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Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Cumberland"



BOUGHT WITH THB INCOME 
FROM THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

Henrg HJ. Sage 

1891 



A/SSUl /<}/3//uik.. 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924092925936 



XTbe IDictoda Ibtstotie of the 
Counties of JSnglanb 

EDITED BY H. ARTHUR DOUBLEDAY 



A HISTORY OF 
CUMBERLAND 

VOLUME I 



^Jlifi}\. 



A HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 
OF CUMBERLAND IN 
FOUR VOLUMES EDITED 
BY JAMES WILSON, M.A. 



THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 



/t^ 



OF THE COUNTIES 
OF ENGLAND 



CUMBERLAND 




WESTMINSTER 

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE 

AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Hi 



This History is issued to Subscribers only 

By Archibald Constable & Company Limited 

and printed by Butler & Tanner of 

Frame and London 



INSCRIBED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

HER LATE MAJESTY 

QUEEN VICTORIA 

WHO IN HER LIFETIME GRACIOUSLY 

GAVE THE TITLE TO 

AND ACCEPTED THE 

DEDICATION OF 

THIS HISTORY 



THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 
OF THE VICTORIA HISTORY 



His Grace The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge 

His Grace The Duke of Rutland, K.G. 

His Grace The Duke of Portland 

His Grace The Duke of Argyll, K.T. 

The Most Hon. The Marquess of Salisbury, 
K.G. 

Chancellor of the University of Oxford 

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Rosebery, K.G., 
K.T. 

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Coventry 

President of the Royal Agricultural Society 

The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Dillon 

President of the Society of Antiquaries 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Acton 

Regius Professor of Modern History, Cambridge 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Lister 

President of the Royal Society 

Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., F.S.A., 
etc. 

Corpus Professor of jurisprudence, Oxford 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.S.A., etc. 

Director of the British Museum 

Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

President of the Royal Geographical Society 

General Editor — H. 



Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, K.C.B., M.A., F.S.A., 

ETC. 
Keeper of the Public Records 

Col. Sir J. Farquharson, K.C.B. 

Sir Jos. Hooker, G.C.S.L, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

ETC. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., etc. 
Rev. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., etc. 
Lionel Cust, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc. 

Director of the National Portrait Gallery 

Dr. Albert L. G. Gonther, F.R.S. 

President of the Linnean Society 

Col. Duncan A. Johnston 

Director General of the Ordnance Survey 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., F.R.S., etc. 

Director of the Nat. Hist. Museum, South Kensington 

Reginald L. Poole, Esq., M.A. 

University Lecturer in Diplomatic, Oxford 

F. York Powell, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc. 

Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford 

J. Horace Round, Esq., M.A. 

Walter Rye, Esq. 

W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., M.A. 

Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries 

Arthur Doubleday 



GENERAL ADVERTISEMENT 

The Victoria History of the Counties of England is a National Survey showing 
the condition of the country at the present day, and tracing the domestic history of the 
English Counties back to the earliest times. 

Rich as every County of England is in materials for local history, there has hitherto been 
no attempt made to bring all these materials together into a coherent form. There are, 
indeed, histories of English Counties ; but many of them — and these the best — are exceed- 
ingly rare and costly ; others are very imperfect ; all are out of date. 

The Victoria History will trace, county by county, the story of England's growth 
from its prehistoric condition, through the barbarous age, the settlement of alien peoples, and 
the gradual welding of many races into a nation which is now the greatest on the globe. All 
the phases of ecclesiastical history ; the changes in land tenure ; the records of historic and 
local families ; the history of the social life and sports of the villages and towns ; the develop- 
ment of art, science, manufactures and industries — all these factors, which tell of the progress 
of England from primitive beginnings to large and successful empire, will find a place in the 
work and their treatment be entrusted to those who have made a special study of them. 

Many archaeological, historical and other Societies are assisting in the compilation of this 
work, and the editor also has the advantage of the active and cordial co-operation of The 
National Trust, which is doing so much for the preservation of places of historic interest and 
natural beauty throughout the country. 

The names of the distinguished men who have joined the Advisory Council are a 
I vii b 



guarantee that the work will represent the results of the latest discoveries in every department 
of research. It will be observed that among them are representatives of science ; for the 
whole trend of modern thought, as influenced by the theory of evolution, favours the intelli- 
gent study of the past and of the social, institutional and political developments of national 
life. As these histories are the first in which this object has been kept in view, and modern 
principles applied, it is hoped that they will form a work of reference no less indispensable 
to the student than welcome to the man of culture. 

Family History will, both in the Histories and in the supplemental volumes of chart 
pedigrees, be dealt with by genealogical experts and in the modern spirit. Every eflFort will be 
made to secure accuracy of statement, and to avoid the insertion of those legendary pedigrees 
which have in the past brought discredit on the whole subject. It has been pointed out by the 
late Bishop of Oxford, a great master of historical research, that ' the expansion and extension 
of genealogical study is a very remarkable feature of our own times,' that *it is an increasing 
pursuit both in America and England,' and that it can render the historian useful service. 

Heraldry will also in this Series occupy a prominent position, and the splendours of the 
coat-armour borne in the Middle Ages will be illustrated in colours on a scale that has never 
been attempted before. 

The general plan of Contents, and the names of the Sectional Editors (who will 
co-operate with local workers in every case) are as follows : — 

Natural History. Edited by Ahbyn B. R. Trivor-Battye, M.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Geology. By Clement Reid, F.R.S., Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., and others 
Palaeontology. Edited by R. L. Lydekker, F.R.S., etc. 

(Contributions by G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., H. N. Dixon, F.L.S., 
G. C. Deuce, M.A., F.L.S., Walter Garstang, M.A., F.L.S., Herbert Goss, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
R. I. PococK, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., etc., B. B. Woodward, F.G.S., F.R.M.S^ 
etc., and other Specialists 
Prehistoric Remains. Edited by W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Roman Remains. Edited by F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Remains. Edited by C. Hercules Read, F.S.A., and Reginald A. Smith, B.A. 
Ethnography. Edited by G. Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. 
Dialect. Edited by Joseph Wright, M.A., Ph.D. 
Place Names "j 

Folklore I Contributed by Various Authorities 

Physical Types J 

Domesday Book and other kindred Records. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A. 

Architecture. By Various Authorities. The Sections on the Cathedrals and Monastic Remains Edited by 

W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 
Ecclesiastical History. Edited by R. L. Poole, IVI.A. 

Political History. Edited by W. H. Stevenson, M.A., J. Horace Round, M.A., Proe. T. F. Tout, M.A., 

James Tait, M.A., and C. H. Firth, M.A. 
History of Schools. Edited by A. F. Leach, M.A., F.S.A. 
Maritime History of Coast Counties. Edited by J. K. Laughton, M.A. 
Topographical Accounts of Parishes and Manors. By Various Authorities 

History of the Feudal Baronage. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A., and Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 
Family History and Heraldry. Edited by Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Agriculture. Edited by Sir Ernest Clarke, M.A., Sec. to the Royal Agricultural Society 
Forestry. Edited by John Nisbet, D.Oec. 
Industries, Arts and Manufactures "j 

Social and Economic History I By Various Authorities 

Persons Eminent in Art, Literature, Science J 
Ancient and Modern Sport. Edited by the Duke of BEAuyoRT 

Hunting "V 

Shooting |- By Various Authorities 

Fishing, etc. J 

Cricket. Edited by Home Gordon 

Football. Edited by C. W. Alcock 
Bibliographies 
Indexes 
Names of the Subscribers 



vni 



With a view to securing the best advice w^ith regard to the searching of records, the 
Editor has secured the services of the following committee of experts : — 

RECORDS COMMITTEE 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. Wm. Page, F.S.A. 

Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, K.C.B. J. Horace Round, M.A. 

W, J, Hardy, F.S.A. S. R. Scargill-Bird, F.S.A. 

F. Madan, M.A. W. H. Stevenson, M.A. 

F. Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. G. F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Among the many thousands of subjects illustrated will be castles, cathedrals and churches, 
mansions and manor houses, moot halls and market halls, family portraits, etc. Particular 
attention will be given to the beautiful and quaint examples of architecture which, through 
decay or from other causes, are in danger of disappearing. The best examples of church 
brasses, coloured glass, and monumental effigies will be depicted. The Series will also contain 
1 60 pictures in photogravure, showing the characteristic scenery of the counties. 

CARTOGRAPHY 

Each History will contain Archaeological, Domesday, and Geological maps ; maps show- 
ing the Orography, and the Parliamentary and Ecclesiastical divisions ; and the map done by 
Speed in 16 10. The Series will contain about four hundred maps in all. 

FAMILY HISTORY AND HERALDRY 

The Histories will contain, in the Topographical Section, manorial pedigrees, and 
accounts of the noble and gentle families connected with the local history ; and it is proposed 
to trace, wherever possible, their descendants in the Colonies and the United States of 
America. The Editor will be glad to receive information which may be of service to him 
in this branch of the work. The chart family pedigrees and the arms of the families 
mentioned in the Heralds' Visitations will be issued in a supplemental volume for each county. 

The Rolls of Arms are being completely collated for this work, and all the feudal coats 
will be given in colours. The arms of the local families will also be represented in connection 
with the Topographical Section. 

In order to secure the greatest possible accuracy in the descriptions of the Architecture, 
ecclesiastic, military and domestic, a committee has been formed of the following students of 
architectural history, who will supervise this department of the work : — 

ARCHITECTURAL COMMITTEE 

J. Bilson, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 

R. Blomfield W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., F.R.LB.A. 

Harold Brakspear, A.R.I.B.A. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A. 

Prof. Baldwin Brown Roland Paul 

Arthur S. Flower, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J, Horace Round, M.A. 

George E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. Percy G. Stone, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

J. A. GoTCH, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. Thackeray Turner 

A special feature in connection with the Architecture will be a series of coloured ground 
plans showing the architectural history of castles, cathedrals and other monastic foundations. 
Plans of the most important country mansions will also be included. 

The issue of this work is limited to subscribers only, whose names will be printed at the end of 
each History. 

ix 



THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTY OF 

CUMBERLAND 

VOLUME ONE 




WESTMINSTER 

2 WHITEHALL GARDENS 

I9OI 



Counti2 Committee for Cumberlanb 



THE RT. HON. THE LORD MUNCASTER, F.S.A. 

Lord Lieutenant, Chairman 

Hamlet Riley, Esq., J.P., High Sheriff of Cumberland 

The Worshipful The Mayor of Carlisle 



The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Carlisle 
The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lonsdale 
The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Morpeth 
The Lord Bishop of Carlisle 
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Leconfield 
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Brougham and 

Vaux 
The Rt. Hon. The Speaker of the 

House of Commons 
The Rt. Hon. James William Lowther, 

J.P., D.L., M.P. 
Sir Richard George Musgrave, Bart., 

J.P., D.L. 
Sir Henry Ralph Vane, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart., J.P. 
Sir Thomas Brocklebank, Bart. 
Sir Joseph Ewart, J.P. 
Sir John Dunne, D.L. 
The Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness 
David Ainsworth, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
John Stirling Ainsworth, Esq., J.P. 
Robert Andrew Allison, Esq., J.P., 

D.L. 
James Arlosh, Esq., J.P. 
Edwin Hodge Banks, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
Henry Barnes, Esq., J.P., LL.D. 
Rev. Canon Bower, M.A. 
Thomas Brocklebank, Esq., J.P. 
F. W. Chance, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
William Irwin Robert Crowder, Esq., 

J.P., D.L. 
John Norman Dickinson, Esq., J.P. 
Thomas Dixon, Esq., J.P. 
C. J. Ferguson, Esq., J.P., F.S.A. 
Capt. Francis P. Fletcher- Vane 
Francis Grainger, Esq., J.P. 
Gilbert Henry Wordsworth Harrison, 

Esq. 
Thomas Hartley, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
Rev. W. G. Courtenay Hodgson, M.A, 
Thomas Hesketh Hodgson, Esq., J.P. 



Henry Charles Howard, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

Philip John Canning Howard, Esq., J.P. 

Col. Thomas Angelo Irwin, J.P., D.L. 

Robert Jefferson, Esq., J.P. 

Frederick Ponsonby Johnson, Esq., J.P. 

George Graham Kirklinton, Esq., J. P., 
D.L. 

Wilfrid Lawson, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

William Lewthwaite, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

Miles MacInnes, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

Reginald Dykes Marshall, Esq., J. P., D.L. 

Thomas Barlow-Massicks, Esq., J.P. 

The Master of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge 

Rev. F. L. H. Millard, M.A. 

John Musgrave, Esq., J.P. 

Rev. William Hasell Parker, M.A. 

William Parkin-Moore, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Prescott 

The Provost of Queen's College, Oxford 

Rev. Canon Rawnsley, M.A.' 

James Robertson-Walker, Esq., J.P. 

George Robinson, Esq., J.P. 

Thomas Rymer, Esq., J.P. 

B. Scott, Esq., J.P. 

H. Patricius Senhouse, Esq., J.P. 

H. Pocklington Senhouse, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

Frederick Robertson Sewell, Esq., J.P. 

James W. H. P. Spedding, Esq., J.P., D.L. 

William Pery Standish, Esq., J.P. 

William Stanley, Esq., D.L. 

Edmund W. Stead, Esq. 

His Honour Judge Steavenson 

C. Lacy Thompson, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
R. Heywood-Thompson, Esq., J.P. 
William Tennant Trimble, Esq. 
William Barrow Turner, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
E. T. Tyson, Esq., J.P. 

J, Proctor Watson, Esq., J.P. 
James Watt, Esq., J.P. 
George White, Esq., J.P. 



Editor: Rev. James Wilson, M.A. 



xui 



ERRATA 

P- 73 f"' Great Strickland, near Penrith, read Great Salkeld, near Penrith 

p. 86 for Warmel read Warnel 

p. 86 for Tallentine Hill read Tallentire Hill 

p. 90 fir Henry II. read Henry I. 



XIV 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE 



PAGE 

Dedication v 

The Advisory Council of the Victoria History vii 

General Advertisement vii 

The Cumberland County Committee . . xiii 

List of Errata •••........... xiv 

Contents ••••••......... xv 

List of Illustrations •>............ xvii 

Preface ................ xix 

Natural History 

Introduction to Natural History . By the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. . xxiii 

Geology ByJ.G.GooDCHiLD,F.G.S., F.Z.S.,H.M. Geol.Snrvey i 

Climate ..... By the late William Hodgson, A.L.S. ... 65 

Palaeontology .... By Richard L. Lydekker, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. . 71 
Botany 

Introduction . . . . By the late William Hodgson, A.L.S. ... 73 

Summary of Orders ... „ „ „ ... 76 

The Botanical Districts . . „ „ „ ... 78 

Musci {Mosses) .... By the Rev. C. H. Binstead, M.A. ... 94 
Zoology 

MoUusca {Snails, etc.) . . . By B. B. Woodvitard, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. . . 99 
Insecta {Insects) 

Orthoptera {Earuiigs, etc.) . By F. H. Day loi 

Neuroptera {Drag/inflies) . . „ „ 102 

Hymenoptera {Bees, etc.) , „ „ • loj 

Coleoptera {Beetles) . . „ „ 105 

Lepidoptera {Butterflies and 

Moths) „ 117 

Diptera {Flies) ... „ „ 14° 

Hemiptera {Bugs, etc.) . . „ „ 14' 

XV 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE 



Myriapoda {Centipedes) . 

Arachnida {Spiders) 

Crustacea {Crabs, etc.) . 

Pisces {Fishes) .... 

Reptilia {Reptiles) and 

Batrachia {Batrachians) . 

Aves {Birds) .... 

Mammalia {Mammals) . 

Early Man 

Pre-Norman Remains 

Introduction to the Cumberland 

Domesday, Early Pipe Rolls, and 

Testa de Nevill 

The Text of the Cumberland 

Domesday .... 

The Text of the Early Pipe Rolls . 

The Text of the Testa de Nevill . 



By R. I. PococK ....... 

By F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A. 

By the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

By the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. . 



By the late R. S. Ferguson, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A. 
By W. G. CoLLiNGVirooD, M.A 



By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A. 



PAGE 

143 
144 
158 
169 

177 
179 
218 
225 

2S3 



295 

336 
338 
419 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Derwentwater. Mezzotint by William Hyde f,.„ 

Geological Section. Fig. i 

Geological Section. Fig. 2 .... . 

Geological Section. Fig. 3 

Geological Section. Fig. 4 ...... . 

Helm Wind. Fig. i 

Helm Wind. Fig. 2 ...... . 



«39 

241 

242 



24s 
246 



PAGE 

■oniispiece 
44 
44 
45 
45 

67 
Helm Wind. Fig. 3 g 

Tumulus at Old Parks full-page plate, facing j,. 

Tumulus at Old Parks : East side of Stone No. 3 ; West side of Stone No. 4 ; East side of 

Stone No. S ; Incense Cup full-page plate, facing p. 

Side Stone, Aspatria Cist 

Tumulus at Old Parks : Incense Cup ; Beads .... full-page plate, facing p. 243 

Stone Circle on Eskdale Moor 

Stone Circle near Keswick ] 

Stone Circle at Swinside J 

Stone Circle and Menhir near Little Salkeld . . ,^0 

Barnscar ....... , -_ 

„ „ „ z^u 

Incised Slab, Aspatria •■••........ 2^4. 

Bewcastle Cross 

The Christ, on Bewcastle Cross j full-page plate, facing p. z^s 

Anglian Shaft, Addingham . . . . . . . . . . . .21:6 

Fragment, Workington . . . . . . . . . . . _ .21:6 

Anglian Shaft, Waberthwaite . . . . . . . . . . . .2C7 

Irton Cross full-page plate, facing p. 258 

Cross-head from Fratry, Carlisle . . . . . . . . . . .259 

Cross-head from Abbey, Carlisle . . . . . . . . . . .259 

Cross-head from Cathedral, Carlisle . . . . . . . , , . .259 

Cross-head from Brigham . . . . . . . . . . . .259 

White Cross, St. John's, Beckermet ] 

White Shaft, St. John's, Beckermet I ' " " " ' faU-page plate facing p. z6i 

The Norse Cross, St. Bees ............ 262 

The Standing Cross, St. Bees 262 

The Kenneth Cross, Dearham. . . ] 

The Two Spiral Shafts in the Vestry, Aspatria j ' ' * ^""-^'^^ plate facing p. 262 

The Standing Cross, Addingham 



The Giant's Thumb, Penrith j " " » ^^3 

Back and Edges of the Inscribed Cross, Beckermet . . . . . . . .264 

Spiral Fragment, Haile . . 264 

The Giant's Grave, Penrith ....... full-page plate facing p. 265 

The Second Shaft, St. Bridget's, Beckermet . . . . . . . . .265 

Gosforth Cross 266 

xvii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Crucifixion, Gosforth Cross 

Vidar, Gosforth Cross 

South Side, Gosforth Cross 

Loki and Sigun, Gosforth Cross 

Heimdal, Gosforth Cross 

Three Cross-heads at Gosforth ^ 

The Fishing Stone, Gosforth J 

Hogback, Plumbland "| 

Hogback, Aspatria . J 

The Warrior's Tomb, Gosforth "I 

The Saint's Tomb, Gosforth J 

Hogback, Cross Canonby "> 

Dearham Cross J 

Muncaster Cross "j 

Rockcliffe Cross V . 

Dacre Cross J 

Waberthwaite Cross 

The Red Shaft, Cross Canonby 

The Standing Cross, Aspatria 

The Drilled Shaft, St. John's, Beckermet 



Cross-head, High Aikton 

The Lawrence Slab, Cross Canonby . 

Socket Stone, Brigham Church 

Cross-head, Brigham Vicarage . 

The Adam Slab, Dearham 

Dearham Font .... 

Griffin and Cetus, Bridekirk Font 

The Baptism of Christ, Bridekirk Font 

The Dolphin Runes .... 

Runes of Bewcastle Cross 

The Barnspike Runes .... 

The Bridekirk Runes .... 

The Dearham Runes .... 

The Inscribed Cross, St. Bridget's, Beckermet 

Fragment found 1857, Carlisle 

The Kirkoswald Fibula 

The Brayton Fibula 

Charter of Henry II. to Hubert de Vallibus 

Charters of Henry II. and Richard I. 



PAGE 

. 267 

. 268 

. 268 

. 269 

. 269 



full-page plate facing p. 270 

271 
271 

271 

272 

273 
• 273 



full-page plate, facing p. 274 



27s 



LIST OF MAPS 



Geological Map, Northern Section 
Geological Map, Southern Section 
Orographical Map . 
Botanical Map 
Pre-Historical Map . 
Map of Earthworks 
Pre-Norman Remains 



27s 

27s 

276 

full-page plate, facing p. 276 

), *j jj 277 

. 278 

full-page plate, facing p. 278 

279 

280 

280 

full-page plate, facing p. 281 
281 

full-page plate, facing p. 282 

» » 7. 306 

■ »> » >> 320 



betzoeen pp. 8, 9 

16, 17 

„ 40, 41 

facing p. 73 

between pp. 224, 225 

„ 232, 233 

» 256, 257 



XVIU 



PREFACE 



FOR a long time workers in scientific and archasological research 
have been waiting for a History of Cumberland which would 
cover the whole field of local investigation, and aim at a more 
complete and accurate account of the north-western county than 
it was possible to give when the older histories were compiled. Valuable 
additions have been made to our knowledge of the natural history and 
archseology of the district by the labours during the past thirty years of 
the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and 
Science and the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archas- 
ological Society. But the scientific observations and antiquarian researches 
of the various workers remain scattered throughout the numerous publi- 
cations of these societies. Before the materials thus collected could be 
used, they required to be sifted and arranged by experienced specialists 
with a view to supervising the work of the local student and of centring 
interest on the characteristic features of the district. For the first 
volume of this History the editors have had the co-operation of men 
who are well acquainted with the county and have taken a prominent 
part in the work of these societies in the several departments with which 
their names are identified. 

In former histories of Cumberland no systematic effort worthy of 
the name has been made to examine the physical features of the county 
or to treat it as a floral or faunal area. With the exception of Hutch- 
inson, who has recorded the results of some excavations undertaken in 
the eighteenth century, the archaeology of the district has been a sealed 
book to the older historians of the county. Attempts to reduce to order 
the confused evidences of prehistoric Man, or to classify the earthworks 
and early lapidary remains with which Cumberland abounds, have been 
of a very meagre description. Even now our knowledge must not be 
considered complete either in the flora and fauna or in the archeology. 
The less popular orders in the fauna are here as in other counties inade- 
quately studied and recorded ; and great as has been the activity in 
recent years in the field of archasological research, much has been lost 
through carelessness in the past, and the spade has not been used with 
the frequency and thoroughness that the importance of the subject 
requires. 

The editors regret that in one particular the chronological sequence 
of the contributions to this volume has been broken. The section on 
Romano-British Cumberland has had to be held over for the second 

xix 



PREFACE 

volume. It is believed that the value of the section will be enhanced 
by the postponement. 

No attempt has been made to disturb popular usage in the spelling 
of place-names. A reasonable liberty has been allowed to contributors 
to adopt the methods with which they were familiar. Local nomen- 
clature as it was employed at different periods of history will be discussed 
in the Topographical section of this work. 

Since the present work was undertaken the promoters have had to 
deplore the removal by death of two valued contributors, from one of 
whom much was expected and whose loss to the History is almost irre- 
parable. Richard Saul Ferguson, chancellor of the diocese of Carlisle, 
who held for a quarter of a century the hegemonic place in all matters 
of local knowledge, died before his first contribution was set in type. 
His unrivalled knowledge of the county, as well as his genial and help- 
ful sympathy, have been greatly missed by the colleagues engaged with 
him in the production of this work. William Hodgson, a man of 
another type, the venerable botanist, who loved nature in all its moods, 
passed away after he had given the final touches to his catalogue of the 
flora of the county. In their respective spheres both men were dis- 
tinguished, both were Cumbrians by birth and descent, and both deserve 
an honoured place in the dictionary of Cumbrian biography. 

The nature and scope of the Victoria History of Cumberland may 
best be gathered from a perusal of the General Advertisement which is 
prefixed to this volume. The main section of the work will consist of 
the history of the parishes and manors in the county, to which the 
greater portion of the succeeding volumes will be devoted. The work 
which has already been done in this field of research will be duly con- 
sidered in the later volumes. 

The editors are anxious to acknowledge their obligations to Mr. 
J. Horace Round for valued assistance and criticism, and to Mr. George 
Neilson for not a few suggestions as the contribution on the Domesday 
Book, Pipe Rolls, and Testa de Nevill was passing through the press. It 
should be mentioned that the writer of that article is alone responsible 
for the statements there made. For the right to reproduce certain of 
the illustrations in this volume they are indebted to the courtesy of 
Mr. John Murray of Albemarle Street, London ; to the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archasological Society ; and to 
Mr. C. W. Dymond of Ambleside. 



XX 



A HISTORY OF 
CUMBERLAND 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF 

CUMBERLAND 

THE rugged heights which crown the lofty eminences of central 
and western Cumberland have been carved into strange and 
fantastic forms by the action of weathering. Stern and for- 
bidding as they may appear to be on first acquaintance, they 
serve to include many beautiful dales within their outlying spurs, while 
their own surface is sufficiently fertile to afford subsistence to the hardy 
Herd wick sheep which are characteristic of this region. The Cumbrian 
group of hills embraces many of the higher summits of England, includ- 
ing Scaw Fell Pike, 3,208 feet; Scaw Fell, 3,161 feet; Helvellyn, 3,118 
feet ; Skiddaw, 3,058 feet ; Great Gable, 2,949 feet ; Saddleback, 2,847 
feet ; Grassmoor, 2,79 1 feet ; as well as many other eminences of 
approximate altitude. The scarcity of animal life, or at least of the 
higher forms of life, upon the mountains of this area has often awakened 
surprise among those who spy out the beauties of the ' Wordsworth 
country '; the only wild mammal that deserves notice here is the pine 
marten, better known to the shepherds of the dales as the ' clean ' or 
' sweet mart.' The raven and the common buzzard are often to be 
observed crossing from one hill to another, or circling around some dizzy 
cliff on the face of which their young are being reared. The glory of 
the local avifauna departed when the Lakeland race of sea eagle became 
extinct about the end of the eighteenth century ; but a few pairs of the 
tame and unobtrusive dotterel continue to rear their young upon the 
slopes of certain favourite mountains. 

The Cumbrian mountains include in their fauna many interesting 
insects, notably the mountain ringlet butterfly, the only alpine butterfly of 
which the British Islands can boast. The mountain carpet, the red carpet 
and the striped twin-spot carpet are certain finds, reposing on the stone 
dykes of the mountains or resting on the faces of the rocks. The most 
characteristic Coleoptera of this county are found among the mountains, 
including such well known species as Carabus glabratusfialathus micropterus, 
Pterostichus cethiops, and many others. The lakes, which fill the hollows 
of the valleys that run among the hills, are celebrated for their abundance 
of fish. The vendace is only found in Derwentwater and in Bassen- 
thwaite Lakes. The gwyniad or skelly swims in large shoals in UUeswater 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

lake, whence single individuals occasionally find their way into the Eden. 
Buttermere Lake is famous for the charr which are taken in its waters, as 
also in UUeswater and Crummock Water. 

The mountains of eastern Cumberland form part of the Pennine 
range. In beauty of outHne they are inferior to the more celebrated 
Cumbrian group, but they are perhaps superior in the variety of their 
bird-life. The dunlin has never nested to our knowledge among the 
lake hills proper, but it is one of the most characteristic birds of Cross- 
fell and neighbouring summits. The snow-bunting is seldom present in 
any numbers among the Keswick mountains even in winter, but like the 
twite it assembles in large flocks upon the fell lands of our eastern 
border. 

The Eden valley is a fine, well-watered region, containing the 
remains of Inglewood Forest, which was formerly the home of many wild 
red deer. This tract is enriched with very extensive woodlands, which 
are often visited by crossbills, as well as by some rarer birds. Among 
typical woodland moths may here be mentioned the great emerald, 
occurring where birch wood is plentiful, together with the barred red 
and the tawny-barred angle, both characteristic of fir plantations. 

No account of this county would be complete which failed to lay 
stress upon the mosses or bogs which diversify its surface. Some of these 
are found in the valleys of the Eden and other rivers, but the most 
remarkable are those which are found in the north and west of the 
county, including Solway Flow, a tract of historic interest, Bowness 
Moss, Salta Moss, Weddholm Flow, and others of greater or less extent. 
These mosses are covered with heather, varied with stretches of white 
cotton grass or tussocks of coarse grass, or again by beds of reeds and 
bulrushes. 

These mosses afford a home to many foxes and to a few individuals 
of the polecat or ' foul mart,' which was at one time very abundant in 
the ' soughs ' of the mosses, and in the rough pasture which frequently 
abuts upon these wastes of moorland. The hen-harrier used to nest 
upon these vast stretches of morass ; it still visits its ancient haunts in 
the winter season. The merlin is very faithful in returning every spring 
to rear its progeny upon the mosses of its choice, which afford a retreat 
likewise to the short-eared owl. I have found the white eggs of this 
owl on our mosses and seen the owlets crouching under the shelter of a 
tuft of heather, blinking their eyes uneasily in the strong sunshine. The 
golden plover resorts to several of our mosses for breeding purposes, as do 
the dunlin and the curlew. Of wildfowl the sheldrake has in recent 
years nested upon our flows in considerable plenty, outnumbering the 
mallard and the teal, the latter of which is on the deci^ease. The black- 
headed gull and the black-backed gull form large breeding colonies on 
the flows and mosses ; several pairs of great black-backed gulls reproduce 
their kind in a few favoured spots. A butterfly always associated with 
our mosses is the marsh ringlet ; the forms present represent an interest- 
ing mixture of the three recognized British races of this insect. 

xxiv 



NATURAL HISTORY 

Among the larger and better known moths of the mosses, the oak 
eggar, the fox, the emperor, the clouded buff, and the light tussock may 
be cited as eminently typical of the ground upon which they are found ; 
while the gray rustic among the Noctuas, and the smoky wave, the gray 
scalloped bar, and the Manchester treble bar among the Geometrse may 
also be referred to. 

When we leave the mosses of the northern and western borders of 
the county, we enter at once upon the so-called ' marshes.' These are 
really extensive areas of reclaimed grazing lands, drained by an intricate 
system of creeks. They extend from Skinburness to Abbey, and on the 
other side of the river Waver nearly to Kirkbride, and again follow the 
banks of the Wampool to the sea. Similar marshes stretch from the 
neighbourhood of Port Carlisle to Burgh Marsh Point and the banks of 
the Eden ; the latter river unites its waters with those of the Esk below 
the extremity of RocklifFe marsh, which is washed by the stream of 
both of these fine salmon rivers. The whole of the Solway marshes are 
covered with grass, and large portions of their surface glow in summer 
with the crimson carpeting of the thrift ; many redshanks wheel across 
the wide expanse of salting with vociferous cries, while their young 
crouch like those of the peewit under the shelter of any convenient tuft 
of grass. The shoveler also rears its young upon these marshes. Endless 
skylarks rise from under the feet of the pedestrian who seeks to cross the 
marsh, while the common sandpiper chants its familiar notes along the 
margins of the sandy shores, which are enlivened as autumn draws on by 
the arrival of hundreds of ringed plover and other little waders. Indeed, 
the marshes are most frequented by migrating birds in the month of 
September ; redbreasts skulk in the sides of the creeks ; wheatears dart 
from turf to turf ; little stints probe the tiny pools or ' dubs ' for minute 
worms ; greenshanks, ruffs, bar-tailed godwits, and other birds of the 
same family feed on the wide expanse of sand laid bare by the ebbing 
tide, or resort for shelter to the marshes, as the gravel scaurs upon which 
they congregate are covered with the swiftly advancing waters. In 
winter, such hardy birds as curlews and knots replace the waders that are 
less tolerant of cold ; wild ducks and geese then arrive in large or small 
flocks and feed upon the marsh grass or the various forms of animal life 
to be found in the creeks. Many different species of duck resort during 
the day to a small group of freshwater ' loughs ' or lakes, which are 
situated within a short flight of the great estuaries of the Solway Firth. 
Of these sheets of water, the most favoured is Monkhill Lough, which is 
resorted to by whooper swans, Bewick's swans, long-tailed ducks and 
certain other species. But of all the birds which frequent our marshes 
no species more deserves mention than the bernacle goose, which has 
resorted to our marshes from time immemorial to feed upon the finer 
grasses throughout the colder months of the year. 

Westward of Silloth, the flat shores of the Solway Firth are flanked 
by a fine belt of sand dunes, among which innumerable rabbits sport and 
gambol ; Pallas's sand grouse showed a marked partiality for these sand 



XXV 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

dunes in the year 1888. The fine bay which extends from Maryport to 
Dub Mill is visited by hundreds and even thousands of peewits and other 
waders in early winter ; it is also much favoured by wild duck in rough 
weather, when the birds leave the open channels of the firth for more 
sheltered quarters. The country between Maryport and Whitehaven is 
singularly devoid of zoological interest ; but the fine red sandstone cliffs 
which rise immediately above the town of Whitehaven have ere now 
afforded nesting ledges to the peregrine.^ I have myself stood upon the 
brink of the high precipices which break the force of the Irish Sea while 
a pair of breeding peregrines flew around my head in noisy distress. 
Herring gulls rear their young on the Sandwith rocks, as do the common 
guillemots, of which unnumbered multitudes are cast up upon our 
shingled beach during the prevalence of winter gales. Pursuing the 
coast line southward from St. Bees, we soon arrive at Drigg Common, a 
famous bird nursery ; here many Sandwich terns lay their beautiful eggs 
in the hollows of the sand dunes, sharing with the oystercatcher and 
other birds in the protection bestowed upon them by the laudable 
thoughtfulness of Lord Muncaster, Flocks of wigeon and other species 
of ducks frequent the estuaries of the Irt, Mite and Esk, and in a lesser 
degree of the Duddon ; but the avifauna of this part of the coast has not 
hitherto proved to be so rich as that of the Solway Firth. 

In concluding this sketch of some few of the most remarkable 
features which present themselves to the naturalist who seeks to investi- 
gate the animal life of this county, it is only fair to observe that its fauna 
has been studied with considerable care for more than a hundred years. 
Dr. Heysham, the famous physician, settled at Carlisle in 1778, and 
devoted his leisure to the pursuit of local natural history. He spent a 
vast amount of time in working at the life history of the salmon, dissecting 
no fewer than 198 ' brandlins ' in the year 1796. His list of ' Cumber- 
land Animals ' appears from internal evidence to have been completed in 
1797. It was published in Hutchinson's /Zw^ory o/" Ca»2/^^r/«W. Though 
the doctor was a bon vivant, he lived to a good old age, dying in his own 
house in Carlisle in 1834, in his 8ist year. He was of a more stirring 
and sociable disposition than his son, Thomas Coulthard Heysham, whose 
name is generally confused with that of his parent ; but though by nature 
shy and retiring, there can be no doubt that T. C. Heysham was a man 
of fine intelligence and a most versatile and accomplished naturalist. 
Though he was more of a collector than a writer, he published an 
excellent account of the nesting habits of the dotterel, besides contribut- 
ing a few useful notes to the works upon British birds and British fishes 
which bear the honoured name of WilUam Yarrell. There cannot be 
any question that the Heyshams ranked among the best zoologists of the 
times in which they lived. Their names should always be held in 
kindly remembrance by Cumbrian naturalists. 

1 Henry VIII. used to receive from the abbots of ' Saynt Maries besides York ' an annual gift of a 
' caste ' of falcons from this eyrie. After the disestablishment of ' the lait monesterie ' the ' same haukis ' 
were sent 'to be presented to the Quene hir grace' {Hamilton Papers, ii. 442). 

xxvi 



GEOLOGY 



THE County of Cumberland affords an excellent illustration of 
the close connection that exists between the geological structure 
of a district and its local history. That such is the case will be 
sufficiently evident from a consideration of the fact that the 
great surface features are in all cases due to causes of a geological nature. 
It need not be insisted upon here that it is the relative position of the 
hills, the passes, and the plains, quite as much as the configuration of the 
coast line, which have repeatedly proved to be factors of prime impor- 
tance in determining both the locations of the earlier settlers and the 
movements of those others who in later times have tried to gain a footing 
in the land. Equally important factors in the evolution of historical 
events are such matters as the distribution of mineral wealth, the con- 
ditions relating to water supply, and the suitability or otherwise of 
particular areas for agricultural purposes. With all of these geology is 
very intimately concerned. Indeed, one may justly remark that the true 
sequence of many historical events of far-reaching importance can only 
be rightly understood by tracing those events back to a starting-point 
which may date many thousands of years prior to the dawn of history, 
and which are due entirely to those operations of nature with which it is 
the special province of the geologist to deal. This statement may be 
regarded as equivalent to saying that the respective provinces of the 
archasologist and the geologist of the present day extensively overlap. 
This of course is most especially the case in that part of the domain of 
science which includes the study of prehistoric man, in which branch 
of enquiry it is difficult, or impossible, to indicate precisely where the 
science of archasology ends and that of geology begins. Under these 
circumstances it is obvious that the best way of regarding their relative 
positions is to consider them as continuous with each other, and to treat 
the geology of a district simply as a record of all the events which have 
taken place in the interval between the dawn of civilization and the 
remotest periods of which there are traces in the past. 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

PROTEROZOIC PERIOD 
Silurian Rocks. 

B. Kirkby Moor Flags. 
Bannisdale Slates. 
Coniston Grits and Flags. 

A. Pale Slates. 
Graptolitic Mudstones. 

Unconformity. 

Ordovician Rocks. 

B. Bala Volcanic and other Rocks. 

A. Borrowdale Volcanic Series and Milburn Rocks. 
Upper part of the Skiddaw Slates. 

Cambrian Rocks. 

Lower part of the Skiddaw Slates, 

I. The Skiddaw Slates. — {a) The geological records of Cumber- 
land date back to an early period in the history of the earth, long prior to 
the existence of any mountain, valley, or coast feature now to be seen, and 
also long before any but the very simplest forms of animal or plant life 
now existing on the earth had come into being. The evidence from 
which we can draw any safe conclusions regarding the events which 
occurred in the earlier chapters of the historical geology of Cumberland 
is, as might be expected, very fragmentary and imperfect, and not a few 
of the known facts are capable of more interpretations than one. Still 
after a careful and prolonged search, carried on by many patient in- 
vestigators in this field of study, a sufficient number of facts has been 
brought to light to warrant us in drawing a few conclusions with a 
tolerable amount of certainty. We do know that the earliest records 
of Cumberland are by no means the oldest even in Britain ; but, omitting 
any further reference to these areas outside the county, we may begin by 
considering the facts presented by the vast pile of slates, mudstones, and 
grits, which form the upland area lying to the east and the south-west of 
Bassenthwaite, and which includes Grassmoor, Saddleback, and Skiddaw 
(or Skidda) . To these, the most ancient rocks of Cumberland, the name 
Skiddaw Slates is usually applied. Internal evidence supplied by these 
rocks makes it quite clear that they are the broken, much-disturbed, and 
greatly-altered, representatives of what was at one time a vast pile of 
marine sediments, representing the mud, sand and shingle brought down 
to a delta by a large river draining a great tract of land some distance 
away. Every particle of these old rocks represents what was formerly 
part of some older solid rock constituting that land, and its present 
position is due entirely to the prolonged action of rain and rivers upon 
that old land surface. The evidence further assures us that the area now 
occupied by Cumberland was in those remote times being gradually 
lowered by earth movements, which proceeded at a very slow rate, and 
which, on the whole, kept pace with the deposition of the sediment. 
Occasionally a somewhat less slow subsidence than usual brought about 
a greater depth of water ; while at other times the sediments forming 
the old delta pushed seaward a little faster than the subsidence carried 



GEOLOGY 

them downward. Probably if we could have measured the rate at 
which these movements were progressing we should have found them 
almost imperceptible, even when the observation extended over centuries. 
At whatever rate the subsidence may have proceeded it continued through 
a sufficiently long period to allow of the accumulation of layer upon 
layer until a pile several thousands of feet in thickness was accumulated. 

At a late period in the history of these rocks there seems to be 
evidence that some upheaval took place, and there was laid down one or 
more bands of pebbles, of which bands, now hardened into conglomerate, 
we have now traces near Keswick, and also at Cockermouth and elsewhere. 
After that followed a period of somewhat deeper water conditions, during 
which finer mud subsided to the sea bottom here. It was chiefly during 
this period that the animals lived of which fuller mention will be made 
presently. 

{b) The peculiar conditions under which these old sediments were 
deposited extended in one direction beyond where the Isle of Man is now, 
and, in the other, into north Cumberland. It is possible, however, that 
they did not extend much farther north. It may well prove some day 
that the earlier deposits of this age are contemporaneous with the upper 
part of the Durness Limestone of north-western Scotland. In this case 
there must have been deeper water conditions in that direction, and 
therefore, possibly, the old land from whose waste the Skiddaw Slates 
were derived may have lain to the south-east. Be that as it may, we can 
feel much more certain regarding the nature of the sea bottom, and the 
physical geography in general of the area adjoining the Solway during 
the latter part of the period when the Skiddaw Slate was being formed. 
We have records in the southern uplands of Scotland (the old Valentia 
of the Romans) of an important series of volcanic outbursts taking place 
on the ocean floor and apparently in deep water. There is no clear 
evidence that these volcanic conditions extended into the area where 
Keswick is now, although some volcanic rocks in the Caldbeck Fells 
may eventually prove to belong to this period. The conditions that 
obtained in what is now north Cumberland at this period may have 
borne a close resemblance to those now found on the eastern margin of 
the Indian Ocean, where volcanic rocks, rocks of oceanic types, and 
terrigenous deposits from the land are being laid down in close con- 
tiguity to each other, and sometimes change their relative places. 

Beneath what are now the Border Counties there lies buried at a 
great depth another phase of sedimentation, of which it is probable 
representatives may occur in Cumberland. We have good reason to 
believe that while the middle part of the Skiddaw Slates was being 
formed, the ocean floor in the northern part of the area sank to a vast 
depth, so that the sea bottom there at the period under consideration lay 
for a vast length of time at a depth of between two and three miles below 
sea level. The nature of the deposit that accumulated there is in all 
essential respects comparable with the Radiolarian Ooze which is being 
slowly formed in the greater ocean depths at the present day, especially 

3 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

in the central Pacific, as well as in those parts of the Indian Ocean where 
the ocean floor lies at a greater depth than 2,500 fathoms. To under- 
stand the full significance of the fact a brief digression is needed. In 
nearly all the warmer parts of the ocean surface-waters there exist vast 
numbers of minute animals of lowly organization (the Protozoa), some 
of which secrete from the sea water carbonate of lime, which forms the 
harder and outer parts of the creature (the Foraminifera) ; while another 
allied set of minute animals secrete from the fine clay present in all sea 
water corresponding shells of siliceous composition. These latter animals 
referred to are the Radiolaria. When these Protozoa die, their harder 
parts slowly descend through the sea water, and in course of time may 
sink to a great depth below the surface. But as this quiet drizzle of 
shelly matter settles towards the bottom, the sea water begins to exercise 
a solvent effect upon the calcareous shells, the effect increasing with the 
depth below the surface ; while the associated siliceous shells are not 
so acted upon by the water. As a consequence, few, if any, of the cal- 
careous shells survive a descent of more than 2,500 fathoms, while the 
siliceous shells that set out on the same journey with them reach the 
bottom undissolved. In other words, below 2,500 fathoms few or no 
calcareous organisms are to be found, those of siliceous composition alone 
remaining. The Radiolarian Ooze of the present day is found only at 
depths exceeding 2,500 fathoms. Geologists usually reason on the basis 
that principles founded upon facts observed now hold good equally well 
in similar cases in the past. That is to say, a Radiolarian Ooze, what- 
ever its age, denotes a depth at the place where it was found of more 
than 2,500 fathoms. Now, a Radiolarian Ooze of well marked char- 
acter and of considerable thickness, lies close above, and is partly inter- 
stratified with, the deep-sea volcanic rocks just mentioned as contempo- 
raneous with some of the Skiddaw Slate rocks near Keswick. It is quite 
likely that a cherty deposit found in connection with the Skiddaw Spates 
near Ousby may represent this deep sea deposit here. At any rate, we can 
feel sure of this point, that at the period when some of the slates near 
Skiddaw were being deposited as layers of fine clay at the bottom of a 
moderately deep sea, there existed a great oceanic depression only a few 
miles to the north. This again suggests that the old land at this period 
lay somewhere to the south of Cumberland. 

The Radiolarian deposit referred to may some day be detected in 
the Lake district itself. Whether that prove to be the case or not, we 
have in this old oceanic ooze one more of the many proofs that are 
coming to light in various parts of the world, and in connection with 
rocks of all ages, that oceanic areas and continents have really changed 
places, and that, too, more than once at the same spot. 

(c) During the latter part of the time when the oceanic phase of 
geographical conditions prevailed near the site of the English border, the 
parts of Cumberland a few miles farther south began to be the theatre of 
a series of changes of a different kind. A slow movement of upheaval 
of a very local character set in, and there is reason to believe that the 

4 



GEOLOGY 

effect of this movement in the course of time was to ridge up the sea 
bottom by slow degrees until, from shallow water, it passed into land. 
The immediate effect was to bring about the waste and destruction of 
the newly-exposed sediments by the combined action of the waves and 
the subaerial waste brought about by rain and the agents working with 
it. There are several facts connected with the behaviour of the rocks in 
the district on each side of the present Bassenthwaite Water which seem 
to indicate that the local upheaval referred to was one of a series, which 
commenced at an early stage in the history of the rocks there, and was 
continued intermittently, while a considerable subsidence was in progress 
in the area to the south. But the full discussion of this matter is of too 
technical a nature to be treated in an article like the present one. These 
local upheavals were intimately connected with the evolution of an im- 
portant group of volcanoes which finally grew up so as to extend over 
a large part of Cumberland, and to which attention will be more fully 
directed further on. 

{d) Leaving for the present the consideration of the events which 
followed the advent of these volcanic conditions we may notice here the 
more prominent features connected with the life of the period. Records 
of the vegetable life of the period are too scanty to enable us to form any 
very clear notion of what it was like ; but such fragments as are known 
suggest that the more lowly forms of vegetation, little higher in grade 
than the seaweeds, were predominant. Of animal life more is known. 
It seems from the available evidence that nothing approaching vertebrate 
forms of life had yet come into existence ; and that, in the sea, at any rate, 
the most highly organized beings were creatures more or less closely 
allied to the Nautilus. On the fine mud which formed the sea bottom 
there certainly lived a considerable variety of the curious jointed-legged 
creatures which are known as Trilobites, from the characteristic three- 
fold arrangement of their larger parts. These in some respects find their 
nearest allies at the present day in the King Crab {Limulus), and perhaps 
also in the Spiders and Scorpiofis. Remains of Trilobites are occasion- 
ally found on various platforms in the Skiddaw Slates. The writer of this 
chapter figured in the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, ix. No. 7, 
all that were known at that time. With these Arthropods lived some 
few lowly forms of Crustacea ; and there were also some representatives 
of the important group of Brachiopoda, which are animals distantly allied 
on the one hand to the Worms, and on the other to the MoUusca. But 
the best known fossils from the Skiddaw Slates are those remarkable 
zoophytes which are known collectively as Graptolites. These animals 
were, in many respects, not very different from the Sea Firs of the pre- 
sent day ; and, like those so-called ' seaweeds,' lived at the sea bottom in 
little colonies, sometimes attached to some stony object, but more often 
anchored to the mud by means of a special arrangement with which they 
are provided for that purpose. Both geologically and zoologically these 
obscure organisms are objects of considerable importance. Those from 
the Skiddaw Slates have lately been described in an important paper 

5 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of Landon^ vol. 
X., by Miss Ellis. 

II. We may now turn to the fuller consideration of the volcanic 
episode to which brief reference has just been made, and in connection 
with which so much that is of geological interest in the present Lake 
district is intimately concerned. The history of the volcanoes cannot be 
completely made out ; but we already know quite enough to give us a 
much clearer view, as we look back into the past, than is possible in the 
case of the Skiddaw Slates. One thing is quite clear : the volcanoes 
began with a series of extremely violent eruptions, in the course of which 
the explosions tore away vast quantities of the older sediments through 
which the volcanic vents arose, and ejected those fragments to a con- 
siderable distance from their starting-point. It is not a little remarkable 
that fragments of lava in many cases form but a small proportion of these 
ejected materials from the earlier-formed vents. Fragments of the Skid- 
daw Slates abound in these old tuffs, thereby proving, if proof were still 
needed, that the volcanic rocks are of later date than the rock referred to. 

On theoretical grounds we may suppose that these violent paroxys- 
mal explosions were due to the water finding its way down through the 
outer zones of the lithosphere (or rocky crust of the earth) to the inner 
zones, where, from one or other of several possible causes, there existed 
a temperature sufficiently high to produce conditions favourable to the 
generation of new compounds. Heated waters, containing but a small 
percentage of the alkalies present in combination in sea water, are com- 
petent to dissolve almost any rock material known, and are able to do so 
at a comparatively low temperature — far below that which lavas have 
when first poured out of a volcano. A compound of the nature referred 
to possesses violent explosive properties, and, indeed, can only be kept 
from exploding by the influence of enormous pressure. If by any ter- 
restrial movement the pressure at the critical time happens to be relieved, 
liquefaction at once commences, and steam in a highly explosive condition 
is generated throughout the area where the pressure has been eased off. 
Under these circumstances the fluid rock material begins to eat its way 
in the direction of least resistance, and finally reaches the surface, where 
the pressure is relieved by a succession of more or less violent detonations, 
whose general nature may be likened to that of boiler explosions. One 
of the determining causes of both a local rise of underground tempera- 
ture and a spasmodic relief of pressure must have been the local bending 
of the outer part of the lithosphere to which reference has already been 
made. Indeed, it seems unnecessary to invoke any other factors in the 
generation of volcanic action than this local conversion of the energy of 
motion into heat energy, combined with the downward transference by 
osmosis of alkaline waters from the floor of the ocean, and the subsequent 
release of the imprisoned gases by the local and spasmodic relief of pres- 
sure which accompanies the folding mentioned above. 

The Cumberland volcanoes were probably small to begin with, and 
probably there were several in an irregular line ranging southward 

6 



GEOLOGY 

through the site of Keswick. But we have no further evidence upon 
this point than the analogy afforded by the behaviour of volcanoes at the 
present day, and the fact that volcanoes of the same period occur also in 
Wales. 

After the first violent paroxysm and the discharge of fragments of 
sedimentary rock into the air, the relief of pressure below the surface 
appears to have favoured the liquefaction of the rock. Under these 
conditions, that heated mixture of the component gases of water and 
liquefied rock of which lavas consist, began to make its way to the sur- 
face. But the explosive forces pent up below were so vastly more 
powerful than was needed for merely propelling the fluid mass to the 
surface, that they sufficed, each time the pressure was relieved, to drive 
the fluid rock with terrific violence to a great height — probably miles — 
into the air, whence, as the force expended itself and gravitation came 
more into play, the coarser fragments of lava, now hardened by their 
passage through the cool air, fell back in great piles upon the surface, 
close to the orifice whence they were ejected, while the finer material 
was distributed far and wide by the action of the wind. 

The evidence shows that a succession of such explosive outbursts 
took place, with pauses of varying length between each, during which 
marine sediments were deposited here and there to a small thickness 
between such of the volcanic mounds as reached to no great height 
above the sea. 

Eventually the eruptions occasionally assumed a less violent char- 
acter, and on these occasions a quiet outpouring of lava took place, 
followed in turn by more explosive outbursts and the dispersal of frag- 
mentary material over an increasingly large area. There can be but 
little doubt that the central area of volcanic action soon rose to a suffi- 
cient height to stand well above the waves, and that it probably con- 
tinued to maintain that elevation while the additions to the surface of 
the volcano kept pace with the depression caused by the general subsi- 
dence which set in at an early stage. 

(a) Several minor events occurred in connection with the central por- 
tion of the volcano, some of which have to be noticed here. Amongst 
the effects of these may be mentioned the curious ' faulting ' so well seen 
in some of the Cumberland ' green slates,' and also the crumpling and 
contortion that accompanies these ' faults.' Both appear to be due to 
the fact that a period during which fine volcanic dust was ejected was 
followed by another when floods of molten rock poured over the sides of 
the crater and down the slopes of the cone, the flood of lava thus rolling 
over the lately-deposited tuff. The effect upon these unconsolidated 
beds of rock fragments was naturally to produce the same result as if 
a gigantic road-roller had passed over them. The beds were folded, 
crumpled and fractured, and, being compressed obliquely downwards, 
the faults generally took the form of reversed fa-ults. Thrusts due to the 
flow of the lavas affected the tuffs beyond the lava flows themselves, and 
it therefore frequently happened that a bed of tuff which had been frac- 

7 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

tured and crumpled at one stage was soon after that covered by other 
layers of fine dust which had, of course, not shared in the disturbance. 
The ' green slates ' of Tilberthwaite and of many other localities in 
the Lake district show these interesting records of contemporaneous 
disturbance very beautifully, and museum specimens, or even specimens 
that will go into a waistcoat pocket, may easily be obtained which will 
show these features well. 

Another set of features of general interest connected with the tuffs 
has been produced by the action of rain, or of aqueous vapour from the 
volcano, chilled by its upward passage into the air. Such vapour 
condenses readily upon the cooler and finer fragments of volcanic dust 
in the upper part of the column shot out from the volcano during erup- 
tion. Once such a nucleus is formed it tends to enlarge by the addition 
of more water and more dust as the pellet descends. Finally it reaches 
the surface as a small ball of mud, and may plump down into the fine 
dust and there become entombed. There are many examples of this 
kind, especially near Ambleside. 

Also it often happens that the torrential rains precipitated from the 
column during an eruption wash vast quantities of the finer material 
down the slopes of the cone, and give rise to such floods of volcanic 
mud as those {lava (Taqua) which overwhelmed Herculaneum during 
the Plinian eruption of Vesuvius. Many beds of rock of origin similar 
to this occur in connection with the Cumberland volcanoes. 

It is from the combined results of these explosive eruptions, violent 
or gentle, from the outpourings of the floods of lava, from the action of 
surface causes, and from the forcible injection of materials underground 
derived from the volcanic focus, that the great pile of rocks was formed, 
out of whose much-altered remains the finest scenery of the Lake dis- 
trict has since been carved. It may be remarked here that these rocks 
underwent many changes and modifications long before they were finally 
exposed. These will have to be considered in chronological order, and 
will be therefore referred to again. 

The volcanic eruptions were by no means continuous, but were 
often separated by long periods of repose, during which surface agencies 
modified the slopes of the volcanoes. Furthermore, it is very unlikely 
that the volcanoes attained their maturity without the episodes of des- 
truction which almost every other volcano, ancient or modern, seems at 
some time or other in its history to have undergone. 

The length of time required for the growth of this stage of the 
Cumberland volcano must have been very great indeed. Notwithstand- 
ing the apparent evidence to the contrary, the growth of a volcano is by 
no means rapid. Taking one volcano with another, it would seem a 
fair estimate of their rate of growth if it is set at one foot in 300 
years. The Cumberland volcano certainly rivalled Etna in dimensions ; 
and Mr. Ward's estimate of 12,000 feet as the maximum thickness of 
these rocks is, if anything, below, rather than above, the actual thick- 
ness to be found. 



HISTORY OF CTTMBEKLAND 



GEOLOGICAL Mi 




Til*'. £djiibiiivh GoogrJfjiliicfll Tcji 



SCALC 4 MILES TO AN INCH 



12 



THE VICTORIA HISTO 



NORTHERN SECTION. 




JHE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



County Boundary shown thus 



GEOLOGY 

It may be well to state here that the material shot out from a vol- 
cano during an explosive eruption is called tuff (or ' ash ') in the cases 
where the material falls outside of the crater, quite without regard to 
whether that material is coarse or fine. The material which fills up an 
old vent or '■neck' is called agglomerate, whether it is coarse or fine. The 
term lava is restricted to the floods of rock which have poured out of 
the vents over the surface of the cone ; while the same kind of material 
injected below the surface gives rise to a sill if it consolidates in the 
form of a more or less horizontal sheet, and to a dyke if it consolidates 
in a wall-like mass. 

The Cumberland volcanic series consists of rocks of Upper Are- 
nig and Llandeilo age. Lithologically, the greater part of the rocks 
consist of andesites and andesite tuffs, which approach basalts in the 
earlier part. Furthermore, there is a newer and higher volcanic 
group of different lithological character associated with the rocks just 
noticed, and to which fuller reference will need to be made further 
on. 

(^) In the meantime we have to notice a group of rocks which are 
contemporaneous with those of volcanic origin, and which consist mainly 
of sediments. To enable the reader to understand their relation to the 
rocks just noticed, he is asked to bear in mind that a volcano is neces- 
sarily limited in horizontal extent, and that the lava streams which reach 
its flanks, as well of course as the tuffs beyond, will tend to be laid 
down alternately with marine sediments if the volcano is anywhere near 
the sea, and that the relative proportion of volcanic to sedimentary 
matter diminishes as we advance outward from the central area until it 
finally comes to nothing. It must be obvious on reflection that this 
must have been the case as much in connection with the volcanoes of 
the past as it is with those of the present. 

We are therefore quite prepared to find that while the old Cum- 
berland volcano was gradually rearing its cone above the level of the sea 
the deposition of sediment went on contemporaneously on the sea bottom 
outside its flanks. Nearer to the sphere of volcanic action the old sedi- 
ments occasionally received showers of fine tuff which had been wafted 
far out to sea during explosions of a more violent character than usual. 
Such volcanic material thus became mixed in every proportion with 
the sedimentary matter — the proportion of the former to the latter in- 
creasing relatively to the nearness of the cone. To put these statements 
into a terser form, we may say that on the flanks of the volcano there 
was a passage from purely volcanic to purely sedimentary material, 
chiefly through interstratification. 

Hence we may safely conclude that wherever such passage beds 
occur, they mark the seaward flank of the volcano of that particular 
period. 

In north-eastern Cumberland the map shows that there is a narrow 
strip along the foot of the Cross Fell range along which some of the 
oldest rocks of the district have been abruptly elevated to the surface. 

9 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

These afford a most important insight into the history of Cumberland 
during the remote period under consideration. The nature of some of 
these rocks clearly points to the presence of geographical conditions in 
which sediments of marine origin were deposited alternately with layers 
of the fine dust which had been transported seawards by the winds 
during some of the more violent eruptions of the old volcanoes, but at 
too great a distance to be reached by the lava streams. That these 
alternations of old marine sediments, fine tuffs, and mixtures of both, 
are contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks in the heart of the Lake 
district, is shown in the most unmistakable manner by the fossils which 
they contain. Their general nature indicates quiet deposition on a 
steadily subsiding ocean floor at no great distance from a group of vol- 
canoes. As it is often convenient to employ some definite name for the 
larger subdivisions of a great pile of rocks like these, taken from the 
locality where the rocks are now best seen, the present author several 
years ago proposed for these sedimentary equivalents of the volcanic 
series the name of the Milburn Rocks. They are well seen below Cross 
Fell, and they are particularly well exposed in John Robinson's Pastures, 
on the north side of the village of Milburn : whence the name. Their 
aggregate thickness cannot be made out with certainty, but it can hardly 
be less than between 5,000 and 6,000 feet. The principal fossils are 
Graptolites, Trilobites and Brachiopoda, all of Lower Llandeilo types. 

The fact that we have perfectly clear evidence of marine conditions 
and of continued subsidence within twenty miles of the centre of the 
volcano would prepare us for the idea that the later stages of volcanic 
activity coincided with a subsidence at least of part of the volcanic area 
itself. And, further, the facts quite justify us in regarding the volcano 
as one which was only enabled to keep its summit above the waves by 
the fact that the eruptions piled up the volcanic material at a rate 
which, on the whole, kept pace with the rate of lowering of the sea floor 
until at least the later stages in the history of the volcano. 

{c) Volcanic areas usually coincide with areas of unequal sub- 
sidence, and that of Cumberland appears to have been no exception to 
the general rule. Some of the geological facts which may be observed 
in the areas around Bassenthwaite seem to point to the conclusion 
already referred to, that this area did not sink at the same rate as the 
area around where Ambleside is now. There may even have been some 
upheaval in the northern part while subsidence was going on in the 
south. To put this statement into another form, we may say that, while 
the southern end of the area sank as fast as the volcanic material was 
piled upon it, the northern end either remained stationary or else was 
slowly ridged up from the sea bottom, and thus was wasted by the 
weather and the sea almost as fast as it rose. The idea is not easy to 
grasp, and would not need to be again referred to here if the fact had 
not an important bearing upon some events of later date to which 
subsequent reference will be made. 

(</) There is some doubt as to the exact nature of the events which 

10 



GEOLOGY 

succeeded the period of maximum development of the volcano, for the 
structure of the rocks was highly complicated to begin with, and the 
complexity has been considerably increased by later events. But a broad 
review of the facts, by the light obtained from the structure of similar 
rocks of the same age which occur elsewhere, seems to point to there 
having ensued a period during which the volcano was apparently extinct, 
and the earth movements may have been taking the form of upheaval 
over the entire area. During this period of quiescence the whole sur- 
face underwent much of that waste which invariably arises from pro- 
longed exposure of rocks above the level of the sea. To the present 
author the facts appear to suggest that in the area now represented by 
northern Cumberland the remnants of the older volcano were exposed 
long enough to be wasted away entirely, and, with these remnants, were 
also removed much of the older rock which underlay the volcano. 

Subsequently, another group of volcanoes, different in character 
from the first, and in form and arrangement more like the ' puys ' of 
central France, broke out here and there over the whole area, and their 
lava streams and tuffs were spread out across the wasted surface of those 
older rocks to which reference has just been made. Then subsidence 
again set in, and some bands of sediment and one or two bands of lime- 
stone were deposited on the sea floor both on and amongst the rocks 
of volcanic origin. On the southern flanks of Roman Fell, in West- 
morland, there is displayed a fine series of alternating sedimentary and 
volcanic rocks, which mark this phase in the history of Cumberland ; 
and it is just possible that the same kind of rocks may occur in still 
greater development in the Caldbeck Fells and near Melmerby in north 
Cumberland. The character of the fossils which occur in the sedi- 
mentary rocks associated with these latter volcanic rocks indicates that 
their formation commenced in Lower Bala times, and was continued until 
late on in the Upper Bala period. The rocks in question are con- 
temporaneous with a vast thickness of strata of the same kind which 
occur in Wales. In Cumberland at least they appear to lie unconform- 
ably upon the older rocks beneath : in other words, an upper volcanic 
series there lies discordantly upon a lower. 

It may be well to state at this point that the older group of rocks 
heretofore noticed, including the upper part of the Skiddaw Slate, the 
Milburn Rocks, and the older volcanic rocks of the Lake district (the 
Borrowdale Series) are comprehended in the Lower Ordovician group ; 
while the latter series, including the associated limestone, shales, and 
other sedimentary rocks, are here ranked as Upper Ordovician : that is 
to say, in Cumberland the Bala Rocks are unconformable to those of 
Llandeilo and Arenig age. 

Neither of these volcanic episodes appears to have extended far to 

the north, as in the southern uplands of Scotland the rocks formed during 

this period are mainly fine-grained muds, slowly formed on the floor of 

the ocean at a great depth below the surface, rocks of volcanic origin 

being almost unrepresented. 

II 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Some scraps of evidence obtainable in the Craven area seem to indi- 
cate that the older set of volcanic cones may not have extended far in 
that direction either. But that the later (Upper Ordovician) set was not 
far away from that area is shown by an interesting group of sediments 
which occurs there, and in which are mingled some of the finer products 
of the chief explosions of the volcano, which therefore could not have 
been far distant at this time. 

(e) Life during Ordovician Times. — So far as is known at present 
no animal of higher zoological grade than the Invertebrata had come 
into existence during Ordovician times. The highest forms of life yet 
found belong to the MoUusca, and to that section of the MoUusca (the 
Cephalopoda) which includes the Nautilus of the present day. The 
Arthropoda were represented mainly by some Phyllocarida, and by an 
abundance and great variety of Trilobites, which reached their maximum 
development during this period, and whose different forms have a zonal 
value of much the same character as the Graptolites. Brachiopoda were 
also very abundant. All the other classes of the Invertebrata were 
represented. Of the plants we know as yet but little, and we are not 
likely to know much more, seeing that most of the strata of which re- 
mains exist were formed in the sea or else are of volcanic origin. 

{f) The events briefly summarised in the foregoing paragraphs must 
have required for their accomplishment from first to last a period of time 
of inconceivable length, if we may judge by the importance of the 
changes in both the inorganic and the organic worlds which took place 
in the meantime. Group after group of invertebrate organisms was 
slowly evolved from pre-existent forms, its various species reached their 
maximum of development, gradually passed away, and gave place to others. 
Oceanic areas and land more than once exchanged places. Mountain 
masses were slowly built up, elevated above the sea, and in the course 
of long ages wasted away, and their materials were g dually transferred 
to that cradle of new lands, the ocean floor, there to be again used up in 
the formation of later rocks. Geologists, fully cognisant of all these 
changes, and duly taking into account the rate at which such changes 
are proceeding now, niay well be pardoned if they regard the time 
represented by these Upper and Lower Ordovician Rocks of Cumber- 
land as one of enormous length. The author of this article, in his 
address to the Royal Physical Society, has estimated it at 45,000,000 
of years.' 

III. The Seqijence of Events during Silurian Times. — {a) Over a 
large part of Britain there is evidence that the close of Ordovician times 
was marked by considerable disturbance and slow upheaval of the land. 
In some localities, large areas consisting of the previously-formed rocks 
were upheaved, and exposed for lengthy periods to the wasting influence 
of atmospheric causes, and the process continued until, in some parts, a 

* See Goodchild, • Some Geological Evidence Regarding the Age of the Earth,' Proc. 
Roy, Phys. Soc. Edin., xiii. p. 302. 

12 



GEOLOGY 

thickness of many thousands of feet of the older rocks was stripped off. 
Thus rocks of very different ages came to be exposed at different parts of 
the surface. At the conclusion of this period, which must, if we may 
judge by what took place in the meantime, have been a period of 
immense length, there began a second great period of subsidence be- 
neath the ocean, and the deposition of a new set of strata. The rocks 
referred to are those which now form most of the southern part of the 
Lake district. They are exposed here and there, also in some parts of 
Cumberland, and therefore call for notice here. 

{b) The earliest chapter in the history is recorded in an old bed of 
shingle, which evidently marks the rolling and wearing action of the sea 
upon the loose fragments of rock which were present on the surface as 
the land quietly sank beneath the waves. 

Then follows a stratum of great interest, thin though it be — the 
well-known Graptolitic Mudstone. This is a bed of what was originally 
fine mud, evidently formed at a great depth below the level of the sea, 
and in very quiet water, far beyond the influence of tides or currents, 
and outside the zone of deposition of any muddy outflows brought by 
rivers from the land. On the bed of fine clay which slowly accumu- 
lated on the sea floor, there lived one set after another of those curious 
organisms already referred to as Graptolites. No doubt these, like their 
predecessors, lived in little colonies, each moored to the bottom in 
much the same way as seaweeds are attached to stones and shells on the 
sea floor of the present day. But beyond the fact that they pertained 
to the same subdivision of the animal kingdom as those which preceded 
them, these and their predecessors had but little in common. Every 
one of the older forms that had come into existence had gradually died 
out, and those which lived during the earlier part of the Silurian Period 
were different in many essential particulars from the graptolites of Ordo- 
vician times. A few Brachiopods, and some hardy Crustaceans, lived in the 
ocean depths along with the Graptolites. There are many good reasons 
for believing that one generation of these Graptolites succeeded another 
for a very long time without undergoing any marked change in character, 
or without becoming extinct. Moreover, in the quiet depths of the 
ocean, where the conditions remained uniform, as they usually do now 
over a very large area, the same species of Graptolites were to be found 
far and wide wherever the nature of their surroundings remained uni- 
form. For this reason as well as others Graptolites have been found to 
be of great value as affording a clue to the particular chapter of the 
geological record which they represent. To put this statement into 
another form : these Graptolites lived over very extensive areas of the 
sea bottom, but they throve best only where the water was perennially 
clear, or, in other words, where only a very thin film of sediment found 
its way to the ocean floor in the course of a century. In many cases it 
would appear that the chief deposit there consisted of the remains of 
the Graptolites themselves, mingled with a very small proportion of 
extremely fine mud, the deposition of which was characterized as much 

13 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

by its uniformity of rate as by the enormously long time required for the 
accumulation of a single inch. There are many analogous phenomena 
recently brought to light in connection with the deep sea oozes of 
modern times. By careful study and comparison of these facts over a 
large area geologists have now obtained sufficient knowledge to be able 
to state with certainty at what particular epoch in the Silurian Period 
any given species of Graptolite lived. Or, conversely, if they find the 
Graptolite, its occurrence informs them unerringly of the geological 
dates of the film of clay in which that particular species was entombed. 

These quiet deep-water conditions remained unaltered through a 
long period of time. In the meantime important changes of the sea 
bottom were in progress elsewhere, and in course of time these gra- 
dually affected the area under consideration. The next change gave rise 
to a deposit which, although evidently formed in quiet and deep water, 
does not appear to have afforded the conditions suitable for the growth 
of organisms of any kind. The deposit in question took the form of 
very fine grey mud, which in some respects appears to correspond to one 
of the grey oceanic oozes of the present day, or, possibly, to the fine 
azoic mud which is slowly accumulating in the depths of the Black Sea. 
In its present compacted and altered condition we know it by the name 
of the Pale Slates — a not altogether appropriate name seeing that, al- 
though characterized by a grey tint, the rocks rarely form what may be 
called slates, in any sense of the word. 

While the deposition of the Pale Slates went on in the tranquil 
depths of the sea over the area now under consideration, coarser sedi- 
ments, laid down in shallower water, were deposited in the areas to the 
north of the Border ; and the same occurred also in what is now the western 
part of Wales. The total thickness of the Pale Slates rarely exceeds 600 
feet ; but the deposits found nearer the land attain a thickness in both 
Wales and Scotland of some thousands of feet. It is only near the 
upper and the lower limits that the Pale Slates contain any traces of 
life. 

After this deep-water and azoic episode in the history of Cumber- 
land there followed a long period of conditions of moderate depth, during 
which subsidence went on concurrently with the deposition of mud, clay 
and sand, which, as in other cases, represents the materials worn off the 
land — wherever that may have been — and transported to the sea by the 
agency of rivers. It was during this period the Coniston Flags, Coniston 
Grits, Bannisdale Slates and the Kirkby Moor Flags, etc., were formed. 
The thickness of sediments found in this way cannot be less than 15,000 
feet in the north-west of England, and may have been more even than 
that. 

To-day, these old sediments, indurated and changed in many ways, 
are known by the following names, counting from the lowest upward, 
and have at least the thicknesses stated : Graptolitic Mudstone and Pale 
Slates, 600 feet ; Coniston Flags and Grits, 8,000 feet ; Bannisdale 
Slates, 4,000 feet ; Kirkby Moor Flags, 3,000 feet. No traces of 

M 



GEOLOGY 

volcanic action of any kind have yet been found here in rocks of this 
age. 

Life of the Silurian Period. — As the Ordovician Period was one of 
great length many important changes in the organic world took place. 
If, to the time required for the evolution of these changes, we add the 
enormously long interval represented by the unconformity ; and, again, to 
these, add the time required for the accumulation of the Silurian Rocks, 
we may be prepared to find that the slow march of organic evolution 
had given rise to many and important developments in the organic world. 
Most of the Trilobites, a group so characteristic of the different zones of 
the Ordovician Rocks, had now died out ; the last of the Graptolites dis- 
appeared near the close of the Silurian Period, and so with various other 
groups not so conspicuous as fossils. On the other hand, the Arthropoda 
developed along a new line, and we find the great water-scorpions, or 
Eurypterids, amongst the dominant forms of invertebrate life. Near the 
close of the Silurian Period true vertebrates of low zoological grade, make 
their appearance. They are represented by several varied types of fishes, 
all primitive creatures belonging to the very lowest ranks of the same 
group as the sharks, skates, and rays of the present time. These Silurian 
fishes can hardly be said to be provided with any true fins except the 
tail. 

Of the plants of the Silurian Period, again, we know but little. 
The few traces of plants that occur in the Cumberland rocks of this age 
were probably of the nature of seaweeds. 

{c) Taking into account the thickness of rock stripped off by de- 
nudation in the interval between the close of the Ordovician Period and 
the commencement of Silurian times, and adding to that the time estimated 
to be required for the formation of the Silurian sediments, the author of 
this article considers that a period of 68,000,000 of years is required. 

DEUTEROZOIC PERIOD 

Carboniferous Rocks. 

B. Upper, including the trae Coal Measures and the Millstone Grit. 

A. Lower, including the Yoredale Rocks, the Mountain Limestone, and 

the Lower Limestone Shale. 

Old Red Rocks. 

B. The Upper Old Red Sandstone. 
Great Unconformity. 

A. Traces of the Caledonian Old Red (Granites, etc.). 
Great Unconformity. 

IV. Pre-Devonian Unconformity. — {a) Hitherto we have had no 
clue to any of the geographical conditions that prevailed during the 
periods noticed, except those mentioned in the foregoing notes. But as 
we trace the history of Cumberland nearer and nearer to our own times, 
more complete evidence is available, and we are able to get a much 
clearer insight into the nature of several events of the past. This is 
especially true of the period that succeeded Silurian times. The evi- 
dence afforded by rocks of this age in southern Scotland informs us that 

15 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

after the prolonged period of subsidence, during which the Silurian 
Rocks were formed, the sea bottom remained for a time stationary, then 
began a set of earth movements which, at great depths, gradually and 
quietly compressed the lately-formed strata into folds, closer and closer, 
as the compression continued, and at the same time the lateral thrusts 
forced up the surface, so that by degrees great ridges of considerable 
extent were elevated above the level of the sea. Narrow areas of sea 
water were thus isolated by the upheaval, and gradually passed from the 
condition of lagoons into that of shallow inland lakes. As the movement 
extended, the whole of the part under notice gradually passed into the 
state of a continental area, from which the sea margin receded farther 
and farther as the upheaval slowly progressed. One of the consequences 
of these conditions was that the annual rainfall gradually decreased in 
amount, and fell only at irregular and often distant intervals. As a 
consequence, vegetation could no longer thrive; land animals, such as 
there were at the time, were forced to migrate to districts where the cli- 
matal conditions were more favourable ; and hence, by degrees, the whole 
area gradually passed into an upland desert region far removed from the 
sea. When it did happen to rain the amount precipitated in a given 
time was often very large ; so that after one of these occasional thunder- 
storms roaring torrents were quickly formed, and soon tore their way 
down the hill slopes, thereby spreading great masses of torrential debris 
on the plains around. In the intervals between these spates the dry 
climate gave rise to great diurnal extremes of temperature, which caused 
any rocks exposed to their influence to expand rapidly with the heat 
during the day and to contract to the same extent at night, as a con- 
sequence of the rapid radiation which always takes place where there is 
but a small amount of moisture in the air. In other words, the lately 
formed marine sediments, now consolidated into stone, were shivered 
into fragments by the diurnal extremes of temperature, in much the same 
manner as they are in the Syrian wadies of to-day. The wind blew the 
rock fragments about from place to place, bowling them along and 
against each other until they were worn into perfectly- rounded grains, 
and it finally heaped these sands up in great ridges much as it does in 
all desert regions to-day. 

Lakes were represented here and there by a few shallow pools, each 
one of the same nature as the schatts of Algeria, or the shallow inland 
lakes of the Aralo-Caspian area of Central Asia, and containing more or 
less saline waters, such as are now to be found in desert regions in various 
parts of the world. There is no reason to suppose that the average daily 
temperature was higher than we experience in these islands now, but the 
maxima and minima were much greater, and it was certainly much hotter 
in the sun of a day and equally colder at night, and in this respect more 
like the climate of Natal than it is with us now. 

Analogy with modern desert areas quite warrants us in picturing to 
our mind's eye the skies of these days in ancient Cumberland as usually 
cloudless, and as characterized rather by a yellow haze, due to the vast 

i6 



HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 




' ifi 

llUPPUR 
O ^ LOWLft 









OLD RED 
SANDSTONE 



ORDOVICIAN 



L'cdiow ffrovp 

Wenhick, Tarnnnon, and Birkhill Qr'/itp 

Conislim LitiwMone Qritui) 
Milhonm Rocks atul Skiddaw Slates 

1 Basalt. Dolerite, atid Qnbhro 
Andeaiit, Lavas, and Tuffs 
Diorite 
Granite and Felsite 



TLj- EcEmbin^ drogfiijihirn] tnfltii 



SCALE 4 MILES TO AN INCH 



THE VICTORIA HISTORY OUHt , 




XGJar thnlnni FW, 



Counts Boundary shown thus 



HE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



icio""" 



GEOLOGY 

quantities of fine dust constantly suspended in the air, than by the tender 
blue of the purer skies with which we are familiar.^ 

Perhaps it may be as well to mention in this place, that concurrently 
with the progress of these events in the northern parts of the kingdom, 
geographical conditions of a different kind existed further south and south- 
east. In the areas referred to, marine sediments, including important beds 
of marine limestone, were in process of formation. These are well seen 
in the Rhineland, and almost equally well in Devonshire, where they 
were first studied by geologists. For the latter reason the southern type 
of rocks is termed the Devonian Rocks, and the period when they were 
formed, the Devonian Period. Henceforth, therefore, the events now 
under description will be referred to here as having occurred during 
the Devonian Period. But the northern type of rocks, which consist 
largely of sandstones of a dominant red colour, will still be referred to as 
the Old Red Sandstone Rocks. 

{I)) The Devonian Period in the northern parts of the kingdom was, 
as already mentioned, one of considerable terrestrial disturbances, which 
manifested themselves by great local upheavals, accompanied by earth- 
quakes, and followed by volcanic outbursts, which eventually assumed 
extensive proportions. With the volcanoes themselves, as well as with 
the stratified rocks that grew up with them, we happen not to be very 
much concerned, for reasons which will be stated presently. But the 
former presence of the volcanoes has left its mark in Cumberland in a 
striking manner, and in many different ways, the nature of which will 
be considered after the following preliminary explanation. 

(c) There is reason to believe that within the lower part of the core 
of a volcano the rocks have been reduced to a pasty or semifluid condition 
by the uprise of those superheated alkaline waters, which have already 
been mentioned as forming one of the principal factors in all volcanic 
eruptions. It is within this plutonic region, which may be situated 
several miles below the summit of the volcano, that such rocks as granites 
and the rocks allied thereto are generated. Indeed, there is reason to 
believe that the greater part of all such plutonic masses have originated 
deep within the earth's crust at the root of a volcano. In other words, 
areas of granitic rocks generally mark the site of former volcanoes. The 
zone within which these rocks are generated may conveniently be re- 
ferred to as the ' granitic zone.' 

Furthermore, the same superheated alkaline waters, whose uprise is 
so essentially connected with volcanic action, permeate the sedimentary 
and other rocks contiguous to the lower part of a volcano, and there pro- 
duce very important changes by giving rise to what is termed contact 
metamorphism. This zone may be referred to as the ' zone of thermo- 
metamorphism.' 

If the reader will bear these general principles in mind it will 
enable him to understand the nature and origin of some important 

1 Goodchild, ' Desert Conditions in Britain,' Tram. Geol. Sec. Edin., vii. pp. 203-222 
(1896-97). 

I 17 c 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

changes which affected the rocks of Cumberland at this period, and which 
have left vestiges at many places, both within the county and around it. 
These will be stated in historical order, even though doing so involves 
a reference to events that took place prior to the period under notice. 

{d) During the later history of the Cumberland volcanoes, the gran- 
itic zones beneath the focus of each gradually ate their way upwards 
through the sedimentary rocks and into the material of the volcano itself; 
so that the lavas, tuffs, and intrusive masses of the inner parts of some of 
the volcanoes were gradually replaced by, or perhaps transformed into, 
material which afterwards consolidated as granitic masses. Furthermore, 
with the enlargement of the granitic zones, the zones of thermo-meta- 
morphism also extended farther and farther into the overlying rocks, so 
that the lately formed volcanic rocks themselves were in some few cases 
reduced to a softened state, and kept in that condition long enough to 
permit of a certain amount of rearrangement of their constituents. As 
the temperature of the whole mass gradually fell, this process finally led 
to the crystallization of some of these rearranged materials. The reader 
who wishes to understand the geology of the country around Keswick, 
Ambleside, Buttermere, etc., should try to comprehend this, for a large 
proportion of what was at one time loose fragmentary tuff has been altered 
by these changes into rock which, in many cases, can only be distin- 
guished from lava by patient investigation in the field, supplemented by 
the careful study of thin sections of the rock under the microscope. The 
rocks in question were referred to by the Geological Survey officers who 
mapped the ground (and who, therefore, had an intimate knowledge of 
the true relations of these rocks) as ' altered ashes.' The late Mr. Clifton 
Ward very rightly laid great stress upon this point, the importance of 
which in the present connection, can hardly be overestimated. It was 
not only the tuffs which were altered in this way, but the lavas them- 
selves also underwent a certain amount of change by the same process ; 
while the sedimentary rocks were first softened and subsequently re- 
crystallized to such an extent that they are hardly any longer recognizable 
as sediments. A fine series of these altered rocks was placed by Mr. Ward 
in the Keswick Museum, the Museum of Practical Geology in London, 
and in the Carlisle Museum, and they were admirably described by him 
in the Geological Survey Memoir on the ' Northern Part of the English 
Lake District.' 

[e) Complicated alterations of also the earlier-formed volcanic 
rocks later originated as a further consequence of the growth of the vol- 
cano and the progressive uprise of the granitic zone at its base. The 
lava streams, beds of tuff, dykes and sills, of which the volcano was 
built, gradually passed through every stage of conversion into crystalline 
masses, and became more and more interlaced with, and traversed by 
rocks which had been crystalline from their first stage of consolidation, 
until these inner zones of the old volcano assumed the structure of a 
complex mass, whose details seem at first sight to offer endless difficulties 
to the geologist. 

i8 



GEOLOGY 

Carrock Fell is a striking example of the feature referred to. It 
was described at some length by the late Mr. Ward, and has since 
formed the subject of an important memoir by Messrs. Marr and 
Harker. Another area of the same general nature occurs around the 
foot of Thirlmere.^ 

There are several other areas in the Lake district which are of the 
complicated nature here referred to, and as most of these give rise to 
striking scenery, the subject can hardly be passed over without some 
kind of reference, even though that reference involves certain technic- 
alities. 

{f) There is another set of phenomena which originated soon 
after the close of the Silurian Period, and which gives rise to effects of 
considerable commercial importance, as well as being largely concerned 
in the evolution of the scenery. This is the phenomenon known as 
CLEAVAGE, Under its influence rocks of various kinds split with more 
or less facility in parallel directions, which bear no necessary relation to 
any of the original planes of structure. All true slates split solely under 
the influence of this structure. The exact origin of slaty cleavage has 
not yet been quite satisfactorily explained ; but it will suffice for the 
purpose at present in view to state that it is certainly due to a slight 
rearrangement of the particles composing the rock affected, which has 
been brought about by intense lateral pressure exerted under certain 
special conditions at present imperfectly understood. The true nature 
of cleavage does not strike one so much in connection with the slates 
of Wales as it does with those of the Lake district, because in this 
latter case the bands which mark the original bedding of the rock are 
much more prominently displayed, and because slate in one form or 
another is largely quarried and is so extensively used, in Cumberland 
especially, for building purposes. It may be remarked here that the 
slates of the Lake district do not quite accord with the definition laid 
down in text-books, inasmuch as most of them consist of rocks of vol- 
canic origin ; and these are not, and never were, rocks of argillaceous 
composition, to which, judging by the statements copied into text-books, 
cleavage is supposed to be confined. 

In whatever way slaty cleavage may have originated, the date when 
the structure was impressed upon the rocks is clearly one shortly after 
the close of the Silurian Period. It affects the rocks in different degrees, 
in accordance with their composition. Tuffs and fine-grained rocks of 
argillaceous composition cleave to the highest degree of perfection. 

* The explanation generally given of the plutonic phenomena referred to in the last 
paragraph is that they are due to the effects of heat given off by incandescent molten rock, 
which has been bodily and violently transferred from a lower level to a higher from some zone 
of fusion within the earth's crust. It will be seen that the writer of this article regards them 
primarily as manifestations of the eflFects of superheated alkaline waters, which have effected a 
gradual transformation of rocks in situ, in the case of metamorphic rock, and an equally 
gradual replacement in the case of the so-called ' igneous ' rock. According to this view, 
therefore, all eruptive rocks represent the products of consolidation from aqueous solutions ; 
and water, not dry heat, is the chief agent concerned. 

19 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Next to these in this respect come argillaceous limestones, as, for 
example, some of the beds of Coniston Limestone. Lavas in Cum- 
berland show only faint traces of cleavage, while grits and greywackes 
hardly show any cleavage at all. It may be remarked that in North 
Wales Pre-Carboniferous rocks of all kinds are cleaved more or less ; 
while in Scotland the same rocks, even where most intensely com- 
pressed and contorted, rarely show any trace of cleavage. In Ireland 
cleavage affects rocks of Carboniferous age, as in the case of the Carboni- 
ferous Slate near Cork. Cleavage affects these rocks in Cumberland to 
a decreasing extent as we go northward, and it ceases to produce any 
marked effect north of an east and west line through Cross Fell. It is 
hardly discernible in the northern part of the Caldbeck Fells, where, by 
the way, true bedding has been mistaken for cleavage. 

(g) After this digression we are in a better position to understand 
the events which took place in Cumberland in Devonian times. The 
period of upheaval crumpling and cleavage of the strata, added to that 
of their subsequent waste and removal by surface agencies, which fol- 
lowed the Silurian Period, must have been one of prolonged duration, if 
we may judge by the amount of disturbance and the enormous thickness 
of rock removed. It seems probable that mountains of considerable 
elevation and consisting of these Silurian rocks had arisen, and that it 
was in connection with these upheavals that the later set of volcanoes had 
arisen to which previous reference has been made. There is good reason 
to believe that a considerable mass of these Devonian volcanic rocks 
accumulated here, and that they formerly extended, with a marked un- 
conformity, over all the Lake district rocks, and have been subsequently 
removed by denudation. But although the volcanic rocks themselves 
have disappeared, the volcanoes have left their mark in other ways, for 
there is reason to believe that several of the granite masses, such as those 
of Shap, Skiddaw, and Eskdale, not to mention smaller areas less well 
known, mark the site of former volcanoes belonging to the period under 
consideration. The granites of Cumberland are therefore of two ages, 
Ordovician and Devonian. 

In connection with these Devonian volcanoes there was a repetition 
of the phenomena already noticed under the Ordovician Period. Con- 
tact alteration took place around the granite areas, and the more ancient 
lavas and tuffs, more or less altered by changes due to the long-continued 
circulation of underground waters, underwent considerable change in 
lithological character. It is important to remember in studying this 
set of facts that the contact-alteration of rocks which have lost part of 
their alkalies and have suffered chemical change in other ways, must 
necessarily give rise to a kind of rock quite different from what resulted 
from contact-alteration before they were so changed. The effects have 
been very remarkable in some cases, and were described many years 
ago by Mr. Ward, and more recently, by the light of much fuller 
knowledge, by Mr. Harker in the case of the tuffs, etc., around the Shap 
granite. 

20 



GEOLOGY 

The decomposition products of the lava have been reconstituted, and 
have given rise to Epidote (after Saponite), Garnets, Biotite, Hornblende, 
Felspar and other minerals ; while the limestones, where so acted upon, 
have passed into crystalline marbles, like those of the counties of Perth, 
Aberdeen and Inverness, and now yield Idocrase and other ordinary lime 
silicates which occur in impure limestones in general when these are 
affected by prolonged contact metamorphism. 

Another result of the same cause has been the welding of the cleav- 
age planes, which has taken place in zones of variable width around the 
intrusive masses, by which the slates have been recompacted. 

{h) Life of the Devonian Period. — In Cumberland not a single trace 
of organic remains of any kind occurs in connection with the rocks of 
this period, because they were mostly of desert origin, and barren of life. 
It may, however, be well to make reference to the fact that a great 
abundance and variety of animal life is known to have existed in the 
seas of the same period. The organic remains found elsewhere in the 
deposits formed in the old inland lakes of this time inform us of a great 
advance in the evolution of vertebrate life, for we find in these rocks a 
considerable variety of fishes whose zoological grades extend from some 
of the simplest to some as highly organized as any yet living in the 
waters of the present day. Furthermore, vegetation had advanced to an 
equal extent. 

( / ) Continental conditions accompanied by an arid climate, with 
the land undergoing slow upheaval, continued for a very long time after 
the decline of the volcanic episode. We know by the important series of 
changes which elsewhere took place in both the organic and the inorganic 
world that this period must have been one of enormous length. In 
Cumberland there exist only very fragmentary records of these changes, 
because the period succeeding that which has just been noticed was one 
during which a vast thickness of the older strata, including almost every 
trace of the volcanic cones, was slowly and gradually swept away. There 
is some reason for believing that at the period next to be considered the 
area now occupied by Cumberland and Westmorland consisted of a low- 
land tract which lay at the foot of a great mountain region nearly co- 
incident with the area occupied at present by the southern uplands of 
Scotland and the Cheviots. From this area the torrents which were 
formed during the irregular periods when rain fell, by degrees transported 
vast quantities of shingle, gravel and sand from the mountain area lying 
to the north-west, and gradually spread these wasted fragments of the 
old northern land over a large part of the area under consideration. 
This fact is rendered quite evident by an examination of the materials 
of the conglomerates of the Upper Old Red Sandstone in Cumberland. 
At Melmerby these contain abundant fragments of the Cheviot andesites, 
together with some rocks from the southern uplands of Scotland ; while 
the same conglomerates at the foot of UUswater, which form the 
rounded hills, Easter and Wester Mell Fells, yield abundant representa- 
tives of the Silurian and Ordovician greywackes of the south ofScot- 

21 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

land. As we trace these Upper Old Red conglomerates towards Shap, 
we find the same evidence continued, with the addition that, near Shap, 
fragments of the Shap Granite itself set in, and may be readily gathered 
from these rocks. 

The full significance of the fact just mentioned may be realized 
when it is remembered that such a rock as the Shap Granite could have 
been found only at a great depth below the surface, which depth may 
well be stated as several miles. In order, therefore, that a rock found 
at such a depth should make its appearance at the surface, there must be 
an upheaval equal to at least that extent, and the overlying thickness of 
rock must have been totally removed. This waste usually takes place pari 
passu with the upheaval. At the present day the rate of the removal of 
similar rock can hardly exceed one foot in about 4,000 years, and may 
be at as slow a rate as one in 6,000. But, if we set the rate at the time 
under consideration at one foot in three thousand years, it will be evident 
that the time required must extend to a great many millions of years. 
And yet all this took place after the period when the Old Red Sand- 
stone volcanoes had ceased to erupt, and prior to the commencement of 
the deposition of the Upper Old Red ! As an additional fact of the 
same nature it may be mentioned that the aggregate thickness of the 
strata across whose edges in the Lake district the Upper Old Red un- 
conformably lies exceeds/w miles. That is to say, before the Upper Old 
Red was laid down, an aggregate thickness of five miles of rock, mostly 
of a very durable nature, had been slowly and gradually swept away 
from this area. 

(_/■) The Life of the Upper Old Red Sandstone. — The rock under 
notice having been formed under desert conditions, might be expected 
to be, as it actually is, without traces of life. Evidence obtained else- 
where, however, shows that under favourable conditions marine life 
flourished. In the rivers, and perhaps also in the inland lakes, there still 
remained some of the wonderful fishes which characterized the Cale- 
donian Old Red Sandstone, but nearly all of them are of different species 
— the long lapse of time since the commencement of the older period, 
added to the equally long time represented by the great unconformity, 
having sufficed for the gradual evolution of many new forms and the 
consequent extinction of those of the older types. 

{k) A very long period of time is implied by the vast unconformity 
which followed the Silurian Period and preceded the formation of the 
rocks of Devonian age. To that there must be added the time required 
for the formation of the Old Red Sandstone itself. If, instead of using 
these data in computing the time required, we base this estimate upon 
the rate of formation of the marine limestones formed elsewhere during 
the period under consideration (assuming that rate to be one foot in 
25,000 years), we arrive at a total of 250,000,000 years for the period 
between the close of the Silurian Period and the commencement of Car- 
boniferous times. 

V. Carboniferous Period. — {a) With the deposition of the 

22 



GEOLOGY 

Upper Old Red Sandstone commenced an important change in the 
order of things. From being part of a great continental upland, far 
from the sea, with a small and irregular rainfall, and with but scanty 
traces of life, it gradually passed to conditions in all essential respects 
almost the very opposite. The change was brought about, first, by a 
cessation of the repeated upheavals of the land, which had previously 
gone on so long a time, and then to an equally slow and gradual 
movement in the opposite direction. As the land quietly subsided the 
sea, which was distant at the outset, gradually advanced nearer and 
nearer. With closer proximity to the sea, the rainfall became more 
regular, and the former extremes of temperature were gradually miti- 
gated. Finally, the climate passed from one of a continental type to the 
type usually found under insular conditions. With the advent of condi- 
tions more favourable to life, a varied and abundant vegetation began to 
spring up, and animal life on the land, so scarce during the former 
period, now immigrated in great force ; and its growth advanced by 
leaps and bounds. The transition phases in climate are marked by a 
series of deposits which English geologists term the Lower Limestone 
Shale, which in Ireland form part of the Carboniferous Slate, and 
which the geologists of Scotland know as the Ballagan Beds. The 
general character of these rocks is very uniform, wherever they occur 
throughout the kingdom. They are very imperfectly developed on the 
margin of the Lake district near Penruddock, but are much better seen 
at several places in Westmorland, notably at Shap Summit. They also 
occur in tlae north-east of the county, and are traceable at Melmerby. 
In general terms they may be said to consist of old beds of clay, silt and 
sand, which were deposited mainly in sea water, in shallow lagoons and 
in deltas, at a time when the subsidence of the land first gave admittance 
to the sea, and just when the climate was changing from the arid condi- 
tion of Old Red times to the humid climate that succeeded, or from 
a continental climate to one that was insular. 

The general behaviour of these old sediments where they are 
studied over a large area, shows that their materials have been trans- 
ported in the main in a south-easterly direction. We may conclude 
from that fact that the old land from whose waste they were derived lay 
somewhere to the north-west. 

The deposition of the Upper Old Red Sandstone had not by any 
means quite levelled up all the inequalities of the surface. One of the 
larger ridges thus left can easily be made out still. It ranged in a 
nearly east and west direction through Cumberland, passing through 
Whitehaven, the south side of Ullswater, Penrith, below Cross Fell, 
past the High Force in Teesdale, beyond which point the evidence 

fails. 

{b) After a time, as the land slowly sank, the sea advanced farther 
and farther northward, and Cumberland subsided at a sufficiently rapid 
rate to allow of the extension of fairly deep and quite clear sea water 
over the greater part of the area. After that stage had been reached 

23 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

there set in a very long period during which the principal materials laid 
down upon the sea bottom were beds of limestone, all of them more or 
less of the nature of the various calcareous oozes which are in process of 
formation in the deeper recesses of the ocean at the present day. There 
is no proof of the existence of anything at all resembling coral reefs ; 
although, as is well known, isolated groups of corals, all belonging to 
an extinct order, locally occurred in abundance. The general nature of 
the fossils found in these limestones suggests the presence of equable and 
moderately warm surface currents, which are usually favourable to the 
development of animal and vegetable organisms. 

With the evidence we now possess it is not difficult to fill in a few 
details regarding the physical geography of the Cumberland area at this 
time. To begin with a feature about which a widespread misapprehen- 
sion exists : There is not a particle of evidence to show that the present 
Lake district represents an old island in the seas of the period under 
notice. There was, it is true, the easterly ridge already referred to ; 
but the subsidence of the sea bottom carried this below water at an 
early stage, and there is not a single fact that would indicate an area 
of even shallow water, let alone an island, which coincides with any 
part of the present Lake district. It will be shown presently that 
the Lake district as an upland area did not come into existence until 
Tertiary times. We have clear evidence of the delta of a great river, 
which represents the materials brought south-eastward from a land 
area somewhere to the north-west. As the land subsided the seaward 
edge of the delta receded in the direction of the continent. A study 
of the present distribution of the terrigenous deposits of this period (that 
is to say, the gravels, sands, and muds derived from the land, as dis- 
tinguished from the limestones) shows that the axis of the delta lay far 
to the east of the area under notice. As a consequence we find the 
proportional thickness of the deposits from clear and quiet water to that 
of those deposits which have been mechanically transported from the 
land steadily increasing as we advance from east to west. This is true of 
the rocks belonging to the period under notice, not only in Cumberland, 
but also in most other parts of the kingdom as well. 

To gain a clear conception of the sequence of events to which the 
Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Cumberland are due, the reader should 
endeavour to realize the effisct of periodic subsidences of level alternating 
with periods when the land was stationary, or even subject to occasional 
oscillations of level. With a subsidence the clear water of the sea 
advances over an area where prior to that subsidence there stood the 
estuary lagoons and shallow seas of a delta, the waters of which were 
more or less turbid and laden with the materials wasted from the old 
land. While the land remained stationary the delta gradually pushed 
seaward and covered the deposits found in clear water with the 
sediments derived from the land. With oscillations of level, in which 
the net result of the movement is one of subsidence, alternations of 
deposits proper to clear water alternate with the clay, sand and gravel, 

24 



GEOLOGY 

and other terrigenous deposits from the land. If, further, this con- 
ception can be still more extended by realizing that the various deposits 
laid down under any given set of conditions formed a series of crescents 
one within another, in which the inner crescents are made of coarse 
materials transported from the land, and the outer ones of organico- 
chemical deposits laid down in the clear water of the sea, the reader 
may obtain a good generalized view of the sequence of events that arose 
during Carboniferous times in Cumberland. 

It has already been stated that, while purely marine conditions pre- 
vailed in Cumberland and in the areas to the south-east, those not farther 
off than the south of Scotland were more or less of an estuarine nature. 
Furthermore, no traces of any kind of volcanic action occur in these 
rocks in Cumberland, although there is abundant and perfectly clear 
evidence of the existence of numerous small volcanoes in the northern 
area referred to. To put this statement into a more definite form : 
While a deep-sea limestone was in process of formation, say at Greystoke, 
deposits of fine mud were being laid down in the Bewcastle area, and 
volcanoes were in full activity in Dumfries and Roxburgh. Further 
north still, at the same period, there was land, upon which flourished a 
luxuriant vegetation, whose remains being drifted seaward, and becoming 
entombed in the terrigenous sediments, gave rise to much carbonaceous 
matter, which in extreme cases took the form of seams of oil-shale and 
beds of coal. It is the presence in deposits of the same age as that of the 
limestones of Greystoke Park of an abundance of these carbonaceous 
materials that has given rise to the name Carboniferous Limestone, which 
is applied to the rocks now under consideration. Around the head 
waters of the River Eden the aggregate thickness of this subdivision 
attains to fully 3,500 feet ; but as these rocks are traced towards the 
Solway, or in other words as they are traced from an area where they 
were found under deep-water conditions towards the part where the 
conditions on the whole were shallower, the limestones gradually be- 
come thinner, and are more and more divided by beds of shale and 
sandstone, until in the northern part of the county the aggregate thick- 
ness of the beds of limestone is barely one-tenth as much near the mouth 
of the Eden as it is near its source. 

(c) The Carboniferous Limestone Series is locally divisible into a 
lower subdivision, to which the term Mountain Limestone is usually 
restricted, and an upper, the Yoredale Rocks. These two subdivisions, 
bracketed with the Lower Limestone Shales, form the Lower Carboni- 
ferous Rocks of geologists. In Cumberland the Carboniferous Limestone 
Series may be said to present three types. Of these we may take as 
one type that found in south-east Cumberland, which is much the same 
as that occurring throughout most of Westmorland and north-west 
Yorkshire. In its fullest development this consists of an almost undivided 
mass of pure grey marine limestone, locally exceeding 2,000 feet 
in thickness. Above this come the Yoredale Rocks, which consist 
essentially of a great mass of shale with interbedded sandstones and flag- 

25 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

stones, and with a few relatively thin beds of marine limestone, which 
are wonderfully persistent in character over a very large area. The 
total thickness of this subdivision ranges from 1,500 to 2,000 feet. 
These Yoredale Rocks are of great commercial importance in Cum- 
berland, as being the chief repository of much of the haematite and 
nearly all the lead ores. Their details are therefore given more fully 
on pp. 27, 28. 

The second type of Lower Carboniferous Rocks is found in north 
Cumberland, and is like that which characterizes these rocks through- 
out Northumberland, and indeed most of southern Scotland as well. 
In this type (which, of course, graduates into each of the others) the 
Mountain Limestone consists essentially of a thick pile of sandstones, 
with subordinate shales, and with a few thin and impure beds of lime- 
stone, which represent the landward edge of the thick pile of wedges of 
limestone found on the same horizon to the south-east. Putting this 
statement in another form, we may say that the thick mass of limestone 
found at the head of Edenside gradually gives place, bed by bed, to 
sandstones and shales as the rocks trend from south to north, the change 
affecting the limestones from below upwards, so that the lowest changes 
farthest south and the upper retains its character farthest north. In 
the north Cumberland type the Yoredale Rocks, on the other hand, re- 
tain their general character with very little change. These limestones, 
however, also show a tendency to split up and to pass into sandstones and 
shales, the lowest limestones changing first as they are traced from south 
to north, as in the case of the older group. 

The third type is that occurring in west Cumberland. This de- 
velopment of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks is unlike the others in 
some important respects. The essential difference is due to the fact 
that the chief axis of the delta during Lower Carboniferous times lay 
far to the east of Cumberland. As a result of these conditions more 
sand and terrigenous materials of other kinds were deposited on the 
east side of Cumberland than over the area where the Lake district is 
now, where the water remained deeper and clearer. Hence the chief 
deposit laid down was thalassic and consisted mainly of beds of lime- 
stone. These, traced from east to west, gradually become thinner, the 
beds thinning away from below upwards, as in the other cases noted, 
but with this difference, that, in the present case, they are not replaced 
by sandstones or shales. The changes just described affect all the Moun- 
tain Limestone and the Yoredale Rocks as well. The result is that 
bed after bed of limestone, from below upwards, thins away as we 
advance from Penrith in the direction of Whitehaven, until nearly the 
whole of the Mountain Limestones have coalesced into one or two thin 
beds. The sandstones and shales of the Yoredale Rocks have likewise 
thinned in the same manner, so that at their westernmost exposure the 
limestones have nearly all come together, and now form one almost 
undivided mass. The so-called Mountain Limestone of west Cumber- 
land is thus of Yoredale age — the underlying beds having thinned away 

26 



GEOLOGY 

entirely. It may not be out of place to mention here that the present 
writer determined this point in the early ' seventies,' and officially re- 
ported the foregoing conclusion to the Director of the Geological Survey 
in May, 1874. 

As the Yoredale Rocks are of considerable commercial importance, 
some details regarding them are given here, as follows : — 

The highest beds are stated first ; and the local names, as employed 
in Alston Moor and elsewhere, are given in square brackets : — 

Yoredale Rocks 
(i) Upper Section : — 

"Thickness about 500 feet, strata very persistent. The sandstones and 
shales are not subject to the westerly thinning that affects rocks of 
this kind which belong to the Lower Section : — 

Sandstones and shales, with an important and very persistent coal 
seam [The Tanhill Seam] which ranges up to 4 feet in thick- 
ness. 

Shales with [The Fell Top] Limestones. 

Shale. 

Limestone [The Crag Limestone of Alston = the Crow Limestone 
and Chert of Yorkshire] . 

Sandstone (with two or more coals, locally worked) [The Fire- 
stone, Ten Fadom Grit]. 

Shale. 

Limestone [The Little Limestone = the Red Beds Limestone and 
Chert]. 

Coarse grits [The Coal Sills] with a very constant seam of coal [The 
Tindal Fell Seam] which ranges to 4 feet 6 inches, and is 
locally accompanied by other seams. These represent the 
Edge Coals of the Lothians i^ide Gunn, Trans. Geol. Soc. Edin. 
vii. 367), the Lickar Coals of Northumberland, and shales and 
cherts. 

The foregoing strata represent the lower part of the Whitehaven 
Coal Measures. 

(2) Lower Section : — 

Total thickness ranging from 500 feet on the west of Cumberland, to 
1,200 on the east : — 

Limestone [The Main, Twelve Fadom, Dryburn, or Great Lime- 
stone] . 

Coal, sandstone, shale. 

[The Limestone Post = The Upper Undersett Limestone of north- 
west Yorkshire.] 

Coarse Grit [The Quarry Hazel of Alston]. 

Shales, thinning westward. 

Siliceous limestone {i.e. containing organic silica, and not sand) [The 
Four Fadom, Low Dean, or Lower Undersett Limestone]. 

27 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Sandstones and shales, thinning westward. 
[The Three Yards, or Acre] Limestone, persistent. 
Sandstones and shales, thinning westward [Six Fadom Hazel]. 
[The Five Yards, or Eelwell] Limestone, persistent. 
Sandstone and shales, thinning westward. 
[The Scar, the Middle or Fourth Sett Limestone], persistent. 
The foregoing strata probably represent what has been called the 
' Carboniferous Limestone ' of Scotland. 

Sandstones, persistent coal and shales, thinning westward. 
Two thin, but very persistent, limestones [The Cockle-Shell Lime- 
stone, and Post Limestone]. 
Sandstones and shales, thinning westward [Tyne Bottom Plate]. 
[The Tyne Bottom, Simonstone, or Fifth Sett, Limestone], gener- 
ally persistent, but somewhat thinner in north Cumberland. 
Sandstones, shales, and some thin limestones, the two former thin- 
ning westward. 
[The Hardra, Jew, Oxford, or Sixth Sett, Limestone], generally per- 
sistent, but becoming thinner towards the north-east. 
Sandstones and shales, thinning westward of Cumberland, and thick- 
ening to the north-east. 
[Top of the Mountain Limestone], whose calcareous members have 
been already referred to as thinning steadily toward the north- 
west, and as being replaced by the Fell Sandstones and the 
lower half of the Oil Shales of the so-called ' Calciferous 
Sandstone Series,' as they trend towards the north and the 
north-east. 
So far as the Lower Carboniferous Rocks are concerned, Cumberland 
may be regarded as the area within which there set in changes of a 
most important character from both a theoretical and an economic point 
of view. 

Hardly anywhere else in the kingdom can there be found types so 
diverse as the almost purely thalassic limestone series of West Cumber- 
land, the mixed estuarine, marine and volcanic types of the Borders, 
and the normal types of these rocks as developed in the south and south- 
east of the county. In comparing them as a whole with their chrono- 
logical equivalents in Scotland, the salient points of contrast are between 
shallow-water and volcanic types on the north, with dominantly deep- 
water and non-volcanic types on the south. 

{d) At the close of the Lower Carboniferous times there appears to 
have been a very general cessation of deposit over a large area in the 
northern parts of Britain, including Scotland. It may have coincided 
with a temporary, but very general, upheaval of the sea bottom, and with 
more or less removal of the sediments already laid down. This episode 
appears to have lasted a considerable time. 

Next followed a second period of slow subsidence and consequent 
deposition, during which the so-called Millstone Grit and the true Coal 
Measures were laid down. Their history may be told in a few words ; 

28 



GEOLOGY 

for, although they undoubtedly represent a vast interval of time, the 
physical conditions under which they were formed varied but little from 
first to last. The evidence seems to show that there was still a great 
continental area to the north-west, from which rivers continued, as in 
former times, to transport the spoils of the land towards the south-east. 
But at no time throughout a period which must have been one of enor- 
mous length, did the land ever subside to an extent sufficient to admit of 
the deep sea. Sand and mud, and occasional beds of fine gravel, were 
gradually transported seaward, chiefly at the bottom of the rivers ; depo- 
sition nearly all the time being regulated by the subsidence. During 
those periods when a greater depression took place, very little mud found 
its way seaward, except such as was for a time held in suspension in the 
water, and which thereafter gently subsided to the bottom, usually in 
thin layers. In the deeper-water phases almost the only deposit laid 
down consisted of the finer remains of land vegetation, which, after 
drifting seawards, eventually became water-logged and quietly sank 
to the sea floor, there to form the materials out of which in time the 
chemical action set up by the sulphate of lime in the sea water gave 
rise to the hydrocarbon compounds which eventually consolidated as 
coal. 

Pretty pictures, relating to Carboniferous times in Cumberland, 
have often been drawn, in which the primaeval forests, from whose 
remains coal has been formed, have been represented as flourishing 
on old hills, whose remains are now supposed to be left in the Lake 
district. One would fain believe that these works of art were 
founded upon well -observed facts ; but, unfortunately, that is not 
the case. Woodlands there were, it is true, and we can easily con- 
ceive what both their broader features and their minor details must 
have been like ; but both the growing trees and the land upon 
which they are supposed to have arisen had no place anywhere near 
Cumberland. 

A small patch of true Coal Measures, let down by a powerful fault, 
occurs in the upper part of the basin of the Eden at Argill, near Stain- 
moor. Small as the outlier is, it suffices to show that Coal Measures 
once extended over a much larger area, and were more fully developed, 
than had been supposed previous to the discovery of this outlier by the 
present writer in 1872. This outlier probably represents the only patch 
of true Coal Measures occurring anywhere in Britain to the north of 
Lancashire. 

Coal seams, throughout the whole of the Carboniferous Rocks, set in 
one after another from above downwards, as the rocks are followed from 
south to north, and thick coals of good quality occur on various plat- 
forms in different parts. It is usual, and is, perhaps, advisable also, to 
designate any strata that yield coals of economic value ' Coal Measures.' 
Both the lowest beds of the Upper Carboniferous Rocks and the upper 
beds of the Lower Carboniferous yield valuable coal seams in Cumber- 
land. It would prevent much confusion if this well-known fact were 

29 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

expressed by speaking of these productive beds as ' Coal Measures,' with 
some qualification connected with the locality where they occur. Thus 
we may speak of the Whitehaven Coal Measures, even though the beds 
in question may prove to be (as the present writer has long believed) of 
the same age as the Upper Yoredales and the Millstone Grit. In like 
manner we may speak of the Brampton Coal Measures, or the Newcastle 
Coal Measures, even though it may prove, as just stated, that no rem- 
nants of the true Coal Measures occur anywhere in Britain to the north 
of the tiny remnant before referred to as occurring in the basin of the 
Eden. 

{e) Organic Remains from Carboniferous Rocks. — Just as the animals 
and plants of the Devonian Period mark a stage of organic evolution 
greatly in advance of that presented by Silurian life, so does the life of 
the Carboniferous Period, on the whole, surpass the Devonian. Probably 
the waters of the Carboniferous seas in the Cumberland area had a 
moderately high maximum temperature, and a minimum temperature 
but little below the mean. These are amongst the conditions most 
favourable for the development of animal life in the sea ; and they are 
almost equally favourable for the growth of vegetation on the land. The 
chief organic advance was made by the Vertebrata, as some of the higher 
grades of fishes (probably the Dipnoi, the ancient representatives of the 
modern Ceratodus) gradually took to an amphibious mode of life, which 
in time led to the evolution of the Amphibia, from which parent stock 
first the Anomodontia, and then the true Reptiles and the Birds, as well 
as the Mammalia, eventually arose. 

It is very interesting to note that several air-breathing Invertebrates, 
of forms not very distantly removed from those now living, had already 
come into existence in Carboniferous times. The Scorpions and the 
Galley Worms are especially noteworthy in this respect. 

As for the vegetation, we have abundant evidence of what that was 
like, even though the remains are those of plants grown at a distance. 
No plants of grade quite as high as the true Conifers had yet arisen. 
The bulk of the forest growth consisted of gigantic plants of much lower 
grade than the firs, a large number of which were allied to the Club 
Mosses (especially to Selaginella). With these were others, distantly 
allied to the modern Equisetums. It is from the spores, and from the 
macerated leaves and vegetable tissues of these in general, that our coal 
seams have arisen. 

[f) A computation of the time required for the formation of the 
Lo\'0'er Carboniferous Rocks, estimated chiefly on the assumed rate of 
one foot in 25,000 years for the marine limestones, gives 62,000,000 
years. To this has to be added the time required for the formation of 
the coal seams and the other rocks of Upper Carboniferous age, occur- 
ring in other parts of Britain, which is here set at 31,800,000 years. 
This gives a total of 93,800,000 years as the time required for the 
formation of the whole of the Carboniferous Rocks. 

30 



GEOLOGY 

NEOZOIC PERIOD 

Post-Pliocene Deposits : Peat, Alluvium, Raised Beaches, and the 
various deposits of Glacial origin. 
Unconformity. 

Dykes and Mineral Veins of Tertiary age. 
Unconformity. 

Tertiary Cretaceous rocks represented by scattered Chalk flints, etc. 
Great Unconformity. 
Lias, 

Rh^tic Rocks. 
New Red Rocks : 

B. Keuper Marl. 

St. Bees Sandstone. 
Bunter Marl. 
A. Magnesian Limestone and Plant Beds, 
Penrith Sandstone and the Brockrams, 
Great Unconformity. 

VI. The New Red Series. — {a) After the protracted period of 
subsidence and deposition, during which the Carboniferous Rocks were 
formed — a period which may well have extended over very many millions 
of years — the downward movement which prevailed during that period 
came to an end, and a movement in the opposite direction began. Just 
as in previous times the old Silurian sediments, after a protracted period 
of subsidence, were gradually crumpled and folded by earth creep, so 
that they were slowly squeezed up into mountain ranges and gradually 
wasted away ; so it was with the Carboniferous sediments at the period 
now under consideration. The evidence clearly points to the fact that 
part, at least, of the area which now forms the Lake district was one of 
the chief centres of upheavals at this early period. So, too, with part 
of the area of the southern uplands of Scotland. The old Carboniferous 
sediments, after being carried downward by subsidence miles below the 
sea level, and there gradually folded, were slowly upheaved, folded by 
lateral thrusts, and fractured and faulted as they arose. As the masses 
slowly and quietly emerged and were elevated into uplands, atmospheric 
waste favoured the removal of the rock material, just as it had done with 
the predecessors of these rocks on the same spot in times previous. And 
just as in former times the rate of upheaval in the earlier stages of 
movement kept slightly ahead of the rate of waste, so the newly-exposed 
land gradually increased in elevation, and Cumberland found itself farther 
and farther removed from the sea, and therefore from the main source of 
rain. Hence, after a long transition period, desert conditions again set 
in. The change of conditions was a very gradual one, so that many 
wadies were gradually shaped by the streams before the period when the 
rainfall reached its minimum. In later times these old valleys, or wadies, 
were gradually filled up by the waste of the rocks of which their sides 
were formed. It may be repeated here that, under continental condi- 
tions, where the air generally contains a smaller percentage of aqueous 
vapour than usual, the sun's heat exercises a much more powerful influ- 
ence by day, because the temperature of its rays near the earth has not 
been lowered by a passage through the moist aerial screen. In like 

31 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

manner, the same envelope of aqueous vapour which acts as a sunshade 
during the day, acts equally as a blanket by night, by checking the radi- 
ation from the earth. Therefore, where there is but little aqueous 
vapour present in the air, the rocks exposed to the sun very soon become 
hot during the day, and cool down with equal rapidity during the night. 
Hence the difference between the daily maximum temperature and the 
nightly minimum is much greater in an arid than in a humid district. 
As a consequence of a great diurnal range of temperature, rocks expand 
greatly during the heat of the day, and contract to an equal extent during 
the cold of the night. Hence they crack under these conditions and fly 
to splinters in a manner and to an extent both very different from what 
we are accustomed to meet with in more humid climates. Moreover, 
in an arid region wind comes into action to a much greater extent than 
water, from which cause the character of the rock fragments is different 
in many important respects from those found in sedimentary rocks of the 
ordinary type. 

((^) The history of the events that ensued is much as follows : 
First there set in continental conditions, with the land rising locally at a 
faster rate than it was wasted by denudation. In the earlier part of the 
period there was a moderate rainfall, so that river-courses were shaped 
on the flanks of the uplands much as they are shaped here now. With a 
further uprise of the land, and a consequent recession of the sea margin 
to a still greater distance, the average quantity of aqueous vapour in the 
atmosphere steadily decreased, and the rainfall therefore became very ir- 
regular. The total quantity per annum must have been small in amount, 
and perhaps rarely exceeding ten inches, and most even of that was pre- 
cipitated in connection with the torrential rain accompanying thunder- 
storms. The waste of the rocks took place chiefly through the strains 
set up by the rapid expansions and contractions arising from the great 
diurnal range of temperature. In other words, the rocks were splintered, 
shattered, and broken up by mechanical causes instead of being, as they 
are here now, mainly decomposed by chemical means. As the volume of 
the streams diminished with the rainfall, so that their channels remained 
dry except during heavy rain, there was little or none of that rounding 
which characterizes river gravel in general. Each rock fragment, as it 
split up into smaller and smaller pieces, remained angular from first 
almost to last, and most of the material detached from the rocks at the 
sides of the valleys remained as screes until a violent flood shifted them 
in great masses to the low ground. As the fragments split up the finer 
chips were driven by the wind against each other, or used in the natural 
sand blasts by which rock erosion was partly accomplished, until the 
chips were reduced to the finest dust. In this state they served to load 
the atmosphere with fine particles, which occasionally gathered into 
clouds and were then blown far and wide as desert dust. The more 
durable rock materials, chiefly quartz, which long resisted reduction in 
size, were blown to and fro by the wind so that the grains became worn 
by attrition against each other and eventually assumed that rounded form 

32 



GEOLOGY 

which only the grains of desert sand ever take, and which at once serves 
to distinguish grains of sand so formed from similar grains worn by 
moving waters. The prolonged action of the wind acting upon large 
bodies of sand served eventually to pile the sand into great dunes, whose 
long axes in Cumberland ran north and south (as if their form were 
determined by the earth's rotation) and whose steeper sides faced to the 
west. It is these old desert sand-dunes which now form the Penrith 
Sandstone, to be referred to in more detail presently. 

(c) With an irregular rainfall, small in total amount, there could be 
but little vegetation, and what little there was must have consisted of 
those species which had gradually adapted themselves to the arid condi- 
tions. Their nature is unknown, for no traces of them have been met 
with in the old sand-dunes ; but all analogy would seem to point to their 
being hard, thick-leaved and scrubby, with long roots adapted for exten- 
sion far down into what little damp soil they found. Probably many of 
them were armed with thorns, to enable them to hold their own against 
the few animals who were driven to use them as food. 

Animal life is always directly or indirectly dependent upon vegeta- 
tion, so that desert conditions have sometimes been defined as those which 
are unsuitable for carnivorous animals. Hence, whatever may have been 
the case in those parts of the world where humid conditions obtained, 
we may take it for granted that the only terrestrial forms of vertebrate 
life were those of animals whose structure enabled them to stand long 
droughts, and to travel easily from one part of the desert to the other 
where there happened to be suitable feeding-ground for the time being. 
So far as we can form an opinion from the only vestiges that are left, 
which are almost exclusively spoors of one kind or another, the animals 
in question were chiefly reptiles. If we may judge by the variety of 
these footprints, the animals must have been very diverse in form and size. 
Some appear to have been squat and thick, with perhaps the form of tor- 
toises. Others were more slender, and may well have been crocodilian in 
form. Others, again — and these probably represented some of the most 
advanced forms — were reptiles of kangaroo-like shape, with long and stiff 
tails, and with the hind limbs bigger than the fore, from which we may 
conclude that they occasionally progressed by the hind limbs alone. The 
zoological grade of some of these appears to have been intermediate be- 
tween some low vertebrate form with affinities not far removed from the 
Amphibia, and another belonging to the ancestral stock of the Mammalia, 
of a structural type not far removed from that of the Echidna and the 
duck mole of Australia of to-day. Many of the Reptiles of this period 
belong to the Anomodontia, whose structural characters place them in 
the systematic position referred to. These Reptiles are regarded as modi- 
fications derived from an Amphibian stock, which, in the course of long 
ages, and as a consequence of a gradual change in physical conditions, 
became adapted to a life exclusively upon land. Of mammals and birds 
there is no trace, and there is reason to believe that they had not yet 
come into existence. 
I 33 D 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

It should be again mentioned here that the land surface upon which 
the old screes and desert sands were laid down was very irregular. One 
of the chief depressions lay between where Appleby and Armathwaite 
are now — though the reader must guard himself against supposing that 
the depression referred to bore the slightest relation to the inequalities of 
the present surface. It was on the eastern slopes of this hollow that the 
chief deposit of the old screes took place. It is this which now forms 
the Brockrams of Edenside and Whitehaven. In the deeper part of the 
hollow little else than wind-blown sands were swept, and it is from these 
that, as already mentioned, the Penrith Sandstone has been formed. The 
depression must have exceeded 1,200 feet in depth. 

id) Some time after this hollow had been nearly filled up by the 
old screes and desert sands, one of the great terrestrial undulations to 
which the elevations and depressions of the land are due gradually 
reached the site of Cumberland. The sea gradually approached, the 
climate ameliorated, rain fell regularly, and vegetation of a different kind, 
chiefly allied to the Cycads and some primitive types of Conifers, began 
to spring up. Under these conditions the character of the strata that 
were deposited changed by slow degrees, and sandstones and clays of 
almost normal character were laid down., It is these which form the 
well-known Plant Beds, which, although best developed near Appleby, 
are also found within the Cumberland boundary {Desert Conditions^ p. 
218). 

{e) As the wave of depression slowly passed over the land, the sea 
once more gained admittance. It was probably never very deep here 
under these conditions, but to the east its depth was greater, and a thick 
mass of limestone, which was originally not very different in its character 
from the Mountain Limestone, was gradually formed. The fossils it 
contains inform us that the descendants of the Invertebrate animals 
which peopled the Carboniferous seas had not changed very much from 
the form of their ancestors. Some had died out, and some new forms 
had come in from other areas ; but as most of them consist of lowly 
forms of life, which are least prone to change, the assemblage as a 
whole reminds one very much of what we meet with in the limestone 
which preceded it. This later limestone is called the Magnesian Lime- 
stone. In the upper part of the basin of the Eden it is about thirty feet 
thick, but that thickness lessens as we trace it north-westward, and in 
many places in Cumberland it may never have been deposited at all. It 
is well seen on the shore south of Whitehaven, where it yields fossils 
which tell us plainly of its marine origin. 

North Cumberland was apparently not submerged at this period, 
so that it is more than likely that some of the strange uncouth reptilians 
may have wandered there on the seaward margin of the old land, while 
marine animals were living in the sea only a few miles further south. 

If we measure geological episodes by centuries, the period required 
for the formation of the Magnesian Limestone must have been one of 
great length, for there is little reason for regarding it as having been 

34 



GEOLOGY 

formed at a much greater rate than any other limestone, and it is fully 
550 feet in thickness on the eastern side of England. 

Another phase of the terrestrial undulations finally reached Britain 
soon after the Magnesian Limestone had been formed. It would seem, 
judging by the evidence, that this undulation at first took the form of a 
local upheaval, sufficient in amount to elevate the lately-formed rocks into 
land; and it endured long enough to permit of a certain amount of 
waste and subsequent removal of the strata. 

(/) Then came another phase of the undulation, the effisct of 
which appears to have been to further elevate the land — perhaps only to 
a small vertical extent — over a large area of western Europe. The sea 
margin, in an easterly direction at any rate, had now receded several 
hundreds of miles ; and we find instead of marine conditions, one or 
more great and shallow inland lakes, the strata formed in which show 
unmistakable evidence of a return of the desert conditions which had 
characterized the period before that of the Magnesian Limestone. The 
Cumberland lake received its waters, in small quantities at a time, from 
the adjacent mountain areas, some of which may have coincided with 
part of the present southern uplands of Scotland. There were certainly 
hills near where Moffat is now, and so there were in Galloway. Criffel 
is known to have formed part of an upland area at this time, for we 
have the old screes and wady deposits of this period left, even yet, in many 
places in that part of Galloway. This lake must have been comparable, 
in many respects, to the Salt Lake of to-day, and to many others of the 
same type as those existing in central Asia. It certainly extended eastward 
from Cumberland, past Middlesborough ; and the same lake, or others of 
the same kind contemporaneous with it, existed in North Germany, and 
even Russia. Westward, it extended at least as far as the north of 
Ireland. It had no outlet, and the whole of the water carried into it by 
the few streams by which it was fed was dissipated by evaporation. 
Hence the various substances carried in solution into the lakes gradually 
accumulated, and eventually separated out in the crystalline form, when 
their respective points of saturation were reached. Amongst these sub- 
stances were carbonate of iron (subsequently consolidating as haematite) 
carbonate of magnesia, sulphate of lime (which consolidated as gypsum) 
chloride of sodium (common salt) and other compounds of lesser im- 
portance in the present connection. It is to this episode that we owe 
our chief deposits of haematite and manganese ; and it is likewise to the 
infiltrations from the bottom of this old lake that we owe the widespread 
staining of Carboniferous and older rocks of Cumberland, and also the 
conversion of many of the limestones of that county into dolomite. The 
rocks formed under the conditions described are the Bunter Marl, which 
is about 250 feet thick on the average. 

(g) After a long time the lake gradually became shallower, and 
instead of deposits of clay, beds of sand, alternating with beds of marl, 
were formed. This sand, afterwards consolidated into the sandstone 
which is known to us as the Corby Sandstone, St. Bees Sandstone, or 

35 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Bunter Sandstone, differs from the Penrith Sandstone not only in having 
been laid down almost entirely by water (instead of being deposited by 
the wind as desert sand-hills), but its general aspect is different in many 
respects, amongst which may be mentioned that it always contains flakes 
of mica, which is entirely absent from the Penrith Sandstone. It almost 
certainly overspread the whole of Cumberland and the greater part of 
Britain, as well as a large part of western Europe. 

The few organic remains tell us of the former presence of reptiles 
more or less like those whose footprints occur in the Penrith Sandstone. 
Evidently these animals also were very varied in both form and size ; 
and it is quite clear from the footprints they have left that they often 
wandered over the half-dried mud or waded in the shallows of the old 
lakes, where somehow they managed to pick up a scanty subsistence. 
Probably they were attracted to the shallows by the chance of meeting 
with more succulent vegetation than was to be found on the drier parts 
of the land. Some of them may have been carnivorous, but as we have 
only the footprints to judge by we cannot be at all sure upon this 
point. 

The St. Bees Sandstone, where fully developed, measures about 
1, 800 feet, but it is only in a few places that anything like the original 
thickness has survived the many subsequent periods of denudation. 

{h) During the later part of the episode just noticed, the evidence 
seems to show that the old lakes were often completely dried up, and 
then the wind piled up sandhills, just as it did before. Soon after that 
it appears that there was again a somewhat abrupt lowering of the land, 
and a temporary return to more humid climatal conditions. Then 
followed a repetition of the conditions under which the Bunter Marl 
was formed, with the formation of rock-salt, gypsum, and dolomite, as 
before. It was under these conditions that the Keuper Marls were 
formed. The lower beds of these are well seen at Stanwix. They reach 
a thickness of a little over 900 feet west of CarUsle, and between that and 
1,000 feet appears to be their normal thickness all over Britain. It is in 
the Keuper Marl that most of the Midland rock-salt and gypsum occurs. 

(?) The rocks which were formed during the great continental 
phase above described are now usually referred to collectively as the 
New Red. The earlier-formed part may be conveniently classed as the 
Lower New Red, which comprises the Penrith Sandstone and its associ- 
ated breccias or ' brockrams,' and the Plant Beds, and next above them 
the Magnesian Limestone. These three subdivisions are frequently re- 
ferred to collectively under the name of Dyas, though the older name 
just mentioned is better in many respects. The term ' Permian,' at one 
time used for them, is unsuitable for many reasons, and many geologists 
are agreed that it had better be dropped. 

The whole of the Red Rocks above the Magnesian Limestone are 
best referred to under their old name of Upper New Red, a more suitable 
term than Trias. Their subdivisions are, at the base the Bunter Marl, 
next above that the St. Bees Sandstone, at the top of all the Keuper 

36 



GEOLOGY 

Marl. The aggregate thickness of the Upper New Red (Trias), in 
Cumberland, exceeds 3,000 feet. 

The present author, taking into account the full extent of the un- 
conformity at the base of the New Red, and adding to it the time im- 
plied by that needed for the formation of the marine types of the rocks 
of the same age deposited elsewhere, has estimated their time value at 
132,000,000 years. 

Forms of Life associated with the New Red. — Attention has been 
specially called to the evidence of a period of enormous length which 
intervened between the close of Carboniferous times and the com- 
mencement of the conditions under which the New Red was formed. 
Little wonder, when the length of this interval is taken into considera- 
tion, that vast and important changes had been gradually brought about 
in the meantime. In general terms, these were the extinction of most of 
the older forms of life which characterized the foregoing period, and the 
evidence of which ancient forms of life in these rocks led geologists to 
refer to the groups as the Palasozoic group. Now that we know more 
about these matters it is found desirable to subdivide the rocks in ques- 
tion, and to refer to all, from the lowest Skiddaw Slate to the highest 
Silurians, as the Proterozoic Group, and all the remainder, to the base of 
the New Red, as the Deuterozoic. With the advent of the New Red 
we find evidences of a commencement of the present order of beings, 
whence the name Neozoic, first used by Edward Forbes, is now often 
applied to all the rocks newer than the Carboniferous. 

Regarding the Cumberland New Red, almost the only traces of 
animal life are simply the footprints of a great variety of air-breathing 
vertebrates, which waded in the shallows of the old lake, or wandered 
amongst the desert sandhills. Evidence obtained outside of Cumberland 
assures us of the fact that a large proportion of these animals were 
reptilian, although amphibia may well have been present too. In the 
Penrith Sandstone, as already mentioned, the old desert sandhills, now 
hardened into stone, frequently show the spoors of the old kangaroo-like 
reptiles of this period. A very interesting set of them was collected some 
years ago by Mr. Geo. V. Smith, F.G.S., and his brother and sister, from 
quarries near Edenhall. Other similar remains occur now and then on 
slabs of the St. Bees Sandstone, from which rock, near Dumfries, the late 
Sir William Jardine collected a fine series, which were figured in The 
Ichnology of Annandale, and are now in the Edinburgh Museum of Science 
and Art. 

The vegetation of the New Red makes a nearer approach to that of 
Australia than to existing European types at the present day, and is 
distinctly of a much higher grade than the flora of the Carboniferous 

Period. 

(y) A remarkable and well-known sheet or sill of dolerite, the 
Whin Sill, traverses the Carboniferous Rocks in the district immediately 
to the north-east of the Pennine Fault. It formed the subject of an 
important paper by Mr. Clough, of the Geological Survey, in which 

37 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

that author called attention to the fact that where this rock occurred an 
equivalent thickness of sedimentary rock was missing. Mr. Clough 
explained this as due to the assimilation of the sedimentary rock by the 
magma from which the Whin Sill was derived. Mr. Clough's views 
were too advanced to meet with acceptance at the time, though the case 
is different now. 

The present author has put forward a modification of Mr. Clough's 
view, in which it is suggested that the Whin Sill (as well as every other 
eruptive rock) owes its origin to the slow solution of pre-existent rocks 
by heated waters containing alkalies, and the subsequent crystallization 
of the new compound when the temperature fell and the aqueous solvent 
escaped. 

Beyond the fact that the Whin Sill is of later date than some of 
the disturbances which affect the Carboniferous rocks, its age is un- 
known. But it may be contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks of New 
Red age in Scotland. 

VII. Rh^tic Beds. — Near the close of the New Red Period the 
subsidence to which reference has been made was continued until it 
eventually carried the surface nearer and nearer to the sea level ; con- 
sequently the desert conditions came to an end and have not affected 
Britain since. The change was a very gradual one, extending over a 
period of very great length, as is shown by the vast and important 
changes which took place on the continent in the meantime. In Britain 
these changes gave rise to a set of rocks very similar in many respects to 
those which were formed at a previous period, when the desert condi- 
tions which prevailed when the Old Red Sandstone was formed were 
gradually giving way before the humid conditions which characterized 
Carboniferous times. The strata formed at the period now under notice 
probably extended far and wide over western Europe. In Cumberland 
they may be represented only by a small patch, which has survived 
denudation, and occurs at Orton, west of Carlisle, it alone having been 
left between Arran and the midland counties of England. The strata 
usually consist, in their lower parts, of reddish and greenish clays with 
cornstones, and in their upper parts of dark shales. The total thick- 
ness in Britain nowhere much exceeds loo feet. On the Continent 
strata of the same age range to several thousand feet, including impor- 
tant masses of limestone, chiefly formed by the agency of plants (Algse). 

VIII. Jurassic Rocks. — With the commencement of the subsidence 
which ushered in the Rhastic period there set in a repetition of condi- 
tions very similar to those which prevailed during Carboniferous times. 
The Lias and Oolites everywhere succeed the New Red, so that where 
the one occurs, or can be proved to have existed, there also was the 
other. This is another way of stating the fact that not only the New 
Red extended continuously across the whole of what is now Cumberland, 
but that the whole district was formerly buried also beneath a great pile 
of the Lias and the Oolite. Of this vast accumulation all that is left 
now is a tiny patch at Orton, west of Carlisle, which is shown upon the 

38 



GEOLOGY 

map accompanying this article. All that need be referred to here 
regarding it is that it was a period of sufficient length to permit of 
numerous and important changes in both the organic and the inorganic 
worlds. 

IX. Cretaceous Period. — In most other parts of the kingdom, and 
mdeed over a much wider area still, a prolonged period of upheaval 
followed the deposition of the Jurassic Rocks, and was accompanied and 
followed by a considerable amount of waste. This denudation, in the 
course of a very long time, ended by reducing the land surface 'over an 
extensive area in western Europe into a very level plain. Then the 
land once more sank beneath deep water, and the Cretaceous Rocks, 
including the Chalk, were deposited upon this level floor over the whole 
area. The present writer has long maintained that Cumberland partici- 
pated in these changes, as much as other parts of Britain, and that the 
whole district was formerly covered by these interesting rocks, which of 
course have since entirely disappeared, as a consequence of upheaval and 
denudation in times later still. The only vestiges left are the remnants 
of the plain upon which the Cretaceous Rocks once lay, and also by 
here and there a few chalk flints. But the plain is an important feature 
in the scenery of the county. 

For the vast and important biological and physical changes which 
took place between the close of New Red times and the commence- 
ment of the Tertiary Period it is here estimated that a length of 
104,000,000 of years was required. 

X. Post-Cretaceous Changes. — Few, if any, of the hills and 
valleys of Cumberland date farther back than Post-Cretaceous times. 
The history of their development will be more fully discussed presently. 
But in the meantime we have to take note of the fact that a very long 
interval of time (which the present writer would roughly estimate at 
93,000,000 of years) separates the close of the Cretaceous Period 
from our own day. Many and very important changes in physical 
geography have taken place in the meantime, while in the organic world 
many generations of plants and animals, quite different from any now 
living, have come into being, and finally disappeared. The very ma- 
terials out of which are formed large parts of great mountain masses, 
like the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Andes, and the Himalayas, had not come 
into existence in the earlier part of the period, and since it commenced 
several oceanic areas and continents have more than once changed places. 

(a) The principal episode with which we are most concerned 
in reviewing this part of the historical geology of Cumberland is con- 
nected with the vast and important development of volcanic action in 
the north-western part of the United Kingdom, and which has left its 
mark in Cumberland as well as in the districts around. Those events 
may be summarized in a few lines : Long prior to the first rough 
shaping of any of the great natural features now existing in Cumberland, 
a series of volcanic vents, ranging in a northerly direction, broke out on 
the western side of the British Isles. This may well have happened 

■ 39 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

at an early period of a general upheaval, and may also have been con- 
nected with the same cause to which that upheaval was due. There is 
no reason for thinking that any of the volcanoes themselves were reared 
on the area under notice ; but some of the fluid rock connected with 
these volcanoes ate its way upward and outward from the principal foci, 
and has consolidated in the form of dykes, and perhaps also in the form 
of sills or sheets of eruptive rock in a few places.^ The later phases of 
volcanic action coincided with a general disturbance and upheaval of the 
greater part of Britain, and it was probably at or about this time that 
the principal upland areas of Cumberland — the massifs of the Lake dis- 
trict and Cross Fell — were elevated into nearly their present position. 
It was during the same period that the great Outer Pennine Fault, and 
some other lines of dislocation not so well known, received their last 
great uplift. The effect in the case of the Outer Pennine Fault may 
have been that Carboniferous Rocks surmounted by New Red were 
elevated on the north-east side of the Fault, and brought into horizontal 
contact with Cretaceous Rocks lying on New Red on the south-east. 
There are many reasons for thinking that the volcanic episode was one 
of great length, and that, during this prolonged period, the present river- 
courses were established for the first time. This subject will be reverted 
to further on. 

At the close of the volcanic period, after the surface had been 
shaped by prolonged exposure to the action of rain and rivers into some- 
thing like its present form, hot springs arose through the faults and 
other fissures, and from these heated waters were deposited the contents 
of such mineral veins as those of the Alston Moor district. Possibly 
the last filling of the mineral veins of the Caldbeck Fells, and of some 
others in the Lake district, may date from this period, though there 
are grounds for thinking that, as a whole, the latter veins are of older 
date than those of Alston, and may have originated as far back as 
New Red times. It should be noted that the valuable deposits of 
Hasmatite which have made west Cumberland what it is, date also from 
New Red times. All the known British deposits of Hsmatite date from 
this period, and nearly all of them are due to the slow replacement of 
pre-existent calcareous matter by ferric oxide. Such, too, is the date 
and mode of origin of much of the manganese. The ores of lead, zinc 
and copper appear to be in all cases deposits from hot springs, and 
have arisen from below, instead of descending from above, as the Haema- 
tite has. 

(^) The behaviour of such dykes as the Cleveland Dyke, which is 
a remarkable vertical sheet of basalt, which crosses from east Yorkshire, 
through Teesdale, across the Eden at Armathwaite, and the Calda, or 
Caldew, at Dalston, and the Solway west of Dumfries, suggests that when 
this dyke was intruded some of the broadest features of Cumberland had 
already began to assume a little of their present form. The behaviour 

^ The exact age of the Whin Sill of Cumberland is not yet known : it may be of Tertiary 

age. 

40 



f, 



GEOLOGY 

of the lead veins also is very similar in this respect. The upper limits of 
both the dyke and the metalliferous veins roughly conform to the broad 
outlines of the present surface, as if the downflow of cold waters from the 
surface had checked the upward growth of the dyke, and had also cooled 
the hot springs, so that both the dyke and the mineral vein terminated 
upward at a lower level where there were depressions of the surface 
than where there were elevations. It is remarkable that this does 
not apply to the low ground of Edenside ; but the conformation of the 
surface there may well have been of more recent formation, and the 
depression may be due to the more rapid waste of the Cretaceous Rocks 
there faulted in, as compared with the surrounding rocks, which are of a 
more durable kind. 

(c) It was probably during late Tertiary times that the last upheaval 
along the Pennine Faults took place. Attention has more than once 
before been directed to the fact that this zone of weakness is one along 
which differential uplifts have been many times repeated — the earliest 
movements probably dating back to the period following the close of 
Silurian times. 

(</) Taking the aggregate thickness of all the marine limestones that 
have been formed since the close of the Cretaceous Period, and assuming 
that these have been formed at the rate of one foot in 25,000 years, the 
duration of the Tertiary Period down to the commencement of the 
Niveal Period, or Age of Snow, may have been about 93,000,000 
years. 

XI. The Surface-Relief of Cumberland. — (a) It has often been 
remarked that a right understanding of the various stages by which the 
surface-relief of any district has been reached involves reference to the 
whole of the later geological changes which that district has undergone. 
It also requires, especially, that we should know much concerning the 
developmental history of its rivers. This will be found to be true of 
Cumberland more perhaps than of any other county in the kingdom. 

The subject is, therefore, one that would need considerable space 
for its full consideration ; but it may be possible to give a general idea 
of the essential points even within the limits of a short article like the 
present. 

(i) The first principle to be borne in mind is that rivers of all 
kinds and of all countries have themselves shaped the valleys in which 
they flow. That is to say, no valleys, whether in Cumberland or else- 
where, are due to the mechanical severance of the rocks of which their 
valley-sides consist. Nor are they due to violent or sudden action of 
any kind soever. None of them, again, are the work of the sea. They 
are, one and all, simply depressions produced by the quiet and slow 
removal of rock-material by the gentle and prolonged action of rain and 
rivers. The chemical action set up by the acids in surface waters — 
especially by the humus acids — and by the oxygen in the atmosphere, 
have been amongst the most potent agents concerned ; and they have 
had, as auxiliaries in the work, the effects of heat and cold, the 

41 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

mechanical action of wind and rain, and a host of minor causes, each 
taking its own share in the work of destroying the outer part of the 
rock surface. The function of the rivers is mainly that of carriers of 
the materials rotted from the surface of the land ; but they, too, exercise 
a certain amount of erosive power, and co-operate with the allied forces 
in the general work of lowering the surface. It is easy to reahze the 
true function of a river if any one will observe the quantity of mud 
being carried seawards by the Eden at CarUsle after heavy rain in the 
upper part of the valley. All that mud being carried past by the river 
was, not so long ago, solid rock in situ. It has been rotted by the 
action of the weather, and now it has been stripped off that surface of 
the land, which is therefore lowered by the amount represented by the 
quantity held in suspension by the river. Small as that quantity may 
appear, one has to remember that the process of stripping off the surface 
of the rock is going on continually, and has been doing so, on the 
surface of what was land for the time being, from the earliest period 
known. It is solely to the prolonged continuance of this process that 
the carving of the valleys is due. 

The next general principle to be borne in mind is that no two 
sorts of rock yield to the same kind of attack quite at the same rate. 
Some appear capable of withstanding exposure for very long periods 
without seeming to be any the worse, while others waste appreciably 
in the course of a single lifetime. It is this differential rate of decay 
which is the chief factor concerned in producing even some of the 
larger physical features of the landscape. All rocks waste more or less ; 
but the rock that wastes at the most rapid rate will be the first to be 
lowered to sea level ; while the more durable rocks, whose surface is 
being lowered at a slower rate, soon attain to a relatively higher level, 
and are very much longer in wasting to the level of the sea than the 
rock which when first exposed stood up with them. 

Lastly, the reader must endeavour to realize that the processes to 
which the configuration of a country is due are by no means rapid in 
their operation ; but that, on the contrary, they act in general quietly, 
gently, and usually at rates so slow as to be imperceptible. We have to 
deal with effects that have been produced not within a century, or within 
a thousand centuries, but which have required periods of time too long 
for the human intellect to comprehend, and the immensity of whose 
length can only be compared to the almost infinite intervals of space 
with which the astronomer has to deal. 

(c) Leaving general principles, we may now pass on to consider 
their application to the district under notice : The reader of the fore- 
going section of this article will have noted that there have been three 
(or more) great piles of rock laid in succession one on another, upon 
what one may term the ' foundation stones ' of the rocks of Cumber- 
land. For the present we must dismiss the present configuration entirely 
from our minds, and try to realize that there was at one time an extensive 
plain, formed by the edges of a vast thickness of Cambrian, Ordovician 

42 



GEOLOGY 

and Silurian rocks, which extended far and wide, and far beyond the 
limits of the county. The rocks forming this great floor are very hard 
and durable, taken as a whole. It was upon this nearly-level founda- 
tion that (after many changes had arisen) the Upper Old Red Sandstone 
and the Carboniferous Rocks were spread out, layer upon layer, to a 
thickness of many thousands of feet. The general relation of the lower 
portion of these rocks to the floor beneath at the stage under considera- 
tion is illustrated by fig. i. In this the general lie of the old rocks 
is shown, and the relationship of the granite masses, as well as the 
hypothetical remains of the Caledonian Old Red, to the older sediments 
is also indicated in a diagramatic way. As a whole the Carboniferous 
Rocks are less durable than the rocks beneath. The former may waste, 
say, five feet in a given time, during which the latter may waste 
three. 

Now it is important to remember that after the close of the 
Carboniferous Period the whole pile, floor and all, was folded and 
fractured. A great centre of upfolding coincided with the present Lake 
district ; and the upward movement over that centre was carried to 
such an extent that the old floor was there lifted to a higher level than 
the top of the Carboniferous Rocks in the district to the east. More- 
over the great zone of fracture and disturbance, known collectively as the 
Pennine Faults, already in existence as a zone of weakness, gave way 
once again, and the rocks on the north-east side of this zone were 
elevated to a higher position than those on the side opposite. While 
these movements were in progress denudation continually attacked the 
rocks on the higher ground, so that after an exposure for a great length 
of time the whole of the Carboniferous Rocks were worn away from 
the summit of the dome, and much of them from the other zone of 
elevation on the east side of the Pennine Faults. 

It was upon an irregular surface formed out of the associated 
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous strata, 
all more or less disturbed, that the New Red Rocks in their turn were 
afterwards spread out. Fig. 2 may help to make this relationship 
more clear, especially if it be studied in connection with fig. i. 
The section is arranged to show that at least the higher members of the 
New Red formerly extended right over what is now the Lake district, 
as well as across the Pennine Faults, on to the area which now forms 
the Cross Fell uplands. 

To understand what ensued it may be as well if we agree to refer 
to the two floors just mentioned by definite names. The older one we 
may call ' the First Plain ' — for although in minor details the surface 
was uneven, yet regarded broadly its nature was more or less as much 
a plain as most submarine surfaces around the British Isles are now. For 
the surface, more or less irregular, upon which the New Red was 
deposited, we may also employ the term ' plain,' and refer to the floor 
below the New Red as ' the Second Plain.' 

After the close of the period which commenced with the formation 

43 



Ml 



ijfiy , 



■>." 



>»■ •',-«> 



ssc^ 



fe 



44 



1 fi 



s^ 



^V: 



m 



i; 



^. 






A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

of the New Red and ended with the Neocomian (the Lower Neozoic 
Period) there was a repetition of the folding and faulting along the same 
tracts of Cumberland as before ; so that the Lake district dome, and 
the country east of the Pennine Faults were again elevated, and the 
lately-deposited strata removed from these areas just as was the case in 
former times. The whole of Cumberland (and indeed the whole of 
Britain and much of western Europe as well) underwent denudation 
to such an extent that a Third Plain, much more uniform in character 
than the other two, was gradually shaped. It is important to remember 
that over the Lake district this plain was shaped out of the edges of 
highly-inclined Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian rocks ; and that 
around the Lake district and east of the Pennine Faults it was carved 
mainly out of rocks of Carboniferous age, just as the Second Plain was, 
while the remaining part consisted of New Red with some few outlying 
remnants of the Jurassic Rocks which had escaped destruction. This 
relationship is illustrated by fig. 3. 

Now it was upon this very even Third Plain that the Cretaceous 
and succeeding rocks were laid down. 

[d) Finally, in Tertiary times, and perhaps all through the great 
volcanic episode, there went on a renewal of the upheaval over the 
same zone as before. Now it was upon this surface, formed mainly of 
Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks, that the rivers of Cumberland first origin- 
ated. There are many facts, which the present author has discussed 
elsewhere, which seem to point to the conclusion that the chief Post- 
Cretaceous uplands did not quite coincide with the areas which stand 
highest now. The behaviour of many of the rivers of north-western 
England seems to point to their original starting-point having lain at a 
spot a short distance south of where the town of Appleby is now. At the 
period under consideration the great depression of Edenside was covered 
by some Post-Triassic rock, whose upper surface stood at a relatively 
higher level than the rocks around. On the assumption that such was 
the case, it is not difficult to explain the anomalous features presented by 
the head waters of the Tees, the Tyne, the Lune, the Eden, the Swale 
and others, if we assume that they all originally started seaward from an 
ellipsoidal area composed of rocks softer than those which now appear 
at the surface. Their courses seem to have been first established in this, 
and then to have been modified by the unequal rate of lowering of the 
various surfaces upon which their courses descended in subsequent times. 
The idea involves many complications, and it may require much think- 
ing over before it can be fully grasped. But a study of the diagram- 
sections (figs. I to 4) may help to make the supposed sequence of events 
clearer. The longer axis of the ellipsoidal area above referred to, or, in 
other words, the primitive watershed of the Lake district, may have 
coincided in position with Grasmere, High Street, Crosby Ravensworth, 
Warcop and the head of Lunedale. 

{e) The elevation of this ellipsoidal area into land commenced (it 
is here assumed) in early Post-Cretaceous times, and the rivers began 

46 



GEOLOGY 

to flow at first over rock of uniform composition at an early stage in 
the process of elevation. As the land gently rose and a larger area was 
exposed, the streams enlarged their channels, and probably maintained 
their original courses without any important deviations all through the 
period while the channels lay exclusively through the uppermost rock. 
By degrees, as the upheaval slowly proceeded, and the waste of the 
surface went on, the outer coating (if one may so express it) of the 
dome, was worn through, and the head waters of the rivers flowed sea- 
wards across rocks of quite a different kind from that in which their 
channels commenced. For, assuming that the outer envelope consisted 
of Cretaceous Rocks, it has been shown that these lay upon a floor 
consisting of the denuded ends of various strata which comprised rocks 
of the most diverse powers of resistance to subaerial denudation. These 
embraced representatives of nearly the whole of the Pre-Cretaceous rocks 
of Cumberland. In some few cases the effbrts of the river to maintain 
its primitive course were more or less successful, and where that was 
the case the streams made their way across every rock, durable or not 
durable, that their channels happened to intersect. In many instances the 
rivers continued to cope with and to overcome all the difficulties, one 
after another, that arose in their way, and succeeded in maintaining 
their original courses without much change. In all cases of that kind 
the erosive power of the river in carving its own channel has exceeded 
that of ordinary atmospheric waste in lowering the surface adjoining the 
river channels. As a rule this is so ; in other words, a river usually 
lowers the torrential part of its channel faster than subaerial erosion 
lowers any adjoining part of its basin. In a few cases the two processes 
go on side by side and at nearly equal rates. In some exceptional in- 
stances a part of the basin of a river adjacent to its channel may be 
lowered by subaerial erosion at a faster rate than the river lowers the 
adjoining part of the channel itself. Sooner or later this results in a 
diversion of the stream into the new course, which the river unavoidably 
follows as far as the new channel offers the easiest route seawards. 

This factor in the evolution of land surfaces has brought about 
many important changes in the initial direction of rivers in Cumberland, 
as elsewhere ; and is answerable for many of the inosculating valleys 
which characterize so much of the scenery. 

Another case of a nature analogous to the last, and which has led 
to many important modifications of the river-courses in the Lake district, 
may next be considered. It has frequently happened that a sheet of soft 
rock laid down upon a floor of hard has been bent by earth movements 
into a dome. If we think of the inner mass as the core of the dome, it 
may help to simplify the description that follows. A river-course well 
established in the envelope of softer rock, cuts its way after a time down 
to the core. Where the difference in destructibility of the outer mantle 
is much greater than that of the core (as where a mantle of soft Hme- 
stones enwraps a core of tough greywacke), the river gradually tends to 
wander away from its primary course, and as the extent of exposure of 

47 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

the core increases, the river-course by degrees merges into line with the 
junction between the inner and the outer rock. Indeed it may finally 
take a very different course from what it had on first reaching the 
enveloping rock. The Lune between Ravenstonedale and Tebay and 
the upper waters of the Lowther affords good examples of these modifi- 
cations. Both began to flow at a very much higher geological horizon, 
and in rocks which have long since wasted entirely away. Both have 
cut their way down into a complex mass of rocks whose weakest direc- 
tions lie transverse to the original course of the stream. Hence the 
present trunk stream of the Lune, which at one time rose on a tributary 
of that river over the summit of the Howgill Fells and flowed westward, 
just on the north side of the line of highest ground there, has gradually 
followed the edge of the Mountain Limestone down hill, as the envelope 
consisting of this rock has gradually wasted from the hard, dome-shaped 
core of greywacke. This explains how it happens that the river flowing 
westward through low ground on the north side of the axis of the Lake 
district abruptly turns to the south at Tebay, and thence cuts its way 
right across a mountain mass, consisting of some of the toughest rocks in 
the kingdom, to the low ground beyond, and flows past Kirkby Lonsdale 
to the sea. 

As this example is typical, and its comprehension involves a reference 
to the mode of attack of rivers in all cases of this kind, a brief explanation 
of the process may be given here : River valleys are wide where the 
waste by atmospheric agencies keeps ahead of the rate at which the river 
cuts down its channel ; and they are narrow where the reverse is the 
case. That is to say a river-channel is usually narrow where the stream 
traverses hard rocks, and wide where it crosses soft. Now a river 
flows at a slower rate through a wide channel than through one that is 
narrow. The Eden for example quietly, almost lazily, eddies its way 
seaward through the soft marls and the alluvium which form the meadow 
land about Lazonby ; but when it arrives at Eden Lacy and finds its channel 
narrowed to the hard rocky gorge formed by the Penrith Sandstone there, 
it seems to wake up and to hurry onward at a rate very different from 
what it had in the wide expanse formed by the softer rocks. From side 
to side the river at this point is not more than two thirds as wide as it 
was a mile above ; hence its swifter flow. Thus the power of running 
water to transport stones, and therefore to wear its river-channel, is 
proportional to the sixth power of its velocity. That is to say, water 
flowing at a rate sufficient to roll a stone a quarter of an ounce in 
weight, will, if its rate of flow is doubled, be able to drift a stone weighing 
a pound, and so on in the same proportion. Where hard rocks form a 
river-bed, and the channel therefore is narrower, the rate of flow of the 
stream is increased, and the river exerts in consequence greater erosive 
power, just at the point where that extra effort is most required if the 
river is to maintain its course. In other words, where impediments are 
placed in their way the streams rise to the occasion and put forth an 
amount of energy sufficient to overcome the obstacle. The beautiful 

48 



GEOLOGY 

gorge of the Eden, extending from Eden Lacy past Nunnery Walks and 
Armathwaite, offers an excellent illustration of this principle ; and others 
little inferior to this occur elsewhere in the county. 

The same principle which enables a river to cut its way from soft rocks 
across harder, on a small scale, is identical with that which has come into 
action on the larger scale under consideration. All that is needed in the 
initial stages is that the rock through which the river is cutting down to 
the harder mass beneath shall remain long enough to establish the stream in 
its new course, and that the rock on either side of the gradually-developing 
ridge shall not waste at a faster rate than the river can keep pace with in 
its work of excavating the gorge. It must be obvious that if the area 
above the gorge should happen to waste at a more rapid pace than the 
gorge is being excavated, there must presently come a time when the 
river can no longer carry on that work, but, instead, must find egress to 
the sea by another channel. In this case the river is severed in two ; the 
middle of the gorge becomes the watershed of the lower half of the 
original river, and after a time usually sends a small tributary to the 
parent stream, which may eventually for a distance flow in a direction 
diametrically opposite to that which it had at first. 

{f) The somewhat complex and apparently theoretical section just 
ended is inserted here with the object of explaining some very anomalous 
features which characterize many of the valleys of Cumberland. Fore- 
most amongst these features are the many so-called ' inosculating ' valleys 
already referred to, and which occur in various parts of the district. 
What is meant by that term is that there are often two streams flowing 
in opposite directions in what is manifestly one and the same valley, 
which therefore runs continuously across the present watershed. Nearly 
all the main roads, and most of the railway routes traversing mountain 
districts follow inosculating valleys. The pass at Dunmail Raise, which 
is traversed yearly by thousands of tourists, may serve as an example. 
Briefly, they may be explained as due to a gradual displacement of the 
watershed, as the surface has been lowered and the river has encountered 
rocks showing diff^erent combinations of durability from those in which 
its course has been originally established. Some of the rivers of Cumber- 
land may have been severed in this way at more than one place. The 
Petteril, for example, probably originated near where Matterdale is now, 
and flowed north-eastward to join the Eden west of the present course of 
that river near Great Salkeld. But two sets of depressions have originated 
across its original course, or, what comes to the same thing, two sets of 
ridges have been developed at a rate faster than the erosive power of the 
Petteril could keep pace with. As a consequence the upper half of the 
Petteril has been diverted into one of these growing depressions and now 
joins the Eamont below Ullswater. A new watershed has arisen in what 
is now Greystoke Park, and the Petteril goes on in its original channel from 
there to near Catterlen. Furthermore, with the continued waste of the 
surface, the gradual evolution of the great ridge of Penrith Sandstone 
forming Lazonby Fell has proceeded at a rate more rapid than the river 
I 49 E 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

could keep pace with, and as a consequence the stream has turned into a 
new channel, leaving its former course on Lazonby Fell as a simple de- 
pression. In two addresses given before the Cumberland and Westmor- 
land Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, in 1880 
and 1881,^ the present author fully discussed these and some allied 
matters. The papers referred to contained the earliest attempts at dis- 
cussing the origin of any features of the kind above briefly noticed. 

The subject of the evolution of the river valleys is so intimately 
connected with the evolution of the broader features of the scenery that 
no account of the historical geology of the district would be complete 
without some reference to it, and more especially so now that the sub- 
ject in general is attracting so much attention in America and on the 
Continent : furthermore, the evolution of the plains of Cumberland cannot 
be rightly understood until after all the factors concerned in their history 
have been considered, and the rivers are amongst the most important of 
these factors. 

(g) To the casual observer the broader geological features of Cumber- 
land resolve themselves into (i) the coast-line, (2) two mountain areas 
represented by the Lake district and the upland tract between Brampton 
and Alston, (3) the Carlisle plain. Closer examination makes it evident 
that other features will have to be separately considered. 

The history of the coast-line may be told in a few words : The 
North Channel, the Solway and the Irish Sea are different parts of what 
was, before the Glacial Period, simply the basin of one great river. 
With the submergence that followed the Glacial Period, the sea has been 
admitted all over the area, and up the mouths of the tributary streams ; so 
the Solway is merely a drowned river valley. Some modifications of this 
earlier feature have arisen through a partial silting-up of the river mouth, 
and through a trifling amount of waste of the coast-line by the action of 
the sea. Minor details of change have also originated through the rises 
of the land, and the consequent formation of raised beaches. 

{&) The great Cumberland plain is a remnant, now much cut up, 
of what was formerly a great dome, with its higher and central parts 
coincident with the general summit-level of the Lake district. There 
is no better way of grasping the plain-like character of these mountain 
summits as a whole than to study any good relief model of the Lake 
district, such as those exhibited in Keswick. The plain in question is 
regarded by the writer of this article as simply a re-exposed part of the 
very flat and even surface upon which some easily-wasted rocks, possibly 
the Cretaceous rocks, formerly lay. Whatever the rock in question was, it 
was certainly deposited in horizontal layers on a surface shaped out of the 
upturned ends of rocks comprising representatives of all the strata older 
than itself Subsequently this pile was locally upheaved so as to form a 
low dome coincident with the area of the present Lake district. While 
that upheaval was in progress there, a more abrupt upheaval commenced 
along the north-east side of the great pre-existent zone of fracture, known 

* See Trans. Cumb. and West. Assoc.y pt. xiv. p. 73, and pt. xiii. p. 89. 

50 



GEOLOGY 

as the Outer Pennine Fault, which extends past the western foot of Cross 
Fell north-westward, through Cumberland, towards Brampton. The 
upward movement brought hard and durable rocks of many different ages 
into contact with the softer rocks (the supposed Cretaceous Rocks). The 
date of the main upheaval was probably coincident with the great vol- 
canic episode, and probably also continued throughout nearly the whole 
of that period. 

In course of time the outer envelope disappeared from the uplands, 
leaving vestiges of its former presence in the gently inclined surface which 
the summit-level of the mountain areas evidently presents, from whatever 
elevated position we may regard it. The softer envelope would disappear 
latest in the parts where its base was nearest the sea level. Hence the 
very obvious plain extending from the foot of the Cross Fell Escarpment 
to Carlisle, thence northward gently rising to the Bewcastle Fells, and 
westward to the Solway. This plain is referred to generally as the Third 
Plain. The diagram-sections which accompany this chapter may serve 
to explain its nature better than any description. 

There are two other surfaces (or plains, as they might still be 
termed) . The next older to the third plain is that upon which the New 
Red once lay. It was never very even in form, or perhaps it would be more 
correctly described as originally very uneven. But its re-exposure has 
left features on the outskirts of the Lake district which cannot well be 
mistaken. Lastly, there is the re-exposed surface upon which the Upper 
Old Red and the Carboniferous rocks at one time lay. Like the other 
two surfaces this has shared in all the disturbances that have affected the 
rocks in Post-Carboniferous times ; but its re-exposure has given rise to 
inclined surfaces on the outer margin of the Lake district which form 
important elements in the surface - relief. These three ' plains ' or 
re-exposed rock-floors, embrace between them the whole of the broader 
surface-features of Cumberland, except the face of the Pennine Escarp- 
ment and the line of the coast. In other words, the whole of Cumberland 
consists of representatives of these three plains, more or less disturbed, 
and variously combined with each other. 

XII. Post-Pliocene Changes of Climate. — (a) One of the 
most important episodes in the geology of Cumberland is undoubtedly 
that connected with the long period of snow and ice which forms 
the closing chapters in the history of the past. The surface-features 
almost everywhere underwent considerable modification, lakes were ex- 
cavated where only river valleys were before, corries were scooped out 
of the mountain flanks, a vast and important series of glacial grooves 
was formed, crags and other irregularities of the surface were rounded 
off, the accumulated results of many thousands of years' weathering were 
swept away, and, finally, nearly all the lowlands were covered with a 
mantle of boulder clay and other deposits of glacial origin. Important 
changes also took place in the elevation of the land whereby the form 
of the coast- line was greatly modified. Finally, biological changes, 
which have left their mark in many ways connected with the sequence 

51 



A HlbTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

of events since the beginning of the historical period, were brought 
about in connection with the episode about to be noticed. 

During nearly all the various geological periods which have been 
reviewed in the foregoing section, the climate of Cumberland does not 
seem to have been at any time characterized by any conditions of ex- 
ceptionally low temperature. It is true that evidence of glaciers is 
to be found in the New Red breccias near Appleby ; but that probably 
means no more than that on the uplands here and there might then be 
formed a glacier, just as there are glaciers on the upland areas not far 
removed from many desert tracts at the present day. The Cretaceous 
Period, and probably much of the succeeding Tertiary Period also, may 
well have been characterized by climatal conditions in which the 
temperature was above rather than below the present average. In this 
matter very much depends upon altitude above the sea, as well as upon 
proximity to zones of warm and moist aerial currents. 

{b) Near the close of the Tertiary Period, and long after the volcanic 
eruptions had ceased, we have evidence supplied from other areas, that the 
area now represented by Cumberland had been gradually elevated to 
a considerable height above the level of the sea. At the period at 
which this particular episode is supposed to have commenced, all the 
present rivers of the district had attained something of their present form, 
after the long and varied ancestral history of which an outline has been 
given in the foregoing paragraphs. One may indeed say that under the 
prolonged action of rain and river the country had by this time assumed 
nearly the same general configuration that it has to-day. 

After a time, the elevatory forces gained upon the destructive 
forces which were then, as now, at work lowering the surface of the 
land, and as a consequence its uplands rose to an elevation higher, 
perhaps by nearly a thousand feet, than their present position. The whole 
of north-western Europe participated in the movement, which appears 
to have reached its maximum in Scandinavia. Partly as a consequence 
of this elevation of the land, the average temperature fell at least a few 
degrees below what it is now ; and the climatal conditions underwent 
further modification, owing to the fact that, with the elevation, a great 
tract of land west of Britain was raised above the sea level. As a con- 
sequence, the eastern margin of the Atlantic was removed some two 
hundred and fifty miles to the west of St. Bees' Head. There are many 
reasons for believing the conjoined oceanic and aerial currents known as 
the Gulf Stream had been in existence long prior to the period under 
consideration, and that they must have remained in full operation 
throughout the whole of the long period of snow. But with these 
sources of heat removed to so much greater distance, the climatal conditions 
became much less equable than they are now. Indeed, for many reasons, 
it is probable that although Cumberland then received perhaps even 
more heat from the sun than it does at present, just as the snow-clad sum- 
mits of the Alps receive a sixth more sun heat than the valleys, yet, in 
Cumberland then, as on the Alpine slopes now, the precipitation took 

52 



GEOLOGY 

exclusively the form of snow. Perhaps it is as well to push the com- 
parison farther, and to state that although the Glacial Period was one of 
snow and ice, yet it was not necessarily a period of very low temperature, 
any more so than characterizes the higher glacier regions of Switzerland 
to-day. 

As a consequence of the increased elevation there was land con- 
nection with the continent on both the east and the south of Britain. 
For what is now the North Sea was then a broad plain, through which 
the Rhine flowed northward, receiving as it went all the drainage of 
eastern Britain, and discharging it into the Atlantic, somewhere to the 
north-east of Shetland. The depression now occupied by the English 
Channel had already been shaped into much its present form as a river 
valley, and with the elevation referred to it remained so. The same is 
true of the Irish Sea ; and the rivers of Cumberland, joined with those of 
the south of Scotland, united with the others that now discharge into 
that area, and reached the Atlantic to the south-west of Ireland. 

(f) The occurrence of wide stretches of dry land, where now 
there is sea, had a most important effect in modifying the climate. 
Indeed, taken in conjunction with the increased elevation, and with the 
proximity of the mountain areas of southern Scandinavia and north- 
western Scotland to the vast quantities of aqueous vapour drifted north- 
eastward in connection with the Gulf Stream, the factor just mentioned 
may have played an important part in the development of the peculiar 
conditions which characterized this period. It may be as well to repeat 
in this place that the Glacial Period was not so much a period of low 
temperature, as one during which more snow fell during the year than 
the summer's heat sufficed to melt. To bring about such conditions four 
factors are required, (i) There must be an extensive area of ocean 
where distillation by the heat of the sun goes on at a high rate. (2) The 
products must be transferred from this area by the action of currents, 
aqueous or aerial. (3) There must be an upland area in the path of these 
currents, which acts as a refrigerator, and converts the aqueous vapour 
into snow. (4) The local conditions must be such that more snow is 
precipitated than is removed from the land. These conditions are quite 
compatible with a comparatively mild climate, and do not by any 
means require so low a temperature as is generally supposed to have 
prevailed during the Glacial Period. Strictly speaking, it would be 
more correct to refer to this period as the Niveal Period, seeing that its 
essential characteristic was the widespread prevalence of snow. 

Snow does not flow off the land like water does, hence, if only 
a little more fell each year than was melted, it was bound sooner or 
later to accumulate at the valley heads until it became compacted into 
ice. In this state it must soon have begun to flow down the valleys 
in the form of glaciers. It is as well to remember that the ice simply 
took the place of river water, and moved, as rivers do, outward from 
the main areas of precipitation, downhill and seawards. 

There are good geological reasons for believing that this state of 

53 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

things continued for many thousands of years ; the snowfall, however, 
gradually increasing, and thereby chilling the air around, and perennial 
snow covering an increasingly larger area on the uplands, fogs becoming 
more and more prevalent, and less and less rain falling even in the 
summer months. These various causes tending to lower the tempera- 
ture produced cumulative effects. 

Long prior to the time when the snow began to he all the year 
round on the lowlands, Cumberland was still inhabited, especially during 
the summer months, by many of the large mammalia of those days which 
migrated thus far from the south-east in quest of the extensive feeding 
grounds they required. With the great herbivorous beasts came also 
some of the carnivora, amongst them the ancestor of the African lion, 
whose shaggy mane and breast may be a vestige of the thick rough coat 
of spotted fur which enabled him to fare well in a cold climate. With 
these and other carnivorous animals it is not unlikely that savage man 
may also have first visited these parts, and have already begun to use his 
rough stone implements in contending with the other denizens of the 
land for the possession of the hunting grounds. 

{d) Slowly and gradually the snow spread to the lowlands. Glaciers 
in the north-west of Scotland had already coalesced to such an extent as 
to cover the whole country there. As time went on these conditions 
began to prevail further south ; the areas first to be so affected being 
those which are characterized by the heaviest rainfall at the present 
day. Before the advancing ice the plants and animals not yet accus- 
tomed to cold conditions had either to migrate southward or to suffer 
extermination. As they disappeared, others of more boreal habits took 
their place, and advanced southward in proportion as the land became 
uninhabitable. So reindeer and arctic animals and plants eventually 
migrated as far south as central France. It must be remembered that 
these migrations were facilitated by the land connection that then existed 
between Britain and the continent by way of what are now the North 
Sea and the English Channel. 

Eventually more snow fell even on the lowlands of Cumberland 
than the summer's heat sufficed to melt, and then glacial conditions 
may be said to have set in there, just as they had done long before in 
the country to the north. The glaciers grew, then coalesced, and 
eventually crept outward from their mountain birthplace to the low 
ground beyond. These conditions must have remained for a very long 
period, if we may judge by the effects produced upon the rock surfaces 
and by the enormous quantities of rock material transported outward 
from the mountain centres to the low ground beyond. 

[e) In a county like Cumberland, in which so much interest centres 
upon the lakes and the mountain features, the phase under consideration 
is one of great importance. There can be no question whatever, 
amongst field geologists at any rate, that all the lake basins of Cumberland 
were carved out of the solid rock at this time by the long-continued 
action of thick masses of glacier ice. There is really but little need to 

54 



GEOLOGY 

add anything here to what Sir Andrew Ramsay has said on the subject 
in general, or to what the late Rev. J. Clifton Ward has written in regard 
to the glacial origin of the Cumberland and Westmorland lakes in 
particular.* All of them are simply old river valleys deepened and 
widened by the long-continued erosive action of glacier ice. The 
slow and persistent grinding to which this erosion is due produced 
most effect at the points where the motion of the bottom layers was at 
its greatest and where the pressure was at its maximum. It may be as 
well to bear in mind in this connection the important fact that ice 
expands with a rise of temperature, and contracts with a fall, to a greater 
extent than any other solid known. A thick mass of ice under cold 
atmospheric conditions is warmer below in proportion to its depth, be- 
cause it is not so much chilled by surface cold, and, at the same time, its 
lower parts intercept much of the heat radiated outward from the earth. 
That is to say, the base of the ice is warmer than its upper surface ; and, 
being warmer, expands more, and therefore slowly creeps outward in the 
direction of least resistance, which usually follows a parabolic curve 
upwards from the sole of the ice and outwards from its source. As the 
weight of a column of ice one thousand feet in thickness on a base of 
a square foot is more than twenty-five tons, one can readily see that this 
steady upward and outward creep of the bottom layers, charged as they 
are with grit and rock fragments, must give rise in course of long periods 
to erosive effects of considerable importance. The fact that ice is nearly 
transparent to all the light rays and to most of the heat rays from the sun, 
while the foreign matter within the ice is not, helps still further to raise 
the temperature of the lower parts of the ice, and, by making them 
expand most, propels them forward over the rocks. 

It may be mentioned here that several other lakes than those now 
existing as such formerly had a place in Cumberland and Westmorland. 
There was a large one, now occupied by alluvium, between UUswater 
and St. Ninian's Church on the Eamont. The lip of the rock basin 
which contained that lake has been notched through by the river, and 
now forms the picturesque gorge of Udford Crags adjoining Edenhall. 
Another lake of larger size, also now silted up, once extended along the 
Eden from Appleby to Eden Lacy. Here, again, the beautiful rocky 
gorge and the rapids on the Eden at Eden Lacy are simply vestiges of 
the lip of the rock basin that formerly held in the water of the Eden 
and formed the lake in question, until the river notched the gorge deeper 
and let the water out. There was a similar lake, also with a gorge below 
it, at Kirkoswald. East of Keswick there was one at Threlkeld, of 
which the former lip is represented by the picturesque gorge on the 
Greta between that place and Keswick. Indeed it would be easy to 
multiply examples, for they are to be found here and there all over the 
county. All are simply enlargements of old river valleys, effected by 
glacial erosion. All have been true rock basins, which have once held 
lakes, and have been converted into meadow land by the double process 

^ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxx. p. 96. 
55 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

of the lowering of their outlets by the erosive action of the river, and 
the carrying in of sediments at their upper ends. 

During the phase of glacial action now under consideration, the 
same cause which enlarged and deepened the river valleys also carved 
great grooves upon the surface of the solid rock on the land. Some of 
these grooves, even in Cumberland, are so large as almost to be entitled 
to be called valleys. But as we advance further north into Scotland 
these features increase in size and importance. Even around Kelso, 
for example, the hill-shaded maps of the Ordnance Survey show them in 
great force, sweeping with an undeviating course right across rocks of 
the most diverse composition and age. Near Blairgowrie again, they are 
even more striking ; while in connection with the Highland rocks they 
reach even larger proportions still. 

Another feature of some importance in the scenic geology of Cum- 
berland is represented by the corries or cirques. These are usually 
excavations on the hillsides, shaped like half a bowl or half a funnel. 
Commonly they are characterized by a remarkable regularity of form, 
quite unlike any features produced by the action of any subaerial causes. 
Their origin has given rise to much difference of opinion. The present 
writer, dealing in 1874 especially with those of the Lake district, attri- 
buted their origin ^ to the effects of a slow rotatory movement or eddy of 
the ice. There are some very fine examples of these in the valley of the 
Calda, or Caldew, above Carrock Fell ; others equally fine, but much larger, 
occur at Melmerby ; while there are few dales in the Lake district that 
do not show some traces of them, usually near the upper part. 

{f) Throughout the greater part of the Glacial Period the move- 
ments of the Cumberland ice were seawards and mainly downhill. But 
while the changes just referred to were in progress, the ice from Gallo- 
way had coalesced with the general stream from the southern uplands 
of Scotland, and had already begun to make a slow advance southwards 
across the Solway — the ice from northern Cumberland extending with 
equal slowness in the opposite direction. The result may be readily con- 
ceived : the opposing streams, after a prolonged contest for mastery, 
eventually became united, and began to send their surplus overflow east- 
ward along the border counties. This is another way of stating the fact 
that a great conjoined stream, formed of both Cumberland and Scottish 
ice, once flowed over the watershed of the Eden and the Tyne, and hence 
seawards by the Tyne valley. On the south of the zone where the 
Cumberland and Scottish streams met end to end, the movement on the 
low ground was mainly southward, and continued thence at least as far as 
North Wales. 

{g) Eventually, the heavy snowfall due to the condensation of the 
aqueous vapour of the Gulf Stream by the uplands of the west of 
Scotland, caused such an increase in the volume of the Scottish ice that 
it overcame the resistance offered by part of the ice from Cumberland, 
thereby bringing its movements around Carlisle to a standstill for a time, 

^ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxxi. p. 99 ; Geol. Mag., ii. vol. ii. No. x. p. 486. 

56 



GEOLOGY 

and, eventually, after ponding it back in Edenside, actually repelled it 
with such force that it was obliged to flow in a direction diametrically 
opposite to that which it had maintained for so long during the earlier 
part of the Glacial Period. Hence much of the ice of the upper parts 
of Edenside streamed over the Shap Fells southward by way of Kendal 
and Lancaster ; while the chief overflow, ponded back at the head of the 
valley, found its way in the direction of the North Sea by way of Stain- 
moor and the lower half of the valley of the Tees. Judging by the 
effects produced upon the rock surface, this overwhelming of Cumber- 
land by ice of extraneous origin did not continue very long. The load- 
ing of this part of the earth's crust by a mass of ice, which must have 
considerably exceeded 2,000 feet in thickness (and farther north may 
well have exceeded 4,000 feet) is believed by many to have eventually 
wrought its own end. It is supposed that the weight of the vast load 
of ice which had accumulated on the seaward margin of north-western 
Europe, may have helped to bring about a slow depression of the earth's 
crust. The mountain-tops were gradually lowered by the depression ; 
rain fell and flowed off the land where previously the precipitation mainly 
took the form of snow ; and, finally, the depression brought the sea more 
and more inland. With the landward advance of the sea, those warmer 
currents of both water and air, which constitute the so-called Gulf Stream, 
extended their influence two hundred miles to the east of the former 
limit. Hence, the supply of snow having ceased, the glaciers were cut 
at their source ; whereupon the great confluent mass of ice, with all its 
tributaries and feeders, each charged throughout with mud, sand, stones 
and rock masses of various sizes, quietly melted away as it stood, and 
without passing in reverse order through any of the successive stages by 
which it reached its maximum. 

{&) The glaciated and other materials within the ice (there was 
probably little or none of the so-called ^moraine profonde' beneath) were 
liberated, as the ice melted, in the form of a kind of sediment. The 
boulder clay, and the beds of sand, gravel, peat, etc., associated with it, 
and also the eskers, were formed on the spot, as the varied results of this 
one operation of the melting of stony ice. (It may be mentioned here 
that this explanation of the englacial origin of glacial deposits was first 
put forward by the writer of this section in the year 1874, and is pub- 
lished in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. xxxi., and in 
the Geological Magazine for November of that year.) 

The importance of these glacial deposits in connection with Cum- 
berland can hardly be overrated, as they form the subsoil of nearly the 
whole of the cultivated ground, as well as much of the land under pasture. 

(/) The relation of the present flora of Cumberland (and, to a 
certain extent, that of the fauna also) to its parent sources, is largely of 
a geological nature, and is intimately connected with the changes of 
climate that arose during the Post-Pliocene Period. As already men- 
tioned, Cumberland was formerly connected with Ireland on the west, 
while on the east a land connection with western Europe also existed 

57 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

across what is now the North Sea. Moreover, southern Britain was, in 
like manner, connected with France and with the coast of Spain. By 
these several routes most of the existing plants had migrated to Cumber- 
land at an early period. Its flora, before the Age of Snow, therefore 
consisted of a main stock nearly identical, on the whole, with that of 
central Europe, with an admixture of such Scandinavian, Lusitanian and 
Armorican forms of plant life as could adapt themselves to the conditions 
then existing. With the gradual increase of the area covered with snow, 
the spreading of each succeeding generation of plants was necessarily 
confined to the south and the south-west. So the process continued — 
those plants which could least tolerate the cold forming the van of the 
emigrants, and those best adapted to live near to snow bringing up the 
rear, rank behind rank — until, in the end, the main body of the Cumber- 
land assemblage of plants had made their way into France. 

With the waning of the Age of Snow, the reverse process took 
place. Scandinavian and Arctic plants remigrated in the front rank as 
the ground became clear of snow ; the Germanic plants, forming the 
main body as before, closely followed the advanced party, and, finally, 
the Pyrenean and Armorican contingents slowly brought up the rear. At 
present the Germanic main body, after long contending for the possession 
of the low ground of Cumberland with their Scandinavian predecessors, 
have gradually won position after position on the slopes of the fells, and 
are on their way to taking almost entire possession of even the highest 
fell tops. 

(y) While these changes were going on in the plant life of Cum- 
berland, various animals, including man, finding new feeding and hunt- 
ing grounds as yet unoccupied, gradually retook possession of the land. 
In some respects the animal immigrants differed from the plants — 
inasmuch as the men came of a different stock from their predecessors, 
and brought with them evidence of a much more advanced state ojf 
civilization. The other animals which repeopled the land were simply 
the ancestors of the animals that are living here now, plus the brown 
bear, wolf, wild-boar and a few others, which have disappeared with the 
extension of man's domain in Britain. Neolithic man himself, as time 
went on, had to give way before the advance of men more civilized still, 
with whose advent commences the dawn of history, as commonly under- 
stood. 

(k) Long after man re-established himself here, minor changes 
continued in progress. The land has risen by fits and starts, with 
lengthy pauses between each move. It has now been elevated to about 
one hundred and fifty feet higher than its level when the ice first dis- 
appeared and Neolithic man first came. A few tiny glaciers gathered in 
the heart of some of the mountain areas during the period under con- 
sideration, and have left miniature moraine heaps here and there as evidence 
of their former existence. The lakes which were formed when the ice 
first melted away are gradually becoming shallower, through the quan- 
tity of material transported into them by rivers ; indeed, a few which 

58 



GEOLOGY 

lay in the path of rivers such as the Eden, which carry down much 
sediment, have passed into the condition of meadow land. Other lakes, 
such as the once-continuous Derwent-Bassenthwaite Water, Buttermere- 
Crummock Water, and others, are being silted up in the middle by the 
material carried in by lateral streams ; and all of them are reminding us 
that lakes are merely local and temporary conditions of rivers, and that 
they are all destined, sooner or later, to gradually silt up into dry land. 
Some few of the tarns have also shallowed-up, or have passed into moor- 
land through the intermediate stage of a peat-bog. 

The great deposits of hill-peat, containing remains of trees, at alti- 
tudes where no trees could be got to grow now, tell us of climatal 
conditions a few thousand years ago, long after the advent of Neolithic 
man, which must have been more genial than what we now experience. 

Since the commencement of this period, wind, rain and frost, 
drought and wet, heat and cold, have all been incessantly at work modi- 
fying the character of the surface of Cumberland, and reducing more 
and more of it from the state in which it was left at the close of the 
Glacial Period to a condition suitable for the needs of man. 

XIII. The Relation between the Geological Structure of 
Cumberland and the Boundaries of the Parishes. — In the South 
of England a very obvious relation can be made out between the distri- 
bution of the various kinds of soils and the larger divisions of the 
counties. This is especially the case in the Weald, as the late Mr. 
Topley has shown. Evidently, the earlier settlers, on taking possession of 
the land, agreed amongst themselves so to portion out that district that 
each community should have a due share of every type of land to be 
found there. The division of the district was so arranged that, along 
with the share of pasture and arable land allotted to each, there should 
also be a due share of riparian land, together with a like proportion of 
both woodland and moorland. In the Weald, the geological structure 
of the district was eminently favourable for such an arrangement, as the 
different types of rock upon which, in this case, the nature of the soil 
mainly depends, are naturally arranged over the whole ellipsoidal area, 
zone within zone, each zone comparatively narrow in one direction, but 
forming a continuous band in a direction at right angles to that. This 
arrangement of the strata and its present bearing will be easily understood 
on reference to any good geological map. 

To carry out this principle of allotment to its fullest effect three con- 
ditions appear to be necessary, (i) There must be a definite geographical 
relationship between the distribution of the geological formations and the 
superficial deposits from which the various surface soils are derived. 
(2) A uniform arrangement of the rocks must prevail throughout the 
whole district. (3) The primary apportioning of the land must be 
wholly in the hands of one united people, with a common government 
and with common needs, and with that disposition to work together for 
the common good which is requisite for the welfare of both the village 
communities and the larger bodies into which these communities are to 

59 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

be united. It is only in the case of an agricultural people, with com- 
munistic habits, who enter at once into full and undisputed possession of 
the land, that any such division on the lines followed in the Weald can 
be possible. 

In Cumberland, all the factors were different. The soils, instead of 
being related in composition to the underlying rock as they are in the 
Weald, are derived, in the great majority of cases, direct from the mantle 
of glacial deposits. These are spread far and wide over all the lowlands 
and the slopes of most of the hill-sides, and they usually bear only a remote 
relation in composition to that of the rocks upon which they lie. Hence, 
almost no definite geographical relationship subsists between the different 
kinds of superficial deposits in one part as compared with another. 
Furthermore, even where the soil is thin, and solid rock does protrude at 
the surface, it is exceptional to find rock of the same kind extending far 
enough to impart any definite agricultural type to the soil throughout 
any but the fell lands ^ of a Cumberland parish. For this reason, even 
the best geological maps of Cumberland afford but little information 
regarding the value of the land from an agricultural point of view. In 
the Weald the case is far otherwise, as already mentioned. The only 
part of Cumberland where even an approach is made to the type of 
parish boundary found in the Weald, is along the strip of the county 
lying to the north-east side of the Eden. But even in that case, the 
neat and definite coincidence observable between the geological structure 
and the parish boundaries in the southern area can hardly be said to 
exist. 

The third factor, whose discussion comes perhaps more within the 
province of the historian, relates to the ethnology of the earlier settlers 
in the district. Taking it for granted that these earlier peoples were 
Celtic, it may be safely assumed that they were but little disposed to 
apply themselves wholly to agricultural operations. With them it would 
be a matter of but little moment whether the soil upon which they lived was 
suited, or was not suited, for the growth of any particular kind of crop. 
If fishing and hunting were to be had, and sufficient rough pasture could 
easily be found for their cattle, their needs were supplied. Then, again, 
continual conflicts with their neighbours — inevitable under the circum- 
stances — were hardly conducive to uniformity of land-tenure over any 
large area. So their parish boundaries were determined by a variety of 
circumstances. 

If we are right in supposing that the Anglian and other Teutonic 
settlers in Cumberland gradually supplanted the Celtic aborigines, instead 
of taking possession of the land all at once, we can easily understand how 
they took over the land with its older boundaries much as they found 
them, and afterwards had but small need to modify those boundaries to 
any important extent. 

^ It may be remarked here that the word ' fell,' in the north of England, is not synony- 
mous with ' hill ' ; the word simply means land as yet unenclosed, and is exactly synonymous 
with the Norman word ' forest.* 

60 



GEOLOGY 

To put this into a briefer form, we may say that the parish boun- 
daries of Cumberland were laid out chiefly by a nation of hunters, and 
not by an agricultural people ; and that we have kept them since very 
much in the form in which they passed into the hands of the first 
Teutonic settlers. 

XIV. The Minerals of Cumberland. — There would have been 
some advantages in treating Cumberland Minerals under the various geo- 
logical formations to which they belong ; but as this plan would fail to 
bring them, as a whole, clearly under the eye, they are given separately here. 

They may be grouped (i) in accordance with the nature of their 
bases ; (2) according to their chemical composition considered in connec- 
tion with their crystalline form ; (3) on an economic basis ; or (4) with 
reference to their mode of origin. Perhaps the last of these, in an article 
dealing mainly with the geology of Cumberland, may be regarded as the 
most suitable for the purpose. The customary order of treatment is as 
follows : — 

The original Minerals of Eruptive Rocks may be taken first. These 
include Quartz and the Felspars, of which in Cumberland, Orthoclase, 
Albite, Oligoclase and Labradorite are the chief The first three felspars 
are mainly confined to the acid eruptive rocks, and the last one is the 
usual felspar of basalts, dolerites, and of most andesites. Hornblende oc- 
curs as an original constituent of most of the granites and the rocks allied 
thereto, though never in any large proportion. It also forms one of the 
minerals of the andesites. Augite (or rather Pyroxene in one or other 
of its monosymmetric forms) is found in all the dolerites and basalts, and 
also in the andesite lavas. It also occurs sparingly in some of the 
aplite veins associated with the granitic rocks. The orthorhombic 
Pyroxenes are represented in a few basic and sub-basic eruptive rocks. 
The commonest mica is Biotite, which is an original constituent of nearly 
all the granites and the rocks allied to them, and also of the Mica traps. 
It probably occurred originally in many of the andesites. 

Mucovite, as an original constituent, is by no means of common 
occurrence. One of its chief sources being a remarkable microgranite, 
which occurs in the Ordovician rocks near Melmerby and at other places 
along the foot of the Cross Fell Escarpment. 

With these, the more important of the original constituents of the 
eruptive rocks, there also occur Ilmenite, Magnetite, Pyrites, Pyrrho- 
tite. Molybdenite, Apatite, Sphene and a few other minerals, amongst 
which may perhaps be included. Zircon and Orthite. 

Contact-metamorphism has developed a very interesting set of 
minerals, which, as might be expected, vary with the nature of the rock 
in which they occur. In rocks of argillaceous composition, the best 
known mineral of these is Chiastolite (a form of Andalusite), which 
occurs chiefly in the altered Skiddaw Slates in the zones around or over 
the granite masses. Where these Skiddaw Slates assume more the nature 
of sandstones, the chief mineral developed, especially in close contiguity 
to the eruptive rock, is Biotite. 

61 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Of the very interesting suite of minerals found as a result of the 
contact-metamorphism of limestones, such as Phlogopite, Diopside, 
Tremotite, Wollastonite, Garnet, Idocrase, Sphene, Graphite, and Pyr- 
rholite,no good examples have yet been detected actually in Cumberland, 
although they occur within a short distance of the county boundary. 

Contact-metamorphism has produced marked effect upon the vol- 
canic rocks, as already mentioned, and has given rise to some interesting 
minerals. Garnets occur here and there under these circumstances, 
chiefly in tuffs which had undergone a certain amount of decomposition 
prior to the intrusion of the eruptive masses with which the meta- 
morphism is associated. Epidote is a common alteration-product of 
rocks with this history. In many cases in Cumberland it may represent 
one of the 'Green Earths' (Celedonite, Delessite, Saponite, etc.), which 
were originally derived from some ferro-magnesian minerals in the rocks 
affected, chiefly by the action of percolating water derived from the sur- 
face. These ' Green Earths ' are very prone to change into Epidote 
when the rocks containing them have been subjected to the factors which 
have produced contact-metamorphism. In a few cases Biotite, Horn- 
blende, and some other minerals, have been produced in the same 
way. In the case of Agates, which have been formed in the vapour- 
cavities of the eruptive rocks by the agency of underground waters, the 
Chalcedony has passed into the crystalline condition, and has now become 
Quartz. This is, perhaps, one of the reasons why normal agates are so 
rarely found in Cumberland. 

In some instances of extreme contact-metamorphism of the Cumber- 
land volcanic rocks the determining factors have probably been con- 
nected with the uprise of heated alkaline waters, which have operated 
upon the rocks in question before they have lost their alkalies through 
prolonged exposure to surface agencies. The rocks belonging to this 
category are chiefly confined to the heart of the older volcanic rocks. 
It is possible that some of the anomalies presented by the rocks and 
minerals of Carrock Fell, which have formed the subject of an important 
memoir by Messrs. Harker and Marr, may be explicable in this way. 
Mr. Ward regarded this complex as a case of old lavas altered in situ ; 
and although this view has recently been questioned, there is still much 
to be said in its favour. The present writer is disposed to regard the 
minerals composing the complex in question as due to the influence of 
heated waters containing alkaline matters, which have risen through an 
older set of lavas and tuffs at an early period in their history, and before 
the volcanic rocks had lost any of their essential constituents by weather- 
ing. The granophyric rock associated with these altered lavas, may, on 
this view of its origin, be regarded as one in which an old basic or sub- 
basic mass has been softened, and subsequently recrystallized, mainly 
through the local operation of heated alkaline waters, which have 
imported into the rock a higher percentage of both silica and the alkalies. 
The intimate association of granophyric rocks and gabbros, here and else- 
where, can thus be readily enough explained. The constituent minerals 

62 



GEOLOGY 

of the Carrock Fell Rock are therefore here treated as partly of meta- 
morphic origin. 

There is a large class of other minerals occurring in Cumberland 
which are due to another cause. These embrace most (but not all) of 
the original contents of mineral veins. Quartz veins, so abundant amongst 
the older rocks of Cumberland, are here assumed to be due to the slow 
dissolution of the rock by heated alkaline waters, and by the equally slow 
deposition of silica in the place of the material removed. In a few cases 
it may possibly be true that the quartz fills a pre-existent fissure or cavity ; 
but the evidence that such has been the case has not yet been satisfactorily 
made out. In the case of the great quartz vein known as the ' Great 
Sulphur Vein ' of the Alston district, the evidence of the quartz having 
replaced limestone is clear enough. Curiously enough in this case rocks 
other than those that are calcareous are left unaffected. Other mineral 
veins are here regarded as due to successive deposits of mineral matters 
originally held in solution in hot springs, from which the various sub- 
stances have been left at the horizon where the temperature of the walls 
of the veins coincided with the depositing temperature of the particular 
substance in solution. To this category belong most of the Galena, Chal- 
copyrite. Blende, Mispickel, Barytes, Fluor and some few other minerals 
associated with them, such as some of the rarer ores of the Caldbeck 
Fells. Even the Graphite of Borrowdale may be due to this cause. It 
may be an ultimate product of what was formerly some metallic carbide. 
All of these minerals just mentioned are here regarded as hypogenic in 
origin. There is another class of substances occurring in the mineral 
veins of Cumberland which are due to the downward percolation of cold 
surface-water, which usually contains Carbonic Acid or some of the 
organic acids allied thereto. In referring to the origin of these the cor- 
relative term epigenic is used. These surface-waters give rise to a series 
of complex changes, by which the sulphides are converted into carbonates, 
sulphates, mixed carbonates and sulphates, phosphates, etc. The varied 
contents of the celebrated mineral veins of the Caldbeck Fells, and other 
areas near Keswick, as well as those of the almost equally celebrated 
mineral veins of the Alston district, are largely due to this ' ebbing ' of 
the original contents of the veins. Most Calcite veins are due to the 
same cause. 

To yet another series of changes of a geological nature are the New 
Red minerals due : Rock Salt, Gypsum and Anhydrite, Dolomite, Chaly- 
bite, Hsematite, and some of the ores of Manganese. The origin of these 
has already been noted in connection with the Red Rocks themselves. 

It may again be mentioned here that all the Haematite deposits of 
Cumberland are replacement products of some form of calcareous matter, 
which is usually either Calcite or Dolomite. This fact has long been 
known to the officers of the Geological Survey ; but it is mainly to the 
researches of Mr. J. D. Kendall that the public are indebted for their 
chief knowledge of the facts connected with the geognostic relations of 
Hematite. It may be remarked, however, that the presence of pebbles 

63 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

of Hasmatite in the New Red Breccias — a very common occurrence — is 
due to the selective replacement of some calcareous matter in the pebbles. 
Hence the presence of these Haematite pebbles does not imply that the 
mineral in question is older than the New Red, as seems commonly to be 
supposed. Some Manganese ores occur not uncommonly in association 
with Haematite ; and it is possible that some of the west Cumberland 
' soft ore ' may consist of the bright-red form of Goethite, which goes 
by the name of Rubinglimmer. 

Lastly, there are a few minerals whose present character is due more 
directly to surface agencies, such as oxidation, and the direct influence of 
water. None of these call for any special remark. 

For fuller details regarding localities, etc., the reader is referred to 
the author's paper on ' The Minerals of Cumberland and Westmorland,' 
in the Trans. Gumb. & West. Assoc, vols. vii. loi, viii. 189, ix. 175. 



64 



CLIMATE 



SITUATED as Cumberland is at the extreme north-west angle of 
the map of England, it is usually assumed that the temperature, 
particularly during the winter, must necessarily be very severe. 
In particular, the mountain valleys are commonly supposed to be 
intensely cold at that season, but the thermometer, far from countenanc- 
ing this opinion, shows that the inhabitants enjoy a milder climate than 
those who reside in the open country. In winter, for instance, the mean 
of the night temperature is several degrees higher than at Cockermouth, 
Wigton, or Carlisle, in the open plain, where the frost is generally more 
severe. The indications of the thermometer are in accordance with my 
own observations during a residence of twenty years in the very centre of 
the Lake district where it was not unusual to find the roads over the open 
commons frozen quite hard, when they were found to be soft and clammy 
in the valleys among the hills. The late J. F. Miller, F.R.S., in the 
Philosophical Transactions, has the following remarks bearing on this ques- 
tion : ' The mean temperature of the winter months at Chiswick in 
Middlesex is nearly the same as in the Lake district, whilst a much 
greater extreme of cold is frequently felt there than in the north. In the 
neighbourhood of the metropolis the thermometer sometimes indicates a 
degree^ of cold almost unknown in these districts. Thus on the night 
between the nth and 12th of February, 1847, the temperature at 
Greenwich fell to 6°, at Chiswick to 4°, and at Uckfield in Sussex to 
1°, when at Seathwaite in Borrowdale the minimum was 24*5°, and the 
minimum for the month 20°.' 

Except in the Alston district and part of the valley of the South 
Tyne river, which has its sources in the eastward slopes of the Pennines, 
the whole county of Cumberland slopes towards the south and west, and 
this exposure constitutes another factor in modifying the severity of its 
climate. During the winter season a very large amount of snow often 
occurs alike on the Pennine range and the more lofty peaks of the 
Cumbrian group, where it frequently remains until the advent of spring ; 
but in near proximity to the coast the snowfall is inconsiderable in 
quantity and mostly is quickly dissolved. 

The rainfall among the hills towards the south of the county is 
frequently excessive and as Mr. J. G. Symonds, who for many years 
published an account of British rainfall, has remarked, 'There is no 
doubt that the Lake district is one of excessive rain, there being some 
parts of it which have seven times as much as London ; but if not, where 
would be the lakes, or to my mind the still more charming tarns ? Aira 
I 65 F 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Force would degenerate to a " dropping well," and many beauties of the 
district would vanish entirely.' These lakes and tarns fulfil another 
important and useful purpose in serving as catchment basins or natural 
reservoirs for the immense quantities of rain water which the river beds 
would be otherwise unable to contain. Away from the hills and in the 
plains of Cumberland, the rainfall may be set down as normal. Thus I 
have before me through the courtesy of R. A. Allison, Esq., of Scaleby 
Hall, about six miles north of Carlisle, a statement of the rainfall at that 
place extending over a period of eleven years from 1889 to 1900. In 
the year 1889 the amount of rain was as low as 29*7 inches ; in 1891, 
36*9 inches ; and the average for the whole period of eleven years, 33-3 
inches. For purposes of comparison I subjoin the following table of 
mean annual averages, viz. : — 

Inches Inches 

The Stye, Borrowdale 165 Gowbarrow Park, Ullswater ... 72 

Seathwaite 140 Esk Hause 72 

Sprinkling Tarn 121 Scawfell Pike 64 

Styehead Tarn no Keswick 59 

Stonethwaite 107 Watermillock, Ullswater . . . . 55 

Wythburn, Thirlmere 90 Mirehouse, Bassenthwaite .... 50 

Wastdale Head 88 Penrith ' 38 

Watendlath 82 Scaleby Hall, Carlisle * 33 

Matterdale Common 80 



REMARKS ON THE HELM WIND 

Helm Wind is a local name of uncertain derivation (but supposed 
to be so called from the cloud which, like a cap or helmet, covers the 
top of the mountain) applied to a very violent wind blowing from some 
eastern point of the compass, but mostly due east, at the foot of the 
mountains known by the name of the Cross Fell range, and confined both 
in length and breadth to the space contained between the Helm and 
Helm Bar, hereafter described. 

For a better understanding of this phenomenon, it may be necessary 
first to point out the peculiar situation of the neighbourhood where it 
occurs. 

The counties of Cumberland and Westmorland are bounded on 
their eastern side by a chain of mountains, separately known by different 
names along the range, but collectively called the Cross Fell range, some- 
times the Pennine chain, from their Roman name Alpes Penini. The 
general direction is from north-west by north to south-east by south, and 
the northern extremity is at Talkin and Tindale Fells, not far from which 
the railway from Carlisle to Newcastle crosses to the east, the highest 
point of which is rather more than 400 feet above the level of the sea. 
Tindale Fell rises abruptly to a considerable height, Talkin Fell more 
gradually, and the hills rise by degrees in the above-named direction 

1 The same rainfall as at Exeter, and slightly in excess of that recorded for Birmingham and 
Aberdeen, i.e. 3 1 inches. 

66 




Fic. 1. 



CLIMATE 

towards the summit ot Cross Fell, which is 2,930 feet above the sea ; 
southward of this the range continues till it joins Stainmoor ; in this 
direction there is no great depression as at the north. The ascent on 
the eastern slope is much more gradual than on the west, where it is 
sudden, with few or no spurs or outliers, except a few conical hills near 
Dufton in Westmorland, called Pikes. 

The annexed imaginary section (fig. i) will perhaps assist in giving 
an idea of the rise on the different 
sides. The horizontal distance of 
the summit from the plain may 
be about 2,700 yards ; at five 
miles from the base on the west 
is the river Eden, running nearly 
parallel to the mountain ; on the 
east of the summit range is the bed of the river South Tyne, the bridge 
over which at Alston is 300 feet higher than the village of Melmerby 
on the west. 

Along the summit of this chain of mountains, and extending from 
three or four to sixteen or eighteen miles each way, north and south 

from the highest point, there 
is often seen a large, long 
roll of clouds, the westerly 
front clearly defined and quite 
separated from any other cloud 
on that side ; it is at times 
poised as it were above the 
mountain, sometimes resting 
on its top, but most frequently descends a considerable way down its 
side ; this is called the Helm. 

In opposition to this and at a variable distance towards the west 
is another cloud with its eastern edge as clearly defined as the Helm, 
and at the same elevation ; this is called the Bar, or Bur. The space 
between the Helm and the Bar 
is the limit of the wind. 

The distance between the 
Helm and the Bar varies as the 
Bar advances or recedes from 
the Helm ; this is sometimes 
not more than half a mile, 
sometimes three or four miles ; 
occasionally the Bar seems to 

coincide with the western horizon, or it disperses and there is no Bar, 
and then there is a general east wind extending over all the country 
westward. 

However violent the wind may be between the Helm and the 
Bar the violence ends there, as on the west side of the Bar there 
is either no wind at all, or it blows in the contrary direction or from 

67 




Fig. 2. 




N 







A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

various points in strong sudden gusts, but it would appear that the 
general direction of the wind is not changed ; when the Bar advances 
so far as to reach the Helm the wind ceases. Neither the Helm nor the 
Bar forms separate or detached clouds, but each may rather be said to 
be the bold, clearly-defined front of a large body of clouds extending 
eastward behind the Helm and westward from the Bar. 

The open space between the Helm and the Bar varies from eight 
or ten to thirty or forty miles in length, and from half a mile to four or 
six miles in breadth ; it is of an elliptical form, as the Helm and Bar 
are united at the ends. 

A representation of the Helm, Bar and space between may be 
made by opening the forefinger and thumb of each hand and placing 
their tips to each other ; the thumbs will then represent the Helm 
on the top of the fell, the forefingers the Bar, and the open space 
between the variable limit of the wind. 

The wind is very irregular, but most frequent from the end of 
September to May ; it rarely occurs in the summer months.^ 

The villages of Milburn, Kirkland, Ousby, Melmerby and Gam- 
blesby are most subject to it ; the more distant from the highest point 
the less it is felt ; it seldom occurs at Castle Carrock, and is known only 
by name at Talkin. Sometimes when the atmosphere is quite settled, 
hardly a cloud to be seen and not a breath of wind stirring, a small 
cloud appears on the summit, and extends itself to the north and south ; 
the Helm is then said to be on, and in a few moments the wind is 
blowing so violently as to break down trees, overthrow stacks, occasion- 
ally blow a person from his horse, or overturn a horse and cart. When 
the wind blows the Helm seems violently agitated, but on ascending the 
fell and entering it, there is not much wind. Sometimes a Helm forms 
and goes off without a wind, and there are easterly winds without a 
Helm. The open space is clear of clouds, with the exception of small 
pieces breaking off now and then from the Helm, and disappearing or 
being driven rapidly over to the Bar ; but through this open space is 
often seen a higher stratum of clouds quite at rest. Within the space 
described, the wind blows continually ; it has been known to do so for 
nine days together, the Bar advancing or receding to different distances. 
When heard or felt for the first time it does not seem so very extra- 
ordinary, but when heard or felt for days together it gives a strong 
impression of sublimity. Its sound is peculiar, and when once known 
is easily distinguished from that of ordinary winds ; it cannot be heard 
more than three or four miles, but when in the wind or near it, it has 
been compared to the noise made by the sea in a violent tempest. 

1 The above information has been chiefly obtained from a paper written in 1838 and read at the 
meeting of the British Association at Newcastle-on-Tyne in the same year. The Rev. Jno. Watson, 
the writer, was many years vicar of Cumrew, under Crossfell, and was well known to me in my earlier 
years. There is occasionally a slight helm on the Westmorland side of UUswater. Kidsty Pike and 
High Street form the summit, and the surrounding conditions are quite analogous to those mentioned 
by Mr. Watson. I have witnessed it frequently during seventeen years' residence on the Cumberland 
side of the lake. — W. H. 

68 



CLIMATE 

Its first effect on the spirits is exhilarating, and it gives a kind of 
buoyancy to the body. The country subject to it is very healthy, but it 
does great injury to vegetation, by beating the grain, grass and leaves 
of trees till quite black. 

On the eastern side of the mountain they have no knowledge when 
the Helm wind is blowing violently on the west ; and people on the fell, 
when a mist comes on, do not know that there is a wind till they descend 
the western side.* 

It was long supposed that this wind was peculiar to this country, 
but it now appears that there are similar phenomena in different places. 
Sir J. Herschel said that he found one at the Cape ; the cloud called 
the Tablecloth agreed with the Helm, and he observed the Bar at a 
considerable distance ; the air rushed down the side of the mountain, 
and being opposed by a contrary column was reflected and formed the 
Bar. Professor Stavely had noticed one of the same kind near Belfast, 
and Professor Buche of Philadelphia, when passing the Alps, observed 
the like appearance. 

^ The origin of the Helm Wind was discussed before the Cumberland and Westmorland Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science by the editor of the Association's Transactions, Mr. Goodchild (see 
Trans. Cumberland and Westmorland Assoc. No. xiv. [i888], p. 43). 



69 



PALiEONTOLOGY 



SO far as the fossil remains of vertebrated animals are concerned, 
Cumberland may be said to have practically no history. The 
absence of such fossils is to a great extent attributable to two 
causes. In the first place a very large proportion of the rocks 
of the county belong to periods when vertebrate life was either absent or 
but feebly represented. In addition to this, as mentioned in the chapter 
on Geology, the Devonian rocks of Cumberland are unfossiliferous ; 
while no vertebrate remains appear to have been recorded from the 
Carboniferous deposits within the limits of the county, although in many 
other districts these yield more or less numerous teeth and other remains 
of fishes. In the second place the whole of the surface of the county 
appears to have been completely enveloped in ice during the Glacial 
epoch, when it would have been extremely unsuitable for the presence of 
a large fauna, while there would also have been but a poor chance for 
the remains of such as did exist to have been preserved. 

So far as the writer can ascertain, the only fossil remains of verte- 
brates that have been recorded as occurring in the county are those of a 
few mammals obtained during the excavation of the new docks at Silloth. 
These were first described by an anonymous writer,^ who recorded the 
antler of a red deer {Cervus elaphus), the humerus, or upper bone of the 
fore-leg, of the aurochs, or extinct wild ox {Bos taurus primigenius), and 
a tail-vertebra of a species of fin- whale {Balanopterd) . Subsequently 
Mr. J. Leitch ^ figured the humerus above-mentioned and recorded two 
skulls and other bones of the wild ox from the same locality. 

1 Trans. Cumberland Assoc, vol. viii. p. 210 (1882). 

2 Ibid. vol. ix. p. 164 (1884). 



71 



HISTORY OF CITMBERLAND 



BOTANICAL DISTRICTS 




■J 4 

V 



II 






^V^ z>mJ """ """"'^^^ft/afc' 



TlxjrdyyW/ ^^ ^^i°NiO'^ /'£>*^illl£5v -^^/-^^^-^ <Ms3^ih\\ \ -Na^n^effT^J^^ EdoJi. 

!Qiy( V«.^^7.^v, '^x^-^?'^ ^\\x iwiJbr2d^t/^^:^r /^<'.i;^<^ / IK r-'^^^^.L^!;;^^?^^;?'''^"^^''^*'^'^^^^ ^., 

JLoj-r ijigton. VS^ti&rri/iiji 



t^Ouahyy Cross lell^ 




I. South Western 



English Kiles 



LIST OF BOTANICAL DISTRICTS 
II. Coast Line III. Central Plain 



IV. /VorfA Eastern 



Tim EdJEilnirgb. GtjortcnpticaL Xajtibilj^ 



J.&,Bn,d.oloniow. 



THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



BOTANY 



THE county of Cumberland, owing to the great variety of its 
land surfaces, possesses a large variety of vegetable life, alpine, 
aquatic, maritime, and plants of cultivation, besides such as are 
peculiar to bogs, peat mosses and open moorlands. Its botanical 
history is somewhat meagre. From all the information I have been able 
to gather, it would seem that very slight attention had been paid to 
botanical investigation prior to the restoration of king Charles II., and 
that the real pioneers of the study practically were Lawson, Ray, 
Willison, and Dr. William Nicolson, Bishop of Carlisle, who left behind 
him at his death a MS. list of Cumberland and Westmorland plants 
founded upon Ray's Catalogue, and supplemented by additions founded 
on the worthy prelate's personal gatherings around Carlisle and in the 
parish of Great Strickland, near Penrith, of which he had been formerly 
rector. He lived at the rectory when Lawson was schoolmaster at Great 
Strickland in the adjoining county of Westmorland. From some quaint 
remarks in the bishop's book, which through the courtesy of the late 
Bishop Goodwin I had the privilege of examining and making extracts 
from, there would appear to have been friendly correspondence and in- 
terchange of thought between the two. The rectory is not more than 
a dozen miles from Lawson's abode at Strickland. It would further 
seem from the frequent occurrence of the phrases ' subter moenia,' ' inter 
rudera,' and 'juxta fossas,' that the city defences at Carlisle were in a 
ruinous condition in 1690, the date of the bishop's MS., and had pro- 
bably not been repaired since the siege and capture by Cromwell's troops 
not fifty years before. 

Some corroboration as to the scarcity of botanical information as 
regards Cumberland up to comparatively recent times is afforded by 
reference to the pages of a recently published work by Mr. W. A. 
Clarke, F.L.S., containing ' First Records of British Plants.' Only six 
species are included referring to Cumberland, chiefly on the authority of 
Willison and discovered by him in the course of a journey from Hexham 
to Penrith about 1 670. These are Vicia Orobus, DC, to which Bishop 
Nicolson adds ' nostratibus, horse-pease,' at Gamblesby ; Alchemilla alpina, 
L., and Circeea alpina, L., both by Hullswater Lake {sic) ; Vaccinium 
uliginosum, L., at Osten (now Alston) ; Lobelia Dortmanna, L., which the 
bishop calls ' Water gladiole ' in Hullswater, and Salix cinerea, L., Cum- 
berland in general. 1753. — Since Nicolson's day additions to local 
botany in Cumberland have been made chiefly by Dawson Turner, joint 

73 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

editor of the Botanists Guide through England and Wales, assisted by the 
Rev. John Dodd, vicar of Aspatria previous to 1804, the Rev. W. 
Wood of Whitehaven, and the Rev. John Harriman of Eglestone, 
Durham. The records left by the last-named gentleman still remain as 
authentic as anything that has come under the writer's personal notice. 
A list published in Hutchinson's History of Cumberland (1794), compiled 
mainly by the Rev. W. Richardson, vicar of Dacre, is far from being 
equally trustworthy, and was rather severely criticized by Mr. N. J. 
Winch, of Newcastle, who himself, from personal observations, published 
an amended catalogue in 1824. Mr. J. G. Baker of Kew Gardens says 
of him, ' Winch was a capital botanist.' John Rooke, a Whitehaven 
artist of more than local repute, who died so lately as 1872, left at his 
decease a collection of botanical drawings bound up into six volumes. 
These drawings, executed with great fidelity down to the minutest detail, 
were sold by the artist's executors to Mr. J. C. Brown, J. P., of Hazel 
Holme, Whitehaven, by whom they are justly prized. Rev. Robert 
Wood, sixty-two years vicar of Westward parish, Wigton, and Mr. 
William Dickinson, F.L.S., of Thorncroft, Workington, were zealous 
co-workers in natural science for more than half a century, and left 
behind them valuable collections of dried plants as evidences of their 
industrious research. It was the writer's happy lot to be their associate 
in his earlier botanical studies and to be able to avail himself of their 
experience. The late Dr. John Leitch (M.B. and CM. of Edinburgh) 
who practised at Silloth, where he died so recently as 1897, was a keen 
botanist and did much to promote the study of plants in his own locality 
especially in looking after the mass of alien plants annually appearing at 
Silloth, from the dressings of foreign cargoes of grain discharged at 
the port. 

It would be unpardonable to omit all notice of the Lakeland Flora, 
published by Mr. J. Gilbert Baker, F.L.S., of the Royal Gardens at Kew 
(the MS. of which he submitted to me for examination) as a contribu- 
tion to our county flora ; or to acknowledge the courteous and invaluable 
aid extended to me by him in verifying the identity of alien and other 
plants collected by myself and co-workers at Silloth, Maryport, and 
Derwent Tinplate Works, Workington, the number of species amounting 
to about 200. 

Much remains to be done before the botany of the county as a 
whole can be considered as approximately complete. Some districts I 
admit may be set down as practically exhausted, as for instance the 
neighbourhood of Keswick, the great resort of tourists to the Lake 
district. It is in the extreme north and north-east, abutting on the 
Pennines, that so little has been hitherto accomplished, and I leave the 
work to be undertaken by younger men of active habits unburdened by 
the infirmities of age. 

I would gladly here add a word of hearty and grateful acknowledgment to the living 
friends and fellow-labourers who have aided me in the task of compilation of the Flora of 
Cumberland. These include Miss E. J. Glaister, Skinburness House ; Miss Julia Curwen, 

74 



BOTANY 

Roewath ; Mrs. Mary Carr, Silloth ; Mr. J. C. Smith, Penrith ; Mr. Jos. Adair, Egremont ; 
Rev. R. Wood, Rosley Vicarage ; Mr. R. H. Hamilton, Maryport ; Rev. Hilderic Friend, 
late of Carlisle and Cockermouth ; Mr. John Glaister, Skinburness ; Messrs. Lidbetter and 
Hall, Brookfield, Wigton ; Mr. W. Duckworth, late of Carlisle ; Mr. George Coggins, 
Clifton Hall ; Messrs. Dickson and Stratton, Gilgarron, Whitehaven ; Mr. Thomas Lister, 
Flimby ; Rev. F. Addison, Thirsk, Yorks ; Mr. S. L. Petty, Ulverston ; Mr. W. Thomson, 
Carlisle. 

ZONES OF TEMPERATURE AND ALTITUDE 

By ' range ' is signified range in altitude above sea-level, and by the 
figures I, 2, 3, 4 the zones of altitude in which the plant is commonly 
found in Cumberland. For tracing out the vertical range of species the 
late Mr. H. C. Watson divided the surface of Britain into two ' regions ' 
and six * zones ' of temperature. The two regions he designated as 
' agrarian ' and ' arctic' The agrarian includes the whole surface of 
the island from sea-level, as far up the hills as arable cultivation is prac- 
ticable. This is up to about 600 yards above sea-level in the north of 
England, and 400 yards in Scotland or the Scottish Highlands. All 
above this belongs to the arctic region, which is so named because its 
characteristic plants have their headquarters within the Arctic Circle, or 
at any rate in the far north. Each of these two regions he divided into 
three zones : super-agrarian, mid-agrarian, and infer-agrarian ; super- 
arctic, mid-arctic, and infer-arctic. Of these six zones the coldest and 
the warmest, the super-arctic and the infer-agrarian are not represented 
in the county, but we have all the other four. Counting from below, 
the zone No. i corresponds to Watson's mid-agrarian, zone No. 2 to his 
super-agrarian, zone No. 3 to his infer-arctic, and zone No. 4 to his 
mid-arctic. Cumberland it may be noted is the only county in England, 
portions of which are included in the last-mentioned zone. 

Zone I — mid-agrarian of Watson — extends in Cumberland from 
shore level to an altitude of 900 feet upon the hills, and includes all the 
larger lakes and valleys, as well as the great bulk of the surface under 
tillage up to an altitude corresponding to that of Castle Crag, Keswick, 
though not quite reaching so high as the summit of Eycott Hill, over 
Berrier. The average annual temperature may be estimated at from 
45° to 48° Fahr. 

Zone 2 — super-agrarian zone of Watson — includes that portion 
of the hill country which lies at an elevation of from 900 to 1,800 feet, 
or from the summit of Castle Crag to that of Great (sometimes called) 
Wester Mell Fell. The average annual temperature of this zone may 
be set down as ranging from 42° to 45° Fahr. Broadly speaking culti- 
vation does not reach quite to the summit of the super-agrarian but to 
the top of the mid-agrarian, or in exceptional instances a trifle higher. 
The super-agrarian flora at the lakes is materially smaller than in the 
eastern counties of England. 

Zone 3 — infer-arctic zone of Watson — includes a belt of mountains 
between 1,800 and 2,700 feet in altitude, or from the top of Great Mell 
Fell or Lord's Seat over Bassenthwaite Lake to the summit of High 

75 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Stile in Ennerdale, or High Street, which latter mountain belongs to 
Westmorland. The average temperature of this zone is from 39° to 42°, 
Above the level of 2,700 feet but little vegetation of any kind is to be 
met with. Only the highest tarn, viz.. Sprinkling Tarn, on the north 
of Scaw Fell, the elevation of which is 1,900 feet above sea-level, falls 
distinctly within the bounds of this zone. Here are to be found alpine 
plants such as Oxyria digyna, Silene acaulis, Sedum Rhodiola, Saxifraga 
oppositifolia, S. nivalis, S. ste//aris, Gerastium alpinum, Hieracium alpinum, 
H. chrysanthum, Thalictrum alpinum ; and also that very rare species 
Saussurea alpina, Vaccinium Myrtillus, V. Vitis-Idcea and Epilobium alsine- 
folium, with some of our hardier ferns may be found in the crevices of 
the slate cliffs. 

Zone 4 — Watson's mid-arctic zone — includes all the mountain 
summits in excess of 2,700 feet in height, namely : — 



Feet 

Scawfell Pike 3>2o6 

Scawfell 3>i6i 

Helvellyn 3> 1 1 8 

Skiddaw 3,058 

Bowfell 2,960 

Great Gable 2,949 

The Pillar 2,927 



Feet 

Hanging Knott 2,903 

Great End 2,892 

Cross Fell 2,892 

Blencathra (Saddleback) . . . 2,847 

Great Dodd 2,804 

Grassmoor 2,791 

The Steeple 2,756 



Here there is nothing but bare rocky hill top, with a very scanty 
vegetation. The only two plants which are characteristic of this zone 
are Salix herbacea and Carex rigida, which grow on most of the hills just 
mentioned, and are the two most distinctly arctic plants of our flora. 

FLORA OF CUMBERLAND 

SUMMARY OF ORDERS, NUMBER OF GENERA AND OF SPECIES IN 

EACH ORDER 





Total 


Total 


Excluded 






Total 


Total 


Exclude 




Genera 


Species 


Species 






Genera 


Species 


Species 




in each 


in each 


in each 






in each 


in each 


in each 




Order 


Order 


Order 






Order 


Order 


Order 


CLASS I. 








9- 
10. 


Violaceae . . . 
Polygaleae . . . 


I 
I 


9 
3 





DiCOTYLEDONES OR 








II. 


Frankenaceae (not 








EXOGENE^ 










represented) 








Div. I. Thalamiflora 








12. 


Caryophylleae 
Portulaceae . . 




13 
2 


46 
3 


14 

I 


I . Ranunculaceae . . 


13 


34 


6 


14. 


Tamariscineae 









I 


2. Berberideae 




I 


I 


— 


I-). 


Elatinea 




I 


2 





3. Nymphasaceae 




2 


2 


— 


16. 


Hypericineae 




I 


9 


3 


4. Papaveraceae 




3 


7 


3 


17- 


Malvaceas . 




3 


■ S 


2 


5. Fumariaceae 




2 


8 


2 


18. 


Tiliaceae . 




I 


2 





6. Cruciferse . 




25 


■jq 


10 


iq. 


Lineae . . 




2 


3 


2 


7. Resedaceae . 




I 


2 


I 


20. 


Geraniaceae. 




3 


14 


6 


8. Cistinese 




I 


I 


— 


21. 


Ilicineae . . 




I 


I 


— 



76 



BOTANY 





Total 


Total 


Excluded 




Total 


Total 


Excluded 




Genera 


Species 


Species 




Genera 


Species 


Species 




in each 


in each 


in each 




in each 


in each 


in each 




Order 


Order 


Order 




Order 


Order 


Order 


Div. 11. Calyciflora 








68. Loranthaceae 

69. Santalaceae . 




I 
I 


I 

I 





22. Celastrineas. . . 


I 


I 





70. Euphorbiaceae 




3 


10 


5 


23. Rhamneae . . . 


I 


2 





71. Urticaceae . 




4 


6 


I 


24. Sapindacese . . . 


I 


2 


I 


72. Myricacese . 




I 


I 





25. Leguminosae . . 


18 


59 


19 


73. Cupuliferae . 




7 


9 


I 


26. Rosacese . . . 


14 


82 


13 


74. Salicineae . 




2 


16 


5 


27. Saxifrageae . . 


4 


14 


3 


75. Empetraceae 




I 


I 




28. Crassulaceae . . 


4 


8 


2 


76. Ceratophyllese (no 


t 






29. Droseraceae . . 


I 


3 


— 


represented) 








30. Halorageae . . . 


3 


10 


2 










31. Lythraceae . . . 


2 


2 


— 


Div. V. Gymnoipermt 


e 






32. Onograrieae. , . 


4 


13 


3 


77. Coniferae . . 


3 


4 


I 


33. Cucurbitaceje . . 


I 


I 












34. Umbelliferae . . 


41 


43 


17 


CLASS IT. 








35. Araliaceae . . . 


I 


I 












36. Cornaceae . . . 


I 


I 


— 


MONOCOTYLEDONES OI 
ENDOGENiE 


I 






Div. III. Corolliflora 
















37. Caprifoliaceae . . 


5 


6 


2 


Div. I. PetaloidciS 








38. Rubiacea . . 


4 


14 


4 


78. Hydrocharideae 


3 


3 


2 


39. Valerianeae . . . 


3 


7 


3 


79. Orchideae . . 


16 


29 


II 


40. Dipsaceae . . . 


2 


5 


I 


80. Irides . . 




5 


5 


4 


41. Compositae . . . 


48 


94 


57 


81. AmaryllidcEe 




3 


4 


4 


42. Campanulaceas. . 


6 


ID 


4 


82. Dioscoreae . 




I 


1 




43. Vaccineaceae . . 


2 


4 




83. Liliaceae. . 




19 


20 


14 


44. Ericaceae . . . 


10 


II 


6 


84. Juncaceas . 




2 


21 


4 


45. Monotropeae (not 








85. Typhaceae . 




2 


6 




represented) 








86. Aroidese. . 




2 


3 


I 


46. Plumbagineae . . 


2 


5 


I 


87. Lemnaceae . 




2 


4 


I 


47. Primulaceae . . 


9 


14 


5 


88. Alismacese . 




5 


3 


3 


48. Oleaceas . . . 


2 


2 




89. Naiadaces . . 




5 


19 


II 


49. Apocynaces . . 


I 


I 


I 


90. Eriocauleae (not re- 








50. Gentianeae . . . 


7 


9 


— 


presented) 








51. PolemoniacesE . . 


I 


I 













52. Boraginese . . . 


II 


17 


6 


Div. II. Glumifercs 








53. Convolvulaceas 


3 


5 


2 


91. Cyperaceae . . . 


9 


64 


21 


54. Solanacese . . . 


5' 


4 


2 


92. Gramineae . . . 


49 


99 


23 


55. Scrophularineae. 


14 


38 


II 










56. Orobanchacex . . 


2 


5 


3 


CLASS III. 








57. Lentibularieas . . 


2 


5 


2 










58. Verbenacese . . 


I 


I 





ACOTYLEDONES OR 








59. Labiatas . . . 


19 


40 


13 


Cryptogame^ 








60. Plantagineae . . 

61. lUecebraceae . . 


2 

4 


6 
3 


I 
4 


Div. I. Vasculares 








62. Amaranthaceae. . 


I 




5 


93. Filices . . . . 


17 


37 


— 










94. Equisetaceae 




I 


7 





Div. IV. Monochlamydea 








95. Lycopodiaceae . 




I 


/ 

5 


— 


63. Chenopodiaceae 


6 


23 


3 


96. Selaginellaceae . 




2 


2 


— 


64. Polygonaceae . . 


4 


24 


3 


97. Marsileaceae . 




I 


I 


— 


65. Aristolochiacea; . 


I 


I 


I 


98. Characeae . 




3 


6 


— 


66. Thymeliaceae . 


I 


— 


I 


















67. Eleagnaceae. . . 


I 


— 


~ 


Total . . 


527 


1 1 96 


364 



77 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Additional plants gathered at Silloth by the late John Leitch, Esq., M.D., of that town, 
copied from the doctor's MS. 

Natives of Britain, or mentioned in Babington's Manual. 



Alyssum calycinum, L. 

Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. 

Diplotaxis muralis, DC. 

Coronopus didymus, Sm. 

Silene noctiflora, L. 

Ornithopus perpusillus, L., introduced on Silloth 

Green, where it is extremely plentiful in the 

short turf 
Viola Curtisii (Forster) now also abundant 
Carum Carui, L. 
Anthemis tinctoria, L. 
Achillea tomentosa, L. 
Carduus crispus, L., v. polyanthemos (Koch) 

— pycnocephalus, L. 

Cnicus arvensis, L., v. setosus (Bess.) 

Crepis setosa. Hall. fil. 

Solanum nigrum, L. 

Calamintha arvensis, Lam. 

Lamium purpureum, L., v. decipiens (Sender) 

Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds. 

Chenopodium polyspermum, L. 

Lolium temulentum, L. 

Avena strigosa, Schreb. 

Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf. 

Setaria viridis, Beauv. 

Bromus squarrosus, L. 

— patulus, Reich. 

— arvensis, L. 

— commutatus, Schrad. 

— diandrus, Curt. 
Caucalis nodosa, Scop. ^ 

Mariana lactea, Hill \ W.H., 1900 

Nasturtium terrestre,R.Br.J 



Aliens 

Malcomia crenulata, Boiss 
Lepidium perfoliatum, L. 

— virginicum, L. 
Eruca vesicaria, Cav. 
Brassica juncea, L. 
Moricandia arvensis, DC. 
Chorispora syriaca, Boiss 
Silene dichotoma, Ehrh. 
Trigonella Foenum-graecum, L. 

— monspeliac», L. 
Medicago Soleriolii, Duby. 
Trifolium parviflorum, Ehrh. 
Potentilla collina, Wibel 
CEnothera tenella, Cav. 
Hypecoum grandiflorum, Benth. 
Hemizonia pungens, Torr fif Gray 

— Kelloggii, Greene 
Phacelia ciliata, Benth. 
Gilia achillesefolia, Benth. 

— intertexta, Steud. 
Carthamus lanatus, L. 
Neslia paniculata, Desv. 
Valerianella coronata, DC. 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia, L. 
Madia racemosa, Torr y Gray 
Sideritis montana, L. 
Mentzelia albicaulis, Dougl. 
Grindelia (?) 

Lathyrus sphaericus, Retz. 
Herniaria hirsuta, L. Miss E. J. Glaister, 
1900 



COUNTY AREAS 

It is customary to distinguish the several areas into which the surface of a county may 
be mapped out for the purposes of a flora, by prefixing to each division the initial letter of 
some river of importance as representing a river basin or system. I found, in compiling my 
recently published Flora of the County of Cumberland^ that this plan, which has many advan- 
tages to recommend it, would be impracticable here where we have so many leading streams 
with the same initial letter ; e.g. Eden, Ellen, Esk (two), Eamont, Ehen ; similarly Caldew, 
Calder, Cocker ; Wampool, Waver, Wiza ; Glenderamakin, Glenderaterra, Greta ; and so 
on. To prevent confusion in this way I mapped out the areas as follows : — 

District I 

This area includes the southern portion of the county, is triangular in outline, and has 
on the east the river Duddon and the main watershed of the Cumbrian group of mountains. 
The river Derwent constitutes the northern boundary for the greater part of its course, the 
exception being at the north-eastern corner of the triangle, where the Skiddaw and Helvellyn 
fells are included, though situated some miles to the northward of the sources of that river. 
This arrangement provides for the inclusion of Lake Ullswater, which would otherwise be 
segregated from the remainder of the lakes, which all lie within the limits prescribed. The 
western side of the triangle is bounded by the Irish Sea and the Solway Firth throughout its 
entire length. It will be noticed that this area is to a large extent covered by rugged and 
lofty hills, which consist principally of rocks of volcanic origin, mixed in places with masses 
of granitic or granitoid cliffs and scattered boulders. In some places, as at Honister Crag in 
Buttermere, the Skiddaw slate is quarried and dressed for roofing purposes ; and near the 

78 



BOTANY 

village of Threlkeld are extensive quarries of granitic rock for street pavement. Owring in a 
great measure to these rocks being much affected by cleavage and to their being virell jointed, 
they tend to give rise to screes, and especially is this the case belowr the foot of each crag. 
These screes or masses of loose rock fragments of varying sizes, from their very nature pre- 
sent a great variety of surface — wet or dry, sunny or shady, bare rock or thin soil — and are the 
chosen abode of a great variety of plants, many of which, our bonniest ferns and club-mosses 
among the rest, are rare in other less favoured situations. 

A series of hills of inferior elevation lies along the north-western base of the Cumbrian 
group. These have a very distinct and remarkable outline, conoidal or plum-pudding shaped. 
They include Great and Little Mell Fells, Soulby Fell, and Dunmallet at the foot of Ulls- 
water. Great or Wester Mell Fell, as it is sometimes called, attains an elevation of 1,760 
feet. The rest of the series are of inferior altitude. They consist of masses of conglomerate 
of variable thickness, generally considered as forming part of the Upper Old Red Sandstone. 

In the extreme north-western angle of the area, the cliffs composing the lofty promontory 
known as St. Bees Head, rising upwards of 300 feet in perpendicular altitude above the sea 
at their base, and continued at gradually decreasing height to the mouth of the river Derwent 
below Workington, belong to the New Red Sandstone formation. 

Between the shore-line and the loftier mountains, and amongst the foothills of the range, 
large deposits of iron hjematite ores have been discovered and extensively worked during the 
last half-century. Large works have been established for the smelting of these ores and the 
manufacture of steel rails, etc., for railway purposes, which are largely exported to all parts 
of the globe. The furnaces are at Millom, Cleator Moor, Whitehaven, Harrington, Working- 
ton and Maryport. The ports of export are the three last-mentioned towns and Whitehaven. 
So small an interval separates the sea from the mountains in this area that the rivers 
are but short in their course ; the descent being so rapid that, with the single exception of 
the Derwent, they are little serviceable for purposes of navigation. They include the Esk, 
Irt, Mite, Calder and Ehen. 

The botanical productions of this area include of course many plants of an alpine 
character not to be met with elsewhere in the county, or even in England. The following 
are deserving of special mention, taking them in the order observed by the compilers of the 
London Catalogue as under : halictrum alpinum, L., is found on Scawfell Pikes, overlapping, 
Salix herbacea ; also near Sprinkling Tarn, Styhead Tarn and Great End ; summit of Black 
Sail pass ; Hanging Knott at about 2,000 feet, with Juncus triglumis, L., and on Little Hel- 
vellyn, 2,400 feet, where it flowers in great plenty, and there the writer saw it for the first 
time in a fully developed stage, although he had for years noticed it by the edge of rills at a 
lower altitude. Epimedium alpinum, L., mentioned by old writers as occurring on Skiddaw, 
Blencathra and Carrock, is now confined to gentlemen's pleasure grounds, as about White- 
field House, Overwater ; Gilgarran, Whitehaven, etc. Silene acaulis, L., crags of Mickledore, 
and on the black rocks of Great End (1,500-2,000 feet). It occurs at several stations im- 
mediately beyond the border line which divides Cumberland from the adjoining county of 
Westmorland. Lychnis alpina, L., is found only on one of the lake hills (Hobcarten, over 
the vale of Lorton), said to have been first gathered by a schoolboy when searching for 
* cill ' for the home manufacture of slate pencils (Wilson Robinson). Alchemilla alpina, L., 
abundant on most of the Lakeland hills of the slate formation. It is found on Scawfell, Great 
End, Lingmell, Great Gable (up to 2,750 feet), Red Pike, Pillar, on the Ennerdale and 
Wastdale hills, Honister, etc. Saxifraga oppositifolia, L., high slate crags ; very rare ; near 
the summit of Scawfell. In the writer's opinion this plant may be overlooked when not in 
bloom, or passed by as Thymus Serpyllum, Fr., the more likely as it flowers early in the season. 
Saxifraga nivalis, L., near the summit of Scawfell ; Helvellyn ; Legberthwaite Fells, on the 
western or Thirlmere slope. Epilobium alsinefolium, VilL, on the Helvellyn group of hills, 
Great Gable, Styhead Pass, Ashness Ghyll, Whinlatter, etc. Saussurea alpina, DC., high 
slate cliffs ; very rare ; near Floutern Tarn. A specimen in the writer's possession was 
gathered by him at some risk on the cliffs of Little Helvellyn, just over the Westmorland 
border in 1882. At the same date Saxifraga stellaris, L., was observed in bloom within a few 
feet of the highest peak on Helvellyn proper. The following Hieracia, viz. H. alpinum, 
L., H. chrysanthum, Backh., H. anglicum, Fr., H. pallidum, and H. argenteum, Fr., have 
all been found on the lofty cliffs of Scawfell, Glaramara, Great Gable, or Great End. 
Oxyria digyna. Hill., high wet slate crags, not uncommon ; Piers Ghyll, Mickledore, Sty- 
head Tarn, Wastwater Screes, Honister, Helvellyn Screes, over Wythburn, ' Eandem in Westm. 
et Cumbria montosis observavit T. Lawson et nos etiam olim' (J. Ray, 1690). Salix herbacea, 

79 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

L., Scawfell Pikes, Helvellyn, Skiddaw, Blencathra, Grassmoor, Glaramara, Hobcarten, Red 
Pike and the Pillar. Juniperus nana, Willd., Wastdale Screes, Helvellyn, 'clothes the top 
ridge of Whiteside mountain like a carpet ' (J. Adair). Malaxis paludosa, Sw., Wastwater ; 
spongy bog at the foot of Grassmoor. Juncus triglumisy L., by Loweswater Lake ; Scales Tarn 
on Blencathra (Saddleback), Fisher Place Ghyll (Helvellyn), Borrowdale (Keswick). Carex 
atrata, L., and C. rigida, Good., are both to be found about the summits of the Helvellyn 
and Scawfell group of hills, the latter being of more frequent occurrence. Poa alpina, L., 
cliffs on Helvellyn and Dollywaggon Pike ; specimens gathered on Skiddaw were sent to the 
writer some twenty years ago by Mr. W. Duckworth, formerly of Carlisle. P. Balfourii 
(Bab.), highest Lakeland hills (J. G. Baker); Helvellyn, 1853 (Balfour). Asplenium ger- 
manicum, Weiss., Borrowdale Fells; Scawfell; Skiddaw; Barf Fell, Thornthwaite, on the west 
side of Bassenthwaite Lake. y^. septentrionah, Hull, slate rocks ; very rare ; Borrowdale and 
Newlands Vale, Wastwater Screes, Honister Crags, and over Crummock Lake. Polystichum 
Lonchitis, Roth., Helvellyn and Carrock Fell ; all the growing specimens noted by the author 
grew well within the Westmorland border. Asplenium marinum, L., is found on the cliffs at 
St. Bees Head ; A. viride, Huds., sparingly on Carrock Fell and in Borrowdale. 



Ranunculace^ 
Clematis Vitalba, L. 
Thalictrum alpinum, L. 

— majus, Crantz 

— Kochii, Fr. 
Adonis autumnalis, L. 

Ranunculus peltatus, var. floribundus, Bab. 

— Flammula, var. radicans, Nolte. 

— reptans, L. 

Caltha palustris, var. minor, DC. 
Helleborus viridis, L. 
Actaea spicata, L. 

Berberide^ 
Epimedium alpinum, L. 

Papaverace^ 
Meconopsis cambrica, Vig. 
Glaucium phaeniceum, Crantz 

Cruciferje 
Barbarea intermedia, Boreau. i, 2 
Cochlearia Armoracia, L. 1,3 
Hesperis matronalis, L. 1,3 
Camelina sativa, Crantz 
Brassica Rapa, var. sativa, H. C. Wats. 
Lepidium sativum, L. 

— Draba, L. 

Caryophylle^ 
Saponaria Vaccaria, L. i, 2, 3 
Silene acaulis, L. 
Lychnis alpina, L. 
Cerastium alpinum, L. 
Buda marina, Dum., var. neglecta (Kindb.) 

PoRTULACE^ 

Claytonia sibirica, L. 

— perfoliata, Donn. 

Hypericine^ 
Hypericum colycinum, L. 

Malvace* 
Malva parviflora, L. 

Geraniace^ 
Geranium striatum, L. 

— phceum, L. 
OxaRs comiculata, L. 
Impatiens parviflora, DC. 

— Noli-tangere, L. 



80 



LEGUMINOSiE 

Medicago sativa, L. 

— falcata, L. 
Trifolium incarnatum, L. 
Vicia lutea, L. 1,2 
Lathyrus Aphaca, L. i, 2, 4 

— spharicus, Retz. i, 2 

Rosacea 

Spirtea salicifolia, L. 1,3 
Rubus incurvatus, Bab. 

— pulcherrimus, Neum. 

— rhamnifolius, W. £if N. i, 3 

— rosaceus, W. y N. 

— saxatilis, L. 
Dryas octopetala, L. 
Potentilla argentea, L. 
Alchemilla alpina, L. 

Rosa pimpinellifolia, var. spinosissima, L. i , z, 

— involuta, var. Sabini (Woods) 

— hibernica, Sm. 

— gracilis, Woods 

— tomentosa, var. sylvestris (Lindl.) 

— glauca, var. subcristata, Baker 

— canina, var. coriifolia (Fr.) 
Pyrus pinnatifida, Ehrh. 

Crataegus Oxyacantha, var. monogyna (Jacq.) 

Saxifrages 

Saxifraga oppositifolia, L. 

— nivalis, L. 

— Geum, L. 
Ribes Grossularia, L. 

Crassulaces 
Sedum villosum, L. 

— album, L. 

— refiexum, L. 
Sempervivum tectorum, L. 

Droseraces 
Drosera anglica, Huds. 

— intermedia, Hayne 

Halorages 
Callitriche hamulata, Kuetz. 



BOTANY 



Onagrarie^ 

Epilobium alsinefolium, Vill. 
(Enothera biennis, L. 
Circaea alpina, L. 

Cucurbitace;e 
Bryonia dioica, Jacq. 

Umbelliferje 

Smyrnium Olusatrum, L. 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. 
Ammi majus, L. 
Carum Carui, L. 
Scandix Pecten-Veneris, L. 
Foeniculum vulgare, Mill. 
Peucedanum Ostruthium, Koch 
Caucalis latifolia, L. 

— nodosa, Scop. 

Capri foliace/e 

Sambucus Ebulus, L. 
Lonicera Xyhsteum, L. 

RUBIACE^ 

Galium boreale, L. 
Asperula arvensis, L. 

Valeriane^ 
Centranthus ruber, DC. 

Composite 

Anthemis tinctoria, L. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium, Pers. 
Petasites albus, Gaertn. 
Doronicum Pardalianches, L. 
Senecio saracenicus, L. 
Carduus heterophyllus, Willd. 
Cnicus arvensis 

d. setosus (Bess.), i, 2 
Saussurea alpina, DC. 
Picris echioides, L. 
Hieraeium aurantlacum, L. 

— holosericum, Backh. 

— chrysanthum, Backh. 

— anglicum, Fr. 

— argenteum, Fr. 

— caesium, Fr. 

h. Smithii, Baker. 

— vulgatum, Fr. 

— gothicum (Fr. pt.), Backh. 

— corymbosum, Fr. 

— umbellatum, L. 
Taraxacum officinale, Web. 

h. erythrospermum (Anderz.) 

Vacciniace^ 
Vaccinium uliginosum, L. 

Ericacea 

Arctostaphylus Uva-ursi, Spreng. 
Pyrola rotundifolia, L. 

Primulacea 

Primula farinosa, L. 
Trientalis europaea, L. 
Centunculus minimus, L. 

I 



81 



Boragine^ 

Borago efficinaRs, L. 
Anchusa sempervirens, L. 
Pulmonaria angustifolia, L. 

CONVOLVULACE^ 

Cuscuta trifolii, Bab. 

SCROPHULARINE^ 

Verbascum virgatum, Stokes 
Linaria cymbalaria, Mill. 

— purpurea, Mill. 

— minor, Desf. 
Antirrhinum Orontium, L. 
Mimulus luteus, L. 

Orobanchace/e 
Orobanche major, L. 

Verbenace^ 
Verbena officinalis, L. 

Labiate 

Mentha vhidis, L. 

— hirsuta, Huds. 

h. sub-glabra. Baker 

— sativa, L. 

b. paludosa (Sole) 
Leonurus Cardiaca, L. 
Lamium macuktum, L. 

Plantagine^ 
Plantago arenaria, Waldst. £5? Kit. 

Amaranthace^ 

Amaranthus retroflexus, L. 

— Blitum, L. 

Chenopodiace^ 

Chenopodium opuRfolium, Schrad. 
Salicornia herbacea, L. 

POLYGONACE^ 

Polygonum amphibium, L. 
b. terrestre, Leers. 

— viviparum, L. 

b. alpinum, Wahl. 
Fagopyrum escukntum, Moench 
Oxyria digyna, Hill. 
Rumex scutatus, L. 

Aristolochiace^ 
Asarum europaeum, L. 

Euphorbiace^ 

Euphorbia Esula, L. 

— Cyparissias, L. 
Mercurialis annua, L. 

b. ambigua (L.) 

Cupuufer^ 

Carpinus Betulus, L. 
Quercus Robur 

a. pedunculata (Ehrh.) 

c. sessiliflora (Salisb.) 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Salicina 
Salix alba, L. 

b. vitellina (L.) 

— repens, L. 

f. argentea (Sm.) 

— herbacea, L. 

— phylicifolia, L. 
Pofulus nigra, L. 

Conifers 
Juniperus nana, Willd. 
Taxus baccata, L. 
Pinus sylvestris, L. 

Orchide« 
Malaxis paludosa, Sw. 
Listera cordata, R. Br. 
Orchis militaris, L. [? ?] 
Cephalanthera ensifolia. Rich. 
Cypripedium Calceolus, L. 

Iride^ 
Sisyrinchium angustifolium. Mill. 

Amaryllide^ 
Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, L. 
Galanthus nivalis, L. 

LlLIACE^ffi: 

Polygonatum multiflorum. All. 
Convallaria majalis, L. 
Ornithogalum nutans, L. 

— umbellatum, L. 
Lilium Martagpn, L. 
Colchicum autumnale, L. 

JuNCACE^ffi 

Juncus filiformis, L. 

— triglumis, L. 
Luzula spicata, DC. 

— erecta, Desv. 

b. congesta, Koch 

Lemnace^ 
Lemna trisulca, L. 

Naiadace^ 
Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pourr. 
b. pseudo-fluitans, Syme 

— plantagineus, Du Croz 

— pusillus, L. 
Ruppia rostellata, Koch 
Zannichellia palustris, L. 
Zostera marina, L. 

Cyperace« 
Rynchospora alba, Vahl. 
Carex pauciflora, Lightf. 

— disticha, Huds. 

— vulpina, L. 

— BoEnninghauseniana, Weihe 

— atrata, L. 

— rigida. Good 

— limosa, L. 

— pilulifera, L. 

— laevigata, Sm. 

— filiformis, L. 

— fulva, Good 



Graminea 
Pankum Crus-galR, L. 
Setaria viridis, Beauv. 

— glauca, Beauv. 

— verticillata, Beauv. 
Phalaris canariensis, L. 
Milium efFusum, L. 
Polypogon monspellens'u, Desf. 
Gastridium australe, Beauv. 
Apera Spica-venti, Beauv. 
Deyeuxia strigosa, Kunth. 
Avena fatua, L. 
Cynosurus echinatus, L. 
Melica nutans, L. 

Poa alpina, L. 

— glauca, Sm. ) 

— Balfourii, Parn. j 

— pratensis, L. 

b. subcoerulea (Sm.) 
Glyceria distans, Wahlenb. 
Festuca sylvatica, Vill. 
Bromus arvensis, L. 
Lolium linkola, Sonder. 

— temulentum, L. 

b. arvense (With.) 
Agropyron pungens, Roem. y Schult. 

— acutum, Roem. y Schult. 
Lepturus filiformis, Trin. 
Elymus arenarius, L. 

Filices 
Asplenium lanceolatum, Huds. 

— viride, Huds. 

— germanicum, Weiss. 

— septentrionale, Hull. 
Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 

b. dentata (Hook.) 
Polystichum Lonchitis, Roth. 

— angulare, Presl. 
Lastrea Thelypteris, Presl. 

— Filix-mas, Presl. 

b. aifinis, Bab. 

c. paleacea, Moore 
e. abbreviata, Bab. 

— uliginosa, Newman 

— aemula, Brackenridge 
Phegopteris calcarea, F6e 

Equisetace« 
Equisetum maximum, Lam. 

— hyemale, L. 

Lycopodiace^ 
Lycopodium annotinum, L. 

— inundatum, L. 

SELAGINELLACE^ffi 

Selaginella selaginoides, Gray 
Isoetes lacustris, L. 

Marsileace^ 
Pilularia globulifera, L. 

Charace^s 
Chara fragilis, Desv. 

— aspera, Willd. 
Nitella flexilis, Agardh 

— opaca, Agardh 



82 



BOTANY 



District II 



This area is limited to the line of coast extending from Haverigg Point in the south to 
the estuaries of the Eden and Esk rivers at the head of the Solway Firth as far as the mouth 
of the Sark river, which during the latter part of its course from the ' Scots dike ' southv/ards 
divides England from Scotland and Cumberland from Dumfriesshire. In a northerly direction 
from the estuary of the Duddon to St. Bees village the coast-line is low, flat and sandy, though 
the mountains are seen to be at no great distance to the eastward. A little to the south of 
Bootle indeed, Black Coombe (1,969 feet) appears as a sort of outpost or sentinel of the main 
group, approaching nearer the sea and standing in majesty alone. Other foothills of inferior 
altitude are also seen at varying distances. Northward of St. Bees the lofty sandstone cliffs of 
the promontory rise abruptly from the sea to a height of over 300 feet. With a gradually 
decreasing altitude they stretch along the shore as far as Harrington, and even to Maryport. 
Continuing northward the rugged cliffs are seen no more, and the shore-line and beach become 
flat and level, consisting of a mixture of sand, gravel and alluvial material, which is continued 
past the estuaries of the Waver and Wampool rivers, also those of the rivers Eden and Esk, 
to the outfall of the Sark as above mentioned. Towards this northern part several marshes 
occur liable in portions to be submerged by spring tides, as at Skinburness and Calvo-Whitrigg 
and Bowness Flow, Burgh and Rockcliffe Marshes. Further inland are also bogs or peat 
mosses, as Bowness and Solway Mosses on opposite sides of the firth. Altogether the tidal 
line cannot be much under eighty miles in length. 

The more uncommon or striking plants deserving of special mention include the follow- 
ing, ranged as in District I., viz. Alyssum incanum, L., and ^. calycinum, both found at Sil- 
loth ; Cochlearia danica, L., Workington pier ; Diplotaxis tenuifoUa, DC, Maryport ballast 
since 1880 and steadily increasing; Coronopus didymus, Sm., at the same station; Crambe 
marittma, L., until quite lately grew nearly a mile north of Workington harbour, but has been 
obliterated by masses of slag from the iron furnaces ; Raphanus maritimus, Sm., Workington 
north shore, will probably disappear, as a new deep-water dock is projected which will entirely 
cover the area of its growth ; Malva parviflora, L., abundant near the Convalescent Institu- 
tion at Silloth ; Lathyrus Aphaca, L., has for some years occurred regularly at Silloth ; Eryngium 
maritimum, L., coast-line from Workington to Maryport (it also makes a fine show by the 
Grune at Skinburness, where it is associated with Salsola Kali, L., also of remarkably fine 
growth) ; Crithmum maritimum, L., on the cliflfe of St. Bees and, on the evidence of Bishop 
Nicolson, 1690, grew much farther northward, where it was probably destroyed when the 
Parton rocks were quarried back to make room for the L. & N. W. Railway along their base ; 
Asperula arvensis, L., on a branch line from Silloth to Lord Armstrong's artillery shooting 
range ; Artemisia maritima, L., sent to the writer from Duddon Sands by W. Dickinson, F.L.S., 
in 1879 ; Lactuca Scariola, L., Maryport and Silloth ballast, brought probably by grain ships, 
1899— 1900 ; Statice auriculce folia, Vahl., Fleswick Bay, under St. Bees Head ; Samolus Vale- 
randi, L., swampy ground on Coulderton shore 3 Galeopsis Ladanum, L., on chalk ballast, 
Maryport, during the last ten years ; Chenopodium Vulvaria, L., seen at the same station, 1890 
(although many of the plants perfected seeds, there has not been any reappearance) ; Suada 
maritima, Dum., will probably disappear along with Raphanus maritimus when operations on 
the dock are commenced at Workington (it grows also about Skinburness Marsh) ; Rumex 
maritimus, L., about Maryport since 1895 ; Euphorbia Esula, L., on the dock junction line of 
the Cleator and Workington Railway, not far from the Lonsdale dock, 1893-1900 ; Ruppia 
rostellata, Koch, creek near the sea dyke a mile from Skinburness, and on the Cloffbcks at 
Workington ; Zostera marina, L., cast upon the beach near Bootle, and also about a mile south 
of Maryport harbour ; Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv., in a rill which discharges on the beach below 
Coulderton ; Lepturus filiformis, Trin., on Brownrigg and Skinburness marshes, not uncom- 
mon ; Avena strigosa, Schreb., on the shore a mile north of Workington ; Elymus arenarius, 
L., Workington north shore, established and spreading ; Asplenium marinum, L., cliff's at St. 
Bees and, like Crithmum, grew also at Parton cliffs in Bishop Nicolson's day. 

Here it may not be out of place to mention that of late years quite a number of medicks, 
clovers and vetches have shown themselves in the precincts of Messrs. Carr & Co.'s large corn 
mills at Silloth. These have undoubtedly come with foreign grain cargoes, and the probability 
is that the bulk of these species came from California, whence I understand the main supply 
of their wheat for milling purposes is now obtained. Of medicks there have occurred Medicago 
falcata, L., established for some years past in the slate yards ; M. denticulata, with its var. 
apiculata (Willd.) ; M. minima, Desr. ; and the curiously fruited M. scutellata, with small 

83 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



flowers, solitary or in pairs, and seed vessels shaped like snail shells ; Trifolium striatum, L., 
T. fragiferum, L., and T. filiforme, L. ; Vicia lutea, L., and two or three other plants of the vetch 
family which remain unidentified. To these may be added Melilotus messanensis, All., also an 
alien. 

Plants of rare occurrence found in District II. confined almost exclusively to the shore- 
line from Hodbarrow Point at the estuary of the River Duddon to that of the Esk and Eden 
at Port Carlisle : — 



Ranunculace^ 
Ranunculus sardous, Crantz 
i. parvulus (L.) 

Crucifer^ 
Barbarea preecox, R. Br. 
Alpsum incanutn, L. 

— ca/ycinum, L. 
Cochlearia danica, L. 

— anglica, L. 
Brassica monensis, Huds. 
Diplotaxis tenuifolia, DC. 
Coronopus didymus, Sm. 

— Ruellii, All. 
Crambe maritima, L. 
Cakile maritima, Scop. 
Raphanus maritimus, Sm. 

Resedace^ 
Reseda lutea, L. 

VlOLARIE^ 

Viola Curtisii, Forster 

Caryophylle^ 
Saponaria Vaccaria, L. 
Silene maritima. With. 

— noctiflora, L. 
Cerastium tetrandrum, Curtis 

— semidecandrum, L. 
Arenaria peploides, L. 
Sagina maritima, Don. 
Buda marina, Dum. 

c. neglecta (Kindb.) 
Malvace^ 
Althjca hirsuta, L. 
Malva parviflora, L. 

Geraniace^ 
Geranium sanguineum, L. 
Erodium cicutarium, L'Herit. 

Leguminos^ 
Medicago falcata, L. 

— denticulata, Willd. 

b. apiculata (Willd.) 

— minima, Desr. 
Melilotus arvensis, Wallr. 

— parviflora. Lam. 

— messanensis, All. 
Vicia angustifolia, L. 

b. Bobartii, Koch 
Lathyrus Aphaca, L. 

— sphtericus, Retz. 

— sylvestris, L. 

Rosacea 
Potentilla norvegica, L. 
Rosa pimpinellifolia, L. 
f. spinosissima (L.). 

— canina, var. glauca (Vill.) 



84 



Umbellifera 

Eryngium maritimum, L. 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. 
Foeniculum vulgare. Mill. 
Crithmum maritimum, L. 
CEnanthe Lachenalii, C. Gmel. 
Coriandrum sativum, L. 
Caucalis daucoides, L. 

Rubiace^ 

Galium tricorne, Stokes 
Asperula arvensis, L. 

Composite 

Aster Tripolium, L. 
Xanthium spinosum, L. 
Matricaria inodora, L. 
b. salina, Bab. 

— maritima, L. 
Artemisia maritima, L. 
Senecio viscosus, L. 
Arctium minus, Bernh. 
Carduus pycnocephalus, L. 

— nutans, L. 
Onopordon Acanthium, L. 
Hieracium umbellatum, L. 
Lactuca virosa, L. 

— Scariok, L. 

Plumbaginea 
Statice Limonium, L. 

— rariflora, Drej. 

— auriculaefolia, Vahl. 
Armeria maritima, Willd. 

Primulace^ 

LysimacMa punctata, L. 
Glaux maritima, L. 
Samolus Valerandi, L. 

BORAOINEA 

Jsperugp procumbens, L. 
Lithospermum officinale, L. 
Echium vulgare, L. 

CoNVOLVULACE* 

Volvulus Soldanella, Junger. 
Convolvulus arvensis, L. 

SoLANACEiE 

Solanum nigrum, L. 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. 

SCROPHULARIN^E 

Verbascum Thapsus, L. 
Linaria purpurea. Mill. 

VERBENACEffi 

Verbena officinalis, L. 



BOTANY 



Labiate 
Salvia Verbenaca, L. 
Stachys annua, L. 
Galeopsis Ladanum, L. 
Lamium amplexicaule, L. 
Ballota nigra, L. 

Plantagine^ 

Plantago maritima, L. 

— Coronopus, L. 

Amaranthace^ 

Amaranthus retroflexus, L. 

— Blitum, L. 

Chenopodiace^ 
Chenopodium polyspermum, L. 

— Vulvaria, L. 

— opuHfoRum, Schrad. 

— murale, L. 

— rubrum, L. 
Atriplex littoralis, L. 

— deltoidea, Bab. 

— laciniata, L. 
Beta maritima, L. 
Salicornia herbacea, L. 

b. procumbens, Moq. 
Suaeda maritima, Dum. 
Salsola Kali, L. 

Polygonaceje 
Polygonum Raii, Bab. 

— maritimum, L. 
Fagofyrum escukntum, Moench 
Rumex maritimus, L. 

— scutatus, L. 

EuPHORBIACEffi 

Euphorbia Esula, L. 

— Cyparissias, L. 

— Paralias, L. 

— portlandica, L. 
Mercurialis annua, L. 

b. ambigua (L.). 



Myricace^ 
Myrica Gale, L. 

JUNCACE^ 

Juncus Gerardi, Loisel. 

— maritimus. Lam. 

Naiadace^ 

Triglochin maritimum, L. 
Ruppia rostellata, Koch 
Zostera marina, L. 

Cyperace« 

Scirpus maritimus, L. 
Carex arenaria, L. 

Graminea 

Phleum arenarium, L. 
Apera Spka-venti, Beauv. 
Ammophila arundinacea. Host. 
Avena stngosa, Schreb. 

— fatua, L. 

Phragmites communis, Trin. 
Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. 
Glyceria fluitans, R. Br. 

— maritima, Mert. iS Koch 

— distans, Wahlenb. 
Festuca arundinacea, Schreb. 
Bromus secalinus, L. 

— erectus, Huds. 

— tectorum, L. 

Agropyron pungens, Roem. £5f Schult. 

— acutum, Roem. y Schult. 

— junceum, Beauv. 
Lepturus filiformis, Trin. 
Hordeum murinum, L. 

— marinum, Huds. 
Elymus arenarius, L. 

Filices 

Asplenium marinum, L. 
Lastrea aemula, Brackenbridge 



District III 



This area differs widely from the two preceding. It is bounded on the south by the river 
Derwent, with the slight exception of the deviation mentioned by the inclusion in District I. 
of the Skiddaw, Helvellyn and Blencathra group of mountains : on the east or more strictly 
speaking south-east, the river Eamont, which is the dividing line between the counties of 
Cumberland and Westmorland from the foot of lake Ullswater to the point where it joins the 
river Eden near Langwathby, commonly pronounced ' Langanby.' From this point the last 
mentioned river separates it from District IV. to its junction with the Solway Firth some ten 
miles below Carlisle. On the west or remaining side the firth constitutes the boundary to 
the mouth of the Derwent at Workington. This is the largest of the divisions in point of 
area and importance, including as it does the bulk of what is known as the great plain of 
Cumberland. Here are no lofty mountain peaks, the highest point being the Beacon Hill near 
the town of Penrith, from which a gradually decreasing ridge constituting the summit level, 
which separates the valley of the Eden from that of its tributary stream the Petteril, extends 
in a northerly direction some nine or ten miles. The valleys of the Eden, Petteril, and 
Caldew, another and larger tributary of the Eden, which rises in Skiddaw Forest and joins the 
Eden at Carlisle, are mostly and in the two first mentioned streams exclusively on the New 
Red Sandstone formation. This sandstone is extensively quarried for building purposes at 
Penrith and Lazonby Fells, Cumwhinton, and Newbiggin near Wreay. Also at Lamonby, 
Blencowe on the Petteril, Powbeck, Hempsgill Howe and Shawk Quarries. Farther to the 
westward there are extensive workings of this material at Aspatria, Westnewton and Mary- 

85 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

port. Coal mining is carried on successfully and on a large scale in the lower Derwent 
valley and along the course of the river Ellen from Maryport to Ireby, the produce being 
shipped from the ports of Workington and Maryport, exclusive of the large quantities used in 
the local furnaces and other industries. There is a considerable belt of limestone running 
diagonally across the county, from the Eamont near Skirsgill by way of Redhills to Johnby and 
Greystoke Park, Hewer Hill, Warnel, Catlands, Ireby and Tallentire to the river Derwent, 
crossing that river into District No. I. at Brigham. From this station it extends by way of 
Eaglesfield, Pardshaw Crag, Rowrah and Hensingham to the sea beyond Egremont. Along 
this line a number of plants may be found generally classed as xerophilous, which are of very 
rare occurrence elsewhere. Among these are Helleborus viridis, L. ; Hypericum hirsutum, L. ;. 
Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds. ; Origanum vuigare, L. ; Scabiosa Columbaria, L. (this species also 
appears in great abundance on what is known as * the Forge Green ' at Hawksdale, probably 
brought down by the impetuous stream of the Caldew from the limestone of Warmel or 
Hewer Hill, some six miles higher up the river) ; Campanula glomerata, L., Helianthemum 
Chamcecistus, Mill, etc. 

Between the Caldew and the Ellen valleys on the summit level lies a ridge, the chief 
points in which are Hewer Hill, Warnel Fell, Brocklebank and Catlands, all on the limestone ; 
and between the Ellen and the Derwent rivers is another ridge bearing at different points the 
names of Binsey, Caermote, Whittes, Moota, and Tallentine Hill : the three first being outlying 
spurs from Skiddaw belong to the slate formation, the last two are on the limestone with 
occasional outcrops of a greyish white sandstone of highly fossiliterous nature. Northward 
and eastward from Aspatria to the river Eden the district is flat and of almost uniform level, 
composed for the most part of alluvial soil, apparently the detritus of the rocks of the Lake 
district brought down from the mountains and deposited where at present found. The Abbey 
Holme district is especially level, and towards the Solway in the Silloth neighbourhood, the 
soil, said to rest upon quicksand, is mostly of a fertile quality. 

Some special notice must here be made of a most interesting botanical station lying 
within the limits of the area now under consideration. This is a plot of boggy ground about 
thirty acres in extent, lying about three miles westward of the town of Penrith near the 
ancient village of Newton Regny and known as Newton Regny Moss. It is rectangular in 
outline, and is owned in part by the people of Newton on the one side, and by the inhabitants 
of Newbiggin, a village in the adjoining parish of Dacre, on the other. A sluggish stream of 
moss water of almost inky blackness running the entire length of the ground divides the en- 
closure into two unequal portions ; the larger share pertains to Newton, being equal to about 
22^ acres. This part has been subdivided into a number of small allotments, answering to 
the number of resident proprietors, each of whom had his ' peat-pot,' separated from that 
of his neighbour by a ' reaine ' or narrow strip of ground, on which the newly dug peats were 
spread to dry. The supply of peaty material seems to have become exhausted, and the ' pots ' 
are filled well-nigh to the brim with water of the same character as that in the brook. It is 
impossible to make a thorough examination : the only plan to be adopted by strangers is to 
walk along by the 'reaines,' the remaining portions not being negotiable except during 
seasons of exceptionally dry weather. Besides the botanical rarities presently to be mentioned 
the locality has been described as the paradise of ' black-headed gulls {Larus ridibundus) snipes, 
water-hens, frogs and dragonflies.' A few of the plants may be mentioned, several of which 
are only to be gathered here, and those mostly of the aquatic family, viz. : * Ranunculus Lingua, 
L., R. Flammula, L. (in abundance) ; Trollius europaus, L. ; Parnassia palustris, L. ; Galium 
palustre var. b. elongatum (Presl.) ; Valeriana officinalis, L. (attains to quite a remarkable growth 
on some of the ' reaines ') ; Menyanthes trifoliata, L. ; Veronica Anagallis, L. ; Utricularia 
vulgaris, L. (very abundant and showy in August) ; Mentha sativa, L. ; Prunella vulgaris, L. 
(var. alba) ; Salix fragilis, L. (often planted, but truly wild at such places as Newton Regny 
Moss, Penrith. J. G. Baker, 1883) ; Epipactis palustris, Crantz ; Habenaria chloroleuca 
Ridley ; Typiha latifolia, L. ; Potamogeton plantagineus, Du Croz ; * Schcenus nigricans, L. ; 
* Cladium jamaicense, Crantz ; Carex teretiuscula, Good. ; * C. limosa, L. ; * C. filiformis, L. ; 
C. rostrata, Stokes ; Equisetum limosum, Sm. ; * Chara polyacantha, Braun.'^ 

Adonis autumnalis, L., grew in large quantities in a crop of flax on a farm at Flimby in 
1885, where it was associated with about an equal amount of Plantago arenaria, Waldst. and 
Kit. Glaucium phceniceum, Crantz, at Derwent Tinplate Works, 1893-94. Aconitum 

1 The plants to which an asterisk (*) is prefixed are found at this station only, and most of them 
were recorded for the first time by the author. 

86 



BOTANY 

Napellus, L., right bank of river Caldew, opposite to Holm Hill mansion, established many 
years. Cheiranthus Cheiri, L., on the old walls of Dacre Castle, Penrith. Hesperis matronalis, 
L., banks of the rivers Ellen and Roe, at Aspatria and Stockdalewrath respectively. Sisym- 
brium pannonicum Jacq., Derwent Tinplate Works, and Silloth for many years past, and 
seen on Workington south shore this season, 1900. Linum angustifolium, Huds., long 
established at Shawk quarries, near Curthwaite, in small quantity. Trifolium incarnatum, 
L., has occurred as a casual on the London and North- Western Railway near Flimby, and 
subsequently on the cinder mound at Derwent Tin-plate Works, Workington. Vicia lutea, 
L., on both banks of the Derwent from Seaton Mill to Camerton railway station, 1896; 
also at Silloth and Skinburness, 1 900. Rubus Balfiurianus, BIox., very fine examples occur 
near the farm belonging to Mr. Graham at Hawksdale, Carlisle. Rosa arvensis, Huds., in 
Flimby and Aigle Gill woods, abundantly. Here also, and at Whitefield House, Overwater, 
Saxifraga umbrosa, L., has multiplied exceedingly from garden waste. Caucalis latifolia, L., 
by the river Derwent, opposite to Camerton station, 1896. Lactuca muralis, Fresen,, in 
the woods at Threapland Ghyll, Aspatria, the lowest station at which it has been remarked. 
Lysimachia ciliata, L., ditch by the highway, nearly opposite to Monkhouse Hill farm, Seberg- 
ham. Centunculus minimus, L., near Thurstonfield lough, Carlisle, where also grows Limosella 
aquatica, L. Lathraa Squamaria, L., is found in the ' Riddings,' near Gatesgill village, 
also near Sebergham Hall, where it is parasitical on the roots of an avenue of lime trees. 
Nepeta Cataria, L., in a roadside hedge a few yards eastward of Dalemain Mill, Penrith, on the 
south side of the highway. Scutellaria minor, Huds., swampy ground at Moorhouse Guards, 
between Seaton and Flimby. Euphorbia Esula, L., well established on both sides of the 
highway near Inglewood Bank, Penrith. Castanea sativa. Mill., two grand trees on the 
river Eamont, nearly opposite Pooley Mill, on the Dalemain estate. Lilium Martagon, L., 
in the 'morel wood,' right bank of the Caldew at Holm Hill. Cokhicum autumnale, L., 
meadow by the river Ellen, on the left bank, opposite Baggrow. Butomus umbellatus, L., 
bed of the river Wampool, a little way above the bridge at Kirkbride. Catabrosa aquatica, 
Beauv., near Blencowe railway station. Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L., hedge bank by an 
occupation road connected with Millstone Moor farm, Moota, near Cockermouth. Equisetum 
maximum. Lam., Flimby wood, Maryport. 

It may be well to mention here that the ancient royal 'Forest of Inglewood' was 
included wholly within this area. It extended from the city of Carlisle to Penrith, a distance 
of eighteen miles, embracing both towns. The whole of the following parishes were within 
its limits, viz. : Penrith, Edenhall, Great Salkeld, Lazonby, Hesket, Wetheral, Warwick, 
St. Mary's (Carlisle), St. Cuthbert's (Carlisle), Dalston, Hutton, Skelton and Newton Regny ; 
as also portions of Thursby, Sebergham, Castle Sowerby, Westward and Caldbeck. It 
remained an appanage to the Crown property imtil the year 1696, when it was granted to 
William Bentinck, first earl of Portland. 

List of plants of more or less rarity to be found within the limits of District III. ; the 
most extensive and fertile, as it is also the most highly cultivated, of the divisions which I 
have adopted for the purposes of this work. 

Ranunculaces Crucifer^ 

Clematis Vitalba L. Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. 

Thahctrum Kochii, Fr. ^^,.^^,.^^ intermedia, Boreau 

— flavum, L. ^^^^^^ ^^^^. ^ 
Adorns autumnans, L. ^^^^^ ^^^^j. l. 
Ranunculus fluitans, Lam. Cochkaria Armoracia, L. 

— Drouetii, Godr. jj .^ matronalis, L. 

— tnchophyllus, Chaix. Sisymbrium Sophia, L. 
-^f£bSs(Bab.) -,.—«., Jac,. 

— Lingua, L. -O/wJacq. 

He leborus viridis, L. Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. 

DelphtmumAjacts, L. — perfoliatum, Crantz 

Acmtitum Napellus, L. Camelina sativa, Crantz 

PAPAVERACEffi Brassica Rapa, L. 

Meconopsis cambrica, Vig. _ monensis, Huds. 

Glaucium phceniceum, Crantz Lepidium ruderak, L. 

FuMARiACE^ — Draba, L. 

Neckeria lutea. Scop. Thiaspi arvense, L. 

Fumaria confusa, Jord. Raphanus Raphanistrum, L. 

87 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



VlOLARIE^ 

Viola sylvestris, Reich. 

— lutea, Huds. 

Caryophylle^ 
Dianthus Armeria, L. 

— deltoides, L. 
Silene conica, L. 

— anglica, L. 
Sagina nodosa, Fenzl. 

Hypericine^ 
Hypericum calycinum, L. 

TlLIACE^ 

Tilia platyphyllos, Scop. 

LlNE^ 

Radiola Linoides, Roth. 
Linum angustifolium, Huds. 

Geraniace^ 
Geranium rotundifolium, L. 
OxaRs corniculata, L. 

Safindace^ 
Acer campestre, L. 

Leguminos^ 
Ulex nanus, Forster 
TrifoRum incamatum, L. 

— striatum, L. 

— resupinatum, L. 
Vicia Orobus, DC. 

— lutea, L. 

Rosacea 
Spiraa salicifolia, L. 
Rubus suberectus, Anders. 

— affinis, W. y N. 

— incurvatus, Bab. 

— rhamnifolius, W. y N. 

— leucostachys, Schleich. 

— infestus, Weihe 

— Balfourianus, Blox. 
Fragaria elatior, Ehrh. 
Potentilla norvegica, L. 
Rosa involuta, Sm. 

6. Sabini, Woods 

— canina, L. 

a. lutetiana (Leman) 

c. sphasrica (Gren.) 
e. dumalis (Bechst.) 
i. urbica (Leman) 

J. dumetorum (Thuill.) 

— glauca, Vill. 

3. subcristata (Baker) 
e. coriifolia (Fr.) 
g. Watsoni (Baker) 

— arvensis, Huds. 
Pyrus communis, L. 

— pinnatifida, Ehrh. 
Crataegus Oxyacantha, L. 

d. monogyna (Jacq.) 

Saxifrages 
Saxifraga umbrosa, L. 

— stellaris, L. 
Ribes rubrum, L. 



Riies Gnsittlaria, L. 
b. Uva-crispa, L. 

Droseracea 
Drosera anglica, Huds. 

— intermedia, Hayne 

Halo rages 
Hippuris vulgaris, L. 
Myriophyllum spicatum, L. 
Callitriche verna, L. 

— hamulata, Kuetz. 

Onagraries 
Epilobium obscurum, Schreb. 

Umbellifers 
Caucalis latifolia, L. 

— nodosa. Scop. 

Rubiaces 
Galium erectum, Huds. 

DiPSACES 

Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds. 
Composite 
Erigeron acre, L. 
Filago minima, Fr. 

AnaphaUs margaritacea, Benth. W Hook. fils. 
Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. 
Pulicaria dysenterica, Gasrtn. 
Matricaria Chamomilla, L. 
Onopordon Acanthium, L. 
Crepis paludosa, Moench 
Centaurea Solstitialis, L. 
Cichorium Intybus, L. 
Leontodon hirtus, L. 

— hispidus, L. 
Lactuca muralis, Fresen. 

Campanulaces 
Lobelia Dortmanna, L. 
Campanula rapunculoides, L. 

— glomerata, L. 

Ericaces 
Andromeda Polifolia, L. 
Pyrola minor, L. 

— media, Sw. 

Primulaces 
Lysimachia ctliata, L. 

— Nummularia, L. 
Centunculus minimus, L. 

Gentianes 
Erythrjea littoralis, Fr. 

— pulchella, Fr. 

Polemoniaces 
Polemonium coeruleum, L. 

BORAGINES 

Cynoglossum officinale, L. 
Symphytum tuberosum, L. 
Myosotis collina, HofFm. 

CONVOLVULACEJE 

Convolvulus arvensis, L. 

SCROPHULARINS 

Verbascum Blattaria, L. 
Scrophularia aquatica, L. 
Limosella aquatica, L. 



88 



BOTANY 



Veronica montana, L. 

— scutellata, L. 
Rhinanthus major, Ehrh. 

Orobanchace^ 
Orobanche elatior, Sutton 
Lathrxa Squamaria, L. 

Lentibulariea 
Utricularia minor, L. 

— intermedia, Hayne 

Labiate 
Mentha rotundifolia, Huds. 

— piperita, Huds, 

— hirsuta, Huds. 

b. subglabra, Baker 

— sativa, L. 

b. paludosa. Baker 

— gentilis, L. 
Calamintha arvensis. Lam. 
Nepeta Cataria, L. 
Scutellaria minor, Huds. 
Marrubium vulgare, L. 
Galeopsis versicolor, Curt. 

Plantagine^ 
Plantagp arenaria, Waldst. y Kit. 

CHENOPODIACEffi 

Chenopodium botryoides, Sm. [? ?] 
Atriplex hastata, L. 

— Babingtonii, Woods 

PoLYGONACE* 

Polygonum minus, Huds. 
Rumex sanguineus, L. 
b. viridis (Sibth.). 

— Hydrolapathum, Huds. 

EuPHOREIACE^ 

Euphorbia Esula, L. 

— Cyfaristias, L. 

— exigua, L. 

CuPULIFERiE 

Carpinus Betulus, L. 
Castanea sativa. Mill. 

Salicine^ 
Salix repens, L. 

— phylicifolia, L. 
Populus nigra, L. 

Conifers 
Juniperus nana, Willd. 
Taxus baccata, L. 

Hydrocharide^ 
Elodea canadensis, Michx. 
Orchide^ 
Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich. 
Epipactis palustris, Crantz 
Orchis ustulata, L. 

— incarnata, L. 
Habenaria albida, R. Br. 

— viridis, R. Br. 

— chloroleuca, Ridley 

LiLIACEA 

Ruscus acukatus, L. 
Allium Scorodoprasum, L. 

— vineale, L. 

— oleraceum, L. 
Lilium Martagpn, L. 



Gagea fascicularis, Salisb. 
Colchicum autumnale, L. 
Paris quadrifolia, L. 

JUNCACE« 

Juncus compressus, Jacq. 

— maritimus. Lam. 

— Gerardi, Loisel. 

— glaucus, Ehrh. 
Luzula maxima, DC. 

— erecta, Desv. 

b. congesta, Koch 
Sparganium simplex, Huds. 

— minimum, Fr. 

Alismace^ 
Alisma ranunculoides, L. 
Butomus umbellatus, L. 

Naiadace^ 
Potamogeton plantagineus, Du Croz. 

— densus L. 

— crispus, L. 

— polygonifolius, Pourr. 
Zannichellia palustris, L. 

Cyperace^ 
Eleocharis acicularis, R. Br. 
Scirpus fluitans, L. 

— setaceus, L. 

— rufus, Schrad. 

— sylvaticus, L. 
Schoenus nigricans, L. 
Cladium jamaicense, Crantz 
Carex dioica, L. 

— disticha, Huds. 

— vulpina, L. 

— acuta, L. 

— Goodenowii, J. Gay 

— limosa, L. 

— laevigata, Sm. 

— flava, L. 

c. CEderi, Retz. 

— filiformis, L. 

— vesicaria, L. 

Gramine^ 
Setaria viridis, Beauv. 
Phalaris canariensis, L. 
Milium efFusum, L. 
Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf. 
jipera Spica-venti, Beauv. 
Avena fatua, L. 
Sesleria coerulea, Ard. 
Cynosurus echinatus, L. 
Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. 
Melica nutans, L. 
Poa alpina, L. 
Glyceria plicata, Fr. 

— distans, Wahlenb. 
Festuca sylvatica, Vill. 
Bromus giganteus, L. 
Lolium Rnicola, Sonder. 

— temulentum, L. 

b. arvense (With.) 

FiLICES 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. 
Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 
b. dentata (Hook.) 



89 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Polystichum lobatum, Presl. Lycopodiace^ 

var. aculeatum, Syme Lycopodium Sekgo, L. 

— angulare, Presl. — clavatum, L. 
Lastrea Filix-mas, Presl. 

b. affinis, Bab. Selaginellace^ 

c. paleacea, Moore Selaginella selaginoides, Gray 

— dilatata, Presl. 

d. coUina, Moore Charace^ 
Phegopteris calcarea, Fee ^hara fragilis, Desv. 

Equisetace^ — polyacantha, Braun. 

Equisetum maximum, Lam. — vulgaris, L. 

— sylvaticum, L. Nitella flexilis, Agardh 

— hyemale, L. — opaca, Agardh 

District IV 

This area is bounded on the south by the river Eden throughout its course in Cumberland, 
dividing it from District III. until its junction with the Eamont near Dolphenby ; thence 
for a short distance to a little beyond Culgaith, wfhere the boundary diverges to the north- 
eastward as far as the sources of the river Tees under Cross Fell ; the course of that river is 
followed until the mouth of Crookburn Beck is reached at the extreme south-east corner of 
Cumberland. Northward from this the boundary follows along the beck to its source, and 
beyond until Killhope Moor is reached. The adjoining county here is Durham. From this 
point in a zigzag line the boundary follows the watershed of the Pennine range ' as Heaven 
water deals ' until it reaches the river Irthing at Gilsland, which constitutes the line of de- 
markation between Cumberland and Northumberland, right up to its source ; a little way 
beyond which the head of the Kershope Burn is reached at the northern extremity of the 
county. The remaining boundary on the north-western side is much less complicated. 
Commencing at Kershope Head it follows the course of the burn to its junction with the river 
Liddle, between Cumberland and Roxburghshire. From this point the latter forms the line 
of separation between Cumberland and Dumfries, until a little below where it falls into the 
Esk. Here an arbitrary line known as the Scots' Dike, running due westward for a short 
distance until it abuts upon the river Sark, along which stream the boundary runs to its con- 
fluence with the head waters of the Solway Firth. 

The Pennine range runs along the eastern verge of this area, from Cross Fell (2,930 feet) 
through a gradually decreasing series of summits, including Cold Fell (2,039 f^^*) Slighty Crag 
(1,702 feet) and Christenbury Crag (1,598 feet), with others of inferior altitude. The district 
is extremely well-watered. Apart from the rivers Eden, Esk and Liddle on tlie outskirts, we 
find the Raven and Croglin waters and the Irthing, with its tributaries the Gelt, Kingwater 
and Cambeck. The Black and White Lyne streams, which with the Bailey water from 
Bewcastle unite to form the Lyne river, discharge into the Esk below Longtown. In the 
Alston district, on the east of the Pennines, the South Tyne and the Tees have their sources, 
and are the aggregate of innumerable becks or burns which flow from those hills. The hills 
in their geological formation form quite a contrast to their mightier brethren in the south-west 
of the county, consisting of strata of carboniferous rocks in the form of shales, sandstones and 
grits, intermixed with beds of limestone never of any great thickness. In the lower valleys of 
the Eden, Esk, Liddle and Lyne, the New Red Sandstone rocks predominate, and are extensively 
quarried for builders' purposes both here and in Dumfriesshire. 

The Alston district is highly metalliferous, and lead mines, which are tolerably numerous, 
have been worked from an early period of our history, as far back as the reign of Henry II. 
and were then known as the mines of ' Karliol.' King John sent thither for lead to repair 
some of his castles in the south of England. As many as fifty mines are reported to have been 
actively worked at different times. Other ores have also been worked. 

In the neighbourhood of Tindall Fell and Brampton, Blenkinship and other places, 
collieries and limeworks are numerous. 

It will thus be seen that this area has features of its own so characteristic that Mr. J. G. 
Baker, who spent a holiday some years ago at Alston (1887) compares it to a slice of Durham 
or north Yorkshire thrust into Cumberland. He also reports that certain montane species of 
plants are found here at a somewhat greater altitude than in either of those adjoining counties. 

It may be mentioned that this area, interesting as it may seem, has been much less 
diligently explored in a botanical sense than the remaining portions of the county, and the 

90 



BOTANY 

results therefore are but meagre and incomplete. Would that some zealous worker, with 
youth on his side, would undertake its further exploration and development. 

The following are the most noteworthy species recorded from this area as at present 
known, viz. : Ranunculus fluttam^ Lam., a flore pleno variety, occurs in the river Eden, near 
Carlisle ; the type is also reported from the river Cairn, near Heads Nook ; Berberis vulgaris, 
L., near Rosehill, Gilsland, in hedgerows as a substitute for Cratagus Oxyacantha ; Cheiranthus 
Cheiri, L., walls of Lanercost Priory ; Draba muralis, L., nursery grounds a mile north of 
Carlisle ; Lhlaspi alpestre, L., everywhere common about the lead mines at Alston, along with 
Arenaria verna, L. (J. G. Baker) ; Althaa officinalis, L., on the cliffs at RockclifFe ; Radiola 
Limides, Roth, near Long Meg, Little Salkeld ; Rhamnus catharticus, L., hill near Gilsland ; 
Vicia Orobus, DC, 'Circa Great Salkeld copiose, sed prassertim apud Blencarn, nostratibus 
"Horse Pease,"' Bishop Nicolson's MS. 1690 ; Rubus saxatilis,L.,\ower Nent Force, Tynehead, 
on limestone rocks, J. G. Baker ; Rubus Chamamorus, L., Christenbury Crags, Knoutberry Fell, 
over Nenthead ; Rosa spimsissima, L., Westlinton to Scaleby and round Gamblesby under 
Cross Fell ; R. mollis, Sm., very fine about the outskirts of Sol way Moss to Netherby Moat, 
Penton, etc. ; R. tomentosa, var. d. scabriuscula (Sm.), by the river Irthing beneath Burdoswald ; 
Sedum villosum, L., Hartside Fell (Ray) ; Drosera intermedia, Hayne, abundant on Solway 
Moss ; Epilobium alpinum, L., springs at the east end of Cross Fell, over the Cashwell mine 
(600 to 700 yards) J. G. Baker ; Carum verticillatum, Koch, Kingmoor, northward of 
Carlisle ; Caucalis nodosa, Scop., gravel bed on the river Eden, opposite Grinsdale village, 
below Carlisle, associated there with Asperula arvensis, L. ; Valeriana pyrenaica, L., in a wood 
between Oakbank Farm, Longtown, and Solway Moss in great plenty ; Erigeron acre, L., on 
an old wall at Gelt woods, Brampton ; Cnicus heterophyllus, Willd., by the Solport burn, near 
its junction with the river Lyne ; Vaccinium uliginosum, L., at Gamblesby, six miles from 
Penrith (Ray) ; Centunculus minimus, L., Kingmoor, over Carlisle ; Mentha rotundifolia, Huds., 
waste ground east of Rockcliffe station ; Galeopsis versicolor. Curt., near Cumwhitton ; Myrica 
Gale, L., Solway Moss, Longtown ; Salix purpurea, L., banks of the Esk, Longtown ; S. rubra, 
Huds., by Brunstock Beck, near Drawdykes Castle ; Elodea canadensis Mich., pool by the 
river Eden, a little way above Lazonby Bridge ; Habenaria conopsea, Benth., extremely fine 
in meadows from Soalmaine to Kirkcambeck ; Allium Schoenoprasum, L., near Edward the 
Sixth's wall at Wall Town ; near Gilsland on the Roman Wall ; Butomus umbellatus, L., 
associated with Elodea canadensis, near Lazonby Bridge ; Rynchospora alba, Vahl., Bolton Fell 
and other northern moors ; Carex pendula, Huds., Lyneside woods, below Racks Bridge ; 
also by the Liddle at Penton Linns, where also C remota, L., abounds ; C. vulpina, L., estuary 
of river Eden, near RockclifFe ; Deschampsia Jlexuosa, Trin., very abimdant about the edges of 
the Scaleby and other northern peat mosses ; Avena pratensis, L., limestone rocks near Ashgill 
Force, Alston ; Cryptogramma crispa, R. Br., very luxuriant on Cross Fell ; Phegopteris Dryop- 
teris. Fee., Geltside woods, near Brampton ; Botrychium Lunaria, Sw., ' fields 'twixti Glassenby 
and Gamelsby,' Bishop Nicolson, 1 690 ; Equisetum maximum. Lam., luxuriant in woods and 
hedgerows by the river Cambeck ; E. variegatum, Schleich., on rocks by river Irthing near 
Gilsland Spa ; Selaginella selaginoides. Gray, limestone of High Mains and Windy Brow, 
Alston. 

List of plants of more or less rarity to be found in Division IV. being the most northern 
portion of the county, the botany of which has been less carefully investigated than the 
remaining divisions, principally owing to the lack of resident students of the science : — 

Ranunculace^ Fumariace« 

Thalictrum collinum, Wallr. Neckeria lutea. Scop. 

— flavum, L. 

Ranunculus fluitans. Lam. Crucifer^ 

— sardous, Crantz Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. 
Trollius europaeus, L. Nasturtium palustre, DC. 
Aquilegia vulgaris, L. Arabis hirsuta, Scop. 
Aconitum Nafellus, L. Draba muralis, L. 

T, Cardamine amara, L. 

Berberide* Cochlearia alpina, H. C. Wats. 

Berbens vulgaris, L. _ j^^^^^i^ l. 

NYMPHa:ACE« Lepidium latifolium, L. 

Nymphaea lutea, L. Thlaspi alpestre, L. 

Papaverace;e Teesdalia nudicaulis, R. Br. 

Papaver Argemone, L. Raphanus Raphanistrum, L. 

91 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Resedace^ 
Reseda Luteola, L. 

VlOLARIE^ 

Viola odorata, L. 
f. alba (Lange) 

— lutea, Huds. 

PoLYGALE^ 

Polygala serpyllacea;, Weihe 
Caryophylle« 
Saponaria Vaccaria, L. 
Stellaria nemorum, L. 
Arenaria verna, L. 

— serpyllifolia, L. 

c. leptoclados (Guss.) 
Sagina nodosa, Fenzl. 

Hypericins^ 
Hypericum humifusum, L. 

— hirsutum, L. 

Malvace^ 
Althaea officinalis, L. 
Malva rotundifolia, L. 

LiNEiE 

Radiola Linoides, Roth. 
Linum catharticum, L. 

Geraniace^ 
Geranium phiemn, L. 

— sylvaticum, L. 

— pusillum, L. 

— lucidum, L. 

Erodium cicutarium, L'Herit. 

Rhamne^ 
Rhamnus catharticus, L. 

Leguminos^ 
Genista anglica, L. 
Ulex Gallii, Planch. 
Ononis spinosa, L. 
Medkagp sativa, L. 
Melilotus officinalis. Lam. 
Ornithopus perpusillus, L. 
Vicia Orobus, DC. 

— sativa, L. 

Rosace:e 
Prunus domestka L. 
Rubus fissus, Lindl. 

— affinis, W. y N. 

— rhamnifolius, W. y N. 

— villicaulis (sp. collect.) 

— Koehleri (sp. collect.) 

— infestus, Weihe 

— caesius, L. 

— saxatilis, L. 

— Chamaemorus, L. 
Rosa pimpinellifolia, L. 

f. spinosissima (L.) 

— involuta, Sm. 

b. Sabini (Woods) 

— mollis, Sm. = R. villosa, L. 

— tomentosa, Sm. 

d. scabriuscula (Sm.) 

— rubiginosa, L. 

— arvensis, Huds. 



Saxifragacea 
Saxifraga stellaris, L. 

— aizoides, L. 

— hypnoides, L. 
Ribes Grossularia, L. 

— rubrum, L. 

— nigrum, L. 

Crassulacea 
Sedum Rhodiola, DC. 

— villosum, L. 

— album, L. 

— anglicum, Huds. 
Sempervivum tectorum, L. 

Droserace^ 
Drosera anglica, Huds. 

— intermedia, Hayne 

Halorage^ 
Hippuris vulgaris, L. 
Callitriche hamulata, Kuetz. 

Lythrarie^ 
Peplis Portula, L. 

Onagrarie^ 
Circaea alpina, L. 

Umbellifer^ 
Apium nodiflorum, Reichb. fils. 
Carum verticillatum, Koch 
Pimpinella Saxifraga, L. 
Chaerophyllum temulum, L. 
Scandix Pecten- Veneris, L. 
Peucedanum Ostruthium, Koch 
Daucus Carota, L. 
Caucalis latifolia, L. 

— nodosa, Scop. 

Caprifoliace^ 
Sambucus Ebulus, L. 

Rubiace^ 
Galium boreale, L. 

— MoUugo, L. 

— sylvestre, Poll. 
Asperula arvensis, L. 

Valeriane^ 
Valeriana pyrenaica, L. 

Dipsace^ 
Scabiosa Columbaria, L. 

Composite 
Aster Tripolium, L. 
Erigeron acre, L. 
Filago minima, Fr. 
Antennaria dioica, R, Br. 
Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. 
Pulicaria dysenterica, Gaert. 
Bidens cernua, L. 

b. radiata, Sond. 
Artemisia Absinthium, L. 
Doronicum Pardalianches, L. 
Senecio erucaefolius, L. 

— Saracenicus, L. 
Arctium intermedium, Lange 
Cnicus heterophyllus, Willd. 
Mariana lactea. Hill 



92 



BOTANY 



Serratula tinctoria, L. 
Centaurea Scabiosa, L. 

— Cyanus, L. 

Crepis paludosa, Moench 
Hieracium caesium, Fr. 

— vulgatum, Fr. 

— corymbosum, Fr. 

— crocatum, Fr. 

— boreale, Fr. 
Leontodon hispidus, L. 
Lactuca muralis, Fresen. 
Tragopogon pratense, L. 

b. minus, Mill. 

Camfanulace^ 
Jasione montana, L. 
Campanula glomerata, L. 

— latifolia, L. 

Vacciniace^ 
Oxycoccus quadripetala, Gilib. 
Vaccinium uliginosum, L. 
Schollera oxycoccus. Roth. 

Ericace^ 
Andromeda Polifolia, L. 
Pyrola media, Sw. 

— minor, L. 

Primulace^ 
Lysimachia nemorum, L. 
Glaux maritima, L. 
Centunculus minimus, L. 
Gentiane^ 
Gentiana Amarella, L. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. 

BoRAGINE^ 

Symphytum officinale, L. 

— tuberosum, L. 
Borago officinalis, L. 
Lycopsis arvensis, L. 
Myosotis cespitosa, F. Schultz. 

— versicolor, Reichb. 
Lithospermum arvense, L. 

CoNVOLVULACE^ 

Volvulus sepium, Jung. 

SoLANACE^ 

Solanum Dulcamara, L. 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. 

SCR0PHULARINE« 

Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill. 

— vulgaris. Mill. 
Scrophularia aquatica, L. 

— nodosa, L. 
Mimulus luteus, L. 
Veronica hederifolia, L. 

— persica, Poir 

— Tournefortii, Gmel. 

— montana, L. 

— scutellata, L. 
Rhinanthus major, Ehrh. 
Melampyrum pratense, L. 

var. d. montanum (Johnst.) 

Lentibularie^ 
Utricularia intermedia, Hayne 

Verbenace^ 
Verbena officinalis, L. 



Labiate 
Mentha rotundifolia, Huds, 

— piperita, Huds. 

— sativa, L. 

b. paludosa (Sole) 
Origanum vulgare, L. 
Calamintha Clinopodium, Spenn. 
Galeopsis versicolor. Curt. 
Lamium maculatum, L. 

Plantagine« 
Flantago maritima, L. 

— Coronopus. L. 

Chenopodiace^ 
Chenopodium album, L. 

a. incanum, Moq. 

b. viride, Syme 
Atriplex littoralis, L. 

— deltoidea, Bab. 
Salicornia herbacea, L. 

Polygonace^ 
Polygonum Hydropiper, L. 

— lapathifolium, L. 

— amphibium, L. 

b. terrestre. Leers 

Thymelaacea 
Daphne Laureola, L. 

EuPHORBIACEa: 

Euphorbia Peplus, L. 

Urticace^ 
Humulus Lupulus, L. 

Myricace^ 
Myrica Gale, L. 

CUPULIFER^ 

Betula verrucosa, Ehrh. 

— pubescens, Ehrh. 
Carpinus Betulus, L. 
Castanea sativa. Mill. 

Salicine^ 
Salix alba, L. 

— aurita, L. 

— repens, L. 

— phylicifolia, L. 

— purpurea, L. 

X viminalis (rubra, Huds.) 
Populus tremula, L. 

— alba, L. 

— nigra, L. 

Hydrocharide^ 
Elodea canadensis, Michx. 
Orchide^ 
Listera cordata, R. Br. 
Goodyera repens, R. Br. 
Cephalanthera ensifolia. Rich. 
Epipactis latifolia. All. 
Orchis ustulata, L. 

— latifolia, L. 
Habenaria conopsea, Benth, 

— bifolia, R. Br. 

— chloroleuca, Ridley 

Amaryllide* 
Galanthus nivalis, L. 



93 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



LlLIACE^ 

Allium Scorodoprasum, L. 

— vineale, L. 

— Schoenoprasum, L. 
Narthecium ossifragum, Huds. 

JUNCACE^ 

Juncus Gerardi, Loisel. 

— lamprocarpus, Ehrh. 

— supinus, Moench 

— triglumis, L. 

Typhace^ 
Typha latifolia, L. 

Aroide^ 
Arum maculatum, L. 

Alismace^ 
Butomus umbellatus, L. 

Naiadace^ 

Triglochin palustre, L. 

— maritimum, L. 
Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pourr. 

— heterophyllus, Schreb. 

— praelongus, Wulf. 

— crispus, L. 

— densus, L. 

Cyperace^ 

Eleocharis palustris, R. Br. 
Scirpus caespitosus, L. 

— setaceus, L. 
Rhyncospora alba, Vahl. 
Carex dioica, L. 

— vulpina, L. 

— reraota, L. 

— curta, Good 

— irrigua, Hoppe 

— limosa, L. 

— pallescens, L. 



Carex pendula, Huds, 

— hirta, L. 

— acuta, L. 

— rigida, Good 

Gramine^ 

Alopecurus pratensis, L. 
Milium efFusum, L. 
Agrostis canina, L. 
Deschampsia flexuosa, Trin. 
Avena pratensis, L. 
Sieglingia decumbens, Bernh. 
Melica nutans, L. 
Poa nemoralis, L. 
Glyceria plicata, Fr. 
Festuca Myuros, L. 

— elatior, L. 

— fallax, ThuiU. 
Brachypodium gracile, Beauv. 
Agropyron caninum, Beauv. 

FiLICES 

Cryptogramme crispa, R. Br. 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. 

— viride, Huds. 
Athyrium Filix-foemina, Roth. 
Polystichum lobatum, Presl. 
Lastrea dilatata, Presl. 
Phegopteris Dryopteris, F6e. 
Botrychium Lunaria, Sw. 

Equisetace^ 

Equisetum maximum. Lam. 

— sylvaticum, L. 

— palustre, L. 

— variegatum, Schleich. 

Lycopodiace^ 

Lycopodium Selago, L. 

— alpinum, L. 

Selaginellace^ 
Selaginella selaginoides. Gray 



MOSSES {Musci) 

As most readers are aware, Cumberland can claim the doubtful 
privilege of possessing the wettest spot in the British Islands. And in 
the combination within a small geographical area, of elevation, mildness, 
and, as regards the western portion of the county, atmospheric humidity, 
we have conditions essential to the occurrence of a rich and interesting 
moss-flora. 

Elevation alone, however, when it is represented by bleak moorland 
is not necessarily a favourable condition. Of this we have our share in 
Cumberland, but there is also a large area of highly elevated rock which 
affords habitats for arctic, or semi-arctic, species of mosses. 

It may be well to remark here that the British moss-flora is con- 
nected for the most part with that of Scandinavia ; and in the mountains 

94 



BOTANY 

of Norway one may see at their best mosses that seem only just able 
to maintain a foothold in our British hills. The moss-flora of the 
British Islands is not exclusively of a northern type, but has also affinities 
with that of more genial climes, species which may be called Mediter- 
ranean occurring here and there in our islands, especially, as might be 
expected, at their southern and western extremities, and in the mild 
districts of the west of Cumberland we occasionally come across mosses 
that are usually associated with the southern types. 

This is also the case with the Hepaticae, and if the reader has the 
opportunity of referring to Mr. W. H. Pearson's splendid work upon the 
Hepaticae of the British Isles he will see (under Lejeuneae especially) that 
several of the species which are commonly found in the south of Ireland 
have also been observed at Lodore, where in addition to humidity and 
mildness of climate there exists another essential of a rich moss-vegetation, 
viz. shelter. It is in such places as Lodore, sheltered from strong winds, 
that mosses and Hepaticae are found in the greatest luxuriance all the 
world over.^ 

There may be some real affinity between the causes which produced 
the peculiar moss-flora of the south of Ireland and, in its degree, that of 
Lodore. The matter is one of great interest whether from a geological 
or botanical point of view, and the student of the mosses of Cumberland 
will not fail to keep it in mind. 

The essentials of atmospheric humidity, mildness and elevation 
being prevalent in a considerable portion of Cumberland, one is prepared 
to expect a long list of county records. The writer however is not 
aware of one having been published ; and, labouring under the disadvan- 
tage of not living in the county, he does not feel that he has sufficient 
data to hand to warrant his attempting to compile a complete list. 

What the student of our mosses most wants to know is the occurrence 
of rare and interesting species. Some that would be thus designated have 
been found by the writer in Cumberland, and he is also aware of interesting 
finds having been made by other bryologists. He therefore proposes to 
enumerate these. There must of necessity be many omissions due to 
the difficulty stated above, but enough will be recorded to show that 
Cumberland must rank high amongst the counties of England for wealth 
of mosses, and enough omitted to stimulate future observers to fill up gaps 
in the list of rare species. 

Sphagnacece. In the present transition stage through which the 
determination of these mosses appears to be passing, it might be hazardous 
for any but an expert to enumerate varieties. It must suffice then to 
remark that the county is rich in Sphagna, especially in that portion 
which lies to the north of Wigton and borders on the Solway. Indeed 
there are probably few districts in England in which a greater wealth of 
these mosses is to be found. The extensive peat bogs in the region 

1 For further remarks both on the occurrence of some southern types of mosses in our British 
Islands, and on that of shelter as a condition of luxuriance in moss-vegetation, the reader might consult 
two very interesting articles by the late Dr. Spruce in the Journal of Botany, February and March, 1887. 

95 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



indicated afford a splendid field for exploration by the student of these 
plants. 

On the sandstone in the north of the county several rather uncommon 
mosses occur, amongst which may be mentioned Tetraphis Browniana, 
Grev., Brachyodus trichodes, Fiirnr., Dicranella crispa, Schp., Campylostelium 
saxicola, B. & S., and Weisia tenuis, C. M. They mostly flourish in and 
about the quarries. 



Diphyscium foliosum, /8 acutifolium, Ldb. 

Mr. H. N. Dixon has found this rather 

curious variety at Wastdak 
Cynodontium polycarpum, Schp. Lodore. 

Not uncommon in the Lake district about 

rocks and crags 
Dicranella curvata, Schp. Ennerdale. Another 

of Mr. Dixon's discoveries. A rare species 
Dicranum uncinatum, C. M. Luxuriant on 

shaded granite rocks in Eskdale 
Grimmia incurva, Schwgr. (G. contorta, Schp.). 

Rare. Near the summit of Sea Fell Pike, 

on granite 

— subsquarrosa, Wils. Rocks near the lake 

at Friar's Crag, Keswick. Common in 
the Lake district on rocks near water 

— decipiens, Ldb. Eskdale and Borroivdale. 

Not common in the Lake district. The 
var. robusta, Ferg., occurs in Eskdale and 
doubtless elsewhere in the district, being 
partial to rocks near water 

— Hartmani, Schp. Rocks and walls 

— ovata, Schwgr. Rare in Britain. Rocks 

in river Duddon, but poor specimens 

— montana, B. & S. Rocks at Braithwaite. 

Not common 

— elongata, Kaulf. One of the rarest British 

mosses. As found in our islands this 
species is the reverse of 'elongate.' It 
occurs in the Clova mountains of Scotland 
and on the mountains between Grassmoor 
and Thornthwaite in Cumberland, being 
not uncommon in the latter district, but 
difficult to recognize amongst the other 
Grimmiae with which it is associated 

Rhacomitrium ellipticum, B. & S. Not com- 
mon. Rocks and crags. The other 
British species of the genus are all found 
more or less plentifully in the county 

Coscinodon cribrosus, Spr. Found locally, and 
beautifully fertile, about Bassenthwaite on 
dry walls and rocks 

Glyphomitrium Daviesii, Brid. Borroivdale. 
Rare. Dr. Carrington and W, H. 
Pearson, 1884 

Hedwigia imberbis, Spr. Dry rocks. Butter- 
mere, and doubtless elsewhere in Cumber- 
land 

Pottia Heimii, FUrnr. A coast moss. Bow- 
ness-on-Solway and Ravenglass 



Barbula inclinata, Schw. On banks of sandy 
mud, Bowness-on-Solway 

Eucalypta ciliata, Hoffm. Honister Crag. 
W. B. Waterfall, 1885 

Zygodon Stirtoni, Schp. Occasionally on lime- 
stone rocks and walls at Isel near Cocker- 
mouth 

Ulota calvescens, Schp. Reputed to have been 
found at Lodore — a very probable locality 
for it. The writer has found it on the 
west coast of Scotland, and abundantly 
at its headquarters at Killarney, in the 
south-west of Ireland. It is to be hoped 
that its occurrence at Lodore may be 
established, and that at the same time 
another link in the apparent bryological 
connection between Killarney and the 
famous cascade near Keswick be forged. 
This beautiful moss is readily known by 
its smooth calyptra terminating the long 
seta which commonly grows out from the 
tuft of moss at some unusual angle. (Ulota 
Ludwigii, Brid. and U. Drummondii, 
Brid., ought also to be sought for about 
Lodore. U. Hutchinsiae, Hamm., is a 
moss of the rocks and walls, and has been 
found in Westmorland. The other species 
of the genus are common in Cumber- 
land) 

Orthotrichum cupulatum, Hoffm, On the 
limestone above Plumbland 

— Sprucei, Mont. On trees by river Ellen, 

near the last named place 

— tenellum, Bruch. Westnewton, on elders 

— pulchellum, Bruch. This pretty little 

moss is not uncommon in the county, 
particularly on elders and twigs in hedges 

CEdipodium Griffithianum, Schwg. In rock 
crevices on the higher mountains 

Aulacomnion androgynum, Schwgr. On 
peaty soil in bank by road, Bowness-on- 
Solway 

Bartramia Halleriana, Hedw. A beautiful 
species found occasionally on rocks in 
ravines and cascades. Found also in 
Tasmania 

Philonotis capillaris, Ldb. Esk Hause ; H. W. 
Dixon, 1895 

Bryum Marratii, Wils. Sandhills at Drigg. 
Rev. A. Ley 



96 



BOTANY 

Bryum Duvallii, Voit. Boggy places, Lorton rocks. It has also been found in north 

Vaky and doubtless elsewhere Wales, near the coast 

Mnium orthorrhynchum, B. & S. Lodore, Hypnum callichroum, Brid. Shaded rocks at 

Fine, but sterile Lodore. Fertile 

Cryphcea heteromalla, Mohr. Bassenthwaite, — crista-castrensis, L. This lovely species 

on trees is not uncommon in the woods about 

Habrodon Notarisii, Schp. Bassenthwaite^ trees. Keswick 

Not uncommon in the Lake district, — eugyrium, Schp. Rare. Rocks in the 

Usually more plentiful on sycamores cascade at Lodore, where the var. Mac- 

Leptodon Smithii, Mohr. One of the most in- kayi, Schp. is abundant, as elsewhere in 

terestingofour Cumberland mosses, being similar habitats. The type, which may 

usually found only in the south of Eng- easilybemistakenforaformofH. palustre, 

land, on trees. Lodore. G. Stabler, 1 88 1 L., bears very little resemblance to the 

Thuidium delicatulum. Mitt. Fine and variety which has claims to rank as a 

abundant at Lodore. Fertile distinct species 

Hypnum demissum. Discovered at Lodore by — micans, Wils. Said on good authority to 

Messrs. Carrington and Pearson, the occur in Borrowdale. This species is 

latter of whom informed the writer of its associated with H. demissum in the 

occurrence there in 1884. This is a Killarney district of the south of Ireland 

rare moss, and it is worthy of note in and occurs in similar habitats, namely on 

connection with what was said above that damp rocks, usually in shade 

this species is more or less abundant at Hylocomium umbratum, B. & S. Plentiful 

Killarney, where it grows upon damp in woods at Lodore and Thornthwaite 

The neighbouring county of Westmorland has been fortunate in 
possessing several resident bryologists of repute, and their observations, 
extending over many years, have resulted in the publication in 1899, by 
Mr, G. Stabler of Levens, of a list of county records the wealth of 
which is probably not surpassed by that of any other county in England. 
Students are recommended to study the list of Westmorland species, the 
majority of which may be expected to be found in Cumberland. 



LIVERWORTS {Hepaticce) 

The writer of the above notes upon the Musci is unable to supply 
detailed information upon the Hepatics of the county, and as no one has 
been found to undertake the work, he would suggest that students of 
these fascinating plants refer to Mr. W. H. Pearson's splendid work upon 
the Hepaticas of the British Isles, just about to be completed (all parts 
will be out, I believe, about February, 1902). In it the author gives 
full lists of localities for the species, and the botanist will be interested to 
note how large a number, including many rare species, have been found 
by Mr. Pearson himself, in conjunction with Dr. Carrington, in Cumber- 
land. The publication of this very complete work should give a fresh 
stimulus to the study of the British Hepaticas. They were always 
fascinating to the bryologist, but the scarcity of satisfactory literature 
made the study too difficult. The Hepaticae of Cumberland, perhaps 
even more than the Musci, will fully repay further research. 



97 H 



ZOOLOGY 

MOLLUSCS 



Although there are but few published lists for this county, so well 
has Capt, Farrer in especial worked the district^ that no less than 93 
species have been recorded out of a total of 139 for the whole of the 
British Islands. 

One other species, the scarce and local Vertigo moulinsiana, was 
chronicled but subsequently withdrawn by Capt. Farrer as wanting con- 
firmation, though since it occurs quite as far north in Ireland, there is no 
inherent improbability in its also living in the Lake district. 

No southern species is of course to be met with, and though Capt. 
Farrer tried to establish a colony of Helicella cantiana near Bassenthwaite, 
the experiment did not succeed. A colony of Helix lucorum from Italy, 
on the other hand, has thriven. 

Several northern forms, such as Acanthinula lamellata and Vnio 
margaritifer, are present. 

The common garden snail {Helix aspersd) is curiously scarce in the 
county as a whole, especially in the inland parts, and some common fresh- 
water forms, like Limnaa auricularia, L. stagnalis, Planorbis corneus^ and 
both species of Vivipara, are absent altogether. 



A. GASTROPODA 



I. PULMONATA 
a. Stylommatophora 



F^r. 



Bassenfell, 
Ravenstone, 



Bassen- 



Bassen- 



Uldale ; 



Testacella maugei, 
thwaite 

— haliotidea, Drap. 

thwaite 
Limax maximus, Linn. 

— Jlavus, Linn. Bassenthwaite : 

Keswick 

— arborum, Bouch.-Chant. 
Agriolimax agrestis (Linn.) 

— lavis (Mull.) 

Amalia sowerbii (F^r.). Keswick; Braith- 
waite ; Bassenthwaite 

— g^g"^" (Drap.). Buttermere ; Rosthwaite ; 

Keswick ; Bassenthwaite 



Vitrina pelkcida (Miill.) 

1 Joum. Conch., vol. viii. p. 152, and Science Gossip (new series), vol. i, 
Miss Donald, Tram. CumberU. Assoc, vols. vii. p. 153, and xi. p. 150. 

99 



V'ttrea crystallina (Milll.) 

— lucida (Drap.). Keswick ; Penrith 

— alliaria (Miller). Bassenthwaite 

— glabra (Brit. Auct.). Keswick ; Bassen- 

thwaite ; Drigg ; Allonby 

— cellaria (Mtlll.) 

— nitidula (Drap.) 

— pura (Aid.) 

— radiatula (Aid.) 

— excavata (Bean) 

— nitida (Mtill.) 

— fulva (Mull.) 
Arion ater (Linn.) 

— hortensis, Fdr. 

— circumscriptus, John. 

— intermedius, Norni. 

— subfuscus (Drap.) 
Punctum pygmaum (Drap.) 

pp. 58, 192. Cf. alsQ 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Pyramidula rupestris (Drap.) 

— rotundata (MuU.) 

Helkella virgata (Da C). Silloth ; Allonby ; 
Crosscannonby ; Ravenglass 

— itala{Lmn.). Ravenglass [dead specimens] 

— caperata (Mont.). Cotehill, near Carlisle ; 

Silloth ; Blaithwaite ; Bassenthwaite 
[where a reversed example was also taken] 

— harhara (Linn.). Silloth (?) ; St. Bees ; 

Seascale ; Drigg ; Ravenglass 
Hygromia fusca (Mont.). Caldbeck ; Bassen- 
thwaite ; Alston 

— granulata (Aid.). Corby ; Wetheral ; 

Keswick ; Piel Wyke, Bassenthwaite 

— hispida (Linn.) 

— rufescens (Penn.) 
Acanthinula acukata (MflU.) 

— lamellata (JefE). Wreay ; Bothel ; Bas- 

senthwaite ; Keswick ; Lodore Falls 
Vallonia pukhella (Milll.). Bassenthwaite ; 
Keswick ; Penrith ; Gelt Woods, near 
Carlisle 

— arhustorum (Linn.) 

Helix aspersa, MuU. Uncommon : more 
plentiful on the coast than inland, 
where it has so far been met with in 
the Lake district only at Bassenthwaite, 
Keswick, Buttermere and Bowness, it 
occurs at Carlisle, and is common about 
Maryport, Whitehaven, Ennerdale, 
Drigg and Calder Bridge 

— nemoralis, Linn. 

— hortemis, Mtill. 
Buliminus obscurus (Mtill.) 
Cochlkopa luhrica (Mtill.) 

Azeca tridens (Pult.). Wetheral ; Grimsdale 
Woods ; Caldbeck ; Bothel ; Butter- 
mere 

Pupa anglica (F6r.) 

— cylindracea (Da C.) 

— muscorum (Linn.). Silloth ; Drigg ; Raven- 

glass 
Sphyradium edentulum (Drap.) 
Vertigo antivertigo (Drap.). Mockerkin Tarn ; 

Calder Bridge 

— substriata (Jeff.) 



Vertigo pygmaa (Drap.) 

Balea perversa (Linn.) 

Clausilia laminata (Mont.). Near Carlisle ; 

Wigton ; Caldbeck ; Thornthwaite ; 

near Penrith 

— bidentata (Strom.) 
Succinea putris (Linn.) 

— elegans, Risso 

b. Basommatophora 

Carychium minimum, Mtill. 
Ancylus Jiuviatilis, Mtill. 
Velletia lacustris (Linn.) 
Limnaa pereger (Mtill.) 

— palustris (Mtill.) 

— truncatula (Mtill.) 

— glabra (Mtill.). Corby ; Bassenthwaite 
Amphipeplea glutinosa (Mtill.). ' Pond near 

Windermere' (Bulwer) 
Planorbis albus, Mtill. 

— glaber, Jeff. Rare : Pond at Blaith- 

waite 

— nautileus (Linn.). Corby ; Bothel ; Allon- 

by ; Maryport ; near Penrith 

— carinatus, Mtill. Uldale ; Nunwick Hall, 

Great Salkeld 

— marginatus, Drap. 

— vortex (Linn.). Rare : Allonby 

— spirorhis, Mtill. 

— contortus (Linn.) 

— fontanus (Lightf.) 

— lineatus (Walker). Rickerby ; Blaith- 

waite ; Ennerdale ; Bassenthwaite 
Physa fontinalis (Linn.) 

— hypnorum (Linn.). Rare : near Carlisle ; 

Wigton 

IL PROSOBRANCHIATA 

Bithynia tentaculata (Linn.). Rickerby Beck ; 

Thurstonfield Lough 
Valvata piscinalis (Mtill.). Rickerby Beck ; 

Petteril ; Bassenthwaite ; Derwent- 

water 

— cristata, Mtill. Caldbeck ; Bassenthwaite 
Acicula lineata (Drap.). Bassenthwaite ; Lo- 
dore : Borrowdale ; Scale Force 



B. PELECYPODA 



Vnio pictorum (Linn.). ' R. Brathay, near 
Ambleside ' (Capt. Brown) 

— margaritifer (Linn.) 

Anodonta cygntea{Lmn.). Wreay ; Great Salkeld 

Spharium corneum (Linn.). Near Carlisle ; 

Ullswater ; Piel Wyke, Bassenthwaite 

— lacuitre (Mtill.). Corby ; Rickerby Beck; 

Blaithwaite ; Ullswater (?) 



Pisidum amnicum (Mtill.). Rickerby Beck ; 
Cockermouth ; Denton Hill Dam 

— pusillum (Gmel.) 

— nitidum, Jenyns. Dalston ; Wreay Wood 

— fontinale (Drap.). Blaithwaite ; Bassen- 

thwaite ; Portinscale 

— milium (Held.). Blaithwaite 



100 



INSECTS 

ORTHOPTERA 

This order of insects, comprising the Earwigs, Cockroaches, Grass- 
hoppers, Locusts and Crickets, is poorly represented in the British Isles, 
the full list barely exceeding fifty species, and of these twelve are not 
indigenous but merely stragglers from abroad, being introduced with 
vegetable produce, fruit, etc. There has been no systematic work done 
at the order in Cumberland, and the subjoined brief account may be said 
to cover all that is known. Though it is hardly likely that the county 
possesses anything but a poor orthopterous fauna, on account of its 
northern position and the absence of chalk, still careful observation 
would no doubt augment this list very considerably — probably 
double it. 

FORFICULARIA 

Earwigs 

The Lesser Earwig {Labia minor, L.) appears to be very local in the 
county, having as yet only been noticed in the Lazonby district, where 
it is quite common in gardens, frequenting dung heaps and decaying 
vegetable matter. It is an active insect and readily takes to the wing. 
The Common Earwig {Forjicula auricularia, L.) is only too common. 
To the rural population it is known as the ' Twitchbell.' 

BLATTODEA 

Cockroaches 

Phyllodromia germanica, L., is said to have been introduced into 
Britain by soldiers returning from the Crimea in 1857. It has spread 
rapidly and in certain localities has become very abundant, occurring in 
restaurants, warehouses, etc. In Carlisle it inhabits flour mills. It is 
much smaller than the next species, the Common Cockroach {Blatta 
orientalis, L.), which is a pest in houses, etc., throughout the county. 
The American Cockroach [Periplaneta americana, L.) has been found 
sparingly in hothouses near Carlisle. This is another introduced 
species. 

ACRIDIODEA 

Grasshoppers 

Stenobothrus viridulus, L., .S*. bicolor, Charp., and S. parallelus, Zett., 
are found throughout the county in meadows and grassy places, the last 

lOI 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

two species being especially abundant. Gomphocerus maculatus, Thunb., 
is another common species, but is usually met with on heaths, where its 
dark colours assimilate beautifully with its surroundings. It is much 
smaller than the other grasshoppers just cited, and this, together with its 
spotted appearance, readily separates it from them. Tettix bipunctatus, 
L., has occurred near Carlisle and elsewhere and is probably common. 
It frequents dry ground where the herbage is scanty and is a curious 
little insect. 

LOCUSTODEA 

Locusts 

Locusta viridissima, L. In the south of England this fine insect is 
common and is familiarly known as the ' Great Green Grasshopper,' but 
it is absent in the north, and its only claim to notice in the present work 
rests on a record in Stephens' Illustrations from Cumberland. It is 
more than likely that the specimen (or specimens) upon which the 
record was based was introduced into the district from the south. 
Platycleis brachyptera, L., I have found in some numbers on heath land 
near Lazonby. It is a decidedly local insect in Britain and has not been 
previously recorded from further north than York. 

GRYLLODEA 

Crickets 

The House Cricket {Gryllus domesticus, L.) is common and is the 
only species of Cricket known in the county. 

NEUROPTERA 

ODONATA 

T)ragonflies 

These magnificent insects, so far as species are concerned, are not 
numerous in the British Isles, only about forty species being known, and 
of these about a quarter have been found in Cumberland. They have 
not however received the attention they deserve and probably a diligent 
student could easily double the county's present list. 

Sympetrum scoticum, Don., is a common species on and near heaths in 
most parts of the county. Libellula quadrimaculata, Linn., is another 
heath species, and though more local than the preceding species, at times 
abounds in favourite haunts such as Bolton Fell and Bowness Moss. In 
dull weather it may sometimes be noticed resting among heather. 
Cordulegaster annulatus, Latr., may often be seen on the wing in Borrow- 
dale and other parts of the Lake District, but is an exceedingly difficult 
species to capture on account of its lofty, soaring flight. I have seen it 
in great numbers on the shores of Buttermere lake. It is one of the 
finest of the British species. Mschna juncea, Linn., occurs in moderate 
numbers near Carlisle and probably elsewhere. Its usual habitat is a fir 

102 



INSECTS 

wood in which there are ponds. Its habits are restless and it is not 
easily netted. /E. cyanea. Mull,, I have taken in the same locality as the 
preceding, but it is a scarcer insect. Calopteryx virgo, Linn., is not un- 
common in Newbiggen Wood near Carlisle, through which the river 
Petteril runs. Its flight is weak. Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Sulz,, occurs 
generally throughout the county, being found near running streams and 
pools. Ischnura elegans, Lind., and Agrion puella, Linn., are both 
common, inhabiting similar localities to the preceding species. 
Enallagma cyathigerum, Charp., has been found in the Brampton and 
Keswick districts. 

The other divisions of the Neuroptera have not been worked in 
Cumberland, so I cannot give any information about them. 

HYMENOPTERA 

ACULEATA 
Ants, Bees and Wasps 
The order Hymenoptera in its widest sense is one of the most exten- 
sive of the orders of insects, including as it does the Ants, Bees, Wasps, 
Sand Wasps, Saw Flies, Gall Flies and Ichneumon Flies. The Aculeata 
are the highest section of the order, and their social habits and generally 
large size have induced hymenopterists to devote most of their attention 
to them. In Cumberland the Aculeata are imperfectly known, but from 
the little which has been done it is probable that the fauna is a rich one. 
Among the more interesting species which have occurred may be men- 
tioned Vespa austriaca (males) and Nomada roberjeotiana, the latter being 
captured with Andrena analis as its host. Mention should also be made 
of A. lapponica, of which the first recorded British males were taken 
near Carlisle in 1899. 

HETEROGYNA MyRMiciDiE {continued)— 

FoRMiCiD^ Monomorium pharaonis, Linn. This 

Formica Linn. minute ant, though not indigenous 

— rufa,' Linn. Keswick ; abundant in *« the British Isles, swarms in flour 

Ashness Wood m'"s »n Carlide 

— fusca, Linn. Occurs everywhere ; one FH^'^ORF'? 

of the commonest ants in the county 

— flavus, De Geer. Rather local, but Pompilid^ 

common where it occurs ; Borrow- Pompilus, Fab. 

dale, Silloth — plumbeus, Fab. Swarms on the sand 

— niger, Linn. hills at Silloth 

— „ race alienus, Forst. Salius, Fab. 

Myrmicid^ — exaltatus, Fab. Wan Fell 

Leptothorax, Mayr. SpHEGiDiE 

— acervorum, Fab. Locally abundant ; Gorytes, Latr. 

Carlisle district, Cumrew Fell — mystaceus, Linn. Carlisle 

Myrmica, Latr. Nysson, Latr. 

— rubra, Linn. — spinosus, Fab. Carlisle 

— race ruginodis, Nyl. ) p Mellinus, Fab. 

— „ scabrinodis, Nyl. j — arvensis, Linn. Silloth ; rather common 

— „ lobicornis. One specimen taken — sabulosus, Fab. Silloth 

near Carlisle, March nth, 1900 Crabro, Fab. 

103 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



SPHEGlDiE (continued) — 

Crabro tibialis, Fab. Brampton district 

— leucostomus, Linn. ) ^ ,. , 

— podagricus, v. d. L>ina. J 

— chrysostomus, Lep. Widely distributed 

and rather common ; sometimes taken 
freely on dead trees 

— cribrarius, Linn. Carlisle^ Lazonby dis- 

trict, etc. ; not uncommon 

DIPLOPTERA 

VESPIDiE 

Vespa, Linn. 

— vulgaris, Linn. Common everywhere 

— rufa, Linn. Common in the neigh- 

bourhood of Carlisle 

— austriaca, Panz. Of this rare wasp two 

males were taken in 1900 — one 
near Carlisle, the other in the 
Lazonby district 

— sylvestris, Scop. Penton, near the Scotch 

border 

— norvegica, Fab. Common ; nests in 

bushes 

EUMENID/E 

Odynerus, Latr. 

— spinipes, Linn. Carlisle 

— pictus, Curt. Lazonby district 

— parietinus Linn. | ^^^^.^^^ 

— antilope, Panz. J 

ANTHOPHILA 
Sub-division I. Obtusilingues 

COLLETID^ 

Colletes, Latr. 

— fodiens, Kirb. Silloth ; on ragwort 

— marginata, Smith. ' Cumberland ' (F. 
Smith) 

Prosopis, Fab. 



Carlisle 



— confusa, Nyl. 1 

1. i 



Carlisle 



brevicornis, Nyl. 
Sub-division IL Acutilingues 
Andrenid^ 
Sphecodes, Latr. 

— subquadratus. Smith. Lazonby district 

— similis, Wesm. Brampton district 

— ferruginatus, Schenck. \ p ,■ , 

— variegatus, v. Hag. J 
Halictus, Latr. 

— rubicundus, Christ. Common every- 

where 

— cylindricus. Fab. Very common and 

variable 

— albipes, Kirb. 

— nitidiusculus, Kirb. 

— minutus, Kirb. \ Carlisle 

— tumulorum, Linn. 

— leucopus, Kirb. 
Andrena, Fab. 

— albicans, Kirb. Very common 



Andrenid^ {continued) — 
Andrena ross, Panz. 

— „ race trimmerana, Kirb. Carlisle 

— cineraria, Linn. Brampton district 

— clarkella, Kirb. Carlisle 

— nigroanea, Kirb. Carlisle ; common 

— gwynana, Kirb. | ^^^^.^^^ 

— rucata. Smith. J 

— nigriceps, Kirb. Two specimens at 

Silloth in 1900 

— tridentata, Kirb. One specimen in the 

Lazonby district in 1 900 ; on ragwort 

— denticulata, Kirb. Carlisle ; abundant 

(F. Smith) 

— cingulata. Fab. Carlisle 

— albicrus, Kirb. Brampton district 

— analis, Panz. Carlisle 

— coitana, Kirb. Brampton and Lazonby 

districts 

— minutula, Kirb. Carlisle and Brampton 

districts 

— nana, Kirb. \ 

— wilkella, Kirb. j 

— lapponica, Zett. Carlisle ; the first 

recorded British males were taken 
here in 1899 {vide E. M. M., vol. 
xxxvi. p. 88) 
Nomada, Fab. 

— roberjeotiana, Panz. Carlisle ; a few 

taken in 1900, associated with A. 
analis 

— alternata, Kirb. Carlisle, etc. ; common 

— ruficornis, Linn. ) Carlisle and Bramp- 

— bifida, Thoms. j ton districts 

— borealis, Zett. Carlisle 

— ochrostoma, Kirb. Carlisle and Lazonby 

districts 

— flavoguttata, Kirb. Carlisle 

APIDiE 

Megachile, Latr. 

— versicolor, Smith. Carlisle (F. Smith) 
Psithyrus, Lep. 

— vestalis, Fourc. Carlisle 

— quadricolor, Lep. Brampton district 
Bombus, Latr. 

— smithianus. White. Brampton district 

— venustus. Smith. Carlisle 

— agrorum. Fab. Very common 

— latreillellus, Kirb. 

— „ race distinguendus, Mor. Silloth 

— derhamellus, Kirb. Brampton district 

— lapidarius, Linn. Very common 

— jonellus, Kirb. Carlisle 

— pratorum, Linn. Common 

— soroensis, Fab. Carlisle (F. Smith) 

— terrestris, Linn. Very common 

— „ race lucorum, Smith. Very 
common 

Apis, Linn. 

— mellifica, Linn. Common 



104 



INSECTS 

PHYTOPHAGA 

Saisoflies 

The following is a list of the Phytophagous Hymenoptera which 
occur in the county : — 

Tenthredo livida Selandria stramineipes 

— atra — serva 

— colon (?) Taxonus agrorum 

— rufiventris — equiseti 

— mesomela Poecilosoma liturata 

— viridis Eriocampa limacina 

— olivacea Blennocampa fuscipennis 

— velox Emphytus succinctus 
Tenthredopsis scutellaris Pachynematus capreae 

— coqueberti Fenusa ulmi 

— liturata Athalia rosae 

— dorsalis Lygaeonematus astutus 

— tristis (?) Hoplocampa testudinea 

— thornleyi Tomosthetus luteiventris 
Allantus maculatus Rhogogastera lateralis 

— ternulus — viridis 

— scrophulariae — punctulata 

— arcuatus Croesus septentrionalis 
Dolerus fulviventris Nematus ribesii 

— vestigialis _ abdominalis 

— aeneus, var. elongatus Trichiosoma lucorum 

— coruscans Abia sericea 

— gonagra Hylotoma cyanella 

— picipes — ustulata 

— niger Lopyrus pini 

— thomsoni Sirex gigas 
Strongylogaster cingulatus 

Ichneumon Flies occur very abundantly, and a large number have 
been collected by myself and friends, the bulk of which still await 
identification. Very little appears to be known of these insects in the 
British Isles, and the preparation of a county list could only be attempted 
after some years of careful study. 

COLEOPTERA 

Beetles 

Of this extensive order of insects upwards of 3,500 species inhabit 
the British Isles, about one-third of which have been found in Cumber- 
land, and the county fauna is by no means exhausted — indeed it cannot 
be said to have yet been much more than sampled. 

New species are added to the county list annually. During the past 
year (1900) over 150 were found of which there were no previous 
records, so that it is in every way likely that close on 1,700 species will 
ultimately be found in the county by the active though small band of 
resident collectors now investigating the coleopterous fauna of the moun- 
tains and the moors, the plains and the seashore. 

105 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

As is to be expected in such a mountainous county as Cumberland, 
many of those species only found at considerable elevations are in the 
county list, and the diligent collector will not be disappointed in his 
search for them. That typical mountain beetle, Carabus glabratus, 
occurs in all the mountain systems, and when in quest of it such species 
as Pterostichus cethiops, P. vitreus, Cymindis vaporariorum and Bembidium 
nigricorne may be confidently expected to turn up ; while in pools 
Agabus congener, A. arcticus and Hydroporus morio are to be looked for. 
From the stunted hawthorns on the slopes of the fells Telephorus obscurus 
is to be beaten. Beneath stones on Cross Fell, the highest point of the 
Pennines, Otiorrhynchus maurus has been found. Many interesting species 
are found inhabiting the thick moss under waterfalls in the mountain 
streams, of which perhaps Stenus guynemeri and Quedius auricomus are the 
most characteristic. 

The sand hills and extensive salt marshes along the shores of the 
Solway Firth have a rich and varied fauna, as yet far from fully known. 
Here Dyschirius nitidus, Agabus femoralis, Homalium exiguum and Telephorus 
darwinianus occur, with hosts of other species ; and Anthicus scoticus, 
occurring at Allonby, is interesting as being the only known locality in 
England for this Scotch and Irish beetle. 

Passing inland again, mention may be made of the capture of Lebia 
crux-minor near Carlisle, a handsome but one of the rarest British species. 
The discovery of a colony of the pretty Hydrothassa hannoverana in the 
Lazonby district during the past summer (1900), after being missing in 
the British Islands for a number of years, is also worthy of passing notice. 

The genus Bembidium, one of the coleopterist's favourite genera, is 
well represented in the county, many of the rarer species being found, 
chief among which is B. schuppeli, first made known as British from 
captures made in Cumberland on the banks of the Irthing, where it still 
occurs. 

The following list may be taken as a fairly complete one so far as 
present knowledge goes. 

A LIST OF THE COLEOPTERA OCCURRING IN THE COUNTY 

Where no locality is given with a species it may be inferred that it is of general dis- 
tribution. 

CiciNDELiD^ Carabid^ {continued) — 

Cicindela campestris, L. Notiophilus biguttatus, F. 

Carabid^ — substriatus, Wat. Brampton district 

Cychrus rostratus, L. — 4-punctatus, Dej. (Stephens) 

Carabus catenulatus, Scop. — aquaticus, L. 

— nemoralis, Mall. — palustris, Duft. 

— glabratus, Payk. Lake mountains and — rufipes, Curt. ' Once down Wadling ' 

Pennines (T. C. Heysham in Stephens' 

— violaceus, L. Illustrations) 

— nitens, L. Cumrew Fell Leistus montanus, Steph. Skiddaw (Ste- 

— granulatus, L. phens) 

— monilis, F. Lazonby district — fulvibarbis, Dej. 

— arvensis, F. — rufescens, F. 

106 



INSECTS 



Sk'tddaw (J. T. 



Salway 



Carabid^ {continued) — 
Nebria brevicollis, F. 

— gyllenhali, Sch. 
Blethisa multipunctata, L. Carlisle (Fow- — 

ler) — 

Elaphrus riparius, L. — 

— cupreus, Duft. — 

— lapponicus, Gyll. 

Harris) 
Loricera pilicornis, F. 
Clivina fossor, L. 

— collaris, Herbst. 
Dyschirius impunctipennis, Daws 

district 

— nitidus, Dej. Burgh Marsh 

— angustatus, Putz. Banks of the Irthing 

(T. J. Bold) 

— salinus, Schaum. Solway marshes 

— globosus, Herbst. 
Broscus cephalotes, L. Coast district 
Badister bipustulatus, F. 

— sodalis, Duft. Carlisle (T. C. Heysham) 
Chlaenius nigricornis, F. Talkin Tarn 

(T. J. Bold) 
• Oodes helopioides, F. Carlisle (T. C. 
Heysham) 
Bradycellus placidus, Gyll. Carlisle 

— cognatus, Gyll. Cumrew Fell 

— verbasci, Duft. Carlisle 

— harpalinus, Dej. 

— collaris, Payk. Skiddaw, etc. 

— similis, Dej. 
Harpalus rufibarbis, F. 

— ruficornis, F. 

— aeneus, F. 

— rubripes, Duft. Brampton district 

— latus, L. 

— tardus, Panz. Brampton district 
Dichirotrichus pubescens, Payk. Solway 

district 
Anisodactylus binotatus, F. Carlisle 
Stomis pumicatus, Panz. 
Pterostichus cupreus, L. Silloth, etc. 



Carabid^ (continued) — 
Amara apricaria, Sturm. 
— consularis, Duft. Castle Carrock 
spinipes, Auct. 
bifrons, Gyll. 



— cupreus, var. affinis, Sturm. Carlisle 

— versicolor, Sturm. 

— madidus, F. 

— aethiops, Panz. Cumrew Fell, Scaw 

Fell 

— vitreus, Dej. 

tains 

— niger, Schall. 

— vulgaris, L. 

— anthracinus, 

phens) 

— nigrita, F. 

— strenuus, Panz. 

— diligens, Sturm. 

— vernalis, Gyll. 

— striola, F. 
Amara fulva, Dej. 



ovata, F. 



— similata, Gyll. 

— acuminata, Payk. 

— tibialis, Payk. 

— lunicollis, SchiSd. 

— familiaris, Duft. 
■ — trivialis, Gyll. 

— communis, Panz. 

— plebeia, Gyll. 
Calathus cisteloides, Panz. 

— ftiscus, F. 

— flavipes, Fourc, 

— mollis. Marsh. 

— melanocephalus. 



Pennines and Lake moun- — 



111, Cumberland (Ste- — 



Coast district 
L. 

— „ var. nubigena, Hal. 
High districts 

— micropterus, Duft. Pennines 

— piceus. Marsh 
Taphria nivalis, Panz. 
Pristonychus terricola, Herbst. 
Anchomenus angusticoUis, F. 

— dorsalis, Mull. 

— albipes, F. 

— marginatus, L. Sebergham 

— parumpunctatus, F. 

— viduus, Panz., var. moestus, Duft. 
Lazonby district 

— ftiliginosus, Panz. 

— gracilis, Gyll. 

— piceus, L. 

OHsthopus rotundatus, Payk. 
Bembidium rufescens, Gu6r. 

— quinquestriatum, Gyll. 

— obtusum, Sturm. 

— guttula, F. 

— mannerheimi, Sahl. 

— biguttatum, F. 

— asneum, Germ. 

— doris, Panz. Silloth 

— minimum, F. Solway district 

— normannum, Dej. Skinhurness Marsh 

— schiippeli, Dej. Banks of Irthing and 

Eden 
lampros, Herbst. 
nigricorne, Gyll. Wan Fell 
tibiale, Duft. 
atrocaeruleum, Steph. 
decorum, Panz. 
monticola, Sturm, 
stomoides, Dej. Banks of Irthing and 

Gelt 
quadriguttatum, F. Carlisle (T. C. 

Heysham) 
lunatum, Duft. Burgh Marsh and 

banks of Irthing 



107 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Carabid^ (continued) — 

Bembidium concinnum, Steph. Burgh 
Marsh 

— femoratum, Sturm. Banks of Eden and 

Irthing 

— bruxellense, Wesm. Banks of Ge/t 

— saxatile, Gyll. Allonby and Castle 

Carrock 

— anglicanum, Sharp. Lanercost (T. J. 

Bold) 

— littorale, Ol. 

— pallidipenne, 111. Silloth 

— bipunctatum, L. Burgh Marsh 

— punctulatum, Drap. 

— prasinum, Duft. 

— varium, Ol. Skinbumess Marsh 

— paludosum, Panz. Banks of Eden and 

Gelt 
Tachypus pallipes, Duft. Lanercost (T. J. 
Bold) 

— flavipes, L. Banks of Irthing 
Trechus discus, F. Banks of Eden near 

Salkeld 

— micros, Herbst. Carlisle (Fowler) 

— longicornis, Sturm. Lanercost (T. J. 

Bold) 

— rubens, F. Banks of Irthing (T. J. 

Bold) 

— minutus, F. 

— secalis, Payk. Lazonby district 
Patrobus excavatus, Payk. 

— assimilis, Chaud. Mountain districts 
Pogonus chalceus, Marsh. Silloth, etc. 
Cymindis vaporariorum, L. Cumrew Fell, 

Wan Fell 
Lebia chlorocephala, HofF. Carlisle and 
Lazonby districts 

— crux-minor, L. Carlisle [vide E. M. M. 

vol. XXXV. p. 145) 
Dromius linearis, Ol. 

— agilis, F. Brampton district 

— meridionalis, Dej. Lazonby district 

— quadrimaculatus, L. 

— quadrinotatus, Panz. 

— melanocephalus, Dej. 

— nigriventris, Thorns. Lazonby district 

— sigma, Rossi (Dawson, Geod. Brit.) 
Metabletus foveola, Gyll. 

HaLIPLID/E 

Brychius elevatus, Panz. 
Haliplus obliquus, F. Cumberland (T. T. 
Bold) 

— confinis, Steph. Talkin Tarn (T. J. 

Bold) 

— fulvus, F. Lazonby district 

— ruficollis, De G. 

— fluviatilis, Aub6 

— lineatocollis. Marsh 
Dytiscid^ 

Laccophilus obscurus, Panz. Carlisle 



DYTisciDiE [continued) — 

Hyphydrus ovatus, L. Crosby -on- Eden 

(T. C. Heysham) 
Coelambus inaequalis, F. 

— parallelogrammus, Ahr. "> „ ... 

— impressopunctatus, Sch. J 
Deronectes latus, Steph. Lanercost (T. J. 

Bold) 

— assimilis, Payk. Keswick (H. Francis, 

E. M. M. vol. xii. p. 175) 

— depressus, F. 

— i2-pustulatus, F. 

Hydroporus granularis, L. Cardew Mire 
(T. C. Heysham) 

— lepidus, 01. Carlisle 

— rivalis, Gyll. 

— septentrionalis, Gyll. 

— davisii, Curt. High districts 

— halensis, F. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— lineatus, F. Carlisle 

— tristis, Payk. 

— umbrosus, Gyll. 

— gyllenhali, Schiod. 

— morio, Dej. Pennines 

— vittula, Er. Carlisle 

— palustris, L. 

— erythrocephalus, L. 

— melanarius, Sturm. Lanercost (T. J. 

Bold) 

— memnonius, Nic. 

— obscurus, Sturm. 

— nigrita, F. 

— discretus, Fairm. 

— pubescens, Gyll. 

— planus, F. 
Agabus guttatus, Payk. 

— paludosus, F. 

— unguicularis. Thorns. Carlisle 

— congener, Payk. Mountain districts 

— nebulosus, Forst. 

— femoralis, Payk. Silloth 

— arcticus, Payk. Mountain districts 

— sturmii, Gyll. 

— chalconotus, Panz. 

— bipustulatus, L. 
Platambus maculatus, L. 
Ilybius fuliginosus, F. 

— ater, De G. Carlisle 

— guttiger, Gyll. 

— aenescens, Thoms. Brampton district 
Rhantus exoletus, Forst. \ „ ,. , 

— pulverosus, Steph. J ^'"''"'' 

— notatus. Berg. Carlisle (Fowler) 

— bistriatus, Berg. Brampton district 
Colymbetes fuscus, L. 

Dytiscus punctulatus, F. Lazonby dis- 
trict 

— marginalis, L. 
Acilius sulcatus, L. 

08 



INSECTS 



I" (T. C. Heysham) 



Gyrinid^ 

Gyrinus natator, Scop. 

— marinuSjGyll. Car/u/^ (T.C. Heysham) 
Orectochilus villosus, Mali. 

Hydrophilid^ 

Hydrobius fiiscipes, L. 

— picicrus, Thorns. Lazonhy district 
Anacaena globulus, Payk. 

— limbata, F. 
Philydrus nigricans, Zett. 

— minutus, F. 

Helochares lividus, Forst. Brampton district 

— punctatus, Sharp 
Laccobius sinuatus. Mots. 

— alutaceus, Thorns. 

— minutus, L. 

Limnebius truncatellus, Thorns. 
Helophorus rugosus, Ol. \ Cardew Mire 

— nubilus, F. /( 

— aquaticus, L. 

— sequalis, Thorns. Lazonhy district 

— aeneipennis. Thorns. 

— brevipalpis, Bedel 

— arvernicus, Muls. 

Henicocerus exsculptus, Germ. Cross Fell 
Octhebius bicolon, Germ. 

— rufimarginatus, Steph. 
Hydraena riparia, Kug. 

— nigrita. Germ. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— gracilis. Germ. Cross Fell 
Sphasridium scarabasoides, F. 

— bipustulatum, F. 
Cercyon littoralis, Gyll. Silloth 

— depressus, Steph. Banks of the Irthing 

— haemorrhoidalis, Herbst. 

— obsoletus, Gyll. 

— flavipes, F. 

— lateralis. Marsh. 

— melanocephalus, L. 

— unipunctatus, L. 

— quisquilius, L. 

— nigriceps, Marsh. Brampton district 

— pygmasus. 111. 

— analis, Payk. 

Megasternum boleotophagum. Marsh. 
Cryptopleurum atomarium, F. 
Staphylinid^ 

Aleochara ruficornis, Grav. Brampton district 

— fuscipes, F. 

— bipunctata, Ol. 

— cuniculorum, Kr. 

— lanuginosa, Grav. 

— mcesta, Grav. ) „ ,, j .. • , 

• 1 T-i- T Brampton district 

— succicola. Thorns.) '^ 

— nitida, Grav. 

— morion, Grav. 



— grisea. 



Kr 



— algarum, Faur, 

— obscurella, E 



l\ 



Silloth 



Staphylinidje {continued) — 

Oxypoda spectabilis, Mark. Carlisle 

— lividipennis, Mann. Brampton district 

— opaca, Grav. 

— alternans, Grav. 

— longiuscula, Er. 

— haemorrhoa, Mann. Brampton district 
Ischnoglossa prolixa, Grav. Carlisle 
Phloeopora reptans, Grav. 

Ocalea castanea, Er. 

— latipennis, Sharp. Carlisle 

— badia, Er. Gelt valley 

Ilyobates nigricollis, Payk. Lanercost (T. 

J. Bold) 
Chilopora rubicunda, Er. Cumberland 

(Fowrler) 
Myrmedonia collaris, Payk. Carlisle 

— humeralis, Grav. 
Astilbus canaliculatus, F. 

Homalota currax, Kr. Banks of the Gelt 

— insecta. Thorns. Banks of the Irthing 

— pavens, Er. Banks of the Gelt 

— gregaria, Er. 

— luridipennis, Mann. ) Banks of the 

— elongatula, Grav. j Irthing 

— vestita, Grav. 

— vicina, Steph. 

— graminicola, Gyll. 

— fungivora, Thorns. Brampton district 

— linearis, Grav. 

— circellaris, Grav. 

— immersa, Heer. Carlisle 

— analis, Grav. 

— depressa, Gyll. 

— xanthoptera, Steph. 

— trinotata, Kr. 

— xanthopus, Thorns. Carlisle 

— fungicola, Thorns. "| 

— gagatina, Baudi. j- Brampton district 

— sericea, Muls. J 

— nigra, Kr. 

— atramentaria, Gyll. 

— longicornis, Grav. Carlisle 

— sordida. Marsh. 

— aterrima, Grav. \ n r i 

— muscorum, Bris. / 

— fungi, Grav. 

— „ var. dubia. Sharp 
Gnypeta labilis, Er. 
Tachyusa flavitarsis, Sahl. 

— atra, Grav. La%onhy district 
Autalia impressa, Ol. 

— rivularis, Grav. Lazonhy district 
Gyrophaena gentilis, Er. 

Encephalus complicans, Westw. Lazonhy 

district 
Placusa complanata, Er. Wan Fell 
Leptusa fumida, Er. 
Bolitochara obliqua, Er. 
Phytosus balticus, Kr. Silloth 



[09 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Staphylinidje {continued) — 
Oligota inflata, Mann. 
Myllaena brevicornis, Matth. 
Gymnusa brevicollis, Payk. Carlisle 
Hypocyptus longicornis, Payk. 
Conosoma littoreum, L. 

— pubescens, Grav. 

— immaculatum, Steph. Carlisle 
. — lividum, Er. 

Tachyporus obtusus, L. 

— obtusus, var. nitidicollis, Steph. 

— chrysomelinus, L. 

— humerosus, Er. 

— tersus, Er. Carlisle 

— hypnorum, F. 

— pusillus, Grav. 

— brunneus, F. 

— transversalis, Grav. Silloth 
Lamprinus saginatus, Grav. 1 Lazonby 
Cilea silphoides, L. J district 
Tachinus flavipes, F. Brampton district 

— humeralis, Grav. 

— rufipes, L. 

— subterraneus, L. 

— marginellus, F. 

— laticollis, Grav. 

— collaris, Grav. 

— elongatus, Gyll. 

Megacronus cingulatus, Mann. Carlisle 
and Brampton 

— analis, F. 

— inclinans, Grav. 
Bolitobius lunulatus, L. 

— trinotatus, Er. 

— exoletus, Er. Carlisle 

— pygmaeus, F. 
Mycetoporus lepidus, Grav. 

— longulus, Mann. 

— clavicornis, Steph.) „ ,. , 

— splendidus, Grav. ] ^'"'^"^' 
Heterothops binotata, Er. Silloth 
Quedius lateralis, Grav. 

— mesomelinus, Marsh. 

— cinctus, Payk. 

— fuliginosus, Grav. 

— tristis, Grav. 

— molochinus, Grav. 

— picipes, Mann. 

— nigriceps, Kr. 

— fiimatus, Steph. Gelt Woods 

— maurorufus, Grav. Brampton district 

— umbrinus, Er. 

— scintillans, Grav. Brampton district 

— auricomus, Kies. Cross Fell 

— rufipes, Grav. 

— attenuatus, Gyll. Carlisle 

— semiaeneus, Steph. 

— fulvicollis, Steph. 

— boops, Grav. 
Creophilus maxillosus, L. 



Carlisle 



Staphylinid^ {continued') — 
Leistotrophus nebulosus, F. "1 

— murinus, L. / 
Staphylinus pubescens, De G. 

— fulvipes, Scop. Keswick 

— stercorarius, Ol. Maryport 

— erythropterus, L. Carlisle 
Ocypus olens, Mull. 

— similis, F. Lanercost (T. J. Bold) 

— brunnipes, F. 

— cupreus, Rossi 

— morio, Grav. 
Philonthus splendens, F. 

— laminatus, Creutz 

— aeneus, Rossi 

— proximus, Kr. Brampton district 

— scutatus, Er. East Cumberland (T. J. 

Bold) 

— decorus, Grav. 

— politus, F. 

— varius, Gyll. 

— marginatus, F. 

— albipes, Grav. Carlisle 

— cephalotes, Grav. 

— nigriventris, Thorns. Brampton dis- 

trict 

— fimetarius, Grav. 

— sordidus, Grav. Burgh Marsh 

— ebeninus, Grav. 

— umbratllis, Grav. 

— fumigatus, Er. 

— sanguinolentus, Grav. 

— longicornis, Steph. Brampton district 

— varians, Payk. 

— micans, Grav. Silloth 

— trossulus, Nord. 

— fulvipes, F. 

— puella, Nord. 

Cafius xantholoma, Grav. Silloth 
Xantholinus glabratus, Grav. 

— punctulatus, Payk. 

— linearis, Ol. 

— longiventris, Heer. Brampton district 
Baptolinus alternans, Grav. 

Othius fulvipennis, F. 

— melanocephalus, Grav, 

— myrmecophilus, Kies. 
Lathrobium elongatum, L. 

— boreale, Hoch. Brampton district 

— fulvipenne, Grav. 

— brunnipes, F. 

— atripalpe. Sharp. Brampton district 

— quadratum, Payk. Silloth 

— terminatum, Grav. Brampton district 

— angusticolle, Lac. Banks of the Irthing 

(T. J. Bold) 
Cryptobium glaberrimum, Herbst. 
Stilicus rufipes. Germ. Carlisle 

— orbiculatus, Er. 

— aiEnis, Er. 



IIO 



INSECTS 



Cartide (T. C. 
Heysham) 



Staphylinidje {continued) — 
Paederus littoralis, Grav. ) 

— riparius, L. ) 
Evasthetus scaber, Thorns. 
Dianous coerulescens, Gyll. 
Stenus biguttatus, L. Cumberland (Fowler) 

— guttula, Mtill. 

— bimaculatus, Gyll. 

— juno, F. 

— guynemeri, Duv. Cross Fell 

— speculator, Er. 

— providus, Er. ■» 

— lustrator, Er. }- Brampton district 

— buphthalmus, Grav. J 

— melanarius, Steph. 

— atratulus, Er. Brampton district 

— canaliculatus, Gyll. Cumberland (Fow- 

ler) 

— pusillus, Er. Brampton district 

— declaratus, Er. 

— nigritulus, Gyll. Cumberland (Fowler) 

— brunnipes, Steph. 

— subaeneus, Er. Silloth 

— ossium, Steph. 

— impressus, Germ. Brampton district 

— erichsoni, Rye. Cumberland (Fowler) 

— flavipes, Steph. Carlisle 

— binotatus, Ljun. Cumberland (Fowler) 

— pallitarsis, Steph. 

— bifoveolatus, Gyll. Carlisle 

— nitidiusculus, Steph. 

— picipes, Steph. Brampton district 

— similis, Herbst. 

— tarsalis, Ljun. 

— paganus, Er. 

Bledius spectabilis, Kr. Solway marshes 

— tricornis, Herbst. Near Carlisle (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— arenarius, Payk. Silloth 

— pallipes, Grav. Brampton district 

— subterraneus, Er. 

— longulus, Er. Gelt valley 

— erraticus, Er. Lanercost (T. J. Bold) 
Platystethus arenarius, Fourc. 

— cornutus, Gyll. 
Oxytelus rugosus, Grav. 

— sculptus, Grav. 

— laqueatus, Marsh. 

— inustus, Grav. 

— sculpturatus, Grav. 

— maritimus, Thorns. Silloth 

— nitidulus, Grav. 

— tetracarinatus, Block 
Ancyrophorus omalinus, Er. j jf^^th^^al 

— aureus, Fauv. ) 
Trogophloeus arcuatus, Steph. 

— bilineatus, Steph. 

— elongatulus, Er. 

Coprophilus striatulus, F. Lazonby dis- 
trict 



STAPHYJLiNiDiS {continued) — 

Deleaster dichrous, Grav. Carlisle (T. C. 
Heysham) 

Anthophagus testaceus, Grav. Carlisle 

Geodromicus globulicoUis, Mann. Cumber- 
land (Stephens) 

Lesteva longelytrata, Goeze 

— pubescens, Mann. Carlisle 

— sicula, Er. 
Acidota crenata, F. 
Olophrum piceum, Gyll. 
Lathrimaeum atrocephalum, Gyll. 

— unicolor, Steph. 
Deliphrum tectum, Payk. 

Arpedium brachypterum, Grav. Brampton 

district 
Philorhinum sordidum, Steph. 
Coryphium angusticolle, Steph. Brampton 

district 
Omalium rivulare, Payk. 

— rugulipenne Rye \ ^.^^^^^ 

— ripanum, Thoms. J 

— exiguum, Gyll. Burgh Marsh 

— oxycantha^, Grav. 

— excavatum, Steph. 

— pusillum, Grav. 

— punctipenne, Thoms. Brampton dis- 

trict 

— rufipes, Fourc. 

— vile, Er. 

— iopterum, Steph. Cross Fell 

— planum, Payk. Brampton district 

— concinnum, Marsh. 

— striatum, Grav. 
Eusphalerum primulas, Steph. 
Anthobium minutum, F. 

— torquatum, Marsh. 

— sorbi, Gyll. 
Proteinus ovalis, Steph. 

— brachypterus, F. 

Megarthrus denticollis. Beck ) ^ ,. , 
-affinis,Mill )^'"'^"'' 

— depressus, Lac. Brampton district 
Phloeobium clypeatum, Mull. 

PsELAPHlD^ 

Pselaphus heisei, Herbst. 
Tychus niger, Payk. Carlisle 
Bythinus validus, Aub6 

— bulbifer, Reich. 
Bryaxis fossulata, Reich. 

— juncorum. Leach 

ScYDM^NIDii: 

Scydmaenus collaris, Miill. 

Euconnus fimetarius, Chaud. Carlisle 

SlLPHID^ 

Agathidium atrum, Payk. | ^^^^.^^^ 

— varians, Beck j 
Liodes humeralis, Kug. 

— glabra, Kug. Cumberland (Stephens) 
Anisotoma calcarata, Er. 



Ill 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



SiLPHiD^ [continued) — 

Anisotoma rugosa, Sahib. Carlisle (Stephens) 
Necrophorus humator, F. 

— mortuorum, F. 

— ruspator, Er. 

— vespillo, L. 
Necrodes littoralis, L. 
Silpha tristis, 111. 

— nigrita, Creutz. Carlisle and Brampton 

— quadripunctata, L. Gelt Woods 

— opaca, L. 

— thoracica, L. 

— rugosa, L. 

— atrata, L. 

— „ var. brunnea, Herbst. 
Choleva angustata, F. 

— cisteloides, Fr5hl. 

— spadicea, Sturm. • Carlisle 

— agilis, 111. 

— velox, Spence 

— wilkini, Spence 

— nigricans, Spence. Carlisle 

— longula, Kell. East Cumberland 

— morio, F. 

— grandicollis, Er. 

— nigrita, Er. 

— tristis, Panz. 

— chrysomeloides, Panz. 

— fumata, Spence 

— watsoni, Spence. Brampton district 
Ptomaphagus sericeus, F. 

HlSTERID^ 

Hister unicolor, L. Carlisle 

— cadaverinus, HofF. 

— succicola, Thorns. Brampton district 

— purpurascens, Herbst. Carlisle (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— neglectus. Germ. Skiddaw 

— carbonarius, 111. 

— bimaculatus, L. 
Gnathoncus nannetensis. Mars. 
Saprinus nitidulus, Payk. 

— aeneus, F. Silloth 

— rugifrons, Payk. Brampton district 

— maritimus, Steph. Silloth 
Onthophilus striatus, F. 

SCAPHIDIID^ 

Scaphisoma boleti, Panz. Carlisle 

COCCINELLID^ 

Hippodamia 13-punctata, L. Rockcliffe (T. 

C. Heysham) 
Adalia obliterata, L. 

— bipimctata, L. 
Mysia oblongoguttata, L. 
Anatis ocellata, L. 
Coccinella lo-punctata, L. 

— hieijDglyphica, L. 

— 1 1 -punctata, L. Coast of Cumberland 

— 5 -punctata, L. Carlisle 

— 7-punctata, L. 



CocciNELLiDiE {continued) — 
Halyzia i6-guttata, L. 

— 14-guttata, L. 

— i8-guttata, L. 

— 22-punctata, L. 

Scymnus nigrinus, Kug. Carlisle 

— pygmaeus, Fourc. Silloth 

— suturalis, Thunb. 

— capitatus, F. Carlisle (Fowler) 
Chilocorus bipustulatus, 111. 
Rhizobius litura, F. 

Coccidula rufa, Herbst. 

EnDOMYCHIDjE 

Endomychus coccineus, Panz. Newbiggen 
WoodXT. C. Heysham) 
Phalacrid^ 

Olibrus aeneus, F. Skinhurness 

MiCROPEPLIDiE 

Micropeplus porcatus, Payk, Carlisle 
(Fowler) 

— staphylinoides. Marsh. Lazonby district 

NiTIDULIDiE 

Brachypterus pubescens, Er. 

— urticae, F. 
Cercus pedicularius, L. 

— bipustulatus, Payk. 

— rufilabris, Latr. 
Epuraea aestiva, L. 

— deleta, Er. Lazonby district 

— obsoleta, F. 

— pusilla, Er. Brampton district 
Omisiphora limbata, F. Gilsland 
Nitidula bipustulata, L. 

Soronia grisea, L. Lazonby district 
Omosita depressa, L. 

— colon, L. 

— discoidea, F. 
Pocadius ferrugineus, F. 
Meligethes lumbaris, Sturm. 

— aeneus, F. 

— viridescens, F. 

— picipes, Sturm. 
Cychramus luteus, F. Carlisle 

Ips quadriguttata, F. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 
sham) 

— quadripunctata, Herbst. Carlisle 

— quadripustulata, L. 

Pityophagus ferrugineus, F. Brampton dis- 
trict 
Trogositid^ 

Tenebrioides mauritanicus, L. Carlisle 

COLYDIID^ 

Cerylon histeroides, F. Carlisle 
CucujiD^ 

Rhizophagus cribratus, Gyll. Carlisle 

— depressus, F. 

— parallelocollis, Er. Lanercost (T. J. 

Bold) 

— ferrugineus, Payk. Brampton district 

— dispar, Gyll. 



112 



INSECTS 



CucujiDiE {continued) — 

Rhizophagus bipustulatus, F. 
Silvanus surinamensis, L. Carlisle 

LATHRIDIIDiE 

Lathridius lardarius, De Geer. 
Coninomus nodifer, Westw. Brampton 

district 
Enicmus minutus, L. 

— transversus, Ol. 

Cartodere ruficollis, Marsh. Eden bridge 

(T. C. Heysham) 
Corticaria pubescens, Gyll. 

— denticulata, Gyll. ) „ ,■ • 

1 ^ tr > Brampton district 

— elongata, Humm. j ^ 

Melanophthalma fuscula, Humm. 
Cryptophagid^ 

Telmatophilus caricis, Ol. 
Antherophagus nigricornis, F. 

— pallens, Gyll. 
Cryptophagus setulosus, Sturm. 

— pilosus, Gyll. Brampton district 

— saginatus, Sturm. 



scamcus, L. 



Herbst. 



— dentatus, Herbst. Carlisle 
Micrambe vini, Panz. 
Paramecosoma melanocephalum, 

Carlisle 

Atomariafuscipes, Gyll.) n , >• • 
. ,. T^"^ ' •* > Brampton district 

— apicahs, xLx. j ^ 

— fuscata, Schon. 

— pusilla, Payk. 

— analis, Er. 
Ephistemus gyrinoides, Marsh 

Mycetophagid^ 

Typhaea fiimata, L. 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus, L. Lazonby 
district 
Byturid^ 

Byturus tomentosus, F. 
Dermestid^ 

Dermestes lardarius, L. 

Attagenus pellio, L. 

Anthrenus musaeorum, L. 
Byrrhid^e 

Byrrhus pilula, L. 

— fasciatus, F. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— dorsalis, F. Brampton district 
Cytilus varius, F. 
Simplocaria semistriata, F. 

Parnid^ 

Elmis aeneus, Mull. Cross Fell 
Limnius tuberculatus, Mull. Cross Fell 
Parnus prolifericornis, F. 

— auriculatus, Panz. 
Heteroceridje 

Heterocerus marginatus, F. Burgh Marsh 

— brittanicus, Kuw. Silloth 
Lucanid^ 

Sinodendron cylindricum, L. 



SCARAB^IDiE 

Onthophagus fracticornis, Payk. 

— nutans, F. Jrmathwaitel T. C. 

— nuchicornis, L. Wastdale) Heysham 
Aphodius erraticus, L. 

— subterraneus, L. Rockcliffe (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— fossor, L. 

— hxmorrhoidalis, L. 

— foetens, F. Lazonby district 

— fimetarius, L. 

— scybalarius, F. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— ater, De G. 

— sordidus, F. Rockcliffe (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— rufescens, F. Lazonby district 

— lapponum, Gyll. Pennines and Lake 

Mountains 

— porcus, F. Lazonby district 

— pusillus, Herbst. 

— merdarius, F. 

— inquinatus, F. 

— conspurcatus, L. Carlisle 

— punctato-sulcatus, Stm. 

— prodromus, Brahm 

— contaminatus, Herbst. 

— luridus, F. 

— rufipes, L. 

— depressus, Kug. 

^gialia sabuleti, Payk. Banks of i?^f« and 
Irthing 

— arenaria, F. Silloth 

Geotrupes typhoeus, L. Wan Fell {Lazonby 
district) 

— spiniger, Marsh. 

— stercorarius, L. 

— sylvaticus, Panz. 

— vernalis, L. Wastdale 
Trox sabulosus, L. Wan Fell 
Hoplia philanthus, Ftiss. Seathwaite 
Serica brunnea, L. 

Melolontha vulgaris, F. 
Phyllopertha horticola, L. 
Anomala frischii, F. Silloth 
Gnorimus nobilis, L. Carlisle (T. C. 
Heysham) 

THROSCIDiE 

Throscus dermestoides, L. 
Elaterid^ 

Lacon murinus, L. 
Cryptohypnus riparius, F. 

— dermestoides, Herbst. 

— quadriguttatus, Lap. Brampton district 
Elater balteatus, L. 

Melanotus rufipes, Herbst. 
Athous niger, L. 

— longicollis, Ol. Rose Castle (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— hasmorrhoidalis, F. 



"3 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Elaterid^e {continued) — 
Limonius cylindricus, Payk. 

— minutus, L. Lazonby district 
Sericosomus brunneus, L. 
Adrastus limbatus, F. 
Agriotes sputator, L, 

— obscuras, L. 

— lineatus, L. 

— sobrinus, Kies. 

— pallidulus, 111. 
Dolopius marginatus, L. 
Corymbites pectinicornis, L. Carlisle 

— cupreus, F. 

— „ var. Eeruginosus, F- 

— tessellatus, F. Wan Fell 

— quercus, Gyll. 

— „ var. ochropterus, Steph. 

— impressus, F. Carlisle 
Campylus linearis, L. 

Dascillid^ 

Dascillus cervinus, L. 
Helodes minuta, L. 

— marginata, F. 
Microcara livida, F. 
Cyphon coarctatus, Payk. 

— nitidulus, Thorns. 

— variabilis, Thunb. 

— pallidulus. Boh. 

— padi, L. 

Hydrocyphon deflexicollis, MUll. Banks of 
the Irthing 
Malacodermid^ 

Lampyris noctiluca, L. 

Podabrus alpinus, Payk. 

Ancistronycha abdominalis, F. Gelt valley 

Telephorus rusticus, Fall. 

— lividus, L. 

— pellucidus, F. 

— nigricans, Miill. 

— „ var. discoideus, Steph. 

— obscurus, L. Keswick 

— lituratus, F. Carlisle 

— darvifinianus. Sharp. Burgh Marsh 

— figuratus, Mann. 

— bicolor, F. 

— hsemorrhoidalis, F. 

— flavilabris. Fall. 

— thoracicus, Ol. Lazonby district 
Rhagonycha fulva, Scop. 

— testacea, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

— limbata. Thorns. [Heysham) 

— pallida, F. 
Malthinus punctatus, Fourc. 

— frontalis. Marsh. 
Malthodes marginatus, Latr. 

— dispar. Germ. Brampton district 

— atomus, Thoms. Lazonby district 
Malachius bipustulatus, L. 

— viridis, F. Barron Wood (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 



Malacodermid^ {continued') — 

Anthocomus fasciatus, L. Rose Castle (T. 

C. Heysham) 
Dasytes aerosus, Kies. 
Clerid^ 

Tillus elongatus, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Necrobia ruficoUis, F. Penrith 

— violacea, L. Lazonby district 
Ptinid^ 

Ptinus sexpunctatus, Panz, Carlisle (T. C. 
Heysham) 

— fur, L. 

Niptus hololeucus, Fald. 

— crenatus, F. Brampton district 
Hedobia imperialis, L. Lazonby district 
Gibbium scotias, F. \ n V 1 
Dryophilus pusillus, Gyll. / 
Anobium domesticum, Fourc. 
Xestobium tessellatum, F. Carlisle (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Ernobius mollis, L. 

Ochina hederae, MUll. Lanercost (T. J. Bold) 
Priobium castaneum, F. Carlisle 

ClSSID^ 

Cis boleti, Scop. 

— bidentatus, Ol. \ „ . . -• . ■ ^ 

I . p II !■ Brampton district 

— nitidus, Herbst. Carlisle 
Octotemnus glabriculus, Gyll. 

Cerambycidje 

Aromia moschata, L. Keswick 
Asemum striatum, L. Brampton district 
Callidium alni, L. Rose Castle (T. C. 
Heysham) 

— violaceum, L. Eskdale (W. W. Fovi^ler, 

E. M. M. vol. XXXV. p. 292) 
Clytus arietis, L. 

— arcuatus, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Rhagium inquisitor, F. 

— bifasciatum, F. 

Pachyta cerambyciformis, Schr. Gelt Woods 
Strangalia armata, Herbst. Keswick 

— melanura, L. Carlisle.- 

— quadrifasciata, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Grammoptera tabacicolor, De G. Carlisle 

— ruficornis, F. 
Leiopus nebulosus, L, 
Pogonochaerus bidentatus, Thoms. 

— dentatus, Fourc. 

Saperda scalaris, L. Gelt Woods 

— populnea, L. Carlisle 

Oberea oculata, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Chrysomelid^ 

Donacia crassipes, F. Upperhy (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— dentata, Hoppe. Cumberland (Stephens) 



[14 



INSECTS 



Chrysomeud^ {continued) — 

Donacia dentipes, F. BorrowdaU 

— simplex, F. 

— sericea, L. 

— discolor, Panz. Hayton Moss, Sty Head 

Pass 
Zeugophora subspinosa, F. Carlisle 
Lema lichenis, Voet. 

— melanopa, L. 

Crioceris asparagi, L. TFoodside (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Clythra quadripunctata, L. Keswick 
Cryptocephalus fulvus, Goeze \ ^ ... 

— labiatus, L. J *'' " * 
Chrysomela marginata, L. Burgh Marsh 

(T, C. Heysham) 

— staphylea, L. 

— polita, L. 

— orichalcia, MuU. Armathwaite (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— varians, Schall. Lazonby district 

— graminis, L, Sandsfield (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— raeaxhtastiy^ivSr^ Cumberland' (Stephens) 

— fastuosa, Scop. Gelt Woods 

— hyperici, Forst. 
Melasoma aeneum, L. 

— populi, L. Allonby 
Phytodecta olivacea, Forst. 

— olivacea, var. nigricans, Weise. Car- 

lisle 

— rufipes, De G. Armathwaite (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Gastroidea viridula, De G. Lazonby dis- 
trict 

— polygoni, L. 
Phaedon tumidulus, Germ. 

— armoraciae, L. 

— cochlearije, F, 
Phyllodecta vulgatissima, L. 

— cavifrons, Thoms. Carlisle 

— vitellinae, L. 
Hydrothassa aucta, F. 

— marginella, L. 

— hannoverana, F, Lazonby district {vide 

E. M. M. vol. xxxvi, p. 262) 
Prasocuris junci, Brahm 

— phellandrii, L. 
Luperus rufipes. Scop. 

— flavipes, L. 
Lochmaea capreae, L. 

— suturalis, Thoms. 

Galerucella nymphaeae, L. \ Brampton dis- 

— sagittariae, Gyll. / trict 

— lineola, F. "1 /-. ,■ , 

, • • T f Carlisle 

— calmariensis, L. J 

— tenella, L. 
Adimonia tanaceti, L. 
Sermyla halensis, L. 
Longitarsus anchusae, Payk, 



Chrysomelid^ {continued) — 
Longitarsus luridus. Scop. 

— atricillus, L. 

— melanocephalus. All. 

— pusillus, Gyll. 

— jacobaeae, Wat. 

— suturellus, Duft. Lazonby district 
Haltica ericeti. All. 

— oleracea, L. 
Phyllotreta undulata, Kuts. 

— nemorum, L. Carlisle 

— tetrastigma. Com. Wetheral 

— exclamationis, Thunb. 
Sphaeroderma testaceum, F. 
Apteropeda orbiculata, Marsh. 
Mantura obtusata, Gyll. Carlisle 



rustica, L. 



Crepidodera transversa. Marsh. 

— ferruginea. Scop. 

— rufipes, L. Lazonby district 

— aurata. Marsh. 

— ventralis, 111. Holme Gate \ (T. C. Hey- 

— helxines, L. Rose Castle ] sham) 
Hippuriphila modeeri, L. 
Plectroscelis concinna, Marsh. 
Psylliodes chrysocephala, L. Penrith 

— napi, Koch. 

— marcida, 111. Silloth 

— picina, Marsh. 

Cassida equestris, F. Rickerby (T. C. Hey- 
sham) 

— flaveola, Thunb. Carlisle 

— viridis, F. 

— hemisphjerica, Herbst. Carlisle 
Teneerionid^ 

Blaps mucronata, Latr. 

Heliopathusgibbus,F.|5.^^^^^ 

Microzoum tibiale, b. i 

Diaperus boleti, L. Daiston Hall Wood 

(T. C. Heysham) 
Tenebrio molitor, L. 

— obscurus, F. ■ Carlisle 
Tribolium ferrugineum, F. 

Helops striatus, Fourc. Silloth 

— coeruleus, L. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 
Melandryid^ 

Conopalpus testaceus, Ol., var. vigorsi, 

Steph. Cumberland (Weaver) 
Melandrya caraboides, L. Carlisle 

PvTHID-ffi 

Salpingus castaneus, Panz. 

— foveolatus, Ljun. 
Rhinosimus ruficollis, L. 

— viridipennis, Steph. 

— planirostris, F. 
CEdemerid^e 

Nacerdes melanura, Schmidt. Silloth 
Pyrochroid^ 

Pyrochroa serraticornis. Scop. Carlisle 



115 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Carlisle 



Carlisle 



Carlisle 



MoRDELLIDiE 

Anaspis frontalis, L. 

— rufilabris, Gyll. 

— geofFroyi, MuU. 

— ruficollis, F. 

— subtestacea, Steph. 

— maculata, Fourc. 

RHIPIDOPHORIDi« 

Metoecus paradoxus, L. 
Anthicidje 

Anthicus floralis, L. 

— scoticus, Rye. Allonby 
MeloYd^ 

Melofi proscarabaeus, L. 
Anthribid^ 

Brachytarsus varius, F. 

CURCULIONID^ 

Apoderus coryli, L. Barron Wood (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Attelabus curculionoides, L. 
Rhinomacer attelaboides, F. 
Byctiscus betuleti, F. \ Barron Wood (T. 



Rhynchites cupreus, L. 
— aeneovirens. Marsh. 



minutus, Herbst. 
nanus, Payk. 



C. Heysham) 
Carlisle 



Brampton district 



— uncinatus, Thorns. 
Deporatls megacephalus, Germ. 

— betulas, L. 
Apion ulicis, Forst. 

— hasmatodes, Kirby 

— viciae, Payk. 

— apricans, Herbst. 

— dichroum, Bedel 

— nigritarse, Kirby 

— stolidum. Germ. Carlisle 

— aeneum, F. Botcherby (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— radiolus, Kirby 1 „ , ... 
- —- ' > Brampton district 



onopordi, Kirby, 
carduorum, Kirby 
virens, Herbst. 
punctigerum, Payk. 



Carlisle 



— pisi, F. 



pisi, 

aethiops, Herbst. 

^}!^^l"'\^l''Jf} Carlisle 

moth 

Brampton 



striatum, Kirby 
ononis. 



Kirby. 

— spencei, Kirby, 

— ervi, Kirby 

— gyllenhali, Kirby 

— unicolor, Kirby. 

— scutellare, Kirby 

— loti, Kirby 

— seniculum, Kirby 

— affine, Kirby 

— violaceum, Kirby 

— hydrolapathi, Kirby, 

Heysham) 

— humile, Germ. 



Brampton district 
Carlisle 



Etterhy (T. C. 



Il6 



CuRCULiONiD.^; {continued) — 
Apion assimile, Kirby 
Otiorrhynchus atroapterus, De G. Silloth 

— maurus, Gyll. Cross Fell 

— scabrosus. Marsh. Dalston (T. C. 

Heysham) 

— ligneus, Ol. 

— picipes, F. 

— sulcatus, F. 

— ovatus, L. 

Trachyphlaeus scaber, L. Newby Cross (T. 
C. Heysham) 

— aristatus, Gyll. Lazonby district 
Strophosomus coryli, F. 

— capitatus, De G. 

— retusus. Marsh. 

— lateralis, Payk. 
Exomias araneiformis, Schr. 
Omias mollinus. Boh. Cross Fell 
Brachysomus echinatus, Bonsd. 
Sciaphilus muricatus, F. 
Tropiphorus tomentosus. Marsh. 
Liophloeus nubilus, F. 

Polydrusus micans, F. Carlisle (Fowler) 

— tereticollis, De G. Carlisle 

— pterygomalis. Boh. 

— cervinus, L. 
Phyllobius oblongus, L. 

— calcaratus, F. 

— urticae, De G. 

— py", L. 

— argentatus, L. 

— maculicornis. Germ. 

— pomonae, Ol. 

— viridijeris, Laich. 

— viridicollis, F. 

Tanymecus palliatus, F. Solway Marshes 
Philopedon geminatus, F. Silloth 
Atactogenus exaratus. Marsh. 
Barynotus obscurus, F. 

— schonherri, Zett. 

— elevatus. Marsh. 
Alophus triguttatus, F. 
Sitones griseus, F. Silloth 

— cambricus, Steph. 

— regensteinensis, Herbst. 

— tibialis, Herbst. 

— hispidulus, F. 

— flavescens. Marsh. 

— „ var. longicollis, Fahr. Wreay 

— puncticoUis, Steph. 

— lineatus, L. 

— sulcifrons, Thunb. 
Hypera punctata, F. 

— rumicis, L. 

— polygoni, L. 

— suspiciosa, Herbst, 

— plantaginis, De G. 

— trilineata, Marsh. Carlisle 
nigrirostris, F. 



INSECTS 



CuRCULiONiDiE {continued) — 
Cleonus sulcirostris, L. Silloth 
Lixus paraplecticus, L. Burgh Marsh (T. 

C. Heysham) 
Liosoma ovatulum, Clairv. 
Hylobius abietis, L. 
Pissodes pini, L. 
Orchestes quercus, L. Carlisle 

— scutellaris, Gyll. Dalston (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— ilicis, F. Lazonby district 

— fagi, L. 

— rusci, Herbst. 

— stigma, Germ. 

— salicis, L. 

— saliceti, Payk. . Carlisle 
Rhamphus flavicornis, Clairv. 
Grypidius equiseti, F. 

Erirrhinus bimaculatus, F. Solway Marshes 

— acridulus, L. 
Dorytomus vorax, F. Carlisle 

— tremulse, F. { Cardew Mire (T. C. 

— tortrix, L. J Heysham) 

— maculatus, Marsh. 

— pectoralis, Gyll. 

— majalis, Payk. Carlisle (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 
Bagous glabrirostris, Herbst. Dalston (T. 

C. Heysham) 
Anoplus plantaris, Naez. 
EUeschus bipunctatus, L. Carlisle 
Miarus campanulje, L. Carlisle (T. C. 

Heysham) 
Gymnetron beccabungas, LO ^ /• / 

— labilis, Herbst, J 
Mecinus pyraster, Herbst, 
Anthonomus ulmi, De G. Lazonby district 

— pedicularius, L. 

— pomorum, L. Brampton district 

— rubi, Herbst. 
Cionus scrophulariae, L. 

, — pulchellus, Herbst, 
Orchitis cyaneus, L. 
Cryptorrhynchus lapathi, L. 
Cceliodes rubicundus, Herbst. 



quercus, 



F. 



— ruber, Marsh. Brampton district 



CuRCULiONiDiE [continued') — 

— quadrimaculatus, L. 

— cardui, Herbst. Dalston (T. C. Hey- 

sham) 

— geranii, Payk. Gelt Woods 

— exiguus, Ol. Brampton district 
Poophagus sisymbrii, F. 

— nasturtii. Germ. Lazonby district 
Ceuthorrhynchus assimilis, Payk. 

— ericae, Gyll. 

— erysimi, F. 

— contractus, Marsh. 

— cyanipennis, Germ. 

— quadridens, Panz. 

— pollinarius, Forst. 

— pleurostigma, Marsh. 

— marginatus, Payk. Blackball Wood (T. 

C. Heysham) 

— euphorbiae, Bris. Carlisle 

— litura, F. 

Ceuthorrhynchidius floralis, Payk. Bramp- 
ton district 

— troglodytes, F, 
Rhinoncus pericarpius, L, 

— castor, F. 

Phytobius quadrituberculatus, F, Burgh 

Marsh 
Limnobaris T-album, L. Lazonby district 
Balaninus nucum, L. Blackball Wood (T. 

C, Heysham) 

— villosus, F. Carlisle 

— salicivorus, Payk. 

Magdalis carbonaria, L. Carlisle (T. C. 
Heysham) 

— armigera, Fourc. Lazonby district 

— pruni, L. Carlisle (T. C. Heysham) 

SCOLYTID^ 

Scolytus destructor, Ol. Carlisle 
Hylastes ater, Payk. 

— palliatus, Gyll, 

Hylesinus crenatus, F, Lazonby district 

— fraxini, Panz. 
Myelophilus piniperda, L. 
Phloeophthorus rhododactylus. Marsh. 

Brampton district 
Pityogenes bidentatus, Herbst. 
Trypodendron domesticum, L. 



LEPIDOPTERA 

RHOPALOCERA 

Butterflies 

Some forty-nine species of Butterflies have been recorded from 
Cumberland, but four of these have little or no claim to be considered 
true natives. These doubtful species are P. machaon, A. latona, L. 
Sibylla and H. comma. Pieris brassicce, L., Large White, is the most un- 

117 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

certain of the three common 'whites' in its appearance. Though usually 
common in both spring and summer broods, some seasons it is almost 
rare. Larvas are sometimes seen feeding in gardens until the end of 
November. P. rapee^ L., Small White, is always abundant everywhere, 
and so is P. napi, L., Green-veined White. This last varies considerably 
in the colouration of the veins, some specimens having them rusty 
brown. Euchloe' cardamines, L., Orange Tip, is common in lanes, 
meadows and wood rides from May to July. The usual food plant of 
the larva is lady's smock, but it is often noticed feeding on the seed pods 
of towering mustard, and I have seen the female butterfly ovipositing on 
watercress. The larvs feed up very rapidly, the larval existence seldom 
exceeding three weeks, usually it is much less. Eleven months of the 
year are probably spent in the pupal state. Leucophasia sinapis, L., Wood 
White, is very rare in the county. It has occurred in Barron, Orton, 
and Newbiggen Woods near Carlisle, in the Great Wood near Keswick, 
and elsewhere among the lakes. Two specimens taken at Orton about the 
year 1887 are the most recent captures I am acquainted with. Here 
as elsewhere Colias edusa, Fb., Clouded Yellow, is very erratic in its 
appearance. A few were taken in 1858 and 1859 in different parts of 
the county. In 1877 a few occurred near Keswick and Carlisle, but 
near Workington it was common. Three years later it was again re- 
ported to be common in west Cumberland, but I am not quite sure of 
this record. A specimen taken at RockclifFe near Carlisle in 1892 is 
probably the most recent capture.^ C. hyale, L., Pale Clouded Yellow, 
is recorded from Workington (£. M. M., vol. xiv. p. 64) and from 
Newbiggen Wood by the late J. B. Hodgkinson. Keswick is the only 
reliable locality for Gonopteryx rhamni^ L., Brimstone, where it is said to 
be moderately common. There is a single record from Orton, but it 
has never been verified. The distribution oi Argynnis selene, SchifF., Small 
Pearl Border, and A. euphrosyne, L., Pearl Border, in the county is rather 
peculiar. In the Carlisle and Brampton districts euphrosyne is scarce, 
while selene abounds on rough meadows and commons. Near Lazonby 
both species are common, but in the lake country euphrosyne appears to 
become the predominating species. A. aglaia, L., Dark Green Fritillary, 
is widely distributed, being equally at home among the sand-dunes of 
the Solway or on the precipitous sides of the highest mountains. A. 
adippe, L., High Brown Fritillary, is very rare, but has been recorded 
from such widely separate stations as Scale Hill Woods, Keswick, and 
Newbiggen near Carlisle. I can make out very httle that is definite 
concerning A. paphia, L., Silver- washed Fritillary, as a Cumberland 
insect ; certainly it has not been taken for many years. The record in 
Science Gossip, 1894, is an error, A. aglaia being the species intended. 
The Carlisle forms of Melitcea aurinia, Rott., Greasy Fritillary, are well 
known to lepidopterists in Britain. It is a singularly local insect, but in 
its two haunts near Carlisle occurs in amazing numbers. A few speci- 

^ During the past season (1900) C. edusa was taken twice near Maryport. and one was seen 
near Carlisle.— F. H. D. 

118 



INSECTS 

mens were taken on the west side of Derwentwater by the late W. 
Greenip. Single specimens have occurred recently at Maryport and on 
Wan Fell near Lazonby. Though the larvse invariably feed on devil's- 
bit-scabious, they may at times be found on honeysuckle, plantain and 
great valerian ; but from personal observation I am led to believe that 
the ova are always deposited on the scabious. The larvas are much 
tormented by parasitic Hynienoptera, and there are probably two broods 
of the parasite bred at the expense of one brood of the butterfly — one 
appearing at the time the larvas leave their hybernacula in early spring, 
the other when they are full fed some six weeks or two months later. 
The imagines vary considerably. A fine form occurring annually has 
the basal three-parts of the wings black. Another has the two yellow 
spots on the inner margin of the primaries very large and confluent and 
the other yellow markings are also usually much enlarged. In the 
' fifties ' and perhaps before, Vanessa c-album, L., Comma Butterfly, was 
taken in some numbers in Barron Wood to the south of Carlisle by 
Armstrong, Hodgkinson and other collectors now deceased, but since 
then I have heard nothing of it in the county. V. polychloros, L., Large 
Tortoiseshell, is said to appear in the neighbourhood of Keswick at un- 
certain intervals, and many years ago one or two were probably taken near 
the shores of the Solway Firth. V. urticce, L., Small Tortoiseshell, is 
universally common. I have seen it careering over the summits of our 
highest mountains. A pretty. form occurs in Borrowdale of a salmon- 
pink colour. The late James Barnes of Carlisle had a variety — which 
I always understood was a Cumberland insect — which resembled 
Newman's fourth figure, but was darker and larger. This in time passed 
into the possession of J. B. Hodgkinson, and when his well-known 
collection came to the hammer in 1897 the 'Barnes' urtica realized 
£,"]. loj. V. io, L., Peacock, was formerly as abundant as the preced- 
ing species, but in most parts of the county it is now one of the rarest 
butterflies. I have never myself come across it, though I have spent a 
large portion of the last ten years in active field-work.^ V. antiopa, L., 
Camberwell Beauty, has been taken on half a dozen occasions, but not 
very recently. Carlisle and Cockermouth are localities. V.atalanta,\j., 
Red Admiral, is invariably common every season. Near Carlisle in 
1894 it swarmed.* I have bred the butterfly as early as the second week 
of July and as late as the last week of October. Hibernated specimens 
are seldom seen on the wing earlier than June, unlike its congener 
urticce, which is quite active in early April. Though it occurs through- 
out the county, V. cardui, L., Painted Lady, is very erratic in its 
appearance. Near Carlisle in 1887 it was abundant, and since then 
more than two or three have seldom been captured in a season, and in 
several seasons none at all. Perhaps Cumberland's most characteristic 
butterfly is Erebia epiphron, Knoch, Mountain Ringlet, which has its 
headquarters on the sloppy ground contiguous to Sty Head and Sprinkling 

^ In 1900 F. to was not uncommon near Maryport and several specimens were noticed in the 
Carlisle district. — F. H. D. * In 1900 F. atalanta was again extremely abundant. — F. H. D. 

119 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Tarns under the shadow of Scaw Fell, where it was discovered by 
Thomas Stothard hard upon a century ago. It appears to be extending 
its range much lower down, and one can now meet with it close to the 
village of Seathwaite at the foot of Sty Head Pass. In the summer of 
1898 I was pleased to meet with an extensive colony on a grassy plateau 
over Buttermere, where apparently it had not before been observed. It 
is also recorded from the Vale of Newlands, and indeed I expect it will 
ultimately be found in many more localities. It should be mentioned 
that most of the Cumberland specimens are referable to the var. cassiope, 
Fb., characterized by the absence of white pupils to the ocellated spots 
on the wings. E. cethiops, Esp., Northern Brown, strange to say appears 
to have escaped detection in Cumberland as yet. There have been 
rumours of its capture within the confines of the county, but after much 
inquiry I cannot find out anything satisfactory concerning them. But 
that it does occur I can hardly bring myself to doubt, as it is common in 
all the adjoining counties — Dumfriesshire to the north, Westmorland to 
the south, and Northumberland and Durham to the east. Pararge egeria, 
L., Speckled Wood, is very rare, having only been noticed near Keswick. 
P. megeera, L., Wall Butterfly, however is locally abundant. It can be 
seen in any lane near the county town in May and early June, and again 
in late July and throughout August. It is also abundant on the coast 
road between Silloth and Maryport, but among the lakes and also in the 
east of the county it is seldom seen. I have at times seen numbers 
of this butterfly resting on the wooden posts set up to carry wire 
fencing, as well as on tree trunks and walls. Its predilection for 
resting on walls is well known however. Satyrus semele, L., Grayling, 
is abundant all along the coast. Near Leegate, in the vicinity of 
Wigton, it frequents railway banks. It occurs sparingly at other inland 
stations, but its true home seems to be the coast sandhills. Epinephele 
ianira, L., Meadow Brown, is very abundant everywhere and occasionally 
' bleached ' specimens are to be taken, but by a singular fatality the 
best freaks of this kind I have come across have been too wasted to pin. 
E. tithonus, L., Large Heath, must be accounted rare. Keswick is the 
only reliable locality I know of. I am sure there is something wrong 
about Mawson's record from St. Bees in the Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Scientific Association^ 1883, as no one else appears to 
have met with it there, though the locality has been frequently visited. 
Though always very local, E. hyper anthes^ L., Ringlet, in some of its 
haunts occurs in profusion. It is probably nowhere so common in the 
county as in the meadows fringing the south side of Orton Woods near 
Carlisle, where beautiful forms may be obtained. Other localities are Kes- 
wick, Wigton, Silloth, Brampton and Penrith. It is noteworthy that the 
Cumberland insect has the underside of a grey hue, quite unlike the rich 
yellowish brown of the southern insect. A butterfly eminently typical of 
this county of ' mosses' is Ccenonympha typhon, Rott., Marsh Ringlet, which 
is common throughout the county wherever ground suited to its tastes is 
to be found. Bowness Flow, Todhills Moss and Bolton Fell may be 

120 



INSECTS 

cited as localities. Its powers of flight are not great, but owing to the 
nature of the ground it frequents it is not an easy insect to capture. 
Before sunrise and after sunset and in dull weather a few may be found 
resting on grass stems and amongst heath, but they are hard to see. This 
interesting species varies extensively both in colour and ocellation, though 
I have not seen any quite so dark or so well ocellated as the Lancashire 
form. Most of the Cumberland specimens may be referred to Dr. 
Buckell's ' British middle form.' C. pampM/us, L., Small Heath, occurs 
commonly in grassy places everywhere. The var. /y//us, Esp., 
characterized by a black border to the wings, is not scarce. But three 
of the ' Hairstreaks ' are to be recorded, and the first, Tiec/a betulce, L., 
Brown Hairstreak, should almost be relegated to the doubtful list, as but 
one specimen has occurred, and that at Barron Wood many years ago. 
The species does not find a place in Porritt's Yorkshire list nor in 
Robson's more comprehensive work on the Lepidoptera of Northumber- 
land and Durham. T. quercus, L., Purple Hairstreak, is widely 
distributed but local and seldom common, except among the oaks in 
Barron "Wood, where it abounds. Also a local species, though usually 
to be taken freely when found, T. rubi, L., Green Hairstreak, is one of 
our earliest butterflies. It occurs at all the regularly worked stations and 
frequents bilberry-covered banks in and near woods, sometimes taking 
soaring flights among the pine-tops like its congener quercus does 
among the oaks. Polyommatus phleeas, L., Small Copper, is common 
as a rule all over the county, especially the August emergence. In 
1899 a specimen was taken near Carlisle with a large bleached patch 
on the right primary, and in 1894 a fine example of the var. schmidtii, 
Gerh., was obtained in the same district.^ Lyccena eegon, Schiff., Silver- 
studded Blue, and L. astrarche, Bgstr., Brown Argus, are only recorded 
from Keswick and they are far from common. L. icarus, Rott., Common 
Blue, is abundant along the coast and in meadows and lanes inland. Some 
of the females are very blue, especially those from the coast. Concerning 
L. corydon, Fb., Chalk Hill Blue, the late J. B. Hodgkinson wrote (Efit, 
vol. xxi. p. 24), ' It used to occur at Grisedale, at the foot of Saddle- 
back ; I have seen some specimens taken by the late Mr. Hope of 
Penrith.' I cannot add anything to this. L. argio/us, L., Holly Blue, 
occurs among holly in the Borrowdale Road and many years ago was 
taken at Wetheral by the late T. Armstrong. L. minima, Fues., Small 
Blue, usually occurs on railway banks and is locally abundant. Localities 
are Wreay, How Mill, Wigton and St. Bees. Nemiobius lucina, L., 
Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, has not been met with since Hodgkinson's 
time, when it appears to have occurred in some abundance in Barron 
Wood. Two skippers only are known. Nisoniades tages, L., Dingy 
Skipper, frequents grassy places and abounds in certain places near 
Carlisle. In the Keswick district it is uncommon. It often occurs con- 
temporaneously with Euclidia mi, Clerck, and E. glyphica, L. But few 
Cumberland lepidopterists appear to have met with H. syhanus, Esp., 

1 A specimen of var. schmidtii was taken last year (1900) near EUenborough. — F. H. D. 

121 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Large Skipper, though it occurs annually in tolerable abundance in 
meadows near woods in the neighbourhood of Carlisle. Near Keswick 
it is rare. 

HETEROCERA 

Moths 
SPHINGES 
Acherontia atropos, L., is met with almost every year in one part of 
the county or another, but it is never common. The rare brown variety 
of the larva has been found in the Brampton district. Sphinx convohuli, 
L., is less seldom taken, though three or four specimens were obtained in 
Carlisle in 1897. S. ligustri, L., is only recorded from Penrith and 
Keswick and is rare. A good many Deilephila galii, SchifF., have 
occurred during the last half-century, mostly on the coast about Work- 
ington. The most recent captures are one at Hayton near Brampton in 
1888 and one at Maryport about the year 1895. Of the very rare D. 
livornica, Esp., at least half a dozen captures have come under my notice, 
the last being at Heads Nook in June, 1892, the others being from the 
neighbourhood of Workington and Maryport on the coast. Gheerocampa 
celerio, L., has occurred on several occasions in various parts of the 
county. One taken near Keswick may be seen in Keswick Museum. 
C. porcellus, L., is not often met with, most captures being made on the 
coast. C. elpenor, L., is much commoner, occurring in the same 
localities and frequenting various flowers. Smerinthus ocellatus, L., and 
populiy L., are both tolerably abundant and are especially fond of an osier- 
fringed stream, on which plant the larvae are usually found. S. tilia, L., 
is rare near Keswick. Macroglossa stellatarum, L., though uncertain in 
its appearance is met with by most local collectors sooner or later. In 
1899 it abounded, and both ova and larvae were freely found on Galium. 
Of the Bee Hawks M. bombyliformis (narrow) only occurs, and though 
seldom seen is probably commoner than is suspected ; Carlisle and Wan 
Fell near Lazonby are localities, where it frequents heathy ground. Very 
few ' Clearwings ' have as yet been noticed. Trochilium bembeciformis, 
Hb., is rather common in the larval state in the main stems of sallow 
bushes in one or two places near Carlisle. Sesia tipuliformis, Clerck, is 
found in gardens at Keswick, and is probably overlooked in other parts 
of the county. S. myopiformis, Bork., culictformis, L., and formiciformis, 
Esp., are recorded from FUmby Wood by the late G. Mawson, whose 
records however must be treated with some diffidence. In the Carlisle 
district Ino statices, L., occurs in plenty in meadows in June, flying most 
readily just before sunset. /. geryon, Hb., is recorded from Keswick by 
Barclay, and /. globularics, Hb., from Orton Moss by Kirby, but I have 
not myself had an opportunity of examining Cumberland examples and 
indeed have considerable doubts of the correctness of the latter record. 
Of the ' Burnets' Zygana lonicerce, Esp., has occurred near Keswick, and 
Z. Jilipendula^ L., is locally common in most places, preferring as a 
habitat damp meadows and railway banks. 

122 



INSECTS 



BOMBYCES 



That curious little moth, Sarothripus undulams, Hb., is taken near 
Carlisle almost yearly, but in limited numbers and usually after hyber- 
nation. Hylophila prasinana^ L., is widely distributed and in some 
seasons is not uncommon, flying towards evening among oaks. Nola 
cucullatelluy L., and N. confusalis, H.-S., though equally wide in their 
distribution are always scarce and have been found resting on tree 
trunks. Nudaria mundana, L., frequents walls and rock faces, but is 
only of common occurrence here and there. The 'Footmen' are 
badly represented in Cumberland. Lithosia mesomella, L., is the only 
species which can be called common and it is local to the neighbour- 
hood of Carlisle. On a moist, warm evening at midsummer I have 
seen it flitting about on a damp heath near the village of Durdar in 
immense numbers. L. lurideola, Zinck., has occurred sparingly near 
Keswick, and in the same locality the late W. Greenip captured Gnophria 
rubrical lis, L., a species which was among Heysham's captures at Black- 
well in the early part of the century. G. quadra, L., has probably 
occurred at Newby Cross on several occasions, but not to any of the 
present school of collectors.^ Eucbelia jacobace, L., formerly very 
abundant, is now a rarity from some unexplained cause, though the 
capture of four specimens at Maryport during the past season (1900) 
and of one near Lazonby makes one hope the species has started on a 
new lease of life in Cumberland. A moth characteristic of the moors is 
Nemeophila russula, L. The female is not often taken on the wing, but 
in breeding one gets the sexes in nearly equal numbers. The larvse are 
very active if irritated and can cover the ground at a great pace. N. 
plantaginis, L., often occurs in company with the last and is very power- 
ful on the wing in the sunshine. Its range extends high up the 
mountains.* From Skiddaw larva I have bred the beautiful var. hospita, 
SchifF., in which the normal yellow colouration is replaced by white. 
Arctia caja, L., is very common in some districts ; in others, such as 
Brampton and Keswick, it is seldom seen. Near Carlisle the larvae are 
common objects on hedgebanks and also among the Solway sand-dunes. 
Spilosoma fuliginosa, L., is generally common, being in my experience 
most at home on a heath where there is a rank growth of Ulex, among 
the branches of which the larvas love to spin their cocoons, where they 
become conspicuous objects, but sometimes take a lot of cutting out. 
Most Cumberland specimens are referable to (or closely approach) the 
var. borealis, Stgr. aS*. lubricepeda, Esp., is local and in some districts 
does not seem to occur at all. About Carlisle it is abundant in gardens, 
and the larvas are fond of feeding on the undersides of rhubarb leaves, 
but will eat almost anything in a garden, whether wild or cultivated. 
S. menthastri, Esp., is generally common, sometimes visiting street lamps 
in great numbers. Several specimens of the var. ivalkeri, Curtis, have 

1 G. quadra has been taken by Mr. T. Swainson near Maryport during the past year (1900). — F. H. D. 
* N.fknta^nU has been taken at great elevations on Scawfell, Great Gable, etc., by Mr. H. Goss. — F. H.D. 

123 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

been taken in a lane near Burgh-by-Sands. All the British representatives 
of the genus Hepialus occur commonly in the county : humuli, L., and 
syhinus, L., in meadows ; velleda, Hb., and its var. gallicus, Ld., on 
heaths ; lupulinus, L., in lanes and along hedgebanks ; and hectus, L., in 
damp woods. Cossus ligniperda, Fb., is not often taken in the perfect 
state, but judging by the number of larva-infested trees in various parts 
of the county it cannot be called a scarce species ; oaks are the trees most 
favoured. Porthesia similis, Fues., and Leucoma salicis, L., do not appear 
to have been noticed for many years. The late T, C. Heysham took 
both in the vicinity of CarUsle. A moth characteristic of the wide 
stretches of moorland is Dasychira fascelina, L., the pretty larva being 
usually found on ling, but in confinement taking readily to such other 
plants as birch and hawthorn. It is much pestered by parasites and dead 
larvae may be frequently found on the stems of the ling. D. pudibmda, 
L., has been found near Keswick and Carhsle but not recently. Orgyia 
antiqua, L., is rather pecuHarly distributed. Near CarUsle it is rare, at 
least the present school of lepidopterists find it so. On some of the 
extensive moors to the north, Bolton Fell for instance, it occurs in great 
numbers and about Lazonby and Penrith it is fairly abundant. From 
the Brampton district I can only hear of one capture, while near 
Keswick it does not appear to be known at all. Trichiura cratagi, L., 
has occurred near Carlisle, Keswick and Cockermouth, but not of late 
years apparently. Pcecilocampa populi, L., is spread all over the county 
and here and there occurs with tolerable freedom. The moth visits 
street lamps in November and December and larvae are beaten from oak 
in June. Eriogaster lanestris, L., is recorded from Keswick by Mr. H. A. 
Beadle of that town, who also includes Bombyx neustria, L., in his list, 
adding that it is rare. This latter species occurred to the late T. C. Hey- 
sham near Carlisle, which I fancy will be the northern limit of its range 
in the British Islands. On most of the moors at the right season of the 
year the scurrying form of B. rubi, L., is a familiar object. It flies 
much closer to the ground than its congener B. quercus, L., and while the 
latter favours the mid-day sunshine for its flight, B. rubi does not appear 
on the wing until late in the afternoon and is most freely seen towards 
sunset. It is the var. callunce. Palmer, of B. quercus, L., which occurs 
exclusively in Cumberland. On that extensive moorland plateau in the 
north of the county known as Bolton Fell it may at times be seen on the 
wing in bewildering numbers. It should be mentioned however that 
only the males fly during the middle of the day ; I have only noticed 
females on the wing in the dusk of evening, when, owing to their pale 
colouration, they look tremendous in the uncertain light. Mr. Beadle 
records B. trifolii, Esp., from Keswick, but says it is rare. Odonestis 
potatoria, L., frequents grassy hedgebanks, and though very common near 
Carlisle, in the east of the county and among the lakes appears to be 
hardly known. Saturnia pavonta, L., is usually abundant on heaths, the 
larvae feeding on a variety of plants ; in confinement hawthorn is taken to 
most readily. About two o'clock in the afternoon appears to be the 

124 



INSECTS 

natural time of flight. I only know of two ' Hooktips ' as being satis- 
factory natives, viz. Drepana lacertinaria, L., and D. falcataria, L., both 
of which are found pretty generally wherever there is any great growth 
of birch, on which the larvae feed, spinning the edges of the leaves 
loosely together and living inside the tent-like structure thus formed. 
Cilix glaucata. Scop., is thinly scattered, most captures of the species 
being made when it is on the wing in the evening along whitethorn 
hedges. Dicranura vinula, L., is generally distributed and usually 
common, while D. furcula, L., is nearly as widely spread but seldom 
occurs in any numbers, and D. bifida, Hb., is rare, Keswick and Great 
Salkeld being the only places where recent captures have been made. 
Mr. Charles G. Barrett in his work on the Lepidoptera of the British 
Isles records the very rare D. bicuspis, Bork., but gives no data. 
Pterostoma palpina, L., is rather scarce but occurs in most districts. 
Lophopteryx camelina, L., is attached to birch and is fairly common. L. 
carmelita, Esp., occurs rarely among the lakes. Notodonta dictcea, L., and 
N. dictceoides, Esp., are met with throughout the county amongst sallow 
and birch respectively. The very variable larva of N. dromedarius, L., is 
to be beaten in surprising numbers from stunted birches growing on wet 
moors in the Lazonby district ; it is taken elsewhere in small numbers. 
N. ziczac, L., is widely distributed and like the other ' prominents ' is 
usually taken in the larval state. N. trepida, Esp., is very rare ; one or 
two specimens have been captured by the Keswick collectors. N. 
chaonia, Hb., is also very rare and is largely confined to the southern 
half of the county. Cockermouth is given in Stainton's Manual as a 
locality of N. dodonea, Hb., but I cannot learn anything concerning 
the source of this record. Occurring everywhere, Phalera bucephala, L., 
is so well known as to call for no remark. P. pigra, Hufn., is at 
times extremely common in the larval state on sallow near Carlisle, 
despite Barrett's assertion that it occurs 'very rarely in the county.' 
The late Thomas Armstrong of Carlisle records P. curtula, L., as 
plentiful {Weekly IntelL, vol. vii. p. 30) and Barrett says that Cumberland 
' seems to be its northern limit,' but I do not know of its recent 
occurrence with us. thyatira batis, L., is fairly common at 'sugar' 
everywhere. T. derasa, L., is common at Keswick, which is the only 
locality known at present. Cymatophora or, Fb., appears to be nearly 
altogether confined to the neighbourhood of Carlisle, where it is a 
regular visitor to ' sugar ' in June, and the larvae may be found spun up 
in aspen leaves later on in the year. G. duplaris, L., is attached to birch 
and is more widely distributed than the last-named. C.fluctuosa, Hb., is 
not uncommon near Keswick on the authority of Mr. Beadle.^ Asphalia 
diluta, Fb., visits sugared trees in small numbers, while A. flavicornis, L., 
may be found in March resting on the main stems of birch bushes. 
A. ridens, Fb., has occurred near Keswick and Cockermouth in very 
limited numbers. 

1 Mr. H. Goss informs me that he has taken C. fluctuosa at " sugar " on a " moss " near 

Keswick.— F. H. D. 

125 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

NOCTURE 

Bryophila perla, Fb., is found on old walls, often commonly. Demas 
coryli, L., is rare, Keswick and Cockermouth being the only localities 
where it has been taken. Of the two 'Daggers,' Acronycta tridens, SchifF., 
is reported to occur rarely near Keswick, but A. psi, L., is of universal dis- 
tribution. A. leporina, L., is taken at 'sugar' all over the county, and the 
beautiful larva, which is green with long snowy-white hairs, is not un- 
frequently found and dearly loves a lump of cork to pupate in. A. 
megacephala, Fb., and A. ligustri, Fb., though of wide distribution are 
somewhat local ; the first-named is attached to willow and poplar, the 
latter entirely to ash. One of the most abundant of the genus is A. 
rumicis, L., which is a regular visitor to the lepidopterist's treacle patches 
in June ; the larva is often found in kitchen gardens feeding on the leaves 
of strawberry and raspberry. A. menyanthidis. View., is confined to moors 
and heaths, where it is found resting on tree trunks and sometimes on 
the bare ground ; the larvas are taken on heath and sweet gale. Diloba 
caruleocephala, L., is abundant in the larval state on hawthorn and crab. 
Leucania conigera, Fb., and L. lithargyria, Esp., visit flowers pretty freely 
in June. L.littoralis, Curt., is said by Stephens to have been taken on the 
Cumberland coast by Weaver in 1827, about which period T. C. Hey- 
sham is credited with having captured L. impudens, Hb., on Cardew Mire, 
but neither species have been heard of since. L. comma, L., L. impura, 
Hb., and L. pallens, L., are common in reed beds during the summer. 
Tapinostola fulva, Hb., frequents damp meadows, heaths and woods, and 
may be noticed in plenty on the wing towards dusk at the end of August. 
Red forms are not uncommon. Of that fine species Nonagria arundinis, 
Fb., Mr. J. E. Thwaytes took a single specimen at light on the railway 
in Carlisle in 1898, but as there is no other Cumberland record it is 
possible that this specimen was introduced into the district in a railway 
truck. Hydrcecia ntctitans, Bork., is common at most of the stations, and 
is fond of visiting the flower heads of black knapweed and devil's-bit- 
scabious. H. petasitis, Dbl., has been found amongst butterbur near 
Carlisle. H. micaceuy Esp., is very common at the flowers of ragwort and 
at ' sugar ' ; pupas may be freely taken at the roots of the common dock. 
Axylia putris, L., is rather scarce, and does not appear to have been 
noticed at all in the southern half of the county. Xylophasia rurea, 
Fb., and its var. combusta, Dup., X. lithoxylea, Fb., and X. monoglypha, 
Hufn., are generally abundant ; but X. sublustris, Esp., is confined to 
Keswick and Salkeld ; while X. hepatica, L., though occurring in 
many places, is seldom common. Dipterygia scabriuscula, L., has not 
been seen near Carlisle for some years, but still visits ' sugar ' in Castle 
Head Wood, Keswick. Neuronia popularis, Fb., is common at light, 
at least the males are, few females being captured. Charceas graminis, 
L., is very common in meadows and at street lamps, and on more 
than one occasion during the nineteenth century has been known to 
do considerable damage to grass pastures. Cerigo matura, Hufn., is rare, 

126 



INSECTS 

most captures being made at light. Luperina testacea, Hb., is rather 
local, though usually common where it occurs at all ; it is one of the 
most frequent captures at street lamps in Carlisle ; I have found a 
good many pupae under stones on the coast. L. cespitis, Fb., also 
occurs at light, sparingly however. Mamestra albicolon, Hb., does not 
appear to have been met with in Cumberland since Weaver took it in 
1827 as recorded by Stephens in the Illustrations. M. abjecta, Hb., and 
M. furva, Hb., are found near Keswick, and M. brassicce, L., is every- 
where a pest. Apamea basilinea, Fb., and A. gemina, Hb., are taken all 
over the county ; the latter varies considerably. A much scarcer species 
is A. unanimis, Tr., though of wide distribution ; it is generally taken on 
the wing along hedgerows. One of the commonest and most variable 
Nocture is A. didyma, Esp., which varies into the most puzzling forms. 
All the genus Miana occur, being taken at ' sugar,' flowers or light. Of 
M. strigilis, Clerck, the black variety known as cethiops. Haw., is the pre- 
dominating form. A red form of M. fasciuncula. Haw., is not 
uncommon. M. literosa. Haw., is chiefly met with in the northern half 
of the county, and M. bicoloria, VilL, is local, though sometimes it 
swarms on thistle heads near Carlisle. M. arcuosa. Haw., occurs freely in 
meadows at dusk in many parts of the county. Phothedes captiuncula,TT., 
which is a tolerably common species in the adjoining counties of West- 
morland, Northumberland and Durham, has not apparently been found 
in Cumberland except by the late George Mawson, who records it as 
rather rare in the Cockermouth district. Gelcena haworthii. Curt., is not 
uncommon on moorish ground in and near woods where the cotton grass 
grows. Grammesia trigrammica, Hufn., without being common, is hardly 
a scarce species, though missing from several of the local lists I have 
received from collectors for the purposes of this summary of the 
entomology of the county. Stilbia anomala. Haw., is a rarity. It is 
recorded from Keswick by the late W. Greenip and figures in Mawson's 
Cockermouth list ; in July, 1899, Messrs. Britten and Wilkinson each 
secured a beautiful specimen on the side of Lazonby Fell. Caradrina 
alsines, Brahm, is in the Keswick list as a scarce species. C. taraxaci, Hb., 
is widely distributed and visits ' sugar.' C morpheus, Hufn., abounds in 
gardens at Carlisle, visiting various flowers in the evening. C. quadri- 
punctata, Fb., is the commonest species of the genus in the county. 
Hydrilla palustris, Hb.,^ I have taken twice near Carlisle — the first 
specimen in 1896, the second in 1897, both being captured while on the 
wing towards evening. It is a fenland insect and its occurrence so far 
north is interesting. More interesting still is the fact that these two 
Cumberland specimens appear to be the only females recorded from 
the British Isles. Rusina tenebrosa, Hb., is a fairly regular summer 
visitor to ' sugar,' but few females are taken. Agrotis vestigialis^ Hufn., 
occurs rarely on the coast. A. puta, Hb., and A. ripa, Hb., are said 
by Barrett to be rare in the county. A. suffusa, Hb., is not uncommon 
in late autumn throughout the county. A. saucia, Hb., has been taken 

1 See my notes, Ent. Rec, vol. x. p. no. — F. H. D. 
127 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

twice in the east near Brampton by Mr. G. B. Routledge. It also 
appears in Mawson's Cockermouth list as ' rare.' Two of the com- 
monest species of this genus are A. segetum, SchifF., and A. exclama- 
tionis, L., especially the latter. A. nigricans, L., is locally abundant at 
the flower heads of ragwort. A. tritici, L., is found both inland and 
on the coast. A. aquilina, Hb., is scarce on the coast, but more 
diligent collecting would probably turn up this and other Agrotids in 
greater numbers than hitherto. A. agathina, Dup., is attached to the 
moors, where larvae may be freely swept but are seldom reared. The 
moth is at times netted as it flies over the heath. It also visits 
' sugar.' A. cinerea, Hb., is recorded from Carlisle by Humphrey and 
Westwood (vol. i. p. ii8). A. strigula, Thnb., is another moorland 
species, and in a suitable habitat occurs in profusion, flying rapidly over 
the heath. Occasionally it visits ' sugar ' in great numbers. A. simulans, 
Hufn., is recorded from the county by T. Armstrong and C. S. Gregson. 
A. lucernea, L., occurs among the rocks under Falcon Crag near Keswick. 
This record is from Mr. Beadle, who says his specimens are 'a dark form.' 
A. corticea, Hb., A. cursoria, Bork., A. obelisca, Hb., A. prcecox, L., and 
A. obscura, Brahm, all require confirmation as Cumberland natives. 
Noctua glareosa, Esp., sometimes swarms at ' sugar ' on the moors, the 
specimens when fresh being suffused with pink. N. depuncta, L., has got 
very rare of late years in the county. At one time it was abundant and 
it is probable that the first British specimens were taken near Carlisle. 
Other localities where it occurs are Brampton, Keswick and Salkeld. N. 
augur, Fb., N. plecta, L., N. c.-nigrum, L., and N. baia, Fb., are all more 
or less abundant. N. triangulum, Hufn., is not uncommon, being usually 
taken in the larval state by searching low plants under hedgerows on 
warm nights in spring. N. brunnea, Fb,, and N. f estiva, Hb., visit 
' sugar ' in summer, the latter varying considerably. Two other summer 
species are N. dahlii, Hb., and N. rubi. View., and though widely dis- 
tributed are not common. iV". umbrosa, Hb., is fond of visiting the 
flowers of reed and is rather common as a rule. N. castanea, Esp., 
abounds on some of the heaths, the drab form known as var. neglecta, 
Hb., predominating. N. xanthographa, Fb., is a roadside pest. Triphcena 
ianthina^ Esp., is not particularly common, though most collectors meet 
with it sooner or later. 5". fimbria, L., is commoner and some lovely 
forms are bred from larvs taken in the spring on birch, sloe, etc. 
T. comes, Hb., abounds everywhere and so of course does T. pronuba, L. 
Amphipyra pyramidea, L., is said by Stephens to have occurred in 
Cumberland, and Mawson records it from the west, but I do not know of 
any recent captures. A. tragopogonis, L., is common at ' sugar,' in out- 
houses, railway wagons and other odd places. Mania typica, L., is 
common in and near gardens, while its larger relative, M. maura, L., is a 
certain capture at ' sugar ' on trees along the banks of rivers. Panolis 
piniperda, Panz., is common in fir plantations and visits sallow bloom in 
spring. Pachnobia leucographa, Hb., does not appear to have been noticed 
for some years, but P. rubricosa, Fb., is common every spring. Tanio- 

128 



INSECTS 

campa gothica, L., T. incerta, Hufn., T. stabilis. View., and T.puherulenta, 
Esp., are very abundant, while 7", opima^ Hb., T. popukti, Fb., and T. 
gracilis, Fb,, though nearly as widely distributed are of less frequent 
occurrence. T. munda, Esp., is not uncommon near Keswick but scarce 
elsewhere. Orthosia suspecta, Hb., is very erratic in its appearance. 
Near Carlisle in 1895 it swarmed, but I have not heard of it since, at 
any rate in that district. It has also occurred near Keswick and Bramp- 
ton. O. upsilon, Bork., occurs sparingly near Keswick. O. lota, Clerck, 
and O. macilenta, Hb., are regular autumnal visitors to ' sugar,' along 
with Anchocelis rufina, L., and A. litura, L. A. pistacina, Fb., so common 
further south, appears to be extremely rare in this county. A. lunosa. 
Haw., is usually a scarce species, but Mr. G. B. Routledge took it freely 
in 1 878 near the village of Hayton. Cerastis vaccinii, L., and C. spadicea, 
Hb., occur throughout the county, the last-named in my experience being 
much the scarcer of the two. One of the latest visitors of the year to 
' sugar ' is Scope losoma satellita, L., and hibernating is met with again in 
the spring. Xanthia citrago, L., is not often noticed, but X. fulvago, L., 
and X.Jlavago, Fb., abound. They may be freely bred from catkins of 
sallow. X. circellaris, Hufn., is common at ' sugar ' in the autumn and I 
have taken the var. macilenta. Haw. Cirrhcedia xerampelina, Hb., is found 
throughout the county in small numbers resting on ash trunks or on gas 
lamps at night. Tethea subtusa, Fb., is rare. Mr. George Wilkinson 
bred two specimens in 1897 from larvas spun between aspen leaves near 
Carlisle. This is the only recent record I can hear of. Cosmia paleacea, 
Esp., is very rare, only occurring in Barron Wood. Calymnia trapezina, L., 
is common and variable, but C. affinis, L., appears to be very rare. It 
has occurred near Keswick. Dianthcecia conspersa, Esp., is abundant near 
Maryport and has occurred in other localities. D. cucubali, Fues., is 
always scarce though found all over the county. £). capsincola, Hb., is 
common wherever much white campion grows, D. carpophaga, Bork., 
being much scarcer, while D. capsophila, Dup., is scarcer still. Hecatera 
serena, Fb., is taken sparingly near Carlisle and Mawson appears to have 
met with it in the west. Polia chi, L., is plentiful everywhere, the var. 
olivacea, St., occasionally being taken. Carlisle is the only locality in the 
county where Dasypolia templi, Thnb., has been found. It frequents 
street lamps but is far from common. Epunda lutulenta, Bork., is taken 
near Brampton and Carlisle. The vars. luneburgensis, Frr., and sedi, Gn., 
occur as well as the typical form. £. nigra. Haw., is generally diffused 
throughout the county and not uncommon. Cleoceris viminalis, Fb., 
varying from the type to var. obscura, Stgr., is sometimes common at 
' sugar ' and the larvas may readily be found between united sallow 
leaves. Miselia oxyacantha, L., in its typical form is common every- 
where. The pups of Agriopii aprilina, L., may be freely dug up at 
the roots of oak in August. The variation of this species is in the 
direction of a banded form. Euplexia lucipara, L., is a moderately 
common summer moth in all the districts which are regularly worked. 
The autumn brood of Phlogophora meticulosa, L., is usually very numerous. 
I 129 K 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

I have taken a specimen as late as December 17th. Aplecta prasina, 
Fb., is widely diffused but seldom common. A. occulta, L., has been 
taken sparingly near Brampton by Mr. Routledge. A. nebulosa, Hufn., 
occurs generally, but A. ttncta, Brahm, does not appear to have been 
taken away from the lakes, where at times it is not uncommon. Hadena 
adusta, Esp., is moderately common throughout the county. One of the 
most variable Noctuae is H. protea, Bork., which is always abundant, 
while H. glauca, Hb., is scarce and appears to be peculiar to heaths. 
H. dentina, Esp., is rather commoner and varies extensively. H. 
oleracea, L., abounds in gardens, H. pisi, L., amongst broom, etc., and 
H. thalassina, Rott., visits ' sugar' in early summer. H. contigua, Vill., 
is found sparingly near Brampton by Mr. Routledge. The beautiful 
H. rectilinea, Esp., was taken near Keswick years ago, and the Carlisle 
lepidopterists have taken a fair number quite recently. One of the 
earliest Noctuas of the year is Xylocampa areola, Esp., which is readily 
found resting on trees, walls, etc., wherever there is much honeysuckle, its 
food plant, growing. Calocampa vetusta, Hb., is rare, but C. exoleta, L., 
is universally common. C. solidaginis, Hb., is confined to hilly districts ; 
I have taken it on Lazonby Fell, and other localities are Keswick, Gelt 
Valley and Penrith Beacon. Asteroscopus sphinx, Hufn., occurs sparingly 
at light and I have beaten the larva from crab. Cucullia umbratica, L., is 
common at flowers in gardens. C. cbamomillce, Schiff., is sometimes 
taken near Carlisle. Gonoptera libatrix, L., visits ' sugar ' or may be 
easily bred from larvs taken on sallow and osier. Habrostola tripartita, 
Hufn., and H. triplasia, L., occur pretty generally at flowers in gardens 
and lanes. The commonest Plusias are P. chrysitis, L., P. iota, L., P. 
pulchrina. Haw., and P. gamma, L. P. bractea, Fb., has been taken near 
Carlisle by Mr. G. Wilkinson and in other localities by other collectors 
but is rare. P. festucce, L., is moderately common. P. interrogationis, 
L., occurs among heath on the hills, though it has been found quite close 
to Carlisle. A typical heath-loving species is Anarta myrtilli, L., and 
as is to be expected in this county of heaths and ' mosses ' is abundant. 
It flies rapidly during the heat of the day. Heliaca tenebrata. Scop., 
occurs in meadows, but its short jerky flight easily escapes observation. 
Of the very rare Heliothis scutosa, Schiff., two specimens were taken in 
Cumberland upwards of sixty years ago. The first of these, which 
was also the first British specimen, was captured on the banks of the 
Caldew near Dalston in July, 1833; the second being taken on the coast 
near Skinburness. It is not improbable that other specimens were 
found subsequently but no trace can now be made of any. Chariclea 
umbra, Hufn., occurs in a railway cutting near How Mill and will 
likely turn up when the coast sandhills are more diligently worked. 
Hydrelia uncula, Clerck, does not appear to have been noticed for some 
years, though formerly common at Orton when the ' moss ' there was 
more extensive than now. Phytometra viridaria, Clerck, is common on 
heaths though easily overlooked. Euclidia mi, Clerck, and E. glyphica, 
L., haunt grassy places. Rivula sericealis. Scop., is taken near Keswick, 

130 



INSECTS 

but Zanclognatha grisealisy Hb., is widely distributed. Hypena proboscid- 
alis, L., swarms amongst nettles. Hypenodes costcestrigalis, St., is picked 
up occasionally. Tholomiges turfosalis, Wk., is common in boggy places 
near Keswick, and in the same district Brephos parthenias, L., , occurs 
amongst birch. This species has also been taken in Barron Wood by 
the older school of lepidopterists, who also appear to have met with 
B. notha, Hb. (see Morris' British Moths, vol. iii. p. 146). 

GEOMETRY 

Urapteryx sambucaria, L., is common in and near woods and is a 
conspicuous object when on the wing of an evening. Epione apiciaria, 
Schiff., is not uncommon in places, and though E. parallellaria, SchifF., 
has been recorded several times I have not myself seen an authentic 
Cumberland specimen. Rumia luteolata, L., is one of the commonest 
hedgerow moths. Venilia macularia, L., is restricted to the woods of the 
southern half of the county. The late G. Mawson records Angerona 
prunaria, L., as common near Keswick, but it seems strange that such a 
large distinct species should not have been noticed by others. Metro- 
campa margaritaria, L., is common in and near woods. Ellopia prosa- 
piaria, L., is confined to fir woods and plantations and is often common, 
but to be fit for the cabinet must be bred. Eurymene dolobraria, L., is 
decidedly rare, though it has been taken in widely separate districts. 
Another scarce moth is Pericallia syringaria, L., which has been taken 
near Carlisle and Brampton. Selenia bilunaria, Esp., is spread all over the 
county, occurring in small woods and along hedgerows. The summer 
brood, known as var. juliaria. Haw., is also met with. S. lunaria, SchifF., 
though considerably scarcer, has much the same distribution. S. tetra- 
lunaria, Hufn., is rare, while Odontopera bidentata, Clerck, and Crocallis 
elinguaria, L., occur everywhere. Eugonia alniaria, L., is taken on street 
lamps. E. erosaria, Bork., was taken in 1896 at Keswick and at Carlisle 
in 1900. E. fuscantaria. Haw., and E. quercinaria, Hufn., are doubtful 
natives of the county. Himera pennaria, L., is a woodland species and 
may be found at night on bushes and trees with the aid of a lantern. 
Phigalia pedaria, Fb., is common early in the year. Though widely dis- 
tributed, Nyssia hispidaria, Fb., is always rare. Two specimens taken by 
Mr. H. Britten in the Lazonby district are probably the most recent 
captures. Amphydasys strataria, Hufn., is also rather a scarce insect, 
being usually taken in oak woods. A. betularia, L., occurs all over the 
county in moderate numbers, the black race, var. doubkdayaria. Mill., 
being seldom met with. Cleora glabraria, Hb., has not to my know- 
ledge been taken for some years. At one time I believe Barron Wood 
produced a good many specimens. The larva of C. lichenaria, Hufn., is 
met with in many localities feeding on lichen on trees and is an admir- 
able instance of adaptation to environment. Boarmia repandata, L., is 
found resting on trees in woods, while B. gemmaria, Brahm, is more 
attached to gardens and hedgerows. Considering Tephrosia crepuscu- 
laria, Hb., and T. biundularia, Bork., as distinct species, I find that 

131 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

the former (the ' brownish insect ') has only been found near Keswick 
and that the latter (the ' whitish insect ') is common near Carlisle, 
Brampton and Lazonby. The last-named locality is the only one 
where T. pmctularia, Hb., occurs in any numbers. Gnophos obscuraria, 
Hb., has been taken on Barrow Mountain near Keswick and in Barron 
Wood. On rough heaths where furze grows freely Pseudoterpna 
pruinata, Hufn., is a sure find. That fine ' Emerald ' Geometra papilio- 
naria, L., is fairly common. It flies amongst birch about lo p.m. to- 
wards the end of June, but to get really fine specimens they must be 
bred. The larva may be found on birch in spring, feeding from the 
extremity of a twig down to the main stem of the bush. lodis lactearia, 
L., is common in most woods. Zonosoma punctaria, L., and Z. pendularia, 
Clerck, are also woodland species. Z. obicularia, Hb., was taken on 
Hesket Moss by the late T. C. Heysham, and Z. amulata, Schulz., at 
Great Orton by the same enthusiastic naturalist. Hyria muricata, Hufn., 
though occurring in Barron Wood and near Rose Castle in Heysham's 
time, appears now to be only taken on peaty bogs near Keswick. Asthena 
luteata, SchifF., is to be captured in woods near Carlisle but is not 
common. A, candidata, SchifF., is more widely spread and frequents 
grassy places amongst trees. A. syhata, Hb., is very rare. A. blomeri. 
Curt., is recorded from Barron Wood by J. B. Hodgkinson (JVk. Int., 
vol. vi. p. 156). Eupisteria obliterata, Hufn., occurs sparingly near Car- 
lisle ; near Lazonby it is more abundant. Venusia cambrica. Curt., affects 
tree trunks in woods, but is seldom taken in any numbers. Acidalia 
dimidiata, Hufn., and A. bisetata, Hufn., are woodland and hedgerow 
species. A. dilutaria, Hb., and A. immutata, L., are found near Keswick. 
A. virgularia, Hb., occurs more generally about honeysuckle, etc. By 
far the commonest ' Wave ' of the woods is A. remutaria, Hb. A.fumata, 
St., is a ' moss ' species and is not uncommon in a suitable habitat. The 
var. spoliata, Stgr., of ^. aversata, L., is generally distributed and common 
but the type is rare. A. inornata. Haw., has been once taken near Car- 
lisle by Mr. G. Wilkinson. Cabera pusaria, L., and C. exanthemata. 
Scop., are common in woods. Macaria notata, L., was taken by Hey- 
sham near Kirkandrews-on-Eden. M. liturata, Clerck, is fairly abundant 
in fir woods and sometimes visits ' sugar.' Halia vauaria, L., is a common 
garden moth, the larva feeding on currant aind gooseberry. Strenia clath- 
rata, L., is partial to grassy railway cuttings and sandhills and is locally 
abundant. In woods where much bracken grows Panagra petraria, Hb., 
is to be looked for. Numeria pulveraria, L., is found in many woods in 
limited numbers. Scodiona belgiaria, Hb., is only taken on the moors. 
Every heath in the county harbours Ematurga atomaria, L., and every fir 
wood Bupalus piniaria, L. On some of the ' mosses ' Aspillates strigillaria, 
Hb., is at times excessively abundant. Abraxas grossulariata, L., is a garden 
pest. A. syhata. Scop., occurs in plenty in most woods where there are 
many elms. Ligdia adustata, SchifF., has only been taken near Keswick. 
Lomaspilis marginata, L., is common amongst sallow. Hybernia rupi- 
capraria, Hb., H. leucophearia, SchifF., H. auranttaria, Esp., H. marginaria, 

132 



INSECTS 

Bork., and H. defoliaria, Clerck, are more or less abundant in woods 
and hedges. Anisopteryx cescularia^ SchifF., is another common species. 
Cheimatobia brumata, L., swarms, and C. boreata, Hb., is fairly common 
amongst birch. The variable Oporabia dilutata, Bork., is plentiful in 
woods in autumn, its congener O. Jiligrammaria, H.-S., much less so. 
Larentia didymata, L., L. multistrigaria. Haw., and L. viridaria, Fb., are 
common everywhere. L. ccesiata, Lang, L. salicata, Hb., and L. olivata, 
Bork., occur locally in fair numbers. L. Jiavicinctata, Hb., has not been 
noticed for some years. Emmelesia qffinitata, St., is rare in woods. 
E. alchemillata, L., is more often captured, and E. albulata^ SchifF., 
swarms in meadows. E. decolorata, Hb., occurs amongst campion. 
E. taniata, St., and E. unifasciata. Haw., are both rare. E. minor ata^ Tr., 
and E. adcequata, Bork., are confined to hilly districts, and if specially 
worked for may be found freely enough. Of the large and perplexing 
genus Euphithecia, Curt., E. venosata, Fb., and E. oblongata, Thnb., are 
scarce ; E. pulchellaia, St., is bred freely from foxglove ; E. subfuhata. 
Haw., is not uncommon amongst ragwort ; E. plumbeolata. Haw., E. 
pygmaata, Hb., E. satyrata, Hb., and E. castigata, Hb., occur in 
meadows ; E. indigata, Hb., is common in fir woods ; E. nanata, Hb., 
and E. minutata, Gn., swarm on heaths ; E. absinthiata, L., and E. vul- 
gata. Haw., are frequent in lanes ; E. assimilata, Gn., inhabits gardens ; 
E. tenuiata, Hb., is bred from sallow catkins ; E. lariciata, Frr., is found 
in larch woods ; E. abbreviata, St., is beaten from the leafless branches 
of oak in March and April ; E. exiguata, Hb., and E. pumilata, Hb., are 
taken in various odd places ; E. rectangulata, L., is sometimes caught 
along hedges ; and E. togata, Hb., has once been taken in Gelt Woods. 
It is highly probable that careful work would considerably extend the 
foregoing list of Cumberland ' Pugs.' Lobophora sexalisata, Hb., and 
L. carpinata, Bork., are found in many of the woods. L. halterata, Hufn., 
is confined to the neighbourhood of Carlisle, and L. viretata, Hb., and 
E. polycommata, Hb., to that of Keswick. Thera simulata, Hb., has been 
taken amongst juniper near Barrow Falls, Keswick. T'. variata, SchifF., 
and T^.firmata, Hb., inhabit fir woods. Hypsipetes ruberata, Frr., occurs 
locally, and H. sordidata, Fb., of course abounds. Melanthia bicolorata, 
Hufn., is locally abundant, especially favouring alders fringing streams. 
The var. plumbata. Curt., is rare. M. ocellata, L., generally frequents 
lanes, and M. albicillata, L., is partial to woods with an undergrowth of 
bramble. Melanippe sociata, Bork., M. montanata, Bork., and M. Jluctuata, 
L., are abundant. M. hastata, L., M. tristata, L., M. rivata, Hb., and 
M. galiata, Hb., also occur, but are local to special habitats. Anticlea 
badiata, Hb., is common along hedges in early spring. A. nigrofasciaria, 
Goze, is a woodland species and less common. Coremia munitata, Hb., is 
met with in hilly districts. C. designata, Hufn., C. ferrugata, L., and 
C. unidentaria. Haw., are widely distributed. Camptogramma bilineata, L., 
abounds in hedges in summer. Phibalapteryx vittata, Bork., has lately 
been taken freely in several localities. Triphosa dubitata, L., is local and 
scarce. Eucosmia certata, Hb., is locally abundant. Cidaria siterata, 

133 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Hufn., and C. miata, L., visit ' sugar' in autumn. C. corylata, Thnb., is 
a common moth in some woods. C. truncata, Hufn., C. immanata. Haw., 
C.fuhata, Forst., C. testata, L., C. populata, L., C. dotata, L. {pyraliata, 
Fb.), C. associata, Bork. {dotata, Gn.), C. prunata, L., and C suffiimata, 
Hb., are all more or less common. The var. piceata, St., of the last 
species is occasionally captured. C. silaceata, Hb., though generally 
diffused is always scarce. C. reticulata, Fb., probably now on the verge 
of extinction as a British insect, was formerly taken in the Great Wood, 
Keswick, by the late James Edmondson. Pelurga comitata, L., is hardly 
known in the county away from Carlisle, where it sometimes visits light 
freely. Eubolia cervinata, SchifF., is local and scarce ; E. limitata. Scop., 
common everywhere. The reputed ' only ' British specimen of E. 
mceniata. Scop., was taken in Barron Wood many years ago. I do not 
know if this specimen is still in existence, but the late J. B. Hodgkinson 
used to have it. E. plumbaria, Fb., is common on heaths and waste 
places. Carsia paludata, Thnb., is common on some of the moors. 
Anaitis plagiata, L., is rather scarce. Chesias spartiata, Fues., is abundant 
amongst broom. C. rufata, Fb., has been taken once at Hayton. Tan- 
agra atrata, L., is abundant in meadows in summer. 



PYRALIDES 
Aglossa pinguinalis, L. Common in stables 
Pyralis farinalis, L. In stables, flour-mills, 

etc. 
Scoparia ambigualis, Tr. 

— basistrigalis, Knaggs. Borrowdale ; rests 

on rocks, etc. 

— cembrae, Haw. 

— murana, Curt. Moderately common ; 

occurs on walls 

— ingratella, Zell. 

— crataegella, Hb. 

— resinea, Haw. Lake distrtct ; common 

(Stainton's ManuaT) 

— truncicolella, Sta. Common everywhere 

— angustea, St. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

Nomophila noctuella, Schiff. Common every- 
where 

Pyrausta aurata, Scop. Lake district ; common 
(Stainton's Manual) 

— purpuralis, L. Abundant on the Silloth 

sandhills 

— ostrinalis, Hb. Keswick (Stainton's Man- 

ual) 

Herbula cespitalis, Schiff. Sparingly in mea- 
dows ; Carlisle 

Ennychia cingulata, L. Very common on 
grassy hillsides near Seathwaite-in-Bor- 
rowdale 

— nigrata, Scop. \ Lake district (Stain- 

— octomaculata, Fb. J ton's Manual) 
Eurrhypara urticata, L. Abundant in nettle- 
beds everywhere 



Scopula lutealis, Hb. Very common every- 
where 

— olivalis, Schiff. ) t j i 

T c -u-ir r In and near woods 

— prunalis, Schitt. ) 

Botys fuscalis, Schiff. Swarms in meadows 

throughout the county 

Pionea forficalis, L. Common in gardens 

TT 1 u ^ T ) Common round 

Hydrocampa nymphseata, L. 

— stagnata, Don. 



the margins 
of ponds 



PTEROPHORI 

Chrysocoris festaliella, Hb. Rare ; Hayton 

Moss and Kingmoor 
Platyptilia ochrodactyla, Hb. Common 

amongst yarrow 

— gonodactyla, Schiff. Abundant amongst 

coltsfoot, especially on railway banks. 
Larvae may be found freely in early 
spring in the flowers 
Amblyptilia acanthodactyla, Hb. On heaths, 
etc. 

— cosmodactyla, Hb. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 
Mimasseoptilus bipunctidactyla,] ^ VIA' 

— plagiodactylus, Sta. I ^''"^ 

— pterodactylus, L. Common along hedge- 

rows 
CEdematophorus lithodactylus, Tr. Kingmoor 
Leioptilus osteodactylus, 

Zell. 
Aciptilia tetradactyla, L. 

34 



Lake district (Stain- 
ton's Manual) 



INSECTS 



Aciptilia pentadactyla, L. Apparently rare 
in the county. Two have been taken 
near Carlisle^ and it has also occurred 
sparingly near Lazonby 

Alucita hexadactyla, L. Common every- 
where amongst honeysuckle ; often 
seen on windows in houses 

CRAMBI 

Crambus pratellus, L. Everywhere common 
in meadows 

— ericellus, Hb, A mountain species. Not 

uncommon on some of the lake moun- 
tains ; Honister Crag, Sty Head Pass, etc. 

— sylvellus, Hb. Common on that exten- 

sive heath known as Bolton Fell in the 
north of the county. It is however 
very local there and easily overlooked 

— pascuellus, L. Locally abundant on damp 

heaths 

— furcatellus, Zett. Another mountain 

species. Occurs in the same localities 
as C. ericellus, but, if anything, is a 
scarcer insect 

— margaritellus, Hb. Sometimes swarms on 

some of the moors 

— perlellus. Scop. Widely distributed 

— perlellus var. warringtonellus, Zell. 

Occurs near Carlisle 

— tristellus, Fb. Everywhere abundant 

— geniculeus. Haw. Local, but common at 

times ; La%onhy Fell, Silloth, etc. 

— culmellus, L. "1 Very common every- 

— hortuellus, Hb. / where in meadows 
Eromene ocellea. Haw. Mr. C. Eales cap- 
tured two specimens at Silloth on 27 th 
June, 1885 

Ephestia passulella, Bar. About houses 

— kuhniella, Zell. Very common in mills 

in Carlisle 
Cryptoblabes bistriga, Haw. One near Carlisle 

in June, 1897 
Plodia interpimctella, Hb. Not uncommon 

in some of the Carlisle mills 
Phycis fusca. Haw. Common on heaths 

which have been recently burnt 
Dioryctria abietella, Zinck. Taken on La- 

zonby Fell July 30th, 1899, by Mr. 

Wilkinson. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 
Oncocera ahenella, Zinck. Lake district (Stain- 
ton's Manual) 
Galleria mellonella, L. 
Aphomia sociella, L. 

TORTRICES 

Tortrix xylosteana, L. Common near Carlisle ; 
visits * sugar.' 

— sorbiana, Hb. J ^^^^.^^^ 



Carlisle ; common 



Carlisle ; common 



Tortrix heparana, Schiff. 

— ribeana, Hb. Carlisle 

— corylana, Fb. 

— unifasciana, Dup. 

— viburnana, Fb. Very common on Lazonby 

Fell, Bolton Fell and other moors 

— palleana, Hb. var. icterana, Fr6l. Abun- 

dant on the steep slopes of Cowran Cut 
to the east of How Mill 

— viridana, L. Common everywhere 

— minstrana, L. Common everywhere ; 

very variable 

— forsterana, Fb. Not uncommon in woods 
Amphisa gerningana, SchiflF. Taken freely 

on Kingmoor near Carlisle, in July, 
1900, by Mr. Wilkinson 

— prodromana, Hb. Rare near Carlisle, but 

occurs more freely amongst heath right 

to the summit of Cumrew Fell (1,500 

feet) in the Pennines 
Leptogramma literana, L. Scarce ; woods 

near Carlisle 
Peronea sponsana, Fb. Scarce ; Carlisle 

— rufana, SchifF. Not uncommon 

— mixtana, Hb. On several heaths near 

Carlisle 

— schalleriana, L. Common everywhere 

along hedgerows 

Common near Carlisle 
in woods and along 
hedges 
Common and variable 



comparana, Hb. 
perplexana. Bar. 



rosana, L. 



— variegana, SchifF. 

— cristana, Fb. Scarce ; taken at sallow 

bloom in spring after hibernation 

— hastiana, L. Scarce 

— ferrugana, Tr. Common in lanes near 

Carlisle 

— aspersana, Hb. Common 

Rhacodia caudana, Fb. Very common in 
woods and lanes throughout the county. 
Beautiful varieties occur 

Teras contaminana, Hb. Common in white- 
thorn hedges 

Dictyopteryx loeflingiana, L. Common 

— holmiana, L. Rather common near Mary- 

port 

— bergmanniana, L. Common amongst 

rose 

— forskaleana, L. One at Wetheral, 1900 
Argyrotoza conwayana, Fb. Scarce ; Carlisle 
Ptycholoma lecheana, L. Not uncommon 

near Carlisle ; bred from sallow, etc. 
Diluta semifasciana. Haw. Occurs yearly, 

but sparingly 
Penthina corticana, Hb. Scarce 

— betulastana, Haw. In profusion amongst 

birch 

— sororculana, Zett. 

— pruniana, Hb. Common amongst sloe 

— dimidiana, Tr. Scarce ; Bowness Moss, etc. 



135 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Penthina marginana, Haw. One specimen 

near Carlisle 
Heyda aceriana, Dup. 

— dealbana, Frol. Common amongst sallow 
Spilonota trimaculana, Haw. 

Pardia tripunctana, Fb, Very common in 

hedges 
Aspis udmanniana, L. Occurs throughout 

the county, but is hardly a common 

insect 
Sericoris rivulana, Scop. Locally common 

near Carlisle 

— lacunana, Dup. "> ,, 

'tj-, ^ \ Very common 

— urticana, Hb. J •' 

— micana, Frol. In profusion in a certain 

meadow near Carlisle ; also in other 

localities, but uncommon 
Mixodia schulziana, Fb. Very common on 

the moors 
Orthotaenia antiquana, Hb. 

— ericetana, Westw. 

Cnephasia musculana, Hb. Common 
Sciaphila conspersana, Dougl. In rough mea- 
dows 

— subjectana, Gn. Common everywhere 

— virgaureana, Tr. 

— pascuana, Hb. 

— chrysantheana, Dup. 

— hybridana, Hb. 

— octomaculana, Haw. 

Capua flavillaceana, Hb. In woods 

Bactra lanceolana, Hb. Common in damp 

places ; very variable 
Phoxopteryx unguicella, L. Not uncommon 

on heaths 

— uncana, Hb. Also a heath species, but 

scarce 

— biarcuana, St. 

— myrtillana, Tr. 

— lundana, Fb. Everywhere abundant 

— mitterpacheriana, Schiff. Sparingly in 

woods 
Grapholitha ramella, L. Very common 
amongst birch 

— nisella, Clerck. 

— nigromaculana, Haw. One taken at S/7- 

loth in 1892 on a head of ragwort 

— subocellana, Don. Common amongst 

sallow 

— penkleriana, Fisch. Not very common 

— naevana, Hb. Common near Lazonby 
Phloeodes tetraquetrana. Haw. Common in 

and near woods 

— immundana, Fisch. Freely bred from 

alder catkins 

— crenana, Hb. Rare ; one specimen taken 

by Mr. Wilkinson at Threlkeld and one 
at Sebergham 
Hypermecia angustana, Hb. 

— cruciana, L. 



136 



Paedisca bilimana, Haw. One specimen taken 
on a birch trunk near Carlisle in 1896 

— rubiginosana, H.-S. Scarce, in fir planta- 

tions 

— corticana, Hb. Generally abundant 

amongst oak 

— occultana, Dougl. One taken in the 

Lazonby district in 1899 

— solandriana, L. Sometimes not uncom- 

mon in and near woods ; very variable 
Ephippiphora similana, Hb. 

— cirsiana, Zell. \ Common amongst 

— pflugiana. Haw. J rough herbage 

— brunnichiana, Frol. Common amongst 

coltsfoot 

— turbidana, Tr. Carlisle (Stainton's Man- 

ual) 
Coccyx cosmophorana, Tr. This interesting 
species occurs yearly in fair numbers in 
one of the fir woods near Carlisle 

— strobilella, L. Gelt Woods 

— splendidulana, Gn. Carlisle 

— argyrana, Hb. Abundant on oak trunks 

— tsedella, Clerck. 

Heusimene fimbriana, Haw. One specimen 
taken near Carlisle in an oak wood 

Retinia turionana, Hb. Very common on 
young fir trees. Pupae may be freely 
found in the terminal shoots of the 
branches 

— pinivorana, Zell. Occurs sparingly among 

firs near Carlisle 

Carpocapsa splendidana, Hb. 

Stigmonota dorsana, Fb. This rare species 
has been taken yearly by Mr. Wilkinson 
and others on a railway bank near 
Carlisle. In 1900 it turned up in 
great numbers on another railway bank 
in quite a diiFerent district 

— coniferana, Ratzb. Near Carlisle ; scarce 

— perlepidana, Haw. Very common 

— internana, Gn. Not uncommon in some 

seasons near Carlisle 

— nitidana, Fb. 

— regiana, Zell. Very common on syca- 

more trunks in the Lazonby district 
Dicrorampha petiverella, L. Sometimes 
abundant amongst yarrow 

— plumbana, Scop, "j p 

— herbosana, Bar. j ^ 

Pyrodes rheediella, Clerck. Scarce ; Carlisle, 
Allonby, Cross Fell 

Catoptria ulicetana, Haw. Abundant every- 
where amongst furze 

■^— hypericana, Hb. 

— cana. Haw. Locally common near Car- 

lisle 
Symsethis pariana, Clerck. Lake district 
(Stainton's Manual) 

— oxycanthella, L. Swarms amongst nettles 



INSECTS 



EupcEcilia nana, Haw. Not uncommon 

— angustana, Hb. Very common on moors 

— atricapitana, St. Scarce 

— maculosana, Haw. A few taken amongst 

wild hyacinth in Newbiggen Wood in 

— ciliella, Hb. Locally common near Car- 

lisle 
Zanthosetia zoegana, L. Not very common 

— hamana, L. Commoner than the last 
Lobesia reliquana, Hb. 

Argyrolepia hartmanniana, Clerck. 

— cnicana, Dbl. Marshy places 
Conchylis straminea, Haw. Common in 

meadows 
Aphelia osseana, Scop. 
Tortricodes hyemana, Hb. Very common 

everywhere 



TINE^ 

Lemnatophila phryganella, Hb. 

Exapate congelatella, Clerck. 

Diurnea fagella, Fb. Very common every- 
where ; some very dark forms are 
taken 

Epigraphia steinkellneriana, SchifiF. Not un- 
common in lanes 

Semioscopus avellanella, Hb. " 

Talseporia pseudo-bombycella, Lake district 
Hb. (Stainton's 

Diplodoma marginepunctella, Manual) 

St. } 

Ochsenheimeria birdella, Curt. Near Carlisle ; 
scarce 

Scardia corticella, Curt. ") Lake district (Stain- 

— granella, L. J ton's Manual) 

— cloacella, Haw. Very common 
Blabophanes rusticella, Hb. Common in 

birds' nests 
Tinea tapetzella, L. In houses 

— misella, Zell. Common in a stable in 

Carlisle 

— pellionella, L. In houses 

— fuscipunctella, Haw. 

— pallescentella, Sta. 

— lapella, Hb. Scarce 

Phylloporia bistrigella, Haw. Lake district 

(Stainton's Manual) 
Tineola biselliella, Hml. 
Lampronia luzella, Hb. 

— praelatella, SchifiF. 5- Carlisle district 

— rubiella, Bjerk. 
Incurvaria muscalella, Fb. Along hedgerows 

— oehlmanniella, Hb. On heaths 



) 



. Common on oak 
Not uncommon near 



Note. — ^The records from Stainton's Manual apply 
to the Lake district of both Cumberland and West- 
morland. — F. H. D. 



Micropteryx calthella, L. Very common in 
flowers of Caltha palustris in marshy 
places 

— seppella, Fb. Near Wreay, etc. 

— mansuetella, Zell. Once in Newbiggen 

Wood 

— aureatella, Scop. Very common in damp 

woods 

— thunbergella, Fb. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

— purpurella, Haw. 

— semipurpurella, St. ■ Common on birch 

— unimaculella, Zett., 

— sparmanella, Bosc. 

— subpurpurella, Haw 

— sangiella, Wood. 

Carlisle 

— caledoniella Griffith. Taken freely near 

Carlisle by Hodgkinson and Eales. Mr. 
Wilkinson has lately turned it up in a 
new locality in the Carlisle district 
Nemophora swammerdammella, L. Common 
in woods 

— schwarziella, Zell. Common in woods 

— pilella, Fb. "I Lake district (Stainton's 
Adela fibulella, Fb. / Manual) 

— rufimitrella, Scop. Not uncommon near 

Carlisle 

— degeerella, L. In woods near Carlisle ; 

scarce 

— viridella, L. Common 

Nematois cupriacellus, Hb. Lake district 

(Stainton's Manual) 
Swammerdamia combinella, Hb. 

— caesiella, Hb. 

— pyrella, Vill. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 
Hyponomeuta padellus, L. Very common 

— cagnagellus, Hb. Wetheral 

— evonymellus, L. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

Anesychia funerella, Fb. Lake district (Stain- 
ton's Manual) 

Prays curtisellus, Don. ") ^ ,. ■ 

— „ var. rustica, Haw.) 
Plutella cruciferarum, Zell. Very common 

— porrectella, L. 

— dalella, Sta. Lake district, common 

(Stainton's Manual) 
Cerostoma sequella, Clerck. Lake district 
(Stainton's Manual) 

— radiatella, Don. In and near woods 

— vitella, L. 

— costella, Fb. Common in woods 

— sylvella, L. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 
Harpipteryx scabrella, L. \ q^^^^i^ 

— nemorella, L. j 

— xylostella, L. Common about honey- 

suckle 



137 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Common amongst furze 
„ „ broom 

Lake district (Stainton's 

Amongst hem- 



Amongst sallow 
Lake district (Stainton's 



Orthotelia sparganella, Thnb. Carlisle ; near 
ponds 

Phibalocera quercana, Fb. Not uncommon 
in and near woods 

Exaeretia allisella, Sta. Lake district (Stain- 
ton's Manual) 

Depressaria costosa, Haw. Amongst furze 

— flavella, Hb. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

— umbellana, St. 

— assimilella, Tr. 

— arenella, SchifF. 

— propinquella, Tr. 

Manual) 

— alstrcemeriana, Clerck, 

lock 

— liturella, Hb. 

— ocellana, Fb. 

— yeatiana, Fb, 

Manual) 

— applana, Fb. Common everywhere 

— ciliella, Sta. ^ Lake district (Stainton's 

— pimpinellas, Zell.j Manual) 

— pulcherrimella, Sta. Lake district ; com- 

mon (Stainton's Manual) 

— badiella, Hb. 

— heracleana, De Geer. Very common 

near Carlisle 
Gelechia ericetella, 
heath 

— mulinella, Zell. 

— sororculella, Hb. 

— longicornis, Curt 

near Carlisle 

— difEnis, Haw. Lake district ; common 

(Stainton's Manual) 

— confinis, Sta. Armathwaite (J. B. Hodg- 

kinson) 
Bryotropha terrella, Hb. Common in 
meadows 

— desertella, Dougl. Common on the Bol- 

way sandhills 

— politella, Dougl. 

— senectella, Zell. Silloth 

— afEnis, Dougl. Very common on a mossy 

wall on the road between Carlisle and 
Blackwell 
Lita viscariella, Logan 

— aethiops, Westw. Common on Bowness 

Moss, Cumrevj Fell, etc. ; amongst 
burnt heath 

— maculea, Haw. Silloth 

— fraternella, Dougl. 

— junctella, Dougl. 

Carrock by Mr. 

— marmorea, Haw. 
Teleia proximella, Hb. 

— notatella, Hb. 

— vulgella, Hb. Sty Head Pass ; com- 

mon 



Nannodia stipella, Hb. 

— „ var. naeviferella, Dup. 



on hemlock 

Hb. Abounds on every 



Sparingly on heaths 



Taken near Castle 
G. B. Routledge 
Silloth 



Teleia dodecella, L. 

Lake district 

(Stainton's 

Manual) 

Ergatis ericinella, Dup. On heaths 
Monochroa tenebrella, Hb. Lake district 

(Stainton's Manual) 
Tachyptilia populella, Clerck. Common near 

Carlisle 
Brachycrossata cinerella, Clerck. Com- 
mon 
Chelaria hubnerella, Don. Very common in 

Orton Woods amongst old birches 
Anarsia spartiella, Schr. On commons and 

waste land 
Sophronia humerella, SchiiF. One specimen 

near Carlisle 
Pleurota bicostella, Clerck. Swarms on many 

of the heaths 
Dasycera sulphurella, Fb. Not uncommon 
CEcophora minutella, L. 

— fulviguttella, Zell. Common amongst 

Umbelliferas 

— stipella, L. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

— subaquilella, Edl. Once near Carlisle 

— fuscescens, Haw. 

— pseudospretella, Sta. Everywhere abun- 

dant ; a nuisance in houses 
Endrosis fenestrella, Scop. Very common in 

houses 
Butalis grandipennis, Haw. Common amongst 

furze 

— fusco-asnea, Haw. 

— senescens, Sta. Lake district 

— fusco-cuprea, Haw. - (Stainton's 
Amphisbatis incongruella, Sta. Manual) 
Pancalia lewenhoekella, L. 
Glyphipteryx fuscoviridella, Haw, Very 

common in meadows 

— thrasonella, Scop. Not uncommon 

— haworthana, St. "S Lake district (Stainton's 

— equitella, Scop, j Manual) 

— fischeriella, Zell. Common ; Carlisle, 

etc. 
Perittia obscurepunctella, Sta. In woods ; 

not uncommon 
Heliozele sericiella, Haw. -v Lake district 

— stanneella, Fisch. !- (Stainton's 

— resplendella, Dougl. ■' Manual) 
Argyresthia ephippella, Fb. 

— nitidella, Fb. Extremely abundant on 

hawthorn hedges 

— semitestacella, Curt. Common near Car- 

lisle 

Lake district (Stainton's 



spiniella, Zell. 

Manual) 
albistria, Haw. 
conjugella, Zell. 
retinella, Zell. 



All occur near Carlisle, 
etc. 



138 



INSECTS 



Lake district 

(Stainton's 

Manual) 



Common amongst 



Argyresthia semifusca, Haw. ' 

— mendica, Haw. 

— glaucinella, Zell. 

— dilectella, Zell. 

— curvella, L. 

— sorbiella, Tr. 

— pygmaeella, Hb. 

sallow near Carlisle 

— gcedartella, L. Common on trunks of 

alders ; Carlisle 

— brochella, Hb. Common amongst birch ; 

Carlisle 
Cedestis farinatella, Dup. Not uncommon in 

fir woods 
Ocnerostoma piniariella, Zell. Amongst 

firs 
Gracilaria alchimiella, Scop. Very common 

in almost every wood in the county 

— stigmatella, Fb. Burgh-by-Sands 

— stramineella, Sta. Wreay 

— elongella, L. Carlisle 

— tringipennella, Zell. 

— syringella, Fb. 

— auroguttella, St. 



Coriscium brongniardellum, Fb. ) 
— cuculipennellum, Hb. J 



Lake district 

(Stainton's 

Manual) 



All occur in the 
Carlisle district 



Ornix anglicella, Sta. 

— torquillella, Sta. 

— scoticella, Sta. 

— loganella, Sta. | 

— guttea, Haw. ) 
Goniodoma auroguttella, Fisch. 
Coleophora deauratella, Lien. Lake district 

(Stainton's Manual) 

— alcyonipennella, Kol. Carlisle ; on Cen- 

taurea nigra 

— pyrrhulipennella, Tisch. Common on the 

heaths 

— albicosta, Haw. 

— currucipennella, Fisch. 

— discordella, Zell. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

— genistae, Sta. Kingmoor ; on Genista 

anglica 

— caespititiella, Zell. Swarms amongst reeds 

everywhere 

— laripennella, Zett. Lake district (Stain- 

ton's Manual) 

— laricella, Hb. Swarms on larch everywhere 

— nigricella, St. Common on hawthorn ; 

Carlisle 

— fuscedinella, Zell. On birch, etc. ; 

common 

— gryphipennella, Bouch^, On rose ; Car- 

lisle 

— viminetella, Heyd. \ Lake district 

— lutipennella, Zell. i (Stainton's Manual) 
Batrachedra praeangusta. Haw. Locally 

common near Carlisle amongst sallow 



Chauliodus chaerophyllellus, G6ze. Lake dis- 
trict (Stainton's Manual) 
Laverna lacteella, St. Carlisle 

— propinquella, Sta. \ Lake district 

— epilobiella, Schr. I (Stainton's Manual) 

— atra, Haw. 

Chrysoclysta aurifrontella, Hb. Amongst 

hawthorn 
Anybia langiella, Hb. \Lake district {^iMn- 
Elachista gleichenella, Fb. ) ton's Manual) 

— magnificella, Tgstr. Corby (J. B. Hodg- 

kinson) 

— apicipunctella, Sta. Lake district (Stain- 

ton's Manual) 

— albifrontella, Hb. 

— atricomella, Sta. ■ Carlisle 

— luticomella, Zell. 

— cinereopunctella, Haw.-v Lake district ; 

— kilmunella, Sta. V common (Stain- 

— bedellella, Sircom. J ton's Manual) 

— trapeziella, H.-S. Corby (C. Eales) 

— nigrella, Hb. Lazonby, etc. 

— obscurella, Sta. \ /- r i 

• II "-n .. r i^ar lisle 

— zonanella, T gstr. ) 

— adscitella, Sta.) Lake district (Stainton's 

— cerussella, Hb. I Manual) 

— rhynchosporella, Sta. Lazonby 

— eleochariella, Sta. Lake district (Stainton's 

Manual) 

— biatomella, Sta. 

— rufocinerea. Haw. ) Abundant every- 

— argentella, Clerck. J where 
Tischeria complanella, Hb. Not uncommon 
Lithocolletis roboris, Zell. Lake district 

(Stainton's Manual) 

— amyotella, Dup. 

— irradiella, Scott. Common on oak 

— pomifoliella, Zell. i q^ ^^^^j^ 

— faginella, Mann. J 

— ulmifoliella, Hb. 

— spinolella, Dup. Kingmoor ; on sallow 

— quercifoliella, Fisch. 

— messaniella, Zell. TJpperby ; on beech 

— corylifoliella, Haw, 

— caledoniella, Sta. 

Manual) 

— viminiella, Sircom. 

— alnifoliella, Hb. 
heegeriella, Zell. \ 



Lake district (Stainton's 



Common on oak 

Lake district 
\ 



— cramerella, Fb. 

— emberizaepennella, Bouch6| 

— dunningiella, Sta. 

— tristrigella. Haw. 

— trifasciella, Haw. 
Lyonetia clerckella, L 
Cemiostoma spartifoliella, Hb, 

broom ; Carlisle, etc. 

— laburnella, Heyd. Extremely abundant 
laburnums in and near Carlisle 



(Stainton's 
Manual) 
Orton 

\Lake district (Stain- 
J ton's Manual) 

Common on 



on 



139 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Cemiostoma scitella, Zell. Bellevue and 

Durdar near Carlisle 
Opostega crepusculella, Fisch. Near Cum- 

mersdale 
Bucculatrix nigricomella, Zell. Lake district ; 

common (Stainton's Manual) 



Nepticula atricapitella, Haw. 

— anomalella, Goze. 

— floslactella, Haw. 

— salicis, Sta. 

— argentipedella, Zell. 

— angulifasciella, Sta. 

— aeneofasciella, H.-S. 



All occur in the 
Carlisle district 



DIPTERA 

Flies 

This large order of insects consisting of two-winged flies has very 
few students in the British Isles, and in Cumberland it has been quite 
neglected, so that the following list of species, hurriedly collected for the 
purposes of the present work, can hardly be said to be representative of 
the county's fauna. With few exceptions the whole of the species 
enumerated have been taken in the neighbourhood of Carlisle by myself. 



BiBIONIDi?: 

Bibio pomonae, F. 

— marci, L. 

— laniger, Mg. (?) 

— lacteipennis, Ztt. (F. Milton) 
Dilophus febrilis, L. 

CULICID^ 

Culex pipiens, L. 
Ptychopterid^ 

Ptychoptera lacustris, Mg. 

TiPULIDJE 

Pachyrrhina crocata, L. 
Tipula confusa, V. de Wlp. 

— vernalis, Mg. (F. Milton) 

— vittata, Mg. 

— oleracea, L. 
Xiphura atrata, L. 

STRATIOMYIDiE 

Sargus infuscatus, Mg. 
Chloromyia Formosa, Scop. 
Microchrysa flavicornis, Mg. 
Beris vallata, Forst. 

TaBANIDjE 

Hasmatopota pluvialis, L. 
Tabanus bovinus, L. 
Chrysops caecutiens, L. 
Leptid^ 

Leptis scolopacea, L. 

— tringaria, L. 
Chrysophilus aureus, Mg. 
Atherix ibis, F. 

AsiLID^ 

Dioctria rufipes, Deg. 
Dysmachus forcipatus, L. 
Isopogon brevirostris, Mg. 

BoMBYLIDiE 

Bombylius major, L. 

THEREVIDiE 

Thereva annulata, F. 



Empid^ 

Hybos grossipes, L. 
Empis tessellata, F. 

— livida, L. 

— trigramma, Mg. 

LONCHOPTERID^ 

Lonchoptera tristis, Mg. 

SyRPHIDjE 

Chrysogaster metallica, F. 
Chilosia grossa. Fin. 

— oestracea, L. 
Leucozona lucorum, L, 
Melanostoma scalare, F. 
Pyrophaena ocymi, F. 
Platychirus manicatus, Mg. (?) 

— albimanus, F. 

— scutatus, Mg. 

— angustatus, Ztt. 
Syrphus balteatus, Deg. 

— nitidicollis, Mg. 

— vitripennis, Mg. 

— ribesii, L. 

— cinctus, Fin. 
Catabomba pyrastri, L. 
Sphasrophoria dispar, Lw. 

— menthastri, L. (?) 
Baccha elongata, F. 
Rhingia rostrata, L. 
Volucella bombylans, L. 

— pellucens, L. 
Sericomyia borealis, Fin. 
Eristalis tenax, L. 

— intricarius, L. 

— arbustorum, L. 

— pertinax, Scop. 
Helophilus pendulus, L. 
Criorrhina berberina, F. 
Xylota sylvarum, L. 
Syritta pipiens, L. 



140 



INSECTS 



CoNOPIDiE 

Conops flavipes, L. 
Sicus ferrugineus, L. 
Myopa buccata, L. 
MusciDiE 

Gymnochaeta viridis, Fin. 
Epicampocera vulgaris, Fin. 
Oliviera lateralis, F. 
Micropalpus vulpinus, Fin. 
Erigone radicum, F. 
Tachina grossa, L. 
Servillia ursina, Mg. 
Sarcophaga carnaria, L. 
PoUenia rudis, F. 
Musca doniestica, L. 
Graphomyia maculata, Scop. 
Cyrtoneura curvipes, Mcq. 
Mesembrina meridiana, L. 
Lucilia cornicina, F. 
— caesar, L. 



Anthomyid^ 

Mydaea impuncta, Fin, 
Hydrophoria brunneifrons, Ztt. (?) 
Caricea trigrina, F. 

CORDYLURID^ 

Scatophaga stercoraria, L. 
SciomyzidjE 

Tetanocera ferruginea, Fin. 

PsiLID^ 

Psila fimetaria, L. 
Trypetidje 

Tephritis vespertina, Lw. 

— miliaria, Schrk. 

— leontodontis, Deg. 
Sepsid^ 

Sepsis punctum, F. 

— cynipsea, L. 

BoRBORIDjE 

Borborus vitripennis, Mg. (?) 



HEMIPTERA 
HETEROPTERA 



Bugs, etc. 



GTMNOCERATA 
PENTATOMINA 

Pentatomid^ 
Piezodorus, Fieb. 

— lituratus, Fab. 
Tropicoris, Hahn. 

— rufipes, Lin. 

AsOPID^ 

Picromerus, Am. S. 

— bidens, Lin. 
Asopus, Burm. 

— punctatus, Lin. 
Zicrona, Am. S. 

— cjerulea, Lin. 

ACANTHOSOMID^ 

Acanthosoma, Curt. 

— dentatum, De G. 

— interstinctum, Lin. 

LYG^INA 

LYG-ffilDiE 

Nysius, Dall. 

— thymi, WolflF 
Pachymerid^ 

Stygnus, Fieb. 

— rusticus. Fall. 

— pedestris. Fall. 

— arenarius, Hahn. 
Peritrechus, Fieb. 

— luniger, Schill. 



Pachymeridje {continued) — 
Drymus sylvaticus, Fab. 

— brunneus, Sahib. 
Scolopostethus, Fieb. 

— affinis, Schill. 

— decoratus, Hahn. 
Gastrodes, Westw. 

— ferrugineuSj Lin. 

TINGIDINA 

TiNGIDIDiE 

Monanthia, Lep. 

— cardui, Lin. 

HYDROMETRINA 

HYDROMETRIDiE 

Hydrometra, Latr. 

— stagnorum, Lin. 
Veliidje 

Velia, Latr. 

— currens. Fab. 

GERRIDiE 

Gerris, Fab. 

— costae, H.S. 

— gibbifera, Schum. 

REDUVIINA 
Nabid^ 

Nabis, Latr. 

— flavomarginatus, Scholtz. 

— limbatus, Dahlb. 



141 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND ' 



SALDINA 

Salda, Fab. 

— saltatoria, Lin. 

— „ var. vestita, D. & S. 

— c.-album, Fieb. 

— orthocila, Fieb. 

— scotica, Curt. 

— cincta, H.S. 

CIMICINA 
Anthocorid^ 
Lyctocoris 

— campestris, Fall. 
Temnostethus, Fieb. 

— pusillus, H.S. 
Anthocoris, Fall. 

— confusus, Reut. 

— nemoralis, Fab. 

— sarothamni, D. & S. 

— sylvestris, Lin. 
Acompocoris, Reut. 

— pygmaeus, Fall. 
MicrophysidjE 

Microphysa, Westw. 

— pselaphiformis, Curt. 

CAPSINA 
CapsidjE 

Pithanus, Fieb. 

— maerkeli, H.S. 
Miris, Fab. 

— calcaratus, Fall. 

— holsatus, Fab. 
Megaloceroea, Fieb. 

— ruficornis, Fourc. 
Leptoterpna, Fieb. 

— dolobrata, Lin. 
Monalocoris, Dahlb. 

— filicis, Lin. 
Bryocoris, Fall. 

— pteridis, Fall. 
Phytocoris, Fall. 

— populi, Lin. 

— tiliae, Fab. 

— ulmi, Lin. 
Calocoris, Fieb. 

— striatellus, Fab. 

— sexguttatus, Fab. 

— bipunctatus, Fab. 



Capsid^ {continued) — 

Calocoris chenopodii, Fall. 

— roseomaculatus, De G. 

— striatus, Lin. 
Lygus, Hahn. 

— pratensis, Fab. 

— contaminatus, Fall. 

— viridis, Fall. 

— lucorum, Mey. 

— pabulinus, Lin. 

— cervinus, H.S. 

— kalmii, Lin. 
Liocoris, Fieb. 

— tripustulatus, Fab. 
Rhopalotomus, Fieb. 

— ater, Lin. 
Cyllocoris, Hahn. 

— histrionicus, Lin. 
Mecomma, Fieb. 

— ambulans, Fall. 
Orthotylus, Fieb. 

— chloropterus, Kb. (?) 

— ericetorum, Fall. (?) 
Macrotylus, Fieb. 

— paykulli, Fall. 
Phylus, Hahn. 

— melanocephalus, Lin. 
Psallus, Fieb. 

— betuleti, Fall. 

— variabilis, Fall. 

— varians, H.S. 
Plagiognathus, Fieb. 

— viridulus, Fall. 

— arbustorum, Fab. 

CRTPTOCERATA 

NEPINA 
Nepa, Lin. 

— cinerea, Lin. 

NOTONECTINA 

Notonecta, Lin. 

— glauca, Lin. 

CORIXINA 

Corixa, Geoffr. 
- — moesta, Fieb. 

— fabricii, Fieb. 



CICADINA 
Membracid^ 
Centrotus, Fab. 

— cornutus, Lin. 

ClXIID^ 

Cixius, Latr. 

— nervosus, Lin. 



HOMOPTERA 

Cicadas, etc. 

CERCOPIDiE 

Aphrophora, Germ. 

— alni, Fall. 
Philaenus, Stal. 

— spumarius, Lin. 
Bythoscopidj?: 

Macropsis, Lewis 
142 



INSECTS 



Bythoscopid^ {continued) — 
Macropsis lanio, Lin. 
Idiocerus, Lewis 

— fulgidus, Fab. 
Tettigonid^ 

Evacanthus, Lep. & Serv. 

— interruptus, Lin. 
Tettigonia, GeofFr. 

— viridis, Lin. 

ACOCEPHALID^ 

Acocephalus, Germ. 



AcocEPHAUD^ {continued) — 
Acocephalus bifasciatus, Lin. 

Jassid^ 

Deltocephalus, Burn. 

— ocellaris, Fall. 
Allygus, Fieb. 

— mixtus, Fab. 
Thamnotettix, Zett. 

— prasina, Fall. 

— subfuscula, Fall. 



MYRIAPODA 

The myriapoda of Cumberland have been but little studied. It is 
impossible therefore to form a fair estimate of the number of species 
occurring in the county. Nevertheless it is safe to predict that out of 
the fifty odd species known from the British Islands at least thirty could 
without difficulty be collected in the sheltered valleys of the lake district. 
It is highly probable moreover that diligent and systematic search 
would bring to light species never previously recorded from England, 
possibly indeed species new to science. 

The species mentioned in the subjoined list were collected by Mr. 
F. O. Pickard-Cambridge. 



CHILOPODA 

Centipedes 



LITHOBIIDiE 



Short-bodied, swift-running centipedes fur- 
nished with eyes and only fifteen pairs of legs. 

1. Lithobius variegatus, Leach. Zoo/. Misc., 

iii. p. 40 (18 1 7). 
Carlisle. 
This species, which is of peculiar interest on 
account of its being confined so far as is known 
to the British and Channel islands, may be 
distinguished from the commoner brown form 
L. forficatus by its larger head, variegated 
colouring, etc. 

2. Lithobius cakaratus, C. Koch. Die Myr. 

Gatt. Lithobius, p. 86 (1862). 
Carlisle. 
A much smaller and darker species than the 
preceding and characterized by the presence of 
a tubercle on the fourth segment of the anal 
legs in the male. 



GEOPHILIDiE 



Long-bodied vermiform centipedes without 
eyes and furnished with a large but variable 
number of legs. 

3. Geophilus flavus, De Geer. Mini. Ins., vii. 
p. 561 (1778) { — longicornis. Leach). 

Carlisle. 

This species is distinguished from the rest 
of the British species by its long cylindrical 
antennal segments. 



Geophilus carpophagus. Leach, 
iii. p. 43. 

Carlisle. 



Zool. Misc., 



Differing from the preceding and from the 
rest of the British species by the ' ball and 
socket ' method of articulation of the anterior 
sternal plates. 



143 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



DIPLOPODA 

Millipedes 



POLYDESMID^ 

Millipedes in which the body consists of 
from nineteen to twenty segments most of 
which in all the British species are furnished 
on each side with a repugnatorial pore sup- 
ported upon a lateral crest or keel. 

5. Polydesmus complanatus,lAnn. Faun. Suecic, 

ed. 2, p. 502 (1761). 
Carlisle. 
The commonest and largest British species. 

6. Polydesmus dentkulatus, C. Koch. Syst. der 

Myriap.,^^. lis (1847). 
Carlisle. 
Distinguishable from the preceding by its 
smaller size and squarer antero-lateral angles 
of the keels. Hitherto this species has only 
been known from one or two localities in the 
south of England. 

CHORDEUMIDiE 

Millipedes with almost invariably thirty 
body-segments furnished dorsally with six 
symmetrically disposed bristles, without re- 
pugnatorial pores and usually keeled much as 
in the Polydesmidee. 

7. Atractosoma polydesmoldes, Leach. ZooL 

Misc.,m. p. 36, pi. 134, fig. 15 (1817). 
Carlisle. 
This species with its large lateral keels 
closely resembles an elongate Polydesmus. 



lULID^ 



Millipedes in which the body consists of a 
large but variable number of segments furnished 
with pores but without the lateral keels charac- 
teristic of the two preceding families. 

8. lulus sabulosus, Linn. Syst. Nat.y ed. 10, 

p. 639 (1758). 

Carlisle. 

A large species distinguishable from the rest 
of the British species that are furnished with a 
caudal process by the presence of a pair of dorsal 
longitudinal pale bands. 

9. lulus niger. Leach. Zool, Misc., iil. p. 34 

(1817). 

Carlisle. 

Nearly as large as the preceding and also 
furnished with a caudal process, but distinguish- 
able by the absence of dorsal bands and the 
presence of transverse grooves on the anterior 
portion of the segments. 

10. lulus pilosus, Newport. Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., xi. p. 316 (1842). 

Carlisle. 

Resembling /. niger in colour, but smaller 
and without the transverse grooves on the 
anterior half of the segments. 



ARACHNIDA 

Spiders, etc. 

Although some little work has been done in the collecting of mem- 
bers of this order in the county of Cumberland, yet one cannot consider 
the following account of the spider-fauna of the region under considera- 
tion in any respect a full one. 

So far as the physical characters of the county are concerned, the 
area may be roughly divided into three districts, speaking of course 
entirely from an arachnological point of view. 

First we have the 'Eden Valley district, comprising all those valleys 
formed by the courses of the Eden, the Caldew, the Esk and the Irthing, 
consisting of more or less undulating country, richly wooded and clothed 
with rank vegetation in the glens, gradually blending in their upper 
reaches with the heather regions and higher moorlands of the Fell 
Country. There will of course be found throughout the county regions 
of a somewhat similar nature formed by the watercourses which empty 

144 



SPIDERS 

themselves on the west into the Irish Sea and on the south into More- 
cambe Bay. 

The second, or Solway district, consists of an immense tract of level 
mud and sand, meadow and marshland, forming the delta of the united 
waters of the four rivers mentioned above. In connection with this 
district must be recollected certain areas and spots of a swampy rushy 
boggy nature known as the Mosses, amongst which may be noted Solway 
Moss and Newtown Moss near Penrith. 

The Lake district itself to some extent comprehends the physical 
characters of both the foregoing areas, comprising meadow-lands, moor- 
lands, grass and heather districts and, in addition to the ordinary fell 
regions, the higher rocky desolate mountain heights where several rare 
species peculiar to them are found. 

Another region, which might almost be said to constitute a fourth 
area, consists of the sand-dunes which lie to the south of the entrance of 
the Solway Firth, extending with interruptions as far as St. Bees, and 
beyond this further south until it ends, so far as Cumberland is concerned, 
at the mouth of the river Duddon, near Broughton-in-Furness. Many 
species almost confined to the sand-dunes are to be found in this district. 

So far as the geology of the district is concerned it is of a very 
uniform character, consisting of the two forms of slate known as the 
Skiddaw and Green Slates, with an occasional outcrop of granite on Sea- 
fell for instance and in Wastwater, of syenite in the Ennerdale valley, with 
a mere streak of limestone running from Coniston in the direction of 
Windermere and Long-Sleddale. These geological features, with the 
New Red Sandstone of the Eden, Armathwaite and Penrith districts, un- 
doubtedly furnish us with a country whose physical constitution and 
consequent climatic temperament should afford us a fauna rich in itself 
and in some respects decidedly different to that which we find on the 
limestone and chalk formations of the south of England. 

We may in this connection point to a few species which are not 
only peculiar to our own hill country, but also many of them character- 
istic of the hill districts of the continent, as for instance, the sub-alpine 
regions of France, the Austrian Tyrol, the mountains of Tatra, Silesia, 
Gallicia and the highlands of Germany : namely Bolyphantes alticeps, 
Lepthyphantes tenebricolus, L. pinicolus, L. angulatus, Micryphantes sublimis, 
Macrargus adipatus, Oreoneta rudis and Pardosa traillii. 

Of the 550 and upwards of species recorded from England and 
Wales 2 1 9 are all that have hitherto been placed to the credit of Cumber- 
land, though this is, comparatively speaking, a very creditable list. Of 
these the most worthy of notice are Prosthesima electa, Agroeca celans, 
Philodromus fallax, Lycosa miniata, Pardosa traillii, Cryphceca diversa, Singa 
hamata, Tetragnatha pinicola, Lepthyphantes tenebricolus, L. pinicolus, Bathy- 
phantes setiger, Oreoneta rudis, Centromerus expertus, Leptothrix hardii, 
Mengea scopiger and M. warburtonii, Microneta sublimis, Dicymbium tibiale, 
Cornicularia karpinskii, Caledonia evansii, Cnephalocotes curtus, Lophocarenum 
mengei, Asagena phalerata and Hyptiotes paradoxus. 

I 145 L 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



The localities given in the following list are well authenticated, and 
the initials of those who collected the specimens or recorded their occur- 
rence are added. The species were mostly collected by A. Randall- 
Jackson, Esq., M.D., of Southport and the Royal Infirmary, Liverpool, 
and by the present writer. 

In cases where the generic or specific name quoted is not that under 
which the spider has usually been recognized in the works of English 
authors, a note has been added calling attention to the fact. With these 
few preliminary remarks, we may proceed at once with the list of the 
spiders of Cumberland. 

ARANEiE 

ARACHNOMORPHM 

DYSDERIDiE 

Spiders with six eyes and two pairs of stigmatic openings, situated close together on the 
genital rima ; the anterior pair communicating with lung books, the posterior with tracheal 
tubes. Tarsal claws, two in Dysdera, three in Harpactes and Segestria. 



1. Harpactes hombergii (Scopoli). 

Carlisle, Lake districts. 
Common ; April to July. 

2. Segestria senoculata (Linna^us). 

Carlisle and district, Lake districts. 
Common ; July. 



OONOPID^ 

3. Oonops pulcher^T&'m.'^tX.on. 
Lake districts. 
Rare ; adult in July. 



DRASSIDiE 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows. The tracheal openings lie 
immediately in front of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in number, but the anterior 
pair of spinners are set close together at their base, and the maxillae are convex and not 
impressed in the middle. 



4. Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall). 

Carlisle and district. 
Abundant on the fell sides, under stones ; 
adult from May to December. 

5. Drassodes troglodytes (C. L. Koch). 

Lake districts. 
Not common ; adult in June and July. 

6. Prosthesima latreillii, Simon. 

Lake districts, Eskdale, Borrowdale, Grise- 
dale (A. R. J.). 



Not uncommon 
September. 



adult 



August 



7. Prosthesima petiverii, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Lake districts, Eskdale (A. R. J.). 
Rare ; adult in August and September. 

8. Prosthesima electa (C. L. Koch). 

Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 
Probably common on all the sandhills from 
Southport to the Solway ; August. 



CLUBIONID.E 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows. The tracheal openings lie 
immediately in front of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in number, but the anterior 
pair of spinners are set close together at the base, and the maxilla are convex, and not 
impressed in the middle. 



9. Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall). 

Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

10. Phrurolithus festivus, C. L. Koch. 
Eden Valley. 

Rare. 



1 1 . Clubiona reclusa, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Lake district. 

Abundant on the borders of the lakes in 
June. 



146 



SPIDERS 



12. Clubiona compta, C. L. Koch. 
Carlisle, Gilsland and Lake district. 

Common amongst foliage in June. 

13. Clubiona pallidula (Clerck), 
Lake districts. 

Fairly common in June on low shrubs 
along the margins of the lakes. Known also 
as C. epimelas. 

14. Clubiona phragmith, C. L. Koch. 
Solway district and Penrith. 

Abundant in May and June. 

15. Clubiona terrestris, Westring. 
Eden Valley district. 

Not uncommon in June and July. 

16. Clubiona stagnatilis, Kulczynski. 
Solway district and Penrith. 

Known also as C. grisea. 

17. Clubiona trivialis, C. L. Koch. 

Amongst heather in the Lake districts 7 
(A. R. J.). 

18. Clubiona diversa, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

Rare ; under stones in August. 

19. Chiracanthium erraticum, Walckenaer. 
Eden Valley district (F. O. P. C.) ; Lake 

districts (A. R. J.). 

Not uncommon amongst brambles in the 
neighbourhood of Carlisle. 

20. Agrosca brunnea (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley district. 

Rare ; amongst herbage in the woods. 



21. Agrceca proxima (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake district (A. R. J.). 

Common everywhere on the fells, especially 
in damp places. 

22. Agrceca celans (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Very rare ; a few adult females only 



amongst 
April. 



23 



moss in the woods at Wreay in 



Zora maculata (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley district. 
Common. Known also as Hecaerge macu- 
lata or spinimana. 

THOMISIDiE 

24. Xysticus erraticus (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. May. 
A single adult male only. 

25- Xysticus cristatus (Clerck). 

Eden Valley and Lake districts. 
Common throughout the summer. 

26. Xysticus sabulosus (Hahn). 

Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 
A few adult examples of both sexes. 
August. 

Oxyptila atomaria (Panzer). 

Lake districts (A. R. J.). 
Not uncommon in marshes, among long 
grass. Known also as Thomisus versutus, 
Blackwall. 



28 



Philodromus aureolus (Clerck). 
Eden Valley districts. 
Not abundant. 



29. Philodromus f alia X (Sundevall). 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Very abundant. A dozen can be obtained 
from a single tuft of marram grass. Adult 
in spring and late autumn. 

30. Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith ; Solway district ; 

Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Common ; adult in May and June. 

31. Thanatus striatus (C. L. Koch). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Not uncommon. Adult in May, and 
known also as Thanatus hirsutus. 



SALTICID^ 



The spiders of this family may be recognized in a general way by their mode of progres- 
sion, consisting of a series of leaps, often many times their own length. More particularly 
chey may be known by the square shape of the cephalic region and the fact that the eyes are 
arranged in three rows of 4, 2, 2 ; the centrals of the anterior row being much the largest 
and usually iridescent. Those of the second row are the smallest, while the posterior pair is 
placed well back and helps to give the quadrate character to the carapace. Otherwise these 
spiders are simply specialized Clubionids with two tarsal claws and other minor characters 
possessed in common with members of this latter family. 

They can be beaten from foliage or found amongst herbage and under stones. The 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

commonest, Salticus scenkus, will be well known to all observers, running and leaping on the 
walls of houses in the bright sunshine. 



32. Salticus scenkus (Clerck). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 

Not common, on the walls of houses ; 
June. Known also as Epiblemum scenkum. 

33. Euophrys erratkus (Walckenaer). 
Eden Valley, Gilsland, Lake districts. 

Common on the stone walls, under the 
coping stones, in June. 

34. Euophrys frontalis (Walckenaer). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Not common ; adult in May. 

35. Neon reticulatus (Blackwall). 

Newtown Moss, Penrith ; Lake districts 
(A. R. J.). 

Rare ; adult in May. 



36. Ergane falcata (Clerck). 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

Not uncommon ; on bushes in August. 
Known also as Hasarius falcatus and Salticus 
coronatus, 

37. Attus saltator, Simon. 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Abundant ; at the roots of the marram 
grass in August. 

38. Dendryphantes ha status (Clerck). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Three adult females only in May. 

39. Heliophanus flavipes (Hahn). 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Common ; amongst the grass in August. 



PISAURID^ 

Spiders with eight eyes in three rows, and three tarsal claws. The first row of eyes 
consists of four small eyes which are sometimes in a straight line, sometimes recurved and 
sometimes procurved. Those of the other two rows are situated in a rectangle of various 
proportions. Pisaura runs freely over the herbage, carrying its egg-sac beneath the body. 



40. Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck). 

Eden Valley, Solway and Lake district. 
Very common ; adult in June and July. 



Known also as Dolomedes or Ocyale mirabilis. 



LYCOSID^ 

The members of this family have also eight eyes, similarly situated to those of the 
Pisaurida, the tarsal claws also being three in number. The spiders are to be found running 
freely and carrying their egg-sac attached to the spinners. Many of the larger species make 
a short burrow in the soil and there keep guard over the egg-sac. 



41. Lycosa accentuata, Latreille. 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

Common all over the fells in June. Known 
also as Tarentula andrenivora. 

42. Lycosa pulverulenta (Clerck). 
Lake districts. 

Common in June. Known also under 
Tarentula. 

43. Lycosa cuneata (Clerck). 
Lake districts. 

A single male and female adult in June. 
Known also under the name Tarentula. 

44. Lycosa miniata (C. L. Koch). 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Very common in August. Known also as 
Tarentula, 



[48 



45. Lycosa perita, Latreille. 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

Very common in August. Known also 
under the name Trochosa picta. 

46. Lycosa ruricola (De Geer). 
Lake district. 

Very common ; adult in June, Known 
also under the name Trochosa. 

47. Lycosa terricola (Thorell). 
Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Not uncommon amongst dead leaves in 
Armathwaite woods ; adult in June. Known 
also under the name Trochosa. 

48. Lycosa spinipalpis., F. P.-Cambridge. 
Lake Derwentwater. 

A single adult male and female only. 



49- Pardasa lugubris (Walckenaer). 
Eden Valley. 
A very abundant species in April, running 
over the dead leaves in the woods at Arma- 
thwaite and Wreay. This and the following 
species are known also under the name Lycosa. 

50. Pardosa monticola (Clerck). 

Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts. 
Very common ; adult in May and June. 

5 1 . Pardosa palustrh (Linn.). 
Solway and Lake districts. 

Very common ; adult in May and June. 

52. Pardosa purbeckensis, F. P.-Cambridge. 
Solway. 

Not abundant ; adult in May. 

53. Pardosa agricola (Thorell). 

Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

. A species confined to the mountainous dis- 
tricts ; adult in May and June. 

54. Pardosa annulata (Thorell), 
Lake districts. 

Not common ; adult in May and June. 



SPIDERS 

55 



Pardosa pullata (Clerck). 
Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts. 
Abundant everywhere ; adult throughout 
the summer. 

56. Pardosa nigriceps (Thorell). 
Lake districts. 
Occurs commonly throughout the heather 
districts on the Fells ; adult in June. 

57- Pardosa amentata (Clerck). 
Lake districts. 
Common and adult in May and June. 

58. Pardosa trailii (O. P.-Cambridge), 
Lake districts. 

Common on Styehead Pass amongst the 
loose stones of the screes ; adult in May and 
June. Confined to mountainous regions. 

59. Pirata ptratkus (Clerck). 

Lake districts ; Newtown Moss, Penrith. 
Both sexes of this and the two following 
species were found adult in June. 

60. Pirata hygrophilus, Thorell. 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

61. Pirata latitans (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 



AGELENIDiE 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows. Legs with three tarsal claws. 
The species of this family spin a large sheet-like web, and construct a tubular retreat at the 
back of it, which leads to some crevice amongst the rocks or the herbage or the chinks in the 
walls of outhouses, wherever the various species may happen to be found. The posterior pair 
of spinners is usually much longer than the other two pairs. 



62. Cryphaeca sylvicola (Blackwall). 
Lake districts. 

Common ; beneath stones. 

63. Cryphaeca diversa (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Eden Valley, on the banks of the Caldew. 

A single adult female in October, 

64. Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith ; Eden Valley, near 

Carlisle. 

65. Ccelotes atropos (Walckenaer), 
Carlisle and Lake district. 

Abundant throughout the whole county in 
the Fell and Lake districts up to an altitude 
of 2,000 feet. It is found under logs of 
wood, in stone walls or beneath isolated 
stones, where a sheet of white webbing often 
betrays the presence of the spider, A long 
tube runs beneath the log or stone, and both 
male and female can be found living together 



at the end ; while later the young spiders 
will be found spending the early days of their 
childhood with their mother. Adult in June. 
Mr. Randall-Jackson has taken them at an 
altitude of 3,180 feet on the summit of Hel- 
vellyn. 

66. Textrix denticulata (Olivier). 

Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Very abundant under the loose coping- 
stones of walls throughout the Carlisle district 
and Fell regions. Adult in May and June. 

67. Tegenaria derhami (Scopoli). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle and RockclifFe. 

Known also as Tegenaria civilis. 

68. Tegenaria silvestris, L, Koch. 
Lake districts ; Derwentwater. 

Adult in June. Known also as T. cam- 
pestrisy C, L. Koch. 



149 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



69. Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck). 

The Lake districts ; Eskdale and Wastdale 
(A. R. J.). 
Very common, spinning its sheet-like web 
on gorse bushes. Adult in July. 

70. Hahnia montana (Blackwall). 

Lake districts. 

Common in the Tilberthwaite heath dis- 
tricts ; adult in June. 



71. Hahnia elegans (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Amongst the roots of aquatic plants close 
down at the top of the water. June. 

72. Hahnia nava (Blackwall). 

Lake districts. 1,100 feet (A. R. J.). 

73. Hahnia helveola^ Simon. 
Lake districts. 

Females were found adult in June. 



ARGIOPIDiE 

The spiders included in this family have eight eyes, situated in two rows, the lateral eyes 
of both rows being usually adjacent, if not in actual contact, while the central eyes form a 
quadrangle. The tarsal claws are three, often with other supernumerary claws. The web is 
either an orbicular (wheel-like) snare, or consists of a sheet of webbing beneath which the spiders 
hang and capture the prey as it falls upon the sheet. 



74. Nesticus cellulanus (Clerck). 
The Gelt, Gilsland, Eden Valley. 

Common ; adult in both sexes in May 
and June under damp herbage on rocks along 
the river margin. Known also as Linyphia 
crypticolens. 

75. Meta meriancs (Scopoli). 

Eden Valley ; Carlisle, Wetheral, RockclifFe. 
Abundant in cellars and beneath the over- 
hanging rocks and steep damp banks through- 
out the district. Known also as Epeira an- 
triada and celata, Blackwall. 

76. Meta segmentata (Clerck). 

Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts. 
Very common. Known also as Epeira 
inclinata, Blackwall. 

77- Meta menardi (Latreille). 

Lake districts ; Boot (A. R. J.). 
About a dozen specimens found in one 
small cave, but in no other cave or mine. 
Known also as Epeira fusca, Blackwall. 

78. ZiUa atrica (C. L. Koch). 
Eden Valley and the Lake district. 

Abundant on the stone walls and amongst 
shrubs. Known also as Epeira callophylla. 

79. Zilla X -notata (Clerck). 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 

Adult in June and July. Known also as 
Epeira similis. 

80. Araneus quadratus (Clerck). 
Eden Valley. 

This fine spider is abundant in the mature 
state on the heathy common of Kingmoor, 
near Carlisle. This is the bee-catching 
spider. 



81. Araneus redii (Scopoli). 
Lake districts. 

Common in the heather districts in June 
and July. Known also as Epeira solers. 

82. Araneus umbraticus (Clerck). 

Eden Valley ; Gilsland ; Pooley Bridge 
(A. R. J.). 

83. Araneus diadematus (Clerck). 
Eden Valley, Solway, Lake districts. 

Very abundant everywhere ; adult in Octo- 
ber. Black varieties common on the Fells. 

84. Araneus cornutus (Clerck). 
Lake and Fell districts. 

Common on the Watendlath Fells, Bor- 
rowdale ; July. Known also as Epeira apo- 
clisa. 

85. Araneus patagiatus (Clerck). 

Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts ; 
St. Herbert's Island, Derwentwater ; 
Shores of Haweswater (A. R. J.). 

86. Araneus cucurbitinus (Clerck). 
Eden Valley district. 

This beautiful species, grass-green with red 
tip to the abdomen, is very common in the 
nursery gardens near Carlisle. 

87. Singa hamata. 
Ulpha Fell (A. R. J.). 

About twenty-five specimens were taken 
from their webs spun among the heather 
branches in a swampy bit of moorland. 

88. Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus). 
Fells and Lake district (A. R. J.). 

Heather districts ; common. 



150 



SPIDERS 



89. Tetragnatha solandri (Scopoli). 

Lake districts (A. R. J.) 

Common in woods. Eskdale and Ulles- 
water. 

90. Tetragnatha pinicola, L. Koch. 
Solway Moss. 

A single adult male. 

91. Pachygnatha clerkii, Sundevall. 
Solway, Eden Valley, Lake districts. 

Abundant amongst grass on the shores of 
the Solway, in the adult state in September. 

92. Pachygnatha degeerii, Sundevall. 
Eden Valley, Lake district. 

93. Pachygnatha listeri, Sundevall. 
Eden Valley. 

Rare ; a fevir examples of the female sex 
amongst dead leaves in the Armathwaite 
woods. 

94. Linyphia montana (Clerck). 
Eden Valley, Solway, Lake district. 

Common on the islands in Lake Derwent- 
water. June. Known also as L. marginata, 
Blackwall, 

95. Linyphia clathrata, Sundevall, 
Eden Valley. 

Common in the neighbourhood of Carlisle ; 
June. 

96. Linyphia pusilla, Simdevall. 

The Gelt, near Carlisle (H. Friend). 
A single specimen only ; April. 

97. Linyphia triangularis (Clerck). 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 

Known also as L. montana, Blackwall ; 
July and August. 

98. Linyphia peltata (Wider). 
Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Common on the foliage of trees through- 
out the district ; June. 

99. Linyphia insignis, Blackwall. 
Eden Valley. 

Very common amongst grass on the banks 
of the Irthing at Gilsland. Males and females 
adult in September. 

100. Taranucnus setosus (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Abundant in August. Known also under 
the name Linyphia. 

lOi. Labulla thoracica (Wider). 
Eden Valley. 
Abundant under overhanging rocks and 
banks at Wetheral. Known also as Linyphia 
cauta, Blackwall. 



102. Floronia hucculenta (Clerck). 
Eden Valley. 

A few examples of both sexes in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dalston in September. Known 
also as Linyphia frenata. 

103. Bolyphantes alticeps (Sundevall). 
Penrith and Lake district. 

Adult males on Penrith Beacon and Hel- 
vellyn in September. Known also under the 
name Linyphia. 

104. Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall). 
Silloth and Penrith Beacon. 

Abundant among marram grass on the 
sand-dunes in September. Known also under 
Linyphia. 

105. Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall). 
Eden Valley ; Eskdale (A. R. J.). 

Common on rocks overhanging the Eden 
at Wetheral and the Irthing at Gilsland ; also 
on pine-trees near Carlisle, and in Muncaster 
woods, Eskdale. 

106. Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus). 
Eden Valley and Solway districts. 

Not uncommon. Known also as Linyphia 
hucculenta. 

107. Tapinopa longidens (Wider). 
Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Common under stones at Elterwater and 
Talkin Tarn. Known also under Linyphia. 

108. Lepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall). 
Carlisle. 

Two adult male examples only in an out- 
house. This and the following species under 
Lepthyphantes and Bathyphantes are known also 
under the name Linyphia. 

109. Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert). 
Carlisle. 

110. Lepthyphantes terricolus (C. L. Koch). 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant in the adult state amongst dead 
leaves at Armathwaite and Wreay in April. 
Known also as Linyphia alacris, Blackwall. 

111. Lepthyphantes tenuis (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant amongst grass on the banks of 
the Irthing at Gilsland in September. Known 
also as Linyphia tenebricola, Blackwall. 

112. Lepthyphantes blackwallii, Kulczynski. 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant amongst grass on the banks of 
the Irthing in September. Known also as 
Linyphia zebrina. 



151 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



113. Lepthyphantes tenebricolus (Wider). 
Eden Valley. 

A single adult male near Armathwaite. 

114. Lepthyphantes flavipei (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

A few examples among grass in tins neigh- 
bourhood of Carlisle. 

115. Lepthyphantes pinicolus, Simon. 
Lake district (A. R. J.). 

Common under stones on the slopes of 
Helvellyn, and Croslin, or Cross Fell, in the 
Pennine range ; September. 

116. Lepthyphantes cristatus, Menge. 
Eden Valley. 

Rare under stones in the woods at Arma- 
thwaite in April. 

117. Lepthyphantes obscurus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

A few examples of both sexes amongst dead 
leaves at Armathwaite in April. 

118. Lepthyphantes pa llidus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Amongst dead leaves at Armathwaite (April) 
and in Newtown Moss, Penrith, in September. 

119. Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Common in the crannies of stone walls in 
the neighbourhood of Carlisle in August. 

1 20. Lepthyphantes ericceus (Blackwall). 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

Under stones on the Lower Fells. 

121. Bathyphantes concolor (Wider). 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 

Common throughout the whole district in 
the summer months. 

122. Bathyphantes meadil (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Carlisle and Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Common and adult in May and October. 
Known also as Linyphia approximata, O. P.- 
Cambridge. 

123. Bathyphantes n'tgrtnus (Blackwall). 
Carlisle ; Newtown Moss, Penrith ; Lake 

districts. 

Common and adult in July. 

124. Bathyphantes setiger, F. P.-Cambridge 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

A few adults of both sexes in May. 

125. Bathyphantes gracilis (Blackwall). 
Carlisle ; Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Common and adult in July. 



126. Bathyphantes pullatus {O. P.-Cambridge). 
Eden Valley and Solway districts. 

127. Bathyphantes dorsalis (Wider). 
Carlisle. 

Abundant in the adult state on gorse bushes 
and trees in the summer. 

128. Pasciloneta variegata (Blackwall). 
Lake districts. 

Abundant under stones, but apparently 
local. Known also under Linyphia. 

129. Porrhomma pygmaum (Blackwall). 
Carlisle. 

Common on railings in the autumn. Known 
also under Neriene. 

130. Macrargus adipatus (L. Koch). 
Penrith Beacon. Helvellyn (A. R. J.). 

A few adults of both sexes in September. 
Known also as Linyphia reticulata. 

131. Macrargus rufus (Wider). 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant among dead leaves at Arma- 
thwaite in April. Known also under Neriene. 

132. Macrargus abnormis [O.V.-CzvahnAgt). 
Eden Valley. 

Not uncommon in the woods at Arma- 
thwaite. Known also under Linyphia. 

133. Oreoneta rudis (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake District. 

Adult males and females were taken on the 
summit of Helvellyn in September. Known 
also as Tmeticus and Oreoneta niger, F. P.-Cam- 
bridge. 

134. Hilaira uncata (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake district. Fairfield (A. R. J.). 

135. Leptorhoptrum huthwaitii (O. P.-Cam- 

bridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith ; Eden Valley and 
Lake districts, Haweswater (A. R. J.). 
Beneath stones on the banks of the Eden in 
June and July. Known also under Neriene. 

136. Centromerus bicolor (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant near Carlisle and Gilsland in 
September and October. Known also under 
Linyphia. 

137. Centromerus concinnus (Thorell). 
Eden Valley. 

Not uncommon near Carlisle and Gilsland 
in September and October. Known also under 
Linyphia. This species is possibly only a 
dwarf form of bicolor. 
52 



SPIDERS 



138. Centromerus expertus (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

A few adult males and females in Septem- 
ber. Known also under Linyphia. 

139. Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall). 
Penrith Beacon. 

Very rare. Known also under Nereine. 

140. Leptothrix hardii (Blackwall). 
Ravenglass Sandhills (A. R. J.). 

A common spider on sand-dunes in August. 
Known also as Wakkenara hardii and Lepto- 
thrix clavipes, Menge. 

141. Mengea scopiger (Grube). 

Lake districts (A. R. J.) ; Eden Valley and 
Solway districts. 

Abundant amongst herbage on the banks of 
Eden, shores of Solway and in Newtown Moss, 
Penrith, in August and September. Known 
also as Linyphia rufa, Pedina scopiger and P. 
cristata, Menge. Pedina is preoccupied. 

142. Mengea warburtonii (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Fairly common in the month of August. 

143. Microneta viaria (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Found in profusion in the springtime 
amongst dead leaves in the woods at Armath- 
waite and Wreay. Known also under Neriene. 

144. Microneta decora (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Newton Moss, Penrith. 

A single adult male in May. Known also 
under Neriene. 

145. Microneta conigera (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake district. 

A single adult male amongst grass on Ling- 
moor Fells, Elterwater in June. Known also 
under Neriene. 

146. Micryphantes sublimis {O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake district. 

A very local species, but taken plentifully 
under stones on the slopes of Helvellyn in 
September. Known also under Neriene. 

147. Micryphantes fuscipalpis (C. L. Koch). 
Eden Valley. 

Common in the neighbourhood of Carlisle. 
Known also under Neriene, possibly including 
also M. rurestris, L. Koch. 

148. Erigone dentipalpis (Wider). 

Eden Valley ; Solway and Lake districts. 
Common. Known also under the name 
Neriene. 



149. Erigone atra (Blackwall). 

Lake district ; Solway and Eden Valley. 

150. Tiso vagans (Blackwall). 

Carlisle. 

A single male only. Known also under the 
name Neriene. 

151. Gongylidium rufipes (Sundevall). 
Lake districts. 

Known also as Neriene rufipes. 

152. Coryphceus distinctus (Simon). 
Carlisle. 

A single adult male. Known also as Cary- 
phtsus glabriceps, F. P.-Cambridge. 

153. Stylothorax apicatus (Blackwall). 
Lake district. 

Not common, June. Known also under 
Neriene. 

154. Kukzynskiellum gibbosum (Blackwall). 
Lake district. 

Not common, June. Known also under 
Neriene. 

155. Kulczynskiellum tuberosum (Blackwall). 
Lake districts, and Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Not uncommon in May and June. Known 
also under Neriene. 

156. Kulczynskiellum retusum (Westring). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Not uncommon in May and June. Known 
also under Neriene. 

157. Kulczynskiellum fuscum (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under Neriene. 

158. Kulczynskiellum agreste (Blackwall). 
Lake district. 

On the shores of Ulleswater in July. 
Known also under Neriene. 

159. Trachygnatha dentata (Wider). 
Solway, and Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under Neriene. 

160. Neriene rubens (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 

Occasionally met with in October. Known 
also under Gonatium. 

161. Neriene isabellina (C. L. Koch). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 

Not uncommon in October. Known also 
as Neriene rubella, Blackwall. 

162. Hypomma hituberculatum (Wider). 
Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts. 

Abundant in spring and autumn in New- 



153 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



town Moss, Penrith. Known also under 
Neriene. 

163. Dicymbium nigrum (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Common in the woods of Armathwaite and 
Wreay in April. Known also under Neriene. 

164. Dicymbium tibiale (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley ; Lake district (A. R. J.). 

Rare ; in woods at Wreay in April. Known 
'also under Neriene. 

165. Lophomma herbigradum (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith (A. R. J.). 

Both sexes adult in June. Known also 
under Neriene. 

166. Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Both sexes adult in June. Known also 
under Walckenaera. 

167. Tapinocyba subitanea (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Eden Valley. 

A single adult male near Carlisle. Known 
also under Walckenaera. 

168. Tapinocyba beckii (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Lake district. 

Adult males and females in June. Known 
also under Walckenaera. 

169. Viderius anticus (Wider). 
Lake districts. 

Adult males in June. Known also under 
Walckenaera. 

170. Viderius melanocephalus (O. P.-Cam- 

bridge). 
Lake district. 
A single adult female in June. Known 
also under Walckenaera. 

iji. Prosoponcus cristatus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 
A single adult male near Carlisle in Feb- 
ruary. 

172. Walckenaeria acuminata (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley, Gilsland. 

Abundant amongst grass on the banks of 
the Irthing of both sexes in September. 

173. Walckenaeria nudipalpis (Westring). 
Keppelcove Tarn, Glenridding (A. R. J.). 

A single adult male. Known also under 
Walckenaera. 

174. Cornicularia cuspidata (Blackwall). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Adult males and females in May. Known 
also under Walckenaera. 



175. Cornicularia karpinskii (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Red Tarn, Helvellyn (A. R. J.). 

An adult of both sexes in August. This 
is the first record of this Siberian species as 
British. 

176. Cornicularia clara (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Eden Valley. 

Adult females amongst leaves in the woods 
at Wreay. Known also under Neriene. 

177. Savignia frontata, Blackwall. 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 

A few adults of both sexes in October. 
Known also under Walckenaera. 

178. Plasiocrarus fiiscipes (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Abundant amongst dead leaves at Arma- 
thwaite in May and October. 

179. Plasiocrarus permixtus (O. P.-Cam- 

bridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 
A single adult male only in September. 
Known also under Walckenaera. 

180. Plasiocrarus latifrom (O. P.-Cam- 

bridge). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 
Adult males and females in February. 
Known also under Walckenaera. 

181. Areoncus humilis (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. 

A single adult male on the banks of the 
Caldew. Known also under Walckenaera. 

182. Caledonia evansii (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Grisedale Pass, Helvellyn (A. R. J.). 

Three adult males. 

183. Cnepha locates curtus, Simon. 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

An adult male and several immature under 
stones on the summit of Fairfield, 2,650 feet, 
in August. 

184. Nematogmus obscurus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley. 

Amongst dead leaves in Armathwaite woods. 
Rare. Known also under Cnephalocotes and 
Walckenaera. 

185. Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley and Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under Walckenaera. 

186. Brachycentrum nemorale (Blackwall). 
Armathwaite. 

A few adult in April. Known also under 
Walckenaera, 



154 



SPIDERS 



187. Lophocarenum mengei, Simon. 
Lake district. 

A few males and females on an island in 
Lake Elterwater in July. Only British 
record. 

188. Minyriolus pusillus (Wider). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under the name Wakkenaera. 

189. Entelecara acuminata (Wider). 
Carlisle. 

A few adult males in May and June ; 
rare. Known also under Wakkenaera. 

190. Entelecara erythropus (Westring). 
Carlisle. 

Common on foliage in May and June. 
Known also under Wakkenaera. 



191. Entelecara trtfrons (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Eden Valley and Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under Wakkenaera. 

192. Ceratinella scabrosa (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under the name Wakkenaera. 

193. Ceratinella hrevipes (Westring). 
Solway district. 

194. Ceratinella brevis (Wider). 
Windermere (A. R. J.). 

Females in woods ; August. 

195. Maso sundevallii (Westring). 
Newtown Moss, Penrith. 

Known also under the name Neriene. 



MIMETID^ 

Spiders of this family are similar in general respects to the Theridiida, having eight eyes 
and three tarsal claws. The species of Ero construct a small brown pear-shaped or cylindrical 
egg-cocoon suspended on a fine silken stalk. 

196. Ero furcata (Villers). 

Eden Valley, Solway and Lake districts. 
Not common. Known also as E. thoracica and Theridion variegatum. 



THERIDIID^ 

The members of this family have eight eyes situated very much like those of the Argio- 
pidee, but the mandibles are usually weak, the maxillag are inclined over the labium, and the 
posterior legs have a comb of stiff curved spines beneath the tarsi. The web consists of a 
tangle of crossing lines, and the spider often constructs a tent-like retreat wherein the egg-sac 
is hung up. 



197. Episinus lugubris, Simon. 
Eden Valley district. 

Not common amongst dry grass. Known 
also as E. truncatus and Theridion angulatum. 

198. Asagena phalerata (^3.m&r). 
Lake districts (A. R. J.). 

Not uncommon under stones at a low ele- 
vation in August on Loughrigg Fell, Amble- 
side ; Eskdale, Wastdale, Grisedale and Bor- 
rowdale ; but the adult male has not yet been 
taken. Known also as Theridion signatum, 
Blackwall. 

199. Steatoda bipunctata (Linn.). 
Eden Valley district, Carlisle. 

A few only in stables and outhouses. 
Known also under Theridion. 



200. Theridion tepidariorum (C. L. Koch). 
Eden Valley district. 

Abundant in the conservatories of the nur- 
sery gardens near Carlisle and at Dalston. 

201. Theridion sisyphium (Clerck). 
Eden Valley district. 

Plentiful on holly and gorse bushes in the 
neighbourhood of Carlisle. Known also as 
T. nervosum, Blackwall. 

202. Theridion pictum (Walckenaer). 
Eden Valley district. 

Abundant in the nursery gardens near Car- 
lisle, and also amongst gorse bushes on the 
banks of the Eden in June. 

203. Theridion varians, Hahn. 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 



155 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



204. Thertdion denticulatum (Walckenaer). 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 

Abundant on stone walls near Lodore, 
Derwentwater, in July. 

205. Thertdion vittatum, C. L. Koch. 
Eden Valley district. 

Rose Castle, Dalston, on railings in June. 
Known also as T. pukhellum. 

206. Thertdion pallem, Blackwall. 
Eden Valley district. 

Common on the foliage of trees at Weth- 
eral and near Carlisle in May and June. The 
curious little white egg-cocoon, like an in- 
verted peg-top with four small lateral promin- 
ences, is fastened by the broad end to the 
surface of the leaves and not balanced on or 
hanging by the point as usually represented. 

207. Thertdion ovatum (Clerck). 
Eden Valley and Lake district. 

Plentiful on bramble bushes, where the 



female constructs her sea-green egg-sac within 
a folded leaf in June and July. Known also 
as Phyllonethis lineata. 

208. Thertdion lepidum (Walckenaer). 
Lake district. 

A few examples only under a stone on the 
Tilberthwaite Fells, Coniston, in July. 
Known also as Phyllonethis instabilis. 

209. Pedanostethus lividus (Blackwall). 
Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Abundant under stones throughout the 
summer. Known also under Neriene. 

210. Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn). 
Eskdale (A. R. J.). 

Females only taken under stones on the 
fells and on bushes in the valleys. 

211. Pholcomma gihbum (Westring). 
Solway Moss. 

Not common ; amongst dry grass. Known 
also under Theridion. 



ULOBORIDiE 

The species of this family are remarkable for the possession of the calamistrum and cri- 
bellum, but many of the spiders construct an orbicular web similar to that of many members 
of the Jrgiopidte. They are very rare in England, being mostly denizens of the tropics. 



212. Hyptiotes paradoxus (C. L. Koch). 
Grange ; Lake district (J. H.). 
Though comparatively a small spider it is 
of great interest on account of its extraordinary 
habits. Most of the orb-web spinners having 
constructed their net retire into a hiding-place 
having a line leading from the centre of the 
web to the retreat. This line they hold with 
the claws of a fore-leg, and thus receive instant 
notice of any insect touching the web and 
viscid lines. Directly this occurs the line is 
often jerked several times to encourage the 
entanglement of the insect, and the spider 
hastens to ascertain the nature of its capture. 
Hyptiotes however derives an even more re- 
fined amusement from the daily task of pro- 
viding itself with food. In this case the web 
is simply an isosceles triangle with cross-lines 
between the legs and the central radius, the 
legs being continued further than the base 
and fastened to a twig. From the apex of 
the triangle, which lies horizontally, a line is 
attached and held in the claws of the first two 
pairs of legs of the spider, being also attached 
to a twig a short distance behind the spider. 



and held in the claws of the two hind pairs of 
legs. This trap-line, as it is called, is gathered 
in a coil close to the spinners and held fast 
while the web is strained tight. Directly an 
insect touches the net, Hyptiotes lets go the 
slack, the net springs back and naturally falls 
more or less loosely on the struggling insect ; 
while the spider, still holding tight to the 
trap-line with its fore claws, is dragged for- 
ward by the spring of the net. Sometimes 
the slack is drawn in again and the net again 
sprung to make sure of a capture. I have 
observed cases in which the trap-line is not 
continuous but broken oflF, and the hinder 
portion proceeds directly from the spinners. 
The web has also often more than one central 
radius, but beyond slight differences such as 
these the mode of operation is the same in all 
cases which have come under my notice. 

These very rare spiders have only been 
elsewhere taken in the New Forest, Hamp- 
shire, and the specimen taken by Mr. Hodg- 
kinson in 1868 was the first record for Great 
Britain, and remained the only record until 
1894. 



DICTYNID^ 

The species possess the calamistrum and cribellum and three tarsal claws, but the eyes, 
eight in number, are situated in two transverse rows, the laterals being in contact. They con- 

156 



SPIDERS 

struct a tubular retreat with an outer sheet of webbing which is covered with flocculent silk 
made with the calamistrum with threads from the cribellum. 

213. Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer). 216. Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus). 
Eden Valley, Carlisle. Lake districts. 

Known also under Ciniflo. Known also as Ergatis benigna. 

214. Amaurobius similis (Blackwall). 217. Dictyna uncinata, Thorell. 

Eden Valley ; Solway and Lake districts. Eden Valley and Lake districts. 

Known also under Ciniflo. or-.- 1^ 

218. Dictyna latens (Fabncius). 

215. Amaurobius fenestralis (Stroem.). Eskdale (A. R. J.). 

Eden Valley and Lake districts. Fairly common on gorse bushes in August 

Known also as Ciniflo atrox. and September. 



CHERNETES 

CHELIFERIDiE 

Out of twenty species of false scorpions hitherto recorded as indigenous to Great Britain 
only two have been taken in this county. The various species can usually be found amongst 
moss and dead leaves or beneath stones and the bark of trees. They are unmistakable on 
account of their possession of a pair of forcipated palpi like those of the true scorpion. These 
are usually extended wide open when the Arachnid is alarmed while it hastens backward to 
take shelter. The two species which have occurred in this county are the following : — 

219. Obisium muscorum (Leach). 220. Chernes nodosus (Schrank). 

Carlisle ; Armathwaite ; Wreay. Carlisle. 

Common in the woods amongst dead This species is usually found attached to a 

leaves. fly by the forcipated palpi. 

OPILIONES 

The harvestmen are spider-like creatures with eight long legs, the tarsi very long and 
flexible. Eyes simple, two in number, situated og each side of an eye eminence. Body not 
divided into two distinct regions by a narrow pedicle as in spiders ; abdomen segmentate. 

221. Phalangium opilio, Linn. 224. Oligolophus morio, Fabricius. 
Solway district. Lake districts. 

222. Phalangium parietinum, De Geer. 225. Oligolophus agrestis, Meade. 
Carlisle. Eden Valley. 

223. Megabunus insignis, Meade. 226. Nemastoma lugubre, O. F. Muller. 
Eden Valley. Solway district. 



157 



CRUSTACEANS 



The abundance and variety of the marine Crustacea recorded from 
the waters of Lancashire to the south, from the Isle of Man on the west 
and from the Firth of Clyde to the north of this county are an ample 
guarantee that Cumberland itself is richly supplied with a similar fauna. 
Many crustaceans are rapid and powerful swimmers. Some walk and 
run with great agility. Those that can only tardily creep and crawl often 
have a tortoise-like perseverance. Many are carried along by currents. 
Many attach themselves more or less permanently to divers kinds of moving 
objects. Almost all or not improbably all are so extremely prolific that 
the wide dispersal of their offspring is an obvious necessity of existence, and 
is well provided for in the restless waters they inhabit. It follows that no 
county can plume itself except quite accidentally on the possession of 
species denied to its immediate neighbours. Occasionally an erratic may 
be brought by a warm current or a cold current from some alien climate, 
or may come from far distant waters entangled among the incrustations 
on the sides of an ocean-going vessel. Such strangers, if they can main- 
tain their ground, will soon spread from the port of entry to adjacent 
points of vantage. The neglect then which has befallen this branch of 
the marine fauna of Cumberland must not in any way be attributed to 
dearth of materials. All that can be fairly inferred is that the coast line 
by its bold protrusion westward has proved unattractive to collectors. The 
naturalist usually prefers to work in tranquil bays and the retired nooks 
of winding inlets, leaving the treasures of exposed waters to such adven- 
turers as Horace describes with ribs of oak and triple bronze. 

In regard to the inland crustaceans of the county there is much 
interesting information available. Unfortunately for the terrestrial iso- 
poda or woodlice I have only been able to find a single notice. This 
however testifies to their occurrence and to a singular community of 
taste between them and several other kinds of Arthropoda. In a paper 
entitled ' Reminiscences in the Study of Natural History ' Mr. Tom 
Duckworth describes the process of sugaring trees with rum and treacle 
for entomological purposes just before dark and waiting till the moths 
began to fly, after which, he continues, ' if it were a good night, we 
were pretty busy for some time boxing the insects ; then came a lull, 
and after a little rest other species came to our sweet compound. I 
don't know what teetotalers may think, but I have seen centipedes, 
woodlice, earwigs, beetles, spiders, and slugs all attracted to the mix- 
ture. I have seen them with their eyes shining like little globes of fire 

158 



CRUSTACEANS 

fall off the trees helplessly drunk.' ^ It would have added much to the 
interest of this passage had the author been able to discriminate a little, 
smce, though the general intoxication is credible, the globes of fire do 
not seem equally probable in slugs and spiders as in beetles and wood- 
lice. 

The well-known amphipod Gammarus pulex was brought to me 
some years ago by a friend from a mountain tarn in the Lake district. 
The specimens and records of locality were unluckily destroyed by fire, 
but this is of less importance, as it may be taken for granted that the 
species is not confined to a single tarn but generally distributed. 

Dr. G. S. Brady's paper ' On Entomostraca Collected in the Solway 
District ' might be relied on for attributing to Cumberland several marine 
and brackish water species of Ostrac6da and Copepoda. But the evidence 
is weakened by the circumstance that his collections were confined to the 
Scottish side of the firth. ^ 

For the freshwater Entomostraca of the county there are definite 
reports by several competent observers. From their investigations, 
though confessedly incomplete, a fair conception may be formed of 
the diversity, the multitude, and the value of the living creatures in 
question. None however can be brought to understand the fascination 
of studying these minute objects except by studying them. It is a case 
in which it may be truly said that the appetite comes by eating. 

The Entomostraca are divided into three orders, Branchi6poda, 
Ostracoda and Copepoda. The Branchiopoda are again divided into four 
sub-orders, all of which are likely enough to be represented in Cumber- 
land, although actual records entitle us to deal with only one of them, 
the Clad6cera. This is by far the most extensive of the four, but the 
animals in most of its species are the smallest. One of them, Alonella 
nana (Baird), claims to be the smallest arthropod known, a hundred and 
ten specimens placed end to end being required to cover an inch.' The 
name Cladocera means ' branching antenna,' and this should be borne in 
mind, as it refers to a characteristic feature alike important for the loco- 
motion of the animals and for the discrimination of their families and 
genera. For though all the species, with a solitary exception in one 
sex, have the second antennae two-branched, yet the number of the joints 
is variable and so also is the number of setas with which they are armed. 
Another basis of classification has been found in the varying characters of 
the feet. This permits an arrangement of the genera under four sections, 
each with a significant name. The Ctenopoda, or ' comb-footed,' have 
six pairs of feet, all similar, leaf-like, branchial, non-prehensile, and fur- 
nished with a comb-like arrangement of sets. The Anom6poda, or 
' dissimilar-footed,' that is to say with feet not all alike, have five or 
six pairs, of which the front ones are more or less prehensile and non- 

1 Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of Literature and 
S«>«f^, No. xvii. p. 97 (Carlisle, 1893). 

2 Nat. Hist. Trans. T<!orthumberland, Durham and 'Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vol. xiii. pt. i. (1895). 

3 Scourfield, The Essex Naturalist, vol. x. p. 194 (1897). 

159 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

branchial, while the hinder feet are as in the Ctenopoda. The Onych6- 
poda, or ' nail-footed,' have only four pairs of feet, these being prehensile, 
ending in strong nails, and having a toothed process at the base. The 
Haplopoda, or ' simple-footed,' are so called because their six pairs of feet 
are simple, without a process.^ All these sections are represented in the 
waters of Cumberland. 

To the Ctenopoda belongs Sida crystallina (O. F. Miiller), of which 
Miss Edith M. Pratt, in her paper on ' The Entomostraca of Lake Bassen- 
thwaite,' reports that ' it was the most common species taken in April, 
1898. In June very few specimens were taken, but these were of a large 
size, with well-developed ova and embryos.' * This species has a very 
transparent carapace, and a singular apparatus on the back of its head for 
attaching itself to weeds or to other objects such as the wall of an aqua- 
rium. At present it stands alone in the genus Sida, but that genus itself 
is one of a considerable family named after it, the Sididce. Among these 
Sida is easy to recognize, because in its second antennas it alone combines 
a three-jointed dorsal with a two-jointed ventral branch, and it alone has 
a row of twenty or more simple and isolated teeth on the dorsal margin 
of its tail-piece.' In the same family stands ^Daphnella brachyura^ which 
Miss Pratt reports as common in lake Bassenthwaite in June but absent 
in April.* The name Daphnella, applied by Baird in 1850, was pre- 
occupied, and has therefore to give way to Diaphanosdma, Fischer, 1851, 
and here it will be noticed that the generic name, meaning 'a diaphanous 
body,' testifies to the transparency of the valves, just as the specific name 
does for the crystalline Sida. How greatly this character adds to the ease 
and pleasure of studying the living animals under the microscope will be 
understood without any laboured discussion to prove it. In Diaphanosoma 
the tail-piece has no teeth, and the very large second antennae have two 
joints to the dorsal and three to the ventral branch. The species men- 
tioned is far from being confined to lake Bassenthwaite. It can be 
obtained also in the Sea of Galilee and in very many other parts of the 
world. 

The Anomopoda, being by far the largest of the four sections, is 
here as commonly elsewhere the best represented. While the other 
three sections have four families among them, this has four families to 
itself, and within these are distributed a very considerable number of 
genera and species. Of the families, the Daphniidas is that which has 
been able to force itself most into notice, so that occasionally members 
of it swim into the ken, not only of scientific students, but of ordinary 
observers. The genus Daphnia, O. F. Miiller, is credited with about a 
hundred species and varieties. But these species and varieties are not all 
credited with being ' good ' in the scientific sense of that much enduring 
epithet. The characters on which they have been founded often prove 

1 Jules Richard, Ann. Set. Nat., ser. 7, vol. xviii. p. 331. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 471 (1898). 

3 J. Richard, Ann. Set. Nat., ser. 7, vol. xviii. p. 335. On p. 337 the words ventrak and doriak 
are accidentally transposed. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 470. 

160 



CRUSTACEANS 

to be so provokingly variable that the new names which they have lured 
authors into inventing for their specification eventually only confuse the 
story instead of helping to unravel the plot. When the same name may 
easily be applied to two or more forms really though not obviously dis- 
tinct, or a single species may be called unwittingly by several different 
names, local records are inevitably exposed to some indefiniteness. The 
' common water-flea ' is Daphnia pulex (Linn.), or D. pulex, de Geer, or 
D. pulex, Latreille, or D. pulex, Baird, or D. pulex, Leydig, or D. pulex 
of a great many other authorities. But, according to Dr. Jules Richard, 
Leydig was the first to give such a description as can be depended upon 
for isolating the form he was describing. Miss Pratt reports from lake 
Bassenthwaite ' Daphnia pulex, Latreille,' and remarks upon it that ' this 
species, while being widely distributed in pools and ditches in Britain, 
occurs but rarely in large sheets of water ; it was very rare in Bassen- 
thwaite in April and no specimens were taken in June.' ^ A reference 
is added to Baird's British Entomostraca, but the number of the plate is 
unluckily misprinted. The name of Latreille is of no assistance, as he 
did not contribute any first-hand information to this particular subject. 
Of a nearly allied species, Daphnia obtusa, Kurz, Dr. G. S. Brady states 
that he has ' found it in a shallow pool on the line of the Roman wall 
near Garthside, Walton, Cumberland (July, 1897),' and in his account of 
Daphnia propinqua, G. O. Sars, which he agrees with Richard in regard- 
ing as a variety oi Daphnia obtusa, he says, ' In the summer of 1897, in a 
shallow pool by the side of the Irthing at Walton, Cumberland, I took 
many specimens, all of them immature, which seem to be referable either 
to obtusa or its variety.' * This variety was reared by Sars out of dried 
mud sent from the Cape of Good Hope, and its propinquity to Daphnia 
obtusa is so close that Dr. Richard apparently upholds it more out of 
respect to the distinction of its author than for any other distinction. 
Even in regard to the original D. obtusa he observes, ' Like D. pulex, this 
species does not always appear identical with itself ; the variations may 
be tolerably extensive. Many authors even consider D. obtusa to be a 
variety of D. pulex, and it is certain that it has often been mentioned 
under the latter name.' ^ As to its geographical distribution he declares 
that it appears to be much more common than D. pulex, and that probably 
a great number of the localities attributed to the latter ought to be re- 
ferred to the former.* Of Daphnia longispina Miss Pratt says, 'This 
species was taken by Beck in the English lakes and by Scott in some of 
the Scottish lochs. It was rare [in Bassenthwaite] in April and no speci- 
mens were taken in June.' * No author's name is given for the species, 
but a reference to ' Daphnia longispina, Baird,' which should have been 
Daphnia pulex, var. longispina. The specific name dates back to O. F. 
Miiller in 1785, and is allowed to stand in spite of the vagueness attach- 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 472. 

* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. xiii. pt. ii. pp. 224, 226. 

* Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 8, vol. ii. p. 259. * Loc. cit. p. 261. 
6 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 472. 

I l6l M 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

ing to descriptions of that early period. By Sars it is held to be even 
more variable than D. pulex, so that he was led to make out of it several 
distinct species, which he has since reduced to the rank of varieties. To 
that which Baird figures Dr. Richard gives the designation ' Daphnia 
longispina, O. F. M., var. leydigi^ Hellich.' According to the French 
author, ' one may say without exaggeration that there are as many forms 
of D. longispina as there are localities for it.' ^ The long spine to which 
the specific name refers is the strongly produced hinder extremity of the 
carapace, while in D. pulex this caudal spine is very short and in D. 
obtusa rudimentary or wanting. Moreover in the two latter species the 
terminal claws or ungues of the body are provided with secondary den- 
ticles, whereas in D. longispina they are simply ciliated. 

To the same family of the Daphniidas belongs Moina rectirostris (O. 
F. Miiller), which in comparison with the forms already discussed may 
be set down as one of the very rare species. Dr. Brady in 1898 says, 
' I have myself only once met with it in a pond on Walton Common 
near Brampton, Cumberland, July, 1897.'^ The genus is easily distin- 
guished from Daphnia, because the valves, though they have rounded 
corners, are quadrangular instead of oval, and the head by a constriction 
all round has the appearance of being articulated, whereas in Daphnia the 
hind margin of the shell is as a rule continuous. In spite too of the 
specific name rectirostris, the head is not produced downward into a pro- 
minent beak or rostrum as it is in Daphnia. 

From the next family, the Bosminidae, Miss Pratt reports the occur- 
rence of Bosmina longirostris (O. F. Miiller), remarking, 'This species 
appears to be fairly common and widely distributed in Britain. In 
Bassenthwaite it was very common in all the tow-nettings in April, 
but rare in June.' ^ This minute animal looks as if it had a trunk like 
an elephant. To this appearance the specific name refers, though rather 
inaccurately, because it is not the rostrum itself that is so very long, but 
the first antenns which are attached to its apex, and by their close 
proximity seem in lateral view to be an actual prolongation of it. The 
Bosminidas, like the Daphniids, have four joints to the dorsal and three 
to the ventral branch of the second antenna, but these appendages, unlike 
those of the Daphniidas, are small instead of large. Here also the feet 
are equally spaced, instead of having the fifth pair as in the preceding 
family separated from the rest by a considerable interval. 

A third family is represented by the exceedingly common species 
Chydorus spharicus (O. F. MuUer). Miss Pratt speaks of it as Chydorus 
sphcericus, Baird, and rightly says that it is ' common in ponds and ditches 
in Britain almost all the year round,' including it among those species 
which in Bassenthwaite were abundant in April but rare in June.* This 
little spherical species was described by Miiller in 1776 as Lynceus 
spharicus, and the family to which it belongs has often been called 

^ Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 8, vol, ii. pp. 277, 290. 
* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. xiii. pt. ii. p. 245. 

8 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 471. * Loc. cit. pp. 470, 471. 

162 



CRUSTACEANS 

Lynceids, but that name is wanted elsewhere, so that the present family 
is properly named Chydoridse from the typical genus Chydorus established 
for this very species by Dr. Leach in 1816. It agrees with the Bos- 
minids in having five or six pairs of feet equally spaced, but is distin- 
guished by having only three joints in both branches of the second 
antennse. There is also another peculiarity, not difficult to observe 
through the pellucid valves of various species. The intestine, which 
in the two preceding families may make a more or less serpentine bend, 
here goes the length, not exactly of tying itself into a knot, but of form- 
ing one complete convolution and half another. 

Within the compass of this same family two species were recorded 
in 1867 by Norman and Brady, as having been found by the latter author 
in Thirlmere. Already numerous genera had been carved out of the 
original Lynceus, but not all of these at that date commended themselves 
to the two writers just named as worthy of adoption. Consequently 
they called the specimens from Thirlmere respectively Lynceus guttatus, 
G. O. Sars, and L. exiguus, Lilljeborg.* According to the nomencla- 
ture now generally accepted the former will stand as Alona guttata, 
Sars, and the latter as Alonella exigua (Lilljeborg). Both occur in Nor- 
way as well as in England, and in regard to the second Professor Sars 
makes the interesting comment that he had at one time confused it with 
A. excisa (Fischer), but had afterwards found these two little species 
to be easily distinguishable, when alive, even by the unassisted eye. 
Fischer's species, he explains, swims with quite a smooth motion, where- 
as A. exigua gets along by jerks and rapid leaps.^ 

The Onychopoda possess but one family, the Polyphemids, in 
which the genera are few, and of those few some are exclusively or 
almost exclusively marine. There are two freshwater genera, both of 
which are represented in Cumberland. These are Polyphemus, O. F. 
Muller, and Bythotrephes, Leydig. 

According to Miss Pratt Polyphemus pediculus (Linn.) ' was very 
rare in Bassenthwaite in April, but very abundant and universally dis- 
tributed at the surface and some little distance below the surface in June, 
with eggs, embryos and larvae in all stages of development." In this 
remarkable family the feet project from the shell and assist the antennas 
in the function of swimming. The brood cavity is very large. So also 
is the eye, the ever-trembling eye, which is so striking a feature in many 
Cladocera. For Polyphemus Muller effectively says that the head is all 
eye. 

In 1883 Conrad Beck, writing ' On some new Cladocera of the 
English Lakes,' makes the following remarks on Bythotrephes cederstrSmii, 
Schodler : — 

' The anterior portion of the head is almost entirely occupied by 
the eye, a large pigment mass surrounded by a number of long trans- 

1 Hat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. i. pp. 381, 385 (1867). 
« Vid.-Selsk. Torhandl. Christiania, No. i, (1890), p. 48. 
s Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 472. 

163 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

parent crystalline lenses.' ' The most striking feature however of this 
Cladoceran is that it possesses an extremely long spine at the end of its 
abdomen, more than twice as long as the rest of the animal itself.' ' The 
matrix sometimes attains an enormous size, holding as many as from ten 
to twenty embryos at a time. These are readily distinguished by their 
large eyes and long spines which are curled round them.' ' The man- 
dibles (fig. 4) are long and are articulated on the shell at the back ; they 
curve round the body and meet in front of the mouth. In front they 
have a set of large teeth. Although I have dissected several specimens 
I have altogether failed to find any maxills, I cannot but think how- 
ever that there must be some, although they may be rudimentary.' 
' There are two known species of Bythotrephes, B. Cederstromii and B. 
longimanus. The latter has never yet been found in England. These two 
species, together with Polyphemus, Pleopis and Evadne, form the family 
Polyphemids.' 'Distribution. I found B. Cederstromii first in Grasmere, 
but subsequently in most of the large lakes in Cumberland and West- 
morland. It lives in the middle of large pieces of water and seems to 
be more abundant in the autumn than the spring.' ^ 

In passing it may be noted that the family has been augmented 
since Mr. Beck's paper was published, and that the name Podon, Lillje- 
borg, is now used in preference to its equivalent, Pleopis, Dana. More 
important to our present purpose is Miss Pratt's record oi Bythotrephes 
longimanus, Leydig, of which she observes, ' This species has not been 
recorded before from the English lakes. In Bassenthwaite it was very 
rare in April, but very abundant in June, with eggs, embryos, larvEe and 
young.' ^ Miss Pratt calls attention to Beck's description of the com- 
panion species, but was doubtless unaware that in the interval between 
Beck's paper and her own Professor G. O. Sars had reduced B. cederstromii 
to a synonym of B. longimanus.^ The differences on which Schodler 
relied were due, it seems, only to the circumstance that he examined 
specimens in good condition, while those which Leydig described and 
figured were extracted from the stomach of a fish, a repository from 
which the naturalist may sometimes obtain prizes, but must expect not 
unfrequently to find them slightly out of repair. 

The Haplopoda, like the Onychopoda, own but a single family, 
namely the Leptodoridae. But this family has a special interest, because 
so far as known it is only in its single genus, Leptodora, that the embryos 
hatch in the nauplius stage, other Cladocera passing through this phase 
of existence while still in the e^. Professor S. J. Hickson, F.R.S., 
when initiating the researches in lake Bassenthwaite, evidently felt 
himself partly repaid for his trouble by this very nauplius. He 
says, 'In April, 1897, when the weather was still very cold and 
blasts of icy wind blew down in gusts from the snow-capped Skiddaw, 
I took a few samples of the Plankton as a preliminary step to further 

1 Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, ser. z, vol. iii. pp. 780-82, pi. xii. figs. 1-8 (i88?) 

2 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 472 (1898). 

3 Fid.-Selsk. ForhandUnger, No. i, p. 51 (1890). 

164 



CRUSTACEANS 

investigations. The material I then obtained proved to be of con- 
siderable interest, containing among other things the interesting 
Nauplius larvEB of Leptodora.'^ Of the species Leptodora hyalina, Lillje- 
borg, Miss Pratt says, ' In April only the larvs and very young forms 
were taken, chiefly at the surface, in Bassenthwaite. In June this species 
was exceedingly abundant, with eggs, embryos, and young, but no young 
larvas were taken. It was moreover confined to the middle of the lake, 
where the water is deep (see map, p. 475). Very few mature specimens 
were taken at the surface or at the depth of 2 feet to 4 feet, but from 
6 feet to 10 feet (10 feet = greatest depths at which tow-nettings were 
taken) it was taken in great quantities.' " An examination of the adult 
animal will show several points which if not absolutely peculiar are 
shared with but few other species, such as the large number of setas on 
the second antennae, the acuteness of the mandibles, and the great length 
of the tract of the body between the last pair of feet and the two dorsal 
setas of the abdomen. 

The Ostracoda are readily distinguished from the Cladocera by the 
fact that instead of having the head distinct they keep that part in 
common with the rest of the body sheltered within their two mollusc- 
like valves. They no doubt occupy the waters of Cumberland in accus- 
tomed variety and abundance, but the only record I have come across is 
one which reports Cypris obltqua, Brady, from Derwentwater on the 
authority of the late David Robertson, LL.D.^ 

The Copepoda have received more attention. These by their dis- 
tinctly segmented body and the absence of enclosing valves wear a much 
more appreciably shrimp-like aspect than the groups already discussed. 
Dr. G. S. Brady has recorded five species as belonging to this county, 
and Miss Pratt has recorded eleven species of which two only are 
common to Dr. Brady's list, the two lists combined thus producing a 
total of fourteen species, which after certain necessary modifications 
becomes thirteen species and one variety. This may be regarded for the 
time as a respectable assemblage, but Mr. D. J. Scourfield in 1897 
reckons the known British freshwater Copepoda at fifty-four, so that the 
percentage from Cumberland will easily admit of being greatly raised in 
the future. 

Most of the species to be mentioned belong to the family Cyclopidae 
and to the well-known freshwater genus Cyclops, O. F. Muller, of which 
the species are tolerably numerous, but, as M. Canu observes, differing by 
characters of feeble intensity. It is impossible here to enter into all the 
minute details by which they are discriminated, for which reference must 
be made to such works as Dr. Brady's Monograph of the British Copepoda, 
published by the Ray Society (1878-80), and the more recent German 
treatise by Dr. Otto Schmeil, published in the Bibliotheca Zoologica 
(1892-96). 

Of Cyclops gigas, Claus, Dr. Brady says, ' I have found it plentifully in 

1 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 468. * Loc. cit. p. 471. 

' Brady and Norman, Trans. R. DubRn Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 77 (1889). 

165 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

many of the lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland.' ^ 
But in 1 89 1 he recognized that this species was not distinct from the much 
older C. viridis (Jurine). The ' giant ' examples reach a length of some- 
thing a little over a fifth of an inch, as distinguished from the normal 
length of about one-seventh of an inch. But there are various inter- 
mediate lengths, so that with only the character of size to rest upon it 
is impossible to say where the species 'viridis ends and the species or 
variety gigas begins.^ 

For Cyclops vicinus, Uljanin, 1875, Dr. Brady gives among other 
localities ' Sprinkling Tarn and Ennerdale Water, Cumberland.' * But 
Schmeil decides that this species is undoubtedly synonymous with C. 
strenuus, Fischer, 1851. As the latter is one of the species reported 
from Bassenthwaite by Miss Pratt, a deduction must be made from the 
total which included it under two different names. 

In regard to '■Cyclops signatus, Koch,' Miss Pratt says, 'Examples with 
serrated and with simple ridge on antenns were taken. They are sup- 
posed to represent different stages in development (Herrick) . This species 
is widely distributed and common in Britain.'* References are added to 
the accounts given in 1878 and 1891 by Dr. Brady, who in the latter 
year is disposed to agree with the opinion quoted from Herrick. But 
here Dr. Schmeil intervenes with a different decision to the effect that 
two distinct species are in question, for which the names are respectively 
C. fuscus (Jurine) and C. albidus (Jurine) . For easy marks of recognition 
he points out that C. fuscus is usually gaily coloured, and that the packets 
of eggs lie so close to the abdomen as to cover a not inconsiderable part 
of it, whereas C. albidus is generally colourless, occasionally dark brown, 
often with dark patches on certain parts, and carries the egg-packets out- 
standing almost at right angles to the abdomen. The serrate ridge on the 
last joint of the first antennas belongs to C. fuscus^ the simple ridge to 
C. albidus. By this ruling therefore, which shows that two species have 
been recorded under a single name, our original total is reinstated. 

' Cyclops Thomasi, Forbes,' according to Miss Pratt, ' was rare in Bassen- 
thwaite in April, this being the first time that it has been recorded from 
the English lakes. No specimens were taken in June.' * This is identi- 
fied by Schmeil with the earlier C. bicuspidatus, Claus. Dr. Brady sup- 
posed that Herrick might be right in considering it a mere variety of that 
species, but Schmeil will not allow it even that humble measure of 
distinctness. 

Specimens oi Cyclops m/^wj, Claus, ' were fairly common in the middle 
of the lake [Bassenthwaite] in April, but rare in June.' ^ In this species 
the first antenna are fourteen-jointed as opposed to the seven teen-jointed 
antenna of the species previously mentioned. For our purpose the 
name is exposed to some uncertainty. Dr. Brady originally described a 
species as C. lubbockii which he afterwards identified with C. insignis, 

1 Ray Soc. Mmo^aph, vol. i. p. io6 (1878). « Schmeil, Bibl. Zool., vol. iv. p. loi (1892). 
3 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. xi. pt. i. p. 78. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 473. 6 Loc. cit. p. 473. * Loc. at. p. 473. 

166 



CRUSTACEANS 

Claus, and the name quoted by Miss Pratt is given in reliance not on 
Claus but on Brady. Now Dr. Schmeil is strongly disinclined to admit 
the identity of C. lubbockii with C insignis, thinking the former more likely 
to be a variety with fourteen-jointed antennas of C. bicuspidatus, to which 
he assigns the designation ' var. odessana, Schmankewitsch.' ^ 

Cyclops ewarti, Brady, is one of the few species of this genus which 
have strayed from inland waters into the sea. In lake Bassenthwaite 
' only a few specimens of this species were taken in April and none were 
taken in June.'" Its first antennas are eleven-jointed and Dr. Brady 
remarks upon this, ' One is liable to look with suspicion on the validity 
of small species of Cyclops with eleven-jointed antenna, seeing that the 
possession of that number of joints is characteristic of one stage in the 
development of the seventeen-jointed forms. But we have in this case 
the swimming feet all perfectly developed and three-jointed, and no 
examples of any seventeen-jointed forms were found in the gathering.' * 

Cyclops affinis, Sars, ' was taken in Bassenthwaite in April, 1897, and 
has not since been taken.'* The antennie are eleven-jointed. 

For Cyclops kaufmanni, Uljanin, Miss Pratt gives references to Brady, 
1878 and 1 891, and remarks, ' This species, although very limited from 
all accounts in its distribution, was by far the most abundant species 
taken in April, 1898; in June it was rare' in Bassenthwaite. Its 
antennse are ten-jointed. Schmeil is doubtful whether Brady's C. kauf- 
manni be the same species as that so named by Uljanin, but he had 
apparently not seen Brady's new figure of the species in 1891. 

Cyclops phaleratus, Koch, ' was taken in Bassenthwaite in April, 
1898, when it was rather rare. No specimens were taken in June.'* 
The first antennse are ten-jointed. Any doubt of this species being right- 
fully attributable to Koch is removed by an interesting feature in the 
species itself. Contrary to what is the case in all other members of the 
genus, in this one the oviducts penetrate far into the abdomen, and Koch, 
who was ignorant of their nature, so represents them in his figure.* 

Cyclops serrulatus, Fischer, is said to be the commonest species of the 
genus. The first antennas are twelve-jointed. ' Specimens were only 
taken in Bassenthwaite in June." 

From the Cyclopids we now turn to the family of the DiaptomidjE. 

Diaptomus castor (Jurine) according to the often-quoted report was 
taken in lake Bassenthwaite not very abundantly in April and not at all 
in June.^ It should not be overlooked that Dr. Brady in 1891 modifies 
what he has to say of this species in 1878. 

Diaptomus gracilis, Sars, is reported from Bassenthwaite by Miss 
Pratt,' and by Dr. Brady from Talkin Tarn and Tindale Tarn, Cumber- 

1 Bibl. ZooL, vol. iv. p. 8z (1892). 

* jinn. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 474. 

* Nat. Hist, Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. xi. pt. i. p. 87. 

* Jnn. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 474. * Lac. cit. p. 474. 
^ Schmeil, Bibl. Zool., vol. iv. p. 171. 

'' Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 474. 

8 Loc. cit. p. 476. ® Loc. cit. p. 476. 

167 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

land/ Two species may possibly here be included, as Dr. Brady makes 
D. graciloides, Lilljeborg, a synonym of D. gracilis, while Dr. Schmeil 
keeps it distinct. 

Eurytemora affinis (Poppe) is reported by Dr. Brady from Burgh 
Marsh near Carlisle.^ 

In yet another family, the Pontellidas, is the species Acartia longi- 
remis (Lilljeborg), of which Dr. Brady appears to regard Dias bifilosus, 
Giesbrecht, as a variety, for while including the latter name in the 
synonymy of the former he says, ' I have no note of the occurrence of 
any species of Acartia in fresh or brackish water except in one locality. 
Burgh Marsh, Cumberland, where I took the bijilosus form abundantly 
many years ago. 'Eurytemora affinis occurred in the same pools and in 
equal abundance.'^ Giesbrecht and Schmeil in 1898 make Acartia 
bijilosa (Giesbrecht) an independent species, in which ' rostral-threads ' 
are present, whereas in A. longiremis they are wanting.* 

In a preliminary note to the discussion of the Entomostraca from 
lake Bassenthwaite Professor Hickson remarks that ' a complete list will 
be drawn up only when a series of gatherings are taken every month for 
two or three years.' Further he says, ' It is well known to fishermen 
that the lakes in Cumberland vary very considerably in their " trout " 
reputation. Bassenthwaite is not regarded as a very good lake for trout, 
but on the other hand it contains an abundance of perch and pike. It 
would be extremely interesting if in time a systematic study of the 
relations between the fish fauna and the Entomostracan fauna could be 
undertaken.' ^ As will have been seen from the foregoing accounts, the 
seasonal distribution of these small animals cannot be determined without 
rather elaborate investigation. The young and the adults are variously 
affected by light, heat, available food and the extent and other conditions 
of the tracts of water in which they reside. Against numerous and some- 
times very formidable foes they have characters, habits and places of 
retreat which supply them with some individual and temporary protec- 
tion. Fortunately for the feeding of many valuable fishes these safe- 
guards are only partially efficacious. Still more fortunately for the very 
same purpose the Entomostracan species are preserved from extinction 
not by the thrift or scruples of their voracious enemies but by their own 
prodigious fertility. Of the widely distributed Diaptomus gracilis for 
example Dr. Brady writes, ' By the deep-water net in depths of 50 to 80 
fathoms it is often taken in abundance, and in one instance at least 
(Talkin Tarn, Cumberland) I have seen the net come up from a depth of 
6 or 8 feet below the surface with a dense mass consisting almost entirely 
of D. gracilis.' 

1 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, etc., vol. xi. pt. i. pp. 96, 98. 

2 Loc. cit. p. 108. 3 Loc. cit. p. no. 
* Das Tierreich, Copepoda Gymnopka, p. 153 (1898). 

^ Jnn. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. ii. p. 468. 



168 



FISHES 

The shallow waters of the Cumberland coast, with their soft bottom 
and numerous sandy bars, are ill adapted to satisfy the tastes of rock- 
loving fishes, which are almost entirely absent from this faunal area. 
As a result we find that the account of the fishes of our fresh and 
inshore waters here subjoined does not include more than loo species ; 
of these many are generally distributed along the British coasts. It may 
be well to draw attention to the presence of the vendace [Coregonus 
vandesius) in two of our Cumbrian lakes, as well as to the relative abund- 
ance of another rare form, the gwyniad {Coregonus clupeoides) in Hawes- 
water and UUeswater. Nor can we omit all reference to the Alpine 
charr {Salmo alpinus) for which the Lake district is famous. 

Of the rarer pelagic forms that have been captured within our 
inshore limits, perhaps the most interesting are the tunnies {Scombrida), 
three or four species of which have occurred on various occasions in the 
Solway Firth, the maigre {Sciana aquila)^ and the sword-fish {Xiphias 
gladius). 

TELEOSTEANS 



ACANTHOPTERYGII 

*I. Perch. Perca Jluviatilis, lAnn. 
Locally, Basse, Barce, Barcelle {obs.). 

Perch are plentiful at Talkin Tarn and in 
UUeswater, as well as in smaller ponds and 
rivers. 

**2. Sea Bass. Morone labrax, Linn. 
Locally, Perch. 
A spring and summer visitant to our in- 
shore waters, chiefly taken in the draught- 
nets. 

3. Maigre. Sciana aquila, Lac^p. 

The only specimen that I have seen is one 
which was procured near Whitehaven for the 
Museum of that town. It was taken between 
1874 and 1880. Dr. I'Anson saw it in the 
hands of the taxidermist who preserved it, and 
found that worthy about to dine ofiF its flesh. 
It measured between 4 and 5 feet. 

4. Sea Bream. Pagellus centrodontus, Dela- 

roche. 
An irregular visitant, sometimes present in 
considerable numbers. 



5. Red Mullet. Mullus barhatus, Linn. 

Occasionally taken ofF the coast, but rela- 
tively rare. 

6. Cook Wrass. Labrus mixtus, Linn. 

In November, 1897, ^''' Webster, of 
Whitehaven, obtained a highly-coloured in- 
dividual, which he gave to Dr. I'Anson, from 
whom I received early notice of its capture. 
I have never obtained any species of wrass in 
the Solway Firth ; the environment provided 
by our sandy bays is eminently unsuitable to a 
rock-loving genus. 

7. Bergylt. Sehastes nervegicuSy Mailer. 

A single specimen of this northern species 
was taken near Whitehaven early in August, 
1894, and carried to Dr. I'Anson. When 
placed in spirits, its beautiful red colour lost its 
brilliancy. 

*8. Miller's Thumb or Noggle-head. Cettus 
gobio, Linn. 
Locally, Tom Carle. 
A resident in our more sluggish streams, 
but seldom searched for in its natural haunts. 



169 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Father-lasher or Bullhead. 
Linn. 



Cottus scorpius, 



A plentiful species in the shallow waters of 
the Solway Firth. The young are often cap- 
tured in great numbers in the shrimp nets. 

10. Grey Gurnard. Trigla gurnardus, Linn. 
A common resident species ; the small fry 

prefer the shallow inshore waters, and are 
caught in great numbers in the shrimp nets. 

11. Red Gurnard. Trigla cuculus, Linn. 
An irregular visitant, or, if stationary, its 

numbers seem to vary from year to year. 

12. Sapphirine Gurnard or Tub-fish. Trigla 

hirundo, Linn. 

Our fishermen consider the present species 
of uncommon occurrence. I received a fine 
female fish from the Solway Firth in the 
summer of 1894. It weighed yf lb., and was 
preserved for the Carlisle Museum. 

1 3. Pogge or Armed Bull-head. Agonus cata- 

phractus, Linn. 
A common shallow-water species, plentiful 
in the tideway of the Solway Firth, 

14. Lump Sucker. Cyclopterus lumpus, Linn. 

Locally, Sea Hen, Lump, Sea Owl, Pad, Sea 
Pad {obs.). 

Not perhaps sufficiently abundant to be 
termed common, but of frequent occurrence. 
I have often received specimens of different 
sizes from the Solway Firth. 

15. Sea Snail. Liparis vulgaris, Flem. 

I have not seen specimens from the open 
coast ; but the sea snail is common in the 
shallows of the Solway Firth. 

16. Diminutive Sea Snail. Liparis montagui, 

Donovan. 
This small fish is taken in our inshore 
water by shrimp fishermen. It has only been 
observed during the summer months. 

1"]. Spotted Goby. Gobius minutus, Linn. 
{Gobius gracilis, Jenyns) 
Locally, Groundling. 
This goby is of common occurrence in the 
Solway Firth, 

18. White Goby. Latrunculus albus, Parnell. 
A resident species, often netted by shrimpers 

in the shallows of the Solway Firth, 

19, John Dory. Zeus faher, Linn, 

A scarce fish on this coast, and small speci- 
mens seem to be more often met with than 
large ones. The last I heard of was caught 
in a flounder-net near Silloth in the summer 
of 1898. Dr. r Anson has seen two or more 



specimens which had been caught near White- 
haven. 

20. Scad or Horse Mackerel. Caranx tra- 

churus, Linn. 
An uncommon species in our inshore 
waters. Curiously enough I never handled a 
local specimen until December, 1897, when 
a full-grown horse mackerel was found dead 
on the sand near Silloth. Another was sent 
to me to identify the following year. It had 
been taken near Port Carlisle. 

21. Mackerel. Scomber scombrus, Linn, 

A common visitant, chiefly taken in draught 
nets and with the trawl. 

22. Tunny. Orcynus thynnus, Linn. 

An irregular visitant to our inshore waters. 
In August, 1893, a small specimen was sent 
to me from Silloth, but owing to the heat of 
the weather it was not preserved. In Feb- 
ruary, 1896, a large example of the same fish 
was stranded by an ebbing tide on the sands 
near Skinburness. It was secured by W. 
Nicol, whose attention was drawn to it by 
the actions of a pair of great black-backed 
gulls, which were anxiously waiting for the 
tide to retire and expose the great fish. He 
towed the fish up the creek opposite his house, 
until it could be landed. I conveyed it to 
Penrith on the following day, that it might 
be preserved for the Carlisle Museum. This 
fish measured 7 feet 9 inches from tip to tip. 
Its greatest girth was 5 feet 2 inches. It 
weighed 392 lb. 

23. Germon. Orcynus germo, Lac6p. 

A rare visitant, but one which has twice 
come under my notice in the Solway Firth, 
The first specimen was found stranded in a 
creek on Burgh Marsh by a fisherman, early 
in October, 1889. It was skinned by James 
Smith, who brought the fresh skin to me for 
identification, I purchased it and had it 
mounted for the Carlisle Museum, On 
October 25th, 1897, a man named Back- 
house McVittie found a living specimen of 
the long-finned tunny lying on the sands near 
Silloth, It was still alive and strong. He 
secured the prize, and then rode off on his 
bicycle to Allonby to inform me that he 
had found a strange fish. Unfortunately, I 
was away from home, and in my absence 
the fish was declined by our taxidermist, who 
supposed it to be a common tunny. On 
returning home, I drove over to Skinburness 
and enquired for the fish, but found that 
McVittie had buried it and left home. With 
the help of a spade I disinterred the fish, and 
found to my regret that a very fine germon 
70 



FISHES 



had been wasted. It was too stale to pre- 
serve, but had altered in appearance very little. 
The length from the tip of the snout to 
the fork of the tail was 38 inches, and the 
greatest girth was 27^ inches. The left 
pectoral fin was somewhat damaged, but the 
right one, which I cut olF as a memento, 
measured i6 inches. This fish did not taper 
as sharply to the tail as might be inferred 
from Couch's figure, with which I compared 
it ; but I thought that the differehce, such as 
it was, probably lay in the fact that my fish 
was in better condition than that portrayed by 
the Cornish naturalist. 

24. Bonito. Orcynus palamys, Linn. 

The only fresh specimen that has come 
into our hands is the bonito preserved in the 
Carlisle Museum. This specimen was sent 
to me from Skinburness, where it had been 
taken by John Byas. But prior to this, a 
bonito of 12 lb. weight had been trawled 
between Workington and Whitehaven in 
September, 1856. This specimen measured 
27 inches. It entered the collection of the 
late Mr. Wallace, of Distington, in whose 
museum I found it when his collections were 
sold by auction, August, 1899. 

25. Sword-fish, Xiphias gladius, Linn. 

A rare visitant, occasionally captured in the 
waters of the Solway Firth, On August 
31, 1876, a specimen which measured about 
8 feet in length, was taken in a whammle- 
net in the channel between Silloth and Annan. 
It was carried away to Annan, where it was 
exhibited to the public at threepence a head. 
The sword is described as having been entire 
{Car/isle Journal, Sept. 5, 1876). 

26. Greater Weever. Trachinus draco, Linn. 
A rare fish inshore, since I know of no 

local specimen save one which was caught off 
Whitehaven, and which was, on June 20, 
1 87 1, presented to J. R. Wallace of Disting- 
ton, by the late Mr. Rook. It remained in 
the Distington Museum until that institution 
was broken up. I examined it at that time, 
and retain the original label. 

27. Lesser Weever. Trachinus vipera, Cuv. 

and Val. 
Locally, Sting-fish. 
Extremely abundant in our shallow tidal 
waters, sometimes causing great inconvenience 
to our fishermen when sorting their shrimps 
at night. 

28. Dragonet. Callionymus lyra, Linn. 

Of occasional occurrence. I have procured 
specimens from the Solway Firth, and T. C. 



Heysham did the same ; so that this fish is 
probably resident in our waters. 

29. Angler. Lophius piscatorius, hinn. 
Locally, Devil-fish, Shoulder-fish, Monk-fish. 

Not uncommon in our inshore waters. I 
have seen very large anglers stranded on the 
sands of the Solway Firth after stormy weather. 
Small specimens are frequently taken in the 
stake nets set for flounders. 

30. Shanny. Blennius pholis, Linn. 

I have received specimens of this small fish 
from Skinburness, and believe it to be far from 
uncommon. 

31. Butter-fish. Centronellus gunellus, Linn. 
Locally, Cat-fish. 

A resident species in shallow water, but 
not numerous. I have only observed its pre- 
sence in the Solway Firth, but no doubt it 
occurs all round our coast. 



32. Viviparous Blenny. 
Linn. 



Zoarces viviparus, 



Specimens have been procured near White- 
haven, and it is occasionally met with in the 
Solway Firth. I found a specimen stranded 
near Cardurnock. 

ANACANTHINI 

33. Cod. Gadus morrhua, Linn. 

Locally, Keeling, Killing {i.e. a large spent 
fish) ; Robin (a poor misshapen fish) ; 
Whitefish. 

The line fishing for cod is often pretty good 
on certain ground, as, for example, in the open 
channel west of Silloth ; but at no season is 
the flesh of these Cumbrian cod comparable 
for excellence with that of fish from the North 
Sea. At Allonby, the custom is to set lines 
at the edge of the tideway — the hooks being 
baited with shrimps, mussels, or sea anemones 
— and to allow the fish to remain upon the 
hooks until the tide ebbs. Crabs destroy many 
of the codfish captured by short lines. 

34. Haddock. Gadus eeglefinus, Linn. 

An irregular visitant, sometimes taken ofiF 
the Cumberland coast in very large numbers. 

35. Whiting. Gadus merlangus^ Linn. 
Locally, Silver Whiting. 

A fairly common fish, but I have never 
known of any large takes. 

36. Pollack. Gadus pollachius, Linn. 
Locally, Kellat. 

I never met with this species in the Solway 
Firth, but there is good pollack fishing near 
St. Bees. 



171 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



37. Coal-fish. Gadus virens, Linn, 
Locally, Greenback, Bluffin, Goalmouth. 

A very common fish upon our coast, occur- 
ring in various stages of growth. 

38. Hake. Merluccius vulgaris, Fleming. 
Occasionally taken off Whitehaven, but 

even there it is comparatively rare. I have 
never found it in the Solway Firth. 

39. Fork-beard. Phycis blennoides, Bl. Schn. 
A fine specimen was sent to Yarrell from 

the Solway Firth, taken on March 28, 1837. 
He owed it to T. C. Heysham, who had pre- 
viously had the good luck to procure two 
others, one in December, 1833, *^^ other in 
March, 1836. I have never met with this 
fish myself in Cumbrian waters. 

40. Ling. Molva vulgaris, Fleming. 

This fish is often taken on long lines in 
winter, but large specimens seldom enter our 
estuary waters. 

41. Three-bearded Rockling. Motella tricir- 

rata, Bl. 

Specimens of this pretty fish have been sent 
to me from the Solway Firth on several occa- 
sions ; always, however, as a supposed rarity. 

42. Tadpole Hake. Raniceps trifurcus, Walb. 
A rare visitant. A single specimen was 

caught near Whitehaven in 1887, and taken 
to Dr. I'Anson. 

43. Halibut. Hippoglossus vulgaris, Fleming. 
Large halibut are not often taken upon the 

Cumberland coast, but the species is well 
known to the Whitehaven fishermen. 

44. Turbot. Rhombus maximus, Linn. 
Locally, Chicken Turbot (referring to the 

comparatively small size of most local 
specimens). 

Turbot are not plentiful in our inshore 
waters, and their numbers vary in different 
seasons ; but a few specimens are taken every 
summer, sometimes in nets, and occasionally 
upon shore lines. 

45. Brill. Rhombus lavis, Linn. 
Locally, Brett. 

A common fish in the Solway Firth, though 
ot uncertain abundance. Several stone of 
these fishes are sometimes taken in a single 
tide, but such an experience is, of course, very 
exceptional. 

46. Common Topknot. Zeugopterus punctatus, 

Bloch. 
A single specimen was once taken in the 
Solway Firth near Cardunock, and forwarded 
to a Mrs. Miller in the Fishmarket at Carlisle, 



who sent it on to T. C. Heysham. I have 
never met with any topknot locally. 

47. Plaice. Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. 

A very abundant fish at almost all stages of 
life. Crowds of tiny plaice find their way 
into the shrimp nets. Older specimens fill 
the trawl nets with many stones weight. 

48. Dab. Pleuronectes limanda, Linn. 

This fish frequents our sand banks like the 
plaice, and is often taken in our inshore waters 
in considerable numbers. 

49. Lemon-Dab. Pleuronectes microcephalus, 

Donovan. 
A summer visitant to the shallow waters of 
the Solway Firth, but in limited numbers. 

**50. Flounder. Pleuronectes flesus, Linn. 
Locally, White Flounder, Black Flounder 
(according to colour). 

A resident species of wonderful fecundity, 
netted in many ways, speared in shallow water, 
hooked on short lines, and yet always one of 
the most common fish in our inshore waters. 

51. Sole. Solea vulgaris, Quens. 

A resident but decreasing species ; fine 
specimens are scarce. One of the largest that 
I have seen of late years was caught on a line 
at AUonby, in July, 1899 ; it weighed if lb. 

52. Lemon Sole or French Sole. Solea lascaris, 

Risso ; Solea aurantiaca, GUnther. 

A summer visitant to our inshore waters, 
often trawled in fair numbers. On one occa- 
sion I saw a good many lemon soles netted a 
few miles west of Silloth. 

PERCESOCES 

**53. Grey Mullet. Mugil capito, Cuv. 

At one time a fair quantity of grey mullet 
used to be taken at Drigg ; and though I was 
informed some years ago that this species had 
become less numerous, there can be no doubt 
that it is tolerably common in our waters. In 
July, 1899, I saw the head and shoulders of a 
large grey mullet, which I was assured had 
weighed 12^ lb. It had been taken near 
Silloth, where grey mullet are not unfrequently 
enclosed in the draught nets among other 
species of fish.- 

54. Larger Launce or Sand-Eel. Ammodytes 
lanceolatus, Lesauv. 
A rare species in the waters of the Solway 
Firth, though the sandy bottoms seem admir- 
ably adapted to suit its requirements. I have 
not been able to ascertain whether it frequents 
the open coast. 



172 



FISHES 



55. Lesser Launce. Jmmodytes tobianus, Linn. 
Locally, Sand-Eel. 

Exceedingly abundant on all suitable parts 
of the coast, and preyed upon by birds of 
many species. 

56. Garfish. Belone vulgaris, Fleming. 
Locally, Horn-Eel, Mackerel Guide, Herring 

Guide. 

Of occasional occurrence, generally during 
the summer months, when gravid females are 
sometimes taken in brackish water, as, for 
example, at the mouth of the Eden. 

57- Saury. Scombresox saurus, Walb. 

Rarer in our inshore waters than the pre- 
ceding species. Dr. I' Anson showed me a 
specimen taken near Whitehaven in 1890. 
Curiously enough, it was caught with a hook 
and line by a boy who was fishing oiF the 
Whitehaven quay. I have seen two or three 
others, all of which had been left by the tide 
upon the shores of the Solway Firth. 

HEMIBRANCHII 

**58. Three-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus 
aculeatus, Linn. 

Locally, Cock-hardy (male), Hen-hardy (fe- 
male). 

A common resident in becks and ditches. 
The marine form, G. trachurus, frequents the 
creeks of the salt marshes. I have also seen 
many in the nets of shrimpers. The late 
Captain Kinsey Dover, procured some ex- 
amples of the four spined variety (var. spinulosus) 
from the neighbourhood of Keswick. 

*59. Ten-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus 
pungitius, Linn. 
Locally, Prickly Dick. 
A resident species in our smaller becks, 
especially in the south of the county. 

60. Fifteen-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus 

spinachia, Linn. 
A visitant to the inshore waters, sometimes 
numerous enough to be termed plentiful in 
the Solway Firth. 

LOPHOBRANCHII 

61. Great Pipe-fish. Syngnathus acus, Linn. 

A fairly plentiful species in the waters of 
the Solway Firth. The largest that I have 
seen was taken near Silloth, and measured 15^ 
inches. 

62. Worm Pipe-fish. Nerophis lumbriciformis, 

Linn. 
Possibly of general distribution through our 
inshore area, but the only local specimens that 



I have seen were taken near Whitehaven 
where it is not uncommon. 

HAPLOMI 

*63. Pike. Esox lucius, Linn. 

Large pike exist in some of the lakes of 
this county : Derwentwater, for example, and 
Bassenthwaite can supply records of very heavy 
fish, and big pike are sometimes taken out of 
the Eden. Destructive to its own kind, 
nothing comes amiss to the hungry maw of 
this voracious fish ; woe betide the hapless 
duckling that incautiously ventures within 
reach of its cunning foe. In the thirteenth 
century, the moats which then surrounded 
Carlisle Castle were filled with pike ; pre- 
sumably, that a supply of fish for fast days 
might thus be secured to a besieged garrison. 

OSTARIOPHYSI 

*64. Carp. Cyprinus carpio, Linn. 

Carp only exist in a few ponds, into which 
they have apparently been introduced at one 
time or another. Tarn Wadling, drained in 
1858, was famous for the size of its carp, some 
of which measured as much as 2 feet in 
length and 14-^^ inches in girth. 

*65. Roach. Leuciscus rutilus, Linn. 

A resident species in the Eden, Irthing, and 
other rivers suitable to its habits. 

*66. Chub. Leuciscus cephalus, Uinn. 
Locally, Skelly, Chevin (pbs.). 
Only too abundant in our salmon rivers, 
much to the regret of fly-fishermen. A great 
many chub are destroyed in the Eden, to 
make room for more sporting fishes. 

*67. Dace. Leuciscus dobula,\Ann. {L, vul- 
garis. Day.) 
A few dace are to be found in the Eden, 
between Carlisle and the estuary. Their 
presence in other rivers has never been re- 
ported to me. 

*68. Minnow. Leuciscus phoxinus, Linn. 

This small species is abundant, and serves 
as valuable food to larger fishes. 

*(><). Tench. Tinea vulgaris, Cuv. 

Single specimens have been taken in the 
Eden, near Carlisle. I never myself have 
seen a local specimen, but T. C. Heysham 
did so. 

* 70. Bream. Abramis brama, Linn. 

The late T. C. Heysham received two 
specimens from the neighbourhood of Bowness, 



173 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



taken in February, 1831, and May, 1832. 
I have not seen any recent specimens. 

* 7 1 . Loach. Nemachilus harbatulus, Linn, 

Locally, Liggy, Tommy Loach, Gobbly. 
A common resident in our smaller streams. 

MALACOPTERYGII 

** 72. Salmon. Salmo salar, Linn. 

A source of much expense and some little 
revenue, the salmon is still an object of the 
deepest solicitude to a large portion of our 
local population. It remains to be seen wrhat 
measures can be adopted to augment the sport 
wrhich it supplies. Pages might be filled with 
tales of the amusing ruses practised by salmon 
poachers, but many of their pranks vsrould 
have been lightly regarded in earlier days. 
Salmon used to be sent up to London on horses 
from Carlisle and Workington, which, travel- 
ling night and day, delivered the fish in such 
fresh condition that it fetched from half a 
crown to four shillings a pound. I refer to 
the middle of the eighteenth century. The 
weight of Eden and Esk salmon do not, of 
course, come up to those from some Scottish 
rivers, such as the Tay. One of the best fish 
ever taken out of the Eden was the male 
salmon caught by Mr. Francis, in 1888. It 
was landed after being played for half an hour, 
and scaled 55^ lb. 

**73. Sea Trout. Salmo trutta, Fleming. 
Locally, Wliiting (immature fish). 
The Esk is specially famous for the sport to 
be obtained with the immature fish, known 
locally as ' whiting.' These young fish begin 
to run in Jime, when they average four or five 
to a pound, but improve in condition until in 
August they reach half a pound or even a 
pound apiece. A few sea trout are taken 
from time to time in our estuaries and larger 
rivers. Occasionally they become entangled 
in drift nets on the open coast. 

* 74. Common Trout. Salmo fario, Linn. 

Cumberland is a county of many trout 
streams, and the lakes are reputed to contain 
very large fish, sometimes erroneously called 
'great lake trout.' Ulleswater was formerly 
famous for 'grey trout,' supposed to weigh 
from 30 to 40 lb. 

*75. Alpine Charr. Salmo alpinus, Linn. 

Charr were indigenous to Ulleswater, Enner- 
dale Lake, Buttermere, Crummockwater, as 
well as several lakes in Westmorland. They 
are reported to have become extinct in Ulles- 
water. 



76. Smelt. Osmerus eperlanus, Linn. 
Locally, Sparling. 
The sparling fishing in the Solway Firth is 
an industry of considerable importance. The 
best takes are generally made in September, 
but the industry is continued during the winter. 

*77' Gwyniad. Coregonus clupeoides, Lacip. 
Locally, Skelly. 
This fish was formerly abundant in Ulles- 
water, and in autumn congregated in large 
shoals, known to the dalesmen as schools. In 
recent years the numbers decreased, but of late 
the number of ' skellies ' netted in the lake 
has increased. It sometimes happens that 
this fish enters the Eamont and subsequently 
the Eden. 

*78. Vendace, Coregonus vandesius, Bdch. 

This species inhabits Derwentwater and 
Bassenthwaite Lake, but is seldom taken alive, 
as it does not care for a bait. Those that are 
procured have usually been washed up at the 
side of Derwentwater after a storm. 

*79. Grayling. Thyma llus vexillifer, hinn. 

The grayling was first introduced into the 
Eden about i860 by the late Mr. Carruthers, 
of Eden Grove, but it died out in the lower 
reaches of the river about 1880. In 1883 
the species was re-introduced, in the upper 
waters of the same river, near Appleby, whence 
it has descended into our county waters. 

80. Anchovy. Engraulis encrasicholus, Linn. 
An occasional visitant. In the summer of 

1890 a small number of anchovies entered 
the Solway Firth, and about a score were 
caught near Silloth. 

81. Herring. Clupea harengus, Linn. 
Locally, Rock Herring (for large race). 

The herring fisheries of the Solway Firth 
were once remunerative, but evil days followed. 
The fish deserted the Firth, the boats rotted, 
and so did the nets. The custom of spreading 
small nets on the edge of the sands, to be 
lifted by the flowing tide, still survives at 
Allonby. But the number of herrings so 
secured is very small. Maryport and White- 
haven boats occasionally secure huge catches. 

82. Sprat. Clupea sprattus, Linn. 

A very common fish in our inshore waters 
at certain seasons. 

**83. Shad. Clupea alosa, hinn. 

An occasional summer visitant to inshore 
waters, such as the mouth of the Eden, in 
which specimens have been taken ; the males 
being full of milt in the month of June. 



174 



FISHES 



** 84. Thwait. Clupea finta, Cuv. 

An uncommon visitant, having been taken 
within our inshore limits in a very few in- 
stances. The Distington Museum contained 
a specimen caught near Harrington. 

APODES 

**85. Eel. Jnguilla vu/garis, TvLTt. 

Abundant in our lakes and ponds, the 



broad-nosed males are chiefly found in the 
lower portions of our rivers. Quantities of 
eels used at one time to be speared in Ulles- 
water on summer mornings. 

86. Conger. Conger vulgaris, Cuv. 

This voracious fish is taken in considerable 
numbers at the entrance to the Solway Firth, 
while small specimens are of frequent occur- 
rence inshore. 



GANOIDS 



**87. Sturgeon. Jcipenser sturio, Linn. 

A summer visitant ; adult specimens occa- 
sionally endeavour to enter the mouths of the 
larger rivers between April and July, when 
the females are gravid. I have known of 
large sturgeon being taken in the Solway 
Firth on a good many occasions, both in 
draught nets and with the haf net. A fish 
which I saw in July, 1891, soon after its cap- 
ture in the Eden a few miles below Carlisle, 



weighed 1 1 stones, but a specimen was taken 
ofiF Flimby in July, 1850, which weighed 17 
stones, and measured 8 feet 6 inches. On 
July 2, 1900, John Byas secured a female 
sturgeon which measured about 1O5 feet 
and weighed 35 stones. It was stranded on 
the sands at Skinburness, as was a male fish 
secured by the same fisherman eight days 
later. The latter measured about 6-^ feet, 
and weighed 16 stones. 



CHONDROPTERYGIANS 



88. Tope. Galeus vulgaris, Flem. 

Locally, Blue-black, Bastard Shark. 

A common species on our coast, especially 
in autumn, when 20 or 30 are sometimes 
taken at one draw of a draught net. 

89. Porbeagle. Lamna cornubica, Gmelin. 

An occasional visitant. I examined a large 
specimen of this shark at Whitehaven, and 
found it to measure 7 feet 9 inches in length. 
It had been taken with the trawl off St. Bees, 
October 30, 1889. When hauled into the 
trawler, it disgorged a number of plaice and 
other flat fishes. 

90. Small-spotted Dog-fish. Scyllium canimla, 

Linn. 

Not imcommon on our open coast, but I 
have not met with it in the highest part of 
the Solway Firth. 

91. Picked Dog-fish, /icanthias vulgaris, ^isso. 
Locally, Bastard Shark. 

Not usually abundant in our inshore waters. 
But it occurs pretty frequently off White- 
haven. 

92. Mouse-fish or Angel. Rhina squatina, 

Linn. 

Rarely taken by our fishermen. Dr. Hey- 
sham knew of a male and female which were 



caught near St. Bees in the autumn of 1793 
and carried about the country as curiosities. 
Dr. I' Anson showed me a specimen taken in 
the same neighbourhood in January, 1884. 

93. Torpedo. Torpedo hebetans, Lowe. 

A rare visitant. The first identified locally 
was caught near Whitehaven in October, 
1880. A second specimen was procured in 
the same neighbourhood in November, 1882. 

94. Thornback. Raia clavata, Linn. 

A very abundant species in inshore waters, 
preying largely upon the common shrimp, of 
which it must consume great quantities. 

95. Starry Ray. Raia radiata, Donovan. 
Locally, Star Ray. 

A scarce species, occasionally taken off 
Whitehaven, whence I received a specimen 
in July, 1 891. 

96. True Skate. Raia batis, Linn. 
Locally, Bluet, Maid. 

A very plentiful species, often taken with 
the trawl, and, in winter, with long lines. 

97. Long-nosed Skate. Raia vomer. Fries. 
This species is occasionally taken off Drigg. 

The only specimen that ever occurred to W. 
Nicol was caught in a stake net off Grune 
Point. It was a large fish, weighing about 
30 lb. 



175 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



CYCLOSTOMES 



**98. Sea Lamprey. 
Linn. 

The Eden was at one time famous for the 
excellence of its lampreys, which were specially 
reserved in some titles of river rights. The 
Esk was also visited for spawning purposes. 
This species has been taken of late years in 
a very few instances. On July 20, 1898, I 
purchased a lamprey weighing about 2J lb., 
which had been taken in the Eden, a beautifully 
coloured fish. It was in company with another 
which eluded capture. 



Petromyzon marinus, * 99. Lampern. Petromyzon fluviatilis^ Linn. 
Fairly numerous in our larger rivers. Great 
numbers have been killed in the Eden by 
sudden frost. 

*I00. Mud Lamprey. Petromyzon bronchia lis, 
Linn. 
Locally, Lamper Eel. 
Not uncommon in small becks in the Eden 
valley and north and west of the county. It 
is delightful to watch the engineering feats 
displayed by this tiny fish in moving stones 
from the gravelly bottom of a clear stream. 



Note. — A single asterisk (*) accompanies the names of such species as are confined to fresh-water. 
Two asterisks (**) distinguish such species as may be taken in either fresh or salt-water. 



176 



REPTILES 
AND BATRACHIANS 

The meagre fauna of the British Islands (meagre, that is, regarding 
these classes of animals) renders it unnecessary for me to dwell upon the 
forms indigenous to Cumberland at any length. It is possible that the 
smooth snake {Coronella austriacd) may yet be found upon Bowness Moss, 
where I fancied that I once recognized a pink-bellied specimen ; but, in 
the meantime, the natterjack {Bufo calamitd) and the palmated newt 
{Molge palmatd) must be considered the most interesting species estab- 
lished within the area now under consideration. The precise distribu- 
tion of the last-named animal has still to be worked out in detail. 

REPTILES 



LACERTILIA 

1. Common Lizard. Lacerta vivipara, Jacq. 

Locally, Land Ask, Dry Ask. 
A common resident upon our high fells as 
well as low grounds. 

2. Slow-worm. Anguis fragHis^ Linn. 
Very thinly distributed, but tolerably con- 
stant to favourite localities. 

OPHIDIA 

3. Grass Snake. Tropidonotus natrix, Linn. ; 

Natrix torquata, Ray. 



A very local resident in wooded parts of the 
county, chiefly in the south and west, though 
present also in the north. 

4. Viper. Vipera berus, Linn. 

Locally, Hag- Worm. 

Abxmdant on our moors and mosses, but I 
have never met with the red variety outside 
the Whitehaven Museum. That institution 
possesses a specimen which was caught near 
Rig House, Dean, and is remarkable for being 
of a dull ferruginous red, with markings of a 
dark mahogany colour. 



BATRACHIANS 



ECAUDATA 

1. Common Frog. Rana temper aria, Linn. 

Locally, Paddock. 
Universally distributed, and frequently 
preyed upon by polecats. I have seen many 
pleasing varieties, chiefly immature specimens. 

2. Common Toad. Bufo vulgar is, Laur. 

Locally, Paddock. 
A very abundant resident. 

3. Natterjack Toad. Bufo calamita, Laur. 
Unknown in the interior of the county, 

I I 



except at Egremont, but present at several 
points of the coast abutting the Sol way Firth. 
I have often obtained specimens from Castle- 
town, where many of these toads frequented 
an old yew hedge. I have also taken speci- 
mens from Bowness to Maryport, but not 
further south. At AUonby the natterjack 
showed a great partiality for my strawberry 
beds. It was likewise in the habit of visiting 
my cellars. In my experience this species is 
almost entirely nocturnal in its habits, at least, 
I have never seen it stirring earlier than about 
dusk. 



77 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

CAUDATA 

4. Great Crested Newt. Molge cristata, Laur. 



6, Palmated Newt. Molge palmata, Schn. 
Triton palmipes^ Daud. 



A local species, but not uncommon in this 
coimty. It is partial to disused brickfields. 

5. Common Newt. Molge vulgaris^ Linn. 
Locally, Wet Ask, Water Ask. 
Very generally distributed, and regarded as 
poisonous by the majority of country people. 



The palmated newt has so far appeared to 
be very local, but may prove to be of more 
general distribution than my material has 
hitherto suggested. In June, 1892, I pro- 
cured specimens of both sexes from a small 
pond to the north of Carlisle, which were 
placed in the Carlisle Museum. 



178 



BIRDS 

The county of Cumberland possesses a rare combination of physical 
features, all of which exercise an influence upon its bird life. The hills 
of such a portion of the ' Lake District ' proper as happens to be 
situated within our political boundaries, were in former days the haunt 
of the sea-eagle {Haliat'tus albicilld) which possessed several eyries in the 
neighbourhood of Keswick. It is believed that ptarmigan {Lagopus 
mutus) frequented the summits of the loftier mountains until the close of 
the eighteenth century. Dotterel [Eudromias morinellus) have nested on 
their slopes from time immemorial, while numerous ravens and buzzards 
rear their young upon the bolder precipices. The fells of the Pennine 
range are less rugged ; but they present even greater attractions to red 
grouse {Lagopus scoticus) and black game [Tetrao tetrix), and are also 
frequented in the breeding season by many pairs of dunlin {T'ringa alpina), 
golden plover (Charadrius pluvialis), and curlews {Numenius arquata). 
When we descend into the valleys, we meet with many fine stretches of 
ancient woodland such as adorn the Eden valley, affording an attractive 
cover to the pied flycatcher {Muscicapa atricapilld), as well as to the 
various warblers {Syhiina). The lakes and rivers of Cumberland attract 
a number of wildfowl in winter, but the greatest variety of birds must be 
looked for in the vicinity of the Solway Firth. Many large and im- 
perfectly reclaimed mosses, covered with heather and a variety of marsh 
plants, such as Bowness Moss and Wedholm Flow, exist in the neigh- 
bourhood of the estuaries of the Esk and Eden or the Wampool and 
Waver rivers. These secluded wastes afford breeding grounds to large 
quantities of gulls, including the great black-backed gull [Larus marinus) 
the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) and the black-headed gull 
{Larus ridibundus). Here the short-eared owl {Asio accipitrinui) not 
infrequently deposits its white eggs under a tuft of heather, which also 
affords a screen for the nests of a good many sheldrakes [tadorna cornuta), 
though the larger proportion of sheldrakes nest in rabbit burrows. Hen- 
harriers {Circus cyaneus) visit the flows and mosses in winter, when the 
merlin is often more numerous than in the summer time. Our mosses 
pass almost insensibly into the salt marshes which line the estuaries from 
Floriston to Port Carlisle and Grune Point. These marshes are flat 
stretches of reclaimed meadow land, used exclusively for grazing purposes, 
and are drained by a network of creeks which afford feeding ground to 
many waders, especially the redshank {Totanus calidris), which also 
breeds plentifully upon the roughest portions of pasture. The marshes 
pass into the open coast at Grune Point ; but the shores of the Solway 

179 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Firth lying between Silloth and AUonby are flanked by a long stretch of 
sand dunes which are tenanted in the summer by quantities of wheatears 
[Saxicola cenanthe), and other small birds. The fine sandy bay which 
lies between Mowbray and Maryport is visited by many species of 
seafowl, and affords feeding grounds to enormous flocks of peewits 
[Vanellus vulgaris) in early winter. The coast line west of Maryport is 
spoilt by many iron works and other industries ; but when we approach 
Whitehaven the red sandstone cliffs of St, Bees rise up from the sea level, 
and offer suitable breeding ledges to the herring-gull [Larus argentatus) 
and the common guillemot [Uria troile). The kestrel generally nests 
upon the cliffs at Sandwith, where we once found a fine pair of pere- 
grines {Falco peregrinus) established. Proceeding south we find the 
coast offers little shelter for birds until we reach the Ravenglass estuary. 
This locality is a winter haunt of wigeon {Mareca penelope) and many 
other species of duck ; but it is chiefly remarkable for the quantity 
of breeding oyster-catchers [Hamatopus ostralegus), black-headed gulls 
{Larus ridibundus), and especially terns {Sternina), of which the most 
interesting is the Sandwich tern {Sterna cantiaca), which lays its 
handsomely marked eggs among the sand-hills of Drigg Common in 
increasing numbers. The remainder of the coast is bare and exposed 
until we arrive at the estuary of the Duddon. The salt marshes of the 
Duddon have not been worked with the same diligent care as those of 
the Solway Firth, and consequently have yielded few species of interest. 

The county of Cumberland suffers, in common with Lancashire and 
Cheshire, from its westerly position, which deprives us of the pleasure of 
detecting as many avian waifs as are procured upon the coasts of Norfolk 
and Yorkshire. It must however be borne in mind that the more 
systematically any region is explored, the richer will its fauna be proved to 
be. A migratory line of some importance appears to strike the Solway 
Firth from the eastward, to which circumstance we are inclined to 
ascribe the occurrence of such eastern or southern forms as the Isabelline 
wheatear [Saxicola isabellina), the ruddy sheldrake {"Tadorna casarca), 
the crane {Grus communis), the collared pratincole {Glareola pratincola), 
the cream-coloured courser [Cursorius gallicus), and even the little gull 
{Larus minutus). 

Every true naturalist must feel regret that the sea-eagle {HaliaStus 
albicilld) has ceased to rear its young among our mountain solitudes ; nor 
can we view with equanimity the fact that the hen-harriers have long 
ceased to rear their young upon Newton Common, or that other birds of 
prey have become rarer than they were even a generation ago. The 
draining of such marsh lands as Cardew Mire have deprived us of the 
gratification of listening to the bellowing of the bittern {Botaurus stellaris) 
on a summer's night ; the drumming of the snipe {Gallinago ccekstis) no 
longer enlivens every morass as in bygone days. But we thankfully 
recognize that the close of the nineteenth century finds certain other 
species more firmly established than ever before, especially the star- 
ling {Sturnus vulgaris), the stock-dove {Columba cenas), the sheldrake 

i8o 



BIRDS 

{Tadorna cornuta), the redshank {Totanus calidris), the shoveler {Spatula 
clypeata), and the black-headed gull {Larus ridibundus). Continued 
research may possibly add to the numerical census of the Ornis of 
Cumberland. At the present time (October, 1900) we recognize 259 
species as having undoubtedly occurred in Cumberland. 



1. Missel-Thrush. Turdus viscivorus, Linn. 

Locally, Stormcock, Churr-Cock, Shell-Cock, 
Shrite, Shalary, Shrailie, Mountain 
Throssel. 

A partial resident ; formerly rare as a breed- 
ing bird (1782), but generally distributed since 
the ' thirties ' ; nesting chiefly in gardens and 
orchards, often in close proximity to a pair of 
chaffinches. The nest is frequently built in 
most exposed situations ; but the owners are 
indefatigable in driving away jackdaws, mag- 
pies and other marauders. Many flocks of 
missel-thrushes migrate through Cumberland 
in autumn. 

2. Song-Thrush. Turdus musicus, Linn. 

Locally, Throssel, Grey Throssel. 
Resident in large numbers, and occasionally 
nests in very singular positions. Some years 
ago a thrush reared her yoimg in a nest built 
into an old log at Burgh. In May, 1891, 
another thrush built on a railway waggon 
standing at the Caledonian Railway shed, Car- 
lisle. The first egg had just been laid when 
the nest was accidentally destroyed. A large 
proportion of the thrushes annually reared in 
Cumberland migrate in autumn, and probably 
fall victims to the snares of foreign fowlers. 
But many return in spring. On March 22nd, 
1899, the fields between Cockermouth and 
the Solway Firth were literally alive with flocks 
of song-thrushes and blackbirds. 

3. Redwing. Turdus iliacus, Linn. 

Locally, Felty, Fell fo ! 
A numerous winter visitant, and a favourite 
quarry of the sparrow-hawk. During severe 
frost redwings often haunt the creeks which 
drain the salt-marshes of the Solway Firth. 
I have not seen an albino of this species in 
Cumberland, but two pied individuals have 
been obtained locally. One of these has the 
entire under surface pure white. 

4. Fieldfare. Turdus pilaris, Linn. 

Locally, Felty, Pigeon Felty, Blue Felty, 
Blue-vnng, Blue-back, Fell fo ! 

A winter visitor, arriving in October and 
late in September, often represented by hun- 
dreds and hundreds, but of varying numerical 
force. The stay of this bird is rarely pro- 
longed after the middle of May ; but, in 1 899, 
a single bird was captured near Carlisle in 



July. Some injury had probably hindered it 
from departing with its fellows. Several 
white and cream-coloured specimens have been 
procured locally. 

5. Blackbird. Turdus tnerula, Linn. 

Locally, Blackie. 
An abundant resident, even in elevated 
districts, though less numerous where stone 
walls replace thorn hedges. Many of those 
reared in our midst appear to leave the country 
in autumn ; their numbers being replaced in 
early winter by fresh contingents which fre- 
quent the turnip fields. 

6. Ring-Ousel. Turdus torquatus, Linn. 

Locally, Fell-Throssel, Crag-Starling, Crag- 
Ousel. 

A summer visitant in very moderate num- 
bers ; less frequently met with among the crags 
of the Lake hills than upon the fells which form 
our boundaries to the east. Some individuals 
reach us at the end of March ; others appear 
in their summer haunts in May and April. I 
have known young birds to leave their nest as 
early as May 28th, and have handled newly- 
fledged nestlings, with flakes of down still ad- 
hering to their feathers, in August ; but the 
majority of broods fly in June. 

7. Wheatear. Saxicola osnanthe (Linn.). 

Locally, White-rump. 
The first of our summer visitants to arrive 
and the last to quit our shores ; its hardy dis- 
position tempts this bird to push forward its 
spring journey while showers of sleet are fall- 
ing in the beginning of March, but one wheat- 
ear does not make a spring, for the first pioneer 
often precedes the bulk of its companions by 
a month or even more. The first individuals 
to arrive are males, followed by flocks com- 
posed of both sexes. 

8. Isabelline Wheatear. Saxicola isabellina, 

Rtlppell. 
Early in November, 1887, I paid a hurried 
visit to the Solway Firth, for the express pur- 
pose of hunting for wheatears, as I had a dis- 
tinct impression that a rare chat was likely to 
occur. Having traversed a great extent of 
coast-line unsuccessfiilly, and being obliged to 
return south, I begged my friends, Mr. 
Thomas Mann and his brother of Aigle Gill, 



181 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



to continue the search. On November nth 
a wheatear appeared in a large field upon their 
farm, which perched on clods of earth like the 
common species, but did not appear to be as 
lively in its movements as that bird. Thomas 
Mann shot the little stranger, and his brother 
Richard posted it to me the same day. I 
showed it in the flesh to Mr. Howard Saun- 
ders, Mr. R. B. Sharpe, Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, 
Mr. J. E. Harting, and the late Mr. Seebohm, 
by whose concensus of opinion its identity was 
at once established. 

9. Whinchat. Pratincola rubetra (Linn.). 

Locally, Utick, Grass-chat, Wood-chat. 
A summer visitant of tolerably general dis- 
tribution as a breeding bird. It has a strong 
homing predilection, and will resort to a 
favourite nook for several successive sum- 
mers. The sweet song of the male is chiefly 
uttered while the female is engaged in the 
duties of incubation. 

10. Stonechat. Pratincola rubicola (Linn.). 
A partial resident, which had recently re- 
covered from the diminution wrought in its 
numbers by severe seasons, but which the 
present hard winter (1899-1900) will again 
render scarce. Chiefly characteristic of our 
fell-sides, but breeding also in the vicinity of 
the coast. 

n. Redstart. Ruticilla phaenicurus (Linn.). 
Locally, Jenny Red-tail. 
A summer visitant, and one which often 
disputes the choice of nesting sites with the 
pied flycatcher, though much more generally 
distributed, especially among our gardens and 
wooded lonnings. 

12. Black Redstart. Ruticilla titys (Scopoli). 
A rare visitant, reported to have occurred 
in both spring and autumn. The specimens 
which have come directly under my notice 
during the last seventeen years were secured in 
the month of November. The only black 
redstart which the late Mr. Tom Duckworth 
ever saw in his native county appeared at 
Home Head, Carlisle, in November, 1886, 
Similarly, the only black redstart which Mr. 
Mann and his brother have ever seen in their 
extended experience was an immature bird 
which Mr. Thomas Mann shot in a field at 
Aigle Gill, November 9th, 1898. On No- 
vember 17th, 1899, I sent W. Nicol, jun., to 
search the foreshore between Silloth and Skin- 
burness. He found a solitary black redstart 
flitting about one of the jetties above tide- 
mark. It was very shy and difficult to ap- 
proach, but he succeeded in shooting it. I 
had it preserved for the Carlisle Museum. 



13. Redbreast. Erithacus rubecula (Linn.). 
A partial resident, numerously represented 

at almost every season, but nesting chiefly in 
our large woods and copses, from which it 
withdraws with the advance of autumn when 
numbers migrate. I have seen a hedgerow 
near the coast crowded with robins, apparently 
on migration, as early as September 5th. 

14. Whitethroat. Sylvia cinerea (Bechstein). 

Locally, Nanny Whitethroat, Peggy, Nettle- 
Creeper. 

A plentiful simimer visitant, enlivening 
most of our hedges with its familiar notes. 
Mr. Mann shot a pretty cinnamon specimen 
in September, 1888, and a few years later a 
pure white specimen was brought to me. It 
had been captured on the banks of the Eden 
when in company with the parent birds. 

15. Lesser Whitethroat. Sylvia cur ruca {Linn.), 
An exceedingly scarce summer visitant, un- 
known in the most exposed districts, and only 
met with exceptionally in sheltered situations, 
e.g. near Keswick and Carlisle. 

16. Blackcap. Sylvia atricapilla (Linn.). 

A summer visitant, but thinly distributed, 
and present in much smaller numbers than in 
the southern counties. Its delicious song sup- 
plies a special charm to the wooded ghylls in 
which it loves to find a summer home, preying 
upon the green caterpillars which infest the 
leaves of the oaks, until the elderberries hang 
in dark and tempting clusters, when the black- 
cap becomes frugivorous. This warbler gene- 
rally leaves us in September; but, in 1898, 
Mr. T. Mann shot a fine male specimen on 
November 17 th, a very late date, though not 
unprecedented. 

17. Garden- Warbler. Sylvia hortensis {Bech- 

stein). 
A summer visitant to the more wooded 
portions of our plain and valleys, but thinly 
distributed and very scarce in the immediate 
vicinity of the Solway Firth. Perhaps the 
retiring habits of this bird may cause it to be 
overlooked. Dr. Heysham considered it rare 
a hundred years ago, though he found it nest- 
ing at Carlisle in 1797. 

18. Goldcrest. Regulus cristatus, Koch. 

Locally, Miller's Thumb (Alston). 
A fairly numerous resident in most wooded 
districts, the numbers of our home-bred birds 
being swelled in autumn by fresh arrivals from 
other parts. The goldcrest becomes strongly 
attached to particular spots. I knew of a tree 
in a garden at Rockliffe, which held the nest 
of a goldcrest for seven successive summers. 



182 



BIRDS 



19. Firecrest. Regulus ignkapillus (Brehm). 

A very accidental visitant. In 1845 Mr. 
John Graham of Carlisle, a keen field natural- 
ist, killed a firecrest at Rose Hill, near Car- 
lisle. It proved to be an adult male, and was 
readily distinguished from the goldcrest by the 
triple dark bands on the sides of the head, and 
by the golden colour above the wings. 

20. ChifFchaff. Phylloscopus rufus (Bechstein). 

A scarce summer visitant, arriving while 
the trees and thickets that it loves are still un- 
clothed with verdure, and ceaselessly reiterat- 
ing the restless burden of its simple song, until 
it pairs and settles down to the duties of nup- 
tial life. It nests near Carlisle, Gilsland, 
Keswick, Workington, etc., but in small 
numbers ; a pair or two establish themselves 
here and there, but no great numbers congre- 
gate in any single area. 

21. Willow- Warbler. Phylloscopus trochilus 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Miller's Thumb. 

A numerous summer visitant, nesting gene- 
rally throughout the county. The vernal 
migration extends over several weeks, large 
numbers having been found to visit the lantern 
at Sandwith Lighthouse as late as May 20th, 
when most of the summer visitors were ad- 
vanced in the labours of incubation. The 
return movement commences in early autumn ; 
I have seen our hedges crowded with willow- 
warblers on August loth. Two white speci- 
mens, blotched with olive above, were shot 
near Cummersdale in 1879; in 1885, Mr. 
W. Duckworth saw a very pretty cream- 
coloured variety near Warwick Bridge, on 
August 5 th. 

22. Wood- Warbler. Phylloscopus sibilatrix 

(Bechstein). 

A summer visitant, fairly represented in 
well-timbered localities, but certainly local in 
its choice of quarters. It is pretty to watch 
the toying actions of paired birds, when their 
erotic passions are in full ascendency and they 
pursue their loves hither and thither in a 
merry game of hide and seek among the green 
leaves of the old forest trees that clothe the 
banks of many of our northern rivers. 



23- 



Reed-Warbler. 
(Vieillot). 



Acrocephalus streperus 



A rare summer visitant, known to have 
nested once in the Eden valley. A single 
specimen, probably a straggler on migration, 
was seen near AUonby in the spring of 1899, 
my latest note of its occurrence. 



24. Sedge- Warbler. Acrocephalus phragmitis 

(Bechstein). 

Locally, Water-Nannie, Nightingale's Friend. 

A summer visitant in large numbers, which 

nests in all of our valleys, often at some distance 

from any water ; though the willow garths of 

our lakes and rivers aiFord him the most wel- 



come cover. 



Locustella navia 



25. Grasshopper- Warbler. 
(Boddaert). 

A scarce summer visitant, more local than 
any other of our regular migrants, and varying 
much in numbers in different years. A few 
pairs nest in four or five spots near Carlisle ; 
there are also small colonies near Curthwaite, 
Drumburgh and in other parts of the Solway 
plain, as well as in the Eden valley and on 
the eastern borders of the county ; it is less 
often met with in the west of the county. 
It reaches us about April 29th, and if un- 
molested returns to a suitable nesting-place for 
several successive years. Clutches of fresh 
eggs have been found from the middle of May 
to the first half of August. Both sexes sing. 
William Little showed me a specimen which 
he had felled with a stone in a hedge-bank 
near Cumwhinton whilst engaged in singing, 
and it contained a perfect egg. The song of 
this warbler is heard to the greatest perfection 
at dusk and in the hours of early day ; but it 
is frequently poured forth in the forenoon. 



26 



Accentor /nodularis 



Hedge - Sparrow. 
(Linn.). 

Locally, Dykey, Blue Dykey, Creepy-Dyke, 
Hemplin (Bewcastle). 

A resident of general distribution and 
abundance, often met with in abnormal dress. 
Mr. J. B. H. Robinson secured a white speci- 
men at Kirkandrews in 1889, and the late 
Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson presented a very pretty 
pied example to the Preston Musevun. 

27. Dipper. Cinclus aquaticus, Bechstein. 

Locally, Bessy Docker, Water-Pyat, Water- 
Crow. 
A common resident on all our wilder 
streams, delighting in picturesque situations 
and nesting among the rocks in Geltsdale and 
most of the prettiest waterside nooks in the 
county. Occasionally the dipper betakes 
itself to the margins of small inland ponds ; 
but running water is most to its taste, espe- 
cially where it boils and eddies among the 
boulders in mid-stream. It has been found in 
rare instances to desert its favourite nesting 
ledges in order to build in the branclies of a 
tree. 



183 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



28. Whiteheaded Long-tailed Tit. Acredula 

caudata (Linn.). 
A rare visitant. The late Mr. Tom 
Duckworth, a veteran naturalist, observed 
three examples of this species in company 
with about nine of the common long-tailed 
tits in a lane between Orton and Thruston- 
field, November 26th, 1891. The morning 
was bright and frosty ; the light was excellent. 
He at once reported the matter to me, and 
instantly recognized a continental skin as agree- 
ing precisely with the three specimens which 
he had met with. 

29. British Long-tailed Tit. Acredula rosea 

(Blyth). 
Locally, Bobble-Tit. 
This tit is a fairly common bird in the 
wooded districts, but is seldom or never seen 
in the neighbourhood of the coast. It is very 
partial to thickets at the edge of small streams, 
probably owing to the abvmdance of insect 
food to be obtained in such situations, 

30. Great Tit. Parus major, Linn. 
Locally, Blackcap, Bee-Eater. 

A resident in our gardens and orchards, of 
frequent occurrence all over the county. 
Some years ago a great tit paired with a blue 
tit and the couple nested at Crookhurst, near 
Allonby. They were closely watched by 
Mr. Mann, who recollects that eggs were duly 
laid, but it is not known whether any hybrids 
were reared from this rare union. I hesitated 
to record so singular a circumstance in print 
until my friend Count Arrigoni degli Oddi 
showed me a painting of a hybrid between 
these two species which he obtained in Italy, 
and now retains in his fine collection. 

31. British Coal-Tit. Parus britannicus, 

Sharpe and Dresser. 
A common resident in our fir plantations, 
abundant in the woods round Keswick and 
Penrith ; but virtually absent from treeless 
wastes. 

32. Marsh-Tit. Parus palustris, Linn. 

A resident but very local species, not un- 
common in the centre and south of the county, 
and becomes more scarce in the west and 
north. 

33. Blue Tit. Parus caruleus, Linn. 
Locally, Bluecap, Tomatty Ta. 

A resident of general distribution, singularly 
constant to its breeding sites. A letter-box at 
Carlisle was continuously occupied by a pair 
of blue tits for more than thirty years. A 
curious yellow and blue variety was shot at 
Cotehill by Mr. W. Little, December 25th, 
1888. 



34. Nuthatch. Sitta casta. Wolf. 
A rare visitant. In 1782, a pair of nut- 
hatches were shot at Armathwaite on May 
nth, and sent to Dr. Heysham. In 1848, 
Mr. T. C. Heysham was informed by a 
Penrith birdstuffer named Turner that the 
nuthatch was common about Lowther, and 
had occurred in this county on the banks of 
the Eamont. The nuthatch has been re- 
ported to me from the south of the county in 
recent years ; but I have neither observed the 
species, nor handled a local specimen. 

35. Wren. Troglodytes parvulus, Koch. 
Locally, Chitty. 

A numerous resident ; but the individuals 
which frequent the creeks of the salt marshes 
in autumn are probably immigrants. A very 
pretty nestling was brought to me in the flesh 
a few years ago. It had been picked up dead 
in a wood near Penrith, and was of a uniform 
pale primrose yellow. 

36. Tree-Creeper. Certhia familiaris, Linn. 
A resident, perhaps less migratory than any 

other of our small birds, and common in the 
wooded dales. It is not confined, however, to 
dense forest. Mr. R. H. Thompson showed 
me a stone wall on his property near Nunwick 
in which a 'pair of creepers nested and reared 
their young in the summer of 1891. 

37. Pied Wagtail. Motac'illa luguhris, Tem- 
minck. 

Locally, Waterty Wagtail, Grey Hemplin 
(Bewcastle). 
A partial resident ; but chiefly a summer 
migrant, returning in March, when male birds 
in lovely spring dress scatter themselves over 
our fell-sides, as I have observed in many wild 
districts. The most curious nesting place 
occupied by this species known to me was the 
grease-box of an old railway waggon. Many 
flocks of pied wagtails pass through the county 
in autumn, adults and young birds often 
journeying in company. 

38. White Wagtail. Motacilla alba, Linn. 
A spring immigrant, passing through the 

county on the way to more northern breeding 
grounds. Mr. T. C. Heysham first detected 
the presence of this bird in the county in 
April, 1842, and since then it has been ob- 
served on many occasions, especially in the 
north of the county. I believe that on one 
occasion a bird of this species paired with a 
pied wagtail ; the birds in question nested 
near Cummersdale. Such individuals as visit 
us in April, rarely prolong their stay with us 
for more than a few days. In the spring of 
1899, a small flock of white wagtails visited 

84 



BIRDS 



the sea-bank near AUonby; but single in- 
dividuals have more often come under my 
observation than little companies. 

39. Grey Wagtail. Motacilla melanope,Pa.\las. 
A resident to a limited degree, but mainly 

a summer visitor ; building its nest of dry 
grass stems and root fibres, lined with horse- 
hair, upon the banks of most of our north 
country rivers, though nowhere a very nume- 
rous bird. 

40. Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla 

flava, Linn. 
A rare visitant. After searching for this 
species for more than sixteen years, I at length 
fell in with a single specimen in the neigh- 
bourhood of AUonby. On May ist, 1899, a 
single specimen appeared on the sea-bank in 
company with a flock of meadow-pipits. It 
was raining hard, but I long studied the 
actions of the bird. It eventually flew into a 
grass field, and there I was obliged to leave it. 

41. Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla rait (Bona- 

parte). 
We never see the flocks of yellow wagtails 
that are to be observed in the south-east 
counties in spring ; nevertheless a few pairs 
annually nest in the county. One pair nested 
for two successive seasons on a small patch 
of ground near the Carlisle Goods Station. 
Though chiefly a summer visitant in very 
small numbers, it has occurred, strange to say, 
in early winter. Mr. T. Mann identified a 
solitary yellow wagtail at Aigle Gill, on 
November 27th, 1890. 

42. Tree-Pipit. Anthm trivialis (Linn.). 

A numerous summer visitor to the more 
wooded districts, nesting freely in the north 
and south of the coimty, but scarcer in the 
west. The eggs of this pipit exhibit a number 
of varieties, perhaps more than any other 
species found in our area. 

43. Meadow-Pipit. Anthus pratensis (Linn.). 
Locally, Moss-Cheeper or Chilper, Mossie 

Lingy, Moortidy. 

A resident ; but large flocks migrate through 
the county in spring and autumn. Present in 
almost endless numbers on our fells, especially 
at the fall ; indeed, its sweet but unpretentious 
song enlivens many a dreary waste, while its 
pertinacity in mobbing the cuckoo is unsur- 
passed by any of our smaller birds. A white 
specimen was sent to me from Silloth in Sep- 
tember, 1888. 

44. Richard's Pipit. Anthus richardi, Vieillot. 
A rare visitant. Two were identified on 

Barrow Side by the late Mr. W. Dickinson 



in the spring of 1843. A single bird was 
seen at Aigle Gill by Mr. T. Mann and his 
brother in April, 1889 ; another was flushed 
on Skinburness Marsh by W. Nicol in 
October, 1889 ; I met with another at Bow- 
ness, on Solway in September, 1891 ; none 
of the foregoing specimens were secured. But 
on October loth, 1898, my friend Mr. T. 
Williamson was crossing Edderside Moss when 
his dog flushed a Richard's pipit from some 
rushes which he shot. I examined it early 
next day at Aigle Gill and found it to be a 
bird of the year. Mr. T. Mann and his 
brother met with another example of this 
large pipit in a turnip field on November 9th, 
1898. 

45. Rock-Pipit. Anthus obscurus (Latham). 
A local resident in the neighbourhood of 

the coast, particularly in the neighbourhood of 
St. Bees, where a few pairs breed. I have 
never met with it inland, but solitary in- 
dividuals winter upon the saltings of the Sol- 
way Firth, frequenting the creeks and drains. 

46. Golden Oriole. Oriolus galbula, Linn. 
A very rare visitant. A bird in female 

dress was shot at Irton in 1857. -^ small 
party of orioles was seen nearLorton in 1878. 
An adult male was killed some years ago near 
Penrith and taken in the flesh to Mr. T. Hope. 
A female or immature male was killed in the 
Caldbeck district prior to 1886. I have no 
more recent records. 

47. Great Grey Shrike. Lanius [excubitor, 

Linn. 
A rare winter visitant. I have notes of at 
least seventeen specimens obtained in different 
parts of the county between 1880 and 1899, 
including examples secured in the neighbour- 
hood of Egremont, Cockermouth, Bewcastle, 
Alston, Renwick, Penrith, Wigton, Carlisle, 
Brampton, Drumburgh and Skinburness. Of 
these the earliest arrival was shot on Sep- 
tember 13th. That some of the birds which 
have passed through my hands since 1880 may 
have been hybrids between the great grey 
shrike and Pallas's grey shrike {Lanius major) 
is highly probable. A male bird which was 
shot some years ago about three miles from 
Keswick must be referred to this latter species. 
It is a fine adult, with a white breast almost 
clear of vermiculations and a very light rump ; 
there is only one white alar bar. 

48. Red-backed Shrike. Lanius collurio, Linn. 
A rare summer visitant, unknown in the 

west of the county. It has nested near 
Carlisle on two occasions, the last at Scotby in 
1884, when the eggs were brought to me for 



185 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



identification. It used to breed near Keswick 
as long ago as 1835, and may occasionally do 
so still ; but it has been very scarce in that 
district for the last twenty years. 

49. Woodchat Shrike. Lanius pomeranus, 

Sparrman. 
A very rare visitant. The late Mr. W. 
Dickinson observed a woodchat shrike near 
Stainburn tannery in the spring of 1872, and 
stood for some minutes within twenty yards 
of it. Another good observer, Mr. T. 
Cooper, who obtained so many rarities for the 
younger Heysham, met with a woodchat at 
Woodside. 

50. Waxwing. Ampelh garrulus, Linn. 

A rare winter visitant. Only two large 
flights of waxwings are known to have visited 
the county, the first in the winter, 1786-87, 
and the second in the winter of 1866-67. 
But small numbers of these birds have appeared 
at irregular intervals in all parts of this area 
between the months of October and March, 
Of recent occurrences, several appeared in 
January and February, 1893, when * single 
bird was shot near Penrith and others at 
Carlisle ; three were seen near Keswick in 
the autumn of 1894 ; two were killed near 
Carlisle in January, 1895 ; two were seen at 
close quarters at Wragmire Bank by Mr. W. 
Little, February 19th, 1897. 



51. Pied Flycatcher. 
Linn. 



Musckapa atrkapilla. 



Locally, Laal Magpie. 
A summer visitant, but much restricted in 
its choice of breeding grounds ; the chief 
colonies annually returning to the same well- 
timbered parks, though a few pairs nest as 
stragglers in the neighbourhood of our smaller 
streams, or at a short distance from our lakes. 
Many details of the habits of this species will 
be found in the Fauna of Lakeland (pp. 123— 
129), also in the Birds of Cumberland {^^. 31- 
37)- 



52. Spotted Flycatcher. 
Linn. 



Musckapa grisola, 



Locally, Sea-Robin, French Robin. 
A summer visitant, generally distributed in 
the breeding season, though less numerous 
near the coast than further inland. In 1886 
a single pair reached Scotby on April 22nd, 
but this date is very early. I did not meet 
with this flycatcher in the north of Spain 
until April 24th. 

53. Swallow. Hirundo rustka, Linn. 

This summer visitant reached Cockermouth 
in 1872, as early as February 9th. Mr. T. C. 



186 



Heysham reports another early bird seen at 
Carlisle on March 26th (1852); a swallow 
was shot at Whitehaven in 1837 o" April 
2nd, while several birds were seen hawking 
insects at Carlisle on April 4th, 1896 ; but 
I have no notes of any large numbers seen in 
the county before the middle of April. 

54. House-Martin. Chelidon urbka (Linn.). 
The house-martin is rather later in reach- 
ing our county than its congeners, but is also 
generally distributed, though checked in its 
breeding operations by the persecution of 
house-sparrows. Both this and the preceding 
species are subject to variation of colour ; 
white, cream - coloured, pied, and bluish 
varieties have come under my notice locally. 

55. Sand-Martin. Cotile riparia (Linn.). 
The last days of March witness the return 

of this summer migrant to its favourite water- 
courses. Its nesting colonies are chiefly 
established in the sides of quarries and other 
convenient slopes ; one pair nested in a low 
ridge of sand in an open meadow at Carlisle. 
I have also seen this species nesting in sand- 
stone rocks near Maryport. 

56. Greenfinch. Ligurinus chloris (Linn.). 
Locally, Greenie. 

A common resident in arable districts, but 
nearly absent from treeless moors. It nests 
in gardens and hedges, gathering into great 
flocks in winter, when it frequents our stack- 
yards with other small birds. 

57. Hawfinch. Coccothraustes vulgaris, Valhts. 
Though breeding in the adjoining county 

of Westmorland, the hawfinch has not 
hitherto become established with us. A pair 
probably nested at Bridekirk in 1882, when 
Canon Sutton shot a nestling out of a family 
party. The hawfinch is one of our rarer 
birds even in winter, though single specimens 
have occurred far apart, as at Keswick, upon 
Crossfell, at Cotehill and at Cockermouth ; in 
the beginning of 1888 a small flock of haw- 
finches appeared near Wigton, and one or two 
were caught alive. 

58. Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans, Stephens. 
Goldfinches used to nest in most of our 

sheltered vales until thirty years ago, but have 
latterly become restricted as partial residents 
to a few favoured spots, chiefly in the Eden 
valley, and in the west of the coimty. Mr. 
Hodgson, of Keswick, informed me that the 
goldfinch nested near Keswick in fair num- 
bers until the severe winters of 1879-80, and 
1880-81, exterminated the local breed. At 
Calderbridge a pair of goldfinches used to nest 



BIRDS 



in a pear tree belonging to Mr. Halliday for 
more than fifty years ; during this long period 
there was always a nest within a few inches 
of the same place {Carlisle Patriot^ May 15th, 
1840). 

59. Siskin, Carduelis spinus (Linn.). 

A winter visitant in uncertain numbers, 
rarely appearing in any considerable plenty 
even in the north of the county, and of com- 
paratively rare occurrence among our hills. 
A male preserved in the Keswick Museum 
was captured by Mr. Hodgson, who assured 
me that it was the only specimen that he had 
ever met with in the Keswick district. One 
or two favourite localities near Carlisle are 
visited by siskins every winter ; they are 
often caught near Drumburgh. Mr. Plender- 
leath assured me that a few pairs of siskins 
undoubtedly bred in the vicinity of Longtown 
between 1879 and February, 1885. 

60. House-Sparrow. Passer domesticus (Linn.). 
Locally, Housie, Spuckie, Sprug, Craff. 

An ever-increasing resident, in many dis- 
tricts a pest to the farmer. Black, buff, white 
and pied birds occur in a state of freedom. 
This species occasionally interbreeds with the 
rarer tree-sparrow. 

61. Tree-Sparrow. Passer montanus (Linn.). 
A resident species, but excessively local. 

I have never met with it in the Lake district 
proper. It has certainly bred in two instances 
in East Cumberland, but its breeding stations 
are very few, extending from AUonby to 
Abbey and the neighbourhood of Skinburness. 

62. Chaffinch. Fringilla coelebs, Linn. 
Locally, Scoppie, Scobbie, Shelapple, Shiltie, 

Spink, Shiwie. 
A resident, but numbers visit us from other 
parts in winter. An interesting migration of 
chaflSnches was witnessed at AUonby on 
November 4th, 1899. On turning out that 
morning shortly after 7 a.m., I found that 
migration was in full swing. Flock after 
flock of birds followed one another at frequent 
intervals, flying high and steering against the 
south-west breeze. The two species most 
abundantly represented were the chaffinch and 
the meadow-pipit. The flocks of these two 
species varied from eight to a hundred indivi- 
duals, or even more. A few chaffinches, 
females only so far as observed, dropped out 
of the main flocks at intervals, and were to be 
seen running on the ground or heard calling 
' pink ' from the tops of the hedges. Many 
linnets and greenfinches passed, a few sky-larks, 
yellow hammers, thrushes, starlings, etc. ; but 
the chaffinches seemed to vastly outnumber 



all the other birds except the pipits, and thou- 
sands must have passed along the coast be- 
tween 7 a.m. and 10 a.m., when the move- 
ment practically ceased so far as my field of 
vision was concerned. 

63. Brambling. Fringilla montifringilla, Linn. 

Locally, Cock-o'-the-North. 

A winter visitant, arriving as early as the 
first days of October, but rarely numerous 
earlier than November. Great numbers visited 
the neighbourhood of Carlisle in the winter 
1894—95, feeding principally on beech-mast. 
The harsh chirrup of this bird is usually asso- 
ciated with the first frosts that blanch the 
summer leaves and strip the boughs of foliage ; 
but I did not observe any bramblings in the 
autumn of 1899 until December 14th, when 
a number of these birds frequented a stackyard 
at Mealo. Desiring to place a few specimens 
in my aviary, I laid a small clap-net in the 
snow, and captured about a dozen specimens 
in the course of an hour. One of these was 
a very bright-coloured male with a black 
throat, a variety which I had only met with 
in this county on one other occasion. 

64. Linnet. Linota cannahina (Linn.). 

Locally, Grey, Whin-Grey, Hemplin. 

A resident of less abundance than formerly, 
owing to the number of female birds killed by 
birdcatchers ; but some very large flocks fre- 
quent a gorse-clad bank near Maryport every 
year. A white specimen was often seen near 
Hay ton in September, 1898, but apparently 
escaped capture. 

65. Mealy Redpoll. Linota linaria (Linn.). 

A rare winter visitant, though several have 
been caught in recent years near Maryport, 
and others have been identified in the east, 
north and west of the county. I obtained a 
fine series for the Carlisle Museiun, but only 
one or two were local specimens. 

66. Lesser Redpoll. Linota rufescens (Vieillot). 
Locally, French Gtey, Banty Hemplin. 

This finch breeds sporadically in most parts 
of the county ; I have personally observed it 
as a nesting bird near Stapleton, Brampton, 
Longtown, Bowness, Carlisle, Aspatria, 
Cockermouth, Bassenthwaite, Keswick, Pen- 
rith, and am able to vouch for its nesting 
occasionally in such upland localities as Alston 
and Renwick, Varieties of this redpoll are 
xmcommon ; but I had the pleasure of adding 
to the Carlisle Museum a white example, shot 
near Cotehill in the winter 1898-99. The 
crimson feathers of the forehead are replaced 



187 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



in this bird by golden yellow, and a very few 
of the wing feathers are brown ; the bird is 
otherwise quite white. 

67. Twite. Linota flavirostris (Linn.). 
Locally, Heather-Lintie. 

The twite is an uncertain winter visitant, 
appearing in considerable flocks in certain 
seasons, but often almost entirely absent from 
the county. Among the hills a few pairs 
nest sporadically ; in 1884 I saw a nest with 
a full clutch of eggs on Solway Moss ; a pair 
or two nested on Toddles Moss for several years 
in succession. 

68. Bullfinch. Pyrrhula europesa, Vieillot. 
The call-note of the bullfinch may be heard 

upon the skirts of most of our plantations ; 
the plumage of the male adds attraction to the 
banks of Gilsland Spa and many other pic- 
turesque nooks. 

69. Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra, Linn. 

An irregular visitant to our larger tracts of 
pines, occasionally present in certain favourite 
localities in very large numbers, but at other 
times either absent or represented by a very 
small number of individuals. Great numbers 
of crossbills appeared in this county in August, 
1838, and still lingered with us in the autumn 
of 1839; other irruptions occurred in 1855, 
1887 and 1894. The best authenticated nest 
taken in the county was that which was built 
in a small clump of Scotch firs at Cumwhitton 
in March, 1856. The late James Fell often 
described to me how he watched the old birds 
gathering material for their nest, which he 
took on March 20th when four eggs had been 
laid. The food of this species does not consist 
exclusively of the seeds of conifers. Some birds 
killed at Penrith in May, 1895, contained in- 
sects as well as fir-seeds. 

Loxia 



70. 



pttyopsittacus 



Parrot - Crossbill, 
Bechstein. 

A male and female of this rare visitant were 
shot in the vicinity of the Irthing by the late 
Mr. Proud of Headsnook. This was between 
1847 ^^^ 1850. In December, 1865, the 
late James Barnes of Carlisle shot out of a 
larch tree at Newby Cross two birds which 
he supposed to be redwings. On picking 
them up he found that they were crossbills. 
He followed up the survivors, and secured six 
additional specimens. He preserved the birds, 
and sold five of them, retaining three un- 
doubted parrot-crossbills. 

71. Two-barred Crossbill. Loxia bifasciata 
(Brehm). 
The year 1845 witnessed a western move- 
ment of this species, for examples were ob- 



188 



tained near Stockholm, Gottenburg, and in 
Scania ; as also in Denmark and in Belgium. 
Some of these birds appear to have continued 
their flight across the North Sea, for a con- 
siderable flock made its appearance in East 
Cumberland. The first specimen was shot 
near Brampton by the late Thomas Taylor on 
November ist, 1845. He observed two more 
of these finches on January loth, 1846 ; nine 
days later a fine red bird was shot by Mr. 
Proud, a local gamekeeper. Its companion 
which was in female dress made its escape. 
On March 25th, 1846, a party of two-barred 
crossbills flew into some larch trees at Castle- 
steads, and nine of them were shot by a 
gardener named Leslie. Five others lingered 
in the vicinity until April nth. 

72. Corn-Bunting. Emberiza miliaria, Linn. 
Locally, Grass-Bunting, Bunting Lark. 
I have met with a few individuals in most 
parts of the county from Alston to White- 
haven, but it disappears from many districts 
after a few years, and appears in other places 
without any apparent reason. It is a late 
breeder, sometimes flocking gregariously as 
late as the middle of May. It is never 
wholly absent from the farms along the 
shores of the Solway Firth. 

Yellow Hammer. Emberiza citrinella, 

Linn. 

Locally, Spink, Yellow Yorling, Yellow Yitey. 

One of our commonest residents, nesting 

on common lands, and wintering in stackyards. 

Several pied specimens have come under notice, 

but I have not met with an albino. 

74. Reed-Bunting. Emberiza schasniclus, Linn. 
Locally, Black-Cap, Reed-Sparrow. 

A resident in most parts of the county, but 
erratic in its movements ; often to be found 
feeding upon open grass lands in winter. The 
half-reclaimed rushy pasture which is to be 
found in the north-east of the county is es- 
pecially to the liking of this bird. 

75. Snow - Bunting. Plectrophenax nivalis 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Snowflake, Snow-Bird, Fell-Sparrow, 
Cock-o'-the-North. 
A winter visitant, sparingly met with upon 
the slopes of the hills around our lakes, but 
common all along the eastern fells, especially 
in severe weather. Flocks of several hxmdred 
birds occasionally appear upon our coast and salt 
marshes, feeding upon grass seeds, and running 
to and fro on our village greens, sometimes 
venturing close to our thresholds. When dis- 
turbed these buntings seldom desert a favourite 
spot ; if startled, they only rise with the fami- 



73 



BIRDS 



liar twitter, and after one or two rapid turns 
in the air return to the spot whence they had 
been driven a few moments previously. To 
me the snow-bunting is ever a poem in 
feathers, its very presence being suggestive 
of rocky screes and gloomy glaciers. 

76. Starling. Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. • 

A scarce bird in the county at the com- 
mencement of the nineteenth century the 
starling has become very numerous, and now 
holds its own in every possible vantage point, 
adapting its existence to a variety of circum- 
stances. Its present extraordinary numbers 
are the more surprising when we remember 
that it usually rears but one brood in a season. 
Exceptions to this rule are not uncommon, 
but in many districts adults and young begin 
to flock in June, and pass a gregarious life 
until the following spring. 

77. Rose - coloured Pastor. Pastor roseus 

(Linn.). 
This vivacious and charming bird has been 
procured within our present limits in very few 
instances, chiefly in the north and west of 
the county. Two specimens were killed at 
Hay ton and Alston in the summer of 1837 ; 
another was shot near Flimby ; others at Pap- 
castle, Rose Castle, and at High Seaton. John 
Dawson has often described to me how his 
brother shot a rose pastor, which he treasures 
in his cottage at Allonby ; the bird was ob- 
tained about the year 1877. A bird of this 
species was seen on several occasions near 
Allonby in the summer of 1898 ; Mr. Clark- 
son in particular saw it very closely near 
Beckfoot. 

78. Chough. Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linn.). 
The Cornish chough is not known to have 

bred at any time in the interior of the county, 
but two or three pairs of these birds nested 
in the sandstone cliflfe between St. Bees and 
Whitehaven until about i860. From the 
fact that this chough still breeds in a few 
places in the Isle of Man, we might expect 
that it would still visit us as a rare straggler. 
It has, in fact, occurred in two instances since 
i860, single birds being procured near Long- 
town and Wigton respectively. As early as 
1828 the late Dr. Stanley catalogued the 
chough as rare at Whitehaven. 

79. Jay. Garrulus glandarius (Linn.). 
Locally, Jay-Pyat. 

Fairly numerous as a resident in our larger 
fir woods, especially near Penrith and Kes- 
wick, of less frequent occurrence in the north 
and west, breeding in favourite localities annu- 
ally, appearing in others chiefly as a winter 
visitant. 



80. Magpie. Pica r«rt/c« (Scopoli). 
Locally, Pyat. 

Less widely distributed than formerly, since 
every man's hand is against it ; but constantly 
to be seen crossing the fields or jauntily perch- 
ing on the tall thorn hedges in the neighbour- 
hood of the Solway Firth, e.g. between Mary- 
port and Silloth. It is also fairly common in 
certain dales, and would be most abundant if 
tolerated. A white specimen was found in a 
nest near Lyneside some years ago. 

81. Jackdaw. Corvus monedula, Linn. 

Locally, Jack. 

An abundant and increasing resident, fre- 
quently destructive to the eggs of game birds, 
especially in dry summers. A pure white 
jackdaw was shot some years since near Little 
Salkeld. A grey specimen frequented the 
neighbourhood of Cotehill from 1888 to 
1893, when it was shot. The crown was 
black ; otherwise, this bird was entirely of a 
uniform silver-grey. 

82. Raven. Corvus cor ax, Linn. 

A local resident, almost entirely confined 
to the mountains in the centre and west of 
the county. Indeed, ravens may be seen on 
any of our higher fells east or west on a 
winter day casting about in search of carrion ; 
but their chief strongholds, some of them very 
difficult of access, are to be looked for among 
the precipices of the Lake district proper. I 
placed in the Carlisle Museum a very fine 
pair of old birds that had been poisoned near 
their nest on Crossfell, and have likewise met 
with them, though rarely, on the cliflfe at 
Sandwith ; but their breeding area mainly 
corresponds with the sheep farms of the 
wilder regions. Mr. Marshall of Keswick 
informed me in 1898 that he considered the 
raven too numerous, as he could find a score 
of birds any day ; but it should be borne in 
mind that the region which these birds in- 
habit is very limited, and that their nests 
are constantly harried by those who wish to 
secure either eggs or young birds. The price 
formerly paid by the churchwardens for the 
heads of ravens varied from one penny to 
fourpence. 

83. Carrion-Crow. Corvus corone, Linn. 
Locally, Corbie, Dope. 

A resident in many parts of the county, 
scarce where absence of cover or persecution 
renders any locality unsuitable, but in certain 
places so well represented as to become gre- 
garious. A reddish-fawn variety was reared 
near Cotehill in 1884. 



189 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



84. Hooded Crow. Corvus comix, Linn. 
Locally, Blue Crow, Norwegian Crow. 

A winter visitant in very sparing numbers ; 
single birds are considered rare by the country 
people, and large flocks are quite unknown 
in this county. It breeds as near as the Isle 
of Man, and hybrids between the present form 
and the black carrion-crow have at least twice 
been procured in the county. Perhaps the 
finest of these is a bird obtained at St. Bees, 
which I secured at the sale of the Distington 
Museum in August, 1899. I purchased the 
other from the widow of the late J. Barnes, 
by whom it had been obtained in Wastwater. 
They are preserved in the Carlisle Museum. 

85. Rook. Corvus frugilegus, Linn. 
Locally, Crow. 

Thousands of pounds are sacrificed every 
year by farmers, owing to the ravages inflicted 
on their crops of corn and roots by this pest. 
Proscribed in the county since at least 1620, 
it continues to increase, and its damages to 
turnips, potatoes and wheat are enormous. 
Even after the grain has been stacked, this 
voracious bird abstracts large quantities, and 
by burrowing through the thatch admits the 
rain into the centre of what remains. On 
the sea shore it feeds upon the worms which 
would otherwise supply subsistence to curlews 
and other waders. It destroys a quantity of 
grub ; but it is an arrant poacher, and pretty 
nearly omnivorous. 

86. Sky-Lark. Alauda aruensis, Linn, 

A partial resident, abundant in most parts 
of the county, but almost absent from a few 
fell districts. As lately as the seventeenth 
century, numbers of sky-larks were sold at 
Carlisle and other towns for the table, gener- 
ally fetching from threepence to fourpence 
per dozen. Large numbers of those reared 
with us appear to migrate, being replaced by 
fresh arrivals from other districts, especially 
after a change of weather. In 1899 a fall of 
snow occurred in Scotland and the north of 
England in the early hours of December 12th, 
and in the neighbourhood of the Solway this 
was followed by a heavy migration from north 
to south or south-west. Sky-larks appeared in 
great numbers, and passed along the coast from 
daylight until 2 p.m. 

87. Wood-Lark, /ilauda arbor ea, Linn. 

A rare winter visitant to the county gener- 
ally, but it occasionally breeds in the west, 
e.g. at Camerton and St. Bees, and once near 
Brampton. The only specimen that I have 
seen from the east of the county was shot 
near Alston in March, 1866, and is now in 
the Carlisle Museum. 



88. Shore-Lark. Otocorys alpestris (Linn.). 
A rare winter visitant, hitherto met with 

only in the neighbourhood of the coast-line. 
In February, 1890, three shore-larks fre- 
quented the edge of Skinburness Marsh for 
some days when they were shot for the Car- 
lisle Museum. A fine male was shot in pre- 
cisely the same place in January, 1895, and 
sent to Mr. W, Mackenzie. Three other 
specimens had been procured at Silloth, St. 
Bees and Eskmeals. 

89. Swift. Cypselus apus (Linn.). 
Locally, Devilin, Killdevil, Black Martin. 

This summer visitant may often be seen 
soaring above the crests of our highest hills, 
and rears its young in many of our villages. 
Though less influenced by favourable winds 
for its journey northward than many other 
species, the swift is most dependent upon the 
presence of its favourite insects ; hence a snap 
of frost in the middle of May sometimes 
proves fatal to numbers of these birds. 

90. Alpine Swift. Cypselus melba (Linn.). 
A specimen of this fine swift was observed 

at Low Mill House on July 4th, 1842. It 
first attracted attention by its large size, and 
was shot by the late Sir R. Brisco. It is still 
preserved by his son, the present baronet, Sir 
Musgrave Brisco, at Crofton, where I saw it. 

91. Nightjar. Caprimulgus europaus,\Ami. 
Locally, Moss-Owl, Night-Hawk. 

A summer visitant to many of our mosses, 
but local in its choice of breeding grounds. I 
have seen fresh eggs as early as May 26th, 
and unfledged young as late as September, 
while my earliest and latest notes of its pre- 
sence at Carlisle are April 17 th and October 
13th respectively. A male was felled by an 
engine while flying past the Caledonian sheds 
at Carlisle, on August 17th, 1894, as early as 
4 p.m., and in sunshine. This bird was in 
good condition, but deep in moult. 

92. Wryneck. lynx torquilla, Linn. 
Formerly a regular though local summer 

visitant, well known to both Heyshams as 
breeding near Carlisle, where the last nest 
with eggs was taken in 1863 by the late 
James Fell, who often referred to it. A 
single bird was felled by a catapult near Mary- 
port in August, 1888; Mr. F. P. Johnson 
reported the presence of this species at Castle- 
steads in May, 1891, but I have not heard 
of it since. 

93. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus viridis 

(Linn.). 
A rare visitor, but a local specimen existed 
in Hutton's Museum at Keswick as long ago 



190 



BIRDS 



as 1865. The late W. Dickinson met with 
a pair at Lamplugh ; and other pairs are be- 
lieved to have nested in Barron Wood and 
Blackw^ell Wood in single instances. In the 
latter case three eggs w^ere taken from a hole 
in an ash tree by W. McComish. 

94. Great Spotted Woodpecker. Dendrocopm 

major (Linn.). 
A very scarce resident, limited as a breeding 
bird to a few private parks, but the resident 
birds receive some accessions to their numbers 
in some autumns. Thus in 1898 a number 
of these woodpeckers visited northern Britain, 
and several were shot in localities so far apart 
as the north of Sutherlandshire and the shore 
of the Solway Firth. 

95. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dendro- 

copus minor (Linn.). 
A rare bird within our limits, and unknown 
in the west of the county. The late B. 
Greenwell obtained a specimen near Alston, 
but in Northumberland. Another single bird 
was obtained at Carlisle and Paw Park, while 
a pair was shot at Edenhall. In 1895 a 
charming pet bird of this species escaped from 
me at Carlisle ; but it was never seen after- 
wards. 

96. Kingfisher. Alcedo ispida, Linn. 

A scarce but widely-dispersed resident, each 
pair selecting their own stretch of river, and 
resenting the presence of all intruders. Single 
birds wander in autumn, and appear on many 
beck-sides from which they are absent at 
other times. In January, 1890, that careful 
field naturalist W. Little saw a black king- 
fisher on the Eden near Rickerby. He had 
a very close view of the bird, which carried a 
minnow in its bill, and was certain that it 
was entirely black with the exception of a few 
blue feathers on the rump. 

97. Roller. Coracias garrulus, Linn. 

Two specimens of the roller were procured 
in the county in the summer of 1868. Dr. 
Lumb of Whitehaven showed me one of 
the two, a bird shot by Mr. J. Dalzell near 
Thornholm. The other was shot at Carleton 
near Carlisle, and taken in the flesh to my old 
friend Sam Watson, who recorded it as a 
female, adding that it was killed on July 1 7th, 
and that its stomach contained beetles and 
caterpillars. 

98. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, Linn. 

A rare visitant, but one which has been 
obtained fairly often in the west and north of 
the county. A bright adult female, with a 
backward ovary — the eggs in the ovary being 

19 



no larger than salmon roe — was shot to my 
regret near Drumburgh in April, 1894. I 
added this specimen to the Carlisle Museum, 
together with an immature bird trapped at 
Anthorn in October, 1889. 

99. Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus, Linn. 
Locally, Gowk. 

A numerous visitant to our dales and fell- 
sides, often to be seen mobbed by meadow- 
pipits, which frequently alight on the back of 
the cuckoo and peck vigorously at the in- 
truder. The date of arrival varies. In 1899 
a young cuckoo left the nest of its foster 
parents (a pair of meadow-pipits) on May 
2Sth, a very early date for the county. 

100. White or Barn-Owl. Strix Jiammea, 

Linn. 
Locally, Chimney-Owl, ClifF-Owl. 
A tolerably common bird, but the object of 
much unworthy persecution, which prevents 
its natural increase. Resident from Bew- 
castle in the north to Penrith in the south of 
the county. 

loi. Long-eared Owl. Asio otus (Linn.). 
Locally, Horned Owlet. 
A local resident. Mr. T. C. Heysham 
knew this owl as a breeding bird, but only 
could procure one clutch of eggs in a decade. 
Keepers reduce its numbers sadly with pole- 
traps, but it is fairly constant in its adherence 
to our older fir woods, in which it breeds very 
early in the year ; eggs are sometimes laid 
early in March, though owlets may be found 
as late, at any rate, as June. 

102. Short-eared Owl. Asio accipitrinus 
(Pallas). 
Locally, Moss-Owl. 
A winter visitant, occasionally met with in 
flocks on migration, but chiefly singly, gener- 
ally disappearing from our midst in early 
spring, though odd pairs breed with us. In 
1897 two pairs of these owls reared their 
young on mosses near Allonby. A third pair 
nested on a common near Burgh, where I 
photographed the eggs in situ. The eggs 
were foimd in nido on April 20th, and were 
then six in number ; but when I inspected 
them three days later a seventh had been 
laid. The moor referred to is composed of 
rough heather and coarse grass, and is very 
wet. On the occasion in question I had to 
jump from tussock to tussock for a consider- 
able distance, occasionally sinking ankle deep 
in black mud, before I reached the nesting- 
ground and caught sight of one of the old 
owls as it skulked in the heather with its 
head to windward. It was possible to dis- 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



tinguish the bird from its surroundings by the 
long, prettily-barred tail ; I hoped to get a 
snapshot at the bird before it rose. Un- 
luckily, it was too wild to sit to the camera, 
but got up with a tumbling sort of flight and 
sailed off at a good height. The seven fresh 
eggs were lying in a hollow in the green 
moss, which was surroimded by a border of 
heather standing about fifteen inches high. 
A nest which was shown to me on another 
moor, also in the vicinity of the Solway 
Firth, in 1889, contained two addled eggs 
and one owlet on May nth. The nest so-' 
called was in fact a mere scratching in the 
groimd, measuring in breadth about twenty 
inches, and surrounded by dwarf willows and 
tall heather. It contained only the remains 
of a sky-lark, but the remains of two tiny 
rabbits were near. I had the melancholy 
satisfaction of adding to the Carlisle Museum 
several owlets of different sizes which had 
been killed with their mother on another 
moor near the Solway Firth in June of the 
same year (1889). 

103. Tawny Owl, Syrnium aluco (Linn.). 
Locally, Brown Owl, Wood-Owl, Jenny 

Owlet. 
A common resident in the larger wood- 
lands, especially in the south and centre of 
the county. It is easily tamed if taken 
young, and becomes an entertaining pet. 
Two nestlings from different broods came 
into my possession in May, 1891, while still 
covered with down. They were never 
caged, but enjoyed the run of a large garden 
in which they could forage for their own 
food. One disappeared ; but on a search 
being instituted, the lost bird was discovered 
to have taken up his quarters in a hole in the 
kitchen, from which he issued only to wage 
war on the ' black-beetles,' until their extinc- 
tion forced him to return to an outdoor life. 
Even then he lived largely on cockroaches, 
though house-mice also bulked largely in his 
dietary. In fine weather this bird and his 
companion slept during the day in a bushy 
hawthorn tree ; but in wet weather they 
sought shelter under a roof. Their friendship 
remained intact until one of them was found 
drowned in the water-butt. 

104. Tengmalm's Owl. Nyctala tengmalmi 

(Gmelin). 

A rare visitant. This small owl has only 
once been procured in the county. On 
November 3rd, 1876, a female Tengmalm's 
owl was shot while perching in a fir tree in 
the Newton Manor coverts near Gosforth, by 
James Wright, the keeper on the property. 



105. Little Owl. Athene noctua (Scopoli). 

A rare visitant. Westward is the only 
parish in the county in which the little owl 
has been captured. The occurrence was 
notified to Mr. T. C. Heysham, who ac- 
cepted the identification of Dr. Bell. Mr. 
Heysham's letter to Dr. Bell thanking him 
for a notice of the bird (which was probably 
sent in the flesh to Cockermouth for preserv- 
ation since we know that Dr. Bell saw the 
bird before it was skinned) is dated February 
1 6th, 1856, and the bird had only recently 
been obtained. 

106. Scops-Owl. 5f«/>j ^'« (Scopoli). 

A rare visitant. In June, 1887, I had 
the satisfaction of examining our only county 
specimen, which forms part of the collection 
of Mr. J. Whitaker of Rainworth. The 
bird made its appearance in the middle of the 
fell-side village of Renwick, on May 15th, 
1875. Old Mrs. Dryden was fortunate 
enough to spy the bird as it perched towards 
evening in an ash tree. One of the sons, 
now deceased, ran out with his gun to shoot 
the owl, which took a short flight, but re- 
turned to the tree from which it had been 
disturbed and was promptly shot. 

107. Marsh - Harrier. Circus aruginosus 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Moor Buzzard (ph.). 
Formerly a common breeding bird upon 
the moors and wastes of this county, especi- 
ally in the north ; but the marsh-harrier has 
long ranked as one of our rarest visitors. 
Whether it was ever common among our 
hills we do not know, but we have Dr. Hey- 
sham's authority for believing that this bird 
was ' very frequent on our moors ' a century 
ago. It had become rare, in all probability, 
by 1 830 ; the younger Heysham was evi- 
dently much gratified by receiving two im- 
mature birds that had been trapped for him 
near Alston, where they were then ' not often 
met with.' Yet this species continued to 
frequent Spadeam Waste and other wild tracts 
of country for some years longer. The late 
Mr. Proud recorded the capture of two 
marsh-harriers near Brampton prior to 1 846 ; 
the late Captain Johnson, a friend of Yarrell, 
told me that he was quite familiar with the 
marsh-harrier as a resident in the same district. 
A specimen was killed near Netherby prior to 
1880. 

108. Hen- Harrier. Circus cyaneus (Linn.). 
Locally, Glede, Ringtail (pbs.). 

A rare visitant, occasionally seen quartering 
the moors in winter, but too persecuted to 



192 



BIRDS 



have much chance of re-establishing itself. 
Dr. Heysham had a very extensive experi- 
ence of this harrier ; in his day it was rela- 
tively a common bird, especially on the 
unreclaimed commons and mosses between 
Carlisle and the Solway Firth. The younger 
Heysham was told by Mr. Hodgson that the 
hen-harrier had nested and had been plentiful 
in the neighbourhood of Corney at the be- 
ginning of the century, but by 1844 the 
species had become rare. Mr. T. C. Hey- 
sham received a pair of harriers and a single 
egg from the neighbourhood of Alston in 
1831 ; but he wrote to Doubleday in 1831, 
that he fovmd that hawks were ' getting 
scarcer every year.' The only pair of hen- 
harriers that ever entered my possession, 
locally, used to visit the mosses between Car- 
durnock and Burgh every winter, preying on 
red grouse and other birds. They always 
disappeared when spring returned. At last, 
in January, 1886, James Smith killed them 
for his own collection. Subsequently he was 
persuaded to sell them to me for the Carlisle 
Museum. Another blue hen-harrier haunted 
the same district from December, 1888, to 
the end of the winter, and would have been 
killed, but I begged Smith to leave it in peace. 
A female bird was trapped in Westward 
parish in January, 1892. 

109. Montagu's Harrier. Circus cineraceus 
(Montagu). 

A rare visitant. The late J. B. Hodg- 
kinson loved to talk of the specimen which 
he procured near Carlisle before 1840 ; it 
must have been killed in the breeding season, 
for it had been feeding, as he assured me, on 
the eggs of other birds. Many years later 
another, an adult male, was killed near Eden- 
hall. On November 2nd, 1892, an imma- 
ture bird was shot by a keeper near Kirklinton, 
and taken in the flesh to Mr. R. Raine. 

no. Buzzard. Buteo vulgaris, L,ea.ch. 
Locally, Glead, Shreak. 
The buzzard is resident in our wilder dales 
through the year, though the number of home 
birds appear to be swelled in some winters by 
fresh arrivals. It has many favourite resorts 
among our hills, but its numbers are sadly 
thinned by trapping. Individual pairs often 
settle in some of our great woods for the 
winter. These birds if unmolested would 
probably revert to the primitive custom of 
nesting on the limbs of forest trees. The 
famous oaks of Inglewood Forest must have 
held many a buzzards' nest in earlier days. 
Even now the buzzard often deserts the dizzy 
precipices which chiefly afford it breeding 



ledges, in order to rear its brood in some 
highly accessible spot. It is a pity that the 
buzzard should ever be trapped. It feeds 
almost entirely on field voles, moles, young 
rabbits, etc., together with carrion. 

111. Rough-legged Buzzard. Buteo lagopus 

(Gmelin), 
A rare winter visitant. Although many 
buzzards are unfortunately trapped among the 
hills every winter, the birds thus obtained are 
almost invariably common buzzards. In fact 
no specimen of the rough-legged buzzard has 
been procured in the county since 1879, when 
a fine bird was trapped at Barron Wood. 
But specimens have been obtained at long 
intervals in different parts of the county, near 
Silloth in the north, at Bewcastle and Alston 
in the east, at Lamplugh in the west ; and 
even as near to Carlisle as Wreay Woods. 

112. Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysa'itus (Linn.). 

A very rare visitant. No eagle of any spe- 
cies is known to have been killed in the county 
during the last sixty years, but eagles have 
been seen on different occasions by competent 
persons. For example, the late Mr. J. Hewet- 
son Brown often related to me how he hap- 
pened to ascend Melbreak one day with a 
party o'f friends in the summer of i868. He 
outstripped his companions, and on gaining 
the top of the hill a little in advance of them 
was astonished to find himself quite close to a 
fine eagle which was so intent upon feeding 
upon a dead sheep that it had not noticed his 
approach. When thus surprised, it slowly 
prepared to fly, and rising on the wing crossed 
over to Grassmoor on the opposite side of 
Crummock Water. Again, in July, 1872, 
that excellent observer Mr. R. Mann saw an 
eagle near Crookhurst. When first noticed 
the bird was almost within gunshot ; but it 
rose in wide sweeps to a great height, and 
finally sailed off in a northerly direction. 
Mr. Mann noticed that the tail of this eagle 
was not white, but barred, and believed it 
to be a golden eagle. In the spring of 1775, 
an eagle, said by tradition to be a golden 
eagle, was shot in King Meadow, Carlisle, 
by Mr. Foster, the landlord of the Wheat 
Sheaf Inn, in consequence of the raids which 
it had made upon lambs. This bird was 
stuffed with its wings extended, and hung 
suspended from the ceiling of the kitchen at 
the inn for many years. The eagles which 
formerly nested among our hills were princi- 
pally sea-eagles ; but we can hardly reject the 
deliberate assurance of Richardson, that some 
of the eagles which bred in the Lake district 
were golden eagles. 'One has this year 



193 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



(1793),' he says, 'been caught alive, and is 
now in the possession of Mr. Thomas Hutton 
of Keswick, which is unquestionably the Falco 
chrpa'itus, or golden eagle ' {History of Cum- 
berland, vol. i. p. 450). This statement is 
corroborated by the author of a tract entitled, 
' Observations, chiefly Lithological,' in regard 
of an eagle which he found preserved in Hut- 
ton's Museum in 1 803 : ' This Falco chrysa'etus 
was a very young eagle, which Hutton had 
bred ; he said he used to feed it with rats, 
cats, etc. The bird killed them immediately, 
and then sucked their blood ; this was the 
only drink he would ever take.' 

113. White-tailed Eagle. Haliaetus albkilla 
(Linn.). 
Locally, Erne {obs.). 
A rare visitant. An immature bird was 
winged by a keeper named Gill in the neigh- 
bourhood of Alston in the autumn of 1834. 
Another was captured upon Black Combe by 
a shepherd in 1838. This bird lived for 
several years in the possession of the Lewth- 
waite family. A third was seen near Alston 
in the early part of 1844. The sea-eagle 
bred constantly near Keswick until the close 
of the eighteenth century, the last years of 
which witnessed its final and complete exter- 
mination. Eyries in Eskdale, in the vicinity 
of Buttermere (on a shelf of rock in the centre 
of a great mural precipice between High Crag 
and High Stile) and Langdale were occasion- 
ally occupied. Eaglets were sent from an 
Eskdale nest to Muncaster about 1790 ; a 
bird taken from the Buttermere eyry lived and 
died at Greystoke Castle. But the stronghold 
that was chiefly frequented lay in the preci- 
pices of Eagle Crag, a lofty cliff at the head 
of the valley of Stonethwaite. This was the 
eyry that chiefly tempted the bolder spirits in 
Borrowdale to hazard the safety of their limbs 
in harrying the yoimg birds. The church- 
wardens of Crosthwaite parish paid sixpence 
(rarely, a shilling) for young eagles, and a 
shilling (rarely, two shillings) for old eagles. 
The entries of rewards for eagles in the parish 
book commence in 1 7 1 3 ; the detailed ac- 
counts terminate in 1762. During this period 
of fifty years a good many seasons passed in 
which no claim was made upon the wardens 
for slaughtered eagles ; but upwards of thirty 
eagles were paid for. Of these, ten are stated 
to have been old birds and fourteen young 
birds ; the age of the eagles for which four 
shillings were paid in 1759, has not been re- 
corded. Several additional eagles were paid 
for in 1763 and 1765, though we lack detailed 
particulars ; but, after this date, the shepherds 
seem to have found that it was more profit- 



able to take the yoimg birds alive and sell 
them to strangers, than to kill them as pro- 
scribed vermin. The poet Gray records that 
a single eaglet and an addled egg were taken 
from the Borrowdale nest in 1768. Gilpin 
saw a young eaglet, nearly the size of a hen 
turkey, which had just been taken from Eagle 
Crag in Borrowdale ; this may have been the 
identical bird that was sent to Bishop Law 
from Borrowdale in 1774. At all events, if it 
was not that very bird, it came from the same 
eyry. W. Walker and W. Youdall were 
among those who robbed the birds in Eagle 
Crag about this date ; the latter was possibly 
a relative of John Youdall, the carpenter, who 
killed a yoimg eagle in 1763. The birds 
nested about 1784, in Wything's Crag ; other 
eyries were occasionally resorted to for single 
seasons. 

114. Goshawk, jistur palumbarius {Li'mn.), 

A very rare visitant. An immature bird 
was shot near Edenhall while striking at a 
wood-pigeon. It was mounted by Mr. T. 
Hope, then residing at Penrith. The late 
Mr. Tandy, of Penrith, informed me that he 
saw a goshawk on Penrith Beacon, and cer- 
tainly described the bird very accurately. In 
olden days the goshawk sometimes nested in 
the county. There was an eyry of goshawks 
in ' Thomas's Wood in Bastonswayt.' 

115. Sparrow-Hawk. j4ccipiter nisus {L,inn.). 

A common resident in our woods, especi- 
ally in those which are not trapped. Males 
in perfect adult dress are much scarcer than 
females. The late Mr. Edward Tandy in the 
summer of 1888 found a sparrow-hawk nest- 
ing in a rabbit-hole ; he took the eggs. A 
pretty pale cinnamon variety of this hawk was 
procured near Drumburgh by James Smith. 
It is now preserved in the Carlisle Museum. 

116. Kite. Milvus ictinuSy iavigny. 
Locally, Glede {06s.). 

A rare visitant. The last kite actually 
killed in the county was shot near Carlisle on 
November 13th, 1856. But others have been 
seen, though not obtained, in more recent 
years. A kite was observed near Lorton in 
1873, and two kites were seen by the Rev. 
H. H. Slater in Patterdale, in the autumn of 

1880, another was seen near Renwick in 

1 88 1. To my own profound astonishment, 
I had an excellent view of a kite which passed 
over Carlisle on September nth, 1891. Ear- 
lier in the year, I had studied kites on the 
wing for days together, and my recollection 
of their appearance was particularly fresh. 
Earlier in the century, a few kites nested at 

94 



BIRDS 



Castle Head near Keswick, at Priest's Crag, 
at Birch Crag, and at Armathwaite. 

117. Honey-Buzzard. Pernis apivorus {Linn.). 
A rare visitant. An immature bird was 

shot at Raughton Head in October, 1832; 
another near Penrith in the autumn of 1851 ; 
another at Scratmere Scaur ; a fourth near St, 
Bees in 1863 ; a fifth was killed near Wigton, 
and taken in the flesh to my old crony the 
late Sam Watson, who told me that it had 
been feeding on wasp grubs. All these were 
autumn captures; but in 1857 a female was 
killed near Alston in the month of June. 
This latter circumstance recalls the feet that 
Dr. Heysham was informed that the honey- 
buzzard nested at Lowther, whence he re- 
ceived a female shot in June, 1782. Mr. 
James Wilson informed Macgillivray about 
1835, that in his earlier days he had seen at 
least three honey-buzzards which had been 
killed by the Lowther keepers and were pre- 
served at Penrith. 

118. Iceland Falcon. Falco islandus, Gmelin. 
A very rare visitant. A female of this gyr 

falcon was shot near Crossfell on October 1 3th, 
1 860. It was received in the flesh by Blackett 
Greenwell, from whom many years later I 
received the sternum and some loose feathers. 

119. Peregrine Falcon. Falco peregrinus, 

Tunstall. 

A very scarce resident, though I have seen 
some lovely eggs of this bird which had been 
taken among our hills. But the bird itself is 
not excessively rare. On the contrary, it is 
often to be seen by any one who can identify 
a high-flying hawk in the distance, especially 
in the neighbourhood of the coast. The 
female feeds partly on grouse, but the male 
preys chiefly on smaller birds, such as knots, 
golden . and green plover, and wood-pigeons. 
I have had the pleasure of witnessing several 
pretty flights of wild falcons, occasionally at 
imexpectedly close quarters. 

1 20. Hobby. Falco subbuteo, Linn. 

A rare summer visitant. A pair of hobbies 
once nested on Penrith Beacon ; both birds 
were killed at the nest, and the eggs were 
taken by T. Hope. An immature bird was 
shot in the same neighbourhood, though just 
outside the coimty border, on August 25th, 
1899. Others have been killed in Borrow- 
dale, at Castle Rigg and Edenhall. 

121. Merlin. Falco asalon, Tunstall. 
Locally, Blue Hawk. 
A scarce resident, especially among the Lake 
hills, but on the decrease even on the eastern 



fells. Breeding birds return to their favourite 
breeding grounds early in the year ; generally 
in the month of March if the weather be 
bright and open, in which case the birds may 
be observed toying together in the air. The 
female scratches a slight hollow in the ground 
early in May, and soon begins to lay. Incu- 
bation is usually commenced by the middle of 
May, and the young hatch in the following 
month. Four is the largest number of eggs 
that I have ever found in a clutch ; there is, 
commonly, an addled egg in the nest. 

122. Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus, Linn. 

Locally, Red Hawk. 

A common resident, often seen hovering 
with widely extended wings and tail spread 
out in fan-fashion, carefully steadying itself 
with head to windward, as it watches the 
movements of a field-mouse with many a 
quick turn of its head, ready to drop with foot 
drawn out in act to strike should fortune sug- 
gest a favourable attack ; but it often rises 
from the ground with empty talons, its swift 
swoop having been successfully evaded. Dr. 
F. D. Power observed a white kestrel on Dent 
Hill in July, 1873. 

123. Osprey. Pandion haliaStus (Linn.). 

A rare visitant on autumn and spring mi- 
gration. Greenwell sent word to Mr. T. C. 
Heysham of a female osprey which he received 
in the flesh in 184 1. It was shot about four- 
teen miles from Alston in the month of No- 
vember. Other ospreys were killed at Nether- 
by in the spring of 1837 ; at Barron Wood 
in September, 1869; at Gosforth in 1881 ; 
at Clifton on September 27th, 1890. The 
late Mr. J. W. Harris presented to the Car- 
lisle Museum an osprey which had been killed 
on the Derwent. The Barron Wood bird 
was caught in a pole-trap, and recorded in the 
local papers as a ' brown eagle.' Whin's Pond 
at Edenhall has received the attention of os- 
preys on several occasions ; a fine female was 
shot there in the summer of 1848. The 
estuary of the Eden at Rocklifie has also some 
attraction for this species. 

124. Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carho (Linn.). 
Locally, Water-Crow, Black Diver. 
A frequent visitor to several of our larger 
lakes, abundant also on our estuaries during 
nearly every month of the year. I have seen 
birds of the present species returning at a great 
height from fishing inland. It is interesting 
to notice how they circle roxmd in slowly 
descending curves, imtil at last they reach the 
sea level, and alight in the tideway. 



195 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



125. Shag or Green Cormorant. Phalacro- 

corax graculus (Linn.). 

A scarce bird in the waters of this county, 
as it was a hundred years ago according to Dr. 
Heysham. I have seen it on the Solway 
Firth, and single birds have been taken on our 
rivers. An immature shag was caught on the 
Caldew on October and, 1856. 

126. Gannet or Solan Goose. Sula bassana 

(Linn.). 

A spring and summer visitant, often to be 
seen fishing in our territorial waters, occasion- 
ally venturing up the shallow waters of our 
estuaries. An adult was seen at Silloth in 
January, 1894, but we do not as a rule meet 
with the present species in winter. 

127. Common Heron. Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

Locally, Heronsue, Willie Fisher, Nannie. 

A common resident, resorting to the estuary 
marshes and occasionally to our open coast in 
winter, at other times haunting our streams 
and rivers as well as marshy meadows. There 
are fine breeding colonies at Edenhall and 
Wythop ; others nest at Crofton, Muncaster, 
Greystoke, Netherby, as also on the Gelt ; 
but the smaller colonies are often interfered 
with, and changes occur from time to time. 

128. Purple Heron. Ardea purpurea, Linn. 

A rare visitant. A single specimen was 
shot near Alston twenty years or so prior to 
1870, in which year its history was reported 
to the late Mr. John Gould. It was added 
to the Edenhall collection. 

129. Squacco Heron. Ardea ralloides, ScopoM. 

A rare visitant. A specimen was shot out 
of a tree near the village of Kirkoswald in 
July, 1 845. It was shot by a Lazonby farmer. 
He appears to have sent it to the late Sir 
George Musgrave, for whom it was probably 
mounted by Philip Turner of Penrith. 

130. Night-Heron, Nycticorax griseus (Linn.). 

A rare visitant to the north of England, 
but one that seems to have strayed into this 
county on four occasions. Mr. T. C. Hey- 
sham knew of a yoimg bird that was shot on 
the Petteril, near the village of Carleton, in 
October or November, 1847. It is believed 
that an adult bird was shot at Beckfoot, near 
Brampton, about 1850. Another specimen, 
which I have often seen, was killed in the 
Abbey Holme about 1 866. A fourth example, 
in the plumage of the first year, was shot by 
Thomas Davidson of Cargo, in a field ad- 
joining his garden, October 21st, 1900. 



131. Little Bittern. Ardetta minuta (Linn.). 

A rare visitant. About 1845 a specimen 
in female plumage was caught close to the 
Petteril near Carlisle in the month of July. 
It was sent to the late Mr. John Hancock of 
Newcastle, and is preserved in his collection. 

132. Bittern. Botauris stellaris (Linn.). 

Locally, Miredrum, Bitter-drum, Bitter {oh.). 

Formerly resident on many of our bogs, 
the bittern has long ceased to startle country 
folk with its spring ' booming,' though the 
local names are still current, with the excep- 
tion of ' bitter,' which is only known to us 
from the Howard Household Book. Many wild- 
fowl were supplied from local sources to the 
table of Lord William Howard at Naworth 
Castle. Thus in 161 8 two bitterns were 
purchased for the castle kitchen in the first 
week of August ; the same thing happened 
in 1634, a bittern being bought in for six- 
pence, the price also of a wild duck. The 
fact that these birds were eaten at the very 
beginning of August renders it fair to suppose 
that the birds had been bred or had nested in 
the neighbourhood. Even in the later years 
of the . eighteenth century the bittern was 
believed to breed on low-lying lands beside 
the Eamont in the south of the county. It 
is highly probable that the headquarters of the 
bitterns that once nested in the county should 
be looked for in the neighbourhood of the 
coast and its estuaries. Kelswick Mire, near 
Abbey, was once the bittern's home. The 
traditions preserved in the Timperon family 
show that a pair or two of bitterns nested in 
this morass annually. The young lads used 
to wade out into the reed beds on summer after- 
noons and capture the young of the 'miredrum,' 
which made good sport for their young tor- 
mentors by throwing up the frogs or 'pad- 
docks ' which formed part of their diet. The 
boys had an unpleasant habit of spurting water 
into the mouths of the young bitterns with this 
result. The family were of course intimately 
acquainted with the love-note of the bittern, 
since their house was on the edge of the Mire. 
William Timperon's father was born there 
about 1780, and the Mire was drained in 
1820. Cardew Mire was another famous 
haunt of this retiring bird. It is to be regretted 
that such individuals of this marsh-lover as 
visit the county in winter seldom escape 
scathless. Five specimens have been killed in 
the county in the last decade, including three 
killed at Weddholm Flow, Cumwhitton and 
Penrith in January, 1 892 ; a fourth was shot 
near Little Bampton in November, 1 893, and 
a fifth near Cumwhitton in January, 1 900. 



196 



BIRDS 



The Little Bampton bird was brought to me 
in a fresh state by Adam Linton, who des- 
cribed with great gusto how he saw the 
strange bird running in the bottom of a beck, 
and how quickly it crouched behind a bush 
when it perceived his presence. 

133. Spoonbill. Platalea leucorodia, Linn. 
A rare visitant. A single bird of the pre- 
sent species frequented the shores of the 
Sol way Firth in the winter of 1840-41. It 
was closely and carefully identified through a 
glass by James Irwin, who watched it fishing 
in some shallow water near Bowness. Two 
spoonbills made their appearance in the county 
in 1859, having probably travelled in com- 
pany. Of these, one was shot in Scaleby 
meadows in November by George Bowman, 
who took it in the flesh to Sam Watson. 
The other was shot a few days later near 
Irthington, and stuffed by William Graham. 
In the west of the county an immature bird 
was killed on October 22nd, 1864, by John 
Parker, of the Tarn near Bootle. This bird 
was added to the museum of the late Mr. 
Wallace of Distington, and there remained 
until his entire collections went to the hammer 
in August, 1899. It was then that I pur- 
chased this example for the Carlisle Museum. 

134. Grey Lag-Goose, jinser cinereus, Meyer. 
A rare winter visitant, generally met with 

in the neighbourhood of the salt marshes. 
The finest local specimen known to me was 
shot by the late Alfred Smith upon Rockliffe 
Marsh, December 12th, 1890. I weighed it 
next day, and it scaled 8 lb. The bill was 
orange yellow and the legs were flesh-coloured. 
On December 22nd, 1899, two immature 
birds of the present species were killed near 
Skinburness by W, Nicol. These immature 
examples had bills of a pinky flesh colour, and 
orange legs with white claws. I examined 
them in the flesh with L. E. Hope. The 
late Mr. Edward Tandy presented me with a 
good grey lag, which had been shot in a field 
near Langwathby on March 29th, 1889. 

135. White-fronted Goose. Jnser alhifrons 

(Scopoli). 
A winter visitant of irregular occurrence, 
quite unknown in large flocks within our 
limits. The greatest number of white-fronted 
geese that have hitherto occurred together in 
the county consisted of nine birds of various 
ages, which were shot on Skinburness Marsh 
on January 6th, 1890. This gaggle flew up 
from the sea when the marsh was nearly 
covered by a very high tide and alighted so near 
to one another on a rather elevated part of the 
ground, that all nine were killed by a single 



discharge of a punt-gun. Other specimens 
have been obtained in the neighbourhood of 
the Solway Firth, including two fine adults 
shot out of a flock of five near AUonby in 
November, 1882; a single bird shot in the 
same neighbourhood in November, 1884; 
another adult shot on Skinburness Marsh in 
January, 1889, when accompanying four 
pink-footed geese ; an old bird shot in the 
locality last named in December, 1894 ; and 
an immature bird shot on another of the 
marshes in January, 1898. I handled in the 
flesh two old birds which had just been shot 
near Plumpton in January, 1891 ; again, in 
November, 1898, a mature female was killed 
near Greystoke. This last bird seemed to be 
a very old one. 

136. Bean-Goose. Anser segetum (Gmelin). 

A winter visitant to the salt marshes, met 
with irregularly in almost every part of the 
county. W. Nicol met with a flock of bean- 
geese near Silloth which he estimated as 
including about sixty birds ; this was in 
October, 1898. But small flocks are much 
more often in evidence than large ones, and 
single birds are not uncommon, despite the 
gregarious habits of this genus. With us this 
species shows much partiality for stubble fields 
and swampy meadows ; but the marsh grasses 
are also partaken of with relish, especially 
when young and tender. Some wet meadows 
upon the Eden above Carlisle are visited by a 
few bean-geese in most severe winters. Speci- 
mens have been procured on different occa- 
sions near Alston, Keswick, Cockermouth, 
and as far south in the county as Bootle. 

137. Pink-footed Goose. Anser brachyrhyn- 

chus, Baillon. 
A winter visitant, arriving in some years as 
early as the middle of September, but usually 
present in large numbers from October to 
March, or even April in favourite localities. 
Inland it isof irregular occurrence. In January, 
1887, two birds of this species were shot out 
of a flock of sixty-seven near Brampton, and 
sent to Newcastle for preservation. But 
though many of the geese which migrate 
across the county may belong to this species, 
there can be no doubt that it chiefly frequents 
our salt marshes, particularly the large salting 
known as Rockliffe Marsh. At one time 
the bean-goose held the ground, but in the 
last decade the marsh has often been eaten 
bare at its extremity by the great numbers of 
pink-footed geese which browsed upon the 
herbage, covering the ground with their 
droppings and leaving many feathers behind 
them. 



197 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



138. Snow-Goose. Chen hyperboreus (Pallas). 
This accidental visitant to Europe has been 

identified in the county on two occasions. 
In 1884 I saw an adult bird on the coast near 
Allonby on August 22nd. It was quite alone 
and apparently migrating. In January, 1891, 
four white geese were seen in a meadow near 
Mowbray by a farmer, whose dog put them 
up. He saw the birds at close quarters, and 
his evidence was independently confirmed. 
On the 22nd of the same month four snow- 
geese were observed near Carlisle by Mr. 
D. L. Thorpe and myself, flying down the 
Eden valley. 

139. Barnacle-Goose. Bernicla leucopsis (Bech- 

stein). 
The salt marshes of the Solway Firth are 
the constant resort of this well-known winter 
visitant, which is only absent from its favourite 
feeding-grounds for about five months in the 
year. Where precisely its chief breeding- 
grounds may lie, we do not know, though the 
young in down are affirmed to have been 
taken in Greenland and in Spitzbergen. It 
returns with comparative regularity to its 
winter home in the month of October. 
There are years in which the usual advent of 
these birds is accelerated, owing perhaps to 
early breeding seasons in the far north ; the 
geese then arrive, or rather commence to 
arrive, in September. Thus, in 1891, be- 
tween two and five hundred birds arrived on 
Long Newton Marsh on September 28th ; a 
couple were shot near Allonby two days later. 
In other years I have met with odd individuals 
soon after the middle of September. But the 
first large flocks arrive, as a rule, between 
October 9th and 20th, and are followed later 
by reinforcements which unite with those that 
have preceded them. The barnacle-goose 
does not resort to enclosed meadows or stubble 
fields, but occupies well-defined stations on the 
salt marshes, shifting from one marsh to another 
according to the food supply, but seldom 
abandoning a favourite haunt during the 
entire winter season unless a spell of excep- 
tionally severe weather induces the birds to 
journey to some less-exposed coast. 

140. Brent Goose. Bernida brenta (Pallas). 
Locally, Rotgeese ( = Root Geese) ipbs.). 
A winter visitant, of tolerably frequent 
occurrence upon the estuaries of the county, 
but seldom present in considerable numbers. 
A quantity of brent geese appeared on the 
Solway Firth during the last week of 1894 
and the first week of 1895. Several flocks 
alighted in the fields near Allonby, one of 
them being estimated to include between 



thirty and forty birds. But gaggles of five 
or six birds are the rule, and the stay even of 
these is rarely prolonged ; their favourite food 
is not forthcoming in sufficient abundance, 
and the marsh grasses, though greedily par- 
taken of in case of necessity, are not palatable 
to this goose. Both dark and light-breasted 
birds have come under my notice, but the 
latter predominate. 

141. Whooper Swan. Cygnus musicus, Bech- 
stein. 
A winter visitant, but of comparative rarity 
in the county. I have never handled a fresh 
local specimen in seventeen years, though the 
head of a cygnet of this species was sent to 
me for identification from Crofton, where the 
bird had been killed in December, 1895. 
But though it has not fallen to my lot to 
examine any dead whoopers in this part of 
England, I have found great pleasure in the 
study of living birds. In February, 1891, 
and again in January, 1893, two pairs of 
whoopers visited Monkhill Lough, and afforded 
me excellent opportunities of observing their 
actions in a state of nature. Their time is 
chiefly spent in browsing upon aquatic herbage, 
their long necks submerged, and the body 
resting buoyantly on the surface of the water. 
If danger is anticipated, one or more indivi- 
duals remain on guard, straightening their 
necks and casting anxious glances in the 
direction from which harm is anticipated. At 
such moments the musical note of ' honi ' is 
frequently uttered. 

142. Bewick's Swan. Cygnus bewicki^Yarrell. 

A winter visitant of comparative rarity, but 
few years probably elapse without the presence 
of individuals being reported, even if not ob- 
tained. A fine adult was killed at Edenhall 
in December, 1879 ; a second was killed in 
the same locality a little later ; in 1884 a 
single bird was observed at Monkhill Lough 
on November 23rd ; a herd of twenty visited 
Ulleswater and other lakes in the south of 
the county in January, 1888 ; and three 
were killed on the Solway Firth by Bryson 
on Christmas Day, 1888. In the following 
January I found that a pair of these swans 
had taken up their residence on Monkhill 
Lough ; there I visited them on many occa- 
sions up to their departure, which took place 
late in March. On March 5th of that year, 
a herd of twenty-six swans, apparently of this 
species, was seen circling over the Ravenglass 
estuary. A single bird was independently 
noticed on the estuary. On December 4th, 
1890, W. Nicol fell in with six Bewick's 
swans near Skinburness ; two were shot there 



198 



BIRDS 



soon after. On December 15th, in the same 
year, when crossing Burgh Marsh, I observed 
a single cygnet sitting on the open marsh. It 
rose upon the wing when it saw me, but 
after making a flight roimd alighted again on 
the ground and began to crop the grass upon 
the edge of a wide creek. It was secured by 
my friend, Mr. D. L. Thorpe, though only 
after a long and diflScult stalk. The only 
swans reported to me, apparently, in the 
winter of 1893-94 were a bird seen on the 
Wampool by Story in October, 1893, and 
five examples seen by W. Nicol on January 
3rd, 4th and 5th, 1894. In January, 1895, 
T. Peal saw a single bird on the Solway 
Firth, and this may possibly have been the 
bird which James Smith observed in the 
neighbourhood of Drumburgh imtil the 
middle of April, when it disappeared. It 
had, he thought, been wounded by some one 
who fired at it on Bigland's Bog, and no 
doubt lingered in the neighbourhood until it 
had entirely recovered from its injury. Nicol 
did not meet with any wild swans in the 
winter of 1 895-96 until February 25th, 1 896, 
when fourteen Bewick's swans visited Silloth 
Bay. He eventually fired at them with his 
punt-gun ; they rose from the sandbank on 
which they were resting and flew roimd the 
bay for upwards of half an hour, after which 
they flew oiF in an easterly direction. Nicol 
met with one herd of these swans in 1897. 
In 1898 he fell in with three Bewick's swans 
in the early part of October, and they were 
fairly tame ; but a single bird which fre- 
quented the same estuary in November that 
same year was excessively wild, and always 
rose on the wing if it sighted his pimt. 
Lastly, six Bewick's swans appeared at Skin- 
burness in December, 1899. A cygnet was 
shot there on December 21st, and another 
cygnet was killed higher up the Solway Firth 
by Thomas Peal on December 29th, 1899. 

143. Mute Swan. Cygnus a/or (Gmelin). 

Mute swans often visit the estuaries of our 
coast and exhibit as much wariness in some 
cases as any wild birds could do ; but there 
is always the probability of their having es- 
caped from some ornamental water. The 
Corporation of Carlisle keep a good many 
swans on the Eden, and others breed at 
Talkin Tarn. 

144. Polish Swan. Cygnus immutabilisjYariell. 

Four specimens of this species, or variety, 
appeared on the Wampool in January, 1892. 
They were exceedingly wild, and on this 
account were pursued with the greater eager- 
ness by local punt-gunners, who eventually 



secured them all. They weighed from 16 to 
20 lb. apiece, the males being the heaviest. 
Three others were killed on Derwentwater 
in February, 1897. 

145. Common Sheld-Duck. Tadorna cornuta 
(S. G. Gmelin). 
Locally, Shell, Skeldrake, Skellie. 

A common resident upon the sandy shores 
of all our estuaries, though seldom met with 
inland. No species of wildfowl has increased 
so remarkably of late years, at any rate on the 
coast, as this maritime duck. Its growing 
numbers are probably due to the protection 
afforded to the breeding birds under recent 
legislation. Thirty years ago the sheldrake 
was comparatively scarce in the neighbourhood 
of Drumburgh, and nested constantly in rabbit 
burrows. When James Smith first went to 
live there, only two or three pairs of shel- 
drakes nested in the locality ; whereas, at the 
present time, upwards of thirty pairs nest 
within an easy walk of his house, and the 
birds disperse themselves freely over the neigh- 
bouring mosses. Some of this colony still 
nest in rabbit-holes ; but not a few prefer the 
cover of thick furze bushes, or the tall heather. 
The birds are well aware of the danger to 
which open nests are exposed when visible to 
the prying eyes of crows or magpies. They 
are very careftil to enter cover at some dis- 
tance from their eggs, and to run along the 
ground for some yards until they reach their 
nests. 

The males are highly combative in the 
pairing season. Many fights ensue before 
each pair settles down by common agreement 
to its proper location. Then comes the choice 
of a nesting site. The early hours are often 
spent in searches after suitable quarters. The 
female may be seen entering and leaving one 
burrow after another, while her champion 
mounts guard in the vicinity. After an hour 
or so spent in ' ratching about ' and determining 
the relative merits of diflFerent positions, the 
birds return to sport in the waters of the river 
channel, or feed upon the broad extent of sand 
exposed by the ebbing tide. 

When the pangs of hunger have been ap- 
peased by a plentiful capture of the minute 
shells, which form the chief food of this bird, 
paired birds often fly up and down the coast 
for exercise, or retire to some small pool of 
fresh water near the coast, in which they 
bathe and play together. I have seen as 
many as five pairs at once on a little shallow 
dub under the shelter of the sand dunes near 
Silloth, and even large numbers may be found 
consorting (not flocking, however) on more 
considerable pieces of water. The immature 



199 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



birds do not pair, but live a gregarious life 
among their own kind, feeding in the larger 
creeks and small runners, and resting upon 
the brow of the marshes. Incubation in 
mild seasons commences about the middle of 
the month of May. I have known nine 
fresh eggs to be laid in the nest by May 4th ; 
but fresh eggs may also be found in the month 
of June, or even later, if the first clutch has 
been robbed. 

146. Ruddy Sheldrake. Tadorna casarca 
(Linn.). 
The spring of 1892 will always be remem- 
bered by the present generation of ornitholo- 
gists as having witnessed a remarkable western 
movement of this eastern duck. The irruption 
affected Great Britain in a very special sense ; 
but the extended wave of migration reached 
as far north as Iceland, so that the probability 
of the strangers having escaped from cap- 
tivity was absolutely negatived. On July 
17th, 1892, two birds of the present species 
attracted the notice of a farmer at Kirkbride, 
by what he described as their ' grunting ' note. 
They were then swimming together in the 
waters of the Wampool near the village of 
Kirkbride ; but being disturbed they rose 
upon the wing and flew away like common 
sheldrakes, flying high and in a straight line ; 
they soon wheeled, however, and circling 
round dropped quietly back into the river. 
Their arrival was notified to John Biglands, 
who searched for them on the following day. 
He found them without difBculty, and recog- 
nizing that they were strange to him, he shot 
one of the two. The bird thus obtained was 
in moult, at least it had been changing the 
smaller feathers, but the quills were quite per- 
fect. Biglands however thought that the bird 
was not perfect enough in feather to make a 
good cabinet specimen. Accordingly, instead 
of sending it to me, as was his first intention, 
he allowed his brother to carry it oiF to his 
farmhouse. He there identified the bird to 
his own satisfaction as a scaup, his only 
book of reference being Goldsmith's Animated 
Nature. Believing rightly that the scaup was 
a common duck, this worthy flung his prize 
upon his manure-heap. When I arrived it 
had disappeared, and I was assured that a dog 
or cat had demolished it, which seemed likely 
enough. But I persevered. When the whole 
of the reeking dunghill had been turned over, 
a final thrust of the pitchfork brought up the 
remains of a bird, and sure enough it was a 
ruddy sheldrake. It was far advanced in de- 
composition, but the wing feathers were intact 
and showed that it had never been in confine- 
ment. We sorrowfully secured the skull and 



sternum, together with a few feathers, and 
returned the rotting carcase to the mass of 
filth from which it had been disinterred for 
our enlightenment. I must add that I spent 
many days in searching for the other bird. It 
frequented the Wampool for about a fortnight 
after the death of its companion. It then 
took up its quarters at Crofton Park, where 
it was shot by Mr. L. S. Cookson. He 
wrote to me that it was a very fine male 
in splendid plumage. 

147. Mallard or Wild Duck. Anas boscas, 

Linn. 
Locally, Grey Duck, Mire-Duck. 
A common resident, decreasing of late in 
most localities as a breeding species, but more 
mallard appeared in the neighbourhood of 
Abbey Holme, and the Solway Firth gener- 
ally, in the severe weather of December, 
1889, than had been seen for thirty or forty 
years. The large numbers which then ap- 
peared were to some extent supplied by the 
small birds which come from abroad ; but 
may partly be explained by the attention 
which duck-breeding is now beginning to 
receive from landed proprietors. Three 
thousand head of wild ducks are often reared 
in a season on the Netherby estate, and 
though many of these home-bred birds are 
killed on the spot, it is only reasonable to 
suppose that others go to swell the bags of 
gunners on the marshes. 

148. Gadwall. Anas strepera, Linn. 

A rare visitant. The handsomest local 
specimen that I have seen hitherto was shot 
out of a flock of wigeon near Silloth, January 
8th, 1892. It was a mature drake in perfect 
plumage. A pair of gadwall frequented the 
Solway marshes in March, 1886, and the 
female was unluckily shot. A single male 
was shot at Grinsdale on October 21st, 1884. 
I had seen this bird at the point of Burgh 
Marsh a few days earlier. Two female gad- 
wall were sent to me by Greenwood of Port 
Carlisle in October, 1895, with the remark 
that he had never seen such ducks before. 
The gadwall is even rarer inland than on our 
estuaries. An immature male was shot upon 
the Lyne on January 3rd, 1885. In Novem- 
ber, 1889, I observed a single drake which 
frequented Whin's Pond. A drake obtained 
on that sheet of water is preserved at Edenhall. 

149. Shoveler. Spatula dypeata (Linn.). 
Locally, Spoonbill. 

A summer visitant, but in very sparing 
numbers. Only two or three pairs are 
known to breed in the county and all in 



200 



BIRDS 



close proximity to the Solway Firth. The 
first nest of the shoveler taken in the county 
was found on a salt marsh in May, 1886. 
The eight eggs which it contained were 
placed tmder a hen, and six hatched ; one 
young bird was feathering well when it met 
with an accident. The others died early. 
Two of the nestlings are in Tullie House. 
The attempt to rear young birds was repeated 
in 1887, but unsuccessfully. Two or three 
pairs have nested in the same district for the 
last fourteen years, but the species is not in- 
creasing, possibly because the young are so 
far from being shy, that they are generally 
shot on the salt marshes in early autumn. 
Nine eggs of the shoveler were taken in the 
usual locality in June, 1899 ; I placed them 
under a hen but they did not hatch, and were 
added to the Carlisle Museum. The nest in 
1899, as in other years, was merely a hollow 
in a tuft of coarse marsh grass and was placed 
in an exposed position, where it might have 
been trodden under foot by cattle. The 
home-bred birds, as already stated, frequent 
our marshes for a few weeks after their quills 
are strong, and then migrate. Their place 
is taken later by birds which appear to be 
genuine winter immigrants, which depart in 
February, while the breeding birds return to 
their favourite haunts in March and April. 

150. Pintail. Dafila acuta (Linn.). 

A winter visitant, chiefly met with on our 
salt marshes. Our wildfowlers meet with 
two or three pintail on the marshes nearly 
every winter ; but full-dressed birds are rarely 
seen before the month of December, and 
usually later. Immature birds occur in Octo- 
ber and November, but rarely make any pro- 
longed stay. They feed indifferently on the 
salt marshes and on mosses inland. I have 
seen a few immature birds which had been 
killed in the Eden valley, but have never my- 
self met with the pintail except on the marshes 
or at Monkhill Lough. 

151. Teal. Nettion crecca (Linn.), 

A resident which formerly bred commonly 
on the mosses inland and near the coast, but 
of recent years has been far less numerous in 
the nesting season. The young are very 
active little fellows, and are with difficulty 
caught, but they are easily reconciled to the 
loss of their liberty, as are adults also if judi- 
ciously treated. They can seldom be induced 
to nest in confinement, though a pair of tame 
teal nested successfully on a small pond at 
Kirkbride. 



152. Garganey. Querquedula circia (Linn.). 

A rare spring or summer visitant. In 
March, 1895, a farmer shot a fine drake in a 
field near Silloth. Two pairs of garganey 
were seen near Carlisle in the spring of 1 848, 
and three of the four birds were shot. Two 
drakes were killed at Tarn Wadling before it 
was drained. A male was shot near Carlisle 
in 1857, and a pretty drake was shot near 
Gilsland in the spring of 1882. On the 
iSth of August, 1890, a man named Sharp 
shot an old hen garganey near Glasson. The 
specimen was secured by George Dawson, I 
examined it on the day after it was shot, and 
found that it had a very distinct hatching spot 
and the quills were much worn. Information 
reached me that this bird had been seen with 
a brood of young ones ; there certainly was 
some reason to suppose that it had nested on 
one of the neighbouring mosses, but absolute 
proof was lacking. 

153. Wigeon. Mareca penelope (LAnn.). 
Locally, Lough-Duck, Lough. 

A common winter visitant to our estuaries, 
abundant at Ravenglass all through the winter 
months, but most numerously represented on 
the Solway Firth in late winter and early 
spring, February being now the month in 
which the largest bags are made. During 
open weather a few wigeon frequent many 
of our inland waters ; indeed they are never 
absent from Monkhill and Thurstonfield 
loughs from October to March, except during 
a spell of severe frost, when they are forced to 
abandon their favourite freshwater haunts and 
betake themselves to the mud flats of the 
coast. Stragglers have been shot in August, 
and we expect a small number of birds, in- 
cluding both young specimens and old males 
in eclipse, to visit us in September. I have 
never been able to procure any proof of the 
wigeon breeding with us, but it is possible 
that a pair or two may occasionally do so. 
An adult male spent the summer of 1890 at 
Monkhill Lough, and from his unwillingness 
to leave the locality, for he was a fine full- 
winged drake, it was difficult to resist the in- 
ference that he had a mate nesting in the 
immediate vicinity, 

154. Pochard. Fuligula ferina (Linn.). 

A frequent visitant to the English lakes, 
chiefly in the autumn and winter months, but 
not exclusively so. That it occasionally nests 
with us is almost certain. I saw a pair of old 
pochards at Monkhill on the I2th of August, 
and found a party of immature birds at 
Thurstonfield a few days later. In July, 



201 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



1894, I found an old male pochard on the 
latter lough, and imagined that its mate must 
be in the vicinity. 

155. Tufted Duck. Fuligula cristata {Leach). 
Almost a resident species, yet proof of its 

having reared its young in our midst is still to 
be obtained. I have know^n male birds to 
haunt particular sheets of vi^ater, such as 
Whin's Pond and Monkhill Lough, all the 
summer through ; these birds regvdarly as- 
sumed eclipse plumage and shed their wing 
quills. I have likewise seen broods of young 
birds in autumn, and believe that this duck 
must occasionally breed in the county, as it 
certainly does across the border. Our estuaries 
are not much to the taste of the tufted 
duck. 

156. Scaup-Duck. FuUgula marila (Linn.), 
Locally, Bluebill. 

A common winter visitor to our estuaries, 
especially those of the Solway Firth, which 
are more or less frequented by scaup from 
October to March, at the end of which latter 
month the individuals that have wintered on 
our coast usually depart. Instances of single 
birds or even small parties passing the summer 
months with us are well substantiated by my 
personal experience. But such exceptions are 
noteworthy. 

157. Goldeneye. C langula glaucian (hinn.). 

A common winter visitant to our lakes and 
rivers, generally present from October to 
March, sometimes arriving in the first week 
of the former month, and rarely delaying its 
departure fer into April. It occurs all over 
the county, alike on upland tarns and on the 
dubs of the mosses near the coast. The 
majority of those seen are females, and males 
of the year. Adult males in full livery are 
very sparingly met with. It usually congre- 
gates with us in small flocks ; but in the 
severe weather of December, 1890, a flock of 
between one and two hundred birds fre- 
quented the estuaries of the Esk and Eden. 

158. Long-tailed Duck. Harelda glacialis 

(Linn.). 
A winter visitant to the estuaries of this 
county, but in very sparing numbers, large 
flocks being locally unknown. In November, 
1892, I saw a fine adult male and female 
immediately after they had been shot on the 
Wampool near Kirkbride. An immature 
bird was brought to me in December, 1892. 
In 1893, an immature drake was shot on a 
dub on Salta Moss in October. None ap- 
peared in 1894 ; but in 1895 several females 
were shot in the channels of the Wampool 



and Waver in October and November. In 
January, 1896, a male was sent to me from 
RocklifFe Marsh ; and in December, 1897, 
a female from the Scottish channel of the 
Solway Firth. In November, 1 898, 1 watched 
two long-tailed ducks for about an hour, as 
they dived and swam in Monkhill Lough. 
Although I have so far failed to detect the 
presence of this bird with certainty on any of 
our larger lakes, the specimen which I met 
with at Monkhill in 1884 spent several 
weeks on that sheet of water, associating in 
flight with the goldeneyes. The Carlisle 
Museum contains a single specimen in the 
dress peculiar to the breeding season. This 
bird is an adult drake, a lame bird, which was 
caught on a beck near Renwick, April i8th, 
1889. 

159. Common Eider Duck. Somateria mollis- 

sima (Linn.). 
A rare visitant to the west coast. An im- 
mature bird was procured near Whitehaven 
prior to 1829 ; a pair of eiders were killed on 
the Ravenglass estuary in June, 1880 ; a 
flock of thirteen eiders was seen near Mary- 
port in March, 1886. 

160. Common Scoter. CEdemia nigra (hinn.). 
Locally, Black Duck. 

A winter visitant, seldom noticed inland, 
though I have seen flocks of this scoter on 
Ulleswater in July, before the birds had shed 
their wing quills, for they could fly strongly. 
Odd birds sometimes visit our tarns, but the 
larger rivers and open waters of the coast are 
the chief resort of this seafaring duck during 
its stay with us. Its sojourn with us is 
limited to the winter months so far as large 
numbers are concerned ; but a smaller num- 
ber of birds appear to reside with us all 
through the year. Old drakes deep in moult, 
and unable to fly, were sent to me from 
Silloth in the first week of September, 1886, 
and from Cargo on Eden in the last week of 
August. 

161. Velvet Scoter. CEdemia fasca (Linn.). 
A winter visitant of comparatively rare 

occurrence. Inland, a female was shot on 
the Eden near Nunwick, March, 1898 ; 
another visited Talkin Tarn in May, 1847, 
A beautiful adult male was shot on the Eden 
at Cargo in December, i886. Several others 
in female or immature dress have been shot in 
the neighbourhood of Silloth. 

162. Surf -Scoter. CEdemia perspicillata 
(Linn.). 

An accidental visitant, the only local speci- 
men having been shot at Crofton on Novem- 



202 



BIRDS 



ber and, 1856. It was killed by a farm ser- 
vant, and entered the collection of Mr. T. C. 
Heysham, at whose sale it was purchased by 
the late Mr. J. H. Gurney, who had it re- 
mounted by Ledbeater. His son, the present 
Mr. J. H. Gurney, most kindly exchanged 
this bird for an ivory gull which I had purchased 
at the sale of the late Sir William Jardine, 
Bart. The scoter is therefore preserved in 
the Carlisle Museum. It is an adult male in 
full plumage. 

163. Goosander. Mergus merganser, Linn. 
Locally, Gravel-Duck, Dun Diver. 

A winter visitant to our larger lakes and 
rivers, which it chiefly frequents during the 
coldest months of the year. The 29th of 
September is the earliest date upon which I 
have known this duck to arrive, nor does it 
usually delay its departure in spring beyond 
the month of March. I have never known 
it to occur between May and September. 

164. Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus ser- 

rator, Linn. 
Locally, Saw-bill. 
A winter visitant to our tideways, of fairly 
common occurrence from October to April in 
sandy bays ; but rarely met with inland. 
Odd birds postpone their departure in spring 
until the middle of May, and a brood of half- 
grown young ones appeared with their parents 
on the Waver in July, 1890. The only 
adult male in eclipse dress that I have ever 
seen in this fauna! area was shot (with two 
females) on the Solway Firth about October 
31st, 1890. 

165. Smew. Mergus albellus, Linn. - 

A rare winter visitant, the arrival of which 
usually synchronises with severe weather in 
the Gulf of Bothnia. It is by no means a 
lacustrine bird, at least I cannot recall a 
single specimen as having been shot on any 
of our larger lakes. Immature birds were 
shot near Carlisle in January, 1841 and 1848 ; 
between which date and 1880 seven speci- 
mens of different ages were killed in the 
county, most of them on the Eden. A hand- 
some drake was shot on the Lyne in Decem- 
ber, 1883 ; a bird in female dress was shot 
on the Waver on November 13th, 1889, 
having been winged when it first arrived on 
October 30th, Two old drakes and two 
females were shot near Carlisle in January, 
1891 ; I saw an immature or female bird at 
Monkhill Lough in the following February. 
An immature bird was shot, but lost, near 
Silloth in January, 1 894 ; a female smew 
was shot on the Eden by R. Raine in the 
winter 1894-95. 



166. Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon. Columba 

palumbus, Linn. 
Locally, Cushat. 
A common resident, though the numbers 
of our home-bred birds are largely augmented 
by arrivals from abroad in early winter. A 
beautiful white bird, with yellow irides and 
purple-red feet, was brought to me at the 
Carlisle Museum by T. Peal, January i6th, 
1895. In November, 1887, my friend, Mr. 
F. W. Bailey, observed a pretty dove-coloured 
variety of the wood-pigeon consorting with a 
large number of its own species near Cum- 
mersdale. 

167. Stock-Dove. Columba asnas, Linn. 

Locally, Rock-Dove, Scotch Cushat, French 
Cushat, Slue Rock. 

A local resident in many situations, chiefly 
in old parks and on the wooded banks of 
rivers, but nesting likewise among the high 
rocks on our fells, and also among the 
rabbit-holes of the warrens near the coast. 
One nest at least has been found under a 
thick whin bush. The present species was 
not known to breed in the county during the 
first half of the nineteenth century. The late 
Tom Duckworth was the first naturalist to 
verify its breeding with us, which he accom- 
plished in 1 86 1. 

168. Rock-Dove. Columba livia, Gmelin. 

An occasional visitor,"reputed to breed in 
the clifR at Sandwith, and likewise among 
the mountains of the Lake district ; it appears 
to visit us from the west of Scotland in small 
flocks, generally in winter. 

169. Turtle-Dove. Turtur communis, Selby. 
An occasional spring and autumn visitant 

of irregular occurrence. A pair of these doves 
nested near Scotby in 1885, and a second pair 
bred at Orton in 1889. In the former in- 
stance, the old birds had an egg in their nest 
on June 2nd. An immature bird was killed 
in September, 1897, the season at which 
most of our local specimens have been ob- 
tained ; but an old bird was killed in a turnip 
field near Drumburgh in the summer of 
1898. Strange to say, on December 21st 
or 22nd, 1894, an adult male was killed 
near Penrith, which I examined shortly after. 
It was in very good condition, although its 
occurrence in the north of England in mid- 
winter is remarkable. 

170. Pallas's Sand-Grouse. Syrrhaptes para- 

doxus (Pallas). 
A rare visitant. The year 1863 witnessed 
a remarkable irruption of this sand-grouse into 



203 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



western Europe, and many individuals reached 
the British Isles in their wanderings. Three 
were procured in our county, out of a total of 
four birds that were identified. A female 
was shot in April by Mr. Jackson of St. Bees, 
and entered the collection of Mr. Dawson 
Rowley. A female bird was shot near Silloth 
by a man named Lightfoot, who has often 
told me how he unexpectedly fell in with 
the stranger, after it had been unsuccessfully 
pursued for several days by other local gunners. 
Its companion escaped. The bird obtained 
was dissected by the late James Fell (who 
died in 1887), and proved to be a female. A 
handsome adult male was killed near Penrith 
in May or June, and was mounted by T. 
Hope. No other specimens were detected 
until the year 1888. Small flocks were seen 
in that year near Stapleton and Wintershields 
in the month of April, unless there was any 
mistake as to the date ; certainly two flocks 
were seen near Longtown on and even prior 
to May 2 1st. A flock of six or seven birds 
alighted in some fields near Orton on May 
19th, and frequented the locality until May 
26th, when three or more were shot and 
taken to Mr. George Dawson. The first 
birds observed in the neighbourhood of the 
Solway Firth came under the notice of my 
friend Tom Williamson on May 22nd, near 
AUonby. I made my first personal acquaint- 
ance with these birds on May 28th, after 
which date I had many opportunities of study- 
ing their habits, for several flocks remained in 
the north of the county until June 1 3th, when 
their numbers fell to a very low figure. Prob- 
ably most of these birds moved in a westerly 
direction, since the species appeared in various 
parts of the west of Cumberland in July, in- 
cluding Cockermouth, Sandwith, Seascale, but 
especially Ravenglass. A flock of twenty- 
three birds settled among the sand dunes at 
Drigg on July 24th, and remained in the 
neighbourhood until October 17th. None 
were seen in the vicinity of Penrith, so far as 
we could ascertain, until September 13th. 
Most of the birds left this county in the 
autumn of 1888. But for more precise details, 
reference should be made to the account of 
the present species furnished in the Fauna of 
Lakeland. It remains for me to add that 
though I took great trouble to secure the pro- 
tection of these interesting birds, and paid 
much attention to their habits, I could find no 
proof of their nesting with us. I sent to the 
Field the ovaries of two females which had 
unhappily been killed near Silloth on May 
26th and 28th. The editor replied that 
' Both the hens would have nested, the one 
in the course of a few days, the other in less 



than a fortnight.' On November 7th I 
weighed five sand-grouse, which yielded the 
following results : 10^ oz. i dr. ; lo^ oz. ; 
10^ oz; 9I oz. ; 9 J oz. The males were 
the heaviest. During their stay with us these 
birds fed chiefly in the open fields, devouring 
the seeds of spurrey and other weeds as well 
as grain ; they retired at frequent intervals to 
the shelter of our sand dunes. Their elegancy 
of flight combined with the beauty of their 
colours to render them very fascinating. They 
flew with great rapidity ; when alarmed, they 
ran together before rising on the wing. 

171. Black Grouse. Tetrao tetrix, Linn. 

A resident species, very local in the north 
and west of the county, but fairly plentiful in 
the east and north-east between Alston and 
Brampton, as likewise in the neighbourhood 
of Penrith. Many birds are sent into the 
Carlisle poulterers during the last days of 
August, both adult and young. The greater 
number of the young birds are then in nest 
feather, showing few if any black feathers ; 
but some early nestlings are three parts in- 
vested with black feathers by August 2ist, 
and nearly as large as old birds. 

172. Red Grouse. Lagopus scoticus (Latham). 
Locally, Moorcock, Moorfowl, Gorcock (pbs.). 

A resident in small numbers on mosses near 
the coast, becoming more abundant when the 
fells are reached. Some very handsome 
varieties occur, especially perhaps in the 
neighbourhood of Alston, where many birds 
are unhappily netted. A female which 
reached me on December 13th, 1899, having 
been killed near Alston, has the chin and a 
large patch of feathers on the upper breast 
pure white (with the exception of one or two 
chesnut feathers) ; the flanks are rich ches- 
nut, and the breast and abdomen reddish ches- 
nut, each feather being broadly tipped with 
white ; the chesnut colour extends to the 
greater wing coverts ; the upper parts are prettily 
spotted with yellowish bufF. An old hen shot 
near Bewcastle on October 5th, 1895, has 
the usual markings faintly traced on a pale 
whitey-cinnamon ground, and white wings. 

173. Ptarmigan. Lagopus mutus (Montin). 
Pennant stated in 1776 that a few ptarmigan 

then inhabited the hills in the neighbourhood 
of Keswick. The fact was endorsed later on 
by Dr. Heysham, and may be held to be in- 
directly corroborated by the circumstance that 
the Dumfriesshire and Galloway hills were 
the home of ptarmigan at a subsequent period. 
As long ago as 1803, the author of a tract 
entitled ' Observations chiefly Lithological,' 
reported the existence of a local specimen of 



204 



BIRDS 



the ptarmigan in Button's local museum at 
Keswick. The late Rev. H. T. Frere saw a 
bird in that same collection in 1841, which 
was most likely the one seen there in 1 803. 

174. Pheasant. Phasianus colchicus, Linn. 

The pheasant is mentioned in old docu- 
ments as early as 125 1, when the Sheriff of 
this county was required to supply forty 
pheasants for the use of King Henry III. ; 
but it is very doubtful whether the pheasant 
was really established as a game-bird in Cum- 
berland before the last decade of the eighteenth 
century, when birds were introduced into the 
west of the county by Lord Muncaster, and 
on to the Netherby estate by Sir James 
Graham. 

175" Partridge. Perdix cinerea, hsitham. 
Locally, Patrick. 
A common resident in all suitable districts, 
and improved in vigour of late years by the 
introduction of foreign blood. I have never 
met with a really red variety in this county ; 
but, as long ago as 1887, I examined speci- 
mens of an interesting blue variety, which 
is on the increase. In 1899, I examined a 
very young nestling, which in its first dress 
was assuming the plumage of the blue variety ; 
so that it appears to be worn from earliest 
youth. 

176. Red-legged Partridge. Caeca bis rufa 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Red-leg. 
Another introduced species, but one which 
has never become permanently naturalized in 
any one part of the county, though we often 
hear of odd birds being shot. It was first 
procured in our county in 1848. 

177. Quail. Coturnix communis, Bonnaterre. 
Locally, Wet-me-lip, Wet-me-feet. 

A summer visitant, but in the main a 
straggler, single males occurring in our mea- 
dow lands far more frequently than paired 
couples. At the beginning of the century a 
good many pairs undoubtedly nested with us ; 
but such numbers are netted on their vernal 
journey through southern Europe that few are 
left to make their way to our northern county. 
The only quail's eggs that I have seen in any 
local collection were taken by Dr. Gabriel 
near Rockliffe. Stray birds have been killed 
in Cumberland as late as the last week of 
December. 

178. Corn-Crake or Land-Rail. Crex pra- 

tensis, Bechstein. 
Locally, Diket-Hen. 
A common summer visitant, formerly shot 
on its arrival in spring by those sportsmen (?) 



who enticed the bird within shot by repro- 
ducing its cry with a wooden comb or rattle. 
The majority of the young are hatched before 
the hay is cut, but many are killed by the 
machines. Some birds nest comparatively 
late, perhaps those which have lost their first 
eggs. In 1895, a small bird in down was 
sent to me from Head's Nook, on August 
1 6th. Single individuals have been shot 
from time to time in the middle of winter. 
A pure white bird was shot near Carlisle in 
June, 1863. I added to the Carlisle Museum 
a pied specimen obtained near Carlisle in May, 
1849. 

179. Spotted Crake. Porzana maruetta 

(Leach). 
A scarce spring and autumn visitant, which 
occasionally occurs in summer and winter, 
and is known to have nested on two of our 
morasses. The only bird that Dr. Heysham 
obtained was killed near Carlisle at the be- 
ginning of June ; but its skulking habits may 
well lead to its being overlooked at that season. 

1 80. Little Crake. Por%ana parva (Scopoli). 

A very rare visitant. An adult bird was 
captured in a ditch near Cockermouth Castle 
in 1850. It entered the possession of the 
late Mr. J. W. Harris, who allowed Mr. 
T. C. Heysham to have a drawing made of it 
in 1852, as a local rarity. Many years after- 
wards it was presented to the Carlisle Museum, 
in which it now rests. It is a fully dressed 
adult. 

181. Water-Rail. Rallus aquaticus, Linn. 
Locally, Water-Crake {obs.), 

A winter visitant to suitable situations in all 
parts of the county ; often present upon our 
runners and beck-sides in severe weather, and 
very constant to particular spots in rushy fields. 
In a few instances birds have been known to 
remain all the summer ; and even to nest with 
us. The late Tom Duckworth procured eggs 
from Rocklifie Moss ; they have also been 
taken near Penrith. 

182. Moor-Hen. Gallinula chloropus {Linn.). 

A common resident on most of our beck- 
sides, but many individuals pass through the 
county on migration. In 1894 I received a 
specimen which had killed itself by flying 
against the lantern of the East Cote Light- 
house on the night of April 20th. In June, 
1877, a specimen of the so-called 'hairy' 
variety was caught near Gosforth and taken 
to Dr. Parker. This bird is ' of a light fawn 
colour all over, except the usual white mark- 
ings.' 



205 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



183. Coot. Fulka atra, Linn. 
Locally, Lake-Hen {pbs.). 

A common resident upon most of our 
ponds, and often present on our larger lakes 
to the number of a few hundred birds. Many 
of the young appear to fall victims to voracious 
pike. I have known odd birds to be killed 
on the salt marshes after a spell of boisterous 
weather. 

184. Crane. Grus communis, Bechstein. 

In the spring of 1869 a solitary crane ap- 
peared in the neighbourhood of Allonby. It 
was eagerly pursued by several local gunners. 
Messrs. Mann, who then resided at Crock- 
hurst, stalked the bird in one of their fields 
and fired two shots at it, knocking out some 
feathers, which were sent to Mr. J. J. Armis- 
tead. 

185. Great Bustard. Otis tarda, Linn. 

A female was shot in a turnip field at Lees- 
hill in the parish of Lanercost on March 8th, 
1854. It was stuffed for a local innkeeper, 
Joseph Mowbray of Brampton. The late 
John Hancock saw the specimen a few days 
after it was stuffed, and while it was quite 
soft and flexible ; it had weighed 1 1 lb. It 
was eventually placed in the Newcastle 
Museum. 

186. Pratincole. Glareola pratincola, Liinn, 
A specimen of this rare visitant was killed 

near Bowness-on-Solway in the year 1807. 
It has never been met with in the county 
during the last ninety-three years, so that the 
original record remains unique. 

187. Cream - coloured Courser. Cursor ius 

gallicus (Gmelin). 
A stray specimen appeared at Allonby in 
October, 1862. It was shot by Robert 
Costin, a native of that village, who killed it 
on the top of the beach immediately in front 
of the bank known locally as 'The Hill.' 
Costin sold the bird to the late Mr. T. H. 
Allis of York. 

188. Dotterel. Eudromias morinellus (Linn.). 
The hills of the Lake district have long 

been celebrated as a summer haunt of this 
dainty plover. There was a time, undoubtedly, 
when many of these birds rested for a few 
days upon the slopes of our higher mountains, 
as well as upon certain marshes abutting on 
the Solway Firth, during their vernal migra- 
tion. The month of May has always been 
the season at which the dotterel appeared, 
though it has occurred in exceptional instances 
in April, and even as early as the third week 
in March. Formerly the miners on Crossfell, 



and in the neighbourhood of Keswick, were 
in the habit of ruthlessly shooting these birds 
on their arrival, which was eagerly looked for 
because the skins fetched about half a crown 
apiece for fly-dressing. Such destructive mea- 
sures have been limited by legal protection ; yet 
the dotterel is much less frequently seen in 
the county than was the case thirty or forty 
years ago. A herd named Percival, who 
lived at Rockliffe, at one time was known as 
the ' dotterel,' because he had killed so many 
of these birds. Now they are seen only once 
in five or six years, where formerly their 
arrival could safely be predicted as certain to 
occur within a few days. Whether this may 
be accounted for by the birds being more 
freely persecuted on their way to us than 
formerly is a question upon which I cannot 
pronounce an opinion. But I do not agree 
with those who argue that the dotterel ever 
bred numerously in our faunal area. 

The evidence at my disposal, which I can- 
not in the interest of this species record in 
print, satisfies me, as it would probably satisfy 
any one who has a good knowledge of the 
wildest parts of our mountain ranges, that no 
large percentage of the dotterel that visited 
our hills ever actually bred with us. That a 
limited number of birds have always done so, 
particularly in the Lake district proper, is 
equally certain, for many clutches of eggs have 
been taken since Dr. Heysham saw three eggs 
that had been procured upon Skiddaw in the 
summer of 1784, one of the parent birds 
being killed at the same time. The unob- 
trusive habits of the dotterel, when incubation 
has commenced, often permit a person to pass 
close to its nest without any suspicion of its 
nearness being aroused. On the other hand, 
the assiduity with which the most favoured 
breeding quarters are ransacked by egg-col- 
lectors render it difficult for the species to 
increase or even to hold its own. But the 
young are very rarely shot ; indeed, the 
dotterel is never molested except in spring and 
summer. The birds that visit us in May 
must journey to their winter quarters by some 
other route ; at least I have never seen any 
immature specimen killed in the county, ex- 
cept two birds from Crossfell preserved in the 
Newcastle Museum. I have observed the 
dotterel myself on some few occasions, both 
on our marshes and on the hills, but only in 
spring and summer. 

189. Ringed Plover. Mgialitis hiaticulafJAnn^ 

Locally, Sea Bellet, Pellick, Ringed Dotterel. 

A common resident upon our sea coast, 

nesting in very sparing numbers upon gravel 

beds in our larger rivers, such as the Esk and 



206 



BIRDS 



Eden, but well established all round our shores. 
On a sunny morning towards the end of 
March the male may often be seen pursuing 
his coy partner, which at first makes a show 
of eluding his pressing attentions by running 
in a contrary direction ; but, when hotly pur- 
sued, generally rises on the wing and takes a 
short flight, closely followed by her ardent 



suitor. 



190. Golden Plover. 
Linn. 



Charadrius pluvialis, 



A common resident, which constantly de- 
lights the visitor in our eastern fells by its 
plaintive whistle. It breeds in small numbers 
among the mountains of the Lake district 
proper, and a very few pairs nest upon suitable 
mosses in the vicinity of the Solway Firth. 
It is an early breeding bird, and the young 
often hatch as early as the middle of May, 
though in the Hebrides I have seen them 
chipping the shell late in July. But with us 
the majority of the young birds are strong on 
the wing by the middle of the latter month, 
when they often assemble upon the sands of 
the Solway Firth in very large numbers. It 
is exceedingly interesting to watch the move- 
ments of the birds through a good telescope. 
One bird may be seen to occupy a position of 
rest, its feathers hanging loosely around its 
body (instead of being tightly compressed, as 
taxidermists suppose) ; a second, with per- 
chance a few black feathers yet lingering on 
the breast, stretches its wings above the back, 
while its next neighbour busies itself in preen- 
ing its plumage ; another trips across the 
gently undulating sands, now pecking at a tiny 
shell, now stopping in its course to shake up 
its feathers. A little stream of fresh water 
attracts a newcomer ; it plunges into the 
creek, ducks its head, scratches the side of its 
head with the right foot, stoops to duck again 
and again, flaps its wings — displaying for a 
moment its white auxiliaries — and then falls 
to dressing its dripping feathers, while its mates 
send their mellow call-note speeding along the 
winding foreshore. 

191. Grey Plover. Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). 
Locally, Silver Plover. 
An autumn and winter visitant, occasionally 
obtained in the interior of the county, but 
chiefly observed upon the shores and marshes 
of the Solway Firth. Immature birds begin 
to arrive in August, but are most numerous 
during October, a month during which this 
bird is fairly constant in frequenting the mus- 
sel scaurs exposed by the tide. I have occa- 
sionally handled adults in full winter dress, 
and on a few occasions have received others 



shot in September, which still retained the 
nuptial livery in almost perfect condition. I 
once purchased an adult with a fine black 
breast, which had been killed near Silloth in 
May, and have seen birds in full breeding 
dress from May to July ; but these last were 
always excessively wild and difficult to ap- 
proach. 



192. Lapwing or Peewit. 
Bechstein. 



Vanellm vulgaris, 



Locally, Green Plover, Teufit, Peesweep. 
The peewit is happily one of our most 
numerous birds, nesting freely in all suitable 
districts of the county, from high fell-side 
farms to the salt marshes of the coast. It be- 
gins to lay in March, and breeds irregularly 
all the summer, so that the number reared 
within our limits must be very considerable. 
It is almost bewildering to watch the figures 
formed by large masses of these birds, and to 
see them crossing and re-crossing the field of 
a telescope. The precision with which large 
numbers of birds suddenly disengage them- 
selves from a main party, wheel around, and 
again reunite with the first, or travel in a 
wedge through the centre of the chief phalanx 
which opens to allow them to pass through, 
is truly astonishing. 

193. Turnstone. Strepsilas interpres (Linn.). 
A common autumn and winter visitant to 
the coast of Cumberland, In August we meet 
with a few individuals which are changing 
from the bright plumage of the breeding season 
into the more sombre attire of winter ; in fact, 
we find that all the various changes of plum- 
age can be obtained on the foreshores. 



194. Oyster-Catcher. 
Linn. 



Hamatopus ostralegus. 



Locally, Sea-Pyat, Mussel-Pecker, French Pyat. 
A very abundant bird at many points of our 
coast, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Drigg, where many pairs nest, and at Beck- 
foot, where himdreds and hundreds assemble 
to feed on the mussel beds. We seldom meet 
with oyster-catchers inland, except during or 
after heavy gales ; but the entire coast from 
RockliflFe to the Duddon is enlivened by these 
vociferous birds, except of course where docks 
or ironworks interfere with natural features. 

195. Grey Phalarope. Phalaropus fiilicarius 
(Linn.). 
This phalarope is quite unknown in the 
county in red plumage ; but immature birds 
and even adults in winter dress occur with 
tolerable frequency during the later months of 
the year. An old female in almost perfect 
winter feather, but still showing one red 



207 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



feather unchanged upon the rump, was shot 
on Burgh Marsh, December 24th, 1894. In 
1898, after a lapse of four years, during 
which I failed to meet with any local speci- 
mens, a very small bird, still retaining much 
first plumage, was shot on Cardurnock Point, 
December 9th; on September 22nd, 1899, 
during the prevalence of a north-westerly gale, 
an immature and very lovely specimen flew 
ashore near Beckfoot and alighted among the 
sand dunes which abut upon that part of the 
Solway Firth. It died from exhaustion and 
is now in Tullie House. 

196. Red-necked Phalarope. Phalaropus hy- 

per horeus (Linn.). 
A rare visitant, never procured to my 
knowledge in the interior of this county, and 
very rarely seen in the neighbourhood of the 
Solway Firth. Single specimens were ob- 
served on RockliiFe Marsh and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kirkbride in September, 1879, 
and October, 1885, both birds being added to 
the Carlisle Museum. I have often visited a 
small pond near Allonby on which a full- 
dressed bird was shot prior to 1883. 

197. Woodcock. Scolopax rusticula, Linn. 

A good many woodcock have nested in 
Cumberland since 1837, when Mr. T. C. 
Heysham first saw eggs of this bird which had 
been found in a wood about nine miles from 
Carlisle. Dr. Heysham had scouted the idea 
some fifty years earlier. There is a charm 
about the habits of this retiring and crepus- 
cular bird which adds a special zest to the 
interest with which we catch the familiar cry 
of the flighting woodcock as he crosses the 
meadows which lie between two favoured 
haunts. Evening after evening the same line 
of flight is often repeated, and if the young 
have hatched two old birds may be seen instead 
of a single one. 

The first eggs of the woodcock are laid as 
early as March or April (and very delicate 
objects they are as they repose in a slight 
hollow under cover of a few dead leaves or a 
patch of brambles), so that the few birds which 
are shot in August are generally as large as 
old birds. In 1895 I secured a little wood- 
cock which had been shot near Carlisle on or 
about August 28th. This nestling was in 
moult, having the tail feathers still very im- 
perfectly developed, and some of the feathers 
of the neck in pen. It is preserved in the 
Carlisle Museum. 

198. Great Snipe. Gallinago major {Gta.t\\n). 
A rare visitant, and one which I have never 

met with alive during seventeen years' resi- 
dence in the county. It has only occurred in 



autumn, generally in October, and as a solitary 
straggler, not in wisps like the common bird. 
It is a fairly heavy bird for its size. The late 
Mr. L. F. B. Dykes shot one on Wardhall 
Common on September nth, 1883, which 
weighed 9^ ounces. Examples have been 
killed near Carlisle, Bewcastle, Workington, 
Keswick, etc., but it is always considered rare. 

199. Common Snipe. Gallinago ccelestis {Fxen- 

zel). 
Locally, Hammer- Bleat, Heather- Bleat, Sceape, 
Full-6nipe. 

Drainage and multiplication of cheap guns 
have done much to reduce the number of 
snipe that breed upon our mosses and rushy 
meadows. No specimen of the black variety, 
which bears Sabine's name, has been procured 
locally, but cream-coloured birds have been 
found at different times. A bird of this de- 
scription was shot near Stapleton, November 
7th, 1888, and may be seen in Tullie House. 

200. Jack Snipe. Gallinago gallinula (Linn.). 

Locally, Half-Snipe, Laal, Jacky, Judcock {pbs^. 

A winter visitant, arriving late in Septem- 
ber, and rarely delaying its departure after 
March and April, though odd birds have 
passed the summer in one or other part of the 
county. I frequently met with a jack snipe 
in July, 1899, and at first wondered if it could 
be a breeding bird, but it proved to be only a 
cripple which had been hindered from depart- 
ure by an injured limb. It frequented a beck 
near Allonby. 

201. Pectoral Sandpiper. Tringa maculata, 

Vieillot. 

This American bird straggled to Cumber- 
land in the autumn of 1888, when an imma- 
ture specimen was shot near Edenhall by R. 
Raine, now of Carlisle. It was on October 
1 8th that he fell in with it ; it was not alone 
but accompanied by one if not two other in- 
dividuals of the same species. He first ob- 
served two of the birds running like dotterel 
over the surface of a grassy meadow ; but on 
being disturbed they betook themselves to a 
neighbouring pool of water. Raine shot, as 
he believed, two birds, but only secured one ; 
the other fell into the water, and not being 
aware of the value of his prize, he went home 
with a single bird. The late Mr. Edward 
Tandy saw this bird the same evening, but 
supposed it was a wood sandpiper. He skinned 
it himself, and showed me the fresh skin be- 
fore the legs had dried at all. Subsequently 
he generously gave me this skin for the Car- 
lisle Museum. 



208 



BIRDS 



202. Dunlin. Tringa alpina, Linn. 

Locally, Plover's Page, Plover-Provider, Sea- 
Mouse. 

A resident throughout the year, the num- 
bers of those which breed with us being enor- 
mously augmented by fresh arrivals in early 
autumn, though where precisely these immi- 
grants come from has not been ascertained. 
There are two breeding areas of this wader in 
the county, the one being furnished by the 
salt marshes and mosses of the Solway Firth, 
while the other coincides with the wild moors 
in the neighbourhood of Crossfell. On our 
eastern fells I have often fallen in with dun- 
lins, which were either alone or consorting 
with golden plover, to which habit they are 
curiously prone in the breeding season, and 
from which two of their local names are de- 
rived. 

203. Little Stint. Tringa minuta, Leisler. 

A rare autumn visitant, hitherto only ob- 
tained in the neighbourhood of the Solway 
Firth, and unknown inland. A few immature 
examples of this tiny wader generally visit the 
sandy shores of the Solway Firth about the 
first week of September, sometimes even ear- 
lier ; but certain seasons pass without any in- 
dividuals being detected. Thus small nvimbers 
were procured in 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 
1891, 1892, 1893; but I do not know of 
any being seen in 1894. Only two were 
killed in September, 1895, and only a single 
bird in 1896. I have no entry of little stints 
in 1897 ; but the birds which arrived in Sep- 
tember, 1898, delayed their departure into 
October, the last being killed on the 22nd of 
that month. In 1889 a bird was killed on 
RockliiFe Marsh on November 2nd, our latest 
date for specimens actually killed ; but W. 
Nicol saw a single bird near Skinburness on 
January 15 th, 1891. The only bird reported 
to us in 1889 was shot at Allonby on Septem- 
ber 9th, by my servant, W. Nicol, jim. The 
late James Cooper once obtained a little stint 
on. June ist, the only known instance of its 
occurring on the vernal migration. 

204. Temminck's Stint. Tringa temmincki, 

Leisler. 

A very rare visitant. The late James 
Cooper killed two immature birds on RocklifFe 
Marsh, on September ist, 1832 ; a third in 
the same locality on September 5th, 1832; 
and a fourth on September 2nd, 1839. I 
searched the creeks of Rockliffe Marsh, myself, 
for many years, but never detected the pre- 
sence of this sandpiper. 



205. Curlew-Sandpiper. Tringa subarquata 

(Guldenstadt). 

An autumn visitant to the estuaries of the 
Solway Firth, generally arriving in September, 
but occasionally in August. The birds met 
with at this season are the young of the year. 
The only adult that I have known to be 
secured in autumn was an old female, shot 
near Skinburness, September 2nd, 1899. 
This bird was in moult, but still retained a 
considerable amount of red plumage. It is 
preserved in the Carlisle Museum. James 
Cooper shot two curlew-sandpipers on Rock- 
lifFe Marsh, in red dress, May 24th and 27th, 
1833 ; he also saw a small flock in May, 
1838. 

206. Purple Sandpiper. Tringa striata, Linn. 

A winter visitant to our coast in very spar- 
ing numbers. The only bird that is known 
to me as having been procured locally in first 
dress was shot near St. Bees. This species 
occurs in most autumns in small parties and 
singly, but never in flocks of any magnitude. 

207. Knot. Tringa canutus, Linn. 

Locally, Grey Knot. 

A winter visitant, often present on the fore- 
shores of the Solway Firth in immense flocks 
which perform the most marvellous aerial 
evolutions, rising and falling in the air and 
sweeping up and down the estuaries with 
perfect precision of action. Sometimes they 
rise to such a height that they become mere 
specks to the human vision ; at others they 
scarcely top the surface of the flowing tide. 
Upon their first arrival in August they are 
often very wild ; on the other hand, I have 
met with small parties in winter which were 
so tame that they would hardly trouble to 
rise from the beach on my approach. Per- 
haps the most interesting time to watch knots 
arrives when the return of the tide unites all 
the scattered flocks that have been feeding on 
the scaurs into great masses of birds that 
cluster together like bees, and after many 
wide sweeping movements, during which 
they dance over the waves in wild delight, 
now disappearing into the trough of the long 
rollers, only to rise at the next moment to 
the height of a hundred feet, turning their 
white breasts upwards to catch a ray of 
winter sunshine, and then reversing to display 
the contrast of their russet upper parts, finally 
alight upon some sea-washed prominence, such 
as Cardurnock Point, there to wait impatiently 
in one dense crowd, until the tide begins to 
turn, and they can once more fly down to 



209 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



their oozy feeding grounds to banquet upon 
the tiny shell-fish upon which they largely 
subsist. 

208. Sanderling. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). 
This arctic bird is to be found on the 

shores of Cumberland from August to the 
middle of June, but it only occurs inland on 
migration. The numbers which visit us in 
autumn are small, composed of young birds 
in first dress and adults exchanging summer 
for winter dress, which they commence to do 
in August. We seldom meet with any large 
flocks before the arrival of winter, and those 
that winter with us are very irregular in their 
movements. It is during May and June that 
we expect to see hundreds, and even thou- 
sands, of sanderlings resting upon our exten- 
sive sands before continuing their journey to 
some great imknown land ; for where the 
multitudes of sanderlings and knots that pass 
through our area at one time or another can 
possibly breed, is a mystery that has not been 
solved by any of the polar expeditions. 

209. Ruff ( ? Reeve). Machetes pugnax 

(Linn.). 
An autumn visitant, occasionally noticed 
when migrating across our moors (for birds 
have been killed by sportsmen on several 
occasions, as was the case in the autumn of 
1899, when a reeve was shot near Cocker- 
mouth), but principally observed upon our 
salt marshes. The autumn of 1896 was a 
particularly good season for ruffs, many of 
which frequented our marshes throughout 
September. The ruff very seldom winters 
in England ; but in the last week of January, 
1895, a single male bird was shot at Skinbur- 
ness by W. Nicol. I have never seen the 
ruff in spring, but the late James Cooper sent 
to Mr. C. M. Adamson a clutch of eggs of 
this species which had been taken in the 
vicinity of the Solway Firth. 

210. Buff- Breasted Sandpiper. Tringites 

rufescens (Vieillot). 
A straggler of this species was shot on 
Burgh Marsh in September, 1876. It was 
killed by John Dawson, and given to his 
brother, George Dawson, the local entomo- 
logist. In 1892 that veteran wildfowler, 
W. Nicol, who has had a very exceptional 
experience of our waders, saw on Skinburness 
Marsh on September 17th, a bird entirely 
strange to him, but from what he gathered 
from Saunders' Manual he had no doubt it 
was a buff-breasted sandpiper. ' It passed me 
on the marsh scaur in company with two 
curlew sandpipers, and alighted about 150 
yards from where I was, but rose before I got 



near and went off towards the creek with a 
redshank. It was not unlike a reeve, but a 
bit less in size.' The words just quoted are 
extracted from the report which he sent to 
me the same day. He did not succeed in 
obtaining the bird. 

2 n . Common Sandpiper. Totanus hypoleucus 
(Linn.). 
Locally, Sand-Lark, Willie Wicket, Willie 
Liltie, Dick-a-dee. 

A summer visitant to the shores of our 
lakes and larger rivers, arriving in April, and 
rapidly distributing its numbers in pairs along 
the sides of ■ our upland streams, which owe 
much of their charm to the presence of this 
bird, the dipper and grey wagtail. 

212. Wood - Sandpiper. Totanus glareola 

(Gmelin). 
Five birds of this species visited Whin's 
Pond, Edenhall, in August, 1867, and two 
were shot. In 1893 a single immature bird 
was shot on Skinburness Marsh by W. Nicol. 
He sent it to me, but owing to the hot 
weather and my absence from home the 
bird was spoilt. In 1898 Mr. Backhouse 
shot another immature bird in the same 
locality on or about August 20th. This 
was also sent to me too late for preservation, 
a very unfortunate circumstance. 

213. Green Sandpiper. Totanus ochropus 

(Linn.). 
An autumn visitant in small numbers, fre- 
quenting our rivers and salt marshes, but 
sparingly distributed throughout the county. 
Mr. W. Little once obtained a young bird 
near Carlisle with so much down upon it 
that he thought it must have been bred 
locally. Old and young undoubtedly appear 
as early as the third week of July. In 1894 
a bird was killed near Drawdykes Castle on 
April 30th, and this is the only local speci- 
men in summer dress that I have handled in 
the flesh. The species is rarely seen in 
winter, but single birds were killed near 
Brampton, January 22nd, 1846; near Car- 
dew Lees, January 3rd, 1885 ; and on the 
Eden, near Carlisle, December i8th, 1891. 

214. Redshank. Totanus calidris (Linn.). 
Many redshanks nest upon our salt marshes, 

and lesser numbers upon mosses and rough 
pasture lands near the coast, while isolated 
colonies exist upon our fell lands. It is the 
noisiest and most suspicious of all our wild- 
fowl, but is also endeared to me by the 
recollection of the many pleasant hours that 
have been passed in its company, especially 
in the breeding season, when I examined nest 



210 



BIRDS 



after nest of its pyriform eggs, or dandled the 
pretty little downy young while the old birds 
circled round me with deafening lamenta- 
tions. It is most abundant in autumn, but 
is never wholly absent from our midst. 

215. Spotted Redshank. TotanusJuscus{Linn.). 
A rare visitant, hitherto only met with in 

the vicinity of the Solway Firth. It frequents 
the foreshore in the neighbourhood of Skin- 
burness in the autumn months, but is not 
noticed every year. In the decade of years 
between 1888 and 1897 eight individuals 
were reported to me ; of these, four were shot 
and entered my hands in the flesh. One of 
these had been feeding on small fishes. All 
were immature birds. 

216. Greenshank. Totanus canescens (Gmelin). 
A few birds, chiefly young of the year, 

visit us every autumn, and haunt our 
marshes for a few weeks, uttering their 
plaintive whistle as they circle round the 
foreshores. Odd birds have wintered and 
even passed the summer with us, but of 
course the breeding haimts of this wader lie 
considerably further north. I have met with 
the greenshank inland in a very few instances, 
chiefly in the Eden valley. 

217. Red-breasted 'Snipe.' Macrorhamphus 

griseus (Gmelin). 
In the year 1835, an immature example of 
this American wader was shot upon Rockliffe 
Marsh by James Cooper. The bird was 
picking up small beetles upon an elevated 
part of the marsh when killed on September 
25th. It entered the collection of Mr. T. C. 
Heysham. 

218. Bar-tailed Godwit. Limosa lapponica 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Curlew-Knave. 
Many hundreds of immature specimens of 
this godwit arrive upon the shores of the Sol- 
way Firth every autumn, chiefly in September, 
when they are often very tame and unsus- 
picious. They are delightful birds to study 
through a telescope as they scatter over the 
sands or feed at the edge of the tideway. In 
1898 a flock of from two to three thousand 
godwits came flying into Allonby Bay from 
the westward on the morning of October 2nd, 
and alighted upon the wide expanse of sand 
laid bare by the tide ; as the rising waters 
rippled inwards the birds rose into the air, 
wheeled round and round en masse, and 
alighted again a little nearer to the beach 
with a perfect whirl of wings ; in a few 
seconds I saw hundreds and hundreds closely 
massed together, and the telescope revealed 

31 



every detail of their plumage, while their 
shrill cries added to the interest of the busy 
scene ; as nearer crept the tide, so nearer and 
nearer did the birds edge in towards the 
shore ; suddenly they sprang into the air 
with a bewildering fanning of myriads of 
wings, while their white rumps served as 
centres to the greyish upper parts and ren- 
dered their appearance the more remarkable. 
This time they were up in real earnest, and 
directed their course in an easterly direction, 
flying in a huge broad bar up the Solway 
Firth. But they returned in smaller num- 
bers on many another day and probed the 
damp sand in front of my windows, often 
inserting their long mandibles in the sand 
almost up to their very base. 

When feeding on sand-worms, godwits are 
often followed by brown-headed gulls which 
watch their movements very closely, and 
endeavour to make them drop their prey. 
They continue to delight us with their 
graceful actions until wild and boisterous 
weather drives the majority of young birds 
to winter in more genial regions, but they 
are apparently replaced by adults in fiill winter 
dress which generally arrive in December. 

219. Black-tailed Godwit. Limosa belgica 

(Gmelin). 

This godwit is one of our rarer visitants, only 
procured hitherto on the marsh lands of the 
Solway Firth, and that in very small numbers. 
About ten immature specimens were killed 
by our local wildfowlers between 1884 and 
1889 ; in 1893 two others were killed out 
of a flock of three by W. Nicol, who fell in 
with them on October 13th. He shot two 
more birds in August, 1898, one of which 
went to R. H. Thompson ; the other was 
preserved for the Carlisle Museum, which 
possesses all the specimens that have entered 
my hands in the flesh. On July 29th, 1890, 
Mr. A. Wilson came across two of these birds 
on Skinburness Marsh, and shot one of them, 
an old bird in red summer livery. 

The only specimen procured locally in 
midwinter was shot near Bowness-on-Solway, 
January ist, 1889. 

220. Curlew. Numenius arquata (Linn.). 
Locally, Curley, Whaup. 

The curlew is a common bird in most 
parts of the county. Many individuals are 
to be seen scattered along our entire coast 
in calm open weather ; but should a heavy 
gale assail the shipping, the curlew seeks 
shelter on its favourite mosses, or drops into 
some sheltered nook among the winding 
creeks of the marsh lands. 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



When other fowl are sorely pinched hy 
severe weather the curlew contrives to retain 
condition, while at all seasons it retains the 
same jaunty air of self-sufficiency. The late 
Mr. Seebohm fancied that the curlew was a 
bird of solemn gait, ' only occasionally run- 
ning ' {British Birds; vol. iii. p. 95), but this 
is a misapprehension. If a curlew desires to 
shift his feeding ground he runs all the way, 
and if he chances to be in a bit of a hurry he 
runs very fast indeed. One would have 
rather expected him to take a short flight, but 
this he leaves for gulls to do. The webbed 
feet of the Larida are not so well adapted for 
rapid progression over a flat surface as the long 
toes of the curlew. Moreover, if you watch 
the curlew in repose you will see that its body 
feathers do not cling closely to the bird as 
artists often suggest, but are only packed 
together sufficiently closely to supply an 
adequate degree of warmth. The long man- 
dibles are chiefly utilized for boring and prob- 
ing purposes, but they are also serviceable 
in enabling the curlew to preen its plumage 
with great care. The feathers of the back 
and shoulders are first arranged ; the tail is 
then bent to one side, and each of the rectrices 
is carefully passed through the bill ; the head 
is then drawn backwards to enable the bird to 
dress the feathers of the breast with the tips 
of the mandibles. Having completed its toilet 
a curlew shakes itself to get rid of any particles 
of sand that may have adhered to its feathers, 
and flaps its wings with an air of relief. It 
then trips forward to the edge of a little 
streamlet of water and plunges its long bill 
into the damp sand, bringing up a worm 
which is either bolted summarily or dipped 
into the water and cleansed before being 
allowed to enter its gullet. Delicate as the 
hearing of the curlew no doubt must be, and 
exquisite as its sense of touch certainly is, it 
would be an error to suppose that the curlew 
is always successful in securing its prey at the 
first stroke. Often you will see the bird 
bend forward to listen, and a moment later 
the beak descends like a flash into the sand, 
only to be withdrawn empty ; the second 
stroke may be successful, in which case the 
worm is drawn up like a cork out of a bottle, 
firmly held between the tips of the mandibles ; 
the curlew tosses it into the air, picks it up, 
tosses it again, picks it up, carries it to the 
water, dips it in the liquid brine, and swallows 
it with the air of a connoisseur. But if the 
worm is deeply lodged, success is not so easily 
obtained ; I have seen a curlew make seven 
different strokes into the same hole before he 
secured the struggling worm and brought it 
safely to the surface. When shifting its 



quarters to any considerable distance the cur- 
lew generally flies nearly in a straight line and 
at a moderate height with slow and steady 
strokes of the wing ; but as it draws near to 
the point upon which it intends to alight the 
beats of its wing become less marked and the 
bird almost glides along. When journeying 
between its feeding grounds on the coast and 
the moors which it frequents at other times, 
the curlew occasionally flies at a great elevation. 
I have often heard the whistle of this bird 
ringing through the air on a clear frosty day, 
and have been astonished to find that it pro- 
ceeded from a bird that had mounted high 
in the heavens. When the season of love 
arrives, curlews delight to rise in the air and 
sport amorously on the wing together, soaring 
round and round at a great height, or flying 
to meet their mates, when their bills appar- 
ently touch caressingly as they unite and 
separate. The curlew breeds on many of 
our hills and fell-sides, but a few pairs also 
nest near our seaboard. 

221. Whimbrel. Numenius phaopus (Linn.). 
Locally, May-Bird, Curlew-Knave, Jack- 
Curlew. 

A spring and autumn visitant ; but very 
few individuals appear to alight upon our shores 
during the autumn migration, preferring to 
cheer us with their familiar notes, uttered on 
the wing as they pass over, to resting in their 
spring haunts. A few immature birds fre- 
quent the salt marshes in August and Sep- 
tember, and I once handled a local specimen 
in winter ; but the whimbrel is much better 
known as a spring visitant. 

222. Black Tern. Hydrochelidon nigra {h'mn..). 
A spring and autumn migrant. The birds 

obtained at the latter season are almost exclu- 
sively birds of the year in the usual incon- 
spicuous dress. A lovely adult in summer 
livery was sent to me in the flesh in June, 1 890. 
It had been killed with a catapult while flying 
over the Esk near Floriston. Immature birds 
have been procured inland on several occasions, 
as happened in 1898, when I identified a 
young bird which had been killed near Kes- 
wick in October. 

223. Sandwich Tern. Sterna cantiaca, Gmelin. 
Locally, Cat-Swallow. 

A summer visitant to our coast, occasionally 
entering the waters of the Solway Firth, but 
restricted as a breeding bird to Drigg, where 
I have studied their nesting operations for 
many years. Several varieties of colouration 
are displayed by the eggs of this breeding 
station, some of the specimens being very rich 
in blotchings. The young, which correspond 



21Z 



BIRDS 



so closely with their environment as to be 
very difficult to detect among the sand bents, 
are chiefly fed upon sand eels and other small 
fishes ; but an old bird (which I happened to 
open) had only been feeding on small bivalve 
shells. 

224. Roseate Tern. Sterna dougalli, Montagu. 

A rare visitant. A fine male was shot 
near the point of Burgh Marsh on July 26th, 
1834. It was identified by Mr. T. C. Hey- 
sham. 

225. Common Tern. Sterna Jluviaiiiis,'NsiU- 

mann. 

Locally, Sea-Swallow, Jerky, Pickman {obs.). 

Quantities of this summer visitant nest 
among the sand-hills at Drigg, which possesses 
the largest establishment of these birds in the 
county ; but a smaller colony has existed for 
many years on Rocklifie Marsh, as noted by 
Mr. T. C. Heysham as long ago as 1834. 
In this latter locality the eggs are simply 
deposited on the sand at the edge of the marsh 
or on the greensward. I have seen birds of 
the year which had been procured as late as 
November in the interior of the county. 

226. Arctic Tern. Sterna macrura^'UdMm.iinn. 

A spring and autumn visitant, most abund- 
ant in our waters during August and September, 
though probably a few pairs nest at Raven- 
glass. A photo of a bird taken at Drigg 
during the summer of 1898 seems to be that 
of an undoubted arctic tern, and the bird in 
question was sitting on her eggs. But I was 
never able to identify this tern among the 
hundreds that nest imder the protection of 
Lord Muncaster. 

227. Little Tern. Sterna minuta, Linn. 

A summer visitant, nesting numerously at 
Drigg and in increasing numbers near Silloth. 
A pair or two usually nest about Grune Point 
also. When the warrens which abut upon 
the precincts of this little seabird are invaded 
the birds rise in the distance from the beach 
and wheel round in lofty circles screaming 
their displeasure in harsh cries resembling the 
syllables * yaai yaai,' occasionally prefaced 
by * tui, tui, tuk.' If the threatened danger 
be withdrawn some of the birds will alight 
upon a ridge of the sea beach in the midst of 
a pile of debris, seaware, etc., while the re- 
mainder hover over the sands, curvetting with 
much velocity, and often skimming over the 
surface almost like swallows. 



228. Sabine's Gull. Xema sabinii (J, Sabine). 

A specimen of this high arctic bird was shot 
upon Rockliffe Marsh, September, 29th, 1893, 
under the following circumstances. A local 
gunner named William Routledge was lying 
up in a creek on the marsh waiting for a shot 
at golden plover, as the tide was rising and a 
strong south-west wind blowing, when the 
Sabine's gull rose off the Esk in which it had 
been swimming about 1 1 a.m., and flew in 
the direction of the wildfowler, travelling 
slowly against the wind. The bird did not 
notice Routledge, but flew so close past him 
that he might almost have felled it with his 
gun. Noticing the forked tail barred with 
black, and thinking that it must be a strange 
bird, he waited until it was a fair distance 
from him, and then fired and brought it down. 
He and Thomas Peal brought it to me on the 
following day, enquiring if it was some 
variety of tern. It looked no larger than a 
pigeon as it lay on my table in the flesh, but 
measured twelve inches and a half. The tarsi 
were pale grey ; the webs of the feet pale 
yellowish ; the claws dull black, irides dark 
brown ; interior of mouth bright yellow ; bill 
black, but the basal portion yellowish. The 
body was well nourished, but a good many 
ticks adhered to the feathers. It was preserved 
for the Carlisle Museum. 

229. Little Gull, Larus minutus, Pallas. 

A rare visitant, chiefly noticed in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Sol way Firth, but of occa- 
sional occurrence inland, though never appar- 
ently procured among the larger lakes of the 
county. The specimens obtained since the 
publication of the Fauna of Lakeland in 1892, 
include the following : an immature bird shot 
on October 25th, 1893, on RockliiFe Marsh 
by a gunner named Park, and sent to me in 
the flesh by the late Alfred Smith of Castle- 
town ; a similar bird sent to me by Irving 
Murray, of Priestside near Annan, January 
13th, 1894 ; a very interesting bird, which 
had begun to moult in adult wing-quills, shot 
at Skinburness by W. Nicol, June 29th, 1894, 
and sent to me before the delicate rosy tint 
had begun to fade from the feathers of the 
breast ; a very young specimen shot on the 
north side of the Esk near Rockliffe by 
Thomas Peal, September i6th, 1896 (the first 
that I had handled in the flesh in nest feather) ; 
Mr. T. Mann presented to me a very yoimg 
bird which he had shot on the coast between 
AUonby and Mowbray, October 9th, 1896 ; 
yet another nearly mature bird was shot by 
T. Peal near Bowness-on-Solway, December 
30th, 1897. 



213 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



230. Black-headed Gull. 
Linn. 



Larus ridihundus, 



Locally, Chir-maw, Drake-Catcher, Black- 
headed Crow. 

There are few more beautiful sights than a 
colony of these birds, which has become 
established upon one of our wilder mosses in 
early spring. The scene presented by such 
a locality as Salta Moss, when the banks of 
the dubs or small ponds are lined with the 
nests of this small gull, and the birds alight 
in every prominent position, or hover over- 
head in disordered crowds, sweeping this way 
and that, and noisily screaming their harsh 
cries of resentment at an intrusion of their 
chosen haunts, is too striking to be easily 
effaced from memory. These gregarious birds 
adapt themselves to a variety of circumstances 
in the choice of their nurseries. Some nest 
on heather-covered wastes such as Bowness 
Moss on Solway Flow ; others nest (though 
not every year) upon the green turf of Rock- 
liflFe Marsh ; others again build on masses of 
water-plants, as I have witnessed at Monkhill 
Lough and Moorthwaite ; and yet the greatest 
number of all elect to rear their progeny 
among the sand dunes near Ravenglass. The 
young birds haunt our estuaries and inland 
waters during early autumn, but the majority 
of these immature birds appear to leave us 
before the advent of winter. 

231. Common Gull. Larus canus, Linn. 
A number of common gulls frequent our 

arable fields, and many haunt our shores in 
all stages of life all through the year ; but 
this species has not been proved to nest in the 
county. 

232. Herring-Gull. Lams argentatus, Gmelin. 
A resident upon our coast- line all through 

the year, nesting at Sandwith and occasion- 
ally upon Bowness Flow ; though this last 
remark only refers to a couple of pairs. 
Adults in all stages of plumage haunt our 
sandy reaches, feeding on small crabs and on 
all kinds of refuse, including carrion. 

233. Lesser Black-backed Gull. Larus fuscus, 

Linn. 

A numerous resident, many pairs nesting 
upon Solway Flow and Bowness Moss ; and, 
inland, upon Butterburn Flow. At other 
seasons it is distributed all round our coast. 
It is a common visitant to our rivers, and im- 
mature birds often assemble in our fields. It 
is a very voracious bird, and frequently kills 
young wild ducks, Mr. D. L. Thorpe in- 
forms me that on two different occasions he 
has seen a lesser black-backed gull capture a 



full-grown eel in the shallows of the Eden, 
and devour it upon a neighbouring gravel bed. 

234. Great Black - backed Gull. Larus 
marinus, Linn. 

Locally, Devoke, Water-Maw {pbs^. 

A few immature birds frequent our coast 
at all seasons, and adults are generally present, 
but there is only a single breeding station, 
that of Bowness Moss, where a very few pairs 
contrive to hold their own. Odd pairs occa- 
sionally rear their young on Wedholm Flow, 
and on other mosses in the vicinity of the 
Solway Firth. 

Devoke Water was the home of this bird 
from the ' twenties ' to the * seventies,' when 
the breeding birds for some unexplained 
reason suddenly abandoned their time- 
honoured breeding-ground. Although occa- 
sionally met with far from the coast, this bird 
is most characteristic of the Solway Firth, 
where its cries often float along the shingled 
shore. There is something weird and strik- 
ing about the deep note of Larus marinus that 
serves to distinguish it markedly from the 
shriller cries of all our common sea-gulls. 
When a heavy westerly gale has been blow- 
ing up the firth with almost hurricane force 
for many hours, and long green rollers come 
foaming landward, the great black-backed gull 
hovers over the raging waters with swift and 
veering flight, easily borne aloft by its power- 
ful pinions, and finding its pleasure in the 
contemplation of the raging elements. But it 
is equally at home upon our sands on a 
summer's day, when the sunshine gilds the 
light ripples at the edge of the tideway ; at 
such a time, a pair of fully adult birds make 
up a pretty picture, as they pose in the centre 
of a group of seafowl, slowly shifting their 
position as the rising tide encroaches upon 
them. 

235. Glaucous Gull. Larus glaucus, Yabricius. 
A rare winter visitant, occurring all round 

our seaboard, but only at long intervals. The 
only bird that I saw in life during my seven- 
teen years' residence in Lakeland was driven 
upon our coast by a westerly hurricane. It 
was so tired of battling against the adverse 
elements that I was able to inspect it leisurely, 
though it would not permit me to approach 
quite within gunshot. It was in nearly adult 
plumage, the delicate mantle being only varied 
with a few immature feathers. It was rest- 
ing on the beach near AUonby when first 
observed. On February 25th, 1892, a very 
pale immature bird which had frequented the 
Esk near Floriston since the beginning of the 
month was killed when feeding on a dead fish, 
214 



BIRDS 



and brought to me the same evening. It was 
a large bird, for the alar expanse exceeded 
five feet by half an inch. It is preserved in 
the Carlisle Museum. 

236. Iceland Gull. Larus leucopterus, Faber. 
Though a rare winter visitant to our coast- 
line, this arctic bird appears to visit this county 
somewhat more frequently than the glaucous 
gull. The Carlisle Museum contains an im- 
mature bird shot near Millom, January 28th, 
1882. George Dawson of Carlisle showed 
me a newly-mounted bird (the legs being still 
soft), which he assured me that he had shot 
in a field near Carlisle, February 28th, 1898. 
This was immature, as was a third seen near 
Maryport by Mr. R. Mann, February loth, 
1899. When observed it was crossing a 
rough meadow in company with a number of 
other gulls. The first specimen that I know 
to have been procured upon our borders was 
shot on the Solway Firth opposite to Brow- 
houses, February 8th, 1835. 

237. Kittiwake. Rissa tridactyla (Linn.). 
A common winter visitant, present with 

us during almost every month, but most 
numerously represented during the colder 
months when it haunts our fields inland. I 
have seen odd birds in summer ; where rocky 
escarpments present a shelter on the Solway 
Firth the kittiwake might perhaps breed with 
us, but I never found it doing so on the Sand- 
with difife. 

238. Great Skua. Megalestris cat arr hades 

(Linn.). 
An exceedingly rare bird on the west coast 
of England. The late Mr. T. C. Heysham 
recorded a specimen which was captured alive 
on the RockliiFe Marsh, April 27th, 1833, 
and taken to him on the following day. It 
was secured while engaged in killing a herring- 
gull {Phil. Mag., 1834, p. 339). Other 
examples have been reported to me, but I 
never examined a fresh individual during my 
residence in Lakeland. 

239. Pomatorhine Skua. Stercorarius pomato- 

rhinus (Temminck). 
This skua occurs on the coast of Cumber- 
land with tolerable frequency — not annually, 
for several years often elapse between its visit- 
ations — but still four specimens entered my 
possession between 1884 and 1898. The 
first of these was a bird in the second or third 
winter, killed near Bowness-on-Solway by 
George Holmes, October 24th, 1884. A 
fine adult was shot by Sam Wright on the 
edge of the Carlisle racecourse, December 
22nd, 1894. On October 28th, 1898, I 



received from R. Broatch, of Rigg Foot, a 
bird in the brown dress of immaturity, with 
the information that he had shot it whilst it 
was feeding on a seagull. A few days later 
I received from the same wildfowler a second 
specimen, shot in the same part of the Solway 
Firth as the first. The foregoing birds are 
preserved in the Carlisle Museum. Others 
have been obtained as stragglers all round the 
coast, from Drigg to Rockliffe. 

240. Richardson's Skua. Stercorarius crepi- 

datus (Gmelin). 
Locally, Black-Gull, Sea-Hawk, Bo'sun's Mate. 

An irregular visitant to the waters of the 
Solway Firth, occasionally met with in the 
interior of the county. The dark form is 
that which has generally come under my 
notice locally ; but a bird of probably the 
second year, shot at Beckfoot, October 4th, 
1890, belonged to the light form. Skuas are 
not infrequently seen on the Solway Firth in 
May and October ; but a few appear in July 
and August, and from that time on to Christ- 
mas. 

241. Long-tailed or Buffon's Skua. Ster- 

corarius parasiticus (Linn.). 

A rare visitant, chiefly met with during the 
autumn. In 1885, an adult in lovely plumage 
frequented the Eden near Kirkandrews early 
in June, but was shot on the 3rd of that 
month, and presented to me by Dr. John 
Macdougall, whose generosity enabled me to 
examine it in the flesh. I foimd it to be 
a male by dissection. It is preserved in the 
Carlisle Museum. Birds in various stages of 
plumage have been obtained at different points 
of the coast. The most remarkable visitation 
of this skua occurred in October, 1891, when 
I examined about ten freshly-killed specimens 
obtained along the west coast from Walney 
Island to Kirkbride, and as far inland as the 
borders of Westmorland. None of these 
were in the plumage of the first year ; but 
very juvenile specimens have also come under 
my notice. Birds in the plumage of the first 
autumn were procured at Kirkoswald, No- 
vember 5th, 1890 ; at Skirwith, October 
1 6th, 1891 ; and near Maryport, October 
nth, 1895. 

242. Razorbill. Alca tarda, Linn. 

The razorbill nested recently on the diflfe 
at Sandwith, and probably still does so ; in 
August, 1894, a very small but feathered 
nestling was washed up at Allonby in a 
fresh condition. Birds of the year frequently 
perish in heavy gales, as do a lesser number 
of adults. 



215 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



243. Guillemot. Uria troile (Linn.). 
Locally, Old Wife. 

Present in our tideway all through the 
year, but the only breeding colony is at 
Sandwith. Enormous numbers perish in late 
autumn and winter, chiefly after heavy wea- 
ther, when their carcases strew our beach for 
many miles. Stragglers often occur far in- 
land. 

244. Black Guillemot. Uria grylle (Linn.). 
This guillemot is a rare bird in our waters ; 

so rare that I never myself examined but one 
local specimen. The bird in question was 
caught in a ditch between Silloth and the 
Abbey Holme, October, 1891. Other speci- 
mens have been obtained on our open coast, 
but only at long intervals. 

245. Little Auk. Mergulus alle (Linn). 

A rare winter visitant, obtained at least as 
often inland as upon our seaboard. The most 
recent specimens that have come under my 
notice include the following : one sent to me 
from the Solway Firth by Bryson of Port 
Carlisle, December, 1893 ; two captured 
near Penrith, and a third taken on the 
Eden near Carlisle, January, 1895 ; a fourth 
procured near Port Carlisle by Greenwood the 
punt-gunner, and brought to me in the flesh, 
December, 1896 ; a fifth shot by W. Nicol, 
near Skinburness, February, 1900. 

246. PufBn. Fratercula arct'ica (Linn.). 
Locally, Sea-Parrot, Manx Puffin. 

A tolerably common bird along our coast ; 
but the birds that are washed ashore are usu- 
ally immature. An old bird in full breeding 
dress was brought to me at Allonby, May 5th, 
1897, having just been picked up upon the 
beach. I have also met with this species in 
the Solway Firth in mid-winter. 

247. Great Northern Diver. Colymbus glaci- 

alis, Linn. 

Our larger lakes are occasionally visited by 
birds of this species in summer, as well as 
during the winter months. It occurs like- 
wise on our open coast, but is rare in the 
shallow waters of the Solway Firth. Speci- 
mens have been obtained far inland. 

248. Black-throated Diver. Colymbus arctkus, 

Linn. 

This diver occasionally visits UUeswater 
Lake ; a young female was shot on that 
extensive sheet of water, January ist, 1891. 
I had previously examined another local bird ; 
but this was an adult, fast acquiring summer 
plumage. It was killed on the Eden near 
Rickerby, whilst feeding on fry, March 20th, 
1888. Others have been obtained on our 



estuaries and inland waters, but this diver is 
one of our rarer birds. It is usually procured 
in the winter time. 

249. Red-throated Diver. Colymbus septen- 

trionalis, Linn. 
Locally, Speckle-backed Diver. 
A spring and autumn visitant to the estu- 
aries of Cumberland, and met with incident- 
ally in almost every month of the year, the 
red-throated diver is well known to our 
fishermen and punt-gunners ; it occurs in- 
land but very rarely, preferring the sea to 
freshwater lakes during its sojourn with us. 
I have picked up adults which have been 
washed ashore dead, having previously shed 
their wing quills and being thus disqualified 
for combating a succession of heavy gales. 

250. Great Crested Grebe. Podicipes crtsta- 

tus (Linn.). 
This grebe has been obtained at most sea- 
sons in Cumberland, even in July, when it 
might have been expected to be breeding. It 
is however principally a winter visitant, and 
as such is often shot on our larger lakes as 
well as on such lesser sheets of water as Tal- 
kin Tarn, where an adult in winter dress was 
killed on February 28th, 1898. I have often 
seen birds that had been killed in spring, when 
assuming nuptial dress. 

25 1 . Red-necked Grebe. Podicipes griseigena 

(Boddaert). 
A winter visitant of somewhat rare occur- 
rence on the larger rivers. No adult in sum- 
mer livery has ever been procured in the 
county up to date ; but a very pretty bird 
in first dress was shot by W. Nicol at Skin- 
burness, September 22nd, 1894. It may be 
seen in the Carlisle Museum. 

252. Slavonian Grebe. Podicipes auritus 

(Linn.). 

This small grebe occurs on our rivers and 
lakes from September to March, but has not 
been procured in either nuptial or first plum- 
age. It sometimes appears in couples, but 
never in flocks. A bird killed near Drum- 
burgh in March, 1897, was still in winter 
dress ; but another killed near Silloth on 
March 17th, 1889, had newly commenced 
to acquire summer dress. 

25 3. Eared Grebe. Podicipes nigricollis 

(Brehm). 
A rare visitant, obtained at long intervals 
upon our estuaries and inland waters, but only 
in winter or immature plumage. During the 
severe weather of January, 1895, when sharp 
frost prevailed in most parts of England, a 



216 



BIRDS 



female eared grebe was shot at Ulleswater and 
shown to me in the flesh. Again in Decem- 
ber, 1896, James Smith of Drumburgh shot 
a fine eared grebe at the side of the river 
Wampool. 

254. Little Grebe or Dabchick. Podicipes 

Jluviatilis (Tunstall). 

A local resident, nesting in a few localities, 
and common on our rivers and ponds in win- 
ter. It is however far less plentiful than in 
many southern counties. 

255. Storm-Petrel. Procellaria pelagica^ Linn. 

Locally, Mother Carey's Chicken. 

A winter visitant to our coast, not infre- 
quently met with oflF Whitehaven, and occa- 
sionally present in small flocks in Silloth Bay, 
especially during heavy weather in the Atlan- 
tic. The most recent specimen that I have 
seen locally was obtained at Silloth, November 
1 0th, 1900. 

Oceanodroma 



256. 



Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel. 
leucorrhoa (Vieillot). 



This petrel occurs in Cumberland at irreg- 
ular intervals, principally during the autumn 
months, but sometimes as early as July. Single 
birds are chiefly met with, generally birds of 
the year, but all the specimens that I examined 
during the great visitation of September, 1891, 
were old birds deep in moult. The indivi- 
duals that have most recently come into my 
hands were shot in the neighbourhood of the 
Solway Firth : the one shot near Newton Ar- 
losh, November 21st, 1893, the other killed 



when flying across the sands under my win- 
dows at Allonby, November 8th, 1 899. 

257. Wilson's Petrel. Oceanites oceankus 

(Kuhl). 

Mr. T. C. Heysham informed Yarrell of 
the occurrence of a specimen of this petrel in 
the county. The late Captain Johnson, an- 
other friend and associate of Yarrell, identi- 
fied a second example found dead near Castle- 
steads in 1 88 1. 

258. Manx Shearwater. Puffinus anglorum 

(Temminck). 

I have no notes of this seabird occurring 
inland ; but storm - driven individuals are 
picked up from time to time upon our open 
coast, and less frequently on the shores of the 
Solway Firth. A specimen which came ashore 
near Allonby in August, 1894, was the first 
local specimen that Mr. T. Mann and his 
brother had met with in their lifelong experi- 
ence. I found another derelict bird at Allon- 
by, May 3rd, 1897. 

259. Fulmar. Fulmarus glacialis (Linn,). 

An occasional visitant to our coast, but of 
comparative rarity. A very good specimen of 
the grey-breasted form was brought to me in 
the flesh by Thomas Peal, who had secured it 
upon RockliflFe Marsh, February, 1892. A 
specimen of the white-breasted variety was 
found dead upon Newton Marsh, February 
6th, 1894. A third bird was picked up ex- 
hausted near Eskmeals, October, 1896. This 
last was presented to Dr. Cass of Ravenglass. 



217 



MAMMALS 

A region of rugged heights and secluded valleys, the sides of which 
are frequently broken by precipitous escarpments of rock or loose screes 
of debris, is well calculated to afford a safe retreat to such timid and re- 
tiring creatures as the red deer [Cervus elaphus), the roe (Capreolus 
capreolus), the wild cat {Felis catus), the badger [Meles meles) and the 
pine marten {Mustela martes) ; not to speak of animals that are more 
generally distributed, such as the otter [Lutra lutra), and the polecat 
[Putorius putorius). Accordingly, we find, that while one of these ani- 
mals — the wild cat — has succumbed to centuries of ruthless persecution, 
the others still succeed in rearing their offspring in their natural haunts. 
It may be that a few years will see the extinction of the pine marten, 
as it is extremely difficult to afford effective protection to this rare and 
interesting animal ; the days of the polecat also may perhaps be num- 
bered. But, happily, these are exceptions. The red deer no longer 
roams unheeded over vast tracts of country ; but though hedged in with 
fences, the master stag still does battle for his seraglio upon the fellside, 
and the hinds drop their spotted calves beneath the shelter of the bracken 
fern as though they enjoyed perfect liberty. The fallow deer (Cervus 
damd), an introduced species, adorns many of our county parks with its 
graceful presence and diversity of colour ; while the shy roe still crops 
the ivy in the coverts of the Lord of Naworth. 

It is perhaps to be regretted that the black rat {Mus rattus) has 
almost quitted the county ; but if the brown rat [Mus decumanus) could 
also be exterminated, we should have little cause to lament the absence of 
either of these pests of society. 

The Cetacea which visit the coast of Cumberland are imperfectly 
known, for the carcases of those that are washed ashore are generally 
buried, or boiled down, without any pains being bestowed upon their 
identification ; but future zoologists may perhaps be more fortunate in 
this respect than we have been. 

The Micro-mammals call for little remark ; but the extreme rarity 
of one or two species of bat, such as the barbastelle {Barbastella barba- 
stellus), seems to suggest that some, at any rate, of those which have been 
taken in the county were accidental immigrants — in fact 'waifs and 
strays ' from other faunal areas. 



218 



MAMMALS 



CHEIROPTERA 



1. Long-eared Bat. Phcotus auritus, Linn. 
A resident species of fairly general distri- 
bution, most plentiful in our wooded districts 
at a low elevation. I never came across it in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the coast. 

2. Barbastelle. Barbastella barbaitellus, Schre- 

ber. 

Bell — Barbastelltts daubentonii. 
Specimens of this bat were captured many 
years ago near Carlisle, and entered the col- 
lection of T. C. Heysham. As no others 
have been procured, in spite of a search ex- 
tending over many years, it must be conjec- 
tured that the examples in question had wan- 
dered to Cumberland accidentally. 

3. Pipistrelle. Ptpistreilus pipistrel/us,SchTeher. 

Bell — Scotophiks ptpistreilus. 
Locally, Common Bat, Flittermouse. 
A resident, very plentiful even in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the coast. This 
species has often visited my windows in 
pairs, picking crepuscular insects ofF the win- 
dow panes. 

4. Natterer's Bat. Myotis nattereri, Kuhl, 

Bell — Vespertilio nattereri. 
A colony of this species was discovered at 



Castletown near RockclifF, in August, 1886. 
Three living specimens were sent to me for 
identification by the late A. Smith. T. C. 
Heysham had previously obtained this species 
in Cumberland, so that it is probably a resi- 
dent species. I have not however procured 
specimens in any other part of the county. 



Daubenton's Bat. 
ler. 



Myotis daubentoni, Leis- 



Bell — Vespertilio daubentonii. 
This water-loving bat is local but hardly to 
be termed rare. I had not met with it up to 
1892, but subsequent to that date two or 
three specimens were brought to me. One 
of them had been felled with an umbrella on 
the banks of the Eden near Carlisle. T. C. 
Heysham obtained a specimen on the Carlisle 
Canal near Beaumont in August, 1852. 

6. Whiskered Bat. Myotis mystacinusy Leisler. 
Bell — Vespertilio mystacinus. 
T. C. Heysham procured a single specimen 
at Carlisle in August, 1852. Three others 
were brought to me from the same neighbour- 
hood at intervals of several years. This bat 
is probably scarce, but I doubt if it is actually 
rare. 



INSECTIVORA 



7. Hedgehog. Erinaceus europaus, Linn. 

Locally, Urchin {obs.). 
A common resident in most wooded dis- 
tricts, often destroyed in consequence of its 
taste for eggs and young birds. 

8. Mole. Talpa europaa^ Linn. 

Locally, Mowdy-warp, Mowdy-wark. 
An abundant resident even among our hill- 
sides. Some very beautiful orange and cream- 
coloured varieties have come under my notice 
from time to time, and specimens of a dull 
brown are common in certain localities. 

9. Common Shrew. Sorex araneus, Linn. 

Bell — Sorex vulgaris. 
A resident species, often killed by house 
cats, especially when they are rearing kittens. 



It is also a favourite food of the barn-owl 
{Strix flammea). 

10. Pigmy Shrew. Sorex minutus, Pallas. 

Bell — Sorex pygmaus. 
A resident species, but apparently much 
scarcer than the common species. Messrs. 
Mann supplied me with a fresh specimen from 
Aigle Gill. 

1 1 . Water Shrew. Neomys fodiens, Pallas. 

Bell — Crossopus fodiens. 
This shrew is local, but must be plentiful 
in the neighbourhood of the Eden because it 
occurs so often there in the pellets of owls. 
Both the black and the parti-coloured forms 
occur in Cumberland, though I believe the 
former to be comparatively uncommon. 



CARNIVORA 



12. Wild Cat. Felis catus, Linn. 

In former days there were many wild 
cats among the crags and screes of this 
mountainous county. Christenbury Crag 
was famous for its breed of these animals. 



and possibly it was from this neighbourhood 
that the household of Lord William Howard 
was supplied with furs. We read the fol- 
lowing entry among ' My Lord's Parcells ' in 
1 629 : ' May — 6. For a wilde cattskinne 



219 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



iiiji.' Wild cats were also numerous among 
the hills in central Lakeland, and generally 
fetched a shilling per head as vermin. Dr, 
Heysham observed that the breed was becom- 
ing extinct in the closing decade of the eight- 
eenth century. The last that Mr. W. 
Hodgson heard of was killed on Great Mell 
Fell early in the nineteenth century. 

13. Fox. Vulpes vulpes, Linn. 

Bell — Vulpes vulgaris. 
Locally, Tod {pbs.). 
In the spring of the year many lambs are 
killed by our foxes, which the shepherds dis- 
tinguish as being either greyhound or terrier 
foxes. These animals were formerly pro- 
scribed owing to the damage which they in- 
flicted upon flock-masters. My friend the 
late T. Lees found that the custom of the 
churchwardens paying 3^. /^d. for every fox's 
head presented at the Easter vestry, was still 
in vogue at Greystoke when he went there 
in 1856. The charge was disallowed that 
year for the first time on the ground that the 
keepers who claimed the reward were already 
paid by their employer to kill vermin. When 
analysing the Greystoke accounts, I found 
that the churchwardens paid for ninety-one 
foxes during the fifty years which elapsed be- 
tween 1752 and 1 802. Of this number, 
only eleven were cubs. The Keswick men 
were ardent cub-hunters. It appears from 
the accounts of Crosthwaite parish, that in 
1723 they killed thirteen cubs in the season, 
and, two years later, accounted for twelve 
cubs and one old fox. A cub only brought 
in a shilling ; but on the Naworth estate as 
much as five shillings was sometimes paid for 
a fox. 

14. Pine Marten. Mustela martes, Linn. 

Bell — Martes abietum. 
Locally, Swreet Mart, Clean Mart, Crag Mart. 
The pine marten is rare in the east of the 
county and practically unheard of in the 
north, but contrives to preserve a precarious 
footing among the mountain tops in the cen- 
tre and west of Cumberland. It might be- 
come fairly numerous were it not that the 
value of local specimens often tempts the 
cupidity of keepers who naturally enough are 
glad to add to their modest income by trap- 
ping any 'marts' that come in their way. 
Mr. F. Nicholson, who has paid great atten- 
tion to this animal in Cumberland, considers 
that it is fairly constant to its customary 
haunts. The pine marten of our hills is not 
to any great extent a woodland animal, pre- 
ferring to make its home in inaccessible crags, 
from which it descends to raid the rabbit 
warrens in the valleys. Most of the speci- 



mens that have come under my notice in a 
fresh state had been killed in winter when the 
pelt of this animal is much finer than during 
the summer months. As long as these ani- 
mals were tolerably numerous they used to be 
hunted by the dalesmen, and many a spirited 
chase has been described to me by venerable 
sportsmen. The number of martens killed 
in a season was never very large, but the 
sport experienced was of first rate quality, for 
the pine marten is a game and resourceful 
quarry. 

15. Polecat. Putorius putorius, Li'mn. 

Bell — Mustela putorius. 
Locally, Foumart, Foul Mart. 
The mosses of the low lying country were 
always more to the taste of this animal than 
our high dales ; but a few foumarts lingered 
around outlying homesteads in the hills until 
exterminated by rabbit traps. Thrustonfield 
has long been a noted haunt of foumarts, ow- 
ing no doubt to its contiguity to many wet 
moors and commons ; from this point fou- 
marts used to travel all over the Holme Cul- 
tram district, with its numerous flows and 
bogs. The polecat is easily tracked by its 
footprints in newly fallen snow. John Daw- 
son of Allonby has lived all his life in a good 
district for foumarts and is a noted tracker of 
wild animals. He does not consider that fou- 
marts are quite extinct (1900) in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Solway Firth ; that they 
are very scarce may be surmised from the 
fact that only two local specimens entered 
my hands in seventeen years' residence. Both 
of these were bitches, trapped near Silloth in 
October, 1893, and September, 1894. Re- 
ports from the south and east of Cumberland 
are unanimous in representing the foumart as 
locally all but extinct. Many particulars re- 
garding the life history of this animal will be 
found in the Fauna of Lakeland, pp. 27-35. 

16. Stoat. Putorius ermineus, hinn. 

BcW— Mustela erminea. 
Fairly common, especially in parts of the 
county where there is little game-preserving. 
I have seen some beautiful white stoats in 
the banks and hedges close to the sea, where 
snow seldom lies for many days. The largest 
stoat that I have handled was killed on our 
northern borders in March, 1885. It mea- 
sured thirteen inches in the flesh. 

17. Weasel. Putorius nivalis, Linn. 

Bell — Mustela vulgaris. 

This little animal is very common in all 

parts of the county, and shows no signs of 

ever becoming scarce. Reports of pure white 

specimens have reached me on more than one 



220 



MAMMALS 



occasion ; indeed the late J. W. Harris ob- 
tained a perfectly white weasel from the 
vicinity of Keswick. I was also assured that 
a black specimen had been killed on the Lyne- 
how estate a few years ago. 

1 8. Otter. Lutra Intra, Linn. 

Bell — Lutra vulgaris. 
The rivers and lakes of Cumberland afford 
many strongholds to the otter ; indeed, no 
part of England affords grander sport to de- 
votees of otter-hounds than the Eden val- 
ley. Trapping on the part of some who 
erroneously regard the presence of the otter 
as inconsistent with the preservation of salmon 
reduces our river-side population of otters 
periodically ; but as soon as the prejudice has 
died away again, these plucky animals replen- 
ish their favourite waters with fresh litters of 
cubs. The largest males sometimes scale as 
much as 31 lb. ; females have been found to 
scale as much as 20 and 2 1 lb. 

19. Badger. Meles meles, Linn. 

Bell — Me/ei taxus. 
Locally, Brock, Gray, Pate {pbs.). 

Formerly badger-earths were to be found 
in most parts of the county, from the shores 
of the Solway Firth to the borders of West- 
morland. Some years ago it appeared prob- 
able that the old race of badgers had become 
extinct ; but of late years badgers have re- 



asserted their right of domicile in some of our 
larger covers. Whether these animals had 
escaped from confinement is difficult to deter- 
mine ; but as wild badgers certainly exist in 
Westmorland, it is probable that though the 
numbers of badgers in Cumberland dwindled 
to very small proportions, the original stock 
never became entirely extinct. The Field 
of May 20th, 1893, contains a note that 
three weeks earlier a sow badger had been 
found in a wood near Aspatria with two 
young ones. Other instances of badgers 
being caught of late years come to me from 
the Cockermouth district. 

The badger was formerly included in the 
proscribed list of vermin to be exterminated at 
the expense of the parish. As early as 1658, 
we read in the accounts of Penrith parish, 
' Payed for killinge of two paytes, 2f.' Thirty- 
six badgers were killed and paid for in Dacre 
parish between 1685 and 1750. A shilling 
was the price set upon the head of an old 
badger, and fourpence was given for a cub. 

20. Common Seal. Phoca vitulina, Linn. 

Immature specimens of the common seal 
not infrequently enter the higher waters of 
the Solway Firth in pursuit of fish, and in 
exceptional cases ascend both the Eden and 
Esk for a few miles. But there are no sands 
or rocks on the coast of Cumberland that are 
regularly frequented by these animals. 



RODENTIA 



21. Squirrel. Sciurus kucourus, Kerr. 

Bell — Sciurus vulgaris. 
Locally, Con, Swirl (pbs.). 
The squirrel is plentiful lin wooded dis- 
tricts, but there are many parts of the county 
in which a squirrel is never seen, simply be- 
cause timber and coppices are absent. The 
late Tom Duckworth once saw a black variety 
near Rose Castle. 

22. Dormouse. Muscardinus avellanarius, 

Linn. 

Bell — Myoxus avellanarius. 
The dormouse is rare in Cumberland, but 
has been taken on a good many occasions in 
the south of the county. It has never been 
reported to me from any of our eastern fells. 

23. Brown Rat. Mus decumanus, Pallas. 
Locally, Rattan. 

This pest is only too plentiful in most of 
our homesteads. Many frequent the coast- 
line feeding on animal and other substances 
thrown up by the tide. 



24. Black Rat. Mus rattus, Linn. 

As long ago as 1796, Dr. Heysham con- 
sidered that the old English black rat had 
become ' very rare ' in Cumberland. I have 
never myself seen a fresh local specimen, 
though reliable reports of the presence of this 
animal have reached me from the west of 
Cumberland on several occasions. 

25. House Mouse. Mus musculusy Linn. 
The universal presence of this animal calls 

for no remark ; but it may be noted that 
white varieties occasionally occur in a state of 
nature. 

26. Wood Mouse or Long-tailed Field Mouse. 

Mus sylvaticus, Linn. 
A common resident in woods and gardens, 
and one that is easily reconciled to the loss of 
liberty. 

27. Harvest Mouse. Mus minutus, Pallas, 

A rare animal in Cumberland, but speci- 
mens have been captured in the north of the 



321 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



county in isolated instances. I have never 
seen it myself in the north of England. 

28. Water Vole. Microtus amphibius, Linn. 

Bell — Arvicola amphibius. 
Locally, Water Rat. 
Exceedingly numerous on the Caldew and 
most of our rivers and inland waters ; at 
Edenhall it forms an important item in the 
dietary of the heron. Melanism occurs in 
individual specimens, but very rarely. It is 
a curious fact that a species so partial to 
water should rear its young among the sand 
dunes on Drigg Common ; but that it does so 
I have proved by personal investigation. 

29. Field Vole. Microtus agrestis, Linn. 

Bell — Arvicola agrestis. 
This little animal is extremely common 
and of very general distribution, sometimes 
causing great damage to hill pastures. A 
very pretty grey and white variety was 
brought to me from Drumburgh. It was a 
full-grown animal. The Duckworths were 
at one time acquainted with a little colony of 
field voles, among which pied examples often 
occurred. 

30. Bank Vole. Evototnys glareolus, Schreber. 

Bell — Arvicola glareolus. 
This interesting little mammal is probably 
common in the county, but is best known to 



me as well established at Aigle Gill. It is 
generally observed in winter, at which season 
it makes its home in heaps of turnips, two 
pairs of full-grown voles and one smaller one 
being generally found together. In confine- 
ment it becomes a tame and fascinating pet. 

3 1 . Hare. Lepus europaus, Pallas. 

Bell — Lepus timidut. 

A resident species, but in very sparing 
numbers except upon a few large estates. 
Hares not infrequently lie out upon the salt- 
marshes ; I have known of their being 
drowned by the tide. In November, 1884, 
a pied hare was killed in the county, having 
the forehead and muzzle, the sides of the 
head, two fore-paws and one hind-paw per- 
fectly white. This, and a larger specimen in 
which the red hairs are plentifully mixed with 
white, have since been presented to the Car- 
lisle Museum. 

32. Rabbit. Lepus cuniculus, Linn. 

Locally, Coney. 

Warrens have long existed in the neigbour- 
hood of our coast, and many black and sandy 
varieties occur. In 1883 I saw a tame speci- 
men which had entered on its eleventh year 
of captivity. It belonged to a working man 
at Carlisle, and enjoyed the run of the house, 
being a familiar and Umusing pet. 



UNGULATA 



33. Red Deer. Cervus elaphus, Linn. 

The red deer of Gowbarrow Park are 
lineal descendants of the race of stags and 
hinds which cropped the sweet grass and 
toothsome clover of the Cumbrian hills when 
the Roman legions tramped across High Street 
and manned their forts upon the shores of the 
Solway Firth. All Roman settlements in the 
county yield remains of red deer, and the 
antlers were of far more vigorous growth 
than can be foimd in these days. The deer 
of Gowbarrow Park often receive visits from 
stags that have descended from Martindale 
Forest to the edge of Ullswater, and swum 
the cool waters of the lake, in order to pay 
court to the fat hinds of ' Wethermlake,' as 
the locality was anciently entitled. A famous 
deer-forest was that of Inglewood, which long 
remained a royal chase. Ennerdale Forest 
was the last home of the free wild deer that 
knew nothing of enclosed life, but took toll 
of the oats of the dalesmen at their own 
sweet will. I have inspected several fine 



herds of red deer in private parks, such as 
those of Muncaster, Crofton, Highmoor ; but 
only at Gowbarrow is there a strain of white 
blood. This is due to the introduction many 
years ago of a white stag, supplied by Lord 
Petre, and believed to be of continental origin. 
This white stag lived for many years at Gow- 
barrow, but was killed when very old (in the 
sixties) by the younger and more vigorous 
animals setting upon him, as Mr. H. Howard 
informed us. Several white descendants of 
this stag were still living at Gowbarrow when 
I last inquired about the herd. For a fuller 
account of the red deer of Cumberland refer- 
ence must be made to The Fauna of Lakeland, 
pp. 50-64. 

34. Fallow Deer. Cervus dama, Linn. 

The bucks of Cumberland once afforded 
good sport to royalty ; indeed an early chroni- 
cler accredits Edward the First with having 
killed two hundred bucks and does in Ingle- 
wood. The Howards kept a good stock of 



223 



MAMMALS 



bucks at Naworth in the days when England 
was ruled by the Stuarts. So indispensable 
was a haunch of venison to public hospitality, 
that when the judges were entertained at the 
Carlisle Assizes in 1661, an entire buck was 
carted all the way from Millom to the scene 
of the banquet. The Fauna of Lakeland con- 
tains a digest of all that I have been able to 
bring to light about the fallow deer of this 
county. But it may be remarked that, while 
at Levens Park the milk-white deer, which 
occasionally appear in that dark herd, are per- 
fectly white when dropped and always re- 
main so, the white fallow deer which exist in 
the mixed herd at Edenhall are not pure white 
at birth, but a cinnamon-white, from which 
condition they pass to a pure white stage in a 
term of four or five years. 



35. Roe Deer. Capreolus capreolus, Linn. 
Bell — Capreolus caprea. 

The roe was once plentiful in the thickets 
of our forests, especially in the Naworth 
woods, whence a draught of no fewer than 
thirty-two kids was despatched in carts to 
London for Charles the First, in 1633. The 
price paid to those who had captured these 
young animals was about five shillings a kid. 
Six men and seven horses were required to 
convey them to the south. The kids were 
procured in the month of June. We are 
assured that a few roe deer still exist in the 
Naworth district, and others visit the Netherby 
estate from the Scottish borders. Single 
stragglers have been known to occur as far 
south as Penrith. 



CETACEA 



36. Sperm Whale. Physeter macrocephalus, 

Linn. 
A sperm whale was cast ashore near Flimby 
on April 21st, 1840. It measured 58 feet 
in length and 26 feet in girth, as recorded in 
the Carlisle Patriot of April 24th, 1840. 

37. Bottle-nosed Whale. Hyperoodon ros- 

tratus, Mailer. 
This cetacean has often visited our waters, 
and dead specimens have frequently been 
washed ashore by the tide ; as for example in 
September, 1897, and August, 1887, when 
specimens were beached near Mowbray and 
Maryport. 

38. Grampus. Orca gladiator, Bonnaterre. 
An occasional visitant to the channels of 

the Solway Firth, among which it is some- 
times left high and dry by the retiring tide. 
In July, 1874, six of these animals made 
their appearance in Silloth Bay, and one of 
them, an adult female, was stranded near 
Skinburness. I showed a tooth of this animal 
to the late Sir W. H. Flower. 

39. Pilot-whale, or Black Fish. Globicephalus 

melas, Traill. 
Locally, Bottle-nose. 
Herds of these animals occasionally appear 



off our coast, and in some instances they have 
been known to push their way up the Solway 
Firth as high as Silloth and Bowness, only to 
be stranded upon the flat sands, and buried 
by the coastguard service. A single example 
was found dead near Silloth in the autumn 
of 1898. 

40. Porpoise. Phocana communis. Lesson. 

Locally, Sea Pig, Sea Swine. 

These animals often endeavour to drive 
shoals of herring and other round fish into 
our inshore waters. I have watched them 
careering through the swell of the Solway 
Firth on many a wild morning ; but they 
rarely stay long in our partly land-locked 
waters, preferring to plough their way through 
the open main, unchecked by tortuous chan- 
nels or shifting sandbanks. 



41. Bottle-nosed Dolphin. 
Fabricius. 



Tursiops tursio, 



Bell — Delphinus tursio. 

A young example of this rather rare species 
was killed in the Esk near Longtown, on or 
about July 30th, 1896. We saw it imme- 
diately after, and had it photographed in the 
flesh. 



223 




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EARLY MAN 



OF the earliest inhabitants of the district now known as Cumber- 
land, the men of the Stone Age, whose only implements for 
war, for the chase, or for domestic use were of stone, bone or 
shell, no histories written with the pen have been handed down 
to us : for what we know of them we are indebted to such of their relics 
as may be accidentally found on the surface of the ground, or beneath it, 
or may be turned up by the spade in the hands of trained observers. But 
little work with the spade, compared with what might have been done, 
has been undertaken. When the Cumberland and Westmorland Anti- 
quarian and Archaeological Society was formed in 1866, Canon Greenwell, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., and the late Canon Simpson, LL.D., F.S.A., 
both experienced excavators and trained observers, urged upon the new 
Society the importance of this kind of work. They also cautioned the 
Society as to the danger of entrusting it to unskilful hands, who too 
frequently disturb and disperse the contents of barrows without putting 
on record a satisfactory and sufficient account of the barrow itself, of the 
mode of burial, and, in case of a burial by inhumation, of the type of 
the skull ; or, in case of a burial after cremation, of the character of the 
urn containing the ashes. These exhortations have not been without 
effect in the sphere of the Society's work (viz. Cumberland, Westmor- 
land and Lancashire north of the Sands). More exploration of this 
kind has been done, and better done, in Westmorland and in Lancashire 
north of the Sands, than in Cumberland. The chief workers in 
Westmorland were the two eminent archaeologists just mentioned and 
the late M. W. Taylor, M.D., F.S.A. In Lancashire north of the 
Sands, Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., has done good work, which is re- 
corded in Archaologia, vol. liii. For the work in Westmorland, and 
what little Canon Greenwell and his colleagues did in Cumberland, 
Greenwell and RoUeston's British Barrows should be consulted. That 
prehistoric work in Cumberland has been comparatively neglected is due 
largely to the existence there of the Roman Wall, and the interest it 
excites among all archseologists resident within reach of it. Other 
working archaeologists resident in Cumberland have had their own 

* As the writer of this contribution died before it was set up in type, Dr. W. Boyd 
Dawkins has been so good as to read the proofs. The author's statements have not been 

interfered with. 

J 225 Q 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

special hobbies, such as early sculptured crosses, ecclesiastical antiquities, 
genealogies, local bibliography, and the like. 

THE STONE AGE 
a. Long Barrows 

The Stone Age has been divided into two periods. In the earlier 
or Paleolithic when man did not know how to grind or polish a 
stone, but only how to chip it to a sharp edge. The remains of the 
Palsohthic Age are found in caves, and in river drift, but none have 
been found in the district we are dealing with. Two stone implements 
in the Keswick Museum, and one in the Carlisle Museum, have been 
suggested as Palaeolithic, but they are more probably unfinished imple- 
ments of the later or Neolithic Stone Age. It has been suggested by 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., that there are gravels in the valley of the Eden 
in which Paleolithic (river drift) implements might be found. As to 
how long it is since the Paleolithic man lived, it is unnecessary here to 
go into that question ; dates varying from 60,000 years ago to 600,000 
have been assigned to him ; it is maintained by Professor Boyd Dawkins 
and Sir John Evans that a period of glaciers has intervened since he 
roamed about this district — if he was ever there at all, and some of the 
very features of the country have been completely changed since he lived. 

But the Neolithic man, the man of the later Stone Age, who could 
polish and grind a stone, saw this country much as we see it — the 
position of his graves tells us that. He, too, has left no histories behind 
him ; but the spade in the hands of Sir R. Colt Hoare, of Dr. Thurnam, 
and of Canon Greenwell, has been the key which has unlocked the 
secrets buried in his graves. The researches of Canon Greenwell have 
been mainly in the Yorkshire Wolds, in Durham, Westmorland, and 
Northumberland. Results only can be dealt with here ; for the evidence, 
proper works must be consulted, the chief of which are Lubbock's 
Prehistoric Times, Evans's Ancient Stone Implements, Thurnam's Crania 
Britannica, Greenwell and RoUeston's British Barrows, and Boyd Dawkins's 
Early Man in Britain. 

The Neolithic man in these districts was of short stature, with a 
long head (technically called dolicho-cephalic) . His facial angle, as 
measured from his skull, and other evidence afforded by it, show him to 
have probably had a mild and pleasant countenance. The remains of 
the animals on which he lived show that he led a pastoral, semi- 
agricultural existence, eking out his subsistence by the chase, rather of 
birds than bigger animals. He had for domestic animals only the Bos 
longerons, a species of ox ; it is doubtful if he had the goat ; he had not 
the dog. He ground his grain with stones, and the sand and grit got 
into the meal and wore his teeth down to the gum. He had toothache 
badly, as the condition of his jaws shows. Dr. Thurnam thinks he was 
a cannibal ; Canon Greenwell and Professor RoUeston repudiate the 
slander. When he died, the man of the long head was buried in a lone 

236 



EARLY MAN 

mound or barrow. (Long heads and long barrows go together ; round 
heads and round barrows.) That long barrow was also the place of 
sepulchre for his wife, or wives, and children. With him were deposited 
certain earthen vessels, and implements of stone and bone, apparently 
made new for the occasion. This may prove that he had some belief in 
a future state in which he would require these things. 

Many long mounds exist in Cumberland which externally bear the 
appearance of long barrows ; in most cases, perhaps in all, positive proof 
by excavation is wanting ; the late Dr. Simpson, than whom no man 
was better acquainted with Cumberland and Westmorland farms, farmers 
and their ways, has suggested that some of these long mounds are mere 
bracken-stack-bottoms, bracken being formerly extensively cut and 
stacked for winter use. Others, again, may be mere natural mounds, 
but such natural mounds were liable to be, and have often been, adopted 
by prehistoric people as ready-made places of sepulchre. The greatest 
caution is therefore necessary in pronouncing upon such mounds, until 
they have been explored by competent persons. 

At Latterbarrow, under Ivluncaster Fell, are three long mounds 
fenced in by large stones — two of them about 20 feet long and 3 feet 
high, the third smaller. Their position is near the upper side of a large 
grass field, on the 400 feet contour, soutii of the western end of Raven 
Crag. These were first pointed out by Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., 
and promise well to repay examination. At the other extremity of 
Cumberland, according to the late Rev. John Maughan, in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, vol. xl., pp. 231, 232, there were once, in the parish of 
Bewcastle, in a field called Cairns, at a place known as the Nook, 
Roanstrees, 

five parallel ridges of stone or barrows, averaging about 150 yards in length and 
about a yard deep. 

They have been long cleared off to make way for the plough, and were 
more probably bracken-stack-bottoms than long barrows. At Cairn 
o' the Mount, near Peelohill in the same parish, is, according to the 
same authority, a mound about 80 yards in length and about 8 yards 
broad, pointed at each end, and terraced round. Further investigation 
is required here. At Harras, near the Roman Camp of Birdoswald, is 
what seems to be a fine long barrow. On Stockdale Moor in west 
Cumberland is a large tumulus 35 yards long, 12 yards across at the 
broadest end, while the other is pointed. This is called Sampson's 
Bratful. A careful search through the district would probably add to 
the number of mounds which might or might not be long barrows. 
High up on the fells would be the best hunting ground, for in the valleys 
mounds and tumuli are apt to be swept away by good agriculturists, who 
dislike to see unproductive patches of ground in their holdings. 

b. Implements 

If, however, the long barrows of the dolicho-cephalic man in 
Cumberland are few and doubtful, yet stone implements have been found 

227 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

in many places. At Aigle Gill, near Aspatria, a stone adze and a double- 
pointed stone ; AUonby, a stone hammer ; Bewcastle, six rude stone 
implements (hammer heads and perforated stones), also two stone adzes, 
and a stone axe ; Blackford, polished stone celt ; Blennerhasset, stone 
hammer ; Bootle, stone hammer and flint and quartz arrow-heads ; 
Broadfield, polished stone hammer ; Burns Common, Threlkeld, stone 
hammer ; Carlisle, stone axes, pestle of greenstone, length 1 6 inches ; 
Castle Carrock, flint knives ; Dearham, unpolished celt ; Distington, 
stone hammer ; Drigg, stone axe ; near Eaglesfield, unpolished stone 
celts ; Edenhall, Oxhouse Oaks, stone hatchets ; Ehenside (Gibb) Tarn, 
stone implements ; Garlands, near Carlisle, stone implements, flint arrow- 
heads ; Gelt Bridge, near Leafy Hill, flint knife ; Gosforth, stone axe ; 
Grinsdale Common, stone hammer ; Hallguard Farm, Birdoswald, per- 
forated stone hammer ; Hesket Newmarket, Gillfoot, stone implements 
and beads, and pieces of flint ; Holm Cultram, Highlaws and Souther- 
field, stone implements, celts ; Inglewood Forest, large axe ; Ireby, stone 
hammer, thumb and finger stone ; Irton, flint spear-head, polished stone 
axe ; Irton Fell, unpolished celt ; Irthington, flint spear-head ; Keswick, 
Burns Moor, perforated hammer-head of granite ; Keswick, Castle Rigg 
Stone Circle, stone implements ; Keswick, celt of greenstone, a large 
celt, stone celts (9), perforated implements (6) ; Kidburngill, stone 
hammer ; Kirkbeck River, Bewcastle, stone implement ; Kirkoswald, 
perforated stone axe ; Kirkoswald, The Castle, stone hammers ; Lam- 
plugh. Wood Moor, stone hammer ; Loweswater, stone hammer ; 
Melmerby, hammer stone; Millom, ancient British battle axe, 13I 
inches long (? large stone celt), also Neolithic implements; Mow- 
bray, stone hammers, polished celts, stone adze ; Newtown of Mowbray, 
polished celts ; Ousby, perforated stone axe ; Penrith Beacon, polished 
greenstone celt ; Plumpton, Penrith, perforated stone axe ; Ravenglass, 
stone axe ; Red Dial, near Wigton, perforated stone axe or hammer ; 
Great Salkeld, stone celts ; Scotby, stone adze ; Solway Moss, hafted 
stone celt ; Sprunston, St. Cuthbert's, Carlisle, stone hammer ; Wan- 
thwaite Crags, stone celt ; Wastwater Screes, flint arrow-head ; Wetheral, 
stone implements ; and Wigton, stone hammers and celts.* From this 
list it will appear that the most common are large stone celts or hatchets, 
the greater part of them made of felstone, and some of a shape almost 
peculiar to Cumberland (see fig. 61, Evans's Ancient Stone Implements 
of Great Britain, ist edit., p. 106, 2nd edit., p. 118). A fine typical 
one found at Horsegills in Cumberland, and now in the Carlisle 
Museum, is 15I inches long, i\ inches broad at widest part ; 3 inches 
at the point, and i| inches at the butt. Perforated hammers and heavy 

^ The authority for mentioning these implements will be found in * An Archaeological 
Survey of Cumberland and Westmorland,' communicated to the Society of Antiquaries of 
London by R. S. Ferguson, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A., and printed in Archaologia, vol. liii. ; see 
also his report as local secretary to the same body, Proc. S.J., n.s., vol. viii. pp. 491-4. 
See also Catalogue of the Museum formed on the occasion of the visit of the Royal Archaeological 
Institute to Carlisle in 1859, printed by the Institute; and see also Ancient Stone Implements, 
2nd edit., by Sir John Evans, K.C.B. 

??8 



EARLY MAN 

stone axes also abound. An estimate presented in 1881 of the known 
stone implements in Cumberland and Westmorland put the number at 
about 30 stone hammers or adzes, 44 stone celts, 6 flint arrow-heads, or 
in all about 100 ; but many more are known now, possibly twice as 
many.^ 

The examples of Neolithic implements from Sol way Moss " and 
Ehenside Tarn' are remarkable, being two out of the only three examples 
of celts which have been found in England attached to their original 
handles. A rock on Lazonby Fell has about seventy grooves upon it, 
from 4 to 7 inches long and about i inch wide and deep, pointed 
at either end, as if sharp-ended tools had been ground in them. The 
suggestion is that they were for grinding stone celts.* 

How long these dolicho-cephalic men dwelt in this district is hard 
to tell. Canon Greenwell, in Ancient British Barrows, declines to hazard 
a conjecture as to when they began ; but they were intruded upon by 
another race, and possibly somewhere about the year i ,000 before Christ. 
The new comer was a round-headed or brachy-cephalic man, who buried 
his dead in round barrows, and appears to have belonged to a stronger, 
sterner race than his predecessor. His bones prove him to have been 
bigger (his average stature over 5 ft. 8 in.), thicker and more muscular ; 
he had broad jaws, turned up nose, high cheek bones, wide mouth, 
and eyes deep sunk under beetling brows that overhung them like a 
pent-house — the superciliary ridges on his skull tell that. He had arms 
and implements of bronze. He had learnt to domesticate the goat 
and the dog, as well as the Bos longifrons, the only animal which the 
long-headed man had succeeded in taming. He soon asserted his 
supremacy over the long-heads — he did not annihilate them. In the 
round barrows of the round-heads both long and round skulls appear ; 
and in the later round barrows the skulls begin to appear occasionally of 
an intermediate shape : this shows that the round-headed man with the 
bronze weapons probably enslaved the long-headed man with the stone 
weapons, and took the long-headed women for his wives. 

This was the Bronze Age, when man had advanced to the know- 
ledge of weapons and implements made of bronze : these did not wholly 
supersede stone weapons and implements, for the poor man would con- 
tinue to use the cheaper articles. 

Many of the weapons of the brachy-cephalic men, who intruded 
themselves upon the dolicho-cephalic men, have been found in Cumber- 
land, but they are not so numerous in local museums as the relics of the 
earlier race. The bulk of them have found their way to the melting-pot. 
Forty or fifty years ago the travelling pedlar frequently bought bronze 
implements from labourers and farm servants for two pence apiece, and 

^ Proc. S.A., ut ante. 

* See Evans's Ancient Stone Implements, 2nd edit., pp. 152, 153 ; Proc. S.A. o.s. 
vol. iv. p. 112. 

* Archaologia, vol. xliv, p. 273. 

* Ancient Stone Implements, ut ante, p. 262. 

229 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

sold them over again to the brass founders for sixpence. Bronze imple- 
ments are on record as having been found at various places : At Arthuret 
and at Aspatria, bronze palstaves V; at Camp Graves, Bewcastle, bronze 
spear-head ; at Oxhouse Oaks, Edenhall, bronze hatchets ; in Eskdale, 
bronze spear-head ; in Geltsdale, near the ' Written Rock,' bronze celt ; at 
Southerfield, Holm Cultram, bronze spear-head ; Irthing River, between 
Naworth and Lanercost, bronze socketed celt ; Irthington, bronze pal- 
stave of adze form, very rare ; Keswick, bronze palstave with ribs ; 
Longtown, bronze flanged celt ; Naworth Castle, at or near, bronze 
spear-head ; Netherby, three bronze spear-heads and three bronze 
palstaves ; Stanwix, bronze javehn head ; and Wigton, bronze flanged 
celt.'' 

BRONZE AGE 

a. Burial Places 

Cumberland, like Westmorland, Northumberland and Durham, is 
prolific in the barrow of the dolicho-cephalic race, but a very small 
number of them have as yet been carefully examined. Many of these 
grave-mounds are simple heaps of stones, being what are usually called 
' cairns.' These are very liable to be destroyed as the area of cultiva- 
tion extends ; the stones of which they are composed afford good 
material for road making and mending, for building the stone walls so 
characteristic of the fells, and for the filling in of drains. Many have 
been thus destroyed without any record whatever being kept, beyond, in 
a few cases, an inaccurate paragraph in a local paper. These barrows, 
cairns, or tumuli, exist, or have existed, or Jiave been thought to exist or 
to have existed, at various places : At Arthuret Church, large tumuli ; 
on Aughertree Fell, Ireby, tumulus ; Askerton Park, three cairns ; 
Belmont, Penrith, cistvaen only remaining ; Bleatarn, tumuli ; Boat 
How, cairns ; Boothby, tumulus ; Brampton, tumuli ; Barnscar, exten- 
sive settlements, enclosures, walls, cairns, burials in urns ; Bewcastle, The 
Curragh, Skelton Pike, two large cairns ; Bewcastle, on Baronspike or 
Barnspike, tumulus ; Bewcastle, the Shiel Knowe, starfish cairn ; Bew- 
castle, on the White Lyne river, cairns ; Binsey summit, tumulus ; 
Birkerthwaite, Green How, cairns and enclosures ; Blencarn, tumulus ; 
Blencow Bank, with urns, incense cups, burnt bones ; Brackenhill Tower, 
with cist and interments ; Broadfield, Inglewood Forest, tumulus, 
circular enclosure, stone cists ; Burnmore, cairns ; Carling Knott, tumuli ; 
between Carlisle and Wigton, tumuli ; Castle Carrock, Brampton, 
on the Fell, cairns ; Cumrew, cairns ; Castle Carrock, Caldbeck, 
cairns ; Cawfell Beck, cairns ; Dalston Hall, tumuli ; Dunmailraise, 

* Professor Daniel Wilson defines palstaves as * wedges (of bronze), more or less axe- 
shaped, having a groove on each side terminating in a stop ridge, and with lateral flanges 
destined to secure a hold on the handle.' Preh. Ann., 2nd edit., vol. i. p. 382 ; cit. in 
Evans's Ancient Bronze Implements, p. 72. 

* The authority for these implements will be found in ' An Archaeological Survey,' etc., 
Evans's Ancient Bronze Implements, and Catalogue of Museum, etc., all cited ante p. 228 note. 

230 



EARLY MAN 

cairn ; Dean, Parkhill, tumuli ; Dalston, Chapel Flat, barrow, cist ; 
Dalston, Bracken How, tumulus, urns ; Devoke Water, cairns, tumuli ; 
Eamont, opposite Mayburgh, tumulus ; Ennerdale Water, cairns ; 
Edmund Castle Lodge, cist, urns ; Egremont Common, tumuli ; Ellen- 
borough, tumulus ; Friar's Moor, tumulus with ditch ; Farlam, Kirk- 
house, cists and urns ; Fisher's Cross, Port Carlisle, tumulus ; Geltsdale, 
tumuli ; Gillalees Beacon, twin barrows, tumulus, and cairn ; Grassmoor, 
cairn ; Greystoke, Woundel Cairn, cairns ; Garlands, near Carlisle, urns, 
etc. ; Gelt Bridge, Castle Carrock, and Leafy Hill, cairns, cistvaens, 
urns, etc. ; Hackmoor Hill, cistvaen ; Hallbank Gate, tumulus ; Hart- 
side, Benty Hill, tumulus, called Old Anthony's Chair ; Hayton, 
Brampton, tumulus ; Hesket-in-the-Forest, four small tumuli ; Hind- 
scarth, large cairn ; How Mill, great tumulus ; Hesket Newmarket, 
barrow ; Isell, tumuli, one called The Grey Barrow ; Keswick, Falcon 
Crag, Latrig and Skiddaw, cairns and tumuli ; Kirkoswald, Old Parks, 
large cairn of stones ; Knock's Cross, Port Carlisle, tumulus ; Lanercost 
Bridge, tumulus ; Lazonby Fell, cairns ; Moresby Hall, stone cists ; 
Newton Reigny, tumuli ; Ormstead Hill, near Eamont Cottage, tumulus ; 
Plumpton Mill Hill, cairns ; Great Salkeld, raise or cairn ; Great 
Salkeld, Wan Fell, tumulus ; Seatallan tumulus ; Stockdale Moor, cairns, 
near the long barrow called Sampson's Bratful ; Skelton, Loaden How, 
cairn ; Thirlmere, Deergarth Wood, cairns ; Tongue How, cairns ; 
Ulpha Fell, cairns ; Unthank, Gamelsby Low Fell, cistvaen ; Woodhall, 
The Druid Grove, barrow.^ It must not be too hastily concluded that 
all the above tumuli and cairns are artificial burial places. Many of 
them have been put on the list on the authority of the Ordnance Survey, 
on whose maps they are marked with the word 'tumulus.' For instance, 
the two mounds near Dalston Hall, one on each side of the road, marked 
on the 6-inch Ordnance Survey map as tumuli, are mere undisturbed 
gravel knolls, the extremities of a long winding ribbon-like Esker. This 
was proved by excavation pluckily undertaken by two ladies, who were 
much disappointed with their results. The same applies to the tumulus 
at Lanercost Bridge, and to many or all in the Brampton neighbourhood ; 
they are the remains of a great sheet of gravel, which once covered the 
district and has been cleared away by denudation, except the harder or 
more compact knobs. The Brampton Eskers cover a much larger area 
than any group in West Cumberland, and they may be seen at a height 
of 600 feet above the sea. Some of them have been opened by General 
Pitt-Rivers and Lord Carlisle ; nothing but Esker gravel was found. The 
great tumulus at How Mill may probably belong to this Esker group. 
There is a fine isolated Esker ridge a few yards south of Arthuret Church 
and Rectory, which accounts for the supposed tumuli there. There are 
accumulations of Esker gravel and sand in the parish of Kirklinton be- 
tween Black Snib peat moss and Brackenhill Tower, and again between 

* The authority for these tumuli or cairns, etc., will be found in * An Archseological 
Survey,' etc., ut ante p. 228 note. Further particulars will be given in this work in the 
accounts of the various parishes in which they are severally situate. 

231 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

the Heather Burn and the Longtown and Brampton Road, round Horse- 
gills farmhouse. There is another Esker group between Crofton Hall 
and Thursby, a series of ridges rising occasionally into circular mounds of 
which Torkin, on the north side of Crofton Park, is the most conspicuous 
example. There are Esker ridges between Great Orton and Carlisle. 
These and the Crofton group probably account for the tumuli between 
Carlisle and Wigton. In the west there is another Esker tract between 
Abbey Town and Allonby.^ The pre-historic races were, however, not 
above taking and improving an Esker or other natural mound as a place 
of sepulchre. Other pitfalls await the unwary and would-be antiquary ; 
some of these supposed sepulchral mounds may be nothing but clearance 
heaps. The Parkhill tumuli in Dean, two in number, are, it is suggested, 
mere archery butts. The great mound at Bleatarn has been proved to be 
modern, piled up to support a summer house ; modern pottery and 
tobacco pipes have been found buried at some depth in it. 

In some cases the tumulus has been removed by excavators, or pos- 
sibly by natural denudation, and the cist, or cistvaen, left exposed, too 
frequently the only record. Of the settlement on Barnscar more will 
presently be said, and also of the great cairn in Old Parks, Kirkoswald, 
which was sold to the County Council of Cumberland for road material ; 
from it they obtained 600 cartloads of stone. The starfish cairn at Shiel 
House, Bewcastle, is one of a class of cairns found in Westmorland to 
which that name was given by the late M. W. Taylor, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. 
The projecting rays are later additions to the original cairn, and probably 
cover later burials. The celebrated cairn at Dunmailraise, under which 
the last king of rocky Cumberland is said to lie, is very doubtful. The 
navvies employed on the Thirlmere Waterworks probably opened it, if it 
had not already been opened by shepherds ; they certainly rebuilt it one 
Sunday, and made it into a neat piece of work with a huge flat projecting 
table stone on the summit. This was afterwards undone, and the 
original disorder restored. 

b. Contents of Graves 

Owing to the dearth of scientific and systematic investigation into 
the burial places of the prehistoric races that once inhabited this district, 
no very certain conclusions can be drawn about these races and their 
modes of life, if the local evidence found within the district is alone relied 
upon. So far, however, as that evidence goes, it goes to show that the 
prehistoric race or races that once dwelt in the district now called 
Cumberland were the same as those that dwelt in the neighbouring 
districts, now called Westmorland, Durham, Northumberland and York- 
shire ; we can, therefore, adopt the conclusions arrived at by Messrs. 
Greenwell and RoUeston in their valuable work on British Barrows, which 
is further continued in Archceologia, vol. Hi. It is impossible to give all 
these conclusions, but a few of them are referred to. 

* For information about these Esker groups we are indebted to Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey England and Wales, the Geology of the Country round Carlisle, by T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 

232 




3 
O 
O 



> 

o 



> 



EARLY MAN 

First of all, as to the methods of burial adopted by these prehistoric 
people in the north of England. They practised both burial by inhuma- 
tion and burial after cremation, but the former was by far the most usual, 
a little under twenty-one per cent, only being after cremation, that is the 
burials after cremation only amount to about rather less than a fourth 
of those by inhumation. There appears to be some rule regulating the 
practice, but in the present state of knowledge that rule is unknown : it 
is not a question of sex, or of wealth, or of position, or of age ; the 
instances found prove that. The unburnt body is almost always found to 
have been laid upon the soil in a contracted position, that is with the 
knees drawn up towards the head, which is generally more or less bent 
forward, the back, however, is sometimes quite straight. So invariable 
is this rule that out of 301 burials of unburnt bodies which Canon 
Greenwell examined in the barrows of the Wolds, he only met with four 
instances where the body had been laid at full length. These cases may 
have been subsequent interments of Angles, who buried in the extended 
position and flat on the back. The probability is that the contracted 
position was the position in which the prehistoric races were accustomed 
to sleep, drawing up their knees for the sake of warmth. Charcoal is 
frequently found scattered throughout the greater part of a burial mound. 
It may have been the ashes of fires on the ground from which the 
material of the mound was heaped up, or of the fires at which the 
funeral feasts were cooked. But Canon Greenwell suggests it may be the 
ashes of a fire through which a corpse was passed without being actually 
consumed — a ritualistic ceremony, resembling, as the Canon says, the 
substitution of aspersion for immersion in the rite of baptism. The 
occurrence with burials by inhumation of buttons of bone and of jet, 
points to the bodies having been interred dressed as in their lifetime, 
while the occurrence of bone pins suggests the use of some sort of shroud. 
Weapons and implements, either of bronze or stone, are rarely found in 
company with interments of either burnt or unburnt bodies. When they 
do occur they are much more frequently of stone or flint than of bronze, 
and such bronze implements as do occur are small and insignificant, 
conveying the idea that the round barrows are of the early Bronze Age, 
when only small articles were fabricated from that metal, either because 
it was rare and expensive, or because the workers in bronze were up to 
then but moderately expert. Personal ornaments also occur in barrows, 
generally in connection with the burials of women. 

In Hutchinson's Cumberland (vol. i. p. 151) mention is made of the 
removal at Hayton about the year 1790, of a bank of sand and gravel 
(probably a tumulus) and the discovery of three objects of gold, which 
the country people called ' shekels,' as similar in form to the ' shekels ' 
of a plough beam, ' shekel ' being a name, says the writer in Hutchin- 
son, which is applied to the ring fixed to a plough beam. They were 
penannular in form, plain and smooth, except the two knobs at the open- 
ing. They measured 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and about i^ inches in 
thickness. Had they had tongues they would have been fibulae ; they 

233 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

may have been torques. They were sold to a silversmith in Carlisle, who 
gave ^7 for one of them and £zo for another, and no doubt have long 
ago been melted. The evidence is not sufficient to enable any certain 
conclusion to be arrived at. In Whellan's Cumberland, a find of stone 
beads in a barrow of stones at Gillfoot, Hesket-Newmarket, is recorded. 
There was there what the writer calls a 

Druid's Grove, consisting of two parallel rows of large oak trees, extending 150 
yards in length, and the rows 12 yards distant. In a level field at the middle of the 
two rows was a barrow of stones. The trees were cut down and the barrow removed 
in the year 1794, when beneath the barrow several places where human bones had 
been burnt and deposited were discovered, as also numerous pieces of flint and stone 
beads and a stone battle axe (p. 225). 

Nothing is said as to what the beads were like : and the writer of 
the above account, writing in i860, does not tell how he got his informa- 
tion as to a find of beads in 1794. Beads of cannel coal, twelve in 
number, were actually inside an ' incense cup,' found in a large tumulus 
at Old Parks, Kirkoswald, as will be presently related. 

The reason of these deposits is generally stated to be that this pre- 
historic race had a belief in a future state of which the conditions would 
be similar to the conditions of life upon this earth : conditions in which 
the man would still want his implements of war and of the chase, and 
the woman her ornaments. Other reasons may be imagined, such as 
a superstitious dislike to, or fear of, a dead man's belongings. But 
whatever the reason was, the puzzle is that in the majority of cases of 
interment, nothing whatever is found. When things are found they 
are of little value. This points to these people being very poor. Indeed 
one can hardly fancy any but a poor race clinging to the cold and barren 
fells and moors. 

A vessel or vessels of earthenware are frequently found with inter- 
ments, whether of burnt or unburnt bones. These vessels have been 
divided into cinerary urns, ' incense cups,' ' food vessels ' and ' drink- 
ing cups ' — a misleading nomenclature, but one which Canon Greenwell 
considers it both difficult and undesirable to alter, particularly as we do 
not know with absolute certainty what these vessels were originally 
intended for. In Canon Greenwell's experience he finds the cinerary 
urn and the ' incense cup ' accompany burnt bodies, while the ' food 
vessel ' and the ' drinking cup ' accompany both burnt and unburnt 
bodies, though he states it is rare to find the ' drinking cup ' with burnt 
bodies. 

The older antiquaries used to imagine that this pottery was sun- 
dried ; that is not so. In that case damp would long ago have caused 
the vessels to return to the original clay out of which they were formed. 
They were baked before an open fire, whose smoke has often stained the 
manufactured article in places. The clay of which the larger vessels is 
made, is largely mixed with broken stone, with the object of making the 
clay firmer and less Ukely to crack in the baking. Neither artificial 
colour, nor glazing is ever employed, though most of the drinking 

234 



EARLY MAN 

cups have a polish, probably produced by rubbing them with a smooth 
stone or a bone. The general system of ornamentation consists of com- 
binations of straight lines in an almost inconceivable variety. 

The patterns have been made by a sharp-pointed instrument, drawn over the moist 
clay ; by stamping vsrith a narrow piece of bone or hard wood, cut into alternate 
raised and sunk squares, or simply notched ; by rows of dotted markings, round, oval 
and triangular, of greater and less size ; by the impression of the finger-nails ; and 
most commonly by impressions of a twisted thong, generally made of a strip of hide, 
but certainly in many cases of string manufactured out of some vegetable fibre, and 
consisting in some cases of two if not three plaits. Curved lines and circular markings, 
though they occur now and then, are uncommon, the pattern being generally made up 
of straight lines arranged in cross, zig-zag, chevron, saltire, reticulated and herring-bone 
fashion {British Barrows, p. 65). 

The cinerary urns are those vessels which contain a deposit of 
burnt bones. The most common shape, indeed in Cumberland the 
normal shape, is that of 

two truncated cones, placed the one upon the other, the broadest parts in apposition, 
the upper rather overlapping the lower, and being about half its depth. The mouth 
is therefore contracted, and the upper cone constitutes the rim, which is overhanging. 
. . . The bottom of the urn is small in comparison with its mouth, and is usually 
not above one-third of its diameter {British Barrows, p. 65). 

Cinerary urns of this form are of large size, ranging from 9 or 
10, to 16 or 18 inches in height. Deviations from this form occur, 
but mainly in the south of England, and are generally smaller and of a 
finer clay. Those of the larger and more common form frequently 
contain flint implements along with the calcined bones. Flint imple- 
ments rarely occur with the smaller and more unusual forms, but articles 
of bronze are occasionally found. Hence the conclusion is that the 
vessels of the larger and more common form are the most ancient in date. 
Their overhanging rim is available for securing by means of a cord a 
cover of skin or cloth over the mouth of these vessels, which are not 
infrequently found inverted and standing on a flat stone or piece of 
slate. At other times they are found erect, with a flat stone or slate 
covering the top : sometimes they are found in a cist of stone slabs. 

Sevenal urns of this larger and more uncommon form were found 
when the County Lunatic Asylum was built at Garlands, near Carlisle, in 
the years i860 and 1861. This find consisted of cinerary urns, food 
vessels, incense vessels, stone implements and a flint arrow-head. No 
written or printed account of this interesting discovery exists : but the 
architect, the late Mr. J. A. Cory, an able and skilful antiquary, had all 
the objects found placed in a case and kept in the committee room at 
the Asylum. They remained there for some years, but were removed to 
the Museum in Carlisle, and are now in TuUie House, though it is 
doubtful if they could be all identified.'^ Several urns, also of this type, 
and full of calcined bones, were dug up in the year 1881 on Aughertree 
Fell, near Ireby, by an enthusiast who worked at night by the light of a 

* Personal information. 
235 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

moderator lamp. They were ranged in a circle round the centre of a 
tumulus. No stone or other implements, or flints, were found.^ The 
ruins of these urns are now in the Museum in TuUie House, Carlisle. 
Another urn of the same type was found by a ploughman in the neigh- 
bourhood of Farlam, and is believed to be in private hands." 

Several urns filled with ashes were found in the year 1775 on 
Culgaith Moor in the parish of Kirkland. In 1784, on the same moor, 
two entrenchments were discovered, about 10 yards asunder, each 
covered over with earth, 6 or 8 inches in thickness : one of them was 
circular, about 5 yards in diameter, and contained four urns standing . 
upright, enclosing bones and ashes, the mouths of each covered with a 
flat stone ; the other was nearly square and contained no urns.^ 

Urns containing ashes, skull, bones, etc., are said by Hutchinson, 
writing in 1794, to have been found in a tumulus in the parish of 
of Dalston known as the Toddle Hill. It was 40 yards in diameter, 
and 7 yards high, and consisted of sand and gravel : it has been 
entirely taken away for the reparation of the roads and for building 
purposes.* An urn of this large and common type was found in the 
great tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald : it was full of burnt bones. 
Fragments of other similar urns were found scattered about this tumulus. 
Fragments of two cinerary urns of this type, with overhanging rim, were 
found in December, 1890, in a cist in a gravel pit near Brackenhill 
Tower, in the parish of Arthuret. The cist was standing nearly north 
and south, and was about 3 feet long and divided into two compart- 
ments. Unfortunately the urns and bones were broken before the 
workmen understood the nature of the find. An urn with calcined bones 
in it was found in 1 8 1 5 at Croglin, and is preserved in the Black Gate 
Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The lower part is much broken, and 
the upper part or neck is perpendicular, and has three heavy mouldings 
round it. A sketch is in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastk-on-'Tyne, vol. iii. p. 434.^ 

With some of these finds of cinerary urns, incense cups have been 
found, as at Garlands, where four were found, now in TuUie House ; two 
at Old Parks, Kirkoswald ; two at Loaden How, Skelton ; and two at 
UUock. These ' incense cups ' are of rare occurrence, and are found 
inside the sepulchral urns, placed in or upon the calcined bones. They 
are diminutive in size, and vary from a little more than i inch in 
diameter to about 4 inches, and from about i inch to about 3 inches 

' See Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archeeological Society, 
vol. vi. p. 190 ; also personal information. 

* Personal information. 

' Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. i. p. 262 ; Jefferson's History of Leath Ward. 

* Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. ii. pp. 444, 452 ; Whellan's History, vol. ii. 
p. 162. 

* In 1900 the tumulus at Grayson-lands, Glassonby, was opened. Inside a stone circle 
was a cist, a deposit of charcoal, and a glass bead. Outside the circle, but under the tumulus, 
was an urn, inverted, with burnt bones ; also a deposit of burnt bones without an urn. 
{transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaological Society, vol. i. pp. 295-9, n.s.). 

236 



EARLY MAN 

in height. The illustration, given with this section, of two found at 
Old Parks, Kirkoswald, gives a good idea of a common form of incense 
cup ; but there are numerous varieties. A singular thing is that they 
are sometimes perforated with holes, and that their ornamentation is 
continued over the bottom, as if they were meant to be viewed from 
below. Hence some have considered that the holes were for passing 
cords through for suspension, and that the incense cups were lamps, but 
no trace of such use has been discovered upon any incense cup. Others 
have suggested they were small urns to receive the ashes of infants, 
sacrificed perhaps at the death of their mothers, so that the smaller urns 
might be placed within those containing the ashes of their parents. But 
Canon Greenwell has scarcely ever found bones placed within them 
except accidentally. The Canon also dismisses as improbable the idea 
that they were used for the purpose of fumigation, either to conceal the 
odour of the burning body, or as part of a religious ceremony. He 
regards as a probable suggestion that put forward by the Hon. W. 
Stanley and Mr. Albert Way, viz., 

that they were ' chafers,' * for conveying fire, whether a small quantity of glowing 
embers or some inflammable substance in which a latent spark might for awhile be 
retained, such for instance as touchwood, fungus or the like, with which to kindle the 
funeral fire {British Barrows, p. 8i). 

The ' food vessels ' and the ' drinking cups ' appear to have been 
the receptacles of some sort of provision for the departed in the new 
world to which he or she was bound. The food vessels are found both 
with burials by inhumation and after cremation, but more commonly 
with burials by inhumation. They generally contain a substance or a 
deposit, which analysis shows to be the remains of some animal or 
vegetable matter. They vary in height from 3 to 8 inches according 
to Canon Greenwell, but Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt says their average 
height is from 4 to 6 inches. The Canon also says that they are more 
diversified in shape than those of any other class. They occasionally 
have little projecting knobs or ears on their shoulders, sometimes 
pierced as for suspension by means of a string, sometimes mere 
ornamental survivals. Sometimes they have feet, four in number, and 
some have even been found with lids of pottery. Drinking vessels 
vary in size from 5 to 10 inches ; there are two principal shapes ; the 
bottom of both is more or less globular, in one class the upper part 
widens to the mouth in a straight line, in the other in an easy curve. 
The drinking cups are usually, according to Canon Greenwell, thin in 
the walls, very neatly made of fine paste, and much better fired than any 
other class of sepulchral pottery. 

The recorded occurrences of food or drinking vessels in Cumberland 
are very few ; food vessels were found with the burials after cremation of 
the find at Garlands mentioned before. A cist with a skeleton in it and 
an urn was found near Edmond Castle Lodge. ^ The urn was broken and 

^ Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. vi. p. 470. 

237 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

the pieces lost, so that it is uncertain to which class it belonged. Canon 
Greenwell records a drinking cup, as found in a cist in the parish of 
Castle Carrock, near Brampton ; the cist which contained it was found 
accidentally, and the urn was broken up in order that each man working 
in the field might have a piece. From some of these pieces the Canon 
was able to make out its size, form and ornamentation. It was of the 
second class of drinking cups just mentioned, about 7I inches high, and 
5^ inches wide at the mouth. 

It was ornamented with narrow encircling bands, defined by a grooved line on 
each side of them, every fourth band having upon it short sloping lines, these being 
arranged upon the bands alternately from right to left and from left to right {British 
Barrows, p. 379). 

The cist contained the body of an old man, laid on the left side, with 
the head to north-east, having one arm extended and the other laid 
across the chest. The drinking cup was behind the head. 

As allusion has been made more than once to the tumulus at Old 
Parks, in the parish of Kirkoswald, it may be desirable to give here a 
detailed account of that tumulus, and of its exploration, particularly as 
some features of singular interest were revealed. The mound or tumulus 
was situated in a field on Sir Richard Musgrave's farm of Old Parks, 
Kirkoswald, called ' Low Field,' a name which was taken by the few 
who knew it to refer to the position of the field itself, and not to any 
mound or burial place in it ; the mound, indeed, was by many supposed 
to be a mere clearance heap, and it is probable that .it had in modern 
times been used as such, which might account for the irregular outline. 
It was sold in 1892 to the County Council of Cumberland for road 
metal. The mound was roughly oval, with a longer diameter of 80 feet 
and a shorter of 63 feet, the longer diameter running east and west. Its 
height above the level of the adjacent ground was about 4 feet, and it 
was somewhat depressed in the centre. A large tree grew a little within 
the circumference of the mound on the south side. The work was 
commenced in the autumn of 1892, and about 30 cartloads of stones 
were removed from the extreme circumference of the mound on the 
north side. During the removal an incense cup was found, also some 
fragments of a large urn, and some bits of calcined bone. The tenant 
of the farm, Mr. William Potter, C.C. for the Edenhall division of 
Cumberland, immediately drew the attention of the present writer to 
these discoveries. Some excavation was consequently made in the centre 
of the mound, where a few large slabs of stone were lying about. A 
large earthfast stone was exposed, which was taken to be part of a ruined 
cist. On it a curious mark or grooving was observed. Two or three 
vertebra and a fragment of a skull were found, none of them human. A 
little charcoal and stones reddened by fire were also discovered. After 
this the work of leading away the stones was suspended for a very 
considerable time, until the autumn of 1893, when it was resumed under 
the careful supervision of Mr. Potter, while photographs were taken 
from time to time of the mound. Towards the end of 1893 ^ second 

238 



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EARLY MAN 

incense cup was found, with twelve small beads of cannel coal inside it.^ 
By July, 1894, about 600 cartloads of stones had been removed, and the 
site was virtually cleared, though a considerable heap of stones was still 
remaining on the west, awaiting removal. The stones were mainly of a 
local sandstone. The tree which grew within the circumference of the 
mound was cut down and up-rooted during the clearance. 

Running in a straight line from north to south across the central 
portion of the cleared area, but not reaching to the boundary on either 
side, were five slabs of rough stone, set in the natural surface of the 
ground, but not very deep, forming a row 14 feet 9 inches long, 
measured on the ground (see figs. i. and ii.). The following are their 
dimensions, taking the most northerly stone to be No. i : — 





Length along the ground 


Height 


Thickness 


No. I. 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 


1 ft. 8 in. 

2 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 7 in. 

3 ft. 2 in. 
3 ft. I in. 


I ft. I in. 

1 ft. 5 in. 

2 ft. 

I ft. 9 in. 
I ft. 10 in. 


4 in. 

6 in. 
8 in. 

7 in. 
Sin. 



The height given for No. 5 is taken at its middle, but its southern 
corner stands 2 ft. 4 in. above the ground, and it was this stone that was 
taken in 1892 to be part of a ruined cist. Of these stones, Nos. 3 and 5 
have artificial grooves and markings on their east sides (see figs. iii. 
and iv.), and No. 4 on its west side (see fig. v). These markings 
continue into the ground and show that they were upon the stones 
before the stones were set in their present positions. But the freshness 
of the pick or chisel marks in the grooves proves that these stones cannot 
have been long exposed to weather. This row of stones thus indicates 
division of the area of the mound or tumulus roughly into two halves, 
semicircles, or, rather, semi-ovals. 

In the western half of the area no less than thirty-two deposits of 
burnt bones were discovered ; they were in holes scooped out of the 
natural surface of the ground and in some cases were accompanied by 

^ The question has been asked, ' Is the finding of these beads in the incense cup strictly 
authenticated ? ' The following is Mr. Potter's reply : — 

The Parks, Kirkoswald, Oct. 15, 1894. 
Dear Mr. Ferguson, — 

There is no doubt whatever about the twelve beads being found inside the larger incense 
cup. I found the cup myself, and it was never out of my sight, and scarcely out of my hands, 
until I took it home. It was my intention to send it on to you with its contents undisturbed, 
but Mrs, Potter, with the curiosity of the sex, got to poking in it with a hairpin and dis- 
covered some of the beads, and I then emptied it out and found the remainder. 

Very truly yours, 

WM. POTTER. 

The beads were pronounced by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S., F.Z.S., to be made of 
cannel coal. 

239 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

fragments of broken urns, and also by stones showing traces oi fire. The 
first incense cup already mentioned (see figs. vi. and vii.) was found 
near the north end of the line dividing the two semicircles or ovals (on 
the continuation of the line of five earthfast stones) . The second and 
much superior incense cup (see figs. viii. and ix.) was found a little 
westward of the first, and in it were the twelve small beads (see fig. x.) 
already alluded to. Near to where the second incense cup was found, a flat 
stone covered one of the thirty-two interments, a protection that was not 
accorded to others of them. These interments were dotted about the 
area of the semi-oval, but mainly towards the circumference. Under the 
roots of the tree, stated to have been growing on the south side of the 
mound, a large burial urn was found, full of burnt bones. It is much 
distorted by pressure, but was got out perfect, or nearly so. It stands 
I foot 1 1 inches high, with a diameter of 5 inches at the bottom, and of 
I foot I inch by 1 1 1 inches at the mouth, which has been distorted into 
an oval. The ornamentation on it is rude and much worn. Fragments 
of similar urns were found among the bones in some of the interments, 
and also fragments of urns of smaller and thinner paste, being probably 
of the class known as drinking cups. 

The eastern half of the area contained no interments, but two large 
excavations had been made into the original soil ; both ran east and 
west, and much resembled modern graves. The larger was 8 feet 3 inches 
long by 4 feet 9 inches wide and 4 feet 3 inches deep ; the other was 
smaller, about the dimensions of an ordinary grave of the present day. 
Both, when first discovered, were filled up with cobble stones, and in a 
corner of the larger, under a flagstone, were some burnt bones and ashes. 

It would seem that the excavations in the eastern half of the mound 
must have contained burials by inhumation in an extended position, the 
bodies lying east and west, and having long ago wholly disappeared ; 
while the bones and ashes found there under a flagstone must have been 
a secondary interment of later date. These two burials by inhumation, 
4 feet deep below the original surface, must have been the original 
interments over which the tumulus or low was raised. The question 
arises. What is the date of the thirty-two interments by cremation in the 
western half of the mound, and what is the meaning of the wall of 
separation, and of the mysterious grooves and marks cut on the east side 
of two of the stones, and on the west side of one of them ? One can 
hardly imagine the interments after cremation to have been simultaneous 
with the two by inhumation, unless there had been a wholesale slaughter 
of slaves and dependents at the time of the inhumation. It would be 
more probable that they were made subsequently, and at different times. 
Dr. Thurnam {Archaologia, vol. xliii. pp. 328-31), gives instances of 
central primary interments by inhumation with secondary interments 
after cremation lying on or towards the circumference of the barrows 
towards the south side, while the north is vacant, but in the instance 
before us they lie towards the west, and the east is vacant. Many in- 
stances of burial by inhumation, and of burial after cremation in the same 

240 



Fig. III. 



Fig. V. 




Tumulus at Old Parks : East SiDt 
OF Stone No, 3. 



fuMULUS AT Old Parks : West Side 
OF Stone No. 4. 



Fig. IV. 




Tumulus at Old Parks : East Side of Stone No. 5. 



Fig. V 




Fig. VII. 




Tumulus at Old Parks : Incense Cup 



To face page 241. 



EARLY MAN 

tumulus, are given in Greenwell and RoUeston's British Barrows (pp. 7, 8)/ 
No pottery except what has been mentioned, no personal relics except 
the twelve rude beads of cannel coal, were found to our knowledge, but 
there might have been. The removal of the tumulus occupied, inter- 
mittently, over two years, and was proceeded with at such chance times 
as the work of a large farm and the weather left men and horses free. 
Hence continuous scientific supervision was impossible ; but archaeologists 
are much indebted to Mr. Potter for the care he took to record, secure, 
and preserve everything.^ 

A granite monolith stands in the next field, 106 yards due west 
from the circumference of the tumulus : it stands 4 feet 7 inches high, 
and is 1 3 feet in circumference at the ground level ; no artificial mark- 
ings have been found upon it. 

Cup, Ring and Groove Markings 

The occurrence of cup, ring and groove marked stones is not with- 
out precedent in Cumberland. Indeed the first discovery of them was 
made at Aspatria, in Cumberland, in the month of June, 1789, and is 
reported by Major Hayman Rooke, in a letter dated December 17 in 
that year, and read before the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
February 4, 1790.^ The following is Major Rooke's account of the 
circumstances of the find, which, be it observed, is not from personal 
observation, but from information supplied to him by Mr. Rigg, the 
proprietor of the land on which stood the barrow or tumulus, during 
the opening of which the discovery was made. The Major had an in- 
spection of the objects found and sketched them. 

About two hundred yards north of the village, and just behind his house (Mr. 
Rigg's), is a rising ground called Beacon Hill, on the summit of which the barrow was 
placed, commanding an extensive view every way, and of course a very proper 
situation for a beacon, which was probably erected on the barrow. In levelling this 
(the base of which I foimd to have been 90 feet in circumference) they removed 
six feet of earth to the natural soil, and about three feet below they found a vault 
formed with two large cobble stones at each side, and one at each side (sic). In it 
was the skeleton of a man which measured seven feet from the head to the ankle bone, 
the feet were decayed and rotted oflF. The bones at first appeared perfect, but when 
exposed to the air became very brittle. On the left side near the shoulder was a 
broad sword near five feet in length ; the guard was elegantly ornamented with silver 
flowers. On the right side lay a dirk or dagger, one foot six inches and a quarter in 
length, the handle appeared to have been studded with gold. Near the dagger was 
found part of a gold fibula or buckle, and an ornament for the end of a belt, a piece 
of which adhered to it when first taken up . . . Several pieces of a shield were 
picked up, but I did not see parts sufficient to make out the shape. There were also 
part of a battle axe . . . a bit shaped like a modern snaffle, part of a spur. 
These were very much corroded with rust. H and I are the two large cobble stones 

• This account of the Kirkoswald tumulus is abbreviated from one by the present writer 
in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. xiii. pp. 389-99. 

* Archteologia, vol. x. pp. 105, III, 1 13 ; see also Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, 
vol. ii. pp. 287, 288, note. 

I 241 R 



"..^-^ 




A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

which inclosed the west side of the kistvaen, H is two feet eight inches in length, 
I is three feet in length, and one foot eight inches high. On these stones are various 
emblematic figures in rude sculpture, though some of the circles are exactly formed, 
and the rims and crosses within them are cut in relief. 

We reproduce, from Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments, one of the 
two side stones, so that their similarity to the stones at Old Parks is at 
once seen. Major Rooke takes the circles upon the Aspatria stones to 

be emblems of eter- 
nity, and from the 
circles and crosses he 
concludes the inter- 
ment to be that of a 
person of rank after the 
year a.d. 596, when 
Christianity became 
^ established in Britain. 
^ We need not linger 
to argue the question 
with the Major's 
shade : his theory will 
hardly find a supporter at the present day.^ The relics, other than the 
cobble stones, found at Aspatria, are such as one would expect to find 
in a Northman's grave, and probably mark the interment as a result of 
the settlement of Cumberland by the Northmen.^ 

The next recorded discovery of these cup and ring and other rock 
markings in Cumberland was made by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson in 1835, 
on the well known monolith Long Meg, where he found a concentric 
circle with four rings around a cupped centre.^ At a later date Sir J. Y. 
Simpson and Dr. Taylor visited Long Meg and found not one but several 
concentric circles carved thereon.* The stone circle, so well known as 
' Long Meg and her Daughters,' is situate in the parish of Addingham, 
which is immediately to the south of Kirkoswald : Long Meg, as the 
crow flies, can only be distant from the Old Parks tumulus about a mile 
and a half. 

About the same time that Sir James Simpson discovered the circles 
on Long Meg, the Rev. Canon Simpson, formerly president of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archsological Society, 
found some ring cuttings on two boulders forming part of a circle of 
eleven stones around a cist, situated a few hundred yards to the east of 



Side Stone, Aspatria Cist. 



^ The compiler of Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. ii. p. 288, note, asserts the 
marks on the Aspatria stones to be 'magical numbers and figures, the work of ignorant 
sorcerers and wicked wretches,' who inserted these things in the graves of bygone races in 
order to secure the obedience of evil spirits that dwelt therein. 

* Robert Ferguson's Northmen in Cumberland and Westmorland. 

^ British Archaeological Journal, vol. xvi. pp. loi-iS, with illustration. 

* ' On Ancient Sculpturings of Cups and Concentric Rings, by Sir J. Y. Simpson, 
Proceedings S.J.S. 1st series, vol. vi. pp. 17, 18, with illustration; Transactions of the Cum- 
berland and Westmorland Archaeological Society, vol. vi. p. ill, 

242 



Fig. IX. 



Fig. VIII. 











^^mmm^::-:^ 




^y 


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4:>^^/; 


irit'^'^^aB 


IV- 

i 


N|B 


<#W ^t4t *^^^^a^r 


b::. 


, ^^ 


WKK/f^'y 




Tumulus at Old Parks : Incense Cup. 



Fig. X. 




Tumulus at Old Parks : Beads. 



To face page 243. 



EARLY MAN 

Long Meg. This cist is in a field called Whins in the township of 
Maughanby, hence this stone is called the Maughanby Stone. 

The most remarkable cup-marked stone ever discovered in Cumber- 
land or Westmorland was found in 1881 by Dr. M. W. Taylor, F.S.A., 
at Redhills, in the township of Stainton, in Cumberland, about two 
miles from Penrith. It is a large slab of freestone, 5 feet 4 inches in 
length by 3 feet 6 inches in width in the centre, and it varies from 8 to 
13 inches in thickness. It is fully described by Dr. Taylor, who gives 
an illustration.^ It formed the cover of a cist, which had contained an 
interment after cremation. The markings upon it display four types : 
(i) Cup-shaped hollows of various sizes and depths ; (2) Central 
hollowed cones surrounded by two concentric circles, each bisected 
by a radial groove ; (3) Hollowed channels like gutters running in 
various directions ; (4) Little pits or small pick marks in the stone. 

One of the monoliths known as the Giant's Grave, at Lacra, 
in south-west Cumberland, has on it a well defined cup mark.^ Some 
cup- and ring-marked stones were found at Maryport, in 1887, by Mr. 
J. B. Bailey.* 

We have thus brought together all the known instances of cup, 
ring and groove markings in Cumberland. Two questions arise upon 
them : What do they mean ? What is their date ? They are not 
peculiar to this county. Dr. Anderson says : — 

They are not confined to Scotland, or even to Britain. They are found in 
Scandinavia, in France, in Germany and Switzerland. They appear on the Con- 
tinent in associations which refer them to the Bronze Age at least, but they also occur 
in associations which show that the custom survived to the late Iron Age, and even in 
a modified form to Christian times.* 

Sir James Simpson and Dr. Taylor would refer their commence- 
ment at least to the late Stone Age. As to what they are, Dr. Anderson 
in another passage says : — 

They are one of the enigmas ot archaeology. 

Canon Greenwell says : — 

In many cases these markings occur upon rocks, but they have been very 
frequently found upon detached stones of greater or less size, and in a large number of 
instances . . . they are connected with burials after cremation ; sometimes 
covering the deposit of bones, sometimes placed beneath it, and sometimes forming the 
side or cover of a cist within which the bones were deposited. This connection with 
burial, always a sacred rite, seems to bring them within the class of symbolic repre- 
sentations ; in other words, suggests the notion that they are or may have been figures, 
after a very rude and conventional manner, of some object embodying an idea that 
involved the deepest and most esoteric principle of the religion held by these people, 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. vi. pp. 1 10-18 ; Proc.S.A.S. vol. xvi. p. 438. 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaological Society, vol. i. pp. 278-80. 

* Ibid. vol. ix. pp. 435-8, where an illustration is given. One of the stones of the 
Grayson-lands tumulus, Glassonby (see note, p. 236), is said, on good local authority, to have 
been marked with concentric circles or a spiral (ibid, vol i. pp. 295-9? n.s.). 

* Scotland in Pagan Times ; The Iron Age, p. 299. 

243 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

The tau symbol of Egypt, the pine-cone of Assyria, the triangular-shaped stone of 
India the cross of Christianity, outward expressions of that which has been in almost 
every religion its most sacred belief, may well have been, however diflFerent in form, 
yet the same in essence with these mysterious pits and circles.* 

Cists 

In the list already given of local barrows, tumuli, and cairns, past 
and present, mention is made of cists. A cist is made of four or more 
stones set on edge, with a cover, and is in fact a stone box or coffin, 
which is not meant to be again opened, when once the body or bodies 
for whose reception it was constructed, has or have been placed within. 
Canon Greenwell suggests the word 'cist' should be strictly reserved 
for such stone boxes, and not extended to large chambers intended to be 
opened for future interments, and having frequently passages or galleries 
leading into them from near the exterior of the mound (see British 
Barrows, pp. 13, 479, etc.). Fergusson in his Rude Stone Monuments 
(p. 43, and his Index sub voce Kist-Vaens) applied cist or kist-vaen to 
both the stone boxes, and to the great galleried or passaged chambers. 
Other writers do the same, and this is apt to lead to confusion. Nothing 
has yet been found in the Cumberland district in the nature of a 
chambered tumulus ; cists only have been found, but the long mound 
at Harras, near Birdoswald, might contain a chamber. The people who 
buried in these chambered mounds are an earlier race than those who 
buried in cists. 

Many barrows are fenced in or closed in some way or other ; thus 
two of the long barrows at Latter-barrow, under Muncaster Fell, are 
fenced in with large stones. There is (or was) a large tumulus of stones 
in a field called ' Grazing Land ' on the estate of Mr. Rowley, not far 
from the site of the tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald. Standing upon 
the top of this tumulus, one can trace a stone circle or fence a little 
within the circumference of the mound. The suggestion may occur 
that the intervals between the stones forming the circle were once built 
up with loose stone walling, which has from time to time fallen and 
formed a sort of stone apron or extension of the tumulus, outside of the 
stone circle. It is, however, quite probable that the stone circle in this 
instance was within the tumulus from the very first.^ In other cases the 
fence or enclosure is a ditch. Thus the tumulus at Friar's Moor is 
surrounded by a ditch, which is now partly interfered with by the 
road.* The tumulus on Baronspike, or Barnspike, in Bewcastle, 24 

* British Barrows, Greenwell and Rolleston, p. 343. For the general bibliography of 
this subject the reader should consult ' Notes on some Stones with Cup-markings in Scotland,' 
by J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. Scot., in Proc. S.A.S., vol. xvi. pp. 79-143 ; also a paper 
by W. Jolly, F.S.A. Scot., in the same volume, ' On Cup-marked Stones in the Neighbour- 
hood of Inverness,' pp. 300-401 ; see also The Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland, by Geo. 
Tate, Alnwick, 1865. 

* The latter supposition was found to be correct when the tumulus was opened in 1 900 
(see note and reference on p. 236). 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archtsological Society, 
vol. iii. p. 248. 

244 



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SCAI.E OF FEET. 



SCALE OF ORICINA 



L PUAN , I INCH = aO FEET. 



Stone Circle on Eskdale Moor. 






T^o face page 24;. 



EARLY MAN 

paces in diameter, is surrounded by a trench 76 paces in circum- 
ference.^ Many authorities suppose that all barrows and tumuli were 
originally surrounded either by a ditch or by a stone circle. In the one 
case the ditch in many, nay, in most instances, silts up and is obliterated 
at a comparatively early date, leaving the earthen tumulus standing free, 
if it has not all been washed into the ditch by rains. In the other case, 
the earthen tumulus sometimes disappears under the influence of weather, 
and the stone circle alone survives, thus accounting for the smaller stone 
circles which occur here and elsewhere. The larger circles probably 
surrounded groups of barrows ; or both large and small circles may have 
surrounded burials or groups of burials over which no mounds had ever 
been piled up. These enclosing circles, whether ditch or stone circle, 
are often found within and hidden by the tumulus ; hidden or not 
hidden, they are nearly always incomplete, as if a place of exit or 
entrance had been purposely left. The idea of these surrounding fences 
with exits or entrances is probably that of preventing the ghosts of the 
dead from wandering about and doing mischief to the living. 

Stone Circles 

The principal stone circles in the Cumberland district are the one 
known as ' Long Meg and her Daughters,' near Little Salkeld, in the 
Parish of Addingham ; the Keswick Circle ; the Swinside Circle, near 
Broughton ; and the Eskdale Circle situate on Burnmoor, near Wastwater.^ 
The last, though the finest, is only one of several similar remains on the 
same moor, Burnmoor, which is a boggy elevated plateau. About 100 
yards to the west of the Eskdale Circle, are two smaller rings in an im- 
perfect state, each about 50 feet in diameter, and each inclosing one 
barrow. A quarter of a mile west, on Low Longrigg, are two others : 
one apparently perfect, about 50 feet in diameter ; the other imperfect, 
with diameters of about 75 feet and 65 feet, and inclosing two barrows. 
The Great, or Eskdale, Circle, for it seems to be known by that name, is a 
single irregular circle of 41 stones, with a long diameter of 103 feet 
west-north-west and east-south-east, and a short one of 95 feet north and 
south. Only eight of the forty-one stones are now erect ; the others are 
prostrate, and some are of very small size. A small erect stone or menhir 
stands as an outlier to the north-west. The circle encloses five barrows, 
each with a stone circle of its own round it. These barrows were 
opened long ago, in 1866, and it is said that each of them was found 
to contain a rude chamber formed of five stones, in which were found 
remains of burnt bones, horns of stags and other animals.^ What may 

^ Early Sculptured Crosses in the Diocese of Carlisle^ by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, edited by 
W. G. Collingwood (Kendal : T. Wilson, 1890), p. 48. 

^ Very detailed accounts of these four circles are given in the Transactions of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, vol. v. pp. 40-57, by 
C. W. Dymond, F.S.A. These Burnmoor circles are at the head of Miterdale, and the 
Great or Eskdale Circle is rather more than a mile from the hamlet of Boot. 

' Proc. S.A., o.s. vol. iii. p. 225 ; Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments, pp. 159, 160. 
Fergusson, gives a purely imaginary plan of the circle showring an outer circle of fourteen 

245 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

be intended as a gateway is on the north-west opposite the small stand- 
ing outlier or menhir, and points downhill. 

The Swinside Circle, or Sunken Kirk, as it is called, is situate on 
Swinside Fell in the Parish of Millom, and is most accessible from 
Broughton-in-Furness in the neighbouring county of Lancashire. Its 
average diameter is 92 feet, and the stones, when it was surveyed by Mr. 
Dymond, numbered fifty-five, of which thirty-two were then standing, 
and twenty- three were prostrate ; it is remarkable, that of the prostrate 
stones, twenty-one have fallen inwards. A few stones have been removed, 
but when the circle was perfect, the successive stones were nearly con- 
tiguous. The stones are founded on a seating of small rammed stones 
which extends around the whole of the ring and across the floor of the 
gateway. The gateway is on the south-east side and points slightly down 
hill. Mr. Dymond says : — 

There is no record of any barrow having been observed within or near the Swinside 
Circle. The ruins are those of a bold and carefiilly constructed peristalith. The 
stones were ranged nearly in a true circle, well founded on a dry site in a rammed 
stone bed, and placed, for the most part at least, in juxtaposition— often, indeed, so 
close that it is possible there was no convenient access to the interior, save through 
the gateway. Hence, in this case, a necessity for that feature, which was evidently 
thought an important one, and must have been designed to give ceremonial access to 
the sacred enclosure. Perhaps this is one of the best examples we have of a structure 
which, according to our ideas, would be eminently suited to be a hypaethral temple : 
and I suggest that in the absence of evidence to the contrary, this may have been the 
chief purpose for which the Swinside Circle was erected.* 

The best known and most often visited of the Cumberland mega- 
lithic circles, is that which goes by the name of the Keswick Circle : this 
arises from its proximity to the town of that name, and to its easy acces- 
sibility compared with the Eskdale and Swinside circles. -It is situate 
on an eminence known as Castlerigg, and is much resorted to by tourists 
from various lands. Many printed accounts of it exist, commencing 
with one by Stukeley in 1725, and continuing to the Lake guide books 
of to-day.^ These accounts contain many discrepancies, particularly as 
to the number of stones ; but one fact comes out, namely, that in 1769 
Castlerigg was sown with corn^ This is confirmed by an oil painting of 
the 1 8th or early 19th century, at Mirehouse, the seat of the Speddings, 
which shows Castlerigg, including the interior of the circle, covered with 
a fine and ripe crop of corn. Anything that may be now pointed out, 
either within the area of the circle or near it, as a barrow or ring- 
barrow, must be of recent origin. The stones, like those of the Swinside 

stones, which does not exist, and never did ; it also shows an inclosure of stones round the 
easternmost barrow. The same remark applies to this. From the remote position of this 
circle the suggested outer circle and barrow enclosure are not likely to have been wantonly 
removed, and Mr. Dymond in 1872 and 1877 could find no trace of them, though he 
carefully probed for the barrow enclosure. 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. V. pp. 56, 57. 

^ These accounts have been collected by Mr. Dymond (ibid. vol. v. pp. 50-5). 

» Gray's Works, vol. ii. ' Letter to Dr. Wharton,' p. 332, cited by Mr. Dymond, ut ante. 

246 



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To face fa^e 246. 



EARLY MAN 

Circle, are set on a ring-bed of small rubble. The peristalith is an ir- 
regular oval, or rather a pear-shaped figure, the longest diameter being 
107 feet and the shortest 96 feet 8 inches. The number of stones re- 
maining in the peristalith at the time of Mr. Dymond's survey in 1877 
was thirty-eight, of which thirty-three were erect and five prostrate. 
The gateway is at the north. There is a rectangular enclosure within 
the circle on its east side, formed by ten more stones (eight erect and 
two prostrate), making the total number of stones altogether forty-eight. 
Within the area of the peristalith is a shallow circular trench 1 3 feet in 
diameter, which looks like the remains of a barrow, and might be such 
but for the ploughing to which the area has been subjected. It has been 
conjectured by several that this circle was a temple, and that the 
enclosure on the east side was the most sacred place, the holy of holies to 
which only the priests had admission, the chancel, as it were. Possibly 
it merely protected the barrow of some greater man than usual. Some 
excavation was made in 1882 in the interior of this enclosure. A trench, 
18 to 19 feet long was opened in it, having a breadth of 3 feet 3 inches, 
with two cross cuts of about 2 feet. The following is the report made 
by Mr. W. Kinsey Dover, who superintended the work : — 

Depth of dark superficial soil to where the yellow undisturbed soil appears, 14 
inches, with the exception of a small portion at the west end, where the black soil 
mixed with stones continued to a depth of 3 feet. Near the bottom here I found 
what I think to be a few small pieces of burned wood or charcoal, also some dark 
unctuous sort of earth.^ 

The stone circle with external menhir, called ' Long Meg and her 
Daughters,' although less visited than the Keswick Circle is probably 
more famous. Its name is attractive, and many writers, commencing 
with Camden, who made a survey of Cumberland in 1599, have written 
accounts of it. Like those of the Keswick Circle these have many 
discrepancies.* 

The peristalith is irregular, with a longer diameter of 360 feet east 
and west, and a shorter one of 305 feet north and south. The number 
■^f stones in it, excluding one or two fragments, is sixty-eight, of which 
twenty-seven are erect. Long Meg herself, who stands to the south- 
west, about 60 feet outside of the ring of her hard-featured daughters, 
makes the number of stones up to sixty-nine. A gateway or rudimentary 
avenue intercepts the peristalith in the direction of the menhir, which 
is a monolith of hard red sandstone, 12 feet high by 3 feet 6 inches 
broad, and the same thick. The cup and ring markings upon Long 
Meg have already been mentioned, ante p. 243. There are traces of a 
ring embankment, from 10 feet to 14 feet broad, and now at the most 
but a few inches high. This is most apparent in the western half. 

Two large tumuli, or barrows, or cairns of cobble stones, were 
formerly within the great circle, and if they were not mere clearance 

^ Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. vi. p. 505. 

* These accounts have been collected by Mr. Dymond (ibid. vol. v. pp. 40-7). 

247 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

heaps, show that it protected burials, probably similar to those under the 
tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald. They have long ago disappeared 
under the advance of cultivation. It should be mentioned that Long 
Meg stands upon the highest part of the site, and that the road through 
the entrance is therefore uphill. At Swinside and Keswick the road goes 
downhill. 

A few hundred yards to the east of Long Meg, in a field called 
Whins, is a cist, which has been mentioned before, ante p. 243. This 
formerly had a mound of earth over it, and is within a circle of eleven 
stones, on two of which are ring cuttings : one of them is known as the 
Maughanby Stone. 

The county histories, all copying Nicolson and Burn, published in 
1777, say there was on a fell called King Harry, in the parish of Cum- 
whitton, seven miles south-east of Carlisle, and seven miles north-west of 
Kirkoswald, a stone circle, with external menhir, consisting of about 
eighty-eight stones in an exact circle, 52 yards in diameter. None of 
the stones were above 4 or 5 feet high. This circle was known as ' The 
Greys Yauds ' or ' Grey Horses,' and was almost wholly destroyed when 
the common was enclosed, the stones being utilized for building walls.^ 

In a field called Yamonside, on the left bank of the Eamont, nearly 
due south of Fluskew Hill in the parish of Dacre, Dr. M. W. Taylor 
traced the remains of four concentric stone circles with a central menhir. 
The innermost circle is formed of twelve or thirteen stones, and has a 
diameter of 60 feet ; the next of nine stones, with a diameter of 90 
feet ; the third of eighteen or twenty stones and a diameter of 1 20 feet ; 
and the outermost of thirteen or fourteen stones and a diameter of 156 
feet or thereabouts. The stones, from Dr. Taylor's account, seem to be 
grown over with grass and earth ; he calls them ' buried,' and he had 
to probe for them ; it may be that Yamonside is merely a field, covered 
with boulders, great quantities of which were removed from the next 
field in 1866. Dr. Taylor's account was written in 1868.* 

There was once, according to the county histories, a stone circle, 
80 feet in diameter, at a place called Chapel Flat, in the parish of Dalston. 
Near it was a tumulus 9 feet high and 24 feet in diameter. These have 
disappeared. A stone circle, near Stockhow Hall in the parish of 
Lamplugh, called Standing Stones, was destroyed by blasting, in the first 
half of the nineteenth century, for the purpose of making fences. Only six 
large stones of the northern segment remained in 1842. A stone circle 
near Motherby, in the parish of Greystoke, about 50 feet in diameter, 
was blasted away by order of the steward of the Duke of Norfolk in the 
first half of the 19th century. Another stone circle formerly existed 
near Seascale Hall, and a dubious second and still more doubtful third 
are said to have existed in the Keswick district. One of these is said to 
have consisted of twelve stones, none above 2 feet high, and to have 

^ Nicolson and Burn, ii. p. 495 ; and Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian and Archesological Society, vol. vi. p. 468. 
* Ibid. vol. i. pp. 154, 167, 168. 

248 



N 



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. <3 



^^^ ^S't," 



^—m 



-31 E 






\": 



LONG MEC 



^^ 



#,* * ® 



rf /« 



(f 



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«. 



JVorih anJSoiLth, ^O.S fee* : Ea.st wnd West , ^60 fee^. 
SCALE OF FEET. 



SCALE OF ORIGINAL PLAN, I INCH=50FKET. 

Surfj^y^ bffC.fr.Dynioiid.C.E.,ai'iS^f,tK i87S. 

Stone Circle and Menhir called 'Long Meg and her Daughters' 
NEAR Little Salkeld. 



I0 face page 248. 



EARLY MAN 

been on a hill near the further end (from Keswick) of Bassenthwaite 
Lake.^ Another vanished circle once existed near Ullock in the parish 
of Dean, and on Dean Common, near Studfold Gate, are the remains of 
another. Stone circles exist, or rather have existed, at Annaside, at 
Gutterby, Kirkstones (two circles), and at Standing Stones, near Hall Foss 
or Force, all in the parish of Whitbeck. Many more in Cumberland 
must have perished unrecorded. 

Rings, Mounds and Cairns 

Some of the circular enclosures of earth which occur in the dis- 
trict are connected with the stone circles by the fact that they protected 
burials. Thus Mr. Hayman Rooke found on Broadfield, in Inglewood 
Forest, a circular enclosure of earth, 63 feet in diameter, within which 
was a stone circle. Excavation disclosed three small stone cists containing 
interments after cremation. It may be noted that the continuity of the 
earthen circle was incomplete, an entrance being left.^ Three small 
circles of earth, now destroyed, on the common at Kirkandrews-on-Eden, 
with diameters respectively of 5, 7 and 9 yards, protecting low barrows 
with urns, no doubt cinerary urns, were found about 1780.^ 

But every circular enclosure of earth must not be assumed to be a 
place of burial ; some large ones appear to have been cattle kraals, 
probably mediasval, for defence against wolves. On the other hand, the 
stone circles, large and small, seem to be primarily burial places, but 
some of the larger may have also been hypsthral temples, or perhaps 
places for tribal palavers. 

So far we have been dealing almost wholly with the burial places 
(real or supposed) of the early inhabitants of the district, and with the 
pottery and other objects found in those graves. That pottery is in its 
character funereal, or made for the purpose of being used with interments. 
Of the domestic pottery of corresponding date we know, so far as the 
Cumberland district is concerned, little or nothing ; nothing that can be 
identified as a specimen of such pottery exists in any of the local 
museums. It can only be under very remarkable circumstances that an 
unbroken specimen could survive from so remote an era. Fragments 
must exist somewhere, for fragments of fire-baked pottery are indestruc- 
tible, but they have not been locally recognized. The collection of local 
pottery in TuUie House, Carlisle, possesses no example, not even a 
recognized fragment, of domestic pottery earlier than Roman and late 
Celtic (often called Romano-British). A few beads and other trifling 
articles have been found in the graves of these people, and their 
weapons of stone and bronze have occurred in various places in the dis- 

' The circle here referred to is situated on Elva Plain on the ridge separating the vales 
of Embleton and Derwent about a mile from Ouse bridge, the outlet of Bassenthwaite. It 
consists of fifteen stones and is about 105 paces in circumference. — ^J. W. 

^ Archesologiay vol. x. pp. 1 06-10. 

^ Hutchinson's iifw^sry of Cumberland,vo\. ii. pp. 521-22 ; Whellan's History of Cumber- 
land, p. 170. 

249 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

trict ; but of their homes and the Ufe they led we know but little. For 
that little the curious must refer to writers who deal with broader areas 
than the district with which this book concerns itself^ But those who 
do so must bear in mind that the inhabitants of this district would be 
more barbarous than those of southern and eastern parts of Britain, 
where the Belgic immigrants from comparatively civilized Gaul exercised 
a considerable influence. 

Other remains there are in the districts — traces of what may have 
been the dweUing-places of these prehistoric people ; these it is difficult 
to assign to their proper period, for race after race would successively 
seize on the same spots for their dwellings. No doubt the round-headed 
man with the bronze weapons, after enslaving the long-headed man and 
appropriating his women, would not hesitate to steal his home. At 
Barnscar, near Devock Water on Birkby Fell, in the parish of Muncaster, 
are the remains of an extensive settlement, consisting of: (i) The ruins 
of a group of small inclosures and hut circles, situated at the extreme 
west end of the settlement ; (2) sundry banks and works ranging for the 
most part nearly parallel with the ridge occupied by the settlement ; 
(3) a multitude of cairns scattered irregularly over the ground east of the 
village. These cairns in round numbers are about 400. About the 
year 1890, Lord Muncaster, to whom the property belongs, cut a few 
trenches, examined some of the huts in the villages, and dug into a few 
of the cairns. In these were found, in an inverted position, several small 
cinerary urns, full of ashes, and of the type mentioned earlier in this 
section, and also some fragments of pottery, which do not seem to have 
been preserved. Further investigation was abandoned owing to the 
reluctance of the local peasants to dig among the cairns and disturb the 
ashes of the dead. Enough, however, was found to connect the settle- 
ment with prehistoric people who buried after cremation.^ Similar 
remains — and for the most part apparently of the same age — are scattered 
over the fells in the vicinity. Another similar settlement is to the south- 
east of Threlkeld railway station (near Keswick), between Threlkeld 
Knot and the old mountain road to Matterdale. Attention was drawn to 
this settlement by the late Mr. Clifton Ward, F.G.S., who pronounced it 
to be the ruins of a prehistoric settlement, and pointed out that many 
of the cairns or heaps of stones were such as would be formed by the 
collapse of a domed or beehive-shaped hut of stones,* In an appendix to 
this section a list will be found of similar settlements in Cumberland, 
made by the late Mr. Clifton Ward. In the neighbourhood of Castle 
Carrock near Brampton, on an outlying spur of the great fell, are some 
circular excavations, which the late Mr. Rome Hall, F.S.A., considered 
to be pit dwellings, similar to those described by Professor Phillips as 

^ See Boyd Dawkins on Early Man in Britain^ Sir John Lubbock on Prehistoric Times, 
and the other books mentioned in this section. 

* A detailed account of this settlement by Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., is in the 
Transactions of the Cumberland and JVestmorland Antiquarian and Archaohgical Society, vol. xii. 
pp. 179-87. 8 Ibid, ut ante, vol. iii. pp. 247, 248. 

250 



^, m 




% » 



To face page 250, 



EARLY MAN 

existing in Yorkshire, and by Sir Richard Colt Hoare in Wiltshire/ 
habitations of a type anterior to those on Birkby Fell. One or two of 
these circular excavations on Castle Carrock have been partially explored, 
but they yielded nothing. As the geological formation is limestone, 
these supposed pit dwellings may be mere swallow holes. Some have 
imagined they had found circular pit dwellings upon Caldbeck Fell, but 
an ancient of the place said they were old trial holes for surface coal. It 
would be satisfactory to clear out some of these circular excavations, 
and to search in their vicinity for the kitchen-middens. 

With the arrival of the Romans the prehistoric era ends, and the 
historic period commences, but the histories give us very little informa- 
tion as to the people the Romans found in possession. 

The Roman historians tell us of the skill of the Britons in the art 
of enamelling. This is evidenced by a remarkable sword found at 
Embleton, near Cockermouth. It was in a sheath ornamented with 
enamels of various colours. Sir John Evans, K.C.B., assigns it to a date 
not far from the Roman invasion.^ A fine bronze beaded torque found 
in Carlisle was also assigned by Sir John to the late Celtic age. 

It has been stated that this prehistoric people — the men with the 
long heads and the men with the round heads — saw this district in its 
chief features much as we see it now. But there were differences. The 
country was mainly forest, resembling the uncleared forests of Canada 
and America, and covered with dense scrub of oak, ash, thorn, hazel and 
birch. At Alston and other places the stools of ancient hazel and birch 
trees are found beneath the peat. The antlers of red deer of much larger 
size than of the present day have been found with Roman remains in 
frequent numbers, showing that the deer must have had abundance of 
' brooze ' or scrub for their support, extending over a great range of 
country. The valleys were swamps, and the alluvial flats bordering on 
the Solway and stretching eastwards from RockclifFe along the north to 
Carlisle, for many miles were vast morasses, now dwindled into the puny 
survivals of Solway Moss, Bowness Moss, Wedholm Flow and Scaleby 
Moss. Edmund Sandford, who wrote in the time of Charles II. a 
gossiping account of the country, printed and published in i8go, tells us 
that great part of the country was even then forest. In prehistoric 
times the higher hill tops probably stood up bare and naked. The 
climate was cold and wet. The crops ripened but slowly. 

The following is a list of prehistoric settlements in Cumberland, 

compiled by the late Mr. Clifton Ward, F.G.S., of the Ordnance Survey. 

The figures refer to the sheets of the 6-inch Ordnance Map on which 

-the remains are, and the letters to the quarters of the sheets. The list 

first appeared in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland 

1 Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society, 
vol. vi. pp. 462, 463 ; Yorkshire, by Phillips, 2nd edit., p. 203 ; see Wright's The Celt, 
the Roman, and the Saxon (1852), chap. ii. p. 87. 

* Archaological Journal, vol. xxxix. p. 442 ; ibid. p. 442 ; Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaological Society. 

251 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Antiquarian and Archoeological Society, vol. iii. pp. 241, 243, and has been 
more than once reprinted. 



Weasel Hills and West Fells . . 48 N.W. 

Stone Carr 57 N.E. and S.E. 

Above Falcon Crag 64 S.W. 

Threlkeld 65 N.W. 

N. banks of Ennerdale . ... 68 S.E. 

Ennerdale, banks of Liza ... 69 S.W. 

Thirlmere, Deergarth Wood . . 70 N.E. 

Tongue How 73 N.W. 

Boat How 73 N.W. 

Cawfell Beck 73 N.W. 

Stockdale Moor 73 S.E. 



Valley of the Bleng 73 S.E. 

Gray Borran 73 S.E. 

Greendale 79 N.W. 

Burnmoor 79 N.W. 

E. of Raven Crag 83 N.W. 

Around Devoke Water ... 83 N.W. 

Ulpha Fell 83 N.E. 

Barnscar 83 S.W. 

Knott 83 S.W. 

Brown Rigg 83 S.E. 



Mr. Ward also gives a list of round or oval camps, among which he 
takes the following to be in all likelihood British, that is, prehistoric : — 



Carrock Fell 48 

The Fort, Fitz Wood . . . . 54 

Castle How, Peel Wyke ... 55 

Castle Crag, Shoulthwaite Glen . 64 



S.W. Maiden Castle 66 N.W. 

N.E. Dunmallard Hill 66 N.W. 

N.E. Maiden Castle 79 N.E. 

S.E. 



A survey of the eastern and northern fells would probably add to 
the list. 



252 



REMAINS OF THE 
PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 



IN the long period of nearly seven centuries between the leaving of 
the Romans and the settlement of the Normans, Cumberland was 
the home of three successive ruling races. For the first two and 

a half centuries the Romano-Britons, Cymru, or Cumbri held the 
land ; but though they gave it their name (Cumbra-land) and continued 
to form a great part of the population after they had lost their power, 
we have but scanty records of their history as a people, and very few 
relics of the age of their independence. About 670-80 the Angles of 
Northumbria overcame them and settled among them, remaining the 
dominant race for a little over two centuries ; their history is almost as 
scanty, but we have some tokens of their arts and industries to show. 
In 876 the Danes burnt Carlisle, and for more than two centuries follow- 
ing they and a mixed multitude of Celto-Scandinavians, Vikings from 
Ireland and the Isles, continued to settle in Cumberland as masters of the 
soil, they too leaving us little in written history, but not a few works of 
art showing their presence and influence. 

The remains of the whole post-Roman, pre-Norman age fall into 
three classes — sculptured stones with their inscriptions, metal-work, and 
earthworks or ruins of rude building hardly to be reckoned as architec- 
ture. The few pieces of architecture which have sometimes been ascribed 
to ' Saxon times ' will be noticed later on in the course of this work ; 
but even at a period when there was probably no true building in 
stone — when the forts were stockades and the churches and dwelling- 
houses were built of wood or wattle-and-daub — it was the custom to set 
up carved stones as memorials of the dead. The art of carving in stone 
lingered on in Britain from the Roman age, sometimes falling into great 
debasement, but more than once reviving under foreign influence. It 
seems to have been kept alive during this period and in this part of the 
country entirely for the purpose of grave-monuments, and it implied no 
skill in architecture or literature ; it was a traditional art by itself, 
influenced perhaps by metal-working and wood-carving, and to a small 
extent possibly by the ornament of illuminated manuscripts, but only as 
it reflected current fashions in decorative design. For that reason the 

253 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

execution is generally poor, as sculpture ; but its feeling often makes it 
picturesque, and the quaint conceits which the artists tried to embody 
make it often highly interesting. 

Sculptured Stones : Celtic Period 

The sculpture of the Britons before the time when Christianity 
brought new life to art from Italian source?, through the converted 
Anglo-Saxons, is thought to have been mainly or altogether incised — 

that is to say, not carved in relief, but 
sketched in grooves and scratches on the 
stone. It would not be safe to say that all 
incised stones are pre-Saxon, or we should 
be able to point to one slab as an evidence 
of a Christian church at Aspatria before 
680 A.D. Still this Aspatria slab, now in 
two fragments walled into the vestry of the 
church, bears some resemblance to early 
Welsh monuments, such as the well-known 
stone of Macutrenus in the British Museum; 
but it is more like a series of incised monu- 
ments of which the age is doubtful, such 
as the shaft at Ecclesfield near Leeds, the 
stones at Adel near Leeds, the cross at 
Lanivet (Cornwall), and especially a slab 
from Gillespie (Glenluce) now in the 
Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. Incised 
stones of much later than our pre-Saxon 
date are found in Scandinavia, and the 
svastika or fylfot on the Aspatria slab 
might be thought to connect it with 
eleventh century Scandinavian influence ; 
but the svastika was used in Britain at all 
periods, and the Scandinavian stone, for 
example, at Rosas, Njudingen, Sweden, 
figured by Stephens in Old-Northern Runic 
Monuments, resembles this only in rudeness. 
The group of British incised stones just mentioned seems to be con- 
nected with a type which is certainly pre-Saxon, though the date must 
be left undecided. We have no other stones at present known in 
Cumberland of this type, and no other sculpture which can be safely 
pointed out as a relic of the church of St. Kentigern and the indepen- 
dent Cumbri. 




Incised Slab, Aspatria. 



Anglian 

The Bewcastle cross is our finest pre-Norman monument in Cum- 
berland, and judging by its art and inscription it is the oldest, The 

254 








The Christ, on Bewcastle Cross. 



Bewcastle Cross. 



To face p. 155, 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

inscription will be considered later on with other inscriptions ; here we 
are concerned only with the style and execution of the monuments, 
classed together according to their resemblance to one another and to 
well-known types outside the county. The Bewcastle cross is a square 
pillar of grey freestone from the moors above the valley ; it is 14I feet 
in height above the pedestal, 21 by 22 inches thick at the base, tapering 
to 13 by 1 4 inches at the top, from which the cross-head is lost. A 
written note in a copy of Camden's Britannia in the Bodleian records that 
a cross-head from ' Bucastle ' was sent to the writer from Lord William 
(Howard), the antiquarian owner of Naworth Castle, so that the head 
has been missing only since the days of Queen Elizabeth. With it the 
cross would have been about 21 feet high from the base of the pedestal, 
a block weighing about 6 tons, into which the cross was anciently fixed 
with lead. In 1891 some repairs were done to the pedestal ; otherwise 
the cross is unrestored. It is said that damage has been done at different 
times to the carving and the inscription, but the stone is extremely hard 
and the design is nearly perfect. 

On the west face are three panels with figures : at the top St. John 
the Baptist carrying the Lamb of God ; in the middle Christ standing 
on the heads of swine, a fine figure in long robes, carrying in His left 
hand a scroll, the Book of Remembrance, and raising His right hand in 
blessing ; His head is youthful and slightly bearded, unlike the ordinary 
medieval type of the suffering Redeemer. Below is the figure of a man 
in a tunic and hood, carrying a stick or spear and lifting a hawk from its 
perch. It is a naturalistic figure, evidently meant for a portrait of some 
contemporary, probably the person to whom the monument was set up, 
who is said in the inscription to have been king Alchfrith. It cannot 
represent St. John with the eagle, who would have been dressed in flow- 
ing robes and posed in some such dignified way as St. John the Baptist 
above. The theory that only Scriptural or symbolic subjects were repre- 
sented on these monuments is disproved by several of the stones we shall 
pass in review, and the custom of portraiture on Christian tombs was 
common in all ages. 

On the north face are two panels of symmetrical interlacing ; two 
of foliage and fruits, the conventional vine-scroll of the earliest Italo- 
Greek Christian art; and a central panel of chequers, which, though they 
have been taken as indicating a late date, are seen also in slightly different 
pattern on the cross at Irton. 

The east face has one continuous vine-scroll, with animals in the 
branches — the ' fox that spoils the vines,' two squirrels and two birds. 

The south face has three symmetrical interlacings and two panels of 
foliage, the upper one having a dial worked into the design. This dial 
is a semicircle with hole for the gnomon now lost, and rays marking 
twelve divisions between sunrise and sunset. It is certainly a part of the 
original monument, and such a dial at Kirkdale (Yorkshire) is proved to 
be Anglo-Saxon by its inscription ; there is no reason to suppose that 
people in the seventh century were ignorant of this ancient contrivance for 

255 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

marking time. In Cumberland, dials of a similar kind, carved on the 
flat surface of a wall with south aspect, and so rudely done that they 
must have been very insufficient for any but the roughest calculations, are 
found at Caldbeck, Torpenhow, Great Salkeld, Kirkoswald, and Newton 
Arlosh churches, and two at Dearham and four at Isel. The late Rev. 
W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., whose researches have added so much to our 
knowledge of pre-Norman art in Cumberland, thought that all these dials 
were pre-Norman in date, and that where they are found in mediaeval 
walls they had been removed from Anglo-Saxon churches and rebuilt into 
later work ; but it would be safer to say that they are pre-Norman only 
in type, not in date. 

It has been held by good authorities of the last generation that the 
Bewcastle cross should be dated tenth or eleventh century because the 
ornament resembles Carlovingian art ; but the general opinion in more 








Anglian Shaft, Addingham, 



Fragment, Workington. 



recent times ^ is in favour of an earlier age and an influence from Ravenna 
and other north Italian towns through St. Wilfrith, who is known to 
have brought foreign artists into the north of England. It has even 
been claimed as one of the works of the Maestri Comacini, but this is not 
proved. It can however be classed with many other works done in the 
flush of the great renaissance of the late seventh century, in which Bene- 
dict Biscop and St. Wilfrith were leaders, and king Alchfrith and his 

1 Prof. G. Stephens, OU-'Northern Runic Monuments ; Dr. Sophus MtlUer, Aarb. f. Nord. Oldk. og 
Hist. (1880) ; the Rev.W. S. CAvtrlty, Early Sculptured Crosses of the Diocese of Carlisle (1899) ; Wilhelm 
Victor, Die Northumbrischen Runensteine (1895) ; the Bishop of Bristol (Right Rev. G. F. Browne), The 
Conversion of the Heptarchy (1896), are among the writers who have discussed the subject. 

256 




I- 

o 
> 



y 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 



wife Cyniburg, and her sister and brother, Cyneswitha and king Wulf- 
here of Mercia (all named on this cross) were chief patrons. It is not 
of the Hexham school, but of a school of that age and character, from 
which came many fine works quite alien in spirit to the art of north 
England in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and impossible to have been 
executed in that period of storm and stress, when the churches were 
ravaged by the Danes ; and it is equally impossible to class it as Norman. 
The archjeological evidence is all 
in favour of the date assigned to it 
by the inscription — the first year 
of king Ecgfrith, 670—71 a.d. ; 
and it has a great importance in 
the history of art as the starting- 
point from which not only all our 
Cumbrian sculpture was derived, 
but (with Ruthwell cross, its 
younger sister) the model for 
much of that so-called Hiberno- 
Saxon art which has been confused 
with it. 

At Addingham church, in 
the porch, are preserved two red 
sandstone fragments of an Anglian 
cross, nearly equal in fineness of 
design and skill of workmanship 
to that at Bewcastle. At St. 
Michael's, Workington, is a frag- 
ment with a symmetrical floral 
design, not now very distinct, and 
a key-pattern beneath it, and on 
the edges carefully drawn inter- 
laced work ending in a flattened 
loop like that at Addingham. In 
the same church at Workington 
is the beautiful fragment found in 
the tower by Mr. W. L. Fletcher 
after the fire of 1887, with the 
best kind of Anglian interlacing 
on all its four sides, but neither 
floral scroll-work, nor figures, nor 
key-patterns ; this, from the symmetry and execution of its ornament, 
seems to rank with good Anglian w^ork, though it shows what the late 
Canon Knowles called ' the ear -shaped guilloche ' and thought to be 
a mark of later Scandinavian influence. At Waberthwaite church, in 
the vestry, is part of an Anglian shaft with a good symmetrical inter- 
lacing on one side and a leaf-scroll on the other, without the fruit seen 

at Bewcastle and Addingham. 

I 257 s 




Anglian Shaft, Waberthwaite. 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

This last site is interesting as being close to the ancient harbour 
of Ravenglass ; and just on the other side of the harbour at Irton is 
a famous cross in the churchyard, which in spite of some features 
usually put down as Celtic, or Hiberno-Saxon, must be classed as an 
Anglian work. The Irton cross is carved from a single block of red 
sandstone, head and shaft in one piece, lo feet high from the pedestal. 
The carving has been all done with the chisel, without drill or pick, 
and is smooth, highly-finished work, very varied in depth. The parts 
where the pattern runs closely together are kept shallow and flattish ; 
here and there a few emphatic points are deeply hollowed, giving 
strong touches of shade and throwing the flatter parts into breadth 
and delicacy. On the panel now blank are said to have been Anglian 
runes (described under the heading of Inscriptions) ; above the panel is 
a symmetrical interlacing, and below it is a very elaborate symmetrical 
double strand interlaced. The edges bear fine scrolls of fruit, leaves 
and flowers, in the best style of Anglian art, and quite foreign to Irish 
and Scandinavian work. The east side has two panels of diagonal key- 
pattern, hke the fragment at Workington, and two panels of geometrical 
' kaleidoscope ' design ; at the top is a panel of chequers, like that at 
Bewcastle, except that they are little X -shaped depressions instead of 
squares. The head has on one side a boss and ring surrounded by 
fifteen smaller bosses, and on the other side five small bosses arranged 
in a cross surrounded by a ring and framed with interlacing. A curious 
incised plait is on the ends of the cross-arms, which are free and not 
joined by a wheel ; it is like the head of Ruthwell cross, which (though 
now restored) can never have been a wheel-cross. Bewcastle and other 
Anglian crosses had probably free-armed heads, of which many still 
remain in Cumberland and the rest of northern England. 

Anglian and Cumbrian Cross-heads 

Two good examples of these free-armed Anglian heads are at 
Carlisle. One, represented only by the arms and centre from which the 
shaft and uppermost limb have been broken, is in the Fratry, and was 
found in digging the foundations of a house in the Abbey in 1857. It 
has square-ended interlacements on the ends of the arms like the Adding- 
ham and Workington fragments, and a six-petalled boss, with Anglian 
inscriptions on the arms. The other, represented only by the tips of the 
lateral arms, has angular interlacements at the arm-ends, a rather debased 
but still Anglian floral scroll on one face, and a device which is nearly 
what may be called the ' lorgnette ' pattern, surrounded with zigzags on 
the other face ; this was found about 1888 in making alterations at the 
Bishop of Barrow's house in the abbey. 

The ' lorgnette ' is represented in its full form in the head found 
in 1855, and preserved in the room over St. Catherine's chapel in the 
cathedral. There is the usual boss in the centre of the head with a 

ring round it, making it somewhat like a magnifying glass ; and on each 

258 



lijUt 







-■mm 



■'■> 



'4 








Irton Cross. 



To face page 258. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

of the arms is a similar but smaller feature attached to the central boss by 
a rib or spine. The topmost arm of the head, instead of being merely 
enlarged by the graceful curve at the ' arm-pits,' as in the other two Car- 




Fratry, Carlisle. 



Abbey, Carlisle. 



Cathedral, Carlisle. 



lisle heads, Irton and Ruthwell crosses, and many others (by no means an 
exclusively Celtic form), in this case becomes a ' hammer-head.' There 
are two reasons for considering it Anglian : one that it resembles the 
Abbey head which has Anglian floral work, and the other that Carlisle, 
as a home of Christian population among whom such work could have 
been done, came to an end in 876, and therefore these crosses must be 
earlier than the Scandinavian period, while they are certainly not pre- 
Saxon. 

Now these Carlisle cross-heads give us the key to a great series of 
Cumbrian art for which they, or others like them now destroyed, served 
as models. From Carlisle westward to Beckermet, and south-eastward to 
Addingham, there are cross-heads evidently degenerated from these well- 
executed types. At Bromfield is a white sandstone hammer-headed cross, 
with perhaps a much-worn ' lorgnette ' in the 
topmost arm. At Distington is another without 
any ' lorgnette.' At Brigham is a white ' ham- 
merhead ' in which the ' lorgnette ' is replaced by 
a small incised Latin cross ; and at Kirkoswald, 
known by other finds as an Anglian site, is the 
tip of a red sandstone head with a combined -f- 
and X in a circle. At Cross Canonby is a 
broken white head with ' lorgnettes ' ; another at 
Bridekirk has the rest of the space filled with 
wandering spirals in relief. At Distington 
another white fragment has the spirals without 
the ' lorgnette,' and a third has remains of interlacing. Finally, at 
Dearham and St. John's, Beckermet, are similar white cross-heads with 
' lorgnettes,' and enough of the shaft remaining to tell us that the whole 
monument was utterly unlike the Bewcastle cross, 

259 




A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

The Cumbrian ' Spiral ' Crosses 

We have travelled a long way in the last paragraph, and arrived in 
the midst of a school of art quite strange to the Anglian, and yet 
evidently derived from it — the school of spiral design, not entirely con- 
fined to Cumberland, but nowhere else seen in such development. The 
Roolwer cross in the Isle of Man, and the Maen-y-chwyfan in Flintshire, 
with a very few more, show that the style travelled, but its headquarters 
were here. It was a rustic and debased school of art, although in its own 
way striking out ideas which sometimes became picturesque. The heads 
of the crosses are debased from Anglian of a not very early type ; the 
interlacing, where there is any, is not naturalistic (or based on real knot- 
work of straps and cords), but resembles the applique interlacing in 
metal-work, in that each segment of the plait is separate, and the groove 
which divides the strand terminates before it tucks under the strand which 
crosses it, nor do the segments truly correspond with one another to 
suggest a continuous cord interwoven. The figures are grotesquely 
debased from the fine Anglian examples, as at Bewcastle ; and the rest of 
the design is neither floral scroll nor key-pattern, but a cluster of spirals 
without symmetry or sense. In a few cases the spirals appear to be on 
the point of blossoming and becoming floral scrolls ; they may be a 
faint reminiscence of the Hexham and Bewcastle style ; in most cases 
they are clumsy squarish curves which could never have been regarded 
as intended for floral, but might have been evolved by a lazy imitation 
of the patterns of Irton cross. They resemble the spirals of the Kirk- 
oswald fibula, or the Thames stirrup in the British Museum (Anglo-Saxon 
Room), and contemporary work in filigree ; and they suggest that the 
artist was familiar with such metal-work, but not with any examples of 
flower scrolls in stone or in illumination. In some examples they have 
become purely symbolic patterns, the svastika and the triskele, and in 
all cases there is a tendency to fall into these symbohc forms rather 
than to attempt the naturaUsm of the great Anglian artists. 

There can be no doubt that we have not here a very early school, 
feeling its way to better things and gradually developing into the 
Anglian ; for the debased interlacing is such as could not be produced by 
a nascent art, in which the attempt to copy nature is always traceable. 
Since the models from which this school starts are late Anglian, these 
spiral crosses must be later ; and as in some cases they seem to be 
influenced by the Scandinavian school of which we have still to speak, 
we must put them down as probably ninth to eleventh century, later than 
the Anglian, but earHer than the finest Irish-Scandinavian type which 
superseded them, though contemporaneous with the earlier Danish and 
Norse invasions. As they exist chiefly in Cumbria, though also in 
Wales, and in one instance in the Isle of Man, into which the style may 
have been imported from Cumberland, it is reasonable to infer that this 
spiral school was a Cumbrian school, and created by native Cymric artists 
tryin? to work for Anglian and Danish patrons ; and it is curious that 
^ ^ ^ 260 




White Cross, St. John's, Beckermet. 




To face page z6i. 



White Shaft, St. John's, Beckermet. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

the type of ornament seems always trying to revert to the much earlier 
spiral forms of the ' late Celtic ' school, of which we have some remains 
in the district. This tendency to revert in decorative art to forgotten 
ancestral patterns is shown also in the Scandinavian character of the 
plaits in wood-carving of the seventeenth century designed by descendants 
of Danish and Norse settlers. But the people who made the spiral crosses 
were a subject and impoverished race, and never carried their art to the 
development of which it was capable. 

The Beckermet white cross-head already mentioned, with the 
' lorgnette ' pattern, has no spirals, but some debased interlacing, and some 
rude curved lines which may be attempts at the triskele and crescents, 
and some small bosses or pellets, as if imitations in stone of nail heads in 
wood-work and rivets in metal-work — these last interpreted by those who 
see symbolism in all details as suns or holy wafers. But the sister frag- 
ment of similar stone and style, though not part of the same cross, is a 
good example of the spirals almost bursting into flower, but not the floral 
scrolls of Bewcastle or Hexham. 

The Dearham white head seems to belong to a shaft in the church, 
making what has been called the ' Kenneth cross,' because the late Rev. 
Thomas Lees, F.S.A., and Mr. Calverley thought they saw in the ' bird 
and bantling' the saint's rescue as a child by birds, and in the bandy- 
legged figure next that group the lame saint with his bell. It is not 
impossible that this is the subject of the carving, though that interpreta- 
tion would not prove that the cross was of the early British period, for 
in the tenth century the Northmen who settled hereabouts were in close 
touch with other settlers of their kindred in Wales. The figure on 
horseback (not a Flight into Egypt, as there is no child, but only a pellet, 
beneath the bridle) is that of a warrior with a sword, probably a portrait 
of the deceased. The debased plaitwork (a), and spirals which near the 
bird's tail run into key-pattern, and the two svastikas show this to be a 
good example of the late spiral style. 

Two such shafts are at Aspatria, now built into the vestry of the 
church. One has debased plaitwork, spirals, and a svastika and pellets 
filling all intervals. The other has two twists over pellets, with spirals 
and a curious figure closely resembling a figure on the Maen-y-chwyfan, 
Flintshire. So that as Dearham is connected with south Wales by its 
(possible) legend, Aspatria is connected with north Wales by this 
identity of design. What the man over a little Maltese cross signifies 
cannot be made out, as we have only his lower half. 

The close connection of spiral-work with symbols like the svastika 
and triskele is shown in two fragments at Isel in the church porch, and 
the tip of a cross in the church, which bears these signs and a ' thunder- 
bolt ' with a ' sun-snake ' beneath, all in work of this style. At Dis- 
tington and in the tower of Plumbland church are fragments in which 
the triskele sign is still more distinct in the midst of debased interlacing. 

A valuable example is one which Canon Knowles called the ' Norse 

cross' at St. Bees church, with what must have been a free-armed head 

261 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

with 'lorgnettes,' now much broken, and debased interlacing, pellets, 
spirals and rude key-pattern. 




The 'Norse' Cross, St. Bees. 

Key patterns are rather rare in Cumberland on these later crosses. 
The fragment from Mr. Rowley's house at Glassonby, now in TuUie 
House Museum, has a band of double alternate tJ-TX, as on the Maen- 
y-Chwyfan and in crosses at Chester and St. Vigean's. Single bands 
of T's occur in Cheshire, Wales and Cornwall, and in a grave-slab at 
Clonmacnois, Ireland, dated 931 a.d. The other sides of the Glassonby 




The Standing Cross, St. Bees. 

shaft have a rude figure and a dragonesque interlacing, and the whole is 
evidently Scandinavian of the earher type (that is, not of the fine school 
of Gosforth), perhaps tenth century. The 'Norse cross' at St. Bees 

262 




The * Kenneth ' Cross, Dearham. 

Head with a and b patterns on the edges of the shart, and one side of the shaft. 






The Two Spiral Shafts in the Vestry, Aspatria. 



To face page 262. 





a 
< 



O 



To face page 263. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

from its connection with the Cumbrian school may be placed early in 
the tenth century, or near the beginning of the Viking settlement. 
Later than this is the standing cross at St. Bees, in which the spirals 
have disappeared ; the debased interlacing has become dragonesque, and 
new motives of plaitwork, Irish in origin, though the interlacing is de- 
based, have been introduced, suggesting a transition-form between the 
spiral style and the Gosforth cross. 

Another transition example is seen in the standing cross in Adding- 
ham churchyard, with rude attempt at a wheel-head and ornament 
entirely spiral ; and a more advanced type is the Giant's Thumb at Pen- 
rith, with what has been a wheel-head and both scroll work and inter- 
lacing on the shaft. This cross has been much damaged — indeed it was 
used at one time as a pillory ; but since its re-erection in 1887 the 
lower part, formerly covered by the earth in which it was sunk, betrays 
the debased spirals which did duty for scrolls, and shows that it is really 
a transition-form between the Cumbrian and Irish-Norse (Gosforth) 
school, though evidently a very fine work of its time. 

Transition from one age and style to another does not go on quite 
smoothly or along any single line. In this age there is another thread of 
developnfient which we must trace, namely the connection between 
Cumbrian and Irish-Norse through a series of round-shafted crosses. 

The Round-Shafted Crosses 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., has pointed out^ that in Cheshire and 
Staffordshire, with outlying examples in Wales (the pillar of Eliseg, 
Denbighshire) and Nottinghamshire (Stapleton cross), there is a group of 
monuments of which the shaft is round in the lower part but square in 
section in the upper part, and he suggested a Midland origin for the 
style. We have also a number of such round-shafted crosses, of which 
one, the Gosforth cross, is very famous, though not the original from 
which the whole series was imitated ; for, as Bishop Browne has 
remarked, the pillar of Eliseg bears an inscription which no one is able 
to put later than the ninth century {Archaological Journal, xliv. No. 1 74, 
1 887, p. 1 5 1 ), while there are many reasons for dating the Gosforth group 
early eleventh century. 

But just as north Wales is connected with Cumbrian spiral work 
through the Maen-y-chwyfan, so it is through this other development 
of round-shafted crosses. The connection of the two districts need 
not be looked for so far back as Romano-British times, for we know that 
kindred northmen settled all along the shore of the Irish Sea from 
the Dee to the Solway. 

On Solway shore at Anthorn is a thick round shaft with no flat 
panels and a free-armed head, locally said to mark the place of a battle 
with the Scots and named with another in Greenwood's map (1823) as 

1 Anhaol. Camhrensis, 5th series, vi. 24 ; and trans. Hist. Soe. of Lancashire and Cheshire, ix. new 
series, 1894. 

263 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

' Taylor's crosses.' Mr. Calverley thought he found traces of a crucifix 
on the east side, but the stone is very weathered and thickly crusted with 
lichen. We can only mention it as a specimen of a round-shafted cross, 
without any attempt to date it. 

Going south along the coast, at Beckermet, in St. Bridget's church- 




Back and Edges of the Inscribed Cross, St. Bridget's, Beckermet. 

yard, we find two round shafts — one the famous inscribed cross. Leaving 
the inscription for the present, let us look at the ornament, which has 
not commanded so much attention. It is a graceful development of 
spiral work, budding into trefoils, though not by any means resembling 

what we have seen of 
Anglian floral scrolls. It 
has more resemblance to 
a stone built into the 
south side of Haile church, 
distinctly a Cumbrian 
spiral work but suggest- 
ing leafage. As we have 
already seen, no distinct 
continuity can be traced 
between this style and 
Anglian examples, but the 
Cumbrian artist may have 
seen or heard of such and 
tried to make his spirals 
flowery. The St. Brid- 
get's inscribed cross is 

Spiral Fragment, Haile. therefore Connected on 

the one hand with the 
Cumbrian spiral school, while on the other it is connected with a new 
series. Near it is a similar pillar, comparatively slender and ornamented 

264 




'U 




The 'Giant's Grave,' Penrith. 



To face page 265. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 



only with plaits of three strands. This is a step towards what we 
must next visit, the Giant's Grave at Penrith and the Gosforth cross. 

The Giant's Grave at Penrith as arranged 
at present has four hogbacks, and two crosses 
which are highly developed types of this 
second St. Bridget's monument. Both are of 
light grey sandstone. The western pillar 
stands 135 inches in height from the ground 
and measures a little over 5 feet in girth at 
about 3 feet from the bottom. For the 
height of 8i| inches it is , ' '- . 

cylindrical ; above that it has 
a band of interlacing, and 
higher up it is cut away into 
four flat panels with round 
bottoms filled with interlac- 
ing ; the head is small and 
broken but never had any 
wheel. The eastern pillar 
is 126 inches high, for 
61 inches cylindrical, above 
which are similar panels 28 
inches in height, like those 
on the western pillar, and 
filled with similar ring-plaits ; 
but a cast of the western 
panel seen in a side light 

(necessary on account of the weathering which has nearly effaced 
the pattern) shows figures of a man intertwined with the plaits, another 
figure bending over him, and a beast above with head turned over 
its back. On the northern panel can be traced a stag. The head 
is free-armed, with a cross whose arms project through or from a 
ring with a boss in the middle of it, all carved in relief on the 
face ; and the lower limb of the bas-relief cross seems to have a 
boss in it, and to be in fact another example of the ' lorgnette.' So 
that as we have a survival of the Cumbrian school in the spirals of 
the Giant's Thumb with its wheel-head, we have a different survival 
of the same school in the Giant's Grave with its free-armed head, in 
spite of later characteristics in the interlacing and figures (of which more 
presently). This gives us a clue to the place of the Penrith group, 
which stands on the brink of the fully developed Irish-Norse as seen at 
Gosforth. 

The hogbacks or recumbent coped shrine-tombs are, like so many 
elsewhere, houses of the dead, with roofs carved to look like tiles and 
walls ornamented to represent ideas attaching to death and resurrection 
or life beyond the grave. One has spirals and plaits, another a fretted 
interlacing, all suggesting the dragonesque ' worm-twists ' of which the 

265 




The Second Shaft, St. Bridget's, Beckermet. 




The ' Giant's Grave,' Penrith. 



To face page 265. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 



only with plaits of three strands. This is a step towards what we 
must next visit, the Giant's Grave at Penrith and the Gosforth cross. 

The Giant's Grave at Penrith as arranged 
at present has four hogbacks, and two crosses 
which are highly developed types of this 
second St. Bridget's monument. Both are of 
light grey sandstone. The western pillar 
stands 135 inches in height from the ground 
and measures a little over 5 feet in girth at 
about 3 feet from the bottom. For the 
height of 8 1 1 inches it is 
cylindrical ; above that it has 
a band of interlacing, and 
higher up it is cut away into 
four flat panels with round 
bottoms filled with interlac- 
ing ; the head is small and 
broken but never had any 
wheel. The eastern pillar 
is 126 inches high, for 
61 inches cylindrical, above 
which are similar panels 28 
inches in height, like those 
on the western pillar, and 
filled with similar ring-plaits ; 
but a cast of the western 
panel seen in a side light 

(necessary on account of the weathering which has nearly effaced 
the pattern) shows figures of a man intertwined with the plaits, another 
figure bending over him, and a beast above with head turned over 
its back. On the northern panel can be traced a stag. The head 
is free-armed, with a cross whose arms project through or from a 
ring with a boss in the middle of it, all carved in relief on the 
face ; and the lower limb of the bas-relief cross seems to have a 
boss in it, and to be in fact another example of the ' lorgnette.' So 
that as we have a survival of the Cumbrian school in the spirals of 
the Giant's Thumb with its wheel-head, we have a different survival 
of the same school in the Giant's Grave with its free-armed head, in 
spite of later characteristics in the interlacing and figures (of which more 
presently). This gives us a clue to the place of the Penrith group, 
which stands on the brink of the fully developed Irish-Norse as seen at 
Gosforth. 

The hogbacks or recumbent coped shrine-tombs are, like so many 
elsewhere, houses of the dead, with roofs carved to look like tiles and 
walls ornamented to represent ideas attaching to death and resurrection 
or life beyond the grave. One has spirals and plaits, another a fretted 
interlacing, all suggesting the dragonesque ' worm-twists ' of which the 

265 




The Second Shaft, St. Bridget's, Beckermet. 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



Irish-Scandinavians were so fond. Mr. Calverley with much reason 
compared the descriptions in the Edda of Hel, the abode of the dead, 
and its walls wattled, not with withes like the houses of the living, but 
with snakes. This heathen idea, grafted upon the Christian faith, 
flowered into the pretty and favourite device which we shall see often 
repeated, and find here in the little figure standing on the head of the 
great serpent — the seed of the woman bruising the serpent's head, 
triumphing over death and proclaiming the hope of life to come. 

A fragment of similar workmanship built into the church of 
Hutton-in-the-Forest shows that there must have 
been other crosses of this type in the neighbour- 
hood ; and the sundial and base in the churchyard 
may possibly be the original lower part of the same 
monument, as appears to be the case elsewhere. At 
Penrith is the Plague stone, evidently the socket of 
an ancient cross, though known only as the basin 
which during times of plague people filled with vine- 
gar and put their money in to disinfect it, at the same 
time taking up the goods which country folk from 
outside had laid by the stone, themselves retiring to a 
safe distance. 

We must now traverse the county to Gosforth 
and view the most famous and beautiful examples of 
the round-shafted cross and its associated monuments. 
We must treat them briefly, but they have been de- 
scribed at length by Mr. Calverley in Rarly Sculptured 
Crosses of the Diocese of Carlisle and by Dr. C. A. 
Parker in his book on T'he Ancient Crosses at Gosforth, 
Cumberland. 

There are at Gosforth the remains of three crosses 
and two hogbacks ; one little cross-head built into 
the porch is probably not pre-Norman. The style 
and execution and the 'literary subject' of this famous 
group are very similar ; if the three crosses and two 
hogbacks were not carved by the same hand, they 
represent the work of the same age and race. They 
cannot be twelfth century, because the hogbacks were 
built into the foundations of the twelfth century 
church ; nor can they be Anglian, because they are 
quite unlike the work we know to be Anglian, and 
because two of the crosses illustrate verses from 
the Edda, which is a series of poems made by 
Scandinavian skalds under Irish and English 
influence in the tenth century. The sculp- 
tures do not merely reflect general ideas com- 
mon to all Teutonic heathendom, but they show, carved in stone, 
pictures obviously intended to embody the very words of the Norse songs. 

266 




Gosforth Cross. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 



The great standing cross at Gosforth is of red sandstone, a monolith 
1 4| feet high from the pedestal, which is a rectangular block of three 
steps. The lower part of the shaft is cylindrical and measures 40 inches 
round the bottom ; for about 4 feet up it is plain and then breaks into 
a peculiar interlaced pattern, seen elsewhere on Scandinavian monuments, 
and thought by Mr. Calverley to be in- 
tended for a conventional representation 
of the intertwined branches of a tree, as 
if the whole pillar were meant for a great 
Tree of Life or the Yggdrasil Tree of 
northern mythology. Higher up, as at 
Penrith, the round shaft is cut away 
into four faces containing figure-subjects 
which with all the study that has been 
given to them are only partly inter- 
preted. 

We can see at any rate that dis- 
tinctly Christian emblems are curiously 
mixed up with emblems as distinctly 
heathen. The wheel-cross at the summit 
of the monument is a Christian symbol, 
and each of its four arms contains the 
Triquetra, often used in Irish art to sig- 
nify the Trinity. On three sides out of 
four great dragons attack this emblem ; 
on the fourth the dragon, winged but 
bound with many ring-fetters, appears 
to be flying from the cross-head, as if 
the artist meant to suggest the conflict 
of good and evil. On this last side, to 
the north, there is nothing more but 
two horsemen with spears, the lower 

upside down. In such conven- 



one 



mean a 




Crucifixion, Gosforth Cross. 



tional art the group should 
fight, with the fall of the one who is 
reversed ; it may represent some phase 
of the conflict of good and evil, or the 
actual fight in which the person com- 
memorated lost his life or won his 
renown, though the warriors of the 
pre-Norman time did not usually fight on horseback — they were a 
mounted infantry ; and the rest of the figures on the cross are evidently 
not portraits but symbols. 

The eastern side shows a crucifix of a somewhat Irish type — the 
Christ dwarfed like the figures on the Monasterboice cross and elsewhere 
in Irish art, and standing in a frame of cable-moulding. Beneath are 
Longinus the soldier, piercing His side with the spear, and Mary Magda- 

267 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 



lene with the alabastron or ' box of ointment ' — a figure which seems to 
indicate an English origin, as in an Irish cross there would be a soldier 

holding up the sponge. Underneath is a 
snake twisted up in itself, with heads at each 
end of its body, one attacking the other. 
Over the crucifix is a headless row of the 
Scandinavian chain-pattern, and above is a 
figure holding a spear in one hand and with the 
other hand and one foot wrenching open the jaws 
of the great dragon above. If this 
figure were merely entering the \\ -^.-^'^-^^ 
dragon's mouth it would be easily t|* i igkal 
recognized as the usual representa- '- 
tion of Christ's descent into hell, 
but it is something more. It 
really illustrates a passage in the 
Vafthrudnis-mdl, a poem of the 
Edda, which tells how Vidar the 
Silent, one of the Norse gods, 
should avenge the death of Odin 
by rending open ' the cold jaws of 
the wolf — the dragon wolf, off- 
spring of Loki the evil one. 

The south side has, beside 
dragons and a horseman with spear, 
the favourite device, seen already 
in part at Penrith, of the stag, em- 
blem of Christ or the Christian, I'f >f' 
chased by the dog or wolf. 

The western side is pure 
Edda. At the bottom it contains 
a group which Mr. Calverley was 
the first to explain as represent- 
ing the punishment of Loki. It 
is told in the prose Edda, and 
there are references to it in the 
poem called Vsluspd in the earlier 
Edda, how the gods, tired of 
Loki's misdeeds, caught him after 
a long struggle and bound him with three bonds in an 
underground cave over sharp rocks. Above his head 
they hung a serpent from whose mouth venom dripped 
on his face, but his faithful wife Sigun attended him 
and held a cup to catch the drops. ' When the cup 
was full she had to turn aside and empty it ; then the 
venom dropped on Loki so that he writhed in agony.' 

268 





Vidar, Gosforth Cross. 




South Side, Gosforth 
Cross. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

There can be no doubt that the sculpture is meant to illustrate the story. 
Above is a horseman with spear upside down, and over him a man 
standing with a horn in his left hand and a staff in his right, with which 
he is restraining the attack of two plaited serpents. 

This seems to illustrate lines in the same poem referring to Heimdal 
the warder of the gods, who at the battle of Ragnarok, the Armageddon 




Hk, T- ^'" tv 

^ ir "• ^ -j^ - ~ ■■ -i > 













LOKI AND SiGUN, GoSFORTH CrOSS. 




•£1*^ ^ vyr-^'i >irfji 

Heimdal, Gosforth Cross. 



of Edda mythology, was to blow his horn when the evil powers attacked 
heaven. The falling horseman may be one of the attacking enemies or 
Odin in his fall or in his descent to hell, but this is less evident. What 
is quite plain is that Christian and heathen subjects are curiously mixed 
in this monument ; while, curious as it is, the apparent confusion is 
not without parallel. On the Penrith crosses there are the stag and 
figures very like this group of Loki and Sigun; on the Dacre cross 

269 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

are the stag and the dog or wolf ; and there are resemblances in 
many sculptures less close and striking. In this way the Gosforth 
cross may be regarded as one of a series of Christian monuments 
made at a time when the Edda songs were in vogue, and people half 
beUeved the stories of the old gods and liked to portray them. That 
this was the case we know from the sagas, which tell us of men in 
the tenth century who had been baptized but prayed to Thor when 
they were at sea or in great danger, and carved Edda stories in wood or 
worked them in tapestry ; and we have reason for thinking that Cum- 
berland was then the haunt of such Northmen, one of whom would 
be fitly commemorated in this monument. 

A wheel-head now built into the church in two fragments was 
probably part of the cross cut down in 1789 to make the present sun- 
dial in the churchyard ; this must have been similar to the standing 
cross. A larger wheel-head built into the same wall probably belonged 
to a third cross, of which a fragment, now to be seen in the wall under 
the heads, was found by Dr. Parker in 1882. This third cross must 
have been low and broad, not tall and round-shafted ; but it was carved 
with another Edda subject. The story of Thor's fishing is told in the 
poem called Hymiskvida : how Thor went out in a boat in the Arctic 
regions with the giant Hymir, and fished for the Midgard's-worm, the 
great sea-serpent which encircled the earth. He baited his line with 
a bull's head and got a bite, but when he was hauling up his catch 
the giant became terrified and cut the line with his axe. In the 
Fishing stone, the fragment here preserved, the picture of the incident 
is given : Thor with his hammer and line, let down with the bull's 
head among the fishes ; Hymir with his axe, and the boat with its mast 
and crow's-nest as seen in tapestry and other illustrations of boats of the 
period. Now it is thought that the Hymiskvida is part of the Greenland 
series of poems ; Greenland was not discovered until 982—83, and so 
this carving must be later. The Edda songs would have been in vogue 
on the borders of the Irish Sea, where they were first composed, about 
the year 1000 ; and these illustrations of their subjects must have been 
done in the period of their popularity. 

Hogbacks 

In 1896 under the foundations of the north-west corner of the 

Norman church was discovered the hogback called by Mr. Calverley the 

' warrior's tomb,' a house-shaped stone with imitative tiles to its roof and 

interlacing on one side and a scene of battle or truce-making on the 

other. There are two armies with spears and round shields of the pre- 

Norman age, one army reversing its spears and its leader apparently giving 

up the flag to the leader of the other army. This can hardly mean 

anything but a record of victory won by the chieftain of Gosforth here 

buried. We know that king iEthelred in 1000 a.d. ravaged a great 

part of Cumberland and hoped to meet his fleet on the coast, but the 

270 




Three Cross-heads at Gosforth. 

A, probably head of the destroyed' Sundial Cross ; S^ and B', probably head of the Fishing Stone ; C, late cross-heat 




The Fishing Stone, Gosforth. 



To face page 270. 



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The 'Warrior's Tome,' Gosfor 




The ' Saint's Tome,' Gosforth. 



To face page 271 




. 4> 



Hogback, Crosscanonby. 




Dearham Cross. 



To face page 271, 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

fleet did not appear and so he had to return by the way he came. 
Without going so far as to attempt any identification, it is worth while 
pointing out that he would have come round the north of Cumberland 
towards Ravenglass for the purpose of finding his ships, and it is possible 
that here at last the inhabitants, Northmen principally, made a stand. 
But there must have been many a battle hereabouts in those days. 

In 1897 another hogback was found under the north-east corner of 
the nave, and called by Mr. Calverley the ' saint's tomb' because on its ends 
there are figures of Christ crucified and perhaps Christ in resurrection. 
On its sides are great serpents with human figures wrestling in their coils — 
another rendering of the subject already noticed in the Penrith hogback, 
the struggle of the seed of the woman with the serpent. 

At Plumbland there are two fragments of a hogback which was 
built into the church and carved by the early English mason into an 
impost or springer for an arch with honeysuckle-moulded ornament 
beneath. But the serpent is plainly seen on the walls of the shrine, and 
at its ends a variation of the Triquetra which is so conspicuous at 
Gosforth. 

To complete the series of Cumberland hogbacks that at Bromfield 
may be mentioned, built above the Norman arch inside the west door- 
way. It has a tegulated roof, but is too defaced and ill seen to illustrate. 

At Aspatria is part of a very fine hogback, with elaborate roof and 
sides carved into pilasters with rich interlacing. The band of step- 
pattern at the eaves and the angular plait along the ridge seem to indicate 
a rather later date. 

At Cross Canonby is another hogback fairly complete, though its 
sides have been defaced. It is of red sandstone, 6 feet i inch long, 2 1 
inches high and 17 inches broad. It has at the gable-ends of the mimic 
roof some remains of the beasts' heads which were common adornments 
of hogbacks, perhaps in imitation of the trophies put up on the gables of 
dwelling-houses of the time. The tegulation of the roof is curious, for 
it is the same chain-pattern we have seen on the shaft of Gosforth cross 
and referred to a Scandinavian origin. 

Minor Scandinavian Crosses : Chain-Pattern 

The same ornament is the chief feature of the Dearham cross, 
which stood until 1900 in the churchyard, but after some injuries was 
then put for safety inside the church. The western side bears out Mr. 
Calverley's theory that the pattern is intended to represent a Tree of 
Yggdrasil ; for there is the bole beneath, breaking into branches among 
which are two birds, and ending in curled twigs at the rim of the wheel- 
head. On the other side from a coil of roots four stems shoot up through 
an arch, which may possibly be intended for the rainbow, the bridge of 
the gods by which they descended from heaven ; and above it is another 
entanglement of branches. The idea of the artist may have been to sug- 
gest, as on so many of these gravestones, the hope of life to come, here 

271 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

using a new symbol, which however would be understanded of the people 
whether heathen or Christian. 

With Dearham cross may be classed the fragments of a head at 
Gilcrux church. The boss is six-petalled, like one of the Carlisle 
cross-heads we have noted as Anglian, but the identity of pattern is of 
far less importance than the identity of treatment ; and here we see inter- 
lacing of a type unlike the Anglian, but like these works which we group 
together as late and Scandinavian (tenth and eleventh century and Irish- 
Norse). 

In Muncaster churchyard is another low broad cross with a new 
variety of the chain-pattern on its face and flatly treated braids on the 
back and edges. Under the main design at both front and back is a 
simple step-pattern ; compare the Aspatria hogback. A wheel-head lies 
now beside it, possibly its own ; but the socket recently added could not 
have fitted this cross, and shows that there were more than one such 
monument at Muncaster. 

The same variety of chain-pattern is seen on the edges of two crosses 
at Bromfield and Rockcliffe churchyards, both rudely hacked or picked 
sculptures, but remarkable in having broad raised bands running horizon- 
tally round the shafts. It has been suggested that this indicates an 
original imitation of basket-work in these interlaced crosses, but we 
can trace the development of their various styles from the Bewcastle 
cross and the development of that from an adaptation of sixth and seventh 
century Greek-Italian art to the standing-stones of the British Christians. 
It is still possible however that in the search for variety artists then as 
now introduced new ideas by imitating work properly intended for other 
materials, and that basket-work, as well as illuminated manuscripts, metal- 
work and wood-carving, was sometimes copied. Only this does not 
account for the origin of the interlaced crosses as some have supposed. 

The Bromfield red-sandstone cross has lost its head, but the Rock- 
cliffe cross is complete. It is unusual in this county, because though a 
wheel-cross it is not four-holed ; the spaces between the arms are merely 
counter-sunk, not pierced. On the bands are grotesque figures of ani- 
mals, which lead us to a new class of later monuments, those with beasts, 
birds, snakes and human figures, drawn clumsily and with none of the 
correctness and dignity of the fine early Anglian work, but resembling 
Irish art in MSS. and sculpture. 

Later Zoomorphic Sculptures 

The Dacre stone, a shaft preserved in the church, was a low broad 
cross, bearing at the top a figure almost identical with the animal turning 
its head over its back, supposed to be the lamb treading on the serpent, 
seen on the Fishing stone. There is a much weathered figure in the same 
attitude on one of the crosses of the Giant's Grave at Penrith. The 
stag, seen at Penrith and with the dog or wolf on the Gosforth standing 
cross, is here seen with the dog or wolf on its back. At the bottom is 

272 




MuNCASTER Cross. 




RocKCLiFFE Cross. 




Dacre Cross. 



To face page 272. 



/^w^ 




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^^ .«-_ 



Waberthwaite Cross. 



To face page 273. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

the scene of the Temptation : Adam and Eve with the tree of Eden and 
the serpent. The two figures taking hands over a sqi^are object like an 
altar or font have been thought to represent king iEthelstan and king 
Constantine, who made a treaty ' at the place which is called Eamot on 
the 4th day before the ides of July,' July 12, 926, says the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle. This however is doubtful. We can see that the sculp- 
ture is similar to that which we have classed under Scandinavian influence 
and that it has some features recalling the spiral Cumbrian style in the 
curled accessories of the design. We must place it with the Giant's 
Grave as a transition-form on the brink of the Irish-Norse style. It may 
be tenth century, and it is possible that it is the grave of some such per- 
sonage as Owain, king of Cumberland, but we must leave the two figures 
at present uninterpreted. 




The Red Shaft, Cross Canonby. 



A shaft re-erected by Lord Muncaster in Waberthwaite churchyard 
is all interlaced, with the open plaitwork which became more common 
at the end of the eleventh and in the twelfth century. Interlacing of 
the best period of this art was usually tight, showing very little ground. 
This is rudely hacked, not chiselled, and yet designed with some attempt 
at symmetry. Among the interlacing is the figure of a horse seen also 
at Halton, Lancashire, on a late eleventh century cross. 

The wilder character of this Irish-Norse art is brought out in the 
standing cross at Aspatria, a red sandstone shaft 4 feet 6 inches high, 
from which the head is lost, though it is still possible to trace the curve 
of a wheel-cross, like those of Dearham and Gilcrux. Three sides bear 
interlacings, fairly regular, but clumsy in drawing and roughly hacked 
out ; the fourth side has a wild entanglement without symmetry, but no 
I 273 T 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

less ingenious in the following-out of the strands through a wonderful 
cobweb maze. Beneath this is a beast with its head turned over its 
back, but ruder and wilder than the similarly posed creatures at Dacre 
and Gosforth. 

Still wilder are those on the red shaft at Cross Canonby, beasts 
writhing and trying to bite themselves in two. One edge of this piece 
has a wildly twisted dragon, the other edge a ring-plait, and the reverse 
a fret — no very definite sign of date, though the cable-moulding links it 
to the late pre-Norman types and distinguishes it from the earliest 
Anglian. 

A similar treatment of monsters appears on a shaft at Workington 
church, with angular frets on the sides, bird-like creatures on one edge 
and a kind of snake on the other. 

The Dragonesqjje Series 

Snakes interlaced have already been noticed on the Gosforth crosses 
and hogbacks, the St. Bees standing cross, and the Plumbland hogback, 
and now we have a series in which this characteristic motive of Irish and 
Scandinavian work is very distinctly shown, along with features different 
from the Gosforth style. 

At St. John's, Beckermet, there is a group of stones preserved in 
the church which must have formed parts of three very picturesque 
crosses. The main material of ornament in all is a double-strap inter- 
lacing of a rather irregular design, recalling the Aspatria standing cross, 
but interspersed with the conventional Irish and Norse dragon-heads. 
In two of these crosses there are geometrical patterns with curled ends 
and pellets filling the gaps, which suggest a survival of the spiral school ; 
these, like the Penrith and Dacre examples, being transition-types between 
the Cumbrian and Gosforth styles. One of them is remarkable for a 
clever use of the drill to punctuate the intersections of the plaits, as in 
the braid on the north side of Gosforth standing cross and on the 
' saint's tomb.' There is a fragment of a still later shaft with angular 
interlacing, and cable-moulding which does not appear in the three 
others. The socket-stone no doubt belongs to one of the three. 

At Haile there are fragments of dragonesque shafts, figured by 
Canon Knowles (in Trans. Cumb. and West. Ant. and Arch. Soc. vol. iii. 
1877). 

The head built into High Aikton farm and noticed there by the 
Rev. Richard Taylor must have come from Bromfield church, though 
it is of a different stone from the interlaced cross already described. In 
the place of the boss it has a dragon's head with a ring through the 
snout — an adaptation of the idea we have seen carried out at Gosforth, 
where the serpents attack the cross-head. 

The socket-stone in the tower of Brigham church is a good example 
of this dragonesque style. There is also a red sandstone wheel-head, 
with three fragments of interlacing of this age ; one of them of white 

274 





To face page 274. 




The Dragon Lintel, St. Bees. 





Cross-head, High Aikton. 



The ' Lawrence ' Slab, 
Crosscanonby. 



T^o face page 275. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

freestone, very loose in design, angular and disconnected, evidently 
belonging to the close of the period. Over the porch of the vicarage 
at Brigham is a head which bears a figure entangled in and grasping 
interlaced coils which are now too mutilated to show the dragon's head 
if there was one, but this is the completed type of the dragonesque 
subject — Christ, the seed of the woman, wrestling with and overcoming 
the serpent. 

The idea is carried out in a shaft recovered in 1900 from the Nor- 
man foundations of Great Clifton church, where there is an echo of the 
Gosforth saint's tomb in the two dragons surmounted by two small 
human figures, a resemblance so striking as to suggest imitation ; while 
at the foot of the shaft is a much ruder figure, with nimbus and long 
robes, holding and held by the coils of a serpent. Above this is a great 




Socket Stone, Brigham Church. 



Cross-head, Brigham Vicarage. 



dragon with an unmistakable wolfs head, and a little plaited snake with 
a human head, the tempter of Eve — another form of the symbolism in 
Dacre cross. 

The most perfect example of this conflict with the dragon is the 
lintel at St. Bees church, representing St. Michael with helmet, sword 
and shield fighting the dragon. Finely designed frets are on either side. 
This must belong to quite the end of the pre-Norman series, if not to 
the twelfth century, when however Cumberland was not yet really 
Normanized. There are many bits of twelfth century interlacing, as at 
Brigham and Great Salkeld, in the capitals and details of architecture 
which show a continuous tradition of these earlier types, and in some 
slabs and fonts there are similar survivals which ought not to be omitted 
in a review of early Cumberland art. 

The curious slab at Cross Canonby with the cable-stemmed cross, 
zigzag ornament as in some Welsh stones, and rude figure, is difficult to 
class. The ' gridiron ' over the figure's head has been thought to show 

275 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

that he is intended for St. Lawrence. The little stone with a rude sketch 
of a similar figure incised may be a carver's trial-piece. 

At Dearham is a grave-slab with open twelfth century interlacmg, 
rosettes and leaves, a helmeted head under an arch, and three figures hold- 
ing hands, one of whom, a 



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man helmeted, has his foot 
in the mouth of a serpent. 
At one end of the slab is 
the word ' Adam,' at the 
other are runes not satisfac- 
torily read. 

The font at Dearham 
has also open interlacing 
and a kind of chequer-work 
on the opposite side. On 
the other sides it has two 
monsters of a type not seen 
in earlier work, but per- 
haps intended for a griffin 
and a cetus, meaning the 
spiritual nature and the 
water of baptism as in 
several other fonts. This 
is a square font ; that at 
Torpenhow is round, with 
late Norman interlacing 
and interlaced round arches. 
The Bridekirk font is 
a famous work of the 
twelfth century, noticed 
here as showing the out- 
come of earlier zoomorphic 
interlacing under new in- 
fluence from Italy. It 
was attributed by Prof. 
Stephens, not without some 
reason, to Richard of Dur- 
ham, a great artist living 
about 1 1 20-80 whose por- 
trait is here, carved by 
himself as at work on the 
stone, with his signature in runes above, among floral scrolls of the period 
and Norman monsters. On one side is the picture of the Fall, Adam 
before the angel with the flaming sword and Eve embracing the tree of 
life. On the next is the baptism of Christ, and on the opposite side are 
a griffin and a cetus supporting a wheel or sun and framed in a pattern 
characteristic of twelfth century north Italian art. It is interesting to 

276 



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The Adam Slab, Dearham. 





Dearham Font. 



To face page zy6. 




Griffin and Cetus, Bridekirk Font. 






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r 



To face page zyj. 



The Baptism of Christ, Bridekirk Fonx'. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NQRMAN PERIOD 

find that as we began 500 years before with north Italian influence pro- 
ducing beautiful work in Cumberland, so we conclude the survey with a 
new development under teaching from the same source. 

Post-Conquest High Crosses 

Before leaving the subject of Cumberland crosses it may be neces- 
sary to mention those which are not pre-Norman, but of a later date, 
though sometimes confused with the early grave-monuments. We have 
complete crosses of the mediasval type at Arthuret, Kirkland, Rheda 
(Cross Lacon) and St. Bees (the resting cross) ; headless shafts at 
Dovenby, Lanercost (dated by inscription 12 14) and Lazonby ; heads 
alone at Bromfield (two built into the out-house of the vicarage), 
Cumwhitton and Gosforth (built into the porch), and some sockets alone. 
Crosses used to exist, but are now lost, at Castle Sowerby (two corpse 
crosses on the common), Croglin, Lamplugh, Melmerby and at Bow 
said to have been brought from Grinsdale. Beside these are market 
crosses, as at Blennerhasset and Ireby, and finial crosses removed from 
the gables of churches, as at Melmerby and Workington (Crossbill), 
where the inscription W.H. JJ03 stands for W.H. 1703, the date 
when it was built into its present position. In March, 1901, a fragment 
of a late cross was found in excavating the ruins of a chapel at the Holy 
Well, Gosforth. 

Inscriptions 

In Cumberland there have been found seven Runic inscriptions on 
stone and two on metal-work. Another which has been called Runic is 
in minuscules ; and an Anglo-Saxon cross-head at Carlisle has lettering 
in uncials. These, if not all cut before the advent of the Normans, 
belong to the pre-Norman type of remains. 

The Bewcastle cross has runes which have been the subject of 
much discussion. The reading which may be called the Textus Receptus, 
though not without difEculties, we owe mainly to the late Rev. J. 
Maughan of Bewcastle. It is as follows — 

North side, on separate lines between the ornamental panels ; 

t GESSUS t Jesus 

WULFHERE Wulfhere 

MYRCNAOYNG King of the Mercians 

CYNESWIThA Cyneswitha (his sister) 

CYNNBURUG Cyneburg (their sister, wife of Alcfrith) 

South side, on separate lines between the ornamental panels : 

[illegible] 

ECGFRIThU OfEcgfrith 

RICES Th>EES of this realm 

CYNINGES king (brother of Alcfrith) 

t FRUMAN GEAR t in the first year 

The lowest lines in each set are plainly legible; Herr Wilhelm Vietor 
however [Die Northumbrischen Runensteine, 1895) reads CYNIBURUG. The 

277 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

rest is now very far from distinct, though part of the topmost line on the 
north side can be read. 

West side, over the figure of Christ : 



t GESSUS 
CRISTTUS 



Jesus 
Christ 



There are traces of a name, possibly that of Christ, at the top of 
that side. On the panel below the figure of Christ is a long inscription, 
which we give in facsimile from a squeeze-tracing. The reading usually 
adopted is — 



t This SIG-BECN 
ThUN SETTON H- 
W/ETRED WOTh- 
GAR OLWFWOL- 
ThU AFT ALCFRI- 
ThU EAN CYNINg 
EAC OSWIUNg 
fGEBID HE. 
O SIN(N)A SOWHULA 



This victory-column 
tall set up 
Hwaetred, Woth- 
gar, Olwfwol- 
thu, for Alcfrith 
late king 

and son of Oswiu 
Pray for (? the high 
sin of?) his soul 



Herr Victor thinks that the name Hivcetred, part of the Wothgar and the 
word for king are distinctly readable ; while he is inclined to accept the 
name of Alcfrith and the word for son of Oswiu. In the last two lines 
he sees a version of the usual formula, Pray for his soul. 

Our facsimile shows how difficult these last lines are to read, and 
how doubtful ' the high sin ' must be ; though the main purport of the 
inscription seems to be fairly clear. If the Bewcastle cross is to be 
dated 671, as its inscription and ornament seem to suggest, these runes 
are the earliest dated piece of English writing in existence. 

The Irton cross had an inscription in runes, of which Professor 
George Stephens of Copenhagen read (from a cast made in 1863 by the 
Rev. Daniel H. Haigh) this fragment — 



+ GEBIDyCTh FOR>E 



Pray for 



H 



Herr Victor in 1895 said : ' I can only see at the end of the first line 
the remains of a B, or as Haigh thought p (Thorn, the rune for Th), 
but not Haigh's + G at the beginning of the first line, F at the beginning 
and M at the end of the second, /E at the beginning of the third line.' 
In Carlisle cathedral a Runic inscription was found by Mr. Purday 

in 1855 under the plaster and white- 
wash on the western wall of the 
south transept, where it may be seen 
framed and glazed. It is evidently 
not a monumental inscription, though 
taken on discovery as such, but the 
sgraffito of some mason — perhaps — 
at the time when the cathedral was being built. After some guesses 
Dr. Charlton read — 

TOLFIHN YRAITA Th/ESI RYNR A ThISI STAIN 

' Dolfin wrote these runes on this stone.' 

278 





The Dolfin Runes. 




Runes of Bewcastle Cross. 



To face pagt 278. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

which Stephens adopted with slight alteration. The circumstances in 
which the inscription was found seem to warrant its genuineness, but the 
spelling is curious and the forms unusual. 

Near Bewcastle at Barnspike a shepherd found runes on a rock in 
1864. Mr. Maughan read — 

BARANR . HRAIT . AT . GILLHES . BUETH . 
IAS . VAS . DAUThR . I . TRIKU . RAB . 
D . VAULKS . AT ; FADRLAND . NU . 
LLANERKASTA . 

He referred this to the legend, exploded by Mr. Hodgson Hinde, of 
the circumstances which led to the foundation of Lanercost priory ; and 

mm 

Barnspike 

/fazeigill 

translated : ' Baran wrote this inscription in memory of Gillhes Bueth, 

who was slain in a truce by Robert De Vaux for his patrimony now 

called Lanercost.' We believe that the inscription was a practical joke. 

The runes and some of the forms are taken from Mr. Maughan's own 

pamphlet, and especially from his erroneous copy of the Carlisle 

cathedral inscription. The word he read FADRLAND should be read 

FETRIANA, and it was Mr. Maughan's theory that Petriana was the 

Roman name for Lanercost. No Scandinavian rune-writer in the 

eleventh century would have called Rodbertus de Vallibus ' Rab D (or 

te) Vaulks,' or have described Lanercost with imaginary antiquarianism 

as ' Petriana now Llanerkasta.' The F was used as initial for Petriana 

because P is a rare letter in late Scandinavian runes ; and the double L 

for Lanercost was to suggest a Welsh or British origin of the name. 

279 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Half a mile north of Barnspike, near Hazel Gill, another shepherd 
found more runes on a rock in 1872. Professor Stephens read — 

ASKR HRITA HEIL KIL HIMThlK/E 
HESSIL 
* Ask wrote this hill to Gil henchman to Hessil.' 

We can find no HESSIL on the stone, but we find the names Hessil and 
Gil in Hazel Gill or Hessil Gill hard by, and Ask at Askerton Castle. 
This finding of proper names in place-names was characteristic of the 
period and of Mr. Maughan, and the inscription seems to have been 
another practical joke (see Early Sculptured Crosses of the Diocese of 
Carlisle, 1899, pp. 48—53). 

Bridekirk font bears runes of the twelfth century. The second 

The Bridekirk Runes. 

line is by no means clear, but the reading of W. Hamper (1820) and 
Professor Stephens does not seem to have been bettered — 

t RIKARTh HE ME IWROKT(E) 
& TO This MERThE GERNR ME BROKTE 

* Richard, he me wrought, and to this beauty carefully me brought.* 

At Dearham the ' Adam Slab,' already described, has beside the 
word ADAM a few broken runes. The Rev. W. S. Calverley communi- 




•4 M*flT 



The Dearham Runes. 



cated them to Professor Stephens, who said that as later runes they 
would read HNI^RM, which means nothing : therefore he regarded them 
as early runes and read — 

(Krist S)U(L) GI-NI/ERA 
'May-Christ his-SOUL N/ERE (save, bless)!' 

He dated the stone, from this reading, ' 850-950 ? ' but this date seems 

280 




The Inscribed Cross, St. Bridget's, Beckermet. 



To face page 281. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

impossible from the character of the ornament on the slab, which 
suggests twelfth century work. Herr Vietor only says : ' The northern 
rune M (earlier R) shows that the inscription is not EngHsh in character.' 
We leave our tracing to the reader's consideration. 

The amulet ring found at Kingmoor in 1817 or 1818 (now in 
the British Museum, Anglo-Saxon Room) also bears runes, which 
appear to be a magical formula (see Stephens, Old-Northern Runic 
Monuments, i. 496 ; iii. 218). 

The Aspatria gold armlet, found in 1828, and now lost, had runes 
which were thought to read GEROT, but the drawings made at the time 
are not sufficiently exact to determine them (Stephens, op. cit. i. 160). 

The Anglian cross-head found at Carlisle in 1857, and now in the 
Fratry, has an inscription in uncials on both sides. At the time of its 
discovery Professor Westwood 
dated it about 700 a.d., remark- 
ing that the forms of the letters 
were those of MSS. of that period. 
The peculiar S after the cross 
occurs in the Durham book and 
in the book of St. Chad. The 
word SIGTTEDIS was thought to 
be a female name. 

The cross of St. Bridget's, 
Beckermet, used to be called 
Runic, and it has been variously 
read ; but the rubbings (still exist- 
ing) from which some of these 

attempts were made were very Fragment, found 1857. Carlisle. 

imperfect. There is no doubt that 

the letters are minuscules, rather tall for their breadth, with d for a. 

They may be read somewhat as follows — 

[line wanting] 




r I n t a 1 g g n e 
iuan : icati- 



fos : fa : gelfe {or safe) 

rr 

To Mr. John Rogers of Barrow-in-Furness we owe suggestions 
leading to an interpretation which however must be regarded as only 
tentative. Considering the inscription as some form of Gaelic, and the 
q at the beginning of the third existing line as a form of d {i.e. a), the 
words might be expanded : ' . . . rinta le gne Iuan {mh)i{c) Cairabre, 
ithmigh aig fos fa selbh,' ' (This cross was) made for the face of {i.e. for 
the purpose or memory of) John son of Cairbre, gone to rest under the 
keeping of — /. Xst, 'Jesus Christ.' For the remainder Mr. Rogers 

281 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

suggested : {Fo)rm-si Cr{ist air), ' Be gracious to him, O Christ ! ' (see 
Early Sculptured Monuments in the Diocese of Carlisle, pp. 26—3 i). 

Metal- WORK 

In the Tullie House Museum, Carlisle, are various objects of 
British workmanship found with urns of a late-Celtic type at Carlisle. 
There is the bronze torque found in English street ; the enamelled 
Celtic fibula of late Roman time found in building the new market, 
and another fibula like it ; pins of the same period, and horse-trappings, 
representing native art during and for some time after the Roman 
occupation. A more magnificent specimen is the iron sword in a bronze 
sheath found at Embleton, and now in the British Museum. The sword 
is about 20 inches long, slightly curved and double-edged. Round the 
pommel are bits of paste en cabochon, alternately light red and emerald 
green. The sheath is of thin bronze with a chequer pattern ; its bands 
and tip are of solid bronze. The style of pattern called late-Celtic, 
with trumpet-shaped curves and spirals, lasted through the Roman 
period and into the Christian age. This is seen, for example, in the 
stone monuments and metal-work of Scotland ; and in Cumberland there 
was a curious instance in the late-Celtic disc of champleve enamel 
(British Museum, from Crosthwaite's Museum at Keswick), which was 
used to attach a hook to an Anglo-Saxon bronze bowl. The locality 
and circumstances of the find are however unknown. 

Of dated relics in metal-work we have the hoard found in June 
1855 at Scotby, 6 feet deep in a peat moss, comprising about 100 coins 
of Edward the Elder and Athelstan (910-41) with ten or twelve 
ingots, an iron horse-shoe with six square holes for nails, and a small 
iron bill-hook. At Kirkoswald early in the nineteenth century were 
found more than 700 stycas, dating from 796 to 854, with a silver fibula 
now in the British Museum. It is trefoil-shaped, with flat red paste 
iewels, one of which remains in place ; the ornament is solid and in high 
relief. It used to be ascribed to the period of OfFa, king of Mercia 
(d. 796), but rather resembles later Scandinavian types. Both these 
hoards are of the Viking age. 

At Carlisle Castle was found a brooch with an Anglo-Saxon inscrip- 
tion, present locality unknown and description imperfect ; but another 
fibula, said to have been found near Carlisle, and exhibited in 1859 by 
the Rev. Tullie Cornthwaite, is described in the catalogue of the collec- 
tion shown at the meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute as 
penannular, and of copper or some other base metal thickly plated with 
gold, about I inch in diameter. Other penannular brooches have been 
found near Dacre and Penrith, and at Brayton. The first was discovered 
in Newbiggin Moor Silver Field near Fluskew Pike, Dacre, in 1785, 
together with silver rings, near a site of interment with stone coffins, 
urns and bones. It can hardly have had more than an accidental con- 
nection with these interments in urns, for the engraving in Clarke's 

282 




The Kirkoswald Fibula. 




The Brayton Fibula. 



To face page 282. 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

Survey of the Lakes gives us a magnificent specimen of the bulbous 
penannular fibula, such as elsewhere has been found in Viking graves 
with tenth century coins. This brooch was of silver, weighing 25 
ounces, and variously described as having a ring 7 or %^ inches in 
diameter and a pin 21 or 22 inches in length. An almost identical 
brooch is said to have been found in a field near Penrith in 1830 ; it 
was exhibited in Carlisle 1859 by Mr. J. Teather, Alstonby. The third 
alluded to above, and known as the Bray ton fibula, was found in a fish- 
pond at Brayton Park some time before 1790, when it was mentioned in 
Pennant's Tour to Scotland. It was originally — only a fragment was 
recovered — a flat penannular brooch of silver, ornamented with an inter- 
laced triquetra ; and though different in form from the Dacre brooch, 
like it resembling brooches found in Viking graves. With it was found 
a silver hook, weighing 2 ounces and 4I inches in length. We may 
hazard a guess that this was the bent pin of the brooch. 

The Kingmoor amulet ring, of which the runes have been men- 
tioned, was of gold, weighing nearly 1 5 pennyweight. Another ring is 
mentioned by Stephens (Old-Northern Runic Monuments, iii. 218) as found 
somewhere in the north of England, and owned in 1870 by Mr. Robert 
Ferguson. This seems to be an imitation in copper of the Kingmoor 
ring. The Aspatria gold armlet with its runes has also been men- 
tioned ; it was found in the ditch of a hedge somewhere within the parish, 
and at Beacon Hill was the tumulus with incised slabs and gigantic 
warrior buried with his arms, which has been described by Chancellor 
Ferguson earlier in this volume. This interment was more probably 
Viking than Anglian, because by the time the Anglians penetrated into 
Cumbria they were Christianized, and would not be buried in heathen 
fashion ; but the Danes and Norse at first were pagan. The same may 
be said of the Hesket hoard, which was found in 1822 in a tumulus 
near the Court Thorn, and is now in TuUie House. It included an iron 
sword, with pommel and guard complete, but bent up and broken across, 
as in many Scandinavian graves ; an engraved pattern is still visible on 
the guard — a braid of three straps, each of three strands. There was 
also a shield-boss, an axe, a lance-head, a dart-head and a curved knife ; 
a spur, snaffle and buckle ; a hone, and a bone comb and bone objects 
which may be mountings of the sword-sheath, with engraved patterns — 
two plaits of three strands each and a simple twist of two strands. Among 
the stones of the cairn were bits of querns ; one of them of the dark grey 
volcanic rock from Andernach, used here by the Romans. 

The snaffle found at Hesket recalls a bridle-bit found at Birdoswald, 
and exhibited in 1859 by Mr. G. Head Head of Carlisle. It was 
described in the catalogue by the late Sir A. W. Franks and other dis- 
tinguished antiquaries as of ' Old English type ' ; and such parts of a 
horse's harness are common in Viking graves. 

In the Anglo-Saxon room of the British Museum is a sword- 
handle found in Cumberland and purchased 1876, the exact locality not 
stated. It is of wood, with gold filigree on bands of gold, and garnets 

283 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

inserted, evidently mere remnants of a more complete covering. A 
triangular space is filled with red enamel in panels. Gold filigree of 
this kind with garnets was much used in Scandinavia in the later part of 
the early Iron Age, but enamel was, though not unknown, exceedingly 
rare. This sword may therefore belong to the earlier Anglian period ; 
and it may be remarked in passing how few remains we have which can 
certainly be attributed to that age, beyond some sculptured stones in the 
north and west of the county. Most of these bits of metal-work, and 
by far the greatest part of the sculptured stones, refer to the later pre- 
Norman period, after the Danish and Norse invasions. 

With these remains may be mentioned the ' Saxon beads of glass 
and other ornaments, which may be seen at the rectory ' of Kirkbride, 
as Whellan stated in i860 ; and the spinning-whorl of black and red 
dull glass found at Moresby, and now in the Anglo-Saxon room of the 
British Museum. 

There can be no doubt that, as Chancellor Ferguson has remarked 
above, many other pieces of ancient metal-work have been found and 
lost again or destroyed ; but such fine examples as the Embleton sword, 
the Dacre fibula, and those here described, show that the earlier Celts 
and later Teutonic settlers of Cumbria were not without wealth and art. 

Earthworks 

The ancient earthworks of Cumberland other than those of Roman 
origin are taken together here, though some may have been constructed 
before the Romans came, and some were certainly in use after the Nor- 
man Conquest. But as a series they are connected with the dark age 
between Romans and Normans rather than with any other period ; and it 
is only by taking them in series, and comparing one with another, that 
much light can be thrown upon what has always been an obscure part of 
local archaeology. Many of these earthworks have disappeared since they 
were described by writers of 100 years ago. In those cases we must fall 
back on the old descriptions and plans, though skilled exploration would 
even yet yield interesting results, if such attention were given to non- 
Roman sites as lately has been given to the Roman Wall. 

We can roughly divide the known remains into duns, tuns and motes ; 
that is to say, strongholds of British type, many of which we may find 
to be post-Roman ; enclosures by Teutonic settlers, probably for domestic 
and agricultural purposes, and only secondarily used as walls of defence ; 
and mounds, wholly or partly artificial, on which the later settlers, 
whether Anglian, Danish or Norman, built their wooden houses, sur- 
rounded by trench and stockade, with or without the addition of a base- 
court. These last sometimes developed into the medieval pele or the 
Edwardian castle ; and probably, in a few cases, the early mote is now 
quite lost in the midst of a modern town. The better the site, the more 
likely it would be to find favour with successive generations of inhabit- 
ants, and to be transformed, century after century, into the kind of dwel- 

284 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

ling or stronghold in vogue at the time. Carlisle Castle, for example, 
may have been a pre-Roman dun ; and it was probably a British caer 
after the Romans left, and then an Anglian stockaded burh, and then a 
Norman castle. But the evidences of earliest occupation are lost ; and 
so it is with several other sites. 



DtiNS AND Caers 

The stronghold — whether homestead, town, or place of safety in 
time of war — peculiar to British ages was usually on a hill, and sur- 
rounded with broad and high ditches and ramparts. The more perfect 
types have three ramparts, as seen in Shoulthwaite Castle, a fortified hill 
in a little valley between Derwentwater and Thirlmere. The triple 
rampart does not entirely surround the crag, because it is only needed on 
the tongue of land joining the site with the neighbouring hills. Hutch- 
inson (ii. 1 54) says that pieces of freestone had been found here, and a 
well and wood ashes ; and there' is a tradition that it was used during 
Scottish raids. The freestone suggests a post-Roman date, and the place 
may have been occasionally occupied throughout many centuries, for it 
lies near but hidden from the great routes through the Keswick and 
Thirlmere valleys by which raiders and invaders must often have ad- 
vanced upon the shepherds and farmers of the dales. 

Similar hill-forts, though the ramparts, if any, are not now visible, 
existed at Castlehead or Castlet, Keswick, where wood ashes have been 
found in digging ; and at Castle Crag, Borrowdale, where Hutchinson 
mentions finds, a century ago, of leaden vessels, an iron pot, freestone 
again, and two wells, and, what shows continuity of use to a very late 
period, the head of a halbert dated 1684. Reecastle, above Lodore, is 
also said to have been a fortified hill. 

Dunmallet, at the foot of UUswater, is a very fine example of a 
fortified hill, but with only two ramparts, though these are continuous 
and well marked. Freestone has been found here also ; but the story of 
a monastery on the site is an error. Whatever the name means, it is a 
British word, and shows that when the speech of Cumbria was Celtic 
this was known as a dun. 

At the foot of Bassenthwaite lake, close to Peel-wyke, so named 
from this fortress, are the similar entrenchments of Castlehow. This 
however is not regular in form : there are four trenches on the side 
towards Peel-wyke, and only two on the more easily defensible side. 

Not far north of this, and as it were an outpost of the fells, is 
Caermote. As an ancient road runs through the camp, which is square, 
about 160 by 140 yards in size, with a gate in three of its sides, Caer- 
mote has been thought Roman. Early antiquaries said that altars and 
inscriptions had been dug up at a camp near Ireby, and it was supposed 
that this was the place. But it differs from a true Roman camp in 
having triple earthen ramparts, characteristic of British strongholds ; 
and, though the buildings in and near it have been partially explored, 

285 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

no Roman remains nor distinctive Roman masonry appeared. Melted 
lead, iron nails and charcoal, and debris of brick were met with, show- 
ing that it was not pre-Roman. Inside the larger entrenchment a 
smaller one has been formed, which Chancellor Ferguson took to mean 
that at first a cohort was placed there to make the road, and then a cen- 
tury was left to guard it. In 1899 however, after revisiting Caermote, 
he withdrew his earlier opinion, and said that it might be omitted from 
the list of Roman sites. 

Mr. W. Jackson of St. Bees thought the irregular entrenchment 
on the top of the hill, 935 feet above the sea and about 60 by 70 feet 
wide, was the mons exploratorius or look-out station of the Romans. It 
is called the Battery, and was the site of a beacon. But the name and 
remains suggest a post-Roman occupation. 

Some of the hill-forts have only a single rampart. The much- 
discussed ring of boulders and earth on the top of Carrock Fell, oval in 
shape, with one end replaced by the easily defensible brow of a steep 
fell-side, and containing a cairn, may be an example, though some have 
doubted whether it is not partly natural and partly the result of miners' 
trial diggings. On Little Mell Fell there is another ring embankment ; 
at Greencastle loch, east of the Maiden Way on Cross Fell, there may 
be found a semicircular fortification of earth on the top of Roderick 
heights — a name which suggests the famous king Rhydderch. At a 
point half a mile north of Burnmoor tarn, between Wastwater and Esk- 
dale, Maidencastle is the name given to a round enclosure, 21 feet in 
diameter, possibly a hill-fort of refuge, not necessarily to be connected 
with the Megalithic remains and cairns on the same moor. 

Another Maidencastle, also known as Caerthanoc, lies on Soulby 
Fell near Dunmallet. It is a circular entrenchment, 82 yards internal 
diameter, with an area of rather more than an acre. The entrenchment 
has two ramparts with a ditch, 1 8 feet wide in parts, between them ; 
and Dr. M. W. Taylor, writing in 1868, said that a few years earlier 
blocks of stone were visible in the entrenchment. Earlier still, Hutchin- 
son found within the ring an oblong square fort, measuring 20 by 15 
paces ; mentioned also in the eighteenth century by Father West. At 
present this is hardly visible, but the ring remains, so placed that it can 
scarcely be called a hill-fort, though it occupies an elevated position on 
the fell. It is more like the site of a British settlement, the caer of 
another chief. 

The peculiar form of this double rampart with the single ditch is 
seen also in two curious 'camps,' one on the east and one on the west of 
the county, far removed in position but very similar in construction. 
At Ousby there is the five-sided enclosure with double rampart and 
ditch, called Crewgarth, where foundations of walls have been seen, and 
an urn (type not stated), a quern, a mortar and a metal ball weighing 
2 or 3 lb. have been found at different times. Chancellor Ferguson 
thought it Anglo-Saxon or later ; and no doubt it was an inhabited site 
in historical ages. 

286 



REMAINS OF THE PUE-NORMAN PERIOD 

Near Ponsonby, on Infell, is a similar enclosure, with double ram- 
part and ditch ; Dr. C. A. Parker of Gosforth gives the measurements of 
the sides as 22 paces, 64, 52, 75 and 41, and of the ditch as 4I to 6 
feet in depth, and 22 feet from crest to crest of the ramparts. Near the 
north angle is a circular tank for water. No remains have been found 
there. The notion that it was Roman is now abandoned. 

A similar double rampart forms the D-shaped camp at Skew Hill 
on the Eden opposite Grinsdale, with an area of about 2| acres. The 
ordnance map marks it 'Camp, 1745,' but it is connected by its form 
with a much earlier date of origin. Two small round forts, with the 
same kind of double rampart, are on opposite sides of the Irthing valley 
— one called Tower Tye close to Naworth Castle railway station, and 
one called Watch Hill north-west of Triermain. Maclauchlan, in his 
Memoir on the Roman Wall, pointed out that they stood in striking rela- 
tion to the Norman castles near them, and did not think that either 
were British. Tower Tye may be British, Twr meaning ' tower ' and Ty 
' house,' and there is another place of the same name near Walwick-on- 
the-Wall. The interior diameter of Tower Tye is about 50 yards, and 
the ramparts are very well marked, almost out of proportion to the 
enclosed space, evidently making it a stronghold of some importance. 

In the same district is Hayton Castle Hill, a circular eminence 1 20 
feet across within the double rampart and ditch. The ditch varies in 
breadth from 5 to 12 feet. The site is on the extremity of a narrow 
projecting eminence, separated on the south from the village by a deep 
ravine, the sides of which are about 15 feet high, artificially scarped. 
The centre of the Castle Hill is level and depressed, rising 3 or 4 feet 
on the west and 8 feet on the east. Chancellor Ferguson classed it as 
a burh, but the Rev. G. Rome Hall considered it a British fort ; and we 
see that its double rampart connects it with the preceding series. 

A few miles south of this, on the steep banks of the Eden, in the 
parish of Cumwhitton, is a round fort known as Castle Hill. Across the 
Eden, on Lazonby Fell, are a round camp and fort ; and near them, at 
Castlerigg, 'ruins of a building, moated round' (Hutchinson, i. 289). 
South of that again, at Greystoke, is the irregular rectangular camp by 
Summerground Gill on Berrier Hill, the fort at Wallaway Green, and 
the large oval camp at Newton Reigny, near Catterlen (formerly written 
Kaderleng, another caer), and near tumuli where urns have been dis- 
covered. 

Going north towards Caldew we find the sites of three hill-forts 
in Castle Sowerby : Knights' Hill, Southernby, a hill with founda- 
tions of buildings (Hutchinson, ii. 433) perhaps mediaeval and named 
from the red knights of Inglewood ; Castle How or Castle Hill, a rock- 
cut hill-fort, which is said by tradition (Jefferson, Leath Ward, p. 138, 
following Hutchinson) to have been palisaded and to have been used in 
comparatively modern ' times, perhaps to secure cattle during border 
forays ; and How Hill, a round fort about 2 1 yards in diameter, with 
an opening on the south side. 

287 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

Other round forts are mentioned by the Rev. J. Clifton Ward at 
Fitz Wood, Cockermouth ; the Battery, Cromwell Holes ; Embleton 
Moat ; and a mile north-east of Uldale. In West Cumberland are six 
more round camps, forts or settlements. At Eaglesfield, Castlesteads is 
the name of a circular enclosure containing an acre or more. At Gatra, 
near Lamplugh, is another earthen ring. At Pardshaw, the White 
Causeway is a stony platform adjoining a raised ring of gravel and 
boulders, which encloses what is now a swampy basin ; though, like 
Hardknott Camp, it must have been drained when in use. At Dovenby 
Hall is an oval camp measuring 112 by 72 yards in the park, another of 
about 58 yards diameter in the field called Guards (Garths, a name often 
denoting an ancient enclosure), and a smaller one between the two. The 
form of the rampart of the largest suggests a resemblance to the 'British 
settlements ' known in Westmorland. 

Two other sites are connected by name with British times, though 
the earthworks are now too far ruined for classification. Dunwalloght 
or Drumwalloght, near Cumrew, on the side of the hill called Cardun- 
neth, is in the neighbourhood of many British place-names. The story 
that the Dacres had a seat here (mentioned by Hutchinson) is probably 
an error, but there used to be earthworks in a field near the church, 
and in 1832 two hillocks were removed, both apparently artificial ; no 
foundations of buildings or other remains were seen. On the other 
hand. Castle Hewen or Ewain, just across the Eden valley from Dun- 
walloght, seems to have been a stone building. Jefferson {heath Ward^ 
p. 225) describes the foundations as in his time (1840) faced with large 
ashlar stones, in some parts 8 feet in thickness. The castle measured 
233 by 147 feet, with a smaller building at one corner 49 feet square. 
The outward fence, which was of stone, appeared (says Jefferson) to 
have been circular, and from thence a ditch and breastwork ran down 
the skirt of the hill for several hundred yards. It was called Castel 
Lewen by Leland ; and very ancient tradition made it the fortress of 
Ewain, Eugenius or Owain, king of Cumberland, and the scene of Sir 
Gawaine's adventure when ' king Arthur lived in merry Carlisle.' 
Tarn Wadling was not drained in Jefferson's time, but it had dis- 
appeared by Whellan's (i860). 

TtJNs AND Square Camps 

Under this heading are collected a number of dykes, generally less 
massive than the great ramparts of the duns^ and not circular or oval. 
Some of them are square, or nearly square, in plan, and some irregular, 
but more or less following straight lines. The square camps used to 
be thought Roman, but lack the essential characteristics of true Roman 
camps. 

Such are the square enclosure at Overwater, the little square 
' camp ' at Thistlebottom (about a mile from Aughertree Fell), and the 
two small square camps near Rose Castle, of which Hutchinson (ii. 

288 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

433) says that they were in his time almost defaced, and no remains 
known to date them ; they were about 50 yards wide, one NNE. and 
the other SSW. of the castle. Such also was the square camp at 
Cunninggarth, near Shawkbeck quarries, which used to be thought 
Roman because it was near the rock in the quarries with a Roman 
inscription, and because not far away urns containing ashes and bones 
were found in the barrow called Toddle Hill, long since removed. 
There are several minor square enclosures in this district, and some 
near Stockdalewath especially interesting, which were described with 
figures by Hayman Rooke in the eighteenth century (Hutchinson, 
ii. 430-1). 

Of these, Castlesteads was a square camp of 188 by 160 yards, 
with corners rounded and two entrances, one in the middle of the north 
side, through which a paved way seems to have led, and one near the 
south-eastern corner. In the middle of the area was a smaller enclosure, 
86 yards square, containing the ruins of three houses, where stones and 
ashes were found, but no urns. This has some little resemblance to 
Caermote, but it is more like the plan of an Anglian or Scandinavian 
settler's homestead, with its tungarth surrounding the tun or homefield, 
and group of dwellings in the middle. 

Whitestones was a square area, ipo by 98 yards wide, enclosed 
by a single ditch and vallum, with corners much rounded off, and no 
remains observed ; one side and corner of the dyke had been obliterated. 
Stoneraise was a similar square of 67 yards, two sides and part of the 
third only remaining, for several hundred loads of stones had already 
been carted away from the site. Within the area were walls and ruins 
of buildings and cairns ; a tooth and bits of burnt bones and ashes 
were found in the cairns, and querns and an iron billhook. Near these 
was a tumulus of 63 feet diameter, on which there had once been a 
stone circle ; and in it stone coflEns and bones were found, but it does 
not follow that the sites were contemporary with the circle. They 
appear to have been dwelling-places, and of a much more recent origin 
than such a tumulus would be if it was of the Bronze age type, like 
the similar tumulus with a circle recently excavated at Glassonby. 

At the Heights, Westward, a place called Height Rigg Camp 
or Stoneraise Camp Trenches existed formerly, and was described 
by G. A. Dickson in 1816 {Archceologia Mliana, i. 132, with plan). 
Two parallel dykes, about 225 paces in length and 60 paces apart, ran 
east and west ; a door was in the middle of the most northerly, and 
on each side of the door were remains of building or entrenchment 
connected by a paved way (as at Castlesteads). The western enclosure 
was rectangular, 28 by 40 paces, with a wall running out from the 
middle of its western side for 45 paces, and a door opening on the 
causeway which led to the eastern building, and into it by another 
door. This eastern building, or what remained of it, was a semicircle, 
and a great stone stood in the centre. Four large tumuli, the writer 
mentions, stood about a mile away, and another half-way between them 
I 289 u 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

and these remains, of which he took the semicircle to be a temple and 
the great stone an altar. Comparing his plan with those of early 
remains of the Scandinavian settlers in Iceland — which throw much 
light on the domestic arrangements of the people who, as Danes and 
Norse, colonized our country — there is a certain resemblance to some 
examples of the dwelling-house and temple, of which one end was built 
in the form of an apse, the whole surrounded by the tungarth. 

Other extensive dykes may perhaps have been the t^ngarths of such 
settlers. The Bishop's Dyke at Dalston, though used in the Middle 
Ages as a defensible barrier, may have been originally intended as 
marking off the homefields of the settler at Dalston Hall. Near Great 
Salkeld, at the hamlet of Salkeld Dyke, is a ' camp ' about 400 yards 
long and 4 yards high, about a quarter of a mile from the stone ruins 
called Aikton Castle. The Baron's Dyke, Crosby-on-Eden, is mediaeval. 

On Cumwhitton Common were several square entrenchments from 
20 to 100 yards wide (Hutchinson, i. 177). On Penrith Common was 
a square entrenchment 20 yards each way, at or near which cistvaens 
were found, and others similar were known in the neighbourhood in 
Hutchinson's time (i. 321). 

' CoUinson's Castle ' at Upper Row in Hutton-in-the-Forest was 
an ancient fortification about 100 yards square, with a ditch 30 feet 
wide and a well ; querns had been found there QefFerson, Leath Ward, 
p. 438). On Pykethwaite Fell north of Bewcastle, at Christenbury 
Crags, the existence of a camp with ruins of a wall about z\ feet wide, 
and another about i \ feet wide, and ' a sunken ew^a'ywv ' (nine-cornered 
pit) nearly paved round with strongly cemented stones, and sunken 
circles 'paved as if for fires,' was reported by J. Hudson in 1804 
[Gentleman^ s Magazine Library, ' Romano-British,' i. 38). At Braystones 
was once a camp on the beach called Maidencastle (anonymous Antiquities 
of West Cumberland, 1849, p. 67). 

These items, to which more might be added, give an idea of the 
variety of non-Roman, and probably post- Roman earthworks, of which 
many are lost and none properly explored. 

A class of square ruins exists on the high fells — the remains of 
stone-built houses, sometimes with garths surrounding them, and possibly 
analogous to the Castlesteads of Stockdalewath and Height Rigg Camp 
at Westward. On Armboth Fell, between Thirlmere and Shoulthwaite 
Castle, are many little buildings with one, two or more chambers, cer- 
tainly not sheepfolds. On Bootle Fell and near Gosforth are old home- 
steads with garths complete, exactly like Icelandic ruins of the saga time. 
Indeed, in spite of losses, there is a great field for study in these remains 
as they exist even to-day ; and meantime it would be to very little 
purpose to theorize upon them. 

Motes 

Some of the grave-mounds which have been opened in Cumberland 
have been proved to belong to the Anglian or Viking age. Such are 

290 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

the Beacon Hill at Aspatria and the Hesket tumulus, already described. 
The late Rev. J. Maughan of Bewcastle has recorded a find (about 1858) 
of a skeleton buried with knees contracted and lying on the left side, 
not in a kist, but roughly walled up and covered with a heap of stones 
known as Murchie's Cairn, to which he ascribed a ' Pagan Saxon ' 
origin. We may mention Dunmail Raise as traditionally connected 
with the last fight (945) of the last king of Cumberland, Dummail 
or Domhnall, who however cannot have been buried there, as he died 
in Rome much later, and the cairn seems to have been opened long 
ago without much result. But it may be noted here that all tumuli 
are not prehistoric, nor are they all places of burial. Some are artificial 
bases for a certain type of dwelling. The moated mound, with or 
without a separate base-court, is found also in Normandy, Germany 
and Scandinavia. In its fully-developed form it was a hillock, improved 
into a steep cone, and surrounded by a dyke which was palisaded. On 
the top the lord and his family lived in a wooden house ; near at hand 
and within view from this ' howe ' was a dyked and palisaded base- 
court, in which the cattle and thralls were kept at night. 

That this was used by the Normans in our district can be seen 
from a comparison of the two earliest homes of the Le Fleming family, 
Aldingham Moat and Carnarvon Castle at Beckermet. The former is 
in a fair state of preservation — not in Cumberland, but not far from 
its borders — in Furness ; the latter has nearly disappeared, but is de- 
scribed by Sir Daniel Fleming in his account of Cumberland (1671). 
He says that the ruins consisted of an oblong square of about 1 00 by 
85 yards, with a ditch 12 yards broad and 4 yards deep (compare some 
of the ' square camps ' above mentioned). The entrance was at the 
west end, opposite to which was a round artificial hill called Coney- 
garth Cop, about 12 yards high, and the top 6 yards broad. It was 
formerly called Carnarvon Castle, he says, the early home of that branch 
of the Flemings who settled there in the beginning of the twelfth 
century. We see from this that the mote was used in Norman times, 
and that the country folk in Cumberland talked Welsh, for ar-mhon 
{arfon) means ' opposite Mona,' in sight of the Isle of Man ; and 
Caernarvon in this sense is not a name borrowed from the castle, famous 
at a much later day, on the Menai Straits. Coney-garth Cop would 
be the English name, ' King's Court Hill,' as if, still earlier, this had 
been the caer of some British kinglet or the possession of some greater 
sovereign. 

Not far away is Egremont, Egener-mot, the mote on the Eh en ; 
and it has been remarked by antiquaries that this Norman castle is 
on a hill artificially scarped, and perhaps, they have said, a ' Danish 
fort.' The anonymous author of The Antiquities of West Cumberland 
(1849) says that similar artificial hills existed at Wotobank (formerly 
Wodabank), Borough Hill near Braystones, between the Ker and the 
Ehen, Ivy Hill near Coneygarth and another at Frizington. These 
are different from the British hill-fort in its more pronounced types, 

291 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

but some of the doubtful examples already given, as Hayton Castle Hill, 
Tower Tye, Watch Hill, and Skew Hill, approach very closely to the 
less distinct forms of mote-hill. A good example of the difficulty is 
seen in Liddel Strength, or Liddel Moat, as it is sometimes called. 

Liddel Strength is on the edge of a precipice, 150 to 160 feet above 
the river, and on the other side of it runs a Roman road. It may have 
lost something by the fall of the edge of the precipice, but in General 
Roy's day the semicircular inner court measured 13 by 9 yards, sur- 
rounded by a great rampart and ditch, and containing the remains of 
a dwelling-house. Another rampart and ditch enclosed a rather larger 
crescent-shaped area to one side, representing the base-court. This is 
far different from the mote proper, and more nearly like such British 
forms as Shoulthwaite Castle ; but it is known to have been in use in 
the twelfth century. Chancellor Ferguson thought it probably eighth 
or ninth century to Norman ; others have made it the caer of Gwen- 
ddoleu, a Celtic chief slain 573 at Arthuret, seeing in Carwinley, or 
Carwhinelow, the name Caer-gwenddoleu. General Roy thought it 
Roman, but that is impossible. 

But on Roman sites and out of Roman ruins later comers con- 
structed imitation hill-forts, for such the motes are ; and we cannot 
always tell the date of their construction, especially when the same place 
was continuously occupied for centuries. At Maryport the south end 
of the Castle Hill has been made into a moated mound, 1 60 yards in 
circumference, by digging a ditch to cut off the scarped end of the 
hill (Britton and Bray ley, Cumberland, p. 207). At Beaumont, Castle 
Green is the old name for a space north-east of the church, where a 
ruined Roman mile-castle has been turned into a moated mound 
(Maclauchlan, Memoir, p. 80). Hence the name Beau-mont, as Ellen- 
burgh is the burh on the Ellen. 

Of moated mounds without base-courts now to be seen, there are 
Brampton Mote, a conical hill about 50 yards high, with a level summit 
about 40 paces in diameter and a breastwork round it ; the similar mote 
near Irthington church, and another less certain in its intention at 
Irthington mill ; and a mound and wet ditch at Holm Cultram, north 
of the abbey. The mound at Bleatarn on the Roman wall, it may 
be noted, is modern, though it has been classed as a mote by former 
writers. 

Mounds with base-courts like Carnarvon Castle exist at Whitehall 
(a mile south-west of Mealsgate railway station) ; at Downhall, Aikton, 
where a square platform has been made by cutting ditches across a long 
narrow hill and on each side of it ; at Over Denton near the old vicarage 
(marked ' camp ' in the ordnance map), where there is a small square 
enclosure, and near it a mound in a circular or oval ditch about 14 yards 
in diameter ; and at Denton Hall. Here the base-court is 85 yards 
long, with a ditch about 8| yards broad, and a rampart partly round 
it, extending to two sides, beyond which is a smaller ditch ; adjoining 
the west side is a smaller enclosure in which is a mound ; later on a 

292 



REMAINS OF THE PRE-NORMAN PERIOD 

pele tower was built on the mound, replacing the wooden house, and 
now there are farm-buildings in which the stump of the pele serves 
as a dairy. The so-called 'Saxon village' at High Mains, west of Over 
Denton church, is probably such another place (Chancellor Ferguson, 
Trans. Cumb. and West. Ant. and Archeeol. Soc. vi. 194). At Headswood, 
near Newtown of Irthington, Maclauchlan noted indistinct remains of 
another such site {Memoir, p. 70). 

One of these, we have seen, was not conical but oblong ; and there 
are a few sites which seem to carry out this type, becoming the simple 
' moated grange.' The high mound in later times became unnecessary, 
and more room was wanted perhaps for the building. To get an 
elevated and dry site the earth from the ditch was thrown up into the 
central area, but the old apparatus of defence was abandoned. Such 
probably was the origin of a place which has puzzled antiquaries at 
Snittlegarth, formerly called a Roman camp. It is an oblong platform, 
83 by 31 feet wide, with a ditch 5 feet deep, and 12 feet broad at the 
bottom, 23 feet broad at the top ; there are traces of earthworks out- 
side. This is not the only example of the kind. At Peel at the foot of 
Crummock Water is a ditch surrounding a little hill, possibly the site of 
the manor-house of the Lindsays before Richard I. Near Weary Hall, 
not far from Whitehall Mote, is a space of about i| acre, surrounded 
by a ditch and raised above the neighbouring level. Two similar earth- 
works used to exist at Castle Carrock ; one was about 40 yards west 
of the church, measuring 1 00 by 40 yards and formerly moated round ; 
the other at Hallsteads, described as about three times as large, and 
rising 7 or 8 yards above the surrounding meadow. At one of these 
sites a stake, fired at the end, was found, probably the remains of a 
stockade. 

The enormous earthworks of Scaleby Castle — two circular moats, 
the outer about a mile in circumference, from which the earth has 
been heaped into the centre for the castle hill — are a larger and probably 
later application of the same method. 

Plotting these earthworks on the map, it will be observed that the 
duns and caers group themselves on or near the high fells, while the 
tiins dot Inglewood, ' the wood of the English,' and the open country to 
east and west of it ; the motes lying thick in the Irthing valley, and 
more sparsely along the Eden, Wampool, Ellen and Ehen, clinging 
rather to the rivers than the Roman roads. No conclusions however 
can be drawn from such a map without the addition of ancient place- 
names, which are a class of ' remains ' by themselves, though not included 
in the scope of this chapter. 



293 



DOMESDAY BOOK, PIPE 

ROLLS, AND TESTA 

DE NEVILL 



THERE are few counties in England which hold so unique a 
position in the general history of the country as Cumberland ; 
and there is no county which will necessitate more exceptional 
treatment, both in its external relations and internal development. 
Far away from the great centres of national life, situated on the frontier 
of a hostile kingdom, inaccessible except by precarious roads over moun- 
tain passes, the territorial area now known as the county of that name 
had remained for centuries more of a Crown colony than a settled division 
of the commonwealth. Its inclusion in the old kingdom of Cumbria 
separated it in a large measure from the general polity of English and 
Scottish history, and gave it a defined isolation which made itself felt in 
the settlement of the district after the final overthrow of that kingdom. 
Owning no allegiance to its powerful neighbours, it was successively 
ravaged by Picts and Scots, Angles and Danes. Later it was claimed by 
England and Scotland alike, till it was finally ceded to the king of Scot- 
land as afief of the English Crown. Its southern boundary receded from 
Morecambe Sands ^ to the Duddon, from the Duddon to the Esk, and 
from the Esk to the Derwent, as if England was slowly pushing her way 
northward, with the view of completing her frontier from the Solway to 
the mouth of the Tweed. When the time arrived for its final severance 
from ancient Cumbria and its absorption into fhe English kingdom, it 
will not be considered strange that its peculiar position warranted ex- 
ceptional administration from the statesmen among its Norman and 
Angevin rulers. These exceptional features present themselves at almost 
every turn. The early Scotic origins of the district, its late formation as 

1 Ecgfrid king of Northumbria gave the land called Cartmell and the Britons in it to St. Cuthbert 
{Symeon of Durham, p. 141, Surtees Society). The kingdom of Northumbria stretched from the Humber 
to the Scottish sea, including the peninsula now known as Lancashire north of the Sands (Twysden, 
Bromton, 801). The region of Ulverston was surveyed in Domesday Book with part of Cumberland as 
having been held by Tosti earl of Northumberland {Domesday, i. 301*). Cartmell was reckoned among 
the marches {marcimes) of Scotland as late as 1258 {Chse Rolls, 22 Hen. III. m. izd). Skene does not 
admit Scottish territory at any time south of the Derwent {fleltic Scotland, i. 228, 340, 396, Maps). 

295 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

an English county, its peculiar land tenures, its division into wards, the 
ubiquity of its military defences, the motes and mounds, the earthen 
dykes and deep ditches, the peel towers and castellated churches, the 
complexity of its ethnology, the philological confusion of its folk-speech, 
and the sturdy self-reliance of its inhabitants, differentiate the county 
from the rest of England, and compel us to look at the evidences upon 
which its history is based, without reference to the forces which were 
working out the destiny of the nation of which it formed a part. 

The early history of the county presents innumerable difficulties 
owing to the dearth of documentary materials. The northern chroniclers 
have little of value to relate, A mantle of silence, like the veil of Isis, 
hangs over it till the close of the eleventh century. Domesday Book has 
nothing to tell us of the holders of land in the time of Edward the 
Confessor, or of the settlement after the Norman Conquest. The religious 
houses were founded too late to throw any light upon the dark period. 
In fact we have no authentic history worthy of the name till Henry I. 
took in hand the district which his brother had added to his kingdom. 
In the following century a new era opened with the series of the Pipe 
Rolls. In order to elucidate the history of the twelfth century, as far as 
it can be done with the materials at our disposal, and to compensate in 
some measure for the absence of the Domesday Survey, it has been 
determined to print in full all the documentary evidences which touch 
on the feudal institutions of the district and their establishment under 
English rule. 

The omission of the northern counties from Domesday can scarcely 
be explained by the reasons which seem to have satisfied the first editors 
of the great national record. Kelham thought it probable that the king's 
commissioners had found it impossible to make an exact survey of 
Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland, as the whole of the 
northern district had been laid waste by the Conqueror ; and Sir Henry 
Ellis supported this view by quotations from the chronicles to show the 
completeness of the devastation.^ In that case our north-western county 
was not included in its entirety in the Survey, either because it was of 
no value in the eyes of the commissioners, or because the inhabitants 
were so exasperated by the Conqueror's vengeance that no juries could 
be found to make the requisite returns. Alongside of this view we must 
place a tradition common to the religious houses in Cumberland, that it 
was William the Conqueror, and not his son Rufus, who first subdued 
the district, and made it definitively a portion of his newly-acquired 
dominions. There is in the Register of the Priory of Wetheral a frag- 
mentary document called the ' Distributio Cumbirlandise ad Conquestum 
Anglic,' ^ which Dugdale ^ printed with the title of the ' Chronicon 
Cumbrie,' to which the early local historians had access and upon which 
they relied for much of their information on the Norman settlement of 

^ Introduction to Domesday Book, i. 38, 39. 

* The Register of the Priory ofWetherhal, p. 384, ed. J. E. Prescott. 
^ Monasticon, iii. 584, new edition. 
296 



THE DOMESDAY BOOK 

the county. This compilation opens with the statement that king 
William duke of Normandy, the conqueror of England, gave all the 
land of the county of Cumbria to Ranulf Meschin ; and all the county 
of Chester to Geoffrey his brother ; and all the land of Coupland, be- 
tween the Duddon and Derwent, to William, another brother. As the 
authority of this manuscript has been accepted and repeated, not only 
colouring the statements of Kelham and Ellis, but troubling the whole 
stream of Cumbrian history, an inquiry into its origin may be desirable. 

It has been generally considered in recent years that we have in this 
document a monkish legend, of little or no authority, composed by the 
monks of the priory in whose register Dugdale found it. We cannot 
accept that view of its origin. No reason has been given to show its con- 
nection with Wetheral, and the historic statements in the body of the 
document have not even an indirect reference to the lands and endow- 
ments of that religious house. The bulk of the manuscript is concerned 
with the territorial succession of the lords of AUerdale and Coupland, 
those two great baronies which embraced nearly the whole of the sea- 
board on the western coast. The ' Chronicon Cumbrie ' is but a maimed 
version of a similar document in the Register of the Priory of St. Bees.^ 
The statements of both manuscripts, with some textual differences, agree 
as far as they go ; but in the later descents of the baronies, the St. Bees 
copy is much fuller in genealogical detail. Another manuscript of similar 
purport, which is just as explicit on William the Conqueror's connection 
with Cumberland, has been preserved among the Miscellaneous Rolls 
of the Tower.^ It states that Ranulf Meschin came to England with 
William the Bastard, who created him earl of Karliol and gave him all 
the land from Rerecrosse on Staynmore as far as the river towards 
Scotland called Sulewaht, that is, the Solway, the true marches between 
England and Scotland. With this preface, the writer at once pro- 
ceeds to trace the history of the baronies in question, and confines 
his attention exclusively to their ownership, in which performance he 
does not display a wide divergence from the style and scope of the 
Wetheral and St. Bees compilations. On comparison of the three 
documents there cannot be two opinions, having regard to the internal 
evidence, that they had a common origin. If we turn to a great lawsuit ^ 

1 Harkian MS. 434, ff. 73-6. 

* Touier Miscellaneous Rolls, No. Ais. ; Bain, Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, ii. 64. 

* This suit furnishes a very interesting series of pleas. On the death of Aveline de Fortibus, widow 
of Edmund earl of Lancaster, the king's brother, without heirs, which took place before 1275 {Calen- 
darium Genealoffcum, i. 224), the Honor of Cockermouth was seized by the Crown, to the exclusion of 
the Lucy and Multon families. In 4 Edward L, John de Eston claimed the manors, but his title was 
waived in consideration of the gift of a ' hundred pound land.' The date of the document in the 
Tower Rolls, which carries the genealogy to the death of Aveline, synchronises with this royal bargain. 
The suit was revived in 1 306 at the instance of Thomas de Multon and Thomas de Lucy as Aveline's 
heirs, when the king pleaded the former settlement with Eston {Abbrev. Placit. p. iSia). With these 
claimants the * Chronicon Cumbrie ' brings the baronial descent to a close. The St. Bees document 
carries the pedigree one generation further to the persons of Thomas de Multon of Egremont and 
Anthony de Lucy, as the representatives of William Fitz Duncan and Alice his wife, adding signifi- 
cantly qui nunc petit after each name. With this story the pedegradus entered on the rolls of the Court 
in 1 3 16 agrees, the pedigree in each case ending with qui nunc petit as in the St. Bees document 
(Abbrev. Placit. p. 323 : Rotuli Parliament, i. 347-9)- The legal origin of this bundle of disturbing 

297 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

which occupied the attention of the king's Court at intervals from 1275 
to 1316, in a historic dispute over the possession of the Honor of 
Cockermouth, the clue to the origin of these documents will be found. 
They are nothing more than memoranda prepared by the claimants for 
the guidance of the lawyers, and, perhaps, put together with the assist- 
ance of the monks of St. Bees and Holmcultram. As historical docu- 
ments they are of slender value when standing alone, but for our present 
purpose they are useful in showing that the tradition of the district at 
the close of the thirteenth century was universal that William the Con- 
queror was the instrument in making the Solway the north-western 
frontier of the English kingdom. 

Before we place any reliance upon this early tradition, or accept the 
plea of devastation as a sufficient reason for the omission of nearly the 
whole of the modern county from Domesday, it would be well to inquire 
briefly into the circumstances of the district, as far as we know them, 
about the time of the Norman Conquest. Some points come out clearly 
on the highest authority. In 945, so witness the chronicles,^ Eadmund 
king of the West Saxons wasted all ' Cumbraland,' and gave it to Malcolm 
king of Scots on the condition that he should be his ally by sea and land. 
This uncertain vassalage continued with more or less interruption for 
over a century, the Scottish princes doing homage for that portion of 
ancient Cumbria which now embraces the English county, though at 
that time it was no part of England. In 1070 troubles lay thick on 
the Border provinces.^ King Malcolm and Gospatric earl of Northum- 
berland were at enmity, and wasted each other's territories ' with atrocious 
depopulation.' From a statement of Symeon of Durham, it would 
appear that the Scottish king's title to Cumberland was not considered at 
this time above suspicion. When the chronicler says that the principality 
was under the dominion of Malcolm in 1 070, but that it was his ' not 
possessed by right, but subjugated by violence,' the inference is obvious.* 
Two years later the Conqueror went towards Scotland with a great force 
to have a final reckoning with the Scottish king. On his way by the 
east coast he deprived Gospatric of his earldom, and advancing into 
Scotland he met Malcolm at a place called Abernethy, where a truce 
was arranged and Malcolm ' became his man.'* There is no suggestion 
that Malcolm was deprived of any portion of his Cumbrian dominion by 
William I. at this or any other time. In that case the explanation of its 
absence from Domesday is very simple. We could not look for it, for 

genealogies seems quite plain. Each revival of litigation needed argumentative material for submission 
to the courts, and these documents were compiled to supply it. It may be mentioned here that the 
succession to Aveline and John de Eston's claim to the comttatia of Albemarle and all Aveline's lands in 
England are discussed by Mr. J. H. Round in Geneal. Mag. i. 4-7. 

1 Jnglo-Saxon Chronicle, in ann. 945 ; Hoveden, i. 56, ed. Stubbs ; Lappenberg, Angh-Saxon Kittgt, 
i. 149, ed. Thorpe ; Skene, Celtic Scotland, i. 362. 

* Hoveden, i. izi ; Symeon of Durham, i. 87, Surtees Society. 

' Symeon of Durham, i. 88. It is right to say that Symeon was no lover of the Scottish people, on 
account of their depredations in the bishopric. This statement of his has been called in question by 
his various editors. 

* Freeman, Norman Conquest, iv. Ji? > Skene, Celtic Scotland, i. 424, 425. 

298 



THE DOMESDAY BOOK 

the very excellent reason that the Scottish fief, which comprised the 
greater part of Cumberland and Westmorland, was not under English 
sovereignty at the time when the Survey was made in 1086.^ 

Seeing that ancient Cumbria was in possession of the royal line of 
Scotland at the time of the Conquest, its southern delimitation is a most 
important question, and much will depend on the accuracy with which 
that boundary can be fixed. A local document of considerable weight, 
known as the ' Cronica de Karleolo,' comes to our aid at the critical 
time. It was drawn up in 1291 by the canons of Carlisle, in obedience 
to the writ of Edward L, when that king claimed feudal suzerainty 
over the kingdom of Scotland, and was transmitted by the hand of Alan 
de Frizington, precentor of their church, with the guarantee that it had 
been compiled with the greatest diligence from the chronicles and writ- 
ings in their possession. From this authentic statement we learn that 
the principality of Cumbria consisted of the ecclesiastical divisions known 
in 1 29 1 as the bishoprics of Carlisle, Glasgow and Candida Casa ; and, 
moreover, from the bishopric of Carlisle as far as the river Duddon.* 
The language is precise and intelligible, and mentions what were then and 
are now well-known areas. In other words, Cumbria, as it existed in 
1069, stretched along the western coast from the Clyde on the north to 
the Dunde or Duddon on the south. The delimitation on the south- 
eastern side has been fixed by the Scottish chronicler, Wyntoun, as the 
Rerecross on Stanemore.' A clear definition of the southern boundary 
of the Scottish dominion is of the utmost consequence. On these au- 
thorities we can rely. The accuracy of the Carlisle statement is further 
confirmed by the subsequent history of the district during the reign of 
king Stephen, when the ancient fief was restored to the Crown of Scot- 
land. The paramountcy of David king of Scots over the great barony of 
Coupland, which was bounded by the Derwent and the Duddon, in the 
south-western portion of the modern county, is authenticated by many 
official acts in the early endowment of the priory of St. Bees.* It will be a 

* Freeman, WilTtam Rufiis, i. 313, ii. 545-6 ; Anhaob^al Journal, xvi. 230, 231. Cumberland 
was not included in Domesday on the same principle that it was not included in the Pipe Rolls till the 
recovery of the county by Henry II. in 1 157. 

* 1069. 'Cumbria dicebatur quantum modo est Episcopatus Karleolensis et Episcopatus Glasguensis 
et Episcopatus Candidecase et insuper ab Episcopatu Karleoli usque ad flumen Dunde, etc., ibi in 
passu illo' (Palgrave, Documents and Records, p. 70). Skene suppressed the last clause of this quotation, 
that it might fit in with his theory that ' the kingdom of Cumbria originally extended from the Firth of 
Clyde to the river Derwent, including what was afterwards the dioceses of Glasgow, Galloway and Car- 
lisle ' {Celtic Scotland, i. 456). The district between the Derwent and the Duddon, that is, from the 
old boundary of the diocese of Carlisle to the river ' Dunde,' has been omitted. 

* 'The Kyng Dawy wan till his crown 
All fra the Wattyr off Tese off brede, 
North on till the Wattyr off Twede, 
And fra the Wattyr of Esk the est. 
Till off Stanemore the Rere-Cors west.' 

Wyntoun, vii. 1054-8 lines. 

The Rerecross on Stainmore was claimed by the bishop of Glasgow as the southern boundary of his 
diocese as late as 1258 — ' obtendebat jus antiquum in partes Westmorlandiae in praejudicium Karliolensis 
ecclesiae, dicens usque ad Rer Cros in Staynmor ad diocesem suam pertinere ' (Chronicon de Lanercost, 
p. 65, Maitland Club). See also Neilson's Jnnals of the Solway, pp. 35-7. 

* Harleian MS. 434 (Register of St. Bees). 

299 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND 

nice point to determine why it is that any portion of it should appear in 
the Domesday Survey, unless the Conqueror had in the meantime pushed 
his dominion further north than the Duddon, and exercised a sovereignty 
more or less effective beyond it. On reference to the record it will be 
seen that at least three of the vills there mentioned as the property of 
the English king, viz. Witingham or Whicham, Bodele or Bootle, and 
Santacherche or Kirksanton, were situated in the angle of Cumberland 
south of the Esk, though returned as part of the division of 'Hougun' in 
Amounderness, in what was then the West Riding of Yorkshire. The 
owner of the manors in the time of Edward the Confessor was Tosti earl 
of Northumberland, but on the extinction of that earldom the lands were 
claimed by the Crown. The valley of the Esk, eastward from the sea at 
Ravenglass, must have been a strong position during the Roman occupa- 
tion, as the Roman fortifications in Eskdale from Walls to Hardknot castles 
amply testify. But there is no trace that this was a recognized boundary of 
the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, or its feudal antitype, the earldom of 
Northumberland, at the period under review. Moreover, the sovereignty 
of William the Conqueror in the district between the Derwent and 
Duddon does not rest on the evidence of Domesday alone. Again and 
again in disputes about feudal services in Coupland ^ the conquest of 
England was the date of tenure to which the sub-feudatories of that 
barony appealed in recognition of their rights and privileges. These 
facts are in agreement with subsequent history. The adjustment of local 
boundaries afterwards can only be explained on the assumption that 
the district of Cumbria south of the Derwent had been wrested from 
the Scottish king and absorbed into Yorkshire before the date of the 
Domesday Survey. No other alternative can be suggested except the 
contention of Skene that it never formed a portion of Scottish dominion, 
which we have shown to be untenable. 

What William the Conqueror did not accomplish was left to be 
carried out soon after his death by his son. Amid all the uncertainties 
of this time, the statement of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle brings light out 
of darkness and furnishes us with authentic information about the con- 
quest of the whole district of southern Cumbria. William Rufus, the 
chronicle^ says, with a great army went north to Carlisle in 1092, 

1 In 1 204 Richard de Luci, lord of Coupland, demanded an inquest on the customs and services 
due to him and his antecessors, and in the same year he brought some of his tenants into the Icing's 
Court to test their claims. In these cases, the tenants pleaded the services due from their tenements ' a 
Conquestu Anglie' (Abbrev. Placit. 5 John, p. 42^ ; Pipe Rolls, 5 John). At a later period, Thomas de 
Multon, lord of Egremont, maintained before the judges of assize at Carlisle in 1278 that the liberties 
of Coupland were enjoyed by him and his ancestors 'from the Conquest ' (Bain, Calendar of Documents 
relating to Scotland, u. ■p. 37). It may be considered that 'from the Conquest' was a stereotyped phrase 
known to the courts as having no historical meaning, like our use of ' from time immemorial.' For 
example, in 1227, Peter de Tilliol pleaded that his land at Scaleby, on the north side of Carlisle, had 
descended to him from father to son a primo conquestu, that is, from their first acquisition {Coram Rege 
Rolls, II Henry III. No. 27, m. 4 ; Bain, Calendar, i. 971). But 'the conquest of England' seems 
much more definite. On the other hand, we know that the ancestor of Luci, like the ancestor of Tilliol, 
had been enfeoffed by Henry I. The tenemental services of Coupland would not originate with the 
grant to William Meschin, as the barony had been incorporated into the English kingdom long before 
that time. 

* Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in ann. 1092 ; Freeman, William Rufus, i. 313-8. 

300 



THE DOMESDAY BOOK 

and rebuilt the burgh, and reared the castle, and drove out Dolfin, who 
was ruler of that land, and placed his men in the castle, and on his 
return to the south sent thither a great many churlish folk with their 
wives and cattle to settle in the land and to till it. We are not told 
what Dolfin had done to provoke the king to action, but from the 
additional details supplied by Henry of Huntingdon, it would seem that 
the Scottish king made another predatory expedition into England/ 
William was determined to put a stop to these incursions by making 
a natural frontier and strengthening it with defences. His policy on 
the Welsh border was repeated on that of Scotland. The district of 
Carlisle had been forced for centuries to serve two masters, and the 
divided allegiance was not a success. Rufus, who was both a soldier 
and a statesman, could not tolerate any longer the unnatural position. 
The whole of south Cumbria ceased to be a Scottish dependency, and 
a new career arose before it after its incorporation into the English 
kingdom. The province annexed at this time by the expulsion of 
Dolfin, who was almost certainly the deputy of king Malcolm, must 
be understood to embrace that land south of the Solway which was 
afterwards constituted into the ancient diocese of Carlisle. It has 
been called the greatest exploit* of the Red King's reign. When 
the history of Carlisle is considered, and the part it played in inter- 
national disputes as the bulwark of English power on the Border, this 
estimate of the event will not be reckoned a mere rhetorical phrase. A 
new shire had been added to the English kingdom, and ' a scientific 
frontier ' had been found, which with infinitesimal interruption served 
the purposes of both countries till the necessity of a frontier had ceased 
to exist. With the colonization of the land of Carlisle, the curtain 
falls on the history of our district during the rest of this reign. 

It has been alleged that it was William Rufus who founded the 
nunnery of Armathwaite in the valley of the Eden. The charter of 
foundation, purporting to have been granted in 1088—9, ^^^ inspected 
and confirmed by Letters Patent^ of Edward IV. One marvels that so 
clumsy an anachronism could have been passed in any age as a genuine 
document. It needed not the critical insight of a Freeman* to say that 
it was ' spurious on the face of it,' Though the charter, coming with 
the authority of a Patent Roll, deceived such a master of north country 
history as Hodgson Hinde,° and though the Record Commission* 
described it as a grant from William the Conqueror, not the slightest 
credence can be attached to it in its present shape. A monument in that 
neighbourhood called the Sanctuary Stone,' built in a pillar of ashlar 

* Henry of Huntingdon, in ann. 1092 ; Lappenberg, Norman Kings, p. 234. 

* Freeman, William Rufus, i. 313 ; Norman Conquest, v. 1 17-8. 

3 Patent Roll, 20 Edw. IV. pt. i. m. 4. * William Rufus, ii. 506. 

^ Introduction to the Pipe Rolls of Cumberland, etc. p. xv. Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. * Calend. Rot. Pat. p. 325. 

' There is a drawing of the pillar with this alleged Sanctuary Stone, made by Lysons, in the 
British Museum {Add. MS. 9642, i. 91), and also in the Gentlemaifs Magazine, 1755, p. 440, with a 
dissertation by S. Pegge, p. 45 1 . See also Add. MS. 9642, f 1 70. 

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about nine feet high, and inscribed with the date 1088, has been taken 
as independent confirmation of the foundation of the Benedictine 
house. But the date on the stone is a seventeenth century addition, 
and there is no trace of the right of sanctuary at this place. Other 
documents have been cited to illustrate the history of the district at this 
period. In the Register of Wetheral there are two charters,^ which, if 
genuine, would carry us back to the time of Rufus, and fix the date of the 
foundation of the priory in his reign. One of these is a palpable forgery, 
though Dugdale^ thoughtlessly adopted it as the record of a grant from 
William the Conqueror. The other charter is of a different character, being 
nothing less than the foundation charter of the priory, by which Ranulf 
Meschin, the founder, gave the manor of Wetheral to the abbey of St. 
Mary's, York, for the soul of his lord, king William or king Henry, 
according as we accept the alternative version. As the oldest transcript 
of the charter, which is attributed to the fourteenth century,^ is prac- 
tically valueless in settling the correct reading, later copies which 
mention the name of king William must be treated with extreme 
suspicion, when we remember the incurable propensity of the monks to 
antedate their charters with the view of strengthening their territorial 
titles. Indeed, the fact that the charter has been tampered with at the 
critical word may be taken as conclusively in favour of the later king. 
Two letters of William king of England to his lieges in Carlisle and 
the parts beyond Loedria, urging them to accept Christianity from the 
bishop of Durham and his archdeacon, do not carry on the face of them 
the usual evidence of authenticity. Dugdale * has ascribed them to the 
Conqueror, but in view of the disputes about the ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
of the district of Carlisle before the foundation of the See, the king's 
alleged usurpation of archiepiscopal functions may be looked upon as 
doubtful. At the present moment not a single genuine charter, relating 
to the county of Cumberland, is known of a date anterior to Henry I. 

When William Rufus set about the reconstruction of Carlisle and 
the organization of the district, two figures loom out of the darkness of 
the time in dim distinctness in connection with his work. It is said that 
he placed a certain Walter, a Norman priest who had come to England 
with the Conqueror, in charge of the rebuilding of the city, and that he 
committed the custody of the district to a distinguished soldier, Ranulf 
Meschin,® or Ranulf de Briscasard, a cadet of the house of Bayeux in 

1 Register of the Priory of Wetherhal, pp. 1-5, 391, ed. J. E. Prescott. 

2 Ibid. p. 391 ; Monasticon, i. 397, old edition. 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archteolopcal Society, xv. 285. 

* Monasticon, i. 241. 

^ The title of ' Meschin ' has been applied to several members of this family, and means ' younger.' 
Its usage resembles our word 'junior,' to distinguish from an older person of the same name. Ranulf, 
in his charters to the priory of Wetheral, and William and other members of his family, in their 
charters to St. Bees, invariably used it. The same rule applies, for the most part, to their signatures. 
' Meschin ' had been also adopted, about this time, by the families of Brus and Percy ; for instance, 
Robert Brus Meschin viritnessed the great charter of David king of Scots to the abbey of Melrose 
{Facsimiles of National MSS. of Scotland, No. xvij.), and Alan de Perci le Meschin is enumerated among 
the early benefactors of the abbey of Whitby {The Whitby Chartulary, i. 4, Surtees Society). Other 
instances of the same usage might be given ; for instance, Osbern Meschyn {Monasticon, ii. 387) and 

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Normandy. There can be no doubt that Walter the priest was a 
veritable benefactor of the city of Carlisle, and played a conspicuous part 
in its ecclesiastical reconstruction during the reign of Henry the Clerk. 
But what authority is there for his connection with the building schemes 
of Rufus and the first organization of the city ? There is little or 
none except a venerable tradition which can be traced back to 
Leland/ who visited Carlisle when the religious houses were in process 
of dissolution, and to him its origin has been ascribed. But it must not 
be assumed that Leland invented the story. In the Lansdowne manu- 
scripts there is a document of some interest of earlier date than Leland, 
and of local origin. After describing the expedition of William Rufus 
in 1092, the recovery of the city and the plans of the king for its 
rebuilding, it states that Walter the priest was in charge of the works 
on the death of Rufus, and that Henry I. completed what Walter 
had begun.* The document, which is of some importance for the early 
ecclesiastical history of Carlisle, is said to have been transcribed from the 
Register of bishop Strickland, a diocesan manuscript which would cover 
the period from 1400 to 141 9, but which has not been heard of since 
the time of James I. But it is evidently a late compilation, fragmentary 
and doubtful, with nothing to indicate its purpose in the Strickland 
Register except what is contained in the heading.' The date of the 
first coming of Ranulf Meschin, as lord or ruler of the land of Carlisle, 
is as perplexing as that of Walter, his contemporary and fellow-worker. 
If we omit the early tradition embodied in the ' Chronicon Cumbrie ' 
and kindred compositions, Ranulf 's connection with the district, as 
the administrative officer of William Rufus, rests on the insecure found- 
ation of a disputed reading in a comparatively modern manuscript, 
which we have shown to be at the least very unsatisfactory. There is no 
direct proof of any sort, at present known, sufiicient to place Walter the 
priest and Ranulf Meschin in charge of the city and district before the 

Meschina Regina ifialendar of Documents preserved in France, No. 1054). Archdeacon Prescott has 
written an admirable chapter on ' Ranulf Meschin, his wife Lucia, and the Honor of Carlisle,' in which 
much trustworthy information will be found