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Full text of "Discourse on the family as an element of government"




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T I-I E F -A. 'M I L Y 



AiiERiCAN riiiLosorniCAi seciriY, 

JANUARY, 1864. 

!• II I L A D E L P IT I A : 
■---'--■ - 18 64. 






"God setteth the solitary in faniilie?." 

Psalm 6S : C. 

It is -with hesitation and miscrivine that I bring tliis sub- 
ject before jou ; fearing to detain your attention too hn^, 
and apprehensive tliat it may not be thotight strictly appro- 
priate for our discussion. Tliat tlie subject most netirly re- 
hitcs to man and his well-being, and is to disclose the design 
of the Creator in regard to him, should not make it the less 
one, it seems to me, of philosophical inquiry and interest. 
And if from the physical we should rise, in our investiga- 
tions, to the moral and social welfare of man, still the subject 
will retain all its philosophical fitness, and doscrve our at- 
tention. Permit me, then, to confess at the outset that I 
cherish the design to do a moral good, in my limited abili- 
ty, and the better to do it, 1 wi.-h to borrow your prestige. 
I have thought that if you would li.-ten v^-ith approbation, 
others will think it worth while to read, and that iuc-is 
deemed salutary to society, though familiar to you, may 
thus more favorably reach those to whom they are kv-s 
known. I cannot promise you novelty, for in constantly 

ob.-erved hunia]. nature, lavr, and morals, there is not ^o 
much opportunity to di.-eover anvthine new, as there i. a 
duty to insist up.u what is ah-eady known fur our crond : and 
as Jaw and morals have for tlieir objeet but to state and im- 
press a sound rule of eonduet in life, sound praetical sense 
is the liighcst merit that a writer upon these subjects can 
hope to attaiu. 

I am conscious of addressing some, who, as naturalists, 
■'•~vc accustn„,ed to study the nature and habits of livin.' 
creatures lower in the scale of being, thau man. These are 
studied with a laborious care, minuteness, and skill, and au 
.'-vaetncss of classification, that is absolutely surp-i^in^c to 
"thers who are differently occupied. And "for what is all 
this self-sacrificing patience of intellectual labor? Chitfiv 
but to gratify a scientific curiosity, and to penetrate 
the intents and wisdom of the Creator, as displayed in lii. 
^vorks. It is but to elevate and advance our views in the 
^ame course of study, to consider nran in his domestic, so- 
e-al, and political relations; but with this higher inteiest, 
that It IS to study our own nature and highest welfare. 

It IS when legislation grows out of human wants, and ac- 
cords most closely with nature, that it is most useful ?nd 
enduring. We begin, therefore, at.the ri^ht point, when 
M-e study the nature and needs of man, with purpose to le- 
gislate for his wem,re. I propose, in this discourse, that we 
shall consider the human family, that we may duly esti- 
rinite its importance as an element of government, and con- 
^:otr how much it should be favored by our personal in- 
fiuences, by judicial decision, by legislation, and in all our 
social regulations. 

To sketch the hhstory and formr.tien of the family, is to 
go back to the origin of all society, and see it in its incep- 
tion. '':\Iale and female," God created the first parents, 

and these bceominp; the parent? of chililroii, the family is 

f.jniied and bound together by ties iidierent in our nature, 

:md the strongest in nature. Those partake of the charac- 

t.n- of an instinct, but are more than the instinct that rules 

; inferior bein-s, for the parental and filial affections endure 

; beyond any physical ncce-sify. and end only with life, and 

i not then without the earnest hope and patsiouatc desire of 

■ the family reunion. 

i As the family increases, and the descendants multiply 
I and marry, and airain increase, the grandfather becomes 
i the patriarch of a tribe. Tribes grow to be a people. In 
! the lowest stage of .society they live by hunting, tishing, 
! and upon the spontaneous frui's of the earth; thence rise 
I to be shepherds, and to feed their flocks, move from place 
I to place. In pursuit of game and pasturage they come 
! into contact, and cuntosting fjr the territory that yields the 
! needed supplies, they make war, and the men becime war- 
i riors, and then the chi»:f burden is cast upon women to 
I support the family. The American Indians, when found 
in the north, were in this hunter state ; xVhraham and Lot 
I were in the pastoral stage; and the Germans, in the time 
I of Caesar and Tacitus, were in the same stage, only cultivat- 
j ing the soil where the nation rested for a season, without 
j any permanent division or ownership in it. In this condi- 
j tion families followed their military leaders; and as war was 
t the principal business of each people, there was but slight 
j development of the funnily institution, as we see it in civi- 
i lized society. The separate home, with its sacred scclu- 
I sion, except as the door is opened by hospitality, was yet 
j Wanting to the civilization and happines.s of mankind. 

The earliest known occupation of our ancestral commu- 
j nities of Northern Europe, v.-as that of shifting masses, 
j mo\ing forward as they had the desire and the strength, 
i • 1* 


regardless of tlie rights of neighboring conainunities, except i' 

as the latter had power, fur a time, to resi;?t the ever en- y 

ward pressure westward and southward. When these in>j\- ' 

mg masses began to appropriate the suil, and to settle in ' 

fixed localities, it was under the feudal system, by which i| 

lands were ten)porarily allotted to n)ilitary fulluwers, upon || 

condition of rendering military service, or needed supplies jj 

in kind. Hence titles came to be held upon tenures whiuh jJ 

only expired in our revolution. This degree of settlement ;! 

ripened into greater certainty and duration of title, and '■ 

the commutation of rents fur military services. Villa-es I' 

and towns were built, but at first only at /ho base of hills, || 

crowned by the castle of the military chieftain, who was ii 

their needed protector, as the inhabitants were his noces- {: 

sary retainers. Centuries passed before life and property ij 

became so secure as to aduiit of spanc habitations over the \\ 

face of the country; and at this moment all Europe retains jj 

the features formed by the insecurity of the middle and ij 

prior ages of its history. There everywhere are yet .seen j! 

the heights crowned by often crumbling castles, witii the |! 

village or town beneath, while wide and distant tracts are !' 

cultivated, in small subdivisions, by villagers who each J! 

night return to their village homes. j. 

As the arts advanced and towns grew into importance, ;' 

and the military lords borrowed of the rich burghers, or j| 

sold them lands to obtain money to enter upon the crusade !i 

to Jerusalem, and commercial cities arose under royal char- I-; 

ters, and formed leagues against the chiefs who had levied jj 

tribute on travellers and trade, a greater dependence was \ 

placed upon the central government or crown, and the peo- i 

pie gradually became disenthralled of the local military dcs- j 

potisms. With a general government of law pervading: a Ij 

national territory, came security to families, and thouce ! 


arose tlic inoJern civilizatiun of Europe and Amorica, the '', 
liiLihett and most iiitoH'iLicnt the world ha< yet known. In 
ancient Jeru.-aleui, and Athons, and Konie, a hi^^h eivil- 
ization and refinement had indeed hen known, but tliat '■ 
refinement beeame steeped in corruption ; for tlio world had J 
not then known the true source of the hiylic^-t refinement ;^ 
of manners; and when Christianity Cist spread over 1' 
Southern Europe, while yet under Ilonian rule, it was slow 
to produce its legitimate etlect.s, by reason of the previous 
deep corruption ; so deep, indeed, that it could only be cured . 
by a fresh infusion of barbarian vipir, and the eradication | 
of degenerate men. But the infusion of Iluns. uoth.s, and | 
^'andals, were rough materials fVtr Chiistianiry to mould 
into civilization. !j 

Though rude and warlike, these invading hordes from |i 
the great Northern hive supplied the needed elements for ij 
the renovation of the corrupt descendants, novr the Irag- ■, 
ments of the Roman Empire. These con.juerors of the Em- i 
pire became themselves captives to the Cluistianity of the ■; 
conquered; and that faith, a milder climate, and the more \: 
refined manners of the South, had their natural civilizing || 
infiuences upin the new settlers in Southern Europe and 
Nortlicrn Africa. These brought not only their fresh and 
uncorrupted natures from the forests of Germany, but they 
also brought with them a characteristic peculiar to them- ; 
; selves, worth more than all the civilized effeminacy they - 
{ displaced. — they brought with them a profound reverence !; 
' for woa:an. Let us remoniber this, for it is the element of ! 
I the world's highest civilization, next to Christianity, for ;; 
i nearly two thousand years, and is to co-operate with that 
j faith in the indefinite future. jj 

] Of their earliest written history Tacitus gives the best |l 

:| account, and in this wise speaks of the sentiuient of the a! • 


cicnt German rrnnd tow;iri]s tlieir wonicn, in whose pre- 
sence tliey fouL'-lit tlieir b;ittles, with the dreadful alterna- 
tive that defeat wuiiid destine wives and daughters to the 
horrors of slavery: "There is, in the-ir opinion, something: 
sacred in the female sex, and even the power of foreseeincr 
!j future events. Their advice is, therefore, always heard; 
they are liequcntly consulted, and their responses are 
deemed oracular. We have seen in the reign of Vespasian, 
the famous "N'eleda revered as a divinity by her country- 
men. IJffore her time, Aurinia and others were held in 
ecjual veneration ; but a veneration founded on sentiment 
and superstition, free from that servile adulation which 
pretends to people heaven ^vith human deities." (yee. viii.) 
Tacitus further says, '• Maniaae is considered as a strict 
and sacred institution. In the national character there is 
nothing so truly commendable. To be contented with one 
wife is peculiar to the Germans. They differ in this re-pect !, 
from all savage nations." (xviii.) "In conserjuence of these i 
manners, the marriage state is a lite of affection and female | 
constancy. The virtue of the woman is guarded frum se- i 
duction. No public spectacles to seduce her; no banquets | 
to inflame her passions; no baits of pleasure to disarm her j 
virtue." iler very infrequent inhdelity to the niarriage ! 
vow was instantly visited by ignominious punishment, and j 
unpardonable dishonor, (xix.) I 

This praise of the pliilosv-phical historian and censor or ] 
Pioman nionds, is given in uianner to point the contrast '■' 
with the corrupt nianners of his own country. lie had :■ 
witnessed the effects of the vices that had largely brdugbt !■ 
marriage into disuse, at a period when Home had been i' 

greatly depopulated by foreign and dome-tic wars; an evil 
which Augustus had souglit to remedy by bringing mar- \\ 
riages into credit by rewards and privih^gts, and celibacy '| 


into discredit by disfavor and penalties; and tlie censures 
■ of Tacitus stand in accurd ^Yitll those of Horace, and Juve- 
nal, and St. Paul. In A.^Ia the condition of woman was 
that of constrained scclu.-iun ; and, wliere not under re- |! 
straint in Soutliern Eurupe, slic enjoyed to abuse her !i- !| 
berty; led to d.. so by he who should have been the pro- 'j 
tector of her virtue. It was only when Christianity met ;i 
the uncorrupted manners and better natural cliaraeter of i| 
the uncivilized German nations, that came together the fit- '! 
ting elements needed to rec^mcile the European iVeedom of |i 
• woman with her inviolate purity; and to nvakc woman and 'i 
the family instruments of the world's most perfect civiliza ji 
tion and happiness. Yet we must never fbr-et that Rome |i 
in her better days had her Lucretia, Cornelia, l^ortia, and II 
even in evil times had her Agrippina, Arria, C:x--ina, Fan- ii 
nia, Sophronia, Valeria, Paulina. Even then w;.man had !' 
the glury of resisting the tide of ccrruption, as she Suon 
after- had the glory of martyrdom in the e.tabli>hu.eut of 
the Christian faith, that was to do more than restore her to 
her former virtue and influential portion. 

Greece, the mo.'^t cultivated of ancient nafion.s V^'^ced 
woman in a higher position than the Asiatics, yet placed 
her not so high as we see her, as the trusted 'eounsellur 
and friend of her husband, as well as influential matron of 
the household. "The wife is housewife and nothing mure," 
says Ileeren. " Even the sublime Andromache, after that 
parting which will draw tears as long as there are eves 
wliich can weep and hearts whicli can feel, is st-nt back to 
the apartments of the women, to superintend the labors of 
the maid servants." " We meet with no trace rf those ele- 
vated feelings, that romantic love, as it is veiy improperly 
termed, which results from a higher regard fur the female 
sex. That love and that regard are traits peculiar to thu 


Goruiauic notions, a result of the spirit of gallantry, but 
which vre vainly look for in Greece. Yet here the Greeks 
stand between the East and the ^Yest. Although he was 
never to revere the female sex as beings of a higher order, 
he did not, like the Asiatic, imprison them by troops ia a 
l;arem." (Heeren's Greece, 95.) 

In speaking of peoples having a Germanic origin, those 
of England and Gaul are included, for these countries, be- 
fore, as we know after their historic ages, had no doubt re- 
ceived accessions, or suffered conquests froui the north of 
Germany, called the "womb of nations/' Tacitus conjec- 
tured the Britons to have couie from the neighboring conti- 
nent. "You will find," he says, "in both nations the same 
religious rites, and the same superstition. The two lan- 
guages ditlcr but little;" he says, speaking of the Britons 
and the Gauls. (Life of Agricola, Ixi.) After ihe Roman 
armies had been withdrawn, and the Picts and Scots made 
inroads, the Saxons, including the tangles, who gave name 
to England, were called in from the north of Germany; to 
whom succeeded the Danes, and afterwards the Noru;ans, 
all of whom sprang from the same prolific source. Nor- 
mans, though hist from Normandy, meant Northmen ; as 
Germans meant ^e>-e-uien, or warmen ; a generic nanje tliat 
described, by their most striking characteristic, the many 
peoples of Germany, who, under various names, bore down 
upon every country of Western and Southern J']urope. 

The Germans had no doubt a previous Eastern origin, 
since y.hilology and other traces indicate that the stream 
of population had fiuwcd from Central A^ia, the real source 
of the German nations. Whatever had been their original 
condition, the masses moved westward, as hunting, pasto- 
ral, and warlike nations; conditions incompatible with the 
jealous seclu-siou of women, which has always character- 


izcJ Southern Asia. Under the necessit}' of sharing tlie 
toils, hardships and dangers of husbands, fathers, and sons, 
■who passed all of life in moving camps, seclusion and effe- 
minacy were not the traits either of the sons of Tuisto or 
Odin, or of the daughters of Freya. I'^xposed to connnon 
dangers, and liable to be separated from husband and ehi]- 
dreu by the fate of battle, and to become the slaves of the 
con^juerors, a fate more terrible than death, their anxieties 
quickened their perceptions and foresight, and they be- 
came, beyond their husbands, thoughtful, astute, prophetic 
of the future ; became their assistants in battle, the nurses 
of the wounded, the providers for the family; man's truest 
friend and counsellor. Life then was nearly a constant 
warfare; the soil was without fixed ownership; was sparse- 
ly appropriated, but while the crop of the season should n)a- 
ture and be gathered ]3y the law that sprang from their 
profound reverence for woman and the marriage relation, 
the husband was allowed no =econd wife to share with her 
his affections; nor was she permitted to take a second hus- 
band even after his death. Under this stern abstemiuus- 
ness, so different from the husband of Asiatic habits, or of 
Koman customs and manners, with their shocking facilities 
of divorce, the trusted and faithful wife held a most influ- 
ential place in the faniily, as well as became a counsellor in 
public affairs. Hither, then, and to this rude age, it is be- 
lieved, we may niairdy trace the origin of that different 
treatment of women which has distinguished Northern and 
^\ estern Europe, during all her historic period, all 
the rest of the world, and which has largely contributed to 
place that smallest of the four continents in the front rank 
of the world's civilization; a sentiment and treatment which 
must continue to influence the world while the human race 
shall k:st. 

It could not be otborwisc than that woiiiau should h;ive 
atiaiiie<lto an exalted influence among the ancient inha- 
bitants of Germany, when we further read from Tacitus 
bow closely her fate was allied to her hu>band's and what 
was her participation in his achievements. '-They ll-ht in 
elans, he says, united by consanguinity, a family of war- 
riors. Their tenderest pledges are near them in the f eld. 
In the heat of the engagement, the soldier hears the shrh:ks 
of bis wife and the cries of his children. These are the dar- 
ling witnesses of his conduct, the applauders of his valor, 
at once beloved and valued. The wounded seek their mo- 
thers and their wives. Undismayed at the sight, the 
women count each honorable scar, and suck the gushing 
blood. They are even hardy enough to mix with the com- 
batants, administering refreshment, and exhorting them to 
deeds of valor. From tradition they have a variety of in- 
stances of armies put to the rout by the interposition of their 
wives and daughters again incited to renew the charge. 
Their women saw the ranks give way, and rushing tor- 
ward in the instant, by the vehemence of their cries and 
supplication, by opposing their breasts to danger, and by re- 
presenting the horrors of slavery, restored the order of bat- 
tle. To a German mind the idea of a woman led into cap- 
tivity is insupportable. In consequence of this prevailing 
sentiment, the states which deliver as hostages the daugh- 
ters of illustrious families, are bound by the most effectual 
obligation." (Manners of the Germans, vii, viii.) 

When the migratory nations in and from Germany, be- 
came fixed to localities by an appropriation of the soil and 
its use in agriculture, under the feudal .'system, and subject 
to its military services, which in England were only termi- 
nated by statute in 1660, the condition of private families 
became the more secure, and more subject t(^ the meliorat- 


!!._' influence? of the mother, wife, and sister, so Ion"- jis 
tucy wore held in respect and liunor; and that they should 
be so held, there were the concurring causes of niarria!.'e 
to one wife, the inlierited reverence for the sex, and the 
{.uwer of the Christian faith. This sentiment of loyalty t.. 
Tvutnan was the light and the life of the nations through 
the dark ages; and when ignorant and brutal men, in the 
security of their feudal castles, became the tyrants and op- 
pressors of men and women, that sentinient was relumed 
with yet greater brightness, and produced the ages of chi- 
vidry. Then brave and thoughtful and humane men count- 
ed it their highest happiness and honor to relieve oppressed 
innocence in the championship of the honored sex. An 
enthusiastic sentiment, kindred to religious devotion, filled 
the breasts of the orders of knighthood ; and woman was 
luvcd not only fur what she was, but in the highest ideal 
th:it the enkindled imaginations of men could form of her 
excellence; and men and women were alike elevated \u 
purity and character, as they truly cherished these exalted 
sentiments. The transition was easy and natural, and the 
chiv:dry of Europe became the cru.saders of the East; then 
rejuicing both in a devotion to the ideal of woman's excel- 
lence and to the Cross of Christ. The Council of Clermont, 
^•Idch in lOOf) authorized the first Cru.^ade, formally re- 
fugtiized cliivalry by declaring, "that every person of noble 
biMh, on attaining twelve years of age, should take a so- 
lemn oath before the bishop of his diocese, to defend to tho 
outermost the oppressed, the widows and orphans; that wo- 
j cien of noble birth, bcith married and single, should enjov 
i I'is special care; and that nothing should be wanting in 
■I 1dm to render travelling .safe, and to destroy the evill of 
;i tyranny." Thus did the church and religion lend their 
I I'oly sanction to the high sentiment of humanity that gave 


lifo to cliivalry. Yet observe, that oath was liiniteel in its 
special application to ''wuuien of noble birth I" Better this 
than none; yet how narrow it seems in this age, and in a 
Christian republic. 

How much better the sentiment I once heard fiuin a 
Swedish artisan, who gave up his seat in a coacli to take 
one on the top in the rain, to accommodate a plain woman 
who applied for a passage: "I always remember that my 
mother was a woman !" 

Ilallam, who thoroughly surveyed the history of the 3Iid- 
dle Ages, says, "I am not sure that we could trace very mi- 
nutely the condition of women for the period between the 
subversion of the Roman Empire and the first Crusade; but 
apparently man did not grossly abuse his superiority; and 
in point of civil rights, and even as to the inheritance of 
property, the two sexes were placed as nearly on a level as 
the nature of such warlike societies would admit." (Middle 
Ages, 329.) It was a necessity of the military services to 
bo rendered under the feudal system, that the eldest son 
should be preferred to the inheritance of lands held by mili- 
tary tenure. Ilallam acknowledges that "A great respect 
for the female sex had always been a remarkable character- 
istic of the Northern nations. The German women were 
high-spirited and virtuous; qualities which might bo causes 
or consequences of the veneration with which they were re- 
garded." lie should have said these qualities were both 
causes and consequences of that veneration. lie speaks of 
the spirit of gallantry, cherished as the animating principle 
of chivalry, as duo to the progressive refinement of society 
in the twelfth century, and he might also have acknow- 
ledged it a cause to produce that refinement; for by action 
and reaction, causes and cfl'ects for good or fur evil, are of 
perpetual reciprocal operation; and hence the greater en- 


couiagement ever to strive for the good, since effects ever 
I Lccon.e causes in a ce;;se!es3 concatenation. Can ^ve say 
j less, when this our age rejoices in the beneficent effects of 
; a sentiment that pervaded the breasts of our rude ances- 
; tors, two thousand years ago, in the forests of Germany? a 
I sentiment then peculiar to them, and destined to become yet 
j brighter in their descendants, and to illumine more widely 
I the world, if men and women will but conceive and practise 
I the highest excellence of which they are capable. 
j It is in lleeren's philosophical reflections upon Greece, 
that we find the truest expression of the source of Euro- 
; pcan superiority over all other nations, howsoever much we 
may differ or agree as to the effect of climate or physical 
I causes. 

I Similarity of climate does traverse the circumferences of 

] the globe, in all its different latitudes, though the same de- 

: gree of temperature follows waving geographical lines; yet 

the habits and manners of every people are diversified' in 

1 degrees, much beyond all that can justly be ascribed to the 

i single cause of the presence of heat or cold, clouds or sun- 

l ehine; and immeasurably beyond the single cause of cli- 

' mate do the civilization, intelligence and power of the Eu- 

i ropeans and their American descendants surpass those of 

j all other nations. And, if all the causes of that difference 

j be examined and considered, it is believed that no sin-le 

j one, other than religion, can justly claim an equal influen^ce 

over the formation of character with that which results 

fynn the European family, and woman's power in the fa- 

"'ily, as there and here constituted. 

After adverting to the physical causes of climate, soil, 
and geographical configuration, and the disadvantages of 
l;eing yet in the shepherd state of the Tartars and .Alomro- 
Iians, among unsubdued forests, Ileereu proceeds to ask, 



*' But, can we derive from this pliysical difleronce, those 
moral advautages wliich were produced bj"thc better reeu- 
lation of domestic society ? "With this begins, in some 
measure, the history of the first culture of our coiitiuent. 
Tradition has not forgotten to inform us that Cecrops, when 
he founded his colonies among the savage inhabitants of 
Attica, instituted at the same time regular marriages ; and 
who has not learned of Tacitus, the holy custom of our Ger- 
man ancestors ? Is it merely the character of the climate 
which causes both sexes to ripen more gradually, and, ut 
the same time more nearly simultaneously, and a cooler 
blood to flow in the veins of man; or, has a mure di'licate 
sentiment impressed upon the T^uropean a higher moral no- 
bility, which determines the relations of the two se-es ? Ee 
this as it may, who does not perceive the decisive impor- 
tance of the fact? Does not the wall of division which 
separates the iiilialitants of the East from those of the 
West repose chiefly on this basis ? And can it be doubted ! 
that this better domestic institution was essential to the 
progress of our political institutions? For, we make with I 
confidence the remark, no nation where polygamy was esta- j 
Wished has ever obtained a free and well-ordered constitu- i 
tion. Whether these causes alone, or whether other? beside ■ 
them (for, who will deny that there may have been others?) i 
procured for the Europeans their superiority, thus much is ; 
certain, that all Europe may now bimst of this superiority, j 
If the nations of the South preceded those of the Xurth; | 
if these were still wandering in their furcsts when tbose \ 
already had obtained their ripeness, they finally n;ade up | 
for their dilatoriness. Their time also came; the time when ■ 
they could look down upon their Southern brethren with a ; 
just consciousness of superiority." (Ileeren's Greece, 8.) i 
It is believed that such philosophers as Buckle are qui:- i 

too limited in their conceptions, wlien they ascribe to iiiate- 
rin! causes all the diticrenec,? of national character. These 
have truly modifying inllueiices; but buuiau sentiments, 
thoughts, traditions, law, song, religion, may have yet 
greater efTect to form the character of nations; that is, mo- 
ral, mental, and religions causes may be more potential than 
the differences of the physical causes pervading the world. 

The first inhabitants of Northern Germany, while in their 
pastoral state, could not have been influenced by physical 
causes essentially different from those which influenced 
their Mongolian relatives in Asia; the elevated table land 
of the latter giving them the lower temperature that be- 
longs to a higher latitude on the western side of that hemi- 
sphere. That is, as we go westward, we go further north- 
ward to keep in the same temperature, at the same eleva- 
tiou. The climate being similar, and the mode of life the 
same, the religion of both derived from the Indian mytho- 
logy, and woman, necessarily the exposed companion of 
man, -while bjith pursued a nomadic life, living in tempo- 
rary huts, the physical causes operating upon the kindred 
people of /V,sia and Europe, under the same temperature, 
could be little different. Nothing can be pointed to as 
cause for the extraordinary disparity of results, except a 
diflercnt religion during later centuries, so significant is the 
German's high respect for woman, with a single wife and 
niother in his family; while his ancestral nations in Asia 
had no such exalted sentiment, or lost it, and continued to 
hve in polygamy, with a liberty to divorce their wives at 
pleasure: causes lieighteued in eft'ect by the acceptance of 
Ciiristianity in Germany, and of Eudhism, as the religion of 
Central Asia. From the rude and warlike Goths, Vandals, 
Huns, Lombards, Saxons, all parts of Europe have attained 
the highest and most intelligent civilization known to the 


•u-or](], uliilo the Mongolians and Tartars have made no 
considerable advances in civilization since written history 
has furnished her narratives. It is true, a niilder climate 
and the intermingling with civilized peoples in the south, 
helped the process of amelioratidn ; but these cau-es could 
not operate in countries bordering on the Baltic and the 
Gorman Ocean, which had no intlux of people from the 
south ; where yet may be traced a jirofuunder respect for 
wouian, and a more vigorous manhood than in the south of 

The sentiment of devotion to the sex ran highest in its 
profession in the ages of chivalry and romance. ]3ut this 
was not the wholesome and pric'ical condition of society, 
which we should recommend as best adapted for woman's 
true welfare and the true interest of society. Tournament.s 
and courtly assemblages of the nobility were not the best 
school of her training. All that glittered so bri-htly, was 
not truthfully of intrinsic purity and value. Virtue is not 
best preserved where a prince and nobility eryoy by law. or 
privilege, or opinion, an immunity from the coinnK^n re- 
sponsibilities of men. Kings, who legally could do no 

to their courtiers, sure to be followed for evil in all the-gra- 
dations of society. It was in the middle rank of society, 
with its fewer temptations, that virtue cliietly took refuge; 
and it was there that woman fuliilled her most useful du- 
ties in the faujily, and was held in highest regard. It is 
consequently in the greater equality of a rciiublic where 
her pjwer can be made to be mo.^t pervasive and useful ; 
and it is there that men and law should do all that is prac- 
ticable to aid her best influences, and to sustain the con- 
Bervative power of the family. Between a republican equa- 
lity and a Chriatianity where all are equal in the l>ivi:ie 


sight, there is the liiuhctt congeniality, and tho.-e double 
potencies should here place woman ^^•hel•e she &hall exercise 
her happiest influences. 

The peoples of all Jkirope were virtually divided into 
classes, during the Middle Ages, and are so yet. There ex- 
isted kings and queens, lords, nobility, gentry, and freemen, 
and yet anothernunierous class who were not freemen, and 
were not comprised nor scL-ured in the rights of England's 
!Magna Charta. These, and their children, belonged to 
their master, and all that they could acrjuire belonged to 
him. They were bound to his person or estate, could be 
reclaimed if they escaped, had no legal redress for wrongs 
done their persons, and were compelled to do the lowest 
work, and perform the most menial offices. They were 
called villeins, and were slaves of the same color and blood 
as their masters. The name they gave to our language sig- 
nifies how they were regarded. It is obvious that their jj 
condition was, as all slavery is, wholly hostile to the attain- jj 
ment of the highest civilization, and to the best influences l| 
of the family relations, and that as regards both master and |j 
servant. This thraldom gradually wore out, under the be- j: 
neficent influences of Christianity, and its last vestige dis- |i 
appeared under the first king of the line of Stuarts. Our j 
own Magna Charta declared all men free and eiiual, and in j 
terms n)ade no distinction of class; yet was there an excep- ! 
tion undei-stood, and described in the Federal Constitution, 
of the worst phase of slavery. 

In the same ages that slavery was expiring, as an efl^ete ', 
institution, in England, the merchants of the same British |} 
nation and some of her colonists this side of the x\tlantia, j; 
were bu.-y in planting it in her coloines, and we took it as jj 
an inheritance at our Ilcvolution ; and without its recogni- ! 
tion, the Federal Constitution could not have embraced all . 


tlie original thirteen of the United States. It was taken 
by part of the North as a hard necessity, while part voted 
for it. Its fruits have always been inimical to the bo^t edu- 
cation, and to pure morals in the family, and are now felt 
in a bitter fratricidal war. Should it expire as a conse- 
quence of that war, it will relieve the Northern conscience 
■ if a long-endured sense of national wrong. 

That a people may be happy and virtuous, all must be 
3f equal civil rights, and of one grade, except as talents 
and culture and virtue make individual differences; other- 
wise it is in human nature that the favored class or classes 
will degrade and oppress thnse of lower rank. "Woman 
must be protected by severe laws in all her personal rights, 
as with us she is, and also by a sound public opinion.' Man 
must not, by law or public opinion, be suffered to have an 
impunity in trampling upon the weak, or of arrogating to 
himself more of God's be.-t gift to him, than the proportion 
provided by the Author of nature. Slavery and polygamy 
are both incompatible with a just equality of rights, and 
with human happiness, and are especially destructive of the 
virtue and beneficent influences of the family. They are 
evils and wrongs, whose extirpation is always a question 
ij but of the means and time of execution. 
jl Marriage between one man and one woman, with fidelity 

j to the marriage vow, is the natural order from which man 
and woman derive their fullest happiness, and society its 
best welfare. The equality in the number of the sexes, 
through all the centuries of time, shows the Creative pur- 
pose that but two should become the pnronts of the family, 
and when but two, these have the highe^c incentives of mu- 
tual effort for the welfare of the family, without the jeal- 
ousies and strifes and degradation incident to polygamy. 
United in affection and counsels, each sustaining the cou- 

mere nnd confiJcnce of the other, the two attain a puccoss 
irrcatur than the aggregate of their separate eflbrts ; their 
kindly feeHngs towards each other and their children, have 
their natural exercise, and these are happiness ; and they 
escape the idiosyncrasies which sometimes make singular 
tliuse who pass unwedded tlirough life. 

Those temperate observances which belong to the family 
thus constituted, save from the severe penalties that spring 
from a capricious incontinence, and from a terrible disease, 
that seems to have been set as a guard to vindicate the na- 
tural law of temperance, modesty, and discretion. Popu- 
lation then increases faster, children are better nurtured, 
more healthy and happy, and become better citizens, for 
all s(jcial and industrial purposes, and for the support of 
the government. The family, too, if fidelity be observed 
to its relations and duties, saves man from his worst enemy, 
liimself; saves him from vices that extingui>h his aft'cctions, 
vices that cannot be habitually followed without turning his 
heart to stone. "When celibacy and corruption become the 
rule, the state is lost : Fvome would not have fallen before 
the barbarians, if the Roman people had not first been di- 
minished and weakened by the loss of the virtues that sus- 
tain the family. Their frecjuent and unscrupulous divorces 
and transfers by new marriages were more cruel and demo- 
. ralizing than an authorized and regulated Asiatic polygamy. 
The family constituted as we see it, is the most healthy 
and happy arrangement, though susceptible of some im- 
provement in the best, and uf great imprrjvcment in the 
niuny. There only is found a mutual sympathy and sup- 
port, many defences against the assailing evils of life, to 
which separately its members would succumb. While writ- 
ing these pages I have received the Fourteenth Annual Ke- 
p'Tt of the Mi-siou in the Insane Ilositital of our city. The 

cxpcnericoJ, faithful, and observant chaplain says, " V.'o 
must remember that the quiet comforts of home do much 
to keep in tune the harp of a thousand strings. And this 
brings up the collateral thought that the divine institute of 
the family builds a wall around the intellect a? well as the 
heart. The isolation of a homeless and unsettled life has 
always done much to develop morbid mental conditions. 
The bruins v,hich yield are not generally those of the toil- 
.ing heads of families; the detached in society succumb the 
soonest. We think the tables of our institutions catalocue 
this result. • Hence, whatever in our social habits inhibits 
the general prevalence of the matrimonial relation, adds to 
the harvest of alienated mind. A rational home culture 
will soou depopulate our asylums; but when will this cul- 
ture prevail among us?" The Rev. Edward C. Jones, who 
thus speaks, then adverts to the evil of a demand for wealth 
before the young will risk settlement in life, instead of be- 
ing mutually willing to live simply, exertively, and hap- 
pily, as the chief of discouragement of marriages. 

It is in sickness and sorrow, " when pain and anguish 
wring the brow," that the home becomes indispensable to 
human cure and preservation. One who writes forcibly 
from observation, and with a humane feeling, though too 
often disposed to raise a veil that modesty should forbid, 
gays truly, "Nature has bound up life within a triple and 
absolute tie. Man, woman, child : separately they are sure 
to perish, and are only saved together." (Michelet.) And 
many and sad are the proofs he gives in his own country, 
France; that gayest and saddest country on earth ; whose 
celibacy, and marriage with its sacred pledges unobserved, 
are alike productive of immensity of misery. Paris Is at 
once the centre of the world's most brilliant displays of 
wealth and fashion, *and of the exhibition of the moit de- 


plomble vice and misery; here in constant an J closest con- 
tact and shueldng contrast. Iler levity and brilliancy can- 
not mask, and, therefore, but mock her woe. 

The causes operative there to produce these results, 
should be beacon warnings to us. There, though there be 
not legal slavery, is every inequality of rank and wealth, 
with laws to perpetuate that inequality. There has long 
been suflered an unhappy loss of religious faith, that has 
dissolved the sacred attachments of family, and made a jest 
of promises that should be regarded as holy. There abound 
women more than can find honest employment and ade- 
quate remuneration; and many more men than can obtain 
wages to maintain themselves and firmily. These form not 
families, and know not their salutary restraints, nor enjoy 
their conservative happiness. Hence the same author says 
of his own nation, "Woman is no longer esteemed fur the 
love and happiness of man, still less for maternity; but as 
an operative." Let us hope this is but the darkest side 
of the picture, portrayed by one who, though painting from 
the life, paints with strongly contrasting colors. Yet are 
there writers there who have given us perfect portraitures 
of women, found even in France. 

It is to the families of the commonwealth that nearly all 
of moral training is to be traced. There the sentiments 
and principles of religion are effectually cherished and en- 
forced. There spring the impulses of charity, that often 
surpass in contribution the aggregate of the public reve- 
nues. There the sentiments that give tone to public opi 
nion are formed; an opinion that makes and executes the 
law, and guides the national policy. The families of so- 
ciety are the ballast of the commonwealth, that preserves 
law and order, in the midst of excitement and disorder, 
and restores tranquillity after a state has been convulsed 
by violence and rebellion. 


And does the rjovcrnnient demnnd soldiers for it< do- 
ffiicc under thu.^e circumstances which have oceuned in 
all history, in a world with elements of evil as well as oood? 
; It is in the families of the commonwealth that they arc to 
I be found in greatest numbers, with the best phy.~ical deve- i 
I lopment, and best moral training; with patriotisuj, loyaltv, i 
j and intelligent efiiciency. These bring with them a double i 
pledge of fidelity, in the love of the I'amily, whose eyes are { 
upon them, and the love of country. These act under a ! 
sense of duty that the homeless cannot know. Though war j 
can only spring from evil, and no war can ever arise where I 
one party is not in the wrong, to provoke or bring it on, j 
we must admit individuals may, nay, must, act under the j 
most exalted sense of duty, when they peril life for the love : 
of their country. ! 

Professor Peabody bears strong testimony to the value of j' 
the fanjily in this comprehensive summary, "^^'llile Clial ' 
obedience alone can train worthy subjects to the state, there 1 
are yet other aspects in which Government depends on the | 
home-life, and is sustained by the family relation, so that, 
for a homeless community, anarchy or despotism would be 
the alternative. To an incalculable degree the home in- 
stinct supplies the place of law, supersedes the harsher mi- 
nistries of government, prevents crime, anticipates want, 
divides and lightens burdens, which else no public orga- 
nizations could bear. The gravitation toward home is in 
every nation a stronger force than its police and armies are 
or can be, and accomplibhes many purposes of prime impor- 
tance which they could in no way fulfil. The few huUiC- 
less members of a community are of immeasurably more 
charge, burden, and peril to its constituted authorities, than 
the overwhelming majority that have homes." As much 
then as we should hold government and law in honor, aiid 

clioii.-h tlie fentiiiipnt of loyalty to it, we owe the like re- 
Lrai'd to that smallest civil institution, the fan)ily; tor with- 
uut it social order could not exist, frovorniucnt could not 
live, except it he as a despotic force, to rule by uniitary 
ro.-traint the chaotic elements of an unrivganized people, 
preferring mi-rule, license, and disorder. Such people could 
be no law or police to themselves. 

To encourage the family and its beneficent influences, 
we must discourage all that militates against it. All sys- 
tems of communism that tend to loosen the ties of family, 
or to dissever those ties, or to prevent the formation of fa- 
milies, are t.) be discountenanced as norma! institutions. 
Indeed, from the nature of man, these can never be the 
general order of society. Spartan citizens may be sepa- 
rated from their families, and be trained to the endurance 
of self-denials and hardships, anrl to the observance of se- 
crecy, by the iron discipline of a Lycurgus; and religious 
orders, fleeing from the world, repentant of their sins, may 
carry their self-discipline and penitential inflictions to the 
extreme of human endurance, as imposed by a head inexo- 
rable as a Loyola; but surely these results will be attained 
at the fearful sacrifice of all that is genial in social life, 
and of all that can make this life a happiness to its pos- 
sessor. Modern reform communities may be formed witb 
the good purpose to make life more cheerful and happy, as 
we have seen a number in our day; to obtain more econo- 
mically the physical means of livelihood, with more of lite- 
rature, science, and social amusement. Yet such a social 
community is an artificial creation ; and not resting on a 
natural basis, it is formed but for a transient existence, and 
then to expire. There are always in these too uuiny hete- 
rogeneous element.s brought together ; and these have not 
the powerful family interests aud aii'ectious to pre^^erve har- 


niony, or to pnxluee reconciliation. L)ivorj;iry the employ- 
ments, instnietions, and ainu>enieiits as you njay, the ma- 
chine, if it moves smoothly, will muvc uionotonou>ly ; and 
if it will not move smoothly, the parts will clash; and in 
either wav will run dov.-u. without power to wind itself up. 
There are, it is true, reli-ious communities, enjnininL^ 
celihacy, which have an endurinp; existence. The deeply 
absorbing intorests of a eoiunion taith and worship, and 
sometimes more potently, perhaps, persecution, holds them 
together. Their members are the exceptional beings wh.o 
have renounced the aflections and ties of the world, as well 
as sought refuge from its temptations and trials; have al?o 
renounced in part the aflections of their own nature; and, 
except as they can antici[)ate the joys of heaven, theirs 
seem to us to be but as a semidife, or a semi-death. Yet 
these institutions have a mission on earth that is touching 
to the sentiment of humanity. They are places- of retreat 
for those stricken with .-or row 3 those for whom this world's 
flowers of liope are blighted, its fruits been turned to ashes; 
foot-sore pilgrims, who, without joy in life, dare not antici- 
pate that transition they so much desire. Here these may 
tranquilly rest, and waiting, not only find the consolations 
of devotion, but in their visitations of mercy to the aftiicted, 
or in the education of youth, may become the best of hu- 
man benefactors. Yet these must be exceptional, or the 
world would not be peopled, nor souls be multiplied for 
earth or heaven. It is the family of parents and children 
that we mu.-t look to as the true source of population, of 
n.oral and educational training, and as the natural basis of 
society and good government. God has instituted it, and 
it must so abide forever; and we must care for its mem- 
bers as we would save society. 

Have I seemed to place undue importance on the power 

of M-onian and the faiiiil}- to advinco the ■u-orld's well boii)tr? ii 
1/istcn then to some of the world'.s euiinent theorctieal i' 
lo^islatur:^. |! 

Jeremy Bentham, in his Theory of l^ep'islation snvs, l| 
" .Marriage, considered as a contract, has drawn woman ': 
from the severest and most humiliatinp: servitude ; it has ji 
distributed the mass of the community into di.-tinct fa mi- '; 
lies; it has created a' domestic mag-istracy ; it has formed 
citizens; it has extended the views of men to the future, 
through affection for the rising generation ; it has multi- 
plied social sympathies. To perceive all its benefits, it is 
only necessary to imagine what men would be without the 

The Baron William Von Humboldt, formerly Privy Coun- 
cillor of State and Minister of Worship and I\iblic Instruc- 
tion in Prussia, in his treatise on "The Sphere and Duties 
of Government," speak.s upon the subject in lanizua^re niore 
closely bordering on eulogy, and ascribes to woman a higher 
ideal of human excellence, both in her conception of it, and 
in her practical fulfilment of that conception. He advises 
against governmental interference in the formation and re- 
gulation of a relation so delicate as that of matrimony, which 
must rest, to be successful of happiness, on mutual inclina- 
tions; though the government be most deeply interested in 
population, and the early training ofxyouth. He says, "Af- 
ter careful observation, it has been found that the uninter- 
rupted union of one man with one woman is most conducive 
to population; and it is likewise undeniable that no other 
union springs from true, natural, harmonious love." He, 
while di.-claiming the policy of the state's interference by 
law that cummands, to mould the arrangements that belong 
to nature's mysterious elective affinities and to the sacred 
precinct of the family, bears his testimony to the fact, that 


"cxpoiienco freriuently convinces us that ju.=t v.-here law 
hns iniposud no fcttel•^^, nnnality most suvely bind<." And 
as it is wise for tlic Inw to forbear tlie exercise of its coer- 
cive power, so lonp; as inclination and a sense of duty ride 
to the end the law most desires, so the husband, with 
whom is the final family authority, should forbear to inter- 
fere so long as the wife and mother are, with adequ-Ate in- 
telligence, performing tlie functions of domestic rule, with 
a wiser government of blended authority and affection than 
belong to his sterner nature. Of woman's fitness tor this 
higli task he speaks in tern)^ of glowing eulogy, surpassing 
those I Would think proper before this grave aurlience; for 
in her he beholds concentrated "each huiuan excellence," 
"tlie v.diole treasure of morality and order;" saying, with 
tlie poet, 

"Man strives for freedom, woman still for order." 

That "while the former strives earnestly to remove the ex- 
ternal barriers which oppose bis development, won^an's care- 
ful hand prescribes that inner restraint, within whose limit.- 
alone the fulness of power can refine itself to perfect issues; 
and she defines the circle with more delicate precision, in 
that every sense is more faithful to her simple behests, 
spares her that laborious subtilizing which so often tends to 
enmesh and obscure the truth, and enables her to see more 
clearly through the intricate confusion of human rtlations. 
and fathom at once the innermost springs of human b-.-mg." 
This is modern German testimony to an inherent .judity n 
woman, from a highly cultivated source, in a civilized age; 
yet in accord with that borne by Tacitus, as to the ances- 
tors of the same race, living on the same spot, nearly two 
thousand years before, but then, by polite Hume, called 


The Baron ITiiiiibnlrlt is evidently speakinp: of a v.-onKiii 
of siip< rior intuitions :;nd culture; and unless the wife and 
mother he of an inte'li-enee and disposition to enable her 
to fulfil her domestic duties in a sueees.;ful manner, all that 
i.-s here aveiTcd U> he her appropriate and hi;neticent 
and influence v-ill be ^\■ithout its assumed foundation. ^\'a 
see then what sluiuld he the endeavor, that woman may frJGl 
her mission to the v\-o)!d; we may also see what this shuuld 
be by countless examples; examples which should be made 
the prevailing exan-.phs, that society may attain its hiLrhcst, 
happiest condition. Of such, we may aizree, the poet is not 
extravagant in description and praise: 

"A bein^' bre;uliin,i,' tlioughttul breath, 
A traveller betwixt life and death; 
The reason fair, the temperate will, 
Endurance, foresi;.du, stretigtli and skilh" 

" With yet a spirit still and bright, 
With something of an angel light." 


And, elevating our views above tlie ordinary affai's of 
life, it is in the wife and daughter, with their liigher sus- 
ceptibility to a religii;us faith, men find the most persua- 
.^ive influence to believe and act as they, v^-ith a purer pur- 
pose and more earnest hope; since the fruits are so surely 
demonstrative of the truth of their faith, in the practi- 
cally seen beauty and happiness of holiness. Whatever may 
be the difficulty or obstruction in the mimi of the father ot 
the family, none wluj truly loves his children, and look? 
forward to their welfare tlirough life, and in its exit, but 
desires that they may possess the pure and unhesitating 
faith of their mother; that they may the better resist evi' 
and be sustained in trials, in sickness, and in death. Ana 

.30 I 


if, must b." conceded that it is ruaiiily in woman's more sus- j 

coptible sympathies and intuitive initiation in Christian ! 

truth, that she has very often been a pioneer of Christianity j 

and the world's civilization. For uiie, I confess to the lung- ' 

entertained belief, that if woman had not been constituted ' 
with more humanizing tendencies and a more tru-tful faitli ; 

than man, religion could have had but little hold upon ; 

mankind, and civilization would never have been. I say ; 

this with the same deliberate carefulness of observation and : 

thought, with which the naturalist gives us the result of ! 

his careful observation of what he describes in the animal , , 

kingdom. I '.■ 

The family is indeed a divine institution, and beneficent i 

in all its influences. The first thought of it, in the nand ' 

of virtuous youth, is highly educational, by impulses that : • 

are of Creative origin. As surely as that the pulsations of | 

life have been given by the Creator, so surely niust have \ 

proceeded from Him the emotions that conduct to the con- i 

uubial compact; and these are, or should be, elevating and ! I 

refining. Youth has a quick perception of the comely in , 

person, graceful in manners, and perfect in moral excel- j ■ 

lence, and beholds these qualities to admire and emulate ■' '. 

them. And what they admire the two sexes seek to be, [ ' 
that they may be acceptable to each other. This saves the ', 

young man from the peril of degrading a.ssociation ; and it | 

is under the influence of love, and in obedience to its \ | 

requisitions, that man is ins[.ired to dare and achieve. It j | 

is by this that the wurld receiv-s in the great agLrrcgate, ' ", 

its mightiest onward impulsion. Man, nor woman, would | \ 
ever struggle, strive and achieve as we witrjcss, but to be 
united in happiness and to maintain and elevate the family 
in con)fort, respect, and honor. Without the family, soc'- 
ety would lose more than half its industry and cnterpriae; 


the nation much more than lialf its resources and reliance 
fur the maintenance of orJer and of good government. 

Tiie hiw calls marriage a civil contract : it is not the less 
a rcTmious one, — religious, by the law of nature, and by 
I the law divine. The Holy Scriptures bestow upon it their 
j highest sanction, and in all its relations their terse and 
comprehensive commands. Have said of the husband and 
I wife, "They shall be of one Hesh." Have given the coni- 
j inaiids, "Husbands, love your wives;" "Wives, submit 
I yourselves- unto your husbands." Have bid him remeui- 
! her that she is •' the glory of the man." They have said 
I to the child, "Honor thy father and thy mother;" to 
"children, obey your parents;'" to," fathers, provuke not 
your children to wrath ;" to servants, "count their mas- 
ters worthy of all honor;" to masters, know "' that your 
Master is also in heaven." And Je.-us called the little 
ones unto him, saying, '-Of such' is the kingdom of hea- 
ven." Thus on every side all tho>e who make the family, 
are the objects of the Divine regard and prutectiou. And 
on this sacred authority, in living with our children, unles.s 
we have marred Heaven's highest gift, we are already loving 
those nearest like unto celestial beings. 
. In considering the members of this little community, 
wliose repetitions make the commonwealth, it is unprofita- 
ble to advert to the often contested point of the mental 
superiurity of the sexes; for each is incomparably superior 
to the other, in the respective spheres of action mo;t ob- 
viously a.--igced them by their Creator. Without their In- 
lierent difi'erences the family could not be made up; wuuld 
not have its sustaining attraction and interest. The-e dif- 
ferences make the accord of the whole. Without the hus- 
band perfurmed the duties for the family he is be-t fitted 
to fulOl, or, if the wife performed not tho.-e she is best qua- 

lified to pcrntrm, tlioy never wouid be well perfunned; and 
witliuiit the beiiutiful rel;;tiuns wliieli we perceive to be h;ir- 
moiiiuusly uiaintained under the inlluence of the ailectiuns. 
the lauiily could not continue to exist; and with tlie lo<s of 
these domestic ties and relations, all that is ujo<t human- 
izing and conservative of the welfare of the race would be 
lost. It is very true, as MIchelet says, ''To educate a 
daughter is to educate society itself. Society proceeds from 
the fandly, of which the wife is the li\ing bond." 

Are we curious to con.-ider the nature of the government 
that belongs to the fandly '! Let us try the comparison 
then between this and other forms of government. It is 
not a monarchy; nor ai> ai'i.-tocraey ; nor a republic. True, 
the law regards the husband as its head; and in relation 
to law and to the political g(n'ernnient, this is generally his 
pn>itiou. But in the family, happil}- constituted, he is not 
king, nor sole ruler. The v.die and mother must share his 
rule, and must constantly pertorni many the most duties of 
that rule. Yet, is she not ijueen; at lea^t, not (luecn-abso- 
Lite; for his authority is paramount, if, unliappily, they 
diil'er. But she is more than queeii-consoit ; for the g(jvern- 
mcnt is not tliat which He intended who set them in fa- 
mily, if their power be not conjoint and harmonious. If 
the liusband be wise, and wisely mated, the ostensible rule 
of the family will be hers, who is most constantly present 
to regulate, order, and compose all differences. She will, 
therefore, be more than r|neen-re'j:ent ; for she exerts, not a 
merely delegated, but her own authoiity, as well as his; 
with the advantage of his counsel in the executive council 
chamber of two ; where, indeed, he may have a veto power, 
to be sp.aringly exerci'^ed. "Wliat she is, and what she will 
do, if she be prudent and wi-e and excrtive, the mother of 
King Lemuel has inimitably described : '' Her price is 


aViove rubies. The lioavt of lirr 1iusIki;u1 dnth safely tru^t 

: her." -'She opeiuth her nu.uth with wisdnp.i, and in her 

tuniiiie is the hiw uf kindness. She lookctli \vell to tlio 

i Kays of her househoh], and eateth not the bread of id'.e- 

I ness." (Prov. 31.) 

; This doniestic ride cond.>ines powers that woukl be most 

! daiiL'erous, if united in the liands of a single political exe- 
' cutive; of one who combines the lei;i>lative, judicial, and 
j executive authority. But in the institution of the family, 
I tliis concentration of powers is not danc:erous, as a general 
j rule, while it must necessarily exist. Tliey are virtually in 
I one; for in their exercise, hu%band and wife must act as 
! one. Their dual reign must have the concert of unity of 
j counsel and of action; will be tempered by tlie love of chil- 
dren and their love of each other; and will be restrained 
! by the ceaseless consciousness towards the residue of the 
; family, that they who are masters on earth, "have a ?»I;is- 
1 tcr in heaven." If these influences be forgotten, the fa- 
i mily is not that which God intended to set together; and 
j he who vfolates that intent, is traitor both to God and his 
j own happiness. He who is despot in his family, must ex- 
I pcct that family to reflect no joy to him. And many there 
i are who perform their moral obligations respectably well, 
j who know not how much more of happiness lies unelicited 
i within their easy reach, for want of genial and social attrac- 
] tiveness to wife and children ; whose happy social sensibili- 
I ties are chilled, or not drawn forth in those reciprocations 
1 that give home its jc.iys and life its pure-t happiness. 

I'ardon my havir;g so long dv.elt upon that which is ob^ 
vious to you all. It is with purpose to imjiress upon others, 
Hiid wonicn themselves, how available may be made their 
influence and that of the family, for the advancement of 
human welfare and civilization. Evidently, the Creator has 

, i 

intended the ftdlilnient nf a hi-her mission than nmn or ' ^ has yet generally fulfilled. Countless are the exam- I 

pies f,r exalted excellence and virtue in butli ; but thoe 

are to be multiplied everywhere and constantly. Yet will ; 

the njuial safety of mankind rest njainly with woman : ; 

"Spirits are not, finely touched | I- 

^3ui to fine issues." i »• 

'' I 

So said the master observer of the hun.nn heart. And fine- ■ ' 

ly touched spirits can alone reach to touch and niuuld the ' 

tcmler and impressible heart uf children, and leave upon \ - 

it impressinns tliat shall endure throu-h life, and after lite. ; '. 

For that duty, neither the father nor the teacher will ade- ' .; 

f|uately suflice. Their ruder appliances and, the ! ; 

rude nature of the boy resists. It is the mother only that j \ 

ean soften his rug-pcd tendencies; and she alone i> fit'ted to ' ' 

guide ar.d impress the gentler sex. She alone has the pa- ' 

tient endurance to continue the task of saving the son she ! 

has borne, when bent on vicious ways, hoping against hope, I 

to save him from himself, fnr Idmself, for his family, and ; J; 

fo'- his country ; and to save him fbr that family union here- \ I 

after, wliich she ever fervently prays may be complete, no \ i 

one missing. It is from her maternal solicitude and cease- i \ 

less eflbrts, thus undespairingly exerted; to her ministra- i \ 

tions in the first and best temple of worship, next to the ; \ 

purified heart, the home, at whose altar she is prie.-tess. that f 

nearly all that is good may be traced; and especially, that \ \ 

influence, that after many years of alienatinn, during'which j ] 

the heart has been pierced by many sorrows, will brin;:: j ] 

back to the native hearthstone the prodigal son. That ihis i | 

is her higher mission, and that she is better fitted for it j; \ 

tlian man, he need not be jealous; fur ."=0 the Creator lias H j 

willed it, and it is fur the common good. Let it be his '■ \ 

: t 
I 1 

I \ 

! "" 1588585 

1 o;iro to aid and never to tluvart tlic^e lier efforts, fur tliuy 
j spring from saerod impulses. Tlieir spheres are diverse ; 
I and tlioiipb his high duties be indispensable, hers upon the 
] f;iniily are the more important, and the efl'ects more en- 
I during. A more imixirtant and elevated spliere she cannot 
i attain and seldom sliould desire ; and she descends fruUi 
! the highest when she attempts to leave jt, and not often 
1] attempts it without disparagement to herself. Yet woman 
ij is not to be too closely restricted to the indoor round of do- 
;i niestic cares, especially after her children have grown to an 
ii age to share them with her. Age often sets her free to 
;| fulfil the mission to which her generous nature prompts. 
1 In many charities, this nation and acre, more than anv other, 
■| have witnessed, how invaluable and devoted have been lur 
i self-sacrificing services, in behalf of the uneducated, the in- 
:! sane, and the poor; of the sick, the wounded, and tlie 
; dying soldier. A censorious world must rot, after this age 
of sacrifices, be indulged in its too great jealousy of woman's 
strivings to do all the good of which she is cajtable, to all 
human sufferers. Her sacred purpose, and the good accom- 
plished, must sanctify her deeds in the breasts of all good 

We are not disparaged, but exalted, and society and the 
nation is exalted, when woman is held in huuor, and is en- 
abled to dispense her best influences round us. An elorjuent 
French author says truly, "If we wi.-li, then, to know the 
political and moral condition of a state, we must ask what 
rank women hold in it. Their intliionce embraces the whole 
of life. A wife; a mother; two magical word«, compiis- 
ing the sweetest sources of man's felicity. Theirs is the 
reign of beauty, of love, of reason. Always a reign! A 
man takes counsel of his wife; he obeys his mother; he 
obeys her long after she has ceased to live, and the ideas 

which he has received from her become principles stroncrer 
even tlmn hii p:i.-.^iuu5." Aiuie Martin, to write thus, uiu^t 
have iounJ good women in France; women to redeem their 
country from our too severe censures. i 

The inductions to be uiade from these tiuths are plain, | 
and the duty the most imperative man can know, since the 
welfare of his posterity, the pi'uspcrity of his country, the ] 
enduring happiness of all human beincrs, are invdvL-d. Wo- ; 
man is to be trained with a fuller appreciation in luMself of 
her high trust, and of her capacity for ^rood or evil ; and if ! 
she be good aiid worthy of her trust, man is to learn to con- ■: 
fide in her generosity, to honor her, and to .-ustain her an- j 
thority for good, as soujcthing better and greater than hi.-< | 
own. His children are to be kept as mueh and as lunir un- ■ 
der her control as possible, even while they are obtaining ! 
their school and college education, and under her inHuence | 
for life. Women are to make houie the happie.-t place in 
the world, and hui^baiids and sons are there to tind their j 
happiness, and to cultivate kindness and the courtesies of • 
life. If sometimes they seek amusements abroad, wife and ' 
sisters should share them. Let them seek no luxuries in ! 
selfi.-h seclusion. Let this be their general practice, and j 
how marly drinking and gauibling hou-es wouM there not '; 
cease to exist, and clubdiouscs exist only for the cheerless | 
unfortunates who have no family. Hotels would be fjr tra- | 
Tellers; and haunts of vice, not to be named, would be few. I 
The city at night would sleep in peace, its silence unpro- j 
faned by inel)riate brawlers; prisons and almshouses become i 
of diminished necessity. It is the homeless and traitors to ! 
home that cause the chief public charge. Then a public 
opinion could ari-e, now too feeble to suppress or restrict | 
by law these s.jurces of couritless evils and sorrows, and 
woman be often saved the most terrible calamities ever in- I 

fiicted upon humanity, aud tVuui which death only can re- 
lieve her. 

It is nut tor us in America to boast of our advantacres, 
but to express an ovcrflowi'ij; i;rafitude fortlicm, and leave 
examples that are good to exert tlieir silent and enduring' 
influences upon other peojdes. ^Ye may not be bo-.-;:rul. fur 
we yet see large room for improvement, and for the expan- 
sion of the gcuid we witne.-s. Yet may we rejoice in the 
tc.-ii;iiony borne of us by recent travellers of the highest 
intelligence, who have marked a contrast favorable to u; as 
compared ^vith our parental nations of Europe. " Yuu may 
estim&tc the morality of any population, when you have as- 
certained that of the v^'omen ; acd one cannot cot.ucp.n.late 
American soeit-ty uuhuuc admiration for the respect which 
there encircles the tie of marriage. The .same sentiment 
exiited to a like degree among no nations of anti'jultv : and 
the existing societies of Eurupe. in their corrujiti :'n, have 
not even a conception of such puiity of morals." (b)e IJcau- 
mont.) "The marriage tie is more sacred amonu' Au;eri- 
can Workmen than among the middle classes of various 
countries of Europe." (Chevallier.) " One of the tirst pe- 
culiarities that must strike a fureiguer in the United States, 
is the deference paid universally to the sex, without regard 
to rank or station." (Lyell.) 

Moral and religious influences have been dwelt upon as 
I the sources of the welfare of the family, and through the 
1 fatuity, of .'^ociety. What, then, has or can the law do for 
, the .sime obj'jct? It has dune much, and may do more; 
I yet the main reliance must ever be upon moral and reli- 
j pious influences that have their operation in the su.-.< epti- 
I bilities of the human heart. Volumes of law have been 
j wntteu ou the domestic relations, defining the rights and 
i 4 ^ . 

duties of Iiu>ban(l and wifo. parent and cliild. -uardian and 
ward, and master atid servant. Tliese are well and wisely 
written, yet have regard chiefly to property and povcrn- 
nient ; but law cannot reach to enfi^ree the njoral and reli- 
gious sentiments from which spring tlic hi-liest cultuie 
and truest civilization. 

The law has done much less than it might do, because 
public opinion, that springs from culture and civilizatinii. 
has iii't sufriciently advanced to enact and Uiaintain ti;j 
laws needed for human reform. It is owing to this, 
we have not laws ade'juately rLStrictive of intemperanco. 
and do liot enforce laws that exist against gambling and 
otlier vices. 

The ancient and existing statutes against vagrancy are 
the law's assertion of the duty of every one to be a member 
of a family of fixed locality, and it provides a public habi- 
tation for all_that have no home, — the Prison, Almshouse'. 
or ]lefuge. 

Law, public opinion, and the habits of our people, have 
been mo^t beneficially operative in building our City of Phi- 
ladelphia in an adaptation to the separate residence of each 
family, and consequently most favorably for the be:-t family 
influencL-s. Here is provided one house for nearly every fa- 
mily and of a size and expense convenient for almost every 
familv. When we consider that each hru-e now built, of 
whatever size, generally has all the convenience fur fire, gas. 
Water, and baths, and that in each may live a family ui>. n 
the ujod..rate earnings of the artisan, independently of ever} 
other family, with uiore conveniencs and comforts than 
the most wealthy enjoyed less than half a century ag<,v it i- 
with a pleasing and grateful feeling that vre conteii'plaro 
the exj.ansion of this largest city of our continent. li.- ex- 
pan.sions, top, are not like those of some citie.<, in narrow 

anr] unelcniily lanes and alloys, and by inonii and no^-locted 
dwolliii;:.-, but on Sduie sides by bouses uf superior arL-hi- 
tectural style, ami on otbers by rows of smaller dwellings, 
neat, cleanly, and ci'iiiplete in comfort. It is luucb more 
a cause of satisfaction to reflect that we have the hir-est 
city witb the best accommodations for its hundred thou- 
sand famijies. than to liave a population of a million or 
niorei compelled to live two or more families in a bnu-^o. 
And the law pnjvides, by snpers-ision of inspectors and the 
i enactment of penalties, that houses shall be substantially 
built, secure from tire, and with ample adjoiuing space for 
the admission of fresh air. >'o more narrow alleys or courts 
can be built upon for dwellinirs, nor any dwelling-house 
•without an ojien curtilaiie of one hundred and forty-four su- 
perficial feet. In such a city, when the old parts sliall bo 
rebuilt, there can be but few confined places to breed f^liv- 
S!c:d or moral disease and contaijion, or riot and rebellion. 
To the pr(n"idence of William Penn we owe it that pub'io 
Sfjuares afford places of exercise and for fresh air to all i\i- 
niilies in the centre of our city; and the Consolidation Act 
inates it the duty of Councils to continue to provide them ; 
a duty that is not sufficiently regarded, but a dutv that 
should bo fulfilled by purchases, and not by the arbitrary 
power of taking the property of the citizen at a price to be 
fixed by strangers to hiru, whom he has not selected, and 
Would not trust. 

The law has so provided for the education of children in 
our city and commonwealth, that cvtry one mny be o'lu- 
t*ated at the public charge, without any expense to parents 
bjr books or tuition. So far as school education can m:tke 
pood members of the family, and good citizens, the law has 
Pi^ovided the means, and parents are derelict to their d:ity 
^" '!0 do not make this resource available" for the improve- 


niont of tlicir chiMrcn. It i> true the law doc? not coorce 
the attendance of the children :it the school-, yet it is weil 
for negligent parents to know that if their childn-n pr.jve 
vicious, for want of a proper home and school education, 
the pnhlie has such a paratnoant interest in thenj, and in 
their preservation from vagrancy, crime, and cost to the 
cunununity, that the law has jiruvided for their being taken 
charge of, to be better trained, prutected, and educated, in 
the Children's Homes and Hc>u-es of liefuge, when^-e, as 
irom the Almshouses, they are buund apprentices in fami- 
lies, while other benevolent institutions and indiviijuals are 
bu>y in promoting a juvenile enjigration to the We.-t, of 
expo-ed and destitute children, there to be absorb.:'d health- 
fully and usefully into the respectable population of that 
teeming region. The right of parental control is a natural 
one, but is f,>rfeitable when parents are derelict in duty to 
their children and the CDmmunity, and may be ^unn-seded 
by \.\\e jinroi.i pa trier. (^4 Whar. Kep. 11.) It is under this 
principle, sanctioned by the SupvL-me Court of the State i f 
Pennsylvania, that vicious youth arc placed in the House 
of Refuge, to be removed from temptation, and put under 
training and apprenticeship, to fit them for usefulness in so- 

Parents should consider that they cannot think too high- 
ly of their privileges and responsibilities in respect to the 
public provisiuns made for the education of their children. 
None can say that within their own little family niav not be 
cast thuse mii!<l3 who are to be tht- benefacturs of mankind 
and the light of the world, and that as well in tlie fimilies 
ot the poor as of the rich. " God is no respecter of per- 
sons." Great, then, is the privilege available tn all, to Invo 
the provided means of developing the intellect that mav af- 
• f^ruards selt-achicve an endTcss eood and undyin_' renown. 


No parents, poor or rir-h, can say tliat there shall not be j 
1 f(.iuiid anionir their little ones a future Auiiustine or P'ene- j 
I ion, a Galileo or Newton, a Luilicr or Larimer, a Franklin or j 
I Washington. i 
j Tlie law has long entei'tained the hi<zhest regard for the ' 
I marriage relation, and the v.-elfarc of the family. Its po- 
I licy, derived from the ]o3man civil law, is to ei'.e.iuraue 
i Uiarriages, and the rearing of children, that they niay be- 
■ come a strength to the state. As a general rule, the law in . i 
j the disposition of property, permits of no legal restraint 
; upon marriages, except durinii' minority, and that onlv for 
I the advantage of the inexperienced and tlie immature in j 
j judgment. Conditions annexed to legacies against mar- < 
j riage, are simply void, and the legacies absolute. The law's I 
j policy regards with disfavor the interference of any merce- I 
; iiary agency, and declares void all contracts of niarriaize | 
I Irokage. Its policy seeks that all influences shall bo pure i 
j that are to lead to a consummation so holy as marriage; one 
! that so much concerns the public welfare ar,d private hap- 
piness.- The law de.-ires that mutual atfectinii, alone, >hould ! 
1 be its attraction ; and then there is a natural guarantee for i 
I the mutual happiness of the parents, and a faithful nurture { 
I and education of the ctiildren of the Pu-public. In this, as : 
j in all questions of wi.-e public pulicy and pure njorals, the ; 
I ethics of the Judiciary are perfect, and their rule incxora- ' 
I biy applied. No nuin can succes.-fully a>>ert a claim in a ' 
court of justice through a wrong, or gain a case that is '. 
j against .-ound public pnlicy, or is infected by the taint of ; 
J immorality. j 
While the law encourages marriages, its policy is nut to j 
encourage thriftless and utihappy marriages. These do' not ! 
attain its desire any n)orc tlian that of the parties concerned. 
It should be its policy, and the present improving jiublic 


opinion that will in the future nktnte its policy is, thnt wo- 
men shall so :-hare in inJu t,ini pursuits, tliat rh.^ie .siii^le 
may both feel and be so independent as not to feel co- 
ciced, by oircumstanees into un.-.uitable or ii.ipmvid.'nt 
inarriaL'e?. To this cud the i-hilanthir.pv of our a^e and 
:j country is largely eni:aged. The result will naturally be, 
.! that by making women nioie indtpendent in eha.iacter and 
I circumstances, they will n-.t only be rescued fiom a ternpta- 
;i tion to err, but be rescued IVom the dreary inanity of wane 
;| of occupation, and become object> mure worth v to'be made, 
;i therefore more sure to be made, lionored companions in 
'I lawful Wedlock. 

, The common law of England was so much fHind..d in a 

feudal and n.ilitary policy, and in the nece-ity of a sin.Je 
i head to represent the rights and duties of the family, that 
j the legal existence of the ^y\k■ was considered as mcr-pd 
in that of (he In the law they were one person, 
so that if lands were conveyed to husband and wife and 
their heirs, the survivor, as the continuation of that person, 
had the fee. By marriage the husband had an estate in 
the wife's Innds as long as both lived, and if they had issue, 
he had a life estate, to continue after her decease, by the 
curtesy of England; and by marriage he became owner of 
ber personal property. All this has -been defended and 
•maintained down to a recent date, as requiMte to the ne- 
cessary authority to be Uiaiutained in the head for the wel- 
fare of the family; but it as.'.umes that the'wife could n, t 
'"• trusted to exercise a sound discretion, or possess that af- 
fectionate interest in the welfare of all the men.Lers of ]lr 
lanuly, to induce her to make a wise dispoMtiou of her 
revenues fur their common advantage and advancement. 
J here are many instances where such di.~tru-t v.ill be ju>ti- 
li^d, but they are the instances to be avoided by wi..e and 


i discreet men, Avho are ?cckinL' the wife to be the niotlier of 
j th'.-ir cliilJren. As the rule, it Uiay be a.-^smued that tiie 
i Mile and inuthcr uill be ever ready to L:ivL' her income lor 
[ the family wants, and is often but too re;idy to yield the 
I capital also. The vici--itudes of busiiifss are such that it 
I olt.jn occurs that the wite"s property aifords the hapj.ily re- 
tained resource fur rearing the faniily in respectability, when 
the hu^^band's property has hvQu swept avray by the resijt- 
i lifS tide of a couuijercial crisis, or, peihaps. been lost by 
! his own indiscretions, not to say, his vices. Experience 
j teaches, as the rule, that the wife's {irotierty should be sct- 
i lied to the separate use of herself and cliildren, with sucti 
j control over it, after her death, vc::-ted in the survivir:cr hus- 
i band, as will bold a worthy father in the respect of his cbil- 
dii-n, and give him a salutary control over tlieni. 

I>eeds of settlement, or tru.-ts created by will, in times 
past, held the wife's property to lier separate use ; and the.-e 
are yet the only safe reriance. It is true, recent legislation, 
i in many of the States, declares that her property shall re- 
j niain hers after marriage as before, and be subject to her 
i own di.-posal by will, to which he must not be a witness, and 
; it is not liable for his debts, during her life. This is well; 
I yet is she exposed to an undue influence, and a coercion 
i that the magistrate cannot probe. She cannot convey her 
I property by deed without the husband joining with her, ii;'r 
i without herself undergoing a separate judicial examination, 
j That is, she is not to convey without liim, that she may h:ivo 
; his protection against the imposition of others ; nur v.ithuut 
i the judicial examination sepiarate from him, tliat >he may 
I have the magistrate's protection again.-t her husband's (juite 
j possible undue influence. Tiie proceeds of the sale she niay 
! pive to him in the ab.-cnce of a trust. Each can di.-pose of 
I bi^ or her property sepaiately by will, bat with this excp- 


tion, thnt the will of a luisbaml is suliioct to the -u-iil'iw's 
riiiht of election to reject the -u-ill, and in lieu of its pruvi- 
sions, take otie-tliiid of his real estate fi^r life,, if he leave 
issue, and one-third of the personalty forever; and if he 
died vrithont any i-^*ue. her riL^ht of election v>-iH extend to 
onodialf of his estate for such durations of time; ar.d tiic 
wife's power of disposition of her property by will, is >uh- 
jeet to his estate for life in the whole of her realty, and to 
his right to take in lieu of curtesy such share of hev real 
and ])ersonal estate as she could have taken of his real and 
personal estate; that is, one-third or one-half, aceordin'_Iv 
as she left i<sue or nut, and for the same duration of time. 
But her property held in trust would only go according to 
the limitations of the trust; or to the dispositions made 
under the powers expressly reserved or given to her by the 
tru>t instrument. A firm trustee is a great a-'^i-tance to 
lier in the preservation of lier pr(jperty, if her di.-positions 
be rer|uired to be made with his consent. It has been t!is 
good fortune of the writer to be enabled to effect legisla- 
tion, to some extent, for the further benefit of the wife and 
family. It is now the law of Pennsylvania, that whenso- 
ever at;y husband, from drunkenness, profligacy, or otluT 
cause, shall neglect or refuse to provide for his wife, or shall 
desert her, she shall have all the rights and privileges of a 
fnne sole trader; that is, shall have ability, as a single wo- 
nian,to make contracts and carry on business; and her piv,- 
perty, real and personal, shall be subject to her free and 
absolute disposal during life, or by will, without any liabi- 
lity to be interfered with, or obtained by such hu>baTid, ami 
in case of her intestacy, it shall go to her next of kin, as if 
he were previously dead. The mother is sub.-tituted to hi^ 
former rights over their children, ami she \.- to assume hi.s 
duties; place them in employment and receive their earn- 

I i'1,2::',, and bind them apprentices; proviJeJ slie be w. rtliy 
i of tile tfu>t, and the Court ;^hall decree her this iiidepen- 
j deiit sfatn^ ; otherwise the Court is to appoint a cuardiaii 
fi-'r the chihlren. And no such husband, who shall have 
j ref'ii-ed to provide for his children, for tlie year prei-ediiiiz 
I liis I'.eatii, shall have the riuht to appiMnt fir them a testa- 
j inentarj guardian. (Act of May 4, 1S55.) A^ain, it had 
I been the hardship of a deserted wife, that own earniriL'S 
might be recovered by her worthless hu-bnr<d ; and he might 
I himself be, or prompt anuther to be, her defuner, and yet 
I slie could maintain no action fur redre.-s, without its being 
! in his name aud subject to his control; for remedy whereof 
it is enacted, that the deserted wife, in case of deftmation, 
or suit for her earnings, may maintain the action : and if ht:^r 
hu>band be the defendant in an action of defanuifion, she 
may sue iu the name of a next friend. (Act April 11, 185G.) 
I 'l'liU'< the unworthy hu.-band and fither may forfeit hi- high 
I po.-ition, and the worthy wit'e replace him in it. Thi- ri.:ht- 
eous legislation came only after ages and centuries oi' injus- 
tice and wrong, and so far as known to the writer, only yet 
exists in one of these States. 

It is the unhappiness of some persons, married and un- 
niarried, to have no children on whom to bestow their care 
and affections, while others have mgre than tliey can conve- 
niently provide for and educate; and there are often oiphans 
without relatives to provide for them. It is provided by a 
section of the Act of 1S55, that persons, by certain judi- 
cial proceedings, may ad^ijit a child or childr-n, and give 
them their nauies and all the rights of heirs, and the par- 
ties become, with reciprocal claims and rights, subject to 
all the duties of parents and child. This law may often fill 
a void iu the family needful to its happiness, tend to cjua- 
V/.ti the blessings of life and fortune, and prove of ine-timn- 


bio ndvnnt.-ige to ovplians and other cbililron tIo.»tirute of 
provision. The iKitural parental and inaternal l.jve un- 
blessed bv Oii'-pring may thus be satisfied, and life beerwne 
a hi-dur ble-siug to the aduptiiiir parents, by the en;;-;ciims- 
hl'Ss of dnincr a present and future good, to iinprovii.lud and 
helpless ehildren. 

As great a- are the advanta-jes of marriage, and sacred 
as are its ties, the law cannot do less, from sheer humaiiirv, 
than relieve the innocent party by divorce, when the other 
has so grievously violated the conditions of the compact, as 
to make the continuance of tlie relation a participation in 
guilt, or so opfire->ivc a^ to make life burdensome or an in- 
tolerable slavery. The wrong would in such case be, to co- 
erce a Cohabitation, when it v/ould be productive of conse- 
fiuences precisely the reverse of those intended by the in- 
stitution. If either party ha^, by vicious habits, aliennt^.^d 
bini or liorself from the duties that he or she en-'-vjed to 
fuitil, and has violated the solemn marriage promises and 
obligations, he or she is no lori'jer one joined by God, but 
is already dissevered ; therefore, the law says, as to those 
whom the Lord doth not longer join together, let man put 
asunder. In ancient times, except among the German na- 
tions, the husband generally divorced the wife at lii^ plea- 
sure or caprice, by himself giving lier a writing of divorce- 
ment; a power permitted the Jews by the law of 3bjscs, as 
our Saviour ."^aid, because of the hardness of their hearts; 
! but in Christian countries the power is only exerted by law, 
for causes reciprocally operative against a husband or wife, 
v.dio has forfeited the marriage rights by a violation of its 

But, I repeat, it is not to law so much as to other influ- 
ences that we are to look for human improvement through 
the family. These must be inoral and religious influences. 


j And is there not in these a philu^^ophy fiitinL'ly to be 

I sjMken of in this Hall? The science that teaches us huw 

. to Uve and how to die luu.^t be the most iniportant of phi- 

i losophies; and the science is as sure and logical in its laws 

\ of cause and effect as any other science; and is so nuich 

j the more important than any other, that it the most nearly 

I concerns human happiness. It may be said, perhaps truly, 

I that there can be little or nothing that is new to be uis- 

! closed in morals and religion. Though that should be con- 

I ceded, one thing remains to be certain, that as long as we 

i live we can always be advancing towards that standard of 

\ perfection, that wc are bidden to strive to attain ; a stan- 

I dard that we may but hope to appro.vimate; a measure ot 
improvement which the most civili/ed nation has not yet 

;i half fulfilled. From this delinquency the recovery must 

i through the better training and education of the 

i family. 

! ]}ut following from habit and example in the stops of 

I our predecessors, we take too little thought of the capacities 

j of improvement in ourselves and families. And though 

! there seems to be little scope for an increase of learniitc m 
■ morals and religion, there is always great room for practical 
; improvement. Each individual may ceaselessly increase his 
I knowledge and improve his social manners and affections j 
I and multiply the applications of known truths; and in every 
1 step of this progress other truths will dawn upon the mii.d 
I with ceaseless increase of light and of the joy of life. Let 
j nut then the familiarity of the subject make us f .rgetful of 
I the duty of ob.servatiun, reflection, and advancement, in this 
i fcuiall, ever present, and always interesting centre, but of 
cea.-ele.s.sly expanding influence and power, the family. 

In dwelling upon this familiar sut-ject 1 have been led 
to cun^ider huw pojiie are maiikihd to overlook die signili- 


cance of tilings most cotniuonly present to thcni ; an'] 
the svibjoL't in liand may not admit of siaentilio uijcuveiy, 
yet the moi'al oonseiiuences to result from a better umli- 
standiiicr of it, may so far surpass in praetieal Ltnclits tlio 
mo>t brilliant discoveries in physical c-cience, as to make 
our labors in this tield of practically the greatest in-portanee 
to mankind. Physical discoveries are always mo.:.r valuablu ; 
and if seemingly for nothing el-e, are so in the disv.-uVciy "f 
the Creative wisdom ; but in practical purpose rise in im- 
portance as they minister to human welfare. Let us illus- 
trate by a few instances how blind uiankind have hccn to 
things the most familiar to them ; as to which philosophers, 
some of them our predecessors in this Society, have uiauo 
discoveries which have conferred glory upon their names 
and upon philosophy. All men, through all the lap.-c of 
time since men peopled the earth., had beheld the l:_!.r 
with adiiiiration, praise, and even worship; but thuU^lit it 
a simple element, until Xcwton analyzed its rays into the 
pri.-nuitic colors, although they bad seen their pri.-niatic 
separations as refracted by the atmosphere, before tlie ri.-ing 
and after the setting of the sun of every unclouded day, 
throULrh all the ages of human existence. jMen had always 
breathed this atmosphere, u{)on which we haiiLr at i-v-ry 
nioment for its life-giving inspiration, and in all time liiey 
had supposed it to be another simple element, until our Dr. 
Priestley, in but the past generation, separated its '-impler 
cdement-^. and found one of its gases to be that which su^- 
t:iii!s alike coh.bu.-tioU and lite; tlie other to dilure that 
burning oxygen that el.-e would destroy all lile. The wa- 
ter, which all n;en drank as another necessity of lilj, they 
supposed to be another element (jf nature, given as the con- 
quering enemy of Cre, was also divided into its c.n-titn. nt 
gases, and these, as recombined by the comj'OunJ blowpipe 


of our Dr. Hare, produced a heat hotter than the thrice 
heated anthracite furnace. The lightning, which all man- 
kind, of all ages, had beheld with wonder and superstitious 
awe, as it flashed through the skies, leaping from cloud to 
cloud and from heaven to earth, detonating in stunnini^ 
j thunders, was proved by our Dr. Franklin, as he drew it 
j harmlessly from the sky, to be electricity; and now men 
make it bear their messages of business and command, with 
the lightning's speed, over this globe. And we see it, in 
this our day and country, performing duties of nii<:htiest 
potency, since from the central capital it carries the com- 
mands that move the distant armies spread over our wide 
continent, in that concert of action that insures victory and 
safety to the legitimate Government of the nation. 

These are discoveries most interesting, most useful, most 
brilliant; and no such discovery and renown can reward the 
reflections of him who devotes himself to the social, moral, 
and religious improvement of his fellow men. Yet let not 
the legist, moralist, or the preacher, be discouraged, but 
console himself in this, that whatsoever good he may do 
shall achieve a success in a domain of yet higher import 
than all physical discoveries ; that he may elevate the moral 
standard of humanity, and create a virtue and happiness 
that shall belong to two existences. If mankind shall fail 
in these, then will they tail in the highest purpose of the 
Creator, and make creation itself a failure. If this shall be 
the event, what then shall import all wealth, all power, all 
science, all knowledge? what this air we breathe, this earth 
we tread, and all its fruits; its bright waters, its glorious 
light and electrical coru.-cations ; all that shall sustain all 
life, and all that shall yield to the physical philosophers 
their rich harvests of glory ? They become worthless all, if 


mail shall betray his hi-hcst trust and fall. If man piuvc 
worthless, these are worthless all ! Truly, then, there is a 
philosophy that transeends and comprehends all other phi 
losophics. the philosophy that teaehes man how to live an.! 
how to die. 







18 64. 


"Wk invite the descendants of 

pijilip an'b Uncl)cl price, 

their luishands and wives, to meet at the old homestead, now 
the residence of Philip T. and Pkcebe I'axsox, in Ea-t 
Eradford, Chester County, renn-yh ania, on 7th day, the lid 
of the 7th month, 1S04, at ten o'clock a.m. 

Margakft Paxson, 
Benjamin Peick, 
Sarait Cakmalt, 
Em K. Pkick, 
Philip M. Pkicp:. 


I At the time appointed, all the surviving children and 

! over a hundred of the descendants of Philip and Rachel 
i Pkice, and their companions by marriage, collected at the 
I old homestead, with some others most intimately associated 
I in the families of those assembled. 

Eli K. Price then read to his assembled relatives and 
I friends the following narrative, excepting portions not read 
j for want of time, it being desirable to afford ample oppor- 
tunity for renewing and making acquaintances among so 
many brought together, of ages varying from infancy to 
fourscore years. 

The following lines, written at my request by a descen- 
' dant of Philip and Piachel Price, will recall the scene of 
I our childhood, at this our birth-place : 

1 Home of our childhood ! 

[■ Receive us once more ; 

I Ilcro, where we minified 


! Together of yore. 

Brother and .sister, 

AYo joyou.sly played, 
In tlie green orchard, 

Or sunshinv glade. 


Under tlic oak trei\ {'-. 

Or down by the >])ring, I; 

Ten childi^i voices \, 

In merriment riug. |; 

One little rosebud, ii 


Plucked before bloom, | 

Kever knew sorniw, ij 

And never knew gloom. || 


Now only five of u=, _'. 

AVomen and men, \ 

Loving eaeli other, ;; 

May meet here again ! j, 

Our eyes are dimming, j- 

Our hair it is white ; !] 

Soon we our children ;' 
3Iust all bid goodnight ! 

Soon, soon, our children li ; 

Shall lay us to sleep, ]' 

Fold our hands gently, j' ; 

xVnd quietly weep! ;■ i 

Father and mother • . 

Have gone to their rest, :• i 

Loving and faithful, j; [ 

Together are blest! [; ; 

„ I 

Brothers and sisters ; ^ 

Again shall we meet, 

"With voices of angols ;' 

Each other to greet. i "- 

"We'll not tarry long : ; v 

Ye dear ones, we come ; • f' 

Father and mother, j- -l 

Oh ' welcome u~ home ! !' t 


It is alike a duty and a pleasure to recall the niciuory of 
wortliy ancestors, and to transmit a record of wli;,t v.'e kmw 
of them to our po.^terity, to satis,^- their rensonahle curi- 
osity, and to hold up for their imitation their excellent 
example. To dwell upon the character of the -.jud witli 
love and veneration, is to begin t.^ be like themrand if we 
can thus derive a refining influence, it is ouv dutv to make 
that influence as enduring as possible. And in meeting as 
we now do to connnemorato the memory of beloved parents, 
and sisters, and brothers, we evperience the gratiOcatiurao'bo 
derived from once more meeting in a uianner that afforded 
their aflfectionate natures one of the liighcst gratifications 
of their lives. It is true we have sadlv to remember that 
tho.e parents and half the number of tlieir chiMrc-^ are 
not with us; but when the go.d have gone fivm us w. 
mourn them with the consolation that their joy is secured. 
It is also fitting that this should be the year of u family 
meeting of the descendants of Philip Price, since in tl.i's 
jear was completed the century from his birth. It is tiie 
appropriate time, also, to record what we kuuv: uf ail our 
ancestry of the past, and who are the descendants of our 
parents to-day, and thus leave an example that our posteritv 
may bo the more certainly induced to follow, in preservin*- 
the record of the future for yet remoter generatiunc. We 
wdl furni.h the picture of the trunk of the fami.'y tree. 
^•ith Its beginning branches, and leave to them the injunc- 
tion of continuing its expansions through its future urowths. 
^e begin all our family pedigrees with the fii.-t -Hdc 
mentof the Province of Pennsylvania under William Penn; 
^'^'^I little beyond that period is known to us but va^^ue 


traJItion, except that on all sides our ancestors, in Eol:- 
laii',1, Wales, the North of Ireland, and Germany, were 
members of the relipioiis Society of Friends; a very sure 
guarantee to us that they were all worthy in moral as well 
as reliLrious character. 

The first of our stock, on the paternal side, who came to 
Pennsylvania, our prandfather, I'hiiip Trice, called his 
" irreat-prandfather," and as having come early, '-with the 
first Welsh settjers, but in old age." Eobert Proud, iu 
bis " History of Pennsylvania" (vol. i, p. 220), under date 
of 1GS2, speaking of the early settlers says: ••Among 
those adventurers and settlers, who arrived about this time, 
were also many from W'lh.^, of those who are called Anrien' 
Brllonf^, and mostly QnukrrA, divers of whom were of tlie 
original or early stock of that Society there. T'ley had 
early purchased of the proprietary in England forty thou- 
j sand acres of land. Tln'se v.dio came, at present, to.ik up 
Ij so mucli of it, on the west side of Schuylkill lliver. as 
ij made the three townships of Merion, Haverfurd, and Piad- 
ij nor; and in a few years afterwards, their number was so 
'l much augmented as to settle the three other townships of 
j Newtown, Goshen, and Uwchland. ^^fter this they con- 
tinued still increasing, and became a numerous and fluuri:?h- 
ing people." 

" Divers of these early Welsh settlers were persons of 
excellent and worthy character; and several of good edu- 
catiun, family, and estate, chiefly Qi(a/:rr.<; and manv uf 
them either eminent preachers in that Society, and other- 
wise well ((ualified and disposed to du goud, in vaiiuus 
capacities, both in religious and civil, in public and pri- 

vate life." 

Philip Price, the first ancestral settl-^r of our 
bniuglit with him his fir^t wife, our anct-tres^, and 

with her ill Ilavcrfor.], near wber.- the Luek Tavern after- 
wards stood, on the old Lanea-ter road, about six miles 
from Phihidclphia. Her name i.^ unknown to us. On the 
Ctli of the Sth month, 1G97, as appears by a deed in niv 
possession, he purchased from Francis Ilawle, fur the price 
of £135, in silver currency, one thousand acres of land, in 
Plymouth Township, then in Philadelphia County, now 

In a deed from Philip PHc^e, the first, dated otii day of 
August, 1 ,03, he describes himself of Upper :ierion, Welsh 
Tract, and he grants thereby to Piehard Morri^ 417 acres, 
in Plymouth Township, as part of 532 acres ;vlu.;h William' 
Palmer had conveyed to liini. 

This ]>hilip Price made hi.s will, dated 11th of 12th 
month, 1/19, which was pruved at Philadelphia, 11th 
D<onth 22d, 1720. He still describes himself as of the 
Township of 31erion, Cuunty of Philadelpliia, yeoman. 
He left legacies to his daughter, Sarah Lewis, and to his 
grandchildren, children of John Lewis, of Xew Castle, 
"pon Delaware, Elizabeth Stout, I'hllip Lewis, Stephen 
Lewis, Josiah Lewis, Sarah Lewis, luary Lewis, and Ann 
Lewis; and to his grandchildren, children of Tho;-as 
lieese, kite of Haverford, Samuel Pelse, Daniel Peese, 
Sarah Reese, .Mary Peeso, David Peese, Josiah Peese! 
Philip Peese, Miriam Peese, and John Peese: Thonnis 
Pteese had married Prances Price, the mother of these 
children, on the 27th of 2d mo, lGy2. He left also a 
legacy untu his grandson, Paac Price; a legacy to Ilaver- 
lord Meeting; and anotlier for the repair of the grave-yavd 
of that meeting. 

Unto his second and youthful wife, Margaret, who was 
a Morgan, whom he married at his age of eiglity-five, and 
lived with about twelve years, making his age'nincty seven. 


he devised his " house aud plantation, where we now dwell," \ 

in fee tail, with remainder to his right heirs; but as she i 

lived until 1774, the remainder was lost sii;ht of, or maj I 

have been barred; or the i^lace may have been sold under i 

a power given by the will, with consent of those whcui he i 

called his "loving friends, lleese Thomas, 3Iorris Llewellyn, | 

and liubeit Jones." It was then common for Friends to | 

appoint advisers by will in addition to their executors, to [ 

have a friendly and judicious care over the testator's family | 

and estate, aud their consent was usually made requisite to \ 

the exercise of the power of sale. | 

Isaac Price, the son of the preceding Philip Price, was, | 
on the 4th day of 1st month, 1G9G, married to Susanna 

Shoemaker. This appears by an abstract of the certiGcate j 

of marriage on the books of the Abington 3Ionthly 3Ject- | 

in-, under that date, which states that the marriage took ! 

p^.iL-e according to the order of Friends, at a Meetin- licld I 

at the house of Ilichard Wall, " many Friends buinu' pre- i 
sent." The witnesses whose names were copied were, 

" William Jenkins, Richard Wall, Ilichard Townsend, Jon. 1 

Roberts, Robert Owen, Howell James, David Llowellyn, i 

Renj. Humphrey, Richard Hayes, Samuel Carter, Joshua | 

Owen, Meredith Davis, with many more Friends." That I 

is, they copied twelve, to shuw that the marriage had been ! 

lawfully accomplished, and omitted the others. I, 

Su.sanna Shoemaker was one of the German Friends from I 

Cresheim, in the Palatinate, on the right bank »t' the Rhine, 1^ 

below Heidelberg. Her mother, Sarah, arrived in the ship |' 

Jeffries, Arnold, master, irom London, Sth mo. ]_', 1(JS.>, i; 

v.ith children, of the following names and ages: Geor-e, ii 
23 J Abraham, 19; Rarbary, 20; [saac, J7; ins.-uon,, 1 y J 
Flizabeth, 11 ; Renjamin, 10. The mother is spoken of as 
cousin U) Jacob aud Peter Shoemaker. 


lliis Isaac Price dioj before bis father, in 1707 Jj:- 
will IS dated 4tb of 7tb month, 170G, and was proved in 
he's office, Philadelphia,, on the 1st davof March 
1 - 00-. . He devises one-third of his persona! 'estate and 
one.thu-d of his plantation in Plymouth, untu hi. wif;. i;,r 
life; and th. other twu-thirds untu his tw„ dau-hfr. V-.,- 
^.nd Gwen, at their a^e of lourr.en ; and if either shoJld\li; 
under 21, then to the survivor; and if both sh.uid die uu 
der that a^e, then it shuuld descetill to his son Laac Ti^e^e 
being his only children, Isaac would have taken hy law a. 
well as by will, after the death of b^th his si.ter. under 
«ge. H.S wifb is njade sole executrix; but he appmut. 
aecord.ns to Friends' custom, as advisin:, trustee, n.! 
guarcl-aos of his children, '• n>y trusty ami well-beLv^d 
fnends, Lowland Ellis, Thomas Kee^e, DaviJ William and 
Ljo^ley Williams." Thomas Keese was his brother-indaw. 
Ibaac Price, the second, son of the above Laac was 
plaeed^an apprentice with Griffith Junes and Elizabeth 
h'.^ witc, of Germantown, on the 7th October, irM) with 
several salutary restraining stipulatior,s in the indenture 
^^r his good conduct, with consent of his mother, th.^i 
-usanna Courten, wife of William Courten. 

At an Orphans' Court, held in Pl^iladelphia, on the Ikh 
of^December, 1723, the fl^lluwing record appear, as to him : 
Isaac Price, the son of I.aac Price, deceased, aged about 
eighteen years, comes now into court, and with him Row- 
Kirid El IS, who was appointed guardian by the will of Isaac 
"ce, the father, and they pray that Griffith Jon.-., of Ger- 
n;antown, may, because of the great age of the Powland 
^'Ji^, be appointed as assi.rant to the .aid Rowland and 
^^0 as a guardian to him, the said Isaac Price, the' son. 
On consideration of the whole matter, the court do appoint 


the said Griffith Jones as guardian of said Isaac Price, to 
act in conjunction with tlie said Rowland KUis." 

Thisriowhmd Ellis, on whooj our first anet .f^rs in Penn- 
^^ylvania so much relied, is spok.Mi of bj Pn^ad, at soiinj 
length, as a man eminent and useful in his g.-neratiun 
lie says: "Rowland Ellis was a man of note among the 
Welsh settlers, from a place called nrru-Maner, nearpul 
gellj, in the County of .Alerioneth." Xorth Wales. He 
came here first in IGSG**returned to AVales, and afterwards 
settled here in 1G97. Proud further says of him : '• After 
this his lust arrival in I'enusylvania, he is said to have i/r.d 
lonyto do <jo'j,], his services, both in church and state, being 
considerable. lie was a preacher among the Quakers ; bu^ 
his greatest service did not appear to be that way. He was 
an acceptable man in every station. lie died in the el-htieth 
year of his age, at his son-indaw, John Evans\s hJuse, in 
Xurth Vrales, Pennsylvaida." (1 Prnud, 220.; IPs uie- 
niorial is contained in the fuunh volume of " Piety Pro- 
moted," p. 303, by which it appears he had sufTered, before 
coming here, several years' imprisonment, with constancy, 
on ac.-ount of his testimony to Friends' principles. 

I have the marriage certil3c3>ti5, to be shown to you, of 
the second Isaac Price, of Plymouth Township, with Mar- 
garet Lewis, daughter of Henry and Mary Lewis, of Ilaver- 
ford. The ceremony took place at Friends' Meetin-. at 
Haverford, on "the 10th day of the fourth month, called 
June, 1720;" and among the witnesses appears the name 
of his mother, Susanna Ko^rion, who as witness to hi., 
indenture had spoiled her name with a C. T> this certi- 

oemakcr .sien to- 
r as witnesses, and I infer as near relatives, tlirou:di 

ficate, Lcnjumin, Henry, and Peter S 


Ills mother 

T lie ancestors of Margaret Lewis, wife of Isaac Pric- I 


trace, with the aid of '-Dr. Smith's History of Delau-aro 
County," and of the Notes of Gilbert Cope. Henry Lewis, 
the father of Margaret's father, with his wife Margaret and 
family, came from the Narbeth, in Pembroke, Wales, and 
^ .settled in Ilaverford, in 1GS2. He had been a pecuniary 
j sufferer in Wales for his religion. The Friends of Ilaver- 
I ford clauned to belong to Philadelphia County. IJe held 
:j the office of "Peace-maker" for the County uf Philadelphia, 
:j and was foreman, says Dr. Smith, of the first grand jury of 
;! that county. William Penn, writing to Thomas Uoyd, 
;| from London, 1 mo. IG, 1GS4-5, requests to be dearly *^sa- 
i luted to his "dear friends in their meetings, and particu- 
j larly to dear Juhn Simcock, and seventeen uthcrs by name, 
j including Ileiiry Lewis, and the rest of the Welsh friends." 
(1 Proud, '29L) He died in IGSS, leaving his wife and 
I three children, Henry, Samuel, and Elizabeth, all born in 
1 ^^ales. Henry married AJary, the daughter of PLobert 
j Taylor, of Springtield, who had ome from Cheshire ; Eliza- 
' beth with Robert Hayes, of Ilaverford ; but it is not known 
that Samuel ever married. <' The second Henry became a 
nmn of considerable note; was a member of the Assembly 
in 1715 and 171S, and was employed in other public trusts. 
His descendants are numerous, and many of them have 
been remarkable fur intellectual superiority. The most 
looted was the late Enoch Lewi.?, the mathematician." (Dr. 
Sniith's Hist. 478.) Ptobert Taylor and 3Iary his wife ar- 
rived in the sliip Endeavor, of London, on the 29th of 7th 
f^'io., 1GS3. They had children, Isaac, Thomas, Jonathan, 
I'hcEbe, M<ir>/, and Martha. 
, Henry Lewis, the second, and 3Jary Taylor, were married 

I at a^iuceting held at the of Bartholomew Coppock, 
m Springfield, on the 20th of the 10th month, 1G92. 
Their children were, Isaac, Juhn, Sarah, Mnroanf, born 


0th mo. 17th, 1700, AI;;ry, and Hannah. This AJargaret 
was the wife of the second Isaac Price. 

The office of " Peace-niaker," hchl by the first Henry 
Lewis, was created by act of Assembly, at the second ses- 
sion in the Province; and Chester Court, wlio appointed 
three of them, ordered them to meet on the first fourth dav 
in each month; hence their court came to be called tiic 
monthly court. Their duty was to determine matters in 
litigation, subject to appeal to the cuurt, and, as their /,a:ne 
imports, in an advisory manner to reconcile parties and dis- 
courage litigation. William Penn, in his letter of IG.^3 to 
the Society of Free Traders, says : "To prevent lawsuits, 
there are three peace-makers chosen by every County Court. 
m the nature of common arbitrators, to hear and end dif- 
ferences betwixt man and man." (1 Proud, 2G2.) It was 
the wisest of institution^, while quallGed paciGcaturs could 
be found, and the people were of a temper to be advi.ed 
for their own good. I have heard a former Chief Justice 
of Penu.sylvania praise just such an institution as the per- 
fection of administrative justice, auiong a people wise 
enough to sustain it in succe.ssful operation, without bein- 
aware of such having had existenj^e here. 

On the '2Sih of May, 1735, Isaac Price and Mar-aret 
his wife, of Plymouth, conveyed to William Trotter one 
hundred acres of land, in that township, beino; a part of 
tracts of land conveyed to his father, Isaac Price, bv deeds 
from I-raneis Ruwie, dated 27th March, 1702, and John 
Wood, dated 2Gth March, 1705, to...nher three hundred 
and twenty-eight acres, reciting the will of his father; the 
death of hi3 two sister.., Mary and Gwen, under a-,'anJ 
that his mother, Susanna Cuerton, and her husband, Wi!- 
l!:n-a Cuerton, had released to him all their right and tit! ■ 
ill the premises. 


j Isaac and Margaret Price, last uientioucd, were the j 

; parents of our grandfather, Philip Price, vrho was born in 1; 
I PljUiOuth, on the 5tli of the 11th month, 1730, then Phi- jl 
j ladelphia County, and afterwards lived in King^cssing, in y, 

■ the same county, and in his advanced ace in Darbv, j)p!a- l' 
j ware County. j| 

Philip Price married, on the loth of the oth mouth, : 
1752, Hannah Bonsall, by fleeting, at Darby. He is de- ij 
scribed in the certiticate as sun of Isaac and Margaret Price, • 
i of Plymouth; and she as the daughter of ]5enjamin and i 
Martha Bonsall, of Kingsessing; and all the said parents I 
as then being deceased. i 

Their children, who lived to be knt)wn to anv of their j| 
grandchildren now liviiig, were, 1st, Marguri^t, burn ilth of !{ 
6th month, 1756, who afterwards married Edward Garri- ji 
guess, of King-essing, from whum are children and errand- ! 
chilJren, now living; 2d, Sarah, born 30th of 4th month, ! 
l7.i'J, who married Thomas Garrett, of Upper Darby, who ! 
I'-ft children and grandchildren, etc., now living; 3d, Philip !' 
Price, born the Sth of 1st month, 17G4, our iather; 4th, j} 
benjamin Price, born 15th of 4th month, 17GG, who mar- i 
ried Paith Kirk, our mother's sister, wh^left children and 
grandchildren, &c., now living; 5th, Isaac Price, being the 
f^econd son to whom that name was given, was born 13th 
of 10th month, 17GS, who married iMary Fenthara, and 
died Oth month 15th, 1798, of yellow fever, contracted as 
a member of the Board of Health. He left three children, 
J>:'ae, Ann, and Henry, all y<i whom arc deceased, leaving 
"0 i.-.sue. 

I will show you, in our father's handwriting, the follow- 
ing statement, made by our grandfather, under date of 3d 
"'onth 14th, 1809 : '' I, Philip Price, of the Township of 

■ I'arby, in tlie County of Delaware, and State of Penn>yl- 


vaniii, being now in the seventj-nintli year of my a;je, 
having cbicfly resideJ in a different neighborhood from 
■where my forefathers dwelt, I hereby take an opportunity, 
for the satisfaction of my children, who liave been brought 
up at a distance from where ruy connections lived, to give an 
account of their forefathers, so far as has come to my know- 
ledge. I was born in the Township of Plyniouth, County 
of 3Iontgomery, and State aforesaid, on the 5th of the lltli 
month, 1730. 3Iy father and mother both died when I 
was young, under eight years of age. 

" My great-grandfither, Philip Price, is the first of the 
family I have any account of. He came to tliis country 
pretty early, with the first ^^'elsh settlers, but in old age. 
His wife's, my great-grandmother's llrst name, I never 
heard. They settled on a small place in Ilaverfurd. near 
where the Back Tavern, on the old Lancaster road, now 
stands, about six miles fruai Philadelphia. ^ly great- 
grandfather, when he was about eighty-five years of age, 
married a second time to 3Iargaret Morgan, who was said 
to be about twenty-five, and I have understood that tluy 
lived together about twelve yeai-s, before his decease, lie 
died in the year 1719 or '20. His widow lived until ;;bout 
the year 1771;. Jly great-grandfather had one son. my 
grandfather, named Isaac, and two daughters, one of whom 
married Peese, of whoui there was, and remains, a large 
family, the other, a Lewis, of whom^ I have had but little 
account. 3Iy grandfather, Isaac I'rico, married Susanna 
Shoeuiaker, one of the first settlers, of the Shoemaker 
family, about Philadelphia, Abingtun, kc. They had three 
children, but he dying young in life, they were left or- 
phans; two of them daughters, ^P-iry and Gwinn, who. I 
expect, died young, as I never liad any account of theui. 
My grandfather died in tlie year 170G. His widow aftor- 


',v-rjs married William Cuorton. Tlu'V had three dauLrhters, 
Ji' hecca, Ra.-hel, and Susanna, all of whom grew up, a,s 
til' y wore signers to my father's marriage certificate, bat I 
U'jver had any account of their marriage. 

'• 31y father, T.-aac ]*rice, being left young, was bound 

an apprentice to (rriffidi Jones, o[^ Germantown 

Ou the 4th uioiith, 1729, he entered into the marriage 
covenant with Margaret Lewis, daughter of Henry Lowis^ 
of Ilaverford. They lived in much, lore and iiarniony to- 
gether until his death, in the 4th month, IToS. He was 
taken off with the small-pox, after a short illness, ^ly 
Ujdther died of cou-umption, about a month afferv.ards. 
I hud a sister whr) also died of the small-pox soon after my 
faher. I was the eldest child, about seven and a half years' 
old, being left with a younger brother, named who 
was also removed by death, in his cightfv:'nth year; so that 

: f was left alone, there being none of the name of F'rice 

I descended from my great-grandfather besides mvsolf and 

i children. 

j * Signed, " Philip PiiicE." 

I ^ e will now trace the ancestry of our grandmother, our 

I father's mother, Hannah Bwnsall. Her first coli.'nial an- 
! ce.-tors were her grandparent-^, Richard and Mary I] .n.^all. 
I Proud speaks of his arrival thus (vol. i, p. 218) : " In the 
j year 1G82, they (the Quakers) had a religious meeting 
I fixed at Darby. Among the first and early settlers of the 
, >MCi.jty, at (ir n-ar thi,- place, are mentioned, John Blun-ton, 
j Michael Plun-ton, George Wood, Joshua Fearn. Henry 
I 'iibbons, Samuel Sellers. Ri'chard Bon<a''l, P^dmutid Cart- 
>d-e, Thomas H<'od, Partram, Robert Nayler, and 
Adam Ehoads; who all came from Derbyshire, in Eng- 
land " 


The birth of a son of Kichard and Mary IJori-:nl! is re- 
corded in Friends' Meetinp; book, at Darby, iu 1GS4; and 
their son, Benjamin Bonsai], is therein recorded as born on 
the Sd day of the 11th month, 16S7. He v,a.> our great- 

Kiehard Bonsall's vrill was made 7th month r2:h, IGOO, 
and he gave legacies to his daughtei'S, and lands to suns. 
lie died on the loth of 7th montli, 1G99. His wife had 
died in the previous year. 

On the 7th of 11th month (12 Anno), 1714, his son.s 
made partition of their father's lands, when Jacob and 
Enoch conveyed to Benjamin Bonsall his aliotmcnt of onr^ 
hundred and four acres. (Deed Book E 7, vol. 9, p. '234. ") 
This was the place where our grandmother and our fither 
were born. It is a mile or more southeast of the Blue 
Bell; is now cut by the Baltimore Railroad, which passes 
near the front of the house, standing upon the bank where 
the higher meadow subsides into the marsh meadow. It 
is the first of two similar brick houses seen near each other 
on the right, as passing by rail from the city, about two 
miles from Gray's Ferry, both Bonsall-built houses. It 
must have been built eavlv in last century, and by Benjamin 
Bonsall, our great-grandfather ; and John II. Andrews, of 
I)arby, its present owner, lately infurnied me that the tra- 
diti<jn is, as our father told him his lather had told him, 
that it was the finest hou«e, in its early days, in the neigh- 
borhood, and that people travelled many miles to look at 
it. He al-o told me tliut when our father vi-ited the place 
with him and John Ilively, in 1S32, he spoke of every 
?pot as familiar to his childhood, and called the fields by 
their former well-known names; names which they y> t 
bear. I have lately visited thi.i home of our ancestors wu!i 
great interest, cspi dally as it was the birth-place of our 


fath.r, where his infatiey was eradleJ just on., huiulrcd 
}-cars ago, and which witnessed the fresh hopes and j.^ys 
of his childhood. 

Benjamin Boi^sall married Martha . Their mar- 
riage certificate is not to be found opied on any meetin- 
record in or near Phihidelphia, the marriage having been 
nt a period when many at Darby were no't recorded, and 
blanks were left for the purpose of recording th.^m when 
they might be produced. She was living in 1738, in whi.-h 
year Martha, her youngest child, was born. I produce a 
deed, signed by her in 172S, with signature in a good 
handwriting; and as her name was given to one of every 
generation down to ours inchnive, I intT-r that she It-ft a 
uicmory precious to her survivors and descendants. I have 
inquired much after her parentage, but as yet without .nv:- 

The first of their children was born in 1714; Hannah, 
our grandmother, was born on the 10th of 11th month! 
1780. His second wife, was Elizabeth Home, whom he 
married Sth of -1th month, 1737. 

Benjamin Bonsall died the Oth of 1st month, 1752. His 
y'-iW is dated 11th of April, 1750, in which he'provides for 
Im wife Elizabeth; but the codicil of 3d of 1st month, 
l7o2, speaks of her decease. The will mention.s, as livin- 
>^is children, Bichard, John, James, Benjamin, Xathan^ 
5:'rah, Hannah, and Martha. The latier two were th-n 
U'nnarricd, and Sarah was the wife of William Home. 
•':ini^-,s and Benjamin were made executors, llu al.M) de- 
v:.ed to a grandson, Edward Bonsall, whom I reu.emb^r in 
I' IS old age as an active, compactly built man, lun- wdl 
i:r'own as a conveyancer in Philadelphia, where he las a 
•^"" yet living, and grandsons, energetically pursuing the 
^^^Hi.e business, whu with their fath.r bear a close lik" 


to their ancestor. lie had otlier descendants in the same 
business in that city. Nathan Bonsall, only cliild of Eliza- 
beth, was a minor at the date of the will, and lived with 
our parents at the time of my birth; of^'vhom I was the 
pet, and conse(]ueiitly gave him plenty of trouble by in.y 
wayward wilfulness, and those many exactions which the 
petted make upon tho-e who most love and spoil them. 
lie died in my tenth year, as I reeorded it with my knife 
on our chamber v.indow in 1807, as I have a;,'ain seen it 
to-day. His death I remember as freshly as if it were yes- 
terday ; for I was mucli attached to him, and it was the 
first death I ever witnessed, and then were shed my Or.t 
tears of sorrow for tlie dead. It was week-day njeetin^ 
morning', and walking into the parlor he asked our father 
if he was willing to remain with liim, as ho felt that he 
would not be living at their return from meeting. Father 
said he would remain ; laid him kindly on the cushioned 
settee, and in a few minutes he quietly breathed tl;e last 
breath of his life. His grave was the first of our family 
interments at Birmingham, beginning at the south wall, 
near the west end. 

Benjamin Bonsall was evidently a person " well to do" 
in the world, as he had houses and lands, cattle, sheen, and 
horses, and moneys at interest, to devise and bequeath to 
his children ; and he began his will in thankful acknow- 
ledgment therefor: "I, Benjamin Bonsall, of Kingsess, in 
the County of Philadelphia, and Province of Penn^dvania, 
yeoman, being of sound and well disposing mind and me- 
mory, praise be humbly given to the Lord for the same, 
Juid for all other His blessings and favors towards me; but 
HI consideration of my mortality and of the uncertainty of 
this life, do think (it to makr, publish, and declare my last 
will and testament, as foUoweth." 


The will was proved l^t month 20th, 1752, and the in- 
ventory contains one item th:it strikes us now as very 
strange, though the like was then not unconin:ion among 
Friends, nanioly, "a negro man called Will, £50." There 
had not then been much movement among Friends towards 
clearing themselves from the custom of holding .-laves ; the 
persuasive and convincing labors of John Woolman having 
hut ju<t b'-'gun, his first impressive essay being thus en- 
titled : " Some Considerations on the Keeping of Xegroes, 
recommended to the Professors of Christianity of every 
denomination: First printed in the year 1754." His 
writings and preachings, and the concern of other humane 
Friends, in time ripened into a Testimony of the Society, 
when the holding of slaves became cause of disownment; 
an abolition of slavery in which they were pioneers in the 
best form, that of bcjinning with themselves, until they 
cleared their own skirts of the practice; an example which, 
if followed generally, would have saved our land from im- 
measurable saffering.s, and saved our beloved country from 
incalculable loss of treasure and blood. Our own and other 
colonial legislatures had endeavored to suppress the impor- 
tatiun of slaves in the beginning; but their acts to prohibit 
the trade in human flesh v>ere uniformly repealed by the 
king or queen in council. It is thus that James Eowden, 
an English Friend, whose acquaintance I made in 1>'54, in 
London, in his " History of the Society of Friends in 
America," records an early instance of this kind in our 
Colonial As.-embly : '-The influence of Friends beincr pre- 
dominant in the Assembly, an act was passed in 1712, 
*To prevent the importati<;n of Negroes and Indians into 
the province.' The object of this humane movement 
proved unavailing. The home government, more disposed 


to promote uniigliteous gain than to hearken to the cry of 
the oppressed, neg-atived the law.'' (Vol. ir, 145, citing 2 
Col. Heed., 578.)' 

Thf Gerniauto\sn Friends; the vine-drcssers and grain- 
grovror.-^ from Cre.-hcin), from the U]'por Tihine: hun tl:e 
honor of making the first movement in the Soc'-e'ty of 
Friends, in 1GS8, by an address to their 3Iotuh!y Meeting on 
the subject; an address that produced a got'd impression, but 
not its full fruits until towards the end of another century. 
But Bowden proceeds to record this testimony en bt-half 
of Friends, that, '■ although, under their peculiar circum- 
stances, the Society of Friends in America were thus drawn 
to sanction the system of slavery, their conduct towards the 
negro differed widely from the general practice. Ni.t only 
were their slaves treated with much care and kindness, but 
gieat pains were also taken fir their moral and religious 
culture. Xo flogging houses, no branding, nor s'l'iked 
collars were allowed by them, nor harrowin^■ severance of 
husband and wife, and of parents from children," &c. (vul. 
ii, 191). It was in 1776 that the holding of slaves became 
cause of disowument, and during our Revolution, in 177S, 
that disownments took place for that cause, so that very 
.'^oon there were no negroes held in bondage by Friends; 
and in 1780, our political forefathei-^, expressing their gra- 
titude for their deliverance from British thraldom, pa.<sed 
the most eloquent act ever placed upon the statute book, 
and provided for the extinction of slavery in Pennsylvania 

At the period of the Revolution our grundfather, Philip 
Price, wa.s a farmer and grazier at the ]3on.--all place in 
Kingscssing, and lie made a record, under date, of P2th 
month 22d, 1777, that General Howe t'.ok up his .[u-nrtera 

at his bou.-c, and staid until tlio 2Stb, and then makes 
statement of his sullering by the British army: 

200 panels fence on meadows, .... £37 10 

700 do. good cedar post and rails, - - - 12G 09 

200 do. oak, worch Is. Cd., • - - - 15 00 

\Vood, 20 00 

Oxen, cattle, horses and sheep, 
24 Cattle, taken bj the commissary at £K 
twice that, 

93 10 


This was the winter the British occupied Philadelphia, 
after th.e battle of Brandywine, Ibugbt in view of where we 
are sitting. The tradition is, that our grandfather's boys 
annoyed or amused, as they took it, the British ofEcers by 
refusing to hurrah for King George, but persistently hur- 
rahed for General Washington. 

Hannah Price, our grandmother, was buried on the 10th 
day of the 5th month, PS02, within throe days of the 50th 
antiivcrsary of the marriage of our grandparents ; they 
having lived through a half century of happy wedlock, and 
she having accomplished a long life of piety and usefulness. 
She was buried at the burying-ground of the Old Illll 
Meeting-house, Darby. 

Philip Price, of Darby, died on the ITtb of the 0th 
month, 1811, and was buried in the same burial-ground, 
I attended his funeral, having, as a boy, after my parents 
had left home, of my own leave, taken a horse and ridden 
there, a distance of nineteen miles; but got no rebuke for 
it from my father. 

I remember our grandfather well; having received many 
kindnesses from hiui, such as a small boy well appreciates, 
when visiting my cousin Henry at his house in Darby. He 
^md J-aac Price's widow and children lived tou'othcr. ITi} 

was acred and veneralile in appoarance, sat at the head of 
Darby Meetinij;, and was called grandfather by the people 
generally. lie was of large fraijje, and must have been 
nearly six feet in heiglit, before he became bent by age. 
I remember him as a pretty constant smoker of the pipe, 
and reader of newspapers and books. lie was kind and 
charitable, according to his ability. 

Our grandmother was a small woman, who also sat in the 
highest gallery in the old brick meeting-house on the Hill, 
and wore a flat, white beaver hat. The qualities of her 
good maternal heart, and religious concern for her children, 
you may here read in the original letter, written more 
than eighty-one years ago, to her son, who was our father. 
'•I hat-e esteemed it a great blessing that thou art one 
amongst the number who are made willing to stand for the 
testimony of truth; and my desires are that thou mayest 
be more and more established, and that thou mayest not 
run too fast, nor loiter behind thy Guide : for what we are 
is by mercy, and not any merit of oar own. I believe it 
is good fur us often to examine our-elves; and I can truly 
say that thy preservation, with that of thy brothers and 
sisters, is more near and dear to me than all earthly bless- 
ings; and that it is a great comfort to thy father and me, 
that thy mind has been touched with that, that if .-trictly 
abided in, will lead out of great trouble and conflict iu tlii-^ 
present world, and when time shall be no more, crown with 
that which neither this fading world nor the enjoyments 
thereof can ever give." With a .-•:entiment of prof^uiid 
veneration for her character and name, I have here repeated 
these words, tliat though dead she may again speak, and bo 
heard by her descendants of another century. 

In Wiliiam J. Allin^on's " ^Memorials of ricbccca Jones," 
he quotes, under date of 5th mo. Sth, l^;Oi:, this memo- 

ninduni from licr Diaiy: "Died, Ilauuab, wife of Philip 
Price, of whom it may be sarid she was amocg the rueok and 
merciful, and had marked upon her the blessing pronounced 
upon the peace-makers. I went with Sarah Harrison and 
P. Pihoads to her burial, at ]^aiby, the 10th, where a soh-mn 
meeting was held. "William Sayery l;ad the chief service." 
The editor says, " Hannah Price was a valued elder and 
mother in Israel." (P. 297.) From this volume we learn 
who was Hannah Cathrall, who wrote the beautiful letfer 
of kindly encouragement to our father, in 17S3, contained 
in the Memoir of P. and P>. Price. She v>as the beloved 
copartner of Pebecca Jones in conducting a school in Phi- 
laJelphia, as well as her companion in Gospt'l fellowship, 
and preacher in the Society of Friends, who died in ISOG. 
li. Jones compares her first travelling companion in Eng- 
l:jnd to her : " An agreeable, nice, very nice person," with 
'•a lively gift in the ministry" (p. G3); and habitually calls 
her, "my Hannah Cathrall." She was clerk of the Wo- 
tiicti's Yearly Meeting. 

y\ e have now seen whence were derived to our family 
the names of Martha, Hannah, Margaret^ Sarah^ Benjamin, 
Isaac, and Philip. 

We have also seen that the name of Price was preserved 
t ' us, and as an ancestry for us, through but a single 
liic, for four generations, without a brother to become a pa- 
rti, t, and two of them were left tender crjihans; and our 
^Tandfather recorded with some pathos that he was left 
-.'Hie of the name. Of those of the last generation but 
''■vo have continued the name to this. Thus the gencalo- 
!-''c;d tree of the Prices threw out no enduring branches for 
a century; but is now wide spreading. May the GreSt 
preserver of men, who so long guarded it while a single 


.stem, oontinuL'IIi- kindly protection, and c;iu.-j tliv br;;ncli.:s 
to fliurish through tlie e^'uturics to ■joine I 

Our mother's first American ancc-tor, on th;^ paterinl 
side, was Alphonsus Kirk, Avho came here a vlutilt n.Mi. 
Proud erou[)s liiin with the Friends who arrived in IG-^'J. 
and setth;d on the Urandywiut- Creek a -id ■• about Center," 
that is, west of the iJnindywino ('v •!. i, iiS); but nur 
family documents show his arrival was a (^^7 vear> 
later. lie was the Son of Roaer and Elizabeth Kirk, cf 
Lurgan, Province of Ulster, P.eland. Alphonsus took his 
passage from Pelfast on the lltli day of 11th mo., 1G<^^. 
landed at Jamestown, Virninia, on th ? P2fh of 1 mo., IG^^'. 
and arrived in Pennsylvania tlu^ 29th of ?d mo:,th follow- 
ing, lie brought v;ith him certificates, copies of which 
follow, which exhibit the characteristic circumspection i)i 
the Society of Friends. 

" Whereas the bearer hereof. Alphonsus Kirk, having an 
intention to transport himself into the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, in America, at the rerjuc: t of the said Alphonsus, wc 
think it our duty thus to certify concerning him : That i.e 
hath lived with his father from his infancy until now. and 
for aught we know, hath been subject and obsequious to his 
parents; and since his convincement he hatli belonrred i- 
our Meeting, and hath behaved himself quiet aiid hone.-t 
in his deportment and dealing:; Lore; and^for anything we 
do know, or now understand, wc having made inquiry con- 
cemiug him, and he .sayoth hiri;self, is free and clear or ali 
women here, on the account of, or co'iccrnincr marriacre. er 
anything relating thereto. Wl- leave him, and advise him. t" 
tlic measure of the grace of God in his own heart, to wLicb 
if he would submit, it will teach him to deny ail ungod!:- 

no?>. From our Meeting at John Robinson's, the 9th of 
the 10th month, Hj^^S. 


TiMOTtiv Kirk, 
joxa. iiooi'es, 
Robert Kh;k, 
William Cook, 

Jonx Webb, 


James V.'ebb, 
William Williams, 
Jacob Roeixson, 
TuoMAs Walker." 

His parents gave to Alphonsus the following certificate : 
"This is to certify that we are willing our son, aljove 
named, should take th:^ journey herein mentioned, desirin"- 
the Lord to be his preserver, and leavt lam to the disposal of 
the Almighty. And if it be his fortune to marrv, we aive 
our consent, providing it be with a Friend in unity with 
Friends, according to the order of truth. 

"Roger Kirk, 
Elizabeth Kirk." 

This Roger Kirk w:'S fined, with otliers, in Armagh, in 
1075, because tliey v.ould not swear as jurors. (Bes.-e's 
Sufferings of Friends, 4S0.) 

It was the good " fortune" of Alphonsus Kirk to marry, 
and that in accordance witli the condition imposed by his 
parents; therefore, with their consent; for on tlie 23d oi 
l"2th month, 1002-3, he did marry Abigail Sharpley, a 
friend, and daughter of Adam Shar[iley. according to the 
order of truth, at the house of her father, on Shilpot Creek, 
^nd the marriage certificate describes Alphonsus as of 
Rrandywine Creek. Proud mentions Adam Sharpley's 
iirrival under date of 10^2, and as a settler on the east side 
of Brandywin- Creek, New Castle County. ' 


Thoy bad eleven children, the tetith of wliom ■\v;^•^ V.'i!- 
liaiu Kirk, our mother's father. Ilo^'er Kirk died in IGO-^ ; 
Alphonsus, 7th mo. 7th, 174.5, and the wife of tlie latter 
in ]7-xS. AYilliani Kirk was born the 4th of the 1st nio , 
170S; obtained his cer^ifieate from Newark to Go.-h -n 
Monthly fleeting, 5th mo. 31st, 1731; was twiee married, 
and had altogether nineteen ehildren, our mother being 
the sixteenth child, and the sixth of the second marriage. 
He died 3d mo. 2d, 17S7. lie mnst have l^jcn n man of 
great courage. In orie win.ter, in their early settlement, 
durinir a deep snow, he and family were near the point of 

William Kirk's second wife was Sibbilla Pavi<, afterwards 
the widow of Edward Williams, of Pikeland, who luid died ia 
174S. She was born 1st mo. 1st, 1720, and njarried ^Villia:n 
Kirk, 3d mo. 27th, 1754. Their children, who were known 
to us well and intiniatelv, were Isaiah Kirk, who married 
Elizabeth Ilichards ; Rebecca, who marriel James E;n- 
bree ; Faith, who married father's brother, Ijenjamiii I'riee ; 
Ivuchel, our moiher^ Sibbilla, who married from this house 
Joseph II. Brinton. All these have left numerous descen- 
dants, well known to you, the greater part of them residents 
in or near this County of Chester. Gilbert Cope, who 
searched the records, &c., at my request, gives me the fol- 
lowing account of the parentage of grandmother, SibbiHa 
Kirk : Daniel Harry, or Harris, as the name was frcfiucntly 
written, of the Parish of Machanlleth, in ?dontgomery~hire, 
produced a certillcate from the Monthly Meeting at I'-!- 
gelly, in Merionethshire, Wales, dated 5th mo. 2d, l''^7; 
but he had arrived in ship Vine, from Liverpool, 17th ■■! 
7th month, 1C84, with his brother, Hugh Harris. lb- 
settled in Radnor, and on the 4th of 12th month, IGOd, 
was there married to .^ibyll, a daughter of iJavid Price. 

]>:iviJ Price liad come from Breeknocksliirc, "Wale.^, am] 
brought liis ecrtitieatc to Ilaverford Monthly ^leetinp-, in 
IGOO, \s"ith liis wife Joan, and six children. Daniel Harry, 
or [larris, and Sibyll, l:is wife, liad several children, namely, 
Sibvll, Eliznl'th, Mary, Anne, Henry, and MarLraret. Th'is 
Elizabeth became the wife of John Davis, and they were 
the parents of tur grandmother, Kirk. 

John David, or I'avis, came from Wales. He pur- 
chased of I'avid Llo\d an hundred acres, a mile and a 
half east of Uwehland meeting-house, June i^d, 17L5,in the 
deed for which he is styled, '-John L^avid of Uwchlan." 
signifying' hi- havin:,- had a previous re.-idence there. 
Sibyll Harii>, who died in 17:] 1, at the age of forty, speaks 
in her will of her brt ther-in-Iaw, John David, and of his 
daughter, Rachel. Elislia Davis, of West Vrhitcland, now 
in his OSth year, says his grandfather, John ] hivid or Davis, 
n:arried I'Jizabeth Harry, or Harris. J(;lin ]>,:vis died in 
the spring of \~Z\]. ]V\> widow survived him many year-. 
vrith eleven children, who were young at their father's de- 
coi'se. xheir name.- were, Daniel, Hannah, 3Iary, HiicIkI, 
John, Elizabeth, Silbilla, Amos, Abigail, lluth, Denja- 
luin, the .said Sibbilia being our grandmother, and of pure 
I ^Vclsh extraction. Derijamin was the father of Mary Davis 
j and of Tacy Davis, afterwards wife of Thomas Woodward, 
i both of whonj lived months and years with our parents, and 
j added to the cheerfulness of our household. 
j It i^ to be remembered that most Welsh names are de- 

J rived fr iin the first or Chri-tlaii names. Thus David is 
j eh:ingcd to Davis, Harry to Harrys and Hanis, William to 
I ^^'illiams, John to Jones, Robert to Roberts, PcLev to Peters, 
I Richard to Richards, Philip to Phillips, Thomas is Thomas, 
^'Corge is George, ic. P'rice and Recs were probably th<^ 
same, but Reese or Piys obtained its P from the preGx Ap, 


iiieaniu^- son; thus Philip ap Ilys", or Ap Reo?, became 
Philip Price. Indeed, in ancient tiiue.-^, the sons thus took 
tlie first names of their father as their last, and hence so 
many first names became converted into last names. 

The naiucs William, Sibbilla, and Eli, were derived from 
our mother's parents and nephew. I have given the name 
|i Sibylla or Sibyl as differently spelled at different times. 
I Having now traced our ancestry, on every side, to the 

j first settlement of the Province, it is a matter of interest 
to know the character of the people from which we have 
sprung, as it is to know the oi'iginal nationality of the blood 
that flows in our veins It is as follows, the Wel>h set- 
tlers on the forty thousand acre tract described themselves, 
when, on the ICth of 10th month, 1000. they petitioned 
the govenror and council that they should be made a dis- 
tinct barony, with power to govern themselves (1 Col. 
Piccd^- 10-^) ; being jealous of their own nationality and 
custouis : They say: "We, the inhabitants of the Welsh 
tract, in the Province of Pennsylvania, in America, being 
descended of the Ancient Pritons, who always in the land 
of our nativity, under the crown of England, had enjc.yea 
that liberty and privileges as to have our bounds and limit- 
by ourselves, v.'ithin the which all causes, quarrels, crime-. 
and titles were tried and vrholly determined by officers, 
magistrates, juries, of our own language, which were our 
equals: Having our faces towards these countries, made 

the motion to our 

governor that we mig 

It enji 

,v the s 


here, \ 

"hich thiii'_ 


SdOM granted by 

him 1 

•efure h 

i or 

we came to these 


s, and when ho c; 

me o^ 

•cr, he ;_ 


forth 1 

lis warrant 

to 1 

iy out 40,000 acres of 

and, to 



we might 


together, and cnj( 

y our 




u in our own lanirna^e as afore in 

our CI 




Welsh did 


succeed in obtaining their ,sepa 



local government. Thoy were too much spread over the 
country, and other settlers obtained portions of the lands 
allotted for their people. The Quaker German settlers, 
from Creslieiui, a t'jwn not far from "Worms, in the I'alati- 
nate, having settled more compactly in and about German- 
town, obtained from \\'i!liam l\'nn a charlur uf incorporation, 
with limited pnwers of internal regulatiun and governuieut. 
(1 Penna. Archiv., 111.) 

Among these belonged Susanna Shoemaker, the wife of 
the first above-named Isaac Price, and our ancestress. 
Among the frst naturalizations, by act of Assembly, bear- 
ing date in 170S, in p. 110 of l]eiijamiu Prardclin's edition 
of the laws, printed in 17-12, after the names of Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, and others, are those of Peter, Jacob, 
George, and Isaac Shoemaker. It is thus recited of these 
Germans in the preamble of the act: "Whereas divers of 
the Protestant or reformed religion, who were inhabitants 
of High and Low Germany, about twenty-five years ago, out 
of a desire to come under the power and prutection of the 
crown of England, and partake of the advantages propo<:ed 
for the encouragement of the adventurers to settle in this 
new colony, embraced tlie invitations they had from the 
said proprietary to transport them-elves and estates licrc; 
and since they came, did contribute the utmust of tlicir 
power to enlarge thi^ part of the l']nglish empire, and al- 
ways behaved themselves as dutiful and peaceable subjects, 
and several of (hcui have made and subscribed the decla- 
ration and test by law appointed, instead uf the oaths of 
supr(;macy," t:o. 

The qualities of the F.ngli^h and Irish are well known 
to us. It is when their combative propen.'^itLes have un- 
dergone Chri. tian conversion that tliey are the best of 
people, and such were our Colorjial ancestors. 


A? I understand our orii;In as to nation, it is as follow; 

J'lnlip Prieo, l^t. and wife, 
1-LiiiL- ]'rico, l.-t. their ^on, 
fr^u.-aniia. his wilV. 
j Isaac Price, l^d. their son, 
I Margaret, his wife, 

j Pliilip Price, '2d. their son, 
I Hannah, his wife, 

Philii. Price. Sd, uur father, | 

Alphonnis Kirk, 

Al.i-alL hi- wife. 
AViUiam Kirk, th^'ir son, 

SibbiUn, his wife, 

P.achi'L their daughtt'r, and 
our mutlier, 






















Tlio chi!dr>n of I'hilip and 

Pachel Price, j\ h I'e t's 

It; therefore, there be any advantage derived, as some 
CGTijecture, from coniiuingling the blood of diflerent na- 
I tions, we are well entitled to it. 

It is within the nicuiory of their children, that our pa- 
i rents, wli j vrere always afiectionately sucial in their nature, 
I did always claim kindred, i.iaintaiucd 4Viend!y relations and 
I social intercourse with the cousins of their own genenition; 
I with the Sboemakcrs, Bnnsalis, Hums. Davises, and others: 
i rel-itl"u~ljil„.: iiow by di.-tanco fading out of the view i.if the 
I present generations. To keep alive the memory of their 
' ancestry, and the ties of kindred, was ever a S'lurce of 
! social pleasure to our parents; and they continued the 
same social friendliness to the descendants of these cousins, 
at We-t Town and West Chester, and in all their travoN, 


while thoy lived. These are wide-spn nd over the land, 
and besides their desceiuhitits, many otlicr relatives and 
jiuplls cherish Avith afleetion the memory of Philip and 
llachel Price. 

Ill the review of our aiiccsti-y we may liere sintc. I think 
■with a just satisfaction, that hut few of them, on any side, 
appear to have held public office, or to have sat iu a Iclms- 
lative body. They all belonged to the industrial cla-ses, as 
all must iu a new country; all maintained their families and 
their own independence, by their intelligent and hone.-t in- 
dustry and thrift; and happily so for themselves and for us, 
for thereby they acquired and preserved healtli, and left to 
us good constitutions. We itdierited from them no taint, 
physical or ujoral, excej^t the general liability to temptation 
and sin, common to all the children of Adam. They generally 
remained in the dignified pusition of private life; ri.-ked not 
their character or peace by tlie inordinate pursuit of gain; 
Ji'jT sullied their honor by political arts or unscrupulous 
ambition. They and their associate colonists and Quakers 
lived and died, "the noblest work of God," honest men 
and honest women, with the virtues that characterize a reli- 
gious society, whoVere pure as the purest Puritans, but 
possessed much greater ameriity of manners, much more 
Christian charity, and cherished the tenderest sentiments 
of humanity. 

Philip Price and Piachel Kirk were married, according 
to the order of Friends, at Past Nantmeal, Che.-ter Cuunty, 
near her father'.s residence, on the 20th day of tlie lOtli 
month, 1784:. Their eldest two children were bcrn at the 
Kingscssing ]>lace, next the Swedes' church, and the next 
succeeding two at the place our father purchased, at \Vest 
Nantmeal; but all the others, including all their children 
riow living, were born in the homestead where we arc now 


n?>embled. The deed for this place is dated 3d mo. !2.jtli, | 

1701. Here our parents lived from tliat year till ISIS; 

when they removed to take charge of West Town l^oarding j 

School as superintendents, where they remained until ISHO, 

vrhen thcv opened their West Chester Boardiim- >^cli''; 1 lur | 

" . . . . . ' - , i 

eirls. and in that hnise they died; Philip Price, on tlie ititii < 

duv of 2d month, 18o7; and Eachel Price, on the Gth day ; 

of the 8th month, 18-17. ^Vc buried them beside each | 

other at Birmingham, near the meeting-house wliere they j 

had Worshipped during the larger portion of their njarried 

lives; and there beside thorn we buried our si>ter Hannah. ! 

Circumstances have occurred since their burial to make ; 

it necessary to describe; with precisir.ri where wc laid thein, 

for the satisfaction of their living relatives and their pos- ; 

terity. We have been denied the privilege of marking | 

their la=t restin'j-places by stones visible to the eye, though 

placed unconspicuously at or near the level of the ground. 

A kind Providence, however, has caused to grow a cedar 

tree, which I planted, then oi' the height of but a few spans, 

at the foot of our father's grave. That tree is about twenty 

feet from either wall, toward- the southwest corner of the 

ground. Next him, to the north, was buried our uiutlier, 

and next, south of him, our sister Hannah.. My bnciier 

Philip and 1, at a time when other headstones wtrc in the 

ground, had with reverent affection placed head>tuncs at 

the graves of our parents, lettered with their names, births, 

and deaths, and in 1SG2 I placed one at my sister's grave. | 

These have been buried, as I have lately been infoimc 

and that 


my earnest an 

d affectionato rcnionstr 


to the Fricnd.s w 

10 waited upon 

mc in 

18(32: at a 



when the 

ir bretl 

ren of the city 

had made provis 

on f:)i 


like desi 


of the spots 


rest their 



only rem 

ans, th 

^refore, for nie 

in thi 

1 way to mi 

ke known 


tu the iiih'M-itors of the blood of our parents the place 
where repose the remauis of those who, while living, we 
most loved, and whose memory, when dead, we most revere. 
We desire to do this, that their ashes may never be dis- 
turbed; and that thuse of kindred uatures and warm affec- 
tions may know where their best feelings may be most 
surely awakened to love all that is good, and to worship all 
that is holy. I leave it as an injunction to their posterity, 
whensoever those in charge of the burial-ground can recon- 
cile their sense of duty with our feelings, as suruly that 
time will come, that the stones may be restored even with 
the surface, so that the lettering on their tup may be read : 
I say, when this reconcilement can be had, but not before. 
Tt cannot be adverse to the true sentiment of the Society 
of Friends, which by its very full histories, and its many 
precious memorials, transmits the memories and examples 
uf the good, to intluence the coming generations, that affec- 
tionate children should be perujitted, in a plain and humble 
manner, to designate the spot where repose the remains uf 
their belovedj that they may surely know the spot to them 
the most hallowed of all the face of this earth, and where 
their emotions will most surely be awakened to the mo..t 
sacred and lofty aspirations. To honor parents, and to 
adopt the most effective means of making their memory 
and example influential upon the living, is a purpose that 
our best nature will ever sanction and approve; and while 
it is wise to repress all vanity and abuse of even what is 
good; it cannot be wise or good to repress the modest and 
unconspicuous means by which goodness can be most surely 
reproduced in the human heart. 

This is not the occasion of extended remark upon the 
character of jniilip and Rachel Price. The narrative of 
their exemplary and beautifpl lives has been printed, and 

I is faniinar to us all. Seklora, indeed, has it occurred that 
atij couple ever enjoyed through life the affectionate regard 
I of so many persons of all ages. As long as we have nie- 
i mory of the past wc renieuihor our parents as active in the 
I duties of the farm and the household, in the social duties 
of their neighborhood, and in the service of their religious 
j society and of education. Their home was one ^Yhere more 
j than usual hospitality was dispensed, and where they loved 
; to gather their children, aiid children's children,- and their 
friends. Our father was a Christian gentleman, who>e 
manners were always courteous and bland; our mother a 
dignified Christian matron, with countenance beaming with 
love, and both had hearts ever throbbing in symj-athy with 
suffering humanity, of wliat-uever color or clime. 

We remember our parents as strict and plain Friends, 
as the elder, and as minister of the Gospel, serious, diixni- 
f.ed, and devotional; but not at all as ascetic or glouiuy. 
^Vith them, religion had its most reGning and genial in- 
fluences. They were not austere censors of others, but as 
knowing the iiiHrmities of our nature, they conipassionately 
pitied fiailty, and ever encouraged the modest and deserv- 
ing. Love was the most developed element of their cha- 
racter; love to God, and love to man; an^l t]»:it love led 
them to rejoice with the happy, and to mourn with tho<e 
that mourn ; and as was the occasion were they cheerful or 
pad; but alwiiys attractive, as love will always attract the 
love of others. This was the happiest of homes when the 
young were here gathered; and here the travellers in the 
service of Christ always found sympathizing friends; and 
here these were welcomed to sojourn, as suited thoni, or to 
make it u resting-place fur recovery of strength, when 
wearied by exhausting labors. 

Here it v,-as that all now Hying of our p:a-ents' children 

^vcre born; here all their chilJron were phy?iea]ly tnlinrd. ' 
and received an oducatiuu sueh as i'c'ff parents of means so 
hmited give to so many children; and here vrerc we nur- 
tured in that holy faith that atibrds us in age the hope and 
trust of a reunion v.ith them hereafter. 

The following are the names of the children of Philip 
and Kachel Price : 


I. Martha, m.arried Xatban I[. Sliarpb.'-. 11 mo. 3. ITS), 
II. IlaniKih, married David Ji.Dt-DuTis.M.D., .3 ino. ^'j. KST, 

III. AViiTiaiii, marri.d Ilanuah Fi.-hor, 9 mo. 17. IT^S, 

IV. SiubiUa, married John W. Towujend, 2 mo. 10, 1700. 
V. Mar-.-irel, married Joaatbau Paxson, 4 mo. 19. 179-'. 

VI. necjamin, married Jane Taxon, 12 mo. 17. 179-3. 

VII. Sar.ih, married Caleb Carmalt, 11 mo. I'.. 179.3. 

VIII. Kli K., married Anni Euibree. 7 mo. 2 i, 1797. 

IX. Isaac, married i'aync. 11 mo. ', 1790, 

X. rbilip yi., married MaltiJa Greentree, 7 mo. 7, IS 2. 

XI. Hachel, 7mo.l.MS..S, 


9mo 11, !«.-.:.'. 

1 LUO. i>J. ISU. 

1 mo. 27. ISC I. 
S luo. 6, lSG-3. 

IS 2.5 

It thus appears that all the children of our parents who 
grew up were married; and they were happily married ; ia 
accordance with the often-expressed -wishes o? our parents, 
that the'r marriages should bring ia association with our 
family those who would be congenial with its members and 
each other. 

It v.ill also be observed that all the Tnaac Prices died 
young, and that all the Philip Prices lived long. This 
fact has had Tts influence in the naming of the living gene- 
rations, who have been named after the Priees. 

It is fitting that we should now here especially name and 
bring to our meujory, in connection with the names uf our 
parents, our beloved si.-ters and brothers whom v/c miss 
from their places to-day; those allied by nature, arid those 
who became sisters and brothers both by the njarriage tie 
and social affection. I have written their names, but can- 
not trust my voice to read them: we vrill silently remember 

theiii all. Tliese are, Isaac and Susanna Price; Natlian 
II. and Martha Sharpies; Sibbilla K. Townsend ; William 
Price, 31. D, and Hannah his wife; David J. Davis, M IX, 
and Hannah P. Davis; Jonathan Pax;on; Calelj Carniak: 
Anna E. Price; ?datilda I'rice. Thus ilvc of our pan:iit> 
ten children who grew uji, and ei^iht of their children ]>y 
marriage, have passed from this scene of existence. Theii 
bodies lie in scattered graves, from Xuriherii Pennsylvania 
to Southern Ohio. Put our cherished faith instructs u^ 
to believe that their spirr-ts may all hav? met to live in a 
yet closer union, that shnll sufTor no separation, and tha: 
they may v/ith joy hjok upon us here this day. Besides 
parents, brothers, and sisters, some of us mourn tor children 
in yet freshly covered graves; yet these are duubly happy. 
both in that they rejoice with the spirits of the blest, and 
in that they lived not to u'.'.iuru cliildren taken before theui, 
and to carry with them through life an ever-abiding s.jrrovr. 
The members of the generation succeeding to ours are 
yet more widely scatt(^red over the earth; and those denied 
the pleasure of being with us to-day, and whom we are 
denied the pleasure of having here, are also especially ar.d 
affectionately remembered. These are in Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, New York, France, California, and in the armies of 
the United States. All these, however distant, we assure 
that with them the lengthened chain of affection remains 
briglit and uabroken, and we greet them in the fellowship 
of a common blood, and in the strong ties of social affection. 
3Iay those thus separated, and their descendants, though 
they should never gather again at the ancestral homestcail. 
as well as all here and their descendants, cherish, as among 
the best of their inheritance>, the remembrance that the y 
sprang from Philip and PiiehL-l Price, and as they venerate 
those names strive to imitate their virtues! 

Sincp this n:irrative v,a? written and read, it bn? occur- 
red tit the writer to ask biui^elf whctlier he has written all 
that our posterity would demand for their satisfaction; and 
that they would a>k what were and what did tlie sonsorrhiiip 
and Fiachel Price? JuJginir of their wishes by wl.i.t h;ive 
bt'en his own craving desires, he cannot doubt but that it 
would be a que.-tion that would arise with great regret if 
not now answered for them. This writing is mainly in- 
tended for them ; and when I consider how much I would 
have given if any ancestor, within the past two centuries 
or more, had written such an account of their family and 
connections as will be herein contaiiR-d, I i'eel bound not 
to be too sensitive about ?pcaking in brief terms of a ievf^ 
of the living as well as the dead, of the sons and grand- 
sons of our parents. 

Wilh'am Price, the el.lest son, was one of the early West 
Town scholars, and left home, before he was of age. to teach 
a school for colored children, under the care of Friends, in 
Phihidolphia. His ideas soon became enlarged and changed, 
and he studied medicine with Dr. Joseph Parrish, whom we 
remember not only as the best of physicians, but as the 
kindest and blandest of gentlemen, who always acted on 
the most liberal, sincere, and humane conviction^. Wil- 
liam graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, when 
its chairs were filled by the eminent names of Ptush. Phy- 
•'■iek, Wistar, James, and Cose. lie made a voyage to 
<.'liina as surgeon of the Lancaster, Robinson, one of the 
fr.-t of Thomas P. Cope's ships, and escaping capture re- 
turned to a good market after the ^Var of 1>'12 had com- 
iiieneed. lie attempted another such voyage before the war 
ended, in the Brig Trader, Donaldson; but being cap;izcd 
ill a gale and disabled, returned to port to refit, and while 
d'.tained the news of the peace of 1^15 arrived; and sail- 


ill"' again soon after carried tlie first news of it to China, 
He spent about throe years in Paris, in assidu.'us attention 
upon the leeturcs and hospitals of that great seat of niodical 
science; returned to Pliiladelphia, and connneneed practice 
with the best quaHfieations and brighte.-t pro.-pects. Put 
after a few years be allowed himself to be diverted from 
the regular pursuit of his profession to other occupations, 
changed his res.idcnce from place to place, and hence failed 
to acrjuire that wealth that otherwise would have crowned 
his professional services and placed his family in afuucncc. 
After years lost to his profession, part of tlie time in the 
Ohio legislature, he resumed its practice in Cincinnati, and 
pursued it with conscientious devotion until his death, and 
always won the attaehiiient and confidence of his patients. 
His disposition was most kind aud social, and his manners, 
always gentle and without affectation, were the mo.-t { o- 
li.-hed and attractive, lie had known much of the world 
and its philosophy, but lived to acknowledge the faith of 
his mother to be the most truthful and beautiful that tr.e 
world had ever received, and in that faith had tlie belief 
of our reunion in immortality. 

B'7iJ't77iin Price, the second son, remained upon tlie 
farm; has always been a farmer, though sometimes engagtd 
in teaching, and preserved through life the simplicity cf 
dress and manners in which he was educated in his youth- 
He was a son after the heart of his parents; and only ever 
differed from them, or seenicd to, wlicn the Society >J 
Friends, in this country was rent in twain in \>'1~ and 'i-\; 
but this separation estranged them not in affection, nor in- 
dividually in iaith. If the life of early Friends was a return 
to the simplicity and truthfulness of apostolic days, then 
that of our brother is like unto theirs. 

Eli K. Pr'uc, the third son, fond of reading, went into 


tlio countincr-houso to escape the farm. He had a full 
niLTcaiitile education in the .-hippln^diouse of ThoiiU!-^ P. 
Cope; and (ur a year with J. C. Jones, Oakford c\: Co . to 
prepare especially for the China trade. That trade becom- 
iticr greatly depressed when he became of acre, he decided 
nnt to Waste his tiiue.; and to gratify a different a-piration, 
studied law with Joh.n Sergeant, from whom he ever re- 
ceived the kindest treat lucnt. Ilis profession he has unin- 
terruptedly pursued to the pres-ent time. He was at first 
best prepared in mercantile law, which he began to read in 
the counting-ro<ini; but the people identified him, after his 
admission, more with real estate, and to land titles he has 
most devoted his professional life. In 1S53, the old city, 
as it was under Peun's charter of two square miles, de- 
niandcd reforms in tlie Fire Department, and from .the 
evils of the disconcert of action of about a dozen munici- 
pidities, with differing laws, into which Philadelphia was 
divided He was put upon the Senatorial ticket, against 
his own remonstrances, and Mathias W. Baldwin, and ^Yi'- 
bam C. Patterson, upon the House ticket, and they were 
elected over the regular candidates of both political parties. 
The " Consolidatioti Act'' was the result; and during the 
three years E. K. Price remained in the Senate of Pcnn- 
P3"lvania he legislated with a special view to the security 
of titles to real estate; to regulate charitable and religious 
uses and trusts, so as to place all religious societies upon 
one equal platfijrm before the law; to put the rights of 
women up.->n a better tVfiting, and to repress legislative 
corruption. With the. same object of security of title to 
real estate, lie wnjte and published . professional work, and 
prepared acts of As.sfmb:y at other times. He wrote, and 
with the aid of his brother Philip printed and circulated, 
the Memoir of Philip and Rachel Price, which was re- 


piiutod at Gla-p,w iu "The British Frierjd ;" and wrote- 
and printed fur uiir relatives the Memorial of '• Kebeera," 
bis daughter, and of her mother, and now presents them 
thi< contribution towards their family lii.-tory. 

He ceased to be a member with Friends by the best act 
of his life, that which gave him one of the bust of women 
to be one of the best of wives, 'i'liis was at the period of 
the separation; a circumstance that made each division kss 
attractive to those who did not sympathize with the contro- 
versy. Having no unity with the disunity, and wi.'rhin- 
the Society not to bo responsible for his acts or writin-s"^ 
he has remained in isolation, but honoring and lovin- t!ie 
good iu whomsoever he finds it. Professionally he has had 
much to do with questions of property growing out of the 
separation; always giving his counsels in fiivor of .peace; 
and it is with great satisfaction that he bears the testiuiony 
that no religious bodies, so njuch at variance, were ever 
more governed by pacific counsels; so that forbearance and 
?'m^ rather than litigation have composed le^ral rights, and 
generally left the property with the greater'locar nund;>er 
having it in charge. He has often queried to himself 
whether the sages of the Society of the last century would 
not have weathered the storms of this without shipwreck- 
ing the unity of the Society, and is inclined to think they 
would. One near and dear to the writer always seemed to 
him more than others deeply centred in that 'true wisd-uu 
which alone could have averted the catastrophe; and that 
came by her deep affections and true parental instincts; and 
also from Him whom she watchedas her constant Guide 
from early infancy. His mother, then at West Town, and 
1" the Select Meetings, was u constant, but nearly silent, 
witness to much that was parsing; and as became her po- 
sition as a minister of the Gospel, pre-.-rved her wonted 


serenity, and in the deep recess of her soul heeded only 
the guidance of that Light which the winds of c-ontroversy 
j could not there reach, nor cause its constant flame to flare 
I or flicker, or prove delusive to her steadfast mind. Sileucft 
and resignation, durincr this period of severe trial, she lilt 
to bo her allotted purtion, '' endeavoring to know the Divine 
will, . . . leaving all to Ilim that hath the key of David; 
lie that openeth and no man shutteth, and shutteth and 
no man rightly openeth.'' (Memoir, 128.) 

Luac Price, the fourth son, died in his twenty-sixth 
year, of an attack of fever, ob>cure in its symptom^; was 
faithfully attended by Dr. Darlington, and by our brother 
William, who devoted all of many days and nights to be 
with him, to soothe and allay suffering. For the few years 
he was in business, farming at this homestead, Isaac evinced 
unusual enterprise and capacity. Had he lived to continue 
as ho began, he would have been successful and prosperous. 
He adhered while he lived to the faith, practice, and ex- 
ample of his parents; and though, in his youth, very play- 
ful and highly humorous in his disposition, and irresistible 
in his power to provoke mirth, he never did aught to give 
his parents pain. He died in the faith and hope of the 

Philip M. Prirpj the youngest son of tjiem all, had the 
most prolonged and best school education at West Town ; 
was fond of mathematics and general reading; studied 
medicine with his friend, Dr. John D. Godman; and gra- 
duated in medicine in the University of I'enn.-ylvania. 
He pjractised his profession for a time; but to the exposure 
and labors of a country physician he preferred the office of 
Surveyor of Spring Garden, v.hich he held for many years, 
and laid out the streets and made the plans ^>i that district. 
His interest in building and railroad and other improve- 


mcMits amounted almost to a passion, sometimes puv:=uei1 to 
his own injury, ami at the imminent risk of health an.l 
lilc. lie was active in startin;^- the Pennsylvania Fiailroad; 
and it may be said tliat the Erie Ivailroad, whicdi at this 
diiv sees its com])letie.n, would not at times have continued 
to live without him ; and now tributnry roads also claim 
;i.V atteniion. ^lay he long live to be useful in that tem- 
pered moderation that insures safety and happiness ! 

And what have the (hihlren of Philip and Piachel Price 
tu say for those of their descendants wh.o have been or are 
absent from their homes, because fighting the battles of 
their country? On such an occasion, when met to com- 
memorate our parents, we must bring all ol' ourselves, and 
all that belong to us, into a comparison with these liigh 
exemplars, and note the disparities. We have to say, that 
though it has n(^t reached our sense of duty to do as the.-e 
brave youths of our blood have done, we hjve them not t!ic 
less, as our parents would not have loved them the less, fur 
having obeyed t/ir,'r ovii suisc of dut>j, when their govern- 
ment and Country were stricken by traitor hands. All 
action taken under such a sense of duty must be ennobling 
to him who feels it, and in obedience to its impulse nerves 
his resolution to imperil health, limb, and life. Tlicse. 
then, have not only our love unimpaired, but the greater, 
that we must by nature's yearning deeply syiupathize with 
their toils, privati(jns, and perils; and wc must wi>h, by 
Mhutever means God permits, that our country and our 
government shall be su-tained, and hiiig live a republic, 
fur an example to the v,-i:rld, and its Uiany blessings to us 
and our pi)>terity. Indeed, we seem to sc-e even the evils 
of v,ar to be subject to a nuuiifest Divine guidance, to uvit- 
throw more enduring if nut greater evil-, aiid among them 
the direst evil that ever marred the fair fruiit of a Lireat 


civllizca nation; the cvii of that slavery ^vluc•h is a name 
for all the cruelties and oppres^ions that can be lutlR-ted 
upon a down-trodden humanity. Truly, we um.t adnnt, 
uTho kingdom is the Lord's, and He is governor an,u-,g 
tl,, nulion;." The Lord rei^.neth over all, and He .dl 
surelv rule and purge the nations of their .n.ciuitie.. _ 

Our European censors should belter know that there is a 
deeper sentiment and principle which move the heart of this 
nation than actuate their often wanton and wicked wars for 
boundaries and ambition,fought by mere mercenary soldiers 

Tho youn- men of our country who have left family and 
home, widi all the comforts and thrifts of peaceful lile, 
to incur the hardships and dangers of war, have not done 
so from the reckless desire of adventure or disregard of life, 
nor oenerally to gratify an.bition, or ftom mercenary mo- 
tive-^' but because impelled by a sense of patriotic duty, 
under the trials and exigencies of our country. And^the 
youn^^ men of the Society of Friends, who have sacnticed 
their'acciLstomed enjoyments; young men of good socia 
manners and education, some of whom write letters so good 
that their generals could not write better, going as but 
privates, did not thus go unimpeded by strong convictions 
of duty to society and government. It was thus that t)>e 
grand.sons of hundreds, bearing the names of sires hug 
venerated as followers of the Prince of Peace in the bo- 
ciety of Friends, have pas.-^ed through the fearful battles 
of this -reat war. This is part of the history of the tunes, 
and cannot be omitted in that of our f\.mily. One of th..e, 
bearin.' the name of our father, has been spared to be witli 
us to-day, after having gone, with the " Pennsylvania Le- 
serves," through the battles of Mechanic^ville, Mill 
Charles City Cross Roads, Fair Oaks, Malvern Lll, second 
Lull Pain, Fredeiicksburg, Getty,burg, Chancellorsville, the 


battles of tlieWiltlerne^s, Soutli Annn, Spott?yivania (Touvt- 
House, and Bethesda Church; and only not in South Moun- 
tain and Autietaui with the '■ rveserve.-," because di^abU'd and 
in the hospital. He eidisteda private, and returned a serireant, 
The"Pieserves" were never reserved from thcpostof daiiprer, 
but fur it, and were at Gettysburg by their own solicitation. 
The Philips, Isaiah, "William, and Edward, are, except 
one, returned to the war, and under Providence are all 
3et living. Philip Price, on quitting the field of the 
last battle of the '• Picservcs," met his brotlicr Lsaiah 
advancing with his con)mand to the front of the same 
field; and it is no wonder thar on such a iiieetlng, 
alter the perils of the many battles of their tiiroe yeais 
of service, a series of battles such as the world had not 
before seen, they should say to each other, "It has seemed 
that some charm htAds a sway over us while ej;[o.-ed in 
battle." So it seeij)s to the brave who are spared; when 
to be spared seems to be the excepti'-n ; but it is iiu rJiann 
that protects them. God's power only can suQice t'jr that; 
His power without whoso notice a sparrow falleth mit to 
the ground. Yet He diverts not the ball spud upon the 
errand of death from its direct course. Still uncunsciou.-lv 
to his children niay He so rule their minds and actions as 
to preserve them from its range. Yet the good do fall, and 
fall by hundreds and thousands: these, if ruled by the 
sen^^e of duty, have accomplished their mission ; and their 
friends have this consolation ; and if this will not fully 
explain tlic ni3-tery why some fall atid oihers are .-avcd, we 
mu.~t await its di.-clo-.ure, when alune we shall Know why 
evil is, an<l the full import of the mystery of our btring. 
Put those so signally spared will remember that they have 
been preserved for a purpo?e ; to achieve a good ; and let 
them not fail to achieve it. 

It was ill the Stb month, LSGl, that Isaiah Prico received 
hi.- cuiuiuisi-ion of captain, and such was the coiiGdence in 
hiiu that his company • C, 07th Ilcgt. Ponna. V., Col. Gu.-s), 
was soon iilled with the sons of the fanners and good 
citizens of Chc:^ter County. They were sent to South Ca- 
rulina, 'and at Hilton Head, in Florida, and the i.slauds 
before Charleston, were employed until the spring of I8G0, 
during which time Isaiah was once shipwrecked, was in the 
presence of yellow fever, several times under tiro, was at 
the siege of Fort Wagner, and assigned to the dangerous 
post of leading his command to storm the fort, when, hap- 
pily, it was found evacuated, thereby averting the necessity 
of sacrilicing many men, and probably himself. As senior 
captain, he was often, in the ab.-cncc or sickness of superior 
officers, in command of the regiment. 1 he wearied and 
exhausted regiment was sent to Fernandina, Florida, to 
recruit during la.^t winter, v,-here Tsaiah held tlie offiee of 
Provost ?ilarsha!. In the spiiiig of 1SG4, when General 
Grant a.^sumed the command of all the armies, the regi- 
meui was ordered North ; and in the tir.-t furward move- 
ment, on the south side of James Fiver, under General 
Butler, the regiment, Isaiah being second in command, 
endured a most exhausting march; and on the ISth and 
20th of May bravely fought severe battles under great ex- 
posure to the fire of the enemy, and without adeijuate 
support. Isaiah was wounded with many others; but after 
a few days' detention in tent was again in his saddle. lie 
Loij since received, una.'-ked, frum the Govern<.r of our 
State, a commi.-sion of 3Iaj(jr, and is now with the Army 
of the Pot'.imac before Peter.-burg. 

The many expressions of thankfulness that pervade 
Isaiah's letter to his wife and parents show wdiere hi.s de- 
pendence is, and that his heart has not grown hard amidst 


the slaughter and horrors of war: "I thiuk of you a!l far 
more tenderly and trustfully auiid the scenes now trau;:- 
piriug than ever before : I feel that you and 1 are i^till held 
in the hollow of a loving hand ; and this becomes a still 
more beautiful and attractive faith, the more competely it 
is cherished, and grows • till it becomes a part of my daily 
life.' The only doubt I have is the knowledge of my own 
unworthiness to realize such an abundance of calm and 
peaceful confidence amid the surroundings of my present 
life. I cannot cxpre.^s the deep thankfulness I feel for 
being thus favored. This has rendered the toils and pri- 
vations of camp, and absence from all that the heart holds dear, far more endurable than could have been possi- 
ble were it otherwise. I trust it mny continue to sustain 
me through all that may be required of "le to pass through 
in the future, be it chequered as it may." 

\Yilliam R. Price lel't us in the fall of 1>G1 for Wa4i- 
incrton, determined to enter the ranks as a private, rather 
than to fail to be in the service. He maile the acquaintance 
of Col. Averell, took a subordinate position, and when the 
latter became Brigadier-General was taken on his staff. He 
shared in all his movements in the Peninsular campaign 
of 1802, under General MeClellan, was in the battle of 
Williauisburg, Fair Oaks, Gaines' Mill, Savage Station, 
AVhIte Oak Swamp, and iMalvern Hill. During the battles 
that ibllowed in Maryland he was engaged in forwarding 
horses and stores to put the cavalry in ctiici-nt condition. 
He joined the command in the field to f/ll..<\v the retieat 
of General Lee, and fur two weeks was in cavalry tights, 
daily harassing the enemy; was at the fir.-t and sect.ud 
battles of Fredericksburg; was in the first oxteniive cavalry 
light in this country, at Kelly's Ford, the first tu give con- 
fidence and prestige to that arm of our aimy; was with 


Avcrell, sharing in his part of the Stoneman raid; wa? 
present at the battle of Ciaancellorsville ; and in the great 
cavalry fight at Beverly Ford, where tha forces on each side 
were nearly fifteen thousand. 

During Lee's u;ovciiieut towards and into Pennsylvania, 
in 1SG3, ho was employed on the staft" of General Pleasanton 
in mounting and oquirping the cavalry of the Army of the 
Potomac; and after the buttle of Gettysburg was ordered 
to Frederick City, where ive thousand men were remounted 
under his supervision in two weeks. Upon the organiza- 
tion of the Cavalry Bureau, William was one of three ofBcors 
appointed on General Stoneman's staff to that duty. At 
the beginning of tlie present year he was sent by the "War 
Department to make a tho:-ough inspection of all the cavalry 
in the West, and made reports to the Department, with 
suggestions for the improvement of the service, which have 
generally been canicd ou;. After General Kautz was re- 
lieved of the charge of t'le Cavalry Bureau. William was 
ordered to report from it directly to General IJalleck. lie is 
now, consequently, under the title of Captain of Cavalry, 
the centre of a well-devised system for the inspection of the 
cavalry of the United States; a system designed to insure 
its highest efficient }• with the greatest economy, and is suc- 
tessiul in that purpose. 

Other grandsons, Captain John Cox ^Morris, Philip P. 
Townsend; great-grandsons, Captain Edward Wilson and 
J. Preston Thomas, have also rendered patriotic services to 
their country, the particulars of which have not reached 
the writer. 

Daughters, all expect to be good, and that their goodness 
be little spoken of. Three are of blessed memory; loved 
iu life, revered now dead ; and two we are happy to have 
with us to-day. 


And the daugbtors and granddaugbters of Philip and 
Riiclicl J'rice, by blood and marriage, bave not been excep- 
tions to tbe countli?ss women of our country, in this time of 
suflering from war, but bave contributed a good sbarc of 
labor and service towards tbe relief of tbe ?ick and wnund^d 
soldiers, and bave the blessing of many grateful beart^; 
wbile otber near and dear relatives are working and con- 
tributing their time and means for tbe colored freedmen. 

If any think I bave said too much of members of our 
family, I appeal from their judgment to that of our pos- 
terity, feeling secure that they at least will award thanks 
that I bave said so much, long after I shall be here to 
receive them. 

This mighty war, in which members of our family, and 
all the interests of all citizens are involved, whence is it? 
It springs from that inheritance of evil inflicted upon us by 
the lu^t of gain of I)riti>b merchants when in our colonial 
subjection. We were under a compulsion, after the Re vo- 
lution of 177G, to set into our national Constituti'in a pro- 
tection to slavery, or to furego the national government; 
but our forefathers did it with the further provision, in that 
instrument, to put an end to the slave trade, which in the 
assigned time we executed, and branded it as piracy, and 
this initiate step we touk long in advance of England. 
Still the continuing obligation to surrender escaped slaves 
remained, as a source of moral offence to the North, and 
of perpetual irritation between the North and the South. 
Some of us so loved peace, and so dreaded tbe evils of war, 
as to feel bound to constant admonition against the dangers 
of this agitation. But when the vslavebolders themselves 
threw away this their only protection, while yet holding a 
c!i('ck in the United States Senate, and without any ju-^t 
jiiuvucation, fired upon the nation's llag and rent our ciim- 

try by civil war, but one true son«e of duty reiuaineJ to 
the Nurth, and that was in accurd v.itli that iniplaiited by. 
our Creator, the eternal sense of justice and mercy; so thai 
DOW our loyalty to our Constitution and our duty to God 
are no coniliotinp: scnti:i!ent. The slaveholders themsflvos 
have fatally slain slavery, and released us from the consti- 
tutional duty of returning their slaves. 

While our sympathies have gone forth with our relatives, 
and friends, and country, in their trials and battles, let it 
not, however, be understood that one word i^ here said to 
impair the peaceful testimony borne by our beloved parents 
in all of their lives. That testimony will remain true under 
all circumstances to the end of the world, as the consum- 
mation that all rulers, princes, and peoples should strive to 
attain through all time; as every person is bidden ever to 
strive for a perfection that few indeed attain; and lie who 
gave this commandment knew full well how few would 
attain it. The fact of evil exists in the world; and the 
fact that unreasoning or wicked violence will ever assail 
social order and good government also exists; and so- 
ciety and government, in self-defence, mu:>t suppress the 
disorder. This our Saviour in cfiect admitted when lie 
said, " ^ly kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom 
icfi-e of this icorhl then vould my smnnt^ jhjJit.'' The 
kingdoms of the world do fight for self-existence; and 
must, by the needful- force, suppress wrong, and crime, 
and rebellion, or cease to exist; yet should there ever be, 
and luunan and social welfare and progressive civilization 
demand that there should ever be, the champions of peace, 
who shall bear through tin; world and through all time the 
banners of the kingdom that is nnt cf this world; of the 
kingdom whose King is the Prince of Peace; and ever 
teach rulers, princes, and peoples, that there is a hiLdicr 


and better way of justice and civilization for oil v.bu arc 
.wise and good to follow and to practise, that this world may 
approximate to the kingdom of Cb.ri-t, and becuuie truly and puod, civilized and happy. The high mission of 
the Friends, and of all who like them bear a tc.-timony 
against war, is to teach rulers and people to abstain fro;n 
all-causes of war; to d') justice, and to f.irbcar aggression; 
to be peace-loving, merciful, and kind to all men; and 
then, seldom, indeed, if ever, could wars arise. Their 
mission is the highest and best in the world, and the world 
and the governments of the v;orld are bound to the greatest 
deference to the sincere f 'lluwers of Ilim ^^ho seeks to ; 
draw all into His better donjinion. i 

It becomes us here, so many being Friends, and all of us ; 
in intimate association with Friends, to make our grateful ,' 
acknowledgment to our government, that with all the esi- I 
gency upon it to raise men tor the military service, we have , 
had to notice no attempted coercion of the con-cience of 
those scrupuluus against taking up arms, by the levy of 
fines on property, or imprisonment of persons, that was not 
promptly relieved. There is the highest comnieadation to . 
be given to Congress and the Executive, that no suffering 
bas been induced by attempts to fjrce service against the 
convictions of conscience. This is a feature of our passing 
history of the like of which the world has afforded no 
example. Lut it is not to be forgotten that the ability of 
the government thus to exercise leniency is largely due to 
the voluntary enlistments of the young men of our country, 
and also to the knowledge that very many of those con- 
scientious against bearing arms, are doing their lull share 
of duty to society and the nation in their care and succor . 
to the enfranchised slaves, and to the sick and wounded : 
soldiers. Wheresoever humanity irufl'crs, theie the true ; 


Friend always finds his field of labor, not too censoriously 
scanning the cause, nor seeking excuse to harden the heart 
and to refuse relief. 

In noticing those of uur kindred wlio have been exposed 
to the dangers of war, it is not intended to leave as in the 
shade those engaged in the industrial pursuits of peaceful 
life. The services of these are ako indispensable to the 
welfiire and strength of the nation. And where there is 
sincere conviction, that constancy and courage that would 
accept a prison rather than violate conscience, is deserving 
of the highest respect and hunur among men, though it 
w.iuld be influenced by no such motive of human appr(jba- 
tion, but act as answering to God alone. 


At a second sitting in the afternoon our company was 
photographed, and reading was resumed. 

I will now read other verses, recalling the days of our 
favored childhood, offered me as a choice between them 
and those first read this morning; and I think you will all 
thank me for choosing both. 

We moot once more bom-ath the roof, 

"Where all our childi~li years were past, 
And memories of the oldvn time 

Come thronging o'er us thick and fast: 
We remember, we remember. 

Such a joyi>us childhood givim.' 
We had loved and loving parents, 
TIk.'v wiio tauLrht the wav to heaven. 

Again we see our fatlnr's form, 

Uis manly frame unliowcd liy years; 

Again we see our njolher's smile. 
Her gtnih; eyes undimmed b}' tears: 

T\'c remPinbiT, still remcmlxT, 
Loving tv>'ilight loifous given ; 

That earthly homes all pass away, 
That our true home is only heaven. 

Years swiftly sped ; the hoy, the girl, 

"\Tho frolicked 'neath the old oak tree, 
Had each assumed the cares of life, 
Had man and woman grown to he: 
Yet lemember'd, still rememher, 

That the hope to us is given. 
That when we part for aye on earth, 
"SVe have one home in heaven. 

"When in their gnld.'n-wedding year 
We stood beneath this roof again, 
Parents and children all were here; 
But one link missing from the ten: 
Yet remember'd, still rememher, 

"When a loving tie is riven, 
"We part but tVir a little space, 
Our home it is in heaven. 

Our mother's sweet and loving voice. 

Renewed the lessons taught our youth, 
That wo should find, as she had found. 
The way of peace the path of truth. 
We remember'd, still remember. 
Ere we closed our eyes at even, 
That earth was not our resting-place; 
That re>ting-j.Iaee is heaven. 

"We parted. m''fT all t-. nv-t again 
Around the old anei'stral hrartli ; 

Father and mother, wif<' and ciiild. 
Are foldfd to thy brea..t, O .'artb ! 
Yet rememu'/r'd, still rcuiomber, 

Wh.-n our c 

o^i'St tifs are riven. 

Those we l-.v 

arc with thi- angcl^. 

And our mo 

■ting-jihicf i- hi'avim I 



Before we part, let one of the generation first to disap- 
pear, recall souie of the memories that cluster round a 
scene seeming to u.s sacred, and proof against evil, as tlie 
home of the good. It is not as you of the succeeding 
generations see it, in some of its outward aspects and living 
life, that we reiuember it; and have through life aflection- 
ately turned our thoughts and memories tuwards it, in 
whatsoever land we may have been, or whether in wake- 
ful recollections, or in uur sleeping dreams. When all of 
us yet living were here in our childhood, the chief part 
of the hnuse had been recently built; and two parts of the 
barn and the present out-kitchen were built within our time, 
parti} in place of others torn away. To go back to my 
first memory is to recall the locusts of l!^00, thick in the 
wheat field in the front of the house, when the yard termi- 
nated at less than half the depth of the present, inclosed 
by a paling, and surrounded by young Lombardy poplars. 
These and many other trees since planted all grew to their 
maturity, suffered their decay, and passed away. The old 
apple orchard thea stood in the lawn before the house; and 
that which you see in its decay over the rwd, was only be- 
ginning to bear when we were little boys; but we soon 
learned the qualities of its fruits, and if ' gone now we 
could still tell wLero the favorite trees stood half a century 

The patriarch oaks, which nearly all of you remember, 
but most of you remember oidy in their decay, standing on 
each side of the road, under whose shades we passed in 
going to our father's western farm, we remember in their 
prime, as thej stood " mouarchs of all they surveyed." 
There, beneath their broadly sheltering arms, were our 
play-houses; there wo played in the sands of the road, and 
chased the butterflies, by the stream just escaped from the 


spnncr. These giant growths from tlic self-sown sce^k of 
the forest, the large red oak acorn, were anionic the things 
that LelDHgeJ to the Province of Pennsylvania, wh^n it v,-;;s 
legally convcjei.1 by the charter of Charles II to William 
Penn. and under him came to the ownership of our father 
in 1791. These venerable and venerated oaks we, in our 
childish imaginations, compared in dignity and beneficence 
to our parents; and in the maturity of age thi.s identilica- 
tiou never ceased; and we sometimes felt that if they 
should pass away the others would not long survive. Put 
our shorter lived parents were the iJrst to go; yet not until 
these had passed their prime and showed signs of decay; 
and after a i:ew years of survivorship their crumbling and 
falling limbs gave warning that the safety of passengers 
required their removal." Thus was a memorable and grand 
feature of this scene removed; leaving a blank comparable 
to tliat felt in our own family and S'»cial circle, v.-hen our 
parents had gone; when we felt that we should not behold 
their like again. We saw both alike in their culminating 
prime; and alike gradually after the maturity of acre siid^ 
into decay, and commingle their ashes wiih kindred earth; 
and we will be pardoned our partial sentiment towards both, 
when we repeat that we feel that we shall never look upon 
their like again. 

The fields we now look upon are the same we ranged 
over, though more cleared of alders, and hedge-ruws, and 
woods, with increase of buildings. The persons and ani- 
mals that then gave life to the scene were altogether dif- 
ferent, except only we the five children who yet survive, but 
now tran.'^formed from childhood to age; and in ai^-e coming 
here to-day as on a pilgrimage that may be the last, to re- 
new at once our memories of the pa.-^t, and our spiritual 
strength, in this old home, sanctified as it is to us by the 


rcculloction of the indwelling here of righteous p: 

HMits and 1 

affoctiouate brothers and sisters gone before us. 

Diiiorent ■ 

feeding cattle and sheep then grazed these fie 

ds; other } 

cows formed the dairy, and were driven to and from tlie 
Eieadows ; or in winter were installed according to thr-ir 
own established mastery, on the practical philosophy that 
the inferior coming in later would not dare to horn the 
preceding one already chained. The large oxen that then 
drew the hay, grain, and manure; Durham Buck, with horn 
bent down by v/hich he was led, and black Punmore, after- 
wards fattened for show cattle, and some i?f their successors, 
you never knew; nor the horses that did all work, in the 
plough, team, or carriage, and under the saddle, which we 
see as we then saw and used them; but not on and about the 
farm only were they used, but in all social travel and reli- 
gious service, of both which there was much at and ema- 
nating from this homestead. Long journeys some of these 
made in religious service into Xcw Jersey, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia, and Ohio, before turnpikes had been there 
made; and in this connection we remember '• Jack," 
''Hunter," and "Sylvia," as most f\iithful and trusted 
setvants. On tlie latter we all learned to ride; a blooded 
mare, as tame as a lamb, but put to her mettle swift in 
speed ; but her aristocratic blood could never be subdued 
to the drudgery of the draught. Her progeny, however, 
which 3'ou have known and yet know, of mingled blood, 
were a most valuable stock, as well for work as for the 
carriage and saddle. 

And recurring to the early years of the century, now 
nearly two-thirds spent, we remember other visiturs, and 
passers-by to liirmingham Meeting, than those you have 
seen. The Townsends, and Jeffries, and Sharplesscs, were 
anion": the venerable forms then familiar, and as sure to 


appear a? the meeting day to conic. The oldest of these 
whoiu I remember was Juhu Town-end, father i>f "Williaiu 
Townsendj and William for uuiny years longer. The lat- 
ter, our sister's fatlier-in-hnv, was a mau of deeidod charac- 
teristics. He road with sonorous voice ;dl the niarriapo 
certificates in the lueetiniis; had a strong avei>iLai to 
Bonaparte, yet did not much better like the English; was 
intensely American and Federal in polities, and cuuld no: 
endure near him those who tainted the pure air of heaven 
with the fumes of tobacco. The custom of the TownsenJs 
waste call and spfnd a social half hour before our time for 
starting to meeting. These, were the grandfather and 
father of Eusebius, John W., and Joseph Townsend. These 
furofathers of worthy sons and grandsons, had not then sunk 
to the degeneracy of riding in carriages; but rode on horse- 
back, and rode fine horses, and had as little degenerated in 
dress; for they wore good-sized broad-brimmed hats, arid 
ample coats and waistcoats with flaps, of the court fashion 
of the middle of the 17th century; with small-clothes 
buckle^ at the knee, and shoes with wide straps fastened 
by large silver buckles extending across the instep; though 
more usually, Friends on horseback then wore high fair-top 
boots. I well remember the friendly greetings of some of 
these, and particularly of Cheyney Jefferies, who in passing 
would name us individually, in kindest greeting : " Well, 
Eli, I.'saac, Philip, &c., how do you all do?" &c. Let me here 
say that the thing I feel most wanting to the education of 
our people of this day is that of fiiondly greeting, by tho-e 
that pass each other, between old and young, and those if 
all ages. It would do more to form manners and civilize 
and refine the feelings than half the expensive school edu- 
cation of all the land. In travelling abroad, I have seen 
people with much less education in this way surpass us in 


manners. Our jiroud iurlcpcndcDce lias a natural tendency 
to make our children unsocial and rude. Friends were 
always fearful of artificial training, though the}' brought 
their children forward in a manly, franlc, and ingenuous 
way. Nothing is so touching to the heart of the traveller, 
who has any gentleness of feeling, as the respectful saluta- 
tion and kindly courtesies and smiles of children. It would 
well compensate for building and maintaining schools, 
churches, and meeting-houses, if the people who pay tlie 
taxes could be thus repaid by these social greetings of the 
children and their parents. 

There was another aspect of things here that some of you 
may have seen something of, but not so much as we of the 
prior generation. We were here but a night's journey from 
the dividing line between bondage and freedom, and the 
morning's dawn often revealed to us unannounced visitors; 
the fearful fugitives from slavery, who distrusted all the 
world but Friends, but in and towards them were as con- 
fiding and grateful as children, and never had reason to 
repent their trust in them. It was among these fugitives, 
seeking freedom and safety, that we children loved to gather 
round the fire of the out-kitchen, to listen to their songs 
and hymns, and the thrilling narratives of the wrongs they 
had endured, and the perils that attended their escape into 
the land of Penn and of Friends; and from these visitors 
it was sure that we should get some tinge of their supersti- 
tion. Their devotion was ardent, and their faith of a child- 
like sincerity, and they.^ang their hymns with a pathos and 
elevation of feeling that belonged to their more impressible 
and trustful nature. Though they sometimes tarried for 
months with us, they were not here secure from pursuit ; 
and our elder brothers, one of them yet with us, became 
their midnight conduet(jrs in further flight; when, as 


guided by the north star, iu the generdl stilhicv-s, the ([uiok 
ear of npprehensioii li^tencd for the footsteps of pursuing 
horsemen, as they crossed the distant wooden bridge over 
the Brandy^vine, then callcd^Wistar's. Thus framed, they 
hastened onward, or changed the route, or sought a hiding- 
place from these huntsmen of human game. Our parents' 
sons were trained in the peaceful school of th.e Society of 
Friends; yet would their young blood boil in syr.ipathv 
with the distressed, and hatred of oppression, and they 
answered with suppressed indignation the insolent question- 
ings of the baffled slave-catchers ; yet no breach cf the 
peace ensued. After this the underground railroad took 
a different direction, in which our cousin, Thomas Garrett, 
took a conspicuous part as conductor and manager. In 
those times the strong arm of the government, urider the 
compromises of the Constitution, was on the side of tlie 
slave-hunter; and Friends, who luved their cjuritiy and 
govcrrimenn only failed to obey the teinpoial law when 
they found it in conflict with their "higher law," which 
had with them a yet higher obligation ; since when the 
human and Livine differed, they niu-t obey God rath(;r 
than man. We have lived to see a day when tliis con- 
flict has ceased, and the human and Divine law are brou;^ht 
into accord; when the slaveholder has by his tit-ason for- 
feited the protection of the Constitution, and thus set i^-c 
the Northern from this oppressive obli'jation to 
conflicting authorities. 

In connection with this subject it is proper here to rec^^rd 
that our father and his father v.-ere always conscientious and 
consistent supporters of a te.-timony against slavery. "When 
the old Pennsylvania Abolition Society was incorporated in 
17S9, by the legislature of Pennsylvania, their names were 


enrolled :is meuibcrs, as '■' Philip Price/' '* Philip Price, 

To the eve, the scenery round this homestead is uow 
more open than when we were children. The prostration 
of the monarch red oaks has made a chajin to the west; of 
the woods next beyond the lower meadow t^iwards Forsyth's 
has opened to view the country beyond; to the southwest 
we could always see the hills beyond the Brandy wine; to the 
1 east of south, 0?born's Hill and the high Brandywine battle- 
ground was also open to view; but in that direction Strode's 
Wood has been cut away, further opening the pru-pect; 
while to the cast, the large woods, we called Entriken's, 
but which were our father's, have ail been cleared away, 
and those on each side of the " Ilill Field," further north, 
have nearly disappeared. 

As our sisters <rrew to be young women, our native place 
nftturally became more attractive to those of their own age. 
Our eldest enjoyed but for a short period the happy free- 
dom of that age; and exchanged it for a wedlock with one 
of the pure.-t and most intelligent of men. The others had 
a longer respite from their own coming family cares; when 
they often had cousins and friends as visitors or residents, 
and all these became the attractive centre of many other 
visitors and friends. But in due time all were married, 
and happily married; and our parents were discharging 
duties elsewhere, and the scene was chancred to the quiet 
homo of smaller families. It will be for a later generation 
to speak of these out.-preading branches from our parent 

And what philo-ophy do these vivid recollections of this 
home of the beginning of the century teach us ? Recollec- 
tions clear and di.-tinct, and becoming even more distinct 
as we approach the assigned limit of threescore years and 


ten. In that period this our mortal body h:is undereooe 
changes, totul changes ten times repeated, and partial 
changes much oftener. In its material it is not the same 
body in any particle, yet the mind and memory are identi- 
cally the same mind and memory. This fact teaches us 
that the body is changeable, is mortal ; tliat the mind is 
ever one and immortal. It is not severable, and can sufier 
no disintegration. These are not the sanie material eyes 
that looked upon these scenes threescore years ago, but the 
sensations then given to the mind by the eyes of sixty years 
past, the mind has faithfully retained, because it is the 
same mind, that shall never lose its own sense uf its own 
identity, of its own consciousness, memories, and thuuiriits. 

the final change. 

This review of the history of our ancestors gives rise to 
other reflections, of impressive import to us and to the ujaify 
others of similar descent. The facts we have always 
vaguely understood by tradition have now been tested by 
written documents and history, and are here for the tir^t 
time set out in arranged connection. Among the most 
impressive to us is this : that all our ancestors, in every 
branch, were settlers in the province within a few years 
after the first arrival of William Penn in 1GS2. They were 
all members of the Society of Friends, as all our ancestors 
continued to be all their lives, down to the present genera- 
tion. History records not the settlement of any colony 
with members so intelligent and pure in lif..- as tho.-e oi 
the colony of Penn. They had no mixture of per.-on> 
who had been compelled to leave their native country fur 
their country's good. There was, indeed, a kind of com- 
pulsion operative to drive them from the parent country; 
but that cause reflects discredit upon that country and net 


upon her exiled chiklren. When the Society of Friends 
aiT>(' in the middle of the seventeenth century, they were 
sorely persecuted by the government and people of Eng- 
land, because of Friends' testimonies against the payment 
of tithes and church rates, military fines, oaths, &:(i. They 
were crowded into k)athsome prisons, when to be impri- 
soned was sure to contract disease, and often to incur death ; 
they were fined, distrained upon, and deprived the right 
I of being witnesses in courts of justice, or often more pro- 
j porly to speak, courts of injustice and oppression. The laws 
' were bad and wickedly administered ; perverted to wrong 
i and persecution. The established Church was then a big- 
i oted, intolerant, and persecuting Church, and turned the 
sharp edge of bad laws against dissenters. These persecu- 
i tions drove from England her oppressed children, who were 
i better than those they left behind; who came here to estab- 
li-h a better government and ju^ter laws, and to administer 
these with justice and humanity. They sought here an 
asylum from the persecutions of Church and State. They 
came here that they might live in peace and worship God 
according to their own convictions, without coercive pun- 
ishments to violate their consciences. "As on a virgin 
Elysiau shore," they came to escape the lusts, blasphemies, 
and iniquities of a wicked world. (1 Pruud, 226.) They 
wisely preferred to encounter the hardships of new settle- 
ments in the wilderness, and to trust themselves to the 
tender mercies of savages, rather than to those of their 
native Christian professing government of Great Brit;;in. 
These Quaker colonists did not, when vested with legal 
authority, turn persecutors themselves, as the Puritan colo- 
nists did. William Penn was a legislator and governor 
such as the world had not seen, and men in power could 
not comprehend. IJis sovereign thought him an imprac- 


tical enthusiast when he proposed to win the good-will of 
tlio Indians and preserve the public peace witli them bv 
kindness and justice, and jet Pei n had the purpose ex- 
pressed in the charter from the Crown, "To reuui-e the 
savage natives, by gentle and jn,t manners, to tlie love of 
civil society and the Clni>tian religion." This mav have 
seemed but irony to the kiigg and liis council when the 
charter was framed and granted; but it became under the 
benign policy of Penn and his associates simply a wi>e 
and practical truth; and a light and gh.ry on the daik 
stream of the world's hist( ly. William JVnn had h.n.i: 
suffered imprisonment in the Tower of London, at the in- 
stance of the ]'i;-hop of London, upon the charge <-f heresy ; 
and the Bishop of London naturally expected similar treat- 
ment, or at least disfavor to the ministers of the P^piscopid 
Cliurch under the gnvernu;ent of Penn. Hence the Pi-ln p 
had it inserted in the charter that he might scr.d to th- 
province preaclnMs of the Church of England. He di.l 
not know Penn or his purposes, or he would not have 
inserted so useless a precaution ; for liere all religious per- 
suasions were to Lave equal rights, and had them, except- 
ing only as the laws of Great liritain had a force in the 
colony, but in this respect of imperfect operation. 

The Church of England could dissent from the Church 
of Pome, but could permit no dissent from herself 1 he 
Puritans did di>sent from the Church of England, but 
could permit no dis-ent from the Puritan Church. And 
the Quakers were alike made martyrs to their faith by each, 
as well iu New England as in I^nglaml; but the Quaker- 
in Pennsylvania persecuted neither; and hero Catholics, 
Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Quakers dwelt in har- 
mony together, and all were the more useful, and happv. 
and prosperous, and more kindly and charitable, becau.-e 


all here stood in equality before the law and the Lord. 
It is a beautiful thing to sec, as wo daily do, all tho^e and 
all other religious persuasions, forget their sectarianism, 
and unite with good-will in blessed deeds of charity and 
service to their country. No reflection is here intended 
upon any church of the present day in this country. A^'here 
all stand alike before the law all must be tolenwU of every 
other, and none has power to c^ppress. 

And why did the best of the British population leave 
their lionies and native shores and become exiles in a 
strange land ? Why undertake the t:isk of felling the 
forests of a primeval wurkl 'i Why did they commit them- 
selves to untried hardships and the unknown mercies of 
those called savage Indians? It was because all these 
were more endurable than the hardships they suffered at 
the hands of their fellow-subjects at home, and by the king 
and government which should have been their protectors. 
Let any one read Besse's Collection of the Sufferings of the 
Quakers from 1G50 to 10^0, and Sewell's, and other his- 
tories and biographies of Friends, and he will road the 
most thrilling history of England's persecutions of her best 
subjects, and understand why the colony of Penn became 
so quickly populous with the best people in the world, 
and through their virtues and thrift the happiest in the 
world. He will then learn that these most conscientious 
and resolute of men and women had but one antecedent 
history ; that they were persecuted because they did not 
attend a worship that was against their conviction ; because 
they did not pay tithes to support a ministry they could 
not conscientiously hear ; and because they met to worship 
God according to their ov.n faith ; because they Cuuld not 
iicear at all v.hen Christ had bidden them '• swear not at 
1^11," and that whensoever their wicked ene:uies chose to 



put them to this; test, though well known to be perfectly 
]oyd\ to tlic kinu; because they couM nut fiLrht or p:iy f r 
the privilege of not fighting, when Clivist forbade their 
fighting; and because they were regarded as heretics when, 
returning to the simplicity of the apostolic faith, they .nl- 
hered to the spirit of the Gospel and the holy Scriptures, 
rather thae to the creeds and traditions cif men. They 
were fined grievously, and their goods and property spoiled 
and wasted wantonly and mercilessly ; they were many ol 
them scourged, and were imprisoned by hundreds and 
thijusunds. Whole assemblies of men and women and 
children, whilst engaged in worship, were seized and mal- 
treated, and thrust t'jge:her into pig-pens, barns, loathsome 
holes, and unhealthy prisons, and dungeons without lire, 
food, or bedding, where they suffered from exposure, infec- 
tions diseases, and pestilences, and consequently from these 
causes in less than forty years there perished three hun- 
dred and sixty-eight men and women, whose names are 
recorded by Besse. (Vol. 2, GoS) And many of these 
were England's educated and refined men and women, 
made martyrs because of their fidelity to their convictions 
of duty to God. ^Ye who have enjoyed nearly two cen- 
turies of exemption from oppression and a high prosperity, 
are too apt to forget what our ancestors endured, and how 
much we and the world owe to them ; how little they and wo 
ever owed to the persecuting parent country. These oppres- 
sions are not to be forgotten, for they are the world's crrent 
lessons, taught by the fidelity and martyrdom of our Quaker 
ancestors, and we owe these all reverence and honor for 
their fidelity to their own earnest convictions and sense of 
duty. ■ 

1 have noticed the character of Rowland Ellis, because of 
his clo^e association with and the benefits conferred by him 


npon our early ancestors. Tlic records of the meetings to ' 
vrbich he belonged, which I have seen, arc frequent in the 
evidences of his good deeds. ] le had been much oppressed, 
despoiled, and imprisoned in Wales; and when with ninny 
otlicrs committed to prison for refusing to take an oath, 
they were tuld by the judges "that in case t-hey refused a i: 
second time to take it, they should bo proceeded against as 
traitors, the men lianged and quartered, and the women 
burned." (Memorials of Friends, 01.) Rowland Ellis, 
when bearing his testimony to his fvllow-settlcr, Hubert 
Owen, who was buried at ]Merion, in 1G1J7, says vt' him that 
" lie was descended of a very ancient, and according to the ; 
world's account, one of the greatest families, . . . having 
by Ids father u competent inheritance, and in alibis time 
had the right hand among his equals; brought up a scholar, 
quick in apprehension, and wliatever he took in hand he 
did with all his might." "lie suffered five years close 
imprisonment for not taking the oath of allegiance and : 
supremacy, being confined at the town of Dolgelly, in 
Merionc-th.^hire, North Wales, within about a mile of his 
dwelling-house, to which he was not permitted to go during 
the said time." lie further said in tliis testimony, '' The 
Lord whom we waited fur hath been the strength of his 
people in this our age and generation, as in all by-past 
ages. So the remenibrance of those days and times, and 
that near fellowship which was between the little remnant 
in that part of the country is at present brought to my 
view, though most of the ancients that bore the heat of the , 
day are now removed, yet methinks tlieir names and wurthy ; 
acts should be had in remembrance, that generations to 
come might see and understand by what instruments the i| 
Lord was pleased to carry on his work, by making a clear .i 
discovery of the good way once lost in the night of apos- ji 


tacy, aiiioDcr>t whom vrerc my doav friends Robert Owen 
and Jane his vrife. xVnd although vre are not to set up or 
praise that in man or woman which pcrishetli, but because 
they made choice of the better and most durable substance, 
therefore tluir names shall be had in remembrance." (Me- 
morials, oL', 3o.) To these venerated namr-s, further to 
prove the charges I have made, I would add that of their 
contemporary, of the same meeting, Thouias Ellis, who 
bought lands in the Welsh Tract alongside of those of How- 
land ]]llis, and ask that all be taken as illustrations of the 
character of those who settled the province, and had before 
been the objects of England's oppression. It is Ctting 
that at this day these names, with what they suffered and 
achieved, should again be brought into honorable remem- 
brance. Thomas Ellis came from Pembrokeshire in 1GS3, 
and became William Penn's Register-General, lie died in 
1G>S, his wife in 1C92. I have lately read on the records 
of Radnor Monthly Meeting a copy of the certificate 
which he brought with him, from which extracts are 
made by Dr. Smith. (Hist. Del. Co. 458.) It says of him, 
his imprisonments "had been many and difficult, with 
spoiling of goods on Truth's account." He was "of a 
tender spirit, often broken before the Lord, with a sense 
of the power of au endless being upon him." " His tes- 
timony of the Lf<jrd and His truth hath been very weicrhty 
tu the reaching of the consciences of many;" and that he 
had "an excellent gift in opening deep divine mysteries." 
As in this certificate from Christians of the old world to 
their brethren in the primeval forests of the new, recom- 
mending to their tender care a fellow-sufferer, for faithful 
adherence to their faith and testimonies, never did so few 
words express so much of the Christian's faith and worship : 
" He was of a tender spirit, often broken before the Lord, 


witli the power of a sen5e of au endless being upon him." 
And such were the tender spirits, sublime in their wor- 
ship, that for more than an age were the special objects of 
England's persecutions ; and such were the founders of a 
colony whose liistory for three-fourths of a century affords I 
to the world her brightest picture of a golden age, of the 
haleyon days of peace, "as on a virgin Elysian shure." 

"Well might Thomas P^llis, in this land of deliverance, 
where peace and security were established, and freedom 
I'roin persecution and spuliation found, break forth, ''in 
]5riti>h language," that is, in his native "\Ycl.-h, iu wurds 
of thanksgiving, prayer, and praise, which were translated 
into English by his friend John Humphry. 

Pennsylvania's our habitation, 
With certain, sure, clear foundation ; 
Here, -^vlicre the dawning of the day 
Expt-ls the thick dark night away. 

Lord, give us here a place to feed. 
And pass our life among the Seed; 
Where, in our hounds, true love and peace 
From age to age may never cease. 

Then shall the fruits and fields increase. 
Heaven and earth proclaim tiiy peace ; 
Here we and they forever, Lnrd, 
Show forth Thy praise with unu accord. 

Two words, of bnjad and deep sigtiiGcance, much used by 
ancient Friends, and not yet wholly obsolete, u.ay need ex- 
planation to others. They meant by Truth what Jesus 
meant by it, but did not explain to Pontius I'ilot, the 
whole of the Gospel as He had delivered it to His followers, 
with its immortal faith; the Gospel rightly understood ar:d 


practised according to its spirit and true siirniGcance. By 
the Seed, that witnessiug perception within the breast of 
the true believer, which, breathed upon by the Holy Spirit, 
enlightens to a perfect judgment ; which becomes vital in 
an earnest and holy life; and it also means those, who, 
thus wrought upon and obedient, have entered Christ's 
peaceful kingdom, yet must, while in the body, maintain a 
ceaseless warfare with bodily lusts and all human iniqui- 

Towards the end of the first colonial century, now a 
hundred years ago, some Friends thought that thev had 
already experienced a decline from the "dew of their 
youth;" and spake, as the aged of every age speak, of the 
better days of their youth. In the .MemoHal of Gwynedd 
Meeting (Memorials, 237) of Ellen Evans, the daughter 
of Kowland Ellis, with whom he lived in his latter years, 
and whose tender care he shared in his age, sicknos, and 
death, it is contained as follows : "The early state of rcli- 
giiin in this Province was a grateful subject of conversation 
to her in the evening of ber day (and that evening was 
1<G5), but upon turning her eye to the present time, she 
would say, with a deep sigh, ' Oh ! what has become of the 
niurning dew and celestial rain, that used to fall and rest 
upon our assemblies ?' For herself, she often prayed, ' That 
she might possess a lively relish of (ruth to the last, and 
retain the greenness of youth in old age;' which God was 
graciously pleased to favor her with." Yet when she thus 
spake there were yet living in the Society many worthies, 
and many eminent ministers in the full exercise of their 
powers and gifts from on high; and among the latter 
Daniel Stanton, John Woolman, John Churchman, Juhn 
Pemborton. And there were those in the succeeding ago 
like unto her, uho, accustomed to hear William Savery, 


Thomas Scatterirood, and David OtTley, yet regarded the 
miuisters of the preceding generation, whom they had 
heard in their youth, as surpassing in power all they hoard 
in later life. Yet allowing for tliis higher appreciation vf 
the past, natural to man, it is reasonable to conclude that 
those servants of the Lord who bore the sore travail and 
persecutions of the Society, when it arose, were more 
thoroughly reached, were more earnest, and fervid, and 
powerful than they could be who were born and lived 
through times of a happy tranquillity and peace. The 
greatest debt of gratitude is due to those sons of the morn- 
ing of this Society, who endured long unmitigated sufier- 
ings, and thereby achieved an acknowledgment of their 
right to uphold their testimonies, and effected the est;ibli>!i- 
ment of invaluable rights of conscience, not only for them- 
selves, but for mankind cf all generations. Hero thuy 
gained all they demanded ; but nut so then tho>e left in 
England; nor have these at any time since obtained lx- 
eniption from oppressive exactions, nor at this day of 
England's high claims to civilization ; that P^ngland, tliat 
with self-satisfaction looks upon herself as in the van of all 
that is humane and civilized. 

The legislation and government of England have vastly 
improved by the experience and education of the nearly 
two hundred years since our ancestors came to country. 
But England only makes her reforms slowly and und.r 
compulsion, as the people becotue enlightened and exact 
them. England, in law and practice, is yet bigoted and 
unenlightened; arid that in the face of the tlie(jretlcal en- 
lightenment of her own best writers and statesmen for 
many years past. In the particular in which the settlement 
of the colony of Penn most severely rcfiects upon the motlior 
country, there is still, year after year, accumulating a re- 


ord against her humanity and lionor, yet to be narrated 
by the pen of the indignant histurian, in terms of severe 
but ju>t reprobation. I have seen the record of <' The 
Sufferings of Friends," now in the fire-proof of Devonshire 
Meeting-house, in London, which was begun in IGGO, and 
has been continued unintermittedly down to the present 
time, and still goes on year at\er year. This record of in- 
justice and oppression consists of nearly fifty volumes, 
large as counting-house ledgers, in which is set down the 
lu~ses that Friends have sustained in a ptcuniari/ way; 
that is, in the value of pruperty seized and sold fur tithes 
and church rates, and fines imposed. To gain an idea of 
the extent of this oppression, as it now goes on year by 
year, as ujea.'.ured by pounds, I have looked into the pro- 
ceedings of the London Yearly Meeting of Friends, repre- 
senting the Friends in all (ireat Britain, who number but 
lo,(tJl, and 1 find the sums to have been, as reported in 
5th uionth, 1855, X'^000; LS5G, £-2300 ; 1857, £0101 ; 
1.^58, £0000; 1850, £5770; 1800, £0800; 1802, £5155 
I8s., and in 1804 the amount is not stated otherwise than 
U) have exceeded by £4000 the amount of the' two preced- 
ing years, or 1 infer abuut £0000 ; or an average of about 
£ lOOO, or 830,0(0 per annum. What was the consequent 
mental sufiering, infinitely the greater, these huge volumes 
d.j not and could not express. To my thought, they spoke 
of a long-cndured anguish, only possible to be borne by 
humanity when su>tained by the faith of the recompense to I asked James Bowden, the hi,-.torian of Friends in 
America, and Charles Gilpin, M.P., who showed these books 
to me, in 185i, Why cannot this shocking record cease in 
this enlightened age? They answered, because the cause 
of it had not cea-ed. I could only reply, then Kngland 
needs more fiualified voters, who would exact further re- 

I foniis, that these opprcs^^ions might cease. The sum of 
these exactiyiis, some years aero, exceeded twelve hundred 
thousand pounds sterling; but small is this compared with 
the sense of insecurity and wrong endured by thousands 
of England's best and purest citizens for two hundred 
years, from a government that should, by all law l^ivine 
or human, ever be felt by them only in its beneficent 
protection. IJut the government of .England has e-^er been 
in the hands of an aristocracy instinctively tenacious of 
power, and selfish and unrelenting in its exercise; the 
lineal descendants of tlie Norman barons, and of the pre- 
vious piratical vi-kings that ever vexed tlie coa<ts of the 
German Ooeau ; with blood since intermixed with the ple- 
beian trader's, to which the patrician stooped to acquire the 
needed wealth to sustain his waning fortune. 

The Commons have a check irjion public measures; can 
carry measures with the popular support; can capsize the 
ministry; but the ministry is always replaced by others of 
the same aristocratic class. The aristocratic class it was 
who drove our ancestors to seek a refuge in the forests of 
America ; who fixed the curse of slavery upon us, and 
thwarted the repeated eft'orts of the colonists to remove the 
iniquity; v.ho yet refuses to remove the oppressions of 
tithes, and church-rates, and fines, from Eriends in Eng- 
land; who taunted and reproached American travellers 
with the institution of slavery that afiiicted our cuuntry; 
yet who now svmpathize with the slaveholders' rebellion, 
in the hiipe that it will weaken and sever that great lic- 
I public, that is the only hope of freedom for all the world. 
I From this breadth of condemnation we gratefully except 
I the virtuou.s British Queen, always friendly to our country, 
i a few of her counsellors, and e.^pecially those noble cham- 
j pions of human liberty, the Brights, Cobdens, Euriters, 


Thouipsons, and others, who like theui luive cheered us in 
our darkest days. 

It is believed, from all we have read, observed, and 
known, that if it liad not been for the element of tlic 
Quakers in the Iliiti>h population, Ihiuland would not have 
been humanized in her legislation, nor yet liave been le- 
dcemed i'rom the horrid crimes of the slave trade, nor have 
emancipated the slaves of her Colonies. Her reforms never 
came frum her nobility and traders; were always resisted 
by tlieui; were always extorted from them; and all lei:i;ia- 
tiou of a philanthropic east originated with Friends, and 
those who sympathized with Friends; her Sharps, ^Yilbe^- 
forces, Clarksons, Pvomneys, Buxton^, &c. If the Friends 
could to-day become extinct, the-W(jild would have more 
reason to remember them with gratitude for what they have 
done, than any other equal number of associated people who 
have ever lived upou this earth. It is believed that it may 
be safely averred, that if it had not been for the Quaker 
element in the British population, existing in the propor- 
tion of a thousand in a million, or one in a thousand, that 
the slave trade and slavery would not have been abolished 
by the Parliament of Great Britain. It was they wlio did 
the incipient work in the proportion of three to one, and 
■when it was achieved gave all the honors to others, whose 
names stand emblazoned in history, while those of the la- 
borious and humble Friends find little, if any, place there; 
and can only be traced by the researches of the antiquarian. 
Let the i'cw never dc.-pair of their power in a riuhteuu- 
cause to leaven the mass and to achieve good ! Thus it is, 
that they who have .shed the purest glory on England's 
name and history, England has not for more than two hun- 
dred years for any one moment ceased to persecute ! All 
that is most attractive and lovely in the Jhmlish nation 


springs from her pliilantliropy, her charities, her relicrion; 
yet those who most gave her a claim to these slie drove 
from her bosom, or retained to persecute. And are such 
rulers Britain's true patriots? 

" Can lie ho strenuous in hi? country's cause, 
"Who slights tlie charities, for vrhose dear sake 
That country, if at all, nui^t he beloved?" 

So queried Enghtnd's patriot son, who best spake her 
sentiment of humanity. 

And let it not detract from the credit of England, that 
she owes her best reforms to her own persecuted subjects; 
nor yet that these gained their qualification to lead in them 
from their TransatlaiUic brethren; though she can but 
derive the greater condemnation from all good men, that 
these continue to be the objects of her persistently con- 
tinued persecution. For nearly a century, the evils and 
sin of slavery had occupied the inind> of individual Friends 
in America, and from time to time became the subject of 
concern in their meetings, and, at a later period, of corres- 
pondence with the London Yearly Meeting. From ITl-O 
to 1772, Pialph Sandifjrd, Benjamin Lay, and Anthmiy 
Bcnezft, of Pennsylvania, and John Woolman, of New 
Jersey, had, one or more of them, been constant speakers 
and writers against its iniquities; and in the year last 
given, John AVoolman was bearing his testimony upon the 
subject in England, after Friends had cleared themselves 
of it in America. Bowden says (vol. 2, 210): "J..>Im 
Woolman, when in England in 1772, was deeply pained at 
what he saw among Friends, in reference to Negro slavery." 
"I have felt," he writes, "great distress of mind, since I 
came on' this island, on account of the members of our 
Society being mixed with the world in various sorts of 


traffic, carried on in impure channels. Great is the trade 
to Africa for slaves '. and for the loading of these ships a 
great iimnhcr of people are emploj-ed in their factories; 
aiuong whom are many of our Society !" ]lis faithfulness 
had, doubtless, much weight with his brethren; and in the 
same year, some information having been transmitted from 
America, induced the Yearly Meeting of London to notice 
it in its printed epistle. In ITSo, for the first time, the 
Society in England petitioned the J'ailiament acrainst the 
slave trade. In 1773, William Dillwyn, then of New 
Jersey, was one of a deputation of Friends to present a 
numerously signed petition to the legislature of that State 
for the manumission of slaves, and he was heard at the 
bar of the House. He then travelled in the Carolinas, 
and observed for himself. In 1774 he went to En-land, 
and made the acquaintance of Granville Sharp, and soon 
after settled in LDmJrm, and became a co laborer witl; him. 
lie formed a committee of Friends for the suppression of 
slavery, before the subject had been thought of bv Clarkson. 
When Clarkson took it up as a T'niversity thesis in 17S4, 
he found all his needed ma-eria'^ in the writings of 13enezet. 
In 1787 he united with Cillwyu, Phil!ips/and other Friends, 
^vho established the working committee of twelve, of whom 
nine were Friends, who persevered in their work for twenty 
yeai-3. This was the noble band that with Clarkson enlisted 
Wilberforce, and caused England to suppress the slave 
trade. Bowden proceeds to say : " From these few facts 
we may perceive what a powerful influence fur good on the 
world at large was excited, or largely pronjoted. through 
the fliithfulness of Friends, uf Pennsylvania and the Jer- 
seys, on the subject of slavery; for it is evident that their 
brethren in England were induced to act in this matter 
mainly through their example." It is among the pleasing 


recollections of nij visit to England in 1S21, that I .^harcd 
the hospitality of the veteran philanthropist, William ]^il!- 
wyn, at his beantirul home at Walthamstow, and saw hira 
ill the evening of life, of most venerable and benign ap- 
pearance, surrounded by beloved and loving daughters, 
with feelings of yet warm and glowing interest in his native 
country, and of love for mankind. "Will not England ceriso 
to persecute such men; men whose character and deeds 
have conferred the highest glory on her name? 

In tracing our family ancestry on every side, back to 
William Penn's first coloniots, and through the Society of 
Friends, we have the highest guarantee that any posterity 
can have of their moral and religious worth, as well as of 
their good manners and respectable education. This is to 
us a just ground of satisfaction, and would be of piido, 
if pride were ever justifiable. That is what our humble 
and self-denying ancestors would not have approved. The 
pride of birth, as every other pride, is a weakness, and 
a false dependence. Man can only be among men, and 
before God, what he truthfully is in himself; and by his 
own intrinsic merits he must stand or fall. This is the 
only aristocracy; the aristocracy of individual excellence; 
that can obtain a recognition of admitted value amone the 
wise and good. Truly, we may inherit good predispositions, 
and natural talent-^, and these are to be valued; yet will 
avail not for our good or the respect of others, unless well 
and wisely guided and improved. Personal will and cfiurt 
are the necessary prererjui?itcs to obtain the regard of our 
fellow men and women, ^^'e justly value and reverence the 
characters and virtues of our ancestors, and are the better 
for it; but to value ourselves on that account, without being 
like them, is already to have suffered a degeneracy, and to 
rest upon a false dependence. Others, instead of valuinf^ 

:j us for an inherited claim to consequence, v,ill by a dls- 
• j paraging contrast only place us the lower in tlieir estimate. 
:j There are other and better emotiuns than pride to L'x 

,! our regards upon our ancestrv. "We loved our parents by 
:j a natural aflfection, as th;j_y had loved theirs; and we de- 
. rived benefits and bifssings from our parents which they 
\\ were only qualified to conft-r because tlicir loving paients 
jj had bestowed the like upon tliem ; and so the obligation 
jj runs back upon its cause indefinitely through unknown 
' generations. It is not alone the blood that courses tlirou^h 
our veins; not alone for the phy-ical conformation, or the 
uiental c;ipacity, or disposition of temper, which we have 
inherited from them that we owe them afi'ection and rever- 
ence; but more than for these, do we owe them gratitude 
for the intellectual, moral, and religious culture we have 
received, and all that we possess of good. Therefore it is 
that the argument of love and duty grentiv preponderates 
towards a worthy ancestry; and this should the deeplv 
interest us in all that influenced them for good, for through 
them that good was derived to us. But so has not a wiser 
Providence regulated our affections. The debi we owe 
the past we pay to the future. We loved our parents, but 
love more our children ; and yet more our chiklrcn's chil- 
dren, with a love growing in intensity with each remove. 
Thus are the hearts of successive generations linked toge- 
ther by au invisible chain, reaching endlessly into the too 
little recorded past and to be extended into the far un- 
known future; a chain of which we are the connecting 
living links in time, and through which love's elcctiic cur- 
rent runs mostly downward; for God knoweth we cannot 
influence the past, but may the future, through all of time, 
and into eternity. "We may, indeed, trace its more than 
golden links from the never-dying soiils who have risen 


before us, through the living, and onwarJs to those to rise 
hereafter; thus its beginning and ending are where no rust 
can tarnish its celestial brightness. 

Looking back to our colonial ancestry, ■svhcn Friends rose 
from an oppressed subject condition to become rulers, and 
the most influential to give shape to law and tone to society, 
it is grateful to rcuieniber with what justice, moderation, 
and wisdom they conducted their public and religious 
affairs. With the natives they cultivated peace and good 
will, compensated them for the lands they relinquished, 
liberally supplied their wants, but withheld intoxicating 
drinks, and found a reward in the maintenance of friendly 
relations and a general prosperity. They liberated the 
slaves, and compensated them for their labor, and im- 
proved their social condition. They established an asylum 
for the oppressed of all nations, and protected alike those 
of all religions and all nations. Their religious meetings 
were not only the places of a devout spiritual worship, but 
their discipline and paternal and fraternal care were con- 
stantly watchful to preserve sound morals, and to aid the 
widow and orphan, the poor and the needy, and all who 
endured afBiction. There was for a length of time a con- 
current and commingled jurisdiction in these respects 
between the Provincial Council, the Courts, and the Meet- 
ings for Discipline, all productive of happy results. Arbi- 
tration and the advisory Cuurts of Pacification, largely 
superseded the litigation of the forum; and testamentary 
advisers brought decedents' estates to an amicable adjust- 
ment between executors and legatees, and among the latter. 
Friends always bore a testimony against litigation ; and they 
wasted not their time and substance by suits at law, pur- 
sued to gratify a vindictive temper, or to win a triumph 
over neighbors. Yet no people ever more highly appre- 

ciatcd the value of government, fcr the maintenance of 
justice, pence, and order. The founder of the riovince 
declared that the '• Frame of Government' was formed "to 
the best of our skill;" '' to the lireat end of all government, 
namely, to !>uppnrt power in reverence with the people, and 
to secure the people from the abuse of power; that thcy 
may be free by their just obedience, and the magistrates 
honorable for their just administration. For liberty with- 
out obedience is confusion, and obedience without liberty is 
slavery." And when a question was raised in the Asseui- 
bly as to the validity of the provincial laws, in relation to 
their having had or not the approval of the king in council, 
in 1G03, Samuel Carpenter, one of William Penn's wisest 
and most faithful counsellors and richest colonists, declared, 
" If now they are our laws, I will stand by them : 1 would 
rather lose all I have iu the world than part with our laws." 
(Col. Records, 421.) He spake the sentiment that others 
shared with him; and which all have largely shared since, 
and now share in the great struggle of this day to maintain 
the integrity of our government and country. It is true, 
Friends bad, to preserve themselves within their peace testi- . 
mony, tc retire from the colonial government, when placed 
by the parent government under the necessities of taking 
warlike measures in the Province, when the seven years' 
French war came on in 1755; and yet, as a Society, they 
abstain from all complicity in any war measure; still are 
there no citizens who more deeply sympathize with the 
government in its great purpose of self preservation ; nor 
any who more rejoice that the fetters are stricken from the 
limbs of slaves. 

The advantages of education our provincial settlers highly 
estimated, though they did not provide for collegiate in- 
struction; and considered loarnin"; of no account whatever 


as a qualifietition for the Go?pel ministry, without the Divine ! 
authorization of the Ilol\- Spirit. The ^lectines of Friends i 
were generally careful to have schools establi.-hed for their 
ovrn and the children of their neighborhood?, and provided 
teachers, and superintended the schools. In the " rrauie 
of Government'' itself, adopted by William Penn, "and , 
divers freemen of the Province," on the 2oth of the 2d 
mo , IGS'2, it was stt forth : " That which makes a good con- 
stitution, mu-^t keep it, namely, men of wisdom and virtue, 
qi'alities that, because they descend not with worldly in- ! 
heritanccs, must be carefully propagated by a viituuus ' 
youth, for which after-ages will owe more to the caic and 
jirudence of founders, and the successive magistry, than to j 
their parents for their private patrimonies." And while j 
William Penn was the first time here, sitting as govei'nor 
and president of council, in 1GS3, he and they beiran " ro j 
take into their serious consideration the great noL-es^-ity ' 
there is of a schoolmaster for the instruction and subor 
education of youth in the town of l''hiladelphia." And 
following the petition of Samuel Carpenter, Edward Ship- 
pen and others, presented the 10th of 12th month, 1G97-8, 
''in behalf of themselves and the rest of the people called 
Quakers," a charter was granted to establish a charity 
school, which has ever since been maintained in active use- 
fulness. The result was, that until colleges came to diftuse 
a higher education. Friends, as a class, were generally some- 
what better educated than others 3 and though tliey did 
not often seek di-tinction ambitiously, they suTrplicd in 
large numbers the teachers of school-, the nierchants, the 
conveyancers, apothecaries, physicians, and sometime.'^ the 
hiwyers and legislators of the country. The preachers ro.-e 
up, irrespective of their learning, as Divinely authorized, 
though not unfrcrjucntly these were men and women of 


thorough education and refinement of manners. AVith 
such an origin, shall v^c not love our country and her laws, 
and venerate our ancestry, and present their character to 
the admiration and love of our posterity and of mankind? 
Xo people can claim an inheritance from a source more 
pure and honorable than those who claiuT their descent 
from the early settlers of Pennsylvania. 

To be lamented is it that the Friends in England and 
certain places in this country are diminishing in numbers. 
Should not this lead them to consider, while all that is vital 
shall be preserved, whether they cannot diminish the causes 
of disowument, in respect to such as incur no moral taint, 
nor defectiun of Christian faith? Their penal code has but 
one sanction for all offences against their discipline, and 
that capital as respects membership. In Great Britain, 
the number of members is given as under fourteen thou- 
sand ; yet during the Cr.-t fifty-five. years of this century 
over four thousand were disowned fur " marrying out of 
meeting;" while the birthright members are retained, if 
outwardly unoffending, whatever the degree of their indif- 
ference to all that gives vitality to the Society. All well- 
wi>hers of the world's best improvement must ever be that 
Friends should increase in numbers and in strength, regain 
their ancient usefulness, prestige, and p.iwer, and become 
united in the fellowship of Gospel love, under the rule of 
the Great Ilead of the Church. 




TuE following list of the desconclunt^ of the chihlreii of 


Philip and Ilachol Price was submitted to the assembled com- 


pany, and revised by the ditlerent families. The names of 


those deceased are in capital letters ; of those present iu itcdic 




I. ^Martha anrl 

Their phildreu. 




I. Hnnia/, .s'., 

1. HeuryT.^vaixx- 

1. E/a-urd 


NAxnAN- 11. 

marrieil to Ed- 

ried to Susan 

T)llhr,jn. j! 


wa[:d B. Dar- 


2. Fiances. j; 


2. Edwarp DiLL- 


3. Mortin, S. mar- 
ried to Ilniiy 
Hid me.. 

4. Emihe P. 

5. Hannah Alary. 

6. Thomas 11. 

7. CatltarincLacu 

3. Helen. 
1. Laiua P. 




1. Xathanll. mar- 

1. Mary. 


kss, married 

ried J'anny M. 


Anne G. Pen- 



NELL. (Dec'd 

2. KoBEin- P. 


in iSiS.I 

3. Had id P. 


.Marrie.l ^VrsA 

J. Lecdom, 




III. Philip P. 

1. Pascuall. 



i^harfhs, ma.T- 

2. Stephen. 



3. Alfred D. 



4. Ann P. 


IV. Henry P. 

1. Widtam P. 


Sh(trpli'ss, mar- 

2. Elizabeth B. 


ried toIlARRiET 



V. Aim S., mar- 

1. Philip. 


ried to Stetuex 

2. Thomas J. 



?,. AljWd. 

4. .S. Edward. 

5. Martha. 


\l.A/frrJ Sharp. 

1. IIexry.- 


less, married 

2. Joseph T. 

to Elizohctk 

3. Ma.y T. 



1. Martha. 


S/iurples, mar- 

2. Robert P. 


ried to Martha 

3. Philip M. 


ir. llAN-xAn p. 

S. Ask. 

4. Edward D. 


marrieil Da- 


vid J.Davis, 



M.D. ' 


III. ^\■M. Piurr., 
iM.D., mar- 
ried Han.nah 

marrieil John 
AV. TowDS- 

Their CbiMrei;. 

I. Einilie. married to 
David P. Marshall. | 

II. Sallie R., married ; 1. 
to Ludwiir Ilanau. | 

III. Caroline f . I 

IV. iIc^/r/( <7i/7^,iuar- ! 1. 
ried to Kobcrt K. j 
Wri-ht. i 

V. Helen O., married ' 
to Charles P. -Mu- i 
linier. I 

VI. Josephine, nuir- , 
ried to John A. i 
Bi-elow. i 

VII. Annette 31., mar- i 
ried to Kudolph | 

VIII. U'L'/i-m Red- I 
vrjod P.irr. I 

K., I. Willfvi F.. mar- | 

ried \.o Auiia Mary j 

Kirk. 1 

II. Ahjig JFary. mar- | 

ried to George | 

Thomas, M.D. 


Re::ina; 2. William j 

3. Theresa. 

Wm. Redwood; 2 
L. ; 3. .Mier.^ Fi-iier; 

4. Sydney L. ; 5. Makv 

A. ; C. Annette M. ; 7. 
Piobert K. : S. Ciiarles 
G. ; 9. Josephine B. 
William P. : 2. Jo~;e- 
riiivt;; o. E<SELi.4.: 
4. Helen M. : .s.Chas. 

B. ; 6. MvLiE. 
John A. Bi-^iow. 

III. Ro-rhrl P., mar- 
ried to J. L'fcy 

IV. Charles M. 

V. lifiiri/ C married 
to Geor^iana L. i 

VI. Edv'rd v.. mar- j 
ried to IhiirieUa j 
.V. Troth. 

VIT. Philip P. 
V. ?,nirs-aret mar- I. Philip P.. married 
ried Jonathan j X-oPiiabe SpuiLman. 

II. ILttrij. married to 
I llrrutlinlan. 

\\ll. Ihj.nwh. 
IV. Rachel. 

1. Jonas PrPi'o.i; 2. 
Corse; 3.ChjJ,s T. ; 
4. John R. ; b. Eliza- 

1. Wm. L. : 1. J. Lr.cj : 
3 J. To;vN<i;xi,- i. 


\.Faiu)yT.:-2. E. Price; 
3. FrauLlni ; 4. Harn- 
S07I ; 5. Lawrence. 

1. ILenry T. ; 2 Joh?i B'. 

Iloir,ird;2. II !.nF. 
3. Ed,<:ard ^. , 4. M 
frrd P. 
Ell.n; 2. J. Charhs. 



VI. llriijarjii)!, 



I. P.^xsoii, married to 

\. HalUduy ; 2. .\-,-c:h i 

nianiod to 

Jinie Jackion. 

Ja>!e; 3. JI„ru W. ; i 

Jane l^aj:soii. 

4. h'ac/ifi S. ■ ' 


II. 3Ionr, married to 

1. Edward P.; 2. AUcrJ..- | 

Jofiah \ViL-^on. 

3. Mary Jane ; 4. Brii- ; 
j'i»ii)i P.; 5. ll,:cliel , 
L. P.: C A,niu JL i 

III. Ifaiah, married to 

1. Su/i,/ 11.; 2. 6./ : 

Ltjcli:i IIkoIJ: 

Z.Jea,nueL. | 

IV. Philip. 

V. Jacoij, married to 

Knchd L.Tliumas. 

VI. Edward. 

VII. Jael. 

VII. Sarah, mar- 

I. IIaxnau. 

ried to Caleb 

II. Jonathan 


III. Sibvlla, married 

1. Carmalt; 2. Caroline | 



P. ; 3. Frederu-li C. : j 
4. Annie ^VooI^ey. 


V. Samcel F., mar- 

1. Samuel W. ; 2 Catha- 

ried to E. 

rine \V. 


VI. Raclie! P., mar- 

]. Alfred Sandeord. 


ried to Rev. Elisha 


VII. Milliam Henry, 

.M.D., married to 


Laura Vv'. John- 


VIII. James Edv:nrd. 

VIII. L7iK.m^v- 

I Rkbecca E., mar- 

1. Amia Rebeca. 

ried to A.s.VA 

ried to IIanso-v L. 



II. Jvhu Sersnnit, 

1. Eli K. Price, Jr. 

married to Sulie 

B. B der. 

III. Sii.ijl E. 

IX. I.SAAC mar- 

I. Rachel. 

ried to SCSA.V- 

II. j;/7/a>-. v., married 

1. Snsoniia j\l. : 2. Fran- 


tu tarahLi-'utr.Hjt. 

cis L.; 3. ]\-:r/-,r: 4. 
ILlen F.; :>. '»Vii;i;Mn 
L. i 0. CuAS. ARruLii. 

X.P///7//, .v. mar- 

I. Helen F., married 

ried to Matilda 

to T. S. Yardley. 


II. Hannah P., mard 
n. Barton, .M.I). 

III. Marv. IV.A>u,a. 

1. Henry L. 

XI. Rachel, died 

V. PhilipM.l'rice, Jr. 

un infant. 

VI. Charles S. 



11 CliiUlren of P. and R. Price. o2 Gramichildreu of P. and K. Price. 
C deceased. 12 deceased. 

5 living. 40 living. 
99 Great-grandchildren of 5 "Great-great-grandcLildreu of 

P. and R. Price. P. and R. Price. 

19 deceased. 1 deceased. 

80 living. 4 living. 

Total descendants of P. and R. Price, - - ICV 
Deceased, - 3S 

Total living, 129 

Present at the meeting, descendants by blood and marriage, 102 

Others near of kin ami members of families, - . - - 19 

"Helps," 15; Photographer, 1; - - - - - - It' 

Total present, - - - - 137 

The following are the name.-- of near friends and relatives present, 
not descendants of P. and R. Price: . 

Ann Jackson, Jane Kissick, Uannah Embree, Sibbilla Eiubree, 
Rebecca Embree, Joseph B. Town-end, Ada E. Townsend, Robt. S. 
Paschall, M. Fanny Paschall, Alice Paschall, Jane S. Paschall, James 
P. Townsend, Eleanor H. Townsend, Stephen M. Paschall, Eii/a 
Bradley; Louisa, nurse of Anna R. Withers; Isabella, nurse of Eli 
K. Price, Jr. ; Jennie, nurse of Edward D. Sharpies. 

The time has now arrived when wo must separate, anJ 
say the word " Farewell." This cannot be without a deep 
solemnity and a protouud emotion. 

"VVe now jjart. porhaps forevt-r ; 

Xfvcr .-hall all a;.,^ain meet here I 
Yet thi.- parting ne'er can sever 

The hjve that binds beyond this sphere. 

Farewell now, dear sister, brother ; 

Farewell cousins, loved i>nes, all; 
"NVe will pray that father, mother, 

■\Ve mayj'.iu in h(av..:ily haU. 


There tliey now await our coming, 
Yet are yearning iliat none b.- lost; 

T\'o will strive tlirough this life's gloaming, 
"U'hile yet on its dark billows tossed; 

Strive still the Cross aloft to bear, 

Strive to -wear celestial crown; 
That '.' Life Eternal "' we may share, 

The Saviour's gl':'ry and renown ! 

Farewell, cousins, sister, brother ! 

Though here our parting time be come, 
"We'll strive to meet father, mother, 

All our beloved, in our true home ! 

At the close of this sitting we again heard the voice of our 
sister, Jane Price, as we had heard it in the family gather- 
ings of 1834 and 1S51, clear and earnest in tone, calling 
upon us to heed the light given, and follow the sense of 
duty made manifest to us all, and as was her wont, to waken 
fresh feelings of love to Gud, and of love one unto another. 
With a condensing brevity we thus ma}' recall the senti- 
ments expressed. "We have, I trust, been pcrmicted to 
meet together this day at the 'old homestead,' at the 
parental 'hearthstone,' with renewed feelirigs of gratitude 
to God and of love to each other. Xor, in the words of 
Whittier, is the occasion 

" 'Vain, 
"Which lights that holy hearth again, 
And calling back from care and pain 

And death's funereal sadness, 
Draws round its old familiar blaze 
The clustering groups of early days, 
And lends to sober manhood's gaze 

A glimpse of childhood's gludncs-s.' 



"I look upon these miiiirlinti- groups of mati}- fatnilies of 
one descent, those of every ;ii;e, with deeply interesting 
emotions and earnest desires that all may live this life use- 
ful!) and Well, abiding in that faith which alone can carry 
us safely through its varied changes and many dangers. 
Even these little children may lisp their [Maker's praise; 
and youth and age he alike fervent in prayer, and live in 
the beauty of holiness. Let all remember, 

" ' Trials may come ; but 
Xow in tliy youth busoeeh of II im 

'SVIk' giveth. upbraiding nm. 
That Hi.- light in thy heart beecme not dim, 

Nor llis L^ve be unl'orgot ; 
And, in dark.-.-t of days thy God shall bo, 
Greenness and beauty and strength to thee.' 

"Then the bereaved and sorrowing will not mourn as 
those without hope; and those in the decline of life, wait- 
ing with patience and resignation the coming of a brighter 
day, will perceive even here its dawning rays; 

" 'All our prospect; brightening to tin- last, 
Our heaven commences t-ro this lifo bi: past.' 

"And my fervent prayer is, that we may all be favored 
to perceive this brightening prospect; and that we n;ay all 
meet again in the life of glory, where all shall be happy, 
and know sorrow and parting no more '." 

Eli K. Price. 

D I S C U 11 S E 




May 1, 1863. 





The Constitutioa of the United States declares, ''The 
rip,ht of trial by jury shall be preserved;" and the Consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, ''That trial by jury shall be as :, 
heretofore, and the right thereof remain inviolate." i; 

This time honored institution, as known to us, peculiar \} 
to British and x\nierican jurisprudence, had the f:errii of ;: 
its origin in the forests of Germany, whence it is traced 
with other features of the Constitutions of England and of ; 
these States. It must have been felt to be a bulwark of 
liberty and justice, otherwise it could not have been so 
long and so sacredly preserved as our inheritance, through 
successive invasions and eon^juests of p]ngland, and revo- 
lutions there and here, and many usurpations of arbitrary 
power, to be hcye made fundamental in the Declarations ■ 
of Rights contained in our Constitutions. '| 

"Whoever," says Montesquieu, "shall read the admira- 
ble treatise of Tacitus on the manners of the Germans, will 
find that it is from them the English have borrowed the 
idea of their political government. This beautiful system 
was invented first in the woods." (Bk. XI, Ch. ^'I.) Ta- 
citus, after speaking of those general councils of the whole 
community, which must have been the origin of tiie "Wit- ^ 
tenagemote, or British Parliament, says, "It is in these ; 
assemblies that princes are chosen, and chiefs elected to 
act as ma<2;istrates in the several cantons of the State. To 

each of these judicial ofl'icers, assistants are appointed from , 
tlic body of the poopli-, to the number of a hundred, who I 
attend to give their advice, and strengthen the hands of j 
justice." (Sec. XLIl.) Divisions of the freemen into I, 
hundreds, who attended the hundred court, are of frequent j; 
mention in the early laws of France and Lombardy, and j 
they became under King Alfred and bis successors, the j 
prevailing system over England; and the name is yet fa- 
miliar in portions of our own country. i 
Sonic liave traced the origin of juries to Athens and j: 
Konic; but these were more popular assemblages, sworn, \ 
it is true, in the cause, but deciding by majorities; and r 
fuch may have been the character of the Saxon and Roman : 
assend)lages, who aided in the administration of justice, j 
and the conservation of the peace. Selden ascribes to the | 
reign of one of the l^thelreds the first mention of a jury of ' 
twelve. The law is in these words : " In every hundred ! 
let there be a court; and let twelve freemen of mature age, ; 
together with their foreman, swear upon the holy relicks, | 
that they will condemn no innocent, and will absolve no i 
guilty person." Selden refers this law to the period of , 
Elhelred who began his reign in 961 ; but Reeves, in his } 
History of English Law, to a king of that name who nest j 
preceded Alfred the Great, a hundred years prior, whom , 
Hume calls Ethcred. The transactions of the reign of 
Alfred, which bec^an in S71, show that trial by twelve \ 
jurors existed in his time, and that an unanimous finding i 
was then required. The Mirror of Justice, written long ;; 
before the Norman conquest of lOGG, rej-^rts the f allowing [. 
doings by that renowned monarch : " He hanged Cad- | 
iciiie, because that he judged Ihulcicij to death without |- 
the consent of all the jurors- and whereas he stood upon 
the jury of twelve men, and because that three would ' 

hive ?avcd liiin against tlie nine. CaJwine ronioved tie 
tlitce, ;uk1 put otlicrs upon the juiy, upon whom Ilaeliway 
P'lt not hiniPvlf."' " lie hanged Fn rbitnir^ because he 
judgeil ILrrpi'n to die, whereas tlie jury were in dov;l t of 
tlieir verdict ; fur in doubtful causes^ one ouglit rathi r to 
sive than condenui." Here, a thousand years ago, in d's- 
tinct lineament'^, is seen the jury of our day, w;;h tl:e 
feature of unanimity of decision, and a sternly pur] os:d 
immunity from judicial encroachment. (Mirror, ;;:]0-40.) 

John Reeves, a high Tory historian, ascribes the trial 
by twelve jurors to Norman introduction after lOGG; ad- 
mits that it had obtained in Scandinavia, at a very car!}' 
period; went into disuse, was revived about 820, carried 
by Kollo into Normandy, and thence by the Norman con- 
quest into England. Pie speaks of a lost act of Henry II, 
enacting that all questions of seisin of land should be tri d 
by twelve good find lawful men, sworn to speak the trutli. 
(1 Reeves, S4, SG.) Rut the ]\Iirror of Justice .^liows 
that it existed in full vigor nearly two hundred years be- 
fore, and it is probable that it existed there long before 
King Alfred's reign. 

Ilallam says, "It has been justly remarked by Tlume, 
that among a people who lived in so simple a manner as 
the Anglo-Saxons, the judicial power is always of more 
consequence than the legislative. The liberties of the.-e 
Anglo-Saxon thanes were chiefly secured, next to their 
swords and their free spirits, by the inestimable right of 
deciding civil and criminal suits in their own County Court; 
an institution which, having survived the conquest, and 
contributed in no small degree to fix the liberties of Eng- 
land upon a broad and popular basis, by limiting the feudal 
aristocracy, deserves attention in following the history of 
the British Constitution." (2 Mid. Ages, 9.) 

« I 

Mofjna Cliarta v^'as extorted from successive langs of j- 
En-laiid, in the tliirtecuth century, and tlicy v,\re made ji 
to declare that, " Xo freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, |; 
or disseized of his freehold or liberties, or free customs; || 
or be outlawed or esiI'Mj, or any otherwise destroyed ; nor |' 
■will we pass upon him, mir condemn him, but by lawful !' 
ji:<7</mru( o/Jn's p>n:i, or by the law of the land." (Chap, i 
29.) " By lawful judgment of his peers," means a trial by j 
those of equal rank and condition; peers of the realm by 
sucli peers; freemen of the hundred by other freemen 
thereof Such an immunity in aires of viulence and inse- 
curity, must have been regarded as of inestimable value, 
and as no age or country is exempt from the vinlence of i 
prejudice and excitement, and the partialities of similar 
social condition, this security of trial by one's peers should 
forever be regarded as an inappreciable inheritance. 

Justice is always administered with the highest satisfac- 
tion to the citizen, when he is satisCi'd with those who are 
to adjudge his rights. When assured that the jury are his 
C'pials, possessing" a common interest with himself in the 
laws to whichi they are to give effect, he is best prepared 
to yield his confidence, and to abide by their verdict. Add 
to this his privilege of striking from the panel sd many as 
measurably to make the residue to be persons of his choice, 
and he becomes the better satisfied to submit his rights to 
their decision. 

This institution of triaJ by jury, which since an unknown 
antiquity has been consecrated in the affections of the only 
nations of the earth truly free, it is suggested in this ago 
of free inquiry, that spares not the most sacred subjects, 
may be dispensed with, or essentially modified in its pro- 
cedure. The first objection to bo made to any change of 
the trial by jury, is that change in itself incurs some risk of 

loosening a conservative dcpen^lence upon lo;ig-o^t-iblished 
and vcuemted practice, and that the work of reform once 
begun may be carried to a dangerous excess. 

This concession, it is believed, may be safely made: that '[ 
i the parties litigant, when both are agreed, should have the \\ 
privilege of submitting the Hicts and the law to the Judge :| 
or Judges who are sitting on the bench. This is, m- j 
deed, done whenever the party complainant files a bill in |l 
equity, or libel in the Admiralty or Consistory or Probate j! 
Court, and parties dispense with a jury when they agree \\ 
upon the facts, and submit them to the Judges to pro- j; 
nounce the law that arises upon them. As parties may j; 
agree to refer their controversies to referees or arbitrators, || 
both as to facts and law, so they should be at liberty to ^■ 
make the Judges their referees of both facts and law. To ji 
make provisioa for this would be no inva^on of the Con- ji 
stitutlon, and would demand no change of that fumJamental | 
law. By consent, except in capital cases, a party may waive 1 
a benefit secured to him by law. | 

To go further, it is submitted, would bo unwise and un- j 
safe, as well as require a change of our Constitutions; and | 
this will further appear by other reasons for t-Ial by jury ; 
yet to be noticed. While it is admitted that it is v.-ry im- 
portant that the parties litigant should have conuilcnce in 
their Judges, and be willing to hold or lose their supposed 
rights by their arbitrament, and also that exact justice, 
as nearly as practicable, should be administer, d, there are 
public objects to be attained by this method of trial by jury, 
of a political bearing, of even greater importance than the 
intere.-ts of the parties litigant 

Trial by jury is neces.sarily a public proce^.-ling, and that 
publicity is the strongest guarantee again.-.t judicial tavorii- 
ism and corruption. The bystanders witucs= the whole 


proceeding, and not only tliey, but througli tlic .prcs?, tbe 
whole imblic arc the observant critics of every impurtant 
trial. Thus are tbe Jud-es and jury tbe "observed of all 
observers," and are undergoing a trial, as well as tbe ac- 
cused, or tbe }>arties litigant. And tints too, nut only the 
jurors in attendance, but the whole public, are constantly 
deriving an education in public afiairs, and are learning 
the principles of law by which they bold their property, 
and enjoy all their rights. This to the mass of the busi- 
ness community is probably the most important of all the 
education they receive. It is important to theniselvcs in 
their business afiairs; it is more importani in their capacity 
of constituents in a representative government, and in 
their capacity of possessors of the ultimate sovereignty of 
their country. It is their needed training as a free people, 
to enable them to appreciate and maintain a free guveru- 
ment; and to perpetuate it, as they have inherited it, to 
future tiuies. Supersede this system by chenper modes. | 
and more secret proceedings, then all this participation of | 
the people in the administration of justice, so fraught with | 
useful instruction to them, and we shall be on the road to 
national declen.-,ion, and soon lose those characteristics 
which make us a nation of freemen. 

Again, Judges who are not the appointees of a power, 
absolute b}- the standing arnnes it controls, could not sus- 
tain themselves in the public confidence, if under a com- 
p'dsion to decide both facts and law, and especially if I 
their pi-uccedings were in written depo-itidus and plead- ' 
ings, and but little discussed before tbe public. Too many | 
parties would be disappointed litigants, conceiving them- i 
Selves injured, not to make a large aggregate of hostile 
feeling against Judges, who must decide many hundred j' 
cau-^es in each year, and in each cause making one party I; 

unfriciRlly if not lio.-tl!e. With the assistance of juries, 
the Judges escape this injustice \vhlch jirocecds from dis- 
appoiuted expectations. The jurors are suddenly called 
from the mass of the citizens, for a few weeks exercise this 
terrible power of deciding upon the rights, reputations, 
fortunes, and lives of their fellow-citizens, are dismissed, 
and become invisible in the community. Thus the whole 
r|ualified male citizens in turn perform this high function, 
and the whole in turn share this fearful responsibility, and 
divide the resentment that follows disappointed litigation. 
It then results, as stated by the profound and philosophical 
Montesquieu, "By this means the power of judging, a 
power so terrible to mankind, not being annexed to any 
particular state or profession, becomes, as it were, invisible. 
The people have not then the judges continually present to 
their view; they fear the office, but not the magistrate." 
(Lk. XI, Ch. "\'I. ) This is all the more important where 
we have in operation a system not only to elect the judi- 
ciary after a term of years, but have also constituted some 
of our Courts judges of 'elections, and their decisions ne- 
cessarily become the subject of partisan censure and hos- 
tility. To such feeling have some of the best judges been 
sacrificed, or put in peri! of failure in their re-election. 

And are not jurors an important assistance in the ad- 
ministration of justice? The best Judges bear testimony 
that they arc. If justice be done to the wheel by placing 
in it the most intelligent citizens of all occupations, every 
traverse jury of twelve men should possess an aggregate 
of practical information, that should be greater than that 
of the Judge on the bench, however good his legal infor- 
mation, and as a rule, Judges admit this to be their expe- 
rience as to jury trials. Yet in our city, though the Legis- 
lature has sought to remedy the evil, and to place that 


remedy in the liamls of tlie Judges, there is ;i Hiikirc to get 
into our jury-boxes the full average of t!ic inteliigenee of 
the community. There is an unpatriotic evasion of this 
most important Ciuty by many citizens, who are willing 
enough to complain of tlie delimjueney of others, when it 
becomes their own misfortune to be litigating parties. 

Another suggested reform it is that jurors should be au- 
thorized to decide by some number Ic.-s than the whole. 
The wisdom of coercing a unanimity of decision is spoken 
of as a relic of the barbarous age in which the trial by 
jury had its origin. It is said tliat it is to bring about a 
verdict, which should be the result of an enlightened in- 
telligence only, by the powers of tlie respective jurors to 
undergo physical endurance. This requirement of a unani- 
mous verdict, it is believed, must have proceeded from 
that jealou-y of libertv and desire of security, which in- 
tluenced the minds of tbic people wh(.> instituted tlie trial 
by jury. They thought it best that the accused should 
not be convicted, unless the case was so clearly made out 
a.s to command a unanimity of decision ; and that the plain- 
tiff asserting a claim of property, should not disturb the ex- 
isting possession, unless he could prove a clear and certain 
right to recover. It is better to do nothing in a case so 
obscure as to leave an apparent risk of doing injustice and 
wrong. The idea is a conservative one. 

The evils incident to jury trial, wliich constitute the 
objections to it, arc reasons against accepting any verdict 
from less than the twelve. The number of twuive is so 
great, that it is said too much to divide the responsibility, 
but when all must agree, each is held to his full responsi- 
bility. The ignorance of jurors is so great, it is said, they 
cannot be relied upon ; if so, then a majority vote would 
surely be the product of that ignorance, while a unanimous 


vote must include the assent of the nia^t intelligent. It 
is s:iiJ different jurors may proceed upon different grounds, 
each of •vrhieh by itself would he insufficient, and thus 
they unite upon a verdict; but a niajorit}' verdict would 
only be so Luich the more likely to rest upon such insufB- 
clent grounds, and to be carried over the heads of those 
v,ho are acting upon good grounds. A vicious accumula- 
tion of different minority views is much less likely to at- 
tain a unanimity than to attain a bare majority. It is said 
jurors are carried away by vulgar and artful advocates, 
who stoop tu practise upon their prejudice, and that large 
corporations, insurance offices, rich landlords, lawyers, doc- 
tors, gentlemen of wealth, or unpopular persons, have little 
chance of justice with the mass of jurors; then, that they 
may not suffer actual wrong at their hands, it is of great 
importance that jurors thus susceptible of being swayed 
by prejudice, should be rcimired to be unaniinou-, by 
which all the dispassionate conservatism to be f->und in the 
twelve will be obliged to concur in the verdict. .Vnd 
against the wilful or erroneous action of the jury from the 
objected liability to bias and prejudice, the power of the 
court to set aside verdicts is readily exercised to prevent 
injustice. As the jury in criminal cases is the antagonistic 
power, to hold in check judges, when too closely sympa- 
thizing with an arbitrary executive, so is the court the su- 
pervising power, to correct the excesses of the jury. It re- 
sults, that causes are tried h\ judges and jury. And though 
there be evils and inconveniences incident to this, a- to all 
other human institutions, and it affords but an approxima- 
tion to perfect justice, it is believed to bo, for the causes 
to be tried, and the other purposes of its creation, the 
perfect and safe that human experience and wisdom have 
devised. In the uuhi.<torical period that preceded the 


Christian era, it hivl its beginning, and ever since has 
hnd its growth, aiul hj gradual usage been improved, and 
since it is the great distinguishing feature in the adminis- 
tration of justice in the only truly free nations of the earth, 
and has most cs,~entially contributed to the consummation 
of that freedom, it should novr, it is submitted, be so 
sacredly regarded as not to be touched by the irreverent- 
hand of legislative innovation. If it can be improved, let 
that improvement come, as in the past unnumbered centu- 
ries, by those changes -svhich practice and usage insensibly 
produce in all human affairs. IVrfect justice is not of hu- 
man attainment. Perfection is the attribute of Him alono 
to whom is known all truth. 

It is admitted that there have been periods in English 
history, when the rights of juries were most seriously in- 
vaded, and their purpo-^e perverted ; when they have been 
coerced by denial nf f,n.l and drink, by fines and imprison- 
ment; and when the verdicts rendered by less than the 
whole twelve have been received by the court, or a recusant 
minority has been removed and replaced by others. The 
evil precedents of such times, the friends of irresponsible 
power endeavored in vain to perpetuate as authority. In 
the reign of Edward I, extending from 1272 to 1307, the 
writer of Fleta lays it down for law, that when there was 
a difference of opinion among the jurors, it was at the 
election of the judge either to afforce the assise, by adding 
others until twelve were found who were unanimous, or 
to compel the assise to agree among themselves, by direct- 
ing the sheriff to keep them without meat or drink till they 
all agreed in their verdict. Another method was to enter 
the verdict of the major and lesser part of the jurors and 
the judgment was given according to the verdict of the 


iiinjority. (2 Reeves, 2G8; 2 Hale's Phms of tlie Crown, 
297, note.) 

Ilallau), when spoakincr of the prosecutions of tlie Crown, 
in the rciirn of .Kliz;;bcth, says, "There is no room fur 
wotuler at any verdict that could be returned In- a jurv, 
when we consider wliiit means the government p'isse.-M-d 
of securing it. The sheriff returned a panel, either ac- 
cording to express directions, of which we have proufs, or to 
what he judged himself of the Crown's intenti(jn and in- 
terest. If a verdict had gone against the prosecution in a 
matter of moment, the jurors must have laid their account 
with appearing before the Star-chamber; lucky, if they 
should escape, on humble retractation, with sharp words, 
instead of enormous fines and indefinite imprisonment. 
The control of this arbitrary tribunal bound down r,nd ren- 
dered impotent all the minor jurisdictions. That primeval 
institution, tlmse im.uests by twelve true men, the un- 
adulterated voice of tlie people, responsible alone to Gud 
and their conscience, which sh.iuld have been heard in 
the sanctuaries of justice, as fountains springing fresh 
from the lap of earth, became like waters constrained in 
their course by art, stagnant and impure. Until this weight 
hung upon the Con>titutiou should be taken o!T, there 
was literally no prospect of enjoying with security tho-e 
civil privileges which it held forth." (1 Const, ilist. of 
Y.n^. 315.) He further says, " I have fuund it impossible 
n(jt to anticipate, in more places than one, some of those 
glaring transgressions of natural as well as positive lav.-, tliat 
rendered our courts of ju-tice in cases of, little 
better than tlic caverns of murderers, ^\'huever was ar- 
raigned at their bar was almost certain to meet a virulent 
prosecutor, a judge hardly distinguishable from the ]>rose- 
cutur, by his ermine, and a passive, pu-illanimous 


ij jury. Those who arc acquainted only v,-it1i our modcru dc- 
i; cent and dignified procedure, can form little concepti.)n of 
';; the irrcLruIarity of ancient trials, the perpetual interro- 
;| trafion of the prisoner, vhieh justly gives us so much offence 
;| at this day in the tribunals of a neighboring kingdom, 
■' and the want of all evidence except written, and perhaps 
!| unattested examinations or confessions." (1 Const. Hist. 
i| ofKng. 312.) 

'{ It was under the reigns of the arbitrary Tudors and 

•j Stuarts that bad precedents were most made and followed, 
ji and juries were most coerced by hunger, thirst, fines, and 
J! imprisonment, but this course of tyrannical procedure was 
;i in a great measure brought to an end by the trial of ^^ il- 
1 liam Penn and William 3Iead, at an Oyer and Terminer 
! Court, held in the Old Bailey in London, in KjTO, and in 
' the hearing of P^dward Bushel, one of the jurors, brought 
: up from prison on Habeas Corpus, befure the Judges of 
the Common Pleas. On the trial of Penn and Mead, they 
were rudely and insolently treated by the Court, but they 
as resolutely maintained their rights, and those of the jury 
under Magna Charta. The charge against those Friends 
was the holding an unlawful and tumultuous assembly in 
Grace Church Street; where they had but assembled to 
worship God as near as they could to their meeting-house, 
which the civil authority had closed against them. The 
jury, some of whom had caught the libcrtydoving spirit of 
Penn, after deliberation, declared that they could not agree. 
The uncomj.lyiag four were ordered intu court, one of whom 
was Pushel, and after being roundly abused, retired again 
to deliberate, and returned with the verdict as to Pouu, 
'= Guilty of speaking in Grace Church Street ;" and as to 
Mead, "Not guilty." This was an unavailable verdict as 
to Penn. The recorder abused the jury for being led by 

15 II 

Jjii^^liel, and siiM to them, '-'You sliall not be di<inisseJ till jj 
you britiL; in a verdict which the c<nirt will aecoj.t. Yun | 
?h;dl be liick'od up, withrnit meat, drink, fire, ami tobacco. \' 
We will have a verdict by the help of God, or you sh;dl jj 
starve for'it." The contest lasted from the 1st to tlie 5th 'i 
of September, and ended in the jury findin;^: a verdict as ij 
to both prisoners of not guilty; in the prisoners and jurors 1; 
being amerced by the court forty marks a man, and the [ 
commitment of the jurors to XewL;ate. After lorn: and ' 
learned discus.-ion of the rights of jurors upon the Habeas | 
Corpus, Chief Justice Yaughan "delivered the opinion of I 
the greatest part of the judges,"' '• that the prisoners ought 
to be discharged," "because the jurors may know that of 
their own knowledge, which might guide them to give their 
verdict contrary to the sense of the court." (Freeman's 
]U-ps. 5.) 

It is true, that in ancietit times, according to the ground 
of this decision, jurors were taken from the vicinage, that 
they might act upon their own knowledge, as well as upon 
the evidence they heard in court; but in this age, of an 
improved system, it is intended that every cause shall be 
tried on the evidence heard in court in presence of the 
])arties, yet if jurors have knowledge of facts pertinent to 
the issue in trial, it is their duty to state such knowledge, 
and testify as witnesses as well as try the cause. The 
reason given in Lusliel's case, for the right of the jury to 
f nd against the views of tlic court is never lieard in the 
present age ; nor would any one deiiy in this age, the 
power of the jury over the whole cause, after hearing the 
charge of the court in criminal causes. 

This victory of I'enn's jury was gained by a minority of 
one-third the jurors; fir<t over their eight fellow-members, 
next over their judges and the Crown prosecution; a vie- 


tory worth more to human liberty than many orJinary 
wcU-fought liittU^s in whifii thousands are shiin. 

^Yhile yet the Stuarts rcicrned, Lord IIah>, in liis Ph^as 
of the Crown, stated the rule as to verdicts to he this: "If 
there be eleven acrrecd, and but one dissenting:, who says 
he will rather die iu prison, yet the verdict shall not be 
taken by eleven ; nor yet the refuser fined or imprisoned, 
and therofure, where such a verdict was taken by eleven, 
and the twelfth fined and imprisoned, it was upon great | 
advice ruled the verdict was void, and the twelfth man de- j 
livered, and a new vriu're awarded; fur men are not to be 
forced to give their verdict against their judgment." (2 
Hale's P. C. 207.) This decision "upon great advice," 
wa.s made in the 41 Edward III, or in 13GS ; and was thus 
pronounced to be the continuing law of England by Chief j 
Justice Halo, in the same ri'ign of Charles IT, when Penu j 
and Mead were tried, and Bushel discharged ; consequently, \ 
that all arbitrary proceedings in intermediate reigns at va- j 
rianccwith it, had been usurpations. i 

Unanimity is to be attained, or no verdict results. The j 
jury is to be kept together until they have made earnest j 
effort.s at a reconciliation of opinion ; but what their verdict | 
shall be, or whether there be any, must depend upon them- i 
selves alone. They may be unable to agree, and after due j 
eflurt, they will in civil eases bo discharged by the court, 
or they may give an erroneous verdict against the wciglit \ 
of evidence, or contrary to the direction of the court in | 
law, and then their verdict in a civil case will be set a,-ide, i 
and the i.-sue be tried by another jury. Put the opinion i 
of the jury cannot be coerced. j 

In the trial of j>ersons charged v.-ith the higher degrees 
of crimes, there is more ground for a charge of a physical 
coerciuu upon the jurors. In civil cases, the judge is e.v- 


pressly authorized by statute to diricliargc the jury because 
they cannot agree. In capital cases, he cannot merely for 
that reason Jiseharge them. (G S. .*c R. 577; 3 II. 49S.) 
Our Constitution declares, in consonance with the common 
law, that '•' no person for the same offence shall be twice put 
in jeopardy of life or limb ;" and to commit his case to two 
juries is to put him twice in jeopardy. To discharge the 
jury is, therefore, to discharge the prisoner. This is a dis- 
cretion that judges disclaim, and it is obviously a dangerous 
one. But although the jury cannot be discharged because 
they cannot agree to convict or acr[uit the prisoner, the 
judge must act to discharge the jury trying a capital charge, 
in a case of alsolule nccessifj/ ; and that nei^essity arises 
when the health or life of a juror is in peril. Chief Jus- 
tice Tilghman says, " Xo one can think for a moment that 
they are to be starved to death. God forbid that so absurd 
and inhuman a principle should be contended for. Very 
far from it. The moment it is made to appear to the 
court, by satisfactory evidence, that the health of a single 
juiyman is so affected as to incapacitate him to do his duty, 
a case of necessity has arisen which authorizes the court to 
discharge the jury." (6 S. & R. 587.) And that such 
necessity may not arise, the court will allow a reasonable 
supply of food and nourishment, as a right of the jurors. 
(3 Hawle, 503.) There exists, therefore, in the trial of 
high crimes, a pressure of physical bearing, namely, of only 
a seclusion under the charge of a sworn officer, until they 
agree, or liealth gives way. And is not this better and 
safer than that a majority should (piickly Cnd the pri.soncr 
guilty of a capital offence, while the minority hold a differ- 
ent opinion, or had d-.ubts of his guilt? Is it not better 
that several guilty persons should escape, than that one 
innocent should be sacrificed ? And what duty is there 


that is not better performed by some physical sacrifice, and 
Tuovo willingly endured, that the duty is a most responsible 
one? There are few moral, religious, or legal duties per- 
formed under sacrifice of comfort and through abstinence, 
that are nut pertVirined with clearer intellects and a more 
exalted sense of duty. And when jurors are charged 
with the life of a fellow-being, what is the suifering of con- 
iinement or abstinence compared with their faithfid dis- 
charge of duty tow-ards him and the Commonwealth, on 
the one hand, to protect society from the return to it of 
the guilty, again to commit wrongs upon it ; on the other, 
to save innocence from an ignominious and suffering death ? 
Conscientious men, in case of difficulty, would rather wish 
to test their fidelity to their consciences and their country, 
by an ordeal of suffering, than to act with a doubtful pre- 
cipitancy. ITuw earnestly and fnthfully jurors act, and 
how much they will sacrifice to the T)i\ino sense of duty 
implanted in the human breast, we often see exemplified, 
and in the case from which, has just been cited the ex- 
pression of Chief Justice Tilghman, one of our former 
wealthiest and most public-spirited fellow-citizens, Henry 
Pratt, the foreman of the jury, who possessed everything 
that could contribute to the happiness of life, declared to 
the court that ho '' would perish before he agreed to a 
verdict that was against his judgment." (G S. &, 11. 57S. i 
The late Judge James "Wilson, in his course of lectures 
on law, v.ith a benevolent sympathy for jurors placed under 
a strong obligation of attaining a unanimous result, has en- 
deavored to state those principles of action which should 
or may govern them, and facilitate their conclusion. Un 
says, " To the conviction of a crime, the undoubting and 
unanimous sentiment of the twelve jurors is of indispens- 
able necessity. In civil causes, the sentiment of a via- 


joritij of the jurors furius tlic verdict of the jury, in tlio 
panic HKintier as the scntiiucnt of a majurity (if the ju'hjcs 
forms the judL::meiit of the court." lie means by this^ 
tljat when the genuine ?entinicnt of a majority of the 
twelve is ascertained, the minority shoukl acquiesce, and 
take the opiniun of the majority as the verdict of the 
whole, as the opinion of a majority of the judges is the 
decision of the court But the case:^ arc not paralkl. The 
dissentient judges express their di.-sent, and arc in nowise 
responsible for the judgment. But the conscience and oath 
of each juror who joins in tlie verdict, is pledged ior its 
trutk and justice to the parties, to society, and to (iod. 
He is bound to strive ior the reconcilement of truth, jus- 
tice, and unanimity, or to refuse liis consent to the verdict, 
and leave the whole matter to the trial of other jurors, or 
to acquit the accused, if there be a doubt of hi- guilt. 
I'lach juror in acquitting his conscience of the incumbent 
duty, must judge for himself, as he will answer to man 
and to God, and acting under the most solemn scn^e of 
duty, his mind must be felt in the result. He cannot ac- 
quit himself to himself or his ]\Iakcr by adopting the 
opinion of others. He may modify and make conce>siun 
as his conviction is changed, but not because seven others 
differ from him. Majorities upon continued effort are 
often convinced that they have been in error, and join the 
minority. The rule of unanimity imposes the nece.-^sity of 
an effort to convince, since a wilful majority cannot carry 
the verdict upon the mere strength of numbers. 

The power of the Legislature to change the number and 
principle of unanimity in the finding of juries, was submit- 
ted to the Judges of the Supreme Judicial Court of New 
Hampshire, who in June, l^GO, in their opinion .-ny, at 
the date nf the ad'-i-tion of the Constitution, " Such a 

20 I 

thing as a jury of less than twelve men, or a jury deciding 
by a less number than twelve voices, had never been known, 
or ever been the subject of discussion in any country of tlie | 
common law. Upou these views we are of opinion that } 
no body less than twelve men, tliough they should by law j 
be denominated a jury, would be a jury within the mean- j 
ing of the Constitution ; nor would a trial by such a body, j 
though called a trial by jury, be such within the meaning | 
of that instrument. Wc think, therefore, that tjie Legis- | 
laturc have no power so to change the lav.' in relation to j 
juries, as to provide that i>etit juries may be composed of I 
a less number than twelve, nur to provide that a number I 
of the petit jury less than the vrhnle number, can render a i 
verdict in any case where the Constitution gives to the 
party a right to a trial by jury. Tliey say that fuur States 
by their highest courts had drcidod in the same wav." 
(23 Iteports, 4G0.) Tb.ese judges and those courts 
thus emphatically say, that an institution and a principle I 
which the Constitutions of the Union and the States have 
made fundamental and sacred, for liberty and security, are 
not lightly to be touched by unhallowed hands. The fui- 
mer seem, indeed, not to have been aware of the efforts 
made in former bad times to make available the voice ct I 
the majority, or to " afibrce the assise," by abstracting the i 
recusant, and adding in their place the willing tools of ji 
power; but their judgment as to all right and lawful pro- j: 
ccedings, standing as authoritative precedents in the law, !■ 
was sound, just, true, and in accord v.'ith their fealty t) \ 
this inestimable institution of English and American com- 
mon law. 

And when such an attempt at innovation and rcfurm was 
made in the British I'arliament, it was opposed by Lord 
Lyndhurst, in language in which he contrasted the proscp.t j 


milder and juster proceedings in trials for political offences, 
■with those he had witnessed at the beginning of this cen- 
tury. "We may," said he, '-bo pern2ctly satisfied with 
our present, but unfortunately, I have lived in times of a 
different character. I have seen the time when the go- 
vernment was carried on upon arbitrary, and even tyrannical 
principles; when political prosecutions were of cimstant oc- \^ 
currence, and were conducted with extreme harshness, and jj 
punishments of great severity were inflicted for political j 
offences. I have been njyself, to a certain extent, not j 
merely a witness, but an actor in those times. The grow- jj 
ing prosperity of the country, producing a greater amount 
of content, has caused a change from the feeliugs tliat then 
prevailed. But, my lords, Ave must not so far delude our- 
selves as to suppose that such a state of things can never 
again arise. Violent political feelings may again be ex- 
cited, and who can venture to say that a similar state of 
things may not again occur? At all events, let us not, 
acting under such a delusion, take any steps towards de- 
stroying the bars and fences the Constitution has given 
against the exercise of arbitrary power." This solemnly 
warning language of an English peer, of American birth, 
is as applicable in republican America as in monarchical 

A verdict by majority would be dangerous from the too 
ready facility of attaining it. It would then be but the !| 
product of the first impression, and that often the !| 
of fl-eling. The minority would be disregarded, and could U 
not check undue impulsiveness, nor command a prolonged U 
or mature deliberation. This would be the result in mere jj 
questions of property, and in the a>sossnient of damages, 
where the feeliii'-s have been excited by artful and chjiiueut 
counsel, would be fearfully dangerous. But it would, in 


cases of a political cast, in times of high ]>o]itical excite- \\ 
uiei)t, be unendurable and fatal to liberty. It wuuld be j; 
better that there should be no political Cinivictions, than 
that they should be attained at such a co-t. It is in '', 
this aspect tliat the institution has received its highe.-t en- J 
comiutns, as a power resistant to tyranny. (3ar Judge |i 
Addison said: '-Jury trials may be disused, from disuse j. 
may be forgotten, and this pillar of our liberties being re- j, 
moved, Ave may forget that vre \rere free." (">7.) Judge |': 
BlackstoDO explained the antiquity and prai-sed the esceb '■' 
lence of this trial for settling questions of property, and ]'; 
then proceeds to say, as to its value to liberty and security, ji 
"It will hold much stronger in criminal cases; since in !} 
times of diCieulty and danger, more is to be apprehended j; 
from the violence and partiality of judges appointed by the j| 
Crown, in suits between the king and the subject, than in | 
suits between one individual and another, to settle the j 
metes and bounds of private property. Oar law has, ij 
therefore, wisely placed this strong and twofold barrier, | 
of a presentment and a trial by jury, between the liberties j 
of the people and the prerogative of the Crown." "The ■ 
founders of the English law have with excellent foreea^^t : 
contrived that no man should bo called to answer to the ■,. 
King for any capital crime, unless upon the preparatory ac- ij 
cusution of twelve or more of his fellow-subjects, the grand ij 
jury: and that the truth of every accusation, whether pre- v 
ferred in the shape of an indictment, information, or appeal, i| 
should afterwards be confirmed by the unan:nwus si'/Aije i, 
of twelve of his equals and neighbors, indiilerently chosen i 
and superior to all suspicion. So that the liberties of : 
England cannot but subsist so long as this palladium re- , 
mains sacred and inviolate, not only from all open attacks, ' 
which none will be so hardy as to make, but also from all j 

secret luachinations wiiich may sap and undernrne it, by 
introducing new and arbitrary methods of trial, by justices 
of the peace, 'coniniissioners of the revenue, and cnurts of 
conscience." (4 Com. 349.) I 

Judge Story, in his Commentaries upon the Constitu- ' 
tion, quotes with high approval these sentiments of Llack- 
stone upon trial by jury, and proceeds to say, ".Mr. Justice i 
Dlackstone, with the warmth and pride of an Englishman j 
living under its blessed protection, has said : ' A celebrated i 
French writer, who concludes that because Ronio, Sparta, j 
and Carthage have lost their liberties, therefore those of j 
England in time must perish, should have recollected that ' 
Home, Sparta, and Carthage, at a time when their liberties j 
were lost, were strangers to the tviid by jury.' " (2 Story on | 
Con § ITSO.) The writer thus referred to was Montcs- j 
quieu, who after dwelling upon the English Constitution ; 
-vs'ith an enthusiastic admiration, pauses in sadness to make i 
this solemn reflection : " As all human things have an end, j 
the state \re are speaking of will lose its liberty ; it will j 
perish. Have not Korae, Sparta, and Carthage perished ? | 
It will perish vrhen the legislative power shall be more i 
corrupted than the executive." This mclanclioly warning j 
is at this moment as applicable to us, as ever it was to ■ 
England; and if the trial by jury be the main bulwark 
for the defence of our liberties, God grant in Ilis goodncs.s 
that, in the words of our Constitution, it may forever remain 
inviolate; and to remain inviolate, it must be untouched in 
any of its principles. 'We have, I believe, and with tlie 
deepest humiliation I make the admission in the Impe of 
the remedy, already in our brief history literally fellillcd 
that only condition which the French philosopher and pa- 
triot places before a national downfall; for already our 
legislatures are more corrupt than our executives, and our 


only hope of rescue remnins in our executives, more pure 
than the legishitive ])0\vcr, in the untouched integrity of 
our juiliciarios, and in the virtue of the body of the people, 
\vh(i give that virtue expression more surely througli thi; 
verdie-ts of tlieir juries, tliiin in the exercise of their elective 
franclnse, or by their k•gi:^lative action. 

Eli K. Price. 

April, 1SC3.