilty of an unlawful action shall 

ordinance, C 19. receive half the fine (cf. no. 18.24^25,50). 

Clff. Oath of the person appointed — 19ff. Law concerning funeral rites, 

to act as judge. The missing conclusion Like the law of lulis in Ceos (no. 8), 

of B must have been the provision for this is directed against extravagance, 

such an appointment. — 6 ff. If the one — 20 ff. One shall not expend more than 

chosen fails to serve as judge, he shall thiHy-five drachmas, either by purchase 



No. 51] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS 209 

FoiKW ■ T^v Se ■n-axellla'jv x^^aivav ^amrhv elfj^ev. |( al 8e ti tovt(ov 25 

7rap/3aXXo|iTO, airoTeia-drco Trevr'^Ko\vTa Bpaxfid';, ai Ka fj,ri i^o/x,\6- 

a-rjt eVt ra)i (rdfian firj 'rr\\eov ivde/xev. arpa/Ma Be h^v hvTro^aXe- so 

Tw Kal ■jroiKe<j^d\aiov hev TroTdera)- tov B\e veKpov KeKaXv/^/jLevov 

<})\eperQ} aiydi, K7)V rat? <TTp\o^al<; /jlt) Kamdevrcov p,rj^S\aixel, 35 

/iTjS' oTOTV^ovTmv e|[;j^]0o? ra? foiKia's, irpiy k e|7rt to aafia hC- 

KcovTi, Trjvet | B' evajo^ earm, hevre Ka ha | diydva iroTdedfji. t&v 

Be TTJIpo'o-Ta TedvaKOTW iv roi? | aaixdreaai /jltj Opjjvelv p,r]\B' ototv- 40 

^ev, dXX' dirifiev fo\iKaBe eKaarov ex0a> hofi,e\irTia)v Kal TrarpaBeX- 

<fie&v II Kal irevOepmv K'^yyovcov [K]\al ya/i^paiv. fir]Be rdi hva^r^e- 45 

paia{i) fj,r]B' iv rat? Se«aT[a]|t? /jltjB' iv rot? eVtauTOt[? | /ji,]jjt' ol/ua^ev 

firiT 0T0Tv[5iE||i'] • al Be ti tovtcdv irap^dXXoiTO rmv yeypadfte- so 

voav - 

D 

. axct ... S ... I doivai Be TatS|[e vo'/tt/tjot • 'A7re\- 



XaL Kal B|[ou«:a]Tta, Hijpata, AatSa<^|[o'/3ta], TLoLTpoirta, Buo-tou 

[/iT/i/Jo? rav he^Befiav Kal J [tJAv hevdrav, KrjVKXeL^a «]|a/JTa/Lima 

or {in articles taken) from the home. — on, is variously read and interpreted. 

23-24. The shroud shall be thick and of — 39 ff. ' There shall be no mourning 

a ligM gray color. For (paairds = *<paia- for the former dead, but every one shall 

t6s, see 31, and, as used of mourning go home, except the near relatives.' — 

apparel, of. ^aid J/idno Polyb. 30.4.5, 45. RTJ-yYivoiv : or (£7;ir76i'ti)i' ? The read- 

and ^aick ^o-fliis Ditt.Syll.879.5. — 25ff. ing is uncertain. See 100. — 46fi. 

If one trangresses (jrap/SdXXw = irapa- There shall be no wailing or lamentation 

Palvw) any of these things, he shall pay on the following day, nor on the tenth 

fifty drachmas, unless he denies under day, nor onthe anniversary. — JviavTots: 

oath at the tomb that he has spent more. See Glossary, and of. ri, iviaiirw. in the 

— 29 ff. (TTpupia Se ktX. : cf. no. 8.3^. same sense at Ceos. 

— 31 ff. TOV 8« veKpov (ctX.: cf.no. 8.10- D 1 ff. Enumeration of the regular 
11. — 33 ff. KTiv Tois <rTpo<|>ttts ktX. ; feasts. These are given in the order of 
they shall not set the corpse down any- their occurrence, as appears from the 
where at the turns in the road (but carry correspondence between many of them 
it straight on to the tomb without inter- and the names of the months {'Awc\- 
ruption), nor shall they make lamenta- Xoibs, BoukcEtios, 'Hpoibs, etc.). For the 
tions outside the house until they arrive identification of these festivals, see Ditt. 
at the tomb, hut there there shall be a I.e., notes. — 5-7. 'Those which occur 
ceremony for the dead (?ci.ii>ayli-w)un- on the seventh and the ninth of the 
til the lid (?) is closed (cf.irpo(rrieriiiuTA.s month Biio-ios.' — 7-8. KT|uKX£ia Kop- 
ft)pos,etc.). But the last part, from Tijrei TapiCria: /coi EukXcio (coi 'ApraidTta. — 



210 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 51 



10 ical Ad<j>pi[a K]\al @eo^evia kuI Tpax^M koX AtoaKovpfjia, Mepi\a- 

Xdpria KoL Hr?/3a«:Xe([a], | km k avTO<; eirji hLapri[iJov km ka 
15 XeKxol irapriL \k]\m Ka feVot /rot irapitovTW, hiap^ia ffvovre'; km 

K\a ■wevrafiapiTevwv TvxnY • al Se n tovtwv irap^aX^ono rSiv <ye- 
20 ypafifievcov, I Otoeovrcov tol re Safiiop\\yol Kol toX aWoi iraVTe^ 

Aa^vdSM, 'rrpaara-ovTcov \ Se toI 'n-evTeKaiSexa. a[l] \ Be ku dfi^iX- 
25 XeyrjL tS? 0a)\i.dcTio';, e^ofioam rov vS^^l,L|x\ov hopKOV XeXva-do). a\[l 

S' djXiav TTOiovTav dpxco\\y a\iTeir}, diroTeicrdToo 6Se|XoV, Kal crvy- 
30 xe'of, d-7roTei\a-dT(o oBeXdv. roidSe ktjv || <^avaTel 'yer^paiTTM iv 

[t]\m irerpM evhw "[rJaSe <^d[v\\oTO<; iweBonKe TardvyaTlpl Bov- 
35 ^vr/M, rd heiJi,tpp[-^]\vLa K-qK ra? Su(»Se«atSo||9 x^t^"'''P"'^ "■"''' '^VP'''- 

p\r]\v\Mdv BdpfJi,a,Ta Kal rd tS)i | AvKeicoi Bapixara koI Td\v d'^aiav 
40 fioayov." TrdvTcov I koI fiSimv Kal Sa/Ji.ocria)\\v TOfj, TrpoOvovTa Kal 

■Kpo\fji,avrev6iievov Trape^ev I rd yeypafi/xeva Aa^vdSa\i<; ■ rdi Be 
45 ffva-iai Aa^vaS\dv rcoiTeXXaCov /j.rjvb'i Tft)||t Aiovva-mi, BovKaTioi<; | 

rait Al Trarpcoimi Kal T(BV|o'\XtBW rdv UKpodiva Ka\l avfiTrnricrKev 



12 ff. Feasts are also held if one sacri- 
fices a victim for himself, if one assists 
(in the sacrifices for the purification of) a 
woman recently delivered of child, if 
there are strangers with him sacrificing 
victims, and if one is serving a^ irevra- 
fjiapiras. TrevTa^piras is the name of 
some oflScial appointed to serve five 
days (d/iiipa, see 12), but nothing more 
is knovfn about this oifioe. — 22. toI 
ir£vTeKa£8{Ka : of. no. 49. — 26-27. If, 
when they hold an assembly, any official 
is absent. &pxav nom. sg. part, one 
holding office. — 29 ff . These things are 
written at Phanoteus on the inner side 
of the rock. The ancient city of Phano- 
teus (Panopeus) was perhaps the original 
seat of the phratry of the Labyadae. — 
30. ^ttvaTct: cf.$(iTOT0! 11. 30-31. Both 
^avareis and^axoreiis occur in other in- 
scriptions. See 46. — 31 ff. raSe *dvo- 
Tos . . . |i6(rxov : quotation from the 
ancient rock inscription, stating what 



theeponymous hero gave to hisdaughter 
Buzyga. This mythical heroine is men- 
tioned elsewhere (Schol.Ap.Rhod.l. 
185) as a daughter of Lyons, whose 
name is to be recognized in AuKe(wi 
1. 37 (shrine of Lycus ?). — 38. tAv d-yot- 
av |i6<rxov: apparently the admirable 
or wonderful calf (a sort of wonder- 
calf ?), but the allusion is of course ob- 
scure. — 38 S. irdvTCDv kt\. ; ' in the 
case of aiU undertakings, both private 
and public, for which one ofiers sacri- 
fice or consults the oracle in advance, 
the one doing so shall furnish to the 
Labyadae the victims mentioned (i.e. 
in the rock inscription just quoted).' 
TdvTdip depends upon wpoBiovra and vrpo- 
iMVTfvbpxvov, sacrificing etc. in advance 
of. — 47. rdv dKp66iva (or ra haxpd- 
ffiva, the reading being uncertain): so. 
Tayods vapix^v, the rayol shall furnish 
the first-fruits. — 48 f. cr«|«mr(<rK6v kt\.: 
invite the Labyadae to drink together. — 



No. 63] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS 211 

hafMel Tolii? Aa/SuaSas • rd? B' aWwi || doivw; kA[t] riii' hwpav 50 
a7r|a7eo-0(it. 

52. Delphi. Between 240 and 200 b.c. SGDI.2653. Michel 274. 

^A.'^aOat TV'yaL. Ae\,(f>ol eSwKav NiKavS/atot | ' Ava^ayopov KoXo- 
<f)a)vio)i, eireav irorjTai, av\rS)i Kal iyyovoi'i irpo^eviav, irpofiavreiav, I 
aavXiav, irpohiKiav, areXeiav irdvTcov, TrpodlSpiav ev TrdvTe(a-)cn rot? 5 
ayc!)voi<; oh d Tro'Xt? Ti\6T)n Kal raXXa ocra Kal toi<; dWoK irpo^e- 
voK Kal I evepyeraK rd^ tto'Xio? tcov AeX^Stv • dp'yovro'i I Nt«oSa- 
jxov, ^ovXevovToav 'A/owttoji'o?, Nt/coSa/iOV, Il\€C\crT(ovo<;^ SeVwi'o?, 

53. Delphi. 186 b.c. SGDI.2034. 

"A/3;;^oi'TO? [NJtKO/SouXou firjvo^ ^ovKariov, iirl rolaBe direBoro 
NeoTTOT/aa 'Opdalov 1 AeX^t? roa ' KttoWwvl tul Tlv6ia)i, a-cofiara 
yvvaiKeia Bvo ah ovo/xaTa Z(»7rv|j0a, licocri'x^a, rt/ias dpyvpiov fivdv 
e^, Kadoyi; eTricrrevaav ZcoTrvpa, '^coai'xa rait | 6ea)i rdv covdv, 
€</)' (Sire i\ev6epa<; etfiev Kal dvei^diTTOvi dirb wavToav rofi || iravra 5 
^iov. ^e^auoTTjp Kard tov vo/xov ■ Aafievrj<; 'Opeara AeXtf>6<;. ira- 
paiJ.e[i\vdv\ra)v Be Tiwirvpa, l.axrl'xa irapd NeoTrdrpav d')^pi Ka ^oojji 
'NeoTrdrpa iroeovaai I to TroTiTaaa-diJ.evov irdv to BvvaTOV dveyKX-q- 
TO)? • el Be Ti Ka fir) iroieatvTL I Zwirvpa rj 1,oi>ai')(a tmv "TroTiTaacro- 
fievav vTTO l<ieoirdTpa^ Ka6d><; \ yeypaiTTai BvvaTal oixrai, e^eaTW 
NeoTrar/oat KoXd^eiv Kadw || Ka avTU BeCXrfTai Kal dXX(oi virep 10 

49 ff. tAs 8' axXas ktX. . the other feasts 53. A typical Delphian manumission 
one shall carry out in accordance with decree, of which there are more than 
the season. 1*300. See note to nos. 44-48. They 
53. Proxeny decree in honor of the show all varieties of mixture of Del- 
poet Nlcander of Colophon, whose phian, Northwest Greek Kony/i, and At- 
writings included a prose work on tic elements, e.g. in this inscription, 
Aetolia. At this time the Aetolians 3 pi. imv. idvru, i6inui>, ^aruv. Nearly 
were dominant in Delphi, and this always at this time, the older a.1, lap6s 
shows itself in the language of the in- are replaced by ri, lepis, and toI by oi, 
scriptions. See 279. Note in 1. 5 the though roJis frequently retained in the 
combination of Delph. 7rdvTe((r)<rt with formal toI Upds beginning the list of 
Aetol. ayiims. witnesses. 



212 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 53 

NeoTrdrpav a^afJi,ioi<; ovroi<; ical avv\7roSiicot<; irdaa'i hCica^ Koi 
^afiia'i. el Se ti Ka Trddrjc ^eo-rraTpa, eXevdepat \ earcov Zcoirvpa 
Koi 'LwcrixO' Kvpieovaai avToaavrav Kal iroiovcrai 6 Ka 6e\a>v\n, 
KaOiof liriaT&KTav rm OecoL rctv covdv. el Be ti? Ka dTrrrjTai Zto- 
TTvpa'i I rj 1wa-ixa<; eireC Ka Te\evTd<7r]i 'Neoirdrpa, 0e^atov irape- 

15 ■yjreTco 6 /Se^aicoTrjp tmi || Oeui rdv oavdv Kurd tov vofiov. 6p,oC(o<; he 
Kal 01 TrapaTvyy^dvovre'i Kvpiot e6v\r(ov av\eovTe<; ca? iXevOepa? ov- 
a-av d^dfitoi ovTet Kal dvvTToSiKoi | irdaa's SiKa<; Kal ^ajMia'i. el Se 
Ti Ka d^ermdecovTi irepl 'Neoirdrpav 7reTro\vr]peviJ.evai rj t&v NeoTra- 
rpa<; iirapxovToav n, Kvpioi eovTco ol eVt'i'o/x.ot KoXd^^ovTev avrds 

20 Ka0' on Ka avroK SoKrji d^dpnoi ovTei Kal dwiroSiKoi || iraawi 
huKat. p,dpTvpe<s • rol lepei<; Bevav, "A^a^/3o?, twv dpxdvTcov Ev- 
«\et8a?, I ISicoTat 'le/oo/cXr)?, 'K.apC^evo';, Ba7;)^to9. 

Exclusive of Delphi 

64. Stiris. About 180 B.C. IG.IX.i.32. SGDI.1539. Ditt.SyU.42e. 
Michel 24. Solmsen 37. 

A 

[@]60? TV'^av d'^d:^&\dv. a-TpaTa'yeovTO'; | [t]&)I' ^WKemv Zev- 

5 ^iov, I [/aJt^i/o? e^Sofiov, 6/U.o\o[7||i]a rd Tro'Xet 'Ereipicav koI | [tS] 

TTo'Xet M.eSea)viQ)v • av^i^e^TroXiTevcrav "^relpioi Ka\l | MJeSewi'tot 

10 e'l^oi'Te? lepd, '7ro1[\t]i', 'ympav, Xifiepa^, iravTa 11 [i'jXevOepa, iirl TolcrBe. 

eJfiev I [rjoir? M.eBecoviov; 7rdvTa<; | [SjTtjOtov? taov<; Kal o/Moiov^, I 

15 Kal avveKX-qaid^eiv Kal av^vap')(paTarela6aL /xerd rdi || [Tro'JXtos 

rdi ^Tipicov, Kal BiKd\[^'\et,v Tiis B(Ka<i tA? iirl 7ro'\i|[o]s Trao-a? Toiis 

eviKOfievov<! | [T]ats dXiKiai<;. lardvOa) Be Ka\l | l^eporafilav ex 

17. &XfTa9iavTiKT\.: are convicted of 54. AgreementestablishingairujiHro- 

Jiaoing done any wrong to Neopatra or Xircia or joint-citizenship between the 

her possessions. Cf. 4^e\eyx8elri{i)irav Stirians and Medeonians. 

in another of the manumission decrees. 10. I\cv6epa: free, open to all (of both 

The derivation of dferiu from *iv^eT6uj towns). — 11 fl. rois kt\. : all the Mede- 

(cf. 77.2) and connection with drafTjr^u oniansshallbeStirianswithequalrights, 

is most attractive, tliougli fijT^u lias andshalljoinwith the city of the Stirians 

original o, of which the weak grade inthe assembly and in appointing magis- 

would be a not c. Others compare trates, and those who have arrived at 

Hesych. fiferoK- S,wl(ttop, SiceXoi, the proper age shall try all cases which come 

origin of which is obscure. beforethe state.— 18. toTdvOca: Boeotian 



No. 54] PHOCIAN INSCEIPTIONS 213 

rcbv Me8etB]|[v]i6)i; eva tov Ovaiovra t^5 | ffva-iw: ra? Trarptov; 20 
Me8e<»i'|[i]ot?, oaai ivrl iv tS) ttoXitiko) v6fi[a), | /ijer^ rav ap^ov- 
Tcov T&v a-Ta\[6]evTCi>v iv Srijot • Xav^avereo || [8]e o UpoTa/iia<; 25 
apea-fuov, o t[oI | d]pj^ovT€<; iXdfi^avov, ^p,i\[fj,'\valov koI tS>v ■xocov 
TO e7r[i\fi'\a\ov tw leporafiiai. crvvSi\[K'\a^€t Se 6 iepoTafiia<i fierd 11 
[tJwz/ dp'xovTwv TO? hiKa<i, a? | \j\ol apypvre'i SiKci^ovTi, Kal | 30 
[wjXapaxrt rd SiKacrr'qpia, d Ka | Berj KXapmeiv, fierd t5>v "[pjlxo'i/- 
TeBV. iir) earoa Se e7rai'a7||[«]es Xeirovpyelv roij^ MeSelwi'tot/s iv 35 
Srtpt T^? dp'x^di;, ocrot | yeyevrjvrai iv MeSe&VL dp\')(^ovre;, ^evoSi- 
KM, "TrpaKTfjpe;, | Bafiiovpyoi, I'epet?, lepdp^ai, Kal || rai' yvvaiKoyv 40 
offat te/3j;Tev|/caTt, et /i^ rt? e/ccbi' vTrofievoi • | ia-ravdcov Be ix tS>v 
d\eiTO\i^yrjT(ov tS)v MeSecflviiBi' k|oI e* rail' "S.Tipitov • Sa/itoiijo||[7]e- 45 
ovTfov Se Kal ra iv MeSe|[ft)i/t tJepA Ka6a)<: 6 TroXtri/to? j'o'I^o? «6- 
Xeuet. Kat rdv j^[w|pai'] tAv MeSewi'tai' et/iei' | [Trjacrai' 1,ripiav 
Kal rdv "SiTiJkiiav M.eSewviav Koivdv '7r[a|cra]i'. Koivcoveovro) Be ol 50 
M£Se|[Q)]i'tot Tav dvcndv rdv iv 2Ti|[pi] iraa-dv koI rol (toI) Sri/stot 
rdv iv M.e\Bea)vi iracrdv. fir) i^etTTCo S|e diroiroXneva-acrTaL TOLr[s] | 55 
MeSewi'ious d-iro twv '2Tipi\[Q}']v firjSe rois Sript'ou? diTro | [tJmi' 
'M.eBel(ovi]a)v. oirorepoi | [S]e Ka /jltj i/i/ieivcovTi iv toZ||[?] yeypa/i- 60 
fievoK, d7roTei\a-dvTa>v toi<; i/ifieivd[v']\TOi<; dpyvpiov TaXavlTa BeKa. 

B 

r irloLeovTwv • I [7]j0ai|rai'Ta)i' Be rav o/i[o]|X,07i'ai' ev 

ardXav Kal dv[a6e]\vTcov iv to lepov tu^ 'A[0a'i']||a?, OecrTav Be 5 
rdv 6p.o\Koyi'^av Kal irapd IBicoTav ia[(l>pa]\yia-fievav. a ofioXoyia 
7r[apd] I Bpdaava AiXaiea. /j,dp[Tv]\pe^ ®pda-cov AafiaTpiov 'E||\a- 10 
Tew9, EuTraXiSo? 0/3a|o-(»i'o? AtXatew, Tt/io|K/3aT7;? 'EiriviKov Tt- 
5o/3joe]w. SoVtcji' Se rot iTipioi \ Ta (j>aTpia tcov MeSeo)vi\\cov iv 15 
ereot? TeTTapoi? \ dpyvpiov p.vd'S irevTe Ka[l | tJo'ttoi' Tdv KaXeifie- 
vav \ . a . . Tpeiav. 

for laTdm-a. So larivBuiv I. 42 and 9^ ing in Stiris.'— 40-41. lepriTrfKOTv: see 
Xoij-Si in another Stiiian inscription. Cf. 188.4. — 55. diroiroXiTrfo-ao-Tai : ff7- = 
also (cXapuo-rl. 32 with Boeot. . for ci. <r9 as in Wo-tuk B 5. 85.1. 

ggg 281. 34 ff. (i'l ^•"°' ''■^'^•^ 't^liose B 13 ff. The phratiy of the Medeo- 

who have been officials in Medeon shall nians, in distinction from the state, re- 
be exempt from compulsory oflSce hold- tained its own organization, and was 



214 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 55 



Locrian 

55. Oeanthea (Galaxidi). First half V cent. b.c. IG.IX.i.334. SGDI. 
1478. Hicks 25. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp.l80fe. Michel 285. Roberts 231 and pp. 
346 ff. Solmsen34. 

'Ev 'NaviruKTOV Ka(T) TovBe hairtfOtKia. Aoppov rov HvrroKva- 
fiChiov, eVIei' Ka NauTra/cTto? <^everai, NaviraKTiov iovra, /io'7ro(?) 



to receive a subsidy of money and land 
from the Stlrians. 

65. Law governing the relations be- 
tween the Eastern Locrian colonists at 
Naupactus and the mother country. 
This does not refer to the founding of 
Naupactus, which was much earlier. 
Colonists are called &toikol from the 
point of view of the mother country, 
but ^ToiKoi as here (iirlfoifoi) from the 
point of view of their new home. The 
Eastern Locrians are referred to ethni- 
cally as Hypocnemidians (of which 
Epicnemidians is an equivalent), polit- 
ically as Opuntians, since Opus was 
the seat of government, the two terms 
standing in the same relation as Boeo- 
tian and Theban. 

It is probable that one copy was set 
up at Opus, with another at Naupac- 
tus, and that the present tablet is still 
another copy, which with the addition 
of the last sentence, stating that simi- 
lar relations are to subsist between col- 
onists from Chaleion and the mother 
city, was set up at Chaleion, from 
which place it may easily have found 
its way to Galaxidi. 

In both this and the following in- 
scription a single letter is used for 
"double consonants, not only in the in- 
terior of a word, as 0a\(i{<r)<Tas, but 
often in sentence combination, as Ki,{T) 
TovSe. So i{d) Sa/io, i(\) Xi/i^j-os, etc., 
with assimilation of in (100); similarly 



^(i") NavTdKTo (once ^7 NouTriiKTo), in 
contrast to which ip NaiiraicTov, iv TSav- 
T&KToi with original iv are always writ^ 
ten out. Cf. also (in no. 56) ti(s) avKoi, 
&vi.ro(<:) (TuXIj', d.SlKo(s) avKm, in view of 
which the reading Aii7ro(s) ^ivov (no. 
55.2), which is generally though not 
universally adopted, is not a violent 
correction. No other Greek inscription 
has so many examples of p as no. 56, 
where it is uniformly employed before 
or po. In no. 56 it is no longer used. 
In no. 55 lengthened 6 is expressed by 
El, lengthened c by in the genitive 
singular, OV in the accusative plural. 
But in no. 56 always E and 0. See 
85 d. No. 55, beginning in 1. 11, is 
divided into paragraphs by the letters 
A-e. 

No. 55 exhibits many instances of 
repetition (see 1. 3, note), and some of 
omission of what is essential to clear- 
ness (e. g. the subject of iwoedvei. 1. 30), 
and in general the style of both inscrip- 
tions is crude and obscure. 

1. The colony to Naupactus on the 
following terms. — hairipoiKCa : te iiri- 
foiKla. 94.5. — Kd(T)Tov86: see 136.5. 
— Ao9p6v tAv HviroKva|i,(Siov kt'K.: A 
Sypocnemidian Locrian, when he be- 
comes a Naupactian, being a Naupac- 
tian, may as a l^ros share in the social 
and religious privileges (i. e. in the 
mother country) when he happens to 
be present, if he wishes. If he wishes, 



No. 55] 



LOCEIAISr INSCEIPTIONS 



215 



^evov oa-ia \avxav\eiv Koi Oveiv i^etfiev eTrnvxpvTa, a'C Ka heiXe- 
rai, ■ al Ka SeiXerai, dveiv ical \\av')(dveiv Ke{h) hdfi,o Ke{a) poLvdvov 
avTOV ical to yevo'i Karaipei. reXo? to||u? eTripoipov^ Aopp5v. rov 6 
'RviroKvaiMLhlov /j,e <j)dpeiv ev Aoppoh TOt|? KviroKvafuSioK, (ppuv 
K av TK Aoppo? yeveTai rov HvTroKvafiiBiov. al I SeiXer dv^jo- 
pelv, KaraXeiTrovTa ev toll laTlai iralha he^aTay e 'Se\(j>eov eBei- 
liev dvev iveTepiov ■ at Ka hvir dvdvKa^ aireXdovTai i(y) 'NavirdxTO 
Aop\pol Tol HvTroKvafiLBioi, i^eiixev av-)(opelv, hoiro peKacrTo^ ev, 
dvev i^^veTipiov. reXo? p-e cjjdpeiv p,eBev hoTi p-e p,eTd Aoppov rov 10 
Fea-TrapL\dv. — A — "^voppov rot? eTrifoipoK ev 'NavTraKTov p,e Vo-- 
(TTcLp-ev a(7r' 'O^irovTiov | TeKvai Kal p,a')(avdi p.eSep,iai f epoVra?. tov 
hoppov i^eip,ev, at Ka hel\\dvTai, iirdyetv /iera TpcdpovTa peTea diro 
TO hoppo heKaTov dv8pa<; '0\TrovTioi<; NauTra/CTiOj' Kal NauTra/cTtot? 
'Ottovtiov;. — B — Hoo-Q-Ti? Ka \t7roTeXee]|t ey ISiavjrdKTO tov iiri- W 
poCpov, d-jro Aoppov elfiev, evTe k diroTeicreL to. v6\fjiia TSlaviraKTioc;. 



he may share in these privileges, both 
those of the people and those of the mem- 
bers of the societies, himself and his de- 
scendants forever. The colonists of the 
H. Locrians are not to pay taxes among 
the S. Locrians, until one becomes a H. 
Locrian again. In 6<na Xoj'x'^''e»' Kal 
Bietv there is probably the same con- 
trast as in lepdt. Kal Saia or Cretan 0hva, 
Kal dvffpdiriiia, tliougli it is possible that 
both terms refer to religious privileges. 
— 3. at Ka SilXirai : for the repetition 
-of. also li 11. 10 f., dSfiev 11. 41 f., Kapv- 
fat iv Tayopat. 11. 20 ff. — 4. Ki(8) 8dfjio 
Kc(o) foLvdvov : Kal 4k 5i)pjov Kal iK kolvu- 
vHv. 94.6, 100. — 7 ff. If a colonist 
wishes to return, he may do so without 
taxes of admission (to citizenship), pro- 
vided he leaves behind in his house an 
adult son or brother. If the S. Locrians 
are driven from Naupactus by force, 
they may return without admission 
taxes to the town from which they each 
came. They are to pay no taxes except 



in common with the Western Locrians, 
i. e. they are not to be subject to any 
special taxes as colonists. — at SetXiT: 
for subj. without Ka (also in 1. 26), see 
174. — 9. hdiro pcKao-TOs^v: a 3 sg. Tjv 
is otherwise known only in Attic-Ionic, 
other dialects retaining the original ^s. 
See 163.3. Hence this is the 3 pi. 
fjv agreeing with the logical subject 
they (cf. the preceding). Cf. Hom. 
6/3ov olKSude ?Ka<rTos, etc. Kiihner-Gerth 
I,p.286. — 11 ff. Oath for the colonists to 
Naupactus, not to forsake the alliance 
with the Opuntians willingly by any 
deuice. If they wish they may impose 
the oath thirty years after this oath, one 
.hundred Naupactians upon the Opun- 
tians and the Opuntians upon the Nau- 
pactians. — 11; OTTOVTiov: ioi a.7r"0- 
irovTiov. Probably here only a graphic 
omission, similar to haplology (88 a). 
— 14 ff. Whoever of the colonists departs 
fromNaupactus with unpaid taxes shall 
lose his rights as a Locrian until he pays 



216 GEEEK DIALECTS ' [No. 55 

— r — Ai.' Ka fxk YeVo? ev rdi lerTiat ei e "'x^eTrdfiov tov eTn]foi- 
pov ei ev NaV7ra«T0t, Aoppov tov HvjroicvafJi.iSidv tov iirdvy^ia-^Tov 
Kparelv, AoppSv hoTro k Si, avrov Iovtu, at, k avep ei e Trats, Tpiov 
pievov al Se pe, rot? NauTra/cTtot? vopioi's ■x^pecrTai. — A — Ei{v) 

20 Navn-aKTO avy(^ope\\ovTa ev Aoppov'; tov<; HvTroKvapiSiovi iv Nau- 
iraKTOi Kapv^ai ev Ta\rfopai, kSv Aoppol? TOL('i) HviroKvapiBioK iv 
Tcii TToXi, ho K ii, Kapv^M iv | rayopdi. — E — HeppoOapiav kuI 
Mvaaxeov eirei Ka 'NavTrdKTi{6i; rt)? yeveTa\i avTd<i, Kai ra XP^' 
paTa tSv l^avirdKTdi Toh iv ^avTrdtcTOi y(pecrTai, | to:, S' iv Aoppoi<s 

25 Tot? HvTTOKvapiBioii; '^.pepaTa rots Hu'7ro«i'OjLttSi||ot? ||| vopiof; XP^' 
(TTai, Ao'tto? a iroXi'; peKaa-TOV vopi^ei Aoppov tov Hv7ro/«'|a/*.tStoi/. 
av Ti'i hviro tov voplov tov iiripoipov avyppeei Jieppodapid^v Kal 
M.va:a'X,eov, rot? avTOV vopioiv ^pecrTctt kuto, ttoKiv peKdaTOV;. | — 
F — At K aSeX<j>eol eovn to 'v ^aiiraKTOV poiKeovTa, Ao'tto? Kal 

30 Aopp^\v TOV iivTroKvapiSiov pexdaTov v6po<; icTTi, at k cnroddvet, 

TOV jApepdTOV KpaTelv tov iiripoipov, to xaTipopevov KpaTelv. — 

Z — I Toil? i-TTipoipovi iv NaviraKTov Thv SiKav TrpoSipov hapecrTai 

the Naupactians his lawful dues. — as the law may be in the several cities 

16 ff . // there is no family in the home, of the S. Locrians. If any of them, 

or heir to the property among the colo- under the laws of the colonists, return, 

nists in Naupactus, the next of kin they shall be subject to their own laws, 

among the H. Locrians shall inherit, each according to the city of his origin, 

from whatever place among the Lo- — 29 ff. If there are brothers of the one 

crians he comes, and, if a man or boy, who goes as a colonist to Naupactus, 

he shall go himself within three months. then, according to what the law of the 

Otherwise the laws of Naupactus shall H. Locrians severally (i.e. in each city) 

be followed. — 19 ff. If one returns from is, if (one of them) dies, the colonist 

Naupactus to the S. Locrians, he must shall inherit his share of the property, 

have it announced in Naupactus in the shall inherit what belongs to him. Note 

market-place, and among theH. Locrians tlie double construction with Kparelv 

inthecitywhencehecomes. — mi.When- accoi-ding as the sense is partitive or 

eeer any of the JlepfoBaplai and the Mu- not. But many take TO as gen. sg. 

o-oxeis (probably the names of two noble to in relative sense, though this use is 

or priestly families, the first obviously not otherwise attested in Locrian, and 

containing KoBapbs = xaBapbi) becomes a understand ^trrf with KaTi<f6fusvov, trans- 

Naupactian himself, his property in lating which it is proper for him to in- 

Naupactus shall also be subject to the Aenf . — 32 f . The colonists may bring 

laws in Naupactus, but his property suit before the judges with right ofprece- 

among the S. Locrians to the H. laws, dence, they may bring suit and submit 



No. 55] 



LOCEIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



217 



7ro(T) Tov-; S\iKaa-Tepa<;, hapearai Kal Sofiev ev 'OiroevTi, Kara f e'o? 
avTUfiapov. Aop^ov rov }lvTroKvafu^LOV Trpoa-rdTav KaraaTaaai 
Tov Aofpov T07rif\\oLpoi KoX TOP iiripoipov rot Aoppoi, hoiri.ve's ica 35 
'iriaTk evTifJ.01 <e?> (eovri). — H — Ho'crcr|Tt? k aTroXiTrii. ■jrardpa 
Kal TO fi€po<i TOV y^^pe/jLUTov TOi TTUTpi, cVet K | UTTor^eveTai, i^eifiev 
airoXa'x^elv tov eTripoipov iv l^avTraKTOV.\ — © — HoWrt? ku to. 
fspaSepoTa Bia^deipei Te-)(yaL Kal /laxavai Ka\l /xtdi, hoTi Ka fj,e 
dv(j}OTdpoi<; SoKeei, Hottovtiov re ;)(;tXt'oz/ 7rXe^||at Kal 'NafrraKTiov 40 
TOV iiripoipov irXeOai, aTi/iov etfiev Kal j^pel/xara irafjiaTocjjayeL- 
cTTai. TovKaXeifievoi tclv hiKav Sofiev tov dplyov, iv ToidpovT dfid- 
pai'i Sofiev, at Ka TpidKOVT dfj-dpai Xei'7roi'T|at ra? dp')^d<; ■ at Ka 



to suits against themselves in Opus on 
the same day. This provision is in- 
tended to secure for the colonists the 
greatest expedition in their litigation 
at Opus, hapiarai. (i.e. eKiirBai) Kal SS/Mev 
= XajSetv Kal dovvai (cf. Hdt.6.83). dlKTjv 
Xapeti/ is usually to bring suit, as here, 
though sometimes the opposite, while 
SIkt/v SoOvai is usually to submit to suit 
(e. g. Thuc. 1.28), as here, though some- 
times used of a magistrate, to grant 
trial, as below, 1. 41 f. — 34f. Who- 
ever are in office for the year shall ap- 
point from among the H. Locrians a 
irpoffTdTTis, one of the Locrians for the 
colonist, one of the colonists for the Lo- 
crian, tov Aofpov HvTOKvafjiiSiov applies 
properly only to the appointment of 
the TpbaTaT-qi for the colonist, this be- 
ing the important proyision in cbntin- 
uation of the preceding paragraph. 
Making the provision mutual was an 
afterthought. — /t a tt i a t c s without cor- 
rection is to be read xa 'iriarh, with 
hyphaeresis where we expect elision, 
from Ka and iwiarh, an adv. ^cpd. of 
firos for which we should expect ^wi- 
ferh or iTricrh (intervocalic f is not 
always written, of. '07r6ei'Ti, Sa/uovp- 



7oi!s). Some correct to Vi(/re)T^s, but 
a by-form with (f:)aT is possible. E5 
after evn/wi is due to dittography (cf . 
the ending of the preceding holrives, 
'iriarh). The omission of eovn may be 
the engraver's error, or simply ellipsis, 
such as is not infrequent in a clause of 
this kind (Kuhner-Gerthl,p.41,n.2c). 
— .36 f. A colonist to Naupactus who 
has left behind a father and his portion 
of the property with the father, shall in- 
herit his share when {the father) dies. — 
38 ff. Whoever violates these statutes by 
any device in any point which is not 
agreed to by both parties, the majority 
of the Thousand in Opus and the ma- 
jority of the colonists in Naupactus, 
shall be deprived of civil rights and shall 
have his property confiscated. For the 
spelling 'NafTaxrlov see 32. — 41 ff. To 
the one who brings suit the magistrate 
shall grant trial within thirty days, if 
thirty days of his magistracy remain. 
If he does not grant trial to the one 
bringing suit he shall be deprived of civil 
rights and have his property confiscated, 
his real estate together with his servants. 
The customary oath shall be taken. The 
voting shall be by ballot. For p,4pos real 



218 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 55 



fie BlSoc Toi evKaXei/ievoL rav Biicav, dTifJi\ov elfiev koX xpef^'ara Trafia- 

45 TO<f>ajel(rTai, to fiepo^ /nerA po\\iKiaTav. Sio/ioaai hdppov top vofiiov. 

ev vSpiav rav ■\lrdcf>i^\^iv el/ji.ev. koI to dedfiiov rots E.V7roKvafMSioi<! 

Aoppoh Taih-a reXeov elfiev XaXeteot? toI'; aiiv 'AvTKpdrai fOiKiral'S. 

56. Oeanthea. Second half V cent. B.C. IG.IX.iii.333. SGDI.1479. 
Hicks 44. Michel 3. Roberts 232 and pp.354 ff. Solmsen 35. 

Tbv ^evov jLie hdr^ev e(T) ra? XaXei^So? tov OlavOea, /i|eSe rov 

XaXeiea e'(T) ra? OlavOiSo'i, /iteSe xpe/J-ara at ti{<;) crxJ^oi ■ tov 8e 

avXovTa dvdTo(<;) avXMv. ra ^eyiKO, i{6) 0a\d(a-)a-a<; hdyev | dav- 

5 \ov irXdv i(X) Xi/Mevo? to kut^, ttoXiv. a'i k dhiKo{s:) crvKoi, Te||TO- 

pe? Spwx^/iai- al he irXeov Be/c djjiapdv e^oi to a-vXov, he^fiioXoiv 

6(f)XeT0 poTi crvXda-ai. al fxeTapoiKeoi irXeov p,evo<: e | o XaXeteus 

ev Olavffeai e 'Oiavdei)<; ev 'X.aXeioi, tm e-mBap.iai, SUai y(\pe<TTO. 

10 TOV Trpo^evov, al ■\jreuSea irpo^eveoi, hnrX^eloi BoteaTO. ||| al k dvSi- 

yd^ovTi Tol ^evoBUai, eirop.oTa'i heXea^To 6 ^eVo? oirdyov Tav SiKav 

off a foreigner from Chaleian territory, 
nor a Chaleian from Oeanthean terri- 
torij, nor his property, incase one makes 
a seizure. But him who makes a seiz- 
ure himself one mayseizewith impunity. 



estate, cf . the similar use of kMjpos. — 
46 f . And this compact for the H. Lo- 
crians shall hold good in the same terms 
for the colonists from Chaleion under 
Antiphates. See introductory note. 

56. The tablet consists of two docu- 
ments inscribed by different hands, as 
appears from the forms of the letters, 
which also show, together with the ab- 
sence of 9, that both are later than 
no. 55. The first, ending with xpiaro 
1. 8, is a treaty between Oeanthea and 
Chaleion of the kind known as ri/ipo- 
XoK or crvix^oKd (the latter in 1. 15). It 
is for the protection of foreigners, that 
is citizens of other Greek states, visit- 
ing either city from reprisal at the 
hands of citizens of the other. Such 
reprisal or seizure in enforcement of 
claims was freely employed, so far as 
it was not specifically regulated by 
treaty. JTor graphic peculiarities see 
no. 55, introductory note. 

1 ff. An Oeanthean shall not carry 



The property of a foreigner one may 
carry off from the sea without being sub- 
ject to reprisal, except from the harbor 
of each city. If one makes a seizure 
unlawfully, four drachmas (is the peiir- 
alty); and if he holds what has been 
seized for more than ten days, he shall 
owe half a^ much again as the amount 
he seized. If a Chaleian sojourns more 
than a month in Oeanthea or an Oean- 
thean in Chaleion, he shall be subject to 
the local court. 

The second document, 11. 8-18, con- 
sists of regulations of one of the two 
cities, presumably Oeanthea, regarding 
the legal rights of foreigners. 

8 ff . The proxenus who is false to his 
duty one shall fine double {the amount 
involved in each particular case). If 



Ko. 57] 



ELEAN INSCRIPTIOlSrS 



219 



ex0o<; wpo^evo | Koi fiSio ^evo apiariv^av, iwl fjiev rat? iMvaia\{ai<: 
Kal irXeov TrevTe/caiSeK avSpa^, iirl rots | /ieiovoK ewe' dvSpa<:. at 
K 6 paaa-TCx; Trot tov f\\aa-TOV SiKa^erai Ka(T) ra? o-wi//3oXa?, SafMop- 15 
70? heXearai tos hopKo fi6Ta<; apiarivhav tuv ir^VTopKiav o/iocrav- 
Ta^. TO'i hopKoiioTm tov avro^v hopKOV o/ivvev, ifKedvv Se VLKev. 



Elean 

57. Olympia. Before 580 B.C. SGDI.1152. Inschr.v.Olympia 2. Michel 
195. Roberts 292 and pp.o64ff. Solmsen38. Damelsson,EraDOsIII,80ff. 
Keil,G6tt.Naclir.l899,15ifi. Glotz,Solidarit6delafammeenGr6ce,pp.248ff. 

'A fparpa rot? FaXeiot?. irarpiav dappev Kal jeveav xal ravTo. I 



the ^evodUai (the judges in cases involv- 
ing the rights of foreigners) are divided 
in opinion, the foreigner who is plain- 
tiff {owdyor = 6 4irdyiav) shall choose ju- 
rors from the best citizens, but exclusive 
of his proxenus and private host (who 
would be prejudiced in his fa,voT), fif- 
teen men in cases involving a mina or 
more, nine men in cases involving less. 
If citizen proceeds against citizen under 
the terms of the treaty, the magistrates 
shall choose the jurors from the best citi- 
zens, after having sworn the quintuple 
oath (i.e. oath by five gods). The ju- 
rors shall take the same oath, and the 
majority shall decide. 

57. This covenant for the Eleans. 
(An accused man''s) gens and family 
and his property shall be immune. If 
any one brings a charge against a male 
citizen of Mis, if he who holds the high- 
est office and the /Sao-iXeis do not impose 
the fines, let each of those who fail to 
impose them pay a penalty of ten mi- 
nae dedicated to Olympian Zeus. - Let 
the Sellanodica enforce this, and let the 
body of demiurgi enforce the other fines 
(which they had neglected to impose). 
If he (the Hellanodica) does not enforce 
this, let him pay double the penalty in his 



accounting (or in the body of the fuurrpol?). 
If any one maltreats one who is accused 
in a matter involving fines, let him be 
held to a fine of ten minae, if he does so 
wittingly. And let the scribe of the gens 
suffer the same penalty if he wrongs any 
one. This tablet sacred at Olympia. 

The numerous interpretations of this 
inscription have differed fundamen- 
tally. According to that preferred here 
the object of the decree is to do away 
with the liability which under primitive 
conditions, such as survived longer in 
Elis than elsewhere, had attached to 
the whole gens and family of an accused 
person, also to prevent confiscation of 
his property and personal violence, and 
to prescribe the manner in which pen- 
alties were to be imposed. 

1. d : t/iis, the following, see Kuhner- 
Gerthl,p.597. — iroTpidv: like Delph. 
Trarptd, Dor. irirpa = yivm, while yeve& 
is the immediate family. — Oappiv : be 
of good cheer, without fear, hence, as a 
technical term in Elean, be secure, im- 
mune, just as the Attic 45«a is in ori- 
gin freedom from fear (Sio%). It is used 
of pereons and things. Cf . fl[(£ppos] ai- 
Toi Kal xp^fjdrois in another inscription. 
avT5 ; refers to fippevop FoXelo of the 



220 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 57 

al fe Tt? KaTiapav<reie pdppevop YaXeio, al ^e fie 'iriOelav to. ^(\Kaui 
op fieyLCTTOV Te\o<; exoi ical toI ^acriXae';, ^e/ca fivai'i ku \ airoTivoi 
5 feKaa-TO<; rov p-e 'imroeovTov Ka{6)6vTaC<; rol 7A '0\ui^|7riot. knrev- 
TTOi fe K E'XXavo^iKa<; Koi rSXXa ^Uaia eirevirfTO a ^a/iiopyM ■ al 
fe ;ite 'vttSi, ^L<f>viov airoTLvero ev jxaarpSfii. al ^e tk tov ahia- 
devTa }^iKaiov IfidaKoi, ev ral ^eKap.vaiaL k ^vexo{iT]o, al fei^o<s 
IfidcTKOt. Kal Trarpta? o 7/30<^ev? Tav[T]d Ka -Kdaicoi, | [al T]iv [a^'\i- 
Keo\C\. 6 Tr[i]va^ lapb-; 'OXvvTriai. 

58. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.1149. Inschr.v.OlympiaO. Hicks 9. 
MiQhell. Roberts 291 and pp. 362 ff. Solmsen39. 

'A fpdrpa-Tolp Fa\etoi<; Kal rot? '"EplpaoioK. a-vvfiaxia k ea 

eKarbv perea, | dp^oi Be Ka rot al Se tl Seot aire f eVo? aUre f\dp- 

5 yov, avveav k a{\)\d\oi'; rd t d{X)'K{a) Kal Tra\\p TroXep.o. al he 
jxa avveav, rdXavrov k | apjiipo airoTivoiav rol At 'OXwirtoi toi 
Ka\{S)Sa\efj,evoi \arpei6p,evov. al Se rip to, 'y\pd^ea rai Ka(S)Sa- 

10 XeoiTO aire feTa<; acre T\eXea-Ta aire Sa/U.09, ei' Teindpot, k evej^oiTO 
Tol 'vravr i'ypa(iM)fj,evoi. 

59. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.1156. Inschr.v.01ympia7. Michel 
196. Roberts 296 and pp. 369 fi. Ziehen,LegesSacrae61. 

Ka Oeapo'; eXe. al he jSeveoi, ev jlapol, /Sot' Ka 6dd(h)SoL Kal ko- 

ddpai TeXeCai, Kal rov deapov ev T|a[(u)]Tat. al he rt? Trap to 

following clause, which logically goes years, beginning with the present year. 

with the preceding as well as the fol- Jf there shall be any need of word or 

lowing. — 2. KariapavcreiE : KaBiepeiia, deed, they shall combine with one another 

but meaning first to utter an impreca- both in other matters and in war. If 

tion against some one (cf. (caretfxoMiOi i^^ 'i" i^ot combine, let those who vio- 

and then, since this was, or had been, late (the agreement) pay a talent of sil- 

the manner of introducing a charge, ver consecrated to Olympian Zeus. If 

simply KaT))7op^w. See also no. 60. Like any one violates these writings, whether 

various other expressions in Elean, this private citizen, official, or the state, let 

reflects the essentially religious char- him be held in the penalty here written. 
acter of the legal procedure. — al J« 69. This is the conclusion of an in- 

fkf ktX. : cf . no. 61 C 13-16. Tor iireviroi, scription which was begun on another 

liMTTpiaL, lfi.i(rKui, etc., see the Glossary. tablet not preserved, 

68. This covenant between the Eleans //7ie (some one previously mentioned) 

and the Heraeans (of Arcadia). There commits fornication {1)inthe sacred pre- 

shall be an alliance for one hundred cinct, one shall make him, expiate it by 



No. 60] 



ELEAN INSCRIPTIONS 



221 



ypd<l)0<; StKa(S)Sot, areXi'! k eie a SUa, a Se Ka fpdrpa a Bafioata 
reXeia ei\e 8t/ca(8)Soo-a. tov Se ku ypa<f)66v on SoKeoi A:a(\)\iTe/3o? 
exev 7ro{T) rov 6{e)6v, i^aypeov Kal e|z;7rotoi; aw /SoXat {ir)evTaKa- 
tIov apXaveoi Kal Bdnoi TrXeOvovri Sivd/coi ■ {Sivd)K0i Se Ka {i)v 
Tpii\]pv, at Tt ivTTOiol aiT i^aypeoi. 

60. Olympia. Second half IV cent. B.C. Szanto,Oest.Jhrb.I,197fE. 
Danielsson,EranosIII,129ff. Meister,Ber.Sachs.Ges.l898,218fE. Keil,G6tt. 
Nachr.l899,136fE. Remach,Rev.Et.Gr.XVI,187ff. Solmsen40. 

©eo? • Tvxa. raCp Se yeveaip /jlo, ^vyaSeiij/j, /jiaSe K\aT a-Troiov 
rpoirov, fj-dre ipaevaiTepav /idre dr)\vT\epav, fidre ra '^(^prif^Ta 



the sacrifice of an ox and by complete 
purification, and the Beapis in the same 
way. If any one pronounces judgment 
contrary to the regulation, this judgment 
shall be void, but the decree of the people 
shall be final in deciding. Onemaymake 
any change in the regulations which 
seems desirable in the sight of the god 
(136.3), withdrawing or adding with the 
approval of the whole council of the Five 
Hundred and the people in full assem- 
bly. One may make changes three times, 
adding and withdrawing. — The resto- 
ration and interpretation of the last 
sentence, (5iKi)CTi ktK., is uncertain. 
In 1. 4 the adverb af\ati4os (see 55) is 
used loosely where we should expect 
an adjective in agreement with /SoXai 
or trevraKaTlov. 

60. But one shall not exile the chil- 
dren {of an exile) either male or female, 
under any circumstances, nor confiscate 
the property. If any one exiles them or 
confiscates the property, he shall be sub- 
ject to trial before (in the name of) 
Olympian Zeus on a capital charge, and 
any one who wishes may bring the charge 
against him with impunity. And it shall 
be permitted, even in case they have ex- 
iled any, to any one who wishes to return 



•fah 



and be free from punishment so fa 
concerns matters happening later than 
the time of the demiurgi under Pyrrhon. 
Those next of kin shall not sell or send 
off the property of the exiles, and if one 
does any of these things contrary to the 
regulation, he shall pay double the 
amount sent off and sold. If any one 
defaces the stele, he shall be punished 
like one guilty of sacrilege. 

Several times during the fourth cen- 
tury b.c. the oligarchy and democracy 
alternated in power in Elis, with re- 
sulting banishment and recall of exiles. 
It is probable that this decree belongs 
to the Macedonian period and perhaps 
refers to the exiles of 336 b.c. who 
were recalled in 335 b.c. Cf. Arrianl. 
10. 1'HXeMit Sk roils ^vydSas aipSiv Kare- 
84^avTO, Sti ^tTiJSeiot 'AXe^dwSpy Jjtrav. 
It is a supplementary decree to another 
on the same subject, as is shown by S4 
in the first sentence after the introduc- 
tory formula, and the use of yeveatp 
without modifier, which must be under- 
stood from the preceding. On the dia- 
lect as compared with that of the earlier 
inscriptions, see 241. 

1. 7Evca(p: the singular is of ten used 
collectively in the sense of offspring. 



222 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 60 



hafioaiSifiev ■ al Se rip (l)vya8\eioi aire to, xp'^fj-ara 8a/Mocrtoia, <f)ev- 
5 yerm ttot rSi A||to/3 TwXvfnrica aifiarop, Kal Kanapaimv 6 SrjXo^irip | 
avdarop ■ijara). e^rjarm Se, km ku (jivyaSevavri, rol 8\r]Xofi€voi vo- 
ariTTTjv'Kal arrdfjiiov ^fJi£V, oaaa Ka li^arapiv 'yevcovrai tS)v Trepi 
Tivppmva SafMopyaiv. To\lp Se eV d{a)a-ia-Ta fJi,a airoSoaaat. fidre 
10 eicirep.'^ai to, j^p\\ijfiaTa Tolp ^vydSea-ai ■ al Se n ravTcov irap to 
rypd/Afia iroieoi, a-ironveTco St7rX[a]o-toi' t&j Ka eKirefiira Ka\l tm Ka 
cnroS&Tat. al Se np aSeaXTCohaie ra trrdXav, \ cop a'yaXp.aTO<j>a)pav 
eovra ■ird(T')(r)V. 



61. Olympia. Firsthalf of IIIcent.B.c. SGDI.1172. Inschr.v.Olympia 
39. Michel 197. 

@eo'/3. 1vj(a. I 'Ttto '^XkavoSiKav rmv irepl \ KIct^vKov, @vla). | 

5 oirap, eirel Aa/jLOKpdTtip 'Ay^ropop || TeveSiop, ireiroXirevKoap 

Trap' a/is \ avTop re Kal 6 Trardp, Kal ia-Te^avafj,e\vop tov re t&v 



descendants, e.g. Bpir. oirSi koI yeveai 
Kal yha ix 7e>/eas (SGDI.1334), Arc. 
atiTol Kal yevcd (Oest.Jhrb.IV,79), both 
= usual airwi Kal iKySvois. For the plu- 
ral cf . Mess. TiK yvvatKi re Kal rds yeveds 
airoO (SGDI. 4689.97). Some take 7e«'e- 
alp here as members of the yevcal, under- 
standing these as noble families, but 
this is less likely. — 4-5. <|>6ii'y^to) ttot 
Tu Atop kt\.. see 136.3 and no. 57.2, 
note. — 5. 8i)Xo|i.'^p : we expect 57)X(S/ie- 
vop. Probably an error, for which the 
existence of some such form as StiXop- 
Tijp (cf . iBeKovT'fip) may be responsible. 
— 6. <|>u7a8EvavTi : aor. subj. 151.1. — 
9-10. It is uncertain whether this is 
a provision in favor of the exiles, pre- 
venting their property being disposed 
of by relatives, or one directed against 
them, preventing the relatives from 
selling tlie property for them or send- 
ing it to them. In the former case 
dirodiira-ai may refer to the sale of real 
estate, and iKiriii-^ai, to the sending off 



of movable property for sale abroad. 
<j>vyiSetra-i is dative of advantage or of 
disadvantage, according to the inter- 
pretation preferred. — 12-13. at S^ rip 
aStaXriShau ktX. : cf . rjv S4 Tis [riiv ari)- 
Xiji'] d0aj'[if'()i 71 ri, 7pdj[ijnaTo] , iracrx^w 
us Up6<rv'\os in an inscription of lasus, 
SGDI.5517. dSeXTAw= dSjjXAw, d^ai-IfiD, 
is probably from *SeaXos (cf . Siapiai, Sij- 
Xos), whence — perhaps through the 
medium of a verb SeiXKa — *5eaXT6s, 
*S6aXT4M. According to another view, 
. from S4\tos tablet (cf. Cypr. SdXTos), so 
that the meaning would be make the 
stele aSfXros, i.e. remove the tablet 
from the stele. For t4 a-riXav see 96.2. 
61. Proxeny decree in honor of Da- 
mocvates of Tenedos, who is mentioned 
as one of the Olympian victors by Pau- 
sanias (6. 17. 1). On the dialect as com- 
pared with that of the earlier inscrip- 
tions, see 241. With irb 'EWavodiKat 
1.2 for visual iwl with gen., compare 
Lac. huTrd with ace. in no. 66.66. 



No. 62] NOETHWEST GEEEK KOINH INSCEIPTION 223 

'0\vfi,Trl(ov ayatva Kal | aXXoip koI ifKeiovep, eiraviTaKcap iv tclv \ 
IBiav rdv re Ta irarpop OeapoSoKiav StallSe'SeKTai Kal vTroBeyerai 10 
Tolp deapoip, | o/ioicop Se Kal Tolp Xoiirolp roip Trap' ap,e(ov | Tav 
waa-av j^peiav eKTevecop Kal o.irpol'^aaicrTtBp Trape^^erat, (fiavepav 
iroiecov | rav e^et evvoiav ttotI tclv troXiv, Kadayp || irXeiovep awe- 15 
fuipTvpeov Tcbfj, iraXirav • I oirmp Se Kal a Tro'Xep KaTa^iaip (jiaiva- 
rai I j^^dpirep avTaTroSiS&cr(ra rolp avrdp I evepyeraip, virdp')(7jv 
AanoKpciTT) Trpt^^evov, Kal evepyerav 8' ^Wfiev rap iroKiop avrov Kal 20 
yevop, Kal to, | Xoiira Tifica ^fiev avrol oaaa Kal rolp aX|\o{/3 Trpo- 
^evoip Kal evepyeratp virdpj^ei irapa | Tap iroKiop. rjfiev Se Kal 
a(T<j)dXeiav Kal TroXe/ico | Kal eipdvap, Kal yap Kal ^oiKiap eyKrr)- 
aiv, Kal II itTeXeiav, Kal irpoeSpiav iv rolp AtovvaiaKolp | aymvoip, 25 
rav re Ovaidv Kal rifidv rraaav | p^ere-^rfv, Ka6a>p Kal rol Xoiirol 
OeapoSoKOi | Kal evepyerai /lere'^ovrL. Sofiev Se avrol \ Kal Aa/io- 
Kpdr-q rov rafiiav ^evia ra || p-eyiara €k ratv vojjlcov. to Se yfrd(f)i- 30 
(T/ia I TO yeyovop arro rap ^coXdp ypa^ev ey •)(a\K(o\ixa dvareOdi 
iv ro iapov ra Aibp ra 'OXv/mttico. \ rav Se iirifieXeiav rap dvaOe- 
aiop iroirjaacrai \ A.la'y^ivav rov irrifieXrjrav rdv Xirrrmv. || rrepl Se 35 
rSi cnroaraXdiiev rolp TeveSiotp \ ro yeyovop ■\jrd(f)iap.a iinneXeiav 
•iroi-qarai | Niko'S/so/aojo 6 ^(oXoypd(f>op, orrtop So6di rolp | Oeapolp 
rolp ifi ^liXrjrov arroa-reXXofielvoLp rrorl rav dvaiav Kai rov 
aywva || rav AtSv/ieimv. *0 

Northwest Greek koivtj 

62. Thermum. About 275 B.C. "Ec^.'Apx-lSOS.SSfi. 
2YN0HKA KAI 2YMMAXIA AITOAOI2 KAI AKAPNAN0I2 

'Ayaddi rv'^^ai. 'S.vvOiJKa AtVaXot? Kal 'AKapvdvoi<; 6p.6Xoyo<;. 
elprjvav | elp-ev Kal <f>iXiav ttot aXXdXov;, cf)iXov<; idvra'i Kal crii/i- 
fidj^ov^ d/j,a\ra rojM irdvra ■x^povov, opia e')(pvra<i rd<: ;^topas rov 

68. Treaty of alliance between the west Greek Koivi. See 279. Note e.g. 

Aetolians and Acarnanians. This is an the retention of original o, ra, iroxi, 

example of the mixed dialect current infin. in -/«», 3 pi. imv. in -vra, | in aor. 

at this time in various parts of North- (Tepiui^avTui), but Att. el for al, ov beside 

west Greece, which we call the North- eo (e.g. avrnroiovvTai but (TTpaTay4ovTo^, 



224 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 62 

' A^eXaJtov TroTa/xloz/ a%pt ek OaXacrcrav. ra fiev iror aio tov ' A^e- 
5 Xcoiov TTora/Mov KircoXmv elfiev, to, Se || tto^' ecnrepav 'Aicapvaveov 
TrXav TOV Upavrb'; ical to.'; Ae/i^tSo? ■ ravTw; Se 'AKapvai^&i 
ovK avTiiroiovvrai. virep Se rwv repfiovcov tov HpavTO<!, et ft^ey Ka 
'S.Tpa.TLOL KaX 'A7/3at|o{ a-vyx^copeoavTi avTol ttot avTovv, tovto kv- 
piov e<TT(o, el Se fiij, ' KKapvave; Kal AItcoXoI | Tepp,a^avTa) Tap, 
UpavTiSa 'x^copav, aipeOevTm eKUTepcov Beica irXav 'S,TpaTia>v Kal 
'Aypailoav • Ka6a<; Se Ka Tepfid^mvTi, TeXeiov eaTCO. elp,ev Se Kal 

10 eiriyap.iav ttot aXXdXov; Kal 7||a? eyKTijcnv tSu re AlTfoXmi ev 
'AKapvaviai Kal t&i 'AKapvavi ev AiTooXiau Kai iroXiTav eip,^ tov 
AiTtoXov ev 'AKapvaviai Kal tov 'AKapvava ev AiTcoXiai iffoy Kal 
ofioiov. avaypayfravWo) Se TavTa ev aTaXait j^a\/ceat5 eir 'Aktiwi 
p,ev ol dpy(0VTe<; t&v ' AKapvdvmv, ev Se @e/)/U.]&jt toI apj^ovTe'; twv 
AtTcoXav, ev 'OXvp^irCai Se Kal ev AeX<f)ol<; Kal ev Ao}(S)a)vat koi- 
vai eKai^epoi. cTrt ap'XpvTCOv ifi fiev AiTCoXiai crTpaTayeovTO'; IIoXu- 

15 KpiTov K-aXXcea to SevTe\]pov, iinrap'xeovTO'i ^iXmvo<s TlXevpaviov, 
ypap.p,aTevovTO<i NeoTTToXe/iou NauTra/CTtou, | eTrcXeKTapxeovTWV 
AafieSa)vo<; KaXvScoviov, ' ApccrTapy^ov 'E/Jrat'ou, Aerai/o? K.a\<f>peo<;, 
KaXXt'a KaXXi^o-;, 'Yip,oX6')(pv TioTeiSavieo<i , Tlap-ifiaiSa ^vcrKeo's, 
liCp^ov I <J>VTateo9, TafiievovTCOv JLvSpicovo'; Avaip.a')(eo<;, Aa}pip,dj(^ov 
Tpi'^oviov, 'Api<TT\a}vo<: Aaidyo<{, 'ApiaTea 'laTcopiov, ' Ayijo'covo'! 

20 Ae^ieoi, TcfidvSpov ''Epivaloi, || 'Aypiov l^ma-deveo'; ■ ev Se 'AKapva- 
viai aTpaTay&v ^vvddpov OlvidSa, 'E7rt[X]|aou Arjpieoi;, ' Ayija-coVoi 
1,TpaTiov, 'AX/ceVa ^oiTiavo<;, 'AXKivov &vppeiov, @eeoi'|o9 'AvaKTO- 
pieof, HoXvKXeo'i AevKaSiov, iTr7rap')(eovTO<; 'iTTTroXaou OlvidSa, I 
ypap,p.aTevovTO<; TJepiKXeo'; OlvidSa, Tafiia 'AyeXdov I^TpanKov. | 
— Iivp.fj.a'x^ia AtTwXot? Kal ' AKapvdvoi<; dp,aTa Top, irdvTa 'xpovov. 11 

25 e'i Ti<: Ka ep,^dXXrji et? tolv AhmXiav iirl iroXep,mi, /3oa6oeiv 

els beside ^c with ace. (eis t4p XlriSKlav used of the citizen levies in contrast to 

but iv 'Axaprnvlav), lwTeu(n beside iir- tlie mercenaries, Polyb.2.65, 6.91,95, 

T^o's. and iinXeKTdpxv! Plut.Arat.32. — 24. 

16. iin\(Krap\e6vTtav: this is the SLuara : probably connected with /idTiji', 

first reference to iiriXeKrdpxai as mili- Dor. ndraf, and so having the same 

tary officials in the Aetolian league. force as the frequent dir\&s ko! d86- 

For the Achaean league, cf. iirlXcKToi, Xus, e.g. no. 112.22. 



No. 64] LACONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 225 

T0^9 I 'AKapvava<; ire^oK /lev ')(iKloi<;, itrvevai he eKarov, ow ko. 
roi ap')(0VT^ ireiiircovTi, iv dfjLepai<s ef. Kal ei ti<s iv 'KKapvavCav 
ifi^dXXoi iirl iroXefucoi, I ^oadoelv AiVwXoii? Tre^'ot? fiiv j^tXt'ot?, 
tTTTreot? Se eKarov, iv a,fiepai<: e|, ow | ku toI ap')(pvre<; Tre/iTroivTi. 
el Be ifKeiovav j^peiav e^oiev arepoi TroVe/sot, || ^oaOoovvreo rpiajfi^ 30 
Xi'ot? eKarepoi exarepoK, iv dfiepai<; Sexa. ras Se ^oadola<s rla? 
airoaTeXKoiieva'i ecrroo to rpiTop. fiepo<; OTrXirat. irefiirovTm he Tap, 
^oddoiav I ey p,ev 'AKapvavia<; ol aTparayol twv 'Axapvdvmv Kal 
01 (Tvvehpoi, iy he AtTtoXia? | ol dp')(OVTe<i t&v AItodX&v. airap- 
^ovvTO) he Toii? diroo'TeWofievov'; aTpaTUOi^a's eKarepoi tow? ai- 
ra>v diiepdv rpiaKOvra • el he irKelova 'x^povov e')(piev ra? ;Soa||0oia? 35 
j(peiav ol p.erarrefiyjrdiievoi rap, fioddoiav, hihovrco rai a-irap'x^iai 
eare Ka | iv oikov cnroaretXcovri rov<; arpaTUora<;. enrap')(^ia S" earai 
rov TrXeioi/o? j(pdv\ov Tft)[t p.ev Imrei crra^rrip K.opCvOio'; ra? dp,e- 

pa^ eKda-ra<i, rSti \he\ rap. travoTrXiav 6j^o|[i'Tt ], rait 

Se TO ripidmpdKLov ivve oySoXoi, ■^iXwt eirr oySoXot. ayeiaQwv | 

[39—42 fragmentary]. 

Laconian 

63. Olympia. VI cent.B.c. SGDI.4405. Inschr.v.01yinpia252. Roberts 
261. 

[Ae|]o, Fdv\alQ\ Kpoviha [Z]ev 'OXvvme, KaXov d[y]a\p,a 
hiXefo[i 6v]p,5i Tot(X) AaKehaip.ovio[i^]. 

64. Delphi. Soon after 479 B.C. SGDI.4406. Ditt.Syll.7. Hicks 19. 
MichellllS. Roberts 259. Solmsenl6. 

[T]o[tSe rov] \ iroXep.ov [e]|7roX[e']/xeoi' • | Aa«:[eS]a[i]^oV[tot], || 
'A0[a]i'[a]t[o]t, I Kopiv6ioi, \ Teyedr[ai], \ 1,iKVovioi, | Alytvarai, || 5 

63. This is the inscription mentioned tripod set up at Delphi after the battle 
by Paus.5.24.3, who reproduces it, of Plateea. The tripod was destroyed 
eliminating the dialectic peculiarities, by the Phocians in the Sacred War, 
as follows : but the column remained until it was 

Aj> «VT^ ,^ ,j - 'r\\j \k carried bv Constantine to Constanti- 

A^|o, dual KpovlSa Zeu OXiJ/urie, KoKdv i-a,nicu. k/jr v> 

, r^ nople, where it still remains. Accord- 

,,, J".^"- . s , iiig to Thucydides (1.132.3) and others, 

the Lacedaemonians, after erasing the 

64. The famous bronze serpent- boastful epigram of Pausanias, in- 
column which once supported the gold scribed simply the names of the cities 



226- 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 64 



10 Meyapi<;, \ 'EiriSavpioi, | 'Epxaf^evioi, | ^Xetdaioi, | Tpo^dvioi, || 
20 'Epfiiovh, I Tipvvffioi, I UXaraie^, \ @ea-7nh, | MvKavh, || Ketoi, | 
25 Ma\tot, I TevLoi, I Naftot, | 'Eperpie^, || XaX/ctSe?, | lTVpe<;, | Fa- 
30 Xetot, I IIoTetStaTai, | Aev«aStot, || YavuKTopiei;, | Kv^wot, | '2i(f>vioi, | 
'AfiirpaKidrai, | AeirpeaTai. 

65. FoundatTegea. V cent. B.C. SGDI.4598. Iiiscr.Jurid.II,pp.60fE. 
Michel 1343. Roberts 257 and pp.357 fE. Solmsen 26. 

A 'SovOiai TOL ^ika'xaio ^taKd.TL\at, fivat. ac k avTO<s it, Iro ave- 
Xe'trl^o • ai Se k airoOdviL, rov reicvov | efiev, eirei ku Trevre perea || 

5 hejSdvn • al 8e Ka pe jeverak rexva, tov eirihiicaTdv epev • I Siayvo- 
pev Se TOi TeyedTa[<;'\ | Ka(T) top ffeOpov. 

B 'BiOvOlai ■7rapica(ff)6eKa roi ^i\,a'x,a\io T(X)eTpaicdTLai pval apyv- 
pio. el p\ev Ka foe, avTo<; aveXeirOo • at Se K\a pe ^oS, rol viol ave- 

5 XoctOo Tol yveilcrioi, eirei ica e^daovn Trevre /reVela • el Se Ka pe 



which had taken part in the war and 
had set up the tripod. On the retention 
of 0- in *X«dirioi, see 59.1. Note also 
[^]7roX[^]iiieoi', for which the true Laco- 
nian form would he iiro\4iMiov. 

65. Statements of two deposits of 
money made by a certain Xuthias, son 
of Philachaeus, and tlie conditions for 
their future disbursement. The place 
of deposit was without doubt the tem- 
ple of Athena Alea in Tegea, tlie Greek 
temples often being used for such pur- 
poses. But the dialect is not Arcadian, 
and must therefore represent that of a 
foreign depositor. The most natural 
assumption is that Xuthias was from 
the neighboring Laconia, and we are 
expressly informed (of. Athen. 6.233) 
that the Spartans used to deposit money 
with the Arcadians to evade tlie law 
against holding private property. It 
has been suggested, partly on account 
of the names (Xuthias, Philachaeus), 
but mainly because of the retention of 



intervocalic o- {yi4(ru>t, e/Sdo-om), that 
Xuthias was not a Spartan proper, but 
an Achaean perioecus. But there is no 
good evidence that the perioeci differed 
in speech from the Spartans at this 
time, and the retention of intervocalic 
T and of antevocalic e (f ^rea) is suffi- 
ciently explained by the fact that the 
document was intended for use outside 
of Laconia. See 59.1, 275. 

A. For Xuthias the son of Phila- 
chaeus {are deposited) two hundred mi- 
nae. If he lives, let him come and take 
it, but if he dies, it shall belong to his 
children five years after they reach the 
age of puberty. If there are no children, 
it shall belong to those designated by law 
as heirs. The Tegeans shall decide ac- 
cording to the law. 

B. This was inscribed later than A, 
which was thereupon canceled, as 
shown by its mutilation. The Tegean 
engraver is responsible for the use of 
ct instead of al, the subj, foe (of. 149) 



No. 66] LACONIAN INSCEIPTIONS 227 

^ovn, ral 6vyaTe'pe<s | aveXoado rat yvea^tai • ei Se Ka /ji,e I ^ovti, toI 
voOoi aveXdado- el Be ku | fie vodot ^ovn, toI '9 d(a-)cna-Ta Trd^tKlle? 10 
ave\6<r6o- el Se k av(l)i(X)\eyovT\(i, t)oI Teyearai SiayvovTO kuM 
Tov OeOfiov. 

66. Sparta. V cent. B.C. SGDI. -44:16. Michel946. Roberts 264. Solm- 
sen 17 . Annual British School XIII , 1 74 fi. 

Aafj-ovov I avedeKe 'A.6avala\j,'\ | HoXidxoi 
viKciha^ I ravTO, har oufie? 11 ireiroica tov viiv. I s 

TaSe eviKahe Aa/i[oi;oi/] | rot avTo T60jonr7ro[i] | auro? avLo^iov ■ | 
ev VaiapoyS reTpdia\i>] || /eat 'Addvaia Ter[pdKiv] | KeXevhvvia re- 10 
T[/3a«ti'.] I /cat UohoiSaia AaiMOvo[v'\ | ej/i'/ce He'X.et, /cat Ao /ce'X[e^ | 
/ia/i]a, auTO? avio)^tov || ivhe^ohaK Ai'ttttoi? | he-maKiv e/e rav auro | 15 
hvrrtrov kSk to ou[t]o [/h'tttto.] | «ai TLofioLSaia Aafiovdu I [eji/t/ce 
®evptai o/cTa[/c]t[i/] 11 auTO? avio^iov iv\he^ofiai<; hiTrTroii I e/c Tav 20 
ouTO hiinrov I /ee/c to awro Aitttto. I /cei/ 'Apiovrca^ ivixe 11 Aafiovov 25 
oKTUKiv I 0UT09 avioj^iov I ivhefiohaK hiiriroi'; I e/e Tav auro Aitt- 
TTOV I Acex TO auTO AtTTTTO, /Cat 11 Ao KeXi^ evLKe A[a/xa]. I /cot 'EXev- 30 
hvvia Aafi^ovov] I ivixe avTo? o.vlo'^^lov I evhe^ohai<; hiirtroL'; | 

in contrast to diro$tii<et of A, the omis- nes in sucA a manner as 7ie»er any one 

sion of A in viol, ipiaovn (cf. 58(i); and of those now living. — 7. With his own 

his blunder in writing rferpaicdTiai was four-horse chariot, oiro reflexive as in 

perhaps due to tlie Arcadian pronun- 11. 16, 17, etc. — 9. In the games of Po- 

ciation (cf. 68.3). It is also possible seidon, with elliptical genitive as in eik 

that in 11. 10-11 ~we should read, with- 'AiSoo etc. So ^k 'Apiow/as 1. 24. Toid- 

out correction, i.v<pii^\iyovToi, with foxos = Horn. 7011)0x05. — 11,31. kIXev- 

Arc. -TOI = -Tai (139.1). But the pas- hiivio: /tai 'EXeuo-(wa (20, 59.1), games 

sive with /xrat understood as subject is in honor of the Eleusinian Demeter. — 

less natural tlian the corrected reading 12, 18. noho(Sai.a: XLoaeiSiivia (49.1, 

usually adopted. For the reading iv- 89.1, 61.5) celebrated at Helos in La- 

0i(X)Xe7-, rather than ivifiCKty-, cf. the conia and Thuria in Jlessenia. — 15 ff. 

XX attested in other dialects (89.3). Seven times loith colts (bred) from his 

For dreX6<j-9o see 140.86. own mares and his oion stallion. — Iv- 

66. Record of the victories of Damo- hipohais htinrois : ivTiPii<rais being in 

non and his son. The portion of the ^jSrj, young mares. — 19. 6evpCai: the 

stone containing 11. 42-94 was only re- usual foi-m of the name is Qovpla. — 

cently discovered. 24. 'ApiovrCa : the name of some god- 

3 S. viKdha$ ktX. : Having won victo- dess or heroine otherwise unknown. — 



228 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 66 

35 rerpaKiv. || rdSe eviKahe 'Ei'u/ia[«/3aTtS|os] 7r/3aT[os 7r]at(S)a)Z' • 

^o\\ixov I Ai6e]ka kuI Ki\e^ /iii[a9 | a/te/)]a? ha[ti,a\ ev[Uov. \ || 

40 I - -] I ^oXix^ly '^'*' ^° KeXe^ /ita?] | a/iepai ha/ia eviKov. | 

45 Koi Tiapirapovia iviKe 11 "EvvfiaKpaTiSai iraiSa'i | crrdSiov km Siav- 

\ov I Kdt 8o\f;)^oj' Kat ho Ke[\e^] | /lita? ajiepa'; hap.d | evi/ce. «:ai 
50 Aafiovov II ei'iA;? Trat? toz/ eV j Tatapo'x^o a-rdSiov kuI | [SiJauXoi'. 
55 [«]al Aa/Jiovov evUe j Trat? tov AiOehia \\ a-TaStov ical SiavXov. 

Kol Aafiovov ivLKe | TraZ? t'ov MaXeareta | crrdSiov Kal SiavXov. 
60 /cai Aafiovov iviKe || Trat? toz' Aidehta | ardSiov xal SiavXov. | /cai 
65 Aap-ovov evUe | Trat? t'oi/ Uapirapdvia | crrdBtov Kal SiavXov, jj «at 

'Addvaia erTdScov. | Autto 8e 'E%e/u,eW e<^o/3o[i'] | raSe ei/iKe Aafio- 
70 I'oi', I 'Addvaia ivhe^ohai<; j hiiriroi'; auro? avio'x^idv || Kat Ao KeXe^ 

IMidi I a/j,epa'; hafia iviKi, Kal | Ao Auto? a-rdSiov hafid | iviKe. hviro 
75 Se I EiitTTTTOi' e^opov rdSe jj ez'tKe Aafiovov, 'Addvaia j ivhi^ohai's 

hiTT'TroK I avTO'! avio^iov Kal \ ho «re\ef /itta? ap-epai j Aa/ia eviKe, 
80 «at Ao Auto? II a-rdSiov hafxd eviKe. j Autto 8e 'ApiaTe e(j)opov j raSe 

ei'i«e Aafiovov, 1 ei' Vaiapoj^p ivhej3ohais \ [AJiTTTTOt? auTO? ai/to^tof || 
85 [wjai Ao KeXe^ fiid'i afiepa<; | [A]a/Aa ez/i/ce, Kal Ao Auto? j (ndSiov 
90 «al SiavXov Kal \ SoXi^ov fiia^ afiepai j iviKov TrdvTei hafid. || Aktto 

Se '^^efieve ecf>opov | raSe ei'i/ce Aafiovov, \ iv Vaiap6')(p evhe^o- 

haii I AtTTTTOt? avTo? dvioy^iov, \ [icjal ho Auto? o-raStoi' K[ai 

67. Taenarum. IVcent.B.c. SGDI.4591. MicheH076. Roberts 265c. 
Inscr.Jurid.II,p.235. Transitional alphabet. H = A and once tj. 

5 'AvediKE I Tot IIoAotSai't | Nikov | NtKa(^OjOiSa || «at Avhnnrov \ 
10 Kat ^iKap^iSav | /cat TavTO,^ Trdvra. j ecf)opo'; | EuSa/iiSa?. || eTra- 
/coe I Mei'ep^a/oiSa? | 'AvSpofieSrji;. 

36 ff. Victo_ries won by 'EKUAtoKparlSas the usual form is due to assimilation 
(of. 1. 45), evidently Damonon's son (cf . to the vowel of the second syllable. — 
11.72, 79, etc.). The name (cf.'OraMii/tpi- 44, 63. Ilapiropivia : ndpwapos is the 
Tos) points to an ^j»u/ia = 6miia, 6mfi.a, name of a mountain in Argolis where 
with an inherited e-grade in the first games were held.— 49 ff. Victories won 
syllable, which is seen in some of the by Damonon as a boy. — 54, 60. AiBe- 
cognate forms of other languages, e.g. hia : games in honor of Apollo Lithe- 
Old Prussian emmens, but was hitherto sius. — 57. MaXedrEia : games in honor 
unknown in Greek. Probably the o of of Apollo Maleates. Cf. Paus.8.12.8. 



No. 70] 



LACONIAK INSCRIPTIOlSrS 229 

Michel 1077. Roberts 265rf. 



68. Taenarum. IV cent. B.C. SGDI.4592. 
Transitional alphabet. H = /i and ij. 

'AvedriKe | Ala-xp^ov | 'ATreipora? | toi IlohoiSS\\vi 'RpaxX'^iSav | 6 
avTov Kal I TavTO. e^opo^ | RayrihiaTpaTO';. | e7ra'/co II/juoto^J'ETrt- 10 
a:i587?[s]. 

69. Thalamae. IVcent. b.c. Annual British School X, 188. Meister, 
Ber.Sachs.Ges.l905,277S. Ionic alphabet, but H = A as well as -q. 

'NiKocrOeviSa'; tm Ilahi(f)ai | yepovrevrnv avearjKe, I avroi; re Kal 
ho T&) iraTpb<; ■7r\aTr]p 'NiKO(rdeviSa<;, 7rpo^ei'n^\dha<; ra{<;) cnSi 5 
ttot' 'AvSpiav crv\ve(f>opevovra ai't[o-]Ta'/i,ei' | ^iKoa-ffeviSav i[v] rm 
t[e]/)a)i, fijbv Kal avv koKoji, j^prjaTai. 

70. Sparta. II cent. a. d. SGDI.4498. Annual British School XII,356. 
- - |o9 Kal Nei/C77(^o'p|o? oi Net«^^opow, 1 veiKoavrep Kaalar)- 

paropiv fiaiav (/cat) KatX[i9]||ai', 'ApTS/jLiSi 'Baypdea ai^eOrjKav iirl 5 



— 66 ff. Victories won by Damonon 
and his son at the same games. — 66, 73, 
81, 90. AuttA with a.cc. for usual ^i with 
gen., as El. iiri With gen. in no. 61.2. 

67, 68. Manumissions of slaves in 
the form of dedications to Poseidon. 

lirdKoe, lirdKo: dual forms of iTrd- 
Koos = ftrijicoos witness. hr&Ko is the con- 
tracted form, of which the uncontracted 
hraxbu occurs in another inscription of 
the same class. ^Trdicoe is due to the 
analogy of consonant stems, to which 
nouns in -oos are not infrequently sub- 
ject, e.g. Att. xoCs (112.6), late voOs 
gen. sg. Kois, nom. pi. vbes (after /Sous, 
|3o6s, j36es). 

69. From the shrine of Pasiphae at 
Thalamae, an oracle often consulted by 
the Spartan ofBcials. Cf. Cic.de divin. 
1.43.96, Plut. Agis 9 and Cleom.7. The 
name of the goddess was Jiaai^/ia (Att. 
Ilao-i^di;), whence the contracted IIo- 
ffi^a, like ' ABttva, and here, with Lac. A 
for intervocalic «-, IlaAi^a. Singe Nicp- 



sthenidas the dedicator was a member 
of the Council of Elders, his grand- 
father of the same name could not have 
been living at the time. He was carry- 
ing out an Injunction previously laid 
upon the grandfather by the goddess, 
which for some reason had been unful- 
filled. 

4 ff. irpoPeiirdhas ktX. : since the god- 
dess had declared that Nicosthenidas 
should set up in the shrine a statue in 
honor of Andreas his fellow-ephor, and 
that he would then consult the oracle 
with success. The construction ttot 'Av- 
Spiav. . . di<«rrd/i6i' is unusual, but other 
possible interpretations are equally dif- 
ficult in this respect. — hov kt\. : infin. 
clause depending on irpopairdhas, who 
would — and that he would. Eor xpv- 
<rTot= xp^i''*"' see 85.1. 

70-73. These belong to a series, now 
fifty-odd in number, of dedications 
to Artemis Orthia by the victors in 
certain juvenile contests, The object 



230 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 70 



Trarpovo/jiiov Mdp(KOv) Aip(r}\iov) liOoaiveUov [ rov 'N€iKcipa>vo<i, 
(]>[^L7i\oKaiaapop Koi (piXoTrdrpiSop.^ 

71. Sparta. 11 cent. a. d. Annual British School XII, 368. 

5 K.\eavSpop [ o Kal M.rjvip | KaWia-Tpdrco | ^ovaybp iirl || Trarpo- 

VOflCO I ropyiTTTTCO TW (TopjlTTTrO)) I VlKUap fl&aV 'ApTel/JLin BcBjO- 

aea ave(T7]\Ke. 

72. Sparta. Ilcent. a.d. SGDI.4500. Annual British School XII,355. 
5 'AyaOij Tvj'x^rj. | <^i\7)Top | <I>f\^Ta) j eirl iraTpoh^ojio) Vop\yCTnrco 

Tw (TopyiTTTrai) \ veiKaap Kekvav | 'Aprefiiri ^mpaea I avearjKe. 

73. Sparta. Ilcent. a.d. Annual British School XII,372. 

EvSoKi/jLop (^vBoKifiO)) KelKoia Kal EuSo'/ctlyuo/s AafiOKpareop I 6 
5 Kal 'ApicTTeiSap KaalWrjpaTopioi veiKaavWep iirl 'AXKacrTco ^ova- 
jol I fiLKiyiSSofieVcov 'FcopOea. 



dedicated, the prize itself, was an iron 
sickle, which was let into a socket, 
with which each of the stone slahs is 
provided, some with two (as nos. 70, 
73), or even three. Of the contests, one 
is called Kaa-(rripar6piv, KaBBijpaTbpiv, KaB- 
6npaT&pu>v, etc., i.e. KaTaSripariptov, not 
an actual chase of wild beasts, but 
some athletic game called the hunt. 
The fiQa, i.e." lioSira, was of course a 
musical contest. The word which is 
variously spelled KaiX[^]ai', KeKSav, kc- 
X?a, KcKoiav, Ke\4av, probably from the 
root seen in K^XaSos, KeXad^a, also de- 
notes a musical contest. That the con- 
tests were between boys is shown by 
the use of TaidiKdv in many of the dedi- 
cations, e.g. veiKdap t4 iratSm&i' p,iJia win- 
ning the boys' contest in music {/iiia dat. 
sg.), and by the appearance of the |8ou- 
aySp leader of the /SoCai, the bands in 
which the Spartan boys were trained, 
orpovayhp p,iKKi.x^SSop.(vwv, leader of boys 
in th^ir tenth yea,r. According to a ^\os^ 



to Herodotus, the Spartan boy in the 
third year of his training was called 
luKt^6p.emt. This is from Dor. iukk6s = 
ixiKpbi, while lUKKtxtSSS/ievos is from a 
diminutive in -ixos (original or for -«os? 
Cf. TaiSixiv beside ■rraiSiKir). 

A few of the dedications are in the 
KoiPi}, and a few show Doric forms with- 
out the specific Laoonian coloring, e.g. 
viKdira!. But most of them, like those 
given here, represent an artificial re- 
vival of the local dialect, that is, arti- 
ficial as regards its use in inscriptions, 
but probably reflecting, though only 
crudely and with great inconsistency 
in spelling (e.g. in the use of <r = 6), 
the form of speech which still survived 
as a patois among the Laconian peas- 
ants. Some of the peculiarities in spell- 
ing are not characteristic of Laconian 
especially, but of the late period, e.g. 
ei = I in veixdavrep etc. , oi for o in Bwp- 

eia, final « for S' in Bupeia, etc. 



No. 74] HEEACLEAN INSCRIPTION 231 

Heraclean 

74. The Heraclean Tables. End of IV cent. B.C. IG.XIV.645. SGDI. 
4629. Inscr.Jurid.I,p.l94ff. SolmsenlS. Ionic alphabet, but with /r, and 
h = A. Only. Table I is given. 

I 

"E^opo<s 'Apia-Tapxo'i HrjpaKXeiBa • jli^? | 'ATreXXaio? • ha tto- 
Xt? Kai roi 6pi(TTai, | ^ Tpi-jrov; ^iXa)vv/j,o<; ZwTrvpia-KO), I we icapv- 
Ketov 'ATToXXtui'to? HrjpaKXiJTO), |[ ai TreXra Aaft/tio? Uvppco, lev 5 
dplva^ I <l>iXt0Ta9 HtcTTteto), Tie eiria-TvKiov | H?7jOa«;XeiSa? Zairvpco, 
Aiovva-oM. I 

Aveypayjrav toI bpLarai roi haipeOevTa eirl tq)? 'xa>pm^ to)? 
hiapay; rm? raJ Aiovvcra), | <J>tXt6i'u/io? ZtoirvpLcrKa), ' AttoWcovioi 
HtjpaKXijTa), Atift/io? IIvp/sco, <I>tXwTa? HicrTtetis), || Hiy/ja/eXeiSa? lo 
Zmtrvpo), Kada [m/ajt^ai' «at erepfia^av Koi avvefieTprjaav koL 
ip,epi\^av rS)v H.T)paK\eicov Siukvovtcov iv KaTaKKrjrmi aXlai. 

'^vveiieTprjaanei 8e ap^ajjid^voL airo tS> avTOfim tS> hv-rrep IXavSo- 
fft'a? dyovTOi tw hiaTanvovTO'; tw? re Ata/aw? ;i^(u||3(b? «;ai rai' fihiav 
ydv iirl tov avrofiov tov opi^ovra reu? re t<m Atovva-oo ^(^copcoi koI \ 
Tov K.covea<: ho Aia>vo<} eTraficoy^r]. KaTeTdfiop,e<; Se /tte/aiSa? rero- 
pa'i • II Tav fiev irparav fiepiSa avo tS) dvT6/j,a> t<w "Trap to, Hrjpcoi- 15 
Seta dyovTO'!, | evpo^ ttotI tclv TpiaKovrdireSov rav 8ia tmv hiapS>v 
j^mpav dycgaav, \ p.aKO'; Se dvcaOa diro rdv cnropodv d^pi e? irora- 
fiov TOV "Axipiv, Kal I iyevovTO p.eTpid>fievai iv ravrai rdi p,epeiai 
eppriyeia<; fiev Si\aKdnai, fxia cryplvoi, crKipca Se xal appij/crco Kal 

74. The lands which were the prop- of those who took leases, with their 

erty of the temples of Dionysus and sureties and the amount of the rental 

Athena Polias having been encroached (11. 179-187). Table II, which is not 

upon by private parties, with a conse- given here, contains a report of the com- 

quent diminution of their revenue, two mission on the lands of Athena Polias. 

commissions were appointed to define 1-7. The groups of letters fe, ire, 

and mark their boundaries, survey etc., and the names of objects which 

them, and divide them into lots. Ta- served as emblems rplirom, KapvKeTop, 

ble I contains the report of the commis- etc. , are used as symbols to denote the 

sion dealing with the lands of Dionysus tribe and family of the person named. 

(11. 1-94), a statement of the regula- — 11. Siokv6vt<i)v : Siavxin-wx II. 9. 66. 

tions under which the lands were of- — 18 ff. ^ppri-yeCos kt'K. -. SOI (rxotmi. of 

fered for rental (11. 96-179), and a list araUe land, 646\ of brushwood, barren, 



232 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 74 

20 SpvfiS) pe^aKanai || TerpatKovTa /ref a-)(plvoi hrj/xia-xoivov ■ rav Se 
Sevrepav /jiepiBa, evpo<; utto I ra? rpiaKOVTaireSeo iirl rov avTOfioy 
Tov Trpdrov, fJi,aKO<; Se airo rav I cnropoav ay^^pi e? TrorafJLov, icai eje- 
vovTO fjLerpiQi/jLevai, iv Tavrai rai fidpeCai ipprj'yeia'; /J-ev SiaKariai 
he^hep.riK0VTa rph ^^(plvot,, aKipas 8e | xal apprjKTO) kuI Spvfjbw 

25 irevTaKaTiai cr'xp'ivoi • ]| tclv Se rpirav jxepiSa, evpov airo t& avTopLW 
Tw TrpaTOO rS) wap rav TpclaKovrciTreSov dyoproi; cttI tov avrofiov 
TOV SevTepov airb tw Tpia^KOVTaireSat, fiaKO<; airb tuv airopoav aj(^pi 
e? iroTafidv, Kal i'ye\vovTo fieTpuofievai iv TavTai tm jxepeiai eppr]- 
yeiai; fiev TpiaKUTiai I Sexa Svo aj(o'lvoL hrffiicry^^oivov, orKipm Se Kal 

30 apprjKTO) Koi Spvfio) ■7revTa]\KdTiai TpiciKOVTa heiTTa hrjfiLcr'X^oivov 
Tav Se TeTapTav jxepCSa, ei>po<i cnro I to) avTOfjiO) tm SeVTepm airo 
TO,'; TpiaKOVTairiSfo eirl tov dvTop,ov tov | opi^ovTa Tav re hiapdv 
Kal Thv piSiav ydv, fiaKov Se dwo Tav cnropoav I d)(pt e? troTap.ov, 
Kal eyevovTO fieTpito/jbevai iv TavTai tcLi fiepeidi ippT)\yeui<; /j,ev Tpia- 

35 Kanai hoKToa a'^olvoi hrjfi,icr')(oivov, <TKip<o Se Kal dpprjKT(o || Kal 
SpvfiS) irevTaKanai TeTpmKOVTa p,Ca hrjp.icr')(oivov. | 

K6(^aXa Tracra? eppr]yeia<; j^tXtat heveviJKOVTa irevTe cry^^olvoi, 
tTKilpo} Se Kal dpprjKT(o Kal SpvjiSi Siay^^iXiai SiaKaTiai fiKaTi 
TrevTe " | Tav Se vdcrov Tav Tronyeyevr] fievav e? Tav dpprjKTOv ydv 
<ruvefJi,e\Tpi]crafie';. d-Tro TavTa<; Td^ yd<! diroXaiKrj epprjyeia<; fiev 

40 TpiaKaTtai || rpt? cry^olvoi, hrj/j-ia-^oivov, a-Kipco Se Kal dppijKTO) Kal 
SpvpjS) TeTpa\ic6(TiaL TpiaKOVTa irevTe a'^olvoi, ep. p,ev Tat irpaTac 
fiepeiai Tdi | Trdp Ta HrjpcoiSeia eppr]yeia<s p,ev he^Sep,riKOVTa /ref 
a-^oivoi, (TKi^pm Se Kal dppijKTO) Kal Spvp,5) heKaTov hoySorjKOVTa 
■jrevTe o-;;^;oi|i'of, iv Se Tdi TeTapTai fiepeiai rat irdp tA ^ivtm ippr]- 

45 ye(a<; p.ev || SiaKanai pUaTi he'/TTa cr')(plvoL hr)p,la-')(ot,vov, aKipm Se 
Kal dppifi\KTm Kal SpvfiSi SiaKanai irevTriKOVTa a-yoivoi. JLe^aXd 
7ra'|cra9 7a? Aa? KaTe(T(i)i(Tap,e<; tS)i Aiovva-coi heTTTaKanai Tpid-\ 
KOVTa hoKToa a-'x^oivoi hr]ix[a')(pivov ■ Tavrav Thv ydv KaTea-d)ia-a\fie<: 

50 iySiKa^dfievoi SiKa<s TpiaKoa-Tala<i Toh Tdv hiapdv ydv pi\\Siav 
and wooded, land. — 3Q. 6.iro\&\r\: had who had appropriated it to private 
SeejiJos*, i.e. by private encroachment. use (11. 47 ff.). — 49. SCxas rpioKoo-ToC- 
This land the commissioners restored to os: suits which had to be tried within 
Dionysus, bringing suits against those thiHy days, Cf , no. 56.42 and the Attic 



No. 74] HERACLEAN INSCRIPTION 233 

iroiovraaatv. havra ifiia-OmOt] [ha 7a] Kara /Si'to | \h6(T<Ta]v A[a]|- 
/Ltes Kar€ao}i(Ta/j.€<; Tpia/carimv /ieSifivcov to /reVo? heKaarov, I ha Se 
Trdaa ya ha tS) Aiovvaco rerpaKaTiav SeKa fieSi/j-vtov /caSIStyo? to 
/rcTO? heKacTTOv. 

'Eo-Tacra/ie? Se /cat o/aeo? eVt fiev Ta<; | 7r\evpidSo<: aveo, heva fiev 
iirl tS) avTOfio) tm irap UavSoa-iav || tco Trap Ta HripdiiSeia tw opi- 55 
fovTO? Tav Te hiapav yav xal rav pi8iav 1 avy^topi^avre'S otto Tav 
oLTTopoav eV Tav fiSiav yav, Aco? /a^ /caTa\u|/M,oKft)^^? aSr/Xcodeirj 
Kau(o<i TOi efJiTrpofTua opoi, dWov Be ctti to) ai/lTo'/tici) tm ttAo to 
^tVTia dyovTO<; ierTaaafie: trap rav /Sw/S\toj' KaX I Tav hiwpvya 
dv^topi^avrei h(otTavTa)<; e? Tav pihiav yav (jav). aXJIXco? Se dmo- m 
poK T0UT0t9 i(TTda-afie<! iirl rw aixa^nSi tw Bia tSj 'ycdpdheo'i ayd)- 
cra? Tai irap rov Bpvfiov, tA? /lev ardXaii e? rav hiapav I Yai*, Ta)9 
Se avTopai'i e? Taj/ fiSiav yav, /caTaXtTroWe? piKaTiirehov | avro/iov. 
eardtraiiei Be KaX /xeacropcoi; , Bvo fiev e7r2 Ta? AoSoi Ta? I aya><Ta<; ex 
re w6Xio<i koI ix IIavBo(ria<s Bid rSiv hiapStv ^((opcov, Bvo || Be ev Tats 66 
haKpoa-KipiaK " TOVTCi)<i Trdvra'i dv evQvtopeCav hofjiokSrfai^ dWd- 
Xots, TO? p.ev e? to hiapov irKdyo^ tw avTOfito iTnye\ypafip.ev(o<s 
"hiapo)'; Acovv&co ■)^d)p(ov," tq)? Be ev jdi fiBiat ydi i'm\yeypafj./jLevco<; 
"avTopco^." hma-avTca^ Be Ka\ eiri tS) avrofio) ra | Trap rd ^ivria 
dyovTO^ iaTdcrafte<; p.ecra-opa)'; , Bvo fiev iirl || Ta? hoBeo Td<i e« Tro'X,to? 70 
Kal eK JlavBoaia^ dyd)aa<; Bid tSiv | hiapwv ■)(a>p(ov, Bvo Be eVt Tai' 
haKpotTKipidv Trap Td<; Tvpeia<; • | towto)? Trdvra'i hofioX6y(o<; dv 
evBvtopeiav TOt? eirl rd^ hoBo) I Td<; Sid tw j(apdBeo<; dyaura's Trap 
Tov Bpvfiov, Tft)? fiev e<s to hiapov I Tr\dyo<; iTriyeypafifievtw; "hiapw<i 
Alovvo-o) ympmv,'' t&j? Be e? rdv piBC^av yav iTnyeypafiiJieva)<; "avro- 75 
/3Q)?," OTrei^oi'Ta? aTr' dWdXcov Aw? ^fJ'ev piKariTreBov dvrofiov. e7ri 
Be TO? rpiaKOvraTreBoa rd<; Bid tS)v hi\ap(iov y^dpajv dywa^a^ eVl fiev 
Tai; TrXevpidBo? dvat Bvo aTrej^ovTa? aTr' aXIXa'XtBi/ rpiaxovra tto- 
Sa?, aXXffl? Be dvT6pa><i tovtoii eTrafa/^e? Trap | rdv hoBov rdv Trap 
Toi» Bpvfiov dyacrav Bvo aTrej^orTa? aTr' aXXo'Xiui' || rpiaKOvra tto- 80 
Ba<; • ev Be fiea-a-wi tS)i ■^mpai eTrt to.'; TpiaKovraTreBco re^ropa'; 

SUat fn/jLTivoi.. — 56. Setting it (the bound- vate land, so thai it should not be covered 
ary) back from the springs onto thepri- over with stones (which were washed 



234 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 74 

cfTrexovra^ air' aWdXwv hat, fiev rpiaKOVTa v6Sa<;, hai Se plica^Ti, ■ 
eirl 8e to) avTo/jLo) rca Trap rhv TpiaKovrdireSov Svo cnrexovraf 
air' al^akwv pUaTi Tro'Sa? Koi a\\a)<; eirl tm Sevrepco avTOfieo 
airexovra'i | air aXkdXmv pUari tto'Sb? • tovtcd? iravra': aveiriypo- 

85 (^(B9 opi^ovTa<; || ra? fiepeCa<; Ta<: ttot aWd\(o^ toi<; fiep-ia-dcofievoK; 
Tft)9 hiapo)^ ^(»||0(B?. TO)? 8e irdvTa'; y^dopco'; rm? ra> Aiovva-O) repfia- 
^ovTi TOL re dvTOfioi I ho re Tra/o to, HrjpMBeia d<ya>v zeal ho irap 
ra (^ivTia airo rdv cnropodv dvcolffa d'x^pi e? irora/xov tov KKipiv. 
apiOfib^ opcov TMV iiTTdaafie<i tS)V fiev | iirl ra) avTOfim tco vap rq, 

90 HrjpcoiSeia heTrra avv rail iirl ra? •jrXevpidSo'i, || eVt 8e ra? r/ata- 
KOVTaireSa) hoKTca avv tSu TeTpco(i)pcoi, iirl Se Tio avTOfia tS) re 
Trap Tav TpiaKovrdireSov Kal tqj ^^(pfJLeva) hvo i<p' etcarepoo, eVt 8e 
TO} I Trap TO, ^iVTia heTrra criiv t&i Trap rav ^v^Xivav p.acr'xdXav 
Kal Trap rhv S(|aJ/3W7a. | 

1,vv0rjKa Aiovvaw yapoav. || 
95 'EttI i^opm 'Kpi(TTi(ovo<;, firjvb^ ' A.TreXKaiai, ha 7ro'\i9 Kal toI 
TToXiavofjioi, aa /Sorpv; 1 ifiap\'x^o<; NtKtai'o?, fi av6efiov 'AttoXXm- 
wo? 'AttoWcovico, Kal toI opia-Tal Je rpiTrov; ^tXc6i'i;|/u.09 ZaiTrvpi- 
CTKO), 7re KapvKelov 'A7roXXtuz/i09 l^rjpaKXrjTW, ai TreXra Ad^ip,o<! 
Tlvppa), I KV dplva^ $tXa)Ta? HtirTteici), /xi eTTLcrrvXiov HijpaKXei- 
8a? ZcoTTvpco, fuadavn tq)? /ii|ajO(B9 j^wpw^ rcb? tc3 Atoi'uo-ci) e;)^0J'Ta? 

100 Aft)? e^ovTi Kara ySw), Kada rol Hr/paKXeioi SieVrfvov. toI Se fjLiada- 
adfjLevoi KapTrevarovrac tov ael y(p6vov, ha<! Ka TrpcoyyiiQ)<; Trord- 
ymi^Ti Kal to jjila-daifia cnroSLScavTi, irdp psTd ael Havdfio) fir)vo<; 
TrpoTepelai • Kai k ep,Trpocr6a I ciTroSivaiVTi, UTrd^ovn e? tov Safio- 
crcov pojov Kal Trap fJieTpri<r ovTi rot? criTayepTaK rot? I eVt t&v 
feTecov Twt Safioaiwi 'x^ot /xearw ra)? %o{)? Kpidw KoOapaf BoKt- 
fia<;, hoia<; Ka ha yd | ^epef Trord^ovri Se Trpcoyyvca rot? TroXiavo- 

105 fji,oi<! T0i<! del CTTi Tail' peTecov evTaaaiv Trdp 11 TrevTaheTrjpiSa, Aw? 
Ka ideXovTei; toI TroXiav6p,ot SeKcovrai. Kal ai Tivl Ka aXXojt I 

down by the current) and made invisi- 39. So usually, but also iTiprji, (ciirTiji, 

ble, Wee the former boundaries. — 102. Bpairii 11. 138-139, and &fjt.fi,t(reueii 1. 111. 

diroSlvuvTi : thresh. But some correct — 105 ff. Kal at tivC Ka aWui ktX. : if 

to dwoSiddnTi. — 104. it>^pei; for 0^/)7ji. they assignto another the landwMchthey 



No. 74] HEEACLEAJST INSCRIPTION 235 

■n-apS&vn rav yav, hdv ku aiirol fiefiia-Owarnvrai, tj apTvarnvri 17 avo- 
hmvTM rav S^iKapiriav, av avra to. iraphe^ovrai irpmyyvrnt hoi 
■irapXa^ovres rj hoK k aprvtrei 7} hoi Trpi\dfievoi rav iiriKapTriav, 
av ha Kal ho i^ apxai /JXfiia-Oafievo^. h6aTi<i he ku fj,r] irordyei 
7rpa)77v|&)? gj p,if to fiiaOtufia cnroSiS&i k^t to, ryeypati/jieva, to tc 
fiiaOafia SiirXel airoTeiaei to eVt tiu fe]|Teo9 «ai to afi-jrtoXriiJia 110 
T0t5 Te TToXiavofioi^ kui T0t9 (TiTayepTai<i TOt? ael iirl t5) /rereo?, 
hocrami Ka | fieiovo^ a/jifjiia-Omdrj Trap weine ferr] to, -TrpaTa, hoTi ku 
Tekedei y^a<f>L<Tdev hdfia wdv tS)i irpdTtoi | fiia-OwfjiaTi, kui to, iv 
Tai yai ve^VTevpAva Kal oiKoBofirffteva irdvTa to? Tro'Xto? eaerovTai. 
'^pyd^ov^ai Se kcit TdSe ■ ho fjiev tov irpaTov x^P"'^ fiiadmad- 
fievoi; TOV trap tov dvTop,ov tov hvirep Jlavhoari\a<; dyovTa tov Trap 
TO, UriptiiSa aypi to? TpiaKOVTaTreSco afjnreXcov fiev <j)VTevaet fir) 
Hetov rj Se/co || axoivax;, ekaidv Se (f>VTa i/ifiaXei e? Tav trxoivov 115 
hexdaTav p,T) p^iov ^ Teropa eV Tav I SvvaTav ydv eXot'o? e^ev ■ ai 
Se Ka fiTi (f>dvTi TOi fie/J.i(r9afievoi SvvaTav rjfiev e\aia<i eWev, toI 
iroXtavop-oi toI ael iirl tmv peremv evTe<i Kal ai Tivd<; ku oWw? 
TOi •jToXtavo/JLOi TTodelXcovTai airb to) Safim, ofwaavTe^ SoKi/xd^ovTi 
Kai avavyeXiovTi iv dXiai 0acrdp,evoi Tav I ydv ttot Tav Toiv eiri- 
X<opia)v. eirip^XriaovTai Se Kal tS>v huirapxovTcov BevSpeeov • ai Se 
Tivd Ka II yqpai rj dvep-wi eKireTcovTi, avTol he^ovTi. touto Se irdvTa 120 

have leased, or devise it by will, or seU originally fixed. The afiTdXTnia is the 

the harvest rights, those who take it over re-bargaining, hence concretely the 

or those to whom it has been willed, or amount involved in it, the rebate. Cf. 

those who purchase the harvest rights, also 11. 155 ff. be surety for the rentals, 

shall furnish sureties in the same man- fines, rebates, and judgments, hdfuil. 

ner as the one who leased it in the be- 111 seems from its position to go with 

ginning. — 108. hda-ns Si Ka |ii) irord'yei ttov as well as with twi Trpdriat fuirffd)- 

kt\. : ' whoever fails to fulfill his obli- /aari. For the whole situation, cf . from 

gations shall pay not only double the a Delian inscription, B.C.H.XIV,432 

rental for the year, but also, all together aveiu(T0iia-afi.ei' Si Kal t^s Xopirc/as rb ii4- 

with the first rental, whatever rebate, pos, iiiltrduro M>T;<ri/«ixos, ow KaBiffriv- 

namely the decrease allowed in re- tos rois ^TTrfous Miniaifuixov, ■ t4 

leasing for the firet five years, is deter- Si \oiiror, &rwi cXaTToK ijJpei/ ^ 7^ iva- 

mined by decree.' To insure leasing fu<rdw6ei<Ta, i0e/X« Mi^jo-i/noxos kt\. — 

the land again it was generally neces- 120. iKir^Tuvri : f-irerov, aor. of ThrTu, 

gary to offer it ?it a rental le§s than that occurs also io Pindar and Alcaeus and 



236 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 74 

Tre^UTeW/tieVa iraphe^ovTi koI evhe^iwKOTa, hoaaa iv rai avvOrjKai 
yey pdyjrarai, iv tcoi irefnnociL Kal Se/carcoL ferei airo tco Trorej^et 
^elreo? 17 'Apicrricov i^opevei • al Se ica jxr] 7re<f>VT€VKa>vn kut ra 
yeypafi/xeva, KarehiicdaOev irdp fiev rdv | iXaiav BeKa vofuo^ apyv- 
pim "Trap to cJ)vtov he/caarov, Trap 8e Tdf dfiTreXco'i Svo /ivdi dp- 
yvpioa "irdp rdv I cr')(otvov heKaarav. tib? Se iroXiavofimt tw? iirl tS) 

125 peTeoi; iroOeXo prevent; p,eT avToaavrSiV diro tw-II Sdfica p,r) fielov 57 
SeKa dvSpm dp,^icTTac79ai, rj Ka nre^vrevKcovTi irdvra kclt rdv cruv- 
0i]Kav, I Kal Tw? Tre^UTev/eoTa? dyypdi^at e? Soyfia • dvypd<f)ev Se 
hoa-cra Ka ire^VTevKtovn • dv aiird Se rd I Kal ei Tive; Ka firi 7re<f)V- 
revKcovTi Kdr rdv avvOrjKav, dvy payfravTco Kal etreXdcrBoa rd iiri^d- 
fiila rd yeypap,p,eva iror tSu dWcai p.ia-dcop,an. al Se ti<; Ka iTn/Srji 
rj vep,ei -rj (jjepei ri tS)v ev rdi hiapdi I ydi rj twv SevSpecov n kotttjji 

130 jj dpavrji rj irpiSyi rj dWo ti aivrjrai, ho p^p,ia-da)fievo<i iySiKa^rjh-ai 
ha)<; iroXiiTTCOv Kal hori Ka Xd^ei aiiToi he^el. 

Ta5 Se rpd(j)eo<i ra? Std r&v ^(Oipcov peto(7a<! Kal I to)? p6(o<; ov 
KaTaa-Kay^ovri oi/Se SiaaKaTfrovn toil hiiSari ovSe e<j)ep^ovTi to hv- 
S(op ovS' d<f>ep^ov\Ti • dvKodapiovTi Se hoaa-dKL<; Ka SecavTai ra irdp 
Td avTMV ')((opia peovTa' ovSe Td<; hoSai<; ra? dirolSeSeiy/j.evai; dpd^ 
aovTi ovSe avvhep^ovTi ovSe KcoXvaovTt iropeveaOai • hoTi Se Ka 
to-6tcov ti TTOilavTi irdp Tav crvvOrJKav, toI 'rroXiav6p,oi toI ae? eTri Tm 

135 fereo'i e'irLKaTa^a(Xi)ovTt, Kal ^afiuocrovTt, || d)(^pi hS) Ka d<f>op,oia>- 
a-covTi KdT Tav avvdrjKav. ov Koyjrei Se tmv SevSpecov oi/Se dpavaet 
oiSe Trpicoael | ovSe hri<! oiiSe hev ovSe dXXo<s Trjvcai. oiSe yaia)va<! 
drjcrel irdp t.o)? huirdpj^pvTaii ovSe erapfievcrel, | al fir) hoaera Ka iv 

is probably the form of all dialects ex- and canals which run through the lands 

cept Attic-Ionic, where cTcaov shows they shall not dig deeper nor make a 

a change of t to o- which does not fall breach in for the water, nor shaXl they 

under the usual conditions (61) and is dam in or dam off the water. — i^lf- 

not certainly explained. — 122. KareSi- Jovti, a^lpi/avn, o-uvhtpjovri : these be- 

Kdo-Bcv: have been condemned, i.e. are long with Ion. ivipya (Horn, also diro- 

hereby condemned in advance. Cf. ^p7w), amipyu, etc. from fi/iyu, while 

TpoKaSSeSiKiaBia 1. 171. — 128. imPtji: Att. &Treipyui etc. are from ^ipipyu 

trespasses, from iinpdu = inpaba. — with prothetic c. The spiritus asper is 

130 £f. Tds hi Tp4<}><i)5 kt\. ; the ditchfs found mainly, as here, with the forms 



No. 74] HEEACLEAN IKSCEIPTION 237 

avrai tm yai hdi (ienUQaTai olKoS6fj,rjrai, ■ ovSe TO<f>iaiva<! iv rai 
hiapai yai iroi'qa-el \ ovhe SXKov iaael • al Se /xtj, hvir6XQyo<; itya-rj- 
rai Aw? Tav hiapav yav aBiKimv. oUoBo/jiria-rjTai Se koX oi\Kiav iv 
T04S j^«/30t9 TOVTOK, ^o&vu, fiv^ov, dxvpiov, Tov fisv j3oS)va TO nlv 
lia.KO'i fiKUTi Kol Sv&v iropSiv, TO Se eSpo? hoKTw koI Sexa irohav, 140 
TOV Se a)(vpiov p,}/ p,dov to pev paKo<; ho/cTm koX SeKa ttoSmv, I to 
Be evpo<i irevTe Koi BeKa ttoSmv, tov Be pvyov TreVre Koi Bma tto- 
Bmv TravTai. tuvtu Be Trape^ovTi olKo\Bopripeva xal cneyopeva koI 
TeBvpmpAva iv rot? ')(p6voi.'s iv hoi's xal tA BevBpea Bet 'ir€(f>VTevK7J- 
pev al ] Be pri, KaTeSiKaa-Oev Trap pev tov ^oava pe^ pva<i apyv- 
pico, Trap Be tov a)(vpiov TeTopa'i pva'i apyvpico, I Trhp Be tov pvyov 
Tph pvav apyvpi<o. tS)V Be ^vXcov twv iv tok Bpvpol<s ovBe Tav iv 
TOt? (TKipoK ov 7ra>\'^\crovTt ovBk KOfjrovn ovSe ipirpriaovTi ovBe 145 
aXkov idaovTi ■ al Be p-q, hviroXoyoi eaaovTai kclt tA? priTpa<} I icaX 
KOLT Tctv avvdiJKav. e? Be to, iiroiKia y^^p'^aov^Tai ^vXok e? t^v oIko- 
Bopav hol<i Ka BrfSMVTai,, Kal e? Ta<; | apireXw! • twv Be ^rjpcbv k6- 
■\^0VTi hoaaa auTot? ttot olxiav e? ')(^peiav • rots Be crKipoK koI rots 
Bpvpol<i j^pjjIffoi/Tat TOt pia-dmadpevoL av Tav avTM pepCBa hexaaTO';. 
h6c7aai Be xa Tav apireXoov rj tmv BevBpeeov a7ro\yr]pd(TavTi, cnroKa- 
TaaToaovTi toX Kapiri^op^voi ha)<i r/pev tov tcov apiffpbv ael. 

Oi'X^ vrroypdyp'OVTai || Be toj? j(wpw'; tovto)^ hoi piaOmtrdpevoi, 150 
ovBe Ttpapa hoiaovTU ovTe t&v j(^iopwv ovre ras i'7noiKoBo\pd'; • al 
Be prj, hmroK.oyo's ia-ar/Tai kclt to,'; fyqTpa<;. al Be ti<; Ka tS>v Kap- 
TTi^opevcov aresrvo? d(j)covo<; aTro\Odvei, Td<; ttoXio'; iratrav Tav ewri- 
Kapiriav rjpev. al Be j^ vtto iroXepco iy prfK.7)6 icavTi hcotxTe pr) 
i^rjpev I Tcb? pLepKrOcop^voy; KapireveadaL, avheStadai Tav pia6(0(Tiv 

in I, e.g. Att. Kafleipfa beside xaTetfyyta. fivxis, etc. — 149 fi. o^x uiro^pd+ovTOi : 

— 137. olKoS6jii)Tai : perf . subj. of the the lessees shall not mortgage the lands 

same type as Cret. jT^aTai (151). For or make a payment (T^mhxps pay a fine) 

lack of reduplication, as also in oikoSo- out of either the lands or the buildings 

nmha 11. 112, 141, of. olKTinai etc. in thereon. Note that when a mute is 

Ionic (Hdt.) and later Attic. — 146. fe changed to an aspirate by a follow- 

Se tA 4iro£Kia ktX. : But they shall use ing h the latter is not written. So also 

what wood they wish for the construction at 54 %' ^^ ^- 1^2. 
of the farm buildings, i.e. the /Soiiv, 



238 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 74 

Ka6d Ka Tol UrjpaKXeioi Si.ayv&VTi, Koi fir) \ rffiev hv'!ro\6<ya)<; /ajre 
avTa)<; iirjve toj? ■jrpmyyvo)'; tmv iv rat avvOij/cai yeypafi/ievav. tqj? 

155 8e 7rpm'yji\\co<; toj? ael yevo/jLeviof TreTrpwyyevKfj/Mev t&v re fiicr6a>fid- 
Tcov Kul TOiv iTn^a/jLico/idTCOv Kal t&v a/j^TrcoXrjfidTcov koi rav Kara- 
SiKav Kal avrax; Kal to, xRVf^ara hd Ka einp,apTvprj(r(ovTi, Kal fir) 
rip,ev yijTjTe hdp\vqc7iv firjTe TraXivSiKiav fiT]Se kut dXXov fM]8e heva 
TpoTTOV TM iroXi TTpdyfiuTa irapey^ev firjBe rots hv^irep ras TroXios 
irpaaaovraaai ■ ai Se jxtj, areXe? rjfiev. 

AevT6po<;. Ho Se rbv Sevrepov /j^iadmadfievov | KapTrevafJTai 
cnrb TO,'; TpiaKOVTaireSco ra? Sid tcov reTpcopcov ayd)cra<; ein tov 

160 avTOfjLov TOV irpdrov AoVllcro? k el Kal irpa^ei irdvTa kut rdv crvvOrj- 
Kav Kal hviroXoyo'i icrcrfjTai Kal avrm Kal toI irpcoyyvoi, Hon Ka | 
firj irpd^ei Kar rdv avvd'ijKav. 

T/31T09. Ho Se TOV TpiTOV ■)(S>pov fiiadcocrdfievoi KapTrevarJTai 
cnrb tS) a%kr6fi.(o t&j avdnepov tos TpiaKOvraTreSo) ttot tov avTOfiov 
TOV SevTepov diro Td<; TptaKovTairiSa) Kal | irpa^el irdvTa kut tolv 
avvdrjKav Kal hvirokoyo'i ecrariTai Kal avTO'; Kal toI irpmyyvoi, hon 
Ka' /Mr) 7rpd\^ei Kcer tov avvBrjKav. 

TeTa/3T0?. Ho Se tov TeTapTOV •y^apov fMO-dmadfievo'; irdp re 

166 tSiv 7ro\t(Xi'o|/Li(»j/ TOiv iirl 'ApiaTtmvo^ i<f)6p(o Kal tS>v opia-Tav Kal 
•Trap tS)v TToXiavo/xmv twV eirl ' KpLcTTdpj((o tS> HT^pal/cXeiSa i^opco 
ha dvdejxa ^iXcovvnw tm ^iXavvfio), ha e'//./3oXo9 }lr)paKXeiSa t5) 
TifioKpdTio<; Kap'7rev\crfJTai airo tw avTOfioo t<o TpiTto cnro ra? Tpia- 
KOVTaireSm eirl tov dvTO/j,ov tov opi^ovTa tws re tw AtoWo-o) j^m- 
p(0<i Kal Th ^ivTia<i ho K.paTivco rra/ico^et. ho Se avheX6p,evo<: 
epya^rjTai to, fiev dXXa KaT Tav | (TVvdrjKav, KaOm'i Kal tq)<; Xoiitok 
yeypaiTTai, Tat Se diiireXax; Td<i hvirap'^fmaat epya^riTat ha)<; /SeX- 

170 Ti||(7Ta • h6<T<7ai Se Ka Tav afiTreXmv avoyrjpda-KcovTi, iroTU^VTevael 
hcixTTe ael hvirdp'yev tov Icrov dpifffiov Tav I a'^^oivav tov vvv hvtrdp- 
')(0VTa, fiKaTi TeTopa'i cr^oifQ)? • al Se p-rj, TrpoKaSSeSiKdadai Svo 
fivd<; dpyvpico | Trap Tav a')(olvov heKda-Tav. ra? Se iXaiai Kal to.? 
cVKia'; Kai to, dXXa SevSpea to. hrjfjiepa Th hinrdpyOvWa TrdvTa iv 
Tai /MepiSi TavTac irepiaKwylrel Kal iroTicrKa'^ei Kal "TrepiKoyjrel Th 
Sedfieva, Kal at Tivd Ka yrjpai ■^ | dve/imi eKTreTcavn, cnroKaTaaTaaei 



No. 76] AEGOLIC INSCRIPTIONS 239 

IJ,rj iX€i<o Tov apid/Mov t&v hvirapxovTcov iroTKJjVTevcrel Se kuI 
iXaiwi II eV rai -v/rtXat Ao/aoXo'yo)? ttokuk rot? hvjrap'x^dvraa-ai Sev- 175 
Bpeoi'i Kul TOV apidfihv tov hCaov Kadax! koL iv tcll | aWai avvdrj- 
Kai ryeypawTui. hoTt Se Ka fj.rj irpd^ei ho avheXoiJLevo'i KciT tuv 
avvdriKav rj fj.ri iv rot? j(^p6\voi'i toi? 'yeypafip.evoit;, hv7r6Xoyo<; eVo-ij- 
Tttt T0t9 TToXiavofjioi'i Kol Tot? (TLTayepTaL^ Tot9 eVi TO) f eVeo? | «a- 
dm Kal iv Tat aXXai a-vvOijKai ^^eiypairTai. ai Be Ka tol TroXiavd/xot 
Tol ael iirl Ttbv ferewv eVre? fjur) 7rpd\^a>VTi irdvTa kolt tuv avvOij- 
Kav, avTOi hviroXoyoi, eaaovTai kclt tclv avvOrjicav. 

Ettj T0VT0i<i ifua-Owaaii^o tuv fj,ev irpaTav [xCaOma-iv airo TOiV 180 
Tw HrfpmiBa fxe ki^iotiov ^opfiiav ^iX(OTa irevTi^KovTa heirTo, 
(]i,eBL\fji,v(ov KaSSi'x^o'; • Trpayyvo'; tc5 crmftaTO^ /li ki^wtiov 'A/sko? 
^iXcoTa. Tav Se SevTepav ixiadaycnv ha | e'yU./8oXo9 Aa/^a/ap^o? <l>tX(B- 

vv/iw T€Tpa>KOVTa fieSi/jivcov • Trpa)yyvo<; Tm crdip.aTO'i ®e6h(opo<; 

@e|o8a)/3(B. Tav Be TpOrav fiicrdcoaiv fe yvlov TJei(ria<; AeovTia-Kco 
TpiaKOVTa TrevTe fieBifivcov • Trp(ojyvo<; | tw cra)fiaTO<i lev at^aipooT'q- 
pes 'ApiaToSa/j.o'; Tciv Be TeTapTav fjuicrOoicTiv aX XooT'^piov || 

$1 XtTTTTO? ^tXlTTTTOJ SlaKaTiCOV he^BefJl,7JK0VTa hoKTO) fieBifivcov • 185 

Trpd)yyvo<i tco o-iofiaTOi we Kapvxelov | 'ATroXXtBj/to? HTj/aa/cX^rw. | 
Vpa/xiJLaTev<; pe yvlov ' A.puTToBajxo'i '^vp.fid')((o ■ ya/jLeTpa^ Xai- 
pea<! Adficovo'; NeaTroXtra?. 

Argolic 

75. Mycenae. Probably VI cent. B.C. IG.IV.492. 

^pahtapiBa'i 'M.vy.aveadev Trap^ 'K\davaLa<i e? iroXiO'i \ iKeTa^ 
eyevTO || i-jr' 'AvTia Kal 'Rvp\pia. " elev Be 'Ai'Ti|a9 Kal Yiidio<i 5 
Kalay^pov." 

75. Phrasiaridas ofMycene was sent goddess. As the nature of the request 
by Athena to the suppliants of the city is unknown, the meaning of the reply 
in the magistracy (or priesthood) of An- is obscure. — Is woXios tKE'ras: ^s with 
tias and Pyrrhias. Let Antias and Ci- aco. of persons, as in Homer, and else- 
thius and Aeschronle (judges?). Certain where; cf. Locr. dpxop^ovTa iv Aoypoiis, 
citizenshadsentto the shrine of Athena no. 55.20. Frankel,IG.IV.492, inter- 
petitioning aid, and Phrasiaridas re- prets otherwise, namely was sent as a 
turned to them with the reply of the suppliant from the citadel. 



240 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



[No. 76 



76. Mycenae. Early V cent. B.C. IG.IV.493. Solmsen 22. 

At fie Sa/Mopyia eie, rbi; lapofivdfjiova<! to? e? Hepae rot? 70- 
vevai KptTepa<; ifiev Ka{T) ra peppefj,eva. 

77. Argive Heraeum. Early Vcent. b.c. IGr.IV.517. Micliel861. Solm- 
sen 21. The Argive Heraeum 1,197 ff. 

[H]a a-ToXa kuI ho Te\afio(y) | [t]a/3(x Ta<; Hepai rai; 'A/37e|[i]a?. 

5 lapojxvdfJLOve'; roiSe ■ I HvpfaXiov Avfiav; afpereve, || 'AXxafieve^ 

HvWew, I 'Apia-T6SafJio<; Hvpvddio^, | 'AficftiKpiTO'; Ilav<f>v\\[X]ai;. 



76. If there is no body of demiurgi, 
the hieromnemones (appointed) to (the 
heroum) of Perseus shall judge between 
the parents according to what has been 
decreed. This is only the conclusion of 
an inscription which must liave been 
on the stone which once rested upon the 
base containing this line. Pausanias re- 
ports a heroum of Perseus on the road 
from Mycenae to Argos. It is probable 
that boys were employed in the cult 
and that disputes arose among the par- 
ents with regard to their appointment. 
For Tofs the stone has t o- 1. 

77. On the face of the stone, just 
below the inscription, is a rectangular 
cutting, with dowel holes, evidently in- 
tended for the reception of a tablet. 
This was the o-rdXo, while the reXa/jio 
(probably only an error for TcKa/jAv), 
properly support, pedestal, refers to the 
whole stone in which the o-rdXa was set, 
and which would itself be called a 
(ttijXt; in Attic. In several inscriptions 
from the region of the Euxine reXo- 
lidiv is actually used as the equivalent 
of <rTi/i\ri, e.g. d.vayp6.\j/avTa rb \j/&<l>i.<Tfi.a 
toOto els TeKa/iSva \evKoB \l6ou ivaBifuii 
els t4 Up6i> ToO 'A7r6XXwTOs (SGDI.3078, 
Mesembria). This use is doubtless of 
Megarian origin, and is closely allied 
to that seen here at Argos, though with 
complete loss of the original notion of 



support. For the collocation of a-rdXa 
and TcXa/id here, of. d-vdpms Kal ri ir^^Xas, 
no. 7. 

The hieromnemones consist of a rep- 
resentative of each of four tribes, of 
which the Au^nSxes, whose representa- 
tive presides, the 'TXXeis, and the Xld/i- 
0iiXot, are the three tribes common to 
all Doric states, while the "Tpv&Buu are 
attested only for Argolis. Cf. Steph. 
Byz. S.V. Au/tfixes- <t>vK^ AoipUav. fjaav 
5i Tpets, 'TXXets Kal ILdfitpvKot Kal Avfidves 
i^ "B.paK\iovi. Kal wpofferiBri i] "iptnjBla, 
us"E<popos a'. 

78. Anactofindemnityforthe man- 
agement of the treasury of Athena, 
probably with reference to some spe- 
cific irregularity which had occurred. 
"Without such an act, persons who pro- 
posed or put to vote a proposition to 
use sacred funds for public purposes 
were liable to punishment. Cf. Time. 
2.24, 8.15, Ditt.Syll.21, Hicks 49.45 fl. 

In the matter of the treasures of 
Athena, if any magistrate calls to ac- 
count the council under the presidency 
of Ariston or the body of dprvvai or any 
treasurer, or if any one entertains or 
brings suit on account of the submission 
(to the assembly) of the proposals or on 
accoiint of the action of the assembly, 
he shall be banished and his property 
be confiscated to the treasury of Athena. 



No. 81] AKGOLIC INSCEIPTIONS 241 

78. Argos. VI or early V cent. B.C. IG.IV.554. Michel 583. SolmsenlQ. 
[@]eaavp5v [t5v] ra? ' Kdava(a<s at tk <«?> | [e Ta]v /SoX^i; 

T[av] av<f>' 'Apiarova e toi'(?) avvapTvovTa<; \ [I a]\\ov rivcL ra- 
fiiav evOvvoi reXo? exov I StKda\[^oi] I hiKaa^ono tov ypaaafid- 
Tov hev€Ka ra? KaTa\\deaio^ I rd'i aXida-t7io<;, rpero koI SafieveaaGo 6 
ev? I 'AOavaiav. ha Se fio\d TroTeXaro havTiTVxovaa • at I Se Ka 
lie, avTol ivoxoi evro ei/? 'AOavaiav. 

79. Olympia. YI or early V cent. b.c. SGDI.3271. Inschr.v.Olympia 
631. Roberts 81. Solmsen 20. 

'Atoto's eiroipehe 'Apyelo's | KapyeidSa'i HayeXdiBa rapyeio. 

80. Olympia. Early V cent. b.c. SGDI.3263. Inschr.v.Olympia 250. 
Michel 1087. Roberts 75. 

Ta{p)y[el]oi aveOev rot At/rt Tdv iopivOoOev. 

81. Cimolos. IV cent. B.C. IG.XII.iii.l259. SGDI.3277. Hicks 150. 
Michel 14. Ionic alphabet, but twice = <a. 

©609. 1 "Eaptve 6 Sdfio<s 6 rStv | 'ApyeCav Kara to SoKTjI/ia tov a-vve- 
hpiov Ttov II '^XKdvmv, 6/xo\oyr]\crdvTmv M.a[Xj{cov Kal \ K.i/jui)\.ia>v 5 

The council which is in office shaU en- immune from prosecution. For the 

force {the cor\fiscation), otherwise they order of words cf . Thuc. 1. 57 t^s IIoti- 

(the members of the council) shall them- Salas IveKa oTroo-Tdo-cws. For ypaaaiui = 

aeioes be ZtoiZe to Athena. ypi/iim, see 164.4. 

1. Until the existence of a rums 79. Atotus made this, an Argive and 

(cf. L. quisquis) is corroborated, it is an Argead, son of Hagelaidas the Ar- 

better to assume simple dittography. — give. Apparently the father of Atotus 

2. o-uvaprvovras : the dprBTOi as a body was of the Macedonian Argeadae but 

of Argive officials are mentioned by hadmovedtoArgos,andhissonproudly 

Thuc.5.47.11. — 3. aWov : besides, else. joined both titles to his own name. See 

Goodwin 966.2. — t^os Ix"''^ <'^- ^'- Roberts I.e. Quite otherwise Ditten- 

opiUyuTTovrfKoi exo(, no. 57. — 4 ff. tov berger (Inschr.v.Olympia) and others, 

'Ypoo-irii.dTav h^vExa KaraOlinos kt\. : on who take 'ApyeidSas as the name of an- 

account of the deposition of written pro- other sculptor. For the crasis in this 

posals, i.e. the formal introduction of and the following inscription, see 94.1. 
a measure before the assembly, or the so. Inscribed on a helmet. The Ar- 

(consequent) act of the assembly. This gives dedicated to Zeus from the spoils 

refers to some measure sanctioning the of Corinth^ It is not known to what 

irregular use of the treasure. Those war this refers, 
responsible for the introduction or 81. Decision of the Argives in a dis- 

passage of such a measure are to be pute between Melos and Cimolos. 



242 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 81 

10 ifjLfievev \ di Ka SiKcia-craiev rol | 'Apyetoi 7r[e]j0t rav || [v]aa-a)v, 
Ki/jLmXicov I ^fiev UoXvaiyav, 'Eri]\peiav, Ai^eiap. ehl\Ka(Tcrav viKrjv 

15 Kt/i(BXt'|[o]ii?. aprjreve Aewv \\ [/3](»\a? a-evTepa<;, Iloa-iSd\ov ypo- 
[<^]eii9 ./3(»\a9, ne/^Xl^o? "TeSiov. 

82. Argos. Ill cent. B.C. B.C.H.XXVII,270ff.; XXXIII,171 ff. 
@eo?. Upo/idvTie^ avedev | 'AttoWcovi ' Apia-[T]ev<; S(^w/07j|Sa?, 

5 ^iXoKpd.Trj'; NaTe\icf|Sa9, 7/90<^e[e?] AtV;!^vA,os 'A/3a%i'a||8a?, T/aw- 
Yij? AWcaviha';, koI KaWeaKevaaaav Kot \^'\c7aavT0 [^eta?] | eic /lav- 
T'^a^ yaf oix^aXov koX T[a]|i' nrepiaTaiv koX to ^dpy/ia icat tov | 

10 ^wfjiov irpo . . . .ov TTora.o) Koi irei'^pLvov poov ical rav a . . . . pav | 
virep avTOv, Kal Orjavpov ev rm fiavh-ijcoi KaTeaKevaaarav rot? ttc- 
Xali'ot? kXmktov, koI rav oSbv 7ipyda\(ravT0 diravaav Kal cx^pvav 

15 TreS' to||/30f Kal rav eirnroXav, Kal rov-; 0co\/ji.ovi; iv<; rd^tv rreBdya- 
yov Kal r[ov'j\<! KoXoa-aovi, Kal rav iirnroXav &)[/xa]|A,t^ai', Kal roi- 
^ov Yir^erpivov irap to[i'] I e6ev Kal rav? d[ypa^m rov vaov 11 

20 (O'xypioav, [aat] Xo[7r]tSa9 Kal iTn'x^^[r'\av apyvpea Wev Kal drfav- 
pov ei'o-e I [11. 22—25 fragmentary]. 

83. Epidaurus. End of V cent. B.C. IGr.IV.914. Ditt.Syll.938. Solm- 
sen 23. Ziehen,LegesSacrae 54. Alphabet transitional (form of the letters 
mostly Ionic, but B = A, never vj, no Ji, gen. sg. and OV). 

[Tot ^ AttoXKovl Ovev /3ov e\paeva Kal hop,ovdoL<; /Soli' epcreva • 

5 eVi ro ^ofiov ro'\ | 'A7ro'X,Xo[i'o?] Ta[i)Ta] O^vev AcJIlai KaXai'Sa rdi 

Aarol Ka\l raprdfiiri dWav, (j)epv\dv roi 9ioi KpiOdv /ieSilfifiVitv, 

15. o-evT^pas: devr^pas. See 97.4. the ramp leading to the shrine, and the 
83. From the temple of the Pythian area; have rearranged the attars and 
Apollo mentioned by Paus.2.24. the colossi, have leveled the area, built 
2 fi. S(f>vp^8a$, NareXidSas, etc.: a stone wall by the ... , strengthened 
designation of the phratry or gens. — the doors of the temple, and dedicated 
6 ff . Have had made and put in place, cups and a silver beaker. — 9. The res- 
in accordance with the divine oracle, toration of the words following puiiiv 
the Omphalus of the Earth, the colon- is uncertain. 

node, the enclosing wall, the altar . . . , 83. Regulations for sacrifices in the 

a stone conduit, and the. . .above it; Asolepieum. For the frequent doubling 

have had made in the oracle chamber a of consonants see 89.4, 101.2. For 

treasury, which can be locked, for the (pepdc-ei see 140.3 6. For other com- 

offerings; have constructed all the road, ments see the Glossary. 



No. 84] AEGOLIC INSCRIPTIONS 243 

(nrvpov h€fii8iij.ij\vov, oivov heixCreiav Ka||l ro (raKe\o<i tov /3oo? 10 
To|i) irpciTOv, TO B' arepov (rice\\o^ toI iapo/j.iJ.vdfi,ove<; | (f>ep6a-do • rov 
Sevre'pov ;S|oo? rot? aotSot? Sovto || to e7KeXo<;, to S' OTepov crK\e\o<: 15 
Tots ^povpoK hoT^o Kal TevSoa6i8ia. I 

Toi 'Aaa-KXa'rridi Ovev /3o|i' ^pa-eva Kal ho/iovdoK [I /3Sv epaeva 20 
Kal hop,ovda\i<s ^ov deXeiav • iirl tov /S|o/iov tov 'AaKTunrtov Ovelv 
Tavra Kal KaXatSa. av6\evTo toi 'AirKXairioi ^ephav Kptdav fie- 26 
Bifi/ivov, <7\-7rvpov hefj.iSinfj,vov, otv\ov he/xiTeiav • a-KeXo<; t5 I irpoTov 
^oo<s irapOevTo T|[ot] Oioi, to 8' uTepov toI l\\[apo]/j,vdp,ove^ <f>[e]po- ^ 
a6o • t|[oi) Be\vTepo Toh aoihol\\<; Bovto^ to S' uTepov To\l<i | ^pov- 
pol<! SovTO Kal TevlBotrdiSia.'] 

84. Epidaurus. Late IV cent. b.c. IG.IV.951. SGDI.3339. Ditt.Syll. 
•802. Michel 1069. 

©eo's. Tvj^a [a<y']add.\ ['laj/uara tov ' Air6XXcovo<; Kal tov 'A<TKXa- 
iriov. I 

[KXJew irevd^ btij eKvrja-e. avTa vevT iviavTois rjSrj Kvovcra Trot 
TOV I [^ejov t/ceVi? a<f)iKeT0 Kal iveKadevSe ev tSu, a^dTwi. qJ? Se 
Tap^{<7||[Ta] e^rjXde ef avTOv Kal eV tov lapov iyeveTO, kopov eVeKe, 5 
05 eu|[^]ii? 'yevofievo'; avTm diro tos; Kpdva<; iXovTO Kal dp,a tcLl 
fiaTpl I [7r]e/3ti)/37re. TV^^ovaa Be tovtiov iirl to dvOefia le^jreypd- 
yjraTO • "ov /i^e|[^o]? irivaKov davfiaaTeov, ciXXd to Oelov, TrevO' eTr) 
«B9 eKvr)(Te iy yaaWrpJl KXem /Sa/so?, eo-re | iyKaT€K0ip,d6r], Kai fj,iv 
e6r)Ke vyirj." — T/ater^? 11 [Kojpa. 'IfffioviKa TleXXavh d(f>iKeT0 et? 10 
TO lapov inrep yevea<;. iy\'[Koi]p,a0ei(Ta Be oyfriv elBe • iBoKet aiTei- 
affai TOV 6ebv Kvrjaai K^^pav^, tov B' 'AaKXaTriov ^d/j,ev eyKVov 

84. One of several stelae found in tic influence, e.g. usually el rarely al, 

the Asolepieum recording the cures ef- contraction in Irri, ttoiijo-oCi'tos, etc. , ace. 

fected. Cf. Paus.2.27.3(rT^Xai S^eio-TiJ- pi. d/cporeis etc. Lengthened 5 is al- 

Keaav irrbs toO irepi/36\ou, ri iiiv apxaiov ways ou, and i usually a, but we find xv 

Koi irKioves, iir' ifwS dk ef XoiTral. rairais p6s beside x^pi^Si ^'^^ dip-^Xero (25 a, b). 

iyyeypa/nfi^va Kai arSpwv Kal yvvaLK&y — 3. irevO' ?Tr| : see 58 c. — 5. Cf . Pans. 

i(mv dvd/uiTa aKeadivrav inri tov 'Ao-kXj;- 2.27.1 oiSi airodviiaKovinv oiSi tIktowiv 

TTioB, Trpotr^i 3^ Kal viarnxa Sti (KaffTos ai yvvaiKes (r^tto'i" ivriis rod wept^SXov. — 

iviiriiire Kal Stws tdSri ■ yiypaiTTai, di ipwvf 6. xcpiTjpire : ?p7ru = ef/ii, see Glossary. 

ry AioptSi. — 7 ff . The words on the votive oSer- 

The dialect shows considerable At- ing form a rude epigram, hence the 



244 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 84 

ia-a-eia-Oai vlv Kai, el n aXKo | a\lT]olTO, ical tovto oi iirireK.elv, 
avra B' ovdevb'; ^a/^ez/ en wot|S[et](7-^at • eyKVoi Se yevofieva ey 

15 yaa-rpl ecjjopei rpia err], eare 7r(x||/3ey3oXe ttoI rov Oeov tKeni iirep tov 
TOKOV. eyKaTaKOifiadelaa | he oi|r[(]y etSe • iSoKei eirepcoTrjv vlv tov 
Oeov, el oi yevoiTO avrdi I Travr^a] otraa alrijcraiTO Kal eyxvo'; etrj, 
ivep Se TOKOV iroiffefiev | viv oidev, Kal TavTa irvvOavofievov avTOv, 
ec Ttyo? Kal aWov Se\oiT[o], \eyeiv, oo? •jroirjaovVTOi; Kal tovto ■ 

20 eTrel Se vvv virep tovtov || irapelr] itot avTov iKeTK, Kal tovto ol 
^dfjLev i'TriTeXelv. fieTo, Se I tovto aTrovSai eK tov a^drov e^eX- 
6ovaa,(o<i e'^a) toO iapov ^s, .eTe|Ke K6[p\av. — 'Avfjp rous ra? XVP^'^ 
SaKTvXovi aKpaTei'i e')(a>v TrXav I eyo? a\^'\lKeTO Trot tov 6ebv iKe- 
Ta9. decopav Se Toil's iv tmi lapSn, | \Tr\ivaKat; inrlaTei rot? Idfia- 

25 triv Kal vTToSieavpe to, i'7nypdjji,fia\\[T^a. eyKadevSav Se O'yjriv elSe • 
eSoKet vTTO tS)1 vaSii a(7TpayaXi^oi^T'\o<; avTOv Kal fieWovTW /Sa\- 
Xeiv tSu auTpaydXcai e-jn<^avevTa | [tJov Qeov ei^aXeaOai eirl tov 
XVP<^ ^*' eKTelvai ov tow Sa«;TvX|\oi;9, (6<s S' airo^air), SoKelv avy~ 
Kdfiy]ra<! Tdv XVP^ «a^' eva eKreiveiv I [t]w2/ SaKTvXmv, eirel Sk 

30 •7rdvTa<} i^eVffvvai, eirepatTrjv viv tov Oeov 11 [e]t en aTrtcTTrja-oi rot? 
eTTiypdfifiaai toI^ iirl tm/j, irtvdKcov tcov I [«]aTa to [tjepo'i', avT0<; 
S' ov (pdfiev "on Toivvv enirpoaOev aTriuTei'; [ [a]iJTo[t]? o[u«] 
eovaiv ifTTia'Toi'}, to Xoiirov eVra) toi" ^d/iev ""ATrto-ro? I olvofial." 
dfjiepa<; Se yevop,eva<} vyirj^ e^rjXOe. — 'Afi^poaia ef 'KOavdv \ [are- 
/oo']TrT[t]XXo?. avTa t«eT[t?] rfXOe irol tov Oeov. irepiepirovaa Se || 

35 [/cara t^o \ia'\pov tcjv lafidTwv nvcL SieyeXa ta? cnriOava Kal dSv- 
va\[Ta eov'JTa x^^^ovf Kal TV(f>Xov'; vyieh yivecrOai, ivvirviov lS6v-\ 
[ra? iJ,6]vov. eyKuOevSovcra Se o-\jrtv eiSe ■ iSoKei ol 6 Oeo^ eTrtcrT^? I 
[elirelv] ot[i\ vyirj /lev viv voir)(Toi, fiurOofi fidvTOi viv Serjo-oi dv\[0e- 

40 fiev e]l<! TO Iapov vv apyvpeov, vTrofiva/jia ras ap,a9ia<;- eiiraii^Ta 
Se ravra] avaxico-ai ov tov otttiXXov tov voaovvTa Kal <f)dpfi[a\K6v 
n iyxe]ai. dp.epa<; Se yevofjieva<! [v\yir)'; i^fjXOe. — Hat? d(j)(ovo<;. | 
[ouTO? d(f)iK]eTO ek to Iapov v['jre]p <j)wvd<;. co? Se irpoedvaaTO Kal I 
[e7ro'j;o-6 ra] vojxi^ojMeva, fierd tovto 6 vah 6 twi Oeoti Trvpcfyopwv I 

poetical M'", for which elsewhere viv. for the god, looking at the boy's father, 
—27,28. SttKTiXXows: of. 89.3. — 43 ff. bade him promise that he (the boy), 
Then the boy who acted as torch-bearer if he obtained what he was there for, 



No. 84] AEGOLIC INSCEIPTIONS 245 

[iaeXeTO, ttoJI to^ irarepa top tov TratSo? 7roTt/3\e\/ra?, inroSeKea--\\ 
[a-dai avrov e\viavrov, rvxavra e<f>' a irapean, aTTodvaelv to, la- 45 
rpa ■ I [6 8e Trats e'^JavrtW? "vTroSeKoiiai" e^a. o Se 7raT^|0 eKirXa- 
yek irdXiv \ [eKeXero aiiT^bv el-rreiv. 6 S' eXeye ■wdXiv /cal e/c tovtov 
vyiri<! e7e|[i'6T0. — 'n.dvSap]o<; (BeeraaXcx; aTijiiara excov iv rm 
p-ermirwi. ouro? | \iyKadevha>v 6yjr]iv elSe ■ iSoKei avrov T[ai]viai 
KaraSrjaaL t^ a-Ti\\[y/j,aTa 6 ^eo? Ka]l Ke'Xecrdai viv, e-n-el [ku e^m] 50 
yevqrac rov a^drov, | [a<j)eX6fji,evov rav] raiviav av6e/j,[ev ek t]6v 
vaov. dfiepa'i he yevo\[fji,eva'; , e^aveaTo] kuI ai^jjXeTO Ta[v rai]- 
viav Koi TO fiev irpoa-mirov | [eKEKadapTO t&Jv an'yfidT[(ov, rjav S[e 
TJaiviav avedrjKe ets tov va\[6v exovcrav to, yp]dfj,/iaT[a] ra e« tov 
fieTdyn-ov. — 'E^eSmpo? Tci IIavSd^\[pov a-Tiyfj,aTa eX]a^e Trot toI<; 55 
VTrdp)/ov(7tv. ovTO'; Xa/3o)v Trap \Ilav\Mpov xpVf^aTa], waT av6e- 
/lev Tcai dean el<s 'KTriSavpov vTrep av[Tov, I ovk] aireSiBov Tavra. 
iyKaOevStov 8e oyjriv elSe • iSoKei ot o ^e[o?] I eTrtcrTa? e-TrepaTrjV viv, 
el e^oi TLVa jj^/s^/uara irap HavSdpov e[^ 'A]\dr)vdv dv6ep.a eh to 
iapov, avTO<! S' ov (ftdfiev XeXa^yxeiv oir^e[i'] 11 tolovtov irap avTOv, 60 
aXX' at KU vyirj viv iroirjaai, avOrjcrelv ol eiK(^va ypay^dp£V0<: • fieTa 
8e toOto tov 6eov rav tov HavBdpov Taivilav irepiSija-ai Trepl Td, 
o'TiyfiaTd ov Koi /ceXeaOai viv, iirel Ka i^\eXdrji, e/e tov a/Saroii, 
a<f)eX6fj.evov rav raiviav airoviy^aadai to 1 irpotrmirov airo Ta<! Kpdva<; 
Kal eyKaTOTTTpi^acrffai et? to iiScop. d!f^fj,epa<i 8e yevofievw; e^eX6a>v 65 
eK tov a/3dTov t^v raivlav a<j)i]XeT0 I ra ypd(^fi)fiaTa ovk exovcrav, 
iyKaOiSwv 8e eii to vSap ecoprj to avTOv I irpocrcoTrov irol Toh tStot? 
a-Tiyfiacriv Kal to, tov UavSdpov ypd(fi)\fiaTa XeXa^rjKO^. — Eiv<f>d- 
vrj<; 'ETTjSaWjOto? 7rat9. ovto? Xidimv eve\Kd'^6evhe- eSo^e Sr] avT&i 
6 6eo<; iTricrTct<i elirelv "tI fioi hcoaeK, at T[i5]||Ka vyirj iroirjo-a) ;" 70 
auTo? 8e <f>dfiev " Se'«' aaTpaydXov;,'' tov Se Oeov yeXd\aavTa ^djxev 
VIV iravcreiv. d/ie'pa'i Se yevofieva<; vyifji e^rfxde.- — | 'Avr]p a(l>LKeTO 
TTol TOV deov iKera'i aTepoiTTiXo^ ovra)?, to<7Te ra | ^Xe(f>apa fiovov 
e^eiv, evelp.ev S' eV aiiToh /ir]dev, dXXd Kevea el\ft,ev oX«b?. eXeYoi" hr) 
Ttj/e? Twv iv T&i iapSii Tav evrjdiav avTOv to || vofxi^eiv ^Xe^lrela-Oat 75 
oXo}<s jMrjSefiiav inrap'xp-v e^ovToi; 67rTt'X|\ou, aXX' r] x'^'pafi, fiovov. 

would within a year make the thank- see 177. — 66. k<ipr\: see 280. — 75. 
offerings for his cure. — 60. itoiAyrav. Whenhehadnot even any rudiment of an 



246 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 84 

€'yKa6[evSov]Ti ovv avTMi oi/^t? i(jidvi] • eSo'|«:et tov Beov eyjrfjaai tc 
(j)d[piJ,aKov, eVeJtTa Siayayovra rd ^Xe^a\pa e7%eat ell aiird. dfie- 
/3[a? Be yevofievjat; ^QCfeircov aix^olv i^rjXde. — | T^codwv. crKevo- 

80 <j)6po^ et[? to] iap[ov avtwv], eirel eyevero -rrep), to hd^KatTTaBiov, 
KaTeTrWWe. [&5? S' a\veaTa, dvSa^e Toy yvXiov Ka\l ijireaKd^Tret to, 
a-vvTeTpip.fieva (T[«e]u7;. cJ? S' elSe Toy Kwdcova KaTe\ay'\6Ta, | e^ ov 
6 SeerTTOTa^ eWia-T[o irliveiv, iXuTreiTo kuX avveTiOet [to] 6\(TTpaKa 
Kadi^o/ievo'i. 6Sonr6po<; ovv rt? ISwv avTOV, "ti, w ddXi," e\(f>a, "avv- 

85 Ti^rjai Toy Kwdcova [fid^Tav; tovtov yap ovSe kcl 6 iv 'E'7nSai\]pa>i 
'Ac7KXaTnb<; vyirj Troirjaai. SvvaiTO." a.KOvaa'i TavTa 6 Trah, crvv\&el<! 
TCL ocTTpaKa ell Toy yvXiov, rjpTre eh to lepov. eVet S' ck^ik^o, dvS>i- 
^e Toy yvXiov Kal i^dipev iiyii) Toy Kwdcova yeyevrjfjielvov, kuI twl 
SeinroTai rjpfidvevcre ra irpaydevTa ical Xe')(j9evTa. cu|? Se axova, dve- 

90 6r)Ke tSu ffe&i Toy Kd)0Q)va.— \\Alay(^lva'; iyKeKOi/jbUTfievav ijStj twv 
iKeTav eTTi SevSpedv ti dp,\/3d'i virepeicvrrTe eh to d^arov. KaTaire- 
TMV ovv aTTo TOV BevSpeo<i I Trepl aKoXoird'; Tiva<i tov<; otttiXXovv 
hix^eirai,<Te. KaKW Be Bia\Kelfj,evo<; ical tk^Xo? yeyevT]/x.evo<; KadiKe- 

95 Tevaa^ tov Beov ei^eKdOevBe' ical iiyit}^ eyeveTO. — TllEwTrTro? Xdy- 
y^av eTTy i^opr^ae e^ iv Tai yvddcoi.. eyKOLTaa0evTO<; \ B' avTov i^eXav 
Tav Xoy^av 6 ^eo? eh ra? %»7/3a? ol eBcoKe. dfiepa<; I Be yevofieva^ 
vyifjv e^fjpTre Tav Xoy^^av ev Tali yepalv ej(<iiv. — i 'Avrjp Topcovaloi; 
SeyueXea?. ovTOf eyKadevSoov evvirviov elBe • I eBo^e ol tov Beov Tci 
100 (TTepva fiaxalpai dva'xicra-avTa ra? 8g/u.€||Xea? e^eXelv Kal Bofiev ol i<s 
Tai 'xelpai Kal crvvpdyjrai Ta aTTJ\Bri. dp,epa<s Be yevofievai i^rjXBe 
Ta BrjpLa iv Tali ')(epalv e^cov | Kal vyirji eyeveTO. KaTeirie B' airrd 
BoXwBeli inro ftaTpvidi iy kv^kuvi i/i/3e^r]fi,e'vai, eKiruov. — I 'Avijp 
105 iv alBoiai XiBov. ovtoi ivvirviov elBe • iSoKei TratSt KaX&i 11 avyyi- 
veaBai. i^oveipdoacrcov Be toX XiBov iy^dXXei Kal dveX6fie\voi e^fjX- 
Bev Tall %e/)o-ii/ exo)v. — | 'Epfji,6BiK0i Aa/MyjraKrjvbi UKpaTrji tov 
ato/MaTOi. TOVTOV iyKaBev\BovTa IdaaTo Kal eKeXija-aTO i^eXOdvTa 
XiBov iveyKelv eh to | lapov oTrocraov BvvaiTO fji,eyt(T[T]ov. 6 Be TOfi 

eye, but only the place for it, i.e. the must understand dc/ieXias. Or read o«- 
empty eye-sooket. — 102. aiird refers Ta(S) SoXai«e/s (cf. 97.4). 
to BTjpla, while with iii^epXtniims we 



No. 86] COEINTHIAN INSCEIPTIONS 247 

irpo Tov a^ciTov Ket>e||wv TjviKe. — | ]>iiKdvcop x(o\d<;. tovtov icadr]- no 
lievov Trat? [tJi? virap tov arKiiraiva dp\ird^a<; e^evye. 6 Se acTTa<; 
eSiWe Kol eK tovtov vyirj<; iyeveTO. — \'Avr)p BuktvXov Iddr) vvo 
oi^to';. ovTO? TOV tov ttoSo? SdKTvXov v\7r6 TOV dypiov eXweo? Set- 
vm SiaKeif^evo'i fiedd/iepa vtto tSiv 6^\paTr6vTa)v i^evei'xOeh eirl 115 
eSpdiJMTd<; tivo<; icadl^e. UTri'ou Be viv | Xa^ovTO^ ev tovtcoi SpaKcov 
e'/c TOV dfidTOV i^eXdcov tov SdxTvXov | IdcraTO tm yXcocraai Kal 
TOVTO TTOtT/o-o? ct? TO dfiuTOV cive'X^coprjcre | irdXiv. £^eyep6el<: Se, ok 
^9 vyirj'i, e<f)a 6-<^iv iSeiv, SoKelv veavCa\Kov einrpeTrrj 'TUfj, jj,op(f)av 
iirl TOV BdKTvXov iirnr'^v <f>dpfj,aKov. — 1| 'AX/cera? 'AXtKo'?. o5to? 120 
TU^Xo? ioiv ivvTTViov elBe • iBoxet 6 6eo<; iroTeXQiav tok SalaruXoi? 
Sidyeiv TO, ofifiUTa; Kal iSetv to, SevSpr] TrpaTov to, ev t&l iapSii. 
dfiepa'; Be y^voiieva<; vyirj<; i^rjXOe. — 'Hpateii? MvTcXrjvaio';. ovto<; 
ovK ely(ev ev t&i Ke(j)aXai | Tpi'x^a<;, ev Be tSu yeveiwi irapiTroXXa'i. 
aiayyvoixevo'; Be [are] KaTuyeXdfxevo^ inr[oj I to)v dXXmv evevd- 
6evBe. tov Be 6 0eb^ y^piaa^ (f)apfJ,dKcoi Tav Ke(j)aXav eTTorjcre 11 Tpi- 125 
^a? ey(^eiv. — ©vacov 'EpfMovev<; iral'; aiBtj^. ou[to?] inrap viro 
KVvo<; Tcoi' I KUTo, TO lupdv 6[epa'ir1ev6iu,evo<; tovs otttiXXov; v[ryj^]5 
cnrrjXde. 

Corinthian 

85. Corinth. Early VI cent. b.c. IG.IV.358. SGDI.3H4. Roberts 85. 

Afevia ToBe [adfia], tov oXeae Tr6vT0<; avai[Be'i'\. 

86. Corinth. Early VI cent. b.c. IG.IV.211,217,329. SGDI.3119. 

a. .l^ifiCov p.' avedeKe Ti.oTeBapdv\i pdvaKTC\. 

'n.OTeB\dv'\. 
h. [IIoTjeSafoi't pdvaKTi. 
c. Ilepaeodev Aipo/ie?. 

83. This and the following illustrate They are mostly votive offerings to Po- 

tiie Corinthian differentiation of E = seidon, and contain the name in both 

open e or c (ij) and E (transcribed e) = unoontracted and contracted forms, as 

close i corresponding to Attic spurious HoTeSa/roKi and UoreSavi, but in the 

orgenuineci. See 28. The epitaph forms nominative only the unoontracted IIo- 

a single hexameter. Cf. nos. 87-90. reddv. See 41.4. Tjoi nepaUeev {c),ci. 

86. From a large collection of pot- nripaioi'Xen.Hellen.4.5.1ff. Probably 

tery fragments found near Corinth. & in the first syllable is an error. 



248 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 87 



87. Corcyra. Early VI cent. B.C. IG.IX.i.867. SGDI.3188. Roberts 

98. Solmsen25.1. 

Hviov TXatriafo MeveicpdT£o^ ToSe aafia, 
Olavdeo's yevedv ■ ToSe S' airoi 8a/A09 eirolei, • 
es 7ajo Trpo^evfo^ Sdfiov cj)iXo<; • dW evl irovroi 
5\eT0, Safioa-iov Se Kapo[v irevOriaav airavTe<;.] 
Ilpa^ifieve'; S' avroi ^[a/'ajs cnro TraTp(Bo<; ivffov 
ffiiv Sa/Li[o]t rohe a-dfia Kacnyveroio iroveOe. 

88. Corcyra. Early VI cent. b.c. IG.IX.i.868. SGDI.3189. Roberts 

99. Solmsen25.2. 

1,afia ToSe 'ApvidSa XapoTro? • rov S' '6\e\crev "A/ae? 
^apvdfievov irapd vavcrllv err' 'Kpdddoio phopalai 
TToXXoli/ apicrT£v(^p)ovTa Kara a-T0v6pe((r)(7av apvTdv. 

89. Corcyra. VI cent. B.C. IG.IX.i.869. SGDI.3190. Roberts 100. 
Solmsen 25.3. 

1.TdXa Sevfdpeo^ rov MAetf to's elp.' iirl TUfioi. 

90. Northern Acarnania (exact provenance unknown). V cent. B.C. 
IG.IX.i.521. SGDI.3175. Roberts 106. 

IIpoK\£iSa<; (T)o(S)e crafia KeK\\ea-eTai ivyw oSolo, 
ho<; irepX toL'; avTov ja<i | 6dve ^apvdfievo<}. 



87. Monument of Menecrates. This 
and the three following are examples 
of metrical inscriptions composed in 
the epic style and with retention of sev- 
eral epic words, i.e. ivl, KatriyveToio, 
(rToi'6yre((r)a"ap, dfVT&v = dunj**, and in- 
flectional forms, e.g. gen. sg. in -oio and 
-Of = -00 (105.2a), dat. pi. in -oiiri, 
augmentless verb forms. 

4. The restoration is that suggested 
by Dittenberger, IG. i.e., but is of 
course uncertain. — 6. itoveSc: transi- 
tive sense as in Homer. 



88. phopato-i: cf. also MM^ios, no. 
89. See 7 6 6. — 3. dpMrTev{f)ovTa: cor- 
rected from ipurreirovTa. See 32. 

89. Tv|i6i: Ti/i.pu. But, since assimi- 
lation of nP to /i/j. (cf. Germ. Lamm, 
Eng. lamb as pronounced) is not other- 
wise attested in Greek, this is probably 
formed with another suffix (ti)/i-o- be- 
side ri/i-po-; cf. Lat. tumulus with a 
Zo-suffix). 

90. IIpoKXcCSas : gen. sg. masc. in 
-OS. 105.2 6. 



No. 92] IMEGAEIAN INSCEIPTIONS 249 

Megarian 

91. Selinus. V cent. b.c. IG.XIV.268. SGDI.3046. Ditt.Syll 751 
Michel 1240. Roberts 117. Solmsen24. 

[Ai]a TO'i deo<i To[a]Se vikBvti toI 2e\ivo'i'[Ttot • | Stja tov Aia 
viKd/Me^ Kal Btd TOV ^o^ov [kuI] \ S[ta] RepaKXea koI Si 'AttoX- 
Xova Kal Sid n[oT]|e[tSd]m kuI Sid TuvSapiSw; Kal Si 'A0[a]-|| 
v[d]av Kal Sid Ma\o<})6pov Kal Sid UacriK\pd[T]eiav Kal Si[d] to? 5 
aXKo^ deo'i, [S]id S[e] Aia \ fid\ia-T[a]. ^i\t[a<;] Se 'yevofieva'; ev 
Xpv<T\eo[i\ eX.a[o-a]i'Ta[?, ra fi"] ovvfiara ravra KoX\d'\jravT[a'; e?] to 
'A[7r]oX[\]oi/toi/ Ka6defi^\v, to Ato[? ■7rpo]iypd[\lra']vTe^ ■ to Se xP^- 10 
o-ioi' I i^eK[ovTa T'\a\dvTdv efiev. 

92. Decision of the Megarians. Epidaurus. Between 242 and 234 b.c. 
IG.IY926. SGDI.3025. Ditt.Syll.452. Inscr.Jurid.I,p.342. Michel 20. 

['EJTTi a-TpaTay[ov tS>v 'K'\xaiSiv AtytaXev?, ev S' 'EiriSavpmi 
eV lapev^ | [toJO ' AaK\aTri[ov Aijovvaiov. KaTa TaSe eKplvav toI 
Meyapei'! Tot? | ['ETrJtSau/at'ot? Kal K.opivdioi'i irepl to? %ajj0a? a? 
diJL(f>eX\eyov Kal | [Tre/sjt tov ^eWavvoly] Kal tov "^iripaiov, KaTa 
TOV aivov TOV Twv 'A||[p^at]ftiz' SiKaaT'^piov diroaTeiXavTe'; avSpa<; 5 
eKOTOV TrevTijKOVTa I [ei'a] • Kal eireXOovTcov eV avTdv tuv )(^d>pav 

'91. The Selinuntians promise golden Zeusfirst. — irpoYpdilravrcs : nominative 

statues to the gods who shall help them carelessly used for accusative, 

to victory. Instead of an express con- 9a. Decision of the Megarians, ap- 

dition, there is an enumeration of the pointed by the Achaean league to arbi- 

gods who usually assist them, the im- trate in a territorial dispute between 

plication being that they will continue Epidaurus and Co jinth. The date must 

to do so. faUintheperiodbetween243B.o.,when 

1. Through the help of the following the Corinthians joined the Achaean 

gods do the Selinuntians loin victory. league, and 223 b.c. when the Mega- 

Through Zeus we conquer, etc. — 2. $6- rians abandoned it for the Boeotian 

Pov: Ares. — 5. MaXo<|>6pov: Demeter. league, and is still further limited by 

Cf. Paus.1.44.3 Upbv Aii^n^T-pos J/la\o<p6- the name of the strategus. 

pov. — Ilaa-iKpdTcia : Persephone. Cf. 1. Al-yiaXsBs, lapeSs : gen. sg. in -eus 

Airwoiva. — 7S. Andwhenthereispeoce, tiom-hs. 111.3. — For the psilosis in 

making statues in gold and engraving iw' lapeOs, see 5Sb. — 3. d|u)>^XXeYov: see 

these names, we shall set them up in the 89.3. — 4. SiripaCou : name of a harbor 

temple of Apollo, writing the name of and promontory north of Epidaurus, 



250 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 92 

TCtiv Si/caa-rav ical Kpivdv'^rmv] ^IS^inSavpiav elfiev rdv '^(aipav, avri- 
"KeyovTcov Se rSiv 'K.opivO i^cov T<S]t repfiovia/jLciyi, ttoXiv aireaTeiXav 
To\ M.eyapei'i tov<; repfio\v[i^'\ov[v']Ta^ ex rS)v avr&v Si/caa-rdv 

10 dvSpa<; TpiaKOvra /cat eva Ka^rd T\dv alvov top rS)V 'A^atwi", ovroi 
he i'rreXOovre'i iirl rdv ■^(opav I irepfiovi^av Kurd rdSe • diro ra? 
Kopvcjid'S Tov KopSv\eLOV eVt I [rjay Kopv<j)dv toO 'AXieiov ■ diro tov 
'AXieiov eirl rdv Kopvcj}dv tov | [K~\epavvLOV • diro tov K.epavviov 
eTTi Tdv Kopv(f>dv TOV J^opviaTQ, • I OTTO Tas Kopv<j)a<i TOV KopviUTa 

15 im-l Tdv oSbv iirl tov pd'^^iv tov tov || KopviaTa ■ diro tov pd'yio<i 
TOV 'KiopviaTa iirl tov pd')(iv tov sttI Talk 'Aveiai<! vrrep Tdv '^koX- 
Xeiav ■ diro tov pd'x^L0<i tov vwep Tdv ^KoXl^Xeiav viro Td<; 'A.vela'; 
iwl TOV Kopv<j)ov TOV vTTep Tai oSov Td<; dfial^irov [ra? KOJTayov- 
aa<; eirl to liiriaiov ■ dtro tov Kopv^ov tov vire^ Td<! [oSov] ra? 

20 a/ia^trou iirl tov Kopv(pov tov iTrl tov ^dyw; • diro 11 tov Kopv(f)ov 
TOV eTrl TOV ^dya<; e-jrl tov Kopv(f>ov tov eirl tov Alyihrvpal's] • diro 
TOV Kopv(f>ov TOV iirl Ta? Al'ynrvpa<; eirl tov Kopv(j>6v I tov t[ov 
'A/3a]ta? • diro tov 'Apaia<: eVt tov Kopv<f)bv tov inro rat TleTp\af 
d'jr\o Tojt) viro Tai TieTpai eirl tov Kopv^dv tov iirl tov ^'x^oivovvA 
Toi • .a[7ro tIov Kopv^ov tov iirep tov 2%oti'o{)i'Tos eirl tov Kopv- 

25 ^dv II TOV K[aTa T'\dv ^vopyav diro tov Kopvtpov tov virep ra? 
^v6pya<; [evrt] | tov pd')(iv tov vrrep ra? I.VKOwrla'i • diro tov pd- 
j^to? TOV vTrep ra? | 2i'[«:oiio't']a9 eTrl tov Kopv(f>dv tov vrrep ra? 
IleXXe/jtTio? • WTTO tov \ Kopv(f}ov tov virep Td<; JJeXXepmo^ eTrl 
TOV Kopv^ov TOV TOV II[ai'|tbi'] • diro tov Ylaviov iirl tov pdyiv tov 

30 vTrep TOV 'OX[/coi)] • d-Trd tov /3a'||[;;^(o]? t[ov] virep tov 'OXkov eTrl 
TOV pd^iv TOV {brrep) tov ' A7r[oXX'](oviov • mtto | t[ov] pdyio<; tov 
inrep tov 'AttoXXcoviov eVt t6 'AiroXXcoviov. SiKaa-\[Tal rjot Kpi- 
vavTe<s ToiSe. [There follow, 11. 32-96, the names of the arbitrators 
and of those appointed to lay out the boundaries for them.] 

referred to by Thuc.8.10.3 (correcting tity with tlie feminine form is shown 

IIeipai6i'toS7rIpaioi')andPliny,Nat.Hist. hj t as Alyiirripas 1.21 beside tov AtyiTi- 

4.18 (Spiraeum). — 19. *d-yos: gen.sg. pas 1. 20. — 32ff. Tlie list of names, 

masc. in -as. 105.2 6. So 'Apalas 1. 22, arranged according to the three Doric 

but also the usual form in KopvLdra 11. tribes, contains the characteristic forms 

13ff. The confusion caused by the iden- Q4Supos, eoKplv7is,etc. See 42.5 (i. 



No. 95] RHODIAN INSCRIPTIONS 251 

Rhodian 

93. Camirus. YI cent. b.c. IG.XII.i.737. SGDI.4U0. 

"Edfia t6^' '18a\fj,evev<; irolrjfra hiva KXeo'i I eirj ■ 11 

Zeii(8) fie viv oo-rt? | irrifiaivoi Xeio\\r) Oeir). 5 

94. Camirus. Yl cent. b.c. IG.XII.i.707. SGDI.4127. 
^v6v\T\iBa I rifu Xecrxa | to Upa^aioBo | tov^vXo || Tov(])vXiSa. 

95. Camirus. IV (or III) cent. b.c. IG.XII.i.694. SGDI.4118. Ditt. 
Syll.449. Michel 433. Solmsen32. 

"ESofe Ka/iipevai ra? KToiva<; ra? Kafiipeayv ra? I iv rdi vdcrcoi 
Kal T^9 iv rdi aireipcot ava<ypd-\{rai Trdcra<; | Kal e^'^Oei^eiv e? to lepov 
Td<; 'Adavaia'i i (TTaXai | XiOivai %eo/3t9 XaXKrj^ ■ i^i^fieiv Se Kal 
XaXKjjrat? || dvaypa<f>ijfieiv, at Ka j^^prji^mint. iXea-Oai Be dvBpat I 5 
rpet? avTiKa p,dXa, oiTive'; iTrifieXrjBrjaevVTl, ravlra? ra? irpd^io^ 
0)9 Tay^tcTTa Kal cnroSaxj-evvTai | roit 'x^prfi^ovTi iXa'x^iaTOV irapa- 
(^Xelv Tap aTdXav | /eat ra? ktoivw; dvajpd-^ac Kal iyKoXdilrai iv 
TM aTcl^^Xai Kal (TTdaai iv tmi lep5>i ra? 'K6dva<; Kal irepi^oXi- lo 
/8&)|o-at 0)9 e^7?t 0)9 lajfypoTaTa Kal KdXXiaTa. to, Be TelXevp-eva 69 
TavTa iravTa tov Tufiiav irapey^^eiv. I €7 8e TavTav Tav ktoivclv cnro- 
SeiKvveiv TOW | KTOivdra^ /lacrTpov iv twi lepm, tcoi djiooTdTCiM ]| iv 15 
Tcii KToCvai KaTo, TOV vofiov TOV t5>v 'VoBimv • I TOVTOi Be avvXeye- 
(t6(ov iv K.a/jLipa>i et9 to | lepov Ta9 'Adavaia';, okku toI lepowoiol 

93. Tof : t6Sc. 62.2. — Zeu(8) Si: both those on the island and those on 
Zeis 5^. 97.4. — XcioXi): accursed. Cf. the mainland. For the latter cf. , from 
Hesych. XcmXt/s • reXe/us ^|i6Xijs, and, the Periplus of Scylax, Xcipo t) "PoSl- 
for the first part of the compound, uv ij iv tJ ■^irelpifi. — The neighboring 
Xeius in Archilochus. island of XoXk^ (see 42.2) was under 

94. Xe'irxa : grave. The original the control of Camirus at this time, 
meaning of the word (from *Xexir(to, cf . yet evidently sustained a relation to it 
X^Xos) was resting place, whence either different from that of tlie other demes. 
grave 01 the Msnal place of recreation, — 6. lirintXnOtio-eiivTi.: see 160. ^Tri^ie- 
club. — The last woi-ds are to be read, 'Krie-Zjirofmi is used by late writers, but 
■with resolution of the crasis, to Ei- not in classical Attic. — 8 ff. diroSoi- 
<t>i\o, t5 EiipvKtSa. <r«SvTai /ct-X. : shall give out the contract 

95. 1 ff. The names of the (croivot or to the one who is willing to furnish the 
demes of Camirus are to be inscribed, stele at the lowest figure. 



262 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 95 

7rapay'y[e\\X](0VTt, xal adpeovrco ra lepa to, Kafiipeav [to, Sa\iio]- 
reXi] iravTa, ai ri - 

96. lalysus. IV (or III) cent. B.C. IG.XII.i.677. SGDI.4110. Ditt. 
Syll.560. Michel 434. 

"ESofe Tot9 p^aa-Tpolt koX 'laXvaioi<;, | Sr/siaTT;? ' AXkcp.eSovTO'i 

el-Tre ■ I ottm? to lepov koI to refievo^ | ra? ' A7^KTpa>va<; evayrjrai 
5 KaViTa TO, Trdrpta, einpLeX-qdrifieiv | tov<; l£porafiia<s ottq)? araXat | 

ipyaaOecovTi Tpel<; \idov Aa/3T[t]|ow Kdl avaypaiprji e? ra? o-Ta\a|? 
10 TO Te yjrdfjiLa-fia ToSe Koi a ov% o||crfoV ivTi sk tSjv vo/jlcov ia-(f>e^eiv 

ovBe ia-oSonropelv e? to re'l/itei'os, Kal to, iTriTifiia Tw[t] 7rpda\aovTi 
16 irapa tov vofiov • defieiv Se | ra? o-raXci? /oiia/i fiev iirl Ta<; ia^\Sov 

ra? e/c 7ro'A,{09 7roTf7ro/3ei'0/ite'|i'ot9, /tww' Se virep to laTiaTopiov, I 

aWai' Se CTri ra? KaTa^daio<; Ta[s] | ef 'A^aia? Tro'Xtos. | 
20 No'/U.o? a oi^ ocriov ecTL/ieiv oiiSe || ea^peiv e? to te/sov «at to 

Te'l/ievo? Ta<i 'A7i£KTptova<s. ■ fir) eo-i|Ta) tTTTro?, oVo?, fffiiovo'i, yivot I 
25 /iTjSe aX\o \6<j)Ovpov p,r)dev, firj^e icrayeTco e? to T€fievo<i firi\\0el<! 

TOVTCOV fiijOev, firjSe viroSijl/jiaTa ea'(f>epeTco fJLrjSe veiov firjlOev • OTt Se' 

Kd Tt? Trapa tov voflov | Troiijar)t, to Te lepov koL to Tefievoi | KaOai- 
30 /aeVo) /cat eiripe^eTco, tj eVo||^o? eaTCO tm aae^eiai ■ el Se Ka | Trpo- 

^ara ia-^dXrji, cnroTeicrdTa) vlirep kicdcrTov irpo^dTOV o^oXov I o 
35 ea/SaXuv • TroTayyeXXeTCO Se [ tov tovtcov ti iroievVTa 6 ■)(^priL^a>v e'? 

Toir? fidcTTpov^. 

97. Khodian (?) inscription from Abu-Symbel in Egypt. VII or VI 
cent. B.C. SGDI.5261. Hicks 3. Robertsl30. Ionic alphabet, but with- 
out n = (i). H = ijinc(,6, =A and i; in c (and probably in i) , = h in/( E = jj). 

a. BacrtXeo? eX66vTO<; e? '^XecjtavTivav '^a(fi)iiaTiy(^o I toOto 

eypa-\]rav, toI criiv 'Vap.p.aTl'xpi ©eoK\(e')os | eirXeov. rfXOov Se 

96. 4. 'A\EKTpiivas : a daughter of Lindus. — IO.Ivti: pl.forsg. — IS.'Axat- 

Helios and the nymph Rhodes, who as irdXios : the name given to the acrop- 

was worshiped with divine honors by olis of lalysus. Cf. Ath.8.360 iv rg 

the Rhodians. Cf. Diod.5.56, where 'laKmlf itb\iv la-xvpoTdT-nv ri/v 'Axolav 

the name appears as 'HXexTpuiii/?). — KoKov/i^vriv. 

7. \C6ou AapT(ou : also irirpas Aaprlas 97. Inscribed on the legs of one of 

on another inscription, marble from the colossal statues at Abu-Symbel by 

Lartus, a place iu the neighborhood of Greek mercenaries who had taken part 



No. 99] EHODIAN INSCRIPTIONS 253 

Ke/jKto? KaTwepde, vh 6 iroTanb<; \ avC-r). a(X)\oy\o{<T)(To<; 8' ■^'x.e 
UoTaai/xirTO, AlyVTrTid<; Se "Afia<ri<;. || eypa^e 8' afie "Apxov 'A/jioi- 5 
^I'Xo Kal IleXepo? OvSa/io. b. 'E\effi'y8[to]9 o T^'to?. 

c. T^Xe^o's /i' eypa^e ho 'IaXvo-to(?) - 

<^. IIv^oi' 'A/i.ot/3t;Y[o]. 

e. na/3t? 6 2oXo<^oi/to? - - ctui^ ■^Ojtt/^aT[t%ot]. 

/. Ha7eo-e/3/ito[?]. ^. nacrt(^)oi; 6 'Itttto - 

A. KjOt^i? e'ypa((f>e)v. 

i. ^Ofj,yvao^ hoica ^aai\e\v<; Tjekaae tov crrpaTOV [t]o irpaToh/ 
hdfjLJa '^a(/u.)/iaTt;;^o[t 

98. Gela. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.4247. 
JJacndSapo to | aafia, K/aare? iliroiei. 

99. Agrigentum. Second half III cent. b.c. (before 210). IG.XIV.952. 
SGDI.4254. Michel 553. 

'EttJ lepodvTa | ^vfi^oBwpov rov 4>iX(»i'o? | Trapwrrpoa-rd^Ta) ra^ 
j8oi/Xa9, 1 irpoeSpevova-a'; ra? ^uXa? || tcoi' 'TXXecdi', ■jrpoayopovvTO's | 5 

in an expedition up the Nile under a 3. K^pKios : stands for the Egyp- 

PsammetichusI (654-617 B.C. )orPsain- tian Kerti, which is applied to the 

metichus 11 (594-589 e.g.), probably stretch of water between the first oat- 

the latter. These mercenaries were aract and Elephantine. — vis 6 iroraiios 

from Asia Minor and the adjacent dvtt|: as far as the river let them go up. 

islands (cf. Hdt.2.154 tooti di'laxri nal For vh see 132.4. — 5. 'AiioipCx". O"- 

ToTiriKap<rlToi(ri,a-vyKaTepyaaafi4voi,ffi ai- 8d|j.o: o 'A/juoi^ixov, 6 Ei)Sd/iou. 94.1,7. 

Ti? 6 'iran/i.frixos SiSoil x'^po^^ ivoiKriaai. i. No complete restoration is possi- 

aiirlovs a.\\-/i\bji/, olSi'IwvhreKalKS.- ble. — T]£\a(rE : ^Xoo-e aor. of Aaww. 

pes Toiirous Tois x'^P""^ oUtiaav xpivov iwl The peculiar spelling H E is perhaps 

iroXXii/. irpwroiyipovToiivAlyirTij) due to a confusion between the two 

&\\6y\ta(riToi KaTO{.Kl<rd-t)<Tav). Among systems of writing known to those who 

those whose names are inscribed be- wrote these inscriptions, 1) H = ?;, 2) B 

low, there are two lonians, from Teos = A, and E = ij. Similarly BE/ii, i.e. iiixi, 

and Colophon (6 and e), and one Rho- in a Theran inscription. 

dian, from lalysus (c); / is also Doric, 98. Beginning of a hexameter. For 

and h Ionic (on account of the v mova- THaaiaSafo see 105.2 a. 

ble). The main part of the inscription 99. Proxeny decree of Agrigentum 

(a), as well as i, is clearly in Doric in honor of Demetrius of Syracuse. In 

and may well have been written by one view of 1. 11 and of the fact that this 

of the Rhodian mercenaries, though inscription was found at Rome, being 

there is nothing to prove this. evidently the copy given to Demetrius 



254 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 99 

Ato/cXe'o? Tov Ato«\e'o9, | rypa/j-fiarevovTo^ 'ABpavicovo'i 'AXe^dv- 
Bpov, I aXiaa-fjta mrw Sifi'^vov, KapveCov e^rjKo\yT\o<i Travrdi, \ vwep 
wpo^evla'i A7)/Ji,rjrpia)t AioSorov l^vpaKOfficoi. || 

10 "ESo^e Tcii aXiM Kuffd ical jai a-v{v)K\i]ra}i pi'. eTreiSr) avdjlyeX- 
Xov ot Trpea-^ee'i oi e? 'PcS/iav Tropevdevre^, Haericov | Ila(ruovo<! 
KorrjTO'i Kal @€6Ba)po<; @eoScopov Bv^idSa, | Arj/JLijTptov AioSorov 
l^vpaKoa-Lov iroWa^ koX /ji.eydXa'; %/3eia? | Tra/seto-^ijo-^at rax, afian 

15 hdp,a>i Kal fieydXav ayaOcov 7rapaiTto(v) || jeyoveiv, rot? Se 'Axpa- 
ryavTivoa irdrpiov icm Kal bk irpoyovcov | TrapaSeSofievop TifMelv rov^ 
a'ya6ov'i avSpa^ Kal TrpolaTafieh^ov; tov ap,ov Sdfiov rah Kara^ioK 
Tifiah ■ I SeS6y(^0ai iirl ayaddt Tvyai, koI a-corripiai tov Sdfiov t5)V 
'AKpayavTivcov I eip-eiv irpo^evov Kal evepyerav ArjfiijTpiov AioSo- 

20 TOV 1,vpaK6ai\\ov, o7ro)(?) irdcri cf>avep6v ?i on 6 Sdnoi roiV 'AKpa- 
yavTiveov eVtio-TaTai ■xdpiTa'i airove/juetv Kara^ia^ rot? evepyereiv 
'Trpoai\povfievoii avTov. to Se Soy/ia ToSe KoXd'^avra^ es ')(a,XKoy\ 
^ara hvo to p,ev iv avaOefieiv elf to ^ovXevrijpiov, to 8e \ aXXo 

25 cnroBofjieiv Ar]p.r)Tpi(oi AioSorov l^vpaKoaioai inrt}^\nvafjia Ta'i ttotI 
TOV Sdfiov evvoia<; ■ tov? Se Tafiiat I e^oSid^ai e<s ra "Trpoyeypafifiiva 
ocrov Ka xpeia rj, Kal (f>e\peiv rhv e^oSov Si^ tmv cnroXdycov. | ofio- 
yvm/jiove'i tov avveSpiov irdvTe'i. 

100. Rhegium. I cent. b.c. IG.XIV.612. SGDI.4258. Ditt.SyU.323. 
Michel 555. 

'Etti trpvTdvLO'i 'NiKdvBpov tov ^iKoSdf*ov, ySowXa? irpoaTaTeov- 

T05 2(BO-t7ro'\to? TOV Aajjuarpiov, x^coi 'iTnriov SvoBeKdrai, eSofe 

(1. 24), it appears that he was resident after the analogy of ef\i7^o etc. (76 6), 

in Rome, and his services probably con- occur in several koiu^ inscriptions. — 

sisted in some dealings vrith the Roman 15. yc76vciv: see 147.2.. 
senate in behalf of Agrigentum. loo. Rhegium was a Chalcidian col- 

8. ci,\(a(r|i.a ktX. : decree of the &\la ony, and in the few early inscriptions 

in the sixth period of two months, at the the Ionic element predominates. But 

very end of the month Kapvehi. — 10. after its destruction by Dionysius of 

o-u(v)KX.'<iTiiii. : the council, for which Syracuse in 387 b.c. and its subse- 

/SouXd is employed in 1. 3. The signifl- quent restoration, there were contin- 

cance of the following numeral is not ual changes in its population. Some 

clear. — 14. Trapeio-xfjcrSai : rfo-xijica, of its new inhabitants must have been 

eUxvi^at, for ^ffxvKa, ^o-xw', 'with ei furnished by Gela or Agrigentum, if 



No. 101] CO AN INSCEIPTIONS 255 

TM a\ia I KaOdirep rai icTKXijTwi Kal rai ^ovXai • i-jrel 6 (npara- 
709 TS>v'Vwp.ai<av Tmto? Auc^i'Sio? TiVov uto? evvov^ v-irdpxei tm 
a/xa iroXei, a^to? ^aiv6fj,evo<; | ra? avTov KaXoKayaOia^, SeSdxOai. 
Tvalov Ai(f){Siov Titov vlov a-Tparayov 'Pco/j,aicov crTe^aviacraL ev 
TO) aywvi Tot? irpcoTOK; 'A6avioi<; eXota? a-Te(l}d\vco Kal irpo^evov 
Kal evepyerav iroifja-at rov Sa>(o)u twv 'Vrjyivmv Kal iyyovov; av- 
Tov, evvoLa<} eveKev a? excov SiareXel els rov Sd/iov tcov 'Pj^vtllvoji/. 5 
rav Se ^ovXav ro dXiaa/jLa KoXa'\jrap,evav eh ;!^aXK(B/itaTa Sitra-d 
TO fiev avaOefxeLv- eh to ^ovXevTijpiov, to Se diroa-TeiXai Tvaim 
Au<^tSta). 

Coan 

101-103. Cos. Late IV or early III cent. B.C. SGDI.3636-3638. Ditt. 
Syll. 616-618. Michel 716-718. Paton-PIicks.Inscr. of Cos 37-39. Solm- 
sen 33. 

101. [The first six lines and most of the seventh are so badly muti- ^ 
lated that only a small part can he restored.] e? Be [T]\dv [dyo- 
p]av eXdvTw Ild/j,cj)vXoi irpaTOi, ev ayopai Se a-[v'\/ji,fj,i\_iTy\ov]Tt, 6 Se 
lepev<; Ka[6']ij<76a} [irdp'] T[av1 Tpd-Tre^av e^cov Td[v || <f)id]X[a]v tuv io 
lepav, Tol Se iep[o7roiol eKaT~\epa) ra? T/oaTrefa?. n[a/i|<^i'Xot] Se 
eTreXavTco /3o{)[? Tpeh tov]<; [«:]aXXi[o-]TOK9, al P'[ey Ka | To'\vT(oy 

we may judge by the language of this the rites and ceremonies appropriate 
inscription, which is not merely Doric, to each day of the year, 
but contains the Ehodian infin. -iiav 101. Selection of the ox and other 
and the word dXiaff/ia, otherwise known preparations for the sacrifice to Zeus 
only from inscriptions of Gela and Polieus, which occurs on the following 
Agrigentum. The Rhodian influence day, the twentieth of the month Ba- 
in Sicilian Doric seems to have been tromius (of. 1. 47, and no. 102.11). 
considerable. Cf . iyopaa-S'/iiJLei.v at Tau- 8-19. After the tribes had each se- 
romenium, SGDI.5228. 13. leoted nine oxen in a manner prescribed 

1. x'"' : unexplained and probably in the preceding lines (apparently one 

an error of some kind. — 2. co-kXiIitui. : from each hdra or ninth part of the 

refers to a small select body, probably tribe), they were to drive them to the 

mediating between the council and tha agora, the Pamphyli having the prece- 

assembly. Cf . Hesych. ^o-kXtjtos • 17 t&v dence, and there unite them in one 

ii&X""' (TvvdBpoiffis iv "ZvpaKoiaati. herd. "When the priest and the Upo- 

101-103. Portions of a sacrificial voiol had taken their places at a table, 

calendar, in which were enumerated the Pamphyli drove up to it the three 



256 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 101 

KpidfiL Ti? • al [8e liri, "TXKel'i T/ajets iXdvrco, al iJ.ey [/ca T\o]vTcoy 
Kpidrji Tf? • al Be \ji.r\, Auyiiaz^e? T/3e]t9 Tov'i [XjotTTOW, a[t /ie'|7] «« 

IS TOVTwy KpiOrjL Ti? • a[t Se /iTj, are/aou?] eXavrco e? Tiiy a7[op]||az/ 
«al iireXavTW Kara Ta[vTd, al /ie]7 ku Tovrioy Kpidrji T[ts ■ | a]l 
Se jJLri, rpLTOV eTreXavreo Koi ar\epov<i'] ■ al 8e Ka Tovrmy Kpt[dr]t] | 
Urihek, iiriicpivovTaL ^ovv eic ;)(;t[\iao-]Tuo? eKdcrra'; ■ eXa[cra]|i'Tes 
Se TOVTOV; a-vp,fj,Laryov[Ti Tot]s aXXoc<s • ical evdv[<i Kpiv]\ovn Kal 

20 ev')^ovTai kuI a'iroKapv\aa-ov\n. eirena e'iTeXdvT\co oS]||Ti9 Kara 
Tuvrd. Overau Se, al p,ey ica v'iroK\y<^'\ei, rat 'Xariai • 0v[ei | Be y]e- 
pea^opoi ^acriXecov Kal lepa Trape^x^ec Kal eindvei, iepa i^ [v\/^y- 
eKTOv, yeprj Be Xa/i^dvei to Bepfia Kal to aKeXoi, UpoTroi[ol | S]e 
[o-]«:e'\o?, Tcl, Be dXXa Kpea ra? Tro'Xto?. tov Be KpidevTa Tim] \ 

25 liTfvl KdpvKe<i dyovTi €5 ayopdv ■ eirel Be Ka iv toli ayopat e(»[i^|Tt], 
ayopevei ov Ka rji 6 jSov^ rj aWo? inrep ktjvov ivBe^io[<! ' "K.\d)]i- 
Mk Trape'x^Q} TO^/ji] ^ovv, KaJtoi Se Tifiav airoBovTtei <to> tcLi 
'Ii7T/a[t]." I TificovTcu Be irpoaTdTai ofjuiaavTei Trapa'x^pTjfJLa • etrel Bi 
Ka Ti\jia&\ri'\i, ctvayopeveTco 6 Kdpv^ O7ro'cr[ov Ka nfiaff^rji • tovto) 
•Be e[X]dvT[a) 7ra|jo]a- t^v 'lerTiav Tav Tafiiav, Kal 6 [tov Zt^vov 

30 ijepevs crTe'(7r)Tei Kal [eK]||cr7re'i'8ei KvXiKa oivov Kexpafievov [ttJ/jo 
TOV [^ooj'i • eireiTa dyovTi To[fi ^o'jvv Kal Toy KavTOV Kal [0]0oto? 

finest oxen for selection. If none of diately, it is described at this point, be- 

tbese was chosen, the Hylleis drove up fore the narration returns, in 1. 23, to the 

three more, then the Dymanes, then ox chosen for Zeus. — vn'OK[vi|/]ci : sub- 

the Pamphyli again and so on in rota- mits tamely. Aor. subj. 150. — ^cpca- 

tion until all twenty-seven oxen had <{>6pos Poo-iX^uv : yepea<j)6pos, the title of 

been presented. If still no choice has apriestlyofficlal,occursonlyhere,and, 

been made, they select an additional in the form yep7i(j>6pos, in tlie small 

ox from each x'X'afTi}!, the third part island of Pserimos, between Cos and 

of a tribe, and unite these with the Calymna. The /Soo-iXets were here, as 

others. Then the choice is effected, f ol- elsewhere, a body o£ officials in charge 

lowed by vows and a proclamation, of of religious matters. — ImSvei Upd ktX. : 

the choice. — 19 ff. tirtiTa kt\. -. the offers in addition the sacrificial cakes 

choice of the ox to be sacrificed to Zeus prepared) /rom a half-iKreis. Cf. iprot 

Polieus having been disposed of, a sim- Sio i^ fujuim-ov 1. 48. — 29. <rriitr€i : cor- 

ilar procedure is to be repeated for the rected from aTiyrei. (tt^tttu = ariipa, 

choiceof anoxtobesacrificedtoHistia; as ipiwru = ipi<j>a. — 31. Kaoirdv: a 

and, as this sacrifice takes place imme- whole bumt-offering, in this case, a pig. 



No. 101] COAN INSCRIPTIONS 257 

iirrk Kal fieXi Kal aTeiJ,fj.a ■ i^d'y[ovT\e]<; Se KaptxraovTi ev(j}afiiav, 
Krjv[ec Se ... .JiVavTe? rbfi fiovv Ka\[eaip]ovTai daWm ical [KX\aU- 
Toi, Se [^oo-tXjJ? K\apirSiVTi rbfi nej xot[|o|oi'] Kal to, a-TrXdyxva 
iirl Tov /StB/ioO 67rt[o-7reV8]oi/Tes fieXiKparcv, €[vT^\pa S]e [eJ^TrXu- 35 
i/avre? irapa to[/x ^eofibv KapTr]a)VTi- eVet Be ku KapT-wlOiji, \ va]- 
7r[ota?] iTna-TrevBe'Tco ne\iK[paTov, Kapv^ 8]e Kapvacrera) eopTd^[ev \ 
Ztjvo? n]o[X,tij]o[s] iviavTia mpata e[opTdv lepeii'i] Se rot? eVre- 
poK e7ridve[T(o | d]vrj Kal [tow] (^^ota? Kal (nrovSalv doivo]v Kal 
KSKpafievav Kal arelfi/Ma. fjL^T]d tovto Se Iovtw -irdp rov<! lapoiroi- 
[oif? e?] TO oiKTjiMa TO Safioaiov ta[/3e||u]? Kal KdpvKe^, iapoTroiol he 40 
^evi}^6\yT(o tov l^eprj Kal to'; KdpvKa<s T\avT\a'\v tuv vvKTa ■ eirel 
Se Ka aTTOvSdv Troiija-^oJvTai, alpecrdw 6 iapev\<;'\ I.i.tj tS)v lapo- 
TTOiSiV ^o6<i TOV dvofievov Tcoi Zr]vl TOii YloXirji, Kal '!rpo[a^op\ev\- 
erw dyvevecrOai yvvaiKoi Kal d[vSpd']t; uvtI vvkt6<; • toI Se Kdpv[Ke<s I 
aip^eicrdoa cr^ayrj tov /3oo<! 07 Ka y^pi^^avTi r]VTSyv, Kal irpoayopev- 
e[Tta II Tm avjKriTdi tcoi alpeOevn Kara TavTd. Tai avrdi dfiepai 45 
Aiovvacoi [^K\vWiT]ai yplpo'i Kal epi^o's ■ tov ypipov ovk airo- 
^opd • dvei Se iepeiit K\al tej/sja irapej^ei • yeprj cjjepei Sepfia, o-«e'Xo9. 
'IkuSi /Sou? o Kpidel<: BveTai Zr)vl [JlolXt^Jt Kal evSopa evSe'pe- 
Taf i(f>' ecTTiav OveTai d\<f>iTa>v '^/MieKTov, apTo[i S\v'\o i^ rjnieKTov, 
b are/so? Tv[p'\(i)S7j<; , Kal Td evSopa • Kal eiricnrevSeL te[jo||€i;?] tov- 50 
Toi'; olvov KpaTrlpa<; r/aei? ■ yepri toO /S009 twi leprji Sep/jua K^al 
o-«:|e]\o? ■ iepd lapeii'; irapey^ei [rje Kal r^iraTo^ -Ijfuav Kal KotXwi? 
7Jp,[ia-v,] I dva(f>6pcoi Se tov tr/ceXeo? tov t&v iepoiroLwv [SiSjoraJ 
ciKpiaj^iov, [v]\d)TOV SiKpea<;, vivwp.aia, alfiaTiov 6^e\o'; T/Jt/ccoXto?, 
Ne«7To/DiSat[9] I i'[{Ut]oi' SiKpeai, laTpol's Kpea<;, avXrjTcii Kpea<;, %aX- 
xemv Kal K€pa[fjLe\\a)'\v eKaTepoi^ to Ke<pd\aio[y, Ta Se dWa Kpea 55 
TOT TTo'Xto?. TavTa Se TrdvTa] | a7r[o^e]/3eTat e/cro? to[v Tejxevev;. 

Cf. no. 102.12 xo^Jos TrpoKauTciierai. — 43. TOi : tlie cvdopa are wrapped in the skin. 

dvTl vvKTiSs : during the night. 136.8. The reference is to certain parts of tlie 

— 44. atpeCo-eu: 3 pi. 140.1. — irpoa- victim which after slaughter are 

'yopcv^Tu : sc. 6 lapeis. — 46. diro<|iopd : wrapped up in the skin and made a 

here in literal sense, carrying off. Cf . special offering. Cf . Hesych. ^vSpara ■ 

11. 55-56, and no. 102.10 toAtuv oix Ik- t4 ivSepbiuva (riiv tJ xe^aX? Kal rots vo- 

'ix TOV moS. — 48. EvSopa IvS^pc- <rlv. — 49. TvpASus : cheese-shaped, th&t 



258 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 101 

rai] avTM afiepac'Adavaiai Uo[\td]\St oh Kveoa-a ■ 6vei Se le[pei)^ 
Kul] iepd Trape^ei ■ yeprj Xafi^dvei S[ep\p,]a koI o-«e\o9. 

'¥.vdrai Me[Xai']ia ^lovvami IkuWitm X^^^P"^ ['^'*' e'|p]K^o? • 
ToC %otjOov ovK airo^opd- 6vei lepeiK koI iepd irapexei- yeprj 
60 [\a]||/u./3ai'et Sepfia koc o-«;eXo?. 

'EjSSo>at dvofjLev[ov] ecr? 'AX/r^tSa? A[a/Aa]|T/3t oh reXeco? «:ai 
reXea Kveoaa • Tovrav ovk diro^opd • icvKiKe<; [Kai\val] Bvo SiSov- 
rai • 6vei lepei)<s Kal Iepd irapexei • 'yepr) 8e ovara. 

"'EKXTa[c I AtoKvo-wt] 1,KvWiTa[i %ot/)09 ical ept^o?]. rov x°^- 
po[v OVK diro^opd ■ 6vei | l]e[pe]v<! K[al Iepd vapexei - - 

102. [dvet lapeii^ | Kal Iepd 'irape]xef yeprj Xafi^dvei hepfia 
Kal cTKeXr]. T[ai avT]\di d/Mepai 'Peat oh KVevaa Kal iepd, ocraaTrep 
Tov lIeSa'yeiTv[io'j\v ryeypairrai, • tovtoov ovk d7ro<f>opd • Ovei iapeiK 

5 Kal iepd 7ro/3e;y;e[t • 7]||e/3?7 Xa/M^dvei Sep/ia. 

AeKarai "Hpac 'Apyeiai, 'EXeiat BacrtXetat Sayii|aXis Kpird, Kpi- 
veadco Se fir] e\da-crovo<; icovrj/ieva '7rev[T'\\i]K0VTa hpaxf-dv 6vei 
iapeii'i Kal iepd "jrapexei • jep[r]'] Xafi^d^yei] | Sepfia Kal cKeXo? ■ 
ravTa'i d'7rocj}opd ■ evSopa evBeperai, Kal 0v[erai] | i-irl rai iariai ev 

10 Twt vawL rd evhopa Kal eXaTrjp e^ rjp.ieKTOV [cnf^pSiv • tovtcov 
OVK eKcjiopd eK tov vaov. 

''EvSeKdTai Zrjvl M.axa\v7]t /Sou? KplveTai to arepovero';, e^'ovKa 
eeovr[i\ K.[a'\pvelai, Ka[6d\7r'\ep tov ^aTpofjbtov tcol Zrjvl t&i IIoXtTjt 
KpiveTai,, Ka\y] %o[t]/30s Trpo^KaVTeveTai Kal irpoKapvacreTai Ka0d- 
Trep Tftjt IloXtjjt. 

Ava)Se\^K'\\dTai ZtjvI M-axavrji ote? T/aet? TeXemi Kal /Sou? o Kpi- 

15 deh TO II drepov eVo?, e(^' ov Ka ecovTi JLapveiai, to Se aTepov eTO<; 
oie'; [rJljOet? reXeiBt • TavTa diet, iapew o twv BaSeKa BeSiv Kal iepd 
•Tiiapexei " Tourot? irpodveTai, irdp Toy ko\^iv'jov d ^epovn ^uXeo- 
/A|a[pj;]tSat oK^itcov fifiieKTOV, oovov reTapTav yeprj Se ^vkeofila- 

20 ;i^t'Sai? SiSoTai tov ^061; oirXd, Tapcr6<;, Toiv Be olSiV to wfiov || e^ 

is, as cheeses are now made in Cos, in XaXeOo-a etc. in other Coan inscriptions), 

the shape of a slender cylinder. — 60. The spelling eo is due to tlie co-existence 

&vo|j,4vov : ^dlmvTos. — 61. KUEoo-a : kv- of the spellings eo and eu in the case of 

eOcra in no. 102.3 etc., from Kviovra (of. original eo (e.g. gen. sg. -eos and -ews). 



No. 104] THERAN INSCRIPTIONS 259 

ow a deofioipia rd/MveTai ku^I to a-T]?7^o? • 76/397 Xafi^dvei 6 ta|j3ev9 
aKeXr] Kal SepfiuTu. rai avrdi ajxepai 'Kdavai[aL\ Maxa[vi'^hi 
.SdfiaXi<; KpcTU to drepov eTO<s, i(f)' ov ku ecovri Kapv€ia[i, t]|o Se 
drepov ero? oh reXea- dvet lapew Kal dtroppaiverai 6aX\d(7a-ai- 
rovTcov oiiK d-TTO^opd ■ [dv^crrpa BiSorai rdi 6e&i, e\ai [o||u] TeVo/ae? 25 
KotvXeai, o'ivov rerdpra, irpo'xpi Kaival 8vo Kal KvX[i\Ke^] Kaival 

Tjoets ■ [T]o[t9 o]i9 TUfi iroXiv covetcrdai Sd/jL^aXLv] I 

[Bp~\a'Xfji .. .V ...ra 

103. Ti e[TpdSi e|] eiKdBo<; | [toI<; ■^pa)](7LV ot[e9 rpet?] <ote> re'- 
Xewi [6vjovrai Kara <f>vX\[d<;, 6] fxev rSiv "TXXecov irapd to 'Hjoa- 
KXelov, o Be tS)V Au/xali'wi' irapd Ta 'Ava^iXea, 6 8e rav JIa/i.(j)vXea)v 
iv StTeat II irapd to ^afidTpiov • \eirX\ tovtcov eKdaTcot Upd, ovXo- 5 
fjL6i\[pio'\v, TjfjiieKTov exaTepwv, Kal KvXiKe'i Kaival T/set? e|[«:ao-]T(Bt 
Kal iriva^ eKdcrTcoi ■ TavTa irape'x^ovTi toI ia|[/j?5?] Kal Ovovtl. 

TpiTai dvo/jievov 'HpaKXel e? Ko|[i'tcraA,o]i' d(p)rjv KavTO'i. Tai 
aindi dfiepai 'HpaKXel || [e? JLovi^aaXov (Sov? • toCtoi' 6vei 6 ia- 10 
joeu?, Tcoi Se \ [Oe&i l^epd SiSoTai KpiOdv Tpia ■^i^eSifiva Kal airv-^ 
[p^MV TpeK TeTapT7J<; Kal /ieXtTOS TeVope? K0TvX\eai Kal Tupol oteoi 
SvwBeKa Kal lirvb'; Kaivb'i Kal (l)p\[v'yd']va)v d'x,6o<; Kal ^vXecav d')(jdo<; 
Kal ocvov Tpia || riiJ.i')(pa. 15 

Theran 

104. Thera. VII cent. b.c. IG.XII.iii.T62. SGDI.4808. Roberts 2. 

a. 'Ve^dvop, 'ApKhayeTa<;, HpoKXrj';, KXeaydpai;, 

Hetpaiev;. 
h. "A7X0J/, IlepiXa<;, MdXrjPo<;. 

c. Aeoi/TtSas. 

d. 'OpOoKXrj';. 

10a. 17. irAp T07 Koivov : sc. pioiiAv. long to the oldest period of the alpha/- 

104-106. Nos. 104 and 105 are epl- bet, when there were no signs for tp 

taphs, while no. 106 belongs to a series and x, which were indicated by ttA and 

of inscriptions cut in the solid rock and kA or pA, in consequence of which even 

mostly of obscene content. They be- e was sometimes indicated by eh {as in 



260 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 105 

105. Thera. VII cent. B.C. IG.XII.iii.753. SGDI.4:809. Roberts In. 
Upa^iXai /Lie @ha(p)pvfiapho<; eVoie. 

106. Thera. VII cent. B.C. IG.Xn.iii.536. SGDI.4787. Solmsen27. 
a. IIheiSi{7r)7riSa<; oi-rrhe. I. Ti/Ji.a'yopai Koi '^V7rhepr]<s Kal 

iyoi'!rh\o/j,e';']. c. "Ez/ttuXo? rdSe — Tvopvo';. d. '^vrreSoKXfj<i ivepo- 
TTTero TciSe. e. iopKero fid tov 'A7ro'(\)\5. 

107. Thera. IV or early V cent. B.C. IG.XII.iii.Suppl.l324. Solm- 
sen 28. 

' AyXoTe\rj<s 7r/3aTt(7|To? 'Ayopdv fuKdSi | 
Ka[/3]i'')jta deov SeL\'!rv[i]^ev hoviTravriSa || 
Kal Aatcapro^. 

108. Thera. IVcent.B.o. IG.XII.iii.452. SGDI.4772. Ziehen.Leges 
Sa<:rael27. 

'Aprapftrio TerdpTai I ireS' iKaSa 6v<reovn | lapov, 'AjopijiOK Se I 

[p'jelirvoy xal [a[j)]d irpo to (rap,7]io. 

109. Thera. IVcent.B.c. IG.XVI.iii.436. SGDI.4765. Ditt.Syll.630. 
Michel 715. Solmsen29. Ziehen,Leges Sacrae 128. 

5 Ovpoi yd<; I @eS)v 'M.arpi. I @eos ayaddi rluj^ai ayaOov Slai'/ioj/o? 

dva-ia I 'Apx^vov • twi erlet run •7rpaTi(rT\coi dvcrovn /SoOli' Kal irv- 

10 poi)V iy II p,eSip,vov Kal | KpiOav iy Svo p.\eSifivcov Kal ocvolv (jieTprjrdv 

no. 105). Even at this early time f month Artemisius they shall offer a sac- 

was completely lost, cf. KXeaySpaSj'Op- rifice, and at the Agoreia (name of a 

ffoKXiji, Aeovrldas, i-rrole. festival) a banquet and sacrifices in 

107. Agloteles, son of Enipantidas front of the image. 

and Lacarto, was the first to honor with 109. 1 f . Boundaries of the land for, 

a Carnean banquet the god {Apollo Car- the Mother of the Gods. This vfas, 

neus) on the twentieth of the month in doubtless, land dedicated to her serv- 

which the 'Ayopai were celebrated (of. ice by Archimus, who also promises 

'Ayop'fimt no. 108). But the words from a sacrifice. — 6 ff. In the very first year 

Tpino-Tos to Sciirm^eii are variously in- (as well as thereafter) they shall offer 

terpreted. The inscription, up to the an ox, a medimnus of wheat, etc. — 

last two words, is metrical (two iambic evo-ovn : instead of evaiovri. (cf . no. 108), 

trimeters), hence 5ci7r>'i|£>' without aug- but with retention of the Doric end- 

ment and with the Att. -Ion. V movable. Ing, while <l>ipoviTiv\,\h is completely 

For hlK&Si. see 68 c, 116. Attic, likewise 'kpreiuirlou (cf.'Apro/u- 

108. On the twenty-fourth of the Tiouno.108). — Iy )u8C)i,vov. See 136.9, 



No. 110] 



CEETAN IlsrSCEIPTIONS 



261 



Kal oKXa \ eTrdpynara Sv at (op\]fii ^epovaiv, fir]v6<; 'Aprelfuaiov 15 
Tre'/iTTTat i(TTap.\evov Kal p,rjvo<; "taKLv6Co\v ireiMnai. iaraiievov. 

Cretan 

110. Gortyna. Vcent.B.c. SGDI.4991. Hicks 35 (only I). Inscr.Jurid. 
I,pp.352 ff. Michel 1333. Solmsen 30. Comparetti.Mon.Antichi III,pp. 
93 ff. Merriam,Am.J.Arch.l885,324 fE., 1886,24 ff. 

®ioi. I'O? K iXevOepoL e SoXoi fie Wei av\iriixoX€V, irpo St'/ta? fie i 
076!'. at 6|e K dyei, KaTaSiicaKcrdTo to iXevOeplo SeKu (TTaTepav<;, 

110. The famous Gortynian Law- 
Code. Altliough conveniently so desig- 
nated, it is not of coui-se a complete 
code of laws, but a series of regulations 
on various subjects, complete in itself, 
as shown by the fiiot at the beginning 
and the unused space at the end of the 
last column. The state of the alphabet 
(there are no signs for </> and x, which 
are not distinguished from t and k. 
See 4.1), the forms of the lettera, and 
the direction of the writing (pov(rTpo<pri- 
S&v), are such as are usually character- 
istic of the sixth century B.C., but tlie 
general style of the writing, precise 
and regular, points to a later date. It 
is now generally believed that the de- 
velopment of the alphabet was slower 
in Crete than elsewhere, and that the 
Code is of the fifth century b.c, prob- 
ably about the middle of it. There are 
also other inscriptions from Gortyna 
containing regulations of a similar 
character but on different subjects, one 
series of seven columns being known 
sometimes as the Second Code (SGDI. 



Although a sign for 7; is lacking in 
the Law-Code, the B had already been 
used with this value in an earlier period, 
and H is regularly so used in the in- 
scriptions of the "North Wall," which 



are not much later than the Law-Code. 
The proper transcription of E in the 
Law-Code is in certain classes of forms 
uncertain, since there is evidence of 
both c and 1; from inscriptions which 
contain a sign for -q. Such are the in- 
finitives of conti-act verbs in -EN {-iv 
or -cK?), and the infinitives in -MEN 
(-yuex or -ij,ev ?) . The earlier inscriptions 
with B have ivfoiniv, ^/jtev, while the 
later ones with H have /mX^v, ^yuijx. The 
transcription followed in our text is 
that which accords with the forms of 
the earlier inscriptions. The prohibi- 
tive M E has been transcribed ujii- 
formly fii, although the inscriptions 
which have H often have fj,i beside /ii) 
before words beginning with a vowel 
(93). The same inscriptions show that 
aor. subj. \ayd<rci etc. should be so 
transcribed, not \ayd(rh etc. See 150. 

I.1-II.2. Disputes over the owner- 
ship of a slave or one alleged to be a 
slave. 

1. 1 ff. Whoever is about to bring s^uit 
in relation to a free man or a slave, 
shall not make seizure before the trial. 
If he makes the seizure, (the judge) shall 
condemn him to a fine of ten staters in 
the case of a free man, five in case of a 
slave, because he seizes him, and shall 
decree that he release him within three 



262 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



[No. 110 



5 t5 86\o 7reVT||e, on ayet, Kal Si/caKadro Xayda-at \ iv ral<; Tptcrl ajie- 
pai<:. ai [8e] ku | /xe [Xa^Jao-et, KaraStKaSSero to fiev \ iXevdepo 

10 (TTarepa, rS S6\d [Ba]picv\dv rd<; a/iepas peKoara';, irpiv ku \a\yd- 
aet ■ TO Be icpovo tov Bi[K]aa-T\dv oixvivTa xpivev. at B' awioiTo | fi,e 
dyev, TOV SiKacxTdv oiJi,vvvT\a Kp[^i'\vev, al lie diroTTOvloi fiaiTv;. | at 

15 Be Ka fioKei 6 fiev iXev0e[p]ov, || o B[e B]o\ov, icdpTOvav; ifiev | [ore- 
jOo]t K iXevOepov diroTrovioi^TL. al Be k dvirl BoXdi fioXtovn | irovi- 

20 ovTe'! fov peKaTepo^; ep^ev, al p,ev Ka p.atru'i diroTrdvei, k^^tu tov 
fiaiTvpa Bi/cdBBev, al | Be k e dviroTepod diroirdvidvTt | e fieBaTe- 
poi/TOv Bt/caaTav (htvvvTa Kpivev. e Be Ka viKaffei 6 | ckov, [rjo/i 

25 fiev iXevdepov Xa'^daat Tav Tre [i']t' dfiepav, tov Be So|X[oy] e? kS- 
pav; aTToBofiev. al Be 1 Ka fie Xaydcrei e fie airoBoL, StKaKlcraTO 

30 viKev TO fxev -iXevdepo I irevTeKOVTa aTaTepav; Kal a^^TaTepa ra? 



days. But if he does not release him, 
{the judge) shall condemn him to a fine 
of a stater in the case of a free man, a 
drachma in the case of a slave, for each 
day until he releases him; and as to the 
time, the judge shall decide under oath. 
— For the use of the genitive in to 
IXevffipo, TO SoXo, see 171. Similarly t5 
irevreKovTcurTaTipo 11.38. Observe the 
clear distinction in use, here and else- 
where, between SiicdSSei'and Kpivev. The 
former is used where the judge pro- 
nounces formal judgment according to 
the law and the evidence, the latter 
where he acts directly as arbiter. Cf. 
especially XI. 26 ff. — 11 fi. But if one 
denies making a seizure, the judge shall 
decide under oath, unless a witness tes- 
tifies. If one party contends that a man 
is a free man, the other that he is a slave, 
those who testify that he is a free man 
shall be preferred. If they contend about 
a slave, each declaring that he is his, if 
a witness testifies, (the judge) shall de- 
clare judgment according to the witness, 
but if they testify for both or for neither, 
the judge shall decide under oath- When 



the one in possession has been defeated, 
he shall release the free man within five 
days, and he shall surrender the slave. 
If he does not release (the free man) or 
surrender (the slave), (the judge) shall 
decree that (the plaintiff) have judgment 
(viKiv = Att. viKav) against him, in the 
case of the free man for fifty staters and 
a stater, for each day until he releases 
him, in the case of the slave ten staters 
and a drachma for each day until he 
surrenders him. But at the end of a year 
after the judge has pronounced judg- 
ment, one may exact three times tim 
amount (i. e. three times the original 
fines, instead of the accumulated fines 
for delay) or less, but not more. As tothe 
time the judge shall decide under oath. — 
The purpose of this last provision seems 
to be to prevent the accumulation of 
fines out of all proportion to the value 
of the slave. Some take rplrpa as a 
third (i.e. of the accumulated fines). 
The word occurs, in another Cretan 
inscription (SGDI.5000 I), where its 
meaning is equally disputed. — 25. tov 
■TtivT d)updv : gen. of time, 170,^ 



No. 110] CRETAN INSCEIPTIONS 263 

afiepa<i /re«ao-T|a?, irpi'v ku Xaydaei, tS 8e 80 \o | Se/ca c7TaTepav<; 
KOI SapKvav I ra? a/iepa? peKaa-ra';, Trplv k a\'irohoL e? Kepav<;. e Be 
Ka /caTaStll/ca/eo-et o SiKacrrd^, iviavroi irlpaSSedeai rk rplrpa e 35 
/ietov, I ■ttXiov 8e /^e • to Se /epoVo toi^ StlKacrTai; ofivvvra Kplvev. al 
he I Ka vaevei 6 hdXo<; .0 Ka viKade\\i, kuXmv clvtI fiairvpov Bvov 40 
S\po/xeov iXev6epov a7roSetA;craT|o eVt rSt j'aSt oVe «a meyet I alu- 
T09 e a(X)Xos 7r/30 tovto ■ at Se | Ka fie KaXii e /xe SeUaei, KaTi- 
a\\[TaT]o TO, e[ypa]{fj)fieva. al Se Ka fieS' | avrov uttoSol ev roi evi- 45 
avroi, I Tav<i airXoov; T[t]/x^i/9 eVt«aT|a(7Ta(7et. at Se k airoddvei 
p\o\iotieva<; raS Si[Ka]<;, rav a7r\|[o'oi' Tifj,av KaTiaja-Tatrel. al Sje 50 
Ka Koa-[p,]iov dyei. e Koa-fj,iovTo\'; aXXo'i, I k cnrocTTM, ixoXev, Ka'C K\a 
viKadei, Karia-Tdfj^v air [a]? | [a/uepa]? a7a7e rd iypa(/ji,)/jLeva. || [toJi/ 65 
Se veviKafjLevo[v] Ka[l tov Ka~\^\\TaKeip,evov djovri dirarov I efiev. 11 

At Ka TOV eXevBepov e | tuv eXevOepav Kdprei otirei, eKahov 
(TTaTepav: KaTaaracrel ■ a||t Se' k dtreTaCpo, Sexa • al Se k 6 SoXok 5 
TOV eXevSepov e Tav eXev6epa\v, SiirXei KUTaa-Tuael ■ al Se k e'X,e|v- 
6epo<; poiKea e poiKeav, irevTe | SapKvdvi • al Se xa f [oJtKeii? poiKea 11 

35. IviavToi: notyearjhVLt anniversary. slave) of a member of the k6(tjj.os, the 

See Glossary. • — 38 ff. If the slave on case shall be tried after he (the oflScial) 

whose account one is defeated takes ref- has gone out of office, and, if defeated 

uge in a temple, (the defeated party), he shall pay what is written from the 

summoning {the successful party) in the time when he made the seizure. But 

presence of two witnesses of age and there shall be no penalty for seizing one 

free, shall point out {the slave) at the condemned for debt or one who has mort- 

temple where he takes refuge, either him- gaged his person. — The penalties fixed 

self or another for him; but if he does in 11. 47-50 and their relation to the 

not make the summons or point him out, provision in 1. 36 are variously under- 

he shall pay what is written. If he does stood. Many take tlhAvs and •nii.av as 

not even (referring back to 11. 34 ft. ) sur- referring to the value of the slave. 
render him {the slave) at the end of a II. 2-45. Rape and adultery. 

year, he shall pay the simple fines in II.2 ff. If one commits rape upon a 

addition (to what is stated in 11. 34 ff.). free man or woman, he shall pay one 

If {the slave) dies while the suit is being hundred staters; but if upon {the son or 

tried, he shall pay the simple fine (i.e. daughter) of an d-iriraipos, ten. Thedir^- 

wlthout any additional fines for delay). raipos, one who was not a member of 

If a member of the k6<tiju>s (see Glossary) a iraipela. {iraipela) or society made up 

makes a seizure, or (another {seizes the of citizens, occupied a social position 



264 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 110 

10 I poiKeav, 7r[eV]Te crTaTepav<;. | ivSoOiSiav SoXav al Kapret Safi\(i- 

a-aiTO, Svo aTarepavi Kara<T\raa-ei ■ al Se ica BeSafiv[a]fievav 
15 7re|8' afiepav, [ojSeXoV, al Se k ev vvifrl, Sv 6Se\6v<; ■ opKiorepav 

S' el/jbev rav hoKav. at Ka rav i\\evdepav eTnirepeTai ottrev iiKi^ov- 
20 TO'i KaSeara, Bbku o-rarll/aaj'? /caraa-Taa-et, al airotrdvio^i fiatTV<;. 

at Ka rav iXevdepav | iioikCov alXeOet, ev iraTpo'i e ev a^ekirio e ev 

TO apSp6<!, eKarov 1 a-Tarepav; KaTacrTacrei ' al Be k i\v a(\)Xo, 
25 TrevreicovTa • al Be Ka rav || to aireTaipo, Bma ■ al Be k o So\o9 

Wah' eKevdepav, BiTrXel KaTaaTaad^ • al Be Ka SoXo? Bo\d, ireii^e. 
30 irpofenrdro Be avrl /ji,atT\vpdv rpiov rots KaBea-Ta'i^ to evaiKe6evro<i 

aWve6\9aL ev Tal<i irevT atiepai<; • \ to Be BoXo toi irdaTai avn | 
35 fiaiTvpov Bvov. al Be Ka p\e aXXvcreTai,, eiri toI^ eX6i)^i efiev KpeO- 

dai oTvai Ka XACovti. al Be Ka irovei BoXo'^a-aOOai, ofiocrai tov eX6\vTa 
40 TO TrevreKOVTaaTarelpo Kal 7rXiovo<! irevTov aijirov plv avToi peKa- 

arov eTrlapiofievov, to S' aireTaipo I Tplrov avTov, to Be /roi/ee|o? rov 
45 Trdcrrav oLTepov avr^v fioiKiovT eXev, BoXoaa6\\6ai Be fie. 

Ac K avep [/ca]^ [yi/JIvo; BiaKp\i'\vdv\T'\aL, rh pa a\vTat; eKev, an 

eKOva eie "Mp rov dvBpa, Kal to Kaptro t|Aw ifiivav, aX k ei e? 

midway between the i\ei6epos and the him as they wish. — 36 fi. If one declares 

foiKeds. Possibly the ^4voi. are meant. — that he has been the victim of a plot, then 

11 fi. If one violates a household slave the one who caught him shall swear, in 

by force, he shall pay two staters, but a case involving a fine of fifty staters or 

if one that has already been violated, by more, with four others (literally himself 

day one obol, but if in the night two as a fifth), each calling down curses 

obols; and the slave shall have the pref- upon himself {if he test^es falsely), but 

erence in the oath. ■ — 16 fi. If one air- in the case of an i.ir4Taipos with two 

tempts to have intercourse with a free others, in a case of a serf the master 

woman to the distress of her relative, he and one other, that he took him in adul- 

shall pay ten staters if a witness testi- tery and did not lay a plot, 

flea. — 4irnripeToi: Teipdai. — aKEvovTOs: II.46-III.44. Rights of the wife in 

&xeioi. — 28 fi. One shall announce be- the case of divorce or death of husband. 

fore three witnesses to the relatives of 11.45 fi. If a man and wife are di- 

the one caught (literally caught in, i.e. vorced, (the wife) shall have her own 

in the house of the father etc.) that property with which she came to her 

they are to ransom him within five days ; husband, and the half of the produce, if 

but to the master of a slave before two wit- there is any from her own property, and 

nesses. But if he is not ransomed, it shall the half of whatever she has woven within 

be in the power of th? captors to do vjith {the house), whatever there is, and five 



No. 110] CEETAK msCEIPTIONS 265 

Tov /r^ji; avTa<i Kpe/xaTov, koti \ k evvwdvei rhv [kf,.lva\v dri \ k' It, go 
Kal irevre a-Tarepavi, at k' 6 a\vep atrto? It rai ice[p]eva-t\o'; ■ a[l] 
Se irovioi avep [atriljo? fie S]fj,ep, tov Sikuitt^v ||| 6p.vwra Kpi'vev. 55 
ai Sen a\X\o irepoi t5 avBpo^, TreWe (rT\aTipav; Karacnaael koti | "^ 
Ka ire'pei avTov, koti ku -TrapWEXet uttoBoto avTov. ov Be k \ eKaav- 5 
veaeTat hiKaKaai T\av jvvaiK airofioaai tuv "Apfre/MV Trap 'Afiv- 
KXalov Trap rav | ToKcriav. oti Be tk k a'Trop,o\\Tdv(raL irapiXei, lo 
■n-evTe a-TaT\epav<! KaTaaTaael Kal to K/jjeo? avTov. al Be k oXKot- 
Tpi\o<i a-vve(a-)a-dBBei, BeKU a-T[aT]^pav<s KaTaa-Taaei, to Be «/3e||to? is 
SiirXel on k 6 St/cao-ra? | ofioaei avveaa-dKcrai. | al avep cnroOdvoL 
TeKva KaT\aXiirov, at Ka Xei a yvvd, tA fa | avra? eKovaav oirvUO- 
pa||i Kan k 6 aveS Bdi kuto, to, i'y\pafjLfj,e'va avn fiaiTvpov Tpkov 20 
Spo/ieov iXevdepov • al [ Be n tov Tmvov Tre'poi, evBi\KOV efiev. al Be 
Ka uTSKVov II KaTaXiirei, Td re pa aiiTW eKe\v koti k ev\y'\Trdvei 25 
[rjai/ ep\i'\v\av «a[t t'^ «:a/)7r[5] to evB\o'\dev 'n\eBa tov etri^aXXov- 
t\ov'\ ixoipa\y Xo«:e[i'] Kat tC k o aveB Bdi at eyJjpaTTai • al Be n 30 
aXXo irepoc, ^v^Bikov efiev. al Be yvva dTeK\vo<; aTroddvoi, Td re pa \ 
avTa<i Tot? eiri^dXXovcri dTr\oB6fiev koti evvirave tclv e^jMivav Kal to 35 
Kapiro, at k ei e? | tov pov avTo.';, Tav efiiva\v. KOfuaTpa at Ka Xei 

staters, if the husband is the cause of the ifilvav : see 1 1 . 1. — 50. koti : here and 

divorce. But if the husband declares he III.26, 34 = rai on, i.e. itai ovrivos, gen. 

is not the cause, the judge shall decide by attraction. — III. 14-15. Kpcios : 

under oath. But if she carries off any- xpiJ"" from xp'^^o^, gen. sg. witli SwXer. 

thing else belonging to the husband, she — 17 ff. If a man dies leaving children, 

shall pay five staters, and whatever she if the wife wishes, she may marry again 

carries off and whatever she purloins holding her own property and whatever 

this she shall return. But as regards her husband may have given her, ac- 

matters which she denies, {the judge) cording to what is written, in the pres- 

shall decree thai she take the oath of en.ce of three witnesses of age and free, 

denial by Artemis, {proceeding ?) to the But if she takes anything belonging to 

Amycleium to the archer-goddess. If the children, it shall be a matter for trial, 

any one takes anything away from her — 27 ff. And of the produce in the 

after she has taken the oath of denial, house she shall share with the lawful 

he shall pay five staters and the thing heirs. — tov liriPa\\6vT5v : i i-n-L^AWov, 

itself. If a stranger helps her carry the heir at law, a short expression for 

things off, he shall pay ten staters Jt ^Ti;8d\X« (rd xpVa'ra) ; of. V.21-22 

and half the amount which the judge o?s k ^7ri/3dXX«. — 37 ff. If man or wife 

swears he helped carry o/. — 49. rdvv wishes to make gifts, (it is permitted), 



266 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 110 

40 So>ei' 1 avep e ryvvd, I pSfia e 8wo8e/c|a araTepav; eSvoSeKci a-ra-j\\e- 
pov /cpeo<;, irXiov Se fie. ai «|a /rotKeos fotKea KptOei Boo J e airoda- 
v6vro<;, ra fii avTa\; sKev ■ aXKo 8' at n irepot, evS[iKop e/iev. 

I 

45 At reKOi rfvvh /i;||e[jo]e[i^o]z'o-a, iirekevaai roi a\v8pl iirl (rreyav 

■ avTi iiaii\vpov rpiov. ai he fie SeKaai,\T0, eirl rat /larpl e/iev to 

50 reiclvov e Tpdirev e airodefiev • opK^ioTeppB 8' e/iev to? KaBea-r\a,v; 

Kal T0<; iialrvpavi, al | eTreXeva-av. al Be poiicea Te\tcoi Kcpevovaa, 

55 eTteXeiKTai \ toi ■jrdcrTai to avBp6<s, o? c^vie, uvtI fiaiTvpov [Bv]ou. |j| 

IV al Be tea fie BeKcreTai, eirl toi \ irdaTai efiev rh tbkvov toi T|a? fOi- 

5 /ce'a?. ai Be tol avTOi a^nv ottvioito irpb to iviaviWo, to irat,Biov 

CTri roL irda-Tai | e/jkev toi to poiKeoi. KopKio\Tepov efiev top iireXev- 
10 a-avka Kal ro<; fJLalTvpav<;. iy\yvh, Kepeiiova ai cnro^dXot || iraiBiov 

irplv ewekeva-ai «a[T]|a; to, e'^pap.jMeva, eXevOepo ix\ev KaTaaTacrel 

irevTeKOVTa I (XTaTepavi, BoXd irevTe KaX p\iKaTi, ai Ka vcicaOe. oi 
15 Be Ka fx II ei[e] Tt(9) cTTetya o-irvi eireXevcr^i, e avrov p-e opei, al (,ai) 

a-}ro6\eie to iraiBiov, uttutov ep^ev. | al KvaaiTO Kal Texoi poiK\ea pe 
20 o-TTViopeva, eirl toi T[d'] || Trar/jo? irdaTai epev to T\eKVov • al B' 6 

iraTep pe Boot,, iWrl rots top aBeXTTiov Trda^ai'i ep^v. 

25 Ibv iraTepa top | tckpop Kal top KpepaTOP i^apTepop ep,ev TaS 
BaCaioi I Kal Tap paTepa top pop aikra'i Kpep^aTOP. a? Ka Boopti, I 

either clothing or twelve staters or some- — a-riyav : this is the regular word for 

thing of the value of twelve staters, but house in this inscription, pomla being 

not more. — K6(i,i<rTpa: perhaps a tech- household (V.26) and foiKos not oocur- 

nical term for certain kinds of gifts. ring. — IV.14ff. If the man has no house 

III. 44-1 V. 23. Disposition of chil- to which she shall bring {the child), or she 

dren horn after divorce. does not see him, if she exposes the child, 

III. 44 ff. If a divorced wife bears a there shall be no penalty. — oi 8^ Ka 

child, she shall bring it to her husband |i.' Ali] ktX. : this conforms to the read- 

at his house in the presence of three wit- ing of the stone, tliough the elision of 

nesses. If he does not receive it, the child the e of /d is difficult (or read i^'i[e] 

shall be in the power of the mother either with aphaeresis ?) . For /ca with the op- 

to bring up or to expose; and tJie relatives tative see 177. 

and witnesses shall have preference in IV.23-VI.2. Partition of property 

the oaWi, as tg whether they brought it. ^mong chil4re^ an(i heirs-at-law, 



No. 110] CEETAN INSCEIPTIONS 267 

fie inrdvavKov ifiev Sar^eeai^- al h4 rt? aradeCe, hiro^dTraedaL 30 
Toi arafievot a\i ejpaTTai. e Se k airoedvei 74(9), | crreyav; fj,ev 
rav^ ev iroXi Ka|Tt k iv Tai(<;) a-rejaK evIi, a']? ku fj.e foiK€v<s evpoi- 
Kec eV||t Kopai poiKiov, kuI to, irpo^aTa ku} «apTa[t']7roSa, a ku /xe 35 
/rot/ee'os ei, | eVt toi'; vid(n efiev, ra S' d\\\a Kpe/iara iravra BarSd- 
da\i Ka\o<s, Kal XavKuvev to? /iev || vlvvi ottottoi k iovti Si5|o fioipavi 40 
feKaa-Tov, raS B\e dvyarepav^ oiroTTai k Xov\ti fiCav /loipav fexd- 
a-rav. B\aT€0[0]at Be Kal to, fiaTp[o]ia, I || k aTrodd[ve]i, anre[p] 45 
TO, [waTpoi] I e[yparT]ai. al Se Kpep,ara fie et|e, areya Se, Xaxev 
raO 6[v]'yaTe\pa<; ai eyparrai. al Be ica Xl|t o irarep Boo<i lov Bofiev 
Ta\\i oTTViofievai, Boto kuto. r\a iypafifieva, irXiova Be fie. | oreiai Be 50 
TrpoOO' eBoKe e imaltrevae, ravr eKev, dWa Be fie ||| avo\av[Kd]- V 
vev. yvvd 6[r]eia K\pefiaTa fie exei e [iralrpoB Bo]vto'; e a[8]e\7ri5 
e iina--7rev\a-avT0<; e diro\a[K]6va-a a\\i ok 6 Al6[a]\ev(<i) arapTh 5 
eKoa-\filov ol a-iiv Kv[X]Xot, TavT\fi<: fiev diroXavKdvev, Tat|S Be irpoOOa 
fie e\y'\BiKov efj.\ev. 

E K d'rr\o'\ddvei dvep e yvi}^d, al fiev k ei reKva e e? TelKVOv 10 
TeKva e e? tovtov re^Kva, touto? e«e[z'] rd Kpefia\Ta. al Be ku fieri'; 
ei TOVTOV, d^ayBeX-jTiol Be to d7roOav6v\\TO<; «€«? dBe\X]inov reKvla 15 
e 69 rovrov reKva, tout|o9 eKev rd Kpefiara. al Be Ka I fieri<; ei tov- 
tov, dBevTTial B\e to diroOavovTO'i /ce? Tavi'^dv reKva e e? rov Trnvov 20 
re^Kva, tovto<; exev rd Kpefialra. al Be Ka fieTi<; ei tovtov, I oh 
K iirifidXXei otto k ei to KpkfiaTa, tovto9 dvaLXe06alk. al Be fie 25 

IV.29ff. But if any one {of the chil- when Cyllus and his colleagues of the 

dren) should be conde)nned to pay a fine, trrapTb^ {subdivision of the tribe) of the 

the one who has been fined shall have Ms Aethalians composed the Kdaiios, these 

portion taken out and given him as is women shall share in the inheritance, 

written. — 33 ff. als Ka kt\. . which are but against those {who received gifts) 

not occupied by a serf residing in the previously no action shall be brought. — 

country. — 44 ff. And the property of 22 ff. If there is none of these, those to 

the mother shall be divided, when she whom it falls according to the source of 

dies, in the same way as is prescribed the property shall receive it. But if 

for the property of the father. — V.l ff. there are no heirs-at-law, those of the 

Whatever woman has no property either household who compose the /cXopos (i.e. 

Ml gift of father or brother or by prom- the body of KKapurai or serfs attached 

we or by inheritance, as (wcw written) to the estate) shall have th^e money. —- 



268 GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 110 

elev eTrt/SaWoi'Tels, rd'i poiKiai; oonve^ k | lovn 6 KXapo<s, tovtovi; 

e]Kev TO, Kpefiara. 
30 Ai Se K ol I eTTt/SaWoj/re? ol fiev \eC^VTi Sareddai to. Kpefiaija, 

ol Se p,e, SiKUKo-ai rov hi\KaaTav eirl rolX Xeioveri B\aTe60ai efiev 
35 TO, KpifiUTU ■jr\dvTa, irpCv Ka hdrrovrai. || ai Be xa SiKdKa-avro<s to 

SltKacTTO Kaprei ivcreiei e d\r/ei e Trepei, BeKa aTaTepa,v\<; KaTaara- 
40 erel koX to Kpe\io<; hiTrXel. tvutov Se Kal icafJiliro ical fefiw; Kaviri- 

Se/j,a<! KleTriTToXaiov KpefiuTOV, a'l Ka file Xeiovn SaTe^ffdai — tov 
45 SltKao-rJai' ojAvvvTa Kplva\i -iropTl tA fioXiofieva. [a]t [S]||e Ka Kpe- 

fjLaTa SaTiop,evoi I fie' avvji.jvoa'KovTi, avhrl Tav Saiiriv, ovev to, Kpe- 
50 pifLTa Ko<; Ka ifkelcrTOV StSlot cnroSofievoi Tav Tifidv 11 Sia[X]aK6vTov 

Tav iTra^o\\,dv feKacTTO'i. haTiop,e\voLh Se Kpep,aTa p,aiTVpa\v'i ira- 
Ylpejiev Spopeav<; eXe\v6e'pov's Tpuv<; e irXtavi. ||| OvyaTpl e BiSoi, KaTO, 

Th ai\Td. 

''A<; K 6 iraTeS Soei, tov to Trlar/jos KpefidTov irap vieo<s 1 p,e 
5 ove66ai /tteSe KaTadC&kOdai • oltl Se k avT0<; •jrdo'ei\ai, e diroXaKei 
inroSiSoddo, I a'i Ka Xei. peSe tov iraTepa to, Tmv tbkvov cltl k av- 
id Tol Trderov^Tai e diroXdKovTi. peSe to, rlla? jvvaiKO'; tov dySpa 
airo^6{d)6ai peS' eTnairevcrai, peS' | vlvv to, Td<; paTpo';. ai S\e ti<s 
15 irplaiTO e KUTadeiTO e i^irunrevaaiTo, dXXai S' e7j0aT||[Ta]t, ai TdSe 

28ff. If some of the heirs-atr-lawwish to oftheprice. — 34. SAttovtoi: aor.subj., 

divide the property, and others not, the of. d,iroSiTTaSeai. 82. — 36. ivmdi : 

judge shall decree that all the property taken by some as fv-a-elei (o-eiai), but 

belong to those wishing to divide, uniil more probably iva-eiei (ef/«) with a in- 

they divide it. If any one, after the de- stead of i from the indicative. — 39. 

cision of the judge, enters in by force or tvotSv: BvqT&v = ^ifuv, as In Hdt.2. 

drives or carries off anything, he shall 68. — VI.l. SiSoi : subj. without Ka. 

pay ten staters and double the value of 174. 

the object. In the matter of live stock, ■VI.2-46. Sale and mortgage of fam- 

produce, clothing, ornaments, and fur- ily property. 

niture, if they do not wish to make a VI.2 ff. As long as the father lives, 

division, the judge shall decide with ref- one shall not purchase any of the fa- 

erence to the pleadings. If, when divid- therms property from the son, nor take a 

ing the property, they do not agree as to mortgage on it. But whatever {the son) 

the division, they shall sell the property, himself has acquired or inherited, he 

and, disposing of it to whoever offers the may dispose of, if he wishes. — 14 f. 

most, they shall receive each his share dWai 8' eYparrai ; and it is written 



No. 110] CEETAN INSCRIPTIONS 269 

T^ ypdf^fMaTa mparrai, T<i] fi[e]v ^ icpefiara eVl rat p,arpl lp\ev 
Keirl rai yvvai/ci, 6 B' aTro\S6p,€VO'; e /caradevi I eVt||o-7reWai'9 rot 20 
trpiaiMevdi | e KaTade/Mevot I e'!na-!rev\craixevdL SiirXei KaTaaTa\a-ec 
KM Tt' K aW dra<: ei, to a7r|Xo'oi/ • tov Se TrpoOda fj,e ei\\SiKov i/xev. 23 
at Se K 6 dvTi/j,\o\o<; aTro/ioXit dvirl to «;/3|eo9 01 k avTrifioXiovTi fAe 
ifiev Ta? /ttaT[|0]o? I Ta|? jwaiKO^, fiokev orre k eij^i^dXkei, Trap 30 
Toi ScKaa-TM I e pmdaTO eypaTTM. al Se k a\n-o6dvei p,dTep TeKva 
KaTa\nr6\vaa, tov iraTepa KapTepbv efiev | tSv jxaTpoiov, dwoSd(6)dai 
Se jxe II iieSe KaTadep,ev, al ku fie tA TeK\va eiraiveaei Spop,ee<s iov- 35 
re?. I \a\l Se tk dWdi irpiaiTO e KaTa\6elTo, to. p,ev xpefiuTa iirl 
TOt|? TeKVOK e/iev, toi Se irpiap\\evoi e KaTaffefievoi, tov d'7roS\6iu.evov 40 
e TOV KaTadevTa tclv | Si-rrXeiav KaTaa-Tdaai to,:; T|i/ia?, «at ti 
K aW UTa^ ei, to d\7r\6ov. al Se k dXXav oirvCei, to, TJ|eKZ/a [t5]i' 45 
[fjL^aTpoiov KapTepbvk efiev. 

At K eS Sv(r[fj,eviav<;] 7re|/3a[0et «]eK? dXXo7ro\ia<; -vir' dv\dvKa<; 
iK6p.evo<! Ke\o[fj,']evd ti\^ XvcreTai, eir\ tSi aXXi/o-ayneVHot ep,ev, irpiv 50 
K diroSoi TO eTri^d\\Xov. ai Se ica p,e op,o\o'^iovT\i apmX Tav TrXe- 
- dvv e fie [K']e\o/j,e\[v'\o avTO [X]vaad0ai, tov SiKaa-lTav ofivvvTa 

Kpivev TTopTt TO, \\ fioXio fieva. [t]o eKevOepo tov | Se .. \aX 55 

K Sd\o'i'\ III eirl TCLV ekevOepav ekOov oirviei, \ ekevOep' e/j,ev ravil 

otherwise = otherwise than is written. what is proper. ' The general sense is 

Cf. 1. 37 and ¥1X1.54. — ai tASc toL clear, but the restoration and precise 

-Ypdiijiara lYparrai: since the inscrip- interpretation is uncertain. Perhaps, 

tion of this law, contrasted with toi/ Sk with the reading of the text, if one is 

Trp6dea, 1.24:, inmatters of previous date. sold into hostile hands and some one. 

So in IX. 16 and XI. 19. — 25 ff. But if forced (to do so) upon his demanding it, 

the opponent denies, with reference to ransoms him from his exile. — 51 ff. But 

the matter about which they are disput- if they do not agree about the a'mount, 

ing, that it belongs to the m,other or the or on the ground thai he did not demand 

wife, action shall be brought where it to be ransomed, etc. — 55 ff. Something 

belongs, before the judge where it is pre- is certainly missing between the end of 

scribed for each case. VI and the beginning of VII, either 

VI.46-VII.15. Repayment of ran- overlooked by the stonecutter in copy- 

som. Children of mixed marriages. ing, or possibly added on the original 

Responsibility for the acts of a slave. substructure, which is not extant. — 

VI.46ff. 'A ransomed person shall VII. Iff. In the case of marriage be- 

belong to the ransomer, until he pays tween a male slave and a free woman, 



270 



GREEK DIALECTS 



[No. 110 



TeKva. ai Se k | a eXevOepa iirl tov SSXov, So\' efjL\ev to, rexva. al 
5 Be K e? ra? atirila? /laTpoi; iXevdepa Kal hoXa | reKva yeverai, e 

K airoOdvei a I /jLarip, ai k ei Kpefiara, tovs £X^vdepov<i exev. ai 
10 S' iXevOepoi I fie eKcretev, TOva<s eiri^aXXoii^av'; avaiXe(6)6ai. a[*] 

K eKi aylopci'; •irp[i]dfiei'o<; SoXov fie 7r\epaiocrei rav feKo-eicovT afjL\e- 
15 pav, at rivd ku Trp6(0)0' aSiKe\Kei, € varepov, rot 7re7ra/ieV||ot evSiKOv 

efiev. 

Tafj. ■n-a\[T]poi[o'JKov 6'iruie(6)9ai aBeXin\di to irarpo'; tov Iovtov 
TOi I 7r/3«7[i]a'Toi. al he Ka 7r\te? TraTipoiOKOi covn «a8e\7rt[o]t 

20 TO 7ra||T/3o'9, [tIoi i-jTiTrpei'yicTToi 67rvi\e(d)dai. ai Be Ka fie iovtl 
aBeXTTio^ to -TraTpoi, vieeS Be e/c? aBeXhrtov, 6Trvie{6)6ai ioi toi [e]? 

25 TO TrlpeiyiaTO. ai Be Ka irXie<! toviVii iraTpoiOKoi Kviee'i Ik's aBe\^- 
iriov, dXXoi o'irvie(d)dat toi iirll toi 69 [rjo 7r/)€t[7t']<7To. fiiav 
B' I eKev 7raT/3ot[o]«;ov tov eTri^dXlXovTa, irXiaB Be \^fi]e. 



the status of the children depended on 
whether the slave went to live with the 
free woman, thus raising himself in a 
measure to her condition, or whether 
the woman went to live with the slave. 
— 9. lK<r«iev: efei/ ^f aiJras. — 10 ff . If 
one having purchased a slave from the 
market-place has not repudiated thepur- 
chAise within the sixty days, if the slave 
has vyronged any one before or after, the 
one who has acquired him shall Be liable. 
The purchaser of a slave was allowed 
a certain time within which, upon dis- 
covering any faults, physical or other- 
wise, which had been concealed, he 
might repudiate the purchase. Not 
until the expiration of this period was 
the purchase binding, and the pur- 
chaser liable for the acts of the slave. 
For the use of repaiiu, cf. also SGDI. 
4998. VII af Ka fii] ircpaitaei ^ Ka irplarai 
iv rats rpi&KovT A/iipau. But some take 
the meaning in both passages to be dis- 
pose of abroad. 



VII.15-IX.24. The heiress. Regu- 
lations for her marriage and the dis- 
position of her property. 

When, in default of sons, a daugh- 
ter becomes the heiress {iraTpoioKos, cf . 
TraTpoCxosjrope^i'osHdt.6.57withStein's 
note, Att. ^((cXijpos), the choice of a 
husband, who becomes the virtual head 
of the family, is determined by fixed 
rules. The person so determined, the 
groom-elect, is known as li fvipiWop 
drvUv ( = ot ^TTtjSdXXet dirviev the one to 
whom it falls to marry) or simply i5 ^i- 
(SiXXox. 

Vll.lSff. The heiress shaU marry 
her father'' s brother, the oldest of those 
living. If there are several heiresses and 
father's brothers, they shall marry (the 
second) the next oldest {and so on in suc- 
cession). If there are no father'' s broth- 
ers, but sons of the brothers, she shall 
marry that one {who is the son) of the 
oldest. If there are several heiresses and 
sons of brothers, they shall marry {the 



No.no] CEETAiT INSCEIPTIONS 271 

'AS Se k' av||o|00? ei 6 i-n-i^dWov oTTvi'ev e\it ■n-arpoidKO's, [o-Jre- 30 
yav (lev, at | k h, ^k€v rhv TrarpoidKOv, raS | S' iiriKap-TrCa'; irav- 
TO<i Td,v ifi\{vav airoXavKdvev rbv e7rt;S||a'\\oi;Ta o-rrvt'ev. al 8e' 35 
K cnr6\Spofj.o'; iov 6 ivi^dWov 07ru|4v i^i'ov S^iovaav /xk \§i 
oirlvCev, iirl rai ■jrarpoioKoi e/i^v to. Kpe/jLara -irdvTa kuI rov /c||ap- 40 
■n-ov, irpeiv k o-irviet.. al Se Ka | hpofieii'i iov eiri^dWdv i\^iovaav 
Xeiovtrav 6irvi^{0)9ai p,e xlt oirviev, /ioXev to? | KaSecrrav; to'; tot 
■iraTpoi\\oKO, 6 Be [S]t/ca[o-]T[a9] 8tK[aKad]\T0 oirviev ev TOt? S[v]oi<s 45 
/ie\vai. al 8e Ka /xe oirviei at eypa\{r)Tai, to, Kpe/xara irdvr e/cov- 
aa\v, at «* It dXKo^, t5i eiri^dWovili ■ al 8' iiri^dWov /le eie, tS? 1 50 
TTwXa? rov alriovrov oTifi\i Ka Xlt 6Trvie(6)6ai. al Se Ka rSk i-m- 
^dWovn e^Covaa fie \l|t 67rvie{6)dai e dvdpo<; h 6 e7rt/3||a\[X]oi^ 55 
[«a]t p,[e \]e[i fj.ev]ev ||| a waTpoioKO's, a-reyap, p.e'v, \ at k ei ivym 
TToki, T^fi 7raTpoidKo\v eKev Kan k evil ev rdi (TTey\ai, rov S' dXXov 
rav efiivav ^f,aXaK6vaav dWoi 6irvie{6)6\ai to,'; TruXas rov alriov- 5 
Tov I oTifii Ka Xei. aTroSaTe(d)dai S\e rov Kpep,dT0v lot. al Be p,e I 
eiev iiri^dXKovTe<i rai {wai) 7r\\xTpoiOKdi a[i e^yparrai, ra Kp\ep,ara 10 
irdvT eK\ov'\<Tav Td<; ■7rv\\ai 67rvie(0)d[a]L orifxl Ka \ei. 1 al Se to? 
7ruX[a]9 p.eri<i \e|ibt 6[7r]viev, rot; KaSecrTav<; || to^ to? irarpoioKO 15 
peiirai K\ara \Tav TruXJai' otl ov X[et ajTrultez/ Tt?/ Kal p,ev rk 
[k oJTTviei, e\v Tal<; rpiaKovra e Ka peiirov^n • al Be /u(e), aXXoi 
07rvie(d)6ai OTi||/x.t Ka vvvarai. al Be Ka Trarpok Bovto^ e aBeX- 20 
TTto Trarpoid^KOi yeverai, al XeiovTO<i 07r[i'tei' 01 eBoxav p,e Xeioi 
o'jnj^ie(d)dai, at k ia-rereKvoTai, BiaJJ^aKovaav tov Kpep,drov at 25 

second) the second {in order) after the son who ask for her hand. — VIII. 7-8. But 

of the eldest {and so on). — 3off. If the iAej/sftaHjiBe to Aim (the rejected groom- 

groom-elect, being a minor, does not wish elect) his proper share of the property, 

to marry {the heiress), though both are — 20 ff. If one becomes an heiress after 

of marriageable age, aUthe property and her father or brother has given her {in 

the income shall belong to the heiress marriage), if sJie does not msh to remain 

until he marries her. — 47 ff. If he does married to the one to whom ihey gave her, 

not marry her, as is written, she with although he is willing, then, in case she 

all the property shall marry the V£xt in has borne children, she may, dividing the 

succession, if there is another. But if property as is written, marry another 

there is no groom-elect, she may marry of the tribe. — 24. lo-TerlKvorai : perf. 

any one of the tribe she wishes, of those subj. lite iriwaTai. etc., 151.1. 



272 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 110 

e\ypaTTai [a.\\]oi 67rvie{0)6[ai ra']<; [•7r]|u[\]a[9]. al 8e rmva fie 

eU, irdvT I eKOVa-av tSl eTTi^dWovlT^i 67rv\ie{ff)0ai, ai k ei, al Be fie^ 
30 au e<^paTT\ai. avep al airoddvoi TraTpoi\oKOL reKva KaraXiirov, al 

KU [\,]ii, I o'irvie{6)do tcli irvXdv OTifii ica i^vvaTai, avdvKai Se /^e. 
35 al Se Te\Kva fj,e KaraXiTroi 6 airodavov, || 6-rrvie(ff)dai toi iiri^dX- 

\ovn alt eypuTTai. al S' 6 i-Tri^dWov T\aP iraTpoioKOV oirvUv fie 
40 e7r|t8a/io? e'le, a Be TraTpoi,oKO<; | oplfia ele, roi iiri^dWovTi, o||7riit- 

e{ff)dai ai eyparrai. 

TIaTpoiS[Kov B' efiev, at Ka irarep p,e ei e aipe\'jrio<; e? to av\To\ 

Trar/jo'?. tov I Be KpeixdTd\y Ka']pTepov9 Sfiev ■j\as pep'ya\a-'\la\^ to?] 
45 Trdrpoav;, || [rja? [B' iTnKap]7ria<! Bia[X]a[vKd]iJ^ev [T]av Sfiivav, a? 

K a[i']o/3[o]? ei. I al B' ai'[o]/30t Idrrai fie eie e7r\i/3dWov, rav Tra- 
50 rpoLOKOv Kaph-epciv efiev tov re KpefidTOV «:||at to tcaptro, icaf 

K dv\o]po<; ei, T\pdire{6)6ai \Tr\hp tm fiaTpi • al Be fi\dTep fie e'le, 

Trap TOi<; [/uJaT/ooo-t | Tpdire(6)6a[i]. al Be ni oirvioi Ta\v TraTpoio- 
55 Kov, oXXaL S" [ey]paTTaL,\^ treidev [Tro/sjTt K6(Tfi\o'\v ||| Tovi e7ri/3d[\- 

\ovTav<i. . 

'Kvep at I K airodavov 'ird\TpoioKov KaWaXiirei, e av^T^v e irpo 
5 avTas t|ov9 trdTpoav; e toJv? fiaTpoai^ KaTadefiev [e cnroB6(8)6at 

TOV I KpefiaTOV Kai] BtKalav efiev tIAi' ovd,v Kal tclv Ka\Tdde(nv. al I 

S' aWat irpl'^aiTO Tt? KpefiaTa e I KaTaOelro tov tS? 7ro[T/30t0K0, 
10 TJIIa \_fi\ev \Kp'\efiaTa eirl tm 'rraTpoiOK\oi efiev, o B' airoBofievo'i e 

KaT\adevt; toi irpiafievoi e KaTaOe\fievoi, at ku vikadec, Bnrkei Ka-\ 
15 rao'Taael Kat tC k dXX' aTa^ ei, dlo airXoov eiriKaTaaTaael, alt 

[TcijSe TCL <^\j}dfLfi\aT[a eypuTTai, T]\d[v S]e 7rp6(6)6a fi[e'\ evBiKov 

efiev. I at B' 6 avTifioXo'i a7ro/tt[o\]to|t a[i''7r]t to Kpeos oi k awifio- 
20 \i1|oi'Tt fie Taf TraTpoiOKo [efijev, | 6 8[tK]o(7TAs ofivw xpiveTO • al | 

Be viKoaai fie Tm 7raTjo[ot]oK|o e/i[e]i', fioXev hire k ein^dXXei, e | 

feKdaTo er/paTTai. 

25 At ai'[8]eKoj|a'/i[e]i'o? e veviKafievo[<; e ivK'WoiOTctv^ oireXov e Bia- 
/3a\o'/te|yo9 e BiafeiTrd/ievo'; a7ro[^]a|vot e tovtoi dXXo'i, iirifio^evv 

IX.24-X.32. Various subjects. given as security or has been guilty of 

IX.24fi. If one dies who has gone fraud (?) or conspiracy (?), or another 

surety or has lost a suit or owes money (stands in such relations) to him, one 



No. no] CEETAN INSCEIPTIONS 273 

lo irpo TO iviavTo • o Se 6tKa||o-TA9 SiKuBSero iropTi tci [a]7ro7r|owo'- 30 
lieva ■ al fie'v ku viKa<; eTri\/xo\ii, 6 St/cao-ra? ko fivdnov, \ ai Ka Soei 
Kal iroXiaTevei, ol Se fj\aiTvpe<; ol eTrt/SaXXoi/Te?, avBoK\\p.S (S)e ksv- 35 
Koiorav Kal Bia^oXa^ K\al Sipeaio^ /iotrupe? ol iin\^dX\.ovT€<; airo- 
iroviovTov. e he k a.\Trofei-7rovTt, SiKaSBero 6fi6(7\avra avrov kuI 
rbv: iJ.a(TVf\\iv<; vtKev to a-rrXoov. vlix; a\i k avSeKaerai, a? k 6 40 
7raTe(8) Soei, | aiiTov aTe{B)dai Kal ra Kpefiara \ an Ka iretraTai. 
at TK Ka irepay <7waX[\a«]o-et e e's ■7rep[a]v iTn\\devTi fie cnroSiSoi, 45 
at iiev K a^TTOTToviovTt fiaiTvpe'i e0iovT\ei t5 eKaTOPffraripo Kal 
•ir\io\vo^ T/oeie?, to fieiovo'; fierr e|? to SeKaaTaTepov Svo, tS fiec\\ovo^ 50 
evS, ScKaSSero 7rop[T]t tA | aTrovolvjiofieva. al Se /u.aiTW/3e|[?] /te 
airoirovioiev, e k e\X\6ei 6 a-v\vaXX,dKaav^ , oTepov «[a] Ke\e\T'\ai 
6 I fiev7r6fjLevo<:, e cnro/jLoaai I aw ||| [11. 1-9, and most of 10-14, X 
lacking] /laTpl || S' vliiv [e dvSpa •yvvaiKl S6/j,ev i'WKarov aTa[T'\i- 15 
/9a[i/?] e nelov, Tr^iov Se fie. al he irXCa Soie, at | «a XeiovT ol eiri- 
PaWovren, tJov apyvpov airoSoWe? to, «/3||e/iaT' movTov. al Se tk 20 
07re|Xoi' apyvpov e aTafj.evo<i e ft\o\iofj,eva<; SiKa<; Sole, al 1 fie ete to, • 
XoiTra UKO-ia ra? o|Ta9, fieSev es Kpeo'; efiev tclv || Socriv. 25 

shaXl bring suit against said person be- latter with Si-, probably only an error, 
fore the end of the year. The judge shall for5io-)isuncertain. — ^28-29. The third 
render his decision according to the tes- letter in 1. 29 is obscure, but the most 
timony. If the suit is with reference to probable reading is ^i/ioX^vK to, with 
o judgment won, the judge and the re- w as in Ti.vv e/dvav 11.48, and with Ms 
corder, if he is alive and a citizen, and used like ixavos as in VIII. 8. — 43 ff. 
the heirs as witnesses, (shall give testi- If one has formed a partnership with 
mony), but in the case of surety and another for a mercantile venture (and 
pledges and fraud (?) and conspiracy does not pay him his share), or does not 
(?), the heirs as witnesses shall give tes- pay back the one who has contributed to 
timony. After they have testified, (the a venture, etc. — 50. evS: forevs (=ers) 
judge) shall decree that (the plaintiff), before following S (97.4). — 53. Snpov 
wlien he has taken oath himself and ko, kt\.: whichever coursethe complain- 
likewise the witnesses, has judgment for ant demands, either to take oath of denial 
the simple amount. If a son has gone or — . X.15 ff. 'Special legacies are 
surety, while his father is living, he and not to exceed the value of 100 staters. 
the property which he possesses shall be If one makes a gift of greater value, the 
subject to fine. — 26-27. The precise heirs, if they choose, may pay the 100 
mesLning ot Siapa\6fi£vos &nd Suifcnrdnc- staters and keep the property.' — 24. 
ws (cf. in 11. 35-36 Sio/SoXas, dipitrtos, the (liSev Is Kpfos : to no purpose, invalid. 



274 GEEEK DIALECTS . [No. llO 

AvTpo['7r]ov ixe ove{d)ea\{i] Kara/ceifjLevov, -n-piv k aXKva\erai o 

Karadev;, fieS' afi-Trifi^Xov, fieSe BeKa-a(d)daL fi.eS' e7na\7revaa{d)dat 
30 fieSe KaTaee{0)0ai. al || he ri<; tovtov n fepxaai, /ieS\ev e? /cpe'o? 

efiev, al a-jroTrovio\iev Bvo fj,aiTvpe(<;). \ 

"Kvirava-iv efiev otto ko, tlK \\ei. afnraive(d)0ai. Se Kar a'^opav || 
35 KaTapeXfievov rojx iroXiaTa^ airo to Xdo 5 cnrayopevovTi. | o 8' apr- 

•iravdp.evo'i Soto Td\i iTaipeiai toli fM aiiTo iapS\iov koL irpoKoov 
40 foivo. Kal II p,ev k aveXeTM irdvTa to, Kpe\p,aTa Kal fie avvvei. ype- 

(Tia T\eKva, TeXXefx pev to, 6lva Kal | to, avTpoiriva to, to avirava- 
45 pe\vd KavaiXe{d)0ai, anrep rots 7||i'ea-tot? eypaTTai. al [S]e ku pe | 

Xlt TeXXev ai eypaTTai, tol K[p[e\paTa tov<; e-jn^aXXovTav; eK^. 
50 al Se K ei 'yvea[i]a TeKva toi ai/^avapevoi, ireSa p,ev tov epa\}^vov 

Tov apiravToy, aiirep al ^|e[Xe]iat airo tov aSeXTTiov XavKd\vovTL- 
XI al Se K epa-evei pe Xoi\ti, 0eXeiai Se, [pjicriropoipov e|||[A'ei'] tov av- 

TravTov Kal pe eVirdvavKOV epev TeXXev T\a t|o aviTravapevo Kal to, 
5 Kpepa\T avaiX(i){0)0ai art Ka «;aTa[\i7re||t o av]'7ravdpevo<! ■ irXivi 

Se TOV I dviravTop pe iirtKopev. [al S' | a7ro]0dvot 6 avrravTO's yveaia \ 
10 TeKva pe KaTaXnrov, Trhp to[w t|o avyjravapivo eiri^aXXovTai^ 

avKopev Th KpepaTa. al S[e Ka | Xei] 6 aviravdpevo^, aTrofei7r^d00o 

KaT ayopkv airo to Xd\o o | aira^yopevovTi, KaTapeXpei^ov tov tto- 
15 XiaTav ■ av0epe[v Se || 8e«]a. [a-JTarepai'? iS SiKaa-T\epcov, 6 Se pvd- 

pov 6 TO KaevUo airoSoTO toi anroppeOevTi. \ yvva Se pe a/jLTraive00o 
20 peS' I dve^o'i. Kpe(0)0ai Se TolSSe a||t TdSe to, ypdp,paT eypavae,\ 

TOV Se 7rp600a oirai Tif eKei e a\p7ravTvi e Trap afiiravTO fie er el^- 

SiKov epev. 

X.33-XI.23. Adoption. son) in the market-place, etc. — 16. o 
X.33ff. Adoption may be made from to ko-cvCo: sc. K6(r/ioiTos, the clerk of the 
whatever source any one wishes. The official who looks after the interests of 
adoption shall be announced in the mar- strangers. — 19 ff. These regulations 
ket-place, when the citizens are assem^- {rotSSe) shall be followed from the time 
bled, .from the stone whence they make of the inscription of this law, but as re- 
proclamations. — 41. <r«vv-li: seelOl.l. gards matters of a previous date, in 
■ — 42 ff. He shall perform the religious whatever way one holds (property), 
and social obligations of the one who whether by virtue of adoption (i.e. of 
adopted him. — Xl.lOff. If the adopter being the adopted son) or from the 
wishes, he may renounce (the adopted adopted son, there shall be no liability. 



\ev e 
30 



No. 110] CRETAN INSCEIPTIONS 275 

"AvrpoTTOV o? K ciyei, irpo BUai, \\ alel i7nSeKe{6)6ai. 25 

Tov SiKaa-rdv, on fiev Kara | fxakvpav^ eypaTrai 8iKdSB\i 
avop.OTOv, SiKciSSev ai e\ypaTTai, rSv S' dwSv o/jlvvvtWu Kpivev m-opTi 
ra fio\i6fiev\a. 

At K awoddvei apyvpov | OTreXov e vevncap.evo'i, al iJi,i\v ku Xei- 
ovTi, oh K CTTt^aXXet | avaiKe{6)6ai Tci Kpifiara, rav d\\Tav virep- 35 
KaTiaTdp,ev koI to | apyvpiov oh k oTreXet, iK6vT\ov ra Kpep,ara • 
al Se Ka fie \ei|oi'Tt, ra fiev Kpe/jLara iirl rolk viKdaavcri, e/iev e oh 
K o||7re\ei to apyvpiov, dWav Be | fji,eSep,iav drav e/iev rol\<} e'7ri/3d\- 40 
Xovffi. a[T]e(^9)0ai Be v^irep fi[e]v to [7ra]Tj009 to, iruTpciia, vire(B\ 
Be ra? fiaTpb<; to, /ia||T/30ta. [ , 45 

Two, avBpo<; a Ka Kpiverai, | o BiKaaraf opKOV at ica BiKdiAa-et, 
ev rats fiKan ap,epai<i ahro/jLoaaTo 'rrapiovTO^ to BiKalliTTd otl 50 
K eiriKaXei. Tlpop[e]nrdT^d Be 6 dpKov Ta(8) Stwa? rat yvvaliKL Kal 
TOL BiKacTTai Kal [t]oi I fi^yd^fiovi irpoTeTaprov clvtI /i|||[atTV/Joi'XIl 
11. 1—15 lacking] p,aTpl,vlv(i)i; e d^vjep yvvaiKi | KpejxaTa al eBoKe, 
at eypar^TO irpo rovBe tov ypafifiaTov, I fie evBiKOV efiev ■ rb B' v(TTe-\\ 
pov BiBofiev ai eyparTai. 1 . 20 

Tai? •KarpoiOKOi'; at Ka fie I iovti bpTravoBiKacTTai, al? k avopoi 
tovTi, Kpe(d^dai KaTCL I to, eypafifieva. Sire .. Be k a 11 7roT/3[ot]o«o9 25 

XI.24-XII.35. Various supplemen- not he aubject to any further fine. The 

tary regulations. father's property shall pay the fine for 

XI.24 f . If one seizes a man before the the father, the mother's property for the 

trial, any one may receive him (i.e. may mother. — 46 ff. Wh£n a woman is di- 

offer tlie man an asylum). — 26 ff. TJie vorcedfrom her husband, if the judge has 

judge shall decide as is written whatever decreed an oath, she shall take the oath of 

it is written that he shall decide accord- denial of whatever one charges within 

ing to witnesses or by oath of denial, but twenty days, in the presence of the judge, 

other matters he shall decide under oath — ori : oUnvos as in 11.50. — XII.21fE. 

according to the pleadings. See note to The heiresses, if there are no dp(f>avi>SiKa- 

1. 11 ff. — 31 ff. If one dies owing money aral, so long as they are under marriage- 

orhavinglost a suit, t7iosetowhomit falls able age, shall be treated according to 

to receive the property may hold the prop- what is written. In case the heiress, in 

erty, if they wish to pay the fine in his be- default of a groom-elect or 6p4iam5iKa- 

half and the money to those to whom he a-rai, is brought up with her mother, the 

owesit. Butifnot, the property shall be- father's brother and the mother's brother, 

long to those who won the suit or those to those designated {above), shall manage 

whom he owes money, but the heirs shall the property and the income as best they 



276 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 110 

fie l6vT0<; eTrtl/SaXXoi'TO? /msS' 6p7ravoBi,K\a<XTav Trap rai fiarpi rpa- 
30 Treirat, tov iraTpoa kuI Top, p,dT\poa tov; i'ypap.p.evovt; T||a xpep^ara 
Kal rav iinKapTrilav aprvev oyrai Ka (vv)vavTai icd]XXi<yTa, Trpiv 
K oTTUterat. 6Trvi\e(d)6ai Se SvoSe/capeTia e irpeilyova. 

111. Gortyna. Ill cent. B.C. SGDI.5011. laser. Jurid.II,pp.329fE. 
Halbherr, Am. J. Arch. 1897, 191 ff. 

[@iot. I TdS' epaSe rjat [Tro'Xt] ■^a<f>iSSopcn Tpia\[KaTLcov 7ra]pi6v- 
Tccv • vopCcrpan j(^prjT\daL tool icav)(^5ii t&i eO.rjKav a ttoXk • roS || 
6 8' oSeXov; prj SeKerdai rovi ap'^vplo'i. I al Se rt? SeKOiro rj to vopi- 
ffpa pr] \eioi I SeKerdat rj Kapira wvCoi, avoTeiael ap\'yvp(o irevre 
10 (naTrjpav<;. TrevOev he | TropTi rav veora, rat Se veoTWi opi)^VTe'i 
KpivovTwv ol eiTTa KUT ayopdv, | ol Ka Xd'x^covri xXapcopevoi. vikt)v 
S' oTelpd K ol TrXi'e? opocrovTi, Kal irpd^avrev | rov viKadevra rav 
p,ev rjpCvav [twi vi\Kd(T\avTi, Bovtcov, rav S' rjpivav [rdi iroXij. 

112. Hierapytna. Ill or 11 cent. B.C. SGDL5041. Michel 29. 

[ejOTTo] VTtow Se ol 'lepaTrvrvioc roll A.vttIol<; e? ra - - | . . . . 

[ol Se] AvTTi,oo Tol'; 'lepairvrvioi'; e? rav evdpepov rav [rav @ev- 
Sai(Ti<ov. 6 Se Kotrp.o'i twv I '\epaTrvTvC'\aiv epirerai Avrrol e? to 
ap'X^eiov • Kara ravra Se Kal 6 Ta)[v Avtticov Koa-poi epirerco ev 
'lepaTTVTVai es] | to ap'xJelov.'j al Se ol Koapoi iWiiroiev Tciv 6v- 
aiav rav '^ypappevav, at Ka pr\ n 'ir6\e[po<; KcoXvcrrji, airorei<Tdv'\A\ 
6 raiv 6 Kocrpo^ eKacrroi apyvpico erraTijpa'! eKarov, ol pev 'lepavv- 
TVioi Tots AuTTtbt? rdi iroKei, [ol Se Avrrioi rot?] I 'lepawrvioK rai 

can until she marries. She shall be mar- to the body of young men, and of this 

ried when twelve years of age or older. body the seven who are chosen by lot as 

111. Decree of Gortyna regarding supervisors of the market shall decide 

the use of bronze coinage. under oath. 

3^. One sJiall make use of the bronze lia. Treaty between Hierapytna 

coin which the state has established, and and Lyttos. This illustrates the mixed 

not accept the silver obols. If one ac- dialect sometimes known as East Cre- 

cepts them, or is unwilling to accept the tan. See 373, 278. 
(bronze) coin, or sells for produce (i.e. 1. AdttCois: note the interchange 

trades by barter), heshall pay aflne of of assimilated and unassimilated forms, 

Jive silver staters. Report shall be made e.g. KvktIuv 1. 13. See 86 with 1. — 



No. 112] GEETAN INSCRIPTIONS 277 

TTo'Xet. OTi Se ica So'^tji rak TroXeaiv i^eXev rj iv6efj,ev, on jxev efe- 
Xot/iev firire evdivov /i7j|Te evopKOV fifiev, on Se iy'^pd-yfraifiev evOivov 
re ^/lev koL evopKov. el Se rC ku 6eS>v IXewv ovtodv Xd^a)\fj.ev a-rro 
tS)V TToXep-cwv, \ay)(ap6vra)v Karci to reXo? eKarepoc. p-ij e^earw 
Se ISt'ai iirjTe iroXep.ov e\x4>epe<T6ai ^f^pU fii^Te elprjvav TiOeadai, at 
Ka p,r) ap,<j)OTepot<; So^rji. at Se rtve? Ka ISiai e^eveyKcovrat, || airol lo 
Koi SiairoXefiovTcov, Kal p,r] evopKoi ecn-aiv oi p,r) (rv/nroXefiovre';. 
aTacravTmv Se ra? trraXa? eKoirepot ev Tol'i tSioi<; iepol<;, oi p,ev 
lepaTTVTVtoi 'D,Xepol ev rSii lepMi, rav Se ev ' KttoXXcovl, ol Se Aut- 
noL ev rm [t]|e/3ajt t[w 'A7ro]XXa)j'09 Kal ep, iroXei ev 'AOavaiai. 
araaavTcov Se Kal KOivav ardXav ev Toprvvi ev I rSt iepSii tcS 

t . "OjOKO? AvKTiwv. "opvvm TCLV "Ei(Triav Kal Zrjva 'Opd- 

rptov Kai rav ' KBavaiav 'D,Xepiav Kal Zrjva I ^o[yvinov Kal''Ilp^av 
Kal 'Adavaiav HoXcdSa Kal 'A-TroXXcova Tlvnov Kal Aaro) Kal 
"Apea Kal 'At^poShav Kal K(»j07j||Ta9 Kal Nvp,<f>a'; Kal 6e6<i irdvra'i 15 
Kal 7rao"a? • rj p.av eyct) avp.p.a'xrjcrci) tok 'lepairvTVioi^ tov irdvra 
j^/soli'oj' a7rX[o'a)?] Kal aSoXeo^, Kal tov avTov t^iXov Kal i'^^ffpov e^S>, 
Kal TToXep^Tjorai airo y(a)pa<;, vl Ka Kal 6 'lepuTrvTviof, I Kal to SiKaiov 
Sco(7S) Kal ep.p,ev5t ev rot? a-vvKeifievoi';, ep,p,ev6vT(ov Kal t&v 'lepd- 
irvTViav. einopKOVTi p,ev I ^p^v to^ 6eo<; ep,pavia<i Kal yiveaOai 
irdvTa TO, vTrevavTia, evopK&ai Se to<; 6eo<; tXe'o? ^pev Kal yiveaOai, 
7roX|X<X>a KoyaSd." "O/o/co? 'lepairvTviwv. "opvvco tclv 'Ea-Tiav 
Kal Zi)va 'OpdTpiov kuI 'AOavaCav 'nXepiav Ka\\[l] Zrjva Movvi- 20 
nov Kal "Hpav Kal 'Adavaiav IloXidSa Kal 'AiroXXcova Hvnov 
Kal AaTw Kal "Apea Kal 'A(l>poSi\Tav Kal Ka)pfJTa<s Kal NvjU.(^a? 
Kal deb'; 7rdvTa<; Kal Trdera'i ■ ^ pav ijw avpipaxncrS) T.ol<; AvktI- 
01'; TOV I irdvTa y^povov dTrXow; Kal aSoXco^, /cot tov avTov ^iXov 
Kal ex^pov ef w, Kal iroXep-'qa-Si airo y^d)pa<;, vl | Ka Kal 6 Avttio';, 
Kal TO SiKaiov Scoa-St Kal eppevo) ev Tot<; ffvvKeipevoi<;, eppevov- 
Tcov Kal AvKTimv. i\[7r]iop[Ko]vn to<; deb^ eppavCas; rjpev Kal 

13. 'Opdrpiov: occurs as an epithet of (51 a). The epithet would then be of 

Zeus in two other Cretan inscriptions. EIea,n source (cf. EI. /r/jiiTpa = ^lirpa, 

It is generally explained as standing IS), or else contain hyper-Doric o.— 

for ppirpios with o for f as in 'Oa|os 17. liriopKovri: see 42. 5 (J. 



278 GEEBK DIALECTS [No. 112 

25 '^ivea-Oai iravra to, virevavria, evopK&ai he to<; ^e||[o]? t\eos ^/iev 
Kol '^iveo'dai iroWa Ka'^aQa!' 

113. Dreros. Ill or II cent. B.C., but copied from an earlier version. 
SGDI.4952. Ditt.Syll.463. Michel 23. SolmsenSl. 

@eo'? Ti;;)(;a. | 'K^adai tvxo-I" \ 'EttI rSiv Al6a\e\eov Koa-fiiovTcov || 

S TMV aiiy KviM koL | Kec^aXmt Tivp(oi\iria)i 'Biaioovo'i, \ jpafiiJ,aTeo^ | 

10 Se ^iXi-Tnrov, 11 rdSe mfiocrav I ayeXdoi, ■;rav\d^co(rTOi e/cajroi' o^So?;-! 

15 KOVTa ■ " 'O/Jbvua) 11 rav ''Eariav tclv | ifx irpvraveCaii | koL tov Arjva 

20 TOV I 'Ajopalov Kal tov Aijji'a toi" TaWato?/ 1| Kal rbv ' ATreWwva | 

TOV 'A.e\<f>LViov Kal I rav 'AOavaiav tclv I IloXtou^j^oi' /eat tov | 'AttcX,- 
25 Xftjva TO/ti noiTioi' I «ai Tay AaTovv Kal Tav | " ApTejxiv Kal tov 

"Apea I «al t^v ' A<^ophiTav Kal | toi' 'E/J/U.ai' xal toi' "AXtov | koX 
30 Tai' ^piTo/xapTiv II Kai to/* ^oiviKa Kal Tav | 'A/i^t[(B]yaj' /cat ray 

Tai' I Kal TOV Ovpavov Kal \ ^pcoai Kal r]p(od(7CTa<; | Kau Kpava<i Kai 
35 7roTa||/U.ov9 Kal Oeow irdvTa'; | «ai irda-a'; ■ fir} p,av iyto | TroKa toi<s 
40 AfTTtot? I «aXa)? (ppovrjcrelv | ytii^re Te'^vai pijTe p,a\\x^avdi firjTe ev 

vvktI I yitjjTe TreS' afiepav. Kal I airevcrica on Ka Svvafiai I KaKOV tm 
45 TTo'Xet Tat Twy AvTTicov. Ill BiKav^ 8e Kal 7r/o[a^i]||ci)i' prjSev evopKOV | 

7]fir]V. Kal TeXopaL | ^iXoS/aijjoto? «;at | (pcXoKvdaio'i I /cat /ijjre ra/i 
50 7ro1|Xti' irpoBaia-eiv I rAy twi' Aprjpicov \ prjTe ovpeia to, \ twv Apr)- 
55 /jtaji" I /iTjSe ra rJi^ Ki'[(»][|o-ta)Z', pTjSe dv\Spa<; rot? 7ro|Xe/i^ots ttjoo- 
60 Scolaeiv prjTe Apr]\p{ov<; ptjTe YLvaJ^criovi, prjhe a-Toi^a-Ld^ ap^elv Kal | 
65 TMi cTTacri^ovTL I avTio<; TeXopai, | prfhe avvcopocrC^a<; avva^eiv | /ti^re 
70 e'/Li TTo'Xet I /x.9jTe e^oi ra? | Tro'Xeo)? /^iijTe | aXXoJt avvTe\^\a0ai • el Se 

Tii'ci? I Ka TTvOcopai tjvlvopvvovTa^, \ i^ayyeXico tov | Koapov Toh 
75 TrX{\\aaiv. el Be TdSe j prj KaTexptpi,, | tov? (T)e' poi deow, | tou? 
80 ^poaa, epi^paviat; rjp7](i)v || TrdvTa'; re Kai 7ra|cra?, /col KaKicrTm{i) j 

113. Oath taken by the Drerian \6ioi: for &ye\aToL(see Zl),ephebi,mem- 
ephebi, promising loyalty to Dreros hers of the dvAai or bands in which the 
and the allied Cnossos, but enmity to Cretan youth were trained. — 11-12. 
Lyttos. The dialect shows a strong ad- iravd^mo-Toi. : of. dfiio-rois 11. 140-141. 
mixture of koiv^ forms, but also retains Whether or not meaning exactly tin- 
many of the Cretan characteristics. girded, the epithet probably refers to 

3. AlBaV^wv: cf. Law-Code Y. 5. — some characteristic feature of the 

6-7. nvpuiirtui : obscure. — 11. dYe- ephebes' dress. — 45. Sikov 8^ ktX. : 6ii4 



No. 113] CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS 279 

oXedptoi e^oWi^adai avTO? re | Kal XP'H'-"- Tana, || Kal /njre fioi 85 
ydv I Kapirov ^epeiv ||| [/iTjVe 7]ui'ot«a? | [riKTei]v Kara (J)v[<t\iv /UTjVJe 
Trd/iaTa ■ || [eiio/3Ki]oj/Tt 8e' /iot | [tow] deovs, tov<} | [cofioa-a,] IXeov; 90 
^/u.ev I [Kal 7roX]\a Kayada \ Bi[86]tj.[e]v. ofivvw 8e || to? a^TO? 95 
9eov<s ■ I ^ fiav eyw Toy k6(t\imov, at «a yn^ efojol/ct'^eoj^Tt Tav aYelXav 
Tov<; TOKa i^^ySvofie'vovi rov | avTov opicov, T6v\'irep dfie<s o^iapAKafjiei, 100 
ip,^a\€iv I e? Tav ^(oXdv, at, || /ca airoaTavri, | toO p,r)vo<; rov Kol/ii'o- 105 
Kapiov rj tov | 'AXtaiov • a Se /8[(»]Xa I vrpa^avTCOv eKaVpTov rov no 
Koc7fiL\ovTa (TTaTripa<i | TrevraKocriov^ | a(^' d? /ca ifi/SaXrii I ap.epa<; 
ev rpifiTjVcoi ■ || ai Se Xtcro-o? eir){i), | ayypay^dvT<ov I e? LeX^Cviov, I 115 
oo-«ra Ka /i^ 7rpa|^a)VTt 'X^p'qfiara, || rovvofia eVt TraTjOO? | Kai to ttXjj- 120 
5os TOV ap^yvpiov i^ovofx,aivov\Te<; • on Se /ca TrpaftBi/lTt, Tat? eTat- 
peiaiaiv || haa-crdadaaav Tat? | e/i Tro'Xet /cat at Tret I Tii'ep ovpevcovn 123 
Apiqpioi. Ill at 6e /i^ 7rpa[fat]|ei' a /3a)Xd, a[uTOt] || Ta StvrXo'a a[7ro- 130 
Tei]|o"aj'T(Bj' • 7rjOa[^aj']|T(»i' Se ot ipevral \ oi tSiv avOptoirivtov | Kal 
iaaadaOaxrav |l Tal<i eTaipeiaiaiv \ KaTO, ravrd." \ 133 

TaSe vTrofivdfjLalTa Ta? Apripia<; •)((i>pa<; | Ta? dp'^aia^ Tot? || evrt- 140 
yivonevoK af<Bl<rTOt? • rov re op\KOV 6fivvp,€V \ Kal Karey^eiv. | aat ol 
MiXaTLOt II iire^dXeverav | iv tcli veai v^fiovr)iai tcU TrolXet Tat tS)v 145 
ApTjpimv ev€Ka Ta? | %ft>/>a? to.'; a||/u.a?, Ta? afi^i\fia'X0P'e6a. | Nt- 150 

KaTTjp I Ta? a7eXa? | || /cat iXaiav €\KaaTOv ^VTev^eiv Kal 155 

■^eOpati\fievav a7roBel\^ac • o? Se' xa p,ri || [^]vTevo-et, a7r|[o]Teto-et 160 
«rTa|TT7/3a? Trei/lTTj/coi/Ta. 

nathing of lawsuits and executions shall tiv€v: tiws. 119.2a. — 132-133. ^[p]««- 

he included in the oath. — 97 ff. ot xa rat oi tmv avBpwirCvuv : the collectors of 

|ir| l|opK(|uvTi ktX. : unless they impose public (in contrast to sacred) funds, 

the same oath upon the ayiXa, upon those ipevral = ^rriral, irpdKTopes. Ci. ipeia 

who are passing out from it (?). It is = ipewata Eustath. on H 127. — 137. 

generally assumed that the oath was rdSe 4iro(ivdiioTo : if this inscription is 

imposed upon those entering the dyiXa, a copy of an earlier one, we may as- 

but it is difficult to reconcile iySvo/ii- sume that the early boundaries of Dre- 

Kouswithsuch an interpretation..— 103. ros were actually described in the 

«|iPo\«tv : cl<Tayye\eiv impeach. — 104- original, but omitted here. — 146-147. 

105. Ol Ka airoo-TavTi : after they have vejioviitoi : for veoiiitviaL, with remark- 

gone out of office. — 115. Xio-o-bs : meta- able metathesis, seen also in Ne/io«iios 

phorical use, perhaps insolvent. — 127. = Sm/jL-^vtos of another inscription. 



APPENDIX 

SELECTED BIBLIOGEAPHY OE WOEKS OF EEFERENCE 
WITH THE ABBEEVIATIONS EMPLOYED 

Periodicals 

A.M. = Mitteilungen des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. AtlieBische 

Abteilung. 
Am. J.Arch. = American Journal of Archaeology. 
Am. J. Phil. = American Journal of Philology. 
Aimual British School = Annual of the British School at Athens. 
Adr/va. = 'AOrjva. Svyy/»/*/ua trtpioSiKov T^s ev 'AOi^vaK iTrLaTrj/u}viiaj<s erai- 

pcuai. 
B.C.H. = Bulletin de correspondance hell^nique. 
Ber.Berl. Akad. = Sitzungsberichte der koniglichen preussischen Akademie 

der "Wissenschaf ten zu Berlin. 
Ber.Sachs.Ges. = Berichte tiber die Verhandlnngen der koniglichen sach- 

sischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologisch- 

historische Classe. 
Ber.Wien.Akad. = Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften in Wien. Philologisch-historische Classe. 
Berl.Phil.Woch. = Berliner phUologische Wochenschrift. 
Bz.B. = Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. 
Class. Journ. = Classical Journal. 
Class.Phil. = Classical Philology. 
Class.Quart. = Classical Quarterly. 
Class.Rev. = Classical Review. 
Diss.Argent. = Dissertationes philologicae Argentoratenses selectae. Strass- 

burg. 
Diss. Hal. = Dissertationes philologicae Halenses. Halle. 
Eranos = Eranos. Acta philologica Suecana. 
'Ei^.'Ap^. = *E^iy|UE/>U apxa-i'OKoyiiciq. 

Glotta =? Crlotta. Zeitschi-ift fiir griechische und lateinische Sprache. 

281 



282 GREEK DIALECTS 

Gott.Gel.Anz. = Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen. 

Gott.Nachr. = Nachrichten von der koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissen- 

schaften zu Gottingen. 
Greet Iiiscr.Brit.Mus. = The Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in 

the British Museum. 
Hermes =' Hermes. Zeitschrift fur classische Philologie. 
I.F. = Indogermanische Forschungen. 

I.F.Anz. = Anzeiger fiir indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde. 
J.H.S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Jh.arch.Inst. = Jahrbuch des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. 
Jb.f .Ph. = Jahrbiicher ftir klassische Philologie. 
K.Z. = Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft, begrimdet von 

A. Kuhn. 
M.S.L. = M^moires de la Soci^td de linguistique. 
Mon.Antichi = Monumenti antichi pubblicati per cura della reale accade- 

mia dei Lincei. 
Mus.Ital. = Museo italiano di antichitk classica. 
NeueJb. = Neue Jahrbiicher ftir das klassische Altertum, Geschichte und 

deutsche Literatur und fur Padagogik. 
Oest. Jhrh. = Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen archaologischen Instituts in 

Wien. 
Philol. = Philologus. Zeitschrift fiir das klassische Altertum. 
Rev.Arch. = Revue arch^ologique. 
Rev.de Phil. = Revue de philologie. 
Rev.lSt.Gr. = Revue des 6tudes grecques. 
Rh.M. = Rheinisches Museum ftir Philologie. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. = Transactions of the American Philological Associa- 
tion. 
Wiener Stud. = Wiener Studien. Zeitschrift ftir klassische Philologie. 
Woch.f .klass.Phil. = Wochenschrift ftir klassische Philologie. 
Zt.oest.Gymn. = Zeitschrift ftir die oesterreichischen Gymnasien. 

Texts and Commentaries 

Cauer = P. Cauer, Delectus inscriptionum Graecarum propter dialectum 
memorabilium. 2d ed. Leipzig 1883. 

Ditt.Or. = W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae. Leip- 
zig 1903-1905. 

Ditt.Syll. = W. Dittenberger, SyUoge inscriptionum Graecarum, 2d ed, 
Leipzig 1893-1901. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 283 

Hicks = E. L. Hicts and G. F. Hill, Manual of Greek Historical Inscrip- 
tions. 2d ed. Oxford 1901. Hicks^ refers to the first edition. 

Hoffmann = O. Hoffmann, Die griechischen Dialekte in ihrem historischen 
Zusammenhange mit den wichtigsten ihrer Quellen dargestellt. Got- 
tingen. 

I. Der siidachaische Dialekt [Arcadian and Cyprian]. 1891. 

II. Der nordachaische Dialekt [Thessalian and Lesbian]. 1893. 

III. Der ionisohe Dialekt, Quellen and Lautlehre. 1898. 

IG. = Inscriptiones Graecae consilio et auctoritate Aoademiae litteravum 
regiae Borussicae editae. 

IV. 'Inscriptiones Argolidis, ed M. Fraenkel. 1902. 
YII. Inscriptiones Megaridis et Boeotiae, ed. W. Dittenberger. 1892. 
IX.i. Inscriptiones Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, insula- 

rum maris lonii, ed. W. Dittenberger. 1897. 
IX.ii. Inscriptiones Thessaliae, ed. 0. Kern. 1908. 
XII. i. Inscriptiones Rhodi Chalces Carpatbi cum Saro Casi, ed. F. 

Hiller de Gaertringen. 1895. 
Xll.ii. Inscriptiones Lesbi Nesi Tenedi, ed. W. Paton. 1899. 
Xll.iii. Inscriptiones Symes Teutlussae Teli Xisyri Astypalaeae Ana- 

phes Therae et Therasiae Pholegandri Meli Cimoli, ed. F. Hiller 

de Gaertringen. 1898. 
Xll.iii. Supplementa. 1894. 
Xn.vi. Inscriptiones Cycladum praeter Tenum, ed. F. HiUer de 

Gaertringen. 1903. 
Xll.vii. Inscriptiones Amorgi, ed. Delamarre. 1908. 
Xr\". Inscriptiones Siciliae et Italiae, ed. G. Kaibel. 1890. 
Inschr.v.Magnesia = O. Kern, Die Inschi-iften von Magnesia am Maean- 

der. Berlin 1900. 
Inschr.v.Olympia = Dittenberger-Purgold, Die Inscbriften von Olympia. 

Berlin 1896. 
Inscr.Jurid. = Dareste-HaussouUier-Reinach, Recueil des inscriptions juri- 

diques grecques. Paris 1895 ff. 

Michel = Ch. Michel, Recueil d'inscriptions grecques. Paris 1900. 

Roberts = E. S. Roberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Part I. Cam- 
bridge 1887. Part II (with E. A. Gardner). Cambridge 1905. All 
references are to Part I, unless II is added. 

SGDI. = Collitz-Bechtel, Sammlung der griechischen Dialektinschriften. 
Gottingen 1884 ff. 

Solmsen = F. Solmsen, Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas dialectos 
selectae. 2d ed. Leipzig 1905. 



284 GEEEK DIALECTS 

Ziehen,LegesSacrae = L. Ziehen, Leges Graecorum sacrae e titulis col- 
lectae. Leipzig 1906. 

Lexicogeaphy 

Fick-Bechtel = Die griechischen Personennamen nach ihrer Bildung er- 
klart und systematisch geordnet. 2d ed. by A. Fick and F. Bechtel. 
Gottingen 1894. 

Herwerdon = H. van Herwerden, Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecti- 
cum. Leyden 1892. 

Hefwerden,App. = Appendix Lexici Graeei suppletorii et dialectici. Ley- 
den 1894. 

L.&S. = Liddell & Scott's Greek Lexicon. 7th ed. New York 1883. 

Pape = W. Pape, Worterbuoh der griechischen Eigennamen. 3d ed. 
Braunschweig 1884. 

Searles = Helen M. Searles, Lexicographical Study of the Greek Inscrip- 
tions. Chicago 1898. 

Indo-European Comparative Grammar 

Brugmann,Grd. = K. Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
der indogermanischen Sprachen. 2d ed. Strassburg 1897 ff. 

Brugmann, Kz.V. Gr. = K. Brugmann, Kurzevergleichende Grammatik der 
indogermanischen Sprachen. Strassburg 1902-1904. 

DelbrtickjVergl. Syntax = B. Delbrtick, Vergleichende Syntax der indoger- 
manischen Sprachen. 3 vols. Strassburg 1893-1900. 

Greek Grammar 

Brugmann, Gr.Gr. = K. Brugmann, Griechisohe Grammatik. 3d ed. Mu- 
nich 1900. 

Goodwin = W. W. .Goodwin, Greek Grammar. Revised ed. Boston 1892. 

Hirt = H. Hirt, Ilandbuch der griechischen Laut- und Formenlehre. Hei- 
delberg 1902. 

Kiihner-Blass = Kuhn^r's Ausf iihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. 
3d ed. Part I, revised by Blass. 2 vols. Hannover 1890-1892. 

Kiihner-Gerth = Kiihner's Ausf iihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. 
3ded. Part II, revised by Gerth. 2 vols. Hannover 1898-1904. 

G.Meyer = Gustav Meyer, Griechische Grammatik. 3d ed. Leipzig 1896. 

Greek Dialects — General Works 

Ahrens — H. L. Ahrens, De Graecae linguae dialectis. 2 vols. Gottingen 
1839-1843. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 285 

Hoffmann = Hoffmann, Die griechisohen Dialekte. 3 vols. See above, 

p. 283. 
Meister = R. Meister, Die griechisohen Dialekte. 2 vols. GOttingen. 

I. Asiatisch-Aolisch, Bootisch, Thessaliscli. 1882. 

II. Eleisch, Arkadisoh, Kyprisch. 1889. 

Special Dialects 

Attic 
Meisterhans = K. Meisterhans, Grammatik der attischen Inschriften, 3d ed. 
by E. Schwyzer. Berlin 1900. 

Ionic 
Hoffmann (see above, p. 283) III. 1898. 
Smyth = H. W. Smj-th, The Sounds and Inflections of the Greek Dialects. 

Ionic. Oxford 1894. 

Arcadian and Cyprian 

Spitzer, Lavitlehre des arkadischen Dialektes. Kiel 1883. 

Bennett, On the Sounds and Inflections of the Cyprian Dialect. Nebraska 

University Studies 1888. 
Smyth, The Arcado-Cyprian Dialect, Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. XVIII, 59 ff. 

1887. 
Meister II, 123 ff. 1889. 

Hoffmann I. 1891. 

Lesbian 
Meister I, 1 ff. 1882. 

Hoffmann II. 1893. 

Thessalian 
Meister I, 287 ff. 1882. 

Prellwitz, De dialecto Thessalica. Gottingen 1885. 
Hoffmann II. 1893. 
Sohnsen, Thessaliotis und Pelasgiotis, Ilh.M.LriII,598ff. 1903. 

Boeotian 
Meister I, 201 ff. 1882. 

Sad^e, De Boeotiae titulorum dialecto, Diss.Hal.XVI,145ff. 1903. Refer- 
ences are to the pages of the separate issue. 

Delphian 
Valaori, Der delphische Dialekt. Gottingen 1901. 
Wendel, Register zu den Inschriften von Delphi, SGDI.IV,181ff. 1901. 

Locrian 
Allen, De dialecto Locrensium, Curtius Studien III, 205 ff. 1870. 



286 GREEK DIALECTS 

Mean 

Daniel, De dialecto Eliaca. Halle 1880. 

Meister II, 1 ff. 1899. 

Doric 

Boisacq, Les Dialectes doriens. Paris 1891. 

Laconian 
Mullensiefen, De titulorum Laoonicorum dialecto, Diss. Argent. VI, 131 ff. 
1882. 

Heradean 

Meister, De dialecto Ileracliensium Italicorum, Curtiu3StudienrV',355ff. 

1871. 

Argolic 

von Friesen, Ueber die Eigentumlichkeiten der argeischen Dialektia- 

schriften. Upsala Universitets Arskrift 1897. 
Hanisoh, De titulorum Argolicorum dialecto. Gottingen 1903. 
Mlodnicki, De Argolidis dialecto. Brody 1906. 

Corinthian 
Kretsclimer, Die griechischen Vaseninschriften, 16 ff. 

Megarian 
Schneider, De dialecto Megarica. Giessen 1882. 
Koppner, Der Dialekt Megaras und der megarischen Kolonien, Jb.f.Ph. 

Suppl.XVIII,530ff. 1892. 
Solmsen, Beitrage zur griechigchen Wortforschung I, 93 ff. 1909. 

Bhodian 
Bjorkegren, De sonis dialecti Rhodiacae. Upsala 1902. 

Coan 
Barth, De Coorum titulorum dialecto. Basel 1896. 

Theran 
Hauptvogel, Die dialektischen Eigentumlichkeiten der Inschriften von 
Thera. CiUi 1906-1907. 

Cretan 

Baunack, Die Inschrift von Gortyn. Leipzig 1885. 
Herforth, De dialecto Cretica, Diss.Hal."VIII,192ff. 1887. 
Skuis, Iltpi T^s KpriTiKtj's SvaXfKTov. Athens 1891. 

Kieckers, Die lokalen Verschiedenheiten im Dialekte Kretas. Marburg 
1908. 



NOTES AND EEFEEENCES 287 

Pamphylian 
Bezzenberger, Zur Beurteilung des pamphylischen Dialekts, Bz.B.V,325ff. 
Kretschmer, Zum pamphylischen Dialekt, K.Z.XXXIII,258ff. 
Meister, Die Inschrift von . Sillyon und der pamphylisehe Dialekt, Ber 

Sachs.Ges. 1904, Iff. 
Meillet, La place du pamphylien parmi les dialectes greos, Rev.:6t.Gr. 

XXI,413ff. 



NOTES AND EEFEEENCES i 

1. Interrelation of the dialects. Ahrensl,lfi. CoUitz, Die Verwandt- 
schaftsverhaltnisse der griechischen Dialekte mit besonderer Rucksicht auf 
die thessalische Mundart,18S5. Smyth,The Dialects of North Greece,Am.J. 
Phil. VII,421 ff. , 1887. Hoffmann, De mixtis Graecae linguae dialectis, 1888. 
HofimannI,lfE., 1891. Solmsen, Thessaliotis und Pelasgiotis,Rh.M.LVIII, 
598 ff., 1903. Id., Eigennamen als Zeugen der Stammesmischung in Boeo- 
tien, Rh.M.LIX,481ff.,1901. Meister, Dorer und Achaerl, 1904. Thumb, 
Dialektforschung und Stammesgeschichte, Neue Jb. 1905,385fE. Buck, 
The Interrelations of the Greek Dialects, Class. Phil. II, 241 ff., 1907. 
Kretschmer, Zur Geschiohte der griechischen Dialekte, Glottal,4ff.,1907. 

Cf. also the brief statements in the histories of Busolt, 1^,1923.; E. 
Meyer,n,74ff.,264,2S4ff.; Bury, 47 ff. , 53 ff. ; also Wilamowitz, Herakles^ 
1.6 ff. Beloch's extreme skepticism toward the tradition, and particularly his 
denial of the Doric migration, has fortunately found few adherents among 

1 These are arranged to correspond with the sections of the Grammar. The 
references are mostly to discussions outside of the Greek Grammars and the 
grammars of special dialects, as listed above, systematic citation of which would 
seem superfluous. And even for this scattered literature completeness has not 
been sought, and perhaps no consistent principle of selection will be evident. 
But in the main preference is given to the more recent articles in which the 
material is quoted with some fullness and the dialectic scope of a given pecu- 
liarity defined. 

In the notes some details are added which were intentionally omitted from the 
text, but also some few important forms which were omitted through oversight 
or became accessible too late to be incorporated in the text ; these last including 
some forms from the new fragments of Corinna, Berliner Klassikertexte V.ii,32fE., 
which failed to i-each me until recently. 

The references, except those to the present work which are mostly by section 
numbers and in Clarendon type as usual, are by pages, or, for collections of 
inscriptions, by the numbers of the latter. In a case like Hoffmann's Griechische 
Dialekte, 1.185 would refer to no. 135, but 1,135 to p. 135. 



288 GEEEK DIALECTS 

the historians and none among students of the dialects. See Buck, Am. J. 
Phil.XXI, 319. 

P. 2, note 2. The " much more problematical" view referred to is that 
of Kretsohmer in the article cited above. Skepticism is now expressed also 
by Sohnsen, Beitrage zu griech. Wortforschung 1,93, note 2. 

Pp. 6, 7. As a general term covering the Aeolic and the Arcado-Cyprian 
or Achaean group, and corresponding to the use by some scholars of either 
Aeolic or Achaean in a wider sense, " Central Greek " has been proposed by 
Thumb in the article cited above, but has not met with favor. We prefer 
to differentiate the Aeolic of the north and the Achaean of the south, while 
recognizing their striking affinities, and, when a term covering both is de- 
sired, to speak simply of Aeolic-Achaean. 

P. 6, note. The view referred to is that which is elaborated from the 
archaeological standpoint by Eidgeway, EarlyAge of Greece, and from the 
linguistic standpoint by Meister, Dorer und Achaer. Against this cf . Ed. 
Meyer 11,72 "Von archaeologischer Seite hat man mehi-fach eine 'vor- 
achaeische' Bevolkerung und Cultur des Peloponnes und eine achaeische 
Einwanderung Jahrhunderte vor der dorischen construiert. Das sind reine 
Luftgebilde, ilber die eine Discussion unmoglich ist, da ihnen jede histo- 
rische Grundlage fehlt"; and, on the linguistic side, Fick,Woch.f.Klass. 
Phil. 1905, 593 ff.; Thumb, NeueJb. 1905, 385 ff.; Schwyzer, I. E. Anz. 
XVIII, 46 fi.; Buck,Glass.Phil.II,24:5,note. 

Pp. 8 f£. No mention is made of Macedonian, which, so far as we can 
judge from the scanty remains, is a form of Greek, but detached at such 
an early period that it is best not classed as one of the Greek dialects in 
the ordinary sense. Yet it shows some notable points of agreement with 
the neighboring Thessalian. Cf. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen. 

3. Kuhner-Blassl,26fi. and the literature cited. 

4. Kirchhoff, Studien zu Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets, 4th ed. 
Roberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Larf eld, Handbuch der grie- 
chischen Epigraphik,316 ff. Fr. Wiedemann, Zt. oest. Gymn. LVIII, 222 ff., 
LIX,673fE.; KlioVIII,523ff. 

4.4. OnT = (r(rsee Foat, J.n.S.XXV,338fE.,XXVI,286fE> T£Ta(p)pes 
etc. in the sixth-century inscription of Ephesus (Hogarth , Excavations at 
Ephesus, 122 ff.) removes all suspicion "from the reading [d']aXa'rrfs at Teoa 
(no. 3 B 22-23). 

5. Buck,Class.Phil.II,275fE., and, for further Lesbian examples, Hoff- 
mann II, 355 ff. 

8. BrugmannGr.Gr.29, 32. Hatzidakis,K.Z. XXXVI, 589. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 289 

9. Solmsen,K.Z.XXXII,513ff.; Rh.M.LVn.eOOff. fliapos occurs in two 
late decrees of Corcyra and Epidamnus (Inschr.Y.Magnesia,nos.4J:,46). 

9.2a. Sad6e, De Boeot. tit. dial., 80. 

10. The change of «V to iv has nothing to do with the position before 
vowel or consonant, as was once thought, but is probably due to the proclitic 
character of the word. Once established, iv passed over to the compounds 
regardless of their accent. With regard to aTrep^ojuivos etc., the e was unac- 
centedin the nom., and possibly in these ace. forms (our accentuation of 
them as -/AtVos is merely for convenience, see 103a). But other examples 
of I are lacking even for unaccented syllables (cf . e8(Kacra//.EV also in no. 16), 
and without further material it is useless to attempt any more precise for- 
mulation of the conditions. Cf. Solmsen,Bz.B.XVII,335; K.Z. XXXIV, 
451. Baunack,Ber.Sachs.Ges.l893,118. Biiek,Class.Phil.II,2G8. 

It is not accidental that Pamphylian, which agrees with Arcado-Cyprian 
in several important features (see p. 8, note), has not only l iroKu = iv tto- 
Xet, but also regularly is = £s, ek, and that is also occurs several times at 
Vaxos, but rarely elsewhere. Cf. Meister,Ber.Sachs.Ges.l904,23. 

11. Kretschmer,K.Z.XXXI,375fi. For icrria cf. also Solmsen, Unter- 
suchungen zur griech. Laut-und Verslehre, 191S., 213 ff.; Sommer,Griech. 
Lautstudien,94ff.; Ehrlich,K.Z.XLI,289ff.; Buck, I.F.XXV, 257 ff. 

For Att. ^tXioi (cf. also 76, 117) the assumed *xuj-\u}i maybe dispensed 
with, if we adopt the view of Wackernagel, I.F.XXV, 329, that e in eXi 
gives Att. IXi by assimilation, for which he cites also Att. MiXixios for 
MeiXixios, MijXixios, /teXAixos of the other dialects. Wackernagel also dis- 
cusses the change of e to l in i/iariov, which is the regular spelling in Attic, 
while elsewhere we find the spelling to be expected (cf. eijua), namely e/ia- 
Tiov (our no. 8.2), el/iATioy, d/iarMr/iosi (cf. Ditt.SyU. 653 passim, 939). 

12. Cf . also the ethnicon napdx^eos, SGDI. 2524 = Ilepdx^eos, A.M. 
XXXII,65. 

A similar change before A. appears in AaX<f>iK6v of the earliest Delphian 
coins and AoA^oi of an unedited Delphian inscription. Cf. Perdrizet,Kev. 
Et.Grec.XI,422. 

13. Buck, Class.Phil.II,253ff. 

13.3. Boeot. iro/ca, ovTTOKa occur in the new fragments of Corinna. 
17. Schulze, Gott.Gel.Anz. 1897, 904. 

19. Solmsen, K.Z.XXXIV,554ff.; Rh.M.LVIII,612,LIX,493ff. Buck, 
Class.Phil.11,270. 

20. For "A/ai^iKTioves, A/ok^iktwji/es, see Kretschmer, K.Z.XXXI,429,669. 
For almiJ.va.Tai, ai(ni^vqTyp, see Solmsen, Beitrage zm- griech. Wortfoi-sohung 



290 GREEK DIALECTS 

I,58ff., where /xoXv/i&oi beside /toXtySos and some other similar oases are 
discussed. 

28. Until there is other evidence that Meg. E is used for the genuine 
dipththong ei, the forms teSe and uXe of the early Megarian inscription 
(Wilhelm,A.M.XXXI,89fe.; cf. Solmsen ibid. 342 fC.; Baunack, Philolo- 
gus LV,474:; Keil,G6tt.Nachr.l906,231fi.; Schwartz, ibid.240ff.), though 
taken as reiSe and oAAciby Keil, are best understood, with Solmsen, Bei- 
trage zur griech. Wortforschung 1,96, as TrjSe, which occurs IG. VII.52, and 
oXXiy. Cf. 132.6, where they are so cited. 

28 a. The lexicons give Iktio-is, doubtless because of rurts. But there is 
no evidence that the penult was short, and, while the word seems not to 
occur in the Attic inscriptions, the spelling Ikt£io-is is decidedly the more 
usual in the papyri (Mayser, Gram. d. Papyri, 91), thus agreeing with Ion. 
fKTaa-K (SGDI.5532.17) and Arc. e<rTet(r« (no.18.32). The introduction 
of the strong grade of the root is due to the influence of the verbal forms. 

34a. For toto = tovto, cf. Kretschmer, K.Z.XXXIX,553fE. 

35 a. Cf. Schulze, Quaestiones Epicae, 52 fi.; G6tt.Gel.Anz.1897, 904. 
Hoffmann II, 430 ff. Solmsen, Untersuchungen zur griech. Laut- und Vers- 
lehre,169ff, 

38. For Attic cf . Meisterhans 67 ff. 

39. For Attic cf. Meisterhans 36 ff. 

41.1a and 94.6. Cf. Buck, Class. PhU. II, 263 ff., where Arc. Kern, A.M. 
XXXI,229, was overlooked; and most recently, on the situation in Les- 
bian and Boeotian, Nachmanson, Glotta 11,135 ff. But further inscriptional 
evidence is wanted before the question can be regarded as settled. 

41.2. For 0) from ao in all dialects, not West Greek a, cf . Buck, Am. J. 
Phil.XXI,321 ; Ehrlich,K.Z.XL,355ff. Otherwise Jacobsohn, Philologus 
LXVII,35. For Boeot. Savxpams etc. cf. also Buck, I.F.XXV,262ff. 

41.4. It is the prevailing view that original a/ro or a/ro) gives Att. eo), 
never to, and that e.g. Att. xt/Acopos, kolvwv must be from *Ti/u,a-fopos or 
*Tt/xa-/rtt)pos, *Kmva/r(iv. Cf. Wackernagel,K.Z. XXVII, 263 ; Johansson,Bz. 
B.XV, 169; Eulenberg,I.F.X7. 138. Against this rightly Ehrlich.K.Z.XL, 
354 ff., although the conditions governing the distribution of Att. ecd and o) 
are still in part obscure. 

41.4a. Hoffmann 111,281,522; Smyth343ff.; SGDI. 5278,5311. 

41.4^. Buck, Glottal, 131 ff. 

42.1. For Dor. r; even from e/ra, cf . also Ahrens 11,193 ; Kiihner-Blass I, 
203 ; Thumb, Griech. Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus, 93 ff.; Zupitza, 
K.Z.XLII,75. The change is not merely late Doric. Aside from ^p, fik^p 
in Aloman, Kprji in Aristophanes, etc., some of the inscriptional examples 



NOTES AND EEFERENCES 291 

are very early, e.g. Ther. KXij-ydpas IG.XII.iii.l461. Delph. ivvrj, not pre- 
viously quoted, occurs B.C.II.XXVII,22,26. 

Like Rhod. 'Ay^vai also Ion. 'Hy^va^^ SGDI.5616.13.(Smyrna),'A(t)X'5i'«^ 
ibid.54716 (Thasos) in contrast to 'Apxta.vaKT<K ibid. 5691 (Erythrae). • 

42.2. For Dor. rj from ea of. also Ktihner-Blass T,20o ; Bechtel,Bz.B. 
XXI, 231 ; Bjorkegren, De sonis dial. Rhod., 50 ; Solmsen, Berl.Phil.Woch. 
1904,662 ; Wilhelm,Oest.Jhrb.IV,80 (Arc. Uavfjs = Meg. Ilavcas). Note also 
Arg. Tpvyrj'i, our no. 82. 

42.5 o. Sad6e,DeBoeot.tit.dial.,84fi. 

42.5 i. For 10) in Tarentine vyriters, e.g. Ttcos = tc'os, quoted from Rhin- 
thon, cf. Solmsen, K.Z.XXXII,54:4:. 

i2.5d. J. Schmidt, K.Z. XXXVIII, 89 ff. Cret. KO<r|«,dvT£s etc., Solmsen, 
K. Z. XXXn, 532 fE. Delph. Trotdvrtov, Heracl. iroidvTa<T<76, Buok,Glotta I, 
130. Mess. iroidvTi occurs Inschr.v.Magnesia 43.29. 

42.6. Delph., Heracl. ttoiuvti. Buck, Glotta 1,129. 

44.1. It is commonly held that oa gives West Greek a. But cf. Buck, 
Class.Phil.II,255fE. 

46. J. Schmidt, K.Z.XXXII,321ff. 

49.1. n]oTotaavi, A.M.XXXII,304. 

49.3. oSeXds is also attested for Achaean, 'E<^.'A/3x-1908,97. It was doubt- 
less common to all the West Greek dialects. 

50-55. Thumb, Zur Geschichte des griechischen Digamma, I.F.IX, 
294 fE. 

51. Meister, Dorer und Achaerl,38fi.,58,87fi. 

52a. J.Schmidt,K.Z.XXXin,455fi. Solmsen,K.Z.XXXII,273fE.; Un- 
tersuchungen zur griech. Laut- und Verslehre,186ff. 

526,c. Thumb,I.F.IX,336ff.; I.F.Anz.XIV,9,XIX,19. Solmsen, Un- 
tersuchnngen zur griech. Laut- und Verslehre, 187 ff. Sommer, Griech. 
Lautstudien, 90 ff . 

54. Wackernagel, K. Z. XXV, 260 ff. Kretschmer, K. Z. XXI, 440 ff. 
Schulze,QuaestionesEpicae,6ff.,84ff.,352ff. HoffmannIII,372,391ff.,407ff. 
Solmsen, Untersuchungen zur griech. Laut- und Verslehre, 181ff.,302ff. 

The history of (rp in ^ t'o-f os etc. is so nearly parallel to that of vp etc. 
that it has been included in the same tabular representation. But it is not 
whoUy identical. In Cretan the p of a-p survives longer than that of vp 
etc., e.g. in the Law-Code pia-pofwipov beside xcrevid and raXos; and per- 
haps also in the case of Hom. Tcros and volcros, on which most recently 
Jacobsohn, Hermes XLIV, 79 ff. 

55. /3p = pp. Solmsen,Untersuchungen zur griech.Laut- und Verslehre, 

175 ff. 



292 GEEEK DIALECTS 

57,58. Thumb, Untersuchungen ilber den Spiritus Asper. Sommer, 
Griech. Lautstudien. 

586. In connection with Argol. ia/ods mention should have been made 
of iKCTas, no. 75. Cf. Sommer I.e., 24. 

59.1. Meister, Dorer und Achaer 1,7 fE. Meister's view that the change 
was restricted to Sparta is untenable. A new exception is our no. 69. See 
also p. 288. 

59.2. Meister ibid. 55 £E. 

60. Weisschuh, De rhotacismo linguae Graecae. 

60.1. Meister 11,49 if. 

60.3. HoffmannIII,576fe. 

61. Kretschmer, K.Z.XXXII,513ff. Buck, Class.Phil.11,247 ff. 

61.6. rifucroi (to TJ/xicrov) in Phocis, Rhodes, and Astypalaea is probably 
a contamination of rj/jua-a-os with ^/iiicrvs of the koivi^. 

63. On Cret. Ilvrtos, Meister,Dorer und Achaer 1,78 ff. 

64. Meister, Dorer und Achaer 1,25 ff. 

67. Kretschmer, K.Z.XXII,426ff. Jacobsohn,K.Z.XLII,264ff. 

68. Brugmann, Gr.Gr.ll2fE., with literature cited. 

68.2. In calling the y of yi<f>vpa unexplained I had overlooked for the 
moment the probable explanation that it is due to dissimilation from the 
<^. So also Dor. yXenia (Alcman), yXi<fm.pov (Alcman, Pindar, etc.) = pkarm, 
pXitjyapov. Cf. Solmsen, Ueber dissimilations- und assimilationserschei- 
nungen bei den altgriechischen gutturalen, 5 ; Mansion, Les gutturales 
grecques, 60.. 

68.4 a. Savxva is now attested for Cyprian also. Cf. Aat)x*«<^op'o, Mei- 
ster, Ber.Sachs.Ges. 1908,2 ff. 
. 69.3. Sohulze,K.Z.XXXIII,318ff. Kretschmer, K.Z.XXXV,608. 

69.4. Like eTnrao-is is d7nra<7a/*Evos, from *di'-7r7ra-, in the new fragments 
of Corinna. 

71a. Brugmann, Gr.Gr.80. Jacobsohn, K.Z.XLII,274. 

72. Solmsen, A.M. 1906, 347 ff.; Beitrage zur griechischen Wortfor- 
schungl,10aff. 

73 ff. On relics of Aeolic w etc. in Chios and other once Aeolic, later 
Ionic, territory in Asia Minor, see 184 a ; at Eleusis ('I/i/xdpaSos), Solmsen, 
Eh.M.LVIII,623; in Macedonian, Solmsen, I. F. VII, 48, Hoffmann, Die 
Makedonen,125ff. 

76. On the difficult question whether in the intermediate stage of the 
development of o-ju. etc. o- became z or A, cf . Sommer, Griech. Lautstudien, 
25 ff. and the literature cited. 



NOTES AND EEFEEENCES 293 

77.2. vcr + consonant may arise in new formations and undergo the same 
development as secondary intervocalic vcr. Cf. Lesb. eiKoioros, 116a, and 
Corcyr. eicXoyi^ow^o), 140.32). 

77.8. avTJKourav etc. in a late inscription of Cyrene I suspect of being 
an ai-tificial, not an inherited, Aeolism. Cf.Class.Phil.il. 272. 

80. For pp, especially in Boeotian, cf. Solmsen,Rh.^I.LIX,486ff. But 
in just what dialects, besides Attic, West Ionic, Arcadian, Elean, and 
Theran, pp is to be recognized as normal, cannot be determined with any 
certainty from the existing evidence. In some dialects where we find a few 
examples both of pp and of per, or even of pa- only, the latter may be so 
late as to be easily attributable to koivi; influence. But it is also possible 
that in some dialects pp was only an occasional colloquialism and that ptr 
was preserved, even without external influence, in careful speech. Cf. 86, 
p. 68. The isolated Kapputv (also in Tim. Locr. and Plut. Instit. Lac.) is 
especially significant. But we do not ffeel warranted as yet in assuming 
that pp was common to the West Greek dialects in general. 

81. For T = o-o- in Ionic, cf. 4.4. 

81a. On late Cretan 6aXa66a etc., cf. Thumb, Neue Jb. 1905,391; Mei- 
ster, Dorer und AchaerI,6Sff. But against the latter's understanding of 
eypaTTtre of the Law-Code as fypairo-e = iypd(f>6ri, cf . Jacobsthal,I.F.XXI, 
Beiheft,18ff. 

81 6. Schulze, Gott.Gel.Anz. 1897,900 ff. 

82. Lagercrantz, Zur griech. Lautgeschichte,19ff. For era- add Coan 
ocToxK, Calymn. BiKacrcrio). 

84. On the question of Megarian 88 or ^, cf. Lagercrantz, Zur griech. 
Lautgeschichte, 27. Meister, Dorer und Achaer 1, 160. Earlier inscrip- 
tional evidence is needed to settle the matter. 

The Rhodian vase with the inscription containing AerJs is now published 
by T. L. Spear in Am. J.Phil.XXIX,461fE. There seems to be no reason to 
doubt its Rhodian provenance. 

84 a. Note also Boeot. <f>pd.TTO) (Coriima) = </>pa^<i). 

85.1. Buck,Class.Phil.n,266, with literature cited. 

86 and 96. Mucke, De consonarum in Graeca lingua praeter Asiati- 
corum dialectum Aeolicam geminatione. 

87. On 8aKn)Xos, cf. Brugmann,I.F.XI,284ff. 

88. Kretschmer,K.Z.XXXIII,603fE. • 

89.1. G.Meyer, 304f. A sixth-century inscription of Ephesus (Hogarth, 
Excavations at Ephesus, 122 ff.) shows a doubling of dentals after a conso- 
nant, e.g. oKTTw, iKTTTj, ■qveif^Shjaav, and, in sentence combination, Ik tto, 



294 GREEK DIALECTS 

89.3. Solmsen, Untersuchungen zur grieoh. Laut- und Verslehre, 165fE. 

89.5. Brugmami,GrundrissII.i,44:ff., with literature cited. 
91. Allen, Greek Versification in Inscriptions, 126 ff. 

94. Lucius, De crasi et aphaeresi, Diss.Arg.IX,351ff. Kuhner-Blass I, 
218fE. Meister,Herodas,778fE. 

94.1. The type of crasis seen in TOLpumpov, that is really elision as we 
believe, is the usual one in Argolic. Another instance is seen in IIoXvjtiiSEs 
iiroUt Aapyeios (o 'Apyeios), B.C.H.XXIV,448. Epid. Tal<TK)unnet (rfit At(r-) 
is disputed, cf. IG.IV.1203. Of. also Rhod. 'A/xoi/Sixo (6 'Ap.-), no. 97; 
Arc. TaTToXXiovi (rot 'Air-), 'E<^.'Apx-1903,178. 

94.6. See above, p. 290. 

94.7. end. In view of the frequent elision in Argolic (above, note to 
94.1), Aegin. hoiKos is more probable than hoiKa!^. 

95. Giinther, Die Prapositionen in den griechischen Dialektinschriften, 
LF.XX,37ff. Solmsen, Rh.M.LXII,329fE. Kretschmer, Die Apokope in 
den griechischen Dialekten, Glotta 1,34 ff. 

■Trip before vowels, as in Delph. irepoSos, occurs also in Thess. xep Upauv, 
no. 28.40, Cypr. wep' 'ESdXiov, no. 19.27, in Boeot. Tfcpayrji = irtpvayrj^, in the 
new Gorinna fragments, and in the Locrian or Aetolian ethnicon TLipoyOeK 
A.M.XXXIII,30. 

With Thess. air, vtt, cf. a.inrfp,\f/a and i^^dXXav, once each in Homer. 

102. Sommer, Zum inschriftliohen vv ecjieXKvcrTiKov, Festschrift zur 49. 
Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmanner, Basel 1907. 

105.1a, 25. Solmsen, Rh.M.LIX,494ff. 

106.1a. Thess. -oi from -010, Ahrens 1,222; HofemannII,533; J.Schmidt, 
K.Z.XXXVIII,29ff. ; as original locative, Brugmann,Gr.Gr.225; as origi- 
nal genitive in -ot and cognate with Lat. -l, etc., Kretschmer, GlottaI,57ff. 
I am convinced of the correctness of the first-named view, as preferred in 
the text. -010 occurs IG.IX.ii.458, 459,511, 1036. 

On Cypr. -5v, E.Iiermann,I.F.XX,354fE., but the explanation is not 
convincing to me. 

106.2. On distribution of -ot, Buok,Class.Phil.II,266. 
107.1. Keil,G6tt.Nachr.l899,151ff. 

107.3. On -eo-o-t, Buck, Class. Rev.XIX,249fE.; Class.Phil.II,273fE. On 
-ots (cf . also 226, 279), G. Meyer 475, and most recently Sommer, I.F.XXV, 
289 ff. 

107.4. Buck,Class.Phil.II,266fE., with literature cited. ' 

Cret. OvycLTcpavs etc. It is of course not accidental that the analogical 
introduction of -avs beside -as (fluyarepas also occurs) is found in just that 
dialect in ■?yhich the ^-sterns show by-forms in -avs and -os (104.8). 



NOTES AND EEFEEENCES 295 

108.2. On the question of Thess.'lTnroKpaTtis etc. , cf . Hoffmann, Philolo- 
gus.LXI,2-i5,LXII,15.")ff.; Bechtel, Hermes XXXVII,631ff. 

Boeot. Meyva etc. (full material in Sad(5e,DeBoeot. tit.dial.,50fl.) are 
generally taken as T-stem forms, either vocatives or nominatives without s. 
Cf. Kretschmer.K.Z. XXXVI, 26Sff.; Meister,Ber.Sachs.Ges.l904,32. But 
as forms in -r/ are not found in the dialects which keep the T-inflection, 
^Yhile vocatives in -r; from cr-stems are known and Boeotian shows the ct- 
inflection in other case-forms, we prefer to- assume that these forms too 
belong to the adopted cr-stem type. Still different views, but too general 
and vague to carry conviction, are expressed by Sad^e I.e., and Solmsen, 
Berl.Phil.Woch.l906,lSl. 

H1.4. -ijs is probably not from -lyvs, like jSois beside /SoSs from *;8a)vs 
(37.1), but owes its -q to the analogy of -t^os etc. Dat. pi. MavTii/ecri in an 
Elean decree (SGDI.1151.17) shows a similar extension of r] at the expense 
of ev, and is perhaps the Arcadian, rather than a true Elean, form. 
112.6. Cf. Lac. dual EiraKoe beside tTraKoo, no. 67, note. 
114.1. The new fragments of Corinna bring the first evidence of la in 
Boeotian. On the use of Cret. ids, Buck, Class. Phil. 1, 409 3. On irpoiTos, 
TrpaTos, Buck, Class. Phil.II,255ff. 

114.3. With rpti as nom., and reropes as ace. (107.4), cf. reropai as nom. 
in inscriptions of Tauromenium, SGDI.522off. 

Il4.5. warroi is attested also for Amorgos (IG.Xn.vii.301.5), but here 
it is due to the analogy of Trei/re, not to assimilation of ttt to tt as in Crete. 
116. On Lesb. eiKouTros etc. , Buck, Class. Rev.XIX, 242 ff. Thess. ikoo-tos 
occurs IG.IX.ii.506.47. 

119.2a. J. Schmidt, K.Z.XXXVI,400ff. 

122. On the distribution of toi and ol, cf. Solmsen, Rh.M.LX,148ff.; 
Buck, Class.Phil.11,253. But the ^Vest Thess. roi there mentioned is to be 
taken as dat. sg. toi as read IG.IX.ii.241. 

123. Cf. also Thess. ovwe, IG.IX.ii.460.5. 

125.1. Buck,Class.Phil.n,259ff. 

126. Elean should have been mentioned among the dialects which show 
the relative use of the article. Cf . no. 60.11,12. 

129.2a. On Locr. port, cf. Wackemagel,Eh.M.XLVIII,301ff. ; J. 
Schmidt, K.Z.XXXIir,455 ff. 

129.8. Buck, Class.Rev.X'IX, 247. 

132.2. Buck,Class.Phil.II,256. 'While it would be not at all sm-prising 
to find oirei etc. in other dialects than West Greek and Boeotian (cf. 224a), 
we know no certain examples as yet. Arc. T[e]t8w, as read by Wilhehn, 
A.M.XXXI,228, is Very doubtful. 



296 GEEEK DIALECTS 

132.4. J. Schmidt, K.Z.XXXII,412 ff. 

132.9. Buck,Class.Phil.II,255. Boeot. TroKa, ouTro/ca are now attested in 
the new fragments of Corinna. Lao. okku, 'E<^.'Ap;^. 1900, 1.59. 

132.9 a. Cret. as always means .so long as, never until. Cf . Jaoobsthal, 
I.F.XXI,Beiheft,118. So in Heraclean (Heraol.Tab.I.lOO), until being ex- 
pressed by a.)(pL w. 

133.5. Delph. l|os (not ia Wendel's Index) B.C.H.XXII,321. 

135, 136. Ivy Kellermann, On the Syntax of some Prepositions in the 
Greek Dialects (Chicago dissertation). Gilnther, Die Prapositionen in den 
griechischen Dialekten, I.F. XX, 1 ff. 

135.4. Buek,Class.Phil.II,264, with literature cited. 

135.6 a. Of the numerous discussions of the relation of Trpos to Trport the 
most recent is that of Jacobsohn, K.Z.XLII,279fE. 

135. 6J. J. Schmidt, K.Z. XXXVIII, 17 ff. Thumb, NeueJb. 1905, 396. 
Zubat;^, I.F. Anz.XXII,59 ff. Kretschmer, Glotta 1,41 ff. 

136.2. In addition to Miss Kellermann I.e., 75, and Giinther I.e., 132, 
cf . Solmsen, Rh.M.LXI,495 ff. 

136.8. On Delph. Avn pirto'S, Buck, I.F.XXV, 259 ff. 

136.11 (addition), iiro instead of usual €7ri with gen. in expressions of 
dating occurs with gen. in Elean (no. 61.2), and with ace. in Laconian 
(no. 66.66). 

138.3. Buck, Class.Phil.II, 256 ff. 

139.2. For -v6o etc. we prefer the older explanation, as given in the 
text, to Schulze's suggestion quoted by Sad6e,DeBoeot. tit. dial.,23. 

141. Buck, Glass. Phil. II, 257 ff., with literature quoted. 

142. Buck,Class.Phil.II,251ff. 

143. Schulze,K.Z.XXXIII,126ff. 

144 a. For Ion. ■^vetKa, add ^m^''"^'?''''*'' f ''O'o Ephesus (see above, to 89.1). 

146.1. keXaLJS-qKa is also Arcadian, cf. no. 18.14. 

147.3a. Solmsen, K.Z. XXXIX,215. 

148. G.Meyer,203,413. Meisterhansl69. Hatzidakis,'A9i;vaVIII,458ff. 

150. Schulze,Hermes XX,491 ff. Solmsen,Rh.M.LIX,161ff. Until re- 
cently all the known East Ionic examples were from Chios, Teos, or Eryth- 
rae. Now also from Miletus i^a/iocra SGDI.5496, KaraxTetVoo-tv Jb.Arch. 
Inst.l906,Anz.,16. 

151.1. Onaor. subj.trdcf. Solmsen,Rh.M.LXI,164ff. That Arc. /SwXtv- 
a-avTcu, Inschr.v.Magnesia 38.46, wrongly corrected to ;S<i)X£vcr((o)i/T<u by 
Kern, belongs here, is pointed out by Meister, Ber.Sachs.Ges.1904,10, and 
had also been recognized independently by me. But Epid. Trotrja-ai, reck- 
oned here by Solmsen, I prefer to regard as an optative (177). 



NOTES AND EEFEEENCES 297 

151.2. There is no certainty that Thess. SwdsTai (no. 27) and Arc. ku- 
KpiBii (no. 16.15) are to be so understood, rather than as Svi/aeTat, KaKpiOil, 
though we regard the former as more probable. The Arcadian form is 
also taken by some as Kaxpidi e, and the contracted ia-Sod^ occurs in the 
later no. 18.52. 

152.4. A still different type, with the optative sign added directly to <t, 
is seen in Cret. pipK<nev SGDI.49S2, and also in hrnXwriav ibid. 5004, if the 
latter is really an optative. 

157. Hoffmann 1,263 ff., II, 574 if. Buck, Class.rhil.11,274 ff. 

158. Buck,Class,Phil.II,265. 

159. In Delphian there are several other examples of -laa (seeWendel's 
Index 190 ff.) but none certain of -i^w. For cruXiJovres, which occurs twice 
among over two hundred instances of eruXcovTcs, is perhaps only a graphic 
variant. Cf. J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungd.idg.Neutra, 329. For Boeotian add 
<m<j>av<i)iij.iv from Thespiae, B.C.H.XXV, 361. trre<^ai/St occurs also at 
Eleusis, but here only as the result of the confusion between oi and wt 
(Meisterhans 66). It is not clear whether the late Lesb. Tipai, a-T€<j>dvoi, are 
from -da, -taa or from -aa, -oa (in either case we should expect a-T€<jiavS)i) , 
or are simply the Attic forms and to be accented rt/xai, (TTeKJmvot. 

161.1. J.Schmidt, Ber.Berl.Akad.l899,302ff. 

161.2. J.Schmidt,Pluralbildungderidg.Sreutra,326ff. For Dor./iotxaM 
(Cret. fLOLKiov) = usual ij.oi)(ev<ii, cf. Wackernagel, Hellenistica, 7ff. 

164.3. For -atrK cf . Buck, Class.Rev.XIX,244 ff. 

164.7. Solmsen,Beitragezurgriech.WortforschungI,116 ff. 

164.8. Buck,Class.Phil.II,267. Jacobsohn,PhilologusLXVII,29. Sohn- 
sen, Beitrage zur griech. Wortf orschung I,98ff. 

165.4. The origin of this class, which is of course to be distinguished 
from that of the agent-nouns in Att. -€u>v, Ion. -civ, but Dor. -av, from -apaiv 
(41.4), is obscure. Cf. Brugmann, Grundriss 11,301. 

166.1. Buck, Class. Phil. II, 267. Solmsen, Beitrage zur griech.Wortfor- 
schung 1,98. 

166.2. Solmsen, Kh.M.LIX,498ff. 

168 a-d. Sad6e,DeBoeot.tit.dial. 17ff. Solmsen, Eh. M.LVIII, 603 ff., 
LIX,596ff. 

169-178. Among the few special studies of dialectic syntax, beside those 
on the use of prepositions already cited (p. 296), may be mentioned r K. 
Meister, Der syntaktische Gebrauch des Genetivs in den kretischen Dialekt- 
inschriften, I.F.XYIII, 133 ff.; Riittgers, De accusativi, genetivi, aocusativi 
usu in inscriptionibus archaicis Cretensibus, Bonn 1905 ; Jacobsthal, Der 
Gebrauch der Tempora und Modi in dea kretischen Dialektinscbriften,I.F, 



298 GEEEK DIALECTS 

XXI,Beihef t ; Edith Frances Claplin, The Syntax of the Boeotian Dialect 
(Bryn Mawr dissertation). 

174. Jacobsthal, I.e., 87fE., whose Arcadian examples, however, should 
be replaced by those given in our text. 

176. Jacobsthal, I.C., 93 ff. 

177. Jacobsthal, I.e., 90 ff. 

178. Jacobsthal,l.c.,83fE. 

179. Buck,Class.Phil.n,258ff., with literature cited. Jacobsthal, I.F. 
XXI,Beiheft,143£E. Jacobsohn, K.Z.XLII,153. 

182. Among the important Ionic characteristics should have been men- 
tioned: Contraction of or; to m. 44.2. 

274-280. Thumb, Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenis- 
mus. Buck, The General Linguistic Conditions in Ancient Italy and Greece, 
Class. Journ. 1,99 ff.i Wahrmann, Prolegomena zu einer Geschichte der 
griechischen Dialekte im Zeitalter des Hellenismus. 

279. More commonly known as the Achaean-Doric kolv^, after Meister 
11,81 ff. See Buck, The Source of the so-called Achaean-Doric KOLvrj, A.J. 
Ph.XXI,193ff. 

1 The portion of this article which deals with Greece, and also the statements 
in the text, are condensed from a more comprehensive but unpublished study of 
this subject. ^ 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



In the alphabetical arrangement the presence of p is ignored, in order to 
obviate the separation of the many forms which occur with and without it. Thus 
(f)CKaTi, i.e. plKaTL or [Kan, stands in the position of tKari, and vo(f)6s in the 
position of vads. f stands in the position of k. 

For inflectional forms the conventional captions (nom. sg., 1 sg. pres. indie.) 
are sometimes substituted, and in these the transcription which we have em- 
ployed for forms occurring in the epichoric alphabets is frequently replaced by 
the more familiar spelling, e.g. e, o. A, by ij, w, ', or Cret. tt, k, by 0, x- But the 
precise form occurring is sometimes retained as a caption, or added, or given 
separately witli a cross-reference. Brevity and convenience in each case have 
been preferred to consistency. 

The references are : numbers in Clarendon type, to the sections of the Gram- 
mar, or, where App. is added, to the corresponding sections of the Appendix; 
otherwise, to the numbers of the inscriptions. The Heraclean Tables (no. 74) 
and the Cretan Law-Code (no. 110) are cited by name. 



a = a. 68 a 

apdrarai Lac. S3 

dpAios Cret. = 7i\u>s. 41.3 

dpX.oir(a Cret. = d/3Xa/3£a. 5 

dYaios Delph., admirable, wonderful 
(?). Cf. Etyioa. Mag. iyalos- iirl(j>eo- 
vov 71 eavimarbv. No. 51D38, note 

a7(iX|ia = aviB-niia. No. 35, note 

a7aX|i.aTa(|K&p El. = icpiirwXos. 107.1, 
no. 60.13, note 

oLYappis West Ion., assembly. 5, 49.2, 
80 with a 

'AyatrikiFO Eub. = 'AyiurC\ea. 41 .4, 53 

d-yi^ai Cret., bands in which the Cre- 
tan youth were trained 

d7E\doi, Cret., ephebi, members of the 
ayfKai. 31, no. 113.11, note 

a-yepiris East Ion., assembly. 49.2 

'AyXaa-, ' A^Xw-. 41.2 

&yvia = iyo). 162.6. dxi^f^ros, 66 

'A-yoXcws Meg. = 'AyfKaos. 167 

d7opd Delph., Thess. = iKK^ria-la 

d-yopavofijo Thess. , preside over the as- 
sembly, like Att. iiruyTaT4a. See pre- 
ceding. In other states the iyopavli- 
fioi were oflScers in charge of the 
mark^ etc. 

dY^pao-o-i; Boeot, 164.3 



d7p^ai Lesb., El., av7p<(D Thess. = al- 
piia, Lesb. '&,yp4devTes, KaTay\_pf\8'rii, 
Kardypevrov, wpoaypijfip.ivaj. El, i^a~ 
yp4ov. Thess. itpavypsvBeiv. So also 
Lesb. dypeais, Thess. dpypcais = atpc- 
ffis. Cf . Hom. irakivdypeTos, ainaype- 
Tos. Akin to S.ypa 
dScaXruhaic El., from aSeoKrhw ^ abtj- 
Uw, i<t>ad^o). 59.3, 158.4, no. 61.12, 
note 
d86X<t>E6s == &Se\4>6!. 164.9 
dSonrioC Cret. = d5eX0a(. 71, 164.9 
dSTjXdu Heracl., make invisible 
air\via%witliout fraud, plainly. Chian 
aSr/v^ias ycyaviovres, calling out plain- 
ly, no. 4B. Cf. Hesych. dSiji-^us- 
dS6Xci)S, airXus, x<^P'5 PovKijs 
aSos 6 Ion., decree. See dvSdvu 
deXios = ^Xios. 41.3 
dJo96s Cypr. = iyae6!. 62.4 
d^ETOd) Delph. , convict. 77.2, no. 53.17, 

note 
-AOoPPos Delph. ='A9aA./3os. 69.3 
al West Greek, Aeol. = ei. 1 34^ 1, 2 c 
ax Dor. etc. = v adv. Cret. at also 

final and temporal. 132.5,8a,9a 
ai Lesb., olC Ion., d(v Thess, = de(, 
133,6 



300 



GEEBK DIALECTS 



&CSa<r|ias Ion., under perpetual lease. 

138.6 
alpeC Cypr., Phoc. = del. 63, 133.6 
atXeo) Cret. = alpia. 13 
ot\os Cypr. = fiXXos. 74 6 
alX6Tpia El. = AXKbrpia. 74 6 
alfidTiov Coan, coagulated blood and 

meat, sausage-meat. Cf. Hesych. al- 

fidrui • dXKdvTLa 
at|i,Covas Lesb. = ijfdovos. 17 
alfiiunis Lesb. = tiiuitv^. 17, 61.6 
dtvThess. = del. 133.6 
alvos Delph., Meg., decree. Cf. Et. 

Mag. ahos- ^-fj^iurim and Hesych. s.v. 
axptiii Ther. = alpedeh. 78 
alo-a, share. 191 
ato-ijivdras, alo-i|i,v<avT£s Meg. = alav- 

Hv-^Tris etc. 80 with App., 258 
ACo-CoSos Lesb. = 'HcrfoSos. 17 
aKcio Cret. = dxeiu 
ciKpar^s Ion. = &Kvpo?. Cf . KaprepSs 
haKpiiSiva to. Delph. = dxpSSma (or 

dxpSBis, reading rdv dtcpSdim). 58 c, 

no. 51 D 47, note 
hdKpos Corcyr. = S,Kpos. 58 c 
haKpooTKipCai Heracl., heights covered 

with brushwood. 58 c 
apXav^os El., whoily, in full. 55, no. 

59.4, note 
iiKLa, assembly. (1) Delph. (no. 51), used 

of the meeting of tlie phratry; (2) 

Acarn., Corcyr., Heracl., Gela, Ag- 

rig., Eheg. = ^/ocXijirio 
dXiafa Arg. , Mycen. = iKKKriala 
&\[a(r|ia. (1) Gela, Agrig., assembly 

(not in technical sense, cf. jSoi/XSs 

dXiaff/xa); (2) Rheg., decree of the 

d\ia 
dXCao-o-is Arg., act of the d\iala. 164.3 
dXiao-TaC Arc. , in form = Att. i^Xmo-Toi, 

but title of Tegean officials who en- 
forced penalties, etc. (no. 18) 
hdXiios Arg. 56 

oXivo-is Epid. , stuccoinjf. 77.3a 
fiXios Dor., iiXios Lesb. = -JXios. 41.8 
Fa\C(ro-KO|jiai Thess. = dXlrKOfmi. 68 c, 

89.1 
oXXa Lesb., eZseroAere. 138.6 
dXXai Cret., Corcyr., otherwise. 132,5 
dXXel Meg., Delph., elsewhere. 138.2 
dXXoiroXCa Cret. = dWoSiifjila.. Cf . Cret, 

iriXi! = Stjuos 
dXX6Tcppos Lesb. — dXXiTpws. 19.2 
dXX6TTptas Cret. 89.4 
vMv Arc, = <(X^o, 88 



3,\Xvi Lesb., elsewhere. 132.4 
aXfov Cy pv., plantation. No. 19.9, note 
dXopY6s Ion. = dXoi/p7(Ss. 44.4 
flXuita Boeot. := dvd\wiia. Not an orig- 
inal uncompounded form, but ab- 
stracted from dydXa/M. Hence the 
absence of f 
d)i,dpa Locr. = iiiiipa. 12, 586 
'Ap,dpios Ach. 12 

o|j.oTO Aetol. = dSAXut ? No. 62.2, note 
dp,pp[6]Ti]v Lesb. = o/iiapTKj/. S, 49.2a 
djiei Delph. = A^oB. 132.2 
aifiv late Cret. = ijiimt. 119.2a 
d|i4pa with leniS. 586 
djife, dp^s. 67,68 6,76,119 
dpi6p^ii> Ion. = dpiBiiim. 88 
dp)kcs, a|ip.c Lesb., dp,|t^ Thess. = fipsis, 

V^as. 76, 119 
dp.p6vi.ov Delph., penalty for delay. 
■ Prom dvaiuiva, Cf . Hom. Kaii/wvlTi = 

dpotpd Corinth. = d^Mi/S^. 51a 

dpir- in early Cretan words, see under 

d/t0- 
dpireXdip'yiKds Heracl. = -ovpyixbt. 44.4 
dpirwXiipa Heracl., re6aie. Heracl.Tab. 

1. 108 ff., note 
dp(|>a(vopai Cret. (e.g. &p.iralve{S)Bai,, 

&fnra.vdfJLevos, dvTravdfj^vo^, AfiiravTOs, 

&viramos), adopt 
apifiaviris Cret. (iiriravrm), adoption 

(act of). 77.3 a 
cHL^avris Cret. (dviravrit), adoption 

(condition of, i.e. state of being an 

adopted son) 
dp<|>C. 136.7 
dp(j>CST|pa Cret., ornament, gen. sg. dv- 

iriSiiias. 112.5 

'Ap<|>l,KT(oVES, -KTVOVES. 20 

dpi|>iXX^Yia =: dpupiXiya. 89.3 

dpijiipuX^oi Cret. (e.g. dpiinfioXdv), con- 
tend about (in law), litigate. See juu- 
X^w 

dp4>CpwXos Cret. (d/iir/jnoXox), subject to 
lawsuit 

dp(|>C(rTapai Heracl., investigate. Cf. 
Hesych. d/i^is-TairSoi- iierd^eiv 

dv = dvi. 95 

dv Arc. = a tfi). 68a 

hdv Arc. = iv. Sid 

dvdarop El. , see ivarm 

pdvol — Aval. 52 

dvao-KT|0'fis Arc, see da-xTid'^s 

SLvaros immune from punishment. El. 
^vdoiTop^ Locr, adY, ivdroh). 5? 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



301 



dvSiivu = SoK4to be approved, voted, as 
in Hdt. Cret. IfaSe, Ion. ^aSe = r«o?e, 
Locr. fefaS€K6Ta (146.1) = SeSoy/niva, 
y/'tj^tanim. Cf. Ion. &Sos = S6yijLa 
&v8ix&|u Locr., be of divided opinion. 
Cf. Hdt.O. lOi) SLxa Y^YTOCTat ai yvutiat 
av^Scav, av^Siav, dv^Bciav Boeot. = dc^- 

dEiraf. 9.2, 138.6 
avc6c(Kaiv Thess. = ivferiKav. 138.6 
av^SciKc Boeot., Thess. = aviei]Ke. 16 
dvenK^Tcas Delph. = dw7)tXi)Tus. 69.3 
dvEX6<r6o Lac. = dreX^(r$uK. 140.36 
av€v(7po(^os Ileracl. = -ypa<t>os. S 
av^in)KC Lac. = iviSriKe. 64 
avEuv Epid. = ivev. 133.0 
avois El. = «reu. 138.6, 136.4 
dvhEuirOai Heracl., from aplrifu. 146.4 
dvT|pC6EVTOs Ion. = avcpiSevros not venal. 

167a 
dvioxfu Lac. = •^wox^w. 9.5 
dvv(o|iai Cret. = ipvdo/iai. 86.5 
dvoo-Cja Cypr., impiety. No. 19.29, note. 
But neut. pi. di^o-i^ also possible; 
cf. SG0I.3538,3544 
dvir- in eai-ly Ci-etan words, see under 

dvTairoSiSuo-o-a El. = -SiSoS(ra. 89.3 

dvT(. 136.8 

dvTt|i,oXos Cret., opponent, d^endant. 

See juuX^Kj 
avTiTwyxdvo) Arg., Boeot., Delph., 

Lac. = Traparvyxiva happen to be 

present, or in office (so nos. 45, 78) 
avTO|ios Heracl., road, path 
dvTopos Heracl., a counter-boundary 
dvrpTjiOv Cret. =: ivdpeiov. 66 
avrpoiros Cret. = S.vdptinros. 66 
dv<|>iSTapo5 Locr. = dfji<p6repos. 12 
dviivu Cypr. 191 
avoS Arc, probably ivuSa = ivuBev. 

133.2 
&vo>6o Heracl. = dti'ueci'. 133.1 
,&vopos Cret., not of marriageable age 
d&du Lesb. (d{id(r«) = dftiM. 162.2 
cwnSs East Ion. = oi)t6s. 33 
dir Thess. = avS. 96 
diraYOpcvo Ci'et., proclaim 
airaros Cret. = di-oTos, usedjmperson- 

ally, e.g. 4701T1 iirarov e/tci', there 

i?iall be no fine for the one who seizes. 

53 
dmXdovTtti Locr. = dTreXotfi'ui^ai. 162.4 
di«X««9ep£Jo> Delph., Thess. = direXeufe- 

p6u. 162.1. Thess. dtreKevStpeirBiyira, 

18, 77.3 



dir^XXai Lac. = 4KK\ri<rlai. Cf. 'AtteX- 
Xofos, name of a month. 'AniXKat 
Delph., name of a festival corre- 
sponding to the Attic 'Airaroiipio 
dircXXala Delph., victims for the 'An4\- 

Xat 
dir^Xo) Lesb. = dTreiX^u. 75 
'Air^Xuv = 'AttAXXuk. 49.3 
dir^raipos Cret. , one who is not a mem- 
ber of a h-atpela. Law-Code II. 5, note 
dinxo)i'vos Arc. = -piivovs. 10 
'AirXow Thess. = 'AviWuv. 49.3 
dir6Ypo<t>ov Cret. = iwiypa^ov. 5 
diroSeS6av6i Boeot. = -SeSiiKcuri. 1 39; 2, 

146 
diroSeC-ywo-Sai Eretr. = -SelKwadai. 66 
diroSdcro-ai El. = airoS6<rBai. 86.2 
dir6Spo|ios Cret., o minor. See Spofieis 
dirOFi|X^o> El. = dTTciX^u. 75 
diroXoYtTTooTi) Boeot. = avo\Byl<ra<rBai. 

82, 85.1, 142 
diro)ui>X^(a Cret., contend in denial, 

deny. See p.a\4a 
diro^vCoi etc. Cret., see diro^uv^u 
diropoaC Heracl. , springs or torrents 
dira(rrpdt|/ai Delph. = aTroarpi^ai. 49.2 
dirorCvoiav El. = inoTlmiev. 12 s 
diro4>opd Coan, carrying off 
diro(i>(i>v^<D Cret. (dTroTrov^oi etc.), bear 

witness. See (pavia 
dinrairdiJLCVos Boeot. = dvaKTi^irdjuevos. 

App. 69.4 
d-mreHrdTov Thess. = dTTOTetirdTw. 68.2 
dirv Arc, Cypr., Lesb., Thess. = i.ir6. 

22 
d7njSESo|ji(v[as] Arc. = aToSeSo/iirnvs. 10 
dirvSoas Arc = dTroSoiJs. 144 
dirvSair|i[iov] Arc., meaning uncertain. 

No. 17.28, note 
dmrretco Arc. = dTrorivd}. 162.12 
dirilu Arc. , summon = poet, -/iiria, iiriu. 

191 
dirc&p,oTos Cret., under oath of denial 
dparpov Cret. = iporpov. 162.2 
dpdu Heracl. (ipiffovri) = dp6u. 162.2 
fdpYOV El. = ¥pyov. 12 
dp7vpLos Lesb. = dpyipeos. 164.6. &p- 

yvpa, 19.4 
dpY«ppov Thess. = dpviipioc. 19.3 
dp4a-|j.iov Phoc. , fee, perquisite. Erom 

dp^iricu 
hapirrai Locr. = 4\4<rSai. 12, 85.1 
pap^v Cret. = dp-^v (Att. inscr.), nom. 

of dpv6^. 52 
dfp^T«vE, dp^T£U6 Arg., presided 56 



302 



GREEK DIALECTS 



'ApCo-Taixvos Coan. 69 a 
hdpvr|(ris Heracl. = ftpjiTio-is. S8d! 
app^vTcpos Arc. = &ppi]v. 80, 165.1 
appT]v Att., po^PPI" El. 49.2, 80 
aptTTiv Ther. etc., 8,p(n)s Lac. = Appriv. 

49.2, 80 
"Apraiiis = " Apreius. 13.2 
'ApTa|j.(Tias = 'ApT^/iuruis. 61.3 
'ApTcpiCpia Eretr. = 'ApTep.l(na. 60.3 
dpTuu Heraol., devise by will, Ci. He- 
sych. ApTV/ia- BmBT^KT], and dprOmr 
SiaBeivai. In Cretan (Law-Code XII. 
32) manage (property). In Arcadian 
simply prepare, provide. Ci. the of- 
ficial titles Arg. iprvvai. (no. 78.2, 
note), Epid. dprvrnt, Ther. dprvrifip 
apxiSav\va(|>op^o> Thess., see Saix""^ 
dpxiTToXiapx^u Thess., be the first pto- 

liarek. See TToKlapxot 
'ApxoKpdTt)s Rhod. = 'ApxeKpdrijs. 167 
dpxos Boeot., Cret., Ion., Locr. = fip- 

Xfcij' magistrate 
Ss = ?ai!. 41.4, 46.4, 132.9a 
a(ravT6s reflex, pron. 121.4 
'AirKa\airi6s Thess. = ' A.(TKKT)vtb's. 48 
dirKi)6^s Arc. , used of animals without 

blemish 
a(ir)o'urTa El. , Lac. = tfyx"'"''''- 113.3. 
Lac. Toi 's S,((r)irurTa TriffiKcs, El. rolp 
4ir' S,(<r)(rtiTTa, those next of kin. Cf. 
Cret. ol iir &pxtffra (or ^ir^pxtcrra) 
Treirap.ivoi. the nearest owners, Locr. 
• iirivxi-(rT05 next of kin 
Aa-r&s Epid. = dma-rds. 77.2 
FOOTTds = da-rSs. 62 
ara Cret., penalty, fine. 63 
draYCa Thess., time when there is no 
Taybs, hence time of peace. No. 33, 
note 
drdia Cret. {dra/Jvoi, draBk?), fine. 58 
Sen Lac. (ASt) = ]jTe as. 132.6a 
dreXEv Cypr. = drcX^. 108.2 
dTEp6irTi\os (and -iWos) Epid., see 

6wrl\os 
&T£pos = Irepos. 13.3 
'AreiveiTOs Thess. = 'A.^e6priTos. 86.2 
an, Cret. = &Tim. 129.3 
dTTd)i.io$ El. = dfijjuio!. 84 
aidra Lesb. = drji. 63 
aS6iv Rheg. = aBrts. 133.6 
oCpuKTos Lesb. = appijKTos. 66a 
o4<ravTis, reflex, pron. 121.4 
avo-os Cret. = aA<ros. 71 
av(raiT6s Delph., reflex, pron. 33 a, 
121.4 



a,ira\i.a.p6v Locr. := aiSruJspbv. 12, 586 
avrapipiv Cret. = aiBifpxpbv. 133.6 
dfurdv Corcyr. = dm-^v. 32 
dpurdp Att. = airdp. 82, 50 
airoDTds reflex, pron. 121.4 
aint W. Grk., oiri Boeot. = airoS. 

132.2 
airets Boeot. = airots. 30 
aJriv Cret. = aSris. 138.6 
o4t6s. 121.3,4, 126.2 
aiToo-avTJs reflex, pron. 121.4 
avTovra Sicil. = iavroO. 121.4 
avr(&vTa Sicil. = iavrSv, 121.4 
aiius Lesb. = l(os. 35 
d(|>cSpiaTcva> Boeot., seme as d4>eSptd- 

ras or official dedicator. No. 42, note 
d4>^p$ovTi Heracl., shut off (water by 
.damming). Heraol.Tab.I.l30ff.,note 
d()>EiSo-6u Arc, from d(plriiu. 146.4 
'A(|>opS(Ta Cret. = 'A^poS/ri;. 70.1 
d<j>4idvci> Cret. = dp.(pdvu. 69.3 
aiJKDvos Heracl., intestate 
a.\\. Dor., where. 132.5a 
dxvpios building to hold chaff. Cf . He- 

sych. &xvpos- dxvpdv. dxvpoSbKif 

diroff'^Krj Tuv dx^pwv 
d(F)<Ss Dor. etc. = Jois. 88, 41.4 

BaSp6|iios Coan, Rhod. = BoriSpo/uiip. 
44.2 

PaBoEu Lesb. = /SotjS^m. 44.2 

Povd Boeot. = yvv^. 68.1 

pdpvapiai =: p,dpvaiiai. 88 

Pao-iXdES El. = paaiKrjes. 16 

PatriXEvs, ofScial title in many states. 
In some the chief magistrate ; in 
others restricted to religious func- 
tions, like the tLpxav /Soo-iXeiis at Ath- 
ens, e.g. at Chios (no. 4C) and Mile- 
tus; /Sao-iXefs an Official body, e.g. in 
Mytilene (no. 22) and Elis (no.. 57) 

Pdo) Dor. = pahw. Heracl. inpiji, Cret. 
^M/3^171 (cf. 161.2). also ^/c/3fiiTosThuo, 
5.77, gjotjSi) Ar.Lysist.l303, etc. 

PePaicoT'^ip Delph. = -Tijs. 164.6 

PE(Xo|i,ai Boeot. = Bo6\ou.at. 49.3, 68.2, 
75 

P^XXo|ioi Thess. = ffoiXopai. 49.3, 68.2, 
76. 3 pi. subj. p4\\ovveav, 27, 189.2 

BIXi|>aiov Thess. =*Ai\ipa.iov, Ae\<ptnov. 
68.2 

BeX()>o( Lesb., Boeot. = AeK^ol. 68.2 

Ptvia m. =z pivia. 186 

P^vrio-Tos Dor. = /SAtkttos. 72 

PcTTov Lac. =z'*fea-r6v. 86.4 



GLOSSAEY AND INDEX 



303 



P4i|>vpa Boeot. = yitpv/m. 68.2 

P(8coi, pcSvoi Lac. , title of ofBcials. 61 

pCcTos Cret. = jSioros. 167 

PoaOo^u, ^oaO^u = /3oi)$^u. 44.2 with a 

PoitiSlu = /Soijd^w. 31 a 

PoiKCap £1. = oiKlas. 51 

P6\i,)io$ Delph., Epid. = (u<SXi/3os. 88 

P6X\a Lesb. = jSouXi). 75 

PoXXciia) Lesb. = /3au\ei/u 

BoXo^vra Ci-et. 44.4, 61 

B6\o)i,ai Arc. , Cypi'., Ion. = |8oi)Xo;aai. 

75 6 
BopOios Cret. = 'OpSios. 61 
Pova76p Lac, leader of the /SoCai, ttie 

bands in which Spartan boys were 

trained. Nos. 70-73, note 
Poiiv Heracl., cow-shed. 165.4 
Ppoxvs Boeot., Thess. = jSpoxi5s. 5 
Pvp\(a Heracl. , papyrus marsh, rhv jSu- 

pXlav Heraol.Tab.L5S = rdi- jSu/SXirai- 

/loo-xoXoK 1.92. See ;ua<rxiiXo 
PvPXivos Heracl., see /uairx'iXa 
P«pXCov = /SijSXioi'. 20 
^6iu Ion. = poriSiu. 44.2 
Pu\d Boeot., Cret., Arg., etc. = /SouXi}. 

85 with a, 78 
BupO^a Lac. = 'OpBia. 61 
BupiHa Lac. = 'OpBla. 64 
Pus Dor. = (Sous. 37.1 

7a W.Grk., Boeot. = 7^. 13.3 
raidpoxos Lac. = 7011)0x05. 53 
'yaiuv Hei-acl., heap of earth, mound. 

165.4 
-yd^eXa Delph.=7a/iiiXia, wedding cakes. 

164.9 
'Y€7pd<|faTai Heracl. = ysypd^arai. 

146.3 
■yc-yuvcQ) Chian, call aloud. 1 84 
'yeXaiiu Lesb. = 7eXdai. 47 
YeXafii = -ycXdu. 162.4 
7€ved family, offspring, also in plural 

descendants. No. 60. 1, note 
Yepcailtdpos Coan, title of a priestly 

official. yepri<t>6pos occurs also in 

Pserimos near Calymna 
7(vo|iai = ylym/Mai. 86.7 
-ytvos Rhod. = 7/i'j'os 
■y£vii|i.oi Boeot., Thess. =7l7i'o/««. 86.7, 

162.5 
vivcGcTKco ^ yiyvditTKu. 86.7 
vvoiiav El. ^ yv(op.ev. 12 a 
7pa)i|iaT(S8<ii Boeot. = ypa/i/iaTeiti). 84. 

So ypap-imrurTas = ypap-pareis in 

Boeot., Ach. , Delph., Epir. as in Hdt. 



7pd(r<r|ia Arg. = ypifipa. 164.4 
7pa(t>^s Arc. = 7po0ei}s. 111.4 
7pd(iio$ El. = ypdp.p.a. 241 
7pa<^evs El., Argol., Sioyon. = ypa^ieis. 

5 
7po(|>€voi Argol. = *7/)a0eiSw. 5 
rp64>o>v Mel. 6 

7U|ivd8So|iai Lac. yvprnil^opai. 84 
rvvdinrooTos Boeot. 69.4 

Sato-is Cret., division 
SoKKiXios Boeot. = SoitTi5\ios. 87 
BdXros Cypr. = Si?Xtos. 49.3 
Sa|ji4Tas Carpath. = 5i;/i4t7js. 167 
Sa)iiEp76s Astyp. , Nisyr. = S7ip,iovpy6s. 

44.4 
Sa|tiop7ds = Srip.tovpyis. 44.4 
8a|jLiu^|jLEv, 8a^ic&ovTcs Boeot. = t^TjfitoOv 

etc. 169 with App. 
Aa)ioKp^Tci> Lesb. =: Ari/iOKplTov. 18 
Sa|jLOo-i.oCa El. = Sripjaaioli). 15, 157 & 
Sa)jLoa-iu|icv El. =1 driiioaiovv. 157 b 
Sa|i.oT^7)v Lesb. = -tcKt). 108.2 
Sapdra Delph., a ceremonial cake. No. 

51 A 5, note 
SapKvd Cret., see Sapxfd 
Sdpiia Delph. = S4ppa. 12 
Sopxnd = 5pox/"i. Arc, Cypr., El., 

Corey r. 49.2a 
Sapxvd Cret. (SapKvd) = Spaxp4- 49.2 

a, 69o 
8dTTa66ai, 8dTT0VTai Cret. = SdaaaBai, 

ddffuvTaL. 82 
Saixva Tliess., Cypr. = Sdtpyti. dpx'- 

5avxva<f>Qpei(yas, ffvvdavxva(p6pot, Aav- 

Xval[ov]. 68.4a with App. 
84oT0i Arc. = SoKv- 139.1, 151.1, 191 
8cCXop.ai Delph., Locr. = /SoiJXoynai. 

49.3, 68.1, 75 
84KeTeai Cret. = 5<?x«rea'- 66, 85.3 
8^KV«|Jii Ion. = SetKi/ii/iu. 49.1 
8^K0 Arc = SiKa. 6, 114.10, 116 a 
S^KOiiai = Sixof^i- 66 
S^KOTos Arc, Lesb. = S^totos. 6, 114. 

10, 116a 
S^Kuv Lesb., Chian = gen. pi. of S^ra. 

116 
mXa Arc = /SiiXXw. 49.3, 68.1 
86|KXets Epid., leeches. Cf. Hesych. 

Sc/i/3Xcts- pSfWai 
Apivtas Corinth. = Aavlas. 28, 54d 
S^pcSpov Arc. = pdpaSpov. 68.3 
Aevs Boeot.,, Lac, Khod. = Zciis. 84 

with App. 
8cu(D Lesb. = Siu) want. 36 



304 



GREEK DIALECTS 



8^(|>upa Cret. = y4ipvpa. 68.2 
8^\o[jiai = po6\oiiaL. 25 with a, 49.3, 
68.1,75. El. S7;Xomt)p, no. 60.5,iiote 
Si)|iop(<i>v Orop. = Brnuxrluv. 60.3 
Aflvo Cret. = Z^ra. 84, 112.1 
SiaKvdvTuv Heracl. = SiayvdvToiv. 66 
Si&\a)i,i|/is = SidXij^is distinction, in late 
Lesb., Cret., etc. Cf. And., Tiiess. 
\Alvj/oimi. = \i)^0|Uai, as also in Hdt. 
SiaViaCvu Boeot., see -\iaii><a 
iU Thess. = Sid. 7 
SuyiKa Epid. 162.4 
A«l=Aii. 112.1 
Aipeteeiiis Cypr. 112.1 
8ie k( Thess. = SiAti. 131 
SiTiKdo'i.oi Ion. = di.aK6(noi, 117.2 
8iKd88a> Cret., El. = 5«iifM. 84 
8(Kata El. , legal penalties,fines. fixaia, 

62.2 
8tKd(rJw Arg. = SiKctfu. 89.1 
8tK(!l<rKoiroi. officials at Mytilene, in- 
spectors of justice 
8iKa<rT<)p Locr., Pamph. = -r^s. 164.5 
8iKdii>s Lesb. = SiKalun. 31 
8(Kvii|ti Cret. = SdKuv/u. 49.1 
SfKpcas Cos, Chios, double portion of 

flesh, a double cut 
8ivdK(i> El., change, amend. Cf. Uvia 
Ai6£oTas Boeot., Thess. = Ai6Sotos. 

166.2 
S(o|i,ai Cret. = Sk^ku. 162.10 
SiopSuT'^p Coroyr. = -ti)s. 164.5 
8ioio Boeot. = S6o. 24 
8i.ir\.ct Cret., Heracl. = StTrXj. Cf. 

132.2 
8i.irXct05 Locr. = SnrXis 
8(pio-is Cret. = diipprins in form. Law- 
Code IX.26,note 
8((|>vios El. = 5(7r\(i(rios. 241. l^<pvios, 

62.2 
8oF^vai Cypr. = SoBrai. 154.1 
86Ki)|xa Arg. = Siyiia. No. 81 
8oKi)id88(ii Boeot. = BoKi/id^u. 84 
8o«XC£ii) Boeot., Phoc. = Sov\6a. 162.1 
SpC(|ios Syrac. = Bl<t>pos. 70.2 
Spo|jiEis Cret. , one who is of age. Boys 
under seventeen were not allowed to 
enter the gymnasia, which the Cret- 
ans called Sp&pjoi., and so were termed 
&TrbSpopjot 
8vFdvu Cypr. = SlSup.i. Cf . Lat. duim, 
Svi Tj&c. = S6o. 114.2 
Sticiv =: dvoTv. 114.2 , 

hio, plural forms Suiaii, SuoU, Sias. 
114.2 



SudScKa = duideKd. 115 

8vci8eKa = ddiSexa. 115 

8vu8EKa'C$, Su8EKats Delph. = Ion. 8w- 
SeKijfs sacrifice consisting of twelve vic- 
tims 

66Ka Cjpr. = BLSia/u. 162.11 

8(&\a, 8uXos Dor. = SoiXri, SoDXos. 25 c 

8(o6s Cret. = fuAs. 84 

S&a Boeot., Cret. = fiiu. 84.1, 162. 7 

I Locr. = iK. 100 

eo El. = etri. 15, 31 

pcpaScKdra Locr., see dvSdvoi 

«oir<ro Arc, Arg., Mess. = oBo-o. 163.8 

«pSEp,aios Epid. =: i^Sopaios. 114.7 

cP8€|i.'<iKovTa Delph., Heracl. = ^/SSo/iij- 

KOPTa. 114.7 
8p8€(ios Delph. = ipSopjos. 48, 114.7 
cYYpO()>ov Cret. ^ ^yypatpov. 5 
lYfn]\T]6Co)VTi Heracl. , to i(et\4a prevent. 

75,151.2 
€7KTa<ris = ^yKTTjtrts. 49.5 
CYpa)i|i,ai Cret. = yiypap,pai. 137 
^YpacTfl^Ev = ^ypaypev. 87 
^YpiTTOt Cret. = yiypavrai. 86.2, 137 
^SoOKacp. Thess., l8i&Kaiv Delph. = Uu- 

Kav. 138.5 
!i8pa|jia Epid. = ISpa. Cf . the rare iSpa- 

apa 
?9evEpid.=oIgen.3 pers. pron. 118.3 
& W. Grk. = o5 adv. 132.2 
Feijds El. = riSiis. 62.2 
(Ik Arc. = it. 134.2a 
F«(KaTi Heracl. = eiKotn. 116 
ctKOUTTOs Lesb. = cUocrrbs. 116 with a 
t1\a, llKia. 75 
cl^driov = lp.ATiov. App. 11 
ci|*aTi(rp.6s = lp,aTi.<rpAs. See preceding 
ctiuiv Rhod. = ehai. 163.7 
ct|i£v — elx'ai. 163.7 
tlv Eub. = elpM. 160 
elvaros Ion. = Evaros. 54 
cIvEKa Ion. = IveKa. 54 
ctvigav Boeot. = ^jreyKav. 144 a 
peiir- (Cret. felirovTi etc.) = e^Tr-. 52 
<tp1)rai Ion. = elp^arai. 43, 139.2 
c(a-xi)p.ai = ^ffxw"- No. 19.14, note 
FheKa8dp.oc Boeot. 30, 46, 52 b 
fixaiSa. Cret. := ^KoCo-a. 163.8 a 
F^KacTos, Skoittos. 626 
IxaT^pu Coan, adv. on each side of. 

132.7a 
FcK{8ap.os Thess. 46, 526 
ixex^P'*^ — iKex^i^P^O" ^^ b 
FE9<iVTa$ Locr. = ixbin-as. 52 



GLOSSAEY AND INDEX 



305 



hcKOTdv Arc, = iKarSv. 6, 116a, 117 
iKir^TuvTi Heracl. = iKTriauai,. Heracl. 

Tab. 1.120, note 
cKTcio-is, not ^KTio-is. 28 a Tvith App. 
S\a|U = i\Aui, iXaiva. 162.4 
SXcJj = elTre. So regularly in Boeotian 
and Thessalian decrees, where Attic 
and most dialects have elne. Some- 
times also in decrees of Oropus 
heX^o-rai Loor. = ^X^(r9«i. 85.1 
eX^o-Ttiv Thess. = l\4<rBai. 85.1, 166 
'E\cu6evvatos Cret. ='EXcu9epi<atos. 86.5 
'EXcvhvvia Lac. = 'EXewlfif. 20, 59.1 
i\ov8cpd5 Cret. = iXeuetpAs. 33 a 
ifi46fv Dor. = ifwv. 118.3 
l|ifos Dor. = ^/io5. 118.3 
l|i.CTp(a|i€$ Heracl. = ifisrpoSfiev. 9.6, 

42.56 
4(itv W.Grk. = ^,to<. 118.4 
i\i.\uv Thess. = elvai. 163.7 
c|jL|Uvai Lesb. = ehai. 154.2, 163.7 
l|ji|u Lesb., l|jL|ji( Thess. = ei/ii. 76 
S|i,irav Dor. = e/UTijs. 133.6 
l|i.irao-is Corcyr. , Meg. = eyicrriffis. 49 . 5 
Ifiirdu El., see iTreinrdia 
ciiirpocSa Heracl. = e/iirpoo-ffei'. 133.1 
4|i4iavC(r(r<i> Thess. = i/jujiavl^a. 84 a 
iv = els. 135.4 
? 6va70s Delph. , ceremony for the dead. 

Cf. ivaylta. No. 51 C 38, note 
hevaros Delph., Ther. = ivaT6s. 58c, 

114.9 
EvScSicoKOTa Heracl. = ifiPePiaxtn-a aXive. 

68.1 
lv8«i7v\p|«,£vos Ther. = ivSeiKvifnems. 66 
IvS^pu Coan, see no. 101.38, note 
IvSeOo) Lesb. = hdda want. 35 
lvSi,Kd|o)iai, Arc. IvSixii^oimL (10), be 

subjected to suit. No. 18.34, note 
evSiKos Cret., Mikos Arc. (10) = {nr65t.- 
Kos, iirlSiKos, but used impersonally 
with dative of the person who is lia- 
ble to suit. No. 18.34, note 
£vSo6cv Att.-Ion., Cret., witJiin. 133. 

1,4 
lv8o8(Sias Cret. , belonging within. 1 65.2 
tvSot Lesb., Epid., Syrac, within. 

133.4 
gvSopa Coan, see no. 101.48, note 
4v86s Cret., Delph., Syrac, within. 

133.4 
4v86o-6 Ceos = er<r«. 133.4 
lv8o<r6C8itt Epid., eniratte. 165.2 
ivhvg Delph., within. 132.4, 133.4 
ivta Delph., within. 132.7a, 133.4 



cvcvixOeUi Boeot. = elffeveyx^V- 144 a, 

161.2, no. 43.49, note 
ivcripia Locr., taxes of admission (to 

citizenship). Prom Mtiim., like Att. 

eJ(riTi)pio from efo-ei/xt 
Iv€<t>ov£o-<ro6v Thess. = ive<pivt^ov. 84 a, 

138.6 
ivhePohais Lac. from ivq^dia. 41.2, 59.1 
4v6av8a Att. (inscr.) = ipravBa. 65 
IvSaSra Ion. rr iiiraSBa. 65 
Jv6€lv Arc, Dor. =i\ecTv. 72 
?v9ivos Cret. = li-Seos. 164.9 
(v9a Boeot. = ^(ttuv. 139.2, 163.6 
iviavTios Coan, Delph. = iptainos. 61.3 
lviaiiT6s (1) end of the year, anniversary, 

(2) year. Eor the former and more 

original meaning, which the word 

sometimes has in Homer, cf. Delph. 

no. 51C47, Cret. Law-Code L35,IV.4 
IvKoioraC Cret., sc. dapKml, money given 

as security. Cf . Hesych. koTov Mxv- 

pov, Kotdfei- ^vexupclfet. Deriv. of 

h€vv4a Heracl. = ^i/K^a. 68 c, 114.9 

evveKa Lesb. = ^jiera. 646 

4vvfj Delph. = ^vc^a. 42.2, with App., 

114.9 
JvoTos Lesb. = ^i/oTos. 6, 114.9, 116.9 
4viroi El., see iTre/j.Trdta 
«vs Cret. = efs. 114.1 
iv T&,v Boeot., until. 136.1, no. 43.49, 

note 
{VToeris Thess. = ?7KTi)o-is. 49.5 
cvrao-o-iv Heracl. = oifftv. 107.3 
evTavTa Ei. = ivravda. 65 
IvTS Locr., hivre Delph. = ^(Tts, las. 

68c, 132.9a, 136.4 
evTfs Dor. = diTes. 163.8 
Ivt£ W. Grk. = eW. 163.2 
evTi,|j.os Locr., in office. Cf. Plat. Kep. 

5280 
IvrSSa Orop. = ivravSa. 34 a, 66 
evToBBa Cumae = ^vraOffa. 65,124. iv- 

ToBa Crop., 34a 
cvTO<|>fii.a Delph. = ivriipia, funeral 

rites. Cf. Hesych. Ta^ijia- iprdipM, 

els Taip^v ivB4vTa i/idria. 6 
£vTO> = effTWV. 163.6 
'Bvu|iOKpaT£8as Lac. ='Omtm-. No. 66. 

35, note 
lvv(|>aCvci) Cret. {imirdvei), weave within 

(the house) 
fl^=H. 506,526, 114.6 
llavp^u El. = iicup^u. See d7p^ai 
e|av Coan, Rhod., Ther. = ^f^s. 133.6 



306 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



«|opx£8ios Cret. 165.2 

^|» Lac. = ?faj. 133.5 

el^JKOio-TOs Lesb. = ^fijKorrTis. 116 

l||avaKd(S)SEV Thess. = i^avayKdi^eiv. 
69.3, 84, 89.1 

i'goi Cret., Syrao. = efu. 133.5 

lg6|i,Eivvov Thess. i^A/irivov. 6 

l| 6pip|i Cypr., expropriate. Probably 
from an i^opia-a-u used in a figurative 
sense (cf. Eng. root out). But many 
assume i^opi^w as a by-form of i^- 
op{f)l^u, 

egos Dor., Delph. = ?|w. 133.5 

p^os Locr, = eavToO. 118.3 

4ir Thess., Boeot. = iirl. 95 

liraPaXd Cret., share. 167a 

lir<i,KOE Lac, dual of iirdKoos. No. 67, 
note 

liravaKKOv = iirdvayKes. 69.3 

liravirdu El., return. Cf. iT-qriov = hi- 
oy, and Hesych. elraKeiv i\Ti\v6^va(. 

lirAvxio-Tos Locr., next of kin. See 
&{<7)(nt7Ta 

cirapYfia Thera = &Trapy ij,a offering. Cf . 
Att. (inscr.) iwapx'^ beside diropx'i 

lirtiS^ Meg. = iireiS-^. 93 

€TreiT£ Ion. = cireira. 132.9 

iitiKafi.y, = iireXaipo). 162.4. Coan ^tte- 
XdfTW drive up, but Heracl. iireXda-Ba 
and Arc. iTreXaa-da-diav mean collect, 
enforce (fines). Cf. also Arg. vore- 
\dTo enforce. Ion. ivrjKdciov rental 

Iire\e«<r6l (fut.), lirEXcvirav (aor.) Cret., 
bring. 162.9 

lirE|Mrdiii El. {lirevirot, lirevTrira) enforce 
or declare. Also iinroi. from simplex 
i/jiirdui. Probably related to i/j-ird^u 

inh Arc ., just for. 136.10 

lirecTTdKOVTa Thess. = iipcffrr/Kdra. 58 6 
147.3 

6ir€Tov Dor. etc. = ^weffov, aor. of ttIwtw. 
See no. 74.120, note 

lir«xct Delph. = i<pe^TJs. 132.2 

«Tr£ El. = iTel 

ETTTipcid^o) = iTTjped^w. This spelling 
with 61, as in no. 18.46 and also in pa- 
pyri (irnpeidaavTos, Berlin Aeg.Urk. 
II. 589.9), is the etymological one (cf . 
iiriipeia), while ivripcdl^oi of our texts 
is like dwped beside dwpad (31) 

brl Boeot. = Iwet. 29 

(Tsmja Cypr. = ^TTca. 9.3 

lirtapov El. = *i((>Upov sacred penalty 

hnwrh (Viar^s) Locr., for the year. 
No. 55.35, note 



liripdWuv Cret. , short expression for wi 
ivi^dWeL. Sometimes = ui iin^dX- 
Xei (rd xP^I''"-''''') 1 i-^- heir-at-law ; 
sometimes = wi ^Trt^dWet {dirviev), i.e. 
groom-elect 

liriSet Boeot. = iTretSi. 29 

iTnit\fAapiv Eretr. = iiriSiiii,w(nv. 60.3 

£iri8iKaToC Lac. = ofs ^TrtStKd^erot those 
to whom property is adjudged by law, 
heirs-at-law. Eor -ards cf. Bav/Mris 
beside BaviuurrSs 

liri.^i)|j.C(ii)i,a Heracl. = iiri^fuov penalty 

tiri^vyiQv Arc. = ifiro^OyLOV 

kTriQelOiv ^\. = iirideiev. 12 a 

liriSiidvE Arc. = iinSiyydvri. 62.3 

liriKaTapdWu Heracl. = iiripdWia im- 
pose upon. 

eiriXeKTapx.«« Aetol. No. 62.16, note 

ciripOLK^a Locr. = iiroiKla 

ItT^POIKOS Locr. = eiTOLKOS 

linoiKo8o|jid Heracl., collective, used of 
the buildings belonging to the land. 
No. 74. 150, note 
^Trnrfjv Epid. = KaTairdcaeiv. Cf. He- 
sych. TTTJ Kal irijv iirl Tou Kardiraircre Kal 
KaTaTrdtra-eiv 
liri-Trqpda Cret. {i-TriirepeTaf.) = -jreipdca 
Iinir6\aia xp^twra Cret. , movableprop- 
erty. Cf. Harpocration eTriirXa- riiv 
olov ^imrSXatov KTTjcnv Kal fieraKOfd^e- 
ffdai dvvafjL^VTjv 
lirnrpet-yio-Tos Cret., the next oldest. See 

irpelyi(rT05 
iiruTKiaXfiv Corcyr. = ^la-Kevd^eiv. 36 
lirio-ir^vSu Cret. , solemnly promise. Cf . 

Lat. spondeo. iiriairevire, Tt.Z 
JirixiJTos Arg. = ^irixwc's beaker. No. 82 
eiroCpihe Arg. 53, 59.2 
lirolFEo-E Boeot. 5 3 
Eiro^Kia rd Heracl. /arm buildings 
liroto-i Arc, aor. subj. to fut. otaw. 

No. 17.21, note 
(rliros = ^TTOS. 52 

6inra<ris Boeot. = e^/cTijo-is. 49.5, 69.4 
heirrdKiv Lac = eirrdici^. 133.6 
liro|jidTai Locr. , jurors 
F^PYOv = epyov. 52 
IpsvTaC Cret. = i-qT-qTal collectors. No. 

113. 132, note 
pepp€|i4va Arg. = elprnxiva. 55 
iFpirdo-aTu Cypr. , see fperda 
'Epp,(ivo(r(ra Chian = -oo-o-o. Cf . 46 
IpoTis Boeot., Thess. = ^/joris. 5 
^piro) = ci/u. Sometimes in tragedians, 
Theoor., etb., but also a regular 



GLOSSAEY AND INDEX 



307 



prose use in many dialects, as Arc, 

Argol., Astyp., Cret., Cypr. , Delph. , 

Mess. 
ippi]7Eta Heracl . = (?ppa)7i;ia . 49.6,146. 

4, 148 
fippa El. = cppu = <j,e6yu. 52, 241 
lp<rcva(TEpos EI. = ipptiv. 49.2, 80, 

165.1 
epo-nv = AppTjv. 49.2, 80 
'EpX0|iev6s Arc, Boeot. = 'Opxop.er6s. 

46 
ls = ^(c. 100 
eo~YOvo$ = I/C70POS. 100 
lo-SIXXu Arc. = (*K|3d\Xu. 49.3, 68.1, 

100 
4o-SoKd Arc. = ^kSoxtj. Cf. 66, 100 
£(r8oTi)p€s Arc. = *^K5oT^pes tfwse who 

give out the coritracts 
e(rKi]8cKdTT) Boeot. = iKKaiSeKdrTj. 100 
SckXtitos Sicil. , title of a select official 

body. 100a, no. 100.2, note 
lo-XiaCvu Boeot. , see \ialvw 
Feo"irdpios Locr. := iffiriptos. 12, 52c 
linrcpdo) Arc. = ixirepdu transgress 
i<nrpep,}i.irra Cret. = iKirpefivl^ai. 84, 

86.6 
l<rs Boeot. = ^f. 100 
eo-o-a Lesb., Epid. = oS<ra. 163.8 
lo-o*0|jLai = effofjMt. 83 
i<n(UKtU. 132.9a, 135.4 
co-TEuris Arc. = eKreuris. 28 a with App. 
co-TcXXa Lesb., Thess. = e<rTei\a. 79 
StoXov Lesb., ereXov Coan, yearling. 

Cf. Lat. vitulus. 49.3 
Ird^oiv Thess. = ^raiav. 138.5 
F^ras El. = ettjs private citizen 
firos El. = ?Tos. 52. Cret. fireeei, 

81a 

?TOS = ^TOS. 58c 

irre Boeot. = etrre. 86.4 

cvd|i,Epos d Cret. = iopn// 

EvpdXKTjs Lac. 36 

evcpyeWs Thess. = eiepyer^uv. 78, 157 

cviSe Lesb. elSe. 35 a 

|rCFUKOVO|UidvTuv Boeot. = tflKomp.TiKi- 

rav. 146.1, 147.3 
|KV|Uvas Cret. = fc\p.4pa5, assembled, to 

€[K4u. 71,75 
ciiivda =: evpola. 31 
cvppETdo-aTv C3T3r., see fperda 
eio-apfoi El. = rfire/S^o'. 12 a 
Evcrxd|JLCvos = ei^dfievos, 87 
evToO Thess. = eauT^j. 121.2, no. 28.16, 

note 
EvTpT|Tis Boeot. = Ein-prjo-is. 61.3 



EJiX<'^a' Arc. -Cypr., pra2/er or impreca- 
tion. 191 

c(|>dpos pseudo-dial. = e^rj^os. 280 

lij>aKio|iai Delph., repair. 58c 

I(|>dv7pcv6civ Thess. = i<(,ai.povvTai, Karii- 
yopouvrat. 27, 58c, 139.2, 157, no.- 
28.41, note, see also dypia' 

l()>^p|ovTi Heracl., shut in (water by 
damming). Heracl.Tab.I.i30ff.,note 

l<t>6apK(&s Arc. = iipeapKiis. 5 

k^iopKia = iwiopK^a. 58 c 

Ixeirdiiov Locr. , iieir. 49.5a 

IxSos Delph. , Locr., «x9«» Epid. , Delph. , 
exfloi Epid. = 4kt6s. 66, 133.3 

c\|fa^(TTaTO Boeot. = i'j/ri<j>ta-aTO. 82, 
142 

luKo. = elxa. 49.5, 146.4 

Jd Lesb. = Sici. 19.1 
|a Cypr. = 7^. 62.4 
|a|tiopY(a El. the body of demiurgi. 

44.4, 62.2 
lav Cypr., see no. 19.10, note 
iiWa Arc. = ;8d\Xu. 68.3 
l^peBpov Arc. = pdpaBpov. 68.3 
Zijvo, Zrivis, etc. 87.1, 112.1 
llicaia El. , see SUaia 
^dfiuiov El. , see Slavics 
Zdviruo-os Lesb. = Ai6wfl-os. 19.1 
J(4cii = fw. 162.7 

Tj Boeot. = ai. 134.1 

Tj whether, k Cypr. = el. 132.6, 134.1 
■with a 

TJ Cret. wliere, wJien. 132.6, 134.1a 

T|Ypap.|iai Cret. = yiypamiai. 137 

ff^La Cret. = et/xa. Gen. sg. f/ip-as. 
112.5 

i^jiev = efvat. 163.7 

•iilMlv Cret. = ehai. 154.4, 163.7 

ri\Lr\v 1 Sg. imperf. mid. of clp.t. 163.9 

r\)il = elp.l. 25, 163.1 

hifi.(Sip,|i.vov Epid. = TipASiiivov. 88 o, 
89.4 

TiiiCva Cret. the half. 164.9 

hTi|upT|va(a Delph., fern, deriv. of fol- 
lowing. 55 a 

hE)i.ipp^viov Delph., probably half- 
grown sheep, i.e. such as are midway 
between lambs and full-grown sheep. 
55 a 

i||iuro5 = TiiiuTVi. App. 61.6 

^p.\.tr<ro^ =■ TjP-iffvs. 61.6, 81a 

hip,[TEia Epid. = rip.liraa in sense of iip,l- 
cKToi/. 61.6, 164.9 



308 



GREEK DIALECTS 



TJlllTU^KTO Cret. = ^/il^KTOU. 61.6 

T]|ivo-u = ^fiurv. 20 

i]v Ion. = Mk. 134.26 

flv = ?(rov. 163.4 

j)vai Arc. = flvai. 154.1, 163.7 

•iivOTOS Cret. = evaros. 84, 114.9 

liveiKO = ^veyKa. 49.1, 144 a 

T|v«£x'''fl'>l<»'o-v Ephes. App. 89.1, 144 a 

•SjviKO = TJneyna.^ 49.1, 144 

ijvrai Mess. = win. 151.1, 163.8 

■fls Heracl. = eh. 114.1 

t|s = ^v. 163.3 

•: "in — J?..-™.,., 



., 163.8 



T^S = ^V. 163. d 

TJO-TW El. = Efl-TU. 163.5 

■qToi Delph. = ?. 151.1, 
r\ra = %ittu3. 163.5 
HipTOV Coan — iavrCov. 121.2 
■fixoi Orop. = Sttou. 132.3 
Tjios Ion. = Sus. 41.46 

ed\a66a Cret. = edXarra. 81a 

6d\aTTa. 81 

Bapp^u El. = Bapcr4oi, dappiu, but in 

technical sense of 6e secure, immune. 

So 6ippos security, immunity. 80, no. 

57.1, note 
0tt(p)p<is Ther. 48.2, 80 
0e- Meg. etc. = Oeo-. iZ.&d 
6eap6s = 6eiip6s. 41.4 
6^6|i.i.ov Locr., Elean = Biaiuov. 65, 

164.4 
iii^ii Epid., Lac. = BeapJii. 66, 164.4 
0«<nriaC, 06i<ririe»is Boeot. = Qeainal, 

&£<ririeis. 9.2a 
066JOTOS Boeot., Thess.=e665oTos. 165.2 
6EO|i,oip(a Coan = 9eou /wTpa the part 

consecrated to the god 
066p8oTOs Thess. = eeiffSoros. 60.4 
6eop6s, deupds — 8eup6s. 41.4a 
64po-os = Bipaos. 49.2 
e^o-Tuv Phoc. (Stiria) = Biaduv. 85 
6r|aup6s Arg. = Br]iravp6s. 59.2 
en\*T€pos El. = ff^Xus. 165.1 
Oiaiopla Boeot. = Bewpla. 44.4 
eiydva Delph., lid, cover (?). Cf. He- 

sych. Biyuvof ki^utov. See no. 61 C 

38 ff., note 
6i6^p,cvos Cret. = riBip^vo^. 66 
etvos Cret. = flcios. 164.9 
©idirirao-TOs Boeot. 69.4 
ei6s = Bebs. 9 
0i,d(|>ei,(rTas Boeot. = *9c49e(rTos. 9.2a, 

68.2 
00- Meg. etc. = Geo-. 42. 5d 
Ooo-Ca Boeot. = BviTla. 24 



eipSa Arc. = Bipafe. 133.2 

SvpuTov Epid. = *Bipu>Tpov. 70.3 

Suo-Ocv Arc. = TvBrlvaL. 65, 185.2 

6u4>\ds Cumae = tu0X6s. 65 

Mxa Cret. = rixn. 6S 

eudSSu El. (Bo6,(S)Soi) impose a fine. 

See following 
6(D(i)do impose a fine. Locr. Boiea-To, 

Att. Bociv, Delph. BiaebvTtjiv. 161.2. 

Cf . Att. Ba(i)i, Ion. Bauii (87), Delph. 

Bwlatrti 

I Cypr. = ri. 93 

{a Lesb., Thess., Boeot. = pda. 114.1 
■with App. 

taOea Cret. = oti(ra. 81 a, 163.8 

tapeidSSu Boeot. , serve as priest. 84 

lap^s Cyren. = lepeh. 111.3 

lapo(p,)p,vdp,avcs, see Upoiiv^puov 

iap6s, lap6s = Up6s. 13.1, 49.2, 586 

tacrcra = /outra, 163.8a 

tjar^p Cypr. = larpbs. 56, 164.5 

tarpa rd Epid., perguisites /or healing. 
165.3 

toTTO Cret. = oB(7a. 81, 163.8 

t-y^vds Arc. = eyyvos. 10 

'V^XIP^KOi Arc, from iyxcip^Cdi. 10,256 

tSSios Thess. = rSios. 19.3, 58 c 

IS^ Cypr., then, and. 134.6 

ftSios = tdios. 52 

Upcws Mil. = iepci^s. 43, 111.5 

Upi]a =: i^pEux. 28 6 

Up'^iia Ion. 37.2 

Up^s Arc. , IjEpis Cypr. = Icpeis. 111.4 

icpT|TEvai = lepaTeiia. 167. Iepi)Tei)KOTi 
Phoc, 188.4 

UpiTEvu, lapiTCiia = Upareiw. 167 

lEpo6vTC(i> Arc, Phoc, Rhod., etc., he 
UpoBirris. Arc. UpoBvris, 78, 167 

Upo6vn)s (-as), ofBcial title. Sometimes 
applied to priestly attendants, some- 
times to priestly officials of high rank, 
who were even, in some places, the 
eponymous officers 

Upo|iv^|i,(i>v, -|jLvd|jia>v, title of certain 
superior officials, primarily in charge 
of religious matters, sacred commis- 
sioners, ministers of religion, but in 
some states the chief magistrates. 
Arc kepo/ivdnovffi, 77.1 o. Arg., 
Epid. lapoUijuvdfwves, 58 6, 89.4 

Upoiroids, title of officials in charge of 
religious matters, sometimes regular 
magistrates, sometimes extraordi- 
nary commissioners 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



309 



Up6i, Up<Ss. 58 6 
Upurcuu = Upareiw. 167 

l66dvTcs Cret. = lo-rdi'Tes. 81 a 

teis Ion., Boeot. = deis. As in lit. 
Ion., so also insorlptional W6s (Ephe- 
sus), tSvva (Chios), though e'ievvos, 
ivdivw also ocouf. Proper names in 
'IBv- are Ionic and Boeotian 

Uds = ekds. 116. Ther. Ai/cdSi, 58c 

(pjiKaoTo's Boeot. = elKo<TT6i. 116 witha 

(f)Ckoti = e(K0(7i. 82, 61.2, 116 

FiKarCSeios 6 Heracl., name of a par- 
ticular (twenty-foot) road 

FLKarCircSos Heracl., twenty feet wide, 
used with ivro/ios 

Iketos Arg. = l(c^7)s. App. 68 6 

lK|ia|i4vos Cypr., stricken (in battle), 
hit. Denom. from *tKiJt&. Cf. Urap 
at one blow, at once, Hesych. Ur^a- 
dK6vTiov, Lat. ico 

(koo-tos Thess. = eiKoo-T6s. 116 with 
App^ 

I'ku = ijku. As in Hom. and lit. Dor. , 
so also in Arc, Delph., Locr., Co- 
rinth., Epid., Lac. Cf. also Delian 
l/co[i'] = dvijKov, and Ion. (Paros) 
perf . part, rd irapmbTa, the past 

CXaos, 1^605, tXi]OS (Lac. AiXe/ros) = fXe- 
ws. 49.5, S3, S8d 

hiXa|aa'T6 Delph., f rom IXdirfco/xai. 85.1 

htXepos Lac. , see fXaos 

t|jidirKci> El., probably maltreat, related 
to Ifjids, i^dfftrw 

Iv Arc.-Cypr. = iv. 10, 135.4 

flv = or_dat. 3 pers. pron. 118.4 

flv a^Toi Cret. = eauT(?. 121.1 

Ivayo Arc. ^= eladya. 10. 

tvoXCvu Cypj., write upon. 10. Cf. 
Hesych. dXliieif d\el<pciv, and d\ei- 
TTT'iipLOv' ypaipelov. KiJirptot 

(vSiKd^Ofiai Arc, see ivdiKd^o/uu 

(vSiKos Arc, see IvSlkos 

lv|uv(|>'<js, tv(i,ov<|>os Arc, blameworthy, 
impious. 10 

Cvirao-is Arc. = ?^nrao-is. 10, 49.6 

tviroXd Arc. = ^/iiroXi). 10 

tv(^aCv(i> Arc. = firiviu inform in legal 
sense. Cf. el<r<palvia Ath.75A 

lv()>opPlai, lv()>opPur|ids Arc, impose a 
pasture tax, the imposition of a pas- 
ture tax. No. 17, note 

Ids Cret. = iKeivos. 114.1 

louiu Boeot. = vloD. 24 

■Iinr^8o(ios Rhod. = 'IinrSSafws. 167 

tpeia Lesb . = i ^peia priestess. 13.1 



Ipeus Lesb. = Upeis. 18.1 

tpi^Tcvu Lesb. = kpareiu. 13.1, 167 

tpos Lesb., Ipo's, ip6s Ion. = UpU. 13.1, 
76a 

lp<Sv Cypr. (IpovC) district 

pCo-os, f'tfoSi '^"■os = fffos. 52,54,50 6. 
Lesb. l<r(roB4ourt, 54c 

IvrCa, lo-rCa = iaria. 1 1 

la-TiaTdpiov Rhod. = ianarbpuiv ban- 
quet-hall. Cf. Hesych. {(marbpui.- 
SeiirvTyr'^pLov. 11 

fbrrup Boeot., witness, hie 

Ittoi Boeot. = tsTiii. 86.4 

Xuv = ^tip. 9 

l(4v Boeot. = iyiiv. 62.3, 118.2 

Ka W.Grk., Boeot. = m, Up. 13.3, 
134.2 

Ka = Kard. 95 with a 

k6. Arc-Cypr. = nal. 97.2, 134.3 

Ka(S)8aX^op.ai El. = jcaradT^X^o/xat in- 
jure, violate 

KuSSi^, gen. KdSSixosi Heracl., Mess., 
a measure. Cf. Hesych. KdSdixo"' 
rifileKTov, and Lac /cdSSixos urn (Pint. 
Lye 12) 

KaSCKKop Lac. =: KaSiirKos. 86.3 

Kaeso-rdKaTi Delph., 3 pi. perf. 138.4 

KaKpiBse Arc. = (taTa(cpifl5- 151.2 

KoXats Epid. , probably hen. From *Ka- 
\afis to KoX^u as Eng. hen to Lat. 
cano 

Ka\Xv[(r|ia]Ta Ceos, sweepings. Cf. 
Hesych. adp/iara- KaWiapara 

KaXpds Boeot. = KoKis. 64 

Kdp^a Lesb. = KapSia. 19.1 

Kapirdu offer, especially a burnt offering, 
in late insor. of Cos, Smyrna, Thera, 
Athens, as often in the Septuagint. 
Cf. Hesych. KapiraBhra- rd i-Trl pa- 
fiov Kadayiffdivra. — Kdpirwp^ ' Bvala. 
Coan KapTTwvTi, 25 a 

Kdppuv = KpelTTWV. 80, 113.1 

Kapraviros, pi. KapmlToSa, Cret. large 
cattle, in contrast to vpSpara used of 
sheep and goats. Cf . Kapralirovs bull, 
in Pindar. 49.2a 

Kaprepos Ion. , Cret. = Kparepbs, in mean- 
ing often = Kiipios valid. Cf . also Ion. 
dicpaTiJs invalid, Kparetv be valid, Cret. 
K&pTuv q.v. 49.2a 

KdpTOs = Kpdros. 49.2a 

Kdpruv Cret. (Kdprovavs) = Kpelrrwv, in 
meaning = xvpiiirepos, as Kdprovavs 
epev, shall prevail, be of greater 



310 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



authority. Cf. Kaprepis. 49.2 a, 81, 
113.1 

KapuKipto Boeot. = KiipvKelov. S3, 
164.1 

Kos Arc.-Cypr. = Kal. 134.3 

Kao-C7VT)Tos Arc, Lesb. 191 

-Kdo-ioL Arc. = -kSo-ioi. 116a, 117.2 

Kao-o-TipaTopiv, KaSBiipaTdpiv, Ka69r|pa- 
rbpLov Lac, the hunt, name of an ath- 
letic game. 64. Nos. 70-73, note. 
Nouns in -ts, -tv, for earlier -los, -wi', 
are frequent in late inscriptions, and 
originated in the reproduction of 
Roman proper names like Cornelius, 
colloquial Cornells 

kAt = Karci. 95 

KOT Cypr. = Kal. 134.3 

KaTa7(Xd,|t£vos Epid. 163.4 

Kara-yp^co Lesb. = KaBatp^oj convict, con- 
demn. See &yp4<a 

KaTaSouXiTTao-TTi Boeot. = ~dov\i(ra(rdaL. 
Cf. 82, 85.1, 142 

Karaf e\)i,cvov Cret. , assembled, to Karei- 
\^M. 76 

KaraOevs Cret. = Karaffels. 78 

KaTaipeC Locr. 53 

KaTdKXii)Tos Heracl., summoned. Kard- 
kXtjtos d\la = Att. ct&ykXtitos iKK\T}ala. 

KaTa\\do-(rii> Arc, intrans., act other- 
wise 

KaraXopEvs Epid.=*KOTaXa/3eiis support. 
5 

KaTa\u)i,aK6(i> lieraol., cover over with 
stones. Cf. Hesych. Xii^ua/ces- irdrpai. 
-Xw/xaKw^iJs, 78 

KardiTEp = Ka^dTre/). 57 a. Also for /car- 
Tivep, cf. 95 a, 126 

Kdrappos Arc. = KardpaTos. 54 

KaTaTieT||ii Cret., Mess. = iiroTle-rnu 
mortgage, mid. take a mortgage 

Kar^Sijav Cypr. = Karieeaav. 138.5 

KaTE(po>v Lesb. = Kadie/joCK. 13.1, 155.3 

KaTcpop^ov Cypr., aor. of Karelpyw. 5 

Kariapa^to Bl. {KaTiapaliav, /cartapaiiffetc) 
= KaBiepeio) in form, but in meaning 
= Karriyopia. 12a, 161.1, no. 57.2, 
note 

KOtCyv[6I.TOs]? TheSS. = KO(r(7>/7)TOS. 191 

-kAtioi W. Grk. = -kAo-ioi. 61.2, 116 a, 

117.2 
KOTKTTdnsv Cret. 67 a 
KaroiKetouvei Thess. = KaToiKfflo-j. 139.2, 

169 
KardiTEp Ion. beside Kardirep = xaSdirep 
Karopp^vTEpov Arc. , see dppivrepos 



Ka.Ti Arc. = Kurd. 22, 95 

Kaux<is Cret. = xaXxAs. 65, 71 

KE Lesb., Thess., Cypr. = fix. 13.3, 

134.2 
KEIVOS = ^Ketvoi. 125.1 

k^e| Lac. = kAijs. 142 a 

k^XevSos Arc, roa4. 191 

K^vTO Dor. = k^Xto. 72 

KEpaCci) Delph. =: Kepdnvv/u. 162.8, 229 

K^pvav Lesb. = Ktpvdvai. 18a, 155.3 

K^ Boeot. = Kai. 26 

KTjvos =: iicetvoi. 25 with a, 125.1 

kipEtxris Cret. = xiipEi/iris divorce 

KigaXXEvu Ion., act as highwayman 

Ki|dXXT|s Ion. , highwayman. Used with 

\riuTTi/is in np. 3B 19, as in Democr. 

f r. 260 ed. Diels. Probably of Carian 

or Lyoian origin 
kCs Thess. = Ws. 68.4, 128, 181 
KiTTi'As Eub. 81 
kCoiv a Thess., often used instead of 

ardWa = (TT'^Xij 
KXaiKTds Argol., Mess. = /cXeio-Tis. 

142 a 
KXaC| Argol., Mess. = (cXels. 142a 
KXdpos Cret., the body of KXapdrai or 

serfs attached to the estate 
-K\^as, proper names in. 166.1 
-kXepes, -kX^tis, -KXfjs, proper names in. 

108.1a 
KXffOs Phoc 68 
KXEvas Thess. etc 35 a 
kX(vi) Naples, Cumae, tomb or niche in 

a tomb 
Ko6ap6s Heracl. etc. = Ka0ap6s. 6 
KdOapo-is El. := KdBapais. 6 
Koivdv, KOivav^u = K0ti'i6i', Koivaviu. 

41.4 
KOLvdu Thess., Dor. = koikAu. 162.2 
Ki|ii<rTpo rd Cret., gri/is. 166.3 
KO|UTTd|icvoi Boeot. = Ko/ua-diievot. 142 
Kdppa Arc. = icApi). 54 
KopJCa Cypr. = KapSla. 6, 19.1 
KO(r|i,^u (-ten) Cret., be a member of the 

(cifffios. See following. Koa-fiivres, 42. 

5d 
K6o-|i.o$ Cret., the body of chief magis- 
trates (collective ; a single member 

was called KO(Tp.iwv, see preceding); 

later used of a single member of 

this body, with pi. /cAtr/ioi 
KdTEpos Ion. = irArcpo!. 68.4 
KOTuX^a Coan = koti)Xi; 
Kovpi) Ion. = KApij. 54 
KpajiLdirai. Epid. = K^E/iiitrai. 12 & 



GLOSSAEY AND INDEX 



311 



Kp^vvu Thess. = Kpiva. 18, 74 

Kp^Tos = Kpiros. 49.2 

Kptvvw Lesb. = Kp(i/ai. 74. AoT.^Kpivva, 
77.1 

KT^vvca Lesb. = Kreivai. 74 

KToCva Rhod. , a territorial division sim- 
ilar to the Attic deme. Cf. ktI^w, 
Krlffis 

KTOivdras Rhod., member of the kto/xo. 

Kundv Epid. = icuKeiiv. 41.4 

9v9vus Chalcid. 22 c, 24 a 

KUjiEplvai Cypr. = Kv^eppdv. 88, 167 

Kvppos Thess. = xipios. 19.3 

Kiipa Cret. = K6pi;. 25, 54 

Kus Ion. = TTus, 68.4 

Aa- from Aoo-. 41.4,45.3 
Xdpuuriv Chian = \dpaa-iv. 77.3 
XhoPiiv Aegin. = Xa|8t6». 766 
XaYatoiCret. {\ayalev), release; aor. \o- 

ydmi. 162.8 
\d$o|iai, Xd|u|iai Ion., Meg., Boeot. 

(XdSSovffdtj) = Xafi^dvoj 
AainraCav Cret. 69.3 
Xos, gen. Cret. Xdo. 112.4 
Aao-atos Thess., Aapuratos. No. 28.19, 

note 
XaTpai[d|uvov], XaTpeid|icvov El. = 

TuiTpevifiemv consecrated. 12 a, 161.1 
Xa(tivpoiriiXi,dv Arc, plundering. No. 

18.11, note 
XeiTopEvo) Thess. = Upareiu. Cf. He- 

sych. Xeiropts- Upeiai, and Xijr^pes- U- 

pol a-Tet/>avotp6pot. 'A0afmv€s. Thess. et 

= 7)1 (16, 38). Probably related to 

Att. \ctTovpry4ia (39) 
XeiTdipYds Boeot. = \ciTovpy6s. 44.4 
Xc(u, see X^w 

XmoXt)s Rhod., accursed. No. 93, note 
XcKxot Delph., dat. sg. of \ex'^- 63 
XeXdptiKa Arc., Ion., Epid. 137, 146.1 

with App. 
X^irxa Rhod., grave. No. 94, note 
Aeoxaios Thess,, epithet of Apollo. 

No. 26, note 
AcTrCvaios Thess. = Xe-rrTlmios. 86.2 
XcCtov or XevTov Arc, wittingly (?). 

No. 17.3, note 
\4a, Cret. XeCco = $4\a. Doric (Cret., 

Lac, Meg., Corcyr., Coan, also in 

Epicharmus and Theocritus) and 

Elean. Cret. Xriu (but subj. Xi?i), El. 

XeofTax, elsewhere only contracted 

forms as X^i, \Qfies, XQvri, etc. 
-XiaCvu Boeot. = -Xeafw.), but in sense 



(act.) canceling, giving a receipt for, 
(mid.) having canceled, taking a re- 
ceipt for. Cpds. with diri), Sid, ii 

Xteios Thess. = XWixos. 164.6,9 

\i,\ii\v Thess. = dyopd market-place 
(Thess. dyopd = ^/t/c^i;ir(a) 

XiitoteX^ci) Locr., leave taxes unpaid. 
Cf. XtTTOffTpaTfa etc. 

Xio-o-ds Cret., insolvent (?). No. 113. 
115, note 

Xoirts Arg., some kind of shallow ves- 
sel. Cf. \oTds and XcTris 

A«TTos Cret. = Ai)k7-o!. 86.1 

X<i>Tif)pi.ov Heracl. = XouTijpwv. 44.4 

p.d El. = ;ih}. 15 

(id Thess. = S^. 134.4 

jiaiTus Cret. = ndprvs. 71 a 

(idv EL = /t^K. 13 a 

|i,dvToi Epid. = fiivToL. 126 

jjiao-Tpda El., accounting, or body of 

fiaarpol. Cf . Hesych. fiaffrplai' ai tuv 

dpxipTuv ev$vvai. 12 a, 31 
|ia<rTpo( title of (1) officeis with special 

function, (2) at Rhodes the highest 

officials of the state. Cf . nos. 95, 96 
p.a(rxdXa Heracl., hollow, marsh. /3u- 

jSXira nairxdXa papyrus marsh 
iiA Cret. = /«J. 93 
p.^Si.|i.)i.vov Epid. 89.4 
p,^Suv Arc, Ion. = fiel^av. 113.1 
p,E8d|i.epa Epid. = ned" d/i.4pa.ii. Adverb 

formed like ra-epic^^oXa from i-irip 

Ke(pa\dv 
fitt Boeot., Thess. = /ut). 16 
|ih6idX[av] Pamph. = /jteydXiiv. 62.3 
IJLEivvds, f-avis Thess. = pirjuis. 77.1, 

112.3 
MhtCgios Corcyr. 766 
p,E(s Ion., Corcyr., Meg. = p.i/iv. 112.3 
)u|ii(r6u(rciivTai Hei'acl. 146.3 
M^vvsi Boeot. = M^fjjs. 89.6, 108.2 
M(voKpdTi)s Cret. = McvcKpdrris. 167 
(i^vTov = p.4irroi. No. 28.38, note 
(ilpEia Heracl. = tiepls 
(i^pos Locr., real estate. No. 55.44, note 
|iEo-EYyovos Boeot., adj. with a third 

party. Cf. /jxireyyvdaXj.&S. 
fjLCiro^vTi Att. = fj.eiT6dfj.7j. 8^ 
|j.4o-iro8i Thess., until. 132.9a 
(x^o-o-opos Heracl., intermediate bound- 
ary 
p^o-Ttt Arc, Cret. until. 86.4, 132.9a 
jxcTapoiK^o) Locr. = fieroiKia. 5 3 
(i^TEppos Lesb. = fjArpios. 19.2 



312 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



uCTpic&uEvai Heracl. = /ieTpLoifiemi.. 42. 
56 

fiirrh Cret., until. 86.4, 132.9a 

\Utto9 Boeot., Cret. = /i^o-os. 82 

(leis El. = Ai^i-. 112.3 

(i.i)8aii,6t Delpli. =; /itijSajiioC. 138.2 

|i,T)Seta Lesb. = fiitdefila. Cf. 114.1 

)i,r|6c(s = fiiidels. 66 

(ifivvos Lesb. = ii7ip6s. 77.1, 112.3 

H^s Heracl. = n'/iv. 112.3 

fiiKKi.SS6)i.cvos Lao. = iuKit^6fievos, a term 
applied to Spartan boys in the third 
year of their public training. 84, 
nos. 70-73, note 

MtvTwv Arg. = MIXtiov. 72 

MCp-yos Eretr. = Mla-yos. 60.4 

|j,urT6s Cret. = iiurSbs. 85.1 

|i,va|i|i,etov Thess. = fivrifieiov. 89.3 

Mvoo-cra Thess. = Mi-offfa. 19.3 

^Oi(ra Lesb. = fiovcra, Tt .S 

(ioixeo) Cret. {iju)lk13v etc.) = Dor. fioi- 
Xdo) = fwix^iu. 161.2 with App. 

(iovvos Ion. = /lims. S4 

ixuxis Heracl., storehouse, granary 

(iua Lao. = fwOffo,. Cf. 59.1, 77.3 

|i,(dX4(i> Cret. {iio\h, liaXiv, etc.), contend 
(in law). So also Cret. d/i^i^uX^u, 
dfiiffifiioKos, d,VTi/j,co\os, dTrojUwX^w, adv. 
ifiuXei. Cf. Hesych. fiuiX'^icreTai.- iia.- 
Xijirerai. Related to Horn. luSXos con- 
test. Cf . dyuvifo/tai as a law-term in 
Attic 

|jLuo-a = ^vtra,. 77.3 

va€V(i> Cret. , take refuge in a temple 

vaK6p05, see veiaicitpos 

vo(f)6s = i-ciis. 41.4,53,54/ 

vairoiai, see veuiroiTis 

vavos Lesb. = veds. 35, 54/ 

vc|i.avT]Ca Cret. = vmnriHa. No. 113.146, 
note 

vE^ras Cret. , an official body of young 
men, gen. j/eiros, ace. veSra. 88 a 

veiDKiipos Ion;, Delph. va.oK6pos, Delph., 
Epid., Coan tokA/jos (41.4, 45.3), cus- 
todian of the temple, sacristan. In 
some places the office became one of 
considerable rank and honor 

vEtiiiroCifs Ion., Coan vairotai, 31, 41.4. 
Cf. also Ion. feuTroiAs, Bo^ot. Ka7roi6s. 
Title of officials in general charge of 
the affairs of the temple - 

viKdhas, viK^ap Lac. = viKiaai. 59.1, 
60.2 

v£v = f. 118.6 



vi.ou)i,civCa, viu|i.€Cvios Boeot. = voviitipla, 

rnvfi'/jvios. i2.5a 
vdfiaios Ion. =(i'6fiLpios. 164,9 
v6^ios Locr. = vd/ufios. 164.9 
vd|ios Heracl., a coin. Cf. Lat. num- 

mus 
vo(ra-6s Ion. veo<r(r6s. 42.5(2 
votrrlrTio El. = *potrT£^w, voiTTiw. 84 
vu Cypr., Boeot. 134.5 
vtivap.aL Cret. = SOvafiat. 88 
vipttC Cret. = vvktL. 86.1 

|«ivos Ion. = ^ivoi. 54 

gEVFdprjs Coroyr., El. 54 

l^vvos Lesb. = I^Kos. 546 

|evo8CKaiLoor., Phoo., title of judges in 
cases involving the rights of ^ivoi.. Je- 
voSkijiisused by alatewriterto trans- 
late the Latin praMor peregrinus 

^vv = inJc. 135.7 

|uv6s Ion. = Koivis. 135.7 

6 = 0. 58 a 

"Oa|os = Fd?o!. 51a 

oPeXd; Boeot. , oPeWos Thess. — (i/3oX6s. 
49.3, 68.1, 89.2 

o^SoCtis, a7Soi'/)KavTa. 31 a 

o^Swi Ion. = 67S617. 44.2 

oySi^KOVTa Ion. =■ dydo^Kovra. 44.2 

oSeXis = 6po\6s. 49.3 with App., 68.1 

oeCycii Lesb. ^ o?7w. 49.1 

otos Cret. = Sff-os. 82 

6eed.Kiv Cret. = ocrdKis. 81a, 133.6 

foi = ol dat. 8 pers. pron. 118.4 

FOiKd.Tas = oMTi)i. 167 

fOiKEtis Cret. = olK4n]s. 167 

foiKos = oTkos. 52 

FoCkm Delph. = oiiciacv. 132.7 

potvos = oims. 52 

otfos Cypr. = ofos alone. 53, 191 

otiTEv, otirhE, see of^w 

ots Delph. = or. 132.3 

hoCirovTi Heracl. = ofoovTt. 68 d 

o\E(|>(i) Cret. (otwev, ofirei), Ther. (oTirAe 
etc.), Lac. (Hesych.), have sexual in- 
tercourse 

OKa W.Grk. = dre. 13.3, 132.9 

oKai Lesb. = Sti[}. 68.4 

8KKa for Sxa KB = Srav. 132.9 

hoKxaKdrioi Heraol. = (JKraKiirtoi. 58c 

OKTdKiv Lac. = ixTdKis. 133.6 

okt6 Lesb. = o/cTii. 114.8 

6ktt<& Ephes. App. 89.1 

hoKTii Heracl., Ther. = d/cTi4. 68c, 
114.8 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



313 



OKTUK6irioi Lesb. = <i/cToK6(7ioi. 117.2 
oXtos = 6\iyoi. 62.3 
'OX«irir(xijv = 'OXutivlxv- 69-3 
6|ioXoY& a, d|i.6\oYov t6, Boeot. = 6/io- 

\a7Ia 
0|i,ov6evTEs Lesb. = diiovoovvres. 44. 4,167 
ov Lesb., Thess., Cypr. = dva. 6 
ovdXa, avdXov|jLa Thess. = draXtu/ia. 

164.9 
6vYpd\|Kiv Thess. = avaypiij/ai.. 27, 156 
gvc Thess. = «8e. 123 
6v«6<(Ka£v Thess. = av^eriKav. 138.5 
ovt Arc. = SSc. 123 
oviouiia Boeot. = ivofia. 226, 24 
ovvi6a Cret. = 6pvi6a. 86.5 
ovu Arc. -Cypr. = 5Se. 123 
owfJba = 6vofia. 226 
Siroi = Sir-Q. Cret. dTrai also final. 132. 

5, 8 a 
oirei W.Grk. = Srov 
oirip Boeot. = {nr4p. 24 
oirf Cret., where, when, Lao. AAjre as. 

132.6 
oiri Cypr. in Sttl (tis = Strris? 131, no. 

19.29, note 
oiriSSd|i(vos Lac. = 6in.f6iiems. 84 
'OirievTi, 'OttovtCohs, HottovtCov Locr. 

= 'OttoOkti, 'OwovvtIovs, etc. 44.4, 

45.4, 53, 58(2 
oirdrapos El. = OTriTepos. 12 
oiroTTOs Boeot., oitottos Cret. = inrdaos. 

82 
Smra Lesb. = Sttb. 129.2, 132.5 
oinrus Lesb. = Srios. 129.2 
oirrlXos Dor. = 6(t>6d\ijJis. Occurs in 

Epidaurian (-(Xos and -iXXos, no. 92 

passim), as Laconian in Plut.Lyc. 

11, and in the writings of Archytas 

and Phintias. Stt-t-I'Kos (cf. dir-r-fip 

etc.) like vav-r-iKoi beside vai-rrii 

OTTTO El. = dKTlil. 114.8 

fiirm Cret. = «xoi. 132.4 

Situs Rhod. = Sttoi. 132.4 

8iro( Dor. (Cret. 6iro, Lac. hbiro) = inrb- 

eep. 132.7 
Sirup Eretr., oirup El. = Sttus. 60.1,3, 

97 a 
opdrpios Cret. = *(>'^Tpu>s? No. 112.13, 

note 
opPos Corcyr. = 6pos. 51 
opxC^u = opK&io. 162.1 
opKiSrepos Cret., having preference in 

the oath 
hopKOftdTai Locr., jwrors 
Spni = Spm. 142 a 



h6pFOs Corcyr., opos Heracl. = Spot. 

6i,56d 
opT^i Ion. = ^opTTJ. 42.5cJ 
opi^i Cjrpr., see ^| dpi^e 
ap(|>avo8iKa<rTaC Cret. (dpramdtKaiTTal), 
officers appointed to look after the af- 
fairs of orphans or minors. Cf . Att. 
6p0aKO0i;XaKes 
F<5s Cret. = «s. 120.2, 121.1 
ficria Arc, Locr. = Sa-ia. 58dl 
oTtt Lesb. = Sre. 13.3, 132.9 
oTcIos Cret. = OTTofos, So-Tis. 68.1, 130 
Srepos Cret. = STrorepos. 127 
FOTi Locr. = Sti. 129.2a 
fiTijii Cret. = 6'riw. 128, 129.2 
6m, Sttives Lesb. = Sn etc. 129.2 
Sttos Cret. = Sa-os. 82 
ovSis Lac. =: oiSels. 114.1 
ov6a|i,et Epid. = oidapioO. 132.2 
oiSsCs = oiSels. 66 

ov\o|UT[piov] ? Coan, barley measure. 
Cf . Hesych. oiiXaxi'OK • d77ero» els 
at oiXal ^fi^dWojTat trpbs dirapxits twv 

ovXos Ion. = SXos. 54 

ovpeiov, UpaovCvet., guard-house. Erom 
oBpos watcher, like Att. 4>poiptop from 
0poup6s 

ovpEvw Cret., watch 

oupos Ion. = Spos. 54 

ovTO, ouTa, etc. Boeot. = tovto, ToOra, 
etc. 124 

6(|>e[\ti> in aorist and perfect, be con- 
demned to pay, be adjudged guilty. 
So Arc. aor. infin. 6(p\^v, perf. [fo]- 
tfi'Xecun, [/ro]0Xlot, fO(p\eK6irt. 52 a, 
138.4, 146.1 

o^pis Arg., ramp. No. 82. Cf. L.&S. 
s.v.Il' 

irat, Trai = tt^, tt'q. 132.5 

iraipCv Eretr. = iraiffiv. 60.3 

irais = vl6s, or, sometimes, Svyirrip. 

Erequent in Lesbian and Cyprian, 

occasionally elsewhere 
iraio-a Lesb. = Trdtra. 77.3 
•ira|ia = KT^/io. 49.5a, 69.4 
ira|iaTo<j>a7€0|i.ai. Locr. = Sinwirieiofuu. 

49. &a 
ira|ui>x^<<> Heracl., possess. Cf . Hesych. 

TTO^wxos' 6 K^ptos. 'IraXof, and irapta- 

xiftJV- KeKrrjfidvos. 41.2 
UavaYdpcTLOs Arc, name of a month 
iravd^oporis Arc = irair/iyvpis. 6, 49.2, 

80 a 



314 



GREEK DIALECTS 



iraviifitirToi Cret., ungirded ? No. 113. 
11, note 

ndva|i,|i,os Thess. = n(ij/77|iios, name of 
a month 

irdvo-a Arc, Arg., Cret., Thess. = 
TrStra. 77.3 

irttvToi Heracl. = TrdvTr}. 133,6 

irav^vtos Cypr., with all salable prod- 
ucts (cf. Sivos). No. 19.9, note 

irdp El. = irepf. 12, 95 

iriip = irapA. 96 

irapd with aoc. for dat. 136.2 

irapa)i,a|£v(i) Arc, drive in a wagon off 
(the highroad). Cf. iiraiM^eiu, Ka$a- 
/m^eioi. No. 17.23, note 

irapairpocTTdTas Agrig. , an adjunct irpo- 
o-TtiTasorpresiding officer of the coun- 
cil. Cf . TrapairpvTiveis in Teos 

n'apPdXXu Delph. = irapa^alvia trans- 
gress 

irdpSeixita Epid. = wapdSeiypia. 66 

irapclav Boeot. = irapTJa'av. 138.5 

irapcis Boeot. = jrap^v. 163.3 

iraperdjiii Arc, examine into (cf. ^|e- 
Titfu), and so approve. irapeTd^ami. 
(no. 19.29), 142. iraphera^aiiivos (no. 
17.20), 173 

n'apts Boeot. = vapTjv. 16a 

irapKa(6)6tKa Lac. = TrapaKaraB'/iKii 

IIap6x6Eos, see Iiep6x0cos 

nao-idSapo Gela. 105.2a 

irdcTKO) El. = Trd(rx<^- 66 

irao-o-uSid^ii) Lesb., assemble. 96.2 

irao-cruSlrii Ion. = iravtrvSlrii. 96.2 

irdo-TOs Cret., owner. 49.5a 

^ardpa Loor. = Traripa. 12 

irdrpa Arc, Dor. = yimt gens. Ion. 
irirpii also, rarely, in this sense 

irarpid Delph., Elean = fivos gens, as 
in Hdt. 1.200 

irarpioiOKOs Cret. = iirixKiipos heiress. 
Law-Code VII. 15, note (p. 270) 

irf Arc. = TreSd, iist6.. 95, 135.5 

ircSd = /lerd. 135.5 

IltSa-yttTVios = Mera-. 135.5 

irESd^oiKOi Arg. =r liiroMoi. 53, 135.5 

ireSCja Cypr. = ireSiov 

mSidv Arg. = fjtereiiv. 9.7, 135.5 

iret, irei W. Grk. = ttoB, ttov. 132.2 

JIciXeo-TpoTCSas Boeot. 68.2 

ireto-oi Thess. = reTa-ai. 68.2 

ireCo-ci. Cypr. = Te/o-ei. 68.1 

irE\av6s, originally a cake offered to 
the gods, but also applied to an offer- 
ing of money. So in no, 82, as in 



some inscriptions of Delphi and 

Amorgos 
ir4\iBpov = irX^dpov. 48 
itcXekvs (or iriKeKv) Cypr., used of a 

sum of money equal to 10 minae. 

Cf. Hesych. ijpLLTriXeKKov . , . rb yap 

ScKdfivovv ttAcku KaXetrat irapk lla0£- 

ois. Used elsewhere with other val- 
ues ; cf . Hesych. s.v. xAckus 
ireXroijxipas Boeot. = TreKraaTiis 
ir^liire Lesb., Thess. =, irivre. 68.2, 

114.5 
•ir6VTah6Tr)p£s Heracl. = Trei'TaeTijpfs. 58 c 
TTEVTafiapiTciia) Delph., seme as TrenTa- 

pjuphas. 13, no. 51D16, note 
•irevTT|K6vTuv Chian = gen. pi. of vevrii- 

Kovra. 116 
ircvTopKCa Locr., quintuple oath, oath 

swomby five gods, bid 
ir^vTos Cret., Amorg. = Tr^/iTTos. 86.2, 

114.5 with App. 
ireireto-Teiv Thess. = ireTreSrfloi. 85.1 

156 
ir£iroi6vTei(r<ri Boeot. = ireirovriKbtn. 9. 

2 a, 146 
ireiroKa Lac. = TTiiTTOTc. 132.6,9 
irep = Tepl. 95 with App. 
-iripa,\.6a Cret., set aside, repudiate (the 

purchase of a slave). Law-Code 

VII. 10, note 
ircptPo\ip6a> Rhod., fasten round with 

lead. 88 
ircpCSpop.oi, officials at Mytilene, clerks 

of the court 
JlEpfoSapCai Locr. 6, 95 
iTEpoSos Delph. = ireploSos. 95 
IlEpdxSeos, IlapdxBEas, Locr. or Aetol. 

ethnicon. App. 12, 95 
n^ppa)i.05 Lesb. = Tlplap.os. 19.2 
irio'irupes Lesb. = T^rapcs. 68.2,114.4 
IXeTa^etTvios = Mera-. 135.5 
■ir^T6«pov Orop. = <ra.vU wooden tablet. 

Same word as rh-avpov springboard 

and perch for fowls 
n«TeoX6s Thess. = eco-o-aXis. 65, 68.2, 

816 
irETpd)iei.vov Boeot. = TeTpd/Hji/oc. Cf. 

68.2 
irirpaTOS Boeot. = Tirapros. 49.2a, 

68.2, 114.4 
ir^TTOpes, ircTTopdKOVTtt Boeot. = rh-To.- 

pes, TeTTapdKOPTa. 68.2, 114.4, 116 
vtiOa Cret. {weiBev), inform. 162.9 
ire(t>€ipdK0VT{s Thess, = TeBripaKiTes. 68. 

2, 147.3 



GLOSSAEY AND INDEX 



315 



irc<j>uTcuK{)|uv Heracl. 147.2 
irfXui Lesb. = T^Xe. 68.2, 132.4 
iri66a> Boeot. = TreWti). 162.8 
irtirvpcs Horn. = Tfrrapes. 11, 68.2 
irXd^os Hei-acl., side 
irX.a6vovTa El. = wXrieiovTa. 16 
irXav Dor. etc. = ttX^v 
irX&s Lesb. = irX^ows. 113.2 
irXcvpids, -dSos Heracl. = irXevpd 
irX^6a d Locr. = wX^Bos majority 
TtXrfiii = wXrjeos, as in Homer. Cret. 

the amount, Locr. the majority 
irXUs Cret. = irXfe = ttX^oks. 9.4, 42. 

3, 113.2 
wXCm Cret. = ttX^oi-. 113.2, 132.4 
irXos Arc. = irX^ov. 42. 5d, 113.2 
irott, iro^jo-o), etc. = TToiet etc. 31 
■iro«x*li«vov Cypr. = irpoitexl'iJjcvov adja- 
cent to. Cf. TTpoo-exiir. 89.4 
mSiKcs Lao. = irpoa'^KovTes. For stem 

widiK- to TTO^^Kii;, cf . irpoJf, irpotKds 
iro6(Ku Boeot. = irpoa-^Kio. Cf . Uia 
iroOoSos ^ Trp6<ro5os. Cf . irori = Trp6s 
ir6SoSci)|ia Boeot., Epir. = irpio-oSos. 

164.9 
Trot Argol. etc. = irpAs. 135.66 
n'OictvTai Phoc. = irotoSrrat. 158 
iroUvo-i Arc. = jroioOo-i. 77.3, 157 
■KOifia Arg., Boeot., El. = ttoi^w. 53 
iroi^a<ro-ai El. = 7rai^(ra<r9at. 59.3, 85.2 
iroii^aTai El. ^ 'iroL'/i<r7]Tat. 59.3, 151.1 
iroiKE(j>dXaiov Delph. = irpoaKe^'dXaiov. 

Cf. TTol = Tp6s, 135.06 
iroi6vTuv Delph. = 7ro(oi5iTui». 42.6(2 
HoCtios Cret. = Zliiftos. 63 
iriKtt W.Grk., Boeot. = irire. 13.3 

with App., 132.9 
TTOK kC Thess. = «Ti. 131 
irdXcp El. = xAXis. 18 6 
iroXiavdiJLOi Heracl., title of municipal 
magistrates in charge of public build- 
ings, streets, etc., like the Roman 
aediles. Called a<rTvv6/ioi at Athens, 
Rhodes, etc. 
iroXioras Cret. , Epid. = TToXiTjjs. 167 
iroXidxos Lac. = iroXioOxos, 167 
iroXis = Sijiios. Especially frequent in 
decrees of Phocis, Locris, Thessaly, 
and other parts of Northwest Greece, 
and notably in Crete, where it is al- 
most constant 
irfXis Lesb. nom. pi. 109.3 
irdXuTTOS Heracl. = TrXeto-Tos. 113.2. 

Aws Tro\l(rruv = cJs wXclffTuv 
iroXir/ja = iroXiTefo, 88 a 



iniX^io$ Thess. = iriXios (TiXem). 19.3 
irovei, irovCoi, etc. Cret., see <pov4u 
IlohoiSdv, IlohoCSaia Lac. =? UoffeidQv, 

UoaaSiina. 41.4, 49.1, 59.1, 61.6 
iroinrdv Cret. = Tofi-n-^v. 69.3 
iropvoxlr Boeot., Lesb. = Trapm\j/. 5 
iropTt Cret. = irpU. 61.4, 70.1 
iros Arc.-Cypr. = T/)is. 61.4 
Iloo-cCSav Lesb., Iloo-ciSdv late Dor. = 

noraSfflx. 41.4, 49.1, 61.5 
HomiSiuv Ion. = Iloo-eiSuv. 41.4, 49.1 
IIoirCSMos, Ion. IIoo-iS^ios. 49.1 
Uoo-oiSdv Arc. = IIoo-«sai/. 4 1 .4, 49 1 

61.5 
iroT = TTori, TrpAs. 95 
irOTairoirio-dTO Boeot. = irpoirairoTeicrd- 

Tu. 68.2 
noT£i,Sd(p)o>v, IIoT«i8dv=no(ret5u)K. 41. 

4,49.1, 53, 61.6 
IIoTciSovv Thess. = Iloo-etSuji/. 41.4c 
TTOTtixet Heracl. = 7rpo<rcxi3s. 132.2 
iroTeXdro Arg. enforce. See iwiXaiu. 

162.4 
ttotC = jrp6s. 61.4,135.6 
IIoTlSaiov Caipath. 49.1 
iroTiKXaJ'yw Heracl., be close to, adja- 
cent to. 1 42 oE 
iroTurKdirrw Heracl. =*trpoa-a-KdirTO} dig 

up to, heap earth upon 
noTo£8oviLesb.(?). 49.1 
inrd|iaTO Boeot. = ird/xaTa. 69.4 
vpdSSu Cret. = irpdrra. 84 a 
irpoo-o-ovTocro-i Heracl. 107.3 
irpdros W.Grk., Boeot. =7rpfiTos. 114.1 
irpciTtis, irpu^evrds, irfxy^ivTOL^, irpeC- 
7«>v, irpct7i<rTos Cret. = 7rp^(r|3us, irpeo-- 
/SeuTlis, irpeffpirepos, irpea^iraTOi. 68. 
1, 86.3 with a 
irpeCv Cret. = irplv. 86.3a 
irpeio-ptta Thess. = Trpcff/Sria. 86.3a 
irp^7i<rTOsCret.,Trpi)7icrTrfo)Coan. 86.3 
irp^ioto-iv Chian = Trpijfiijini/. 77.3, 150 
irpTJiriro) Ion. = irpdrra. Cf. 8, 81 
irp^iTTO) Eub. = irpdTTia. 81 
Trpi)X("i Chian = Trp^yuo, Tpayna. 68 
irpuio) Heracl. = rpla. 162.3 
irpio-yetes Boeot. = irp^cr/Seis. 68.1, 86.3 
irpoa^op^u Agrig., be irpodyopos, presid- 
ing ofBcer of the dXIa 
irpoa7pT|fjk|ievoi Lesb. = trpoaipovft^vov. 

89.3, 157 a. See d^p^u 
irpodv^pEais Thess. = vpoalptai%. See 

dyp4iij 
irpoPeiirdhas Lac. == irpoenrdaai. 51, 
59.1 



316 



GREEK DIALECTS 



irpdeSa Cret. = irpba-Bev. 133.1 
irpojevviovv Thess. = vpo^emdv. 19.3, 

41.4c • 
irpd^evFOS Corcyr. = irpb^evoi. 54 
irp6|i]vos Cret. = irp6^evos. 54 
irpoirfla Dor. = Trpicrffcv. 133.1 
irpoo-Sa^Ev/js Arc. (irpoiraBayevis) of 
prior date. Cf. iwiyep'^s, p^Tayev^s, 
etc. 133.1, no. 16.30ff., note 
irpocrSCSios {irpoim^lov) El. 165.2 
irpoo-|X€TpEts Lesb. = 7r/30ir)ierp^wv. ■ Cf. 

78, 157 

irpocTTo Delpll. =; irplxrBev. 85.1, 133.1 

ttpoo-tAtiis. (1) As at Athens, one who 

looks after the rights of aliens. So 

in no. 55.34. (2) The chief magistrate 

of a city or state. (3) Trpoo-rcirai = 

Att. irpiraveis. So in Cos, Calymna, 

Cnidus, etc. 

[•irpo(rTC]8t|<r[8ov] 'Lesb. = irpo<rri0icr6<i>v. 

157a 

irpo(r<|>d7iov Ceos = irpba^ay/ia sacrifice 

irpiravis Lesb. (rarely Att.)= irpiravis. 

The more usual prefix irpo- replaces 

here the related but uncommon irpv-. 

irpoTEpeCa Heracl. = vporepala the day 

before 
icpiyn\vl 'Boeot., formerly. 123,133.1 
■irpiiTav^iov = irpUTaveroc. 164.1 
irpuY-y veiiii) Heracl. , he surety 
irpcS^yuos Heracl. = *vpoiyyvoi surety. 

44.4 
irT6Xe|jL05 = TbXepAis. 67 
irrbXis Cypr. etc. = ^6X15. 67 
irvas 6 Boeot. = Tola. 30 
IlipFOs, IIvpFtas, IIupFaXtov = Wippos 

etc. 54 c 
irSs Dor. = tto?. 132.4 
nViTtos Cret. = niiSios. 63 
TTM Dor. etc. = jrWep. 132.7 

Fpdrpa El. , see ^■^rpa 
fpira, fpiroM Cypr., see fi'/irpa 
^^Tpa, originally speech or verbal agree- 
ment, but in dialects other than 
Attic-Ionic also used of a formal 
agreement, compact, decree, law. Cf. 
Heracl. /cdr ras (/■^Tpa! Kal Khr t&v 
(7vv6iiKav according to the laws and 
the contract, Photius jifirpai.- Tapav- 
rTvoi Si v6fu)vs Kal otov \j/ii<pl(TiiaTa, and 
Ii.&S.S.T.II. So El. fpdrpa compact, 
decree, Cypr. fpira compact, prom- 
ise, pperda promise. 16, 65, 70.3 
phapato-i Corcyr. 53, 76 6 



poYos Heracl., granary. Cf. Hesych. 
l>oyoi • ffipol ffiTLKoi, frtro^o\oJves, and 
Pollux IX.45 (TiTO/SiXia- raOra Si ^0- 
yois St/ceXiuirat wvdfia^ov 

popos Cypr. 53 

poiTTOV Epid. = l>6irTpov. 70.3 

o-d Meg. = Tim. 128 

o-aSpdiras = (raTpiirris. Still other vari- 
ations in the transcription of the 
Persian word (x^aB^apava) are seen in 
i^aWpaTreiovTOS, i^a-aTpaweiovTos, i^a- 
Tpdirtjs 

SaKp^Ttis Arc. 41.2 

2a\.a|i.^va El. = ZaX^iivi;. 48 

(rap|i£v(i> Heracl., mafce mounds ov pits 
(?). Cf. Hesych. ffapubs- <rCipos yijs 
Kal K(i\\v(rpa, but Etym.Mag. a-ip/ia- 
Xd<rfji.a 

SavYc'vcis, SavKpdreis Boeot. 41.2 

o-«X.dva Dor. etc., o-eXdwa Lesb. = o-e- 
XiJvT/. 76 

ZE\iv6evTi, SeXivo'vTioi. 44.4 

a-ids Lac. = 0e6s. 64 

o-is Cypr., ffis Arc. = rts. 68.3, 128 

o-iraY^prai Heracl., receivers and in- 
spectors of grain. So dy4pTat ol drS 
(nravlas at Tauromenium, o-iro^iiXo- 
K6S at Athens, Tauromenium, etc., 
(TiTumi at Athens, Delos, etc. 

o-trtipiv Eretr. = alT-qa-iv. 60.3 

o-Ktuddv El. = o-Keu^uj'. 12 a 

(TKCvdu — (TKevd^u. 162.3 

o-irofS8dv Cret. = (rirouSTii/. 32,89.3 

<rinip6s Coan, Epid., Syrac, Ther. = 
irvp6% 

o-rdXa Dor. etc., o-rdXXa Lesb., Thess. 

= tTTlJXT). 76 

o-Taprds Cret., a subdivision of the 

tribe. 49.2a 
o-T^Ya Cret., house. Law-Code III. 46, 

note 
o-T^Yoo-o-is Epid. = (TT^oo-is. 164.3 
o-TeiTTw Coan = (rri^a. No. 101.29, note 
iTTcc^avC^u = -6(1). 162.1 
(rnifidvot Lesb. App. 159 
oTEi^aviiu = -4(1). 159 with App. 
a-Te4>iiv Ion., ridge. 165.4 
<rTo(x€is Lesb. = (TToix^toi'. 78,157.1 
(rTov6Fe(<r)(rav Corcyr. 164.2 
oTopird, cTopirdos Arc. = darpairii, 

dffT/jairatos. 5, 31 
o-TpoTO'YOs Lesb. = (rrpaTifybt. 6 
<rTp0TCV0|jiai Boeot. = trTpareio/iaL. 5 
o-TpoTiiSras Boeot. = o-TpaTidrriis. 5 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



31T 



(TTpoTos Lesb., (TTporbs Boeot. = crrpa- 

t6s. 5 
<JTpo4>d Delph. , turn of the road ( ?) . See 

no. 51 C 33, note 
o^i-y7po<|>os Arc. , Boeot., Argol. = <rvy- 

ipatji-fi contmci 
oTiYx^O'i Ion. 144 
oTiKattEl. 1576 

0Ti(jnrnr£(rK<i> Delph., invite to drink to- 
gether 
o-vvaprvii) Arg., belong to the body of 

afiTvvai. No. 78.2, note 
cruvapxooTaT^u Fhoc, join in appoint- 
ing magistrates 
(ruv8avxva()>6poi Thess., fellow Saipvri- 

(ftbpoL. See dai^x^^ 
o-uvh^p|ovTi Hei-acl., enclose, cut off {the 

roads). Hei-acl.Tab.I.i30fi., note 
o-vvetro-dSSu Cret. = o-ui'-cK-irdTTu assist 

in carrying off. Cf . xpij/iara in<rKevi- 

j^av Strabo. 84 a 
o-uvkXeCs, -eiTOs Thess. = <n57KXj)Tos ^k- 

KX77<r/o. 164.9 
oT)VT^€ir6ai Cret. (Dreros)=(7-ui'^ffE<reo(. 

168.10 
o-<|>d88tt> Boeot., o-<f>d^o> Ion. = (npaTTu. 

84 a 
<r<|)eis Arc. = <r0i<ri. 119.4 
<r(^i1v6irovs Ceos, having wedge-shaped 

feet 
<r^v\f\ = ^vxll- 87 
crus, a-o>-, Su-. 41.2 

rayd Thess. , time when there is a raybs, 
hence time of war. No. 33, note 

Ta-yeuu Delph., Thess., hold the office 
of rayhs 

T076S, official title, Cypr., Delph., 
Thess. In Thessaly applied to (1) a 
military leader of the united Thes- 
salians appointed only in time of 
war (cf. no. 33, note), (2) city offi- 
cials like the ipxamesot many places. 
At Delphi, officials of the phratry of 
the Labyadae (no. 51) 

Ta£ = oi. 122 

rat El. = TiSs. 122 

TatsLesb., El. = rds. 78 

Td|JLVO> := T4fLV(a, 49.4 

rafios Thess. , of the present time (t4 tS- 
fiov thepresent one, no. 28.«). Cf. rrj- 
lioi to-day, Apoll.Rh. 4.252 

xdve Thess. = rdde. 123 

Tovt Boeot. = T'^vSe. 122 

xavvuv Arc. = rr^vSe. 123 



Tttvs = rds. 78 

rdvi) Arc. = rdSe. 123 

raora East Ion. = TaOra. 33 

Tdts = Tits. 78 

Taurd Lac. = rairri thus. 132.5a 

TaSrai = avrcu. 124 

Touri El. = Tair-n here. 132.6 

Tttircov El. = Toiruii. 124 

1^6)110$ Dor. = eiff/uos. 164.4 

TE9|t6s Dor. = Bca-fiSs. 164.4 

Tti8«^ W. Grk. = TvSe here. 132.2 

T«|ld, Tilf.^ = TI/Hl). 21 

T€tci) Arc. = Tij/«. 162.12 

T^Kva Locr. = t^xvv- 66 

Te\o(i6(v) Arg., support. No. 77, note 

TeX«o-rd El. official. Cf. t4\os office. 

105.1a 
T^Xeo-rpa rd Ion., Coan, expenses of 

inauguration 
TE\c(r<t>ape'vT€s Cyren. 157 
T^Eus Coan = rAeios. 43, 276 
TE'Xo)i.ai Cret. = e(rotmL. 163.10 
Tt'os Dor. = <roB. 118.3 
"reos Dor., Lesb., nos Boeot. = o-is. 

120.2 
T^pros Lesb. = rplros. 18 
T^pxvija (or Tp4x»ija) Cypr., shrubs, 

trees. Cf. Hesych. ripx^ea- (pvri. v4a 

and rp^xvos' (tt^Xcxos, KXdSos, tjivrbv, 

^XdCTTIfiO. 

T^o-o-apES, T^o-o-EpES. 54 6, 81, 114.4 
TEo-cTEpaKovTuv Chiau, gen. pi. of reaae- 

paKovTa. 116 
TETapTEis Coan, a measure, like ^ktciJs 
TlropTOs, T^Tparos. 49.2a, 114.4 
T^TOp£$ W. Grk. = rdrrapes. 54 e, 1 1 4.4. 

Aco.pl., 107.4 
TETpdKiv Lac. = TerpdKL^. 133.6 
TcrpcdKOVTa AVGrk. = TerrapiiKOVTa. 116 
TETpupov Heracl. , group of four bound- 
ary stones. 41.2 
teBe El. = TjSe Aere. 132.6 
T^iioi Ion. 37 

Tijvo, Triivo Cret. = Z^i-a.. 84, 112.1 
Ti)VEi - iKehn there. 125.1, 132.2 
rfjvos = iKeivos. 125.1 
TC6r|VTi Mess. = TiffiSo-t. 151.1 
rCfiai. Lesb. App. 159 
TijjLaKXfjs, Ti.p,aKpdTi)s, Ti|iava| == Tiiw- 

K\rjs etc. 167 
rlvDoT. = aol. 118.4 
tCvoi, fut. Tei(7(tj, aor. ereura (not Tf(rw, 

^Tiffa) in Attic and elsewhere, 28 a. 

7rEi(rw,e7rei<ra, 68.1,2. Arc. pres. teJu, 

162.12 



318 



GEEEK DIALECTS 



Tioixtt Boeot. = Tixt- 24 

Tip El. = TIS. 60.1 

TXtto-Cofo Coroyr. 105.2a 

Tvoris Cret. = durirbi. 66 

T6f Rhod. = TbSe. 63.2 

To( = ol. 182 

Tot El. = rASe. 128 

Toit Boeot. = o!:ae. 122 

Totveos Thess. = ToiSe. 123 

ToivC Arc. = TijJSc. 123 

TiKa W. Grk. = T&re. 13.3, 132.9 

t6ki,os or t6ki,ov Delph. = t6kos interest 

t6v« Thess. = T65e. 123 

t6vs = ToM. 78 

t6s = Toiis. 78 

TocTTOv Arc. = ToiJcSe. 123 

TOTO = ToOro. 34 a 

Toi Boeot. = (Ti). 61.6 

T0VVV60VV Thess. = riovde. 123 

ToSra Eub., Delph. = Tadra. 124 

Tovras Delph. = rairas. 124 

TouTet W.Grk. = Tair-g here. 132.2 

ToiPTti Eub. = Tairji. 124 

TOVTOl = OVTQL. 124 

TovTu Dor., thence. 132.7 

To<t>i.(av Heracl. = ratjieiiv burial-place. 

6, 165.4 
TpaKoLSi Thess. = rpiaKiSi. 19.4 
Tpd<|>T| Amorg. = ri^pij. 70.2 
Tp(i<j>os Heracl. = rdi^pos. 70.2 
Tp&s Cret. = rpeis. 42.3 
Tp^irtSSa = Tpd?refa. 18,84 
rpiio Arg. = cj>eiyo} in technical sense. 

No. 78, note 
Tpfjs Ther. = rpAs. 25, 114.3 
TpidKoitrros Lesb. = rpiaicoo-TSs. [116 
TpiaKovrdireSos (sc. oSiSs) Heracl. , a road 

thirty feet wide 
TpiT|K6<rtoi Ion. 117.2 
TpCivs Cret. = rpeis. 114.3 
rpiKiiXios Coan = TpUaXos. i/3e\is rpi- 

KiiXios three-pronged fork 
TpiiravaYOpo-is Arc. See iravdyopris 
Tpis = TpeTs. 114.3 
TpCrpa rd Cret., the threefold amount. 

165.3, Law-Code 1.36, note (p. 262) 
TToXfapxoi Thess. (Phalanna), for vto- 

Xlapxoi. 67,86.2. City officials (like 

the rayol of other Tliessalian cities, 

also sometimes rayol at Phalanna). 

Cf. the TToXird/jxai of Thessalonica 

(Acts 17.6) and other Macedonian 

towns (Ditt.Syll.318) 
ri Dor. = trii, <r4. 61.6, 118.2,5 
Ti, tBs Boeot. = Tol, To?s. 30 



Tut Boeot. = Tolde. 122 

TulSe Jjesh. = T^Sc here. 132.4 

TU|i,os Corcyr. = rii/i/Sos. No. 89, note 

Tvpcia Heracl., cheese-press 

ravL Arc. = T0v8e 

T(&s = rods. 78 

i Cypr. = 4Trt. 135.8 

•upaCs Cypr. , forever. 133.6 

"YPpeo-Tas Thess. = 'T/SpiffTas. 18 

iSap^o-Tcpov Lesb . , iess pure. Used with 
Kcpvdv of mixing water and wine, and 
so applied also to the debasement of 
coinage. No. 21, note 

jiSpCa Locr. 56 d 

utCret. = or. 132.4 

dIs Rhod. = or. 132.4 

viis = vlis. 112.2 

FVK(a Boeot. := olxla. 30 

hvXopEovTos Thess., from iiXapia be iXw- 
/i)6s,"the official in charge of the public 
forests (cf. Arist.Pol.6.8.6). 41.4c, 
53, 157, 167 

iji^v late Cret. = i^efs. 119.2a 

up.^S, vp.4 = {//j^cSj i/fjJas. 119.2,5 

v|i,|i.E$ etc.. Lesb. = i/ieTs etc. 119 

ip.oCus, vp-oXoYCa Lesb. ^ oftoitas etc. 
22 a 

vve6€kc Cypr. = ividrjKe. 22 

vv^Buo-E Arc. = 6.vi0iiKe. 22, no. 15, note 

vos, uvs = vlhs^ viis. 31 

4ir Thess. = inrb. 95 

iici. EL, Lesb. = iirb. 135.3 

uirap Pamph. = iSirep. 12 

uir6 El., Lac. = iirl with gen. in expres- 
sions of dating. App. 136.11 

viroSiacrOpu Epid. = Siaaipu ridicule 

vird8Ep,a = inroBi^Kri security. No. 109, 
note 

vinrpo Tos Thess. ,j«s<, previously. 136. 
1,10. No. 28.43, note 

huiri Cumae = inrb. 22 c ' 

^sArg. = or. 132.4 

vo-Tapiv El. =; ia-repov. 12, 133.6 

v(rTcpo|tEivvCa Thess. , oiareponeivla Boe- 
ot. , the last day of the month 

vo-Tcpos Arc. 58 c! 

iSa-uiras Ceos = v&a-airoi. Semitic loan- 
word, hence variation in spelling 

{ixipos T| Cypr. = ivlxapov. 25 6, 135.8 

4>at)jLi Lesb. = (ji-niil. 47 
*avoT«i)s, *avoT6vs Delph. 46 
<t>dos. 41.2 
(jtapS^vos Arc. = irapBivoi. 65 



GLOSSARY AND INDEX 



319 



+apjis Epid. = *^pdjis. 49.2a 
<t)dpx|io Epid. = 4>p6.-Yim. 49.2a, 66 
<)>apu Loor., El., Delph. = ,)>ipa. 12 
<|>aTp(a = (pparpla. 70.3 
<j)a«iT6s Delph., ZijrW-ffmj/. 31, no. 51 

C6, note 
<^^pva Epid. = ^ipvri, but meaning por- 
tion (for the god) 
<|>Ep6o-eo Epid. = ^ep^o'dui'. 140.36 
*eTTttXds Boeot. = eeiraaX6s. 68.2 
^e&v Dodona = Sean. 68.5 
<j)^p Lesb. = eijp. 68.2 
(jiS^pai Arc. = (p$eTpa.i. 80 
(^84ppcD Lesb. =: (pedpa. 74 
ijie^pci) Arc. = (pedpu. 25, 74 
<|>tvTOTos Dor. = (plXraros. 72 
4>CvT(av, ^ivrtas = ^iXrav, ^iXrlas. 72 
i^oiviK'/jia Ion. = ypdfiimTa. Cf. Hdt.5. 

58. 164.1 
(|>ovis Arc. = tpornis. 111.4 
(j>pdTT(i> Boeot. = 0pdfu. App. 84 a 
ij>p'iiTapxas Naples = tpparplapxa^. 70.3 
<j)pJv Locr. = irplv. 66 
<^pov4oi Cypr. = (ppoviwai. 59.4 
<|>povT(SSo>, <|>povt£tt<ii Cret. = (ppovrl^io. 

84 
<|>uYaScC<i> El. = ^u7aSEi)id. 161.1. Aor. 

subj. (jtvyaSeiavTi, 151.1 
<^vovT€s Dodona = ftJovres. 68.5 
(^uWu Cret. (itokIi etc.) declare, hear 
witness. Cf . diroifiavia 

XaX.Ki.os Lesb. = x^^"^"^- 164.6 
xdpaSos Heracl. = xa/"'*P'' ravine. Cf . 

Horn. x^P°-^os 
XapCfETTav Boeot. = x"?'^"^"'"''- ^^i 

164.2 



XctXioi Ion. etc. = x'^""- 76, 117.3 

X<XX.ioiLesb.,Thess. = x"^""- 76, 117.3 

Xtpp- Lesb. = xev". 79 

XTJXioi Lac. = x'Xioi. 25,76,117.3 

X1P- = X«P-. 25 6, 79 

\L\ioi Att. 11 with App., 76, 117 

Xpot(8)S<o El. = xpn'fw. 84 

Xpav^opiai Cypr. = following 

Xpa\io)i.ai Cypr., border on. 191 

XPTl'SSffl Meg. = xPS'fw- 84 

XP««<rTai El. = xp^ffSoi. 86.1,161.2a 

XpriCJu (or xpiXOfw, 37) = ei\u, /3oi)Xo- 

fuu. Especially frequent in insular 

Doric 
Xpvo-ios Lesb. = xprfo-eos. 164.6 

i|/d(|>i-y)La, i|>d<|>i|i|i,a Cret. = ^ij^wr/ia. 
142 a 

ilfaifiCSSu Boeot., Cret. = \^i;0ifw. 84 

i|/d<f>i|i,s Aetol., i|fdif>i||is Locr. = *^ij- 
(puris act of voting. Locr. iv iSplav rdi/ 
yjiaipi^^iv elii£v (no. 55.46) = Att. tj/ricpi- 
fEfffiai it idplav. 89.1, 142 a 

ilr^ifiillta = xj/iitpurpia. 60.4 

CO Dor. etc. = «9e». 132.7 

u^d Lac. 51 

cov = o^v. 25 c 

miia Cret. {5v(v, uvloi) = ttuX^w. 162.9 

upata Coan , festivals celebrated at a fixed 
date. Cf. Hesych. apala . . . T-do-o-erat 
. . . itrl Tuv Kaft ojpav avvTeKov/jLivojv 
leptop. — iapaia 7jfj.4pa t] iopr'fj 

upos Cret. = Spot. 54 

OS Boeot. = ws. 58a 

OTi Cret.'= ouTiKos. 129.3 

«T» Lac. = ai)Tou. 33 a 



CHARTS AND MAP 

The charts are intended to exhibit, in a form which may be 
easily Surveyed, the distribution of some of the more important 
peculiarities common to several dialects. Chart I (repeated with 
slight corrections from the author's article in Glass. Phil. II, 241 £f.) 
represents a selection of phenomena which are especially signifi- 
cant for the interrelations of the dialects, and Chart I a is a con- 
densation of the same. 

The presence of a given peculiarity is indicated by a cross oppo- 
site' the name of the dialect and beneath a caption which, like 'those 
used in the Summaries, is sufficient to identify the phenomenon, 
though not always to define it, and should always be interpreted 
ia the light of the section of the Gramjnar to which reference is 
made. The cross is sometimes surrounded by a circle as an inti- 
mation of some reservation, the nature of which will be understood 
from the section referred to. 

The coloring of the dialect map represents the grouping of the 
dialects as described above, pp. 1 ff . The mixture iu Thessaly and 
Boeotia is indicated, also the Aeolic streak in the Ionic of Chios. 
But the various Aeolic and Achaean survivals scattered through 
West Greek territory are ignored. Along the western coast of 
Northern Greece the extent of Corinthian influence (see p. 10, 
note) is so imperfectly known that the coloring of Acarnania and 
the adjacent region is to be taken merely as a crude suggestion of 
the speech conditions, and Epirus, from which we have only a few 
late inscriptions, has been left uncolored. 



320 



9 


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91 


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1CI- ai 9idd -jjad 










+ 


+ 


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89 


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td = 3d 










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tlwri^di<fi 












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lVJtJi^\101l 










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p;rf = n; 










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81 


■Did '9Jtp 'tis, -^up 






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81 


■jrfji = ^ji 






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«»- -Sg -uaS 






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V = i) 






+ 


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p. p. 

Thessalian 
■ Th. Th. 

Boeotian 

Pliocian 

I Locrian 

[ Elean 

Laconiaii 

Heracleaii 

Megariaii 

Corinthian 

Argolic 

Ehodian 

Coan 

Tlieran 

Cretan 

















CHAET 


II 


















9 


25 


35 


41,1 


111 


64 


67 


59 


60 


72 


77.2 


78 


80 


81 


82 


84 


86 




1 


vS 

il 


g 

& 
II 

3 


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a 

1 


1 


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& 

1 
15 


1 


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8 

1 


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N 

1: 






11, . 
to 


II 


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+ 


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E. 

loaic 0. 

W. 












+ 
© 


+ 




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+ 


+ 








Arcadian 




+ 


+ 


© 












+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




" 






Cyprian 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 




+ 


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© 


+ 




+ 






















P 

Thessalian 

Th. 


© 






© 


+ 












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© 




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Boeotian 


+ 




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+ 


+ 


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Phocian 








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Locrian 








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a 


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CHAET III 





132,4 


101 


13S.6 


135.66 


i36.a 


138.4 


138.5 


140.3 


140.4 149 


160 


151 


153.1 153.3 154.3 IS4.4 


E 




M 

=> 
1 


II 


^11 

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1: 


1 
1 


c3 

o 

(9 

1 


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t 

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& 

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3 

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TO 


3 

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a 

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1 


1 

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1 
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6. 

3 a 


1 

1 

a 
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Ionic C. 

W. 


















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® 










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+ 
















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P. 

Thessalian 

Th. 




+ 


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Boeotian 




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© 


+ 




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Phocian 


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© 


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+ 


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© 




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Locrian 






4 


© 


















+ 




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Elean 






+ 




+ 








-r 


+ 




+ 


+ 




+ 






Laconian 






' + 




+ 






+ 










+ 




+ 






Heraclean 






+ 










-L 










+ 




4 






Megarian 






+ 




+ 
















+ 




4 






Corinthian 






+ 


© 








+ 










+ 




4 






Argolic 


+ 


© 


+ 


+ 








+ 




+ 








+ 


4 






Rhodian 


+ 


© 


+ 










+ 










+ 




4 


4 




Coan 






+ 










+ 




+ 


© 


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+ 


4 






Theran 






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+ 




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4 






Cretan 


+ 


+ 




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+ 


+ 




+ 


4 


4 






GREECE 



Ionic 

Aeollc 

Achaean 

(Aroado-Cyprian) 

Doric [ 

North west Greek 



"^ 



[=1 




jJChaleedon '