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l3S I 






Second Receipt Book, 






SEN3I-- PHlNt IPLES ; giving insthuchons in relation to duttep. and 







In all departments of household affairs, and evcrij branch of 3ltchanical n- 
dnstry, with full fxplanatort/ ami sKf/r/ffifivi; notes of {fvufit value to 
thej)eo})l(.—ln f(i<t,the Pi:0!'J,i:'S JiOOIC—carrfnUij written 
and collected (from over nine years' extensive corre- 
spondence apon these suhjects), and compiled 
from the tnostaathentic, scientific, and 
reliable sources, alphabetical- 
ly arranged. 


, ^ 

By a. W. Chase, M. D., 

AvSMr and former PubUsher of •' Dr. Chase's Jiecipcs; or, Information for Everybody" 






All orders for this Book, inquiries' for Agencies, or terms to Agents, sbould be 
addressed to the publishers aud proprietors, the 

CilASK rUBLISniNQ COMPANY, Toledo, Ouio. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, iu the year 1S72, 

By Dr. A. W. CHASE, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S80, 

By a. W. CUASE, M. D., 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 

Persons wishing to ntl'lrcss fhc nocTon, personally, will please remember and put 
Opoii the cuvciopc, Loul: Box 102, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


For many years it has been known to me that the People needed 
and desired a book that should give them, in the plainest language, 
an understanding of the various Diseases to which they are liablc,aud 
also an understanding of how they might successfully manane such 
Diseases with the remedies within their reach, and it has been my 
highest ambition to place such a book in their hands. This knowl- 
edge was gained largely through the publication of my first work, 
"Dr. Chase's Recipes; or, Information for Everj'body," which con- 
tained information upon only a few Diseases, except in the form of 

The following quotation is a fair sample of letters sent me asking 
for the publication of such a book. It is from a gentleman of Adams 
County, Iowa. lie says: "I have used your book for five and a half 
years with good success in my family, and with my neighboifs, to the 
exclusion of the M. D's. I think you would confer a great and inesti- 
mable blessing on the Country if you would publish a small, ch^ap 
•work on the subject of IMedicine, as j'our 'Recipes' are not full enough 
on that subject — does not treat of enough diseases — good, however, as Hir 
as it goes; Doctors curse it, hut Families ]>raise it. If j'ou should get out 
such a work as I speak of, I could sell a- great many of tbeni," 

Yet; while I was carrying on the publication of that Work^, 
together with the publication of a weekly Newspajter and a 
general "Job Printing ofFice," notwithstanding I often received 
letters from those who had the " Recipes," asking for such a 
worl-, or for an additional amount of sucli information in. subsequent 
editions of that M'ork, I could not obtain time to accomplish so large 
an undertaking. 

But in lSti9, the cares and hibor of my business, employing about 
/I/f?/ hands, so far prostrated mv hf-allli, that I was laid aside with a 
severe attack of " typhoid pneumonia," which so far aflecied my general 


t? PKKKAC!fc. 

health, tb at I deemed it best to sell out my business and the copy- 
right of the books which I was publishing. And, after a few months 
I took up my residence in Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, where I remained 
nearly a year, which, together with proper treatment, so far restored 
my health as to make it jjlaiu to me that I yet had duties or labors to 
perform; (or idlm^ss, when in health, to me, has alwa.vs appeared to 
be highly censuraljle. Consequently, as my mind had alvays run 
after information of a practical characler, a "Second Receipt Book" wot 
t?i£ onhj iliinrj tJtat, to my mind, would fulfill the necessities of the case, hence, 
this Work was undertaken, and by the blessing of God, is now brought 
before the People. 

And, as it luis always been my purpose to give the largest possible 
amount of information for tlie least possible amount of money, I have em- 
braced the Princii)al Diseases of Persons, Horses, and Cattle, their 
Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment, together with many Receipts for 
Families and Mechanics, upon subjects not embraced in r^y first booh 
as well as much new matter upon some subjects that were embraced in that 
«wZ:, to wliich my attention had been called from time to time, by 
those who had that work, among which, especially, was that of Bce- 

But, in order to embrace so large a range of subjects as are found 
in this, my "Second Receipt Book," it has been necessary to use the 
emallesit type thit could be easily read, and also to avoid all large head' 
ings between si bjects, and also to set the type "solid," i. e., not to put 
strips of type metal (called leads,) between the lines — in other words, 
to occupy all the space with reading matter. In this way " Dr. Chase's 
Family Physician, Farrier, Bee-Keeper and Second Receipt Book," 
contains more reading matter than is usually sold for three to four 
times as much money. 

The Practice of Medicine, undoubtedly originated vnth the People, 
from the necessities arising among them of relieving the sick of their 
own families or neighbons. But,, in time, it fell into the bands of 
those who paid especial attention to mirsing the sick, and finally to 
physicians who gave their whole time to the sick. And for a long 
time what was known in that line was written in the Greek and Latin 
languages, these physicians taking advantage of this fact, still keep 
their prescriptions in these "dead languages," so that the common 
People shall not be able to learn what is known concerning the Treat- 
ment of Disease.s. And by this means they have monoiilized the 
Practice of Medicine, or kei>t it within themselves, as the masses of 
the People could not take the time to learn the "languages." And 
they, the physicians, have also ignored, or refused to accept, as facts, 
All that micht be found out by the Peoi)le in doctoring themselves, re- 


Jecting them as "grandmother's prescriptions," that were entirely be- 
neath their notice. But in doing this they have rejected very much 
that is of great value. For instance, take a nurse who has given much 
of her time to the care of the sick, might it not reasonably be ex- 
pected that they would become acquainted with many domestic receipts 
that could be depended upon in the cure of disease? If I could have 
but one to take care of me when sick — the Nurse or the Doctor — I 
Bhoald not hesitate for a moment to say, give me the Nurse. They 
nnintenlionally acknowledge the same thing, for I have heard ma-ny 
of them say "as much depended upon good nursing as upon the Doc- 
tor." Every possible advantage has been taken in this "Second Re- 
ceipt Book " of a very large accumulation of "Domestic Receipts," 
which have come from "the People," and are hereby returned to 

As the foregoing remarks embrace the reasons for the publicatioii 
of "Dr. Chase's Family Physician, Farrier, Bee-Keeper and Second 
Receipt Book," I shall endeavor to set forth in as few words as possi' 
ble the especial advayitages to be derived from it b) those who may ob 
tain it and keep it by them. 

First. It is written in plain language that all persons of ordinarj 
intelligence can understand; and where it has been necessary in quo- 
ting from others, or in our own writing, to give the technical terms ol 
the Schools, it is immediately followed, in brackets, with the proper 
explanation, to avoid all necessity of turning to a Glossary or Diction- 
ary for such ex[)lanation, by which more or less confusion and annoy- 
ance has always been experienced. 

Second. In giving the Causes and Symptoms of Disease in Persons, 
it enables any one to avoid, as far as possible, the Cause, and thus 
escape the disease, while by watching the a])proa(:hing Symiitoms they 
will be lead to prepare themselves to combat them at the earliest pos- 
sible moment, for want of an understanding of which, many valuable 
lives have been lost, notwithstanding the means of cure were at hand, 
or easily obt^iined. The same dilliculty has V>een experienced in the 
Treatment of the Diseases of Horses and Cattle, the Symptoms not 
generally having been given by which a correct Treatment could be 
determined n]»on; but in this Work this has been done. 

Third. In the Diseases of Horses and Cattle, I have taken the 
Treatment as pursued by Dr. William Wallington, an English gen- 
tleman o' anniH thirty years of successful practice, who has adapted 
his treatment to the diseases of this Country, and who uses the medi- 
cines of this Country also. This part of th"? Work has J^een written 
with him sitting by my side, from time to time, as found neces- 
tary. to {five a full and comprehensive view of the Causes. SymptomB, 

and Treatment of all of the Leading Diseases of these, the moBl 
important of our domestic animals. And, from my acquaintance with 
him, and from my knowiege of his success, for some sixteen years, I 
congratulate myself in having been able to obtain information, for 
this branch of the Work, that is so enlirehj reliable. And I would call 
especial attention to Dr. Wallington's Treatment of Umbilical Hernia 
in Colts, and also to the subject of Heaves, difhculties which, hereto- 
fore, have seldom been cured, but with him always, or ever since he 
adopted the plans herein given, which, together with many other 
valuable items, or "Receipts," he has most cheerfully placed at my 
service, us he says, "That they may do the greatest possible amount 
of good." For he thinks, at least so he says, that every one of the 
500,000 persons who have my First book will certainly obtain the 
Second, which embraces so much larger an amount of subjects not 
found in the other; hence, he has tlie more cheerfu'dy given me valu- 
ale "Receipts," in this line, that he liad paid out considerable sums of 
money for, or found out by his own extensive practice. He thinks 
his average ride in his "Practice of Farriery" amounts t© tiventy-flve 
miles daily; and he drives a horse in it, which formerly had the 
Heaves so badly that he could not be driven at all. He cured him, 
and he has not shown a Symptom of them in /our years; all of which 
are fully explained in this Work. 

Fourth. The first part of the matter on the subject of "Bee-Keep- 
ing and Bee Management was written expressly for this work, by Col. 
J.B. Hoit, of Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, with whom I became acquainted 
when living there, and who, from his own successful Management of 
Bees, in that Northern climate, I knew to be able to give all necessary 
instru(;tion to enable any one to Keep and Manage as many as would 
ordinarily 1)0 found profitable for Farmcirs and Mechanics to undevtAke 
to keep. But the morel considered the matter the more impoitaut, uiu 
I deem it to be necessary that this work should cover the whole ground 
of "Bee-Kceping" and "Bee Management," hence, I obtained the 
prize Essay, written by Mrs. Ellen S, Tupper, of Des Moines, Iowa, 
forraeHy of Brighton, who, for many years past has been, and still is 
considered one of our most successful writers upon this subject, as 
well as one of our most pradimZ Bee-Keepers. This Essay was writ- 
ten f(jr one of the Agricultural Assoc;?tions, and won the prize — $300 — 
and was adopted and published by the Ag»-icultural Department of our 
Government, in their Reports for 18()5; and to make it complete, I have 
had her introduce into it [in brackets like these], all the improvements 
made and ch^iuges since introduced in the line of Bee-Keepiiig. I 
have taken this pains and expense f>-om the fact thatoiilsideof thesub- 
Ject of the Diseases of Persons. I think there has been no subject upon 


which BO much inquiry has been made as upon that of Keeping Bees. 
And I take pleasure in adding that I fiillj- believe, all needed informa- 
tion upon the subjects of 13ce-ICeeping and Bee Management will be 
found herein, to enable all who desire to engage in this branch of 
industry to do so with the fullest assurances of success. And I would 
take advantage of this opportunity to publicly thank thess writers, 
and all others who have in any way so willingly aided me in pre"a'"« 
ing this Work, which has been so many times asked for, at my haadJ, 
6y the People to whom it is now most dieerfally Dedicated. 

Fifth. The last revision and aiklitions to my First Book were 
made about ten years ago, since which time there have been very 
great improvements made in the Treatment of Disease, and upon most 
other Scieyitijic and Mechanical subjects, which it has Ijeeu my object 
to embody in this Work. 

And, probably there is no branch of inihistry upon which more 
Improvements have been made than in that of Coloring So great and 
BO many have been the discoveries in the Art of Coloring witiiin the 
past ten years, I have (at a much larger expense tlian any one would 
suppose, for it requires long practice to make good colorers) had Mr. 
HirarL Storms, of this city, to write out expressly for this Work, such 
"Receipts" as he has adoi)ted and is daily using in the manufacture. 
of cloth, embracing all of the improvements entering into that class of 
Coloring necessary tor families; and, from which manufacturers may 
also derive much valuable information. For Mr. Storms is a manufac- 
turer of long and extensive experience, about forty years, whose taste, 
or genius has led him to investigate and to keep pace with the Scien- 
tific Improvements in his business, for his own satisfaction, as well as 
for the benefit of his customers. And: 

Lastly. I may add, no expense has been spared in Engraving for 

the purposft of Illustrating such parts of this Work as would be the 

better understood by Illustration; nor has time or expense been 

spared in ascertaining the facta regarding such subjects as have come 

Uj) for consideration during over two and a half years that I have been 

employed in preparing this Work for the Press, (the first six montlig, 

working eighteen hoars a day, and for the next four months, .s/.dfvn 

ours per day), so that it should be, as nearly as possible, what might 

easonably be expected of an Author whose first wovic had already 

assed into the Jiands of more than half a million of the People, there 

being scarcely a city, village, or neighborhood north of the range of 

Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, from Nova Scotia to California, 

where may not be found one or more of "Dr. Cliase's Recipes; or. 

Information for Everybody." ]\Iay I not rersonably hope, therefore, 

that my "Family Phys cian, FaiTier, Bee-Keeper, and Second Receipt 


Book," which embraces entirely new matter, and upon a much more 
extended range of diseases, and other practical " Receipts," containing also 
about three times as much reading matter as tJie first book? I ask again, 
"may I not reasonably hope" that this work shall become almost an absolute 
necessity in every Family throughout the length and breadth of otir exten- 
sive Country? And especially might this be expected if the People 
would consider, for a moment, the comparative difference in the price 
of THIS WoKK, which, with its over six hundred closely set pages sells for 
only Two Dollars, while many of the Medical Books containing only 
from 800 to 1000 pages, set with large type, large headings, and leaded 
matter, purposely to make large books out of but little material, have 
Bold, generally, for from Five to Six Dollars/ the an vantage being 
about as three to one, iu favor of this Wokk. 

From the foregoing facts, which are as well understood by the 
People as by myself, I have no hesitation in saying that 1 fully be- 
lieve that Dr. Chase's Family Physician, Farrier, Bee-Keeper, and 
Second Receipt Book will fulfill the utmost expectations of those for 
whom it has been prepared — the People — and really become Thb 
Book of the Million. 

But notwithstanding the fact that the chief object in Writing and 
Compiling this Work has been for the especial benetit of the People, 
and to make it as useful to them as possible, yet the Physician and 
other Scientific Men will find it to contain much that shall prove 
useful and interesting to them. 

This, as well as all other books, however much may be said by 
their Authors in tlieir favor, must stand or fall upon its own mkhits, 
yet, I will add, that I send this one forth in the fullest belief, from my 
experience I will venture to say, with the almost positive knowledge that 
it shall "stand," and truly become Da. Chase's Second Favorite to 
Hundreds of Thousands of Families. 

That the result shall prove my opinions to have been founded 
upon a sound basis, for the mutual benefit of all concerned, is the 
sincere desire of the Author, 

A. W. CHASE \L J>. 

Ann A_rbob, Mich., March, 1873. 


The Diseases of Women ancl Children, from the frequently expressed desire of the 
People since the fir.--t issue of tlii.f Wfirk, in ISTo, have been intro'duccd in plaec of Mrs. 
Tapper's Essay on Heo-Keeiiing, leaving mllicii-nt. however, upon tliat subject to enable 
anyone to raise all tlie Bees they will need to produce suiTicient honcv Cor iionio-iise. a 
full explanation of which will be found on {law !>"). A very successful Treatment of 
" Nerviius I'rostration" lias also been j.'iven. iis explained ou "p!i~e '''■''•'' The Index has 
also been mnde more copious and complete, with various other revisions, win'ch add 
largely to the value ol the Worlc, without inerea-e of price to the People, fir wlv ni I liave 
always labored with nleasure, and to whom I now return my heartlelt thanks lor their 
appreciation of this Work by the purchase of more than i-iaUy ihousand copien at this date. 

Ann Aubor, Micu., Dec. 1st, ISSO. A. W. C. 


RjUMARKS Upon Disease in GenekaI, with Referexce to CAUTiONARt 
JMeaxs of Prevextixg, which is Better than Cure, and Havlnq 
Referen'ce also to Cautionary Means of Restoring Health. 

There is no subjoct of such vital importance to the human family 
as that of hcallli, «>h/ llie best means of prevenling sicl:ness and of re- 
siorhiij health after disease lias taken hold upon them. That very much 
Bickni'ss may i)e jiieveiited, or avoided, I have not a doubt. And 1 
do not til ink it at all deropitory to the character of the Creator — He 
in His wi.sdom havinji established the plan — to say that He works 
upon the human family, in what are commonly called Providences, 
by tlie use of means. If He does we may hojie to do good in pre- 
Bcribing medicines against disease, if not, it is only a useless under- 

Can there be any doubt, however, as to the fact that if any con- 
Biderable number of persons are exposed to a long and terrible storm, 
becoming coniiiletely wet through and chilled, then comiiolled to 
camp duwn witlumt the means of wai'ming themselves and changing 
their wet clothing for dry, the cold and storm continuing, many oi 
them will take disease more or less severe? When, if they could 
have reatlied comfortable rooms, hot fires, changed their clothing, 
toasted their feet by the fire, got into good warm beds, most of them 
at least, after a night's rest, would have come out "as bright as a new 
eixpence," and those who would not would have been such as were 
feeble, or iVtr some cause were pre-disposed to disease, because there 
is certainly an inherent power in the healthy system to not only re- 
sist (iisi-ase but to throw it off, to a itertain extent, when once begun. 
The fon-going statements being atlmifted, or established, we have a 
I'oundation upon wliitth to build the Practice of JMedicine, that no crit- 
icism can overthrow, aiul I believe they are genercdh/ admitted, and 
the observation of nearly si-rty ijears lias so firmly established them in 
my own mind that I have no hesitation to proceed with my under 
taking; ami, indeetl, if this point, together with another of etpial im- 
portance — that of the .'/lerljic (positive and certain) action of reme- 
dies — had not long since been established in my own uiind I shoul.l 
never have published a Receipt Book of any description whatevijv. 


Notwithstanding there may be considerable difTiculty in obtain- 
ing such a knowled.Lie of disease as to be always able to distinguish 
exactly what the disease is of which a person may complain, yet this 
does not so much depend upon scientific j>rinciples as it does upon ex- 
pericTicc and observation; lienrc, <rood mirsc-t, wlio have attemh^d con- 
sidera))ly upon the sick, arc often better pieparcd to distinguisii dis- 
eases than one who lias been bred to tlio /n-q/V's.s/on and is yet without 
much practice. I do not mean to be uiuk-rstood to say that a medical 
education is of no consequence, for it is of very great importance, but 
it is not to be compared witli practical experience. 

And I beg to inform my readers that tliere will be but little difF 
cully in distinguishing ou q chtss of diseases from another, and this, 
in many cases, will sndiciently |)oint out tiie course of treatment to 
be pursued ; aiul it is my purpose to point out the )>i:cuHar symptoms 
o{ particuhir diseases under tiieir own proper head, so as to cnal)i(-' any 
person, sufliciently com[)elent to hecniue a (/o'nl aurxe, to learn oneilis- 
ease from another, witli but little tliliicnlty, and also to point out the 
various complications that most (;nniinnnly arise in particular di.^eases, 
so that with care and attention, the investigation will be found less 
dilTicult than would at tirst bo supposed. 

• -The observation of age, sex, lenii>er, constitution, and previous 
disease, will be important points in tlie investigation, as well as in the 
attenipt to cure disease. 

Peculiar constitutions j)redispose to peculiar disea.>^cs, and make it 
important to treat them according to these peculiarities; for instance, 
a delicate female, or a feehlc child, who are contined to indoor exer- 
cise ojdy, can not bear the strong tieatment of a robust and hearty 
person who has been accustomed to outdoor labor. Then, again, 
females are liable to many diliiculties which do not afilict men, and 
their uh.ole system is more complicated, and their nervous system 
more irritable, requiring greater caution, and they can not bear the 
same stimnlatioti or evacuations as the opposite sex; hence, it is 
necessary to use the utmost care with them, until you are certain of 
what they can hear — the same with children and very old people. 

Fearand anxiety as well as a ftetfnl ilisposition not only ot-casion 
but aggravate disease. If tlie patient has confuletute in the nurse or 
physician, good [)rogress in curing dis(\ise may he expected; if this 
can not be ol)tained and held, 'tis hetter to obtain another if possible. 

A knowledge as to the jdace where peoi)le have been living will 
often help to delerntine the cpursi^ to he !>nrsned; for those who have 
been living in nuirshy districts will he snbject to a lower gradi; of dis- 
ease (ban those inhahiting higher and purer sections; and those 
living in (-ities are more sn!)Ject to the same class of disease than those 
living in the pure air of the country; and those who indulge in late 
suppers and stimulating drinks are more snt'Je(;t to disease, tluit are 
also of a more diflicult character, because when you think you have 
them safe, one indiscretion— jn'rhaps Uejit fiom your knowledge as 
much as possihle at least — makes them wors(! than at (irst. I always 
feel that such ought to take care of themselves, hut as long as there is 
life there is hopes of a reformation — alas! how r)flen it fails. 

Occupation and manner of life will often help to dislinguish dis- 
ease, ar\d point cut tiie best treatment — the outdoor laboring man 
would need a stronger dose than one whose occupation was to sit upon 
the shoemakers' or tailors' bench, even with the .same disease. 


Tlie present condition of the bowels .inVl urinary organs, diet, 
man a (J r of iiCo, wliat ini;tliciiies lias Ix'on taken roi-eiitly, and whether 
there is any particular condition (called by physicians iilio.syncrasy,) 
of the system which will not tolerate (admit of) the use of any special 

V^ery ninch may be done to prevent disease as well as to overcome 
it when it be<j;ins to manifest itself; therefore, especial attention nnist 
be pai<l to this point in disease. Many persons snppose that every- 
thing callc'l medicine possesses wonderfid power, or secret charm in 
overoominj: disease; and conseipUMitly if llicir friend has taken, or 
■will take some "patent medicine" that the proprietor — aware of this 
foct — has given a wonderful name they must (;ertainly get well, and 
that right speedily; but this is all a mistake, and often attended with 
fatal consequences, by causing them to neglect well-ti'ied means that 
vere within their own reach. 

iNIedicines are, of course, useful, and occasionally even a jiatent 
medicine may be just the thing needed; but as its com[)osition is a 
secret, it is far better to depend upon things which are known to be of 
value, and which they know will not aggravate (make worse) the dis- 
ease they are seeking to relieve. 

The digestive powers are always weakened or more or less dis- 
turbed Ijy disease; hence, the diet in sickness ought, in all cases, to bo 
of a light and nutritive character. In cases where disease has been 
brought on by over-eating, abstinence alone, will often overcome the 

In cases of inflammatory complications with fevers, pneumoniae 
(inflammation of the lungs), plurisy (inflammation of thejilenra — the 
mend)rane that covers the lungs and the whole inside of the chest, i. 
e., above the diaphragna — midrifi"), etc., etc., beef tea, gruels and infu- 
sions or teas of mucilaginous plants, as arrow-root gruel, panado gruel 
— maile by boiling crumbs of bread to a pulpy consistencte, and sweet- 
ing to taste, etc., — this will especially hold good in tiie low or typhoid 
fevers when the strength must be held up with beef tea, wfnes, ot 
brandy, etc. See my own case untler the head of Tyimioid Pxec- 


A proper attention to diet in chronic disease will be found fully 
as important as in acute — recent attacks— especially so in those of a 
Dyspeptic character, from wliich low spii-its, gas or wind in stomach 
or bowels, weak nerves, and other hypochondriacal alfections arises, 
receive greater benefit from srdid food, with a proper amount of 
brandy or other good spirits after the meal, than from all the carmin- 
atives and cordials that can be administered. See 1)ysi>i-:i>s[.\. 

The advantages of paying especial attention to diet in disease it 
distinctly seen in the fact that in Scurvy none of the "patent" anti- 
Bcorbnties of the mariners' chest can compare, in curing the disease, to 
a restored vi'iii'tuhle diet. 

And medical writers inform us that "in consumptions when the 
humors (lluids of the boily) are vitiated and the stomach so much 
weakened as to be unable to digest the solid lil)res of animals, or even 
to assimilate the juices of vegetables, a diet consisting chietly of milk 
will nf)t only suf)port the patient, but will often cure the dise"a,se after 
every other nu-iliciue Jms f.iiled." Thifi I run fnlhi rtnlorxe HuhxIiUiting 
fresh .<ivcel crrmn for the milk, with the (uhlilion of n la/ili'.';poi)iifnl i<f ijood 
bramiy with each luUf pint: for I have often prescribed it in consump- 


tion, and used it myself in typhoid pneumonia, and also in other 
cases with the happiest results. 

Great benetlt will also be derived by a proper ventilation of the 
6ick-ro(MU, and for tliose who are able to take outdoor exercise, either 
by walkintr, carriage, or horseback riding as their conveuiencies and 
strength will allow — horsebactk riding especially, has been reported to 
cure ULany cases of incipient (beginning) consumptions. 

In chronic diseases where there is a relaxed or soft com'i,tion of 
the flesh, cold, or tepid bathing, as it can be best borne, with gym- 
nastic exercises, or field labor, as it can be done without fatigue, will 
be very beneficial. 

It is also of the utmost importance to avoid a costive condition of 
the bowels, especially of a chronic (long continued) character. 

And last, though not of the least importance, cleanliness — which ia 
said to be next to Godliness — is of the utmost importance; and, in 
fact, witliout it and attention to diet, it is of but little use to try to 
cure disease, or to keep long free from it when well; yet I am not one 
of those who believe in the "everlasting washing," as some have 
taught it— every day, Winter and wSummer, even in ice-cold water, but 
in ordinary health, at least, once a week in Whiter and twice a week in 
Summer, in water that is comfortable to the feelings, not so cold as to 
strike a dread upon the thought of bathing, nor so hot as to relax the 
surface so but what it will even regain its pleasurable elasticity and 
an increased feeling of comfort for having bathed, whether it be cool 
or warm water. 

It is but pro{)er, in support of the foregoing opinions, that I should 
give a few quotations from authors to whom great credit has been 
given f(jr wisdom and sound Judgement in the means of preventing 
disease as well as in restoring to health. 

Graham, says: "I have seen hundreds of miserable dyspeptics 
who had snlfered almost everything for years; scores of those ai)par- 
ently consumptive; many adlicted for years with fits and spasmodic 
aflections, or asthma, or sick-headache, in short, I have seen nearly 
every form of chronic disease, after resisting almost every kind of 
medical treatment for months and years, yield in a very short time 
to a correct diet and a well-regulated general regimen." 

Cheyne, a celebrated English physician of about 100 years ago, 
says: "It is not easily to be credited what wonderful eflects, even in 
the most desperate and universally-condemned-to-death diseases, I 
have seen ju-odiiced by an excinsive/y milk and grain diet; and even 
these the tliinnest and least in quantity the [)erson could be tolerably 
easy under from the pain of hunger, and continued for one, two or more 
years. Epilepsij totally cured, universal lepers made clean, stone and 
gravel laid quiet, cancers healed and palliated, idceruted lungs made 
sound, and sckirrous (a cancerous, hardened) liver made pervious (so 
that the fluids would pass through it), and all accomplished by a total 
obstinate and continued milk and grain or course Jlour diet. I tirnily 
believe, and am as much convinced as 1 am of auy natural elTect tluit 
water drinking only, with a diet of milk, grain and fruit, duly con- 
tinued and prudently managed with {)roper evacuations, air, and ex- 
ercise, are the most infallible antidotes for all obstinate of 
body aiul mind. This regimen I have for the last twenty years pur- 


It would seem from this last endorsement that Graham is not the 
only one who helieves in "Graham bread." 

Bca-ch, says: " When lite various funclions (the special action of the 
difTorcnt organs of the l^ody taken as a whole arc called fnnctions) oj 
ilic hoihj are perforincd ivilh ease and suffer no interrvplion, Uie JkhIij is said 
to he in health; in a contrary case, it is diseased. Considering the many 
dangers to which man is exposed, it is surprising that he should re- 
main in health so long as he does, and our astonishment increases 
when we reflect how often he escapes the dangers preinired hy his 
own hand. But Parental Nature, (the vis medicatrix nature of the an- 
cient writers, tlie strength of power of our systems to correct and re- 
store health under disease,) 'frequently repairs the injury unknown 
to us.' To sit down su])inely, (indolently, carelessly,) 'witli the notion 
that if the IMajesty of Heaven wills us to die we certainly shall, not- 
withstanding we use the means to prolong life; and, if He wills the 
contrary, we shall live, notwithstanding we negle(;t the use of those 
means, is a conduct as unscriptural as al)surd.' Disease may be con» 
sidered the consequence of the moral, or rather of the immoral con- 
duct of man, in deviating from a line ])rescribed by his Maker." 

It should be added here, that many times, of course, diseases 
arise from our ignorance of Natui-es' Laws, and sometimes from expo- 
sures, etc., which Me could not avoid; heuce, no actual guilt attaches 
to the violator and sufl'erer. 

Sir William Temple, says: "0 Temperance, though physician of 
the soul as well as the body, the best guardian of youth and support 
of old age, the tutelar goJess of health and universal medicine of life 
that clears the head and cleanses the blood, that eases the stomach 
and purges the bowels, that strengthens the nerves, enlightens the 
eyes and comforts the heart; in a word, that secures and jierfects diges- 
tion, and thereby avoids the fumes and winds to which we owe the 
colic and those sharp Immors (fluids) that feed the scurvy and gout, 
and those slimy dregs and humors of wliich the gravel and stone are 
formed within us, diseases to wliich mankind are exposed rather by 
the viciousness than frailty of our nature, and by which we often con- 
demn ourselves to greater torments and miseries of life tiian, perhaps, 
have yet been invented by anger and revenge, or inflicted by the 
greatest tyrants upon the worst of men. And, yet, so little notion 
have the generality of mankind of the virtue of temperance that life 
with them is nearly one continued scene of intemperance. 

"How quickly does the pursuit of carnal pleasures, or the abuse 
of intoxicating liquors ruin the best constitutions? Indeed these 
vices too often go hand in hainl, es]>ecially in cities. Hence it is that 
we so often see the votaries of r»acchus, the god of wine, and Venus, 
the god of beauty and love, even before they have arrived at the 
prime of life, worn out with diseasesand hastening with swift pace to 
an untimely grave. Did men rcjh-ct upon the painful diseasesand pre- 
mature deaths which are daily occurring through these direful habits, 
it would be sufhcient, one would think, to make them shrink back 
with horror from the indulgences even of their darling pleasures. 

But the worst is "the innocent too often feel the direful effects of 
it. How many wretched orphans are to be seen embracing dung-liills 
whose parents, regardless of the future, spent in riot and debauch, 
what might have served to bring uji their oflspring in a decent man- 
ner! How often, too, do we behold tlie innocent but suiTeriug mother 


with her helpless infants pining in want, while the cruel father is 
indulginf» his insatiate apjietites. 

"A life of irre<j;ularity and intemperance has the certain effect to 
aestroy persons of tlie best constitution even in the jM-inie of life; 
while on the other hand, regularity and temjierance will frequently 
preserve men for a great length of time who are of a very dclii:ate or 
bad constitution and far gone in years. Whoever will read the life 
Lewis Cornaro must be convincetl of this. This Venetian had been 
adicted to a life of intemperance up to his fortielh year, the con- 
Bequence of which was that a heavy train of infirmities had in- 
vaded him and made great inroads on his constitution; and 
'after having, 'o no i)urpo8c, tried every means of relief that art 
and medicine admitted of, he at last, by the advice of his physicians, 
entered on a life of the sti'ictest temperance by which he regained his 
health and lived to the good old age of over 100 years. Daily obser- 
vation has, indeed, fully convinced me that an elderly man, even of a 
delicate constitution, wlio leads a regular and sober life, has a better 
chance of a long one than a young man of the best constitution, who 
nvarialjly leads a disorderly one. 

"i;ut wluMi it is considered that many serious disorders are attrib- 
atable to an iinpro])or diet, and tliat in almost every complaint the due 
direction of diet is, perhaps, of equal importance with the i)rescrip- 
tion of medicine, it ishighly blamable to neglect this pojfcr/u/ resource. 
To d.elicate women and sickly persons, to pregnant women, and those 
who are wet nurses, and to young children, restrictions on diet are 
ahsolntrbj necessary." 

Hippocrates, who is called "the father of medicine," has wisely 
observed that if a man cats sparingly and drinks little, he is nearly 
certain of bringing no upon himself, and that a moderate sup- 
])ly of food nourislies the body best, and the quantity of food which 
nature ix-ally requires lor her su])port is small, and he that lives tem- 
perately and eats and drinks moderately at each meal, stands foir to 
enjoy sjn-ightliness, vivacity, and freedom of spirits. Persons who 
are governed by temperance and regularity, are rarely hurt by melan- 
choly or other affections of the mind. To have a clear head we must 
have a clean stomach, for this is the grand reservoir in which the food 
is first dej)0sited, and thence its nutritive j^ower is distributed through 
all i)arts of the body." 

One of the greatest errors that many people fall into is that of eat- 
ing to much at a meal, distending the stomach and over-burdening 
tlie digi;stive powers, causing the retention of food in the stomach 
longer tiian the laws of health will ])ermif ; hence, the food under- 
goes fermentation giving rise to gas or "wind in the stomach" and 
bowels, sour bcdcliings of watery fluids, stupor, or sleepiness, head- 
ache, and linally the horrors of dyspepsia. 

Beach says: "lie that consults his health must chock his appetite, 
and invariably rise frojn the taide with the ability and disposition to 
eat and drink still more than he has ilone without over-distent ion of 
the stomach. He should also diligently apply himself to discover 
what kinds of food are best suited to him. The best rule will be not 
to take any thing but in such quantity as the stomach can easily di- 
gest, and to make use of only those things, which from observation 
and experience, the person has found to agree with him. The {juality 
as well as quantity is, therefon^ to bo taken into consideration. By 

xNTRonncmoN. XV 

repeated trials and exjierience any man may acquire a perfect knowl- 
edge of his constitution, and ascertain not only uliat food, but like- 
wise the liquor, that best agrees with his stomach, and in regulating 
his diet, he may place a safer reliance on his own judgement than ho 
can on the opiiiion of his medical attendant, be he ever so skillful." 

Attention to l")iet and Temperance is not oidy necessary for the 
preservation of health, but is of equal importance in the cure of disease; 
and very many diseases, esjjecially of a dyspeptic character, may be 
cured by these precautions alone. Therefore, all over-eating, by 
•which the coats of the stomach are distended beyond a healtliful con- 
dition, and which is more likely to arise if one j)artalves of a great va- 
riety of dishes, should certainly be avoided. Hence, the more simple 
the diet the better, provided the food is of a liealthy character. 

Dr. Cheyne thinks that ?nos< of the chronic diseases, the infirmi- 
ties of old age and short lives, are to be attributed to over-eatincj and 
drinking ; and that they may be prevented or cured by proper atten- 
tion to points. 

"But, if abstinence is not sullicient for the tttre of disease, yet it 
greatly assists the operation of medicines, and is a preventive against 
a multitude of dantjerom disorders. Several writers relate extraordi- 
nary cures performed by it, aiul many instances of its extending the 
time of human life. It is, indeed, suqirising to what a degree of age 
tlie early Christians of the J'^ast, whoretire<l from persecution into the 
deserts of Arabia and lOgypt, lived healthful and cheerful, on a very 
little food. Cassian assiiix's us, that the common allowance for 24 
hours was only 12 ounces of bread aiid mere water; and adds, that on 
this spare diet, Arsenius, tutor to the Emperor Arcadius, lived 120 
years, and many othej-s to nearly the same age. A man of Ihe uame 
of Laurence preserved his life to 140 years, by temperance and labor. 
And Spotswood jnentious one man who attained the age of 175 years, 
by means of j)r()iier aljstiuencc." 

"Wonderful cures, .says Dr. ]\Ieuse, have been affected by simpli- 
city of diet. The father of Prof. Cooper of South Carolina, was cured, 
in London, of an axtlnna, to which he had been long subject, by an ex- 
clusive did of boiled carrots for luo v.rcls, na recouimeiided bj- John 
Wesley, in his 'Primitive Physic,' during this time he drank little 
water. He remained well for J 2 years; but having returned to his 
former generous living, he was again attacked. I have heard of 
another cuie by the .same diet. 

"Tiic disease calli'd 'broken wind,' (heaves) in Jiorses, which is 
no more than asthma in the human species, is cured in England, by 
an exclusive diet of the same vegela1>les. 

"A lady in Plu!adel]>hia was cured of a most severe rheumatism 
by a diet of milk solely; and Dr. Cheyne records that Dr. Taylor, _a 
contempory (living at the same time) with himself, was cured of epi- 
lepsy by the same diet. 

""In eating our food, due care should be taken to chew, or masti- 
cate it suflicieutly, previous to its being swallowed. This is a point de- 
8erviug of a ver;/ sirirt allentiim, an<1 may be lU'cmcd tli(,'_/i/-.''V])iocess of 
digestion, for without the soliil jiarts of our food l.KMiig well triturated 
(grountl to a fine powder iji the mouth, which at the same tiTue is in- 
corporated with a duo projiortion of salivary secretion, a secrelioa 
thrown out by the glands emptying into the mouth,) it cauuoi be con- 
verted 'nto healthy nutriment. 

xvi rNTRonrrcTioK, 

"The simplicity of aliments, or food, and temperance are, in fact, 
tho abundant sources of health and life. It is suflicient, says Plu- 
tarch, to have the taste of true pleasure to be temjierate. Kegimen 
has the greatest influence, not only ui)on the physical (bodily), but on 
the mental part of man." 

These being the facts, as established by the observations of the 
best men, all along down through the ages of time, to the present, are 
they not of siitlicient imi)ortau(:e, lo receive the strictest attention of 
all those who believe themselves res])Ousil>le to their familii'S, and to 
the all-wise Creator, and of those who are not willing to suTler the 
consequences of their faults, without -(.lomplaint. Those who will not 
pay attention to what has already been said ujjon these subjects would 
not give heed "though one should rise from the dead ;" and tell them 
the same facts; hence, I need not follow this i)art of our Work by 
further remarks, or quotations; and shall only add a few remarks on 
the subject of vegetable, as compared with animiil food. 

Some claim that vegetable food oidy sho\ild ever be used; and 
their i)rincipal aigument is, that it is easier of digestion, and less 
likely to putrify and ferment in the stomach than animal food; claim- 
ing also that the bile is more liealtliy, and tliat the peiistaltic motion 
of°the bowels is kept uj) (tiiat motion of the bowels called also 
vermicular, or a kind of clasping or contracting and relaxing of the 
intestines in rings, passing the food forward I'voiu the contracted part 
into the relaxed jiarl below), preventing costiveness, which is the 
Bonrce or cause of many diseases; and csjiccially so when the diet is 
largely made up of apples, peaclies, pears, prunes, raisins, tamarinds, 
plumbs, or berries, which are known to keep the bowels solvent, or 
moderately loose; but I believe in a moderate and projier use of meat 
as well as vegetables unless it be in particular cases of disease, for a 
time, and that it is of just as much imjiortance in some diseases to 
have animal food, or its nutritive parts — what should we do without 
beef tea in typhoid and other low grades of fever? Notwithstanding, it 
■was claimed by others long before Darwin was born, that no matter 
whether we consider the teelli and jrnrs or tne slomurlt, the iiuman 
race, closely resembles that of the monkey, all of which, in th.eir nat- 
ural haunts eat onl'i vegetable food; but, 1 beg leave to say here, that 
I no more believe that the human family originated from themonke-y 
than I do that we come "by chance" — without a Creator; but, that I 
fully believe that man is the highest viavifrslalion of the highest wis- 
dom and skill of Him who made the Worlds, and holds them in their 
-whirling orbits, by His OAvn Almighty jiower. And I also as fully 
believe that it is pleasing to Him to see us, not only doing all we can 
to promote our own health and consequent usefulness; but also that 
He desires us to do the greatest possible amount of good wo can to 
others, and holds us responsible for any neglect, upon our part, in the 
whole matter; and, it is uiKtn this ground, und upon this belief, that 
the writing of tills iSecond Receipt Book was undertaken, and accom- 
plished; believing tliat a greater good would be done to my fellow- 
creatures, than in any other way in which I could use the improved 
health, that in His wisdom he had given me. 

It is generally acknowledged that a majority of the Diseases to 
which the human family are liable, woulil get well of themselves, 
even without the assistance of the physician, or medicines, with 
proper care, or nursing; for it is also a well establislied fact that there 


is a priHciple iu nature calculated uot only to throw off disease; but 
also to prevent an attack. The most carefully conducted experiments 
have settled this fact beyond a doubt. Some physicians have called 
this by one name and others by another. Nature is said to perform 
these cures. 

Dr. Williams, says : " In organized beings, a certain conservative 
power, which opposes the operation of noxius agents, and labors to 
expel them when they are introduced. The existence of this power 
has long been, recognized, and in foimer days it was impersonated 
(namedj. It was the arc.lutus of Von Helmont ; the anima of Stahl ; 
the vis medicatrix naturx of CuUen, etc. But without supposing it to 
be aught distinct from the attributes (property, or power) of living 
matter, we see its frequent operation in the common performance of 
excretion (the passages from the bowels, urinary organs, and the skin, 
by sweat, is excretion — the excrements) ; in the careful manner in 
which the noxious products of the body, and offending substances in 
food are ejected from the sj-^stem ; in the flow of tears to wash a grain 
of dust from the eye; in the act of sneezing and coughing to discharge 
irritating matters from the air jxissages, and in the slower, more compli- 
cated, but not less obvious example of inflammation, eftugiou (passing 
out) of lymph (a colorless fluid) and suppui'ation, by which a thorn or 
other extraneous object is removed from the flesh. 

"This vis conservairix (strength to preserve health) is alive to the 
exciting causes of disease, and in persons of full health it is generally 
suflicient to resist'them. How it resists them will depend upon what 
they are. For instance, is cold the cause? This throws the blood 
inwardly, which, by increasing the internal secretions and exciting the 
heart to increased action, establishes a calorific (heat producing) pT(y 
cess which overcomes the cold. Is the cause improper food ? The pre- 
serving power operates by discharging this speedily by vomiting, or by 
diarrhea. Is it a malarious or contagious posion ? It is carried off by 
an increase of some of the secretions. But, if this resisting power be 
weakened, locally or generally, or if the exciting cause is too strong 
for it, then the cause acts, and disease begins." 

And now then, all that is required of the physician, or nurse, and 
in fact, all that they cayi do is to aid these principles of action in the 
system ; and to do this to the best advantage, makes the best doctor. 

The questions to be settled, then are, what course does nature pur- 
sue, to remove disease, and how can we best assist her in this work ? 

In fevers, and acute, or recent inflammations this is accomplished 
by a concentrated action of vital forces, causing an increased secretion 
by the organs that in health, throw off these harmful materials from 
the blood ; such as the kidneys, skin, and glands that open into the 
intestinal canal — causing an increased flow of urine, perspiration, or 
loosened action of the bowels ; but if the disease becomes pretty 
active, or firmly established, one, or more, of these organs becomes 
more or less inactive ; and according to the degree of this inactivity 
will he the severity of the case ; yet, if a favorable result is ultimately 
obtained, whether by nature, or with the aid of medicine, the secre- 
tionwill be restored, and, probably largely increased, as the disease 
declines ; and the prevailing opinion among medical writers is that 
this increased secretion is not the necessary process of, but the resuU 
of the cure. But these same authorities forget to inform us that the 
system will, in about three-fourths of the cases, relieve itself of .disea«« 
2— DK. chase's second receipt book. 


In support of this position, I shall quote from Prof. Scudder's 
"Domestic Medicine." This author is a professor in the P^clectic Med- 
ical Institute, of Cincinnati, Ohio., and author of the " Eclectic Prac- 
tice of Medicine," " Di-seases of Women and Children," "Specific 
Mediation and Specific Medicines," also a work on "Inhalation;" 
and Editor of the " Eclectic Medical Journal," of the same place; so 
it may be seen thai, at least, with Eclectics he is "a power." He says 
upon the subject of "How does Nature remove Disease." and our 
proper method of helping her to do it: 

"Any one who carefully examines the properties and action of all 
the most prominent articles of the materia medica, can not fail to be 
convinced that a very large majority of them owe their beneficial 
eflfects either to a direct or indirect action in increasing excretion and 
the elimination (throwing off) of morbid materials from the system. 
Thus the classes of diaphoretics, diuretics, and cathartics, act directly in 
this way, and are administered for this purpose. The entire class of 
alteratives, also, undoubtedly owe their beneficial influence in most 
part to their eliminating action. Emetics not only act directly as 
eliminatives, bv causing the evacuation of morbid secretions from the 
stomach, but also indirectly by their sedative and relaxing effects upon 
the system when under a high state of excitement, this relaxation 
being almost invariably followed by an increased action of the skin, 
kidneys, and bowels. So with the prominent class of sedatives, 
though not directly afi'ecting the secretory apparatus, yet by their con- 
trolling influence in lessening the circulation, high vascular excite- 
ment is subdued, and secretion is the natural result. 

" If we trace the course of any general disease where no treat- 
ment has been pursued, we will find that increased secretion and 
consequent elim i nation always precedes a change for the better; and 
the same is true when even the most opposite remedies have been 
used. Without this increased elimination does take place, death ia 
inevitable. Acting on these views, Eclectic physicians have been 
very successful in treating the common acute diseases of this country. 
Their attention has been especially drawn to the importance of due 
attention to these emunctories, (any organ that carries off useless or 
injurious matters) and a large portion of the treatment is directed to 
stimulate elimination in this way. In addition to this, the fact gener- 
ally recognized by them, that in disease there is always a depres- 
sion of the vital force of the system, and that this should be kept up 
by tonics and stimulants, has also added materially to their success. 

"That nature is able to cure almost all curable diseases, is clearly 
proved by the results of homoepathic treatment. There are but com- 
paratively few who have any faith in their attenuations and dilutions, 
and yet we find that more favorable results are obtained under this 
plan than under the old depletive system. This well-known fact is 
sufiicient evidence that the sick will get well without medicine, and 
that medicine said to be scientifically administered, is responsible for 
no small percentage of deaths under regular treatment." (I am glad 
to be able to say, of the "regulars" in the University of Michigan, 
for some years past, great advance has been made from, or upon the 
old blood-letting, and mercurializing system). 

"If this be so, you might well ask me, what is the use of physi- 
cians, or medicine? The province of medicine is undoubtedly to 
place the system in such condition that it can resist disease, remove 


such material as may endanger the integrity of its stnicture, and 
repair snch lesions of structnre as may ho produced. As examples: 
the stomach has been overloaded with crude indigestible material, 
its function is impaired, the entire system sympathizes, and the 
person is sick; nature will sometimes remove the oflending material 
by vomiting, at others, by the bowels; art (the nurse or physician) steps 
in, gives an emetic, and the disease is at i^nce arrested. The bowels 
become torpid, secretion is arrested, and the material remains to some 
extent in the blood, impairing the functions of the entire body; the 
natural powers of the system will be sutiicient in a very large major- 
ity of cases to re-lstablish the secretion, hut days may be required; 
art gives a cathartic, and the secretion is at once restored. The person 
has been exposed to vegetable malaria. The blood is poisoned, and 
fever is the result. In a very large majority of cases, nature is suffi- 
cient to remove the disease, but weeks may be required to effect it; 
art stejis in, and by the use of remedies to restore the secretions, and 
quinine to restore innervation, (to the nervous system) and for its antag- 
onistic action to the malarial poison, the disease is arrested in two or 
three days. In continued fever, as we have already seen, the disease 
will be removed by the natural powers of the system in 75 or 80 per 
cent, of the cases, but a period of weeks will be required; ar< fur- 
nishes a special sedative, (veratrmn viride and aconite) which quiets 
the excitement of the circulation, and relaxes the system, and reme- 
dies which re-establish the secretions, and thus in a few days the 
fever poison is removed. We do not in these cases save life but 
in few instances, because but few would die if left to the natural 
powers of the system. We do, liowever, shorten the period of sick- 
ness two-thirds or three-fourths, save much suffering, and prevent 
that great exhaustion and impairment of vitality which would fre- 
quently result. In doing this, we rest our claim as benefactors oj 

"In other cases we set up a different action in the system, which 
is but temporary, and unattended with danger, to relieve disease of 
some important organ or part. We thus give stimulant cathartics in 
inflammation of the brain and other organs, diverting determination 
of blood from the part originally diseased to the bowels, and thna 
lessening or arresting the inflammatory action. For the same reasons 
we use the sinapism, (mustard plaster) blister, cups, or irritating 

"In others again we are enabled to employ a specifc, which acta 
directly upon the diseased structure, restoring its healthy function, or 
neutralizing the poison which is the cause of the diseased manifesta- 
tion. As examples of tliis, ve may instance the employment of the tincture 
of muriate of iron in erysipelas, the use of belladonna in scarlet fever, the 
drosera, (drosera Rotundifolia — Sundew— a small plant growing in bogs 
in Europe and America, near muddy shores, or ponds or rivers, etc.,) 
in whooping-cough, and the cough of measles, the bromide of ammonium in 
tome cases of epilepsy, etc. It is true, doubtless, that in the strict 
acceptation of the term, we have no specifics in medicine, but it is 
only, as I believe, because our knowledge of disease and the action, 
of remedies is imperfect. 

"In other cases we stimulate the various organs to a better per- 
formance of their functions, (particular actions) and furnish to the 
body the material for increasing its tonicitv and reoairine the waste 


of structure. For this purpose we use the bitter tonics, iron, phosphorvis, 
sulphur, the alkaline bases of the blood and tissues, acids, and fatty, 
and albuminous, (egg-like) material that is easily appropriated. 

"In all that we do, we keep constantly before us the physiological 
action of the different organs or parts, and the normal, (healthy) 
action of the body as a whole, and as far as possible, bend every 
means to get such normal action. And finally, we carefully husband 
our patient's strength and power, and prevent their unnecessary 
expenditure or their direction in a wrong channel. This, it seems to 
me, is the line of duty for the physician, and the only one in which 
his efforts will be attended with success." . 

But before I enter upon the description of Medicines which may 
be used, I wish to say a word about an item or two which may not be 
used, i. e., bleeding and calomel; and I am very glad (for the sake of 
humanity and for the honor of that class of physicians who delight to 
be called "the regulars," but who were the original Quacks, and who 
now delight to call everybody else Quacks who does not bow to their 
dictum, to be able to say, that generally, they do not resort to these 
horrid practices, once, where they used to do so a hundred iin\es ; in 
other words they are becoming Eclectic as fast as they can become 
acquainted with our truly valuable rejnedies. 

"This Medicine was introduced in 1493, by Paracelsus, of Swit- 
zerland, who was the great prototype (type or model, in this case the 
leader) of all succeeding Quacks, as the Germans called all Quacks 
who used it, from the name Quacksilvt'r, given to it by them ; but, in 
the year 1871,-378 years after it was introduced, and had, undoubt- 
edly, killed its hundreds of thousands, it was announced, In the Medi- 
cal Department of the Western Home, this Department being under 
the management of R. A. Gunn, M. D., Professor of Surgery in Ben- 
nett Medical College, of Chicago, "that the old theory of the use of mer- 
cury as a medicine is exploded;" but 1 give the whole item, for the sat- 
isfaction of those who have not yet seen it; for there will be some, 
no doubt, who will cling to it yet, like a drowning man is said to cling 
to a straw. The announcement is as follows: 

"The Use of Mercury as a Medicine. — For a long time public 
opinion has been opposed to the use of mercury as a medicine; and 
whenever a physician would jirescribe it in any form, many objections 
would be raised by the patient and his friends. 

"Though the people looked upon it as a dangerous medicine, yet 
in the worst form of a disease many would gladly take it as aflording 
the only chance for recovery, and the physician prescribing it also 
looked upon his favorite calomel as his sheet-anchor in the cure of 

"But a change has taken place, and we are now informed that 
mercury does not possess any virtue as 'a medicine to act on the liver.' 
Scientific investigation has demonstrated that mercury does not increase the 
flow of bile from the liver, but, on the contrary, tliat it diminishes the quan- 
tity of that secretion ; and hence the old theori/ of the use of mercury as a 
medicine is exploded. As its action on the liver was all that its advo- 
cates claimed for it, and as this sujjposed action is now disproved, it 
it must necessarily be dropped from the list of remedial agents, n,nd fall into 
that obscurity its injurious effects have enforced. 

" For the benefit of those wlio may not be acquainted with the fact, 
we would state tliaf ;) '/ommittee of seven of the ablest men of^ Europe 


were appointed to investigate the action of mercury, and after contin- 
uing their experiments over a period of three years, they proved 
beyond the possibility of a doubt that the flow of bile from the liver 
was diminished instead of increased by its use, and further, that its lue 
always produced an injurious effect on the system." 

Such an acknowledgement as .this coming from Prof. Gunn, form- 
erly the Professor of Surgery in the Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, and now holding the same position in the prin- 
cipal Alopathic College west of here — Chicago — ought to be considered 
sufficient to settle the question of the impropriety of the further use of mer- 
cury as a medicine. It should never be used. It never should have 
been used ; and it is cause for great rejoicing to the human family, 
which has so severely suffered from its use, that it has finally re- 
ceived its "death stroke," even "in the house of its friends." 

"What has brought this about ? 

For very many years, large numbers of the people had become 
satisfied that it was a very injurious article to be used as a medicine ; 
but until about fifty years ago, it had ruled supreme, in the hands of 
the "regulars " that is, up to about that time, and for a few years later, 
it was the " regular " destroyer of life and happiness to thousands who 
suff'ered it to be administered to them. 

But about this time there arose an eminent physician, by the 
name of Wooster Beach, whose eminence, at that time consisted in 
curing his patients without the use of mercury or bleeding ; and he pub- 
lished the "American Practice," for family use, condemning, in the 
strongest tenns, both the lancet and mercury ; and he and his follow- 
ers have persisted in that condemnation to such an extent, and shown 
"a more excellent way," that finally, those who advocated their use 
either from fear of losing their practice, or from a sense of duty, no 
doubt sometimes one of these causes and sometimes the other, first 
induced a consideration of the question — then finally, their good 
sense caused them to gradually open their eyes to their utter unfit- 
ness for the prominent places they occupied; but in the meantime 
Eclectic Medical Colleges were opened for the education of young 
men for this Profession, until there is now over 5,000 well education 
men in the practice of medicine, according to the niles of what is 
now known among us as "American Eclecticism," in contradistinction 
to the Alopaths who claim that they are the true Eclectics. I hope it 
may prove so in the end; but there is too much illiberality as yet, 
except in the smaller number, to claim such an honorable title. 

Beach, with a few co-laborers, in the cause of medical reform, 
established an Eclectic College at Worthington, Ohio; but this was 
not kept up but a few years ; after which the Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati, Ohio, was established and it has become, in my 
estimation, at least, the best organized institution among us, and the 
time is not far distant when there will be one, at least, of their rep- 
resentatives in every neighborhood of our whole country; and if they 
have as good success in their profession, as has generally attendea 
them heretofore, they will be welcomed by the people. 

The "Institute" at Cincinnati was burned during the past year ; 
but it has been re-built and re-opened, with a better equipment, and 
better success than before the fire. This is a mere statement of the 
fects that has led on, from a small beginning, to the final triumph. 
over the use of mercury and the abuse of th^ lancet. For particulars 


about the Eclectic Medical Institue, and of the University of Mich- 
igan, see the cuts in this Work illustrating these institutions. 

To show our readers a little of the abuse of the lancet, I will give 
a single quotation only, from Dr. Beach's American Practice. He 
Bays : 

" Dr. Sandwich, an English surgeon, has written a treatise recom- 
mending, in the highest terms, the most copious depletions (bleedings). 
He informs us that in every species of inflammation it is necessary, to 
bleed in quick succession;' and that, 'unless we speedily lepeat our 
bleedings, we often actually increase the violence of the disease, and 
convert what was mere congestion (unnatural accumulation of blood 
in the part) into positive inflammation.' He, indeed, lays down the 
following position as a practical maxim, (a condensed proposition, to 
be regarded as an important truth): 'Whenever an inflammation is 
not cured by the first bleeding, the operation should be repeated 
every two, four, or six hours, until it is.'" 

"Dr. Sandwich presents a case in point, viz.: of pneumonia 
(inflammation of the lung), in which 30 ounces of blood were first 
taken at 12 noon. At 8 o'clock 30 leaches were applied to the afi'ected 
Bide. At 6 next day, 20 ounces more blood were taken ; in the evening 
60 small leaches were applied to the side. On the third day, at 6, the 
pulse being 110, 20 ounces of blood were taken, and a consulting phy- 
sician sent for. The relief obtained at this time was not decisive 
(the patient was not dead yet). The blood still showed no size ; nev- 
ertheless, I was certain,'" says Dr. S., "that the disease was pneu- 
monia, and anxiously pressed another bleeding, which was overruled. 
Another consulting physician was accordingly sent for; but, in conse- 
quence of a difference of opinion between the two, the patient was 
not again bled until the afternoon of the 2d of Ajjril, when 22 ounces 
were taken, with decided relief and syncope, (fainting, I should think 
Bo). After this there was a suspension of 'hostilities' until the 6th, 
when inflammation of the pericardium (the sack enclosing the heart) 
was present, the patient consequently must be bled very freely, for 
this was an important, or vital part, 50 ounces were accordingly taken 
and the patient was in a state bordering on syncope for several hours, 
(if he had not been stouter than eight-tenths of men he would have 
died then). Early in the morning, however, 12 ounces more were 
abstracted; and during the next 3 days the patient was in a state of 
torpor, (numbness, loss of motion, or power of motion). On the llth^ 
late in the evening there was a relapse, (change to consciousness, I 
suppose) for at 4 o'clock in the morning, 12 leaches were applied, and 
16 ounceis of blood taken fi-om the arm. And still he lived, some how 
or other, until the 21st, when it was found necessary to take 16 ounces 
more — on the 22d, 30 ounces — on the 25th, 24 good leaches were 
applied to the side, (I feel thankful that the heart-rending cause is 
nearly through). At 8 o'clock on this day the patient was almost 
exanimate (almost destitute of life), the face corpse-like, and the 
pulse vermicular (worm-like in motion) and past enumeration.' The 
debility the whole of the next day was extreme. On the next morn- 
ing the memory was gone and the mind imbecile. Was," says 
Beach, "ever a bullock more completely bled to death?" 

Did not such crying evils call for re'foi'mation? And I feel grate- 
ful that a better day has dawned upon us; and that information of a 
practical character is being scattered among the people so tkat they 

.NTROD0cnoN. xxiii 

can, upon Coinjuon-Sense principles, take care of themselves, in at 
least, ntne-<en</i.<! of the cases ; and in the other case would send the 
Doctor "a kiting," if he resorted to such a murderous treatment. 

And, in closing these introductory remarks, I would ask if it 
would be considered at all surprising that one, whose mother had 
taught him through his whole early life never to touch calomel, but to 
resort to the Common-Sense plans of treatment, should have a very 
great desire on his part to help overcome the errors, or evils, as here- 
tofore, described, and to spread such information as would help the 
people to get along without continuing such abuses. This was our 
own case exactly, and it was the teachings of this practical nature that 
educated my mind to this work, as naturally "as a duck takes to 
water" — a kind of second nature, as natural as life, ivhich has always 
made the work a pleasure, and not a burden. If " Dr. Chase's Recipes ; or, 
Information for Everybody" has done any good; and if "Dr. Chase's 
Family Physician, Farrier, Bee-Keeper, and Second Receipt Book" 
sliall do any good, I owe it, under God, to my excellent mother, who not 
only showed me how to do what Common-Sense dictated to be done; 
but also taught me to avoid what ought not to be done — espedaUy^ 
never to bleed or give calomel. 


It must be plain to every one that children do not require such pow- 
erful medicine as adults, or old people, and therefore it is desirable to 
have some fixed method of determining or regulating the administra- 
tion of Doses of medicine. Now we will suppose that the Dose for a 
full-grown person is one drachm, (60 grs.) then the following pro- 
portions will be suitable for the various ages given ; keeping in view 
other circumstances, such as sex, temperament, habits, climate, state 
of genera! health, and "idiosyncrasy," the peculiar condition of any 
particular person : 



Proportionate Dose. 

or grains. 4 

7 months 

one- twelfth 

or grains 5 

or grains 7J^ 

or grains 10 

or grains 15 

" 3 •' 


" 4 " 

" 5 " . .. 

or scruple 1 

" 14 " 


or dracnm J^ 

" 20 " 

or scruples 2 

or drachm 1 

above21 " 

the full close 

" 65 " 

or grains 55 

'• 70 " 

or grains 50 

" 85 " 


or grains 40 



stands for 


grs. stands for 




scru. " 


scruple or scruples. 



ex. " 


salvy extract. 



fl. ex. " 





bu. " 





doz. " 





bbl. " 





cwt. " 






seco:n^d receipt book. 

ABORTION. — Abortion, or what is more commonly called mis- 
carriage, is the expulsion of the child from the womb before the 
seventh month, after which, before full time, it is called premature 
labor. It is more common at about the secoiid or tldrd menstrual 
period after pregnancy; but it may occur at any other time, more 
especially if brought on by accident, as blows, falls, over-exertion, 
M^hts, or great excitements of the mind, or from severe disease, etc. 
If it occur in early pregnancy, the ovum (the undevelojied child and 
membranes as a whole,) often comes away together; but if consider- 
bly developed or grown, the fetus, or child may be expelled first, and 
the placenta (after-birth) afterwards. If it occur at or after the 
seventh month, the child may live, and occasionally one has lived 
from the sixth. 

Causes.— Besides the Causes, above named, as 'ikely to bring on 
Abortion at other times than the menstrual periods, it is sometimes 
Caused by the abuse of spirituous liquors, excessive bleedings from 
wounds, frequent cohabitation, vomiting, harsh purgatives, coughing, 
sneezing, tight-lacing, jumping, rough motion in riding, extracting 
teeth, uterine irritability, vaccination, and it may arise from the man- 
ifestation in the child, of any hereditary disease from either of the 
parents, etc.; and I am sorry to add, that if one-fourth of the reports 
are true, now-a-days, it frequently occurs from desig.^, by taking abor- 
tives — may the Lord have mercy upon all who so far forget their obli- 
gations to Him, and to their own health and their country, for but lit- 
ue can be done for them after jiowerful drugs have been given for 
each purposes; and, if they do live, nine-tenths of them will suflfer 
untold misery as a consequence. And it is truly surprising that there 
should be so many men and women who look upon the idea of "get- 
ting rid" of their offspring by an Abortion, as a matter of no great 
irrong, notwithstanding that so far as I know, the laws of aU the Statet 
make it murder, and make the peualtv a penitentiary offense, and 


28 DB.. cHASjirs 

make the physician and all assistants (with the knowledge of the fact) 
equally liable, and that very justly I think. T have been asked, by 
word or letter, more than a hundred times to aid in this nefarious 
work, as people suppose that there are drugs that will produce an 
Abortion as easily as a dose of physic may perform its set work with- 
out danger, or much inconvenience. This is not so, us from the nature 
of the object of the womb (to carry the child umil, comparatively 
speaking, it is ripe before it will contract and throw it off j there is no 
medicine that will do it except with great danger, and great suffering, 
and probably in 8 of every 10 cases as fatal to the woman as to the 
child ; and if it is not fatal to her, she need hardly ever expect to be 
free of suffering caused by the medicines used for such purposes. 
Then permit me to say, never think of such a thing, for even in a 
miscarriage brought on by accident, there is much more danger, and 
consequent after suffering, than there is in a regular child-birth at 
full time. 

Syraptoms. — The first Symptom to manifest the probability of an 
Abortion will be a hemorrhage, or flooding, and the hopes of relief 
will be somewhat in accordance witli the amount of flooding in the 
case; and this arises, generally, from the seperation of the placenta 
from its attachment to the womb, and aci;ording also to the amount of 
separation, and the length of time since pregnancy took ])lace, will 
the flooding be little or much, and, as above stated, be the difficulty 
of arresting the Abortion. There will also be a feeling of uneasiness 
or weariness, back-ache, bearing down {)ains, and if pregnancy has 
considerably advanced, finally labor-pains, and a greater or less dis- 
charge of b)-ight red, or arterial blood. 

Treatment. — As soon as the flooding or jiainrs would seem to 
indicate that an Abortion may be expected, the woman should take 
the bed and keep the horizontal or lying-down position, and if there 
is any considerable accumulation of feces (excrement in the bowels 
from costiveness, etc.,) it will be well to give a gentle cathartic, as 
citrate of magnesia, cream of tartar and sulphur, etc., and remain as 
quiet as possible, keeping cool, but not cold, and using a light diet 
that will have a tendency to aid the cathartic medicine and keep the 
bowels cool, and if the bowels are very costive it will be well to aid 
the movement by an injection of pretty strong warm soap-suds, h pint 
or 3 gills, and this will be especially valuable if there has been habit- 
ual costiveness; or, second, mucilage of slippery-elm and milk, of 
each, 1 gill; sweet-oil, or goose-oil, or hens-oil, and molasses, of each, 
1 table-spoonful; and saleratus, ^s tea-spoonful; all made warm, and 
injected at one time, and these gentle means must be pursued until 
the bowels are oi^ened. But if there is considerable flooding and pain, 
the probability is that an Abortion may not be prevented, yet, what 
can be done must not be neglected — let cloths wrung out of cold water 
be laid upon the lower bowels, over the region of the womb, and they 
may also be introduced into the vaginal orifice as high np as practical 
to prevent, mechanically, the fiow, and also to aid the contraction of 
the blood-vessels of the womb; and it may also be proper Mdien there 
is considerable flooding to wet these cloths for introducing into the 
vagina, in rather strong alum water, and change them occasionally, but 
the use of cold should not be carried to the extent of causing shiver- 
ing and continued chilliness beyond a moment or two on their first 
Application. In case the cold i)roduces this unpleasant chilliness, 


change to ■warm applications as a fomentation of hops, or any other 
of the bitter herbs that may be on hand, as wormwood, tansy, etc. 
And at the same time, take half a dose of the siveatiny or diaplioretic 
powders combined with the cayenne as directed under that article, and 
repeat, once or twice as necessary, and if the pain is severe, repeat in 
30 minutes at first, then in an hour, and while this is being done, if 
the pain is not too great to allow it, let the patients' feet be put into 
hot water for 15 to 20 minutes to aid theestablishment of perspiration, 
and if the pain is too considerable to allow the feet to hang over the 
side of the bed for this purpose, put a hot brick or stone wrapped in 
cloths to the feet, or a bottle or two of hot water to the feet for the 
same purpose as the conveniences at hand may allow. And if the 
pain and flooding increase, apply a mustard poultice to the lower part 
of the back as long as it can be borne without blistering. And if the 
flooding is still continued, give 15 or 20 drops of elixir of vitriol (kept 
by druggists,) in half of a small glass of water, rinsing the mouth to 
remove the acid from the teeth, and re})eat this in 2 or 3 hours if 
needed. A strong tea of the common weed, known as colt's tail (flea- 
bane, erigeron Canadense,) or the oil of the same article, in doses of 
4 to 6 drops dissolved in a little alcohol, and given in a little sweet- 
ened water, or blackberry root tea may be used, or beth root tea. If tlie 
oil is used, it may be repeated in from 20 minutes to 4 hours, accord- 
ing to the severity of the hemorrhage or flooding, and if any of these 
articles cannot be obtained alwm whey or wine uiliey may be given in 
moderate quantities. This is made by bringing sweet milk to a boil, 
then pouring in wine or powdered alum, sufficient to curdle and clear 
it, iind letting it settle without stiring it after it is curdled, and pour- 
ing off the clear liquid and made palatable by the use of boiling 
water and white sugar; but in these hemorrhages, use as little water 
as yon can, as it is the astringent action that is desired. If these 
means fail to cneck the hemorrhage, and the waters are broken, then 
the Treatment will be the same as in natural labor. The reason why 
flooding is so considerable in Abortion is this, the womb does not con- 
tract readily, only at "full term," to close up the mouths of vessels 
that are left open by the seperation of the placenta from the side of 
the womb, from which it and the child draws all their supj)ort during 
the full time of uterine growth, and herein arises one of the great 
dangers to the woman, of an attempt to produce an Abortion. And 
were it not from the fact of this danger in producing an Abortion for 
the wicked {)urpose of avoiding an exposure, by the unmarried of 
their sin, and of avoiding the labor and care of raising children by 
the married, to accomplish which hundreds of them have written to 
me to aid them in such an undertaking, not seeming to realize that it 
is not only a sin against God, but against the laws, and that no honor- 
able physician will attempt under any circumstances to aid in pro- 
ducing ail Abortion, except it be the family physician, or one called to 
the case, and he must in all cases call in another one for counsel, when, 
if upon this deliberate consultation upon examination, shall first de- 
termine that a fully matured child could not be borne without abso' 
lutely endangering the life of the mother, then it may be undertaken 
before fully maturity. Then it is to save the labor of answering hun- 
dreds more of letters upon this subject, and to let all know just what 
must be done, if honor is at all to be regarded, that this subject has 
been introduced. In case of one or more Abortions it will bo found 

28 DR. chase's 

difficult to pass the female over the same period in the next preg- 
nancy; but to endeavor to do this, her general health must be pro- 
moted by nutricious diet, tonics, etc., and an avoidance, as far as pos- 
sible, of all pre-disposing (helping) causes. 

ABSCESS, OR SUPPURATION.— The collection of matter 
(pus) in any part of the body is called an Abscess, or Suppuration. 
They generally come to a head, or point, externally, but occasionally 
break, or arise internally. Whatever tends to obstruct the free circu- 
lation of the blood through the part, may cause Abscess. The symp- 
toms are inflammation, swelling, and pain, in the parts. The female 
breast, at the time of child-birth, are quite otten afflicted with this 

Treatment. — The first object on the manifestation of any of the 
above symptoms should be to scatter it, or. prevent its going onto 
suppuration ; and the first thing to do is to have the husband, or nurse, 
to draw out all the milk, at least 3 times dally, giving as active a ca- 
thartic as the condition of the woman will allow; and each time after 
the milk has been drawn, the breast sh.ould have a good stimulating 
liniment rubbed into it for a minute or two, to stimulate the gland to a 
healthj action; and then apply the discutient ointment freely, each 
time, affer the liniment. Professor King, of Cincinnati, Ohio, informs 
us in his Vmerican Obstetrics, that for 30 years he has pursued, suc- 
cessfully I similar course, using the cajeput liniment, made as follows: 

■"Oih of cajey^ut, sassafras, and olive, equal parts of each, and 
camphor, by weight, equal in amount." Mix, and use as above; and 
for the ointment, he uses a soap ointment, made as follows: 

"Castile soap finely shaved, 3ozs.; bees-wax, I oz.; nice lard, 2 
ozs.; Jamaica spirits (rum), 3 fluid oz.; camphor gum, 3 drs. 

"Dissolve the camphor in the spirits, and having melted all of the 
other articles together and removed them from the fire, stir them until 
cool; then add the spirits and continue to stir until cold, and box, for 
use." Tt is to be applied by cutting a piece of linen the shape of the 
breast, with a suitable sized hole for the nij)ple, to allow the child to 
nurse, then warm the ointment to allow of its being spread upon the 
cloth, and apply as warm as it can be borne; and every 4 to 6 hours 
remove it and apply the liniment and warm and re-apply as before — 
renewing the ointment upon the cloth every morning only, keeping 
the woman quietly in bed, and supporting the breast by bandage, if 
needed; and the diaphoretic powder may be used to keep down pain 
and nervousness, if required. Prof King says that this ointment and 
liniment "has been used with success in every case where it was ap- 
plied at an early stage, or previous to suppuration; it removes all pain 
and swelling in from 12 to 36 hours," and that he has "frequently 
found it efficacious in cases where the patient had suffered severely 
for 24 hours, and when I had every reason to believe that the suppu- 
rative stage had actually commenced." He used it with constant suc- 
cess for 14 years before he made it known to the profession. But in 
cases where for want of proper attention in time, suppuration has pro- 
gressed considerably, and appears to be nearing the surface which 
will be known by sharp shooting pains, shivering, restlessness, etc, 
and by what is caWed fluctuation, [i. e., by a motion that would appear 
by pressing upon a sack containing fluid, moving under the pressure 
of the fingers then come back to its place again,) it will be best to have 
it lanced, to let out the matter; then make a tent with a piece of old 


linen of sufl&cient size and length, pointed-like, at one end, and place 
it in the opening so that the outer surface shall not healup until it 
heals from the bottom. In cases of extensive suppurations, the pa- 
tient's strength must be sustained by nourishing diet, beef-tea, best 
port wine containing Peruvian bark, etc., as a tonic. What is valuable 
as a Treatment of Abscess of the breast, will be applicable to other 
parts as well. 

ABRASION, OR BRUISE.— An Abrasion may be caused by a 
glancing blow which merely removes the outer, or scarf-skin, or it 
may be caused by chafing one part against another, in Avhich case an 
application of any of the preparations for cliuj)s, etc., will be all that 
is necessary, except to avoid the Cause as far as may be done; but 
when it comes by a more direct blow, bruising cunsiderably, as by a 
blow of a hammer upon the finger, or nail, or a horse steppiug upon 
the foot, etc., the best remedy that I have ever found, is to put the 
bruised part, as soon as possible, into cold water, notwithstanding it 
will cause an increase of pain, and keep it in for 5 to 10 minutes, then 
take it out and wipe off the water, and put on, freely, any good lini- 
ment, for the same length of time, then, after a few minutes, again to 
the water, repeating also the liniment; then 3 or 4 hours after, do the 
same again, for a few times during the first day ; and for a few days 
thereafter, use the liniment only, 3 or 4 times daily. I have saved toe 
and finger nails in this way, I have no doubt, that would have been. 
lost without it, besides saving the pain and inconvenience attending 
their lo ss. 

AG-UE. — For the Cause and Treatment of Ague, see Inturmittent 

ANATOMY. — ^The word Anatomy comes from Greek words 
which signify to cut up; but the general understanding of the word is 
that it refers to the skeleton, or frame-work that supports, and gives 
outline or dimensions to the system, in giving attachment to muscles, 
tendons or cartilage, etc., as well as to protect the brain and internal 
organs, to a very considerable extent, at least; while Physiology 
explains the functions or particular action of each of the different 
organs or parts of the system, and Hygiene treats of or explains ho"W 
to preserve or promote healthy action ; all of which I deem to be of 
the utmost importance for every human being to know ; and I claim 
that these branches should be taught in every public school in the 
land; but as this has not been the case, in days gone by, T shall intro« 
duce just sufiicient illustrations upon these subjects to enable those 
who have not had opportunities of acquiring such knowledge, to 
mderstand the explanations necessarily found in this Work. 

The human system is composed of six kinds of material, — bone, 
cartilage, fiber, muscle, nerve, and fat, called by Anatomists tissue; 
meaning a kind of weaving together of the minutest parts, or elements 
of the organs of the body, as bony tissue, cartilagenons tissue, fibrous 
tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tis.sue, and adipose tissue, (from the 
Latin adeps, animal fat), or fatty tissue. These tissues which go to 
make up the animal part of the human system, are constantly wear- 
ing out and being re-placed by new tissue, or matter derived from the 
food, drink, etc., received into the body; and the worn-out matter is 
as constantly being eliminated, or carried out of the systeni under the 
name of excretions, by the skin, kidneys, and intestines, making a 
complete change of the whole material of our bodies, it is ch'.imed by 


Anatomists, as often as once in every seven years. Be this as it may, 
in regard to our bodies, the mind will never wear out, but it is the 
responsible part of man, and by it, we must .itand or fall before the 
Wisdom of our Almighty Creator, Wlio, I fully believe, will hold us 
to a strict account, according to our knowledge, provided we do not neg- 
lect any opportunity of (jbtaining "knowledge," a)id if we do neglect 
our opportunities, He will also hold us to the same strict account for 
our neglect. 

But, to return to the consideration of Anatomy, there is no doubt 
with any Scientific man, of the fact that our bodies do wear out and 
are undergoing tliis constant change; and, i;onsequently, it is of the 
greatest importance that this effete, (worn-out) matter should be car- 
ried out of the system as soon as possiljle after it has acc-omplished 
its work, or in other words, is dead, for all dead animal matter tends 
to decay, and will poison the blood and tiiereby injure the health if 
it is not carried out at once. This sliows tiie importance of a clean 
and healthy skin, and a heidthy and natural condition of the kidneys 
and intestines, — points of absolute importance to tlie enjoyment of good 
health; then, if we are held accountable for our neglects, we must not 
neglect our duties to our body, any more than to the mind. 

Bones. — Bones are made up of both animal and earthy elements, 
or matter — about one-third of the first to two-thirds of the latter. 
The -animal matter is proportionally greatest in youth, the Bones 
being then tough and strong, and heal more readily if broken; while 
in old age, the earthy matter is greater, making them more brittle, 
and requiring a longer time, and more care to heal if broken. Healthy 
Bone contains cartilage, blood-vessels, phosphate of lime, carbonate 
of lime, fluate of lime, phosphate of magnesia, and soda, or chlor- 
ide of sodium, which, to speak plainly, is common salt. There 
are 246 Bones in the adult or full grown person, divided, or 
described as long, flat, and irregular, and in their natural position, the 
flesh having been removed, attached by their natural ligaments, ten- 
dons, etc., is called a natural skeleton; but if these natural attachmenca 
are removed and they are put together with wire, as seen in the offices 
of most medical men, is called an artificial skeleton. For a more par- 
ticular description, names, etc., see Fig. 1. 

The Skeleton is divided into three parts, head, trunk, and extremi- 
ties; the head is again divided into cranium, the back and upper part, 
and the /ace; the extremities into upper and lower, or arms and legs— 
oh! excuse me, arms and limbs. If there is any more delicacy in say- 
ing leg than arm, I have yet to learn the fact; it is only a, false deli- 
cacy tliat exacts it. 

The Bones are covered with a firm fibrous membrane called joer- 
iosteum. The Bones of infants, before birth, are first jelly-like, then 
cartilaginous; and after birth, still soft and yielding. The formation 
of Bone is very peculiar. The blood and milk carry the material for 
its formation; and the first thing noticed in the formation of Bony 
tissue is the appearance of a jelly-like mass, in the shape of the Bone 
to be formed, then a blood-vessel appears in the center of the jelly, 
and small particles, or the first elements of Bone are deposited, which 
slowly proceeds, and at the same time, other vessels take up and carry 
away, or use the jelly in the formation. 

The Bones are situated about as follows: 60 in the Head, count- 
ing 32 teeth; the cranium, or cavity for the brain being made up by 



tte joining together of 8 of the flat Bones; the face which inclu'les 
the orbits or cavities of the eyes, nose, and mouth,— 14 in number- 
and 6 in the ears, 3 in each. ' 

The trunk contains 52 Bones, 26 of which go to make up the spinal 
column, called vertebra, (from vertere to turn, as the upper part of the 
Fio. 1. 

Fig. 1. Ij re|)re8etits tlie skull; 2, 
the lower jaw ; 3, the vertebra of the 
neck ; 4, the breast bone ; 5, 11, and 
17 the ligaments of the shoulder, 
elbow, and hip joints; 0, the breast 
bone; 7, the shoulder joints; 8, the 
humerus, or upper arm ; 9, the ribs ; 
10, the elbow joint; 12. spinal col- 
umn; 13, the radkui,oT large bone of 
the forearm ; 11, the aJva, or small 
bone of the forearm; 15, the hip 
bone ; 16, the lower part of the spi- 
nal column; 18, tlie femur, or 
thigh bone; 19, the knee cap, or 
patdla; 20, the ligaments of the knee 
cap; 21, the knee joint; 22, 23, and 
24, the tibia and fibula, or bones of 
the lower part of the legs, corres- 
ponding with the two bones of the 
forearm ; 26, 26, and 27, the ligaments 
of the ankles, feet, etc. 


&'??ritl'''r/,'°'''^'^^'^.^^5' Without moving the feet) the plural 
f^/i fn J^ ' '^® ^f-"^^^ ?°''*'°" 0^ the column takes the name of 
S from th'«T::.^?k'; S^ T""'^^ Bone, and the cuckoo's bill! or 
blesa cuSoo'K hfll \t *^7^ ^'''^^' extremity of the column res^m- 
Diesa cuckoo 8 bill). The 7 upper v^tebra are called cervical, from 

32 DK. chase's 

the Latin cervix, the ueck ; the next 12, dorsal, from dorsum, the back; 
and 5 are called lumbar, from lumbus, the loins; 24 ribs; 1 sternum, 
(from a Greek word signifying the breast, or chest); 1 as hyoides, or hyoid 
bone, (the name also comes from the Greek and signifies an arch, or 
U shaped Bone), It is situated at the base or back part of the tongue, 
the open part backward, giving support to the tongue and trachea, or 
wind-pipe. The sacrum forms an attachment upon each side with 
one of the os innominata, nameless Bone, from the Latin os, a Bone, 
and innominata, nameless), comnionlj' culled the hip Bonea, which 
form a hallow, or dish like cavity, by uniting in front, making quite a 
prominence at the lower part of the bowel.'^:, called the pubis (mean- 
ing puffed out, or fat, and also having reference to puberty, *. e., to 
the growth of manhood, etc. Tliis dish-shaped cavity contains the 
bladder, womb, etc., and also supports the intestines. Upon, or in 
the outer and under side of these Bones there is a cup-shaped cavity 
called the acetabulum, (the Latin for a little cup or saucer-shaped dish 
for holding vinegar, fi'om acetum, vinegar). The acetabulum receives 
the head of the femur, the thigh, hence, it is called the thigh bone. 

The upper extremities contain, each 32 Bones — the shoulder- 
blade, and collar bones, 1 in the upper arm, the humerus, (relating to 
or belonging to the shoulder, same asfejnur relates to the thigh ; the 
lower or forearm has 2 Bones, the outer one is called the radius, 
(meaning a staff, rod, or spoke of a wheel), and the ulna (having 
reference to the elbow) being the inner and smaller of the two. The 
wrists contain 8 Bones each, called carpal Bones, (from carpus, the 
wrist). The hands contain 19 each, called metacarpal, (from Greek 
words which .signify beyond and the wrist) and also the fingers which 
include the thumbs, the Bones of which are called phalanges, which 
signified a square body of soldiers — and hence applied to the Bones 
of the hands and feet in rows, etc. 

The lower extremities contain 31 Bones each; then there are 8 
sesamoid, or seed-like Bones, the knee-pan (called the patella, from its 
resemblance to a small dish), is the largest of this class of Bones. 
The femur, as above mentioned, relates to the thigh ; then, the lower 
part of the leg, like the forearm, has two Bones, the larger one called 
the tibia, or shin-bone (from its resemblance to a pipe, or flute, which was 
anci(Mitly made of Bone, and the smaller one called the fibula, (mean- 
ing to fasten two things together), it being fastened to the tibia; then 
the heel Bone, or colds, (probably from the Latin calx, lime stone, or 
the Greek word for stone, as it resembles the shape of a stone some- 
what), which connects with the astragalus (the Greek for ankle, or 
tarsus, the Latin for ankle, the same as carpus, for the wrist). The 
astragalus also connects with the tibia, also with the calcis, or heel- 
bone, and with the metatarsal, or bones beyond the tarsus, or ankle; 
then comes the pJuilanges, or rows of Bones in the feet and toes, mak- 
ing up the sum total, as above named, of 246 Bones in the human 

The connection of these Bones together by Fibrous Liga- 
meiits, or Cartilage and Tendons, make what are called joints, the 
Periosteum, or membrane covering the Bones, in the Joints, takes the 
name of .synovial membranes which furnish the synovial fluid, or joint 
water as it is ct)mmonly called. This fluid keeps the joints moist and 
allows their movements upon each other without injury to the Bones, 

The Meinbranes :i!.'<o rover, or line ail of the cavities of the 


body, and invert or cover all of the internal organs, taking the ad- 
ditional names of Serous Mucous, and Cellular. The first covers the 
brain, forms the lining of the abdomen and chest, covers the lungs, 
heart, stomach and intestines, and in fact, all of the organs of these 
cavities. This Membrane furnishes a serum, or fluid wiiich moistens 
the surfaces and enables them to move upon each other with ease 
and comfort; but in case of inflammation is liable to adhere, or grow 
together. If this Membrane furnishes more fluid than is necessary, 
by a diseased condition of the absorbents of the system, it accumu- 
lates in the cavities and is called dropsy. The second lines the nostrils, 
mouth, throat, air-pap?,ages to the lungs, stomach, and intestines, in 
the last two of which it is formed into extra folds by which means 
the surface is Jargelj' increased to prevent the too quick passage of the 
food through them, giving time for digestion and absorption of the 
nutricious parts of the food to build up and strengthen the system. 
In health the color of this Membrane is a pink, or pale red, but when 
inflamed, of a deep red. This Membrane furnishes a slimy and tena- 
cious fluid called mucus, from words which indicate a cloudiness, as 
seen in the mucus discharges in diarrhea. In a very weakened con- 
dition of the system this Membrane allows the blood to exude, or 
pass out through it, called hemorrhage, or bleeding, but it never ad- 
heres, does not grow together no matter how severe the inflamma- 
tion may be, nor how weakened the system. The last, or Cellular, or 
cell-like. Membrane forms a kind of net-work between the various 
muscles of the body, and also between the muscles and the skin. It 
also thi'ows out a fluid, which in some conditions of the system, is not 
absorbed, constituting or establishing cell, or cellular dropsy, the 
limbs becoming very much enlarged. 

Muscles. — The Muscles are the parts called flesh, and in animals 
of which we eat the flesh, it is called the lean meat. To look at a 
Muscle, as a whole, it would be taken as a uniform mass of flesh ; but 
upon a closer examination they are found to be composed of bundles 
of fibres, each fibre being covered with a fine Membrane, and each 
bundle of fibres also covered or bound up in the same kind of Mem- 
brane, and finally the Muscle, as a whole, is also covered with the 
same, giving a greater strength to the Muscles. As animals become 
fat, the fatty portions are deposited between, or around the Muscles, 
in the cellular tissue. They are generally found in pairs, i. e., one 
upon one side of the body and one upon the opposite side, bearing the 
same name. They are also placed in layers, one above another, by 
which means strength and beauty of form are blended together in 
harmony and usefulness. See Figures 2 and 3. 

There are over 500 Muscles in the human bodJ^ They have a 
firm attachment to the bones, and in the limbs, mostly by what are 
called tendons, or the part having no flesh — the fibrous, or part having 
the most strength — by which means, the various motions of the body 
are brought about, by the simple act of the mind, or vnll, as it is more 
commonly called. This class of Muscles are called voluntary, i. e., the 
mind wills to do something, and this class of Muscles voluntarily car- 
ries out the determination of the mind. But the Muscles of the heart, 
lungs, stomach, and intestines, etc., act without any determination of 
our will no matter whether asleep or awake, the action of these muscles 
goes on constantly, whether we will, or not, and hence, are called invol- 
untary, showing the great wisdom of our Creator who would nor 



DR. chase's 

pat our lives in jeopardj. from our sleep, forgetfiilness, or neglect 

Fig. 2. 

Fia. 2. Figures! 
and 2, re()re.sent 
the muscles of the 
upper part and 
side of the bead; 
3, of the eye; 4. of 
the mouth ; 5. oi 
and fi. of the side 
oftheueek . 7. rep- 
resents the breast 
and polar bones, to 
wliich Uie strong 
raiLseles of the 
breast and sho.iM- 
er, 8 and 9 are at- 
lu'lied ; 1(1 and 11, 
I lie ransc'les of the 
ipper arm. pa.s8- 
1',' under a band 
like a pully to 
bend the firearm; 
12. 18, H. l,->and 16, 
the muscles oi the 
forearms, tfifienug 
oil very beautiful- 
ly into the lenddiis 
to bend the wrists 
and flusiers: IT the 
aiiular lifiameiit, 
or band that holds 
the tendi)Us of the 
arm lirmly to the 
wrist; a strong 
teiniiiiiius muM-Je, 
griviiif; attiii-hiiient 
to the sidf muscle 
19; while .M iiiter- 
loi'ks amoiifj the 
Others . 21 to 2.'>, 
ati>l J.s to :i2 show 
tlje various mus- 
cles ol the lower 
extreninics; and 
2T sliow.sibf biiiid- 
llkc l.!.'aiiiema of 
tbe auklcii. 




Of conrRe, the Muscles all have naiiu'8, and sortip of th«»m very 
lonjr ones; Imt an the iianies of the Muscles are not a.- rri'>|iMMiily used 
&ti that of the hones; and as the names are all in Latin ami many of 
them very Uinj;;, I have not deeiiie<l it hest to enter into a full dex-rip- 
tion of tlu-m; but at the same Lime I will ^ive one or two as sain|>les, 
adding that any one who sees [it to take up tlie study, in Scjii.olr,, or 
in Families, will do well to obtain emitter's Kew Analytic Aiialomy, 

Flo. :i 

Fio. 8. The Og' 
ures on ttie rif;nt 
si'if <il KJK 3 rep- 
ri'>-fin ilif tirsi lay- 
eri>t MuscleA and 
tlii)--e '111 ihe l«ft, 
tliK M'r'iiiKl iiiter- 
I'H kiiiu wilii Miine 
of ihe tliird layer. 


Pbvsiology and Hygiene, publishe<l in 1872, by J. B. Lippinmtt <k Co., 
of Vhiladelphia, I'u. lie has taken a very (irai-ticai way. putting ibd 
names of the bones and uiuseles right upon them, maknii: n verv eany 
to l*'arn. it will j)ay for <?»'('(•// /■«»;/(//(/ to obtain ibal W.irk; and k will 
ni(yre than "i)ay" \f every nunihir uf rrrrtj /"inilu 'fill Ktmly it. 

Tlie names of the Musiles generally indicate their use. for instance 
the levator hihii xnp*:riori>t alt-yna: mixi [Ifrator lo lift or raise,, the 
Up; su^tnarie, the BUpeiior, or upper; altqux, the side, and naai, the 

96 OB. chasb's 

Hose; to elevate the upper lii) and side of the nose), which goes to 
Bhow that the name was intended to represent the use of the Muscles. 
Depressor labii inferioris {depressor, to depress or pull down ; labii, the 
lip; inferioris, inferior, or under; to depress the lower lip, etc., etc. To 
follow this out, would be very interesting; but, not so practical as this 
SV'ork was intended to be. Let all who desire to follow up the study 
tf Anatomy, address and obtain the book above referred to. The 
foregoing cuts merely show a few of the Muscles as they appear by 

It is a well-known fact thai a proper, amount of exercise gives 
strength to the Muscles, and greatly helps their development, and adds 
o the general health of the system; but, it is as fully known also, that 
i'est is of the same importance, after a due amount of exercise. Horse- 
men, or those who well understand the needs of a horse, will have 
the groom to rub his legs well, after the fatigues of the day ; it is of 
the same importance to a person. Friction is used to alleviate cramp- 
ing in the limbs; it is as good to prevent it, as to relieve it; and it 
does this by causing a more free and full circulation of blood in the 
skin, and in the Muscles. Those who can not, or who do not freely 
exercise, or labor through the day, would add veiy much to their 
vigor and strength by rubbing the surface of the whole system, with 
a coarse, dry towel, every night and morning when they do not take a 
bath, and at these times also, after the water has been wiped off. It 
is a pleasure, also, that but few would forego, after giving it a fair 

Cii'culation. — The passage of the blood through the system is 
called the Circulation; and it is by this means that the system is built 
up in the first place, and afterwards kept in health and strength by 
the' continued taking up and carrying off of worn-out matter, and the 
renewal by the deposit of new material by means of the Circulation, 
which we hope to make plain through the aid of the following cuts, 
and explanations. 

The Heart is the organ which starts the blood on its course, acting 
as a force pump, to push the blood out through the arteries; and as a 
tuction pump, to draw it back through the veins. 

The Auricles receive the blood as it is returned from the various 
parts of the system, from which it is passed into the A'^entricles, to be 
again sent out on its errand of supply to the system. The walls of 
the Auricles are not as thick as those of the Ventricles, as the Ven- 
tricles require more strength, especially the right one; for it sends the 
blood to the remotest parts of the body; the left one only to the lungs, 
and hence, is not as strong as the other. 

Harvey has received the full credit of discovering the circulation 
of the blood, and the consequent usefulness of the Heart; but it 
would appear from the following quotation that even Plato who lived 
hundreds of years before Harvey, had a very philosophical idea of 
the uses of the Heart and blood-vessels. He says: "It is the center, 
or knot of the blood-vessels; the spring, or fountain of the blood, 
which is carried impetuously round; the blood is the food of the flesh; 
and for the purposes of nourishment, the body is laid out in, canals, 
like tliose which are drawn through gardens that the blood may be 
conveyed, as from a fountain, to every part of the body." 

Arteries. — The Arteries are strong, and yet quite elastic, mem- 
branous pipes, or tubf'.';, <'.om posed of three coats; the outer being eel- 



hilar, the middle muscular, and the inner serous, being very smooth to 
allow the free passage of the blood to the remotest parts of the 

PlQ 4, Fio. 4. The Heart is composed of verV 

strong muscular fibre, and has four cavi- 
ties, being divided as shown in Figure 4, 
by the partition walls, represented oy the 
figures 8, 10, and 13, wnicn have openings 
through them supplied with valves to 
prevent the return of the blood as it la 
being forced on its way ; 7, 9, 11, and ^, 
represent the cavities — 7, being the left 
auricle ; 9, the left ventricle ; 11, the right 
ventricle ; and 14, the right auricle (auri- 
cle, signifying ear, hence in animals we 
speak of the deaf-ear of the heart, as it ia 
no^supposed to hear, but simply resem- 
bles the shape of the ear ; while vmtride, 
a sack-shaped cavity, like the stomach, or 
abdomen, from venter, the belly). Figure 
1, represents the vena cava superior, or 
upper vein that returns the blood to the 
Heart, (vena meaning vein, cava, from 
cavris, a hollow, and superior, upper — lit- 
erally the upper hollow vein); 12, the 
lower vena cava, or vein that returns the 
blood from the lower part of the body 
and lower extremities. These two veins 
pour the blood into the right auricle ; 2, 
and 4, the pulmonary arteries, which 
carry the blood to the lungs to be purified 
by coming in contact with the air in the 
air-cells of the lung-s, after which it is re- 
turned by the pulmonary veins 15, 5, and 
6, to the" left auricle of the Heart, filling 
the office of arteries in carrying the puri- 
fied blood. From the left auricle the blood 
passes into tlie lett ventricle, and thenoe 
lo all parts ot the body, through the aorta 
3,3; the arch, above, as will be seen in 
Figure 5, throws ofi" several branches to the head and upper extremities, and the de- 
scending arota also branches off constantly; and at the lower part of the abdomen, sep- 
erates into two equal branches, one to each lower extremity, each of which is constantly 
branching off until at the extremities of the toes, and surface, they become fine capil- 
ary, or hair-like vessels, meeting with the same class of fine capilary veins, which re- 
turns the blood to the Heart, to be again sent out, through its endless rounds, as long as 
life .shall last. The branching off of the arteries, and in of the veins, will be better under- 
stood by looking at Figures 6 and 7 ; and Figure 5 will give a fair view of the Heart in 
its natural position, showing also the branches from the aorta, (this word comes from 
Greek words which signify /com and toliSt, lifting, then, or rising from the Heart). 

The muscular, or middle coat of the Arteries passes around instead 
of lengthwise; and from the elasticity, above mentioned, allows the 
enlargement or swell-like movement as the blood is sent through 
them, giving that feeling to the finger when held upon an Artery, 
called "the pulse." 

The Arteries are mostly deep-seated, no doubt, by the consider- 
ate wisdom of the Creator for the purpose of avoiding injury from 
accident; for the cutting ofl' of an Artery is more dangerous than the 
cutting of a vein, as the pressure, or force upon the blood in an Artery is 
greater than that in the veins. When an Artery is cut, the blood is 
thrown in jets or spurts, at each beat of the heart, and always from 
the side of the wound next to the heart; while from a wounded vein 
the blood oozes out steadily and constantly, and always from the side 
of the wound fartherest from the heart. 

In case of the cutting off of any la.r?e bloodvessel, not a moment 




if to he Ind. Put the finger or thumb, immpdiafely npon it, in snch a 
way as to kI<>p iJif foir of hlond, until a physician, or some one can be 
got'wliocun catcli np the t'nd of it aiui lie r-ouie stout white silk, or 
■white linen thread around it, leavin<r the end^ to hang out of the 
"vsouud, then close the wound with stitches, if necessary. 

Fig. 5. Fig. 5. 1, 

the right aur- 
icle; '2, ttie 
left auricle; 
3, the right 
veiitriele; 4, 
the lel't veu- 
tncle; 5, tlie 
aorta ; 6, the 
arch of the 
aorta; 7, the 
desce n d i II g 
aotta; 8. the 
right subela- 
V 1 a n vein, 
{»iib, uinlur, 
er-blade; ; 9, 
the Icit sub- 
claviuij vein, 

and the lat- 
ter troui the 
unite and 
form the de- 
Bceuiliiig ve- 
D a cava, 
which, in 
fact, returns 
all the blood 
from the 
head and up- 
per extremi- 
ties, while 11, 
the ascend- 
ing vena ca- 
va returns it 
from the 
Jower paitof 
the body .and 

lower extremities, both emptying into the right auricle; and 12, retums the blood from 
the inie>tiiies, liver and spleen— the arrows iiidicatiii« the way the blood tiows; IS, ar- 
teria innominuta ir.ameless artery- which divides into 14, thcVight carotid artery (car- 
otid come-- from (ireel; words signifying stupor, or heavy sleep. a.s it was believed that 
this condition was brought about by an increa-sed How ot "blood to the headi whicli car- 
ries t)ie blood to the head, and 1.1. the right sul;clavian art<.'ry. which carries it to tlie right 
anil : 16. the left carotid . I? "^he lelt snhchivian. carryiiig the bloiwl t(j the left arm ; 18, 
Ip the [luluionary this w .d comes from tlie I.alin p(;/m()H/s, fi lung.) artery, which 
arise> from the right ventricle and divides into Hi and 20 to supiiiy the lungs: 19. it will 
be seen, niake.-- a luantifiil curve under tlie arch ol the aorta, pas.sing to the right lung, 
and 20. to supply the left ; 21 and J*-' are the pulmonary veins whitS return Uie blood 
from the lungs to tlie left auricle of the Heart. 

^^ these cases where an Artery, or a Vein is cut off and tied up, 
il would naturally he stipposed that tliey onj^dit to ^row topiether 
apain; liut instead of this, the supply is carried by oilier vessels until 
a passage way is provided by the formation of a new vessel around 




the wmind, to carry the blood in its natural course, — another of the 
"Woixlt^rs of A liniirlily wisilum and <:<)<iiliu'ss. 

Tlif Arterites are e nrlosfd in rf/lnlnr tissue, the same as the nmscles. 
They are also irenerally atconi|ianit'd i)y a vein, and also \)\ a nerve, 
all of vvhitli are bonnd lo>:eilier in a slieatli of nieinhrane llie same 
as the mnscleb are. It will also be obsiTVed that, like tlie nnisries, 
the Arteries, and also the veius, are Ibuud in pairs — one upon each 

Fio. 6. 

Fio. 6. 1, 1. Anrioles of the heart; 2. and 3, 
the Aorta sendiuK ntl' \l^ brmiches ui the u|>()ef 
ami lower exireiiiities, ki^illey^ and other in- 
ternal organs; t. 4. the veiitrii-les ; t!, H, ttie 
canilitl arteries, goiiij; to the sides of the iiei-k, 
head, and lUce: 7. 7, the hrachial, or arteries of 
the arms, i from hriichiinn.. an arui i. Tlit- arter- 
ies leading to the kidneys, are call'Ml renal, 
(from remix, the kidneys). The left kidney Ilea 
(I Utile lower thau the right, as shuwa In 
the cut 


Bide, taking the same name with the addition only of rigni or left, 
as the cape may be. Tlie Arteries are shown lighter in color, in tlie 
finnres, or nits, from the fact that Arterial blood is li<:ht colored, or 
bright red, while the vcnnits blood, from its loss of oxygen, and from 
the impurities that it pii-ks up in its course, becomes very dark, sis 
re|»resented in Fuj. 7. The only exceptions to this rtiie is, tlial the 
pulmonary Arteries carry the impure bloo<l to the lungs for pnritica- 
tioii, by receiving a new supply of ox^-gen; and the pulmonary vein* 



carry the purified blood back to the heart, to be again sent out 
through the Arteries. 

Veins. — The Veins, of eourse, are tube-like, and are composed of 
three coats the same as the arteries; but the coats are not so thick and 
strong as they are in the arteries; as, before remarked, there is not 
the same force upon the Veins, but rather a suction, or drawing force 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 7. 1, 1, Auricles of the heart; 7, 7, Veu- 
tricles; 2, 3, the descending and ascending 
vena cavas, or large veins that em])ty the 
Ifiood into the right auricle ; 4, 4, the femoral, 
or large veins or he lower extremities f femoral 
comes from ymons, the same from wnich fe- 
mur, the thigh bone, is derived, having refer- 
ence to the thigh); 5, 5, the brachial, or veins 
of the arms; 6, veins of the neck, the large 
ones are commonly called the jugulars, or jug- 
ular veins. There are two of these upon eacn 
side of the fieck, one Iving near the skin, and 
the other deep-seated. The word jugular 
comes, no doubt, from the Latin Jugulum, the 
collar bone, having reference to the throat; 
hence, jugulate, to cut the throat, etc. The ar- 
rows indicate which way the blood flows. 


from the auricles of the heart having been emptied into the ventri- 
cles, causing a kind of vacuum, to till which, the blood flows back con- 
stantly and readily, although slower than it pusses. through the arter- 
ies. This is accounted for, however, in the fact that the Veins are 
considerable larf/er than the arteries, so that the slowness of motion 
is made up by the larger -stream. The Veins are .supplied with valves 
to prevent the blood from tbnving backward. This, at first thought, 
would appear to us to be unneces-sary ; but, in case of accident, or cutting 
off of a Vein this valve arrangement prevents the blood from flowing 

8bcond kbcbipt book. 


Fio. 8. 1, 2, 1, Parotid glauds ; 3. the carotid 
arfery figure 3 is too far over; 4, and 5, ex- 
ternal and Inlemal jugular veins, one laying 
OM^r the other; 6, the clavicle, or colar 
bone cut off; 7 and 8, subclavian artery and 
\eni running one over the other, 9 and 10, 
iiuioiumata artery and vein, 9 and 3 it, will 
De observed, are placed upon the same 
vessel 3 should have been a little to the 
lett aij we face the cut, reaUy to the 
right, however, as all cuts are described; 
U, vena cava de- 
scendens, »r descend- 
ing vein— 11, is really 
placed upon the lung 
but the line leads to 
the vein; 12, aorta; 
13, pulmonary arter- 
ies, leading to the 
lungs; 14, 14, the 
heart; 15, the dia- 
phragm, showing its 
upward arching; 16 
and IS, small ariuriea 
and veins; 19, kid- 
ney; 20, vena cava 
;ujcendens, or ascend- 
ing vein, the aorta 
lying iUong side ; at 
this point the veins 
cume in also from 
tlje kidneys, and the 
arteries to the kid- 
neys leave the aorta, 
ijuth of which are 
Seen to di\'ide below, 
ti-i go to the lower ex- 
tremities; 21, the cut 
edges of the walls of 
the abdomen ; 24 and 
'^, ius seen on the lell 
bide of the body, lead 
to the ureters or small 
pipes that carry the 
urine from the kid- 
neys to the biadder — 
2(j— below ; 27, the cut 
ends of the external, or outer, illiac 
artery and vein, shown by 33 and 
S'l, upon the opposite side, passing 
through the wall of the pelvis, be- 
low which they take the name ot 
femoral, relating to the thi^h, indica- 
ted by 35 and 36 ; 37 and 38, tlie pos- 
terior, or back tibial artery and 
vein, and 39 and 40, the anterior, or 
front tibials, or arteries and veins 
of the lower part of the leg. To re- 
turn to the arm; 25 and 26, show 
the axillary artery and vein (from 
axilla, the arm-pit) ; 27 and 28, the 
brachial artery and vein tfrom bra- 
thium, an arm); 29 and 30, the ra- 
dial arterj' and vein ; and 31 and 32. 
the ulnar artery and vein, taking 
their names from the bones of the 
arm, the radial side being the up 
per, or front, and the ulnar, the 
lower, or back side. 

[It was found necessary to cut 
otf a little at the bottom of this fig- 
ure, as the engraver had exceedM 
the length of the page.] 


42 DR. chase's 

ont, wlnVh is in the larfrer portion of the Veins, next the heart, and 
that uiiich is afterwanl ]>(nuf<l in from other branches tlial emitty 
in ht'twcen the wound ami tiie heart. I-'or, it will he renienihered, 
that the Veins hecotne lar^'er and larj^er as they near tiie iieart, lilie a 
river wliicii is constantly receiving other rivers into it as it approaches 
the sea — its month. The heart is the inonlli of tlie Veins. 

The Veins diti'er also from the arteries in being arranired in two 
sets. One set, as before remarked. a<-company the arteries; and, the 
otlier set runs near the skin, as seen on tiie back of the hands, Uaving 
no arteries connected with tliem. The Veins c.omintr from the stom- 
ach, sjileen, pancreas, and intestines, have this pecnliarity also, that 
instead of retnrnin<.' tlie blood directly to the heart, tliey nnite into 
■what is called the portal Vein — mm portii — which carries the blood 
throngh the liver, for a wise pnrpose, no donbt, but yet, the positive 
objei't has not been satisfactorily .settle?! by Anatomists, ( juiHa, in 
Latin si<rnities a jxate, iiem-e this is called the |)ortal, or gate-way to 
the liver). This l)lood togetlier with that eoming from the liepatic 
arterv, or liver artery {ficfinrimx being the Latin for liver), is then re- 
turned to the gemiral circnialion, or to the Iieart by the hfjxitic rfins. 

The Arterial and Venous circulation will be better nnderstood by 
observing Fui. 8, the trne positions being shown, the passage of tlie 
large vessels tlirongh the Diajihragm, and ont through the walls 
of the pelvis, or pelvic region, and down the thigh, behind the mus- 
cles, shown also in the lower part of the limb again. The Heart and 
its relations to the Diaphragm will also be seen; also one of the Kid- 
nevs. Ureters, or i)ipes that carry the nrine to the Bladder, etc. The 
front walls of the (" and Alxhnneii having been cut through and 
removeil, sliowing the ribs, as (Uit through, et(*., etc. 

The left extremities, arm and leg, sliow the graceful form of the 
outer layer of muscles, swelling in the center, and diminishing in size 
toward "the ends, by which the beauty of the form of the limbs, with- 
out loss of strength, is so ailmirably perfected. The band-like liga- 
ments of the and ankle are also shown. 

The Oapilaries, it has been before remarked, form the connect- 
ing links between the Veins and Arteries. Althongh they take their 
name from what signifies a hair, yet, they are so small, that to exam- 
ine them by a microscojie, the hair will appear "fry large as com- 
pared with the (^apilarie.s — indeed they are so small that the finest 
needle's point cannot be pushed into the skin without injuring nniuy 
of them, causing the blood to start at once. They are so small that, 
in iiiHammation, the very minntest particles of the blood, or the ele- 
ments of sn|)ply for the system that are carried in the blood, clog up 
these Capilaries, causing such an accnmnlation as to pnxlnce [uore or 
less sw(dling, according to the extent, or severity of the cause of the 

The Lungs and Respiratory, or Breathing Apparatus. — 
The breath iiiir apparatus begins [)roperly with the ;/, although many 
persons get into the habit, unconsciously an 1 wrongfully, of breathing 
through the month. The next is the back part of the month, or 
throat, terhtiirallfi called the iihorynj:, (the (Jreek for the throat, also 
called the fiiuffs); then the tmrlifn, or wiinl-pipe, (coming from a 
Greek word signifying rough, or nigged, because it is formed by car- 
tilaginous rings which hold it open for the passage of the air to the 
Lungs), the upper portion of which is called the larynx, (in which 



portion are found the orjrans of voice, the name havin? referenre to 
Bpeakinjr, or a (lisconrse); the trachea divities into hnnirliinl tultes 
■which lead into the Liiti<;s, and continue to divide inti> very small 
tuhes, nf)on which, cluster the air-<'ells of the Lnn<rs, like grapes upon, 
the stem, only they are nltimately so small that there are supposed to 
be H(I0,( )()(),( loO of thom in the Ijiuf^s, (Arouc/zMs the (i-reek won! for 
■wind-pipe, hence, hronchial, relating to that pipe, or the air passages), 
the division of which is fairly shown in Fig. 9. 

YiG. 9. ^^^- ^- This figure, or cut, makes a 

fair showing of the dividing up (if the 
bronchial tliey liuconie less and 
less ill size as they reach the outer por- 
tions of the lungs. The front portions 
were the <ira\ving,to make 
this showing. The heart is also.seen in 
its natural iio.sition, the noint a little to 
the left of ilie center ann the largf- and 
upper part of the heart. iU)on ami a 
little to tlie riff/i/ of the center, the same 
as they actually a))pear in the living, 
human sy.stem. The point of the heart, 
and lower side, or bottom of the lungs 
rest upon the duitiknum. or niidritf. as 
it is called in other .animals. Diaph- 
ragrn is a (ireek word signifying to 
partition or fence oil' l)y a wall ; and, 
netice it is applied to this muscle which 
divides the or iijiiier part of the 
internal cavity, from tnc lower part, 
or from thealsdomen. When the stom- 
ach and abdt)inen, or bowels are full, 
and the lungs nut fully inflated with 
air, this dividing memhrano or muscle 
is arched considerably upwards ; but 
when the lungs are "full of air, the 
diaphragm is forced down, and thus 
the dinphrngm. rili.f. ain\ outer miLscles 
of the ubdi>mni. help to carry on breath- 
ing, or rffpiritlitm. The central por- 
TR.^CHEA, LUXG.S AND HKAtiT. Won of the lungs where the br<mchial 

tubes are large, is called the ruol of the 
lungs. The front part of the lungs, which are repre.senled as having been removed, are 
thin, and when in position fold over upon the heart, and nearly cover it from view, 
■when the is laid open. lam imlebted to the kindness of Prof Scndder, of Cin- 
cinnati, for this engraving, also for the one upon the Skin, and upou Bandaging ; all the 
Others were engraved expres,siy for this Work. 

The Lungs conform to the shape of the cavity of the chest, and with 
the heart, filling the whole cavity, each one heing cone-like in shaj)e 
at the npjier part, and ilish-shaped, upward in the center of the hot- 
toin portion, as hefore mentioned, from the upward pressure of the 
liver and stonnndi, which are pressed upward against the under side 
of the diaphragm hy the fullness of the ahdomen, giving the under 
Bide of the <liaphragin much the shape of a washhowl inverted, or 
turned IxHtom upward; ami it is the rising U[) and the descending of 
this art'h of the diaphragm, that eidarges the cavity of the chest, and 
allows the expansion of the IvUUg.s, as tlieir lower surface, adhering 
to the dia[)hragm, desccmls with it; am] as the outer surface r)f the 
Lungs ailhere to the side walls (»f the chest, tlie air-cells are greatly 
expanded ihcrehy. This may be readily understood hy folding a 
piece of tough paper, several, then (rutting slits all around 
its edges, then unfolding it and drawing it out, hy taking hold of ita 
outer edges. The right and h;ft Lung are separated fnun each other, 
up and down, by a dividing membrane, called the inediaslinwn, (from 

f4 DR. chase's 

the Latin medius, the middle,) which is stretched like a curtain, from 
the center of the back-bone to the center of the breast-bone, joining, 
however, with the pericardium, or membranous sack that encloses the 
heart (from Greek words that mean about, and the heart), thus par- 
titioning the chest into two cavities, and why may we not say threef 
For the division, or sack containing the heart is as much a cavity, aa 
those containing the Lungs. The blood, in passing through the sys- 
tem becomes loaded with carbonic acid, or gas, which is poisonous to 
the system ; but the membranous walls of the air-cells of the Lunga 
are so very thin that when the blood enters the Lungs, this gas passes 
out through the membrane freely, and the oxygen of the air passes 
in, also, by which continued process, the purification of the blood ia 
kept up. 

The Lungs are completely covered, or bound together by the se- 
rous membrane, called the pleura (the Greek word for ribs, and also the 
membrane that lines the chest; and as costa is the Latin for rib, they 
are mixed up somewhat in this description), which is also doubled 
over upon the costals, or ribs, taking the name here of pleura costalis, 
and upon the Lungs, the name of pleura pulmonalis. The pleura is 
also reflected apon or covers the upper surface of the diaphragm; and 
this membrane furnishes a sufficient amount of serum, or fluid to 
keep the surface moist, which causes the two surfaces also to adhere, 
or stick together, as a wet piece of leather will stick to a perfectly 
smooth stone, even to raise a considerable weight, if the string, with 
which the lifting is done, is properly attached to the center. This 
power of adhesion of the walls of the chest to the membrane cover- 
ing the Lungs and to the upper side of the diaphragm is what causes 
the expansion of the air-cells as the breath is drawn in; for, at this 
time the diaphragm contracts, drawing the bottom of the Lungs down 
with it by this power of adhesion, permitting the air to enter the en- 
larging cells, simply bj' the pressure of its own weight — 15 lbs. to the 
square inch — as the Lungs have no power of themselves to contract, 
or expand. The left Lung is not quite as large as the right, as the 
heart takes up more room upon the left side than upon the right. 

The Lungs are divided into lobes or folds, the left one being the 
smaller, into two; and the right, being the larger, into three lobes, or 
divisions, which may be noticed in the lights, as they are called in 
our domestic animals. The drawing in of the breath is called inspi- 
ration, and the outward passage is called expiration. 

The Lungs, after breath has been once drawn in, are always 
light and spongy, as a considerable portion of the air remains in them 
at least, sufficient to cause them to float in water, after death; which 
fact has been so well established that it has determined many cases 
of the murder of infants, which it had been claimed were still-born; 
for, if the child has not breathed, the Lungs are solid, and sink in water. 
The average respirations per minute are about 18; amounting, in bulk, 
or quantity of air, to an average of 25 cubic, or square inches of air to 
each breathing; and in 24 hours to over o,o6o gallons, which it is sup- 
posed carries into the system from one-half to three-fourths of a 
pound of carbon, from which, with its combination with the oxygen 
of the air breathed, after the nitrogen has been laken up from it in 
the system, produces, or aids in producnng, the carbonic acid, which is 
80 poisonous, or injurious to the health, when not taken up and car- 
ried out by full and visrorons respirati'in. But. notwithstanding that 


in ordinary breathing there is only about 25 cubic inches of air drawn 
in at each breath, yet, tlie elasticity, and sponginess of the Lungs is so 
great that their capacity may be increased, by an ellort, or forced 
breathing, to more tlian 200 cubic inches; and there are many writers 
who consider that tliis forced breathing, for a minute or two at a time, 
a few times eacli dav, would materially improve the vigor of the 
Lungs, and the general liealth, and to a certain degree, insuie against 

Admitting the foregoing statements to be founded in fact, which 
but few will doubt, the great importance of large school-rooms, pub- 
lic-halls, and bedrooms will be easily understood, unless great care is 
taken for ample ventilation, which but few of our older buildings 
have been supplied with — it should be remedied by making such pro- 
vision at once. 

Carpenter, a careful Physiologist, has drawn the following conclu- 
sions from the foregoing facts, and they are worthy of the fullest con- 
sideration. He says: 

"In all climates, and under all conditions of life, the purity of the 
atmosphere, habitually respired, is essential to that power of resisting 
disease, which, even more than the habitual state of health, is a meas- 
ure of real vigor of the system ; for, owing to the extraordinary ca- 
pacity which the human body possesses, of accommodating itself to 
circumstances, it not unfrequently happens that individuals continue, 
for years, to breath a most unwholesome atmosphere, without appar- 
ently suffering from it; and thus, when they at last succumb," (sink 
under, or give out under) "to some epidemic disease," (a disease com- 
mon to, or affecting many of the people, at one time, in a community, 
or neighborhood, the word epidemic coming from a Greek word which 
signifies among the people), "their death is attributed solely to the dis- 
ease — the previous preparation of their bodies for the reception and 
development of the zymotic poison " (a poison that works through, 
or by fermentation, as in contagious diseases), "being altogether ©ver- 
looked. It is impossible, however, for any one who carefully exam- 
ines the evidence, to hesitate for a moment in the conclusion, that the 
fatality of epidemics is almost invariably in precise proportion to the 
degree in which an impure atmosphere has been habitually respired." 
He that gives heed to good counsel is wise, beyond his fellows. 

Digrestive Organs. — Next to a healthy and vigorous condition 
of the respiratory apparatus, is a healthy and vigorous condition of 
the Digestive Organs; and the Stomach' is the leading, or principal 
organ in the work of Digestion. Of course, the teeth, mouth, phar- 
ynx, esophagus, or gullet, the liver, pancreas, lacteals, thoracic duct, 
aaid the intestines, have more or less to do with digestion and assimi- 
lation (the act of converting the food and drink to a similar condi- 
tion with that of the body, and appropi-iating it to the uses of sup- 
porting the body) ; but, still the Stomach, as before stated, is "the main 
spoke in the wheel." The teeth chew, or masticate the food, while it is 
held in proper position by the mouth; it then passes through the 
pharynx and esophagus to the Stomach, (esophagus comes irom Greek 
words signifying to eat, and to carry away). The liver furnishes the 
bile, and also another fluid, or excretion, which passes through a 
duct, or pipe that joins with the one from the gall-bladder, emptying 
their united contents into the innerside of the duodenum, or second 
portion of the Stomach, as seen at 4, in Fig. 9. The pancreas is a 

,46 OB. CHASE'S 

whitish jjland, situated across the spinal cohimn, hark of the Stomach, 
whicii also furiiislies a Hiiid, or excretion, sli|i|)osftl to he .somewhat 
Bimilar in properties to tiiat of the saliva, as it is similar to it ia 
appearani-e, l>ein<i clear, or water-like. Tiiis fluid empties into the 
duodenum at the same point with tlie liver and trajl-hladder, as seea 
at o, in Kici. 9. Thi^i /ninrredlir juice, as it is sotnetinies called, is con- 
sidereil to !\ave ati important connection with Dijrestion. The lactfali 
are al)st)rl)ent vessels that take up the chj/lc, a milky-like thiid from 
the upper portions of the intestines and carry it to the thoranc duct, 
by which it is conveyed into the hlood. Lacteal and lacteous, come 
from the Latin Utrlift, milk, pertaining to or .having reference to a 
milky fluid, is the nieauiug of the word; and it is this fluid that con- 
tains the nntricious [xu-tions of the food, the more crude, or indigesti- 
ble parts passing on and out by the intestinal i-anal. The Ihoracic 
ductf is counecteil with the Digestive system, or organs, by carrying 
the chyle to the blood, as above described; the word signifying the 
thorax, or chest — the part of the body above the diaphragm. The 
duct, or pipe empties the chyle into the left subclavian vein, thus 
mingling with the blood, it goes to build up the general waste of the 
sv.stem which is constantly going on. Again we .see the wis(h)ra of 
the Creator in .so constituting the blood that it should not only build 
up the .system, but, also take up and carry out, through the kidneys, 
skin, etc;., the worn-out, or efl'ete niatter of the system. Tf we had had 
to make these provisions, in our lack of "wisdom," we .should cer- 
tainly have been compelle<l to have provided liro sets of ves.^els, or 
comluctdrs. The connection of the(n/<'.s/(;/r.'< with Digestion will be read- 
ily understood with but little further description. After the food has 
been pro[)erly dissolved t)y the gastric juice, in the Stoma<'h, it ia 
passed along the intestines, from which, as above describeil, the 
absorbents, or /w/fff/.s take up the nntricious portions of the food to 
nourish the .system, while the useless, or refuse portions are excreted, 
per n'ctiiia, under the name of frcfH, or "stools." 

But I now return to the Stomach, the main organ of Dige.stion, a 
fair view of its natural siia|)e and arrangement in the body will be 
Been in Fig. K); and its connections and relations to the other organs, 
will be seen more particularly in Fig. H. 

The Stomach is a muscular sa<-k, or large exjiansion of the intes- 
tinal canal. The form of it is very peculiar, the large end lying upon 
the left side; and tiie small end passing, a little, the center of the 
body, t)eing turned by the peiuiliar shape of the liver which lies partly 
upon the up|)er portion of the Stomach, and a part of it passing <lown 
by the duodeimm, turning it back-like, ujxtn itself, where it crosses 
back to about the center ami under portion of the Stomach 'A, and then 
folds or lairves back and forth, under the name of the umall hiifxthwg, 
as seen in Fio. 11, where at ."i, it enters the large int('stiiie ami ascemhs, 
or passes up to about I he liight of the lower j>art of the Stomach, where 
it (grosses over the body in front of the small inte.stim^s, urnlcr tlie 
name of the "transverse colon," (from trims, across, and rrrtfre, to 
turn); then it [)asses down the left side, and from !), where it be<"omes 
smooth and straight in its outlines, it is called the recluin (from rectus 

t NoTR.— The Ttioraeic Diiot wa.s discovered by tSiisiachius, in l.'ifiS, iii tbe horse; 
he roKiinleil it as a %'eiii, and calloil it the vena allia tlimacis, white vein of ttie t:hwJt, 
or thorax). The Lacteals were first seen l).v AselliuA, in 11)22, in a dog ; and witliiu tba 
next 10 years by Vesliugius, iu uiiui. — WiUon. 


Btraijrht, as the old Anatomists helieved it to be straifrht, thi? was prob- 
ftblv before the liiiy of ilissertioiis) ; ami tiiiaily ibe " iiile^tiiiaj raiuti" 
terminates at the lowest |iortioti of the body teiiinicaily tailed the 
avis, closed by a miisrie ealleil tlie sphincter ani muscle, through 
which the excremeutb, or feces, are expelled. 

Fm. 10. 


Fin. 10. t, the rardiac orifice, or eiitraiipe ; 2, the pyloric orifice, or entranpe into the 
dnrwlcimm. reprcst'iiU'cl l>y tlie folds, or swelling and (•oiitractiiis portion, w hich in its 
pa^saKe on behind the lower portion of the stomarh. tokes the name: i. represent.*; the 
gall duct ; and ft. the pHnereatie-dnet. The njiper enrve is ealleil the '.esser enrvatnre; 
and the lower side is called the great cnrvature. It is almost absolutely covered, it will 
be seen, with a net-work of liloodvessels. 

The Stomach is thicker in snbstance than the intestines, no donht 
to enable it to receive a lar<rer amount of blofxl vessels and nerves, to 
©liable it to do a lar<:er amount of work. Wliile the intestines liave 
only tliree coats, the Stomach has five — the inner or mttcns mend)rane; 
then tliri'e layers, or coats of muscles, rnnninfj in diflerent <Iirections, 
one layer runninji lengthwise, or nearly so, and one layer passing 
aroujKl ; and one loniritndinal, or oblitjuely around, aIthou<rh this ia 
generally set down as otdy one coat; and the outer, wliich is tlie 
tfrniiH, and in the abdomen takt^s the name of j)eritoneal (from imri- 
toiit'inn, to stretch all ari>nnd, or over), which not only cox'ers the 
Stomach, but also the wliile intestines and inner walls of the abdo- 
men, as the /i/i'iirn dues that of tlie chest. These muscles, .Itiritig 
J>itrestion are constantly con t met iii}; and relaxinjr, alternately, by w hi eh 
means a constant motion is kept tip to aid the process, and for the 
piirf'iise of fn-essiiiiT upon the trlands that are found in the substance 
of the .'^tomach for the <upply of tlie fjnxtrir jviir, as it is called, wliich 
dissolves the fond. Tlie situation of tliese jrUind.-^ is in the folds of 
Itie inner, or niueus com of the Stomach, as before mentiot;ed; these 
folds or tnbe-like (.'lands jrive a much trreater surface than woidd 
Otherwi'-e have been j^iven in tlie same spai-e. 

\ well-known law >>f l>ij;estion. i>, that th'.- [)rocess does not cona- 
meuce until all of the fluid taken with the meal has been absorbed 



or taken into the veins bj^ tlie absorbents placed there for that pur- 
pose; and it is also known that if any considerable amount of water 
or other fluid is drank during Digestion, the process is very much 
retarded: and if the fluid is very cold, it is entirely stopped. This 
shows us why many dyspeptics can not take much of any fluid, as 
water, tea. or coftee, during meals or at any other time, because these 
absorbents are diseased, and can not take up tlie fluid, but leave it in the 
Stomach, which delays, or obstructs the Digestion until the food sours 
and causes the production of a gas that distends the Stomach ^o such 
an extent as to cause great distress, risings and "belchings of wind" 
etc., etc. If such persons, however, will use but little, or no fluid 
"with their food, and not until Digestion is over, thev may get along 
quite comfortably. " 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. n. 1, Esophagus ; 2, and 3, the larger 
lobes or divisious of tlie liver, raised up from 
the stomach and intestines; 4, the ascending 
colon, or first part of the large intestines; 
5, the coecum (from a word meaning Wind, 
or having no opening, as this does not 
open below, but hangs down like a pouch); 
li, vermiform, or worm-like appendages, which 
no human wisdom has yet found out the use 
of; 7, the small Intestines, or illeum, meaning 
twisted, or coiled and folded back and forth, 
tlie upper part of which is called iejunum. 
which signifies to fast, as it is generally found 
empty, the food passing quickly through it; 8. 
the rectum ; 9, 10, and 11, the transverse ana 
descending colon ; 12, the spleen ; 13, the 
stomach; 14, the pancreas; 15, the pylorus, or 
gate through which the dissolved food is pe»- 
mitted to pass, but undissolved food is not per- 
mitted to pass tliis valve, orpa<«-A-«j)cr, w&icn ia 
the meaning of the Greek word pyloruf. 


It is not proper to eat a full meal when the system is much 
■exhausted from over-exercise, or when weakened by disease, or when 
feeling "poorly," as is often remarked, from the approach of disease; 
for, often, in approaching disease, a full meal having been eaten, much 
of it remains in the Stomach undigested, as the "gate-keeper" will not 
allow such food to pass, at least, until he is completely exhausted 
by long watching. In such cases, an emetic had better be given to 
empty the Stomach. 

Besides the ordinary nerves of sensation and of motion, the 

rtltt'OND Rh.1 KIIT l-tiiKK 49 

Stomach has also a. large sn|)[>ly of the S>^m/»iihf'ti<' system of nerves, in 
fact, both systems, or chusses of nerves, as well as bloodvessels, are 
supplied, or furnished to the Stomach more i)lentiful]y than to any 
other organ of the system, because it has prop(jrtionally, the 
largest amount of work to perform. No matter w^hat other organ is 
aflected, the Stomach sympulhizes with it; hence, if any other i^art of 
the system is injured, to any extent, the person becomes "sick at the 
Stomach," and fainting is the result. 

The Liver. — The Liver being the largest organ of the body, and 
also connected with the Digestive Organs, would seem to require a 
little further notice, at my hands, than has, as yet, been given to it. 
It is a gland, and in tlie adult, or full grown person, weighs about 4 
pounds, is of a browiusb-red color, and is appended, or attached to the 
alimentary -canal. [)erforming a </o«/>/<? office, that of purifying the blood, 
and also that of furnishing, or secreling the bile. It is about 12 inches 
in length, and 4 to o in width. It is siliuited in the right side, at the 
upper part of the abdomen; it is also divided into lobes, the same as 
the lungs; the lobes are called right and left. The right lobe is the 
thickest an*! heaviest, hanging down apron-like in the right side, 
reaching as low as the short ribs; the left lobe is thinner and lighter, 
and spreads out over the Stomach, its upi>er surface being in contact 
with the diaphragm. The Liver sometimes becomes diseased, becom- 
ing very large and hard, called indurated, occasionally reaching the 
enormous weight of 25 to ?>\) lbs. Almost every disease, in years gone 
by, by the Alopaths, was laid to the Liver — the Liver was this, and 
the Liver was that — and of course, calomel, or calomel and jalap, was 
the remedy; often ihn first and the last; in many cases almost the 
onZy one given; and Dr. Scudder informs us that, "In the Southern 
and Western States it was used in moderation, i. e., from 10 grs. to a 
tea or a table-spoonful at a dose. Many," he adds, "followed the rule 
of Prof. Cook, of Louisville, that if an apparent effect was not pro- 
duced by the remeily the first day, double the dose the next, quadru- 
ple it the third, and so on, until, as we have authentic accounts, 
one-fourth, one-half, and in one case of bilious fever, over one pound 
had been introduced." Such maltreatment, no doubt, had much to do 
in raising such an outcry against calomel, as to cause its final over- 

The Liver is covered with the sero'is membrane, the same as all 
of the other organs in the abdomen. The gall-bladder is attached to 
the right lobe, upon the under side of the Liver. Besides the tivo 
main lobes of the Liver, which have been already mentioned, there 
are three other smaller lobes, making fine in all; it is attached by five 
ligaments; and has, aUo, five bloodvessls entering, into its structure 
— the hepatic artery, hepatic veins, hepatic ducts, portal veins and 
Ivmphatics, which are of the nature of absorbents, carrying a water- 
like fluid, called lymph, the name having reference to a spring of clear 
water; and also believed to mean something like the Greek word 
nymph, or goddess of the water, as they were accredited as making 
their home in the water — mermaids. 

_ The Spleen. — The Spleen, although it is not known to have any 
action in the process of Digestion, yet, as it is attached to the Stomach, 
its description would seem to belong in this connection. The word 
cornes from a Greek word which signifies a lien, either a claim upon, 
or to lie upon, as it lies upon, and u attached to the large end of the 
4— DE. chase's SECo^rD keckipt book. 


Stomach, in tlie Iftft side, be!'^"<' the 'diaphragm, its npper end 
toucliiiis,' tlie diaphragm, and to w wri. ii^ ^f^ the Stomach, it ia 
attiiched by small hloo<lves«eis and areolar, or reUnhir lissne. Like 
the liver, it is a gland, of a sponiry nature, ulled vvitli hioodvessels, 
bnt having no duel leading from it to show tliat it has any work to 
perform, the office of which can be at all determined — its office in the 
system is not known; atul in some of the lowyr animals in whicli it 
is called the melt, or milt, it has been removetl without injury to the 
animal so far as could t)e seen. 

The Spleen, however, sometimes tiecomes enlarged, when if mav 
be felt nn(U^r the short ribs of the left side. This occurs, after low 
grades of fever, as typhoid, or typhus, ague, etc. What will purify 
the blond and tone up the system, to health, will cure the dillicalty. 
This would apj)ear to me to indicate that this organ has something to 
do in purifying the blood, the former of which it loserf in llie pecu- 
liarly weakened state of the sy.stem under these diseases, ami hence 
the iilood becomes obstructed in its passage tli rough tlie Sjjleeii. 

The Absorbents.— Besides the arterial and veinous circulatio-n, 
there is another set of very small tubular, or pipe-like vessels, taking 
the name of Absorbents, but are of two characters — ////c^'*;/.s, and Kym- 
phatlrs, a<!cording to whether they carry a milky finid — the chylt, or a 
"watery (hud — the lymph. 

The Lacteals commence upon the inner surface of the intestines 
and absorb, or suck up the chyle, the milky-like fluid, formed from 
the digestive process, and from which the blood is renewed, and the 
general system built up, pouring the chyle, as before remarked, into 
the thoracic-duct. And Dr. Gunn, in his " Domestic Physician," says 
that he tiunks it is a reverse action of the I,<tiie(ih, in cholera, by 
which they pour back their contents into the inte.stines, or rather, I 
should say, want of action, in not taking up the chyle, leaving it to be 
paiised otT in the milky, and watery stools. 

The Lymphatics come from ail parts of the system, carrying a 
watery-tluid, called I.,ymph, and emptying it into the tharacic-dmrt, 
the same as do the Lacteals. Tojret her, these are called the Al)s(irb- 
ents,or the ahs^orheyit nyxtcm. The following quotation from I>r. (Junn's 
wrtrk, just above mentioned, will give an excellent nnderstamling of 
the object and uses of these Absorbents. I!e says: 

"The Lym[)hati(ts take up fluids from diflerent cavities and part.s 
of the body, and carry them into the eirculatiou, and it may, there- 
fore, be reatiily supposed that they often prevent the occurrenre of 
dropsies. They may be (compared to a greeily set of little animals, 
ready to lay hold of ami carry ofl" every thing that comes in their 
way. They seem to have no judgment as to what is trood and healthy, 
but will absorb poisonous and ileliterious substances, as well as the 
most nutricioiis. If is well known that merciiry rubbed ou the skin, 
in the form of ointment, will be absorbed, an<l produce salivation as 
efTei'tually as if taken internally. Croton oil rubbe<l on the alxlomen 
pro(hices purging; and arsenic api)lied to cancers, and oj)ium to burns, 
have heed absorbed in quantities sufficient to poison the |)atients. 
.Blooil effused under the skin, or nails, [irodui-ing a dark ai>pearaiice, 
is removed l)y these little vessels. Their office seems to be that of 
general usefuhiess, rea<ly to take up and carry ofl^any refuse material, 
dead iwUter, or unhealthy dei)i)sit, in any part of the system." 

Then in case of the inactivity of the Lymphatics, as known bv 


dropsies, a 8<i'm?(/ani and tonic treatment which will restore goieraJ 
liesillii to all partH of the system, will certainly be calle<l for. 

The Thoracic Duct which forms tiie last or tiiiishiiig part of the 
Ab8orl)eiits, re(]iiiresa word more of ex|)laMation before we leave thh 
Digestive ()rjj::i IIS. It begins in the lower part of the alxl-omen, and 
passes lip, as before remarked, along side of the aorta ruid vena cava, 
to the neck, npoii the left side, at which point it makes an acrh, like the 
aorta downward, />0'<r(7(f/ »V.s' ronteutx into Ihr Ifft sulicliirum ivi/i, at u 
point as high as tiie collar l)one, by which mean.s the dii/le, the aonr- 
ishiiig part of the food, together with the venous blood, is condnct6<l 
directly to the heart, by which means the hUtod, as well as all other 
parts of the systeui, isrejileuished or built ii|>. 

Nervous System. — The Brain, Si)iiial Cord, and the Merve^ lejid- 
ing from them make up wliat is known as tlio Nervous liybtem. The 
two tirst constitute what Anatomists call the ccrrhro-spiiud canter, tho 
Spinal Cord being continuous with the Brain. The Brain, proper, in 
divided into two portions, ccr^ferum, and [he cerebellum, as seen at 1 and 
2 in Ki(i. 12. 

The Latin word cerehrmn, means ]>rain,and cerebellum, \\tt\e Brain. 
Like nearly all of the other organs of the botly, the Brain in divided 
into riijlit and /'// portions; the cerebrum, or large and upper portion 
of the iirain is divided, in its upper part, by a dip of tho membrane 
by whiili the wh<jle Brain is en<'loseil. This membraiu? is called the 
durti malfr, literally meaning hard mother, although it is more com- 
moidy ijesignated ha stmn;/ mother; (hint, however, comes from durus, 
lianl or rt'r-n, and muter, mother. Persons who have been educated in 
a college or university, speak of the institution as their alma maler,or 
fostering mother, and almost always remember them, somewhat with 
the same rewpect that a tluti fill child will renieujber their good and 
kind mother who has done so much for them. 

This membrane took this name of //hi^t, or mother, because it, 
was, at tirst, thought to give rise to all the other niembraiu's of tho 
bodv; ami as there are tiro other membranes c<uimn'ted with th(i 
Brain, and this one the stoutest and most firm, it would appear th>! 
more natural to have been so named. The other membranes of tbo 
Brain are the aritdinoid, from 'trdclntidd, a spider, as this Im'mbranei^^ 
much like a spider's web. The other is called pin mater, or tentler 
mother, as this, the inside membrane, is soft and full of bloodvessels, 
and dijts into ail of its convolutions, or lobes. These lobe-like con- 
volutions of the Brain will be readily understood by all wl^o have 
taken out the brain of the hog, in cutting up that animal. The aruc/i- 
noid i-'.the central membrane, or covering of the Brain. 

The "right ami left portions" of the Brain, as spoken of above, 
are sometimes i-illed hemiK/dierei^, meaning half of a sphere, or globe; 
but they are held in connection at the bottom, by a tirm portion of (he 
Nerve Tissue, called rorpnifndloKnm, or hard l)ody ( from rorpu.t, a body, 
anil >;illu!<, hard); hence, we have the word cf/r/;,sy, a dead body, etc. 

The outer portion of tlie substam-e of the Brain, for from one-fourt?\ 
to h:ilf an inch in depth is of a gray, or whitish-gray appearance, 
called I he r/»//'r(/»'»'(."i portion (from the Latin ciiiix, ashes), while tlib 
inner portion is whiter, or (piite white, i*alled the medidlunj, middle, 
or marrow-like portion (from mt'diux, miildle, ami mrdidla, marrow). 

The internal portions of the Brain, as before remarked, have 
fold.s of the membranes, also above described, which pa>i« between 



the various convolutions, and, in some other parts, are not as firmly 
attached to the sides of these little lobes, or convolutioTis, makinj^ 
what are called cavities, although it is not to be supposed that there 
Fig. 12 

Fig. 12. 1, the cerebrum; 
•i, the cerebellum; 3, 3, the 
Hpinal cord; 4, the sciatic 
nerve; 5, 5, the interlocking 
of the different roots of the 
ner\'es, as they are called, 
A'. Inch will be better under- 
stood by observing Fio. 13. 

The nerve fibres pass like 
tlie circulative system to all 
piirts of the tiody, aud are 
<li\"lded up so linely that not 
a pin's point Ciin be put 
do\ni upon tlie skin without 
(.•ausinj pain, even by the 
tiJightest pressure. Parts of 
the flesh and bones, are rep- 
resented a.s removed, to eii- 
iible the larger nerve fibres 
to be seen. 

C RUMB sc 

are p.ny actual hollow places; but, rather openin<^s. or separations; and 
it is in these opejiings, in " of the brain" Avhere the water ac- 


cnmulates, the absorbents, in the membranes, being Jiseased, so they 
do not take up and carry off the accumulations. 

The Brain being a very soft and pulpy mass, tlie dividing mem- 
brane which dips down into it from the top, and from the front and 
back side of the skull to Avhich itjs also firmly attached, is supposed to 
be for the purpose of supporting the weigbt. of tlie upper side from 
pressing upon the lower, when a person is lying down; at least, this 
IS undoubtedly one of its objects. 

The cerebellum, or lower portion of the Brain is very small asconi- 
j)ared with the upper and larger portions, about as 1 "to (i, or? only; 
for the upper and larger portions of the Brain projects over the roof 
of the mouth, eyes, etc., to the forehead, while the smaller portion 
lies only under the back part of the cerebrum, and back of the nos- 
trils, and floor of the upper portion. There is a greater proportion of 
the gray, or ash-colored matter in this smaller part of the Brain, a?i 
compared with the large; and there is another peculiarity in the cere- 
hellnm, i. e., the white part is so arranged that when it is cut through, 
up and down, it la iks like the branches and leaves of a tree, called 
the arbor vifx, or tree of life. There is a fold of the dura mater which 
partly separate these two portions of the Brain, It is here called thti 
tentorum, or tent; being, however, more like an awning, not cutting it 
off entirely, as a tent would do. 

The Spinal Cord, also begins within the skull, or rather is a contin- 
uation downward of this portion of the Brain, which also, as abovo 
remarked, is not entirely separated from the upper part of the Brain, 
all are, therefore, connected together by this portion of the Spinal 
Cord, something of the shape and size of a man's thumb, called tho 
medulla oblongata, or long marrow (from the prefix ob and longiis, Ion" 
and medulla, marrow, or pith). It is the commencement of the spinal 
marrow, but lying within the cranium, and believed to have conti-oJ 
of the respirator}', or breathing apparatus. 

The Spinal Cord. — The Spinal Cord is a continuation downward, 
of the Brain, contained within the vertebra of the neck and back, ex- 
tending down not more than about 18 to 20 inches, or to only a little 
below what is called the "small of the back," where it terminates in 
a roundish point, to the external appearance, but, in fact, the end i.'« 
split up into fibres, or fine nerves, so much so that it takes the name 
of Cauda equina, or horse's tail (cauda, signifying tail, and equus, ii 
horse, pertaining to, or reserably a horse's tail). The gray and white 
Fubstances of the Spinal Cord are reversed to what they were in tho 
Brain, the gray being upon the inner side of the Cord; but the Cord 
is divided, or partially so, into halves, backward and forward, making 
right and left sides, and each half is also partially divided into threo 
lobes, or divisions, the furrows, or fissures, all running tip and down- 
ward in the Cord; but notwithstanding all these divisions in the outer 
surface of the Spinal Cord, yet, the center or gray portion is not divi- 
ded; the Cord actually being a whole, and also a whole with the 
Brain, notwithstanding all these partial, or seeming divisions. From 
these side lobes, or divisions of the Spinal Cord, the nerves of sensa- 
tion and of motion, take their start, and extend to all parts of the body ; 
or, rather it will be seen by referring to Fig, lo., that these Nreves ap- 
pear to come out of the fissures, or furrows, which will also be plainly 
seen in the same Fio, These Nerves leave the furrows in small fibres, 
but soon unite together into one cord, which also 80Cti ■.ir!''e« with a 

54 DK. chase's 

Bimilar cord, or Nerve which cornea from another furrow, as seen at 4, 
Fig. 13, in all cases passing out downward, all leaving in jmirs, one to 
the right, tne other to the left— 31 pairs in all. Each Nerve, it will be 
eeen then, luisi7/)0 roots — a root of sensation, called the >>evKilirc root; 
tmcl atxtotof motion calle<l the motor root. It is supposed that the rooLs 
orising from the front side are the mo^)r.s, and those from tlie hack 
part of theC'ord are Knn^itives — the Nerves that us to feel pain or 
fileasure, and the others that enable us to move about, by the act of 
tlie wiUfSSi previously spoken of. 

Fio. 13. , . V, . , 

Fig. 13. 1, shows a Section or the spinal 
corrt, with membranous sheatli, or covering;; 
2, Uie membraiH' folded Ijack to show the 
fiUTows, or fissures of the conl, willi the 
fibers, or roots ol' the nerves starting mil from 
them to unite into one bun<lle. S and .'>. thwii, 
at 4, to unite into one cord. The.'^e ner\ea, 
however, after ha^'ing forme<i the union, 
senil oil" branches, or filament to all the or- 
gans and tissues ot ihe body. At 8, there is 
noticed a swelling, or eulargeuient of the 
nerv'B, called a ganglion. 


Besides the enlargement of the Spinal Cord in the cranium, called 
the medulla oblongata, which throws off the Nerves that control the 
respiratory organs, there are tuv other enlargements; the./!r.s'if in the 
lower part of the neck, at which point the brachial, or Nerves of the 
arms are given off; and the second, in the lumbar region, or small of 
tlie back, giving off the Nerves to the lower extremities. The gan- 
glion, or enlargement of the Nerve as seen at 3, in P'lo. 13, is common 
to most of the Nerves, and it is supposed to give additional strength, 
CO* power to the Nerves, and from which branches are thrown off. 
Tlie membrane that covers the Spinal Cord, and the Nerve branches, 
is a continuation of the pia mater, or the strong membrane of the 
Brain. It also dips into the furrows, forming their divisions, the same 
n.s it does in the Brain. The covering, or sheath of the NerveH is 
called nenrilemtna, (from Greek words that signify a nerve, and a 
■fihcath, or covering coat); hence, we have neuralgia, or j>ain in a 

The Nerves themselves, are composed of the white substance 
only, of the Brain, and Spinal Cord, none of the gray matter appear- 
ing in them; they run to every part of the body and mix, or con\ 
tounicate freely with each other on their course, contimiing to divi<le 
until they are so small as not to be seen by the naked eye. Thia 
commingling together is very beautifully shown at 5, 5, in Fig. 13. 

Besides the Nerves of sensation, and of motion as described above, 
there is the Symphatlietic system of Nerves, also, which go to bind the 
body into one harmonious whole; and this system of Nerves, although 
originating in the Brain, and connected extensively with the Spinal 
Cord, is believed to receive additional strength from its various gan- 
Qlia, or 8welling-like enlargements along the Spinal column, which 
ere always found at these points of connection. The Sympathetic Nei"ve 
communicates with all of the Nerves of the Brain, and also with the 
Spinal Nerves, as they issue from the Brain, and from the Spinal 
Cord; and they accompany the arteries of supply to all cf the differ- 
ent organs of the body. This Nerve seems to be set as guard over all 


the different parts of the body, combining and harmonizing the 
actions of the different organs, giving due notice if any part or organ 
is injured. Digestion, al)sorption, nutrition, or supply, the circulation, 
and the respiration are all under its control: so that while we sleep, 
these natural processes n|)on which life, itself, depentls, go on just the 
same as when we are awake, and it is very probable that this is the 
main work of this system of Nerves, to keep up the harmonious 
action of all these hicoluutan/ processes of supply and waste. The 
circulation, digestion, al)sorption, and secretion, must all go on 
whether we are asleep or awawe; and without this watchful harmon- 
izer, or sentinel, it is believed, that when the Brain lost its conscious- 
ness, as in sleep, deatli would be the immediate result. 

When any part of the system is out of order, or is injured, the 
Sympathetic Nerve communicates its wants, or its condition to every 
other part; but we realize this more particularly in the stomach, 
which so often becomes sick, as we call it, upon the injury of some 
other part, refusing to take food, seemingly, knowing that it could 
not be digested while the strength of tiie whole nervous system is con- 
centrated upon the injured, or inflamed part; and well would it be 
for many people, suffering under injuries, or from inflammatory dis- 
eases, if they would eat more sparingly, and only of gruels, or of some 
other very digestible kinds of food. 

Although the Brain is the seat, or center of nervous influence, 
taking cognisance of pain in other parts, yet, it can be cut without 
any sensation of pain. The Nerves of the eye and ear, are of this 
class — insensible; while the Nerve fibers going to the skin are very 
quick to recognize pain, and are, therefore, called sensible. Why this 
should have been so arranged, perhaps, may be accounted for by the 
extreme fineness of these organizations, if permitted to realize pain 
from cutting, it would have been so very extreme; while it is known 
to those who havesubmitted to surgical operations upon these organs, 
especially the eye, tio not find the pain to at all compare with what 
they had expected from their natural delicacy. These organs, how- 
ever, are very susceptible to light and sound. 

In case of the (rutting off, or of other destructive injury to the 
Nerve, or Nerves leading to any organ, or part of the body, Xhe func- 
tion, or action of that organ is destroyed; and when it occurs to those 
of any of the organs upon which life depends, death is soon the 

Besides the sensible and insenmble Nerves they are classed also under 
the heads of voluntary and involuntary, i. e., the Nerves of the arms 
and legs, especially, are under the control, or act of the will, and by 
this control, motion — movi iig from place to place, labor, etc., is brought 
about, or carried on voluntarily; while the Nerves of the stomach, 
heart, lungs, intestines, etc., are not under our control absolutely, 
although, when awake, we can to a certain extent, control their 
action, yet, they carry on these functions whether "we will or no," 
and are, therefore, called involuntary — they act independent of the wiM. 

Besides the 31 pairs of Spinal Nerves, before mentioned, there 
are 12 [tairs originating in the Brain, passing out through openings, 
or foramen, as they are called in medical works, (from the L«Un 
jornre, to bore, or pierce — a little opening), through the floor, or base 
of the Brain. They are named and distributed in tlie following orders: 

First Pair, tiie Olfactory, or nerves «^f smoll • one to each side of 


im. t'HASKK 

the nostrils, (the word comes from olfnrtmn, to smell). Second, the 
Optic, or nerves of sight; one to the retina of eacli eye, or that part 
of the eye that reflects the image of what we see, (the word comes 
from the Greek, meaning to see; hence, we have the won/ optics, 
relating to the laws of light, optical instruments, etc.). Third, the 
motores oculorum, referring to the motions of the eyes; they go to the 
muscles of the eyes; also the Fourth, r'atheticu», is distributed to the 
muscles of the eyes; and is the means by which sympathy, as pity, 
or grief, are manifested, (the word is the Latin for j)assion, as pity, or 
grief, as shown by the eye). Fifth, the Trifacial, (Tri, three, and 
fades, the face), because it is divided into three branches, and is dis- 
tributed to the face, including the mouth, teeth, jaws, nose, and fore- 
head. Sixth, the Abducentes, {from abducere, to draw away, or take 
away; hence, we have also abduct, to steal and carry away)," so called 
because it is distributed to the outer muscles of the eye, to turn them 
out, or away from the center. Seventh, the- Portio Mollis, (portio, a 
part, and mollis, soft), being a softer, or more puljjy nerve than usual, 
and also divided, being distributed to the outer, or" hearing portion of 
the ear — the auditory, or hearing Nerve. Eighth, the Faical, which 
is distributed to the muscles of the face, while the trifacial was sent 
to the more internal parts of the face. Ninth, the Glosso- Pharyngeal 
(from yZossa, the tongue, having reference also to glo-ssiness, glisten- 
ing, a speech, or writing, etc., to make appear fair, plausible; and 
pharynx, the throat), is sent to the membranes of the tongue, throat, 
and the glands of the mouth. Tenth, the Pneumogastric, (the word 
coming from two Greek words, signifying the lung, or lungs, and the 
stomach); and although the name only indicates the lungs and stom- 
ach, yet, besides these, it is distributed also to the throat, liver, spleen, 
and intestines; it is also called the par vagum, (which means little 
wanderer, or equal wanderer, from par, equal, and ragnri, to stroll, or 
wander about), as it goes to so many parts. Eleventh, the Spinal 
Accessory, (from spina, or spinalis, the spine, and acccssorius, literally 
to aid, or help; but, it is used here rather to indicate company, to 
accompany), joining with the Glosso-Pharyngeal and Pneumogastric, 
and is distributed to the muscles of the neck. Twelfth ; the twelfth 
pair is called the Hypo-Glossal, {hypo, under, and glossa, the tongue, 
under the tongue), and is distributed to the muscles of the tongue, by 
which it has its motion. 

The Spinal and Sympathetic Nerves have already been described, 
in connection with the illustrations; to give a general understanding 
of their uses, and distribution, I think, although it is not to be sup- 
posed that I could take up all of their relations, and connections; 
the same is true of all of the branches of Anatomy; but if I have 
given a sufficient description to enable the readers of this Work, to 
understand the subject as it is connected with the diseases herein 
treated upon; and also to awaken in the young sufficient interest to 
induce them to follow up the study, by obtaining other Works on 
Anatomy, I have accomplished my fullest expectations; and I will 
only add, that the single study of the Anatomy of tlie human system, 
is sufficient in itself, to satisfy us that the visdom of the Creator is too 
great for our comj)rehension. There are many, very many, things in 
the organization of our system, that thousands of years of study has 
not yet comprehended, or found out, and never will; but, yet, the 
study is very interesting, andabo very useful. Let no one neglect to 


obtain all possible knowledge upon this subject, for indeed, "we are 
fearfully and wonderfully made." Let them also make good and 
practical use of that knowledge, for their own, and the general good, 
then they will not have lived in vain. With a hope that this desire 
may be realized by all of our readers, we leave it for their consider- 
ation, and proceed with other subjects, in their regular order. 

For Illustration and Description of the Skin, and its functions 


APOPLEXY. — The word Apoplexy is made up from Greek 
words which signify a striking, or knocking down, from the fact tha'. 
the person attacked with it generally falls to the ground, losing all 
the senses, and motions, except those of the heart and lungs. 

Cause. — A rush of blood to the head, or brain, which some think 
is hereditary, (coming from parents, or ancestors further back . 
Those who are most liable to the disease are of a full robust frame, 
and generally fleshy, broad shouldered, large head, short neck, etc. 
And those having it are also, generally, those who love good victuals 
and a plenty of them, and if accustomed to the use of spirits, the 
liability is so much the greater, and the attack is quite likely to come 
on while the stomach is distended with a full meal. "Sun-stroke" is 
considered by some to be of a similar nature, and it may be brought 
on by excessive cold, which causes the blood to recede almost entirely 
from the surface. 

Sjnxiptonis. — Sometimes the attack is without warning, "striking 
down," as the name implies, at once, and fatally; but generally it will 
be preceded by a dul' pain in the head, giddiness and weakness, 
especially on stooping, drowsiness, dimness of sight, »oss of memory, 
inability to speak plainly, flushed countenance, hot head, etc., eti:. 
But upon the attack the person drops in a mass, and lies entirely un- 
conscious, breathing in a stertorious, or snoring-like manner. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be done is to straighten the per- 
son out, elevate the head a little, loosen the clothes, take off" neck ties, 
open the collar, etc., and if in a house open the windows, and if out of 
doors, keep back the crowd to allow fresh air, remove boots, or shoes, 
and stockings and chafe the feet and legs, and as soon as possible get 
them into hot water, apply cold water to the head, by wetting cloths 
and laying them upon, after having carefully wet the hair and head 
with it. If no hot water can be had at once, and there is mustard or 
cayenne pepper on hand, chafe the feet and legs with either of them, 
and a mustard plaster may be applied to the stomach ; but nothing 
can be given internally, unless by injection, and this need not be done 
unless these first directions are of no avail to restore consciousness ; 
then, and in that case, give an injection of salt, ground mustard, and 
lard, or oil, of each a heaping tea-spoonful, in warm water, 1 pt., whicii 
will have a tendency to draw the blood from the head, and aid in get- 
ting a passage from the bowels; this may be repeated in half an hour 
if deemed best. Let the hot water for the feet and legs be got ready 
as soon as possible, and used thoroughly, for 30 or 40 minutes. And 
after consciousness and comfort are again restored, a full cathartic may 
be given, and such diaphoretics as will "aid to keep the surface in a mild 
and gentle perspiration. Avoid, in the future, all stimulating food, 
that is, high seasoned food, and all stimulating drinks. And, as a 
I)reventive, in persons predisposed to it, when they realize any or all 
of the above symptoms, let them use frequent cathartics, say twice * 


week, plain food, no spirits, cool baths for the head, and iiot ones for 
the feet, ont-duor exercise, but av(jiding fatigne, and many cases of 
A|n)piexy will be avoided. Sometimes tliis disease leaves its effects in 
the form of a paralized arm, or leg, and occasionally the whole side, 
P"lsy, for which, but little can be done. Friction with any good stim- 
ulating liniment, 2 or 3 times daily, witli the other i)recuutions as to 
living, and electricity is believed by some to be beneticial in ]) 

ASTEtMA. — This word comes from a Greek word which means, 
I breath hard. It affects tlie lungs and bronchial tubes, and is gen- 
erally of a spa.smodic nature, and most frequently occurs, or is worse, 
in the night than in the day. 

Cause. — It is undoubtedly of a hereditary character, although, so 
far as it can be known, it occasionally arises in i)ersons spontaneously, 
or apparently from direct cause; and this is borne out by a friend of 
mine, who has had it many years, and is qualified to judge under- 
stiindingly of its cause. He believes it to arise from s])inal irritation, or 
<, especially from an irritation of the upper portion of tiie spine. 
It is, known, to be more likely to occur in damp .situations than 
upon high and dry locations. Ajid it may be caused by a sudden 
change, from dry to a damp atmosphere, and from the subsidence 
(stopping gradually) of other diseases; but when it has once occurred. 
it is .seldom entirely cured; but, occurs again, and again, from any of 
the above causes, and from severe exercise, as ascending stairs, fi-om 
loo full meals, violent passions, irritation from dust, smoke, etc. 

S3nnptoras. — The stomach is often oppressed from indigestion, 
causing a distention by the accumulating gas, heart-burn, fnllne.ssof 
the head, i)ain over the eyes, sleeplessness, and a of tightness 
across the chest, and sometimes nausea; the tightnessacross the chest 
increasing until he (more men have the disease than women) 
starts ui> f^rom his bed and raises a window, for air, no matter iiow 
cohl, as though he expecteil to draw but a very few more breaths, and 
takes breath by gasps, with a terrible wheezing noise, according to 
the severity of the, which, if nothing is done, will probably .sub- 
side toward morning^ slowly and steadily, often with a free expectora- 
tion, after whii:h the patient may fall into a pretty quiet sleep. This 
may continue, or rather relapse, every night for 3 or 4 nights, and in 
M'ell established cases, |)ersons have been known not to take tlie bed, 
nor have a comfcjrtable night for many vveek.s. 

Treatment. — If the si>asmotlic action is very considerable, and 
has ari.sen soon after a full meal, let an emetic be at once adiui iiistered, 
if such an article is in the house (as it always ought to be where there 
is a family of children, or an a.sthniatic person), in the meantime get 
WmJ'eet into hot water for lo or 20 miinites, followed with mnntaiul to the 
feet, to divert the blood from the lungs; and if an emetic is taken, a 
tea of (^atnij), pennyroyal, or some other diaphoretic article may be 
given with it in jihice of clear warm water, but that may l^e used if 
nothing else is at hand, for vomiting will be easier and with less of 
the emetic, by using freely of some warm drink. See K.mktics. 

The difficulty with asthmatic |)ationts, in not being able to effect a 
cure, or at least a very considerable benefit, is, that they will not cou- 
*inue the remedy snfHciently long to make a lasting impression, i. e., 
to work an alterative effect, to do which, the medicine must be taken 
3 or 4 times daily, for a rnonlh or tiro, or three, as the (vreviously short 


-or lonp; establishment of the disease would seem to call for. Very 
■great benefit has been experienced by tlie use of the following: 

Fluid extract of lobelia, 2 ozs. ; iodide of potash, 3 drs. ; tincture 
of capsicum, 2 drs. Mix, and see that the iodide is dissolved. Dose. — 
A tea-spoon fid after each meal, and at bed time. 

Inhalation lias recently come into extensive use for almost every 
di.seaso; and the probability is that there is no diseases that will de- 
rive greater benefit from it tlian those connected with the lungs, bron- 
chial tubes, and throat; and among them, the following alterative in- 
halant will be found very valuable in Asthma, as well as in other dis- 
eases requiring an alterative: 

Alterative Inhalant. — Tinctures of lobelia, and ipecacuanha, of 
each, 2 oz.; tincture of balsam ofTolu, 3 drs.; etherial tincture of co- 
nium maculatnra (poison hemlock — the tincture is made by keeping 1 
dr. of the powdered conium in 8uli)huric ether for 2 weeks), 1 dr.; 
iodine, 4 grs.; iodide of potash, 8 grs.; alcohol, 4 ozs. Mix. To inhale^ 
put 2 tea-spoonfuls of this mixture into the inhaler, which see, with a 
gill of hot water and inhale, or breath it 5 to 10, and finally 15 min- 
utes, as you become accustomed to it, 2 to 4 times daily. 

The Inhalation of the vapor made by pouring boiling water, 1 
gill, upon camphor gum broken line, \ oz., and inhaled the same as 
the above; or by pouring the boiling water on the same amount of 
the balsam of Tolu, either one, will be found to give present relief. 
Breathing the fumes arising from boiling tar in any old dish, ofteu 
gives relief. Smoking a mixture of tobacco and stramonium leaves, 
will often do the same, a draw or two of the smoke may be taken into 
the lungs, as it can be borne, and benefits, or relieves. Breathing 
the fumes arising from burning spongy paper which had been soaked 
in a strong solution of niter with water, and dried, has given great 
relief. It will burn readily, although slowly, from the presence 
of the niter, without blazing. It can be put in a basin, and the head 
held as near it as may be, or simply burned in the r6om. It may be 
smoked as a cigar, or by pipe, drawing lightly of the smoke into the 

Chloroform, 15 to 30 drops on a handkerchief and breathed, or 
inha]e<l into the lungs quite often gives decided relief. 

Forced Breathing for the Relief of Spasmodic Asthma. — 
r>R. J. 8. Monell, of New York, reports through the Medical Recorder 
of that city, of Aug. 15, 1800, that, in the previous December, he was 
having, one night, a severe attack of Spasmodic Asthma, to which he 
had been subject forloyears. Hewasstanding,or rather leaning,at the 
foot of his bed, with his arms folded upon the foot-board for a pillow, 
the forehead resting upon the folded arms; and while laboring for 
"breath, the thought occurred to him that he would stop breathing for 
a few seconds, which he did, and after several trials obtained consid- 
erable relief; after which he forced out all the breath that he could, 
and determined not to draw any more in until he was compelled to 
do so. He suweeded in waiting several seconds; then drew in to the 
fullest capacity of the lungs, and, with great effort, hold it for several 
seconds. And so continued to force the inspiration to its fullest ex- 
tent, and then force the expiration in the same way for 15 minutes j 
when, to his great delight, he found the spasm was entirely relieved. 
He afterwards relieved similar attacks by the same means, in two 
aninates. He afterward met with the same .success with others ex- 

60 DR. chase's 

cept in one case, an ol<l lady who had heart disease. It will require a 
srr&at effort to accomplish it, but, he assures us, that perseverence will 
eoon delight the patient with entire relief from the spasm. 

I account for the relief of the spasms in Asthma by the foregoing 
method of inflation or distention, in the following way: — the disease 
being a nervous one, the nerves which are distributed to the little cir- 
cular muscles, or rings, which encircle the tubes and air-cells of the 
lungs, cause these muscles to contract and thus shut off the air which 
is necessary to purify the blood as it passes through the lungs, upon 
the same plan that a purse string is drawn by the miser around the 
mouth of his purse, so that only 3 cent pieces can get out, while all 
larger monies are retained, except when some extra effort is made by 
which 50 cents, or possibly, a dollar may be got out, but it snaps 
back again "with a vengeance," while with muscular fiber, the re- 
verse is the case; the more often that any sphincter (circular muscle) 13 
forcibly distended the sooner it loses its power of contraction; and, 
thus the relief is sure to be obtained; although the same cause may 
afterwards bring on the same ditliculty. I look upon this as pontive 
for relief for the time being. This agrees also, it will be observed, 
with the idea of my friend, referred to in the commencement of thi?* 
subject, that Asthma arises from the irritation of the upper portion of 
the spine, which distributes its nerves to the lungs, heart, etc. 

In Cohen's Therapeutics (discovery and application of remedies') 
and Practice of Inhalation, I find a report which had been made by 
Dr. Wistinghausen, in the Petershurger Medical, Zeitschrift, of a case 
cured by Inhalation of Fowler's solution of arsenic. A young girl, 15 
years of age, whose mother had died of consumption, had suffered 
from childhod with laryngeal iind bronchial catarrh (a discharge of 
mucus from the larynx and bronchial tubes) terminating in an in- 
flammation and swelling of the substance of both lungs, with asth- 
matic paroxysms (spasms). After the employment of many other 
remedies, external and internal; after a residence of ^/ir^e Summers 
at Wielbach and Ems (celebrated watering places), and the resort to 
local gymnastics during hvo Winters — all without benefit — she was, at 
the suggestion of Prof. Eck (a celebrated Professor), placed under the 
treatment, by Inhalation of Fowler's solution of arsenic (kept by drug- 
gists). The dose was 10, 15, and 20 drops in distilled water, 1 oz., once 
or twice a day. The same remedy had been administered inwardly 
without advantage, as had also 1-20 to J g»". of nitrate of silver, 4time8 
a day. After 10 days of Inhalation, 10 minutes each day, the Asthma 
ceased fn^ireZy, and the Inhalations being continued, did not return 
during the severe and cold Winter and the variable Spring of 1861. 
The patient could expose herself in all weathers without using the 
respirator (an instrument ma<le ol fine wire to cover the mouth of per- 
sons of weak lungs, the breath keepi-ng the wire warm, warms the air 
as it is drawn into the lungs) with wliich, until then, she could not do 
without, even for a short walk. She could also join in the dance until 
late into the night without any trace of fatigue, or shortness of breath, 
though before this treatment, the very excitement of receiving an in- 
vitation to a party would bring on a severe attack of Asthma. The 
other difficulties, however, were but little improved. In all she in- 
haled, 4 ozs. of the solution without any symptoms of poisoning by the 
arsenic. Other cases are rei'orted as beuelited by the ^ame treat- 


Permanoat cures are claimed to have been efiucted with the 
following preparation. Tiiat preseixt relief may be obtained from it, 
I know, and in all probability it will work some permanent cures; bnt 
no one thing will be found to cure absolutely in all cases, because there 
will be found complications of other diseases, dili'oruig in different 

Lobeliaseedandskunkcabbageballs, of each, } o/.; high cranberry' 
bark, I oz.; stramonium seed, and capsicum, of each, j oz. ; alcohol, 1 
qt. Mix, and in 2 weeks it will be fit for use, if shaken daily during 
this time. Dose. — Half to 1 tea-spoonful o or 4 times daily as a cure: 
and every 30 minutes for relief. 

Bathing' daily, is believed, by some, to be absolutely necessary to 
enable the system to resist the tendency to take cold, which is almost 
certain to bring on an attack of Asthma, with all who are accustomed 
to the disease. Beginning with warm water, then a little cooler, and 
finally cold, keeping this up until tlie little changes of the atmosphere 
does not leave so quick an effect upon the system. For my own part 
I have never deemed it desirable to take a daily bath, except in 
fevers, and then using more or less of spirits to stimulate the surface 
to action ; but there are those who can stand a daily cold bath, I 
should prefer a daily sponging with a tincture of cayenne, -} oz, to 
■■.vhisky, 1 qt., sponging the whole surface before dressing in the morn- 
ing ; with this sponging, and a cold or tipid bath twice, or three times 
a week, at most, with the continued use of some of the medicines rec- 
ommended above, for a permanent cure, a decided and permanent 
improvement may reasonably be expected. 

Dr. Ray's Successful Treatment of Asthma. — I do not feel 
at liberty to dismiss the subject of Adhma without calling especial 
attention to the Ferrocyanuret of potash, more commonly called 
Prusiate of potash. My attention was called to its use in this disease 
by a communication from Dennis Ray, j\I. D., of Woodland, Cal., 
published in the June No. 1871, of the Eclectic Medical Journal, of 
Cincinnati, O., in which he gives several cases in practice where this 
article proved very successful, so much so, that I was induced to try 
it in a very bad case, where, as the saying is, "every thing else had 
failed," and although it lias been in use, at this writing, only a short 
time, it is giving very great satisfaction, yet he has only used it three, 
instead oi five times a day. I am satisfied of its \alue, and most 
cheerfully recommend its use in any similar cases to those reported 
m Dr. Ray's communication, as I will give it entire, for the benefit of 
all who may need it. The prescrij)tion I used for this case of Asthnia, 
is the one in Case V. below. He says: 

"Notwithstanding the great obscurity of this article, and the 
unimportant place assigned it in our Materia Medicas, I venture to 
select it as the basis for a few remarks, drawn wholly from expe- 
rience in practice. My attention was first drawn to the article by 
reading a communication to the American Journal of Medical Science, 
written by Dr. Smart, of Maine, in which he quoted some German 
authority for its use. He spoke of having used it to some considei- 
able extent in neuralgia. Asthma, and some bronchial affections, witli 
satisfactory results. More lately there have been published several 
short a\ tides in the Eclectic Medical Journal, of Cincinnati, upon its 
use, which I hope will tend to Btimulate a more general trial of 
the salt. 

62 DR. CHASE'S) 

"Although not fully endorsing the doctrine of Todd and some* 
others aH to the origin of Asthma, but being fully satisfied that this 
article had great control over the nervous system, I made trial of it 
in cases of Asthma with success. 

"Then the question of its usefulness in functional disease of the 
heart, [)resented itself, far more particularly in those associated with 
a rheumatic diathesis. Trial was nuule with decided success. 

"I also made many trials of its virtues in relieving that general 
disturbed condition of the nervous system of females, so often uuani- 
fcsted at or near that critical period called "change of life," in almost 
all of which it seemed to be just what was needed to give tone and 
relieve irritability of the nervous system. Many cases of obsiaire 
hysteria were successfully treated with it. Cases of jialpitation of the 
heart so often met with, and so often im})roperly fliagnosed as struc- 
tural lesions of the organ, are almost always under the control of 
judicious treatment addressed to stomach, l)owels, nervous system, or 
the organs of generation. Happily we have articles at our command 
which seldom fail to answer all these indications. 

"With these preliminary remarks 1 now proceed to give a few 
casew in practice. 

"Case I. — C. D., aged 36, had followed gold mining in the moun- 
tains of California, during which time had fretjuent attacks of intlam- 
inatory rheumatism, followed by palpitation of the heart, ringing in 
the ears, vertigo, intermitting pulse; was frecpiently aroused from 
sleep with a sense of sulfoeation. Came to the valley for medical aid 
— was treated by six or eight different medical men, (all Old Scho(d), 
for a period of more than two years, most of the time nimble to follow 
his legitimate trade, (that of house carpenter). Finally (udled at my 
otHce for advice, when the above history was given. Prescribed 
Ferrocyanuret (Prussiate) of Potash with Aconite, which was taken 
for eight days, with decided amelioration of all the distressing symp- 
toms, after which Ferrocyanuret of Potash with a few drops of ether 
"were taken for a period of two months; all of which time patient was 
earning four dollars a day at his trade, sleeping soundly at night, 
ringing in the ears entirely relieved, pulse normal| ( healthy). Dis- 
continued meditnne, and declared himself a well man. 

"Case II. — Mrs. McD., widow, aged :'>(), seamstress, robust consti- 
tntion, but for many years subject to severe attacks (tf neuralgia upoa 
the slightest change in the atmosphere, even a change in the direc- 
tion of the wind would often induce an attack. She would sutler 
intolerable pains, either in her face, head, or limbs, the disease not 
oontining itself to any especial organ even in the same attack. 
Called at my otlice for meilical aid, when in addition to the above, 
stated that her digestive organs were in good condition, bowels regu- 
lar, catamenia (turns) ap[)earing at regular intervals, and of natural 
color and duration. Prescribed as follows: 

Ferrocyanuret of Potash, 1 oz. ; water, 2 ozs. ; simple sirup, H ozs.; 
sulf)huric ether, 40 drops. Mix. Dose. — One tea-spoonful five time a 
day, with constant improvement. No return of symptoms since. 
Continued treatment for two or three months. The case being one of 
nervous irritability, neeiled no other than a sedative treatment. 

"Case III. — !\Irs. B., aged )5.S, mother of many children, had f^f^ 
qnent attacks of facial and cardiac neuralgia ai-companied with tits of 
hysteria (^globus), constipated bowels and indigestion, with its train of 


evils, and was fully impressed with the belief that she was the sub- 
ject of an incurable heart disease. Prescribed ('arl)()lic Acid for indi- 
gestion, kept the bowels in a soluble condition, and for llie otlier 
Byny)tonis, jiotash and ether, as in the precedinj^ case. Patient pro- 
gressed as favorably as could be desired, until she declared she had 
no further need for treatment. 

"Case IV. — P. C, aged 35 years, married, had no offspring,, 
blacksmith, strong and muscnhir, "has sutfered from heart disease for 
eight years, and had much treatment for a mistaken condition of the 
pvsti'm. Diagnosed as structural lesion of the heart. In this case, 
tlie diagnosis had to be made by the rule of exclusion, as his diges- 
tive organs were in perfect condition, kidneys normal, and all the 
functions of the body, excei>t the heart, and the sound of that not 
indicating any structural lesion. Yet the patient was the subject of 
most intense sufi'ering from palpitation, ringing in the ears, vertigo 
bv day and a sense of immediate suffocation at night, never sleeping 
all night without more or less of these attacks, which always cou*- 
pelled him to arise and seek fresh air. Now by the rule of exclusion 
I have set aside almost all of the exciting causes of such a condition 
as ] have so faintly des(;ribed, and of course to treat the case ration- 
ally, I must arrive at some conclusion as to the cause. We have still 
left however, one very fruitful source of such a conditi<jn, that of 
excfSHiir rerifri/; and upon this I based my treatment. Now there are 
two iMip(jrtant indications to be fulfilled, that of removing the excit- 
ing cause, and sedation to the nervous system, and to accomplish 
these objects, I contend that we have some "room for trading," one 
of our favorite authors to the contrary, notwithstanding. Fortunately 
we have one article i-apable of fultilling both indications. To do this 
it nuist i)e both (uitlplirodixidc (against sexual indulgence) and sedative, 
(to allay irritability) and Ferrocyanuret of Potash is its name. This 
with a few drops of .ether was given in the before mentioned doses 
for a period of several months, and all the old complaints were 
forgotton by the patient, but instead a new one was made. The 
patient hail no desire to attemj)! to propagate his species, which of 
course will soon pass off after the salt is omitted. 

"Case V. — Mrs. S., aged 48, has sutlered for many years from 
palpitation of the heart, with dysj>n(Ka (ditiiculty of breathing) and 
Asthma, had often In^eu under treatment bv diH'erent medical men of 
sonic notoriety, but without permanent henetit, all of which waa 
made known on my first visit. Prescribed as follows: 

Ferrocyanuret (Prussiate) Potassa, 1 oz. ; water, 2 ozs. ; simple 
8irii|i. tiozs. ; sul. ether, 1 dr. Mix. Dose. — One tea-spoonful five times 
a day, for a period of three or four months, with entire relief botli 
of heart symptoms and of the respiratory organs. 

"Case VI.— J. M., aged (M), male, feeble from long indisposition 
and iiHii-li medication, subject to chronic bronchitis of long standing, 
expeiiurated freely a tough and glairy mucus, sometimes streaked 
■with Mood, making constant efforts to clear his throat, troublesome 
Cough at night, much irrital)ility of the throat, uvula elongated and 
Bpoiigy. (./'ailed at my wfHre, and gave the a])ove history, stating that 
he had l<»st ail hope of relief, having often been treated before. Pre- 
Scriited as follows: 

Ferrocyanuret of Potassa, 1 oz.; alcoholic extract of hyoscya- 
mus. I dr.; water, 2 ozs.; simple sirup, .i ozs. Mix. Dose. — One t«a- 

64 OR. r base's 

Epoonful 5 times a day, which was taken for some months, with 
gradual but permanent relief. 

"In addition to the above uses, I haye found this salt of much 
value in the treatment of spermatorrhoea, also in nocturnal emissions, 
(brought on by self-abuse. See Masturbation). And I am of the 
opinion that it will yet be found to be of much service in the treat- 
ment of chronic rheumatism, as in all cases where there is an excess of 
librin in the blood." 

ALTERATIVES. — It is proper, perhaps, for me to sa.y, before 
speaking of any one class of medicines in particular, to mention the 
different classes that I have deemed it necessary to speak of in this 
Work, for family use, aside from those embraced in the Receipts. 
They may be classified under the fourteen following heads, coming in 
their appropriate place in the alphabetical arrangement of the Work: 

Alteratives, Antispasmodics, Astringents, Cathartics, Detergents, 
Diaphoretics, Diuretics, Emetics, Emollients, Expectorants, Narcotics, 
Sedatives, Stimulants, and Tonics. 

Alterative Sirup. — The word Alterative comes from the Latin 
altero, I change, meaning a medicine that will aid in restoring health 
without causing any considerable evacuations from any organ in par- 
ticular; but a medicine that shall improve the general health. The 
following Alterative Sirup, or compound Sirup of Sarsaparilla, as 
amended and improved by Prof. King, of Cincinnati, will be found 
very valuable: 

1. Take of the roots of the small spikenard,! yellow dock, bur- 
dock, and ground guaiacum-wood, of each, 10 ozs.; bark of the root of 
sassafras, of Southern prickly-ash, elder flowers, blue flag-root, of 
•ach, 2" lb.; alcohol, 2 qts. ; crushed sugar, 16 lbs.; iodide of potash, 4 
■ ■zs. 

Grind all of the roots and baiks finely, and place them in a large 
mouthed bottle, so they can be got out handily, and put on sufficient of 
the alcohol to cover them, and cork up and let stand 2 days; then 
strain off, percolate (see Percolation), or filter off 1 qt. by pouring on 
more of the alcohol if necessary, and set aside the spirit tincture, 
which this would now be called; then put the ingredients into a suita- 
ble kettle and add 2 galls, of water, and boil from 1 to 2 hours; then 
strain, or percolate off the liquid. If, in boiling you have more than 
6 qts., evaporate to that amount; then add the sugar and dissolve it 
by heat, removing any skum that may arise as it comes to a boil; now 
remove from the tire, and when cool, add the tincture saved at the 
beginning; and also the iodide, which should be dissolved in a little 
of the tincture. This should make 2 ga? s. of Sirup. Half or one- 
fourth the amount can be made as preferred. Bottle, cork, and keep 
in a cool place. 

Dose. — The dose would be from a tea-spoonful, to a table-spoonful, 
in a little water, 4 times a day — at each meal, and at bed time. The 
iodide is sometimes omitted in the making, and added, the proper 

iiroportion, to each bottle as used — 1 oz. to 1 qt. is as strong as I use it; 
)ut some use it 1 oz. to 1 i^t. This Sirup is a valuable Alterative in 

+ The small Spikenard, Is the aralia nudicaulis, known also as the American Wild, 
or False Sarsaparilla, growing iu most of the Northern States, King says that he substi- 
tuted this for the Honduras, as many physicians consider it to be the more active agent 
of the two. Any articles that are well known, which I speak of as I progress with this 
Work, it will not be necessary to give the technical, or medical name, the object of which 
Is to avoid mistake, or in being misunderstood. 


BCK>fula, liver difficulties, diseased bones, syphilis, diseases of the 
skin, etc., etc., and, in fact, for every di.sease reciuiriuo; an Alterative. 

If any of these articles can not be obtaineil of the drnegist near 
you, they can get them from any of the druggists in Cincinnati, O., or 
of Tilden & Co., N. Y., and tlie same will hold good of any of the 
concentrated remedies, recommended in this Work. And if any one 
des'res they can have druggists prepare this, or any other Siinip, 
or article recommended in this Work. Of course, this, or any 
other Sirup can be made without the use of alcohol; but 
there are some of the valuable parts of nearly all roots 
and barks that water alone will not bring out, and hence it is 
best to use spirits of some kind to cover them and let them soak in 
for a day or two; then, if there is any comlition of the system that 
will not allow the use of spirits, they can be boiled with water, by 
which the spirit is all evporated, as spirit is so volatile that it flies off by 
the use of heat — a good article of whisky will answer every purpose, 
especially so, if the spirit is to be evaporated off — if no spirit is to be 
retained in the Sirup, less quantities should be made at one time, as 
the Sirup does not keep as long without, as with the spirit. If whisky 
is Uded, however, in place of alcohol, the amount should be doubled 
to set the proper strength. Besides the articles called for in the dif- 
ferent Alterative Sirups, given in t>'S connection, I shall mention a 
few other articles that experience nas prove to be valuable Altera- 

2. The Compound Sirup of Stillingia, is very higlily 
esteemed as an Alterative, and is very extensively used. Its compo- 
sition is as follows: 

Take stillingia root (common names, queen's root, queen's delight, 
yaw root, and silver leaf — this root was mimed after Dr. Stillingtleet); 
root of corydalis (common names, wild turkey-pea, stagger weed, 
squirrel corn, etc.,) of each, 1 lb. ; blue Hag-root, elder flowers, and 
wintergreen leaves, of each, 'r lb.; coriander seed, and prickly-ash 
berries, of each, \ lb.; crushed sugar, 12 lbs.; alcohol, 3 pts.; iodide of 
potash, k lb. With this Sirup it is customary to use the iodi<le, as 
here given, at the rate of 1 oz. to each pt. ; but less can be used if 
thought best, and some like to combine 2 ozs. of blood-root with this. 
The roots, flowers and berries are all to be ground, as in No. 1, and 
treated in the same way, making 2 gals. ■^^ Sirup. 

Dose. — The dose of this would be only 1 tea-spoonful to a table- 
spoonful, 4 times daily, the same as the first; but if the iodide is used 
only ^ o2. to th« pt., or without any, the dose may be doubled. To be 
taken in a littlu water. 

This Sirup is highly recommended, and extensively used in 
scrofulous disease, syphilis, diseases of the bones, liver and all gland- 
ular enlargements, mercurial diseases, etc. An article of this name is 
kept on sale, but I prefer to make it, or to have it made by my drug- 
gist, then I know what I am taking, or giving. 

3. American Ivy — Five Fingers.— Prof. Scudder says the 
bark of this vine is one of the most etlicient Alteratives we possess, 
both in scrofula and diseases of the breathing apparatus. In old ul- 
cers, and chronic and obstinate eruptions upon the skin, the infusion 
(tea without boiling) taken internally, and applied to the ulcers, 2 or 
3 times daily effectually removes the disease. The twigs may be used 
and the rough ba-k should be brushed off. 

5 — DR. cnA'<1f3 SECOND SKCHTPT Br>-TT 


Pope. — Of the infusion, 3 or 4 table-spoonfifs. This is also known 
by the names uf wild-wood vine, false grape, Virginia creeper, 
■woodbine and tive leaves. It climbs trees, sometimes 6U feet high, 
ill rich sdIIs. 

4. Elder Flo-wers. — The flowers of the white-pithed ehler 
makes a valnal)le Alleralive Tea, for children, in skin diseases, as well 
as ill .scrofiiliius conditinns of the system. They are slightly cathartic 
as well as having a tendency to produce sweating, inii)niving the ap- 
petite and digestion. The bark may be used for adults, with ca"e, for 
It is mure catliartic in its action; and the bark of the root is cathartic 
and fiiuretic. and is considerably used in dropsies; and the juice of 
the berries may be pre.ssed out and simmered to the consistence of 
sirup, making a valuable laxative Alterative, in doses of 1 oz., or 

5. Black Cohosh.'or Macrotys. — This article is not only used 
as an Alterative, but is also a valual>le article in Rhfx'matism, which, 
see, and female coiufilaints, where any obstructions are i)resent. The 
saturated tinc-tuie is used (i. <*., when more of the root is put into alco- 
hol than the alcolnjl will take up — as strong as it can be made). 

OosK. — The ordinary dose would be about h tea-spoonful 4 to 5 
times daily. King claims that in doses of 10 droj)s, every 2 hours, 
gradually increiised to 40 or (iO drops or until its action on the brain is 
observed, and continue<l for several days, will almost always cure 
a<'nte rheanmatism, permanently, esjiecially if it is the first attack. 
He recommended its use as early as 1S44. 

6. Iodide of Potassium. — This remedy is decidedly Alterative, 
ami is extensively used by nearly all classes of physicians, in scrofula,, 
syphilis, diseased skin, and all diseases ropiiring an Alterative. Scud- 
der says in doses of 2 to 4 grs. 4 times daily, it improves the appetite 
and digestion, and is a fpfrifir antidote for the poison of lead. 

I)osE. — To ttbtain its full Alterative effects, he says, is from 10 to 
20 grs. in a water solution, or combined with Alterative sirujis or de- 
coctions. I should not give a dose above 10 grs. 4 times daily, unless 
under the direction and watch fulness of a i>hysician. This is especially 
useful in troitre — bronchocele — an enlargement of the glands of the 
neck, both as a wash and internally. Pierse says that iodine alone, 
will absolutely cure this disease. It is also used in all scrofiiloussores, 
eru|>tioiis, chronic sore-eyes, .syphilitic aU'ections, esj)ecially mercurio- 
syi>liilitic sore-throat, swelled l)reasts, enlarged liver, and most female 
complaints as sup|)ression of the menses (amenorrhea), female weak- 
ness, or white.s. ( leucorrh(ea), and in all cases where uiercury has 
left its t'fl'ects upon the system, etc. 

7. Sirvip of Iodide of Iron. — This Alterative and tonic is 
especially adapted to feeble and delicate persons. 

Dose. — Is 1 tea-spoonful 4 times daily, in a little water, being care- 
ful that it does not touch the teeth, or if it does, wash the mouth with 
the Tooth Powokk directly, as the iron darkens the teeth very <inickly. 
But this sirn|i had always better be bought of the druggist, as it is a 
\er> [larliciilar sirn[> to make. 

8. Indian Alterative Sirup. — "f^ome thirty years since. a half- 
breed Indian, called lien Smith, in tlie State of New York, made a 
sirup, which gained considt'reble reputation as a remedy in syphilitic 
diseases, and which sold ra|)idly for $:! per bottle; the f..llovviii<.' is the 
formula, or receipt, for its pre{)aration: Take Indian hemp, Virginia 


Baraaparilla, inner bark of white pine, of each, I lb.; tnozereon (kept 
by ilrii}z;;ists), 4 ozs.; .sheep laurel, h 11).; water, 4 irals.; white siiijar, 8 
lbs.; nitric a(M(l, 40 drops to each (]f., and tartar emetic, 20 f^rs. to each 
qt. Place the plants in the water, boil for a few uiinntes; then gratl- 
ually evaporate, until about 2 jjals. of decoi-tion are left, then strain, 
andadd the .sufjar. To each qt. bottle of tliis sirup he added the 40 
drops of lutric acid, and 20 jrrs. of tartar emetic, dissolved in a sulfi- 
cient quantity of spirits. 

" DosB. — A wine-jrlassfnl 8 times a tlay. I have never been able to 
ascertain the true bottanical character of the Virj^inia sarsaparilla. 
This sirup has been found as efticacious in syphilis, when prepared 
witliout the tartar emetic." — R'ltiy. 

If this sirup is so valuable in syj)hilitic complaints, which requires 
the most decided Alteratives, it would certainly be found very valua- 
ble in (inij (lixf'dsf re(|uirin>j: an Alterative. 

Alterative Sirup. — The followini: Alterative Sirup was origina- 
ted by Prof I<]dwin Freeman, of the Kciectic Medical Institute, of 
Cincinnati, and published in tlie Fxhrlic Mfiliail .Jonnml, and will be 
found very valuable for scrofula and disonlered conditions of the sys- 
tem arising, or resulting from it; and, in fact, for a general Alterative. 
lie says: 

Take figwort root,t 2 lbs. ; bine flag, bayberry, and queen's root, 
the roots of each, an(i of each, l.^ lbs.; burdock root, ami butternut, 
inner bark of tiie root, of each, 1 lb.; nuuidrake root, \ lb.; coriander 
seed, and prickly-ash berries, of each, 6 ozs.; ililute alcohol, 1 gal.; 
sugar, 10 lbs. ; best whisky, 2 qts. His directions and remarks are as 

Extract with the dilute alcohol and then with water from the 
first 7 articles. Evaporate <lown to 2\ galls., and add the sugar, 
the coriander seeils and prickly-ash berries. Boil for tive minutes, 
strain and add the whiskv. I had this sirup made by T. L. A.. 
Greve, druggist, for a parti<;ularly bad case. Its good effect was at 
once perceived and marked, re.storing the patient. I have since used 
it in a large number of cases with the same excellent effect. Other 
physicians on my recommendation have used it, and attest to the 
value of the coml>ination. In selecting the articles I chose those 
whose spe<i fie effects upon certain functions were well known and 
established, and endeavored to combine them — so that the entire 
glauflnlar system might be reached. Its value is very great in certain 
chronic functional derangements of the liver. In ague that resists 
other remedies, I have combined this with quinine with the best 
effect, accomplishing the cure of my patient. If remedies have 

tThls plant is a nniive of Europe, and fcrowa also in varioas parts of the United 
8tate.s. in wdcmIs, lieittres. liamp copses an<l banks, flowering, a rtarl? purple, fnun July to 
O'L. tln'Scnifularia MHrilainiicH ami SiToAilaria Lanceolata, or the Carpenters Square, 
Henlall. or Sipiare Stalk, are varieties similar properties. The i«'<ji'«and ryirfa 
are tile parts used, ami yield their streiijctli to water or ah'ohol, or to lard, a.s lui oinlmeut. 
It Is Alterative, Diuretic, and Anodyne; liif;lily useful in diseases of the liver aiid skin, 
wrofuia. dropsy, as it i« a ni'nerai deohsirusnt to the glandular system when u.sed in 
lnf\i>i(in or sirup i. e, it removes obstructions, and oi)eHS the natural passaije uf the 
fluids, and secretions of the body: or, in other\»'or(is \t'w,aperienl. (froiu the Latin aperietiA, 
to Mncuver, or oi>en. from nli and piirirf, to l>riug f(jrth, wr produce, feeing gently opening, 
orla.xHtivel Externally, as a fonieiitati)n or ointment, it is valuaLTie in, in- 
flaiiiuiation of the ring-worm, boils, painful swellings, itch, and other eruptions 
Of the skin The ronMii liecociion drank freely, is said to the locliial diHcnarKe, 
when<l. and to relieve the nains atteiMling diSieiilt menstruation. DoaEof IM 
lofiuiou, or eiruD. made from tbis aioue, 2 to 4 duid ozs. — King, 


specific effects, and I believe that the most of them have, although w© 
may not always use them properly, I can see the propriety of combin- 
ing a number together as in this sirup, that all the organs may be 
properly aroused to their work and assist in the restoration to health. 
The human body is a complex organism, and the action of each organ 
is different from the others, yet the complete structure is sustained by 
the harmonious and simultaneous operations of all the parts. The 
food which we eat contains all the elements of nutrition, for the 
tissues, and each goes to its proper place. If, however, we know that 
any thing is wanting, as iron, lime, soda, phosphorus, etc., we may 
reasonably supply it. But in very many cases we have not arrived at 
that degree of knowledge or skill that we can determine it to a cer- 
tainty, and the disease seems to be an accumulationof slight derange- 
ments, one depending on another, which no one remedy will reach. 
We do not, neither can we expect to effect a restoration speedily as in 
acute disease, but it has to be done little by little, hour by hour, and 
day by day, by a slow and gradual process, just as the tissues are 

Besides the Alteratives before mentioned, the ordinary roots and 
barks known to nurses to possess such properties, can be made into 
teas, or beers in the Spring of the year, and drank freely for a month 
or two will have decided effects in changing the action of the system, 
and improving the general health — and the cathartics and diuretics 
have also more or less Alterative action upon the system, when used 
according to indications, by failing health. It is always best not to 
let any disease get firmly established before anything is done; but 
take them when health begins to fail, and it will take less medicine, 
and less poiverfid medicine, to turn again, the tide of health into the 
correct channels. 

9. Sulphur and Oroam of Tartar. — Although, perhaps, these 
articles are not properly considered Alteratives, yet, sulphur is so ac- 
credited, and is also laxative, while the bitartrate of potash — cream of 
tartar — is diuretic and laxative; and the combination, in my estima- 
tion, at least, is decidely Alterative and corrective of various difficul- 
ties which may arise, especially in the Spring, from a kind of same 
ness of diet, and house confinement through the Winter, of delicate 
persons and children; and hence, I look upon the mixture with a very 
favorable eye, and believe it has, and if properly used, will prevent 
many permanent diseases that would otht vwise arise; 

Dose.— The mixture is generally made with twice as much cream 
of tartar as sulphur; then mixed with common molasses or sirup, and 
taken for 3 or 4 mornings in succession, in tea-spoonful doses for 
children and weak persons, and stout adults twice as much ; then skip 
the same time, and take it up again. I do not believe that we have 
two articles with which as much can be done to prevent disease as 
with this combination. Their use may generally be continued until 
the general health is decidedly imj^roved. 

10. Alterative and Tonic. — Fluid ex. of gentian, and fl. ex. of 

?uassia, of each, 8 ozs. ; iodide of potash, 1 oz. Dissolve and mix. 
►osE. — A table-spoonful, 4 times daily, in a little water after each 
meal and at bed time. Used in syphilitic complaints, with the iodide 
of this strength. In any of the common diseases requiring an Alter- 
ative Tonic, half the amount of iodide only is used — the dose th« 


11. Another. — Fluid ex. of sxirsaparilla, 1 pt. ; iodide of potash, } 
oz. Dissolve and mix. Dose. — One tea-spoonful, after each meal and at 
bed time. The same may be done with the fl. ex. of stillingia, or any 
one of the Alterative articles mentioned above, or with a mixture of 
4 ozs. each, of any 4 of them, should any one prefer to purchase these 
extracts of the druggists, to making the sirups themselves, using the 
iodide, ^ oz. to the mixture, as 4 times 4 ozs. make 1 pt. Dose. — The 
same as for the single articles. 

ANTISPASMODICS.— Any article that will counteract, or allay 
spasm after it has commenced, is called an Atispasmodic; and as 
spasm depends upon some irritation of the nerves, whatever will re- 
move the irritation or relax the system so that the irritation is not 
felt, will be just the thing to use. S{)asm may arise from the irritation 
of the stomach, from over-eating, especially with children, in time of 
green fruit, etc.; then an emetic should at once be administered; also 
from worms, teething, etc.; but the probability is that, no matter from 
what it may arise, as good an article as can be first given will be the 

1. Antispasmodic Tinctiire. — Made by using equal parts of 
the tinctures of lobelia, capsicum (cayenne), and skunk cabbage root; 
or make it directly by using, of each of the articles in powder, above 
named, 2 ozs., and alcohol, 1 qt., and make by maceration and displace- 
ment — w'hich see — or let a druggist do it for you. 

Dose. — For a child 2 years old, ^ of a tea-spoonful in sweetened 
water and give every 10 minutes until the spasm ceases; and if the 
mouth can not be opened, open the lii)s and pass it through an open 
space from the absence of teeth ; and if it can not be done in this 
way, put 1 tea-spoonful to A a tea-cupful of warm water and inject, and 
repeat in 20 minutes if not relieved. King says it should be in the 
hands of every physician. I say it should be in the hands of every 
family, as well as phj^sician. He says in hysteria, convulsions, and 
tetanus, or locked-jaw, in which swallowing is difficult, it may be 
poured into the corner of the mouth, and repeated as often as neces- 
sary; it will find its way into the stomach — generally the effect is al- 
most instantaneous. He also says that, " in rigidity of the os uteri 
(mouth of the womb), a tea-spoonful administered by mouth, or by 
enema (injection) into the rectum, and repeated in 15 or 20 minutes, 
will be found to produce a state of softness and dilatability without 
the necessity of using the lancet, so highly recommended by a certain 
class of practitioners, in such cases." 

2. Gelseminum (Yellow Gesamine) is a powerful Antispas- 
modic, and relaxant, but requires to be used with care. Scudder 
uses it also to prevent sj)asms. If he sees twitching of the mouth 
and fingers, or extreme restlessness and contraction of the face, in 
children, he gives 10 drops of the tincture every 2 hours, for a cliild 
of 2 years, feeling confident of speedy and certain relief. It may be 
used for the relief of actual convulsions, or spasms, in the same dose, 
and repeated in 20 to 30 minutes, if necessary. It is a decided febri- 
fuge, (to remove fever) as well as Antispasmodic, and is extensively 
used in fevers, especially in cases of great restlessness, and tendency 
of blood to the head; but this will be exi>lained under that head. 
The specific, or positive action of the article, if given until its full 
efl^ects are experienced, is a clouded and double vision, and complete 
prostration, with inability to oj^en the eyes, which, however, pass off, 

70 DB. ohasb's 

in a few hours, if its iis** i?; dropfied off, as it shall he, if these symp- 
toms ever arise. It is hi^iiovH(i that this article lias more coin{)lete 
control over tiie nervous system, renioviug nervous irritaliility better 
than any other article, arl !.•* recomineniletl in neurai>^ia, nervous 
hea<laolie, toothache, and '• ii:iO'i jaw, or tetanus; and in the last, as 
positively certain. 

3. Hig-h Oraober-y ■ /bn.rnnm opnlus).— The bark of the high 
cranoerry, Kint^ savs. : -^ powerful Antispasmodii;, and, in conse- 
quence of tliis property is more <reneraily known ainons^ Ainericaa 
TTac'titioners by tlie nao of crainfi-hnrk. It is very effective in reiax- 
*aig i-raiups an.l spasms if all kinuj. as astiiros,, hysteria, cramps of tne 
bmbs, or other pa-^8 in females, espe(nally utxr-nJ v»'-egnancy, an.l it 
ie said to be highlj beneficial to those who are subject ;,•. tjonvulsions 
during pregnaiury, ">! at the times of parturition (child bui.*" . )"»- 
ventiug the attacks v'^-tireiy, if used daily for the last two montas 
of gestation ( jiregnari.^ *. The follovving forms an excellent prepar- 
ation for the relief of these, or any other spasmodic attacks: 

r-::gh cranberry >. K, 2ozs.; scuiicap, the herli or leaves. 1 oz.; and 
skuiia. caobage, th root. 1 oz. ; cloves, g oz.; and capsicum, j oz.; 
sherry, native, or aome-made wine, '_* <its. 

Bruise all the articles and place them in the wine for 2 weeks. 

Dose. —From 1 to 2 ozs. A or 4 times daily. 

4. The Scuiicap is the (Scutellaria lateriflora) and the skunk 
cahbage is the (symplocarpus fetida) of botanists, and both are power- 
fully Antispasmodic, and the Brst is also tonic and nervine, the last 
also expectorant, making with the aromatics a very valuable Antispas- 
modic especially for the cases referreii to. 

6. Assafoetida is also possessed of Antispasmodic properties, 
quieting nervous irritaliility, stimulating the stomach and bowels, and 
also relieving flatulence and pain. It is used in the nervous spas- 
modic diseases of women, ami hysteria, infantile convulsions, croup, 
hoo[)ing-cough, flatulent colic, chronic catarrh, and with morphine 
and quinine, in sick, or nervous headache; and iu profuse or painful 

Dose.— In pill, 5 to 10 grs., and tincture, 30 drops to U tea-spoon- 
fuls, repeated as may be necessary, children in proportion to age. 
It is not used in inflammations, where sjiasms arise, in children, from 
the presence of W(jrms, as soon as the spasms are relieved, verm- 
ifuges, or worm remedies must be given. 

6. "Warm Bath. — In case of (Convulsions, or fits, more especi- 
ally in chiMren, while any other remedies, at hand are being used, 
do not overlook the great importance of a warm bath, because it is 
mentioned last, but make all possible haste to have sulficient hot 
water to nearly (;over the little patient; and, if an adult, for the Ceft, 
and mustard plasters to feet, arms, and legs, in either case, etc., aiid 
keep them in the bath lo to 20 minutes at least. oO minutes are still 
better, then take right into a vvarui blanket; and coid water, or wet 
col'l .;loths to the head will be valuable aiso; and warm water injec- 
tions if no other .Antispasmodic is at liand. 

ASTRING-B>rr3.— Astriti'^ents are such medicines as will not 
only astringe, or contra(!t the different organs, or vessels with which 
they come in contact, but are also strengthening to these parts, giving 
a healthy tone to the general .system; although there are artictles 
Bometimes us<*^ "-/ *'.*i's/'i > vol i cations, as iu cuts, etc., that have a 


tendency to destroy the immediate parts that they come in contact 
■with, as'the ai-ids, eU;., hut the <reneral understanding is. such articles 
as relitn-e diarrhea, dysentery, mucus dischar<,'es, hemorriia^^es, or 
bleedinjjs, etc. 

2. Tannic Acid. — Tannic Acid is made from the nut trai'.fi of 
commerce, but it is contained in near;y a:, of tne Astrinaeru v-gor»- 
b.e*! tiiat we have. It is vaiual)ie in diarrtiea, and hemorrliaiies troin 
the stomach, Itowels, lungs, etc., where the hleedings are not of a 
very free character. 

" Dose. — From h to 5 gra., repeated in J an hour to an hour or two. 
It has been used in collapsed stages of Asiatic crioiera. ;n 'loses of 10 
to io grs., and leneated every lo minutes until the disciiarges ceased; 
then less often, with (Jther appropriate treatment to strengthen the 
patient. A solution of it with glycerine is a powerful styptic." — King, 

3. Gallic Acid. — Gallic acid is not as good an Astringent for 
local applications as the tannic, hut is considered better than the 
other, from the fact that it is more easily dissolved by the tluiils of 
the system, ami thus has a more decided eli'ect upon internal bleed- 
ings; for, in fact taniuc acid is converted into gallic, in the system. 
Bcuilder considers this one of our best remedies in hemorrhages; but 
of no value in diarrhea. It does not produce costiveness like the 
tannic. It is valuable in bleeding from the uterus, lungs, and 

Dose. — From 5 to 15 grs. 3, 4, or 5 times dai'y, according to the 
Beverity of the hemorrhages — it is not used in diarrhea. 

4. Oak Bark. — The bari^ of the white oak is a powerful 
Astringent — other species ire iM<o^- -jr .es? sn. O'Xl this is the best, — it 
is also antiseptic (j>r'<r-r;;:i.g jnitresency, or Jeca^ rotf.ri^, or the 
i<H)dl. It is useful in ctiroiuc diarrhea, chronic mucus -^m 
in catarrh, etc., aud in slight hemorrhages ; and wherever an astring- 
ent is needed. 

DosK. — Take the inner bark and tare it to {)iece3 and put a small 
handful of it into ^ pt. of boiling water, with a tea-s{)oonful of ginger 
or all-s|>ice, or any aromantic, as cinnamon, etc., as preferred; and 
■wlien coltl 2 to 3 table-spoonfuls every 1 or 2 hours. It is, however, 
more generally nse<l as a gargle in (tases where the palate is elongated 
and lonclies the ijack part of the tongue, sore-throat, etc.; and as aa 
astringent lirfion for ulcers, with granulations; and for injections ia 
leucorrhea, and asa wash and injection in falling of the ani, as in piles, 
etc., etc. 

5. Tincture of Catechu.— Tincture of Catechu will be found 
useful in chroiuc diarrhea, and dysentery. It is found in the drug 
stores already prepared; but if it has become like jelly, at all, it is too 
old for use. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful in some gum or elm mucilage, or sweetened 

6. . Cranesbill. — Also knovrn as spotted-geranium, wild-cranes- 
bill, crowfoot, alum-root, etc,, is a powerfid Astringent — used by inhi.s- 
ing in milk, in dysentery, diarrhea, ami cholera infantuni ; and 
■wherever an Astringent is needed, externally, or inlernally, as ia 
bleed iuiTs, indolent ulcers, sore-moulh, sore-eyes, whiles, as an injec- 
tion, gleet, bloody urine, menorrliagia, (excessive flow <jf the menses) ; 
diabetes; and all considerable discharges of mucus, as in catarrh, etc. 

72 DR. chase's 

" Piles are said to be cured by adding of the powdered root, 2 ozs. to 
tobacco ointment, 7 ozs., and applying to the parts 3 or 4 times daily." 

1. Blackberry Root and Red Raspberry Leaves. — The 
root of the blackberry made into tea, sirup, or cordial forms a mild 
Astringent, even for adults, and the wine, sirup, or cordial nuide from 
the berries are also vahudile in diarrhea, dysentery, cholera infantum, 
or relaxed conrlition of tlie bowels; and in slight bleedings; and the 
decoction, or tea makes a valuable injection in any case where an 
Astringent is needed, made from the root. Raspberry leaves in decoc- 
tion u'ith cream, allays nausea and vomiting. The sirup uuule from 
the blackl)erries, is especially valuable in the griping pains attendant 
upon dysentery — so would be the wine; but the sirup is undoubtedly 
the best. The fruit of the rasj)berry makes a jam or siruj), that is 
valuable as a drink in fevers, and until they gain full strength; and 
the blackberries, the same in all cases of disease where an Astringent 
is neetled, as above mentioned. See Blackberry Wine, Cordial, or 
Sirup, etc. 

8. Astring-ent Cordial, or Neutralizing Cordial.— A very 
valuable Astringent cathartic for diarrhea, and tor general derange- 
ment of tlie stomach and bowels, is made by taking of the best 
rheubarb, peppermint herb, and bi-carbonate of potash, of each, 2^ 
ozs.; oils of cinnamon and erigeron, (common names, flea-bane, 
colt's-tail, horse-weed, pride-weed, butter-weed, etc.), of each, 1 dr.; 
alcohol, ^ pt. ; water, 1 qt. ; loaf sugar, 2 lbs. 

Bruise tlie rheubarb and peppermint and steep in the water, and 
strain through a stout piece of muslin to allow pressing out all the 
fluid, and it might be well, after having pressed out all you can, to 
o])en the cloth and put on as much })oiling water as will make up for 
evaporation and what will be retained in the dampness, and press- 
out again; then dissolve the bi-carbonate in the fluid, and put in the 
sugar and dissolve by heat to form the cordial or sirup; then, having 
added the oils to the alcohol add it to the cordial. This should be 
kept in every house, whether there are children or not, as it is as val- 
uable for adults as for cliildren. 

Dose. — For adults, 1 table-spoonful, child 8 years old, 1 tea-spoon- 
ful, in all irregularities of the l)owels. and repeated every hour until 
the stools become dark, then the dose may be lessened, until regular. 
Tlie 3 first articles named above, it will be seen, under the head of 
Cathartics, makes a valuable regulating physic. 

6®" It will be observed that the treatment of the diseases of per- 
sons, has gone before the introduction of any IMiscellaneous Receipts. 
This arrangement will be followed through the Work, under all of 
the different letters of the Alpbabet. 


ANTS — To Destroy. — A correspondent of the Philadelphia 
Ledger says: 

"Take a large sponge, wash it well, press it very dry; by so doing 
it will leave tlie small cells oi)en — lay it on the shelf where they are 
most troublesome, sprinkle some line white sugar on the sponge, 
lightly over it. Two or three times a day, take a bucket of boiling 
water to wliere the sj)onge is, i-arefully dro]) tlie sjjonge in tlie scald- 
ing water, and you will slay them by ^^housands, and soon rid the 


house of those troublesome insects. When you squeeze the sponge 
in water you will be astonished at the number that had gone into the 

APPLE BUTTER— To make with Cider.— Have a large brass 
kettle, nicely cleaned by putting in a little vinegar and salt, rubbing 
it about well, then washing out and wiping dry with a piece of flan- 
nel. Fill the kettle with new cider, made from sweet apples, that has 
not began to work or ferment; and as it begins to boil, skim well, and 
skim every time that additional cider is put in as it again begins to 
boil. If the kettle will hold about 30 gals. Ij barrels of cider can be 
boiled into it. When the cider is all in tliat you design to make; the 
apples having been pared, quartered, and cored — sweet apples are the 
best — at the rate of Ih bushels for 1 barrel of cider, dip out sufficient 
to allow putting in the apples and continue the boiling until the cider 
is all in. And from the time that the apples and cider are all in, let 
the boiling be slow, and the stirring constant, until there is only 10 
gals, at most. 

To stir the apple butter while making, it is best to take a board 2 
or 3 inches wide and bore an inch hole through one end of it, and 
round off the other end to fit the bottom of the kettle — the hole 
being bored so as to allow a handle to pass over the top of the kettle 
while the lower end stands upon the bottom, which will enable one 
to stand back 3 or 4 feet or more from the fire; for unless the stirrer is 
k«pt moving about over the bottom the butter will burn and be 
spoiled; but if care is taken it will be very nice. Dip, while hot, into 
stone jars; and when cold, cut white paper covers just to fit in the 
jar, right down onto the butter itself; and wet these papers in whiskey 
before putting them in, and the work is complete. 

I have always been very fond of what my folks call "cider apple 
sauce," i. e., boiled cider, 3 barrels to 1, kept for the purpose; then as 
needed, simply stew the apples in the cider, not enough to dissolve 
the apples; but leaving the quarters whole — it is very nice. And the 
boiled cider kept in this way makes an excellent addition to mince 
pies, and for cider cake, etc., etc., and with cool water added, in Spring 
or Summer, in fevers, it makes a palatable drink. 

2. Apple Butter "Without Apples.— S. Miller, Bluffton, Mis- 
souri, writes to the Western Pomologisi and Oardener, that grapes are a 
drug in the market, and that wine is too cheap to pay for making. 
So, what does the S. M. aforesaid do but press his grapes, boil down 
the juice to \, and then slice in peaches. Just think of it, grape-juice 
and peaches! He says it is "good to spread on bread." We know 
that he has good bread to spread it on, for we have been at his ranch. 

3. Pumpkin Butter. — I remember having spent the Winter on 
the Maiimee river, somo 40 years ago, and all the sauce we had was 
"pumpkin butter." It was made by first boiling unpeeled pumpkin, 
with sufficient water to start with, then expressing the juice and 
boiling down to the consistence of boiled cider, then adding nicely 
peeled pumpkin, cut into small pieces, and stirring, and boiling down 
to a proper thickness — quite thick — as for apple butter, above. I 
thought then it was very nice, and I think it still w^ould be, in places 
where cider and apples could not be got, as they could not there, at 
that time. The cooler these are kept, and the more they are kept 
from the air the less likely are they to work, or sour. 

Allhongh it was my purpose to keep up an alphabetical arrange- 

74 DE. chase's 

nient in t.hi«? "Work, -when rhinos seem to belong togethp.r, .-'iRe these 
"butters,"! «-.ii.teviatefr<)in tlieorijjinal 1 have in 

4. Apples Spiaed. — Take nice tart apjtles, pared ami cored, 8 
lbs.; siij^ar, o_) lbs.; vinegar, 1 qt.; einnanmn. bark. un<rroiin'J, 1 uz.; 
cloves, iiiijironnd. I oz. Boil tlie .sugar, vinegar, and spices togetiier; 
put in the apples when l>oi;;ng, asid let them remain natil ten.-.^r, 
about 20 minutes. Take them out, and pn: them :n. a jar. Boil 
down tiie sirup unti: it is th:.-t^ ati;! pour it over. 

5. Apple Paring's — Dried for Jelly.— " VVber^'ver and ^nen- 
ever apples are scarce, it is giMul ecunuujy to dry tiie nice par:iiijs, 
especially of tine Fall apjiles, as thus dried they will make g-.ioil 
api>le-jeliy in Winter. 1 have tried it mvseif, and I can fancy ihaX, 
tlie richly elaborated juices so clo-se to tiie sunshine under ttie c.r'in- 
8on and gold surface are more suitaijle for .-.e-iies ini-.a or n-^r pares 
of liie appie. as vve kuovf it to be so in tne quince. Ttie parinys dry 
Tj.ce;y laid in plates under the cooking stove for the tirst day, ihen in 
the sunshine. Keep m i)aper bags. The parings of russets are gener- 
ally bitter." 

So says some one in some paper. And as we nse<l to make jelly 
of green a[)ple parings, when in Minnesota, and apples were worth. 
$12 per barrel, using it for jelly cake, 1 can fully endorse the iilca of 
Savinu them, bv drvint;, where frnit is scarce. It is verv delicious. 

AQUA AMMONIA— Its Domestic Uses.— A " Housekeeper" 
in tlie Micliitjnii FariruT, says: " For washing paint, [)ut a talile-spoon- 
ful in a ipuirt of moderately hot water, dip in a Manuel cloth, and with 
this merely wipe over the wood-wc)rk; no scrnl)i)iiig will be neces- 
sary. For taking grease s]>ots from any fabric, use the atiimonia 
nearly pure, and then lay white blolting-|>aper over the snot and iroa 
it lightly. In washing laces, put 12 dn-'ps Ic a little warm suds. 
To ciean 8ilv-=;r, mix 2 tea-s[>oonfuis of amm'>nia in a '}uart of hot 
Boap-suds. put in your silver an-1 wash it, using an oid naii-brush or 
tootii-brush for the [lurpose. For cieanins hair-tirusnes. etc., simpijr 
shake the brushes up and down in a mixture of 1 tea-spoonful of 
ammonia to \ pint of hot water; when tiiey are cleaned, rinse them 
in cold water and stand them in the wiml or in a hot plai-e to dry. 
For wasiiing finger marks from looking-glasses or windows, pnt a few 
drops of ammonia on a moist rag and make ipiick work of it. If yoa 
■wish your honse-platits to flonrish, put a few drops of the spirits in 
every i>int of water used in watering. A tea-spoonful in a basin of 
colli water will add muith to the refreshing effects of a bath, and for 
those who have a sour, or sweat-smell, it will be an absolute remedy, 
for some considerable time. Nothing is better than an ammonia- 
■water for cleansing the hair. In every case, rinse oil' the ammonia 
with [Hire water." 

2. Ammonia in Snake Bites. — It is reported that in Tmliaand 
Rurmah, that there are over S,()(li) [)ersons dieannually from the bites 
of poisonous snakes. In over ilDO cases, reported by an Knglish sur- 
geon, Aipui Ammonia was administered, internally, and over TOO of 
them recovered, although the average time which had elapsed, after 
the bite, before it was given, was l{] hours; and in those who died,4j. 
So that even after H hours from the bite, reasonable hope might be 
had of saving the jiatient. 

DosK. — It may be given in doses of 5 to 30 drops, well diluttid with 


ARTTCHOCKES— As Food for Steek.— The plant known as 
the JeriisaltMii Articlioke, is ii .sjiei'ies of tke sun-tlnwer; bin Searv a 
tuber, or root whu-li is very mitricions, and cattle and hn^n are ve.rr 
fond of theiu. They prow al»;iii""!ainly. anci are preferred hy eatrle 
anil hogs to potatoet^; arid as they (.'cnTain as much nitrogen as fiota- 
toes, and :n a dlllerent form, ceinjr .«iarch in the potatoe, and suL'ar in 
t^e Artichoc-ife. nr) riiat me frost does not injure them as it does the 
"Dolatoe, makes them vainahie to raise for stork. Tliey are iiard to 
Bet out of the tiround, however, wtien once started. They will grow 
m poor soil, where ['otatoes woiiid not do well. 

AXLE, OR LUBRICATING GB,EAP>I1.— The Scintti/ic A meri- 
can informs ns that the foUowins: comrxi'ind was- 7>atented in P-iiirland, 
and, that with 25 parts '■' ..-o.k "ejid •:r:iye-\ 'A^hh \ makes a good axle 
greaye for carts am' ..trna^es: 

1. Tallow, 2o2 parts: oil. 333; soda. 14; potash.!- "id water, 389 
parts, pounds, trrains, onm-es, or whatever weiuht shai! Oc '."ken. Tne 
potash and soda are first dissoive<l in the water; and the ta 'ow and 
oil mixed and kneaded to thoroughly incorporate. It can he made ia 
small quantities for one's own use; or in large quantities, and boxed 
for sale. 

2. Another. — Fine black-lead, 1 Ih. ; lard, 4 lbs. Grind tlietwo 
articles to<rether on a |)ainler'8 stone, or else rub them thoroughly to- 
gether with a spatula, upon a smooth board. 

3. Booth's axle grease, patent expired, consists of ormmfvn soda, 
J lb.; tallow, 3 lbs., and palm-oil, 6 lbs., or if you jjrefer, '.a'.r.'.-wil, 10 
11)S. with no tallow; water, 1 gal. Heat to 2()0» or 210° Fah.; ::r..-: mix 
by constantly stiring; then remove from the fire and stir until ccol, to 
prevent any separation of the articles. 

4. A thin composition is made with the same amount of soda 
and water, with rape-oil, 1 gal.: and taliow. or nalm-oii. j In.: tnix-e-d 
by heat. The rape plant belongs to the i-al/r.age tribe, but has a roos 
ivcd seed l:ke rhe turnip. The oi! is made from the seed. 

5. For carriages having a nicely turned bearing, or axle, in 
warm weather, there is probably nothing better than castor-oil alone; 
and for Winter, castor-oil mixetl with about an etjual amount of [)etro- 
leum oil, wliich jirevents the thickening of the castor-oil. This last 
also makes a valuable lubricating oil for sliafting journal.s. 

BATHING. — There is no simple and so easily to be a<'Complished 
thing which can be done to the hunuin system, that is of so great an 
im|>ortan(« as that of rfyular Balliiug ; and, yet, there is, pr''>''J' •r- 
nothing so greatly neglected. Tliere are some persons w!«o:;' ■ ii..)W, 
that scan-ely ever, even wash therriselve?^, excei>t thel? rr.i^e and hands, 
that the}' may ''appear urdo ntiiers-' to be clean, w'..o, notwithstan<ling 
this neglect of Bathing, enjoy a [)assibl(i degree of health. What 
does this prove? Simply notliing! For, if they may e-njoy a fair de- 
gree of health for oO years, neglcctivg bodily cleanliness, vrilh it, I fully 
believe they might reach 70 to 80 years of healthful life. 

The utility, or rather the necessity, of Bathing freijuently can not 
be doubted. It woidd V)e ditlicult to convey in a limited space, a 
sufficiently complete idea of this most powerfnl means of preserving 
and restoring health. No wonder the ancients, and especially the 
Romans, earrieil the practice of I'athing to .such anextenti Why it 
should have fallen into such in modern times it is difhcult to 
determine; and the more so, as it is such an agreeable remedy and 


preventive of disease, by lessening and regulating the heat of the 
body, and the circulation of bhxjd, tranquilizing the irritability of the 
nervous system, and especially by cleansing the skin, thereby remov- 
ing a primary source of disease. It invigorates the whole system, and 
to an increase of bodily strength it adds exhilaration, and a delight- 
ful serenity and cheerfulness of mind. 

I have only to refer to the elementary teachings of physiology 
for a knowledge of the uses of water in the animal economy. It en- 
ters the blood-vessels, both by being absorljed from the mui;ous mem- 
brane lining the digestive passages when taken as a drink, and by 
permeating the skin in Baths. Haj^pily there is no dissension to the 
fact of the great benefit arising from the of water in the form of 
Baths. This is a point on which even doctors do not disagree, all con- 
ceding their eificacy in promoting and maintaining health. It can not 
be doubted that a regular and judicious use of the Bath is a i)reven- 
tive of many diseases; that they have cured many diseases is well 
known, and it is highly proba))le that many forms of serious and dis- 
tressing sickness, with which many persons are afflicted during along 
course of years, would be almost unknown among us, and the pain 
from incurable diseases greatly mitigated, were, Baths in general use. 
There would be less sufl'ering, more cheerfulness and vivacity, greater 
length of days, and a more comi>lete enjoyment of existence. 

It is because the body is neglected that it does not better resist 
the morbific actions of external agents, and becomes diseased. Like 
a complicated machine, whi(;h, if exi)osed,soon becomes clogged with 
dust, and thus compelled to discontinue its movements unless con- 
stantly guarded against impediments, the human body needs constant 
attention — much more than a mere artificial machine — since of all 
organized structures it is by far the most complicated. 

Bathing has been declared to be a law imposed by nature on all 
perspirable creatures. Yet among the masses. Bathing is notoriously 
uncommon, both in the United States and in Great Britain — far more 
80 even than in some of the less enlightened portions of continental 
Europe. It is but a few years since Dr. Comb, writing of England, 
said: "We are far behind our continental neighbors in this resj)ect — 
they justly consider the Bath a necessity, we still regard it as a lux- 
ury. I believe that in one hospital in Paris agreater number of Bathp 
have been administered to the poor during the last year than to the 
whole working poin:lation of Great Britain during the last ten years." 
Since this was written, however, measures have been instituted in 
London, Liverpool, and other cities, which neutralized in a great de- 
gree, the force of the stricture im[>iied in the last sentence. Though 
he adds that "Baths are to be found in fifty places now where there 
was one twenty years ago." 

A recent English traveler in America writes: "In fact, I have 
found it more dillicuit in traveling in the United States to procure a 
liberal supply of water at all times of the day and night in my bed 
chamber, than to obtain any other necessity. A supply for washing 
the face and hands once a day isall that is thought requisite." Doubt- 
less lie was not aware of the severe strictures of a fellow-countryman, 
who in his advocacy of cleanliness, thus s]ieaks of the prevalent 
habits of his own countrymen: "Some disgusting economist of both 
time and water reduced ablution to a habit of washing the hands and 
face, leaving the clothing to hide whatever dust mighi a(!cunuUaie OD 


the rest of the body; and as though enamored of its ingenuity, their 
descendants have never abandoned the same filthy and unwholesome 

We may well ask why the people of the United States should de- 

Erive themselves of the admirable ai)f)liances, on the score of both 
ealth und enjoyment, to which all clasneH in many other countries, 
and in op{)osite climates, have ready recourse. 

In Russia the Bath is general, from the Emperor to the poorest 
serf, and through all Finland, Lapland, Sweden, and Norway, no hut 
is so destitute as not to have its family Bath. 

Equally general is the Bath in Turkey, Egypt, and Persia, among 
all classes, from the Pasha down to the ijoor camel driver. 

The question of the utility of Ratliing as a hygienic (healthy) 
measure might be supposed to be placed beyond all controversy by 
the example of so many people in all ages of the world, and in the 
greatest variety and contrast of cliuuites. Physiology gives also its 
confirmation of the necessity of Bathing, and to it I shall appeal bv a 
brief statement of the structure and functions of the skin and of its 
intimate relations with the chief organs and tissues of the body. . 

The skin, the external tegument of the body, is principally the 
seat of the sense of touch; through its sensibilitj we are apprised of 
the temperature, density, and other properties of substances with 
which we come in contact; through this medium the brain is actively 
and constantly impressed by connecting nerves, and is, of course, not 
a little dependent on the force and extent of these impressions. The 
function of the skin is essential in keeping up the nutrition of the 
body. It absorbs fluids and gases, and holds or gives off the same; it 
is an auxiliary of respiration and the regulation of animal heat. So 
necessary is this function to the maintenance of life and health, that 
if it be interrupted, as by covering the body with an impervious coat 
of varnish, retaining the matter excreted through its pores, and pre- 
venting the introduction of material absorbed, the animal dies very 

The skin consists of two layers — the dermis, (from the French 
derme the skin,) or true skin, and the external layer, the epidermis, or 
cuticle, also called the scarf-skin. The dermis, or true skin, consists 
of dense elastic tissue, with the numei-ous openings for the transrnis- 
sion of blood-vessels and nerves from its under surface, and of an in- 
tricate web-work of minute blood-vessels, sensory nerves, and lym- 
phatic, or absorbent vessels, distributed over its upper surface. It also 
contains in its substance, the sebaceous follicles, or oil-foiming glands; 
and the sudoriferous or sweat glands that lie beneath it, send their 
ducts up through it, as seen in Fig. 14. From these latter glands is 
constantly secreted the watery and saline fluid of perspiration. 

The following minute estimates by Wilson in his "Treatise on 
Healthy Skin," are curious and interesting, and show the importance 
of the otliceof the skin in maintaining health: 

"Taken separately, the little perspiratory tube with its appendant 
gland, is calculated to awaken in the mind a very little idea of the 
importance of the system to which it belongs: »but when the vast 
numbers of similar organs composing this system are considered, we 
are led to form some notion, however imperfect, of their probable in- 
fluence on the health and comfort of the individual. I use the words 
'imperfect notion' advisedly, for the reality surpasses imagination, and 


DR. chase's 

also belief. To arrive a.L something liiie an estimate of the value of 
the juTspirutitry systeni in relation to the reist <jf the organism, I 
coiuiic'd the perspiratwry [)ores on the palm of the hand, and fonnd 
8,r)'J.S in a .sipiare inch. Now, each of tiiese pores being the aperture 
of a little tube about a quarter of an inch long, it follows that in a 
square inch of skin on the palm of t}ie hand there exists a length of 
lube equal to 8S2 iiu-hes, or 73.> feet. Surely such an amount of drain- 
age as ?:-! feet in every sipiare inch of the skin — assuming this to be 
tlie average of the whole body — is something wonderful, ai.d the 
thought naturally intrudes itself — what if this drainage wasobstruirted? 
Could we need a stronger argument for enforcing the necessity of at- 
tention to the skin? 

"On the pulps of the tingers, where the ridges of 
the sensitive layer of the true skin are somewhat 
finer than in the palm, the number of pores on a 
square inch exceeils tliat of tiie palm, and on the 
heel the pores are less in nund»er, there being oidy 
ab(jut 2,2(i8 in a sijuare inch. To obtain an esti- 
mate of the total length of the tube of the perspira- 
tory system of the whole surface of tlie btuly, I 
think that 2,800 might be taken as a fair average of 
the number of pores in the stpiare im-h, and TOO, 
consequently, of the number of inches in length. 
Now, till' iinmhi^r of xifuare iiirlirx of Kurftire in a rutin 
of onlinnrij hi'ight nud hulk is 2,500; the nuinber of 
pnrfu, Ihi'rifnri', 7,000 000, nii'l llie niiiiilier of inc.lirs of 
pfrKpiriilorij' 1,7')0,000; thai in, 1^^4,H:'>'A feet, or 
48,000 _v" '■'/•■*, or nearly 28 mi let: to etiih iiiiliridwdf" 

The sebaceous, or uil-forming glands, which are 
in(;lutled in the above calculation of Wilson, are 
small oblong bodies closely resembling the perspi- 
ratory glands, and sometimes they are short, straight 
follicles or i)ouclies seated in the sul)stance of the 
skin. Their exctretory ducts open into a hair folli- 
cle. The>e sebai^eous (from tiie batin nebiun, tallow, 
having reference to the oily secretions of the se- 
baceous glands) tubes aie fre<iuenlly the seat of a 
curious parasite, or animalcule which are often 
found in great numbers in those persons whose 
skin is torjiid in its functions. They are found in 
all ages, and in remarkable numbers during sick- 

As has been said, the skin both absorbs material 
essential to the process of nutrition. an<l eliminates 
the .skii;, ;. r, fatty (throws off! waste and effete matter, which, if le- 
lj:o;^„i;io,:u,^!;i t^'i'>*-Sl> would ..ause.lisease. The tjuid seceded as 
face Tlic tlirce lay- Jierspirat Ion isconimonlv .so gratlually formeii that 
ersofwhiciiiiicskiiiis the waterv portir)n escajies in vapor on coniinjj 
co.n,.osc.l.aresl,..vvn ^^^ ,,,^ suiiace. and Is tlieucalle.l in^eu.oihh per- 
Epiration, the oily portion remaining upon the surfa<e, giving it 
eoftness and jtliability, in health. But duriuji severe exerci.-'e, or in 
■warm ot damp atmosphere, and in some forms of disease, the lluid 
collects in drops on the .skin, and is then called smxihlt perspiration; 
and this Huid so eliminated holds in solution various salts, viz; piios- 

DflT, AC. 

ila(pii/lf(l 3(1 diameters. 

n. couvolutitnis of 

duct la'iu'Htti tlicsl;iii; 

b,b, miller surface <if 


phates of soda and lime, oarhonate of lime, chloride of soditim (com- 
mon salt I, sulfihate of soda, cliloridc' of (lunnoninm ("sal ainmoiiiai'"), 
aiul some |)i)t:isli, lactir (from luc, milk) and acetic acid; Lracen of iron 
and animal matter have also been foniul. 

These estimates include tiie excretic^n from the oil-forming (se- 
baceous) jrlands, which are almost necessiirily mixed witli the perspi- 

The average loss by exhalation from tlie skin during twenty-four 
hours is eslimate<l at 22 lbs., about twice as much as by the lungs 
during the same time. 

Tills disciiarge from the skin is less active when the digestion is 
imjmired, and most abundant during tlie period of digestion, though si> iininediately after food is taken. 

The skin is mucli intlnenced by the functions of other organs; 
the organs^ the functions of which most intlueuce the skin, however, 
are the kitbieys. The cutaneous and urinary excretions are recipro- 
cally vicarious (changeable), the deficiency of one being compensated 
for by the other; aiul this not merely in regard to theamount of fluid 
whicli they carry away fr<jm the blood, but also in respect to the solid 
matter which they eliminate. It is said that at least 100 grains of 
effete, or worn-out nuitter are daily thrown off fnun the skin, an<lany 
cause whittli cliecks this excretion must increase the lal)or of the 
kidufyn, or [)roduce an ai;cnmulati(Ui of poisonous matter in the.;l)lood. 
Hence attention to the functions of the skin — which is at all'tiines 
imjuirtant — is i)eculiar]y required in the treatment of diseases of the 
kitlneys and urinary origans, and valuable in the treatment of ^y 

Much more might be said of the anatomy and physiology of the 
skin, and of its intimate relations through the nervous system and 
contiguous tissues, with the other structures of the body; but the 
princi|>al obje<'t is to show the necessity of keeping the skin clean, and 
not interrupting its otHce, and I trust I have made plain that neces- 

If the knowledge of these facts could reach the crowd of the un- 
wnxhfil — certainly of the nnhatlieil — both rich and poor, they surely 
ought to feel some alarm at their danger, when they reflect that their 
own skins must be pretty thoroughly coated, and its pores obstructed 
by a thick investing layer, the residue of [)erspirable an<l sebaireous, 
or oily secretions, mixed with detache<l scales of the cuticle, outer 
Pkiu, dust, and other matters floating in the atmosjihere, all of which 
have been allowed to accunnilate for a term of years. And some per- 
sons who would resent tlie imputation of nnclfnidbn'Rii, deceive them- 
selves into a belief that, if they overcome one odor by another — the 
animal by vegetal)le extracts and „[ierfumery," they comply with the 
reijuiremcnts of the toilet. They have yet to learn the important 
lesson, thai no distillation, though each drop should be as costly as 
grains of a iliamond, conld avail either to cleanse or beautify without 
tlie nse of water, the universal solvent for all bodily impurities. No 
disinfectant can take the |ila<'e of r/fiinliness. 

Cleanliness of body. which si next to Godliness, is in closer con- 
necti(m with purity of mind than is generally supposed; and both be associuteii with our ideas of personal beauty and loveliness. 
The (irecian fiction of Venus being "ocean born,' is typical of the aid 
which beauty derives from frequent ablution, or Bathing. 

80 DR. chase's 

The list of diseased conditions resulting from a suspension of the 
functions of the skin would make a long catalogue— their name is 
legion — but chiefly among these may be mentioned diseases of the 
throat and lungs, as catarrh, broncliitis, pneumonia, etc.; diseases of 
the kiclneys, from imposing on them too much of the work the skin 
ought to do, and the various formations of "gravel," " Bright's dis- 
ease," diabetes, etc.; diseases of the digestive apparatus, as dyspepsia, 
inflammations of the stomach and bowels, "liver complaint" — so 
called — rheumatism, paralysis, various forms of troublesome cuta- 
neous diseases, and all the "long list of diseased states, resulting from 
feeble and imperfect circulation of the blood; to restore which, by 
Bathing, and promote the functions of the skin is one of the common 
sense proceedings in the treatment of such derangements. 

The most simple division of Baths in regard to temperature is 
cold, warm ami hot. The intermediate degrees are expressed by the 
terms cool, temperate, and tepid, but they are of little practical value, 
as the construction put on these names is exceedingly various — water 
of 80" Fah. feeling cool to one and cold to another. 

A cold Bath ranges in temperature from 33*^ Fah. to about 75** — 
though a Bath below 50° is very cold ; the tepid and cool Baths range 
from 75° to about 92° ; the ivarm Balh ranges from 92'^ to 98°, while a 
Bath above 98° is properly called a hot Bath. 

The measure of good produced by a Bath can not be arbitrarily 
estimated by the amount of fluids absorbed or expelled. Neither do 
Baths operate on the system as on a piece of inorganic matter by con- 
stringing and relaxing tissues. Bathing calls into additional exercises 
the heart and blood-vessels, especially the capilaries (the minute 
blood-vessels), both of the skin and of all the internal tissues and 
organs. These effects are most obvious in the two extremes of the 
scale of temperature, viz: the hot and cold Baths; the stimulation (in- 
crease of the circulation) from the former being direct and immedi- 
ate; and the sedation (lessening the circulation) from the latter, being 
secondary, following the reaction which should succeed the shock. 

The time for taking a full Bath, either warm or cold, as a hygienic 
measure, or for enjoyment — when the Bather can select his own time 
— is when the stomach is empty, or nearly so, as before breakfast or 
before dinner. When taken as a remedial agent, of course the prob- 
able good to be derived outweighs any consideration of time. No 
special instructions can be given that will take the place of that judg- 
ment, essential to those who determine the choice of remedies in a 
given case of sickness, or of the tact and discretion necessary to a 
proper use of them. 

The frequency of the Bath as a means of health depend on the 
habits, occupation, and inclination of the individual, the season of 
the year and the climate. Once a day is sufficiently often for all pur- 
poses in any season or climate, while once, or twice, a week may be 
often enough for most persons who do not have much free perspira- 
tion. Persons who are traveling in dusty roads, oi^ working in dusty 
fields will find a daily, or rather an evening Bath absolutely essential 
to health, as well as cleanliness. The temperature must be accommo- 
dated to the individual. 

The cold Bath is a powerful sedative, as must be evident when we 
consider its range of temperature from 75° Fah. down to the freezing 


point. But few persons, and they of the most vigorous, require or 
can endure to use it in the thirty lower degrees of temperature. 

Its primary (first) effect is tliat of a sliock, with great depression 
of the circulatory and nervous systems; its secondary effect, a reac- 
tion which, in liealth, goes above the normal (healthy) standard, and 
brings a glow to the skin from the increased capilary circulation, with 
great exhilaration of the nervous system. Whenever a cold Bath is 
not succeeded by these general results, or if a cJiill follow, or the sur- 
face is left cold, it not only fails to produce a beneficial result, but its 
efl'ect must be injurious.- In the higher degrees of its temperature, 
and judiciously used, it is a valuable agent, and gives increased tone 
and vigor to all the organs and tissues. The occasion however, must 
be very rare when a full cold bath — i. c, by immersion — will be indi- 
cated in the treatment of acute diseases; but in the form of sponging, 
it is highly useful in reducing the heat of the body both in local in- 
flammation and in many forms o{ fever. The practice of immersing 
infants and children in a cold Bath is not supported by reason, common 
sense, or phj-^siology. The more vigorous endure it, but are not made 
stronger thereby; the weaker are made more weak. The cold Bath, 
whenever taken, should be followed by thorough friction of the skin 
until a glow of heat is produced and when practicable, by active bodily 
exercise. Of course the duration of the Bath must be shoi't. The 
cold Bath must not be taken if protracted exercise, or Jabor have left 
the body exhausted, or if the individual is suffering from great weari- 
ness or fatigue. 

^ The most popular form of Baths, however, both for their pleasur- 
able and sanatary effects, those most used from choice by habitual 
Bathers, and most agreeable to all who resort to Baths, are those of 
medium temperature, or uxtrm Baths. 

The warm Bath causes a sensation of general warmth, which is 
more obvious if the body has been previously cooled, languor, diminu- 
tion of muscular power, increases perspiration, and when long con- 
tinued, faintness and a tendency to sleep. Even in health, its effect is 
most soothing and agreeable on both the circulatory and nervous sys- 
tems, allaying excitement and calming the whole organism. Few 
hygienic agents are in more direct harmonious relation t ^^h. the wants 
of the animal system than that of regular Bathing. 

The diseased conditions in which the warm Bath is useful are also 
numerous. A few of the more important general conditions only will 
be named here. The warm Bath is found especially usefol in the 
treatment of acute anasarca, (dropsy) or general bloating, in dropsy 
following scarlet fever or measles, or from disease of the kidneys, in 
the passage of calculi — either biliary or renal — ("gall-stones," or 
"gravel"), by its relaxing power. In the same manner it assists in re- 
ducing dislocated bones; in inflammation of the stomach, bowels, 
kidneys and bladder; in eruptive and chronic skin diseases; in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, hysteria, and the long list of infantile diseases, 
among which arc cholera infantum, convulsions, etc. 

The }iot Bath ranging from 98° Fall, upward, is a powerful, direct 
stimulant, and, in its highest temperatures, should be used with cau- 
tion. It causes a sense of heat, renders the pulse fuller and stronger, 
accelerates respiration, occasions intense redness of theskin, and sub- 
sequently copious perspiration, and finally relaxation. 

It is seldoui or never requireii when in health, and the range ol 

6— DB. CHASB'S second RErEIPT BOOK. 

83 DB. CHASK'8 

its uses as a remedial agent is far less than the warm Bath. It is 
principally employed in collapse, in paralysis, rhenmatism, suppres- 
sion of urine accompanied with great pain, gravel, cramps, bilious 
CohV. and some forms of chronic disease. 

Practically, no other classification of the ternpenitnre of Baths 
need be made than that which every person makes for himself, ac- 
cording to his sensations, i. e.,n!arm and cool — the hot and coW growing 
out of the extention of these, and the tnnpc.rale and tepid coming be- 
tween them. 

The transition Bath, or changing suddenly from an extreme tem- 
perature, either hot, or cold, to one of an extremely opposite degree, 
may be much more safely indulged in than is generally supposed, 
esijecially with tlie precautions usually taken to avoid unpleasant 
results, though its praclical use is of only comparative importance. 

The sitoiver Bath I need not dwell on. If the head be the part 
showered, it should be used with great caution, and but for a short 
time, especially if the water be cold — neither should the water fall 
from a great distance. 

The douche Bath is simply a stream of water directed to any part 
of the body desired, and is an excellent way to i)rocu]e a local Bath. 

The ilL, or hip Bath, is another form of local Bath, of great value 
in determining blood to that part of the body — being generally used 
warm or hot. 

There are various forms and names of local and p.-rtial Baths, 
unnecessary to describe in detail, as their use would be suggested 
both as a means of health, and in the treatment of the sick — as 
sponging, sprinldirtg and pouring water on the body, or on a part of itf 
the temperature of which, as of all local Baths, can be regulated to 
meet the object in view. 

But it must be remembered that the full Bath, for most purposes, 
is superior to all other forms, but especially as a promoter of. health, 
as not mere temporary contact with water, as washing, is needed, but 
immersion of part or all of the body, for such a length of time as is 
necessary to expose all parts of its surface to the cleansing and salu- 
tary influence of the water. The use of the wash-tub or bowl is not a 
substitute for the Batldng-tub, or Eubher-Bath, as recently brought into 
use. If the skin M'as an impervious coat like a varnished surface, it 
would suffice to wasli it; but it has been shown to be a texture of con- 
siderable thickness, made up to a large extent of excretory and secre- 
torg glands, of minute blood-vessels, and of millions of branches of the 
principal nerves of sensation, wliich terminate on its external surface. 
And here let me impress on the reader that water, and ivater only, for 
most pi:rposes of Bathing, constitutes tlie best Bath. Of all the various 
"medicated" Baths, the most valuable medicament is the tvater 
some remedies held in solution maybe thus absorbed and prove bene- 
ficial, but the tonic and stimulant eflects of the water arc most 

It was not contemplated here, to attempt anything more than to 
awaken attention to the value of Bathing as a ])romoter, preserver 
and restorer of health. It is not to be understood that Bathing is a 
cure-all; but rather, that Bathing is simply one remedy in the list of 
curative agents, though a greatly neglected and important one ; that 
while Bathing is a valuable auxiliary in the treatment of many case-s, 
it may not be indicated, or may be insufficient alone, in others; t-hat 



Bathing does not directly nourish the tissue's, and therefore can not take the place of 
tonics, either in diet or medicine, but that it acts more by helping to restoie and main- 
tain in a healthy state the functions of the eliminative organs, the organs that secrete, 
and excrete or throw off, and especially that great eliminator — the skin—^nA thus pro- 
mote digestion and assimilation, and give nervous tranquility and a sort of equipoise, 
or even balancing of the the whole system. 

It is impracticable to enumerate all the individual cases of disease benefited by 
Bathing; but in addition to those previously mentioned, are those of local inflamma- 
tions, fevers, congestions, spasms, colic, torpidity and various chronic aflfections of the 
liver, kidneys, and general organs of digestion, deranged menstruation, diseases of the 
lungs and air passages— as croup, catarrh, asthma— and many forms of skin diseases, 
injuries and diseases of joints, etc. 

In much general debility the Bath will not be indicated, except it be used with 
great care and judgement. But it will be found much safer and more beneficial than is 
popularly supposed, to cool the body when excessively heated by fever, or by inflamma- 
tion, and as safe, ordinarilj', to warm it when exccbsivcly cooled. 

As a general rule, a Bath, to be efficient, should be followed by pleasurable sensa- 
tions, by exhileration and buoyancy of spirits, and by elasticity and tranquility of the 
nervous system, and increased force of intellect. 

To convince sensible people of the value of Bathing, either as a hygienic or sana- 
tive agent, it is not necessary to enter into a detailed and lengthy statement as to how 
it acts as a prophylactic [preventive] remedy. Such an exhaustive consideration ol 
the subject is not at all necessary. 

I give reasons enough for Bathing when I say it promotes cleanliness: by virtue ol 
this fact it is demanded; but T have given other reasons, also which I trust, will com- 
mend themselves to the good judgment of all who may read these pages. 

" The man who induces the American people to pay more attention to Bathing, and 
shall succeed in making it popular, and shall place before the whole people a practicle 
plan by which all may enjoy this great boon— now indulged in by the few, as a luxury— 
■will have conferred on his age and race a real good, that will entitle him to a rank as a 
public benefactor and philanthropist, with the names of a Howard and a Franklin." 

That such may be the final result, I would call attention to one of the latest 
improvements in metalic apparatus for Bathing purposes, as shown in Fig. 15, which is 
made of galvanized iron, [which does not rustj lor houses already built which have no 
Bathing conveniences, and even for small houses that may yet be tmilt, by mechanics 
and laborers, who do not feel able to fit up and set apart a room especially for Bathing 
purposes, but who desire to keep themselves and their families clean, that they may all 
enjoy good health. Such a galvanized-iron Bath-tub can be got up, by any good tinner 
for about one-half of what a copper tub, or the Rubber Bath named in the earlier 
editions of this Work would cost— SIO to S15 according to size— the one here represented 
cost only 812.50. The dimensions of the one examined is as follows : 

Fig. 15. 


Fig. 15.— Length on the bottom, inside, 4 ft. 4 in.— 5 ft t, at top. The foot end 
flaring outward, onlv 4 or .'> inches, at the head the flare was about 14 inches. The 
width on the bottom, inside, at the widest place, 14 inches— 10 inches only near the foot, 
and it might have been onlv 8 across the foot |as the less width, the less water is required 
to fill tliem.J The slope outwards, of sides was also considerable, making a width at top, 
across the shoulders, of 22 in., and 16 across the top near the foot, with a perpendicular, 

84 DR. CHASE'3 

depth of 15 in. — larger sizes keeping about these proportions, can be 
aiade to suit larger persons than this was made for. The top was fin- 
ished by turning a bead about 1 in. in diameter, to give strength as 
seen at a. a. in tlie smaller figure, which represents the tub as having 
been cut ofi" at one of the pieces across the bottom upon which the 
castors are fastened upon each side of the tub. Where the body part 
of the tub is made with its proper outward-spread, or flare, a bottom 
board 1 in. thick, as seen at c. c. [cut ofl'J was fitted in [having the 
dimensions as above given] the head and foot ends being nicely 
rounded, then firmly nailed through the iron, as seen at c. c, and along 
the bottom of the main Fig., the lower edge of the iron being nicely 
turned under the bottom. Before nailing the bottom board into its 
place, scribe out by it, the iron bottom, allowing one-fourth to three- 
eighths of an inch all around, to turn up, so as to solder it nicely to the 
body, so that no water can come in contact with the board bottom, as 
also shown at e. in the smaller Fig. — b. b. represents the galvanized- 
iron sides, and d. d. the cross pieces screwed across the bottom, upon 
which the castors are fastened, to allow its easy movement when 
desired. A Bath-plug maj' be fitted in the bottom, near the foot, if 
desired, to draw off the water. 

Hot-Air Bath. — Such improvements have been made in the 
manner of administering a hot-air Bath, as to make it a very conve- 
nient and desirable method of getting up persperation. It Las been 
the custom for a long time back, in domestic practice, to take the hct- 
air Bath by means of burning alcohol in an open dish, which was 
placed under a chair upon which the naked patient was sitting, being 
covered with a blanket or coverlet to keep in the heat; but occasion- 
ally a saucer, tea-cup, or whatever other dish might be used to con- 
tain the alcohol, which was set on fire, would break, causing the flame 
to spread, burning the person, covering, carpets, etc., more or less, so 
that many persons were fearful of using it. I had supposed, however, 
that the objection arose as much from an unwillingness to "take a 
sweat," as from the danger of burning ; but a former book-keeper of 
mine was taking dinner with me a few months back, this writing is 
September 5th, 1872, who was telling me of his treatment of himself 
for inflammatory rheumatism. He said he had "a gay time of it I " 
He put the alcohol into a tea-cup, and set it on fire, but the heat broke 
the cup, allowing the flaming alcohol to spread over the carpet by 
which it was spoiled for 2 or 3 feet in diameter, the coverlet burned 
more or less, and the " gay time " came in by the flame at once encir- 
cling his limbs, causing considerable smarting for some length of 


time, notwitlistanding he made "tall time," in bounding out of it, and 
helping to snhdue the fire withont thinking whether he was naked or 
clotlied. lie was well satisfied that he did not wish to risk another, 
in that way. 

But I was very glad to he able to inform him, at thai timt:, of a 
plan which T now give in this AVork, that I had adopted and used the 
present season, enabling any one to take the hot-air Bath very easily, 
quickly, and with perfect safety. It is done by the use of an alcohol 
lamj), made for the purpose, to hold about a pint, with 4 tubes, or 
burners, as seen in our illustrutio^i, under the head of Sweating. See 
also V>R. .Ton^'soN's Cuke for Colds and Recent Catahrhs. I tried the 
lamp, at first with one burner, but found that even lirn was not enough ; 
80 I had /our put in, and found it "just the thing." It gives plenty of 
heat, but none too much. Pursuing the plan I have given in ihe 
illvslrotion, as above mentioned, the Bath will be found vei-y satisfac- 
tory, and eflcctual, as well as safe. 

Professor King, in his "American Dispensatory," on page 802, 
edition of 1871, speaks very highly of the use of the spirit vapor-Bath, 
or, as I here call it, the hot-air Bath. In speaking of its " history ami 
uses" he says: " A s])irit vapor-Bath exerts a po'.verful, yet ben- 
eficial influence upon the whole system aiding very materially our 
endeavors to remove disease. This highly valnal)le mode of pro- 
ducing activity of the cutaneous vessels" (vessels of the skin) " has long 
been practiced in many sections of the country as a domestic reme- 
dial agent, and was introduced to the notice of the medical profession 
by myself, about 25 years ago, since which it is in much use by phy- 
sicians. The advantages to be derived from this method of producing 
perspiration are very great, and it is not followed with any of those 
injurious consequences which often attend the internal administration 
of a sudorific. 

"There is no danger of taking cold after this hot-air Bath, if a 
patient uses ordinary precaution; and if his disease will allow, he can 
attend to his business on the next day the same as usual. In t\ict, the 
whole is a very easy, safe, agreeable and beneficial oijeration, much 
more so than a mere reading of the above explanation wuuld lead one 
to suppose. Chairs are now manufactured expressly for this purpose. 

"This Bath is much employed by many pliysicians, and is highly 
beneficial in colds, pleurisy, and all febrile and inflammatory attacks, 
diarrhea, dysentery, sluggishness of cutaneous vessels, and in all 
chronic diseases where there is an abnormal" (unhealthy) "condition 
of the skin, in acute diseases, it may be repeated once a day, if 
required ; in chi'onic diseases, once or twice a week, or once in a fort- 
night, according to indications. 

■' Where it can be done, it is always preferable to Bathe the 
patient with an alkaline wash, both before and after (his vapor-Bath." 

Of course, this endorsement and recommendation of the Bath, 
has reference to the old open-dish style of taking it; but as I had 
seen two or three notices in newspapers, of accidents arising from the 
old ])lan; then the recital of the above mentioned, with so care- 
ful a man as I knew this one to be, it gives me great pleasure to be 
able to lay before the jjrofession, as well as before the people, truly, 
"the better way." He makes this remark, in his description of the 
old method of administering it, "watching it, from time to time, to 
see that the blankets are not burned.' He gives this further cautiou, 

86 DR. chase's 

in another part of the description, "being very carerr.l to pour i.o 
liquor into the saucer while the flame exists, as there would l>e dano;er 
of burning tlie patient, blanket, and perhaps the house." 

The ])rincipai danger, however, consisted in the large size of the 
blaze, heating the dish and causing it to break, as above mentioned, 
or from flaring about by the wind caused in raising the blanket, etc., 
and, then it was too hot also, for comfort. All these diflicultios are 
overcome by my method; and 1 have not a doubt but what Prof. King 
will be as glad to adopt it as any other person. 

The lamp is very convenient, also, for warming medicim.- in a 
spooii, for cliildren, in the night time, or for warming milk for a child 
that has to be raised upon "the bottle," as there is no smoke to hlack 
up the vessel, from burning alcohol. 

1 have called this a hot-air Bath instead of a spirit vajjoi-BatU, 
because it is such in fad; the spirit does not evaporate, or rise in 
vapor, but simply burns, and thereby heats the air, especially will 
this be the case with the lamp, and T believe also in the open dish, as 
the va])or burns as it rises. A vapor-Bath is made by putting hot 
irons, or .stones into hot water, by which a vapor, or steam is produced. 
Persons must use whichever they prefer, or have C(^nveuiences for 

made up my mind to introduce into this Work, infornnition upon the 
subject of Bee-Kee|iing,/rorn </(« many tetters which I had received fro-m 
the people asking for it, as I had no practical knuwle^lge upon the sub- 
ject myself, I at once wrote to Col. J. B. Iloit, of Sauk Rapids, .Minne- 
sota, whom r knew, from my residence there, to be qualifled, from his 
own s\u"cess, to impart such knowledge to others as would enable them 
to undertake Bee-Keeping for themselves witli a full expectation of 
Bticcess. The following is his answer; and I know whereof I speak, 
when T say it can be reliv.l .^/un. Latitmle, as the Col. says, has very 
mm^h to do with Bees, <'s[)ecially in Wintering them. N'orlh of a 
range, Kast and West from the south boundary of the Stales of New 
York and luwa, Bees can undoubtedly be Wintered better in cellars, 
or houses prepared for that purpose, than to allow them to remain 
out; while South of that range, it may be safe, perhai)s to leave them 
upon their stands over Winter. Whei-e the nature of tlie soil is such 
that cellars biM-ome tilled with water, wliich is the case in some sec- 
tions of some of ovir Northwestern States, the latter part of llie Col- 
onel's letter will give a remedy for, unless a Bee-House has been pro- 

T fleeni it important, however, before the introduction of the 
Colonel's letter, to give a short des(;ri])tion of the dilfereut rlassea of 
Bees, as follows : 

Description of the Different Classes of Bees.— The Queen. 
—Every successfully working swarm contains one (jueeti, or fenude 
Bee, many thousand workers, and, during their working season, there 
are also found many drones, or male Bees. 

The most perfect afl'ection is manifested by the whole family of 
Bees for their Queen. And if by any means she is lost, the whole swarm 
is thrown into the most perfect confusion; they will be seen running 
hither and tbitlier, over the combs and finally out of the hive, nuik- 
ing the most energetic eflorts to discover her; and if they do not 
BUcceed, and have not the proper brood for another Queen, lain bv 



Fig. 16. 

her, on nand, or are not furnished with such brood, artificially, or are 
not joined with another swarm that has a Queen, the whole swarm 
will soon perish. 

The Queen is considered the most important person- 
age in the colony; and scientific observation has estab- 
lished the fact that the Queen is the only perfect female 
Bee. She is considerable longer than either of the 
other classes, and although she is larger around than 
the worlier, yet, her length gives her a slim appearance, 
by which she is easily distinguished from either of the 
others. And although her color is dark, yet, it is bright 
and striking, and having but little, if anj', of the fine 
hair seen upon the drooe and worker. The underside 
is of a yellowish, or golden color, and often a yellowish, 
band, or bands pass nearly around her; and especially 
will this hold good with the Italian Queens. Her wings 
^^^ quite short, as compared to the length of her body; 
* being also more pointed, or sharp, in the posterior, or 
hind part of the body, which also has a little downward curve. 
Although she has a sting, it is said she never uses it only to destroy a 
rival Queen. 

The Queen never leaves the hive, except to meet the drone, or 
male Bee, in her flight, for the purpose of impregnation, that she may 
lay her eggs for the purpose of perpetuating the life of the colony, 
and to furnish Bees for a new colony also. 

Fig 17 T^^o Worker. — Upon the Worker depends the sweets 

of the hive, and the profits of tlieir culture. As the 
lives of the swarm, as well as the profits depend upon 
numbers, for warmth, as well as for v)ork, tho Workers are 
found to make up the mass — great majority of the hive. 
They manufacture the wax, with which they make the 
comb; they gather the honey and the Bee-bread; they 
nurse and feed the brood, or young Bees; they keep off 
intruders, and defend their homes with their stings; and 
WORKER BEF ^^^^^ gather a cement, called/jrojaoZis (which word is formed 
■ from two Greek words, pro, before, and polls, a cit^; 
hence, it literally means, "before the rity." The ancients gave it 
this name because the Bees use it to fortify their dwellings,) with 
which they cover up all cracks and crevices in the hives, and cover 
glass if used in making their hiveo, or boxes, if left so as to admit 
fight into the hives ; in fact, Ihey are what their name implies — literally 
the Workers — they do all the labor tliat !•-' to be done. 

It was formerly believed that the Workers were neither male nor 
female, neuters; but more recently it has been determined by micro- 
Bcopic examinations that they are female, but of imperfect develop- 
ment, yet sometimes so far developed that they do lay eggs; this is 
not common, however; but their s/n/^.s are fully devdnpecf, and they 
know how to use them wlien occasion requires, although, as a gen- 
eral thing, the Bee loses its life from the loss of its sting. The 
mechanism of this meano of defense, in the Bee, is very peculiar. 
"It is moved by muscles whicli, tliough invisible to the eye, are yet 
strong enough to forr-o the sting, to the depth of one-twelfth of an 
inch, through the thick skin of a man's hand. At its root, are situ- 
ated two glands by which the poison is secreted ; these glands uniting 

88 DK. ohask'b 

in one duct, eject the venomous liquid along the groove formed by the 
junction of the two piercers. There are four barbs on the outside of 
each piercer; when the Bee is prepared to sting, one of these piercers 
having its point a little longer than the other, first darts into the flesh, 
and being fixed by its foremost barb, or beard, the other strikes in 
also, and they alternately penetrate deeper and deeper till they 
acquire a firm hold of the flesh with their barbed hooks; and then 
follows the sheath, conveying the poison into the wound." 

■p ,Q Drones. — The Drones, by some, are called the 

"gentlemen of leisure." In one sense this is true, 

>y /- ^ so far as labor is concerned, like the gentleman of 

\ ^J*S»^ rtX leisure, they never do any thing of that kind ; and 

^,/ ^ again they resemble this species of human drone, 

i", they are always ready to go out as a lady's escort — 

the Drone Bees go out with the Queen, on a fine 

J' sunny day; and they "laze" around the hive all 

\ of the balance of their lives which, as a mercy 
i ^ to the Workers, is not permitted to be very long; so 

-iat^' ■ would it be better for the peace of society if the 
„„^„^ „^„ human drone, the "gentleman of leisure," could 

DRONE BEE. i i • c xi i c i • i. \.- 

be soon driven trom the place of his trysting, as 
Dry den say9 of this Bee : 

" AH with united force combiBe to drive 
The lazy Drones from the laborious hive." 

They are larger than the Worker, and shorter and more bulky 
than the Queen ; naturally they are not as active as either of the other 
classes. They are the males; and when the season of brooding is 
over, from April to August, they have to yield to "the balance of 
power," which is against them, in the great number of the Workers, 
BO that most of them are soon driven out, or killed ; being without 
Btiiigs, they have no means of defense, and fall an easy ju-ey to the 
merciless stings of their enemies. I think our cuts give a fair repre- 
Bentation of their proportions and difi'erences of appearance. 

Queen Cells. — In the commencement of the honey season, in 
vigorous colonies that have been well supplied with honey, it will be 
found tliat the comb is well filled with both worker and drone biood; 
and the swarm, or colony will increase rapidly in numbers with an 
expectation, according to their instincts, of sending out new swarms; 
but, to meet this demand, or rather that there may be a "governor" 
ready and well qualified to go out with the new colonies, there must 
be provided a new Queen, hence, it becomes necessary to provide 
Bome Queen Cells; for the ordinaiy worker, or drone cells are not of 
Butficient size to admit of growing a Queen in them. To provide for 
this necessity, they choose, generally, the unfinished cells found upon 
the edge of most comb, and lengthen them out, somewhat after the 
form represented in Fig. 19. These common cells are lengthened out 
and enlarged, and those upon the sides are turned downward; and as 
Boon as the Queen Cell has fairly reached its full size, in diameter, 
and from a third to one-half its length, the Queen deposits the egg 
for the neio Queen, after which the cell is comjjleted and sealed up, 
and sometimes several of them are provided, eggs deposited, finished 
and sealed up also. And when this work is accom])lished, a swarm 
may soon after be exjiected; provided that artificial swarming in not 
resorted to, as they do not wait for the hfitching out and maturing of 


a new Queen; but the old one goes out witli the netv swarm. T]i)y Is a 
peculiarity of Bee life, for they know that the old hive has been pro- 
vided for in the Queen broad, or eggs that were depot^ited by tlie old 
Queen before she left. About !(> days from the time the egg has been 
lain, a mature Queen will be found. Many of the old \vorker Bees 
remain in the old hive. Although several Queen Cells have been 
provided, and brood deposited in them, the first Queen that issues 
from her cell, which she will do in 7 or 8 days from the deposit of the 
egg from which she has emerged, notwithstanding she is still not 
fully grown, her firftt work is to hunt out the other royal cells, and 
biting a hole in the side, sling to death, those that would be her rivals. 
But sometimes the w'orkcrs, knowing that sufficient brood has been 
provided for Uco, or more swarms, they will set a guard, soldier-like, 
to prevent the destruction of the other Queens. 

■pi(i 19 Thus foiled in her plans of de- 

' ^_ _ stroying her rivals, says Quimby, 

" ■ " "^ " ■^ifli "'■''^'^ yi'^'^s utterance to a distinct 
,_|| piping noise, and in 2 or 3 days 
' " thereafter yields to the wishes of 
the Bees, and issues with a 
swarm. This performance is re- 
peated as long as the Colls are 
g: "ot destroyed. The Queen that 

I \y4 succeeds in putting the others to 

% .^J death, remains, and becomes the 

\L ■ ■ ii| mother of the colony. It is often 

31 the case that 2 or more Queens 

a hatch simultaneously, in which 

'^^i case there is a deadly strife. 

■^^ '4 There seems to be an implacable 

"' ' . animosity in their very natures. 

The young Queen, now left 
with the colony, becomes fertil- 
,.^^ ized by connection with the 

^^^--^"'''^iiiiiiH' Drone in the open air, in about 6 

^®^ days after leaving the Cell. Two 

QUEEN CELLS. ^^ ^ "i^^^^'^ aftcrwards she will be- 

gin her maternal duties. Ihe 
number of eggs thai a Queen will lay in 24 hours is astonishing to the 
novice. From i-cpeated and careful observations, 1 have no hesita- 
tion in saying that a good Queen will deposit from 2,000 or 3,000 eggs 

If from any cause the supply of honey fails, so that it wouki be 
injudicious for a swarm to issue, the Queen Cells are sometimes 
destroyed by the Workers, ami the Drones then also fall victims. If 
they escape this masbacre, it is only to be driven out and destroyed 
later in the season. A few may linger as late as December. Remem- 
bering tiie fiicl that the Woikers are short-lived, it is easy to t-ee lliat 
if a colony its Queeu during Summer, from any cau"se, its num- 
bers will soon seriously diminish, unless there is provision made for 
a successor. If a laying Queen dies, there will probably be brood in 
all stages of develoi.ment left in the hive. The Workers will select 
Worker larvaj about 3 days' old, convert 1 or more cells into Queen 
Cells, and in 10 days thereafter will have a mature Queen." 

90 DR. CHArtE'8 

This providing for all of the various circumstances which arise in 
Bee life, may be set down to the wisdom of an Almighty hand, that 
■ve, His more important creatures, might be supplied, in our necessi- 
ties, with a class of food, that should not only be very pleasant to the 
taste, but nourishing to the system, and, withal, be good as a 

There are those who claim that the Bee is possessed of something 
more than instinct (involuntary, or unreasoning action), in other words 
that they do reason ! Be that as it may, I do not deny it, but rather 
claim that the Bee is not the only animal, other than man, that is pos- 
sessed of what appears, at least, to most of us, to be a kind of reason- 
ing power; but this does not by any means pi'ove them to be pos- 
sessed of such an amount as to constitute them responsible beings; 
but, yet, it does prove to my entire satisfaction that they were created 
by a Wisdom that is s© far superior to our own, that we, of right, 
ought to be lield responsible to that Creative Wisdom. 

The Queen Cell is made about 1 inch in length, and about one- 
third of an inch in diameter; and it is claimed that the Queen brood 
is fed on a different class of food to that which is fed to the other 
classes of Bees — roi/al food. It is more than probable. After the 
season of raising Queens is over, it is believed also, that the Workers 
gnaw the Cells away, leaving only the cup foundation, as it was a* 
first found, except it can be seen that it has been enlarged. 

The industry and perseverance of the Bee is as fully remarkable 
as their instinct — as cheerful also, we would say of persons, as indus- 
trious; and notwithstanding that some persons feel more or less fear- 
ful of their stings, almost everybody is glad to see them come into 
the garden, or bower, to gather their sweets. This is fully mani- 
fested by the following lines of Professor Smyth, with which I will 
close my description of the diflfei-ent classes of Bees, together with 
that of Queen Cells, etc. He says: 

" Thon cheerful Bee ! eome, freely come, 

And travel round my woodbine bovver ; 
Delight me with thy wandering hum, 

And rouse me froni uiy musfng liour. 
I Oh! try no more those tedious lields, 

Come taste the sweets my garden yields; 
The treasures df each blooming vine, 

The bud, the blossom, all are thine." 

I will add only another thought to this subject: May our indus- 
try equal that of the diligent and pei'severing Bee; and if our intel- 
ligences fails to be sufficient for any emergency, "let us ask of God, 
who giveth liberally and upbraideth not," so shall we be qualified 
for the positions and conditions of life, remembering that herein con- 
sists the chief difference between intelligent and responsible beings,and 
of those which may appear to have a reasoning instinct, they are what 
they are created, and there they remain; we may increase in knowl- 
edge, not only through this life, but, through a never-ending existence 
may learn more and more of that Creative Wisdom which will not 
only liold us responsible for all lack in improvement, according to our 
opportunities, but also for our failures in not doing our duty according 
to the teachings of the monitor — conscience — which He has placed 
within us, to fill the place of the instinct that he has given to His 
creatures of a lower order of intelligence. 

But, to return to the letter before referred to. The Colonel says' 


Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, December 1st, 1871. 
Dr. a. W. Chase, — My Dear Sir: — You request me to give you my 
method and experience in Bee-Keeping and Bee-Management. I will 
try and do so in as brief a manner as possible, although I am not an 
expert in the art. I have learned something every year by practice 
and experience; and yet thei'e is much to be learned. Different local- 
ities and particularly the different degrees of latitude have very 
much to do with the system of Bee-Keeping, and they should be 
studied and compared before adopting any new theory ; for instance, 
a system that would be a perfect success in Texas or Tennessee, if 
ado{)ted in my latitude (45" North) would be an utter failure, or vice 
versa. I think that this in a great measure accounts for the great con- 
fusion of opinions among Bee-Keepers in regard to the proper size 
and best Bee-Ilive, and the mode of Wintering Bees, etc. Bees are 
generally kept for profit ; and, unlike other stock, they are self-sus- 
taininjj, not only providing their own food, but with judicious Man- 
agu'uient, will store a large surplus of honey ; and it is much easier to 
give them the little attention needed than the trouble of caring for 
cattle and sheep, etc., Bee-Keeping is a subject that interests every 
farmer, and in a country so vast as ours, and capable of producing 
millions uf pounds of honey every year, which now goes to wasre, and 
the principles of gathering, which, if well understood, would be inti- 
mately interwoven with all of the industrial pursuits of tlie country. 
Many people entertain the vague idea that luck has much to do with 
one's success. But such is not the fact. Although one may not know 
it all, if he would take hold of it like any other business, he would 
learn enough of its principles to guide him safely along, and by join- 
ing the theory to practice he would soon become an expert in the art. 
I have kept Bees in this State (Minnesota) about 15 years, and have 
been uniformly successful in natural swarms, storing of surplus 
honey and Wintering my Bees. I have failed mostly in artificial 
swarming, and experimenting, or trying to find out or get (what everj- 
uther Bee-Keeper wants to know, i. e., which is) the best Bee-Hive, 
whicL has cost me some hundreds of dollars to learn that one-half 
of the merits claimed for most of our patent Bee-Kives, when put in 
practice by the Bee-Keeper, is not worth a l)rass pin, and only serve to 
discourage or disgust a new beginner with the whole business. I do 
not mean to condemn all patent Hives; some of them are good and 
entitled to all of the merits claimed for tht;m. The movable frames are 
a great improvement ; and for all purposes, I think very favorably of the 
Langstroth Hive. [I am told that the patents on the Langstroth flive 
expire this year. This note is written in by me, September 3, 1872. — 
Autuor]. Asa general thing, I think that our Hives are too large; 
would prefer one to contain a little less than 2000 cubic inches. I use 
the honey boxes on top of my Hives. Honey boards with auger holes 
for the Bees to crawl through to get into the boxes is a humbug. I 
prefer large boxes to small ones, although the latter will sell the high- 
est and best. My experience is that the Bees will fill a 25 lb. box 
almost in the same time that they will a 5 lb. box — have had them 
fill the former size the past season in 10 days, which satisfied me very 
well. I took off from less than 40 swarms this year 1200 lbs. of choice 
box honey, which has sold in this vicinity to the con-sumers at an 
average price of 30 cents per lb., or $360.00. My time and cost of 
boxes for the year would not exceed $15.00, which would leave a net 

92 OB. chabb'b 

Bum of $345.00. Some of our Bee-Keepers in this State report having 
taken llie past season 300 lbs. of honey from a single swarm, but I 
presume tluit tliey used the "Honey Extractor," which 1 do not choose 
to adopt, although it malvos my account boolv small; but I cannot 
change facts; and with my past experience, 1 am in no hurry to run 
after or adopt new theories, although 1 may be called an "old fogy." 

A good swarm of Bees, in the Spring should consist of 1 female, 
or (Jueen Bee, a few males, or Drones, and from 20,000. to 40,000 
neuters, or Workers. The swarming season in this latitude commencea 
about the 1st of June and lasts until the middle of July. In hiving 
natural swarms tlie hive should be clean and cool, and as soon as the 
Bees have eutered, it should be put on its stand in a cool and shady 
place; the honey boxes sliuuld be turned bottom up for several days, 
or until tbe Bees liave put enough stores into the hive to last them 
for the Winter; then if the yield of. honey is good they may be 
allowed to enter the boxes. I prefer natural swarms, and 1 from 
each old slock is better than 2 or 3. All must remember this fact, 
that success, and ail proiits, depends on large, or strong swarms. 
Weak s-warms will be almost sure to become a prey to robbers, millers, 
etc., if allowed to remain so long; but if taken in season, they can be 
doubled uj), or united with other swarms; otherwise send them to 
the brimstone pit at once; for an attempt to save them by feeding to 
any great extent, will result in a failure 9 times out of 10, in this 
latitude. But there are times ulien it should be resorted to in the 
Spring of the year, when an old stock of Bees would perish of star- 
vation, the same as a farmer would say by his cattle, between hay and 
grass, also when several days of stormy, bad weather follows immedi- 
ately after the issiiing of a 3'oung swarm of Bees. Tn such cases I 
prefer to use good honey, pouring a fev," spoonfuls amongst the Bees. 
Some of them uiay get daubed, but it won't hurt them any more than 
it would so many children. White or i-ock candy is also good; l)ut if 
neither of these are at hand, dissolve sugar — white if you have it — 
boil and skim it, and pour a little of tl'io sirup around the Bees for a 
few days. The entrance holes should l)e contracted in proportion to 
the danger of robbers, or Bees in the immediate neighborhood, while 
feeding is rontinned. 

The Spring and Fall are the best time for transferring Hces {rom. 
gum or con^.nion Itoard hives to moveable-frn/ne hives. P^or clamps to 
hold the combs in place in the frames until the Bees fasten them, I 

f)refer to us« strips of wood about one-eighth of an inch square; and a 
ittle longer than the frame is deep; using small tough wireon the ends 
of the clamps or st)(;ks When everything is ready, 1 lay down 2 sticks, 
with the wire.-- wrapped around the ends of them on the table or 
bench, iheii lay the frame over them; then turn the gum or hive 
bottonj u]) and (;lap a box over the hive; if it does not tit good, wrap 
a blanket around them so as to close the connection ; then thump with 
a small stick on the hive for 10 minutes or so, until the Bees have 
tilled lhems(dves, and gone up into the box; then take away the 
blaiikt'l and \'m\ the I'ox gently on the ground; then dvraw the nails 
or split the unm in 2 halves, care being taken not to injure the combs; 
then with a thin, sharp knife, cut out a sheet of the comb and lay it 
on the frame, putting the upper edge of the comb within the upper 
side of the frame, and then trim the other edges so that it will tit 
(* Au into the frame, then lay 2 sticks having no wires on, over the 2 


that are uiulenieatli the comb, wrap the wire around them and put 
the frame in llie hive; care being taken to put the combs that were 
in the center of the old hive in the center of the new one. The 
combs all in and hive closed, take the box, and by a quick, downward 
motion, shake ibe Bees out of the box, in front of the new liive, and 
as soon as most of them have entered, put the hive on the old stand, 
reducing the entrance holes, for a day or two, or until all of the waste 
honey has disap])eared. Closing the entrance holes is the only rem- 
edy that I know of to prevent robbing. Where there are many Bees 
kept, and much trouble, I close them until but 1 Bee can go out or in 
at a time; and a swarm that can not take care of itself under that reg- 
ulation is not worth keeping. Closing the entrance should always be 
resorted to in the Bpring and Fall. 

I have always Wintered my Bees in my cellar, which has a very 
dry gravelly bottom. Dampness is death to Bees, and, 1 believe, is 
the sole cause of the dysentery, udiich so much is being written about. 
I usually put them in about the 20th, of November, and take them 
out about the 10th of April. In putting them in the cellar, I lay 
down 2 pieces of scantling so as to leave at least 6 inches space 
between the back of the hive and cellar walls. Place a row of hives 
on the scantling with 3 inches interval between hives; bollom boards 
off, and entrance holes all open; then set the next tier on top of the first, 
leaving the intervals as before stated ; but breaking joints, as a mason 
would say, i. e., setting 1 hive on 2; proceed in like manner with the ' 
third tier. If a large number are to be stored, commence the next 
row so as to leave at least G inches alley-way, so that "puss" can pass 
down between each row, and look after the mice; by doing so I have 
never been troubled with tliem. 1 have stored upwards of 100 swarms 
in my cellar as above described, and the usual amount of provisions 
and vegetables without any inconvenience to either. The tempera- 
ture should be kept as near freezing as possible, and towards Spring 
if it gets warm, carry down a few bushels of snow or a lump of ice, 
each day, until a change of weather, or it is time to put the Bees on 
the Summer stand, which should be done some fine pleasant morning. 
After the first day, the entrance holes must be closed, or reduced so 
as to prevent robbing, until the Bees commence to bring in pollen or 
wax on their legs as some would say, when the entrance holes can be 
opened and allowed to remain until the fii-st frost in the Fall, when 
the same precaution should be taken again. But in doing this, care 
should always be taken not to close them so as to smother the Bees. 
By placing the Bees, as above described, you can see their condition 
and judge by the number that fall down between the intervals, how 
they are Wintering without disturbing them. 

If I were deprived of a tlry cellar, or rather than put my Bees in 
a cellar with a very large quantity of vegetables, I would adopt the 
following plan, viz: Place the hive within about 6 inches of the 
ground, at or as near the Summer stand as possible; open the entrance 
holes which should be large ; if not, make them so, then drive 4 stakes, 
one at each corner of the hive firndy in the ground, then twist a straw 
rope — hay is better — and commence at the ground and wind around 
the stakes firmly, and closely until you get above the top of the hive; 
then lay on a board and secure firmly, and let them remain until the 
snow has about half gone ofl" in the Spring, when the covering can he 
removed and entrance holes closed as before directed, I have never 

94 dr/ohase's 

used a Bee-House, nor would I if one were given me. I prefer to scat- 
ter my Bees around the yard in the warm sunny places — not the young 
swarms — leaving several feet interval between swarms. From my 
experience, I do not believe that there is any advantage derived from 
giving young swarms old comb, although it is clean and free from 
mould. A swarm of Bees put in a clean hive will build their own 
comb, and do much better than a swarm put in a hive with the comb 
already built. I am aware that almost all Bee-Keepers are of a differ- 
ent opinion. I do not like to be constantly fussing and tinkering with 
my Bees; it does more harm than good. They need but little care, 
but that should be bestowed at the right time, and when needed. A 
quick and practiced eye will soon see what is wanted in a stock of 
Bees. I have kept the largest quantity of Bees in the highest latitude 
of any man in the United States, east of the Kocky Mountains, and 
have discovered that Bees can be smothered and starved to death, 
but cannot be killed in this latitude by freezing. 

Yours truly, J. B. HoiT. 

Reports of Success in Bee-Keeping, from Ladies. — I taught 
school for 7 successive years, and my health nearly failed. I had an 
invalid mother, dependent on my exertions, and mtist do some- 
thing. Mrs. Tupper's essay fell in my way, and I read it with inter- 
est, and before night I owned 2 hives of Bees. That was 4 years ago. 
Last Summer I sold $965.00 worth of honey, and 3 stands of Bees. 
I now have 44 good colonies of Italians. I don't teach. I stay at home 
with my mother, take care of my garden and my Bees, and they "take 
care of me." — S. H., Missouri, in Bee-Keeper^s Magazine. 

Colored "Woman's Report of Success in Bee-Keeping.— 
I am a poor colored woman. I can not write myself. Three j'ears 
ago I learned from a woman near me a little about Bees. I had 4 
hives then — now I have 27, and I have sold honey enough to buy me 
a nice little lot, and I shall finish a house on it this year. I got a 
little girl to write this to tell you that it is all a notion that Bees sting 
colored people. I wish all of them had Bees. They can make money 
out of them, and can keep them as well as chickens. — Bee-Keeper's 
Magazine. (See also page 140 for the report of a lady in Wisconsin, as 
to her success in Bee-Keeping.) 

1. Bee Moths— Different Methods of Destroying.— Molasses mixed in 
vinegar, and set by the liive at night, and taken away in the morning before the Bees 
begin to fly, as they would get daubed in it, caught 1,000 Moths in 4 weeks. So says a 
correspondent of the Kew York Evenivg Post. 

2. Another.— Take a pan. or other shallow dish, and put some oil into it, just at 
dark, as this is the time when the Bee Moth begins his depredations. Now take a button 
and put a bit of cloth around it, and tie it tightly on the upper side of the button : then 
trim off all suriilusage of the cloth, so as to leave a bit of a wick, like a candle. Place 
this in the middle of the pan of oil, and light it. They ;' go for the light" in preference 
to the hive, and falling into the oil, are destroyed. The plan of the light is undoubtedly 
better than the vinegar and molasses. According to the number of colonies on hand, 
put more or less of these about the grounds. 

Robbing-- To Prevent.— If one hive, or swarm of Bees attempts to Rob another 
just lift the hive of tlie Roblicrs, and, with a stick, break up into their combs a little, and 
they will quit their depredations and work at home-repairs. . ^ 


and Explanations. — There have been so many inquiries and s-olici- 
tations since the firstissue of this Work — in 1873 -that it might embrace 
these Diseases, it has been determined to put them in, in the place of 
Mrs. Tupper's Essay on Bee-Keeping, as that was so largely given to 
the introduction of the Italian Bee — the wildness and enthudasm for, or 
over, which, has so greatly subsided, it may well give place to these 
very important subjects ; especially so, as Col. Hoyt's instructions, and 
a few other items retained, will enable everyone to manage Bees 
enough to provide all the honey needed for family use. I will only 
say further, that although this change only allows me 25 or 30 pages, 
yet; I shall give such an amount of information upon the Diseases 
peculiar to Women and Children as shall enable every Woman of ordi- 
nary intelligence and understanding to manage the difficulties of this 
character arising in their ovin families, and if they choose to do so, to 
make themselves useful nurses in the neighborhood. 

I shall first make a few remarks and explanations upon the gen- 
eral functions (appointed action) of the organs peculiar to females, 
together with some thoughts and suggestions calculated to promote 
general good health and avoid Disease, after which I shall give the teach- 
ings of a " full Course of Lectures," given in the Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati (of which I am a graduate) by Professor Baldridge 
(one of the oldest and most experienced Professors in the Institute at 
the time of my attendance), covering the whole range of the Diseases 
of Women and Children. I do this because he was a " MasterWorkman," 
who let the chips fly — " no matter who was hit," — and because my own 
experience, so far as I have had opportunity to test them, has proved 
his positions and prescriptions to be worthy of the most implicit con- 
fidence. I paid my money to hear them, and have used them as far as 
I have had opportunitj^ and I have a right to use them also for the 
benefit of the people for whom I have always most cheerfully labored. 
P\irthermore. no matter to whom I might go to obtain information upon these very- 
important subjects, I could find none more capable to give them than Profes.'-'or Bald- 
ridge, witli his "forty-two" years of i)ractice at the time when I heard liis Lectures. 
He passed, only a few years since, to the reward, as I most sincerely trust, of the honest 
and upright in heart. I therefore proceed with my introdutory, remarks and explana- 
tions, by saying : 

Itis well understood that females " at puberty," who enjoy general good health, 
have periodically, and regularly, a sanguineous (blood-like) discharge from the uterus 
and vagina, called me7ises, or menstruation, except during pregnancy, and while the 
child may nurse or about one year. 

Menstruation — At what Agre it lB«s:iii<«. HoTFOfion it Occurs, and 
How Ijong- it Continues. — As "puberty," in tins connection, only signifies the 
arrival at that Age when the Menstrual " flow " begius, it is but proper to refer to the 
great difterence with different persons as to the time at which they first appear. Itis 
generally said they begin tit fifteen and Continue to /o)-/(/-/ire; but the fart is, they appear 
with some as early as /iwe, and " all the way "to twenty-six; and I have poTsonally 
known of several cases where the turn-of-life, as the period of cessation is called, did not 
occur until from fifty to fifiy-five. I make the following showing as to the time it Begins, 
from observations and inquiries from two different College Hospitals in England, of 
Women who were brought in for treatment, the total number of cases amounted to a 
little over 3,000. yet suflSciently close to this number to make that the base of the calcu- 
lation as to when Menstruation appeared the first time : 


9 in 3 cases. 

10 in 14 cases. 

11 in 76 cases. 

12 in 189 cases. 

13 in 409 cases. 

14 in 645 cases. 


1-5 in 619 cases. 

16 in 533 cases. 

17 in 329 cases. 

18 in 176 cases. 

19 in 99 cases. 

20 in 33 cases. 


21 in 7 cases. 

22 in 3 cases. 

23 iD 2 cases. 

24 in cases. 

25 in caspfl. 

26 in 2 cases. 

96 DR chase's 


Thus it will be seen that there Is 1 to ],000 who Menstruate as early as nine, 
and 1 in 1,500 upon whom they may not Beffin until twenty -stix; with the largest number, 
however, it Begins nt/ourteen, while fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen have quite a' good repre- 
sentation, after which they fall oft' jiretty fast to twenUi and twenty-one : but again 1 to 
1,000 at tiveni !/■ I wo, und 1 to 1,500 a.t twenl>/-'hrce nncl /wr;(///-K;j-. none appearing, in these 
cases, at tioenty-four nor twenty five. Yet tlierc are, undoubtedly, such cases occurring 
occasionally, in hot climates, in the majorily of cases it will Begin from the tenth to the 
thirteenth year; in onv temperate climate, "which is mu h like that of ICn.glaiid, frojn the 
toe//?/t to the beginning of theyj/Vecn/Zf. while in the col' climstes, they will 'Begin from 
the sixteenth to the twentieth; but no matter whnt the Age maybe, so l"on.g as^the general 
health is (70od; and there is no monthly (periodical) symptmns of their-^pproach, as 
explained further on, no fears need be en ertained, nor should any special efibrts be 
made to bring them on, excejitto maintain a, general healthy condition of the system. 
When once estidyHshed, they should, and will,. so long as health is good, occnr'every 
twenty -eight days — thirteen times a year— hence it was fonneriy Iselicved that, as rhere are 
just so rnany lunar or Moon-months in the year, therefore the Moon must influence this 
function ofthe female organization in establishing and maintaining this regular period- 
ical floiu ; but it has been fully demonstrated to have no such influence ; for there is no 
weeJc, or I might say day in the year, in which, in any degree of 'atitnde passing around 
the globe tliere are liot dozens of females who have their " courses " upon them ;"or as our 
old grandmother^Rachel has it, in Gen, xxxi — 35 : "for the eustom o/ivo/n^n is upon me" — 
a very appropriate n.ame. The French call it .^fun?, ani some English writers h.ave 
called it Jlou'ers (referring to the regular blos.soming of plants), but the Latin Men.'ses, from 
niensis, month, as it occurs monthly, is certainly very appropriate, for it signifies « ugit- 
lar ynoiithly floiv, liud. the one word expre^sc-i it all. The Greek, Catamenia (as some 
■writers call 'it', from which comes our word eatamenial. has the same significance as the 
Latin jl/fjisr.-t, just explained. After the Menses have been once established, all thiuga 
running well,' they will continue regularly (for the extreme, or outside cases) until from 
forty to fifty-five years of Age, before their cessation, or the turn of life. The period of tlieir 
Beginning, and their cessation., are the most critical periodsin female life: it is also 
of vital importance that at each monthly turn, very great caie should be taken to avoid 
" colds," and every kind of exposure ^Yhich would have a tendency to retard their ccm- 
ing Or', or to suppress them after their commencement : for the est(il>lishmen', and period- 
ical continuance of this function (peculiar appointed action i of the I'emale organs are ab- 
solutely necessary to a well-balanced mind and a sound, healthy body, as there is not a sin- 
gle Di.scase which the derangement of this function will not proc/ucc. or more or loss 
seriously aa.(7rf«'a<f ; therefore, excuse me for an apiarent repetition, in saying, that a 
spfc/oi care, against exposures to cold, damp-feet, night-air, etc., a/ all of these periods, 
may not only prevent much suffering, but cossibly. an untimely death. 

Kilns', or Sy inptnins, of B'jrst Men'stpnalioii. — Tlie First Signs that the 
period of Jlenstruation approaches will generally be a slight headache, or dizziues:-, or 
both ; and perhaps a .sleeny and sUiggish'sensation only, for two or three periods which 
pass off in two or three days for the month ; then, rerhaps after two or three more peri- 
ods of the-e slight Symptoms, and the j-«i/ time for their commencement approaches, 
there will be also pain in the loins and the lower limbs, weight and uiiea ines.«, and 
perhaps actual pain in the pe?!'jc region— lower part ofthe abdomen— which amounts to 
almost a certainty that they are about to make their first appearance ; and company, al-" 
though it may have been heretofore desirable on the part of the girl, especially the com- 
pany of chi'dren, will now be avoided ; even fretfulness may take the place of a mild 
and gentle <lisposition, which can only be accounted for by these strange sensations 
which are new to them. Let no time be now lost by the careful mother or guardian, if 
it has not already been done, to prepare her mind for tlie important event which will 
soon be upon her. 

I>aiis-i>r of )r;£'tiorRnce Upon t!se Sitbjf et of tlteir First Apju-ar- 
ancc. — The injuriotis consequences have been so great upon so many girls from Ignorance 
ofthe fact that there was ever to be a natural sanguineous, or blood-like, discharge from 
the .sexual organs until it was upon them, I have felt constrained to state the facts assliown 
by an English physician, who made inquiries of 1.000 women who came under his hos- 
pital treatment, from which it appears that one-fovrth of them were wholly Ignorant 
that any such an occurrence would ever take place, and, conseqtiently, they were taken by 
stirpri.Nc; some being so much frightened by the ■' show " upon their persons and gar- 
ments, as to go into hy.sterics; others supv>os'ed they had been wounded, or injured, and 
washed themselves in' ('o/(i water to remove the stains from themselves and clothing, 
thereby stopping the " flow " in many eases, in some of which they could never be re- 
stored : and the health ofaWof those'in which it was suppressed, or even interrupted, 
was injured, to a greateror less extent, 

i lie IWoill«er"s or <Jnar<5ian"« Itospoiisibiljty to Give Proner 
Iiislruelion |l|>4»ii -tiiis Sii!'>)eot — In view of the above facts, will not every 
Mother put this Book into the hands of her daughter, or by ponsonal Instruction, im- 
part to her the necessary Information that these terrible consequences may be avoided ? 
We trust so. . 


Reflncrt and False Delicacy Upon this Snhject.— The Refined Deli- 
cacy that holds these important Subjects from common discussion is very judicious; 
but the False Delicacy that would shut a Mother's ey-i^ to these dangers, and her mouth 
from imparting this important knowledge, in private, is not only unmtaral and unwine, 
but it is fraught with Ihe most leirihle co iisegvence to those for whom, in sickness, she 
willingly lays down her own life. Begin, therefore, at the proper time, to give this nec- 
essary Instruction, and one-livif of ihe supposed (for it is only a supposed) difficulty is al- 
ready accomplished. 

Iinporiaiicc of IiKlnstry and Out-door Exercise During: a 
Girl's Development into Woinanhoofi. — The management of household af- 
fairs, very properly, belongs to Women, which requires very great care on their part, to 
Bee that no injury "ari'^es to themselves from this in-doorcare. and from the want nf free 
air and out-door'exercise. This is shown by the ruddy health of Women who have the 
labor and care of the garden or other out-door work, and the pale and sallow complex- 
ion of those whose duties absolutely confine them within doors. 'Jhey become pale 
and emaciated, tlieir health andnatural vivacity rapidly decline, they become weak aid 
debilitated, and the constitution of many is broken "for life. Tliere is an evident 
distinction between the sexes in bodily strength ; but it never could have been intended 
that the one should be always without, and the other always within. To be always in 
the house prevents a full development of tigure, injures the coraplexion, softens the 
solids, weakens the mental powers, and disorders all the functions of the body, caus- 
ing obstructions, indigestion, flatulency, abortion, etc., which al>o deranges the whole 
nervous system ; unfitting them for mothers and nurses, and often rendering them whim- 
sical, or even hysterically ridiculous; then, why not le girls romp or work, in garden, 
or field, as the" circumtances of the family will allow, loosely clothed to admit of a free 
and full expansioi of the lungs; for it is a well-known fact that the active and indus- 
trious, in out-door air, at this period of development into Womanhood, seldom com- 
plain of ret ntion, or suppression of this function, peculiar to the sex, while, on the 
other hand, the tight-laced, indolent, and self-indulgent, cannot long remain free of one 
or the other of these Diseases. A sound mind depends so absolutely upon a sound 
body, no pains should be spared to secure it. 

It may always be observed that Women who are chiefly employed in gardening, or 
other out-door work, are almost always healthy and hearty, like their husbiuids; and that 
their children are alike healthy and strong. These facts teach us that Women should 
take all the out-door exercise that their circumstances will allow ; and, if health is-fail- 
ing the circumstances must be made to allow it, else a broken-down constitution, or a 
premature death are as certain as time. But as we have so little space allotted us i i 
this Revision, we now proceed to point out the Diseases peculiar to the .sex, arising from 
their strucuire and design, which subjects them to their monthly evacuations, liability 
to pregnancy, and to childbearing. Although these are not necessarily Diseases in tliem- 
selves, yet, from delicacy of constitution, carelessness, or improper management in any 
of these numerous conditions. Diseases are liable to arise. The great advantage to be de- 
rived from observing these points, for the full development of the physical system, have 
induced meto make these somewhatextendcd remarks and explanati"ins.'hi)ping t'^.er by 
that they shall receive the attention of my leaders, commensurate with their import mce. 

I now introduce Professor Baldridge, whose forty-two years of practice, as before 
remarked, makes him fully competent to speak tinderstandingly upon the Diseases of 
Women and Children. I s'all, however, if deemed imDortant,"in any case, make such 
further remarks and explanations as may be demanded for the better understanding of 
the case by those who are not fully acquainted with Anatomy, Materia Medica, and 
Pharmacy— the Art of compounding medicines— in all of which, it was pre.'-umed, at 
least, that his students were in possession of. My explanations of his technical [Latin] 
terms will, as usual, be in brackets the same as the word Latin, above, while all other 
explanations will be under the head of Rkmarks, or in parenthesis. 

I will first give a few remarks of the Professor, given to us near the clo=e"of the 
term, upon the general principles of his treatment, and the Causes of these Diseases, as 
he unilerstood them, and 1 believe nim correct in them, and hence I place them here, 
otherwise many persons would not read them until they might have a call to apply 
them to practice, if I left them, as he did, in the back-ground: hence, 1 place them as 
his introduction, and his reasons why he adopted and followed the Practice of Medicine 
as here given ; but for him, it was more effectual to x>ut them last, or nearly so. as his 
Students would then go out with them more permanently fixed in their minds than if 
he had given them at the commencement of the 'Course of Lectures." It will be ob- 
served there is no nonsense about him — he goes for the mark at once, and he alwaj's hit 
the " bull's-eye," as the sportsman would say With a bow, he says : 

CiSentlenieti : — I wish to ssy something on the acid and mucus of the system. 
When you come to a sick-bed, ask yourself, what is the condition of the stomach and 
bowels? You say fever! What produces the <'ever? You say cold ! What causes the cold T 
You say dysentery ! What caused the dysentery, why did not the sy.stem throw it offT 
Why don't cathartics always operate? Some other articles also will not have their 
proper action ! Whyisitso? Why come eruptioas to tha surface? Where does virus 

7— DR. chase's second EKCEIPT BOOK. 

98 DR. chase's 

lay hoM, is It in the blood— where is it ? Let me say tliat a large proportion of Diseases 
originate upon the mucus membrane— dysentery, d"iarrhea, exanthemata (eruptive dis- 
eases of the skin i, etc., etc. The cause is a vitiated acid-mucus, poisonous and irritating, 
and Disease may take hold of the lu igs ; but it commences on tiie mucus membrane, 
from colds, changes of the weather, exposures, etc.. producing obstructions, by closing 
up the poresof the skin (nearly one-half of all weeat and druik passing olT that way). 
EOiin giving fevers — predisposition, or weakened parts, receiving the brunt of the diffi- 
culty. Diseases hardly ever originate in the lungs, but settle there — can't throw it off, 
because it is, for cause, the " weakened part." The spleen is the organ which breaks 
down, and carries off morbid (unhealthy) matter, and as itall pa^^ses through thi-: organ, 
it swells very large, sometimes, in a few hours ; and it is one of the important organs 
in the body. It is the cap — as it were- -of nervous sensations. All the secretions and excre- 
tions are regulated there. (You will s e by looking at the last paragraph upon the 
spleen, page 50, that my own ideas agree with Prof Baldridge, that this organ do'^s have 
something to do in cleansing the blood, notwithstanding the older opinion, that it was 
a useless organ— God makes nothing unless it has some use. Sometimes, however, in 
our ignorance, we fail to discover, for a time, the object of many th ngs ) The stomach 
is nearly always loaded with acid mucus. 

Tlie reasons why emetics and cathartics do not act, is, because this mucus does not 
allow the influence to go to the brain, and to be reflected back; as this is the modus op- 
erandi (manner of operation) of medicines. Improper food helps the vitiation oi this 
mucus ; large amounts, or indigestible food, equally so : and, hence the disagree nent of 
various foods with the stomach For instance a female becomes obstructed— does not 
menstruate, from cold, exposures, etc. It is not secreted ; the mucus membrane of the 
womb and vagina do not secrete, or allow it to be poured out as it should ; and tlicn the 
difficulty leads to disease of some other parts, or general weakness and debility with all 
their attendant evils. Cathartics will cure but few — calomel none — emetics are neces- 
sary. If they send for Baldridee, he will give emetics. Even iron I hardly ever use- 
sulphate (copperas) I do sometimes use. 

Consumption, what produces it? They may be born with it. I care not, if they do 
not grow too fast. It from the mesenteric glands*, and is translated to the lungs. It 
is from mucus and acid redundancies (exceeding what is usual or necessary), by, 
and through, the spleen, and closing the pores of the skin, whicli soon produces Disease. 
Attend lothe surface. In dysentery, especially, this condition exists ; also cancers, fun- 
gus growths, tubercles, ulcers, apoplexy, etc., arise, or have their origin in these difficulties 
— if there is any predisposition to any of these diseases, up they come, from these mucus 
and acid secretions. 

You become cold and .shiver in warm weather ! You say the blood don't circu- 
late. Why don't it ? It is mixed with this cold acid mucus, and can't reach the surface. 
Cold extremities from the same cause. — Case of a German lady who had been treated at 
home, in Paris, in England and no benefit. Her lower limbs were useless. No motion. 
She was treated by Muzzy (this gentleman was the " big gun " among the .Mlopaths in 
Cincinnati, at the time of these Lectures), also in Lexington, Ky., but no benefit. Feet 
and legs to the thighs perfectly cold ! I was finally called, and asked, What was her 
case ? I told her a mucus irritation. I gave her an active emetic — rubbed lier lower ex- 
tremities with cayenne and whiskey, and upon the spine also. She threw up almost a 
bucketfnll of t'old phlegm ! I gave iier " Thompson's Composition " bel'ore the emetic, 
and still rubbed the pepper and whiskey. Gave her three pukes the day, and she 
said her limbs were burning up— but rub, rub, I put it on. Next day another puke, 
and in a few days, under this Treatment, slie walked about the house, which she had 
not done for five years ! ! ! 

Another case, where I threw-in the brandy, in sinking — emetics, rubbings, etc., — he 
was cured. Cathartics always to follow, or nearly always. 

Remarks — Thus much for his general instruction. They were given, and he al- 
ways spoke with that seriousness and energy of action, as thongli he believed, and done, 
just as he told us he did. and that he expected us to go and do likewise; assuring us 
again antl again, that if we did, we should attain to a like-success with himself. 

A ^3E:?><i»KKHK4. (Suppression, or ObstriK'tion ot tlit^ Jflettses), 
SUPJ'Stl'ASSO MEXSIUM— t^auses of Obstruction. Siippreusion or 
BTon-.'ippcHrauce of the Menses. — I know one family of four daughters, who 
never had a colored show — if no ovariesf — no show. Imperforate uterus, imperl'orate 
hymen, mal-formations, exposures to cold and wet, washing in cold water, dyspcp- 

* A SET of glands found in the mesentery, or fatty net-work which holds tlic intes- 
tines together, and in their proper place, and through which the dissolved food is 
passed oil its way into the thoracic duct, to the blood ; and these glands are subject to 
tuberculous deposits, the same as the lungs. 

t The Ovaries are two small organs, one upon each side of the utenis (womb), 
In each of which there is what appears to be a bundle of eggs, but, in faci, is a bundle 
of vessicles, or bladder-like sacs (called ovisacs, from ovum, an egg, and saccus, a sac). 


sla. and debility, are the chief causes of Non-Appearance, or Suppression of the Men- 

Symptoms. — Weakness and emaciation, pyes apparently enlarged, chlorosis, or 
green sicknei-s, (see my remarks under Signs and Symptums of I'irst iMenstruation), epi- 
lepsy, dropsies of ihe lower exironiiiii^s. and finally anasarca generally (general dropsy). 
The miirrieii will not conceal anything ; but the young girl will be diffident, and you 
often tail to get the facts, hence" the difficulty of diagnosis, (the determination of the 
exact condition, or Disease.) 

('siittioii. — A physician, of all other men in the world, must keep his feelings and 
passions under, or his eJiaracter will lollow him to his injury and t.luime in these cases. 
— So BJiWAKK ! ! ! (This caution was given us with all the lorce lie was master of; and 
that was no small amount, and from what I have observed in life it was a very proper 
one to give.) 

As conception may have taken place, be careful, in giving the diagnosis, for to 
iL'ake this assertion, unlesss you are positive,would be to forever blast the purest charac- 
ter of a girl. But you can give our medicines, as they will give her better health, even 
i' the girl is pregnant. I had the case of the Belle of a neighborhood, rich and hand- 
some, but pregnant, notwithstanding. She was blooming, Iresli and healihy, which is 
not the ease, generally with leal obsiructions. The abdc.mcn may be swollen and hard, 
but this maybe and still not be pregnant— the general health and appeaiance, is the 
best criterion, 1 just cured a case of two ye.^rs' standing; but wiih none of your half- 
way treatment— no small doses, etc. Oh ! what malpractice in the e cases. J have 
found ulcers as big as my fl^t over the ovaries (see note), from blisters, etc., fjom the old 
school treatment. (Prof. Baldridge " was death on the old school," or Alopathic treat- 
mtnt, which all Eclectics also fought from the beginning; but as this ligntinfr has 
brought them to see the evils of bleeding, blistering, and calomel, in such terrible fre- 
quency as formerly, and has compi lied them to give up large and frequent I'leed- 
ij:g — large and oft-repeated doses of calomel, and ihe terribly frequent and destruciive 
'^Msterings, the'fight" has also been abated consideiably, althougli there are many o! the 
older physicians That still cling to these evils, " like a dog to a root." to the great injury 
of the people who submit to it, because it is such a great honor to die " scieniilically."; 

Treainiciit. — Look out, in first cases, formal-formations. If the constitution is 
breaking down, shown by general debility, look out, again, how you promise locure; 
but if a good appearance, you need not be uneasy. Ascertain the'cause, and remove it, 
and you may expect to succeed. If the bowels are swollen, and 18 — 20 — or 24 months 
obstructions, you must not give emetics, if you do you will have convulsions; but give 
Vie mild, neutralizing cordial (See Neutralizing Cathartic Cordial, page 17-3); orpodo- 

filled with a fluid-like substance, in the center of each of which little sac, floats a mite of 
»" egg (hardly visible to ttie naked eye, but p ainly seen by the microscope), but so small 
even, are these ves.sicles. or sacs, that althougli there are from 10 to 20 or even 30 of them iu 
each ovary the whole mass, or organ, is not quite as large as an ordinary sized chestnut, 
but greater in length than breadth, or almond-shaped Each one of these organs is sit- 
uated in a ligamentous tube of its own, starting from near the upper angle of the womb 
upon (ach side, and extending through a fold of the broad ligaments wliich support the 
womb in place by their attachment both to the womb and mesenteric net-work. with, and 
in which, also, the Fallopian tubes, or duct-like canals, float, as it were, in the lower part 
of the abdomen. The Fallopian tubes come out of the extreme upper angles of the 
womb, upon each side, and extend to near the pelvic sides of the abdomen, w here they 
pierce through, or out of the broad ligaments, and connect with, or embrace, tlieste liga- 
mentous tubes, thu^ allowing the ova, or eggs, to pass through these Fnlhipii.n tubes 
into the womb. And, by the way, it is but proper to say in this connection, that the 
womb, itself, is a pear-shaped organ, with the bas(; or laigest end upward, situated be- 
tween the bladder and rectum, the small end, or neck, coming down upon, and entering 
into the upper end of the vagina, and firmly attached thereto, making really but one or- 
gan, yet always described a>i two. At eacli menstrual period, one of the ova or °ggs, 
above described, i^ matured and bursts out of its sac-like confinement, and passes 
through the Fallopian tube into the extreme upper part of the womb, where it is liable 
to be impregnated in case of cohabitation within G days before the appearance of the 
"flow " or within 1.5 days after its cessation.— Thus, a germ is furnished at each men- 
struation fur an additional member of, the human family. It is seldom that there arc no 
ovaries, but it is claimed thai there is occasionally such a case, and Dr. Baldridge's 
statement above, of the family of fi!Ur girls " which "never had a show," conlirnis this 
claim, — "If no ovaries, no show." In case of" twins." or more than this number, which 
we occasionally see reported, there must be a-like-number of ova, or eggs, matured, for 
this is the only way in which it can occur. 

The Fallociian tubes were first described by one Fallopius, a physician of Mndena, 
go it will be seen their name is not at all descriptive of their situation, "nor their fuuct. on, 
or use, but simply an hn-.ior to tlie one who discovered and described them. 

I trust this short description of these organs will be considered sufficient for a 
"Work of this kind, which goes into the hands of Ihe general public. 

100 i)R chase's 

phyllin, 3 grs. ; hydrastin, 3 grs. ; siicrar, 25 grs, ; rub together fyid make 16 pills— 2 pills 

Eer day. Knb th« surface 2 or3 times a day--dry rubbing, but tliorough; or, what 
1 better, witli cflyeniie and wlnskey*. 

Tliis .'^imple Treatuient fur tbi-i condition, nsins some : 

t.inciia^os-iie. among which I con'-ider the senecio gracilist the best, infusing 
(pouring on hot water, and letting stand without boiling) loz., to water, 1 pt. Dose. — A 
Trine-glissful 3 times a day. 

Besides rubbing tlie surface well two or tlirec times a day with tlie capsicum lini- 
ment, if there is pain in the lower abdomen, poulticing with anthemi) cotula (May 
weed.) or polygonum punctatnm (smartwecd). by boiling in water, squeezing out 
pretty dry, and laying over the parts is valuable : and the internal use of the infusion of 
eitlier of tlicse, especially the first, lias proved efi'ectnal in this disease. (Hopj, worm- 
wood, or tansy, or all combined, are very valuable in cases requiring fomentation.) 

Tlie Infusion, or Toa. is made with from ?,o to 1 oz of coarsely bruised herb, 
to 1 pt. of water. Dose, —2 to 4 tablcspoonfuls. several times dai'y. 

If this course is followed a few weeks in these debilitated cases, you may after- 
wards begin to use the anti-bilious physic (which see under tlie head of Tape'Worm, 
page G14), with the gin bittersj, and continue this for a month perhaps, and wlien you 
think she can bear an emetic, give a mild one, perhaps twice a week, with a good alter- 
ative sirup (.See Alterative Sirup, and for emetics, see Emetics.) 

*Cayenee and Whiskey— For rubbing upon the .•■urface in these cases, 1 drachm 
of powdered cayenne to 1 qt. of whiskey, will be as strong as it can well be borne, a 
burning sensation upon the skin is what we want. It shows that the blood is coming to 
the snrfdce, and it must be applied, and ttie rubbing given sufficiently often to main- 
tain its circulation there— twice a day at least— continuously for an hour or two, iu col- 
lapse of cholera, cramps, etc. 

TiNCT. OF Cayenne.— The regular tinct. is made with 1 oz. to 1 pt. of dilute alcohol, 
for internal use. 

Dose.— Half to 1 teaspoonful. (See Capsicum as a Stimulant, page 597.) 

fOf the Senecio Gracilis, there are several species, common names, life-root, rag- 
wort, false valerian, golden senecio. squaw-weed, and ]<\>male Regulator, growing on 
banks of creeks, and low marshy ground : but the preferable kind is the one above 
named, growing on rocky shores, having a smaller stem, hence more graceful — gracilis 
— slender or slim. This is considered the most efficient in uterine difficu.ties. King's 
Dispenfatory says of it : " Life root is diuretic, pectoral, diaphoretic, tonic, and e.xerts a 
peculiar influence upon the female reproductive organs, which has given it, especially 
the Senecio Gracilis, the name of Female Regulator, It is very efficacious in promoting 
the menstrual flow ; and may be given alone in infusion or combined wiili equal parts of 
assarum (meaning the assarum Canadense. or wild ginger, no doubt, as this, is preferable 
to the European, and savin leaver, (as vhese have much the same properties of the Sene- 
cio i in Amenorrhea,'" Take an oz. of e-ieh, well mi.xed, and then divide into 3 parts, 
and infuse 1 of the parts to water 1 pt. Dose. — Same as if the Senecio was used 
alone, as above given. King also says the Senecio is also found valuable in dysmenor- 
rhea (painful menstruation.) And in menorrhagia (profuse or excessive menstruation), 
combined with cinnamon and raspberry leaves,"(say equal parts as with theothers), and 
taken during the inter nienstrunl i)eriod, (between the periods), as well as at the time. 
It has also proved an excellent diuretic in gravel, and other urinary aftections. either 
alone or in comliination ^yith other diuretics; and is said to be a specific (positive cure) 
in strangury (painful discharge of urine, i. e., drop by drop; almo'^t, or may be, quite a 
suppression". ) In pulmonary or hepatic affections it has proved advantageous, and taken 
freely, the decoction 'boiled or steeped) has cflTected cures of dysentery. This i-; one of 
our valuable agents in treating Female Iiiseases. Dose of the decoction, (he says), four 
fluid ounces, three or'four times a day." One oz. to water 1 pt., is hi ; strougth for this 
decoction— then four oz<. the dose. i. "e., the pt. makes ju-t fnir doses. 

Emf-mahogue Pili,, for Obstructf.d Menses.— 'Aloes myrrh, sulphate of 
Iron (copperas\ and oil of savin, equal part*, and divide into ordinary sized 
p'lls. Dose — One every 3 hours till they act on the bowils, tlicn slop, and re- 
commence next day. In long continued cases they should be commenced 3 or 4 days 
before the expected period, as that is the only time the discharge can be brought 
about." See also Emenagogue Pill, ipage 102), v/hich. if there isany pain, would be. per- 
haps, pref rable. unless there should be alike amount of morphine, in the same amount 
of pill mass as the other. Scudder. 

t Tonic Gin Bitters,- Tamarac (inside) bark, and Juniper berries, of each, 6 ozs. ; 
prickly-ash bark, 4 ozs : wild-cherry liark and Seneca snake root, of each. 3 ozs. ; tansy, 
coarsely powdered. 1 o^. : all the others, in fine powder, and mix thomughly, and keep 
In a bottle, corked, to keep dry for use. When needed, take Vi lb. of this powder, and 
potir on 3 pts. of boiling water, and 2 qts. of Holland gin (but as the gin is now mostly a 
tome manufactured article, I would say good whiskey) 2 qts. and 1 pt of molasses; and 
let stand a week, shaking every day. Now pour out a little of this, and dissolve iu it ki 


In cases which may arise from ill-health, from diet, or dyspeptic habits, exposures 
or sedentary habits, etc., find out tbe cause, and put a stop to it— tlien give a thorough 
constitutional Treatment, i. e., begiuuing at the ground worlc and building up, with oc- 
casional emetics, cathartics, alteratives and tonics (all of which see), according to the 
obstinacy of he diseases. Once in three or 5 days, or 10 days emetics, and our aiiti-bil- 
ious physic (see page Oil), with podophyllum* (.mandrake root), and c cam of tartar, I 
find be.ter than the concentrated medicines. 

A free purge ("Ctive cathartic) yon must give; then restorative (gin) bitters, and 
alterative sirups, (which see ) I will also mention that Dr. Baldridgc thouglitvery much, 
asau iilteraiive, of Menispermum Canadense— the American or yellow pariUa, which 
may bo used in place of the foreign, or Uondiu-as, in making alterative sirups. 

The following is a favorite prescription of mine— Baldridge's — in these ca'cs : 

Alterative aii«t 'a'oiiic !Sir«i[i». — Take of th^ mi.xed powders of Bone's Btters 
(Gin B tters), 23^ ozs. : cannabiiuim ilndian hemp), and hydrastus (golden seal), of each 1 
oz.; water. 'iqts. " Simmer'iOor 30rainules,ttrain'and add sugar, 13-^ lb. DosK. — A Mine- 
glass, after eating, and the Gin Bitters before eating. 

Never use soda, he continues, as an alkali, as itself becomes rancid: but make a 
weak-lye of hickory ashes, for sour stomach. And, as before said, once in a week, or two, 
give an emetic, aiul a cathartic, and, if needed, take up again the cmeuagogue (see 
above), or the following : 

»'ai-ti»rieiit B.ism.- Spikenard and blue cohosh roots, of each 14 11^ > partridEO 
berry, (this is the one-berry, or squaw-vine, some call it, not the wintergrccn, as some 

oz. of the alcoholic extract of mandr.ake, and pour it back into the bottle and 
'shake again, and it is ready for use. Bat remember the extract must bo thoroughly 
dissolved by nibbing with a teaspoon, pouri: g off and puiting on more of the spirit if 
necessary. Br. King and others recommend this amount of the extract of mandrake, 
in place" of aloes, as introduced by Dr. Beach, as this acts upon the liver and other 
glands of the system, while the aloes acted chiefly upon the rectum, with sjme, pro- 
ducing piles. 

DoSE. — Half a wine-glass, morning, noon, and evening, just after meals, more, or 
less, just to keep the bowels solvent. It is a valuable tonic in ob-5triic'ion of the .Menses, 
dysjicpsia, inaction of the liver, producing cc^tiveness, diseases of the urinary organs, 
etc., — with the mandrake, it is aperient, alterative and cholagogue, and with the jumper, which were not in the original, it is also a voidable diuretic — King., with which 
the author fully agrees. As originally made, it was called Bone's Bitters. 

*Co.MPou.\D Powder of Mandrake. — The technical name of mandrake is pod- 
ophyllum pel'atum, but the latter part of the name is usually dropped, hence the Doc- 
tor says : " p, dopliyllnm and cream of tartar, but the following plan has been found an 
excellent way to administer the mandrake: 

Pulverized Mandrake root (of course the dry root, and if you gather it your- 
selves, always dig the roots that bear the mand ake— forked stem— us the other, or mala 
plant, is harsher, moregriping.etc). spearmint plant and leaves, and ere mi of tartar — all 
pulverized, equal quantities of each, mix. Dose. — A teaspoonful in nuilas.-cs. or tea. re- 
peat, if necessary, to ^et a free action of the bowels. This is from Beach, and he says: 
•• It is purgative, de-obstruciu (openini; all the natural passages of the .sy.stem — aperi- 
ent), auti-oilious, anthelmintic (a worm-destroyer— vermifugcT) hydrogogne (producng 
watery discharges, hence good in dropsy), aiid anti-dyspeptic, a complete subsiitut(i 
for mercury" Sliles says of the mandrake, '• It is peculiarly valuable as a cathartic, 
extending its inflnence through every part of the system : touching every gland when 
given m small doses, and repeated every two or tlirce hours. Uses it, especially in 
dropsies and intermittent fevers, and as a vermifuge; but large doses evacuate and ex- 
haust the system." A small teaspoonful of the powdered root, with as much cinnamon, 
cloves, or cayenne pulverized, would be a medium and sale dose. 

Mandrake Pir,i.s— Cored Dkoi-sy. — Dr. Waterman, of Prov.,R. I., says that he 
cured a case of dropsy, that was considered hopeless— other physicians having tried in 
vain— by giving four pills made of extract of mandrake (kept by druggist-s) and capsi- 
cum, 3 grs each. It cViicnaied 3 qts of clear water by tlie bowels. 1 fiiid it (says he) to 
work admirably in stubborn cases of dropsy, obstructed menses and diseases of the 
liver and kidneys." — (What more could be asked of it? ")— il'anylhing more is asked we 
have it. Dr. Cook, after an txperienee with it often years say : I'know of no single article 
in the whole materia medica that acts so generally on the secretions and excretions, re- 
moving obstructions, and exerting a liealthy action throtighout the system, wiiliout 
any bacl etfeets whatever. ****** i consider it a complete substitute for mer- 
cury in all the diseases in which, in the common practice (alopathio. it is supposed 
that mennuy is indicated. I consider it far prefrable, because, after having its opera- 
tion and effect, it passes ofTand leaves the .system free ; whereas mercury, or calomel, 
fastens tipon the bones and solids, and remains like a corroding and eating canker, ren- 
dering vast numbers feeble and debilitated for life ! ! This, of course, is uot so frequent 
now as it was 20 or thirty years ago, but it is occasional, even up to 1S80. 

102 DR. chase's 

have understood this to mean), vine, or whole plant, queen of the meadow root, black 
cohosli root (and if it can begot, I add to it, amelica, atropiirpurea— common name, gar- 
den archangel, purple angelica, master wort, high angelica.etc.,— root, herb and seed 
may be used— it is nice flavored, aromatic, stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, expec- 
torar.t, d uretic, and emenagogue.— King.) of each 4 ozs. ; comfrey and ladies slipper 
roots, of each 2 ozs. All to be coarsely ground together, or bruised; then cover the whole 
with iy2 pts of good brandy (I would say 1 qt. of good whiskey, or dilute alcohol) and 
let them macerate (stand) 3 days, and press out the spirit, which reserve. Place 
the herbs m boiling water, 1>< galH., and boil half an hour, then add lbs. of white 
susar. and evaporate to 1 gal., when cool, strain off and press out, and add the reserved 
spirit— mix well, and bottle for use. Do-E.— A tablespoonful o or 4 times a day 

Rem AUKS.— Prof Baldridye used to speak very highly of this J'arturiciit'Balm, aa 
he always calliid it. in all Female Diseases, and to be takenVlaily in the above doses by 
pregnane women, for about three weeks before parturition (child-binh). by which 
means an easier and safer accoucliment would be insured. But Prof John King has 
since given us in his Dispensatory, and also in his " Dis.nses of Women," a little difier- 
ent preparation, wliicli he consi<ters so much better tlian ihis older^Ualm, I will give its 
compo.--ition and mode of preparation. He names it as follows : 

'*l'oini>ou9i4i|» of I»artriilse-K««"i'y."— Partridge-berry (the one- 
berry) vine, ^2 lb.; helonirts dioica (false unicorn, drooping starwort. Devils bit., etc.) 
root, blue cohosh root, and high cranberry l)ark ; of each, 2 ozs. ; cover the whole with 
good brandy, 2 pts. ; and let them macerate for 3 or 4 days. Then press out the bi andy 
and there will be aboutl'2 pts., which reserve. I'laceihe herbs in boiling water. 6 pts., 
and slowly boil down to2}ii)ts. .Strain, add sugar.l lb., and evaporate to2V< pts. Remove 
from the tire, and when nearly cold add the reserved ]>int and a half of tincture. 

" This is a valuable agent," he says, " in all derangement of the female reproductive 
organs, as suppress d menstruation, painful menstruation, profuse menstruation, leueor- 
rhoea (whites; and habitual abortions. It imparts tone and vigor to the uterus i womb), 
on which accountit is very useful for those females who are apt to have tedious labors 
from a want of proper uterine action ; in ihise instances it should be taken during ihe 
last two or three months of pregnancy. Besides which," he says, "it frequently removes 
the cramps, to which some females are liable during the latter weeks of utero-gestation 
(pregnancy.) The medicine appears to exert a specific influence on the uterus. The 
dose is from half a wine-glassful to a wine-gla.sslul, 2 or 3 times a day." 

After refering to the Parturient Balm, above, the next remark of the Professor was 
— "The best emenagogue is the senccio gracilis" (which see in a note), which wa.s his 
great favorite, so was also the angelica, in the Parturient Balm, which I took the liberty 
of putting into the Balm, in brackets, as it had been dropped out of the later Receipts. 
He now goes on to say : 

And -i or 4 days before the "turn" should come on, remember the emetic, and a car- 
thartic— half-and-half of the Anti-Bilious Physic and Podophyllum (mandrake root pul- 
verized), for it is almost a specific in these cases ; but, if this does not succetd, I give the 

*;nn*ni«s'«a'uo Pill— Prof. Kald rise's. — White turpentine, 1 scru. ; mor- 
phine, Igr. ; sulphas ferri (sulphate of iron— copperas), 1 dr. ISlix and make into 10 pills; 
but, if much nervousne>s, put in, also, 5 grs. of extract of hyoscyamus to the above Pill, 
— 1 pill night and morning; and also give the Emenagogue Tea (see The Iniusion or Tea 
above), and a tea of blue vervain is a good emenagogue (good in these obstructed con- 
ditions of the Menses), so also is a tea of the liriodendron tulipfera(tu!)p-tree — poplar, oi 
white-wood— not the quaking asp), especially is this latter valuable if there is hysterical 
symptoms. And, if great hysterics, and can't keep anything upon the stomach, and 
great nervous prostration; then, 1 give the following : 

Tonic and !4ti9m9latiiig' >iarii)9 for 3I<-a'vons Prostration, tlyster- 
ics,, otc— 'No. six' (Thompson's), lx.>t.; pteliatr:foliata( Wafer ash, also known as wing- 
seed, shrubby trefoil, swamp dog-wood, etc.), of the bark, 1 oz. ; commoiisirup, 1 pt. : and 
give a tablespoonful before, and alter eating. 

And, it is well also, in most cases to sii the patient over bitter herbs, as tansy, hoar- 
hound, hops, wormwood, motherwort, ete. (Use at least 2 or 3 of these herbs, boil them 
in a suitable amount of water, and pour into a suitable sized tub. and sit over them, 
keeping in the steam by a blanket, unless the person covers the whole top of the tub, foi 
half an hour or more, keeping sufficiently hot by putting in a hot stone or piece of hot 
iron, as it geis cool.) And if there are spasms, the following: 

Aiiti«]>a^iiiodic Ini«is!oi».—i~cutcIaria lateriflora (scullcap, also called blue 
Bcullcap. side-flowering scullcap. mad-dog weed, and hood-worti, the whole plant; lico- 
pus Virginica (bugleweed, or water hoarhound. betony, elc, arc the common names), 
and cinripedium pubescens (yellow ladies-slipper, also called nerve root, yellow moc- 
casin-flower, Noah's ark, etc.), equal parts of each, powdered and mixed; then iniuse, 
or steep 1 or l^^ozs. of the mixture, in 1 pt. of water and take half, to a wine-glassful 3or 
4 times daily; because (he says) I dislike the concentrated articles. 

Do not beiuahvirry (lie concludes), take lime and you will succeed. Young females 
are Injured more by old school physicians iu this disease tlian any other— they bleed, 


Calomelize, and get worse,— anodynes, blue-mass, etc., which dries up all their fluids, and 
kills them outriglit. 

Remarks.— Thus the Professor was always as careful to caution us (students) against 
the Alopathic errors, as he was to teach tiue Eclecticism, t. e., to choose Hje gond. and 
throw the bad away— at least, don't use it," he would say. And now, I would say to those 
Women, or others, who have read thus far, what the "Old" Professor said to us: study 
them carefully, and bring to bear upon them only a Common-Sense judgement, in using 
them, or in administering them to others, and you will very seldomVairof success, in the 
Disease we'have been considering — Amenorrhea — nor in tliose that follow. 

CHI>ORO!KIK (<Jreeii Niokiicss) OK Ki:T£> I'lOX <»r THE :tIE9r. 
SES. — I'aiises. — Retention of the generally occurs with those who are ap- 
proaching puberty, and arc innnarried, b>'ing naturally of a delicate constitution, 
and weak and feeble digestion; else those who have brought on this condition 
by indolence, over indulgence, or sedentary habits, eating slate-pencils, or some 
other equally injudicious course of lite; but it may, and does sometimes appear 
with persons more advanced, and even with the married ; but in these cases, there will be 
leucorrhoea (whites) or meuhorrhagia ( menstruation), the blood is con- 
sidereil deficient in iron; and certainly there is an obstruction of the excretory ve.ssels and 
absor|)tion of retained matter of a viciated character. High living is also a frequent 
cause of this Chlorotic condition of the system, as it brings on indigestion, or dyspepsia, 
and thus soon viciates the blood, and debilitates the whole system, producing constipa- 
tion, etc. There may be an entire absence of menstruation, otherwise either scanty or 
painful and irregular. (See Importr.nce of Industry and Out-Door Hxercise during a 
girl's Development into Womanhood, and other general Remarks in the introduction of 
this snbject.) 

Syjnptoms. — Generally a slender form, paleness of countenance, general debili- 
ty, muscles soft and flaccid (from flaccus, flabby— want of flrmnes-); but tliere may not be 
much disturbance for some time— even years — in some cases, the skin taking on a mud- 
dy or yellow appearance, indigestion and perhaps sour stomach; and, if mercury has 
been used, diarrhea is often brought on and carries olf the patient. Fluttering of the 
heart, and emaciation are almost always present— the skin bt coming finally a greenish- 
yellow, hence the name— 'green sickness'- the forehead and cheeks, aiid especially 
around the eyes, becoming clouded and dark : and in the tliird, orlast stage there will be 
a streak from the angles of the moiUh, back, and up the cheeks;— are very ■ irregular,' and 
have a sense of sinking if she rises to her feet, can't e.xercise. and a dullness and languor 
pervades the whole system, the appetite is viciated most, or all of the time, and so it g les 
on, if not properly treated, from bad to worse, and finally night-sweats, lieclie fever, and 
deitth— the whole secretions and excretions are more derangediu this disease— Chlorosis 
— than in Amenorrhea. 

Diagnosis easy, (that is, the general appearance indicates, or tells vou what the dis- 
ease is. ) 

Prognosis (to know before hand, the course and result of the disease. The word 
prognosis is equivalent to the following sentence : What do you think will be the result 
of the disease? Ans,.in this case, "favorable," favorable with us (Eclectics), or with me; 
but the old-school lose most of their patients. 

TresitaiiPiil.- Nearly the same as in .\menorrhea, jtist described, but more of an 
Alterative course, but with exceeding careful management. In a recent ca'c mv T.'-eat- 
ment is a c^ mimon course— an occasional emetic, keeping the stomacli sweet < with weak- 
lye made of hickory ashes, if needed), then any good alterative sirup, and imr gin restor- 
ative bitters, (which see in Amenorrhea;— keep them away from chalk and all indig-.sti- 
ble stuff, with an emetic and cathartic, occasionally, is all that is needed. 

But. in a case of long standing, if very low, "anfl confined to the bed, you cannot 
give cmet'cs. but the neutralizing cordial and auti-bilious physic fsee r-'forence to these 
in Amenorrhea), equal parts, to gently act upon the bowels : and wash the surface with 
alkalies, (weak-lye n\ water to make it feel slippery.) and a little salt in it, and then wash 
with white-oak bark in whisky— 1 oz. to aquart— aiid sage tea for the nigh t-sw'cat.s, taken in 
the evening, freely ; and thripngh the day an infusion of licopus Virginica, scutelaria, 
etc., (see Antispasmodic Infusion, in .Amenorrhcai, and tonics, and antacids, if needed, 
giving the neutralizing cordial and anti-bilious physic, once in 3 or 4 d:iys. 

If llystericii, I use the Soutliern wood Cmug-wort, a species ofihe artemisia. or 
wormwood, but I take the Uind meant to be more of a woody character than the worm- 
wood plant! tea, to which add the senccio gracilis (which see, and if this mug- wort can- 
not bo got, let the mixture, or combination, given in connectifm with the senccio, be lised 
as there recommended), and in 'J or 3 weeks she will be able to bear a gentle emetic and 
the netUralizing cordial, and anti-bilious physic, half-and-hal^, as'in Amenorrhea, keep- 
ing up the washes (of oak and whisky, and the alkalinci all the time. 

Il'Dropsicitl, a hydragogue" cathartic* (one calculated to carry off" the water) 

* Hydracogue Cathartic for Dropsical Cases.— Professor .b hu King, in his 
"Chronic Diseases," says :— " A very important class of agents to aid in tlieac- 
cumulated fluid in dropsies, are hydragogue (from hydragogus, to carry off water, or 

104 DR. chase's 

should take the place of the " half-and-half," just above named, for the podophyllum 
taandraUe) root, powdered, and bitartrate of potassa (cream of tartar— see the Compound 
Powdei- of Mandrake, in Amenorrhea); and if there should be cough accompanying- 
give cougli -drops, as hops, sa?e, pinus pendula, tamarac, also called liackmetac — it is a 
Bpecies of larch — larix Americana, or black larch, American Jarch, etc.) bark, or rosin — 
make a decoction, (steep, or boil) and sweeten with maple sugar— Dose, a wine-glassful, 
with a little compound tinct. of myrrh (Thompson's ^o. 6 will till thebill),3 times daily, 
before nietils, and the gin bitters (which see) alter meals; but a little aloes may be put in 
some of the gin bi ters. for their cathart'C action, and also for their action especially up- 
on the uterus. 

After considerable improvement has taken place, you maybegin, 2 or3days before 
the mt-n-st'iial period, with some emenagogue, and steep bitter herbs and let'her sit over 
them, and the fomentations (that i*, laying the hot herbs, after wringing out the water, 
upon the lower bowels), also take a pill of pulverized myrrh made with white tin-pen- 
tine, aid some iron, a few days before this period, is good. The tmenagogue may be a 
tea made of the senecio gracilis, assarum Canadensis, with spikenard, and fern (see the 
Senccio Uracilis, and the other emeii'igogne^ in connection therewith.) 

You must be very mild at first, or you destroy your patient, but your little minute 
doses of the concentrated medicines I abhor— I think but little of them. I have practiced 
alopaihy for many jears, but this is the Treatment. 

Kkm \kks. — The Professor had such good luck in saving his patients by the u=e of 
the rcot< and hertis. «s thi y were first adopted by the Botanic pia- titioners, and making 
Bome failures ill trying some of the '■ eoncentvates " as he often culled them, he wasju.stly 
prejudiced m favor of confining himself, and utUiu-s to ' tirst Lrinciples." in practice, 
viz.— roots and herbs, barks, etc. ; and if care s observed in gathering at, the right time, 
and prope:ly curing them, and then rarefuUy preparing them for use. they will certainly 
give the greater satisfaction. Most Druggists also keep an assortment of the roots 
and herbs. 

TIO> —There are three conditimis which take this name:— 1st. It rcay be an immod- 
erate flow : 'Jiul. A too frequent flow, and oi'd. It muy continue too long. The ordinary 
Dienstriiiil flow varying from 2 or 3 to ti or 7 days, and the amount '-ischarged varying 
also from a very "small amount— perhaps half an otnice to two or three ounces at 
each period, these points must first be inquired into to know what the variation is. from 
the ordinary discharge of the case in-hmd. And although the discharge may not be ex- 
cessive in the amount in one day, or for G or 7 days (which is ns long as they generally 
continue), yet if th v continue ten, twelve, or filteen days (as they sometimes ifn in this 
diseasej the ainount"discharged would be E.Kcessive, and will cause grea' pro-tratiou and 
loss of strength; and then again, if they come on every three weeks instead <'f every 
four, there is bat little time f >r them to rectiperate '.heir strength, between the fifteen days 
it may continue, and t .e twenty-one days, when it may commence again; hence, 
you must be very careful to get at the : 

Causes, which mav be. whatever concentrates the blood to the uterus (womb)— too 
much exercise, or too little exercise, tightlac ng. improper f lod, abortions, pnitracted 
labor, plethora (over fullness, probably from plenty of good food, with *'too little^exer- 
cise"), etc. 

Symptmns.— Usually a bearing-down pain— the phlethoric have a full, frequent, 
hard an'<l strong pulse: headache, vertigo, short breathing, pains in the loins and back, 
heat iiiid restlessness, flushed face, etc.. etc. 

Prognosis (result of the dise.-ise) favorable, under pr-^per treatment. 

'6'r<-i«tBHesil,.— Look after the cause, and avoid it.— Emetic occasionally. and a gen- 
tle cathartic, and tonics with aroraatics, as spices ciuuamou, cloves,* etc., in a little 
brandy, is about all that is required. 

v»atery serum) Cathartics. There are several of these which have been recommended, 
but the line generally preferred is the following : 

■■ Powdered jaiap, 3 drs. ; bitartrate of potassa (cream of tartarl, G drs. ; powdered 
claterium (wild cucumber, wild balsam apple, squirtingcucumber. < tc.,are the common 
naniesi. from V/, grs. to G grs. Powder all and mix thor.aighly together and divide into 
12 pnwdcrs. One of these powders is to be aiiministered every six hours. The elateriuin 
freqtiently occasions nausea and vomiting, which may generally be overcome by the ad- 
dition of o or 4 grs. of capsicum to each powder. When copius watery discharges are 
produced, the u'^e of the powders m 'y be discontinued ; or, if required, may still be con- 
tinued, every six hours, but without the claterium." 

Ri-,M,vKKS.— I have always found Dr. King's remedies so reliable, I have thoughtit 
advisable to give this prescriptimi, for I always believe in having "two strings to your 
bow," if possible But, iniless there is large accumulations of water, which causes con- 
siderable distress, I would not put in more than 3 grs. of the eiaterium, to avoid nausea 
aud distrc s from the medicine. 

♦Spiced Tonic Bitters.— The author has often prepared the following Tonic Bitter, 


Symptoms with tho Emaciated ami I>»»I»ilitatP«I. — Pulse weak and 
feeble, paleness of the countenance, and laxiij- of muscle, ercat lati^ue frona little exer-, cold hands and feft; and if there is indigestion (which see), llie appetite will be 
chanReablcand .sometimes edematious swellings of the lower extremcties.aud there may 
be anasarca (dropsy) generally. 

Pt0!,'nosis (resuli) more doubtful ; but do not df.spair. 

Trcaimetit. — In the emaciated habit, be careful ; if they will bearit,give a mild 
emetic— let me say here, a proper emetic will never do harm,'except in consumrilives 
that are just sinking, and as mentioned in loiiK-standinpr cases of amenorrhea.— 1 have 
cured the worst cases, when from delirium, they were perfectly raging : and, sometimes, 
in these delirious cases you will haveJo aid the stomach emetic, by Riving emetic; injec- 
tions. In serious diseases lalwaysgive an emetic, even in gastritis (.inflammation of ihe 
stomach); but in Iheso low cases! however if they vomit, only once, it is a'l sufficient; 
then a gentle cathartic, the ■'half-and-half" — Neutralizing cordial and Anti-bilious phy- 
sic—made into a tea. and do not give tiiera the dregs, b\it just the clear liquid, in either 
the emetic or cathartic. And now. a wine cordial— cherry barK. comfrcy root, li'ioden- 
dron (poplar) bark, and camomile flowers, equal parts of "each, (say 2 ozs. each to wine, 
2 qts.. or. if no wine, whiskey 1 qt., and wa er 1 qt.); and a good alterative (which see), 
and if aeidiiy of the stomsch, an alkaline just after eating. And also, bring the. skin 
into action w'iih diaphoretics (which see), and, if needed, ihe whiskey and cayennerub- 
bine especially to the lower extremities. If called early in the case, and there is not 
much prostration, mild emetics and cathartics only will be needed ; but. in the active and 
profuse stages of the disease, I use some astringent, the ptelia Irifuliata (see the Tonic 
and S^timulant sirup, for a description of this article) is one of the be>t. Thomp.son's 
composition with only a small amount of the capsicum is good. But remember to always 
clcabse the system well, in these active cases. 

Rkm.^r'ks.- By wliii'h he means the emetics and ealhartics, are to be active the 
same as the disease, of which he was. here, spsaking. 'J'he ptelia, Prof. Baldridge be- 
lieved to be astringent; but writers upon it since, only claim it to be atonic— a very pure 
and e.'cceVlent oi;c— but you may rest assured of its vaiue in thisdiiseasc, for he never gave 
anything as a fact, as toits action as a remedy, but what he knew whereof he spoke. 
Pro lessor. lones says of the ptelia : "It promotes ilie appeti te. enables the stomach to endure 
suitable nourishment, favors the early re-establishment of digestion, and will be toK'rated 
by the stomach, when other tonics are rejected." lie uses 't in cold inlusinn— simply 
putting cold water upon it — 1 oz to pt.— dose, a tablespoon every 2, 3 or -1 hours, as need- 
ed. Some think it equal to quinine, in remittent fever. 

iKY.SIteK^'^^KItSilK/l. — I'AIXM^L, >IK>KTRlTATION. — This disease 
varies greatly in intensity— it may be only slightly Painful, or intensely so. 

t'aiis/'S. — It inav arise from a contracted os.* or irom ill-health, by retention of a 
p?rtof the catamenia (flow), from cold and obstruction— producing coamda (clots I which, 
if the OS is contr.u-tcd. in passing off, is exceedingly painful, especially so if theos is hard 
and iniyielding. which is sometime- the case; and if there is a shreded (strip, or frag- 
mentary) uppearatice. there is blood, with the flow; or lumpy clots, indicate the same. 
thing— arising fr'uii ilMiealth, or an inflammatory character of disease, or a determina-' 
tion of blood to these parts; and there maybe a deciduous ' falsej' as in croup 
from intlammatioi'i ■, by which the flow is retarded somewhat, or almost totally obstruct- 
ing its passage, until it" becomes very painful, and also producing sterility (barrenness). 

S> inptoins.- The Symptoms are much the sameas in oth r uterine dilficulties; 
besides the coagula (clots or shreds) passing oft', whicii give pain in these pans, and some- 
times extnnne pain ; and there ma> be pain in the head and back, and nausea of the 

as .superior to most others, especially better than to use brandy, which, as wo get it now- 
a-days. at leas', often irritates the stomach : 

J'cruvian bark (the ungroundj 2 ozs.; allspice, cinnamon, and cloves, of each }/i 
oz. ; wine (home-made will do very welli. 1 qt ; water, 1 pt. Have the bark and spices 
coarsely ground and pu. into a bottle with the wine and water (iind if wine cannot be 
got in o'ut-ol-lhe-way places, whiskey will do ty using water, 1 qt ),and shake 2 or 3 times 
daily for a week, when it will be ready for use— or if it is needed at once, keep it warm, 
for 2 or 3 days— then u>-e, if wine is used, a wine-glass, if whiskey, half-a-wine-glass,jusi 
after meals. But, any of the other Tonics may be used. 

*Thf, Os Uteri is the mouth of the womb (from oris, the moiith, and vtcriis the 
wom>i). T!u> womb is divided int j three parts— the fundus, or base — tipper and InrL'est 
part (you will recollect, in speaking of the ovaries, the womb was mentioned as being 
pear-sliar)ed, the largest part upwaro), the body, or central part, and the neck, wliich 
comes down upon and into the upner par' of the vagina and is firmly ntiiied loit 'seethe 
description of the ovaries), and the opcninsf. or orifice from the vagina into the woinb, is 
called the mouth of the womb, or in Latin, in which, of course, all Profe-sors must 'alk 
—the s-alrri The vagina being the canal leading from the external orifice, to the womb; 
the urethra, or canal that carries off the urine, opens also into the vagina very near the 
external orifice. 

106 DR. chase's 

stomach, indicating a dyspeptic tendency ; and tliis dyspeptic difRculty may have orig- 
iiiAted (been the cause of) the iJysmenorrliea. There may be also a sensation oi smotli- 
ering, from irregular nervous action ; and sometimes a prol'use sweating brcalcs out in 
these excessive jiains, and then relief is lelt. (I would say then, give a sweat, and get 
greater 'relief") In tliese bad cases, vertigo (dizziness, apparent turning around, or 
''swimming" of the head, from veitcre, to turn) procedes the "show;" and emaciation 
■will follow, and if not helped soon, they will be forever relieved. 

Prognosis lavorable. 

'i'rs-atmeiit.— In case the os-utHri is too small to allow the passage of the mpn- 
strual flow, it will have to be carefully dilated by the use ol' a bougie (kept by druggists). 
If the female marries, and becomes pregnant, she is cured; consequently advise mar- 
riage, as it will be no detriment to health, and may be a cure. 

But when the Dysmenorrhea arises from cimstitiitioiial causes, of course, give con- 
stitutional '1 reatment, and you will succeed. — Emetics, cathartics, and tonics (all of which 
see, in Amenorrhea, or other parts of this Booki, according to the circumstances. In 
these painful ca.=es, combine a little (1 gr. is amediura dose) opium with the emetic, first 
giving ginger tea to warm up the stcmiach ; or in place of the opium, 2 or o grs of ihe al- 
coholic extract of hyoscyamus dissolved in a teasp .onful of spirits, may be put into the 
emetic (the last will generally be preferable unless the patient is in the liabit of taking 
opium or laudanum, si you may know how it agrees with them.) Or tlie bmenagogue 
Pill, as for Amenorrhea, may be given, as I have casts with this pill and Par- 
turient Balm Tea as follows: 

Caulophyilum thalictroides (blue cohosh, called also Squaw-root, pappoose-root, 
etc.) root— macrotys acemosa (black cohosh) may take its place — 1 dr.; tanacctum vul- 
gare (tansy i herb, and angelica triquinati, or atropurpureum (masterwort, or high ange- 
lica), root. herb, and seed, or all mixe'i, of each ]/, oz.; aralia racemosa (spikeiiardl root, 
and Symphytum officinale (comfrcy) root, of each, 1 n?,. Iiili or caraway mny take the 
place of the" angelica, it that cannot be had. Bruise all the roots, or grind coarsely, and 
mixexenly; then to make the Tea, take % oz., or about a teaspoonful of the mixed 
herbs and "roots, and steep in 1 pt. of water. Dose. — .1 wine-glass 3 or 4 times daily. 

This I have fotuid t"> give entire relief in these pains. If acid stomach, alkalies 
just after eating. Always attend to the surface— rubbing it frequently. Tlvs I'ariurient 
Tea may be taken along through the month. In case of the deciduous: false) membrane, 
aqua ammonia and camphor, injected, for a few days, with the coustitutional Treatment 
Will cure — the ammonia and camphor must not be too strong. 

RicjtARKS. — A tea to a tibles|)Oon. of each, to 54 pt. of warm water, wotild be suffi- 
cient, try the first amount nt first, and if no uneasin'ess is experienced, tiien increase a 
little, oi";ly, as needed to dissolve the false membrane, slowly, not to injure the parts. 

ll-Kll«'«i>ii«!H9K.l, WtiJTE.S, <>it FLUOBt .-% i>lilJS.— (JouMsts of a dis- 
charge from the vagina, cervix uteri (neck of the womb) or Falli)j)ian tubes, all or any 
ol them, and yet there is sometimes a discharge Ironi a set of glands, in these parts, 
which resembles the more common discharge; but the disease is most commonly con- 
fined to the vau'ina and its Ibbicies (little sac like glands, or cells, in the p^rts",i, and 
.consequently difiicult to apply medicines, as it does not readily enter these little sacs or 

The character of the discharge will distinguish its seat. At the cervix (neck of the 
womb) it is thick, and only discharges once in sto 10 hours— vaginal discharges are more 
thin, and yellow, or brown ; while from the womb and Fallopian lubes, it is more san- 
guineous (blood-like), and more of a fetid odor, and also more excoriatnig (smarting, or 
corroding) in its character. ]The dilferent slates, or situations must be ascertained. 
Meigs claissesit (this disease) as coryza, or colds; a-d thinks the thicker the pus, or dis- 
charge, the belter is the condition, w hethcr it be from lungs, nose, or genitals. 

' 4'sBjjses. — The Causes are various. It may come from ulceration, poiypus or tumor, 
cauliflower excresseiices (Cancerous growths, known by much pain i, with ix browish dis- 
charge, but taken, often, for leueorrhea; long use of a pessary may also produce this dif- 
ficulty : exposure to cold, or great heat, venery (excessive cohabitation), stron.s coH'ee, or 
strong tea; and general debility, or sedentary habits, abortions and premature, or pro- 
trac ed lab rs. etc., etc. 

SyiiiploimM.— .-\. mucus discharge, changing from white to yellow, then greenish 
and at hist b ack and scrid, looking; like meat-washings ; ulcers may Ibllow and emacia- 
tions and dark areola around (he eyes, dnopsies. grief, and sorrow, nervous, palpitations, 
siffhings and aversion to axcrci.'-o—aud liindly great fetor from the discharge, which is 
almost insni^portable. lever and death, ifimpropHrly treated —If th"y have been fooled 
along wiih calimd and fij>e)/-iL'. iheic isbutlitth hope. But, if n t, the 

Prognosis or result of thcdI:oase.T will be lavorable; not for a perfect cure, but 
toattain a comfortable co;;di;ioti ofheaiih, if taken in time, although, unless very care- 
ful to avoid the cause, it is liable to re urn. 

'll'r«'!t«iiioijt. — Find out 'ho c.'iusc andcharacter — sometimesit is necessary to use 
the speculum (an instrument for examiuiilion), ifcalleil to the case late iu thediscase. — 
Remove the cause if possible. If from general ill health, restore it. upon the gcutral 
principles heretofore given you. If from too frequent venery, warn them to desist 


The "general principles," you understand to consist of occasional emetics, cathar- 
tics, tonics, and alterative bitters, and iieache's Restorative Bitters* is as good as anything 
you can use alter tlie constitutional or general treatment for a lew days. 

Toiiie 'reu. — If in a hurry to. have sonietliing of this character to use, at once 
make a tea of tlie following : Liriodendron [poplar barkj, hydrastns ( 'anadensis (golden 
seal), con vallaria multiflora (giant h'olomans seal), conilrey and gentian roots, of each 
1 oz. Bruise coarsely and >teep ^A of it in I pt. of water and take J^, to a wine-glass 3 or 
4 times a day, until ilie " bitters" can be made, sweeten if <iesire(t. 

IFTHE disease extends into the uterus (womb), I inject an infusion of the quercua 
alba(wliite-oak bark) into the womb; or an infusion or tea of the geranium maculatnm 
(cranes bill, crowfoot, alum root, etc.) and adiaiunm pedatum (maulen-hair— a beatilul 
species of the fern tribe), makes a good injection for the same purpose, and a tea of them 
may be taken internally, also, witU advantage. 

Remember the surface bathing, friction, etc., and the Parturient Balm in this 

HysteriH, or Ololtiis Hystericuv — Hysterics. — This disease is character- 
ized by boiborygmia (rumbling of wind in the bowels), and a sen.-ie as of a ball ri-^ing 
into tiie throat, laugliing:, crying, convulsions, sleep or an entire suppression of sleep, 
sighing, groaning, etc. Men "occasionally have hypochondriasis, er a hypoy condition. 
It most commonly occurs from 25 to 85 years of age. and after 35, women are not so apt 
to destroy tiiemselves. but there should always be care over bad cases. 

Cimsj'S. — Intemperance.hemorrhages, obstructions, weakness and derangement of 
the uterine orgrans ; as menorrhogia (profuse menstruation), failing of the womb, etc, 

Syminoms. — A host of them. l»ejectionofspiriis,diihculty ox breathing, smother- 
ing sensation about the heart, or palpitation, anxiety, fears, pain in the left side which 
may be continuous — may be low or near tlin ribs, may rise higher and cause the belch- 
ing of wind, and here may come in also the apparent ball-rising to the ihroat crying 
and laughing and the tears running over the face at the same time ; no desire to talk, 
will Sduietimes hardly answer you a question, and perhaps not at all ; and yet, she may 
scream as for dear Hie ; pulse usually regular. She may treat you with contempt ; and 
sometimes the iirst symptom will be convulsions, the whole muscles convulsed, more 
than in any other disea.-e ; and the robust more liable to it than the emaciated. Often 
attempt to kill themselves, or children; may roll on the floor — if they do. let ihem roll — 
don't try to oppose them, if you do, you will not be the physician wanted. Pain may 
work up the back ; sometimes wakeful for weeks, or lie from 3 to 10 days as though pro- 
foundly asleep— one lay five weeks and then they buried her— hate their husband and 
if you try to persuade them out of it, you make them worse— may join them, but never 
oppose them, only to use proper care. The tongue is ol'ten furred, and then becomes 
muddy in appearance, or brown ; the pulse sometimes low and feeble for a while, then 

*Restorative Wine Bitters— Beache's. — " Comfrey root, Soloman's seal root, 
spikenard root, of each, 1 oz.. Colombo and gentian roots, and camomile flowers, of each 
% oz.. mix all together, cover with boiling water, and then add 4 qts. of wine or metheg- 
lili (is, or was, made from honey some years ago considerably, but not so much of late. 
hence the wine— even home-made— had better take its place.) Dosr.— Half a wine-glass 
3 or 4 times a day.— Use. This, Beach says, is a very useful tonic and coroborant 
(strengthening, and agreeing with other medicines.) Is veiy valuable in flnor albus, 
(whites, the very disease now under consideration) and incipient consumption. Sel- 
dom or never given without benefit." 

Kestokative Wine Bitters— Improved— King's.— "Comfrey, Soloman's seal (the 
large or giant size— convallaria multiflora is preferable to the small), and helioiws 
dioica (common names, falsa unicorn root, drooping starwort. devils bit, etc., roots, of 
each in coarse powder, 1 oz.; camomile flowers, columbo root, gentian root, cardamon 
seeds and sassafrns bark, of each, in co irse powder, J^ oz.; sherry wine. 2 qts.; boiling 
water, a sufficient qiiantity. Place the herbs in a vessel, cover w-ith boiling water and 
let the compound macen\te [soak] 24 hours, keeping it closely covered, then add the 
sherry wine. Macerate [soak] 14 days, express and filter [press out and strain will do, or 
use oh' from the dregs as you choose.] 

He continues, '• Malaga wine, and mctheglin, which are sometimes used in this prep- 
aration, are infei ior to sherry wine [as the virtues mainly come from the roots and herbs. 
I take it that common home-made wine will do very well' and more liable t'l decompo- 
sition (SO far as the metheglin is concerned, tliis is unquestionably true.) The addition 
of sugar to this wine of comfrey (as Kmg culls it), is very apt to disagree with many 
persons, and thus destroy its efficacy. This preparation is' sometimes called restorative 
wine bitters, but is much superior to'the article lormcrly known by this name. 

' pROPEiiTics AND Uses.— Tbis is a most valinible tonic in all diseases peculiar to 
females, especially leucorrhea (whites— which is now under discussion). Amenorrhea, 
weakness of the back, etc. The dose is fromr}^ oz.. to 2 fluid ozs., 3 or 4 times a day." 
(From 1 to 4 tablespoons.) 

Remarks.- I leave every one to judge which they will use, although my prefer- 
ence would be for King's, if all the articles can be obtained. 

108 DR. chase's 

becomes full, etc., etc. [In fact, you, can hardly think of any condition which is not 
liable to occur in these hysterical patients— instead oi' being no disease as some people 
are unwise enough to claim, it is more like a combination of the whole list put 

'i'd'oatmeiit. — First allay the convulsions, or spasms ; then look for the cause of 
the irritable condition and meet it, or remove it if pos.sible. Emetics, or injections of 
Uiis cliaracter, it not able to bear an emetic; then antispasmodic^ as the " Old Man,"* 
and steep assaftetida in It, and give, and you will have no more convulsions; but it is 
hard to give assalretida. 

Then our common physic (the Anti-Bilious and Neutralizing Co-dial as before 
mentioned, in several places, is all right) and some tonic to support the' strength, and 
sudorifics (to produce persoiration, which see), or a tea of composition frhompson's] 
or scutilaria [skullcap, hood-wort, mad-dog weed, etc.— this is especially valualile in all 
nervous afl'ectionsj, 1 oz. to 1 pr. of water— in Cue or steep. iVIay be takea freely— if 
taken warm, its tendency is to keep a moisture "f the skin, if laken cold, it is more 
tonic in its action. A pill of opi [opium assafcetida] and hartshorn is very desirable 
Bee the Pills— A.'^safootida — Compound— tliey are just what is referred to], or the follow- 
ing. Alcoholic e.xtract of hyoscyamus, J^ dr., dilute alcohol, 1 oz., spirits of turpentine 
l< oz. \)ose, 1 teaspoon 3 times daily; or J/^'teaspoon every 2 or 3 hours if needed, I 
nave found good; or an opium pill 'is good, but don't give this too long, as it might 
establish a habit. I have known an opium pill as large as a wheat-grain to -stop convul- 
Bions. Beach's wine bitters [which see] is an excellent touic. Bitter herbs with a little 
soft soap poultice upon the bowels have proved valuable. 

If there is fever give some (ever powderf and keep down the spasms, and to keep 
down, or to relieve the borborygmia [rumbling of wind in the bowels] the following pill 
will be useful : 

JSIacrotin 10 grs., leptandrin 10 grs., podophillin 2 grs., sulphirr 15 grs. Make into 3 
gr. pills [12 pilfel, i, 2, or 3 daily, as needed to prevent the rumbling. 1 have > nred with 
emetics and ajSihing else — one es'cry 3 or 4 days ; the disease [hysterics I is more difficult 
than dangerOTs. 

='■ \NTisr.\sjioDic Tea. — The "Old Man" is a garden plant, formerly raised con- 
siderably and u.-cd in fsimily jiractice as much as lansy and wormwood, but not much 
cultiiated of late. If found, y^oz. would be steeped in l< pt. oi water, and steep in it, 
}/i oz. of the assafcetida.— Dose, 1 teaspoon every 15 minutes tillj the paroxyism is 

Antispasmodic Tincture. — "Tincts. of lobelia and assafcetida, of each 1 oz. Dose, 
1 teaspoon every 10 or 15 minutes until the paroxysm gives way. The remedy is unpleasant, 
but very certain, in fact its ini pleasantness is aVlecided advantage, the mental impress- 
ion being as important as the physical."— Scudder. 

Antispasjiodic TiNCTtiKK — ('ompounp.- " Assafooiida in small pieces, lupulin, 
bruised stramoniun seed and powdered valerian root, of each ]4 oz.. alcnhol, V,4 pts., 
macerate [soak in a bottle] 2 weeks, shaking frequently, then express and filter."— [Press 
out and strain, will do for home made.] 

"Th's is nnodyne, antispasmodic, and is used in epilepsy, St. 'Vitus dance and hys- 
terics. Dose, 1 teaspoouful." — Warren. May be given 3 or ■! times daily, or as often aa 
the above if needed. 

A.\TisPASM0Dic Pills. — " Assafcetida, opium and carbonate of ammonia, of 
each 1 dr. Jli.x the assafcetida' and opium together by gentle heat and while 
soft add the ammonia. Divide into 75 pills. 

'• Properties and doses.— This pill is useful in many nervous and hysterical cases. 
Each pill contains four-filths of a gr. of opium. The dose Is from one to two pills, 
according to the severuy of the case." King. 

fFEVRti Powder [diaphoretic] Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha Without 
OPIUM.— Pleurisy root, (asclepias tuberosa] blood root, ipecacuanha and nitrate of 
potassa [nitre] , in powder, of each 1 dr. Mix well. Dose, 5 to 10 grs. every hour or two. 

Pi'.oi'i;i;TiES AND Usiis.— This has diuretic and diaphoretic [sweatingi effects upon 
the system; it is userul in febrile and inllammato^y diseases, and especially in cases 
where from idiosyncrasy [a peculiar condition of the system], or other causes opium is 
inadmissalile"— king. 

But if opium is de'ircu or necessary in the case, the following: 

Fever VowoEit [diaphoretic], on Compou.nd Powder ok Ipecacuanra and 
Opium— Opium in powder, 10 grs. camphor in powder 2 scru., ipecacuanha ir. powder 
1 scru , bitartrato of j)Oiassa [cream of tartar], Sscrii. Mix them. [Of course half orone- 
fourth, only of these amounts can be made.] Dose. Three to ■'S grs. every 3 or 4 hours in 
febrile or intlamatory diseases— or 10 grs. 3 times a day.— Ueach. 

Fevku PowDKii— Simple.— Dragon's claw [crawley root], pulverized. Dose, a 
teaspoon infu<-ed in a proper amount of water' morning and evening. Use. This has 
been much celebrated in the treatment of fevers, and particularly of that species called 
hectic fever. They act as a mild but efficient. ;-udoritic [sweating] without increasing 
the force of the circulation. They may be safely administered ia almost every stage oi 


Prolapsus Fterl— Fallins; of the ^Yomb*.— A common complaint. Women 
who have borne children have the womb a little lower than previously. There aro 
;hrce stages of Prolapsus. 1st. When it sinks a little only below its natural position. 2d. 
^Vhcn tlieos tin^-e [mouth of the womb] lies on the pyrincum [on a level witli the exter- 
nal orifice— properly the space between tlie va,u;iua and rectum.] 3d. When it projects 
Dut of the vulva [external oriiicc of tlie vagina ; Ijut the uterus keeps its ui)right position 
in the vagina.] Some can bear the 2d stage with but little difficulty, but the 1st stage is 
more common, wliile the 3d is very distressing. 

Causes.— Hard labor, as in washing— in.struments in the other kind of labor- 
emetics of a violent character, as antimony.— 1 had a case of a Belle, in Clark County, 
who had the 2d stage, but would not submit to an examination for 18 months, brought on 
by pills of antimonv, by an old-school physician, which brought on great vomiting, and 
continued more or less for 3 weeks, but 1 cured this with spearmint tea and fomenta- 
tions of the same to the abdomen. After 18 months, hemoptosis [bleeding of the parts] .set 
in, then she allowed the examination, and submitted to have it replaced, and supported 
by a pGS.-;ary which cured her in a few days.— Falls may fetch it on, so, sometimes it may 
follow parturition [delivery], even where instruments have not been used. 

S.vm^jtoms.- Often pain and a bearing down sensation; dragging or a heavi- 
ness in the limbs, and can't keep on ttie feet long at a time for weakness of the back ; 
dvspepsia is often brouglit on, and lencorrhea [whites] etc.— cannot get around well, 
anil yet, must work. Often pain and .soreness of tlie bowels, some call it neuralgia, but 
it is inere soreness, the muscles working like a bellows, and giving great alarm by the 
up and down movement, from this muscular action. 

In retroversion [see note] the fundus [upper and larger part of the womb] may 
sink, or be thrown under the promontory of the sacrum, [the inward bending or projec- 
tion of the spinal colum at the junction ot the hips], or to either iliac [groin, or .^ide] 
junction ; and the womb may lie directly across the pelvis, anterio-posterior [forward 
and ba'jkward.] 

In anteversion the fundus [base] falls forward to the symphysis pubis [the front 
part of the os innominata— or hip bones— see Bones and their descriptiotiBin connection 
with Fig. 1, in the Anatomical part of this book.] ■ ifc 

In retroversion the os tince [mouth of tlie womb] is sometimes tlffown or pro- 
jected so mucli externally, as to cover the meatus nrinarius [passage for the urine— gen- 
erally called the urethra," from Greek words, signifying to make water], and prevent tha 
passage of urine, when a catheter must be used to draw off" the urine, then return the 
uterus to its place. There is always pain in retroversion, down the thighs and often 
extending to the feet, outside and inside of the limbs, and constipation ; but usually 
not much constipation in prolapsus— this arises in retroversion by the fundus or base of 
the uterus pressing against the rectum. 

Treatment. — In Prolapsus of long standing, you will hardly ever cure. Ban- 
dages which press on the abdomen make it worse. The exact condition must be ascer- 
tained to do anything. 

In recent cases a sponge is best, removing it often, and washing well before return- 
ing it [a stout bit of cord must be sewed into the sponge in such a way as to bring it 
down when desired by careful traction or pulling on the cord.] Injections of an infu- 
sion of white-oak bark, or tormentilla [septfoil— it is a European plant and quite 
astringent] root, with sulphate of aluminum [a big name for alum — a small amount only 
would be used— a teaspoon, pulverized, to ]4 Pt- of the infusion], inject 2 or 3 times a day. 
Pessaries of glass have been used, those of 214 ^^^d down to lii inches in diameter, in 
young and delicate females are the most common sizes ilsed [of late pessaries are made 

fever. — Beach. But King Says, the powdered root given in water as warm as the 
patient can drink it, every hour or two. according to circumstances. The powder should 
always be kept in well closed vials ; it constitutes the ' fever powders ' of some praction- 
ers. It [crawley] is, probably, the powerful, prompt and certain diaphoretic in the 
Materia Mcdica [the whole range of medicine."]— and I have no doubt this is what Pro- 
fessor Baldridgo refers to as ' fevor powders ' above. It may be used in all cases of fever, 
and in inflammations. 

*I THi>JK THE WORD "falling" is hardly appropriate, as it is a gradual settling 
3own into the vagina and may project a considerable externally. If the base or fundus 
IS it is also sometime ■ called, which is the upper and largest part of the womb " falls" 
backward, it is called retroversion, from retro, back, or backward, and vcrtere, to turn ; 
if it ••I'alls" forward, it is called antevc.-sion from ante, before, and verterc to im-n. 
rherc are sometimes other forms of " falling" — for instance, the base or fundus of the 
womb [and here do not forget that, although the base, generally speaking, means the 
oottom or foundation, yet, in speaking of the womb, it means the top, or upper part; 
Dccausc the top, or upper portion of tlie womb which is the largest, as remarked in the 
jarlier part of this subject, is in form like a medium sized pear, the base, or largest end, 
aeing upward, the cervix, coming down into, and finally connected with the vagina— in 
[jact, a continuous organ. 

110 DR. chase's 

of rubber, ivory, etc.] In bad cases I have introduced a piece of bone, or horn, turned 
smooth, with aconcavity to fit under the os tince [properly liere, the. neck of the womb 
which comes down, naturally into the vagina — round like the small end of a pear, and 
must have a stem turned with it of sufficient length to be supported by a bandage from 
below.] Let tliis be worn 2 or 3 weeks, then take out for awhile, and bo careful not to 
let them go about much, for a few days, then introduce again, as found necessary, using 
the astringent injections; and such general treatment as shall restore^the strength of the 

In retroversion I have found the uterus bedded down as it were, or wedged under 
the sacrum, and have had to use nauseous doses to rcla.x; the muscles, then getting the 
patient upon the knoss, and introduce the fingers to raise the womb toJts place, then 
use a pessary, with the injections and general treatment. 

Remarks. — Profe:3sor Baldridge has well remarked, that in long standing cases, 
" you hardly ever cure," — because the ligaments which are calculated to support tlie womb 
in its natural position, have become so permanently lengthened, by the '■ ihlling", or 
settling down of the womb into the vagina, togetlier witli tlic inability to reacli them to 
make a direct application upon them calculated to contract them again to tlieir natural 
length, but little hopes of cure can be held out ; and that mostly through such treatment 
as sliall restore the general health ; while, in recent eases, with the general treatment, 
astringent injections, ect.. the ligaments may reasonably be expected to contract, or 
nearly so, to tiieiroriginal leugtlis, and also to gain their original strength ; but great care, 
for all time to come, will bo necessary to avoid tliu cause ol' tlie ititit tlilliculty. 

Sore Moiitb of Females lucitleiit to Confinenieut— **3fnrsiing'Sore 
Month'' — description. Causes, etc. — This dilBculty usually arises I'rom 3 to 6 
months after confinement, Ijut it may come on sooner ,or later — likely to subside at the time 
of weaning, but may not. — may diewitli it. The probability is that the predisposing Cause 
isin the system beiure confinement, as it sometimes manifests itself before confinement. 
I think it arises from l^iliary derangement ; and I also think the spleen has much to do with 
the acid of the stomach which always prevails in this Sore Mouth, together with much 
mucus, and cold extremeties. The Sore Mouth islike the exantliemata [ redness oreruption] 
of the external surface. And I have no doubt, that under uld-s.liodl treatment, arsenic 
and other minerals liave Iiad much to do in producing this i^^ure ]\Iouth — as arsenic has a 
direct action upon tlie sijleen, and from which dropsies arise, and from, which, if that 
treatment is continued, are sure to kill the patient with fluxes, dysenteries, or dropsies. 
Dampness and cold may bring on this disease. 

S.vnti>toni<i. — .-V slight soreness of the tip of the tongue, extending back gradually, 
to the fauces, and finally to the moutli and gums; and it burns like fire, not like other 
Sore Moutlis. Sometimes it extends through the whole digestive canal, with extensive 
diarrhea; and at other times there is costiveness, and if so, there is a dreadful burning 
in the mouth. — Pale skin, emaciation, and sometimes death very soon, especially if diar- 
rhea— sometimes alternating looseness and constipation, then a flood of diarrhea and off 
they go. 

Often eat voraciously, but do not get strength from it.— Milk mostly profuse— 
sometimes but little, and occasionally none at all. Often at weaning, anasarca [dropsy] 
sets in, and so they go. 

Prognosis [expected result] under our treatment, favorable — old-school cannot 
cure unless the child is weaned, — I do not require weaning. If bowel complaint sets 
in soon after child birth, I look out for tliis disease. 

Treatment. — I tliink I could not cure without emetics, although many object 
to take them much. An active carthartic when you do give one, as common physic — 
podopliyllum [mandrake], with a tonic, as geranium [see Compound Powder of Man- 
drake, for the physic, and any of the tonics, to be taken in connection ; but the "ge- 
ranium," by later investigations is shown to be, almost v/holly, an astringent; yet it is 
considered very valuable as a gargle in tliis Nursing Sore Mouth ; and a decoction of it 
may be taken 2 or 3 times daily, especially if the soreness extends down the throat, to 
the stomach, etc., for tiie Professor would not have spolcen of it so highly, unless he had 
tried it and knew whereof he was speaking— it is known also, as cranes-bill, crow-foot, 
alum root, etc.,— it is pleasant to the taste.] 

He continues, if tliis cannot be retained, .give an emeto-cathartic, as the common 
physic, and 10 grs of emetic powder [which see.] I often give emetics once in 2 or 3 
days, then using the restorative wine hitters with sanguinaria, and geranium, and an 
alterative sirup [all of wliich you will find given herein.) 

The hepatic powder (see Compound Powder of Mandrake) adding the nitrate of 
potassa (salt-peter) to act on the spleen, and a diaphoretic, or sudorific tincture; for. if 
you can get up the action of the skin, she is as .good as cured. Astringents as a mouth 
wash, as borax, sanguinaria etc., (blood root — and I would now say. as above remarked, 
the geranium also, wliich lias Ijeeu proved very valuable as a garcrle ) 

Flour of sulphur, 3 drs.. cream of tartar, I dr., sulphate of aluminum [alum], 2 drs., 
and make a strong tea of anthemis nobilis [camomile— the Gennan is considered best,] 
aralia racemosa [common .spikenard,] and put the above mixture in to a suitable 
amount of the tea, and wash the mouth with it as often as necessary— attend to the diet 


—no Strong tea or coffee allowed.— Mulberry tree, bark of the root, and make a tea of it, 
and when a little cool, let tlio patient drink freely, of it, till it operates on tlie bowels, if 
it takes lialf a gallon. I cured a case with this, letting her eat of tlie berries, all she 
would. And tomatoes may be eaten freely.— Of course, 1 should cleanse the system weU 
before using these last named articles. 

REMAnRs.— It cainiot be expected to use all of the articles here named, at the same 
time, but simply to choose of them, according to llie convenience of obtaining tliem— 
first clcausnig the system well with catliartics, and emetics, then a good wash for the 
moutli, clianging, perhaps, once in 10 or 12 days from one to another of the tonics, or 
bitters, etc'., by wliicii a more complete effect will be experienced. 

j««ilR Fever, Aiier 4'lBiii«Ibir*li.— The female breP^st usually becomes 
enlarged on conception, and the areola [colored ring] around tlie nipple becomes darlvcr 
and sometimes at i3 montlis, tlie vital action is so great tliat milk is secreted, but usually! 
about tlie 2d or 3d day after birth. A middling sized breast is the best for nourishin"-.' 
There is usually about half an inch of fatty deposit on the outside, to protect the breast 
which consists of small glands, or glubules, surrounded throughout [each gland] iri 
areola tissue and fatty deposit. Each little gland has a lactiferous [milk] duct which 
unites with several more, [perhaps 15 to 20 united] and lead on to the nipple ; and all 
these ducts are lined with mucus membrane, sometimes called, iDasement epithelium. 
FTliis membrane lines, or forms the inner coating of all the organs of the system, and is 
liable to take on inflammation.] 

About the 3d day after confinement the breasts begin to swell and become shiny 
and glossy, and sore to the touch, and the swelling may extend under the arms, in some 
cases— exceedingly painful very often, and Ironi this di.sturbaiice a fever arises, called 
Milk Fever, and if the milk is not drawn, great disturbance or fever may arise ; generally 
commencing with a chill, head ache, nausea, nervous twitchings, etc., going off, however 
in a few hours, leaving a sour smell, as alter an ague. ' ' 

Treatiiie lit.— Salts, or oil are the most mischevons, in any fever, of anything you 
can give. ISIost persons who die of fevers, die from mismanagem"cnt. 

The antibilious physic [which see] with cream of tartar, will generally carry oflf 
the difliculty, if not, give the tinct. of anthcmis cotula [May-weed] and polygonum 
punctatum* [smart-weed, water peper, etc., called] is all the treatment required, or these 
in infusion with a little saffron, I think is the very best that can be done. 

The concentrated remedies I do not like, especially in this disease — podoplillin 
given alone will sometimes make sore mouth like calomel, then you will be accused of 
giving calomel. 

I never had a case terminate in puerperal fever ; but if this disease'is prevailing, 
you had better keep a lookout for it, and give that treatment; but if you continue this 
treatment, above mentioned, you will not be much bothered with " puerperal," yet some 
think it a glorious thing to die " scientiffically " [under alopatliic treatment]- let them 
die, if they prefer it to our Common-Sense treatment. 

Sore Breasts— Aciie.— Acne properly signifies an eruption of the skin— pustules 
— but is also applied to this difficulty, as there are two kinds of Sore Breasts— a superficial, 
and a deep seated. It comes on with a chill, after confinement, and the patient expects 
a fever is (.'oming on ; but it is only a deep seated induration [liardnessj of the Breast, 
perhaps not before noticed— an examination will probably reveal this state of the case. 
The child had better nurse unless the who'c gland [Breast] is diseased. From improper 
treatment these often become schirrhus [cancerous.]— A puppy is better than a leech. 

Treatment,— Keep the Breast empty of milk. The antibilious physic [which, 
see] with cream of tartar; and tincture of polygonum punctatum [smart- weed] and 
antliemis cotula [Jlayweed— flowers, best] give freely, to get up free sweating, and a 
poultice of the same articles will cure. But they may be combined with other articles of 
a similar character. This treatment is before suppuration has begun, or in very 
recent cases. 

If much prosress has been made, you will not be able to discus it, [scatter or drive 
away.] But in all cases you will give a cathartic ; and a salve of camphorf and lard, 

*TiiE Polygonum PuNCTATU.^^, or smart-weed is considered a very valuable medi- 
cine. ■' It is stimulant, dixiretic, emmenagogue [promoting the menstrual discharge — 
from Greek words signifying in, and month, and drawing forth — once a monthl, anti- 
septic Ciirevonting mortification!, diaphoretic [sweatin? or sudorific], and vessicant [pro- 
ducing blister!, etc. It loses much of its properties by drying ; and an infusion, or soak- 
ing in cold water is better than hot water— warm water may be used. It has been 
recommended in cravel, couchs, milk-sickness, bowel complaint, Asiatic cholera, 
epilepsy, uterine derangements, chronic ulcers, hemorrhoids, tumors, crysipelatious 
inflammations, inflammation of the bowels, flatulent Fwindy] colic, etc. The infusion 
in cold water, forms an excellent local application in the sore mouth of nursing women, 
and in mercurial ptyalism. [Thank the Lord there are but few of these cases now-a-days.] 
Dose of this infusion, 2 to 4 ozs." — King. 

tCAMPHOK Ointment.— To make a Camphor Ointment, the camphor should be 

112 DR. chase's 

well rubbed together, and well rubbed in; then a poultice of spearmint herb, and 
ulums I'ulvii [slippery elm], renewed every hour or two. And yarrow may be combined, 
peach leaves, and our '■ Ijitter-herbs," sometimes, [tansey, liourhound, hops, motlierwort, 
etc ] will do. But I ])Ut on the Camphor Salve lirst, then put on the poultice — a poultice 
of belladonna and lobelia i.s very good. 

Kemarks. — It is very imporiant indeed, to thoroughly rub-in the Camphor 
Salve, or Ointment ; but, should it be necessary in any case, to dry-up the millc on 
account of continuous ulceration of the Breast, wetting browii paper, or cotton batting, 
with spirits of campliorand layingupon the Breasts as long as it can be borne witliout 
blistering, will aid very much in drj'ing-upthe millc; or the application of a belladonna 
plaster — such as are kept by druggists — will readily accomplish tlie same thing. 

I elastrus Scandens [false bitter sweet — barli of the root] and lobelia is e::cellent. If 
It vv'ill gather, you had better poultice to aid its suppuration — flax seed, potatoes, carrots, 
etc.; and old honey comb is a powerful thing to matterate. When she gets so bad she 
can not sleep, walks about, the cliild cries, etc., she will want you to lance it, but I say 
never lance a Breast. [Lancing has become quite common, but I leave every one to 
judge for tliemselves.] 

After a Breast has gatliered, broken, and run, 2 or 3 days, apply the Black Salve, 
[see No. 5— Burns and Scalds], and it will be well in a few days. The polygonum 
punctatuni [smart-weed], anthemiscotula [May -weed], mentha piperita [peppermint], gum 
camphor, oil of origantnn and oil of sassafras — the first stewed in lard, strained, and the 
oils added, and stirred in, makes a good salve [ointment — J-^ oz. of each of tlie oils to 1 
pt. of the ointment or " Salve," will be plenty.] Vcrbascum thapsus (mullein — the 
leaves and flowers), polygonum punctatum [smart-weed], camphor and bees-wax salve 
is of great value in cases when they keep on brealving — steep the herbs in the lard, 
and strain, then add tlie bees-wax, wliile hot. and the pDwdered camphor, when cool, 
and .stirring well. [An oz. each, may be used to 1 pt. of Iird; and do not overlook the 
general treatment directed at the first.] 

Sore Nijjples.— Tliis difficulty is quite frequent— look out for, and remove, the 
saliva, after the nursing, from the wrinkles about the Nipples, for these sores, sometimes, 
take off the Nipple itself. Washing 2 or 3 times a day, before birth, with a decoction of 
white oak bark will harden and taughen the parts. [Then why not after.] 

If they fret very sore, the best salve I have ever found, is made of smart-weed 
Btewed in a little mutton suet and a small amount of bees-wax, thickened with a little 
Armenian bole [an ahnnina, or red clay, containing a little alv.m — the red, or color com- 
ing from an oxide, or rust of iron — tlien, if the " Armenian bole," is not kept by drug- 
gists, use a little alum and a little of tlie carbonate of iron, to malce it quite reddish.] 
It is also good for swelled breasts. 

At first very finely pulverized hemlock bark, or the dust of it, sprinkled upon them 
will dry them up without trouble. And the dust of hemlock bark, nienispermum Cana- 
densis (yellow parilla— American sarsaparilla], celastrus scandens* false bitter sweet 
simmered in lard, is a splendid thing. 

finely pulverized, by first putting a little alcohol on, the crumliled pieces, which .so dis- 
organizes the crystals, it ]iowders very readily. Put 1 oz. of this powdered camphor to 
4 ozs. of nice lard, and rub well together, and box, or put in a larn;e mouthed bottleand 
cork, for use. The Prof, says a "Salve," but I think an Ointment onlv, iswhat he 
intends to be understood, as he mentions only the two articles, but tomake a S.alve, proper, 
theremust be some bees-wax, or rosin— one, or both, yAolor., but these do not as readily 
enter, or absorb into the surface as the Ointment; but, the Camphorated Oil,— No. 3, 
under Camphor and its Uses, would be very appropriate in place of the Ointment or 
Salve, in connection with the poulticing, etc. Or, the following: 

Ca?iphor.\ted Elder Oin-jiknt. — The inner bark of the common [sweet] 
elder, sufficient quantity, cut it fine, and put it into a tinned vessel ; cover with fresh 
[unsaltcd] butter, and keep hot six hours; now strain, and add pulverized camphor, 1 
oz. to each pt. of the Ointment. Nothing will be found to equal this preparation in 
Milk-Scall, sores behind the ears, and on the neck of children, as a dressing for ulcers, 
boils, sore nipples, and in any case where a gently stimulating and soothing application 
is needed. — Scudder's Domestic Medicine. 

*False bittersweet, also known as staff-vine, wax-work, bittersweet, climbing 
Btaff-tree, etc., bark of the root, — solanum dulcamara, is the regular bittersweet, whicfi 
is also known as woody night-shade, violet-bloom, S"arlet-borry, etc.— This false bitter- 
sweet, is " alterative, diaphoretic, and diuretic." with some narcotic powers. Used 
[internally] in scrofula, s(»ndary syphilis, clironic hepatic [liver] affections, cutaneous 
[skin] aficetions. Icucorrhea,, and obstructed menstruation. Externally an 
ointment has been successfully employed in inflamed and indurated [liardened] breasts 
of nurses, in pruri?o [itchinc:] of tlie vulva [external orifice of the vagina], burns, 
excoriations [abrasions, or injuries of the skin], etc. Dose of the decoction [made with 
1 oz. to water, 1 pt.j from 2 to 4 ozs. 3 times a day."— King. Let the dish be covered 
wtule steeping. 


If there is an inflammatorj- diathesis [tendency to inflammation], you will give a 
cathartic ; and if sores break wit, about tlic Nipples, I use this last salve; and awash of 
baybcrry barli is also excellent. 

.Kyiiiphoinania. — This word comes from Greek words which si-'nify a bride, 
and madness; but as generally understood means a " morbid and uncontrollable sexu^ 
desire in women [men are certainly subject to it], breaking the bounds of modest 
demeanor — always attended with agitation, botli of body and mind, andconstiiut ng a true 
andprvper disease. — YVebstcr. I have italicised tlie last sentence, because some people are 
BO unwise as to say it is not a disease. — But I now take up our Professor's remarlcs upoa 
it. lie says: Oltcn, it is extremely humiliating to tlic human species [I am glad to 
Bay, 1 have never, as yet, sden a case of it]— more in warm climates than with us. 

4'auses. — Probably, tirst, a very strong natural desire for sexual intercourse; 
second, irritability of tlie womb, and anything taken of a heating character, as canthar- 
ides, indulgence of such thoughts as looking vipon obscene pictures, and reading obscene 
books, or those manifesting, or containing higlily wrought descriptions of the " Yellow 
covered literature of tlie day," highly seasoned food, with plenty of leisure, but little 
exercise of a liealtliy character. Under these circumstances, anything that will stimu- 
late the womb, may excite and bring on this uncontrollable desire, and then, if unmar- 
ried, so they cannot enjoy the embrace of the opposite sex — masturbation, thcjawful effects 
of which, see in another part of this Work] whicli is the most disgraceiul and dis- 
gusting practice of men and women. — Then avoid temptation. Sometimes there is a 
preternatural [unusual] enlargement of the clitoris [the upper and double fold of the 
external labia, or lips, of tlie external genital oridce] which predisposes the female to 
this difficulty — and we know there are instances where they do not know how to avoid 
it. — In the South I have seen awful instances of this kind. Pruritus* [itching] of the 
vulva [external genitals] is very liable to produce this disease, particularly so if the 
itching is excessive. 

Treaftimcnt. — First, remove the patient from all opportunities of enjoyment of 
this character, and. if need be, give tliem a nurse — companion — whom you can trust, to 
keep them away from, or remove from them, all obscene books, novels, pictures, etc., 
of an exciting or passionate character, and who will also instruct and persuade, 
incidentally at least, as to morals, and propriety of conduct.- 

In the majority of cases, no doubt, there will be found this intolerable itching, 
before referred to, of the clitoris, if not of the whole external parts of tlicse organs, 
which if possible must be removed, for they cannot stand this temptation — in other words 
cannot keep their hands off.— Cleanse the system, then, with emetics and cathartics, so as 
to remove the acid preponderance of the system; and a powder of 

Sulphate of alumina |alum], 2 ozs., camphor gum, 1 oz. — pulverized, and evenly 
mixed. Divide into 16 powders, and give one powder 3 thnes a day, and if this does , not 
succeed entirely, add nitrate of potassa [saltpeter], 1 oz., or in this proportion, to the above ; 
and with the constitutional treatment, you will eradicate the disease entirely. But cam- 
phor tincture [spirit], by means of wetting flannels in it, may be laid upon the back, 
and over the bowels. * 

In men, or boys, wear a camphor ha.% over the testicles, and give the powder 
above, with tlie nitrate of potassa, and you will destroy the desire entirely. 

Females who are lialilc to this ciifliculty should take the alumina, camphor and 
nitrate powder, occassionally, and purging, with refrigerant [cooling] cathartics, pod« 
ophyllum [mandrake], etc. 

In men, the alum, camphor and saltpeter powder,' above mentioned, may be 
applied over the testicles, and if the camplior cloths does not accomplish the desired 
end, with females, the powder may also be applied over the pubic region. 

Prorttjciiig' Aboi'JioM. — .-Vs it regards Producing an Abortion, I will say one 
word—never prodnce it in any case, unless there is a defective pelvis, or some case of 
this kind, and then, not without calling a " council of physicians," as it is a penitentiary 
oflense, to say nothing of its moral turpitude.— [For the Author's views, and the proper 
treatment wlien Virouglit about by natural causes, see Abortion.] 

UlSE.iSES OF €II1L.D1££:M.— A chUds life may be divided into two epochs 

^Pr.rr.iTT-s. or itching of the externals, is so terribly di.stressing and anoying to 
females of a delicate character, I have thought it best to give a prescription or two fni> 
ther, of tliose v/ho have had ample opportunity of testing their efilcacy. Dr. Scud* 
der, of Cincinnati, in his Domestic Medicine says : " This itching will readily yield in 
most cases, to an application of borax, 1 dr.; morphia, 5 grs., to water, 8 ozs. [}4 pt.]; use 
as a" — [I would say night and morning— and noon if necessary.] 

Dr. King, in his Diseases of Women, says: " As a rule, the disease [pruritus — 
itchingl may be removed, or at all events greatly mitigated, by frequently bathing the 
parts with a strong infusion of golden seal, 4 ozs., in which is dissolved powdered borax, 
2 drs., sulphate of morphia, 3 grs. When much pain or inflammation is present, a poul- 
tice of elm bark [slippery elm] and lobelia leaves with a solution of borax, rnay be 
applied, and if the disease extends within the vagina, an infusion of either of the above 
may be frequently injected therein." 

8 DR. chase's second RECEIPT BOOK. 

114 DR. chase's 

[periods] ; first, from birth to 12 months ; the second, from 1 yr. to 8 or 9, — nearly all deaths 
will take place by triads, or septeniads [threes, or sevens.] The first epoch, it will be 
readily understood, require the greatest care. About one-third of the time of the infant 
for a lew weeks, is spent in taking food; the other two-thirds in sleep, and if it does not 
sleep about tliis amount, you may be sure it is not well ; and no food but the breast is 
needed after the milk is secreted. 

Time of >Veaning'. — Children should generally be Weaned at about one year 
old. After women begin, again, to menstruate, the effect is not good upon the nursing 
child. It should be Weaned gradually, having the breast once in the forenoon, and 
once in the afternoon, and a little at night; then none in the day, and finally none at 
night; and still the food during a time, should be as near what it has been, as can be 
possible to give, and changes must be made very gradual, and the skin must be kept 
clean, which is a very important point, and must not be overlooked in any person — 
child, or adult. In our school | Eclectic] this is the important point. — Just had a of 
winter lever, where Jones [I'rof'e.s.sor also, in the Institute and my brother [also physi- 
cian] said he must die— I told them to wash and rub tlie skin well and follow it up— they 
done so most of the night, and before morning he broke-out into a beautiful sweat, and 
in 3 days was able to sit up, and got well. 

Clothing should be loose, so as to let the child twist and throw himself about with 
ease. — a stove is a poor thing in a sick-room, and a fire-place is always desirable for a 
nursery. — The stomach of an infant hangs nearly perpendicular, reaching to the 
umbilicus, and nearly to the bladder from the shallowm-is of tlie pelvic cavity. The 
glands are large and "active easily injured by calomel, or other drastic [harsh] medicines. 
Many children die of swelled thymus gland [one of the ductless glands, lying in the 
anterior [front] mediastinum, beneath tlie upper extremity of the sternum breast-bone.] 
It is largest in infancy, and decreasing with age, is wanting in the adult. — Webster], giv- 
ing symptoms of croup— simple turpentine rubbed on it, will give relief— not necessary 
to give medicines for every .slight disturbance ; but carefully watch any change of diet, 
etc., etc. Children cannot live but a short time without nourishment — old-school says 
breast-milk is feverish, if the child is feverish, but I say, give the breast, and plenty of 
drink, — Barley water, and whey, are good drinks, and nourishing — out-door air in all 
protracted bowel complaints is very important in children. Sedatives [medicines which 
allay irritability, lessen pain, and reduce a rapid pulse], with children, must not be con- 
tinued long, and not given in large doses; and great care must be had about every 
dose. If the dose is too large there will be heaviness, slow, and long breathing, pallor, 
etc. — Hyoscyamus, belladonna, lupulin, China tea, etc., in tincures, are among the best — 
the tea, in infusion, weak— 6 or 8 drops of one of the tinctures, if much fever, may be 
put into a tumbler of water, and a small teaspoon given every 1 or 2 hours, according to 
the severity, for a child G months old — more, or less — according to age. Do not change 
medicines too often, give nature time to work. — Do not call too often, yet sufficiently so 
to understand the disease [remember this was said to a class of students who were soon 
to g9 into practice.] — Never leave a woman after the birth of a child for one hour, at 
least, and see if there is anything wrong with the child. Asphyxiated [apparently dead] 
children must have the mouth cleared out with the finger, or cloth, and a water-dash, 
brandy-dash, or a slap, etc.. and artificial respiration, gradual, of course, warm baih, etc., 
etc. I have been V^to ^ of an hour, and a whole hour, and once even an hour and a 
quarter. It may be necessary to re-cut the cord and let it bleed if It will, — There may 
be an imperforate [no opening] anus, and there may be a membraneous septum 
[partition] in the gut [rectum], and there may be a cul-de-sac [a bag shaped -cavity] 
internally. And there may be an imperforate vagina, perhaps by adhesion of the labia 
[lips — of internal genitals], or it may open into the rectum, or cul-de-sac — imperforate 
penis may occur — .sohypispates, or imperforate urethra may occur in female children, and 
the uretha, in female children sometimes terminates in the groin, etc. Spina bifida, or 
a lackingof some of the spinous processes of the upper vertebrae, or of the whole column, 
and the whole vertebrae may be absent, if so, the prognosis [result] is unfavorable. 

A Miort Fi'eiiiiin Xiiig'iiae — Toiig^iie Tied. — Is a false membrane ante- 
rior [front] under the Tongue, but if it can nurse, let it alone, for it is a dangerous 
operation to cut this membrane — the very slightest touch is all sufficient, as it may 
swallow its tongue— it has been done. 

Hare l/i|> of Children.— May be so bad the child cannot, if so, operate, 
if it can nurse, let it be for the present. Scarification [cutting off the skin upon the 
edges] and a stitch or two, or adhesive strips [1 should use the stitches] when it must be 

I>ef«riiied Feet — Clnb Footed. — There are different varieties— turning in — 
out— toe down.etc. While the bones are tender and muscles soft.they maybe benefitted by 
using angle- worm oil. is best, but bcar.s-oil, or lard-oil will do, 1 part ; turperitiue. 1 part ; 
tinct. of lobelia Ipart; alcohol, 3 parts; camphor gum '/.^ part; rub on well, 3 times a day, 
on the short muscles, then nitro-muriaticacid,;^ oz., alum, as much as the acid will cut, 
(> hen a strong decoction of white oak-bark, mix, and have it so as not to vessicate [blis- 
ter] but make it red— the long muscles, which will contract them, and then, a shoe to 
bring the foot natural, and strapped to keep it right— with the same plan I have cured 


hands, and fin<rers. Reel-fci't [those turning to right, or left— reeling like a drunkard— 
weak] need onlv a shoe proi>crly arrunged. 

nouJjte'l'Hiig'ers, 'rimmUs, etc., — Treatment,— If small, coming out at a 
joint — I mean one small, the other natural size — I cut the little one off— the same with 

Optlialmia— Sore Eyes — At Birth. — This in cities, arises, mostly, from 
venereal diseases. In the country it may soon arise from strong liglit, or a want of care 
at first, in washing, and it may be from constipation. I have known 4 or 5 days before I 
could get a passage — having to use active cathartics and injections— mild treatment, how- 
ever, of course— a tea of elder flowers, or hops, etc. A slippery elm poultice is good for the 
eyes, but never leave a poultice on the eyes longer thaa 2 hours— on the child, or adult. 
The mother' s milk, raspberry-tea wash, or common tea, etc. A mucilage of althea 
officinalis [marsh-mallow, the rootj with a little borax, or a hop-leaf tea with borax, is 
good. Keep the head eo.ol— feet warm— bowels loose [solvent, or easy] with sweet oil, and 
2 or 3 drops of Harlem-oil may be put in the sweet-oil, and rub a little of it about 
the eyes — not in tiicm. 

Urinary Diltictilties of Children.— Retention [non-appearance] is a com- 
mon thing, and soon causes groat difficulty. It is indicated by a distention near the 
umbilicus. Bitter herbs, as hops, tansey, wormwood, hoarhound, with the radix [root] 
of inuela helenum [elecampane] pounded, if green- powdered, if dry, and put with the 
herbs, and foment, or poultice, for 2 or 3 hours. If this does not pass the water, a poul- 
tice of onions, pounded, and laid on will cure 99 of a 100. The difficulty is at the sphinc- 
ter muscle. It is difficult to introduce a catheter with small children, as the prostate* 
gland interferes. Notice the child, and interest yourself in it, and you will be likely to 
cure it, besides it shows to the family that you are not only a physician— but a man. 

Kreviis Materniis— Mother's Marlt.— It may be only a .slight discoloration 
of the skin, on any portion of the body.— If very large best not to do anything with 
them, I have used on small ones, a tattooing with a natural colored pigment. There 
are others which rise above the skin, and have flexures [a net work] of arteries and 
veins, which require attention from a spreading and enlarging tendency— sometimes 
growing very fast, generally these are at, or near the orifices. Have been on the tongue 
and destroyed the child. Another kind is more vascular [have more blood vessels], but 
do n t grow so fast. There is another kind of the polypus form, very small at their 
attachment, or base as it is called— I have lately .seen a statement that nitrate of potassa 
[niter— saltpeter] rubbed on a few times with the finger, will cure them, I have not 
tried it. If they are of the pin-head size, and of the growing kind, they ousiht to be cut 
out. If not on the lips, sweet-oil, camphor gum, and creosote, will perhaps do— equal 
parts, and rubbed on. If these things do not do, I use the " irritating plaster," and then 
the " black salve " to heal— scars will be left in these. (The juice of milk-weed rubbed 
on 3 or 4 times a day has cured some— juice of celandine has done the same, but, if all 
these fail, caustic potash, touched daily, with as little as can be applied, to touch the 
whole surface, will destroy them— if any inflammation sets in, poultice with slippery 
elm, or flax seed, and the Camphorated Elder Ointment, to heal will accomplish the work.) 

HC'-niaof Children— Rupture.— It usually occurs from weakness. Apiece 
of sole leather properly pounded and cloths wet in a decoction of white-oak bark, with 
suitable compress, or hand to keep the leather and cloths in place, if applied at once, 
will generally be sufficient. In female children, it becomes of very great moment to 
cure them. [I think so in both sexes.] ISIorrow, [a very successful Kclectic physician) 
used to apply the " irritating plaster," to make a sore, then appl3r the decoction and 
compress — I do not like it. In inguinal Hernia — that coming down into the scrotum of 
males— be careful not to compress the testicles. In hydrocele — dropsy, or water in the 
scrotum— the scrotum is nearly transparent. With the white oak decoction, a '(la truss, 
or the compress. I have cured 'many children, and adults also. — I have cured by first 
using a truss till it gets sore, and then take off the truss and apply vinegar and hog's lard 
bind on, and keep on for a week or so, the person to lie down all the time. 

If bruises at birth, use a little weak camphor spirits— if likely to ulcerate, poultice 
and then use the black salve— for which, see Nos. 5 or 6 for Burns, etc. 

Fractures ot Children. — We sometimes meet v/ith Fractures of Children by 
careless accouchers They will be treated as other fractures, using great care in handling 
them, — Pasteboard splints, in these cases, will be all sufficient. 

Morbus Cerui<>us— Blue disease, at Birth— This disease is aLso called q/a- 
nosis (cyanopathy, from Greek words signifying blue, and affeclicn, usua'ly from a malfor- 
mation of the heart.) It may arise from the lungs not being completely filled with air, 
by long compression of the brain during labor, and not be^l^the real disease ; the mala 

*The Prostate Gland— the word prostate signifies to stand before, as it is situated 
on the under and posterior, or back part ot the urethra, just before reaching the neck of 
the bladder, and by slight ,swelling or enlargement block-up, as it were the entrance to 
that organ, and, therefore, prevent the escape of urine— with old people it is very 
often troublesome. 

116 DR. chase's 

cause of which is, want of closure of the foramen ovale.* This condition usually arises 
In half an hour,frombirth,and, perhaps sooiier,butmay jiotforaday ortwo— then run into 
convulsions. At fir.'=;t there is blueness about the moutli, jtale lips, etc., the skin becoming 
blue over most, or all of the surface— it juay be brought on by dandling, or jumping them 
about I then don't do it.] 

Prognosis [result] unfavorable, and if it comes on soon, the more unfavorable, than 
if a few days intervene; but still, if months after birth, more unfavorable still. It 
occurs mostly in tlic large, and otlierwise, healthy cliildren. 

Treatmeait.— Lay the cliild on the right side, and keep it still— head elevated 
Blightly, and keep it in that position for 48 hours, to 3 or 4 days ; and sponge them all 
over, occasionally with warmish water, to help oxyf;enate the blood, remembering to keep 
them as still and quiet as possible. I remember one case I had which did not get 
entirely over it for 3 months. 

JAW-FAL.!*, «K J*IME.I>AY FITS.— In the South this disease is quite 
common— two varieties— black and wliite. The black most fatal, terminating in 4 to 8, or 30 
hours. Sudden in its approach. Livid circle around the mouth, pale lips bordering on 
the blue— tho appetite, however, is great, or even ravenous, pulse rapid, bowels irregular, 
and the stools often greenisli, or yellowisli in ciiaractcr— finally convulsions, which may 
last 2 or 3 days. It may come on within 6 days of birth, but not after nine, as first indi- 
cated. Some think it produced by tieing tlie cord too, producing inflammation — I 
think for want of carrying off the meconium, close rooma, or stove-heated rooms, mak- 
ing them too warm. 

Prognosis [result] unfavorable. 

'I'reatine inf.- Loose clothing, and bands merely tight enough to keep the cord 
In place. Free air, with cold water, in moderation, to the head and breast— feet warm. 
Physic must be given, and the best is the neutralizing and antibilious [which see], half 
and half made into a tea, and given until the bowels are cleansed out well. And after 
the bowels are cleansed, the following: 

Antispasmodic siiBcIl NcrvineTea will cure twoioutofeverythreecases. Cyp« 
ripediumbubcscens[ladies.slippcr,oryellow mocasin flower,nerve root, etc. .called] ictodes 
foetida [skunk cabbage], peonia officinalis [peony, or piny], and the Scutellaria lateriflora 
[skullcap, or hood-v/ortj, most of the last, least of the first. May sweeten, and give a lit- 
tle at a time, until it allays the spasms, and nervousness. Then with weak alkaline 
washings of the whole surface, is all that will be required. 

liUFARiTHiE EJtYJ>*Jl*li':i. ft!«».— This disease .sometimes attacks the genitals, 
orscrotum, eatuig them away. At first, a dark spot, sliininglike a piece of polislied metal, 
then more spots may be seen, finally getting black and sloughs off. Child will be rest- 
less, and often diarrhea, the disease spreading rapidly, and lastly coma [deep, or pro- 
found sleep— great difficulty to arouse the patient], and death. 

Prognosis unfavorable, but I have saved many eases. 

Treatment. — Smaple cleanliness is'above price, with infants. Tinct. of lobelia 

1 part, tinct. of sanguinaria [blood-root], 2 parts, [twice as much). Give 2 to 4Jdrops every 

2 to 4 Jiours. I have given the tuicts. of benzoin and lobelia, equal parts, alternating with 
the first in like doses, and a small teaspoon of yeast, after, if there is a tendency to gan- 
grene, or sloughing. If a physic is required, a tea of the following : 

Mepatie fowtler is the thing. — Sanguinaria[blood root],apocynumrbitter-root], 
iris versicolor [blue flag-root], eupatorium [boneset, tops and leaves), equal parts of eaeh, 
all pulverized, and evenly mixed. Steep a teaspoon in a teacup of water, sweeten, and 
give a small teaspoon once in 2 hours, until the bowels are cleared. 

Poultice to the parts of ox gall and yeast, or wormwood and yeast, or slippery elm 
and charcoal finely pulverized, and mixed in ; all are good, but the gall, if it can be got 
with yeast, is the best, not kept on too long; alum-curd poultice, is good in all cases ol 
erysipelas, or sore eyes, 

*The foramen ovale, is an oval hole, or opening in the partition between the two 
auricles of the fetal heart [the child while yet in the uterus, is called a fetus, or fa-tus], by 
means of which the blood intermixes, foroxygenation, which is, after birth, done through 
the lungs. This foramen, or opening, was first discovered and described in 1562, by an 
Italian physician— Leonard Botallus, or Botal, and is, hence, known also, as the foramen 
Botal. The word ovale— oval— no doubt, comes from ovum, an egg, because it is an oval 
or egg-shaped hole tlirough the muscular wall, or partition, between the auricles. After the 
birth of the child, there is a fohl, or valve-like covering springs up, and generally closer 
this opening, permantly. by the tenth day. or thereabouts, but .sometimes there is a very 
Email oponin ', at the upper part, ))ermaiiently remaining; but, as a general thing, God's 
wisdom has so arranged these structures, tliat from birth, the communication ceases, and 
it IS only occasionally, that some condition exists, by which the communication does not 
cease; then this Ceriilcus. or Blue Disease, arises The word fetus does not apply to tho 
child in the uterus, or womb until all its parts are perfectly formed— until this time, it 13 
6aid to be in embryo, or rudimentary — a partial dcvelopement only ; and this word ap- 
plies to plants as well as to animals, anything not fully developed. 


ICTERUS— Jaint«lice—IW cmiiOREST.— The skin, whites of the eyes, 
ears, urine, and feces [discharges], with cliildren, will all show more or less of yellowness, 
and usually a flatulent (windy) diarrhea, with sleep, or even stupor prominent. 

'rresitaiiieii*.— Emetics, witli the neutralizing tea, 2 teaspoons, and emetic teal 
teaspoon ; give a little along every few minutes [5 or 6] until it vomits, then leptandria 
[Culvers physic], 1 part, hydrastis (golden seal], 1 part, and sanguinaria [blood-root] J/^ 
part, infuse, sweeten, and give V2 to a teaspoon, along every two or three hours; or ascle- 
pias tuberosa (pleurisy-root) 3 parts, and sanguinaria [blood-root], 1 part'; make a tea, and 
give J^ to a teaspoon every 2 or 3 hours, is all that is generally. necessary ; to be contin- 
ued a tew days. 

If much weakness afterv/ards, a tonic, infusion, as anthemis nobilis [camomile 
flowers], ptelia trifoliatii [wafer ash, swamp dogwood— is an excellent tonii'J.eupatorium 
perfoliatum Iboneset], and spikenard, with a little Castile soap, not enougn to make it 
cathartic, will soon build them up. 

KUID <iUM!S «►*' i;Hfll.DREW.— This consists of red patches in the groins, or 
axilla [ the arms], but may not be very red — more of an Albino character, and 
larger than those of the deeper red— with some, it comes and goes with dentition | teeth- 
ing.] If the base is broad, and considerable irritation, they will require more attention. 
The two first forms will not require much, only a very mild cathartic. In the last, tha 
digestion being considerably disturbed, and a tendency to inflammation, probably from 
a scrofulous habit, or tendency, the neutralizing physic, or cordial | which see), with a lit- 
tle calcined magnesia, or 10 grs. of the magnesia, and 5 grs. of hydrastis [golden-seal |, 
and make a tea of it, and give 1 teaspoon of it every 2 or 3 houra till it operates, will be 
all sufficient. 

UL,€ERA'FI®M ®F THE MAM3I^ — Bre<«st — ©R THE APPEAR- 
AWCE ®F MHttilS. DN €Hia,DRESr.— In these cases, if the Milk, or matter is not 
squeezed out. the whole Breast may slough off". Milk must be drawn, or squeezed out. 
A cup may draw it out, but if this does not succeed, squeeze it out. [And poultice if 
there is much irritation, or ulceration, as mentioned in Erysipelas of Children, above. 1 

TEETHIWW.—Thc stomach and bowels are often both deranged- throwing up 
food, and then diarrhea, but. if only moderate, there need bo no uneasiness, only suffi- ■ 
cient, at least, to call lor careful v.'atcliing. This may go on, however, to a greater extent, 
causing irritation, dryness ot the mouth, heat of the head and body, redness of the 
cheeks, etc., and finally convulsions, else starting in the sleep, or screaming out in sleep, 
and there may be eruptions at this time, and it so, the messenteric* glands may be 

Treatment.— In most cases [all ordinary cases] nothing need be done, only to 
use care. Every person who has raised children, ought to know, that a child needs cool 
water, often, to drink. Besides, to keep the head cool, and the feet warm, are very impor- 
tant. Yet, bare-footed children have but little irritation of the head. The chewing, or 
sucking a wet rag cools the mouth very much. Free air, v.'ith night and morning wash- 
ings, with salt in the water are very important. 

If diarrliea, a tea of the neutralizing cordial [v/hich see], is, generally, all suffi- 
cient : or a tea of the althea offlcinalis [marsh-mallow.] The gums may be softened by 
rubbing them, occasionally, with a little honey. And I have often had a strengthening 
plaster put between the shoulders of children, with great advantage, in these cases. IT 
very nervous and irritable, I give the tinct. of stramonium, 2 to 4 drops, occasionally.^ 
Some gentle physic— and keep the mouth cool, but I never lance the gums, — nature i3 
the best workman. If convulsions, a warm foot-hath, and a i'cw drops of the tinct. of 
stramonium. In a recent of irritation of stomach and bowels, I laid a poultice of 
yeast over the whole thora.x; [chest] and bowels, and gave a little yeast and sweet-oil, 

*The mesentery, from which the glands take their name, is a thick sheetof mem- 
brane, formed of several folds of the peritoneum, and spread out from the vertebra, or 
spinal colum, like a Ian. to the edge of which the intestines are attached, and by whicti 
they are held in place, not withstanding they have free motion, as it were, floating up 
and down, in the bowels by every breath— those who are familiar with tlie intestines ot 
hogs, or other domestic animals, will the more readily understand what tlie mesentery 
is. when I say it is what is left, after the entrails have been "ridded," — the fat. — I have 
often heard it called the '•gut-fat." although, after the caul has been removed, what is 
left IS more membraneous than "fatty." Within, or rather between these folds, or lay- 
ers of the membrane, there is a network of glands, or little globules, throu-^h which the 
lacteals. or absorbents of the chyle,- described under the head of Digestive Organs in tha 
Anatomical part of this Work— pass the chyle on its way to the thoracic duct, to be 
poured into the blood to nourish the system. Now. with children, more frequently 
than with grown up persons, these "mesenteric glands" become swollen and otherwise 
diseased are liable even to tubercles, the same as the lungs, winch prevents the chyle 
from passing along to the thoracic duct. and. hence, the child is not nourished, and 
becomes greatly emaciated, and may die of what is called "mesenteric consumption," 
or marasmus, or wasting disease. There may, or may not be fever. 

118 DR. chase's 

frequently, and in one day it was nearly well, after two "alopaths" said it must die from 

SORG MOUTH OF CHII^DREIV-Stomatitis— Two Gi-adies.— It may 

come on early ; and old people may have it. This refers to aphthous, or ulcerated. 
Sore Mouth, of an erysipelous character, (the word apthse signifying, to set on fire to 
inflame, etc., as it is of a burning character, lilie erysipelas], in young infants, sleepiness 
IS a peculiar characteristic in this disease [if it can be distinguished, as infants sleep 
nearly all tlie time the first few days, especially so if well.] Gums soft and spongy, and 
there will be little specks of curdy appearing matter on the tongue, inside of the cheeks, 
lips, etc., and sometimes little bits sloughing out; and the color, as the disease progresses, 
may become yellowish, then brown, and finally black, in the most malignant kind— 
irritation being present in all its forms— the gums taking on an ash , or gray color, or 
want of color. < o j , 

Second grade, assumes a vascular form [blood vessels showing plainly], if, at the 
teething period, the irritation from teething affecting the stomach and bowels, in which 
cap these patches, or curdy specks, appear far back in the mouth, and passes down the 
tube to the stomach, etc.: and this character is thought to be contagious— fretfulness and 
stupor more prominent than in the other form, and is also more in clusters than the first 
form, and more white around the patches, being of a lower grade— the liver torpid, and 
the bowels constipated, and gangrene [mortification, the word cominsj from'Greek words 
siguifyin?, to gnaw, or eat, as it destroys the part] may set in,— I never had but two 
cases of gangrene— but if it does set in, it will first assume the brown or blackish appear- 
ance, but this will never set in as long as redness remains— then the more irritation or 
redness, the more favorable is the case. To prevent gangrene, keep the mouth cool, and 
moist, by giving water often. If it arises from disease in the bowels, it is idiopathic 
[primary, or first, not occasioned by some other disease] and shows more in the fauces, or 
throat; if in the stomach, it is symtomatic [from sympathy with some other diseased 
part], and shows more in the mouth. 

Prognosis, with our treatment is favorable— not so with "alopathv"— first form, 
most favorable. It may, and sometimes does, come out in the armpits, groins, and body 
generally, with the characteristic frost-like, or curdy appearance; but this is not 

Trealmeiit.— In first, or milder grade, sage tea, with a little boras and honey, 
is often enough ; or the leaves of privet, with borax, and loaf sugar — tea — or the borax 
and sugar in fine powder and laid on (lie tongue, is very good. Keep the mouth cleansed 
as well as you can without irritating it so as to make it bleed — this is especially to be 
avoided. Milk and water, or milk and common tea; or a tea of cypripedinni pubescens 
[yellow ladies-slipper], or a tea of hemlock-bark, all make good washes for cleansing 
the mouth, The neutralizing physic— a tea of it— is generally enough to cleanse the 

In the Second Grade, or more aggravated form, a wash of nitrate of potassa [^niter- 
saltpeter] in a tea of sanguinaria Canadensis [blood-root]; and a tea of rhus glabrum 
[sumach berries] with barberry [baberry. bark or berries may be used], is excellent. 
Sweetoil, 2 parts, and sweet-spirits of niter, 1 part, shaken well, and give the child a 
small teaspoon of it every 2 or 3 hours until the bowels are moved— you can give 2 or 3 
ozs. of this (of course, only in the doses here given] without harm. I have given as 
much as 2 ozs. of it before it operated ; and as soon as it did operate, the child was 
nearly well— this niter spirits acts on the spleen. I cured a child with this which was 
left on my hands by an alopath— it was all over, outside and in— and tliis child took 2 
ozs. of this oil and spirits of niter Ijefore it operated. Gave the rhus ami Imilierry tea, and 
this oil and spirits of niter, each every 3 hours, alternating every ly^ hours apart. He is 
now a man, and a merchant in St. Louis. 

GAN«REfJ011W liF,€Elt.4TION OF THE MOITTH.— It comes on by 
inflammation, rising suddenly, and quickly taking on a gangrenous character. And 
sometimes a malignant pustule, or spot, is the thing noticed. It is very dangerous. 
This is sometimes called cancrum oris ; but that disease proper— canker— does not gen- 
erally become gangrenous, as mentioned below. 

Troaf men t.— Flour of sulphur, and cream of tartar a. a. [equal parts of each] 
}^oz., loaf sugar, 1 oz. Make fine, mix evenly, and give a teaspoon of it every hour; 
and give yeast freely. I have put in 20 grs. of "ipecac with the above. 

CAIV«'Kl'3l'<>RIS— t'aiiUer.— In this disease, although the parts seem to bo 
dead, and slimgli out deep, yet they do not run into gangrene, or mortilicatif)ii, like the 
first. Mercury is probably the mosVcommon cause of both. The treatment is the same 
as the other. 

MUMPS— CiyB«aiieiie*—Paro4itis.— The inflammation and swelling of 
Mumps generally lasts about four days, and is contagious [catching.] 

*Cynanche comes from Greek words signifying, a dog's collar, and as this is cal- 
culated to be a bad thing to wear, this name is given to any of the bad soro throats, as 
mumps, quinsy, croup, etc.; and parotitis is also from the Greek, and signifies an iuflam- 


Symptoms. — The parotid gland swells, on one or both sides. May have it on 
one side at one time, and on the other side at another time. The tumor, or swelling, 
becomes hard, and painful ; does not, generally, but may tend to ulceration, more par- 
ticularly if it settles, or translates to the testicles, or mammary glands [breasts of females], 
and returns again to the parotid; and if cold is taken it may swell very much in the 
muscles of the neck, and suppurate. Not much fever, usually, but if the swelling sub- 
sides suddenly, the fever may run very high, and convulsions set in, in children, from 
which they hardly ever recover. 

Treatment.— Keep the child from wet or cold; or a hot fire, especially avoid 
damp ground, and tic raw cotton [cotton batting] over the gland, and'abont the third day 
give a gentle cathartic. In translation, rub the parotid gland withsoiiie'stiinulating lin- 
iment, and fomentations to the testicle.s' or[mammce, and in this case, a |)l)y.sic immedi- 
ately. Slippery-elm is ucukI to put in the bitter herb fomentations. Boiled oats aregood 
In a case where the testicles was as big as my head — an "Alopath"* was putting OU' 
cold water — I put on warm water, till the oats could be boiled for the poultice, and cured 
the case in one night. If they ulcerate, treat the same as any other uh er — the Black 
Salve, etc.,— the same if in the mammse. Antibilious physic, and cream of tartar, is a 
good cathartic. 

Remarks.— I have had no opportunity to use the camphor spirits, in these cases of 
children , but if it is good for grown people as shown in my own case, why not equally 
good for children— except that, if of full strength, it might have a tendency to blister- 
see Mumps, Settling to Cure. 

TERY, ETC.- The stomach and bowels of children are very liable to derangement, 
usually functional [simple derangement of the natural action] but may lead to organic 
lesions, as ulcerations, etc. And usually a derangement of one, will more or less affect 
the other, terminating in dysentery, fluxes, etc., etc. Indigestion often occurs, if over- 
fed, or improper food is given. They become feverish and fretful, till stuflfed: then it 
sours on the stomach, and flatulency, or pain, sets in, and they cry again ; when the 
unwise mother takes them up and feeds them again ; and so it goes, with some, until 
puking and purging, and, perhaps cholera-infantum, is established in full force, and 
great emaciation follows,— mostly, if not wholly, ior a want of knowledge that 
children's food should be the proper kind, and given only at proper inteivals— their 
food, in other words, must be right and regular. Acidity and griping often follow the 
great emaciation, where ir digestion of infants is present. The milk is too poor, or 
poisonous. And the griping and acidity may arise from the over-feeding also. These 
causes must be removed, or corrected, or nothing can be done. 

Prognosis, favorable, if not allowed to run too long— otherwise, unfavorable. 

Treatment.— The common neutralizing j)bysic [cordial], and look to tbe diet, or 
the condition of the mother's milk. If she has nursed children before, see whether they 
■were healthy. Young cow's milk, properly reduced*, or sweet cream reduced with 
water, a little at a time, is good food. 

Paregoric I have found good, with a little of the neutralizing cordial, or physic 
[it is slightly cathartic], or the prunus Virgmica [wild cherry] and peppermint, simply 
steeped with the powder of the cordial, where there are green stools, or the presence of 
acid which causes these green stools. And great attention to the skin all the time is 
very important. 

In weaning a child, milk food is necessary for some time, until the change can be 
gradually brought about. Brashes, or eruptions often come out and require attention, 
at the time of weaning Some think the Fall is the best season to wean a child ; but I 
pay no attention to this, generally. Many Avomen will stuff a child all the time— this is 
absurd— 11^ hours, however, will digest a reasonable amount of milk, in a child's stom- 
ach, in health— 5 to 6 hours in an adult, with common food.— If the green stools are 
allowed to go on too long, vomiting, and finally mucus diarrhea, and cholera-infantum. 
carries off the child— the feet and legs being cold, and the head warm, and often sore 
mouth, when "old Alopathy" treats for brain diseases, and off goes the child; but, if 
these discharges are stopped too suddenly, instead of being corrected, which our treat- 

mation of the parotid gland, lieing nearest the ears, and which pours its secretion [salt 
va], during mastication, or eating, into the mouth to moi.sten the food, which it also 
aids to digest, ami hence anything interfering with the production of this saliva — which 
inflammation always does— is not only injurious, but f)ften becomes serious, and even 
dangerous, making it especially important to avoid taking cold. 

*If cow's MILK is to be used, in raising children, new milk only is to be u-sed, it should 
have about one-third as much water, which has been boiled, put with it, and sweetened 
slightly, as it is the next best food for infants, where goats nor asses milk can not be got 
— these come nearer to the properties of the mother's milk than that of cows — but 
these can seldom be obtained.— The day of this writing I find myself 63 years old — 
March 20th, 1880. 

120 DB. CHASE'S 

ment does, brain disease is liable to set in, and sometimes, no doubt, these bowel diseases 
may come on from disease of the brain— of this you must judge, from the fact, as to 
■whether stuffing, or over-feeding, has been the cause or not— if not. look well to tlie head 
symptoms. A tea of the neutralizing cordial, powder, y^ teaspoon will olteii allay an 
irritable stomach of a child; or equal parts of this tea, and a tea of the emetic powder, 
to vomit them at first, then continue the cordial tea, will, generally, correct all these dif- 
ficulties, [see this plan more fully given under the head of Icterus, or Jaundice, above] ; 
but if dropsies of the brain set in, or if the white kind of spots come out on the surface, 
they will be likely to die. I have not been able to save many after these conditions have 
get in before I was called.— Mustard over the stomach will allay vomiting. Tonics may 
be needed, if so, tlie liriodendron tulipfera [poplar— wliite or yellow- the bark], spike- 
nard, and gentian, make a good tonic— in tea ; or the wine bitters (which see] in small 
doses may be used; but -'old-school" says: Don't give .stimulants when there is intlam- 
mation— I have given brandy in inflammations, and thereby reduced them. Althea 
officinalis [marsh-mallov/ root*], slippery elm, or gum Arabic— one or all ol them— make 
a mueillage which is good to soothe these intestinal irritations. Bitter herb, and 
elm poultices to the bowels should not be neglected. . 

DHOEiKKA. INFANTUM— Clioiera >ii Infants.- This is a formidable 
and dangerous disease — it is well named — characterized by vomiting and purging. 
May come on suddenly and carry off the child in a few hours if not ai rested— 1 to 6 
hours, but this is not common in the Nf rth. In teething it often lasts G to 8 weeks, and 
die— under "old -school" treatment. , , , , .,, 

SvMiptoins,— Countenance pale, features sharpened, and dark around the eyes, 
and child lies eyes half open : may be around, but usually lie as it reflecting, cries occa- 
sionally, and then falls asleep, then vomiting and purging again arouse it. l<ee- 
ble, slow, and irregular pulse— thin, and wasting discharges, sometimes tinged with 
bile, or greenness, this last, is most favorable. They are also veiy thirsty — drink, 
and throw it ud as quick as it gets hot, until the child is very low. It the child is not very 
thirsty, it probably arises from disease of the brain— this you will observe. Ihe tongue 
will be furred, unless it runs its cou'se very quick, in which case it will be glossy. Some 
cases are much milder. If it is a nursing child, it will nurse and then throw back its 
head, eyes half open, and soon throw up the milk, and then soon go to sleep. The 
Bpleen, I think, is always enlarged, and from its action on the kidneys, prevents the 
secretion of urine, hence the tliirst. It is often difficult to diagnose [distinguish] this 
from disease of the brain, unless you notice the symptoms in regard to drink. In Chol- 
era Iniantum. if a child sees a cup, it will reach for the water, not so in brain di.sease. 
And brain disease, generally, affects the mind, more or less. Anotiier symptom is, a 
child may vomit 2 or 3 times a day for 2 or 3 days, and a little looseness of the bowels, 
and put its fingers into its throat— if this last symptom comes on, the child is almost cer- 
tain to die; but witliout this, many cases will last 4 or 5 weeks, and watery effusions 
[dropsies], may set in and destroy tfie child. 

'ffreatiBient.- The neutralizing cordial [which see] can be depended upon, 
although its use may not be seen to improve its condition onlyl^siightly, for several days. 
And besides the use of the cordial, give the following: 

I>r«»|»s.— Ess's. of Cinnamon, and anise, and spirits of ammonia, of each, 5 drops'; 
tinct. opii [laudanum], 15 drops tinct catechu, 20 drops simple sirup, 1 oz.— give 5 to 20 
drops every half hour (according to the severity j, until the vomiting is allayed This 
may be given alter you have used the cordial for a little time, and as the vomiting is 
allayed, omit the Drops, or give less. Loaf sugar will sometimes lie on the stomach 
when nothing else will. Brandy, sage tea. store tea, and weak-lve, given a little warm, 
has often cured. Hydrastis Canadensis [golden seal] is valuable in this disease. Cal- 
cined magnesia and loaf sugar, are also valuable, but may make it sick a little, but won't 
vomit ; then a little brandy, and they are cured. 

In violent cases, beef's gall, y^ dr.. spirits. 1 gill, give 1 to 3 drops in mueillage, 
or sage tea, and repeat in about G hoiirs, for 2 or 3 times, and rub the child with brandy 
—always remember the skin. A mild aromatic plaster on the stomach in all these cases 
is good. The gal! I use in Cholera cases, and in 1849 1 lost only two cases, and I attended 
two to one of aiiv other in the city 

OIAKIIIIFA OF CHILDISEW.— [This comes from Greek words signifying, to 
flow through.] If much derangement of the bowels, there will be occasional vomiting, 
but if there is much, it partakes more of cholera-infantum. Wisely, or unwi.seiy divided 
Into seven grades, or kinds, as seen in the nature, or character of the discharges. 1st. 

Marsh-mali.ow poultices have been found very valuable to discuss painful 
inflammatory tumors, and swellings of every kind, whether from wounds, bruises, burns, 
scalds, or poisons, and has prevented the occurrence of gangrene. Internally it is effica- 
cious in gastrointestinal (stomach and bowel] irritations, and intianimations.— King. 
It is also equally valuable in all kidney and bladder difficulties, in which the urine is 
disturbed— combining an equal amount of spearmint with it— in the form of tea— taken 


Floccus [flaky, or adhering in tufts]. 2nd. Billosa [bilious, or bile-likel. 3rd. Mucosa 
[mucus]. 4th. Hepatorrhea [from excessive action of the liver]. 5th. Lenterica[food 
passing undisicsted]. 6th. Colica |like chyle]. 7th. Verminosa [fiom vermis, a worm, 
connected with, or caused bv worms.] M'any times this disease commences in one of 
these forms, or grades, and ends in another; and may die of it, in some of its forms; 
very great care must be observed. (Fortunately, cur treatment, if taken in time, will 
cure it in any of its forms, or crades.) . 

Symptoms.— In " Billosa" there is most sickness of the stomach, and vanous col- 
ored feces [dischargcsl, back of tongue furred, etc., and if acidity, there will be llatulenee 
and griping, not much fever, but some, often, in tbe evening— sometimes thirst, if so, 
the discliarges will be watery, and often changing. It may run on all summer, or a 
year, or more, and edematious |pufFv| swellings ot the lower extremeties. 

t^ausps.— Cold, heat, improper diet, over-feeding, worms, teething; and it may 
arise early, for want of proper pursing oft' the meconium [the feces in the bowels at time 
of birth], liver swellin-. etc. It may be a simple diarrhea. 

Prognosis, under our treatment, favorable. I never lost a case, and I lisvG had 
thousands of oases. 

'Froatnaeiit.— First, look to the diet— yet, I give what they crave, even potatoes 
not too much. Much sweet, with some, is bad : and, yet, some are cured with white 
g^io-ar- 1 cured a young man in Kentucky, who v/as contiued two years, with not much 
but loaf sugar— he craved it, and I led him with it, and in 3 or 4 months he was 

The neutralizing physic, and one-third prunus Virgmica [wild-cherry bark] will 
cure most cases ; but if the child is very lovir, and the disease of long standing, I use the 

»i <rrliie»o Simp— [For Children].— Epiphegns Americana [beech drops— tho 
plant is also known ns cancer-root]: treraniam maculatum[vv'ild-cranesbill alum-root.etc., 
are some of its common names]; prunus Virginica [see above]; tormentilla [tormentil, 
eeptibil, etc.. the root— astringent and tonic]; and best rhubarb root, of each, ]X oz. 
Bruise all, or have coarsely sround, and steep, closely covered, in water. 1 pint. Strain 
off, and put on sufficient more water and steep again to have a full pint after strainirig 
and pressing off the second time; to this, add 14 lb. loat liugar, with lieat to dissolve it, 
then also add salcratu^. J^ oz , and tinct. of catectiu and spirits of camphor, of each, 2 
ozs., and sudorific tinct [which see], loc, and rjivc 10 drop doscstoan infant, asneeded, 
once in 2 to 4 hours, increasing tlic dose one to two drops for each year, for those 
older. (This makes an exceedingly valuable cirup.) 

A decoction of thapsus* (mullein leaves and flowers') is good; so is one ot'rhus 
typhinnm i stag-horn, or velvet sumac— Ih2 non poisonous fumacs have their fruit cov- 
e"-ed with acid crimson hairs— the poisonous kind have STiooth fruit.) The geranium 
alone, is healing.— With attention to the surface all the time, wa.shing bathing, and rub- 
bing gently, must never be neglected. And in bad cases, bitter herbs on the bowels, day 
and night — not too hot. 

OF CH I B..I»KEW.— Emaciation, weakness, and hectic ^habitual or constant* fever, 
characterized by enlargement and softening of the mesenteric glnnds. .'^ome think it 
scrofulous, but it is safe to considcrit an inflammatory disease. usu>illv ;T-ising from some 
irritation, and most usually from diseased bov/cla about the time of tcctliing. Whatever 
will irritate the bowel:;, will irritate the mesenteric glands— liable from the time of 
teething to 15 or IG years of age, and is often tho foinidation of tuberculous matter in the 
lungs, most commonly from the 3rd to tho 5tli year. 'Very poor, and very rich people 
arc most liahle to it— either from poo; food, or rich food ; 6r,in otherwords, wrong food. 
All the glands arc liable to this affection. It iz very difficuli; to diagnose (to dttprmine 
v/hat the disca^^e is, by its symptoms.) I think most children have it. more or less. I 
have observed the symptcms on through youth, and see it terminate in consumption. 
The whole system is liable to be aftected by it, and lead yon astray in the diagonis. 
Some say the only sure sign, or symptom, is, to feel the enlarged glands, this however, is 

=^Thf. 'VEr.BAScruM Thapsus. or mnllein. is mucillaarennus. and therefore capable of 
protecting the n-.ucus.surt'aces from the i rritating properties of the contents of the alimen- 
tary canal in this disease ; and is also slitrhtly diuretic, anodyne, and antispasmodic. It 
is often ooifcd in milk, svv'cetencd, aromatics added, to make it more pleasant to the 
taste, in bowel difiicnltics. A poultice of tho leaves is excellent in inflamed piles, 
ulcers, tuni'irs. etc.. and the leaves and pith make an excellent poultice in white swell- 
ings, and infused in h"t vinegar, is valuable as a poult'ce to malignant sore throats, 
mumps, etc. And the leaves, dried, and tmoked in a pipe, are useful in asthma, and 
laryngial affections.— King. 

ITabics. comes from the Latin tahere, to waste away, and for mesenterica see pre- 
vious description of mesentery. It is supposed this difficulty arises frr.m disease of the 
mesenteric glands, and hence, the name — wasting— as emaciation, or tho loss of flesh, is 
the leading, or prominent symptom. 

122 DR. chase's 

hard to do. But, if much gastric (stomach), or intestinal irritation, it may be suspected. 
It has three stages. In the 1st the child will play about, and show but little difficulty. In 
the 2nd, the stools become chalky, or clayey in color, and the glands ot the neck can 
usually be felt. In the 3rd, the glands soften, and soon after ulcerate, and the child is 
very liable to take cold— in fact, they are more liable, all the time, to take cold, than for- 
merly, with coryza (catarrh, or discharge from the nostrils), and watery eyes, and then, 
the emaciation, hectic fever, sweats, diarrhea, and thought to be consumption, and the 
scene is then, soon closed. These three stages seem to be arbitrary, and, to a certain 
extent, they are, yet, they are necessary, for, in the 1st and 2nd, they can be cured; not 
in the 3rd. The bowels are usually much enlarged, and this, by some, is thought to 
arise from worms— but is often not so. Paleness is common, but red cheeks occasional ; 
appetite usually good; often voracious in the 2nd stage ; and in the 3rd, will eat, yet, get 
poor; bowels hard and knotty, other parts soft— pain on pressure uponthc bowels, often 
supposed to be from hardened feces. Jumping gives pain, and long standing also gives 
pain and weariness. And when the fever is on, sharp pains are felt on pressure, appear- 
ing to come out at the back ; when no fever, the pressure causes a dull pain. A craving 
for chalk, clay, or acids, indicate worms, and a few may be passed; then it is called 
worms, at once. In gastro-intestinal irritation, the fever is remittent (abating, periodi- 
cally), but in this disease, it is hectic (regular, constant), but at the first it may be mixed, 
(in fact, there is stich a mixture or variety of forms assumed, and supposed causes, the 
Professor gives us the causes, and symptoms, all mixed together), hence the difficulty of 
diagnosis, as before remarked, but at last, they get feeble, and cannot bear much exer- 
cise-pulse at first, natural, but becomes quick, and hard. In the 3rd stage the peritoneum 
(the serous membrane that covers the internal surface of the abdomen, and forms the 
surface, more or less completely, of all the organs therein, coming from Greek words, 
signifying to stretch all round, or over), may become inflamed and^eft'usions take place, 
and pass from the bowels; with diarrhea constant at the close of the disease — it is, at all 
times, dangerous, but in the 3rd stage, hopeless. 

Treatment.— I am a strong advocate in this disease, as in all others, of emetics, 
as lobelia goes to any and every part, if diseased. Lobelia and sanguinaria (blood-root), 
must be depended upon — with me, lobelia will, by internal and external use, take cata- 
ract off of the eye. It is one of our strongest alteratives. An emetic (which see) a week 
or 10 days apart, and asclepidin* sanguinarin, and hydrastin (kept by druggists) 14 to 1 
gr. with loaf-sugar, and the neutralizing physic (which see) is about all that is needed. 
But, in cases where the bowels are hard, be careful about giving emetics. But you may 
give 1 part of the neutralizing physic, and 2 parts of the emetic powder, common physic 
occasionally ; and the following ; 

1. Scrofulous Syrup. — It is excellent and healing — Celastrus scandens (false 
bitter-sweet, staft-vine, wax-work, climbing bitter-sweet, climbing staff-tree, etc., are 
some of its common names— bark of the root), scutelaria lateriflorat (skull-cap, blue 
skull-cap, side-flowering skull-cap, mad-dog weed, hood-wort, blue pimpernell, etc., are 
its principal common names— it is tonic, nervine, and antispasmodic), arctumlappa 
(burdock) seed, and sambucus (elder) flowers. Make the sirup the same as the diarrhea 
sirup, above, except that saleratus is not to be used in this. Half to 1 teaspoon doses, 3 
or 4 times a day according to age. 

If the bowels are bad, poultice them with bitter herbs, and a little soap, and a very 

*The Asclepidin is made from the asclepias tuberosa (pleurisy-root), the sangui- 
narin from the sanguinaris Canadensis (blood-root, from sanguis, blood— the root being 
red, like Wood), and the hydrastin, from the hydrastis Canadensis (golden-seal), all of 
which articles are highly reccommended in diseases of the mucus membrane— the dose, 
given above, may be given everv 3 or 4 hours during the day. 

tBEACH, in his " Family Practice," in speaking of the properties of the scutelaria : 
says: " It is remarkably efficacious in chorea,orSt. Vitus's dance : vvith the infusion I have 
cured a great number of cases of this disease. It has of late become quite famous as a 
cure for the bite of mad-dogs. Its properties as a medicine in this case was first discov- 
ered by Dr. Vandeveer, towTird 1772. He used it with the utmost success ; and is said to 
have, untill 1815, at which period he died, preserved 4,000 people, and 1,000 cattle from 
becoming afTected with the disease, after they were bitten by rabid (mad) animals. It is 
likewise stated that his son preserved, relieved or cured 40 persons in three years, in the 
state of New York, and New Jersey, by the use of this article. It is also very useful in 
convulsions, tetanus (lock-jaw), and tremours— given in the form of an infus-ion (1 oz, of 
the dried leaves and herb, to 1 pt. barley water ; then stand, to infuse), to be drank 
freely through the day. It is an excellent nervine, used as a common drink." — At a 
later day Professor John King, of Cincinnati, among other things, says of it: " It is ner- 
vine, and anti-spasmodic in delirium tremens, an infusion drank freely will soon pro- 
duce a calm sleep. In intcrmittents it may be beneficially combined witn bugle-weed 
(this meams the ground pine, or germaiKlcr— as some call it, not the bugle-weed, or water 
hoarhound.) Where teething has impaired the health of children, an infusion may be 
given with advantage, etc." 


ttle assafoetida in it, to avoid convulsions, applied with care for a few days, will prove 
aluable. If exanthemata (eruptions) over the bo wels,use hydriodate Cnow called iodide) 
f potash, or nitro-muriatic acid, 1 dr. to 1 pt. of the above sirup. And when there is 
)ugh, give an infusion of ampelopsis quinquefolia (American ivy, called also, Virginia 
•eeper, five leaves, woodbine, wild wood-vine, false grape, etc.. the bark and twigs.) 
his will cause an eruption on the surface, which v/ill feel lilae nettles ; then be sure 
3U have gained on the disease; and it will do the same iu consumption, and with it, I 
ave cured consumption. 

In the 3rd staiie, the emetics must he light, and great care used. \\ ith another : 

2. Sirup— In this stage as follows: The cclastrus. and scatelaria. as in No. 1, 
ith the rlius typhinum (stag-horn, or velvet sumac ). menispermum Canadensis (yel- 
iw parilla), and arupelopsis (described just above), made the same as the other, and 
ose the same also; with simple enemas (injections), as milk and water, tea of sumaC; 
.m, or althea (marsh-mallow) with a little saugumaria (blood-root); and great care of 
le surface all the time. The diet should be nourishing, but not greasy, nor such as to 
luse ascidity of the stomach. Ampelopsis (see above) helps to keep the stomach sweet, 
ith a little of the alkalies. The sore eyes will go away, if you equalize the circulation, 
ith some simple thing, (wash, as milk and water) to the the eye. I have just cured a 
ttle boy who was scabbed all over, and his belly as big as two ought to be, with the 
netic and physic powder, given you at the beginning of this treatment— he is now 
early well. 

WORMS IN CIIISyBREK'.- Some persons say children at the breast do not 
ave Worms. This is not true ; they may be born with them ; and yet. children do not 
ave as many Worms as is commonly thought. The lumbricoldes, (from lumbncus, a 
■orm), or round long Worm are found in the small intestines, and the ascaris 
)in-worm— small and short) mostly in the lower bowels and rectum ; Ijiu Worms may 
iach the stomach, liver ducts, etc., and weakly children are most likely tu have them, 
he causes are too obscure to examine into them. 

Symptoms.— The symptoms are about as obscure as the causes; the best sign, 
r symptom is to see them. They may cause lever; a pale face alternating with a 
ushed one, is pretty good evidence of them. Paleness about the nose, and swelled 
owcls; knawing in the stomach, and a twisting pain at the umbilicus ; a fetid breath ; 
)0se, then constipated bowels ; mucus discharges ; picking the nose ; a pulling down or 
nking feeling; starting, and cryin; or screaming out in sleep, or grating teeth; eyes 
'ild or set, if disposed to convulsions; restless; saliva running from the mouth when 
sleep ; pulse quick or frequent : cough when they lie down, or in the morning, on mov- 
ig about; and if salt will allay this coughing, be sure that Worms are present; 
borea (St. Vitus dance), and epilepsy may be frequent, and(whatis most singular of all, 
; that these symptoms— except the seeing them) all these may be present, and yet, no 

Prognosis, with us, favorable. 

Treatment.— The chenopodium anthelminticum* (wormseed, also known as 
erusalem oak), and castor-oil are among the most common articles used with us. 
fsually best to give some worm medicines 3 or 4 days, then a cathartic and tonic. Pink, 
•ewees says 3 or 4 days, then senna and manna to work them off If they cause any 
ervous disturbances, use some nervine and anti spasmodic (see the scutelaria, in last 
ote above— it is a valuable nervine and anti-spasmodic); and bitter herbs to the bowels 
ssist to effect their dislodgement. The following is a good 

Vermiftiare.- Lime water, quite strong,! 1 pt,. castor-oil. 1 pt., oil anise, 1 oz., 
pirits of turpentine. 2 ozs., oil of tansey, a little H oz., oil of chenipodium (wormseed), 

*The anthelminticum, from which our anthelmintic is derived, comes from 
rreek words signifying against worms, to destroy or expel worms, then not satisfied with 
lis double mixture, so far, we jump again, back to the Latin vermes— worms— for 
le name of a mixture to destroy them ; hence, we have vermifuge— a medicine to 
estroy worms. And now I can proceed to say : The chenopodium anthelminticum 
J, not only anthelmintic, but also anti-spasmodic— against spasms; therefore, doubly 
aluable here.'as worms tend to produce .spasms. It is used chiefly to destroy the lum- 
ricoid, or long round worm, and the wormseed-oil is considered the best form in which 
3 use it, either in a vermifuge, or alone upon sugar— 4 to 8 drops. King says is a dose, 
lorning and evening, for 4 or 5 days, always to be followed, after the above tftne, with a 
athartic. He also gives us the following : 

Vermifuge.— Oils of wormseed and tansy, of each. 1 oz., spirits of turpentine. 1^ 
zs., castor-oil, 1 lb. ; mix. Dose, for a child 1 teaspoon every hour, an adult, a table- 
poon, until it operates 

tLiME WAT^,K i.s made by taking J4 oz. of freshly burned lime, to each pt. of water 
lack the lime with a little of the water, then put into a bottle, with the balance of the 
?-ater, shake well occasionally, for 3 or 4 hours, then pour off the clear liquid for use— 
f more is made than is needed at first, keep corked, leaving the sediment in the bottle, 
lonring off the clear when used. 

124 DR. chase's 

2 ozs., tinct. of myrrh, 2 ozs., molasses, or sugar, C ozs., to' make palatable. Dose, J^ tea- 
spoon for a child, tablespoon for an adult, night and morning, '2 or 3 days, then senna, 
and manna to work it ott', or use 4 ozs. or the above, and 'j. ozs. of castor-oil, which is said 
to be like McLanes vermifuge. Dose, same as before, but every 3 or 4 hours until it acts 
freely. But if I wish a purge to act at the same time, I put 2 drops of croton-oil to 1 oz. 
of the first, and give the same dose, about 2 davs will act, and is good.— I never give the 
dolocos pruriens (cowhage.) Castor-oil and spirits of turpentine is good to give for 2 or 

3 days; then work olf, freely, when the others cannot be had— (castor-oil, 1 oz., turpen- 
tine, 14 oz.— Dose, 10 to 30 drops, according to age of child.) 

Verniifiijjfe lor l^liilaireii.- The following mixture is spoken of as "doing 
well " for children ; Spirits of turpentine, and ess. of anise, of each % oz., castor-oil, and 
wormseed-oil, of each. 1 oz.; mix. Dose, for a child 1 to 2 yrs., 10 to 20 drops, every 2 or 3 
hours through the day. lor 2 or 3 days; then a brisk cathartic. — Santonin, 1 to 3 grs. 
according to the age of the child, 3 or 4 times daily lor 3 or 4 days, then worked off with 
a brisk cathartic, is the least annoying, and perhaps as good as anything that can be 
used, and a tea of scutelaria lateriflora, cypripedium (ste previous oescnption of these), 
is good at the same time the vcmiluge is being given. Aloes and rhue make a, good 
injection, in pin-worms. (A teaspoon of salt in a teacup of cold water, and injected 
once a day for 4 or 5 days, is a later and moie satisfactory remedy for the thread-like, or 
pin-worms of the rectum.) 

F«r Tape Worm, some use gourd seed, or pumpkin seed, in mucilage, and salt 
eaten the first thing in the morning, i have brought away Tape Woim with blue ver- 
vain (verbena hastata) a tea of the root will expel Worms. The salvia (sage), a tea 
of it, I have also seen expel Worms, alter a child was given up to die. The.vermifuge I 
have seen destroy the mucus in which Worms burrough. 

B. Bft^E AN© WASP S'lJjS..!* AN1» lASECT BITES— To Cure.— 
Borax, 1 oz.; pulverized and dissolved in water that has been boiled, and allowed to 
cool, y^ pt. ; or if preferred it may be the i-im.e amount of ro.'-e, elder, c r orange water. 

The Bites, or Stings are to be touched occasionally with the solution as long as any 
Irritation continues. 

Some persons are very much troubled with swelling and irritation from the Bitea 
of gnats, and musquitof s, while almost everybody is liable to the same from the Stmga 
of Bees, etc., from an acid-like poison, that is leit in ihe wcund. This alkali neutializea 
it. Aqua Ammonia will do the ,'=ame, used of the same strength, 1 fl. oz. to water, y„ pt, 

2. A tea spooniul of ihe borax solution to a y pt ol soit water makes an excellent 
wash for the head in cases of trouble from dandruff, and is more pleasant, for this pur^ 
pose, if rose water is used in its make. Twice a week v ill be sufficiently often to use i( 
until the scalp is cleaned, then once a week, or once in two weeks, will keep it clean, 
using a very little oil after each application to compensate lor that which the boraa 
saponifies (turns into soap; in the hair, lo pievent haishness. 

3. A table-spoonful of the ammonia soltuion in soft water, J4 pt. makes an excel- 
lent wash for the aimpits of those persons who have a sour smell from excessive sweat- 
ing. To be used once or twice a week, or oftener if needed. 

1. BI-EEI>IN«a, «jR, filEiflOKKHACiE— Successful Mesnedaes.— In 
cuts and bruises, nose bleed, etc., w here the Blof d flows in ony considerable quantities, 
take the dust from the tea-canister, or finely pulverized tea, if considerable is needed, 
with the dust; or, the scrapings of the inside of sole leather, and bind closely upon the 

After the Blood has been stopped, laudanum may be applied by wetting cloths in 
it to allay pain and prevent soreness — ifno jandanum is at hand, camphor spiiits. 

In cases v/hire a large artery or vein has been cut, to make it necessary to ligate 
(tie upi it will be best to send for a surgeon, at once; and if it is an artery, which mtiy 
be known by the spiriting of the Blood at every beat oi the heat, place a finger or 
thumb upon the artery between the wound and the heart, but close to the wound, and 
press sufficiently hard to prevent the flow of the Blood, for if you do not, the patient will 
probably die before the surgeon can arrive. Cut veins flow in a steady ooze, or stream 
according to their size, and the pressure is required on the side of the wound from 
the heart, as the veins carry the Blood towards (to) the heart. Do this fearlessly, in bad 
cases, i. e. where the Blood flows in large streams, and hold oa, no matter how long it 
may be, until the doctor arrives. 

t?o BJ«^Si'; BJ.EEIt— ^in^ple tosutt EflPpclmaSIReniiedy.— In long continued 
Bleeding from the nose— in which cases the persons are generally in a low or poor con- 
dition of health — tannic acid in the dry powder, applied oy moistening bnen. then dip- 
ping them or rubbing the moistened cloths in the acid and passing them into the nostrils, 
as high up as may be necessary to reach the point, has been found very eflectual. If 
Bufficient cannot be made to adhere to the cloths, it may be made into ah ointment by 
using a very little lard ; then apply to the cloths and^insert as before. 

3. But it would not be ainiss in these days of reapers and moivcrs, and other farm 
machinery, for fam lies to keep on hand a small bottle of Styptic (an astringent that 
causes cjiitraction of the blood vessels, and stops bleeding); and the following, or No. 5 
or 7, below, will be found very valuable. 


Monsel's Persnlphate of Iron,— This article is Iiept by druggists, and la 
Iso known as Monsel's Solution, because it was first introduced to the public by Dr. 1852. Among eclectics it is also known as the " Perchloride of Iron." It is 
sed in solution, but the solution is of a sirupy consistence, and of a deep color. It is 
ighly recommended both by the "regulars," and "eclectics." The United States Dis- 
ensa'tory, the organ of the old-school, makes the following remarks upon it: 

"it is very efficacious as a Styptic, and peculiarly adapted, through'thc power of 
Dagulaling the blood, to cases of hemorrhage in incised wounds (deeply cut wounds), 
r on surfaces in which it is specially desirable to avoid irritation. The solution may be 
pplied by means of a sponge, or small brush, or a pencil of fine-spun glass, to the Bleed- 
)g surface, or vessel. It has also been used internally ; and there is little doubt that it 
'ould prove efficacious as a Styptic in hemorrhage from the stomach and bowels, and by 
ijection into the rectum in Bleeding from that part. It may be given in doses of 5, to 
j grains." 

The solution is so concentrated as it is kept by druggists, that 1 drop from a com- 
lon vial is about equal to 1 gr. 

King, in his Eclectic, or American Dispensatory says of it: 

" Perchloride of Iron is given in Solution, and is a powerful Styptic. Internally it 
as been successfully administered in "epfo/a.iiS (nose bleed), " hemop ysis" (bleeding 
om the lungs), " hemafemesis" (bleeding from tlu stomach, known by vomiting blood), 
men rrhagia' (profuse menstruation), "Uterine and other hemorrhages of apas.sive" 
noderate, not active) " character, the dose is from 5 to 10 drops in a sufficient quantity 
f wate , and repeating ixuo, three, or even/ottr times a day." 

Further along in his description of this article, he says: ''Perchloride of Iron 
rrests arterial, or venous hemorrhage resulting either from accident, or as a conse- 
uence of Surgical operations. Hemorrhage from the, bovvels may be checked by an 
nema" (injection) "composed of from 20 to 25 drops of a concentrated solution of 
erchloride of Iron to 7 ozs. of fluid." 

The " fluid" may be any injection mixture, as gum water, flax-seed, or slippery elm 
'Eter. Eight ozs. make 3-2 pt. King continues: 

"Hemorrhage from an abcess" (a collection of pus in any part) may bo checked 
y injecting a solution of 10 drops of the concentrated solution to 7 fl. ozs. of vvat(!r. 
wenty drops to SJ^ozs. of water has been successfully used as an injection in chrotjio 
onorrhea or lucorrhea (the first a discharge of mucus from the urethra of the male, the 
ist, from the vagina of the female, caused by inflammation of the parts), in weak and 
emphatic subjects " (i. e., persons of a weak condition of body, pale and sickly coun- 

The more ^positive statements of Professor King as to the known value of this 
rticle, in stoppfng the flow of Blood, may be accounted for in the fac of their having 
een written some dozen years later than the first. It is now known to be an almost 
ositive remedy for any profuse flow of Blood, internally in from 4 to 36 hours. For 
iternal administration, it is well to sweeten the water in which it is given, and if dis- 
lled water is used it is all the better. 

For Bleedings from extracting teeth it is used by wetting lint and pressing it down 
) the seat of the ruptured vessel. 

4. Besides the foregoing, more positive treatment for hemorrhages, or profuse 
iternal Bleedings, common table salt in half, to a tea-spoonful dose every half-hour, or 
our, is often given, with mustard plasters to the feet, followed with a hot foot-bath, or 
ny hot application to the feet; a full ivarm bath may be given also if the general circu- 
ition is at all impeded, which would be known bv a cool, or cold surface. Gallic acid in 
OSes of from 3 to 5 grs. has also been found very satisfactory. Ipecacuanha in the samo 
o.sesi.'iolien ased until nausea is produced. A decoction of the bugle weed (lycopus 
uvnucus) is also considered a valuable remedy in bleedings from the lungs. Two ozs. 
f the dry weed to water, 1 pt. may be taken daily for several davs. Make by heat, but 
IS to be taken cold. The general treatment, in all cases should be such as to restore 
3neral good health. 

_ 5. Elixir of vitriol and tannic acid has been used very succcsssully as a hemos- 
itic, or to stop Bleeding. The Elixir of vitriol is the aromatic sulphuric acid, prepared 
y druggists; and the manner of using it is by using only sufficient of it to thoroughly 
loistcn the tannic acid, and apply freely to the wounded part, or bleeding vessel A 
jre is reported by Dr. A. P. Merrill, through the Medical Record, and Medical and Surqi- 
il Reporter, where the celebrated Dr. Horace Green, had cut ofT a portion of the tonsils 
I a patient taken to him by Dr. Merrill. The Bleeding occurred in the night, and had 
cen and considerable had been sv.'allowod before tiie patient awoke. He 
pplied It freely and the hemorrhage was immediately and permantly stopped He 
Iterwards used it internally and for external hemorrhages, and in diarrhea, with 
reat success. 


DR. chase's 

The Dose of the Elixir would be from 10 to 30 drops, and of the acid, 3 to 5 grs. for 
an adult, and for a child y^ SX. to 1 gr , and of the Elixir, 1 to 5 drops, in water. 

7. Slyptie Powder. — Take copperas, 1 oz. ; alum, }4 oz. Pulverize each 
article, and mix ; tlien put onto a shovel, or piece of earthen and calcine, or heat to a red 
heat, or until it softens down and becomes dry again, forming a red mixture. It is now 
to be pulverized very finely and made into an ointment with a little lard, or it may be 
put into a vial and corked, to be mixed as used. It is applied to Bleeding piles, in the 
form of an ointment : and to other external Bleedings by sprinkling upon, or by moisten- 
ing a little and applying with lint. It is a powerful astringent, and Styptic, i.e., having 
the power of stopping Bleeding, or. as physicians call it, hemorrhage. 

Position, or the flexion, or bending of an arm or leg. in case of d:.ep wounds will 
often act as a hemostatic, i. e.. stop Bleeding, very quickly and permanently. The following 
cases were reported under the head of 

8. Hemostatic EflTects Secnred by Position : in the Eclectic Medieai 
Journal, by A. Jackson Howe, M, D., of Cincinnati, Ohio, will explain themannei of pro- 
ceeding. He says: "On the 12th of Jmie, 1864, a lad 8 years of age, living on Hathaway 
street, was cut in the thigh with a narrow chisel, thrown in a fit of anger by an older 
comrade. The sharp end of the missile made a deep gash about 3 inches below Poupart's 
ligament, and a little to the outside of the femoral artery. The jets of arterial Blood 
and the location of the wound, indicated that the profunda " (deep) " artery, or one ol 
its large branches had been severed. 

"Pressure made upon the wound, before I arrived, had prevented a fatal loss of J 
Blood. After placing the tluimb of an assistant upon the femoral artery in a way to 
secure compression of the vessel where it passes the pvibic bone, I proceeded to pack the 
wovmd with pieces of old cloth. Having filled the gap I laid a compress upon the plug, 
or tampon, and bound the whole in place with a bandage. The dressins: for the time, 
effectually arrested the Bleeding: and I left the patient in the care of faithful watches 
who received instructions to summon me if they saw the bandage becoming stained with 
Blood. Before midnight I received the .startling message ; and 1 hurried to the bedside 
of my little patient. I found the tampon and bandage saturated with Blood, the hue 
of whicd indicated its source. Must the wound be unpacked, and the work, faithfully 
done at first, be repeated — and what would be the assurance that a more satisfactory 
result might attend the second attempt? I queried whether anything reliable could be 
effected hy position. The emergency suggested a trial. I flexed (bent) the leg against 
the thigh and then the thigh firmly against the abdomen, when, to my surprise, the 
Bleeding instantly ceased. The bandage to secure the compress was cut and removed, 
but the plug of cloth remained in its place. With a bandage which extended in front 
of the leg below the knee, and around the body above the nates," (buttocks) " I retained 
the limb in the flexed attitude for a period of'lO days or more. In the meantime sup- 
puration loosened the tampon, and granulation at the bottom and sides of the wound 
pushed the packing outwards, so it could be easily removed in parts. The limb was 
gradually extended from day to day; and in 3 weeks from the time the injury was 
received no further care on my part seemed necessary, and the patient was discharged. 

" Bleeding from the plantar and tibial arteries can generally bo arrested by the 
forcible and continued flexion of the leg, as just described. And when the maneuver 
succeeds it saves the unsatisfactory use of the tourniquet, and the trouble and danger 
of ligation. 

" On the 25th of January, 1872, a young man by the name of Henry Kemper, while 
at play with a fellow workman in a mattress factory, received a. deep cut in the anterior " 
(front) "aspect of the forearm, just below the elbow, which severed the ulnar artery 
near its origin from the brachial. It is needless to say that the Blood spurted in frightful 
jets from the wound. A passing physician volunteered his services, and attempted to 
staunch the Bleeding with the sulphate of iron," (this may refer to the copperas, or to 
the persulphate of iron). " The Styptic favored the formation of coagula, but the pasty 
mass was not of sufficient firmness to arrest the flow of Blood. When I reached the 
patient he was ghastly pale and swooning. The doctor suggested that I ligate the 
brachial somewliere above, and tendered his assistance. Instead of following his sug- 
gestions I flexed (bent) the forearm forcibly against the arm, when the Bleeding entirely 
ceased. Adhesive strips and a bandage served to keep the limb in the flexed attitude. 
The limb was kept in this position for 2 weeks, and then allowed to be extended 
and used. At the time the patient was discharged there was a perceptible pulsation in 
the ulnar artery at the wrist. Whether the pulse was produced by a returning current 
through the palmar arch, I could not satisfactorily determine. The u^e of the arm is 
not impaired by the injury, or by the prolonged state of flexion in the limb. 

"In making this report I believe lam, contribziting scmething valuable to the means of \ 
arrestinfj hemorrhage. lam aware thai the process of elcvatu g a Bleeding limb to stay the flow ' 
of Blood, has long been knoum to the profession, but I am not familiar with authorities which 
advise a forcible flexion (bending) of a liinb to arrest hemorrhages from severed arteries." 


I think, with the foregoing exphmations, that not 1 case in 100 need be lost from 
hemorrhage, or bleedings from wounds, although no physicians may be near. 

Bronchitis. — The names of the diseases terminating with itit 
signifies an inflammation, so Bronchitis means an inflammation of the 
throat and bronchial tubes which are the air passages into the lungs, 
and is caused by what is commonly called "taking cold," and this wil! 
hold good in nearly all inflammations; and now then the important 
question to settle is, what is it to "take cold?" Whatever checks sen- 
sible or insensible perspiration, and holds it in check so long that the 
system has not the power to restore it again, is taking cold! The skin, 
when persons are in health, even when tlie person is not in exercise, 
is constantly throwing off" the worn-out, or eflete matter of the system, 
the same as the kidneys are constantly, night and day, throwing oflF, 
or secreting the urine which passes through the ureters (small tubes) 
to the bladder. This throwing ofl', by the skin, of the matter in a half- 
fluid, or thickish state, is called insensible perspiration, and is taken 
up by the clothes upon the covered portions of the body ; and on the 
hands, face, etc., it evaporates so readily it is not seen. Long expo- 
sure to cold,or even a short exposure, after severe exercise, checks this 
perspiration, and a cold, more or less severe, according to the severity 
of the weather, or the severity of the exercise, is the result, and the 
Bronchitis will be more or less severe, according to these circum- 
stances, and, consequently, is more common in cold weather than in 
Summer; the same will hold good in all inflammatory diseases. Then 
3 or 4 or half-a-dozen of these colds, neglected, give a chronic Bron- 
chitis, chronic Catarrh, or an incipient (beginning) Consumption, ac- 
cording to whether they settle upon the bronchial tubes, membranes 
of the nose, and nasal connections, or upon the lungs. 

Symptoms. — About the first Symptoms noticed will be chilliness, 
hoarseness, soreness of the throat, slight cough, with a tightness across 
the chest, which, unless you can get to a warm place, or take hold of 
work, to warm yourself up, will go on, until a slight fever will come 
on to endeavor to restore the surface to its usual warmth ; but, it 
would alw^ays seem that these eflforts of the system are an over exer- 
tion, for the fever goes above the common temperature ; the breathing 
becomes laborious, with a wheezing, or rattling in the throat and 
bronchial tubes, by a clogging of more or less viscid, or tough 
phlegm in the parts affected, which, after 2 or 3 days, if the case im- 

{)roves, will become thick and mattery. Pain over the eyes, or in the 
ower part of the forehead is generally present, and is made worse by 
coughing. The tongue is generally white and covered with mucus, or 
discharge from the throat and bronchial tubes. And if it is a bad 
case, all of the secretions, urine, and feces, as well as the perspiration 
will be more or less cut oft', or lessened. 

Treatment. — To properly introduce the Treatment, we will sup- 
pose a case, similiar to which I have had many-a-one, — a man (for 
men have these inflammatory diseases 10 times to women once) comes 
home at night,with a cough,sore throat,etc., indicating that he has taken 
cold, aiid that it has settled upon the throat and bronchial tubes — take 
no supper, but go right to work, as for common colds, and get up a 
perspiration, by soaking the feet in water as hot as it can be borne, 
and pouring in more hot, from time time to keep it hot, for 20 to 30 
minutes, and if you have one of the alcohol lamps for sweating purposes, 
set it to work at the same time, and take some hot teas to help the 



work, and if there are no sweating Iierbs in thehouse, of course, there 
is some whisky or other liquor, make about a pint of liot-stew, using 
1 gill of whisky, with sugar and hot water; and drink one or two good 
draughts of this while the feet are in the water, and the rest of it after 
you get into bed, covering up warm so as to continue the sweating for 
an hour or two, Avith hot irons, bricks or stones at the feet, as your 
conveniences will allow; then, when the family go to bed, take agood 
dose of physic, so it shall operate well by the next morning, and ten 
chances to one you will not need much further treatment. Porhapa 
some of the Swcatino tmclure, and a little of the cough sirup and a little 
diuretic may be needed through the following day, or for a few days. 
But, if this does not work such a decided improvement as to indicate 
that no serious ti-ouble remains, after the jihysic has operated, then 
take an emetic, or repeat the previous process, at fartherst, on the fol- 
lowing evening, when the symptoms, fever, etc., would likely be worse 
than through the day. But should you deem it best from the vio- 
lence of the symptoms to take an emetic, one of the diaphoretic or 
sweating medicines had better also be taken to keep a tendency to 
the surface, according to the directions under that head. 

But if these cases are neglected, they run on into a c/iron?o, or long 
Btanding disease, and become very troublesome to cure, and often set 
up a chronic iuiiammation of the lungs, and finally consumption is 
the result. 

The Treatment of chronic Bronchitis must needs be of a similar 
character; but, the emetic or sweating need not be repeated oftener 
than once a week, nor the cathartic,and they need not both be taken the 
same day ; but a cough sirup, or some cough medicine should be taken 
daily; and a diuretic be taken for a day or two each week, as the case 
Beems to demand, and a little essence of Spearmint may be taken, a 
few drops whenever the soreness or rawness of the throat is trouble- 
some, keeping a vial of it handy to taste, night or day, without water; 
or a drop or two of cedar oil maybe taken on a little sugar, and the 
throat have some of it rubbed upon the outside as a liniment. The fol- 
lowing combination of articles will fulfill all the indications needed, 
except that of cathartic, which can be used by itself, once in a week 
or 10 days: 

Acetic tincture of bloodroot, tincture of black cohosh, and of the 
balsam of Tolu, and wine of ipecacuanha, of each, ^ oz. ; sweet spirits 
nitre, 1 oz. Mix. 

Dose— A tea-spoonful, in a little water, 3 to 5 times daily accord- 
ing to the amount of irritation present. 

This plan to restore the general health, will in the nature of ihings 
cure any inflammation, unless the system is so reduced that f^;- recu- 
perative, (reproducing and healing) powers are more than .,'r^:;narily 

Prof. Scudder, reports the following very satisfactory result in 
a case of chronic Bronchitis, in the Electic Medical Journal, 1871. 

Mr. C has been an invalid for six years. He has a severe 

cough and expectorates a very uni)le.isant muco-pus, to the extent of 
probably two pints a day. His pulse is 110 per minute, temperature 
100°, though he has been walking — pulse 90, temperature 99" on suc- 
ceeding day. Skin dry, tongue coated with a yellowish, dirty fur, has 
diarrhea, feet dronsical. On auscultation moist, blowing sound — gur- 


gling — throughout the entire chest ; no evidence of tubercular deposit. 
Hectic fever and night sweats. 

Prescribed, to check diarrliea and imjirove digestion, nnx vom- 
ica. To quiet the cough, Drosera, f ; to check profuse secretion, lianui- 
raelis, I And as it was more convenient, gave them together in the 
following proportion: Tinct. nnx vomica, 2 drs. ; tinct. drosera, 4 drs. ; 
Pond's hamamelis, 10 drs. Mix. Directions, add two tea-spoonfuls 
to a glass of water, and of that take a tea-spoonful every three hours. 

The remedies fulfilled the indications as named as well as could 
be expected, and there was a decided amendment after tlie fourth 
day. At the end of the second week, he reported having gained five 
pounds; no hectic, no night sweats, diarrhea checked, appetite good, 
swelling going out of feet, just sufficient cough to remove the muco- 
pus, which has also diminished to about one-fourth. 

The improvement still continues, and there is a pro.spect for a 
complete recovery. 

Inhalations in chronic Bronchitis is of considerable value, and 
our alterative inhalant will be found very satisfactor}'. Breathing or 
Inhaling, as one may choose, the strong vapor of hoarhound and cat- 
nip ij very soothing, and tends to direct the perspiration to the sur- 
face, so of camphor. See Inhalation, and the iNnALER. 

Laudanum, and tincture of lobelia, equal parts, a tea-spoonful to the 
gill of hot water and inhaled, will aid expectoration and allay irritation. 

BRONOHOOELE, Goitre, or Swelled Neck.— Is an enlarge- 
ment of the thyroid gland, which is situated on the front part of 
the neck, coming on very gradually, but steadily enlarging, unless met 
with proper treatment. 

Cause. — It is undoubtedly caused by a scrofulous tendency in the 
Bystem, which quite often locates itself upon this gland. 

Treatment. — If commenced with in season by a gentle cathartic, 
and diuretic followed with an alterative, and the distrntient ointment to 
the neck every day, repeating the cathartic and diuretic course once in 
a week or 10 days, will soon correct the system, and carry it oif, and 
restore general health. An ointment made of the juice "of the milk- 
weed, which is claimed to be a certain cure for wens, is believed by 
Bome to be valuable in Goiter in its commencement, but I have had 
no opportunity to test it. 

In cases of long standing, or in cases which the discutient oint- 
ment does not improve within a few weeks let the following alterative 
and ointment be used: 

1. Alterative Tonic for Bronchocele. — Fluid ex. of sarsapa- 
rilla, and gentian, of each, i pt. ; iodide of ])otash, and iodide of am- 
monia, of each, ^ oz. Dissolve and mix, and keep well corked. 

_ Dose. — A tea-spoonful after each meal, in a little sweetened water. 
This will be valuable in any scrofulous ulcers, or swellings. 

2. Ointment for Bronchocele.— Iodide of potash,.} oz.; iodine, 
and sal ammoniac, of each, \ oz. ; nice lard, h lb. Rub all the articles 

tNoTE.— The drosera (drosera rotund! folia) is the round-leaved sundew, a little 
plant growing along the ed?e of marshes and streams, or ponds, having little reddish 
hairs, making it look quite furry, all over the leaves, and these hairs hiive a bitof gum- 
my tiuid like a .small dew-di-op vvhieh glistens in the sun, which will enat.le anv one to 
know it from all other plants : the hairs may be quite long. The tincture is made from, 
the leaf. 

tThe hamamelis, is the common witcli-hawl, and the tincture is made from the 
bark. The nux vomica is kept by drug<rist.s. and being goo<l in diarrhea, as well as iu am- 
tlipalion. may properly be called the regnlaior, iu proper doses. 



fine,and well with the lard, and keep boxed, or in a wide-mouthed bottle, 
corked. Apply twice daily, by rubbing and warming in well, and 
keep it up as long as may be necessary. It, like the alterative, will be 
found valuable as a discutient (scatterer) of all scrofulous swellings, tu- 
mors, etc. If the use of these preparations for a couple of months, 
with an occasional cathartic, or attention to the general health, fail 
to materially benefit the patient, they may be benefited by a daily 
application of electricity, passed through the tumor, as powerful as 
can be borne for 10 to 20 minutes at each time; but, unless the case 
has been of very long standing, and enlargement become very hard, 
the electricity will seldom he needed. 

3. Iodine Paint, or Tincture, for Bronchocele — Ne-w 
Method of Cure. — The following new Iodine paint, originated with 
the editor of the Canada Medical Journal, who makes the accompany- 
ing explanations concerning it. Some persons may prefer it to the 
above ointment, althongh its nature and action will be found very simi- 
lar. He says: 

"I have been requested by some profession^il confreres (associates) 
to bring under the notice cf the profession, a new Iodine Paint, which 
I have had prepared and used with satisfaction and success, in the 
cases of glandular enlargements and scrofulous diseases, wherein 
Iodine is called into requisition. In the hands of esteemed and emi- 
nent practical surgeons, it has proved equally beneficial as in my own 
practice, and they speak, or write in flattering terms of it to me. 

"I rub down k oz. of Iodine and a like quantity of Iodide of am- 
monium in a Wedgwood mortar, and gradually dissolve it in twenty 
ozs. of rectified spirit (alcohol); to this I add 4 ozs. of glycerine, 
shaking the solution well together, A very nice paint is thus ob- 
tained, v/hich has the following advantages: 

"1. The Iodine is prevented escaping, owing to the combination 
which, in the form of ordinary tincture, in warm weather it is very 
apt to do. 

"2, It preserves the Iodide of ammonium instead of Iodide of 
potassium ; tlie former being a more powerful absorbent than the lat- 
ter, which recent investigation has verified. 

"3. The action of the glycerine is soothing to the skin, keeping 
it soft and pliable — a contrast to the shriveling ot cuticle produced by 
the ordinary tincture in common use, which frequently acts as a 
vesicant. But where absorption is desired, the part afiected and_ its 
neighborhood influenced, as well as the system generally by Iodine, 
and no local irritation required, this combination in form of paint 
will be found superior to the old tincture. 

" I have not confined the use of the preparation alone to glandu- 
lar swellings or scrofulous gatherings. I have employed it in chronic 
cutaneous diseases, to nodes, over enlarged livers, diseased joints, to 
hj'pertrophied parts or morbid (diseased) growths, and in cases where- 
in it was necessary to alter an abnormal (unhealthy) action or pro- 
mote absorption, and the result was uniformly satisfactory, and I think 
I may safely say the eff'ect of the Iodine was more really appreciable, 
and more quickly demonstrated in its action on the system generally, 
as well as by its absorbent properties locally, than the old tincture of 
the British Pharmacopeia, minus its disadvantages." 

Although the foregoing plans will generally prove very satisfac- 
tory; yet, there will occasionally be a case of such apparent obstinacy,. 


or complication with weakness, or other disease, I will give the treat- 
ment as practiced in Bengal, India; and also a case of the complicated 
character, as followed in our own country; and although the first 
might prove rather severe as only one application, in one season, 
would be required, it could better be borne than to allow its contin- 
uance. It is as follows: 

4. Bronchocele, or Goitre — Case as Practiced in Bengal, 
India. — Dr. INIouat, of Bengal, states that upward of 6(3,000 cases of 
Goitre hav^ been treated in that country on the following plan, which 
generally efiects a cure at once, or, if not, a second reijetition next 
year suffices: Melt 3 lbs. of lard or mutton suet, strain; when nearly 
cool, add 9 drs. of biniodide of mercury, taking care to make the 
powder tine by trituration in a mortar. Work in a mortar until no 
grains of red are apparent in the ointment, and put in pots for use, 
taking care alwavs to keep both powder and ointment from the rays 
of the sun. Use as follows: About an hour after sunrise apply the 
ointment to the Goitre with a spatula made of ivory, the quantity to 
be according to the size of the tumor; rub it well in for at least ten 
minutes. Let the patient then sit with his Goitre held well up to the 
sun, and let him remain so as long as he can endure it. It is proba- 
ble that about noon he will suffer pain from the blistering effect of 
the ointment, although no pustules are raised on the skin. About 2 
o'clock in the afternoon, the ointment should again be applied, as be- 
fbre^ with the spatula very careful; the patient is not to touch the oint- 
ment with his hand, but allow it to be gradually absorbed, which ab- 
sorbtion will be complete on the third day. 

5. Bronchocele Connected with Anemia, or General 
"Weakness, Leucorrhea, etc. — A case of this character is reported 
to the Eclectic Journal, by A. F. Pattee, M. D., of Boston, Mass., which 
resulted so favorably, I will give it a place here. lie says : 

In the Spring of 1859, my attention was called to a case. A lady, 
aged 39, one of a numerous and healthy family. She had married ai 
the age of 20, and continued to enjoy for many years a full share of 
health. She was the mother of 4 healthy boys. For 3 years, before I 
saw her, slie had suffered from continued mental anxieties and dis- 
tress, and had had profuse leucorrhea, which had affected her gen- 
eral health considerably. For the last six months she had complained 
of palpitation of the heart, which was greatly increased by excite- 
ment, by going up stairs, by fast walking, and by everything that 
caused a hurried circulation. At these times her face would be 
flushed, while at other times it would be pallid. The eyes presented 
an unusual appearance, looking wild and staring with a startled ex- 
pression, the mucous membrane looked Avhite and free from blood, 
lips pale, but when the face was flushed, then the eyes and lids would 
become injected. With these symptoms an enlargement of the 
thyroid gland manifested itself. It was soft, smooth and elastic, and 
of equal character throughout, presenting the form of the enlarged 
gland, and had rapidly grown to its present size, that of six or eight 
times the magnitude of the gland in health. The pulse at this time 
generally ranged from 100 to 120; it was small and feeble, and on the 
occasions of excitement accompanied by a murmur. The inordinate 
action of the heart was felt beating in the head, abdomen, and in fact 
most all parts of the body. She had shortness of breath, ringing in 
the ears, vertigo, dyspnea. On listening to tlie heart's action, the 

152 DB, chase's 

contraction of the vi.i u'icles was prolonged and was attended ty a 
Boft bellows murmur, and a thrill along the large arterial trunks. 

The nervous system was in a high degree of excitement and the 
ptomach and intestines much deranged, the tongue covered with a 
white, pasty coating, offensive breath, and want of appetite, bowels 

The catamejaal discharge was imperfect and irregular. In the 
intervals lencorrhea prevailed; it was white, thin, and qrite offen- 
Bive; there was no ulceration, erosion or other ulcerative disease of 
the cervix. A variety of treatment had been for some time pursued 
for the relief of these symptoms without avail. She had taken digi- 
talis in large and small doses, mercury and valerian, opium and ipecac, 
iodide potassa and iron, but all in vain, and the condition of the pa- 
tient was alarming. A plan of treatment was adopted, which, after 
being continued for many months, has resulted in recovery to the pa- 
tient. This consisted of 10 gr. doses of the pyrophosi^hate of iron 
after each meal, 15 drops tincture nux vomica before each meal, and 
1 dr. tincture podophyllum at bedtime, and sponge the body every 
morning with the following solution: Hydrochloric acid, 1 oz.; water, 
90 ozs. ; a full diet of animal food, oatmeal pudding and milk, and a 
sun-bath one hour every day. Under this plan the general system 
gradually became invigorated, the whites subsided, the thyroidal 
swelling diminished, and finally disappeared, the eyes regained their 
natural look, and the general appearance is one of good health. I 
saw her but a month ago, and she was quite well. 

BRUISES. — If Bruises are large, and upon such parts a'^ can not 
be put into a dish of cold water, let cloths be wrung out in cold water 
and laid upon them, and, from time to time, apply fi-eely of any good 
liniment, as directed under the head of Abrasions, which see. Some 
persons have a preferance to the tincture of arnica, wetting cloths and 
laying upon them, 

BURNS AND SCALDS.— A Burn or Scald, according to the 
degree of heat of the article causing it, will destroy the surface, or 
excite an inflammation ; for while the natural temperature of the body 
•'s only 98° that of boiling water is 212°, and red hot, or molten iron 
several hundred degrees higher; but in case of a Burn or Scald from 
.water, only, if cold water can be immediately thrown upon the part, 
but little inflammation will result; but if no cold water is at hand the 
blistering will be likely to take place. In case, however, of the Burn- 
ing of a child at table, when there are others present, don't stop to 
remove clothing but dash on cold Avater at once to cool the clothes 
and hot tea or coffee, as the case may be, lift the clothing up from the 
skin as quick as possible, and put on more cold water if needed, oth- 
erwise it will burn deep from what the clothing holds of the hot 
fluid. Then remove clothing, and apply cold water by wetting cloths, 
or what is still better, if you have it, coLl milk, and Dr. Scudder thinks 
that good cider vinegar is excellent, and re-wet by taking a piece of 
pponge or folded cloth, so as to squeeze it out upon the cloths over the 
Burn, as it is best to keep the air from the Bum as much as possible. 
The danger arising from Burns will depend much upon the extent of 
the surface Burned, and the depth of the injury — if very extensive 
and deep, the patient may never rally ; or if flame, to any considerable 
extent has been drawn into the lungs, the probability is that they can 
not be saved ; but, as it is never possible to tell exactly what the 


result will be, all should. be done that is possible, to do. The cloths, 
■which have been wet in either of the fluids just above named, should 
be kept wet by the use of a sponge, or a "sop" of cloths, squeezing 
the water from the sponge, or "sop," upon the cloths as they lie upon the 
Burn. The object of this is to prevent the air from coming in contact 
with the Burned surface, by which inflammation is more likely to set 
in, or, in other words, not to lift off the dressings any oftener than is 
absolutely necessary. A slippery-elm poultice is valuatie in reduc- 
ing inflammation; so also is scraped, raw potatoes. 

2. The "Old School," regular, application for Burni was lime- 
water and linseed-oil equal parts, applied by wetting clotl •?, as above 
— some added also, an equal part of the spirits ofturpentiuw (the lime- 
water is made by using stone lime, 1 oz., water 1 qt., slackit^g the lime 
with a little of the water; then putting all into a bottle and sh»king'occa- 
sionally for 3 hours, after which let it settle, and use the clear fluidj 
by i^ouring it off carefully as needed.) 

3. Carbolic Acid in Burns. — Dr. Wilson reports through the 
Lancet, that carbolic acid, 1 part, to 30 parts (J oz. to 1 pt. will be 
near enough) of the common oil and lime-water preparation above 
given, prevents pus (matter), and lieals more rapidly, and without 
scar unless very deeply Burned. The same plan of keeping the linen 
cloths wet with it, as I have recommended above, is adopted, v/hich 
he says more etTectually excludes the air, besides keeping down the 
tendency to maturate, and also the tendency to mortification, in very 
extensive Burns. 

4. "White of Eg-gs in Burns. — The Scientific American, in speak- 
ing of some of the extensive Burns, as occurring now-a-days, says; 

"The white of eggs has formed, of late, the most efticacious rem- 
edy for Burns. Seven or eight successive applications of this sub- 
stance soothes tlie pain and eff'ectually excludes the air. Thev are 
undoubtedly to be beaten, to cause them to flow, or spread properly. 

5. BURN SALVES.— Linseed-oil, 1 qt.; red lead, i lb.; spirits 
of turpentine, 1 oz. 

Heat the oil until it will- scorch a feather; then, the red lead 
being in fine powder, stir it in gradually, and when it is all taken 
up by the oil, and the mixture lip.s become black, remove from the 
fire; and, when nearly cold, add the spirits of turpentine and con- 
tinue to stir until it is cold. 

This may be spread upon linen and applied to Burns, or any other 
sore, as a liealing salve, to be renewed as occasion requires. It will 
prove highly useful. 

But some may prefer the old Newremburg Plaster, as prepared by 
the "Old German School of Medicine." 

6. Take olive-oil, 1 lb.; red lead, J lb.; rosin, I oz. ; yellow wax 
(bees-wax), Ih ozs.; camphor gum, ^ oz. 

Heat the oil the same as for Ko. 5, then stir in the fine, or 
pulverized lead, and continue the heat until it becomes dark, like 
that, then rejnove from tiie fire, putting in the rosin while hot 
enough to melt it, afterwards the wax, and finally the camphor, and 
stir until cold. Use, tlie same as the other. 

7. The Common Stramonium ointment is considered by some 
very_ valuable in Burns. It is made by stewing tlie leaves of the stra- 
monium m newly-made, unsalted butter, stirring, and add a little 
bees-wax to give it the proper consistence of an ointment. 

1S4 UK. chase's 

8. Burn Salve. — Lard, 1 lb. ; bees-wax, 3 ozs. ; i)recipitated chalk, 
(kept by druggists), 1 oz. ; whites of 5 eggs. 

Melt the lard and bees-wax together and stir in the chalk and 
strain through coarse cloth. Beat the whites to a froth, and when tho 
Balve is so cool that it will not cook the eggs, stir in the froth. 
Apply by spreading upon old linen. Old cotton will do but it is more 
irritable if it comes in contact with the Burned surface. 

This receipt was given me by my neighbor, Michael Clancy, 
whose first experience with it was upon himself — i)rescribecl*by a'n 
old Scotch lady, at Providence, llhode Island, where, some 30 years 
ago, Mr. C. was Burned in ]SIr. Slater's furnace, in which he was at 
that time at work. The Burn was terrible, by the spilling of a pour- 
ing-dish of melted iron as it was being carried to i)Our into a mould, 
the iron going into his boots, and making a perfect puddle around 
him. AVater was pumped upon the terrible Burns until the pain 
somewhat subsided. He was then taken in and doctored according 
to the common treatment, oil and lime-water, etc., but without any 
prospect of recovery, until the old Scotch lady came to the rescue, 
with this Salve, which cured him. And he says he has cured many 
cases with it since. 

The most imjilicit confidence may be i)lacod in this Salve ; for Mr. 
Clancy is well known in this community. And lie has been very 
desirous that a knowledge of it should be extended. 

I think that aljout 2 ozs. of spirits of turpentine would add to its 
virtue; and as the turjientine would have a tendency lo make it a 
little softer, it might be well if the turpentine is added, to add also 1 
oz. more of bees-wax, which will keep it of a jiroper consistence for 
use. If I should have occasion to use a Burn Salve again, this would 
be the one for the first trial. A little carbolic acid could be added, so 
could a little of the coperas, as suggested in the next receipt, below, 
if fetor, or an appearance of mortification should be aianifested. 

9. New Remedies for Burns. — Two new remedies for Burns 
are added to the list. The first is charcoal. A piece of vegetable 
charcoal laid on a Burn at once soothes the pain, says the Gazette 
Medicule, and if kej)t applied for an hour cures it completely. The 
second one is sulphate of iron, (coj)peras). This was tried by M. 
Joel, in the Children's Hospital, Lansanne. In this case, a child, 4 
years of age, had been extensively Burned, suppuration was abun- 
dant, and so offensive that they ordered the child a tepid bath, 
containing a couple of pinches of pulverized sulphate of iron. This 
gave immediate relief to tlie pain, and being rei)eated twice a day — 
£0 minutes each bath — tlio suppuration decreased, lost its odor, and 
the child was soon convalescent.— ^l/cJiV'aZ Press and Circular. 

10. Burns and Scalds — Clinioal Case. — By J. J. Littlefield, 
M. D. Some 2 mouths ago, 1 was called to see INIiss ]\Iary Eckhart, 
age 14, who had been Scalded by s])iriing hot water upon her person. 
The wound extended from the hips to the feet, so that the skin i)eeled 
off in removing her garments. The thighs and legs were one exten- 
sive blister, excoj)ting one small patch on each knee. Behind each 
knee and on the calves, the subcutaneous tissues (tissues immediately 
under the skin) were deeply Scalded. I first saw her 48 hours after 
the accident, and then learned that rigors and paitial collai)se fol- 
lowed the ac^cident, but her parents administered cordials and applied 
f»live oil with cotton wool. She did not complain, neither did tho 


parents become alarmed, until reaction began to take place, when she 
wa3 seized with convulsions, and became comatose, (drowsy and 
insensible), in which state I found her. 

I at once administered 20 drojis of the tincture of gelseminum 
first, and repeated every 20 minutes, until some 5 or 6 doses had been 
given. In the meantime I dressed the Burned surface with the fol- 
lowing: Glycero-carbolic acid, saturate 1 oz. ; simple cerate, 4 ozs. ; 
bismuth sub-nit., 1^ ozs. ; mixed and spread on linen, and the entire 
Burned surface covered with this dressing. (Let this ointment be 
prepared by a druggist). In about 2 hours from the time I com- 
menced treatment, she all at once came to herself and recognized 
friends around her. She was then suddenly seized with severe pain 
of the hypogastrium, (the lower part of the abdomen), which was 
promptly dissipated by hot fomentations to the parts, after which she 
never complained of a pain. No other dressing or treatment was 
used. In 9 days from the time she received the Burns, she was able 
to attend a camp-meeting at some distance. It has fallen to me to 
administer to the excruciating sufiei'ings of quite a large number of 
persons thus unfortunate, and in every instance where I have used it, 
the above treatment has given most prompt relief and a speedy cure. 
I have used this treatment in instances of severe Burns, and have not 
been disappointed with it. Each agent meets a most important indi- 
cation. The gelseminum in controlling the reflex action of the cere- 
bro-spinal system, the carbolic acid as a local anjesthetic, (to render 
insensibility to the Burned parts), to the wounded or Burned nerves, 
and the bismuth with the cerate, a most soothing covering for the 
denuded surface, under which granulation and cutis, or skin forma- 
tion goes on most rapidly. — Tlie American Observer. 

11. Liniment to Relieve Pain in Burns. — Equal parts of chlo- 
roform and cod-liver oil, as a Liniment, or by wetting cloths in it and 
laying ujjon the Burn, has been found effectual in relieving the pain. 
Moisten with it suthciently often to obtain the desired efl'ect. 

12. Burns— A Case" in Practice.— I shall give a case in prac- 
tice, by O. E. Tillson, M. D., of West Alexandria, Ohio, laudanum 
being used to allay the pain. It was published in the KrU'clic Medical 
Journal, and he S})eaks of it so highly, I have thought it best to give 
it an insertion. And I think that w'ith the variety of prescriptions 
here given, that there will be no cases, or situations, where a 
selection can not be made, according to the articles which may be ob- 
tained, that shall give entiresatisfaction. Mayer's ointment, called for 
in the following Recei})!, will be found under its pro])er head. He says: 

About 7 o'clock, on the evening of Nov. 3d, 1871, J. B. aged" 35 
years, foreman in the steam grist-mill, half mile east of town, was sit- 
ting in front of the furnace reading a newspaper; the packing of the 
stand pipe blew out, forcing the water from the boiler down into the 
fiirnace, tl\e steam, hot ashes, and coals came pouring out directly in 
liis face, and before he had time to get out, he became dreadfully 
Scalded; he walked to town and I was immediately sent for. On ar- 
rival, found him walking the floor in great agony, his face and head 
presenting anything hut a i)leasing appearance, be"ing fearfully swollen 
and looked as if it was literally roasted. Of removing his clothing 
the cuticle came away with it in large patcnes from his breast, legs 
and arms; his iiands were literally skinned. I immediately ordered 
the following: 

136 DR. CHASKri 

13. Tate aqua calcis (lime-water), and linseed o:l, of each, 4 oz»; 
laudanum, 2 ozs; mix. 

Saturated cotton with this and dressed those parts where the cuti- 
cule (skin) was removed; where it still remained I had it applied 
frequently with a feather. Ordered lemonade with a little brandy in 
it to be given him frequently to drink, placed him in bed and left a 
morphine powder to be given him towards morning if failed to rest. 
On my return in the morning found that he had rested pretty well 
aftei midnight, his face seemed to be swollen worse, had some &ver, 
complained a great deal of his hands. Bowels were constipated, gave 
him a cathartic of the invincible compound powder of jalap and sena, 
left aconite, to be given occasionally through the day, continued lemon- 
ade minus the brandy, as a drink, and his diet to be ivhatever he scant- 
ed, renewed the dressing and ordered the local application applied 
freely and frequently. I continued this treatment for three days, with 
an opiate at night when necessary. I then (?lianged the dressing to 
the following, which is the best application I have ever used on a burn : 

14. Take olive-oil, 1 pt. ; laudanum, 1 oz. ; bee.s-wax, h oz. ; May- 
ers ointment, ^ oz. Melt together. Spread on cloths and apply to 
parts, renew the application twice a day. I continued this application 
without any change until his sores were entirely healed, which was 
in just twenty days. There was but little suppuration. I never wash- 
ed the sores; used cotton or lint in cleaning the pus away, touching 
them lightly. I think it a bad idea to wet or wash a sore — I was 
going to say of any kind — as it destroys the granulations an4 impedes 
the healing process; that's my opinion. 

15. Varnish in Bums — Recent French Discovery. — Paris 
was recently much interested in a remedy discovered by a workman, 
who, to relieve the pain from a severe Burn, thrust his hand into a 
pot of Varnish which happened to be at his side. The relief was so 
sudden, and the healing of the wound so rapid, that the news spread, 
with the result of bringing to him every one in the neighborhood 
who had a Burn. Many wonderful cures are said to have been per- 
formed at the time of the great explosion in Metz, last September and 
the discoverer was summoned to Paris, to make some jjublic experi- 
ments. — Journal de Chiinie, 1870. 

16. Dr. Gidley's Ointment for Burns, and for Rheuma- 
tism. — Old Dr. Gidley, of Spring AVater, N. Y., used to claim that 
there !was nothing equal to the following Ointment for Burns, or for 
Rheumatism : 

The tops and flowers of the green may-weed, (anthemis cotula,) 
known also as wild chamomile, and as dog-fennel, I lb.; oil of origa- 
num 4 ozs. ; oil of savin, 2 ozs. ; and spirits of turpentine, 1 oz.; nice 
lard, 4 lbs. The dry weed may be used by first pouring suiBcient hot 
water upon it to thoroughly moi-s'ten it. 

Stew the may-weed in the lard until the leaves are crisp, but not 
burned. Some prefer to tie the may-weed in a bag and press out the 
juice, from time to time; but my preference is to put it directly into 
the lard, an<l strain, and press out Avhen crisped, as you can see just 
when it is done. When cool, add the oils and turpentine and stir 
until cold. 

It is highly recommended for inflammatory swellings, old sores, 
and the most speedy cure for Burns ever used, by those from whona- 
it was obtained. It will be found valuablt. 



L Babbitt's Anti-Friction Metal— For Boxes. — This metai 
is composed of copper, 3 lbs.; block tin, o lbs.; and antimony, 1 lb.; 
and in tliis proportion for any amount desired. 

First melt the copper, then add the tin, then the antimony; and 
when all is melted, pour into bars, ready for use as desired, or pour 
into journal boxes, if needed at the time. 

2. Where small shafts have got to be run at a very high rate of 
speed, the journals invariably lieat _with any of the common metal 
boxes. But in cases where they have been run as high as 7,000 revo- 
lutions per minute, the following alluminum bronze has proved suc- 
cessful: Copper, 90 parts; alluminum, 10 parts. The alluminum can 
be obtained in the large cities of the metal dealers. 

1. BAKING POWDERS.— Bicarbonate of soda, 9 ozs. ; cream 
of tartar and tartaric acid, of each, 4 ozs. ; line wheat tlour, 10 ozs. 

The articles must all be thoroughly dry, and evenly mixed to- 
gether; and they must be bottled, or boxed so as to keep them dry. 
The expense is only trifling as compared with those kept "on sale"." 
Baking Powders should always be mixed evenly into the flour being 
used, before the wetting material — cold milk, or cold water — is put in. 
Some people claim that sour milk can not be used with Baking Pow- 
ders. This is a mistake. By using sufficient baking soda to neutralize 
the acid of the milk, the biscuit will be all the richer by using sour 

2. Another. — Bicarbonate of soda, 4 ozs,; tartaric acid, 3 ozs. ; 
nice rice iiour, Ik ozs. To be used with the same precautions as 
No. 1. 

BAKED BEANS— Very Nice.— Put the Beans to soak early in 
the evening, in a dish that will allow plenty of water to be used. 
Change the water at bed-time. Next morning early, parboil 2 hours. 
Then pour off nearly all the water; take raw pork, scored on top; put 
the Beans in a deep dish, a stone-ware jar is very nice, the pork in the 
middle, sinking it so as to have it just level with the surface. Add a 
very little molasses, or a very little sugar, and bake at least 4 or 5 
hours, raising the pork for the last hour so that it will take a nice 
crisp on the top. 

It has long been known that Beans are a healthy article of diet; 
but it is not as well known that the reason of it is^ that, like milk, 
they contain nearly every chemical constituent, or element, necessary 
to build up the whole system. It would be well if 10 bushels were 
used to every 1 bushel that are eaten, both for health, as v.'ell as for 
dollars and cents. 

BACON, CURING-, SMOKING-, ETC.— Western Fashion.— 
To cure pork for Bacon, nothing more is necessary than salting it with 
6 lbs. of salt to each 100 lbs. of pork, rubbing it over the flesh side, 
and then piling the meat in a cool room, to remain without freezing 
as many days as one ham weighs pounds. It is an advantage to tho 
kams to add 4 ozs. of saltpeter per 100 lbs., which should be made fin© 
and sprinkled on before the salt is applied. It is also advantageous to 
overhaul the pile once while salting, and rub the remaining salt over 
the fresh-looking spots. Pickle is of no advantage in making Bacon, 
unless you wish to make sugar-cured hams; and even if you desire 
that, all j'ou have to do is to apply a spoonful of molasses with your 


DR. CHASa * 

hand to each fresh ham. The greatest error of Bacon carers is using 
too much salt. Sugar, saltpeter and smoke, will jireserve a ham with- 
out salt. Smoking should be done with clean, sweet wood — the best 
of all is hickory — and the meat should never feel the influence of the 
lire. The best smoke-house ever built is a log-cabin, with open cracks, 
the meat being hung to the rafters and the tire built on the ground. 
A flat stone, or some green wood poles over the fire, to jjrevent the 
possibility of a i)iece of meat falling so as to take tire, is a good pre- 
caution. If Bacon is to be made " We^rtern fashion," lay the carcass 
of the hog upon the block and take otf the head first. Then split the 
body and take out the lard, backbone and ribs. Cut ofl' and trim the 
hams, also the shoulders, leaving the two sides full size, with straight 
edges, the angular ])ieces taken ofl" going into the little portion of 
forned pork or fresh, and the small trimmings into sausage-meat. 
You then have two hams, two shoulders, two sides and the joles to 
hang in the smoke-house. Build one or two tires a day, only in dry 
weather, until your meat is smoked enough. The best way Otat we have 
ever found to keep hams is to be sure to fini><!i smoking before the bugs and 
little meat-flies are astir in the Spring, and then draw over each ham a loose 
cotton cloth bag, tying it around the hamstring, and then let them Jiang till 
wanted in the kitchen, three months or three years after — the older the better. 
Pork which is afterward to be barreled may be salted in bulk much 
better than to put it into fresh brine. Some old Bacon-makers always 
hang hams butt-end up. AV'e never have been satisfied of its advan- 
tage over the other and easier Avay. — Western Man. 

The foregoing from the "Western Man" will be found very satis- 
factory. Having a couple of medium sized hogs to put down last 
Fall, and not liking quite as much saltpeter in my pork as some do, I 
took in these i)roportions, common barrel salt, 15 lbs.; white sugar, 2 
lbs.; saltpeter, 4 ozs. ; and mixed them thoroughly and evenly to- 
l^ether, the saltpeter being first pulverized, then I rubbed this mix- 
ture well into the hams, shoulders, and joles, 3 times during 2 weeks, 
before smoking. The sides, I rubbed well before putting into the 
barrel, as I chose to barrel the sides in place of making Bacon of them. 
After 3 or 4 days, what the juices of the meat and the dissolving salt 
and sugar did not cover, I made a brine with the same proportions of 
materials to cover all ; and I am glad to be able to say at this writing, 
Kept. 13th, that there is some of the pork just as sweet and nice as 
when first put down; and that during the Summer and Spring past, 
eeveial pieces of it has graced a dish of "baked beans" as just above 
described; but, unfortunately, I can not say as much for the hams, or 
ehoulders, they have long since "gone the way" of such articles, yet, 
we, — the fiimily — look forward, with watering mouths, to the Winter 
and Spring, when again will be the time for their appearance upon 
the table. In other words, I think I never tasted Bacon, or pork to 
com{)are with it, at all fiivorably. It is claimed that by hanging hams 
the large, or flesh end up, that the juices of the meat do not drip out 
as freely as they do if the large end is down; but as "AVestern Man" 
says, it will take a very fine taste to distinguish the difl'erence. 

BANDAGING— In Broken Limbs and Ulcers. — In broken 
limbs, it is necessary to use the Bandage, and it has become quite 
common also, in the treatment of Ulcers. They are more generally 
made of cotton sheeting, being torn off In strips of 3 to 4 inches in 
width, and sewed together until the required length is obtained, after 



Fig. 20. 

which Ihey are to be rolled into solid rollers for the convenience of 
■passing them around the limb, and to enable the one who applies 
them to draw them evenly at all stages of their application. Iri ap- 
plying the Bandage it is necessary to begin at the extremity of the 
limb, see Fig. 20, and every part of the limb must be covered evenly, 
lapping about one-half of the Bandage upon the previous round, and 
in order to keep it smooth and not run up or 
down on the limb, it will be necessary to turn 
the Bandage upon itself, as the cross lines iu 
the cut will show, wherever the form of the 
limb causes the Bandage to pass either way 
upon the limb from the center of the previous 
round. In this way tlie pressure is even, leav- 
ing no loose, or unbound place for an accumu- 
lation of blood, which would cause pain, and 
finally mortification. And it must not be ap- 
])lied so tight as to stop the circulation, for 
this would cause the same difficulty; the ob- 
ject is to lessen the circulation, but not to stop 
it entirely. 

Most Ulcers, in their early stage, upon the 
legs, or arms, may be cured by judicious Ban- 
daging, and keeping the Ulcer and the Bandage 
wet with cold water, or ])erhaps cold water J 
and whiskj' ^ as much, merely to stimul'Ue a 
little. This mixture I have found better than 
water alone in dressings for cuts, bruisps, etc., 
requiring water dressings. Our ninneopathic 
friends are very much in favor cii tl it* arnica- 
lotion in place of the cold water. It is cer- 
tainly a valuable remedy if used in sufficient 
quantities to have its legitimate, or specific 
efiects, say IJ drs. of the tincture to a tea-cup- 
ful of cold water. A common tea-spoon holds 
about 1 dr. Mix by pouring back and forth 
from one cup to another, then keep the Bandage wet with it. Of this 
strength it does seem to have a s])ecific effect upon fresh bruises, fresh 
cuts, etc. Two drs. of the tincture to alcohol, h pt. is highly recom- 
mended in rheumatism of the joints, pains of the feet or limbs from 
walking, etc., to be used freely as a liniment. 

BEEP— Scotch Method of Drying. — It is claimed that the 
Dried Beef as prepared in Scotland, brings a better price in Europe 
than that from any other country, and that American Dried Beef, 
especially |is not seasoned sufficiently high to meet with favor in 
European countries. The Scotch prepare theirs as follows: 

Take salt, 1 lb.; pepper, 1 oz.; cloves, h oz. ; the latter articles 
being finely ground — keeping these proportions for as much as is 

This mixture is to be rubbed daily into the meat, 5 or 6 days, which 
has been cut into suitable sizes, then hang up to dry. I have no 
doubt but what the majority of Americans would like it thus sea- 
eoned, in place of our custom of putting down in brine only, without 
pepper or cloves. And with this method of preparing it, in sections 
wnere Beef is plenty, it could be shipped to Europe with success. 


140 DR. CRAses 

Beef-Tea — Its Value in Sickness, and Manner of Making'.— 
Dr. Christisoii, the celebrated author on poisons and poisoning, claims 
that Beef-Tea is the best combination of food and drink for most cases 
of sickness, with which, I most fully agree, for I remember well, in 
typhoid fever, when I could take no other nourishment, or drink, I 
could take the Beef-Tea jjrepared by my wife, and feel perfectly satis- 
fied on both points. 

In places where fresh Beef can be always obtained, I much pre- 
fer to make the Tea fresh every day, to the preparations that are i^^pt 
on sale, for there is a kind of a draw-back, or unpleasant taste to them. 

1. To Prepare It. — Take nice fresh steak, free of fat, 1 lb., and 
cut it into pieces of ^ an oz. or so, and put into a suitable sized bottle 
and cork it up, setting the bottle into a kettle, or basin of cold water, 
to be placed on the stove, having placed a piece dr two of chip, or a 
small, thin piece of board on the bottom of the dish to set the bottle 
upon to prevent it fi-om breaking the bottle, or burning the meat, and 
the amount of water put in must not be sufficient to tioat the bottle, 
putting in boiling water, from time to time, to make up for what boils 
away, and continue to boil until the meat has yielded its juices, or in 
other words the strength has been extracted; then season with a very 
little salt and pepper, if liked, and a tea, or a table-spoonful of this 
may be given to a patient, when nothing else can be taken. It is best, 
however, to add as much boiling water, to the extract, as you use of 
that, which makes it a little more like drink, and also enables a very 
weak stomach to relish it better, or rather to absorb it the better. A 
little experience, or practice, will enable almost any nurse to make 
this extract, or Bee-Tea. 

2. Another method of making it is to take about the same 
amount of perfectly lean, tender Beef, and (!ut it as in No. 1, and put 
it into about a pint of cold water and bring it to a boil, and continue 
the boiling until the Beef is perfectly done, by which time all juices, 
or strength, of the meat will have been taken, up by tlie water. Ad- 
ditional boiling water may be put in to make up for evaporation, 
making a pint of the Tea. In either case, only a very little salt, and 
the slightest bit of i)epper will be. needed to make them palatable to 
the sick. As the patient gains strength, a little cracker, or light 
bread, not less than 24 or 36 hours old, may be crumbed in, even be- 
fore they might be able to swallow only the broth, or Tea, as an ad- 
ditional nourishment would be extracted from them; and as they 
still advance in health, the bread, or cracker can be eaten. 

BEES— Young Ladies' Report of Success, in "Wisconsin. — 
"With those who have not been in the habit of keeping Bees, notwith- 
standing there has been suthcient instruction given under that head 
to enable any one to undertake it with success; yet, it is necessary to 
convince them that it will prove prolitable before they will engage in 
it. And as there is nothing like actual facts to carry conviction, I 
have deemed it best to give tliis report, although it was received too 
late to be inserted in its regular connection. The letter, or report, wa3 
addressed to the American Bee Journal, b}' INIiss Kate Grimm, of Wis- 
consin, whose father is extensively engaged in the Bee business. Tho 
report came to me through the Peoples Journal, of Sept., '72, intro- 
duced to the readers of the latter journal, with the following editoriaJ. 

It is simply in proof of what we have so often advocated In thes© 


colu ans, viz.: that Bee-Keeping is a ver>' profitable operation, and 
verj pleasant and proper businesa for ladies: 

"Mk. Editor: — If your time is not too valuable and space not too 
scarce, please insert the following shortaccount of the last few months 
with my Bees. 

"It was on the 29th of May, that my father came home from his 
Northern apiary, and told me "that I was to take charge of it the next 
day. It was nothing very unusual to me, because I have done so 
yearly for the last 4 years, and therefore I was ready immediately to 
enter my services. 

"June and July had always been the most lonesome months of 
the year for me, and so the former proved to be this year, but the lat- 
ter was far different, as you will hear. 

"When I first came here I had only 48 stocks to take care of, and 
indeed I must say that it seemed almost impossible for me to stay 
with so few, as I had been used to have at least over 100. 

"During the month of June, I had 38 young swarms from the 48; 
but still they were far from being enough to give me a chance to spend 
all my time attending to them. 

" When I came home one evening to report to my father (as I do 
every Saturday), I complained to him of my few hives, and told hira 
that though they were very busy and doing their very best, I could 
not be satisfied; so he promised to send me more in a day or two. 
Two days afterward I received a load with 18 hives; in about a week 
another, and some days afterward a third one. Then I thought that 
there would be more of a chance to be doing something, and so in- 
deed there was. 

"The stocks which father sent me were mostly young swarms, 
some of which swarmed twice again, and some of them only once; 
so that after the 1st of July, I had 19 more young swarms, and a little 
Honey, as you will soon learn. 

"June 30th, father was here to examine my hives, when he also 
made 20 double hives, from which I was to extract honey about every 
three days, as he thought that during that time they would be filled. 
July 5th, I extracted my first half-barrel, which was 185 lbs. When I 
was through with it, I "felt pretty well tired out and thought it was 
quite a task for one day; but I had then no idea of what was still to 
be done. July 8th and 9th, I extracted l} barrels, so that I then had 
2 bari-els. July 14th, I extracted !« barrels, and during the rest of the 
week, 2.} barrels; July 17th, 2 barrels; July 19th and 20th, 1 barrel; 
and 4 or 5 days afterward filled the 10th barrel. By this time I had 
given up the notion of i a barrel being a day's work. You will bear 
in mind, Mr. Editor, that I was all alone, so that I not only extracted 
the honey, but also took out the frames and put them in again. 

"The room in which I lived all this time was so filled up with 
barrels and boxes that I feared its breaking down, and was obliged to 
have some of them removed to another apartment. 

"This shows what can be done with Bees when there is a good 
season and they are properly managed. I am very certain that thoso 
20 double hives, which were mostly young swarms, gave me three 
times as much honey as they would have given me had I not ex- 
tracted the honey. Had there been two strong men, instead of a girl 
of 17 years, to take care of more double hives, we might have had a 
larger number of barrels of honey. 

142 DR. CHAsa's 

"With the honey extracted at home and at our Southern apiary 
(of which mj' elder sister takes charge), we will have nearly 35 bar- 
rels of honey, each barrel containing 370 lbs. How much box honey 
we will have I can not tell; but it will not be a little — perhaps 12,000' 
or 15,000 lbs. And all this honey was gathered by 290 hives — all that 
my father had left after his Spring sales — with their increase, making 
in all 614 hives. If the month of August should be as favorable for 
Bees as it was last year, we may have another 5,000 lbs. of Fall honey. 

"Does not this show that Bee-Keeping pays? Even if Bees did 
sometimes sting me, so that I got almost discouraged, when the time 
came again to put on or take off honey-boxes, or extract again (which 
was almost every two days), I felt very much pleased tliat I could 
again fill several barrels. I did not blame my Bees for stinging me, 
and indeed would not have Bees which do not sting, else mischievous 
boys would come and steal the honey. 

" I have not been absent from my Bees a single day for the last 
few months; but as the honey harvest is over now, I think I shall 
again get leave to come home. 

"Of course I can say very little about Bee business, for I only 
take charge of my apiary during swarming and harvest time ; but I 
am almost convinced that that is the time when the greatest amount 
of work is required. I have had to work very hard sometimes these 
last feAV weeks, but my work has indeed been rewarded." 

Although this report would give its readers to understand that a 
greater (tmonnt of honey may be obtained by the use of the "extrac- 
tor," yet, I would not recommend it in all cases, by any means, as I 
believe that it is generally understood that honey thus extracted is 
not likely to keep as well, nor does it fetch so large a price as that in 
email boxes; every one must judge for themselves which plan to 
adopt, from their nearness to market, and their speedy sales. But it 
certainly shows the business to be hoth profitable, as well as the fact 
that it is irell adapted to ladies. 

I will add but a word more, and that is to honor the one who 
made this report; she is worth more than her weight in gold. Yet it 
is only what every young lady should be willing to do, according to 
the circumstances in which she finds herself placed, i. e., to make 
themselves useful wherever they are, no matter whether it is in Bee- 
Keeping, or keeping tite house — both are alike honorable — but such ac- 
tivity and intelligent industry are so seldom seen, now-a-days, I must 
be excused for calling especial attention to their importance. Let 
others co and do likewise. 

OR ANATOMICAL SPECIMENS— To Preserve.— The usual 
method of preserving Bird Skins, is by arsenical soap, made as follows: 

White soap, white arsenic, and freshly-slacked lime, of each, \ 
lb.; carbonate of potash, | lb.; powdered camphor, f oz. 

Shave the soap, and mix the articles, adding only sufficient water 
to form a paste. Apply carefully to all parts of the internal surface 
of the skin before stulfing, or putting up. 

2. Alcohol has generally been used to preserve Anatomical 
Specimens; but, in the high price of alcohol, it has been found that 
good commercial glycerine, and water, equal parts, with the crA^stala 
of carbolic acid, 1 oz. to each gal. of the mixture, makes a reliable 


3. To preserve the natural color of Specimens, take pure gly- 
cerine, and add alcohol, ^ pt., and carbolic acid crystals, ^ oz. to 
each gal. 

BEERS, POPS, ETC.— The small Beers are made without the 
use of malt, simply using sugar and water, or molasses and water, as 
the base, and roots or oil, as desired, for flavoring to suit the taste of 
the sick, or to prevent the use of too large quantities of water, as a 
small amount of acid, by the use of yeast as a ferment, or by lemona 
or other fruit, or by both, has a tendency to quench thirst. 

1. Ginger Beer. — Water 10 gals.; nice lump sugar, 12J lbs.; 
bruised ginger root, h lb.; the whites of 6 eggs; yeast, 2 table-spoon- 
fuls; lemons sliced, 10; isinglass, k oz. 

Put the ginger in some-of the water to obtain the strength; then 
strain into the balance of the water, in which the sugar has been dis- 
solved. The isinglass must be dissolved by heat, having been 
soaked over night. The sliced lemons having been well squeezed, 
may be added, and the yeast put in, the isinglass also. AVhen all ia 
mixed, let stand 3 or 4 hours, then skim off the lemons and squeeze 
out the juice, and strain all into a keg, or bottle, as preferred. 

2. Another. — Water, 2 gals.; ginger root, pulverized, 2 ozs.; 
white or brown sugar, 2 lbs. (white sugar makes it without color, and 
brown gives color); cream of tartar, ^ oz.; and 1 sliced lemon; yeast, 
1 tea-cupful. 

Put the water, ginger, and sugar into a kettle and boil for ^ an 
hour; then skim and pour into ajar with the sliced lemon and cream 
of tartar; and when cooled, to be only a little warm, add the yeast, 
and let it work 24 to 36 hours, strain and bottle, tieing the corks 
firmly. Of course it can be left in a keg; but is nicer to be bottled. 

3. Root Beer. — An excellent Root Beer containing all of the 
alterative properties of sarsaparilla and sassafras, with the nice aroma 
(flavor) of the wintergreen is made as follows: 

Sarsaparilla root, and sassafras bark (dry), of each, } lb.; winter- 
green leaf and stem, 3 ozs.; yeast, ^ pt. ; molasses, 1^ gals. ; water, 16 
gals. ; or enough to fill a common strong beer-barrel, if for draft, if 
not, bottle. 

Bruise the roots, bark, and leaves, and boil, to get the strength, 
in 5 gals, of the water: then strain into the keg, if not to be bottled, 
and add the molasses ; and when cooled, to 65" or 60°, put in the 
veast and let stand 2 hours, when the keg is to be filled with the 
balance of the water. If it is to be bottled, this can be done in a tub, 
or jar, covering over, to allow it to work for 5 or 6 hours, then bung, 
or bottle as tlie case may be. It will be found a very valuable altera- 
tive, for a Spring, or Summer drink. Dandelion, or any other root 
desired, may be added, or substituted to suit any special case, in the 
line of alteratives. 

4. Ginger Pop.— Notwithstanding this article is called "Pop," 
or "Ginger Pop," yet its proper place, I deem, is among the Small 
Beers. It is made as follows : 

White, crushed, or "A" No. 1, cofl'ee sugar, 15 lbs.; finely bruised 
ginger root, 7 ozs.; essence lemon, ^ oz. ; essence cloves, ^ tea-spoon- 
ful; water, 15 gals.; yeast | pt. 

Pour a few qts. of boiling water on the ginger and steep for an 
hour, and strain into a tub; m which dissolve the sugar with 2 gals, 
more of warm water (not above 65°, if hotter, reduce with cold water 



to that heat), and add the yeast and essences, stir and let stand for 2 
hours; then add the balance of the cold water; and cork tightly, for 
nse or 8ale._ If this is properly done, it will "pop the question" 
pretty loud in a day or two. 

5. Spruce Beers. — In case of sickness a very convenient way to 
provide an agreeable beverage, is to 

Take water, 1 gal.; white sugar, ^ lb.; oil of spruce, 20 drops; 
yeast 2 or 3 table-spoonfuls. 

Drop the oil into a suitable jar, and having brought 1 qt.'of the 
water to a boiling heat, pour it upon the oil; then put in the sugar 
and also put in the balance of the water, cold; and see that the 
sugar is dissolved, then add the yeast; then cover the jar with a 
coarse cloth, for 2 or 3 hours, or until you see that the Beer begins to 
work, at which time it should be bottled in small bottles, if it is for 
the sick, as it is not so good unless all is drank at the opening of 
the bottle. The next morning it will be ready for use, if kept a little 
warm over night; then a bottle or two can be placed on ice, or in cold 
water, to make it cool enough for use. Any other oil, the flavor of 
which may be prefered can be used in the same way. 

6. The above spruce oil is from the common white spruce; but 
there is a preparation kept by druggists known as " essence of spruce," 
having a dark color, which is made by boiling the young branches of 
the black spruce, and concentrating it for purposes of making Beer, 
etc., which Prof. King, in his American Dispensator\', says: "enters 
into the formation of Spruce Beer, an agreeable and salutary Summer 
beverage, Yiossessing diuretic and anti-scorbiitic" (against scurvy) "prop- 
erties, and valuable on board ships." His instructions for making it 
are as follows: 

"Take of ginger, sassafras bark, and guiacum shavings, each, 2 
ozs.; hops, 4ozs. ; essence of spruce, lOozs. ; water 4 gals.; mix them 
and boil for 10 or 15 minutes, then strain, and add 10 gals, of warm 
water, 3 qts. of molasses, and 12 fl. ozs." (| pt,) "of yeast, and allow it 
to ferment. When the fermentation is going on, put the fluid in 
strong bottles, and cork them well." 

This certainly makes a valuable alterative in any disease requir- 
ing such a medicinal action upon the system, and also a very pleasant 
drink, for common use in hot weather, if kept cool. 

BELTING— The Kind that Saves Most Power.-TJndoubtedly, 
much power is lost by using the cheapest Belting material, rather than 
to pay a little more and save all the povrer of the engine, or water- 
wheel. The Scientific American reports some experiments that were 
tried,_ before the editor, by the Treasurer of the New York Belting and 
Packing Co., to settle a controversy which had been agitated there, on 
that subject, which showed that rubber Belting run on a pulley cov- 
ered with rubber, is decidedly the best thing. The test was 'made 
by hanging a piece of the different Belts over a pulley and weighting 
each end with a 32 lb. weight to keep them tight; then weighting one 
end with other weights until the Belt slipped; and as any one can 
test the same thing on a small scale, if they choose, it is only neces- 
sary to give the result. The figures will speak for themselves, and 
were as follows: 

A leather Belt on iron pulleys slipped at 48 Iba. 
" " leather " ^ 04. " 

" " rubber " " 128. " 

SKCOND RKCKIt-r Ulii'K 146 

A. rubber Belt on iron pnllevs sliiii-ed ai !»U lbs. 
" " " leaUicr " " 128 " 

" " " rubber " " 1S3 " 

Sometimes persons think they need a hirger engine, wlien the 
only trouble is, they lose about half of their power by using loose 
leather Belts. 

It will be readily understood, no doubt, that the different kinds of 

fralleys are made by simply covering iron jailleys with rubber or 
eather, as the case maybe. In the first 3 figures, the Belt was a 3 
inch Belt of good quality, and in the last 3 the same size ofa3-ply 
rubber was used, making a fair test. 

Belting — To Prevent Eating- by Rats. — As it is best to oil 
leather Belting occasionally, in places where it runs through floors or 
in places that rats can get at it, 'tis best to use castor-oil for that pur- 
pose, as they are "opposed to taking castor-oil," like most children, 
unless "^Iade Palatable," which see. 

BLACK:BEIIRY cordial.— Let the berries get fully ripe 
before they are gathered, then mash them, and let the juice and 

Eomace remain together for 8 or 10 hours to give the Cordial a 
igher color and a richer taste than it would have possessed if the 
juice had been expressed at once. Add to 1 gal. of juice, 2 lbs. of loaf 
sugar; ^ oz. each of finely pulverized cinnamon and nutmeg, and 2 
ozs. of powdered allspice. Some add a few ounces of crushed raisins 
but they are not essential. Boil the mixture gently for 15 minutes; 
and when cold, add ^ pt. of fourth-proof brandy, or the best ry*» 
whisky. Let the Cordial be stored in pint bottles, ^ pts. are all th<!. 
better, with the corks cut off even with the top, and covered with 
wax or pitch of any sort to exclude the air. It is always better to 
store such Cordial in small bottles, because the contents of a small 
bottle i;an be used up before it will spoil ; whereas, if a large bottle is 
opened, if the Cordial is not used in a few days, it is liable to lose its 
excellent flavor. — Fomeroy's Democrat. 

It does not matter from whose "Democrat" this Cordial comes 
from, it will be found highly beneficial in the bowel complaints of 
grown persons as well as children. It may be used freely, or in quan- 
tities to meet the requirements of the case. It is well to guard, how- 
ever, against constipation, by continuing its use too long after an 
amendment has begun. 

Blackberry-Root Sirup — For Diarrhea and Summer Com- 
plaints of Children.— Small roots of the blackberry, h lb.; allspice, 
cloves, and cinnamon, of each, ^ oz.; white sugar" | lb.; best r>'e 
whisky, ^ pt.; watei, 2 qts. 

\yash the roots and cut them into small pieces, bruise the next 
3 articles, and put them and the root into the water and boil to a pt.; 
then strain and press out all the liquid, add the sugar, and dissolve 
by heat; then, when cool, add the spirits and bottle for use. 

Dose. — A tea, to 1 or 2 table-spoonfuls, according to the age of the 
child, every hour, until an improvement takes place, then every 2 
hours, or so, as long as needed. 

If there is much sourness of the stomach, a tea-spoonful of the 
bicarbonate of soda may be put to 1 gill of the Sirup, and use aa 
directed above. 

BLACKBOARD-SURFACE— For School House Walls, 
Plaster, and Paints.— Knowing that the Blackboard has become 
10— DR. chase's second receipt book. 

146 OR. CHASE'S 

an indispensable article of school-furniture, I tiave deemed it quite 
important to obtain the best composition of plaster in finishing new 
school houses, and also for paints that will make a good surface to be 
used upon old walls, or upon the surface of well smoothed, soft pine, 
or poplar lumber, that has been perfectly seasoned, or upon the sur- 
face Jof heavy pasteboard, for Blackboard purposes, so that children 
can have them forborne use; or that will be applicable for office use also. 

I am indebted to Wickersham's School Economy, J. B. Lippincott 
& Co., Philadelphia, publishers, a copy of which ought to be in every 
school, or district library, for the principal receipts on this subject. 
The author is James Pyle Wickersham, A. M., principal of the Penn- 
eyivania State Normal School, at Millersville, Pa. lie says: 

"A Blackboard should be placed immediately behind the plat- 
form and extend its whole length, and elsewhere all around the 
school-room whenever suitable blank wall can be taken advantage 
of. I never heard a good teacher complain that he had more Black- 
board surfece than he could use. The teacher will want Blackboards 
for his classes while engaged in reciting, and also for others who are 
preparing to recite. Young pupils can be profitably employed in 
drawing or writing on Blackboards while the teacher is hearing the 
legsons of older pupils. 

" The Blackboard maybe 5 ft. wide and extend to within 2 ft. 
of the floor. 

"The best kind of Blackboards are made of slate. They can be 
nad 4 or 5 ft. square ; but they are too costly for general use. If wood 
is used, it must be well-seasoned pine or poplar, of fine equality, and 
the Blackboards must be well made and carefully painted. 

"A cheap and serviceable black-surface for walls may be made by 
the following recipe: White finish, or white coating," (what plaster- 
ers call putty), "4 pecks; beach or other fine sharp sand, 4 pecks; 
ground plaster," (plaster nf Paris), "4 pecks; lampblack, 4 lbs.; alco- 
hol, or good whisky, 4 gals. 

"This quantity," he continues, "will make a mixture sufficient to 
v^over 20 square yds. of surface. A little flour of emery will prevent 
the mixture from 'setting' immediately, thus giving time to put it on 
the wall with the necessary care. If emery is not used, only a small 
quantity of the mixture can be put on at a time ; and this is perhaps, 
on the whole, the best plan." (I should have said, only one-fourth, 
or a "small quantity of the mixture" should be made up at a time. 
And it will be proper to explain here, which he has not done, that 
the lamp-black must first be dissolved in sufficient alcohol, or 
whisky, before it is attempted to be mixed, at least it will be more 
evenly spread, if this is done). He goes on with the explanation of 
the manner of using it as follows: 

"The wall which is intended to be covered with the black-sur- 
face should be plastered like the rest of the room, with the exception 
that the black mixture takes the place of the white coating, and is 
put o^i in the same manner. After the black surface is on the wall, it 
must be carefully dampened and rubbed, in order to fill up all the 
pores, and make the surface hard and smooth. If the old surface be 
well moistened, a new surface, composed of the same mixture, can be- 
applied. The slate-surface now prepared by manufacturers in Phila- 
delphia, New York, Boston, and other places, is in some respects, 
superior to any Blackboard-SurfAce known, except real slate" 


The above, or the following paints will be much the cheapest, and 
give good satisfaction. The same work gives ns the report of the 
Chicago Board of Education, containing the following Blackboard- 
paint : 

"To make 1 gal. of the paint, take 10 ozs. of pulverized pumice 
Btone, 6 ozs. of pulverized rotten stone, | lb. of lampblack, and mix 
them with alcohol enough to make a thick paste. Grind the mixture 
yery thoroughly in a clean paint-mill, and then dissolve about 14 ozs. 
of shellac in the remainder of the gal. of alcohol, stir the whole 
together, and the paint is ready for use. This Paint if well applied 
■will make a good surface." 

And it can be kept in a well corked bottle without hardening. 

Mr. Wickersham closes the subject of Blackboards as follows; 

"A frame should be j)laced around all Blackboards, with a trough 
at the underside to catch the dust. Hooks should be attached to 
them on which to hang pointers and rubbers. Prepared chalk and 
talc are used for Blackboard pencils." 

Liquid Blackboard Slating-. — The following receipt for Liquid 
Slating was sent to the County Superintendent of Public Schools for 
Washtenaw county, Michigan, Geo. S. Wheeler, by Prof J. Estabrook, 
Superintendent of the Michigan State Normal School, at Ypsi- 
lanti, Michigan, and may be relied upon as good and practical. In 
hia letter to Mr. Wheeler, after other inquiries, he says: 

"The following is the receipt for Blackboard Slating: Alcohol,! 
gal.;, gum shellac, f lb.; rotten stone, ivory black, and lampblack, of 
each, 4 ozs." 

"Put the gum shellac into the alcohol 24 hours before putting in 
the other ingredients. After mixing" (supposing the shellac to be 
all dissolved) "strain the whole through some kind of a strainer, 
cloth or sieve. Make the wall smooth with sand-paper before put- 
ting on the blacking. Two or 3 coats will be suHUicnt." 

Blackboard Paint. — The following not only works well as a 
Paint on walls, but also on pasteboard: 

Lamp-black, 2 clrs.; spirits of turpentine, 4 ozs.; furniture varnish, 
2 ozs. 

Eub the lamp-black well with the turpentine, and mix in the 
varnish. One or 2 coats, according to the smoothness of the surface, 
may be used. Boys can get a sheet of large pasteborad, or binders- 
board, and paint it with this for home use. 

1. BOOTS— "Water-proofing and Softening-.— To have a fine 
Boot soft, and at the same time AVater-proof, is a very desirable thiu)^ 
in wet and snowy weather; but it is easily done in the following 

Neatsfoot-oil, and castor-oil, equal parts of each. Shake well. 

Tliis may be applied and rubbed in with the hand. The neats- 
foot-oil penetrates the leather very easily and keeps it soft, while the 
castor-oil remains upon and near the surface, giving it a glossiness, 
an«tl resisting the entrance of water; and, if desired, enabling a coat 
of polish-blacking to soon give a "shine" to the Boots. 

This preparation was given to me by INIr. C. J. Brown, of Monroe, 
Mich., an old gentleman, whose business for over 20 years has been 
the making of fine Boots. And while he was making a pair for me, 
he heard that I was getting out a Second Keceipt Book, and mani- 
fested a desire to contribute his "mile" towards it, so he gave me 

148 DE. chase's 

this, and the one for Coarse Boots, below, and also the Blacking fob 
THE Edge, which he had used during some 15 years, with entire satis- 
fiiction. I used No. 1 during the Winter of 71, and found it perfectly 
satisfactory. Some persons, however, may prefer to use the castor-oil 
alone, as the Boot will take a little better polish, if desired at any 
time, but the combination of the 2 oils, as above, makes the leather a 
little softer. 

2. Water-Proof, for Coarse Boots. — Beef tallow, 12 ozs.; bees- 
wax, 6 ozs.; resin, 1 oz. ; neatsfoot-uil, and castor-oil, of eacii, 1 gill. 

Mix by heat, and apply hot; or else heat it by the lire. Once in 
8 to 12 days; according to the weather, snow, etc., will be sufficiently 
often to apply either of these preparations. 

3. Blacking Liquids, for Boots and. Shoes — French Polish, 
etc. — Molasses, 4 ozs.; sweet oil, i{ oz. ; ivory-black, 5 ozs.; vinegar 
and lager beer, of each, 1 gill. 

Rub the 3 first articles together until the oil is obliterated; then 
stir in gradually, the vinegar and beer, and stir until the mixture is 
complete, bottle and cork for use. To be apiilied, the Boots or Shoes 
being clean and dry, with a Iiit of s])onge u))on a wire. 

4. Oil-Paste Polish Blacking, for Boots and Shoes. — Not- 
withstanding that during the Winter, a water-proof Blacking may be 
needed by those who work in the snow and water, yet, during the 
greater portion of tlie year, a polhh Blacking gives a Boot or Shoe, a 
niuch more tasty and genteel ap})earance. And I think that those 
who try the following one will be highly pleased with it, both in its 
fine polish, and in its not injuring the leather, as the amount of vitriol 
(sulphuric acid) is only sufficient to cut the oil which allows it to take 
a polish — without, it would not polish at all : 

Ivory-black, ^ lb.; molasses, J pt.; sweel oil, and oil of vitriol, of 
each, 1 oz. 

The ivory-black should be of the finest quality — a coarse gritty 
article will not do. Mix the 3 first named articles thoroughly 
together; then pnit in the vitriol, and stir briskly, while it is foaming, 
being sure to stir the vitriol into the whole of the mixttire, a^ upon 
this depends the polishing quality of the Blacking. A jar, or large 
earthen bowl makes a suitable dish for mixing it in, although if it is 
made in large quantities, for boxing, and sale, it may be made in 
■wood. The mixing in of the vitriol makes a foanling, or yeasty ris- 
ing of the mixture, giving also considerable vcarmth. When it 
becomes cool, by which time the foaming, or effervesrence fmni the 
introduction of the acid, will have subsided, it may be put up in 
boxes, if it is being manufactured for sale. 

5. Blacking for the Edge.— Alcohol, 1 qt. ; tinct. of iron, 4 ozs.; 
pulverized nut-galls, 2 ozs.; ex. of logwood, 3 ozs.; ink-powder, 1 

Mix all together, and shake 2 or 3 times daily for a week or 10 
days, by which time it will have fully extracted the strength from the 
powder. This probably makes the very best Blacking, for Boot and 
Shoe Edge, in use. 

6. Boots and Shoes — Cement for Mending.— Raw gutta- 
percha, 1 oz.; resin, the size of a hen's egg; bisulphuret of carbon, 1 !b. 

Dissolve the gutta in the bisulphuret; then add the resin; when 
all is dissolved, bottle for use. The leather must be clean, and 
scraped a little to make it adhere. This of late years has '^een quite 


an item with "street-corner peddlers." It holds a putch, upon fine 
leather, vorv satisfactorily. 

1. BOILING OIIi— For Carriage Painting.— Linseed-Oil for 
painting (Carriages should not have as much driers in it as for ordinary 
painting; and it had best be done in an iron kettle set in an arch, so as 
not to allow the fumes to come in contact with the flame. Sulphate or 
zinc, 1 oz. only to each gal. of oil, adding it slowly, to prevent it from 
foaming over, stirring well all the time it is being added, and when 
the oil becomes "ropy," it is done. If too much driers are used, it 
dries so quicklv as to be liable to crack. 

1. BREAD MAKING— From Yeast, Yeast Cakes, Salt- 
Risings, etc. — The Bread question is of vital importance to every 
family which do not iise "bakers' Bread;" for it matters not how 
good every thing else may be upon the table, if the Bread is poor. 
there are but a very few j^ersons who can make a good meal, and feel 
satisfied. And the question witli the lady-of-the-loaf is, how can I 
make good Bread with the least labor and trouble? The leading ob- 
ject of a Receipt Book is to give the most practical way of doing these 
things, and if it does not, it (the Receipt Book) is a failure. I think, 
however, that a knowledge of the fact, that over 500,000 copies of my 
Jirst Receipt Book have been sold, may be taken as a fair evidence that 
the se-cond shall not prove a "failure," but rather give an assurance of 
its surress. 

Then, for those living in towns, or cities, where good yeast can be 
obtained, the least labor is to get, for a baking of 4 or 5 loaves, 2 cts. 
worth (about ^ pt.) of yeast, in the evening, and put it into a 4 or 6qt. 
pan, in which is about 1 qt. of milk-warm water, and put in a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and h tea-spo®nful of baking soda; then sift in as 
much nice flour as will" make it the consistence of pan-cake batter; 
now cover up by turning another pan over it, or a board, and, if it is 
not extremely cold weather, let it sit on the table over night; but, if 
very cold, sit it where it shall be moderately warm, and in the morn- 
ing, not generally until after breakftvst, it will be light and ready to 
proceed with the mixing, which is done by putting in about a tabie- 
spoonful of lard, then sifting in flour and stirring w'ith a stiff spoon 
until you can put it out upon a floured-table, or bread-board, and con- 
tinue to work in more sifted flour until it has been brought to a proper 
stiffness for baking; now divide into about 5 loaves, having molded 
or kneaded it well, and phice them in a warm place for about 1 hour, 
or until it has risen, then place in a hot oven to bake; and, if these 
things have been done with an ordinary care, you will have good 

In place of the fifth loaf, if that amount of the dough is. taken, and 
a table-spoonful of butter worked into it, and molded into Biscuit, 
and set to rise the same as the Bread, you will have them fit for a 

The oven should be watched so as not to scorch, or burn the bread, 
and when fully done, take out, and with the linger, or a bit of clean 
rag, rub a little butter over the top crust, which keeps it from drying 
up and becoming hard and unpalatable. 

Those who use the Yeast-Cake risings will refer to that subject to 
get their "yeastings," or sponge, then proceed as above; and those 
who prefer, or those who live in the country, too distant to obtain 
yeast, or wish to use .salt-risings will be governed by the following 

150 DR. chase's 

directions of Mrs. Call, who had sufficient confidence in her plan to 
send it to the Scientific American for publication. She says: 

"In order to have good Bread, there are three things very essen- 
tial — good flaur, good risings, and a careful hand. Now if my lady 
friends will comply with the following directions, I will guarantee 
them as good Bread as was ever broken by mortal. "The day of hop- 
yeast has gone by," (not in hotels in the backwoods). See Hop-Yea>.t 
Improved. " It is not used by the country folks at the present day, 
only by here and there a family." Here is her way of making Bread: 

2. " Water-Risings, or Salt-Risings. — Take a quart pitcher 
and a spoon — scald them thoroughly — fill the pitcher ^ full of boiling 
water from the tea-kettle, which has been drawn fresh from the foun- 
tain. Let the water cool to the temperature of good hot dish-water" (not 
BO hot but what you can hold your hand in it); "stir in sifted flour 
Bufficient to make them as thick as pan-cake batter; add i of a tea- 
epoonful of salt and as much baking soda; cover them closely, set 
them where they will keep quite warm" (in a dish of warm water is 
a good way) ; "stir occasionally. They will rise in 5 or 6 hours. 

3. "Wheat Bread. — Milk is the best wetting for bread — water 
will answer." (Half milk and half water is my plan, and my folks 
think that it is better than all milk). "Stir the wetting into the flour 
quite warm, then add the rising; stir it all together to make a sponge. 
When sufficiently light, mix and mold into loaves. Let it rise again. 
The oven should be liot enough to bake a common loaf of bread in 
30 minutes" (it generally takes us about 1 hour) "without scorching 
or hardh' browning in the least. Bread should never be cut until it 
is 12 hours old, and then only what is to be eaten immediately; bet- 
ter cut again than to have a plateful left. Who can bear to eat Bread 
that has been sliced and dried a day or two?" 

4. "Raised Biscuit. — Take some of the Bread dough, when 
light, knead a piece of butter as large as an egg into dough enough to 
fill a long tin — mold into small Biscuits — let them rise again; bake for 
20 minutes" ()intil done). 

5. " Indian Bread. — Take 2 qts. of Indian meal, pour on boiling 
water enough to make tlie meal quite wet; when cool, add 1 qt. of 
flour; ^ pt. of risings, a little salt, and h a cupful of molasses. Mix 
altogether, put into large basins and let it rise; bake for 3 hours, with 
a slow tire." 

6. "Johnny-Cake. — A Johnny-cake, to be oaten with meat, 
Bhould be made as follows: 1 tea-cupful of sweet milk and one of but- 
termilk, a little salt, and a little soda; stir in meal enough to make a 
Boft batter; bake 40 minutes." 

The yeast plan, above, is the way our family bread has been made 
for years. Mrs. Call's plan will make good bread; but, as she says, it 
requires "a careful hand." If the salt-risings is scalded too much, 
either in the making, or in setting them into water that is too hot, or 
too near the lire so as to over-heat them, or if they are too cold, "the 
old-nick is to pay" — the hogs get the risings, or the Bread; but it can 
be done, and has been many thousand times, and got very excellent 
Bread; then " wiuit has been done can be done again." Should any 
one fail once or twice, let them "try, try again." When salt-rising 
are set, if water settles upon the top, stir in a little more flour. 

7. Potato Bread. — There are many house-keepers who use 
Potatoes in Breiid. from the facts that the risings come up better by 


their use, and the Bread is sweeter and keeps moist longer. The plan 
of proceeding with them is as follows: 

For 4 or 5 loaves of Bread take 3 or 4 good sized potatoes — those 
that are white and mealy are the best. Wash, peel, and slice up the 
potatoes; then rinse, and put them into 1 qt. or a little more of water, 
and boil them perfectly soft. Drain off the water into a qt. dipper, or 
some measure to know that you have 1 qt. of this potato-water. Set 
it by and mash the potatoes very fine, then pour in the water in which 
they were boiled, and stir thoroughly together. Now if you use yeast, 
it will require about 1 cupful (understand in all baking and cooking 
receipts, when cupful is mentioned, a common tea-cupful is what is 
meant), to be stirred into this potato-mixture, it having become so 
cool by this time that the yeast shall not be scalded — if scalded it is 
spoiled — then put in 1 tea-spoonful of salt, and ^ as much soda, and 
sift in as much flour as will make it the consistence of pan-cake bat- 
ter. This should be done in a pan of sufficient size to hold all of the 
Bread, or dough which is to be made in the morning; for it is the 
most convenient way to make, or as it is called, "set your yeast over 
night," as the cooking of the potatoes can be done at the same time 
"tea" is being prepared. When the "yeastings" are thus prepared, 
cover them up and set them in the cellar over night, by which they 
are kept cool in Summer, and warm in Winter, and by the time that 
breakfast is over, next morning, your sponge, or yeast will generally 
be ready to mix the Bread. 

Yeast-cake may be used in place of yeast, if any one choses; and 
if it is used, while the potatoes are boiling, take about 1, or 1^ of any 
good Yeast-Cake, which see, and break them up and put to soak in a 
little moderately warm water, so it shall be soft by the time the pota- 
to-mixture is ready, and stir in, the same as though yeast was used. 

In the morning, when the sponge is light, if tliere is any sourness 
manifested in the sponge, put in a little more soda, not more than 
was used at first, and none unless there is sourness. Soda, when used 
in any case, should always be pulverized and dissolved in a little 
warm water. About as much more salt will be needed in the morn- 
ing as was used at first; then sift in flour, stirring it in with a stiff 
iron spoon, until it as as stitf as you can well stir it, after which it 
may be emptied from the pan, upon a floi»r-dusted Bread-board, or 
table, and kneaded to the i)roper consistence. Now place it in the 
Bread-pan and cover with a cloth, letting it stand until light, when it 
should be molded into loaves, kneading in only so much more flour 
as will enable it to be handled without sticking. If it is left rather 
soft, the Bread will be lighter, and keep moister. About 1 hour 
will bake it if the stove is in good condition, and the fire, or heat 
as it should be to bake properly. This plan has also proved very 
satisfactory with us. 

8. Another. — The following plan of making Bread is from a 
neighbor lady, Mrs. L. L. Trauger, wife of a man who has acted 
as an agent in selling books for me for several years, so you may place 
implicit confidence in the receipt, and besides this, it gives a plan 
for making yeast, which will accommodate tliose who live where 
bakers', or brewers' yeast can not be obtained. In 4 years' use of 
it they have not had a failure in obtaining good Bread, I think, 
therefore, that she is the "careful hand" that Mrs. Call says is 
necessary to insure good Bread. The yeast is made as follows; 



9. Hop- Yeast — Improved. — To make the Yeast, first wash, 
peel and slice up what will make Ij pts. of potatoes; tie up in a 
cloth, a go«d single handful of hops, and l>oil the hops and sliced 
potatoes together. Take out the hops and squeeze out all the water 
from them, then drain off the water, for use, and nuish the pota- 
toes again with the water in which they were boiled. Take 3 
heaping table-spoonfuls of flour, and pour upon it o qts. of boiling- 
hot water, as for making starch. Now add 1 cupful of sugar; § of 
a cupful of salt; 1 table-spoonful of ground ginger, and 8j.r well 
and mix with the potato-mixture; when only milk-warm, add 1 
cupful of good brewers' yeast. Keep it warm until it is light; then 
put it into a stone jar, and cover it well and place in the cellar, so 
it shall keep cool in Summer and not freeze in Winter. 

Our cook made a yeast so nearly similar to this, while we were in 
the Hotel, at Sauk Rapids, Minn., which worked with such entire 
satisfaction, that we know this may be depended upon. 

10. To make the Bread, proceed as follows: For 7 small loaves, 
take about f of a common milk pan of sour milk (it will be just as 
good, even if it has thickened, or what is called "lobbed"), scald it 
and pour off the whey to use in place of water. AVhen this is cooled 
to "milk-warm," sift, and stir in the flour, and 1 cupful of the above 
yeast, and let stand over night, as other risings. When ready, in the 
morning, knead in the proper amount of sifted flour to make the 
dough of the right consistence. Let stand in the pan to rise, then 
knead into loaves, and when properly risen again, bake. INIrs.Trauger 
has made her Biead after this plan for 4 years, without a single fiiilure. 

11. Boston Brown Bread. — Rye flour, 4 cups; wheat flour, 1 
cup; corn meal, 2 cups; molasses, li cup; salt, 2 tea-spoonfuls; cream 
of tartar, 4 tea-spoonfuls ; soda, 2 tea-spoonfuls; mix soft, with milk, 
or water if you have no milk. The soda should be the last to stir in ; 
then put into a deep pan and steam 3 hours. Some persons may de- 
sire a little more salt. 

12. Graham Bread. — Graham flour, 5 cups, or sufficient to 
make it of cake consistency; sour milk, 2 cups; molasses, f cup; sal- 
eratus and salt, of each, 1 tea-spoonful. Put the milk, molasses, and 
salt into a pan; then mash the saleratus and dissolve it in a little of 
the milk, then stir it into the whole, and immediately stir in the flour. 
Butter a 2 qt. pan and steam 2 hours. If j^ou have no steamer, bake 
in a ready oven. Dyspeptics will find this Bread, or the Biscuit, just 
the thing; and it would be better for us all, if we ate more of it than 
we do. 

13. Graham Biscuit. — Proceed the same as for Bread, only it 
will require enough more flour to make it stiff enough to roll out. 
Butter the tin, and bake directly. 

14. Indian Bread. — Buf^er-milk, 1 qt. ; Indian meal, 4 cupa; 
wheat or rye flour, 2 cups; molasses, 1 cup; salt, 1 tea-spoonful; soda 
or saleratus, 1 table-spoonful. Milk, molasses,' and salt first mixed; 
then the soda dissolved in a little of it, and mixed in; then the flour, 
and lastly, the meal. Steam 3 hours, or bake 2 to 2\ hours. 

15. Biscuit. — As Biscuit so often take the place of Bread, I will 
give the process of making them, in this connection. 

Flour, 2 qts.; batter, the size of an egg, (of course, hen's egg), salt^ 
1 tea-spoonful ; baking powders, 2 tea-spoonfuls; baking soda, 1 tea- 
spoonful; sour milk, sufficient. 


Sift the flour and thoroughly, mix in the baking powder and the 
salt, dry; in warm weather work in the butter cold; but in cold 
weather melt, and work in; mash the soda and put it into a cup and 
put on sutHcient of the milk to dissolve the soda, then pour it into 
the flour and mix, adding more milk until the flour is all wet up, 
rather soft, as much so as you can rollout. Gut out, or mold, and 
phu-e in tins, and bake in a quick oven. Many i)ersoiis claim that 
sour milk, can not be used with baking powders; but we know it can 
by using the soda, and makes a richer and nicer Biscuit, So they 
may be made very nicely, also, without the baking powder, using the 
soda and sour milk, and even sweet milk, or water does very well, 
but either of them are to be used cold, especially so if baking pow- 
der is used. Most persons eat hot Biscuit. I prefer mine the next 
day after the baking — for taste, as well as for health's sake. 

16. Bottle Yeast— Valuable for Families— Started ■With- 
out Yeast. — Flour, 5 lb.; brown sugar, 2 ozs., or h a cupful; water, 
1 gal.; salt, 1 tea-spoonful. 

Stir all together, and boil for 1 hour. Remove from the fire and 
when cooled to milk-warmth, bottle and cork up tightly. In 24 
hours it will be ready for use. It will be active, and may be used as 
other This came from the chief baker to tlie "34th" New 
York regiment during the war. He was formerly in service, as baker 
to Lord Lyon. The sugar and the boiling establishes the Yeast, or 
fermenting principle, and enables any one to have good Yeast when- 
ever Hour and .sugar can be had, everywhere. It will often 
throw out the corks unless put in very firmly, or are tied down. 

My family find better satisfaction in making Bread with this 
Y'eiist.'than by any plan of using hop or brewers' Yeast, as the Bread 
is more like salt-risings Bread, whiter, more moist, and does not dry 
up as fast as hop-yeast Bread. 

They set the risings over night, using 3 or 4 good sized white 
potatoes, nicely mashed and mixed in with the Yeast, setting it in the 
cellar over night. In the morning they are generally ready to make 
up tiie Bread, as in other plans, set to rise, then mold out and put in 
pans, and when light bake as usual. 

A I\Irs. Hammond reports through Hearth and Home, her snccesa 
with Graham Bread, Gems, Brown Bread, and Parker-IIoase Rolls, 
(the Parker House is one of the best, if not the Best Hotel in Boston), 
which will be found of value to many persons, and by-the-way, per- 
mit me to say that it would "pay" every farmer in our land to have 
the Hearth and Home, or the American Agriculturist, of New Y'ork, aa 
a family adviser, Mrs, Hammond's remarks upon these Breads were 
as follows: 

"It was always a marvel to me how any one could relish Graham 
Bread. But John was a dyspeptic, and truly believed 'bran Bread' 
was the saving of his life; yet he ate it as a holy father wears hair- 
cloth, and goes to bed on a conch of spikes. I ahvays sighed 'Poor 
fellow!' when I saw him mumbling away at his dry slice, until after 
a long course of experimenting we had sweet, nutritious Graham 
Bread, which it was no gastronomic penance for either .John or 
myself to eat. Indeed, our breakfast-table is seldom without it, 
either in the form of Gems or raised Biscuit. 

"For this I sift the meal to lighten it, but use the bran, mixing it 
thoroughly with the tl our again, I know a housekeeper who givea 

t64 UK. chase's 

the bran to the horses! The object of buying Graham flour, with 
this purpose in view, is not obvious. 1 have found no one who sifts 
it, if intending to use tlie bran, but it certainly is much better sifted 
and mixed together again. 

17. "Graham Bread. — One quart of the meal, as prepared 
above, a ^ cup of yeast, and a little salt. Mix with little more than a 

fint of warm water. In Winter, milk or part milk may be used, 
n the morning add flour, but not enough to allow it to be kneaded. 
If Biscuit are required, take a piece of the dough, flouring it and the 
hands, and work it lightly into little round Biscuits. Fill a pan, 
crowding the Biscuit a little. Leave it 1 hour in a warm place. 
Bake in a hot oven. If a loaf is preferred, pour into a pan after the 
flour has been added and thoroughly stirred in. Raise 1 hour before 
baking. I have seen it suggested somewhere that the bran, ferment- 
ing sooner than the flour, and before the sponge is raised enough, is 
the cause of the usual sourness of this Bread; that adding the bran 
when the sponge was nearly or quite light enough, would obviate 
this. I would like to know if any one has any practical knowledge of 
this method. My own judgment is that the molasses, considered 
essential, causes the acidity, and I do not use it. 

18. "Gems. — To make this simple but nutritious and palatable 
form of Bread, one requires a cluster of little iron pitty-pans, with 
which some readers are familiar, but more are not. They are found 
now, I think, in all large places, and if not, can be readily cast at any 
foundry. The pan at hand, make a thick batter of Graham meal, a 
little salt and warm water, giving it a thorough stirring and beating. 
The consistency of the batter is not so important an item as that the 
Gem-pans should be heated just right when the batter is put in. It 
should not scorch, l)ut it should sizzle. Heat the pans, as the Gems 
will be lighter and less crusty. Bake in a hot oven. When they will 
slip out of the pan they are done. They are quite as nice warmed in 
the oven when a day or two old as when just baked. They can be 
made with milk and 1 egg to about a quart of the flour, but they have 
not the pure wheaten flavor of the water Gems. 

" If the following directions are closely observed, the housewife 
will have Brown Bread unequaled, save by the famous 'Boston 
Brown Bread,' see No. 10, above, and not surpassed by that, 

19. "Brown Bread. — Prepare the meal like the Graham; sift, 
but turn back the bran and use it. 

"Two and a half cups of Indian meal; 1^ of rye — both measured 
after being sifted; J cup of molasses; 1 cup thick sour milk; 2 cups 
Bweet milk; 1 tea-spoonful of soda. A cup of sweet milk and 2 tea- 
epoonfuls of cream tartar can be used instead of the sour milk, with 
equal success. Pour this batter into a 3 pt. pail, or any vessel of 
about that size which can be covered tightly. Place it in a kettle 
containing boiling water enough to come half-way up the sides of the 
nail. Cover the kettle and keep it boiling 3} hours. Set the Bread 
in the oven 15 minutes, to dry otF. Water must be kept boiling, with 
which to fill up the kettle as it boils away. It must be watched 
closely, but when it is done the cook will be well repaid for her 
trouble. Cut the slices round the loaf, and if you have a healthy 
Btomach, eat the Bread while it is warm. 

"As a finale. I will give a receipt for the most delicious achieve- 


ment I have yet found in the way of Bread. This must be made in 
the morning:. 

20. "Parker-House Rolls. — One quart of flour. "Make a well 
in the center, heaping the flour high as possible about it. Pour in a 
J cup of yeast. Warm ^ pint of milk, with a tea-si^oonful of white 
sugar, a lump of butter half the size of an egg, and a little salt. 
Stir it in gently with the yeast, preventing it, if possible, from run- 
ning over the flour. Place it in a warm room, but not a very warm 
place. At noon, mix it and knead thoroughly. Possibly a little 
more flour may be required. Let this sponge rise until an hour 
before you desire to bake the Rolls. Work it over again; roll it out 
half an inch thick; cut it into strips about 4 inches wide, and per- 
haps 6 long. With the hands, roll the two short sides towards one 
another until the two rolls meet; pinch up the ends into the usual 
form of Rolls; rub melted butter over the top, to give them a rich 
brown when baked. Place them in the baking-pan so they will not 
touch. Allow them to stand an hour, then bake in a quick oven. 

"None of the above receipts are theoretical only; I have tested 
them thoroughly, and she who may use them as a guide will surely 
have a variety of nice, healthful Bread." 

21. Corn Bread — Prize Receipt. — Orange Judd, who publishes 
both the American Agriculturist and the Hearth and Home, is a very 
enterprising and energetic man, and has always sought to give his 
readers of either of those journals, the most practical information 
upon all subjects in agriculture, and domestic economy; hence, he 
offered a Prize of $10 for the best loaf of Corn Bread. It was awarded 
to Mrs. James O'Brien, of Cassick, Pa. The Receipt for making this 
Bread is as follows: To 2 qts. of meal, add 1 pt. of Bread sponge; 
water, suflicient to wet the whole; add h pt. of flour, and a table- 
spoonful of salt; let it rise; then knead well for the i^econd time, and 
place the dough in the oven, and allow it to bake 1} hours. 

L BREWING. — Brewing is the act of making Ale, Porter, or 
Strong Beer, called Brewing; and although in a Receipt Book, which 
embraces such a variety of subjects, it would not be expected that a 
full description of a first-class Brewery should be given. And it is 
not necssary, for persons who design to go into Brewing for a Z//e-busi- 
ness, are expected yirsi to learn the trade, as it is called, and secondly, 
to obtain and study the best works which are devoted entirely to this 
branch of industry, but it will not be amiss to give a description of 
6uch utensils, or articles used in Breweries, that must be obtained by 
families which desire to make domestic Ale or Beer for "home use, to 
supply the place of those used by large establishments. 

First. — A large copper-boiler capable of holding as much Beer, or 
Ale as is intended to be made at one time, as the worts (the extract of 
malt used in Brewing), have to be boiled with the hops. Iron will 
answer, and if, for family use, a kettle has to be purchased, I should 
have one made of light-boiler iron, rivited together, capable of hold- 
ing either GO or 130 gals, according to the amount to be made at one 
time; fcr this would do well for boiling vegetables for purposes of 
feeding cattle, hogs, etc., when not in use for Brewing, and no danger 
of breaking as with the cast cauldrons, although they will answer the 

Second. — A mash-tub, or mash-tun will be needed. In Breweries, 
the mashing, or stirring, is done by machinery; but for family use 

158 OR. cn.iSK's 

the mashing, or stirring of the malt, when the scahiing water is put 
upon it, can be done satisfactorily by hand, having an oar-like pad- 
dle 3 or 4 feet in length, for that purpose. The mash-tub should have 
a faucet, or plug close to the bottom for drawing off the worts. Also a 
perforated ftilse bottom. The false bottom should be loose to allow 
its being taken out for the purpose of scrubbing, or washing, as all 
articles used in Brewing must be kept perfectly clean. Any mechanic 
capable of making these articles will have seen sufficient of them to 
know how to get them up, if you give him the amount of malt to be 
used in a Brewing. 

Third. — Shallow coolers, to cool the worts, 628, in large amounta^ 
and 65° in small, is about the proper temperature. By stirring often, 
however, this cooling can be done in a tub or tu])S, or a barrel sawed 
in halves, unless you desire to Brew large amounts at one time. 

Fourth. — Large dippers for bailing, unless the boiler is furnished 
with a faucet at the bottom for running oft' the worts; but buckets 
and common dippers will do for family Brewing ; and casks, of course, 
to hold the Beer or Ale. A tunnel-tub, or pail (a pail with a tube in 
the bottom) of a suitable size to go into the bung of the casks, for 
filling. But, on the small scale, a common tin tunnel, or funnel, will 
answer every purpose. 

Fifth. — A hop-strainer, or coarse seive, and a thermometer, will 
complete the apparatus necessary to provide for the Brewing. The 
thermometer is an absolute necessity, as the water must be of a cer- 
tain heat for mashing, and the worts of a certain degree of heat to 
start the fermentation aright. 

If these articles are properly made they will last a life time with 
proper care. With these articles all on liand, (or such as you design 
to use in their j)]ace), and perfectly clean, by washing — scrubbing 
with a broom — and clean boiling water, as the case may demand, the 
malt having been coarsely ground, and good hops provided at the 
rate of 1 lb. for each bu.'of malt to be Brewed, and yeast, you are 
ready to begin operations. 

And now, as to amount, for families, probably the amount to be 
made will oftener be 1 barrel, than more or less; and", hence for: 

2. Good. Ale for Family Use.— For 1 barrel of 36 gals., take 3 
bushels of good malt, coarsely ground; good hops, 3 lbs.; good yeast, 
2qts. ; and good soft spring water, is best, and it will require about 
SO to 100 gals, to be on liand, as this will also make an extra 10 gals. 
of pretty good Strong Beer, if desired, especialy so, if about 2 lbs. of 
sugar and i^ lb. of extra hops are added to the worts of an extra 

Now bring to the boiling point, 85 to 40 gals, of the water; and 
then withdraw the lire, and let it cool to ISO*^ Fah., if to be nm into 
the mash-tub by faucet and spout; but if the water is to be dipped 
out and put u])on the malt, with buckets, it should not be less than 
185°, as the bucket, handling, i)Ouriug, etc., will loose more heat than 
by the running j)rocess; for Me want the heat in the ./fVs/ mashing to 
be not below 170° nor ahove 175° — '■'>2 gals, of water is the right 
amount to place in the tub; then put in the 3 bus. of malt, 1 bu. 
at a time, mashing (stirring) well. The whole to be stirred in within 
20 minutes, at fartherest; then cover the tub and allow it to stand 
about 3 hours to extract the slrength of the malt. During this Jime 
have the same amount more of water made hot, for the stcond mash. 


Now draw off the worts into a suitable tub (supposed to be about 
22 gals.), and then put on some 34 gals, of water, for the second mash- 
ing, at not less than 180*^ and stirring well for 10 or 15 minutes; then 
cover up as before, for 2 hours. 

The balance of the water in the boiler, if about 15 gal.«., -will be 
now hot, for the tliird, or Beer mashing; which is now to be drawn 
ofl", to clear the boiler for receiving the first worts, to give a place for 
drawing off the second, which are to be added to the first, in the 
boiler, reaching 52 to 55 gals.; then, renew the fire to bring these 
•worts to a boil, as soon as may be, and at once proceed with the mash 
for what the Engjish call " Table-Becr." 

The mixed worts are to be boiled for i an hourbefore the hops are 
put in; then add the hops and continue the boiling for 1 hour longer; 
which, if too much worts have not been drawn off, would reduce them 
to about ofl, or 37 gals.; now withdraw the fire again and let the hopa 
steep for h an hour longer; then draw off, or dip off, as the case may 
be, and strain through the hop-strainer, to remove the hops; and 
when cooled to 62° on the large scale, or 05° for the one-barrel plan, 
add the yeast, 2 qts., and mix well together. And in from 30 to_ 36 
hours the fermentation will, probably, have been sufficient for putting 
into the cask; this will be known, however, by the sinking, or be- 
ginning to sink, of what is called the head (yeasty foam on top of the 

The bung is to be left out of the cask to allow the yeast to work 
over for a day or so, and the cask may be filled from time to time with 
what remained, or with the Table-Beer. 

The English people, at the sinking of the head, rather when it 
begins to sink, throw over the surface, flour and salt, at the rate of 2 
ozs. of flour and U ozs. of salt to each barrel of Ale, and stir in and 
turn, or put in a cask at once. 

After the Ale is filled into the cask, or barrel, or kegs, if such are 
used, in place of a barrel, it will still work, or ferment a little more 
and run over the bung, and it must be kept filled up every hour or 
two, from what worts that were kept over for that purpose, until the 
fermentation is over or until the yeast does not work out at the bung 
any more, when it should be bunged up tight. 

3. The Beer-Wort, or that from the third mashing, after the 
strong worts are out of the way, is boiled for an hour; then the hops 
from the Ale, with the J lb. additional hops, and the 1 lb. of sugar, 
will be added and boiled for 30 minutes longer. 

4. Strong Beer— For Table, or Family Use.— A very good 
Strong Beer is made by using 1 bu. of malt for 1 barrel of Beer, with 
hops, h lb. ; or, for h barrel keg, ^ bu. malt, ^ lb. of hops. 

Water for first mash at J 72° — mash ^ hour, cover the mashing-tub 
and stand 1 hour, draw off. For the second mash, water to be 180°— 
mash ^ hour, cover and stand 2 hours; and boil 2 hours; putting in. 
the hops at the middle of the boiling. When cooled to 72°, put in 
the yeast; and in 24 hours put into the keg for cleansing; bung down, 
when the fermentation is not quite worked out. This should not be 
made in (luantitiea to last more than 2 or 3 weeks, as the strength of 
malt and hops will not keep it longer. 

5. It may not be amiss in this connection, to say that a very 
good and palatable Strong Beer can be made of shorts and bran, which 
has been found to keen better in Summer, even than that made from 

168 DR. chase's , 

malt alone. This is supposed to be accounted for from the fact of 
there being less sucharine (sweet) matter than is found in the malts. 
As some families may desire to have some kind of Beer, in sections 
of the country where malt and Brewers' yeast are not procurable (as 
yeast-cake dissolved in warm water, or family yeast can be used for 
this, although it is not equal to the other, yet, it answers a passible 
purpose). I will give the proportions, and directions, which are as fol- 

For 1 barrel of Beer, 30 to 35 gals., take good shorts, 2 bu.; -good 
•wheat bran, 1 bu. ; hops, f- lb. ; yeast, 1 pt. ; or, brewers, or family yeast 
to equal it in strength, or to cause a moderate fermentation, good mus- 
tard, H ozs.; sugar, 4 ozs. 

Have the water for the first mashing at 150*, and put in a part of 
the shorts, say i first, and mash well then half of the bran and mash 
(stir) well again; then the balance in the same way. Let the mash- 
ing, or stirring bo continued 20 to 30 minutes; and cover up and stand 
2 hours, and draw off; and make the second mashing at 105*, and 
cover and stand 1 hour only before drawing off. 

Boil the first drawing of worts for 1 hour with half of the hops; 
and the second for 1\ hours, as it is weaker; with the balance of the 
hops, mustard and sugar, which have been boiled down to thick color- 
ing, by burning a little, then putting in a little hot water to prevent it 
from hardening when cold. This is merely for coloring with a little 
"twang" from the mustard, which can be omitted if chosen, or can 
be used without the burning, if there is no desire to imitate Strong 
Leer color. 

6. Brewing' Light Ales, or Table Beer. — A very simple and 
a very satisfactory manner of Brewing Light Ales, or Table-Beer was 
recently communicated by G. S. P., of Mass., in answer to J. A. R's 
query,' No. y, page 138, vol. XXVI, of the Scientific American. He 
says : 

"Let him take an ordinary firkin, put in a fixlse bottom, full of 
holes, about 1 inch above the real bottom. Then lay a layer of clean 
straw over the holes. Then put in 8 qts. of good malt, and pour on it 
4 gals, of hot water; after that has leached through pour on 2 gals, 
more of hot water, and after that 1 gal. of cold water; then boil the 
liquid of the 3 leachings 3 minutes, adding 1 qt. of good molasses and 
4 ozs. of good hops. Stir it well; then strain it in a clean tub and, 
when about milk-warm, add \h pts. of good yeast. Stir it well and let 
it stand until it rises and begins to fall, then skim ofl' the yeast on top 
and save it for a future Brewing. Bottle in strong bottles and set in a 
dark place, and you ivill have an excellent table-beer. Lessen the quan- 
tity mf malt if j'ou want a weaker Beer. This Beer has been highly 
recommended by ph3'sicians for invalids." 

It strikes me, if to "lessen the quantity of malt" if you want a 
weaker Beer," tliat "you" might increase the malt "if you want" a 
stroiiLTer I?eer, with the same success. 

7. Brewer's Yeast— Substitute For. — Coarsely ground malt, 
21bs. ; brown sugar, 1 Ih.; yeast, i pt. ; water, 1 gal. 

Take lialf of the water and bring to a boil; thenpourit upon half 
of the malt meal, and stir well. Let it stand 3 hours, strain off and 
add tlie sugar, stirring it until the sugar is all dissolved; then put into 
a stout 2 i:al. jug, (tover over and let stand where it will keep warm for 
12, or 15 hours, at which time, scald and stir the balance of the malt 


meal with the other half of the water, and strain off as at first, and 
add to that in the jug, together witli the yeast, remembering, how- 
ever, that when th-e yeast is added the mixture miist not be above 75° 
Fah. Shake well and let the jug stand open 2 daj's;_then cork for 
use, and keep cool. The reason of using a large jug, is to avoid loss 
by its ferm«>uting over. This will be found verv satisfactory. 

1. BRIOKL A YINGr— Proverbial, but 'Correct Method.— 
In ancient times, before books were known, information was spread 
among.the people by pithy sayings, or Proverbs, and often in rhymes. 
The following were in use in England, in the "middle ages," on the 
Bubject of Bricklaying, and except the first one, they will be found to 
contain as sound sense for to-day, as for "the olden time:" 

1. " Consult the stars and rule the planets well, 
Before you build a houise, or sink a well." 

Ui. "A castle wall, to be stout, 

Must be full of mortar, and grout." 

3. " Bricks are never well set, 

Unless they are, first, well wet." 

■4r. "If you would make a wall stand, 
Use good lime aud clean sand." 

"Walls are very liable to crack, unless, as it is now called, the joints 
are well "slushed," i. e., are well filled with mortar; and no mortar can 
be made fit for use with sand having a mixture of loam, or other dirt 
in it. 

1. BUTTER MAKINGr— Keeping and Preparing for Mar- 
ket, Establishing Butter Factories, etc. — "In order to make 
good Butter, that will keep, it is absolutely necessary to have good, 
sweet pasturage, with an abundance of the best grasses, and a plenti- 
ful supply of fresh running water. And the pasture should have suf- 
ficient shade trees to accommodate all the cows in hot weather. The 
cows should not be those that give the greatest floxv of milk, but the 
richest; yielding a large supply of orange-colored cream, and they 
should be salted, at least twice each week, which will keep them in a 
healthy and thriving condition, ensuring the largest profit. They 
should never be driven fast, to or from the pa,sture, and never worried 
by boys, or dogs, which tends to heat the milk and cause delay in the 
process of churning, that some persons lay to witchcraft — the witch is 
over-heating the cow, milk, or cream, etc. 

"Always be regular in the time of milking, and have the same 
men milk the same cows, as far as possible, and to milk them as quickly 
and as cleanly as possible, as the last is the richest in cream. A clean, 
cool, airy and" light room, the more light the better, avoiding the sun, is 
the most suitable placeto set the milk; and racksare better than shelves, 
as the air can circulate freely around the pans, cooling the milk more 
quickly and evenly. A house cellar is getting to be considered a very 
poor place to set milk ; and the milk nor cream should ever be placed 
on the floor, or bottom, impure gasses occupy that portion of a cellar, 
and are absorbed into the milk and cream giving them a bitter taste, 
and consequently a poor Butter. 

"Milk should never be disturbed after setting away until ready 
for skimming; and this should be done as soon as possible after th« 
cream has risen, and alwaj's before the milk has curdled; and it is be- 
lieved tiiat ^nore is lost than gained by letting it set over 24 honra. 

160 UB. cuajsk's 

Keep the cream in stone jars, in a cool place in Summer, and in a 
moderately warm place in Winter, and sprinkle a little salt, on the 
bottom of the jar; and always stir the cream from the bottom every 
time additional cream is skimmed in; and, further, never clinrn in 
less than 12 hours after the last skimming, and as soon thereafter as 

"The Butter should be worked in cold water and changed two or 
three times, or until there is no coloring of milk about the water; then 
press and work out all the water from among the Butter, and sj*lt with 
only I oz. of the best dairy salt to 1 lb. of the Butter; and the salt 
must be worked evenly through the whole mass." 

Mr. A. D. Burt, who has,taken several premiums in the New York 
State Fairs on his Butter, from whom the above has been condensotl, 
not leaving out anything, however, that is at all essential, as reported 
through the New York Rural, says further, in regard to salting Butter: 
"I differ much with many of our Butter-makers in the quantity of 
salt, btit I have taken the first premium at our County Fair, in the 
Fall, oo June-made Butter that was salted with half an ounce only, to eo/-k 
pound, and packed immediately, without a second working, ami that 
Butter, when 13 months old, was just as sweet as when packed." 

Always pack your Butter directly after the tirst working, as it 
tends to make it streaked to work it the second time; for, wlieu cold 
and hard it is difficult to work it uniformly. For home use it may be 
packed in jars; but, for the market, in the best oak firkins, which 
must be first soaked in cold water, then scalded and steamed l)y pour- 
ing boiling water into them, and covering for 20 to 'SO minutes to keep 
the steam in. Then pour off and rub the firkin thoroughly with salt 
or soda, wiping out the surplus, and give it a slight rinse, and when 
cool, it is ready to receive the Butter. And when the firkin, or jar, is 
full, cover with good sweet brine, to keep out the air, and it is ready 
for the market, or for keeping. 

2. Butter to Presei-ve — T-wo Months even "Without Salt- 
ing-, and to Prepare for Market. — A patent was taken out in l^ou- 
don for the following method of preserving Butter: 

The Butter is first well beaten, in the usual manner, after churn- 
ing; then placed between linen cloths and submitted to severe pres- 
sure, for removing whey and water. It is now completely envelofied, 
or covered with clean white paper, which has been coated, on Ixilh fudrs, 
with a preparation of the white of eggs, in which lo grs. of salt is 
vised, for each egg. This prej)ared paper is first dried; then, wlien 
used, is to be heated before a fire, or with a hot iron (fire is undoubt- 
edly the best), just before wrapping it around the Butter. In this 
way Butter may be "kept perfectli/ sweet, without salt, for two months, if 
placed in a cool cellar. 

To the above, the Scientific American makes the following remarks, 
with which I fully agree: 

"The submitting of Butter to pressure, as described, is a. good plan, 
and one which we recommend to all our farmers. They can e:isily 
practice it with a small cheese-j)ress." 

' Of course, this patent is all free in the United States, and I would 
suggest, in connection with this Recei[>t, that if farmers, or dairymen, 
who make considerable Butter, will adopt this i)Ian, with the addition 
of salting properly, before the pressing is done; then wrap|iiiig the 
.^Ua In the cloth, prepared as above; then packing in barrels or boxes, 


f-jr shipment to the cities, thej^ would be able to get 10 to 20 cents 
more on the pound, than is obtained for half the Butter that is sold; 
and let me also say, that most of the Butter made and sold has en- 
tirely too much salt in it. For salting Butter take the purest fine salt 
jrou can get, 1 lb. with fine powdered sugar, 1 oz. for 16 lbs. of Butter, 
intimately mixing the sugar and salt, and also the salt into the Butter, 
BO there is no lumps of salt, nor any Butter that has not got its proper 
portions of salt; and if this Receipt alone does not many times pay 
the expense of this Book to those wh« use it, I shall be most happy in 
making it good to them. Let the grocer who sells it, put up his sign. 

Dairyman 's Butter, putting a good price upon it, and, then let no 

falling off in care, ever occur, and a name will be establislied that will 
cause most dairymen to soon increase the number of his cows. 

Some of the Philadelphi^ns have been considerably celebrated 
for the excellence of their Butter; and notwithstanding they difl'er a 
little as to the time milk should set, etc., before being skimmed; yet, 
I think as the Practical Farmer has taken the pains to investigate and 
report their plan, it may be well to give it, as it contains some addi- 
tional items of a practical character, on Butting-makmg. The editor 

"He finds that with the model dairyman, Butter-making is a matter 
of business, and all the minutie (smallest things) receive his personal at- 
tention. The quality appears to depend on a number of very impor- 
tant, though minute processes. Butter made from sweet cream will 
not keep well, and until the milk sours, all the cream can not be ob- 
tained, while, if left longer, rancidity (a strong, sour scent, as of old 
oil) ensues. A small quantity of sour milk is, therefore, put into each 
pan to hasten this process, unless the weather is such that the souring 
of the milk takes place within the 36 hours, which is considered the 
proper time for the milk to stand before being skimmed. The skim- 
ming must be done at exactly the right time. The temperature, 62°, 
is regulated by a thermometer. The cream vessels are kept in water 
at a low temperature, and regularly, twice a day, are stirred thoroughly 
with a wooden spatula. At churning time these cream pots are set 
into a boiler of hot water, and stirred rapidly, with a stick, till the 
temperature reaches 60®, when they are immediately emptied into 
the churn. See Cooling, or Warming Cream, below. When the But- 
ter begins to break, a quantity of cold water is poured in, which tends 
to harden it and cause a more thorough separation of the butterAilk. 
This is then drawn off and more water thrown in, to wash out any 
still remaining. After working and seasoning, the Butter is laid in 
water, on a clean cloth for a couple of hours, when it is worked over 
again, and finally prepared for market." 

The following item from the Country Gentleman, not only corobo- 
rates what has gone before, but also introduces some new thoughts in 
avoiding odors, which, I think, are of sufficient importance to warrant 
its insertion. It says: 

3. Good Butter. — First. For making good butter, the first 
thing is to have good sweet pasture, free from weeds or any growth 
that will give a tod taste to the milk. Good upland grass is belter 
than coarse grass grown on wet places. Some dairymen think thut 
limed is better than unlimed land, but this is a matter of minor im- 
portance. Other.* regard the practice of sowing plaster in Spring, and 
repeating it early in Autumn, as tending to sweeten grass. 

11— DB. chase's second RF.CF.IPT BOOK. 


Second.. Good, well selected cows are the next requisite. 

Third. Perfect cleanliness, from beginning to end, is indispensa- 
ble — the most so, perhaps, of any one thing. No dirt or dust musl 
drop into the milk, for which reason the animals should have a clean 
place to lie on, and never be allowed to stand in mud or manure; ves- 
sels all thoroughly washed — scalded whenever necessary to preserve 
perfect sweetness— including pails, pans, pots, churns, workers and 
tubs or firkins. They must first be washed with cold water; for if hot 
water is used first, it will curdle the milk in the cracks or comers, and 
prevent its washing out. 

Fourth. A perfectly pure air is of great importance. Bad odors 
will taint Butter. The dairy house should, therefore, be far away 
from manure yards and everything else of the kind. Keep tobacco 
smoke off the premises. 

Fifth. Let the Butter be well worked, so as to press out all the 
buttermilk. It is impossible to have a good article if this is not done. 
Perhaps this is the most common cause of failure. If much milk is 
left in, it soon ferments and makes rancid and worthless Butter. 

Sixth. In laying down \ot Winter, use new firkins — never use 
them a second time; and pots or jars must not be used, if they have 
ever had bad Butter in them, or pickles or anything else that will' 
taint them — the taint can never be wholly removed. 

Seventh. The best dairy salt is important. Butter in hot 
weather must be covered and excluded from the air with saturated 
brine (brine as strong as salt will make it). 

4. Cooling-, or Warming Creana in Butter Making. — As it 
has been found that churning can be done quicker and easier, if the 
cream or milk is at about 62" or 63° Fah., a very easy plan to accom- 
plish this is to have a tin tube about 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and 18 
inches to 2 ft. in length, with a handle at the upper, or open end; 
then in Summer, to cool it, fill with ic. and pass it around in the 
cream, until the right degree is obtained ; and, in Winter, fill with liot 
water, for the same purpose. The plan of putting hot, or cold water 
into the churn for this purpose, is not good. I think this plan wab 
first reported through the Hearth and Home. 

5. " Establishing a Butter Factory. — D. E. Brower, of Bucks 
County, Pa., writes: 'The Farmers' Club of Doylestown, have request- 
ed me to report on the propriety of establishing a Butter Factory. We 
want facts bearing on the question.' Edward Norton, Esq., of Farm- 
ington, Conn.,-^who has recently given considerable attention to the 
subject — to whom we referred the matter, has favored us with the fol- 

" The /oc<s in regard to Butter Factories are simply as follows: 
There are now from 1,000 to 1,200 Butter and Cheese Factories in Nevf 
York State, of which at least half make some Butter, and several hua- 
tlred make 07ily Butter and skim-milk Cheese. The profit depends on-: 

First. The price received for the Butter and Cheese. 

Second. The kind of skilled labor employed,, and the conven 
iences for business. 

Third. The amount of milk furnished to the Factory, or, in other 
words, the proportion of the expenses to the receipts from the sale of 

Fourth. The Butter will always bring from 5 to 10 cents alb. 
more than the average of dairy Butter, on account of its uniformity, 

iKC«>.VI) RBt:KIPT B(K)K. 163 

being made daily, and whole tirkius parked at once. If the benl But- 
ter-makers are employed, it will bring from 10 to 20 cents above aver- 
age, and steadily hold its price. 

Fifth. So much skimmed Cheese is now made that the price 
varies from 4 to 12 cents per lb., according to quality. Hence, 

Sixth. A good Cheese-maker is necessary. For the Butter should 
pay for the milk, and the Cheese pay all expenses. But in this, as all 
other things, skilled labor is costly, for a good workman is always in 
demand. Wages now vary from $.500 to $1,000 a season. 

"The Factory will cost from $2,000 to $4,000. The simplest way of 
finding a plan is to visit Orange, or Cortland County, New York, and 
examine the Factories there. The prices of the requisite machinery 
may be learned of Gardner B. Weeks, Syracuse, New York, Secretary 
of the American DaFry men's Association, who will send a price-list. 

" One vital necessity is a spring of cold water, sufficient to fill a 
two-inch pipe at all seasons. 

"To meet the necessary expenses, the milk of at least 300 cows ia 
needed. Otherwise, even with good prices, the dividends for milk 
will be too small to satisfy the producers. 

For example, if 100,000 quarts of milk earn 4 ceuts & quart $4,000 

Deduct expenses 1,500 

The producer receives 2% cents a quart, 82,500 

800,000 quarts at 1 cents a quart, 12,006 

Btpenses, say, . . 2,000 

The producer receives S% cents a quart, 510,000 

"And for every additional 100 cows, the expense of one Laborer is 
sufficient. In past years some Factories have netted 4 cents a qt. to 
their patrons. Few probably did as well during the season of 1870. 
In a new section the best mode of beginning i.s to organize a stock 
company, the capital being taken by the farmers who send the milk 
(the interest counting among the expenses). A Committee of Manage- 
ment is then appointed, who choose the Superintendent, make sales, 
etc." — Hearth and Home. 

There is no doubt but what the idea of establishing Butter Fac- 
tories is just as practical as that of Cheese Factories, which see. 

6. Packing Butter — New and Successful Method. — Some 
Michigan dairyman not long since reported his method of Packing 
Butter. I am not positive as to what paper he first published it in, 
nor of his name. The facts come to me through the Hearth and Home; 
and, I think, it contains not only Common-Sense, but sound phi- 
losophy, and will appear so reasonable to most Butter-makers that 
they will adopt the plan. It is as follows: 

He has oaken tubs, with heads at each end. They are 14 inches 
in diameter at top, 9 inches at the bottom, and 16 inches high. In 
packing, a cambric bag is made to fit the tub. The Butter is packed 
in the tub as it stands on the small end — the sack being long enough 
to extend above the edges of the tub — and is pressed down firmly un- 
til within an inch and a half of the top, when a circular cloth is laid 
over it, the ed^es of the sack turned down over that, and a layer of 
fine salt placed on it. The head is now put in its place, the tub turned 
up, and the Butter in the sack, of course, falling down to the bottom, 
leaves a space all around it which is filled with brine poured through 

164 DR. chase's 

a hole in the small end. When full the hole is corked up tight. The 
Butter floats in the brine and is efFectually preserved from the air, and 
will keep for an almost indefinite period. 

7, Butter Preserved Sweet for Seventeeia Years.— It is re- 
ported that a crock of Butter has been taken from a steamboat wreck 
which had lain under water and sand for 17 years; and that it was 
found good and sweet, as the day it was made. 

The suggestion would be to sink Butler in a cistern, well, or 
spring, to use when needed. 

BURNING OUT STUMPS.— In the North-west they have 
adopted a new method of getting rid of Stumps. In the Fall they 
bore 1 inch, or 1} inch hole, according to itfs size, into the middle of 
the Stump, 18 inches deep, and put into it from 1 oz. to 11 ozs. of salt- 
peter, fill the hole with water and plug it up. In the Spring they take 
out the plug, and put into the hole from f a gill to 1 gill of kerosene, 
and ignite it. It will go on Burningwithoutany blaze, until the Stump, 
"root and branch" are consumed. 

I have not had a Winter to test this since seeing the announce- 
ment, but it can be easily and cheaply tested by those who have the 
Stumps, which are not too old, to try it upon. 

MoniteuT dcs Tnterets Materiels publishes the following Receipt for 
giving a Brown color to the surface of polished Iron or Steel: 

Mix 4 parts of water by weight; 1 part of gallic acid; 2 parts of 
chloride of iron; 2 parts of chloride of antimony. The chloride pf 
antimony (butter of antimony) .should contain the least possible acid 
in excess. 

■ Dip a sponge in the mixture and rub the metal to be colored. By 
repeating \h.e process the color can be deepened at will. Wash thor- 
oughly with water, and w^hen the surface is dry, cover it with a light 
coating of boiled linseed oil. See Gun Barrels, to Brown. 

1. OANOER. — Cancer is characterized, or known as a hardened 
lump, or knotty tumor, and the treatment of Cancer is about as knotty 
a subject for the profession, as the Cancer itself; and unless the treat- 
ment begins in the early stages of the disease there is but little hopes 
of cure, especially when the large glands, like the female breast are 
attacked ; and when attacking the womb or other internal organs, 
there is but little hopes of a successful termination. 

There is also an encephaloid, or medullary (brain-like, or marrow- 
like) Cancer, a case of which wasbroughtbefore the class, at the Eclec- 
tic Medical Institute, of which I was a member in the Winter of '57-8. 
The patient was a boy about 10 years old, and the Cancer began upon 
the point of the shoulder, but had grown to the height of the top of 
the h«ad, crowding it over considerably, and extended down the arm 
to near the elbow ; and as well as I can now remember, I should think 
if it had been separated from the patient would have weighed 25 lbs. 
It had an open sore, not large, but red and irritable, bleeding upon the 
slightest touch of any thing rough, or that would press mucli upon it. 
Nothing was being done for it, only to keep the general constitution 
in the best possible condition. If I remember correctly it had been 
growing some 3 or 4 years. I hope never to see another. 

Cause. — Some believe that Cancer is caused by a blow , but, I 
think the majority of our most learned physicians, and writers, 
believe it to arise from constitutional changes, and the deposit of A 


Cancerous matter, similar to the deposit of tubercular matter in the 
lungs, constituting consumption. It occurs more often with women, 
than men, and more frequently witli tlie first, about the period 
known as the "change of life," more persons having the disease com- 
mence between 40 and 50 years of age, than at any other period of 
life; very few cases are reported to have commenced before 20, and 
there a few also reported to have began after 80. When situated in 
the breast, there is, sometimes, gnarled or knotty branches that seem 
to spread out from the hard body of the tumor, which has given the 
name of Cancer (crab) from what is now more generally called 
" roots," like the legs of a crab. 

Syraptoms. — Cancer of the breast generally begins in the form 
of a cake, or hardening tumor, bein^ viuch harder tlian the ordinary 
inflamed, or ulcerating breast, occurring at child-birth, and when pain 
attends them, or begins, it will be of a sharp and lancinating charac- 
ter. When it becomes an open sore, the edges will be very irregular, 
also the surface will manifest the same irregularity, prominences, and 
depressions, attended quite often with hemorrhage,^or bleeding, and 
with a burning aiid sharp pain, from time to time. The edge of the 
ulcer may turn out or in ; and the discharge will be of a very offen- 
Bive and excoriating, or corrosive nature. When it occurs on the face 
or other external surface, it is most generally rough, scaly, and, after 
a little, will itch considerably, and finally become painful, but may 
not make trouble, or cause much pain for years. But Cancer of the 
breast, or womb, stomach, etc., generally comes to a more speedy 
termination, and especially so if these are excised (cut out). 

Treatment. — Dr. Allen, of Middlebury, Vt., reports the case of a 
lady about 100 yeai-s old, who died from other disease, who had had 
an open Cancer of the breast for over 30 years ; but it is not common, 
even with those of a less age — a very few years, generally closes the 
scene. It is one of the most loathesome and destructive diseases that 
we have; and one, with which the least satisfactory results are 
obtained ; and especially so of those attacking any of the internal 
organs, and frequently so with the breast, as the axilla (arm-pit) is 
often complicated, by its glands, with the disease, the patient being 
literally destroyed by a slow and corroding, or eating poison, with but 
little amelioration from medicines. As to exterpation, with the 
knife, the almost universal te.stimony is against it, so far as any hope 
is concerned of removing the entire disease. Dr. Monro, of England, 
Bays, that of "about GO cases" which he was present, at the cutting 
out, only /o?ir remained free of the disease at the end of <M/'0 years, 
and he observes that in the cases of relapse, the disease was always 
more violent, and made quicker progress, than in those who allowed 
no operation to be performed. The reason why the whole disease 
can not be readily removed is, that Cancer does not have any invest- 
ing (covering) membrane, like other tumors, but it, as before 
remarked, spreads out its legs into the surrounding tissues, and, con- 
gequently, the surrounding tissues also run into the Cancer, leaving 
no dividing line; and, consequently, when they do cut them out, 
they often cut off hard fibrous bandsj running, into other parts, which 
form new startinp; points for the disease — they can not, generally, be 
entirely dissected out, if the disease has made any considerable pro- 
gress. Those being the facts in the case, what can be done to allevi- 
ate or cure Cancer? I have as.sisted in curing 2 cases onl3', but it ia 

166 DR. chase's 

all that have come under my immediate notice. One was upon the 
forehead, and the other upon the face. They were of the rough, or 
$caly kind referred to above. The plan pursued, and the medicine 
used was as follows: 

2. Dr. Hale's Cancer Remedy. — Arsenic, rochelle salts, white 
vitriol, and sulphur, of each, equal parts, say, 1 dr. 

Rub all down to a fine powder and mix to a salve with yolk of 
eggs, to the consistence of cake-batter. Place it in a clean earthen 
dish, and bake it, until dry and hard, like a well-baked cake. ^Vhen 
cold, pulverize it, and put in a vial and keep corked for use. In 
applying take out enough, when made into salve again with yolk of 
egg, to spread a plaster the size, or a little less than the size'of the 
Cancer, for it will have its effect to the edge, causing a separation 
from the healthy flesh, and this crack will go down to the dcjith of 
the Cancer, as it kills it. And when killed, apply an elm poultice 
until the mass comes out. And if at any time the inflammation 
caused by the Cancer plaster is too great to be borne, apply the elm 
poultice until the inflammation is reduced, then apply the plaster 
again, giving a mild cathartic also, if the poultice has to be applied 
to reduce inflammation. The salve, or plaster must be kept on until 
you are satisfied that the Cancer is all destroyed, or until you can dis- 
cover that some root has penetrated in among the bones, past reach, 
when the case becomes hopeless. In connection with, or rather 
before is the correct plan, the application of the Cancer salve, let a 
cathartic be given, and an alterative taken, beginning a week or two 
before if it can be done, and follow up for several weeks, to correct 
the general system. 

In the 2 cases referred to, there was no difliculty in accomplish- 
ing the undertaking, and one of the gentlemen is still living near 
this city, and still well — the cure was done some 7 or 8 years since; 
the other came from a distance, and I have never heard biit what 
that was equally satisfactory. Dr. Hale, who had charge of the cases, 
was an old physician, of some 40 years' practice, before he died, and 
while he practiced in this city, he was pleased to call me his especial 
friend. I assisted him in difficult cases to the best of my ability, and 
he gave me all of his prized prescriptions, to use during his life time, 
and the privilege to publish, after his death. He died some 3 or 4 
years ago, and I have now for the first time, made his receipt for Can- 
cer known to the public. I am aware that there is a great prejudice 
against the use of arsenic in Cancer, by many ph)'sicians, as well as 
others; but with that prejudice I have nothing to do — the Cancer will 
probably kill in a few years, at most, according to the violence of the 
case, very soon, or a little farther off— if any one can do better, I 
should be very glad — each one must judge for themselves. I shall 
give the opinions of others, as well as my own, so that all may judge 
understandingly. But for my own part I should not hesitate to use a 
piece of "old nick himself," for a plaster, if I could catch him, and 
could be satisfied that there was sufficient virtue left in him to do the 
least bit of good to the Cancer sufferer. But what ought to be done 
in every instance is, on the very first appearance of any swelling of 
anv part, or of the api)earance of any scale or scabby spot upon the 
skin, to begin the application, immediately, of a liniment, or discu- 
tient salve or ointment to it; and at the same time to take a cathar- 
tic "nd other means, as an alterative tonic, to improve the general 


health, then, if it is Cancer, it will be scattered and eliminated, 
(carried) out of the system, at least for some considerable time; and 
should it again appear, repeat the course, and, if need be, continue it 
longer, and thus save much suflering and danger of being compelled 
to resort to severer measures. This plan of immediate action in the 
commencement of the disease is fully sustained by Dr. Beacli, of New 
York, who was one of the leading men in the opposition to the old 
plan of bleeding, blistering, and mercury giving, and who attained to an 
eminent reputation in the reformed practice. He says: 

"When any gland has become enlarged, hardened, and shows a 
tendency to be Cancerous, we should, from the earliest period, use our 
utmost exertions to discuss (scatter), or at least to prevent its farther 
enlargejnent. Applications of a disculient (scattering), and sedative 
(allaying irritability and lessening pain), nature should be used with- 
out delay; and pressure, as lacing, etc., should be guarded against; 
the bowels kept open with purgatives, from time to time; cooling diet, 
and abstinence from all spirituous liquors, and other stimulants of 
everj' kind. 

"When the disease is in a state of tumor, let the following discu- 
tient ointment be applied: 

3. Beach's Cancer Discutient. — "Bark of the root of bitter- 
sweet {solanum dulcamara), stramonium leaves {datura stramonium). 
deadly night-shade {atropa belladona), yellow-dock root (rumex ens- 
pus), pokeberrj', or root (phytolacca decandra), equal parts of each. 

"Bruise the articles, cover with spirits, and simmer a few hours; 
then add fresh butter (unsalted butter), sufficient wlien melted to 
cover the whole; simmer moderately over embers until the strength 
is extracted (until the leaves and roots are crisp); then strain and 
cover in an earthen jar. Let the tumor be well bathed with this 
ointment 8 or 4 times a day, before the fire, or any /ira/er/ .substance 
may be held a little distance from the part during the act of bathing. 
After the tumor has been annointed, let a plaster be applied. Inspis- 
sated (dried, or thick) juice of pokeberry is good; also cicuta. and 
extract of hen-bane. 

" Every -other-night, on going to bed, if there is any pain in the 
tumor, steam with the following decoction : . Take boneset, vorrninood, 
hoarhound, and hops; boil 2 or 3 hours in equal parts of vinegar and 
water; throw the decoction and the herbs into a suitable vessel, to 
which add a small quantity of soft soap; place the vessel underneath 
the tumor, or parts aflected, and let the steam be confined by a blan- 
ket. Continue the application for 15 or 20 minutes each time, and if 
it produces no ;)^r.s/)fra//07i, throw in a heated iron or brick. • If the 
tumor be in the breast, the articles may be put into a large bowl, and 
placed directly under it. When the axilla (arm-pit) and arm are 
swelled, lei the steam be extended to these parts also. (j\Iy own 
judgment would be to apply the herbs, not too wet, as a poiiltice, 
especially if the tumor was in a place where the steam could not be 
got very close to the parts, and even then, I believe the application 
would be the better way). He continues: 

"If the patient should sufler the most excruciating pain, this 
treatment will mitigate (aleviate, or lessen) it, by eliminating (carry- 
ing out) the Cancerous bunions, removing the tension, swelling, and 
inflammation connected with it, and rendering the parts more s'>ft 

168 DB. chask's 

and natural. During the use of these medicines the patient may 
take the scrofulous sirup.-f 

Also give, in connection with this sirup, a pill made of the 
extract of cicuta, containing 1 to 2 grs., twice daily; and, if no nausea 
follows its use, to be gradually increased (I would say, not above 3 
grs.). The following may be tried : Take yellow-dock root, 1 oz. ; com- 
mon salt, 1 oz. ; and 1 pt. of best French brandy (substitute, now, for 
that, alcohol of 76 per cent proof); keep the parts wet with it, instead 
of the plaster. This is very discutient. A purgative should be given 
once, or twice a week. 

" I wish," he says, " to impress on the mind of the person afflicted 
with a Cancer of the breast, the importance and necessity of avoiding 
the use .>f the knife and any corrosive plaster, especially before it ulcer- 
ates, as both are sure to exasperate (make worse) the complaint, 
which otherwise, if treated mildly, or even left to nature, might pro- 
gress very slowly ; The knife and the plaster," he continues, " I have 
found, by extensive experience and observation, to exasperate the dis- 
ease, and hasten it on to a speedy and fatal termination, to say noth- 
ing of the sufferings which they must occasion. If you do it, remem- 
ber, it is at your peril; the opinion of quacks to the contrary, notwith- 

Of course chloroform has since come in to relieve the pain of 
cutting out, so that now a person can feel no pain, in cutting out, 
against a painful and lingering suffering, if they decide upon an eat- 
ing, or destroying plaster. I saw an account of an English physician, 
being 32 days in thus destroying, one, while as many minutes, or an 
hour at most, with chloroform and the knife, would have taken it out; 
then a day or two with a plaster would kill any remaining roots that 
would have been reached, provided tlie plaster had been used from 
the first. When all these things are known, then the persons afflicted, 
or their friends, must decide for themselves what plan to pursue. 

Dr. Hale used the plaster given under his name No. 2, about 40 
years, curing hundreds of patients; but, as a general thing, they were 
of that class beginning in the skin — the scaly kind — and not of very 
long standing. He gave me the history of a case upon the abdomen 
of a lady, where she and her friends were very fearful that it would 
eat through, but he assured them there was no danger, if there was, 
he would stop the application; and the result was entirely satisfac- 

But in case the discutient and corrective, or constitutional measures 
above recommended should fail, which they sometimes will; to pre- 
vent a continuance of the disease, and finally ulceration takes place; 
and the patient does not see fit to have the knife, nor plaster used, 
means must be matle use of to promote a discharge, and to keep down 
excessive inflammation, then let them take cicuta leaves, if they can 
be got, if not gimpson leaves and simmer them in soft water, until quite 
soft, then thicken this mass with ground slippery elm bark, for a poul- 
tice, once or twice daily, and continue to use such alterative and tonic 
medicines as shall aid the constitution in resisting the disease. 

Dr. Beach claims that if any caustic plaster is used, at all, that it 
should be made by boiling the lye made from hichory ashes, to the 

t Note.— Beach's scrofulous sirup wtis made from yellow-dock root, and bark of 
the bitter-sweet root, of each, 2 lbs. to 6 qts. of sirup, mane in tJie usual way. I prefef 
OUT alterative .^irup. 


consistence of molasses or honey ; to be spread, in a small quantity, 
upon a pi^ce of leather and apply to the part Jiffected, and let it 
remain until the pain produced by it subsides, "r as long as the patient 
can bear it; then apply a poultice, daily. The effect is to cause a dis- 
charge, by sloughing off of the ulcer, dimi.«hing its surface. He claims 
that instead of increasing the inflammati jn like other caustic plasters, 
it absolutely diminishes it; but I have had no experience with it, yet, 
I find generally that his instructions can be followed with great hopes 
of success. 

In case of great fetor from an ulcer from Cancer, a yeast poultice, 
may be ajjplied, or a weak solution of chloride of lime, or a weak solu- 
tion of carbolic acid; and in cases of the womb, these weak solutions 
may be injected for the same purpose. 

There are many other corosive combinations which have obtain- 
ed considerable reputation for curing Cancer, that is, to eat them out, 
some of them painful, some claim to be "painless." Prof. King, of 
Cincinnati, 0., in his celebrated work on "Chronic Diseases," which 
ought to be in the hands of every physician, (what he has not said in 
this large work, over 1600 pages, it is not worth the while for any one, 
at the present time to say, although the price, $15, will keep it out 
of the hands of families), gives several of these formula, or Receipts, 
but he does not "recommend them, nor vouch for their efficiency," 
yet, I will condense, as much as I can, 2 or 3 of them that per- 
sons may have a greater range of prescriptions, from which to select, 
should they deem it best to try any one. for their relief. 

4. Brass Filings. — Apply by means of a ring of soft leather 
stuck to the surface with white turpentine — the ring tein^ a little 
longer than the Cancer; then fill inside the ring with the filings, and 
stick a piece of soft leather over the whole, with more of the turpen- 
tine — the hole is to be just the size of the ulcer. Every day or two, the ulcer with castile soap-suds, dry it and re])eat the process, 
as many times as needed, which "eats out" the Cancer with Utile or 
no pain. The Prof, speaks of 20 cases, in which there appeared to be 
permanent cures, by this plan, « 

5. Painless Cure for Cancer. — "Take of solution of persul- 
phate of iron, and aqua ammonia, of each, 4 fl. ozs. ; soft water, J pt.; 
mis and allow it to stand until the precipitate is all settled; then filter 
through strong muslin, and press it a little to remove as much water 
as possible; and before the precipitate (the powder that is left on the 
cloth) has dried, add to it fresh lard to form an ointment. When 
recjuired for use, to 4 ozs. of this ointment add from 10 to 20 grs. of the 
finely powdered arsenic, according -to the size of the Cancer, or the 
pain, etc., it produces, and rub thorougly together. A portion of this 
ointment is to be applied daily, until the whole malignant growth is 
reduced to a slough, and until a needle can be passed into it in various 
parts, as far as to the healthy tissue, without causing pain or tender- 
ness. . The slough maybe removed by slipi)ery elm poultices. Heal 
the simple ulcer left by frequently dressing it with solution of tannic 
a<;id, and elm poultice containing some of the tannic acid, which heals 
without granulation, and without leaving a cicatrix (scar); being care- 
ful at each dressing to remove any 'roots' that may be seen on the 
surfacf of the nicer. If any malignancy (ilisposition to new Cancer) 
is observed at any part, the ointment must be re-applied over it and 
treated as befort'. Should an erysi])elatioi)s redness occur around the 


DE. chase's 

Cancer, or should much pain be produced while using the ointment, 
the quantity of arsenic must be reduced. If the Cancer is not open, 
the skin may be removed with a cantharidal collodion (collodion 
having caiitharides in it) before applying the ointment." This, Prof. 
King says, "is stated to have eflected numerous cures of Cancer mth- 
out pain, and 'taking it outbj' the roots,' aiid I know," he continues, "of 
several in which apparently thorough cures were effected; but in 
large, extensive, or lonstanding Cancerous ulcerations, it generally 
fails. A cure by this method requires from 2 to 6 months, as the pro- 
cess is a gradual one" (and, I should therefore judge, it being gradual 
and painless if rightly managed, it would be oftener followed), 
"Some persons who have built up a considerable reputation for cur- 
ing Cancers, employ, in conjunction with this treatment, a solution 
of potassio-tartrate of iron, or Fowler's solution of arsenic, internally." 
This is 'undoubtedly the preparation of which so much has been 
said, as being practiced in the larger cities, as the "painless Cancer 

6. Red Oxide of iron, animal charcoal, of each, 1 oz.; digitalis, 
and sulphur, of each, J oz.; Canada balsam sufficient to form a thin 
plaster. Spread a small quantitv of this upon a linen cloth ; apply it 
over the whole surface of the ulcer, and cever it with a common tar , 
plaster. Repeat daily, until the Cancer is destroyed — no pain follows 
Its use." 

7. Recent maragold flowers and leaves, recent red clover flowers 
and leaves, blood root, and digitalis, of each in coarse powder, ^ oz.; 
carbolic acid, 4 ozs. ; glycerine, 8 ozs,; mix and allow to stand 14 days. 
Apply some of this, on lint, to the Cancer every day. Said to be also 
useful in lupus (an eating Cancer of the skin, more often of the face, 
from its eating like a wolf) and other cutaneous (skin) diseases." 

8. Dr. Fell's Cancer Remedy. — Dr. Fell is an American gen- 
tleman who went to London, if I am correctly informed, and obtained 
the privilege of treating some cases of Cancer in the London Cancer 
Hospital, wich he accomplished with verj^ considerable success, with 
the following remedy : 

Chloride of zinc' 3 ozs.; tinely-powdered blood root, 1 oz.; bay- 
bo ry wax, 2 oz.; ex. of conium, and watery ex. of opium, of each, 3 
drs. Mix together and form into an ointment (we are not informed 
what he uses with the mixture. Lard is generally used to form an 
oinlmeni, but white of egg, or gum water, we think, might be used). 
Remove the skin with the cantharidal collodion ; and apply the oint- 
ment to the raw tumor; when it forms an eschar (a dry slough, or 
dead tumor, lump), cut lines, gashes, or furrows, in this dead mass 
about half an inch apart, being careful not to injure the healthy tissue, 
and then continue the application of the plaster. In connection with 
this he alternates (one following the other), every 12 hours, with the 
following : 

Glycerine,^ oz.; spermaceti ointment, 4 ozs.; iodide of lead, 2 scru. 
Mix, and form an ointment. Apply this over the ulcer everj- alter- 
nate 12 hours. And in conjunction (associated) with these salves, he 
gives internally, the following pill : 

Pulverized blood-root, 2 scru.; ex. of cicuta, 4 scru.; iodide of arse- 
nic, 4 grs. Mix, and make into 80 pills. 

Dose. — One pill 3 times daily, after meals. 

9. Prof. King informs us also, that carbolic acid has recently 


Deen found to destroy Cancer cells (Cancer matter) under the micro- 
Bcope; and when applied to Cancer, that it is said to relieve pain 
very much, destroy the fetor, and to hriug ahout a healthy action. 
(This is just wliat I should expect, from the very many uses to which 
it has already been applied). It may be used with citric, or aectic 
acids, or it may be applied to- Cancer, or other malignant growths, as 

Carbolic acid 45 drops ; alcohol, ^ oz. ; soft water, 1 pt. ; — or car- 
bolic acid, 1 part; pyroligneous acid of 8^, 4 parts; soft water, 15 
parts. Mis: 

I have not given all of the notes of Prof. K. on the subject of 
Cancer, only such as I have deemed applicable for general use. ■ lie 
classes his notes on this subject in the foll(nving words: 

"Perchloride of iron, used locally" (upon the Cancer) "and 
Internally, has been found very effectual in some cases of malignant 

In closinw my remarks upon this subject, I beg leave to again call 
attention to the very great importance of immediate attention, even to 
the slightest appearance of tumors, scaly appearances upon the skin, 
and sore places that may occur, or come on upon any part of the sys- 
tem. Begin to oppose it by the application, 3 or 4 times daily, of any 
good liniment, and if that does not soon relieve, use a diacutlent oint- 
ment, cathartic, and alterative tonics, bathing once or twice a week, all 
to be done in such a manner as to improve the health and general 
constitution; for, if "an ounce of preventive is worth a pound of cure " 
in ordinary cases, it is worth double price against Caners. iSee Mis- 
CELL.^NEOus RECEIPTS for Cancer under C. 

1. CANKER — Thrush, or Sore Mouth. — Canker is a disease 
of the mucus membrane of the mouth, which may extend through 
the whole alimentary canal, and if not attended to with proper treat- 
ment in time, often becomes very troublesome. 

Cause. — No positive knowledge as to its exact cause; but 
undoubtedly from a failure of the mucus membrane to throw 
off, or excrete, some of the effete, or waste matter which it usually 
does, retaining it in the membrane which causes a small ulcer; and 
it may be and probably, to a certain extent, is caused by a general 
failure of the skin, kidneys, etc., to perform all of their respective 
functions (particular work) in carrying ofl' all of the waste, or worn- 
out matter of the general system. 

Sjrmptoras.— The first symptom noticed will be little whit*? 
alcer.s in the mouth, upon the tongue, etc., and finally unea;;iness and 
irritability of the stomach, with more or less burning or heat of the 
same, according to the severity of the case. The ulcer will be very 
sore, and very painful if irritated by a bit of hard or rough food. 
The skin will become dry, countenance pale, and cold surface, and 
extremities; which to any one who will reflect, sufficiently indicates 
(points out) the: 

Treatment. — Give a gentle cathartic, bathe, or sponge the surface 
once or twice a week, give some of the sweating medicines which shall 
also excite the .skin to action; and use a gargle of sage tea, gold-threrA 
toa, hyssop, sumac berries, etc., all in combination, or any one c\ two 
of them, as can be got, with a little pulverized alum or borax, and 
sweeten with hone}*; and if the sores get pretty bad, h'lrn some alum, 
then pulverize it and touch the sores' with a bit of it upon a rag, or 

172 DR. CHABE'8 

by means of a small brush, or peucil such as the girls use to paint 
their water colors with. Continue the general constitutional treat- 
ment for a week or two, or longer as may be needed, giving light 
nourishing diet, as bread and milk, thickened milk, bean soup, etc., 
and there will be very seldom a case which this plan does not fully 
relieve; but occasionally there will be one. I remember two of my 
own brothers, while I was still young, who bad the difficulty continue 
until the stomach and bowels were all implicated; yet, I think, so far 
as I can now remember, that but little constitutional treatfiient was 
given them. They were cured, however, by taking a bit of tobacco 
leaf from the old "twist-plug," about 2 inches square, or thereabout, 
and putting it into a saucer of water, then gargling with it, and finally 
swallowing a very small quantity of it, 2 or 3 times daily. It cured 
the Canker, but it gave them a hanker, for tobacco. 

2. Dr. Beach informs us that during the revolutionary war, the 
following gargle cured all cases of Canker and putrid sore mouth, which 
was then very prevalent, and previously carried oil' many persons: 

White oak, and ivhite elm (not slippery elm) bax'ks, bark of the 
high blackberry root, and of the root of sumach, nanny-berry bark, 
and sanicle, or black snakiy-root (black cohosh is sometimes called 
black snake-root; but that is not what is meant, it is the [sanicula 
Marilandioa] a small black root, growing in low wood-land thickets), 
of each equal parts, bruise and boil, to make a strong tea or decoc- 
tion ; then add a piece of alum, and sweeten with molasses (now-a- 
days we would say honey), bottle for use; gargle and wash the mouth 
with it (and I shall say, swallow a little, each time). The complaint 
may grow a little worse at first; but it cured all. Dr. B. adds, it must 
be excellent for all kinds of ulcers. 

A tea of golden seal, geranium, and witch-hazel bark, together or 
singly, with a little alum, are good as a gargle, and to swallow a little 
of, if the disease has afi'ected the throat and stomach. Restore the 
general health, in this case, as in all others, as quick as possible. 

1. OATHAHTIOS. — Cathartics are articles which act upon the 
alimentary (aliment, food) canal, causing an extra amount of 
be poured into the different portions of the intestinal canal, and also 
stimulate it, thus, to throw off, or evacuate all of the useless part 
of the food. They are generally divided into 5 orders or classes, 
in accordance with mildness, or severity of their action. The follow- 
ing are among the more commonly used in their various classes: 

2. Laxatives. — Manna, cassia, prunes, honey, ripe fruits, olive 
and almond oils. 

3. Mild and Cooling Cathartics. — Epsom salts, seidlitz pow- 
ders, citrate of magnesia, sulphur, cream of tartar, magnesia, castor- 
oil, etc. 

4. Active Cathartics. — Rhubarb, sena, aloes, butternut, etc. 

5. Cholagogne Cathartics. — This class, as its name indicates 
(carrying ofi'bile) work especially upon the liver, increasing the tlow 
of bile; among them, are the mandrake root, and podophj'llin made 
from it; Culvers physic, and leptandrin made from it. Calomel form- 
erly occupied a position in this class; but it has died a natural death, 
from old age, and the injuries he has committed upon the human 
family, as acknowledged by its friends. See Cai.omki, givkn up by its 


6. Violent Cathartics. — As jalap, gamboge, scammony, crotou- 


oil, colocynth, elaterium, etc., which cause free watery evaciiationa, 
acting with violence unless properly combined with stimulants and 

For various purposes a combination of some from the various 
classes makes a better Cathartic than to use them alone, tlie same is 
the fact also with combinations of some in the same class. 

7. Mild 6,nd Alterative Cathartics. — Sulphur, 1 oz.; cream of 
tartar, 2 ozs. Mix. 

Dose. — One, or 2, to 4 tea-spoonfuls, accortling to the action desired, 
or the purposes for which it is taken. As an alterative 1 to 2 tea- 
apoonfuls, 3 mornings in succession ; then skipping 3, and so on, as long 
a£ may be needed. As an active but mild Catliartic, 3 or 4 tea-spoon- 
fuls may be taken at once, and repeated the next morning if it does 
not operate. For a general Cathartic for children, from 2, or 3 years 
to 10 or 12, and for feeble persons this is very valuable. 

8. Neutralizing Cathartic Cordial.— Best rhubarb, and pure 
carbonate of potassa (salts of tartar), of each, 1 oz.; golden seal, and 
cinnamon, of each, i oz. ; pulrerized sugar, 1 lb.; best brandy, or 76 
per cent alcohol, 1 qt. ; oil of peppermint, 20 drops. The rhubarb, 
golden seal, and cinnamon must be ground, or pulverized, and half the 
brandy, or alcohol, put upon them, and steep gently in a covered basin, 
for 4 to 6 hours, making good with soft boiling water for the evapora- 
tion (it is not expected to evaporate but little, if covered); then strain 
and press gently, after which put on the balance of the spirits and 
steep again for two hours, covered as before, and strain and press 
again, then steep as before with water to fairly cover the grounds, 
strain, press and mix the liquids; then add the potassa, sugar, and 
peppermint oil, having put, however, a spoonful or two of the brandy, 
or alcohol upon the oil before it was all Hsed. This improvement 
upon the original diarrhea Cordial was made by Dr. Hill, of Cincin- 
nati, and furnished by him to Prof. King's American Dispensatory. 

Dose — One table-spoonful, and repeat in 30 minutes, to 1 or 2, or 3 
hours, according to the severity of symptoms. It is an exceedingly 
valuable preparation in diarrhea, dysentery, cholera-morbus, choler»-in- 
fantum, in doses of ^ to 1 tea-spoonful and it is also used in obstinate 
constipation, acfdity of the stomach, dyspepsia, piles, and as a laxa- 
tive regulator in pregnancy. In fact, it' is one of the best regulators of 
the digestive organs and alimentary canal when they are irregular, 
that w^e are possessed of. But, if there are any persons -whose pecu- 
liar constitutional conditions (as the Doctor would say, idiosyncrasy) 
will not allow them to take spirits, it can be taken in powder. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful, to be related as for the Cordial; but, I do 
not think its action is as good as in Cfie liquid form. 

9. Tonic Cathartic. — Best aloes, best rhubarb, and capsicum, 
of each, \ oz. ; white snake root (euptorium aromaticum), Virginia snake 
root {serpentaria) , valerian root, canella alba bark, rasped quassia, of 
each, Joz.: best rye whisky, 1 qt. All the articles are to be pulver- 
ized and put into a bottle with the whisky, and shaken daily for a 
week, when it will be fit for use. 

Dose. — From 1 to 2 tea-ppoonfuls, according to the ease with which 
Cathartics work on the patient, 3 times daily, just before each meal, 
until a good Cathartic action has taken place, after which, once a day, 
if that will keep up a daily passage, if not twice daily, or, just suffi- 
cient daily, to keep up a daily movement of the bowels. This is 

174 "R* ckabb's 

eepecialliy valuable in dyspepsia, or difficult digestion ; from which 
those abstinate constipations generally arise, although in many cases 
the person may not think they are dyspeptic. 

Some people make great objections to the use of spirits of any 
kind, in any way. This isjusl as unjust as it is to uphold it as a com- 
mon beverage. Good spirits are a diii'usable stimulant; jand the pecu- 
liar arrangement of most of the roots and plants u.sed in medicine do 
not yield their important virtues to water alone. Alcohol of some 
kind is necessary to extract their virtues, and it is also a great preservar 
live against souring, etc., hence, I have no hesitation, although a good 
templar,to use them as a medicine, and if any one uses my prescrip- 
tions, just for the sake of the whisky, I should be perfectly willing 
to pay for all they would drink in their medicinal combination; for I 
always make them strong in the medicine, so that from a tea, to a 
table-spoonful makes a dose, which will never, when so strongly tinc- 
tured, excite, even an " old toper's," appetite for liquors. In connec- 
tion with this Tonic Cathartic in dyspepsia, I also use the Aromatic 
Tonic, which see. This Cathartic is as valuable for general purposes, 
as it is in dyspepsia. 

10. Compound Padophylin Pill — For the Liver. — Padophyl- 
in, i dr.; ex. of leptandra (Culver's physic), 1 dr.; ex. of hyosciamua, 
} dr.; ex. rhubarb, ^ dr.; cayenne, pulverized, i dr. Mix, thoroughly, 
osing a little gum mucilage, as needed, and divide into GO pills. 

Dose. — The dose will be from 1 to 3 pills, at bed time, to be 
repeated the next night if they have not operated. This pill will be 
found valuable in all liver dilliculties, constipation, etc., and as a gen- 
eral Cathartic, Experience has shown that the article of leptandrin, 
from the manner of its preparation, does not possess the properties of 
the root (leptandra), hence, ihe extract has been substituted in its 
place. The hyosciamus is gently laxative, allays pain, soothes irrita- 
Dility, and with the cayenne, prevents griping, eie. In chronic cou- 
Btipation, or liver derangement, 1 pill at night, continued until the 
bowels have become regular, is a very good way to take these pills. 

11. Anti-Bilious Pill. — As there are those persons who would 
prefer a Cathartic after the plan of the old Anti-Bilious Pills. I have 
thought it best to give one, as follows: 

Best aloes, 5 drs. ; mandrake root, gamboge, colocynth, and ex. of 
gentian, of each, 1 dr.; capsicum, 2 drs.; castile soap, | dr.; oilof pep- 
|>ermint, 10 drops. 

The soap is to be shaved fine and dried, and all of the articles to 
be finely pulverized and sifted, or else the regular powdered articles 
except the extract and oil, are to be used, now-days kei)t by druggists, 
which must all be thoioughly mixed together and made in the usual 
size — 3 gr. pills. 

Dose. — From 2 to 6, although there are but few who will require 
more than 4, and but few less than 3, to operate as a Cathartic. They 
may be used whenever a general Cathartic is required, by those who 
prefer them to any other preparation; and by taking a large dose of 
them, when a very active Cathartic is needed, as in apoplexy, or other^ 
head difficulties, a very thorough revulsive (withdrawing) action fropi 
the brain, ,'' 

Let it be remembered, by whoever shall gather mandrake t6ot. 
that only those plants which bear the frtiit — "The May- Apple" — should 
«ver be used, because they are milder, that is, do not gripe like the 


male, or whole-steam kind. The bearing kind has a forked-stem, the 
other runs up whole and has a top like an umbrella; the root of this 
'fl harsh. 

1. CHOLERA. — This disease, formerly known as Asiatic Chol- 
era, has become so familiar in this country as to be distinguished by 
the simple, yet terrible name — Cholera. Its first appearance, in its ter- 
ribly spasmodic and fatal character, was India, in 1817, — the year of 
my birth. There had, however, been some ravages in the English 
army in Bengal, previous to this time; but by some it is believed to 
have been by a disease more like our Cholera-Morbus. From 1817, it 
made slow but steady progress Westward, extending in 1831 over near- 
ly all Europe, reaching England as late in the year as October, and 
America, in 1832, carrying ofl' its vitims in Asia, by millions, and in 
our country by thousands; svho does not remember its terrible rava- 
ges, and the terror preceding its approach? Notwithstanding the gen- 
eral opinion that it originated in the filth of India, and that unclean- 
ness in cities still have much to do with its appearance, yet, in its 
first visit here, every class of persons — old and young — rich and poor 
— those living in mansions, as well as those in shanties, were alike sub- 
ject to it. 

Cause. — Notwithstanding the Cholera has paid us several visits 
since 1832, and some of the most philosophic men of the age have 
examined it in every possible way, no positive conclusion has yet been 
arrived at, as to its cause; but it is generally believed, however, to be 
contagious, yet upon this point there is also considerable disagree- 
ment, however, there is a pretty general agreemen>t in one thing, 
that is, that the eating of such food as cucumbers, melons, cabbage, 
unripe fruits, etc., as well as the use of intoxicating liquors, have a, 
great tendency to bring on the disease in the time of its prevalence, 
and to bring on Cholera-morbus at almost any time, if not used 
with proper care; and that exposures to cold, damp night air, and a 
great fear that you will have the Cholera, are almost sure to bring it 
on. I spent 6 weeks in Detroit, during Oct. and Nov. of 1832, while 
the disease was raging there, without a fear, or a symptom of the dis- 

Symptoms. — In some instances there has been a general warn- 
ing given of its approach, by a derangement of the stomach, gas., or 
wind in the bowels, fulness, or pain in the head, and other parts, con- 
siderable thirst, and a tendency to diarrhea, sometimes only for a few 
hours, and sometimes for a day, or two; and this has been general in 
a community, but not always; and sometimes it comes with a crash — 
carrying all before it; coming on with vomiting, purging, and cramps, 
which usually begin in the legs, but soon reach the stomach and be- 
come general, over the whole body; the tongue becoming pale, the 
pulse feeble, breathing hurried, and the heart laboring with dit-trass, 
and the whole appearance manifesting great suffering; and finally 
terrible thirst, as the excessive watery discharges have carried off the 
watery, or more fluid parts of the blood; which, if no relief is give:i, 
soon brings on the stage of collapse — great prostration, skin cold and 
clammy, pulse scarcely perceptible, eye sunken, and the face, hands, 
and feet become dark colored as though the blood was becoming 
clogged, which it undoubtedly is, by the draining off of its fluidity, by 
the, now, involuntary dischargess and if the patient does net become 
insensible from stupor, will crave more air, water, or ice. This stag* 

176 DK. chase's 

may continue from an hour to a day, but very few ever recovering 
from this terrible stage; almost the only hopes of benefit is by be- 
ginning the treatment with the beginning of the disease. 

Treatment. — Although the general treatment of Cholera has 
been very unsatisfactory, I believe it has been for the want of a com- 
mon-sense consideration of the subject, and a common-sense prepara- 
tion to meet it before its terrible pangs have made a lasting clutch 
upon the system. In other words, as its tendency is to exhaust the 
strength, and thereby produce a coldness of surface, almost equal to 
death itself, the first thing to do is to stimulate tke internal as well aa 
the external surface; and, in time of Cholera, for each family, and 
each individual who has come to the age of making their own calcula- 
tion, to consider what they will do in case of an attack, and to have 
on hand, always with them, what they have determined shall be used 
in their own cases; then, when they realize that it is upon them, be- 
gin at once, with the remedy, and but few cases will reach the stage of 
collapse, whereas, heretofore, it ha« been the general result. To show 
the reader that I speak understandingly about the neglect of attention 
in the beginning of the disease, I will say that during the Cholera in 
Cincinnati in 1849, there was a Cholera hospital established there, 
and in the report by the resident physician, J. H. Jordon, M. D., to the 
Board of Health, at its close, he says that a large share of those who 
died were brought to the hospital after they were in the stage of col- 
lapse, many of tkem living less than an hour after their arrival. Let 
me repeat then, make up your mind what you will do if attacked 
with the Cholera, in any time when it prevails, and be ready with the 
remedy, on hand. If y®u do not wish to depend upon the remedies of 
this Book, go to your physician and get a prescription, and instruction 
from him how to do, and be readv to do it, if you hope for success. 

Cholera being a disease that I have never had any personal prac- 
tice in, except as an assistant in one sporadic (disease occurring in 
a single) case, I shall depend upon those who have not only attended 
to very many cases; but who also had the greatest success .in its treat- 
ment; and among them, I have no doubt, but what the name of Pro- 
fessor T. V.Morrow stands pre-eminently high. He was one of the 
early associates with Dr. Beach, in medical reform, and, for a long time, 
a Professor in the Eclectic Medical Institute, of Cincinnati, and a very 
successful practitioner. So great was the confidence of Prof. Sher- 
wood in the correctness of Morrow's plan of treatment of Cholera, 
that after giving a sketch of his own plan, while lecturing before the 
class, "I will now," he says, "present you with a synopsis of the 
modes of treatment, recommended by certain practitioners, whose 
extensive experience and eminent success in the management of this 
dreadful malady, entitle their suggestions to much consideration." 

"I will read first, extracts from a lecture delivered by the late 
Professor Morrow, in this Institute, and i)ublished in the Eclectic 
Med'ival Journal, Vol. I., p. 277, as follows: 

"The treatment pursued in each individual case was regulated by 
the condition of the patient at the time of being called. In a very 
large majority of the cases that came under my notice the patients were 
afi'ected with diarrhea, great prostration of strength, nausea and vom- 
iting, with slight spasms. In the early periods of such cases, the 
patient was directed to go to bed, if he, or she had not already done 
80, and was directed to take freely of the: 


2. "Cholera Cordial preparation, composed of equal parts 
of rhubarb root pulverized, saleratus, and peppermint plant, powdered. 
To ^ oz. of this mixture, boiling water, 1 pt. was added. After sim- 
mering it for J an hour, it was well sweetened with white sugar, and 
strained, and when nearl}' cold, 2 or 3 table-spoonfuls of French 
brandy were added, and the patient was directeil to take this warm, 
svery 15 or 20 minutes in doses of 2 table-spoonfuls, in connection with 
the following: 

3. "Tincture. — IVTade by adding 1 oz. each, of pulverized allspice, 
einnamon, cloves, gum guaiacum, and nutmeg, to 1 qt. of good French 
brandy, in doses of from 2 tea-spoonfuls to 1 table-spoonful every 20 
minutes, to an adult, placing immediately around the body of the 
patient, hot bottles of water, hot bricks, or stones, and covering the 
patient well, in bed, with a suitable quantity of warm clothing. This 
course will soon produce a warm, copious perspiration, which should 
be continuedfor 6, or 8 hours at least; and, if the case is a severe one, 
A moderate moisture of the skin should be kept up a longer period. 

"This course usually puts a quietus (a final discharge, or acquittal) 
on the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea." (What more could be 

"This plan of management" he goes on to say, "is nearly posi- 
tively certain of success, if properly carried out, in every case, in the 
earlier stages of its progress " (you see it must not be put off. as I have 
taken especial pains to point out), "and, as a general rule, there is but 
little difficulty in carrying it into the desired extent of operation, in 
fulfillment of the great indications for wViich it is intended."' 

What I deem to be just as good, yet a less troublesome way, for 
family use would he to combine the two preparations, above given, as 
follows : 

4. Cholera Mixture. — Rhubarb root, peppermint plant, allspice, 
cinnamon, cloves, nut meg and gum guaiacum, all pulverized, of each, 
1 oz.; brandy, 1 qt. ; soft water, 1 pt. ; saleratus li ozs.; sugar, 1 lb. 

Put the roots, barks^ plants, and gum into the brandy and shake 
it daily for 2 weeks, strain and press out and bottle the mixture; then 
add the water to the drugs and steep for an hour or two, and strain and 
press out again and add to it the sugar and saleratus, and this to the 
spirit mixture. 

Dose. — A table-spoonful every 15 or 20 minutes in a little hot water, 
or hot spirits and water, as above, and all the other plans of hot bot- 
tles of water, bricks, or stones, the same, as convenient; but any one 
choosing, can pursue the double, or two medicine plan, being careful 
to give first a dose of one, then the other. 

But to proceed, he says: "In those cases, however, which were 
marked by strong spasms, violent vomiting, and purging, from the com- 
mencement, and which had not already passed into the stage of col- 
lapse, or if this violent train of symptoms was present at the time of 
seeing the patient, whether the attack commenced with them or not, 
I usually commenced the treatment with an emetic of the following 

5. Cholera Emetic— "The saturated (made as strong as can 
be) acetous tincture of sanguinaria Canadensis (blood root) ; and of 
lobelia inflata (lobelia), tinctured in the same manner (in vinegar;) 
and oftne spirituous tincture of araliaspinosa (Southern prickly -ash), 
equal parts of each, and erive it in doses of fr'>m 1 to 2 table-spoon fulft, 

12 — DB CHAflK'S SEf«)Ni> RKtRlfl B<X»i. 

178 DR. CHASB'8 

every 10 minuteB, mixed in a little water, or hot tea, sweetened, till 
the patient vomita freely 5 or 6 times. 

" This, in all cases, seemed to exert a powerful controling 
influence over the subsequent coarse of the symptoms of the numer- 
ous cases in which it was used. Perspiration was much more readily 
induced, and continued without the necessity of using a course of 
measures so elhcient as those first iudiciated, or rather under the same, 
less vigorously applied." 

6. Hunn's Life Drops For Onolera, etc. — This "preparation 
composed of equal parts of the oil of [leppermint, cloves, anise, and 
eajeput," (say 1 oz. each) "with a (]uantity of alcohol, equal to one- 
half of this mixture of the oils" (say 2^ ozs.) "to cut them and allow 
them to mix intimately, was found to possess a high degree of value 
in the treatment of ««?<'rt; cases of Cholera. This, I understand, was 
a favorite remedy in the treatment of this disease, in 1832, and was 
extensively used by the late Dr. Anthony llunn, a celebrated medi- 
cal reformer, of Kentucky, and is still known by the name of Hunn's 
Life Drops,' in some parts of the countrj'. In several very severe casesj 
this compound manifested great controling powers, in doses of from 1 
tea-»poonjful to 1 lahle-spoonful every 15 or 20 minutes, mixed with half 
a glassful of hot brandy-sling. In one case in which the patient was 
in a violent spasm in all of the flexor, muscles of the body, with the 
thighs drawn up against the abdomen, and the legs against the 
thighs, the neck and head forward against the breast, with a violent 
state of contraction of the abdominal muscles, <?<;o tea-spoonfuls of this 
compound were given with but Utile cfl'ect, but, this was followed, in 
10 minutes by a tahle-spoonful, which soon effected the desired relaxaiioH, 
and relieved the patieni.. The patient described the influence as very 
powerful, and penetrating, even to the extremeties of his toes and 
fingers. This powerful concentrated medical compound manifested 
very superior powers in those cases in which the patient was rapidly 
approaching the state of collapse, or even in the earlier periods of that 
stage, accompanied at the same time with obstinate (continued nausea) 
and vomiting, as well as profuse watery discharges from the bowels. 
In several cases, after the relief of the spasms, nausea and vomiting, 
an obstinate and moderately profuse (free and freqtient) diarrhea 
still continued; then, one-half, to a tea-spoonful of this preparation 
was given with complete success. 

''There were several cases of this complaint, in which, after vom- 
iting, cramps, and pains were all relieved, the patient was annoyed 
with a fre(|uent desire to have a discharge, but could only pass a 
little slimy mucus, similar to the discharges in dysentery. From 10 
to 15 drops, of this mixture, were given every hour, with almost 
invariable success in cas'^s of this kind. 

" In 1 or 2 crises of collapse which were treated by me^ I found 
the sudorific (sweating) tincture a most valuable medicine, given in a 
little hot catnip or peppermint tea. It quieted the deep-seated nau- 
sea and distress, and restored the lost circulation with singular energy 
and promptitude. 

"The application of blankets over the whole body, as hot as couid 
he handled, often dij)[)ing them into boiling-hot water, was found to 
exert a most beneficial influence. The rule adopted in reference to 
their uf<e, was to wring them partially dry after immersing them in 
the water, and then apply them by wrapping them around the 

»Jlt-0«D RKCEIiT UOOK- 1T9 

patient's entire body, leaving the head and neck free, and covering 
aim over with dry bed clothing, and allowing them to remain usually 
15, or 20 minutes, when they should be taken otfand new hot blankets 
imme<liately applied as at first. Re-action and a copious perspiration 
generally took place in the course of an hour, or two, after comuienc- 
mg these applications, especially when aided by the use of proper 
internal stimulants, anti-spasmodics, and sudorifics" (all of which 
are found in the " Life Drops"— King says: "Cajeput Oil is a power- 
ful diffusive stimulant, diaphoretic" [sweating-sudorific], "and anti- 

" The extract of plantago cordata,f (water plantain, or heart-leaved 
plantain), also manifested powers of no inconsiderable value, when 
given in the form of pills cf 2 grs. or more at a dose, and repeated in 
the course of an hour, in common cases not marked with symptoms 
of unusual severity, for the purpose of quieting the nausea and vom- 
iting, and arresting the diarrhea." He closes the subject in tne fol- 
lowing words: " The results which have been consequent on tlie course of 
practice above indicated, have been highly satisfactory^" — Jones i& SherwoocTs 

In the case of Cholera referred to above, in which I assisted, with 
others, under the Doctor's directions, I cannot say what was used 
internally ; but our part was to rub the surface with the hand, using 
as much mustard upon the limbs, and the whole surface, as we could 
stand it to breathe over, but the physician admitted to us that with- 
out our part of the treatment his would have been of but little 
account : as knots would rise up almost in a moment, by the terrible 
spasms ; and, for awhile, it seemed that as fast as we could work one 
down another would arise; but, in from 1^ to 2 hours, the spasms 
yielded, and the case improved from that on. It is undoubtedly a 
very valuable auxilliary (helper/ in the treatment of severe cases, per- 
haps not any better than the blankets wrung out of boiling-hot water, 
and not as good, unless there are 3 or 4 assistants to apply the friction 
with the mustard. Prof. Scudder, in his Domestic Medicine, on the 
subject of cramps, in Cholera, says. 

"The cramps are an exceedingly troublesome feature of the dis- 
ease, and are best removed by friction with dry mustard. This is also 
recomineniled to bring the circulation back to the surface, but with- 
out the slightest effect, until the internal remedies commence to affect 
the system. The compound tincture of cajeput" (Hunn's Life Drops) 
"is jnuch the best lot;al application, if it was not so costly." 

i have only to say here, if the cost of the treatment is to enter 
into the consideration of trying to save the life of a patient, by no 
means make any effort at all ; but if life is worth saving, " put the best 
foot forward," be ready, on the approach of Cholera into the region 
round-about you, and when you have to treat it, do your best, if you 
hope or expect success. The life drops are certainly a powerful tube- 
facient (to make red — to bring the blood to the surface), or liniment, 
and notwithstanding its expense, in Cholera, Cholera-morbus, or any 

Note.— t King, In his American Dispensatoi-y, says : " The root of Plantago t^orilata 
Ua.stringent, aiioiiyne. aiiti-spiismodio, ami aiiti-emetic. The decoction aiulextrtu't hare 
been succes-sfully n.sed in Asiatic Cholera, checking the disease in a short time; they 
have likewise f)roved beneficial in dysentery. The plant is (\>rtainly deserving more 
extended investiijation. A poultice of the roots is recommeudt^d as an application to 
old, indolunt olcers, bruises, wounds, etc.; it allays iurtammatinn. and reduwi 


other spasmodic actioii, should be applied freely, externally, and, ao 
much as needed, internally. 

In mild cases, and in cases generally that are to be began with 
as soon as any syuiptoms of the Cholera appear, in the time of its 
raging in the neighborhood, I have another, less expensive, but, if I 
may judge from the explanation following it, a very valuable prepar- 
ation for Cholera and Diarrhea, as follows: 

7. Cholera and DiaiThea— English Remedy — Tested in 
240 Cases Without a Failui-e.—Spirits of camphor, laudanum, and 
oil of turpentine, of each, li drs. ; oil of peppermint, i dr. Mix, and 

Dose. — For Cholera, 1 table-spoonful in a glass of warm, weak 
brandy and water— for Diarrhea, 1 tea-spoonful, in the same way. 

This prescription was sent to the Scientijic American by W. W. 
Hubbell, of Philadelphia, April 2S, 1866, with the following explana- 
tion of its trial by the "Liverpool Dock Committee," which was ap- 
pointed in 1849, to attend to that part of the city, in the casesof Chol- 
era that might occur. And the Committee report "that 157 men of 
the North Works, and 93 men of the Dock Yards, who had been at- 
tacked by Cholera, or Diarrhea, had taken the medicine, and the whole 
of them had recovered. While 10 men of the North Works, and 13 of 
the Dock Yards, similarly attacked, but who had 7iol taken the medi- 
cine, had died. In not a single case had the prescription failed. Medical 
men assert, and experience shows, that this is an excellent remedy, 
and well worth being kept on hand by every family." 

A child, according to the severity of the attack, and its age, may 
take from 5 to 20 drops; and it might be repeated in from 30 minutes 
to an hour also, according to the severity. But it must be remem- 
bered, that in giving anj- preparation to children which contains lauda- 
num, morphine, or opium, it can not be repeated as freely as it can 
with grown persons, for their systems can not resist the poisoning in- 
fluences of opium, comparatively with the adult. 

8. Cholera Remedies— Successfully "Used by the Rev. Dr 
Hamblin, of Constantinople, in Hundreds of Cases. — The fol- 
lowing "invaluable medicine" was communicated to the Boston 
Traveller, by Henry lloyt, in the following words: 

"Rev. Dr. Hamblin, of Constantinople, saved hundreds of lives 
by the following simple preparation during the terrible raging of 
Cholera in that city a few years since. In no case did the remedy fail 
where the patient could be reached in season. It is no less effective 
in Cholera-Morbus and ordinary Diarrhea. A remedy so easily pro- 
cured and so vitally efficacious should be always at hand. An ordi- 
nary vial of it can be had for 25 cents or so, and no man should 
be without it over night. The writer of this received the Receipt 
a few days since, and having been seriously attacked with the 
Cholera-Morbus the past week, can attest to its almost magic induenco 
in affording relief from excruciating pain. He ardently hopes that 
every one whose eyes trace these lines will cut this article from the 
paper and procure the medicine withont delay. Its prompt applica- 
tion will relieve pain and presumptively save life: 

Take one part laudanum; one part camphonwted spirit; two parts 
tincture of ginger; two [)arts tincture of capsicum. 

DosK.— One tea-spoonful in a wine-glass of water. If the case be 
obstinate, repeat the dose in 3 or 4 hours." 

SElU.ND KECEU'T boOK. 181 

I should say, in a bud case, do not wait more than 1 to lo hours 
before repeating the dose, according to the severity of the case. 

9. Cholera Treatment, as Practiced in India, by the In- 
spector General of Hospitals. — Dr. John Murray, the Inspector 
General of Indian Hospitals, and an authority on the subject of Chol- 
era, has communicated to one of the English journals an important 
paper on this disease, from which the following is extracted: 

"It is our duty to assist Nature and to relieve pain. In the stage 
of malaise (the first symjjtoms), the poison is thrown off without any 
violent, or very prominent symptoms by the natural functions of the 
system. Our task here is to support the strength, avoid indigestible 
food, and depressing causes. The only medicine that I have found 
useful in this stage is a little quinine every day. The subsequent in- 
dications of the treatment are to remove the abnormal symptoms as 
they appear, of which the most early is Diarrhea. The first indica- 
tion is to check this, and restore the case to the stage — simple Diar- 
rhea; then remove the cause, and restore the natural secretions. Irri- 
tating, or indigestible food, in the bowels, is the most frequent cause 
of Diarrhea; and should this not previously have been discharged in 
the evacuations it should be removed (I suppose by gentle cathartic), 
and a recurrence of the looseness guarded against, as I have always 
found it the most powerful exciting cause of collapse. I have found 
this best carried out by a combination of opium, with carminatives 
in the form of Cholera pill, composed of: 

"Opium, 1 gr.; black pepper, 2 grs.; and assafoetida, 3 grs. 
"It appears to check the looseness, and stimulate the secretions. 
The pill does no harm if needlessly administered. It should be re- 
peated should the looseness continue. It will cure most cases, and in 
all restrain the symptoms until regular medical advice can be pro- 
cured. This is a most important point in the use of this simple rem- 
edy. It may be distributed to every house, and be available in a few 
minutes, whereas the delay of a few hours may allow the disease to 
advance beyond control. I know no better remedy fot this stage. 
These pills have been distributed in tens of thousands in the towns 
and villages in India with most satisfactory results. Some surgeons 
preferred to black pepper, and others add camphor to the opium 
and assafoedtida, and report favorably of the combination. They are 
distributed in the dispensaries, and are placed in the hands of the 
police in India. In this country similar arrangement.s might be 

"In collapse, our power is limited by the circumstances tliat the 
vital organs are insensible to the ordinary action of medicines. Ex- 
perience shows that opium, astringents, and alcohol lie inert in the 
collapsed stomach, though are the ordinary remedies for pain, 
looseness, and debility. It is also my experience that the free use oi 
these remedies at this stage causes death, either by preventing reac- 
tion, or by causing local complications should reaction appear. 

"There is another cause of death which is not generally under- 
stood, but which it is not in the power of all sufferers or attendants 
on the sick to check or prevent. I allude to the extreme danger of 
assuming the erect posture, or even of sitting up in bed, during the 
collapse, or the earlier stage of reaction. I have seen myself, and I 
have heard of many case.s, where fatal syncope instantly followed sit- 
ting up in, or rising from the bed." 

188 DR. CHARB'S 

10. Cholera -Morbus Tinctvire. — "When pain in the bowels, 
and diarrhea arise from eating green fruits, or other vegetables, the 
following tincture will 1)6 found very valuable, the rhubarb helping 
to carry off the offending matter: 

Sirup of rhubarb, paregoric, and spirits of camphor, of each, equal 

Dose. —One tea-spoonful every 1, 2, or 3 hours as needed, and if very 
bad, for 2 or 3 times, give every 30 minutes. 

And if the difficulty continues any considerable time, the old 
French method was to give no food except chicken-broth. '« 

CHOLBRA-MORBUS.— The stomach and bowels are the seat of 
this disease, although, as in Cholera, its effects soon extend to the 
muscles of the body and extremities. It is generally confined to the 
Summer and Fall seasons of the year, but I have known it to occur 
in the depth of a Minnesota Winter, for cause. 

Cause. — Tliis disease probably more generally arises from a con- 
tinued over-eating of indigestible food in the latter part of Summer, 
and beginning of the Fall, as fruit and vegetables not fully ripe; but 
h. may arise from a single eating of any one article, which from some 
unknown reason may not agree with the stomach, at the time, as, for 
instance, when I was in Minnesota, in the Winter, I had a very severe 
case of it arising frorn eating parsnips, although ordinarily they 
agreed with the patient; but such cases are not common, in the Win- 
ter; but in its proper season, hot days followed with cold nights, are 
quite likely to bring it on, especially so, if there is any improper food 
indulged in. Persons who are in feeble health, especially, should be 
Very careful during its season, for they are more likely than those in 
robust health, to take the disease — avoid, then, all unripe, and other- 
wise irritating kinds of food and drink, that are liable to run into 

Symptoms. — Nausea, with pain in the stomach, or flatulency 
(gas), may be the first sensations that anything is wrong; but thev 
will soon be followed with griping and pain in the abdomen, witli 
vomiting and purging, in turns; at first the passages will be watery, 
but soon take on a dark, or bilious tinge, becoming more bilious as 
the disease progresses: and all the symptoms becoming more severe 
and intense, as the disease progresses; and although the thirst may 
be great, scarcely any drink will be retained; the pulse becomes 
small and feeble, the fountenance becomes haggard, and the deepest 
distress is manifested, a cold sweat finally breaks out, and the pros- 
tration becomes extreme, which it w'onld appear, sufficiently indicate, 
or point out the case. 

Treatment. — If it arises soon after a full meal, or the eating of 
any one, or two articles in considerable quantity, the best thing is to 
get that out of the way, by the Cholera emetic, given in the Cholera 
treatment, above, unless tlie contents of the stomach, are thrown up 
in the vomiting from the disease; in that case, give 2 or 3 doses of 
Ilunn's Life Drops, to warm up the stomach, then follow with the 
Cholera mixture, or Cholera cordial; or, if the regular neutralizing 
cathartic cordial is on hand, which it always ought to be, give that, 
until the disease is under control. But, in ordinary cases, of not very 
great severity and pain, the neutralizing cathartic, in full doses, repeated 
once or twice, on short time, then at longer intervals, will be all that 
is required. If the pain is very great in any case, nut a mustard 


plaster over the stomach, and if need be, one over the bowels also; 
and give 20 to 30 drops of UnKhuiuui, with a few drops of the iicvtral- 
izing medicine; and in ca«e of verj' great distention of the bowela 
from the presence of gas, let a cat liefer be introdnced well np the 
rectum to allow its free esaipe. Tlie neutralizirig medicine maybe 
vomited up once or twice, but hardly ever more, if it is, repeat in 5 
minutes. If ur.ustani is needed, and none on iiund, take cayenne, or 
red peppers and boil, or steep a spoonful or two in a basin of water, 
and wring cloths out of it, hot, and api>Iy and change in its place. 

In rune the disease seems to pass down from the stomach, and, 
yet, appears to cause great distress in the bowels, give the following: 

Injection. — New milk, or slippery elm mucilage, or common 
gruel if ueithei of the others are at hand, to a pint of which add 
molasses, ^ pt.; lard, 1 table-spoonful; laudanum, salt, and saleratus, 
of each, 1 tea-spoonful, all well dissolved, and inject as warm as can 
be borne, which soothe and relieve the pain, and allow a more free 
exit of gas. In case of cramps, friction must be applied, with dry 
mustard, if necessary, put in hot water, applying hot bricks, etc. 

When the disease begins to pass off, and the patient craves food, 
or drink, let milk-gruel, made with a little flour, elm-water, toast- 
water, etc., be given, in place of iniligestable, or hard food. 

OHOLBRA-INFANTUM.— The difference between infant Chol- 
era, and that of the Asiatic, or full-grown Cholera, is the ypeed of the 
latter and the lingering of the first. That the whole of them, includ- 
ing the Cliolera-morbus, arc somewhat akin, there is not much doubt. 
Summer, and Full, are the general periods of their approach; and they 
are all much worse in the city than country. Cholera-Iiifantum is more 
often known -as Sammer-Comphunt, perhaps than by any other name. 
And in tJie cities has andonl>tedly carried off raoro children than all 
other diseases |)at together. 

Cause. — As it is a disease more often occuring during the period 
of teething, this h;i8 been very generally believed to have been the 
principal causp of the disease; but, more recently it is believed, by 
many, as not the chief cause, and sometimes not at all the cause; for 
children have it that are not teething. Hence it is thought to arise more 
from the change in thesystemby the beginning of tliecbild toeat solid 
food; and often that of a crude, or indigetable kind, and especially so 
if the child, or parents, are of a weakly and debilitated constitution — 
impure air, arising from the Ihonsands of decaving rubbage-heaps in 
the city, producing debility: then, unripe fruit, cakes, candies, and 
confec'tionery, as a special excitant, are the; 
and if all were situated so that they could follow the indications here, 
i. e., droj) the crude and indigestable food, go to the free and healthy 
country, I need not proceed to give the symptoms, or treatment; 
but every one must come as near to the indications as possiI)Ie, that is 
all they can do, and that is all they will be held responsible for. 

Symptoms. — Asa general thing the (irst symptom noticted will be 
a slight (iiarrliea; but when the attention of the parent is thus called 
to it, the child will also be found pale, and more or less weak and 
feeble; and the longer it is permitted to run, the greater the weak- 
nes.s, and loss of flesh. The appetite is precarious, sometimes eating 
Toracously, then nothing at all, but nausea and vomiting pretty surely 
following the taking of any considerable amount of foc<l, or drink, 
either of which it may crave; and in some there is corLsiderable 

184 OB. CBAsan 

fever, and the child becomes restless, and irritable, contented only on 
being carried out of doors, in the daytime, and around the room at 

Treatraent.— First, see that the child has notning to eat except 
plain and nourishing food, no confectionery, nor unripe fruit, and no 
fruit unless well roasted apples, if the craving for them is very great, 
and the more out-door air, the better. Give the neutralizing cathartic 
in tea-spoonful doses, once in 1, 2, or 3 hours as may be necessary to 
control the acidity of the stomach, and correct the bowels. And the 
nrobahility is that there is no other combination of medicine that will 
Lave as goocl an effect, as long as the disease may continue, as this 
regulator, which it has been truly called, as it corrects the acidity of 
the stomach, and cleanses it and the bowels, and restores their t-one by 
its astringent and tonic effects. Continue its use until the passages 
become natural and healthy. In severe cases, the injedton mentioned 
in cholera-morbus, with only a little of the laudanum, may be used, 
once, or twice daily, and will be found valuable; and in cases where 
there is fever, known by a dry harsh feeling to the skin, use bathing, 
or sponging, the water being of such a temperature as to feel comfort- 
able to the child, and brisk friction, with a dry towel, or the hand, 
after the surface has been wiped with a towel. Any other severe 
eymjjtoms that may arise, in any case, should be Treated the same as 
in cholera, or cholera-morbus. An excellent diet, in these cases, is the 
old-fashioned thickened-milk, made by boiling milk, and thickening 
it with wheat flour that has been wet up with cold water, or cold milk, 
not to a watery mixture, but a lumpy condition, and stirred in while 
the milk is boiling; but it must not be made too thick. Rice flour 
makes a nice change also, for thickening the milk, or making a gruel, 
if good milk can not be had. With small children, great pains must 
be taken to dr^ them, as often as any passage makes a necessity for 
it — cleanliness is as much the mother of health, as of Godliness, as 
some one has said. 

COLIC- -Colic, although much like cholera-morbus in some 
of it* i)oints, differs from it in this: That it is generally attended with 
costiyeness instead of looseness of the bowels; and, consequently 
requires active cathartics, and a greater amount of stimulating car- 
minatives to enable the stomach to retain the cathartics. 

Cause. — It is supposed to arise from a want of the proper amount, 
or qtiality of the bile, hence the costiveness, and irritation of 
the slomach and bowels. 

Syraptoms.— Severe painin the bowels is one of the distinguishing 
features of Colic, and'there is often retching and vomiting, although 
seldom any purging; but, rather, as above stated, great costive- 
ness. The taste of the mouth will be bitter and acrid, or bitter and 
nauseous. Pressure upon the bowels seems to give relief for a 
moment, when if the pain was from inflammation it would be tender 
under pressure. While in cholera there is alack of bile, in Colic 
there is, generally, an over amount of bile, and such spasmodic con- 
tra(;ti')n of the intestines, that the bile is thrown up, upon tlie stom- 
ach (the bile dnct, from the liver, empties itself a few inches below 
the stomach, |)roper, and ordinarily passes along with the food that 
has received its portion of gastric [stomach] juice into the intestines) 
and is raised by vomiting, causing the bitternes.s of the mouth, and 
for the want of which, the costiveness arises; and the chief cause of 

8BCOND BEUKira BOOK. 1*"> 

which, probably, is a failure of the skin and kidneys to properly 
secrete, or carry off their proportion of the effete, or waste matter 
of the system, throwing it all upon the liver to do, and which it refuses 
longer to do, leads me to the consideration of some plan wliich 
Bhall restore all these functions (special action) of the various organs, 
in rebellion against their proper and legitimate work. 

Treatment. —A tea of the wild yam t {dioscorea villosa) has been 
found a perfect cure for Colic of the most painful kind. Hence, let 
every family provide some of it for use. An oz. of the root may be 
gtee])ed in water, 1 pt. 

Dose. — Give \ pt. and repeat every ] hour as long as necessay. 
King says, of it: "In the absence of any positive knowledge concern- 
ing the action of the dioscorea (it is always customary to write words of 
any foreign language in italics, and also any otlier word that we 
would call especial attention to), perhaps it would be better to say that 
it is a specific (positive cure) in bilious Colic, having proved almost 
invariably successful in doses of 2 pt. of the decoction, repeated every 
J hour, or hour. No other medicine is required, as it gives prompt 
and permanent relief in the most severe cases." 

In the American Electic Practice of Medicine, by Jones & Sher- 
wood, Vol. I., I find the following corroborative testimony of the pos- 
itive success of tlie yam in this disease. Prof Sherwood says: "The 
remedy upon which I rely in the treatment of bilious Colic is dioscorea 
villosa. I have used it with entire success in all the cases that have 
come under my care. In one case that had been previously treated 
48 hours, with injections, fomentations, anodynes, and cathartics, 
without success, the patient was relieved in \ an hour by taking one 
dose of the dioscorea. In another case, to which I was called in the 
niglit, the patient^ who had been suffering severely for 12 hours, was 
perfectly relieved in a few minutes, and soothed into quiet S'leep. It 
has never been known to fail, and I should rely upon it with entire 
confidence in all cases of this disease. The philosophy of its thera- 

?eutic action may not, as yet, be fully understood, or clearly explained, 
hat it is eminently adapted to the case is very certain, and that, after 
all, is the main point in practice. You may be interested to learn," 
he continues, "that the knowledge of its virtues was in possession of 
the same old German, who has given name to ' Bone's Bittors,' and 
who was also famous, in his neighborhood, for the treatment of bil- 
ious Colic. The Receipt was obtained from him by a medical student, 
whom he had successfully treated in that disease, after he had been 
given over by other physicians." 

2. Prof. Scudder's Treatment of Oolio. — In the June No. 
1871, of the Eclectic Medical Journal, the Professor gives us the follow- 
ing succe.ssful treatment of Colic, and as the remedy can easily be 
obtained any time of year 1 give it an insertion. His heading is; 
" Nux Vomica in Colic. — For a long time I have prescribed 

fThe yam, Df Colic-root, has a small vine which runs over bit.shes and fences 
tn hedtros and thickets, not very common in New England, but grows from Canada 
to Die South through the Central Siate.s. The stem is smooth, woolly, and of a red- 
dish brown color, and may be 10 to 15 feet long, the leaves of a light green. The 
root if woody, lie.s just \inder the surface of the ground, of pretty irregular size, with 
l)oih ends tnincatcd ffull size, like they were cut off), from the size of a comraou 
w^ncil to % inch in diameter, from a few inches to a foot, or two long, and may 
kave 3 or I vines coming up from 1 root. Steep 1 oz. in 1 pt. of water and lake 
half for a dose. If needed, repeat in J^ an hour. Relieves Colic, and consequently 
miMt be an excellent anti-spasmodic. 

186 OH. chase's 

Nux Vomica for Colic, and have found its action very Batisfactory. I 
am Batistied there is no real difference in Colic, so far as the pain ie 
concerned, the difference being not of kind, butof degree. Whether it 
is the Colic of infancy, the ordinary Colic from indigestion, wind Colic, 
cramp, bilious Colic, or from lead-poisoning, the pain arises from the 
same pathological condition of the nerves disturbed by the cceliac 
axis (meaning the sympathetic nerves of the abdomen). The causes 
vary very greatly, and a Treatment directed to the removal of these 
causes, musi necessarilj' vary in diflerent cases. But if we are pre- 
scribing for the pain, we recognize it as one in all the different forms, 
and if we find a remedy that will reach it directly in one it will in 

"Whilst I claim that Nux Vomica is a true specific to the condition 
of the intestinal nerves producing the pain of Colic, I would not claim 
it as curative in all cases, certainly not in lead Colic. The cause may 
be so active and persistent as to continue the pain despite this direct 
action upon the nerves, and a cure will only come from the removal 
of the cause. 

"For the Colic of infancy and childhood, I prescribe it constantly, 
and in a large majority of cases it gives prompt relief. Not only pre- 
sent relief, but when the Colic is habitual it sometimes effects a radi- 
cal cure. For a young child, one droi> of the tincture to two ounces of 
water would be the proper proportion. 

"Dose. — from J to 1 tea-spoonlul, repeated as often as necessary. 

" Wemeetwith casesof Colic in young personsabout the age oi pu- 
berty, in which the pain is associated with variable appetite, impaired 
digestion, poor blood, and consequently impaired nutrition. In these 
cases Nux Vomica will usually remove Uie entire train of lesions, and 
the child regains good health on its use alone. 

"In common Colic, I never think of giving any other remedji 
The prescription is: 

"Take tincture of Nux Vomica, 10 to 20 drops; water, 4 ozs. 

"Dose. — A tea-spoonful every hour. 

"My experience in that form of Colic known as bilious is not snffl- 
ciently extended, having used it in l)ut five cases. One of these has 
had repeated severe attacks, in which it has served the purpose full 
as well as any other means I have ever employed. One has had two 
attacks, both promptly relieved by this remedy. The other three, one 
attack each. One of these last was subject to frequent attacks, some- 
times lasting from 24 to 48 hours, and leaving her very much prostra- 
ted. She had been under Homoeopathic treatment, and though the 
remedies they employed relieved her at first, they had lost their 
influence. Two doses of Nux as above, gave her relief, and she went 
to sleep. 

"I have prescribed it in mild casesof lead Colic only, but as it has 
given relief in these I should very surely try it in severe cases, giving 
sulphate of soda largely diluted until the bowels were moved. 

" We have already called attention to the use of Nux Vomica in 
acute and chronic diseases, the remedy being selected by one symp- 
tom — umldlical pain. And singular as it may seem, we commonly 
find that it proves the remedy for the disease in its totality (whatever 
it may be), when this symptom is prominent. 

"Thus we luiiy see that in severe Colic, when the cause still per- 
sists, we may obtain a cure from the influence of the remedy upon the 


nerves. For with good innervation the intestine speedily regains its 
natural power, and 18 siidii-ierit fur the reuiovul of the cause." 

But if the yam is not at hand and the disease lias arisen imme- 
diately after having eaten a full meal, or any considerable amount of 
any one article, an emetic is the lirst thing to be thought of, and to 
settle and stimulate the stomacih a little, to receive it, if you have 
IJnnn's Life I)roi)8 in the house give a dose or two of it while the 
emetic is preparing. If the Drops are not at hand, a very strong gin- 
ger tea, or cayenne, red pepper tea, ^ pt. at least, quite strong, or ?ipirit8 
of camphor, ess. of pepermint, in hirge doses, will warm up the stom- 
ach, and eu'able it to retain the emetic until its relaxing properties 
may have their effect on the stomach and system generally; for what- 
ever will relax the system will helji the general disease. A full 
dram of brandy, or other s{)iritH, in hot water and repeated in 
20 to 30 minutes, often relieves without other treatment: but 
I would put in a tea-spoonful of black pepper if notiiing else 
was at hand, with each dose. If the is very severe, and 
there is not a convenience in the house for a hot-bath, let blan- 
kets be wrung out of boiling water and wrapped around the whole 
body, or at least over the stomach and bowels, and changed as soon 
as they become at all cool, for 2 or 3 times. And as soon as the 
emetic has operated and the stomach becomes a little settled give a 
large dose of the Tonic Cathartic, 2 table-spoonfuls, at least, and if the 
person is hard to operate upon with cathartics generally, repeat it in 
2, or 3 hours; and give an injection using laudanum in quantities of J 
to 1 tea-spoonful with each injection, according to the severity of the 
pain, and this may also be repeated unless, a passage, and general 
relief is soon obtained. In case an injection is given, a table-spoon- 
ful, or two of the Tonic Cathartic may also be put into it, until, a move- 
ment of the bowels is obtained, with which the pain will subside. 

OOLiDS. — We often hear a class of remarks about "taking Cold" 
which are calculated to make us believe that who make such 
remarks disbelieve in su(;h a thing as taking Cold — they say, "where 
did you catch it?"— "what did you catch it for?"— "what are yon 

?oing to do with it?" etc., etc. Is there, then, such a thing as to take 
lold, and if so, what is it? 

The true science of languge is to enable one to plainly understand 
what ide'as others wish to convey by the use of language; and the 
fearer the words used, the better, provided one is perfectly understood. 
I will suppose a man is engaged, upon a cold winter-day, chopping 
wood, by whi(;h means he has <;aused a free pers|)iration to have 
broken out over his whole surface, when a neighbor comes along, and 
one, or both of them are bles.sed with the gift of "giil>,"' consequently 
they begin to talk, the cho{)per stops work and leans over the fence, 
tlie wind does not stop blowing notwitstaniling the man has stopped 
chopping, his coat is still off also. They talk over the last neighbor- 
hood scandal, politics, price of pork, and produce generally, for half an 
hour, or an hour perhap.s, his sweating has sto|>ped, his skin has 
become dried up and shriveled, he begins to feel a sense of fullness, 
or pain in the head, ditlicult breathing, perhaps sneezing also, with a 
Btutled up feeling in the nose, etc., etc., and to save the time and 
words neces.sary to tell all of the above symptomn, he says, "I have 
taken Cold," which covers the whole ground. But, now, if he does 
not at once take a course to rej^tore the circulation to the surface, and 

188 DR. ohasr'b 

re-establish perspiration, there will be, after a little, a slight muciu 
secretion from the nose, throat, and Inngs, perhaps, and cold shiver- 
ings, with flushes of heat, alternating, with more or less severity ; 
according to the severity of the change. It does not follow that Colds 
may not be taken only after severe exercise; for it matters not how 
this change is brought about — it may be by riding in the cold, or even 
walking, when the weather is so severe that the exercise does not 
hold the warmth to the surface, sitting in a current of air, a cold 
room, or in any way which throws the secretion that the skin usually 
throws off, in upon any internal organ; only, when it settles upon the 
nose and throat it is called "a Cold," although there, it is an inflamma- 
tion, but w^hen it settles upon the lungs, or their surrounding mem- 
brane, the pleura, it takes the name of "inflammation of the Lungs," 
or "pleurisy," " inflammation of the bowels," " kidneys," " stomach," 
etc., etc. 

Weakly, or debilitated persons are more likely to take Cold than 
those of a more robust and healthy constitution, but the most healthy, 
by long exposures, or exposure to very severe storms, or changes, may 
also be attacked by inflammations, and, if they are, the consequences 
are often more severe than in the invalid; so the greater /iaftiZiiy is 
oflTset by the greater severity. As the cause and symptoms have already 
been set forth, it only remains to give the 

Treatment, which consists in restoring the circulation to the 
surface, and by holding it there for a sufficient length of time to 
overcome the tendency to recede, or "strike in." This is best done 
by exciting a free perspiration, together with such medicines as have 
a tendency to excite the skin to carry on its legitimate work, i, e., to 
throw oS sensible perspiration (sweat), or insensible perspiration 
(that which is so slow that it is not observed). The diaphoretic, or 
gvieating powder, or any of the hot teas that a person may have at 
hand, in connection with the sweatiny process, as given below, or any 
of the aids to sweating, as found under their various heads. 

The old "grandmother plan" was to soak the feet in hot water, 
give hot hemlock, catnip, or other hot teas, at bed-time, which if per- 
8ued with sufficient vigor was excellent. Then came the plan of the 
"rum sweat," or alcoholic sweat, which Prof. King, of Cincinnati. 
O., introduced to the medical profession some 25 years ago, which was 
done by burning alcohol in an open dish; but the heat was very 
great upon the lower limbs and up the sides, from the great surface of 
the blaze ; and some were afraid of it as dangerous in setting firo to 
the clothes, and accidents have occasionally arisen from its use, but I 
am very glad to announce a perfectly safe and successful way. It is as 

2. Dr. Q. Johnson's (London, England) Cure for Colds, 
and Recent Oatairh. — Dr. Johnson is the Professor of Medicine 
in King's College, and gave his plan to his class, in the Winter 
of '(5!)-'70, froTn which the Scientific American in March, 1870, gave the 
following quotation : 

"The popular domestic treatment for a Cold, consists in the use 
of a hot foot-bath at bed-time, a fire in the bed-room, a warm bed, 
and some hot drink taken after getting into bed, the diaphoretic 
(sweating) action being assisted by an extra amount of bed clothes. 
Complete emersion in a warm bath is more efficacious than a foot 


bath; but the free action of the skin is much more certainly obtained 
by the infinencc of hot ;iir — most surely and profusely, perhaps, by 
the Turkish bath. The Turkish bath, however, is not always to be 
had and even when it can be had, its use in the treatment of recent 
Colds, or Catarrh, is attended with some inconvenience. In particu- 
lar, there is tlie risk of a too speedy check of the perspiration after 
the patient leaves the bath. So tliat, on the whole, the plan which 
combines the (/rcatcst degree of efficiency with universal applicability, eon- 
tists in the use of a simple hot air bath, which the patient can have in hit 
trum room. All that is required is u spirit lamp with sufficiently large 
wick. Such lamps are made of tin and sold by most surgical instru- 
ment makers. 

"The lamp should hold sufficient spirit (alcohol) to burn for half 
an hour. The patient sits, undressed, in a chair, with the lamp between 
his feet, rather than under the chair, care being taken to avoid setting 
fire to the blankets, of which an attendant then takes 2 or 3 and folds 
them around the patient from his neck to the floor, so as to enclose 
him and the lamp, the hot air from which passes freely around the 
body. In from 15 to ?>0 minutes, there is usually a free perspiration, 
which should be kept up after this, for a time, by getting into bea 
between hot blankets. I have myself gone into a hot air-bath, suf- 
fering from headache, pain in the limbs, and other indications of a 
severe incipient (beginning) Catarrh (Cold in the head), and in the 
course of half an hour I have been entirely and permanently freed 
from these symptoms, by the action of the bath. 

"Another simple and efficient mode of exciting the action of the 
skin consists of wrapping the undressed patient in a sheet wrung out 
of hot water, then, fold over this, 2 or 3 blankets. The patient may 
thus remain 'packed' for an hour or two, until free perspiration has 
been excited." 

3. If this "rum sweat," as it was formerly called in this country, 
is good to break up a cold when it settles, or seats itself in the head why 
should it not be just as good to break it up when it seats itself upon 
the lungs, or pleura, taking the name of intlammation of the lungs or 
of pleurisy, or any other part, as the case might be? — it certainly is. 

I have found, however, that the common lamp with one or two 
wicks, makes too little heat, as the old saucer plan made too much, 
so I have had one made with four burners, the tubes beinjg only about 
one-fourth of an inch in size, this gives exactly the desired heat, so 
it can be continued as long as desired, without burning the limbs or 
endangering the blankets. See Sweating Process. 

And now then, I wish to ask again, if the foregoing plan will 
cure Colds, or Catarrhs, as they are more generally called, and I know 
they will, why may they not just as efficiently cure inflammation of 
the lungs, or pleura (pleurisy), or any other inflammatory diseases? 
They certainly will, if taken in time, and the perspiration is kept up 
for 20 to 40 minutes in the bath, then by "hot .slings," or "hot teas," 
for an hour, or two, in bed, the course will not have to be repeated 
in one case out of ten. if the cure is applied the first day, or e^ieniny, on 
which the Cold is taken." But, in case a Cold, or Catarrh, or aji 
attack of pleurisy, or inflammation of any other part is not broken 
up by the first process, repeat it after a lapse of 6 to 12 hours, accord- 
ing to the severity of pain, or the tenacitj' of "grip" manifested by 
the disease. 

190 OB. chasb'b 

And in chronic, or long standing cases, this process will be found 
valuable to break up old habits of the system, to begin with, and to 
repeat occasi((nally. 

But the consequences of "checking perspiration" are so often 
fetal, unless the above, or some other plan, is at once resorted to, "to 
break up the Cold," as it is properly called, I have felt constrained to 
quote a few cases from Dr. Hall's Journal of IJeallh, and to exhort all 
who may find themselves under any similar conditions, to loose no 
time in adopting some plan of srveating ami its accompanying treat- 
ment, whether it be night, or day, if they wish to avoid the enci of 
such cases as are given below. If they do not attend to it at once, and 
stick to it until perspiration is again established, tlie consequences may prove 
equally alarming. Ujion this subject Dr. Hall says: 

"If while perspiring, or while something warmer than usual, 
from exercise, or a heated room, there is a sudden exposure to a 
still, cold air, or to a raw, damp atmosphere, or to a draught, whether 
at an open window, or door, or street-corner, an inevitable result is a 
violent and instantaneous closing of the pores of the skin, by which 
waste and impure matters which were making their way out of the 
system are compelled to seek an exit through some other channel, 
and break through some weaker part, not the natural one, and harm 
to that part is the result. The idea is presented by saying that the 
'Cold' has settled in that part. To illustrate: A lady was about get- 
ting into a small boat to cross the Delaware; but wishing first to get 
an orange at a fruit-stand, she ran up the bank of the river, and on 
her return to the boat found herself much heate<l, for it was Summer, 
but there was a little wind on the water, and her clothing soon felt 
cold to her; the next morning she had a seveie Cold, which settled 
on her iungs, and within the year she died of consumption." 

"A stout, strong man was working in a garden in May; feeling a 
little tired, about noon, he sat down in the shade of the house and 
fell asleep; he waked up chilly; inflammation of the lungs followed, 
ending after 2 years of great suffering, in consumption. On opening 
his chest there was such an extensive decay that nearly the whole 
lungs were one mass of matter. 

" A Boston ship-owner, while on the deck of one of his vessels, 
thoughthe would 'lend a hand,' in some emergency; and, pulling off 
his coat, worked with a will, until he perspired freely, when he sat 
down to rest awhile, enjoying the delicious breeze from the sea. On 
attempting to rise, he found lumself unal>le, and was so stiff in his 
joints, that lie had to he carried home and put to bed, which he did 
not leave until the end of 2 years, when he was barely able to hob- 
ble down to the wharf on crutches. 

"A lady, after being unusually busy all day, found herself heated 
and tired toward the close of a Summer's day. She concluded sh» 
would rest herself by taking a drive to town in an open vehicle. The 
ride made her unconifortahly cool, but she warmed herself up by an 
hour's shopping, when she tnrjied homeward; it being late in the 
eveniivg, she found herself decidely more chilly than before. At 
midnight she had pneumonia (intiammation of the lungs), and in 3 
months iiad the ordinary symptoms of confirmed consumption. 

"A lady of great energy of character lost her cook, and had to 
take her place for 4 days; the kitchen was warm, and there was a 
draft through it. When the worK was done, warm and weary, aha 


went to her chamber, and laiil down on her bed to rest herself. This 
operation was repeated several times a day. On the fifth day she had 
an attack of lung fever; at the end of 6 month she was barely able to 
leave her rhaniber, only to find hereelf sulTering with all of the more 
prominent symptoms of confirmed consumption; such as quick pulse, 
night and morning cough, night sweats, debility, short breath, and 
falling awa}'. 

"A young lady rose from her bed on a November night, and 
leaned her arm on the cold window-sill, to listen to a serenade. Next 
morning she had pneumonia, and suffered the horrors of asthma for 
the remainder of a long life. 

"Multitudes of women lose health and life every year, in one /of 
the two following ways: By busying themselves in a warm kitchen 
until weary, and then throwing themselves on a bed, or sofa, without 
covering, perhaps in a room without fire; or by removing her outer 
clothing, and perh^ips changing her dress for a more common one, na 
soon as they enter the house after a walk, or a shopping. While the 
rule should be invariably to go at once to a warm room and keep on 
all of the clothing at least Jive to ten minutes, or until the forehead is 
perfectly dry. And, in all weathers, if you have to walk and ride on 
any occasion, do the riding first." 

Let it not be thought that the above cases are isolated, or uncom- 
mon; for such cases are occurring in almost every city and village, 
daily ; in country neighborhoods, perhaps not so often, but occasion- 
ally ; for, I speak from what I know, by over 50 years of observation, 
that they are loo true; but, let it be a^ distinctly understood, that if 
these very cases, nine out t)f every ten, if not 99 out of every 100 of 
them, were treated with the "Sweatinc4 Process," as above describ- 
ed by Professor Johnson, as illustrated also under the head of Sweat- 
ing, which see, I say at least nine-tenths of them would, in a few 
days, if not in a few hours, have been all right again — ivhoever neglecU 
a Cold does it ui the peril of their lives, or to the destruction of health. 

3. Chronic Catarrh — A Very Successful Remedy. — The 
following remedy has been found very successful in the treatment of 
'those difficult oases: 

Iodine, the size of a common bean; alcohol, 1 dr.; soft water to 
fill a 2 oz. vial. 

Put the iodine and alcohol into the vial and shake until dissolved ; 
then put in the water. 

To Use. — Have a small, or ear syringe, and first inject warm water 
to wash out the nostrils and throat; then inject 1 syringeful to each 
nostril, daily, will cure, as far as it can reach the infiamed surface, 
within from 1 to 3 weeks according to the length of time the disease 
has been standing; at least it has done so in cases that were so bad as 
to make people vomit from the bad matter that reached the stomach 
on rising in the morning. 

I have given this Receipt just as I obtained it, of a gentleman in 
whom I can put implicit confidence, as to its ellects upon hims^elf, and 
others, and I have no doubt of its having done what he says; and, I 
have given it for the reason that I know that the thousand-and-one 
remedies for Chronic Catarrh generally fail; but I have great hopes that 
xrnch benefit will arise in the use of the iodine; and if complicating 
diseases which persons may have, as dyspepsia, rheumatism, derange- 

192 DB. chasb's 

ment of the liver, as costiveness, etc., are properly treated, in conne<s 
tion with the iodine, I think these hopes will be realized. 

But it must be remembered that a Chronic Catarrh is a chronic 
inflammation of the membranes lining the nasal passages, and that in 
all inflammations there is a concentrated, or larger than a usual 
amount of blood to the parts; hence, an equalization should be un- 
dertaken by restoring the skin, kidneys, liver, etc., to their healthy 
action, by proper bathing and friction to the surface, j^roper diuretics, 
cathartics, etc., to ensure success — the same if any chronic inflamma- 
tion, of any part, the same as in an acute one, or one brought on by 
a recent cold — uhv not? Is this unreasonable? Certainly not. 

COSTIVENESS.— This condition of the system is generally only 
a symptom of some derangement of the digestive organs, for a correc- 
tion of which, see Dyspepsia, and the Miscellanous Receipts. 

CONSUMPTION.— Consumption, properly speaking, is the 
decay, or wasting away of any organ of the body, or of the Body itself: 
but it has become common to apply it to a diseased condition and 
wasting of the substance of the lungs only. 

Cause. — It is understood to be an hereditary disease ; but it un- 
doubtedly also arises in persons of an enfeebled and debilitated con- 
dition of the system, especially of the blood; from neglect or mis- 
treatment of other diseases; from frequent "colds" which check per- 
spiration and throw their effects upon the lungs; intemperance in 
living; tight lacing; heated ball-rooms, then into the cool air half-a- 
dozen times, perhaps, in an evening; sedentary habits; confinement 
in close and ill-ventilated rooms in factories, etc.; long continued 
watching and anxiety; disappointments; over indulgences of the 
passions; and by a deposit of tubercle (small particles of diseased mat- 
ter which readily passes into a still greater degree of disease), first in 
the upper portion of the lungs, or lung, as the case may be, then ex- 
tending, perhaps, to the whole extent of the lungs. 

Symptoms. — The Symptoms of Consumption are too well known 
to require any lengthy description. If the disease arise from an in- 
flammation of the membrane covering the substance of the lungs and 
forming the air-cells, the first Symptom will be a slight or more severe 
pain, according to the degree of the inflammation, generally, at first 
m the upper portion of t!he lungs; but, if from tuberculous deposit, 
cough will be the fir.?t Symptom — a short, dry hacking and tiiesome 
cough; and finally pain in the breast, or whole of the lung, or lungs, 
slight fever, heat in the hands and feet, face, etc. The cough will be 
the worst in the morning, and the fever worst in the afternoon, per- 
haps, after having felt more or less chilly. (Is it not, then, a periodi- 
cal disease, and, if so, why will not the anti-periodics help it, or cure 
it?) The appetite fails, the features have a sharp and contracted ap- 
pearance, a sense of weight and constriction of the chest, or breast, 
and finally, perhaps, bleeding from the lungs, diarrhea, pain in the 
abdomen, hectic fever, i. e., constant fever, with considerable thirst, 
all of which Symptoms, as the disease advances, become aggravated, 
or worse, the nails curve over the end of the fingers, the voice be- 
comes weak and more or less hoarse; and, finally the limbs become 
bloated, or swollen, and the person may die suddenlj'^from congestion 
(accumulation of blood) in the lungs, or linger and die merely for 
want of breath, from the decay of all the vital or life-giving substance 
of the lungs. 


Treatment. — Weakness being the most common cause of Con- 
sumption, such medicines as will restore strength will greatly aid the 
cure of Consumption; for there are abundance of evidence, in the ex- 
amination of the lungs of dead persons, and also of living witnesses, 
to show that very many cases have been cured ; and what has been 
done can be done again. In the village of Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, I 
learned while living there, there are, undoubtedly, more than a dozen 

{)ersons living, who went there from 2, Or 3 to 15 years ago, with their 
ungs so badly diseased that they only hoped to live, that are now en- 
joying excellent health. The sarae is true of very many other towns 
in that State, and probably none more so than St. Paul. But I shall 
refer to this subject again. 

If a "cold," or a succession of colds are taken which cause a 
soreness of the lungs without exciting sufficient inflammation to be 
called '•inflammation of the lungs," the Treatment should be the 
same as for a more decided inflammation, i. e., take a sweat, on retiring 
at night — the alcohol lamp, feet in hot water, hot teas, etc., are the first 
requisite, sponging and friction to the skin with a little sal-soda in the 
wa'ter, or what is better, is the cayenne pepper in whisky, } oz. to the 
qt., or more, if that amount of pepper does not excite tlie skin to suf- 
ficient action to make it smart a little, using it night and morning, 
with out-door exercise, drawing in full breaths, the mouth being 
closed ; then clasp the nose and gently blow so as to distend, or fill 
every pore, or cell of the lungs. Doing this for several breaths, and 3, 
or 4 times daily, will be found very valuable. And to obtain strength 
the most nutritious and easily digestable food roust be used, in mod- 
eration. Most people eat toice aa much as they need, which, instead 
of giving additional strength, as Uiey suppose, gives less strength, be- 
cause it gives the stomach over-work, thereby weakening the digestive 
powers. A moderate amount only, of nutritious and easily digested 
food, known-to agree with the patient, must be used. Some physi- 
cians consider young and tender beef to be the only meat suitable for 
Consumptives, rare, at that; but I have found no inconvenience to 
arise from the moderate use of lean, tender mutton, young and tender 
chickens, broiled game, soft-boiled eggs, oysters, raw, or cooked, but 
raw is best if the stomach will tolerate them, and fresh milk, with a 
little good whisky in it will aid digestion. Cream, as a general thing 
has been found too rich for the stomach. 

But the sweating process must only be used in the forming stages 
of the disease, in fact, it is only in the earlier states of Consumption 
that Treatment may be expected to do any considerable good. After 
night-sweats have set in, the skin must be stimulated by the cayenne 
sponging, as above mentioned, and friction, but no artificial sweating, 
which, to a certain extent will reduce the strength, if continued too 
long; but a warm bath, twice a week, at 90° to 100", followed with 
brisk rubbing with a flesh-brush, or coarse towel for 15 minutes, will 
give great activity to the skin and help it to throw off the matter that 
otherwise is thrown upon the lungs. 

As soon as the soreness is somewhat relieved by the sweating, etc^ 
in the early stages, then take the following: 

2. PulrQonic Sirup. — The roots of common, or garden spikenard, 
elecampane, comfrey, blood-root, and dandelion, bruised, and hops, of 
each, 4 ozs.; tamarack bark with the coarse outside, scraped ofl", and 
also bruised, if dry, 2 lbs.; if green, 4 lbs.; the best whisky, 3 qta.; 


194 DB. chask's 

strained honey, 6 lbs.; mnriated tincture of iron, sufficient quantity 
(see below). The roots are all to be dry except the dandelion, which 
is not as good to be dried. 

Put the liquor upon the bruised mass and let stand 3 or 4 days, 
and put into a stout muslin cloth and strain and press out 2 qts. which 
bottle and set aside. Then put 2 or 3 gals, of soft water upon the mass 
and boil for 2 or 3 hours, and strain out the liquid, put on enough 
more water to cover the dregs and boil again for an hour or so, then 
strain and press out all the fluid, the two watery fluids should measure 
6 qts., if much over that boil down to that amount, and add the honey, 
and the spirit that was set by, at first. White sugar may take the 
place of honey, if the honey can not be had, but the honey is 100 per 
cent the best. To each pt. bottle of this, as used, put in muriated 
tincture of iron, 1 oz.; and shake well. 

Dose. — From 1 to 2 table-spoonfuls, as the stomach will bear it 
without belching it up, every 2 or 3 hours. This will be found very 
valuable in the treatment of all affections of the lungs, allaying 
coughs, relieving the constriction, or tightness across the chest, and 
assists expe(!toration, and also gives color and tone to the blood, and 
through the blood to the general system. It will be found a very re- 
liable preparation for all conditions, or stages of Consumption, or 

I have my doubts of there being any better preparation, as a 
lung sirup, but there are those who have had excellent satisfaction 
from other sirup'?, or cordials, and there is one among them which I 
judge, from its composition, to be much better than most others, and 
so well satisfied am I of its value, I have thought best to give it a 
place. It is from Warren's Household Physician, by the late Ira War- 
ren, A. M., M. D., of Boston. He thought so highly of it and used it 
so extensively in his practice that he made it in quantities of 16 gals, at 
a time, I have thought best, however, to take ozs. for lbs. in the pre- 
scription, which will make 1 gal. in place of 16. Those desiring an 
"alopathy" work of 800 pages for $6, can address the publisher, Ira 
Bradley & Co., 20 Washington street, Boston. It is one of the most 
sensible works from that school, for families, that I have seen. The 
prescription is as follows: 

3. Wild-cherrv bark, ground, 10 ozs. ; ipecac root, 1} ozs.; blood- 
root, H ozs.; squill-root, bruised, | oz.; pulverized liquorice root, 2J 
drs.; cochineal, bruised, 1 dr.; anise-seed, 2 ozs.; fennel-seed, J oz.; 
orange peel, 1 oz. ; acetate of morphia, f dr.; alcohol (76 per cent), 2 
qts.; soft water, 2 qts.; pulverized white sugar, 40 ozs.; sulphuric acid, 
J dr. (If these figures are multiplied by 16, the amounts would agree 
with the original. Druggists may desire to make it in these large quan- 

Grind all the articles to a coarse powder, except those directed to 
be bruised, or pulverized, and put them all to the alcohol, except the 
wild-cherry bark, the water, sugar, and sulphuric acid. Let them 
stand 1 week, shaking, or stirring thoroughly, twice a day. Then, 
having kept the wild-cherry 2 days, in a covered vessel with water 
enough upon it to wet it through, place it in a percolator (a colander 
with a piece of muslin over it will do), and run 2 qts. of water 
through it. Add this to the alcohol and other ingredients. Let the 
whole stand 3 days longer, stirring as before, twice a day. Draw off, 
and filter through paper (through cloth in the colander, for families, 

«KtX)Nl> RKfKIFT BOOK. 196 

will do). Now add the sugar, and lastly the sulphuric acid. The 
acid is inten(h^(l mainly to improve the color, by acting chemi(;ally 
upon the cochineal. The color is a fine cherry-red, tinged with 
orange. I very much prefer this to any of the "patent" pectorals 
that are kei>t on sale by druggists. 

Dr. Warren says of it: " Upon no other preparation of medicine I 
have ever compounded have I bestowed as mucli thought and care as 
upon this. For five years I was incessantly experimenting, making 
and trving new corabiiuitions, and this is the result." And in his re- 
vised edition, lie adtis: "The assertion previously made that this is 
the best cough preparation ever made; 1 see no cause to modify in 
the smallest degree. Were it kept in every aj)otliecary shop, and were 
physicians to [)rescrilje i»t in pulmonary" (lung) "complaints, adding 
a little sici//; of squill, or ivme of ipecac when a more expectorant" (in- 
creased discharge from the lungs or throat) "eflect is wanted, or a lit- 
tle more morplnne if a greater narcotism" (relieving pain and j)ro- 
ducing sleep) "is sought, it would save them much trouble in com.- 

fouiuling cough sirups, and give them much more satisfactory results, 
have compared its efliects, again and again, with the best other 
preparations in use, and I pledge my word that it will succeed in 
turice as many cases as any other compound that may be chosen. Let 
physicians try it; and I will be responsible for every hair's breadth in 
which they find this proportion of successful results abridged." 

It is, no doubt, an exceedingly valuable cort/mi; but notwithstand- 
ing its high praise by its originator, I do not by any means prefer it 
over and above the use of my pulmonic smtp, above given, but as there 
are places where the tamarack-bark cannot be easily obtained, and as 
there are those who prefer the cherry above all other preparations, I 
have deemed it but just to all parties to give it a place, together with 
his sensible remarks as to its superior value over the "patent" com- 
pounds found in the shops. 

4. Dr. Hale's Cough Tincture. — Wild cherry bark, black co- 
hosh root {macrotys racemosa), and liquorice root, of each, 2 ozs.; 
blood-root, 1 oz. ; good whisky, 1^ pts. ; soft water, 1 pt.; white sugar, 1 
lb.; wines of ipecac and antimony, of each, 2 ozs.; (I greatly prefer, 
for my own use, tincture of lobelia, 1 oz. in place of the wine of anti- 
mony, but alopaths will prefer the wine of antimony, each can suit 

Let the roots and bark be coarsely bruised, and put into the 
whisky for 48 hours, then strain and gently press to obtain 1 pt. of 
Bpirit, which set by, and put the water upon the roots, and gently 
Bteep, in a covered dish, for 2 or 3 hours, and strain and gently press 
out the liquid, in which dissolve the sugar, then add the spirit tinc- 
ture, first set aside, and also the wine of ipecac and tincture of lo- 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful whenever the cough is troublesome. In re- 
cent colds, attended with considerable cough, take a tea-spoonful 2, or 
3 times, once in J to 1 hour, before retiring, and it will ordinarily start 
a gentle oerspiration, and very greatly help any other means of 

Dr. Hale, the originator of this Receipt was a successful prac- 
tioner for over 40 years, and made this his dependence as a coagh 
medicine. Others also have used it with very great success. 

After having written the fbregoing, on the subject of Consomp- 

186 DR. chasb's 

tion, I took np my E^hciic Medwal Journal, for December, 1871, and 
was very rrnicli pleased to find a very learned, and satisfactory com- 
munication upon the cause and appropriate hygienic and climatic treal- 
menl of this disease from L. S. Lowry, M. D., of Claremont, III., 
wherein, he shows, very satisfactory to ine at least, that the deposit 
of tubercle in the lungs (the real cause of Consumption, for it takes 
on inflammation, ulceration, and the consequent destruction of the 
substance of the lungs), is caused by a degeneration, or failurb of the 
vital principles of life, to such an extent that they do not furnish 
nutrition of a sufficiently high order of vitality to supply the waste 
of the system, and consequently the strength fails, which is known 
to be the case, and also shows that these deposits of tubercle are of a 
fatty consistence, taken up from the already supplied fat of the tissues 
which cause the great emaciation of Consumptives, instead of, as 
generally believed, going to sustain life; and also argues, and I fully 
believe, that every dose of cod liver-oil, or other fetty oils, or fopd, 
goes to supply, or feed this very deposit, instead of, as believed, going 
to support life, actually shortens it by causing a greater deposit of 
tubercle to be made "than would be' without it. I should have 
been glad to have given his whole argument, through which he comes 
to the following conclusions; but as this work does not go into lengthy 
argumentative discussions, but takes advantage of what is made by 
them, which, on their face, seem to contain the common-sense princi- 
ples of nature. I will give you his conclusions, and then close the 
f?ubject with a few remarks as to what his arguments and summing 
np would appear to require at the hands of those who are afflicted 
with the disease, or who know that they are predisposed to it by 
transmission from their parents. His conclusion is in the following 

"After diligently searching for the cause of phthisis (Consump- 
tion), we have found that but the one condition alone remains t© 
attribute itto, viz. : Perverted nutrition, and of the variety knowa 
as fatty degeneration. The cause, then, being fully understood, the 
Treatment no longer remains empirical, but can be rationally and 
specifically employed. And as I will only consider its hygienic and 
climatic modes of Treatment, I will leave its therapeutical manage- 
ment with tlae profession. My reasons for so doing are that 1 have 
seen very nearly every remedy recommended, employed in its Treat- 
ment, and in no case have T witnessed a single cure from their 
administration. But from proper hygienic measures, with a change 
of climate, I have seen flow mast happy results. 

"In the Treatment of all diseases, there is no one item of greater 
importance than the diet. In fact much depends on the degree and 
kind of nourishment the individual has received, and does receive, 
Bhould he become the subject of any grave disorder or disease. 
Therefore the dietetic management of the patient is one grand fea- 
ture in the Treatment of phthisis. Without proper attention to this, 
success will seldom crown our eflforts. Indeed a strict observance to 
hygienic rules will many times accomplish a cure without anj' other 
means being employed. I will only consider the diet of the inhab- 
itants oi^ the temperate latitudes, as nature has made ample provision 
for both the frigid and torrid zones. 

"Notwithstanding the rapid emaciation attending this disease, 
Aere has almost always been an error committed in its hygienic 


mode of Treatment, With the emaciation there is a transformation 
of adipose tissue, and instead of being employed in the procews of 
combustion as is generally supposed, it is taken up by the circulation 
and used in the cellular deposit of tubercle. And I am satisfied that 
this error in diet has many times lessened the patient's chances of 
recovery, from the fact that the agents usually employed as articles of 
food, contain both oils and fats, the very elements that should be 
used but sparingly in a diet for those suffering from phthisis, In 
order to fully elucidate this subject I will refer briefly to the identity 
of oils and fats. To do this I had as well quote from Youman's New 
Chemistry, page 349, section 061, where he says, 'The fats and fixed 
oils are a class of compounds having nearly the same chemical com- 
position and properties. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen; the hydrogen being usually in excess with but a small 
proportion of oxygen.' Now physiology teaches that it is the hydro- 
carbonaceous elements of the flood that are consumed, in order to 
maintain a normal temperature of the body. And in phthisis, the 
general circulation is never actively employed, owing to its increase oi 
fibrin, therefore an oleaginous diet would certainly augment the dif- 

"In regard to diet it may be said, in general terms, that it should 
be highly nutritious, consisting of a good proportion of animal food, 
but containing a very small per cent of fat. With this precaution in 
selecting a diet, I am fully convinced that a cure can often be efl'ected 
even within the temperate latitudes. A temporary residence in some 
of our Western States, as northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Wis- 
consin, with proper attention to hygienic measures, where the depo- 
sition of tubercle is but slight, will many times effect a permanent 
cure. But should the patient have become the subject of confirmed 
phthisis, it is but making bad worse to remain longer in the temper- 
ate latitudes. We are now brought to the consideration of the cli- 
matic treatment of tubercular Consumption. We have glanced from 
one extreme to the other and found where the disease does, and does 
not exist — hemmed it in, as it were, and confined it to the temperate 
latitudes alone; nothing now remains but to select a climate that will 
benefit, and radically cure those suffering from phthisis. And to 
render the consideration of this important subject easy, we have but 
to keep before us the cause of this grave disease, viz.: an excess of 
fatty matter in the serum of the blood. A climate favoring the com- 
bustion of this element of the circulation in order to maintain a nor- 
mal temperature of the body should be sought, at least for the tem- 
porary residence of the invalid. Such has been the wise provision 
of nature, that in this particular, as well as in every other, she haa 
furnished us with a climate well adapted in every respect to the 
wants of the sufferer. Tliis we will find only in the higher latitmles, 
as the south temperate and torrid regions of the globe are decidedly 
objectionable on account of the intense heat, and their endemic dis- 
eases (di.seases peculiar to these hot climates). 

"While the inhabitants of the torrid zone appear to enjoy a 
special exemption from phthisis, yet they are (;ontinualIy harassed by 
a disease, that is possibly more fatal in its character than phthisis in 
the temperate latitudes. The yellow fever attended by the black 
vomit is very malignant in its rounds, and where the constitution of 
the individual J8 already greatly debiliiated by disease, he can survive 

196 DB. CHASB'8 

but a short time. So peculiar to that latitude is this disease, that it 
is known only as an endemic (peculiar to that section), and certain 
thermometrical conditions are absolutely necessary for its develop- 
ment, as it is never known to occur, unless the thermometer has indi- 
cated 70° to 80°, for several days and even months. It scarcely ever 
is found further north than 40° of north latitude, its ravages being 
confined almost entirely to the torrid zone, or adjacent borders of the 
temperate latitudes. . . 

"The great mortality attending this disease is mostly due to the 
rapid decomposition of that vital fluid, the blood, it being so thor- 
oughly decomposed, that it will scanrely coagulate after standing sev- 
eral hours in an open vessel. It is from among strangers visiting that 
latitude, that a large per cent of the mortality is derived. Those from 
our Northern climates, as the English, Irish, and Scotch always suffer 
the most, which is probably owing to their national habits, and modes 
of life. The disease is violent, and its progress rapid in those of 
robust and healthy constitutions, while those of feeble vitality almost 
always [)erish in its onset. 

"The disease being endemic then, the cause rnust necessarily be 
found to be in peri)etual existence. And while it is so very fatal in 
its character, especially to those of debilitated constitutions, the Con- 
Bumptive would certainly survive hut a short time after transplanta- 
tion. The sad inroads already made upon his constitution by i>hthisis 
would render him doubly liable to yellow fever, besides the incessant 
heat there, as indicated by the thermometer, would not require the 
consumption to any great extent of the hydro-carbonaceous elements 
of the blood in order to maintain the temperature of the body regu- 
larly at 98° F. Thus it will be seen that the great heat of that lati- 
tude, together with that terrible scourge, yellow fever, which so rap- 
idly devitalizes the blood, would make it objectionable for the Con- 
sumptive; for he is already laboring under a disease that has impaired 
to a considerable extent the circulating medium, and it is certainly 
evident that a climate like that found in the warmer latitudes would 
hasten that fearful result, 'which divorces soul and body, a distant and 
indistinct foretaste of that dread cup which we must all one day 

" Traveling northward into the higher latitudes of the temperate 
sone, we find a climate that is pretty well suited to the cure of phthi- 
sis, providing the deposition of tubercle is not too great. In fact any 
climate that has a sufficient elevation above the level of the sea, no 
matter whether it be mountainous and clad in perpetual ice and 
snow, or a level plain decked in nature's fields of living green, will 
always be found invaluable in the cure of Consumption. But ivhere 
iiv^ disease is of long standing, and the patient has inlLerited a tuherculoxu 
diathesis, with a considerable impairment of the lungs by tubercular depos- 
its, a residence in the Arctic regions is necessary in order to effect a cure. 
This, then, is the climate for the Consumptive, as it requires the com- 
bustion of all the oleaginous matter of the blood in order to main- 
tain a normal temperature. 'I would by all means advise the Con- 
sumptive of this country to take up a residence in Russian America, 
or in Canada; and the Consumptives of Europe a temporary abode in 
Russia, or Russian Asia, but never by any persuasion to be hired from 
home and friends, but to find a grave beneath the shades of the poetic 
vine and olive.' — Battsc^^ 


"Before dismissing the subject I will say, although my experience 
has been limited in tlie treatment of this disease, yet from all my 
observations I am led to believe that the whole difficulty originates 
in the blood, and taking this view of the matter, I am firmly of the 
opinion that the only rational method of treatment tor this 
allec'tion is one of hygiene and climate. My views are but the result 
of a few years of careful, investigation; however, I ask for them a 
calm and patient consiileration, and if not consistent with facts that 
have been estalilished, nor supjmrted by future observations, let them 
share the fate of all other errors." 

It will be observed that Dr. Lowry, in speaking ot a residence 
in the South, refers to it as a permanency, in which I fully agree with 
him, but, for those who are able, in means (money), to go to Florida, 
or Cuba, or Texas, or Mexico, for the months of December, to March, 
when tlie yellow fever does not rage, then in Minnesota, or the north- 
ern portions of central Canatla, for the Summer, I believe, yet I may 
be in error, that it would be preferable, at least for the first year, than 
to remaining in the North, through the severe cold of the Winter. I 
have spoken of Minnesota and central Canada, for the reason that it 
appears to me that the region of Lake Superior, or the easterly shores 
of Canada, from their consequent dampness, are not equal to those 
sections where the air is dry and pure as it is in the sections pre- 
viously named. Permanent residence in the South, for Consumptives, 
I do not recommend; but, I do think that what is now known of the 
advantages of a permanent resilience in Minnesota, as herein given, 
and also through various other sources, calls loudly upon all who 
know themselves, or any member of their family to be predisposed 
to this disease, to make all reasonable efforts to transfer their resi- 
dences to these regions where Consumption is not the terrible monster 
that it is in llie Middle States, yet it is a free country. Any one prefer- 
ring death in an old home, to that of a longer life among strangers, has 
the right to choose for themselves. I have given what I know to 
be fai;ts in numy cases, and wliat I believe will receive the general 
assent of physicians, as well as that of the people. The pecuniary 
condition of some will not allo^v them to avail themselves of the 
advantages of a northern climate, and there will be others who will not 
read these pages until it \mtoo late to take such advantage. To such 
may the joys of the religion of, our Lord Jesus Christ, come home 
to their hearts, as it will, to all who truly believe in Him, and have 
the acknowledgement of their own conscience, that they have done 
what they ought to have done, under the circumstances in which they 
are placed — nothing more can be asked, or required of any one. But, 
let me aild that I am not to be understood as recommending any one 
to go to the far North — Arctic regions — at all, Minnesota, or that range, 
East, or West, is as far North, as my knowledge permits me to recom- 
mend any one to go. 

5. Inhalation. — If attention to diet, the gentle sweating twice a 
week, the alkaline bathing (bathing with sal-soda or weak lye in the 
water), the friction to the surfai^e, niglit and morning, with the cay- 
enne tincture; and the use of sirup, cordial, or tincture, as any one 
shall choose to take, does not, within a reasonable time, or pretty 
soon, begin to give a very perceptable relief, it will be well to add to 
them the princi[)le of fuhalation (to breathe into the lungs) of such 
remedies as would have a teudf^nov to soothe and heal, or cause to 

20t DR. CHASB'g 

throw off offending matter, or stimulate to healthy action, were they 
Bpplied to an outward ulcer, or inflammation. If poultices, liniments, 
salves, ointments, etc., are good to apply upon the surface, should it 
not be just as reasonable to suppose that it would be good to apply 
appropriate medicines directl> to the lungs, or throat, or deep hron- 
cnial tubes, as can easily be done by Inhalation? It is certainly rea- 
sonable, it has, and may again prove a valuable assistant! And they 
may be used in connection with the other Treatment, and especially 
should be, if the stomach will not tolerate any of the cough medi- 
cines. Any of these articles may be Inhaled that are used in the 
cough remedies, except, for Inhalation it is better without the sugar, 
which rather prevents than helps to atomize the medicines. 

In the commencement of lung or throat diseases, the Alterative In- 
halent would be the one to use; but if the phlegm becomes more vis- 
cid (sticky and glutinious) and the cough is dry and hard, then use the 
expectorant, and if soreness, or pain, accompany, use the soothing and 
febrifuge, and if expectoration is too free, at any time, use the astring- 
ents, etc., according to instructions under the head of Inhalation. 

It is claimed that in the avanced stages of Consumption, i. <?., after 
fever has set in, that the rapid breathing causes too great an oxyda- 
tion, or heat of the blood, literally burning up the patient with oxy- 
gen, to prevent which nitrogenized substances, as milk, cod-liver oiu, 
spirits, etc., are recommended, the nitrogen of these substances consum- 
ing the oxygen, relieving the fever. Milk should be used as freely as 
the stomach will allow, without becoming acid or sour; and if milk of 
full strength can not be freely used, it may be made into milk porridge 
by putting half as much water with it, as of milk, ard thickening a 
little only, with flour stirred into cold water first, then into the boiling 
milk, with a bit of salt also. It may be drank as a beverage, and it 
may be eaten with bread, for breakfast and supper, having the nicest 
tender meats for dinner, or if very feeble, beef-tea for dinner, with 
such other food as suitably correspond with the meats, or beef-tea: 
but never eat an over-full meal. Should this ever occur, or should 
pain, or heat arise in the stomach, or gas, from over-eating, or from 
over-exercise after eating, take a spoonful or two of such spirits as may 
be at hand, or best agrees with the patient, which will soon work re- 
lief by stimulating the stomach to work off its over-loaded condition. 
Exercise in the open air, is as inii)orlant as the diet, if not more so. 

Liebig claims that the spirit circulates free, in the blood and over- 
comes, or devours the oxygen. Others claim that ague districts have 
a simular effect upon Consumptive patients, or rather, that in those 
districts the air has a larger pro|)ortion of hydrogen, carbon, and sul- 
phur, all of which have an aflinity for the oxygen and consume it in 
the system; for it is (;laimed that but few, if any, in districts of ague 
and intermittent fevers, ever have the Consumption. And it is very 
probable that in the high latitude of Minnesota, where the air is light 
and pure, that there is less oxygen than in the medium districts, or 
more Northern of the Middle States, where Consumption is so preva- 
lent. Holland and Kgypt are low flat countries, and are celebrated as 
being free from Consumption. Even the old Roman physicians used 
to send this class of patients to Kgypt to recruit their health. "Cicero, 
the (celebrated orator, who, in his youth, was threatened with Con- 
sumption, lus the hollow temples and sharp features of his remaining 
bust abundantly testify, traveled into Egypt for the recovery of hie 


health." And he undoubtedly regained it, or there would have been 
no busts to testify as to the fact. 

Travel. — Patients that can not be relieved, or cured by the Treat- 
ment, hints and suggevstions, above given, have not alternative left, 
but to linger on, and fall victims to the disease, or to goto "more 
genial climes." From my knowledge of the successful recovery of so 
many Consumptive patients by a residence in Minnesota,! most cheer- 
fully, and anxiously recommend the Northern and Western part of 
that State as the place for Consumptives. My residence there, a little 
short of a year, completely cured one of my lungs which had become 
very weak and painful from a severe typhoid pneumonia, of the Spring 

There was a gentleman living at Sauk Rapids, during my resi- 
dence there, who came into the State, from Maine, 10 years before, 
with his lungs so bad that hemorrhage had taken place several times 
before he left home, and he was in so critical a condition of health, on 
this account, that a brother was sent with him, lest there might be a 
fatal termination on tlie way. They rented a few acres of land, a few 
miles below St. Paul, and lie done what little he could the first season. 
The second season they, rented a farm and worked it, successfully; 
then the brother went back, but he worked the place another year, 
and went home well. But after remaining in Maine a year, liking 
Minnesota the best, he went back, and when I knew him he was as 
hale an<l healthy a young man as I would ever wish to know. And 
while there, I learned of so many other cases who were also cured by 
that climate that it is as well established fact, in my mind, as any- 
thing can be in this world, that North-Western Minnesota is the place 
for Consumptives. But let me say, whoever goes there for that rea- 
son, do not put off the going until you are just ready to die at home. 
If you go, go early in the disease, aiul you are almost positively cer- 
tain of being materially benefited, if not absolutely cured. 

The Northern Pacific Railroad is now hastening its way through 
that State, and on to Pugets Sound, and probably, along the whole 
line of that road the climate will be found equally beneficial to the 
health of this class of invalids. The only drawback that would ap- 
pear to me to be in the case, is the extreme cold of the Winters, yet 
the air is so dr) and pure, they claim, there, that this is not a draw- 
back, but a help. Those who are able, in t^ie matter of money, might 
make this State their Summer home, and Florida or Texas for Win- 

I will mention only one more case. I had a gentleman with me, 
as editor, for some years, but whose Consumptive tendencies increasea 
upon him so much, in the Fall of ISGS, he made up his mind he would 
go to Minnesota, notwithstan<ling I told him it would be a dangerous 
undertaking, he might even die on the road. He was a walking-skel- 
eton — cough, cough, cough, was the constant sound in his room, in the 
ollice, for he had ambition and would not give up his labors. He left 
in Deceml)er, 1 think, and I expected to hear of his death on the 
road; hut he went to Sank Rapids and spent the Winter there with 
an acquaintance, and in the Spring, he went to St. Paul, ami got a sit- 
uation on one of the papers, sometimes setting type and sometimes 
reporting local items, at which he proved so suix-essfnl, he was re- 
tained in that line. I heard from him only a month or two ago, about 
three years after he left this citv< Ann Arbor. Michigan, still at hie 

202 DB. CHASB'S 

work. 1 look upon this case to be as near to a miracle, as anything 
that ever came under my notice. I will add, however, that his diges- 
tive powers were excellent, and he was a great lover of oysters — raw 
oysters — which, no d()uV)t greatly assisted the recuperative (tending to 
recovery) powers of his system. 

After writing the above, in May, 1872, I thought I might obtain 
additional information as to the correctness of the opinions that Min- 
nesota vvas the place for Consumptives, by addressing this gentleman, 
asking his judgment after over 3 years residence there, to which he 
replied, that he "thought it had been somewhat over-estimated; yet, 
he said that .although he had considerable cough still, he was able to 
attend to his duties as local editor on the St. Paul DIspalrh; and tliat 
during the past severe Winter, he had reported the proceedings of 
the LegisLiture during the session, over 9(J days, without the loan of a 
day, and, if it was not for his cougli, he should feel very comfortable." 
Then I heard no more from him until the present month, October, 
when a letter coming from a friend there, says: "Allan Campbell 
died here, to-day," — thus showing that although this gentleman went 
there in a condition of health, making it absolutely dangerous for hira 
to be on the road, and so bad that none of his accpiaintances consid- 
ered it possible for him to live but a very short time, yet through the 
benefits of that pure atmosphere, he lived, and labored, nearly four years, 
which, more than anything else, confirms all of my former opinions 
in favor of Minnesota as the place for Consumptives, the only drawback 
being the severity of the Winters, making it necessary to use great carg 
during the Winter season. 

The Dispatch of Oct. 9th, comes to us with the following so just a 
tribute to the worth of Mr. Campbell, the gentleman referred to, and 
which so fully coroborates our statements in the case, and, withal, is 
so short, that notwithstanding it is not customary to give such notices 
in Books of this character, yet, all things considered, I deem it per- 
fectly proper, thus to honor the man by which means, I also confirm 
previous positions laid down upon this subject. The Dispatch says: 

"Mr. Allan Campbell, for nearly three years and a half editorially 
connected with the Dispatch, died at his residence this morning of 
Consumption, at the early age of 33 years. In January, 1869, he came 
to Minnesota for his health, spending the first few months at Sauk 
Rapids. The following April he came to St. Paul and was employed 
npon the Dispatch up to th'e 6th of last August, when his disease be- 
came so far advanced that he was obliged to abandon work, and stead- 
ily failed until the final end. lie died easily and peacefully, looking 
at the dread destroyer so bravely and calmly that he some days ago 
specified details for his own funeral. 

"Mr. Campbell was a native of Cleveland, Ohio, and the greater 
portion of his life was spent in that city. He was editorially connect- 
ed with both the Cleveland Plain Dealer and Leader, retiring from the 
position of night editor on the latter journal October, 1865, in order to 
assume the editorial management and control of the Ann Arbor (Mich.) 
Ckmrier. This, and indeed all his other positions, he filled with great 
acceptability and only relinquished it to come to Minnesota on ac- 
count of fiiiling health. 

" His death is not only a loss to his immediate friends but also to 
the public, for we can say with no disparagement to others, that, but 
for infirm health, he '(((^ould have risen to the very front rank of jour- 


nalists in the North-west. Fie more than gave satisfaction to his em- 
ployers ami proved liitnself a competent, able, and versatile journal- 
ist. His warmest friends were those who knew him best and could 
appreciate liis worth. In fact, he won friends wherever he made ac- 
quaintances, and we doubt whether any resident of the city, in the 
same length of time, attaclied more warm friends to him than did the 
subject of til is brief sketch. 

"A wife and daugiiter survive him and his brother and sister 
from Iowa, his only remaining immediate relatives were enabled to 
be present and make his closing hours as comfortable as human means 
could devise." ( Minnesota, no doubt, added '6h his life. — Author.) 

COUGHS AND COLDS.— Everybody is liable to "take Cold," 
and but few persons avoid tliem altogether, although the weak and 
debilitated, and those whose employments lead them from warm to 
cold situations, or rooms, are much more liable to them than others. 

Cause. — The Cause of Coughs are neglect of Colds, brought ou 
by whatever checks perspiration, and thereby turns in upon the 
lungs, or throat, what should have been carried off by the skin. 

Symptoras. — The Symptoms of a Cold, the neglect of which 
is pretty sure to leave a Cough, are pain, or weight, or both, in the 
head, tightness of the chest, tlitficult breathing, fullness and stuffing 
of the nose, watery, or slightly inflamed eyes, sore throat, finally 
Cough, cold shiverings, and flashes of heat; and also, if neglected, an 
increase of mucus from the nose, throat and lungs, from the beginning 
of an inflammation upon the membranes of those parts; and, ia 
severe cases, |)erhaps considerable fever. 

Treatment. — For the proper Treatment, see Catarrh from Re- 
cent CoLPs, TO Cure, remembering, that if a Cold is neglected, or im- 
properly Treated, a Cough is the certain result, and if that is neglect- 
ed, Consumf)tion, sooner or later, is pretty certainlj' the consequence. 

If there are any who can not, or will not go into the sn^eatiug ope- 
ration, let a full dose of physic be taken at bed-time, and a mixtureof 
good vinegar, butter, and honey, with a little i)lack pepper, or ginger, 
be taken 8 or 4 times during the evening, as hot as it can be borne, at 
the same time, during the evening let the feet be toasted by the fire 
for an hour, at least, before going to l)ed, then hot bricks, or a hot flat- 
iron to the feet, which together, will excite more or less perspiration, 
and fierhaps (jrevent a Cough; but if it does not and a Cough comes 
on, tlie following sirup should be taken: 

2. Cough Elixir. — Oil of anise, and oil of sweet almonds, and 
balsam of fir, of each, \ oz. ; luudanum, and tinctures of ipecac, digit- 
alis and lobelia, and tincture of balsam of I'eru, of each, 1 oz. ; tincture 
of blood-root, and tincture of balsam of Tolu, of each, 2 ozs. ; best al- 
cohol, 2 ozs.; strained honey, 5 lb. Put the alcohol into a suitable 
sized bottle and add the oils and fir, ami shake well to cut the fir, then 
add the tinctures and honey, and shake again to cut and mix the 

DosK. — A tea-spoonful 3 to 6 times daily according to the severity 
and tightness of the Cough. It will be found an exceedingly valuable 
prei>aration. It should be k^pt in every fatnilj'. But, should these 
Coughs become firmly seated, from neglect, or the frecpient occurrence 
of Cold, the treatment will more [)roperly come under the»head of 
CorsuMPTioN, but, even, in that disease, this sirup would be found val- 
uable. Avoid full meals, in these Colds. Rather let broths, gruels, or 

204 OR. CH^VSB'S 

milk porridge with light bread, form the diet for a few meals, at 

The following is from Dr. Hall's MedicalJournal, and fully corobo- 
rates my ideas, as to the impropriety of full meals after a Cold has 
been taken, and although I go in for active perspiration, there are 
those who may choose the milder way as recommended by Dr. Hall, 1 
will give his explanation of how to treat a Cold, which if well treated 
will save the trouble of having to treat a Cough. He says: ' • 

" A bad Cold, like measles and mumps, or other similar ailment3, 
will run its course, about 10 days, in spite of what may be done fcr it, 
unless remedial means are employed within 48 hours from its incep- 
tion (commencement). Many a useful life may be spared to be in- 
creasingly useful, by cutting a Cold short oflt", in the following safe and 
Bimple manner: On ihe first day of taking a Cold, there is a very un- 
pleasant sensation of chilliness. The moment you observe this go to 
your room and stay there; keep it at such a temperature as will enlire- 
ly prevent this ciiilly feeling, even if it requires 100° of Fah. 
In addition, put your feet in water half-leg deep, as hot as j'ou can 
bear it, adding hotter water, from time to time for 15 minutes" (I 
would. say 20 to 30), "so that Avhen you take your feet out, the water 
shall be hotter than when you put them in ; then dry them thorough- 
ly, by wiping, and put on warm, thick woolen stockings, even if it be 
Summer, when Colds are the most dangerous (I do not agree with 
this, only that, in Summer, persons are less likely to attend to them), 
and, for 24 hours, eat not an atom of food, but drink as largely as you 
desire of any warm teas, and at the end of that time, if not sooner, 
the Cold will be effectually broken witiiout any medicine whatever." 

If I had not the alcohol and spirit lamp, I should certainly take 
this method; and even with the spirit lamp, the feet being put into 
hot water, makes a quicker, and more effectual plan |of introducing 
persjii ration. 

Some persons think that drinking cold water is better than hot 
teas. It will do very well with persons of a robust, or healthy consti- 
tution; but persons of a weak and debilitated habit of body had bet- 
ter use the hot teas, or hot punches not sufilciently strong to give 
head-ache — ginger tea, is excellent. 

CROUP.— Croup is an acute inflammation of the upper air-pas- 
sages leading into the lungs, technically called the larynx, usually oc- 
curring with children, but adults, and sometimes those that are quite 
old have it. It is usually divided into three classes, — mucous, pseudo- 
viembraneous (with false membrane), and spasniodic, but so fur as treat- 
ment is concerned, it is about the same, notwithstanding the finely 
drawn dividing lines. 

Cause. — As the disease is more prevalent in Winter and Spring, 
than at any other periods of the year, and is attended with morepr 
less inflammation, its Cause is set down, like other inflammatory dis- 
eases, to " taking Cold," or in checking perspiration, which fact of 
itself slioulil be definitely understood to point out the remedy — re- 
store a healthy persj)iration. 

Symptoms. — Sometimes the first knowledge, of Croup will be to 
have a child wake up in the night, with diflicult breathing, and a 
whistling, or hoarse, ringing cough, with mucus in the throat to give a 
fear of sulloiuition. If the child is old enough to speak, the voice will 
partake of the whistling, or piping sound of the cough; and there may 


be a spasmodic closure of the epiglottis (cap-like valve that covers the 
air-passage) so tliat great eflorts, or catches are made for breath. But, 
in other cases, these Symptoms come on more gradually, being worse 
at night, yet not so hard as to cause very much alarm ; but the danger 
is only so much the greater, the enemy is, as tlie saying is, " laying 
low" that he may make a fatal blow, which, in fact he too often does ; 
for this slowly accumulating disease is certainly the worst form of 
Croup — having the false membrane, which, if not relieved early in 
the disease, will finally choke the patient to death, probably, within 4 
or 5 days. 

Treatment. — As indicated above, the Treatment is to relax the 
system to relieve spasm, if any exist, and to restore or establish per- 
spiration. And for this purpose there is no plan so quick as the s'pirit 
lagnp, or hot air bath, provided the child is large enough to sit in a 
chair and be covered with a blanket, the same as for grown persons. 
At the same time let a tea-spoonful of the acetic emetic tincture, in the 
same amount of simple sirup, or molasses, be given, if the child is 4 or 
5 years old, and if of other ages, in proportion, repeating in 30 or 40 
minutes, once, or twice, or until the mucus is sufficiently loose to 
make it appear necessary to throw it off; then, repeat every 15 minutes 
until vomiting takes place, which will relieve the urgent symptoms, 
and perhaps entirely relieve the case. After the child has been in 
the hot-air bath for 15 or 20 minutes and sweating has been well 
established, remove to the bed, and with hot bricks or irons to the 
feet and sides, and cloths wrung out of hot vinegar and water, equal 
parts, wrapped around the throat, let the perspiration be kopt up 
slightly, for an hour or t'T'o, renewing the vinegar and water cloths to 
the throat as fast as they become cool; and if the child is old enough 
to do it, it should also breathe the vapor of vinegar and water 5 min- 
utes at a time every 15 or 20 minutes, until relieved. If the child is 
too young to take the hot-air bath, a hot foot-bath with mustard in it 
must be adopted, and sponging the surface, the child being under 
cover of blankets, then heat, by bricks, or bottles of hot water, or 
something of this kind, to get up the same condition — perspiration. 
The sponging may be from the hot vinegar and water, out of which 
the cloths for the neck are wrung. 

In that kind of Croup which approaches more slowly, the pseudch 
membraneous,, the cloths must be kept up around the neck, and the 
other means also used, moderately, to keep the system relaxed, just 
keeping up a little nausea, until the false membrane has become so 
loose that an emetic may throw it off, then give the emetic in full 
dose, and repeat, sufficiently often to vomit the patient. And if dan- 
ger still continues, the neck and chest may be bathed thoroughly with 
the pain-killer liniment, in connection with the other Treatment ; or, 
the following soap-liniment will be found valuable : 

1. Soap Liniment. — Sweet oil, 2 ozs.; aquaammonia, 1 oz.; spir- 
its of turpentine, h oz.; spirits of camphor, | oz. Mix. This forms a 
white, or creamy-like Soap, sufficiently soft to be shaken out of the 
bottle into the hand, and yet sufficiently hard not to run, so it can b© 
carried right to the spot desired, and rubbed in freely, and covered 
with flannel until a little irritation, as from a mustard plaster can take 
its place. It will be found valuable, in rheumatism, or any swelling. 
or tumor requiring external excitants. 

206 DR. chase's 

In this latter class of cases, Prof. Kcndder uses the acetous (vine- 
gar) tinctures of lobelia and blood-root, iiiolasseH, of each, 1 oz.; and 
finely pulverized chlorate of potash, 1 dr., mixed. The dose being, 
for a child of 2 or S years old, 1 tea-spoonful every 5 or 10 minutes, 
until nausea is induced, then not so often. No tiuid is to be given 
Trith this, that it may have the desired eflect upon the throat; but 
not inducing vomiting until the looseness indicates that there is 
something to throw from the throat. If the pulse is higii, he gives 
the pro]>er dose of veratrum, the tincture, and he claims there are no 
other agents of equal value, and that no preparations of the emetic 
arliclfs should be used, "except the acetous tinctures." 

Dr. Beach tells us of a Mrs. Martin, of New York City, whose 
child was subject to Croup, who bathed the throat and cliest with a 
stimulating liniment, at the time it came on in the night, and gave a 
dose of physic, which in half an hour, had always relieved. 

I now come to speak of luhalntlun, which for several years past, 
both in Europe and America has been extensively used and experi- 
mented with, in Croup until it has become a well established fact, 
that the Inhalation of the vapor of hot water by itself; and also hav- 
ing lime combined with it; and also sulphuric ether has singly, or in 
combination, or alternating first one then the other, has saved many 
patients; but, to show the great loss of life by this disease, I will men- 
tion that in the city of Philadelphia alone, where they make Doctors 
every year by the hundreds. Dr. Warren informs us that in 10 
years, no less than 1,150 children died of Croup; and in England, no 
less than 4,336 died of the same disease, in one year. It might be 
expected then, that as the /ofee-membranous Croup, is so frequently 
fatal, every possible method that would give a reasonable hope of 
success would be tried, and Inhalation is among them. 

In a work on Inhalation by Prof. Scudder, he introduces the sub- 
ject of CVoujo, in the following words: "This means of treatment is 
employed with decided advantage in Croup, in fact, in some cases, I 
place much reliance upon it. Spasmodic and the milder forms of the 
mucous Croup is readily treated with the common means, though 
even here, the vapor of water, or of water and vinegar will be found 
of assistance. 

" For 10 years past I have never treated a severe case of mucus, or 
membranous Croup, without making Inhalations of vapor an impor- 
tant means. It allays the irritation and produces relaxation of the 
intrinsic (inner) muscles of the larynx" (upper part of the trachea^ or 
"wind-pipe, embracing the organs of voice), and this lessens the diffi- 
culty of breathing" (and he might have added, and speaking). "And 
increasing secretion, it promotes expectoration in the mucous variety, 
and lessens the pseudo (false) membranes, in the other. An infusion 
of hops, of camomile, or tansy, acidulated with vinegar, may be employ- 
ed instead of water." 

2. The lime-water should be used of full strength, J oz. of stone 
lime to distilled, or pure water, 1 pt. It should be Inhaled for 15 
minutes, at least, and repeated every hour at first, then every 2 or 3 
hours as the case demands. 

European experiments have shown that the false membrane will 
dissolve in 15 minutes by being placed in lime-water. 

When there is any trouble in getting a free Inhalation of th« 
lime-water by the ordinary Inhaler, let a small piece of stone lime b« 


placed in a saucer, or soraesiiitable dish, and a little hot water upon 
It, tlirow a blanket over the head of the child and hold the dish 
under the blanket, so the fumes, or steam must be breathed by the 

Many cases are reported, of success in the use of the lime-water; 
but I will mention one case only, reported by Dr. A. Gei^er, of Day- 
ton, O., to the Medical and Surgical Reporter, of Philadelpliia, as found 
in Cohen's Theraj)eutics and Practice of Inhalation. After reading 
the various rejiorts of successful cases, Dr. Geiger continues: "I deter- 
mined to try the effects of the lime in the next case of diptheria, or 
psendo-mf^mbranous Croup, occurring in practice. The first case that 

f resented itself was one of Croup, in a boy about 4 years of age, son of 
rish parents, residing some 2 miles from tlie city. The boy had 
already been sick 2 days before my visit. When called, I ordered the 
father to take out with him, some unslacked lime, which he did. Upon 
my arrival at the house, I found the patient sitting up in bed; severe 
and distressing dyspna^a" (difficult breathing); the face and body cov- 
ered with perspiration from his efforts to get his breath. The usual 
harsh, dry Cough, the symptoms all indicating the last stages of pseudo- 
membranous Croup, I determined to try alone the effects of the lime, 
as I saw no hope in any other treatment. But in what way could I bring 
it in contact with the membranous formation to dissolve it? I hit upon 
the following expedient: I placed some unslacked lime in a saucer, 
and then, after throwing a cloth over his head, held the saucer under, 
BO that he was compelled to breathe the fumes arising from the lime 
in the process of slacking. I retained it for a few minutes, and then 
removed it. The breathing was some easier, and directly he expec- 
torated" (raised)"a large quantity of tough mucus and phlegm, and was 
very much relieved. In this process, the steam arising from the lime 
in the process of slacking, contains, in it, particles of lime which are 
thus, by Inhalation, brought in contact with the membrane in the 
wind-pipe. I ordered lime-water and milk to be used internally, and 
the Inhalations to be repeated in the same way, whenever the symp- 
toms of suffocation were severe, and that the father should report to 
me in the moiuing, the boy's condition. 

"He came in, the following morning, and said 'he was much bet- 
ter; that the night before, after again Inhaling the fumes of the lime, 
he had vomited up a lot of tough stuff, and got better right away.' I 
prescribed a cathartic to be given him, and the fumes of the lime if he 
choked up again. I saw the patient no more. The father reported, 
from day to dav, that he was getting better, and finally that he could 
'eat as much as ever.'" 

So many other cases are reported, of success, both in Croup and 
Diptheria, that no farther doubt remains as to the propriety of using 
the lime Inhalations. 

• In places where the lime can not be obtained, the hot vinegar and 
water Inhalations should not be neglected, as often as the diflicult 
breathing seem to demand it; and if there is any difficulty in having 
the child use the Inhaler, it can be done by covering the head aa in 
the case with the lime, by covering the head with a blanket, and 
holding a cup of hot water and vinegar under it and droping into the 
dish, from time to time, a small hot stone which will throw off % 
steam, or vapor, sufficient to answer every purpose, or the breathinc 
may be done through a cup-shaped sponge which has been dipx>e«[ 

208 DB. chase's 

into the hot mixture and the most of the fluid squeeaed out, cooling 
the side touching the face by touching it to cold water, or bj' a ring of 
cloth, around the mouth and over the nose, so that all the breath 
comes through the hot sponge. 

3. Sulphuric Ether has also been Inhaled, in Croup, with very 
considerable satisfaction. A tea-spoonful might he. used with the hot 
water, a gill, as under the directions for inhaling, and i tea-spoonful 
has also been given internally, at the same time. An etheral solution^ 
or tincture of balsam, made with 1 dr. of the balsam, to 1 oz. of sul- 
phuric ether, in the same quantity, 1 tea-spoonful, has also been used 
successfully. Of course, any of these Inhalations must be repeated as 
often as the breathing is very diffiult. 

4. Alxira Emetics, or alum in connection with lobelia, has been 
used in many cases where other emetics were not at hand. Half a 
tea-spoonful to a tea-spoonful, according to the age of the child, of 
pulverized alum in 3 or 4 table-spoonfuls of water may be repeated 
every 15 or 20 minutes until vomiting takes place. With care and 

i'udgment, all can be done with the foregoing instructions that is 
cnown upon the subject at the present day, except as found in the 
Miscellaneous Receipts. Almost every old lady has got some plan of 
treating Croup, which to her, is better than anj- other way, or any- 
thing else. All that I would say farther upon the subject, is this, let 
every head of a family where there are children liable to it, fully con- 
sider what plan they will pureue, according to their best judgment, 
from the knowledge they have, and have, on hand, ready for use, what 
they purpose to use in case the disease makes its appearance; for it is 
no time to read up and consider after the time has come to act, then 
no time is to be lost, whatever you do, should be done quickly. 

OARBUNCLB. — The subject of Carbuncle was over-looked in its 
proper alphabetical place, yet the subject is of so considerable impor- 
tance, I have deemed it best to put it in here, rather than among the 
Miscellaneous Receipts! 

Carbuncle is much like a boil ; but it is larger, and so much more 
severe and intense in its inflammation and pain, that tliey quite often 
prove fatal under ordinary treatment. Although the inflammation 
and swelling are severe, they do not rise up pointed, like a boil; but 
spread more over the surface, coverning a space from 2 to 3 inches to 
that, sometimes, of the top of a quart bowl. They most frequently 
occur upon the neck, or shouldei-s, or other portions of the back, etc. 
They go through the same process of develo])ment as a boil, termina- 
ting the same, if they terminate favorably, but with a much larger 
core, or in fact, most frequently with several cores. They seldom 
occur in persons under middle age, or at least, not before adult age. 
Upon the head, or neck, they are the most dangerous. 

Cause. — The is believed to be debility, or a breaking down 
of the constitution. 

Sjnnptoras. — Extensive swelling of the cellular tissue immeti- 
iately under the skin, with a burning, and smarting pain, of a livid, 
or bluish purple color, having a tendency to gangrene, or mortification, 
the matter exuding being often of an acrid, or corroding, and fetid 

Treatmeut. — The Treatment is almost as varied as the practiou- 
erfl. Some poultice at once, and some scarify, or cut down upon them 
with a cross-cut, laying them open to aid the discharge, or oozing oat 


of the poisonous matter by means of poulticing. Others apply caus- 
tics a8 soon as there are any openings. 

In their coinmencenient, if the spirits of turpentine saturated 
(made as strong as can be witli salt) is kept upon the place by means 
of wetting Httnnel cloths folded 3 or 4 thicknesses, it may scatter it; 
then constitutional Treatment would be required to carry off the of- 
fending matter from the system, such as cathartics, tonics, diuretics, 
etc. Biit if it is not scattered, then poulticing with flax-seed meal, 
and slippery elm bark, or with smartweed, and if a tendency to gan- 
grene, yeast should be mixed with any poultice used; and an active 
cathartic given, and repeated sufficiently often to keep the bowels 
open. And if it continues long, to reduce the patient's strength, wine, 
or other stimulants, with beef-tea, or other nourishing food must be 
given to sustain them. 

Dr. Gunn has recommended, for an occasional use in place of the 
fresh poultices, the following: 

2. '•Spirits of turpentine, 2 table-spoonfuls; the yolk of an egg; 
1 tea-spoonful of pulverized gum camphor, with sufficient wheat flour 
to form into a paste, on a bit of muslin, or oiled silk." 

Pyroligneous acid (an acid saved, or made from charring wood, 
either in a coal-pit, or by burning wood in tijilit cast-iron cylenders 
made for the purpose, on the same princi])le ti)at our common gas, in 
cities, is made from, thus, burning coal), and the tincture of myrrh, 
upon an elm and yeiist poultice, has been used to correct the tendency 
to mortitication, or gangi'ene. Garbolk; Acio. which see, would, how- 
ever, take its place now. 

Caustic potash, or nitrate of silver has been considerably used, 
also, for the same purpose, not as a poultice, but as an actual caustic, 
by putting Liie stick into the orifices for a moment. 

3. But, in very bad cases, Prof. Scudder has introduced the 
eclectic, and more satisfactorj' way — more satisfactory' because more 
successful; and I can not better introduce his plan, than to give a 
case he reports, editorially, in the Eclectic Medical Journal. He was 
called to a cas^ of a man at 70 years of age, who had been suflTering 
for 4 days with a Carbuncle on the back of his neck. The physician 
had been using sulphate of zinc, 2 drs. to water, 1 pt. as a cooling 
lotion, applied by wetting cloths in it and laying upon, changing, etc. 
Prof. .Scudder says; 

•• On examination, find the neck very much swollen from the 
occipital knob" (the prominence at the back part of head, which is 
called occiput, from the Latin, caput, the head) "to the first dorsal 
vertebra " (first vertebra of the back) "and from ear to ear, intensely 
red, hot, and tender, except a spot as large as a half dollar, which 
shows the peculiar suppuration of Carbuncle. Pulse full, 110, bowels 
constipated, skin dry, urine high colored, tongue contracted, dry, and 
covered with a very thick grayish-white fu/. Very restless, has not 
slept for 3 days. 

"Prescribejd — Take tinct. veratrum, viride, } dr.; water, 4 ozs.; 
a tea-spoonful every hour. After the first day, alternately with the 
veratrum; tinct. nux vomica, 20 drops; tmct. Pulsatilla, 20 drops; 
water, 4 oz.s. By the third day the pulse was down to 70, skin soft, 
and moist, tongue moist and inclined to clean. Ordered hot milk 
from the commeni;ement. with some stimulants, can now take it with 




»ome appetite. Ordered now a pill of opium, 1 gr.; cai)sicum, } gr., aa 
often as reqnire<l to procure good sleej). 

"Locally, pencil the part that is red with strong tincture of vera- 
trnm, viride; apply to the centre where suppuration has commenced; 
the {)ermanganate of potash,! •} dr.; water, 4 ozs. The redness and 
swelling rapidly disappeared under the use of the veratrum, and by 
the sixth day, the disease was confined to the suppurating centre — 
3 inches in diameter. No pain. 

"Thus a case which was regarded, by those who saw it, as almost 
necessarily fatal, was brought to a successful termination by mo^t 
simple means — without the use of the knife, or escharotics" (caustics). 

Tiiis being the success of the present treatment, people must 
judge for themselves which plan to follow. 

I will only add, in conclusion, a little circumstance which always 
comes to my mind when I see, or hear a Carbuncle spoken of: 

When I was about 25 years of age, a gentleman of my acquaint- 
ance engaged in the iron foundry business solicited me to enter into 
a partnership with him, which I was about to do. But before any 
articles of agreement had been made out, he was taken with this dis- 
ease, on the shoulder, and in spite of all the doctors could do, he 
died. I had not read medicine then, and I can not say, if I had, that 
the termination would have been different. I mention it more to 
show the dangerous character of the disease, than any thing else; it 
cast much gloom, however, over the neighborhood, as well as upon 
my own feelings, as he was a man much respected, and but recently 
married — sometimes a very little thing changes a man's course, for 
life, at other times, the circumstance may be more serious, yet, it only 
makes a similar change in one's purposes. 


CAKES. — In introducing a subject of so much importance to a 
good' housekeeper, and one that will be referred to so often as that of 
making Cakes, permit me, first, to say, for health's sake, and especi- 
ally that of children, the frequent use of very rich Cake is not to be 
allowed. Then, let some of the plainest and most simple forms be 
adopted, changing from one to another. 

1. General Directions— First. — Without a good oven— one 
that can be heat of an even heat throughout, and especially the bot- 
tom — but little satisfaction will be experienced. This will hold good 
in baking bread, also. 

Second. — Soda, or saleratus should always be mashed and dis- 
solved before putting into the Cake mixture; but, very many per- 
sons, certainly so in cities, are now in the habit of using baking pow- 
ders in their place, which should always be put into the flour and 
sifted in, together, at the end of the operation. 

tKing, in his American Dispensatory, says of this article: "It ha-slikewivSe been 
fotinri a very efficacious local application in phlegmonous erysipelas" (t. e., of an 
inflammatory character, from phU',i,'mon, an intlammatiou beiieath the skin, of a 
burning cliaracter), "hospital K'niRreiie, ctiid Oirbimcle." He says, of it, alsOj that 
'"In weak solutions, it is a stimulant and disinfectant. It has proved venj useful in the 
treatment of various ofiensive an<i infectious" (catching) "diseases, as in foul, indo- 
lent, and gangrenous ulcers, or abscesses, leucorrhea^ ottorrhea" (inflammation of 
the ear, with ulceration), " canrerom ulcers, ozena, etc.,' (an ulceration of the nose, or 
nostril, of a fetid character) " destroying the fetid odor in cases, chetking exu- 
berant granulations" (superfluous, or over abundant. What is commonly 'called 
'proud-flesh") "inducing a healthy appearance of the ulcerated surfaces." 


Third. — Eggs should always be well beaten with the sugar, but- 
ter, milk, Hiivorino; extract, or s[)ices, fruits, etc., unless otherwise di- 
rected in the Rece]j)t; and as a general thing it is best to have the but- 
ter, lard, or drippings, (tiiat which falls from meat in roasting, but, 
of late, is applied to all gravies in which meat is fried) melted, as 
tiiey give less trouble in mixing. In cold weather, however, the 
milk, butter, sugar, etc., may be put in a basin, or pan, and set on the 
stove to warm them together, then beat to a cream before mixing in 
the other articles. Eight eggs veil beaten are equal to 10, not well 
beaten, for giving lightness to Cake. At the end of the operation put 
the baking powder into so much of the flour as you know will be 
required, and sift it in ; then use more, if needed to obtain the 
desired consistence. 

Lastly. — Bake in a moderately hot oven, to allow the Cake to 
rise before the top is browned, or set, unless a "quick oven" is called 
for. Cake having much fruit in them, especially chopjied fruit, are 
liable to stick to the tins, unless a buttered paper is put in first. 

The careful observation of these rules will save trouble and 
annoyance in Cake-making. 

2. Tea Cake, or Cup Cake. — Sugar, 1^ cups ; butter, ^ cup 
(in all cases the usual sized teacup is meant) : sour milk, 1 cup; eggs, 
3 ; soda, 1 tea-spoonful ; extract of vanilla, lemon, or nutmeg, as pre- 
ferred, 1 tea-spoonful. 

Dip common Cake dishes about naif full, and place in the oven 
at once, as mentioned under the General Directions, above. If done 
early in the afternoon, they will be ready for " tea." 

3. Another. — Butter, ^ cup; sugar, 1 cup; flour, 1^ cups; eggs, 
2; sweet milk, J cup; soda, ^ tea-spoonful; cream of tartar, 1 tea- 

In any, case of making Cake with sweet milk, or water, calling 
for soda, and cream of tartar, as in this one, baking powders, 1 large, 
or rounding tea-spoonful may take its place, with the same success; 
but with sour milk, a little soda must first be mixed with it to neu- 
tralize the acid, then the baking powder will do equally well. 

4. Lady Cake. — Flour and sugar, of each, 1 lb.; butter, ^ lb.; 
whites of 15 eggs; baking powder, 6 tea-spoonfuls. 

Thoroughly mix the flour and baking powder, by sifting; then 
cream the flour with the butter. Now, having beaten the eggs, and 
thoroughly mixed them with the sugar, mix all, and bake in a mod- 
erate oven. 

6. Honey Cake. — Melt 1 cup of butter, and mix it with honey, 
2 cups ; ginger, 1 table-spoonful; 1 nutmeg, or a grated rind of 1 
lemon, and a little flour. Dissolve a heaping tea-spoonful of salera- 
tus in a cup of water, and add to the mixture. Then add flour till 
stiflf enough to roll out ; and bake the same as ginger bread. 

6. Wedding Cake. — Flour, and butter, of each, 4 lbs.; sugar, 
8 1bs. ; citron, 1» lb.; English currants, 4 lbs.; raisins, 3 lbs.; nutmeg, 
1 oz. ; lemons, 4; cream, 1 pt. ; eggs, 30; saleratus, | table-spoonfuL 

Work the butter and sugar to a cream, add the beaten eggs, 
grated nutmeg, prepared fruit, chopped lemons, cream, and saleratus, 
then the sifted flour. Bake in large, or small pans, as preferred, 

7. Mrs. Pride's "Wedding Cake.— Butter, 1 lb.; sugar. If lbs.; 
flour, 1 lb.; eggs, 12; raisins, seeded, chopped, and floured, 3 lbs.; 
English currants, washed, dried, picked, and floured, 2 Ibe. ; citron. 

■21i5 DB. chasb's 

cut thin aud small, 1 lb.; Maderia wine, 1 glass; brandy, 2 wlne-glasa- 
fuls; rose-water, 1 wine-glassful; grated nutmegs, 2; finely ground 
cinnamon, 2 tea-spoonfuls; mace and cloves, finely ground, of each, 
1 tea-spoonful; currant jelly, well beaten, a little less than 1 pt. 

Follow Generai, Dikections, No. 2, above. Bake about 4 hours in 
a moderate oven. 

Mrs. Pride reported this to the Hearth and Home, except that she 
used 2 glasses of rose-water, and 2 of well-water without the wine.or 
brandy ; but some one else has improved its taste and keeping qualities 
by their addition. I expect, however, that the old lady would disown 
the Cake now, for she is reported as " decidedly a total-abstinence 
woman, and opposed to brandy, or cider, even in mince pies." But 
the idea of flouring the chopped fruit, to prevent it from sticking 
together, enabling it to be the more evenly mixed through the Cake, 
Is certainly good. The Cake is very nice. 

8. Patriot Cake. — Flour, sugar, and raisins, of eachj 1 lb. ; but- 
ter, k lb.; cream, or rich milk, ^ pt*; wine, and brandy of each, ^ gill.; 
eggs, 4 ; soda, I tea-spoonful. 

9. French Cake.— Eggs, 1 doz. ; loaf sugar, 1 lb.; peel of 1 
lemon; wheat, and rice flour, of each, ^ lb.; sweet almonds, 4 ozs.; 
bitter almonds, 1 oz. ; orange-flower water, 1 table-spoonful. 

The yolks and whites of the eggs are to be beaten separately, the, 
sugar is to be pounded and sifted; the lemon pee! is to be grated; the 
wheat flour is to be dried and sifted, and the rice flour is also to be 
sifted; and the almond, both kinds, are to be thoroughly beaten into 
a pulpy mass, in a mortar, tlien the orange-flower water put in with 
them anii thoroughly rubbed together; and then the whole to be 
mixed, stirring as the different ingredients are put in. The pan to be 
papered, with white paper that has been buttered, and baked for 1 

Some may think this a large amount of labor for a Cake. It is 
well known that the Frencli people are celebrated for fretting up very 
nice articles of food. Then, if we would have their nice dishes, we 
must take the same labor that they do, or we can not have them. Let 
every one suit themselves, ray place is to suit all — something, in other 
words, for each, 

10. French Ijoaf Cake. -Sugar, 1 lb.; butter, ^ lb.; flour, ^ lb.; 
eggB, 8; milk. '_' tablt--spoonfiris; soda, \ tea-spoonful; 1 good) sized 
lemon, grated and cuopped. 

Mix the sugar and butter, then the yolks, and after, the whites; 
than the lemon and Oour, and lastly, the soda and the milk, having 
been mixed, are put in. 

11. Hartford Loaf Cake.— Flour, 21- lbs.; sugar, 1] lbs.; butter, 
l\ lbs.; nutmegs, 2 or 3; mace, ', oz. ; eggs, 2; milk, I pt. ; raisins, 1 lb.; 
distiller's, or otlier good yeast, 1 gill.; brandy, wine, and other fruit if 
desired, to taste. * 

Rub the butter into the fl9ur, at night, and have the milk warm, 
and add the yeast, and mix in thoroughly, and set to rise. In the 
morning, when light, add the other articles, heat thoroughly, and put 
in pans, and after an hour, bake. 

12. Our Family's Raised Cake. — When making bread, in the 
mornimr, the hop-yeast, or other sponge-risings being light and nice, 
take out I cupful, and add siigar, 1 cup; butter, ^ cup; chopped raisins, 


1 cxip; 1 egg; cinnamon, cloves, or nutmeg, of either, I tea-S])Oonfuli 
soda, 1 tea-ppoonful. 

Stir as stiffly as you can \\itha spoon, let rise until liglit, and bake 

1 to 1 hour, according to the heat of the oven. It is verj' satisfactory, 
and hut little extra labor. 

13. Cookies. — Grandmas are always expected to have Cookies 
ready for the "cliildren," when they call to spend the afternoon, with 
their mothers; besides this, they are very commonly found on the 
table, and quite often, not very good, yet they are one of the easiest 
Cakes made, if you know how. 

Take sugar, 2 cups; melted butter, 1 cuj); eggs, 2; .sour milk, 1^ 
cups; soda, 1 2 tea-spoonfuls. 

Stir the sugar, butter and eggs to a cream, then put in the milk, 
and soda. Flour to make as soft a batter as can be rolled — herein lies 
the secret of success. 

14. Another. — Butter, 1 cup; sugar, 1 cup; sweet milk, 1 c,up; 
eggs, 2; baking powder, 1 rounding tea-spoonful. Use sufficient 
flour only to make as soft as j^ou can roll out and cut. 

15. Jelly Oake. — Thin cream, sugar, and flour, of each, 1 cup; 
eggs, 2; saleratus, 2 tea-spoonful, or soda, 1 tea-spoonful (the soda is 
the most used, of late); extract of lemon, or vanilla, 2 tea-spoonfuls. 
If too thin, use a little more flour, and if the cream is verj^ sour, it 
will require a little more saleratus, or soda. 

This will be baked in thin Cakes, and laid up with any jelly yon 
choose, between the layers, and frosted, or not, as any one chooses. 

16. Lemon Jelly Oake. — Sugar, 1 cup; flour, 1 cup; eggs, 8; 
melted butter, 1 table-spoonful; soda, 1 tea-spoonful; cream of tartar, 

2 tea-spoonfuls; milk, 1 table-spoonful. Bake in 4 Cakes. 

In place of jelly, take water, 1 cup; 1 egg; sugar, | cup; 1 egg; 
corn starch, 1 table-spoonful; the juice of 2 lemons; mix thoroughly 
And put between the Cakes. 

17. Orang-e Jelly Cake. — Flour, 2 cups; sugar, 2 cups; cold 
water, ] cup; juice and grated peel of 1 orange; yolks of 5 eggs, and 
whkes of 4; salt, a little; soda, 2 tea-spoonful; cream of tartar, 1 tea- 

Follow General Directions, No. 2, in making. Bake in 4 jelly 
tins and lay up by taking the white of the egg, saved for that purpose, 
and beat it well with pounded sugar (pulverized sugar) until stiff; 
then grate in the peel of another orange, and squeeze in the juice of 
tlie same, to put between the laj'er.s. 

18. Cocoa-nut Variety. — Jelly Cake may be made by beating 
up the white of eggs and sugar, as you would for frosting, only it does 
not need quite as much sugar as for frosting, then stir in suflicient of 
dessicatfd (dried) cocoa-nut (kept by most grocers), to make it as thick 
as it will well spread, putting this between the layers, spreading it 
thickly, or not, as you wish the taste of the cocoa-nut to appear. It is 
very nice. Tiie Cake is made the same as No. 15. 

19. Cream Variety.— Jelly Cake will be made by beating 

3 eggs to a froth, with sugar, I lb., and flour, I lb., in which baking 
powder, 3 tea-spoonfuls have been mixed, by sifting. Baked in thin 
Cakes as No. 15, and laid up with the following cream: 

Cream, or rich milk, 1 qt., sweetened to taste, and thickened with 
com starch, ] table-spoonful, and flavored with extract of lemon, or 
vanilla, which is to be poured between the layers, in place of the jelly. 

214 i>». chAsk's 

or in place of cacoa-nut. Thus it will be seen that with a little in- 
genuity — genius — great varieties of Cake, or other things, can be made^ 
and prove very satisfactory. 

Tliis, or any of the others may be made to take on a different ap- 
pearance, occasionally, by beating up the whites of eggs and sugar, as 
for frosting, and spread over the top layer, and slightly browning in 
the oven, or by making a complete frost, leaving it without browning. 
I first saw, and learned how to make this last variety of Cake, while 
waiting at one of the Chicago depots, for the connection of trains, im- 
mediately after the "great fire." 

20. Kansas Luncheon Cake. — Flour, 2 lbs. ; powdered sugar, 
1^ lb.; English currants, mashed and dried, 6 ozs.; citron, 1 oz.; butter, 
I lb.; baking powder, 1 table-spoonful; salt, 1 table-spoonful; eggs, 4; 
milk sufficient. 

Rub the butter into the flour, then the sugar, citron, currants, salt, 
baking powder, etc., and beat the eggs and mix in with the milk to 
make the batter not very stiff. Half fill buttered, and flour dusted 
tin8,and bake in rather a quick oven, to a light brown. — Kansas Herald. 

21. Soft Molasses Ginger-Bread — Good Molasses, 1 pt. ; but- 
ter, J lb.; soda, 1 table-spoonful; ginger, 1 large table-spoonful, or to 
suit the taste ; flour sufficient. 

Melt the butter, and pour into the molasses; mix in the soda 
until it froths; then stir in the ginger, and flour to make it so stiff as 
will handle well with a spoon. Bake ^, or | hour. 

22. Buns, or S-wreet Cake. — Flour, 1 qt.; milk, 1 pt.; butter, 
ilb. ; eggs, 2; sugar, 1 cup; English currants, ^ cup; yeast, 3, or 4 

Warm the milk, and mix ip the yeast, butter, and flour, and set 
to rise 3, or 4 hours ; then mix the beaten eggs, sugar, and fruit into 
the dough, and let rise again 2 hours. And when light, make into 
small Buns, or Biscuit, and put them close together, in baking tins, 
and when light again, brush the tops over with a mixture of milk 
and molasses, and bake in a quick oven. 

23. Another. — New milk, 3 cups; yeast, and sugar, of each, 1 
cup; flour enough to make a stiff batter. Rise over night. In the 
morning, mix 1 cup of butter with another cup of sugar; 1 grated 
nutmeg; 1 tea-spoonful of saleratus, or 1^ of soda, or 2 of baking pow- 
der, and mix in with sufficient more flour to make all as stifl" as for 
bread. Let rise again, then mould, or cut out, and when again light, 
bake in a qiiiik oven. 

24. Indian Griddle Oakes. — Three handfuls of Indian-meal; 
1 tea-spoonful of soda; 1 tea-spoonful of salt, 4 of sugar; pour on 
boiling water, stirring briskly to the thickness of stiff mush; pour on 
cold milk till it is as thick as gruel ; then add sifted flour to the con- 
sistency of Griddle Cakes— thick or thin as preferred. They can be 
varied by the addition of 1, or 2 eggs beaten and added last. 

25. Buckwheat Griddle Cakes.— Sift together I qt. of buck- 
wheat flour, and 1 tea-cupful of corn-meal. In cool weather make up 
a moderately thin batter with luke-warm sweet milk; salt to taste. 
In warm weather it is best to use water — the milk would sour; add 
j^ a tumbler of good lively hop-yeast, (hop-yeast is best for buck- 
wheat); make it up in a jar (covering closely) at 9 o'clock at ni^ht. 
The next morning beat in 3 eggs; let it set 15 or 20 minutes; just 
before frying, stir in 1 tea-spoonful of soda, first sprinkling it over the 


oatter. Soda is unnecessary if the batter is perfectly sweat. Eggs 
are not essential, but are an improvement. A mixture ol 4 parts of 
buckwheat — 2 of Graham, and I of Indian — makes a more healthful 
Cake and more spongy. 

26. Another.— There are those who prefer a mixture of wheat 
flour and meal with their buckwheat flour for Griddle Cakes; then 

Take buckwheat flour, 4 cups; wheat flour, 2 cups; corn-meal, 1 
cup; salt, 2 tea-spoonfuls; yeast, 1 cup, and sufficient warm water to 
make a pouring batter; mix, and let rise over night, and bake in the 
morning. Leave a pint of the batter to set the next lot, and you 
need not use anymore yeast the whole season. Keep the "stock" 
cool when not wanteil. If the batter turns sour, stir in, just before 
using, a tea-spoonful of baking soda dissolved in cold water. 

27. Rye Batter, or Griddle Cakes.— Warm 2 tumblers of 
sweet milk, containing 1 tea-spoonful of salt; 2 eggs, well beaten; 
stir into rye-meal, beginning with a pt., and add more, till of proper 
consistency for dropping upon the griddle; add 1 tea-spoonful of 
soda, sifted with the meal; 2 tea-spoonfuls of cream of tartar, also. 
Rye and corn-meal Cakes should be made thin ; flour Cakes moder- 
ately stifl". 

'28. "Wheat Flour Batter, or Griddle Cakes. — Mix at night, 
4 pt. bowlfuls of flour, or half white corn-meal; 1 tea-spoonful of 
salt; 2} bowls of tepid-warm milk; ^ tumbler of yeast. In the morn- 
ing, add 1 egg. well beaten, also add milk if too thick; the Cakes must 
be spongy. 

29. Hominy Cakes. — Boiled hominy,! pt., well mashed; ^ pt 
of sifted flour; 1 egg; 1 table-spoonful of melted lard, or butter; sweet 
milk enough to make a rather thin batter; 1 tea-spoonful of soda, 
sifted with the flour, and 2 of cream of tartar. Drop the batter, small, 
on a griddle. 

30. MufQns. — Milk, 3pts.; 4 eggs; small tea-cup of yeast; piece 
of butter, size of an egg, melted in a little milk; 1 tea-spoonful of 
salt; add sifted flour till as thick as buckwheat batter; 8, or 10 hours' 
rising; cook either in Muffin rings, or pour directly on the griddle in 
thin Cakes. Powdered sugar and ground cinnamon served with the 
Cakes improve them. 

31. Muffins, or Griddle Cakes. — Sweet milk, 1 pt.; eggs, 2; 
butter, the size of an egg; salt, 1 tea-spoonful; baking powder, 1 tea- 
si^oonful; Graham, and common flour, one-half of each to make them 
as thick as common Cake batter. 

Bake in Muffin rings, or without them, upon a hot griddle. 
Choice and light. 

32. Short-Cake. — Sifted flour, 4 cups; 1 tea-cupful of cream; 
1 pt. of milk; even table-spoonful of butter; 1 tea-spoonful of sidt; 
1 tea-spoonful of soda; 2 of cream of tartar, sifted with flour. Roll 
as soft as possible; cut small, thick Cakes with a form, and bake on 
the griddle. 

33. Velvet Cake. — There is quite a tendency, of late, to have 
mce and smooth names applied to things, as well as to have nice 
things; hence we have Velvet Cake, Velvet Cream, etc., as follows: 

Flour, and sugar, of each, 1 lb. ; butter, i lb. ; eggs, 4 ; cold water, 
1 cup; cream of tartar, 1 tea-spoonful; soda, ^ tea-spoonful; flavor 
with any of the extracts preferred, 1 tea-spoonful. 

Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, having dissolved the soda 

216 DR. chask's 

in a little of the water, add it; and having sifted the cream of tartar 
with the flour, and thoroughly mixed tiiem, sift them into the mix- 
ture, adding the balance of the cold water, and beat together; the 
eggs also having been beaten separately first, then together, stir them 
in, and the flavoring extract, beating the mass well, for a minute, or 
two. This will make a couple of the "nice" Cake, and will require 
baking about 1 hour. Raisins, seeded, chopped, and floured, may be 
put in if desired. And it can be baked in layers and laid up with 
chocolate frosting in place of jelly. The Fkosting, or Iging, made as 
under that head, then grating in as much "nice" chocalate as desired, 
giving another "nice" variety; and still another variety by using the 
dessicuted cocoa-nut, kept bj' grocers, in place of the chocolate; or the 
meat of the common cocoa-nut can l)e scraped, or grated and dried, 
doing very well, but not equal to that prepared with sugar by the 
regular manufacturers, and kept on sale, as referred to above. 

34. Cocoa-nut Cake. — Milk, 1 cup ; flour, 3 cups; sugar, 2 cups; 
eggs, 3; cocoa-nut, grated, 1 (or the sale article to equal it); cream of 
tartar. 2 tea-spoonfuls; soda, 1 tea-spoonful. 

Beat the butter and sugar to a cream; sift the cream of tartar, 
with the flour, into the mixture, adding the milk with the soda dis- 
solved in it; and then add the beaten eggs, having beaten the yolks 
and whites separately, mixing them in quickly, and then stirring in 
the cocoa-nut, and baking about 1 hour, being careful not to jar the 
stove while baking, as the cocoa-nut causes a brittleness of tlie mix- 
ture, and, if jared, allows the escape of the gas which makes the 
lightness, or porousness of the Cakes; and, if the grated cocoS-uut is 
used, the Cake will be lighter if it is grated the day before, to alloM' it 
to drain and dry a little. The cocoa-nut should not be put in until 
ready to put into the oven. 

35. Cocoa-nut, and other Frosting for Cakes.— Grate a 
cocoa-nnt; then make the Frosting by beating the whites of 3 eggs to 
a high froth; having pounded in a mortar, and sifted, f lb. of pulver- 
ized sug;ir, beat it in with 1 tea-spoonful of extract of vanilla, lemon, 
or peach, as ])referred, and continue to beat it until it is liglit — remem- 
ber the longer it is beaten, the harder and more firm it will be — then 
add about 3 of the grated cocoa-nut, and mix thoroughly. If too stiff 
to spread, add a very little water by which means it will spread easily 
and smoothly; then sprinkle over the balance of cocoa-nut, which 
gives it a snow-flake api'iearance. 

36. For Common Frosting. — One lb. of sugar should be used, 
in the same manner as No. 3"). 

37. Frosting and Ornamenting Cake. — For a midilling sized 
Cake, t;ike tiie whites of 2 eggs, thoroughly beaten, then stir and beat 
in pulverized sugar until quite tliick. The more beating the harder 
"will be tlie Frosting. 

While the Cake is a little warm, dip of the Frosting with a spoon 
upon the highest part of the Cake, and, with a knife, s})read it down 
toward thd lower edge until proj)erly covered; then set it in the oven 
for a minute or two to harden; and if not sufliciently clear and wliite, 
put on another light coat of the Frosting, and return to the oven to 
dry. After the Frosting is dry, it can be ornamented, if desired, by 
taking a piece of white writing paper, rolled as a funnel, the litth'end 
having a hole the size of a small goose qnill, to allow the Frosting to 
ran out in a small stream; then put a finger to stop the hole and till 


it with the Frosting rubbed down smoothly, and made a little thin, 
with water. Now, by carrying this funnel over the Cake, and remov- 
ing the hnger you can write, "Merry Christmas," or "Ha])j)yNew 
Year," or any name, or date, or other ornament you choose — if done 
carefully, it will look well. 

38. For Chocolate flavor, in laying up Jelly Cake, grate a nice 
article of it, and use in i)lace of cocoa for the inside, saving some of 
the Frosting clear, for the top, as the color is more tasty. 

39. Lemon Cake. — Sugar, 3 cups; butter, 1 cup; eggs, 5; 1 
lemon; milk, 1 cup; Hour, 4 cups. 

Kub the sugar and butter to a cream, with the yolks of the eggs, 
then the milk and well beaten whites of the eggs; then sift in some 
of the Hour, stirring well; then the juice and grated rind of the lemon, 
fini.-?hing with the balance of the sifted flour. Bake in shallow pans, 
from i to :J of an hour. 

40. Sponge Cake. — Eggs, 4; white sugar, 1 cup; Hour, 8 cups; 
sweet milk, .'. cup; baking powder, 1 large tea-spoonful; extract of 
lemon, vanilla, or nutmeg, as preferred, 1 tea-spoonful; salt, a small 

Beat the eggs well, then beat in the sugar, and add the milk, 
flavoring, and salt. ]*nt the baki)ig *i)Owder into the flour, and sift, 
and stir in, and beat all well together; put into pans and bake in a 
quick oven. It will be very liglit and spongy. This may be baked in 
thin layers, and used as Jelly Cake; and if it is desired, while the 
layers are warm, one side may be covered with "jell," and rolled, to 
be slif^ed ofl" when cold. 

41. Another. — Sugar, 4 lb., and j)Ut into it I tumbler of cold 
water, and bring it to a boil to form a clear sirup; when cool, having 
beaten the yolks and whites of eggs, separately, add the yolks, stirring 
them well; flavoi with the peel of a lemon, and add the juice of the 
same; add the whites of the eggs, and then sift in i lb. of flour. It is 
claimed that this Cake will keep moist much longer than usual, on 
account of the boiling of the sugar. 

42. Another. — Sugar, 1 cup; flour, I cup; eggs, 2; sweet milk, 
4 table-si>()onfuls; soda, 2 tea-spoonful; cream of tartar, 1 tea-spoon- 
ful, or baking powders, 1 large tea-spoonful. 

These Cakes take their name from their resemblance to a Sponge, 
both in lightness and toughness, if properly made, and i>roperly 
baked, as'they are quite tough, notwithstanding their lightness, as 
no shortening is used. 

43. Another.— White sugar, 1 lb.; eggs, 10; flour, ^ lb.; juice of 
2, and rind of 1 lemon. 

l'>reak the eggs into the sugar and thoroughly beat together; then 
the flour, lemon jui(;e, etc. Beautiful, is the word of descrii)tion. 

44. Dough-Nuta. — Sour milk, 3 cups; soda, 1 tea-spoonful; 
egg^, 2;- sugar, P. cui)s; baking powder, and salt, of each, 1 tea-spoon- 
ful; 1 grated nutmeg; melted butter, or melted lard, from the kettle, 
2 table-spoonfuls; Hour, about 2 qls. 

Dissolve the soda in the milk, add the sugar and eggs, the butter, 
or lard, and stir, or beat all the articles together; then sift in flour to 
make as soft a dough as can be moulded, and rolled out. Cut into 
stri])s, and twist, or tie into knots, or any other shaj)e desired. Fry 
in lard as hot a.s it can be without burning, which i)revents its too 
great absorption into the Cake, making it indigestible — a good light, 

218 DB. chase'r 

Dough -nut is a very healthy kind of food — a "greasy" one is very 

My family find this plan quicker and more satisfactory than 
the old plan of raising tlie dough with yeast. If no sour milk is on 
hand, sweet milk may be used, by doubling the amount of baking 
powder, not using the soda; and water will answer, by using more 
butter, or lard to make up for the richness of the milk, and an extra 
egg to make up for the lightness arising from the mixing of soda 
"with sour milk. 

For variety's sake, and also to help keep these Cakes soft, 
about 5 lb. of the dessicaled cocoa-nut may be mixed with the ingredi- 
ents before the Hour is stirred in. 

45. Crullers. — Crullers is only another name for Deugh-nuts, 
as above, the word probably coming from the German Krulle, mean- 
ing curled; hence, a Cruller is a curled Cake, or crisped, or boiled in 

Take sweet milk, 1 qt. ; sugar, 1^ pts.; flour, ^ pt.; baking powder, 
3 tea-spoonfuls; nutmeg, or cinnamon, or a little of both if preferred. 

Mix all together nicely, then sift in as much more flour as to 
allow it to roll out, but they are better not to be made very stiff 
Have the lard hot when they are put in. 

46. Chocolate Cake. — Pulverized sugar, IJ cups; butter, \ 
cup; eggs, 5; sweet milk, j cup; flour, U cups; cream of tartar, 1 tea- 
spoonful; soda, I tea-spoonful; extract vanilla, or lemon, 1 tea- 

Beat the whites of 3 of the eggs thoroughly, as if for frosting, then 
beat the sugar into them, and take out some of it for frosting with; 
then beat in the balance of the eggs, and add grated Chocolate, 1 
even cupful; then sift and stir in the flour. Bake and frost with 
what is used for that purpose. 

47. Cream Cake. — Sugar, 1 cup; good rich cream, 1 cup; eggs, 
2; soda, 1 t?a-spoonful; flour, 2 cups; salt, 1 tea-spoonful. Make 
according to Gen'eral Directions, No. 2. 

48. Another. — Cream, 1 cup; sugar, 1 cup; flour, 1 cup; egOT, 
3; so<la, k tea-spoonful cream of tartar, 1 tea-spoonful; a little salt. 
Made in the usual way. 

49. White, or Silver Cake. — Whites of 8 eggs; flour, 3 cups; 
■white sugar, 2 cups; butter, h cup; sweet milk,| cup; baking powder, 
1 rounding tea-spoonful; extract of lemon, 1 tea-spoonful. 

60. Yellow, or Gold Cake. — Yolks of 8 eggs; flour, 1^ cups; 
sugar, 1 cup; butter, J cup; sweet milk, 2 cup; baking powder, 1 tea- 
spoonful; extract of vanilla, 1 tea-spoonful. Mix and bake according 
to Genera I, Directions, wliich see. 

61. Fruit Cake. — Flour, sugar, and butter, of each, 1 lb.; Eng- 
lish currants, and raisins, of each, 2 lbs.; citron, 1 lb.; eggs, 10; any 
good wine, 1 cup; brandy, h cup, or 2 cups of wine without the 
brandy; those who choose to have no wine, or other spirits, will use 
a cup of sweet milk and a cup of water in their place; nutmeg and 
cinnamon to taste, or use the extracts, 1 table-spoonful, each. 

English currants should always be carefully picked over to free 
them fr:)in gravel, then washed and drained; and the seedless raisins 
are preferable, in saving time to seed them, chopped and dusted with 
flour, as they mix thus, more evenly through the mass. Citron must 
ve cut into thin slices and chopped fine, when it may be mixed evenly 


through the mass, or put in layers. Mix according to Gknkeal Dikko- 
TiONs; and bake by putting a buttered paper on the pans. 

62. "White ivrountain Cake. — Butter, J cup; sugar, 2 cups; 
flour, 3 J cups; milk, 1 cup; eggs, 2; cream of tartar, 2 tea-spoonfuls; 
soda, 1 tea-spoon fill. 

Beat all together, without separating the eggs — put the soda in 
the milk, and sdr the cream of tartar in the flour. Bake as Jelly 
Cake; but in place of jelly, between the layers, put the following 

Frosting. — Beat the white of 1 egg to a stiff froth, and stir in 
pulverized sugar, 7 tea-spoonfuls. Flavor with extract of lemon, or 

53. Qing-er Snaps. — Molasses, ^ lb. ; brown sugar, and butter, 
of each, J lb.; flour, 1 lb.; ground ginger, and caraway seeds, of each, 
1 tea-spoonful. 

Rub the butter into the flour, then mix in the molasses, sugar, 
ginger, and caraway seeds. Work all well, and form into Cakes the 
size of a "quarter." Place upon a baking tin, and bake in a moder- 
ate oven, for 20 minutes, when they will be dry and crisp. — Warren'$ 
(English) Modern Cookery. 

64. Currant Cake. — Butter, ^ cup; sugar, 2 cups; milk, 1 cup; 
English currants, 1 cup; soda, 1 tea-spoonful; cream of tartar, 2 tear 
spoonfuls; flour, sufficient to make a pouring batter. 

55. Snow-Ball Cake. — Sugar, 1 cup; sour cream, 4 table-spoon- 
fuls ; eggs, 2; salt, a little; flour, to roll out. Cut into small round 
Cakes, and fry in hot lard ; and while hot, roll in powdered sugar. 

66. Crumpets. — Eggs, 4; white sugar, 2 cups; butter, or lard, 
1 cup; soda, 1 tea-spoonful, dissolved in ^ cup of cold water; nut- 
meg, to taste; flour to roll out like cookies, rolling thin, and cutting 
into small Cakes. Sprinkle them well with powdered sugar, and bake 
in a quick oven. As the ladies say : They are " splendid." 

In Crumpets, the sugar is upon the outside rather than on the 

67. Corn Starch Cake. — Whites of 5 eggs; butter, 1 cup; 
sugar, 2 cups; sweet milk, 1 cup; corn starchy 1 cup; flour, 2 cups; 
cream of tartar, 1 tea-spoonful; soda, I tea-spoonful. See General 

68. Raisin Cake. — Raisins,! lb.; flour, sugar, and butter, of 
each, 1 lb.; eggs, 6; a wine-glass of brandy, in which rose leaves had 
been steeped, by standing^; 1 small nutmeg; 1 small tea-spoonful of 
soda, saleratus, or baking powder. 

Beat the butter to a cream ; beat the yolks of the eggs with the 
sugar, then the flour; now stir in the creamed butter, and having 
whipped the whites to a froth, stir them in, and the brandy and 
spices, and the soda, or saleratus dissolved in a spoonful of hot water; 
now beat all until light and creamy; then add the raisins, they having 
been stoned, chopped, and covered with a cup of the flour, to cause 
them to mix evenly. The tin must be lined with buttered paper, 
and baked in a quick oven. 

69. Canadian Cake. — Flour, f lb.; pulverized sugar, i lb.; 
fresh butter, ^ lb.; English currants, \ lb.; eggs, 5; orange-flower 
water, 1 table-spoonful; 1 table-spoonful of wine, or brandy; the 
grated peel of 2 ^ lemon. 

Sift the flour and sugar together, and rub in the butter, and the 
beaten eggs, orange-flower water, wine, or brandy, and the currants; 

220 DR. chase's 

Ileal all until light and creamy. Put into tins lined with buttered 
paper. Put in only thin, as it will rise well. Dlike in a quick oven. 
It may Ue iced, if you mark it off into squares, or diamonds, for cut- 
ting, before icing. 

60. Plain Short Cake. — Flour, 1 lb.; butter, or other shorten- 
ing, ^ lb.; sugar, 8 ozs. Mix, and roll out thick, and bake about ^ an 
hour. It may be done without sugar; and soda, or baking*powder may 
be used, if preferred. 

61. Apple and Peach Cake. — Dried apples, 3 cups; molasses, 
2 cups; sugar, 1 cup; raisins, 1 cujr ; thick sour cream, 1 cup; eggs, 2; 
soda, 1 tea-spoonful; cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, to taste ; flour to 
make a stiff batter. 

Soak the apjjles over night; in the morning chop them fine, and 
cook them slowly in the molasses for 1 hour; when cooled, put in the 
sugar, raisins, beaten eggs, cream w'itli the soda in it, etc., and bake in 
a moderate oven. This gives moistness, and a peculiar flavor to Cake, 
that is very satisfactory. 

Peaches that were peeled, before drjdng, may be used in the 
same manner. 

62. Jumbles.— Made the same as Cookies above, only making 
a little stiff, and when cut out, roll the top in pulverized sugar, before 

63. Hickory-nut Cake. — Hickory-nut meats, Hcups; butter, 1 
cup; sugar, 2 cups; flour, 4 cups; sour milk, 1 cup; eggs, 3; soda, 1 

Have the meats chopped, or broken fine, and roll them evenly 
■with half of (he flour, mixing the other articles first, in the usual 
way, then mix in the nut-fionr, o.nd bake, in a moderate oven. 

64. "White Sponge Cake. — Whites of 8 eggs; white sugar, IJ 
cups; flour, I cup; cream of tartar, 2 tea-spoonfuls. 

Mix sugar, flour, and cream of tartar together; then beat the 
whites of the eggs until stiff, and mix in, as quickly as possible, with 
the hand. 

65. Coffee Cake. — Nicely made coffee, 1 cup; brown sugar, IJ 
cups; butter, 1 cup; molasses,! cup; raisins, or English currants, 1 lb. ; 
flour, 5 cups; soda, 1 large tea-spoonful, dissolved in the coffee; cin- 
namon and cloves, of each, h tea-spoonful; nutmeg, J of 1. 

Mix and bake in a moderate oven. 

66. Hard-Times Cake.— J^ast though not least best of all, is a 
Cake for Hard-times: 

Butter, sugar,, and sour milk, of each, 1 cup; flour, 4 
cu])s; eggs, 3; soda, 1 tea-spoonful. Sweet milk may be used; then 
baking powder, the same amount, in place of tbe soda. 

If the "times" should improve, spice.s, or extracts of any flavor 
desired, may be used, with fruits also, as raisins, or English currants, 
to suit the laKle, or the flmrs. 

CAMPHOR ELIXIR— For Cold-Sores, Chaps, Pimpled 
Pace, etc. — The value of Camphor in salvy mixtures for Cold-Sores, 
Chaps, L'tc, is very great, as well as pleasant in its application. The 
following will be found a good combination: 

1. Almond oil, and rose-water, of each, by weight, lib.; cam- 
phor gum, 2 ozs.; white wax, spermaceti, antj rosemary, of each, 
1 oz. 

Melt the wax, spermaceti, and Camphor gum, in the oil, by gen- 


tie heat ; then, while a little warm, achl the roRe-water and stir briskly 
antil thoroii};hly mixed ; then add the rosemary and mix aj^ain. 
Pomade bottles, wi^ich have mouths toadmit the linger, are suitable 
for keeping it in. For families, take one-half, or one-fourth the 
amounts. It can be made softer by lessening the wax and spermaceti, 
and harder by increasing them, it will be found a very valuable em- 
brocation (to moisten and rub as with a liniment) for bruises, and 
common sores, pimpled faces, etc., especially on the delicate skin of 
ladies, and children, who shrink from the application of liniments, 
or from their smarting and irritation when first applied. 

2. Another. — A salve is made by taking sweet oil, 3 ozs. ; sper- 
maceti, 4 ozs.; pulverized camphor, I oz. 

Dissolve by gentle heat and stir while cooling, to keep the parts 
from separating. ' Apply whenever any irritation is manifested. 

CAMPHOR— Its Uses.— Gum Camphor readily dissolves in al- 
eohol, and also in common whisky, although not to the same extent, 
or stren^a:th. See Camphor Spirits, Xo. 6, below. 

1. Camphor Spirits, or Spirits of Camphor.— Alcohol, 1 pt. ; 
ffamphor gum, 2 ozs. Mix. 

It is used externally for sprains, swellings, pains, stitches, etc. It 
is applied by pouring into the hand and rubbing on freely, then wet- 
ting soft flannels and laying upon the parts, and covering to prevent 
evaporation; and re-wetting as fast as the parts become dry. This 
Camphor Spirits is probably as good an application as can be made to 
the female breast to dry up the secretion of milk, when it is desired 
to wean a child, or wtien, from any cause it becomes necessary to lessen 
the flow of milk. 

2. Camphor Liniments. — Spirits of camphor, 2 ozs. ; laudanum, 
^ oz.; spirits cf turpentine, 1 oz.; Castile soap, in powder, h oz.; alco- 
hol, 3 ozs. Set in a warm place for 2 to 3 days, and if the soap is not 
all dissolved strain it, or heat it. 

In bad cases of whooping cough, and for chronic bronchial 
nflfections ihis Camphor Liniment . may be applied warm, to the 
throat, chest, ainl spine. 

3. Camphorated Oil.— Olive oil, 1 pt.; camphpr, 2 ozs. Mix, 
and dissolve by gentle heat. 

In chronic rlieumatism, sore throat, inflammation of the lungs, 
etc., this will be found a powerful rubefacient (to make red), or exter- 
nal stimulant, drawing the blood to the surfiice from the painful part; 
and it should be covered, the parts, with flannel, the same as the 
Spirits, or Liniment, above; in fact, it would be the better, in apply- 
ing any liniment, or .stimulating oil, to cover the parts which increases 
the heat and prevents evaporation; but with very strong liniments, or 
oils, be careful aot to cause a blister, unless the pain is very severe; 
and even then, I prefer not to blister; but just to make as much 
counter (outside) irritation a.s I can short of blistering. 

4. Camphorated Oil Liniment — Very Po-werful.— Take the 
Camphorated o 1 and spirits of turpentine, of each, 2 ozs.; laudanum 
and aqua ammonia, of each, 1 oz. Well shaken. 

This will be found very valuable in rheumatic pains of the l'"in« 
of long standing; :>r for any chronic (long standing) pains. 

5. Another valuable liniment for chronic pains, or affecvi«.nB, i» 
made^us follows: 

A-luohol, 1 j)t. ; camphor gxim, 1 oz. ; cayenne, pulverized, [ os^ 

'Zi'J Da. CHASB'S 

lobelia, herb, or seed pulverized, J oz. Set in a warm piaoe and shake 
occasioiially for a few days; then strain, or pour ofl' free from the sed- 

linb well into the parts affected, and it will generally relieve and 
ease the i)ains readily. 

6. Camphor Spirits — Successfully Used in Relapse, or 
Settling- of Mumps. — When a mere boy of from 8 to 10 years only, I 
think, I heard my grandfather, one evening, telling my father of a 
case where a young man had had the Mnmns, and a week, or two, 
after, he "took cold," :\nd they ''settled," as it is called, i. e., the testi- 
cles became swollen to such an extent that surgeons were at the house 
for the purpose of castration (removing the testicles to save life); 
when, at this stage of the aflair, a stranger called in, and finding out 
the condition of things, he told the father of the young man, that, 
if allowed, he could save the operation ; but some doubt being ex- 
pressed by the physicians, he asked for 30 minutes only, in which, if 
they were not satisfied they could proceed. This time was granted : 
and before it had expired, they were informed, and were also satisfied 
that no operation would have to be made. 

The plan of the stranger was to take champhor spirits, 1 oz. of 
gum to 1 pt. of whisky (which was the "old fashioned way" of making 
it, in the country, at least 40 or 50 years ago), poured into a basin, and 
the .<!orof?t)n (the sac containing the testicles) placed in the basin, by 
holding the basin in such a position as to allow it; then with the hand 
bathe the parts, thighs, abdomen, etc., freely and thoroughly, and in 
a few minutes, the swelling began to go down, and a perfect cure was 
the result. 

This, I believe, was my Jirst Receipt, and well for me, at about 16, 
that I had heard it and remembered it; for at about that age, I also 
had the IMumps, and, some two weeks after, having taken cold, they 
settled, as in the above case, and my father and brothers being all 
from home, delicacy would not allow me to tell my mother my con- 
dition; and as there was but very little Camphor in the house, I took 
a pint flask and walked to town, f of a mile only, but in great pain, 
and got a pint of whisky and an ounce of Camphor gum and broke it 
up fine and put it in and sliook it often, on my way home, besides the 
motion of walking, so that when I got home, the gum was mostly dis- 
solved; then I got a quart basin and went to the corn-field, near by, 
and took the above course, with the same result — entire relief. 

And although, in a life of nearly GO years, I have not had an oc- 
casion to use it in a similar case, yet, I have given it here, not only 
that it might be used in all such cases coming to the knowledge of 
any one into whose hands this Book may fall, but also to show the 
value of Camphor Spirits, especially for swellings. It is indeed,^ a 
very valuable article. 

And I would ask the critically inclined, if lam not justified from 
the success of my first trial, in adopting the ^^Receivt" business, as my legiti- 
mate life business. 

CANCER REMEDIES— Miscellaneous.— A short time since, 
or 1 think in 1870, or '"1, there was a new article introduced into the 
United States, from South America, called cundurango, under the 
auspices, or countenance of the Government, by a Dr. Bliss, of Wash- 
ogton. And for a time, great hopes were entertained that an abso- 
lute specific (positive cure) had been found for Cancer. It was re- 


Sorted that the mother of Schuyler Colfax was cured by this article; 
ut I have recently (in the Summer of 1872) seen it announced in the 
papers, that this lady died of Cancer, which goes far in estahlishing 
the doubts which had begun to be disseminated that no dej)endence 
could be placed in it; but, rather that the leading object of its intro- 
duction was to obtain $50, or $100 per pound for the article, at which 
jt was held. Much has been said on both sides of the question; but 
time, alone, will determine its value, or worth lessn ess. 

But Cancer is such a terrible disease, and there are so many Hem- 
CKiies recommended for it, I have deemed it best to introduce among 
tiie Miscellaneous Receii>ts, such other Remedies as have been found 
yaluable by those who have tried them, whose standing is such as to 
warrant any hopes of success by the use of the articles tliey recom- 
mend. The following is Dr. Declat's Remedy for Cancer of the 

1. Cancer of the Tongue — Remedy. — Dr. Weisse reported to 
the Medical Society, of the County of New York, that Declat had, in 
18(35, puiilished a work on new applications of carbolic acid, in which 
he mentioned 2 cases of Cancer of the Tongue, treated by this agent, 
and 10 cases whose treatment was not then completed. He has since 
issued a work giving reports of 39 cases of Cancer of the Tongue, 12 
of which were of doubtful diagnosis (not positively known to be 
Cancer). His local treatment consisted in applying, in spray (proba- 
bly by inhalation); to the ulcerated surface, a solution of 5 parts of 
the crystalized carbolic acid in 10 parts of alcohol and 100 parts of 
water. In some cases, where a whitish fur covered the ulcer, he 
employed a caustic solution of equal parts of the crystals and the 
strongest, or absolute alcohol. Internally, he gave a solution of 1 
part of the acid in 200 parts of simple sirup. 

Dose. — One fl. dr. every 3 or 4 hours. 

If this quantity produced nausea, as was sometimes the case, the 
dose was diminished. The Remedy acted as a local anasthetic (^ren- 
dering insensible to pain), promoted sleep, and improved the appe- 
tite. Sometimes when the patient was in a bad condition, he gave 
the bicarbonate of potassa, or soda, in connection with the carbolic 
acid, as recommended by Broca. Occasionally, also, he combined 
with the acid, the arsenite of soda, or the bichloride of mercury. By 
this treatment Dr. Declat had succeeded in curing all of the doubtful 
cases, and ten out of 15 where the diagnosis was positive. In 5 of these 
latter cases the treatment failed completely. In 2 only, of the 10 
undoubtedly Cancerous cases, relapses occurred, but they were after- 
wards successfully met by the same treatment. In some of the cases 
clearly diagnosed, the treatment was continued for a year and upward, 
before the cure was pronounced complete. — Medical Recorder. 

The great difiiculty with many persons, is, if they are not cured 
in a month, or less, the Remedy is certainly good for notliing, and 
something else must be tried, while the true principle is, if you do not 
get worse, tlie sign is good — stick to it 3, or 4 months, at least, before 
giving up, even if no improvement appears. And it looks very curi- 
ous to me, if the carbolic acid will cure Cancer of the Tongue, why it 
should not cure Cancer of any other part. I should certainly try it, 
if occasion oti'ered. 

2. Cancer Salve — Patent. — The Scientific American gives a 
report in 1868, cf :: ^.,©ut having been trranted to G. W, d GaTnitei 

224 DB. chase's 

of JSIillersburg, Iowa, for making the following salve for Can- 
cers : 

"Take ashes made from dry, or green, red oak bark, 20 lbs.; the 
ashes of the root, with its bark, of 'bitter-sweet,' dry, or green, 5 lbs.; 
•and green poke root, mashed, 5 lbs. 

" To prepare the Salve, take a wooden vessel of suitable size, with 
perforations at the bottom, being such as is used to run off .ash lye. 
Into this vessel put about 5 lbs. of the oak bark and bitter-sweet 
ashes, which should have been evenly mixed, in tlie proportions 
above given; then put in the mashed poke root, and follow with the 
remainder of the ashes. To this mixture add sufficient water to 
moisten, but not to drip. Let stand 21 hours. Then run it off by 
adding water until the strength of the ashes is exhausted. The 
extract will now be put in a metal vessel and boiled to the consistency 
of a Salve. Put in bottles with ground glass stoppers, and it is ready 
for use." 

Mr. Gamble can be addressed for permission and instructions to 
use it, by those who have occasion to give it a trial. It would be used 
as a caustic Salve, no doubt, destroying the tumor, by v.'hich means it 
would be removed, then healed as other sores. The patent will 
expire in 1882. 

3. Cancer Ointment -Crilman's— Patent Expired. — A patent 
was also granted in 1836 (expired in 1850) to E. Gilman, of Ohio, for 
the following Ointment for tlie cure of Cancers: 

Finely pulveriz^'d copperas (sulphate of iron) made into an Oint- 
ment with mutton :iuet. 

It is to bo spread on linen cloth, and renewed every 10 hours. 
And the Cancer is to be washed, before renewed, with a decoction of 
spikenard (made by steeping spikenard root in water) in which a 
little soda has been dissolved. 

4. Drs. Bone and Henry's Cancer Salve.— King's American 
Dispensatory informs us that "Dr. Bone and Dr. Henry, two celebrated 
botanic practitioners of some 30, or 40 years ago, made considerable 
use of this article in the treatment of some forms of cutaneous" 
(skin) "disease, indolent ulcers, and even Cancers; the following \a 
the formula" (Receipt) "they employed: 

"Simmer 1 lb. of the inspissated" (thickened by evaporation) 
"juice of poke leaves, for a short time, on hot ashes, until the watery 
portion has evajiorated; then place it in an iron dish, add to it 1 lb. 
of fresh" (unsalted) "butter, and ^ pt. of finely pulverized gun-pow- 
der, and place it over a fire, where it must be kept until it is so far 
dried that the mixture will flash once, or twice; or if it should take 
fire instead, it must be immediately smothered. Remove it into a 
glazed pipkin" (jar), "and let it remain on hot ashes until it is well 
incorporated, when it may be transferred into pots" (small jars}, 
"and covered whith alcohol to prevent it from moulding. This 
Salve, applied twice a <lay, is reported to destroy Cancer to its extreme 
fibres, or roots." 

5. Mormon Cure for Cancer.— It is reported that a Mormon 
has discovered a Cure for Cancer. Tt consists of a lemon poultice^ 
applied twice <laily. 

It is really to be lioped that this may prove more satisfactory to 
those who need a Cancer Cure, than "Jo Smith's" discovery of the 
" Mormon Bible " has to the world at large. 


Indeed, it is very probable tbat a lemon poultice may proYe a 
▼alnable corrertive of these ulcerative conditions of the svsteui. 

— Take ef)som salts, gun-powder, borax, alum, copperas, and sulphur, 
of each, 1 tea-spoonful; soft water, 1 qt. 

The alum and copperas, will be burned, or heated on a shovel, 
and pulverized; then all mixed and bottled for use. Shake when 
need. Hold a little of the wash in the month, for half a minute, and 

fiargle the throat with it twice daily. And at the same time take a 
ittle sulphur and cream of tartar for 3 or 4 mornings, to correct the 
blood. It has cured bad cases after a failure of the "regular" Rem- 
edies. Our word gargle, probably comes from the German word, gar- 
gel, (the throat). 

CANNING FRUITS.— There is a very large amount of Fruits 
Canned at the present time, both by families, as also by regular Can- 
ning establishments; and as a general thing, it is to be presumed that 
those who go into it for a business Avill take all possible pains to in- 
form themselves of the best methods, and keep their plans as much a 
secret a.s possible, that they may compete with other establishments 
by getting out the h^iii flavored, or best keeping Yrnit; but, yet, families 
need not despair of being able to put up Fruit that will both taste well 
and keep well; for there are but very few points to observe to accom- 
plish these two things. 

First. — Then, it is needed to obtain a jar that wnll absolutely ex- 
elude the air; and in our experience we find no difficulty with the 
"Hero," "Gem," or "Ma.son." 

Second. — As nesrly all kinds of Fruit require some sugar with it 
when eaten we have found the best satisfaction in putting from \ to J 
lb. with each lb. of fruit, when {rut up, for instance any Fruit such as 
the old English red cherry, which is pretty sour, we put i lb. of sugar 
to 1 ib. cherries, after stoning; and strawberries, plums, gooseberries, 
wild grapes, currant.^, Siberian crab, sour pears, etc., w'ill require about 
the same; while for blackberries, raspberries, whortle, or huckleber- 
ries, peaches, etc., only require \ lb. — tomatoes, none. And for those 
sweeter kind of small Fruits that require but little sugar, the boiling, 
or heating need not be continued as long as for the more acid kinds, 
which are also generally the more juicy, the longer boiling helps to 
overcome the tendency to work, or sour and spoil after being canned 
— 5 to 10 minutes with the sweeter Fruits, and 15 to 30 minutes with 
the more acid, or sourer kinds. 

1. To Can. — When the Fruit is all ready, for families who only 
put up a few qts. at a time as they ripen, take a large and deep tin 
pan and put a layer of sugar over the bottom, then a layer of Fruit, 
and so on, fill in the pan nearly full, or what j'^ou have, observing the 
above rules for sugar, and boiling; after they have stood w'ith the 
sugar among them for an hour or two, set the pan on the stove to heat 
np, and observe not to stir the Fruit any more than is necessary, with 
a broad ended spatula, or paddle, to know that the Fruit does not burn, 
or stick to the bottom ; and at the time the Fruit is put over, the jars 
should be set into the warming oven, as now found on nearly all 
cooking stoves, so that when the Fruit is sufficiently boiled, the jars 
will also be hot; then fill in the Fruit and juice in regular proportion*. 
and put on the rubber ring and screw on the top, .nil being so hot that 
■ towel, or napkin will be needed to hold the jar for screwing dowa. 


226 DB. chase's 

the top, and set aside, on the table, until all are filled. Let stand, 
then, until cool, when the top must be again screwed tight, and the 
jars of Fruit removed to the cellar and set on shelves, in the order of 
time, they are put up, and in a few days, it is best to go over the jars 
again and give an additional turn to the screw top. 

We have now in the cellar (October), raspberries, strawberries, 
whortleberries, cherries, and peaches which were put up !ast year, 
jilst as good as when put up, in fact, by the taste we can not tell them 
from those put up the present season. Careful observation of the 
above rules is all that is necessary to insure success. 

2. Oanning Peaches — Improved Method. — The Ohio Famut 
gives us an improved method for Canning Peaches, as follows: 

"It is a steam closet, made like an upright case of drawers; has a 
door which can be fastened at top, middle and bottom, by shutting 
ij}X)n bolts having key-holes to fasten like store-window blinds, with 
keys, the door being listed" (as a door for Winter, to keep out cold) 
"to, make it steam-tight. The Peaches are peeled, cut in halves, put 
in square tin pans to slip upon cletes upon two sides of the steam 
closet, the closet filled, the door closed and keyed, and steam let on 
with a powerful fizz, for 2 or 3 minutes, then shut off, the doors opened 
and the pans set upon tables, where girls pick up the pieces with forks 
and put them in cans; the cans thus filled are passed along to the end 
of the tables where there is a cauldron of rich sirup made with 
crushed white sugar, a dip of which is poured in to fill the holes 
among the Peaches, and the cans are sealed up. 

"This steaming is much better than the old boiling process, as the 
watery juices are got rid off, also the acid juices which are secreted 
under the rind of the Peach, all of which, being left in the pans, are 
poured into a vat and converted into Peach brandy. By this steaming, 
also, the shrinkage is taken out, and the Fruit goes into the cans as 
clear and white as we see it in 'prize-jars' at the 'fairs,' while the 
sirup that takes the place of the watery juices makes a rich sauce 
when they come to the table." 

Of course, the saving made by the brandy part of the operation, 
would amount to nothing unless the business was carried on upon 
an extensive scale — in that case the plan, no doubt, is very valua- 

Canning Apples for Spring and Summer Use. — Mrs. "M. G.,** 
writes to the Hearth and Home: 

" I have always found in my housekeeping that there was a time 
in the early Summer, before the ripening of small fruits or the 
appearance of early Apples, when it was rather difficult to meet the 
tixble demands for 'sweetmeats.' If fortunate enough to have large 
supplies of fruit to can during the Autumn, this difficulty is of course 
obviated. But sometimes fruit and sugar are too dear to 'put up" in 
large quantities. For several years we have used in our family what 
we all think a veiy good substitute for these Summer and Autumn 
fruits, and one that is easily and cheaply obtained. In the Spring, I 
collect many of our cans which have been emptied during the Win- 
ter, and fill them with Apples prepared thus: Take fair Greenings, 
Winter Pi{)pins, Spitzenbergs, or Northern Spies — any will do, though 
I prefer the Greenings and Spy to any other. Pare and halve, and 
after taking the core out, place in a vessel of cold water. This pre- 
vents them from turning lark. Then make a sirup of about J lb. of 

.SEIN)NI) KBCKIKI' )!()(>K. 227 

white sugar to 1 lb. of fruit, and about 1^ tea-onpfuls of water. Chit 
oranges in slices about | inirh thick, and allow 2 slices to each lb. 
Though sometimes, when the oranges are large, or the i)eel green, a 
iess quantity is better, as too mucrh orange will give them a bitter 
taste. Put the sirup and orange in a porcelain kettle, anil heat until 
it boils, carefully removing all scum. Then put in the Aj)ples and 
boil them until a fork will run through them eiisily. In the mean- 
time, be very careful not to stir or break the apples. By turning the 
kettle gently, all danger of their burning at the bottom will be pre- 
vented, and when there is plenty of sirup, the Apples will float on the 
top, and there will be no need of even this precaution. When done, 
put the pieces carefully in the cans with a fork, or spoon, pour on the 
sirup, and seal quickly. 

"Some complain that the Apples will boil to pieces. When the 
sirup is made rich enough I never encounter tliis difficulty. Apart 
from its convenience and easy prei)aration, it makes a beautiful dish. 
The eflect of the large halves of Apples, with here and there a slice 
of orange, is quite tempting, and I thiuk you will find the taste is not 
to be despised; and that during the early Summer no small amount 
of Canned Apples can be found very useful, in supplying a table 
deficiency which often at this season worries one's wits not a little." 

There is no doubt about the correctness of this lady's reasoning. 

1. CARBOLIC ACID— Its Make and Uses in Medicine, in 
the House, and on the Farm. — Carbolic Acid is an oily liquid, 
without color, a burning taste, and an odor of creosote, which it also 
much resembles. It is obtained from coal tar; and is made to an 
advantage only by large manufacturers. 

Although an article of recent discovery as compared with the 
more common acids, it has already been extensively used for sanitary 
purposes (relating to a sound, or healthy condition) in medicine, 
agriculture, and manufactures. It is a very valuable disinfectant and 
antiseptic, i. e., removes, or neutralizes the cause of contagious dis- 
eases, and overcomes the tendency to putrefaction, acting directly 
upon the minute particles, to the presence of which, fermentation 
and its consequence, putrefaction, are attributed, destroying them, 
and thus purifying the air; and it is considered better for these pur- 
poses than chlorine, permanganate of potash, or "Condy's Fluid," (a 
disinfeetant preparation), because these latter act upon all organic 
substances, while the Carbolic Acid acts only upon the causes of putre- 
faction; and it is of greater economy, as it requires but a very small 
quantity to prevent decomposition. It is so very volatile (disposi- 
tion to and float in the air) it meets vvith these germs of disease, 
in the air, and destroys them; hence, it was used extensively in 
Europe, during the cholera, and the cattle plague, also. Even the 
2000 (two thousandth) part would prevent the decomposition, fermen- 
tation, or putrefaction of urine, blood, solution of glue, flour paste, or 
feces, for months. And its vapor alone will keep meat, in a confined 
place, for werks, and protect if from flies. 

2. Its Caustic properties are also valuable in medicine. Be- 
sides being used in carbuncle, quinsy, diptheria, hemorrhoids, fistula, 
and purulent (pus, thick mattery) sores; preventing all disagreeable 
emell and keej)ing them in a healthy condition. 

3. In agriculttire it is considered vety valuable for scab and 
foot-rot in sheep ; and a very weuk solution of it is recommended to be 

228 DB. ohase'b 

applied upon cattle and herses which are troubled with flies and 
odier in^<e(•ts. For the scab in sheep a solution of Carbolic soap, 
0.17 of it is considered sufficient strength to dip the sheep into, and 
1 minute sufficient time to hold him in; but for the foot-rot, an oint- 
ment made with the crude Acid and grease, placed in a stone trough 
and the sheep driven through it, is the manner of application in 

But it would appear to me to be necessary to catch every sheep 
and be sure that some was placed between the hoofs and wherever 
the disease may be seen. 

4. A "Weak solution of this Acid, applied to dogs "with fleas" 
is considered a certain remedy ; and powdered camphor mixed with 
it and painted around the cracks where cockroaches are troublesome 
will be etfectual in clearing them out, or killing them; in fact, Car- 
bolic Acid in some form, as soap, etc., is becoming almost a "universal 
panacea" for all animal ills. 

5. It is considered also an efi'ectual method of preventing the 
growth of weeds in garden walks, a weak solution applied with a 
watering pot — 1 part to 1000, or 2000 parts of water. Even flies and 
musketoes are said to avoid its odor, and may be driven away by it. 
The pure Acid is very poisonous, and in that shape, or of solutions of 
considerable strength must be handled with care. 

6. Carbolic Acid also combines with iodine and prevents the 
stains upon clothing, and, upon the skin where it has been incon- 
venient to use that article on this account, as show'n by the follow- 

"The Journal des Ccnnalssance Medicales, publishes a letter ad- 
dressed to Dr. Coppe on^ Dr. Percy Boulton's late discoverj"^ of the 
action of Carbolic Acid on iodine. 'The inconvenience attending 
the external application of iodine and its preparations is so serious 
that physicians are often compelled to abandon a remedj', the thera- 
peutic efficacy of which is undoubtedly, almost unequalled in the 
materia medica^" (making it possible to use the combination of Car- 
bolic Acid and iodine, in cases of Goiter, or Bronchocele of ladies, 
without coloring the skin of the neck, or staining the clothing, where- 
as with the iodine, alone, both of these difficulties ah-ise, to their verj' 
great annoyance. — Author). "The great objection to the external use 
of this remedy is, that it leaves marks both on the linen and on the 
skin. This is a sufficient motive for seeking some means of getting 
rid of this drawback, especially in the case of ladies. Dr. Percy 
Boulton's metjjod consists in adding a few drops of phenic (Carbolic) 
Acid to the itedine solution to be employed. This addition renders 
iodine perfectly colorless, so that it may be applied, with impunity. 
But this combination has another advantage. It appears from that 
practitioner's observations, which I can affirm, that, so admiHistered, 
Carbolate of Iodine, which is the new substance in question, is not 
only one of the most powerful antiseptics" (opposed to putrefaction) 
" we possess, but is intrinsically a more efficatious agent than iodine 
alone. I have used this compouud under the form of injections, 
gargles, and lotions, in all eases in which iodine is prescribed. In 
sore throat, ozena (a putrid ulcer in the nostril) abscess in the eaiv 
etc., this preparation is a sovereign remedy; since, besides its disin- 
fecting qualities, it modifies the mucus membrane, causes all local sen- 
sibility to disappear, and cures the patient much sooner, than if either 


of the two agents were used separately. The formula I employ is as 

7. "Compound tincture of iodine, 3 gms. {a gramme is equal to 
about \b\ grs.); pure liquid carbolic acid, 6 drops; glycerine, 30 gms.; 
distilled water, 150 gms. 

"The writer then enters more particularly into the properties of 
Carbolic Acid, but with which our readers are already acquainted. 
Its efficacy as a disinfecting agent in the case of sores is well known; 
it may be prescribed in all cases in which tar water is administered, 
and is, we trust, now pretty generally adopted for disinfecting pur- 
poses in hospitals and barracks." — ScientifiG American. 

It will thus be seen that, at home and abroad, Carbolic Acid is 
very highly esteemed; and is truly worthy of very great confi- 

8. Carbolic Acid for Wounds.— After the above was written, 
I came across the following communication of Dr. F. C. Calvert, 
F. R. S., to the Pharmaceutical Journal, which goes so strongly to show 
the value of the Carbolic Acid, that I deem it best to give it in full. 
It is as follows: 

"Although Carbolic Acid has long been known to possess power- 
ful antiseptic properties, its use has been delayed in medicine owing 
to the dithculty experienced in obtaining it in any considerable quan- 
tities, and in a state of purity, as well as to the caution required in in- 
troducing Jiew substances into that branch of science. The success, 
however,which has lately attended its application, will tend greatly to 
increase its importance as a therapeutic agent." (An agent to aid in 
restoring health). "It has been used with marked advantage in the 
Manchester Iloyal Infirmary by several of its distinguished physicians 
and surgettns. Thus Dr. Henry Browne has given it in solution for 
chronic diarrhea, with very satisfactory results. Dr. Roberts has ap- 
plied it with great success in the dose of 1 drop, in cases of vomiting, 
even after creosote had failed; he has also found it beneficial in cases 
of vomiting from dyspepsia, which disease is especially marked by 
pain after food has been taken. Mr. J. A. Ransome has used it for 
ulcers and other ofi'ensive discharges. ^Ir. Thomas Turner, in a note 
which he has communicated to me, speaks of Carbolic Acid in the 
following terms: 

"It may be advantangeously used as a solution of 1 part of acid in 
7 parts watei, in fetid, or ill-conditioned ulcers. It alters the action of 
the blood-vessels, causing a purulent" (pus, thick matter) "instead of 
asanious" (a thin reddish, unhealthy matter) "discharge, and des- 
troys almost immediately the ofi'ensive smell of the secretion. Thg 
ulcers having a communication with carious" (ulcerated) "bone, or 
even necrosis" (dead, or mortified bone), "it has, in its diluted 
state a good eS'ect when injected into the sinuises" (crooked open- 
ings ) "leading to the diseased bones. When there is mere carious, or 
ulceration of the bone, it benefits the healing process, and in necro- 
sis, it promotes the exfoliation" (to separate and come ofl" in scales) 
of the dead portion. In gangrenous" (tending to mortification) "and 
all disagreeable smell and putresency" (tendency to become rotten) 

ing under that class of diseases 

230 DR. chasb's 

9. "Mr. Heath, honse-Riirgeon of the Infirmary, has used it with 
2 parts of water, as a lotion in Monghing wnnrnis" (wounds wliere dead, 
or mortified fiesh separates from the living) "and iiaa foiuui that in a 
sliort time after its ai)i>li('ation, it entirely arrests the sloughing pro- 
cess, and produces a liealthy appearance. 

10. Dr. Whitehead has used, with advantage, Dr. Robert Angxis 
Smith's solutions of sulphites and Carbolates of lime and mag- 

11. "In July, 1859, M. Velpeau drew the attention of the French 
Academy of Sciences to the value of the mixture of coal-tar and sul- 
phite of lime, of MM. Come and Demeaux, in the healing of ulcers 
and other offensive wounds; and, it mav be added, that this mixture 
■was used with great advantage in the iFrench army, after the great 
battles of Magenta and Solferino. 

12. "In the following month I forwarded a note to the French 
Academy, pointing out, that from experiments I had made with the 
various substances exisiting in coal-tar, it was highly probable that 
Carbolic Acid was the active agent of the coal-tar mixture used by 
MM. Come and Demeaux; and that much more certainty might be ex- 
pected if the Carbolic Acid was substituted for the coal-tar in their 
mixture, for the composition of coal-tar varies according to the nature 
of the coal used, and the temperature employed in its preparation. 
I also suggested that it was probable that the powerful antiseptic" 
opposed to putrefaction) "properties of Carbolic Acid prevented the 
decomposition of the surrounding parts, and thus tended to restore 
the wounds to a healthy state, and to remove the cause of infection. 

13. "Before quitting this part of the subject, I beg again to call 
the attention of physicians to a fact which I have betore published in 
one of my papers, namely, that the a«ldition of 2 or 3 drctps of this 
Acid to 1 pt. of freshly-made urine, will preserve it from fermenta- 
tion, or any marked chemical change for several weeks. 

"I have also applied it, lately, to foot-root, which annually carries 
off large numbers of sheep; and I have been given to understand that 
the remedies hitherto adopted in this disease have been only partiallj^ 
Biiccessful. I think that, if my experiments are further confirmed, it 
will prove a great boon to the farmers of this country." (If good for 
the farmers of England, why not then prove valuable to the farmers 
of the United States? It certainly will, and already has. See further 
on. — Author). 

14. He closes in the following words: 

"This Acid has also been applied by me, during the last twelve 
months, to the preservation of gellatine" (liquid glue, or jelly) solu- 
tions and preparations of paste made with starch, flour, and similar 
substances, and of skins, hides, and other animal substances. In fact, 
its antiseptic powers are so great that it is the most powerful preven- 
tive of putrefaction with which I am acquainted. It appears also to 
act strongly as an antiferment" (opposed to fermentation); "for I 
have proved, on an extensive commercial scale, that it prevents, as 
stated by me in a paper published in 1855, the conversion of tannic 
into gallic acid and sugar. It also arrests lactic (milk) fermentatioa. 
I am now engaged in a series of experiments to discovei f that power 
extends to ahroholic, butyric" (derived from butter) "and acetic" 
f^'regar) "fermentation." 

15. T aovr come to speak of the use of Carbolic Acid in the TJnl- 


ted states. The JoumaZ of Applied Chemistry makes the following 
remarks of its use. It says: 

"In pasting wall-papers, posters, etc., especially where successive 
layers are put on, there arises a most disagreeable eflluvia, which is 
particularly noticeable in damp weather. The cause of this is the de- 
composition of the paste. In close rooms it is very unwholesome and 
often the cause of disease. In large manufactories, where large quan- 
tities of paste are used, it often becomes sour and olleiisive. Glue, 
also, has often a very disagreeable odor. If, when making paste or 
glue, a small quantity of Carbolic Acid is adiled, it will keep sweet 
and free from offensive smells. A few drops added to mucilage, or ink 

grev'ents mold. In white-washing the cellar and dairy, if an ounce of 
arbolic Acid is added to each gallon of wash, it will prevent mold 
and prevent the disagreeable taints often perceived in meats and milk 
from damp apartments. 

16. "Another great advantage in the use of Carbolic Acid in paste 
forwall-paperand in white-wash is, it will drive away cock roaches and 
other insect pests. The cheapest and best form of Carbolic Acid is 
the crystals, which dissolves in water, or liquifies at an excess of tem- 

I should think that 1 oz. to a pailful of white-wash would be 
plenty. It is certainly valuable in the whit«-wash for hen-houses, to 
kill, or drive away the lice that get into the cracks in the poles of the 
roost, and in the walls. 

17. The Hearth and Home makes the following remarks upon 
the uses of Carbolic Acid. "Possibly no article of Uvte discovery 
is of equal value to the farmer with this. Being destructive to all 
forms of insects, it furnishes a barrier to their, which will 
tend much to deliver us from their ravages. It also destroys the min- 
ute fungus which produces mold,and those mysterious germs by which, 
as is claimed, diseases are spread from one individual to another. 
Used in a proper form it will serve as a wash for trees and plants, de- 
stroying the insects which infest them and their eggs. It will rid ani- 
mals of all parasites; lice, ticks, and scab, are all destroyed by it. It 
is an excellent application to all festering sores, or wounds. In 
cases of the rinderpest it was the only substance used that was of 
I>ositive use in preventing infection. Such being the valuable proper- 
ties of this article, it should be in the hands of every farmer. For 
his convenience it is put up in preparations that may be conveniently 
used. In the shape of Carbolic soap, it is easily applied as a wash; in 
the 'disinfecting powder,' it may be used in all causes where a dry ap- 
plication is needed; and in the 'sheep-dip and vermin-destroyer,' it can 
be used in cases were strong liquid applications are necessary." 

Johuathan Cruzan, M. D., of Brush Creek, Fayette County, Iowa, 
reports a c^ase of its curing emesis (vomiting), to the Eclectic Medical 
Journal, under the head of 

18. " Carbolic A-cid in Emesis (Vomiting'). — I ask you to no- 
tice one thing in the Journal, if j'^ou think it best, that is. Carbolic 

Acid a specific" (a positive cure) "for Emesis. Mrs. M. E , a short 

time ago, was taken with severe Vomiting, continued for 24 hours, at 
which time I was called. Found her in a state of great prostration. 
I gave my prescriptions for some time, and they seemed to avail 
nothing. I at last gave a very weak solntinp nf Carbolic Acid in 1 
tea-spoonful doses. The first aoae appeared to arresi me A'omiting. 

232 DR. chase's 

Since then I had one other case in the same state. I immediately 
gave the acid, and one dose arrested it. The question is, is Carbolic 
Acid a specific for Vomiting?" 

19. Prof. King says of it: "Internally, pnre, crystalized Carbolic 
Acid has been advantageously employed in obMinate vomitiny, pains 
following meals, flatulency, diarrhea, from eating articles causing fer- 
mentation, scarlatina anginosa" (malignant scarlet fever), "t)iiensive 
breath, etc." 

Dose. — Five grs. of the crystals to 5 fluid ozs. of water, given in 1 
to 2 tea-spoonful doses, repeated 2, or 3 times daily. This is the prob- 
able strength of what Dr. Cruzan calls "a very weak solution," above, 
and of which he made 1 tea-spoonful the dose. 

20. Carbolic Acid in Poisonous Doses— Antidote.— It should 
be known, however, by the people, who will be led to use it quite ex- 
tensively, that it is a corosive poison, in large doses, which might occur 
by accident; hence, great care should be used in kee})ingthe crystals, 
or a strong solution of it about the house; and it will not be amiss, 
here, to give an antidote for it, so far as antidotes are now known for 

Antidote for Carbolic Acid. — " Next to the stomach-pump, in 
poisoniug with this Acid, the best Antidote is large doses of olive, or 
almond oil, with a little castor-oil. Oil is a solvent, and therefore a 
diluent of Carbolic Acid, and may be used to stop the corrosive effect 
of the Acid, when its action on the skin is too violent." — Journal of 
Cutaneous Medicine. 

It will be understood that the oils, above mentioned, may be given 
internally, as well as applied externally, in case of an accidental over 

21. King further says of its use: "In hums and scalds. Carbolic 
Acid afi'ords immediate relief, also in bites and sti^tgs of insects. One 
part of the acid to 6, or 7 parts of olive-oil, applied with lint, and 
covered with tin-foil, or oiled-silk, will be found useful in cases of 
severe burns, or scalds. 

22. Carbolic Salve. — Lard, 1 oz.; Carbolic Acid, in crystals, 8 
grs.; simple cerate, | oz. Rub them together by putting in a little of 
the Acid at a time, and working thoroughly together. 

Carbolic Salves are being made aud sent out for sale as wonderful 
"cure-alls," but the probabilty is that this preparation will be found 
equal to most of them. It may be used in chajjs, burns, scalds, bruises, 
sores, tetter, ringworm, and other diseases of the skin, especially 
those bavint: anv bad fetor, or smell arising from them. 

CARPETS", CLOTHING, etc.— To Clean, or Renovate.— 
When Carpets, or Clothing become soiled by grease spots, etc., the 
following mixture will be found a valuable Renovator: 

Take rain water, 1 gal.; old soft soap, i pt.; aqua ammonia, 4 CM. 

Put in a bottle and crork for use, shaking occasionally, until it ia 
thorouglily mixed. If no old soft soap is to be had, use ^ lb. of Cas- 
tile-soap, shaved in thin slices, and if it does not dissolve readily by 
ehaking, in a day, or two, heat slightly until dissolved. 

When a ("arpet becomes soiled by upsettiiig lamps, gravy, etc., it 
is best to take tliera up and dust well; then pour on a quantity of this 
mixture and tJie spot; after which wash the spot with warin, 
soft water, and dry thoroughly; and if it shows at all, api)ly again. 
The ammonia very much aids to turn the oil, or grease into a soap. 


and thereby, the oil, or grease, in the spot helps to wash itself. The 
same with Clothing:. See Ciilorokom, also as a Solvent. 

CARRIAGE VARNISH— Pale and O-ood.— One of the best 
Varnishes for Carriage work is made by mixing boiled linseed-oil, 
hot, 2^ gals., with pale African copal gum, 8 lbs., melted in an iron 
vessel of suitable size to hold all, and to allow the mixture to have 
slowly stirred into it \ lb. of sulphate of zinc, and the boiling con- 
tinued until it becomes ropy, or stringy ; then removed from the fire 
and thinned down to a proper consistence, for use, with turpentine. 
It dries in in a few hours, and is durable. 

CARROTS -The Best Vegetable for Cattle and Horses.— 
The Ameriam Stock Journal says: "The Carrot is the root esteemed of 
all roots for its feeding qualities. When analyzed, it gives but little 
more solid matter than other roots, 85 per cent being water; but its 
influence in the stomach upon the other articles of food is most favor- 
able, conducing to the most perfect digestion and assimilation. The 
result, long known to practical men, is explained by chemists as re- 
sulting from the presence of an article called pectine" (to make fast or 
stiff) "which operates to coagulate, or gelatinize vegetable solutions, 
and this favors digestion in all cattle. Horses are especially benefited 
by the use of Carrots. Tbey should be fed to them frequently with 
their other food." 

1. CASE-HARDENING IRON— DiflE-erent Processes.— 
Make a paste of prusiate of potash, pulverized, by using flour, equal in 
amount, and a little water. Cover the articles to be hardened, with a 
coat of the paste and let it dry. Raise the article to a low red heat 
in a clear fire, and plunge into cold water. The flour assists only in 
forming the paste, and causing its adherence to the Iron, 

This will be found valuable in Case-Hardening buggy and light 
wagon axles, and other journals of such a shape as not to allow the 
boxing up arrangement, explained below, for smaller articles, as 
found in the Scientific American of Jan. 12, 1867, embracing full and 
ample instructions, to suit different circumstances. 

Permit me to say here, that for mechanical and scientific informa- 
tion, I do not think we have in the United States, a newspaper to com- 
pare at all favorably, with the Scientific American, and I liave this 
much more to add to this statement, and that is, no mechanic, or gen- 
Ueman following Scientific pursuits who expects to keep up ttnth the improve- 
ments of the day can afford to be ivithout this valuable paper. 

Its remarks upon this subject are as follows: 

2. "This simple process, so useful to the mechanic, is not 
always understood even by workmen of considerable experience. 

"The effect of Case-Hardening is to convert the surface of Iron to 
steel. It is, in fact, a process of cemeidat ion" (the physical properties 
of the bo<ly being changed by a chemical combination with the pow- 
der), "differing mainly from the manufacture of true steel, in the diff- 
erent lengths of time employed. True Case-Hardening is effected by 
packing the article to be hardened, in a box with ground, or broken 
bones, particles of horns, raxcldde, and even tanned leather. The box 
should be of cast-iron, of any convenient form, large enough to receive 
the article to be Case-Hardened, and to admit of its being surrounded 
with the material used. It ought, reallv, to be covered, and luted" 
(cracks covered with a clay mortar) "air-tight, although tolerably 
good results may be obtained if it is left open. The box wtth its con« 

234 DK. chase's 

tents is placed in a fnrnaoe, the fire of which should snrronnd it. 
The fuel may be anthrattite, or coke, hut prefer<ihly charcoal. Tlie 
lonjrer the heat is kept up the deeper will be the action of the ceraent- 
in;;" {Case-Ihirdeniii^j) "materials. Edesaystliat in half an hourafter 
the box, and its contents, are thoroughly heated, the coating of steel 
will be scarcely the thickness of a sixpence; in an hour, double that, 

"But this process is lengthy and not always convenient. iFre- 

?uently all the mechanic requires is a thin coating of indurated" 
hard) "metal on the outside of the article, which will not be subject 
to ordinary abrasion" (wearing, or nibbing off), "or the adion of the 
file. For this purpose prusiate of potash is largely einpIoye<l and has 
become an article of commercial im[)ortance. It is a ffrrocynnide" 
(from the Latin /frrum, iron) "of potcussium, and is made from animal 
matters containing nitrogen, as blood, hoofs, hides, woolen rags, hair, 
leather, and animal offal, charred in retorts" (cast-iron cylinders 
a<lmitting of great heat) "and then fused" (melted) "with {> 
The mass is then drawn, cooled, filtered, and dried for crystalization. 
The result is a crystalized" (like ice,) "yellow mass." This is pul- 
verized for use. 

"In Case-Hardening with prusiate of potash, the article of 
wrought, or cast-iron is heated in a furnace, or forge, to a light 
red, the powdered prusiate then sifted on, when it fluxes" (melts), 
"and the article may be immediately removed and plunged into cold 
water. Re-heating it is of no benefit, but really a detriment. One 
appli(;ation of the prusiate is sufficient." 

It appears to me that the above, recent improvements, will aid 
every mechanic to adapt himself to every Case-Hardening job that 
may ofl'er. 

3. Another — Eng-lish Patent. — Prusiate of pota,sh, ealammoni- 
ac, and saltpeter, equal proportions by weight, powdered and kept on 
the forge; then a tempering pickle is miide with salammoniac, 4 ozs.; 
prusiate of potash and saltpeter, of each, 2 ozs. dissolved in each gaL 
of water used in the tempering pickle; then heat the articles to a red 
heal only, and roll it in the powder until every part of the surface is 
covered with the flux (melted powder); then put into the pickle, or 
tempering bath, as above, until cold; which the f>atentee, G. J. Farm- 
er, of Birmingham, England, claims will Case-Ilarden deeper than 
the older way of putting a paste of the potash on the artictle, 

There is an undoubted advantage in the tempering-bath, or 
"pickle" as he calls it, explained more fully under the head ofTKJiPKB- 
ING Mill Picks, which see. 

It was probably not patented in this country, if it was, it haa now 

CASTOR-OHj — Made Palatable. — Septimus Piesse, a celebra- 
ted French perfumer, established in London, informs us that Castor- 
Oil is made quite palatable by the following plan: 

"Castor-oil, 8 ozs.; nice soft soap, 1 dr." (1 tea-spoonful); "simple 
simp, 1 dr.; oil of cinnamon, fi drops." 

Rub the soap with the sirup in a mortar, and gradully add the oil, 
t Vbbing constantly until it is all added and well mixed; then addtke 
• 1 of cinnamon and rub well together. 

Any person, like myself, who can not use cinnamon, can use any 
^er essential oil that vh_y jaay prefer, in its place. TUi« wflaount cm 


Boap will have no bad effects in any case, but aids greatly in overcom- 
ing the naiisiouRness of the Castor-Oil — it makes, an electuary, that 
bnt few children, or grown persons, would object to take. The 
dose would be the same as for the Oil alone. 

1. OATARRAH REMEDIES.— Iodine, 10 grs.; alcohol, 1 dr. 
Put in a 2 oz. vial; and when the iodine is dissolved, fill the vial with 
soft water. 

A little of the mixture is to be injected into the nostrils, with a sraall 
svringe, 3 times daily. This has proved very Buccessful. An altera- 
tive containing iodine, taken internally will be a desirable thing, in 
treating any obstinate chronic disease. This Receipt is from a neigh- 
bor of mine who has tried it several times, with success. 

2. Another. — The following Remedies for Catarrh were pub- 
lished in the Household, of Brattleboro, Vt., and are highly recom- 
mended; and if the first fails in any case, they should certainly receive 
atrial. Although the first writer has only given us lii.s initials, yet, 
there is quite a philosophical reason advanced in support of th« 
Remedy. In writing to the editor he says: 

"Sometime ago we heard that sulphur and whisky was an infalli- 
ble remedy for Catarrh, and know several persons who were entirely 
freed from it by its use. We remember one young man who wa< 
studying tor the ministry, but was so afflicted with this malady that 
his presence was intolerable. His sight and hearing were much im- 
paired, and his voice was little better than a husky growl. He had 
employed the most skillful physicians, but without avail, and consid- 
ering himself incurable had decided to abandon the study of his 
chosen profession. But finally an old lady, who was fortified" with a 
remedy for every disease, promised to cure nim in a given time if he 
would follow her directions, which were these: 

"Take IJ ozs. of sulphur and 1 pt. of the best Douroon whisky; 
place in a bottle together, and take, after shaking thoroughly, 1 large 
spoonful for 3 mornings, forcing it up about the palate and keeping it 
in the throat as long as possible. Then omit three mornings, which 
gives the medicine time to act upon the system aiid take again. Or, 
as the old lady said, 'take three and skip three' till the pint was con- 
sumed. He did so and was cured. But as we have never seen the 
Remedy in print we conclude he wasn't as mindful of suffering hu- 
manity as he should have been." 

(I wonltl certainly advise, here, that the throat be first well rins- 
ed, by gargling with the same, and spitting it out, as to swallow the 
matter would be very bad policy — double the amount and you come 
out the same. — Author). 

"The other day we were reading an ably written article on fungi, 
in which the writer says that sulphur is death to many specie of fun- 
goidal growth. The reason of sulphur being a remedy for Catarrh oc- 
curred to us at once. 

"This disease is known to be a chronic inflammation of the mu- 
cus membrane of portions of the head and throat, occasioned, many 
believe, by the inhalation of the invisible spores of fungi whitm float 
in the air" (literally/uni;?' is a species of mush-room, or toad-stool; but 
in medicine it relates to what is commonly called proud-flesh, or 
eranidations of an unhealthy character) "the invisible S[)ore8 of 
fungi," (would refer to such small particles of matter as would be in- 
haled causing the disease). "Now if sulphur is death to the fungUB 

236 DR. chase's 

which destroys the tree and vine, why may it not be to other species? 
The value of this simple remedy is worth testing at any rate; for Ca- 
iarrh, unless removed, is liliely to terminate in bronchial consump- 
tion, and is never a pleasent companion." 

3. The other is as follows: 

"Dear Editor: — I received the first number of the If ovseJiold, and 
found tlie question asked by "L. M. D.," how to cure Catarrh in the 
head. I have a Receipt which, if used thoroughly, will cure the worst 
cases. It is simply this: Steep a little white oak bark i)i water, and 
use by snuffing the tea up the nostrils. This is a never failing 
remedy." M. I. Dart. 

I have no doubt but what the oak-bark would be found valuable 
in recent cases of Catarrh; but in cases of long standing I should not 
expect an entire cure from it. Its effects would be to constringe, or 
close up the mouths of little vessels that discharge the offending mat- 
ter into the nasal j^ssages, throwing it back upon the system; then a 
gentle cathartic, of an alterative character would be required to carry 
it off, and to change the action of the system. The old ladies' Sui'- 
pauR AND Whisky, given in No. 2, above, will fill both indications. It 
may be taken according to her plan of "take three and skip three," 
morninars, following it up for some considera])le time, if necessary. 

Destroy. — Tie a cotton, or linen cloth on the end of a small, slim, 
pole, sufficiently long to reach their nests; tlien wet the rag with 
kerosene oil, light it with a match, and hold it under the nest, which 
is immediately consumed by the blaze of the oil, and the Caterpillars 
come tumbling through the fire, to the ground; and are thus effect- 
ually destroyed. I have burned as many as 8 nests, that were near to- 
gether, with one lighting. It takes but a short time to go over quite 
an orchard. The time to do it is ivJien seen. 

CATCHUP, OR CATSUP— From Tomatoes.— It is believed 
that tiiese words are of East Indian origin, and were formerly applied 
to pickles, in that country; but more recently have been applied to a 
sauce made from Tomatoes, walnuts, musli-rooms, etc. In the United 
States, however, there is but little Catchup made, except that from 
Tomatoes; and there are about as many ways of making it as there 
are housekeejiers, in the land, yet there are but few dishes upon which 
the "goode-wife" fails more often than upon this. 

1. We — my family — are now using a very nice article of this 
sauce made in the following manner: With each 2 bu. of Tomatoes, 
washed and sliced, slice in also 5 good sized, washed, and peeled 
onions, which were boiled together for an hour, or more, or until they 
were all soft; then set by to cool; after which they were rubbed 
through a sieve; and to each 6 qts. of this prepared mixture was put 
in, salt, 2 table-s])oonfuls; cloves, cinnamon, and allsj)ice, of each, 1 
table-spoonful; black, and cayenne pepper, of each, 1 tea-spoonful; 
brown sugar, 1 tea-cupful; and good vinegar, 1 pt.; then cooked it 
away fully one-half. It is rather thick, but it will keep all the better. 

I had always disliked the idea of onions in Catchup; l)nt as the 
lady acquaintance who sent me this Receij^t, for the nev' Book, said: 
"if you doubt this being good, come down and see us, and we will let 
yon try some of it. It is pronounced, by ail that have tusted \l, the 
best they have ever eaten." Bui as she lived at some little distance, in a 
neighboring city, and as I had not the time to spare to make the de- 


aired visit with my wife, although we had been for a long time ac- 

5[qainted, and fonneriy neighbors, we coni'luded to make our Catchup 
or this year, 1872, from her Receipt, except the salt, there was none 
jn the original — the result is, not only entire satisfaction, but rather 
an exultation in the superior taste, and appearance of the article. It 
is a bright color, and no particular spice predominating; and I would 
say to any one doubting the propriety of making it, if they prefer, 
first, "come down and sec us, and we will let you try some" — we shall 
keep it on hand— even children are fond of it. 

The .same lady sent me two other Receipts, one for Whooping 
Cough Sirup, using beets in its preparation and one for a Cough 
Sirup, which see, using tar in its make, assuring me that she had tried 
them and, knew their value; and although I have not had an oppor- 
tunity to test these, I am satisfied of their value, judging from their 
composition, for having given a life-time to the consideration of this 
■*las,s of subjects, I think, at least, that I can tell the valueof a Receipt, 
iS quick as I read it; at any rate, if experience is valuable is any line 
of thought, it ccrinmUi is in mating a good Receipt Book, for it is im- 
possible that an opportunity can be had for testing to an absolute cer- 
tainty, every Receipt, hence, the necessity for experience, and sound, judg- 

Electuary signifies something that is liked in the line of medicine, or 
literally, to be licked up; hence the following plan of preparing Castor- 
Oil so as to be liked, by those who have to take it, will at the same 
time add slightly to its power of action. None need be afraid of the 
soap, for it is often used in making cathartic pills, and in small quan- 
tities, is not at all injurious. The plan is as follows: 

1. "Castor-oil, 3 ozs. ; white soft soap, or Castile soap, 1 dr.; sim- 

{>le sirup, 2 drs.; oil of cinnamon, and rose, or any other essential oil 
iked better, 6 drops, of any two kinds. 

" Rub the soap Avith the sirup, in a AVedgwood mortar, or bowl, and 
gradually add the Castor-Oil, stirring until it is thoroughlj' mixed, then 
add the cinnamon, and other flavoring oil and stir well. By these 
means, a gelatinous (jelly like) Electuar}' is formed which is rathier 
palatable thaH otherwise, and nearly equals, bulk for bulk, Castor-Oil 
in strength. The quantity of potash present, in a dose, is only a 
homeopathic dose, and consequently not likely to produce a bad result in 
any case, even when it should be contra-indicated" (It will add to its 
cathartic action). 

"Stuncke, states that Castor-Oil saponifies fmakes soap) readily 
with alkalies, and gives, with soda, r solid white soap, which in th« 
form ©f pills, is a certain and agreeable purgative." 

Then, I would say, if any one prefers, they can use a dr. of soda 
in the Castor-Oil in place of the soap, with about the same result. 

2. Senna Electuary, or Simip. — Take Senna, manna, cardamon 
seed, and cream of tartar, of each, I oz. ; white sugar, J lb. 

Bruise the senna and cardamon ^eed, then pour boiling water, IJ 
ptsi,, upon them, in a dish that can be covered, and .steep an hour, o^ 
two, the dish being covered, then strain and press out, after which add 
the cream of tartar and sugar, dissolving by heat, to form the Sirup- 
Bottle for use. 

Dose.— The dose for a child would be from'a tea to a table-spoon- 

238 DR. chase's 

fill, according to age: ana for an adult, a wine-glassful, once in 1 to 2 
honrs until 3 doses have been given, then double the time between 
doses, until its cathartic effects are obtained. It is a safe and certain 
cathartic, valuable in fevers and inflammatory diseases, and for preg- 
nant females, and debilitateil {)atients needing cathartic action — ■ 
especially recommended in erysipelas. 

3. Senna— Tasteless Infusion for Infants. — Dr. Brandies, of 
Europe, says: To put iSenna into cold water, in a covered dish, and 
let it stand 12 honrs, is especially useful for infants; as this process 
only dissolves the cathartic and coloring matter, having the essential 
oil; the fatty matter, and the irritating resin, which are only soluable 
in liot water; but, prepared in cold water it is almost tasteless, and 
entirely so, if mixed with a little tea or cofiee. — Archives Generates de 
Med f cine. 

1 have no doubt of its value, thus prepared, and recommend it to 
avoid the griping occasioned by giving it as commonly prepared, as I 
know that strong, cold coffee, will almost absolutely cover the terri- 
ble bitter of quinine. 

4. Cathartic Tincture for Children and Dyspeptics. — 
Take Alexandria senna, 2 ozs.; jalap, 1 oz. ; fennel seeds, 1 oz.; whisky, 
or best brandy, 1 qt. 

The jalap and fennel seeds should be burned, powdered jalap may 
be used; then mix all and let stand a week, or 10 days, shaking daily, 
when it will be fit for use, and may be strained, or allowed to stand 
upon the dregs, as it will settle and remain firm in the bottom of the 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful, or 2 to a child, according to age from 4 to 
10 grs. in a little sweetened water — a table-spoonful to a grown person. 
It might be strained and about 2 lbs. of white sugar added to it, by 
gentle heat making an agreeble sirup. The dose would then neces- 
sarily have to be a little increased. But it will be well to test the dose 
with children, beginning with a little less than the ordinary dose, and 
iet experience (an excellent teacher) show the proper dose, as different 
persons require different doses to give the same amount of action. 

This will be found a mild, yet effectual cathartic, particularly val- 
able for children, and grovTu persons of a dyspeptic, or other weak 
habit of body. It will also be found as pleasant to the taste, as effectual^ 
in cleasing the system. 

OLjMBNTS— For General Use. — A Cement that is made with 
DUt ver) little trouble, and that will prove satisfactory for general 
purposes, is made as follows : 

1. Dissolve gum-arabic, h oz., in water, a wine-glassful, by put- 
ting it, boiling hot, upon the "bruised gum; when fully dissolved, stir 
in very finely powdered plaster of Paris to make a thick paste. Apply 
with a brush to the edges of the articles to be mended, and press 
them firmly together until it sets a little, and keep them in position 
until dry. This will be as good for toilet articles as for any kind of 
table dishes. The Cement being white, of itself, it will scarcely be 
noticed; but any mended dishes should not be put into hot water for 
Uny considerable time. 

2. Another. — Isinglass,! dr.; water, 1 oz. ; alcohol,! oz.; gum 
mastic, ^ dr.; gum ammoniac, \ dr. 

Soak the isinglass in the water for 24 hours, then boil it down one- 
half aud add one-half of the alcohol and strain through linen while 


hot; and then melt the mastic and ammoniac in the other half of the 
spirit, and mix the solutions thuroiij^liiy, and bottle for use. It can 
be used to mend any mendabJe article, by warming the edges and 
givinjr a liyrlit coat — too much is jrenerally used. 

3. Cement for Leaky Tin Roofs.— We applied a Cement of 
white-lead paint, wliitinji, and dry, white santl, to a small tin roof, 5 
years ago, that leaked like a seive; it soon became nearly as hard aa 
stone, has never peele<l off, and has kept the roof, sincte then, per- 
fectly tight. It was put on about the consistence of thin putty. — 
Scieittific American. 

4. Slater's Cement for Stopping Leaks Around Chimneys. 
— Linseed-oil, whiting, ground glass, and brick-dust, all made very 
fine. It is good — a good one for joints of steps, at door fronts. 

6. Another. — A very durable and cheap plan to prevent leaks 
abont chimneys is to go to a painter and get his "paint skins," (a skin 
that forms on paint left standing for some time) with as mudi lin- 
seed-oil, and Vjoil them together; and while hot, thicken, to a proper 
consistence, with clean saiul, and apply at once. 

6. Cement for Leather Belts. — A thick solution of isinglass 
with \ its l)ulk of mastic varnish makes a very considerable help in 
holding large belts before riveting. No. 5 will probably be preferred. 

7. Cement — Proof Against "Wet. — To make a Cement that 
will be proof against damp, or wet: Take pure India rubber, 1 oz.; 
naptha, 1 qt. 

Cut the rubber in strips and put into the naptha, and stir the mix- 
ture often, until the rubber is perfectly dissolved. Let it stand about 
2 weeks, until it acquires the consistency of cream; then having 
weighed the mixture, put it into an iron kettle, and add twice as 
much shellac, by weight, as of the mixture, and heat, stirring all the 
time, until melted and well mixed; then pour upon marble slabs, to 
cool, in the form of sheets. 

When needed for use, melt it in the iron pot, by bringing it to a 
heat of about 250° Fah., and apply with a brush; laying weights upon 
the belts to press them as close together as possible. 

Heat may be used to hasten the process, if great care is taken to 
avoid the naptha from taking fire, as it is very inflammabJe. The 
safest plan is without heat. 

8. Cement for Cracks in Cast-Iron Kettles. — J. M. Benthall 
informs the Scientific American that he had used a Cement of glycer- 
ine, oxide of lead, and red lead, for mending a large cast-iron kettle 
that had been fractured across the bottom by allowing water to freeze 
in it, with the happiest results. It takes some little time to dry, but 
turns almost as hard as stone, and is fire and water-proof The 
method was as follows: 

"Take litharge, and red lead, equal parts, mix thoroughlj'^, and 
make into a paste with concentrated glycerine, to the consistency of 
soft putty. Fill the crack, and smear a thin layer on both sides, so as 
to completely cover the surface. Rub oflf this layer, if desired, when 
nearly dry, by using an old knife, or chisel." 

9. Cement for Iron, or Stone. — The Mechanic's Magazine men- 
tioned a year, or two ago an excellent Cement fortixing iron, or stone, 
ma<Ie by mixing together commercial glycerine and fine well-driea 
litharge. It appears this Cement was discovered by Professor llirzel, 
of Leipsic. As a Cement for joining chemical apparatus, It offers 

240 DR. chaseTs 

many advantages, for it is nnaffeeted bj'^ chlorine, hydrochloric acid, 
sulpimr va[K»r, siiliilmrous acid, nitric acid, and, indeed, resists most 
corrosive vapors. Further than this, it withstands the solvent action 
of alcohol, ether, sulphide of carbon, and all hydrocarbon vapors. 
li hartU'ns in from ten to thirty minnteH if mixed of tJie consistence of a thick 
dough, and sets under water as quickly as in air. Moreover, it will stand 
a very much higher temperature than any oil Cement, something like 
500°. The Cement can be used in steam engines, pumps, and founda- 
tions for machinery. The proportion of glycerine and litharge to be 
taken must depend somewhat upon the consistency of the Cement, 
and its proposed uses. An excess of glycerine would retard the set- 
tings, as it does not readily evaporate. This new use of glycerine 
adds another application to a substance that only a few years ago was 
thrown awajf. 

The following, from another source, f think from the Scientific 
American, conflrms and supports No. 9 : 

10. " Glycerine Cement. — A Cement, said to be capable of use 
where resistence to the action of both water and heat, is required, is 
composed by mixing ordinary gh'^cerine with dry litharge, so as to con- 
stitute a tough paste. For uniting the joints of steam pipes and other 
similar applications, this preparation is said to be very satisfactory." 

11. Cement for Plastering Cisterns on the G-round. — Where 
the ground is not too gravelly, or sandy, so as to cave, or fall in, a good 
Cistern can be made by plastering on the dirt, or ground, as fol- 

Good water-lime, 1 bu.; good clean sand, 2 bu. ; or in these pro- 

Mix evenly when dry; then wet up and make into mortar, or 
Cement, only what can be put on before it sets. 

12. Cement for Emery-"'iA7'heels. — A gentleman having 15 
years' experience as a machinist, says there is nothing better than 
«ommon glue — the best — for putting emery onto wheels, or belts. 
Using emery of the grade of coarseness desired. 

13. Cement for Mending- Boots and Shoes. — Take chloro- 
form, as much as yon choose, and put small bits of pure gutta-percha 
into it to dissolve to the consistence of honey. 

It is well to do this in a bottle to prevent evaporation. Upon fine 
boots, or shoes, of pliable and soft leather, small patches may be put 
tipon them that will give very good satisfaction. First prepare the 
patch by paring tke edges very nicely; then scrape it and the place 
to which it is to be applied, to remove dirt and grease, then apply the 
Cement, to each surface, thoroughly, then heat the surfaces to soften 
the Cement, and then put on the patch and press it firmly to the boot, 
©r shoe for a moment, until it sets. If neatly done it will hardly 
show, at all ; and it will remain very permanent unless it is held to 
close to the fire. 

This has been one of the devices followed by street-corner ped- 
dlars to make money. "Only 25 cents a bottle — who will have the 
next?" has ofte.n greeted my ear, in my travels. And they would 
ask only $5. or $10 for the Receipt. 

14. Cement for Marble " and Alabaster. — Ransome informs 
us that a valuable Cement for marble, and alabaster (of which vase* 
are usually made) is composed as follows: 

btir up to a thick paste, by means of a solution of silicate of socbi 


(water glass); 12 parts Portland cement; 6 parts prepared chalk; 8 
parts fine sand; 1 part of infusorial* earth. 

An irregular piece of coarse grained marble was broken off by 
means of a hammer, and the surface coated by a brush with the above 
paste, and the fragment inserted in its place. After 24 hours it was 
found to be firmly set, and it was difficult to recognize the place of 
fracture. It is not necessary to apply heat. 

I do not deem it absolutely essential to obtain the " infusorial 
earth," which, in some places might be difficult to obtain, yet worm 
feces from decayed wood, would answer the same purpose if it is 

15. Aquarium, or Fish-Tank — Directions for Making, 
and Cements For. — Mr. N. Hallock, of Long Island, in answer to an 
inquiry through the Scientific. Ameri/ian, makes the following 

" Messrs. Editors. — Your correspondent wants a good Cement for 
an Aquarium, or Fish-Tank. The following I have used 5, or 6 years: 

"One part, by measure, of litharge; 1 of plaster of Paris; 1 of fine 
beach sand; and ^ part of fine powdered rosin; mix all together. 
This may be kept for years, while dry, in a well corked bottle; when 
used, make into a putty, with boiled linseed-oil ; a little patent drier 
may be used. It will stand water, at once, either salt, or fresh. 

16. A Cheap Aquarium is made as follows: 

"Cut a narrow groove in a board the size you wish; set 4 pieces 
of glass on edge in the grooves, put a piece of zinc in the bottom. 
Make alight frame, with grooves to correspond, for the top; pass a 
rod through the frame down the inside of the corners, through the 
bottom, and screw uptight; put the Cement in all the corners and 
joints, and you will have an Aquarium at a very trifling cost." 

The principle is correct and if care is used in Cementing all of 
the joints and holes, there can be no failure. 

17. Another. — White lead, and red, in equal parts mixed to a 
[)ulty consistence with boiled linsced-oil. 

The frame of the Tank should be made of tin or zinc, properly 
secured to prevent spreading, and the joints well Cemented and. 
allowed to dry a day or two, according to the atmosphere. 

18. A Cement to stop Cracks in Glass Vessels to Resist 
Moisture and Heat. — Dissolve caseinef in cold saturated solution of 
borax and with this solution paste strips of hog's or bullock's bladder 
isoltened in water) on the Cracks of Glass, and dry at a gentle Heat; 
if the vessel is to be Heated, coat the bladder on" the outside before 
it lias become quite dry, with a paste of a rather concentrated solution 
of silicate of soda and quicklime t or plu^^ter of Paris." — Scientific Amer- 

•ThefT.Aisor;:ais tbeiow&si dass of anim'iU found in water, or watery infiisfon' 
which have i)cen left to ,;tand for some time. Th ■ orgaiiization is so low that they are 
propagated by biirtdiugout upon the parent stot'; -1..0 distinction of sex having been 
discovered in th-^.n. Tli • Portland Co-nent. and i'le prepared chalk, and sand, made 
vorj' fine, w^ll answer ^^'---^ nurpasc, wiiUont the oiner. 

tCtu'fin' comes from the Latin ca»eiis, cheese, ft is that part of milk that tnm« 
to curd ; hence, broken dis^hes have 1 Kien and may be mended by tieing together firmlx 
8~d boiling them in milk. 

tQuicklime is tVeihly burned and freshly slacked lime. The solution of Silicate d 
Soda Is to he thickened with Ume, or pi I'^ter of Paris. 


242 DB. chabe's 

19, Pitch and Gutta-Percha Cement. — Take an iron dish, or 
kettle, and melt, by beat, common Pitcb (sucb as used for picthing 
seams on boats, or vessels), 2 ozs. or lbs. according to the Cementing 
you wish to do ; and Gutta-Percha half as much. 

When melted stir well and pour into cold water, until cold; then 
wipe dry and keep for use, of course, melt again when used, so much 
as is needed. 

This will hold, very firmly, if a dark color is not objectionable, 
wood, glass, stone, ivory, porcelain, parchment, leather, hair, paper, 
silk, woolen, cotton, feathers,) and all other things, except those seeking 
a divorce. 

12. Turkish Cement— For Water Pipes, etc.— Fresh hydraulic 
lime (water-lime), any quantity, according to the work to be done, 
and Jialf as much pounded brick, or pounded tile, tinely sifted, — by 
measure — and chopped tow to make it like our common hair mortar. 
Mix dry, as wanted for use; then wet up with linseed-oil (if it is boil- 
ed it will dry quicker) to tbe consistence of common mortar. 

They use common earthen-ware pipes with socket-joints, to carry 
water from springs to reservoirs, and use this Cement for the joints. 
It makes them water-tight. 

21. For Common mortar they use the hydraulic lime and 
pounded tile, sifted, in equal parts, with the chopped tow, andwet up 
with water — thoroughly mixing while dry, before wetting up, in eith- 
er case. 

22. Very Hard Cement is made with well-burnt brick pow- 
dered very fine, 93 parts; and finely pulverized litharge,? parts. _ Mix 
dry, and then wet up to the consistence of mortar with linseed-oil. 

When used for joints in stone flagging, the stone, or marble 
should be wet first to prevent the oil from leaving the mixture too 
quick. It has been used for terraces, lining basins, for watering 
stock, etc., etc.; and would make a valuable Cement around chimneys, 
first giving a coat of thin paint, to cause it to take hold of the dirty 
brick and shing'es, or other roofing 

CESSPOOLS.— See Disenpectants. 

1. Charlotte Russe, — Russian isinglass, 1 oz.; nice sweet milk; 
\ pt.; 4 eggs ; sweet wine, 1 gill ; white sugar, 3 ozs.; thick cream, 1 pt. 
extract of lemon, or vanilla, and sponge cake. 

Boil the isinglass in the milk, slowly, to reduce it one-half, and 
when cool, strain it, and add the flavor, and pour it into the beaten 
yolks of the eggs and sugar; then put over the fire again to thicken, 
but not to boil. Having beaten the cream to a froth with the wine, 
mix all, and add the beaten whites of the eggs; and having lined a 
deep dish with slices of sponge cake, pour in the " Russe." 

2, Another plan is to use milk, 1 pt.; arrow-root, { lb.; thick 
cream, 1 qt.; flavor as in No. 2. 

The arrow-root is to be rubbed smooth with a little of the milk, 
cold, then thicken into the balance of the milk, with heat; and add 
the flavor, and while still warm, mix it into the cream whipped, and 
pour into sponge cake same as tbe first. 

In either case, if in warm M'eather, to set the dish into ice, to get 
cold, makes an improvement, and if made with care will be very 

CHEESE MANUFACTURING— Its Processes and Pro- 
gress, — Tha following quotations, the first from the Scientific American 


of 1863, and the second from the People's, Journal of 1871, will not only 
show the Process of Manufactui-e, but also show its Progress, and, I 
trust, give an additional impulse to Cheese-making, and also to the 
Manufacturing of Butter, wliich has been left too much in the back- 
ground; for it is, undoubtedly, susceptible of being adopted as a Man- 
ufacture, in Butter-factories, as much so as that of Cheese; as in that 
case, the expense of milk-rooms and other fixtures to take every 
needed advantage, can so much better be afforded, than by the home- 
manufacturer, who only has a few cows. It seems to me that the 
Butter branch needs more attention than it is receiving at the hands 
of those most interested — the farmers. But, as I have discussed that 
subject under its appropriate head, which see, I will proceed to the 
point of Manufacturing Cheese. The following will show that even 
as late as 1863, the Manufacture of Cheese was at rather a low ebb. 
The editor says: 

"We were lately informed by a very intelligent farmer of North- 
ern New York, that the Mauufixcture of Cheese, when properly con- 
ducted was a very profitable business; 'but,' he added, 'there's more 
bad Cheese than bad Butter made, and there's more than enough ot 
that.' For some years past, large quantities of the best American 
Cheese has found a ready sale in Great Britain; in some sections of 
which. Cheese is used to a great extent, as an article of daily food, by 
both rich and poor. We have been credibl}' informed that almost all 
the best American Cheese is exported — the inferior qualities being 
kept for home use. A few remarks on the subject will not be un- 
profitable at present, as this is the season (August) when most of our 
farmers set about making Cheese. 

"The principal substances in milk are the fatty, or Butter parts — 
milk-sugar, and caseine. The latter is really the Cheesy part; but 
Cheese of the best quality likewise contains a considerable portion of 
the Butter, and some of the milk-sugar. The Cheesy portion of milk 
is separated from the liquid by coagulation (thickening) — a chemical 
operation, whicii is performed to-day as it was hundreds of years ago. 
The mode of producing this result was undoubtedly an accidental 

1. "7i consists of stuffing the stomach of a sxicking calf, aii univeaned 
lamb, or a hid, ivith salt, and suspending it in a dry situation for several 

"This prepared stomach, called the rennet, when steeped in water, 
produces a decoction" (watery extract) "which posseses the power of 
thickening milk — decomposing it, and separating the caseine from the 
liquid, or whey. 

2. " The ;no^ convenient way to prepare the rennet for use, ia 
to place the stomach in a stone-ware jar with 2 handsful of salt; pour 
about 3 (jts. of cold water over it, and allow the whole to stand for 
5 days; then strain and put it into bottles. A table-spoonful ivill coagu- 
late about lliJrIij gals, of milk. 

"The railk of which Cheese is made, is heated to about 90° Fah. 
To every 30 gals, a table-spoonful of the rennet is added and stirred. 
In from 15 to HO minutes the railk becomes coagulated — the caseine 
separating in a thick mass. The rennet possesses the chemical prop- 
erty of producing lactic acid" (lactic acid comes from the Latin lac, or 
laclis, milk) "by acting on the sugar in the milk. The acid unit^a 

244 DK. CHjVSK'S 

"with the soda in the milk, which holds the caseine in solution; when 
the caseine, which is insoluble, separates, forming the curd. 

"The quality of Cheese depends chiefly upon the milk of which 
it is made ; the best, containing a considerable portion of the constit- 
uents of Butter. 

"The Stilton Cheese of England, and the Bi-ie Cheese of France, 
have a world-wide reputation ; and are made from fresk, sweet 
milk, mixed with cream, skimmed from milk of the preceding even- 

" The Cheshire, double-Gloucester, Chedder, Wiltshire, and Dun- 
lop Cheese of Great Britain" (the Dunlop is more particularly of 
Scotland), "is made of sweet unskimmed milk, as is also the best 
Holland and American Cheese. It is frequently, however, made from 
milk obtained at two separate milkings, though it is believed that the 
6€«< Cheese is made from that procured at one milking; as it is sup- 
posed that cream, which has been separated from cold milk after 
standing several hours, can not be intimately mixed with the milk again ; 
and that, consequently, much of it will be removed with the whey. 
This is a very important consideration for those engaged in the production 
of Cheese. 

"Skim-milk yields nearly as much Cheese as sweet milk, as it 
contains all the caseine. 

"The Dutch, the Ley den, and the hard Cheese of Essex and Sus- 
sex counties, in England, are made of milk thrice skimmed ; and they 
are excellent for sharpening teeth, and would try the temper of a good 
American axe. 

"In making Cheese, a thermometer should always be used to 
test the heat of the milk, which should never be raised above 95° Fah., 
otherwise the curd will be hard and tough. If the milk is cold — much 
below 90° Fah. — the curd will be too soft, and difficult to free from the 
whey. Perhaps the best and safest way to heat the milk is in a tin 
vessel, placed in a catddron of water heated to 95°, to which temperature the 
milk shoidd be raised before the rennet is added. Whenever the milk is 
fully coagulated, the whey should be strained from it. 

"In Cheshire, — famous for its Cheese — great attention is paid to 
the removal of the whey ; which is done very slowly, and with slight 
pressure until the curd is pretty hard; the latter is then cut fine, in a 
machine, and prepared for the press. 

"The curd of the celebrated Stilton Cheese is not cut at all; it is 
pressed very gently till all the whey drains out, so as to retain all the 
Butter in it. 

"In Belgium, a rich Cheese is made by adding Butter, ^ oz., and the 
yolk of an egg to every pound of cut curd. 

"About 1 oz. of the best salt is mixed with every 2 lbs. of the cut 
curd, which is then placed in a cloth secured in the Cheese-hoop, and 
submitted to pressure; and the quality of Cheese depends on having 
all the whey pressed out; to do which, it is turned upside-down several 
times, and allowed to remain in the press until no more whey can be got 
out of it. 

"Cheese, when taken from the press, should be rubbed over the 
entire surface \Aith good Butter, and placed in a cool, airy room, upon 
a smooth, flat stone, or polished slab of marble, if possible. It requiros 
to be examined, and turned daily, for some weeks afterwards, and 
occasionally rubbed with Butter. Annotto is frequently employed to 



color the outside of Cheese, but this is a practice which ought to be 
<^ndemned " (and I am glad to say, not much done of late), 

"Cheese of an inferior quality, may be inoculated, to some extent, 
with the flavor of any rich Cheese, by introducing a small portion of 
the latter, into the interior of the former, with a common Cheese- 
Bcoop. Old Chesse sells in England at several cents per lb. higher 
than new Cheese. It acquires, by age, that peculiarly sharp pungent 
taste so pleasing to the palate of the Britisher." 

This shows about the condition of the Cheese trade 10 years ago; 
and undoubtedly was the means, by its hints, and suggestions, of 
doing much to bring up the Cheese manufacturing business to its pres- 
ent superior standing, as represented by the following statistics, given 
by the People's Journal, of Philadelphia, for 1870. Under the head of 
Cheese, it says: 

"Butter and Cheese-making has been a diffused industry in many 
countries, from the earliest times; but it remained for American in- 
ventiveness to give concentration to the work and show the nations 
how best to do it. In 1853, we exported to England 1,000,000 lbs. of 
Cheese; in 1800, we sent her 50,000,000 lbs. In the same year we im- 
ported nearly 1,500,000 lbs. to supply our own requirements; but in 
1870, so ample and excellent had our supplies become that we did not 
require to import a pound. 

"It is comparatively but a few j^ears since farmers in New York 
State, seeing the waste of labor necessarily consequent on each small 
farmer being his own Manufacturer of Cheese and Butter, commenced 
to form labor-saving co-operative factories, where one set of workmen 
would do the work of many, and where, by aflbrding superior facili- 
ties and giving special attention, the quality of the product might be 
improved. The movement was completely successful, and at this day 
the number of these co-operative factories in the State is more than 
nine hundred, with a supply of milk from 250,000 cows; every 3,000 
cows affording 1,000,000 lbs. of Cheese, valued at $140,000, or more than 
300 lbs. of Cheese, and 300 gals, of milk for each cow. Of this large 
number of factories: 





Oneida countv has . 

... 94 


Erie count}' has . 

... 51 


JeHer.son " " 

... 72 


Otsego " " 

... 46 


Bt'rkimer " " 

. . • 70 


Orange " " 

. . . 44 


Madison " " 

... 66 


Other counties have 

... 440 


Oswego " " 

... 58 



. . .944 


As to the other States: 

Factories. Cows each. 

Ohio has 80 500 

Illinois " 50 400 

WiDConsin " 34 250 

Venuonl " 32 400 

Majssachusetts 26 250 

Factories. Cows e'ch. 

Michigan has 22 400 

Pennsylvania " 14 200 

Other States, " 25 

Canada, " 34 

Totals 317 

"So that on this continent we have now, after a comparatively 
few years of work, nearly 1,300 Cheese and Butter factories, supplied 
with the milk of more than 300,000 cows, and producing about 100,- 
0»M),00() lbs. of Cheese annually. Our export of the j)roduct of this 
new industry, or old industry in a new form, was last vear the large 
amount of 57,000,000 lbs., valued at $8,000,000, while the" whole export 
from Britain, of her Cheese, is little over 3,000,000 lbs. Even the 

246 DR. chase's 

Dutch, who have made a si>ecialty of Cheese for centuries, and who 
in their varieties adapt their article to many tastes and markets, ex- 
ported last year only half the quantity we did. When this experi- 
ment was commenced the European Cheeses had all their special 
markets and special customers, who took them regularly, and would 
not be induced readily to make a change, while the previous character 
of American Cheese was not in its favor, but rather the contrary. We 
had, therefore, nothing to look to for success but the superiority of the 
article at the price, and in less than twenty years, with everything 
rather against than for us, ive have surpassed England in the world^s mar- 
kets, and are at this day selliny nineteen times as much Cheese as she is able 
to do, with all her prestige and previous fame as a Clieese producer! In all 
the history of progress there is no parallel to this adaptation of fitting 
means to needed facilities. Switzerland, from a kind of necessity im- 
posed upon it by the peculiarities of the Alpine pastures, had had a 
kind of cooperative Cheese-making before we commenced it; but it 
was and is of small account. Our cooperative arrangements enabled 
many single workers with but indiflTerent success, by that union which 
is strength, to become a great power for supplying the world with two 
prime articles of family consumption, and for doing it well. Our 
triumph, however, is not yet quite complete. Before it is so we have 
got to do one of two things, or both ; that is, to produce a Cheese 
which will surpass in its attractive qualities the favorite products of 
all other countries, or to poduce Cheeses so nearly approaching these 
tkvorites in qualities as to compete with them successfully. 

"Among the chief of these favorite Cheeses is Stilton, the high- 
est-priced, which is made chiefly in Leicestershire, England, from the 
jream of one milking being added to the new milk of the next. The 
weight seldom exceeds 12 lbs., and two years are required to ma- 
ture it. 

"Parmesan, the most famed of Italian Cheeses, is a product of the 
richest pastures of the Milanese territory. It is made from skim-milk, 
weighs 180 lbs. each, and requires the milk of 100 cows for each 

" Cheshire Cheese, one of the very best of English Cheeses, is the 
product of the poorest land. Its weight is often as high as 100 lbs.; 
and 1 lb. of Cheese to each cow daily throughout the year, is consid- 
ered a fair average yield. 

" Gouda, the best Holland, is a full milk Cheese and weighs about 
15 lbs. 

"Gruyere, a celebrated Swiss variety, possibly owes much of its 
distinguishing character to the peculiarity of the Alpine pasture. It 
is made of milk skimmed, or not skimmed, according to the kind of 
Cheese desired. 

"Chedder Cheese is made chiefly in Somersetshire from milk in 
which all its own cream is retained, and Gloucester is made from milk 
deprived of part of its cream. "Double" and "single" Gloucester, 
are terms applied in reference to size and not as to qualit}', the one 
being twice the tickness of the other. 

Dunlop Cheese is the choicest Scottish product, and made much 
in the same wav as Cheshire. 

"The Sufl'olk Cheese is made from skim-milk, and weighs 25 to 
30 lbs. 

" The Edam Cheese of Holland owes not a little of its popularity 


to its smallness and form. In making it at certain seasons the milk 
is partly skimmed; the Cheese is colored a yellowish red for the En- 
glish market and red for the French ; the weight is about 4 U)s., and 
each cow in Summer is expected to yield 200 lbs. skim-milk Cheese 
and 80 lbs. of Butter: 

"The Roquefort is the chief Cheese of France. It is made from* 
the milk of sheep and goats half of which has been skimmed; its 
weight is 4 to 5 lbs., and it is believed to owe much of its peculiar 
character to the natural vaults, or fissures in the neighboring rocks, 
where the ripening is performed, and which are constantly filled with 
cold air from subterranean recesses. 

"These special favorites are those whicn bring the best prices, 
and Wisconsin has commenced the right policy for America, by ascer- 
taining how these favorites are made, and making them so as if pos- 
sible even to surpass the genuine original article in its peculiar excel- 
lence. It only requires a few intelligent, pei severing men, or women 
to set themselves to do it, in order to secure that in a very few years 
we should be sending Stilton's to Leicester and Edam's to Holland, and 
the best variety everywhere. In all dairj' management, in order that 
the maximum of success may be attained, the whole of those things 
from which profits accrue and which dovetail, or fit into each other, as 
it were, must be carried on simultaneously. 

"A very large part of Cheese, and possibly the best paying part, is 
made from skim-milk. 

"A Butter Factory should always accompany the Cheese Factory, 
and is perhaj)s, the best paying part of the farmer's work. Again, the 
whey of every two (;ows will keep, or nearly keep, one pig, and there- 
fore, a pork (rei)artnient is a necessity, and one in which the produce 
is nearly all profit and good jn'ices always readily realized. 

"Again, some cattle will pay better to fatten for the butcher than 
to milk, and there should be a beef department for this puri) The 
feeding of such cattle is scarcely a perceptible addition to the expense 
of the establishment, and the price on sale is a very substantial 

Let us go on then, until we not only make better Cheese than all the 
rest of the world; but more of it also, and bring up Butter to the high 
standing lo which our Cheese has already attained; then sliall we have 
reason to hold uj) our heads on the Butter question, while, as yet, the 
majority of our Butter is quite inferior. 

2. ' To Cheesemakers— An Engliah Groan, Encoxirag-ing to 
American Manufacturers.— The following groan, as recorded in 
tlie English MUk Journal, for September, 1871, in regard to the intro- 
duction of .American Cheese into their market, is very significant and 
should encourage our Clieese Manufacturers to increased efl'orts to 
/)eat theui in their own markets. The Journal says: 

" We would draw especial attention to our report of the Cheese 
market this month. We do not think there is any cause for alarm, 
3'et the present state of the Cheese trade is significant. Such words 
as 'the Ameri(uin are absorbing all the demand,' 'Dutch, like Eng- 
lish, is being driven out of consumption,' have, to say the least, not a 
very cheerful tone. We can not question the authority of the very 
eminent firm of Cheese Factors from whom we obtain our monthly 
reports. We have no wish to create a panic among English Cheese- 
mongerS; but we can not suppress the information afforded us. and 

248 DR. chabb'b 

therefore print it verbatim et literatim. There is no very immediate 
danger in the Amerittan competition; but it behoves us to be on th« 
alert, and to produce Cheese at tlie least possible expense, and of the 
very best quality. The success of America is to be attributed to the 
extensive orgauization of her Cheese Factories, whereby division of 
labor is effected, a large working capital used in the Manufacture of 
Cheese, and an uniform good make produced, by converting milk into 
Cheese on a large scale; and by the employment of skilled labor 
under the superintendence of scientific, enterprising commercial men. 
The system which has done so much for America can undoubtedly do 
a great deal for us, and enable us to maintain our ground against all 
comers. We therefore watch, with a daily increased interest, the suc- 
cess of Cheese Factories in our own country," (England). 

All I can say to this, is, let them "groan" so long as we can beat 
them in making their own choice brands of Cheese. 

3. Sw^iss School of Milk Production and Management. — 
The .SV'i.s.s Mountain Union, which has for many j'ears been interested 
in the Milk business, has issued a circular in which it claims that 
the Milk production and the care of the mountain pastures are the in- 
separable factors of the nation's wealth. The only article of ex[>ortis 
Cheese, which was exjxyrted in 1808 to the value of 18,(j74,8;52 francs, 
and in 18()'.), to 21,453,796 francs. The increase of Milk products in 
other parts of the world is alluded to. American Factory Cheese, an 
imitation of the English Cheshire, is rivaling its prototype in its home 
market. Sweden and Denmark have established extensive dairies, 
while Holland, which controls, (he Cheese trade of the world, has 
established at Utrecht a peri)etnal exhibition of dairy utensils, etc., 
for the instruction of dairymen. The Austrian minister of Agricul- 
ture has given two annual prizes for the benefit of Cheese Factory 
associations, while in Vorarlburg, Tyrol, Bavaria, Italy, and I'nissia, 
the latest facts, principles, and improvements are disseminated by 
means of itinerant lecturers, fairs, exhibitions, and publications. It 
is proi)Osed in Switzerland to adojjf this policy in the organization of 
a School of theoretical and practical instruction in Milk production 
and Management. For this puri)ose, funds are to be raised from the 
cantons, agricultural societies, and iiulividuals. Great results are 
anticijiated from this entery)rise. — Scientijic American. 

4. Cost of a Small Cheese Factory. — Hoping that what has 
been said uj)on the subject of Manufacturing Butter and Cheese will 
induce some farmers to desire to engage in it, 1 will give them an 
idea of the necessary expense to make a fair beginning; and prob- 
ably the following from the MannfucLurer and Builder, will show the 
items with more satisfaction, and in less words than most of the arti- 
cles which have been given. It .says: 

"For 100 cows, a building G0x2() feet, witli Ifi-foot posts, making it 
two stories, would be required. Take 24 feet from (he lower story for 
a 'make-room,' leaving the reinaimUrr anil the upi>er story for 'curing 
rooms.' The upper story shnnld be partitione<l the same as the lower. 
The 24-foot room over the 'make-roiun' should be plastered and fur- 
nished with stoves suitable for curing early and late Cheese. The cost 
depends upon the j>rice of lumber and labor, which difl'er in dill'erent 
localities. A rough, sul)stantial building which will answer in every 
resi>ect in most localities, would cost •* 1 ,000. If liiiislievi with paiiit, etc., 
$1,300. It could be furnished with vat, tank, presses, hoops, scales, 


etc., for $300, making in all $1,300 for rou^h building, and $1,600 for 
the finished one. For 200 cows the same sized building would answer. 
For vat and fixtures, $500, making, in all, $1,500 for rough, and $1,800 
for finished building. This is the size of many that were built in 
tl lis State " (New York) "this season. Stock companies are formed 
by those interested taking one or more shares, which may be $50, 
or $100 each. A committee is chosen by the shareholders, who 
superintend the building of the Factory, hiring of help, etc. A dairy 
of 100 cows can be managed by a man of experience with additional 
help, wiiich could be hired at from $2 to $3 per day and board. 
For 200 cows he would want an additional hand, which might be a 
woman, and inexperienced. Tiie question is often asked : How 
many cows must a Factory number to pay? For an individual to, 
build a Factory to work up milk for others at $2 per hundred, which is 
the common price of making and furnishing the Cheese all boxed and 
ready for market, he would want 300 cows, or more, to make it a pay- 
ing business." 

I will close this subject with only a word more, and that is this, 
let no one enter into this business unless he has the necessary expe- 
rience himself, or can take time to go to a first-class Factory and learn 
all the particulars, or is sure that he can get an experienced hand to 
manage it. With the necessary knoivledge it i.s a paving business. 

CHESTNUTS— To Plant for Timber and the Fruit.— In re- 
gions of country where timber is scarce, probably, there is no other 
tree that will give as good satisfaction in speed of growth, and value 
of timber as the Cheslnut; and although it is beet to plant the Nuts 
where you desire them to grow, for purposes of cutting for the timber, 
at the same time j'ou can plant a few, near the house, to be cared for 
more particularly for the sake of the Nuts, 

The following item from the Hearth and Home, will satisfy the 

feople as to the advantages, and probable success of the undertaking, 
t says : 

"No timber is better worth planting in fence-rows, kitchen yards, 
waste places, or in regular plantations than Chestnut. For po^ts, 
rails, pickets, stakes, or lumber, no timber is more salable, grows 
quicker, or realizes a better proportionate price. For shade, Chest- 
nut-trees are excellent; dense, spreading, and handsome in foliage. 
Once planted, they need no further attention, and when cut down 
rei)roduce themselves abundantly by means of sprouts. We have cut 
Chestnut sprouts eight years old, that were large and long enough for 
four round posts, or six, when the two lower ones were split, and one 
rail besides. At this age they are large enough to split into two heavy 
rails, worth, now, six to eight cents each in a timber country. We can 
not just now think of any croji that would pay better than a few 
acres of thrifty Chestnut si)routs. There is but one disadvantage, 
which is that Chestnuts don't stand transplanting well. They should, 
therefore, be planted where they are desired to grow. Probably the 
best way to make a plantation is to plow the ground in the Fall, and 
mark out furrows six feet apart each way, and at the intersections 
drop three Nuts; cultivate the ground one year, then seed down to 
grass. The grass and the shade together will keep out weeds, and the 
<;lose planting will cause the young trees to shoot up straight and 
lengthy. In (ive years a good many rails can be cut out, leaving one 
tree ai eacu place. In a few yea.r& ihc planlatlon will aood thinning 

250 DR. chase's 

again, and sprouts will have taken the place of those first cut 

CHLOROFORM— As a Solvent and Anesthetic, or Produ- 
cing Insensibility to Pain, and as a Renovator. — Chloruform is 
the best known solvent for camphor, resins, sealing wax, and gutta 
percha; it also dissolves the vegetable alkaloids, strychnia, morphia, 
quinia, etc., in large proportions, and is very useful as a lo(^al anes- 
thetic in allaying the pain of toothache; as a solvent it will remove 
greasy spots from fabrics of all kinds, but its chief use is as an anes- 
thetic (rendering insensibility), of which kind of medicinal agents it 
is the type. There are several other volatile organic bodies which 
possess similar properties, but none, so far as we have been able to 
discover, produce the total unconsciousness and muscular relaxation 
that follow the inhalation of Chloroform. 

It has been customary to pour Chloroform upon a handkerchief 
and hold it a little distance from the face, in administering it, but the 
English surgeons have more recently adopted the plan of laying the 
handkerchief over the face, and drop it on, drop by drop, claiming 
that it is less dangerous; and, they have reported a case that was kept 
in this way, 10 hours without injury. The danger, undoubtedly, 
arises from the patient getting too large an amount at once, by the old 
plan, when, by the new, or "drop by drop." plan, the amount, although 
sufficient, is not an over-dose. 

FUL DIARRHEA— " Very Valuable" Remedies. — Oils of caje- 
put, cloves, peppermint, and anise, of each, 1 oz.; alcohol, 4 ozs. Mix. 

Dose. — From 10 dro])s to 2 tea-spoonfuls, according to the severity 
of the case, as explained below. 

" This is a very valuable stimulant and antispasmodic preparation, 
and has been successfully used in Colic, cramp, of the stomach, or 
elsewhere, flatulence" (gas, or wind, in the stomach, or bowels), 
"pains in the stomach, or bowels, Painful Diarrhea, Cholera-Morbus, 
Asiatic Cholera, and in all cases where a stimulant and antispasmodic 
action" (opposed to spa.sms) "is desired. 

"During the Cholera of 1849-50-51, it was extensively used in 
Cincinnati, for the purpose of overcoming violent spasmodic action, in 
the dose of lto2fl.drs." (1 dr. is about 1 common tea-spoonful), "every 
10, or 15 minutes; one or tivo doses generally succeeded in relieving the 
pains and s])asms when all other means failed. 

"The ordinary dose is from 10 to 30 drops, in simple sirup, muci- 
lage of slippery-elm, or in hot brandy and water sweetened. Care 
, should be taken not to introduce too much of this preparation into 
the stomach at any one time, as a large amount of it would produce 
inflammation of the stomach. It is, however, a very valuable agent, 
•when properly used, and should be always kept by every physician and 
druggist." — King. 

This was formerly known as Htinn's Life Drops. 

2. Another— Dr. Bond's Cure, of Philadelphia.-;-Dr. Bond, 
of Philadelphia, used to depend mainly upon the following emetic, 
in Cholera: 

Salt, 1 table-spoonful ; and cayenne pepper, 1 tea-spoonful ; put 
into luke-warm water, h pt., and given for a dose. 

To be repeated if a cure was not speedily effected. In cases 
where much fruit, or other green stuff, as cucumoers, poelons. etc.. 


had been eaten, or was the caxisc of the commencement of Cholera, 
this would be very good. 

CHOLAGOGUE, OR BILIOUS TONIC— Quinine, 1 dr. ; oil 
of wintergreen, 1 tea-spoonful; oil of peppermint, 5 drops; oil of 
lemon, 15 drops; alcohol, ^ pt. ; water, i pt.; sulphuric acid, 30 drops. 
Mix well, then add red Peruvian bark, finely pulverized, 2 ozs. ; rheu- 
barb root, also finely pulverized, 1 oz. ; simple sirup, or molasses, to 
make all 1 qt. Those who are acted upon easily by cathartics can not 
bear more than half of this quantity of rheubarb. Let such have it 
made accordingly — the object of its use is to just keep the bowels 
solvent, not loose like diarrhea. 

The quinine, oils, and acid, should be put into the alcohol first, 
then the water, and afterwards the bark and rheubarb, and then the 
sirup; or what would be a little more palatable, would be to steep the 
Peruvian bark and rheubarb root in as little water as will answer, then 
strain off into the mixture and steep again, to get all the strength, by 
pressing out the second time; then make up the qt. with sirup, as this 
avoids the sediment of the bark and root in the taking of the medi- 
cine,as some people object to taking the medicine with the powders in 
it. It may be taken at once, if well shaken ; or, if shaken 2, or 3 times 
daily for a week, after that it may be taken without shaking, as the 
strength of the Peruvian bark and rheubarb, will, by that time, be 

Dose. — For an adult, 1 to 2 tea-spoonfuls 4 times daily, at meals 
and bed time; for a child of 12 years, half dose. If very bilious and 
costive, take a full cathartic dose of rheubarb, or such other cathartic- 
medicine as you are in the habit of using, or prefer, to move the 
bowels freely. 

This will be found a very valuable tonic in all cases requiring one , 
and will break up 99-100 of all the agues, and remittent fevers, in a 
few days, if not, repeat the cathartic, and continue the Cholagogue 
until the work is accomplished — never try to "wear out the ague;" it 
will either wear you out, or make you " the worse for wear." Repeat 
at intervals of a week, 2, or 3 times; and in nearly every case, a per- 
manent cure will be effected, if the medicine is taken for 3, or 4 days 
at each repetition. 

1. CIDER— Its History, Manufacture and Best Methods 
of Keeping, in Europe and the United States. — Cider and perry 
are of great antiquity. Plinney speaks of them as the wine of apples 
and pears. The Moors of Biscay, first introduced the manufacture of 
Cider into Normandy, from which it extended itself into other 
French provinces, and finally to England, Germany, Russia, and 
America. And at the present time, that made in Normandy, Her- 
fordshire, England, and in the neighborhood of Newark, N. J., is con- 
sidered the best. 

2. The mere mechanical manner of making Cider is too well 
known to need any particular description; and the only caution, or 
hint necessary to be given, here, is that the plan of putting water 
upon the straw, or pomace, as practiced by many, is not to be allowed 
if you desire to make good Cider, and wish to have it kft<;p well — no 
■water at all should be used. 

3. Very much of the excellence of Cider, also, depends upon the 
temperature of the (^ellar in which the Cider is placed for fermenta- 
tion ; but as a general thing, except by regular Manufacturers and 

262 DR. CHASB'S 

dealers in the article, this point is entirely overlooked. As soon as 
the apple-juice is pressed out, it should be poured through a common 
wire sieve, coarse cloth strainer, or soniething of this character (a 
hair cloth sieve is the best of all), to free it from large pieces of pomace, 
straws, etc., then be immediately put into a cool cellar, where the 
temperature is not above 50° Fah'.; for, if left, as it frequently is, in 
the Cider mill, or some other situation, exposed to the full heat of 
Autumn, much of the alcohol that is formed by the fermentation, 
which decomposes the sugar, that is in the fruit, and turns it into the 
formative process of vinegar making by the absorption of the oxygen 
of the air, giving the Cider a i)eculiar roughness, called sour, after 
which only "topers" like it, while, on the other hand, if it is put into 
the cool cellar, of the temperature of about 50^ Fah., nearly the 
whole of the natural sweetness of the fruit is converted into alcohol, 
which remains as such, helping to preserve the Cider, instead of un- 
dergoing the process of acetiiication — like acid. 

Leibig informs us that "the acetous" (acid making) "fermenta- 
tion, or the conversion of alcohol into vinegar proceeds most rapidly 
at a temperature of 95° Fah., and at lower temperatures the action be- 
comes slower, until at 4G° 50' Fah., no such change takes place." 

Vinegar manufacturers, as well as Cider makers will do well to 
give heed to these facts, if they wish to make good articles with the possible trouble, or labor; for independently of the differences in 
fruit, the difference of temperature at which Cider is allowed to ferment, 
is the principal cause of 'the superiority of the (;ider made by one per- 
son over that of another, in the same neighborhood. One puts his in 
a cool cellar, and the other, perhaps lets it stand in the mill, or barn, 
where it soon becomes sour, jiassing the possibility of ever being 
made what is called good Cider, i. e., sweet and palatable. 

■4. it is well known that a rough taste,d, sour apple, even crab- 
apples, make the best Cider. This arises frbm the presence of more 
malic acid (from the Latin maltun, an apple — ap))le acid), the pres- 
ence of which prevents, or greatly impedes the couversion of the alco- 
hol, which arises by the fermentation, into a(;etic acid, or vinegar; 
but .still splendid Cider may be made out of the more common ajjples, 
if the caulion of tlie loiv tem}>erature is observed in its fermerdation. 

5. It is as important that apples should lie in the orchard, or in 
the barn, for a couple of weeks, to mellow and mature, after they are 
gathered, as it is that they shouKl be ripe when gnthered, for by this 
meKowing process, much of the mucilage, or sweetness of the a])ples, 
is decomposed, and changed into alcohol and carbonic acid, by which 
the (iavor and keeping qualities of the Cider is much improved; and 
also, that all rotten a]>ples should be thrown out, for they give a bad 
flavor to tiie Cider, and also prevent the pomace from settling before 
racking off, by which means the (;larification, or cleansing of the 
CMdcr is perfected. Unripe apples shouUi also be avoided, as they 
contain scarcely any sugar, or saccharine matter, while they also add 
to the tendency of the Cider to become sour. 

6. The question is often asked, why does not apple-juice make 
as good a wine as that made from grape-juice? The answer is as sira- 
j)lo as the question — because the juice of apples doe^ not contain aa 
D?uch sugar iu j)roi)ortion to the amount of acid and nitrogenized 
matter as gra})e-juice does; but this can be remedied to a very great 



extent by the addition of sugar; and West India sugar is said to be 
the best. 

But, since writing the above paragraph, I have been <lown into 
my cellar and tested the condition of Cider, and Cider Wine, that I 
put up last November (this writing is October 25, 1872), with common 
crushed sugar, and I find both of them very nice indeed. The Cider 
was allowed to work two weeks with the bung out before the sugar 
was added; it was then thoroughly dissolved and put in, and the 
bungs driven. What I call Cider, I put in \ lb. to each gal., and to the 
wine 1 lb. to each ^^al. using new barrels, and not having even racked, 
or drawn off the Cider as yet, that however, is a little sourer than T 
like, but not more so than many would prefer, but the wine is splendid, 
yet, a year or two more will add to its richness, even o, or 10 years 
will still improve it if bottled. At the same time I was testing the 
Cider and Cider wine, I tested also a tomato wine which my wife 
made twelve years ago, from the pure juice of the tomato with sugar, 
1 lb. to each qt. and it is now equal to any port, at least for me, but 
some persons who dislike the tomato-flavor might not like it as well. 
This proves that sugar, and a cool cellar with clean casks, or barrels to 
store Cider in, will make good Cider, or good Cider wine, and, also, 
that other fruits as well as apples, and grapes contains the elements, 
or foundation for a good wine, so that any family who needs a wine 
may make it, of the strength desired, according to the amount of 
sugar added, and the amount of water not added, for I would not have 
a diop of water uted in making either. The wine although not bot- 
tled, was racked, oi drawn off, and the barrel cleansed of the sedi- 
ment, at the time the sugar was added, after two weeks fermentar 

Cooley, in his "Cyclopedia of Practical Receipts" (English) says: 
"I have tasted Cider made in this way" (i. e., by adding good 
West India sugar), "and that had been stored in fresh emjjtied 
rum puncheons, that had all the pungency and vinosity oi foreign 

I think that the i lb. of sugar to the gal. would be as much 
as most persons would desire, but the more that is used the more 
alcohol, or spirit strength will be developed. 

7. Eng-lish Method of Keeping, or Management of Cider. 
— The same author, Cooley, informs us, under the head of the 
Management of Cider, that it "should be stored in a cool place, 
and should not be drank before it becomes sufBciently mature. To 
inaprove the flavor of a hogshead" (63 gals.) "IJ gals, of good 
brandy, or rum are frequently added, with 2 ozs. of powdered 
catechu, dissolved in water, 7 lbs. of good moist sugar, or honey, J 
oz. each of bitter almonds and cloves, and 4 ozs. of mustard seed. 
These must be well rummaged" in Cstirred well with a suitable stick, 
in the bung hole), "and occa.sion.illy stirred up for a fortnight, 
after which, it inu&t be allowed to repose for 3, or 4 months when 
it will usually b*- found as bright as wine. Should this not be the 
case it must be fi;u d with a pud of isiiiglass finings,* or a dozen eggs, 
and in a fortnight more it will be fit for use. If the Cider be pre- 
ferred pale, omit the catechu, and instead of the isinglass, fine with 

♦T8ln?;lass fiuiuopi are made bv steeping 1 oz. of iainghis:: In water, 1 pt, then thin- 
ning this with a qt. or two of the Cider, or wino. in whicli it is to be stirred, or asth« 
English man calls it, "rummaged in." 

254 DR. chase's 

a quart of skimmed milk. If wanted of a light reddish, or rose 
tint, use 5 oz. of powdered cochineal,* and omit the catechu" (but 
a very little alum would be needed to set the color of. the cochi- 

8. "Preparatory to bottling Cider, it should be examined, to see 
whether it be free and sparkling. If not it should be clarified in a 
similar way to beer" (with the isinglass, eggs, or milk, as explained 
in No. 7, above, and in the notes), "and left for a fortnight. The 
night before it is intended to put it into bottles, the bung should be 
taken out of the cask, and left so until the next day, when it may be 
bottled, but not corked down until the day after, as if this be done at 
once, many of the bottles will burst, by keeping. The best corks, and 
champagne-bottles should be used, and it is usual to wire and cover 
the corks with tin-foil after the manner of champagne. A few bottles 
may by kept in a warm })lace to ripen, or a small piece of lump sugar 
may be put into each bottle before corking, if the Cider be wanted 
for immediate use, or for consumption during the cooler portion of 
the year, but for warm weather, or for long keeping this is inadmissa- 
ble. The bottled stock should be stored 'n a cool cellar, when the qual- 
ity will be greatly improved by age. Cider for bottling," he closes by 
saying, "should be of good quality, and at least IS months old." 

9. I am well satisfied, however, and especially so, unless the cel- 
lar is very cool, in which it is kept, that Cider should be drawn off 
from the pomace and the barrel cleansed as soon as the fermentation 
ceases, and the pomace has settled, leaving the Cider clear. This, it 
will be observed below, is the plan at Newark, New Jersey, where, in 
all probability, more attention is paid to the Manufacture of Cider, 
than in any other place in the United States; and there are some 
manufacturers there yet who make a very nice article; but, it will be 
seen also by the following item from the Newark Advertiser, that the 
trade is being largely interferred witli by base counterfeiters. They have, 
heretofore, held a ver}' high reputation for the manufacture of a pure 
article, taking great pains in the selection of their fruit, using only 
jierfectly ripe apples which have been allowed full time to mature, or 
mellow after being gathered, freeing them from rotten apples, 
even washing them when there were many rotten apples to stick 
to the surface of the sound ones, by which means they have been en- 
abled to ship large amounts to England, at a paying price; but now 
the counierfeiters there, and the Cider doctors in England, are becoming so 
extensive, that the "New Yorkers," it would seem, have but a poor 
chance for even a jnire ap])le champagne — swindling being the order 
of the day. The article referred to, runs as follows: 

"Those engaged in the business of Manufacturing Cider, say that 
the quantity made this year" (1870) "will exceed the total amount 
that has been made within the last 12 years; and, judging from the 
amount turned off at some of the largest presses near Newark, the 
whole produced in Essex county can not fall short of 1,000,000 gals. 
This, of course, is the result of an enormous crop of apples. They 
lie now in the orchard, piled up by the cord. 

"The Cider made in this vicinity during the season up to the first 
of the present month" (November) "has been put in large casks for 

*If the Cochineal Coloring; is used, steep the am«unt ^ven, in water, 1 pt. strain 
It, and thin it with some of the Cider, or wine, hefore putting it !n, the same as th« 
"klnglafis ilniugs." 


vinegar, and is sold in Newark to inn-keepers, grocers, and saloons in 
Bmall casks. From this time forward, however, the bulk of the crop 
will be prepared for a beverage, stored for bottling, or sold to wine 
markets. Our largest Manufacturers have more orders than they can 
fill for pale Cider, as that makes the best champagne. All Cider for 
drinking is allowed to ferment, and just when the fermentation ceases it is 
racked off into another cask. If allowed to stand after fermentation it 
sours, it goes through the racking process Ihree, or four times, till all 
the sediment is extracted. Fish sounds" (the air-bladder from which 
isinghiss is made) "and isinglass in a state of solution at the last rack- 
ing give it the requisite clearness for champagne, and convert it into 
what is known as clarified Cider. 

"To get champagne, all that is necessary is to give the Cider the 
quality of graperjuice, which contains sugar, carbonic acid and alco- 
hol. Granulated sugar is dissolved, and the solution, with a little 
alcohol, is put into the cask. Then an apparatus similar to a soda- 
water fountain is set to work. A copper cylinder, containing whiting, 
or chalk, has over it a little globe connected with it by a tube. The 
globe contains vitriol, which, being dropped upon the whiting in the 
cylinder, generates carbonic acid gas" (this is the same plan that is 
pursued in making the carbonic acid gas that gives life and sparkling 
activity to the "pops" so extensively sold in the cities, the plan is 
correct, and the gas is healthy). "Another cylinder, with a crank, 
receives the Cider, and the gas being let in through a tube, the crank 
is turned and the gas thoroughly mingled with the Cider ; after which 
it passes through a long pipe into bottles stood in a machine which 
forces in the corks without admitting the air. The mixture, after 
receiving proper French envelopes, is neatly packed in baskets and 
carted to Broadway and other stores, where it is retailed from $8 
upward, per dozen quart bottles. Cheap European wines are gener- 
ally mixed with the Cider in this process; and an immense quantity 
of champagne manufactured in this country is made from Ehine wine 
and Cider. 

" A well-known and reliable bottler in Newark states that he was 
solicited a few years since to enter into this business, and made 
acquainted with the whole secret, but declined. A 30-gallon cask of 
Cider at 20 cents per gallon, costing $6, by this process, yields in 
champagne $360, with a trifling reduction for loss, labor, bottles, etc. 
Reliahle men in bottling Cider say that it is their belief that nine-tenths of 
the champagyte drank in this country is Manufactured from ournative\Cider. 
Large cargoes of poor Cider are taken to England, sugared, mingled 
with bad, low-priced wines, and receive an infusion of logwood, or 
other coloring matter, and come back to us as neatly bottled port and 
other colored wines. Wine that becomes dead and sour, is fixed up 
by mixing in Cider, which produces fermentation. This business is 
carried on extensively in this immediate vicinity, Brooklyn, New 
York, etc. 

" Our Newark bottlers complain that of late years, bottling pure 
Cider lius not paid them, on account of the great competition of a 
r'.llaiiions mixture made and sold for bottled Cider. The long ropoa 
of driiMl apples that used to grace the rafters of every farmer's kitchen 
and furnish abundant and cheap material for pies, when green apples 
were scarce, formerly sold by the bushel, are now doled out by the 
pound at the price of foreign dried fruits. The bogus Cider makers 

266 DF.. CHASKS 

buy up all the Iried apples within their reach and soak them. The 
water is fixed np with alcohol, simple sirup, and carbonic acid, bot- 
tled and sold for Cider. These bottlers are able to undersell those who 
make the genuine. WJiat is called champagne Cider (s a pure article 
clarified with fish sounds, isiiiglass, etc. Laying down the bottles makes 
the fluid b'^ely, jut it often bursts the bottles. Good, pure bottled 
Cider is a aelightful beverage, and differs as much from the trash 
sold ac such, as pure wine differs from the English manufactured port. 
The casks should be kept in a cool place, and, after being racked four 
times, should be bottled before the apple blosoms appear in May. 
Some idea of the Newark Cider business at the present time may be 
gained from the statements of half a dozen mill owners that they will 
each manufacture fiftj' thousand gallons before the season is over." 

10. Cider, to Keep, or Bonjamin Beeclier's Champagne. — 
Let the Cider be made as late in the season as practical, using a rea- 
sonable proportion of sweet apples if you can, and positively avoiding 
all rotten apples, and not using a drop of water in making it. Put it 
into casks, or barrels and let it ferment and settle; then draw it off 
from the sediment, or pomace, and put into clean casks again. Now, 
for everj' 110 gals, of Cider, dissolve, in some of the Cider, not in 
water, fish, isinglass, J lb., and stir it well into the cask and let it set- 
tle, then draw off again, into clean casks; after which, bottle and 
cork, wiring down and tin-foiling the nose of the bottle, like Cham- 
pagne, if it is desired to sell it. But let this be remembered, if any 
of the casks from which you are drawing off your Cider, are to be 
used again, which of course they will be, pour out all the sediment 
and strain it for vinegar, being careful not to draw down so close to 
the sediment, or pomace, as to get any of that stirred up with the 
Champagne Cider, and rinse out the cask with the pure Cider, then 
use the rinsing Cider also, for vinegar — using no water that shall in 
any way come in contact with the Champagne. 

This instruction is from a Mr. S. Tomlinson, of this city, formerly 
of St. Louis, Mo., who received it from Mr. Benjamin Beecher, of New 
Haven, Conn., several years ago. Mr. Tomlinson had been in the 
habit of spending a monih, or so, every \'ear, for several years, at 
West New Haven, and some other boarders had brought over several 
baskets of INIr. Beeclier's Champagne, and through them, an intro- 
duction was gained, and the instructions obtained by the man livin^ 
in the "Far West," as St. Louis was then admitted to be, as it would 
not interfere with his enterprise at home — so these things go around- 
about way to reach home again. The plan is good ; for the pomace 
must be got rid of, and no water used, if you wish to keep Cider 
within a reasonable degree of acidity — in other words, no very good 
thing may be had without labor, and" more, or less expense. 

I have this day, October 28th, 1872, tasted of Cider, or Cham- 
pagne, whichever you please to call it, prepared a year ago by Mr. 
Tomlinson, according to the :ibove directions, which is very nice 
indeed, proving to my entire satisfaction, the correctness of the plan. 

11. In the Scientific American, of September 25, 1869, I find the 
following, which will not only explain itself, but will give a sound 
and practical advice and experieuce on Cider, and Cider Manufacture, 
and I will add, its uses also. It was as follows : 

"The season for the Manufacture of Cider is at hand. A» it is an 
important product, and many a good crop of apples is wasted in mak- 


ing an inferior quality, simply from the want of a little practical 
knowledge, the following hints from the Working Farmer" (a New 
England publication) "will be found reasonable and sound:" 

"'In general, we may say that the sam« principles that govern the 
Manufiicture of wine hold good in making Cider; for Cider is wine 
made from apples instead of grapes, and deserves the name of wine 
certainly as much as the fermented juice of currants, raspberries, and 
other fruits that we dignify with this name. To be more particular, 
no good Cider can be made from unripe fruit. We should laugh at 
the man who should undertake to make wine out of green grapes. 
It is just as foolish to make Cider out of green ajjples. Sugar is 
essential in all fermentation. As fruit matures the starch which they 
contain '" (in a green state) "'is converted into sugar; and only when 
mature is the fruit fit for eating and conversion into wine. Provi- 
dence has made all unripe fruit unpalatable, so that neither man nor 
beast should be tempted to eat it in its green state.' " (Our editor here 
very wiseh' left children out of this category — ^very many of them 
Buffer from eating unripe fruit). "'In unpropitious seasons the wine 
grower adds sugar to the expressed juice of his grapes, in order to 
Bupply the deficiency of saccharine matter and perfect the fermenta- 
tion; and few, if any, of the grapes of New England contain enough 
Bugar to make a good wine without its addition. Cane sugar, how- 
ever, never gives a flavor equal to that naturally produced in the fruit. 
The nearest to perfect ripeness, therefore, we can bring our apples, 
the better will be our Cider. We have tried adding sugar to the juice 
of apples, and find that it improves the quality of the Cider as much 
as it does wine. If sugar is added to the juice of any fruit, it should 
be of the purest kind. It is a common mistake to suppose that the 
flavor of Muscovado'" (unrefi7ied,or raw) "'sugar will work off" during 
the vinous fermentation; it is continued even into the acetous fer- 
mentation, and deteriorates the quality of the vinegar. 

" ' As a second rule, no rotten apples, nor bitter leaves, nor stems, 
nor filth of any kind, should be ground for Cider. The wine-maker 
who seeks a reputation for a superior article looks well to the condi- 
tion of his grapes before he allows the juice to be expressed. We do 
not like to eat rotten apples; and they are no better for drink than for 
food. No wonder that a prejudice should exist against Cider in the 
minds of those who have seen the careless way in which it is some- 
times made. We have heard it called, and not inaptly, the expressed 
juice of worms and rotten apples. Perhaps if we could see the process 
of manufacturing cheap wines, our prejudices against them would be 
equally strong. There is no economy in such carelessness. If Cider 
is worth making, it is worth making well ; and then, with a good con- 
tcieiice, we can ask a good price, and be sure of getting it too; for a 
good article is always in better demand than a poor one. 

"'Much Cider is injured by being pressed with musty straw. In 
this respect, the little hand-mills have the advantage, for they require 
no straw ; and there is little .straw so bright and clean as to be totally 
free from dust and an unpleasant odor. We very much question 
whether straw is of any advantage in the large power mills. It 
doubtless aids in conducting the juice, but it also absorbs not a little; 
and the danger of a bad flavor from it is so great that we should dis- 
card it altogether. The press can be made small, and of brick, or 
Bome other hard timber, that will not contaminate the Cider. Two 
17— BE. chase's second receipt book. 

268 DR. chase's 

presses are really necessary for each mill, so that the pomace can be 
exposed to the air in one, while it is being pressed in the other, and 
thus acquire a deeper color. 

'"Perhaps the most essential requisite for good Cider is the casks 
in which it is to be preserved. Few old Cider barrels are fit to put 
Cider into again. We have seen them soaked in running water for 
days, and still retain the seeds of putrefaction. 

" 'Fresh slacked lime we have found one of the best disinfectants; 
but we i:)refer a new oak barrel, or ©ne in which whisky has been 
kept. We have heard that linseed-oil barrels were recommended, as 
the oil would rise to the surface, and prevent rapid fermentation. 
They are good for those who hke them. We prefer to shut off the 
air at the right time witli a good tight bung. 

'■ 'Cider, like every other blessing, must be used with moderation. 
As the sweetest things can become the sourest, so oiir greatest bless- 
ings can be perverted into great curses. We feel bound to speak 
well of a bridge over which we have crossed safely ; and Cider has 
bridged us over a severe attack of jaundice, and we find it an excellent 
aid to digestion. If the experience of others differs from ours, we will 
not quarrel with them, but agree to differ.'" 

12. The American Agriculturist says that "if Cider is not made 
until just before Winter, and is afterwards kept near the freezing 
point, it will remain sweet and excellent; but to make a good fer- 
mented Cider that will keep a year, or more, without becoming too 
sour is not a difficult matter. The first thing is to exclude ail de- 
cayed fruit, but it should be quite ripe. Not a drop of water should 
be used in the process of manuficture. The sweeter the juice, the 
stronger the Cider, and the better it will keep. Put the barrel imme- 
diately in a cool cellar — the cooler the better. The fermentation may 
go on slowly, or rapidly, practice difi'ering in this respect. In the 
former (;ase the liquid is treated in all respects like wine. The cask 
has a bung in which is fixed, air-tight, a tin tube bent at right angles, 
or a piece of India-rubber tube. The free end of the tube, in either 
case, (lips into a dish of water. This arrangement allows the gasses 
liberated in fermentation to pass out, and the end of the tube being 
covered with water, air can not pass in. The bubbling of the gas 
through the water shows how the fermentation is progressing. When 
this has nearly ceased, the Cider is racked ofl' into clean, sulphured 
casks, which are to be fall and bunged tightly." 

1.3. The Wine Maker's Manual recommends that if the Cider is 
not very sweet that 20 lbs. of sugar be added to a barrel; and if quite 
sweet, according to the goodness of the apples used, 10 lbs. of sugar to 
each barrel, gives alcoholic strength and aids in its preservation. 

14. Solon Robinson, who has figured largely for years past, in 
the "Farmer's Club," of New York, in answer to a correspondent oi 
that club, "said that the way to keep Cider good, is to get it clean by 
repeated racking and fining with isinglass, and then putting it up in 
new, clean, and tight barrels. He had drank Cider put up in this way 
which was 17 years old, and it was equal to wine, it was the finest 
Cider he ever saw." 

15. Notwithstanding the length that this .subject has reached, I 
feel constrained to add another item from the Scientific American, as to 

Pure Wine of Apples. — "Being aware" (says the editor) "that 


much wine sold for genuine champagne was manufactured from Cider 
we informed a correspondent, a short time since, of this fact in an 
swer to his enquiry. The following letter was elicited by the reading, 
of the letter referred to : " 

'"Messrs. Editors:— I am well aware that imitation wines are no^si 
extensively made, in the State of New Jersey, from the juice of the 
apple, and more from the Plarrison apple than from any other variety,, 
and the most of it is made at Newark. Those knmving ones are cor- 
rect with regard to its being a mixture of poisonous drugs, not fit for 
the human stomach. , 

" ' Having been in the horticultural business for over 40 years, I 
have had an eye single to those spurious wines from the juice of the 

" 'It is gratifying to me to think that when you come to taste and 
test my wine — which I send you accompanying this letter — you will 
Und a vfine. a, pure article, free from all drugs, and not an imitation. 
The sample I send you is 18 mouths old, and made after the following 
process : 

'"Take pure Cider made from sound, ripe apples, as it runs from 
the press. Put 60 lbs. of common brown sugar into 15 gals, of the 
Cider and dissolve it, then put the mixture into a clean barrel and 
fill the barrel up to within 2 gals, of being full, with the Cider; put 
the cask in a cool place, having the bung out for 48 hours; then put 
in the bung with a small vent, until fermentation wholly ceases, and 
then bung up tight; and in 1 year the wine will be fit for use. This 
wine requires no racking; and the longer it stands on the lees, the 
better.' " Sterne Bronson. 

Elkhart, Ind. 

The. editor of the Scientific American adds the following comment: 

"It will be observed that our correspondent has, for the benefit 
of all concerned, described the method of making pure Cider Wine; 
and it is for us to say something regarding the sample he sent us. It 
is a good Cider Wine, — the best we ever tasted. If it had any fault, it 
consisted in being a very little too sweet. This can be remedied by 
using less sugar than the above named amount. A barrel of Cider 
contains 31 gals. Wine from currants can be made in the same manner 

Thus I think I have given such an explanation of the correct 
principles upon which Cider must be made and managed, if it is ex- 
pected to keep well, that the people may charge the failure to them- 
selves, if they do fail to have good Older, and that which will keep for 
years and still improve, as a beverage. 

16. But I should not have taken so much pains to enable the 
people to make good Cider, if there was no higher aim for it than aa 
a beverage; but Cider is a valuable medicine; and under certain con- 
ditions of the system, is highly recommended as such. It has beea 
known and recommended, by many physicians, for many years past, 
as particularly valuable in dyspepsia, and in inaction of the liver; and 
under these heads will be found my own experience in its use; and 
that I may not appear to stand alone in recommending it, where I be- 
lieve it to be good, I will quote the opinion of John King, M. D., Pro- 
fessor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, in the 
Eclectic Medical Institute, of Cincinnati, Ohio, as given by him in his 
American Dispensatory, eighth edition, page 690. He says: 


ler forme not only a refreshing and agreeable drink for pa- 
jith fever, but actually exerts a salutary medicinal influence, 
ay when the tongue is coated brown, or black. I have used 
\^ivx^., .n which horse-radish has been steeped, as an effi cations remedy 
in dropsy, for more than tiventy-three years; and it is now used in the 
preparation of a valuable agent for this disease, the Compound Infusion 
OF Parsley. Cooked apples form an excellent local application inopthal- 
mic" (eye) "inflammation, erysipelations, inflammations, sore and 
swelled throat in scarlatina, ulcers, etc." (See Dropsy, for the Com- 
pound Infusion of Parsley.) 

It may not be amiss to state here^ that at this writing, I have been 
using Cider, a common table-tumblerful with each meal only, for 
about 3 months, with very decided advantage for dyspepsia and inac- 
tion of the liver, gving me a better state of general health than I 
have enjoyed withn the last 3 years. 

17. I find also that Alexander Frear, in the New York Independ- 
ent, takes a decided stand in favor of Cider in dyspepsia and bilious 
-complaints, the same things have been known and acted upon by 
others also, for many years. He says: 

"For many bilious complaints, sour Cider is a specific" (positive 
•cure), "and in such cases is one of the good things to be received with 
thanksgiving. Cider guzzlers are an abomination, but, if dyspeptics 
•will take a little with their dinner, they will find digestion greatly 
aided. We go in for the manufacture of a good, pure article, and, in 
the use of it, to let our moderation be known to all men." 

18. Cider in Rheumatisra. — The Medical Reformer speaks of 
Cider in Rheumatism as follows: 

"I have been using Cider in acute rheumatism with much satis- 
faction. I think more of it than of lemon-juice. Either new or old 
Cider answers equally well. It sometimes purges. I sometimes com- 
bine a little laudanum with it. 

"As a beverage, it is the most healthy known. To the stomach, 
it is — in moderate quantities — the most genial of all drinks. It 
should be more generally used. As rheumatism probably depends 
upon a faulty retrogression" (going backwards) "of the products from 
the muscular tissue, Cider may hasten this, and thereby remove it." 
"To which the editor of the Scientific American adds: 

"As a beverage for a dyspeptical person its recuperative" (health 
restoring) "qualities can be endorsed without mental reservation. 
Foreign wines and Scheidam Schnapps are vile stuffs in comparison 
w^ith genuine American Cider." 

In closing the subject of Cider, Cider Wine, etc., I have this only 
to add in regard to its Manufacture and Keeping, and that is 
this: I believe the chief difficulties in Keeping Cider are, that nearly 
all manufacturers use water in laying up and pressing, the "cheese," 
as it is called, and that many of them also add water to it after it is 
made, or else use a larger amount in pressing; and that many, if I 
may not say, most of the barrels, into which it is put, are musty and 
unfit for use. 

Notwithstanding all that has been said in favor of the use or 
Cider as a beverage, and for medicinal use, yet, there is a word of cau- 
tion to be given in connection with it: Those who have ever been in 
the habit of using intoxicating liquors to excess, must not allow them- 
selves to even touch Cider, or the Champagne made from it. for there 


it no spirit that will so quickly excite the appetite for thein again, lA 
that of Cider; then let such beware of it as well as of every other kind oj 
liquors, for no resolution to the contrary can stand against actual participa- 
tion — then, iitjjain, I say let such "toucli not, taste not, handle not." 

19. Older Barrels— To Clean from Mold and Mustiness. — 
Make sufficient lime water, say a bucketful of water, and lime the 
size of a man's fist, dissolved and settled; taking the clear liquid, and 
put into the musty, or moldy barrel, and also put in a common trace- 
chain, or two, and shake and rinse well, so that the chain, as well as 
the water shall reach every part, to chafe off the mold, then pour off 
the water for another Barrel, or two, according to the foulness; then 
put in pure water and rinse well ; then rinse with whisky — 1 gal. will 
do for 4 Barrels, leaving 1 qt. in each, shaking about occasionally, un- 
til the Cider is put in. Much Cider that is put into old Barrels would 
be far better if proper care was taken to clean them, in this manner, 
before using. 

1. CHICKEN HEAD-CHEESE.— Take 2, or 3, or more nice 
tender Chickens, joint them, split open the back, and keel, as the 
breast-bone is sometimes called, then boil them very tender, and re- 
move all the meat from the bones, and chop finely, when cold, place 
the chopped meat, highly seasoned, with salt, pepper, and a little but- 
ter, as you would common Head-Cheese, then pour in enough of 
the liquor they were boiled in, to make it moist, put it into a flat 
dish, or pan, putting another dish upon it, bottom downward, theu 
weight it as usual. When cold, it makes a very nice relish, at tea, 
and to put into lightly buttered biscuit for sandwiches for pic- 
nics, etc. 

2. Chickens and other Fo-wls — To Prepare their Flesh for 
the Dinner, or Tea-Table. — The Hearth and Home gives us a gen- 
teel way of preparing the Flesh of Fowls, so that ladies, or gentle- 
men, in the presence of ladies, will have no delicacy in being 
"helped to Chicken," or Turkey. It says: 

"Cut the carcase in pieces by removing wings, legs, and neck. 
Separate the light-colored meat attached to the 'wish-bone' from 
the 'keel-bone,' split the back, put all the pieces into a pot, and boil 
them until the flesh will easily cleave from the bones. Then pick 
the flesh into small pieces, cut the skin into narrow strips, putting 
the flesh, as it is separated from the bones, into a cake-tin. A tin 
about five inches square by ten long will hold the flesh of a Turkey, 
or Goose. A one quart tin basin will be sufficiently large for the flesh 
of a Chicken, or two. Let the dark meat and skin be evenly mingled 
with the light-colored flesh. Season to suit the taste, as the frag- 
ments are put into the tin receptacle. Now procure a piece of clean, 
flat stone, of any sort, or a hard brick, of suitable size to press the 
meat down into the tin, after which lay a square piece of tin on the 
meat, press it down firmly with the flat stone, place the tin with its 
contents in the oven, and apply the same heat as for roasting the car- 
case of a fowl. After it is cooked through, turn the contents of the tin 
on a meat-plate, and, with a sharp carving-knife, slice it, as cake is cut, 
in pieces. Dressing may be prepared in another dish. 

"By this mode of cooking, the entire dish is cooked uniformly 
through. As the light meat is mingled with the dark, and is free from 
bones, every person at the table will experience a wonderful relief at 
the recoiling thought that he, or she, may be helped to a piece that does 

262 DR. chase's 

not coincide with their choice and taste. A lively cook will 
be able to pick the bones of a fowl neatly in fifteen minutes. The 
i^oregoing mode of cooking poultry is a complete remedy for any 
embarrassment one may dread in consequence of picking a Chick- 
en-bone while at the table spread for genteel and cultivated peo- 
gle. If preferable, the flesh may be stewed, or fried, instead of 
eing roasted." 

1. CISTERNS AND FILTERS— Directions fOT Making.— 
The American Farmer gave the following communication, from John 
Wilkinson, landscape gardener and rural architect, upon this im- 
portant subject, which will especially be of value to farmers; as 
most city people now make a regular brick wall to their Cisterns, 
and arch them over, it may not be so important to them. He 

"A Cistern of the dimensions that I shall describe will hold 
1,000 gals. ; and will cost but $8, and its capacity may be doubled for 
less than 50 per cent additional cost. One of this size will be found 
Bufficient for famers' families generally, and will insure soft water, 
which is rare in wells. 

"The following are the directions for excavating the Cistern: 
Stake, and line out a plat near the house 8 by 18 feet ; excavate this 1 
foot deep; then set the lines in I5 feet on all sides" (this leaves g, 
foundation for covering) ; "then excavate all within the lines, or 5 by 
15 feet to the depth of 14 feet in the middle, making the middle level 
some 9 inches in width, sloping the banks on all sides and ends to 
the lines last placed, which will make a section of pit, either way, V 
shaped, except that the 9 inches of the bottom will be level. In dig- 
ging the banks use care not to disturb the dirt not thrown out. When 
the digging is completed, plaster the bottom, the level part, with a 
good coat of Portland Cement mortar, and place a board on it to stand 
on to do the balance of the work, cutting the board in two equal parts, 
before laying it on the cement. This done, plaster, with the cement 
mortar, the entire surface on the ground to the lines last named, then 
remove half of the board, and stand on the balance, and build a 4 
inch wall across the pit, about in the middle, laying the brick, which 
should be soft, common salmon brick, in the cement, but no< plastering 
either side. Lay the wall to the line, then remove the balance of the 
board and plaster where it lay. The Cistern is now complete, save the 
covering; this may be done by laying plank over the whole excava- 
tion, first plastering the top recess to keep out worms; or split-logs, 
from the woods, will do in place of the plank, laying them flat side 
down, and closing their joints with mortar to keep out worms also. 
The pump-pipe, however, should first be laid into one end; and the 
water from the house led in at the other end, before it is covered, or in 
the covering. This done, return earth enough to cover the surface, at 
least, 1 foot higher, in the middle, than the surrounding ground; level 
it ofl" neatly and sward it, and you have a complete Filtering Cistern 
for 8 to 12 years." 

2. This plan of building a brick wall across a Cistern has now 
been followed for some time, and has given very good satisfaction, 
and a wall may be built just as satisfactorily across a Cistern that has 
been walled up with brick. The cement with which the cross-wall is 
laid up will suflSciently attach, or fasten, it to the side walls so that it 
■will stand permanently. The water comina' in on one side, and the 




pump being upon the other, the water must go through the soft, or pale 
colored brick, before it reaches the pump, and consequently must 
be pure; but, a very ingenious neighbor of mine, a Mr. Lawson, 
who is also the inventor of the Hernial Truss, which is also illustrated 
in this Work, has adopted the following plan which he has used now 
over a year with entire satisfaction : 

■r, 9, "The plan it Afill be seen by 

^ ^°- '^^' the illustration. Fig. 21, is to dig 

a hole near one side of the Cis- 
tern, about 2x3 feet square be- 
low the bottom of the Cistern, 
and to the depth of about 2 
ft., then in this box-like place he 
builds up a pump chimney, or 
partition, three-sided, the Cis- 
tern wall making the fourth, or 
completing the chimney, leav- 
ing a little hole in the center of 
this chimney-wall next to the 
filtering material B, into which 
a large sponge is to be placed, 
from the Cistern side, before the 
gravel, charcoal, etc., are put in. 
The sponge must be so large 
A, the Cistern ; C, the Pump Chimney; B, that it will not go through. The 
the Filtering material. ^^^ ^^^Ug ^f ^^^ chimney are 

not represented ; and the 3 feet way of the hole is toward the center 
of the Cistern, and is all walled up with brick and plastered with 
cement, like the balance of the Cistern. The chimney is built up 
only 1 foot from the Cistern wall, and plastered as it is built, with 
cement, so that all the water must enter through the Filter, sponge, 
etc., before it reaches the pump. If the Cistern is already built, into 
which this arrangement is to be placed, and a wood pump is tobe 
used, the chimney must go up plumb; but if a lead, or block-tin pipe 
is to be used, it matters not about that, it may keep the same distance 
only from the wall. When the chimney, or pump-partition is done, 
and the Cistern ready for the water, put in the sponge, then a few 
inches of nice pebbles, then a foot or so of properly pulverized char- . 
coal, then a layer of gravel to fill up to the top of the well-wall, which 
it will be seen comes a foot, or more above the bottom of the Cistern, 
so that the sediment may not be as likely to trouble the Filter." 

Those who do not use Cistern water for drinking purposes may, 
perhaps, like the soft-burned, unplastered partition of brick best, but 
certainly for drinking, the illustrated plan of Mr. Lawson, is decidedly 

3. A Mr. F. W. Coe, of Virgennes, Vt., in writing to the Agri- 
cultural Club, of New York, the proceedings of which are published 
in the American Agriculturist, says that he had used Filtered Cistern 
water over 20 years, both for drinking and cooking purposes, first 
using a box with charcoal, pebbles, and gravel, to Filter the water 
through before it entered the Cistern ; but that did not give him entire 
satisfaction, the water smelling sometimes, in very hot weather; but, 
he continues: 

"About six years ago I sold my home and built anew. In one 

264 OR. ("hase's 

corner of my cellar I built a large square stone Cistern. Across one 
corner of this Cistern T laid a four-inch brick partition in cement, 
one brick laid upon another with cement between, but none on sides. 
The brick are what th-e masons call salmon brick, not the hardest, or 
softest kind. The water is conducted direct from a slate roof into the 
main Cistern, and passes through the pores of the brick partition, in 
the corner, rising to a level with the water in the Cistern within a few 
hours after a heavy rain, and as it comes from the conductoi with 
considerable fall and force, it agitates the whole body of water, help- 
ing to keep it pure and sweet In this corner apartment is a block-tin 
inch pipe, leading to the pump. If a quart of water is pumped from 
this corner, another quart finds its way through the pores of the brick 
to supply its place; and thus through the day, as water is hourly being 
used, or taken from this corner apartment, there is a constant circula- 
tion, or movement of the water passing through the brick to supply 
the consumption, thereby tending to free it from all impurities. I 
have used this brick partition for a Filter over five years, and give it 
a decided preference. The water has always been clear, and appar- 
ently pure, being made so in part by its almost constant motion in 
connection with the Filtering. The brick appear to be as sound to- 
day as when first laid." 

I have heard these cellar Cisterns objected to as not being suffi- 
ciently substantial, but five years, in this case, did not discover any- 
thing out of the way in the Cistern, or the plan of Filtering. Out of 
the variety of olans here given, every man must adopt the one that 
he thinks the best adapted to the circumstances under which he is 
placed, or conveniences at hand. 

Many persons will prefer to use the Kedzie, or some other house 
Filter instead of one in connection with the Cistern; but, notwith- 
standing a Filter may be used in the house for drinking water, it will 
be found very convenient for cooking purposes, even to have one in 
the Cistern, especially so when it can be done for such a trifling 

1. CLAY, OR EARTH POULTICES— Valuable in SmaU- 
Pox, Stings, Insect Bites, Rattlesnake Bites, etc. — The Scien- 
tific American, of July 6, 1872, published the following remarks upon 
the subject of Clay, or Earth Poultices in Small-Pox, or rather the 
dusting of finely pulverized pipe Clay over the faces of patients, suf- 
fering severely from this disease. It says; 

"The value of Earth as a disinfectant and deodorizer is well 
known; and the treatment of ulcerated sores and gangrenous wounds vAth 
it is becoming very general. A new application has lately been described 
by Dr. E. S. Bunker, who states that he has recently used Clay asa 
dressing for the face in two cases of confluent* Small-Pox, dusting it, 
in fine powder, over the faces of the patients as soon as the pustules 
become fairly developed. This formed a clean, dry, wholesome scab, 
absorbing the infectious material, and scaled ofl' during convales- 
cence, leaving the underlying skin in its natural and normal state. 
The painful itching, which is one of the worst characteristics of the 

♦The literal meaning of confluent, is to run, or flow together, as the coming to- 

§ ether of two streams, forming one; in medicine it has reference to the extending of 
lotches, pimples, or pustules, a-s in Small-Pox, ca'jl they come together, forming a 
general sore over the whole surface, so far as outward appearance is concerned, tho 
swelling and the scabs being general, although the centers of the original sores, or 
pustules, may show a deeper pit after healing. 


disease, was entirely abated. The Earth used was fine pipe 

If this simple remedy will allay the terrible itching of this ter- 
rible disease, which causes patients to tear their faces, even in their 
Bleep, giving some, such unsightly appearances, and of the fact there 
is no reasonable doubt, it is certainly a valuable discovery. 

2. Further confidence may be derived from the next number 
of the same journal, as the previous article brought out the following 
statement from Mr. Gallup, of Ohio, upon the other points of the sub- 
ject as given in our heading. It says: 

. "In further illustration of the value of Earth for external appli- 
cation, mentioned on page 9 of our last number, a correspondent, Mr. 
H. Gallup, of Norwalk, Ohio, sends us the following:" 

"'As the season of Bites of reptiles is near, I send you a simple 
and easily obtained remedy for Stings, or Bites. It is a plaster of 
Clay, or instead of Clay, common swamp, or gutter mud, applied as 
soon as possible to the wound. I have tried it on myself. In one case 
I was Stung, by a numerous swarm of the yellow hornets, in many 
places in my neck and arms. I went to a swamp, near, the poison 
being so severe that my sight was much effected. I immediately 
applied the mud, and in half an hour, I went to mowing again, with 
only a small sore lump round each Sting. I knew a neighbor who 
was Bitten by a Rattlesnake some miles from home; his companion 
left him and went for help as soon as possible, it being just night. 
He was not able to return until morning. When going, he met the 
man returning, with the poison conquered. He had got to a swamp, 
aug a hole with his tomahawk, inserted and buried the Bitten place 
in the mud. That was all.'" 

The foregoing plans of using Clay, or Earth Poultices would seem 
to indicate them to be of recent origin; but, if I mistake not, the plan 
is, at least 1872 years old; for in John IX, 6, 7 verses, I see that Jesus 
— the Great Physician — "spat upon the ground, and made Clay of the 
spittle" (more probable now, it would be translated, with the spittle) 
and He annointed the eyes of the blind with the Clay; 

"And said unto him. Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, which is by 
interpretation. Sent. He went his way, therefore, and came seeing. ' 

"So it would appear also to have been as successful in those days 
as now. That He — Christ — was just as able to cure the blind man 
without the Clay as with, I have not a doubt, but possibly it was His 
purpose to call our attention to the value of the prescription. And 
no doubt, He could have cured the man just as well without having 
said, "Go, wash" etc., but it was his purpose also to show us that He 
— God — works by the use of means, temporarily, as well as spiritually 
— let us all, therefore, work, "while the day" — life — "lasts" wheth- 
er it be in making Clay Poultices to save the bodies of our fel- 
low beings from suffering, or whether it be to teach, or set Christain 
doctrines and example before our fellows to save them Spiritually; 
for the most humble can do something for the good of others. 

CLEANSING "WOOL— New and Valuable Method.— The 
Journal of the Society of Arts, publishes a valuable Receipt for Cleans- 
ing Wool, invented and introduced by MM. Baerle & Co., of Worms, 
in Germany. The Method consists in the use of soluble glass, which 
should be obtained of the druggists, wV' water, in place of soap, or 
old urine, as heretofore practiced. It '-'^'mI to be simple and 

266 DB. chase's 

economical, and only requires to be once experimented upon to estab- 
lish its superiority. The plan is as follows: 

"Take 40 parts of water at the temperature of 50° to 57° Centi- 
grade ; * and 1 part of soluble glass. 

"Plunge the Wool into the mixture, stirring it about for a few 
minutes by hand, then rinse it in cold, or tepid water, and it will be 
found completely white and void of smell. The Wool, afuer this 
operation, remains perfectly soft, and loses none of its qualities, even 
when left for several days in the solution of the silicate, and being 
washed in hot water. Sheep may also be washed with the same 
preparation, care being taken to cover the eyes of the animals with a 
bandage, to perform the washing with the solution instantaneously, 
and to remove the surplus with tepid water. In the case of Combed 
Wool, the Wool should first be steeped in the solution above given, 
and afterwards in another bath, composed of 80 parts of water, at 37° 
Centigrade, and 1 part of soluble glass". 

CLOCK-OILi. — I see it going the rounds of the newspapers that 
"A verv nice Oil for Clocks, is the refined, or pure glycerine, as it 
does not stift'en by cold," but it is a mistake, glycerine will not only 
stiffen by considerable cold, but it dries to a greater, or less degree, 
which makes it gummy ; hence, not suitable for Clockwork, nor 
"watches even nut-oil is preferable to glycerine. Jewelers use the 
purified porpoise-oil, which is very fluid, does not gum, nor stiff"en by 
any ordinary temperature. Five cents worth of it will last a family 
as many years. Jewelers, only, keep it. 

1. COCKROACHES— " Dead Shot."— Alexander Sheldon, a 
chemist of Buflalo, informs the Scientific American, that although these 
pests "laugh at pyrotheum" (a patent article for their destruction) 

and other poisons, yet," he says, "allow me to state in your paper 
this fact, which is but little known, viz. : powdered borax sprinkled 
liberally, wherever they most do inhabit, is a dead shot on them. I 
account for it in this wise, that the borate of soda" (borax) "being a 
sweet alkali, is, like St. John's little book, 'sweet to the mouth, and 
bitter to the belly.' " 

There is but little doubt of the efficiency of borax where it can 
be placed in their haunts, but some may not choose to use it, and in 
some places it might not be obtained, or could not well be used, I 
therefore, give a few other effectual remedies; for a Cockroach is 
quite like Paddy's flea, "when you put your finger on him, he isn't 

2. Cockroaches are very much inclined to devour a flour paste. 
Then, to meet this appetite of theirs, with something that will destroy 
them, take a pint cup, say, ^, or § full of water, and dissolve a tea- 
spoonful, or two of sugar in it, and also 10 cts. worth of phosphorus, dis- 
solving the phosphorus by heat; then mix in sufficient flour to make 

*But few persons in this country use the Centigrade thermometer; hence, the 
propriety of an explanation of the difference between that and Fahreinheit, usually 
■written Fah. The word Centigrade comes from cerilum, 100, and gradus, a degree, 
and, therefore, starting its Zero, or 0, as it does, at the freezing "point, it divides 
the degrees between that and boiling into 100°, while Fahreinheit, the inventor of the 
thermometer, generally used in this country, and also in England, starts his Zero, or 
' V 32° below freezing, and divides from freezing to boiling into 180°; then, 1° Centi- 
ade,isl and 8-10° Fahreinheit— 50° to 57° Centigrade, therefore, equals 122° to 134° Fah- 
tfinheit, for the 32° below freezing in Fahreinheit, are to be added to the count. 37° 
*»ntigTade, equals 98° Fahreinheit. 


a paste of buttery consistence, after which, add lard } as much bulk as 
there is of the paste ; the lard prevents it from drying up. 

Now, from time to time, spread of this paste, observing that all the 
ingredients are kept thoroughly incorporated, upon pieces of shingles, 
or bits of board, or on broken glass, and lay them, nights where these 
animals can get at them, and but little further trouble will be experi- 
enced from them. Keep the cats and dogs out of the room, after this 
is laid about for the night, as they may be injured by licking it up, as 
it is not unpalatable for them. 

3, Roaches are also very fond of sweetened water. Then set a 
basin, or two, half filled with it, at night, with a bit, or two of shingles 
or thin board leading up from the floor onto the basins,orpan8so they 
can get into the dishes and they "go for the sweet," to their death,, 
by drowning — hundreds' in a single dish have thus " found a watery 
grave " in one night. 

4, Another j)lan is to spread thin bits of bread with butter ; 
then dust Paris green upon the butter, only a little, over the whole 
surface, and they will give up to this poison, even quicker than our 
out-of-door enemy — potato bugs. 

6. Another Certain Reinedy. — Another man gives his "Cer- 
tain Remedy," in the following words: 

"Take red lead and Indian meal, equal parts of each, and make 
into a thick paste with molasses. Set it where they ' do most fre- 
quent,' and they will not 'most frequent' very long." 

COLDS — Ancient Method of Cure. — The Evening Post says 
the following plan for the cure of Colds has been in use since 1340: 

Putte your feet In hot water, 

As high as your thighes • 
Wrappe your head up in flannelle, 

As low as your eyes ; 
Take a quarte of nim'd gruelle, 

When in bedde, a;s a dose; 
With a number four dippo, 

Well tallow your nose. 

This will be found as valuable and practical, at the present time, 
except perhaps, as to the depth of the foot-bath, and the amount or 
"rum'd gruelle," perhaps a pint of that would be sufficient now-a- 
days, if made tolerably strong, repeating the treatment one, or two 
nights, until the cold is broken, i. e., loosened. 

COLiD-OHISELi — To Make at Home. — Farmers and gardeners 
frequently need a good Cold-chisel for light work, such as cutting off 
rivets, nails, or pieces of hoop-iron. A piece of bar-steel, and the 
forging it into proper shape, will cost from fifty cents to one dollar. 
Those persons who want the use of a Cold-chisel only once a week, or 
BO, do not always have the money to spare for a tool that they have 
but little use for. Therefore, to get a cheap Chisel, that will subserve 
all the purjMjses required, make use of a large, flat file that has been 
worn out. Break off one end, so that a piece will be left about eight 
inches long; heat it in a charcoal-fire to near redness, and let it cool 
gradually. Then the steel will be soft. Now grind one end square and 
true for the head-end, and form the cutting edge by grinding at the 
other end. Thrust the cutting end in a charcoal-fire, in the cook- 
stove, until one-inch in length is red-hot. Now cool half an inch i** 
the edge in cold water, which will render the edge quite too ha. 
Watch the color of the steel as the different shades appear near anb 

268 DR. OBAU'8 

at the cutting edge, and as soon as you see a light straw-color on the 
surface, approaches the cutting edge, plunge the Chisel into cold water. 
By this means, you will get a Cold-chisel sufficiently hard on the edge 
to cut iron, and so soft and tough in the part above the edge that it will 
bend rather than break. 

1. COLD CREAMS— For Irritation of the Skin, Chaps, 
Cracks, etc. — Neat's foot-oil, or almond-oil, Jib.; spermaceti, 3 ozs.; 
white wax, J oz. ; rose, or orange-flower water, J pt.; ess. of bergamot, 
J oz. 

Put the oil, spermaceti, and wax into a tin basin to melt, that will 
set in one of larger dimensions containing water, like a glue kettle, or 
otherwit^e place the basin on a stove drum, or in a stove oven, having 
only sufficient heat to melt the ingredients without burning them. 
When melted, beat the mass with a clean, flat wooden spatula until 
of a uniform appearance; then add the perfumes, and beat again, to a 
uniform mass. Sweet-oil, or nice white lard, from a young hog, might 
be substituted for the neat's foot-oil, or almond-oil, with very good 

2. Another. — Almond-oil, f oz.; glycerine, J oz. ; spermaceti 
and powdered camphor, of each, 1 dr.; oil of rose, 3, or 4 drops. 

Melt the spermaceti in the oil, and add the camphor and glycer- 
ine. Put into a wide-mouthed bottle, that will admit the finger, in 
which you have dropped the oil of rose. Keep corked, for use, as No. 
1. Glycerine has proved a very valuable addition to preparations for 
the skin, as it keeps the surface soft and pliable, as well as to promote 
a healthy action of the skin. 

3. Chapped Hands, or Lips — Ointment for. — Sweet-oil, .3 
ozs.; spermaceti, 4 ozs.; pulverized camphor, 1 oz. 

Mix together in a clean earthen vessel, by gentle heat, and apply 
by warming a little, night and morning. Butter just churned and 
unsalted may be subs ituted for the sweet-oil — same quantity. 

4. Deer's tallow, 4 ozs.; glycerine, 1 oz. ; and pulverized cam- 

Ehor, 4 oz.; honey ^ oz. ; carefully incorporated together by gentle 
eat, or by rubbing with a knife, or spatula on a plate, or in a Wedge- 
wood mortar, makes a very healing ointment for chaps, sore lips, etc. 
See Hernia, or Chafing of Trusses, also. 

5. Butter freshly churned and unsalted, with i its bulk of nice 
strained honey, mixed together, make a nice ointment for the same 

ing the first meal oflT of a large turkey, cut all the meat that is left from 
the bones, and with the gizzard, liver, etc., chop it all as fine as pos- 
sible. Having cooked a quart, or eo, of ripe cranberries to be very 
soft, mash them up and squeeze out the juice, and mix it with the 
chopped turkey ; then put into a bowl, or pan, and put a dish upon it, 
the same as for hog's head-cheese, and press it. Serve cold by slicing 
in the usual way. Some would prefer the cranberry sauce sweetened 
as for sauce, but children are not as likely to relish sweets, with meat. 
See Chicken Head-Cheese. 

COLIC — Very Successful Remedy. — Colic is generally an 
acute pain in the bowels, or colon, being situated, most often, in that 
part of the colon, or large intestine that crosses the abdomen in the 
region of the navel, or perhaps a little above the center of the abdo- 
men; and most persons believe it to arise from some disarrangement, 


or bad condition of the bile* An especial friend of mine, living in 
Detroit, has suffered very much with Colic, but recently when suffer- 
ing excruciatingly with this difficulty, he called a physician who gave 
him the following prescription, — of course it would not do to call it a 
Receipt— that would lower the Doctor's estimation of himself; but 
the pills gave the gentleman such immediate and perfect relief, that, 
when he knew I was preparing this Work, said, as I called upon him, 
he desired that it should be given to the public through it; and from 
my knowledge of him, after I was informed of its action, I was also 
anxious to obtain it. This explanation will enable my readers to 
understand the remarks of his letter which enclosed the " prescrip- 
tion," which is as follows: 

"Take pulverized opium, and sulphate of morphia" (morphine), 
"of each, 2 grs. ; pulverized camphor, and capsicum, of each, 5 grs. 
Make into 10 pills, with a thick solution of gum." 

Dose. — One pill will generally give relief. If not materially bene- 
fitted, give another, after 1 to 2 hours — of course, this is for an adult. 

The following are the remarks referred to in the letter: 

"Please find prescription, as desired by you, which I hope will 
alleviate the pains of some mortal as it has done for me. If so, I 
shall be well paid for the labor I have taken to get it for your forth- 
coming Book. Hoping it may prove profitable to you, and a blessing 
to mankind, I remain, yours etc., ." 

Not having asked the privilege of giving the name, I have not felt 
at liberty to do it, and it would also be considered a breach of etiquette 
to give the name of the prescriber; but I will vouch for the standing 
of both, and further, I can, from my knowledge of the nature of the 
prescription, most cheerfully recommend it, in Colic, cholera-morbus, 
cholera, painful diarrhea, etc. I have not lately, if ever seen a better 
combination of medicine for the relief of these difficulties. 

COLORED LIGHTS— Red, O-reen, and Blue Fire, for Rooms, 
"Without Sulphurous Odor. — In public exhibitions where it has 
been necessary to use different Colored Lights, the use of Sulphur in 
their make has caused a very disagreeable Odor of the Sulphur. This 
has been overcome by a German chemist, J. R. Braunschweiger, in the 
following Receipts: 

1. Red Fire.— Nitrate of strontia, 9 parts ; chlorate of potash, IJ 
parts; shellac, 3 parts. 

2. Green Fire. — Nitrate of baryta, 9 parts; chlorate of potash. 
IJ parts; shellac, 3 parts. 

3. Blue Fire. — Ammonium sulphate of copper, 8 parts; chlorate 
of potash, 6 parts; shellac, 1 part. 

The shellac must be coarsely pulverized and evenly mixed with 
the strontia, baryta, or the ammoniated sulphate of copper, before the 
chlorate of potash is mixed in; and it must be remembered, that the 
chlorate of potash must not be rubbed hard, in mixing; for the reason 
that it is explosive. When the first articles are well mixed the chlor- 

*The Bile, in itself, is a bitter and nauseous tasting fluid, secreted by the liver, 
of a greenish yellow appearance, rather thick and sticky, or tenacious in its proper- 
ties, even when in good condition ; but, when in a bad condition these properties 
are all intensified, and consequently its effects are, if not corrosive, certainly very 
irritating. The French word c/to/ere,' the Latin cholera, and the Greek X6.<or, all sig- 
nify the same thing ; hence, we have the words choler, choleate, choleic, choksterine, etc., 
which signify some degree of anger, or passion ; and as the hile was anciently con- 
sidered as the seat of anger, or wrath, it has naturally led to the retention, and no 
doubt justly, of th*- -dea. that Colic arises from a vicious, or unhealthy condition of the bile. 

270 DR. chase's 

ate, which will come in fine crystaline pieces, can be mixed by pour- 
ing it from one paper to another, or with a spatula, being careful not 
to grind the spatula down upon the mixture. Let the chlorate be 
kept in a bottle by itself, and mix it only as used. This caution is to 
avoid spontaneous explosion, or combustion. 

In speaking of parts, as these Receipts are given, it matters not 
whether you take lbs., ozs., drs., or spoonfuls, as the measure, or 
weight — keep the proportions is all that is necesary, taking the 
weight, or measure that gives you all you wish to make. These Fire- 
works can be set off in any good sized room without suffocation from 
the Sulphurous acid which is set free b^' burning the ordinary Col- 
ored Lights, most, if not all of which have Sulphur, in their composi- 

1. COLOGNE, OR PHRPUMS— For the Hair.— Oils of lem- 
on, neroli, orange, and rose geranium, of each, 12 drops; tincture of 
cardamon-seeds, 1 oz. ; cologne alcohol, 1 pt. Mix. 

These, and all other preparations for the Hair should be bottled 
and kept corked. 

2. Another. — Oil of bergamot, 40 drops; oil of neroli, 12; oil of 
orange, 22; oil of rosemary, 6; essence of lemon, 45 drops; alcohol, ^ pt. 

Any Cologne is nicer to use cologne, or deodorized alcohol, but in 
small towns where that is not generally kept by druggists, the com- 
mon 76 per cent alcohol, will do very well. 

3. Mrs. G-en. 's, Cologne. — Oils of bergamot, lemon, laven- 
der, neroli, and rosemary, of each, h oz. ; magnesia, ^ oz.; musk, 10 
grs. ; alcohol, 2 qts. Mix, shake well and filter, through filtering 

COLORING-— Domestic and. Manufacturing Processes. — 
When I concluded to write a neiv Book, I, at the same time, resolved 
that it should embrace such a variety of items as should make it gen- 
erally useful, and that in all branches in which I had not practical 
knowledge and experience, myself, I would have written expressly 
for the Book, by those who had such experience; and this plan I have 
fully carried rout. Then, having had about 17 years acquaintance with 
Mr. Hiram Storms, of this city, who is not only a Manufacturer of 
woolen goods, but who has worked with his own hands, in the Art of 
Coloring, for about forty years, I knew him to be the man for this part 
of the work, if I could get him to undertake it; this I have accom- 
plished by paying him what many would consider a large sum, for it. 
Coloring being an Art, or mechanical branch of labor that but very few 
ever become truly first-class workmen in ; as, perhaps, more depends 
upon the details, or attention to the little, things connected with its 
management than most persons are willing to give to it, and hence 
they remain poor workmen all their lives; but when they see a man 
who always shows bright, clear Colors upon his cloths, they are willing 
to pay large prices for liis Receipts. Mr. Storms has several times been 
paid, by Manufacturers, from $30 to $50 for only 4, or 5 Receipts now 
embodied in this Book. Knowing these things to be facts, I have 
paid his price, for the benefit of the purchasers of this Book; and 
knowing that murk depends, as above stated, upon the attention to 
the little things in Coloring, T charge all who expect to have good, 
bright, clear Colors, that they, too, must be careful to follow Mr. Storm's 
instruction in all particulars. He has written so plainly, and [)articular- 
ly, however, that no one need have any fears to undertake their own 


Coloring, but may reasonably expect to be well satisfied with their 
work, when it is done; for he has accomplished his undertaking to 
my entire satisfaction, embacing the most reliable Receipts, and the 
most recent improvements in Coloring, adapted, alike, to Manufactur- 
ers as well as to Domestic purposes; all that Manufacturers have to do, 
is to increase the proportion of dye-stuff to correspond with the 
amount of goods to be Colored. He says: 

"N. B.— All goods for Coloring should be perfectly clear of dirt 
and grease-spots, otherwise the Colors will not be bright nor uniform, 
but will show spots of less depth of Color, After washing tlie goods, 
rinse well in warm water to remove all the alkali, otherwise your 
Colors will be dull and dirty in appearance. 

"Be sure also, in Coloring wool, or voolen good^ to give them plenty 
of time in the dyes, as the nature of wool is sucii that it has to be boiled 
for some considerable time to open the fibers to allow the dyes to peiie- 
trate tlieir substance, otherwise the Color is merely on the outside, 
and will fade, or wash oflT, which gives it the appearance of fading 
and is the chief reason why Colors on wool are not more -permanent. 
Silks, however,'are of such a nature that they will Color in a very few 
minutes 'S to 10, and with only from \ to A as much dye-stuffs to the lb. 
of goods as wool requires; but wool must have the full time which I 
have set down to them. By paying attention to these instructions 
and always using sufficient soft water to cover the goods handsomely, you 
will have permanently bright and beautiful Colors. 

1. " To Prepare Tin for Acids. — Melt the pure Tin in an iron, 
ladle, then pour it into cold water while the Tin is very hot. Hold it 
as high as you can to pour it and pour in a small stream, which will 
leave the Tin like feathers, and it is called feathered, or grain Tin. 
The Acids will then take a quick hold of it, and it will be the quicker 
ready for use. 

2. " Coloring' Acid, or Muriate of Tin. — To Make for Scar- 
lets. — Take sulphuric, and muriatic acid, of each, 3 ozs.; of the pre- 
pared Tin, No. i, 1 oz. 

"Put the Sulphuric Acid in a glass jar ; then slowly add the Muriatic, 
after which, feed in the feathered Tin, a little at a time, until it is all dis- 
solved. This is the Muriate of Tin, and it is better than that made where 
they use different proportions of the Acids, as most do in making it. 

3. "Indigo Compound, or Chemic — for Blue and Green. — 
Sulphuric acid, 6 ozs. for each 1 oz. of indigo to be be used. Use the 
best indigo, and pulverize, and put it into a glass jar; then pour on 
the Acid, and stir it for an hour. This never spoils by age. 

(Remember in using any of the Acids to avoid getting it upon 
your clothing, and to not leave them where children can get at them 
for they will destroy children, as well as clothing. — Author). 

4. "Colors on "Wool— Scarlet.— Cochineal and muriate of 
tin, of each, 1 oz.; cream of tartar, h oz. ; goods, 1 lb. This may be 
Colored in a clean iron kettle, but not in a wash-boiler. The lead 
that is on the inside will spoil the Color. Put into your kettle, 1 pail- 
ful of soft water for each lb. of goods. When it is luke-warm, put in 
your cochineal, which should be well pulverized. When it is scald- 
ing hot, put in your tartar and acid, or muriate of tin, and stir well, 
then enter your goods which should he wet from the rinsing, and 
boil for 1 hour, stirring, or handling all the time to prevent spotfl. 
Rinse in clean water and dry. 

272 DR. chase's 

5. "Orimson. — Alum and cream of tartar, of each, 1 oz. ; cochi- 
neal, J oz. ; goods, 1 lb. Fill your kettle with soft water, add your 
pulverized cochineal, bring the water to a boil, enter the goods and 
boil J an hour. Take out the goods and air them. Cool tlie dye and 
add the alum and cream of tartar, and enter the goods again and boil 
1 hour, If not dark enough add a little saleratus, or soap. Wash 
clean, and dry. 

"Let it be remembered that these Coloring Receipts are calcula- 
ted to make permanent Colors, and the better the goods are washed, 
after Coloring, with good suds, and rinsed, the brighter will be the 
Colors, as the washing only fetches off the loose part of the dyes, 
which would crock, and make the Colors look dead, and dull, while 
the soap helps to set the Color; so do not be afraid of washing out 
the Colors that have taken hold of, or entered into the fibers of the 
goods — there is no danger of that. 

6. " Scarlet with Lac* — For each lb. of goods, take lac, and 
muriate of tin. No. 2, of each, 2 ozs. ; cream of tartar, 1 oz. ; yellow 
oakf bark, i oz. Put them all in a kettle and boil ^ hour. Cool your 
dye a little and put in your goods and boil 1 hour, and rinse well. 

7. "Madder Red. — For each lb. of goods, use alum, 4 ozs.; 
cream of tartar, 2 ozs. ; Dutch madder, J 2 lb.; bran, J bu. Put the 
bran into a clean barrel, and pour on hot water enough, as the bran 
will take up considerable, let stand until it sours — strain and press out, 
use the water for your dye. Boil your goods for 2 hours in the alum 
and tartar, with water sufficient to cover the goods well, then empty 
the kettle and rinse the goods. Fill the kettle now with the bran- 
water, and put in the Madder. As soon as it is luke-warm, put in 
your goods, stir, or handle them often for ^ hour; then take them out 
and air them; then put them in again and gradually increase the heat 
SO that in 1 hour it may just reach a boil; but the moment it begins to 
boil, take out the goods, and wash them thoroughly in strong suds, 
rinse well, and dry, and you will have a beautiful bright color. 

8. " Yellow with "Fustic. — To each lb. of goods, alum, 4 ozs.; 
cream of tartar, 1 oz.; fustic, 1 lb. 

"Boil your goods 1 hour, with the alum and tartar, in sufficient 
water to cover the goods well. Then empty your kettle and fill with 
clean water, and put in your fustic, and bring your kettle to a boil, 
and put in j^our goods and boil 1 hour, and rinse. 

9. ' ' Yellow with Oak Bark, Sumac, or Peach-Tree Leaves. 
— Yellow may be made with any of the following ingredients, using 
the same amount of tartar and alum as in No. 8, and 1 pailful of yel- 
low-oak bark, peach-tree leaves, or sumac bark, and boiling until the 

* stick-Lac is the production of an insect called the coccus lacca, found mostly 
upon the banyan tree. When this Lac is boiled in an alkali, we get the seed-lac, and 
ihell-lac, used extensively in making alcohol varnishes, sealing-wax, and lacquers for 
tin and wares. It is the original, that is used in coloring. 

t In any place where the yellow oak bark does not grow, or either of the other 
oak barks, the quercitron (qucreus linctoria) which is kept by all those who deal in dye- 
Btuffs, will take its place, so it will do in the place of fustic. When a pailful of the 
oak barks are called for, meaning the greeu, inside bark, 1 lb. of the quercitron, or 1 
lb. of the dry oak barks will be as strong as the pailful of green— quercitron comes from 
the Latin quercus, an oak. It is the black, or dyer's oak, growing over most part of the 
United States. 

t Madder Is cultivated both in France and Holland, but that raised in Holland, 
called Dutch Madder, is much the best. Mr. Storms uses the best only ; if others want 
Tood and durable colors let them follow his instructions, and they vfill be satifified. 


jjtrougth is well extracted from whichever is used. See note after No 
6, for a substitute for oak barks. 

10. "Orange. — For Orange, proceed as for yellow; then add to 
the yellow dye a little madder, at a time, until the shade you desire is 

11. " Dark Green. — Color your goods a good yellow with No. 8, 
or 9, as your choose; then add to the dye, the following, chemie, or in- 
digo compound, No. 3, until the shade required is obtained, of course 
always taking out the goods when any additional dye is put in, to pre- 
vent spotting the goods. 

12. "Green on "Woolen -with Bark. — Take 1 pail of hickory 
bark, or the rinds from the nuts, and boil for 2 hours; then ad4 blue 
vitriol, 2 ozs., for each lb. of goods. Dissolve the vitriol before put- 
ting it in. Boil the goods 1 hour, and air them, and boil again. If 
not green enough, add alum, 2 ozs., with more bark. The quercitron 
is a substitute for hickory bark as well as for oak. 

13. "Blue. — For each lb. of goods, take alum, 4 ozs.; and cream 
of tartar, 2 ozs. Boil 1 hour. Empty the kettle, rinse the goods, and 
refill your kettle with clean water and bring to a scalding heat, and 
add, of chemie, or indigo compound, No. 3 — until the color suits. 

14. "Prussian Blue.— For each lb. of goods, take oil of vitriol, 
and Prussiate of potash, of each, 2 ozs.: red tartar (it is the crude tar- 
tar, or argol, from which the cream of tartar is made), 4 ozs. Put the 
above ingredients iuto a kettle with sufficient water to covei the goods, 
-and put them in as soon as it is luke-warm. Keep them in for 2 
hours; then make it boil for ^ hour, and you will have a beautiful 
Color. To make it more durable, empty your kettle and fill with 
clean water, and 4 ozs. of alum, for each lb. of goods, and boil for 1 
hour. If not dark enough, add logwood to suit, and boil again. 

15. "Tan Color. — For each lb. of goods, use camwood, 4 ozs.; 
madder, 2 ozs. Boil 10 minutes; then put in the goods and boil 1 
.Jiour; then add copperas, ^ oz., and boil ^ hour longer, and if not dark 
enough add more copperas, and boil again. 

16. " Snuff Color. — For each* lb. of goods, have camwood, 2 ozs, ; 
and fustic, ^ lb. Boil your camwood and fustic for ^ hour in suffi- 
cient water to cover the goods; then put them in and boil 1 hour. 
Take out the goods and add blue vitriol, I oz., and copperas, 1 oz., and 
boil the goods 1 hour, and rin.'^e well. 

17. " Dark Brown. For each lb. of goods put into your ket- 
tle camwood, 4 ozs.; fustic, i lb. Boil i hour; then put in the goods 
and boil for 1 hour. Then add blue vitriol, J oz., and copperas, 2 ozs., 
and boil 1 hour, and rinse. 

18. "Madder Brown. — For each lb. of goods, 2 ozs. each, of 
madder, and camwood; fustic, 4 ozs., and boil J hour. Boil the goods ^ 
hour. Take tliera out and air, then boil again for 1 hour. Now add 
blue vitriol, and copperas, of each, 1 oz. and boil 1 hour more, and if 
not dark enough, add more copperas, and rinse.