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Full text of "Cyclopedia of eminent and representative men of the Carolinas of the nineteenth century"

lliiliiliiliiipli^iiliffi 



I 





liiiiii 



CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 




OF THE 



@roliiias o\ [\k ]NIinclcciill) (ciiliirV, 



WITH A 



BRIEF HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION ON SOUTH CAROLINA IIV GENERAL 

EDWARD MrCRADV. Jr., AND ON NORTH CAROLINA 

BY HON. SAMUEL A. ASHE. 



V70LUME 



MADISOX, WIS.: 
BKflfST & FULL ER 
is; I J. 



a y 5 '1 



Copyright. 1 S 9 i . 

B Y B R A N T & FULLER, 

Madisok, Wis. 



Democrat Printing Co., Mmlison, Wis. 

Binder!/ uf W. 11. Conkeij, Chicago, .111. 



INDEX, 



Abbott. .T. C 

Abbott. .S. H 

Albert-soii, J. W 

AlexauUt-r, .Natlianiil 
.Mexniuli-r, .S. H 
Alspau»;h. J . W 
AnOrews. A. H 
Amb-ews. K_ M . 
Anthony. .John -V . 
AreiKlt'M Vatnity, tbf 

Ashp, .lolin 

Ash.-, .1 !!. .. 
Ashe, Samuel 
Ashe, T. S. . 
Atkiuson. Thouiius 

Avery. A. (-' 

Aydlett, K. F 

liudKer. G. K. . 
IJailev. C. T . 
Uaiii. Uoiiulil VV 
Uarrin;;.;r. iiiiiiis 

l>ann;ii. II 

Batchel'T, .loseph I: 
Battle, S. \V 
liatlle, li. II.. 
Uatlle. T. 1! . 
Battle. W. a. 
Heoknitli. .1. I! 
Bell. Daniel 

Bell. W.r. K 

Bellamy. J. D 

Bellaniv, .i. V . . 
BeUaniy, W. .1 II 
Bennette. S. \v'. 

BiKCS, Asa 

Blan, I. H 

Blooilworth. Thiioiliy . 

Blount, William 

Bognil. D. N 

Boud, H. A 

Bradsbaw. (J. S 

Bragg, TlHuuas 

Branch, L U 

Bra.swell, T I' 

Brevaril, K. .1 , . . 
Brewer. Cliai-Ies K. . 

Bridgers. U. K 

Brogden, (' H 

Brown. Bedford 

Brown, .1. K 

Brown, Jubn L 

Brown, T. J 

Brown. W. (' 

Brown. \V. M. B 

Bnnn. 11. II 

Uurr. .1. (J 

Bin-nmghs. .1 . .\ 

liurlcin. H. O... 

Burwell, Spotswouil 

liusliee, C. -M 

Byers, ,1. W 

fade. B 

(Jalilwell. Uovid 

Caldwell, .los 

Caldwell. I). K 

Caldwell. 1). I'" 

falclwell. .1 A 

Caldwell, T U. . 

Cauiernn, Bennebaii 

Cauiei-nn, l>uneali , 

Cameron. K. H . 

Cameron. V. C 

Carr. .1. S 

Carson, Win 

Carter, M. K 

I'aru-.-. I>. .M 

Cartel. W. 1! 

Caswt'll. Uieliard, , . . 

t'had'vick. W. S . 

chanilierlaln, .1. K. . . 

Chaiiibeiw, ,1 . L 

Cliaiiin. II T 

Clark, \Valter 

Clarke, W. E 

Cliflon. J. B 

Cobb. B. C 



PAOB. 

. .. V3i 

... 5*S 
l.|-> 
■::ti< 



I'.'.i 
:liir 
:i,i:i| 



(jOilll 1> 
Cobb. .1 . 
C> l.b, 'i . 
Cooke. .; 
(■•■nb^ii. 



\v 
^\ 
H . 

Jl 
I. II 



Crawi'^rii, .1 



;iHiVr.|. i; 
. 1'. 



c, 
(• 
Cr ,nlV. yt 

Croi.ei!..). W 

Cili>in:'iinn!, .1. S. . 
C>;n!tr.:italii, .1. W. 
Cunie, .li . .]. H .. 

!■ M.H •. I. L 

!■ ; 1 I ■>\"i!li- .. 
1.1. ■:• . .ra-itphus 
..... .:...-i. A. B ... 

I.i:.vi.isoli, A. '1" 
H.lVi.lH .il, T. 

>>. 



, !••. 



I)av!s, 

B'lvi-'. \»e''!".,-' 
i:!K Davis;. .(. jl 

la Da. Is. J C 

asd l)avis, ,1 J 

.Vw I.)av'i;.. W.iii.i^n J. 

1121 Dini.-. v. >'■ 

•.•)lil Del!. ..-set, ,V.. -J 

•->ri)l Dchos^.r, M. .:■ 

-Mrl DeRoSset, \V. \, 

I>ii;;;, .!. .McC , 

UiKk. it. P 

DilUi.:, .) "1 

Dillaid, Ki.-:i..ra 

Dilloi,. n. J-: 

Diuw.-.t.lie, .I.-in:es . 

Di.vc.i. jt. F 

Dobbin. .1. C 

Do'mI. t.:l •ineiir — 

Du'ile,, lOt.raiil B 

im.iley, K. B. ... 

I>ulTv. ClN.H.'S . 

Dill.-.-. v,'ttt.'iintton 

D.nte.iii. V:. <: 

Diuip. \V;ili.".i... 

Diirl;ii.>. .1. 1' 

lOberi. I,. .-> 

Elb!-.. .1 W 

Kvcrelt. \V . 

Ewiirt, II. 1 

I'airi'ii.)l'l, v' I 

l''aiMiir.:r, DlU'.l . . 

Fanniuf. f.ibnund . 

rint'.-i*. tiiiine.v M. 

Foi.iey. .1 A 

Koftcr, 1'; s. .. 

7.'..wi.-. 1' i! . - 

Foy. • 



14« 

»>« 

.">'.W 
W) 

i.ts 

1.7.1 
11.5 
:«l 

■jr.7 
•j.\s 

, 4:)T 

1~ 

. llii 

. an; 

Wi 
. .■»•! 
. M\ 
. ,541) 
. Si 
. I IV! 

. :«i 

. •2)'J 

. 1H7 

S'.M 

n 

111(1 
;«■) 

:i'.i 
IW 

. -jri 

i;i4 

.5a'i 

'.I*..* 

:i:ir 

31.5 



1- rei-.. • 

Fi'''iiii-.. ?.t., '. 
Fldler. J.'. T.. 
i' ulh-r V. C 
Caiiiiaway. \\" 
Ui.-.r. ',V. i: 
(iJis't •». \v.;ii.-.' 

(ol.ii-i-. .1. .. 
t.lenn. ... i . 
Cor.l;.ri 



K 



T. 



.5ri (bMiia.ii. .li.'vnn'l. ■ 

.5*1 (iiahi-.Mi. A. W,. 

i;7! fiialiaiii. f^:. v.'.. 

Iks tirab'i .1. .Iii»e;ili. .. 

.5411 fboirui:, .It senli. . 

i:l:)l anti.M'i, .1. NV 

Ii.551 Gr.ibnni, V. A 

.Ilni Oriibitm, .Ir . ^\ . A 

48ii O'.tinJ''. J \V .. . 

iSNj Oriv, 1!. F 

«-JTl GrH.Mi. C. l!. .... 

VM UieiMi, 'ii"ii(:e.... 

, (iW Ur.>e;i, T A. .. 

Iial Green. 'Iboir.fts J. 



Green, W. J 

rireene. (leorge W 

Grooin, ,J D 

(inilg.M-, II. A 

Unlbrie, T. t' 

Ila.Uiiev, W N 

lla.Pev, .1. M.. 
IbM.i.'i-, A. W 
llnniploK, Will. II 

Iluiina. (1. 1! 

Ibnneli. Cornelius 

H;inell. W. II 

llaiiis, A. .1 

Il.irris. F. U. .. 
lUirriss. Will. .1 

lbirv..y, .lolili 

IhnvUiiis laiiiily. The .. 

Hawkins, r. B 

Mawktiis. \\ in 

Ibuw'ioil. K. Biirko — 

llaVwooii. W. 11 

ll.'alll. (). 1' 

lW.rU, .binathan M 

Ib-i;e, C. A 

lb'i\d.-i-son. (Jeorge 

IleinleiNon. .1. S 

Ili'ielersoli. Hicliard. 
Ili.-Us. W, .1 

Hill. Daniel II.. 

Hill. .1. A 

llillinnl. W. D 

Hinsdale. .lobn W 

Ilins.iale, .-<. J 

llinsliaw. (!ei>. W 

Hirsliing.M-. Jay 

Hi'lidel-soll. .1. N 

H.>.l~'.-s. J il 

Hoil-es, K. T..; 

IIo;rnil, James 

Ibil.liiig, .1. N 

Hoi s. tiabriel 

Ilobne.s. T. H 

IIoll, L. B 

Holt. Thomas Jl 

I.Ioo|i<>r, Williiini 

H..rah. John M 

Houston. W. IJ 

II. .«■•■. Kobert 

Howe, Koliert 

Hllils.>n, H. T 

Hiisbanils, Ilernion.. . 

Hvalt. II. O 

Inne?. Jnincs 

Ire.l.'ll. James 

Iredell. Jr., James — 

Isl.-r.S. W 

Ivi-s. (iio. N 

Jarvis. T.J 

.lenkins. D. A 

•lerniiran. T. U 

Johnston, S 

.lolinslon, H. M 

.lobnst.ili. K. / 

Johnston. William 

.loiies. B. L 

Jones. II. C . . . . . 

.tones. J. B. . 

Jones. .1. D... 

.b.n.-s. W. .1 

.loii.s. W. W 

Juslice, M. II 

K..|lley. J. I( 

Kennedy. William L. . 

Ki-rcbner. F W 

Kiiisey. Joseph 

Kirby. <J. i, 

; KInttz, T. F .. 

1 Koniegay, William 1' 

l.niH-. W. W 

, bnllinei'. K,. K 

l,etir,inil. .I.T 

Ij-wis. Julius 

' LillingU V 

] Uoekliurl, .1. A 

Ijugan, J. E 

I I..oiig, J. S 



PAGE. 

... 107 

... 4.^5 

... 28li 

.. ir« 

... ISl 

... 4H,S 

. . siii; 



I'.CI 
(UH 
SV4 
CIK 

Hi 

, t!r:) 

s»i 

4.57 
. :«7 
. 471! 
. 371 

. aio 

. 15li 
, '1R5 

. a54 

. .547 
. 478 
. (JI'I 

«; 
. sr.i 

. 4I« 

. va 
. «i 

. «2 
. 235 
. 514 
. 487 
. CI!) 
. 'X-i 

. 5.5« 

4:» 
. 07 

185 
. 008 

0»1 
. .SIHI 
. 405 
,. :)0.5 

aw 

.. 415 
.. 4!10 
. 4U4 
.. 54!) 
. . -JIH 
.. 4lil) 
. . :tH 
.. S!l 
.. 144 
.. 50-.' 
.. UK) 
. .Wl 
,. 450 
.. 01-.> 
.. 574 
.. 40S 
.. C'll 
. . 6T,-i 
.. I'.II 



r,'i5 



I.5K 

ir-i 

Olio 

;i.5-j 

411 

•J<IS 
IIO 

5si; 
aiH 

, lOU 
, 13.5 
. 481 

. 58-.' 

. r,:l7 

;!K.t 

450 



Vlll 



INDEX. 





PAGE. 


I-ove, W. J. 


... 247 


McAden, K. V 


... i'.M 


McAden, .1. H 


•-tr,r 


MfCaskill, .1. C 


.'■>i2 


:Mct'aulev, T. D 


c.v,* 


Mi'Coi-klc. M. L , - , , 


l.->r, 


JlcDoiialil. 1) A 


.^.'i.) 


Jk-Duiialil. \U\sh M 


•JliT 


McDoweil. F. i'. 


m» 


Ml-IJowpII. H. I 


r..-)ii 


McKntii-e. .lolm 


■.".11 


-HcKav, J. .1.. 


iiii 


31cKe*'. .lames. 


:; 1 1 1 


McKoP, \V. H . 


■j:l'.» 


McManuaway, A. i; 


-lll-J 


JleMillen. W. U 


•JT'.t 


MeNatt. 11. \V 


■JS7 


McNeill, A. 11 


y.y.i 


JIcNeill. F 


i-Ji 


McRarv. William U. 


.-.I'.i 


McRee, (i. J 


ir'.i 


jNIacon, isutlianiel. . 


.^s'.i 


Maloue, J. E 


■JSl 


:«alone. W. U 


. . na 


t\Ianeuni. M'. r 


... r,\ 


Manlv. Charles 


21'.") 


Marsiiall. M. 51 


;iiiii 


Martin. AlexanOer. . 


irii 


Meaies, o. 1" 


HI.-, 


Meaivs. W. li 


1011 


Mfbaiie. Alexaiulel". 


4.-.-' 


Merrinioii. .A. S 


, '.1 


Merrit.t, A. 11 


... 4I"> 


.Miller. K. 11 


... XM 


Miller. W. .1. T 


... 2-':i 


Mitcliell. Elisbii 


... -tir. 


Moore, C. E 


. . . 2'.Ci 


Moore, .lames 


. . 4in 


Mooie, J. E 


... i:)l 


Moore. Roarer 


.. r,-M 


Morehead, .lohu M 


. . liUl 


Moring. J. M 


.. i:!r 


Morrow, .lames McK 


... ar:) 


Morson. HuKti 


... 420 


Morton. W'm. Z 


. . . 5.57 


Jloseiev. Edward 


... 4li!) 


Murchisun. D. R 


... 514 


Murdoch. F.J 


.... 3'.)4 


Nash, Abner 


. . . ',17 


Nash, Francis 


. . . 444 


Neal, «eurf;e W 


.... 451 


Neal. W. H 


... IBM 


Neilson, M. L 


. ... 2KS 


Nicholson, S. T. & P. A 


... 221 


Nolan. J. R 


. . 473 


O'DonoushuP, D 


. . 2.y.i 


O'HaKCu, C.I 


2S5 


Osborne, J. A\ 


2111 


Overman, L. S 

Owen. John 


, IS'.I 
:!24 


I'an-otl, A. D 


. .. I'.r.i 


Patterson, ,1. L. 


Hi 


Pearson, Richmond 


.... 48 




. . 4li 


Pender. Wm, D 


. ... .MIS 


Perrv, A. S 


o'.lll 


Perry, B. L 


. . . .55:) 


Peschan. F. W. E 


.... 410 


Pettinrew, J J 


. . 322 


Pittnian, N. J 


.... 2H2 


Poe, John C 


.... .5-21 


Poll;, h.\ 


.... 45( 


Poll. .el;, .1. A 


2112 


Pollock. Thomas - . . 


. . 4I1S 


Pool. S 


MM 


Pool..l..lm 


:ll 1 


Pope. .lohn r 


;.l:; 


Porter, .lohn 


:;i.r 


P.ist, .Ir.. .1. F 


iri 


Potent. W. L 


l:ii; 


Poo & Poll ... 


1 2'.l 


Powell. E. A . 


. .-.'.M 


Price, ('haiies 


nil 


Price. C. B 


.... I'.IH 


Prince. D. SI 


.... 273 


Pritcliard, T. H 


.... 407 


Pureloy, (i. W 


i;::i; 


liiimsav, J. t; 


2r.s 


Uamsaj', J. U 


;113C. 



Rainseiir. S. D,. . . 

Ranev, C. W 

Ranev, R. l-i... 
Hansom, M.att. W 

Reaile. E. G 

Reed. I). S. . 
Uej;ister, K. (' 
Rei.l. F. I. ... 
Rei.l, D. 



KevnolUs, R. J 

Rhviie. A. P 

Uoiil.ius, T. A 

H..l.rrts, F. 

l;.)l.inson, John 

Rotiiiison. ,J, E . . 
Rodman. \V. B. . . 

Root. C. R 

Rnper, ,1. T 

Rowland. A. W.. 

Rovall. W. R 

l!o\ster, W. I 

Rucker, J. r 

Ruflili, ,1. K 

iiiilliii, Thomas 

liiiHin, Thomas 

liiutiple. ,Jelhro 

Rmlierl'or.l. G 

San.l.-i-lin. (I. W 

Saiiii.lers. \V. I 

Scarb. .rcu;_'li. .1. C.. . . 

Sclieiick, I-iavid 

Schenck. II. F .... 
.Sei.tl, .Ir., J. W..., 

Hell, L. M 

Sciule, Thomas L . 
Se\numr, .V. S.. . . 

SiKi liner, .1. F 

.Shaw, ,lobli . ... 
Shepherd, J. E. . 

Shotwell, R. A 

Shid.ird, G. A 

.Siiiimons. 

Simpson, W. P 

Skinner. Harry 

Sled.l. p.. F 

Small. ,1. II 

Smith, John JI 

Stiiilh, William 

Smith. W. N. H 

Snipes. E. P 

Spainht, R. D 

Stansill. P. W 

Stnrbuck, D. H 

Starkev, ,Iohu 

Starnes, J. R 

Starues. .J. W 

Stickney. J. B 

Stokes. Moiitt'ord 

Stone. David 

Stran^^e. .Ir.. Robert. 

Slnbl..s, 11. W 

Stimniercll. .1. J 

Simmer. .1 

Swain, li. L 

Swann. Sauuiel 

Tate. S. C. W 

Tavlor, C. E 

Tavlor, J. D 

Tavlor, ,1. F 

Taylor, J. L 

Thomas. (1. G 

Thomas, .lames J . . . . 

Thomas, W. (i 

'I'bi.miisnn. JohuW.. 
Tucker. .1. II 



PAOE. 

. . 32li 

. 3.53 

. till'.l 

.. (1411 

5S 

. 511 

. Ills 

.. 3sii 

. . i:i3 

. . 5.50 

. .551 

. .. 015 



437 

21S 



2'.I0 
40 



.521 
3S1 
54 
4-25 
.577 
4'.M 
370 
153 
r,iH 
I2S 
2,Sli 

i;3M 

1112 
K'.l 
051 
4il0 
132 
4:«l 
200 
370 
408 
Wl 
S70 
3t;3 
274 
153 



.5.5H 
447 
.502 
4.'<4 
171 
.52 
131 
2i;'.l 
i;il! 
2111 



•I'lill. llenrv 

liipper. h: M 

Tinii.-r. H 

Turner. James 

Vail. T- L. 
Vance, ,1 . A 
Vance, Z. B 
Vandever. William M 

Vass. W. W 

Vre.der. A. (• 

Von l;uck. K.irl 
Wa.l.lell. A 51 .. 
Wail.lell. Hugh.. 



203 

4311 

3llli 

101 

100 

0.511 

.500 

rilio 

. 300 

271 

. 50S 

200 

. 430 

. (i3<.P 

. 00: 

00: 

510 

020 

. 004 

. 471 

. 543 

215 

UK 

- 4Stl 



PAGE. 

Walters, J. D 530 

W'aril Family, The iar, 

Waring. R. P. . . 050 

Wntkins, C. J... 200 

Watson, A. A .S'.W 

Watson, H. C ,521 

Watson. J. A 210 

Watts, T. A 370 

Webb. J L . .. lOH 

Wbisnant. T. W ... 473 

Wiley, S. H ... . ... .3:13 

Wilkens, G .5.50 

Williams, Benjamin 490 

Williams, H, W 3:B 



Williams. J..hii R. 
Williams. W H. .. 
Williaiuson. B. P . 

Wilscn. J. H 

Winstead. J. M 



237 

504 
)'J8 
:i51 



Woiiuack.T. B i:)0 

W.ioil, .M, L :19U 

Wood, William R... 045 

W..rtli. Jc.nathan 140 

Worthintrton. D ... 100 

Wii-hl. W A... ... 211 

Yellowlev, E. (J.. 107 

Vii.inK, Chas. A 503 

Yonn^, ,J,'imes K 3.59 

Y..uni.'. W. J 427 

ZollicolTcr. A. C 112 



PORTRAIT.S. 



Alexander. S. B.. 
Andrews, A. E.. . 

.\she, S. A 

.\verv. A. C 

Ikirrin^cer, R. 

Hn.wn. J. I 

Hmm. B. H 

t';iiiieron. B 

Cameron, D 

Cameron, P. C ... 

Carr, J. S 

Carter, JI. E 

Cox, W. R 

CuninKhain, J. S. 
Cuninfiham. J. "W 
Uavidsi.n. A. B... 



Iia 



J. J.. 



Dul;e. W 
Faircloth. W. T.. 

Finticr, S. M 

French. G. R. . . 

Fuller, F. T 

Graham, .1 

Grah:iiii. W. A... 
llackni'V. W. N.. 

Hawkins, W 

Hawkins, W. J... 
!l!ivw.....l, E. B... 
Hinsdale, J. W... 

11. lit. T. M 

.lernit-an, T. R.... 
Johnston, W . ... 

.Tones. W. J 

Lewis 



McAden, R. Y .. 

McKee, J 

McKee, W. H. . 
Merrimon. A. S.. 
( Isborn, J W . . 
Piltman. N . .T . . 
Piuel'oy, G. W.. 
Rainsav. J. G- , 

Ranev. K. B 

Reade, E. G .. 
Robinson. J. E 

Runin, T 

Sanderlin. G, W 
Sciienck. I) . . 
Seisrlc. T. B.. 

Skinner. H 

Starnes, J. W. , 
Thomas. W. G. . 
Tucker. R S... 

A'ance, Z. B 

Vnss, W . W . 
Williams. G W 



000 

404 
305 
212 
023 

5:« 
163 
58S 

92 
:i45 
571 
177 

72 
.578 
.5H0 
005 



... 505 

... 145 

.. 421 

.. 517 

.. 242 

.. 251 

.. 101 

.. 48H 

.. 327 

.. 389 

.. 230 

.. 02 

.. 309 

.. 4.50 
..641 

.. S97 

.. 481 

.. 199 
..341 

.. asxi 

.. 79 

.. 201 

.. 282 

. 0:10 

. . 20s 

.. OOil 

. . .50 

, 4.55 

411 

. . :wi 

.577 

. .528 

. . l:)2 

. 447 

, . 31 "-I 

50S 

029 

471 

, 335 



TREIACE. 



In prcscntini,^ this Cyclopedia of Eminent and Ueprcscntative men of 
the Carolinas to their subscribers, the publishers beg leave to make a 
few brief remarks touching its compilation. Of the excellent histori- 
cal sketches by S. A. Ashe, Esq., of North Carolina, and by Gen. Ed- 
ward McCrady, Jr., of South Carolina, but little need be said, as they 
sufficiently recommend themselves. But it is only proper to say that 
these gentlemen are in no respect responsible for the biographical 
sketches contained within the covers of the work. The publishers 
are indebted for these, in a measure, to such works as Wheeler's 
Reminiscences of North Carolina, O'Neall's Bench and Bar, of 
South Carolina, Dowd's Prominent Living Xorth Carolinians, the 
works of e.\-Governor Perry, of South Carolina, Smith's Western 
North Carolina, Appleton's Encyclopedia, and, more than all, to the 
labors of the force of able writers employed for the purpose by the 
publishers. 

That there may be some defects in the work, as there are in all 
works, it would be useless to deny, but the publishers feel warranted 
in saying that they have fully kept up to their contract with their 
subscribers, and may with pardonable pride point to the excellent 
typography and attractive binding of the work. 



^mu()2^} 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



BY S. A. ASHE. 




^OXiXECTED with the biographies of men whose lives ilhis- 
trate the annals of a state, it is desirable to present a suc- 
cint account of the influences which have evolved their 
characteristics and moulded them, as it were, into har- 
mony with their surroundings. Nor will this be difficult in 
regard to the men of North Carolina, for more than a cen- 
tury has passed since the population of that state has 
received accessions from abroad, and her people are sons 
and daughters of the soil, native and to the manner l)orn as their 
forefathers were before them. 

Although the first English settlement made in the New World was 
upon Roanoke Island, within the limits of North Carolina, that mem- 
orable event e.xertcd no influence upon the citizens of the state, since 
the colony located there ended in disaster and was entirely lost to 
history. Nearly three-quarters of a century elapsed after Raleigh's 
ill-fated attempt at settlement had become a tradition before a per- 
manent lodgment was made in the primeval wilderness of Carolina. 
When the English had become well established at Jamestown, the 
planters began to e.xtend their possessions to the southward, follow- 
ing, according to the needs of those days, the margins of the water 
courses. Soon the outskirts of the plantations were pressed well up 
the Nansemond river, until at length, about the year 1650, adventur- 
ous spirits, passing down the waters of the Chowan, made settlements 
along the fertile shores of Albemarle sound. 

Doubtless many of the pioneers in this movement to the southward 
were native born \'irginians, men bred in the forests of the New 
World and accustomed to the hardships of life on the frontiers of civ- 
ilization, inured to its dangers, and imbued with the spirit of personal- 
independence that inva'Iably accompanies such a residence. 

bamiliar with the Indians on the borders of the great sound, who 
had hal)itually traded with the English, the settlers found no diffi- 
culty in securing their good-will. They purchasi-d tithes to the lands 
they desired and established, from the first, friendly relations with 
the native tribes, who, continuing to occupy the neighboring forests, 
supplied them with provisions and even aided in the preparation of 
their fields. Thus hajjpily the foundations of the Albemarle 
colony were not stained with blood nor laid in wrong antl outrage, 
H — 2 



l8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

but in peace and good-will the new comers made their homes in the 
wilderness, receiving help and encouragement from the aborigines of 
the country. 

In 1663, King Charles by way of recompensing some gentlemen 
who had been chiefly instrumental in restoring him to the throne, 
granted them the territory lying between Virginia and Florida, which 
his father had formerly granted to Sir Robert Heath, and which was 
called Carolina. Under the terms of his charter, those grantees be- 
came owners and rulers of the whole of Carolina with power to estab- 
lish governments and courts and to make laws and regulations, and 
they are knowm to history as "Lords Proprietors." 

To induce a speedy settlement of this magnificent domain, the 
Proprietors offered concessions that the people settling there should 
have an assembly " to be by them chosen out of themselves," to make 
their own laws; and granted freedom and liberty of conscience in all 
religious or spiritual things. The Proprietors, however, were to se- 
lect their own governor, who was to hold for three years, and each 
Proprietor had a representative, called his deputy, in the governor's 
council. 

William Drummond, then a resident of Virginia, a Scotchman of 
education and of fine character, was the first governor of Albemarle, 
and an assembly was held about the close of the year 1664. The 
terms under which the settlers were to take up and hold land were 
not so favorable in some respects as those to which they had been ac- 
customed in Virginia, and the assembly' petitioned for a change, 
which was granted by the Lords Proprietors in what was called " The 
Great Deed of Grant," dated May i, 166S. 

Another settlement having been made further to the south, leav- 
ing a vast wilderness intervening, the one became known as South 
and the other as North Carolina; and as Charleston being admira- 
bly located for trade, rapidly grew, the Proprietors paid more atten- 
tion to the southern settlement than to Albemarle. And so for a 
period of sixty years North Carolina continued under the dominion 
of the Lords Proprietors, their heirs and those who as purchasers suc- 
ceeded to their legal rights under the broad terms of Charles' grant, 
yielding them, however, but small pecuniarj- returns and exciting so 
little interest that her affairs were generally neglected by her pro- 
prietary rulers. 

The people led quiet lives in the forest, making their own laws in 
an assembly of their own choosing and enjoying liberty of conscience 
and all the natural rights of men living in a state of absolute free- 
dom. It was in those early days that Nathaniel Bacon, calling the 
people of Virginia to his standard, rallied them against the arbitrary 
government of Berkeley, in which bold movement he had the coun- 
tenance of William Drummond who had been the first governor of 
Albemarle. When Bacon's flag went down in disaster, and his watch- 
cry of " Carolina" ceased to be heard, and Drummond had paid the 
penalty with his life, many of their supporters came to the Albemarle 
and found refuge in the wilderness from the heavy hand of Berkeley's 



NORTH CAROLINA. IQ 

tyranny. The spirit of liberty which imbued the hearts of Bacon's 
followers was thus transplanted to the infant colony of Carolina 
where it was fostered and treasured and where it expanded with 
advancing years. 

The handful of scattered settlers grew in numbers slowly but 
surely as the new lands attracted more and more the attention of 
friends in the other colonies and in England. There were constant 
accessions; but the region was difficult to reach, and the country to 
be occupied was broad and extensive. The people lived in their 
clearings, often remote from each other. With their plantations in 
the depths of the forests, separated by miles of intervening woods, 
they found no necessity for those laws and regulations which obtain 
in a complex civilization, but led a life of natural freedom, but little 
restrained by civil codes. There were no ministers of the gospel 
among them, and so, as early as 1669, the assembly passed an act 
"Forasmuch as there may be divers people that are minded to be 
joyned together in the holy state of Wedlock, and for that there is 
noe minister as yet in this County by whom the said partyes may be 
joyned in Wedlock according to the rites and customs of our native 
country, the Kingdom of England, that none may be hindered from 
this soe necessarj' a worke for the promotion of mankind and settle- 
ment of this county, it is enacted and be it enacted by the Palatine 
and Lords Proprietors of Carolina by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Present Grand Assembly and authority thereof that any 
two persons desiring to be joyned in the holy state of matrimony, 
taking three or four of their neighbors along with them, and repairing 
to the Governor or any one of the Council, before him declaring that 
they doe joyne together in the holy state of Wedlock and doe accept 
one the other for man and wife; and the said governor or councellor 
before whom such act is performed, giving certificate thereof, and 
the said certificate being registered in the Secretary's office or by the 
register of the Precinct or in such other office as shall hereafter for 
that use be provided. It shall be deemed a lawful marriage- and the 
partyes violating this marriage shall be punishable as they had been 
married by a minister according to the rites and customs of England." 

In like manner the other institutions and mode of life of the set- 
tlers were in large measure the outgrowth of their isolated situation. 
They had neither silver nor gold; but their surplus products were 
valuable in the markets of the world, and their accounts were kept in 
" tobacco" and were payable in tobacco; while there were established 
rates at which other articles, including skins and furs, were to be 
received in payment of all debts — even the ciuitrents due for the 
land to the Lords Proprietors. 

Left largely to themselves, government rested lightly on these 
men of Carolina, and they passed their days in the peaceful enjoy- 
ment of their secluded homes, self reliant, courageous, nurturing a 
spirit of independence, revelling to the fullest in the sweets of unre- 
strained liberty. Occasionally some governor, hastening to be rich, 
would seek by fraud or peculation to prosper at their expense, or 



20 NORTH CAROLINA 

some customs officer would attempt to enforce British regulations in 
regard to tobacco, or the provisions of the odious Navigation laws 
that restrained trading with New England and forbade it with the 
Spanish colonies in the West Indies. On such occasions the people 
of Albemarle would show that they were neither respecters of persons 
nor loyal submissionists to the will of parliament. They had a dis- 
position to live under their own regulations and they manifested their 
purpose in ways that admitted of no misconstruction. The jseople 
would make the lives of their customs house officers intolerable, while 
the assembly would try offending governors anddepose them, banish 
them for a time from the settlement and exclude them from ever 
holding office again in the colony. Indeed,' according to the narra- 
tion of Gov. Burrington, fifty years later, they seized one of their 
early governors and " clapped him into a log house without a roof," 
and presumably without food or drink, until he should submit himself 
to their authorit}-. 

To use the words of the immortal Bancroft — Vol. I, p. 158 — "The 
planters of Albemarle were men who had been led to a choice of 
their residence from a hatred of restraint and had lost themselves 
among the woods in search of independence. Are there any who 
doubt man's capacity for self-government; let them study the history 
of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless and turbulent in 
their imperfect submission to a government imposed upon them from 
abroad; the administration of the colony was firm, humane and tran- 
quil when they were left to take care of themselves. Any govern- 
ment but one of their own institution was oppressive." And again 
the same historian pays this noble tribute to those people: "The 
planters of North Carolina recovered tranquillity as soon as they es- 
caped the misrule from abroad; and sure of amnesty, esteemed 
themselves the happiest people on earth. They loved the pure air 
and clear skies of their summer land. True there was no fixed min- 
ister in the land until 1703; no church erected till 1705; no separate 
building for a court house till 1722; no printing press till 1754. Care- 
less of religious sects, or colleges, or lawyers, or absolute laws, the 
early settlers enjoyed liberty of conscience and personal independ- 
ence; freedom of the forest and of the river. The children of na- 
ture listened to the inspiration of nature. From almost every plan- 
tation they enjoyed a noble prospect of spacious rivers, pleasant 
meadows enameled with flowers; of primeval forests where the lofti- 
est branches of the tulip tree or the magnolia were wrapped in jasi- 
mines and honeysuckle. * * * North Carolina was settled by the 
freest of the free; by men to whom the restraints of the other colo- 
nies were too severe. They were not so much caged in the woods as 
scattered in lonely granges. Their was neither city nor township; 
there was hardly even a hamlet or one house within sight of another; 
nor were there roads, except as the paths from house to house were 
distinguished by notches in the trees. But the settlers were gentle 
in their tempers, of serene minds, enemies to violence and bloodshed. 
Not all the successive revolutions had kindled vindictive passions; 



NORTH CAROLINA. 21 

freedom, entire freedom was enjoyed without anxiety or without 
guaranties; the charities of life were scattered at their feet, like the 
flowers on their meadows, and the spirit of humanity maintained its 
influence in the Arcadia, as royalist writers will have it "'of rogues 
and rebels' in the paradise of Quakers." 

At length the Lords Proprietors ceased sending governors to 
Albemarle and the president of the council acted as governor, the 
inhabitants of the colony thus administering its affairs entirely. And 
so under the wise and patriotic sway of Major Alexander Lillington, 
of Thomas Harvey and Henderson Walker, tranquillity reigned for 
a happy period. 

Taking a view of the colony about the close of the seventeenth 
century, we find that there had been considerable progress made in 
settlement, although still there was not a village to be seen. There 
were landings where vessels lay while trading with the people, and 
country stores where products were bartered; and the people led easy 
lives, basking in their health-giving sunlight. 

Among the chief men in the colony were Thomas Harvey, Alex- 
ander Lillington, Henderson Walker, John Porter, Samuel Swann, 
and a little later Thomas Pollock, William Glover, Edward IMoseley 
and Maurice Moore. 

Major Lillington is said to have come to Albemarle from the 
Barbadoes, where one of his name was member ofthe Royal council 
and an officer of the armj^ He earlj- attained influence in his new 
home and was probably the most powerful man in the colony. His 
family intermarried with W'alker, Aloseley, Sw-ann and Porter and the 
connection exercised a controlling influence on the destiny' of the 
colony for many years. 

The Harveys had long been settled in Virginia, where at an 
early date Sir John Harve}* was Governor; later John Harvej' was 
president of the council of North Carolina and acted as governor; 
and toward the close of the century Thomas Harvey, presumably 
his son, held the same position. Prom him came the Harveys of 
Harvey Neck, always cultured, respected and influential; and in the 
person of John Harvey-, speaker of the assembly at the beginning of 
the Revolution, contributing one of the greatest figures that has 
played upon our stage of action. 

John Porter had been a member of the \'irginia assembly as 
early as 1663, as burgess for lower Norfolk, but was then expelled 
"because he was well affected to the Quakers." He had long been 
settled on the Albemarle and was a merchant trading with Boston 
and had amassed wealth. 

Colonel Swann was a descendant of William Swann, who was an 
alderman of the city of Jamestown and settled Swann's Point, im- 
mediat(;ly across the river from Jamestown, dying there in 1638. 
Colonel Swann's first wife was Sarah Drummond, a daughter of the 
first governor of Albemarle, and whose mother was so devoted to the 
cause of Bacon; antl he next married a daughter of Major Lilling- 
ton. He was the collector of customs for Albemarle, being a crown 



22 NORTH CAROLINA. 

officer and also a member of the council. He was a strict church- 
man as were the others mentioned, unless Porter was not. 

The administration of public affairs by their own inhabitants, with 
such eminent satisfaction, created an indisposition for a change in 
the system; but now a change was made and it was attended with 
most unhappy results. 

Liberty of conscience being secured to the settlers in Carolina, 
and the Quakers having met with unfriendly legislation in Virginia, 
some of that faith early came to Albemarle. In 1672 William Ed- 
mundson visited that region, and the celebrated George Fox followed 
closely in his footsteps, while Edmundson made a second visitation 
four years later. By their ministrations the seeds of their faith were 
planted, and in the absence of other regular forms of worship, the 
attractive tenets of the gentle Fox took firm root in the settlement. 
Indeed, as if to secure such immigrants, the Lords Proprietors in 
their instructions given to Peter Carteret, governor of Albemarle in 
1670, directed: "You are to cause all persons chosen (to the 
assembly and as deputies or members of the council) to swear alle- 
giance to our soveriegn lord the King, and fidelity and submission to 
the Proprietors and the form of government established by them; 
but in case any man for religion's sake be not free to swear, then 
shall he subscribe the same in a Book for that case provided, which 
shall be deemed the same with swearing." With such inducements — 
liberty of conscience, the right to hold office, and to affirm instead of 
swearing — offered to the Quakers who were treated with marked in- 
tolerance elsewhere, many were drawn to the quiet shores of the 
Albemarle; and later John Archdale, a Quaker, became one of the 
Lords Proprietors and governor of Carolina, and his daughter with 
her husband, Emanuel Low, settled in Perquimans and their example 
and influence tended to the propagation of the new doctrine. And 
so the Quakers prospered in Albemarle. But the year 1700, which 
was proclaimed by the Papal See as a year of jubilee, witnessed a re- 
vival of religious enthusiasm in Europe and brought trouble even to 
this distant settlement. Henderson Walker wrote that for near fifty 
years they had been settled there "without priest or altar," but in 
1701 the legislature passed an act to establish vestries and erect 
church buildings and support ministers of the church of England; 
and in the same year the Quakers began to hold quarterly meetings. 
And Granville, who was then Palatine, the oldest and administrative 
officer among the Proprietors, being an intolerant churchman, pro- 
posed an aggressive course in regard to religious matters. Gov. 
Johnston was appointed governor of the whole of Carolina with in- 
structions to appoint a deputy governor for Albemarle, and he sent 
there Maj. Daniel in that capacity, who thus succeeded Henderson 
Walker. The new governor supported by Glover, Pollock and a 
majority of the council disregarded the custom, which had obtained 
in the colony from the beginning, of allowing the Quakers to hold 
office upon affirmation, and required all persons to make oath in regu- 
lar form before qualifying. This was a virtual exclusion of about 



North Carolina. 2^ 

one-half the colony from participation in the government, and it led 
to turmoil and confusion that lasted till the spring of 171 1. During 
this period Edward JVIoseley and Thomas Pollock became prominent 
actors in public matters — the former espousing the cause of the 
Quakers or of popular right, and the latter favoring the change pro- 
posed to be made in the government. Both were churchmen; both 
men of mark, of capacity, of superior education; and each became 
■a leader of his side. John Ashe, having been sent by the dissenters 
of South Carolina to represent their grievances to the Crown, young 
Edmund Porter joined him on behalf of the Quakers and dissenters 
of Albemarle, and as a result of this mission Maj. Daniel was dis- 
placed as governor and Col. Carey was sent by Gov. Johnston to suc- 
ceed him. Carey, however, agreeably to Lord Granville's views, 
started out on the same course as Daniel, and this led John Porter 
himself to go to England where he obtained a commission authoriz- 
ing him to settle the government, together with new appointments of 
councilmen, and an order removing Carey from his office. On Porter s 
return William Glover was chosen president of the council until an 
assembly should be convened, but he, backed by Col. Pollock, con- 
tinued the same course as formerly, which led to Porter's defection 
and the gathering of all the dissenters around Carey, who made 
terms with them. By an agreement an assembly was elected under 
the joint order of each faction to decide between the contending 
governors. This body was favorable to the Quakers, admitted them 
to seats, elected Moseley speaker and decided for Carej'. Glover re- 
fused to submit and with Col. Pollock and others fled to Virginia. At 
length Edward Hyde, a cousin of the Queen, who was intended for 
governor, but whose commission had not reached him, arrived in Vir- 
ginia and was invited by all parties to assume the administration. 
Hyde soon however sided against Carey and Moseley and Porter, 
caused them to be arrested and, urged on by Pollock and Glover, 
proposed to visit them with severe punishment; but having escaped, 
Carey embodied a force and offered to try the arbitrament of arms. 
The affair ended, however, without bloodshed and the Lords Pro- 
prietors forbade any further proceedings. 

Hardly had this episode ended before the Indians struck a blow at 
the colony that threatened to e.xtirpate it. Notwithstanding the com- 
motions that had occurred since 1704, the colony continued to receive 
considerable accessions and its confines were extended well to the west- 
ward and southward along the Tar. Some Huguenots settled on the 
Pamlico and DeGraffenried in 1710, led a body of Swiss to the Neuse, 
making a lodgnient at New Berne. The Indians had been on most 
friendly terms with the whites, but seeing their lands encroached on, 
and noticing the dissensions of the colonists, in September, 171 1, they 
seized DeGraffenried and Lawson, the surveyor, who were ascending 
the Neuse, and ii*nmediately began a massacre along the Tar and 
Pamlico that cut off almost the whole of the lower settlement. Had 
it not been for the friendly help of South Carolina, whose assembly 
■dispatched aid under Col. Barnwell, and later, another force under 



24 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Col. James Moore and his brother, Maurice Moore, the entire settle- 
ment would doubtless have been destroyed. After various vicissi- 
tudes and a most harrowing experience, the Indian fort on Contentnea 
creek was taken by Col. Moore, the greatest battle being fought that 
had yet taken place on American soil, and the power of the Tuscaroras 
was broken. Soon afterward that fierce tribe removed to New York, 
and although desultory hostilities continued until 1718, yet the great 
danger was over when in the summer of 17 14, Charles Eden reached 
the colony to succeed Gov. Hyde, who had died two years before. 
A new assembly met in 1715, when the clouds that had settled 
over the colony were passing away. Moseley was chosen speaker; 
provision was made for paying the paper money issued because of 
the Indian war, the first issue being in 1712. Quakers were excluded 
from office and from testifying in criminal cases and from serving on 
juries, but otherwise were tolerated and were allowed to affirm in- 
stead of making oath. Other dissenters enjoyed all rights of citizen- 
ship, but the Church of England was established by law. The entire 
body of the laws was revised and re-enacted, and the value of com- 
modities to be received in payment of quitrents was fixed by legisla- 
tive enactment. The assembly in token of its disapprobation of 
methods employed by Col. Pollock, who, as president of the council, 
had conducted the war, resolved, "That the impressing of the inhabi- 
tants, or their property, under pretence of its being for the public ser- 
vice, without authority from the assembly, was unwarrantable, a great 
infringement of the liberty of the subject and very much weakened 
the government by causing many to leave it." While this was but a 
mild manifestation of the old spirit of the colony, yet it was a protest 
against the action of Col. Pollock during the war, and embodied the 
feeling of speaker Moseley and of the people towards the adminis- 
tration. During the succeeding administration this divergence of 
sentiment took a different form. With Gov. Eden, came over from 
England, Tobias Knight, to be secretary' of the colony, and the instruc- 
tions were that all records should be open to public inspection. 
Teach, an acknowledged pirate, the notorious Blackbeard, was a friend 
of Tobias Knight, having illicit dealings with him, and Moseley and 
Maurice Moore, who had at heart the fair fame of the colony, forced 
their way into the secretary's office and held possession some hours, 
examining papers to obtain evidence of the complicity of Knight with 
the pirate. This led to an open rupture with Eden; but Moseley so 
far succeeded that Knight resigned and soon died, while Teach was 
attacked by British war vessels and killed. In 1722, Gov. Eden 
died, and George Burrington was appointed hissuccessor with the ap- 
probation of the Crown, which now claimed the right to disapprove of 
such appointments in the colonies. Upon his arrival in 1724, Presi- 
dent Pollock, Chief Justice Christopher Gale and Secretary John Lo- 
vick, who were also deputies of Lords Proprietors, sought to obtain a 
dominant influence over the new administration, but Burrington was 
more complaisant with Moseley and Moore and Ashe and those who 
represented the popular party. There had been an inhibition of the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 25 

Lords Proprietors against any settlement on the Cape Pear, but Bur- 
rington explored that region and opened it up for entry, and he so 
far ingratiated himself with the people, that representations were 
made by the disappointed faction to the Proprietors that Burrington 
was preparing to follow the example of James Moore in South Caro- 
lina, and by a popular revolution, throw off their power and hold the 
province directly from the Crown. This information led to his immedi- 
ate displacement, and in 1 725, Sir Richard Everard succeeded him. Sir 
Richard on his first coming not unnaturally gave ear to the deputies 
of the Lords Proprietors who had procured the deposition of his pre- 
decessor, but in 172S the Crown bargained for the purchase of North 
Carolina and for a time the colony was left to its own control. Dur- 
ing that period. Sir Richard cast off his old advisers and sought the 
favor of Moseley and the people; and at the assembly of 1729, he 
agreed to a law for the issue of a large amount of paper currency, a 
part of which was to be lent to the planters themselves, and to vari- 
ous regulations as to the payment of quitrents, a matter of popular con- 
cern, for no lands were held in the colony in fee simple but each land 
owner had to pay an annual quitrent to the Proprietors which by cus- 
tom was payable in commodities; and in consequence of his complais- 
ance, the assembly did what it had never done before — made to the 
governor a present of five hundred pounds. 

It was 1 73 1 before Burrington, who now came as the first colonial 
governor representing the Crown, reappeared in the colon}- and took 
the oaths of office at Edenton. He had caused some of his former 
friends to be put in the council or upper house, and on his arrival 
showed signal favor to the leaders of the faction which had formerly 
opposed him, and apparently sought to sustain his administration 
with strong influences; but unhappily for him his instructions were to 
assert prerogatives of the Crown that were in derogation of the 
rights of the assembly under the charter and as the government had 
been administered from the beginning of the colony. A conflict was 
at once precipitated, and the assembly under Moseley, and the covmcil 
itself led by John Baptista Ashe withstood him to the utmost, — so 
indeed that " not a single act was passed required by the King's in- 
structions or proposed by the governor." He claimed for the Crown 
the right to create new precincts, entitled to representation in the 
assembly; but the assembly denied the right and would not admit 
the members. He denied the right of the old precincts of Albemarle 
to five members, the new ones being allowed only two; but the as- 
sembly maintained that the representation should remain as it always 
had been. He insisted that the rents should be paid in money, and 
at certain points or in produce at such values as he might tleclare. 
The assembly Insisted that the people should pay their rents on their 
farms; and in certain commodities at the values a.scertained by the 
assembly of 1715. He insisted on fixing the fees of the officers and 
what should be the relative value of the colonial paper currency and 
sterling; but the assembly denitd these demands and fixed these 



26 NORTH CAROLINA. 

values itself. He undertook to appoint the public treasurers — but the 
assembly elected them and declared that it held the purse strings. 

Such were some of the causes of difference between the assembly 
a.nd the Crown, arising at the outset of Burrington's administration 
and continuing for many years under the colonial governors. It was 
the assertion of prerogative on the one side and the steady mainten- 
ance of chartered rights and traditional freedom on the other. Mose- 
ley, who had sided with popular rights in 1708, in later years strength- 
ened by his family connections, continued until his death at the head 
of the popular party, and constantly and firmly maintained the char- 
tered rights of the people. 

It is to be said to Burrington's credit, however, that though he was 
at points with the assembly, and was in violent personal antagonism 
with many of the most prominent inhabitants, he addressed himself 
with assiduity to promoting the material prosperity of the colony, and 
it was his proud boast that the colony had made most rapid advances 
under his active administration and unremitting efforts for Its de- 
velopment. In 1734 he was relieved by the appearance in the colony 
of Gov. Gabriel Johnston, who for the ne.xt eighteen years repre- 
sented the Crown in North Carolina. During Johnston's administra- 
tion, the same contentions that had marked his predecessor's term 
were continued, and though Johnston was a more adroit manager, 
yet the conflict at times was accompanied with disturbances of a very 
violent nature. 

As North Carolina was now a dependency of the Crown, steps 
were taken to assimilate the government to that of Great Britain. 
The precincts were changed to counties; provost marshals gave 
place to sheriffs, the council was called the upper house, and the gov- 
ernor, representing the Crown, claimed the right to erect counties and 
to do other acts by virtue of prerogative. The assembly made firm 
and strong resistance to such of those demands as were in derogation 
of its rights. The King had purchased but seven out of the eight 
shares of Carolina, and the eighth. Lord Granville's, was in 1744, set 
apart to him next to Virginia, the line running near Bath, Washing- 
ton, Smithfield and the southern line of Chatham county. The in- 
habitants north of that line were Granville's tenants, to the south, the 
King's. The old counties, claiming five members each, lay in Gran- 
ville's territory, and Edenton, where the assembly had habitually 
met was also in his domains. Gov. Johnston desired to have the 
capital in the King's territory and to curtail the undue power of the 
inhabitants in Granville's half of the province, for the dividing line 
cut the colony nearly into equal parts. With this view, Johnston 
knowing that the northern members could not conveniently attend, 
in 1746, called the assembly to meet at Wilmington in November. 
The northern members remained away. No quorum was present ac- 
cording to the old rule; but as the quorum of the British house of 
commons was forty out of a membership of 400, it was considered 
that fifteen might well be a quorum of the assembly. The few 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2"] 

southern members present passed two bills — one fixing representa- 
tion which allowed to each count}' two members and no more, thus 
depriving the northern counties of their preponderating influence in 
the assembly, and another establishing the seat of government at 
New Berne where the records of the courts were to be kept. 

The northern counties declined to recognize the validity of these 
acts, and insisted on their right to their old representation, which 
being denied, they abstained from recognizing the government. 
They closed their court houses, would pay no taxes nor participate in 
the administration of affairs. At length the southern counties fol- 
lowed their example in the matter of taxes; and for several years 
prior to Gov. Johnston's death in 1752, no public revenues were col- 
lected, and his salary was far in arrears. At last, after his death, the 
Crown officers at London determined that fifteen members did not 
constitute a quorum, and that the two acts were nullities, and so the 
northern counties won their cause and retained their five members 
until the adoption of the constitution m 1776. 

But although there were constant conflicts between the assembly 
and Gov. Johnston, and though the northern counties were in a state 
of revolt for several years, yet during his term of office the material 
progress of the country was great; its population increased from fifty 
to about ninety thousand, and streams of immigration set in, which 
exercised an important influence upon the province and the character- 
istics of the people. 

About 1725 a lodgment had been made on the Cape Fear by the 
Moores with their friends from South Carolina, and Moseley, Swann, 
Porter, Ashe, Harnett and others from the Albemarle, which event- 
ually came to be the seat of much wealth, refinement and culture. 
Here, later, came some Irish and also some Welchmen who located 
on the Northeast river; while some Highlanders dispersed them- 
selves along the waters of the Northwest branch, the fore-runners of 
a very important movement. In the meantime many inhabitants 
from lower South Carolina, claiming the Pee Dee as the boundary, 
pushed up the banks of that stream, among them being some of 
the Huguenots, while X'irginians crossed the northern border in con- 
siderable numbers. 

When Charles Edward, the grandson of James II, in 1745, made a 
descent on Scotland, many who had followed the Hag of his father 
and grandfather, rallied to his standard. The Duke of Cumberland, 
however, met him on the fatal field of Culloden, where the hopes of 
the Scottish people were entirely destroyed. A considerable number 
of prisoners were executed, but others were pardoned on condition 
of their emigrating. A number came to the Cape Fear, and after 
that a stream of Highlanders steadily flowed to the upper waters of 
that river, until all that region was taken up by Scotchmen, and there 
for a century the Ga-lic language was heard around the humble 
hearth as well as in the pulpit. Equally important were the acces- 
sions from Pennsylvania — these were Germans and Scotch-Irish. 
They came down the "great road" to Winchester, thence down the 



28 NORTH CAROLINA. 

valley, and crossed the Blue Ridg^e on the banks of the Staunton 
river, and then, either by the Moravian settlement at Salem, or the 
" Old Red House" in Caswell, pursued their way to their settlements 
in Carolina. These streams, beginning in Johnston's administration, 
continued until the western portion of the province was fairly well 
occupied. Side by side the new-comers located their sequestered 
homes in the wilderness. Different in racial characteristics, they still 
had in common, thiift, energy, piety and an appreciation of the ad- 
vantages of education and a spirit deeply imbued with a love of per- 
sonal liberty. The Germans brought with them their teachers and 
their preachers, and the Scotch-Irish, their pastors, who soon estab- 
lished in their several charges schools and academies whose influence 
was widely felt by succeeding generations. 

It was in 1605 that the earls of Tyrconnel and Tyrone having re- 
belled, King James confiscated their estates in Ulster and started 
those settlements of English and of Scotch that supplanted the old 
Irish tenantry. The Scotch greatly increased in their new home, 
and when, after several generations, their right to maintain their 
Presbyterian faith without interference was denied, they measurably 
dispersed throughout the settlements of the New World. Those 
coming to Carolina made a most important addition to the popula- 
tion. From them have sprung numbers of illustrious sons who have 
added to the glory and fame of the commonwealth. And thus it 
came about that while the peaceful Quaker flourished on the Albe- 
marle, and the church of England was fostered in the east, the west 
was settled largely by men of the Presbyterian and Lutheran faiths, and 
the active Baptists disseminated themselves througheut the whole. 

The settlers coming from Pennsylvania had perhaps been diverted 
to the southward by the Indians who held the country west of the 
Alleghanies and whose depredations somewhat later even checked 
the movement to Carolina, but on peace being restored the tide of 
immigration set in again and continued without interruption until the 
Revolutionary war. Then it ceased, and for more than a century 
North Carolina has received no accessions from abroad, her popula- 
tion being only natural increase, descendents of English, Irish, .Scotch, 
French, Swiss and Welsh, in greater or less admixture of blood, 
made more sturdy by a residence in the wilderness, and more patri- 
otic by memories of their glorious ancestry. 

On the death of Gov. Johnston in 1752, first Rice and then Rowan 
succeeded to the administration as president of the council, but in 
October, 1754, Arthur Dobbs, the new governor, arrived. He found 
the colony making preparations to aid Virginia in driving back the 
French and Indians, who were threatening an invasion of that prov- 
ince. In January of that year Gov. Dinwiddle of Virginia had solic- 
ited help and the assembly had promptly responded by voting /^i 2,000 
to equip a regiment of 750 men, of which James Innis, who had com- 
manded a North Carolina battalion at Carthagena, was appointed 
colonel. Caleb Grainger was lieutenant colonel and Robert Rowan, 
major. Among the other officers were Thomas Arbuthnot, Hugh 



NORTH CAROLINA. 29 

Waddell, Thomas McManus, Edmund \"ail and Moses John DeRos- 
set. While Col. Innis was organizing his regiment and preparing to 
transport it to \'irginia, he sent John Ashe as his aide to Gov. Din- 
widdle, who, on June 4th, conferred on Innis the appointment of com- 
mander-in-chief of the entire expedition. The North Carolina regi- 
ment reached Winchester, but the \'irginia assembly having failed to 
make an}' provision for the sustenance of the men, and the supplies 
brought from Carolina being exhausted, the regiment on September i, 
returned home, leaving Col. Innis in Virginia preparing for a new 
campaign. In October the Crown appointed Gov. Sharpe, of Mary- 
land, to be commander-in-chief, and Col. Innis was designated as 
" Campmaster-General."' He remained at Fort Cumberland making 
treaties with the Indians and organizing the forces and constructing 
works of defense until a year later, when he returned to Carolina. 

Early in 1755 a conipanj' under Capt. Ed. Brice Dobbs, a son of 
the governor, and a British army officer, was sent to X'irginia to take 
part in Braddock's campaign, and the next year three new compa- 
nies, commanded by Caleb Grainger, Thomas Arbuthnot and Thomas 
McManus, were ordered to New York, where Capt. Brice's company 
joined them, and Brice was appointed major of the North Carolina 
battalion. Capt. Hugh Waddell had a command on the western con- 
fines of the colony and built Fort Dobbs in 1755. In 175S, with these 
companies, he marched with Gen. Forbes against Fort Duquesneand 
won great credit as an Indian fighter and scout. In 1759 he was pro- 
moted to be colonel and was again in charge of the North Carolina 
frontier, and later in that year he commanded the North Carolina 
contingent sent under Gov. Lyttleton against the Cherokees. W hile 
our troops were being trained to war by these various expeditions in 
different parts of America, our people on the western frontier were 
harassed by a local Indian warfare and were learning valuable expe- 
rience that was to stand them in good stead in after years. It was in 
such a school that Gen Howe, Gen. Moore and many other patriot 
leaders obtained the skill that distinguished them when the Revolu- 
tionary struggle came on. 

The differences between the people and the governor, who repre- 
sented the prerogatives of the Crown, continued without abatement 
under Dobbs' administration, there being several new .sources of trou- 
ble developed. One was the appointment of the judges who for- 
merly' had been sent to the province from England, but now the 
assembly sought to procure the appointment of natives. Because of 
this and other ])oints of difference the law establishing courts and 
providing for the judges was enacted every two years " only tempor- 
arily." Another matter that caused the governor much concern was 
the determination of the assembly to have its own agent in London 
to represent the affairs of the colony to the board of trade, and other 
officers of the Crown, and to parliament. The representations of 
these agents often were entirely antagonistic to the views and pro- 
jects of the governor, and annoyed him greatly. He claimed the 
right to make the appointment, but the assembly exercised it, and 



30 NORTH CAROLINA. 

appointed to conduct the correspondence, Samuel Swann, who on the 
retirement of his uncle Edward Moseley, had succeeded him as the 
popular leader and as speaker of the assembly. Associated with 
him were his two nephews, George Moore and John Ashe, and John 
Starkey who was particularly obnoxious to the governor because of his 
alleged republicanism. Of Starkey, the governor wrote that he had 
won public confidence "by his capacity and diligence and in some 
measure from his garb and seeming humility, by wearingshoe-strings, a 
plain coat and having a bald head," but the governor rated him as " the 
most designing man in the province; that he was a professed violent 
republican, in every instance taking from His Majesty's prerogative, 
and adding to the power of the assembly." Indeed Gov. Dobbs fre- 
quentl}' declared " that the spirit of republicanism was rife in the 
colony and that it was much stronger here than in any other;" and 
he declared that, "as burdensome as the administration was, the re- 
publican leaders had offered to make it pleasant and agreeable, if he 
would only permit the republican junto to absorb his powers." His 
divergence from the assembly was so great that in April, 1760, the 
house sitting, as it were, as a grand inquisition went into secret ses- 
sion and made presentment of the grievances which the people suf- 
fered by means of the governor's conduct. This presentment was to 
be laid before the King by the agent of the colony at London. In the 
meantime progress was made in giving shape to the government, and 
the right of the people to rule themselves after the fashion of Eng- 
lishmen at home was firmly engrafted upon the system. The as- 
sembly asserted and maintained its right to hold the purse; it elected 
its own treasurers; imposed its own taxes, and spent the public money 
in its own way. Whatever aid the colony rendered the Crown was to 
be freely given by the assembly, and the bill was to originate in the 
lower house. As there could be no taxation in the colony except by 
a law passed by the assembly, contributions to the coffers of the King 
were made by appropriations and were called " aids to the King." The 
amount of these aids also came to be a source of disagreement with 
the governor. Because of the expenses of the Erench and Indian 
wars, parliament in 1765 undertook to levy taxes on the American 
colonies. The resistance to this measure, the stamp act, in North 
Carolina was quite as determined as elsewhere. John Ashe, who had 
succeeded Samuel Swann as speaker, told Governor Tryon that the 
law would be resisted unto death. Associations were formed called 
Sons of Liberty, and papers were signed binding the subscribers to 
sacrifice their lives and fortunes to maintain the liberties of the peo- 
ple. When the stamp masters were appointed they were forced to 
resign. The stamps were not distributed, but as Gov. Tryon sought 
to prevent the entire nullification of the law and would not ignore it, 
no courts were held and no public business transacted. The affairs 
of the colony were indeed at a stand-still, as little could be done with- 
out the use of stamped paper and the people would not use it. In 
January, 1766, two vessels arrived in Cape Eear river whose clearances 
were not on stamped paper, and they were seized for that reason by 



NORTH CAROLINA. 3I 

the customs house officers and held by two British ships of war then 
in the harbor. Thereupon the people embodied and under the direc- 
tion of John Ashe, Thomas Lloyd and Alexander Lillington, and led 
by Gen. Waddell, Gen. Moore and accompanied by Cornelius Har- 
nett and others, marched to Brunswick where Gov. Tryon lived, took 
from his residence Col. Pennington, the comptroller of the province, 
and made him and all the officers of the province swear that they 
would not execute the law, and forced the ships of war to surrender 
the detained vessels. The obnoxious act was soon afterwards 
repealed. 

The people of North Carolina had long suffered for the want of a 
sufficient currency. In 1712 there had been an issue of paper money; 
and later other issues were made. After the King purchased the pro- 
vince, still further laws were passed relative to the currency, but 
finally parliament prohibited the colonies from issuing more paper 
money. The effect of this was to deprive the people of a needed 
supply of circulation and the settlements in the west were great suf- 
ferers thereby. At certain points in the east products could be stored 
in warehouses convenient for shipment, and notes given by the in- 
spectors for their value served as local currency. But there were no 
shipping points west of Fayetteville, and no warehouses inland, and 
the people in the interior could not obtain currency to pay their taxes. 
They hauled their produce more than a hundred miles through the 
wilderness to Fayetteville and there had to dispose of it for "one- 
half trade" in order to obtain some cash to pay the sheriff. This to- 
gether with an oppressive system of administration in the back coun- 
try, where the counties were extensive, and some of the officers cor- 
rupt, led to an association for a reform of abuses and to correct 
grievances, called the Regulation. But eventually the association re- 
fused to pay taxes and disturbances ensued that finally terminated in 
the battle of Alamance in 1771. Nearly the entire population at the 
west was enlisted on the side of the Regulation, which, originally a 
laudable movement of the people to redress their grievances, subse- 
quently took the form of disorder, leading to its forcible suppression 
by the eastern part of the King's domain, for the Albemarle counties 
rendered the government but little assistance. But despite the dis- 
orders that attended it, and its luckless termination, the Regulation 
Association was a bold manifestation of the spirit of manly freedom 
which characterized the independent people of western Carolina. 
Upon its suppression many of those engaged in it jilunged into the 
wilderness and made settlements across the mountains. 

in the meantime great streams of population continued to fiow in- 
to the Piedmont region of the province, as before chiefly Germans 
and Scotch-Irish, and the country was occupied. Schools were taught, 
religion was preached and material progress and development made, 
and the people enjoyed repose until the groundswell of the coming 
revolution disturbed the quiet of the colony. 

The old question of the exclusive right of the assembly to tax the 
people, again came to the front in 1774. and although the province 



32 NORTH CAROLINA. 

had been racked and torn by internal dissensions, although the 
western half was at points with the east for suppressing the rising of 
1 77 1, yet the assembly boldly took advanced ground in maintaining 
the ancient privileges and rights of the commonwealth. A sturdy 
spirit of independence prevailed among the entire people. Speaker 
Harvey, learning that Gov. Martin would postpone the meeting of 
the assembly to prevent that body from sending delegates to the 
Continental congress, declared that the people themselves would 
call an assembly; and after consultation, the committee of safety at 
Wilmington issued a call for the election of a body which is known as 
the first provincial congress. It met in New Berne, August 1 774, and it 
is said was the first legislative body of a revolutionary character chosen 
by the people of any colony. It was composed of the first men in the 
colony and its resolves had all the force of law throughout the pro- 
vince. Other congresses followed in the same manner, and associa- 
tions were formed as in the stamp act troubles; and committees of 
safety under the resolves of congress, supplanted the regular author- 
ity of the colonial government. Gov. Martin finding that British 
power had vanished, hastily fled from his palace in New Berne to 
shipping in the lower Cape Fear where he devised measures for the 
subjugation of the people. A large British force was expected to 
join him in the Cape Fear, and he caused the Highlanders and those 
Regulators who now adhered to the royal cause, to be embodied with 
the view of co-operating with the expected arm}'. The British 
standard was erected first in Moore county and then at Campbellton, 
now Fayetteville — but the patriots had not been idle. Steps had 
been taken to organize the militia in the various sections of the pro- 
vince and Gen. James Moore, after a brilliant campaign, cut off the 
insurgents at Moore's Creek, and utterly routed them. And when 
the British regiments with a hundred sail arrived in the harbor. 
Gen. Ashe had 7,000 Carolinians ready to contest the field with them. 
In April 1776, while the tremendous force of invasion was yet in the 
Cape Fear, the North Carolina congress defiantly took the fatal 
plunge and authorized their delegates in the Continental Congress to 
concur in declaring independence and in forming foreign alliances; 
the earliest action of this kind taken by any colony. 

Reviewing in detail the Revolutionary proceedings in North Car- 
olina, one observes that there was not a single defection among the 
leading men of the province; and from the very beginning those 
who had held public place remained together and acted as a single 
man. In nearly every community there were association papers and 
strong resolves for a maintenance of the people's rights; and in 
Mecklenburg, where the Scotch-Irish dominated, the patriotic ardor of 
the people was unbounded. There in May, 1775, they adopted the 
first declaration of independence and assumed an attitude that has won 
imperishable renown for the immortal patriots of Mecklenburg and 
added luster to the name of Carolina. The spirit of republicanism, 
of which Gov. Johnston so bitterly com])lained twenty years before, 
now found full scope for play, and without a shock the old order of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 33 

things passed away and free republican institutions were established 
in the land. The direction of affairs was in wise hands. Hard in- 
deed would it be to find in an}' legislative body men of superior parts 
to those who formed the provincial congress of North Carolina, or 
men of greater wisdom or loftier character. North Carolina then 
possessed a galaxy of statesmen of whom any state might justly be 
proud: Harvey, Ashe. Howe, Moore, Harnett, Hooper, Caswell, 
Johnston, Avery, Jones, Person, Nash, Buncombe, Martin, Burke, and 
a host of others, whose names sparkle as brilliants in the rays of the 
noonday sun. With devotion they entered upon the struggle that 
was to last seven weary years, and during which trying vicissitudes 
befell the people. Many perished, all suffered. The fortunes of 
thousands were dissipated, and when peace came, the sun of inde- 
pendence rose upon a land of impoverished families, of widows and 
orphans bei;eft of their natural support, of ruined men, whose con- 
stitutions had been shattered in the protracted contest, and homes 
once bright with thrift and energy, now desolate. But those 3'ears of 
trial had also been years of activity, and the fortitude, the endur- 
ance, the exertions of the patriots left an indelible impress upon the 
characteristics of the people. The courage of North Carolinians 
had been displayed in a hundred encounters, conspicuously at 
Charleston, Brandywine and Germantown, where Nash fell, at Valley 
Forge, where the troops suffered so grievously, at Charleston again, 
when the entire North Carolina continental line was captured, at 
King's Mountain, Cowpens, Guilford Court House and Eutaw 
Springs, and in other battles made glorious by the libation of Amer- 
ican blood. 

In those years population had extended further into the interior, 
and the barriers of the mountains were crossed and the good lands 
of eastern Tennessee occupied. The war being over the energy and 
activity developed in its progress were now diverted into other chan- 
nels, and measures were taken to lay on solid foundations the pros- 
perity and happiness of the people. Schools were fostered; highways 
constructed, trade and commerce again established, and agriculture 
advanced. The genius of the people did not draw them to manu- 
factures, nor was their situation favorable for such enterprises. 

There were no large towns, no aggregations of wealth ready to be 
associated in great undertakings. The planters resided upon their 
estates where they cultivated hospitality and enjoyed the abundant 
fruits of their agricultural labors. 

At an early day the stalwart democracy of some of the leaders led 
to their separation from those who possessed greater conservatism. 
Thomas Person, Willie Jones, Samuel Ashe, Samuel Spencer, Richard 
Caswell and others were the advocates of ultra democratic principles 
of government; while Samuel Johnson, James Iredell, I lay, McClainc, 
Hooper, Davie and others were more conservative. When the prop- 
osition was made to adopt the proposed constitution of the United 
States, the latter advocated it; but the former, determined to obtain 
amendments affording greater guarantees of popular freedom, were 
B— 3 



34 NORTH CAROLINA. 

successful in preventing its immediate ratification. A year later, 
amendments being then assured, the instrument was ratified. Such 
were the lines on which parties were formed in North Carolina. 
Naturally the advocates of advanced democratic principles ranged 
themselves as followers of Jefferson, while the other party became 
adherents of the Federal leaders. Such lines of division largely con- 
tinued until all parties ceased to exist in the presence of the great 
crisis of i860. In the intervening years North Carolina produced 
many statesmen deserving to rank high among their contemporaries. 
James Iredell and Alfred Moore adorned the supreme court bench of 
the United States. William R. Davie, Nathaniel Macon, Samuel 
Johnston, Spaight, the elder, John Stanly, David Stone, Montford 
Stokes and Benjamin Hawkins illustrate the statesmen of the earlier 
period. In 1819 the assembly employed an English engineer, named 
Fulton, to improve our rivers and cut canals. Later they employed 
the first state geologist ever engaged bj'an^' state to make known our 
mineral resources; and when railroads came into successful operation, 
the idea of utilizing them was quickly seized on, and many were 
speedily projected and much activit}^ displayed in devising means for 
their construction. The state became largely interested in the road 
•'rom Raleigh to the Roanoke river, which was opened i^ 1S35 with 
imposing ceremonies. The same 3^ear a great internal improvement 
convention was held at which a state policy was established, of run- 
ning the lines from east to west. The people of Wilmington desir- 
ing also a north and south line, subscribed to that enterprise a large 
sum, said to be four times the value of the entire re.-.; estate of the 
town. When that road was finished to Weldon, it was the longest in 
the world, and remained so for many 3'ears. 

The democratic party disapproved of state aid to such enterprises, 
and plans for such development were thus arrested. Indeed, when 
in 1849 a great effort was made to charter the North Carolina road 
from Goldsboro through the interior towns to Charlotte, although 
the act was drawn by a democratic leader, William S. Ashe, and sup- 
ported by James C. Dobbin of that party, yet when Calvin Graves, 
the speaker of the senate gave the casting vote for it, his democratic 
constituents were so displeased that they never again brought him 
forward for office. Such influences tended to retard internal devel- 
opment, and remote counties were long without trade facilities. 
During three quarters of a century there was peace, and the progress 
that attended it. Schools were established and religion flourished, 
all denominations sharing in the advance, but the Methodists and 
the Baptists making the greatest headway; hamlets sprung up at the 
county seats, wealth became diffused throughout the state, and the 
agricultural resources of the various sections were developed and 
substantial progress was made in refinement and culture. 

From an early period it had been the happy fortune of the people 
to have courts of great respectability, the judges being men of blame- 
less lives, of good repute and unusual learning. The first determina- 
tion of any court to disregard a legislative enactment because of its 



NORTH CAROLINA. ■ 35 

unconstitutionalitj' was bj- NorthC arolina judges — who set bounds to 
the hitherto unlimited exercise of power by the legislature — Judge 
Ashe saj'ing, "As God said unto the waters: Thus far and no farther!" 
Legislation was conservative, and the adn\inistratIon of justice in- 
spired the greatest confidence among the people. The supreme 
bench was adorned bj' men eminent for their virtue and learning, and 
Taylor. Henderson, Hall, Gaston, Daniel, Ruffin. Xash, Pearson, 
Battle, Manl}-, and their associates gave to the court a reputation sur- 
passed by none in the Union; and there was fostered a respect for 
the law and a spirit of submission to authority which have been char- 
acteristic of North Carolinians. 

The state finances were well administered, without scandal and 
with scrupulous exactness, and the fame of the people became estab- 
lished for their honest and upright dealing. The condition of society 
partook of these characteristics, and while the people were unpreten- 
tious, they were known abroad for their honesty, their virtue and 
their hospitality. Many of our statesmen achieved national fame. 
Branch, Gaston, j. J. McKaj', Strange, Iredell the younger, Swain, 
the Shepherds, Archibald Henderson, Graham, Badger, Haywood, 
Branch, Owen, Bragg, Dobbin, Morehead, Mangum, Clingman, and 
a galaxy of .brilliant stars in the political firmament added luster to 
the name of North Carolina. 

Although North Carolina had soon after the adoption of the Fed- 
eral constitution taken steps to prevent the importation of negroes, 
not only from abroad but from any other state, yet in the progress of 
time the system of slaverj- became strongly engrafted on her social 
structure, and the agitation of the slavery question excited her peo- 
ple greatl}'. Periodically this agitation stirred the people and ani- 
mated them to maintain with steadfastness the right to manage their 
own domestic, local concerns in their own way. At length when it 
was declared that an "irrepressible conflict" had arisen, and that the 
" I'nion could not exist half slave and half free," it came to be re- 
garded that the limitations of the Federal constitution were no longer 
to be observed, and that the abolition party would seek to abolish 
slavery. This led South Carolina and other commonwealths to the 
south to withdraw from the Union. The question of holding a con- 
vention for the purpose of withdrawing was submitted to the people 
of North Carolina in the spring of iS6i, but so conservative were they 
and so attached to the Union, that they separated themselves from 
their southern brethren, and refused to call the convention. The 
difference between the votes was, however, small — onlj' aliout 250 in 
the poll of the entire state. Such was the situation, when in April, 
1S61, Fort Sumter was bombarded, and President Lincoln called on 
North Carolina to furnish her quota of troops to coerce the seceding 
states. These events changed the aspect of affairs in North Caro- 
lina instantaneously. All differences ceased. Union men, who, like 
George F. Badger, did not hold to the right of secession, united now 
in the declaration that. North Carolinians must needs share the for- 
tunes of their southern kindred. Then amid the e.xcitement of that 



36 NORTH CAROLINA. 

period came the rapid preparation for the inevitable conflict — the 
marshaling of troops,, the formation of armies, the strenuous endeav- 
ors to equip and train our citizen soldiery and make defense of our 
unprotected coast. Never was there a finer display of patriotic ardor; 
never did peaceable ploughboys more quickly assume the character 
of veteran soldiers. It was as if a common inspiration possessed the 
souls of all the people and animated them to die. If need be, in de- 
fense of their traditional liberties. During the four years of strife 
that followed, the people of North Carolina bore themselves with un- 
paralleled heroism. No nobler spectacle of human devotion has 
ever been presented in the annals of mankind. Her regiments were 
kept well filled and their prowess, their endurance and constancy 
were unsurpassed. In the great struggle between the contending 
armies before Richmond, her losses were greater than those of any 
other state; and so indeed it was in all the battles where Lee com- 
manded. At Gettysburg, our trained veterans illustrated still more 
conspicuously their native heroism; if their losses were great on the 
first and second days of that grand encounter and their bravery peer- 
less, yet on the third day they blazoned the pages of history in colors 
even more brilliant with the gallantry of their magnificent charge 
under the chivalrous Pettlgrew. Never Indeed have any Anglo-Sax- 
ons displayed higher qualities than the North Carolina forces from 
Great Bethel to Appomatox — never was greater heroism found 
united with a finer modesty — or splendid bravery with greater reso- 
lution, fortitude and endurance. 

With a voting population of 112,000, North Carolina sent to the 
army 125,000 soldiers. Strenuous efforts were made to provide food 
for the soldiers and the poor, and while salt works were erected 
along the sea coast, vast quantities of cards were imported for the 
women to use at home, and other supplies were brought through the 
blockade. The few factories in the state were pushed to their full 
capacity, and new enterprises were started to aid the government. 
Powder mills were erected, furnaces were built In the Deep river sec- 
tion, and the mines at Egypt supplied coal for steamships, and every 
known resource was utilized. The period was of the greatest mental 
activity as well as one developing physical force. A leaf In the life 
of the people was turned and the quiet and peace that had reigned 
for generations gave place to unremitting action, enlarging the intel- 
ligence of the people, and quickening the energies of their life. It 
was accompanied, however, by straits and hardships, suffering and 
mourning, the separation of husbands and fathers from their families 
and the pall of death that fell upon every household. What awful 
experiences were crowded into four years of heroic and grand sacri- 
fice — how trying the vicissitudes, how calamitous the dire result! 

But from the activities and energies of the war, from the calami- 
ties and sufferings, from the poverty and despair, there issued Influ- 
ences that made their impress deep upon the character of the people. 
When the final catastrophe was realized, the men of Carolina who 
had been veterans in the immortal army, now of a different type 



NORTH CAROLINA. 3/ 

from the quiet countrymen of the previous decade, turned with a 
resokite purpose to the future, and began to solve the great problem 
pressing upon them. New ideas possessed them, a greater activity, 
more resolution, as thej' began the work of rebuilding their homes 
and creating prosperity in their desolate fields. 

The reconstruction of the state was accompanied by a sharp con- 
flict in ideas, which culminated in 1S70, when the whites gained the 
ascendency and in an orderlj' proceeding impeached the governor of 
the state and deposed him from office. From the day when the 
Anglo-Saxons so asserted the majesty of their sovereignty, quiet has 
reigned throughout the borders of Carolina, and the watchword has 
been progress and the development of our resources and the advance- 
ment of the religious, social, educational and material interests of 
the people. 

The newspapers, the chief instrumentality for the dissemination 
of information, largely increased in numbers, in power and influence, 
and by their progressive spirit have led in the work of popular en- 
lightenment. 

A diversification of industries has been enjoined; manufactures 
have been fostered, mines and forest wealth developed and agricul- 
ture greatly improved. Railroad building has been energetically pro- 
moted, banks established, facilities for trade enlarged, and public 
schools have been put on a satisfactory basis. General prosperity has 
blessed the people. The country has worn a smiling face, while the 
towns have increased in size and importance. Asheville has attained 
a marvelous growth. Winston is a leading seat of tobacco manufac- 
turing, and Durham's fame is world-wide. Wilmington, Raleigh, 
Charlotte and many other towns are sharing in the new life, while on 
the streams are dotted manufacturing establishments that tell of the 
energy and skill of the present race of North Carolinians. 

It is the high-purpose of these pages to perpetuate the names and 
services of those men who have wrought these industrial changes. 
The career of jurists, statesmen and military heroes find their appro- 
priate place in historical works, where but scant space is allotted to 
the business men of the country. The former render important ser- 
vices but at last it is the men engaged in business who build up a state. 
It is these who develop resources, create wealth, build towns, con- 
struct railroads, furnish employment to the workingmen and lead on 
in the march of progress and prosperity, and it is likewise these toil- 
ers in diversified industries whose wealth supports the schools and 
churches of the state, disseminating intelligence and learning and re- 
ligion, improving the morals of the people, and crowning the enlight- 
enment of the commonwealth with e.xamples of virtue and high 
moral character. They are indeed more than the supporting pillars, 
for they constitute the state itself. 



d 1^029 



BIOQRAPHIGALa SKRTGHB.S 



OF 



Eininent ,0 I^prcscntatiue fsjortb Qi-olinian^, 



JAMES IREDELL. 



James Iredell, a distinguished jurist, was born in Lowes, England, 
October 5, 1750. When he had arrived at the age of seventeen years, 
he emigrated to Edenton, N. C, where he was afterward appointed 
deputy collector of the port. Here he made the acquaintance of 
Miss Johnston, sister of Samuel Jonhston, governor and United 
States senator, and in 1773, Mr. Iredell and Miss Johnston were united 
in marriage. He read law in the office of his brother-in-law (who 
afterward was chief justice of the superior court of North Carolina), 
and was admitted to practice in 1775.- His reputation as a jurist, 
which then had its beginning, is well known to the profession. He 
held the office of collector of customs from 1774, till the Revolution- 
ary war practicall}' put an end, for the time, to that office. Taking a 
lively interest in the cause of the independence of the colonies he did 
not desire a commission under the British government and at once 
resigned the office when hostilities were about to commence. He 
had at that time a prospective interest in a large property in the West 
Indies, owned by a loyal uncle, and this he also relinquished for the 
cause of the colonists. In December, 1777, he was elected judge of 
the superior court of North Carolina, but, after holding the office 
less than a year, he resigned. He was appointed attorne3'-generaI of 
the state in 1779, but resigned that office within a short period. In 
politics as has before been intimated, he was an ardent whig, and his 
counsels in the cause of that party became of great value to its 
leaders in their struggles for independence. 

In 17S7 Mr. Iredell was appointed a commissioner to revise and 
codify the laws of the state, and " Iredell's Revisal," the publication 
of which began in 1789, was completed in 1791, and published in full at 
Edenton, the same year. At the convention which was held at Hills- 
borough, in 17S8, to discuss the proposed federal constitution. Judge 
Iredell was a delegate, and was the leader of the federal party in that 
bod}^ He urged the adoption of the constitution with great force 



NORTH CAROLINA. 39 

and earnestness, but the majority was against liim, and he failed to 
accomplish his purpose. In 1790 President Washington appointed 
Mr. Iredell one of the justices of the supreme court of the United 
States, and he was the author of several dissenting opinions in im- 
portant cases brought before that high tribunal. In one of these — 
Wilson vs. Daniels — in which the jurisdiction of the court on a writ 
of error was at issue, his opinion was subsequently concurred in by 
the court. Many of his opinions, holdings and addresses, upon legal 
topics, were published, and held in great esteem, by members of the 
profession, in all the principal northern cities. At the present day, 
they are often cited, and held as good authority. At his death he 
left, nearly ready for the press, an elaborate treatise on pleading, but 
up to a recent date, it had not been published. Judge Iredell died at 
Edenton, October 20, 1799, but his memory will be perpetuated, not 
only by his descendants and b}' his published works, but by the county 
which took its name in honor of its illustrious resident. 

JAMES IREDELL, JR., 

was born at Edenton, Chowan county, N. C, November 2, 1788. He 
was the son of Judge James Iredell, a sketch of whose career will be 
found in this volume. James, the subject of this sketch, received a 
liberal education, graduating from Princeton college with honor, 
when only eighteen years of age. He studied law and entered into 
practice and not only became prominent in the legal profession but 
also in politics. In 1812 at the opening of hostilities between this 
country and England. Mr. Iredell raised a company of volunteers 
of which he was chosen captain. His company was detailed to 
Craney Island, Va., near Norfolk, where he rendered very effective 
service in the defense of that point against the attacks of the British 
forces. At the close of his militar}- service, he returned to Edenton 
and resumed the practice of his profession, laying the foundation for 
a distinguished and brilliant career as a lawyer and a judge. 

In 1816, Mr. Iredell was elected a member of the state legislature, 
as the representative of his native city. The next year he was elected 
speaker of the house, holding that position during the sessions of 1817 
and 1818. He was elected to the legislature many times afterward. 
He was appointed judge of the superior courts of law and equity in 
March, 1819, but resigned in the following May. In 1827 he was 
elected governor of North Carolina, and the next year was called to 
represent that state in the senate of the United States. He was the 
successor in that body of Nathaniel Macon, and was himself succeeded 
by Hon. W. P. Mangum. At the expiration of his senatorial term, 
Judge Iredell again returned to his law practice in Edenton. He was 
appointed a reporter of the supreme court decisions, and Iredell's 
Reports are to this day to be found in every well-regulated public and 
private law library. Few law reports are more frequently cited as 
authority in the courts, or oftener alluded to in law books, than 
Iredell. 



40 NORTH CAROLINA. 

In the three great departments of government, the legislative, the 
executive and the judicial, Mr. Iredell was a most distinguished per- 
sonage. In private life he was greatl}' esteemed and beloved. Even 
while holding high official stations he did not forget nor neglect the 
amenities of social acquaintanceship, and in all polite circles of soci- 
ety he was the object of attraction and admiration. He was an honor 
and an ornament to his profession, and in the private walks of life 
was a most pleasant companion and an agreeable and entertaining 
conversationalist. Judge Iredell married Miss Treadwell, daughter 
of Samuel Treadwell, of Edenton, and they had a large and very 
interesting family of children. He died in his native city, April 13, 
1853, deeply lamented by all his fellow citizens. 

THOMAS RUFFIN, 

the eldest child of his parents, was born at Newington, the residence 
of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Roane, in the count}' of King 
and Queen, in Virginia, on the 17th of November, 1787. Among the 
most eminent characters in American annals he takes appropriate 
rank. Whether we consider the virtues that adorn character, the 
learning that entitles the jurist to fame, or the benefits that an emi- 
nent citizen confers on his generation, the subject of this sketch is 
equally deserving of our admiration. His father, Sterling Ruffin, 
was a planter of Essex county, Va., who transferred his residence, in 
1807, to North Carolina, settling in Rockingham county, and dying 
in the county of Caswell. His mother, Alice Roane, was of a family 
much distinguished in Virginia by the public service of many of its 
members, and was herself first cousin of Spencer Roane, a chief jus- 
tice of that state, of more than usual prominence and distinction. 
His early boyhood was passed on the paternal homestead in Essex, 
and in attendance on the schools of the vicinity. Thence, at a suit- 
able age, he was sent to a classical academy in Warrenton, N. C, 
under the instruction of Mr. Marcus George, a celebrated instructor, 
and from the Warrenton academy young Ruffin was transferred to 
the College of Nassau Hall, at Princeton, N. J. He entered the 
freshman class at Princeton, and graduated at the commencement in 
1805, graduating with honors. 

Returning home with his bachelor degree, Mr. Ruffin, soon after- 
ward entered the law office of David Robertson, Esq., of Petersburg, 
as a student of law, and continued there, through the years 1S06 and 
1807. In the latter year, his father changed his home to North Caro- 
lina, and the son followed, a willing emigrant, for it was in North 
Carolina, he had received his first training for useful life, and 
here was the home of most of his early friends, with whom he con- 
fidently hoped to renew his association. On his arrival in North 
Carolina, he pursued his further study of the law, under the direction 
of the Hon. A. D. Murphey, until his admission to the bar, in 1S08. 
Early in iSo<5, he established his home in the town of Hillsborough, 
and on the 7th of December, in that year, he was united in marriage, 




o ^ri:^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 4 1 

with Miss Anne Kirkland, eldest dauglitcr of William Kirkland, of 
that place, who was a prominent merchant and leading citizen. The 
twent}- years next ensuing, during which his residence was continu- 
ally in Hillsborough, comprehend his career at the bar, and on the 
bench of the superior courts. In 1813, 1815 and 1816, he served as a 
member of the legislature, in the house of commons for his town, 
under the old state constitution, and filled the office of speaker of the 
house, at the last mentioned session, when first elected a judge, upon 
the resignation of that office, by Judge Duncan Cameron. He was 
also a candidate of the electoral ticket, in favor of William H. Craw- 
ford for I-'resident of the United States, in 1S24, but his aspirations, 
tastes and interests, inclined him not to political honors, but to a 
steady adherence to the profession, to which his life was devoted. 
He remained on the superior court bench onl}- two years, and re- 
signed to the legislature of 1818, and immediately returned to the 
practice. The wants of an increasing family, and an unfortunate in- 
volvement, by suretyship, forbade his continuance in a situation of no 
better income than the salary which was its compensation. For 
fortj-three weeks in the year, he had his engagements in court, and 
despite of all conditions of the weather or other impediments to 
traveling, in the then state of the country, rarely failed to fulfill 
them. He held the appointment of reporter of the decisions of the 
supreme court for one or two terms, but relinquished it from the en- 
grossment of his time, by his practice. 

In the summer of 1825, upon the resignation of judge Badger, 
Mr. Ruffin again accepted the appointment of a judge of the superior 
courts. His recent successes had relieved him of embarrassment, and 
supplied him a competent fortune. His health, which had never been 
very robust, demanded rela.xation and rest, and his duties to his fam- 
ily, now quite numerous in his estimation, required more of his pres- 
ence at home than was consistent with the very active life he was 
leading. He therefore relinquished his great emoluments at the bar 
for the inadequate salary then paid to a judge, and virtually closed 
his career as an advocate. By the bar and the public he was wel- 
comed back on the circuits, and for the three following years he ad- 
ministered the law with such universal admiration and acceptance, 
both on the part of the profession and the people, that he was gener- 
ally designated by the public approbation for the succession to the 
bench of the supreme court whenever a vacancy should occur. The 
reputation he had established by this time, however, did not merely 
assign him capal:>ilities as a lawyer, but ascribed to him every qualifi- 
cation of a thorough Ijusiness man, and in the autumn of 1S2S, he was 
prevailed on to take the management of the old .State bank of North 
Carolina, the affairs of the institution being greatly embarrassed, and 
within twelve months devoted to the office of president of the bank, 
with his characteristic energy, mastering the affairs of the bank with 
a true lal<;nt for finance, making availal)le its assets and providing 
for its liabilities, and inspiring confidence by the general faith in his 



42 NORTH CAROLINA. 

abilities and high purpose to do right, he effectually redeemed the 
institution and restored it to solvency. 

At this period in his life, also, another place of high political- 
eminence was at his choice; but was promptly declined. It was the 
nomination to the United States senate. He was earnestl}^ solicited 
to accept a candidacy for this position with every assurance of suc- 
cess. But his desire was, as he himself expressed it among his 
friends, "after the labor and attention he had bestowed upon his pro- 
fession, to go down to posterity as a lawyer," preferring to be known 
merely as a jurist. Irrespective, therefore, of his domestic interests, 
and the care and attention due to his family, of which no man ever 
had a truer or warmer conception, he could not be diverted from his 
chosen line of life by the attractions of even the highest political dis- 
tinction. During his administration of the affairs of the bank, in 
iS2g, his services were still demanded by clients in the higher courts, 
and his reputation at the bar suffered no eclipse. He was elected a 
judge of the supreme court at the session of the legislature, in the 
autumn of 1829, and in 1S33, upon the demise of Chief-Justice Hen- 
derson, he was elevated to the chief-justiceship. Here he won imper- 
ishable fame. His decisions illumine the annals of jurisprudence. 
When in the zenith of his reputation in 1852, he resigned his high 
position and retired, as he supposed, forever, from the professional 
employments he had so long and with so much renown pursued. But 
on the death of his successor anci friend, Chief-Justice Nash, in De- 
cember, 1858, he was called by the almost unanimous vote of the 
general assenibly, then in session, to fill the vacancy, and he sat again 
upon the supreme court bench until the autumn of 1859, when failing 
health rendered his labors irksome, and he took his final leave of 
judicial life. 

Judge Ruffin's decisions form within themselves a complete treat- 
ise on the principles of equit}', then a branch of jurisprudence which 
had not been reduced to harmony and system. As a chancellor he 
has had no superior, either in England or America; while his com- 
mon law decisions have been quoted with approbation in Westmin- 
ster Hall. His opinion in Hoke vs. Henderson is itself a monument 
to his fame, that will endure as long as learning and clear reasoning 
and cogent argument are appreciated by the legal profession. Indeed 
it may be claimed for this eminent jurist not only that he has had no 
equal in North Carolina, but no superior in the United States. His 
nature was ardfent, and his manner of speech earnest and often vehe- 
ment in tone and gesticulation. Though versed in belles lettres.and with 
tastes to relish eloquent declamation, it was a field into which he did 
not often, if at all, adventure. His reliance was upon logic, not upon 
rhetoric; and even his illustrations were drawn from things practical 
rather than the ideal. Analyzing and thoroughly comprehending his 
cause, he held it up plainly to the view of others, and with a search- 
ing and incisive criticism exposed and dissipated the weak points in 
that of his adversary; and all this, in a vigorous, terse and .manly 



NORTH CAROLINA. 43 

English, ever}- word of which told. As a counselor, his opinions were 
not the result of cramming for an occasion, or a fortunate authority', 
but the well considered reflections of a gifted mind imbued with law 
as a science, and he explored to their sources, the principles involved 
in the subjects examined, and made them his own. This full develop- 
ment of his forensic character does not appear to have been manifest 
until after his return to the bar subsequent to his first service on the 
bench. But from this period till his second retirement, in 1825, he 
had hardly a rival in the bar of the supreme court of the state or the 
circuit court of the United States, except Archibald Henderson and 
William Gaston, and he had command of the practice in all the state 
courts he attended. His stjle of writing was elevated and worthy of 
the themes he discussed. His language was well selected, and he 
exhibited a critical acquaintance with English philology. A marked 
characteristic^in his writings, as it was also in his conversation, was 
the frequent, dexterous, and strikingly appropriate use he made of the 
brief words of our language, usually of Saxon derivation. Consider- 
ing how thoroughly' he had mastered the systems prevailing in Eng- 
land and the United States, the fullness of his knowledge in kindred 
studies and the facility with which he labored and wrote, it is to be 
regretted that he did not betake himself to professional authorship. 

There are other aspects of Mr. Ruffin's character than that of a 
lawyer and judge. At an early period he became the proprietor of 
an estate on Dan river, in Rockingham county, on which he es- 
tablished a plantation at once, and gave personal direction to its 
profitable cultivation, from that time until his death. Carrying 
his family to Raleigh for a sojourn of twelve months upon as- 
suming the presidency of the State bank, as has already been stated, 
he removed thence to Haw river, in Alamance county, in 1S30, and 
there under his own eye carried on the operations of a planter with 
success until 1S66, when the results of the war deprived him of labor- 
ers, and he sold the estate and removed again to Hillsborough. From 
early life he appeared to have conceived a- fondness for agriculture, 
including horticulture. Here on his plantation for thirty-five years, 
in the recess of his courts, he found recreation in farm pursuits and 
rearing of domestic animals. He was one of the most progressive 
and successful farmers of the state, and it was no empty compliment 
to a great jurist and leading citizen, when the Agricultural society of 
North Carolina, in 1854, elected him to its presidency after his retire- 
ment from the bench, and in this jjosition he continued for six years, 
when declining health demanded his retirement. In that capacity he 
rendered the people of the state a service hardly inferior to that con- 
nected with his administration of justice. His home on Haw river 
was a seat of culture and refinement, and of bounteous hospitality. 
There purity and affection were united with elegance and learning. 

When no longer the chief-justice, judge Ruftin, being appointed 
a magistrate, presided over the court of Alamance county, and gave 
direction to the local concerns of his neighliors, managing county 
matters with the same acumen that distinguished his administration 



44 NORTH CAROLINA. 

of the affairs of the State bank. As grand and lofty as was his part in 
life, he performed these simple duties of magistrate with scrupulous 
exactness. His character may be illustrated by a saying of his own: 
" Next to the sin of disobeying a commandment of the bible, it is a sin 
to violate the law of the state." In the winter of 1860-1S61, he was 
appointed by the state one of the peace commission to prevent, if 
possible, the anticipated rupture of the Union, and in that body he 
urged compromise, concession and conciliation. At Washington, D. C, 
where the commission met, he met once more his early friend. Gen. 
Winfield Scott, with whom he was a fellow student of law at Peters- 
burg, and urged upon him that there should be peace, but the plead- 
ing of this illustrious patriot was unheeded by the victorious partisans 
of the incoming administration. In May of 1861, he was elected a 
member of the secession convention, and was firm and ardent in his 
efforts for southern independence. Surviving the calamities of war, 
which with its close found his farm desolate in consequence of an 
army encampment, and its system of labor being abolished, he felt 
unequal to the enterprise of its resuscitation and culture, and there- 
fore disposed of the estate and again took up his abode in Hills- 
borough, as already stated, and on the 15th of January, 1870, after 
an illness of but four days, though he had been an invalid from an 
affection of the lungs for a year or more, he breathed his last, in 
the eighty-third year of his age. His end was resigned and peace- 
ful, and in the consolation of an enlightened and humble Christian 
faith. For more than forty years a communicant in the Pro- 
testant Episcopal church, he was one of its most active members 
in the state, and more than once represented the diocese in the 
triennial conventions of the union. He was, too, of a most high 
appreciation of high education, and was until superseded by the 
changes made in 1S6S, the oldest trustee of the university of the 
state, and always one of the most efficient and active members of the 
board. 

The venerable companion of his life, a bride when not yet fifteen, 
a wife for more than sixty 3'ears survived him a short time and passed 
away. She bore her husband several daughters and sons. Among 
the daughters is the widow of the late Paul C. Cameron; among the 
sons, there was William K. Ruftin, who possessed a mind of great 
powers, whose native capacity, indeed, was of the highest order, and 
whose acquirements in jurisprudence were considered, by those who 
knew him, as very extraordinary. Another son, Peter Browne Ruffin, 
has long been treasurer of the North Carolina Railroad company, 
and has maintained an enviable fame as a business man and a gentle- 
man of high integrity and spotless character. Of the fourth son, 
Thomas Ruffin, mention is made elsewhere in these pages. Sterling 
Ruffin, another son, is a respected citizen of Hillsborough, and the 
youngest son, Dr. John Ruffin, is a resident of Wilson, N. C. In every 
relation of life, Chief-Justice Ruffin was exemplary, a tender, affec- 
tionate husband, a solicitous, loving father, a kind, steadfast friend, 
prudent in business, of unblemished character and integrity, and the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 45 

object of esteem and veneration throughout the state, and his exam- 
ple and course in all things will be cherished in the recollection of his 
friends, and may well be commended to the imitation of our j-outh. 

GEORGE E. BADGER. 

George Edmund Badger was born in Newbern, N. C, April 13, 
1795. His father was a native of Connecticut, consequentlj' when the 
son was fitted for college he naturall}' sent him to Yale. From this 
institution young Badger graduated in 181 5. He turned his atten- 
tion to the study of law, his preceptor being John Stanly, a relative 
of the family. He had but just arrived at the legal age of manhood 
when he was elected a member of the state legislature, and was only 
twenty-five j'ears of age when he was elected a judge of the superior 
courts of law and equity — one of the youngest, if not the j'oungest, 
judge ever called to sit on the bench. He resigned his seat, however, 
in 1S25, and opened a law office in Raleigh, where he pursued the prac- 
tice of his profession with signal success. He was a whig in politics, 
and, in March, 1841, was appointed by President Harrison secretary 
of the navy, under the then whig national administration. But when 
Mr. Tyler, who became president on the death of Gen. Harrison, 
showed his enmity to the United States bank by vetoing the bills re- 
chartering that institution, Mr. Badger resigned his position in the 
cabinet. In 1846 he was elected United States senator, a position 
which he held until 1855. He was nominated as one of the justices 
of the United -States supreme court by President Fillmore, but the 
nomination failed to be confimed by the senate. At the close of his 
senatorial term he retired from public life and devoted himself to 
the practice of his profession. Mr. Badger was a member of the 
convention which passed the ordinance of secession in May, 186 1, 
and signed his name to that instrument. He was opposed to the 
measure, however, in the beginning, and used all the powers of his 
eloquence in favor of the preservation of the Union. After the adop- 
tion of the ordinance, he was known as a member of the conservative 
party. He died of paralysis at Raleigh, May 11, 1866. 

In the United States senate, Mr. Badger was regarded as one of 
its most able and eloquent debaters. He was quick at repartee and 
pungent and forcible in argumentation. His powers of analysis were 
remarkable, and no man on the floor of the senate could more 
plainly discriminate between the true and fallacious in debate. He 
he had a fine sense of humor, and howev(;r dry or abtruse might be 
the subject under discussion, he would invest it with an interest that 
at once arrested the attention of his audience. As has been stated 
in this sketch, Mr. Badger resigned his seat in President Tyler's cabi- 
net, in consequence of the action of that functionary in vetoing the 
bills to re-establish the United States bank. This was one of the 
great issues involved in the presidential election of 1S40, and most of 
the whig statesmen of that day were in favor of a national bank. Mr. 
Badger was strongly committed to that measure, but he did not act 



t 



,6 NORTH CAROLINA. 



hastily when he found the president inimical to the bank. One bill 
had been vetoed, and another, supposed to avoid all of Mr. Tj'ler's 
constitutional objections, had been passed and shared the same fate 
of the former. Mr. Badger looked upon this as an abandonment on 
the part of the president of his former pledges, and he believed he 
could no longer consistently hold a seat in his cabinet. In giving his 
reasons for withdrawing he used the following plain and forcible lan- 
guage: 

" It was onl}' from the newspapers, from rumor, from hearsay, that 
I learned he (the president) had denied the constitutionality of the 
proposed institution, and had made the most solemn asseverations 
that he would never approve a measure which I knew was suggested 
by himself, and which had been, at his own instance, introduced into 
congress. It is scarcely necessary to say that I have not supposed, 
and do not now suppose, that a difference, merely between the presi- 
dent and his cabinet, either as to the constitutionality or the expedi- 
ency of a bank, necessarily interposes any obstacles to a full and 
cordial co-operation between them, in the general conduct of his 
administration; and, therefore, deeply as I regretted the veto of the 
first bill I did not feel myself at liberty to retire on that account from 
my situation. But the facts attending the initiation and disapproval 
of the last bill made a case totally different from that — one, it is 
believed, without a parallel in the history of our cabinets; presenting, 
to say nothing more, a measure embraced and then repudiated — 
efforts prompted, and then disowned — services rendered, and then 
treated with scorn or neglect. Such a case required, in my judgment, 
upon considerations private and public, that the official relations existing 
between the president and myself should be immediately dissolved.' 

But Mr. Badger did not go out alone. Mr. Ewing, secretary of 
the treasury, and Mr. Bell, secretary of war, for the same reasons, 
stated in equally strong language, joined the secretary of the navy in 
retiring from the cabinet. Mr. Webster, secretary of state, had also 
designed to retire, but was prevailed upon to remain. Yet even he 
remained under the expressed conviction that the president would 
finally approve of the measure, for he declared, " notwithstanding 
what has passed, I have confidence that the president will co-operate 
with the legislature in overcoming all difficulties in the attainment of 
these objects; and it is to the union of the whig party, b}? which I 
mean the whole party, the whig president, the whig congress and the 
whig people, that I look for a realization of our wishes." But in thus 
remaining in the cabinet, it is certain that Mr. Webster was not looked 
upon by his party as having exercised the same degree of consistency 
and true fealtj' to his party as was the case with Mr. Badger and the 
other cabinet officers that joined him in retiring. 

RICHMOND MUNFORD PEARSON 

was born in June, 1S05, in Rowan county the fourth son of Col. 
Richmond Pearson. His grandfather, Richmond Pearson, was a na- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 47 

tive of Dinvvlddie count}-, Va. He was an officer in the Revolution- 
ary war, and a man of marked courage. He died in 1819. He had 
been a successful merchant, but had failed at the close of the Rev- 
olutionary war, owing to the sudden fall in prices. The subject of 
this sketch, at the time of his father's failure, was a child of seven 
years of age, and would have been unable to receive a liberal educa- 
tion but for the kindness of his elder brother, the Hon. Joseph Pear- 
son, member of congress from North Carolina for fifteen successive 
years. He received his early education under John Mushat, one of 
the most successful instructors of his day, and at Washington, D. C, 
spending his boyhood at Brentwood, the residence of his elder 
brother. He entered the University of North Carolina in 1815, and 
graduated thence with the highest honors of his class in 1S23, deliv- 
ering the Latin salutatory. Among his classmates were Gov. Will- 
iam A. Graham, Hon. Robert B. Gilliam and Daniel W. Courts. 
Choosing the law as his profession, he entered the ofifice of Judge 
Henderson, and having completed his course, received his license in 
1S26. He commenced the practice of his profession at Salisbury, 
N. C, and his rise was at once rapid and marked, his earlj- career 
giving evidence of the great abilities b}' which he was afterward so 
eminentl}' distinguished. In 1829 he represented his native county in 
the legislature, and served three terms, and in 1836 was elected a judge 
of the superior court, and in 1S49 was elected a member of the 
supreme bench. 

Upon the death of Chief-Justice Nash, in 185S, he was chosen chief 
justice. During his term as chief justice he took a very bold stand in 
support of the integrity of the writ of habeas corpus, and would not 
CX)untcnance the idea of its suspension, in spite of the strong pressure 
brought to bear, and by his independent and almost defiant attitude 
on this question, rendered himself exceedingly unpopular. He was a 
candidate for the constitutional convention in 1865, but was defeated 
by Mr. Haynes. He was appointed provisional chief justice by the 
military authority in 1865, and when the civil authority was restored 
was again elected to that office which he held until his death, in Jan- 
uary, 1878. Elected a judge when he was but thirty years old he 
presided over the courts of North Carolina for more than forty years. 
It is said on good authority that after the death of Chief-Justice Chase, 
that the commission of Judge Pearson, as chief justice of the United 
States had been made out and signed by President Grant, but learn- 
ing that Judge Pearson was sixty-eight years of age, he appointed 
Justice Waite. 

Judge Pearson was the greatest master of the common law the 
state has ever produced, among the many honored names which have 
stood in the front rank of American jurists. He had a wondrous 
grasp of intellect and unequaled reasoning powers, added to a phe- 
nomenal memory. The facility with which he seized the strong 
points of a case was remarkable, and his views were logical, plain 
and forceful. He was a modern high priest of Coke upon Littleton, 
'and he was such a master of the law as a science, that his opinions 



48 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Stand high m England, where his decisions have been many times 
quoted in Westminster Hall. The young disciples of the law who 
made Richmond Hill their home felt to him as a father, and his com- 
munion with them in the classic shades of that famous retreat was 
like the converse of Plato to the aspiring Grecian youths in the groves 
of the Lyceum. -As a man he was distinguished for his honesty of 
purpose, unbending integrity, inflexible idea of justice, and conscien- 
tious devotion to what he considered to be his duty. While to the 
eyes of the world he seemed somewhat cold and austere, to those 
who knew him intimately he was a genial, generous, warm-hearted man. 
He was twice married: first, June 12, 1S32, to Margaret M. Williams, 
daughter of United States .Senator John Williams, of Tennessee, and 
niece of Hugh L. White, also United States senator from Tennessee, 
and whig candidate for the presidency in 1836; and second, in 1859, to 
the widow of Gen. John Gray Bynum, and daughter of Charles 
McDowell, of Morganton, N. C. 

RICHMOND PEARSON 

was the son of Chief-Justice Pearson, and was born at Richmond 
Hill, the family seat, in Yadkin county, January 26, 1852. The most 
of his life was spent amid the familiar scenes of his childhood until 
he entered Princeton college, at the early age of seventeen. At col- 
lege his conduct was excellent and his progress most rapid. He rap- 
idly developed those qualities of mental acquisition and retention so 
essential to broad and comprehensive scholarship. He was fond of 
the occult sciences and a devotee to classic literature. He early be- 
came familiar with all the choicest productions of the great English 
masters in prose and verse. He was one of those few men whose 
boundless reading found expression in a full and polished vocabulary. 
In private life he was a fascinating conversationalist, which is the re 
suit of natural fluency, large information and good breeding. He 
graduated in 1872, and took up the study of law under his eminent 
father, and was admitted to the bar a couple of years later. He was 
married in 1882, to Miss Gabrielle Thomas, of Richmond, Va. Mr. 
Pearson has done much in the way of public improvements about 
Asheville, where he has made his home since his marriage. He has 
represented his county in the legislature upon two occasions, in 1875 
and 1877. 

THOMAS C. FULLER, 

of Raleigh, one of the justices of the court of private land claims, 
recently established by the congress of the United States, is a native 
of the town of Fayetteville, in the state of North Carolina. He was 
prepared for college by John B. Bobbitt, of Louisburg, N. C, and at 
an early age entered the University of North Carolina. In 1850 he 
returned to Fayetteville and engaged in mercantile pursuits and 
manufacturing. But his talents drew him to the bar — at that time 



NORTH CAROLINA. 49 

the favorite road to fame and fortune in North Carolina. In 1S55 he 
became a student under Richmond M. Pearson, chief-justice of North 
Carolina, whose law school was so justly famous, and the ne.\t year 
began the practice of his profession at Fayetteville, quickly attaining 
by his merits a lucrative business. Although a union whig in princi- 
ple and ardentl}- devoted to the Union, when the war came on Mr. 
Fuller did not hesitate to take up arms for the south. In April, 1861, 
he enlisted as a private in Company F, First regiment of North Car- 
olina volunteers, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, known as the Bethel 
regiment, because it was engaged with such credit to itself in the first 
battle of the war, at Big Bethel in \'irginia. When his term of en- 
listment expired Mr. Fuller, together with Col. J. B. Star, of Fay- 
etteville, organized a battery of light artillery, of which Col. Star 
was captain and Mr. Fuller was first lieutenant, and he continued in 
active service with the company until November, 1863, when he was 
elected to the congress of the Confederate States. During the subse- 
quent period of the war he remained in the Confederate congress, 
and although the youngest member of the body he was far from 
being the least influential or the least useful, and his counsel was 
freely sought by men of greater years. At the close of the war he re- 
sumed the practice of the law at Fayetteville, and at the first election 
in 1865 he was chosen by the Cape Fear district to the congress of 
the United States, but the house of representatives refused to admit 
the state to representation. At the succeeding election he was again 
a candidate, but his opponent was awarded the certificate by the mili- 
tary officers under whose supervision the election was held. 

In the presidential election of 1S72, Col. Fuller, as a district presi- 
dential elector, made an extensive canvass and warmly urged the 
election of Horace Greeley, as a peace offering on the part of the 
south, and as indicating the purpose of Confederate soldiers to fully 
accept the results of the war; and wherever his voice was heard, the 
Greeley ticket received an excellent vote. Since that time, Col. Fuller, 
though taking an active part in politics, has never been a candidate 
for any position until his name was presented to President Harrison 
in connection with the high office he now holds. His practice in the 
circuit court of the United States being large, he determined to move 
to Raleigh, as a more convenient location, and in March, 1873, he did 
so, and entered into partnership with Hon. A. L. Merrimon, then 
United States senatorand the present chief-justice of North Carolina 
and Capt. S. A. Ashe, under the name of Merrimon, Fuller & Ashe. 
This firm was at once recognized as one of the strongest at the bar 
within the limits of the state, and its extensive business gave full 
scope to Col. Fuller's fine abilities and claimed his exclusive attention. 
The partnership continued until 1879, when Capt. Ashe withdrew to 
enter the fields of journalism. Col. Fuller and Judge Merrimon. 
however, remained together, and eventually the latter was appointed 
to the supreme court bench, and the former associated himself with 
George H. Snow, Esq., under the name of Fuller & Snow. Congress 
having passed the act establishing the court of private land claims, to 

B— 4 



50 NORTH CAROLINA. 

pass upon titles based on Mexican grants in the territory acquired 
from Mexico, on June lo, i8gi, President Harrison, at the instance of 
Senator Ransom, and upon the recommendation of the bar of North 
Carolina, appointed Col. Fuller a justice of that court, and on June 13, 
Judge Fuller took the oath of office in the circuit court of the United 
States, before Judge Seymour. Col. Fuller's grandfather was Bar- 
tholomew Fuller, a .Baptist minister, who was born in what is now 
Franklin county, N. C, in 1756, and after a life of devoted ministerial 
labor, died in 1827. His father, Thomas, was born in Franklin county, 
in 1800, and in 1825, married Catherine Raboteau,a daughter of John 
Raboteau, of Huguenot descent. To them were born, Sarah, wife of 
R. H. Blount, of Durham; Bartholomew Fuller, who died in 1884, and 
the subject of this sketch. In 1856, Col. Fuller married Miss Caro- 
line D. Whitehead, daughter of Williamson Whitehead, Esq., of Fay- 
etteville; of their children, W. W. Fuller, of Durham; Kate, wife of 
J. F. Hill, Esq.; Frank L. Fuller, Mattie, Janet and Jones Fuller, 
survive. 

Col. Fuller is a gentleman of hne address and distinguished pres- 
ence, gifted as a raconteur and to a rare degree master of the art of 
pleasing. Social by nature, considerate of others, with a most affec- 
tionate disposition and full of the milk of human kindness, he is a 
general favorite and warmly admired for his personal qualities. In- 
deed, in him seem to be commingled the best characteristics of his 
French and English blood. No man is more constant in his friend- 
ships or more unselfish in his devotion to his friends. He warmly 
espouses their cause and is ever ready to make any personal sacrifice 
in their behalf. And thus it is that the names of his friends through- 
out the state is legion, and among them are men of all parties, colors 
and creeds. Indeed, it has been said with truth that the appointment 
of no other person to the high office President Harrison has conferred 
upon him would have given such general satisfaction and such genu- 
ine pleasure to the people of the state without regard to race or 
political affiliations. As a lawyer Judge Fuller has had a most dis- 
tinguished career. His powers as an advocate are superb. He can 
move a jury to pity or arouse their indignation, or awaken anger, and 
sway them largely at his will. Some of his addresses will long be 
remembered because of their invective and his arraignment of false 
witnesses or interested parties, and no suitor or witness whom he has 
once excoriated ever willingly submits to the ordeal a second time. 
In his practice, it has been a peculiarity with him to take no notes of 
the proceedings. No matter how involved the case, how many wit- 
nesses are examined, how many days the trial is protracted, he makes 
no memoranda, but always as bland as a May morning and apparently 
unmoved in the most trying crisis of the case, he mentally arranges 
his proofs and considers his strong points, and at the end of a tedious 
trial often astonishes both court and jury with his perfect mastery of 
every point in the case and of ail the evidence that bears upon it. It 
has been said that he has never appeared against a man for his 
life, while he has defended hundreds charged with capital crimes, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 5 I 

and many without compensation, and almost invariably with success. 
But as distinguished as Judge Fuller is as an advocate, he takes equal 
rank in the profession for his sound learning and discriminating judg- 
ment as a counselor. He was a diligent student of the common law 
under the learned Chief-Justice Pearson, one of the greatest com- 
mon law lawyers of this century, either in America or Europe; and 
but few practitioners are more conversant with the underlying prin- 
ciples of our jurisprudence than Judge Fuller. Gifted with quick 
perceptions and possessing a logical mind, admirably poised, deeplj' 
imbued with the philosophy of the law, and skilled in the application 
of its principles to the facts of any case, he is admirably qualified for 
high judicial station and will adorn the bench to which he has been 
so worthily appointed. 

WILLIE PERSON MANGUM, 

a distinguished United States senator, was born in Orange county, 
N. C, in 1792. He entered North Carolina university and graduated 
from that institution in 1815. He studied law and was adrnitted to 
the bar in 1817, and very soon made his mark in the profession. He 
was chosen to the North Carolina house of commons the next year, 
and had only been in the practice of his profession two years before 
he was chosen a judge of the superior court. In the political divis- 
ion of that day, Mr. Mangum was a whig, and in 1823 he was elected 
a member of congress by the whig party of his district. He served 
one term and was re-elected, but before the completion of his second 
term he resigned to again accept a place on the bench of the super- 
ior court. In 1 83 1 he was elected to the United States senate, taking 
his seat in that body December 5, 1831. Near the end of his six 
years' term he resigned his seat in obedience to the instructions of 
the North Carolina legislature, the politics of which had changed 
during his incumbency in the senate. He was offered the nomina- 
tion for congress in 1837, but declined. 

At the presidential election in 1836 the vote of the South Carolina 
electors was cast for Mr. Mangum for president. When the whig 
party was again in the ascendency in the state, and Bedford Brown 
had resigned his seat in the United States senate, Mr. Mangum was 
chosen to succeed him. He served this time from December g, 1840, 
to March 3, 1853, and both in the senate and in the house he was one 
of the foremost leaders of the whig side. On the death of President 
William Flenry Harrison, and the accession of Mr. Tyler to the pres- 
idency, and after the resignation of Samuel L. Southard, Senator 
Mangum was elected president pro tan. of the senate, serving the 
remainder of Mr. Southard's term, and the next session of congress 
entire. At the close of this term he retired from public life, seeking, 
after so long and conspicuous an official career, the quiet of his 
home at Red .Mountain. 

Mr. Mangum was joined in marriage with Miss Cain, of Orange, 
and they had an only son who lost his life at the first battle of Bull 



52 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Run, July 21, iS6i. This sad event is said to have hastened the death 
of the father, who was already the victim of nervous prostration. 
Senator Mangum died at his home September 14, 1861. P'ew public 
men in the south have filled so long and so brilliant a public career. 

ROBERT STRANGE, JR., 

was born in Fayetteville, N. C, July 27, 1S23. He was the second 
son of Hon. Robert Strange, once a judge of the superior court, and 
subsequently a United States senator. Robert, Jr., graduated from 
the North Carolina university in 1S40, studied law and was admitted 
to practice. Shortly after his admission to the bar, he removed to 
Wilmington, and was soon called to take a prominent position in 
public life. In 1852 he was elected to the state legislature to rep- 
resent the county of New Hanover, and took a leading and influen- 
tial part in the legislation of that session. He was afterward chosen 
state solicitor, for the duties of which office he developed a high 
capacity. His knowledge of law was profound, and to a naturally 
bright intellect he had added the culture of a finished education and 
a rigid discipline of mind. He was noted for the accuracy of his 
knowledge and for the versatility of his talents. He held an exalted 
position in the estimation of his professional associates, and, whether 
upon the bench or at the bar, his opinions carried with them great 
weight. He was a safe counselor, at once inspiring the confidence 
of his clients, and as an advocate, he had few if any superiors. In 
whatever position he was placed, his integrity and honesty of pur- 
pose were never questioned. 

In the walks of private life, Mr. Strange was gentle and unosten- 
tatious; he had a large circle of friends, of which he was the admired 
center. His sense of honor was high and he was incapable of doing 
an ungentlemanly act, or of harboring an unworthy thought. No 
man could be more loyal to his friends, and as for enemies he had 
none. His moral and religious instincts were of an exalted kind. 
His life was pure and Christian-like, and he had before him, the 
bright and flattering prospect of a most distinguished career. But 
his death was premature. While arguing a case in court, apparently 
in the full vigor of manhood, his eloquent voice was hushed, and he was 
suddenly called to a higher tribunal than any earthly court. He died 
in the very zenith of his useful life, January 24, 1S77. Mr. Strange 
was twice married; first, to Sarah Caroline, daughter of Thomas H. 
Wright. Of this marriage, three sons were born, Thomas Wright, 
Rev. Robert, and Joseph Huske Strange. His second wife was Bet- 
tie Andrews, by whom he had two daughters, Caroline Wright and 
Jane Hawkins Strange. 

JAMES EDWARD SHEPHERD, 

an associate justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, was born 
near Suffolk, in Nansemond county, Va,, on the 26th of July, 1S47. 




JAMES E. SHEPHERD, Jud^e Supreme Court. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 53 

His parents were Thomas and Ann Eliza I Browne) Shepherd; both 
being of \'irginian birth, and English lineage. They had several 
children, of whom the following reached maturity: William S., de- 
ceased; Elizabeth, deceased; James E. and Frances S. When Judge 
Shepherd was only two years of age, he lost his mother in death, and 
his father's death followed in 1859. Soon thereafter he came to 
North Carolina, along with his older brother, William S. Shepherd, 
settling at Murfreesboro, where he continued his home till the war 
came on, when at the age of fourteen he enlisted in the Confederate 
army, but being too young for other service, he was made " marker," 
and as such continued for twelve months, when he was detailed mili- 
tary telegraph operator, in which capacity he did both field and sta- 
tion work till the close of the war. His position was no sinecure, and 
he distinguished himself by his activity, skill and devotion to duty. 
When the close of the war came, he began life again, under adverse 
and discouraging circumstances. His brother, Lieut. William S. 
Shepherd, of the First North Carolina regiment of state troops, hav- 
ing fallen at the battle of Sharpsburg, while leading his company, a 
brother's counsel was lost. He had, before the war, attended the 
neighboring high school, and had thus secured a fair education, but 
having lost all of his pecuniary means he was unable to enter college, 
and in order to support himself and at the same time prosecute his 
studies, he took charge of the telegraph office at Wilson, N. C, dur- 
ing several years that followed, in which he diligently continued his 
several studies and finally commenced the study of the law. He after- 
ward entered the State university, where under the direction of Hon. 
William H. Battle, a justice of the supreme court, he was prepared 
for the bar, and he was admitted to practice in iS6q, and opening an 
office in Wilson, began the practice of his chosen profession at that 
place, but in 1S71 he moved to Washington, N. C, and formed a co- 
partnership with Major Thomas Sparrow in the practice of law. 

In 1872, Judge Shepherd was niost happily married to Elizabeth 
B., eldest daughter of Mr. Silvester T. Brown, of Washington, N. C. 
Two sons have blessed the happy union — James E. (deceased) and 
Silvester B. Shepherd. The career of Judge Shepherd from the early 
practice of his profession was a series of steady successes, and he 
soon rose to high rank at the bar. In 1S75, he was elected to the 
constitutional convention of the state by a large majority, and took 
an active part in the work of that body, being a member of the com- 
mittee on the judiciary, and chairman of the committee on municipal 
corporations. Though he was the youngest member, he wielded a 
strong influence in the convention. The legislature had authorized 
the organization of inferior courts in the several counties of the state, 
and he was elected as the first chairman of the inferior court of 
Beaufort county in 1876. This was the beginning of his judicial 
career, which has since been continuous, and l)y successive and grad- 
ual stages has culminated so happily to the state. In the summer of 
1882, he was nominated for judge of the superior court for the first 
di strict, and Judge Eure, the incumbent resigning, he was appointed 



54 NORTH CAROLINA. 

by Gov. Jarvis to fill the unexpired term, and rode the Asheville cir- 
cuit. At the ensuing election in November he was elected by the 
people, and served on the superior court bench with such acceptabil- 
it}' that in i8S8 he was nominated to one of the new places recently 
created on the supreme court, and was elected an associate justice, 
taking his seat January i, iSSq. On the bench Judge Shepherd has 
exhibited not onlj- fine legal ability and sound, discriminating judg- 
ment, but a moderation and courtesy that have rendered him ex- 
tremely popular. He has taken high rank among the jurists of the 
state, and his opinions have received much commendation among 
the members of the bar. In the summer vacation of the court, he 
lectures to the students in the law department of the University of 
North Carolina, and his work in this field is regarded as most excel- 
lent. 

For many years Judge .Shepherd was chairman of the democratic 
executive committee of Beaufort count}^ and for a number of j^ears 
he was an efficient member of the congressional committee of his 
district. He is a member of the Masonic order, and is largely imbued 
with the spirit of charity, and he is of the Protestant Episcopal church 
faith, and leads the life of a consistent Christian. Affable, kind and 
considerate of others, he is noted for his gentle bearing, while his 
sincerity and singleness of purpose have gained him a high place in 
public estimation. He is singularly modest in manner, and is unos- 
tentatious in character. His success in life has been phenomenal, 
and due to his superior endowments enforced with firm will and worthy 
ambition. The mental and moral fibre of his nature was hardened 
and invigorated in the school of adversit3\ Early in life he was left 
an orphan and to face unaided the vicissitudes of j^outh, but having 
character, persistence and courage he surmounted such obstacles as 
fell in his way to a bright and successful career. The profession of 
law was the dream of his ambitious youth, and he is entirely free of 
political ambition. In his chosen profession his career has been a 
marked success, and his elevation to the supreme court bench was a 
fitting rounding of a career distinguished for learning, ability and 
integritj-. 

WILLIAM LAWRENCE SAUNDERS 

was born in Raleigh, N. C, July 30, 1835. He entered the North 
Carolina universitj-, from which he graduated in 1S54. He then be- 
gan the study of law, under the direction of Judge Battle, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1856. When the Civil war began, he was resid- 
ing at Salisbury, and, in April, 1861, volunteered, enlisting in the 
Rowan rifle guards, under Capt. Frank AIcNeely. The guards were 
ordered to Fort Johnston, but in June of the same year Mr. Saunders 
was chosen lieutenant of the Rowan artillery, then stationed near 
Weldon, and went immediately to join the army in ^'^irginia. He was 
chosen captain, in 1S62, of a company of infantry which had been 
enlisted in Salisbury, as a part of the Fortj'-sixth North Carolina 



NORTH CAROLINA. 55 

regiment, and afterward joined Walker's brigade, and, later on, 
Cook's brigade. Tlie brigade participated in many of tlie hardest- 
fought battles, and Capt. Saunders was successively raised in rank, 
first, to major of his regiment, then to lieutenant-colonel, then to 
colonel. At the battle of Fredericksburg Col. -Saunders received a 
wound in the right cheek, and again, in the battle of the Wilderness, 
in 1S64, he received a shot in the face, which passed out on the right 
of the back of the neck, being a very narrow escape from a fatal wound. 
In 1864 Col. Saunders was united in marriage with Miss Florida 
Call Cotton, who departed this life in 1S65. In 1S70, and again in 
1872, Col. Saunders was chosen secretary of the state senate, in which 
office he fully demonstrated his fitness for the discharge of its duties. 
He entered the journalistic field in 1872, becoming one of the editors 
of the Wilmington Joiinia/, and his accession to that post was the 
means of strengthening the democratic party in a very marked de- 
gree. In November, 1876, he established the Observer, at Raleigh, to 
which city he had removed, but within a few years the cares of editor- 
ship began to tell upon his constitution, and by the advice of his 
physician, in 1879, he quit the arduous duties of journalism. Almost 
immediately he was appointed secretary of state, by Gov. Jarvis, the 
incumbent of that office, Maj. Engelhard, having died, and Col. Saun- 
ders continued to hold the office up to the time of his death, in iSqg, 
he having for many years been an invalid. But in spite of ill health 
and the pressure of official duties, he found time to devote to author- 
ship, and up to the date of his death he had been engaged in writing 
a history of the colonial government of North Carolina, several vol- 
umes of which he had completed. Col. Saunders was a man of broad 
views and of a character above reproach. His position as a state 
officer and as an editor gave him a very wide acquaintanceship 
throughout the state, and the high consideration in which he was held 
by his fellow citizens was co-e.xtensive with his acquaintanceship. 
Both in public and private life he established an enviable reputation, 
and his memory will be perpetuated through the invaluable historic 
work he has left behind, for the writing of which he had unusual 
facilities and was endowed with mental abilities which peculiarly 
fitted him for such a task. 

RICHARD HENRY BATTLE, 

lawyer, was born in Louisburg, N. C, December 3, 1835. lie was 
educated at the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, from 
which he graduated with honors in 1854. After his gratluation, he 
served four years as a tutor of Greek and mathematics in the uni- 
versity, and then in December, 1858, commenced the practice of law 
in Wadesboro, X. C. In November, 185S, Mr. Battle was joined in 
marriage with Miss Anna Ruffin Ashe, daughter of 1 Ion. Thomas S. 
Ashe, late justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, and to 
them were born ten children, si.x of whom now survive. Their names 
are Lucy P., Louis J., Carolina B., Edmund S., Rosa 11. and Will- 



56 NORTH CAROLINA. 

iam K. Battle. Mrs. Battle died in 1S83. In 1861 Mr. Battle was ap- 
pointed clerk and master in equity, and served as such until Febru- 
ary, 1S62, when he enlisted in Company I, Forty-third regiment of 
North Carolina troops, as first lieutenant. He served with that rank 
until the summer of the same year, when he was appointed quarter- 
master of the regiment and served as such until September. His 
health then failing, he resigned his commission and became private 
secretary of United States Senator Vance, who was elected governor 
of North Carolina in 1862. Mr. Battle returned to Raleigh in 1S62, 
and in 1S64 was appointed auditor of the state. He was re-elected 
to that office by the legislature, in 1865, and served until the war was 
ended. While in the army he was in the seven days' fight around 
Richmond. When peace was restored he began again the practice of 
law at Raleigh, and has followed up his practice ever since. In 18S6 
he was appointed by Gov. Scales, judge of the superior court, which 
appointment he declined. , He was a candidate, in 1S75, fo'' delegate 
to the constitutional convention, to represent Wake county, but was 
defeated by his republican opponent. In iSSo he was a candidate for 
the state senate from Wake count}', and reduced the republican ma- 
jority, averaging 300, to sixty. Mr. Battle has been several times 
chosen as a delegate to the democratic state conventions, was a mem- 
ber of the state executive committee from 1870 to 1888, and served 
for the last four years of that time as chairman of the committee. 

DANIEL G. FOWLE 

first saw the light in Washington, N. C, March 3, 1831. Until his 
fourteenth year he attended the Washington academy, but at that 
time became a student in the excellent school known as the " Oaks," 
taught by William G. Bingham. He was graduated from Princeton 
college in the class of 1851, and after a six months' vacation, entered 
the law school, then under the direction of Chief-Justice R. M. Pear- 
son, at Richmond Hill, N. C. After two years he completed the 
course and was admitted to practice in the superior courts Decem- 
ber 31,1853. At this time M r. Fowle took up his residence at Raleigh 
and became the assistant of the late Col. H. C. Jones, who was then 
reporter of the supreme court. May 9, 1854, he opened a law office 
at Raleigh. The first year's success was not flattering, his receipts 
for the entire year being but $64. From that time, how-ever, he rap- 
idly rose in his profession. On the 15th of April, 1856, he was so for- 
tunate as to form a marriage alliance with Miss Ellen Brent Pearson, 
the second daughter of the late Chief-Justice Pearson, of the North 
Carolina supreme court. He was a strong Union man, and opposed 
secession so long as it seemed wise, after which he volunteered in the 
cause of his people, becoming a member of the Raleigh rifles, after- 
ward assigned to the Fourteenth regiment. North Carolina troops. 
Before the expiration of a week he was made a lieutenant, and soon 
after was elected major and ordered to report to Col. William John- 
son, at Raleigh, to assist in organizing the commissary department. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 57 

In August, 1861, he obtained leave to resign for the purpose of or- 
ganizing a regiment for active service. He was largely instrumental 
in raising several companies, which, with others, were organized as 
the Thirty-first regiment state troops, and Major Fowle was elected 
lieutenant colonel. This regiment was ordered to Fort Hill and 
Col. Fowle was placed in command. They remained there until 
December, 1861, when the regiment was sent to Roanoke Island, and 
while it was on its way there. Col. Fowle, on the 6th of February, 
1862, was ordered to Raleigh, and was on the Sound when the Fetleral 
fleet made its appearance. Col. Fowle made his escape with his men 
and returned to Roanoke Island, where a council of war was held, 
and our subject was deputized by Col. Short, commandant of the post, 
to conduct the negotiations for the surrender of the 2,300 troops on 
Roanoke Island to the q,ooo P'ederal force. The surrender was suc- 
cessfully carried out, and a few days later they were paroled, with 
the understanding that they were not to assume active hostilities 
again during the war. 

In October, 1862, Col. Fowle was elected to the state legisla- 
ture from Wake county, and at the end of the session Gov. Vance 
tendered him the office of adjutant-general with the rank of major- 
general, which he accepted and held until the fall of 1863, when he 
resigned and again became a candidate for the legislature. He was 
easily elected, and presided over the last hour of the Confederate 
legislature, acting as speaker pro tan. While a member of that 
august body he introduced the famous habeas corpus resolutions, tak- 
ing the ground that the suspension of the habeas corpus gave no right 
to arrest except upon warrant issued upon an affidavit. This point 
was sustained and is now a well established principle of law. In 
August, 1866, he was appointed a provisional judge by Gov. llolden, 
and in January, 1866, was elected judge of the superior court of 
North Carolina by the legislature, serving until November, 1867, 
when he was nominated as a delegate to the constitutional conven- 
tion which was held in Raleigh in 1S68. He was defeated for that 
honor, but two years later, or a little more, was nominated by the 
democratic party for the state senate and lowered the usual repub- 
lican majority by 1,000 votes, although he was not successful in gain- 
ing the election. In 1876 Mr. Fowle was elected an elector at large 
on the Tildf-n and Hendricks ticket, ami in 1880 was barelj- defeated 
for the nomination for governor of the state. He stumped the state 
for the national democratic ticket in that year, and again in 1884 
spoke throughout the state for Cleveland. In 1888 he was nominated 
for governor, and in the ensuing campaign made a thorough canvass 
of the state. When the ballots were covmted at the close of the con- 
test Judge Fowle was found to be elected. By this time he had be- 
come very popular all through the state, having stumped it twice, 
and his pui)lic record having been long, honorable and above re- 
proach. His term of office as governor does not expire until 1892. 
His whole political course has been conservative, yet loyal to the 
principles held by the party which he espoused on entering man's es- 



58 NORTH CAROLINA. 

tate. He has never been a mere party worker as such, but has 
striven to ennoble and strengthen the whole people of his native com- 
monwealth. In her hour of adversity he remained true, and when 
the time came to drop the old and take up with new methods, at a 
time when the state was plunged in trouble and peril by reason of the 
unforeseen perils of reconstruction, this man was found above the 
clouds of personal care. That was thrown aside and the people's 
cause championed. It is to such men that North Carolina owes its 
prosperity and very existence to-day. He has long been held in re- 
spect and esteem by his native state, where he is regarded as a man 
of great talent and culture. He brought to his life work a mind 
keenly alive to the needs of the day. Educated in one of the most 
thorough and proudest colleges in the land, he was eminently fitted 
to take his place in the dangerous scenes that followed. 

Col. Fowle has made many notable speeches as a public man, and 
his name is sufficient to draw immense audiences from the people. In 
1877 he was selected to deliver the annual address at Wake Forest 
college, and also at the Universit}' of North Carolina. In the same 
year he was requested to repeat his address at Davidson college, 
which he did. In June, 1877, the degree of LL. D. was conferred 
upon him by Wake Forest college, and a little later Davidson college 
gave him the same degree. In i8go he was honored with the same 
degree from the University of North Carolina, and subsequently his 
alma mater, proud old Princeton, bestowed that laurel on her honored 
son. Gov. Fowle's first wife died December 13, 1862, leaving two 
children, viz.: Margaret P., wife of Philip H. Andrews, and Martha, 
wife of David B. Avera. He was again married on the 30th of Janu- 
ary, 1867, Miss Mary E. Haywood, daughter of Dr. Thadeus Hay- 
wood, becoming his wife. This latter union has resulted in the birth 
of four children, as follows: Helen W., Mary E., Daniel G., Jr., and 
one now deceased. Mrs. Fowle died April 14, 1886. Gov. Fowle is 
the son of Samuel Richardson Fowle, who was born at Woburn, Mass., 
in February, 1797. In 1817 he removed to North Carolina and founded 
the southern branch of this old American family. He was a mer- 
chant at Washington, N. C, during the greater part of his life, and 
died there January 12, 1S77. He married Martha B. Marsh, daughter 
of Daniel G. Marsh, and to them ten children were born, of whom 
seven are now living, Daniel G. being the fourth child. The mother 
passed away in 1843. William Fowle, the grandfather of our subject, 
was a native of Massachusetts. The first member of the Fowle fam- 
ily to come to America was George, who was born in 1610. He came 
from England in 1633, and settled in Massachusetts. 

E. G. READE. 

Edwin Goodwin Reade, LL. D., was born at Mt. Tirzah, Person 
county, N. C, on the 13th day 'of November, 181 2. He is the second 
of three sons of Robert R. Reade and Judith A. Reade, ncc Gooch. 
He was but a prattling child when his father died, leaving but 



) 




Er^ 'by F SKi^'":"' " " 



£ 5 r^j^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 59 

a meager estate for the support of his widow and famil}'. Hence 
in early life young Reade found it necessary to aid his mother in 
gaining a support for the family and did work on the farm, in the 
carriage, and blacksmith shop, and in the tanyard, and being ambiti- 
ous, and of determined mind, and desirous of obtaining a liberal 
education and of leading a professinal life, he started out at the age 
of eighteen, to secure an education by his own exertions. His mother 
was well educated for her daj', and thereby was enabled to give her 
sons at home the rudiments of education, which together with that of 
the country schools was all the early education they had. Our sub- 
ject's first academical training was at the academy of George Mor- 
row, in Orange county, where he made rapid progress. Next, he 
entered the academy of Alexander Wilson, D. D., at Spring Grove, 
in Granville county, as an assistant teacher, remaining here until he 
was prepared for college. Instead of entering college, he began the 
study of law at the home of his mother in 1833, reading the law books 
of Benjamin Sumner, a retired lawyer, who was kind enough to loan 
them, and to occasionaly examine him. He secured license to 
practice in 1835, and was admitted to the bar, but a preliminary event 
in his life may well be mentioned here: It was his becoming a 
candidate for the legislature, and solely for the purpose of forming 
acquaintance with the public and practicing public speaking. 

At the June term of court, when candidates were accustomed to 
declare themselves, the democrats nominated two candidates for the 
commons and one for the senate, and who made speeches from the 
court bench; and when they had finished, Mr. Reade, who had com- 
municated his intention to but one other man in the county, went 
upon the court bench and declared himself a whig candidate, in a 
well-prepared and well-delivered speech, arraigning the administra- 
tion of President Jackson — an apparent folly and error, if done with 
a serious view to election, for in the previous election there were but 
eleven anti-Jackson votes in the county. This very much surprised 
the democrats, who, fearing the ability of young Reade as a speaker, 
withdrew one of their candidates, neither of whom was gifted in 
speech, and substituted in his place James M. Williamson, who was a 
college graduate, and a law student at Greensboro, under his brother- 
in-law Judge Dick, the elder. The young men proved themselves 
good speakers and able canvassers, and made an able and interesting 
canvass; and many of the voters asserted that they would vote for 
both of the " boys " as an honor to their country. They did so, and 
Reade was defeated by only one hundred votes. He had accomplished 
his purpose, in becoming well and favorably known, and soon he took 
prominence among public men and in public affairs. In 1S55, without 
his knowledge or solicitation, the whig-.American party nominated 
him for congress in opposition to Hon. John Kerr, the then incumbent, 
and after a spirited and able contest, Mr. Reade was elected, receiving 
a hanilsome majority in his own county, then more than two to one 
clemocratic. Congress was not congenial to his nature, and the day of 
the expiration of his term he issued a card declining to enter the race 



6o NORTH CAROLINA. 

for a second term. For awhile he continued the practice of his pro- 
fession in the superior court, and quit to accept an appointment as a 
magistrate, and as chief justice of the county court. He presided 
without compensation for a number of years, with great acceptability, 
niuch satisfaction, and great benefit to the county, the effect of which 
is manifest to this day. In 1S63, he was elected judge of the superior 
court, and served to the close of the war, at which time all offices 
were vacated, but being appointed to the superior court by the gov- 
ernor, served till 1S66, when, by the legislature, he was elected to the 
supreme court, which now was composed of Chief- Justice Richmond 
Pearson, and Associate-Justices Battle and Reade. 

In 1868, the new state constitution was adopted, and the election 
of judges to the supreme court, was delegated to the people. Judge 
Reade was nominated by both the democratic and republican parties, 
and was elected, and served with honor and distinction on the su- 
preme bench till 1878, when his term expired. Judge Reade had ac- 
cumulated an ordinary fortune, and had invested all of it in the 
Raleigh National bank, and at the close of his term on the supreme 
bench, in 1878, he was elected president of this bank, whose stock at 
this time was worth about 75 cents on the dollar, and of course the 
bank was not in the best of condition. By Judge Reade's assiduity 
and acquirements, and financial management, the bank prospered, 
and the stock was soon restored to par, and when its charter e.xpired, 
its stock was at a premium. The bank was re-chartered, under the 
name of the National bank of Raleigh, and Judge Reade elected its 
president, which position he has since held, marking his course as a 
financier, a success. After leaving congress, Judge Reade took but 
little part in politics. He was of the old line whig school; and when 
the question of secession was proposed, at the approach of the Civil 
war, he opposed the measure. He was elected to the first state con- 
vention, which was to pass upon the measure, but which was voted 
down before the time for the convention to convene. When the 
second state covention was called, and secession seemed inevitable, 
he refused to become a candidate. He accepted, however, the or- 
dinance of secession, and did his duty to the state. Before he took 
his seat on the superior court bench, to which he had been elected 
in 1863, as observed above, he was appointed by Gov. Vance, a sen- 
ator in the Confederate congress, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Hon. George Davis, and at the expiration of his term, 
he took his seat on the superior court bench. 

At the close of the war he was almost unanimously elected a dele- 
gate to the state convention called to form a new constitution and to 
return to the Union. In the election there were but fifteen votes 
against him, and without the least expectation, he was elected presi- 
dent of the convention. He was elected by acclamation, after an in- 
formal ballot, without nomination, had been cast, and several mem- 
bers voted for, and Mr. Reade having the largest vote, was then 
elected by acclamation. On taking his seat he delivered an address, 
that received high compliment, both north and south and in congress. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 6l 

as manifesting the prevailing patriotic sentiment. During and since 
his services on the bench, he has taken no part in poHtics, not even 
voting, and although twice nominated for congress, he declined the 
honor. On the incoming of President Lincoln's administration, Hon. 
John A. Gilmer, then in congress from North Carolina, wrote to Mr. 
Reade, at the instance of Mr. Seward, to know whether he would 
accept a seat in President Lincoln's cabinet. Mr. Reade answered 
that he would not accept a seat in anj- cabinet, but he stronglj- urged 
Mr. Gilmer to accept. As a speaker, Judge Reade is clear, logical 
and pursuasive, and though without any special gifts of oratory, he 
speaks with such logic and simplicit}', as give eloquence and fervor 
to his speech, which convinces and converts. It is said of him, when 
in the prime of his life, he never had his superior in the history of the 
state as an advocate before a jurj'. He was a diligent and faithful 
judge, of clear opinion and of cogent argument, and alwaj's having 
the courage of his convictions. In some of the most important and 
troublesome questions that have ever come before the supreme court, 
Judge Reade has written the opinion always in singularly clear Eng- 
lish. He sat on the supreme bench at a time when political warfare 
in the north was bitter and unscrupulous, and he left the bench with 
the highest regard and esteem of both the bar and the people. He 
is a man of universal knowledge, and of a naturally strong legal mind. 
In 1865, the University of North Carolina conferred upon him the 
degree of LL. D. 

As a writer. Judge Reade has attained distinction. In 1855 he 
wrote " Pickle Rod Letters," in favor of temi)erance. He wrote a 
"Vindication of the Legal Profession," against the assault of the 
Rev. William Hooper, D. D., LL. D., and has delivered several ad- 
dresses of consequence and merit. He delivered the address before 
the bar association of North Carolina, at Asheville, in 1884, and be- 
fore the same at Raleigh, at the close of his term as president of the 
association in 1886, and several of his more important addresses have 
been published in pamphlet and are models of their kind. He has 
been twice happily married. His first wife was Emily A. L. Moore, 
of the family of Gen. Moore, of Revolutionary fame, and of the 
family of Bishop Moore, of the Episcopal church. .She died early in 
1871, and in the latter part of the same year, he married Mrs. Mary E. 
Parmele, widow of Benjamin J. Parmele. Judge Reade is a com- 
municant of the Presbyterian church, which he joined in earl}' life, 
and of which he has been an active member ever since, and a ruling 
elder for more than thirty j^ears. His character and disposition have 
been that of a man of simple faith and strict probity. He is plain, 
and unostentatious, conscientious and straightforward, and few lives 
are more radiant with good deeds than is his. 1 le has done much to 
aid the distressed and his charities have been many, but in a quiet 
and unpretending manner. By reason of his own efforts and force 
of energy and predominating will-power, he has arisen from an 
humble station in life to one of distinction, eminence and wealth, and 
his course may challenge inquiry and would doubtless repay it. Such 



62 KORTH CAROLINA. 

is a brief outline of the life of one whose i 

time will appear among the most honored and revered. 



is a brief outline of the life of one whose name in the history of his 



JOHN W. HINSDALE, 

son of Samuel Johnston Hinsdale, of Fayetteville, N. C, was born 
February 4, 1843. He was educated in Fayetteville. Later on he 
entered the University of North Carolina, where he won first distinc- 
tion in his classes. After three years' study at Chapel Hill, he joined 
the Confederate army at the age of eighteen, serving on the staff of 
his uncle, Lt.-Gen. T. H. Holmes. When Gen Pettigrew was pro- 
moted and assigned to the command of a brigade, young Hinsdale 
became his adjutant-general, and as such participated in the battle of 
Seven Pines. Afterward he served as Gen. Pender's adjutant-gen- 
eral, in the seven days' fight around Richmond. When Gen. Holmes 
was transferred to the command of the Trans-Mississippi department 
he was accompanied by young Hinsdale, as one of his adjutant-gen- 
erals. During the last years of the war he was colonel of the Seven- 
ty-second North Carolina regiment, otherwise known as the Third 
regiment of junior reserves, which he commanded in the battles of 
Kinston and Bentonsville, N. C, and surrendered with Gen. J. E. 
Johnston's army, at High Point, N. C. He was. perhaps, the 30ung- 
est colonel commanding a regiment in the service. After the war he 
entered the Columbia college law school, in New York, diligently 
acquired a fundamental knowledge of the rules of the science, and 
was admitted to the bar in that state in 1866. He was in the same 
year admitted to the practice in North Carolina, and later in the United 
States supreme court, where he has sucessfully conducted a goodly 
number of important cases. The colonel first began practice in Fay- 
etteville, but about 1S75 removed to Raleigh, from which center his 
clientage was greatly increased, and in North Carolina, without in- 
vidious comparisons, we may well say that he stands easily first as 
one of the ablest attorneys and most learned counselors of our 
state. Of late years he has become an authority and given his atten- 
tion more particularly to railroad, insurance and corporation cases. 
He hasbeenfor many years attorney for the Raleigh & Gaston railroad 
company, and for a number of insurance companies. In 1S78 he pub- 
lished an annotated edition of Winston's North Carolina reports, 
thus adding to his reputation of a sound and discriminating lawyer. 
Col. Hinsdale may be said to be a thorough progressive man. In 
his extensive law library of 4,000 volumes are to be found, the best 
and latest publications, and his office is thoroughly equipped in everj- 
respect for speedy and accurate work. Although an indefatigable 
worker, the colonel enjoys society, and is never happier than when 
surrounded by his friends at his hospitable board. An ardent demo- 
crat, he has never sought political preferment, but confining his ener- 
gies closely to his profession, he has attained an honorable and 
enviable position throughout the state. He is a member of the 




J^rr 



NORTH CAROLINA. 63 

Episcopal church, and married in 1S69, a daughter of Major John 
Devereux, and a granddaughter of the Hon. T. P. Devereux. 

HON. WILLIAM HORN BATTLE 

was born in Edgecombe countjr, N. C, October 17, 1S02; died at 
Chapel Hill, N. C., March 14, 1879. He was the eldest of six sons of 
Joel Battle, one of the earliest cotton manufacturers of the state. He 
was descended on both sides from ancestors who took an active and 
honorable part in the Revolutionary war. At the age of sixteen, Mr. 
Battle entered North Carolina university, at Chapel Hill, and at the 
end of two years, graduated with honor, being appointed to deliver 
the validictory oration. On leaving the university, he began the, 
study of law in the office of Chief-Justice Hcnduren, one of the pro- 
foundest and most distinguished jurists in North Carolina. Here he 
read law for more than three 3'ears, and so proficient did he become 
that he was awarded license to practice in all the state courts without 
an examination, a singular departure from a long established rule. 
On the 1st of June, 1825, Mr. Battle was joined in marriage with .Miss 
Lucy M. Plummer, daughter of Kemp Plummer, a distinguished law- 
yer. She was an estimable and highly cultivated lad}' and moved in 
the best society circles. In Januarj', 1827, Mr. Battle settled in the 
practice of his profession at Louisburg, but the first 3'ears of his pro- 
fessional career were not the most promising, and he delighted to 
attribute his subsequent success to the charming qualities of his wife. 
He was elected to the North Carolina house of commons, as the rep- 
resentati\e of Franklin county, in 1833-4. In the latter year he was 
associated with Thomas P. Devereux, as supreme court reporter, and 
reported the decisions of that court from December, 1834, to Decem- 
ber, 1839, inclusive. In 1S35, he assisted Gov. Iredell and Judge 
Nash in preparing the revised statutes of the state, and to him alone 
was entrusted the work of superintending the printing of the volume 
in Boston. It was a work that reffected great credit upon all parties 
concerned in its production. 

Mr. Battle removed to Raleigh in 1839, and, the same year, was 
chosen a delegate to the national convention which nominated 
William Henry Harrison to the presidency. He was a whig in pol- 
itics, but was not a partisan, and when elevated to the judiciary, he 
abandoned politics altogether. When Judge Toomer withdrew from 
the superior court bench, in August, 1840, Mr. Battle was appointed 
in his place by Gov. Dudley, and in the following winter he was 
elected by the legislature one of the judges of the superior court. In 
1843 he removed to Chapel Hill to superintend the collegiate educa- 
tion of his sons, and in 1845 was elected by the trustees of the uni- 
versity to the professorship of law in that institution. He held this 
position until 1868, when he returned to Raleigh and associated him- 
self with his sons, Kemp P., and R. II. Battle, Jr., in the practice of 
law. On the death of Judge Daniel, in May, 1848, Gov. Graham ap- 
pointed Mr. Battle a justice of the supreme court of the state, but the 



64 NORTH CAROLINA. 

legislature failed to confirm the appointment, although the same 
body, a few days later, without opposition, elected him a superior 
court judge to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Hon. 
Augustus Moore. The reasons for this seeming inconsistency in the 
action of the legislature were given in a letter to him, requesting his 
acceptance, in which all the members joined, and in which they said: 
" The preference of another to you for a still higher judicial station 
was owing principally to your residing in a county where there are 
already three judges, a governor and a senator in congress." This 
and other considerations induced him to accept the position, but 
three years later, in 1852, he was called to the supreme bench, and 
continued to preside in that court as one of the associate justices 
until the inauguration of the re-constructed state government in 186S. 
In 1872-73, Judge Battle was again appointed as sole reviser of 
the statutes of North Carolina — a task involving too great labor and 
responsiblity to impose upon a single individual. But his singular 
qualification for such a work was amply illustrated in " Battle's Re- 
visal," which, though unjustly criticised in some quarters, would, with 
proper assistance have received the commendation which was be- 
stowed upon the revised statutes and revised code by the bar. Dur- 
ing the last 3'ear of Judge Battle's residence in Raleigh, he was pres- 
ident of the Raleigh National bank. In the spring of 1874 he lost 
his wife, a blow which caused infinite grief, but he was cared for by 
his eldest son, Kemp, with whom he afterward removed to Chapel 
Hill, where he magnanimously took up the work of restoring the uni- 
versity to its former excellent standing. Judge Battle was the father 
of ten children, eight of whom reached their majority — six sons and 
two daughters. Two sons, Junius and W. Lewis, lost their lives on 
the battle field, and but three sons now survive, Kemp, William and 
Richard. During Judge Battle's career as court reporter, his name 
appears during forty-two years, in fifty-six volumes of reports, and his 
opinions as a justice of the supreme bench are recorded in twenty- 
one volumes of the supreme court reports — a proud memorial of 
his rare qualities as a lawyer and jurist. 

THEODORE F. DAVIDSON. 

Among the first of that hardy race of Scotch-Irish, coming from 
Pennsylvania to Mecklenburg county, N. C, whose descendants have 
contributed so greatly to the upbuilding of the state were the parents 
of William Davidson, who came with his parents from Pennsylvania, 
his native state, to North Carolina as early as 1748. During the Rev- 
olution William Davidson was zealous and active in the cause of in- 
dependence, and was a major of militia, rendering efficient service 
during the protracted struggle for the independence of the colonies. 
He was a whig, and being in the prime of life, of substantial prop- 
erty, high standing and influence, he played a prominent part during 
the Revolutionary period. He represented Rutherford county in the 
general assembly of 1791, and was active in promoting the passage of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 65 

the law creating the county of Buncombe at that session. Me resided 
in that part of Rutherford which was incorporated in the new county, 
and the latter was, in pursuance of its organic act, organized at his 
house in 1792. He was made a member of the first court for Bun- 
combe county, and for several years thereafter represented that 
county in the senate. He died in the year iSoo. One of his sons, 
William Mitchell Davidson, was born in the year 1773, in the terri- 
tory then embraced in Burke, but now in McDowell county. He 
married Elizabeth \'ance, a daughter of Capt. David Vance, of the 
Continental troops in the Revolutionary war, who rendered brilliant 
service at the battles of Brandywine, Monmouth, Ramsuer's Mills, 
Kings Mountain, Cowpens, and many other minor engagements. 
After the Revolutionary war Capt. Vance removed to Buncombe 
county, and was the first clerk of the court of that county, holdingthe 
office till his death, which occurred several years after going into the 
office. Among his descendants are United States senator Z. B. Vance 
and Gen. R. B. Vance. Unto the marriage of William Mitchell Da- 
vidson and Elizabeth V^ance were born nine children, Allen T. David- 
son being among them. The father settled on Jonathan's creek in 
Haywood county, and here reared his family; and here he became a 
large and successful farmer and stock raiser. He died in 1843, but 
his wife survived him several years, dying in 1861. 

Allen T. Davidson, above mentioned, was born in Haywood 
county, N. C, May 9, 18 19. He received his education at the com- 
mon schools in his native county, and at the Waynesville academy; 
afterward studied law, and practiced in the western counties. I'or 
many years he was president of the Miners & Planters' bank, at 
Murphy, N. C, and was otherwise largely interested in the develop- 
ment of western North Carolina. He was director in various rail- 
road companies, and filled with credit to himself, many responsible 
places of trust. He was solicitor of Cherokee county, and during the 
time of the Confederacy, he represented his district in the Confeder- 
ate congress. He was married in 1842, to Adeline Ilovyell, and to 
them were born eight children, of whom six survive, viz: Theodore 1'. 
Davidson; Wilbur S. Davidson, of Beaumont, Tex.; Ella H., wife of 
T. S. Morrison, of Asheville, N. C; Robert V. Davidson, of Galves- 
ton, Tex.; Betty, widow of William S. Childs; and Addie, wife of 
W. B. Williamson, of Asheville, N. C. 

Theodore F. Davidson, who is now the distinguished attorney- 
general of North Carolina, was born in Haywood county, N. C., 
March 30, 1845. He was prepared for college at Asheville, by Col. 
Stephen Lee, a cousin of Gen. Robert E. Lee, ancl had been ap- 
pointed a naval cadet, at Annapolis, when the breaking out of hos- 
tilities between the sections of the LInion, changed the course of his 
life. Responding with alacrity to the call of his state, he, on April 16, 
1861, being just sixteen years of age, enlisted as a private in the Bun- 
combe rifles, W. W. Mc I^owell, captain, that being the first company 
organized in the state, west of the Blue Ridge. This comi^any was 
assigned to the First North Carolina regiment, and was disbanded at 
«— 5 



66 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the end of six months, its term of enUstment. However, young 
Davidson, at once enlisted in Company C, of the Thirty-ninth regi- 
ment, Col. David Coleman, commanding the regiment, serving with 
the western army. He was made sergeant-major, and held that posi- 
tion till after the battle of Murfreesboro, when he was commissioned 
as aide to Gen. Robert B. Vance, who was assigned the command of 
the military district of western North Carolina. Subsequently he 
served as assistant adjutant-general, on the staff of his brigade, suc- 
cessively commanded by Col. John B. Palmer and Gen. James G. 
Martin, which post he held until the close of the war. He participa- 
ted with gallantry and heroism, in the campaigns of Chickamauga, 
Cumberland Gap, Kentucky, and East Tennessee. A portion of the 
brigade to which he belonged, about May i, 1S65, fired the last hos- 
tile guns in the great drama of the war, east of the Mississippi River. 

As soon as peace was restored, young Davidson resumed his stud- 
ies, under the direction of his old preceptor. Col. Lee, and toward 
the close of the year 1865, he began the study of the law under Judge 
J. L. Bailey, at Asheville, and two years later was admitted to the bar. 
In 1868 he entered into partnership with his father, in the practice of 
the law, and, on the dissolution of that partnership, upon the retire- 
ment of his father, in 1SS2, he became a partner of Col. James G. 
Martin, of Asheville. In 1867, Mr. D^.vidson was elected solicitor for 
Claj' county, and he retained that office until it was abolished by the 
constitution in 1868. He opposed the adoption of that constitution 
with all his powers, and early took an active part in the political con- 
tests of that time. In 1872, his talents for organization and his zeal, 
led to his selection for the arduous post of chairman of the demo- 
cratic executive committee for Buncombe county, the exacting duties 
of which position he acceptably discharged for a period of ten years. 
At the same time he was also chairman of the democratic congres- 
sional executive committee for the ninth district. In 1878 the people 
of Buncombe county called upon him to represent them in the state 
senate, the district being then composed of Buncombe and Madison; 
and two years later he was re-elected to the same position. At the 
first session, he was assigned to the chairmanship of the important 
committee on corporations. Western North Carolina being at that 
time, largely interested in the extension of railroad construction; and 
at the succeeding session he was chairman of the judiciary committee, 
and the recognized leader of the body. In 1879 he was appointed 
director, for the state at large, of the Western North Carolina rail- 
road, whose completion was of such vast importance to the western 
counties; and in 1881 he was made director of the Western North 
Carolina insane asylum, the act, establishing that institution, having 
been zealously and ably advocated by him. 

In 1882 Mr. Davidson was appointed judge of the criminal court 
of Buncombe, called the " Inferior court," which position he filled 
with great acceptability and credit to himself until June, 1884, when 
the state democratic convention, recognizing his excellent talents, his 
purity of character and sound learning, nominated him for attorney- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 67 

general. He was elected together with the rest of the democratic 
state ticket by a handsome majority, after a warm campaign, in which 
he made an able and extensive canvass of the state, winning many 
encomiums for the excellency of his political addresses. At the end 
of his term, so satisfactorily had he discharged his duties as attorney- 
general and reporter of the supreme court's decisions, that there was 
ifo opposition to his re-nomination by the state democratic conven- 
tion, and he was again chosen for a four years' term by an increased 
popular majority. As attorney-general ^Ir. Davidson has largely in- 
creased the high reputation he has so long enjoyed as a safe and 
learned jurist, and he has so conducted the affairs of his office as to en- 
hance the respect and confidence with which he has ever been re- 
garded. In 1866 Mr. Davidson was happily married to Miss Sarah 
Katherine Alexander, a daughter of Capt. A. M. Alexander, of 
French Broad, near Asheville, of whom, however, he was bereaved in 
July of 1SS7. 

J. N. HOLDING 

is one of the active, progressive business men of Raleigh. A man of 
sound judgment and indefatigable in enterprise he is making his 
mark in the capital city of the state. Mr. Holding was born at Wake 
Forest, November 4, 1857, and received his education there, gradu- 
ating in 1S80. He chose the law as his profession and after reading 
law a year at Raleigh he entered a law school at Greensboro and was 
admitted to the bar in 1882. Shortly afterward he formed a partner- 
ship with W. H. Pace, Esq., which at once brought him into full prac- 
tice and which still continues, Mr. Holding becoming each year more 
and more esteemed as a lawyer worthy of trust and public confidence. 
In May, 1889, Mr. Holding was happily married to Miss Maggie M. 
Askew, daughter of William F. Askew, Esq. (deceased), a resident 
of Falls of Neuse, and to them has been born a son, Arthur Newton. 
In addition to his law practice, Mr. Holding is engaged in business 
enterprises. He is half owner of the Raleigh Paper company, and of 
the paper mills known as the .Askew Paper mills, at Falls of Neuse, 
near Raleigh. He is a stockholder in the Raleigh Cotton factory, and 
in the Land Improvement company; and in the Acid -phosphate com- 
pany, and also in the North Carolina Wagon company, of which he 
is also a director and the attorney. Mr. Holding is likewise the at- 
torney for the city of Raleigh. With a clear and discriminating 
judgment and full of energy, he has not hesitated to embark in new 
enterprises calculated to promote the prosperity of the community in 
which he lives, and his progressive activitj' is appreciated by his 
friends. 

Mr. Holding has a strong political influence in Wake county, being 
one of the leaders of the democratic party, who has never sought office 
and whose zeal is based only on a desire to promote good government.. 
He has been chairman of the county committee and has represented 
his county frequently in the district and state conventions. He is a 



68 NORTH CAROLINA. 

man of enlarged sympathies and is an active member of the Odd 
Fellows, and is assistant superintendent of the Baptist Sunday- 
school, of which church he is a consistent and useful member. The 
father of the subject of this sketch was Mr. Willie Holding, who was 
born in Wake county, in 1830, and was educated in the common 
schools of Wake. He is a farmer, who stands deservedly' high in his 
community. In 1856 he married Miss Nancy C. Pace, daughter of 
Solomon and Eliza Pace, and to them were born six sons: J. N. 
Holding, Henry G., William W., Thomas E., Otto K. and Solomon P. 
Holding. In 18S7, the mother of Mr. I. X. Holding, died at the age 
of fifty years. The father of Mr. Solomon Holding was Isam Holding, 
\yho was born in Wake county in 1795, where he resided during his 
life. He was a large land owner, being possessed of between five and 
six thousand acres of land in Wake and Franklin counties. He was 
a successful planter and a man of ample means. He died in Wake 
county in 1870, at the age of seventy-five years. 



DAVID MILLER CARTER 

was born in Fairfield, Hyde count}^ N. C, January 12, 1830. He 
was of Revolutionary lineage, being a descendant of Capt. Peter 
Carter, of Virginia, who rendered efficient service in the war for in- 
dependence, and in after life removed to the fertile and attractive 
shores of Pamlico Sound, where his family have ever since held high 
social position. David Carter, a son of the Revolutionary hero, was 
a man of intelligence, education, high character and influence. For 
twenty years he presided over the county court of Hyde county, and 
administered the affairs of the county with credit to himself and ad- 
vantage to the people. He served as a representative in the house 
of commons for nine years consecutively, and in 18 16 was returned to 
the state senate. His son, David Carter, the father of the subject of 
this sketch, was born in Hyde count3% in 1801, and, like his father, 
was possessed of large estates. He devoted himself chiefly to the 
development of his properties, and was much engaged in constructing 
canals in the swamps. Although exerting strong influence, only once 
did he accept political preference. In 1S46 he represented his district 
in the senate. He married Sallie Lindsay Spencer, a daughter of 
Peleg Spencer, an influential planter of the same county, by whom he 
had eight children. He died in 1862, and his wife survived him six 
years. The eldest child of this union was David Miller Carter, who 
was born in 1S30, and reared amid aftluence in a region noted for its 
wealth and generous hospitality. At an early age he was put to 
school at the celebrated Lovejoj' academy, at Raleigh, and after 
being thoroughly prepared for college, entered the University of 
North Carolina in 1S47, where he graduated with distinction in 1851. 
He remained at Chapel Hill, studying law with Judge Battle, and in 
January, 1852, obtained his county court license. A year later, having 
received his superior court license, he formed a partnership with 



NORTH CAROLINA. 69 

Judge Richard S. Donnell, an eminent lawyer at Washington, N. C, 
and at once entered upon a leading practice. He was chosen solicitor 
for the county of Hyde, and, although residing at Washington, held 
that office for many years. 

Hardly had Mr. Carter entered upon the duties of this position be- 
fore he was called on to prosecute Rev. G. W. Carrowan for the 
murder of a schoolmaster named Lassater. Carrowan was a man of 
great influence, a minister who had been much esteemed and who 
wielded, by virtue of his superior mental capacity and strong will and 
self-assertion, a sort of despotic power over the people in a wide scope 
of territory. The victim had been waylaid and shot from the bush, 
and the circumstances implicating Carrowan were not generally 
known. It required unusual nerve in a young lawyer to start such a 
prosecution, but young Carter was equal to his duty. Edward j. 
Warren, of Washington, w^s employed to assist, and on the the trial 
the evidence was so adroitly made manifest as to secure the convic- 
tion of the accused. As soon as the verdict was announced; Carrowan 
drew a pistol, and quicklj' shooting Mr. Warren, blew his own brains 
out. Carter was fortunately out of the room, and happily' though the 
ball was directed at Warren's heart, his watch saved his life. Though 
not tall. Col. Carter was a man of large frame and capable of great 
endurance. His mind was comprehensive and his disposition studi- 
ous. His logic was severe and he brought to the consideration of 
any subject of discussion rare analytical powers and a fine intelligence. 
So equipped, he soon took high rank even among the giftecl men 
who then adorned the bar of the Pamlico region. In politics he was 
a whig and devoted to the Union of the states. Early in 1861, the 
question of having a constitutional convention to withdraw from the 
Union was submitted to the people, who at the same time chose del- 
egates to represent them if the convention should be called; while a 
majority of the voters decided against the convention. Col. Carter 
was elected as the delegate from Hyde. The war quickly came on, 
and disregarding his Union proclivities, he volunteered as a soldier, 
and on May i6, iS6i, was commissioned captain of Company E, of 
the F"ourth North Carolina regiment, state troops. Col. George B. 
Anderson commanding. The regiment at once went to the front, 
and Capt. Carter shared all the vicissitudes of its arduous toils. At 
the battle of Seven Pines, May 31, 1862, his regiment suffered heavily, 
and he himself received wounds that were deemed at the time neces- 
sarily mortal. On that day the Fourth regiment carried into action 
678 men, and lost in killed seventy-seven, of whom two were captains, 
and wounded 286, of whom there were Ave captains — a total loss of 
^b;:,, or more than fifty per cent. 

It was months before Capt. Carter recovered sufficiently to per- 
mit his return to duty; but he won his promotion and was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel, and in December was appointed a military 
judge on the corps court of Jackson's corps; and later was appointed 
presiding judge of the Third army corps (A. P. Hill's). However, 



70 NORTH CAROLINA. 

in August, 1862, he was elected a member of the assembly, and he 
discharged the duties of legislator in the trying times of the war 
with fidelity. After the failure of Lee at Gettysburg, and the fall of 
Vicksburg, he perceived that the defeat of the Confederate cause 
was inevitable, and he then began to be a zealous advocate for peace. 
In the assembly, he took an active part in discussing questions per- 
taining to the enforcement of the Confederate conscript law, earn- 
estly urging that the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus should be 
maintained. In January, 1S65, he was sent as a member of the as- 
sembly, together with Hon. John Pool, Hon. Samuel J. Person, and 
Col. E. D. Hall, on a secret mission to President Davis, for the pur- 
pose of urging some accommodation with the United States. After 
the war had closed he returned to Washington, and in 1S66, formed 
a partnership with Judge E. J. Warren, which continued until Judge 
Warren's death. In 1867 he served his people acceptably in the sen- 
ate, and in 1872 was nominated for congress by the democrats, but 
the district being largely republican failed of election. Two years 
later he removed to Raleigh, where he at once took the position his 
wealth, capacity and character commanded. He was then in the full 
meridian of his fine powers; and though there were more learned 
technical lawyers at the bar, it was generally conceded that in breadth 
of intellect, and comprehensive views and strength and power, he 
had few equals and no superior in the state. He was a man of 
more than ordinary culture, literary in his tastes and gifted as a 
conversationalist. 

Mr. Carter's large landed interests in the low lands of Hi'de that 
were to be developed by canalling much engaged his attention; but 
he was a director of the Raleigh National bank, a director of the 
Home Insurance company, a trustee of the university, and a member 
of the executive committee; chairman of the board to build the gov- 
ernor's mansion — and, what occupied him more than any other pub- 
lic employment, was president of the board of directors of the state 
penitentiary. This appointment opened to him a large field for the 
useful exercise of his great talents, and he made himself master of 
every detail of the vast work committed to his supervision and dis- 
played at all points his fine capacity and intelligence. 

Col. Carter, was in April, 185S, married to Isabella Perr}^ daugh- 
ter of David B. Perry, Esq., a wealthy planter, of Beaufort county, 
and had b}' her four children, of whom David M., and .Sallie Lindlaj^ 
Carter alone survive. His first wife dying in 1S66, Col. Carter in 
May, 1868, married Mrs. Harriet Armistead Benbury (a daughter of 
Joseph Ryan, Esq., of Bertie county, and a step-daughter of Hon. 
David Outlaw), the widow of Capt. John Benbury, of Edenton, and 
has by her three children of whom two survive — Laura Carter and 
Francis Spencer Carter. Col. Carter became very corpulent after 
the war, and toward the end of his life suffered from heart trouble, 
of which disease he expired at Baltimore, in January, 1879. Mrs. 
Carter survived him eight years, and died May 3, 18S7. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 71 



CHARLES MANLY BUSBEE. 



Among the j'ounger North CaroHnians who have attained dis- 
tinction, none has occupied a more notable field than Charles Manly 
Busbee, an eloquent speaker, a wise and safe counselor and a learned 
lawj'er, and at the head of the great order of Odd Fellows in Amer- 
ica. Mr. Busbee's ancestors were among the pioneer settlers in Wake 
count3^ X. C, and his grandfather, Johnson Busbee, for thirty years, 
presided over the county court of Wake and directed the local con- 
cerns of the county. Perrin Busbee, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, was one of the leaders of Wake count}' when she was prolific 
of great men. He was a profound lawyer, a ready debater, and the 
idol of his political party. Genial in his disposition, kindly in his 
sympathies, generous in his nature, and gifted with an inexhaustible 
fund of wit and humor, he was popular with all classes of his fellow 
citizens irrespective of party atiiliations, and his memory is held in 
high esteem by the people of the county. Unhappily he died before 
he had even reached middle life, but he left four sons to perpetuate 
his name. His wife was the lovely and talented daughter of James F. 
Taylor, Esq., who had been attorney-general of the state, whose 
father, Philip Taylor, was a captain in the war of the Revolution. 
While each of the sons has won success in his chosen field, the eldest, 
Charles Manly Busbee, has attained a most distinguished position. 
He was born in Raleigh, October 23, 1845, ^"'i was educated at the 
Raleigh academy, and entered Hampden-Sidney college, Virginia. 
But while still in the junior class he left his studies and entered the 
Confederate army as a private soldier, being then in his eighteenth 
year. After a short service in the ranks he was promoted to sergeant- 
major of the Fifth North Carolina infantry, and gallantly served in 
that famous regiment. He was in the battle of the Wilderness, and 
at the bloody battle of Spottsylvania Court House. May 12, he was 
captured and confined at Fort Delaware and Fort Pulaski. During 
his captivity he was subjected to one of the most savage ordeals of 
the war. The Confederate authorities had assigned quarters to Fed- 
eral prisoners in the city of Charleston, and in that part of the city 
within the reach of the Federal artillery. To retaliate, the Federal 
government selected 500 Confederate prisoners and exposed them on 
Morris's Island to the fire of the Confederate batteries on Sullivan's 
Island, and Mr. Busbee was one of the victims so chosen. He was 
placed in front of the Federal redoubts, immediately under the fire 
of the Confederate batteries, and was exposed to death by disease 
and by the shells of his own friends. In December, however, he was 
paroled, and in the following March was exchanged. He returned 
at once to his regiment then in the trenches before Petersburg, and 
shared their sufferings in the final tlays of the war. He was constantly 
under fire there and during the retreat to Appomatox, where h(- was 
surrendered. 

After the war Mr. Busbee attended the University of North Car- 



72 NORTH CAROLINA. 

olina for half a session, and then addressed himself to the study of 
the law, obtaining his license to practice in 1867. He was reading 
clerk of the North Carolina senate in the winter of 1866-;, and in 
May, 1867, was elected county solicitor for Wake county, which office 
he tilled until it was abolished in 186S. Mr. Busbee has met with 
gratifying success in his business, and has for ten years been a mem- 
ber of the well-known law firm of Reade, Busbee & Busbee. Mr. 
Busbee was a member of the state executive committee of the dem- 
ocratic party, and has always been influential in party councils. He was 
the leader of the ticket, being candidate for the state senate in 1874, 
when for the first time the county gave a majority for the democratic 
part}', and in the memorable campaign of 1884 he was brought for- 
ward for the house and was triumphantly elected, leading his ticket. 
In 1886 he was appointed one of the three commissioners to refund 
the debt of the state in regard to the construction bonds of the North 
Carolina railroad, a delicate duty he well discharged. In 1870 Mr. 
Busbee joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a member 
of Mantio lodge. No. 8, of the city of Raleigh. In 1874 he was elected 
a representative to the sovereign grand lodge, and he served contin- 
uously in that national legislature of the order until 1S88, when he 
was elected deputy grand sire. At the session of 1890 he was elected 
grand sire, the highest office known to the order. Mr. Busbee has 
successfully discharged all the duties of his exalted position, and has 
won the admiration of the million members of the fraternity. When 
he was in the height of his usefulness he suffered a severe illness, 
and from all over the United States there came words of affectionate 
interest, and throughout North Carolina a tender solicitude was mani- 
fested that amply illustrated the great esteem in which he is held by 
his people. In his religious affiliations Mr. Busbee is an Episco- 
palian, and for many years has been a vestryman of Christ church, 
Raleigh. His character is indeed well rounded, and he is a fine 
specimen of a North Carolina gentleman — one who resides in a 
family homestead where the lustre of departed virtue is reflected in 
the present worth of the occupants. He resides in a dwelling-house 
occupied for more than three-quarters of a century by his family, and 
where at one time four generations were gathered around the hearth. 
On July 28, 1868, Mr. Busbee led to the altar Miss Lydia L. Little- 
john, of Oxford, an ornament of her sex, who died in 1887, leaving 
the following children: James L. Busbee, Perrin, Louisa T., Soph}' D., 
Isabel B. and Christine. On January 21, i8qi, Mr. Busbee was again 
married, to Miss Florence Eleanor Cooper, a lovely daughter of Har- 
vey Cooper, Esq., of Kentucky, and niece of Mrs. Vance, the wife of 
Senator Vance. 

WILLIAM RUFFIN COX 

was born March 11, 1S32, in Scotland Neck, Halifax county, N. C. 
His family is of English extraction, his paternal grandfather, baptized 
in Old St. Paul's cathedral, London, having belonged to the English 




X 




.NORTH CAROLINA. 73 

navy, though afterward, ciurhig the Revolutionary war, he was in the 
American merchant service, in which he was captured bj- tlie British. 
His father, Thomas Co.k, was a native of Chowan county, N. C, and 
a prominent merchant, having been a partnerin the firm of Martlain, 
Cox & Co., Plymouth, N. C, and Devereux, Clark & Co., of Philadel- 
phia, houses largely engaged in exporting to and importing from the 
West Indies, owning the vessels employed in their trade. Thomas 
Cox was also a member of the senate of North Carolina, from Wash- 
ington county, and a leading advocate of the building of the first 
railroads in the state. It may be added that the late Mrs. Gen. 
John II. Winder, of Baltimore, was a sister of Thomas Cox. The 
w'lie of Thomas Cox, whose maiden name was Olivia Xorfleet, was a 
daughter of Marmaduke Norfieet, a well known planter in the east- 
ern portion of North Carolina, and she was a sister of Mrs. Wel- 
don N. PIdwards, of Warren county. In 1825 Thomas Cox removed 
to Halifax county, N. C, and there died in 1S36. His widow after- 
ward removed to Nashville, Tenn., where her death occurred years 
afterward. William Ruffin Cox, their son, received his first scholas- 
tic training at the Vine Hill academy in his native county. After 
going to Tennessee, with his widowed mother, he was placed in 
school near Nashville, and was prepared for college. In 1S46 he en- 
tered Franklin college, from which he graduated with distinction in 
1850. Choosing the law for his profession, he attended the Lebanon, 
Tenn., law school, at which he graduated in 1852, having as precep- 
tors. Judges Green, Carruthers and Ridley, and as fellow-students 
Gen. Bate, now United .States senator from Tennessee, Judge Mc- 
Henry and Judge East, both of whom have been members of the 
supreme court of Tennessee. 

Going to the Nashville bar, Mr. Cox formed an advantageous 
partnership with the Hon. John G. Ferguson, an experienced and 
accomplished lawyer, with whom he continued to practice during 
his residence in that state. In 1857, Mr. Cox returned to North 
Carolina, and relinquished the practice of his profession to engage 
in agriculture, settling in Edgecombe county. In 1859, he removed 
to Raleigh, and the folhnving year was nominated by the democrats 
as a candidate for the house of commons, on the ticket with E. G. 
Haywood and Henry Mordecai. opposing the Hon. Sion PI. Rogers, 
Hon. Kemp P. Battle, and |. P. 11. Russ,who after a spirited contest, 
were elected by a small majority. Upon the outbreak of hostilities 
between the states of the Union in 1S61, he, having contributed to the 
equipment of an artillery company, was employed in recruiting a 
company of infantry, when Gov. Ellis tendered him a commission as 
major of the Second regiment of North Carolina troops, of which the 
gallant C. C. Few was colonel, judge W. P. Bynun lieutenant-colonel. 
Judge W. T. Faircloth, quartermaster, and Judge Ililliard com- 
missary. On the death of his colonel at Sharpsburg (Antictam), he 
became lieutenant-colonel following the promotion of Judge Bynun, 
and, on the resignation of the colonelcy by that gentleman for the 
purpose of accepting the office of solicitor, to which he had been 



74 NORTH CAROLINA. 

elected after the battle of Fredericksburg, Mr. Cox came into full 
command of the regiment, at the head of which, and of the brigade, 
which he commanded later, he participated in the various battles of 
Stonewall Jackson's corps. In the battle of Chancellorsville, he was 
shot down, being wounded in three places, and leaving half of his 
men killed or wounded on the field. Brigadier-General Stephen D. 
Ramseur, in his report of the Chancellorsville campaign, said: " x\nd 
last though not least, the manly and chivalrous Cox of the Second 
North Carolina, the accomplished gentleman, splendid soldier, and 
warm friend, who, though wounded five times, remained with his 
regiment until exhausted. In common with the entire command, I 
regret his temporary absence from the field, where he loves to be." 
Disabled bj' his wounds, he could not follow Gen. Lee's army to 
Gett3'sburg, but on its way back from Pennsylvania rejoined it, find- 
ing that in the meantime, he had been recommended by his superior 
officers for promotion, and being, in fact, promoted shortly after- 
ward to the rank of brigadier-general. After the battle of Spottsyl- 
vania court house, he was placed in command of Ramseur's brigade, 
composed of the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth and Thirtieth regi- 
ments, with part of the First and Third of Stuarts' brigade, and at- 
tached to Gen. Ewell's corps, a position which he held till the close of 
the war, the celebrated brigade maintaining its full prestige under his 
leadership. In the battle of the 12th of May, at the close of a gal- 
lant charge, he had the honor to receive on the field, with the other 
officers of the brigacie, the thanks of Gen. Lee. His brigade on the 
death of Gen. Jackson, served with Gen. Ewell, Jackson's succes- 
sor, until it was detached from the army of northern Virginia, and 
made what is known as the \^alley campaign, participating in numer- 
ous battles with varied success, under Generals Early and Gordon, 
but always against overwhelming numbers. Returning from this 
campaign, he joined Gen. Lee in front of Richmond, where he 
again had the good fortune to win the acknowledgments of that 
noble chieftain, lighting his sad heart with a gleam of sunshine even 
amid the fast gathering clouds of overwhelming disaster. The 
incident has been well told by Senator Z. B. \'ance in a public ad- 
dress, and may be fitly given here in his words: 

" During the retreat from Petersburg to that memorable spot which 
witnessed the final scenes of that once splendid army of northern 
Virginia, when everything was in the utmost confusion, the soldiers 
straggling hopelessly along, thousands deliberately leaving for their 
homes, and the demoralization increasing every moment, and the 
flushed and swarming enemy pressing them closely, a stand was made 
to save the trains, upon which all depended. Some artillery was 
placed in position, and Gen. Lee, sitting on his horse on a commanding 
knoll, sent his staff to rally the stragglers, mixed in hopeless, inextri- 
cable confusion, behind a certain line, when presently an orderl}- col- 
umn comes in view, a small but entire brigade, its commander at its 
head, and files promptly along its appointed position. A smile of 
momentary joy passed over the distressed features of the general as 



NORTH CAROLINA. 75 

he calls out to an aide, ' What troops are those?' ' Cox's North Caro- 
lina brigade,' was the reply. Then it was that taking off his hat, and 
bowing his head with Godly courtesy and kindly feeling, he said, 
'God bless gallant old North Carolina.' " 

It was in accordance with the fitness of things that the brigade 
whose gallantry drew forth this invocation should have matle, as it 
did make, the last charge in the last battle at Appomatox, its com- 
mander still at its head. Unfortunately the written testimony borne 
by his superior officers to the valor and cfficiencj' of his brigade was 
destroyed aniidst the general confusion and disorder that prevailed 
at the close of the war, but its tleeds are imprinted in the hearts of 
those whom it served, and will not grow dim while they live. As for 
himself, the deeds of Gen. Cox are in part recorded on his person, 
which bears the marks of no less than eleven wounds received in 
battle. 

When the war ended Gen. Cox resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession at Raleigh, and, not long afterward, was elected president of 
the Chatham railroad. In the early days of reconstruction, most of 
his friends being bound, he kept aloof from politics; but at the first 
election under the constitution adopted in i86S, he consented to stand 
for the office of solicitor of the metropolitan district, though without 
expectation that he would be elected, as the district was republican 
by about four thousand majority. Nevertheless, he was elected by 
twenty-seven majority; holding the office for six years, and justifying, 
by the ability and lidelity with which he performed its duties, alike 
the choice of his friends and the trust of his opponents. In 1.873 he 
was made chairman of the state educational association, which posi- 
tion he held during that year and the two following ones, being instru- 
mental, as chairman of the executive committee, in establishing the 
Nortk Carolina Joitnial of Education,-^ monthly devoted i)rincipally 
to the cause of common-school education," and having on its list of 
contributors the best literary talent of the state. Established at a 
critical time in the history of public education in North Carolina, this 
periodical, it can be hardly doubtfcd, exerted a decisive influence in 
favor of the cause. His services in this relation afford not the least 
of his many titles to the grateful esteem of the people. 

On the 20th of May, 1S75, the one hundredth anniversary of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence was celebrated at Char- 
lotte, N. C, in the presence of 30,000 jjeople, who were addressed by 
Hon. Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana, (jOv. Walker, of X'irginia, 
Gov. Graham, of North Carolina, and other able and distinguished 
gentlemen. Gen. Cox also delivered an address which was re- 
markable for the broad and lofty i^atriotism that pervaded it, and in 
which he thus described the spirit and requirements of the jieople of 
North Carolina, who, in this respect, may be said to have represented 
the people of all the other states of the south: "North Carolina 
has always been attached to the principles upon which the govern- 
ment is founded. But give her the rights guaranteed her by law, 
secure her local self-government and libcrtv, ami she will be lound as 



/D NORTH CAROLINA. 

true and loyal as any in the most favored portions of the country. 
We have no war to make upon the government, but will hold up to 
merited condemnation any party which through corrupt and partisan 
ends may seek to array section against section." On the occasion of 
a banquet given at the Yarborough house. Raleigh, in honor of the 
second annual meeting of the cotton states congress, held in that city 
in July, 1S75, he presided, and welcomed the guests, declaring with 
emphasis that the true purpose of such conventions was the develop- 
ment of the resources of the states and the promotion of the wel- 
fare of the citizens by a national and comprehensive policy. He, in- 
deed, lost no fit opportunity to reinforce the national sentiments of 
the people. When the chairmanship of the democratic state e.xecu- 
tive committee became vacant by the death of Hon. D. M. Bar- 
ringer, Gen. Cox was elected to that office, which he filled with 
marked vigor and ability, contributing largely bj- his rare powers of 
organization and unsleeping vigilance, and scarcely less by his 
personal character and acknowledged patriotism, to the success of 
his party in the campaign of 1S76. His name, at this period, was 
brought forward by the people of his district in connection with the 
nomination for the governorship of the state, but he declined to com- 
pete for the honor, in opposition to Hon. Z. B. Vance. He was chosen 
a delegate from the state at large to the democratic national con- 
vention at St. Louis, in 1876, as he had been chosen a delegate 
from the state at large to the convention which nominated Seymour 
and Blair, in 1S6S, though he declined to attend the St. Louis con- 
vention. 

On the 31st of January, 1S77, Mr. Cox was appointed by Gov. 
Vance, judge of the Sixth judicial district of North Carolina, com- 
prising the central portion of the state, an office which he held until 
he resigned to canvass for a seat in congress, not desiring to connect 
the office of judgeship with politics. He made an efficient judge, and 
filled the position with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the 
public. His dignity and urbanity of deportment, and his intellectual 
culture marked his service on the bench, and during his judgeship he 
rendered several able decisions, among them one of more than local 
interest, and which, although contrar}- to the rulings of two of his as- 
sociates on the superior court bench, was, upon appeal to the supreme 
court of the state, sustained in terms peculiarly complimentary to 
his judicial capacity. The case referred to was that of the State vs. 
J. F. Hoskins et al., in which he sustained the constitutionality of the 
act of congress upon which the Federal courts base their claim to re- 
move to the circuit court of the United .States for examination the 
cases of revenue officers charged with criminal offenses by the state. 
As mentioned above, Gen. Cox, on nearing his judicial term of office 
resigned to canvass for congress; subsequently he was elected to the 
forty-seventh congress, and re-elected to the forty-eighth, and to the 
forty-ninth congress, receiving on each occasion increased majorities. 
For six years he ably represented the Fourth congressional district in 
congress. In the forty-seventh congress he served on the committee 



NORTH CAROLINA. 77 

on pensions; and on a select committee to investigate charges against 
an officer of the house. In the forty-eighth congress he served on the 
committees on foreign affairs and militia: in the forty-ninth congress 
he was chairman of the committee on civil service reform, and a mem- 
ber of the committee on foreign affairs. In addition to attending to 
the work pertaining to these committees, the Congressional Record 
shows he took active part in the discussion of measures not connected 
with the committees on which he served; indeed, in the short session of 
the forty-ninth congress he addressed the house in speeches on such 
measures not less than seven times. He spoke on such subjects as 
classification and compensation of public officers; corruption in pub- 
lic office; civil service commission; American labor and Chinese im- 
migration;- inter-state commerce; diplomatic and consular service; 
wrongs to American fishermen; and the preparation and submission 
of reports, all received his earnest thought and consideration. 

A few extracts from some of the speeches he made while in con- 
gress ma}' fitly be given here, as they embody those patriotic senti- 
ments and conservative views which Mr. Cox has ever held and 
advocated. In the house he spoke, on June 9, 1SS6, in reference to 
civil service, and in that speech, " Let us Stand by our Pledge," Mr. 
Cox said: "Talk about it being aristocratic to appoint men on ac- 
count of merit instead of political influence; why, sir, it is the very 
genius and essence of democracy. It brings the offices within the 
reach of the people, and says to the tenant of the humblest hamlet, 
qualify yourself to serve your country, and if you have merit you 
shall be rewarded without respect to influence or power. There is in 
the treasury department to-day a chief of A. division who, but a short 
time ago, was an obscure village boy. He was selected hy a competi- 
tive examination, entered at the lowest grade, rose, and by his merit 
was appointed to his present position without extraneous influence or 
patronage, for indeed, neither of his senators had ever heard of him." 
On American Labor and Chinese immigration, Mr. Cox said in con- 
gress: "It is the part of statesmanship to foster and cherish the 
laboring and wage-earning persons of our native population, ' man 
the worker, man the brother." The poor should feel that in the halls 
of congress they have friends and protectors. Knights of Labor if 
j'ou please, instead of those who are neglectful of their interest. 
True statesmanship points the duty we owe to this class of our citi- 
zens, and bids throw around them every protection which the law can 
secure. They should be made to feel that instead of submitting to 
the restrictions and exactions of protective organizations, whose rules 
are often arbitrary, that through their representatives in congress, 
they can secure every redress the laws of the land can guarantee to 
them. No one will deny that the laborers in this country, through 
the organization of capital, are exposed to many grievances. They 
have escaped the abuses of the old world merely to have others to 
fasten upon them in the new, yet, we are not Utopian enough to sup- 
pose that mere legislation will prove a panacea for all such evils, the 
thews and sinews of government are its revenues. Let the grant 



78 NORTH CAROLINA. 

of supplies be coupled with the securing of prerogatives. With hon 
est and capable men at the helm they may rest at ease. The power 
is in the ballot and not in the bullet." 

On the reduction of tariff Mr. Cox made an able speech in con- 
gress, and made use of these words, taken from the Congressional 
Record: " This cry against pauper labor on the part of high pro- 
tectionists is but the song of the siren. And, if necessary to effect 
their purpose, they are ready to renew their war upon all foreigners. 
What is pauper labor? As Mr. Lincoln w^ould say, ' I desire to speak 
to plain people,' and doing so insist the term itself is an insult to the 
laborers of this country. Labor is capital, as much so as manufac- 
tures, and one, though poor, should not be arraigned as a pauper, 
simply because he fails to possess that wealth which gives him immunity 
from toil. The principles of the democratic party compel it to oppose 
its encroachment upon the constitution, high protective tariff and 
class legislation; to discountenance partisanism; to maintain the 
nghts of the poor against the aggressive power, and preserve the 
polls from military usurpation. All tariff should be levied in a spirit 
of equity, caution and compromise, so that the great interests of agri- 
culture, manufacture and commerce be equally preserved, and an 
intelligent ballot, cast by an intelligent freeman, is the right preser- 
vation of those rights. What democracy has most to fear is a per- 
suasive eloquence of the purchasing power, wielded by a corrupt party 
or privileged classes." 

Gen. Cox is an intellectual and able speaker; and in his public 
addresses has pronounced much sound doctrine, and expressed 
both high and moral culture and noble sentiment. He is fre- 
quently called upon to deliver public addresses, and one of 
his most noted of recent date was on. the life and character of 
Maj.-Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur, before the Ladies Memorial associa- 
tion, of Raleigh, N. C, May lo, 1891, when among other things he 
said: 

" In the late war, and by the chronicles of that war, we were de- 
nounced as rebels and traitors, as if the promoters of such epithets 
were ignorant of the fact that in our Revolutionary war Hancock, 
Adams and their compeers were denounced as rebels and traitors, 
while Washington and P'ranklin broke their oath of allegiance to join 
this despised class. Indeed, the very chimney-sweeps in the streets 
of London are said to have spoken of our rebellious ancestors as their 
subjects in x^merica. Therefore, with a conscience void of offense, 
while we would not and should not forget our hallowed memories of 
comradeship and of common suffering, we cherish them alone as 
memories, and seek no willows upon which to hang our harps, no 
rivers by which to sit down and weep while we sing the songs of long 
ago." 

Gen. Cox holds a position in the hearts of the people of North 
Carolina, that might be coveted by any man; he has been intimately 
connected with the history of the state for over thirty years, and has 
all that time worked zealously to advance her interests. Upon retir- 



/ 






(ylt^ ?^ 





/h-'-z^C^i..-^ 




NORTH CAROLINA. 79 

ing from congress, he turned his attention chiefly to agriculture, in 
which he has become prominent and very successful. In fact he has 
alwa^'s been interested in this pursuit, and his operations as an agri- 
culturist have been and are observed and appreciated throughout 
the state. In the advancement of agriculture he has borne an influ- 
ential part, having been a member of the executive committee 
of the state agricultural society, and often delivered addresses before 
such associations. Xor has he wholly passed over financial affairs, 
as is evidenced by the fact, among others, that he was a director of 
the National bank, of Raleigh. In addition to his prominence in so 
many spheres of secular activitJ^ he is a zealous churchman, having 
been for man}' years a member and vestryman of Christ church, 
Raleigh, a regular attendant at the dioceasan conventions, and a 
joint trustee with others over the propert)- of the diocese. He mar- 
ried, in 1857, Miss P. B. Battle, daughter of James .S. Battle, who was 
a planter and manufacturer, of Edgecombe county, of whom, 
however, he was bereaved in 1880. One son, P. B. Cox, survives her. 
In 1.SS3 Mr. Cox married Miss Fannie Augusta Ljman, daughter of 
Right Reverend Theodore B. Lyman, of Raleigh. She died Au- 
gust 21, 1885, leaving two surviving sons. 



AUGUSTUS SUMMERFIELD MERRIMON, 

chief-justice of North Carolina, was born on the 15th of September, 
1830, at Cherryfields, in the present county of Transylvania, N. C, 
then constituting a part of the county of Buncombe. His father 
was Branch H. 5lerrimon, of whose family history, previous to his 
leaving \'irginia, little is known. He was born in Dinwiddie county, 
in that state, removing to Tennessee in early life; a youth without 
large advantages, but subdued by good influences, engaging in the 
ministry, in which duty he served in the Holston conference in the 
Methodist Episcopal church, for sixty years; a man of earnest piety, 
strong natural powers, with considerable culture; he was an effective 
and eloquent preacher. In the course of his ministerial service, he 
was sent to Buncombe county, N. C, where he married Mary E., 
daughter of William and Sarah Paxton, a lady of great excellence, 
who did much in after life to mould the character of her son, the 
subject of this sketch. William was of good family, brother of Judge 
Paxton, of the superior courts of North Carolina. Sarah Grace, his 
wife, was a McDowell, of the Revolutionarj' stock of the McDowells 
of \'irginia and North Carolina. Soon after his marriage. Branch H. 
Merrimon, removed to Mills River, in Henderson, also then a part of 
Buncombe county, where he added to his ministerial duties, the avo- 
cations of merchant and farmer. Subsequently he removed to the 
farm now occupied by Charles McDowi'll, on the road between Hcn- 
dersonville and Asheville, and afterward to Hooper's creek, in Hen- 
derson county. There he devoted himself, earnestly' and almost ex- 
clusively, to farm life and its incidental works, in which was included 



8o NORTH CAROLINA. 

the operation of a saw mill, in connection with which, the career of 
his subsequently distinguished son was largely guided and influenced. 
Augustus S. Merrimon began in this rural, industrious and secluded 
life, the development of those characteristics which controlled and 
shaped his after life. Biography has an end more noble and more 
useful than to amuse or astonish, or to unduly exalt the subject of it. 
It is to stimulate by example, to encourage by the picture of bravely 
fought adversity, by the illustration of the honors that crown patient 
conflict with untoward conditions. And all these seemed to oppose 
with concentrated forces the onward progress of the subject of this 
sketch. His father's circumstances denied him the advantages of the 
higher schools; the exactions of a life of daily toil restricted his ef- 
forts at self-improvement. Yet, like the missionary Livingston, com- 
pelled in his boyhood to the daily drudgery at the blacksmiths' forge, 
yet contriving to store up during the process of manual labor, an as- 
tonishing stock of knowledge, by keeping his book laid up on the 
heaving bellows constantly before his eye; so did the young Merri- 
mon, following the plow, succeed in committing to memory, and un- 
derstanding well, the book he still preserves and cherishes as the key 
that opened up his book of knowledge, Towne's Analysis, reading it 
by snatches as he trudged along in the soft furrows; or as he watched 
the saw slowly and methodically notching its way through the leis- 
urely traveling log, acquiring a thorough master}' of some standard 
works, and even an intelligent knowledge of Blackstone, long before 
that light of legal science was taken up seriously as his professional 
guide. His appetite for knowledge was constantly whetted, as its 
value became more largely recognized; and he was gratified when at 
last his father sent him to Asheville to the school of Mr. James Nor- 
wood, a teacher in his day of high repute, and for whom his former 
pupil still retains profound respect and warm affection. At this school 
young Merrimon needed no spur to excellence except his ambition, 
and the conviction of his absolute dependence on his own exertions. 
He was an eager and apt pupil, rapidly surpassing in the English 
branches of learning (he attempted none other), all his fellow stu- 
dents, and receiving from his teacher the written expression of his 
judgment, that he was the best English scholar he had ever had. 
Compelled by the exhaustion of means to suspend his regular school 
studies at the end of eight months, he received the striking tribute 
to his proficiencies of being chosen by his teacher as his assistant in 
the school in those branches in which he excelled, and in such capac- 
ity he remained with Mr. Norwood six months longer. After he had 
detached himself altogether from the school, he was anxious to go to 
the University of North Carolina. His poverty forbade; and then he 
began earnestly to study law, the ultimate object of all his hopes and 
plans. With the study of law he read closely history and general 
literature, and thoroughly familiarized himself with the history of the 
feudal system, so intimately connected with the validity of the Eng- 
lish common law. He wasted not an hour; his defects in education 
demanded incessant application to correct and overcome them. In 



NORTH CAROLINA. 8l 

twelve months, he applied for and obtained license to practice in the 
county courts of the state, and in twelve months more, to practice in 
the superior courts; and then his professional life began. 

In viewing the earl}- part of a career, afteward so brilliant and 
distinguished, one of those contrasts in past and after conditions pre- 
sents Ttself, apparently designed by Providence as encouragement to 
the oppressed, yet courageous hewer-out of his own fortune; a dark, 
gloomy back-ground against which the achievements of after years 
stand out in lustrous relief; a contrast, not of humiliation, but of 
honor, as the fulfillment of the promise to patience, hope, toil and 
manly courage. Mr. Merrimon was practically self-dependent, he 
was without money; not so absolutely without friends, however, that 
he did not find some willing to wait for the rise in his fortunes, which, 
to their prophetic eye, his intense ambition, his indomitable industry, 
his irreproachable character, seemed to assure. Yet these secured 
for him only the bare means for bodil}' sustenance; for all else, his 
was a life of labor, of hardship, of privation, to which, in the after 
time of prosperity he might refer with gratitude as the agencies to 
the training which enabled him to achieve so much; and also with 
pride that to himself mainly he owed the power that enabled him to put 
them so far behind him. Mr. Merrimon was soon made county at- 
torney for Buncombe and other western counties. He soon entered 
upon an encouraging practice at the bar, for suitors of both political 
jjarties perceived his studiousness, his careful preparation of his cases, 
and his fidelity to his clients. He entered early into the spirit of pol- 
itics without becoming a professional politician. Yet his adaptation 
to politics as well as to law was readily admitted by his countrymen; 
and in i860, he was elected to the house of commons, defeating his 
able and poi)ular opponent, David Coleman, by twenty-eight votes. 
This was for the session immediatelj' preceding the war; Ellis, a dem- 
ocrat, was governor, Mr. Merrimon was a whig. Party spirit was 
intensely heated, the immediately agitating question being the recog- 
nition of the certainty of approaching civil war. As a test of the 
question, a bill introduced into the house at the instance of Gov. Hllis, 
asked anticipatory provision of $300,000 for the purpose of purchasing 
arms and munitions of war. The sessions of the legislature at that 
time began in the month of November, and the advocates of the bill 
urged its passage before the coming of the Christmas holidays. The 
legislature of 1 860-1 contained many men of ability and some of 
great distinction, and many able speeches were made for and against 
the bill. Mr. Merrimon opposed it and in debate contributed largely 
to the delay of its passage until after the holidays. The war was ap- 
proaching and the excitement in the legislature increased with the 
progress of the session, and in February Mr. Merrimon made a pow- 
erful argument against the doctrine of secession to a crowded and 
e.xcited house. 

About this time a general election was ordered to ascertain the 
voice of the people on the question of secession, and th(^ popular vote 
was decided in its opposition to the call of a convention. But when 

B-6 



82 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Lincoln issued iiis proclamation calling upon North Carolina to 
furnish its quota of troops to aid in suppressing the insurgent states, a 
convention was at once called and the state passed the ordinance of 
secession, and joined in the movement against the Federal govern- 
ment. Mr. Merrimon soon volunteered in the " Rough and Ready 
Guard." Its members were chiefly from the county of Buncombe, 
and up to the secession of the state, had mostly been Union men. 
While the company was drilling in camp at Raleigh, Gov. Ellis com- 
missioned Mr. Merrimon as captain on Col. William Johnson's staff, 
in the commissary department, and he engaged at once actively in his 
new duties, serving usefully at Weldon, Ocracoke, Fort Macon and 
elsewhere. This department was soon merged in that of the Con- 
federate states; and in the same year Mr. Merrimon was appointed 
by Judge French, solicitor for the Eighth judicial district, and at the 
end of his pro tern, term he was unanimously elected to the same office, 
which he held to the close of the war. Mr. Merrimon's sincere con- 
victions made him a Union man, not in sympathies nor in action, but 
in judgment. He never hoped for the success of the southern cause, 
but his sympathies bound him to his own people. During the course 
of the long struggle, his effort was to aid in preserving law and order 
and so much respect for civil authority as was possible during the ex- 
istence of active hostilities. He had occasion to exert such influences 
powerfully and usefully at the very outset of the war. A portion of 
the people of Madison county, of strong Union sentiments, bitterly 
hostile to secession and its advocates, made an inroad upon Marshall, 
the county seat of Madison, the citizens of which most!}' favored the 
southern cause, and committed many acts of violence and plundering 
stores of supplies. This flagrant outrage was bitterly resented by the 
people of the adjoining county of Buncombe; and a body of armed 
men to the number of 1,000 or more, under the lead of popular and 
prominent men, hurried at once into Madison to capture and punish 
the marauders. The justices of the peace were about to open a term 
of the county court. The Buncombe people were intent upon their 
violent purpose. Solicitor Merrimon would not consent to ignore or 
disregard the civil power. A violent contention arose between the 
opposing opinions. That of Mr. Merrimon prevailed, that state's 
warrants be issued for the arrest of the offending parties, and that 
the sheriff of Madison, if he chose, might summon as' many of the 
Buncombe militia as he saw fit to act as a civil posse. This course 
was pursued, the warrants were served as far as the offenders could 
be reached, and the civil power was vindicated, and military ardor 
was appeased by its application to the service of legal civil process. 
But Mr. Merrimon's triumph was achieved at much personal risk, be- 
cause it was alleged among some of the Buncombe soldiers that he 
had advised the issue of the warrants to screen his Union friends from 
just military punishment. Violent opposition to his counsel anci per- 
sonal injury to himself were threatened and imminent. But prudent 
counsel prevailed and the law was suffered to take its regular course. 
When the war closed, Mr. Johnson, then president of the United 



NORTH CAROLINA. 83 

States, issued his proclamation for an election of delegates to the state 
convention to be held in the city of Raleigh. This was in 1865. Mr. 
Merrimon was a candidate for the convention, but was defeated by a 
small majority by Rev. Dr. Stewart. The canvass and the elections 
also were conducted under the shadow of bayonets. The irregular, 
insubordinate violent body, known as "Kirk's Men," were everywhere 
present, fully armed, and breathing out vengeance against Mr. Merri- 
mon, for as solicitor, it had fallen to his duty to prosecute a number 
of them. His life was often in jeopardy; but he passed through the- 
trial without bodily harm. At the session of the legislature which 
followed the sitting of the convention, Mr. Merrimon was elected 
judge of the Eighth judicial district, and David Coleman was made 
solicitor of the same district. The histor}' of his brief judicial 
career, if fully set forth, would be a valuable contribution to the his- 
tory of a remarkable, turbulent period. It afforded admirable illus- 
tration of the firmness, the judgment and the patriotism of Judge 
Merrimon. The war was nominally over, the armies had disbanded 
and the soldiers had returned to their homes. But if it was not war, 
it certainly was not peace. In the war, and in some localities, neigh- 
bor had fought against neighbor, and besides the wounds of battle, 
indelible injury had been inflicted by the men of both sides on the 
homes and families of each other. They all returned home to find 
that the civil law was almost in abeyance, and each man became a 
law unto himself, with assumed right and dutj' to avenge past wrongs. 
Men brought home with them their side-arms or readily procured 
them. In some localities, communities were arra3'ed against each 
other like hostile camps, and whenever the men of opposite sides 
met, there was frequently sure to be blood-shed and death. It was 
chaos until the arm of the civil law should resume its sway. The 
opening of the courts seemed to promise the renewal of war rather 
than the restoration of peace, for the court-grounds were seen to be 
filled with armed men waiting and eager for collision with each other. 
At the opening of the court in Clay county, at the first term after 
the war, there was no grand jury to which to entrust the inquisition 
into crime or violence — no magistrates to draw a grand jury, and 
only a sheriff as a nucleus around which order might form. There 
were hundreds of armed men waiting for pretext for collision. Judge 
Merrimon, with quick judgment, saw the danger, and with prompt de- 
cision, adopted his line of action. He suggested to the magistrates 
appointed by Gov. Holden (but who had not yet qualified), to be 
sworn in, after which jurors were drawn and summoned and a grand 
jury drawn, sworn and charged. On the first day of the term, a dan- 
gerous outbreak took place in which si.xty to eighty persons were en- 
gaged. The judge at once directed the sheriff to summon and swear 
sixty trusty and resolute men of both parties or factions, to see that 
they were well armed, and to instruct them to shoot without hesita- 
tion the first man guilty of violence with intent to create general dis- 
turbance. The knowledge of this preparation calmed the turbulent 
element, and the court was held without the incident of a single act 



84 NORTH CAROLINA. 

of further disorder. The same course of action secured quiet in the 
county of Cherokee, where danger was still more imminent. This 
statement is made at some length, because it marked an important 
era in the history of the state. It was then that the voice of war was 
finally hushed, appeal to violence no longer made, and when the nor- 
mal reverence for law began to be resumed. x'Ynd it was mainly be- 
cause a man of courage, firmness and judgment represented the law 
in its peaceful majesty. 

This was in the spring of 1866, when Judge Merrimon rode the 
western circuit. In the fall of that year he rode the Wake circuit, 
in many of the counties of which violence and disorder had been rife. 
Firmness of action pursued in one circuit produced like happy results 
in the other. While holding court in Johnston county, he received 
military orders from Gen. Sickles to suspend proceedings in a case 
before the court, in which indictments had been found against a large 
body of men charged with outrageous and causeless riot. Judge 
Merrimon refused to obey the order, but as the case was continued 
on affidavit, there was, therefore, no open conflict of authority'. A 
similar order having been issued to another county, where Judge 
Merrimon was engaged in holding court, he determined to resign his 
seat on the bench, not finding himself able to resist a power then so 
overwhelming, and he tendered his resignation to Gov. Worth. The 
governor, however, persuaded him to withhold it until after the trial 
of the celebrated " Johnson will case ", which was to be heard in 
Chowan county. Of this case, it is only possible to say here, that it 
was, perhaps, the most important civil case ever tried in North Caro- 
lina. It involved the validity of bequests amounting to over one 
million dollars, and there was the largest and the most brilliant array 
of legal talent ever present at one time, engaged in one case at the 
North Carolina bar. The trial lasted four weeks, and resulted in 
establishing the will; and then Judge Merrimon's resignation took 
effect. He subsequently opened his law office in Raleigh, removing 
from Asheville, his former residence, with the chief view to the 
important business of the federal courts. His first partner in the law 
was Mr. Samuel F. Phillips, afterward United States solicitor general. 
Subsequently the firm (to anticipate somewhat) was Merrimon, 
Fuller & Ashe, and after the withdrawal of the latter to engage in 
journalism, Merrimon & Fuller. 

Judge Merrimon had taken much interest in public affairs, and 
since the war much of his efforts were directed, in conjunction with 
that of others, to the restoration and security of good government. 
To that end, he identified himself with the democratic party, and was 
a member (and part of the time chairman) of its executive committee. 
That committee in 186S nominated him as the democratic candidate 
for governor, but he declined the nomination. He was also nomi- 
nated for associate justice of the supreme court. The election was 
practically decided by Gen. Canby, and Mr. Holden was declared 
governor. Meanwhile Judge Merrimon was an active and able con- 
tributor to the press, arousing the people to a sense of the dangers 



NORTH CAROLINA. 85 

which threatened their liberties. In the violation of those liberties 
which attended the course of the " Kirk war " he was especially se- 
vere in his denunciation of those who were its chief instruments, and 
exhibited his usual courage and decision in defending the rights of 
the people. He was of the iirst to make application for writs of 
habeas corpus in the cases of those citizens seized and held by Kirk 
under the orders of the governor, and participated largely in the 
struggle for the restoration of free government. In 1 871, in the elec- 
tion for delegates to a state convention to be called by a majority of 
the votes of the people of the state, Judge Merrimon, with D. M. 
Barringer, Ex-Gov. Thomas Bragg and Green Alford, was a candi- 
date for delegate from the county of Wake, and was defeated. But 
he was much in the eyes and minds of men for his able and persistent 
maintenance of law and libert}-. He had made many able speeches 
when and where required, and was regarded as the most available 
candidate the democratic party could present for governor; and at 
the convention held in Greensboro in 1872, he was nominated by ac- 
clamation. His opponent was Tod R. Caldwell, of Burke county. 
The campaign was an arduous and also a very able one. Mr. Merri- 
mon spoke in most of the counties of the state, and the people, eager 
for instruction in the newly revived principles of law, order and lib- 
erty, heard him with avidity and received impressions of lasting en- 
durance. He was defeated nominally. He was believed to have 
been fairly elected, and a contest was proposed but abandoned, be- 
cause the executive committee of his party thought it unadvisable. 

At the legislature of 1872 his name was presented as a candidate 
for the senatorial nomination. Zebulon B. Vance was also a candi- 
date. The latter had been elected to the senate at the session of 
1870, but had been denied his scat, and was now again a candidate. 
The conflict was a warm one between the two gentlemen, ending 
after a few days contest in the withdrawal of both. The next week, 
however, the friends of Mr. Vance again introduced his name into 
the caucus. Eighteen friends of Mr. Merrimon indignantly withdrew 
from the caucus, and on the same ciay his name was presented in 
open session of the legislature, and those eighteen friends were joined 
by the republicans and Mr. Merrimon was elected. It is just to him 
to say that, though at the time he was bitterly assailed for apparent 
conllict with his political associates, the whole transaction occurred 
without his knowledge or procurement. It was only upon the advice 
of judicious and honorable men, whose fidelity to the democratic 
party was above reproach, that he accepted the nomination. His 
fidelity to his party long since effaced all susi)icion of his party in- 
tegrity and only some few traces of personal bitterness remain. 

His service of six years in the senate was honorable to himself, to 
his party and to his state. He was an indefatigable student; he 
familiarized himself with the important questions of the day; he was 
as watchful there as he had been in less exalted stations, for lil)erty 
and the supremacy of the law, and was thoroughly well informed on 
questions of finance; he spoke ably and frequently upon a bill for 



86 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the expansion of the currency, favoring an increased issue of green- 
backs to the extent of $50,000,000. Congress passed the bill with 
which he was largely identified, but it was vetoed by President Grant. 
In so brief a resume of his senatorial career, it is impossible to more 
than refer to his speeches on the Louisiana question, the southern 
questions — many of them — the Japan refunding bill, the Thurman 
bill in respect to the Pacific railroad companies and others, indicat- 
ing wide range of information and strong powers of argument. He 
was an active member of the committee on the postoffice, on post 
roads, on privileges and elections, on claims, on rules, on the District 
of Columbia, and also of the committee to visit South Carolina to 
investigate its presidential election affairs, etc. His senatorial term 
expired March 4, 1879, and he continued to pursue his practice at 
the bar until 1S83, when he was appointed by Gov. Jarvis associate 
justice of the supreme court upon the resignation of Associate-Justice 
Ruffin. This position he held until the death of Chief-Justice Smith. 
The vacancy was filled by Gov. Fowle, who appointed Judge Merri- 
mon, and at the next democratic convention he was unanimously 
nominated as the candidate for chief-justice and elected by a ma- 
jority of upwards of forty thousand votes, and this was the crowning 
honor of his life. 

As Chief-Justice Merrimon is still living, and in the full, enjoyment 
of his mental powers, eulogy of him as a jurist would hardly be in good 
taste. Great respect for the profession of the law, faithfulness to 
his clients and indomitable industry characterized him while at the 
bar; and these qualities, added to decided natural ability, great self- 
reliance, a well deserved character for high personal integrity, a 
ready command of language, insured his success as a counselor and 
advocate, and entitled him to the promotion he has received from the 
executive and the people in his profession. While on the superior 
court bench, his administration of the duties of that difficult office 
was unanimously' admitted to be admirable. Punctual, prompt, 
quick and decided, but ever just and courteous, he inspired the offi- 
cers of court, litigants, jurors and by-standers with proper respect for 
the law and him who so well administered it. Like qualities he ex- 
hibits still, when occasion demands, in the dignified court of appeals 
in which he so well presides. The labors of the court are great, and 
his industry is quite equal to his full share of them. His able opin- 
ions, to be found in a score of volumes of the supreme court reports 
of North Carolina, beginning with the eighty-ninth, already published 
— and, it is hoped in many more cases to be decided in the future — 
are and will be a lasting monument, acre pcrcnnius, to his strong sense 
of justice, his powers as a logician and his wide legal learning. 

At the age of twenty-two, he married Margaret J. Baird, daughter 
of Israel Baird, of Buncombe county. Mr. Baird was a member of 
that large and influential family so closely associated with the charac- 
ter and progress of his county. His wife was of the prominent Penn- 
sylvania family of Tates, which famil}- also has been and is now 
usefully prominent in western North Carolina. Mrs. Merrimon was 




JOS. J. DAVIS, Judge Supreme Court. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 8/ 

beautiful in person, her beauty enlightened by great loveliness of 
character, culture and intelligence. Her devotion to her husband, 
her cheerful endurance of sacrifice through his struggles, her faith, 
her hope, her courage, made her a noble help-meet for him who had 
set out to conquer the difficulties of life and continually to grasp its 
highest rewards. She lives to enjoy the conquests achieved over 
fortune with pride in welcoming the honors that have come to her 
husband. Judge Merrimon lives in the enjoyment of vigorous health, 
the fruit of regular sj'stematic habits from boyhood, of the most 
rigid temperance in ail things, of the most perfect abstinence from all 
the usually condoned weaknesses of youth, of the absolute avoidance 
of all those habits which custom has made so well nigh universal. 
He has always been a close and careful student of his profession, and 
an ardent reader of the purest literature, and thus has largely sup- 
plied his early deficiencies in education. He is clear, chaste and 
strong as a writer, and luminous, animated and effectiv-e as a speaker. 
In this last characteristic, in his warmth and impetuositj' in debate, 
he gives striking illustration of the conquest he has achieved over 
himself. His warmth betrays the existence of strong internal fires. 
The subjugation of all the passions which lead to evil prove the 
mastery he has gained over them. He has reached his aim in life by 
the most rigid and unrelaxed self-discipline. 

JOSEPH J. DAVIS. 

On the 13th day of April, 1828, in Franklin county, N. C, was born 
Judge Joseph J. Davis. His youth was spent amid the scenes of 
plantation life, and his early scholastic training was at the Male 
academy of Louisburg, under Mr. John B. Bobbitt, an educator of 
considerable repute in his day. After receiving a thorough academi- 
cal education at the Louisburg male academy, he attended for one year 
the well known Wake Forest college, and subsequently entered the 
University of North Carolina, where, in 1S50, he received the degree 
of bachelor of laws. Being admitted to the bar in June of 1S50, he 
located at Oxford, N. C, and began the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession. However, he continued here less than three years, then lo- 
cated at Louisburg, in his native county. Mr. Davis soon rose to 
high rank as a lawyer, and was conducting a good practice when the 
Civil war came on. In 1862 he became captain of Company G, h'orty- ■ 
seventh regiment. North Carolina troops. The company had been 
raised in his own county and the county of Granville, mainly by his 
effort and by those of his first lieutenant, Dr. P. P. Peace, and he was 
made its captain, and remained as such till the battle of Gettysburg, 
when, upon July 3, when in the charge made liy Gen. Pettigrew, he 
was captured and made a prisoner of war, and afterward confined 
first, at Fort Delaware, and later at Johnson's Island; and just a 
short time before the close of hostilities he was paroled, but soon the 
war closed, and again Mr. Davis took up the practice of his profes- 
sion at Louisburg. 1 le was soon called into public life, being elected. 



88 NORTH CAROLINA. 

as a democrat to the house of commons from Franklin county. He 
had been a whig and union man before the war, but since has faith- 
fully co-operated with the democratic party. He was elected to the 
legislature in iS66, and after serving one term withdrew from public 
life, to give his time and attention to the exclusive practice of his 
profession, continuing activel}' engaged till 1874, when the democratic 
party made him its candidate for congress from the "Metropolitan" 
or Fourth district. The district was republican by a fair majority, 
and Mr. Davis entered the race against this majority and a strong 
opponent, but after a spirited and ably contested campaign, he was 
elected, as he was also re-elected in 1S76 and 1878. He served six years 
in congress with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the people; 
evidence of which is manifest in the fact of his re-electons. 

Declining to enter the race for a fourth term in congress, Mr. 
Davis retired again to private life and to the practice of law. As a 
legislator, his record bears evidence of faithful, honest and able ser- 
vice, and his course in congress was marked for its fidelity to prin- 
ciple, and sincerity of purpose, and in the halls of legislation and in 
congress, as well as at the bar, or in the social or business world, Mr. 
Davis has proven himself the honest man, the cultured gentleman, 
and the learned scholar that he is. He had gained the esteem and 
confidence of the people; he had distinguished himself at the bar as 
an able and profound lawyer, and b}' his pleasant disposition, genial 
character and noble principles, he had become a popular, well-known 
and influential man, and in 1887, when by the death of Judge ThoniasS. 
Ashe, a vacancy on the supreme court bench was occasioned. Gov. 
Scales, in his wise choice, selected Mr. Davis as the fittest man for the 
vacancy, appointing him to the exalted position. The people were 
well pleased with the elevation of Mr. Davis to this judgeship, and at 
their regular election in 1888, voiced their confidence in his fitness for 
the position by electing him for a term of eight years. This was a 
well deserved promotion, and since sitting on the bench of this high 
tribunal, Judge Davis has justified the most sanguine hopes of his 
friends, and his judgeship has been characterized as one of learning, 
wisdom and purity. As a jurist, he is profound, exact, and sincere, 
and his urbanity of character praiseworthy; and among members of 
the bar he sustains their highest esteem and respect; and among his 
brother members of the supreme court he seems to enjoy happy rela- 
tions, and among whom he presents a pleasing and striking appear- 
ance on the bench, as he bears himself with dignity, and wears an 
expression of nobility and intelligence. 

Judge Davis has continued his fixed residence at Louisburg, where 
he is especially honored and esteemed In social circles, he sustains 
prominence as a man of culture and moral and religious principle, 
and throughout his course he has been a faithful Episcopalian in 
church faith. He has twice been happily married. In October, 1S52, 
he wedded Catherine Shaw, of Louisburg, a daughter of Robert J. 
Shaw, a merchant. To them were born five children, of which four 
survive. In 1881, his first wife died, and in 1SS3, he married for a 



NORTH CAROLINA. 89 

second wife Louisa Kittrell, of Oxford, a daughter of Benjamin Kit- 
trell, of Granville county. Judge Davis comes of an old and re- 
spected North Carolina family. It is not remembered, whether his 
paternal grandfather, William Davis, was born in North Carolina or 
not, but he was of W^elsh lineage; a farmer by occupation, and parti- 
cipated in the Revolution for American Independence. The judge's 
father, Jonathan Davis, was a native of Franklin county, N. C, where 
he lived a long and useful life as a planter. He was born in 1769, and 
died in 1S42. He married Mary Butler, by whom he hatl eleven 
children of whom Judge Davis is the youngest but one. and that one 
died in infancy. Mary Butler was born in King William county, 
Va., but when an infant was brought to North Carolina, by her 
parents, of whom it is said that they were of English ancestry. She 
was a granddaughter of Rev. John Pomphret, an early and power- 
ful Presbyterian minister of Virginia, and from whom descends a long 
line of descendants. And such is a brief outline of the life and a 
mention of the family history of one of North Carolina's honored 
sons, who has attained to distinction as a man of legal and general 
learning, and gained a gratif3'ing place in the affection and esteem of 
his countrymen, and to his good name, excellent character, and life 
achievements our pen cannot do justice. 

WILLIAM NATHAN HARRELL SMITH 

was born September 24, 1S12, in Murfreesboro, Hertford county, 
N. C. His father was William L. Smith, a native of Lyme, Conn., 
and after having studied medicine removed to Hertford county, 
N. C, where he married and died, his death occurring in 1813. The 
subject of this sketch was a half-brother of the Rev. Dr. James Mur- 
dock, D. D., the distinguished ecclesiastical historian, orientalist and 
philosopher, who was accustomed each Sabbath, at least in his later 
years, to read a chapter of the Bible in seven different tongues. Our 
subject received his preliminary scholastic training in Murfreesboro, 
N. C, Kingston, R. I., Colchester, Conn., at which last place he was 
prepared for college. In 1830 he entered Yale college, and graduated 
in 1834. Such distinguished characters as Morrison R. Waite, chief 
justice of the I'nitecl States, William M. Evarts, secretary of state, 
and Edward Pierrepont, once minister to Great Britain, were fresh- 
men in Mr. Smith's senior year in Yale college. From the academi- 
cal department of Yale, Mr. Smith was passed to the law department, 
where under the instructions of Judge David S. Daggett and Prof. 
Hitchcock, he was qualified for the bar. After a visit of some six 
months in Texas, he began the practice of his profession in Hertford, 
his native county. He rose rapidly at the bar and was soon to enter 
public life. In 1840 he was elected to the house of commons as rep- 
resentative from Hertford county; and in the year 1848, was elected 
to represent the Hertford district in the state senate, and during his 
service in this body he was chosen by the legislature, state solicitor 
for the superior court of the P'irst judicial district, comprising the 



<;0 NORTH CAROLINA. 

northeastern portion of the state. This office he held for two con- 
secutive terms of four years eacli, the second term expiring in 1857, 
in which year he was nominated by the whigs of his district, for 
congress, and was defeated by a small majority, which, however, he 
overcame at the next election, in 1859, and took his seat in the house 
of congress just as the sectional conflict was about to merge into Civil 
war. 

At once Mr. Smith became a prominent figure in the parliamentary 
struggles of the period. During the long and exciting strife, consum- 
ing a period of eight weeks, which preceded the organization of the 
house, Mr. Smith was nominated for the speakership by the southern 
whigs, in opposition to John Sherman, nominated by the republicans, 
and Thomas S. Bocock, the democratic nominee. Some of the more 
moderate republicans known as " The People's Party," having signi- 
fied their intention to vote for Mr. Smith, a tacit agreement was made 
by which a majorit}- of the democrats were to transfer their votes 
from Bocock to Mr. Smith, who would have been elected speaker, 
but Mr. Smith refusing to pledge himself to Mr. E. Joy Morris, of 
Pennsylvania, one of the certain republicans above alluded to, to con- 
stitute the committee on ways and means in the interest of protection, 
the republicans, with the honorable .exception of Mr. Milliard, of 
Pennsylvania, withheld their votes, and Mr. Sherman having with- 
drawn, Mr. Pennington, of New Jersey, was finally elected speaker. 
Mr. Smith held his seat in congress till the close of the session, being 
present at the inauguration of President Lincoln, in March, 1S61. He 
was a member of the Confederate congress during its existence, being 
elected to the Provisional congress, in July, 1861, and subsequently to 
the first and second permanent Confederate congresses, representing 
the First electoral district of North Carolina. During the course of 
this congressional service, Mr. .Smith was closely associated with such 
able, discreet and enlightened statesmen as ex-Gov. William A. 
Graham, a member of the Confederate senate from North Carolina, 
and John Baldwin, a Confederate representative from Virginia. On 
the iSth of March, 1S65, the second permanent Confederate congress 
adjourned, to be followed in less than one month by the memorable 
scene at Appomatox C. H., and after which Mr. Smith, for a time, 
employed himself with his private affairs, but before the close of 
1865, he was elected to the house of commons of North Carolina, and 
here zealously promoted the reconstruction of the state government 
under the plan of President Johnson. 

In 1868, during the exciting presidential campaign of this 3'ear, 
the action of the judges of the supreme court of North Carolina, 
called forth a solemn protest from the bar against judicial interfer- 
ence in political affairs, which was signed by one hundred and fifty 
members of the bar, including B. F. Moore, Ex-Gov. Thomas Bragg, 
and E. Graham Haywood, three of its most prominent members. 
This protest was treated by Chief-Justice Pearson as contempt of 
court, and argument was heard thereon at length. Mr. W. N. H. 
Smith was associated with Ex-Judge Battle, Ex-Judge Fowle, Ex- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 9I 

Judge S. J. Person, and Ex-Judge Barnes for the defense, and in an 
able speech bore eloquent testimony to Mr. Moore's consistent sup- 
port of the dignity- and prerogatives of the judicial tribunals of the 
county, and succeeded in obtaining a motion to discharge the rule on 
payment of costs. In March, 1870, Mr. Smith removed to Norfolk, 
Va., still retaining, however, his practice in the courts of North Caro- 
lina. While residing in Norfolk, it was in the winter of 1870, that 
Gov. \V. W. Holden was impeached for misdemeanor in office, and 
tried before the senate of the state, sitting as a high court of impeach- 
ment, presided over bj' the chief-justice, the trial being protracted 
over many weeks. Mr. Smith, although a political opponent, was 
selected by Gov. Holden, as one of his counsel, and made the closing 
argument in his defense, vindicating his official conduct with masterly 
power. Two years were spent in Norfolk, and then Mr. Smith re- 
turned to North Carolina, settling at Raleigh, where he formed a law 
partnership with George N. Strong, under the firm name of Smith & 
Strong, which continued till the elevation of his partner to the bench. 
In 1S73 Mr. Smith's political disabilities were removed by a special 
act of congress, there being only one other person in the state to 
whom the act applied, Mr. Burton Craige, a former member, like 
himself, of the Federal and Confederate congresses. In 1874 Mr. 
Smith received from the Wake Forest college of North Carolina, the 
degree of LL.D., and on the 24th of June, of the same year, it being 
the fortieth anniversary of his class, there was held a general meeting 
of the Yale alumni, and here Mr. Smith made a touching speech to 
only twenty-five present, out of the original si.xty-five who graduated 
in the class with him, and many of whom he had never met since 
they parted, forty years before. 

January 12, 187S, Mr. Smith was appointed by Gov. Vance, chief- 
justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Chief-Justice Pearson, thus receiving the 
unusual honor of being elevated at once from the bar to the head of 
the bench. The appointment, wholly unsought by him, was approved 
alike by the bar and thd public, to whom his abilities as a lawyer and 
his traits as a man. pointed him out as the fit person for the place. 
To a legal mind of 'a high order, enriched by wide and varied learn- 
ing the fruit of unremitting study, he added the rare faculty of seiz- 
ing the points of a case at a glance, and the power, j'et more r^re 
perhaps of maintaining his intellectual balance in the presence of'all 
snares and under all surprises. He was besides, a writer noted for 
the perspicuity and purity of his stj'le, and a cogent, logical and 
strong speaker, and especially he excelled in the argument of cases 
in the courts of last resorts, where his practice had perhaps exceeded 
that of any other lawyer in the state. He was a pleasant and court- 
eous gentleman, scrupulously just, and possessed singular purity of 
character. He was ever conservative in principle, and his patriotism 
and zealous devotion to the great principles of constitutional liberty 
were undoubted. His death occurred November 14; 18S9, while still 
on the supreme bench as chief-justice. He married, January, 1839, 



92 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mary O. Wise, daughter of William B. Wise, who was a merchant of 
Murfreesboro, N. C. This marriage gav^e issue to two sons, who are 
now surviving, the eldest, William W. Smith, is a prominent insur- 
ance agent; and the youngest, E. Chambers Smith, who is a repre- 
sentative member of the bar, and chairman of the state democratic 
executive committee. They both reside at Raleigh, X. C. 

DUNCAN CAMERON. 

Indeed but verj* few men of North Carolina were better known 
and more highly appreciated as an advocate, judge, statesman and 
financier, than Duncan Cameron, born in Prince Edward county, Va., 
in 1777, and dying in North Carolina in 1853. The Cameron family 
was ancient and highly respected. There were four brothers (two 
of them ministers), who came to America from .Scotland. Rev. John 
Cameron, one of these brothers was the father of Duncan Cameron, 
our subject. He was a native of the highlands of Scotland, a lineal 
descendant of Sir Ewan Cameron, chief of the Clan Cameron, the 
Lochiel whom Macaulay portrays as " a man in personal qualities un- 
rivaled among the Celtic princes; a gracious master, a trusty ally, a 
terrible enemy; a man with countenance and bearing singularly 
noble; a courtier with manners that would have graced the levees of 
Louis the XIV, to whom he bore in contenance a striking resem- 
blance, though greatly exceeding him in stature; in courage and 
skill, in the use of weapons without an equal, a mighty hunter, with 
his own hands killing the last wolf of the savage bands that, up to 
that period, had wandered through the British islands; a fierce 
soldier, but a wise and prudent statesman, and though unlearned, a 
liberal patron of letters. His high qualities, if fortune had placed 
him in the English parliament or the French court, would have made 
him one of the foremost men of his age." Such was the man, the 
progenitor of the Rev. John Cameron, who emigrated to \'irginia 
during colonial times, and married Ann Owen, daughter of Col. 
Thomas Nash, elder brother of Gov- Abner Nash and Gen. Francis 
Nash, both distinguished in North Carolina Revolutionary annals. 
There were born of this union four sons and two daughters, all, with 
the exception of one daughter, Jean, wife of the Rev. Andrew Syme, 
D. D., long time rector of Blandford church, Petersburg, Va., remov- 
ing to North Carolina and becoming prominent in social, political 
and professional life, inheriting the father's virtue, piety and abilities. 
The eldest son, Duncan, the subject of this mention, came to North 
Carolina before he became of age; studied law under Paul Carring- 
ton, of Virginia, and was soon (in 1798) admitted to the bar of North 
Carolina. He first settled at Martinsville, then the county seat of 
Guilford, but subsequently removed to Hillsboro, where he soon be- 
came a successful and prominent practitioner. In 1S03 he married 
Rebecca, the only daughter of Richard Bennehan, a wealthy mer- 
chant and planter in the northeast corner of the present county of 
Durham, then a portion of Orange. By his marriage with Miss 



79f ^f^ 




.^7 



^ ^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. ' 93 

Bennehan ludge Cameron had two sons and six daughters. Of his 
children, his older son and all his daughters, except Margaret, who 
married Mr. George W. Mordecai, of Raleigh, a lawyer and banker, 
died unmarried after reaching maturity, and Mrs. Mordecai dying 
without issue. The only living descendants of Duncan Cameron are 
the children of his younger son, the late Paul C. Cameron. 

The career of Judge Duncan Cameron is part of the history of his 
time. In his relations to his state and to society, to politics, to law, to 
finance, to education, to measures of internal improvement, he was 
always conspicuous. His reputation was early made, and though of 
rapid rise, was of enduring stability. For every position in Hfe in 
which he was placed, he proved his eminent fitness. By his assiduity 
and acquirements, he soon attained fame and fortune. In 1800 he 
was appointed clerk of the court of conference (then the court of last 
jurisdiction), and prepared and published the reports of cases decided 
in that court. It was entitled, " Reports of Cases Determined by the 
Judges of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity of the State of 
North Carolina, at their meeting on the loth of June, 1800, held pur- 
suant to an act of assembly for settling questions of law and equity 
arising in the circuit." In i8o6,-'7,-'i2 and '13, he represented Orange 
county in the house of commons. In 1814, he was elected judge of 
the superior court, vice Edward Harris, deceased, and after presiding 
with satisfaction to the bar and country, he resigned this position jn 
1S16. In 1S19. 1822 and 1823, he was in the senate of the state legis- 
lature. His course in the legislature was marked by dignity, urbanity 
and patriotism; especially in the exciting periods of war with England 
(the war of 1812), was he a leading and unllinching advocate for its 
prosecution. He was the devoted friend of internal improvement, 
and of all schemes to develop the state, with which subject no one 
was more familiar. He served as a member of the board of internal 
improvement, and in his judgment and opinion the people placed full 
confidence and respect. He was chairman of the committee to build 
the present state capitol of North Carolina. For years he presided 
over the largest banking institution in the state, " The Bank of the 
State of North Carolina," whose affairs he conducted with unparal- 
leled skill and success from 1829 to 1849. He directed the affairs of 
this bank with singular wisdom, fidelity and great financial ability, 
and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Mr. George W. Mordecai. As 
a financier, he was unrivaled, not only because of the clearness of his 
judgment, but also the integrity of his character and the proverbial 
caution of the race from which he came. In private life he was a 
sincere and unshrinking friend, a kind neighbor, just and charitable, 
and throughout the long career of his life he was a Christian, sincere 
and benevolent. He wa.s the founder of Christ church at Raleigh, and 
was chairman of the building committee that built the church. 

Soon after his marriage Judge Cameron selected a fine site for a 
dwelling about a mile and a half from Stagville, and there erected 
the commodious dwelling in which his large family was reared, and 
which yet remains in perfect preservation, after the lajjse of three- 



94 NORTH CAROLINA. 

quarters of a century. He tested or inspected every plank or piece 
of timber that entered into its construction, and inexorably rejected 
whatever was faulty or defective. In the construction of this dwell- 
ing, the careful prudent characteristics of Judge Cameron were strik- 
ingly displayed, and to-day the building stands as sound as when it 
came from the hands of the builders, and though of wood it has gone 
without material intermediate change or repair. Taste and judg- 
ment were exhibited in the selection of the site, on the margin of the ' 
broad valleys or bottoms, which distinguish the confluence of the 
Eno, Flat and Little rivers, uniting not far below F'airntosh (the 
name given Judge Cameron's residence), and here form the Neuse. 
The land had originally Been densely set with massive forests of oak, 
hickory and other "hard-wood" trees, indicative of great strength 
and depth of soil, and here along the broad bottoms of the rivers 
above named, swept luxuriant fields covered with the wealth of the 
crops of wheat, corn, cotton and other products, all responding gen- 
erously to good land tilled with care and intelligent system. The 
taste and judgment which guided in the selection of the site, also 
controlled in the adornment of the domain, and sturdy oaks with 
massive trunks and wide-spreading boughs, standing in stately parks, 
or over-shadowing the road sides in long extending avenues, gave it 
a baronial aspect more characteristic of English than American scen- 
ery. On this magnificent estate, comprising many large plantations, 
worked by a great and constantly increasing bod}' of slaves, were ex- 
hibited the best of agricultural skill, the most admirable -foresight, 
the most sagaciously economical administration of vast and various 
occupations, joined with the most humane consideration for the vast 
body of workers, and also the most watchful care for the comfort of 
those who had passed the age of active work, and the judicious pro- 
vision and care for those who had not reached that period. A wise 
economy was observed in all the affairs of the several plantations, in 
their several parts and in the aggregate. Looms converted into 
clothing for the slaves, the wool clipped from the flocks, or the cotton 
picked from the fields, all the products of the estate, all the work of 
its own trained and skilled labor. Shoe-makers, wagon-makers, 
blacksmiths, artisans of many kinds, combined to make the opera- 
tions of the large plantations self-sustaining. The cultivated fields 
supplied the breadstuffs, the large herds of hogs and cattle provided 
the meats, the cotton fields and the sheep folds furnished the material 
which domestic skill converted into clothing. The sick were care- 
fully tended in well equipped hospitals under care of skillful physi- 
cians, or nursed through their sickness by the females of the white 
family, nor was the care of the souls of the slaves neglected, for di- 
vine services were regularly held in the neat. chapel on the Fairntosh 
farm, or in other places of public worship on one of the plantations. 
It was patriarchal life on a grand scale, in which one great family 
was combined, where the interest of the master and servant mani- 
fested its mutuality, where the hard hand of the master was restrained 
by the joint influences of humanity and interest, and where the slave 



NORTH CAROLINA. 95 

bent cheerfully to a burden he could not feel as oppression. Slavery 
was divested of its sterner features, as master and slave regarded 
each other with mutual good-will and affection. Judge Cameron 
found it necessary to extend his investments to other states to provide 
employment for the growing number of his slaves, and established 
large cotton plantations in Alabama and Mississippi, and continued 
an active and close attention to his vast agricultural interests, till in 
old age, when his son, Paul C. Cameron, assumed the management 
of the vast and varied interests. 

Thus we have reviewed the career of Judge Cameron, as related 
to his agricultural associations and achievements, but it must not be 
forgotton that Judge Cameron was a warm friend of education, and 
did much to supply the educational needs of the people. In the de- 
cay of the old Episcopal school for boys, establised at Raleigh, in 
1833, upon the sale of the property, Judge Cameron became the pur- 
chaser, and b}' his wish, and under his direction, St. Mary's school 
for girls, became the successor of the Episcopal school for boys, and 
is to-day a prosperous and popular school for the education of girls, 
and to this property, upon the death of Judge Cameron, succeeded 
his son, Paul C. Cameron, whose heirs upon his death, in turn suc- 
ceeded to it. He was for a number of years, an active and faithful 
trustee of the University of North Carolina. Judge Cameron may 
justly be classed among the eminent and great men of his day; and 
had v/e space, there are countless other achievements and events of 
his life that might enlist interest, and appear worthy of considera- 
tion. As a lawyer, he was the equal of any of his time; he had an 
excellent logical mind, and was profound as a jurist, and was an able 
judge. As an advocate, his name is conspicuous in many of the im- 
portant cases of his day. Particularly was he prominent, as the lead- 
ing counsel for the defense, in the great suit of Earl Granville, in the 
circuit court of the United States, involving the title to nearly the 
whole of the northern half of the states of North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. Mr. Cameron gained the suit In the lower court, and the 
noble Earl, whose counsel was William Gaston, appealed to the su- 
preme court of the United States, but the suit, in consequence, prob- 
ably, of the war of 1812, was discontinued. 

As a citizen, Judge Cameron was of the progressive order. He 
was a man of keen and scrutinizing observation, and a student of 
political economy, and his learning, and his universal and farseeing 
judgment, enabled him to be the statesman he was; in the halls of 
legislature, he excelled; on the bench as a judge, or liefore the bar as 
an advocate, he was of power and intluence; in speech, he couched 
his thoughts and propositions in simple and effective language, and 
from the rostrum as a speaker, he was possessed of eloquence and 
grace; and of a strong persuasive power. He was a ready speaker, 
and went to the point. As a man, he was universally esteemed, and 
when death came to him, at the advanced age of seventy-six years, 
an honored grave opened to receive him, and into its bosom, sank the 
remains of one, whose life was pure, noble, useful and exemjjlary; 



96 NORTH CAROLINA. 

and though now, his race is run, and Judge Duncan Cameron is no 
more, he Hves yet, in affectionate remembrance, as a good man, a 
profound lawyer, an able judge, a skilled financier, honest and worthy 
citizen, a Christian gentleman. 

THOMAS RUFFIN. 

The fourth son of Chief-Justice Ruffin was Thomas Rufhn, who 
like his illustrious father wore the ermine on the supreme bench of 
North Carolina with distinguished ability. He was born in 1824, and 
after an excellent preparatory education, entered the University of 
North Carolina, in 1840, graduating with honors in 1844. Coming 
early to the bar, he located first in Rockingham county, where he 
formed a partnership with Judge Dillard, cementing a friendship 
that lasted through life. Their business was extensive and lucrative. 
In 1854 Judge Ruffin was elected solicitor of the superior court, and 
was recognized as one of the most efficient of the law officers of the 
state. Subsequently he removed to Graham, and resided there at 
the breaking out of the war. He entered but little into politics, but 
served one term in the assembly, and was a strong democrat in prin- 
ciple. On the fall of Fort Sumter he immediately volunteered; and 
on May 3, 1861, was commissioned captain of Company E, Thir- 
teenth regiment, North Carolina troops. In October, 1861, on the 
death of Judge Dick, he was appointed judge of the superior court, 
and held the courts of the eastern circuit for one term. But he con- 
sidered that his place was at the front, and in the fall of that year 
resigned his commission and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his 
regiment. At the battle of South Mountain, which was one of the 
most stubborn encounters of the war, he was severely wounded, and 
in March, 1863, he resigned his commission in the army, but was soon 
afterward appointed a member of the corps court for the western 
army. He was on the field a man of decided capacity and fearless 
courage, and always manifested great calmness in positions of diffi- 
culty and danger. He was kind to his soldiers, and dilligent in secur- 
ing them all possible comforts, and with sympathetic actions and 
words he soothed the sufferings of the sick and wounded. 

After the war Judge Rufifin returned to his profession with renewed 
vigor. At the bar he was honest, laborious, learned, able and 
self-reliant. He was a splendid advocate, often truly eloquent, 
language was pure and forcible, and his argument convinc- 
ing while his bearing commanded the admiration of the court and 
suitors. As an orator he was more like Caesar than Cicero, more 
like Fox than Burke. He was formidable in debate, and fertile in 
intellectual resources. He was again associated with Judge Dillard, 
until the latter was elevated to the supreme court bench, and on the 
resignation of Judge Dillard, February 11, 1881, the eyes of the state 
at once turned to Judge Ruffin as the most worthy successor. Gov. 
Jarvis appointed him to the vacancy with the concurrence of the en- 
tire state. On the supreme court bench, he was accorded the high 



NORTH CAROLINA. 97 

consideration which his learning and a])ility merited. His opinions 
were alwaj's strong. The public was fond of comparing him with his 
great father, and many thought him the equal in some respect of the 
eminent chief-justice. But his health failed him and on September 23, 
1883, he retired from the bench and resumed the practice, associating 
himself with Maj. John \V. Graham, at Hillsboro, N. C. His health 
was however precarious, and he was not as active in the practice as 
he had formerly been, and on May 23, 1889, he passed away, univers- 
ally lamented by the people of the state. In early life Judge Rufifin 
married Miss INIary Cain, of Hillsboro, and left an interesting family 
surviving him, consisting of three sons and a daughter and widow. 

GOV. ABNER NASH 

was born in Prince Edward county, V^a., August 8, 1716. He removed 
with his parents at an early age to Newbern, N. C, where he re- 
ceived his early educational training. He entered the law and was 
admitted to the bar while yet a young man, and practiced his profes- 
sion successfully throughout the state. His first experience in public 
life was upon the occasion of his being chosen a delegate to the first 
provincial congress which met in North Carolina in 1774, and pre- 
vious to the Revolution, and durmg its continuance was faithful, 
brave and earnest in the patriot cause. In 1775 he was a member 
of the provincial council, and also a member of the council and com- 
mittee that framed the state constitution, as well as first speaker of 
the house of commons that assembled in North Carolina in 1776, and 
speaker of the senate in 1779. In the latter part of 1779 he was 
elected governor of the state, which office he held until 1781. During 
his administration North Carolina passed through the gloomiest period 
of the Revolutionary war, and being a man of mild temper ami fail- 
ing health. Gov. Nash could not have been equal to the situation, yet 
all his official actions bore the stamp of a strong will, a clear mind 
and a good heart. His first assembly in April, 1780, made Gen. Rich- 
ard Casswell commander of all the militia of the state, although by 
the constitution the governor was commander-in-chief, and later on 
the same body appointed a board of war to manage military opera- 
tions, which was another encroachment upon the governor's preroga- 
tive. Gov, Nash was a man of fine natural ability and large acquire- 
ments, a thorough Christian gentleman. His death, which occurred 
while on a visit to the city of Fhihulelphia, on the 2d of December, 
1786, was deeply mourned throughout the state. 

RICHARD HENDERSON. 

Some philosopher has said that adversity scourges some men into 
greatness. Thus it was with the subject of our sketch, and the man- 
ner in which he rose from the utmost obscurity and poverty to a na- 
tional reputation is almost a satire upon those educational institutions 
of which Col. Ingersoll speaks as being a place where " diamonds are 
li— 7 



98 NORTH CAROLINA. 

dulled and brickbats are polished." Richard Henderson was born in 
Hanover county, Va., 1734. His parents were very poor, and he 
grew to manhood before he learned to read and write. While quite 
a lad he was appointed a constable, and when he had learned to write 
was made an under-sheriff. He removed to North Carolina in 1762, 
and having devoted several years to the study of the law, during 
which time he frequently read ten hours a day he was admitted to 
the bar. And so remarkable was his success at the bar, and so wonder- 
ful was his legal information, that in 1769 he was appointed associ- 
ate judge of the superior court. 

In 1770 the populace, which had been aroused by the unjust system 
of taxation, broke into the court room where Judge Henderson was 
presiding and compelled him to leave the bench. He was again 
elected to the bench but refused to serve, and a few years later he, 
as the president of the Transylvania Land company, negotiated with 
the Cherokee Indians for all that territory lying between the Cumber- 
land mountains and the Cumberland river and the Kentucky' river, 
and situated south of the Ohio, which was transferred to the company, 
by which Henderson and his associates became the proprietors of a 
tract of land larger than the present state of Kentucky. The 
country was named Transylvania. Mr. Henderson was speaker of 
the first legislature, and among its members were Daniel Boone, 
Richard Calloway, Thomas Slaughter, John Floyd and James Harrod. 
This purchase was shortly afterward annulled by the state of Virginia 
as an infringement of its chartered rights, but to compensate the fami- 
lies, the state granted them a tract of land twelve miles square on the 
Ohio, below the mouth of Greene river. A few years later Mr. 
Henderson removed to Tennessee, where he practiced law success- 
fully for several years, but returned to North Carolina in 1780, where 
he settled on his large plantation and engaged in farming. He died 
January 30, 1785. 

HON. ALFRED MOORE WADDELL, 

of Wilmington, was born in Hillsboro, Orange county, N. C, Septem- 
ber 16, 1834. After receiving a rudimentary education, he was pre- 
pared for college by William Bingham, Sr., whose school was then 
located at Hillsboro, and at the Caldwell institute, from which, in 1850, 
he entered Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 1853. Having chosen 
the profession of the law, he was admitted to the bar in his twenty- 
first year, soon after which he removed to Wilmington, and entered 
into practice. In July, i860, he purchased the ]]'ii)nino-ton Herald, the 
leading whig paper of the Cape Fear section, which he edited until 
sometime in 1S61. He was opposed to secession, believing that the 
south could secure the rights for which she was contending b}' remain- 
ing in the Union, and he fought the secession movement with all his 
ability. But when North Carolina decided to secede with her sister 
states, like a loyal son, he cast aside his own opinions, joined his for- 
tunes with his native state, and, in 1861, entered the Confederate 



NORTH CAROLINA. QQ 

army. For awhile he was adjutant, afterward lieutenant-colonel of 
the Third cavalry, Forty-first North Carolina regiment. He served 
until 1S64 with that command, when his health failing him, he was 
compelled to resign. When the war closed he returned to Wilming- 
ton, and entered into partnership with his father, Hon. Hugh Wad- 
dell, in the practice of law. This firm soon secured a large and 
lucrative business. 

The year 1S70 was a memorable one in North Carolina's history. 
The republicans had complete control of the state, and were deter- 
mined to remain in power at all hazards. Kirk and his hirelings 
were overrunning a large part of the state, the civil law was " ex- 
hausted," and drumhead courts-martial were in vogue. The outlook 
at this time was indeed gloom5^ congressional elections were ap- 
proaching, and the nominee of the democratic conventions in the 
Third district had refused to encounter what was supposed to be sure 
defeat. The executive committee was at its wits' ends; as onl}' seven- 
teen days would elapse before election, and Oliver H. Dockery, the 
sitting member, was the republican candidate, and had been for sev- 
eral daj-s busily at work in canvassing his district. At an opportune 
moment the committee looked to Col. Waddell, urging him to accept 
the nomination and fight the forlorn hope. Obeying this call of dut}' 
and seeing the dire extremities of his party, he accepted the nomina- 
tion, and at once went forth to meet his political opponent, Dockery, 
who was a persuasive man on the stump, not only so, but he was per- 
sonally^ popular in the district, and backed bj- his father's prestige, 
who had long held large power in that part of North Carolina. Their 
coming together in debate was eagerly looked forward to, by some 
with apprehension, for Col. Waddell was wholly', or almost without ex- 
perience as a stump speaker, while Docker}' was a giant in debate 
and a shrewd politician. But with all his ability, Dockery was over- 
whelmed and vanquished at the beginning, and as meeting succeeded 
meeting, it became clearly evident that Waddell was more than a 
match for his opponent, for he proved himself ready and fearless in 
debate with fertile resources. This proved to be the beginning of 
the end, for Col. Waddell was elected by a large majority, and the dis- 
trict which Dockery had carried by 2,000 majority, was redeemed. 
He took his seat in 1S71, which he retained until 1879, continuously. 

Colonel Waddell's maiden speech in the house was made in April, 
1S72, on the condition of the south. He was at that time one of the 
five democrats composing the minority of the special committee of 
thirteen designated as the " Ku Klux committee." The house re- 
ceived this speech with attention, for it was a manly and eloquent de- 
fense of his people from the slanders venomously poured upon them. 
He was placed early one the postoffice committee, and in 1S77 he was 
made its chairman, and occupied this position through the balance of 
his service in coxigress. In January, 1876, he delivered a speech 
which attracted much attention. Northern and southern papers 
united in words of praise of this speech. In 1S7S he was re-nomi- 
nated, but was not re-elected. Many things compassed his defeat, 



lOO NORTH CAROLINA. 

namely, it was an off-year in politics, and the democrats over-estimated 
their strength. In addition Wadd^ll had a severe attack of sickness 
and was unable to prosecute a personal canvass until late in the cam- 
paign. In ]S8o Col. VVaddell was a candidate at large to the national 
democratic convention which convened in Cincinnati and nominated 
Hancock. After the convention Waddell canvassed for the ticket in 
New England, New York and Pennsylvania. In 1SS2 he went to 
Charlotte and took editorial charge of the Charlotte Joitriial, after- 
ward the Jouynal-Obsei'vcr. Upon sundering his connection with this 
paper he went to Wilmington and resumed his law practice, in which 
he is still engaged. Col. Waddell is a vigorous thinker, a fine belles- 
letters scholar, a pulished writer and eloquent speaker. He is also a 
brilliant conversationalist. At the re-union of the army of northern 
Virginia, in Richmond, he delivered the annual address, which was 
highly praised. All in all he is a most genial and gifted gentleman. 

EDWARD S. LATIMER, 

of Wilmington, can be said to be a self-made man. He started in 
life with little money and few friends, but endowed with that faculty 
of indomitable will and energy which conquers all things. He was 
born in W^ilmington, September 21, 1837. His parents were natives 
of Connecticut, and when our subject was thirteen years of age, re- 
moved with him to Wilmington. He was educated in the common 
schools of his time, and while yet in his youth he entered a dry goods 
store where he learned the business, and later on in life embarked in 
the same business for himself. At the breaking out of the war he 
entered the Confederate service as a member of a company of home 
guards. He was all through the four years of that great struggle and 
took part in many important and disastrous engagements. After 
the war he engaged in no business for several years, but about 1878 
he entered Columbia law school and graduated in due time with high 
honor from that institution. In 1S81 he formed a partnership with 
ex-Lieut-Gov. Steadman, for the practice of the law and in 18S5, he 
was made president of the W. D. «& C. railway, v/hich important and 
lucrative office he now holds. 

WILLIAM B. MEARES. 

The subject of this sketch was born on the 8th of December, 1787; 
at Spring Garden, county of New Hanover, and state of North Caro- 
lina. He was educated at Bingham's school and the University of 
North Carolina. He read law in the office of that eminent statesman 
and jurist, the Hon. William Gaston, who never ceased through long 
years of close friendship and observation, only ending with his death, 
to entertain and frequently express the highest opinion of the moral 
and intellectual endowments of his former pupil. Indeed, on one oc- 
casion when Mr. Meares had been defeated by one vote for the 
position of United States senator, he publicly declared that he was 



NORTH CAROLINA. lOI 

the fittest man then living in the state to represent her in that dis- 
tinguished body. Mr. Meares possessed to an eminent degree the 
moral, mental and physical qualifications which constitute a leader 
among men. He was gifted to an extraordinary degree with moral 
courage, frankness and honesty of purpose, was bold in the expres- 
sion of his opinions, and looked with contempt upon those seekers of 
public honors who were mere followers in the wake of public opinion. 
His intellectual characteristics were chiefly those of great logical 
power; quickness of preception and a wonderful power of concentra- 
tion. He was thus enabled to acquire the immense amount of gen- 
eral knowledge which he possessed in a remarkably short space of 
time, and being a self-reliant and independent thinker, when he had 
arrived at a conclusion he adhered to it with the greatest tenacity-. 
His phj-sical vigor and energy, like his mental, was most extraordin- 
ary. In person he was very handsome, and was possessed of elegant 
manners and such was his conversational powers that his companion- 
ship was greatly sought after by his acquaintances. He became 
prominent in early life and soon became a leading and successful 
practitioner of the laws in his section of the state. His first entrance 
into public life was as a representative in the legislature for the town 
of Wilmington, in the year iSiS. He afterward represented the 
county of New Hanover as senator, in the legislatures of 1828-30-32. 
He was also a leading and influential member of the convention 
which was called in the year 1835 for the purpose of amending the 
constitution, and w-hich has ever since been regarded as the ablest 
body of men ever assembled together in the history of the state. 
This was his last appearance in a legislative body. His reputation 
as a great legislative debater and political leader had become co-ex- 
tensive with the state, and he withdrew from the political arena and 
also from the further practice of the legal profession. The latter 
part of his life was devoted to rice planting, and the other branches 
of agriculture. In this vocation he evinced great energ}' and judg- 
ment. He adopted the improved and scientific methods of farming, 
and his efforts were crowned with great success. He was a man em- 
phatically of progressive ideas, and throughout his career he was an 
ardent advocate and supporter of the state university as well as of an 
efficient system of public schools throughout the state. His opinion 
was that the inheritance of a fortune would blight and ruin the pros- 
pects of almost all young men, and that a boy should be properly 
reared and given a liberal education and then be thrown on his own 
resources. He died in the prime of life leaving nine children, eight 
of whom were sons, and of so much more importance in his judgment 
w'ere the advantages ofthe" higher " education over the mere posses- 
sion of money, that he provided in his " will " that his estate should 
be held together until his youngest became of age, and he en- 
joined upon his " executors " to expend the last dollar of his estate, if 
it should be necessary', in order to give to each of his sons a collegi- 
ate education. He was tan earnest and zealous advocate of the con- 
struction of railroads and other works of internal improvement, and 



I02 NORTH CAROLINA. 

it was truly said of him at his death that he had lived more than fifty 
years in advance of his people. 

These were the characteristics which adorned the man and which 
were accorded to him with marked unanimity by the distinguished 
men and intelligent portion of society of his day and generation. It 
was perfectly natural that with such mental and physical endowments 
he should have wielded a powerful personal influence and that, at 
the same time his progressive views should have called forth the oppo- 
sition of the narrow-minded anti-progressive portion of the public. It 
was not his fortune to have received the highest honors either of his 
profession or in the political arena, but in this country the distribution 
of public honors does not ordinarily depend upon the merits of the 
recipient, but is most apt' to be the result of mere chance or the 
combination of fortuitous circumstances. Unlike most of our ciis- 
tinguished men, he was pre-eminently practical and useful, and when 
he died his loss was deeply felt in the political, professional, social 
and business circles of the Cape Fear section of the state. He died at 
the comparatively early age of fifty-three years and eleven months. 

JOSEPH A. HILL. 

This eminent son of North Carolina was born at Hilton, the 
former residence of Cornelius Harnett, about a mile north of Wil- 
mington, N. C, in the year 1800. He was the son of Hon. William 
Hill, member of congress from 1799 to 1S03, and grandson of John 
Ashe, of Revolutionarj' memory. He was named after his first 
cousin, Joseph Alston, subsequently governor of South Carolina and 
the husband of Theodosia, daughter of x^aron Burr. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale college and trained for the law at the celebrated Litch- 
field law school. He represented the town of Wilmington in the 
legislatures of 1826, 1827 and 1830, and the county of New Hanover 
in 1823 and 1824. He had no pretentions to beauty but his face was 
lit by the brilliancy of his eye and the fascination of his smile, his 
gesticulation was graceful and his voice full, rich and flexible. He 
'had no rival of his years as a debater and orator, and no superior of 
any age in North Carolina. The late distinguished Judge Gaston, of 
the supreme court of North Carolina, pronounced him the most 
brilliant man of his age he had ever met and Gaston was certainly a 
competent judge. His talents were versatile and he could, as oc- 
casion demanded, convince, convulse with laughter or move to tears. 
His style was chaste, not disdaining ornament but using it simply by 
way of illustration, and yet his oratory was often fervid. His speeches 
on Fisher's resolution, on the bank bill, on the tariff or nullification, 
sustain what is claimed for him. His letters to the late Gavin Hogg, 
a distinguished citizen of Raleigh, long since deceased, have been 
pronounced by competent authority the finest efforts of controversial 
writing yet produced in North Carolina. 

In the internal improvement conventioup at Raleigh, in 1833, Mr. 
Hill met in debate the ablest men in the state. The journals show 



NORTH CAKOIINA. IO3 

that he triumphed in carn'intjf all the resolutiDns he submitted, and 
tradition reports that sp splendid was his exhibition of ability that his 
claim to leadership was generally, if not universally, conceded. With 
a genius equal to the highest occasion and loftiest efforts, his amia- 
bility and bonhomie disarmed the envy his brilliancy excited. Un- 
selfish and unassuming he alone was unconscious of the superiority 
universally conceded him. In social life without pretense, distin- 
guished for his playful humor, his satire which left no sting in the 
wound, his fund of anecdote, his joyous vivacity and his delightful 
abandon, he was the center of attraction always. Without pharisee- 
ism, gay and debonair his society was sought by a people distin- 
guished for politeness and hospitality and somewhat given to 
conviviality. Because a social pet it must not be supposed that he 
gave entirely to society what nature designated for nobler uses. He 
did not neglect the duties of his profession, which involved labor and 
study, but was so close an observer and diligent a student in his 
private hours that his advice was asked by the old and grave, who 
valued his wisdom and learning as much as the more volatile pleasan- 
try and fun. He came to the bar with a mind probably better dis- 
ciplined than that of any other man who had preceded him in North 
Carolina. Thus prepared, thus skilled in dialectics, and with a 
genius of the highest order, it is no wonder, though he died at the 
early age of thirty-tive years, that he left behind him a fame co-ex- 
tensive with the state. His friends believe that he was equal to any 
effort, and regret that he did not live long enough to display his pow- 
ers upon a stage worthy of his extraordinary strength. He died 
without issue in the summer of 1S35, and his ashes repose in the family 
burying ground at Hilton where he was born, around which place a 
historic interest attaches as having been in Revolutionary times the 
home of Cornelius Harnett, the representative man in those days of 
the Cape Fear section. 

HON. GEORGE DAVIS. 

This distinguished gentleman, one of the first of North Caro- - 
linians in character and talents, is the third son of the late Thomas F. 
Davis, one of the most prominent citizens of Wilmington, and the 
head of a family distinguished in the annals of the Cape Fear section 
for intelligence and virtue. The subject of this notice is a native of 
Wilmington, and was born in that city in the year 1S20. His early 
education was obtained in the best schools then existing in the state, 
and he was so apt to learn and so well prepared that he entered the 
university of the state the youngest among all of the students, and 
graduated. with the highest honors of his class. Adopting the pro- 
fession of the law, he soon became a prominent lead(;r at the bar, and 
acquired a large and lucrative practice which has suffered no diminu- 
tion during a long and varied career, but, on the contrary, has in- 
creased with advancing years. He early embarked upon the stormy 
sea of politics, and was a Teader of the old whig party. His speeches 



J04 NORTH CAROLINA. 

on the hustings during the campaigns in which he was engaged, and 
the many addresses made before crowded assembhes were marked 
by great intellectual vigor, and were so beautified and adorned by the 
graces of oratory, that they never failed to convince and to delight. 
Though in a helpless minority politically, he could always be found in 
the front of the fight, inspiring his followers with enthusiasm by his 
impassioned eloquence, his powerful invective and his wonderful fer- 
tility of resource, and commanding the respect and extorting the ad- 
miration even of his opponents by his chivalric bearing, his generous 
courtesy, and his high toned sense of honor. He was always more than 
equal to every demand upon his powers, and soon established a reputa- 
tion as an orator and jurist co-extensive with the state; and so, when 
troublous times approached, and men's hearts were failing them from 
fear, they instinctively turned to him with the most abounding faith 
in his integrity, his patriotism, and his ability to guide and direct them 
in the right way. 

And thus it happened in 1861, without action on his part and 
even without his knowledge, that such a thing was contemplated, Mr. 
Davis was appointed by the state of North Carolina one of its com- 
missioners to the peace congress which met that year in Washington 
city. He attended its sessions and labored earnestly with others to 
effect a settlement of the difficulties which convulsed the country, but 
his efforts were vain, fanaticism rode rarupant over truth and justice, 
and reason seemed dethroned in the minds of the northern majorit}-, 
the congress accomplished nothing. Upon his return home from 
Washington an immense meeting of citizens was held, before whom 
he appeared to give an account of his stewardship, and did so in a 
speech so clear in its statements, so convincing in argument, and so 
pathetically eloquent, that the vast assemblage, in which were many 
who had clung to the hope of a peaceful solution of all difficulties and 
were opposed to any hasty movement on the part of the south, gave 
utterance, as with one voice, "well done thou good and faithful ser- 
vant." Again, in 1862, he was elected to the high position of a sen- 
ator in the congress of the Confederate states by the legislature of 
' North Carolina, and this, like his first appointment, came to him un- 
solicited and unexpectedly. He served out the term to which he had 
been elected with distinguished ability, and at its termination the legis- 
lature, again without his knowledge, unanimously presented his name 
to President Davis for a position in his cabinet, who tendered him 
the attorney-generalship, which he accepted and held until the col- 
lapse of the Confederacy. 

At the termination of hostilities Mr. Davis returned to his home 
in Wilmington, and resumed the practice of his profession, applying 
himself closely to it, and abstaining, as far as he was permitted to do 
so by the public, from active participation in politics. In 1877 Gov. 
Vance voluntarily tendered him the position of chief-justice of the 
supreme court of North Carolina, made vacant by tltfe death of that 
able jurist, Chief-Justice Pearson, which he declined as he has other 
positions of honor and trust offered him time and again, and there 



XORTII CAROLINA. IO5 

has never been a time since the war that he could not have gone to 
congress from the Wihnington district if he would have accepted the 
nomination. His is the only case the writer can recall in which so 
man}' honorable positions have sought the man and not man the po- 
sition, and it is the best illustration of his character that can be given. 
He would not turn upon his heel for any office that required personal 
solicitation, and would shrink, with disgust from the manner in -which 
preferment is now sought and obtained, for he was born at a tinie 
and raised among men who had noPlearned the art of rising to dis- 
tinction by pandering to the base passions of the multitude or prac- 
tising the wiles of the demagogue. No man in North Carolina 
stands higher than h", for he is known of all men to be able, pure 
and incorruptible, whose aspirations are all of the highest, who 
is an accomplished orator, a profound jurist, and a noble speci- 
men of that highest type of true manhood, a Christian gentleman. 
Mr. Davis, though now advanced in years, is still engaged in the 
practice of his profession, but confines himself principally to of- 
fice duties, and seldom appears at the bar except in important 
cases. His powers have suffered no dimunition from age, and 
he is facile princcps at the bar, and like Saul among his brethren, 
towers above all competitors. He has been twice married and is 
again a widower, but with children and grandchildren around him to 
brighten his home and administer to his comfort. 

JUDGE OLIVER P. MEARES, 

judge of the crimin:il circuit of New Hanover and Mecklenburg 
counties, was born in the city of Wilmington, on February 24, 1S28. 
He is the son of William B. Mearcs, notice of whom will appear in 
this work. He was prepared for college at the Bingham school and 
Caldwell institute, and completed his education at the ITniversity of 
North Carolina, graduating in 1S48. He then commenced the study 
of law under Judge Battle, of the university law school, and remained 
with him about one year. In 1S50 he was licensed to practice, and 
from that time until the breaking out of the war, he followed his pro- 
fession in his native city. He was an old line whig, and took an 
active part in the campaign of 1S52, as a political sjjeaker, and in 
1856 was an electoral candidate on the I^'illmore ticket, and was an 
active and distinguished speaker in the campaign of 1860. After the 
election of Lincoln he became a secessionist, and in April, 1 861, he 
entered the military service, as captain of a company which was or- 
ganized in Wilmington, and afterward Ix-camc part of the lughteenth 
North Carolina regiment, in which regiment he rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and served until the re-organization of the same, 
at the e.xpiration of one year. In January, 1867, he was elected by 
the legislature to the office of judge of the criminal court of New 
Hanover county, which position he held until the adoption of the new 
constitution, in July, 1868. He again entered the practice of the law, 
and also took an active part in the campaigns of 1868, 1870, 1872 and 



I06 NORTH CAROLINA. 

1876, as a democratic speaker and leader. In 1S77 he was re-elected 
to the bench by the legislature, and served eight years. In 1S85 he 
was elected judge of the criminal circuit, of New Hanover and Meck- 
lenburg counties, and is serving as such at the present time. In 1S51 
Judge Meares was married to Miss Ann Eliza, the daughter of Dr. 
Thomas H. Wright, of this city, and the granddaughter of Judge 
Wright, who was a native of Wilmington. This union has been 
blessed with several children, who have all reached maturity. Judge 
Meares has devoted his life to his profession, and is an able, fearless 
judge and a terror to evil doers. He is one of the most candid of 
men, a man of strong convictions and force of character, who will do 
what he believes to be right, even should the heavens fall. 

WILLIAM GASTON 

was of distinguished Huguenot descent. He was born in Newbern, 
September 19, 177S. He was the son of Alexander Gaston, one of 
the most eminent physicians of the state, who was murdered by the 
tories in the presence of his family. The tragic death of his father 
left its terrible imprint on the mind of the son, in the way of an in- 
effaceable melancholy which age and vicissitude could not quite shake 
off. He commenced his education at Georgetown (D. C.) college, 
and graduated from Princeton with distinguished honors. He stud- 
ied law at Newbern, where he was admitted to the bar, and a few 
years later attained great distinction in his profession. In 1779 he 
was elected to the state senate from Craven county, in 1S08 to the 
house of delegates, over which body he was chosen to preside. He 
was a member of congress from 1813 to 1815, and his speech in that 
body in opposition to the loan bill which proposed to place $25,000,000 
at the disposal of the executive for the conquest of Canada during 
the war with Great Britain, was a master-piece of eloquence and was 
widely read and greatly admired. He was judge of the supreme 
court from 1834 till his death, and some of the best statutes of the 
state are the result of his judicial genius. In 1835 he was a member 
of the state constitutional convention, and suggested and elaborated 
nearly all the reforms in the new constitution. He was offered, but 
declined, the United States senatorship in 1840. He died in Raleigh, 
January 23, 1S44. . 

JOHN LOUIS TAYLOR. 

This eminent jurist was born in London, Eng., in I\Iarch, 1769. 
His father having died at an early age, young Taylor was brought to 
this country by his brother, at the age of twelve years. He was for 
two years at William and Mary college, and at the age of fourteen 
years removed to North Carolina, where he studied law and was 
admitted to practice at Fayetteville, which latter place he represented 
in the legislature in 1792-4. He removed to Newbern in 1796, and in 
1798 he was elected a judge of the superior court. In 1808 he was 



NORTH CAROLINA. lO/ 

chosen by his colleagues as president of the supreme court, which, at 
that time, consisted of periodica! conventions of the judges of the 
superior courts at Raleigh. When a new and separate tribunal was 
instituted as a court of last resort, in iSiS, he was appointed chief- 
justice, which he held until his death. In 1817 he accomplished the 
colossal task of rev^ising the statutory laws of the state. The work 
was completed and published in 1821, and a continuation appeared 
by the same author in 1825. Such a feat as this for a man already 
Avell along in the journey of life, encumbered with the cares of high 
judicial olifice, bespeaks a wonderful power of mental and physical 
energy. Among his other published works, which stand high in the 
common law to this day, may be mentioned: "Cases in Law and 
Equity of the State of North Carolina," "The North Carolina Law 
Repository," two volumes, "Charge to the Grand Jury at Edgecombe, 
Exhibiting the Criminal Law," and a work on " Executors and Ad- 
ministrators." 

COL. E. C. YELLOWLEY. 

Soon after the termination of the Revolutionary war between the 
American colonies and the mother country Capt. Edward Yellowley 
emigrated from England, and coming to America, settled at Will- 
iamston in Martin county, N. C. He raised a large family, and 
among his children was the subject of this sketch, Edward Clements 
Yellowley, who was born on the 22d day of October, 1S21. He re- 
ceived a good preparatory education under Mr. J. ]\L Lovejoy, who 
was well known for many years as one of the best educators in the. 
South, and entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
took the regular course, graduating with the degree of A. B., in the 
class of 1844. He chose the law as his profession and, having ob- 
tained his license to practice, settled at Greenville in Pitt county. 
Here a good practice speedily rewarded his efforts and he was forg- 
ing well ahead in his profession when in 1847, he became involved in 
a personal difficulty with Mr. H. F. Harris, who was then represent- 
ing Pitt county in the legislature of the state. The difficulty like so 
many in which public men of this country have been engaged in the 
days when the Code was considered the proper resort for gentlemen 
to settle their affairs of honor, grew out of political differences and 
w^ of such a character that Mr. Harris saw proper to demand satis- 
faction by sending a challenge to fight a duel. Though averse to 
duelling, the challenge, which was borne by Mr. Harris' friend, Henry 
Dimock, Esq., was promptly accepted by Mr. Yellowley and the pre- 
liminary arrangements made for him by his friend, Mr. F. B. Satter- 
thwaite. Friends exerted themselves to settle the difficulty amicably 
and prevent the meeting, but their efforts were of no avail. The 
tlucl was delayed for a time Ijy the interference of the authorities, the 
principals being arrested just as they arrived at the place of meeting 
first agreed upon which was in Northampton county, N. C. A few 
days afterward the principals with their friends went to Norfolk, Ya., 



108 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Yellowley and his friends stopping at Reeling's Hotel, Mr. Har- 
ris and his friends at Walter's Hotel. There the final arrangements 
were made for the duel, which took place in the' state of \"irginia, at 
the half-way house between Portsmouth, V'a., and Elizabeth City, 
N. C, in the Dismal swamp canal on Friday the ist day of October, 
1847, between the hours of five and six o'clock A. M. Dr. W. J. Blow 
appeared on the held as the second of Mr. Yellowley, and M. B. 
Smith, Esq., as the second of Mr. Harris. Pistols were the weapons 
used. At the first fire Mr. Yellowley discharged his weapon in the 
air and was shot through the hat by his opponent; seeing that noth- 
ing would satisfy Mr. Harris but his blood, at the second fire he took 
deliberate aim and shot his enemy through the heart, killing him 
instantly. In this affair so trying to a young man just beginning his 
public career, Mr. Yellowley behaved with the utmost coolness, and 
e.Khibited that calm, unflinching courage which characterized his 
course through life. Kind, charitable and generous, with a heart as 
gentle as a woman's, ready at any time to help a friend or forgive 
an enemy, high bred and chivalrous, a gentleman in the true accepta- 
tion of the term there was no such thing as fear in his make up, and, 
although in this lamentable affair he only defended his life, he re- 
gretted the difficulty and its melancholy termination all his days. So 
profound was his regret he never alluded to the matter at any time. 
During a residence in his family of eighteen years the writer of this 
— his nephew — mentioned the subject to him but once and then was 
bidden never to refer to it again. 

In the year 1850 or thereabouts, Mr. Yellowlej' was elected clerk of 
the superior court and afterward solicitor for the county court; in 
both capacities he served with credit to himself and satisfaction to his 
constituents. In politics he was an old line whig, and as such, voted 
in i860, for Bell and Everett, for the Union and the enforcement of 
the laws. Although in feeling and sentiment opposed to the seces- 
sion of the southern states from the Union, when Mr. Lincoln had 
been elected, the efforts made looking to pacification and peace had 
proven fruitless, and the southern leaders could obtain no guarantees 
for the protection of their rights and the preservation of the sov- 
ereignty of the states, he became an advocate of secession and urged 
the people in the spring of 1 861, to vote in favor of the proposition to 
hold a convention. Immediatel}' after the secession of the state he 
raised a military company by his own exertions, offered his servrces 
to the governor, received his commission as captain and was assigned 
to the Eighth regiment, which rendezvoused atWarrenton, with H.M. 
Shaw as colonel commanding. He remained in active service through- 
out the war. In 1862 he became major of the Eighth regiment, and 
was afterward appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Sixty-eighth regi- 
ment, of which he was in immediate command until the end of the 
war, the colonel, William j. Hinton, being captured by the enemy 
and never having been exchanged. He fought in many battles and 
took part in the last engagement of the war, at Bentonsville, between 
Gen. J. E. Johnston and Gen. Sherman. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 OQ 

In 186.3, 3t the urgent solicitation of his friends Mr. Vellowley 
consented to become a candidate for a seat in the Confederate con- 
gress against the Hon. R. R. Bridgers. Being in active service he 
was unable to make a canvass of the district; notwithstanding this 
however, he received a considerable majority of the votes, but owing 
to some alleged informalit}- Mr. Bridgers received the certificate of 
election. At the end of the war he resumed the practice of law. In 
1866 he was elected a member of the general assembly of North 
Carolina from Pitt. This was the first legislature which assembled 
after the termination of the war and it was burdened with grave re- 
sponsibilities and confronted by serious ditticulties. In the delibera- 
tions of that body he was a conspicuous figure, maintaining by his 
course the calm, conservative sentiment characteristic of the old 
whigs. Under the circumstances prevailing at that trying time, he 
did not think a reckless, defiant course was advisable, but considered 
it best to accept in good faith the facts of the situation then existing 
and adjust the troubles besetting the south on the lines fixed by the 
result of the war. Conservative in his opinions and in common with 
a large element of the people regretting that the whig party no 
longer existed, he became an ardent and zealous supporter of the 
democratic party, and took an active part in shaping the events which 
led to the final discomfiture and rout of the carpet-bag and negro 
regime. As a lawyer he had a large and lucrative practice and ac- 
cumulated a handsome fortune. The contemporary of E. J. Warren, 
Henry Gilliam, F. B. .Satterthwaite and Uavid M. Carter, he was 
prominent among the distinguished men who maintained the pres- 
tige and added lustre and distinction to the bar of eastern Carolina. 
In 1S85, at the age of sixty-three, he died suddenly at Asheville. 
North Carolina, where he had gone to recuperate his health. 

THOMAS JORDAN JARVIS 

was born in Currituck county, on the i8th of January, 1S36. His 
father, Rev. B. H. jarvis, was a native of the same county, a minister 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, who devoted his life to zealous 
work in his honored calling and was a successful and able preacher 
of the Word. His mother was Elizabeth Daly, of Camden county, 
N. C. His father's circumstances being very poor, the subject of this 
sketch did not enjoy the advantages of early education, but being 
determined to improve himself, he set to work, and with the aid of 
friends, entered Randolph-Macon college, January, 1855, and with 
money earned by teaching at intervals, and assistance furnished by 
Mr. John .Sanderson, he fmally completed his course there, graduating 
in i860. The indomitable will displayed by him in pursuing his pur- 
pose to obtain an education well illustrates the stamina of the man, 
and the self-denial he practiced in accomplishing success so early in 
life exemi)lifies the strong qualities that have distinguished him 
throughout his career. On graduating, he began to teach a school 
in Pasquotank county, where he was engaged until June, 1861, when 



no NORTH CAROLINA. 

he entered the Confederate army. He enlisted first in the Seven- 
teenth North Carolina regiment, and afterward in the Eighth North 
Carolina troops, where as captain of a company, he displayed a 
heroism, fortitude and endurance not surpassed by any of his com- 
rades in arms. He was an excellent soldier, cool, resolute, and un- 
flinching in the presence of danger. Passing through many perils 
and exposed to many trying vicissitudes he escaped unharmed until 
on the 14th of May, 1864, at Drury's Bluff, he received a wound that 
disabled him, and since then his right arm has hung useless at his 
side. 

When the war was over, and the future was still involved in doubt 
and obscurity, Mr. Jarvis courageously applied himself to business, 
and opened a small store in Tyrrell county, at the same time study- 
ing law. In the fall of that year, a state convention was called, and 
his friends in Currituck county brought him forward as a candidate 
for election to that body. He was elected and then began a public 
career alike honorable to himself and useful to the people of his na- 
tive state. The following year he obtained his license to practice 
law and entered with zeal upon that as his business in life, but his in- 
telligent appreciation of the importance of the grave questions then 
challenging public attention led him to take a deep interest in politi- 
cal movements. 

In 1S6S he was elected as a democrat to the legislature from Tyr- 
rel count}', and in the fall made an extensive canvass as district 
elector on the Seymour and Blair ticket. When the legislature met 
in November, he allied himself with John W. Graham, Plato Dur- 
ham, James L. Robinson and the few other democrats of that body 
in strenuous opposition to the measures of the republican majority. 
They were but a handful, but most gallantly did they throw them- 
selves into the breach. They stood steadfast, immovable in their de- 
votion to the interests of North Carolina, and the state soon became 
filled with the fame of these young men, who, having served with 
honor on the field of battle, now by their wisdom and prudence and 
stern integrity, won for themselves leadership in public affairs. Their 
triumph in establishing the Bragg-Phillips investigating committee, 
and in repealing the special tax laws was complete and the people 
loved to do them honor. To their action was largely due those 
events which culminated in the defeat of the republicans in 1870, the 
impeachment of Gov. Holden, and the pacification of the state at 
that early date and the subsequent era of quiet, harmony and pros- 
perity. When the new assembly met Capt. Jarvis was tendered the 
speaker's chair, and from being one of a half-a-dozen in the minority, 
he became the chief director of state legislation. The democrat-con- 
servative party was then in a form itive condition and Speaker Jarvis 
exercised great influence in welding the fragments of the old parties 
into a solid organization In 1872, he moved to the county of Pitt, 
and formed a law partnership with Col. David M. Carter, one of the 
strongest intellects of the state, and that fall canvassed the state as 
an elector on the Greeley ticket. He was elected a member of the 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 1 I 

constitutional convention of 1875, and to his address and prudence 
was chiefly due the power of the democrats to control that bod}- 
which was evenly- divided between the parties. The next year he 
was nominated by the state convention for the oflice of lieutenant- 
governor, and made an exhaustive canvass of the state, and upon 
Gov. X'ance's election to the L'nited States senate, in February, 1879, 
he succeeded to the executive chair, to which position he was re- 
elected for a full term in 1880. 

During the six years in which Mr. Jarviswas governor, he im- 
pressed himself more thoroughly on the activities of the people than 
any other governor of the state. He was wise and prudent in council, 
and bold and progressive in action. He deemed it a function of the 
executive office to give direction to public measures, and he met the 
responsibilities of his position with zeal and patriotism. He shrunk 
from the discharge of no duty; and regarding that the governor was 
in some measure the head of the political party that had elected him, 
he largely participated in every campaign, giving a detailed account 
of his stewardship, and challenging the most thorough scrutiny into 
every act of his administration, whose cleanness and integrity com- 
mended itself to public confidence. He knew no favorite section, but 
sought to promote the welfare of every portion of the state. While 
warmly advocating the new system of county government for the 
east, housed every means to advance the construction of the Western 
North Carolina railroad, and eventually, when it became necessary 
to do so, he convened the legislature in special session and disposed 
of that road in order that it might be speedily finished. Under his 
wise administration the industries of the state greatly advanced, and 
party bitterness rapidly disappeared. Indeed it may be asserted that 
no state can boast a more splendid administration than that of Gov. 
Jarvis, one during which, considering the impoverished condition of 
the people, more has been done for the advancement of education, 
for the promotion of beneficent public purposes, and the establish- 
ment of industrial progress and prosperity. 

On the retirement of Gov. Jarvis from the executive office, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland United States minister to Brazil, 
which post he resigned soon after the election of President Harrison. 
Abroad he deported himself as a worthy representative of his country, 
and he maintained a high position at the court to which he was ac- 
credited. .Since his returned he has resumed the practice of the law 
at Greenville, N. C, and still enjoys the confidence and warm regard 
of the people of his native state. Gov. jarvis has ever been an in- 
dustrious and laborious worker. He has a mind capable of compre- 
hending the details of the most intricate sul)ject, and he fully mast- 
ers whatever engages his attention. As a speaker he is clear, bold, 
comprehensive; forcible in the use of language, and convincing in 
argument. He has, we believe, spoken in every county in the state, 
and as a popular orator he is unsurpassed among our public men. 
Gov. Jarvis, in 1874, was married to Miss Mary Woodson, the accom- 
plished daughter of John Woodson, of \'irginia, who is greatly ad- 



112 NORTH CAROLINA. 

mired and esteemed by a large circle of friends throughout North 
Carolina. He has not allowed public matters to overshadow concerns 
of higher import, and he is an humble, active and consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. 

ALLISON C. ZOLLICOFFER 

was born in Halifax county, N. C, April 24, 1S54. He received a 
thorough preliminary schooling and then entered Wake Forest col- 
lege, remaining until 1878. At this time he commenced his legal 
studies with W. H. Day, of Weldon, N. C, and one year subsequent 
was admitted to the bar. He then formed a copartnership with his 
former preceptor, Mr. Day, and they continued together until Jan- 
uary, 1891. In January, 1882, Mr. Zollicoffer removed to Henderson, 
and looked after the interests of the business there, while Mr. Day 
remained at Weldon. In 1884 Mr. Zollicoffer was united in marriage 
to Miss Tempie B. Perry, a daughter of Dr. A. S. Perr}', of Franklin 
county, N. C, and to them have been born four children, two of 
whom are living, named Augustus A. and Jeremiah P. The paternal 
grandfather of these children was J. B. Zollicoffer. He was a native 
of Halifax county, N. C, where he was born in i8iy. He was a 
farmer and horticulturist, and held an honorable position in the com- 
munity. He married Miss Mary A. Hawkins, daughter of Ambrose 
Hawkins, who bore him eight children, four of whom survive, viz.: 
Dr. A. R. Zollicoffer, of Weldon, N. C; Dr. D. B. Zollicoffer. of 
Gareysburg, N. C; A. C. Zollicoffer, of Henderson, N. C, and M. E. 
Zollicoffer, of Portsmouth, Va. The father died in 1885, and the 
mother in 1876. J. B. Zollicoffer was the son of J. H. Zollicoffer, who 
was also a native of Halifax county. He was a farmer during the 
whole of his active career, and a man of influence and ability. His 
demise occurred in 1824. Allison C. Zollicoffer, the subject of this 
sketch, has won distinction and honor at the bar. He is a lawj^er of 
no mean ability, and stands in the front ranks of his profession in the 
state. 

ANDREW J. HARRIS, 

one of the ablest among the younger members of the \'ance county 
bar, was born about four miles southeast of Oxford, in Granville 
county, N. C, October 28, 1861. He was given ample opportunity 
for obtaining a thorough preliminary schooling, and in fS84 was 
graduated from the university of North Carolina, with the degree of 
Ph. D. He began his legal studies with Messrs. Dick «& Dillon, 
prominent attorneys of Greensboro, N. C, and in October, 1885, was 
admitted to the bar. At this time he took up his residence in Hen- 
derson and opened a law office, where he has since practiced. Mr. 
Harris was married November 7, 1888, to Miss Lee Mitchell, a daugh- 
ter of the Hon. W. L. Mitchell, of Granville county, N. C. One 
daughter, Anne, is the issue of this marriage. Mr. Harris is the son 



NORTH CAROLINA. II3 

of Benjamin F. Harris, who was born in Granville county, N. C, 
in 1S12. He was an extensive agriculturist and carried on several 
stores and mills in connection with his farming interests. He was 
married in 1S50, to Miss Anne E., daughter of Samuel Rogers, of 
Warren count}', X. C, and five children blessed their union, four of 
whom survive the parents, viz.: George B., Samuel R., Fletcher R. 
and Andrew J. Harris. Benjamin F. Harris died in 1S75. He was 
the son of George W. Harris, who was a Virginian, having been born 
in the last century. He came to North Carolina with his parents in 
early boyhood. They settled in Granville county, where the son sub- 
sequently became a leading farmer and mill owner. 

BEVERLY CAMERON COBB, 

a prominent attorney of Lincolnton, X. C., is the eldest son of Jos- 
eph C. and Margaret E. Cobb. He was born in Lincolnton, August 17, 
1S4S. He attended the schools of his native county until his sixteenth 
year, when he entered the high school at Mebanesville, where he re- 
mained during 1S65 and 1866. In iS6q he entered the law school of 
Judge Pearson, at Richmond Hill, N. C, and was admitted to practice 
in June, 1S70. He entered into partnership, in 1871, with Judge 
Schenck, and began the practice of his profession at Dallas, N. C. 
This firm continued until 1S74, when Judge Schenck was called to the 
bench, and Mr. Cobb succeeded him in the entire business of the 
firm, and removed to Lincolnton, where he has ever since been en- 
gaged in successful practice. He is a staunch democrat, and has 
been an active politician ever since he came to the years of manhood. 
In 1876 he was elected by his party to represent Lincoln county in 
the state legislature. He was re-elected in 1878, and was one of the 
most active and efficient members of the house; he had several of 
the most important chairmanships in the gift of the presiding officer, 
and did e.xcellent work in the committees. At the Chicago national 
convention in 1884, which nominated Grover Cleveland, he was a 
delegate from his congressional district. Mr. Cobb has served one 
term as mayor of Lincolnton. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. In his religious views Mr. Cobb is identified with the Epis- 
copal church, having been a vestryman in that church for the past 
ten years. In January, 1880, Mr. Cobb was united in marriage with 
Miss Jane, daughter of Hon. V. A. McBee, of Lincolnton, but his 
married life was of brief duration, Mrs. Cobb's untimely death oc- 
curring in New York city, in 1881. Mr. Cobb has an e.xtensive prac- 
tice from which he derives an ample income, and he enjoys the 
respect of his professional brethren as well as of the community 
where he is so widely and favorably known. 

HON. CHARLES M. COOKE. 

Of the many honorctl names of North Carolina, none deserves 
more than the Hon. Charles M. Cooke. Born in Franklin county, on 
B— 8 



114 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the loth of March, 1S44, and, since reaching manhood, he has been 
actively and prominentlj^ identified with the best movements of his 
native state. Having received an excellent preliminary schooling at 
the Louisburg academy, the ardent student was pursuing the sopho- 
more studies at Wake -Forest college when his people called upon 
him to take up arms in defense of his native state. In the winter of 
1861 he enlisted in Company I, Fifty-fifth North Carolina regiment, 
as a private, was soon made lieutenant of Company I, and the captain 
of the company being captured at Gettysburg, he was placed in com- 
mand of the company, and "discharged the duties of that rank faith- 
fully and well until June, 1S64, when he was assigned to duty as adju- 
tant of the regiment, and he held that rank at the close of the war, 
having participated in the following battles: Little Washington, N. C, 
second battle of Cold Harbor, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Bristol Sta- 
tion, Hanover C. H., Davis's Farm, \'a., and all the engagements 
around Petersburg. He was grievously woundeci at Petersburg, March 
31, 1865, and was confined in a Richmond hospital at the time of the 
evacuation of that city. He was paroled by the Federal government 
after Lee's surrender, and immediately returned to Franklin county, 
to his father's farm. He resumed his studies of the law, and was 
admitted to practice in the county courts in January, 1867, and in the 
superior and supreme courts in January, 1868. In 1874 he was elected 
to the state senate, and served one term. In 1877 he was appointed 
solicitor of the Si.xth judicial district, known as the Raleigh district, 
by Gov. Z. B. Vance, and he held that office until 1878, when he de- 
clined further service. In 187S Mr. Cooke was sent to the house of 
representatives, and held the chairmanship of the judiciary commit- 
tee. Two years later he was re-elected a member of that body, and 
was chosen speaker of the house. Gov. Jarvis appointed him in 
March, 1879, as a member of the board of internal improvements, and 
he filled that office till August, 1 880, when he resigned upon his re-elec- 
tion to the general assembly. Four years subsequent Gov. Scales 
appointed him a director of the state prison, and four years later Mr. 
Cooke resigned the honor to become a candidate for the house of 
representatives. Having been elected to that position, he declined 
to be a candidate for the speakership, and was appointed chairman 
of the committee on internal improvements, and also of the house 
branch of the committee on railroad commission. In 1872 he was a 
delegate to the democratic national convention. For a number of 
years he has been the president of the board of trustees of Wake- 
Forest college, and he is also a trustee of the University of North 
Carolina. 

In February, 1S68, Mr. Cooke, was so fortunate as to form a mar- 
riage alliance with Miss Bettie Person, daughter of Weldon E. Person, 
of Salabusha county. Miss., and to them nine children, seven of whom 
survive, have been born, viz.: Percy, Charles M., Jr., Francis N., 
Frederick K., Wilbur C, Edwin W. and Lizzie K. Cooke. Mr.- Cooke 
is a member of the Blue Lodge Masons, having held the chair of 
W. M. of Clinton lodge. No. 124. He is active and consistent in 



NORTH CAROLINA. 115 

church work, having for many years been a communicant of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist denomination. Capt. Jones Cooke, father of Hon. 
C. M. Cooke, was born in h-rankHn county, N. C, in 17S6. He held 
many important pubUc positions and was a man of much prominence 
and influence. For several years chairman of the county court and 
charter sessions, he served as a loyal and efficient captain in the patri- 
otic army during the war of 1S12. He was thrice married, his last 
marriage being to Miss lane A. Kingsbury, daughter of Darius Kings- 
bury, of Litchfield, Conn. She was the granddaughter of Esther 
Mather, who was of the Cotton Mather family. Their marriage was 
solemnized in August, 1S41, and resulted in the birth of five children, 
named: Josephine, Charles M., Belle, Dr. \V. J. (deceased in 1888); 
and Eudora F., wife of James X. Tisdale, of Selma, N. C. The father 
of these children died in 1872, and the mother in 1880. Capt. Jones 
Cooke was the son of Thomas Cooke, a X'irginian, having been born 
in Gloucester, in 1700. He died in 1801, aged one hundred and one 
years. In his early manhood he removed to Franklin county, N. C. 
By his second wife. Belle Congers, he had several children. Six of 
her brothers were soldiers in the Revolutionary war, all having served 
with valor. 

THOMAS BRAGG, 

a distinguished North Carolinian, was born in Warren county, N. C, 
November 9, 1810. He was the son of Thomas and Margaret Bragg, 
and brother of the celebrated Gen. Braxton Bragg. He had an aca- 
demic education, first attending the academy at Warrenton under the 
instruction of George W., afterward Bishop Freeman, then at the 
military academy at Middletown, Conn., under the tutorship of Capt. 
Alden Partridge, a noted instructor of the sciences, especially of the 
military. I lere young Bragg sjjent about three years. He studied law 
under John Hall, a judge of the supreme court of North Carolina, 
and was admitted to the bar. He opened a law office at Jackson, 
N. C, and there carried on a most successful practice. In 1842 he was 
elected a member of the lower house of the legislature, and in that 
body was appointed chairman of the judiciary committee, the real 
post of honor in the house. He was one of the leading and most in- 
fluential members. In politics he was a democrat and was nominated 
by that party and elected governor of the state in 1854; he was re- 
elected in 1856 over one of the most popular men in the state, Hon. 
John A. Gilmer. He was chosen a United States senator in 1858, for 
the regular term of six years, but on the opening of the Civil war in 
1 86 1, resigned with other senators of the southern states. When the 
Confederate government removed from Montgomery to Richmond, 
in 1862, the attorney-generalship of the Confederate states was ten- 
dered to Gov. Bragg by President Davis, and was accepted. He 
discharged the cluties of this responsible position with distinguished 
ability until 186;,. He then returned to the practice of his profession. 
During the troublous times which succeeded the Civil war, Gov. Bragg 



Il6 NORTH CAROLINA. 

was among the foremost statesmen of North CaroHna to engage in 
the work of- reducing the conflicting elements to unison and bringing 
order out of confusion. 

In 1871 Gov. Bragg and several other distinguished North Car- 
olinians addressed a letter to Judge Bond, of the United States 
district court, in relation to the prosecution of the secret organization 
known as the Ku Ivlux. The letter was in the nature of a peti- 
tion, asking Judge Bond to continue the trial of the persons charged 
as belonging to this secret organization to the next term of the 
court, declaring that such continuance " would enable us to enlist 
all law-loving citizens of the state to make an energetic and ef- 
fectual effort for the restoration of good order." The letter con- 
cluded: " In presenting these considerations to your honor, we 
declare that it is our duty and purpose to exert all the influence 
we possess, and all the means in our powej to absolutely suppress 
the organization, and to secure a lasting and permanent peace to 
the state. The laws of the country must and shall be vindicated. 
We are satisfied and give the assurance that the people of North 
Carolina will unite in averting and forever obliterating an evil 
which can bring nothing but calamit}' to the state. In the name 
of a just and honorable people, and by all the considerations which 
appeal to good men, we solemnly protest that these violations of 
law and public justice must and shall cease. " 

This very reasonable and patriotic appeal received a prompt reply 
from Judge Bond, in which he declared his inability to comply there- 
with. The subsequent proceedings against the organization are a 
matter of public and voluminous record. Mr. Bragg took an active 
and conspicuous part in the impeachment trial of Gov. W.W. Holden 
before the state senate, " for high crimes and misdemeanors." This 
trial resulted in an order that Gov. Holden " be removed from the 
office of governor, and disqualified to hold any office of trust, honor 
or profit under the state of North Carolina." Governors W. A. 
Graham and Thomas Bragg, and Judge A. S. Merrimon were selected 
by the managers as counsel for the prosecution of the impeachment, 
and an abler or more learned counsel could not have been found in 
the state. But the labor and anxiety of this trial proved too much 
for Gov. Bragg's constitution, and he retired from it with health per- 
manently impaired and with physical powers completely exhausted, 
yet in the full and vigorous possession of his intellectual powers. He 
died January 21, 1S72, at Raleigh, attended by the ministrations of a 
devoted and deeply afflicted family, and mourned b}- a whole com- 
munity of sympathizing neighbors and friends. 

THEODORE- F. KLUTTZ, 

a citizen of Salisbury, N. C, a son of Caleb Kluttz, was born in the 
city of his present residence, October 4, 1848. The father was of 
German lineage, and was for many years sheriff of Rowan county. 
He married Elizabeth Moose, who was of Swiss descent. The sub- 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 17 

ject of this sketch was left by his parents with only moderate means 
of support and even this narrow estate was swept away by the 
ravages of the Civil war, and at an early stage in his life he was 
obliged to provide for himself; but his native energy and self-reliance 
stood him in good stead of a patrimony. At the age of sixteen he 
became a clerk in the drug establishment of Henderson & Enniss, in 
Salisbury. Here he spent several years and when he arrived at his 
majority he purchased the interest of Mr. Enniss in the concern and 
the tirm became Theodore E. Kluttz & Co., under which name it 
still exists. After having accumulated a comfortable fortune, Mr. 
Kluttz, in iSSo, resolved to indulge in his life-long desire to enter the 
legal profession and began study *imder Hon. James M. McCorkle, 
one of the foremost members of the Salisbury bar, with whom after 
he was admitted to the practice he formed a law partnership. On 
the death of his partner, Mr. Kluttz began practice by himself, and 
by his indomitable energy and studious habits has drawn around him 
a large clientage and fairlj? earned the confidence and esteem of his 
professional brethren and of the courts in which he and they practice. 
In the argument of cases at the bar, Mr. Kluttz is a very effective 
advocate, and never fails to give satisfaction to his numerous clients 
who repose the most implicit confidence in his legal skill and judg- 
ment. Though he is almost exclusively confined to his law practice, 
he yet retains a large interest in his drug establishment which he en- 
trusts mostly to the care and direction of his excellent junior partner, 
Mr. C. R. Barker. 

In the midst of his business engagements Mr. Kluttz does not 
neglect to lend a helping hand to the material development of the 
city and county in which he resides. He holds the office of vice- 
president of the Yadkin railroad company; president of the Salis- 
bury chamber of commerce; of the Rowan Knitting company; the 
Chestnut Hill cemetery association, and the Salisbury Building & 
Loan association. He is a director in the North Carolina railroad 
company, the Salisbury cotton mills, the Connelly Springs company, 
the Salisbury water works company, the North Carolina Steel tv Iron 
company, and other industrial companies in all of which he commands 
the confidence and respect of his various business associates. His 
fine judgment and correct habits make him an efficient helper in any 
business enterprise, and no citizen of Salisbury has done more to pro- 
mote its progress and prosperity than he. In 1873 Mr. Kluttz was 
united in marriage with Miss Sallie Caldwell, whose farnily name 
stands pre-eminent in tiie historic annals of North Carolina. '1 his 
happy union has been blessed liy the advent of six bright children to 
cheer and gladden their handsome residence, where good will and 
hospitality reign supreme. Mr. Kluttz has taken little part in poli- 
tics, but in 1880 was one of the presidential electors for the state on 
the- Hancock ticket. He is a member of the Presbyterian church in 
Salisbury, and is one of the deacons of that church. He is yet in the 
prime of his useful life and can reasonably look forward to still 
greater and more satisfactory accomplishments. 



Il8 NORTH CAROLINA. 



HON. DAVID FRANKLIN CALDWELL, 

one of the best known and most distinguished citizens of Rowan 
county, and one of the ablest judges of the superior court of North 
Carolina, was born in Iredell county, then a part of Rowan county, 
in March, 1791. He died at Salisbury, April 4, 1867. More than a 
century ago, there resided in Rowan county, a substantial citizen, of 
Scotch-Irish stock, so many of whom peopled that part of North Car- 
olina, named Andrew Caldwell. In his young manhood he wedded 
Ruth, the second daughter of Hon. William Sharpe. Andrew Cald- 
well was a leading man of his time, and he was called to represent 
his fellow citizens in the state legislature. He was the father of a 
number of children, among whom there were three sons who became 
widel}' known. They were, Hon. D. F. Caldwell, Hon. Joseph P. 
Caldwell, of Iredell, and Dr. Elane Caldwell, of Lincolnton. Hon. 
David F. Caldwell, was educated at the university at Chapel Hill, 
and though completing a thorough literary course in that institution, 
he never graduated, because of financial inability. He studied law 
with the Hon. Archibald Henderson, of Salisbury, and early set out 
in public life, as a member of the house of commons, from Iredell 
county. The date of his first election was 1816, and he served there- 
after for several years with distinguished ability. The first two years 
of his practice in the legal profession were spent in .Statesville, and 
then he located in Salisbury, where he ever after continued to reside. 
In the years 1829-30-31, he represented Rowan county in the state 
senate, and was president of that body in 1829. After his legislative 
career was ended, he resumed the practice of his profession, and for 
several years thereafter, pursued it with great success. In the year 
1844, he was appointed judge of the superior court of North Carolina, 
which position he ably filled for about fourteen years. He presided 
on the bench with rare dignity, grace, discrimination and impartiality. 
When he had reached the age of sixty-eight years, he felt it his duty 
to resign, being unwilling to remain upon the judicial bench, when 
there could be the slightest suspicion that his mental powers could be 
impaired in the smallest degree by his advanced age. In 1859 he be- 
came president of the Branch bank of North Carolina, at Salisbur3^ 
remaining as such, until the collapse of the bank, consequent upon 
the Civil war, and after which he retired from the incumbency of any 
public calling. Aside from the rare excellencies, which characterized 
Judge Caldwell, while presiding upon the bench, he was very popular 
as a private citizen. He was kind, gentle, polite, and was beloved 
and honored by all who were privileged to be associated with him. 
His cultured intellect and refined manners were a passport for him 
in the best society. Judge Caldwell was twice married. In 1819, he 
was married to Miss Fannie M. Alexander, by whom he had four 
sons and two daughters. His second wife was Mrs. Rebecca M. 
Troy, nee Nesbit, by whom he had no children. 



NORTH CAROLINA. I IQ 



HON. CHARLES PRICE, 



of Salisbury, one of the ablest and best known politicians of North 
Carolina, is a native of Warren county, and was born July 26, 1S46. 
He is the son of John M. and Martha (Reynolds) Price, the former 
of whom was born in Wake county, X. C. His ancestors were of 
English origin, and settled at an earh' day in Raleigh, but subse- 
quently removed to Missouri. Mr. Price's mother was born and reared 
in Warren county, and was of Scotch extraction. She was the mother 
of eight sons and two daughters. The father was by occupation a 
merchant and manufacturer, and for 3ears conducted an e.xtensive 
business in the manufacture of all kinds of carriages at Warrenton. 
He was a whig in politics and naturally opposed to the secession 
movement, but when the war came he promptly volunteered in the 
Confederate service, but the infirmities of old age soon interposed to 
reliev-e him from this service. His death followed close upon the end 
of the war. Mr. Price's mother survived his father man}^ years, 
reaching the ripe old age of seventy-four, universally respected and 
beloved by all who knew her. She and her husband were lifelong 
members of the Episcopal church. Hon. Charles Price was brought 
up in the town of Warrento'n until reaching the age of seventeen. He 
attended school there until April, 1S64, when he entered the Confed- 
erate army, serving one year as captain of the First regiment of 
junior reserves. He surrendered with Gen. Johnston's army at 
Greensboro, and returning to the parental home, again set out in his 
educational course. For about a year he was under the instruction 
of Mr. W. H.Thompson, from whom he received thorough training 
in the elementary branches. He then began the study of law at Rich- 
mond Hill, under Chief-Justice Pearson, continuing for about a year. 
He was admitted to the bar in June, 1868, being the last candidate 
examined under the provision of the old constitutional law of the 
state. In 1870 Mr. Price located in Davie county and began the prac- 
tice of his profession. He very soon drew around him a circle of 
friends who were ready to promote his advancement both profession- 
ally and politically, and in 1872 he was nominated for the state senate 
from Uavie and Rowan counties. He was elected and served in 1872 
and 1873-4. In 1875 he was chosen a member from Davie county to 
the constitutional convention, in which he took an active part. In 
1876 he was nominated by the democratic party for the lower house 
of the legislature, and was elected without opposition. He was elected 
speaker of that body for the session of 1S76-7, being at that time the 
youngest member who had ever been honored with that distinction. 
At the close of the session during which he had presided over the 
house in 1877. Mr. Price retired from legislative life, and located in 
Salisbury in the active practice of the law. He has risen to the fore- 
most rank of his profession, and has probably the largest practice of 
any lawyer in the state. He has been an attorney for the Richmond 
& Danville R. R. Co. since 1883, being assistant counsel with Hon. 



I20 NORTH CAROLINA. 

David Schenck, of Greensboro, who acts as the railroad attorney for 
the state. His work as counsel has mainly consisted in the trial of 
cases for damages for injuries to person and property, and in this 
direction he has made a most admirable record. He is also counsel 
for the Charleston, Cincinnati & Chicago R. R. Co. In June, 1889, 
he was appointed by President Harrison to the office of United States 
district attorney, for the western district of North Carolina, a position 
which he still holds. In his young days, Mr. Price imbibed the prin- 
ciples of the Jeffersonian democracy, and holding a sincere belief in 
those principles up to the year 1882, he was identified with the demo- 
cratic party. Having been convinced of the hurtful tendencies of 
those principles when carried to their ultimate extent, and believing 
that the principles of the republican party were safer and more con- 
servative of the integrity of our government, he abandoned the dem- 
ocratic party and has since joined his political fortunes with the re- 
publican party. In that year he made a canvass in the interest of the 
republican party, and in 18S4, being acquainted with Hon. James G. 
Blaine and regarding him as one of the foremost statesmen of the age, 
supported him for president, canvassing portions of the state in be- 
half of the republican ticket. He also supported Mr. Harrison for 
president in 1888. During his legislative career, Mr. Price took an 
active part for the furtherance of internal improvements, in the in- 
terests of which he has taken an advanced position in contrast with 
some of the public men and leaders in his section. He is of the pro- 
gressive type, his fine classical and legal education bringing him to 
take broader views in a material as well as a social sense. Mr. Price 
has been twice married. In 1871 he was wedded to Miss Annie Hob- 
son, a niece of Gov. John M. Morehead. She died in 1876, leaving 
him a son, Augustus Hobson Price. In 1878 he married for his second 
wife, Miss Mary Roberts, of Mobile, Ala. Mrs. Price is gifted with 
a rare intellect.and fine executive ability and has been selected as one 
of the two lady managers of the World's Fair from North Carolina, 
at the Columbian exposition to be held in Chicago, in 1893. She is 
also vice-president of the ladies' board of managers from the six 
states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, North and 
South Carolina. 

HON. BURTON CRAIGE. 

Among the distinguished men whose names have given lustre to 
the pages of biographical history, none deserves a more prominent 
place that Hon. Burton Craige, an eminent and widely known states- 
man of North Carolina. He was born in Rowan county, March 13, 
181 1, at the family residence on the south fork of the Yadkin, a few 
miles above the point of junction of the two rivers. He was the 
youngest son of David Craige, Jr., and Mary Foster, his three elder 
brothers being named respectively Robert Newton, Samuel and John 
Craige. The ancestors of the Craige family in North Carolina came 
directly from Scotland without sojourning for a time, as many did, in 



NORTH CAROLINA. 121 

the northern states. They were adherents of Prince Charles in his 
efforts to regain the throne of his father, and after the fatal battle of 
Culloden, April i6, 1746, they deemed it expedient to seek safety in 
America. The name of Craige in the Scottish dialect signifies a 
sharp, high rock, and was probably given to the family or was as- 
sumed by them because their hall or castle was situated upon some 
high rock, thus securing safety to life and propert)- in the days of vio- 
lence and lawlessness. The earl}' days of Burton Craige were spent 
upon the farm, and his primary education was received in the schools 
in the neighborhood of his home. After attending a classical school 
in Salisbury under the preceptorship of Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, 
he entered the L nivcrsitj- of North Carolina where he was graduated 
in 1S29. Returning to his native count}' for about three years he 
edited the IVcsfcni Carolinian, and studied law with David F. Cald- 
well as his preceptor. He was admitted to the bar in 1832, and in the 
same year was elected to the legislature from what was known as the 
Salisbury borough. His public career from this took its rise. After 
the borough system was abolished, in 1S34, Mr. Craige was elected to 
the assembly from the county of Rowan. 

In 1836, Mr. Craige was united in marriage with Elizabeth P., 
a daughter of Col. James Erwin, of Burke county, and a great- 
granddaughter of Gen. Mathew Locke, of Rowan. In the same 
year, being in feeble health, Mr. Craige visited Europe. Regain- 
ing his health he returned home and resumed an active practice 
of his chosen profession. He rose rapidly in his practice and for 
many years maintained an extensive law business. He was en- 
dowed with a taste for legal studies and never ceased to be a 
student. Possessed of the qualities of clearness, accuracy and rare 
powers of analysis, his expressed opinions were to be regarded as 
authority on legal points. As a public speaker he was Instructive, 
entertaining and eloquent. His stj'le was clear, forcible, logical 
and gracefully ornamented with the brightest rhetorical flowers. 
In his manners he was simple, familiar and engaging. He pos- 
sessed a remarkable memorj' both of names and faces, and never 
failed to recognize an acquaintance however humble in circumstances 
or personality. These were characteristics and qualities which well 
fitted him for a politician. He had become widely known and was 
surrounded by hosts of friends and admirers, and in 1853 was elected 
to congress from the Mecklenburg district, and from thence he served 
in four successive sessions of that body, his last term finding him in 
congress at the breaking out of the Civil war. In this struggle he 
was in sympathy with the south, and he resigned his seat in the 
national house of representatives and cast his lot with those people 
who had delighted to honor him with their suffrages. When the con- 
vention of .Xorth Carolina was called in i86i,to determine what 
course the state should pursue, Mr. Craige was sent to voice the sen- 
timents of Rowan county, and on the 20th day of May he offered the 
ordinance of secession, which was adopted and placed North Caro- 
lina along with other states of the south which had resolved to with 



122 NORTH CAROLINA. 

draw from their allegiance to the Federal government. This con- 
vention also chose as representatives in the Confederate congress 
from North Carolina, Burton Craige, W. N. H. Smith, Thomas 
Ruffin, T. D. McDowell, A. W. Venable, J. M. Morehead, R. C. Pur- 
year and A. T. Davidson, a cluster of distinguished men. His serv- 
ices in the Confederate congress put a period to the official career of 
Mr. Craige, and he retired to private life. When the flag upon which 
were emblazoned the "stars and bars" was furled he felt that his 
political life was closed, and he declined to take any further part in 
national affairs, and he refused to apply for the removal of his polit- 
ical disabilities. He now began to devote himself exclusively to the 
practice of his profession which he continued until his death. In the 
study of history and in recounting the deeds of former days, he 
sought repose in the bosom of his family' from the turmoil and strife 
of public affairs. On the 30th of December. 1S75, while attending 
the Carbarrus court, he died at the house of his son-in-law, Mr. A. B. 
Young. Thus left its earthly tenement, a noble spirit, the spirit of a 
true patriot, a distinguished lawyer, an eminent statesman and a be- 
loved and honored citizen. 

JOSEPH CARTER ABBOTT, 

journalist and senator, was born in Concord, X. H., July 15, 1825. 
His education was acquired under private instruction, preceded by a 
course at Phillips Andover academy. He studied law in his native 
town, and was admitted to the bar in 1852. He was for five years 
editor of the Manchester Daily American, and afterward of the Boston 
Atlas and Bcc. During this time, from 1S55 to 1861, he held the 
commission of adjutant-general of New Hampshire, and thoroughly 
re-organized the state militia. He was a frequent contributor of 
magazine literature, particularly upon historical topics. In the settle- 
ment of the boundary question between New Hampshire and Canada 
he acted as one of the commissioners on the part of his native state. 
He rendered effective service on the breaking out of the Civil war, in 
raising and organizing Union troops, and was finally chosen lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the Seventh regiment of New Hampshire volunteer 
infantry. He was a gallant officer, and distinguished himself for his 
bravery, especially at the storming of Fort Fisher, in North Carolina, 
July 23, 1863. He was promoted to the colonelcy by his regiment, 
and held the command of that regiment till the summer of 1864, when 
he was raised to the rank of brevet-brigadier-general, and was put in 
command of a brigade. After the war he took up his residence at 
Wilmington, N. C, and, in 1S67, was elected a member of the state 
constitutional convention. The following year he was elected a 
member of the legislature, and by that body was chosen a United 
States senator for a partial term, ending in 1S71. He was extensively 
engaged in agriculture as well as manufactures, carrying on a pros- 
perous and profitable business. He was appointed collector of the 
port at Wilmington, under President U. S. Grant, and afterward in- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 23 

spector of ports, by President R. B. Hayes. He died at his home in 
Wihiiington, October S, iSSj. 

WALTER H. NEAL. 

One of Richmond county's most eminent young lawyers is Wal- 
ter H. Neal, who was born in Franklin county, N. C, February ig, 
1859. He received his education under the tutelage of his father. 
For two years he was engaged as a book-keeper for Mr. W. S. Clark, 
in Tarboro, and during that time spent his nights in reading law. 
In iS;8 he became connected with the Rockingham public high school 
as a teacher, and after hlling that position satisfactorily for one year 
he entered the law office of J. T. LeGrand, and was admitted to the 
bar in the June term of 1880. Taking up his residence at Laurenburg, 
he has since continued to practice there with success. December 18, 
1884, he was married to Miss Emma Gill, daughter of W. A. and 
L. M. Gill, of Laurenburg, and their home has been blessed by the 
birth of two children, named Walter H. and Fanny Louise. Mr. and 
Mrs. Xeal are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, south, 
and he is a trustee of the church at Laurenburg, and is also a mem- 
ber of the K. of P., being past grand chancellor of the lodge. The 
parents of Mr. Neal are Prof. George W. and Fanny P. (Hart) Neal, 
natives of North Carolina. Prof. Neal is professor of Greek in the 
Newbern high school, and is recognized as one of the leading edu- 
cators of the state. Both himself and wife are earnest communi- 
cants of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. Their six children 
are Fanny N., wife of John H. Bell, who is a clerk in the pension de- 
partment at Washington, D. C. (and their five children are: David, 
Neal, Lissette, Laura and Imogen) ; Walter H., Thomas, deceased, Liz- 
zie, Benjamin, a member of the firm of L. H. Cutler & Co., of New 
bern, and John. 

HON. THOMAS C. GUTHRIE. 

The present encumbent of the office of mayor of Rockingam, Rich- 
mond county, N. C, is the Hon. Thomas C.Guthrie, who was born in 
Franklin county, N. C, February g, 1865. He is the son of the Rev. 
T. W. Guthrie, one of the leading clergymen of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, south. Mr. Guthrie, senior, was educated in the com- 
mon schools of his native town, and when but eight years of age 
united with the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1851 he joined the 
North Carolina conference, and has filled various appointments, hav- 
ing been stationed at Wilmington, Salisbury, Faj'etteville, Rocking- 
ham, and other places in the state. In 1SS3 he was made i:)residing 
elder of the Charlotte district, and in 1887 was appointed presiding 
elder of the Wilmington district, and at present holds the same office 
in the Shelby district. His ministerial labors extend over a period 
of forty years, during which time he has accomplished much for good, 
and has won for himself a widespread reputation as an orator. In 



124 NORTH CAROLINA 

early manhood Miss Emily P. Robbins became his wife, and has 
borne him four children, viz.: Mattie B.,wifeof E. J.Gibsen; Henry, 
Hattie and Thomas C. The latter was educated in private schools 
at Rockingham, and was graduated from the law department of the 
X'anderbilt university in 1887, with the degree of B. L. His office 
experience was obtained with the Hon. Franklin McNeill. Mr. 
Guthrie was granted a license for the practice of law at the Septem- 
ber term of the supreme court in 1887, and began the active practice 
of his profession at Rockingham. In February, 18S8, he formed a 
partnership with Messrs. Burwell and Walker, and this firm still ex- 
ists. In May, i8Sg, Mr. Guthrie was elected mayor of Rockingham, 
and was re-elected to that office in the following May. In iSgo he 
purchased the printing office of the Rocket, and assumed the editorial 
charge of that journal, which he continued until his rapidly increasing 
practice compelled him to dispose of it some time subsequent. De- 
cember 18, 1890, Mr. Guthrie was very happily married to Miss Rusie 
Wilson, daughter of the late Dr. N. H. D. Wilson, an eminent clerg}'- 
man of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. This gentleman 
excels as a lawyer, and is rapidly rising to the front ranks of his 
profession in the state, and no further evidence of his popularity in 
the community is needed than his continued election to the office of 
mayor of the city. 

HON. FRANKLIN McNEILL. 

One of Richmond county's most prominent citizens is the Hon. 
Franklin McNeill, solicitor of the Seventh judicial district, and a 
leading attorney. He was born in Richmond county, N. C, Janu- 
ary 4, 1850, the son of John and Elizabeth (Buchanan) McNeill, both 
parents being natives of North Carolina. John McNeill was a 
planter, and a man of prominence in the community. For several 
years he had charge of the county schools, and before the late war 
was a major of militia. Himself and wife were active and devout com- 
municants of the Presbyterian church, in which he was an elder. His 
demise occurred in August. 1S79, at the age of seventy-eight years; 
his wife surviving him until April, 1885, when she too went to rest> 
aged seventy-four; By a former marriage Mr. McNeill had three 
children, all of whom are living. The mother of these children was 
Catherine (McCoy) McNeill. She died in 1835. The Hon. Franklin 
McNeill was the youngest of four children born to the second union. 
His preliminary schooling was obtained in the schools of the county 
in which he was born, and later he attended the Davidson college, 
where he remained two years, after which he was a student in the 
law department of the University of Virginia one year. His law 
course was completed in the excellent law school of Chief-Justice 
Pearson, at Richmond Hill. His admission to the bar in January, 
1873, was immediately followed by his removal to Maxton, Robeson 
county, N. C, where he remained in practice alone until January-, 
1877, when ?\Ir. Thomas McNeill, a cousin, became his law partner 



NORTH CAROLINA. 125 

the firm existing until 18S2, in wiiich year Mr. Franklin McNeill took 
up his residence at Rockingham. In 1886 he began a four years' 
term as state solicitor, and in 1S90 was re-elected to that ottice. Mr. 
McNeill was married to Miss Jennie E. Elliot, daughter of Col. 
Alexander Elliot, of Cumberland county, N. C, in August, 1882. 
Both himself and wife are consistent members of the Presbyterian 
church, in which he is an elder, and he is also a prominent member 
of the Knights of I'ythias. His career has been marked by much 
ability, and a strict adherence to the principles of right and justice. 
None has a fairer reputation as a man of integrity than he, and his 
continued retention of the prominent office he now holds is ample 
proof of his popularity with the people. 



HON. JAMES T. LeGRAND, 

of Richmond county, N. C, is descended on both the paternal and 
maternal sides from old and influential southern families. He is a 
native of Richmond county, having first seen the light there April 4, 
1S4Q. In 1870 he was graduated from Trinity college, as valedictorian 

■ of his class. He began the study of law under the tutelage of the 
late Chief-Justice Pearson, at Richmond Hill, N.C.,and was admitted 
to the bar in 1877. Immediately thereafter he began the practice of 
his chosen profession at Rockingham. A staunch democrat, he was 
elected, the first of his party since the war from his district, and served 
in the state senate in 1S74-5, and again in 1888-89. He has been a 
memberof every state democratic convention since 1870, and was a dele- 
gate to the democratic national convention at Chicago which nomin- 
ated Grover Cleveland for the presidency, and his support was given 
that candidate. Mr. LeGrand is a prominent Knight of Honor, hav- 
ing been grand dictator for the state of North Carolina, and for the 
past two years a delegate to the supreme lodge of the order. The 
happiest event of his life was his marriage to Miss Rebecca Wilson, 
daughter of the late Dr. N. H. D. Wilson, a leading clergyman of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, south, in October, 1877. Five chil- 
dren have blessed this marriage, named: Pattie, Mary, Rebecca, 
James T., Jr., and Nathan Wilson LeGrand. Mr. LeGrand has won 
a reputation as a lawyer in his state that is not excelled by any. He 
is also largely interested in agriculture, and is the second largest 
planter in the county. James and Martha (Leak) LeGrand were his 
parents, and both were natives of North Carolina. James was an 
extensive planter and a leading merchant. For several years he 
served as a member of the state legislature, being an old line whig 
in politics. His death occurred in 1853. when he was in his fifty-third 
year, and the mother survived until 1883, when she too went to rest, 
having reached the advanced age of seventy-nine years. There 
were six children born to this union, James T. being the youngest. 
Both parents were active and devout members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 



126 NORTH CAROLINA. 



HON. WILLIAM E. CLARKE, 



attorney-at-law and postmaster of Newbern, was born in Raleigh, 
N. C, on the 7th of March, 1850, the son of William J. and Mary 
Byard (Devereaux) Clarke. The father was a native of Raleigh, 
and was graduated from Chapel Hill university with high honors. 
He studied for the law, and rose to eminence in the profession. He 
served as auditor of his native state; was a captain in the Twelfth 
regiment, United States army, Company K, during the Mexican war, 
and was promoted to the rank of major by brevet, for his bravery and 
for saving the artillery at the national bridge. During the Civil war 
he was colonel of the Twenty-fourth North Carolina regiment during 
the entire war, acting as brigadier general at the last. He was 
wounded in the thigh in the Mexican war, and at Drury's Bluff, dur- 
ing the Civil war, received a painful wound in the left shoulder. In 
1855 Col. Clarke went to Texas, where he practiced his profession. 
He was elected to the presidency of the San Antonio & Mexican Gulf 
railroad, being the first to hold that ofiice, and negotiated for the 
purchase of the first iron for that road. On the breaking out of the 
Civil war he returned home, and entered the Confederate service, as 
above mentioned. After the close of hostilities he took up his resi- 
dence in Raleigh, and remained there until his removal to Newbern. 
some two or three years later. He was principal of the Newbern 
academy for some time, and later was appointed judge of the crimi- 
nal court, by Gov. Holden, to fill the unexpired term of C. R. Thomas, 
who had been e;ected to congress. Col. Clarke held the judgeship 
for three years. He was a staunch republican, and a devout com- 
municant of the Episcopal church. Mary Devereaux Clarke was the 
daughter of the Hon. Theodore P. Devereaux, of Halifax county, 
N. C. He was the author of " Devereaux's Reports of North Caro- 
lin.:-.," and a lawyer of much ability and prominence, as well as being 
a large and wealthy planter. 

The maternal grandfather was Thomas Pollock, one of the 
earliest settlers of Newbern. Mrs. Clarke was a woman of great 
literary ability and attainments. Under the nom dc plume of " Ten- 
ella " she contributed to many of the leading papers and periodicals 
of the da}'. Her first production was " Wood Notes." During the 
late war she wrote " Mosses from a Rolling Stone," and subsequently 
"Clytie and Zenobia, or the Lily and the Palm." These widel}' 
known works were published by E. P. Dutton & Co., of New York. 
She also wrote sketches of celebrated men in North Carolina. 
She was an earnest Christian woman, and a loyal member of the 
Episcopal church. Her death was mourned wherever her name was 
known. Of the four children born to these parents, all are living, 
their names being: Francis, president of the deaf and dumb asylum 
at Little Rock, Ark., and for many years in the New York city deaf 
and dumb asylum; William E.; Mary Devereaux Clarke, wife of 
George Moulton, of Newbern, and Thomas Pollock Clarke, a prom- 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 27 

inent banker of Little Rock, Ark. William E. Clarke was reared in 
Raleigh, and after sufhcient preliminary preparation entered David- 
son college, but was prevented from graduating by the breaking out 
of the war. At the age of fifteen he entered the quartermaster's de- 
partment at Raleigh, and gave his services to the cause he loved un- 
til the end. After peace was declared Mr. Clarke taught in the 
Newbern academy for two years, after which he went to New York 
city, and was there engaged in teaching in the deaf and dumb asy- 
lum, remaining there for three years. He was graduated from Col- 
umbia college's law department in 1S73, ^^^^ immediately engaged in 
the practice of law at Newbern. As a politician he is a leader in 
the republican party, having been a member of the legislature for 
two terms, and of the state senate four years. In 1889 President 
Harrison appointed him postmaster of Newbern. He is a member 
of St. John's lodge, A. F. & A. IM., and the Newbern B. & L. associ- 
ation, and of the Interstate B. & L. association, of Wilmington, 
in which he is a local director. F"ebruary 23, 1886, Miss Elizabeth 
Howerton, daughter of Dr. William H. Howerton, ex-secretary of 
state, and for many 3'ears proprietor of the Warm Springs hotel, be- 
came his wife, and they have three children, viz.: Elizabeth, ^Mary 
Byard and William Edwards. Both Mr. and Mrs. Clarke are com- 
municants of the Episcopal church. 

FREDERICK C. ROBERTS, 

secretary and treasurer of the Atlantic tl^ North Carolina railroad 
company, is a native of Newbern, having first seen the light there on 
the 15th of January, 1S36. He is the son of John M., and Mary E., 
(Jones) Roberts; the mother a native of Craven county, antl the 
father of Edenton, Chowan county, N. C. The latter removed to 
Norfolk, and in 1816 came to Newbern. He earlj' became identified 
with the old State bank, of which he was cashier for many years; 
subsequently becoming the cashier of the bank of North Carolina. 
He was a prominent whig and a devout member of the Episcopal 
church, being for many years a vestryman. His demise occurred in 
1862, his wife surviving him until 1874. Their children are: Rev. 
John J. Roberts, of New York city; Rev. Stephen C. Roberts, of 
Chestertown, Md.; Mrs. L. L. Chester, of Englcwood, N. J.; P'rede- 
rick C; George H., cashier of the National bank of Newbern, and 
Edward B., agent for the Old Dominion steamship company. Mr. 
Frederick Roberts was educated in the Newbern schools and later grad- 
uated from the University of North Carolina. In 1855 he was given 
a dii)!oma at Princeton college, and then became a student in Judge 
Pearson's law school in Yadkin county, N. C. In 1857 he completed 
his legal studies and was duly licensed to practice in the county 
courts, and in 1858 was admitted to practice in the superior courts of 
the state. He was actively and successfull)' engaged in his profession 
at Newbern until 1879. In 1861 he joined the Confederate army as a 
member of Company A, Fifth North Carolina cavalry, enlisting as a 



128 NORTH CAROLINA. 

lieutenant. He was subsequently promoted to the captaincy of his 
conipany and participated in the battles around Newbern, Goldsboro, 
and in various skirmishes in North Carolina and along the Virginia 
line. Receiving his honorable discharge from the service in 1S63, on 
account of physical disability, he returned to his home. In 1879, 
Mr. Roberts was elected to the position he now holds, and has since 
been identified with the Atlantic & North Carolina railroad com- 
pany. After the war being one of the stockholders in the Newbern 
Bank of Commerce he was made a director in that institution, and 
also attorney for the same. A prominent democrat, he was clerk and 
master in equity of the Craven courts from 1858 to 1S6S; has served 
as town commissioner for several years, and at present is a trustee of 
the Newbern academy, having held that office for twenty-five years. 
Mr. Roberts is a member of St. John's lodge. No. 13, A. F. & A. M., 
and also of the Eureka chapter of Royal Arch Masons. Asa lawyer 
he excelled, and as a business man he is prudent, keen, and of un- 
doubted integrity and ability. 

HON. AUGUSTUS S. SEYMOUR, 

judge of the United States district court for the eastern district of 
North Carolina, is a native of New York state, having been born in 
the city of Ithaca, on the 30th of November, 1836, son of Hezekiah C. 
Seymour, state engineer of New York in 1850, and a prominent 
contractor and builder of many railroads, also chief engineer of the 
N. Y., L. E. & W. railroad. His mother was Mary (Sherrill) Sey- 
mour. Judge Seymour was graduated from Hamilton college in 1857, 
and one year later was admitted to the bar. He began the practice 
of his chosen profession in New York city, but in 1864 removed to 
North Carolina and located at New Berne, and was admitted to the 
bar of North Carolina in 1866, at the first term of the superior court 
after the war. In May, 1868, he was elected a member of the house 
of representatives, and in the fall of the same year was appointed 
judge of the criminal court of Newbern. This office he resigned, 
and was re-elected to the legislature in the fall of 186S. In 1870 he 
was elected to the constitutional convention, and two years later, 
served as state senator, and in 1874 was elected judge of the superior 
court. His appointment to the office of judge of the district court of 
the United States, by President Arthur, in 1881, met with universal 
favor. Previous to this, however, Judge Seymour had served as 
chairman of the judiciary committee, in 1867, and in the same year 
was elected attorney of the cit}? of Newbern. He has ever been a 
staunch republican, and has rendered his party efficient service. He 
is a member of the Masons and several college societies. In 1863 he 
married Miss Nancy O. Barton, daughter of the Rev. John Barton, 
a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, of New York. They have two 
children living, viz.: Mrs. Cornelia Welsh, of Manchester, Eng., 
and John Barton Seymour. Judge Seymour is the author of "Sey- 
mour's Sixth and Seventh Digests of North Carolina Reports." 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 29 



HON. GEORGE GREEN 

was born in Craven county, N. C, July 17, 1823. His parents were 
John and Charlotte (Harrison) Green, the former being a native of 
this state, and the latter of England. The father was an extensive 
planter and owned many slaves. He was a prominent member of the 
whig party. Our subject was reared on the homestead farm and was 
educated in the public schools of his native county, and later in the 
excellent private school taught by Robert G. Moore. In 1846 he was 
licensed to practice law, and has since been engaged in active prac- 
tice. He is the oldest living member of the Nevvbern bar and holds 
a very high position among the attorneys of the county. Soon after 
his admission to the bar he was elected attorney for Jones county, and 
later held the same office in Craven county. In 1854 he was sent to 
the state legislature, being a member of the secession committee of 
that session, and in 1861, was one of the signers of the declaration of 
secession. In 1867 he was appointed by the state legislature, criminal 
judge of Craven county, and discharged the duties of that office for 
two years, until the reconstruction act. He was then elected to the 
state senate, and was subsequent!}' elected attorney for Craven county. 
In 1889 he was appointed clerk of the United .States district court for 
the eastern district of North Carolina. For ten years he was attorney 
for the Atlantic & North Carolina railroad company, of which he was 
a director and organizer. He was a director and attorney of the state 
bank of Newbern for some time, and is a prominent member of the 
Masonic order, having taken the thirty-second degree. In 1855 he 
married Miss Lizzie Watkins, daughter of Beckton VVatkins, of 
Craven county, and two children have been born to them: George, 
ex-state senator and member of the legislature; and Mary, wife of 
Hamilton C. Chambers. Judge Green and his wife are communicants 
of the Episcopal church. James Green, his great-uncle, was secretary 
of the first convention for forming the constitution of North Caro- 
lina. 

POU & POU. 

The prominent law firm of Pou & Pou, of Johnson county, N. C, 
is composed of men who are leaders in their profession and influential 
and active in political affairs. It is composed of J. H. Pou and lid- 
ward W. Pou, Jr. The Hon. Edward W. Pou was born in Orange- 
burg, S. C, October 26, 1830, the son of Joseph and Eliza M. 
(Felder) Pou, both natives of Orangeburg. Joseph Pou was an 
able and eminent attorney. He removed to Tali)otton, Ga., where 
he spent the remainder of his life, dying there in 1888, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety years. Mr. Edward W. Pou was graduated 
from the University of Georgia, in 1851, and began the practice of 
law at Talbotton, where he continued for seven years, after which 
he retired and turned his attention to agriculture. In 1874 he re- 

13—9 



130 NORTH CAROLINA. 

sumed his profession, having removed to Smithfield, N. C, in 1867. 
In 1S6S he was a member of the house of representatives, and was 
chairman of the committee on privilege and election. During the 
Civil war he served in the Confederate army tlxree months, being 
compelled to resign at the expiration of that period on account of 
ill-health. He held the commission of first lieutenant in Cable's 
Georgia legion. Mr. Pou has been twice married, first to Miss Lucy 
Carter, of Talbottcn, Ga., in 1853, She died in 185S, leaving one 
child, Arthur Pou, a civil engineer of Talbotton. In 1859, Mr. Pou 
was again married. Miss Annie Maria Smith, of Alabama, becoming 
his wife. Their three children are: James H., Edward W., Jr., and 
Martha T. Pou. The eldest son, James H., was born in Alabama, 
July 21, 1861. His scholastic training was obtained at Smithfield, 
N. C. Having read law under the direction of his father, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1885. In 18S4 he was elected to the house of repre- 
sentatives of the state, and in 1886-8 was elected to the state senate, 
being the youngest member of the senate by several years. In iSgo 
Mr. Pou declined further nomination to the senate. For the past 
twelve years he has been extensively interested in agriculture, which 
he has carried on in addition to his large law practice. In i8Sg his mar- 
riage to Miss Annie Walker, daughter of Samuel Walker, of Ran- 
dolph county, N. C, was happily solemnized, and one child, Edith 
Walker, has been born to their union. Both Mr. and Mrs. Pou are 
active members of the Presbyterian church, and he is also a prom- 
inent member of the I. O. O. P., and like his father, is a staunch 
democrat. 

Edward W. Pou, Jr., first saw the light in Macon county, Ala., 
where he was born September 9, 1863. He entered the University of 
North Carolina, and remained in that institution through his junior 
year. For the succeeding eight months Mr. Pou was engaged in 
teaching school in Johnston county, and then began the study of the 
law under the direction of his father, and was admitted to practice in 
October, 1885. Since his admission to the bar Mr. Pou has been as- 
sociated with his brother in the practice of the law under the firm 
name of Pou & Pou. His political career is peculiar on account of 
his youth at the time of his first election to office. In 1886 he was 
chairman of the democratic executive committee of Johnston county, 
an office he held for two terms. He was a presidential elector in 
1888, and in 1890 he was elected solicitor of the Fourth district, and 
he is the incumbent of that position at the present time. Mr. Pou is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity, and also of the I. O. O. F., and 
the Alpha Tau Omega college society. Miss Carrie Horton Ihrie, 
daughter of Col. R. R. Ihrie, of Pittsborough, N. C, became his wife 
in 1887, and Edward Felder Pou is their offspring. Mrs. Pou is a 
granddaughter of the Hon. John H. Hughton, who for several terms 
was a member of congress from Newbern district. Mr. Edward 
W. Pou, Jr.. ranks among the best lawjers of the state, and is es- 
teemed as a man of intelligence and prominence, and of the strictest 
integrity. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



HON. HARRY W. STUBBS, 



one of North Carolina's leading lawj'ers, was born in Williamston, 
N. C, Februarj' i6, iS6o. He is a son of Jesse R. and Mary Ella 
(Williams) Stubbs. the former a native of Beaufort county, X. C, 
and the mother of Martin count}', X. C. Jesse R. Stubbs gained a 
thorough scholastic training by his own efforts at the Washington 
academ}' and prepared for the practice of law. He was a member of 
the house of commons of the state from Beaufort count}^ and later 
represented Martin and Washington counties in the state senate. 
Immediately after the war he was elected to the United States con- 
gress from the First Xorth Carolina district, but was not seated. He 
was a man of great ability, and a brilliant orator. He first affili- 
ated with the whig party, but later became a staunch democrat. His 
death occurred in September, 1870. Mr. Stubbs was one of the orig- 
inal stockholders in the Williamston & Tarboro railroad company, 
and was the first president of the company. His wife died in 1864. 
She was a daughter of Harrj- Williams, Esq., one of the earliest cit- 
izens of Williamston. Two children were born to Jesse and Mary 
Stubbs, Harr}' W. and Jessie, wife of D. D. Simmons, of Williamston. 
The subject of this biographical mention was given exceptional edu- 
cational advantages, having been a student of the Hornor school at 
0.\ford, and later spending three years in the Hillboro academj', he 
was graduated from the University of Xorth Carolina, and took up 
the study of law under the direction of Mr. James E. Moore, and 
completed his course with Dick & Dillard of Greensboro, X. C. He 
was admitted to the bar in January, 1881, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession in Williamston, in October, 1S85, at that time 
having become associated with Mr. James E. Moore. In 1889 he was 
elected to the state senate from the Second senatorial district on the 
democratic ticket, and for two years he held the office of solicitor of 
the inferior court of Martin county, and at one time was mayor of 
Williamston. His first marriage was in 1S82, when Miss Delia B. 
Lanier became his wife. One year later her death occurred. In 188S 
he married Miss Carrie L. Siterson, and one child, Jesse R., has been 
born to them. Mr. Stubbs is a prominent Royal Arch Mason, and 
also a member of the I. O. O. F. As a lawyer he excels, being keen 
and well read. 

HON. JAMES E. MOORE. 

The bar of eastern Xorth Carolina has no more able member than 
Hon. James E. Moore. Mr. Moore is a native of Martin county, and 
first saw the light there Januarj' 30, 1841. He was one of five chil- 
dren born to Clayton and Elizabeth S. (Smithwick) Moore, both na- 
tives of Martin county, N. C. The father obtained an academic 
education and was then ordained a minister in the Primitive Baptist 
church. During the war he served in the Confederate army as a 



132 NORTH CAROLINA. 

member of the home guards. His life was spent in his honored call- 
ing and in agriculture, his demise occurring in iSSi.and that of his 
wife three years later. The son, James E., was prepared for college 
in the Williamston academy, and in 1862 was graduated from the 
University of North Carolina, and at the same time was admitted to 
the bar. He put aside all other interests and offered his services to 
the cause of the south, as a member of Company K, Third North 
Carolina cavalry. Enlisting as a private he was subsequently pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant of his company for honorable con- 
duct, and at the close of the war held the commission of provost- 
marshal of the brigade. Mr. Moore was taken prisoner while on 
picket duty and confined in a Federal prison for ten daj's at Ply- 
mouth. In May, 1S64, his regiment was attached to the army of 
northern Virginia, and he participateci with his command in all the 
important engagements in which that army fought. At the close of 
the war he began the practice of his profession at Williamston, and 
in 1865 and 1866 was a member of the house of commons of North 
Carolina from Martin county. He was the representative of Martin 
and Beaufort counties in the state senate in 1S66-7, and served on 
the judiciarj? committee in each branch of the legislature. After 
leaving the senate Mr. Moore formed a partnership with Judge Biggs 
of Tarboro, and continued with him for one year, after which he re- 
turned to Williamston, and has since resided and practiced in that 
city. Mr. Harr^' Stubbs became associated with him in 18S5, and this 
connection has since existed. Mr. Moore is one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the democratic party in eastern North Carolina, and 
is recognized throughout the state as one of its ablest lawyers. He 
has served as mayor of Williamston, and was a director in the Will- 
iamston & Tarboro railroad company, and his firm is now attorney 
for the Atlantic Coast line. As an agriculturist Mr. Moore has also 
made a success, and now operates an extensive plantation. One of 
the happiest events of his life was his marriage, in 1870, to Miss 
Jane S. Sykes, of Martin county, N. C. This cultured home has been 
blessed by the birth of six children, their names being, Bettie, Jen- 
nie, Mattie, James E., Jr., Clayton and Maurice Sheppard. Mr. 
Moore is a member of the board of trustees of the Primitive Baptist 
church, and also of the Williamston academj'. 

HON. HARRY SKINNER. 

One of the most prominent lawyers and political leaders of the 
state of North Carolina is the Hon. Harry Skinner, the descendant 
of a family noted for its many able men, many of whom have held 
high positions in government. Mr. Skinner is a native of Perquimans 
county, N. C, where he was born on the 25th of May, 1855, the son 
of James C. and Elmira (Ward) Skinner, both North Carolinians by 
birth. The Hon. James C. Skinner was the direct descendant of an 
old Welsh family, three of its members having settled in Perquimans 
county, N. C, early in the history of that section of the country. 





Cl^pn^-iy cyV*^*^*- 



-c-^-»-j 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 33 

James C. Skinner was a man of great force of character and of bril- 
liant mind. He was at one time a large slaveholder and land owner, 
and was prominent in public affairs, having held the office of clerk of 
the county court from 1850 until 1868. In 1S70-2 he represented the 
first senatorial district in the state senate, and was a member of that 
bod}- during the impeachment trial of Gov. W. W. Holden. His 
father was the Hon. Harrj- Skinner, a native of Chowan county, N.C. 
While a resident of that county he represented it in the state legisla- 
ture, and after his removal to Perquimans county was a member of 
the state senate from the first senatorial district for many years. He 
was a son of the Hon. John .Skinner, who also served as a distinguished 
member of the state legislature, his terms as representative and sen- 
ator e.xtending over a long period. Harry Skinner, the grandfather 
of our subject, was very active in church work, and built and pre- 
sented a church to the society, which is now known as the Skinner 
Methodist Episcopal church, in Chowan county, he having been the 
founder of the same. 

From this very brief mention of his immediate antecedents it will 
be seen that Col. Skinner comes of a line well calculated to produce 
eminent men, men of brains and affairs. Mr. Skinner's boyhood was 
spent in his native county, and his scholastic training was obtained at 
the Hertford academy, where he remained until 1874. In the latter 
year he entered the University of Kentucky, at Lexington, and was 
graduated from the excellent law department of that noted institu- 
tion in June, 1875, with the degree of B. L. In August of the same 
year he removed to Greenville, and there continued his law studies 
under the tutelage of Maj. L. C. Latham. At the January term of 
the supreme court, in 1876, Mr. Skinner was licensed to practice, and 
immediately thereafter formed a partnership for the practice of his 
profession with his former preceptor, Maj. Latham, and this firm has 
since continued, being recognized at the present time as one of the 
distinguished connections in the state. Mr. Skinner's rise to the 
front ranks of the bar was rapid, and in some respects phenomenal. 
At the start he exhibited superior abilities as a political leader, and 
soon found his place in the democratic party, in which he is now con- 
sidered one of the leaders of eastern North Carolina. He has 
served as chairman of the county democratic executive committee 
for four years, has been a member of the state executive committee 
of that organization for the past eight years, and a member of the 
democratic congressional committee since 1880, having been chair- 
man for two ye^rs. In 1881 he was elected town commissioner of 
Greenville by an unanimous vote, and in the preceding year was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Gov. Jarvis, with the rank of colonel, and 
held that position during the remainder of the administration. His 
name was very prominently mentioned to represent the First con- 
gressional district in the United States congress in 1890, but was not 
brought before the convention. But in the same year he was nom- 
inated by the county committc^e of Pitt county for a seat in the house 
of representatives of the state, and was elected by a majority of 1,076 



134 NORTH CAROLINA. 

votes, he having made his canvass upon the sub-treasury plan, and 
the reasonable demands of the farmers' alliance. 

As a political writer, Mr. Skinner has gained more than a local 
reputation, his productions having been published in some of the 
leading papers of the nation. In 1886 he wrote an article, entitled, 
"A Landed Basis for our National Bank Issue," embodying the same 
ideas as are now embraced in the "'Stamford" bill. In January, 1887, 
Mr. Skinner represented Pitt county in the first farmers' convention 
held in the state, and there introduced a resolution, having for its 
purpose the awakening of the interest of the assembly in a plan for 
financial relief, and advocating that farming in North Carolina could 
not be made successful under the present ruinous credit system, nor 
profitable after paying the present rate of interest on money hired to 
cultivate crops. This able effort was followed by an article which 
was first published in the Progressive Farmer, taking the ground that 
with the same assistance the government gives to the manufacturing 
interests of the country, if extended with the same ratio to the cot- 
ton planter, they could dictate and command the price of cotton. 
Placing the protection given the manufacturer at forty-three per 
cent., the same protection would give to the planter at least 14 cents 
per pound for his cotton, without injustice to anyone. In other 
words, the article demanded that the protection be not for a class, 
but be extended to the producer as well as the manufacturer. The 
planter's protection was to be gained by a warehouse system, and it 
said that the present sub-treasury bill had its origin in this suggestion. 
The article attracted widespread interest, and was reproduced in full 
as the leading editorial in Frank Leslie s Ilhistratcd A^ciospaper for 
November 30, 1889, under the heading of "The Hope of the South." 
Subsequently it was read on the floor of the St. Louis convention at 
the time the sub-treasury idea was first formulated b}' the alliance. 
Since then Mr. Skinner has advocated the latter measure, and has 
taken a very active and prominent part in securing the proper legis- 
lation. 

While a member of the legislature Mr. Skinner served as chair- 
man of the committee on internal improvements; was a member of 
the judiciary, educational and insane asylum committees, and was 
chairman of the house branch of the committee on redistricting the 
state. He advocated the reduction of legal interest to a six per cent, 
rate; and introduced a bill to prevent the sale of land under mortgage 
or other execution, that did not bring fifty per cent, of the ta.x value; 
and also supported the bill providing for an industrial training school 
for girls. He voted for tffe appropriation to the southern soldiers' 
home, and also for the appropriation for completing the gubernato- 
rial mansion for the Columbian exposition. His vote and influence 
were cast for the extension of the A. & N. C. R. R., and for the rail- 
road commission bill; but he voted against the acceptance of the 
proposition of the Wilmington & Weldon railroad. He was the 
father of the bill establishing an orphan's court, and also of a bill to 
prescribe other duties for the [railroad commissioners, and presented 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 35 

a bill providing for the appointing of a committee to codify the 
laws upon corporations, and to make suggestions to the following 
legislature, whereby they might be relieved from the great bulk of 
private legislation. One of his most popular acts as a legislator was 
his introduction of a bill prohibiting the dredging for oysters in east- 
ern North Carolina; but he did not favor the "Mann" bill. The 
firm of Skinner & Latham is largely interested in real estate in Green- 
ville, and has done much to advance the prosperity of the town. In 
addition to his extensive law practice, Mr. Skinner also gives much 
attention to agriculture, and has made a marked success in that work. 
As a staunch friend to public education, he has proven himself a 
man of broad and liberal mind, and his name will be perpetuated 
in the Greenville female institute, as a man of charitable and progres- 
sive nature, he having furnished one third of the funds necessary for 
the erection of the building. He is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity. Royal Arch Chapter, and is also a member of the I. O. O. F., 
the Knights of Honor, and the Legion of Honor. In 187S he was so 
fortunate as to form a marriage alliance with Miss Lottie Monteiro, 
daughter of Mr. A. A. and P. C. Monteiro, of Richmond, Va. April 
12, 1888, Mrs. Skinner died, leaving four children, viz.: Lovinia, Ella 
Monteiro, Lottie and Harry, Jr. She was a lad}' of rare refinement 
and of beautiful Christian character, and her death was a sad blow, 
not only to the husband and children, but to the community at large. 

DAVID S. REID. 

David Settle Reid, governor, was born in Rockingham county, 
N. C, April 19, 1813. He had only an academic education, but 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and began the practice of his 
profession, in 1S34. He soon took up politics, and was elected in 
1835, to the state senate to represent his native county. He proved 
to be a most sagacious and useful legislator, was elected senator for 
four successive terms. He was then, in 1843, elected a member of 
congress, and was re-elected in 1S45. In 1848, he was put in nomina- 
tion for governor, by the democratic state convention, but was de- 
feated by Charles Manly, who made a strong canvass, and was elected 
by a large majority. Mr. Reid had also made a lively canvass and 
his political friends had great confidence in his success, but 1848 was 
not a democratic year. At the next convention, Mr. Reid was nom- 
inated, but against his written protest, that under no circumstances 
would he take another nomination. This time, however, he was 
elected. He was then elected to the United States senate, to suc- 
ceed Hon. Willie P. Mangum, holding the office from December 4, 
1S54, to March 3, 185Q. In the senate he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on patents, on the patent-office and on commerce. He was a 
delegate to the peace congress at Washington, in February, 1861, as 
a conservative democrat. After the secession of the state, he was 
chosen a member of the Confederate congress, in which he served 
with signal ability. When the war was over he retired to his farm in 



136 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Rockingham county, devoting liimself to his agricultural interests, 
and to the practice of his profession. For unaffected simplicity of 
character, for personal integrity, and purity of life, for consistency in 
his public acts, Gov. Reid stands, pre-eminent in the estimation of his 
fellow citizcms. He married Henrietta, daughter of Judge Thomas 
Settle, Sr. 

JUDGE THOMAS B. WOMACK 

was born in Chatham county, February 12, 1855. His parents are 
John A. and Rebecca (Brown) Womack, both natives of North Carolina. 
The father still lives, an honored resident of Chatham. He is widely 
known and as widely respected. Though taking but little interest in 
politics, he was, in 1872, a candidate for secretary of state on the Mer- 
rimon ticket, but was defeated by less than 1.5CO majority. He has 
been chairman of the board of justices of his county since its organi- 
zation in 1876. He was a member of the house of representatives in 
1870, that body being the first democratic house elected after the 
war. He served his constituents with signal ability and faithfulness. 
Mr. Womack is especially prominent in the Presbyterian church, hav- 
ing been a ruling elder for more than forty years. Several times he 
has been chosen a commissioner to the general assembly. His wife 
is a devoted member of the same church. Her father was John 
Bright Brown, a son of Gen. Thomas Brown, of Revolutionary re- 
nown. Judge Womack, the subject of this sketch, is the eldest of a 
family of three surviving children. He received an academic educa- 
tion and read law under the tutelage of Hon. John Manning, LL. D., 
at present professor of law at the University of North Carolina. He 
was admitted to the bar at the June term of the supreme court in 
1876, and at once began the practice at Pittsboro. The first office to 
which he was elected was that of solicitor of the inferior court of 
Chatham county, in 1878. He was twice re-elected, resigning his po- 
sition during his third term to serve as state senator, to which he was 
elected in 1S82. In 1885 he was a member of the house of represen- 
tatives, and served his constituents in an able and satisfactory man- 
ner. During the administration of Gov. Scales, he was appointed as 
proxy for the state to represent its stock in the Atlantic & North 
Carolina railroad. 

Judge Womack was chief clerk of the house of representatives 
for the session of i88g, which position he resigned to become a direc- 
tor of the North Carolina insane asylum. This latter office he resigned 
January 20, i8c;o, having been appointed judge of the superior court 
by Gov. Fowle, to fill the unexpired term of Judge Gilmer, resigned. 
Upon the expiration of that term Judge Womack located at Pitts- 
boro, and has since been engaged in the practice of the law and 
in the preparation of a complete civil digest of the decisions of the 
supreme court of North Carolina, a work for which he is admirably 
qualified, and upon which he has been engaged for several years. 
He is in the foremost rank of the legal profession of the state, and 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 37 

takes an active part in every enterprise which looks to the develop- 
ment and prosperity of the community at large. He was married, 
November 30, 18S1, to Miss Susie, daughter of Capt. John W. and 
Sarah A. Taylor, of Chatham county. Judge Womack is a member 
of and ruling elder in the Presbyterian church, and a member of the 
board of regents of the South Atlantic university. 

HON. JOHN M. MORING, 

a prominent citizen and attorney of Chatham county, was born 
March 11, 1841, in the county where he now resides. His parents 
were Alfred and Eliz.ibeth M. Moring, 7icc O'Kelly, and both parents 
were natives of Chatham county. The father is still living at the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-eight years, and though retired from active 
life, he is not forgotten by his fellow citizens, but retains an honored 
place in their respect and esteem. When in business he was both a 
merchant and a farmer. He resides at Raleigh and is an active mem- 
ber and a deacon of the Christian church, to the work of which he 
has given over fifty years of his life. His wife was also a very devout 
member of the same church, and her death occurred in 1S73, at the 
age of sixty-one years. These parents had a famil}' of nine children, 
five of whom are still living, the subject of this sketch being the eldest 
of the survivors. Mr. Moring was educated at Grosham college and 
at the North Carolina university. He was matriculated at the former 
institution in 1S60, and in i86r, enlisted in Company G, Seventh North 
Carolina infantry. He took part in the battle of Hanover C. H., and 
was present in all the engagements of the army of northern Virginia, 
under Lee, until the battles around Petersburg, in the spring of 1865. 
In the summer of 1862, he was detailed to serve on the signal corps 
attached to Gen. A. P. Hill's light division, and served in that capacity 
until November, 1864, when he rejoined his regiment and surrendered 
with Gen. Johnston's army at Greensboro, the regiment having been 
detailed from Gen. Lee's army in March, 1865. He was one of the 
fortunate few who was never wounded, nor taken prisoner, nor con- 
fined in the hospital by sickness, being blessed with good health 
throughout the entire war. 

When peace came, Mr. Moring returned to his farm for a jear or 
two, and in 1867 read law. In 1S68 he was licensed to practice in all 
the courts in the state. He opened a law office in Pittsboro at once, 
and has been in the practice since with good success. In 1872, Mr. 
Moring was elected to the general assembly as a member of the house 
of representatives, and served in that body four consecutive terms. 
At each successive election his majority was increased, and at his 
last term, in 187Q, he was chosen speaker of the house, holding that 
position two years. September 15, 186S, Mr. Moring was married to 
Miss Kmma, daughter of Chesley F. Fawcetts, of Alamance county. 
They have had a family of five children: .Xlberta, teacher of art in 
Elon college, and giving a high degree of satisfaction; Lelia, of the 
home circle; Bessie, teacher of stenography and type-writing in l^lun 



I3S NORTH CAROLINA. 

college, in which she performs good service; John T., deceased at the 
age of one year; Augustus I\I., a bright boy of twelve summers. Both 
parents and their three daughters are members of the Christian 
church. ]Mr. Moring is a member of the Masonic order, also of the 
Royal Arch chapter. He has been W. M. of the lodge for several 
years, and his standing both among his fraternal associates and 
among the citizens at large is in the front rank. 

hon: henry a. bond 

is the oldest living merchant in Edenton and one of its most honored 
citizens. He was born in that town on the 17th of August, iSii. He 
was reared and educated in his native place, and early entered mer- 
cantile life there. In 1835 he and his brother, Samuel, engaged in 
business together on a borrowed capital of $4,000, but two years later 
the firm was dissolved, Mr. Henry Bond continuing alone. Although 
severe reverses have come, the name of Henry Bond has never been 
in a court of bankruptcy. During the late war over $50,000 were lost 
by him, but he kept on undaunted and succeeded. He has been 
quite an extensive vessel owner, and is now largely interested in real 
estate. Formerly a whig, but now a staunch democrat, Mr. Bond 
has been active in politics, and has held the offices of justice of the 
peace of the county, mayor of Edenton, and since the war has been a 
United States commissioner. For many years he served as a mem- 
ber of the town council, and for the past ten years has been treasurer 
of Edenton. In early days he was captain of the volunteer fire de- 
partment, and in all these various capacities has shown himself to be 
a man of unusual ability and of the strictest integrit}'. Mr. Bond 
was married in 1S36 to Miss Mary Manning, daughter of Joseph and 
Sarah iManning, of Chowan county. She died in 1S40, and some time 
later he was again married, Miss Margaret G. Manning, a sister of 
his first wife, becoming his wife. Their five children are: Henry A. 
Bond, of Edenton, a member of the state legislature in 1S87-88 and 
1889-90; John C. Bond, member of the firm of Bond & Jones, of Eden- 
ton, formerly he was clerk of the superior court; Millard F. Bond, South- 
ern Express and Western Union telegraph agent at Edenton; Mary, 
wife of F. F. White, of Edenton, and Lela, wife of John M. Jones, of 
the same place. Mrs. Bond died in 1862, and in November, 1863 Mr. 
Bond espoused as his third wife Ann Eliza McDowell. Mr. Bond 
has been a devout member of the Baptist church for many years, and 
has been treasurer of the Edenton church for more than twenty 
years. He died June 17, 1891. 

HON. THOMAS H. BATTLE. 

_ One of the oldest and most distinguished families of North Car- 
olina is the Battle connection. The Hon. Thomas H. Battle, one of 
the leading lawyers and financiers of the state, was born at Raleigh, 
N. C, August 2, 1S60. He was educated in Raleigh under the direc- 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 39 

tion of J. N. Lovejoy and Dr. J. M. Atkinson, and in 1880 was grad- 
uated from the University of North Carolina. For one year after 
leaving college he taught as a private tutor, and then spent six months 
in Europe. Returning home Nir. Battle entered the law department 
of the university at Chapel Hill, and in October, 18S2, was admitted 
to the bar. In the following December he went to Tarboro.and soon 
after was elected solicitor of the inferior court of Edgecombe county, 
retaining that offtce for three years. His removal to Rocky Mount 
took place in March, 1884. and since that time Mr. Battle has become 
very intimately connected with some of the leading industries of that 
thriving city. He organized the bank of Rocky Mount in January, 
iS8q, the greater portion of the stock being held by himself and one 
other gentleman, and has since had the management of that bank as 
vice-president. F"or several years he has been prominently identified 
with the Rocky Mount Yarn mills as a director, and for the past three 
years has served as president of the same, the concern having pros- 
pered greatly under his able management. In addition to these ex- 
tensive interests, Mr. Battle also operates a very large plantation in 
Edgecombe county, where he raises cotton largely, and also conducts 
an extensive dairy. In December, 1886, he was elected mayor of 
Rocky Mount, an office he has since held to the entire satisfaction of 
the i^eople. As a democrat he is earnest and active, and holds a high 
place in the councils of his party. In November, 1887, Mr. Battle 
was so fortunate as to forma marriage alliance with Miss Betty Davis, 
of Wilson, N. C, and one child, Kemp Davis, was born to the union. 
This most estimable lady was called to her eternal rest in April, 1890. 
She was a woman of rare culture and refinement, and lived a life 
beautiful for its Christian simplicity and charity. Mr. Battle is a com- 
municant of the Episcopal church, as was his wife, and was formerlj' 
vestryman and treasurer of the church at Rocky Mount. 

The Hon. Kemp Battle, father of the above, was born in Frank- 
lin county, N. C, and received his educational training at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill. In 1S50 he was admitted to 
the bar. During the Civil war he was president of the Chatham 
railroad, and was state treasurer under Gov. Worth's administration. 
In 1876 he was elected president of the University of North Caro- 
lina, and only recently resigned to accept the chair of history in that 
institution. Mr. Battle is very prominent in public alfairs as a demo- 
crat, and is one of the ablest, and most infiuential men in the state. 
By his marriage to Patty Battle these children have been born, their 
names l^eing: Nellie, who married Dr. Lewis, of Raleigh, and is now 
dead; Hon. Thomas H., Kemp, jr., M. D., of Raleigh, of the United 
States marine hospital service; H. B. Battle, Ph. D., director of the 
agricultural experiment station and state chemist; graduated from 
University of North Carolina with degree of Ph. D., and W. J. 
Battle, A. B., Ph. D.. now at Harvard college, where he holds a fel- 
lowship. The first of this family to settle in Rocky Mount was Elisha 
Battle, a native of Virginia, whence he came in 1742. He was born 
of English parentage, the family seat being in Yorkshire, England. 



I40 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Elisha Battle was a member of the state senate during the Revolu- 
tion, and was a member of the commission appointed to adopt the 
constitution. He was a Primitive Baptist, and the first moderator of 
the Kehukee association. The extensive acreage which he purchased 
from Lord Granville on the Tar river, is still in the possession of the 
family. 

JONATHAN WORTH 

was a native of Guilford county, N. C., born November i8, 1802. 
He was the son of Dr. David Worth. He was educated in the English 
branches at the "old field schools," and afterward attended the 
Greensboro academy where he remained for over two years, and 
made extraordinary proficiency in his studies. The means of his 
father being limited, he was unable to enter the higher institutions of 
learning, but engaged in teaching in a neighboring county. In con- 
nection with this occupation he studied law under the instruction of 
Hon. A. D. Murphey, one of the most distinguished and erudite law- 
yers in the state. In January, 1825, he was admitted to the bar, and 
soon thereafter began the practice of his profession at Asheboro, 
Randolph county. Notwithstanding his fine academic training and 
and his extensive law reading he was of a reserved, diffident, and retir- 
ing nature, and his contemporaries in the profession with less of legal 
learning but more boldness and push, outstripped him in amount of 
business. He was able in counsel, but shrank from arguing his cases 
at the bar, and consequently lost many a profitable client. Failing, 
as many of his profession do, for the want of self-assertion and as- 
surance, he determined to turn his attention to politics, and sought 
a nomination to the state legislature; he was successful both before 
the nominating convention and at the polls. He was re-nominated 
and again made a successful canvass. 

At his second term Mr. Worth distinguished himself as the author 
of a set of resolutions strongly denunciatory of Mr. Calhoun's nullifi- 
cation doctrines. The introduction of these resolutions was the sig- 
nal for an earnest, long-continued and bitter debate in which Mr. 
Worth took a prominent part. The debate ended in the adoption of 
the resolutions by a large majority. His success in this contest gave 
him prestige in his profession. He retired from official life and de- 
voted himself to his law practice, with results quite the opposite of 
his first experience. His clientage at once became large and remun- 
erative. But he had not quite lost his penchant for politics, and in 
the great political revolution of 1840, he united his fortimes with the 
winning party and rode in upon the popular wave. He was elected 
to the senate by an overwhelming majority. Here he was appointed 
chairman of the joint committee on education, and formulated a bill 
for the establishment and support of public schools, which at that time 
won him great popularity. In 1841 he made an unsuccessful canvass for 
representative in congress in opposition to Hon. Abram Rencher, who 
though a whig, was accused by Mr. Worth of defection in his fealty 



NORTH CAROLINA. I4I 

to Henry Clay. .Mr. Worth again returned to the practice of his pro- 
fession, in which he continued until 1S58, when he was again elected 
to the state senate and was re-elected in i860. At the latter session 
he was a strong opponent of the secession movement, voting against 
the bill to submit the question of calling a convention to a popular 
vote; he did not cease his opposition when the bill was passed, but 
made a strenuous effort to defeat the measure before the people. 
When the convention was called he declined to be a candidate for 
delegate. After the ordinance of secession was adopted, like other 
Union men in the south, he gave in his adhesion to the Confederate 
government and was elected to the lower house of the state legisla- 
ture, which position he held until the end of the war. 

Under the provisional state government he was appointed treas- 
urer, but soon resigned to make the canvass for governor of the state. 
He was elected by a large majority, and re-elected by an increased 
majority, continuing as the chief magistrate until July, 186S. At that 
date the reconstruction act which legislated Gov. Worth out of office, 
took effect, but he did not yield his position without entering a 
strong protest in which he denied the constitutionality of the act 
and the power of congress to remove a state executive. He returned 
to private citizenship once more, and, on the 5th of September, 
1S69, at Raleigh, his eventful life came to a close. Gov. Worth was 
one of the ablest lawyers in the state; he was an excellent financier, 
a legislator of rare resources and excellent judgment, and as chief 
executive was one of the most distinguished ever called to that posi- 
tion in North Carolina. In his private relations the same high prin- 
ciples governed him which characterized his public career. 1 lis wife, 
whose maiden name was Martila Daniel, whom he married in 1S24, 
and one son and five daughters, survived him at his death. 

HON. CYRUS WILEY GRANDY, 

one of the most prominent lawyers of Pasquotank county, N. C, was 
born in Cameron county, N. C., on the 2Qth of June, 1831. He was 
educated in the county schools, at the high school of Oxford, N. C, 
and was graduated from William and Mary college in X'irginia, July 4, 
1855. Three years later he began the practice of his profession at 
Elizabeth City, where he had taken up his residence in 1851. In 
1865-67 he served as register of deeds of the count}'. In 1861 he en- 
listed in Company G, Seventeenth North Carolina regiment, C. S. A., 
as a private, but in 1862 raised a company which was attached to the 
Si.xty-eighth North Carolina regiment, and during the rest of the war 
Mr. Grandy served as captain of that company. For many years he 
served as chairman of the board of county commissioners of Pasquo- 
tank county, and in 1872 was elected to the state senate, serving for 
two years. He was a member of the judiciary committee in the 
senate, and rendered distinguished aid to that committee. Mr. 
Grandy was elected attorney for the First judicial district of North 
Carolina, in 1S78, and retained that office until 1SS2. Before the 



142 NORTH CAROLINA. 

organization of the republican party he was a whig, and then affiliated 
himself with the republican party, which he left in iSSo, and has since 
been an independent. His marriage to Miss Florence L. Glover, 
daughter of William Glover of this county, was solemnized Janu- 
ary II, 1859, and has resulted in the birth of seven children, their 
names being: Lessells, who is in the pension department at Wash- 
ington, D. C.; Cecelia, wife of J. J. Baxter, of Memphis, Tenn.;. S. M. 
Grandy, of Denver, Col. — the latter gentleman has visited every 
country on the globe; Charles R., a member of the government geo- 
logical survey, now stationed in Florida; Susan, Kate and Harry, 
who reside at home. Mr. Grandy is associated in the practice of the 
law with Mr. E. F. Aydlett, and this is the leading law firm of the 
city, both being eminent jurists. Mr. Grandy is largely interested in 
agriculture, and is a progressive and influential citizen. He is a com- 
municant of the Episcopal church, and a prominent Mason. 



HON. J. W. ALBERTSON. 

Among the many distinguished gentlemen who have won prom- 
inence at the bar of Pasquotank county, N. C, we find the name of 
Hon. Johnathan W. Albertson. Mr. Albertson is a native of Per- 
quimans county, N. C, where he first saw the light on the Qth of Sep- 
tember, 1S26, the son of Anthony B.and Rebecca (White) Albertson, 
who were both born in that county. Elias T. Albertson, the grand- 
father of our subject, was of Dutch parentage, his family having 
emigrated from Amsterdam to America, in 1669, and settled in Long 
Island. Later they removed to Pennsylvania, but finally settled in 
the south. They were prominent and enterprising men of the Quaker 
faith. Elias Albertson was a merchant, and came to Perquimans 
county after his marriage. Gen. Washington appointed him collector 
of the port of Newbegun, in Pasquotank county. Anthony B. Albert- 
son, his son, was a planter, and lived and died in Perquimans county. 
He was a Quaker. The maternal ancestors of our subject on the pa- 
ternal side were of Irish nationality, and were driven from their 
native land by the persecutions of the Quakers. Settling in Virginia, 
they were finally forced to seek a home elsewhere on account of the 
continued persecution of the Quakers, and settled in Perquimans 
county, N. C. The Hon. J. W. Albertson, of whom we will now write, 
was reared in Perquimans county, and remained there until 1S79. His 
education was obtained in Belvedere academy, and completed in 
Guilford college. Having taken up the study of the law, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1849, and began active practice in Perquimans 
county, N. C, in the First judicial district. For many years he 
was solicitor of Perquimans county, and of the First judicial district 
and before the war represented that county in the legislature of the 
state. In 1872 he was appointed judge of the superior court for the 
First district, and in 1875, was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention. Three years later he was appointed United States district 



NORTH CAROLINA. 143 

attorney for the eastern district of North CaroHna, and was also ap- 
pointed a member of the committee from North Carolina to the cen- 
tennial of 1S76, at Philadelphia. 

Mr. Albertson removed to Elizabeth City in 1882, and has since 
conducted an extensive practice there. He is a Royal Arch Mason 
and also a Knight Templar. In 1855 ^liss Catharine F. B. Pescud — 
daughter of Edward Pescud, editor of the Old Dotninion, at Peters- 
burg, Va., who served as a colonel in the war of 1S12 — became his 
wife. Mrs. Albertson is also a granddaughter of Peter Francisco, of 
Revolutionary fame. Six children have been born to this happy 
union: Jonathan \V., Jr., who is associated in the practice of law 
with his father; Marceline P.; Robert B., of Seattle, Wash., where 
he is practicing law; Rebecca; Thomas E., druggist of Port Town- 
send, Wash.; and Catherine S. Albertson. The entire family are 
communicants of the Episcopal church, in which the father is a 
senior warden. Mr. Albertson is recognized throughout the state as 
one of its ablest lawyers and most eminent citizens. On the side of 
his mother's maternal progenitors, he is a descendant of the Wins- 
lows, of Plymouth Rock or Massachusetts. 



EDWIN F. AYDLETT. 

A leading attorney of eastern North Carolina is Edwin V . Ayd- 
lett, of Elizabeth City. His birth took place in Camden county, 
N. C on the 14th of May, 1857, and his parents, Abner and Clotilda 
(Lamb) Aydlett, were both natives of that county. Abner Aydlett 
served as sheriff of the county for several years, and was a prominent 
and successful planter. Mr. Edwin F. Aj'dlett was graduated from 
Wake-Forest college in June, 187Q. Having read law in Elizabeth 
City for one year, he then completed his legal training in Judge 
Strong's law school, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1881, and 
began practice in Camden. In December, 1881, he came to Elizabeth 
City, and formed a partnership with Mr. C. W. Grandy, and this firm 
has since practiced at that place. While a resident of Camden county 
Mr. Aydlett was elected county superintendent of schools, but resigned 
from the office. For three terms he has been city attorney of Eliza- 
beth City, and at present he is a member of the board of town com- 
missioners, and is active and prominent in democratic politics in that 
section of the country. Mr. Aydlett is a stockholder in the Elizabeth 
Cit)' Fair association, and any movement, having for its object the 
advancement of the industries of the community or the uplifting of 
the people, finds in him a firm friend. In 1883 he was most happily 
married to Miss Henrietta Briggs, and two children. Henrietta N. and 
Evelyn L., are the result of their union. Mrs. Aydlett is a daughter of 
Thomas H. Briggs, Esq. Both Mr. and Mrs. Aydlett are communi- 
cants of the Baptist church, of which he is treasurer, and are held in 
the highest esteem throughout the community. 



144 NORTH CAROLINA. 



STEPHEN W. ISLER, 



a leading lawyer of Goldsboro, N. C, is a native of Jones county, 
N. C, where he was born on the iSth of October, 1S39, the son of 
Simmons Isler, who was likewise a native of that county, as was his 
father, William S. Isler. The family is of German extraction the 
founder of the American branch of the family having come to this 
country in colonial days. They first settled in Newbern, having ac- 
companied the Baron de Groffeneice to America. The records show 
that Christian Isler was a juror in Jones county in 1763; other than 
this no correct statement of the family's history prior to the Revolu- 
tion is at hand. A maternal ancestor of our subject was a Miss 
Williams, sister of Gov. Williams. William Isler owned 4,000 acres of 
land in Jones county (then Craven county), which were divided be- 
tween his children. His father was an officer in the Revolution. His 
family consisted of Simmons, Mrs. Consul Wooten, Mrs. Rebecca 
Herring, E. B. Isler and Mrs. William Ford. Simmons Isler was a 
farmer by occupation. He was twice married, first to Miss Becton, 
of Jones county, who bore him three children, viz.: Col. John W. 
Isler, of Wayne county, Mrs. Susan Dawson, of Pitt county, and Mrs. 
John Shade Wooden, of Wayne county. His second marriage was 
to Mrs. Barbara Lane, widow of Ezekiel Lane, of New Hanover 
county, and a daughter of Stephen Miller, of Duplin county, a state 
senator from that county. Four children resulted from this union: 
George M. (deceased) ; Stephen W., Simmons H., a prominent Pres- 
byterian clergyman of Goldsboro, and William R. (deceased). The 
father lived and died in Jones county, was a large land owner and 
slaveholder, and was held in the highest esteem throughout the 
county. He commanded a militia regiment during the " Nat." Tur- 
ner insurrection. He was related to William Henry Harrison, and 
on one occasion entertained the Harrison party at his plantation, and 
while Gov. Mosel}', of Florida, was a candidate for governor of North 
Carolina, Mrs. Mosely and Mrs. Isler were intimate friends, and Mrs. 
Mosely asked Mrs. Isler if she gave a dinner in honor of the elder 
Harrison, and was answered in the afiirmative and iriformed that 
Gen. Harrison was a relative of her husband, whereupon Mrs. Mosely 
replied: " I will not speak to my own brother should he vote against 
Gov. Mosely." It was considered that the Harrison party opposed 
Mosely. Stephen W. Isler, our immediate subject, was reared in 
Jones county, and was educated in an academy in Virginia, which he 
left to enter college at Chapel Hill, from which he was graduated. 
Subsequently he entered Harvard college, and was graduated from 
the law department of that famous institution, in i860. Two years 
later he entered the Confederate service as a member of the Six- 
teenth North Carolina cavalry, Deering's brigade, and served through 
the war. In 1866 he began the practice of his chosen profession at 
Goldsboro, and was soon elected solicitor for Greene county, which 




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NOKTH CAROLINA. 145 

office he held until the reconstruction act of 1S67 went into force. 
Since that time he has practiced in the state and United States courts, 
having distinguished himself as a man of great ability. Mr. Isler is 
a member of the Royal Arch Chapter of the Masonic fraternity, and 
of the Harvard law association, of Cambridge, Mass. His political 
faith is founded upon the tenets of the republican party. Brought 
up in the faith of the Presbyterian church, he has ever clung to its 
doctrines. 

HON. WILLIAM TURNER FAIRCLOTH 

was born January S, 1829, on Gtter creek, in Edgecombe county, N.C. 
His father, William Faircloth, and his mother, Susan Edwards, had 
five children, of whom he was the oldest. His ancestors were English, 
and they came to North Carolina from the eastern shores of Mary- 
land and \'irginia. His father was an agriculturist, and the subject 
of this sketch bore his hand to the plow until he was eighteen years 
of age. Having attended the common schools and an academy, and 
having had other preparatory instruction, in June, 1850, he entered 
Wake Forest college, where he completed the college course in June, 
1854, standing with the head of his class. His means being limited, 
he taught school during vacation and thus earned the money to pay 
the principal part of his college expenses. In July, 1854, he entered 
the law school of Chief-Justice Pearson at Richmond Hill, N. C, and 
on January i, 1856, was licensed to practice in all the state courts, and 
located at Snow Hill, Greene county, N. C, and in a few weeks was 
elected count}' solicitor by the county court. He was still then in 
debt for necessary expenses at college and at the law school, which 
he soon discharged with the first fruits of his practice. In Maj', 1856, 
he located in Goldsboro, N. C, and has resided there ever since in 
the pursuit of his profession with slight interruptions. Politically he 
was a Henry Clay whig, and was opposed to the doctrine of secession, 
but after his state seceded, he volunteered as a private in Company C, 
Second North Carolina state troops, commanded b}- Col. C. C. Tew, 
and was on dut}' in the army of northern Virginia until its surrender 
at Appomatox C. H. in April, 1865, when he retired with the rank of 
captain of cavalry, and resumed his professional work. In August, 
1865, he was elected by the people of his county (Wayne) as a dele- 
gate to the provisional state convention which convened October 2, 
1865. In the fall of 1865, he represented his county in the first legis- 
lature after the war, which convened November 27, 1865. During 
this legislature he was elected solicitor of the Third judicial district of 
North Carolina, and held the office until displaced in the reconstruc- 
tion of the state in 186S. 

On January 10, 1867, Mr. Faircloth married Evelyn, the oldest 
living daughter of the late Council Wooten, of Mosely Hall (now 
La Grange), in Lenoir county, N. C. He followed his profession 
closely, but in 1875. he was again sent by his county as a delegate to 
the state constitutional convention, which assembled in Raleigh, Sep- 
B — 10 



146 NORTH CAROLINA. 

tember 6, 1875, ^rid on November iS, 1875, he was appointed and 
commissioned a justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, and 
remained on the bench until the term of the court expired. The 
other members were Chief-Justice Pearson, Justices Reade, Rodman 
and Bynum. Judge Faircloth is an ardent friend of the cause of 
education. He is now (1891) a trustee of the university at Chapel 
Hill, N. C; of Wake Forest college, of the Baptist female univer- 
sity at I-laleigh, and of the Baptist orphanage at Thomasville, N. C. 
At different times he has been a director in the W. & W. railroad, 
and A. & N. C. railroad, and in the North Carolina insane asylum. 
In 1884 he canvassed the state from " Cherokee to Currituck " as the 
republican nominee for lieutenant-governor, and in 1 888 was on the 
republican ticket for justice of the supreme court. He has been ex- 
tensively identified with various important enterprises looking toward 
the development of the state's resources. He is one of the original 
stockholders of the Goldsboro Furniture factory; is a third owner of 
the Hotel Gregory, and has erected several fine brick buildings in 
Goldsboro. He is among the largest stockholders in the Bank of 
Wayne, and has other interests of like importance. Originally an 
old time Henry Clay whig, Judge Faircloth is now a staunch national 
republican, and is recognized as one of its ablest leaders in the state. 
As a lawyer he excels and he has reaped the reward of a successful 
practitioner. He and his family are communicants of the Mission- 
ary Baptist church, and he is highly esteemed for purity of character 
and an upright walk in life. 

HON. CURTIS HOOKS BROGDEN, 

ex-governor of North Carolina, was born in Wayne county, N. C, on 
the 6th of December, 1816. His father. Pierce Brogden, was of Eng- 
lish descent, and also a native of North Carolina. He married a 
Miss Amy Beard, who came of Irish parentage, but was a North 
Carolinian by birth. Pierce Brogden was a blacksmith by trade, and 
also carried on a small farm. He was a soldier in the war of 181 2 
and a man of ability and great integrity. His father was Thomas 
Brogden, a native of North Carolina and a soldier in the Revolution. 
He married a Miss Pierce, of Maryland. Curtis H. Brogden, the 
subject of this biographical mention, was reared on his father's farm 
and attended the common schools. Having chosen the law as his 
life vocation, he was admitted to the bar in 1845. Fof many years he 
presided as a justice of the Wayne county court. In 1838 he was 
elected by almost a unanimous vote to represent Wayne county in 
the house of commons. He was the choice of the people as their 
representative in one branch or the other of the general assembly 
until 1856, in the house from 1838 to 1852, and in the state senate 
thereafter to 1856, the year he was elected comptroller of North 
Carolina, and for ten years was the incumbent of that office; his term 
of office having extended from January i, 1857, to January i, 1867, 
In 1868 he was elected to the state senate, and again in 1870. Two 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 47 

years later he was the successful candidate of the republican party 
for lieutenant governor, and presided over the senate until 1874, when, 
on the death of Gov. Todd R. Caldwell, he succeed to the executive 
office of the state, which he held until January, 1877. Previous to 
this, however, in 1868, Gov. Brogden was an elector and presided 
over the electoral college which cast the vote of the state for Grant 
and Colfax. 

In 1869 Mr. Brogden was appointed by President Grant, collector 
of internal revenue, for the Second district of North Carolina which 
he declined. He has held the principal offices in the state militia 
from captain to major-general, has served as a trustee of the state 
university, and has filled several local offices, such as town commis- 
sioner, railroad director, etc. In 1876, while governor of the state, he 
was elected to the forty-fifth congress, receiving 21,060 votes against 
1 1,874 cast for Col. Wharton J. Green, democrat. In 1886 he yielded 
to the urgent solicitations of his friends, without regard to party, and 
ran for a seat in the house of representatives, and was elected by a 
majority of 479 votes. Gov. Brogden is extensively interested in ag- 
riculture, and is probably the largest land owner in Wayne county. 
He now owns the homestead which was occupied by his grandfather, 
and left by him to his father, who in turn bequeathed it to his son. 
Mr. Brogden was unalterably opposed to secession, and has been 
identified with the republican party since 1862. He was offered the 
colonelcy of the Twent^'-si.xth North Carolina regiment, but declined. 
He was a member of the senate that conducted the famous impeach- 
ment of W. W. Holden, and made an able speech on that occasion. 
It is but just to say that few men have done more for the advance- 
ment of the various different interests of the state than this man. 

J. L. PATTERSON. 

Few families have held a higher place in the confidence and es- 
teem of the people of the proud old state of North Carolina than the 
Patterson connection. The first member of this family to settle in 
the new world came from the north of Ireland early in the eight- 
eenth century, somewhere about the year 1700 or 1701. He first set- 
tled in Pennsylvania, then removed to Virginia. The Hon. Samuel F. 
Patterson is the first of the name to whom we will refer. He was 
born in Rockbridge county, Va., in 1799, and when but a lad came to 
North Carolina, settling in Wilkesboro, where he resided until about 
1835, when he removed to Raleigh, having been electecf treasurer of 
the state, in which office he served two years, when he returned to 
Wilkesboro. In 1840 he was elected president of the Raleigh & 
Gaston railroad, and served in that responsible position for several 
years, when he resigned, in 1S45, and removed to Caldwell county, 
to take charge of his father-in-law's, Gen. Jones, estate. He was the 
first man to hold the office of grand master of the Masonic order in 
the state. He was trustee of the University of North Carolina for 
many years. Several times he ably represented Caldwell county in 



148 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the state legislature. His demise occurred in 1874. The Hon. 
Rufus L. Patterson, a son of the Hon. Samuel F., was born in Cald- 
well county, N. C, in 1830. He was graduated from the University 
of North Carolina in 185 1, and subsequently became a manufacturer 
in Caldwell and Forsyth counties, and later embarked in mercantile 
life at Salem. He represented Caldwell and Forsyth counties, and 
was a member of both the constitutional conventions of 1861 and 
1865. He was a trustee of the state university for an extended 
period, and was a man of great ability and worth. His death occurred 
in 1879. He was twice married, the first time in 1852, to Miss 
Louise M. Morehead, a daughter of Gov. John M. Morehead, of 
Greensboro, N. C, and four children were born to them, two of whom 
still survive him, namely, Caroline F., wife of A. L. Coble, of States- 
ville, N. C, and J. L. Patterson, of Winston, N. C. The mother of 
these children died in Ma}', 1862, and the father was again married in 
1864, Miss Mary E. Fries, daughter of Francis Fries, of Salem, N. C, 
becoming his wife. This latter union resulted in the birth of six child- 
ren, named as follows: Francis F., Samuel F., Andrew H., Rufus L., 
John L. and Edmund V. 

Jesse Lindsay Patterson, the particular subject of this sketch, and 
the son of the first marriage of Rufus L. Patterson, was born May 16, 
1858. Having been thoroughly prepared for college at P'inley high 
school in Caldwell county, N. C. Mr. Patterson entered Davidson 
college, in Mecklenburg county, N. C, and was graduated therefrom 
in 1S7S. He then commenced the study of law under Judge J. H. 
Dillard and Judge Robert P. Dick, of Greensboro, N. C, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1881, after which he immediately located in 
Winston, N. C, and embarked in the practice of his chosen profession. 
In 18S2 we find him serving as county solicitor of Forsyth county, 
which office he held for two years. He is the attorney for the Peo- 
ples' National bank of Winston, N. C, and extensively interested in 
several land and improvement companies. In 1888 he was most hap- 
pily united in marriage to Miss Lucy B. Patterson, a daughter, of 
W. H. Patterson, of Philadelphia, and a granddaughter of Gen. 
Robert Patterson. As a lawyer Mr. Patterson excels, and although 
but just in the flush of his manhood he is already reckoned among 
the leaders at the bar of the county. 

ASA BIGGS, 

lawyer and senator, was born in Williamstown, Martin county, N. C, 
February 4, 1811. He was educated in the schools of the county, 
and afterward attended a classical school, in which he attained great 
proficiency. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1831. 
He entered the political arena, as a member of the constitutional con- 
vention, which met in 1835, to amend the old colonial constitution, 
adopted in 1767. In 1840 he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, by the democrats of his legislative district. He at once took 
a prominent position in that body, and was distinguished as the frie nd 



NORTH CAROLINA. i49 

of the internal improvement of the state, lie was elected for another 
term in 1842, and in 1844, was chosen a member of the state senate. 
In 1S44 lie made a canvass for member of congress, against Hon. 
David Outlaw, and was successful, but on his re-nomination in 1S46, 
he was defeated by his former opponent. In 1S50 he was appointed 
a member of the commission to revise and codify the laws of North 
Carolina, his associates on the commission being Messrs. B. F. 
Moore and R. M.Saunders. For this duty he was amply equipped 
and the code was completed and went into effect in 1854. In that 
year Mr. Biggs was again elected to the state senate, in which body 
he was the recognized leader of the democratic side of the house. 
Though the whigs were in the majority in the senate, they failed to 
carry a bill, providing for a state convention, to revise the state con- 
stitution, and to the forcible speeches of Mr. Biggs in opposition to 
the measure, its defeat is chiefly attributed. By this same legislature, 
Mr. Biggs was elected to the United States senate, where he served 
his state with distinction for four years. He then resigned, to accept 
the appointment of United States district judge, to lill the vacancy 
occasioned bj" the death of Judge Potter. He held this office till the 
breaking out of the Civil war in 1S61. He was one of the members 
of the state convention, which passed the ordinance of secession, and 
was appointed to a judgeship under the Confederate government. 
He accepted the position, holding it until the close of the war. He 
then returned to the practice of law, which he pursued with success, 
until i86q. He then removed to Norfolk, Va., where he engaged in 
the commission business, as a partner in the firm of Kedar, Biggs & 
Company. 

In 1S70 Judge Biggs formed a law partnership at Norfolk with 
Judge W. N. H. Smith, which firm continued to do business until the. 
latter gentleman was made chief-justice of the supreme court of 
North Carolina, and removed to Raleigh. Judge Biggs died at Nor- 
folk, March 6, 1S78. As a public speaker he did not shine for his 
brilliant eloquence or his fine-spun rhetortic. He was plain, yet forci- 
ble and direct, tenacious of his purpose, but never obstinate if con- 
vinced of his error. He was modest in his demeanor, unostentatious, 
but always gentlemanly and refined. He was conciliatory towards 
his opponents, appealing to their reason, judgment and common 
sense as the best method of convincing them. No purer statesman 
ever had a place in the halls of legislation, no fairer man ever ex- 
pounded the law from the bench or bar, and no private citizen led a 
more exemplary life. In his family relations he was provident, kind 
and affectionate. He was a religious man, and belonged to that 
strait sect known as Primitive Baptist, in which faith he lived and died. 

HON. JOHN H. DILLARD. 

To be ranked among the great lawyers of North Carolina one 
must be possessed of superior abilities indeed, for few states have 
produced more eminent jurists than she. The Hon. John H. Dillard 



150 NORTH CAROLINA. 

who for many years has figured prominently in the courts of North 
CaroHna, was born in Roclcingham county, N. C, November 29, 1819. 
His preliminary schooling was obtained at the Patrick Henry acad- 
. amy in Virginia, and later in Samuel Smith's school in Rockingham 
county, N- C. Entering the University of North Carolina, his course 
was cut short there after eighteen months by the failure of his health. 
Subsequentl}' health was restored, and Mr. Dillard then matriculated 
in William and Mary college in 1839, and was graduated from the law 
department of that institution with the degree of B. L., in 1840. He 
then went to Richmond, Va., where he was admitted to the bar, and 
immediately afterward located at Patrick Court House, now Stewart, 
Ya., and remained there for five years, a portion of which time he 
held the office of commonwealth attorney. In 1846 Rockingham 
Court House, N. C, became the scene of his labors, and from 1848 
until 1870 he was associated in the practice of his profession with the 
late Judge Ruffin, who at one time sat on the bench of the supreme 
court of the state. Mr. Dillard removed to Greensboro, N. C, in 
1868, and has since made that city his home. For a number of years 
he served as county attorney in Rockingham county, and also held 
the office of clerk and master to the court of equity of that county, 
his term of service extending until 1862, when he resigned. In 1S78 
he was elevated to the supreme court of North Carolina, and entered 
upon his high judicial duties January i, 1879. His resignation from 
the bench in 1881 was accepted with the most sincere sorrow b}' the 
people, but was rendered necessary, owing to the distinguished gen- 
tleman's failing health. 

During the dark days of 1S62, Judge Dillard organized a company 
in Rockingham county, of which he was elected captain, the com- 
mand being assigned to the Forty-fifth regiment, North Carolina 
volunteer infantry, and he served at the head of his company until 
February, 1863. On the 13th of January, 1846, Miss Ann I. Martin, a 
daughter of Col. Joseph Martin, of Henry county, Va., became his 
wife. The children of this union are: Lucy, wife of John T. Pannill, 
of Reidsville, N. C; Thomas Ruffin Dillard, of Guilford county, 
N. C; Anna, wife of E. F. Hall, of Reidsville, John H. Dillard, Jr., of 
Murphy, N. C, Drury C. Dillard, of Greensboro, N. C, and two oth- 
ers now dead. The family are communicants of the Presbyterian 
church, and Judge Dillard is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 
As a lawyer he excels. Possessed of a mind of rare strength and 
symmetry, well stored with the thrifty study of years, this man has 
achieved much in his calling. After an extended period of service as 
a judge in the highest court of the state, he left the bench with er- 
mine unspotted. When incapacitated from active work by disease, 
he was too proud to enjoy the emoluments of an office whose duties 
he could not discharge with the best of his energies. Judge Dillard 
is the son of James Dillard, who was born in Henry county, Va., in 
17S0. All his active years were spent as a planter and tobacco manu- 
facturer. He died in 1859. His marriage to Lucy Moorman, daugh- 
ter of Henry Moorman, of Lynchburg, Va., was solmnized, and the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 151 

happy union resulted in tlie birth of ten children, only three of whom 
survive. They are: Lucy, widow of George L.Aiken, of Leeksville, 
N. C, John Dillard and James P. Dillard. James Dillard was a son 
of John Dillard. He too was a \'irginian, and also a planter. He 
served in the Revolutionary war as a patriot soldier. 



HON. JOHN A. GILMER 

was born in Greensboro, N. C, April 22, 183S. He was graduated 
from the University of North Carolina in 185S, and then began the 
study of law under the tutelage of his father, Hon. John A. Gilmer. 
In 1859 he entered the University of X'irginia, and completed the law 
course there in i860. At this time !\Ir. Gilmer became associated 
with his father in the practice of his profession, and the partnership 
then formed existed until the death of his distinguished sire, in 1868. 
The declaration of war between north and south found our subject a 
member of the Guilford Grays, and he accompanied that company to 
Fort Macon, N. C., in April, 1861, where several independent com- 
panies, among which was the Guilford Grays, were organized into the 
Ninth, later the Twenty-seventh regiment of North Carolina state 
troops. Mr. Gilmer held the rank of sergeant at this time, but later, 
in the year 1861, was promoted to adjutant of the regiment. In 1862 
he was made major, and was in command at the battle of Newbern. 
At the battle of Sharpsburg he was made a lieutenant-colonel for 
gallant conduct, and subsequently was promoted to the rank of col- 
onel, with which office he left the army at the close of the war. In 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Col. Gilmer was wounded, and at Bris- 
ton Station he was again wounded, this time most grievously, and he 
is still a sufferer from that injury. As soon as he was able to leave 
the hospital he reported for duty, and was placed in the invalid corps, 
and assigned to duty at Salisburj', where he served until attacked by 
a malignant fever which entirely incapacitated him for further mili- 
tary duty. In 1864 he returned to Greensboro and resumed the prac- 
tice of law. Two years later Gov. Worth appointed him adjutant 
general of North Carolina, and he held that office for one year. In 
the convention which met at Raleigh in 1S68 he was a delegate, but 
was counted out by Gen. Canby, at Charleston, S. C. 

During the sessions of the state senate, in 187 1-2, Mr. Gilmer rep- 
resented his district with ability, and to the satisfaction of his constit- 
uents. He was not a candidate for public office again until 1S79, and 
in that year was appointed judge of the superior court of the I'ifth 
judicial district, and until January, 1891, when he resigned to attend 
to his important law practice; he served with faithfulness and integ- 
rity. Judge (jilmer was a delegate to the national convention which 
met at New York city, in 1868, and has frequently been a delegate to 
state conventions. He is considered an able financier as well as a 
lawyer, and is a stockholder in the National bank of Greensboro, the 
North Carolina railroad company, and is interested in any movement 



152 NORTH CAROLINA. 

that promises renewed industry in his city and state. On the 14th of 
July, 1864, he consummated one of the happiest acts of his hfe by his 
marriage to Miss Sailie L. Lindsay, a daughter of Jesse H. Lindsay, 
late of Greensboro, and who at the time of his death was the presi- 
dent of the National bank of Greensboro. Three children have been 
born to this most fortunate union, named: Ellison L., Julia P., wife 
of Samuel W. Dick, of Greensboro; and John A. Gilmer, Jr. The 
Hon. John Adams Gilmer, father of Judge Gilmer, was born in Guil- 
ford county, N. C., in 1S05. He was licensed to practice and was a 
lawyer of wide reputation. For several years he held the office of 
county attorney of his native county, and from 1845 to 1850, repre- 
sented his district in the state senate. In 1858 he was elected to con- 
gress, and again in i860. He was the whig candidate for governor of 
North Carolina in 1856, but was defeated by Thos. Bragg. In 1861 
he served as a delegate to the convention which met at Raleigh, and 
resulted in the secession of the state from the union, and was elected 
to the Confederate state congress; and in 1861, was a member of the 
peace convention. His marriage to Juliana Paisley, daughter of Rev. 
Wm. D. Paisle}', a pioneer clergyman of the Presbyterian church of 
North Carolina, and a man greatly beloved in the state, was solemn- 
ized in 1835, and resulted in the birth of six children, named: Mary, 
(died in 1858), wife of Col. Charles E. Shober; William, died at the 
age of six years; John A., of Greensboro, N. C; Fanny M., wife of 
Capt. A. G. Brenizer, of Charlotte, N. C; Hattie P. (deceased), wife 
of Peter H. Adams, and Julia, wife of S. J. Perry, of Charlotte, N. C. 
The mother of these children died in November, 1865. 

John Adams Gilmer was the son of Mr. Gilmer, a Pennsylvanian 
by birth, where he was born in 1775. In his early manhood he came 
to North Carolina and settled in Guilford county, where he was en- 
gaged in agriculture the greater part of his life. His demise occurred 
in 1850. He served for many years as a captain in the state militia, 
and was a man of intelligence and integrity. Judge Gilmer is de- 
scended from an old and influential family on the maternal side, as 
well as on the paternal. But before going further we will pause to 
state that Capt. Arthur Forbis, who served as a captain in the patriot 
army of 1776, was a brother of the paternal grandmother of our sub- 
ject. Gen. Alexander Nebane was the maternal great-grandfather, 
and his distinguished service as a general in the Revolutionary army 
is a matter of national history. Judge Gilmer's mother's uncle was 
Col. William Paisley, also of Revolutionary fame. In this brief sketch 
it will be seen that our subject comes of families who have been con- 
nected very prominently with the establishment and growth of this 
nation. From time to time their members have distinguished them- 
selves on the battle-field and at the bar, while many have lived peace- 
ful lives as honorable gentlemen, tillers of the soil. It is of such 
material that the backbone of this nation is formed, and so long 
as families of like worth remain true to the names they bear all will 
be well. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 5; 



HON. DARIUS H. STARBUCK 



was born in Guilford county, N. C, in 181S, and died in 1887. He 
was graduated from New Garden, now Guilford, college, and then 
began the study of law with John A. Gilmer, and was admitted to 
practice in 1S40. In 1S68 he was elected judge of the superior court, 
but resigned the office. Prior to this, however, in 1866, he was ap- 
pointed United States attorney for the district of North Carolina, 
and held that office until 1S72. He served as a delegate to the seces- 
sion convention at Raleigh in 1S60, and was a delegate to the consti- 
tutional convention which met at the same place in 1865. He was a 
man of magnificent abilities, and rose to marked distinction in his 
profession. 

HON. LEVI M. SCOTT 

was born in Rockingham county, N. C, June 8, 1827. In early child- 
hood he accompanied his parents to Guilford county, and his prelim- 
inary schooling was obtained in the schools of the latter county. 
Leaving school at the age of twenty' he began his active career as a 
school teacher, and at about the same time took up the study of law. 
In 1850 he was appointed postmaster at Greensboro, N. C., and held 
that office for about three years. In 1852 he was licensed to practice, 
and a year later received the election as clerk of the superior court, 
and held that office until 1856. In the latter year Mr. Scott was 
elected to represent his county in the state legislature, and served a 
term of two j^ears. In 1858 he was elected solicitor, of Guilford 
county, and for two terms, of four years each, most satisfactorily dis- 
charged the duties of that important position. He was appointed as 
receiver of sequestrated property by the Confederate government in 
1862, and was retained in that capacity until the close of the war, his 
duty having been to collect all debts owing northern creditors from 
southern debtors, for the benefit of the Confederate States. After 
the termination of hostilities between north and south, Mr. Scott de- 
voted himself exclusively to the practice of his chosen profession at 
Greensboro. He served as a member of the board of directors of 
the state penitentiary from 1885 until 1889, and at the present time is 
the attorney for the Bank of Guilford. As a lawyer he has won a 
name of which he may be proud. Dignified and able, his opinions 
carry weight wherever promulgated, and his reputation as a man of 
the most rigid integrity but adds to his fame as a distinguished law- 
yer and citizen. 

Mr. Scott has been most happy in his domestic relations, having 
been united in marriage to .Miss Mary E. W'eatherly, in 1861. Mrs. 
Scott is a daughter of Mr. Andrew Weatheriy, of Greensboro, N. C. 
Two children have been born to this blessed union, the surviving one 
being Mrs. Mary L. Reynolds, now living in Brooklyn, N. ^'. Mr. 
Scott is a prominent member of the I. (). O. I-"., and in 18OO hekt the 



154 NORTH CAROLINA. 

high honor of grand master of the state of North Carolina. John D. 
Scott, his father, was born in Guilford county, N. C, in iSoo. He was 
given a common school education, and then gave his attention to ag- 
riculture, and was engaged in planting all his life. He served as a 
colonel in the North Carolina militia cavalry, and held his commission 
until the breaking out of the Civil war. In 1824 he married Miss 
Jane McLean, a daughter of Marshal McLean, of Guilford county, 
N. C, and three children were the offspring of the marriage, their 
names being: Allen H., of Guilford county, N. C; Levi M., of 
Greensboro, and William L. Scott, who died in 1872. The father 
died in 1880, his wife having preceded him to rest in 1845. John D. 
Scott was the son of Adam Scott, who was a native of Guilford 
county, N. C, where he was born, in 17S2. Hii demise occurred in 
1837. He was a planter all his life. His father was Thomas Scott, a 
Pennsylvanian, who emigrated to North Carolina in early manhood, 
and settled in Guilford county. The ancestors of the Hon. Levi M. 
Scott on the paternal side were from the north of Ireland, and on the 
maternal side, came from Scotland. 

MAJOR JOHN W. GRAHAM 

was born in Orange county, N. C, July 22, 1838. He received a 
thorough preliminary education in the best schools in North Caro- 
lina, and for two years in the District of Columbia, his father, Hon. 
William A. Graham, being at that time secretary of the navy, and 
residing at Washington city; and he graduated with distinction at the 
University of North Carolina, in 1857. He remained at that institu- 
tion as tutor for two or three j^ears, and established a fine reputation 
for proficiency. Coming to the bar, in i860, he soon won high esteem 
for his abilit}-, thoroughness and fine character, an enviable reputa- 
tion which succeeding years only seemed to enhance. The war 
breaking out, not withstanding his devotion to the Union and to the 
principles of the old whig part}', of which his father had been such 
an illustrious leader, on the 22nd day of April, 1861, he entered the 
service of North Carolina as a lieutenant in the Orange guards, 
which became a company of the Twenty-seventh North Carolina 
regiment, and the next year was promoted to be captain of Com- 
pany D of the Fifty-sixth regiment, afterward assigned to Ransom's 
brigade; and in September, 1863, was again promoted, being made a 
major of that regiment. He served with great acceptability and was 
attentive to every duty, caring for his men with assiduity and sharing 
in every hardship they were called on to endure in a manner alto- 
gether admirable. Brave to a fault and unflinching in the execution 
of his duties, he won the confidence of all who had intercourse with 
him, while he displayed a heroism and self-denying spirit that be- 
token those high qualities that adorn his character. Particularly was 
he highly complimented for unusual gallantry at the battle of 
Plymouth. He escaped all the vicisitudes of war, however, until he 
was seriously wounded in the trenches around Petersburg, and again 



NORTH CAROLINA. 155 

on the 25th of March, 1S65, when in command of the left of the line 
in the attack on Hare's Hill he was dangerously wounded in both 
things, and was on the evacuation of Petersburg left in the hands of 
the Federal forces. It was late in the summer before he reached 
home. , As soon as his strength was somewhat restored he again 
opened his law office at Hillsborough and, being chosen as solicitor of 
Orange county, served as such during the years 1S66 and 1S67 and 
part of 1 868. 

In 1S67 Major Graham was elected by the democrats of Orange 
county, to represent them in the constitutional convention of 1868, 
being one of the few democrats in that body. He then entered upon 
that career as a public man which has won for him the unqualified 
respect, esteem and admiration of the thinking people of the state. 
He opposed the radical changes then proposed in our organic law 
with a persistence and an address that riveted public attention upon 
him. He was elected to the state senate of 1S6S-69, and though there 
were but a half a dozen democrats in that assembly, he never ceased 
to oppose improper legislation and to strive for the best interests of 
the people. He it was w'ho drew the important bill repealing the taxes 
imposed in the special tax acts and declaring the special tax bonds 
invalid, and directing them to be returned to the state treasury. To- 
gether with Jarvis, Plato Durham, and a few other democratic mem- 
bers, and with the assistance of some of the better element of the 
republicans, he pushed the repealing legislation to a successful ter- 
mination, and gained a great triumph for the people in that corrupt 
legislature. He was again elected to the legislature — that of 1870-72, 
where he was one of the most efficient members, and he was largely 
instrumental in shaping the beneficial and remedial measures of that 
period. In 1S72 he was nominated by the democrats for state treas- 
urer, but the ticket failed to be elected by a small adverse vote. He 
was in the senate of 1876-77, following the adoption of the amendments 
to the constitution, when he augmented his reputation as one of the 
most efficient and useful public men in the state. Familiar with every 
detail of the state government, and a most laborious and industrious 
member, a thorough lawyer and a practical man of business, he took 
rank as one of the leaders in that body, and exercised a great influ- 
ence on the legislation of that session. In 1886 he was chairman of 
the state board of commissioners, to revise the system of collecting 
taxes and to equalize the valuation of property, and his report is a 
valuable state paper. In the fall of that year he was also nominated 
for congress in the Wake district, but was defeated owing to influ- 
ences for which he was not responsible. 

Major Graham has attained a commanding eminence in his pro- 
fession, ranking with the foremost lawyers of the state. He was long 
in partnership with Judge Thomas Ruffin,the younger, and they were 
employed in many important cases in their circuit. He has been trus- 
tee of the North Carolina R. R. and for years administered a trust 
amounting to many thousands of dollars. As a citizen he has borne 
a most exemplary character, as a public man his record is withdut 



156 NORTH CAROLINA. 

blemish, and as a party leader he has been prudent, conciliatory and 
patriotic, affable, honest and true, he has the esteem and entire confi- 
dence of the people of the state. In 1867 Maj. Graham married Re- 
becca, daughter of the late Paul C. Cameron, who died in 1883, leav- 
ing six children. He was again married in December, 1887, to Miss 
M. F. Bailey, of Tallahassee, Fla., and one son has blessed their 
union. Living on the site of the old residence of his father, re- 
building the former home destroyed by fire, he has a small farm on 
the Eno, adjoining the grounds owned by Mr. P. C. Cameron, and one 
of the most attractive spots in the central part of the state. Here he 
delights to spend such time as he can command from the circuit of 
courts he attends, and to realize that "there is no place like home." 

W. H. HAYWOOD. 

William Henry Haywood, one of North Carolina's distinguished 
statesmen, was born in Wake county, N. C, in 1801. He graduated 
from the University of North Carolina in 181Q, studied law and 
opened a law office at Raleigh for the practice of his profession. In 
1S31 he was elected a member of the state legislature, first of the 
house of commons and then of the senate. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 1843, holding a seat in that body till 1846. 
He then resigned and returned to his law practice in Raleigh. He 
was a man of firm and commanding talent, made an able statesman 
and an eminent law practitioner. Ill health, however, compelled him 
early to relinquish active business, and for several of the latter years 
of his life he entirely abstained from the practice of his profession. 
Mr. Haywood died in Raleigh, October 6, 1S52, in the fifty-second 
year of his age. 

HON. MATTHEW LOCKE McCORKLE, 

a prominent attorney and ex-judge, at Newton, N. C, was born on 
Mountain Creek, Catawba county (Lincoln county at that time), No- 
vember 7, 1817. His father was Francis McCorkle, son of Francis 
McCorkle, Sr., who fought gallantly at the battles of Ramsoms, at 
Cowpens, Kings Mountain and other places, during the Revolution- 
ary war for our national independence. His mother was Elizabeth 
Maria Abern'athy, of Lincoln count}', N. C. His great-grandfather 
was Matthew McCorkle, who came to this country about the year 
1750, from the north of Ireland, with his wife, Bettie, nee Given. His 
paternal grandmother was Elizabeth Brandon, daughter of Richard 
Brandon, who married Margaret Locke, of Rowan county, the sister 
of Judge Frank Locke, and the niece of Matthew Brandon, who rep- 
resented his district in congress in 1796. His maternal grandmother 
was Susan Maria Abernathy, and his maternal grandfather was John 
D. Abernathy, who came from .Scotland about 1750. The subject of 
this sketch is, therefore, of Scotch-Irish descent. He attended the 
old field schools at intervals, until 1836, and acquired the rlidiments 



NORTH CAROLINA. 157 

of an English education at Lincolnton, under the instruction of Prof. 
John Dickey. In 1S38 he entered Davidson college, and began the 
study of Latin grammar. Owing to financial embarrassment, he left 
college in his junior year, and taught one year at Hicksby Grove 
academy, having a large and flourishing school. He was invited by 
the philanthropic society, of which he was a member, to deliver to 
them a lecture, with which he complied. His old class invited him, 
with th-e permission of the faculty, to join them in their graduation, 
which he did, graduating within four years from the time he began 
his Latin grammar. This was in 1843. He studied law under Chief- 
Justice Pearson, and obtained license to practice in 1S45, settling on 
the newly laid site of the county seat of Catawba, now the city of 
Newton, in lune of that year. 

Mr. McCorkle obtained license to practice in the superior court 
in 1S46, and in the same year was appointed clerk of the superior 
court of Catawba county, by Hon. John M. Dick, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Isaac Wyckoff, who left the state. He 
was elected to fill this office in 1846, and held it until 1S50. In Deceni- 
ber of that year, Mr. McCorkle was married to Miss J. M. A. Wil- 
fong, only living daughter of John Wilfong of Hickory, N. C. They 
were blessed with nine children, five sons and four daughters, 
seven of whom are now living. The eldest daughter, Elizabeth 
Lavina, died at the age of three years; the eldest son, Frank Wilfong 
died in Baltimore while attending medical lectures. The eldest liv- 
ing son, Henry, is in Texas following the business of engineering. 
The next son, George is a practicing attorney at Newton; the next, 
John Macon, is a practicing physician, also in Newton; the youngest 
son, Charles Hilton, is in Catawba college. The eldest daughter, 
Mary Locke married Eugene Simons; Anna Ellen married Jerome 
Dowd, of Charlotte, N. C, Lizzie Alberta is still unmarried. Mr. 
McCorkle volunteered in the late Civil war, raised a company of 
which he was elected captain. He served one year in the Twenty- 
third regiment of North Carolina troops. His health giving out, he 
was compelled to resign. Upon the recovery of his health, Mr. Mc- 
Corkle was appointed colonel of the North Carolina reserves. In 
1864, he was elected to the state senate from the counties of Lincoln, 
Catawba and Gaston, and continued to represent his district in the 
senate until the state was thrown into a provisional government. He 
was elected in 1875 to the constitutional convention. 

The law practice of Mr- McCorkle is now in all the courts, and 
he has met with unprecedented success in his practice before the su- 
preme court of the state. In August, 1890, he was appointed by Gov. 
Daniel G. Fowle, judge of the superior court of the Eleventh judicial 
district of North Carolina, to fill the unexpired term of the late Hon. 
William M. Ship. He rode the ninth judicial circuit, and gave great 
satisfaction to the bar and to the people. His judgments taken to 
the supreme court were every one of them affirmed by that tribunal 
and the public press of his district was the medium of many compli- 
mentary notices in praise of the ability, fairness and impartiality of 



158 NORTH CAROLINA. 

his judgments and rulings upon tlie bencli. At the last court he held 
in the county of Surry, the attorneys and court officers called a meet- 
ing and passed some very complimentary resolutions, laudatory of the 
presiding judge. His health and intellect are in a remarkable state 
of preservation, the fruits of a steady and temperate life. 

MICHAEL HOKE JUSTICE 

was born in Rutherford county, N. C, February 13, 1844. He is the 
son of Rev. T. B. and Harriet (Bailey) Justice, and is the fourth child 
in order of birth. He attended the schools of his native county, and 
at the age of ten entered the academy at Rutherfordton, where he 
remained for five years. He then entered the Golden Grove semi- 
nary, taught by Prof. Logan. This school he attended two years when 
he left his studies to enter the Confederate army in defense of his 
southern horhe. He enlisted in the Si.xty-second regiment of North 
Carolina troops, taking the rank of ordnance officer of that regiment; 
was soon promoted to a lieutenancy in his company, then was raised 
to the rank of adjutant of his regiment, and was finally elected as ord- 
nance officer of the brigade, serving in that capacity until the war 
closed. His regiment was paroled after the surrender of Lee, he sur- 
rendering to Gen. John M. Palmer, at Rutherfordton, who at that time 
was stationed there under a flag of truce. Soon after this Mr. Justice 
began studying law with Judge John L. Bailey, at Asheville, N. C. 
After two years' studj' he was licensed to practice in January, 1868. 
He immediately opened a law office at Rutherfordton, where he has 
ever since practiced. His business has constantly' extended, reaching 
out to all the counties contiguous to his own. In politics he has 
closely identified himself with the democratic party. He has been a 
member of the congressional executive committee of his district, and 
of the judicial executive committee. In the legislature of 1S76-7 he 
represented the district composed of Rutherford and Polk counties 
in the state senate, being the first democratic senator who had repre- 
sented that district since the close of the war. 

Mr. Justice was the democratic presidential elector for his district 
in 1884. He is a prominent member of the Masonic order, having 
filled the highest official stations in that fraternity. In religious sen- 
timent he is a Baptist, having been closely identified with that denom- 
ination for many years; he is one of the prominent members of the 
Rutherfordton Hotel & Improvement company, and one of the chief 
directors of the Rutherfordton military institute. In every progres- 
sive interest he takes a deep concern and has given a helping hand 
to all the improvements of the town and county of his residence. In 
the Citizens' Building & Loan association he is counsel and one of 
the directors. He drew the charter for the Henrietta Cotton Mills 
company. Mr. Justice drew up the charter that passed the legisla- 
ture in 1890, incorporating the Asheville & Thermal Belt railroad 
company. On the 21st of March, 1865, he was joined in matrimony 
with Miss Maggie L., daughter of James M. and Martha Smith, of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 159 

Buncombe county, and they have had six children, four of whom are 
still living. The eldest son, E. J. Justice, is a graduate of Wake 
Forest and of G. N. Folk's law school, and a partner in practice with 
his father. B. A. Justice, the second son, is in Wake Forest college, 
and Gaston, the third son, is in attendance at the Rutherfordton 
military institute. 

COL. J. A. FORNEY, 

an attorney of the city of Rutherfordton, was born in Rutherford 
county, N. C., in 1849. He is the son of Albert G. and Elizabeth 
(Logan) Forney, and his grandfather was Jacob Fornej-, Sr., a Rev- 
olutionary soldier. Albert G. Forney died, when his son, the subject 
of this sketch was an infant, and as the son grew up, he attended the 
home schools, till his widowed mother required his services in look- 
ing after the business left by the father. He finally, however, found 
opportunit}' to attend the academy, and in 1874, entered the law 
school of Chief-Justice Pearson, spending two years under his instruc- 
tion, at the end of which period he procured license from the su- 
preme court of this state to practice. He at once began the practice 
of his profession in his native city, where he has ever since remained, 
and has built up a successful and lucrative law business. Col. Forney 
is a staunch democrat, and has served as chairman of the democratic 
executive committee, of Rutherford county, for the past ten years. 
He has been recognized as a leader in his party, and has taken an 
active part in all its exciting campaigns, ever since he arrived at his 
majority. Col. Forney is president of the Rutherfordton Hotel Improve- 
ment company, and is classed among the most public spirited citizens, 
taking a vital interest in every enterprise, that looks to the public im- 
provement of his native city. Col. Forney was united in marriage 
with Miss Mary Sue Davis, daughter of Col. C. T. N. Davis, who was 
killed at the battle of Seven Pines, in defense of the Confederate 
government. The mother of Mrs. J. A. Forney' was originally Miss 
Mira McDowell, who was a granddaughter of Joseph McDowell, 
who was of Revolutionary fame. Six children have been born to 
Col. and Mrs. Forney, as follows: Champion Albert, Lewis Berguer, 
Joseph Francis, McD., Mary Mansfield, Mira Elizabeth, and J. A. 
Forney, Jr. 

GEORGE S. BRADSHAW, 

one of the leading citizens of Randolph county, X. C, attorney-at- 
law and clerk of the superior court, was born in Alamance county, 
N. C, April 5, 1854. His parents are William .S. and Margaret E. 
(Stockard) Bradshaw, both native North Carolinians. The former 
is a farmer of the better class, and has been very successful in his oc- 
cupation. He is numbered among the respectable, worthy, well- 
known and highly esteemed agriculturists of the county. lie was 
captain in the senior reserves, and took part with his company in the 



l6o NORTH CAROLINA. 

batle of Bentonville, being the last engagement of the war. He has 
reached the age of seventy-six years, and with his wife is a devout 
and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church. George S. 
Bradshaw is the third in a family of six children, four of whom are 
still living. He was educated in Trinity college, graduating there- 
from in 1876. He taught with good success a year and a half, then 
took a course in the law school of Dick & Dillard, and was admitted 
to the bar in January, 1879. To his law practice Mr. Bradshaw has 
added the duties of editorship, being principal editor of the Ashboro 
Courier for six years. He was president of the state press associa- 
tion for one year. In 1880 he was elected to the general assembly of 
the state, serving therein a term of two years as the representative 
of Randolph county. He was a member of the judiciary and educa- 
tion committees, and was chairman of the printing committee and on 
the committee on privileges and elections. 

Mr. Bradshaw was elected as clerk of the superior court in 
1882, and has been re-elected for every succeeding term since by 
constantly increasing majorities, evincing the high esteem in which 
he is held as an officer of the court, and showing his popularity 
among his fellow citizens. He was beaten for a nomination for 
congress by the narrow majority of one vote and a half, in the 
nominating convention of the Seventh congressional district, in 1S84. 
He is one of the trustees of the state university, elected thereto 
by the last legislature, and trustee of Trinity college. He has been 
a director in the High Point railroad company ever since its or- 
ganization. In all progressive enterprises and schemes for improve- 
ment, he takes a leading part. Mr. Bradshaw was married in 1881, 
to Miss Lou McCullock, daughter of John and Louise McCullock, 
of Guilford county. The home of this happy couple has been 
blessed by the birth of five bright children: Kate, Louise, Samuel, 
John and Mary. Both parents are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, south. Mr. Bradshaw is a member of the Ma- 
sonic order, in which association be is held, as he is by all his 
fellow citizens, in the highest esteem. The personal characteristics 
of Mr. Bradshaw are great energy, quick preception, positive in 
his opinions, all re-enforced by an active temperament and a saga- 
cious judgment. 

AUGUSTUS W. GRAHAM, 

of whom we will now write, was born in Hillsboro, N.C., June 8, 1849. 
His preparatory schooling was obtained at Mr. Nash's school in 
Hillsboro, and later at Dr. Alexander Wilson's excellent academy in 
Alliance county. Entering the University of North Carolina, he was 
graduated therefrom in 1868. He then commenced the study of law 
with William Ruffin and Hon. William A. Graham, his distinguished 
father, and was admitted to the bar in 1872. Until 1S88 he was en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession at Hillsboro, and then removed 
to Oxford and became associated with Robert W. Winston, which 





^^ o^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. l6l 

partnership existed until January' i, iSgi. At the latter date Mr. 
Winston was elected judge of the superior court of the Fifth district. 
Mr. Graham was elected secretarj' of the board of arbitration created 
by the legislatures of Virginia and Marjdand in 1S73, to settle the 
boundary dispute between those states, and served in that capacity 
for three years. In 1SS5 he was elected a member of the state senate 
from the counties of Orange, Durham, Person and Caswell, and served 
one term. For two years, from i88g, he was a member of the Oxford 
city council. Mr. Graham was happily married in 1S76 to Miss 
Lucy A. Horner, an accomplished lady, daughter of Prof. James H. 
Horner. Two of the four children born to this union now survive, 
viz.: Susan W. and Alice R. Mr. Graham is a man of much ability, 
and is recognized as one of the leading lawyers of North Carolina. 

It is eminently proper that this, necessarily short sketch, should be 
closed with a brief mention of the immediate antecedents of our sub- 
ject. His grandfather, Joseph Graham, was born in Mecklenberg 
county, N. C, in 1757. x-\t the age of nineteen he raised a company, 
of which he was made captain, to fight in the patriot army of the 
Revolution. At the close of the war he held the rank of major. He 
participated in the battles of Charlotte, Beatties Ford, was present 
at Pyle's defeat in Alamance county, N. C, and was in command of 
the Continental cavalry when Lord Cornwallis was stationed in 
Hillsboro. At the battle of Charlotte he was grievously wounded, 
but fought until literally cut down. After the war he became high 
sheriff of Mecklenberg county, and retained that office for several 
years, resigning it upon his removal to Lincoln county, where he be- 
came the pioneer of the North Carolina iron industry. Upon the 
organization of the University of North Carolina the distinguished 
gentleman was made a member of its board of trustees, and took an 
active and substantial interest in its development. During the war 
of 181 2, we find him once more in the field as a brigadier-general, 
and he was placed in command of the army sent to suppress the in- 
surrection of the Creek Indians in 1813-14. For his valor in the war 
of 1812, North Carolina's legislature voted him a handsome sword, 
appropriately engraved. At this time he retired to his plantation, 
and conducted it in connection with his iron business until his demise 
in 1837. Joseph Graham was the son of James Graham, a native of 
county Down, Ireland, where he was born early in 1700. While a 
young man he came to America, settling in Chester county, Penn. 
He was a planter. His father was born in Scotland, and removed to 
Ireland during his early manhood. The maternal ancestors of Au- 
gustus W. Graham were English. His mother was a direct descend- 
ant of a brother of George Washington, and her father was a man of 
refinement and ability. 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM, 

senator and statesman, was born in Lincoln county, N. C, Septem- 
ber 4, 1804. He attended the common schools of the county, and 

B— I I 



l62 KORTH CAROLINA. 

afterward received a classical training under Rev. Dr. Muchat, at 
Statesville, where it was said of him that he was noted for his thirst 
for knowledge and his aptitude for learning. He graduated from the 
North Carolina university in 1824, studied law with Judge Rufhn, was 
admitted to the bar at Newbern, and opened a law office at Hills- 
borough. Here he found for associates a large number of able law- 
yers, who had been or were subsequently called to preside over the 
courts — such men as Rufifin, Mangum, Murphy, Badger and Nash, a 
brilliant coterie of counselors and jurists. But it was not long before 
Mr. Graham stood side by side with them in the ranks of the profes- 
sion. As an equity lawyer he became highly distinguished; still he 
was destined to shine in the political field with equal luster as at the 
bar. Between the years 1833 and 1840, he held a seat in the state 
legislature, and was several times elected speaker of the house. On 
the occurrence of the great political revolution of 1840, he was needed 
in the national councils, and was elected United States senator, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Strange, who 
yielded to the instructions of the legislature asking for his resignation. 
Mr. Graham's senatorial term extended from December 10, 1840, 
to March 3, 1843. He was the colleague of Willie P. Mangum, who 
had been elected under similar circumstances with himself. In this 
position he became the associate of such distinguished senators as 
Clay, Webster, Benton, Buchanan and Wright, and his speeches be- 
fore the senate did not suffer in comparison with the speeches of these 
eminent statesmen. Soon after the completion of his senatorial term 
he was elected governor on the whig ticket by an unprecedented 
majority. He was re-elected in 1846 by a still greater majority, prov- 
ing that his administration had been highly satisfactory to the people 
of his state. He was solicited to try a third term, but declined. Presi- 
dent Taylor, in 1S4Q, offered Mr. Graham the Spanish mission, and 
this he also declined, but, in 1850, accepted from President Fillmore 
a place in his cabinet, as secretary of the navy. In the presidential 
campaign of 1852, the whig party nominated Gen. Winfield Scott for 
president, and W'illiam A. Graham for vice-president, but in this cam- 
paign the whigs were defeated, and this proved to be the death-blow 
of that great party. 

While Mr. Graham was secretary of the navy he projected the 
Japan expedition which was so successful!}' accomplished by Commo- 
dore Perry, and which has opened not only to this country but to 
every commercial nation on the globe, trade relations with that here- 
tofore secluded nation which have proved of incalculable advantage 
to all. He also projected another expedition to explore the valley of 
the Amazon, in South America, the results of which were of great 
consequence to this country. In 1854, Mr. Graham was again elected 
to the state senate. W'hen North Carolina seceded from the Union, 
it found in Mr. Graham an ardent opponent to that measure, but when 
the convention met, the ordinance was passed unanimously. He was 
elected senator in the second Confederate congress, arfcl held that 
office from the 22d of February, 1864, until the close of the war. He 








2^^ iJ'^^^-^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 163 

was a member of the Union convention which met in Philadelphia, in 
1866. He was one of the commissioners appointed to settle the diffi- 
cult boundary dispute between Maryland and Virginia. He died at 
Saratoga Springs, August 11, 1875. Mr. Graham married Susan, 
daughter of John Washington, of Newbern, who bore him two sons, 
Joseph and John Washington, both of whom were officers in the Con- 
federate army. 

HON. BENJAMIN HICKMAN BUNN, 

whose name is familiar to every North Carolinian, as the successful 
lawyer and congressman, first saw the light on the 19th of Oc- 
tober, 1S44, in Xash county, N. C. He is the son of Redman 
and Mary Hickman (Bryan) Bunn. His father was for many years 
a merehant and agriculturist of Nash county, where he reared three 
of the noblest sons of North Carolina, two of whom fell during the 
war and the third is the subject of this sketch. Of these brothers 
William H. Bunn was the eldest. Graduating at the University of 
North Carolina, he studied law and after being licensed opened his 
office at Wilson, where he was doing a leading practice when the war 
broke out. He entered the Confederate army and was killed while 
commanding a company of cavalry at Burgess' Mills, October 27, 
1S64. Elias, the second son, left the university and entered the army 
and was adjutant of Col. Sol Williams' regiment. Twelfth North 
Carolina troops, when he was killed at Hanover court house, May 27, 
1862. The father of Mr. Redman Bunn was also a native of North 
Carolina, and largely engaged in agriculture. He died at the age of 
twenty-six, leaving issue only Redman. His widow sometime subse- 
quent married William Dortch, and bore him a large family of chil- 
dren. Several of these children have risen to distinction in the 
state. Among them may be mentioned the Hon. William T. Dortch, 
who was a Confederate States senator. Another was Isaac F. Dortch, 
who became one of the leading physicians of Alabama. Benjamin 
Bunn, the great-grandfather of our subject, and the one for whom he 
was named, came with his brother, Redman, from Virginia and settled 
in North Carolina, soon after the war for American independence. 
Redman Bunn for many years represented Nash county in the popu- 
lar branch of the general assembly, and died leaving no descendants. 
This family is of English extraction, the former of the American 
branch having come from London, England, early in the history of 
this country. There is every reason for supposing that it ernanated 
from the same source as the family now bearing that name in Eng- 
land, members of which have risen to fame and distinction in that 
land. The Hon. William H. Bunn, at present the queen's counsel, is 
a representative of this branch of the family. 

Benjamin Hickman Bunn had but just completed his college pre- 
paratory course at the time of the breaking out of the late Rebellion. 
He gave up further study to enter the ranks of the southern army, 
and at the age of seventeen enlisted in Company I, Thirtieth North 



164 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Carolina infantry, under Capt. Arington. He began his military ca- 
reer as an orderly sergeant, and in September, 1862, was elected 
junior second lieutenant of Company A, Forty-seventh North Car- 
olina infantry. He was afterward promoted to second lieutenant 
and then to first lieutenant. Eighteen months prior to the close of 
the struggle he was placed in command of the Fourth company of 
sharpshooters of William McRae's North Carolina brigade, in which 
position he gained the confidence of Gen. McRae, who once remarked 
to his assistant adjutant-general that he could tell Bunn's company 
as far as he could see them on the field by their manners without 
recognizing a single face. It will be seen that he was honored by 
promotion while still very young, as the date of his enlistment was 
July 20, 1861. Still, like mdny another southern lad, he commanded 
men, while yet a boy, with wisdom and valor. Lieut. Bunn was 
twice seriously wounded; first in the first day's fight at Gettysburg, 
and again on the 25th day of March, 1865, before Petersburg. He 
took a faithful and brave part in the following battles: Gettysburg, 
Bristol Station, The Wilderness, Spotts^'lvania Court House, Gaines' 
Mill, Reams Station, Burgess' Mill, and before Petersburg, where he 
was wounded when the Federal troops made an attack on the ex- 
treme right of the Confederate line. He was conveyed to W^inter 
hospital at Richmond, and remained there until the Sunday morning 
that Richmond was evacuated and President Davis left the city, 
which was a few days prior to the surrender of Gen. Lee at Appo- 
matox. Lieut. Bunn had not at this time sufficiently recovered to 
rise from his bed, but he sent his negro servant to Petersburg, where 
his baggage had been left, to see if he could not recover it. The boy 
returned breathless, and with abject terror depicted on his face, ex- 
claiming that the city was being evacuated. This was the first intelli- 
gence that Lieut. Bunn had received in regard to the situation, and 
he immediately arose from his bed and walked to Danville, Va., 
where he boarded a train for home, arriving home on the day of 
Lee's surrender. On the first day of December, of that year, Mr. 
Bunn began the study of law under the tutelage of his uncle, Will- 
iam T. Dortch and Judge George V. Storey, they residing at Golds- 
boro, N. C, and was licensed to practice in the county courts by the 
supreme court of that state on the 12th of June, 1866. Twelve 
months later he was licensed to practice in the superior courts, and 
since that time has been engaged in the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession at Rocky Mount, N. C. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Bunn excels. He has achieved much honor, 
and has a widespread reputation as a successful jurist. Keen, pro- 
gressive and profound, he has brought to the task an indomitable 
will and a mind thoroughly prepared for his life work. A worthy 
contemporary in speaking of him says: " I know of but few men who 
can more deeply probe the essential points of the law. His ability is 
marked, and his honesty crystal." Mr. Bunn first entered the politi- 
cal arena as a sub-elector in the Seymour-Blair campaign in 1868, and 
was a member of the constitutional convention in 1875, which framed 



NORTH CAROLINA. 165 

the present constitution of North Carolina. In November, 1882, he 
was elected to the state legislature, and while a member of that 
body was chairman of the joint committee on the code, an honor al- 
most without precedent, where a member of the lower house has 
been chosen as chairman of a committee formed of members of both 
the senate and house. This committee which was composed of 
twenty-two lawyers, formed the present code of the state. In 1SS4 
he was a democratic elector for the Fourth North Carolina district, 
on the Cleveland ticket, and when the electoral college met in 
Raleigh, Mr. Bunn was chosen as the messenger to convey the vote 
of North Carolina to Washington, which he did, polling the vote for 
Grover Cleveland. Prior to this, however, in 1S80, he was a member 
of the national convention which nominated Hancock. In 1886 he 
was a candidate for nomination to congress, and led the convention 
for 212 ballots, but Hon. John M. Graham received the nomination 
on the 213th ballot, and was defeated at the polls by John Nichols, a 
republican, who was elected by 1,500 majority. In 1888, however, he 
was nominated for this distinguished office, by acclamation, and 
elected by a handsome majority of 2,600 votes. His career in the 
Fifty-first congress was vindicated by the people in 1890, when he 
was returned to congress by 6,500 majority. 

His speech on the federal elections bill was probably the crowning 
effort of Mr. Bunn's public career. In it he expressed a true south- 
erner's opinion of the north and their leading ideas discussed, being: 
"The relative position of the south toward the north and the way to 
heal dissensions existing between the two sections growing out of the 
Civil war, and the effect of the negro vote on the presidential elec- 
tions; showing conclusively that the negroes have for some years 
held the balance of power." This speech was copied extensively and 
a part of it was incorporated in the democratic hand-book. He has 
made over fift}' reports from the committee on claims, and is one of 
its most active members. He was appointed a sub-committee of one 
to prepare the report on " a bill for the relief of John M. Langston," 
in which the whole sum expended for expenses in every contested 
election case since the organization of congress was fully set forth. 
This is the only document ever published by congress in which this 
has been done. The report was unanimously adopted by the com- 
mittee on claims, thus supplanting two reports made by them before 
on the same subject matter. 

On the 7th of November, 187 1, the Hon. Mr. Bunn formed a 
happy marriage alliance with Miss Harriet A. Philips, a lady of much 
culture and refinement. Mrs. Bunn is the daughter of James J. Phil- 
ips, who for many years figured as one of the leading physicians of 
North Carolina. He was the father of a large family of children, 
among them being the Hon. I""red Philips, judge of the supreme 
court of that state, and the Hon. James B. Philips, who is now serv- 
ing his second term in the state legislature. During both terms he 
has been the chairman of the committee on agriculture, one of the 
most important and honorable positions in the power of that l)ody to 



1 66 NORTH CAROLINA. 

bestow. Seven children have grown up in the pleasant home of our 
subject. Miss Mary is at present a student in St. Mary's college, at 
Raleigh, N. C; Hattie A., James P. and Bessie are also in school, and 
Annie Lee, Redman and Benjamin H., Jr., are still in their early 
childhood. The family are communicants of the Protestant Episco- 
pal church. Mr. Bunn is a man of large and commanding stature, 
with a keen eye and regular features. Quick and decisive in his 
every movement, he at once impresses one as a man of action, one 
born to command men. He is thoroughly conversant with the lead- 
ing questions of the day, and has evidently been a comprehensive 
and intelligent reader, both of men and books. 

HON. DENISON WORTHINGTON. 

One of the most prominent lawyers and politicians of North 
Carolina is the Hon. Denison Worthington. Mr. Worthington was 
born in Hertford county, N. C, on the 6th of October, 1S43, the son 
of Dr. Robert H. and Elizabeth (Herbert) Worthington, natives of 
Albany, N. Y., and Norfolk, Va., respectively. Robert H. Worthing- 
ton was a surgeon in the United States arm}', and while on duty at 
Norfolk, Va., met and married Miss Herbert. He afterward settled 
in Murfreesborough, about the year 183S, and there engaged in the 
practice of medicine. During the Civil war he was surgeon of the 
Seventeeth North Carolina regiment, and subsequently was stationed 
near Raleigh. His death occurred at Norfolk, Va., in December, 
1S71. Dr. \Vorthington was grand master of the I. O. O. F. of North 
Carolina, and was one of the most prominent members of the State 
Medical society, was a leading democrat and a devout member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. His wife died in 1S82. Of the nine 
children who blessed this union, four are now living, their names 
being, Robert Herbert, M. D., the eldest, was a surgeon in the Con- 
federate army, and died at Norfolk, Va., in 1S77; George W., lived 
and died at Norfolk; he was a most gifted poet, and his name now 
lives in many lines of noted verse; Herbert Livingston, an attorney 
of Norfolk; Daniel D. R., and Arthur, also of Norfolk; two daughters 
deceased; and Denison Worthington, the latter the third child. He 
was reared at Murfreesborough, and his education was obtained in 
North Carolina and Maryland. In 1S62 he joined the Eighth North 
Carolina regiment as a non-commissioned officer, and in 1863 was 
promoted and assigned to the cammand of scouts on the peninsula, 
and was taken prisoner in 1864. He was confined in Fortress Mon- 
roe, and subsequently at Point Lookout. Having obtained his re- 
lease, he remained with the army until the close. He then settled at 
Norfolk, Va., where he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1869. 
Subsequently Mr. Worthington removed to North Carolina, locat- 
ing in Hertford county, where he entered upon the practice of his 
chosen profession. In 1880 he was elected judge of the criminal court 
of Martin county, and in 1S81 was elected to the house of representa- 
tives of North Carolina, in which body he was chairman of the joint 



NORTH CAROLINA. l6j 

committee for the appointment of magistrates for the state, and in 
18S3 was again elected from Martin county, and was chosen speaker 
pro tcm. of the house, and was also chairman of the committee on 
rules, and chairman of the joint committee appointed to re-district 
the state, and was chairman of the committee on military, and also 
a member of the committee on the judiciary. In May, 1885, he was 
appointed, by the governor, solicitor of the Third judicial district, and 
continued in that office until January i, 1891. Mr. Worthington is a 
member of the Masonic order, the Knights of Honor, and is a com- 
municant of the Missionary Baptist church. His marriage to Miss 
Julia Wheeler, daughter of Col. S. J. Wheeler, of Murfreesboro, N.C., 
was solemnized in November, i87i,and has been blessed by the birth 
of two children, viz.: Bessie and Samuel Wheeler. Mr. Worthington 
removed to Rocky Mount, Nash county, in 1891, and is now engaged 
in the practice of law at that place. He has won an enviable reputa- 
tion as a jurist, and is recognized as a man of superior mind and great 
abilities. His public career has never been stained by any dishonor- 
able act, and in his whole life he is regarded as a man of unswerving 
integrity, and upright, Christian character. 

HON. WHARTON J. GREEN 

is socially and politically one of North Carolina's most distinguished 
citizens, as well as a leading industrial factor in the business com- 
munity. He is the son of Gen. Thomas J. Green, of Mexican fame, 
was born in Florida, and possesses many of those noble traits of 
character which were illustrated in the statesmanship and patriotism 
of his father. Col. Green received a liberal and very thorough edu- 
cation at Georgetown college, the University of Virginia and at West 
Point. He studied law at Cumberland university, and, on admission 
to the bar, became the junior partner of the Hon. R. J. Walker, in 
Washington. When the war broke out he at once joined the Warren 
guards, of the Twelfth North Carolina regiment, as a private, but 
was soon promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, commanding 
the Second North Carolina battalion. He was wounded at Washing- 
ton, N. C, by a shell; was captured on Roanoke Island, but later was 
exchanged, and at Gettysburg was again wounded and captured. 
When peace was declared. Col. Green settled down to a plantation 
life near Warrenton, N. C, which gave him ample time for reading, 
a recreation to which he has devoted himself with great assiduity, 
and he enjoys the enviable reputation of being one of the best in- 
formed men of our day. As a statesman, perhaps there is no man in 
the United States congress that better represents his constituency, 
and certainly none who is thought more of by the people of his dis- 
trict. He was a delegate to the democratic national conventions in 
1868 and 1876, and in the former year was presidential elector. In 
1882 Col. Green was elected representative from the Third congres- 
sional district of North Carolina, after a close contest, and in 1884 was 
re-elected by over 4,600 majority. He has shown himself fully worthy 



l6S NORTH CAROLINA. » 

the confidence reposed in him by the intelligent people of his district. 
He has delivered many weighty and well conceived speeches before 
the house, treating some very important questions in a manner show- 
ing he was a thorough master of his subject. 

Col. Green is generous in thought, liberal in word and prompt 
in action. He combines with an easy adaptability to circumstances, 
a pleasing presence by which he ingratiates himself into the good 
will of those who have the privilege of an acquaintance with him. 
He has devoted much attention to the culture of the grape, and upon 
that subject and its kindred, wine-making, he is an authority. He is 
the owner of the Tokay vineyard, which was originally planted in 
1840. He bought the property in 1879, since which time it has been 
enlarged and improved. New varieties of grapes have been added, 
and the owner has spared neither money nor pains in procuring the 
best known facilities for grape culture and wine manufacture, and to 
place his products on the market. As a consequence the Tokay wines 
have taken their place among the standard brands in America, and 
are sold in every state in the Union except California. In the exhi- 
bition of fruits, Col. Green has taken many gold medals as testimon- 
ials of the excellence of his products. Tokay is situated three and 
one-half miles from Fayetteville, and the vineyard is said to be the 
largest single vineyard this side of the Rocky Mountains, and all visi- 
tors have pronounced it one of the most lovely spots on the conti- 
nent. It is situated on an undulating table land, on Cape Fear river; 
the eye takes in a semi-circular horizon of twenty odd miles in radius. 
The vinfes cover over 100 acres, and the grapes are of some thirty or 
forty varieties. The vineyard produces annually from 20,000 to 30,000 
gallons of wine. The stock on hand is generally 40,000 gallons ready 
for shipment, and the proprietor owns a storage capacity of 100,000 
gallons. 

JAMES L. WEBB, 

one of the leading attorneys of Shelby, was born November 12, 1S53, 
at Webb's Ford, Rutherford county, N. C. He is the eldest son of 
Rev. G. M. and Priscilla J. Webb. His grandfather, James Webb, 
after whom he was named, was one of the pioneer ministers of North 
Carolina, and during his life time held many positions of honor and 
trust. Rev. G. M. Webb is still living and has been engaged in preach- 
ing the gospel for the jjast twenty-five years, as it is understood by 
the Baptist denomination. The subject of this sketch received his 
primary education in the common schools of the county, and at the 
age of fourteen years entered Shelbj' academy. Here he remained 
three or four years and then entered Wake Forest college. At this 
institution he remained for two years and a half, when at the urgent 
solicitation of Hon. Plato Durham, who was at that time publishing 
The Sliclhy Banner, and was also making the race for congress, he left 
college and associated himself with Mr. Durham in the management 
of this paper. He was engaged as editor for some six months and 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 69 

then formed a copartnership with W.C. Durham, and they purchased 
an entire new outfit and conducted The Banner for about two years. 
Mr. Webb then purchased the interest of his partner and continued 
the business alone for about eighteen months, at which time he sold 
out and entered the law ofifice of Hon. Plato Durham, where he re- 
mained one year. He then entered the law school of Chief-Justice 
Pearson, and in June, 1877, was examined before the supreme court 
at Raleigh, and licensed to practice at the bar. Returning to Shelby, 
Mr. Webb began the practice of his profession, and in a year's time 
formed a partnership with Capt. J. VV. Gidney. This connection has 
subsisted ever since, with the exception of a short time during which 
Mr. Webb was engaged in the government service. This firm acted 
as the attorneys for Cleveland county for a period of ten years. Their 
practice extends to the neighboring counties and before the federal 
courts. 

In 1S80, Mr. Webb was elected mayor of the cit}', administering 
that office for one term with great satisfaction to his constituents, and 
he has also held the office of alderman for several terms. In 1S83 
he received the unanimous nomination of the democratic party of the 
Thirty-eighth senatorial district, composed of the counties of Gaston 
and Cleveland, to make the race for senator. His opponent was 1. H. 
McBrayer, Esq., but Mr. Webb was elected by an overwhelming ma- 
jority. He was again nominated by his party in 1887 and elected by 
a large majority. During this session of the legislature, Mr. Webb 
frequently acted as president of the senate and ruled with ability and 
impartiality. Mr. Webb has been actively engaged in politics and in the 
presidential campaign of 18S0, made an extensive canvass of the state. 
He is chairman of the Cleveland county democratic executive com- 
mittee, and has held that office for several years. During the Cleve- 
land administration he was appointed postoffice inspector, with head- 
quarters at Lynchburg, V'a., but owing to illness in his family, he was 
obliged to resign his position some months after his appointment. In 
kSSq, Mr. Webb was prominently mentioned as a candidate for lieu- 
tenant-governor of the state, but he would not allow his name to go 
before the convention. He was also offered the solicitorship of his 
district in i8qo. Though not a candidate before the last congressional 
convention, Mr. \\'el)b received the vote of two counties, and he is 
named as a candidate in the convention of i8g2. He is a Royal Arch 
Mason and a member of the Baptist church. In all church work he 
is active and open-handed, ready to contribute lilTcrally of his means 
and energy for religious culture and improvement, and for the chari- 
ties of the church. Mr. Webb was married in 1878, to Miss K. L. 
Andrews, of Shelby, the daughter of Dr. W. P. Andrews. Two 
daughters and a son have been born into their pleasant home. 

JOHN ALSTON ANTHONY, 

one of the prominent attorneys and educators of Cleveland county, 
N. C, was born in \'ork count}-, S. C, October 23, 18.S4. H<' '^ 'he 



170 NORTH CAROLINA. 

second son of Stanhope H. and Margaret Anthony, and moved with 
his parents to Cleveland county in 1S6S. He received the rudiments 
of his education in the public and private schools of his native 
county, and afterward attended the Kings Mountain high school, in 
Cleveland county, N. C. He then entered college at Chapel Hill 
and attended that institution during the sessions of 1881-S2. After 
leaving college he accepted the principalship of the Grover high 
school, in Cleveland county, and so successful and satisfactory were 
his services in that position that he was retained for five consecutive 
years. In 18S6 Mr. Anthony was elected superintendent of public 
schools and is yet filling that responsible and laborious position. 
During the years 18S7 and 1888 he read law with Col. George N. 
Folk, and in September, 1888, procured license from the supreme 
court of the state to practice his profession. Since that time he has 
prosecuted an extensive and successful law practice from his office in 
Shelby, N. C. Though holding a place in the front rank of his pro- 
fession, Mr. Anthony has not abandoned his law studies, but keeps 
himself well posted in the current decisions of the courts, and is a 
thorough student in elementary law as well as in practice. While he 
maintains a high standing at the bar, the fine condition of the schools 
of the county demonstrates the excellence of his admirable superin- 
tendence and management. No better test of his efficienc}' is needed 
than is shown by the advanced standing, as well in methods as in 
scholarship, of the schools which come under his superintending care. 
Mr. Anthony's paternal grandfather was Jacob Anthony, and his 
paternal grandmother was Elizabeth Bean, both natives of North 
Carolina. His maternal grandfather was John Graham, whose father 
was Maj. Arthur Graham, a major in the I^evolutionar}' war; he came 
from Ireland to this country about the year 1760. The maternal 
grandmother of Mr. Anthony was Mary Carruth, and her father was 
Col. John Carruth, who held the rank of colonel in the Revolutionary 
war, and he also came from Ireland about the year 1760. October 15, 
1889, Mr. Anthony was married to Miss Olive, daughter of Dr. O. P. 
Gardner, of Shelby, N. C. Mr. Anthony's tastes have not led him into 
the arena of politics. He prefers pre-eminence in his profession before 
partisan advancement, and to contribute to the beneficent results to 
be derived from a superior common school sj'stem. In his religious 
views he is broad and liberal and is a conscientious member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

ALEXANDER MARTIN. 

Alexander Martin, senator, was born in New Jersey, about the 
year 1740. He graduated from Princeton college in 1756, studied 
law and was admitted to practice. He removed to Virginia, where he 
remained for a short time, and then, in 1772, took up his residence in 
Guilford county, N. C, where he was elected a member of the colonial 
assembly'. He was also a member of the first provincial congress, 
which met at Newbern, in 1774, and was chosen to the same body 



NORTH CAROLINA. I 71 

in 1775. In 1776 he was appointed colonel of the Second North 
Carolina regiment of v'olunteers in the Continental service. He 
joined Gen. Washington's forces and he was engaged, with his regi- 
ment, in the battles of Brandj'wine and Germantown. At the close 
of the latter battle he was tried by a court-martial for unsoldierly 
conduct and dismissed from the service. But on his return home, he 
and others, discharged with him, iiiade themselves very useful in 
quelling disturbances and punishing the crimes of the tories who had 
engaged in a course of robberies and murders of the defenseless 
patriots. 

In 1779 to 17S2 Col. Martin held a seat in the state senate, and 
afterward was several times re-elected. During a large part of the 
time of his senatorship he was the presiding officer. By virtue of 
that office, he was cx-officio governor of the state during the time 
Gov. Burke was held prisoner by the tories. In 17S2 he was elected 
governor, and was again elected in 17S9. He was a member of the 
convention that framed the Federal constitution. In 1793 he was 
elected United States senator and served for the full term of six 
years. In 1793, Princeton college conferred upon him the degree of 
doctor of laws. As trustee of North Carolina university, he rendered 
that institution great service, and did much to popularize education 
throughout the state. In his executive messages, while governor, he 
recommended a liberal support to the university by state appropria- 
tions. He had a taste for literature, imbibed during his collegiate 
course at Princeton, but was neither a voluminous nor a distinguished 
writer, and he will be chiefly known to posterity for the high official 
position he was called by his fellow citizens to occupy. He died at 
Danbury, in 1807. 

DAVID STONE 

was born in Hope, Bertie county, N. C, February 17, 1770. In his 
youth he v/as schooled by the best teachers to be found in his vicinity, 
and he well repaid the labor of instruction, by his diligence and apt- 
ness for study. When fitted at the academy, he entered Princeton 
college, from which he graduated with highest honors in 1788. He 
took up a law course, under the instruction of Gen. William R. Davie, 
one of the foremost attorneys of his time, and with his quick mind, 
and naturall)' studious hal)its, made rapid proficiency. Mr. Stone 
came from the teachings of his law preceptor, solidly equipped for a 
brilliant and successful practice of his profession. This thorough 
training, under one of the brightest legal lights of his time, added to 
his superior general education, gave him a prestige which he did not 
fail to utilize. His character 'as a private citizen was such as to in- 
spire the confidence of his clients; his abilities as a lawyer were of the 
first order; he was gentlemanly and urbane in his manners, unselfish 
and considerate of the rights of all men; it was no wonder that he 
took a high rank in his profession. 

In 1796 when Mr. Stone had only attained his twenty-sixth year, 



172 NORTH CAROLlJsA 

he was called to the bench of the superior courts of law and equity 
by the voice of the legislature. He had previously held a seat in the 
house of commons, and had there added largel}' to his popularity by 
his solid attainments and his gentlemanly bearing. His conduct upon 
the bench, where he displaj-ed qualities as a jurist of the highest order 
raised him still higher in the estimation of his fellow citizens. In 
17QQ he was elected as a representative in congress, which position he 
held for two years, and was then elected a United States senator. He 
had nearly completed his term of six years when, in 1807, he resigned 
to again take the judgeship of the superior court of his state. The 
next year he was elected governor, and in that high office exhib- 
ited the same exalted qualities w-hich had distinguished him in the 
other departments of the government. In iSii ]Mr. Stone's presence 
was again required in the state legislature. It was a crisis in the his- 
tory of that body which called for the best statesmanship, when ques- 
tions affecting the future political and material interests of the state 
were to be decided. Gov. Stone's long official experience in ail of 
the departments of the state government, and in the legislative de- 
partment of the general government, eminently fitted him to take 
part and lead off in the legislative proceedings in such a juncture. 

Though he did not accomplish the results he had undertaken, on 
account of a strong opposition, yet, that he still retained the confi- 
dence and esteem of his fellow members, was demonstrated by the 
fact that they again elected him to the United States senate, for the 
full term of six years. This was at the beginning of the war of 1812, 
against Great Britain, and the voice of North Carolina was almost 
unanimous for the vigorous prosecution of that war. President Mad- 
ison needed to have -his hands strengthened by wise counsel. It was 
believed that Gov. Stone was the man for such a purpose. It turned 
out, however, that Gov. Stone differed from the legislature, and with 
his colleague in the senate, on some grave questions. He voted 
against the embargo act, which had passed the house, and was de- 
feated in the senate by two majority. For this the legislature passed 
a resolution of censure, and Gov. Stone resigned, and this was the 
close of his brilliant official career. He died in 1818, too prema- 
turely in years, but ripe in conspicuous and useful service to his state. 

THEODORUS H. COBB 

was born August 20, 1854, at Lincolnton, N. C., and is now residing in 
Asheville where he practices law with great effectiveness and success. 
His father was Bartlett Yancey Cobb, and his mother's maiden name 
was Barbara Milinda Henderson. Both parents were natives of 
North Carolina, and both were of Scotch-Irish extraction. Bartlett 
Y. Cobb enlisted in the Confederate army early in the beginning of 
the war, and gave his life to the cause, d^'ing in the service June 17, 
1862. In the fall of the next year the widowed mother removed to 
Lincolnton, the home of her parents. Theodorus H. Cobb, during 
the year 1872, engaged in school teaching in the neighboring county 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1/3 

Gaston, having been well trained for such occupation in the schools 
of Lincoln and Caswell counties. He was acting register of deeds 
for Lincoln county in 1S73-4. He studied law, first under John D. 
Shaw, of Lincoln county, then, during 1875, at the law school of Hon. 
R. M. Pearson, at Richmond Hill, Yadkin county. In January, 1876, 
he was admitted to the bar and immediately began the practice of 
his profession in company with John D. Shjvv, his former preceptor- 
Their field of practice was Lincoln and adjoining counties, and the 
partnership continued until 1S79, when Mr. Shaw removed to Rich- 
mond county. Mr. Cobb then practiced alone until iSSi, when he 
entered into partnership with Judge D. Schenck, the firm continuing 
for about fifteen months, when Mr. Schenck removed to Greensboro. 
Mr. Cobb, again left alone, practiced till 1S86, when he removed to 
Asheville where he opened an office and practiced alone until 1887, at 
which time he went into partnership with J. G. Merrimon, and this 
connection still exists. The Carolina Central railroad company has 
retained Mr. Cobb for general counsel for several years, and he still 
holds that position; he is also city attorney for Asheville, and has 
been since Maj', 1SS9, having been re-elected in May, 1891. His legal 
attainments are of a high order, and he is a wise counselor and a 
most effective advocate at the bar. He is a gentleman of refined 
culture, of courteous manners and a genial temperament, and is a 
general favorite in society circles. His law practice is continually 
increasing and there is a propitious future before him. In De- 
cember, 1879, Mr. Cobb was married to Miss Ellen V., daughter 
of V. O., and Jane D. Johnson, of Charlotte. Their family circle 
has been broadened and brightened by the advent of three chil- 
dren: Ellen B., Bartlett J., and Vivian J. 



HON. WILLIAM HENRY MALONE, 

a prominent lawyer and leading author, of Asheville, N. C, was born 
in Wythe county, Va., July 24, 1832. He is the son of Theophilus 
Malone, a Virginian, and a farmer by occupation, who removed to 
Tennessee prior to the Civil war and died there about 1878. The 
maiden name of his mother was Martha Ilolden, a native of Wake 
county, N. C, who survived her husband only about one year. She 
was a sister of Benjamin Holden and Richard Holden, wealthy plant- 
ers, the former of whom died in Wake county in early manhood. The 
latter removed to a point near Iluntsville, Ala., where he accumu- 
lated a large estate, having, Ijcfore the Civil war, 300 slaves and prop- 
erty altogether worth more than a million dollars. His descendants 
now reside in Iluntsville, Ala. Hon. William II. Malone accom- 
panied his parents to Tennessee when a small child, and he was 
reared to manhood on a farm. He received a thorough early edu- 
cation, and between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two taught 
school as a temporary pursuit. While thus employed he devoted his 
leisure time to the study of law, and at the close of his last term of 



174 NORTH CAROLINA. 

school, entered the law office of Montgomery Thornburg, of New- 
market, Tenn. He was admitted to the bar in 1S54, and at once be- 
gan the practice of his profession. He devoted himself to his law 
practice in eastern Tennessee until 1862, being the partner during a 
portion of the time of Hon. John Baxter, late judge of the United 
States circuit court. In i860 he was appointed by Gov. Harris, of 
Tennessee, attorney-general of the Second judicial district of Ten- 
nessee, which *he held until the authority passed under Federal con- 
trol. In 1861 Mr. Malone was elected a delegate to the convention 
in Tennessee, which was to consider the advisability of seceding from 
the union. In i860 he was a Douglas elector in the Knoxville, Tenn., 
district; he was a democrat but opposed to secession. 

In 1862 Mr. Malone entered the service of the Confederate govern- 
ment, and after performing some military work, he was assigned to 
duty in the manufacture of salt at the Virginia salt works for the 
state of Tennessee, under the supervision of the governor of that 
state, and he continued in that capacity until the close of the war. 
While thus employed his family resided in Knoxville. In 1863, Mr. 
Malone was arrested by some Federal raiders and was taken to their 
headquarters at Knoxville. He was required to give a large bond to 
report to the provost-marshal thirty days later, at the end of which 
time he and his family were banished by the Federal authority and 
compelled to remove to a point within Confederate control. In view 
of the serious trouble growing out of the war in Tennessee, he, in 
1865, removed to Caldwell county, N. C, where he soon after resumed 
the practice of law. In 1868 Mr. Malone was elected to the lower 
branch of the legislature, from Caldwell count}', and served two 
years. He took a very active part in the discussion of all important 
matters which came before that legislative body and was a leading 
member of the judiciary committee. He was one of the few mem- 
bers of that legislature who voted against the adoption of the fif- 
teenth amendment to the constitution of the United States. He 
opposed it by a strong speech, which made a perceptible impression 
upon the assembly. It was during this same session that the Ku Klux 
excitement reached its greatest height and a measure known as the 
Shoffner bill, which authorized the governor of the state to declare 
certain counties in a state of insurrection, became a law. Mr. Malone 
strongly opposed the passage of this bill and in a speech he pre- 
dicted the disastrous state of affairs which its passage subsequently 
brought about and denounced it as destructive of the civil liberties 
of the people. It was the enforcement of this law that led to the 
subsequent impeachment of the governor, VV. W. Holden. While 
the impeachment trial was in progress, the late Chief-Justice W. N. H. 
Smith, of North Carolina, then one of his counsel, read the speech 
of Mr. Malone referred to above as the first exposition of the in- 
famous character of the bill. 

Mr. Malone was one of the framers of the first democratic plat- 
form of North Carolina, after the close of the war, at a time when 
the different parties were in a state of chaos. This was in 186S; the 



NORTH CAROLINA. I75 

State was then under republican rule, the legislature being made up 
largely of carpet-baggers and negroes. At the close of his legisla- 
tive term, Mr. >\Ialone retired from politics, declining to be a candi- 
date for re-election. He shortly afterward removed to Asheville, in 
which place he has since been a leading citizen and a prominent 
member of the bar. In 1886 he was an independent candidate for 
congress, making his fight on the following issues: He advocated the 
free coinage of silver and opposed the contraction of the currency 
and national banks. He also advocated a protective tariff and op- 
posed the evils of the caucus system in vogue in the national bouse 
of representatives. Though he was defeated by the regular demo- 
cratic nominee, Thomas D. Johnston, he received a very flattering 
vote, and carried his home county by a handsome majorit3\ Mr. 
Malone has avoided politics for the most part to devote his atten- 
tion to his profession, in which he has won a high place, having a 
wide and well established reputation as a successful and able advo- 
cate in both the civil and criminal branches of the law. Throughout a 
long professional career, he has maintained a most honorable stand- 
ing, and no blot or act of impropriety can be found upon his record. 
He is widely known as a lawyer who gives close and careful attention 
to every case entrusted to his care, and as an attorney who is con- 
scientious in the discharge of his duties. 

Mr. Malone has not only reached a high place in the legal circles 
as a successful practitioner, but he has also made for himself a last- 
ing name as the author of legal works. He published a work entitled, 
"A Treatise on Real Property Trials" and another called "Criminal 
Briefs," the former of which was issued in 1SS3 and the latter in 1886. 
Both have had extensive circulation, and the supremecourt of North 
Carolina has recently paid the former work a very high tribute, and 
it is frequently quoted from by that august body and also by the 
courts of the different states. In politics Mr. Malone is thoroughly 
independent, and is an ardent protectionist and a warm admirer of 
James G. Blaine, a very strong resemblance to which distinguished 
statesman he bears. This latter is so great that it is a very common 
thing for him to be reminded of it. Mr. Malone is a Master Mason, 
and is the local attorney for the Richmond & Danville railroad. He 
is also attorney for the Cranberry Iron <S: Coal comjjany, the Roan 
Mountain Steel & Iron company, besides several land corporations. 
Mr. Malone has been twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Col. Warham Easley, of Grainger county, Tenn., whom 
he married in 1S52. She died in 1S64, leaving three sons, two of 
whom are deceased, and one daughter. In 1866 he married Mrs. 
Mary E. Murray, of Asheville, a sister of Col. John S. McElroy, of 
that city. 

HON. WILLIAM W. JONES, 

a prominent lawyer of Asheville, N. C, was born in Gr-anville county, 
N. C, July 9, 1841. He is the son of Col. IVotheus E. A. Jones, a 



176 NORTH CAROLINA. 

f 

native also of Granville county born in 1S12, and a farmer by oc- 
cupation who served as a colonel of the state militia. He died in 

1871. He was the son of William Jones, a native of Mecklenberg 
county, Va., and a farmer by pursuit who accompanied his father 
from Virginia to North Carolina, in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. Paternally, the genealogy of the subject of this sketch is of 
Welsh extraction, his great-grandfather being one of three brothers 
who came to America from Wales. The mother of Hon. William W. 
Jones was Mary F. Hawkins, a native of Franklin county, N. C, and the 
daughter of Hon. John D. Hawkins, also a native of Franklin county, 
and a prominent citizen who represented his district in both branches 
of the state legislature. He was a lawyer by profession and one of the 
influential members of the bar. He was the son of Col. Philemon B. 
Hawkins, a native of North Carolina and an agriculturist. Mr. Haw- 
kins, Sr., was a captain in the Continental army during the Revolu- 
tionary war. He had two brothers in the colonial army, one being 
Col. Benjamin Hawkins, a commissioned colonel under Washington 
and the other being William Hawkins who subsequently served as 
governor 0/ North Carolina. The maternal ancestry dates back to 
the time of Sir William Hawkins of the British navy. "The maternal 
grandmother of Mr. Jones was a Scotch lady. His mother died in 

1872. Hon. William W. Jones was reared to the age of seventeen 
years in Henderson, Granville county. In 1857 he entered the North 
Carolina university from which he graduated in 1862. Immediately 
after completing his collegiate course, he entered the Confederate 
service in Company G, Third North Carolina regiment commanded 
by Col. Baker who was succeeded by Col. Moore. Mr. Jones served 
in Gen. Barringer's brigade of cavalry and was with the command as 
a private until the close of the war. He served his country patrioti- 
cally for three years. 

Meanwhile, during his collegiate course, Mr. Jones having deter- 
mined to fit himself for the legal profession, was a member of the law 
class, and in 1866, resumed the study of law under Judge William H. 
Battle, one of the supreme judges of North Carolina. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1867, and in 1868, was admitted to practice in the 
superior court of the state and the United States supreme court. He 
at once located at Henderson, N. C, and began the practice of the 
law. In 1869 he located in Raleigh, and some years later, in 1885, he 
became a resident of Asheville, the climate there being more congen- 
ial to his health. Mr. Jones is one of the ablest and most prominent 
lawyers in the state. He is a democrat, but has persistently esche\ved 
political preferment throughout his whole career, with the exception 
of one term in the senate from 1883 till 1885. He has often been 
solicited to accept other positions of honor and profit. The hrm of 
Jones & Shuford are the attorneys for the National bank at Ashe- 
ville. The marriage of Mr. Jones occurred in 1871, at which time 
Miss Bettie E., the daughter of Dr. Charles E. Johnson, a prominent 
physician of North Carolina, became his wife. They have five chil- 
dren living, one son and four daughters. 





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JLl^ d^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 177 



CAPT. MELVIN EDMUNDSON CARTER. 

Capt. Meivin E. Carter is descended from the Virginia family of 
the same name; his ancestors came to North CaroHna at th<' close of 
the Revolutionary war, in which they had taken an honorable part. 
One of his great-grandfathers served under Washington, and was in 
twenty-six regular battles. Mr. Carter was born in what is now 
Madison county, on the 27th day of February, 1S43. He was edu- 
cated at Col. Stephen Lee's classical and mathematical school, near 
Asheville, and at the university, under Gov. Swain. He studied law 
under the late Judge Bailey, and was licensed to practice in the 
county courts in January. 1867, and in the supreme courts in 1869. 
He has continued actively in the practice of his profession, at Ashe- 
ville since obtaining his license. Mr. Carter has always been a dem- 
ocrat in politics, but has never aspired to political honors. Under 
protest, he allowed his friends to elect him to the legislature on four 
different occasions. He was elected to the house of representatives 
in 1876, 187S, 18S0 and 188S. He held the position of chairman of 
the committee on elections, chairman of the house branch of the com- 
mittee on the sale of the western North Carolina railroad, and at his 
last session, was chairman of the committee on judiciary. It would be 
impossible in the short space allowed us, to mention in detail, the 
many important matters of legislation, with which the subject of this 
sketch was identihed during his legislative career. A zealous friend 
of education, he always urged the most liberal appropriations for the 
education of both the white and colored children of the state. Mr. 
Carter always stood by the state's charitable institutions, voting for 
liberal allowances, to maintain the unfortunates of both races. He 
feels an especial pride in the part he bore, in the settlement of the 
state debt. But his friends have probably regarded his effcjrts in be- 
half of the completion of the Western North Carolina railroad, as the 
most important work of his official life. 

Mr. Carter served as captain of Company A, of the .Sixty-fourth 
North Carolina regiment in the late war. His regiment was captured 
at Cumberland Gap, in 1863, and remained in prison until the war 
closed. He, however, escaped with a few men when his command 
was captured, and, proceeding to Jonesboro, Tenn., after many days 
of dodging, stopped for a little rest in the court-house. During the 
first night, however, an Ohio regiment of infantry ran up on a train 
from Knoxville, and, reaching Jonesboro, a company was detached 
to surround and capture the small squad of sleepers in the court- 
house. Aroused too late to escape, the company of twenty soldiers 
had time, nevertheless, to fire a volley into the enemy, and in the 
confusion that followed, Mr. Carter and two of his men escaped. The 
Ohio regiment proceeded on its way in the direction of southwc^stern 
Virginia, and ^tr. Carter and his men followed on foot. Reaching a 
favorable spot they removed a rail, so that the return train would 
miss the track. Sure enough, when the train was speeding along, the 
B — 12 



178 NORTH CAROLINA. 

next day, on its return trip, the engine was thrown from the track, 
and, to cut an interesting story short, the regiment was overtaken by 
the Confederate forces, and captured at Limestone, Tenn., a few 
miles below Jonesboro. Mr. Carter received the personal thanks of 
the commanding general for the valuable service he had rendered. 
Mr. Carter raised another company, and, while in service under Gen. 
John C. Breckinridge in Tennessee, was captured and sent north by 
way of Nashville, Louisville and Johnson's Island. While in Jersey 
City, awaiting a train to carry him, with other prisoners, to Fort 
Delaware, he again escaped, and, finding his way to Washington, 
gathered valuable information for his cause, which he succeeded in 
carrying through Grant's lines to Richmond, receiving the thanks of 
Gen. Breckinridge, then serving as secretary of war. Mr. Carter was 
married in 1S77, to .Susie R. Rawls, of Union, S. C, and an interesting 
family of six children is the result. 

HON. HEZEKIAH A. GUDGER, 

a distinguished citizen of Asheville, N. C., and an eminent attorney 
and statesman, was born May 27, 1849, in Madison county, N. C. He 
is the son of Jackson J. and Sarah Emeline (Barnard) Gudger, both 
native North Carolinians. The father was a first class business man, 
active and energetic, yet careful and prudent. He devoted his at- 
tention largely to real estate, and was very successful in his opera- 
tions. He held the offices of clerk of the superior court and chair- 
man of the county court of Madison county for many years up to 
1S68. The subject of this sketch began his educational course at the 
Weaverville high school, which he attended for two years. He then 
entered upon the study of law at Asheville, under the guidance of 
Judge J. L. Bailey, and was admitted to the bar in January, 187 1. Be- 
ginning the practice of his profession the same year, Mr. Gudger 
opened an office in his native county. His aptitude for public busi- 
ness was soon discovered, and, in 1872, he was elected to the popular 
branch of the state legislature as the representative of Madison 
county. The county was strongly republican up to that time, but Mr. 
Gudger's personal popularity carried him through upon the demo- 
cratic ticket, and his legislative career justihed the choice of the peo- 
ple. He was re-elected at the next trial by an increased majority, 
and in 1876, was chosen for a third term. He was not there in the 
interest of a party, but was the capable, efficient and watchful repre- 
sentative of the interests of the district which had entrusted him with 
those interests. Besides his legislative capacity, Mr. Gudger was well 
qualified to work in the educational field, and in February, 1877, was 
elected principal of the state institute for the deaf and dumb, located 
at Raleigh. His fitness for this position was illustrated by his reten- 
tion in it for six years. 

At the close of the term, in 1S84, Mr. Gudger resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession at Asheville, in partnership with H. B. Carter, 
Esq. But the state still had need of his services, and at the election 



NORTH CAROLINA. 179 

in 1S84, he was chosen to represent his district in the senate. Al- 
ready thoroughly experienced in legislation, he made himself efficient 
in the upper branch not only by his championship of the material 
concerns of the state, but stood as the fast friend of the free school 
system, upon which through the education of the masses, the per- 
petuation of a free government must ever rest. The ideal republic 
can never be realized but b}' the education and social elevation of 
the constituent voter. In a representative government the masses 
must be intelligent to reach the desired results and these principles 
were uppermost in Mr. Gudger's political creed. With such senti- 
ments it was fitting that he should be appointed a trustee of the state 
university, a preferment accorded him by the legislature and which 
he still holds. At the convention of the instructors for the blind, 
held in Janesville. Wis., in iSSo, Mr. Gudger was a delegate, and so 
thoroughly identified was he in the general t)bjects of the convention 
that he was unanimously chosen as its president, though he was the 
youngest member of that convention. This was the most flattering 
recognition of his fitness for such a trust and of his ability in the 
educational field. As an effective public speaker Mr. Gudger has 
demonstrated his ability in several political campaigns in which he 
has canvassed the state for the democratic ticket. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity and a Knights Templar, and was chosen 
deputy grand master of the state. In January, iSgi, he was elected 
grand master of the Grand lodge of North Carolina. He is also a 
member in good standing of the I. O. O. F. Besides these secret 
associations, Mr. Gudger is and has for some time been a devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church, south, and he has on 
two occasions represented the denomination as a delegate to its an- 
nual and general conferences. Mr. Gudger was married in August, 
1876, to Miss Jennie H., daughter of B.J. and Sarah E. (Baird) Smith, 
of Asheville, and they have five children: Francis A., Ada L., 
Hiram A., Mary and Emma. 

GEORGE A. SHUFORD. 

Biography has wider and more useful service than in ministering 
to the vanity of its subject or the pride of its friends; something more 
noble even than the record of distinction in whatever field of work it 
has been achieved. Its true mission is to seize upon such points of 
character and career as may be presented for imitation, emulation or 
encouragement; and even the humblest of men in conscientious dis- 
charge of duty, faithful application of the means opportunity presents 
to their use, perseverance under opposition, fortitude under adversity, 
courage under trial, integrity under temptation, may illustrate more 
usefully and splendidly those characteristics of humanity which ennol)le 
and adorn it, than those more dazzling and striking examples which 
mankind is more apt and ready to take up as its idols and exemplars. 
What is worth following, worth imitating, worth worshiping, is not 
universally found in that higher sphere of action to which ambition 



l8o NORTH CAROLINA. 

chiefly directs its aim. Without question the pages of history are 
adorned with names so indeHblj' inscribed with deeds of almost 
super-human achievement that they can never lose their hold, so long 
as history and society last and hold together upon human admiration 
and as spurs to human imitation. But rare are those characters 
which sustain the scrutiny of analysis, and emerge from it free from 
the taint of counterbalancing vices and infirmities. It is rather in 
the more modest walks of life, in that intermediate stage of action, 
where the actor is playing his part for the present, not like Napoleon, 
for the " eternity of time " and the admiration of posterity, but with 
reference to present good and contemporary influence, that the 
most useful and practical exemplars for the young, and the most en- 
couraging examples for the struggling must be sought. In a few 
brief, strong words, the Latin poet presents the real ideal of the man 
who is to make the proper impress upon the present, without con- 
cerning himself with the thought of a remote temporal future: "J^/s- 
tutn ac tcnacon propositi vinim :" a man just in his dealings with his 
fellow man, a man fixed in his principles and tenacious in adherence 
to them, a man so just that he cannot be dishonest, and so brave and 
sincere that he cannot be corrupt; and when to this lofty heathen 
idea! is superadded those graces that Christian doctrine so gen- 
erally imparts, the daily walks of life will provide abundant illus- 
tration of useful and admirable character and career without seeking 
for such in the lofty and resplendent sphere of world renowned pub- 
lic fame and service. 

In such daily walk we find the subject of this sketch, George A. 
Shuford, living illustration of what virtues and characteristics are 
needed for the perfection of an honorable and useful career, both in 
its private and public relation. He was born in the county of Bun- 
combe, state of North Carolina, August i, 1S55. His parentage was 
such as to give assurance of the perpetuation in unbroken line of 
moral and mental features stamped upon the individuality of a long 
succession of generations. His father's family was that of German 
stock, now so firmly rooted in the middle and western portions of 
North Carolina, into which it was transplanted during the middle of 
the last century, after having flourished and greatly increased in 
Pennsylvania. The spirit of emigration seized upon the Pennsylvania 
colonists when their numbers compelled the occupation of ampler ter- 
ritory; and, governed by characteristic sagacity, the emigrants sought 
that fertile, beautiful, and then almost unoccupied region, extending 
parallel with the Blue Ridge through Virginia down into South Car- 
olina, and including the rich valleys watered by the head streams of 
the many rivers which pursue their devious courses to the distant 
Atlantic. In this region, with German tenacity, they remained fixed, 
as if, in the language of the Indian finding the locality that filled all 
his hopes and wishes, they had said, " here we rest." For though 
in turn they have sent out their surplus and, with their population, 
invigorated other lands, the main body still remains where it first 
planted itself, unchanged in those characteristics of peacefulness, in- 



NORTH CAROI.IXA. l8l 

dustry, thrift, integrity and fixity of purpose, wiiich have always dis- 
tinguished that branch of the human family. 

The Shuford family were Alsatians, coming early in colonial his- 
tory to Pennsylvania. From that state, members of it removed be- 
fore the war of the Revolution, to the county of Lincoln, into that 
part now known as Catawba, N. C. The great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch was a member of a family of seven brothers, 
all of them noted for their strength and stature, all of them exceed- 
ing six feet in height. All were farmers, prosperous and independent. 
They were all intelligent, and their names w^ere synonymous with 
integrity. The early record shows that they filled various places of 
honor and trust, the legacy of a good and honored name perpetuated 
to the present day throughout western North Carolina. The great- 
grandfather of George A. Shuford settled in Buncombe county, in 
that portion now erected into the county of Transylvania, soon after 
the close of tiie Revolutionary war, engaging in stock-raising; to 
which the character of the country offered peculiar inducements. 
He lived there useful and honored until his death at ? ripe old age. 
He had only one son, David Shuford, the grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, who, inheriting the characteristics of his ancestors, was 
noted for his industry, generosity, hospitality and stern integrity. He 
Was endowed with a strong natural intellect, a high sense of honor 
and justice, and a broad liberality for his fellow men. He was a 
patriarch and arbiter in the primitive community in which he lived, 
whose advice was often sought for and whose judgment in matters of 
controversy among his neighbors was usually final. He raised a large 
and honorable family of sons and daughters. George Shuford, the 
eldest son of David Shuford, was the father of the subject of this 
sketch. In his earlier years he engaged largely in the mechanic arts, 
in which he. became skillful and successful; but his later years were 
given to the labors and pleasures of the farm, carefully avoiding the 
cares of public life, passing away in a good old age, leaving behind 
him the memorj' of a useful, honest and respected name. He was twice 
married. His first wife was Louisa M. Beachem, a native of Green- 
ville, S. C. She was of an English family which had for several gen- 
erations lived in South Carolina. By the first marriage there were 
five sons and one daughter. On the death of his first wife, Mr. Shu- 
ford married again, and the issue of the second marriage was one 
daughter. 

George A. Shuford was the fourth son at the time previously men- 
tioned, llis early years, passed like those of most country boys, leave 
no especial mark for the note of the biographer. I lis first step in the 
march of life was into the Sand Hill academy in Buncombe county, 
near which his father then resided, and afterward he was placed at 
Davidson's River academy in the present county of Transylvania. 
His teacher there was Mr. A. D. Farmer, regarded as a well qualified, 
but somewliat eccentric i^edagogue. He entered successively the 
academies at Brevard, unclcr Dr. McNeil Turner, and the l-'ranklin 
high school, under Mr. Daniel M. Jones, and attaching himself to that 



lS2 NORTH CAROLINA. 

gentleman when he removed to Waynesville. He employed a por- 
tion of his time from 1874 to iS76in teaching; he then entered Emorj'- 
and Henry college, Virginia, and there completed a special course of 
study. During the fall of 1877 he taught school, and meanwhile pur- 
sued a course of study preparatory to engaging in the study of the 
law which he had chosen as his profession. Thus, after long years of 
patient preparation and looking forward, he took the decisive step 
toward the attainment of those honors, and it maj' be added, those 
emoluments which reward the pursuit of the law, of all professions 
the one most sure to bring into prominence the noblest character of 
the man, the real qualifications of the student; illustrating the one by 
illustrating the virtues of integrity and fidelity to responsibilities as- 
sumed, and confirming public confidence by the possession of those 
acquirements of legal learning and enlarged general information 
without the possession of which the lawyer is imperfectly equipped 
either for the attainment of honors or for professional reputation. 

Mr. Shuford began the study of law in Waynesville, N. C, under 
the instructions of the Hon. J. C. L. Gudger and Mr. Garland S. Fer- 
guson; the first to become subsequently an honored judge of the 
Twelfth judicial district; the other for eight years the able solicitor, 
for the same district. He soon afterward entered the law school at 
Greensboro, N. C., conducted by the Hon. Robert P. Dick, judge of 
the United States district court, and the Hon. John H. Dillard, then 
associate-justice of the supreme court of North Carolina. A school 
under instructors of such eminence assured the solidity of the ac- 
quirements of its cicvcs: and, accordingly, after a highly satisfactory 
and honorable examination before the supreme court of North Caro- 
lina, Mr. Shuford was admitted in January, 1S79, to practice in all the 
courts of the state, and at once entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Waynesville, alone at first, but soon after associating him- 
self with Mr. Alden H. Howell, an experienced practitioner of that 
town. At the end of two years this partnership was dissolved, Mr. 
Shuford removing to Asheville, and entering into partnership with 
the Hon. Thomas D. Johnston, which association was continued until 
Mr. Johnston was elected to the national congress as a member of 
the house of representatives. After practicing alone for two years, 
Mr. Shuford entered into partnership with Mr. W. W. Jones, which 
connection still exists. A firm unsurpassed in Asheville for its hold 
upon public confidence, gained through the professional learning of 
its members, their lofty personal character, their interest in their 
clients, their inflexible regard to duty. In these gentlemen the pro- 
fession of the law is illustrated with its traditional lustre and elevated 
to the dignity through which it should always exact popular reverence. 

In 1884 'Mr. Shuford was elected presiding justice of the inferior 
court of Buncombe county, the court was given limited criminal juris- 
diction, not embracing capital offenses, yet the cognizance of the 
lower grades of crime gave ample field for the display of learning, 
and also for the exercise of firmness, impartiality, and also mercy 
when wise consideration for the public interest justified it. All these 



NORTH CAROLINA. l8, 



3 



qualifications were so strongly and happily blended in the judicial 
character of Judge Shuford, that, during the term of the four years 
during which he served he daily added to the respect and confidence 
of the people while he inspired a wholesome fear in the minds of 
of offenders; and then returned to duties of his private pursuits 
crowned with the reward accorded to the good and faithful officer. 
With this exception Mr. Shuford has never aspired to office. He is a 
politician to the extent expected from every good citizen, a man alive 
to the public interests, feeling sensibly the need of entrusting their 
conduct to good and able men, jealous of the public liberties, sensi- 
tive to the public honor, zealously hostile to whomsoever or whatso- 
ever may attempt to abridge the one or tarnish the other. To this 
extent he is a politician, and a trusted and watchful member of the 
democratic party, to which he belongs, and as testimony to his un- 
flinching fidelity to his party principles, and the wisdom and value of 
his counsels, he has ably served as the chairman of the county demo- 
cratic executive committe, and of the executive committee of the 
judicial district in which he resides. But he has steadily suppressed 
all aspirations for the political honors which, with his consent, would 
be so readily accorded to him. As a member of the state democratic 
convention of North Carolina of i8SS, he served on the committee 
on platform and resolutions, and, as one of a sub-committee of two, 
he, with his associate, drafted the platform which was adopted by the 
convention, on which the democratic party waged its campaign, and 
under which a splendid victory was won for democracy. In private 
life he is of exceptionally amiable disposition, sprightly in conversa- 
tion, intelligent, and read in the best literature of the day, a sincere 
and active Christian, a worthy member of the Methodist church. As 
a citizen he is public-spirited and liberal, and participates and often 
leads in those intelligent measures having as their object the im- 
provement and advancement of the fine section of which he is a 
native. In his professional career he has already attained a name 
and eminence honorable to his character, and his efforts and achieve- 
ments gained in a comparatively brief professional life. To few men 
does the pathway of the future open a fairer or more prosperous 
career. 

W. R. DAVIE. 

William Richardson Davie was born in Egremont, England, 
June 20, 1756. In his youth he was brouglit to this country by his 
father, Archibald Davie, in 1763, and was adopted by his maternal 
uncle. Rev. William Richardson. He began school at Charlotte, N. C, 
entered Princeton college and graduated from that institution in the 
fall of 1776. Before his graduation he had joined a party of students 
as volunteers in the northern army. The campaign closing early in 
the fall, he retvu-ned to college, where he graduated with highest 
honors. He then returned to North Carolina and began the study of 
law at Salisbury, at the same time aiding to raise a company of cav- 



184 NORTH CAROLINA. 

airy to join the American forces. He was commissioned lieutenant 
by Gov. Caswell, April 5, 1799. He was afterwards promoted to the 
command of the company, joined Pulaski's legion and soon took the 
rank of major. At the battle of Stono he was in command of the 
right wing of Lincoln's army, and was severely wounded during the 
tight. He was with Gen. Greene through the southern campaign, 
fought at the battle of Guilford Court House, Hoblark's Mill and at 
the evacuation of Camden. 

Having served his country gallantly' and made a most brilliant 
military record, Mr. Davie returned to his law studies and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Salisbury in September, 1779. His career as a 
lawyer was equally brilliant and successful with his accomplishments 
as a soldier, and he immediatel}' placed himself in the foremost rank 
of his profession. His eloquence and effectiveness at the bar attract- 
ed the attention of the public and his services were in demand from 
every part of the state, his practice extending to all the courts. 
He was a member of the constitutional convention which met in 
Philadelphia in May, 1787, but was obliged to leave for his home be- 
fore the deliberations of that body were completed, and for that 
reason did not sign the constitution. He was a delegate to the con- 
vention at Hillsboro, called to consider the Federal constitution, and 
was one of the most able advocates in favor of its adoption by the 
state. Between the years of 17S5 and 179S, he was six times elected 
to the North Carolina house of commons. In the legislature he 
drew the act for the organization of the North Carolina university, 
and was foremost in providing for the erection of its buildings, estab- 
lishing its professorships and arranging its curriculum of studies. 
Judge Murphey, one of his junior contemporaries, who was an attend- 
ant of the house of commons when Gen. Davie was advocating the 
claims of the university said of him: " I was present in the house of 
commons when Davie addressed the house for a loan of money for 
the university, and although thirty years have elapsed, I have a most 
vivid recollection of the greatness of his manner and the power of 
his eloquence. In the house of commons he had no rival. His elo- 
quence was irresistible. " 

In the settlement of the boundary disputes between the Carolinas, 
Mr. Davie acted at three several times as commissioner on the part 
of North Carolina. He was appointed brigadier-general of the 
United States army in 1798, and was the author of a treatise on 
cavalry tactics. He had previously been appointed major-general of 
the North Carolina militia. In December, 1799, he was elected gover- 
nor of the state, but before he had finished his full term, he was ap- 
pointed by President Adams upon a special embass}' to Prance, in 
company with Oliver Ellsworth and Chief-Justice William \'. IVIurray. 
In 1802 he was appointed by President Jefferson an Indian commissioner 
to treat with the Tuscaroras. In 1803 he was a candidate for congress 
against Hon. Willis Alston by whom he was defeated. Shortly after 
this he retired to a farm on the Catawba river, in South Carolina 
where he spent the remainder of his days. He was offered a com- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1 85 

mission as major-general of the United States army, in 1813, but de- 
clined on account of increasing age, and impaired health. He died 
in Camden, S. C, November 8, 1820, leav'ing three sons and three 
daughters. The mother's maiden name was Sarah Jones, daughter 
of Allan Jones. 

GABRIEL HOLMES 

was born in Sampson county, N. C, in 1769. He was educated in the 
common branches at the public schools and studied the classics under 
the instruction of Rev. Dr. McCorkle, of Iredell county. He gradu- 
ated from Harvard university and afterward studied law with Judge" 
Taylor, chief-justice of the supreme court of North Carolina. When 
he was only t\vent3'-four j^ears of age he was elected to the state legis- 
lature where his services were such that he was repeatedly re-elected, 
holding the office for about twenty years. He then retired for a while 
to private life, but in 1821 the legislature of the state elected him 
governor of the state. In 1824 he was elected by his congressional dis- 
trict to a seat in the national house of representatives, and two years 
afterward was re-elected to the same office. He died September 26, 
1829, before his last congressional term had e.xpired, and a tablet in 
the congressional cemetery perpetuates the date of his decease, and 
the principal events of his life. 

Mr. Holmes was not only a finished and profound scholar, but he 
was the possessor of personal characteristics which gained for him 
the highest respect and esteem of all with whom he was associated. 
He was affable in his deportment, kind and sympathetic in his dispo- 
sition, and by his attainments and culture, was htted to move in the 
highest circles of society, where he was ever welcome. His death 
was an irreparable loss to his family, and not less so to the state 
which had honored him with the highest office in its gift. He served 
the state faithfully, honestly and effectively, and shed lustre upon the 
official trusts which had been reposed in him. 

COL. ALLEN TURNER DAVIDSON, 

an old and honored citizen and retiretl lawyer of i\sheville, N. C, 
was born in Haywood county, N. C, on Jonathan Creek, May 9, 1819. 
He was the son of William Mitchell Davidson, a native of Burke 
county, N. C, born in 1781, and a farmer by occupation, who died in 
May, 1846. The latter was a son of William Davidson, a Revolu- 
tionary soldier, and the cousin of Gen. William Davidson, who fell 
at the battle of Cowan's Ford during the struggle for independence. 
The father of William Davidson was John I^avidson, and the father 
of (km. William Davidson was George Davitlson. John and George 
Davidson, brothers, came to America from Europe. The mother of 
the subject of this sketch was Betsy \'ance, a native of Burke county, 
and the daughter of Capt David Vance, of Revolutionary fame. She 
was also the aunt of United States Senator Vance of this state. Her 



I 86 NORTH CAROLINA. 

birth occurred in 1787, and she died April 15, 1861. Capt. David 
\'ance was a native of V'irginia and a farmer by occupation. The 
Vance family are descended from the family of De Vaux, of Nor- 
mandy, France. Col. Allen T. Davidson was reared on a farm in 
Haywood county, N. C, and received an academic education. At the 
age of twenty he found employment in a store owned by his father in 
Waynesville. In 1S42 he was united in marriage with INIiss Elizabeth 
A. Howell, an educated Christian lady who greatly assisted him in 
his profession and life work. About the time of his marriage, or im- 
mediately after, Mr. Davidson took up the study of law, and while a 
student in 1S43 ^^'^s appointed clerk and master inequitj'of Haywood 
county. His legal preceptor was Michael Francis. He was admitted 
to the bar January i, 1845, retiring from the above mentioned ofhce 
in the spring of 1S46. He removed to Murphy, Cherokee county, 
where he at once actively entered upon the practive of law. There 
he resided until 1863, devoting his whole attention to his professional 
labors. He threw his whole soul into his work, and became one of 
the leading lawyers of that section. During twelve years of his resi- 
dence there, Mr. Davidson served as solicitor of Cherokee county. 
In April, i860, the Miners & Planters' bank was organized at Murphy, 
and he was chosen president. In 1861 he was a member of the North 
Carolina secession convention. 

Meantime, in his youth, Col. Davidson had served as a member 
of the state militia and was a commissioned colonel before he was 
twenty-one years of age. The secession convention, above referred 
to, after passing the ordinance of secession, chose him as one of the 
North Carolina delegates to the provisional government at Richmond. 
He served out the provisional term, and in 1862, was elected a mem- 
ber of the Confederate congress, the permanent government having 
meanwhile been established. He served until the spring of 1864, and 
in the fall of 1865, located in Macon county, N. C, at Franklin, and 
in the spring of i86g he moved to Asheville. In 1864-5 ^^ served as 
a member of the council of Gov. Vance, and in the same year acted as 
agent of the commissionary department of the state, it being his dut}' 
to distribute provisions to the widows and families of Confederate 
soldiers in western North Carolina. After locating in Asheville, Col. 
Davidson devoted his whole attention to his law practice until 1885, 
when he retired. His active career covered a period of forty years, 
during which he was one of North Carolina's most influential men. 
As a lawyer. Col. Davidson stood at the head of his profession in 
western North Carolina. Though a very successful lawyer in gen- 
eral, he excelled as a criminal lawyer. He defended fifty-seven cases 
for murder and in not a single case was his client executed. He is 
president of the Asheville bar association and politicall}' is a demo- 
crat. Col. Davidson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
south, and a Royal Arch Mason. He is a stockholder in the First 
National bank, of Beaumont, Tex., and also of the North Georgia 
railroad. Three sons and three daughters are the living children of 
Col. Davidson, one of the former, Hon. T. F. Davidson, being the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 1^7 

present attorney-general of North Carolina. Wilbur S. Davidson is 
cashier of the National bank, of Beamont, Tex. Robert Vance Dav- 
idson is a lawyer in Galveston, Tex. 

JOHN W. ELLIS. 

John Willis Ellis was a native of Rowan county, N. C; born No- 
vember 25, 1820. He was the son of Anderson Ellis. His early edu- 
cation was under private tutors, and he graduated from the North 
Carolina university in 1S41. He studied law in the office of Judge 
Pearson, afterwards chief-justice of the state, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1S42. He began practice in Salisbury, where he very soon 
gained a large clientage and carried on a prosperous business. In 
1S44 he w-as chosen a member of the house of representatives, to rep- 
resent Rowan county. His politics were not in accordance with a 
majority of his constituents, but they elected him, nevertheless, from 
higher considerations than those of partisanship, and in his course in 
the legislature, he fully justified the wisdom of their choice, evidenced 
by several re-elections. He was a true, candid and philanthropic 
legislator, dealing what he conceived to be justice to all parties. He 
directed his attention largely, while a member, to the internal im- 
provement of the state, being the friend of the railroad projects and 
of state educational and charitable institutions. 

In 1848 Mr. Ellis was elected one of the judges of the North Caro- 
lina superior court, being among the youngest men ever elevated to 
the bench, yet he proved to be one of the best. His decisions gener- 
ally met the public approbation, as well as that of the higher courts. 
He was patient, dignified and impartial in his rulings. He was elected 
governor of the state in 1858, by an overwhelming majority, over one 
of the most popular opponents his party could select. He was re- 
elected by a large majority on the eve of the opening of the Civil 
war. When that catastrophe happened he was called upon by Presi- 
dent Lincoln to furnish troops for the Union cause, which he promptly 
refused, and on behalf of the state government he took possession of 
Fort Macon, the public works at Wilmington, and the arsenal at 
Fayetteville. On the 20th of April, 1861, he ordered the seizure of 
the United States mint at Charlotte. When the ordinance of seces- 
sion was under discussion. Gov. Ellis, was one of its most ardent and 
active supporters. But the cares of state proved too much for his al- 
ready impaired constitution, and he died in July, 1861, at White Sul- 
phur Springs, whither he had gone in the hope of recuperation. His 
death at this juncture was a severe loss to the state, and a mournful 
event to a large circle of personal friends and admirers. 

HUTCHINS G. BURTON 

was a native of Granville county, N. C. He studied law and settled 
in Charlotte, Mecklenburg county. In 1810 he was elected to the 
state legislature and by that body was appointed attorney-general of 



1 88 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the state. Afterward he removed to HaHfax county, and in 1817 was 
chosen to represent that county in the state legislature, serving two 
years. In 1819 he was elected to congress from the Halifax district 
and was re-elected in 1821. He was elected governor of the state in 
1824. In 1826 he was nominated by President John Ouincy Adams, 
as governor of the territory of Arkansas, but the senate failed to 
confirm the nomination. He married Sally, daughter of Willie and 
Mary Montford Jones, and granddaughter of Robin Jones. He died 
in Iredell county, in 1836. Gov. Burton was a man of genial and 
social disposition, of polite manners and of correct deportment. He 
was a universal favorite in society, to which he imparted grace and 
ornament. 

HON. CLEMENT DOWD 

was born in Moore county, N. C, August 27, 1832. His father was 
Willis D. Dowd, and the maiden name of his mother, Ann Maria 
Gaines. They were both natives of South Carolina, the father of 
Irish and the mother of Scotch descent. Willis D. Dowd was a 
farmer by occupation, and at the early age of twenty-one was chosen 
a member of the lower branch of the state legislature. Thereafter 
he served several times in both branches. He was the son of Cor- 
nelius Dowd, also a farmer and a native of Moore county. For 
twenty-five years he was clerk of the county court in his native 
county. His father was Conner Dowd, who came from Ireland at an 
early day and settled in Moore county, where he lived and died, 
spending his days in the farming industry. Clement Dowd was 
reared upon the homestead farm, where he learned the lessons of in- 
dustry and perseverance. Here he worked till seventeen years of 
age, in the meantime attending the old field schools and obtaining a 
fair English education. He then began teaching in the public schools 
of his county. This was the stepping stone to higher and more im- 
portant stations in life, and by means of the income secured from 
teaching, Mr. Dowd was enabled to incur the further expense of at- 
tending the academies in his neighborhood. By these helps in 1852 
he gained admission to the university from which he was graduated 
in 1856. For two years thereafter he taught the Carthage academy, in 
which he had formerly been a student. During the two years he 
studied' law, and in January, 1859, was admitted to the bar. The 
same year he began practice at Carthage. In 1857 Mr. Dowd was 
married to Miss Lydia Bruce, of Moore county, and they have had 
three sons and four daughters. In April, 1861, he entered the Con- 
federate army, enlisting in Company H, of the Twenty-sixth North 
Carolina state troops. This company had been raised by him and 
others in his county, and he was made first lieutenant. After the 
battle of Newbern he was promoted to the captaincy of the company, 
for in this battle the captain had been slain. He was subsequently 
made first major, but in 1S62, by reason of failing health, he was re- 
lieved and returned to his home. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



iSq 



In the fall of iS66, Major Dowd came to Charlotte and forming a 
copartnership in law with Hon. Z. B. Vance, began again the prac- 
tice of his profession, the partnership continuing for six years. Mr. 
Dowd was elected maj^or of Charlotte and re-elected, holding the 
office till 1S71, when he was elected president of the Merchants & 
Farmers' National bank, of Charlotte. This position he held until 
1874, when he was elected president of the Commercial National 
bank, of Charlotte, and remained there until iSSi. In the fall of 1880 
he was elected a member of congress from the Sixth district, by the 
democratic party, receiving 16,401 votes against 12,366 for W. B. 
Myers, republican. He was re-elected in 1882 receiving a vote of 
15,549. In the Forty-eighth session of congress. Major Dowd was one 
of the coinage committee, and was chosen to draft a bill for recoin- 
ing the "trade dollar" and converting it into thestandard or " Bland" 
dollar, providing also for the removal of the government tax on 
State bank circulation which tax as it then provided granted and now 
grants a monopoly to National banks which alone can issue bank notes. 
The bill was not enacted into a law. In 18S5 he was appointed by 
President Cleveland, internal revenue collector for the Sixth district, 
and held the office until 1887 when it was discontinued. The office 
came to him unsolicited and he accepted it with reluctance. He was 
appointed in April, 18SS, receiver of the State National bank at 
Raleigh, which trust he accepted, and efficiently executed. In his call- 
ing Alajor Dowd has achieved a grand success and amassed a hand- 
some fortune, not through speculation but as the legitimate reward of 
an intelligent and assiduous devotion to his profession added to of- 
fice salaries unsought by him. But though wealthy, he is not the man 
to hoard his resources. He is progressive and has invested his 
means largely in such enterprises as promote the welfare and pros- 
perity of the community at large. Though not a member of any 
church organization he is a generous patron of religious as well as 
educational organizations in the promotion of each of which he does 
not spare his fortune or his personal efforts. He is a trustee of 
Trinity college of North Carolina, and a member of the Charlotte 
chamber of commerce. In every aspect of his character, he is broad, 
liberal, enlightened and closely in touch with the higher and better 
development of society. 

HON. LEE S. OVERMAN, 

a leading lawyer and prominent politician residing in Salisbury, N.C.,' 
was born in that city January 3, 1854. His father, William Overman, 
now deceased, was a native of Pasquotank county, N. C. He v/as a 
farmer and merchant and came to Salisbury from the eastern part of 
the state about the year 1838. He resided in Salisbury for half a 
century, quietly devoted to his life business and died at the mature 
age of seventy-eight years, enjoying the individual respect of all who 
knew him. He married Miss Mary E. Slater, a native of Rowan 
county, and her ancestors were among the distinguished individuals 



I go NORTH CAROLINA. 

of North Carolina. Her maternal great-grandfather was Maj. James 
Smith, who was a noted character in the Revolutionarj' war. He was 
taken prisoner after the battle of Kings Mountain, and was carried 
to Charleston, where, with other prisoners, he died with small-pox. 
William and Mary Overman, the parents of the subject of this sketch, 
had five sons and one daughter. Lee S. Overman was reared in 
Salisbury and here received his primarj' schooling. He was gradu- 
ated with first honors from North Carolina Trinity college in 1874. 
Two years later that college conferred upon him the Master's degree. 
For about two years after his graduation, Mr. Overman taught school, 
in the meantime directing his attention to the study of law. In 1876 
he further pursued the study under the instruction of J. M. McCorkle, 
Esq., of Salisbury. He finally completed his course under R. H. 
Battle, of Raleigh, was examined before the supreme court of North 
Carolina, and duly admitted to the bar in January, 1878. In 1876 he 
took an active part as a democrat in the political campaign of that 
year, and when Hon. Z. B. Vance was elected governor in 1877, Mr. 
Overman was appointed private secretary, remaining as such until that 
distinguished gentleman was elected United States senator. On the 
election of Gov. Jarvis, the successor of Gov. Vance, Mr. Overman 
was continued in the office of private secretary till in December, 1879, 
when he resigned the position to take up the practice of his profes- 
sion. In January, 1880, he began practice at Salisbury, where he has 
from the first secured a large and profitable law business, not second 
to that of any attorney in the city. He holds a foremost position 
among his professional associates, not alone in his own city, but in 
the state at large. 

In 1882 Mr. Overman was elected a member of the lower house of 
the state legislature as a representative from Rowan county. The 
canvass for his election was a heated one, he being the regular demo- 
cratic candidate against G. A. Bingham, a prominent candidate of 
the independent democrats. Mr. Overman was elected and re-elected 
for the two succeeding terms commencing respectively in 1884 and 
1S86. In 1888 he declined a nomination for a fourth term. Mr. 
Overman was the choice of the democrats in 1887 for speaker of the 
house, being the unanimous choice of the democratic legislative cau- 
cus for that office, but he was defeated by a coalition between the 
republican and independent democratic members, falling only two 
votes short of an election. Though beaten for the speakership, his 
distinguished ability gave hin the next highest position in the house, 
the chairmanship of the judiciary committee. During his legislative 
career he served as a member of the judiciary committee, the com- 
mittee on education, on the penitentiary and on the deaf and dumb 
asylum. In 1885 he was elected by the legislature a member of the 
board of trustees of the North Carolina state university, and he still 
continues in that position. In January, 1889, Mr. Overman was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Fowle, and confirmed by the state senate, a member 
of the board of directors for the state penitentiary, which member- 
ship he still retains. Under the administration of the board during 



NORTH CAROLINA. I9I 

the membership of Mr. Overman, the institution became self-sustain- 
ing for the first time in its history. Mr. Overman is a high-minded 
politician and a citizen whose character is stainless. He is an able 
lavvj'cr and refined and cultured gentleman. He is a respected mem- 
ber of the order of the K. of P. and of the I. O. O. F. He and his 
estimable wife are leading members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Mr. Overman married Miss Mary P. Merrimon, of Raleigh, 
daughter of Chief-Justice A. S. Merrimon, October 31, 1S7S, and they 
have had four children, only two of whom, both daughters, survive. 

COL. HAMILTON C. JONES 

is a native of Rowan county-, \. C; born in Salisbury, November 3, 
1837, the son of the late Hamilton C. Jones, of Salisbury. Col. Jones 
was reared in Salisbury, where, under Prof. Benjamin Summers, he 
was prepared for the university at Chapel Hill. Entering that insti- 
tution, he graduated in 185S, just as he came to his majority. While 
at the university he studied law, under the late Judge Battle. After 
his graduation he entered the law office of his father, then practicing 
in Salisbury, where he further pursued his law studies. In 1859 he 
was admitted to the bar, and began the practice of his chosen profes- 
sion in his native town. In politics he was a determined whig, hav- 
ing stumped the state for John Bell, for president, in i860. Mr. Jones 
was first lieutenant of Rowan's ritlc guard, which proceeded under 
command, to Fort Johnson, on the coast, taking possession of the fort 
even prior to the passage of the North Carolina ordinance of seces- 
sion. As a state policy. Col. Jones held, and always has held, that 
secession was entirely inexpedient, but when it came he accepted 
the situation, and linked his fate with the Confederate cause. Upon 
the organization of state troops he was appointed by Gov. Ellis to the 
captaincy of Company K, of the Fifth regiment of state troops. Soon 
after the battle of Williamsburg, where he was severely wounded, 
in May, 1862, he was made li(;utenant-coloneI of the Fifty-seventh 
North Carolina regiment, with which he joined the army of northern 
Virginia, in the fall of the same year. He subsequently participated 
in the battles of P'redericksburg and Chancellorsville, and in the Get- 
tysburg campaign. At the Rappahannock railroad bridge, November 
7, 1863, he was captured, and was thereafter imprisoned in the old 
Capital prison, at Washington, and subsequently at Johnson's Island, 
at Lake Erie. In February, 1865, he was sent south in a special ex- 
change. He took command of his regiment, then before Petersburg, 
its colonel, Archibald C. Goodwin, having been promoted to the rank 
of brigadier-general. The battle of Hare's Plill followed, in which 
an assault was made upon Gen. Grant's works. In this assault Col. 
Jones was again wounded and disabled from further service. Before 
he had recovered the war ended. 

After the war Col. Jones resumed the practice of law at Salisbury, 
and continued there until .August, 1867, when he removed to Char- 
lotte, forming a partnership with Gen. Robert D. Johnston, with whom 



192 NORTH CAROLINA. 

he practiced for some twenty years. In 1869, Col. Jones was ap- 
pointed to till an unexpired term of state senatorship, and the follow- 
ing year he was elected for a full term for the same office. While he 
was senator the impeachment of Gov. W. W. Holden come on and 
that official was convicted and deposed. In 1873, Col. Jones was 
married to Miss Connie, daughter of Col. William R. Meyers, of 
Charlotte. Col. Jones and family are influential members of St. 
Peter's Episcopal church, of Charlotte, of which he has been a ves- 
tryman for many years. In 1SS5 he was appointed by President 
Cleveland United States district-attorney for the western district of 
North Carolina, which office he held till 1889. As a lawyer Col. Jones 
holds a distinguished position and has few equals. His knowledge 
of law is extensive; nature has endowed him with acute legal percep- 
tions; he is accurate and profound in his exposition of the law; clear, 
pointed and forcible in his statements, and whether before court or 
jury he is powerful and effective. He combines the best elements of 
lawyer and jurist, and stands in the front rank of his profession. As 
a citizen. Col. Jones is of the progressive type and is ever alive to 
whatever in his judgment promotes the best and the highest interests 
of the people. As a member of society he is cultured, genial, high- 
minded and is highly respected by all who know hin. 

COL. JOHN E. BROWN 

is a leading attorney-at-law at Charlotte, and solicitor of the criminal 
court of Mecklenburgh county. Col. Brown's birthplace was Locust 
Hill, Caswell county, N. C, where he first saw the light of day in Au- 
gust, 1830, as the son of John E. and Elizabeth C. Brown, both of 
whom were of good old Carolina stock, the father being for many 
years the leading physician of his time, and for two terms a member 
of the state legislature. He was a brother of Senator Bedford 
Brown. The mother was a lineal descendant of the Carters, of Shir- 
ley, Va., one of the first families of the Old Dominion. Our subject 
received his preparatory education at Yancej'sville, N. C, and com- 
pleted his education in 1853 at Hampden-Sydney college, of Virginia, 
a Presbyterian institution of high repute. After leaving college he 
read law at Richmond Hill, under the late Judge Richmond Pearson, 
at one time Chief-Justice Pearson of North Carolina. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1S56, and in 1S57 he came to Charlotte, which 
has been his home ever since, and with the exception of the four 
years of the war, he has been in most active practice. He entered 
the Confederate service in May, 1861. He was commissioned first 
lieutenant in Company D., of the Seventh North Carolina state 
troops, which was commanded by Col. Campbell. His first active 
service was in the battle of Newbern, in March, 1862, soon after 
which he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Forty-second 
regiment, wdiich was ordered to Virginia in May, 1862, and brigaded 
under Gen. Pettigrew. In 1S63 he was promoted to the rank of colonel 
of his regiment, and was engaged around Petersburg and Rich- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 193 

inond, till May 20, 1S64, when at the battle of Bermuda Hundreds he 
was wounded in the head by a gunshot. After a brief sickness he 
returned to the army in front of Richmond, and December 24th, was 
ordered to Wilmini,rton, and thence to Fort Fisher. Later he joined 
Gen. Johnson, and his last battle was that of Bentonville, where the 
regiment surrendered. He held the rank of colonel on his return to 
Charlotte, and resumed the practice of law, at which he has since 
continued. In 1872-3 and 1874, Col. Brown served in the lower house 
of the legislature. In 1879 he married Miss Laura P. Morrison, the 
daughter of Rev. R. H. Morrison, D. D., one of the leading and most 
popular divines of North Carolina, of whose life and to whose mem- 
ory we copy the following tribute from a printed pamphlet prepared 
and published by his admiring fellow citizens and co-workers. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

The Rev. Robert Hall Morrison, D. D., born in Rocky River Con- 
gregation, Cabarrus county, September 8, 1798; died in Lincoln 
county, N. C, May 13, 18S9, in the ninety-first year of his age. The 
southern church mingles its sympathies with the presbytery of Meck- 
lenburg, in the death of its oldest minister, this venerated man of God. 
Society suffers in the removal of one of its strongest supports and 
truest ornaments. The church, bereft of one of its brightest crowns, 
mourns over an aching void; a void that can never be filled. An e.\- 
traordinary character has vacated an extraordinary sphere of useful- 
ness and honor. A bright star whom we have seen shining at Christ's 
right hand here below is now shining with surpassing splendor with 
Christ above. Descended from a sterling Scotch-Irish Presbyterian 
ancestry, he inherited those marked and noble qualities of mind and 
heart, which, hallowed by grace, made him an honour to the age and 
a blessing to the world. Early called by the Saviour, in the morning 
of life, he obeyed the voice of the gracious shepherd, and followed 
him faithfully to its close. Communion with God, meditation upon 
the glory of Christ, the study of the .Scriptures — which he read 
through four times each year, with commentaries, dwelling upon their 
preciousness and power ^ the perusal of devotional works, were his 
chief delight. Literary tastes were sanctified, and mind and heart 
found their highest satisfaction and enjoyment in the green pastures 
of divine truth and beside the still waters of divine consolation. 
The grand doctrines of grace, embodied in the Calvinistic system of 
faith, entered into and moulded his christian experience and made 
him humble and prayerful, cheerful and strong, decided i)ut liberal, 
active and zealous, steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the 
work of the Lord, knowing that his labor was not in vain in the 
Lord. In his latter years all of his income — after providing for 
his |)hysical wants — was devoted to the gospel, not restricting him- 
self to his own, but assisting all denominations of Christians. He left 
a legacy to the American Bible society, having made all his childr<;n 
life-members, and was himself a life-director. His works do follow 



194 NORTH CAROLINA. 

him and will continue to follow him forever! Christians of every 
name were received into his confidence and love, but none were left 
unaware that the venerable patriarchal and apostolic Presbyterian 
church, "the Mother of us all," was the home of his heart and his 
chief joy. 

Dr. Alorrison was graduated at the University' of North Carolina, 
in 1818; dividing the honor, of his class with President Polk, also of 
Presbyterian lineage, and from that Presbyterian section of the state 
which gave to the world the first declaration of American independ- 
ence. May 20, 1775. Dr. Morrison was ordained by Concord Presby- 
tery in 1820, his first charge being Providence church in Mecklenburg 
county. He was soon called, thence, to Fayetteville. During his 
pastorate there, he was, on the 27th of April, 1S24, at Vesuvius Fur- 
nace, Lincoln county, N. C, united in marriage with a lady of re- 
nowned family. Miss Mary Graham, sister of Gov. William A. Gra- 
ham, and daughter of Gen. Joseph Graham, of illustrious Revolu- 
tionary fame — a devout Christian, and for the last ten or twelve 
years of his life, ruling elder in Unity church, Lincoln county. 

Dr. Morrison remained in Fayetteville from 1822 to 1827, and 
accepted a call to the venerable Sugar Creek church, three miles 
from Charlotte; in which historic town, the birthplace of Ameri- 
can independence, a Presbyterian church was organized by him, 
their membership having been, previously, in the mother church. 
Sugar Creek. To these churches he ministered most accepta- 
bly. His scholarly attainments, his chaste and elegant diction, 
his dignified mien, his impressive delivery, his heart on fire with 
the love of Christ and the love of souls, captivated his hearers 
and made his ministry a ministry of power. His was no non-com- 
mittal, politic, trimming disposition, courting or valuing popular favor, 
winking at, if not approving of fashionable folly and iniquity. He 
fearlessly denounced worldly conformity in the church. Christ's 
name was on his forehead, seen and read b3' all. He followed the 
Lamb whithersoever he went, bearing his cross, following him through 
evil as well as good report, regardless of the buzz of dissent, or the 
clamor of opposition. His was no half-way offering of himself, but 
full and entire, upon the altar of God, and with an ardor that never 
cooled, and a zeal that never wavered, he continued a faithful, un- 
compromising witness to the truth, whether men would hear, or 
whether they would forbear, even to the end. David's description of 
a citizen of Zion was applicable to him: " In whose eyes a vile per- 
son is contemned, but he honoureth them that fear the Lord." " Do 
not I hate them, oh Lord, that hate Thee? and am not I grieved with 
those that rise up against Thee? I hate them with perfect hatred; I 
count them mine enemies." 

Deeply impressed bj^ the fact that very few candidates for the 
ministry came from the state universit}' and other secular institutions, 
and realizing the necessity of a Presbyterian college as a nurserj' for 
the church and its ministers, Dr. Morrison brought before Concord 
presbytery, on the 12th of March, 1835, at Prospect church. Rowan 



NORTH CAROLINA. 195 

county, a resolution for the establishment within its bounds, of a 
Presbyterian college, where Presbyterian doctrines should be faith- 
fully taught and expounded. The resolution was adopted and Drs. 
Morrison and Sparrow were appointed financial agents. They suc- 
ceeded in raising funds sufficient to start the college on the first of 
March, 1837. The three presbyteries in charge of it, Concord, Mor- 
ganton and Bethel, elected L)r. Morrison the first president of 
Davidson college. The $30,000 thus raised were supplemented in 
1S55 by a princely donation from Mr. Maxwell Chambers, of Salis- 
bury, N. C. Dr. Morrison appeared before the legislature, and with 
difficulty, procured a charter, with a limit of $200,000, which was not 
the whole of Mr. Chambers's donation. 

Davidson college, thus brought into being, has risen to eminence 
among the institutions of America. Its high standard commands the 
respect of the whole country, north and south, whilst the moral in- 
fluences which surround and govern it, arc equaled by few, surpassed 
by none. A high-toned faculty and high-toned students are regarded 
with admiration throughout the land. The Bible forms a part of the 
college curriculum; and the God of the Bible has set his sacred 
i)iiprimatiir upon this consecrated institution. The divine spirit, the 
fountain of truth, energizes, with signal force " the lively oracles" 
here dispensed. His vital breath renders fruitful and fragrant this 
cherished garden of the Lord. During the fifty-two years of its ex- 
istence, it has given to the church 200 ministers of the gospel! Who 
is able to compute the sum total of blessing accruing to the world 
from this one source alone! Who is able to measure its influence for 
good through all coming time! And who is able to estimate the in- 
debtedness of society, the state, and the church, to its noble founder! 
Davidson college is his monument! A monument more lasting, and 
grander far, than stone or brass! A monument perennial, enduring 
through all ages — all ages of time and the endless ages of eternity! 
Generations yet unborn will rise up and bless the honored name of 
Dr. Robert Hall Morrison! 

Failing health led Dr. Morrison to resign this most important 
trust, the presidency of the college, and he retired to his farm in 
Lincoln county. His delightful home, the home of culture and re- 
finement, of joy and happiness, was proverbial for an overflowing 
hospitality, which was dispensed from a full heart with a free hand. 

His laljors in the gospel ministry knew no intermission, but were 
continued at Unity, Castanea, and Machpelah churches. During the 
long ministerial term of sixty-five years, it mattered not what the 
weather was, he was never known to fail to meet an appointment. 
In recounting his mercies, he stated the remarkable fact, that, though 
not strong, physically, he was never confined to his bed three con- 
secutive days in his long life, until about ten days before the end 
came. He was constantly expressing his gratitude for his eyesight 
being spared, enabling him to read continually, until two weeks be- 
fore his death. When debarred this privilege by much suffering, he 
declined being read to, saying: " Fortunately, my mind is stored 



196 NORTH CAROLINA. 

with very precious promises, and I find many of the hymns very 
sweet prayers." 

When the war broke out, Dr. Morrison, though in principle a 
strong Union man, cast his lot with his people, and espoused the 
cause of the Confederacy with all his heart and soul. Three gallant 
sons, old enough for the service, and five sons-in-law, were officers in 
the Confederate army. Notably among the latter, was the peerless 
Gen. (Stonewall) Jackson, the splendor of whose military renown 
was even surpassed by the lustre of his piety, and the crowning char- 
acter in the constellation of excellences that illumined his name and 
invested it with a halo of glory, was that of the fearless, devoted 
man of God. His piety was the basis of his greatness, the true secret 
of his militarj' success. He was the Joshua of modern history. An 
assemblage of similarqualities rendered both illustrious and immortal. 
Both were raised up by Providence to illustrate the elevating power 
of religion. In both, the sentiment of duty was paramount to every 
other. Both were characterized by supreme devotion to God. And 
both, God "set on high," because they "knew" and honored "his 
name," "on high," on a conspicuous eminence before men, the objects 
of a world's veneration and love; and, now, again, "on high," among 
principalities and powers, the noblest chieftains in the kingdom of 
glory! 

The youngest son of Dr. Morrison, Alfred, the Benjamin of the 
family, a gifted youth, on whom the mantle of his honored father 
seemed likely to fall and rest, being called of God into the ministry 
of Jesus Christ, proclaimed the glorious gospel with a fervor, and a 
power, and a success, that seemed but an earnest of still greater 
blessings to the church from a long life of devotion to his holy call- 
ing. Alas, the vanit}^ of human hopes and expectations! The youth- 
ful soldier was soon, how soon! remanded from the field of battle, 
and called to wear his crown! And he who pens this tribute, in sad- 
ness and sorrow, performed the funeral rites and committed his body 
to the tomb. 

We, with our contracted vision, are unable to comprehend, and 
greatly wonder at the mysterious Providence that cut short a career 
so full of promise, and are greatly saddened by it. But let us remem- 
ber that that career is not ended. It was not the meteor's flash, illu- 
minating for a moment its pathway in the heavens, and then expiring 
in darkness, leaving not a trace of its former light and splendor. No! 
he set, "as sets the morning star, which goes down beneath the dark- 
ened west, nor hides obscured behind the tempests of the sky, but 
melts away into the light of heaven!" And now he knows, and will 
forever know, even as he is known. No dim or hazy atmosphere ob- 
scures the firmanent of glory. He admires and adores the deep, deep 
Providence which stumbles us. Like the pillar of cloud and fire, 
though it be dark on our side, yet on his side it is full of light. There 
is no night there. He has entered that temple which the glory of God 
doth lighten, and the Lamb is the light thereof! He has joined the com- 
pany before the throne. And the blest occupation of earth is still the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 197 

blest occupation of heaven — preaching the glorious gospel of the son 
of God! Father and son, now forever associated, together making 
known "the unsearchable riches of Christ" to the grandest assembly 
of the universe, to angels and archangels, to cherubim and seraphim, 
who learn "from the church the manifold wisdom of God" — proclaim- 
ing to the admiring, adoring principalities of heaven, the fathomless 
wonders of redeeming love, the unutterably glorious triumphs of 
amazing grace! 

Worthy the Lamb that died, they cry, 
' To be exalted tluis '! 

'Worthy the Lamb,' our lips reply, 
' For He was slain for us ! ' " 

The burden of this, and other afflictions — having been previously 
bereft of a beloved wife and devoted children — pressed heavily upon 
Dr. Morrison. It pleased his heavenly father to perfect him, even as 
Christ, the captain of our salvation, was made perfect through much 
suffering. But throughout the long-protracted discipline of trial, he 
murmured not, but meekly drank the cup that was given him to drink, 
in the spirit of Him who said: "Thj' will, not mine, be done." And 
under the culture of sanctified affliction, his Christian character visibly 
mellowed and ripened full}' into fitness for heaven. Though confined 
to his home by the infirmities of age, he was always working for the 
Master in distributing Bibles, good books and papers, and writing to 
many on the importance of preparation for heaven. His conversa- 
tion was more of heaven than earth. He wrote to each of his absent 
children almost weekly, and the close of every letter was almost a 
sermon. His last letter to a beloved daughter ends thus: "I have been 
deeply impressed b)' the number of sudden deaths we have had. God 
seems to remind us often of the frail tenure by which we hold to the 
things of time and the privileges of the gospel. In such an hour as 
we think not the messenger comes! The main thing is to have our 
lamps burning, prepared for the coming of the bridegroom. The 
more we lay up treasures on high, the less, I presume, we will fear 
the loss of things below. Among the most solemn impressions is the 
fact, that all privileges enjoyed here will soon be forever gone, and 
we have no power to recall them! Let us strive for that kingdom 
which knows no sorrow, no changes, no death." He delighted in the 
society of ministers, and loved to encourage his young brethren to 
persevere in their glorious work for the Master. To a young minis- 
ter he said, recently, with great animation: " O, my dear young 
brother, if I had ten thousand lives to live, I would give them all to the 
gospel!" The graces of the Holy Sj^irit so al)ounded in his life as to 
render his old age very peaceful and beautiful, through much bodily 
suffering. The habit of secret prayer became so unceasing, his family 
often feared to enter his room, he was so constantly on his knees. 
He would admonish all not to faint in prayer, and with great humility 
would ask all to pray for him. When alone he prayed much aloud, 
and the burden of his prayer was, that all his descendants might be 
saved, children and grandchildren and great grandchildren gathered 
all, an unbroken family, into the heavenly kingdom. 



198 NORTH CAROLINA. 

In broken utterances, under great bodily suffering, he gave his 
dying testimony: "While I can, I wish to bear my dying testimony to 
the power and the blessedness of the gospel, and to the preciousness 
of the dear Saviour. In our hours of ease, precious; in hours of 
trial and distress, a thousand times more precious. I cannot express 
in words freely, what I mean. O. the sweet wonders of the cross!" 
Marked tokens of the Divine favor were accorded to the dying saint, 
as cordials to sustain his fainting spirit. And amid the gentle minis- 
tries of filial love, and the kind offices of filial devotion, untiring, un- 
faltering, that ceased not, day nor night — " ministering angels " — 
relieving the tedium of the sick chamber, soothing the couch of suf- 
fering, and mitigating, as far as possible, the pains of dissolution, he 
sweetly fell asleep. 

He has ".eft to his descendants the rich legacy of an honored name, 
a holy life, an elevated Christian character, and many fervent prayers 
which have been, and are yet to be, answered in blessings on their 
heads — a legacy infinitely more precious than all the diadems and 
treasures of earth. May they all, to the latest generation, secure by 
faith, the priceless inheritance! 

He has gone to see the King in all his beaut3% to gaze upon that 
sacred brow, that for us was crowned with thorns, and to lean his 
head with adoring confidence and unutterable joy upon his Saviour's 
loving bosom. 

" Soldier of Cluist, well done! 
Praise be thy blest enrploy, 
And while eternal ages run, 
Rest in thy Saviour's joy! " 

"Who, who would live alway, away from his God, 
Away from yon Heaven, that blissful abode. 
Where the rivers of pleasure flow o'er the bright plains, 
And the noontide of glory eternally reigns! 

Where the saints of all ages in harmony meet, 
Their Saviour and brethren transported to greet; 
While the anthems of rapture unceasingly roll, 
And the smile of the Lord is the feast of the soul!" 



JOSEPH HARVEY WILSON. 

In September, iSro, in Mecklenburg county, the late Joseph Har- 
vey Wilson was born. For many years he was one of the foremost 
members of the Charlotte bar. He was the son of the Rev. John 
McKamie Wilson, of Mecklenburg, N. C. At the early age of fifteen 
he graduated from Washington college, now Washington & Lee 
university, of Virginia. He began the study of law at Charlotte, 
under the supervision of the late Washington Morrison, and in 1831, 
when only twenty-one years of age, was admitted to the bar. He be- 
gan the practice of his chosen profession at Charlotte, which was the 
theatre to him of a long and successful career, ended onlj' by his de- 
cease, which occurred in September, 18S4. Though comparatively 
veiy young at the outset, he at once distinguished himself at the bar. 







^ 



/ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 199 

and his practice soon becatne extensive, so continuing during a course 
of practice of more than iialf a century. His ])rofound knowledge of 
the law made him an eminent jurist, and his intluence at the bar was 
powerful. Among his legal brethren he was an authority, and his 
opinions were always eagerly sought. For clearness and perspicuity 
he was a model. He possessed a strong legal mind, a natural love 
for the law, and he pursued its study as a searcher for the truth. 
With such qualifications and characteristics, it might have been ex- 
pected that a judgeship would have been tendered him, and such was 
actually the case, but having no desire to enter upon a public career, 
he declined the proffered honor. He had but little taste either for 
political preferment, but was induced to serve his county for several 
terms in the state senate, of which honorable body he was chosen 
president. Aside from this his life was more or less retired and de- 
voted to the quiet and extensive practice of his profession, in which 
he was pre-eminently a leader. Notwithstanding his natural reserve 
and love of quiet, he always manifested much interest in the public 
welfare and the moral, intellectual and material progress of society'. 
He was a warm and earnest advocate of the church, of liberal educa- 
tion and the general public advancement, b^ir many years Mr. Wil- 
son was an active member of the Presbyterian church, in which he 
was an elder. As a friend, he was faithful and of a most genial dis- 
position, in his nature he was gentle and domestic. He was twice 
happily married. His first wife, Miss Patton, died leaving him five 
children. Subsequently, he married Miss Phifer, of whom two child- 
ren were born. Mr. VVilson was seventy-five years of age when his 
death occurred. Such is a brief biography of this able and learned 
lawyer and jurist, who besides his high intellectual endowments was 
an honored and esteemed citizen. I lis life was characterized by hon- 
esty, sobriety, piety and usefulness to his fellow men. 

RUFUS YANCEY McADEN. 

The name of Rufus Yancey McAden represents two of the oldest 
and most distinguished families in the Carolinas. The name of 
Yancey, .so prominent throughout the south, is found from Mississ- 
ippi to Virginia, all of them in the foremost and honorable walks of 
life. The name of Yancey has from time immemorial been associ- 
ated with the best lawyers of Mississippi, and William Tudor Yancey, 
Robert Yancey and Charles Yancey are among the prominent mem- 
bers of the justly celebrated bar of Virginia. Rufus Yancey McAden 
was born in Caswell county, N. C, March 4, 1833. He was a son of 
Dr. Henry Mc;\den, th(; most prominent physician of the state. Mr. 
Mc.lden's paternal great-grandfather was Rr.v. Hugh McAden, who 
came as a Presbyterian missionary from Philadelphia to North Car- 
olina in the early days of the state. Dr. John Mc.\den, his son, mar- 
ried Betsy Murphy, a sister of Archibald D. Murphy, the great 
North Carolina orator. Dr. Henry Mc.lden married PVanccs Yancey, 
whose parents were Bartlett antl .'\nne Graves Yancey. The parents 



200 NORTH CAROLINA. 

of Rufus died while he was yet a boy, and our subject was adopted into 
the home and family of Mrs. Bartlett Yancey, his grandmother, she 
being a widow, where he was brought up and received the greater 
part of his education. He was graduated at Wake Forest college in 
1853, aged twenty, and subsequently read law under Judges Nash and 
Bailey. Being admitted to the bar he first located in his native 
county. In 1S58 he wedded Miss Mary F. Terry, daughter of Dr. 
B. F. Terry, of Prince Edward county, Va., and in the next year re- 
moved to Alamance county, and located at Graham. The next j'ear 
he entered politics as the whig candidate for the legislature, and was 
defeated by thirteen votes, reducing the democratic majority some 
300. In 1S62 he was elected to the legislature and successively 
re-elected, serving until 1867. In 1866 he acted as speaker of the 
house of representatives, defeating for this high office Col. R. H. 
Cowan, a distinguished and honored representative from Wilming- 
ton. As speaker of the house Mr. McAden made an excellent pre- 
siding officer. During his incumbency of the speaker's desk. Gov. 
Swain, upon a visit to that city, declared he had not seen such a 
speaker since the days of Edward Stanly. 

In 1867, upon his retirement from both politics and the law, Mr. 
McAden began a career of business prosperity unparalleled in the 
history of the state. In that year he was made president of the First 
National bank, of Charlotte, which position, by reason of his former 
experience as president of the bank at Graham, he was eminently 
qualified to fill. In the following year he associated himself with 
Col. A. S. Buford, a member of the great Kentuckj- family of that 
name, for the construction of the air-line railway from Charlotte to 
Atlanta, Col. Buford being president and he vice-president of the 
corporation. He also organized and constructed the Spartanburg 
and Asheville railway, it being through his indefatigable efforts that 
the road was finished. In 1881 he turned his business energies in the 
direction of manufacturing, and erected in Gaston county one of the 
largest cotton mills in the state, giving employment to over 500 men. 
After a life full of the largest and most beautiful benefactions to his 
fellow-citizens, Rufus Yancey McAden died January 29, iSSg, leaving 
a wife and five children as the issue of a happy marriage. At the 
time of his death he was president of the First National bank, of 
Charlotte, president of the Spartanburg, Union & Columbia railway, 
the Asheville & Spartanburg railway, the Falls of Neuse Manufactur- 
ing company, and the McAden cotton mills. Mr. INIcAden was a 
strong man in every phase of his character. From the grandmother 
who brought him up from poor and youthful orphanage, he learned 
those characteristics of promptness, honesty, truth and industry, and 
through his great business career these attributes ran, sanctifying all 
his transactions and crowning his life work with honor. Mr. McAden, 
though his life had been devoted to his successful business career, 
found time to acquire great erudition and personal culture, so much 
so that he was well posted in the general field of polite and classical 
literature. He was genial in his nature and true to the southern in- 



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NORTH CAROLINA. 2CI 

stinct of chivalry and a lavish hospitality. At the bar he was a force- 
ful advocate, and fortified with a high order of forensic eloquence, 
which quality had attracted the attention of most people of education 
throughout the south. 

JAMES WALKER OSBORNE. 

The legal profession of North Carolina has been signalized by a 
number of distinguished individuals, none of whom has held a higher 
place than the subject of this sketch, James Walker Osborne. As a 
lawyer, jurist or private citizen he was pre-eminent. He was born at 
Salisbury, N. C, December 25, 181 1, and died at Charlotte August 10, 
iS6q. He came of an illustrious line, his great progenitor being 
Ale.xander Osborne, who came from New Jersey to North Carolina 
some years previous to 1755, settling in Rowan county. He was a 
colonel of distinction in the American Revolution, and had one son 
and several daughters. His son's name was Adlai Osborne, whose 
mother's maiden name was Agnes McWhorter. She was the sister 
of Rev. Alexander ]\Ic\Vhorter, who at one time was president of 
Queen's college at Charlotte. Adlai Osborne was educated at Prince- 
ton college, graduating in 176S. In January, 1771, he was married to 
Margaret Lloyd. He studied law and was appointed under the crown, 
clerk of the courts of Rowan county, holding that office until 1S09. 
His decease occurred in 1815, and he left a large family consisting of 
both sons and daughters. One son, Edward Jay Osborne, married 
Harriet Walker, of Wilmington, N. C. He had studied law at 
Wilmington and was admitted to the bar, but removing to Salis- 
bury established there his permanent home. He attained extra- 
ordinary distinction as a learned and able member of the legal 
profession. He had three daughters and one son, James Walker 
Osborne, the subject of this sketch. The mother of Mr. Osborne 
died when he was a child only a year and a half hid, and he was 
adopted into the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Davidson, of Meck- 
lenburg county, Mrs. Davidson being an own sister of his father. 

The intellectual training of James Walker Osborne began in early 
life. He was first placed in a private school in charge of Samuel C. 
Caldwell, I). D., where he was prepared for entering the university 
at Chapel Hill, from which he graduated, in June, 1830. He entered 
the law office of Hon. William A. (iraham, and taking up the study 
of law, was admitted to practice at the bar in 1833. In that year he 
opened up a law office in Charlotte, where he soon became distin- 
guished as an able and effective lawyer, taking rank with the most 
illustrious members of the profession. Twice he was chosen presi- 
dential elector at large for his state. In the Clay campaign of 1844. 
he was first presidential elector at large, and again he held the same 
position in the .S(;ymour ami Grant campaign. For four years he was 
superintendent of the L'nited States mints, at Charlotte, being ap- 
pointed to that important trust by President Millard Fillmore. Fie 
was called to the bench of the superior court in 185Q, by Gov. Ellis, 



202 NORTH CAROLINA. 

to fill a vacanc}' in the judgeship of that court. His appointment 
was conhrmed by the general assembl}' in November, i860. He held 
this position until 1866, when he was displaced by the rule of the re- 
publican party, against whose principles he was an active opponent. 
He represented Mecklenburg county as state senator, which office he 
held at the time of his decease. April 5, 1842, he was married to 
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, daughter of John Irwin, deceased, of Charlotte. 
She was the widow of Thomas J. Moore, son of Gen. Thomas Moore, 
of South Carolina, who was a member of congress from the Spartan- 
burg district. Thomas J. Moore died at the age of twenty-six years, 
leaving one son, Dr. Thomas J. Moore, of Richmond, Va. The union 
of James Walker Osborne and his wife resulted in the birth of four 
sons, two of whom are deceased. The surviving sons are Francis 
Irwin Osborne, the present solicitor of the Eleventh judicial district 
of North Carolina, and James Walker Osborne, the youngest son, 
also a lawyer by profession in practice in New York city. 

Judge OsboiMie attained great eminence in his profession and at- 
tracted the admiration as well as secured the esteem of his associates 
at the bar. His dignified yet suave manner, as well as his purity of 
character added grace to the bench, the man conferring dignity upon 
the office for which he possessed such high qualifications. His name 
stands eminent in the annals of the jurisprudence of North Carolina. 
During his brilliant career as a lawyer, he at one time became the 
law partner of Gen. Rufus Barringer, of Charlotte, who has said of 
him: " He had a logical and discriminating mind, and his persistent 
search after truth was marked. He was an extraordinary man, and 
amid all the cares and vexations of professional life he always found 
time to devote to the advocacy of the cause of the poor and needy." 
He was charitable both in his acts and judgments, and was a faithful 
friend both to white and black. As a legislator he was liberal, high- 
minded and discreet, and took a broad and intelligent view of all pub- 
lic questions. He was sincere in his convictions, and as a public 
speaker he was brilliant, forcible, pleasing and eloquent. As a man 
of letters he was of the highest grade, with a mind abundantly stored 
with useful knowledge and classic learning. Whenever called upon 
to make a speech in public, he was always equal to the occasion, and 
never failed to both please and instruct his audience, alwaj's ac- 
quitting himself with honor. In politics he was a democrat of the 
states rights school, perhaps of the new school, for originally he was 
not a democrat. He was a member of the old whig party with 
which organization he had long identified himself, and he only left it 
because he thought it too slow and conservative; because it did not 
appear to see the dangers that were menacing the south and not 
prompt in resisting them. 

In the secession convention of i860. Judge Osborne maintained 
that secession was the best southern policy. He was devoted to the 
south, its customs, habits and traditions, and fully justified and ap- 
proved the movement for a separation of the south from the north. 
As a citizen he was of the progressive stamp, alive to every local 



NORTH CAROLINA. 203 

interest which looked to a development of the natural resources of 
the country. He was a pioneer advocate of railroad improvements, 
prompting the people to lend a helping hand to all feasible railroad 
projects. He was temperate in his habits and religious in his frame 
of mind. His character for honesty and probity was unimpeachable, 
and he was always quick to approve the right and condemn the 
wrong. His language was always pure and chaste, showing both 
good breeding and culture. He was a zealous member of the Pres- 
byterian church, for man}' years holding official positions in that 
organization, and his Christianity was of the active and zealous type. 
In every undertaking for the advancement and uplifting of society. 
Judge Osborne was among the foremost leaders, and his learning and 
ability, his fim; taste and discrimination made him an effective power 
in that direction. He was hardly fifty-eight years of age when death 
put an end to his useful and praiseworthy career. No nobler, purer 
spirit ever winged its flight to the blissful regions reserved for the 
blessed. No more loyal heart, no firmer friend, no more exalted 
patriot ever found a dwelling place on earth. He has gone to his 
reward — to the recompense of a pure, unspotted life. 

SAMUEL CASPAR WISTAR TATE, 

a leading member of the bar at Morganton, N. C, was born June 23, 
1S25, in the town of his present residence. He was the son of Dr. 
Samuel Tate, a native of Burke county, N. C, born in 1798. The 
father died January 27, 1873. He was the son of Hugh Tate, also a 
native of Burke county, and by. occupation a farmer. He served as 
sheriff of his county several years. The name of Mr. Tate's mother 
before her marriage to his father was Mrs. Elizabeth Gilliland, widow 
of Dr. Gilliland, of Bedford, Penn. She died May 10, 1857. The 
subject of this sketch was reared in Morganton, and received his ed- 
ucation in the Morganton academy. In his youth he accompanied 
his parents to Cherokee, now Clay county, N. C. In a few years the 
family returned to Morganton where he resumed his studies in the 
academy then presided over by G. Zelotes Adams. Later on he en- 
tered Washington college of East Tennessee, where he remained 
about two years. He then entered the University of North Carolina 
where he spent six months, being a member of the senior class. In 
these different institutions, Mr. Pate obtained a good classical educa- 
tion. On leaving the university he took up the study of law under 
Hon. B. S. Gaither, of Morganton, and was licensed to practice in the 
county courts August 7, 1848, and in the superior courts August 6, 
1849. Mr. Tate entered upon his professional career at Murphy, 
Cherokee county, N. C, September 12, 1848, remaining there, how- 
ever, only during one term of court. He devoted himself to his 
practice in Burke and adjoining counties, with his home and head- 
quarters at Morganton, until the breaking out of the Civil war. Prior 
to this event he served as solicitor of Haywood, Burke and Caldwell 
counties. 



204 NORTH CAROLINA. 

In April, 1861, Mr. Tate entered the service of the Confederate 
army as a volunteer in Company G, First North Carolina state 
troops, and served with that command for six months as a private. 
He participated during the time in the battle at Bethel. At the ex- 
piration of his term of service, he returned home, and throughout 
the remainder of the war he served the Confederate government in 
the way of looking after supplies for the army and upon home guard 
duty. In October, 1865, he went to Marion, N. C, where, during the 
winter which followed he taught the Marion academy. Returning 
to Morganton early in 1866, he resumed the practice of law and has 
devoted himself to it ever since. He is now one of the ablest law- 
yers of the Burke county bar. Mr. Tate was born and raised under 
whig influences, but since the whig party went out of existence he 
has affiliated with the democratic party. He was a candidate for the 
state legislature in 1851 and again in 1862, but failed of an election. 
He has served one term as mayor of Morganton with good accept- 
ance. Mr. Tate is a member of the Episcopal church and of the 
Masonic fraternity. As a citizen he holds a high rank, and is greatly 
respected and esteemed by his fellow citizens. 

DAVID LOWRY SWAIN, 

a distinguished North Carolinian, was born in Asheville, Buncombe 
county, N. C, January 4, 1801. He was of English descent; his 
father, George Swain, was a native of Roxboro, Mass. Mr. Swain 
took a partial course in the North Carolina university, studied law 
under Hon. John L. Taylor, and was admitted to the bar in 1823, 
when he opened a law office at Raleigh. In 1824 he was elected to 
the state legislature, and in 1831 was appointed a judge of the state 
supreme court. He was elected governor of North Carolina in 1832, 
being the youngest man ever elected to that of^ce. He held the 
office of president of the University of North Carolina from 1835 till 
his death. He was one of the most efficient presidents ever chosen 
to that position, contributing to the progress and success of that in- 
stitution through a presidency of more than thirty j'ears. He was a 
favorite of President Andrew Johnson, and was invited by that func- 
tionary to advise and assist in the reconstruction measures of the 
southern states. In 1841 he received the honorary degree of LL. D., 
from Princeton college, and in 1842 Yale college conferred upon him 
the same degree. He was a facile and graphic writer, and was the 
author of several valuable historical writings, among them, "The 
British Invasion of North Carolina in 1776," and "The Revolutionary 
History of North Carolina." 

In a lengthy eulogistic notice of Gov. Swain, Gov. Vance said of 
him: " His knowledge was enc^'clopedic in its range, especially in 
English literature. So overwhelming were his stores, that the writer 
enumerates with grateful pleasure, when, forgetting altogether the 
subject on hand, he would stand up in front of his class, and in an 
outgush of eloquence, poetry, history, anecdote and humor, wrap us 



NORTH CAROLINA. 205 

all as with an enchantment. His most remarkable trait was his 
powerful memory, and the direction in which that faculty was notably 
exercised was in biography and genealog}'. In this particular he had 
no superior in America." Gov. .Swain rendered his greatest service 
to the state, by his efficiency as the patron and president of the uni- 
versity. He was its moving spirit before the war, and when Sher- 
man's army spread desolation in its track Gov. Swain was one of the 
commissioners appointed to meet Gen. Sherman and ask his interposi- 
tion to save the university from destruction. Gov. Swain was married, 
January 12, 1S24, to Eleanor, daughter of William White. He died 
at Chapel Hill, September 3, 1S68, leaving his widow surviving him. 



CHARLES MANLY. 

Gov. Charles Manly was born in Chatham county, N. C May 13, 
1795. He was fitted for college by a distinguished educator, Prof. 
William Bingham, at Pittsboro academy and graduated from the 
University of North Carolina, in 1S14, with first honors. Heengagedas 
a private tutor, in the meantime studying law with Gen. Robert Will- 
iams. He was admitted to the bar in 1S16, and began practice under 
most encouraging auspicies. He was appointed reading clerk in the 
North Carolina house of commons, and as clerk of the commission at 
Washington, under the treaty of Ghent, to investigate and award 
claims against Great Britain, for property taken by the British dur- 
ing the war of 1S12. In 1830 he was elected chief clerk of the house 
of commons, which office he held for about eighteen years, with only 
a single intermission. In 1840 he was one of the presidential electors 
on the whig ticket, and cast the vote of his state in the electoral col- 
lege for William H. Harrison and John Tyler. He made an unsuc- 
cessful canvass for state senator in 1844, as the representative of Wake 
county. He filled, respectively, the offices of director of the State 
bank, commissioner to sell the Cherokee land and collect the proceeds 
thereof, and of treasurer of the state university. 

In 1848 Mr. Manly was the whig candidate for governor, and made 
a very effective canvass of the entire state. He was elected by a 
large majority, and administered the office for two years with marked 
ability and success. He was candidate for another term, but was de- 
feated by one of the strongest democrats in the state, Hon. David S. 
Reid, the democrats having gained a decided and lasting ascendency 
in the state. This was the close of Gov. Manly's political career — a 
career in which he acted a most brilliant and highly creditable part. 
He was married, in 1S17, to Charitj', daughter of William H.Haywood, 
Sr. He died at Raleigh, May i, iS7i,an event doubtless hastened by 
the an.xieties, the ravages and the spoliations of the Civil war. Gov. 
Manly was a most interesting and brilliant conversationalist; as a 
public speaker he was eloquent, and as a writer was master of a 
strong, yet refined rhetoric. He loved society, and his home was the 
center of the best and most cultured circle of intimates. As a lawyer 



206 NORTH CAROLINA. 

he was considerate and judicious, and urged the interests of his 
clients with strength and zeal. In religion he was a devoted and zeal- 
ous Episcopalian. 

HON. JOHN H. SMALL 

is one of the leading lawyers of North Carolina. Mr. Small was born 
in Washington, N. C, on the gth of August, 1S58. He was prepared 
for college in the schools of his native city, and finished his junior 
year at Trinity college, after which he took up the studj- of law in the 
office of Mr. Charles F. Warren and Judge William B. Rodman, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1881, since that time having been engaged 
in practice at Washington. Mr. Small became associated with the 
Hon. George H. Brown in 188S, and this law firm existed until Jan- 
uary I, iSSq. His political career was begun early, as he was ap- 
pointed reading clerk of the state senate, a few days after his 
admission to the bar, and he continued in that office during the ses- 
sion of 1881. In 1S81, he was elected county superintendent of public 
instruction, and served as solicitor of the inferior court, from 1882 to 
1885, when that court was abolished by law. He entered the journal- 
istic field, as proprietor and editor of the North Carolina State Press, 
in 1883, and soon after changed the name to the JVashiiig-ton Gazette, 
which greatly prospered under his able management, its subscription 
list being trebled, and the paper greatly enlarged and improved. 
At the time of his relinquishment of its editorial management, the 
Washington Gazette was the leading organ of the democratic party in the 
county. Mr. Small has been attorney for the board of county com- 
missioners, since 18SS, and was a member of the city council, from 
May, 1887, to May, 1890; and from 1889 to 1890, he held the office of 
mayor of Washington. As a member of the committee on graded 
schools, he did much to place that excellent system on a firm basis, 
and his assistance and counsels were at all times most valuable. He 
is the attorney for the Jamesville & Washington railroad, and for the 
Roanoke Railroad & Lumber company, and also the Wilmington & 
Weldon railroad company. 

In 1888, Mr. Small served as chairman of the democratic execu- 
tive committee of the First congressional district of North Carolina. 
As a leading citizen he has done much to stimulate the industrial 
growth of the city and county, and was largely instrumental in secur- 
ing the location of the extensive oyster canning establishment of 
J. S. Farren & Co., at Washington, and in many other ways has con- 
tributed to the prosperity of the community. He ranks among the 
ablest and most successful attorneys of the Beaufort bar, and is held 
in the highest esteem as a man of superior mind and unbending in- 
tegrity. He was most happily married June 11, 1890, to Miss Isabella 
C. Wharton, a daughter of Col. R. W. Wharton, a leading citizen of 
Beaufort county, N. C, and one child has blessed their union. May 
Belle Small. Mr. Small is a son of John H. and Sally A. (Sander- 
son) Small, natives of Chowan and Washington counties, N. C, re- 



NORTH CAROLINA. lOJ 

spectively. His father was a prominent planter of Beaufort county 
for many years, having settled there about 1835. He is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, south, and a staunch democrat. 

WILLIAM BLOUNT RODMAN 

was born at Washington, Beaufort county, N. C, on the 29th of June, 
1S17. His father's name was William Walton Rodman, from Queens 
county. New York. The first ancestor of the Rodman family, of 
whom they know anything, was John Rodman, who was a Quaker, 
and went from Ireland to Barbadoes, where he died in 1686. He had 
been imprisoned in Ireland for contempt of court, because he refused 
to pull off his hat, and was afterward turned out of the Quaker 
society, because he owned slaves. Quakerism could never have been 
long lived as a sect. By its very constitution it renounced any army 
of mercenary priests to defend it. The peculiar garb and speech of 
the Quakers will soon disappear forever; but the principle of George 
Fo.\rthat every man is his own priest, and that every man's reason 
is his divine guide to eternal life, is the logical result of Protestant 
thought, and must continue to live, until all independence of thought 
shall have yielded to the infallibility of a pope. His children were 
Quakers; they emigrated to Rhode Island and New Jersey, and their 
descendants are now numerous in most or all of the northern states. 
The parents of Mr. Rodman both died while he was an infant, and 
he and his two sisters were taken into the family of his maternal 
grandfather, John Gray Blount, a family well known in the histories 
of North Carolina and Tennessee. His grandfatlier sent him to the 
University of North Carolina, where he graduated with the first hon- 
ors of his class, in 1836. He read law under Judge Gaston, in New- 
bern, and was licensed as an attorney in 1838. He resided in the 
town of his birth, and had an extensive practice in that and the ad- 
joining counties, being also engaged in planting. In September, 1858, 
he married Camilla, a daughter of Wiley Croom. of Greensboro, Ala., 
and her death, in 1887, was felt as the greatest misfortune of his life. 
Mr, Rodman was educated a democrat, and a believer in the 
rights of states, as taught by Jefferson and Calhoun. After the 
breaking out of the late Civil war, he was elected captain of a com- 
pany of volunteers, and felt bound to accept, under the belief that he 
was acting in defense of his state, which had a right to his services. 
With his company he participated in the battle of Newbern, in 
March, 1862. To show the fratricidal character of that war, two of 
the descendants of their common ancestor, and bearing the same 
family name, were engaged in this battle, as officers of a Connecticut 
regiment. After this battle and resignation of Major Hood, quar- 
termaster of Branch's brigade, Capt. Rodman was promoted to that 
position. He accompanied the brigade to \'irginia. and was present 
at the battle of Mechanicsville, and at sundry skirmishes. At this 
time he was appointed by President Davis, to be the presiding judge 
of a military court, to sit in Richmond, under the command of what- 



2o8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

ever general might be in command of Richmond. This court had 
jurisdiction to try all Confederate soldiers and officers, not above the 
rank of brigadier-general, for all military offenses. His associates were 
Col. John M. Patton, of Richmond, who had commanded the First 
regiment of Virginia volunteers, Gen. B. T. Johnson, of Mary- 
land, and later Col. liateler, of Harper's Ferry, after the resignation 
of Gen. Johnson. These gentlemen have their places in the history 
of the Confederacy, and need no encomiums here. 

Mr. Rodman continued in Richmond and Petersburg until the 
evacuation of those places by the Confederates, and accompanied the 
retreating army of Gen. Lee as far as a place called Pamphitts sta- 
tion on a railroad, where, under the advice of Gen. Matthew Ransom, 
who said that the Confederate army must certainly surrender in a 
day or two, he left the army, and proceeded on foot to join that of 
Gen. Joseph Johnston, which he found near Greensboro, N. C, and 
which itself surrendered the next day. He received his parole as an 
officer in Johnson's army. From Greensboro, where his family had 
sought refuge after the battle of Newbern, he returned to his former 
residence in Washington. Here he found that he had lost all the 
property that he had, that could be pillaged or destroyed. Probably 
no one in the state lost more largely in proportion to his means. His 
slaves, about loo in number, had been carried off and scattered, ex- 
cept a few, who came and insisted on living under his care, notwith- 
standing their emancipation, and these have continued to do so up to 
this time. His furniture and household goods which he had left in 
the care of a lady in Washington, had been seized in the name of the 
United States, as abandoned property; the numerous and comforta- 
ble buildings on his plantation nearly opposite the town of Washing- 
ton had been burned, and even the bricks of the chimneys to their 
foundations in the ground, with his fruit trees and grape vines, had 
been dug up and carried off; this was done, however, not by the sol- 
diers of the United States, but by the neighbors who remained at 
home, and whom the northern soldiers contemptuously called " buffa- 
loes," after a sort of cattle that have no horns. The United States 
sent soldiers to bring away the negroes from his plantation, and all 
his horses, machinery and farming utensils, and their proceeds, unless 
stolen on their way, maj' still be in the treasury of the great United 
States. This was to preserve and perpetuate " the Union." This 
was the way In which the union between England and Ireland was 
attempted to be perpetuated by William and his successors, with the 
result that Ireland has been in rebellion ever since, and now after 
200 years of conciliation, is ready to ally itself with any nation that 
England may be at war with. It is to be hoped that the good sense 
of the southern people will permit no such wound to fester in its 
heart. Let retribution to the wrong doer come at once and on him, 
not on his children; and if that is impossible, let the wrong be for- 
gotten. 

In 1S67, Gen. Canby, commandant of the military department o 
which North Carolina was a part, called a convention to make such 



NORTH CAROLINA. 20g 

changes in the constitution of the state as would restore it to its 
place in the Union. Mr. Rodman was popular with the ne^jroes who 
then voted for the first time, because he had always been a kind 
master, and with the Confederate soldiers and democrats because he 
had been one of them, and his interests and theirs were identical, and 
although he was bitterly opposed by the " buffaloes " he was elected to 
the convention by a large majority. The convention met in January. 
i86S. Several of its members were northern men who had come into 
the state during or after the war. These men were contemptuously 
called carpet-baggers by the members of the party which then called 
itself democratic, although a great many of them had never called 
themselves such, or acted uniformly with that party even during the 
war. It has been the fashion ever since to describe these men as a 
set of unprincipled adventurers, intent only on plunder. Some of 
these deserved to be so classed, as did some who were natives of 
North Carolina. But the most prominent northern men in the con- 
vention. Gen. Abbott, Col. David Heaton, A. W. Tourgee, D. I. Rich 
and several others, did their duty to the state intelligently and faith- 
fully. Such adventurers are a gain to the state, and it is to be wished 
that North Carolina had more such. Of course their opinions and 
prejudices on many subjects were different from ours, and unfortu- 
nately as to Judge Tourgee, some of these prejudices have continued 
in spite of experience and have materially impaired the usefulness 
of his undoubted literary talents. 

Mr. Rodman took an influential part in framing the articles in the 
constitution on the judiciary, and on revenue and taxation, being 
greatly assisted in the first by Tourgee and in the last by Heaton. 
Tourgee is entitled to whatever credit may be due for the first sec- 
tion of the article on the judiciary which abolished the existing 
practice and procedure in civil actions, and impliedly involved the 
adoption of the New York on those subjects. Rodman is responsible 
for the sections in th'e article on revenue and taxation, fixes the pro- 
portion between the tax on property and that on polls, which, so far 
as we know, had not previously appeared in the constitution of any 
state; of that which fixes the proportion between the state and county 
taxes; of that which provides that no income tax shall be levied upon 
the property from which the income is derived shall be taxed; and of 
that in the article on corporations which forbids the legislature to 
charter private corporations by special act; but unfortunately follow- 
ing the constitution of New York, we believe, he added: "Except 
when in its judgment the objects of the legislature could not be other- 
wise obtained." The exception to the attempted restraint, a better 
example for such a restraint may be found in the constitution of 
Pennsylvania since adopted. The attempted prohibition appealed 
only to the conscience of legislators, and more than half of every 
volume of legislative acts since i86S, is filled with acts which are ap- 
parently beyond the rightful powers of the general assembly. And 
so it has been with the section which forbids municipal corporations 
to contract debts without the sanction of the legislature. This it was 
B— 14 



2IO NORTH CAROLINA 

thought would be difficult to obtain. But alas! it is always granted 
without inquiry. 

The constitution provided for the appointment of three commis- 
sioners to prepare and report to the legislature, a code of the law of 
North Carolina; Rodman, Tourgee and Victor Barringer were ap- 
pointed. As the constitution had abolished the existing law of 
practice and procedure, and the administration of justice in civil ac- 
tions was entirely suspended, prompt action was necessary in supply- 
ing another. The commissioners agreed to adopt the code of New 
York which had been used for several j'ears in that and numerous 
other states, with such alterations as were necessary to adapt it to 
the judicial system of North Carolina. These alterations mostly 
fell to the lot of INIr. Rodman, and the code as thus hastily, but not 
inconsiderately altered, was speedily reported to and adopted by the 
legislature which met in iS6S. The changes since made in it by 
which the pleadings are made up in term time only and not in vaca- 
tion, as originally provided for, have delayed the trial of actions, and 
have not benefited either parties or attorneys. The code originally 
provided for the repayment of his necessary expenses in attorneys' 
costs to the successful part}-. But that has been changed rather acci- 
dentally than deliberately, and North Carolina is now the only 
country in the world in which a litigant party can recover his debt or 
propert3% only at his own expense. 

It also fell mainly to the share of Mr. Rodman to draw the acts on 
the subjects of criminal procedure. Draining low lands, landlord 
and tenant, and marriage, which were enacted by the legislature of 
1868, and still i^emain in the statute book substantially as drawn. 
Afterward he prepared with great labor, a more comprehensive code 
of penal procedure, which the legislature neglected to consider. At 
the election for justices of the supreme court of the state in 1S68, Mr. 
Rodman was elected as one of them and served in that capacity 
until his term expired in 1878. His opinions may be found in vol- 
umes from sixty-three to seventj'-nine inclusive, in the reports of that 
court. It may be said that they are frequently cited with respect by 
the succeeding judges of that court. After his retirement from the 
bench, he returned to the bar and to the management of a large 
plantation which has occupied much of his attention. In politics he 
has always been a democrat, except when he voted for Holden for 
governor, and for Gen. Grant for president; under the circumstances 
which he considered exceptional. He is spending the evening of his 
life with a famil}' of sons and daughters, content with having dis- 
charged his duties honestl}- and to the best of his abilities. 

JOHN C. DAVIS, 

a young, self-made and successful attorney-at-law, practicing and 
residing at Wilmington, N. C, where he has lived since 1S77, was 
born in Carteret county, N. C, and his parents were Samuel E. and 
Jane (Roberts) Davis. The father, who was a merchant b}' occupa- 



NORTH CAROLIXA. 21 I 

tion, is now deceased, while the mother resides with her son, in W il- 
mington. The circumstances of our subject's youth were not at all 
promising, the war ravaging the wealth of the parents, and at the 
age of thirteen years, the boy went to sea as a sailor and re- 
mained at sea till 1S77, when he came to Wilmington, and worked 
in the Wilmington cotton mills as a weaver. About this time certain 
friends became interested in him and gave him access to books, for 
which he soon formed a love, and afterward began the study of law. 
and under the night instructions b\- John D. Bellamy. Jr., he became 
enabled to secure a license to practice at the bar in 1SS4, since when 
he has been in the active practice of the profession. He is a consis- 
tent member of the Methodist Episcopal church and is a respected 
citizen. He has taken much interest in church and Sunday-school; 
was a delegate to the world's Sunday-school convention which met 
at London, Eng., in iSSg. He thus visited Europe and became better 
schooled in the histor\' of the east, and in 1S90 rendered much aid 
to the rector of the Fifth Street Methodist Episcopal church of 
Wilmington. 

WILLIAM A. WRIGHT. 

There were few men in eastern Carolina better known and few in 
the state more highly esteemed and deservedly so, than William A. 
Wright. He was the son of the Hon. Joshua G. Wright, and was 
born in Wilmington in 1S07. He was graduated at the University of 
North Carolina when very j^oung and embraced the profession of the 
law. He possessed great powers of application, was regarded as a 
better counselor than advocate, and as a corporation lawyer, as it is 
termed, had few equals either at home or abroad. He made no pre- 
tensions to orator)-, and yet his efforts before a jury were often verj' 
effective. For many years he was chairman of the county court under 
the old regime, and upon the death of his brother. Dr. Thomas H. 
Wright, president of the Bank of Cape Fear, he was elected to that 
position and proved himself an able financier and man of business. 
He was the attorney and also a director of the Wilmington & Weldon 
railroad from the commencement of that great work, and was in con- 
tinued service the oldest railroad director in the United States. He 
had a peculiarlj- happy temperament, was amiable and hospitable to 
a degree, was fond of a joke and excelled in the telling of one, and 
delighted in social gatherings where his overflowing humor made 
him the life of the occasion. He was at the service of his friends at 
all times and perhaps no member of the profession gave up so much 
of his time and professional advice also, to others without any hope 
of compensation: in fact he never seemed happier than when so en- 
gaged. The writer recalls numerous occasions when he has seen him 
so employed, searching up authorities upon intricate points of law and 
undergoing an amount of mental work that would tax the energies of 
the most robust. Of modest and retiring disposition, he shrank from 
the turmoils of politics, but in 1S65, while absent from the city, he was 



212 NORTH CAROLINA. 

elected a member of the convention which met at Raleigh soon after 
the organization of the provisional government of the state and known 
as the reconstruction convention. He accepted the position and his 
well-known habits of industry and application joined to his large ex- 
perience and recognized ability gave him an influence second to but 
few in that bod3^ numbering as it did among its members such men 
as B. F. Moore, Edwin G. Reade, Nathaniel Boyden, Bedford Brown 
and others who might be mentioned. While he was conservative by 
nature and opposed to extremes of every kind, he had the courage of 
his convictions and never hesitated when occasion demanded to ex- 
press his views upon all questions with a frankness that challenged 
respect and commanded attention. He was greatly esteemed and 
respected, in fact was a popular favorite, and it is doubtful if he left 
behind him an enemy in the world. He died in May, 1S7S, the Nestor 
of the Wilmington bar, mourned not only by his legal brethren, but 
by the community at large, for his public career was without reproach 
and his personal life blameless. Mr. Wright married Eliza Ann Hill, 
daughter of William Hill, Esq., and had many children, but they died 
young, his widow and but one child, a son, surviving him. 

JUDGE AVERY. 

" It was early in the year 1631 that the ship Arabella landed its 
passengers at the place where now stand Boston and Charleston, 
and where Gov. John Winthrop, Sr., had commenced an English set- 
tlement the year before. Among the passengers were Christopher 
Avery and his little son James, then eleven years old." James mar- 
ried Joanna Greenslade and removed to New London in 165 1, where 
he built a stone house which is still standing and is occupied by one 
of the Averys — the eighth generation from James. At the battle of 
Groton Heights, when Benedict Arnold, September 5, 1781, captured 
New London and massacred the garrison, " eleven Averys were 
killed in the fort and seven wounded." Solomon Avery, writing 
from Groton to his brother Waightstill, in North Carolina in 17S3, 
said, " Many Averys have been killed in this war. There have been 
no tories named Avery in these parts." Samuel, the seventh son of 
James Avery, was born in 1664, and in 1686 married Susan Palms, a 
daughter of Maj. Palms and granddaughter of Gov. John Winthrop, 
Jr., of Massachusetts. He had ten children, seven being sons. The 
sixth child was Humphrey, who was born July 4, 1699, and married 
Jerusha Morgan, by whom he had twelve children. 

Waightstill was born May 10, 1741. He was prepared for college 
by Samuel Seabury, of Groton, and graduated at Princeton in 1766, 
where he served as tutor for a year. He subsequently studied law 
with Lyttleton Dennis, a prominent lawyer of Maryland, and came to 
North Carolina in 1769. He kept a journal from the day he entered 
North Carolina, for many 3'ears, which has proved of much historic 
interest. Entering the province in the Albermarle section, he pre- 
sented his letters of introduction to Iredell and Hewes, and the first 




A. C. AVERY, Judife Supreme Court. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 213 

men in the colony, and was at once received with friendship and es- 
teem. He located near Charlotte and not far from Salisbury, where 
the western court was held, boarding with Hezekiah Alexander, and 
soon found in Mecklenburg his college mates at Princeton, Dr. Eph- 
riam Brevard, Adlai Osborne, and Rev. Hezekiah J. Balch. He was 
an early friend of liberty and a promoter of all patriotic movements, 
and soon established himself as one of the most influential leaders in 
his section of the province. He was a member of the provincial con- 
gress of 1775, and also that of 1776, which framed the constitution, 
and he was one of the committee that brought that instrument for- 
ward. 

Upon the formation of the state government, in 1777, he was 
chosen attorney-general, and while attending court at Xewbern, he 
met the young widow, Leah Franks, whom he married in 1778. As 
she had large landed interests in Jones county, in 1779, he settled in 
that county, and resigning the office of attorney-general, succeeded 
Nathan Bryan as colonel of the Jones county militia — the militia 
being always more or less in active service. In 1777 he had been on 
a commission to make a treaty with the Cherokees, over the moun- 
tains, and was doubtless led, bj' his journey in the west, to appreciate 
the salubrious climate of that region. In 17S1, eastern Carolina being 
then invaded, he removed his family to Swan Pond, a tract of land 
he had acquired in Burke county, where he subsequentlj' resided. He 
often represented Burke county in the assembly up to 1796. In 1801 
he was stricken with paralysis, but continued to practice his profession 
until a few years before his death in 1821. He was one of the most 
cultivated men in the state, possessed an extensive library and main- 
tained his knowledge of the Latin language even in his old age. He 
left three daughters and a son. Elizabeth married William Lenoir, 
and Louisa, Thomas Lenoir. His only son was Isaac Thomas Avery, 
who was born at Swan Pond, September 22, 1785, and died December 
31, 1864, in his eightieth year. He was several times a member of 
the legislature, and was an influential gentleman in his section ot the 
state. 

In 1815 he married Harriet, theoldestdaughterof Col. W.W. Erwin. 
For more than thirty years he was cashier of the bank at INIorganton, 
and at the same time was largely engaged in agriculture and stock 
raising. Xo place in all that region was better known for elegant 
hospitality than his home at Swan Pond. Here Col. Avery lived 
with every comfort, surrounded by a devoted family, and beloved and 
esteemed by all who knew him. His days were prolonged until 
within the space of one year, he was bereft of his three eldest sons 
who fell in defense of the south. Col. William Waightstill Avery, 
the eldest son was born May 25, 1816. Having gratluated at the 
University of North Carolina, he studied law with Judge Gaston 
and soon entered in public life as a states rights democrat. He often 
represented his county in the legislature, was chairman of the North 
Carolina delegation in the national delegation of 1856, and again in 
i860, and was a member of the provisional congress of the Confederate 



214 NORTH CAROLINA. 

States, where he rendered efficient public service. No man in the 
state commanded higher respect for his talents, attainments and 
worth than Col. Avery. In 1S64 an incursion was made by a maurad- 
ing party from Tennessee into Burke county. They were led by the 
notorious Col. Kirk. Col. Avery hastily gathered together a body of 
militia and started in pursuit. In attacking Kirk's force in a strong 
position in the mountains, he was mortally wounded and died on the 
3d of July, 1S64, universally lamented throughout the borders of the 
state. 

Col. Clark Moulton Avery was the second of the six sons of Col. 
Isaac T. Aver}'. He was born October 3, 1819, and died June 19, 
1864, of wounds received at Spottsylvania Court House. He com- 
manded a company at Big Bethel, and rose by merit to be colonel of 
the Thirty-third regiment North Carolina infantry, and was one of 
the most gallant and meritorious officers of the service. He married 
Elizabeth, a daughter of Thomas Walton, and left four children. 
Col. Isaac Erwin Avery was born December 20, 182S. He was, when 
the war broke out, in partnership with Col. C. F. Fisher and S. M. D. 
Tate, as contractor for building portions of the W. N. C. railroad, 
and proved himself a most efficient manager of construction work. 
He raised a company and joined Col. Fisher's regiment; was 
wounded at Manassas in 1861 and at Gaines' Mills, and became 
colonel of the Sixth North Carolina troops. On the afternoon of the 
second day's fight at Gettysburg, Col. Avery was in command of 
Hoke's brigade, and together with Hay's brigade attacked the Fed- 
eral works on Cemetery hill, and after an obstinate fight in which 
the losses were very heavy, entered the works. In the assault Col. 
Avery was shot through the neck and fell speechless. In his hand 
'was found a bloody scroll upon which he had written, with a pencil, 
despite his great agony — " Col. Tate, tell my father that I fell with 
my face to the enemy." 

Next to the youngest son of Col. Isaac Avery was Judge Alphonso 
Calhoun Avery, who was born September 11, 1837. He took first 
honors at Chapel Hill, and read law with Chief-Justice Pearson. In 
May, 1861, he was commissioned a lieutenant in Company E, of the 
Sixth North Carolina troops, and with his brother, Capt. Avery, was 
complimented for gallantry at Manassas. In 1862 he was promoted 
to a captaincy, and was later commissioned as major, and assistant 
adjutant-general of D. H. Hill's division, and in 1863 accompanied 
Gen. Hill to the western army. He served there on the staff of 
Breckinridge, Hindman and Hood. Subsequently he was given com- 
mand of a battalion in North Carolina, but was captured by Stone- 
man's forces near Salisbury and was kept a prisoner until August, 
1S65. In 1S66 he was elected to the state senate, and served in that 
the last legislative body elected exclusively by the white people of 
the state. Two years later he was again returned to the senate, but 
was not permitted to take his seat. In 1875 he represented Burke in 
the constitutional convention, and rendered efficient and valuable 
service in that body. He had always been an active and zealous ad- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 215 

herent of the democratic party, and was a merhber of the state ex- 
ecutive committee. In 1S76 he was a presidential elector, and in 
1878 he was elected judge of the superior court for the Eighth judicial 
district. 

After ten years' service on the superior court bench, in which the 
people of the state realized the extent of his unusual powers and fine 
judicial attainments. Judge Avery was elevated to the supreme court 
bench, where his talents and learning and discriminating judgment 
have greatly enhanced his reputation as an eminent jurist. Gener- 
ous, with a kindly disposition, and possessing a fund of humor, he is 
off the bench a most agreeable companion. Handsome in person, 
with a splendid physique, full of sympathy and personal magnetism, 
he is an ornament to society, while his philanthrophy and genuine 
Christianity and manliness of carriage endear him to a host of ad- 
miring friends. On February 27, 1861, Judge Avery was united in 
marriage with Susan W. Morrison, daughter of the Rev. R. H. Mor- 
rison, and a granddaughter of Gen. Joseph Graham, and a sister of 
the wife of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, and b}' her had six children, of 
whom four survive, viz.: Isaac Erwin Averj% of Morganton; 
Susan W., Alphonso C. and Alfred L. His wife dying in March, 1886, 
Judge Avery married December 31, 1888, Miss Sallie Love Thomas, 
a daughter of Col. W. H. Thomas, of Jackson county, by whom he 
has one son, Lenoir Avery. 

DR. KARL VON RUCK, 

an able and scholarly physician of Asheville, N. C, gives his sole at- 
tention to diseases of the lungs and throat. He was born at Constan- 
tinople, Turkey, July 10, 1849, his father. Baron Johann von Ruck, 
being at the time of his birth the German minister at that place. 
Dr. von Ruck was reared in Wurtemburg, Germany, and was edu- 
cated at the Royal gymnasium in .Stuttgart, graduating there at the 
age of seventeen years. He then completed a medical course in the 
University of Tuebingen; before graduating, however, the Franco- 
Prussian war had been inaugurated, and he was appointed to a posi- 
tion as assistant under Prof, von Bruns, which he held until the close 
of the war. Afterward he resumed his studies in the university, and 
graduating with honors, came to America. Here he entered the 
medical department of the University of Michigan and completed a 
course in it, graduating in 1878, thereafter spending about a year 
in the New York hospitals. Dr. von Ruck now entered upon his 
professional career at Xorwalk, Ohio, where he continued until 1883. 
At that time Prof. Koch announced the discovery of the germ of 
tuberculosis, and in order to acquaint himself with the nature of the 
discovery. Dr. von Ruck went to Berlin and spent about eight months 
in the Hygienic lalioratory under Prof. Koch, and in the Pathological 
institute of Prof. Virchow. He also, before leaving Germany, visited 
the private institutions throughout that country for the treatment of 
consumption. Returning to Ohio in 1884 he now established a 



2l6 NORTH CAROLINA. 

private hospital for consumption, and encouraged bj- the favorable 
results he obtained, and in order to have the assistance of the best 
climatic condition as well, he removed to Asheville, N. C, in i8S8, 
where he established the Winyaw Sanitarium for diseases of the 
lungs and throat. He has conducted that institution since, and it has 
become one of the famous sanitariums of the kind in the United 
States, and is modeled and conducted upon the plan of the leading 
private institutions in Germany. The institution is supported by the 
leading physicians in all parts of the country who send their patients 
there for treatment. 

Upon the discovery by Prof. Koch, of Berlin, of the remedy for 
tuberculosis, now called tuberculin. Dr. von Ruck hastened to Berlin 
and was the first of the army of physicians to secure the remedy for 
use in a private institution. Since his return, he has administered it 
to a large number of patients with great success, enjoying now, after 
the riper reflection of the profession, the distinction of being 'the first 
physician to use it in a proper manner. Apart from this remedy which 
is considered only an aid in suitable cases, the climatic, dietetic, hy- 
dropathic and other methods of treatment are carefully carried out, 
and the records of the institution show now, sixty-nine cured and a 
great number of permanently arrested and greatly improved cases of 
consumption. Dr. von Ruck is a member of the /\merican Climato- 
logical association, the American Medical association, and a number 
of other important medical societies, and the author of many impor- 
tant publications relating to his specialty. In the year past there were 
treated about lOO patients. The institution, besides the offices, lab- 
oratory, parlors, billiard rooms, etc., has sixty-five' guest rooms, and 
is unexceptional m all its appointments. Especial attention is given 
not only to thorough disinfection of all the rooms, but any article 
with which patients come in contact is subjected to disinfection by 
steam before it is again used; thus making residence in the establish- 
ment not only one of security and prospect for recovery for the in- 
valid, but conferring immunity from infection to the well, and such as 
seek climate for eradicating the predisposition to the disease, or for 
convalesence. 

DR. JOHN ANDERSON WATSON, 

a leading physician of Asheville, N. C, was born at Clay Hill, York 
county, S. C, December iS, 1849. He is the son of Dr. David M. 
Watson who also was a physician by profession and who, in his day 
was one of the prominent practitioners of South Carolina. The lat- 
ter was also born in York county, the date of his birth being January 
24, 18 1 4. He was the son of David Watson, also a native of York 
county, and a farmer by occupation who was born in 1772. The lat- 
ter was the son of Col. Samuel Watson, a revolutionary soldier born 
in 1731. The Watson family descended from an emigrant from the 
northern part of Ireland, a Scotch-Irishman and Presbyterian, and 
his faith has been the faith of the many generations which have 



NORTH CAROLINA. 217 

followed him. Three sons of David Watson, the grandfather of 
the subject of this sketch, were physicians by profession and another 
son, Rev. S. L. Watson, was a Presbyterian minister who for forty 
years was pastor of Bethel church, in York county, and one of the 
Highly respected men of that section. The father of Dr. Watson 
died August ii, 1855. His mother was Mary J. Anderson, who was a 
native of York county, the daughter of John Anderson a planter, and 
the sister of Rev. J. M. Anderson, a Presbyterian divine, who for 
many years was a member of the faculty of the Davidson college. 
Maternally as well as paternally. Dr. Watson is of ScotchTrish 
descent, the Anderson famil}' in this country having also been 
founded by an emigrant from the northern part of Ireland. 

Dr. Watson spent his early life in York county, S. C, and was 
educated in the Kings Mountain military academy, of Yorkville, and 
in the South Carolina university. For a want of means he was 
obliged to leave the latter institution one year before his graduation 
would have taken place. Shortly after leaving the university he be- 
came possessed of a desire to fit himself for the practice of medicine. 
Fortunately for him, at this tims, a kinsman, being aware of this de- 
sire, offered to provide him with the necessary funds to give him a 
medical education. He availed himself of this offer, and though the 
total sum thus advanced him amounted to more than $1,600, it has 
been paid in full together with interest. In the fall of 1S70 D.r. Wat- 
son entered the medical department of the University of Maryland, 
at Baltimore. After taking one course in that school, he became an 
interne in the university hospital, and graduated in March, 1S72. 
After completing ITis medical education he became a resident physi- 
cian in the Bay View hospital, of Baltimore, and held that position 
about one year, after which he returned to South Carolina, and was 
shortly afterward appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the South 
Carolina university. He held that position likewise about one year, 
at the end of which time he resigned to turn his whole attention to 
the practice of his profession. Locating at Chester, S. C, he became 
the partner of Dr. A. P. Wylie, a prominent practitioner of that place. 
Dr. Wylie died some three or four years later, after which Dr. Wat- 
son succeeded to the practice of the firm, which was very large, and 
to which he devoted himself until 1884. In that year he removed to 
Asheville, N. C, where he has been in the active and successful prac- 
tice of his profession ever since, and of which city he is a leading 
physician. 

Dr. Watson was chiefly instrumental in establishing the Mission 
hospital at Asheville in iS8> being associated in that project with 
Drs. S. W. Battle and the late Wardlaw McGill. Dr. Watson has 
been one of the attending physicians of that hospital ever since. 
While he is a general practitioner, he has paid special attention to the 
treatment and study of diseases of women, and he is recognized as 
one of the most competent in that branch of practice in western 
North Carolina. In view of his fitness for the position, he was upon 



2l8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

the establishment of the Mission hospital placed in charge of the 
women's department, which position he still holds. He is a member 
of the Buncombe county medical society. In politics he is a con- 
servative democrat, and has served one term as coroner of Buncombe 
county. He is a member of the Presbyterian church. Dr. Watson 
was married June 7, 1SS6, to Miss Arabella, the daughter of James M. 
Tebbetts, of Great Falls, N. H. Her mother was Hannah E. Brack- 
ett, a native of Maine. Dr. Watson has taken three .post-graduate 
courses, two in the polyclinic, and one in the University of New York. 

DR. MORAGN LINES NEILGON, 

an old and honored physician of Asheville, N. C, was born in Green 
county, Tenn., March 17, 1822. He was the son of Archibald D. 
Neilson, a native of North Carolina and a farmer by occupation, who 
died more than forty years ago. The father served in the war of 
1812, and was a recruiting officer under Gen. Jackson, at the battle of 
New Orleans. The latter was the son of William Neilson, a native 
of Scotland, who graduated at the University of Glasgow, and came 
to America shortly after the Revolutionary war, and settled at 
Lynchburg, \'a., where he followed mercantile pursuits. He subse- 
quently removed to Tennessee, and later to North Carolina, locating 
in the vicinity of what is now known as Hot Springs, which property 
he owned and improved. The mother of Dr. Neilson was Eliza 
Lines, a native of South Carolina, and a niece of Gen. Francis Marion. 
She also died more than forty years ago. The subject of this sketch 
was reared upon a farm in Greene county, Tenn*. He received his 
education in a country school, and at Greenville college. At the age 
of twenty-one he entered upon the study of medicine under Drs. 
Hale and Walker, of Greene countj'. In the fall of 1842 he entered the 
Transylvania medical college, of Lexington, and in it he attended 
one course of lectures. In 1843 he began the practj^ce of medicine in 
Beech Bottoms, Tenn. He was married in 1844, in Buncombe county, 
now Madison county, N. C, to Laura Henrietta Vance, sister of 
United States Senator Z. B. Vance. In 1845 Dr. Neilson located in 
Asheville, N. C, where he has resided and practiced his profession 
ever since, with the exception of two years, 1S67 and 1868, during 
which he resided in Spartanburg, S. C, and Tennessee. In the fall 
of 1851 he entered the Philadelphia college of medicine, graduating 
in 1852. He served three years of the Civil war as surgeon, resign- 
ing the position just before the close of the war, on account of ill 
health. Dr. Neilson is a general practitioner. He has practiced his 
profession for nearly a half century, and his career has been a most 
honorable one. He is a member of the Buncombe county medical 
society, and belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church, south. In 
politics he is a democrat. Dr. Neilson and wife have two sons living. 
Though nearly seventy years of age. Dr. Neilson is still in the active 
practice of his profession. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 219 



DR. JAMES ANTHONY BURROUGHS, 

one of the rising and popular young physicians of Asheville, N. C, is a 
native of Kanawha county.W.Va., and was born Decembers, 1S58. His 
parents were James and Sarah (Ruckel) Burroughs, both nativ-es of 
Bedford county, Ya. His father combined farming and merchandis- 
ing and was highly esteemed in the community. He located in what 
is now West \'irginia, in 1853, and when the Civil war broke out he 
joined the Confederate army and soon made himself conspicuous for 
gallant and meritorious conduct in the face of the enemy, for which 
he was rewarded with a major's commission, holding the same with 
credit to himself throughout the sanguinary struggle. Dr. J. .A. Bur- 
roughs began his education in the X'irginia schools, afterward enter- 
ing the Louisville, Ky., medical college, from which he graduated 
with distinguished honors, in 1SS2. His close application to his stud- 
ies was something of a strain upon his physical forces, and he gradu- 
ated with his health partially impaired. He had mastered his medi- 
cal course in much less time than is usually consumed for that purpose, 
and the temporary loss of health was the penalty exacted of him. 
But his indomitable spirit did not yield, and he started out in the 
practice of his profession at Paucha Springs, very soon working up 
an extensive and profitable practice. He soon found, however, that 
the field at this place was too narrow for the full developments of his 
powers, and in 1882 he removed to Asheville, which place promised 
to give his medical genius full scope and ample verge. Here the im- 
mediate and continual enlargement of his business shows that he 
chose a locality' where his talents, learning and natural adaptation to 
the requirements of his profession are duly appreciated, and the e.x- 
tent of his professional engagements is only to be measured by his 
endurance and strength to answer the calls upon him. 

Few practitioners of Mr. Borroughs's age have ever come so rap- 
idly to the front, or exhibited qualities in their profession of a higher 
grade. Even in the outset of his career, comparatively, he bids fair 
to soon reach the front rank in his profession, and attain a reputation 
as wide as the boundaries of the state. Dr. Borroughs is a member 
of the state medical society of North Carolina, and a member of the 
Buncombe county medical society. He is city phj'sician of Asheville, 
and a member of the Asheville board of health. In the midst of his 
busy practice, and of his official duties, he does not ignore nor neglect 
the material, social, intellectual and moral improvement of the com- 
munity in which he has cast his lot, but takes an active concern in 
this direction. He has a property interest in several large enter- 
prises outside of his professional circles, but is an active agent in every 
direction for the up-building and improvement of society. In De- 
cember, 1882, Dr. Burroughs was married to Miss Annie Reynolds, a 
lady of wide culture and fine accomplishments, the daughter of Dr. 
John Reynolds, of Asheville. 



220 NORTH CAROLINA. 



DR. SAMUEL WESTRAY BATTLE, 

a distinguished naval officer and physician was born in Nash county, 
N. C. August 4, 1854. His parents were William S. and Elizabeth 
(Dancy) Battle, both native North Carolinians. The father's occupa- 
tion was that of a planter and manufacturer and he carried on an ex- 
tensive business in both, being one of the largest dealers in his sec- 
tion of the country. He brought both energy and intelligence to the 
task of conducting his varied enterprises and thereby won success. 
He took a lively interest in politics but never aspired to office hold- 
ing. Yet his strong common sense and sagacity suggested his fitness 
for public duties and when the secession movement was inaugurated, 
he was chosen a member of the state convention which took that sub- 
ject into consideration. He was also chosen to other offices in his 
county. Dr. Battle, in his youth, attended Horner's classical and 
mathematical school at Oxford, N. C, and afterward entered the 
Bellevue high school in Bedford county, Va. Here he fitted him- 
self for the Virginia state university, and in that institution entered 
upon a medical and classical course, graduating with honors in 1874. 
But he was not yet satisfied in his professional researches and entered 
Bellevue hospital and medical college of New York, from which he 
graduated in 1875. With this elaborate preparation he entered the 
United States service as surgeon in the naval department, passing 
a rigid competitive examination for that position. He fully illustrated 
his fitness for this important trust by the signal brilliancy of his official 
career. His field of operation was on the seas and in every naval 
JDort, and his services were of the highest order of merit. The}' were 
arduous and extended to a term of ten years, from 1875 till 1885. 
His services were terminated by a collision at sea in which he re- 
ceived a severe wound in his left arm by which he was for a time 
practically disabled for the performance of surgical operations. He 
was consequently retired from active naval duty but without the loss 
of his rank in the service. 

In 1879 he was appointed to take charge of the United States hos- 
pital in Florida, where he spent about four years. In 1885 he began 
the practice of his profession as a private practitioner in Asheville, 
and his business at once became extensive and profitable. Profession- 
ally, Dr. Battle is a thorough and progressive student, constantly 
abreast of the times in medical and surgical sciences. His general 
intelligence and knowledge of the world, nearly all parts of which he 
has personally visited, make him a great favorite in social circles, 
where his suavity of manner and the brilliancy of his conversational 
powers are duly appreciated. Ever since the establishment of the 
Asheville city hospital in 1886, Dr. Battle has been in charge and his 
services therein are a public beneficence. He is very popular as a 
member of the board of health of the cit}' of Asheville, and is presi- 
dent of the Buncombe count}' medical society. In business lines he 
is vice-president of the x'\sheville Street Railway company, director 



NORTH CAROLINA. 221 

in the Light & Power company, one of the incorporators, president 
and a director of the Cosmopolitan club, and vice-president of Ashe- 
ville Park & Hotel Co. Dr. Battle was married to Miss Alice M., 
daughter of Admiral George E. Belknap, of New Hampshire, a naval 
ofificer of the highest distinction. Dr. and Mrs. Battle have three 
children, Madelon B., Samuel W. and Belknap Battle. The doctor 
is a member of the Episcopal church. 

DR. WILLIAM D. HILLIARD. 

a prominent physician of Asheville, \. C, was born in the city in 
which he now resides, March ii, 1858. He is the son of Dr. Will- 
iam L. Hilliard, a native of Georgia, and a phj-sician who practiced 
his profession for more than forty years in Asheville. He died Octo- 
tober II, iSqo. The mother of William D. Hilliard was Margaret E., 
daughter of Col. James R. Love, and she was born at W'aynesville, 
N. C. She is still living. Dr. Hilliard was reared in Asheville, and 
was educated in Col. Stephen Lee's high school, in which he obtained 
a knowledge of the classics, in addition to a good English training. 
At the early age of seventeen he entered upon the study of medicine, 
under the preceptorship of his father, and in the fall of 1S76, entered 
the Jefferson medical college of Philadelphia, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1878. He at once began the practice of medicine as the part- 
ner of his father, and this partnership continued until 1881. He soon 
built up a lucrative practice which he resigned in 1882, to accept the 
position of assistant superintendent -of the Western North Carolina 
insane asylum, at Morganton, N. C. He held that position three 
years, resigning it in 1884. He then returned to Asheville, where he 
has since been in the active practice of medicine, and of which city 
he is now a leading physician and surgeon. Dr. Hilliard is a mem- 
ber of the North Carolina medical society, and of the state board of 
health. He is the local surgeon of the Richmond & Danville rail- 
road company, and the assistant surgeon general of North Carolina. 
Dr. Hilliard has served several terms ascoronerof Buncombe county. 
He is a Mason, a Knights Templar and a member of the L O. O. F. 
lodge. In politics he is a democrat. Dr. Hilliard was married in 
1884 to Miss Mary V. Duffield, of Norfolk, Va., and they have one 
child, a daughter. 

S. T. & P. A. NICHOLSON. 

Sir Malile Nicholson left England in 1748 and .sought a home in 
the new world, settling in Halifax county, N. C, on a tract of land 
granted him by King George II. His son, Thomas Wright Nicholson, 
w-as born in Halifax county. He became a very prominent and intiu- 
ential man in the community, and served in the patriot armj' of 1776 
as a colonel. He was a large land owner and slaveholder, and repre- 
sented his county in the state legislature for several years. As a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church he did much toward build- 



222 NORTH CAROLINA. 

ing up that denomination in his section of the state, and was a man 
of great force of character and ability. Temperance Winifred Wig- 
gins became his wife and bore him tlie following named children: 
James; Joseph, deceased; Timothy, of Mississippi, a prominent lawyer; 
Blake B., Mary, Laura and Winnie. Blake B. Nicholson was edu- 
cated at Washington and Lee university, and followed in the footsteps 
of his father and noble grandsire as a planter. In 1858 he removed 
to Mississippi, and there became a major in the Mississippi Guards. 
He returned to Halifax county in 1882, and now resides at Panacea 
Springs, Halifax county, N. C. He is an active democrat, a promi- 
nent Mason, and a steward in the Methodist Episcopal church, south. 
By his marriage to Miss Lucy C. Thorne, nine children have been 
born, viz.: Temperance W., wife of E. A. Daniel, of Panacea Springs; 
Samuel T., M. D.; J. T., of Bath, N. C; B. B., Jr., assistant treasurer 
of Trinity college; P. A., of Washington, N. C; Mary E., wife of 
Samuel J. Clarke, of Enfield, N. C; William Edward, manager of the 
Bath Lumber Co.; Lucilla G., wife of James Clarke, of Enfield, N. C, 
and Katie, who resides at home. Samuel T. Nicholson, the imme- 
diate subject of this biographical mention, was born on the family 
estate in Halifax county, N. C, December 25, 1855. He was 
graduated from Fork institute, then under the management of Prof. 
John Graham, and began to study medicine with Dr. E. T. Taylor, of 
Washington, and graduated from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons at Baltimore, in 18S1. In the same year he began the practice of 
his profession in Beaufort county. He is a member of the state med- 
ical society, and for the past eight years has been a United States 
pension examining surgeon. He is a prominent member of the 
I. O. O. F., is a school commissioner, and a leading member of the 
democratic party in the count3^ Dr. Nicholson has been very active 
in encouraging and instituting new and important industrial enter- 
prises, and was prominently identified with the organization of the 
Bath Manufacturing company, in which he is a large stockholder; 
he was an organizer of the Washington Industrial association, and since 
its establishment has been treasurer, he is also treasurer of the Young 
Men's Christian association, of Washington. In iSgo he erected the 
magnificent hotel at Washington, known as the Hotel Nicholson. 
On the 4th of July, 1876, his marriage to Miss Annie E. Lucas, daugh- 
ter of Jesse B. Lucas, of Beaufort county, was solemnized, and has 
been blessed by the birth of five children: John Lawrence, Lucille 
Thorne, Elizabeth S., Annie Plummer and Samuel T., Jr. Dr. Nichol- 
son is a steward and treasurer of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
south, of Washington, and is a leader in every enterprise promising 
the uplifting of the people. As a physician he has won an enviable 
reputation for skill and abilit}', and his name is known throughout 
that portion of the state. 

Plummer A. Nicholson, M. D., was born in Halifax county, N. C, 
May 25, 1865. He received his scholastic training in the Thorne 
Branch institute, and later read medicine with Dr. S. T. Nicholson. 
In 1888 he received his diploma from the College of Physicians and 



NORTH CAROLINA. 223 

Surgeons at Baltimore, and at that time formed a partnership with 
his preceptor. He is a member of the state medical society, a stock- 
holder in the Bath Manufacturing compan}', and is a prominent dem- 
ocrat. In 1SS9 he formed a marriage alliance with .Nliss Estella M. 
Hunter, daughter of Capt. Samuel B. Hunter, of Halifax county. Dr. 
Nicholson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, south, 
and also of the Y. M. C. A. He has an extended practice, and is 
regarded as one of the ablest of the younger physicians of eastern 
North Carolina. 

COL. DAVID N. BOGART. 

Among the most prominent business men of Beaufort county, 
N. C, appears the name of Col. David N. Bogart, the leading drug- 
gist of Washington. Col. Bogart was born in Washington, in 1847, 
and his parents were Gilbert and Christiana (Barden) Bogart. Gil- 
bert Bogart was a very prominent man. He was born in New York 
in 1804, and came from New jersey to North Carolina in about 1840, 
he having graduated from Princeton college. He was principal at 
different times of the academies at Washington, Edenton and New- 
bern. He was an elder in the Presbyterian church, and a man of 
godly life. He died in Washington in 1S67. A whig in politics, he 
served as collector of customs at Washington for two years, and his 
death occurred while he was the incumbent of that position. As an 
educator he was able and active. I-'ossessed of superior mind, he had 
broadened and e.xtended his faculties b}' years of consistent studj? 
and reading. His wife was a native of Beaufort county. She sur- 
vived her husband until 1879, and then joined him in eternal rest. 
To these parents three sons and three daughters were born, viz.: 
Annie, William, cashier of the Greensboro bank; David N., and three 
others, now deceased. Col. David N. Bogart is the youngest of the 
living children. In 1S64 he joined the Confederate arnij-, as a mem- 
ber of Freeman's North Carolina battalion, regular troops, and was 
captured by Stoneman's forces, April 12, 1865, and imprisoned at 
Camp Chase, Ohio. After the close of hostilities he returned home 
and embarked in the drvig business at Washington, in i868. Two 
years later he married Miss Mary, daughter of William Z. Morton, 
of Washington, and their eight children are all living. He served 
for a time as captain of the Washington light infantry, was then 
made major of the First North Carolina state troops, and now holds 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the same. Democratic in politics, 
he is a member of the school committee. He is also a prominent 
member of the I. O. O. F". and the Knights of Honor, and is a lead- 
ing communicant of the Presbyterian church, in which he is a deacon. 
Mrs. Bogart is a member of the Episcopal church. 

DR. W. J. T. MILLER 

was born April 12, 1805, about four miles south of Rutherfordton, N. C, 
and died in Shelby, N. C, December 7, 1S85. He was the youngest 



224 NORTH CAROLINA. 

son of John and Susan Miller, and his father and grandfather were 
leading citizens of western North Carolina. His mother before her 
marriage was Miss Susan Twitty, whose family was prominent in 
that part of the state. Dr. Miller graduated with the degree of 
M. D. at Lexington, Ky., in 1827, and settled on his large plantation 
south of Shelby, the place taking the name of I^oplar Grove. There 
he engaged in the practice of medicine as well as agriculture and the 
mercantile trade, remaining there until 1S52, when he removed to 
Shelby. This was his permanent residence for the rest of his life. 
February 7, 1833, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Fullenvvider. 
daughter of Jacob Fullenwider, of Lincoln county, and ten children 
were born to them, two of whom were killed in the southern army. 
Mrs. Miller and four sons. Dr. John F. Miller, of Goldsboro; W. H. 
Miller, A. C. Miller, and R. B. Miller, of Shelby; and two daughters, 
Mrs. Moore, of South Carolina, and Mrs. S. G. Brice, of Shelby, sur- 
vive him. His sons are leading men in their professions and in so- 
ciety, and all are faithful and conscientious members of the church 
which he in his lifetime loved so well, and served so devotedly. Dr. 
Miller was possessed of a clear and vigorous intellect and great 
energy of character, and these attributes made him a most success- 
ful practitioner and business man, besides being the mainspring in 
all other enterprises which he undertook for the promotion of his 
country. With characteristics which fitted him for a wider sphere, 
he was not permitted to remain in the private walks of life. His 
qualities and adaptabilities for public positions were recognized, and 
in 1836 he was elected to the house of representatives from Ruther- 
ford county and served in that body for three successive terms. He 
was then elected to the senate from the district composed of the 
counties of Cleveland, Rutherford and Polk. In that body he served 
a number of terms and at various times, the last being in 1S72 and 
1874, when he represented the present district composed -of Cleve- 
land and Gaston counties. 

In i84i,with the aid of his cousin, Michael Hoke, of Lincoln coun- 
ty, and J. G. Bynum, of Rutherford county. Dr. Miller succeeded in 
passing a bill for the formation of a new county, from parts of Ruth- 
erford and Lincoln counties, and at his suggestion the new county 
was called Cleveland, in honor of the Kings Mountain hero. He 
was the ruling spirit in the location of the county seat, and he gave it 
the name of Shelby, of Revolutionary fame. While in the senate Dr. 
Miller was the leader in the establishment of charitable institutions. 
He attended the first railroad meeting held in the state, and assisted 
in procuring a charter for the North Carolina railroad. He aided 
liberally, both with his valuable influence and with his means, in the 
construction of . the Carolina Central railroad. In 1S61 the doctor 
was a member of the secession convention, and as a whig, he was 
firmly against anything which threatened the dissolution of the Union. 
But, like hundreds of others of the greatest men who held the same 
principles and the same convictions, when the struggle came, he was 
on the side of his state. In 1874, after eighteen years of public ser- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 22$ 

vice, Dr. Miller declined further preferment, and from choice, retired 
to private life, giving himself up to the practice of his profession, and 
to doing good in the community where he lived. Dr. Miller joined 
the Methodist Episcopal church in 1S36, and was for forty-nine years 
a member of the church, holding the position of steward for forty 
years. He was more immediately and constantly identified with the 
interests of the church than any man in western North Carolina, as 
a member of the quarterly, district, annual and general conferences, 
and in all of these gatherings he was the leading genius among 
the laymen. 



DR SAMUEL J. HINSDALE. 

One of the most highly respected citi/ens of F"ayetteville, Cumber- 
land county', X. C, is Dr. Samuel ]. Hinsdale, a retired business man, 
having for many years conducted a large pharmacy at that 
place. Dr. Hinsdale is a native of Middletown, Conn., where he was 
born in 1817, the son of John and Harriet (Johnston) Hinsdale, who 
were also natives of Connecticut. The father was an extensive mer- 
chant, and also carried on a large shipping business. He was well 
and favorably known throughout New England, where his death oc- 
curred in 1S50, at the age of seventy-two; his wife died a few years 
later. The son, Samuel J., was educated in Connecticut, and gradu- 
ated from the New York college of pharmacy, in 1837. He then went 
to Buffalo, N. Y., and there embarked in the drug business, and after 
about three years, in 1843, removed to Fayetteville, N. C, where he 
has been an honored citizen since. In 1843, Dr. Hinsdale opened'a 
drug store in his new home, and continued in a large and successful 
business until 18S5, when he retired from active life. In i84i,he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Ichabod Wetmore, of Fay- 
etteville, and two children were born to them, viz.: Col. John VV. 
Hinsdale, now a prominent attorney of Raleigh, N. C. In 1S61, the 
latter enlisted in the Confederate army as an aide to Gen. Holmes, 
and before the close of the war, was promoted to the rank of colonel 
of junior reserves, and with his command, fought in the battle of 
Bentonville. Although he served during the entire war, he received 
no wound, nor was taken prisoner. He married a daughter of Maj. 
John Devereux, of Raleigh, and their children are: Margaret, Sam- 
uel, John, Lizzie, Nellie and Annie. The next child is Fannie, wife 
of Judge J. C. MacRae. The mother of these children died in 1885, 
aged sixty-six years. She was a life-long communicant of the Epis- 
copal church, and was a woman of excellent attainments. In 1886, 
Dr. Hinsdale married Mrs. Mary (VVaddill) Broadfoot, daughter of 
Col. Thomas VVaddill, late of Cumberland county, N. C. Dr. Hins- 
dale has been a vestryman for a number of years, and a warden for 
the past twenty years in the Episcopal church at Fayetteville, and is 
held in the highest esteem throughout the community. 
B— i^ 



226 NORTH CAROLINA. 



CHARLES DUFFY, JR., M. D., 

was born in Onslow county, N. C, July i8, 1S38. His father, Dr. 
Charles Duffy, was born in Ireland, near Dublin. He received his 
professional training in his native land, and came to the United 
States in his early manhood, locating in Onslow county. He is a 
resident of that county at this time, having retired from active prac- 
tice owing to advanced age. He is a member of the state medical 
society, an elder in the Presbyterian church and a trustee of the Dav- 
idson college. He married Miss Nancy C. Howse, of Onslow county, 
and twelve children resulted from the union, ten of whom reached 
maturity: Mrs. A. B. Mosely, Dr. Charles, Jr., Mrs. Elizabeth Mer- 
rill (deceased), Lawrence E., Miss Lucy, Francis, M. D., Mrs. Caro- 
lina Wooten, Rodolph, Leinster, M. D., and Palmetto (deceased). 
Our subject was educated in his native county in the Richland acad- 
emy, and later in an academy in New York city. He began the study 
of medicine with his father, and was graduated from the medical de- 
partment of the University of New York, in 1859, and began to prac- 
tice in Onslow county in the same year. In May, 1861, he joined the 
Confederate army as a member of Companj' B, Fourteenth North 
Carolina volunteer infantry, and in October, i86i,was made assistant 
surgeon of the regiment, and later was promoted to surgeon of the 
Fifty-fourth regiment, from w'hich he was transferred to the Forty- 
ninth, remaining with the latter regiment until the close of the war. 
He was detached to take charge of a hospital at Blue Sulphur Springs, 
W. Va., in the early part of the war. Resuming his professional du- 
ties in Onslow county, he remained there until 1S70, when he removed 
to Newbern. Dr. Duffy is a member of the state medical society, 
of which he has been vice-president, and for six years was a member 
of the state examining board. In 1872 he was vice-president of the 
state medical society, first president of eastern North Carolina medi- 
cal society in 1873 and treasurer in 1875-6-7, and in 1878 was presi- 
dent of the state medical societ}'. From 1873 to 1S74 he was president 
of the Craven county medical society, and from 1872 to 1878, was a 
member of the state board of examiners, and was appointed a mem- 
ber of the committee to organize the state board of health. He is a 
prominent member of La Fayette lodge. No. 83, of which he was 
worshipful master, and Newbern chapter of the Royal Arch Masons, 
and is also a member of the I. O. O. F. A loyal democrat, he is now 
a member of the state board of charities, having been appointed by 
Gov. Fowle, and is now president of this board. In 1881 Dr. Duffy 
was married to Miss S. B. Moore, daughter of William P. Moore, of 
Newbern, and three children have been born to them, of whom only 
one survives, named Richard M., Jr. 

Dr. Francis Duffy, M. D., was born in Richland township, Onslow 
county, N. C, June 24, 1847. His literary education was obtained in 
different private schools and by private tutors. He read medicine 



NORTH CAROLINA. 227 

with his father. Dr. Charles Duffy, and graduated from- the University 
of Virginia in 1S68, and from the college of Physicians and Surgeons 
in New York in 1875, and from Bellevue hospital in 1873. In 1S69 
he located in Jacksonville, N. C, and opened an office, but in 1879 
removed to Newbern, and has since been associated with his brother, 
Dr. Charles Duffy, Jr. He is a member of the American medical 
association; North Carolina state medical society, and was a member 
of the State examining board from 1884 to 1890. He is a director in 
the Winston Salem Land & Investment company, and also in the 
Building & Loan association and of the Virginia Life Insurance com- 
pany. As a physician he e.xcels. His medical training was of the best 
and was made use of to the best advantage. The result has been 
honorable. 

RICHARD DILLARD, M. D., 

was born in Sussex county, Va., December i, 1822. His father was 
James Dillard. He was graduated from the University of Virginia, 
and received his medical diploma from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. When a young man he took up his residence in Chowan 
county, N. C, and married Miss Mary Louisa Bevely Cross. He 
was a sound democrat of the old school, and soon became a leader of 
the party in his new home. He was twice elected to represent 
Chowan and Gates counties in the state senate, and served as a mem- 
ber of the secession convention from Chowan county. By reason of 
his loyalty to his adopted state during the war, he was despoiled of 
his property. After the war he located at Edenton, and by strict ap- 
plication to his profession was enabled to repair his losses, and at the 
time of his death was regarded as one of the substantial men of the 
county. He was an honorary member of the state medical society- 
During the war he was appointed aide-de-camp to Gov. Clarke, with 
the rank of colonel, and ordered to inspect fortifications at Roanoke 
Island, and later was acting brigade-surgeon for Gen. Roger A. Pryor. 
His death occurred in 1S87, and his wife's in 1880. The two children 
now living of the four born to them, are Richard and Sally, the lat- 
ter being the wife of M. H. Dixon, of Edenton. 

Richard Dillard, Jr., read medicine with his father; he entered the 
Jefferson medical college of Philadelphia, and in 1879, completed the 
course there, and subsequently attended the New York Polyclinic. 
Dr. Dillard at once opened an office in Edenton, and has rapidly risen 
to the front ranks of his profession in the state. He is a prominent 
member of the state medical society, and in 1890, was one of its vice- 
presidents. He is also a member of the Phi Kappa Sigma fraternity, 
and holds the office of contract surgeon in the United States marine 
hospital service at Edenton. Dr. Dillard interested in agriculture in 
the county, and has real estate interests in V^irginia. As a democrat 
he is active and efficient. Major James Dillard. his grandfather, was 
a native of Sussex county, Virginia, and served in the legislature of 
the Old Dominion state. He was a major during the Mexican war, 



228 NORTH CAROLINA. 

and rendered distinguished services. Mrs. Mary L. B. Dillard, tlie 
mother of our subject, was a direct descendant of tlie Brownrigg 
family, of Winfield, N. C, which is one of the oldest and most hon- 
ored connections of the state. 

DR. HIRAM TARLTON CHAPIN, 

one of the rising physicians and surgeons of Chatham county, was 
born in Wayne county, N. C, July 30, 1858. His parents are Dr. An- 
sel B. and Argent E. (Thompson) Chapin, the father a native of 
Granby, Conn., and the mother of Wayne county. The former was a 
graduate from Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia. He had a 
position on the Atlantic & North Carolina railroad about the year 
1S55, in charge of a force of hands in building that road. Later he 
took charge of a newspaper in Goldsboro and subsequently at Beau- 
fort, N. C. In 1859 he moved to Ore Hill, Chatham county, and 
there began the practice of his profession, which he continued a few 
months, when he was ordered to report at Pittsboro in the service of 
the Confederate States. Before the day of departure arrived he 
went to Gov. Vance and obtained leave of absence for the purchase 
of land in the eastern part of the state, and while there went to Wash- 
ington and applied for a position as surgeon in the United States 
army. He passed the examination and was accepted as an army 
surgeon, and served during the war in the northern army and for 
two years longer. In 1S67 he resigned his commission and moved to 
Greensboro, N. C, and engaged in the drug business. At the same 
time he was editor of the Union Rcgiste}-, which position he filled for 
two years. Attacked by rheumatism, he sold out in Greensboro in 
1870, and moved to his old farm at Ore Hill. Dr. Chapin was as- 
sistant assessor in the internal revenue service from 1870 to 1872. 
He had the farm carried on during this time, and then exchanged it 
for one at Hadley's Mills in the same county, where he moved and 
engaged in farming and milling. In 1883 he exchanged that property 
for property in Beaufort county, and there he removed and engaged 
in the drug business, and is postmaster at that place. 

Dr. Chapin was married in June, 1857, to Miss A. E. Thompson, of 
Goldsboro, N. C, and they have had three children: Hiram T., 
John W., a farmer at Aurora, N. C, and Lillius B., an attorney at 
Lillington, N. C. During the war, the mother and her three children 
remained in the Confederacy. For fourteen months she never heard 
from her husband. He came home in 1865, but did not resign his 
commission until 1867. His wife died in 1885, at the age of forty- 
nine years. She was a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Dr. Hiram T. Chapin, the immediate subject of this sketch, 
was educated at Sylvan academy. He taught school for one year 
and began to read medicine in 18S1, opening a drug store in Pitts- 
boro on the 7th of November, that year. He attended medical 
lectures at the college of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore dur- 
ing the winters of 1883 and 1884. In 1886, Dr. Chapin graduated 



NORTH CAROLINA. 229 

from the Louisville medical college and began practice at once, after 
having obtained license from the state medical board. He has been 
practicing here ever since with very satisfactorj- results. Dr. Chapin 
is superintendent of health for Chatham count}', and is a member of 
the North Carolina state medical society. December 20, 1882, he 
was married to Miss Annie M., daughter of William F. Foushee,who 
was clerk of the superior court of Chatham county for sixteen years. 
They have one child, William B. Chapin. Dr. Chapin is a member 
of the Society of Friends. The drug business has been carried on 
successfull)', first under the name of H. T. Chapin, and in iSqo a 
partner. Dr. William E. Headen, was taken in, and the firm name 
was changed to Chapin & Headen. July 3, 1891, Drs. Chapin & 
Headen disposed of their drug business to L. H. Merritt, so as to de- 
vote their whole time to their profession. 

JOSIAH B. DAVIS, M. D., 

of Beaufort, N. C, was born in Carteret county, N. C, on the 7th of 
August, 183 1, and is a son of Allen and Mary Jane (Simpson) Davis. 
Allen Davis is a native of the same county as his son, and for many 
years has been engaged in agriculture near Beaufort. He has at- 
tained the advanced age of eighty-four years, and his wife is still liv- 
ing at the age of seventy-nine years. These parents reared a family 
of seven children, five of whom are now living. They are Josiah B., 
Rufus W.. a planter of Carteret county; Bryant E., also of Beaufort, 
and a carpenter by trade; Clarkej', wife of William T. Davis, of 
Beaufort; and Ruth Jane, wife of James Longest, of Carteret county. 
Dr. Davis obtained but a limited education in the public schools of 
his native city. He was determined, however, to thoroughly equip 
himself by diligent study and reading, and most of his education was 
obtained solely by his own efforts. At the age of twenty-one he en- 
gaged as a laborer in a Beaufort ship-yard, and later taught school 
for three 3'ears. He took up the study of medicine, and in 1S62 
began its practice, having attended his first course of lectures in 
1859-60. In 1865 he took a second course of lectures, and was grad- 
uated from the University of New York city in the following year. 
From 1862 to 1864 he was engaged in the mercantile business at 
Beaufort, and for many years past has conducted a large drug busi- 
ness, being a leading druggist of the city. He is a prominent repub- 
lican, and has held the office of town commissioner, and in 18S4 was 
appointed United States pension examining surgeon, a position he 
still retains. In 1865 he married Miss Mary A. Sewell, daughter of 
Thomas B. Sewell, of Baltimore, Md., and their children are: Mary 
Jane, wife of Robert R. Robinson, of Beaufort; George, Annie and 
Rose, all residing at Beaufort. Dr. Davis is an active and consistent 
communicant of the Baptist church, and he is a trustee of the church 
at Beaufort. Active and progressive, he has made much of oppor- 
tunity, and has come to be one of the leading citizens of his native 
county. 



2 TO NORTH CAROLINA. 



NATHANIEL ALEXANDER, 

a prominent physician, was born in Mecklenburg county, in 1756. 
His early education was at a school near his father's residence, kept 
in a log cabin. He graduated from Princeton college in i7;6, after 
which he took up the study of medicine and carried on a successful 
practice. His practice, however, was interrupted by the necessity of 
the country for soldiers to defend its liberties from the encroach- 
ments of the British government. Through the latter years of the 
Revolution, Dr. Alexander rendered effective service in the southern 
army. When the war was over he returned to his practice. He was 
elected a member of the house of commons in 1797, and of the state 
senate in 1802. In 1803 he was elected a member of congress from 
the Mecklenburg district and served for the full term of two years. 
He was elected governor of the state in 1805 in which office he served 
until his death which occurred at Salisbury, March 8, 1808. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Col. Thomas Polk. 

E. BURKE HAYWOOD, A. M., M. D., LL. D. 

Dr. Edmund Burke Haywood, born in Raleigh, N. C, January 15, 
1825, is the most eminent physician who resides at the state capital. 
When Raleigh was laid off in 1792, and the city lots sold by the state, 
John Haywood, the father of Dr. Burke Haywood, as the subjfect of 
this sketch is always called, purchased a handsome square on New- 
bern avenue and built thereon a commodious residence. In that 
house Dr. Burke Haywood was born, and there he still resides. His 
father, John Haj'wood, was treasurer of the state from 1787 to 1827, 
and was much esteemed for his high integrity of character and es- 
timable qualities. He was a planter, and had considerable landed 
interests. He was the first vestryman elected for Christ church, 
Raleigh. In his honor the legislature in 1808 established the county of 
Haywood, and the town of Haywood is also called after him. The 
father of Treasurer Haywood was Col. William Haywood, a distin- 
guished personage in Carolina in the Colonial days. He filled various 
offices, civil and military, and was a patriotic and useful citizen. In 
1765 he was colonel of the county of Edgecombe, and in 1775, when 
the provincial congress appointed committees of safety, he was ap- 
pointed chairman of the committee for Edgcombe county. He was 
a member of the state congress held at Halifax in the spring of 1776, 
as well as that held in November of that year, which adopted the 
constitution, and he was a member of the committee that framed that 
instrument. He was chosen, in December, 1776, one of the counsel- 
ors of state, provided for in the new constitution. He died in 1779. 

John Haywood, the father of Col. William Haywood, and the 
founder of the family in North Carolina, was in the employment of 
Earl Granville, being his agent, with Edward Moseley, in laying off 
and selling Granville's lands in North Carolina. He was treasurer of 




t-:i-i 



^^.^^.^^ .^.y^.^-^.^^ ^J^^ ^.4 ^r^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 23 1 

the northern counties in colonial times. The famil}? came originally 
from Worcestershire, England. Many distinguished men have sprung 
from this Haywood stock, and in each generation they have played 
an important part in North Carolina. A first cousin of Treasurer 
Haywood was John Haywood, who was esteemed in his day the 
strongest legal luminary of the state. He was elected attorney-gen- 
eral in 1 791, and three years later was transferred to the supreme 
court bench of the state. This post he held until he resigned it in 
1S04. Some years later Judge Haywood was induced to move to 
Tennessee, to locate certain land grants, and recover a large terri- 
tory for some clients, and he became so greatly interested in these 
lands that he permanentl}' settled there, where he became judge of 
the supreme court. He was the author of a " Manual of Laws of 
North Carolina," " Haywood's Justice," " Haywood's Reports;" of a 
very valuable history of Tennessee, and various other works. It 
was of him that Chief-Justice Henderson remarked in one of his de- 
cisions, " that he disparaged neither the living nor the dead when he 
said that an abler man than John Haywood never appeared at the 
bar or sat on the bench of North Carolina." 

The mother of Dr. Burke Haywood was Eliza Eagles Williams, a 
daughter of John Pugh Williams, who in April, 1776, was made cap- 
tain of the North Carolina troops in the Edenton district, and in No- 
vember, 1776, commissioned colonel of the Ninth regiment of the 
Continental line. He served with distinction during the war and was 
greatly esteemed for his sterling worth. His brother, Hon. Benjamin 
Williams, who resided in Moore county, was a member of congress 
from 1793, to 1795; was elected governor in 1799, and twice thereafter 
consecutively, and again in 1807. Among the brothers of Dr. Burke 
Haywood were Dr. FabiusJ. Haywood, the elder, who for many years 
was a leading practitioner at Raleigh, one of whose daughters inter- 
married with the lamented Gov. Daniel G. Fowle; and another 
brother was George W. Haywood, an eminent attorney and counsel- 
or-at-law, at Raleigh, who after the war removed to Alabama, where 
he died in 1891. A sister, Miss Eliza Eagles Haywood, whose social 
accomplishments and intellectual capacitj' alike distinguished her, 
was one of the most charming of her sex. Dr Haywood's early edu- 
cation was under the Rev Dr. McPheeters, Silas Bigelow and J. M. 
Lovejoy, who were successively the preceptors at the Raleigh acad- 
emy. He entered the University of North Carolina in 1843, and took 
first distinction, but was compelled by ill health to leave that institu- 
tion before graduating. Among his classmates were Gen. Johnston 
Pettigrew, .Senator John Pool and Senator Matthew W. Ransom, and 
they have ever maintained the college friendship that existed between 
them. 

Dr. Haywood studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania 
where he received his degree of M. D. in 1849, and the following year 
he became a member of the medical society of North Carolina, and 
entered on a lucrative practice at the capital of the state. In May, 
1861, he patriotically abandoned his practice and joined the Raleigh 



232 NORTH CAROLINA. 

light infantry, and was elected surgeon of that command. In May, 
1861, he organized, at Raleigh, N. C, the first military hospital estab- 
lished in North Carolina during the late war between the states; but 
the state authorities had other duties for him to perform. Gov. Ellis, 
appreciating his fine abilities, sent him in May, 1S61, on a tour of 
inspection and observation of the military hospitals on Morris Island, 
S. C. On the i6th of May, 1861, he was appointed surgeon of the 
North Carolina state troops, and placed in charge of the Fair Grounds 
hospital. At the same time he was appointed, by the governor, sur- 
geon of the military post at Raleigh, N. C, with the assimilated rank 
of major. On the 20th of May, 1S61, he was assigned by the gov- 
ernor to the camp of instruction, near Raleigh, N. C, as chief surgeon, 
with the assimilated rank of major, the commission to date from May 
16, 1861. On the 20th of May, 1S61, he was authorized by Adju- 
tant-General Hoke, to appoint a druggist, two assistant surgeons and 
two nurses for the hospital at the camp of instruction near Raleigh, 
N. C. On the 4th of June, 1861, he was appointed surgeon of post, 
at Raleigh, of the state troops of North Carolina. On the 15th of 
July. 1861, he was appointed president of a board of surgeons to ex- 
amine applicants for the position of surgeon to the North Carolina 
troops. 

Dr. Haywood remained in the military service of North Carolina 
as surgeon until December 4, 1862, when he was appointed by 
James A. Sedden, secretary of war, surgeon in the Provisional army 
in the service of the Confederate States, to rank as such from Au- 
gust I, 1862. In the fights around Richmond he was on duty at Sea- 
brook's hospital. In 1S62 he was appointed president of the medical 
board for granting furloughs and discharges from the Confederate 
States army, for Raleigh, N. C, and in the same year was appointed 
acting medical director in the Confederate States army for the de- 
partment of North Carolina. When the war ended he remained in 
charge of the wounded Confederate soldiers in Pettigrew's hospital 
at Raleigh, N. C, faithfull}' and patrioticall}" rendering them his best 
service, and it was not until July 4, 1S65, that he resumed his civil 
practice, the last wounded soldier under his charge being then dis- 
charged from the hospital cured and able to return to his home. 

In June, 1866, Dr. Haywood was elected vice-president of the 
medical society of the state of North Carolina, and also to the chair 
of surgery of the board of medical examiners of North Carolina for 
a term of six years. Two years later he was chosen president of the 
medical society and the University of North Carolina conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of A. M. The following year upon retir- 
ing from the presidency of the medical society he delivered an 
address on the subject of "The Physician, His Relations to the Com- 
munity and the Law." This address, which was published by the re- 
quest of the society increased his reputation and brought him into 
still greater repute among the members of the medical fraternity. 
In it he portrayed the moral heroism and self-sacrifice of the physician 
who conscientiously performs his duties to society and to the medi- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 233 

cal profession. With great force and acumen he urged the necessity 
for habits of close observation and he enlarged upon the importance 
of a more extended knowledge of medical jurisprudence. An ad- 
dress so replete with sound views and couched in such chaste and 
elegant language could not fail to add largely to the fame of Dr. 
Haywood. In 1870 he was one of the organizers of the Raleigh 
Academy of Medicine, and the succeeding year he served as a mem- 
ber on the committee of publication of the transactions of the medi- 
cal society, which position he also held in 1872 and 1873. In 1872 he 
was elected secretary of the Raleigh Academy of Medicine and was 
also appointed by the medical society a member of the board to ex- 
amine druggists. In the same year he brought suit in Wake superior 
court to establish the right of physicians and surgeons to extra com- 
pensation when summoned to testify as experts, and the supreme 
court of the state on appeal sustained his contention. In 1873 he 
served as a member of the board of censors established by the medi- 
cal society and in March of that year was elected corresponding 
member of the Gynecological society, of Boston, Mass. 

In January, 1874, Dr. Haywood became president of the Raleigh 
academy of medicine, and in October, 1875, hs attended as a delegate 
to the annual session of the association of medical officers of the Con- 
federate army and navy which convened in Richmond. Notwith- 
standing he was politically opposed to the party in power at the time, 
he was, on March 16, 1S66, appointed a member of the board of 
directors of the North Carolina insane asylum, in which capacity he 
served that institution until 1875, when he was elected president of 
its board of directors. He held continuously that office until Au- 
gust 10, i88g, when he resigned and was appointed chairman of the 
board of public charities by Gov. F"owle. He was delegate from the 
medical society of the state to the American medical association in 
the years 1S69, 1S70, 1875 and 1876, and he was also a delegate to the 
international medical congress held in Philadelphia in September, 
1876, and also to the ninth international medical congress held in 
Washington city, September, 1887. In February, 1889, he was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Fowle as a delegate on behalf the state to attend 
the national quarantine conference held at Montgomery, Ala., and in 
June of that year the University of North Carolina conferred upon 
him the degree of LL. D., he being the first physician in North Car- 
olina upon whom the university ever con-erred this degree. In April, 
iSqo, he was appointed by Gov. Fowle a delegate to the seventeenth 
national conference of charities and corrections held in Baltimore in 
May of that year. On April 18, i8qi, he was appointed by Gov- Holt 
a delegate to the eighteenth national conference of charities and cor- 
rections to be held at Indianapolis, May 13-20, 1891. 

It will be seen that Dr. Haywood in addition to his iiractice has 
performed much work in the line of his profession. He has always 
been indefatigable in seeking to promote the comfort and welfare of 
the insane and he has been influential in accomplishing much for this 
unhappy class of unfortunates. When in 1875 the general assembly 



234 NORTH CAROLINA. 

proposed to utilize the Marine hospital building at Wilmington as a 
branch asylum for the colored insane he urged the impossibility of 
rendering that building suitable for that purpose, and that the general 
assembly should take the proper steps to build an asylum for that 
class. At his instance a commission was appointed and a site selected 
near Goldsboro, and he had the satisfaction of seeing that commodi- 
ous institution erected near that town. In like manner he urged the 
establishment of the Western insane asylum at Morganton, where the 
state now has the finest and best appointed institution in the south. 
Dr. Haywood's long connection with the noble charity in the state, and 
his devoted attention for so many years to the unfortunate insane has 
eminently qualified him for the position of president of the board of 
charities having general supervision and charge over all such institu- 
tions in North Carolina, and it is to be regretted that in 1891 he de- 
clined a re-election to this responsible position continuing, however, 
to serve as a member of the board. 

In the course of his extensive practice, in which he has long been 
regarded as the most eminent surgeon and practitioner, Dr. Hay- 
wood has performed successfully, many of the more important surgi- 
cal operations. In August, 1874, he performed the cajsarean section, 
with success. In the same year he operated on four cases of stran- 
gulated inguinal hernia, of which two were cured. In 1875, he oper- 
ated sucessfully in two cases of lacerated perineum. Indeed, it may 
be said of him, that he has performed more such operations than 
any other surgeon in North Carolina. In i86y, he successfully per- 
formed ligation of the right external iliac artery for traumatic aneur- 
ism of femoral arterj', the first operation of the kind ever performed 
in North Carolina, and the case was considered so important, that it 
was published in pamphlet form, by order of the Raleigh Academy 
of Medicine and the North Carolina medical societ}'. He has also 
removed cancerous tumors of the mamma;, and he was the first to 
use ancEsthetics in obstetrics and puerperal convulsions in the state. 
In April, 1869, he assisted Dr. Washington Atlee, of Philadelphia, in 
performing at Raleigh, an operation for ovariotomy. The patient 
being left entirely in Dr. Haywood's charge, recovered, and has since 
become the mother of three children. He has operated twice suc- 
cessfully for the removal of submucus fibroid of the uterus. He has 
performed several other notable surgical operations among the most 
important of which may be mentioned: Aspiration of the pericardium 
for hydropsy, pericardii, external esophagotomy for impacted foreign 
body low down in esophagus, amputation of thigh in its upper third 
for gangrene of leg and thigh caused by traumatic femoral aneurism, 
tracheotomy for foreign body in bronchus. 

Dr. Haywood's time has been so fully occupied b}- the demands of 
his extensive practice, that he has but little opportunity for author- 
ship; but among his contributions to medical literature may be men- 
tioned: " Report of an operation for traumatic aneurism of femoral 
artery, cured by ligature;" "Report of a case of compound commi- 
nuted fracture of middle and lower thirds of both bones of right leg;" 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2^-, 

"Comminuted fracture of right femur;" " Compound fracture of left 
femur, just above the condjies;" " Report of a successful operation 
for traumatic aneurism of the superficial palmar arch;" "A case of 
craniotom}-;" " An operation for vesico vaginal fistula;" " Report of a 
successful operation for compound comminuted fracture of cranium, 
with extensive depression and several large fragments driven into the 
brain;" " Report of a case of total necrosis of diaphysis of the tibia, 
periosteum not necessary for osteo-genesis; " "Report of a case of 
membraneous croup, tracheotemy successfully performed, and the 
child entirely recovered;" " Report of a case of amputation of the 
right thigh at the upper third, for gelatinous arthritis;" " Report of 
an operation for fistula in and with the elastic ligature." 

But with all his professional duties, which he has so conscien- 
tiously performed, Dr. Haywood has ever found time to discharge 
other duties as well. He is a member of Christ church, Raleigh, and 
for twenty years was an active member of the vestry; he was presi- 
dent of the board of health for Wake count)-, and is a member of 
the board of directors and physician to the Peace institute, at Raleigh, 
N. C. He was surgeon to the Confederate survivors association. In 
June, 1889, he was elected one of the physicians to the institution for 
the deaf, dumb and blind, in which capacity he still serves that insti- 
tution. He was medical director for the North Carolina Life Insur- 
ance company at Raleigh. He is now medical examiner for Raleigh 
of the Mutual, the Equitable, the New York, the Manhattan and the 
United States Life Insurance companies, all of New York, and also of 
the Life Insurance company of \'irgina, and the Maryland Life Insur- 
ance company. He is also medical referee of the Mutual Benefit 
Life Insurance company of Newark, N. J. His high rank in his pro- 
fession, in which he is justly distinguished, is equalled by his high 
social standing. His spotless character, his patriotic life work at the 
insane asylum, his self-sacrificing service during the war are all so 
many claims upon the reverence and esteem of the public, and his 
great learning and fine ability only enhance the regard in which he is 
held. 

But while properly appreciating the genuine admiration which his 
friends entertain for him, Dr. Haywood is modest and unobtrusive to 
a remarkable degree, and he quietly and unostentatiously performs 
his daily task in his laborious profession. He is mild in his carriage, 
gentle in his manner, and considerate of the feelings of others. It is 
only to those who know him well that the full nobility of his character 
is evident. He is a man of great decision and quickness of apprehen- 
sion, and whether in his professional work or when engaged on other 
subjects, he intuitively seizes on the strong point of the matter and 
goes to the bottom of it. As eminent as he is and wearing so worthily 
the distinction of being the first physician of the state, he passes 
through life without the least assumption. 

In November, 1S50, Dr. Haywood married Miss Lucy A. Williams, 
daughter of Mr. Alfred Williams, whose firm name of "Alfred Will- 
iams & Co.," book-sellers, has for more than fifty years been well 



236 NORTH CAROLINA. 

known all over North Carolina. He has one daughter, the wife of 
Mr. Preston L. Bridgers, of Wilmington; and six sons, Edmund 
Burke Haywood, a planter; Alfred Williams Haywood and Ernest 
Haywood, who are practicing law together and are well known at- 
tornej's throughout the state; and Dr. Hubert Haywood, who is now 
a partner with his father in the practice of medicine, and Edgar Hay- 
wood, who is associated with the book house of Alfred Williams & Co,, 
which was founded by his grandfather; and John Haywood, who 
is a cotton dealer in Alabama. Alfred W. Haywood married Miss 
Louise M. Holt, daughter of Gov. Thomas M. Holt, May 23, 1883. 
Dr. Hubert Haywood married Miss Emily R. Benbury, December 14, 
1881. 

JOHN H. CRAWFORD 

was born in Wayne county, N. C, January 17, 1832. He received his 
early education in the common schools in that county, which he regu- 
larly attended until 1S45. When in his thirteenth year he suffered the 
loss of his father. To assist his mother he left school at an early age 
and went to Smithfield, N. C, to superintend the business of Dr. 
Alexander Telfair. During the year 1851, when but nineteen years 
old he was employed to superintend the store and distillery belonging 
to Col. John F. Sanders, of Johnston county, N. C. In January, 1S52, 
he married Patience A. Stevens, daughter of Jacob A. Stevens, 
of Johnston county, N. C, and to them were born seven children, of 
whom four now survive: John W. Crawford, of Raleigh, N. C; Mat- 
tie A., wife of L. Brown, of Asheville, N. C; Lulu, wife of Rufus 
Horton, of Raleigh, N. C; Alonzo J. Crawford, of Raleigh, N. C. In 
1 853, the subject of this sketch entered the jewelry business, at Golds- 
boro, N. C, and for five years continued it with success, and then he 
studied dentistry under L^r. S. A. McDowell for two years, at the 
end of which time he commenced to practice that profession at Golds- 
boro and in its vicinity. In 1S62, during the war, he went with the 
Goldsboro militia to Newbern, and was in the battle of Newbern. 
After that battle, being appointed hospital steward, by the secretary 
of war of the Confederate States, he served in that capacity until the 
close of the war. When peace came Dr. Crawford removed to 
Raleigh, where he entered upon a lucrative practice of his profession, 
and where he has since resided, being one of the finest and best 
known dentists in the state, and a most worthy and honorable citizen, 
respected by the entire community. Dr. Crawford belongs to 
Hiram lodge. No. 40, F. & A. M., and is also a member of Seaton 
Gales lodge. No. 64, I. O O. F., and Litchford Encampment, No. 26, 
I. O. O. F. He is a valuable member of the Presbyterian church, and 
by his Christian motives and gentlemanly address, has won the es- 
teem of his brethren, friends and all who come into contact with him. 
John Bemis Crawford, Dr. Crawford's father, was born in New 
York in 1800, and coming to North Carolina at the age of twenty- 
eight, settled in Raleigh. He afterward moved to Wayne county. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 237 

where he died in 1S45. He was a man of superior education, and by 
profession was a teacher. He was appointed a magistrate of Wayne 
county, and served in that capacity for a number of years. In 1S28 
he married Louisa Talbert Harris, and to them were born five chil- 
dren, as follows: James D. Crawford, of Robinson county, N. C; 
Sarah (deceased), wife of Nathan Stanley (deceased), of Goldsboro, 
N. C; John H. Crawford, of Raleigh, N. C; William W. Crawford, 
of Goldsboro, N. C; Mary A., wife of Allen S. Ballinger, of Greene 
count}', N. C. Dr. Crawford's grandfather, James Daniel Crawford, 
was born near Saratoga, N. Y., and lived there all his life. Archi- 
bald C. Crawford, Dr. Crawford's great-grandfather, was born in 
Scotland, but came to America and settled at Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., where he died June 8, 1S06. Dr. Crawford's ancestors on his 
mother's side were from Ireland. 



MR. JOHN R. WILLIAMS, 

whose name has been for more than half a centurj' connected with 
the drug business in Raleigh, was born in Franklin county, N. C, 
March 4, 1820. He received his education in the academic schools of 
Franklin and Wake counties. When just sixteen years of age he en- 
tered the drug store of Williams & Haywood, owned by his elder 
brother, Alfred Williams, and Fabius Haywood (now deceased), and 
after eight years' service as clerk, he was admitted a partner under 
the firm name of Williams, Haywood & Co., and the firm so contin- 
ued until 1855, when Mr. Alfred Williams retired, and the business 
has since been continued under the style of Williams & Haywood. 
Although Dr. Haywood died in 1880, the business has been carried 
on by Mr. Williams, under the old name, as surviving partner. Dur- 
ing this long period Mr. Williams has steadily maintained the high- 
est reputation for intelligence and thoroughness in the drug business, 
and no house is better known or has enjoyed a wider reputation 
throughout central North Carolina than that of Williams & Hay- 
wood. In 1845 ^Ii"- Williams was fortunately united in marriage 
with Miss Ariadne E. Smith, daughter of Benjamin B. Smith, Esq., 
a prominent merchant of Raleigh, to whom were born five children, of 
whom three now survive, Robert J. Williams, George H. Williams 
and Mary A. Williams. Mr. Williams has ever been esteemed as 
one of the most exemplary and excellent citizens of Raleigh. He 
and Mrs. Williams are consistent members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and their influence has been promotive of good works 
in the community. Mr. Williams has never actively participated in 
public affairs, but has always steadily maintained the principles of 
the democratic party. He has, however, on several occasions served 
the city as alderman, and for a number of years he was a director of 
the institute for the the deaf, dumb and blind, freely giving his ser- 
vice to ameliorate the condition of those unfortunate wards of the 
state. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



DR. W. I. ROYSTER. 



One of the most prominent physicians of Raleigh is Dr. Wisconsin I. 
Roj'ster. He was born in Raleigh, N. C, September 24, 1845, ^^^ 
received his education at the Lovejoy academy, in that citj-, where so 
manj' distinguished North Carolinians were trained for their voca- 
tions in life. Early in 1862, he entered the office of Gen. Richard 
Gatling, then adjutant-general of the state, where he remained, ren- 
dering efficient service until the close of the war, in 1865. When 
peace was restored young Royster chose the profession of medicine 
as his life work, and began to study the course under the learned 
Dr. E. Burke Haywood. In September, 1866, he entered the Bellevue 
hospital medical college in New York, where he obtained his diploma, 
after a thorough course, in 1S6S. He served for a year as interne in 
the Mahopac hospital, Putnam county, N. Y., of which Dr. Echerria 
was principal, and which was devoted to the treatment of nervous 
diseases. Returning to Raleigh in the spring of 1869, he entered at 
once upon the general practice of his profession, each year establish- 
ing himself more thoroughly in the confidence of the public. Dr. 
Royster is a member of the state medical society, and a leading 
member of the Raleigh academy of medicine. He is likewise pro- 
fessor of the principles and practice of medicine in the Leonard 
medical school of Shaw university, and also of therapeutics and 
materia mcdica, which chair he has held since 1885. He is not only 
esteemed as a physician of rare excellence, but as one who keeps 
abreast with the advanced thought in medical circles. He is, besides 
a fine conversationalist, full of general information, genial in his 
manners and kindly in his sympathies. A man of sterling character, 
a thorough master of his profession, and so gifted by nature, he is 
greatly esteemed in the community where he has passed his entire 
life. 

Dr. Royster was happil}' married, on February 28, 1871, to Miss 
Mary Wills Finch, daughter of Rev. J. J. Finch, of Franklin county, 
N. C, and to them have been born four children, of whom three now 
survive: Hubert Ashley Royster, Frank Wills Royster, and James 
Finch Royster. Dr. Royster is of English descent, the first of the 
name coming to this country from England, about the year 1700, and 
settling in Mecklenburg county, Va., where Dr. Royster's great- 
grandfather was born. That gentleman came to North Carolina, 
where he taught school, but afterward returned to Virginia, where he 
died, leaving a son, David Roj'ster, born in 1777, who came to Raleigh 
in 1802, and established himself as a cabinet-maker. He died in 
Raleigh In 1865, at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. Dr. Roys- 
ter's father was James D. Royster. He was born in Raleigh, in 1807, 
and during the principal part of his business life he was a paper 
manufacturer. He was married on February 13, 1834, to Mary S. 
Ashley, daughter of Daniel Ashley, Esq., of Wake county, and to 
them were born nine children, of whom five now survive, viz.: \'ir- 



\l 



•r 




/iM'fr^ ,^.^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 239 

ginia C, wife of Rev. J. H. Howell, of Yanceyville, N.C.; Indiana G., 
wife of John B. Collins, of Raleigh, X. C; Dr. Wisconsin I. Royster 
and Y. C. Royster, of Raleigh, and O. M. Royster, of Columbia, S. C. 
Mr. James Royster died at Raleigh, February 5, i8qo, at the age of 
ninetj'-three years, and his wife followed him to the grave on April 
6, 1S90. 

DR. WILLIAM HENRY McKEE 

was born at Raleigh, X. C, on the 7th day of September, 1814. His 
father, James .McKee, was a native of Orange county, a kind hearted, 
generous friend, and an industrious, useful and respected citizen. 
He moved to Wake county in earl^^ life, and was married, in 18 10, to 
Miss Priscilla Macon, of Franklin county, a niece of Hon. Xathaniel 
iSIacon. She was rarely endowed with estimable qualities of mind 
and heart, which shone with beautiful lustre among the trying re- 
sponsibilities of her life. Their wedded life had continued through 
only nine years when, in April 1819, the husband and father was re- 
moved by death. Their union had been blessed with four children, 
three daughters, Xarcissa, Mary and Priscilla, and one son, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Left thus in earlj' widowhood, without fortune 
and with four little children to rear, her position was one of peculiar 
trial and responsibility, but with a true mother's heart and an un- 
faltering trust in the God of the widow and the Father of the father- 
less, she bore up bravely under her sorrows, and faithfully discharged 
her duty to Him and to them. This noble Christian mother died in 
1832, leaving the impress of her pious example and the savor of her 
righteous counsels to adorn the character and the lives of her chil- 
dren. William Henrj- began the battle of life at an early age, with- 
out other resources than a courageous spirit, virtuous principles and 
meagre rudiments of education received at home. When about fif- 
teen years of age he obtained employment as a clerk in the apothe- 
cary store of .Mr. C. D. Lehman. Here he was assiduous, faithful 
and courteous in the discharge of his duties, winning and retaining 
the confidence and esteem of his employer. Eager in the pursuit of 
knowledge he soon became a skillful pharmacist. When Mr. Leh- 
man retired from business, Messrs. Williams & Haywood, druggists 
of this citjs secured the services of the young apothecary, who soon 
rose to partnership in the firm. While occupying this position he 
prosecuted the study of medicine. In 1837 he went to Philadelphia, 
matriculated at the University of Philadelphia, and became while 
there a resident physician of the alms-house. He graduated in 1839, 
but continued to reside in Philadelphia until the close of the year. 
Returning to Raleigh, he commenced the practice of his profession 
here in the year 1840, and soon acquired an enviable reputation as a 
phvsician, not onl}^ among the people in general but signally also 
among the members of his profession. 

In 1849 Dr. McKee was chosen secretary of the state medical con- 
vention, and was one of the leading projectors of the state medical 



240 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



society. He was elected as the first secretary of the society, serving 
efficiently and zealously in that capacity for three consecutive years. 
At the session of the society held at Edenton, in 1857, he was elected 
president and was re-elected in 1858. He repeatedly filled the hon- 
orable mission of representative of the state medical society in the 
national medical association, and was also chosen by the society as a 
member of the first board of medical examiners, under the act of 
legislature of 1859. Deservedly popular, he was eminently trusted 
as a true and valued citizen, in positions unconnected with his pro- 
fessional walk. He was, year after year, an efficient member of the 
board of commissioners of this city and served for years as the presi- 
dent of the board of directors of the state institution for the deaf 
and dumb and the blind, being also its physician. He was an hon- 
ored member of the noble, beneficent fraternity, the I. O. O. F., and 
was elected grand master of their grand lodge of North Carolina. 
Dr. McKee was twice married. His first wife was Miss Susan E. 
Battle, to whom he was married in March, 1842. His last wife was 
Miss Eliza O. Nixon, whom he married in November, 1854. By the 
former marriage there were four children, only one of whom sur- 
vives. Dr. James McKee. By the last marriage he left one daughter, 
Eliza, who resides in Raleigh. He was a devoted son, administered 
consolation and cheer to the burdened heart of his afflicted mother. 
His affection for her to the end of his days was indeed beautiful and 
noble. A loving brother, he reciprocated the offices of pure sisterly 
affection with grateful tenderness and care. He was a fond and 
faithful husband and an affectionate and thoughtful father. As a 
friend he was generous, honorable and true. As a man he was im- 
bued with the pure, warm spirit of benevolence, dispensing with a 
liberal but modest hand, to the distresses and necessities of his fel- 
low men. While ever ready to respond to the appeals that were 
made for charity at his own door, he was magnanimously generous 
in ministering, in his professional labors, to the indigent and helpless, 
from whom he could expect no reward beyond the expression of 
gratitude. Truly we may say of him that as an humble disciple of 
the Great Physician, "he went about doing good," and his memory 
will long be cherished in many a lowly household to which he bore 
in hours of sickness and distress the aid of his skill and the balm of 
his sympathy. 

Supplying the want of early advantages by patient study and con- 
scientious devotion to the duties of his profession, he became the 
peer of its leader in the state. His constitution became enfeebled, 
but he continued to pursue his arduous practice with occasional inter- 
missions, his health the meanwhile gradually but surely declining, 
until the spring of 1874. Though suffering much he continued his 
wonted labors to within a few weeks of his death, which occurred at 
his home on the 24th of April in the midst of his weeping family and 
sympathizing friends. Dr. S. S. Satchwell, a contemporary, said of 
him: " His virtues were those which most adorn human nature and 
mostly ennoble our always noble profession. True to friendship, to 





^ yt^^.^^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 24I 

the demands and wants of his profession, to the instincts and needs 
of patriotism, and to the calls of poverty and the cries of suffering 
humanity, his services and sacrifices in these important relations have 
embalmed him in the lasting admiration, love and esteem of his 
proft'ssional brethren and in the enduring plaudits, gratitude and 
affection of the public, not alone of his native city and county, but of 
the entire state. The instincts of his benevolent nature to relieve 
pain and distress, his proverbial readiness at all times to go, as he 
ever went, to the calls of the poor and down-trodden, as well as to 
the calls of the affluent and prosperous, placed the laurel leaves of 
honor and victor}- upon his brow. Thus it is that this distinguished 
member of the profession and prominent citizen of the state stands 
enshrined in the gratitude and affections of our people, and that his 
name and fame will be a hallowed household word around the altars 
and firesides of tens of thousands of the poor and distressed, as well 
as the wealthy families of North Carolina." 

JAMES McKEE, M. D., 

one of the leading physicians of North Carolina, was born in the city 
of Raleigh, January 5, 1844. His preliminary schooling was obtained 
in the old Lovejoy school which was ably presided over by J. M. 
Lovejoy. Later he entered the University of North Carolina, but 
left there in 1S61 to give his services to the Confederate army. He 
enlisted in Company D, First regiment North Carolina volunteers, 
and was mustered out in October, 1861, when he enlisted as lieuten- 
ant in 1862. Until December, 1862, he acted as drill master in the 
Raleigh and Morganton camps of instruction, after which he went 
into active service. After the battle of Kinston, N. C, in which he 
participated, he was assigned to the Seventh North Carolina regiment, 
then stationed around Petersburg. In the latter part of January, 
1865, that regiment was ordered to North Carolina to intercept de- 
serters, and Lieut. McKee accompanied it on this duty. About the 
1st of April the regiment was re-callcd to the army. In the mean- 
time Richmond had fallen and the Seventh was detained at Danville, 
Va., by order of President Davis, and was the last regiment to leave 
Danville, following the train that carried Davis from Danville to 
Greensboro. Lieut. McKee took an active part in these battles: Kin- 
ston, Jones Farm, below Petersburg, and was on picket duty around 
Petersburg during the three days' fight. Returning home from the 
army he acted as special messenger for the National Express and 
Transportation company for about a year, and then entered the olfice 
of his father. Dr. W. H. McKee, under whose direction he began the 
study of medicine. In October, 1867, he entered Bellevue hospital 
college in New York city, and was graduated from that institution 
March i, iS6q. He then returned to Raleigh and l)egan the practice 
of the profession that he h;ul chosen as his life work. 

Dr. McKee has won wide distinction in the medical world. He 
is a member of the North Carolina state medical society of which he 
B — 16 



242 NORTH CAROLINA. 

has been secretary; has served as president of the Raleigh medical 
academy, of which he is a member, and has been a delegate to the 
American medical association. As an alderman of Raleigh and 
member of the board of health of that city, Dr. McKee has shown an 
aptitude for public work. He has filled these offices since 1881, and 
is also a member of the Wake county board of health. He has been 
a professor of the Leonard medical college of Shaw university from 
its inception to the present time, being at present the incumbent of 
the chair of obstetrics, diseases of women and children, and is also 
visiting physician to the Leonard medical school hospital, and to St. 
John's guild hospital, and local surgeon of the North Carolina division 
of the Richmond & Danville railroad. Dr. McKee was the first 
physician to instruct the negro in medical science, and is now sur- 
rounded in the Leonard medical college by a corps of assistants and 
professors that are not excelled. Dr. McKee was happil}- united in 
marriage to Miss Mildred Sasser, daughter of John W. Sasser, of 
Wayne county, September 30, 1873. Six children have been born into 
this cultured home, named as follows: William H., John S., James B., 
Edwin B., Lewis M. and Philip S. Dr. McKee is the son of William 
H. McKee, M. D., one of the most eminent physicians that North 
Carolina has ever produced, and a sketch of whose life precedes this 
one. The subject of this sketch was the first, and is the present, 
superintendent of the board of health of Wake county, and is the 
present president of the local board of health of Raleigh, and is the 
author of the present well devised ordinances, by which the good 
health of Raleigh is maintained. To him is due the credit of the 
present system of collecting and registering the vital statistics of 
Raleigh which cannot be excelled. The sanitary bureau of Raleigh 
was organized by him and the organization is so thorough and 
complete that the number and kind of contagious and infectious 
diseases can be shown at any time — a rare thing. 

FRANCIS TAYLOR FULLER, M. D. 

In every vocation of life there arise men who tower above their 
fellows in force of character and intellectual competency; who draw 
to them that esteem and deference which mankind yields to superior 
endowment; they are those who have lived to good purpose and who 
will not soon fade away from human consideration. These are such 
as live devoted to their life work, and their influence for good will 
long continue to act; their characteristics are fixed and ineffaceable; 
and in affectionate rememberance, such men will long live as men of 
purity, devotion, superiority and worth. To this class of men belongs 
Francis Taylor Fuller, M. D.. whose respected name introduces this 
biographical mention. And before giving an outline of this distin- 
guished gentleman's career, mention of his ancestry may fittingly be 
made. 

During the trouble between the Stuarts and the House of Hano- 
ver, Esquire John Taylor and his wife, the Lady Anne Cradock, 




^ f.^^Mc^. 9>lJp 



NORTH CAROLINA. 243 

moved from England and settled in \'irginia, at Bowling Green. 
About the same time two of the brothers of John Taj-lor also came 
to Virginia, and one of these was the ancestor of President Taylor 
and of Gen. Richard Taylor, and the other was an ancestor of John 
Taylor, of Caroline county, Va., the author of a noted work on 
agriculture, and also an ancestor of President Madison on his 
mother's side. John Taylor, of Bowling Green, had four sons; one 
was captain of a merchant ship and suffered a long and painful im- 
prisonment by Algerlne pirates; the two youngest fell in battle in the 
cause of liberty', one at the battle of Cowpens, the other at Brandy- 
wine. The remaining son, Major P>ancis Taylor, passed through 
many perils, but fortunately survived them. He was a bold and en- 
terprising officer, and possessed a daring and adventurous spirit. He 
was several times wounded and once so seriously about the hip that 
he walked lame the rest of his life. He was twice captured; on the 
first occasion he was carried prisoner to Charleston, but managed to 
escape, tradition says, by bribing one of the guard with his mother's 
gold watch which he had concealed in his boot; he hastened to re- 
port to Gen. Greene, then in North Carolina, on whose staff he 
served as aide. Subsequently being sent by Gen. Greene with dis- 
patches to Gen. Washington, he was captured and taken to the house 
of a tory, near Ramseur's Mills, X. C. Again managing to escape, 
he sprang upon the horse of a British colonel, in the stable, and be- 
gan a flight in which he was hotly pursued. His horse being a fine 
one he distanced all but two of the pursuers. As these approached 
him, he drew from the holsters the colonel's pistols and killed one of 
men first, and finally killed the horse the other rode. Making good 
his escape, he proceeded to the north and safely delivered his dis- 
patches to Gen. Washington. 

Major Taylor married Mrs. Pattie Thorpe and settled at Locust 
Hill, Franklin county, N. C, where he died in April, iSi6, at the age 
of seventy-six years, honored and beloved by all who knew him. His 
wife, widow Thorpe, was a sister of Gen. Tom Person. The Persons 
coming from England, settled in Gloucester county, \'a. The name 
was said to have been Personne, and Gen. Person pronounced it Per- 
sonnc, which was the origin of the common way of calling it Passon 
or Passons. Mrs. Taylor survived the major and lived to the great 
age of ninety-eight years. .She was buried by the side of her hus- 
band at old Locust Ilill, Franklin county. Among the children of 
Maj. Taylor was Thomas Person Taylor, who was born in l'"ranklin 
county in 1793, and died in 1871, and whose daughter, Martha A. 
Taylor, married James N. Fuller, of Granville county, and became 
the mother of the subject of this sketch. .She was born April 11, 
1S15. The father of James N. Fuller was William Fuller, Esq., of 
Granville county, and was of Scotch and English lineage. He was a 
man of strong force of character and of influence among his country- 
men, and died in 1840, in a respected old age. His son, James N. 
F'uller, was born Nov(Miiber 18, 1802, in Granville county, and on 
August 29, 1833, married Martha A. Taylor, then just eighteen years 



244 NORTH CAROLINA. 

of age. He was a farmer and a man of sterling principles and integ- 
rity. He was high-minded in all his actions, and generous, hospitable 
and kind. He was a good neighbor and faithful in the discharge of 
all his duties, religious as well as civil and social. During the course 
of his life he held different county offices which he filled with credit 
to himself and acceptably to the people. He died at the advanced age 
of seventy-nine years, his death occurring May 27, i88r, leaving seven 
children surviving him: Francis T. Fuller, subject of this sketch; 
Celestia VV., John A., Mrs. Anna Gill, Erastus, Emma, and Lucy, the 
wife of James Thompson, Esq. 

Francis Taylor Fuller, M. D., was born in Granville, N. C., 
June 14, 1835. His early education was obtained at the South Lowell 
academy in Orange county, N. C. In 1851 he left the academy and 
returned to Granville county where he taught school for a time, and 
subsequently took up the study of medicine under the direction of 
Dr. William R. Hicks, of Oxford, and in 1854 became a student at 
the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. In the 
summer of 1855 he placed himself under the tutelage of Dr. Charles 
E. Johnson, late of Raleigh, and remained with him until his return 
to Philadelphia to re-enter the university, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1856. Dr. Robert Hicks was a classmate of Dr. Fuller, as 
was also Dr. Kelly, late of Granville county, N. C., and Dr. Jacobs, 
late of Person county. After his graduation the young physician 
was requested by Dr. Charles E. Johnson, then acting superintendent 
of the North Carolina insane asylum, which had been opened in 
February, 1S56, to assist him in his duties, and soon after, at a meet- 
ing of the board of directors. Dr. Fuller was elected first assistant 
physician, which position he has held ever since. For twelve years 
he served under Dr. Edward C. Fisher, who was succeeded in 1868 
by Dr. Eugene Grissom, who held the superintendency of the asylum 
until September, iS8g. During his long career Dr. Fuller has 
evinced wonderful ability in the care of the insane. He brought to 
his work a mind thoroughly prepared by study and inclination for 
the profession he had chosen. The reputation of his skill has spread 
throughout the length and breadth of the state, and the people of 
North Carolina repose esteem and confidence in him to a marked 
degree. Indeed, Dr. Fuller is favorably known among the eminent 
specialists of the United States and Canada. It is seldom that a man 
remains so long in a position requiring so much exertion and tact, 
and it is still more unusual for a physican holding such a place to be 
regarded with such uniform respect and admiration by officers and 
employers alike. 

Dr. Fisher, the admirable superintendent of the institution, in his 
report for 1858, in referring to his obligations to those who have ren- 
dered official services, thus spoke of Dr. Fuller: "In an especial 
manner are those obligations due to the assistant physician, Dr. F. T. 
Fuller, for his untiring devotion to duty at all times. Most faithfully 
did he conduct the affairs of the institution in my absence the past 
and previous summers, and while assuring you of his entire capability 



NORTH CAROLINA. 245 

and efficiency for the duties of his office, I present you with but an 
imperfect idea of my appreciation of his worth as an officer." In his 
report, November i, 1S6S, Dr. Grissom, the accomplished superintend- 
ent, said, "To the officers and others with whom I have been con- 
nected, I tender my thantcs for their efficient discharge of duty, and 
to Dr. Francis T. Fuller, assistant physician, I am under peculiar ob- 
ligations, for the skill and fidelity with which he executes his laborious 
trust." And again, in 1870, Dr. Grissom said in his report: "The 
assistant physician. Dr. F. T. Fuller, by his experience, industry and 
constant devotion to the welfare of the patients, has placed the insti- 
tution and the state under a debt of gratitude." Dr. J. G. Ramsay, 
president of the board in 1S76, thus refers to Dr. Fuller: " F. T. 
Fuller, M. D., who has held the position and faithfully performed the 
duty of assistant physician continuously for the last twenty years, was 
in like manner re-elected for the ensuing four years." 

In the report of 1878, Superintendent Grissom said: "It can be 
considered no invidious distinction to mention the obligations of the 
institution and the people of the state to Dr. F. T. Fuller for his long 
and efficient services to the unfortunate under our charge." And 
again in his report of 18S8, he said: " Dr. F. T. Fuller, our first as- 
sistant physician, whose faithful services in the institution extend 
through a period of over thirty years and who has entitled himself to 
the gratitude of the people of the state, by his fidelity and usefulness, 
has been granted a leave of absence by order of the executive com- 
mittee to enable him to recruit his health. I hope that time and rest 
will restore him to the position he has filled so long, so faithfully and 
so efficiently." Later, Dr. F. Burke Haywood, as president of the 
board, reported: " It affords us great pleasure to inform you that 
Dr. F. T. p-uller, our faithful and efficient first^ assistant physician, 
who has been suffering from a painful and serious illness of eleven 
months duration, has so far recovered as to be able to resume his 
duties." Indeed in nearly every report from 1S56 to iSSq, favorable 
reference to Dr. Fuller's services as assistant physician of the institu- 
tion is made. The Statesville Landmark, edited by the prudent and 
careful Joseph Caldwell, said of him: "The Raleigh Clinstian Ad- 
vocate very truly says: 'There is not a more faithful public officer in 
this or any other state than Dr. Fuller. The state owes him more 
than it will ever pay him for his faithful services for so many years. 
In a quiet way, he has done a vast deal for unfortunate humanity.' " 

The foregoing are but a few of the many tributes paid his worth. 
Indeed, it is well known that the North Carolina insane asylum owes 
the greater part of its successful management to the skill and unre- 
mitting care of Dr. Fuller. He has remained at his post when others 
failed; his words of cheer and hope have supplemented his medical 
skill in calming and restoring reason to many who otherwise might 
have continued hopelessly insane. The patients know him, and his 
presence exercises a salutary influence ujion them. The hundreds 
who have been returned to society from the institution have cause to 
feel the utmost gratitude for his kind ministration and his merit and 



246 NORTH CAROLINA. 

goodness and sympathetic disposition and unselfish devotion to his 
chartre are recognized throughout the state. Quietly he has pursued 
his course, not seeking promotion and fame, but the latter has come 
to him unasked, and promotion he has had the privilege to decline. 
In 1882, he was appointed a director of the Western North Carolina 
insane asylum, and besides his other arduous duties he filled that 
position until 18S9. One of the most important labors of his life was 
in connection with that institution. He was greatly interested in se- 
curing its establishment, and he was influential in its organization. 
Had he not virtually refused the advancement, he would doubtless 
have been elected as the superintendent of the new institution, but 
he preferred to retain his position in the North Carolina insane asy- 
lum, to which he was attached by reason of his long association with 
it, and with his friends in the city of Raleigh. At times he has ad- 
ministered its affairs, and always with credit to himself. 

Dr. Fuller has taken pride in his profession, and is a member of 
the Raleigh academy of medicine, of the state medical society, and 
of the association of medical superintendents of American institu- 
tions for the insane, and of the Medico-Legal society of New York. 
He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, and is a vestry- 
man of Christ church, Raleigh. As a citizen he is of the progressive 
order and among men he is esteemed and respected for his moral 
and intellectual culture, and socially he is pleasant, affable and cour- 
teous. He is unostentatious and unassuming in character, and is re- 
spected for his meekness and mildness of temperament. Not only 
is he a man of kind and unselfish heart, but especially is he charitable 
in disposition, and many have been his gifts to charity, but given in a 
quiet and unpretending way. 

DR. JOHN D. BELLAMY. 

This prominent and very worthy gentleman was born in All Saints 
Parish, S. C, September 18, 1817. His parents were John and Eliza- 
beth Bellamy and his ancestors were planters, independent gentlemen 
who held no important ofifices, and did not desire any. Our subject 
was educated in South Carolina, first at Marion academy and finished 
at the celebrated Rice Creek institution which more than rivaled the 
Columbia college which had declined considerably. In 1835 he re- 
moved to Wilmington, and applied himself to the study of medicine 
under the supervision and instruction of the late Dr. William J. Har- 
ris. He entered the University of Pennsylvania in 1837, and grad- 
uated from that institution in 1S3Q. He practiced his profession with 
great success in Wilmington, for fifteen years when he was compelled 
to retire from active business on account of ill health, and his large 
planting interest in the county required his time and attention. He 
has served as a director in banks and in railroads, and was regarded 
as a very conservative and efficient officer. He married in 1839, 
Eliza M. Harris, daughter of the late Dr. William J. Harris and had 
several sons and daughters and grandchildren. Dr. Bellamy has 



NORTH CAROLINA. 247 

never held any political office and though urged time and again to do 
so has always refused to accept as he considered a private station 
more desirable and equally as honorable for a gentleman of integrity. 
The same rule of action in regard to public office was conspicuous in 
his ancestors, none of them would accept and though they were not 
highly distinguished in life, none of them was ever dishonored. Dr. 
Bellamy is now advanced in years and lives in retirement. He is a 
gentleman of education and culture, with a naturally strong mind and 
which has been improved by study and observation. He is greatly 
respected in his community in which so many years of his life have 
been passed and justly so, for during his long life he has been up- 
right in his actions and has wronged no man. 

DR. WILLIAM J. LOVE. 

This skillful physician and most estimable gentleman was born at 
the village of South Washington in New Hanover county, on 
April 21, 1S34, and received his early education in Wilmington. He 
then entered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and in 
1857 he received the degree of A. B., and in 1859 that of A. M. 
from that institution. He chose the science of medicine for a pro- 
fession, and pursued his studies under the supervision of the late 
Dr. James H. Dickson, of Wilmington, a man of varied learning and 
one of the most accomplished physicians in the state. In 1858 he en- 
tered the University of New York, but remained but one session 
when he removed to the South Carolina medical college at Charles- 
ton, where he graduated in 1861. Returning to Wilmington, he at 
at once commenced the practice of his profession. His abilities were 
readily recognized, and he soon commanded a large and lucrative 
practice, which has continued to increase as his faculties expanded 
under the experience of maturer years. He has always been a stu- 
dent devoted to his profession, and has kept fully up with the prog- 
ress made in that science. His great forte is self-reliance. Conscious 
of his own capacities he seldom hesitates in any crisis, but acts 
promptly and with decision, and his success is the best evidence of 
the soundness of his judgment and his skill as a fearless operator. 
He ranks deservedly very high in his profession; is a member of the 
North Carolina state medical society, and of the New Hanover 
medical society also, in which latter he has served as president for 
three terms. He has devoted himself entirely to his profession, es- 
caping politics, and not only not seeking but not even desiring public ^ 
office, and possessing in an enviable degree the entire confidence of 
all classes of our people. 

DR. WILLIAM J. H. BELLAMY 

is the son of Dr. John D. and Eliza M. Bellamy, and was born in Wil- 
mington, September 16, 1844. His first preceptor was that thorough 
teacher of youth. Prof. George W. Jewctt, who died but a few years 



248 NORTH CAROLINA. 

ago. Under his tutelage young Bellamy soon became proficient in his 
studies, and gave promise of ripe scholarship in the future, a promise 
which his after life has amply fulfilled. In i860 he entered the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and remained there until 1861, when he 
enlisted in the Confederate army, and served one year, when he again 
entered the university, remaining, however, one session, and in 1863 
he again entered the service as captain of a company in the state 
home guards, which surrendered with Gen. Johnston's army, in 1865. 
After the close of the war he began the study of medicine, and, upon 
careful preparation, entered the University of New York, where he 
graduated in March, 1868, and at once commenced the practice of his 
profession in Wilmington. He has been very successful, and ranks 
high as a skillful physician. He served as a member of the board of 
medical examiners of 18S4 to 1890. He is also a member of the state 
and county medical associations, and has been since he began to prac- 
tice medicine, and in the latter he has served as secretary and presi- 
dent. He is a member of the Knights of Honor, and also state exam- 
iner for that order, and is a member of the I. O. O. F., being the oldest 
presiding officer. He married, on November 10, 1869, Miss Mary W. 
Russell, of Wilmington, who has borne him three sons and three 
daughters. Dr. Bellamy is a rising man in his profession, is exceed- 
ingly attentive to his duties, and possesses the entire confidence of 
all who know him. He has a son, Russell Bellamy, who is his old- 
est son, and he recently received, from the board of examiners, a 
license to practice medicine, and on examination he received the 
highest record of the seventy-five students examined. He is hardly 
twenty one years old. He will now graduate at the New York city 
university, and then will take up his practice. 

DR. WILLIAM WALTER LANE, A. M., M. D., 

surgeon in charge of the City hospital, was born in New Hanover 
county, near the city of Wilmington, in 1831. He is the son of Levin 
and Margaret M. Lane, both natives of this county and state. Levin 
Lane, the father of the subject of this sketch, was the son of Ezekiel 
Lane, who was one of the most successful planters in this section of 
the state. He, like his father before him, cultivated the soil and 
amassed a large estate, and had sons and daughters born unto him, 
Dr. W. W. Lane, whom we are now noticing, being the third son. 
His early education was acquired in the schools of Wilmington, and 
later at St. Timothy's Hall, Catonsville, Md. He entered the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, in 1S49, and graduated in 1S52, 
with the degree of A. B. Soon after his graduation, and following 
the bent of his inclinations he began the study of medicine in the 
office and under the supervision of Dr. James F. McRee, of Wilming- 
ton, one of the most prominent physicians in the state, with whom he 
remained for some time. In the fall of 1S53 he entered the Univer- 
sity of New York, in the city of New York, and graduated from that 
institution in 1855. In order to complete his medical education, and 



NORTH CAROLINA. 249 

to improve himself as much as possible in the profession, he spent 
the following year, 1856, in Europe, visiting the hospitals at Paris, 
London, Berlin and other European cities. He returned to the 
United States in the winter of 1857, spent a short time at his home 
in Wilmington, and then removed to the state of Mississippi, where 
for some years he engaged in the cultivation of cotton in addition to 
the practice of his profession. He remained in Mississippi, until the 
year 1863, when he returned to his native state, and enlisted himself 
with the Confederate army as assistant surgeon, in which capacity he 
served until the surrender of Gen. Johnston, in April, 1S65. 

At the close of the war Dr. Lane resumed the active practice of 
medicine until the year 1S75, ^vhen he was appointed surgeon of the 
United States marine hospital, at Wilmington, and served in that 
capacity for four years. In 1881 he was very active in urging upon the 
authorities the necessity for a city hospital, and when principally by 
his exertions it was established and organized, he was appointed 
physician and surgeon in charge, which position he still holds, and 
discharges the duties, sometimes very onerous ones, to the entire 
satisfaction of the authorities and the public generally. He has 
always been especially fond of surgery, and during his extended prac- 
tice has performed many difficult and delicate operations, which have 
been very favorably noticed by many leading members of the pro- 
fession. He is a member of the state medical society and of the 
medical society of the city of Wilmington. He has never taken any 
active part in politics, but has devoted himself entirely to his profes- 
sional duties, in which he takes great delight, and is a skillful, con- 
scientious, and in ever}- respect reliable practitioner. 

DR. ARMAND JOHN DeROSSET. 

This gentleman, one of Wilmington's oldest and most honored 
citizens, was born in that city October 6, 1807, and in the house in 
which he now resides. His parents were Dr. Armand J. and Catherine 
DeRosset f«r<' Fullerton). His father, like himself, was a native of 
Wilmington, while his mother was born in Charleston, S. C. His 
grandfather was Dr. Moses John DeRosset, a native of London, 
England, born in 1726, and who graduated with distinction in one of 
the leading colleges of that city. In 1760, in company with his 
brother, Louis H. DeRosset, who had been appointed a member of 
the colonial council, he emigrated to America and settled on the 
Cape Fear river, near Wilmington, where he began the practice of 
his profession and was eminently successful. During his life he held 
many important public positions, and was mayor of Wilmington dur- 
ing the troublous times of the Revolution, in which latter capacity he 
exhibited great courage, firmness and devotion to the cause of the 
colonies. He was father of two children, a son and a daughter. The 
son. Dr. Armand J. DeRosset, Sr., followed in the footsteps of his 
father and embraced the medical profession. He graduatecl at Prince- 
ton college and then entered the University of Pennsylvania, and was 



250 NORTH CAROLINA. 

one of the first three graduates of that institution. He followed his 
profession in Wilmington during his whole lifetime, which was a long 
and honorable one, and died in the city where he was born in 1859, 
at the ripe age of four score and twelve years, leaving behind him an 
unsullied reputation and not one enemy in the world. His son, the 
subject of this notice, acquired his early education in the schools of 
Wilmington, and principally at the hands of Prof. James W. Mitchell, 
an experienced teacher and of more than ordinary attainments. As 
a student he was exceptionally bright, for when he was but fourteen 
years old he was able to enter the sophomore class of the University 
of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, and graduated with distinction in 
1824 when but seventeen years of age. In choosing a profession, his 
early inclination was for that of arms, but when he was about to en- 
ter a military school he, for some reason unknown to the writer of 
this, abandoned this and applied himself to the study of medicine, 
spending one year at South Carolina medical college at Charleston, 
and completing his medical education at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, graduating in 1S28, when he had scarcely reached his majority. 
He entered upon the practice of his profession in connection with his 
father, and their practice was large and lucrative, but the profession 
was distasteful to him and he soon tired from it, preferring a mer- 
cantile life. 

In 1837 he formed a co-partnership with an estimable gentleman, 
the late P. K. Dickinson, for the purpose of carrying on the lumber 
business, which he continued until 1839, when he withdrew and 
founded the house of DeRosset & Brown, general commission mer- 
chants, of Wilmington, and Brown & DeRossett, of New York. This 
business was immense, and was conducted very successfully until 1S61, 
when the opening of hostilities between the north and south com- 
pelled the suspension of all active operations. Upon the close of the 
war he resumed his business with his sons under the firm name of 
DeRosset & Company, and continued until 1882, when he finally 
withdrew, and since that time has been engaged in the general insur- 
ance business. He was first married in 1829 to Miss Eliza Jane, 
daughter of the late William C. Lord, who bore him eleven children, 
seven sons and four daughters. One of these sons became a promi- 
nent physician in the city of New York. The second wife was Miss 
Catherine Kennedy, who is still living. Dr. DeRosset has never taken 
an active part in political life nor sought public office, but has held 
many positions of responsibility which have been conferred upon 
him. He has been for years, almost since its organization, an active 
director in the Wilmington & Weldon R. R., and was sent by that 
company, in 1849, to England to negotiate its bonds and purchase rails 
for the use of that road, which he successfully accomplished. The 
effects of the war were ruinous to the road, and his financial ability 
was again put in requisition to restore its credit. At the earnest so- 
licitation of the board of directors he again visited Europe in 1865 
and 1S66, for the purpose of obtaining an extension of time on the 
original bonds, which were running rapidly to maturity, and placing' 




JOSEPH GRAHAM, M. D. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 25 I 

additional securities on the market, in which he was again successful 
and which is a monument to his financial skill. He has been for the 
greater part of his life a consistent member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, senior warden of St. James parish and treasurer of the 
diocese of east Carolina, has been an active, energetic, public-spir- 
ited citizen, and has done as much perhaps as any one man to advance 
the interests and increase the prosperity' of his native city. Xo man 
is more respected and esteemed than he, and justly so, for during his 
long and active business life his integrity has never been questioned, 
and his name is the synonym for all that is honorable and true. 

JAMES H. DURHAM, M. D., D. D. S. 

One of the most promising physicians and dentists of the state of 
North Carolina is Dr. James H. Durham, of Wilmington. He has 
accomplished within a score of years what it has taken many men of 
talent a lifetime to accomplish, and other men of talent have never 
accomplished at all. He was born in Wayne county, August 27, 1850. 
His parents were Dawson O. and Julia (Smith) Durham. They 
came from good old "North State" stock, and both are natives 
of North Carolina. Dawson Durham, the father, was an old-time 
southern planter, which he followed all his life, living in the ease and 
comfort peculiar to that class. He died, lamented by a large circle 
of admiring friends, in iSSo- Our subject received his preparatory 
education in Trinity college, and completed it at the University of 
Virginia, where he took the full collegiate and medical course, which 
he completed in 1872. He then attended two years for the sake of 
the experiences to be gained thereby, at Bellevue hospital. New York 
city, and immediately when completing his course there he went to 
Philadelphia, and attended the Philadelphia dental college, from 
which institution he graduated in 1875, with the degree of D. D. S. 
In 1S73 the young physician and dental surgeon, commenced to prac- 
tice his profession in Wilmington, where he has continued his work 
with great success ever since. Dr. Durham was married, in 1882, to 
Nellie Alston, of Durham county. Twochildren have blessed this happy 
union, one son and one daughter. Dr. Durham is a member of the 
Royal Arch Masons and Knights of Pythias, and has built up a large 
and lucrative practice, of which many older men might well be proud. 
He is president of the state dental society, and a member of the 
state medical examining board, in which last capacity he is serving 
his third term. 

JOSEPH GRAHAM, M. D., 

was born in Newbern, N. C, April 15, 1837. He was reared, not 
in the city of his birth, but at Hillsborough, N. C, the birthplace 
of his parents. His early days were spent at the Caldwell insti- 
tute at Hillsborough. When he had arrived at the age of thirteen, 
his parents removed to Washington, D. C, his father holding an 



252 NORTH CAROLINA. 

official position in tliat city, under the Federal government. Young- 
Graham was then placed, for the two years during which his father 
remained in office, in the classical and mathematical academy at 
Georgetown, under the instruction of the distinguished Prof. Abbott. 
In 1853 he entered the North Carolina university at Chapel Hill, 
from which he graduated in June, 1857. For three months thereafter 
he studied medicine under the instruction of Dr. Edmund Strudwick, 
at Hillsborough. In the fall of 1857 he entered Jefferson medical col- 
lege, of Philadelphia, where, after completing a thorough course, he 
graduated in the spring of 1S59. The following summer and fall 
were spent in the hospitals of Philadelphia. Returning to Hillsbor- 
ough in October, Dr. Graham was united in marriage, on the 26th 
day of that month, with Miss Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of the 
late Thomas Blount Hill. They have had five children, three sons 
and two daughters, the latter and only one son now surviving. The 
surviving son is Dr. William A. Graham, who is a partner with his 
father in the practice of medicine. In January, i860, Dr. Joseph Gra- 
ham moved to Charlotte, N. C, and there locating, began the practice 
of his profession, pursuing that practice until his state passed the ordi- 
nance of secession in May, 1861. He then aided in raising a company 
of light artillery, known as Brem's battery, but subsequentl}' as Gra- 
ham's North Carolina batter3\ With this company he entered the 
Confederate service with the rank of first-lieutenant, and upon the 
resignation of Capt. Brem, early in the war. Dr. Graham was pro- 
moted to the captaincy of the company. This rank he held until in 
Januar}', 1864, when desiring to return to the practice of his profes- 
sion, he was commissioned as surgeon of a North Carolina regi- 
ment, remaining as such until the close of the war. 

Returning home from the field of battle. Dr. Graham found him- 
self at the foot of the ladder in a financial sense, the result of war's 
ravages, and he was thus compelled with thousands of his fellow citi- 
zens, to begin in his business life anew. He decided to return to the 
practice of his profession in Gaston county, where he removed his 
family, and where he continued to reside and practice up to the 
spring of 1869. He then returned to Charlotte, where a year later, 
he formed a partnership with the late Dr. Johnston B. Jones, with 
whom he continued until the death of Dr. Jones, in March, 1889. 
Since that date a son of Dr. Jones and his own son. Dr. William A. 
Graham, have been his partners. Dr. Graham is in the foremost 
rank of medical practitioners in North Carolina, and his practice has 
been signalized by a large degree of success. He is a member of the 
Southern Surgical and Gynecological society, of the Charlotte 
academy of medicine, and e.x-member of the North Carolina board 
of examiners. He is an ex-president of the North Carolina state 
medical society, besides holding so conspicuous a rank in his profes- 
sion. Dr. Graham is a representative citizen, and enjoys a high social 
standing. He is a member of the Charlotte chamber of commerce, 
and has served as a member of the city council. Dr. Graham is a 
gentleman of the highest respectability, is honored by his fellow 



NORTH CAROLINA. 253 

citizens throughout the state, and comes of an excellent ancestry, as 
is noted elsewhere in this volume. 

GEORGE W. GRAHAM, M. D., 

born in Hillsborough, Orange county, N. C, August iq, 1S47, is the 
sixth son of the late Hon. William A. Graham, whose biography ap- 
pears in these pages. At an early age he developed those qualities 
of cool judgment, kindness of heart and strength of mind, together 
with most strict habits, so essential to the success of a good physician, 
and having completed his academical preparation in the common 
schools of his state, entered -and was graduated from the state univer- 
sity in 1868. In 1869 he spent a year in the celebrated medical de- 
partment of the University of Virginia, and afterward graduatecl in 
medicine with high honors from the University of New York city. 
He located immediately after his graduation in Atlanta, Ga., where 
in the face of some of the most eminent specialists in contagious and 
infectious diseases, he remained for two years, enjoying in the mean- 
v/hile a large and most lucrative practice. Subequently he completed 
in the Manhattan hospital of New York city, a special course in 
ophthalmology and otology, and then returned to Raleigh, N. C., 
where he remained for seven years in the active practice as an eye 
and ear specialist. In 1873, Dr. Graham was married to Miss Sally S. 
Shaver, of Atlanta, Ga., who survived fourteen years of her married 
life, she having died in 1887, leaving three children. In 1S80 he re- 
turned to Charlotte, where he permanently settled and where he has 
since become widely known as a skillful operator in his specialty. Dr. 
Graham was married the second time in Charlotte, to Miss Alice L. 
Alexandra, of that city, with whom he has lived most happily ever 
since. In his profession he ranks among the foremost men of his 
state. He holds a membership in the state medical association and 
the Charlotte academy of medicine, is president of the Scotch-Irish 
society of North Carolina, and also president of the Charlotte literary 
and library association. Dr. Graham is a devout lover of literature, 
in which he is thoroughly versed, and is considered an authority upon 
literary questions. 

J. WELLINGTON BYERS, M. D., 

of Charlotte, N. C, is a physician by profession, and a writer upon 
medical and allied sciences, of considerable reputation. He was 
born on the 8th day of May, 1859, at Parkersburg, then Virginia, now 
West \'irginia. His parents were Wellington Byers and Mary E. 
Byers, ncc Peers, and both were natives of \'irginia, and of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. They had established a home at Parkersburg, for 
only a few 3'ears when the Civil war broke out; and being of strong 
southern proclivities and sympathy, were forced for refuge from 
Parkersburg, and settling at Charlottesville, Va., the birthplace and 
former home of young Byers' father, his parents continued to reside 



254 NORTH CAROLINA. 

here till 1S70, in which year the family moved to Atlanta, Ga. In 
1876 young Byers left Atlanta and entered the freshman class of the 
North Georgia college, a branch of the state university, at Dahlonega. 
Here, for several terms, he pursued a scientific, classical and literary 
course, achieving distinction in metaphysics and bellesletters; he was 
esteemed to be one of the most profound and proficient students in 
mental philosopy and rhetoric the institution had ever sent forth; 
and in his subsequent pursuits and achievements have been mani- 
fest this character of mind and learning. It was during his col- 
lege days at Dahlonega that he first gave promise of prominence 
in literature, and first began to e.xercise his tendencies as a 
writer, his first work being editorial writing for the college paper, so 
often the first avenue presented for the future distinction of literary 
workers. The publisher of the local newspaper at Dahlonega, being 
favorably impressed with his ability as a writer, invited him to be- 
come a contributor to his journal, known as the Dahlonega, Signal, 
and accepting the invitation, his work upon this journal soon iDrought 
it into notice as the best and most communicative paper the town 
had ever had. 

However, young B3'ers soon left college, and also severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper, but continued to write for various news- 
papers and periodicals, producing a number of miscellaneous articles 
upon politics and literature, and as early as 1879, at the age of twenty 
he wrote an able review of the early English drama, which was pub- 
lished in the New York Clipper. In 1S80 he returned to Charlottes- 
ville, Va., his purpose being to enter the University of Virginia. He 
spent several months under the tutelage of Rev. E. Woods, of the 
Pantops school, reviewing mathematics and classics, that he might be 
fresh in these studies upon entering the university for which he was 
well prepared, but financial contingencies necessitated a change of 
his plans, and he was forced to relinquish his purpose of entering the 
university, and returning to his home at Atlanta, he began prepara- 
tions for the study of medicine. In the fall of 18S0, he entered the 
Atlanta medical college, from which institution he graduated with 
distinction in February, 1882, as fifth in a class of fifty-three. At once 
he began the practice of his chosen profession at Atlanta, under most 
promising prospects. Being solicited to locate in Charlotte, N. C, 
Dr. Byers removed in 18S3, to that city, where he has since continued 
to reside. Three years later, 1886, he chose a wife, wedding Miss 
Catherine L. Leary, an accomplished lady, and a daughter of the 
late William A. Leary, a noted book publisher of Philadelphia, Penn. 

Dr. Byers has taken post-graduate courses in northern schools, and 
has established an e.Kcellent reputation for skill, ability, learning and 
culture as a phj'sician and surgeon. As a writer, especially upon 
medical and allied sciences, he has attained to a prominence second 
to that of no other young man in the south; and although a young 
man, and of hardly a decade of years experience in the medical pro- 
fession, his career has been brilliant and successful, and he gives 
great promise of eminence in his chosen profession. He is author 



NORTH CAROLINA. 255 

of several standard articles in medical and correlative sciences, some 
of which have appeared in standard medical works, such as, " Woods' 
Reference Handbook" and " Keating's Cyclopedia." In both of these 
he is author of the chapters upon " Influence of Race and Nationality 
upon Disease;" also, those upon the "General Principles of the Pre- 
vention of Disease," " Diseases and Injuries of the Shoulder Blade." 
In the department of ethnological medicine, Dr. Byers is regarded as 
a foremost authority in this country, and his opinions and conclusions 
are accepted as most complete and thorough among those of investi- 
gators of these questions. Por several years he has been a regular 
contributor to various medical and scientific journals; and he is a 
member of the editorial staff of the Southej'n Alcdical Record, pub- 
lished at Atlanta, Ga., and is also an associate editor of the Cli»ia- 
tologist, a journal of high character, devoted to hygiene and climate, 
published at Philadelphia, Penn. In his writings, Dr. Byers, stj-le is 
scholarly, graceful and philosophical. His language is chaste and 
classical, and his productions bear evidence of a student, and of a man 
of experience and scientific research. In habit he is seclusive rather 
than demonstrative. In scientific research he is thorough, methodical, 
systematical and original; rather inventive, and possessed of a strik- 
ing capacity for original discovery in scientific medicine. He has, in 
the New York Medical Record, February 14, 1891, set claim to the dis- 
covery of the germicidal action of the blood, in connection with the 
germ theory of disease, an important and highly interesting question 
to all physiological and pathological investigators. Dr. Byers is a 
member of the North Carolina state medical society, and an honorary' 
member of several literary and other medical societies. 

JOHNSTON BLAKELEY JONES, M. D., 

an eminent physician and a man of remarkable intellectual and so- 
cial culture, was born in Chatham county, N. C, September 12, 1814, 
at " Rock Rest," the residence of his father. He died in Charlotte, 
N. C, March i, iSSg. His father, Edward Jones, was a native of Ire- 
land, and a lineal descendant of Jeremy Taylor, as may be seen in a 
note appended by Bishop Heber to his life of Jeremy Ta^'lor. Mr. 
Jones came to North Carolina when quite a young man, and soon at- 
tained great eminence at the l)ar, being for over thirty years solicitor- 
general of the state. Pie married Mary K., daughter of Peter Mol- 
let, of Fayetteville, by whom he was the father of a numerous family. 
The subject of this sketch, the youngest child of the above marriage, 
was prepared for college at the old Episcopal school in Raleigh, un- 
der that eminent scholar, biljliographer and educator, Mr. Joseph G. 
Cogswell, a notable name in the literary history of America. Mr. 
Cogswell was a man .specially qualified to e.xert a stimulating and re- 
fining influence upon the inquisitive and discriminating mind of his 
pujjil, and Dr. Jones probably owed to him much of that literary 
taste and general intellectual culture for which he was remarkable. 
From the school in Raleigh he proceeded to the University of North 



256 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Carolina, at Chapel Hill, where he remained several years, but did 
not take a degree. We next find him beginning the study of medi- 
cine in the medical college at Charleston, S. C, but his health being 
delicate, he was advised to try a residence in Europe. He therefore 
went to Paris, and continued his professional studies under the in- 
struction of the eminent professors who then taught the science and 
practice of medicine in that city. After two years thus spent in Paris, 
and a visit of six months to friends and kinsfolk in Scotland and Ire- 
land, he returned to America and took his degree in medicine in the 
Charleston college where he had begun his course. He entered 
upon the practice of his profession at Chapel Hill, N. C, in 1841, and 
there remained in the successful pursuit of its honorable rewards un- 
til the breaking up of the University of North Carolina, in 1868, in 
consequence of the political troubles of that period. He then re- 
moved to Charlotte, and in this new field continued the active and 
beneficent exercise of his profession until disabled by the infirmity of 
age, in June, 1886. A little less than three years of retirement and 
rest brought him peacefully to the end. In 187 1 he had formed a 
co-partnership in practice with his friend Dr. Joseph Graham, and in 
1S83, a third partner was added in the person of his son. Dr. Sim- 
mons B. Jones. 

From the beginning of his professional life. Dr. Jones took a high 
stand in the estimate of the public, and of his brethren. To that 
faithfulness, unselfishness and unwearied diligence in the service of 
humanity, which is the common honor of the profession, he added a 
special intelligence, patience and sympathy, which made his services 
as grateful to the feelings of his patients as his skill made them use- 
ful to their necessities. His scientific attainments are believed to have 
been surpassed by none of his contemporaries in this state. Among 
them it seemed to be recognized and acknowledged that as a general 
practitioner he stood at the head of his profession. His reputation 
was probably more widely extended over the state than that of any 
physician of his time. He carried into the performance of his daily 
duties the spirit of a student and a humanitarian; he had nothing of 
the commercial instinct, and could not make the most extensive prac- 
tice the source of a large income. With him the fee was still the 
Jwnorari iLmhy \v\\\<z\\ gratitude expressed its recognition of benevolence 
and skill. Not only were his services ready at the call of the poor- 
est, but he did not exact from affluence the due reward of his time 
and labor spent in its behalf. After nearly fifty years of full practice, 
he died a poor man, so far as worldly goods go, but rich in the re- 
spect and gratitude of those who had known his kindness, and who 
had experienced his beneficence. He was one of the prime movers 
in the organization of the North Carolina medical society, and always 
took a deep interest in its welfare. 

Dr. Jones was not more respected for his attainments in science 
and for his skill as a physician than he was esteemed for his mag- 
nanimity, sincerity, and sweetness of disposition. Outside of his pro- 
fessional learning his information was e.xtensive and accurate, and his 



NORTH CAROLINA. 257 

mind was acute, vigorous and original. He possessed powers of 
analysis and generalization in a remarkable degree. But a subtle 
and inquisitive intellect was balanced by a heart singularly retentive 
of youthful affection and loyal to early convictions. Few men have 
been so generally beloved, because few men have been so uniformly 
kind, interesting, agreeable and true, in social intercourse. After a 
partial paralysis had rendered him almost helpless, he was none the 
less an eagerlj' welcomed guest, whom it was a pleasure and an honor 
to entertain and to serve. 

It is a small matter, perhaps, but necessary to the perfect picture 
of the man, to add that from his youth he was remarkable for phys- 
ical beauty which seemed but the expression in outward form of the 
luminous mind within. He is said to have been known in Paris dur- 
ing his student days, as " the handsome American." Dr. Jones married, 
October 21, 1841, Mary Ann Stuart, daughter of Gabriel Stuart, of 
Halifax county, and granddaughter of Dr. Simmons j. Baker. Their 
eldest son, Edward S. Jones, lost his life in the war between the 
states, their eldest daughter also died before them; two sons and two 
daughters survived their father: Johnston B. Jones, Jr., Dr. Sim- 
mons B. Jones, Mrs. Lucien H. Walker and Miss Carolina D. Jones. 

DR. JOHN H. McADEN, 

president of the Merchants & Farmers' bank of Charlotte, N. C, 
and also one of the leading and public-spirited citizens, was born in 
Caswell county, March 13, 1S35. He received a liberal English edu- 
cation at Wake Forest college and the university at Chapel Hill. He 
studied medicine under Dr. A. G. Yancey, at Yanceyville, Caswell 
county, and in 1857 graduated from Jefferson medical college of Phil- 
adelphia. He practiced medicine in Caswell county from the year of 
his graduation until the outbreak of the Civil war, at which time he 
was appointed surgeon of the Thirteenth North Carolina regiment, 
and subsequently made senior surgeon of Gen. A. M. Scales' brigade. 
In this capacity he served until the close of the war, surrendering 
with Lee's army at Appomatox. Soon after the war Dr. McAden 
located in Charlotte and embarked in the drug business, which is still 
continued in his interest. In 1875 ^^ was elected president of the 
Merchants & Farmers' National bank, of Charlotte, and has since 
continued a successful administrator of the affairs of that institution. 
Dr. McAden has for some time been interested in several industrial 
enterprises, and at present is the president of two cotton works, 
namely, the McAden Cotton mills, of Gaston county, and the Falls of 
Neuse Cotton mills, of Alamance county; he is ex-president of the 
Charlotte chamber of commerce, of which he is a charter member. 
As a business man Dr. McAden ranks far above the ordinary class. 
He is careful, judicious, far-seeing and intelligent, and has been con- 
tinuously identified with the business world since the close of the war, 
not confining his whole attention to the medical profession. 

In 187 1 he was united in marriage with Miss Sallie, daughter of 
H— 17 



258 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Joel H. Jenkins, a merchant of Salisbury, N. C. They have 
seven children. Dr. McAden is a Knight Templar of high order in 
the Masonic fraternity, having been eminent commander of the 
Knights Templar, of Charlotte. He is a man of fine intellect, a clear 
thinker, and is endowed with an extraordinary memory. He is a 
lover of literature, and is well versed in the biographical and historic 
lore of North Carolina, in which he takes great interest. Dr. Mc- 
Aden comes of conspicuous parentage. His father, Dr. Henry Mc- 
Aden, was the son of Dr. John McAden, both of whom were among 
the most eminent physicians in the state. Dr. John McAden, the 
grandfather, was a son of Rev. Hugh McAden (sometimes spelled 
"McCadden") who was the hrst missionary to settle in the state. 
Dr. McAden, the immediate subject of this sketch, is a great-grand- 
son of this venerable man. His mother was Frances Yancey, daugh- 
ter of Bartlett and Annie (Graves) Yancey, of Caswell county. 
When a small boy Dr. McAden was left an orphan and was placed in 
the care of his maternal grandmother, Mrs. Bartlett Yancey, then a 
widow, who received and educated him, and to her sterling qualities 
and her moral and religious training does he largely owe the excel- 
lence and integrity of his character. 

R. J. BREVARD, M. D., 

is at the present writing, mayor of the city of Charlotte, N. C. His 
birthplace was Tallahasse, Fla., and the date of his birth was Decem- 
ber 5, 1848. He is the son of Theodore W. and Caroline (Mays) 
Brevard, the former of whom was a native of North Carolina and 
the latter of South Carolina. The father was a lawyer of eminence; 
he was the son of Alexander Brevard, son of the Hon. Ephraim Bre- 
vard, a citizen of Mecklenburg county, N. C. Dr. Brevard was 
educated at Davidson college. North Carolina, at which institution he 
received a liberal English education. He began the study of medicine 
in 1866 at Lincolnton, N. C, under the instruction of his brother, 
Ephraim Brevard, M. D., during the war surgeon of the Fifth Vir- 
ginia regiment of Stonewall Jackson's brigade, and who was killed in 
1 87 1, by a fall from his horse. He was a promising physician, possessing 
ability of a high order. In February, 1872, Dr. Brevard graduated 
from the medical department of the University of New York city, 
with high honors, having been appointed the valedictorian of a class 
of 120 graduates. His was the only instance in the history of the 
university in which a southern student had received that high dis- 
tinction. Immediately after his graduating he located at Lincolnton, 
and began the practice of his profession. In January, 1SS2, he located 
in Charlotte where he has ever since continued to practice. He is a 
member of the state medical association, and is one of the leading 
progressive members of the medical fraternity. His politics are 
democratic and he is a Master Mason. 

During his residence in Lincolnton Dr. Brevard served as mayor 
of that town with much credit to himself and to the satisfaction of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 259 

the citizens. Since removing to Cliarlotte he has served several 
times as a member of the city council, and was elected maj-or in May, 
1 89 1. In December, iSSi, Dr. Brevard was married to Miss Mary 
Stoney, an accomplished lady of a distinguished South Carolina 
family. Dr. Brevard has taken an active interest in the material 
progress of Charlotte and is a leading member of the chamber of 
commerce of that citj'. He has wielded a powerful influence in his 
political party and during iSS6 and 1888 was president of the Char- 
lotte democratic club. Socially he is a great favorite and suave and 
affable in his manner. He is a man of forceful will-power, a char- 
acteristic subordinated by a wise and generous discretion. 



D. O'DONOUGHUE, M. D., 

whose name introduces the following biography, is a native of Ireland, 
being born in that country December 8, 1841. He received a thor- 
ough education in the national schools of Ireland, in which schools he 
was a ijiost successful teacher during a period of ten years, afterward 
entering Trinity college, Dublin, and in this college and its normal 
training school he completed a thorough classical and scientific educa- 
tion, becoming proficient in natural philosophy, chemistry, higher 
mathematics and other sciences, thus gaining a rare and thorough 
knowledge of the sciences. Thinking the United States would afford 
a better opportunity for the application of such a scientific education, 
accordingly, in 1871, he emigrated to this country, landing in New 
York city in April of this year, and the third of the following May 
arrived in Washington, D. C. He was now penniless, but having, in 
Washington city, a sister and an uncle, he for a time, made his home 
with these relatives, and soon he was to gain a position. May 
26, 187 1, he secured in the Saint Elizabeth government insane asylum, 
at Washington, a position as an attendant, and in this position earned 
his first money in this country. In the following September, 1871, he 
and six others were examined for positions in the signal service de- 
partment of the United States government, which department had 
been established only the year before. Of the seven applicants who 
were examined, only he and two others were successful, he standing 
first. September 13th, he gave up his position in the asylum and was 
made sergeant in the signal service. Five weeks later he had re- 
ceived full instructions, and in November was sent to Mobile, Ala., 
to take charge of the signal station there; of this station he remained 
in charge till in September, 1876. Being aided by an assistant, he had 
more or less leisure time, and becoming acquainted with leading phy- 
sicians of Mobile, who foresaw that in the medical profession he 
would be pre-eminently successful, he was, at their instance, induced 
to take up the study of medicine. Accordingly, he began to utilize 
his leisure time from his office by attending the Alabama medical col- 
lege at Mobile, which college he entercil in 1872, and from which he 
graduated in 1874, with honors, in a class of thirty-three graduates 



26o NORTH CAROLINA. 

receiving the degree of M. D. Tlien, with Dr. J. T. Gihnore, the 
renowned surgeon of Alabama, Dr. O'Donoughue continued to prac- 
tice till in September, 1S76, and in the meantime continued to dis- 
charge his official work in charge of the signal station. 

In September, 1876, he was called to Washington, where he was 
made clerk in the signal service department, remaining as such till in 
October of 1878. During the time he took a post-graduate course in 
the Columbian university and attending the hospitals of Washington. 
October 3, 1878, he was ordered by signal service to Charlotte, N. C, 
to establish a signal station, in charge of which he remained till Feb- 
ruary, 1S86, at which date he was called to Washington, for promo- 
tion in the signal service. While at Charlotte he had, after 1879, 
continued a general practice in medicine, in connection with continu- 
ing to discharge his work in charge of the signal station. Having 
here established a large and lucrative practice, and having accumu- 
lated property here, and desiring besides to settle in life at Charlotte, 
where he might devote his entire attention to the practice of medi- 
cine, he resigned from the signal service April, 1886, and located perma- 
nently at Charlotte, where he has since been actively engaged in the 
practice of his profession. He ranks among the foremost physicians 
of Charlotte, and is a member of the North Carolina state medical 
association, and is secretary of the Charlotte academy of medicine. 
Although he does a general practice, he gives special attention to 
gynecology and private diseases. The doctor has twice been happily 
married. In June 1873, while at Mobile, he married Miss Margaret 
Bookie, of that city. She died at Washington, in August, 1878. In 
October of 1883, he married for a second wife, Mrs. Agnes Sullivan, 
of Washington, D. C. She died at Charlotte, in April of 1889. Dr. 
D. O'Donoughue is a character of more than ordinary interest, and 
has led an eventful life. Educated in his native land, Ireland, he 
taught in its national schools, attaining distinction as an educator, 
and then emigrating to the United States without money and posi- 
tion he began the struggle of life under adverse circumstances. His 
determined will, noble ambition and character, together with a super- 
ior intellect and education fittingly applied in all his undertakings, 
his efforts have been crowned with success, and now he ranks among 
the most respected citizens and representative physicians. 



HENRY TULL, M. D. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject was Henry TuU, who was 
a native of New England. In early manhood Henry Tull settled in 
Lenoir county, N. C, and there amassed a large fortune. He was 
the largest land-owner and slaveholder in the county, having about 
400 slaves. He was prominent in public affairs and a leader in po- 
litical circles, and was a man of splendid education. His son, John, 
was born in Lenoir county September 19, 1S32. He was given an ex- 
cellent academic training, and has followed in his father's footsteps 



NORTH CAROLINA. 261 

as an agriculturist, and before the Civil war, had become even more 
prosperous than his father before him, who was so successful. Before 
the war he was a leading member of the whig party, but after the 
disruption of that political party, became a staunch democrat. For 
several years he has held the office of justice of the peace of the 
county, and is a promineat member of the farmers' alliance of Lenoir 
county, and is a Knight of Honor. His marriage to Cynthia A. Dunn 
resulted in the birth of two children. The mother died in 1S60. Mr. 
Tull was again married, INIiss \\ innie R. Jackson becoming his wife. 
Rowena, Hettie S., John L., Edward S., F"rank R., Isaac M., Katie 
and Reed, are the children of this second union, and Henry Tull, M. D., 
and Cynthia, of the first. Henry Tull, M. D., the principal of this 
biographical mention, and one of the leading physicians of the state, 
was born on his father's estate in Lenoir county, on the 4th of Janu- 
ary, 1855. Having completed a thorough academic course in the 
Kinston schools, and later at Bingham military institute, from which 
he was graduated with the rank of first lieutenant. In 1881 there was 
erected at Kinston a monument to the memory of Gov. Caswell, first 
governor of North Carolina, and this occasion was under militarj' 
honors. Ur. Tull was then captain of Kinston RiHes, Company K, 
First regiment, N. C. S. G., which company, with others, participated. 
Dr. Tull so won the admiration of the guards on this occasion, by his 
participation in the ceremonies, and by rendering skillful professional 
aid to certain members of the Raleigh light infantry who, under the 
oppressive heat of the day, were stricken; that this infantry passed 
resolutions of respect and thanks to Dr. Tull, presenting him with a 
token in a handsome gold-headed ebony cane. He entered Harvard 
medical school, and in 1876 was graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, and since that time has been 
engaged in active and successful practice at Kinston. 

Dr. Tull is an honored member of the state medical society, and 
is a Knight of Honor. In 1881-2 he was chairman of the democratic 
executive committee of Lenoir county, and for several years was 
county physician. He has been earnestly interested in the industrial 
grov/th of Kinston and the vicinity, and was a prime mover in the 
organization of the Orion Knitting Mill company, and in 1886 erected 
a fine hotel building in Kinston, known as the "Hotel Tull." His 
marriage to Miss Myrtie Wooten, daughter of W.T. and Klizabeth J. 
Wooten, was solemnized in 1882, and two children, Bettie and Lottie, 
have blessed the union. W. T. Wooten was a captain in the Con- 
federate service, and was killed while fighting for the cause he loved. 
He iills an honored soldier's grave. Henry Tull, M. D., is a man of 
great ability and learning in his profession. He has rapidly risen to 
the front ranks of his profession in the state; the same force of char- 
acter which made him the careful, painstaking student, has won for 
him an honored reputation. Such inv.n are not kept waiting for 
weary years before success comes. As a citizen he is public-spirited 
and progressive, and is esteemed as a man of unbending integrity. 



262 NORTH CAROLINA 



DR. JAMES M. HODGES 

was born near La Grange, Lenoir county, N. C, February 14, 1862. 
He is the son of Simon E. and Persis S. (Harper) Hodges, both of 
whom were natives of Lenoir county. The name of Dr. Hodges' 
grandfather was James E. Hodges, who was a native of Greene county, 
N. C., and of English lineage. He was a planter of much promi- 
nence and respectability. His son, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, followed the occupation of his father in Lenoir county, of 
which he was a leading and prominent citizen. Simon Hodges' po- 
litical views were democratic, and in his religious faith he adhered to 
the Church of the Disciples. He was twice married, first to Miss 
Nancy Turnage, of Pitt county, and they had three children, whose 
respective names were Edward M., of Kinston, N. C; George L., a 
farmer of Lenoir county, was register of deeds for six years, and Ad- 
dieG.,wifeof Edward Mosely, of Lenoir county. His second marriage 
resulted in the birth of James M., F'. R., Paul A., Robert G., and 
Lillie P. Hodges. 

Dr. Hodges was educated at Chapel Hill university, and after- 
ward studied medicine under the able instruction of Dr. J. D. .Spicer, 
of Goldsboro. He attended Bellevue hospital, from which he grad- 
uated in March, 1883. After his graduation Dr. Hodges began his 
professional career at La Grange, where he has established an exten- 
sive and successful practice. His reputation as a physician is not con- 
fined to the field of his immediate practice, but he Is favorably known 
throughout the state. He is a member of the state medical society, 
and also a member of the Masonic fraternity. In political faith he 
adheres to the democratic party, and in religion he subscribes to the 
creed of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. In 1884 Dr. Hodges 
was married to Miss Emma E., daughter of James H. Eields, of La 
Grange, and this union has been blessed with two children, Cyrus W. 
and Harry M. Hodges. 



JOHN A. POLLOCK, M. D., 

was born in Onslow county, N. C, November i, 1844, the son of 
W. A. J. Pollock, who is also a native of Onslow county. The father 
was educated in Wilmington, N. C, under Dr. Freeman, and later in 
New York city under the tutelage of Dr. Beach. For over fifty 
years he was engaged in the practice of medicine in Onslow and 
Lenoir counties, and is now retired and living in Kinston, having 
won a reputation as a most skillful and intelligent physician. He 
married Miss Olivia B. Humphrey, daughter of Lott Humphrey-, of 
Onslow county, who was an extensive planter and a noted public 
man, having served in the legislature for many years. In 1850 Mrs. 
Pollock died, leaving three children, Andrew, an eminent physician 



NORTH CAROLINA. 263 

of Florida. He served as president of the yellow fever commission 
during the course of that terrible epidemic recently in Florida. As 
captain of Company H, Fifty-fifth North Carolina regiment, he 
fought for the cause of the southland during the greater portion of 
the Civil war. Dr. Pollock is an e.x-member of the Florida legislature. 
John A., and Virginia, wife of James G. Co.x, of Kinston, being the 
other children. The father was again married, Miss Annie Loftin 
becoming his wife. By this marriage two children were born, viz.: 
William D. and Sarah. The Pollock connection is of Scotch descent, 
William Pollock, the great-grandfather of our subject, having come 
from Scotland to America in early times. He settled in Onslow 
county, N. C, and fought in the patriot army of the Revolution. 
He became a leading man in the county, and served as a justice of 
the peace for several years, and also as county surveyor for some- 
time. John Pollock, his son, was also born in Onslow county, and 
became an extensive planter. His brother, Elijah, served through 
the war of 1812. John Pollock was a justice of the peace and sur- 
veyor of the county, and was a staunch democrat. Of his four chil- 
dren, all are dead with the exception of W. A. J. Pollock, M. D. One 
son settled in New York, one in Georgia, and another, John, was a 
leading politician, and for several years was a member of the state 
senate from Onslow county. During the Mexican war he volun- 
teered in the United States army, and was made colonel of militia in 
after years. 

We will now write more particularly of John A. Pollock, M. D. 
Mr. Pollock lived in his native count}' until 1850, when he removed 
to Lenoir county. His education was received at the Kinston 
academy, and in January, 1862, he enlisted in Company H, Fifty- 
fifth North Carolina regiment, but soon after was transferred to the 
Third North Carolina cavalry, and served in that regiment with dis- 
tinction until the close of the war, when he returned home and stud- 
ied medicine under the direction of his father and Dr. William H. 
Moore. Entering the University of New York, he was gr iduated. 
therefrom with the class of 1886, with the degree of M. D., and has 
since practiced at Kinston. From 1865 until 1874 he was interested 
in the drug business at Kinston. Dr. Pollock is a member of the 
state medical society, and he is also prominently identified with the 
Lenoir county medical society, the Masonic fraternity and the 
LO. O. F., and is past noble grand and regent of the Royal Arcanum. 
As medical examiner of Lenoir county he rendered the highest de- 
gree of satisfaction. Always a staunch democrat, he was offered the 
nomination for state senator, but declined and nominated Col. Whit- 
field. Dr. Pollock was chairman of the Kinston graded school board 
and president of the Kinston collegiate institute. In 1867 he married 
Miss Agnes P. Jones, a daughter of William C. Jones, of this county, 
and thr(;e children have blessed the union, viz.: Mozelle, Raymond 
and Emily. The family are communicants of the Baptist church, of 
which he is a trustee. 



264 NORTH CAROLINA. 



HENRY OTIS HYATT, M. D., 

who is one of the best known and skilled physicians in the state of 
North Carolina, resides at Kinston, where he has led a most active 
life, busy in the practice of his profession for a number of years. He 
was born May 5, 1848, at Tarboro, Edgecombe county, N. C. His 
parents were Jesse B. and Margaret A. (Shirley) Hyatt, of English 
lineage and of families which for three generations lived in Edge- 
combe county where they became well and favorably known. The 
progenitors of these families were for the greater part planters, the 
maternal grandfather of Dr. Hyatt being one of the most prominent 
and wealthy slave-holders in his county. He was a man of more than 
ordinary intellectual powers and a mathematician of some note, his 
descendants inheriting much of his ability in this science. Jesse B. 
Hyatt was a farmer by vocation, though he did some merchandising. 
He was twice married, Dr. H. O. Hyatt being the only child by his 
first wife, while the second marriage gave issue to several children. 
The father died but a few years ago, the mother of Dr. Hyatt depart- 
ing this life when he was an infant. She was a woman of vigorous 
intellect of stout, yet symmetrical figure, and in these particulars it 
may be said that her son bears strong resemblance. She was noted 
as being a beautiful and most excellent woman, and though she could 
not live to foster her son, nature gave to him her individuality. He 
was reared in the town of Tarboro, where he received a thorough 
education in a male academy, advancing beyond the common 
branches into the higher sciences and into the study of Greek and 
Latin. When ready for college he began to answer a call, drafting 
seventeen-year old youths into the Confederate service, but before 
enlisting the great civil conflict was closed, and though he had in- 
herited wealth from his mother's estate, consisting of many slaves, 
the result of the war reduced him to a condition little better than 
poverty. 

Further education was no longer attempted, and realizing the im- 
portance of having a trade, Mr. Hyatt set about to prepare for a- 
livelihood. Being of a mechanical turn of mind he resolved to apply 
for an apprenticeship as a blacksmith. Upon going to a certain 
blacksmith (an Englishman) of Tarboro, the smith, thinking the 
youth once of wealth, was making light, indignantly refused his offer 
and so passing further along the street, he entered the ofifice of Dr. 
N. J. Pittman and asked to be accepted as a student in medicine. 
Dr. Pittman, after a thorough examination, became the preceptor of 
Mr. Hyatt and two years later he graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in March, 1S6S. Returning to Tarboro, Dr. Hyatt 
received on the 5th of May following, an appointment as acting'as- 
sistant surgeon in the United States army, and was stationed at Fort 
Hatteras on quarantine duty. A few months later, being able to 
purchase a horse and drugs, he located at Falkland, Pitt county, N. C, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 265 

and began the practice of his profession. Two jears later he re- 
moved to Greenville where he remained for two years and on the 
1st of januar3^ 1S72, he located at Kinston, N. C, where he has ever 
since resided and continued an active and extensive practitioner. He 
has ever been a hard student in his profession, and has made much 
scientific investigation. While his practice has been general, in 
surgery and chronic diseases he has become the peer of any physician 
in the state, and his work has been attended with marked skill and 
success. In 1872, at Kinston he performed successfully, asperating 
the stomach through the abdominal wall in a case of laudanum poison- 
ing. This was the first operation of the kind ever performed and it 
was reported in the London Medical Times and Gazette, and was 
translated and published in all the medical journals of the day. He 
has performed a number of successful ovariaotomy operations and 
devised a method for replacing the lacerations produced by child- 
birth. To g3'necology, or diseases of women, he has given special 
study and attention, and in this kind of work stands at the head of 
his profession in the state. In 18S3 Dr. Hyatt operated for stone in 
the bladder, improving the method of cutting through the lower part 
of the abdomen, which method is now used hy the more advanced 
surgeons of the day. He has reported many cases of importance and 
has written several highly prized articles on medical subjects. 

Among Dr. Hj'att's contributions to medical literature may be 
mentioned: Incised wounds of knee joint; physiology of spinal cord; 
a ready method of arresting hemorrhage after child-birth; hot water 
in urine therapeutics; milk diet in albuminuria of pregnancy; elec- 
tricity in treatment of fibroid tumors of the womb; a new operation 
for lacertious of pirineum; the anatom}' of valvo vaginal orifice; 
plaster of Paris as a surgical dressing; high operation for stone in the 
bladder; the physiology of conception; treatment of gin saw wounds 
and many others. These articles have appeared in t\\^ A^orth Caro- 
lina Medical "Joitrnal, the Virginia Medical Monthly, the .hiierican 
Journal of Obstetiics. Philadelphia Medical I Fo rid, and The Obstetrical 
Jonrnal, of Great Britain and Ireland. For/ some time past Dr. 
Hyatt has given special attention to the diseases of the eye and in 
iSqi spent several months in Will's eye hospital, of Philadelphia, and 
has performed various operations upon the e3^e. He is the founder 
and editor of the Herald of Health, published at Kinston and at this 
place he also conducts a sanitarium known as the " Waverly." Dr. 
Hyatt is a leading citizen as well as physician and is a man of most 
happy domestic relations. In 1S76 Miss Sybil Miller became his wife 
and their home has been blessed with the birth of two daughters and 
a son. Dr. Hyatt is not connected with any religious denomination 
and takes very little interest in any matters that are not connected 
directly with his profession. As he grows older, the more devoted 
he has become to his chosen calling and instead of getting careless 
in his work, the greater amount of pains he takes with cases. Like 
all men with scientific minds, he has developed a passion for 
accuracy. 



266 NORTH CAROLINA. 



DR. JACOB M. HADLEY, 

a noted physician of La Grange, was born in Chatliam county, N. C, 
November 30. 1835. His fatlier was William Penn Hadley, and his 
mother's maiden name was Hannah McPherson, the former a native 
of Chatham county, and the latter of Alamance county, N. C. Dr. 
Hadley's great-grandfather, Joshua Hadley, was the first of the 
family to settle in Chatham county. He was a quaker of English de- 
scent, and moved to Chatham county, from South Hadley, Mass. 
His children were Simon, who married Miss Thompson, and moved 
from Chatham county, to Hendricks county, Ind.; John and William 
moved to Todd's Fork, Clinton county, Ohio, in 1800; Thomas 
moved to Morgan county, Ind.; Jonathan was a surveyor, and mar- 
ried a Miss Long, of Alamance county. He died in that county and 
his family moved to Parke county, Ind. Jerry moved to Plainfield, 
Ind.; Jacob lived and died at Hadley's Mills, on Terrill's creek; he 
first married a Miss Chambers, of Orange county; afterward a Miss 
Pickett, of Chatham county, by whom he had two sons and five 
daughters; Joshua married Rebecca Hinshaw, and moved to Hen- 
dricks county, about 1S3S; Joseph married Miss Hinshaw, of Chat- 
ham county, and moved to the state of Iowa about 1844. The 
eldest daughter married Hugh Woody, of Chatham county. The 
second daughter married Jerry Pickett, of Alamance county; 
the third daughter married Jesse Dixon, of Alamance county. 
Jacob Hadley, the grandfather of Dr. Hadley, was a promi- 
nent farmer and a mill owner. He established the present Had- 
ley's Mills, and the postoffice was named for him. William P. 
Hadley, Dr. Hadley's father, was born May 29, 1810. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of that period, and has always been engaged in 
farming and milling, in Chatham county, where he now resides in his 
eighty-second year. He was a justice of the peace many years, and in 
1864 was a member of the lower house of the legislature. He was 
formerly a whig in politics, but after the war joined the democratic 
part}'. He is a stockholder in the Fayetteville bank and is a promi- 
nent and influential member of the Methodist Protestant church. He 
is a large land owner, and owns one of the finest flouring mills in 
Chatham county, his ownership dating back more than thirty years. 
He has reared ten children whose names are as follows: Jacob M., 
the subject of this sketch; William C, who died November 11, 1880, 
and was a member of the Second North Carolina cavalry, with the 
rank of second lieutenant. He served through the war, and was 
severely wounded at Brandy Station; Sarah A., wife of Van R. May, 
of Wayne county; Oliver Newton, a member of Company C, Twenty- 
sixth North Carolina infantry, died of typhoid pneumonia, at More- 
head City, in 1861; Phceba A., of Chatham county; Annie C, wife of 
Romulus Eubanks, of Chatham county; John W., a member of the 
Second North Carolina cavalry, killecl in battle at Stephensburg, Va.; 
James A., of Beston, Wayne county, a merchant and farmer; Frank- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 267 

lin M., of Siler Citj', Chatham county, tanner and merchant, and 
Martha, deceased. 

Dr. Jacob M. Hadley began his education at the New Garden 
school and finished at Trinity college, after which he engaged in 
teaching and studying medicine under Dr. Alfred Lindley, of Chat- 
ham county. He graduated from the University of I'ennsylvania in 
March, i860, and practiced in Craven county till the breaking out of 
the war. In 1S61 he volunteered in Col. Clark's regiment, of Xew- 
bern, after the fall of which he was appointed assistant surgeon and 
had charge of the hospital at Raleigh, with Surgeons James P. Bryan 
and E. Burke Haywood. In the fall of 1S62 he was appointed 
surgeon of the Fourth North Carolina state infantry in Lee's army of 
northern V^irginia, and served in that capacit}' until the close of the 
war and was paroled from Appomatox, on April g, 1865. He was 
taken prisoner at Martinsburg, Va. After three months duty in the 
lines, was complimented and paroled by Gen. Andrew T. McRey- 
nolds, commander of the post. After the close of the war, Dr. Had- 
ley resumed the practice of his profession at Oakes, Orange county, 
but in February, 1867, removed to La Grange, where he has ever 
since been in active practice. Dr. Hadley stands high in his profes- 
sion and has the reputation of a skilled and successful practitioner. 
He is a member of the state medical society, was a representative to the 
Virginia medical convention and was appointed a delegate to the Amer- 
ican medical association at its meeting at Washington, D. C, in May, 
1891. He was one of the organizers of Lenoir medical association and 
has served as president of that society. He is secretary of the county 
board of health. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, of the Knights of Honor and of the 
Patrons of Husbandry. Dr. Hadley is the owner of 2,000 acres of 
farm land and is an extensive real estate owner in La Grange. Sep- 
tember 4, 1S60, he married Miss Lizzie E. Kirkpatrick, of Orange 
county, N. C, and they have had three children whose names were 
William Newton, now deceased; Lillie H., deceased, also, and 
George B. W. Hadley, A. B., principal of La Grange collegiate insti- 
tute. Dr. Hadley is a trustee of and a prominent member in the 
Methodist Protestant church of La Grange, and has been a repre- 
sentative to several annual conferences and to every session of gen- 
eral conference since 1877. 

HUGH M. McDonald, 

druggist, of La Grange, was born in Moore county, N. C, May 7, 
1840. His parents, Daniel and Mary McDonald, were natives of Scot- 
land, and came to .'\merica while children, with their respective par- 
ents, and settled upon Cape Fear river. Here after reaching their 
maturity they were married, and afterward moved to IMoore county. 
Daniel McDonald was a tailor by occupation, which trade he followed 
until his death, which took place in 1S68. His wife died in 1S65. They 
were both members of the Presbyterian church, Mr. McDonald hold- 



268 NORTH CAROLINA. 

ing the office of elder. They reared a family of seven children, four 
of whom still survive. Their respective names were: Alexander D., 
a practicing physician of Wilmington, N. C; Angus P., who died in 
iS6i; Christina J., deceased; .Sarah \., now Mrs. Jones, of Moore 
county; Hugh M.; Catherine J., wife of Duncan Thompson, of Rich- 
mond, N. C, and Mary Alice, deceased. Hugh M. McDonald was 
reared in Moore county. He attended the common schools, after- 
ward graduating in pharmacy at Bluff Falls, Md. In 1861 he joined 
the Confederate army, enlisting in Company C, of the Thirty-fifth 
North Carolina infantry. He was promoted to the rank of orderly 
sergeant, and served until June 17, 1864. He was then taken prisoner 
at Five Forks, Va., and confined in prison at Elmira, N. Y. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of Richmond, Fredericksburg, Malvern Hill, 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and several less important engage- 
ments. After the war was over he located in Wilmington, N.C., where 
he read medicine with his brother, devoting his attention largely to 
pharmacy. In 1870 he engaged in the drug house at Wilmington as 
a clerk for one year. He came to La Grange in 1873, and estal)lished 
his present business as a druggist, where he has ever since conducted 
the only drug store in the town. Mr. McDonald is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, of the Knights of Pj'thias, and of the Knights of 
Honor. In political faith he is a democrat. In 1880 Mr. McDonald 
was married to Miss Hattie N. Hall, the daughter of Albert C. Hall, 
of Pindar county, N. C, and they have one child, Alexander Milton 
McDonald. Mr. McDonald is an active member of the Presbyterian 
church, in which he is an elder, and when the present church edifice 
was built, he rendered efficient aid both in material means and in en- 
couragement by his wise counsel. 

JAMES GRAHAM RAMSAY, M. D., 

a prominent physician of Rowan county, N. C, was born in Iredell 
county, March i, 1S23, the son of Col. David Ramsay, who was also 
a native of Iredell county. Col. Ramsay was of Scotch-Irish descent, 
and the progenitors of the family in North Carolina came direct from 
Pennsylvania, but originally from Scotland. They settled in Iredell 
county, and their descendants are to be found throughout the coun- 
try; many of them, like the subject of this sketch, have become highly 
distinguished. His father was for many years a prominent and sub- 
stantial farmer, and an honored citizen of Iredell county, in which he 
lived and died. Col. Ramsay was twice married, his first wife being 
Miss Graham, by whom he had two sons and five daughters, all dead 
except the subject of this sketch. His second wife was the mother 
of three children, of whom only one, a daughter, now survives. Dr. 
James G. Ramsay, was reared and passed his earlier days upon his 
father's farm, availing himself of what educational privileges were 
within his reach. He graduated from Davidson college in 1841, and 
subsequently taught school for a short time. In 1848. he graduated 
from the Jefferson medical college of Philadelphia. When he first 



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NOKTH CAROLINA. 269 

entered upon the practice of his profession, he located in Rowan 
county, about sixteen miles west of Salisbury. H ere he has continued 
a long, active and successful practice of medicine, rising to the fore- 
most rank of his profession. He has been an active member of both 
the North Carolina and Rowan county medical associations, and is 
regarded among his professional associates, as one of the most learned 
and skillful of their number. Throughout his entire career, he has 
been a close and constant student, and his researches have extended 
far outside the domain of medical science. In politics he was an ad- 
herent of the whig principles, as held by Henrj' Clay, Daniel Web- 
ster and other great lights of that once powerful party. 

In 1846 Dr. Ramsay was elected to the state senate from Rowan 
and Davie counties, and so ably and faithfully did he represent that 
district that he was re-elected for several terms. When the great 
civil struggle cast its ominous shadow before, he was an ardent 
"peace man " and stubbornly opposed all measures looking toward a 
dissolution of the union by force of arms. When the actual conflict 
came, however, he cast his lot with the people of his own section, and 
was an earnest participant in the great struggle against the Federal 
government. He was elected to represent his district in the Confed- 
erate congress and took part in the deliberations of its second ses- 
sion. Since the close of the war Dr. Ramsay has been identified po- 
litically with the republican party. He was chosen a presidential 
elector upon the Grant ticket in 1872, was again a candidate for 
elector on the ticket in 1880, but was defeated as was the whole re- 
publican ticket of that year in his section. In every political cam- 
paign since the war he has taken an active part as a republican, and is 
one of the ablest and most effective public speakers and campaigners 
in his party. In 1846 Dr. Ramsay was united in marriage with Miss 
Sarah Foster, a native of Davie county, and a worthy and highly re- 
spected lady. The marriage has resulted in the birth of two daugh- 
ters and six sons, named as follows: Margaret F., Florence May, 
who died in infancy; David A., deceased; James H., Edgar B., Will- 
iam G., who died a few years ago while superintending a gold mine 
in Africa; Robert L. and Claudius C. Dr. Ramsay and his wife 
have long been members of the Presbyterian church of which he has 
been a ruling elder many years. In the Masonic fraternity he is a 
member of the Royal Arch degree. Dr. Ramsay's life has not only 
been a useful but an eventful one. Not alone in his profession has 
he proved himself of great use to his fellow men; his upright, intel- 
ligent, conservative and consistent course as a citizen, both in public 
and in private life, has made him a worthy example for the emulation 
of all who have been cognizant of his spotless career, and the intelli- 
gence and integrity which have been his distinguishing character- 
istics. 

JOSEPH JOHN SUMMERELL, M. D., 

was born in Halifax county, N. C, November i, 1819. His father, 
John Summerell, was a X'irginian by birth, and was married to Mary 



270 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Perry, a native of Halifax county, N. C. He was a successful farmer, 
and accumulated a considerable estate, and was able to afford his 
children the advantages of a liberal education. Of his marriage with 
Miss Perry there were born four children, only two of whom lived to 
maturity. The eldest, Mary A. E. Summerell, married Capt. E. N. 
Peterson, and now lives in Weldon, N. C. Joseph John, three years 
younger than his sister, was graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1842, and studying medicine, was graduated as a physician 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1844. Soon after receiving 
his degree of doctor of medicine, he settled in Salisbury, N. C, where 
he has continued ever since in the successful practice of his profession. 
He has confined himself strictly to his calling, and never sought public 
office. His fellow-citizens, however, for many years, secured his ser- 
vices as a justice of the peace of Rowan count}', and for two years he 
was chairman of the county court. For over thirty years he has also 
been superintendent of public health for Rowan county, and physician 
for the county home for the aged and infirm. In this office he has 
been able to do much for the health of the county and town, for the 
relief of prisoners, and for the comfort of the unfortunate and des- 
titute. In 1855 Dr. Summerell became a member of the state medical 
society, and in 1862 was elected president of that learned body. He 
still continues a member, and is interested in all their labors for the 
relief of the suffering. 

In 1S44 Dr. Summerell was married to Miss Ellen H., daughter of 
Elisha Mitchell, D. D., professor in the University of North Carolina. 
Seven children, four sons and three daughters, blessed this marriage. 
Of these, two sons and two daughters still survive. The eldest son, 
the Rev. J. N. H. Summerell, is a Presbyterian minister, and the be- 
loved pastor of the Presbyterian church in Tarboro, N.C. The other 
son, Elisha Mitchell Summerell, M. D., is a practicing physician in 
Rowan county, N. C. The eldest daughter, Mrs. Anna Maria Colt, 
resides with her father in Salisbury; and the youngest daughter, 
Mrs. Gertrude Hope Chamberlain, is the wife of Prof. J. R. Chamber- 
lain, of the Agricultural and Mechanical college, at Raleigh, N. C. 
Dr. Summerell became a member of the Salisbury Presbyterian 
church In 1847, was ordained a deacon in 1852, and a ruling elder In 
1866, and has continued to serve his church in the latter office to the 
present. He has represented his church in presbyter}', in synod and 
in the general assembly, with fidelity. His life has been characterized 
by the faithful performance of all known duties, and his intercourse 
with the people has been marked by remarkable candor and cour- 
age. In every relation of life he had the confidence of his fellow 
citizens. He has had a long and laborious life of nearly fifty years 
In his profession In the same community, and during all that time has 
enjoyed the respect of his profession and the affection of patients 
and cherished friends. Now in his seventy-third year he is still able 
to do a reasonable amount of professional work, and Is seen almost 
dally on the streets of Salisbury, going his accustomed rounds, and 
finds his chief earthly pleasure in relieving the sick and suffering. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2> 1 



DR. JULIUS ANDREW CALDWELL, 

of Salisbury, N. C, is a son of Judge D. F. Caldwell, a sketch of whom 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. Dr. Caldwell was born at 
Salisbury, February Q, 1830. He graduated from the North Carolina 
universit)' in June, 1S50, and soon after began the study of medicine 
in his native city, under the instruction of the late Ur. M. Whitehead, 
who acted as his preceptor. He likewise attended the medical col- 
lege at Charleston for one term, and then entered the University of 
Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, and graduated from the medical de- 
partment of that institution in 1S54. In the same year he located at 
Lincolnton, N. C, and began the practice of his profession. He re- 
mained there four years and then, in 1858, removed to Salisbury, 
where he has ever since remained. Dr. Caldwell is a kind, unobtrus- 
ive gentleman, modest and retiring, but a most excellent and pains- 
taking practitioner. He gives most of his time to his profession, and 
takes a lively interest in public affairs, though he has never sought 
office. As a physician his efforts have been crowned with success. 
He enjoj's the profound respect, not only of his professional brethren, 
but of the community which is the field of his practice. In the pro- 
fessional ranks he is among the foremost, and as a citizen he is uni- 
versally honored and esteemed. In August, 1868, Dr. Caldwell and 
Miss Fannie M. Miller were united in marriage, and the fruit of this 
happy union has been the birth of three sons and three daughters, 
but they have been called to mourn the death of one son and one 
daughter. Dr. Caldwell and his famil}' are members of the Episco- 
pal church, and in the society circles and among the leading families 
of Salisbury they enjoy a high social standing. 

JOHN HEARTWELL TUCKER. 

John H. Tucker, M. D., is a native of Virginia. He was born in 
Brunswick county. October 27, 1842. A sound foundation for his ed- 
ucation was laid in Hanover academy, and at William and Mary col- 
lege and the Virginia military institute. He left the last named 
institution in June, 1861, to enlist in Company I, Third Virginia cav- 
alry, as a private. After a faithful service of twelve months he re- 
ceived his honorable discharge on account of physical disability, and 
then resumed the study of medicine, having carried on a course in 
that science in addition to the regular collegiate course prior to his 
enlistment. In the spring of 1864 he was graduated from the Vir- 
ginia medical college, and immediately re-entered the Confederate 
service as assistant surgeon, being assigned to the Chimborazo hos- 
pital at Richmond. In .September, 1864, he was commissioned as- 
sistant surgeon of the Confederate navy, and was assigned for duty 
to the gunboat " Pee Dee," then stationed near Georgetown, S. C. He 
served until the fall of Charleston, and was then sent to the Marine 
hospital at Drury's Bluff, where he was captured in the spring of 



272 NORTH CAROLINA. 

1865, and was subsequently paroled at Richmond, \'a. Beside many 
skirmishes and engagements of minor importance Dr. Tucker partici- 
pated in the battles of Williamsburg, West Point and Seven Pines. 
After the close of hostilities he removed to Okolona, Miss., and was 
there engaged in the active practice of his profession and also in 
planting for seven years, five years of which time he was associated 
with Dr. John S. Cain, now of Nashville, Tenn. In 1S74 Dr. Tucker 
changed his residence to Henderson, N. C, and has since made that 
his home. Since coming to Henderson he has won distinction as a 
skilled physician, and as a business man of much ability and foresight. 
He has risen to the front ranks of his profession in the state, and is a 
prominent member of the state medical society, also of the American 
medical association and of the state board of health, and at the pres- 
ent time is the president of the Vance county health board. He has 
been active in furthering the best interests of North Carolina, and is 
a director and vice-president of the proposed Atlantic, Henderson & 
Virginia railroad company. He is a Mason and Knights Templar, 
and a consistent communicant of the Episcopal church. 

In 1872, Dr. Tucker was very happily married to Miss Willie Ruf- 
fin Hill, a daughter of the late Dr. John Hill, of Wilmington, N. C, 
and eight children have been born into their home, named: Eliza C, 
John H. Jr., Edward B., Willie Julia, Fannie J., Maria and two others 
now deceased. Edward B. Tucker, the father of the principal of 
this mention, was also a Virginian, having been born in Bruns- 
wick county in 181 2. He was an extensive planter and owned large 
landed interests in Mississippi and Virginia. He was a magistrate 
and a member of the county court of his native county for many 
years. His marriage to Miss Eliza Cummin, daughter of James 
Cummin, of Armagh, Ireland, was solemnized in 1S36 and resulted In 
the birth of eleven children, only four of whom reached maturity; 
they are: John H., William C, and Thomas Goode, of Brunswick 
county, Va.; and Maria Tucker. The latter (now deceased) was the 
wife of the late Dr. John A. Field, of Brunswick county, Va. The 
father of these children died in 1885, his wife having preceded him 
to rest in 1876. Edward B. Tucker was the son of Col. John Tucker. 
He was born in Virginia in 1774, and was a man of wide influence. An 
extensive planter, he was a politician of abilit3', having served several 
terms as a member of the state senate, and for many years was high 
sheriff of Brunswick county. His demise occurred in 1842. The 
American branch of this family descended from Capt. Joseph Tucker, 
of the British army. He settled in Bermuda, but later came to Vir- 
ginia. He was descended from the Tudor branch of the Tucker 
famil}', who were originally from England. The maternal ancestors 
of our subject were from Armagh, Ireland. They were of noble 
blood and had wealth and influence. The maternal grand-ancestors 
of Dr. Tucker were the Virginia Goodes. The Goode family has 
an honorable history. It originally settled in Chesterfield county, 
Va., and many of its members were prominent in public affairs in the 
proud old state. William O. Goode was for eighteen years a mem- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2/3 

ber of congress from \'irginia, prior to the Civil war, and the Hon. 
John Goocie and Col. Thomas F. Goode are distinguished living rep- 
resentatives of the Virginia famil}'. 

DR. FLETCHER R. HARRIS, 

one of the most eminent and successful physicians of Henderson, 
N. C, is a native of Granville county, N. C, where he was born on 
the 28th of September, 1859. In 1881 he was graduated from the 
University of \'irginia, and in the fall of that year entered the col- 
lege of physicians and surgeons of New York city, and subsequently 
attended the Post Graduate school in that city. In 1883 he returned 
to Henderson, and commenced the practice of his profession. Dr. 
Harris is a member of the American medical association, the North 
Carolina state medical society, and also of the Vance county board 
of health. In 1884 he was happily married to iMiss Cary, daughter 
of Jesse H. Page, of Slatesville, N. C, and two children are the^ off- 
spring of their union, namely: Agnes Reese Harris and Jessie Har- 
ris. Dr. Harris is the son of Benjamin F". Harris, a native of Gran- 
ville county, having first seen the light there in 1806. He was a 
prominent planter and merchant during his active career, having re- 
moved from Granville county, to Oxford, N. C, in his later life. In 
184S, he was united in marriage to Miss Ann E. Rogers, daughter of 
Samuel Rogers, of Granville county, and five children were born to 
them George B. Harris, a resident of Henderson, N. C.; Samuel R. 
Harris, also of Henderson; Benjamin F. Harris, died in 1876 at the 
age of twenty years; Fletcher R. Harris, and A. J. Harris, of Hender- 
son. The family is one of the oldest and most highly esteemed in 
the state. 

D. MALLOY PRINCE, M. D., 

one of the leading physicians and surgeons of North Carolina, was 
born in Marlborough county, S. C, in 1848. His parents were L. B. 
and Mary (McEachin) Prince, the former a native of .South Carolina, 
and the latter of North Carolina. L. B.' Prince was a planter in early 
manhood, and later in life devoted himself to teaching. He was a 
son of Lawrence and Charlotte Benton Prince. The mother was a 
daughter of Col. Benton, who figured so prominently as a patriot 
soldier in the Revolutionary war, and later as a congressman from 
South Carolina. Charles Prince, the great-grandfather of D. Malloy 
Prince, was a captain in the British army prior to the war for Amer- 
ican independence. Lawrence died at the age of si.\ty-five years, and 
his wife at the age of eighty-two. Of their eleven children but four 
now survive. Our immediate subject, D. Malloy Prince, M. D., was 
engaged in obtaining an education in the schools of Cheraw and 
Sumter until his fifteenth year, when he enlisted in a regiment of 
boys under Col. Harington in 1863, thereby offering his services to 
the Confederate government. This regiment served with valor in 
B— 18 



274 NORTH CAROLINA. 

numerous skirmishes and small engagements, but took part in no 
large battle. After the close of the war Dr. Prince resumed his 
studies, and subsequently took up the medical science under the 
tutelage of Dr. Cornelius Kollock, of Cheraw, and later attended the 
Charleston medical college, from which institution he was graduated, 
the first honors of the class being equally divided between himself 
and two classmates. After graduation he began practice in Cheraw, 
and about a year later removed to Laurel Hill, N. C, where he be- 
came associated with Dr. Patterson. After several years' residence 
in that place, Dr. Prince took up his abode at Laurenburg, and there 
formed a partnership with Dr. Dixon, and this firm still exists. Dr. 
Prince has completed a course of study in the medical department of 
Johns Hopkins university, and is an arcient student of medicine, per- 
haps having no superior as a surgeon in this portion of the state. He 
is an honorary member of the South Carolina medical association. 



PETER W. STANSILL, M. D. 

Probably one of the most eminent physicians Richmond county, 
N. C, ever produced was Peter W. Stansill, M. D. Born on the 2Qth 
of August, 1812, his useful career was prolonged until April 16, iSgo, 
when he passed from this world, firmly trusting in his Redeemer's 
power to save. Dr. Stansill was one of nine children born to Peter 
and Sallie (Jones) Stansill. The father removed to Rockingham from 
Northampton. N- C, in ijgo, and settled on the spot now occupied by 
the Richmond hotel. These parents were intelligent and respected 
people, but did not possess means suf^cient to give their children edu- 
cational advantages. Their son Peter was ambitious, however, and 
in early boyhood determined to acquire a thorough education. He 
was apprenticed to a blacksmith, and while working at his trade de- 
voted himself to persistent study. Having decided to fit himself for 
the medical profession, at the age of twenty-five he began reading 
under Dr. C. C. Covington, although still obliged to remain at the 
anvil to earn his living. Under the most discouraging surroundings 
he pursued most faithfully his scientific research, and after several 
years succeeded in borrowing sufficient money from his friend, Mr. 
James P. Leak, to defray his expenses while attending a course of 
lectures at the Charleston medical college. After completing the 
course he returned to Rockingham, where he practiced for a year or 
two, after which Anson county became his home; but after a residence 
there of two years, he, in 1S46, returned to Charleston and took a 
more advanced medical course. Subsequently Dr. Stansill settled 
once more in Rockingham, and it was in the latter place that the 
greater part of his life was spent. In 1847 he married Miss Eliza 
Ellerbe McQueen, of Chesterfield, S. C. She was a descendant of 
the Ellerbes, of South Carolina, who came from England in 1766, and 
furnished several patriot soldiers in the Revolution. Six children 
blessed this marriage, viz.: John, Cecilia, Anna, Cora, Ida and Willie. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 275 

When Dr. Stansill entered upon his professional career, the treat- 
ment of t^'phoid fever was such that but few contracting the disease 
recovered. The ardent young physician saw that something was 
wrong and determined to remedy the defect of science. Devoting 
his clear, disciplined mind to the subject, he was successful in discov- 
ering an entirely new treatment which proved so beneficial that his 
name was soon given widespread prominence throughout the state. 
Rapidly the man rose to the front ranks of his profession, and his 
personality was such that not only the people at large respected his 
decisions, but also his brethren in medicine. It was but natural that 
a man possessed of such a mind and heart as he should early own his 
allegiance to God, and assume his share of the burden of elevating 
the world to the standard set by the Saviour. At the age of eighteen 
he joined the Methodist Episcopal church, and his after life was 
noted for its piety and uprightness. His death was a public calamit}', 
and he was mourned in the rich man's house as well as in the habita- 
tion of the poor. None may know until the final day how pure was 
his life, how manj' destitute and fallen he raised, and what comfort 
his ministrations brought to the bed of the dying. He felt that his 
calling was not only to restore physical health, but also to bind up 
the bleeding heart, and direct the famished soul to its God and 
Maker. I lis memory lives in the hearts of those who loved him and 
the influence of his life cast on the side of right can never be lost. 
In politics he was a democrat, and during the struggle between north 
and south, he upheld the cause of his people, because he thought it 
right. Too old to bear the brunt of battle, he assisted as well as he 
could by his counsels and support. His son and successor is John 
McQueen Stansill, M. D., who was born in Rockingham, Richmond 
county, N. C, June 30, 1849. His preparatory education was obtained 
in the Rockingham academy, and later in the University of Maryland, 
where he was graduated in 1872. He then took special courses of 
study in Baltimore and New York medical colleges, after which he 
returned to Rockingham and began the practice of his profession. 
He is a member of the Rockingham medical association, and also of 
the state association, and for several years has been superintendent of 
health board of the county. February 23, 18S2, Miss Willie B. Baldwin, 
daughter of T. R. and Minnie (LeGrand) Baldwin, of Richmond 
county, became his wife, and three children, named Minnie L., Eliza, 
and Cora C, have been born to them. Both Dr. and Mrs. Stansill 
are communicants of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which he is 
a trustee and steward. As a physician he is able and progressive, and 
has met with marked success. 

A. W. HAMER, M. D., 

a leading physician of Richmond county, N. C, was born in Marl- 
borough county, S. C, December 29, 1834. Alfred and Martha (Wal- 
lace) Hamer, his parents, were natives of -South and North Carolina, 
respectively. The father was a prominent planter, and was a man of 



276 NORTH CAROLINA. 

influence and ability; a consistent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. He died in 1S55, aged forty-nine j'ears. His widow still 
survives him with powers of mind and body remarkably well pre- 
served, having attained the age of eighty years. Of the fourteen 
children born to these parents, eleven reached maturity, and five are 
still living. The son, A. W. Hamer, the principal of this mention, 
was educated in private schools in Marlborough county, S. C, and be- 
gan the stud}' of medicine under the tutelage of Dr. W. D. Wallace, 
of Bennettsville, and subsequentl}' attending the course of lectures 
at the Charleston medical college, he was graduated from that 
famous institution with the class of 1858. Locating in Rockingham, 
he at once entered upon the active practice of his chosen profession, 
and continued at Rockingham with marked success until the seces- 
sion of the state, when he enlisted in Company D, Twenty-third reg- 
iment volunteer infantry., and served as a private until the following 
September, when he was honorably discharged on account of physi- 
cal disability, and returned home. In 1862 he went to Richmond, 
Va., where he received the appointment of acting assistant-surgeon 
in Hospital 20, at Richmond, and retained that office until 1863, when 
the hospital was closed. Returning to South Carolina, he resumed 
his practice, and remained in Marlborough until January, 1881, when 
he removed to Laurinburg, N. C. Dr. Hamer is a prominent mem- 
ber of the state medical association, and also of the Masonic frater- 
nity, being a past master of his lodge, and is a member of the K. of P., 
having held the office of first district deputy grand chancellor of 
Laurinburg; the K. of H., and the K. & L. of H. In 1S64 Dr. 
Hamer married Miss Elizabeth Douglass, of Marlborough county, 
S. C, the daughter of Duncan Douglass, her mother being Sarah 
(McLaurin) Douglass, a sister of Duncan McLaurin, for whom the 
city of Laurinburg was named. Dr. and Mrs. Hamer are the parents 
of these children: Sallie D., wife of Peter Mcintosh; Mattie, Kate and 
Douglas, who is a member of the junior class in the state universit}', 
and Wallace, deceased at the age of ten years, in 1888. Mrs. Hamer 
is a communicant of the Presbyterian church, while her husband and 
children are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. 

DR. EDWARD P. SNIPES, 

one of the leading physicians and surgeons of Moore county, also a 
druggist and pharmacist, was born in Chatham county, N. C, July 26, 
1853. He is the son of B. F. and T. B. Snipes, the maiden name of 
his mother being Norwood. Both parents are natives of North Car- 
olina, the former being a farmer and merchant of Snipesville. He 
served as county commissioner some years since for one term, but 
takes little interest in politics, giving his undivided attention to busi- 
ness. He is quite an extensive farmer for that part of the country 
and is a prominent and ofiicial member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and though quiet and reserved in his disposition is widely 
and favorably known throughout the county. He is respected as a 



NORTH CAROLINA. 277 

high-minded and an honorable business man, and a good citizen in 
the best sense of the term. He was born in iSio, and saw much of 
pioneer Hfe in the south. His wife, who is still living, was born in 
1818, and she too is a life-long and devoted member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Her parents were natives of Virginia, coming to 
North Carolina in an early day. The subject of this sketch is the 
fifth born in a family of six children, whose names are G. B., a farmer 
residing in Chatham county; James, who enlisted in 1S63 and took 
part in several of the most sanguinary battles of the Civil war. He 
was a lieutenant in his company, and was mortally wounded in the 
last Manassas battle, receiving a gun shot wound in the hip. He 
was left at a spring in charge of J. J. Norwood, a cousin. The army 
was on the retreat. Neither of these individuals have ever since 
been heard from, though the father of young Snipes went to the bat- 
tle-ground and searched in the neighborhood of the spring for three 
weeks. His age was seventeen years. Sarah, wife of A. W. Nor- 
wood, residing on a farm in Chatham county; Josephine, wife of J. J. 
Hackney; Dr. Edward P., and Nora, wife of James Norwood, a 
farmer of Chatham county. 

Dr. Snipes was educated at Hugh's academ}', and read medicine 
under Dr. William P. Mallet of Chapel Hill. He attended medical 
lectures at Vanderbilt university, graduating therefrom in 1890. He 
is also a graduate of the same university in the class of iSgi. Dr. 
Snipes began the practice of medicine in 1879, at Snipesville. As a 
practitioner he has met with great success, and bids fair to take a 
foremost position among his professional associates in the county. 
He has kept a drug store in connection with his practice for the past 
eight years at Jonesboro. He went to that place in 1880, and has 
resided there since. Dr. Snipes is a member of the North Carolina 
state medical society, and the medical examiner for several insurance 
companies. He is a stockholder in the Jonesboro cotton mills and is 
business manager of the Jonesboro Leader. He has been town com- 
missioner for several terms and is chairman of the board of health 
for the town of Jonesboro. In all the enterprises which promise the 
prosperity and advancement for his town Dr. Snipes takes a fore- 
most rank. He is a member of the Methodist church, and is past 
grand in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of which organiza- 
tion he is delegate to the grand lodge of the state. In the com- 
munity where he resides, he enjoys universal respect and esteem. 

HON. THOMAS P. BRASWELL, 

of Battleboro, Nash county, N. C was born in Edgecombe county, 
N. C, in the year 183.^, and is now fifty-seven years old. He did not 
enjoy the advantages of a collegiate education, having acquired what 
he possesses by teaching himself while working upon the farm, which 
he did until twenty-one years of age; then he was elected district 
constable, and served his people in this capacity as well as that of 
deputy sheriff a few years. During the late war he was a regimental 



2/8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

militia officer, railroad contractor and supply agent. Mr. Brasvvell 
moved to Nash county in 1866, and has since been extensively en- 
gaged in farming, and is one of the most successful and prosperous 
farmers in his state. He is a large land-owner and operates several 
large farms, is extensively engaged in the cultivation of tobacco and 
the first in erecting a warehouse for the sale of leaf tobacco in east 
North Carolina. Mr. Braswell has always been liberal and enter- 
prising, substantially contributing to the building of all the schools 
and churches in his section. He was among the first to engage in 
cultivating grasses and raising improved stock, and has now at his 
home farm near Battlesboro the largest and finest-bred herd of Jer- 
sey cattle In the state. Mr. Braswell has filled creditably many use- 
ful public positions in his county and state; was first appointed by 
the governor a justice of the peace, afterward elected by the people; 
a part of the time chairman of the county board of magistrates. For 
man}' years he was county commissioner, serving as chairman of the 
board and once chairman of the county democratic executive com- 
mittee. He was nominated by the democratic party and elected a 
member of the state legislature and served in the sessions of 1876-7, 
declining a renomination in 1878. He is a prominent member of the 
A. F. & A. M. lodge, I. O. O. F.. Knights of Honor, and in politics a 
democrat. 

While Mr. Braswell's greatest interest is in farming he has con- 
tributed largel}' to the building up of his county towns; having built 
and now owning business houses in Nashville, Rocky Mount and Bat- 
tleboro, he is a stockholder and promoter of the Rocky Mount West 
End Land and Improvement company, and is president of the East- 
ern Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical Fair association. Mr. 
Braswell married Miss Emily Stallings, a native of Edgecombe 
county, N. C, in his early manhood, and their four children are: 
M. C. Braswell, Esq., of Battleboro, N. C, a large merchant and 
broker, conducting the largest business in his county. He was pre- 
pared for college at Homes Henderson, attended college at Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, and Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; J.C. Braswell, B. S., 
University of North Carolina, a tobacconist at Rocky Mount, N. C; 
T. C. Braswell, Jr., aged fifteen years, at school. M. R. Braswell, 
M. D., born in Edgecombe county, N. C, December 12, 1865, pre- 
pared for college at his home and Bingham school, and attended 
college at Wake Forest and the University of North Carolina, 
and March 17, 18S6, was graduated from the University of Maryland, 
with the degree of M. D., at the age of twenty years. He obtained 
license to practice his profession from the state board of medical 
examiners in May of the same j-ear, and commenced the practice of 
medicine at Rocky Mount, of the same year, and has since then con- 
tinued to build up an extensive practice, being notably successful in 
the treatment of all diseases to which he Is called to see. He Is a 
member of the North Carolina state medical society, and an active 
member of the Corinthian lodge No. 230, A. F. & A. M. He is medi- 
cal e.xaminer for four-fifths of the life insurance companies doing busi- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2/9 

ness in his town. He is public spirited and lends a helping influence 
to all worthy enterprises. Besides his extensive practice, he operates 
successfully a tobacco farm. Was a promoter and is a stock owner 
of the Rocky Mount West End Land and Improvement company, and 
is considered a progressive and able business man as well as a skillful 
and intelligent physician, as few have gained such distinction at his 
age. His political faith is of the principles of the democratic party. 



DR. JOHN F. BELLAMY 

was born in Edgecombe county, N.C., in 1827. He is the son of John F. 
and Ann Nicholson Bellamj', who were both natives of North Caro- 
lina. John F. was the son of John Bellamy, also a native of the same 
state, and he in turn was the son of William, a North Carolinian. He 
was the father of two sons, John and William, and both were resi- 
dents of the state. William was a minister, and held the commission 
of lieutenant during the Revolutionary war, in a company of home 
guards. He died in October, 1846. John Bellamy, the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch, died when but a young man. John F. 
Bellamy was born about 1790; studied medicine and practiced for 
a number of years in the state; enlisted in the United States army in 
181 2, as a private, and afterward served as surgeon. At the close of 
the war he settled near Battleborough, where he followed the prac- 
tice of his profession until 1S36. He then retired from business, and 
died in 1S46. He was married about 1S17, to the mother of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. She bore him one son and one daughter, and then 
died. He was married again in 1836, to Mrs. Coffield, who bore him 
one son. He took no part in politics, and he was an earnest and con- 
sistent member of the Methoclist church. 

John F. Bellamy, the subject of this sketch, received his early ed- 
ucation in the schools of the county, and completed his course in the 
University of Virginia, graduating from that institution in 1847. He 
began the study of medicine under Dr. William Hunter, and gradu- 
ated from Jefferson college, Philadelphia, in 1S49. He began prac- 
tice near Entield, and continued it until 1S70, since which time he 
has been engaged in farming and cotton spinning. He was married 
in 1858, to Miss Sarah Coffield, his step-sister. The issue of this 
union has been one son and one daughter. Mr. Bellamy has taken 
some interest in politics, and has been offered several offices by his 
fellow-citi/.ens. He is a member of the Odd Fellows and Masonic 
organizations, and of the Methodist Protestant church. He is one of 
the prominent men of Fnfield, and enjoys the respect and esteem 
of its citizens. 

DR. WILLIAM D. McMILLEN, 

a leading physician of Magnolia, was born in New Hanover county, 
N. C, in a part now in Pindar county, in the year 1844. He received 



280 NORTH CAROLINA. 

his early education in the Wilmington schools and in the Bula mili- 
tary academy. On the secession of the state, in iS6i, he enlisted in 
the Papsail Rifles for one year and did service in coast defense. That 
company was disbanded in 1S62, and he then enlisted in the first bat- 
talion of artillery and served with that through the Virginia cam- 
paign. But in 1S63, he was transferred to the Fifty-first North 
Carolina infantry and served wath that regiment until the surrender 
in 1865, with Johnston's army. He was in the battles around Peters- 
burg, at Cold Harbor, and among others was wounded at Fort Har- 
rison by a shot through the left shoulder. After the close of the war 
he began the study of medicine under Dr. W. G. Thomas, with whom 
he remained one year. He entered the Maryland university in the 
latter part of 1867 and graduated from there in iS6g. In 1870, he be- 
gan practice in New Hanover count}' and remained there six j'ears; 
he then moved to New River where he remained five years, and then 
removed to Magnolia where he now resides. He is a member of the 
county medical society, of which he is president, and was for some 
time a member of the state society. He has never taken any active 
part in politics, but served as chairman of Onslow county democratic 
committee. He enjoj's an extensive and lucrative practice, and is 
highly esteemed by all who know him. 



JOHN B. BECKWITH, M. D., 

was born in Pasquotank count3% N. C, on the Sth of November, 1816, 
the son of Watrous and Susan E. (Bailey) Beckwith. The father 
was a native of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and came to North Carolina 
with his brother, Dr. John Beckwith, settling in Newbern in 1808. 
John engaged in the practice of medicine in his new home, where he 
married Miss Stanly, a sister of John Stanly. Subsequently, he re- 
moved to Raleigh, and in 1840 went to Petersburg, \'a., going thence 
to New York sometime later, he died in the latter state in 1870. He 
was the father of Bishop John W. Beckwith, of Georgia, and of Dr. 
Thomas Stanly Beckwith, of Petersburg, \"a. Watrous Beckwith 
was an eminent lawyer and legislator. He read law under the 
direction of a Mr. Martin, and in 1812 located in Smithfield, John- 
ston county, N. C. In 18 15 he removed to Elizabeth City, where he 
married. In 1829 Plymouth, Washington county, became his resi- 
dence, and his demise occurred at this place on the loth of April, 
1850. He was a prominent member of the whig party, and repre- 
sented his county in the house of representatives of North Carolina 
in I S3 1. His father was John Beckwith, who was born in Lyme, 
Conn., and later in life he removed to Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He was 
born April 17, 1752, and died -September 12, 1834. His wife, Chloe 
Bosworth Beckwith, was born at Washington, Conn., December 5, 
1759, and died October g, 1834, the same year as her husband. These 
parents had three sons: Dr. John Beckwith; Nathaniel, who died in 
1840, and Watrous, the father of our subject. The maiden name of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 28 I 

Susan E. Beckwith was Bailey, and she was a daughter of Mr. John 
Bailey, of Pasquotank county, l\. C. She was a devout member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, and was a woman of lovely Chris- 
tian character. She went to her eternal rest October 23, 1862. The 
six children born to her were: John B; Nathaniel, a prominent law- 
yer of Hyde county, N. C, he died October 30, 1886. In September, 
1849, he married Miss Mary Elizabeth Wynne, of Franklin county, 
and their children are: Watrous, Sidney, Stewart, Norma, who mar- 
ried Terr}' Welborn; Dr. James L. S. Beckwith, who died in Craven 
county, >Iarch 30, 1S66; he married Evelyn C. Clifton, of Johnston 
county, who bore hini these children: Dr. Roe B.; Bosworth C, a 
lawyer; Annie, wife of John Thaxton, and Miss Susan W. Thomas 
Beckwith died in Smithfield in 1863; he was a lawyer by profession, 
and during the Civil war served in Company I, Twenty-fourth North 
Carolina infantry; Henrietta J. Phelps, of Washington county, be- 
came his wife in 1856, and their children are: John Percy; Dr. 
Thomas L., born January 14, i860, and died in December, 1883; 
Chloe Ann, who died in 1847, aged nineteen years; Georgette, also 
deceased in early childhood. 

The immediate subject of this biographical mention is John B. 
Beckwith, M. D. Until his fourteenth year Dr. Beckwith remained 
in his native county. He was educated at Vine Hill academy, in 
Halifax county, and subsequently began the study of medicine under 
the tutelage of Prof. Eli (jeldings, in 1834. Entering the University 
of Maryland he was graduated from that institution in the class of 
1837, and in that year began the active practice of his chosen profes- 
sion in Wake county, N. C, but in 1841 he removed to Smithfield, 
and has since been prominently identified with the interests of that 
place, having won for himself a position in the front ranks of the 
medical profession of the state. He is a member of the state medical 
society, and also of the Johnston county medical association, he hav- 
ing been very active in the organization of the latter mentioned 
society, and its first president. Dr. Beckwith has given much atten- 
tion to agriculture, and is recognized as one of the most successful 
and progressive planters in the county. During the great struggle 
between the north and south, he remained true to the principles 
so dearly beloved by the "Southland," and was a commissioned 
surgeon in the Confederate service, and he was also aitpointed to 
look after the families of soldiers, to provide them with the necessities 
of life. He was first married in 1849, to Miss Annie G. Thompson, 
daughter of Rev. David Thompson, of Smithfield. One year later 
this estimable lady died. In i8",6. Miss Julia M. Sanders, a daughter 
of Major Ashley Sanders, of Johnston county, became his wife. In 
1859 death again entered this home, and terminated his happy 
domestic life, his wife having died in that year, leaving no issue. Dr. 
Beckwith is a valued member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
south, and has been a steward, and the superintendent of its Sabbath 
school, at Smithfield since 1855. 



282 NORTH CAROLINA. 



N. J. PITTMAN, M. D. 

Among North Carolina's most prominent physicians appears the 
name of N. J. Pittman, M. D., who was born in Halifax county, N. C, 
August . 9, 1818. His great-grandfather was an Englishman by 
birth, and settled in Virginia in 1650. John, Ambrose and Arthur 
Pittman removed to Halifax about 1776. Ambrose was the grand- 
father of our subject. His father fled to America from England, on 
account of the persecution of Oliver Cromwell, and became a planter 
and prominent man in the colonies. John Pittman, his son, and the 
father of N. J. Pittman, was born in Halifax county, N. C. He be- 
came a large planter and slaveowner. By his marriage to Miss Cath- 
erine Jones, of Halifax county, he had nine children. By a second 
marriage two children were born. The only surviving member of this 
family is Dr. Pittman. The latter received a thorough literary edu- 
cation, and for a time read law. Later his attention was turned to 
medicine, and in 1839 he received his diploma from the University of 
Pennsylvania. Until 1850 he was engaged in practice at the Falls of 
Tar river, when he decided to take a more e.xtended course in the 
medical schools of Europe. For two years he remained in Paris, then 
the city of sciences, and later pursued his studies at Berlin, and also 
gained an intimate knowledge in the schools of London. During his 
residence abroad Dr. Pittman became personally known to many of 
the great scientific men of the day. In 1853 he returned to his native 
country and resumed his practice at Tarboro, where he has since re- 
sided. In 1857 Dr. Pittman was elected president of the Edgecombe 
county medical society, and one year later was made president of the 
state medical association, he having been most active in the organ- 
ization of both these societies, and also as an organizer of the state 
medical board, of which he was the second president. He is a mem- 
ber of the Society of .Science, Letters and Art, of London, Eng., and 
has a very fine badge- which was presented him by the society. 

During the recent Civil strife, he cast his influence and service 
with the south, and served as a surgeon in Branch's brigade, having 
been captured with the Confederate forces that surrendered at New- 
bern. Erom 1866 to 1872, Dr. Pittman was a member of the state 
board of medical examiners; and in 1877, he presided as first vice- 
president of the National medical association, which met at Chicago, 
and in 1881, was a delegate to the International medical congress in 
London from the American medical and North Carolina medical 
societies; and in the same year was a delegate to the British medical 
association, which met at Ryde, Isle of Wight. This eminent gentle- 
man has contributed many valuable medical papers, the most impor- 
tant ones being on gynecology, of which he has made an especial 
study. At one time he was a corresponding member of the Tennes- 
see medical society. In addition to his professional work, he is also 
very extensively interested in agriculture and stock raising, and owns 
some 3000 acres of land in Edgecombe county; his large herds of 




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cy'^/- ^^-^^Cc.<-r ^c-'C^ -^ zO 




NORTH CAROLINA. 2S3 ■ 

Shropshire sheep, and Devon and Jersey cattle, are among the finest 
in the south, and have made their owner famous as a stock -raiser. 
Dr. Pittman is a stoclcholder in the Atlantic Coast Line railroad, and 
is a director in the Tarboro cotton mill, he having been very promi- 
nent in the organization of that company. Miss M. A. Pittman, a 
distant relative, became his wife in his early manhood, and bore him 
two children, one, Minerva, now surviving. By his marriage to Miss 
Mary Eliza, daughter of the late James S. Battle, of Edgecombe 
county two more children have been born, Eliza and Cornelia B., 
now deceased. He is a Master Mason and a senior warden in the 
Episcopal church. 

JOHN E. LOGAN, M. D., 

was born in Greensboro, X. C, July 14, 1S35. His education was re- 
ceived in the University of North Carolina, where he was graduated 
in 1857. He then entered Jefferson medical college at Philadelphia, 
and finished the course there in 1859. After a year spent in the hos- 
pitals of Philadelphia, Dr. Logan returned to Greensboro and entered 
upon his professional career. At the outbreak of the recent Rebel- 
lion he became the company surgeon of the Guilford Grays, an inde- 
pendent company organized in Guilford county, N. C, and in the fall 
of 1861 he was assigned to the Fourteenth North Carolina regiment 
of state troops as assistant surgeon, and during the latter part of the 
war acted as surgeon of the regiment. After the close of hostilities 
between north and south. Dr. Logan returned to Greensboro and re- 
sumed the practice of medicine, in which he has since met with suc- 
cess. In the year 1868 he was most fortunate in forming a marriage 
alliance with Miss Frances Mebane Sloan, daughter of Robert M. 
Sloan, of Greensboro. Dr. Logan is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity, and occupies a high place in the esteem of the community in 
which he lives. His father was John i\L Logan, who was born near 
Londonderry, in the county Londonderry, Ireland, in 1797, and came 
to the United States when twenty-one years old, settling in Guilford 
county, N. C. For many years he was a leading merchant of Greens- 
boro, and for a long period held the office of clerk of the county 
court, and was the incumbent of that position at the time of his de- 
mise in 1853. He was quite prominent in military circles, and held 
the commission of major-general in the North Carolina militia. In 
1829, Miss Elizabeth Ambler Strange, daughter of Robert Strange, 
of Bedford county, Va., became his wife, and to them were born four 
children, all of whom died in infancy, with the exception of John E. 
The mother of these children died in 1845. John M. Logan was the 
son of Alexander Logan, who was born in Ireland. He was an offi- 
cer in the British army. His father's name was also Alexander, and 
he was a native of Scotland. The maternal great-great-grandfather 
of Dr. J. E. Logan was Gen. Leftwitch, of Revolutionary fame. He 
was a Virginian. Bishop Early, the eminent Virginia clergyman, was 
a great-uncle of our subject, whose ancestors on both sides have been 
men of ability and note. 



284 NORTH CAROLINA. 



JAMES ELLIS MALONE, M. D., 

was born in De Soto count}-, Miss., November 19, 1S51. While he 
was still in his infancy his parents removed to Louisburg, N. C, and 
it was in the latter place that the boy was educated, having been a stu- 
dent in the excellent school taught by Mr. M. S. Davis. At the age 
of seventeen he went to Baltimore, Md., and remained for about a 
year. Returning to his home he took up the study of medicine under 
the tutelage^of his father. Dr. Ellis Malone, and in 1S72 entered 
Bellevue hospital medical college in New York city, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated in 1S75. From 1875 to 1S78, Dr. Malone was 
associated with his father in the practice of his profession. In iSgo 
he was appointed medical examiner for the Fourth congressional 
district to examine candidates for West Point. In i88g Gov. Fowle 
appointed him a delegate to the national sanitary convention held at 
Montgomery, Ala. Dr. Malone is a prominent member of the Frank- 
lin county medical society, and also of the farmers' alliance. His 
marriage to Miss Anna Richmond, daughter of Jones Fuller, of Louis- 
burg, N. C, was solemnized in 1S78, and five children are the offspring 
of the union, namely: Jones Fuller, Carrie Hill, Edward Hutchison, 
Mary Ellis and Anna Richmond Malone. Ellis Malone, M. D., father 
of the above mentioned, was born in Caswell county, N. C, Novem- 
ber 5, 1805, and cartie to Franklin county in 1853, having resided in 
Mississippi for seven years prior to that date. He was graduated 
from the Jefferson medical college at Philadelphia, and arose to great 
eminence. in his profession. At one time he was deputy grand master 
of the grand lodge of F. & A. M. of North Carolina. In addition to 
a large practice he owned extensive agricultural interests, both in 
Mississippi and North Carolina. He was twice married, his second 
wife having been Miss Martha Caroline Hill, to whom he was mar- 
ried in 1845. Their children were: Mary E. (deceased), wife of 
Edwin W. Fuller (deceased), a noted poet of Louisburg, N. C, who 
died April 22, 1877, and James Ellis Malone. The grandfather of 
these children was James Glencoe Malone, who was born in Pennsyl- 
vania and emigrated to Caswell county, N. C, in early life. He was 
a tobacco planter. Dr. James E. Malone has been prominently iden- 
tified with the advancement of the interests of Franklin county since 
entering upon the active duties of his professional career. In 1884 
he had the entire charge of the magnificent exhibit of Franklin county 
at the exposition held in Raleigh, and by his skillful management 
made his department a great success. 

DR. WILLIAM M. B. BROWN 

was a Virginian by birth. In early manhood he settled in Pitt county, 
N. C, with a Virginia colony, and died prior to the war of 181 2, leav- 
ing a large family of children. One of his sons was W^iley Brown, 
who was born in Pitt county. He was quite extensively interested in 



NORTH CAROLINA. 285 

agriculture. He married Xancy Moj-e, also a native of Pitt county. 
Wiley Brown died in 1867, his wife having preceded him to rest in 
1843. These parents reared five children to maturity, their names 
being, Wyatt Moye Brown, who was a physician, and from 1854 until 
1859, was an assistant surgeon in the United States navy. Resigning 
he engaged in practice of medicine in Greenville, N. C. At the out- 
break of the Civil war he offered his services to the navy of North 
Carolina, and was an active medical of^cer until the war ended. 
After the war he became a member of the commission house of Mar- 
maduke & Brown, and died in Macon, Miss., where he had married 
in 1863. The second child is Susan, wife of William M. Merritt, of 
Ridge Spring, S. C. Annie, wife of J. J. Thomas, of North Carolina, 
is the next, and Martha, who married S. B. Wilson, of Greenville, 
N. C, is the fourth. The eldest child is William M. B. Brown, M. D., 
who was born in Greenville, Pitt county, N. C, on the gth of October, 
1823. He received his education in the schools of his native state, 
and then began the study of medicine with Dr. E. H. Goelett, of 
Greenville. In 1S46 he was graduated from the medical department 
of the University of New York, and in the same year began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Pitt count}'. 

In 1854 Dr. Brown removed to Greenville, and has since been a resi- 
dent and practitioner of that town. As a democrat he is active and 
loyal. During the Civil war Dr. Brown rendered valuable assistance 
to the Confederate service by caring for the families of Confederate 
soldiers, and in other ways earnestly forwarded the cause. In con- 
nection with his professional duties he now operates a plantation. 
He married Miss Jane M. Greene, a daughter of Charles Greene, 
Esq., of Greenville, N. C, in 1854. This union has resulted in the 
birth of five sons and one daughter. Wyatt L. Brown is an insur- 
ance agent at Greenville; William is a member of the firm of Brown 
& Hooker, merchants of Greenville; Jennie, wife of L. V. Morrill, of 
Pitt county, N. C; Zeno Brown, M. D., educated at the Universityof 
North Carolina, and entering Bellevue hospital college, completed 
the medical course there in 1885, since which time he has practiced 
at Greenville; James and Wiley Brown are associated together in the 
mercantile business under the firm name of Brown Brothers. The 
family are active members of the Episcopal and Methodist churches. 

CHARLES JAMES O'HAGEN, M. D. 

Among the most eminent of North Carolina's many noted physi- 
cians we find the name of Charles James O'Hagen, M. D., of Green- 
ville, N. C. Dr. O'Hagen is an Irishman by birth, having been born 
in county Londonderry, Ireland, SeiJlemhcr 16, 182 1, the son of John P. 
and Martha lO'Kane) O'Hagen. The parents came to the United 
States in 1840, and settled in New York. The father was a gentle- 
man of rare refinement and ability. He was a literateur of consid- 
erable note, and for several years edited a paper in Irelaml.and after 
his removal to this country was in editorial charge of a leading Brook- 



286 NORTH CARULINA. 

lyn (N. Y.) journal. Dr. O'Hagen was educated in Londonderry, 
later at Belfast, and his scholastic training was completed at Trinity 
college, Dublin. In 1842 he joined his parents in America. It was 
his ambition to become a physician, but before jDroceeding further 
with his studies it was necessary for him to obtain money sufftcient 
to pay the expenses of a medical course. For some time he taught 
school in Lenoir, Greene and Pitt counties, N. C, and by that means 
managed to save enough to keep him while a student in the New 
York medical college. While engaged in teaching, Dr. O'Hagen had 
given every spare moment to the study of medicine, and consequently 
entered college under favorable circumstances. He was graduated 
from the New York medical college in 1855, and in the same year 
located at Greenville, N. C. 

In 1S61 he cast his fortunes with the cause of the Confederacy and 
offered his services to the army. He was made surgeon of the First 
North Carolina cavalry, subsequently being transferred to the Thirty- 
fifth infantry. Gen. Ransom's brigade, and served with that command 
until the final surrender at Appomatox. Surgeon O'Hagen 
fought in the battles of Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Richmond, 
Antietam, Drury's Bluff and Sharpsburg. The war closing, he re- 
sumed his practice at Greenville. He has been president of the state 
medical society, a member of the board of censors, is a member of 
the American medical association, and for two years served as presi- 
dent of the board of medical examiners of the state. Dr. O'Hagen 
has been twice married. In January, 1846, his marriage to Miss Eliza 
Forest, of Greene county, N. C, was solemnized. She died in 1871, 
leaving two children, viz.: Eliza, wife of J. J. Loughinghouse, of Pitt 
county, N. C; and Martha. ^liss Elmira Clarke, also of Pitt county, 
became his wife in 1877, and their union was blessed by the birth of 
one child, Charles James, Jr. Mrs. O'Hagen's demise occurred on the 
15th of November, i88g. As a democrat Dr. O'Hagen has been ac- 
tive and loyal at all times. He has been mayor of Greenville, and is a 
most enthusiastic supporter of the public school system. 

DR. J. D. GROOM 

was born in New Hanover county, N. C, December 22, 1844, the son 
of John B. and Mary (McDuffie) Croom, both North Carolinians. 
The father is an extensive planter, and has held the office of magis- 
trate for over thirty years. He served in the senior reserves of the 
Confederate army during the Civil war. His wife died in 1874, aged 
fifty-two. She was a life-long member of the Presbyterian church, 
and the influence of her life will be felt in the community in which 
she lived for good. These parents had ten children, nine of whom 
survive. J. D. Croom was educated in the private schools of his 
native county, and in the spring of 1S62 enlisted in the heavy artillery 
service of the Confederate army, being at the time of his enlistment 
but seventeen years of age. Most of his service was in North Caro- 
lina, but near the close of the conflict he was transferred with his 



NORTH CAROLINA. 287 

regiment to the department of Virginia. After a service of tliree 
years he surrendered with Johnston, having fought at Fort Anderson, 
Kinston, Bentonville, where he was wounded, and several otlier 
engagements of minor importance. After the final surrender he 
resumed his studies for a time, and then began the study of medicine. 
At this time, however, he was married to Miss Mortimer Blake, 
daughter of Isham Blake, of Fayetteville, N. C, the ceremony' hav- 
ing been solemnized September i, 1S6S. After completing his medi- 
cal course in the college of Physicians and Surgeons, at Baltimore, 
which institution he left in 1873, he embarked in the drug business at 
Maxton, N. C. In 1S75-6 Dr. Croom attended the lectures at the 
South Carolina medical college, and was graduated in the latter year. 
He is a prominent member of the state medical society, and has held 
the office of president of the North Carolina pharmaceutical asso- 
ciation, and has also served as a member of the board of aldermen 
of Maxton for several terms, and at the present time is a director in 
the Building & Loan association of Maxton. Jimmie M., Mary P., 
Robert I)., James D., and Arthur D., are the children that have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Croom. His wife is a communicant of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, while he is a deacon in the Presbyterian 
denomination, and he is also a Mason, is past chancellor of the K. of P., 
and is secretary of the lodge of Chosen Friends. 

H. W. McNATT, M. D., 

was born in Robeson comity, N. C, October 24, 1859, the son of 
Daniel and Carolina (Gillis) iMcNatt, who were both natives of the 
same state as their son. Daniel McXatt was an extensive turpentine 
operator, having been the largest in the south in 1872. He served 
three jears in the Confederate army, and surrendered with Gen. Lee 
at Apponiatox. having been a member of a cavalry company with 
whom he participated in most of the great battles of the Civil war. 
His death occurred December 25, 1885, in his sixty-first year. He 
was a devout member of the Presbyterian church, as is also his wife, 
who survives him. Three sons and two daughters were born to these 
parents, four of whom are living. II. W. McNatt obtained his pre- 
liminary schooling in the Jonesboro high school, then under the 
charge of Prof. J. D. Arnold. Entering the University of North 
Carolina, he took a partial course there, and in 1878 began the study 
of medicine with Dr. T. W. Harris. He attended lectures in Bellevue 
hospital college, in New York during the winter of 1879-80, and 
graduated from the medical department of the University of Mary- 
land in 1881. In April, 1881, Dr. McNatt began the practice of his 
profession at Maxton, N. C. He has rapidly risen in his profession, 
and is now acknowledged to be among the leading physicians in that 
portion of the state. He has been a medical examiner for the New 
York Life, Manhattan Life, and also the Connecticut Mutual Life 
Insurance companies, and since coming to Maxton has been a mem- 
ber of the town board of health. Miss Jessie McRea, a daughter of 



288 NORTH CAROLINA. 

John McRae, of Robeson county, became his wife October 31, iSSS. 
Dr. McNatt is a prominent member of several secret organizations, 
among them the K. of P., the K. of H., and the Masonic fraternity. 
Progressive and liberal, he is honored in the community not only for 
his professional skill, but also for his intelligent view of what consti- 
tutes good citizenship. 

W. B. HOUSTON, D. D. S., 

was born in Union county, N. C, on the 5th of March, 1862. He is a 
son of Mr. W. H Houston, who is likewise a native of Union county, 
and a leading stockdealer of Darlington, S. C. His marriage to Miss 
A. J. Stevens has been blessed by the birth of three children, whose 
names we give below: Annie, who is the wife of J. O. Muldrow, a 
resident of Darlington; D. Frank, a resident of Spartanburg, S. C, 
where he is superintendent of the city schools. Prof. Houston Is a 
graduate of the University of South Carolina, and for one yea,r was 
a member of the faculty of his abna mater; he is an educator of 
exceptional promise; and W. B. Houston. The latter was educated 
in the common schools, and was graduated from the dental depart- 
ment of Vanderbilt university in 1885, and at once began his profes- 
sional duties at Monroe, where he has since succeeded in building up 
an extended practice and a reputation second to none in that portion 
of the state. As a citizen he is progressive and liberal, and is inter- 
ested in every movement promising the uplifting of the community, 
and the enlargement of its industrial resources. Dr. Houston was 
most happily married in 1888, to Miss M. H. Fitzgerald, an accom- 
plished daughter of Mr. I. A. Fitzgerald, of Davidson county, N. C. 
Two children have been born to this union: Henry Addison and 
Annie Fitzgerald; the first named died February 12, i8qi, aged but 
nineteen months. Both Dr. and Mrs. Houston are active and con- 
sistent members of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. 

I. H. BLAIR, M. D., 

is one of ten children born to Joseph and Thirza (Hilton) Blair, na- 
tives of North and South Carolina, respectively. The father was a 
mill-wright by trade, but subsequently became a planter. He was a 
man of affairs, and was held in the highest esteem wherever known. 
Both himself and wife were devout members of the Presbyterian 
church. I. H. Blair was born in Lancaster county, S. C, July 5, 1833. 
He received a thorough academic education at the Franklin academy, 
Lancaster, S. C, and in March, 1S55, was graduated from the South 
Carolina medical college at Charleston, at once beginning the prac- 
tice of his chosen profession in Mecklenburg county, N. C, but after 
a short time he returned to Lancaster county, S. C, and for five years 
practiced there in partnership with Drs. Wylie and Strait. He then 
went to Jefferson, Chesterfield county, S. C., and in 1871 settled at 
Monroe, N. C, where he now resides. During the Civil war Dr. Blair 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2Sg 

served on the examining board of conscripts for the First congress- 
ional district of South Carolina, and later enlisted as a private in the 
state troops, being appointed regimental surgeon of Goodwin's regi- 
ment, and at the time of the final surrender he held that office, part 
of the time having served as brigade-surgeon. In 1855 Miss Laura 
McCullough became his wife, and bore him one child, Richard W. 
He graduated from the South Carolina medical college at Charles- 
ton, and was practicing at Walkerville, Union county, N. C, when 
death ended his career. He died August 16, 1878, aged twenty-three 
years; he was possessed of a brilliant mind, and gave great promise 
of a bright future. The mother died March 19, 1859. 

July 22, i860, Miss L. M. Miller, of Chesterfield, S. C, was joined 
in marriage to Dr. Blair, and six children are the offspring of the 
union, their names being: Joseph R., a successful lawyer of Troy, 
Montgomery county, N. C; John M., who graduated from the Louis- 
ville medical college, in 1S87, and is now associated with his father; 
Stephen O., a graduate of the Baltimore college of pharmacy, and 
now engaged in the drug business at Monroe. He married Miss Lot- 
tie Fitzgerald, daughter of Col. Fitzgerald, of Monroe, and Isaac H. 
is their child; Rochelle K., the fourth son of Dr. I. H. and L. M. 
Blair, who is a student in the Baltimore college of pharmacy; Mary M. 
and Jennie L., the two last mentioned being still of the home circle. 
Dr. and Mrs. Blair are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
south, as are also the two daughters. Dr. Blair is very prominent in 
several of the secret fraternities, being a member of the Masonic 
order, the I. O. O. F., the K. of H., and the American Legion of- 
Honor. He stands among the leaders of his profession in the state, 
and is a man of wide intelligence, and of the strictest integrity. 
Samuel Hilton, his great-grandfather on the maternal side, was a 
patriot soldier in the Revolutionary war, and during the Mexican 
war forty-seven of his immediate kinsmen fought in the United 
States army, all either bearing the name of Hilton, or being imme- 
diate descendants of that proud old connection. 

JOHN F. SHAFFNER, M. D. 

Among the most eminent of North Carolina's many distinguished 
phj'sicians appears the name of John F. Shaffner, M. D., who is a na- 
tive of Salem, Forsyth county, N. C, where he first saw the light on 
the 14th of July, 1838. He was given the best of educational facili- 
ties in the excellent public schools of his native town and with differ- 
ent private tutors. At the age of eighteen he began the study of 
medicine, and in 1S60 was graduated from Jefferson medical college. 
Returing to his home he had completed the first year of active prac- 
tice when the Civil war broke out, and in 1861 he enlisted in Com- 
pany F, Twenty-first regiment, North Carolina volunteer infantry, as 
a private. After one month's service he was transferred to the Sev- 
enth North Carolina regiment as assistant surgeon, and after three 
months was detailed on special duty at Manassas, where he remained 
B — 19 



290 NORTH CAROLINA. 

for about two months. He was then transferred to the Thirty-third 
regiment of North Carolina vohmteers as assistant surgeon, and in 
March, 1862, was commissioned surgeon, and detailed as inspector 
for North Carolina and Virginia. At this time the battle of Newbern 
was fought, and the surgeon of the Thirty-third regiment being cap- 
tured, Surgeon Shaffner was appointed to fill his place, and he re- 
mained with that regiment until April, 1863, acting as brigade 
surgeon. In the latter year and month he was transferred to the 
Fourth North Carolina, and remained with the Fourth regiment un- 
til the final surrender at Appomato.x, and his whole term of service 
was marked by complete devotion to his duty. 

After the cessation of hostilities, Dr. Shaffner returned to Salem 
and resumed his practice, and in 1867 established a drug business, 
which he still operates in connection with his practice. In 1865, in 
the month of February, his marriage to Miss Carrie L. Fries, daugh- 
ter of the late Francis Fries, was solemnized, and has resulted in the 
birth of five children, the four living ones being: Henry F., William, 
Carrie Lizette and John F. Shaffner, Jr. For seven years Dr. Shaff- 
ner satisfactorily filled the office of mayor of Salem, and for some 
time he was a member of the Forsyth county democratic executive 
committee. He is a prominent member of the state medical society, 
and for six years was a member of the state board of medical exam- 
iners. He is also a member of the American medical society, and in 
1872 was a delegate to the National convention for the North Caro- 
lina state society. In 187Q and iSSo he was president of the North 
Carolina state medical association, and for several years was director 
in the Northwestern North Carolina Railroad company. Henry 
Shaffner, the father of Dr. J. F. Shaffner, was born in Canton Basle, 
Switzerland, in the year 179S. He came to America in 1834, and 
located at Salem, N. C, where he assumed the management of the 
Salem Pottery company, and was at the head of that concern at the 
time of his death in 1877. He was twice married, his first wife hav- 
ing been Miss Lavinta Hauser, to whom he was married in 1835, and 
who bore him two children, the surviving one being John F. The wife 
and mother died in 1840. She was a daughter of Peter Hauser, who 
was a native of North Carolina. 

CHARLES J. WATKINS, D. D. S., 

one of the leading dentists of Forsyth county, N. C, was born in the 
latter county August 4, 1836. Until his twentj'-first year he was a 
student in the schools of his native county, and subsequently at Smith 
Grove academy in Davie county, N. C. He commenced his active 
career as a school teacher, and he was engaged in that calling in P'or- 
syth, Davie and Davidson counties until the breaking out of the 
Civil war. In 1862 he enlisted in the Sixteenth North Carolina bat- 
talion of cavalry, as a private, and was promoted to first-sergeant, and 
later to brigade forage sergeant, and he held the latter rank at the 
time of Lee's surrender at Appomatox. He served in the battles of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 29I 

Black and White's station, around Petersburg, and many other en- 
gagements, in all of which he bore himself as a true soldier and pat- 
riot. After the final surrender he turned his attention to the study of 
dental surgery, and in the fall of 1866 entered the old Pennsylvania 
dental college at Philadelphia, and graduated therefrom in 1868. He 
located at Kernersville, N. C, and was engaged in practice there 
until 1S73, when he removed to Winston, N. C, where he has since 
been most successfully engaged in his profession, residing in Salem. 
In 1873 Dr. Watkins married Miss Flora O. Conrad, daughter of J. J. 
Conrad, of Yadkin county, N. C, and their children are: Joseph C, 
William H. and Bessie. Dr. W'atkins is one of the oldest deacons of 
the First Baptist church of Winston. In church work he has been 
very prominent, and was instrumental in building that church, it being 
conceded by all that he did more in that direction than any other one 
man. He has also been very active in Sunday-school work, and for 
eighteen years has been connected with the same, having during that 
time, served as superintendent and teacher. In temperance work the 
doctor has always been prominent and active, he being a strong ad- 
vocate of prohibition in any shape or form. He is a member of the 
Masonic order. His father, Abel C. Watkins, was born in Guilford 
county, N. C, in iSoo, and spent his life as a planter. He was married 
in 1833, to Hannah Teague, daughter of Isaac Teague, of Davidson 
count}', N. C, and eleven children were born to them: Susan, wife of 
William Hasten; Rebecca, wife of Anselm Reid; Mary, wife of Will- 
iam Crews; Charles J., and Sarah, wife of Bennett Sprinkle, being 
the surviving members. The father died in 1872, and the mother in 
1866. Abel was the son of Josiah Watkins, who was born in Virginia, 
and came to North Carolina in early life. He was a successful 
farmer, and died in 1810. Dr. W^atkins was elected to the honorable 
position of first vice-president of the North Carolina dental associa- 
tion, which he held for two years. 

ROBAH F. GRAY, M. D. 

Among the leading physicians of Forsyth county, N. C, may be 
found the name of Robah F. Gray, M. D., of Winston. Dr. Gray was 
born December 24, 1852, in the city where he now resides. His edu- 
cation was begun in the schools of his native city, and continued in 
the Emory and Henry college of Virginia. After completing his 
junior year in the latter institution, he returned to Winston in 1S72 
and began the study of medicine with Dr. Keehlan, with whom he 
remained for two years, after which he accepted a position on the 
editorial staff of the IVcstcrii Sentinel, and for two years was engaged 
in editing that journal. At this time Dr. Gray entered the Louisville 
medical college, and was graduated therefrom in 1877. He then went 
to New York city, and in 1878 completed the course in the Bellevue 
medical college there. Once more returning to Winston, he opened 
an office and entered upon his professional career. I )uring the small- 
po.\ epidemic of 1882, he held the office of city health officer, and to 



292 NORTH CAROLINA 

his efficient service the community owes much. He has had marked 
success in his calling, and is ranked among the ablest physicians of 
the county. Dr. Gray was very fortunate in his marriage to Miss 
Lelia R. Wilson, an accomplished daughter of James H. Wilson, of 
Charlotte county, Va. Their union was solemnized in 1878, and has 
been blessed by the birth of six children, named as follows: May 
Belle, Eugene P., Robah F., Samuel W., Alice S. and George P. 
Robert Gray, the father of the above mentioned subject, was born in 
Randolph county, N. C., in 1814. He was given a good common 
schooling, and then engaged in the mercantile business in Gladesboro 
county, N. C, but in 1850 removed to Winston, N. C., where he estab- 
lished a mercantile house of large proportions. He was married in 
1842 to Miss Mary Millis Wiley, daughter of Mr. Wiley, of Guilford 
county, N. C., and their children are: Samuel W., was killed at 
Gettysburg while commanding Company D,' Fifty-seventh regiment, 
North Carolina volunteer infantry — held the rank of captain; Mar- 
tha E., wife of A. P. Gibson; James A., Robert T., Mary I., wife of 
Thomas Barber; Robah F., Eugene C, Emory S. and Willie T., col- 
onel of the Third regiment North Carolina state militia. The father 
died in 1881, but his wife still survives him. 

DR. JAMES L. RUCKER 

was born in 1S32, in Rutherford county, N. C. He was the third 
child of William and Lavinia Rucker. and his preliminary education 
was acquired at the schools of his native county. He read medicine 
with Dr. Calaway, at Rutherfordton, and then attended the medical 
school at Augusta, Ga., for a time, finally graduating with honors at 
the Medical college at Louisville, Ky. x^fter completing his medical 
education he began the practice of his profession at Morganton, Ga., 
where he soon worked up an extensive business. But not tarrying 
long there, he removed to Texas, where he practiced until the break- 
ing out of the Civil war. At this time he returned to his native home 
and entered the Confederate army in defense of his country. He 
served as surgeon throughout the war and made himself very useful to 
the soldiers under his medical charge, gaining their love and respect 
for his invaluable services to them. At the close of the war, at the 
earnest solicitation of his many friends, Dr. Rucker located himself at 
Rutherfordton, and began there the practice of his profession. He 
was not long in acquiring an extensive and lucrative practice which 
he successfully prosecuted until his death, which occurred March 13, 
1884. His loss to the community in which he moved, both profession- 
ally and socially, was a sad blow and left a void which could not be 
readily filled. Politically, Dr. Rucker was an ardent and thorough 
going democrat, but he took no prominent action in partisan strifes, 
being strictly devoted to his profession. 

Soon after the close of the war Dr. Rucker was united in marriage 
with Miss Fanning, daughter of Rev. F. M. Fanning, of Asheville, 
N. C. The fruit of this marriage was the birth of two children, Will- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2Q3 

iam Fanning and Myra Lavinia, both of whom survive. Dr. Rucker 
was one of the most prominent members of the Masonic fraternity in 
western North CaroUna, having filled all the chairs in that organiza- 
tion. He lived up to the high principles and maxims of the order, 
standing upon the broad platform of its charitable and religious 
teachings. He was not a Mason simply in name, wearing its insignia 
for display and knowing its mysteries for selfish ends, but he was a 
Mason in its grander and more unselfish spirit, and he was univer- 
sally respected by all members of the order who enjoyed the privi- 
lege of his acquaintance. 

JOHN MILLER CRATON, M. D., 

was born at Rutherfordton, X. C. March 9, 1823. He is the eldest 
son of Isaac and Elizabeth Craton, both deceased. The home schools 
furnished young Craton his preliminary education, and at the age of 
si.xteen he went to Gainesville, Ga., where for two years he was en- 
gaged in a dry goods store. He read medicine one year with Dr. 
Banks, at that time one of the best physicians in Georgia. From 
Gainesville Mr. Craton went to Charleston, S. C, where in 1843 he 
entered the medical college. Here he attended two full courses of 
lectures, graduating in 1845. Dr. Craton then came to Cleveland 
county, N. C, and began the practice of medicine in company with 
his uncle. Dr. W. J. T. Miller. Here he remained one year and then 
removed to his native town and formed a co-partnership with Dr. 
Calloway, the firm continuing from 1846 to 185 1, in the medical prac 
tice. At this time Dr. Craton was seized with a desire to locate in 
some other state, and to this end made an extended tour through 
Georgia and Alabama in search of a desirable location. But his 
search was unavailing, and he returned to Rutherfordton and, in 
185 1, settled permanently in the practice of his profession, where he 
has doubtles secured the most extensive practice of any physician in 
western North Carolina. Notwithstanding his devotion to his pro- 
fession. Dr. Craton has not neglected the material interests of his city 
and county; he is public spirited and has liberally contributed of his 
means and efforts for the public improvement. In politics he has 
never taken an active part, though repeatedly solicited to represent 
his county in the state legislature. He is a thorough democrat and 
has always been identified with that party. In his religious views he 
is a devout Methodist, having been associated with that church for 
more than thirty years. 

April 8, 1S47, Dr. Craton was united in marriage at .Syracuse, N. Y., 
with Miss Margaret Williams, daughter of Dr. Williams, of that cit}', 
and granddaughter of Judge Forman, formerl}' of New York, but 
later of Rutherfordton. Judge Forman was the founder of Syracuse 
and was a prime mover in the construction of the Eric canal. Nine 
children have been born to Dr. and Mrs. Craton, whose names are 
respectively as follows: Mrs. Carrie Ciuthrie, Mrs. Alice Simpson, 
John Williams, Marshall, at present practicing medicine atCarroIton, 



294 NORTH CAROLIXA. 

Mo.; Mrs. Maggie Sevier, of Spartanburg; Mrs. Florence Dixon, of 
Florence, S. C; S. Boyce, physician at Syracuse, N. Y.; Mrs. Hattie 
Chapman, of Spartanburg; Mary Willie Craton. Doctor and Mrs. 
Craton are a most amiable couple and one only has to visit their 
home to find the very ideal of generous hospitality and true but 
unostentatious politeness. Dr. Craton has exercised great care and 
liberality in the education of his family. 



DR. JOHN McENTIRE 

was born in Burke county, N. C, in 1791. He was the youngest son 
of James McEntire who came from Ireland to the United States at 
an early day. John McEntire spent his early days in Morgantown, 
N. C. He chose the medical profession for his life work and attended 
two terms of medical lectures at Charleston, S. C,, after which he 
completed his studies at Philadelphia. His medical training being 
perfected, he located at Rutherfordton, and began the practice of his 
profession. In those early cfays his territory was extensive, reaching 
south as far as the South Carolina line. The result of his wide prac- 
tice was the accumulation of a large fortune, but in 1830 failing health 
compelled him to retire from his laborious practice. About this date 
he was elected to the legislature in which he served his state with 
great dignity and efficiency, and with great credit to himself. Dur- 
ing his legislative career he made the acquaintance of Miss Mary 
Jane Lancaster, of Franklin county, daughter of Rev. William Lan- 
caster, a prominent Baptist divine. The acquaintance ripened Into 
an engagement, and Dr. McEntire and Miss Lancaster were mar- 
ried in 1832. The young wife of that period still survives her husband 
at the ripe age of ninety-two years, with a mind fresh and unimpaired 
by the lapse of this unusual extension of her physical and intellectual 
faculties. She is still remarkable sprightly for a lad}' of her years 
and the charm and vivacit}' of her mind are in keeping with this 
physical healthfulness and strength. She is the honored mother of 
two sons. William T., and John J., both of whom were gallant 
soldiers in the Confederate army, and both of whom bore marks 
of their valor in the shape of honorable wounds. The eldest son 
died of his wounds a sacrifice to his patriotism and chivalr}'. Mrs. 
McEntire was also the mother of Mrs. Martha Ann Morris, who is 
still living in Rutherfordton; of Mrs. Jane Eliza Shotwell, whose 
heroic husband fell in the engagement around Richmond; and of 
Mrs. Laura Eugenia Hicks, wife of Dr. Hicks of Rutherfordton. 
William Thomas McEntire left two daughters, who since his death 
have married. Dr. McEntire died in December, 1856. He was 
greatly beloved by all who knew him, and his days were spent in 
rendering himself useful to the community in which he lived. In all 
his acts he was charitable, and humane and the memory of his noble 
characteristics and of his exemplary life is a perpetual solace to his 
well preserved and lovable surviving widow. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 295 



THE WARD FAMILY 

has furnished the prominent physicians of Washington county, N.C., 
for four generations. The first of the name to settle in North Car- 
olina was Francis Ward, an Englishman, who was the first register of 
deeds and of colonists under the Earl of Granville, in Tyrell county, 
and Ward's Bridge, his home, was named for him. Francis Ward, Sr., 
was the first of the family to practice medicine in Plymouth. His 
son was named for him, and followed in his father's footsteps as a 
physician. He was born at Ward's Bridge and received a collegiate 
education. For many years he was the leading practitioner of Ply- 
mouth. For one term he served in the state senate, and in 1832 was 
a presidential elector, having cast his vote for Andrew Jackson. 
W. W. Ward, M. D., was his son and successor in the medical pro- 
fession. He was born in Martin county, at Ward's Bridge, in 1817, 
and was educated in the schools of that county. He attended lec- 
tures at the University of Pennsylvania, and was graduated from the 
University of Maryland in 1847. In the same year he began his prac- 
tice at Plymouth. During the late war Dr. Ward served as surgeon 
in the Confederate States army until discharged for deafness. His 
reputation as a physician was well known in the eastern part of the 
state, and his name was known throughout the state. He was a 
prominent Mason, and a communicant of the Episcopal church, and 
his political faith was founded on the principles of the republican 
party. His death occurred in 1879. His wife, Alexina Boyle 
Ward, is a native of Petersburgh, Va., and still survives him. But 
two of their seven children are living, viz.: Johnson G., of Philadel- 
phia, Penn., and William H. Ward, M. D. The latter was born in 
Plymouth, N. C, on the 3rd of January, 1857. His education was ob- 
tained in the schools of his native city and at Buckhorn academy. 
He read medicine under the tutelage of his distinguished father, and 
was graduated from the University of Maryland in 18S1. Dr. Ward 
is a member of the state medical society, of the I. O. O. F. lodge 
No. 528, and also of the Knights of Honor and Masons. As a 
democrat he is active and loyal, and is now county physician, and 
for several years held the office of United States pension surgeon. 
He was married in 1SS3 to Miss Jessie M., daughter of Maj. A. F. 
Garrett, of Washington county, N. C. Dr. Ward is a member of the 
Episcopal church. 

CHARLES E. MOORE, M. D., 

of Wilson county, N. C, is a native of Edgecombe county, N. C, 
where he was born on the loth of June, 1854. His parents were 
Moses and P2sther (Peel) Moore. Moses Moore was a prominent and 
influential planter of Edgecombe county, which he left in 1855 to take 
up his residence in Nash county. He continued in agriculture there 
up to the time of his death in 1890. As a democrat he was active 



2g6 NORTH CAROLINA. 

and efficient, and served as a member of the board of county com- 
missioners for several terms. During tlie Civil war he served in the 
Confederate army for some time, subsequently furnishing a substitute. 
His widow still survives him, being a resident of Nash county. Both 
became identified with the Primitive Baptist church in e^irly life. Of 
the five children born to them, three are living, viz.: W. H. Moore, 
of Nash county, N. C; Charles E. and R. M. Moore. The latter is 
a leading planter of Nash county. Charles E. Moore obtained his 
scholastic training in the public schools of Edgecombe and Wilson 
counties, and also under the instruction of private tutors. His medical 
education was begun under the direction of Dr. N. J. Pittman, of 
Tarboro, N. C, and was completed in the Bellevue medical college, 
of New York, from which institution he was graduated with the class 
of 1S75. Dr. Moore practiced in Nash county until March, 18S6, when 
he removed to Wilson, where he has since resided and practiced. As 
a physician he has won an enviable reputation, and is a prominent 
member of the state and Wilson county medical societies. He is a 
progressive and valued citizen, and is deepl}^ interested in public 
affairs as a democrat. For the past few j'ears he has been quite ex- 
tensively interested in agriculture, and now operates a large planta- 
tion. Dr. Moore was very happily married in 1878, to Miss Minnie R. 
Taylor, a daughter of K. C. Taylor, Esq., of Nash county, N. C.and 
five children have blessed their union, their names being: Charles E., 
Jr., Thomas H., Karl C, Clyde and Elsie Moore. 

DR. JOHN K. RUFFIN. 

Hon. Thomas Ruffin was descended from one of the oldest families 
of the south. The connection has furnished many eminent pro- 
fessional men, among whom may be found several judges of unusual 
distinction. Thomas Ruffin was born in King and Queen county, 
Va. He was prepared for college at Warrenton, N. C, and subse- 
quently graduated from Princeton college. Having chosen the law 
as his life work, he settled in Orange county, N. C, and rapidly rose 
to the front ranks of the bar in the state. For several terms he was 
a member of the house of representatives of the state, and was a 
judge of the superior court. Although able and dignified at all 
times, the crowning work of his life was accomplished as chief-justice 
of the supreme court of North Carolina. After filling that honored 
position for many years, he retired at last with ermine unspotted, 
and a name of wide-spread prominence as a wise and able judge. 
His many decisions are remarkable for their clearness and soundness. 
This distinguished gentleman was born November 17th, 1787, and 
died in 1870. He was a prominent democrat, and was particularly 
interested in agriculture, having been at one time president of the 
State Agricultural F"air association. By his marriage to Miss Anne M. 
Kirkland fourteen children were born, six of whom survive. The 
mother died in 1875. Thomas Ruffin was the son of Sterling Ruffin, 
a Virginian by birth. Late in life he settled in Caswell county, N. C, 




^ff- 



,.^c^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2Q7 

where he labored as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He married Miss Alice Roane. Anne, wife of Paul Cam- 
eron, of Hillsboro, Orange county, N. C; Sterling, of the same 
county; Peter B., also a resident of Orange county, where he is sec- 
retary and treasurer of the N. C. R. R.; Jane M. Ruffin, of Norfolk, 
Va.; Martha P. Rutfin, of New York city; and John K. Rutfin, M. D., 
are the surviving children born to Thomas and Anne Ruffin. 

The immediate subject of this sketch is John K. Rufhn, M. D., 
who was born in Orange county, N. C, March 6, 1834. His scholas- 
tic training was obtained at Bingham's school and the University of 
North Carolina, where he was graduated in 1S54. Dr. James E. Will- 
iamson, of Caswell county, became his preceptor in the study of 
medicine, and in 1857 he completed the medical course of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. At this time Dr. Ruffin entered upon his 
professional career at Graham, Alamance county, N. C, moving from 
there to Washington in Beaufort county, later on. As surgeon of the 
Forty-ninth North Carolina regiment he served through the entire 
Civil war with fidelity and efficiency. After the declaration of peace 
between north and south he resumed his practice at Graham, and in 
1876 came to Wilson, where he has since practiced, being now the 
oldest practitioner of the town. Dr. Ruffin is a prominent member 
of the state medical society, and also of the Wilson county medical 
association, and is a member of the Royal Arch chapter of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. He has taken interest in public affairs as a staunch 
democrat, and is the present coroner of Wilson county. His mar- 
riage to Miss Sally E. Tayloe, a daughter of Col. Joshua Tayloe, of 
Washington, N. C, in 1858, resulted in the birth of the following 
named children: Kate R., who married Abram Sydnor, of Halifa.x 
county, \'a.: Sally T., Anne C, wife of William Sims, of Halifax 
county, Va.; David T., a resident of Fort Townsend, Wash., where 
he conducts a successful drug business; Sterling, a clerk in the United 
States treasury department at Washington chy, and M. D. by profes- 
sion, practicing in Washington, D. C, at present; Mary. Thomas and 
George' M. The mother died in 1883. Dr. Rutfin was married a sec- 
ond time, March 3, 1886, Miss Nina W. Ruffin, of Franklin county, 
N. C, becoming his wife. She died May 12, 1891. Dr. Ruffin is rec- 
ognized as one of the ablest physicians of the state. Thomas Ruffin, 
a brother of the above mentioned subject, was a brilliant lawyer. 
His death occurred at his residence in Orange county, N. C. For 
several years he was solicitor of the Fifth district. During the Civil 
war he served as captain of the Alamance Grays, and left the service 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. As an associate-justice of the 
state supreme bench he ably represented the honored famil\- name. 

WILLIAM J. JONES, M. D., 

was born in Greene county, N. C, February 15. 1838. His jiarents were 
W^iley and Winifred lEdmundson) Jones, who were born in the same 
county as their son. Wiley Jones was an extensive planter, owning 



290 NORTH CAROLINA. 

many slaves. William J. Jones was given every educational advan- 
tage. His early training was received in Franklin institute, and in 
1855 he became a student in the otTice of L. Jeffries, M. D., of Frank- 
lin county. Subsequently he entered the medical department of the 
University of V^irginia, and in March 1858, was graduated from the 
University of New York. By competitive examination he obtained a 
position in Bellevue hospital, New York, and served there for four- 
teen months as resident physician. He then returned to North Car- 
olina and entered upon the active practice of his profession at Snow 
Hill, in his native county, where for twentj'-four years he resided and 
practiced with great success. In 1884, he removed to Goldsboro, and 
has since built up one of the most extensive practices in the county.- 
Since 1859 he has been a member of the state medical society, and 
has served as vice-president of the same. He is also a member of 
the American medical association, and also of the Masonic fraternity. 
Dr. Jones has not confined his active life exclusively to ttie medical 
profession, but for some years has carried on extensive agricultural 
interests in Jones and Greene counties. In 1864 he married Miss 
Clara E. Ernull, of Craven county, and three children have been 
born to them. Their names being as follows: William J., Jr., now a 
student at the University of New York; Wiley Street, attending the 
University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill; and Henry Spicer 
Jones, who resides at home with his parents. 

GEORGE L. KIRBY, M. D., 

a leading physician and surgeon of Wayne county, N. C, was born in 
Sampson county, N. C, near Clinton, on July 1 1, 1834, the son of Will- 
iam and Elizabeth (Cromartie) Kirby. The mother was a descend- 
ant of the Cromartie who settled in Bladen county, on the South 
river. William Kirby, grandfather of our subject, moved from South- 
ampton county, Va., of which county he was a native, in 1800, and 
settled near Clinton, N. C, where he owned a large estate. His en- 
tire property, including many slaves, was lost during the recent war. 
The father of our present subject settled near Clinton, where he 
engaged in farming, and both himself and wife remained on the farm 
until their death. Dr. George L. Kirby was given a thorough pre- 
liminary education in the Clinton academy, then presided over by 
John G. Elliott. He entered the medical department of the Univer- 
sity of New York, and where he completed a course in i860, and was 
graduated from the Long Island hospital college. He then studied 
for one year in Paris, having returned at the breaking out of the war. 
He was the second man to volunteer his services from his native 
county, and joined Capt. Marsh's company, known as the Sampson 
Rangers. The company was sent to Smithfield for duty, and he was 
appointed assistant surgeon and assigned to the Second North Caro- 
lina regiment, then stationed at Garysburg under Surgeon J. B. 
Hughes. Dr. Hughes subsequently resigned and Dr. Kirby was then 
made surgeon of the regiment, and held that office until December, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 299 

1S64, when he was relieved from field duty and assigned to hospital 
work, and was ordered to establish a hospital at Wytheville, \'a. 

Dr. Kirby was with his regiment in the battles of Mechanicsville, 
Cold Harbor, Malvern Hill; and the regiment then being transferred 
to " Stonewall "Jackson's division, he participated in the battles of Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Spottsylvania C. H., .second Cold Har- 
bor, Cedar Creek, Winchester, South Mountain, Antietam and Kelly's 
Ford, where he was captured and sent to Fort McHenry and con- 
fined there for several months. In June, 1865, Dr. Kirby was dis- 
charged from further hospital duty at Wytheville, and in August of 
that year came to Goldsboro and entered upon the practice which 
has since proven so honorable to him. On the 7th of June, 1S66, he 
was happily married to Miss Mary C. Green, daughter of John A. 
Green, one of the oldest citizens of Goldsboro. For six years Dr. 
Kirby was a member of the North Carolina state examining board, 
and for twelve years was coroner of Wayne county, and he is now a 
member of the state medical society. A prominent member of the 
Masonic order, he has always been a loyal democrat, and is recognized 
as one of the most skillful physicians in the county. He 'brought to 
his life work a mind well prepared for serious action. His excep- 
tional educational advantages were made the most of, and with native 
ability to grasp them his professional career has proven a success. 

ALEXANDER W. ROWLAND. 

A leading business man of Wilson county, X. C, is Alexander W. 
Rowland, whose birth occurred in Granville county, N. C. March ry, 
i84[. He is the eldest son of Horace H. and Martha \V. Rowland, 
natives of Granville county. His mother was a daughter of the late 
Isham Cheatham, who was one of the most influential citizens of the 
county. Henry Rowland, the father of Horace H., was born in Gran- 
ville county, where he was an extensive planter for many years. Mr. 
H. H. Rowland's death occurred in May, 18S6, his wife surviving him 
until January, i88g. Both were devout and beloved members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, south, and died in the sweet confidence 
of their Saviour. Their children are, Alexander, William B., who 
died in 1S60; Benjamin W., of Tyler, Tex., who is a prominent drug- 
gist and president of the Tyler water works; Edwin S., of the same 
city; Isham C, of Henderson, N. C; Horace H., president of the 
Tyler (Texas) t'lrst National bank; and Parry W., of Tjler. Alex- 
ander Rowland was educated in the schools of his native county, and 
at the Henderson military institute, while his brothers were all edu- 
cated at Wake Forest college. The Granville Grays was the first 
company, to offer its services to the cause of the south from Granville 
county, and we find Mr. Rowland a member of that company from 
the first. After serving eighteen months in this company he was 
transferred to the Fifth North Carolina cavalry. He proved a loyal 
and valiant soldier and was in the engagements at Hanover C. H., 
Mechanicsville, Cold Harbor, Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill, while in 



300 NORTH CAROLINA. 

infantry. In the latter engagement all the commissioned officers 
having been wounded, he led his company, and in that engagement 
was twice wounded. He was in nearl}' all the important engagements 
in Virginia and Maryland, and at the battle of South Mountain was 
taken prisoner and confined for two months in Fort Delaware. 

After the close of the war he engaged in the drug business at 
Henderson, N. C, as a member of the firm of Cheatham, Andrews 
& Co. In 1870 his business was burned out, and in the fall of that 
year he removed to Wilson, where he has from that time conducted 
the most extensive drug business of the town. In all his business 
ventures he has been eminentl}' successful. Democratic in politics, 
he takes a deep interest in public affairs, and was a member of the 
democratic executive committee of his county. Mr. Rowland was 
happily married in 1869, to Miss Elizabeth A. Speed, daughter of 
Rufus K. Speed, of Gates county, N. C, who for a number of years 
was a member of the state senate. Mrs. Rowland died in 1884. She, 
as is her husband, was a devoted communicant of the Episcopal 
church, of which he is a vestryman. Mr. Rowland is also a member 
of the state pharmaceutical association, having been one of its found- 
ers, and at one time president of the organization. He is also a 
member of the North Carolina board of pharmacy. 

DR. WILLIAM GEORGE THOMAS 

was born in Louisburg, N. C, March 2^, 1818, and died in Wilming- 
ton on the i8th of February, 1890. He received a common school 
education at Louisburg, and entered upon the study of medicine in 
the office of Dr. Wiley Perry, Louisburg. He graduated in 1840 at 
the University of Pennsylvania, at the time when that splended old 
school had for its faculty George B. Wood as professor of materia 
medica and therapeutics, Nathan Chapman as professor of practice, 
William Gibson as professor of surger}', Robert Rogers professor of 
chemistry, and Hodge as professor of obstetrics. Impressed with 
the dignity of his career, inspired by the zeal of his teachers, with a 
native fund of energy, a strong brain, and an overwhelming sense of 
honor, he entered upon his profession in his native state at Tar- 
boro. There were two things specially which seemed to pre- 
dominate among the early objects of his study — the deep impression 
that he must pursue the investigation of climatic diseases, and so 
supply the lack of knowledge dwelt on by his professor of materia 
medica and therapeutics, and the neglected study of obstetrics and 
diseases of women. He did not neglect other branches of his pro- 
fession, but in these he was assiduous, and in these he excelled. 
When the writer first obtained personal knowledge of Dr. Thomas 
(1852) he learned that he was considered an innovator, and his inno- 
vation largely consisted in the boldness with which he used quinine, 
venturing upon five-grain doses twoor three hours apart in the period 
of intermission and remission, and his boldness in the use of obstet- 
rical forceps. These may seem now to be slight things, but climatic 



NORTH CAROLINA. 3OI 

fevers were then treated with such small closes of quinine as are now 
known to be trivial, and the obstetric forceps, when constituting the 
outfit of the phj-sician, was a reserve power, so sacredly held, and so 
exceptional!)' employed, that it was an obsolete instrument. 

Dr. Thomas came to Wilmington from Tarboro in 1850. He 
was then thirty-two years of age, with a handsome face, a kindly 
expression, marked physical vigor, attractive as a horseback rider (in 
which waj' he then principally visited his patients), and he at once 
took a place in the community. At the bedside his manner was re- 
assuring, pleasant, painstaking, sympathetic. The good of the 
sufferer was the object of his visit, and the friends of the patient were 
won by his persistent attention to the smaller details in his behalf. 

When the call was made for a medical convention for the purpose 
of forming a state medical society, Dr. Thomas responded and be- 
came one of the original members. His attachment to the society 
was for work, and this distinguished his membership. He was made 
secretary in 1856, and continued in this office until 1867, during which 
time he was the moving spirit in the society. Once he was chosen 
its president, but with his accustomed magnanimity he declined in 
favor of a friend, and he continued to plod on for years for the 
future welfare of the society. It was onh' after the lapse of our 
Civil war, during which time there had been a suspension of the active 
life of the society, that he consented to be its president. He presided 
in Tarboro, where he had spent his early j^ears, and where he 
was married in 1S43. Doubtless it was a proud day for him, for he 
received an ovation at the hands of his old friends. The society was 
then small, but not feeble, although not much given to literary con- 
tributions. Dr. Thomas' address was well worthy of the occasion, 
indicating his freshness and vigor of professional practice, and his 
knowledge of the scientific current, but his misgivings about his 
literary ability induced him to withhold his address, and no amount 
of persuasion could induce him to allow it to be printed. 

Dr. Thomas was always a worker. He was willing that his friends, 
especially his worthy juniors, should have society promotions; his 
sole ambition was to see the great undertakings of the profession, 
especially the board of examiners, established upon a sure founda- 
tion. His contributions to the literature of medicine are very few, 
his only lengthy paper being an account of the yellow fever epidemic 
as it occurred in Wilmington in 1862, in reply to a paper on the same 
subject by Dr. E. A. Anderson. When the yellow fever epidemic 
occurred in Wilmington in 1S62 Dr. Thomas had already been in 
practice here twelve years. It was an ordeal through which none of 
the resident physicians had ever passed. In the very earliest of it 
Dr. James H. Dickson had died. Dr. Thomas was taken sick and 
went to his old home in Louisburg, to recruit, where he had a relapse. 
From this attack he seemed to have passed from the middle to old 
age by one bound, so feeble was his health for years after, and then 
he reached a new stage of his life marked by ripened vigor of body 
and brain. 



302 NORTH CAROLINA. 

Among the pioneers in gynecology Dr. Thomas must be rightly num- 
bered. Before Marion Sims had enunciated the methods which formed 
the foundation of this branch of surgery, he had been working in the 
same direction, and had actually applied the wire suture for the closure 
of a vesico-vaginal fistula, bringing the local blacksmith into requisition 
to devise for him a duck-bill speculum; but at the earliest day after 
Sims had fully demonstrated his processes, Dr. Thomas became a dili- 
gent gynecologist, laboring assiduously with patience and zeal among 
the patients who had already been attracted by his skill. He was a 
most earnest patriot. When the alarm of war was sounded and the 
clash was inevitable, he put all his energies in the preparation of the 
men for the field, and hafl it not been for the overwhelming weight 
of his duty to the sick at home he would have gone to the field. As 
it was, though, he spent all he had in the fortunes of the Confederacy, 
beginning the world anew in 1S65, with very little more than his pro- 
fession, but he bravely conquered all difficulties, having always a full 
practice. Indeed, so large was his practice that he had little time for 
any reading but the current medical journals, but in the line of peri- 
odical literature he always had the best and in abundance, and for 
this reason he may be said never to have been an old doctor. The 
newest and the bSst he always mastered, and you could always find 
at the bedside of his patients the most recent of the reputable remedies. 
His juniors found that in consultation he had no obstinate bias for 
the obsolete therapeutic legacies of the good old times, nor was he 
under the dominion of the last book he read, but he preserved that 
intellectual aplomb which made him equal to the task before him. 
His marked characteristics were truth and moral courage. His stead- 
fastness for God's revealed Word and for the right made it always 
sure on which side of every important question he could be found. 
Exceeding the time allotted to man, maintaining his vigor of body 
and of mind to the last, in him was fulfilled the Scripture, " Thou 
shalt come to thy grave in a full age like as a shock of corn cometh in 
in his season." 

SAMUEL SWANN. 

The most commanding figure in Colonial days in North Carolina 
was Speaker Sam Swann. He was the son of Major Sam Swann, by his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Gov. Eillington. William Swann, the 
grandfather of Major Swann, settled Swann's Point, opposite James- 
town, Va., of which city he had been alderman, and died there in 1638. 
Major Swann's first wife was Sarah, a daughter of Gov. Drummond, 
first governor of Carolina. After her death he married, 1694, Elizabeth 
Lillington, and had two daughters, Sarah, who married Col. Thomas 
Jones; Elizabeth, who married John Baptista Ashe; and two sons, 
John and Sam. Major Swann died in 1707, and his widow married 
Col. Maurice Moore, in 1713. The subject of this sketch was born 
October 31, 1704, and came to manhood under the training of Col. 
Moore and Edward Moseley. He became a practical surveyor, and 



NORTH CAROLINA. 3O3 

ran the dividing line between North Carolina and X'irginia in 1729, 
being the first white man to cross Dismal Swamp. He was elected 
to represent Perquimans county in the assemblj' of 1725, and contin- 
ued a member of that body for forty j-ears. In 1731 he removed to 
Swann's Point, below Rocky Point, where his uncle, Edward Moseley, 
who thirty-five years had been the leader of the popular party, ab- 
dicated the speaker's chair, Sam. Swann, in 1742, succeeded to the 
position. He occupied the chair until 1762, when he retired, and his 
nephew, John Ashe, succeeded him. In 1746 he was appointed, with 
Moseley, to revise the laws, and the first book published in the colony 
was Swann's Revisal " Yellow Jacket." He was a lawyer of learning, 
and as speaker and the head of the party opposed to the prerogatives 
claimed by the governors as representativfes of the crown, he gave 
direction to the affairs of the province. He e.xalted the speaker's 
oftice, and wielded an influence superior to that of the roj'al gover- 
nors. The struggle he successfully maintained against attempted 
encroachments upon the liberties of the people entitle him to the ad- 
miration of posterity. Gov. Johnston constantl)' referred to him as the 
head of the republican junto, bent on engrossing the executive power 
of the crown. Retiring from the assembly in 1762, he continued to 
practice law until his death in 1772. He married Miss Mildred Lj'on, 
and left several daughters and one son, Major Sam Swann, an officer 
of the Revolution, who some years after the war was killed in a duel 
with Mr. Bradley, at Wilmington, N. C. 



GEN. SAM ASHE, 

the youngest son of John Baptista Ashe, was born in 1725; was edu- 
cated at the north, studied law with his uncle, Sam Swann, was an 
active participant in all measures in opposition to the crown, and was 
a leader in the extreme democratic wing of our public men. He was 
conspicuous in every movement for indeijendcnce. He was a member 
of the congress of 1775, and of the provincial council of thirteen (of 
which he was chosen president), to whom was committed the 
administration when congress was not in session, was a member of 
the committee that framed the constitution, and was speaker of the 
first senate held under the constitution, and by that assembly was 
elected presiding judge of the supreme court, which position he held 
for eighteen years. This court was the first in America to refuse to 
obey a legislative act, on the ground of unconstitutionality. In after 
years Judge Haywood said, " For this Judge Ashe deserves the 
gratitude of his country and posterity." He resigned his judicial of- 
fice in 1795, to accept that of governor, to which he was thrice elected. 
He warmly advocated democratic principles, opposed the ratification 
of the Federal constitution until it was amended, and was a leader of 
the opposition to the federal party. He died at Rocky Point, in 
1813, at the age of eighty-eight years. He married first ^lary Porter, 
a granddaughter of Col. Maurice Moore, and had by her two sons. 



304 NORTH CAROLINA. 

John Baptista, and Sam; and after her death married Mrs. Elizabeth 
Merrick and had one son, Thomas. 

His son, John Baptista Ashe, was born at Rocky Point in 1748; was 
at the battle of Alamance in 1771, and at the battle of Morris' creek 
in February, 1776; was appointed a captain in the Sixth Continentals 
in April, 1776; major, January, 1777, and lieutenant-colonel in Novem- 
ber, 1778. He served with credit throughout the war, and particularly 
distinguished himself at the bloody battle of Eutaw Springs, in 1781. 
He sat in the house of commons for Halifax from 17S4-86, being 
speaker of that body; was a member of the last congress of the Con- 
federation; was a member of the state senate of 1789, and a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1789, that ratified the Federal 
constitution. As chairman of the committee of the whole, he pre- 
sided over all the deliberations of that body during the discussion of 
the instrument. He had opposed the adoption of the constitution 
without amendments, and like his father and brother-in-law, Willie 
Jones, was strongly imbued with the spirit of democracy. At the first 
election for members of congress, he was chosen to that body, and 
was re-elected in 1791. He again represented Halifax in the assem- 
bly of 1795, but then retired from public life. Three 3'ears after his 
father retired from the office of governor, he himself was elected, but 
after signifying his acceptance, he died in November, 1S02, before en- 
tering upon the office. He married Miss Montfort, of Halifax, and 
resided there. He left one son, Samuel Porter Ashe, whose descend- 
ants live in Tennessee. 

Samuel Ashe, the second son of Gov. Ashe, was born in 1763, en- 
tered the Continental service at the age of sixteen, served two cam- 
paigns at the north, was taken prisoner at Charleston, ^nd when 
exchanged served with La Fayette in Virginia and then with Gen. 
Greene in South Carolina until the end of the war. He was greatly 
revered for his lofty character and noble virtues. He married Eliza- 
beth Shepperd, of Hillsboro, and raised a large family. To give his 
daughters the highest educational advantages, he maintained a resi- 
dence for them at Bordentown, N. J. His sons were: Samuel, John 
Baptista, a member of congress from Tennessee, and then a resident 
of Texas, William Shepperd, Thomas Henry and Dr. Richard Porter 
Ashe. The latter served in the Mexican war and settled in San 
Francisco, Cal., where his family still resides. 

William S. Ashe was educated at Trinity college, Connecticut; 
studied law; was a planter; was often in the state legislature from 
New Hanover county; was a member of congress from 1849 to 1855; 
was president of the Wilmington & Weldon railroad from 1854 to 
1862, when he was killed by an accident on that road. He was a 
strong democrat — a man of great capacity and high character. At 
the beginning of the war in 1S61 he was appointed major and quarter- 
master, and was placed in control of all the transportation over rail- 
road lines from New Orleans to Richmond. In 1862 he was com- 
missioned colonel with authority to raise a legion of artillery, cavalry 
and infantry, but soon afterward, September, 1862, was killed. He 




y^ ^. ^:^j4^i^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 305 

married Sarah Green, and left several daughters and two sons, 
John Grange Ashe, who attained the rank of major during the war 
of 1860-5: ajid left two sons in Texas, and Samuel A. Ashe, of 
Raleigh, X. C., who was educated at the naval school; studied history 
and law until the war began; entered the service in April, 1S61; be- 
came a private in Company I, Eighteenth North Carolina regiment; 
was appointed in regular army of the Confederate States; served at 
Charleston in the spring of 186::; was captain and adjutant-general 
of Pender's brigade in the summer of 1862; was captured after the 
second battle of Manassas; when exchanged was assigned to duty 
with Clingman's brigade at the south; was assigned to duty at bat- 
tery Wagner as ordnance officer during its siege, and then ordered 
to Fayetteville, where he remained as assistant to the commanding 
officer of the arsenal of construction until the end of the war; studied 
law after the war; located at Wilmington; represented New Han- 
over county in the assembly of 1870, the sole democratic representa- 
tion from the count}- for twenty years. He married Miss Hannah 
Willard, of Raleigh, in 1S71. and located in Raleigh, where he formed 
a law partnership with Hon. A. S. Merrimon, now chief-justice of the 
state, and Col. T. C. Fuller, now judge of the United States land 
court of claims, which continued for seven years, when he, in 1879, 
purchased the Odscrz'crnewApaper and entered journalism. The next 
year the AvaVT was consolidated with the Observer, he remaining the 
editor. Mr. Ashe has always been interested in politics, and was for 
many years a memberof the state executive committee, of which atone 
time he was chairman. He was appointed postmaster of Raleigh by 
President Cleveland. He has found time to indulge a fondness for 
books, and has for twenty years been an original investigator in 
North Carolina history. 

THOMAS S. ASHE, 

.A prominent and worthy descendantof Gov. Sam .'\she, through his 
son Thomas, whose descendants are scattered throughout the south, 
was Thomas Samuel Ashe, who was born in Orange county, June, 
1812. • He graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1832, 
sharing the first honors with Senator Thomas L. Clingman and Hon. 
James C. Dobbin, secretary of the navy. He studied law under 
Chief-Justice Ruffin, and located at Wadesboro. In 1842 he was 
elected to the house of commons as a whig; and in 1854 to the state 
senate. He was long a solicitor for his judicial district. During the 
war he was a representative from his district in the Confederate con- 
gress, and was, without his knowledge, elected to the senate of the 
Confederate states. In 1868 he was nominated by the democrats for 
governor of North Carolina, but was beaten by Gov. Holden. He 
was elected to the United States congress in 1872, and again in 1874. 
"No member of either party stood higher in the house, for integrity, 
intelligence and fidelity to the constitution." He was a member of 
the judiciary committee, and was one of the committee of three ex- 
ij— 20 



306 NORTH CAROLINA. 

amining Hon. James G. Blaine about the Credit Mobilier and Mul- 
ligan letters when Mr. Blaine's illness stopped the proceedings. In 
1878 he was elected to the supreme court of North Carolina, and 
again in 1886. He was one of the eminent men of his generation and 
was universally esteemed in North Carolina. He died February 4, 
1887. He married early in life Caroline Burgwin, and left several 
daughters and one son, Samuel S. Ashe. 



JOHN BAPTISTA ASHE. 

A gentleman, many years ago, referring to " notices of the Ashe 
family printed in 1710," wrote "that in the mother country for sev- 
eral generations they were the strenuous opponents of arbitrary power, 
and were not only actors, but sufferers in the paternal and also in the 
maternal line." " A gentleman of this family compelled to sell his 
estate in Wiltshire, England, by the pecuniary embarrassments, in 
which an excess of zeal had involved him, migrated to South Caro- 
lina at an early period in the history of that province. Thence one 
of his sons removed to North Carolina, whose character and abilities 
made him a prominent member of that colony, and from that time to 
the year 1814 the name of Ashe was always conspicuous either in the 
forum, the senate or the field, and in the highest offices of the state." 
In the long parliament that maintained the liberties of England 
against the arbitrary power of Charles the First, were two brothers, 
John and Sam Ashe, of Wiltshire. In the next generation a scion ot 
that family, John Ashe, settled in South Carolina, where he became 
an influential member of the assembly. WHien the bigoted Lord 
Granville sought to oppress the dissenters of Carolina, Ashe was 
selected by the principal inhabitants of South Carolina to represent 
their grievances to the crown. While at Charleston to take shipping, 
his opponents raised a riot against him that lasted five days, and he 
was under the necessity of making his way through the wilderness to 
Albemarle. He was resolute, bold and high-spirited. The mild 
Quaker, Archdale, said that he did not seem well qualified for the 
work — " not that he wanted wit — but temper." His loft}' spirit. could 
not tolerate with patience attempted oppression. Arriving at London, 
he drew up "The Representation," but died in 1703 before it was all 
printed, " not without suspicion of foul play." Defoe, the novelist, 
then took the work up and published his pamphlet, " Oppression in 
Carolina," and the train was laid that finally led to the downfall of 
proprietary rule. 

A son of this John Ashe. John Baptista Ashe, was in the Albe- 
marle settlement in 1719, and in that year married Elizabeth Swann, 
daughter of Col. Sam Swann, and granddaughter of Maj. Alexander 
Lillington, and by this marriage became closely connected with Mose- 
ley, Moore, Porter and the other leaders of the popular party in 
North Carolina. When Gov. Burrington first came to the colony, he 
tells us that having known several members of Mr. Ashe's family in 



NORTH CAROLINA. 307 

England, he made him his friend. Burrington, at that time co-oper- 
ated with the popular party, and Ashe was speaker of the assembly 
in 1725, wh-ich remonstrated against Burrington's removal. When 
Burrington returned as the first royal governor in 1731, he brought a 
commission for Ashe as one of his council, hoping for his aid; but 
Ashe opposed all measures to extend the prerogative of the crown, 
and organized the council against the governor and defeated his 
measures even in that body, despite the fact that his kinsman, Ed- 
\\:ard Ashe, was one of the lords of the board of trade, having the 
affairs of the colony in charge. Great animosity sprang up between 
them, and the defeated governor had Ashe illegally thrown into 
prison; but the representations of Ashe and Rice, the attorney-gen- 
eral, papers of marked ability, resulted in the speedy removal of the 
governor. Ashe died in 1734, and was buried on his plantation, 
Grovely, near old Brunswick, whither he had removed in 1727. He 
left two sons, John and Sam, and a daughter Mary. The latter mar- 
ried George Moore, of the Cape Fear. 



GEN. JOHN ASHE, 

the oldest son of John Baptista Ashe, was born on the Albemarle, 
in 1720. His parents dying while he was still a boy, he was reared to 
manhood by his guardian, Sam Swann. He inherited a large estate, 
received a liberal and thorough education, possessed a fine library; 
was an orator, a soldier and a statesman. " He struck the chords of 
passion with a master hand. His words roused the soul like the roll 
of a drum or the roar of artilery at the commencement of an action." 
" Mr. Sam Strudwith, who had mingled in the fashionable and politi- 
cal circles of London, declared that there were not four men in Lon- 
don superior in intellect to John Ashe," and that at a time when Pitt, 
Burke and their brilliant associates adorned British annals. He early 
entered the assembly and soon became the most influential member 
of the body on the floor. He was one of the committee on corres- 
pondence, was denounced as early as 1758 for his republicanism by 
Gov. Johnston, who habitually wrote of Ashe, Swann and their asso- 
ciates, as the republican junta. He succeeded his uncle, Sam Swann, in 
the chair in 1762, and as speaker, warned Gov. Tryon, in 1765, that 
the people would resist the stamp act " unto blood." He was a direc- 
tor chosen bj- the people, in the military movement, in I*ebruary, 
1766, forcing the British war vessels in port and the crown officers to 
disregard the stamp act and release the vessels they had seized for 
violating that law. On the repeal of that law, a wave of loyalty 
swept over the country, and the new assembly was on better terms 
with the governor. John Harvey succeeded Ashe in the chair, but 
later he was elected treasurer of the southern district notwithstand- 
ing Tryon's opposition. In the regulation troubles, he actively sus- 
tained the government of the province against the anarchy threat- 
ened by the regulators, and was a major-general in Tryon's army. 



308 NORTH CAROLINA. 

In 1773 he was one of the committee of correspondence in regard 
to British oppression, and was ever among tlie foremost patriots in 
the colon}'. Acting on the idea suggested b}' Speaker Harvey, in 
1774, he caused the notices to be sent out by the Wilmington commit- 
tee for the election of delegates to a provincial congress, the first 
revolutionary legislative body elected by any colony, in July, 1775, 
at the head of 500 men, he took possession of Fort Johnson, and in 
the presence of the British vessels, burned it to the ground. He had 
been an aide to Col. Innis in the Indian war, and solicited the com- 
mand of the first Continental regiment, but this being bestowed, by a 
majority of one vote, on his brother-in-law, Gen. James Moore, he 
raised troops at his private expense, and participated gallantly in the 
campaign against the tories in February, 1776. In April, 1776, he 
was appointed brigadier-general of the Wilmington district, and was 
in command of the 7,000 troops assembled on the Cape Fear to 
meet the forces under Gen. Clinton should they attempt to penetrate 
the interior. He continued to serve as a member of the congress, 
and was an advocate of ultra democratic principles. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee that framed the state constitution in December, 
1776. In 1778 he was major-general and marched that winter to the 
aid of Gen. Lincoln on the Savannah river. He drove the enemy 
from Augusta, and followed them down the river, on the west side, 
until he reached the confluence of Briar creek, which protected his 
front. Called to consult with Lincoln and Rutherford, whose forces 
lay further down on the east side of the river, he returned to camp 
to find the enemy was active; and he sent out parties to obtain intel- 
ligence, and made dispositions to resist an attack. At three o'clock 
the next evening, March 2, 1779, the enemy approached from the 
north. Ashe advanced a quarter of a mile to meet them, his force 
being about 600. His militia did not stand the fire of the British reg- 
ulars, and soon fled to the swamp, the British capturing 162 privates 
and 24 officers. The terms for which these men were enlisted expired a 
month later, and the}' returned to North Carolina. Gen. Ashe 
was afterward treasurer of the 'southern district. Maj. Craig occu- 
pied Wilmington, in January, 1781, and sent out scouting parties to 
subdue the country. He held as prisoners, under sentence of death, 
two of Gen. Ashe's sons, Maj. Samuel Ashe, of the Continental light 
horse, and William, a mere boy. Later he contrived to capture the 
general himself. During his confinement Gen. Ashe contracted the 
small-pox, and was eventually paroled only to die. He expired dur- 
ing the month of October, 1 781, at Col. Sampson's in Sampson county. 
Early in life Gen. Ashe was married to Miss Mary Moore, a 
daughter of Col. Maurice Moore, and a sister of Gen. James Moore, 
by whom he had Samuel Ashe, a major of light horse in the Conti- 
nental army, who served with Washington at the north; John Ashe, 
who was captain in the Fourth Continentals, A'Court and William. 
His sons left no issue. Among the descendants of his daughters the 
following have attained distinction: Gov. Joseph Alston, of South 
Carolina, who married Theodoria Burr; William H. Wright, of the 




^^ Jd: 16 dk 



NORTH CAROLINA. 309 

engineers; Griffith J. McRee, and Samuel Hall, judge of the supreme 
court of Georgia. 

GOV. HOLT. 

While North Carolina maj- well be proud of her statesmen and 
her soldiers, and freel}' acknowledge her indebtedness to them, yet 
she is equall}' indebted to those captains of industry' who have put in 
operation the spindle and the shuttle within her borders. And 
among these none deserve more the thanks of the state than the 
famil}' of the Holts. They have done much more to develop the 
manufacturing of cotton, with its attendant industries and incidental 
business, than any other family in North Carolina. They were pio- 
neers and leaders in this enterprise, and the force of their successful 
example has been of inestimable advantage to the people of their na- 
tive state. 

Edwin M. Holt, the father of Gov. Thomas M. Holt, established 
the first cotton factory in central North Carolina, and some time be- 
fore the war he operated another factory on Haw river. Here Gov. 
Holt entered actively into the milling business, and from that nucleus 
has been developed by his skill and superb management, one of the 
largest manufacturing interests of the south. While nineteen mills 
have been built in Alamance county, in a large number of which the 
Holts and their connections are interested, Gov. Holt himself, in his 
celebrated Plaid mills, operates nearly 9,000 spindles and about 450 
looms, and gives employment to 500 hands. His father, Mr. Edwin M. 
Holt, was one of the most estimable citizens of the state. By pru- 
dent management of his farms and milling interests he amassed a 
large fortune which was carefully invested. His home was famed for 
its hospitality, and he enjoj^ed the respect and confidence of all the 
business men of North Carolina. He married Emily Farrish, a 
daughter of Thomas and Fannie Banks Farrish, by whom he had a 
large family of children. 

Thomas M. Holt, a son of this union, was born July 15, 1831, in 
that part of Old Orange county, which has since been set off into 
Alamance county. He was prepared for college at Caldwell institute, 
Hillsboro, and when eighteen years of age, entered the University of 
North Carolina. But without finishing his course at the college, he 
left and spent a year in the mercantile business in Philadelphia, learn- 
ing there the practical part of the business of manufacturing. So 
thoroughly did h(! master these details that when twenty years of age 
his father took him for an assistant, and soon began to lean on his 
judgment and confide in his skill and management. When only 
twenty-one years of age he was honored by an appointment by the 
legislature as a magistrate, and served as chairman of the board of 
finance of Alamance county. In 1S72 he was elected chairman of the 
board of county commissioners and served for four years. 1 lis kindly 
disposition, his unswerving integrity, his courteous demeanor and 
neighborly interest in the people of his county, nearly every one of 



3IO NORTH CAROLINA. 

whom he has long known personally, have made him very popular, and 
he has never been brought forward for office without receiving not 
only the full strength of his party, but many votes from others. In 
1876 he was elected state senator, receiving 650 more votes than any 
candidate for that office had ever obtained. In the senate, his ser- 
vices were highly useful to the state. He had been a director in the 
N. C. R. R., in which the state had an interest of $3,000,000, since 
1869, and was elected president of the company in 1875. He was also 
largely interested in agriculture anci was president of the North Car- 
olina agricultural society for twelve years. His varied experience 
and ripe judgment and sterling character made him one of the most 
influential senators. He labored successfully for the establishment of 
the agricultural department, and was, by virtue of his position as pres- 
ident of the agricultural society, made a member of the board con- 
trolling it. 

In 1S83 he was returned to the house of representatives; and again 
in 1885, when the house, in recognition of his eminent fitness and pat- 
riotic services, chose him for speaker. He was a member of the 
house again in 1887, and at the succeeding election was called by the 
people to the office of lieutenant-governor, and as such, he presided 
over the deliberations of the senate. As a member on the floor of 
the assembly, he had been able, efficient and practical; and as a pre- 
siding officer he was fair and impartial, courteous towards all and a 
wise administrator of the rules. During the period of his legislative 
service he won the confidence of the whole state, and when on the 
8th day of x^pril, i8gi, he was called to the executive chair, 011 the 
sudden death of Gov. Fowle, the people were entirely satisfied that 
the affairs of state were in good hands, and that the duties of that 
high office would be discharged with ability, intelligence and a lofty 
patriotism. For sixteen years he had administered the affairs of the 
North Carolina railroad, as its president, with zeal and good judg- 
ment, and he laid down that office on becoming governor, with the 
consciousness that all of his acts had met public approval. 

As we have said, for thirteen years he was president of the North 
Carolina state agricultural society, and he contributed not only his 
time, but also his money, to make that institution worthy of the state. 
A practical farmer, well versed in agriculture, and successful in the 
business, he used every exertion to utilize our state fairs for develop- 
ing our agricultural resources and stimulating the people to advanced 
methods of culture. With liberal views, always seeking improvement, 
he kept abreast with the progress in farming, just as he has done 
in his milling operations, and he has presented an example that the 
intelligent farmers of the state can follow with advantage. But not- 
withstanding all of the varied duties that have claimed his attention, 
his chief interest has ever centered in his cotton factories. At Haw 
river he has so enlarged his fine mill, that he has had to erect about 
150 buildings, for his employes, and for the purposes connected with 
his business. In addition he has there a five-story flour mill, a large 
mercantile establishment, and he has erected an attractive church 



NORTH CAROLINA. 3II 

edifice for the benefit of the community. On the opposite side of the 
river, spreading themselves over a gradually ascending eminence lie 
his princely premises — one of the finest country residences in the 
state, where nature and art are combined to illustrate the taste and 
elegance of a cultured family. But it is at Linwood, his splendid 
plantation on the North Carolina road, that Gov. Holt finds his 
greatest pleasure. There his fine stock, and his beautiful fields yield 
their increase and delight the eye of the practiced farmer. 

In October, 1S55, Gov. Holt was happily married to Louisa, the 
accomplished daughter of Samuel and Alar}' A. Bethel Moore. To 
them have been born five children: Charles T. Holt, Cora M., who 
married Dr. E. Chanibers Laird, of Virginia; Dazie M., who married 
Alfred W. Haywood, one of the most skillful lawyers of Raleigh; 
Ella X., who married Charles Bruce Wright, of Wilmington, but now 
a'resident of Raleigh; and Thomas M. Holt, Jr. Although his resi- 
dence has been the seat of elegant hospitality, and Gov. Holt's large 
business interests have occupied him very closely, yet he has always 
found time to attend to other duties. He has participated actively 
on the stump in nearly every caiiipaign, and not content with liberal 
giving, has devoted his time and talents to the promotion of party 
weal. He is also a Royal Arch Mason; and he has faithfully dis- 
charged his religious duties. For thirty years he has been a consist- 
ent member of the Presbyterian church, and for many years he has 
been an elder in that denomination. Indeed, in all the relations of 
life he has been foremost. His honesty is proverbial; his dealings 
are always fair and just; and in his friendships he is constant and 
unwavering. He never deviates from lofty principles, and North 
Carolina has no more patriotic son than this eminent citizen. 

DONALD W. BAIN. 

The Bain family of which the present treasurer of North Caro- 
lina is a descendant, is of Scotch origin, and traces its lineage to the 
early part of the eighteenth century. Among the relatives have been 
some of the most distinguished men of the United States, of which 
the single name of Adams is enough to pronounce. Donald Bain 
was born near the city of Glasgow, Scotland, whence he came to 
America about the close of the war for independence. He settled 
near Wilmington, in North Carolina, and there in 1785, he was mar- 
ried to Frances Eliza Hall. Providence favored them with five chil- 
dren, of whom William T., was one, born in Bladen county, N. C, 
November, 179,^. William- T. Bain was educated principally at the 
famous Bingham school, the founder of that institution being his 
teacher, and for a while after reaching manhood, was engaged in 
teaching school. He was for a long series of years, one of the most 
distinguished Masons of the state. From 1836 to his death in 1867, 
he occupied the position of secretary of the Masonic Grand Lodge 
of North Carolina, excepting a short interval of four years. His wife 
was Martha A., daughterof Green Hill, who bore him a family of six 



312 NORTH CAROLINA. 

children, five of whom are now living, viz.: Elizabeth F., wife of the 
late Andrew J. Partin, of Petersburg, Va.; Mary A., wife of B. L. Bit- 
ting, of Forsyth county, N. C; Donald W. Bain, of Raleigh, N. C; 
Julia G., of Raleigh; Thomas H., of Germanton, Stokes county, 
N. C. Donald W. Bain was born in Raleigh, N. C, April 2, 1841. 
His educational training was secured in the schools of his native 
place, and in the high schools at South Lowell and Pittsboro. Upon 
leaving school in 1857, he entered the office of the comptroller of 
state and remained there until April, 1865. In July of the same year 
he was appointed chief clerk of the state treasury department by 
Jonathan Worth, provisional treasurer. Mr. Bain continued in that 
capacity until January, 1885, at which time he assumed the duties of 
state treasurer, to which he had been elected in November preced- 
ing. In the fall of 18S8 he was elected to the second term of four 
years, which will expire in January, 1893. His administration of the 
state's fii>ances has been satisfactory to the public and gratifying to 
his friends. After having spent a great part of his lifetime in the of- 
fice over which he now presides, it was but a fitting tribute to his pro- 
bity and uprightness, his fidelity and energy, when his fellow citizens 
called him by their suffrage to discharge the responsible duties of 
this high office. In 1879 he was chosen as one of the commisioners to 
adjust and renew the bonds issued by the state, on account of the 
North Carolina railroad. 

Like his father, Mr. Bain is an ardent member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and has devoted much of his time and talents to that emi- 
nent order, whose foundation goes back to the dawn of authentic 
history. In February, 1867, he was appointed to succeed his father 
in the office of grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of North Car- 
olina, and from that time to this he has discharged the duties of that 
honorable place. He is also secretary of the Grand Royal Arch 
chapter and recorder of the Grand Council. For the two terms of 
1885 to 1887 he was grand commander of the Knights Templar for 
'the state of North Carolina. As a member of the Scottish Rite he 
has been the recipient of thirty-two degrees, thus testifying that he 
is held in high esteem by all branches of this ancient and respected 
order. Mr. Bain is also a conspicuous figure in the circles of Odd 
Fellowship. January 26, 1865, he was married to Adelaide V. Hill, a 
daughter of the late Dr. William G. Hill, of Raleigh. To this union 
have been born four children, of whom these three are now living: 
William H., Ernest B. and Adelaide V. Mr. Bain's paternal ances- 
trj' was of French extraction, and belonged to that sect known as 
Huguenots, the persecution of which in -France . has handed them 
down to history as the most cruelly treated people which the annals 
of intolerance bear. When in 1598, Henry the IV'. of France issued his 
famous edict of Nantes, it secured to this unhappy class a release 
from persecution for nearly a century. But when, in 1685, Lguis the 
XIV. revoked this edict the work of hate again commenced. 
France was on that account speedily abandoned by many thousands 
of her best and most industrious citizens. x'\ large number of these 



' NORTH CAROLINA. 3I3 

found their way to America where, with their knowledge of the arts 
and their habits of sobriety and industry, they soon became an im- 
portant factor of the population. It was from this class that Fran- 
ces E. Hall, Mr. Bain's paternal grandmother, descended. Mr. Bain 
has been for many years a leading member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church, south. 

GOV. EDWARD B. DUDLEY. 

This gentleman, so distinguished in the annals North Carolina, 
was born in Onslow county, N. C. His first appearance in public 
life was as a member of the state legislature from his native county, 
in 181 1-13. Removing to Wilmington shortly after the expiration of 
his term of service he made that town his home, and in i8i6-'i7, and 
again in 1834, he was the representative of that ancient borough in 
the general assembly of the state. In 1829 he was elected to the con- 
gress of the United States, from the Cape Fear district, but served 
one term only, positively refusing a re-election, and giving as a rea- 
son for his refusal, that he did not think congress a fit place for any 
man who wanted to be honest. What a striking contrast between his 
action and the devious and tortuous paths now so generally pursued 
in this progressive age, by those ambitious of political preferment, it 
is refreshing to note it, and to note also how much more highly he 
prized his integrity and self-respect than all the allurements of official 
station. He identified himself with the cause of internal improve- 
ments in North Carolina, giving to it his time, his talents and his 
wealth. He was the active and ardent friend of that great work, the 
Wilmington & Weldon railroad, and was the largest individual sub- 
scriber to Its stock. He was the first president of the company, and 
did more, perhaps, than any one man to secure its completion. In all 
of its difficulties and embarrassments, he was its staunch friend, and 
while others desponded and almost despaired, he never lost faith in 
its ultimate triumph, and he lived to witness in its successful opera- 
tion the gratifying results of his practical sagacity. 

When the constitution of North Carolina was amended by the 
convention held in 1835, among other changes made, the election of 
governor, which prior to that time had been made by the legislature, 
was given to the people. The democratic party was in the ascendent 
in the state, and the gwbernatorial chair was filled by Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, a democrat who had served one term and who had been 
nominated by his party for re-election. The ojjposition with remark- 
able unanimity centered upon Edward B. Dudley as their leader in 
the contest for that elevated position, and without any action on his 
part to secure it, he was nominated and elected, being the first gover- 
nor of North Carolina ever chosen to that office by the direct vote of 
the people. His administration of the duties of his high office was 
so satisfactory that at the e.xpiration of his first term there was no 
organized opposition to his re-election, a comi^liment, creditable alike 
to a faithful i)ul)lic servant antl to the jjeoph^ who thus showed their 



314 NORTH CAROLINA. 

appreciation of his character and pubHc services. When his second 
term expired he returned to his home in Wihnington, where lie con- 
tinued to reside until his death, in October, 1855. 

Gov. Dudley was no ordinary man, for despite the defects of his 
early education he rose to distinction by his natural abilities and force 
of character. Nature had been kind to him, had given him a com- 
manding- presence, a vigorous intellect, and that faculty which grasps 
as it were by intuition, the salient points of a subject when presented 
for consideration, and a judgment that seldom erred in its conclu- 
sions. He was a man of liberal and enlarged views, of a genial dis- 
position and generous impulses, and of spotless integrit}'. He could 
not tolerate prevarication or deceit, for he was one of the most sin- 
cere of men, and never hesitated to express what he thought, not 
offensively but with firmness, and with a dignitj' of manner that 
commanded respect. He was frank and manly in his intercourse 
with the world, could not have practiced deceit if his life had de- 
pended on it, and abhorred it in others. His ample fortune enabled 
him to dispense a profuse hospitality and in which he greatly 
delighted, for in administering to the pleasures or happiness of others 
he was but obeying the promptings of his heart and giving expres- 
sion to the kindly feelings of his nature. His purse was always open 
at the call of charity, and merit, it mattered not hov,' humble or ob- 
scure it might be, was promptly recognized and generously assisted. 
He sleeps his last sleep in the beautiful cemetery near Wilmington, 
one of the most beautiful in the south, and tender affection has 
erected a massive monument over his remains in commemoration of 
his virtues and noble qualities. North Carolina has had few more 
worthy sons than Edward B. Dudley. 

HON. JOHN POOL. 

This distinguished man was born in Pasquotank county, N. C, 
June 16, 1826, and died in the city of Washington, August 16, 1884. 
He was fifty-eight years and two months old. He was born on a 
plantation near Elizabeth City, and reared there until he entered the 
University of North Carolina, where he graduated second in the dis- 
tinguished class of 1S47. The same year he was admitted to the bar, 
and commenced the practice in his native county, in Elizabeth City. 
He soon went to the front, at a bar renowned for its learning and 
eloquence. Such men as Ruffin, Badgers, Pearson, and Stanly, emi- 
nent in the state and nation, had to be encountered. It is no small 
honor that he won his reputation at such a period. But the forum 
was not the field on which he was to achieve his chief success. He 
entered early the domain of politics and statesmanship. His high 
mental endowments forbade his occupying a secondary place. It was 
impossible for him to breathe the air of mediocrity, he was by nature 
destined to tread the ice-clad ranges of jurisprudence. Indeed the 
practice of his profession, the conflict of procuring testimony, and the 
struggle to select juries influenced by particular interests, were dis- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 315 

tasteful. The subjects involved in political life were more congenial. 
He naturally drifted into that channel. He entered the tield at the 
most intense period in the conquest over slavery, and after his own 
state had passed entirely over to the ranks of the slave interest. 
Largely interested in that institution, he never regarded it as divine 
or entitled to the reverence of the American people. This became 
the controlling political question in the south. It appeared upon the 
hustings, in the press, in the pulpit, and in all the avenues of social 
life. The intense feeling had grown with the deepen-'ng interests in 
the extension of the institution over new territory. The growth of the 
free states demanded for free labor the new teritor}-, and the disad- 
vantages and crime of slavery had made a deep impression in the 
north. Gradually these two forces were dividing upon geographical 
lines, until the year 1820 introduced the Missouri struggle. The set- 
tlement of this question was but a drawn battle. The conflict in no 
respect abated. The admission of T^xas introduced the war with 
Mexico, and it gave a more violent form to the impending issue, but 
the country passed peacefully this crisis, as it had that of the annex- 
ation of Texas. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the 
opening up of the new territories consecrated to freedom by that 
measure brought the conflict to the scene of violence. 

It was at this eventful crisis that Mr. Pool entered political life. 
He was raised and educated in the whig faith, and had he not been, 
his fine powers of head and heart would have carried him to that 
party. It was then in the days of its decline, indeed, in its expiring 
agonies. Its splendid orators and statesmen had vainly sought to 
save the country from a civil war, and to preserve the union of the 
states. The spirit of freedom in the free labor states had demanded 
the unsettled territory for free men. The south were demanding with 
still more intense feelings their rights under the constitution, to carry 
there their slaves. Rapidl}' those two forces were absorbing all the 
political elements in each section till the national party standing be- 
tween them had in agreat measure disappeared. In his boyhood he had 
followed the banner of Mr. Clay, borne by the dauntless Kenneth 
Raj'ner, to whom he ever remained devoted. In the course of time 
the pupil became the leader, and was supported by his former men- 
tor with all his heroic enthusiasm. Though the great political forces 
had concentrated in geographical lines Mr. Pool abated in no respect 
his firm national sentiment. The whig party retained its vitality in 
the border slave states long after it had disappeared from the ex- 
treme north and south. The border state whig, of necessity, was in 
conflict with both the great antagonistic forces at that time. He 
.sought to avert the nation from the bloody banquet spread before it. 
His influence was in a great measure dissipated by the conllict of in- 
terest, association and sympathy with his patriotism and judgment. 

In the years 1856 and 1858 Mr. Pool was returned to the state sen- 
ate from his district. It is needless to say that he distinguished him- 
self in that body. So marked was the impression, that in the year 
i860 the whigs chose him as their candidate for governor. He made 



J 



l6 NORTH CAROLINA. 



a gallant and impressiv^e canvass, and after this was ranked among- 
the ablest statesmen and political advocates in the state. He was de- 
feated, but he had greatly reduced the majority of the opposition. 
He pleaded for the union of the states, and the exercise of reason and 
forbearance. It was against the tide of opinion and the wild shout 
for southern rights. This effort to save the people from the threat- 
ened calamity was so earnest and rational, that the better sentiment 
was convinced, and ranked him among their ablest men. The hour 
of trial had come, and no power could avert the catastrophe. He 
foresaw the fatal sacrifice of the young men of the south, and deplored 
the dreadful consequences of that rash counsel that was leading them 
to their doom. He had clone all that he could to avert the calamity, 
and nothing was left for him but to retire to his home and await the 
issue. He remained at home during the eventful years of war, until 
1864 brought a gleam of peace. He was elected to the state senate as 
a peace man, and entered that body with the hope of inducing such a 
rational spirit as could compel the Confederate government to listen 
to honorable terms of peace. He introduced his celebrated peace 
resolutions, but the hour for reason had not yet returned, and these 
well-made endeavors proved abortive. These resolutions contempla- 
ted separate state action, in the event that the Confederate govern- 
ment should refuse to make peace. They, in that event, proposed to 
withdraw North Carolina from the Confederacy and restore her to 
the Union. This was done while the war was still flagrant, and at 
great peril. No bolder, braver, wiser movement was ever made. The 
war continued until the Confederate army was so overthrown at 
every point that their arms were wrested from their hands. It was a 
conquest thorough and absolute. The south was placed at the mercy 
of the victors. 

The war closed virtually with the surrender of Gen. Lee. The 
assassination of Mr. Lincoln soon followed, and Mr. Johnson came 
into the presidential chair April, 1865. May 25th, the president issued 
his proclamation for the re-organization of civil government in North 
Carolina. The Hon. W. W. Holden was appointed provisional 
governor and authorized to call a convention of the people of the 
state for that purpose. Mr. Pool was a member of that body and 
served with distinction in it. He and Hon. \V. A. Graham were 
elected to the United States senate; congress did not deem it safe to 
admit the states as re-organized by President Johnson and remanded 
them to military rule, consequently the members returned from the 
insurrectionary states were not admitted to their seats. When the 
state was reconstructed under the act of congress, Mr. Pool was again 
elected to the United States senate, and took his seat in 1S68, which 
he held till 1873, when the state passed into the hands of the opposi- 
tion. Since that period he has been practicing his profession in the 
city of Washington. During his services in the senate he was re- 
garded as one of the ablest men of that body. He served on some 
of the leading committees with usefulness to the country and honor 
to himself. It was during his senatorial term that North Carolina, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 317 

■with Other southern states, was infested by organized bands of out- 
laws, defying law and order and rendering the life, property and 
peace of the citizens who differed in their political sentiments not 
only insecure but a perpetual dread. Its history is without parallel 
in the annals of the Anglo-Saxon race. Mr. Pool believed that the 
proper enforcement of the law was the only and certain remedy. 
He undertook the work of enacting such a law as would secure pro- 
tection to the citizen in the enjoyment of his political and other 
rights. Then the due and reasonable enforcement of these laws re- 
ceived his wise counsel and aid. The remedy was successful and 
delivered the state from the most terrible and fearful scourge that 
has ever darkened the pages of history. For this noble stand he was 
cruellj' abused by the opposition. The day is coming when full just- 
ness will be done him in this matter. In this movement he counseled 
none but strictly legal measures. He believed that law could be 
executed in due form with more lasting effect than by any other 
means. To Mr. Pool and Judge Bond is due the credit of the ovf;r- 
throw of the Ku-klux scourge in the United States. The result 
vindicated his judgment and patriotism. 

Mr. Pool was at no time the friend of war, he believed it adverse 
to all generous and noble sentiments, brutal and irrational in its 
methods, destructive of the public good, and useless as an agent in 
the adjustment of national disputes. He was an earnest friend and 
an active member of the " National Arbitration League." He longed 
to see the peace of the world assured, not by devouring armies 
trained for the butchery of their race, but b}' the devout methods 
and profound worship of humanity. His love of humanitj- was not 
bounded by the limits of his country, it extended wherever the race 
was struggling for a higher good. It is the duty of the more ad- 
vanced to lift the degraded to a higher plane, not to despoil and de- 
stroy them. He regarded war as the crime of all crimes, the scourge 
of all nations, the organized foe of the race. Its machinery was a 
cruel and never-ending curse, the instrument of tyranny, and the 
consumer of the people's labor. He thought it the duty of all good 
men to unite their efforts to put an end to an unreasonable and cruel 
crime against all the virtues. Some two years since his fine health 
gave way and since that time he had apprehended serious conse- 
quences until more recently he appeared to have recovered his usual 
elasticity. The day preceding his fatal illness he seemed in the full 
enjoyment of health and cheerful vigor. But P'riday night the 15th, 
after having as usual enjoyed the society of his family, where he was 
always the center of devoted attachment, in the full glow of joyous 
amusement he retired with his little granddaughter to rest. She 
arose in the morning on the i6th at the usual time, leaving her grand- 
father to enjoy his morning sleep. He did not appear at breakfast, 
and some of the family sought his room to call him to his meal, and 
found J:hat noiselessly he had passed into that " dreamless sleep " that 
knows no waking. His peaceful exit was in supreme harmony with 
the calm and dignified life of the man. 



3l8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

No State in this Union has contributed to its country's history 
more conspicuous individual and personal worth than North Carolina. 
From the first page of her history up to this good hour, she has fur- 
nished her full share of distinguished merit, and her story is replete 
with illustrious memories. In all the grand achievements of the na- 
tion, her sons have filled and more, the measure of expectation. 
High among these illustrious names, the muse of history will write 
the name of our silent friend. He was the representative child of his 
native state. In an eminent degree, he possessed her virtues and 
none of her vices. His portraiture would be more truly the repre- 
sentative North Carolinian than any other man. His education was 
the best that the university could afford, and her efforts were not 
wasted. The seed fell in fertile soil and yielded an abundant harvest. 
Highly esteemed by the faculty, he was the favorite of his fellow 
students. His rich capacity and freedom from ambition relieved him 
from antagonism in this, the dawn of his promising intelligence. His 
mind was one of order, and all his information was carefully classi- 
fied and arranged. He was a scientific lawyer and had all his princi- 
ples so classified that he could at once refer any subject to its proper 
place. The same was true in regard to all his information on every 
subject. As a legal and political advocate, he addressed himself to 
the understanding and reason. He made thorough preparation, 
" scorning to utter an unconsidered word" to a court or the people. 
He indulged in no appeals to passion, he believed this unworthy the 
advocate. Nor did he often, if ever, appeal to the more tender sen- 
timents of our nature, though he was by no means destitute of these 
feelings, on the contrary, he was readily moved by an appeal to ten- 
der sensibilities. His emotional nature was not only active, but 
easily aroused by injustice, oppression or tyranny. The strong side of 
his character was the esthetic. He loved the beautiful in form, color 
and sound, and was more readily moved by the moral than by natural 
beauty. As an advocate, his voice was clear, benevolent in tone, soft 
and gentle. His articulation was so distinct, that he was readily 
heard without an effort in the open air, or in large rooms. His man- 
ner, gesture, voice and the whole man were always under the domin- 
ion of reason. His powers of analysis were of the highest. In some 
respects he resembled President Johnson in this particular mental 
faculty. He was a more highly endowed man, had greater powers 
of invention and a richer imagination. They differed on many points 
and especially in their ambition; this was the supreme motor in Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Pool was entirely free from it. He believed that the 
people should select their agents unsolicited, whilst Mr. Johnson 
pressed his claims. No man was ever more thoroughly self-poised, 
he carried this into every relation of life, in the domestic circle, in 
the drawing room, in the senate, in the tumultuous assemblies where 
the populace were torn by passion, he was always the same unruffled, 
calm, gentle, unpretending gentleman, and a man more thoroughly 
master of himself was never known. He was above passion and in- 
capable of blind resentment. His simple, elegant taste characterized 



NORTH CAROLINA. 319 

all his actions and his intellectual operations. His mind was one of 
great comprehension and his judgment e.xact. His knowledge of 
mechanical forces and his capacity to use them would have made 
him one of the first inventors of the age had he directed his attention 
exclusively to that subject. 

To the firmness of the martyr he joined the meekness of a child. 
He loved all children and was beloved by them in turn. He knew 
their natures and trusted them implicitly, and was seldom deceived. 
Sincere and faithful to his friendships, he secured the confidence of 
all with whom he came in contact. His gentle loving nature never 
permitted him to neglect a child. He treated them as persons of 
distinction entitled to attention and respect. His friendship was 
warm and did not depend upon place, rank or wealth. He was the 
true friend of humanity, his heart bled freelj' for all who felt the 
heavy hand of affliction. He never cast off a faithful friend stricken 
by misfortune. Conscious of his own worth and proud of his noble 
qualities, he could with the Cid have shared his bed with the leper, 
and with Sydney, have passed the cup of water to the humble soldier 
whose wants were still greater than his. There was no human sufferer 
so humble that he would not reach forth his hand to secure from dis- 
tress. I have seen him under all the conditions that could elevate or 
depress the human heart, j^et I never heard from him an angry word, 
an intemperate expression, or one unchaste or profane, no matter 
who his auditors. He rose above all dogmas, or vulgar superstitions, 
and bowed with reverence before the worship of all sincere persons. 
Truthful to his convictions, he laid no claim to superior sanctity, and 
put on no vulgar assumption of importance. He intended to merit 
the good will of his kind, and gave little attention to public opinion; 
he knew that it was unreliable; to-day it was a blessing, to-morrow 
cursing, but in the end, trusted in public justness if it was deserved. 
He was by no means indifferent to the culture of his religious senti- 
ments. If " religion is the emotion of reverence which the presence 
of the universal mind excites in the individual," then was Mr. I^ool 
one of the most religious of men. All nature was instinct with the 
Divine from the lowest forms of insensate matter up through all the 
forms of vegetable and animal life. His heart was responsive to its 
presence in every form of life. His comprehensive intelligence, his 
warm affections embraced all, protected all, reverenced all. His was 
the religion of cheerfulness and duty. No gloomy fears shrouded 
humanity in habiliments of woe. Every object around, from the 
ephemera sporting in the sunlight to the distant stars that shine 
in glory through all the countless ages, were ministering angels 
inspiring love and reverence. The suppression of passion, the exer- 
cise of reason, and the cultivation of a living love for all men, all life, 
were the supreme duties of man. The strongest element of his na- 
ture was the love of liberty, of soul and body. Subordination of the 
spirit to the will of another was the worst form of slavery. He de- 
tested every form of dominion over the hearts and bodies of men. As 
he loved liberty for its own sake, he rejoiced to see all other men en- 



320 NORTH CAROLINA. 

joy it. Out of this element grew his political principles and conduct. A 
whig before the war, he readily became a republican, which party has, 
since it was established in North Carolina, received his warmest sup- 
port until the contest of 1880. In this contest, he supported Gen. Han- 
cock, not only for his superior militar}' services, but for fine intelli- 
gence and manly virtues, but he believed that the southern republicans 
had been unjustly treated, and defeat would lead the party to act 
with better faith toward their real allies. He confided in the pro- 
gressive character of the republicans but believed that a long lease 
of power had rendered them neglectful to their duties and recreant 
to good faith. 

The life of Mr. Pool was an eventful one. Born under a declin- 
ing civilization, he grew up during the discussion of its merits and 
participated in its extinction in every part of the republic. He saw 
the old passing away, and on his vision broke the dawn of a grander 
day. From Nebo's loftiest peaks he looked into the promised land 
and passed over and dwelt beneath the shadow of the tree of liberty, 
and saw "a new heaven and a new earth," that had risen out of the 
old. He did not live long enough to realize in full the glorious prom- 
ise of his labors, but long enough to felicitate himself upon the sacri- 
fices he had made for the consummation of the coming age. He 
largely participated in working out for his native state and the nation 
one of the grandest moral revolutions in time. He aided to dispose 
of a civilization that consigned a large part of its population to the 
condition of chattels, tore from the mother's breast the sentiments of 
maternal affection and annihilated the father of the child. Under 
his and his colleague's labors, life has been endowed with a new value 
far above the shambles. The graces and virtues of home have been 
sanctified, justice has received a new meaning, her domain has been 
enlarged, and her worship purified by a living and universal faith. 
Labor has been emancipated from the lash, and its author has been 
lifted from a beast of burden to the condition of Amercan manhood. 
The education of the whole people has been made the life of the 
commonwealth. The reign of fear has given place to the reign of 
love and duty. This beneficent change has worked inconvenience to 
a few, but is full of promise to a regenerated people. Every year will 
attest his prescience by the increased knowledge, the growth of vir- 
tue, the accumulation of wealth, and the adoption of creative inter- 
ests. Though calumniated by those who did not realize the demands 
of the age and the wants of a, growing community, in time a new 
commonwealth will attest his wisdom and honor his memory. A re- 
newed life will dissolve all the resentments and partisan prejudices. 
The good will survive the shock of resentment that annoyed his tran- 
quillity. The benefactors of mankind hope not to receive a grateful 
return for their services, they seldom escape the scourge, the cross of 
calumny. They have always been consecrated to the public good 
through sighs, and groans and tears. For their sufferings the tears 
of sorrow must forever flow. The champions of a new era cannot 
escape the malignant arrows of an expiring one. But the hour has 



NORTH CAROLINA. 321 

passed, "no steel, nor poison, malice domestic, foreign levy, nothingr 
can touch him farther." 

This tender, strong man, so dignified in life, without a struggle or a 
sigh, has retired to his endless rest. No kinder friend, no more lov- 
ing and devoted husband, father or brother, has crossed the "sunless 
river's flow." In all the relations of life he has modestly and faith- 
fully performed his duty. To him we may justly apply the words of 
the greatest of Roman poets: 

'* Juslum et tenacem proposite vireni 
Non civiuni ardor prava juventtuni, 
Non vultus instantis tyranni 
Mente qiialit solida nemie Auster 
Dux ini|uieti turbidus Adrae 
Nee fulniinaiUes magna Jovis manus: 
Si fmctus illabatur orbis, 
Inipaviitum ferient vuinde." 

Mr. Pool was twice married; first, to Miss Narcissa D. .Sawyer, of 
Elizabeth City, X. C, of whom one child, Mrs. Dr. Sessford, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, survives; second, to Miss Mollie Mebane, of Bertie 
county, N. C, of whom two children, Miss Mamie and Mr. John Pool, 
of Washington, D. C, survive. He was a classmate at the univer- 
sity of the very highly gifted and distinguished Gen. J. Johnston 
Pettigrew, who early fell in the Civil war, and of the Hon. M. W. 
Ransom, at present United States senator from North Carolina. 



GEN. LAWRENCE O'BRIAN BRANCH. 

The subject of this sketch was of distinguished lineage, his ances 
tors having been prominent for many generations in the affairs of 
North Carolina. He was born in Halifax county, N. C, November 
28, 1820. On Christmas day. 1825, his mother died; and in 1S27 his 
father, who had removed to Tennessee, also died. Gov. John Branch, 
who was his guardian, brought him back to North Carolina, and be- 
ing appointed secretary of the navy in 1829, carried him to Washing- 
ton city. 1 le studied under various preceptors, among others Salmon P. 
Chase, afterward chief-justice of the United .States. He entered 
Chapel Hill in 1S35, but the same year, left and entered Princeton, 
where he graduated in 1838, taking the first honor. He removed to 
Florida to practice law, and in the early part of 1841, he served in the 
Seminole war. After a residence of eight years in P'lorida, he re- 
moved to Raleigh, N. C, having in 1844, married Miss Blount, the 
accomplished daughter of Gen. William A. Blount of Washington, 
N. C. In 1852 he' was an elector on the Pierce and King ticket, and 
in the same year he was elected president of the Raleigh & Gaston 
railroad company, which position he held until he was elected to con- 
gress in 1855. He continued in congress until the war began, win- 
ning the esteem and confidence of all his party associates. 

In December, i860, on the resignation of lion. Howell Cobb, ''ren 
Branch was tendered, by President Buchanan, the position of secre 
B — 21 



322 NORTH CAROLINA. 

tar}' of the treasury, but declined it. He was appointed quartermas- 
ter-general of North Carolina on the day the state seceded from the 
Union, and in September, iS6i, was commissioned colonel of the 
Thirty-third regiment North Carolina troops. On the 17th of Janu- 
ary, 1S62, he was promoted to be brigadier-general. His brigade 
consisted of the Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third 
and Thirty-seventh North Carolina regiments. His first service was 
at Newbern, where he disputed Burnside's approach, March 14, 1S62. 
His brigade was attached to A. P. Hill's light division, and it was the 
first to open the fights around Richmond at Hanover Court House. 
It was also the first to cross the Chickahominy and to encounter the 
Federal forces. With about 3,000 men, it lost 1,250 in killed and 
wounded, and of five colonels, two were killed, two w'ere wounded 
and one was taken prisoner. In those battles the brigade, no less 
than Gen. Branch himself, won imperishable fame. Gen. Branch 
bore himself with distinguished courage and was idolized by his men. 
He participated in the battles of Cedar Run, Second Manassas, Fair- 
fax Court House and Harper's Ferry. Hurrying from that great 
achievement at Harper's Ferry to Sharpsburg, he reached that fatal 
field to be of essential service to Gen. Lee's hard pushed army. He 
had, with his command, just swept the enemy from his front, w'hen 
Gens. Gregg and Archer pointed out a column approaching. Step- 
ping up to these generals, a group was formed that attracted the at- 
tention of a sharpshooter, and a bullet came crashing through his 
brain and he fell dying into the arms of his staff officer, Maj. Engel- 
hard. As a lawyer, a statesman and a soldier. Gen. Branch took 
high rank, and he was one of the foremost men of North Carolina of 
his age. He left one son, Hon. W. A. Branch, the representative of 
the First North Carolina district in congress, and two daughters. 



GEN. JAMES JOHNSTON PETTIGREW. 

Among the brilliant men who have adorned the annals of Caro- 
lina none takes precedence of James Johnston Pettigrew, who was 
born July 4, 1S28, at his father's residence, " Bonarva " on the shore 
of the beautiful lake Scuppemong, in Tyrrell county, N. C. One of 
his ancestors was James Pettigrew, a distinguished officer in King 
William's arm}- at the battle of the Boyne, whose youngest son, 
James, emigrated to America in 1740, and finally settled at Abbeville, 
S. C. His son Charles Pettigrew, settled in North Carolina, and was 
ordained a minister in 1775, and after the Revolution was chosen the 
first bishop of North Carolina, but was never consecrated. The only 
son of Bishop Pettigrew was Hon. Ehenezer Pettigrew, who was a 
member of congress from eastern North Carolina. He married 
Ann B. Shepard, a daughter of one of the most distinguished fami- 
lies of Newbern, and from that union sprang the subject of this 
sketch. After a thorough preparatory education at Bingham's and 
elsewhere, Johnston Pettigrew, as he was called, entered Chapel Hill, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 323 

where he won greater distinction than any other student there has 
ever done. 

He was a marvelous scholar, and upon graduating, in 1847, so 
■ great was his capacity, especially in mathematics, that President Polk, 
at the suggestion of Commodore Maury, tendered him one of the 
assistant professorships at the observatory in Washington, he being 
then onlj' nineteen years of age. The law, however, attracted the 
brilliant student and after a year's work with Maury, he studied law, 
first with James M. Campbell, of Baltimore, and then with his cousin, 
the great James L. Pettigrew, at Charleston, S. C. In 1850 he began 
an extended tour of Europe, and spent two years in travel and 
study on the continent. On his return to Charleston he took rank 
with the first men of South Carolina, and being in the legislature of 
1S56, when the slavery question was much discussed, he became an 
honored and conspicuous figure in that body. The Italian war break- 
ing out in 1859. his sympathies were strongly enlisted for the Sardin- 
ians and he sailed for Europe, determined to offer his assistance. He 
was tendered an appointment in that service, but the war ended be- 
fore he could reach the scene. Shortly after his return he published 
a very interesting and instructive volume, "Spain and the Spaniards," 
that is worthy of his high ambition. 

When the war broke out, he was colonel of the First regiment of 
Charleston rifles, and rendered efificient service at that point, Ijut the 
Confederate government declining to receive the officers of that 
organization, he was chosen colonel of the Twelfth North Carolina 
regiment which afterward was known as the Twenty-second North 
Carolina troops. His fine bearing, his unusual accomplishments, his 
proficiency in military studies, and the great personal esteem in which 
he was held singled him out as a proper object for promotion, but he 
declined the offer of a commission to be brigadier-general, until he 
had greater e.xperience. Later he accepted the offer and was as- 
signed to a brigade. At the battle of Seven Pines, June i, 1862, his 
brigade was heavily engaged, and as he was gallantly leading one of 
his regiments in a charge upon a strong position, he was wounded 
and fell insensible on the field; when he regained consciousness he 
was a prisoner. After two months confinement he was exchanged, 
but for some time being an invalid, was employed as commander of 
the post of Petersburg. Here a new brigade was formed for him — 
composed of the Eleventh, Twenty-sixth, Forty-fourth, Thirty-second 
and Fifty-second, North Carolina troops. During the fall of 1862, he 
was ordered to North Carolina with his brigade, and he repelled the 
Federal raid into Martin county, and Gen. Foster's expedition in 
December, against Goldsboro, and he rendered conspicious service in 
the demonstration against the town of Washington, N. C, in the spring; 
at Blount's creek, he illustrated his fine abilities as a commander. 

When Stoncman made his raid north of Richmond, Pettigrew 
was in command of the defenses of that city. Eater his brigade was 
assigned to Heth's division, and marched with Lee to Gettysburg. 
He led his brigade in the assault on the first day of that great battle 



324 NORTH CAROLINA. 

and if his fame and that of his brigade were to rest on that engage- 
ment of July 1st, alone, they would be imperishable; but as heroic as 
were their achievements then, they were surpassed on July 3d, in the 
famous Confederate charge. Maj.-Gen. Heth being wounded. Gen. 
Pettigrew succeeded to the command of the division, and on the 
morning of the 3d reported to Gen. Longstreet. The division ad- 
vanced on a line with Pickett's fresh Virginians on the right, across 
the plain to the crest of Cemetery Ridge, and took possession of the 
stone wall which had served the Federal forces as a breastwork. 
Nothing in history has surpassed that grand charge, anci Pettigrew's 
name has become immortal. Of the 3,000 men and officers compos- 
ing the brigade, 1,100 were killed and wounded at Gettysburg. The 
Twenty-sixth regiment, commanded by Col. Henry Burgroyn, out of 
800 men, lost 549, the greatest loss ever sustained in modern warfare 
by any regiment. Officers and men were alike mowed down, and 
Gen. Pettigrew himself was painfully wounded. On the return of the 
army to Virginia on the morning of the 14th of July, near Falling 
Waters, on the Potomac, Gen. Pettigrew was ordered to remain with 
his command as a rear guard. A small body of cavalry, some forty 
in number, made a sudden dash upon a bevy of officers, of whom 
Gen. Pettigrew was one, and being mistaken for Confederates were 
not fired on by the troops. In the melee Gen. Pettigrew was mor- 
tally wounded, and on the 17th day of July he expired near Martins- 
burg, Va. Thus perished one of the most gifted and brilliant men 
known to American annals, whose name is inseparably connected 
with the most heroic feat of arms in modern times. 

GOVERNOR JOHN OWEN. 

The memory of but few North Carolinians deserves to be held in 
higher esteem than that of Gov. John Owen. He was the son of 
Col. Thomas Owen, a gallant officer during the Revolution, who 
married Eleanor Porterfield, a daughter of Maj. James Porterfield, 
an Irishman by birth, who had settled at Fayetteville, and was a lead- 
ing whig, and whose son, Capt. Dennis Porterfield, was a conspicuous 
officer in the continental line, and at last fell fighting gloriously at the 
battle of Eutaw Springs. By her Col. Owen had two sons. Gen. James 
Owen, who was a member of congress in 1817-18, and later president 
of the Wilmington and Raleigh railroad — a gentleman of the high- 
est character and reputation, who died about i860; and John Owen, 
the subject of this sketch, who was born in 1787. He was a gentle- 
man of singular purity of life, sweetness of temper and refined 
culture. He served the people of Bladen in the assembly from 181 2 for 
sixteen years, being elected governor of the state in 1S28. After 
three years in the executive chair he was brought forward for United 
States senator, and came within one vote of an election. He was 
president of the whig national convention which, in 1840, nominated 
Gen. Harrison for president, and he was tendered the nomination for 
vice-president, but he could not bring himself to accept the honor 



NORTH CAROLINA. 325 

since he presided over the body. He declined it for that reason. 
He died a year later at Pittsboro, N. C, much lamented in North 
Carolina and by his friends throughout the Union. He married a 
daughter of Gen. Thomas Brown, of Bladen county, a Revolutionary 
patriot and officer who was the hero of the battle of Elizabethtown, 
leaving an only daughter, who married Hon. Haywood Guion — a 
distinguished lawyer and the author of "The Comet" — a book of 
rare merit. 

GEN. JAMES B. GORDON. 

John George Gordon came to this countrj-, from Scotland, about 
the year 1724. He was the great-grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch, whose ancestors, for four generations, lie buried in the family 
burying ground, at Wilkesborough, Wilkes county, N. C. James B. 
Gordon was born at the old homestead, November 2, 1822, and at the 
age of ten years was placed at school, with Peter S. Ney, in Iredell 
county. At the age of eighteen he entered Emory and Henry col- 
lege, X'irginia, and then became a merchant at Wilkesborough. He 
represented his county in the legislature, in 1850, and was always 
active in political affairs. At the first call to arms, he volunteered in 
the Wilkes county guards, and was chosen a lieutenant. The com- 
pany was assigned as Company B, to the First regiment of state troops, 
and Gordon was appointed captain of it. Soon afterward he was ap- 
pointed major of the F'irst cavalry, and went to the front in Virginia, 
where the regiment (Col. Robert Ransom) was placed under the com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. Maj. Gordon led the first charge 
on the P'ederal forces, at Vienna, Halifax county, Va. In the spring 
of 1862 he was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel, and in the spring 
of 1863 he was commissioned colonel and given command of the Sec- 
ond North Carolina cavalrj'. He won his promotion by his gallantry 
on many a hard fought field. In September, 1863, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general, and the First, Second, Third and Fifth 
regiments of North Carolina cavalry were assigned to him, as his brig- 
ade. He addressed himself to the task of promoting the efficiency of 
his command, and soon established thorough confidence and reliance 
upon each other among his regiments. At Auburn, October 13, 1863, 
he was wounded, but he successfully passed through hundreds of 
dangerous encounters. 

In the memorable campaign of 1864, Gordon's outposts were the 
first to meet the Federal forces as they crossed the Rai)idan near the 
Wilderness, and for days the most terrible struggle raged throughout 
that section. On the evening of the loth of May, .Stuart and Fit/, Lee 
were hastening with the brigades of Lomax, Gordon and Wickham, 
to intercept the F'ederal cavalry in its march on Richmond. It was a 
critical moment. Between Stuart and Gordon there existed the 
warmest friendship; together they had performeil feats of prodigious 
valor and had made the fame of the Confederate cavalry immortal. 
They had fought together as brothers: they were to die together as 



o 



26 NORTH CAROLINA 



heroes. Gordon drove the opposing force at Ground Squirrel Church 
on the nth, and attacked Sheridan near Broolc Churcli, ahiiost in the 
suburbs of Richmond on the morning of the 12th. On the evening 
before Stuart had fallen at Yellow Tavern, and at Brook Church, 
with Richmond almost in sight, Sheridan fought with great obstinacy. 
With his inferior force, Gordon held the road, and reckless of self, 
exposed his life with unusual daring to encourage his men to the 
utmost resistance. He was severely wounded, but held his position 
until Confederate infantry came up and Richmond was saved. F"or 
six days he lingered, and then died at the hospital at Richmond, 
May 18, 1864. His death was lamented throughout the army, and 
" filled his entire command with grief and consternation." 

GEN. STEPHEN D. RAMSEUR. 

But few North Carolinians have displayed greater militarj' capac- 
ity than the subject of this sketch. He was a worthy descendant of 
John Wilfong, a Revolutionary hero, who fought valiantly at Kings 
Mountain and Eutaw Springs. Stephen D. Ramseur, the second child 
of Jacob A. and Lucy M. Ramseur, was born May 31, 1837, at Lin- 
colnton, Lincoln county, N. C, where his ancestors had settled sev- 
eral generations before. His earl)' education was received at the 
preparatory schools in Lincolnton and ]\Iilton, and at Davidson col- 
lege. North Carolina. In 1855 he entered the military academj' at 
West Point, and graduated there with distinction in t86o. He was 
appointed a lieutenant in the light artillery, but in April, 1861, re- 
signed his commission and took service with the Confederate States 
government, then at Montgomer}-. He was soon afterward offered 
the command of the Ellis light artillery, a Raleigh company', and in 
the summer was ordered with his company to Smithfield, \'a. The 
next spring his company was at Yorktown, in front of Gen. McClel- 
lan, and Ramseur was put in charge of all the Confederate artillery, 
and later was commissioned major. Subsequently he was elected 
colonel of the Fortj'-ninth regiment North Carolina troops, and was 
assigned to the brigade of Gen. Robert Ransom. In the seven days 
fights he won distinction, and at Malvern Hill was severel}' wounded. 
While still disabled he was appointed brigadier-general, and in Octo- 
ber was sufficiently recovered to take the field. His brigade was 
composed of the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth and Thirtieth North 
Carolina regiments, and was attached to Rhodes' division of Jack- 
son's corps. 

At the battle of Chancellorsville Gen. Ramseur particularly distin- 
guished himself. Gen. Lee writing of his brigade to Gov. Vance, 
June 4, 1S63, said: " I consider its brigade and regimental command- 
ers as among the best of their respective grades in the army, and in 
the battle of Chancellorsville, where the brigade was much distin- 
guished and suffered severely. Gen. Ramseur was among those 
whose conduct was especially commended to my notice, by Lieut. - 
Gen. Jackson, in a message sent to me after he was wounded." Again 






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a^ypi^ty 




L^C^'-t'-'-^ 



NORTH CAROLINA. 2)-7 

in the first day's fight at Gettysburg, Ramseur's brigade secured the 
ridge known as (Tak Hill, the key to the field. At Spottsylvania 
Court House, May 12, 1S64, he again won unstinted praise for gallantry 
and heroism unsurpassed during the war. After the battle, Generals 
Lee and Ewell thanked Ramseur in person, for his conduct and that 
of his brigade at the "Angle of death." His heroism won him a com- 
mission as major-general, and he was assigned to the command of 
Early's division. After the battle of Coal Harbor, Early's corps was 
ordered to the valley of Virginia, and there Gen. Ramseur displayed 
the highest military acumen. But after passing through many dan- 
gers unscathed, on the afternoon of the igth of October, 1S64, in the 
battle of Cedar Creek, he was mortally wounded, and fell into the 
hands of the Federal forces. On the 22nd of October, 1863, he had 
married .Miss Ellen E. Richmond, of Milton, N. C; on the day pre- 
ceding this battle he had received intelligence of the birth of a 
daughter. He died the ne.xt day. His dying words were: " Bear 
this message to my precious wife: — I die a Christian and hope to 
meet her in Heaven." 

THE HAWKINS FAMILY. 

The first of this distinguished family to settle in America was 
Philemon Hawkins, who was a descendant of the celebrated admiral, 
Sir John Hawkins, whose deeds redounded to England's glory, 
through his son Sir Richard Hawkins. Philemon was born in Eng- 
land in 1690, and his wife, Ann Howard, was born in 1695. He came 
to this country in 1715, and niade his home in Gloucester county, Va., 
where he died in 1725. Mrs. Hawkins survived him seventeen 3'ears, 
and died at the residence of her son, Philemon, in Bute, now War- 
ren county, N. C Philemon, the second, was born near Todd's 
Bridge, Gloucester county, Va., in 1717. Removing to Bute county, 
N. C, he soon became a man of prominence in that region, and his 
home became a seat of elegant hospitality. He served as an aid to 
Gov. Tryon at the battle of Alamance, and was an officer under the 
colonial government, but later was a warm advocate of the move- 
ment for independence. His long life was one of usefulness. He 
died in 1801, in his eighty-third year. By his marriage with Delia 
Martin, of Brunswick county, Va., in 1743, he had ft)ur sons and 
several daughters. The sons were: Philemon, Benjamin, Joseph 
and John. 

Benjamin, the second son, was born 1754. He was educated at 
Princeton college, and was proficient, not only in Latin and Greek, but 
in French. He was at Princeton with his younger brother Joseph, 
when that institution was closed during the Revolutionary war; he 
then joined the army and served at Washington's headquarters for 
nearly a year; his proficiency in modern languages, especially P'rcnch, 
caused Washington to ai)point him interpreter between the American 
and French officers of his staff. In 1780 he was appointed by the 
state of North Carolina a commercial agent to secure supplies from 



3^8 NORTH CAROLINA. 

abroad. From 17S1 to 17S4 he was a member of the Continental 
congress, and witnessed at Annapolis the resignation by Gen. Wash- 
ington, of the command of the army. In 1785 he was appointed a 
commissioner to treat with the Cherokee Indians, and also on a com- 
mission to treat with the Creeks. The next year found him again in 
congress, and upon North Carolina's adopting the Federal constitu- 
tion and entering the Union, he and the distinguished Sam Johnston, 
were selected as the first senators to represent the state in the United 
States senate. At the end of his six years' term in the senate, he was 
appointed by President Washington, agent for superintending all the 
Indians south of the Ohio. He remained in this responsible position 
through all administrations, rendering most valuable service to his 
country until his death, in 1816, at Fort Hawkins, Ga. He was a 
man of mark in his day and generation; was a fine scholar, and an 
author. He left works on topography, and on the Indian language, 
and a sketch of the Creek country. One son, Madison Hawkins, and 
three daughters survive him. 

Col. Joseph Hawkins, the third son of Philemon and Delia, left 
Princeton college during the Revolutionary war, and joined the 
army. He served in Canada, and rendered efficient service in the 
cause of his country. He died unmarried. The fourth brother was 
Col. John Hawkins, who married a sister of Hon. Nathaniel Macon, 
and left a large family. Among his sons were Gen. John H. Haw- 
kins, Joseph, and Gen. Micajah Thomas, who were all prominent pub- 
lic men. The eldest of these brothers was Philemon the third. He 
was born in 1752 and died in 1833, in his eighty-first j-ear. He mar- 
ried Lucy Davis, and had seven sons and five daughters. The sons 
were: John D., William, Dr. Joseph, Benjamin, Philemon, George and 
Dr. Frank. The last four died unmarried. Dr. Joseph W. Haw- 
kins, having graduated at the University of North Carolina, received 
the degree of M. D. at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1808. He 
was an eminent physician, and enjoyed a large practice. He was 
great!}' esteemed and beloved, and his death was lamented by the 
entire community where he resided. He married Mary Boyd, by 
whom he had eight children. 

Governor William Hawkins, the second son of Philemon and Lucy, 
was for many years esteemed the most popular public man of Warren 
county. He often served in the assembly, and was governor of the state 
for three years, from iSii to 1814, covering the period of the second 
war with Great Britain, and was called " the war governor." He ad- 
ministered his responsible office during the war with great accepta- 
bility to the people and received many evidences of popular apprecia- 
tion. He married Ann Boyd, to whom were born eight children. He 
died at Sparta, Ga., in May of iSig. The daughters of Philemon and 
Lucy were Eleanor, who married Sherwood Haywood, and had many 
children; one, Delia, became the second wife of Hon. George E. 
Badger; Ann, who married William P. Little; Delia, who married 
Stephen Haywood; Lucy, who married Louis D. Henry, and Sarah, 
who married Col. William Polk. One of her sons was Bishop Polk — 



NORTH CAROLIXA. 329 

the bishop-general, who was killed during the Confederate war. 
One of her daughters, Marj', was the first wife of Hon. George E. 
Badger; and another, Susan, married Hon. Kenneth Raynor. 

The eldest son of F^hilemon and Lucy was Col. John D. Hawkins, 
who was born at the old homestead, " Pleasant Hill," in Warren 
county, in 17S1, and died in 1S58, in his seventy-eighth year. His 
wife, jane A. Hawkins, was born in 1784 and died in 1S75. Col. 
Hawkins was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, and 
for fifty j'ears was a trustee of that institution. He was a lawyer and 
a political leader. He served many terms in the assembly and was 
prominent in all internal improvement movements in his count)- and 
state. He spent much time on his plantation and was greatlj' inter- 
ested in agriculture. He had six sons and five daughters, viz.: 
James B. Hawkins, who married Ariella Alston, and resides in Mata- 
gorda county, Tex., where since the war he has converted his large 
sugar plantation into a stock farm. Frank Hawkins, who was born 
in 1815, and is living at Winona, Montgomer}' count)'. Miss., where he 
is engaged in planting. John U. Hawkins, born February 5, 1821, a 
resident of New Orleans, a cotton factor and a large and successful 
planter in Mississippi. Philemon B. Hawkins, born May ii, 1S23, and 
died in Franklin county, N. C, January 2, i8gi. Dr. Alexander B. 
Hawkins, born January 25, 1S25; he practiced his profession some 
years in Warren and Franklin counties, and then moved to Florida, 
where he became largely engaged in agricultural pursuits and was 
eminently successful as a planter and in business affairs. The 
daughters were: Ann, who married Col. W. W. Young, of Vir- 
ginia; Lucy, who became the wife of T. Kean, of Newbern, who after 
her death moved to LaGrange, Tenn.; Mary, who married P. E. A. 
Jones, of Granville county, N. C; X'irginia, who married William J. 
Andrews of Edgecombe, one of whose sons being Col. Alexander B. 
Andrews, vice-president of the R. & D. R. R. system; and Jane A. 
Hawkins, who did not marry. 

The third son of Col. John I). 1 lawkins and Jane was William J. 
Hawkins, who was born in Franklin county. May 27, i8iq. He en- 
tered the University of North Carolina in 1837, but in 1839 he left that 
institution, and entered William and Mary college, in Virginia, where 
he graduated in 1840. Thence he went to the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, where he graduated in the medical department in 1S42. Set- 
tling at Ridgeway, N. C, in the vicinity of his home, he practiced his 
profession for several years, displaying rare skill and unusual talent. 
In 1855 he was elected president of the Raleigh & Gaston railroad 
company, and in this position, his executive ability and capacity for the 
management of business at once attracted attention. He continued 
in the presidency of that company (except for the space of a year and 
a half I, until October, 1875, when he retired on account of the con<li- 
tion of his health. His management of the affairs of the company, 
with the limited facilities and unlimited difficulties of the memorable 
days of the war, called forth the highest encomiums, and his acknowl- 
edged abilities and decided southern attachment caused the Confed- 



330 NORTH CAROLINA. 

erate authorities frequently to aslc his aid. He strained every nerve 
to render service to the Confederate cause, and his railroad line, 
which was an important link in transportation, was maintained in the 
highest state of efficiency that the circumstances permitted. In 1S70 
he founded the Citizens' bank of Raleigh, N. C, and under his man- 
agement it has ever been one of the most successful banking institu- 
tions of the south. He selected Col. William E. Anderson for its 
president, but on Col. Anderson's death in 1890, he himself took the 
position. For many years he has been a trustee of the university, 
and he has warmly promoted all plans for the advancement of that 
institution. 

Always cool and self-poised, cautious and clear-headed, deliberate 
in council but firm when a conclusion had been reached, gifted with 
quick perceptions and possessing a remarkably sound judgment. Dr. 
Hawkins combines those elements that have entered into the charac- 
ter of the distinguished members of the family in past generations, 
and which would have assured him conspicuous success in any de- 
partment of activity that he might have chosen. His achievements 
as a railroad manager, especially in the difficult time of the war, and 
his success in the administration of the Citizens' bank, and the high 
esteem in which his judgment is held bj^ business men, are evidences 
of mental scope and intellectual power equal to any undertaking in 
ordinary life. His tastes did not lead him to take part in the scramble 
for office, and though always interested in political contests, he has 
held no official station in government. But he has always exerted an 
influence in public affairs which has ever proven beneficial to his state 
and been of advantage to the people. 

On January 4, 1844, Dr. Hawkins married Mary Alethea Clark 
(daughter of David Clark, Esq., of Halifax county, N. C), who died 
on the 19th of September, 1850, leaving two sons, Colin M. Hawkins, 
born December 26, 1846, now a citizen of Raleigh; president of the 
Raleigh Gas & Electric company, of the North Carolina Phos- 
phate company, the Citizens' Trust company, and a director in 
the Citizens' National bank, and Marmaduke J. Hawkins, born Sep- 
tember 9, 1850, a resident of Ridgeway, N. C, and a lawyer by pro- 
fession. On December 27, 1855, Dr. Hawkins married a second time, 
Lucy N. Clark, who died October g, 1867, leaving two daughters, 
Louisa, who married William McGee, Esq., a merchant of lialeigh, 
and Alethea, who married Mr. J. M. Lamar, a merchant of Monti- 
cello, Fla. On the the 12th da}' of May, 1869, Dr. Hawkins married 
a third time, Mary A. White, the daughter of Andrew B. White, of 
Pottsville, Penn. They have cme daughter, Lucy C. Hawkins. 

DOLPHIN ALSTON DAVIS. 

Few men in western North Carolina have lived a more useful and 
exemplary life than did Dolphin Alston Davis. He, in his lifetime, 
set an example well worthy of imitation, one which may be regarded 
as a beneficence to his fellow citizens. Mr. Davis was born in Fay- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 33 1 

etteville, N. C, in July, 1S02. His father was a native of Halifax 
county, \^a., and was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, taking part 
in the famous batttle of Kings Mountain. Soon after the close of the 
Revolution his father settled in Fayetteville and married Ann Steven- 
son, a daughter of one of the Scotch emigrants who came to Cape Fear 
shortly after the battle of Culloden. The fruits of that marriage 
were five sons and three daughters. Dolphin A. Davis was the 
youngest son and next to the youngest child. Both of his parents 
were devout and religious people, and his father was long a ruling 
elder in the Presbyterian church. Mr. Davis lost his parents when 
he was but a j'outh, as he was sixteen years old when his father died 
and one j'car later the death of his mother occurred. The estate 
left him was but small and the inheritance of a Christian father's 
blessing, his exemplary life and his blameless character was a legacy 
more precious and valuable than gold — which contributed more to 
the development of his manly characteristics than material wealth 
could do. His education was limited, probably owing to the early 
death of his parents. He enjoyed, however, the advantage of the 
best schools and academies of those days by which he attained a 
good English education. At the death of his father, the son was ap- 
pointed clerk in the Fayetteville branch of the Bank of the United 
States. In May, 1825, he purchased a farm near Fayetteville, and 
spent twelve years in pursuit of agriculture. In 1837 he was elected 
cashier of the branch bank of Cape Fear at Salisbury, and in the 
same year removed to this city with his wife and two children. 

For several years before his removal from Fayetteville. Mr. Davis 
had been a magistrate and the financial agent of Cumberland county. 
He was soon chosen to the same position in Rowan county. His ac- 
curacy, his integrity and ability soon won for him the confidence of 
his fellow citizens, and there was scarcely an enterprise originated in 
which his services were not demanded. He became a stockholder 
in the Salisbury cotton mills, a director of the Salisbury and Taj^- 
lorsville plank road company, a director of the North Carolina rail- 
road company', chairman of the special court, warden of the poor and 
county commissioner, holding the last office to his death. To his 
prudence and sagacity was due for many years the safe condition of 
the finances of Rowan county. He was ever a friend and promoter 
of schools and a higher education, and to his wisdom and foresight 
was due the advantageous management of the Rowan school fund 
prior to the war. He was for many years a trustee of Davidson col- 
lege, and a member of the executive and finance committee of the 
college. His counsel and management helped to tide over the col- 
lege through many shoals and quicksands. He was able to provide 
for his family liberally, and gave them all a finished education. To 
the Davidson college, to which he so generously and prudently lent 
his aid and influence, he sent his four sons, and they were all gradu- 
ated from that college. Mr. Davis, in his lifetime, showed his adap- 
tation to all the business situations he assumed, yet his efficiency and 
success as a financier marked him specially as an adept. For over 



332 NORTH CAROLINA. 

fiftj' years he was in the banking business, and when in 1S64 or 1S65, 
the branch bank of Cape Fear, at Salisbury, of which he had re- 
mained cashier from the first, was discontinued, Mr. Davis estabhshed 
the private bank of D. A. Davis, which he continued until his death. 
His moral and religious character was upon an exalted bqsis. In a 
private letter to a friend he wrote: " If I am a Christian, I owe it under 
God, to the precepts and examples of a pious father who was a ruling 
elder in the Presbyterian church for many years, as well as the pray- 
ers of a mother, whose constant practice it was to spend a season of 
private prayer for her children and family every night. If I could 
have in me any love of country, I have justly inherited it from my 
father, whose life was jeoparded in the Revolution to free his coun- 
try from a foreign yoke. And as I am a Presbyterian, I am justly en- 
titled to mjf predilections, as I am descended directly on the mater- 
ternal side from the Scottish Covenanters." 

At the age of twenty years, Mr. Davis became a member of the 
Presbyterian church at Faj'ettevllle, and in a short time was or- 
dained to the eldership in this church. On removing his family to 
Salisbury In 1837, he and his wife were two weeks later received into 
the communion of the Salisbury Presbyterian church. In December, 
1839, he was elected an elder in this church and served in that capa- 
city till his death. Mr. Davis often represented his church in the 
presbytery, the synod and the general assembly. Many years ago 
he was made clerk and treasurer of the session. As treasurer, he had 
the management of the funds of the church and the supervision of 
the property connected with it. These duties he performed faith- 
fully to the last. He lived to see his eight children members of the 
church of their fathers, and all of them but one survived him. Two 
sons and one grandson are faithful ministers of the Presbyterian 
church, and one son a ruling elder in the church. Rev. John W. 
Davis, one of his sons Is a faithful misslonar}' In Soo Chou, China, 
and the children then surviving were all but him permitted to stand 
around the death-bed of their father and receive his blessing. Mr. 
Davis died December 14, 1881. In 1849 Mr. Davis became a Master 
Mason and in 1850 he was exalted to the degree of Roj'al Arch. Mr. 
Davis had strong and marked characteristics, his leading traits being 
decision, order and system in business. In his attachments he was 
constant and affectionate, traits which shone out In his relations of 
husband, father and friend. It Is worthy of mention, that his son, 
Mr. O. D. Davis has ably and successfully followed in man^- of the po- 
sitions vacated by the death of his father and has continued the es- 
tablished banking business of his father. He was born In Rowan 
county, N. C, February 27, 1851, and graduated with honors from 
Davidson college In 1S73. He taught for one year and then went to 
the business college, at Poughkeepsle, N. Y., where he graduated in 
November, 1874. Returning home he was made cashier of the pri- 
vate bank of his father, at Salisbury, remaining as such till his father's 
death. Immediately after this, he and Mr. Samuel H. Wile}- estab- 
lished a private bank, doing business as Davis & Wile}-, bankers, till 



NORTH CAROLINA. T,^^ 

Jul}' 1, 18S9, when they associated some of the prominent business 
men of Salisbur)- with tliem and established Davis & Wiley bank, 
Mr. Samuel H. Wiley being president, and Mr. Davis the cashier, the 
institution being a state bank, and it is still doing a successful busi- 
ness. Mr. Davis has for years been a member of the Presbyterian 
church in which he has been an elder for eleven 3'ears. He has for 
about the same time been treasurer of the invested funds of the 
church. He was town treasurer of Salisbury for three years, and is 
one of the substantial citizens highly respected in the community in 
which he resides. Mr. Davis was united in marriage, May 5, 1880, 
with Miss May, the daughter of J. M. McCorkle, deceased, who in his 
lifetime was a prominent lawj-er in Salisbury. ]\Ir. and Mrs. Davis 
have three children. 

SAMUEL H. WILEY. 

Samuel H. Wiley, Esq., of Salisbury, is one of the best known 
and most prominent of bank presidents and business men in the east- 
ern part of North Carolina. His parents were Shannon and Nancy 
(Millis) Wiley, and the father was a nephew of Alexander Hamilton. 
He was a farmer by occupation and of Scottish ancestry. The 
mother was of French descent, her parents being of a family of ex- 
iled Huguenots. The father reached the age of seventy-seven, and 
the mother lived till she was eighty-five. Both parents were univer- 
sally respected wherever known. Samuel H. W^iley received a thor- 
ough literary education at the classical school of E. W. Caruthers 
and at the Caldwell .institute, then among the foremost educational 
institutions in the state. Among his schoolmates were Col. Julius A. 
Gray, Gov. A. M. Scales and other characters who have risen to emi- 
nence. Moved by a laudable ambition Mr. W^iley was destined for 
success in life. By teaching school he obtained the means of com- 
pleting his education. As a teacher he was faithful, instructive, and 
on completing a classical course the degree of master of arts was 
conferred upon him by the University of North Carolina. After 
studying civil engineering under Gen. J. F. Gilmer, Mr. Wiley served 
for some time as a surveyor of public lands in the west. W^ithout 
solicitation on his part he was appointed collector of internal revenue 
of North Carolina in 1865, and with great credit to himself and satis- 
faction to the public, held the position till 1872, when he resigned 
that he might give a more undivided attention to his own private 
business. 

Although Mr. Wiley has never been a politician, nor a candidate 
for office, he has filled several positions of trust with signal ability. 
He has for a number of years been largely interested in various finan- 
cial and industrial enterprises and has always given freely of his time 
and resources to the material upl)uilcling of his town and section. He 
is the president of the Davis «!<: Wiley bank of Salisbury, and is vice- 
president and the largest stockholder in the Salisbury cotton mills. 
He is treasurer of the North Carolina steel and iron company at 



334 NORTH CARULINA. 

Greensboro, N.C.; a director of the Western North Carolina railroad 
company; a director of the Salisbury water works com^sany; a director 
of the Salisbury gas company as well as of the Connelly Springs com- 
pany, the Yadkin railroad company, the North Carolina Bessemer 
company; trustee and treasurer of Davidson college; men\ber of the 
finance committee of the North Carolina railroad company, of which 
he has been chairman for fourteen years. All these as well as other 
similar positions are evidences of the esteem and confidence his fel- 
low citizens repose in his wisdom and integrity. Mr. Wiley has been 
instrumental in the development of the new celebrated Cranberry and 
Ore Hill iron properties. In 1861, Mr. Wiley was married to Miss 
Miriam C. Murdock, who with five children, the fruit of this union, 
still lives to bless his home. Mr. Wiley has been an extensive trav- 
eler both in this country and in Europe. He is thoroughly well in- 
formed on all subjects of general interest, and throughout his useful 
and active career, has ever been a warm friend and supporter of edu- 
cational and religious institutions. He has been a lifelong member 
of the Presbyterian church of Salisbury, in which he has been a ruling 
elder for many years. Perhaps the most important achievements of 
Mr. W^iley's life were the success of his efforts in conjunction with 
those of Col. A. B. Anderson, of Raleigh, in the construction and com- 
pletion of the W^estern North Carolina and Yadkin railroads. 

COL. JAMES G. BURR 

is a native of W^ilmington and has resided in that city the whole of 
his life. He married Miss Many Anna Berry of the same cit}', a de- 
scendant of Chief-Justice Charles Berry, who held office under the 
Colonial government; she was also a niece of Admiral John Ancrum 
Winslow, of Alabama fame, and who was also a native of Wilming- 
ton. He had issue three sons and four daughters, but only four 
children are now living. Col. Burr has held many positions of trust 
and honor under the government. In 1848, he was appointed by 
President Taylor, postmaster of Wilmington, was removed by Presi- 
dent Pierce for political reasons solely, being a whig, and retired from 
office with the reputation of having made one of the most efficient 
officers the city has ever had. In 1853 he was appointed teller in the 
bank of Cape Fear, an institution having a capital of one million and 
a half dollars, with seven branches in different parts of the state, and 
in 1861, on the death of the cashier, was elected to fill that vacancy 
which he had held until 1866, when the bank went into bankruptcy, 
having been ruined by the war. He was a director and acting presi- 
dent of the Wilmington & Manchester railroad from i860 to 1873. 
In 1866 was elected one of the aldermen of the city, and by a stand- 
ing resolution of the board, acting mayor during the absence of that 
officer; was a state director of the insane asylum at Raleigh, and for 
nearly twenty-five years a vestryman of St. James church in this city. 
Early in the war he was commissioned by Gov. Vance, colonel of the 
Seventh regiment state guards, and though not liable to military 



NORTH CAROLINA. 335 

duty, he accepted the position, and with his regiment, was appointed 
to the defense of the city of Wihnington. At the bombardment of 
Fort Fisher, he was ordered to its defense, but had no chance to par- 
ticipate in the affairs as Gen. Bragg did not think it prudent to attack 
the enemy's intrenchments. On the evacuation of Wihiiington, he 
marched with his regiment to Raleigh, N. C, and served on the staff 
of Gov. Vance, who sent him, with ex-Govs. Swain and Graham, to 
meet Gen. Sherman and surrender the city, which they satisfactorily 
accomplished. At the close of the war he returned to Wilmington, 
where he has since resided. Col. Burr possesses a vigorous mind and 
an intellect of a high order. As a writer and lecturer he is surpassed 
by few. In him is combined that rare faculty of uniting pathos with 
wit, one moment holding his audience in tears, the next convulsed 
with laughter. Generous to a fault, his heart as trusting as a child's, 
is ever read}' to respond to the cry of distress, like his purse which is 
always open to those who need. A gentleman of the Cape Fear, 
brave, chivalrous and courtly. North Carolina may well be proud of 
her sons. * 

GEORGE W. WILLIAMS. 

Among the men of North Carolina, who have achieved success in 
business circles, appears the subject of this mention. Mr. George \V. 
Williams, a native of this state, was born in Chatham county, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1831. He spent his early life in his native county, and re- 
ceived his education in the schools of the state and at the hands of 
private tutors, but was denied the advantages of a collegiate educa- 
tion. He first entered business near Fayetteville, N. C, in a small 
wa}-, in Januarj', 1852, conducting a general merchandise store which 
he carried on successfully until 1853 when he was offered the advant- 
age of a partnership with his elder brother, Mr. John D. Williams, 
now president of the bank of Fayetteville which he accepted, the 
firm being known as G. W. Williams & Co. Mr. Williams assumed 
the management of the business and conducted it until the early part 
of 1866, when he connected himself with Capt. David Murchison and 
became the senior member of the firm of Williams & Murchison of 
Wilmington. His connection with Capt. Murchison in all his success- 
ful transactions is well known and further mention of them can be 
found ir^ the sketch of Capt. Murchison which appears elsewhere in 
this work. On the death of Capt. Murchison in 1882, Mr. Williams 
was appointed administrator of the immense estate and by his judi- 
cious management saved the heirs many thousands of dollars. He has 
continued the business built up by the firm, ha\ing after the death 
of Capt. Murchison formed a partnership with his brother. Col. K. M. 
Murchison, continuing the business under the old name. Mr. Wil- 
liams is also senior member of a firm which conducts one of the 
largest wholesale grocery houses in the state, and he took an active part 
in the organization of the bank of New Hanover of Wilmington, of 
which he is vice-president and director. Mr. Williams was happily 



336 NUKTII CAROLINA. 

wedded to Miss Kate A., daughter of D. Murchison, and the sis- 
ter of Capt. D. R. Murchison, on April 12, 1S54. This union has been 
blessed by five sons and three daughters now living. Mr. Williams 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and has been a lifelong com- 
municant of the Presbyterian church. He has never taken any active 
part in politics or sought public honors, preferring to give his whole 
attention to his business interests. He has shown himself to be a 
man possessed of more than ordinary abilit}-, and during his long 
residence in Wilmington, has b}' his honesty and uprightness gained 
many warm personal friends and the respect and esteem of all that 
know him. 

EUGENE A. EBERT. 

One of the leading and most enterprising business men of Forsyth 
county, N. C, is Eugene A. Ebert. Mr. Ebert is a native of Salem, 
N. C, having first seen the light there. May 27, 1850. He left school 
at the age of sixteen, and at that time entered upon his mercantile 
career as a clerk in a Salem store. He remained with one firm for 
ten years, and at the expiration of that period embarked in business 
for himself, and for eight years successfully conducted a large busi- 
ness. During the last two years of this time he was cashier in the 
internal revenue office. Selling out his store, he engaged in the 
tobacco business, and still is interested in that leading industry. In 
1888, at the organization of the Forsyth Savings bank, Mr. Ebert was 
elected its president, and still holds that office. He is secretary of 
the Winston Development company, and is a stockholder in the 
Roanoke & .Southern railroad company. In 1877 he was happily 
united in marriage to Miss Dora Starbuck, daughter of D. H. Star- 
buck, of Winston, N. C, and to their union three children have been 
born, one of whom survives, namely, Ellen. Christian Ebert, the 
father of the above, was born in Forsyth county, N. C, in 181 2. He 
was a hatter by trade. He married Miss Lucinda Rothass in 1838, 
and became the father of four children, two of whom now survive 
him: Leonora A., wife of John I. Nissen, of Salem, and E. A. Ebert. 
The father of these children was a son of Solomon Ebert, who was 
born in Pennsylvania, in 1775, and came to North Carolina with his 
parents when a youth. He died in 1S38. 

HON. DAVID F. CALDWELL. 

One of North Carolina's most prominent citizens is the Hon. 
David F. Caldwell. David Franklin Caldwell, son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth Caldwell, was born one mile west of the cit}- of Greens- 
boro, N. C, Guilford county, on the 5th of November, 1814. His 
parents removed to Greensboro when he was but one year old, and 
his schoolastic training was obtained in the schools of that city. For 
a time he worked on his father's farm, and in 1841 left the farm to 
enter the mercantile business in Greensboro, and continued in that 



NORTH CAROLINA. 337 

enterprise until 1849. In 1S48 he was elected to the house of repre- 
sentatives of the state, and was re-elected for five successive terms, 
only retiring in 1861. In i860 he began the study of law, and one 
year later was admitted to the bar. He practiced at Greensboro 
until the new code was adopted, when he abandoned his profession 
in disgust. In 1864 he was elected county attorney and served until 
his retirement from the law. He was a delegate to the constitutional 
convention of 1S65, and in the same year was nominated for congress, 
but was counted out by Gen. Canby, at Charleston, S. C. In 1872 he 
was a delegate to the convention that nominated Greeley and Brown 
for the presidency and vice-presidency, respectively, of the United 
States, and in 1879 was sent to the state senate, where he remained 
one term, and in the same \'ear was appointed a member of the com- 
mittee chosen to compromise the state debt. Mr. Caldwell's course 
as a member of the legislature was dignified and able. In 184S he 
framed, and had passed a tax bill, revolutionizing the tax system of 
the state, and despite the bitterest opposition, finally brought his 
measure into so great favor with the people that he was practically 
their unanimous choice for the legislature until his voluntary retire- 
ment from public life. He was more than prominent in the organi- 
zation and building of the North Caroli