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"THE BLEOXRIOXAN.' OCTOBER 13, I9l6. 







At 




THE ELECTRICIAN 



A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND FINANCE. 



I 



VOLUME LXXVII. 

(Second Series.) 

From APKIL 7, 1916, to SEPTEMBER 29, 1916. 

ALSO 

"The Electrician" 

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUPPLEMENT, 

APRIL 7, 1916, TO SEPTEMBER 29, 1916. 




ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



LONDON : 
Printed and Published by the Proprietors, "The Eleotrioian" Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd., at the Editorial, Printing and 

Publishing Offices, 1, 2 and 3, Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, E.G. 

19 16. 



r-.'0 



TK 



' THE ELECTRICIAN," rXTTOBER 13, IBie. 



INDEX TO " THE ELECTRICIAN." 

VOL. LXXVII. 

(Second Series.) 



SPECIALi INDEXES. 

PAOE 
•COMMKHCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUPPLEMENT 10 

"Municipal, Foreign and General Notes 7 

Companies' Meetings, Reports, Dividends, 

Statutory Returns, &c 8 

Companies (New Electrical, &c.) Registered 9 

* Entries in these Indexes are not included in the 
Gbnibal Ihdbx, 



SUB-HEADINGS IN GENERAL. INDEX. 



PAOK 



PAOB 

Parliamentary Intelligence .. 6 

Personal 6 

Railways, Klectric 6 

Reviews of Books b 

Telegraphy 7 



PACE 



Accounts 3 

Institution of Electrical 

Engineers 4 

Legal Intelligence ^ 5 

Obituary _ 5 

Names of Authors of Articles and Popers are indexed atphaheticallyin the General INDEX, and not undtr the tnb-h«adingi. 



Telephony 7 

Wireless Telegraphy and 

Telephony 7 

\V(,rk3, Desciipticn of 7 



General Alphabetical Index. 



Heavy figures denote that the subject 
matter is a " Leading: Article " or in 
the "Editorial Notes." When the 
letter (C) is placed after a title it 
sigfnifies that the article in ques. 
tion appeared in the Correspondence 
columns. 



Abacs for Electrical Calculations, [Howard] (C) 

574 
Accessories, Elec, British Made, 409 

ACCOUNTS— 

Aberdeen, 684, 752, 962 
Accrington.267, 302 
Aldershot, 717 
Ayr, 928 

Barrow-in-Furness, 337 
Belfast, 267 
Birmingham, 371 
Blackburn, 201, 337 
Bolton, 515 
Bournemouth, 267 
Bradford, 515. 894 
Brighton, 446, 616, 651 
Bristol, 928 
Burnley, 515 
Burton-on-Trent, 446 
Bury. 337, 481 
Carlisle, 581 
Chester, 414 
Colchester. 371 
Coventry, 481, 616 
Croydon, 651 
Dover, 65 
Dundee, 651 
Eastbourne, 616 
Exeter. 786 

Glasgow. 515, 616, 717 
Gloucester, 651 
Greenock, 684, 752 
Grimsby, 337 

Hammersmith (London). 582, 616 
Hampstead (London), 549 
Hereford. 446 
Heywood, 718 
Hove, 685 

Huddersfie!d,65,337 
Hull. 582 
iUord.65 
Ipswich, 481 
Islington (London), 550 
King's Lynn, 753 
Launceston (Tasmania), 515 
Leeds, 267, 371 
Lincoln, 371 
Liverpool. 302 
Loughborough. 515 
Lowestoft, 6C1 , 963 
Luton. 515 
Maidstone, 928 
Manchester. 372. 482 
Marylebone (London), 65, 651 
Middleton, 582 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, 685 
Oldham.65, 414, 582, 718 
Penang. 786 
Poplar (London). 446 
Portsmouth. 928 
Preston. 201 
Redditch. 786 
Reigate. 928 
Rochdale. 66. 447 
Rugby. 718 
Salford, 894 
Shanghai, 202 
Sheffield, 550, 718 
South Shields. 616, 685, 894 
Southwark, 753 
Stafford, 338 
Stockton-on-Tees, 515 
t Stoke-on-Trent, 582 
Sunderland, 415, 515 



Accounts— coK//««erf. 

Swansea, 616 
Taunton, 786 
Tunbridge Well?, 894 
Tynemou+h, 302 
Walsall, 446, 516 
Warrington. 894 
West Ham. 616 
West Hartlepool, 516 
Wigan, 66 
Willesden,685 
Winchester, ,753 
Wolverhampton, 718, 963 
Worcester, 446 
Yarmouth, 786, 894, 929 
York, 516 

Accumulator Electrodes, Testing Individually, 

771 
Accumulators, Loan Periods for, 69 
Accumulators of the Past. [Crawter] 829 
AcKFRMANN, A. S. E. : Neglect of Science (C), 

575 
Aeronautical Institute of Great Britain, 174 
Agricultural Purposes, Application of Elec- 
tricity to, [Kerr] 386, {Discussion) 406 
Air Raids and Elec. Tramways, 932 
Aldrich, C. H. : Treatment of Silver Furnace 

Fume by the Cottrell Process, 559 
Alexandersom, E. F. W., and Nixdorff, S. 
P. : Magnetic Amplifier for Radiotelephony, 
312 
Alien Enemy Firms. 510. 61 1 
Alien Enemy Property, Claims on, 61 1 
Aliens, Employment of. 958 
Allies and Trade after the War. 375 
Allies' Economic Conference. 163 
Allotropic Changes in Iron or other Metals, 

Thermo-Electric Method of Studying. 535 
Alloy Steels. Manufacture and Uses of. 275 
Alternating-Current Theory, Complex Quan- 
tities in , 933 
Alternators, Three-Phase, with Cylindrical 
Rotors Third H.irmonics in the Phase 
Pressure. [Clayton] 216 
Alternators. Turbine-driven, 346 
Aluminium Industry for India. 688 
Aluminium Overhead Conductors. 791 
Aluminium Power Lines. Ciam- Joints on. 654 
Aluminium. Properties of, 305 
"A.M.I.E.E.": Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers, (C) 223 
Amateur and Professional, 70 
American ElectricalMachinery, 791 
American Engineers Prepared, 418 
American Output of Elec. Machinery. 747 
American Profit-sharing Scheme, 59, 713 
American Specifications and Foreign Trade, 2 
American Trade with Australia. 197 
American Westinghouse Works Strike, 206 
Analogies, Mechanical, in Electricity and Mag- 
netism. [Franklin] 556. 570 
Anglo-Italian Trade Relations. 577 
Anglo-Portuguese Commercial Relations. 922 
Apprentice, the. Nation and the Polytechnic. 

[Walmsley] 87! 
Apprentices. Training of. [Fleming] 874 
Arcs in Gases between Non-Vapourising Elec- 
trodes. [Mackay-Ferguson] 254 
Architect in Relation to Electric Lighting. 256, 

274 
" Archives d'Eletcricitp Medicale," 70 
Armature Coils, Connection to Commutator 

Segment-;. [KnoUl 770 
Arndt, K. : Electrically-heated Furnaces for 

the Laboratory, 637 
Arsem Vacuum Furnace, 363 
AscoLi. M. : Dimensions of Electrical Units, 17 
AsHTON. A. W. : Technical Education. 195 
ALSsociation of British Chemical Manufacturers, 

454 
Association of Consulting Engineers (Inc.). 355 
Association of Supervising Electricians, 174 
Asymmetrical Rotors, 342 
Australia, Enemy Goods in, 889 
Australia, United Kingdom Trade with, 95 
Australia, War Time Profits, 441 
Australian Commonwealth Traders' Commis- 
sion, 520 



Australian Dockyard, Power Plant for, 486 
Australian Electrical Trade, 59 
Australian Enterprise. New, 645 
Australian Industries, 957 
Australian Metal Scheme. 545 
Australian Ores, Alien Control of, 230 
Australian Trade Outlook, 577 
Australian Zinc Concentrates, 713 
Av/akening, The, 687 



Bairsto, G. E. : Edge Effect of Plate (Conden- 
sers, (C) 23 
Bakelite Gear Wheels, 756 
B inks. British and Trading Facilities, 25 
Barnf.tt, S. G. : Magnetisation by Rotation, 

76 
Barratt. T. : Elec. Capacity of Gold Leaf 

Electroscopes. 407 
Battery-room Floors. 328 
Battery Vehicles and Refuse Collection. 129 
B^UER, B. : Tests on Oil-Switches, 588 
Bayley, G. L. : Design of Million-volt Experi- 
mental Transformer. 35. 42 
" Beama " Journal, 104 

Beardmore, .Sir William, on Science and Indus- 
try, 171. 195 
Bearings of Electrical Machinery, 308 
Beaver. C. : Recent Practice in Manufacture, 
Laying and Jointing of 33.000-volt three- 
phase Paper-insulated Underground Cables, 
376, 389 
BEAVER. C. J. : Elec. Lieht and Power Cables, 

826 
Bedford College. Royal Visit to. 418 
Belfast Association of Engineers, 242 
Belt Dressing. 418 
Bettington Boiler. 568 
Bill, An Extraordinary. 120 
Birmingham and District Elec. Club, 757 
Birm.ingham House of Commerce, 921 
Birthday Honours, 309 
Blind Leading the Blind. 206 
Board of Scientific Societies, 656 
Board of Trade and Commercial Enquiries, 129 
Board of Trade Elec. Standards Laboratory, 
Imorovements in the Sensitiv less of Appa- 
ratus, [Trotter] 851 
Board of Trade Regulations for Non-Statutory 

Elec. Undertakings. 586 
Boiler Development. [Wilson] 840 
Boiler Explosions, 791 
Boiler-house Design and Operation, [Lackie] 

381, {Discussio".) 404 
Boilers. Economical Load, 756 
Bonecourt Boiler, 403 
BouTHiLLON, L. : Generation of High-tension 

Continuous Current. (C) 195 
Bradford, Railless Trolley Battery Vehicle at, 

225 
Bradley, Linn : Solution of Smoke, Fume 
and Dust Problems by Electrical Precipita- 
tion, 152 
Brake Solenoids, Totally-enclosed. 604 
Bridge Method for Comparing the Mutual 
Inductance between Two Coils with the Self- 
Inductanci of One of them, [Lees] 123 
Bright. C. : 
S. P. Thompson. (C) 473. 540 
Storv of Submarine Cable, 801 
British Association. 310 „ ,j -^ 

British Association. Mr. Gerald Stoneys 
Address to the Engineering Section. 755. //J 
British Association at Newcastle. 877 
British Association Radiotelegraphic Investi- 
gations, 791 
British Canital in Ontario, 747 
British Companies and Enemy Influence, 957 
British Industries and the War, 441 
British Industries in Enemy Countries, 679 
British Propertv in Enemy Countries, 889 
British Science Guild . 242. 620 
British Thomson-Houston Report. 509 
Brocklehurst. H. J. : Speeding-up in an En- 
gineering Factory, (C) 161, 226 



Broughton, H. H. : 

T-vo Notable Floating Cranes, 561 

Electrically-driven Coal-handling Plant, 843 
Brush Company's Progress, 95 
BuRDicK, R. H.: Performance of Diesel 

Engine Plants, 84 
Bureau of Standards. Development of . 17 
Business Side of Science: Its Part in the 

Coming Economic Crisis, 50 



Cable Joints, High-tension Construction of, 
376, 391 

Cables, Elec. Light and Power. [Beaver] 826 
Cables, Three-core. [Hdchstadter] 209 
Cables. Very High Insulation Resistances in. 

Measurement of, [Fischer-Hinnen] 506 
Cables, 33.000-volt three-phase Paper-insu- 
lated Underground. Recent Practice in 
Manufacture, Laying and Jointing, [Beavsr] 
376,389 
Callender's Annual Report, 229 
Canada, (Company Tax in, 679 
Capital and Labour, 545. 790 
Capital and Labour After the War, 475 
Capital and Labour, Union of. 948 
Captains of Industry, Training of Our, [Had- 

field] 467, 488 
Carbon Tetrachloride (Benzino), Use of. wit". 

High-tension Switches, [Vogelsang] 540 
Carney, H. A. : Speeding-up in an Engineer- 

ine Factory, (C) 160, 194, 261 
Carter. T. : Determination cf the Dimensions 

of Commutators, 257 
Cash on Delivery System., 442 
Castex, a. : Graphic Determination of Hys- 
teresis Loss. 488 
Celh, Dry. '(Cooper] (Condud'A trom Vol. 

LXXVI.i, 19 
Oils. Leclanche. Depo'.arisation in, [Thomp- 
son and Crocker] 124 
Cells. Sulohated Storage, Regeneration of, 37 
Chaffee Gap. 688 

Chambers of Commerce and Engineering, 3t^ 
Channel Tunnel. 620 

Chapman. F. T. : Air-gap Field of the Pbly- 
phase Induction Motor, 663, 705. 722, 730, 
904, 936 „ _, . 

Chargers. 0)ke Oven. Electncally-dnven, 668 
Cheniical Engineers. 653 
Chemical Laboratories at Oxford. 377 
Chemical Manufacturers. British. 263 
Chemical Trade Combination. 263 

Chicago Generating Static IS. 791 

City and Guilds' Examination, 172, (Dover) 

(Maycock) (C) 228. 241 . 

•' Civis Rcmanus Sum " : " Partununt Montes 

Nascetur Ridiculus Mus." (C^ 506 
C'-AYTON. A. E. : Third Harmonics m the 
Phase Pressure of Three-phase Alternators 
with Cylindrical Rotors. 216 
Olough. W. & HoLFORD. G.W. : Utilisation of 

Tramways for Goods Traffic. 931. 943 
Oal and Coke Supplies. 475 
Coal. British. 790 

Co al-Cutting by ElectncalPlan t , 1 72 
Coal Economy. 205 . „ . - 

Coal -handling Plant. Electncally - driven, 

[Broughton] 843 
Coal Mine Illumination. 620 
Coal. Moisture in. 452 
Coal Output, Increase of. 229 
Coal Output Restrictions, 197 
Coal SuDplies. 138. 453 
Coal Tar Products. Future o:, 621 
CoalTrade. Future of, 331 
CoBLENTz. W. W., and Emerson, Wj B. : 

Absolute Thermopile. 606 
CoHRN, B. S. : 

Telephonometry. 244. 276 
Long-distance Telephony. 814 
CoKEN. B. S.. and Hill. J. G. : Long-distance 
and Cable Telephony (Underground and Sub- 
marine!. 627. 660. 691,721. 724 
C'->HEN, S. : (C) Vacuum Detectors, 951 
I Colliery Electrification ; Existing Plant Prob: 
lems, 605 



•Tlw Rtectridan' 

Octofxr 13, 1916. 



INDEX, 



VOL. LXXVII. 



Ojllision.-, at Sea, 376 

0-)!IUion at Sea, Avoding, 71 

Colour Vision, 621 

Colwyn B " -i of Trade, 86. 63 

Commerc 3 

Comr:'- P'.licv,957 

Con,- -reV/. 722 

Corr,' 222 

Corr.- ■..:,486 

O^r:,. D*'.'.rmination of, 

Con' «! ,,, 

C- '■ . - res ir. , 47J 



•,-n in, 364 



..j2 



ce of, at CloM Spacing;. 

from Prof. E. Thomaon an-: 
,-,;, A .. r<.enr.elly. 790; Electrical WrrH 

932 

Coniular Service (Bri'i'h) 129,747.921 
Contact Potentiaband Electrochemical Act lor.. 

- "' - of High Teri- 



;ein.889 
fcl 1.781 

jrrent. of 
.8 
■-..l:.. Dc/cio^.-i.er.; ;:. U.S.A., 25 
"V R : 
ury • ,'Az Uonctudtd trom Vol. LXXVI.l. 19 
Milritone* rn the Path cf Prosr«M. 793 

fV, ,,.„•• r^r.^;, T.;.,V- ..MJ. 452 

•ivenesaof. 308 



Requirements and Re- 
f.u\ 522 
:U3 

■^1 for the 
.7 
i'. M. : Auto- 
Direct-currcnt 



P. k. : !• 



irontal LufllnR, with Balanced Jib, 
. ' ;,iLuft)949 

( r.tee 

Ci-i.o.-.. Floaii:.!;. T*,;. .N.uble. [Broughtoni 

561 
r >•---• ' the Rotterdam Dockyard 



>'..^» 



(■ 



. ..... Accumula tors of the Pas' 

-pp, E C, srA T'-'^rvt. M 0» Kay 



t •ri/LJ'-v'-i' ; rr.rr,;3 01 h' ..r;:.. :c.: ^.i.'-^rttn', 
796 
r... -.- r W ■ PI. •■ W.'r. Heating as 

, -•.eel Mill;. 

461. -i.V, 
CtowTi M,nes Hoist Instatlation, IStone? 913 
C; Vital Palace School of Practical EnglneerinB. 

3h 
Culture, l.ifh* ard Intensive, 2 



•■„<,, m Moving Coil Balllstt. 
171 ITrottcrlfC) 72^ (Hor*-- 
/<irk 54.'. 



[■.r 



113. 147. IB1 

I ■ yi 



4ble Bodtaa for 



-r.S-p(th)7? 



:no Planto, ftrtormancc of, IBni- 
<ne Uaere' Aswclatlon. 9. I0&. 32t 
incs. Iron Loiwi In 



Wl " ^ 

p— s^v proi. F, 0. : A ' 

: Citr OulM*' Esamln«tton.v ^ 

Hrmmer. SS4 

r y 

I Reliellioi 

f 

' >T Mrvttng an.: 

r Machlnerx. IQ78I9|(- 



Earth.Our, aMa.''it.343 

p-^r»vn!- Pr^te.'ive D'svice, Automatic, 

" " 72t 

fc C: S. P. Thompson. (0 506 

Eccef.iii. Coils, Coefficient of Mutual Induction 

o? 30e 
•^ '■■■' : Recent PateriU in Radiotele- 

i Radiotelephony. 571. 595 
L .... .'<eal,*76 
E :. • E'lect of Plate Condenserj, (Bairsto] (C) 

'/^ 
E:u(.a:ion After the War, 722 
£•-00 M T C : E'-fin-erine Industry in the 

F •')eFarEajt,365 

E ■ : _ ., V. , w:. -rrtakir.gs, Interconnection 
'A. 241 

E .: E I'f frrr ini Public Policy, 197 

f '. tes on the Early 

1796 
£■ i.^l Mii.u;ii;-:..'.t, Companies in 1916, 

E Trades' Benevolent Institution. 378 

1 ^/holesalers' Federation. 174 

1 • if^rri* ,377 

>• : Whirh ? 80 

■ .472 

h -h 

t- ^rees for. 297 

F- - ' '.'» 

F- 

E ...„,-,^. 

F 

I- 



■'.07 



ines. Notes on Design. 
'90. 320. 360. 427. 461 . 493. 528 
>!d Leaf. Eloc. Capacity of. 



E 

■i_ . 
I ion in Condensers, 364 

E : A G. : Engineering Education and 

R'-'-arch (C) 505 
E H. S. : Generation of Electricity on a 

.11 Scale or Bulk Supply. 383. 898. 
•.i/5.<»"r) 405 
EMr r/ N. W B , and Ctbientz, W. W. : An 

At r lulf Thirr-no; ile. 606 
E t. Emerfncy, of Women in Ind-js- 

E . ^ ^s and Trade-Marks in Ar,.«;nl.:.-. 

''47 
E- • ' -ilr.. ,.rid Ih'" Empire. 275 
I- ' on and Research. 451. 



I- 



..'5 



Eactory. " Speeding-up." IRan- 

T- < A(.., .K. w-.r ■}*-.-> 645 

2 
vVar, 



1 



Institutions" Volunteer Training 

Standflrc^s Committer, 587 

'-• - "- f. 274 

r,S09 
.■, :. of. After the 

1 :ind Steam, in Combination. 

- .v^r341 

'V ■'•Ir.'.r. Section), 2 
•/.2 

ii fro Determining the 
and Brake Resistances 



H : Electric Discharges in Sub- 
- 655 



r. 92? 

'»5 

L/on, 1914, 2"'4 



l».4S3 

■\»1."3U9 

■;ni- (ExIcn.-iiMi) Oijci 

5M 

.723 
M J. : 
M • V iiourlMriK 

c Mcltincof. !WiJr; 

Productfcm of. In the EVctric 

".I Ehwirlcallv tn Volatile 
- 177 



<t)»vfn)»>i f.< Vrry 



.V. '■' 



% ar.J &..^-.:i)ic R««atch. If7, 

f In Education. Ml. 496 
y; A Retrosrect ol Twenty 



Flue Gases. SamplLng and Analysing, 275 
FlrA-^-eel Effect, 84 ^ , w „» 

Flyv. r.eelMotor-Generatcr Sets, Calculation of, 

591 

'='ore-p' Tradine. Gcvemment Subsidy for, 611 
Fp>.,--"'w W S. : Mechanical Analogies m 

' ^nd Magnetism, 556. 570 

E-' - v.'ith the U.S.A., 197 

E.- -ter. ANew,[Peukert|350 

P-. -ar.darcisation of. 307 

f' - •■, W6, 914 

Fuel Economy on the North- East Coast as a 

Rerult of Electric Power Supply. [Sloan] 917 
Furr.aci?, Arsem Vacuum. 3^3 
Furr.ace, Elec.-Arc, Service Requirements of, 

IHolii5)243 ^^ _.,. 

Furr;5C€. Electric, Production of Ferro-SUicon 

Furr-a'ce! Elec.. Sheffield. 898 

Fur- fiC?. Synder Electric. 308 

Furr..-.ce, Wile Electric. 601 

Furnsces. El'-ctric. 452 

Furr.acej. Elec. as Applied to Non-Ferrcus 

Metallcr,-/. 309 
Furnaces. Steel. Electric. 275. '15- 



Calvanometer.Daxping Factor in Moving Coil 

Ballistic. 655 
Calvanonieter Lamp and Scale, 569 
Cilv.-.r.on-ieters. Sensitivity and Shielding. 689 
G'-'^sETT, J. C. M. : Engineering Education 

ard Research. (C) 575 
Gi'PPA^D, C. C. : 

Instpiment Transformers, 499. 537 

Mi^'hods for Determining the Grading of 
Starting and Brake Resistances for Series- 
Motcr.«. iCl 92 
■■ Garrett "SuperheatelSteamSemi-Stationary 

Er..;nt:.352 
C?; Detector. Electric. 343 
Ga£ Industry. OrRanisation of. 452 
Ga.s and Electricity Supply. 679 
Gblder. M. G. De: Shipyrd Cranes oi the 

Rotterdam Dockyard Co., 178 
General Electric Co.'s Report. 509 
Generatinc Station. Automatic. 345. 358 
Generating Station, Sm^ll. Problem, o'. [Wil- 
kinson; 348. 388 
Generation of Electricity on a Small Scale or 

Bulk Supply. [Ellis] 383, 398. {Discuzsiot.) 

405 
German Influence. Exclusion of. 331 
German Plant, 766 

Ge'man Scientific Men and the War. 308 
German Trade and Copper. 452 
Germany. Elec. Wiring Practice under War 

Conditions, 417. 426 
Germany. The Rubber Trade in. 790 
CiBBS, J. B. : Open Delta Connection for 

Tran.'fcrmers. 727 
GlasFO'v. Depreciation Rate? at. 418 
Gla.'pow, Interesting Mains Laying 0{)cration, 

362 
Gl«zrb'-'xj<, R. T. : Limit Ga'ii.-p=, 898. 901 
Goods Tra'Tic on Tramxav;. 273 
Grain Elevators. 173 
Graphical Charts, 602 
Gravitational Constant. 418 
Gravitv at Sea, Determination of. 37 
Great Britain. Elnrtricitv S-ipply of. jWilliams] 

48. (.0;.vcujj;-n) 83. 86. 175.249. (William.-;] 

(C) 438 
Ginter London, Electricity Supply in. 669 
GFir-i-n3,C. H. : New Method of Determininf 

l^tiic Velocities. 82 
0> iNsTP-o. W. H. : Earth Connections for 

Telephone Exchanges 672 



H 

Hap'-ibi.d. sir RosBitT. F.R.S. 
Ti..inmg of our Captains of Industry, 467, 
468 

" untyped Steel. 600, 008. [Wood] 



i T., \-^ ... 'T. 



<• Harmonic 

■■■■.^ 
H 'of 

' ..-si 

M »» 'i-.. N. H. H. : Story of Land Tclefraphv. 



, '■'• 



Hut* H 



•|^w. P E. : Scn.'sltive Mar- 
■ - 2 '■ ! 
Autcn..»"iL Telephor.r 
• ^- ' ■• f. with 

ables, 209 

of ine Elec- 
• .'. Ho! Water Suppiiet. 



HoLMBOE, C. F. : Te.sts on a Polyphase Con- 
tinuous-current Converter of 3,000 kw. 
Capacity, 108 

Hope- Jones. F. : Daylight Saving. (C) 226 

Hot V/ater Supplies. Electric. [Holmes] 401 

Hov/ARD. C. : Abacs for Electrical Calcula- 
tior,s.(C) 574 

Howe, Prof. G. W. O. : 

Amplitude and Phase of the Higher Har- 
monics in Oscillograms. 149 

^.Application of Telephone Transmission 

IP Formulas to Skin-effect Problems. 739 

H^Calculation of the Capacity of Radiotele- 

n graph Antenn*. including the Effects of 
Marts and Buildings. 761. 880 

Hi'NTER. P. V. : Development of Elec. Power 
Stations, 838 

Hydro-Electric Works. 196 

Hydro-Electrics within the Empire, 475 

Hydro-Extractors, 70 

Hydrogen by Electrolysis. 343 

Hysteresis and Hardness. 274 

Hysteresis Loss. Gra;.hic Determination of, 
[Castex] 488 



I 

IlluminatingEn?ineerineSociety.205.207,224 

Illumination and Light. [Steinmetrj40. 52 

llluminationfrom a Radiating Disc. 343 

Illumination in the Navy (U.S.A.), [McDowell] 
653,667 

ImperialCollegeofScienceanr! Technology. 323' 

imperial Institute. 376 

Im.perail Trade Bank, 931. 954 

Import Duties in Russia. 442 

Imports, Prohibition of. 331.442 

Income Tax. Double, 417 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical Assoc, 4, 
[Convention] 375. 379. (Annual General 
Meeting] 430. [Elec. Vehicle Committee 
Report] 433 

India, Aluminium Industry for. 688 

Indian Industrial Commission. 921 

Indian Industrial Development. 59 

Inductance. Mutual and Self. 36 

Inspecting and Viexine, 897 

Institute of Chemistry. 139 

Instituted Industry. 1, 15 

Institute of Journalists. 208 

Institute of Metals. 242. 757, [Autumn Meet- 
ing] 932 

Instituted Radio Engineers. 208. 454 

Institution of Civil Engineers. 105 

INSTITITTION OF ELSCTRICAL 
ENGINSUKS- 

Alien Enemies. Exclusion of. 292. 378 

A.M.l.E.E. : Institution of Elec. Engineers, 
(C)228 

Annual General Meetinp. 218 

Benevolent Fund. 139. 207 

Birmingham Section, 4 

City and Guilds of London Inst, and the 
I,E.E.(Lundberg & Sons) (C) 951 . 9I« 

Continuous Current fcr Terminal and Trunk 
Line Electrification, [Storer] (Discussion) 

Enemy Members. 174 

Great Britain Electricity Supply. Present 
and Future Position. 454 

Great Britain Elec. Supply. [Williams] 48. 
(Discussion) 80. 86. 175. 249 

Insulating Oils. 73 

" Journal " of the Institution of Elec, Engi- 
neers. 36 

M.Tnchester Section, 38 
46 

Motors. Continu •. Hi- o .sr.i Main- 

tenance of. 1J> 188,205 

Service Branches !;t.ni Extra-High-Tension 
Circuits. [Macleod] 116 

Trade Policy. 539 

Wiring Rules. 554 

Institution o; ' s. 344, 378 

Institutions.' ti _ CourteousRecep- 

t ons.240 
Insulations. Air Oil snd Solid. Effect of High 

Continuou: ■" n. [Peek] 734 

In.'^urance Ex ? 

InterconnectK ■ ^ c.:n.iric Supply Undertak- 
ings. 241 
Interlinking"* f^"'-- .^^ ■ ^ Iv 1 1- ,'(.ri.iWings,293 
Inv.ir and Rr 

Inventions. U ■ . i, 921 

Inventors. Educiiori ot, 4i3 
Ionic Velocities, Determining, A New Method, 

(C " =2 

lor, Collision. 274 

Ion..-, i'>'.> .,, n of, (Smith) 498 
Iron. Pure. 3 
hen. Pure. Crvrt„l ?;:e and the Electric and 

Magnetic P- ,2 

Iron. Pure. C -h. Effect of Vacuum 

Fusion ur>on ; l,c Magnetic Properties of, 

(Yensonl519..'v53 
Iron.V.-, ' ' •■^ 

!ron .W iRcsi.Mance. with the 

Tempci.,.,.,. w, ,\..-:nate-curTen^ Circuits, 

[Peukert] 125 



Jatvan. Elec ' ' 
Japan's Trsrif 
JoFBTH. H : H;;c 
current Motors. 



Junior Institution p; c :.:• a:r5,4 



342.535 
the East, 5'.0 
eoi Continuous 
,-06 



VOL. LXXVIl. 



INDEX. 



" Xh« Eectrlcian," 

Otof fe' 1.1. l.»l'.. 



K 

Kayc, Capt. G. W. C. : Recent Progress in 

X-Rays and Radiocraphy. 861 
Kelvin's, Lady, Gift to Glasgov/ University, 

138 
Kennri.lv, a. E. : (C) 2000th Issue, 950 
Ker!?, W. T. : Application of Electricity to 

Agricultural Purposes, 386. {Discussior) 406 
Kingsbury, .1. E. : Story of the Telephone, 812 
Klinoenberg, Prof. C. : Magnetic Hand, 327 
Knight, G. L. : An Unusual Foundation for a 

Turbo-Alternator, 122, 104 
Knoli , RuDoi r : Connection of -Armature 

Coils to Commutator Segments, 770 
Kyoto Imperial University Memoirtr, 51 



Laboratories, Chemical, at University College, 

2, 16 
Labour, Efficiency of, 677 
Lackie. W. W. : 

Boiler-house Design and Operation, 381, 
{Discussion) 404 

Electricity Supply, 458 
Lammt, B. G. : Iron Losses in Direct-current 

Machines. 634, 659 
Lamp, Arc, Cadmium Vapour, Enclosed [Sana] 

51 
Lamp, Electric Evolution of, [Paterson] 822, 

[WillcoxJ(C),950 
Lamp Safety, 48b 

Lamps. Incandescent. Life Testing. 172 
Lamps. Incandescent. Rating of. according to 

their Watts. [Naujokzl 710 
Lamps. Pocket. Adjustable Elec, 898 
Langmuiv. I. : Characteristics of Timg.sten 

Filaments a? Functions of Temperature. 742 
Lees, C. H. : On a General Bridge Method for 

Comparing the Mutual Inductance between 

Two Coils with the Self-Inductance of one of 

them, 123 

LEGAL INTELLIGENCE- 

American Radio Telegraph Patent Ca:e. 94 
American Tungsten Lamp Litigation. 408 
American Wireless Patent Litigation, 94, 408, 

955 
Assessment of Electricity Works, 608 
Baldry. Samuel Theo. v. Sun Electrical Co., 

26, 127 
Bates, Wm. Sons & Co. v. W. & R. R. Rea 

(Ltd.), 543 
Browett, Lindley & Co., 295. 364 
Cedes Elec. Traction (Ltd.). 94 
Cia de Electricidad de la Provincia de Buenos 

Ayres, 61 
Comins v. Weld-Blundell, 510 
Commercial Cable Co. ■•. Government of 

Newfoundland. 609 
Cook. Wm. I'. Jennings, W. A., 746 
Cumberland, L. H. u. Newport Corporation, 

511 
Daimler Co. v. Continental Tyre & Rubber 

Co., 477 
Davis (D.) & Son i>. Assessment Committee 
of Pontypridd Union Overseers of Rhondda 
and Rhondda Urban Council, 440 
Electric Shock, Damages for, 544 
Electro-Flex & Steel Co.. 544 
Falk, Stadelmann & Co. p. Genera! Cable 

Mfg. Co., 295 
Hands, A. C. v. Davis (J.) & Co. (Southamp- 
ton), 196 
James, J. C. f. Leatherhead Electricity Co., 

294 
Knowles. J. W. v. Electrolytic Plating Appa- 
ratus Co.. 262 
Krupp Magnetic Separator Patents, 93 
Leiston Gas Co. u. Leiston-cum-Sizewell 

Urban Council. 364 
Leitner Electrical Co., 127 
Lion Spring Co. v. Carleon Electrical Co., 93 
" Live Stud " Case at Lincoln. 576 
Re Madras Elec. Supply Corporation, 609 
Magneta Time Co., Re the. 440 
Magnetic Separation of Wolfram. 60 
Metropolitan Railway Co. i>. H. M. Post- 
master-General, 576 
Metropolitan Water Board v. Dick. Kerr & 

Co.. 585. 609 
Military Information, Publication of, 510 
Mining Regulations. Breach of. 677 
Monometer Mfg. Co. v. Elec. & Ordnance 

Accessories Co., 476 
Motor, Second-hand, Warranty with, 60 
Munitions Tribunal Cases and Appeals, 61, 

511 
North British Railway Co. v. Lord Advocate 

(Postmaster-General), 408 
Patents, Alien Enemy, 60, 93, 230. 543, 576. 

955 
Prevention of Corruption Act Prosecution, 

779 
Pritchett & Gold & E.P.S. Co. y. Currie and 

the Hamble River Luke Co., 510 
Prize Court Case. 745 
Read i\ Stella Conduit Corporation. 26. 93 
Rickaby (A. E.) v. Plymouth Corporation. 

439 
Rowett. A. u. St. Austell Elec. Light & Power. 

295 
Scobie V. London County Council. 262 
Storage Battery Contract. 162 
Trading with the Enemy, 746 
Tramcars .-ind Lighting Regulations, 711 
Tramcar Companies, Liabilities of. 654. 677 
Tram-car Drivers, Unlicensed. 128 



Legal Intelligex ce- continued. 

University of London Press and Others v. 

University Tutorial Press, 585, 608 
" Unsealed Patents " to be Licensed, 230 
Valuation Appeal, 920 
Weisenberg, A. v. Bodie, 330 
Wirele.ss Telegraphy Patents in U.S.A., 955 
Workmen's Compensation, 26,93, 127, 295, 

646 
Zinc Corporation i'. A. S. Elmore and Others, 

294 

Leimer, E. : Radium Antenna, 82 
LiRBOv/iTz, B. : Electrical Oscillations from 

Mercury Vapour Tubes, 144 
Lifting Magnets. 620. 623. 654 
Light and Illumination. ISteinmetzl40,62 
Light and Intensive Culture. 2 
Light, Measuring the Pressure of, by means of 

Thin Metal Foil. IWest] 741 
Light. Mechanical Equivalent of. 2 
Lighting Charges. Elec, 417 
Lighting, Elec, of Small Towns, [Munro] 353, 

358 
Lighting, Public, Contracts for, 341 
Lighting of Factories, 1 
Linking-up, 239 

Local Government Guidance, 172 
Lock Machinery. Electrically-operated. 898 
London County Council Tramway.s. 520, 541 
Longitude, Difference in, 688 
Low-resistance Standards, New, [Drysdale] 

618, 629 
Lowestof'^ Electricity Supply, 138 
Lubrication in Practice, 104 
LuoKEY, G. P. : Tungsten Arc Under Pressure, 

947 
LuFT, E. : New Method of Braking Cranes, 949 
L'JNDPFRG (A. P.) & Sofi? : 

Electric Wiring Examinations. (C) 506 

I.E.E. and the City and Guilds of London 
Institute (C). 932. 951 



M 

Machine Tool and Engineering Assoc. (Ltd.). 4 
Machine Tools as War Material. 781 
Machinery, Breakdowns of Elec. 433 
Mackay, C. M. J., and Ferguson, C. V. : Arcs 
in Gases between Non-Vapourising Elec- 
trodes. 254 
MacLeod. D. M. : Service Branches from 

Extra-high-tension Circuits, 116 
Magnetic Flux, Distribution of, in Commutat- 
ing Zone of Direct-current Machines, [Shen- 
fer] 10 
Magnetic Hand, [Klingenberg] 327 
Magnetic Survey, 172 
Magnetic Testing, 104 
Maenetic and Electric Properties of Pure Iron, 

Crystal Size, and the, 2 
Magnetisation by Rotation, [Barnett] 76 
Magnetism, Remanent, Reversible Change of, 

with Temperature, 37 
Magneto Testing Apoaratus, 791 
Magnetometer, Sensitive, [Shaw and Hayes] 

708 
Mains Laying, Interesting Operation at Glas- 
gow, 362 
Manchester, One-Ton Electric Lorry. 952 
Manchester Steam Users' Assoc, 276 
Manufacturers and Organisation, 365 
Manufacturing Interests, Organisation of. 229 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 418 
Materials. Handling of. 171 
Maycock. W. p. : City Guilds' Examinations, 

(C) 228 
McDowell, Lieut. C. S. : Illumination in the 

Navy (U.S.A.). 653, 667 
McElroy. J. M. : Some Notes on Passenger 

Transportation in Large Cities, 931, 939 
McLachlan, N. W. : Characteristic Curves of 

a Poulsen-Arc Generator, 883, 900 
Measuring Instruments, [Drysdale] 853 
Merchant Shipping Convention Act (1914). 274 
Mercury Pump, High Vacuum, 792 
Mfrkici:, E. G. : Approximate Solution of 

Short-circuit Problems. 694 
Mfrz C H. : Electric Power Distribution, 

915 
Metal for Munitions, 509 
Metal Trade After the War, 229 
Metallurgy, Non-ferrous, Electric Furnaces as 

Applied, 309 
Metallurgy in Relation to Elec Engineermg, 

869 
Metals, Oating with Zinc, 501 
Metals, Corrosion of, 377 
Metals, Grain Size in, 533 
Metal's, Investigation and Testing of, 633 
Metals. Rarer, Metallurgy of, [Richards] 675 
Meter Approved by Board of Trade, 377 
Meters, Thomson and their Maintenance, 703 
Methane. Elec. Ignition of. Influence of Pres- 
sure. ["Thornton] 775 
Metropolitan Elec. Supply Co.. 713. 889, [Fitz- 

morris] (C) 57 
Mica in Intense Fields. 655 
Middlesbrough Technical College. 452 
MiDDLFKAUFF. G. W.. and Skoglanp. J. F. : 
Photometry of the Gas-filled Lamp, 240. 252 
Midland Railway (London, Tilbury & Southend 

Railway). 541 
Milestones on the Path of Progress, [Cooper] 

793 
Mine Hoist Calculations. 418 
Mining, Elec. Pov/er in, 3 

Mittag. a. H. : Higher Harmonics of Induc- 
tion Motors due to Winding Distribution, 9S? 
Models, Full Size, 70 



Monographs, The Electriciat', 520 
Montana Power Co., Elec. Power Plants of, 947 
Motor, Elevator, Tv/c-speed Alternatinf Cur- 
rent, 486 
Motor Generator Sets, Ball-bearings for, 677 
Motor, Polyphase Induction, Air-pap Field cf, 

[Chapman] 663, 705, 730, 904, 936 
Motors, Alternating-current, 309 
Motors, Continuous-current, Hire and Main- 
tenance of, [Joseph] !S5, 188, 205 
Motors, Elec, Displace Gas Engines, 679 
Motors, Induction, Higher Harmonics due to 

V/inding Distribution, [Mittag] 953 
Motors, Induction, Reconnecting, 419 
Municipal " Electrics " to the Fore, 577 
Municipal Extravagance, 197 
Municipal Tramways Association, 5£7, 622, 

[Annual Conference], 939 
Munition Worker, Skilled, Anomalous Position 

of. 704 
Munition Workers, Training, 289 
Munitions, Skilled Labour for, Provision of. 274 
MuNRo, H. N. : Elec. Lighting of Small Towns, 

353,358 
Museums, (Commercial, 441 



N 



National Physical Laboratory, 532, 553, 565 
593 

Naujqicz, R. : Rating of Incandescent Lamps 

According to their Watts, 710 
Naval Engagement, 307 
Naval Preparedness and the Civilian Engineer, 

898 
New South Wales, Pov/er Requirements and 

Resources of, (Corin] 491. 522 
New Zealand. Our Trade with. 921 
Newcastle Electric Supoly Co.. 274 
Newquay. 138, 165 

Nitrogen, An Active Modification of, 309 
NixDORFF, S. P., and A^EX^NCE.'^SGN, E. F. 

W. : Magnetic Amplifier for Radiotelephony, 

312 
Nobel Prizes, 520 

Nocturnal Transmission, Variations in, 275 
North-East Coast Institution of Engineers aad 

Shipbuilders, 622 
Norway, Domestic Elec. Appliances, 645 
Nottingham Society of Engineers, 757 



OBITUARY- 

Alexander, Pte. E.,933 

Allen. Lieut. H. D., 587 

Amey, Pte. W.,933 

Arberry, H., 310 

Ash,W. H.,487 

Bain, 2nd-Lieut. J. M., 555 

Baker, Capt. H. G., 757 

Baker, Lieut. D. S.,621 

Beales. A.. 310 

Beatty,2nd-Lieut. E. E. F., 454 

Bell, Lieut. S. W., 454 

Betts, A..933 

Bille. Harold, 723 

Blackburn, R.S.. 173 

Bodfish, H.,>933 

Boyd-Carpenter. Lieut. Victor C. D., 792 

Brock, T.W., 723 

Brockman. 2nd-Lieut. A. J., 689, 757 

Burniston, Pte. H.. 555 

Callaway, Sapper J. H. L., 622 

Carbonell. Lieut. W.C. 792 

Cassels. Lieut. F. L.. 621 

Caton.R.E..2nd-Lieut. F.W..454 

Challoner. Lieut. T.. 622 
Chamen. Lieut. H. A.. 689 
Chapman. Capt. J., 587 
Chasseriand, Capt. Rene, 487 
Chattock,Pte.C. A.,378 
Clayton, Pte. Roland, 656 
Collingwccd, Capt. C, 656 
Coombes. 2nd-Lieut. C. S., 487, 555 
Cressall,Lance-Cpl. F.,899 
Crookes, Lady, 207 
Crowther, Lieut. D. H.,723 
Curtis, Dr.C.W.. 621 
Davidson. Capt. J. S..487 
Davies, Lieut. 1., 899 

Davies, 2nd-Lieut. L. R.. 555 

Dennis. 2nd-Lieut., 656 

Dobson.S. T..487 

Donaldson. Sir H. F.,310 

Douglas. Capt. W. A.. 757 

Dyke. Lieut. G. B..207 

Dymott E..310 

Eason. Lieut. R. P.. 521 

Edinborough. 2nd-Lieut. N. D.. 521 

Eldridge.La.ice-Cpl. P. J. ,521 

Ellis, 2nd-Lieut.C.W., 521 

Esson, Prof. W., 723 

Fai+hfull, 2nd-Lieut. S. L., 723 

Fitch. Lieut. C.W.. 521 

Foukes. P. F.,933 

Franklin, Sir Geo., 933 

Freece, 2nd-Lieut. C. de, 656 

Fyfe, Lieut. Gilbert, 555 

Garnett, Flight-Lieut. W. H. S. 933 

Gatt.L..310 

Gerard. Eric. 3 . 

Gill. Company Sergt. Major H.. 521 

Goad. E.G.. 310 

Gow, Lieut. James L., 487 

Grerory, Pte. J., 621 



Obituary— continued. 

Griffiths. Capt. J.. 487 

Harris.C'.pt. L. A. P.,555 

Harvey, 2nd-Lieur. O. C 555 

Hasler.2nd-Lieut. C. B.,52! 

Hay, Admiral Lord John. 173 

Henderson-Begg, Cspt. J.. 621 

Hendry. Capt. J., 792. 899 

Hill. 2r:d-Li^ut.M.. 621 

Hoprett. 2r.d-Lieut. J. R.. 555 

Holden.2nd-Lieu*. J. R.,6£6 

Home. Capt. D.. 521 

Hughmar., Captain C. M., 933 

Ireland, J., 933 

Jephtctt. Pte. B.. 757 

Jescinsj.Capt. F. R.,621 

John.-.cn, Capt. R. D.. 521 

Johnson, Capt. W. M..521 

Keith. G., 689. 722 

Urdner,2nd-Lieut. D. A.,933: 

Lau?hton. Company Sergt. Major E. C., 587 

Liddiard, B., 933 

Lloyd, Pte. C, 757 

Lock, W. A., 933 

Lomas. Lieut. H..521 

Lonsdale.Capt.Thos. Wilkes, 344 

Lucey.C..521 

Lycett, 2nd-Lieut. W. B., 587 

Malloch. 2nd-Lieut. D. 899 

Martin, 2nd-Lieut. G. C, 656 

Massey,Pte. R.,757 

McLellan. Lieut. H. M.. 521 

M'Connell. Lieut. W. C., 521 

Meeson, Pte. A.. 521 

Milburn. Lieut. W. H., 555 

Mousley, E. A.,933 

Murphy, 2nd-Lieut. P. F., 521 

Noakes. Lieut. J.C.,933 

Noble. Pte. H..555 

Nuttall. 2nd-Lieut. A. A.. 689 

Palmer. Lieut. J. H..621 

Parker. C. 933 

Pickering-Clarke. 2nd-Lieut. J. N.. 555 

Poynting, Lieut. A.. 62! 

Princle. 2nd-Lieut. C. E.. 587 

Ramsay. Sir William . 554 

Rawscn, Lieut. S. M.. 621 

Reed. 2nd-Lieut.C.S.. 621 

Riding. Gunner J., 521 

Robbins, S.. 933 

Robertson. L. S..310 

Robertson. 2nd-Lieut. R. S.. 621 

Rose, Corp. A.. 933 

Ross. Sergt. A.. 621 

Rutherford. Capt. J. A.. 723 

Saw. Arthur C. 105 

Scott. Lieut. E. B. R..521 

Shaddick. 2nd-Lieut. C. G.. '/23 

Shorrocks. Sergt. E.. 587 

SiUars.Capt. H. F. L..521 

Simpson. Lieut. J. D.. 757 

Sissons. Lieut. N. L.. 899 

Sivewright. Sir James 792 

Smith. Capt. R. J.. 207 

Smith.2nd-Lieut. I C..71 

Stanley, W.. 310 

Stewart, J. E. M..276 

Storey, Lieut. F. G. D., 757 

Stott. J.. 139 

Swain. Pte. G. A.. 656 

Swarsbrick. D. H..933 

Talbot. Lieut. F. H.,622 

Tanner. C. P., 344 

Telby, L.-Corp. G.,933 

Thompson. 2nd-Lieut. G.. 899 

Thompson. S. P..35>-; 

Turner. Capt. H. K., 555 

Turner. Lieut. F.W.R.. 723 
Tweedy-Smith. Lieut. Douglas. 71 

Vaudrey. Capt. N., 521 

Vigers. 2nd-Lie'.it. L. L.. 587 

Ward. 2nd-Lieut. C. P.. 555 

Watkins. Rf!mn A. B.. 933 

Westonholme. Capt. C. S.. 6-2 

Wilkins. Lieut. T. 52! 

Wilkinson. Lieut. J. R.,344 

Wilson, Lieut. E..2C7 

Withv. Lieut. B..555 

Woodall.SirC..207 

Wood. Capt. A. Lee. 48. . 5zl 

Wood, Gunner R., 521 

Wood. Lance-Cpl.. 757 

Wordingham. Madelire. 2C7 

Worthington. A. C..310 

Wragg. Lieut. N. J.. 555 

Oil Switches. Tests on, [Wyssling] [S.^Bauer] 

588 
Oils. Insulating. 73 
OmniDu^es. Motor, and the Upkeep of the 

Ro.ids.l03. 131 
Organisation. National. 331 
Organisation of British Engineering Industry, 

342 
Oscillating Circuits. Elec. Coupling of, 722 
Osmotic Pressure. 654 
Output. Influence of Hours of Work. 932 
Ovens. Electric. 452 

Overhead Electric Lines. 791 „ . , 

Owen, D. : Laws of Variation of Resistance 

with Voltage at a Rectifying Contact of Two 

Solid CondVtors. with Api lications to the 

Elec. Wave Detector. 910 
Oxford. New Chemical Laboratories, 377^ 



Paints. Self-Lumincus. 932 
Palladium and Hydrogen, 689 
P.ari" Trade Conference. 4r9 



I 



I 



" The Blectrlclan," 
October 13, 1»1«. 



INDEX. 



VOL. LXXVII. 



PABLIAMKNTABY INTKI.I.I- 
OENCE - 

As;enu for the Purchiie c' Indian Mies, t4'- 

Boiler T.(>e;, 711 

Comi^ifiy v/ith Alien Enemy Shareholder.:. 

576 
DayliiihtSavinp. 196 
Defe'icc of the Realm (Acquisition of Lan': 

B:l!.''/)7 
E!' '. Gas Supply, Proposed Limita- 



Ei' 
Er 

c 
c. 

O 

Ir- 



N 
P 

Sh- 



!' 



440, 543 



.'Xi ol Elec. Supply Unde:- 
V 

•,ment (Emergency ProvUionij 

•' • Water Power, 678 
-.473 

.hire Elec. 
«£ Electricity Supply, 474 



t.94 
,1, 543, 646, 711 

/(Coypright)(No.2, 



s..- 

T' 

Tel- . 

T-; 

Tr 
Tr 

B..1. t'.6 
Tradini? With the Enemy. 677 

Ur- • ;74 

W ;08, 678 

Wl ... .,:... A'ages, 678 

Paiuhai ! , H F. : Electric Traction, 824 
" P;>'' ■ ' ntej Nascetur Ridirulus Mus ' 

(" ' .nun Sum '") (C), 506 

■■'•.\ 

in Large Cltiei 

'" ■ , <*?i9 

670 

\i'i'.. 273, .-.ci 
■ C C. : Evolution o( Electric Lamp. 

^T ", C. K. : Elec. Power In Slate Ouarries. 

'•. Protperity, Preparedn«H and Probity, 
241 

.• \j-:\- ..•..'. • ■ ■::?, 
11- J .• . ( W : L •; of High Continuous 
VI- ..-- on Air, Oil and Solid Insulationi, 
721 •/J4 

•••' . . tr o - ' 'i,.velotimentofTr«n»- 

'■ 118,424 

_ :.imijtry, 867 



PCR80NAI#— 

A>.' V/, H.. 420 

Ar.Kww., RE,. Major A, S .36 

Atklnicn. Pte. C W 521 

AU-- '■ ■ ■ r- ... 



Br 
Br 

Bt 



r>? 



:. F..454 
,723 



-.7 



' . ..' ft 
). H .344 

-.RE.Capt. H..38 
•Lieut. T. 276 



ClidKe, , 

Crook**, 
Daviat.F. H ..' V 
Dlcklnaon. H,.93J 
Dobton. f- ' ' "430 
Donald* i M, 899 

ErsVinr, 1 

U,36 

lo«. t j.. /;>; 

Clhhs. H. P.. 139 
,,,.. ... . . ^^ 

1 
,1 



38 



H.. 
H. 



H. 



I r 



M- 

M 

M- 

M< 
M 



N 
N 



A. 521 
A 757 



•I 

.627 
N.55S 



1 

I .521 

I 

1,173 
*■ S.487 

' . H.. 139 
>y.37t 



P e rsonal— con//>: ued. 

Par.kiriScn.A-M..207 
Paterv-.n.C.C, 105 
Pearcor., 2nc-L:e'jt. A. J., 689 
Pri'.r-!^ P J 173 
•' it. R. S..521 

lion F.. 38 
3 
F.I 4. 105. 173.207,276, 

.^,, ...■,. 487. 555,723.757,792, 

933 
5V .trccVr.A. H..276 
C.W..521 
R E Lieu'. A. C. 38 
H. C..723 



A. 487. 555 
933 
Weymoutr,. G , o/* 
Williams. J. R.. 521 
Wcrthington.T..899 
Yarrow, Bart, Sir A. F..3I0 

Pescara River, Hydroelectric Station on. 758 
Pp-si,- t F. : Mechanical Stresses in Trans- 



-IcCsr, 554 



f- 



Spark, 554 
331 



cy Meier. 351 
,.>,,.,,, . \tx Resistance of Iron Wires 
with the Temperature on Alternate- 
current Circuits, 125 
PS,' ;: meter, Ricker. 36 
P;, tr r:,<;"v '^f th» Cis-filled Lamp, (Middle- 

kauff ur..: :" 240, 252 

Pr,-, ^ic.-.l M' i other Problems. 636 

■•■-'"-■' '•■2. (Owen. 

• (Smith. 

West 

•iithsi 437. (Shaw a'nd Hayes! 

643 

h'j,.'.°. Uiieconomical c. Capital Expenditure, 

486 
P " ' r i'sionCurrerts from. 418 

1 nes and Steam Enitines 

. .. „ ....,,.■. ....•;. 688 
P** Office Electrical Engineers' " Journal," 

17,1 
F' Engineering Dept., New Head- 

-.20 
y - - gg^ 

f rj.'tic Curves, 

y -c . |Merz)915 

P . _ . _ :.342 

P'.*er Stations. Elec.. Development, [Hunter] 

&38 
P' vVing's Theorem and Hysteresis. jPressl 

'C, 57 
P' ; .rrdness. 898 
Pcf ■ , A. : Poynting's Theorem and Hysteresis, 

\'^\ " J. W. : Rural Development of Trans- 
rr.i-Mon Lines in Eastern Pennsvlv.ini.i, 418, 
424 

Prim- M^ver?,??^* 

y ' ~ R.-. 

■779 



Pr- \ \-v.- . A 
,.. .. , ., 

y 
y 

I 



, o 



...59 
Efficiency of. 



932 



• latlon to Engineering 

. ■ .; Ram. 70 

Pi.r- ;•. Sinking. Electrically-driven, 116 



P Body, 38 

'■ J J. Tho«n»on on. from Atoms 

<n» {cw:> rued from Vol. LXXVI.), 



Railway Practk- 

-1 J -J.. 1 ^H-i 



•^AiSt. Paul. 308 
Itagt D.C.. IRen- 



KAILWAY.S ELECTRIC 



'wsv, ?»• 



: Railway EtKtriAcation. 

.114 



654 



Rvlways. N an of. 363 

P - -^ - 

III.; 



I """fin; -> _ rv'P 



Stuarl. 



Ray!.ep.-Si/.it.h, P. : Electrical Diagrams, 72 
Reactor, Properties of, with Iron Cere and 

Air-gap, (SanoJ 567 
Reforms after the War, 263 
Registration of Business Narr.es, 713 
R^ulators. Feeder Voltage. 757 
Rf!.;hav/. C. : High-voluge D.C. Railway 

Pr:.ctice. 489 
Research. Committee, Engineering, 377 
Research. Engineering, 623 
Research, Engineering and Scientific, [Fleming] 

137. 156 
Research, Irdustria!, 206 
Research, Industrial, Mr. A. P. M. Fleming en, 

35,39 
Research. Orpanised, and " Sweating."! 
Research, Scientific and Industrial, Report of 

the Committee of the Privy Council, 768, 772, 

885 
Research, Scientific, in United States and 

Jap:.-,. 898 
Receirch. Technical, [Swinburne] 836 
Resistance. Laws of Variation of, with Voltage 

at a Rectifying Contact of Two SoliJ Con- 
ductors with Applications to the Electric 

Wave Detector, [Owen] 910 

REVIEWS OF BOOKS- 

A. B.C. of Electricity, IMeadowcroft] 156 

Aeroplanes and Airships. (Dommett] 504 

Alternating Currents : Tlieir Elements Ex- 
plained and Their Calculation Effected 
Without the U.";e of Hyperbolic Functions. 
[Kempe] 739 

British Destiny; Principles of Progress. 
[DunlopJ 156 

Continuous-Current Engineering, [Hay] 671 

Direct-Current Machines, Principles of 
(LanpsdorfJ 53 

Dynamo-Elec. Machinery, Principles oT, 
[Bailey] 87 

Electrical Apparatus Making for Beginners 
(Ballhatchet]223 

Electricity. Treatise on. [Pidduck] 155 

Engineers' Year Book of Forniul-r, Rules 
Tables. Data and Memoranda for 1916, 
I Kern pe], 671 

Every Boys" Book of Electricity. 739 

Heat-Power Engineering Elements. (Hirsh- 
field & Barnsrdj 121 

Machine Design, (Smith & Marx] 122 

Magnetism ii Electricity, Intermediate Text- 
Book of, [Woodhouse] 739 

Material. Mechanical Handling and Storing 
of. (Zimmer]503 

Materials of Construction. Structure and 
Properties of the more Common, [Upton] 
223 

Mechanical Engineers' Pocket Book. [Kent] 
672 

Mechanics, Elementary Applied, [Alexander 
& Thomson] 705 

Meteorological Treatise on the Circulation 
and Radiation in the Atmospheres of the 
Earth and of the Sun, [Bigelcw] 603 

Overhead Transmission Lines and Distri- 
buting Circuits : Their Design and Con- 
struction. [KapperJ291 

Physical Chemistry. Principles of. Intro- 
duction to. [Washburn] 53 

Physics, Experimental. A Text-Book of 
Mechanics. Heat, Sound and Light, 
(Wilson) 470 

P' ■ tiral Phyiiics, Text-Books of, [Allen & 
•■ re] 223 

...ly. Elec. [Buck] 87 

ReUtivity and the Electron Theory, [Cun- 
ningham) 291 

■:.« and the Atom. [Erwin] 603 
■•3 Station.s, Exr^rimcntal. Their 
.., r^.., .. ""-nstruction and Opera- 



1 



4©^ 



"i Telephony. [Eccles] 



Richard.. J. W. : Mcialiu.'gy of Rarer Metab. 
675 

RcBFRT- '" ■ '^ ; 

Mode ,.mpod Oscillations by 

, 934 
R ' ■ i. Com- 

loit. MA 
Rr5"KrMi»NR M, and CousK, F. A.: Auto- 
Dcvlca for Direct-currert 



■«rd Co. Shipyard Crane?. 

"! 139 174 



5A4 

: 1 . 154 



P. Thompson. 435 
KusKian. import Outtai. 442 

8 

SANt- H I S : An Enclosed Cadmlu 



S«- 



Weactor With Iron Ccrr 

8». 75 

. all 
Excitation of Synchroncu; 



40 



F. : Probtctn of Voltaee Tra- 
142 
Scict^ctr. A Ministry of, (Donnan] 466, Ml 



Science and Industry, Sir William Beardmore 

on, 171, 195 
Science and the State, 308, 329 
Science, Applied, 104 
Science ; Business Side of, Its Part in the 

Coming Economic Crisis. 50 
Science in Education, Place of, [Fleming] 486, 

496 
Science in Examuiations, 173 
Science in Industry, 263 
Science. Neglect of. [Ackermann] (C) 575 
Science Students, Selected, Exemption for, 453 
Scientific Management, Factors in, 18 
Scotland. Elec. Winding in. 3 
•• Seek and Ye Shall Find." 69 
Spries-motors, Determining the Grading of 
Starting and Brake Resistances for, [Erensi 
(C) 57, [Garrard] (C) 92 
Servantless Flat. 163 
Sewer Construction, Electricity in, ^8 
Shaft Speeds, Critical. 520 
Shanghai Electricity Supply, 197 
Shaw, P. E., and Hayfs, C. : Sensitive 

Magnetometer. 708 
Shefr.eld, Electric Steels at. 173 
Shefneld, Obsolescence at. 485 
Shenver, Cl. : Distribution of Magnetic Flux 
in Commutating Zone of Direct-current 
Machines. 10 
Shepard, E. R. : Modem Practice in the Con- 
struction and Maintenance of Rail Joints 
and Bonds in Electric Railways, 126 
Shielding. Magnetic. 554 
Ships, British. Wireless Telegraphy on, 620 
Short-circuit Current, Approximate Method of 
Calculating in an Alternating-current Sys- 
tem, [Wilson] 696 
Short-circuit Problems, Approximate Solution 

of. (Merrick] 694 
Shot Firing. 36 

Signalling, Elec, With Bare Wires, 619.638 
SiLSBEE, F. B. : Inductance of Conductors at 

Close Spacings. 945 
Silver Furnace Fume. Treatment by Cottrtll 

Process, [Aldnch] 559 
Sinecure and a Suggestion. 452 
Skilled Labour for Munitions. Provision of, 274 
Skin Effect in Strap Conductors. 70 
Skin-effect Problems. Application of Telephone 

Transmission Formula. [Howe] 739 
Skogland. J. F.. and Middlficauf^. G. W. : 
Photometry of the Gas-filled Lamp. 240. 252 
Method of Exhibiting the Velccity of Iodine 
Ions in Solution. 255 
Slate Quarries. Elec. Power in. [Pa ton] 421 
Sloan. R. P. : Fuel Economy on the Norfh- 
East Coast as a Result of Electric Power 
Supply, 917 
Smit;-:. H. L. : Adapting Direct<urrent Motors 

to Changed Conditions. 657 
Smith. P. H. : Precautionary Measures to 
Adopt to Prolong the Life of Diesel Engine 
Crankshafts. 642 
Smith. S. P. : Notes on Design of Electro- 
magnetic Machines, 280, 290. 320. 360. 427. 
461. 493, 528 
SyiTH. S. W. J. : 

Experiments With Filaments Heated Elec- 
trically in Volatile Liquids. 177 
Migration of the Ions, 498 
Smoke, Fume and Dust Problems. Solution of, 

by Electrical Precipitation. [Bradley) 152 
Snyder Electric Furnace. X8 
Society of Arts. 454 
Sound. Absorption of. 2 
South Africa. Electrical Prospects, 687. 694 
South Africa. Power Line Poles in. 654 
South African Possibilities. 418 
Spain. Elec. Manufactures. 781 
Spanish Patent Law. 407 

Specifications. American ''■^ Frrpi- Ti ;.^(> 2 
"Speeding-up" in an ' v, 

(Rankin] 90. 103. i. , .Tt. 

Carney) (Cl 193. 261. (Carney, Bi^,.»;lehurst, 
Stevens] (Cl 161 
Speejine-up in Fai • 
Stalwart Cast-iron ^ :i76 

Standard:'-"'-' "' ■■ ^ oc: vice. 899 

Ste.I.Cc: 
Sieel.Ge: i _ ■ :. IHadfield) 600. 6IK 

(Wood) (Citv4 
Steel Industry. Elec. 452 
Steel. Iron and Coke. Maximum Prices. 164 
Steel Mills. Motor-drive lor. (Crosby) 4S1. 455 
Steel Test inc. 791 
Steels. Electric, at Sheffield, 173 
Steinmftx. Dr. C. P. : Lisht and Illumination. 

40.62 
Steven-, G. C. : (C) Speeding-up in an Engi- 
neering Factory. 162 
Slock Transfers and Trading With the Enemy, 

441 
SroNF, F. L. : Crown Mines Hoist Installation. 

913 
Storage Battery Car. 274 
Stctt H C. . Power Generation for Elec. 

R lib 

Sire, ,nical in- Transformers, (Peters) 5 

Stuaft. H. ; (C) Speeding-up in an Enrineer- 

inp Factorv, 194 
Sut- - ■ " • ■" ■ --SOI 

Sui e39 



•3 



(Switch- 



s- 

Sw;- 

P 
Svn... . 

140 



iixports to. 713 
F J : Technical Re.'earch. 836 

: (C« Elec. Discharges in Sub- 

' Central Stations and Isolated 

. -. Machines, Excitation of. [Schou] 



VOL. LXXVII. 



INDEX. 



f'The EiectricUn," 



1»16. 



Tapping Blast Furnaces Electrically, 24! 
Tars and Tar Gils as Fuel, 3C8 
Tasmanian Government Undertakings, 520 
Technical Education, 418 

Technical Education and thn" Daily Mail, "376 
Technical Education and the Lay Press. 738 
Technical Education, LAshtonJ (C) 195, [Den- 
ton J i.C) 227, 241 
Technical Education for Apprentices, 553 
Technical Education, Higher, After War, 688 
Technical Teachers, 376 
Technical Training, Sir R. Hadfield and^>377 

■■■•si- 

TELEGRAPHY- 

American Submarine Cables, 892 
Australian Telegraph Service, 28 
Cheaper Telegraph Service, 138, 166 
Fanning Island Cable, Restoration, 173 
Finance of Telegraph Service, 138 
Inland Telegraph Service, 166 
Land Telegraphy, Story of, [Harrijon] 798 
New Zealand Telegraphs and Telephones. 783 
P.O. Telegraph and Telephone Administra- 
tion, 200 
Submarine Telegraphy,' Speed of, [Raymond- 
Barker] 808 
Swiss Government Telegraphs and Tele- 
phones. 749 
Telegraph & TelepihoneBreakdown, 28 
Western Elec. Printing Telegraph System, 

211 
Western Union Cable System, 166 " ' 



TEtEPHONY- 

Argentina, Telephony in, 131', 924 

Automatic Telephony, Progress, 59 

Dudley, 892 
' Earth Connections for Telephone Exchanges, 
[Grinsted] 672 

Fortieth Anniversary of the Telephone, 36 

Hull Municipal Telephone System, 547 

Installation, Telephone, 444 

London Telephone Service. Growth, 444 

Long-Distance and Cable Telephony (Under- 
ground and Submarine) [Cohen & Hill]627, 
660.691,724 

Long-Distance Telephony, 343. [Cohen] 814 

Nev/ York-Havana Telephonic Communica- 
tion, 892 
' Paisley Automatic Telephone Exchange, 
547, [Hedley] 698 

Portsmouth, 166 

Revenue, Telephone, 366 

Selective Telephones, 486 

Story of the Telephone, [Kingsbury] 812 

Telephone Charges 28 

Telephonometry, [Cohen] 244. 276 
' Tientsin Telephone System, 28 

Trunk Telephone Service, 334 



Temperatures, High, Methods and Appliances 
for the Attainment of, in the Laboratory, 14 

Termini, Railway Goods, 25 

Thermc-Elements, Protected, 756 

Thermopile, An Absolute, [Coblentz and 
Emerson] 606 

Thiemh, Paul : Automatic Earthing Protec- 
tive Device, 726 

Thompson, M. De Kay, and Crocker, E. C. : 
Depolarisation in Leclanche Cells. 124 

Thomson, Sir J. J. : On Radiation from Atoms 
and Electrons, (Continued from Vol. LXXVI.) 
13, 88, 118 

Thompson, The Late Prof. S. P.. 377, 435, 
[Bright] (C) 473, [Eborall] (C) 506, [Bright] 
iRa worth] (C) 540 

Thornton, W. M. : Influence of Pressure on 
the Electrical Ignition of Methane, 775 



Timber, Elec. Treatment of, 343 

ToRCHio, P. : Construction of High-tension 

Cable Joints, 878, 391 ' 
Traction, Electric, [Parshall] 824 
Trade, After-War, 25 
Trade, After-War. and Key Industries, 921 
Trade After the War, 129, 241, 297, 365, 441, 

520,781, 918,958 
Trade After the War, Financial Support for, 475 ' 
Trade After the War, Government Committee, 

104 
Trade After the War, The Allies and, 375 
Trade, American with Australia, 197 
Trade and Traders, Reflections on, 434 
Trade, Bri+ish in S. America, 781 
Trade, Foreign and American. Specificaticns, 2 
Trade of the Empire After the War, 59. 263 
Trade Policy After the War. Imperial, 577 
Trade Products of the Empire, 545 
Trading With Firms in British Protectorates, 

263 
Trading With Firms in Neutral Countries. 5C9 
Trading With the Enemy, 263, 957 
Trading With the Enemy, Preventing, 713 
Tramway Transit and Ccmfort [Robson], 464 
Tramways and Light Railways Association, 

276, 463 
Tramways, Elec, Maintenance of, 721 
Tramwavs, Utilisation of for Goods Traffic, 

[Holford and Clough] 931. 943 
Transformation, Voltage, Problem [Schoter] 

;42 
Transformer, Alternating-Current, Predeter- 
mination of High Harmonics when the Im- 
pressed E.M.F. is a Simple Harmonic Func- 
tion of the Time [Dean] 325 
Transformer Design, [Denton] 43, 78, 113, 147, 

181 
Transformer, Million-volt Experimental, De- 
sign of, [Bayley] 35, 42 
TrartSformers, Instrument [Garrard], 499, 537 
Transformers, Mathematical Design of, [Robert- 
son] 934 
Transformers, Mechanical Stresses in, [Peters] 5 
Transformers, Open Delta Connection for 

[Gibbs] 727 
Transformers, Portable, in Film Productions, 

655 
Transporters. 2 
Trotter, A. P. : 

Daylight Saving, (C) 226 
Improvements in the Sensitiveness of Ap- 
paratus at the B.O.T. Electrical Standards 
Laboratory. 851 
Truth is Stranger than Fiction, 653 
Tungsten Arc under Pressure, [Luckey] 947 
Tungsten Filaments, Characteristics of as 
Functions of Temperature, [Langmuir] 742 
Turbine-driven Alternators, 346 
Turbine, Steam, 45,000 kw.. 453 
Turbo-Alternator Unit, 30,000 kw., 690 
Turbo-Alternator, Unusual Foundation for 

[Knight] 122, 104 
Turbo-Generators, Steam, Performance of 

30,000 kw.. 311. 324. 376 
Two-Thousandth Issue, 789, [Kennelly] (C) 950 



Unemployment Insurance, 781 

United Kingdom Trade with Australia, 95 

United States, Exports to, 679 

Units, Electrical, Dimensions of, [Ascoli] 17 

University College, New Chemical Laboratories, 

2. 16, 208 ■• 
" Unto Him that Hath Shall be Given," 755 
U.S.A. and S. American Market, 95 
U.S.A. and S. American Trade, 297, 475, 545 
U.S.A. Development of Electric Cooking, 25 
U.S.A. Electrical Exports, 679 
U.S.A., Electrical Manufacturers in. 163 
U.S.A. Exports to S. America, 645 
U.S.A., Foreign Trade of, 612 
U.S. Anti-Dumping Legislation, 713 



Vacuum Detectors [Cohen] (C) 951 
Vacuum-Fusion, Effect of, upon Mapnetic 

Properties of Pure Open Hearth Iron, 

(Yensen 1519, 533 
Vehicle, Elec, Committee, 139, 174, 454, 587, 

622 : 

Vehicle, Elec.,Committee, Report of, I.M.E.A.. 

433 
Vehicle, Elec, Future of, 4C9' 
Vehicle, Elec, Progress 'Aoril 28, May 26, 

June 23, July 28, Aug. 25, Sept. 29) 
Vehicle, Railless Trolley Battery, at Bradford, 

225 
Vehicles, Edison Battery, in Municipal Service, 

[Watson] 399 
Vehicles, Electric, Demountable Bodies for, 

586, [demountable] (C) 643 
Vehicles, Elec, Import of American, 713 
Vehicles, Elec, Refute Collecting by, 17 
Vehicles, Lights on, 206 
Velocity of Iodine Ions in Solution, Method of 

Exhibiting, [Smith] 255 
Ventilation, Forced, 342, 654 
Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker, 274, 723 
Victoria Falls Pov/er Scheme, 889 
Vogelsang, M. : Use of Carbon Tetrachloride 

(Benzinoform) with High-tension Sv/itcher, 

540 
Voltameter, Silver, Volume Effect in a, 655 
Voltmeter, Electrostatic, Construction of, 

[Wolcott] 702 



w 



Walchensee Waterfall in Bavaria, Prcpoied 
Development of, 343 

Walker, Miles : Dynamo-electric Machinery, 
1878-1916,817 

Walmsley, R. M. : The Nation, the Appren- 
tice and the Polytechnic, 871 

War Material Order, 577 

War Work. 377 

Warrilow, W. E. : Publicity and its Relation 
to Engineering Work, 887 

Water Heating, Elec, as Applied to Domestic 
Service, [Crosbie] 762 

Water-Power Development, " Biggest Things " 
in , 569 

Water Power, Modern Developments, 36 

Water-powers of the World, 898 

Watson, W. H. L. : Edison Battery Vehicles 
in Municipal Service, 399 

Watts vrrsus Wallpaper, 688 

Wave-lengths in the Iron Spectrum, 343 

Weinberger, J. : Design of the Audio-Fre- 
quency Circuit of Quenched Spark Trans- 
mitters, 504 

Welding. Electric, [Sauer] 69, 75 

West. G. D. : Method of Measuring the Pres- 
sure of Light by Means of Thin Metal Foil, 
741 

Westinghouse, American Works Strike, 206 

Wheat, H. C. : Efficiency of Projectors and 
Reflectors, (C) 23 

Whitsun Holiday, 273 

Wile Electric Furnace, 601 

Wile, R. S. : Elec. Furnace Melting of Ferro- 
Alloys. 356 

Wilkinson. G. : Problem of the Small Genera- 
ting Station , 348, 358 

Will, 620 

Wii.lcox, F. -V. : (C) Evolution of the Elec. 
Lamp, '^50 

Williams, E. I. : Electricity Supply of Great 
Britain. 45. (Discussicn) 80, 86. 175. 249, 
[Williams] (C) 438 

Wilson, D. : Boiler Development, 1882-1916,- 
840 

Wilson. H. R. : Approximate Method of 
Calculating Short-circuit Current in an 
Alternating-current System, 696 

Winding, Elec, in Scotland, 3 

Wire, Zinc, 2 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY AND 
TELEPHONY- 

Aeroplanes, Wireless or. 654 
Arc Oscillations in Coupled Circuits. 756 
Atlantic Radiotelegraph Service, 2C0 
Audio-Frequency Circuit of Q'-ienched Spark 

Transmitters, Design of, 'Weir.teretr" X ; 
Aistraliar; Government Radiotelegraph Et- 

/ice, 20O • 
Australian tcvernirent Wireless Apparatus 

Factory, 924 
Australian Radio Service, 166 
Austraho.'-. Wireless Service, 749 
Bolivia, Raciotelegraphy in, 200 
Britisn A.sscciaticn Radioteleeraphic In- 
vestigations, 791 
Canadian Radio Service, 654 
Chaffee Gap, 688 
Crystal Detectors, 655 
Detector, Elec Wave, Laws of Variation cf 

Resistance with Voltage at a Rectifying 

Contact of Two Solid Conductors with 

Application to the, [Owen] 910 
Detectors in Wireless Telegraphy, 756 
Oscillations, Damped, A Mode of Studying 

by the Aid of Shrinking Vectors. [Robert- 
son] !C6 
Oscillations, Electrical, from Mercury Vapour 

Tubes, [LiebOAitz] 144 
Oscillograms, Amplitude and Phase of the 

Higher Harmonics in, [Hov/e] 149 
Patents, Recent, in Radiotelegraphy and 

Radiotelephony, [Eccles] 571, 595 
Radiotelegraph Antenn-r. Calculation of 

Caoacity including Effects of Masts and 

Buildings, (Howe] 761, 880 
Radiotelegraph Notes, 301. 646, 924 
Radiotelegraphy, 63. 131, 334 
Radiotelegraphy : A Retrosoect of Twenty 

Years, [Fleming] 831 
Radiotelephony, Magnetic Amplifier. [Alex- 

anderson & Nixdorff] 104. 312 
Radium Antennge, [Leimer] 82 
Research, Wireless Telegraph, 25 
Ships, British, Wireless Telegraohy on, 620 
Small Power Wireless Installation. 398 
Transformers, Radiotelegraphic, 2C6 
U.S.A. Wireless Telephony, 200 
Waves. Elec. Tranimission of. Around the 

Earth's Surface, 419 
Wireless Communication of Speech. Methods 

Employed for the, [Courtey] 7 
Wireless Telephony, Future of, 585 
Women Wireless Operators, 783 

Wires, Silicon-Bronze, of 1, ceo ft. Span. 172 
Wiring Practice in Germany under War Con- 
ditions, 417, 426 
Wolcott, E. R. : Construction of an Electro- 
static Voltmeter, 702 
Women. Employment of, 619 
Women in Elec Supplv Service. 487 
Wood, H. G. : German Bounty-fed Steel, (C) 
674 

WORKS, DESCRIPTION OF. 

Metropolit.an Elec. Supply Cc."s Accumulator 
Sub-Staticn. 54 

Wyssling, Dr. : Tests on Oil Switches, 8 



X-Ray Spectrometer, Recording, 899 
X-Rays and Radicg-aphy. Recent Prceress 

[Kaye] 861 
X-Rays, Maximum Frequencies of. 36 



Yensfn, T. D. : Effect of Vacuum-Fusicn 
upon the Magnetic Properties of Pure Open- 
Hearth Iron. 519, 533 

Yorkshire Mining Elec. Engineers, 17t 



Zinc. Coating Metals with. 501 

Zinc Manufacture. 521 

Zinc. Occurrence and Uflitaticn of, 7C3 

Zinc Smelting, 365 



Municipal, Foreign and General Notes. 



ELEC. SUPPLY- 
' Extensions. 

Aberdeen, 265 

Accrington, 61, 96, 165 

Aldershot , 959 

Altrincham, 96 

Ashton-under-Lyne, 681 

Aylesbury, 479 

Barnes, 96 

Barrow, 647 

Battersea, 198, 332, 715, 890 

Belfast, 332 

Bexley, 61 

Birkenhead, 96 

Bolton, 96 

Bo'ness, 27, 198, 298 

Bradford, 61,333, 578 922 

Bristol, 511 

Burton-on-Trent, 647, 681 

Cardiff, 96 

Carlisle, 231 



Carnarvon, 61, 265, 410 

Chesterfield, 714 

Colwyn Bay, 298 

Derby, 578, 647 

East Ham, 27 

Edinburgh, 578 

F'llham (London), 198. 479, 

612, 959 
Glasgow, 366 
Greenock, 165, 199, 410 
Halifax, 199 
Hammersmith (London), 199, 

333 
Haslingden, 511 
Heston & Isleworth, 165 
Ilford, 27. 298. 714 
Islington (London), 265 
Kingston-on-Thames, 298 
Kirkcaldy, 511, 890 
Leeds, 130, 298, 782 
Leek, 681 
London County Council, 130, 

231,612 



Loughborough, 366 
Luton, 130, 479, 578 
Nelson, 130 

Newcastle (Down), 366 
Newport (Mon.), 714 
Poplar, 579, 959 
Rawtenstall,891 
Rochdale, 199 
Rotherham, 61. 366 
St. Pancras (London), 130 
Salford,27, 479, 782 
Sheffield, 62, 199, 366, 511. 

647. 782, 891 
Shoreditch (London), 231 
Stafford, 130,681 
Stalybridge, 442 
Sunderland, 366 
Swansea,96, 410, 891 
Wakefield, 366, 922 
Walsall, 199,511 
Walthamstow, 298, 579, 782 
Watford, 62 
West Ham, 265, 442 



Wigan, 199, 410, 511 
WiUasden, 265 
Wimbledon. 612 
Wolverhampton, 62, 96, 199, 

333,411 
Woolwich, 479, 612 
Worcester, 511 
Yorkshire, 366 

General. 

Aberdeen, 62, 165, 333, 356, 

891 
Accrington, 265 
Aldershot, 714, 959 
Alnwick, 681 
Amesbury, 748 
Ardsley,959 
Aylesbury, 411, 546 
Ballybav (Ireland), 782 
Barnes. 231,367, 546 
Barnsley, 479 
Battersea (London), 62, 511 



Beckenham, 442 
Bedford, 367, 715. 959 
Bedworth (Warwickshi.e), 

612 
Belfast. 62. 546 
Belturbet (Ireland). 579 
Bermondsey (London). 647 
Bethnal Green (London), 265. 

612 
Bingley. 479 
Birkenhead, 367 
Birmingham, 298. 333 
Bolton, 367. 443 
Bootle. 199 
Bradford. 130. 546 
Bradford-Shipley Lioking-Up 

Scheme. 748 
Bradninch.959 
Brav, 511 ' 
Bridlington. 27. 96 
Brighton, 96 
Bristol, 130,959 
Burnley, 199 



Burton-on-Trent. 199 

Callington. 681. 922 

Carnarvon. 546 

Charges. Increase of. for 
Electrical Energy. 511. 546, 
579, 513, 647, 923. 959 

Chatham. 959 

Chenstcw. 681 

Chi-swick, 782 

Citv of London, 27, 298, 367 

Coal Supplies, 62, 231,367 

Colwyn Bay. 443 

Conistcn. 891 

Coventry, 443 

Croydon, 265, 959 

Cumberland. 298 

Dartmouth. 62 

Darwen. 367, 479 

Derby, 511 

Dewsbury, 923 

Dublin, 231, 298, 748,782 

Dundalk. 782 

Dundee, c81 



" tlie Clectrtcian 
Oot«b?r l.'i, 1616. 



1 



im)EX. 



VOL. LXXVII. 



Municipal, Foreign and General Notes. — Continued. 



E/iir.p, 231, 367, 411 

Eir,t;>ourrie, 27 

E':irr,.;rt'h, 27, 165. 511, 68'. 

El'-' l.-r 'inp OrdTi. 613 

El'-,!r.ci Enorg/, RfM-.ti 
Charges, 691 

Elc.ct-icity & G^'s Supply, 299 

E: 00^,891 

E-'.r..f.l3 

P, - '■'? 

f . i3, 546 

■ . . „ rny, 62 

Fiilham (London). 62. 333 

C-ii Fuf-I (orEI'-ctrici-./Wo.'k:. 
923 

Cillinc'ham, 367, 411, 443 

'V --il. 748, 923 

' 479 

'. -.3 

< 165 

'. . iO 

H.-.oiTiey (London). 579 

H.-. mil ion. 579 

H.immertmith (London), 62. 
479 

Himpitead (Lon<'.on), 443 

Hcton & Isleworth, 479 

H,- XI. :/ 748 

f' ''46 

I ■ '3. 443 

h /15 

I !, 443. 715 

H...,, ^i'j 

llkr-!on. 333 

InKU-lon. 165 

l-.lioKton (London). 96 

It.-hPn. 199.411 

Keiehley. 299 

Klnp.ilon-on Thame*. 27. 479 

K 547 

K 231 

L : .. 782 

Lc«! !■(, 27 

Lcfk. 479 

LricestT, 165 

Linklnfj-Up or Bulk Supply, 

923 
Liverpool. 333 
LI ■ • " •■ ?99 

I. njy Council, 479 

L' ii Supply r'-t.^-r-i'v 

613 
Lotii;h'jorouph. 681 
Luton, 647 
Maidstone. 333 
M.-ilton,27 
M.iivcrn, 647 
M' ■■ "-27. 130.613 
M 1^ 

U I Lender ), 27 1 

Morecamb". 748 

Munjrirrij Con'rac! wild A'j:;- 

tro-G^rriian ControllH Co , 

M7 
Muri'"iiial!/ian',96 
Nrlv)-). 231 
N'-wcantlr (St.fls.). 199 

N" '>'» (M.in 1. 923 

N 1.18. 165 

N .tt.959 

N ' 

N 199 

O! 13 

Orm^KlrK 749 

Pinner. 411 

Plymouth. 231. 792 

Poplar (Lnndn'il 27 97, O.W 

r 



,.. 



I-' 
Rhyl. 

p 
p 
p 



959 
i I I 
tr. 2/, 411, 749 
97 

443. 782 
t9. 891 



the Sea. 199 
511.613 



Shrciuc^, JUi 



I 



SheT,':-;, 62. 411, 512. 547, 

646, 661, 923 
Shir- ton-on-Stour, 959 
Sl.ithwaite U.D.C. Elec. 

Lii- - .' Order. !9I4, 443 
Sou- 959 

S.L'. '..ng-UoSchems, 

579 
Southe-id-on-Sea , 97. 41 1 . 682 

959 
S. Shields, 891 
Stafford, 265 
Stalybridf. 749 
Stirljr.i?. 27, 749 
Stockport, 682 
Stoc<cton-on-Te»;, M8 
Stoke-or -Trent, 165, 273, 299 
Street. 265 
Stretford, 891 
Sutton Coldfield, 367 
Swansea, 232, 923 
Swinton, 412 
Teienmouth. 131 
Torquay, 27, 62, 199. 648 
Tottenham, 613 
Tynemou'h, 265 
Walsall, 62, 412, 891.959 
V/althamsto;-. 443 
Walton. 412 
Wilton-on-Thames. .579 
Watford, 97, 131.960 
We^t Bromwich, 367 

1,367 
'.2,23? 

Weybrid(;f . 367. 632, 960 

Whitehaven. 232 

Wiran, 62, 924,960 

Willesden. 579 

Wimbledon, 62, 199, 512 

Wrol-j^i:h, 131 

Worcester, 782. 960 

Workmen's Dwellint^s. Light- 
ing of, 62 

Worksop. 62. 749 

Worthing, 27 

Wolverhampton, 512. 613 

Yeovil. 512 

YorkshireLinking-UpScheme. 
479 

LIGHTING. 

^ ■' , .lie;..iKi), 412 

M 

■ I. 613 
1. ■ ■ •.f;.682 
L .' on the Clyde. 
648 
Dromore (Ireland). 547. 924 
" ■ ' Lirhtinp. 27.367 

.-. ::.. 924 

Ley'on, 333 

London Deck Improvement. 

649 
L'Unn 924 
; " ■ - 715 

fields. Electri- 

333 

■:i LiRhtinr. 131 
':h. 131 
547 
•.K. 131 

■Is, Passenger, Emer- 
k-rncy Lichtinp, 97 
WimbWon, 367 

POWER 

< o.n-; •■-..ti.-i- ri t.rr in, 613, 

715. 924 
n •, .!'•• i.ti 

' 13 
'T-t-ltv In. 682 

.'is 

.27,333, 

, ■■■«/. /!,■■ 

Works, Electricity 

I- iPf trlclty In. 97 
Kfidintur*. Eke., 413 



Rfcieate. 333 

RcUing Mills, Elec. Driving 

of, 682 
Sheffield. 613 
Zinc, Electrolytic Treatment 

of. 97 

TRACTION. 

Aoeraeer, , 333 

Accring'on, 333 

Aid'-r?ho', 683 

Athlon, 412 

A:.-|oy (Lanes.), 299 

Bell.-ist.333 

Birmingham, 131 232, 299, 
891 

Blickturn, 512 

Blackpool, 232 

Briton. 2*^5, 334 

Bournemouth, 28 

Bradford, 199, 334, 367, 960 

Brentford, 443 

Bristol Tramw/ay£, 782 

Burnley, 63,782 

Cardiff, 579 

Colv/yn Bay, 38, 63 

Coventry. ?« 

Croydon, 368, 443, 749, 715 

Darwen, 480 

Delivery Dravs, Elec. 165 

Doncirter, 891 

Dover, 63, 648 

Dublin i Blessington Steam 

Tramv.-ay. 782 
East Ham, 265, 443. 580. 960 
Ear* London RIv., 232 
Edgware tt Hampstead RIy., 

547 
Edinburgh, 580 
Erith, 299 
Gateshead-on-Tyne, 199,683, 

891 
Germany, Eiec. Traction in. 

112 
Glasgow. 199. 334, 368. 412. 
512. 683.749.732. 924.960 
Gloucester. 334 
Goods Traffic by Tramcar. 131 
Halifax. 165. 512 
Hevwood. 165 
Huddersfield, 443 
Hull. 299 
lltord,28. 613 
Ilkeston, 891 
Ir swich, 63 
K-iyhley. 232 
Kirkcaldy, 512 
Lambeth. 131 

L. Si S.W. Rly. Electrifica- 
tion, 368, 412 
L.C.C. Tramwav Power Sta- 
tion, 891 
L.C.C. Tramways, 131, 299. 

33»,368, 480. 613 
Leeds. 28, 232. 368, 891 
Leicecter, 299 
Leyt.^n, 131 
Liverpool. 783 
London Underground Elec. 

Rly«.,960 
Loughborouph, 443 
Luton. 299.960 
Manchester. 131. 412. 5'.2. 648 
Manchester-Bury Elec. RIv . 

97. 334 
Manchester District Elec. Rly. 

Service, 165 
Middlesbrough, 648 
Mi<<.!ler.cx. 547 
Middlesex Tramways, 63. 199 

443 
M- •■ • ^~- t -.ites and Upkeep 

103 131 
M ■ .lute; in Croydon, 

2t)i 
Motet Orrnlbuo Routes, New. 

299 
Motor Road Sweepers. 63 
Ne.itti.580 
Nel-.f^. h3 
Ncwcas'lc-upon-Tyne "^c out 

Northampton. 28 



North London Rly. Electri- 
fication. 334. 614, 891 
Norway, 648 

Nottinghamshire & Derby- 
shire Tramways Act, 1903, 
131 

Perth. 63 

Plymouth. 97. 334 

Portsmouth. 891 

Rotherham. 63. 512, 646 

Salford, 199, 783, 891 

Sheffield, 892 

Southampton, 131, 232, 443, 
960 

Swansea, 232 

Southend-on-Sea, 232, 412. 
924,960 

Torquay, 199 

Tramcar c. Motor Omnibus, 
480 

Tramway Si Transport Works. 
299 

Tramway Strike. 63. 97. 131 

Tramway Track Maintenance. 
614 

Tramway Transfer, 63 

Tramways, C.O.D. System, 
924 

Walthamstov. . 166 

West Ham. 131, 443 

Wigan,6M 

Woolwich, 480,614 

Women Tramcar Drivers, 97, 
166, 265 

York. 715, 960 

KMFIBE. 

Australasia, 28. 97, 132, 166, 

232, 265. 300. 334, 368. 413. 

444,512.547.580.614.649. 

715. 749. 783. 924. 960 
British New Guinea. 715 
Burma. 960 
Canada, 749, 783 
Canada, Elec. Smelting and 

Refining in, 233, 580, 649 
Canadian Farming, Elec-ri- 

city in, 265 
Canada, Patents in, 300 
Canada. Water Power. 749. 

926 
Federated Malav State, 783 
India, 98. 132. 233. 266. 300. 

368,413.444,513.614.649, 

924 
Newloundland, Elec. Smelting 

in, 98, 513 
New South Wales Mines. 925 
Niagara Falls Power. 715 
Ontario Hydro-Electric Com- 
mission. 166 
S. Africa, 167. 749.960 
Straits Settlements, 300 
Transvaal. 233 

rORKION. 

America. Elec. Furnace De- 
velopment in. 683 

Argentina. 29. 98. 132. 335. 
444. 750, 925. 961 

Argentina. Elec. Traction in. 
750 

Austria-Hungary Patents. 750 

Bolivia, 683 

Brazil. 29. 132. 513.925 

Buenos Ayres. Automat 
Telephones for. 335 

Chili,29.33£. 783. 925 

Chili. Wireless T.leptaph 
Charges. 444 

China. 96. 444, 716 

Chosen. 98 

Colombia. 513. 548. 580. 75'.'. 
7R3 961 

Copenhagen. 335 

Co^ta Rica. 975 

Cuba. 784 

Danish West In<»ies. 683 

Finland, 513 

Holland. 54? 

1. -eland. 750 

Italv. 368, 549 



Italy, British Trade with, 444 

Japan, 368, 580, 614 

Lyons Municipal Contracts, 

750 
yelilla fN. Africa). 750 
Morocco. 369, 548 
Norway, 29, 548, 683, 925 
Nor-A'av, Elec. Zinc Refining 

in, 98 
Persia. 335 
Peru, 335 

Philippine Islands, 29" 
Porto Rico (W. Indies), 926 
Portugal. 98, 335. 548 
Portuguese India, 716 
Portuguete Pa'ents, 926 
Russia, 369, 614, 649. 750, 

784 926 
St. Thomas(Danish W.Indies), 

444 
Shanghai, 784 
Spain, 63. 548, 961 
Swedish Exports, 63 
Swedish Water-Pov/er Plants, 

63 
Switzerland, 751 
Tunis, 29 
United States. 649 
Uruguay, 132, 335, 369 
U.S.A. Coal Mines, Electricity 

in, 683 
U.S.A. Hydro-Electric Works, 

926 
Venezuela, 63, 444, 764, 926 

MISCXLLANEOUS. 

Alien Enemy Firms, 446 

Australia. Radiotelegraphists 
in, 234 

Bravery Rewarded, 132 

British Engineering Industry, 
Council for Organisation, 
413 

British Firm3 in Germany, 
751 

British Industries Fair. 98 

British Westinghou;e War 
Relief Fund, 683 

Cable Discounts. 300 

City of London Fires, in 1915, 
98 

Clyde Labour Agreement, 369 

Coal Supplies for Electricity 
Works, 444 

Contraband of War Regula- 
tions, 29 

Contracts withAlien Enemies, 
63.233 

Controlled Establishments, 
167, 266, 513 

Conversion Table. &c . 167 

Cuba-U.S.A. Telephone Com- 
munication, 683 

Cuctoms Decisions, 132. 413, 
892 

Customs Duties. 369. 614 

Debts Owing bv Enemy 
Firms, 369 

Defence of Realm Regulations, 
98. 335. 518 

Derby Chamber of Commerce 
Year Bool:, 1916. 132 

Diiectory ot British Manu- 
facturers for Russian Trade. 
926 

■• Directory of Manufactur- 
ers." 548 

rirectory of Merchants and 
Manu'acturers in India. 
1915.926 

ilec. Light Switching. Sup- 
plementary Examination 
63 
Electrical (Contractors and 

Labour Shoi tage. 266 
Electricity Supply Under- 
takings and Munition 
Works. 63 
Elec'rolyticDisinfectinpFluid 
at Poplar. 649 
, Enemy Firms to be Wound 
Ur. 200. 233 



Enemy Firms Wound Ud. 29, 
63, 99, 133, 167, 300,' 335, 
369, 413, 445, 513, 548. 580, 
614,649,683, 716,751,892, 
961 

Engineering School for Boys. 
751 

Engineers' Wages, 649 

Excorts, 99, 234, 369, 514. 
650, 893 

Exports to Chinaand Liberia, 
961 

Exports to China and Siam, 
133, 167,335,513,580,751 

Fatality, 369 

Fires, 716 

France and Algeria, Imports 
into, 784 

G.E.C. Cadet Corps. 649 

Hebburn. 926 

Imports, 99, 234, 369. 514, 
650,893 

Inquests, 98, 234, 335. 413, 
716. 784. 892 

Italy, Automatic Telephony 
in, 444 

Kitchener Scholarships , 961 

Leep] Notice, 29 

Liberia, Exports to, 200, 445, 
784 

Linkirg-Up Farm and Market, 
892 

Liverpool, Electricians' De- 
mands at, 926 

Loans, Local, 29 

London Electricians' Wages, 
580 

" Manchester Guardian " 
Chir.ese Supplement, 99 

Mafchinenfahrik Oerlikon 
Shareholders, 133 

Memorandum on the Ele;- 
tricity Regulations. 513 

Military Tribunal Cases. 513, 
548, 716,751 

Mine Electrician', 580 

Miners' Safety Lamps. 335 

Mongolia. Telegraphic Ccm- 
munication with. 413 

Munitions Tribunal Cases. 29. 
64, 99. 133. 167. 234. 266. 
301.336.683.716.751.892. 
927 

New Zealand Trade. 445 

Pacific Radio Stations. 615 

Patent. Applicjition for Ex- 
tension. 63 

Patents, Alien Enemy, 29, 63. 
751 

Pig Iron. Maximum Price?, 
927 

Plant for Sale. 513 

Porcelain. Hard Paste. 785 

P.O. ServanU and the War. 
.■iOO. 

P.O. Servants' Wages. 300 

Royal Assent. 751 

Royal Flying Corps. 200 

" Russian Press." 615 

S. African Patent La-w. 445 

S. African Trade in 1915. 445 

Secretaries' Asjiociation . 751 

Ships, i-ights on. 926 

Siemens War Savings Associ- 
ation. 961 

Sweden. Prohibition of Ex- 
ports. 413 

Swedish Chamber of Com- 
merce Year Book. 892 

Telegrams by Telephones. 513 

Telechone ii Canadian Farrr 
Work. 445 

Trade Union Congress,785,892 

Trading with the Enemy. 64. 
99. 167.200.335. 413.580. 
650. 716. 892 

Tramcar Drivers. Employ- 
ment of Disabled Men. 683 

Walsall Chamber of Com.- 
merce Year Book. 892 

Wills. 200. 716 

Women as Travellers. 892 

Wounded. Appliances for. 649 



C()m|)anics' (Joint-Stock) Meetings, Reports, Dividends, Statutory Returns, &c, 



4y.. 719 


Aut'Tiati.- T' 




Bii -, i- % V, 


■•■: V uiMrtet Lighting. 01 7. 




!:n : 1 . fV. 




, .\M 




lot »34 aoa. 518 






U, 


'- Co.. 68, ' 


Bl 




ai. 


1. i 


Br 


a.i«w4|ii. i;\ 


Br 



?..373 

-r Co.. 964 

.11 



trkt Power h Traction. 236 
Harlow h Epping Ca» & 

'oad.617 

1753 
"I. 482. 

'■ I ■ .*J 



Bourfon-on-the-Water Elar. Light Si Power. 

450 
Bratiliar Traction. Light k Potnur. 101. 551. 

787 
Bril' amp k En«ln««ring. 237. 450, 



71 



'stment. 236 
hi 7 



Bri 



?38.372. 44? 



> Cables. 929 
I 



British Thomson-Houston. 482 

British Westincbcute Elec.&Mie..66 

Brompton Si Kensington Elec. Supply. 31. 754 

Browett, Lindley Si Co.. 32, 396 

Browni Parson.-,. 753 

Brunner Mend & Co.. 338. 372 

Brush Electrical Engineering. 66. 134 

Bull-rs, Ltd.. 416 

C.alcutta Elcr. Supply Corpn., 67. 136. 169. 271, 

374, 754. 92V. 964 
Calcutta Trsmways. 169,203 
Cslparv Pcver. 272 

Cullender's Cat > i Construction, 236. 304 
CalvoBox.340 
Cambridge Eler, Supply. 66 



1 



VOL. LXXVII. 



INDEX. 



[•■ 



The Electrldan." 

Octo ,<-r l.'i. 191fl. 



Companies' (Joint-Stock) Meetings, Reports, Dividends, Statutory Returns, &c. — Continued. 



Canadian Elec. Power Combination, 374 

Canadian General. 100 

Canadian General Elec, 340. 896 

Cace Town Consolidsted Tramways & Land, 
305 

Castner-Kellner Alkali, 338 

Cedars Rapid M(g. & Power. 101 

Central Elec. Supply, 238 

Central London iRlv.. 583 

Chadburn's (Ship) telegraph. 450. 929, 963 

Charing Cross, West End & City Elec. Supply, 
618 

Chatham & District Light Rly., 584 

Chelsea Electricity Supply, 618 

Chesham Elec. Lights Power, 305 

Chili Telephone, 516,550 

Chiswick Elec. Supply Corpn., 236 

Chloride Electrical Storage, 204 

Cia de Electricidad de la Provincia de Buenos 

Aires, 651 
Cie Francaise Pour TExploitation des Precedes 
Thomson -Houston, 448 

City of Brisbane Elec. Light. 448 
City of Buenos Ayres Tramways. 169. 618 
City of London Elec. Lighting, 340. 618, 720. 964 
City of Santos Improvements. 67. 134 

City & S. London Rly.. 584 
Cleveland & Durham Elec. Power. 32 
Cleveland, Portishead & District Elec. Suoply. 

67 
Clvde Valley Electrical Power Co., . 754, 963 
Clyde Valley Electrical Power Storage, 929 
Colombo Elec. Tramways & Lighting, 134 
Companies to be Struck off the Register, 551, 

583, 788, 929 
Consolidated Electrical, 450, 483 
Consolidated Signal, 34 
Cordoba Light, Power & Traction, 618 
Cork Elec. Tramways & Lighting. 67 
County of Dorset Elec. Supply, 582 
County of London Elec. Supply, 584 
Craigpark Elec. Cable. 204 
Credenda Conduits. 582 
Crompton & Co.. 550, 582 
Crossley Bros.. 720 
Cuban Telephone. 516. 720 
Cuba Submarine Telegraph, 134. 168 
Cunningham. 340 

Davis & Timmins, 754 

Dawlish Elec. Light & Power, 136 

Delhi Elec. Tramways & Lighting, 305 

Derby Lamp Works. 135 [272 

Deutsche-AtlantischeTelegraphengsselischaft, 

Dick, Kerr & Co., 930 

Direct Spanish Telegraph, 930 

Direct United States Cable, 67, 168, S18 

Direct West Indian Cable, 963 

Doulton &Co. 272,338 

Dublin United Tramways, 518 

Dumbarton Burgh & County Tramways, 395 

Dundee, Broughty Ferry & District Tramwavs, 
895, 963 

Duram, 450 

Eastern Telegraph, 67, 101, 204, 267, 416. 930 

Eastern Extension Australasia & China Tele- 
graph. 67, 204, 236, 268, 484, 552, 895 

Edison Accumulators, 583 

Edmundsons" Electricity Corpn., 516, 583 

Elec. Construction, 270, 305 



Elec. & General Investm.ent, 550, 582 I 

Elec. Light & Power Supply Corpn., 651 ' 

Elec. Supply Corpn., 617 

Elec. Supply Co. of Victoria, 929 

Electro-Bleach & By-products, 685 ' 

Electro-Flex Steel, 518 

Electro-Galvani£ers,339, [652 

Elm.ore's German & Austro-Hungarian Metal, 

Falkirk & District Tramways, 34 

Faringdon Elec. Light & Pov/er. 788 

Fife Tramway. Light & Power, 135 

Folkestone Electricity, 32, 930 j 

General Elec. 516, 551 

General Elec. Co. (U.S.A.). 338 

General Electric (of Sweden). 272 

General Seating. 33 

Giant's Causeway. Portrush & Bush Valley 

Railway & Tramway, 67 ' 

Globe Telegraph & Trust, 238, 448, 482 
Glover(W. T.)&Co.,32, 67 i 

Great Northern Telegraph, 101, 270 
Gwynnes,Ltd.,238 
Hadtields, 551 

Halifax & Bermudas Cable (3o., 963 
Hampden Cloncurry Copper Mines, 929 
Hart A.ccumiilator, 484 
Havana Elec. Rly., Light & Power, 372, 753 
Henley's (W. T.) Telegraph Works. 686 
Henson, Joseph R., 617 
Highfield Co.. 617 

Hindhead & District Elec. Light. 169 
Holsworthy Gas & Electricity, 100. 753 
Hong Kong Tramway, 618. 895 
Hewlett (M.)& Co.. 583 
Huelva Gas & Electricity, 272 

Ilford Dry Battery, 896 

Imperial Tramways, 448 

Indian Elec. Supply & Traction, 203 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha & TelegraDh 

Works. 484 
Indo-European Telegraph, 101, 135, 168. 271, 

302 
Isle of Wight Elec. Light & Power, 32 
Johnson & Phillips, 135, 169 
Johnson (Richard), Clapham & Morris, 237 
Kalgoorlie Elec. Power & LightingCorpn., 101, 

271,305,964 
Kalgoorlie Elec. Tramways. 754. 787 
Keith (Jas.) & Blackman, 448 
Kensington & Knightsbridge Elec. Lighting, 

652 
Kent Elec. Power, 448 
Kidderminster & District Elec. Lighting & 

Trac+ion. 237 
Lamplough & Son. 339, 583 
Lanarkshire Tramways, 584 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor, 68, 305, 930 
Lancashire Power Construction, 373, 448 
La Plata Elec. Tramways. 101 
Leamington & Warwick Elec, 68 ' 
Lima Light, Power & Tramv/ays, 271 
Lisbon Elec. Tramways. 203, 271 
Liverpool District Lighting. 32, 930 
Liverpool Overhead Rly.. 551 
Llandrindod Wells Elec Light & Pov/er, 237 
London Elec. Rly.. 584 
London & Lanes. Fire Insurance. 237 
Lymington Elec. Light & Power, 101 
Mackay Companies. 306, 783 



Madras Elec. Supply Corpn. (Ltd. & Reduced), 

518 
Madras EHc. Tramv/ays, 32, 964 
Malacca Elec. Lighting, 753 
Manaos Tramwavs & Light, 895 
Mander &Cc.,652 

Manila Elec. Railroad & Lighting Corpn., 895 
Marconi International MarineCommunication, 

338, 415 
Marconi's Wireless Telegraph, 34, 449, 483 
Marconi's Wireless Telegraph of America, 34, 

100 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of Canada, 929 
Mather & Piatt, 584 

Melbourne Elec. Supply. 238 •• 

Memoranda. 33, 67. 101. 136. 169. 204. 238. 

271, 306, 340, 373, 416, 450. 484. 518, 551. 

583. 617. 652. 685, 720, 754, 788, 896, 929, 964 
Metallic Seamless Tube. 338 
Metropolitan Elec Supply, 170, 618, 719, 895 
Metropolitan District Rly., 584 
Metropolitan Rly., 618 
Mirrlees. Bickerton & Day, 272 
Montevideo Telephone, 68 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power, 136, 516 
Montreal Tramways, 720 
Montreal Water & Power. 551 
Nairobi Elec. Power & Lighting. 686 
National Elec. Construction, 719 
National Elec. Supply, 374 
Newcastle-on-Tyne Elec. Supply. 584, 754 
New Era Signs, 339 
New General Traction, 338 
New Peto & Radford Accumulator 753 
New TransDort, 636 
Newton & Wright. 135 
North Berwick & District Elec. Light &Pcv/er, 

32 
N. Melbourne Elec. Tramwavs & Lighting. 651 
North of Scotland Elec. Light & Power. 170 
Northern Counties Electricity Supoly, 374 
Oldham, Ashton & Kvde Elec Tramwav, 33, 

652 
Orford Elec. Light & Power. 33. 517 
OrientalTelephone & Elec, 68, 101, 203 
Oxford Elec, 754 

Par.sons & Hedges. 617 

Peel-Connor Telephone Works. 305 

Fetter's Ventila+ing & Engineering, 720 

Potteries Elec. Traction. 101 

Pritchett & Gold & Electrical Power Storage, 

271 
Provincial Tramways, 374 
Puebla Tramway, Light & Power, 237 
Rangoon Elec. Tramways & Supply, 338, 373, 
Reading Elec. Supplv. 101 
Record Electrical. 237 
Resisto Elec Mfg.. 753 
Reuter's Telegram, 271 
Reyrolle(A.)&Co.. 169 
Richardsons. Westgarth & Co.. 305. 373 
Rio de Janeiro Tram.wav. Light & Power, 552 
Rio Tramwav, Light & Power, 68 
River Plate Electricity, 135 
Roycc. 787 

Runbaken Magneto, 33 
Rural Electricity Supply, 450 
Rushmore L=imps. 617 
St. James&PallMallElec. Light, 484,552 



St. John Del Rev Mining, 551 
Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power, 68, 552 
Shanghai Elec. Construc'ion. 237, 3C5 
Shawinigan Water & Po\v«*r, 33, 374 
Shropshire, Worcestershire & Staffs Elec 

Power, 169 
Sine'ipore Elec Tramways, 373 
Slough k Datchet Elec. Supply , 33 
Small Elec. Motors, 652 

S. Metropolitan Elec. Light & Power. 136. 236 
S. Wale? Elec. Power Distribution, 101, 203 
South Wales Transport. 237 
Southern Brazil Elec. 516, 583 
Spanish Telephcre. 720 
Stewarts & Lloyds. 720 
Stone (J.) & Co., 518 
Stratfcrd-on-Avon Electricity Co., 964 
Submarine Cables Trust, 34, 101, 136, 170,237 

269 
Telegraph Construction & Maintenance, 484 
Telephone Co. of Egvpt, 102, 170 
Trafford Power & Light Supply, 449 
Tramways & General Works. 170, 
Troup, Curtis & Co.. 617 
Trowbridge Elec. SuDcIy, 482 
Tubes, Ltd.. 618 
Turner(G. H.)&Co..237 
Tyneside Tramways & Tramrcads. 686, 719 
Underground Elec. RIys. Co. of London, 584, 

686 
United Alkali, 33 
United Elec Car, 895. 963 
'Jnited Elec. Tramways of Montevideo. 339. 415 
United River Plate Telephone, 238, 271, 302 
Urban Elec. Supply, 33 
Vaughan Engineering Works. 617 
VennerTime Switches. 720 
VentureTrust. 517. 551 
Veritys, Ltd.,416, 552 
Vickers, 102. 552. 616 
Victoria Falls&Transvaal Power, 306, 340,895 

963 
Wakelin's. 237 

Walters Electrical Mfg. Co.. 963 
Waste Heat & Gas Elec. Generating Station, 

686 
Waygood-Otis, 373, 449 
Welsbach Light, 517 
W. African Telegraph, 269 
V/. Coast of America Telegra;:h. 237. 269 
W. India & Panama Telegraph. 203. 235 
W. London & Provincial Elec Sucplv, 237. 271 
Western Canada Power. 517. 652 
Western Telegraph. 68. 236. 340 
Western Union Telegraph. 101. 339. 552 
Westminster Elec. Supply Corpn.. 618 
V/hite(J.G.)&Co..449.482 
Whitstable Elec..3C5 
Willans & Robinson. 135. 169 
Winnipeg Elec. Railway, 102, 305 
Woking Elec. Supply. 33 
Wolselev Motors. 101 
Woodbridge & District Elec. Light. 135 
Worcester Eltc Traction. 339 
Wycombe (Borough) Elec. Light & Pcwer. 67 

Yorkshire Elec. Power. 583 
Yorkshire (Woollen District) Elec. Tramway. 67 
Yorkshire (W. Riding) Elec. Tramways, 374 
ZincCorDn., 449 



Companies, Joint-Stock (New Electrical, &c.), Registered. 



Alberta Engineering. 517 

Allen (Marcus) & Sons, 33 

Alexander (G. H.) Engineering, 373 

Aluminium Solder, 895 

Anchor Elec. 237 

Ascog Metal Products (Glasgow). 685 

Assoc, for the Protection of British Capital and 
Property in Enemy Countries. 685 

Assoc, of British Motor & Aircraft Mnfrs., 67 

Atkey (London). Ltd.. 135 

Automatic Loading, 517 

Baxendale Bros.. 135 

B. I. Co. (of London and Birmingham), 4*9 

Birmingham Elec Accessories, 583 

Borough Garage, 135 

British Aero Magneto Mnfctrs. Assoc, 719 

British Elec. Trading. 583 

British Electro-Chemists. 517 

British Electrolytic Zinc Co. (Isherwood Pro- 
cess) 339 

British Graphite & Trading, 339 

British Italian Corpn.. 583 

British Revival Mfg., 719 

British Tungsten Mines, 517 

British Utilities, 395 

Butler Jones (Nameplates), 685 

Carter (James) (Stalybrjdge), 617 



Chase Bros.. 517 

Claes (Henri & Co.. 617 

Coleman & Appleby. 373 

Conner & Magneto Ignition, 33 

Cooper (H. G.) Ltd.. 67 

Cox (W.) (Mansfield), Ltd., 929 

Cymograph (L*d.). 33 

Elec. (Consulting & Supply. 517 

Electrical Accessories Assoc, 339 

Elliott Bros.. 449 

Ellis (A.) & Co.. 583 

Engineering Equipment Co. (Swansea). 339 

Entente Engineering, 135 

Faraday & Son. 787 

Fellows Magneto. 753 

Filbar Elec. Heater. 517 

Fuller's Carbon & Elec. 449 

Galloway Engineering, 339 

General Instrument & Engineering, 237 

Grinyer&Co.,651 

Haddon & Co., 339 

Hadon, Ltd., 753 

Harlesden Lamo, 237 

Headon & Marshall, 33 

Hemel Hemstead Engineering, 737 

Henson (Joseph R.), Ltd., 517 

Higgins & Griffiths, 583 



Hill Bros. Magneto, 753 

Hill (Wm.i & Son & Norman & Beard, 339 

Hook(C. S.)&Co.,929 

Horsman (Victor). 135 

Insulated Cap & Rivet, 895 

International M.P. Superheater. 753 

Julian & Grebert Enginering. 583 

Jungo Mfg.. 237 

K. E. Syndicate. Ltd.. 237 

Kilmalloch Elec. Light & Power. 583 

Lamolougl' Radiator & Engmeering. 651 

Latin America Chamber of Commerce in Great 

Britain. 929 
Launa British Electrical, 33 
Ling (Oliver) .%. Co. ,373 
Lock(Thos. J.) Ltd.. 339 
Lowcoyle Engine. 135, 
Lyndin Partners. 339 
Mander & Co., 373 
McLeod & Sons, 963 
Mitcham Rubber. 135 
Moore & Avery (Blackburn). 373 
National Wolfram Corpn., 237 
N.E.C.T.A.. 135 

New Peto & Radford Accumulator, 617 
New Union Elec. 895 
Notable Elec, 929 



Ogle (G. C.) & Sons, 617 

Ormandy& Scott. Ltd.. 929 

Phillips' Magneto, 617 

Phoncphore Construction. 33 

Powell (E.). Ltd.. 67 

Precision .Screw. 135 

Ouead. Ltd.. 339 

Robb (Walter). Ltd. .33 

Robin Hood Engineering Works. 517 

S. Coast Kearney High-Speed Rly., 449 

Select'"e Signal. 67 

Selson Engineering Co.. 963 

Sheard (S G.)&Co..896 

Shenton (F. J.) & Co.. 339 

Smith (James) Hoisting Machinery, 67 

Steel's Elec. & Engineering. 896 

Stevens Petrol-Electric Vehicles. 517 

Storey Machine Tool. 339 

Strand Elec. and Engineering 373 

Taylor ( lames) & Bates. 685 

Teleohoiie Motor Works. 373 

Thornton (W. R.) & Son. Ltd.. 929 

Troup. Curtis & Co.. 449 

Volta Magneto. 517 

Ward (Wm.) & Son (Sheffield), 517 

Weekes(L.).Ltd.,517, 

Wey Engineering, 517 



' Th* BlectrlcUn, 

fKto><er 13, 1316 



INDEX. 



VOL. LXXVII. 



I 



"®Ijc ^Irrtridan 



>> 



COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL SUPPLEMENT. 



A14{1J. Till, 1916. TO SEPTEMBER 29th, 1916. 



I]VI>E:X to COIVTEIVTS. 






Aulc-ii! jMrr.:, Uli-inin.cr:'; ;. Oi 



I 



■.. Ek^ ui.-' -:.;; ..t. 2 

) 

Vorkj, London, M 

^hln«. Drying and Ironine 

■0 50 

A?»in,58 

-I u >:■ : I- .-• American 

ro •• IBS 



Control for, 4 



'•X " Rniih (or, 



I PIIUr». DiTct-Currenl Motor. 67 
A- • • • - *.'»,•■ 108 
t. 170 



nnn«v»" 1 •!»0"»<i t»rf. 



4J 



"ebta» "C" Type 



w 



■ nt. 136 



le. a 



F 

F 
F' 
F 

F.:-. 
Flat. T 
Flour 1.' 
FIc-v Meet 
Furnr.cc. T; 
Fuses, Ajax O'- .r 



Tools. "Su"," 124 
'- 148 
192 

>ason'5. 1 18 
10 
•rificatlon of. 92 
— ratfd. 148 
.68 
if. : r I ;venl. 74 



Carafe Lighting with Osram " Atmos "Lamp'. 

Hi(th-Priced, The Electric's Op- 

.1? 



Hai(-W 
Hamn 
H I- ■ 



CC 88 



H 



I 

|^7l>4 ~> >: t •JW I ' Wirt-- ' 



-170 
iversal. 196 



ndurtlnR •, 146 

I 

mnatine Current Two 

:. 104 



I 148 



I 

I 

L ■■• ' " n ii' y» -■' it' A ,\n. '< Kcti'-t •-'it ini . 

4.1 
I , <^mrlr« Ir-Tr 1.r>n 38 

1 Vait. IBS 



^ad Valtrvt, 126 



M 

Mj»:nPlir Clutcne:. Lirge, Use of. 168 
Magnf.ic Couplings. Clutches and Brakes. 130 
Manufacturing Operations, Interesting. 132 
Motor. Second-Hand. 88 
Motors. A.C.4 DC. Small Power, 17 
Motors, At»!osynchronous. 101 



Ni^ht Light. Economical, 56 
•New Maid," The, 128 



Osram-Atmos Lamp not Affected by Atmo- 
sphere. 38 
Oionc Generator, Laboratory, 190 



PI 
P< 

r 

Pt- 
■• 1 
Pi 
P,. 



i. 102 
•inB. 14 
ii)4 
Elcc. 60 
18 
Elec..48 



' Queition ol Origm. 162 



t- 
K . 

■■ I- 
R- 

R 
R 



Grt«en, 106 
-.Irctrici at. 148 



8 

Sales. To Help, 158 

Sandycroft Liquid Starting Switches, 182 

Searchlights. High-Angle. 70 

Shade Carrier, " Easy-Clip." 29 

Shade, " Mazda," for Subdued Lighting. 22 

Starting Compensators, B.T.-H. Hand-Oper- 

ated, 116 
Sterilisers, Simplex Elec, 59 
Still. Plexsim Elec. 28 
Street Lighting, Osram "Atmos" Type 

Lamps for, 59 
Sweden's Large Ironworks. 46 
Switch. New "Igranic" Two-Coil Magnetic 

Lock-Out.34 
Switch-Fuses, " Fluvent." fcr Heavy Duty, 32 
Switch-Fuses. Horn Type. 44 
Switch Fuses. Ironclad. 87 
Switchboard. Continuous-Current. 37 
Switching. Elec. Light. Exam. Results. 28 
Switching Up-to-Datf Again. [Bray] 58 
Switchpluc, A New Combined, 26 



Table Utensils. " Universal." 86 

Taylor Stoker. 82 

Theatre Lighting. A''--'- "'^ 

Three-Phase Motor • ■i'-haviour cf, 126 

Threshing by Centr.... . . Power. 166 

T.L.A. Discount Scheme. New. 90 
Tumhler-Sv.itch Controls fcr SmsllContinuous- 

Current Motors. 100 
Tumbler-Switch Control. 194 
Turbines, British-Westinghouse. Perlormance 

o'.62 
Turbo-Generator of Continuous Current, 112 



Vehicle. Elec. Self-Charger. 16 
Ventilation Hygienics, Evolution in, 123 
"Verilux,"48 



w 



•• w- — 

Wi . . 
Wire.Cci 
Wotan M 



Colliery, 22 
64 



bO 
Models. 144 



» 



1« 

C 



THE ELECTRICIAN: 



THE OLDEST WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND /FINANCE. 

ESTABLISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861 ; Second Ser'es (Weekly), 1878 
Joint Editors : W. R, COOPER and H. H. BROUGHTON. 



No. 1,977. [vcrCx^v...] 



FRIDAY, APRIL 7» 1916. 



Price Sixpence ^^p;^'- 

Abroad 9d.. or 20 cerds, or Mr., or 90p/. 



CONTENTS OF THE CURRENT NUMBER, 



Notes 

Arrangements for the Week . . 

Mechanical Stresses in Trans- 
formers. By J. F. Peters. 
Illustrated 

The Methods Employed for 
the Wireless Communica- 
tion of Speech. By Philip 
R. Coursey, B.Sc 

Tests on Oil Switches. By 
Dr. Wyssling. Illus- 
trated 

Diesel Engine Users' Associa- 
tion 

Distribution of Magnetic Flux 
in Commutating Zone of 
Direct -Current Machines. 
By CI. Shenfer. Illus- 
trated 

Sir J. J. Thomson on Radia- 
tion from Atoms and Elec- 
trons. Illustrated. — Con- 
tinued 



8 
9 

10 
13 



Methods and Appliances for 
the Attainment of High 
Temperatu res i n the Labora- 
tory. — Discussion 14 

Institute of Industry 15 

New Chemical Laboratories 
at LTniversity College .... 16 

The Development of the 
Bureau of Standards 17 

Dimensions of ElectricalUnits. 
By M. Ascoli 17 

Factors in Scientific Managk- 
MENT 18 

Dry Cells. By W. R. Cooper, 
M.A., B.Sc. Illustrated.— 
Concluded 19 

Correspondence 23 

Edge Effect of Plate Con- 
densers (G. E. Bairsto). 
Efficiency of Projectors and 
Reflectors (H. C. Wheat). 

The "Electrician" Commercial 
and industrial Section 25-34 



n^ote: s. 



Institute of Industry. 

Last week a meeting of the Institute of Industry was held 
to act upon a suggestion thrown out recently by Sir Edavard 
Carson, that the various bodies having at heart the future of 
British industry should work together instead of separately 
so as to benefit by the increased weight of combined action. 
•Accordingly the Institute held a conference which a number 
of associations were invited to attend. As will be seen from 
another column, the Institute took Ihe broad-minded line of 
inviting other associations to join in forming a new and repre- 
sentative body rather than join the Institute itself. In other 
words, the Institute is not aiming at continuing its own 
identity. We are very glad that this enlightened action has 
been taken. There is ho question that if half-a-dozen different 
associations continue to handle these industrial problems, 
each from a particular standpoint, they must to some extent 
overlap one another's activities, whereas if they combine they 
can speak with much greater weight and be backed by far 
greater funds. This last point is really of the utmost impor- 
tance, as no strong movement can be carried out without a 
large financial backing. It is far better to have one organisa- 
tion with an income of, say, £100,000 per annum than five 
different organisations each with an income of £20,000 per- 
annum. At the meeting to which we have referred we were 
glad to find that the proposals were well received, and we 
nope that a further conference will take place without delay, 
at which the delegates of the various associations will take 
steps to form a single organisation. In our opinion, far too 
much time has so far been taken up by mere talking, and it is 
HOW time that we settled down to actions instead of words. 
The declaration of peace will only give us a rude awakening 
if we are not prepared for the changes that must follow. 



Organised Research and " Sweating." 

In these columns a fortnight" ago we set out in some detail 
the initial action taken by the Advisory Council which was 
appointed by the Privy Council for the organisation and 
development of scientific and industrial research. We return 
to the subject in order to suggest that the granting of the 
necessary time to^ those able and willing to undertake research 
in our universities and schools is as important as the granting 
of means. Under pre-war conditions it was customarv for 
responsible members of the staffs of our colleges to be on dutv/ 
either in the lecture-room or laboratory, upwards of 30 hours 
per week. To this time must be added the time necessary for 
the preparation of lecture notes and the setting and marking 
of homework. Thus, in order to carry on the normal teaching 
work of our colleges, lecturers are expected to give 40 or more 
hours per week of their time. At some of the colleges, teachers 
are expected to give no less than four lectures per day in 
addition to a certain amount of laboratory work. Under 
conditions such as these it is virtually impossible for the staft"s 
of our colleges to undertake further work. If, at the suggestion 
of the Advisory Council, the Board of Education threatened 
to withhold the grants from those colleges and schools where 
" sweating " is practised by the local education authorities, 
we venture to think that the evil would be quickly remedied. 
Had the Board to fix for each lecturer a maximum of four or 
six lectures per week, and a maximum of 12 to 15 hours teaching 
per week, it would be relatively easy for the Board to insist on 
men undertaking research or engaging in outside work As it 
is, the Board closes its official eye, and takes the line of least 
resistance. 



Lighting of Factories- 

A MEMORANDUM has be'm issued by the Health of Munition 
Workers Committee on the ventilation and lighting of munition 
factories and workshops, and forms one of a number of memo- 
randa to which we refer in our Leading Article. The present 
memorandum deals more particularly with questions of venti- 
lation and heating. In regard to lighting, very little is added 
to the rules which have been laid down on more than one 
occasion, and more particularly in the report of the Depart- 
mental Committee of Lighting in Factories and AA'orkshops. 
A preference is expressed for natural lighting as against arti- 
ficial lighting, on the ground of health as well as economy, and 
where possible roof lighting is advocated. Attention is also 
called to the desirability of light-coloured walls and white 
ceilings and to the necessity of the regular cleaning of windows. 
It is pointed out that bad illumination afiects the output 
unfavourably, not only by making good and rapid work more 
difficult, but by causing headaches and other eft'ects of eye- 
strain. All this is well recognised by those who deal with 
such matters, but these points will, no doubt, only become 
fully appreciated by the public at large through continual 
reiteration. 



i 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



University College Chemical Laboratories. 

Last week it was our privilege to inspect the new chemical 
laboratories at University College. To give the reader some 
idea of the magnitude of these laboratories we would ask him 
to imagine a great building larger than many of the technical 
colleges in our big industrial towns ; a building upon which a 
sum of close upon £100,000 has already been expended. For 
the purchase of the necessary equipment a further £20,00(J is 
required. Industrial chemistry is a subject about which a 
good deal has been said during the past 18 months, and, of 
late, our need of trained technical chemists has forcibly been 
brought home to us. That our scientists recognised the need 
before our statesmen is shown by the fact that in London 
to-day laboratories second to none in I^urope are ready for 
occupation. For this reason we venture to think that those 
who attach importance to the doing of things, as distinct from 
the talking about them, will subscribe liberally to the fund. 
Donations may be sent to the treasurer of the Equipment and 
Endowment Fund, Capt. the Hon. Rupert Guinness, C.E., 
C.M.G., M.P., and should be addressed to the college. We 
understand that gifts of electrical machinery and apparatus 
for the laboratory of physical chemistry will be highly appre- 
ciated, and those of our manufacturers interested in higher 
education will do well to get into touch with I'rof. Donxax. 
Highly creditable features of the work are that the Professor 
of Architecture has been responsible for the design of the 
Ijuildings, and the whole of the electrical work has been carried 
out under the direction of Prof. Fleming. 



Organisation of the British Engineering Industry.— At the 

.MiiJicJicstci ijiectiiig ui tlir (oujicil dealing with tliis question, 
o7i the 4th inst., .Mr. Fleming (Westiughouse Company) said it 
would be an excellent investment if manufacturers would de- 
vote a pcrccjitage of the gross ])rofits arising from their indus- 
trial |)i(jc('.sscs to estabhsli research laboratories. 

Transporters.— To "Engineering Review" Mr H. Hubert 
recently contributed an article entitled " Trolley Hoist Trans- 
porters." The author dealt witli hoists and electric telpherage 
conveying systems, and described the chief features of the 
mono- rail telpher. These features are track, wheels, tractive 
effort, overhimg axles, balance, curves, track-switch, direct 
lift, working load and speeds. Illustrations of typical instal- 

latioil.s Were j.'ivell. 

Corps of Royal Engineers (Wireless Section).— This 

Section of the Cori)« of Royal Engiju'crs is open to recruit 
first-class electrical ijistrunu-nt makers. Conditions as to pay, 
t«nns of service, &c., can be obtained by a])plication to the 
Coiiinuinding OlHcer. Applicants should state fully their 
training and exj)erience and say if they are eligible for service. 
CiMulidiites should forward their application to .Major A, 
Handley, CO.. Wireless Training Centre, St. -Martins Gat^", 
Worcester. 

Light and Intensive Culture. I'rof . F. Keble, lecturing at 
the Royal Institution oji April Ith, stated that (iennany, 
Italy and California were great seed-growing countries on 
account of their high intensity of sunlight. K.xperiments 
whicji had been made showed that the yield of crops might be 
increased by artificial light. It might, be jiossible to reinforce 
our obscure daylight by artilicial means, and it would be 
• urious if in the next centur)- the finest results were obtained 
in the Black country by electric light. 

Foreign Trade and American Specifications.- " Engi 
neeiing Record states tluil the lv\c<iiti\.- ( unimittee of the 
American Society for testing materials ha.s made the announce- 
ment to Anu'rican industrial circles that it undertakes trans- 
lation into foreign languages of such standard specifications 
which have an important bearing on American export trade. 
All numerical quantities are expressed in metric and English 



systems. It is intended to distribute these specifications 
among the United States Consular offices throughout the world. 
They are available to American manufacturers and others 
interested in foreign commerce at a moderate price. 

Entropy and Probabihty. — In the kinetic definition of 
entropy it is necessary to define a function, S, which satisfies 
the equation dS=dQ,T on tran.'^ition from a state of equiU- 
brium to a neighbouring one, and also increases in an isolated 
system which is not in equilibrium. Mr. 0. Postma, in a 
Paper read before the Koninklijke Akademie van Weten- 
schappen te Amsterdam on this question, removes the diffi- 
culties, and under certain circumstances shows that Plancks 
and Tetrode's formulae can be deduced from his results. 

Mechanical Equivalent of Light. — Dr. Ir\^ing Langmiur, 
in the " Physical Review," has calculated this quantity, 
using Nutting's visibility data, and taking as constants of 
Planck's equation C'i=3-72x 10^^ watts and C.^=:^14392. He 
obtains 0-00121 watt per lumen, which compares well with 
Nutting's value of 0-00120. He considers the value 0-00162 as 
incorrect, since it would make the emissivity of tungsten 0-67 
instead of 0-50, and the melting point would require to be at 
least 3,750°K., which seems inconsi.stent with his observations. 

Absorption of Sound.— Mr. F. R. Watson, writing in the 
'■ Physical Review " on " An Investigation on the Trans- 
mission, Reflection and Absorption of Sound by Different 
Materials," has made experiments by means of a whistle 
emitting a given note placed in the focus of a parabolic reflec- 
tor. The receiver of sound was a Rayleigh resonator placed 
in another room, the soimd having to pass through a doorway, 
which could be closed by various materials. It was found that 
pressed-fibre ^ in. thick practically stops all sound, and I in. 
cork-board stops 80 per cent, of it, three layers stopping 92-6 
per cent. It appears that the transmission of soimd at con- 
stant pitch depends on the porosit}^ density and elasticity 
of the material. Porous bodies transmit sound much in the 
same proportion as they transmit air. The pressed-fibre stops 
more sound than cork, because it is heavier. 

Zinc Wire. — In the " E.T.Z." there is an official announce- 
ment of the German .Association of Electrical Engineers on the 
use of zinc wire. This is now being introduced in Germany on 
account of the scarcity of copper and because iron wires are not 
always satisfactory. The comparative figures for copper, 
aluminium, zinc and iron are as follows : — 



^ Copper. f'"- 


Zinc. 


Iron. 


Specific resistance at 20°C. in ohms 

per metre and 8(iuare millimetre. 00 178 

Conductance at 20 C. in Siemens 

per metre and square millimetre. 56-2 

Conductivity in ])cr cent, of copper 1000 

Temperature cocfticient per deg. C. 0-004 


0-0306 

32-7 

58-4 

0-004 


0-0625 

IfiO 

28-5 

0039 


0-143 

7-0 

125 

0-0057 



Rules are given on the use of zinc wires in house installations 
and on the use of zinc cables and zinc 'bus bars. 

Crystal Size and the Electric and Magnetic Properties 
of Pure Iron. Mr. F. C. Thompson, B.Sc., gives the results 
oi an investigation of this question in the " Philosophical 
Magazine." Regarding the electrical resistance of pure iron 
the formula for specific resistance pi=P2+ni?, where Pj is 
the obser\'ed .specific resistance, pj is the specific resistance 
of the crystalline portion, n the number of crystals per centi- 
metre, and R the b«»undary resistance for each grain. Various 
specimens were treated differently, so as to alter the cry- 
stalline stnu'ture. and in each case an increa!<e in crystal size 
caused a decrea.se in the resistance. The fonnula p = 6-83 
t l-72»> 10"'; microhms per cubic centimetre was derived 
from the results. Regarding the magnetic properties, the 
results obtained indicate that the maximum induction, and 
remanent magnetisation for a field of 95 gauss were, to all 
intents and puqjo.Hcs, independent of the sire of the crystals. 
The author considers that by suitable annealing processes 
iron for transfonners might be obtained with far l(»wer 
hy.^^teresis than anything yet ]>ro(lu<>ed. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



Pure Iron. — Entitled " Preparation of Pure Iron and Iron- 
Carbon Alloys," a Paper has recently been published in the 
" Bulletin " of the Bureau of Standards by Messrs. J. R. Caine, 
E. Schramma and H. E. Cleaves. Methods have been de- 
veloped for producing laboratory samples of iron-carbon 
alloys of a very high degree of purity. Sources of contamina- 
tion of melts and means of eliminating are described ; a method 
for producing magnesia of a satisfactory degree of purity for 
making crucibles to be used in work bi this kind has been 
developed ; a procedure for making small ingots which are 
sound and free from blow-holes without the use of deoxidisers 
has been worked out. A series of iron-carbon alloys containing 
99-96 per cent, of the two elements have been prepared to s.rve 
as a basis for the re-determination of the iron-carbon equili- 
brium diagram. 

Electrolytic Corrosion. — Before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers on March 10 Messrs. Burton McCoUum 
and G. H. Ahlborn read a Paper entitled " The Influence of 
Frequency of Alternating or Infrequently Reversed Current on 

Electrolytic Corrosion." 

The authors describe experimental work that has been carried out to 
determine the coefficient of corrosion of iron and lead in soil with varying 
frequencies of alternating or reversed current with 60 cycles per second 
as the highest frequency and a two-week period as lowest, some con- 
tinuous-current tests being made as a check on the methods. The residts 
show : (a) that a decrease of corrosion occurs with an increase in fre- 
quency ; (b) that the corrosion is practically negligible below a 5-minute 
period ; (c) that there is a limiting frequency above which practically no 
corrosion occurs ; (d) that certain chemicals affect the natural and elec- 
trolytic corrosion of the two metals quite diiTerently ; (e) that the loss of 
lead on continuous-current is about '25 per cent, of the thoretical loss ; 
and (/) that alternating or reversed ciu-rent with as long periods as a day 
or a week would in the case of iron materially reduce the damage to under- 
ground structures. The importance of these results follows from the 
fact that there are large areas in practically every city in which the 
polarity of the underground pipes reverses with periods ranging from a 
few seconds to an hour or more, due to the shifting of railway loads. The 
investigation shows that the corrosion under such conditions is much 
less than has generally been supposed. 

Electric Winding in Scotland.— The ' Colliery Guardian " 
has a description of an up-to-date electric winding plant 
installed at the Breich Pit of the Pumpherston Company, near 
Edinburgh. A feature of the system is a very complete remote 
control apparatus, which will bring the cages to rest in event of 
anything unforeseen happening. The winder combines the 
Ward-Leonard system of control, with a' flywheel equaliser 
between the winding motor and supply mains. The advantage 
of the flywheel is shown when the peak load is 400 h.p., yet the 
maximum demand on the generator never exceeds 200 h.p. In 
event of power failure also the flywheel stores sufficient energy to 
give one or two winds. The winder itself is of the ordinary 
parallel drum type, and winds from a depth of 65 fathoms. The 
power is taken from a three-phase high-tension line at 3,000 volts, 
50 cycles. This supplies a motor-generator set consisting of a 
three-phase motor, a variable-voltage direct-current generator 
and constant-voltage exciter. The normal speed of the motor- 
generator flywheel set is 750 revs, per min. The winding 
motor is separately excited, and has its armature permanently 
connected to that of the variable-voltage generator. The 
speed and direction of the winding motor are controlled by the 
position of the driver's control lever. Braking is effected by 
post brakes operating on machined brake paths cast on the 
drum cheeks, a compressed air cyhnder operating the brake 
blocks, and which come into action when the air pressure is 
released. The emergency brake can also be operated by hand 
from the driver's platform. 

Electric Power in Mining.— Mr. J. N. Bulkley, in a Paper 
read before the American Institute of Mining Engineers, refers 
to the fact that there are 143 electrically-driven hoisting 
engines on the Rand, exclusive of winches. The combined 
continuous rating of these is over 74,000 h.p. 

With regard to winches, these are usually driven by a slip-ring motor, 
and double reduction gearing is used. The controller is of the tramway 
type. Owing to difficulties in control, which are not easily met by steam 
engines, electric motors controlling sinking plant are used, the first shaft 
to be .sunk electrically being the central shaft of the Cinderella Consoli- 
dated Gold Mining Co. In this case the motor is of the synchronous 
type, fitted with starting motor, an exciter wound for double the normal 
voltage and a 8 -ton 10 ft. flywheel running at 750 revs, per min. In case 



of power failure the reverse power rotary operates, leaving the motor 
driven by tlie flywheel operating as a genr-rator, but .so connected that the 
hoist bucket could be pulled up. Actually, however, the switch i.« tripped 
by hand, and the sinkers before each blast are hoisted by the flvwheeL 
With regard to main hoists, the central stations on the Rand are so larg& 
that it is unnecessary' to install any flywheel caualising sets. Rheostatlc 
control is unsafe for speeds beyond those controlled by mechanical brakes, 
which the author places at about 1,.")00 ft. per minute. If eddy -current 
brakes are used the extra cost for motor-generator set makes" the cost 
almost as high as for the. Ward-Leonard system. The hoist control for 
rheostatic hoists was with liquid rheostat, and movable wire for torque 
control, and oil switch and air brake contactors for direction control, 
both of hese being operated from one lever. On large machines com- 
pressed air has proved unsatisfactory-. W'hen the \\ard-I^onard sy.stem 
is used the hoist motors are of fairly large size, so that commutator 
troubles are avoided, and a good motor for direct coupling to the drum 
shaft can be obtained. These sets are usually provided with interpoles 
and compensating v/indings on the generator. In some ca.ses the Deri 
distributed winding is used with marked success. The control in such 
cases is by regulation of the generator field, other s\ stems of control using 
rotary converters, and others again u.sing '• bucking'motors," which are not 
used on the Rand. In the Ward-Leonard system e\ erj- position of the con- 
trol lever is equivalent to fixed generator excitation ;' this makes the con- 
trol very easy for the driver. 



OBITUARY. 



Eric Gerard. — We regret to record the death of Prof. Eric 
Gerard, in Paris, on the 28th ult. Bom at Liege in 1856, he left 
the University of Liege in 1878 with the honorary degrees of Ingenieur 
des IVIines and Ingenieur des Arts et JManufactures, and completed 
his electrical studies at the Ecole Superieure de Telegraphie. He then 




The^ LATE Pkof. Eric Gerard. 

became engineer in the Belgian State Telerraph Service, was secretary 
with M. Mascartof the first Congress of ElectricityiiaParis, JSSl,and 
in 1883 was called to be principal of the Montefiore Electro-teclinical 
Institute, founded in connection with the Liege L'^niversity. Prof. 
Eric Gerard was the author of " Elements d'Electrotechnique," 
and of ■' Lecons sur I'Electricite," many editions of which have been 
issued. He also published " Mesures Electriques " and "" Traction 
Electrique," and collaborated with JM. de Bast in writing " Exercices 
et projets d'Electrotechnique." Prof. Gerard had several HatterLug 
offers to manage industrial concerns, but he preferred to continue 
in his educational career. He was president of the Belgian Official 
Board of Electricity, member for Belgium of the International 
Committee of Electrical Units, president of the Belgian section of the 
International Electrotechnical Commission, and an Officer of the 
Ordre Leopold and other valued orders. So far as the International 
Electrotechnical Commission was concerned, Prof. Gerard was 
always of the greatest assistance, because of Ills open-mindedness and 
kindly disposition whenever he attended any of the large meetings 
or the smaller Conmiittee meetings. He presided at one of the early 
meetings of the Commission in 1910 in Brussels, when he made a 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



most interesting speech on the aims and objects of the Commission. 
Under his personal direction the delegates went through the Brussels 
Exhibition, and also visited Liege and Avere received at the Institut 
Montefiore, so well known to a very large number of Prof. Gerard's 
students now scattered all over the world. He was also secretary 
of the first section of the Paris Congress dealing with units in 1881. 
He took a keen interest in nomenclature, and was present both in 
Paris and Cologne when the International Committee had a nomen- 
clature meeting. He will be mourned by a very Avide circle of 
friends, students and admirers. 



PERSONAL. 



Royal Engineers (T.F.) — The following promotions have been 
made : — 

London Electrical Engineers : Sapper A. M. Jenkins, Sapper F. S. 
Aldred and Private R. 0. Burton (from Artists" Rifles, O.T.C.), to be 
Second Lieutenants (on probation). 

Tyne Electrical Engineers : Second Lieutenant Herbert G. \\Tiite to 
be temporary Captain and to be seconded. 



APPOINTMENTS VACANT. 



A station engineer is required by the War Department, conversant 
with internal combustion engines and maintenance of wiring and 
motors. Applications to Chief Engineer, Southern Command, 
Radnor House, Salisbury. 

A first-class foreman armature winder, used to a.c. and d.c. wind- 
ing, is advertised for. 

An electiician is required for the Gold Coast Government water- 
works. Salary £300, rising to £350, with free quarters. Candidates 
must be capable of taking charge of 500- volt suction gas generating 
plant and electric motors. Applications to the Crown Agents for 
the Colonies, 4, Millbank, London, S.W. See an advertisement. 



INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES. 



Institution of Electrical Engineers : Binningham Section. — In 

accordance with the rules relating to local sections, the Committee 
have prepared the following list of officers to act during the session 
1916-17: Past Chairmen, M. Railing (1910-11-12), A. M. Taylor 
(1912-13-14), A. H. Railing, D.V.ng. (1914-15). Chairman, Col. 
J. F. Lister, K.p]. Vice-Chairmen, S. T. Allen, N. B. Rosher. Present 
ordinary Members of Committee (remaining in office), H. t'oulds, 
C. C. Garrard, Pli.D., S. H. Holden, W. A. Jackson, Prof. G. Kapp, 
D.Eng., W. iMardcn, A. Pearson, B.A., W. E. Sumpner, D.Sc, 
F. Thursfield, J. M. Walshe. Ordinary Members of Committee (new 
nomitmlions), F. H. CIoikjIk T. Pbimmer, E. O. Turner. Hon. 
Secretary, J. I). IMorgan. The ( oiumiltee's nominations arc given 
in italics. They herewith invite other nominations, and it is sug- 
gested that the meiiiluTs in each important centre should send in a 
nomination for that paiticular centre, in conij)liaiue witJi i»ule 7 
of these General Rules, Messrs. F. W. Carter, C. M. Shaw and A. 
Willmott, who are members of the present Committee, are not 
eligible for le-elcction this session, having sci\cd for three ye>irs 
consecutively. Nominations must readi the Hon. Secretary at 
13, 'l'cnij)le-street, not later than Wednesday niormr.g. the 12fh 
April, and in the event of any being received a ballot list will be 
j)repared and circulated. The list of oflieers for l!)l()-17 will be 
declared at the annual general meeting of the .section on May 3. 191(5. 
The following letter has been forwarded to members: 
" Vour Committee have had inider very careful consideration the 
qu(^stion of alien eneni\' nieiubersliip m hich is at present before the 
Institution. After a full discussion of the matter at two meetings, 
your Committee mianinionsly jiassed tli(> following resolutions for 
transmission to the Council of tlu' Institution, and I was instructed 
to send you a coj)y of the same : (1) Timt the Council be re<iueste«l 
to obtain ))o\\("rs to amend the articles of association to exclude 
from mcmlxMsliii) of the institution any undesirable aliens or 
undesirable members of alien origin. (2) That in view of the fore- 
going resolution it is not considered necessary to proceed with the 
resolutions at present before the Institution." 

Incorporated IVlunicipal Electrical Association.- The ])rogramnie 
has been issued of the Convention of this Association, which will be 
held on .lune 22n(l and 23rd. 'I'he anangementi* air .similar to thow 
of last year, the proceedings being limited to two days, the tirst being 
technicnl r.nd the second res(rict<'(l to business matters. The meet- 
ings ^^ill 1,0 i„.|,i jvt (l„. Institution of Electrical Kn^-ineers. On 
Thmsday. June 22nd, Mr. A. C. Cramb will deliver his presidential 
ail.lrcss. and PajxM-s will be read l)y M.. W, W. Lackie on • lioiler 



House Design," by Mr. H. S. Ellis on the " Area of Suppl\- from an 
Economic Standpoint," and by Mr. W. T. Kerr on "The Application 
of Electric Power trj Agriculture."" 

Junior Institution of Engineers. — The meeting arranged for the 
10th inst. has been postponed till the 18th inst., when a Paper on 
" Speeding-up in an Engineering Factory," by Mr. R. Rankin, 
B.Sc, will be read. 

Royal Society. — Amongst the Papers read at last Thursday's 
meeting we notice the following : '"On the Instability of the Pear- 
shaped Figure of Equilibriiun of a Rotating Mass of Liquid," by 
J. H. Jeans, F.R.S. ; " A Hypothesis of Molecular Configuration in 
Three Dimensions of Space," bj- Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.'S. 

Machine Tool & Engineering Association (Ltd.)— The fifth annual 
report (for 191.'>) states that ■^ix firms joined the Association and three 
resigned during the j'ear, making the membership 134. Three 
applications for membership were refused. 

The next exhibition had been arranged to be held from Sept. 28 to 
Oct. 18 next, but owing to the war this will have to be postponed. 

Four exhibitions were considered by the board during the past year, 
and in two cases no support or approval wa« given, in one individual 
members were allowed to exhibit, and in the fourth general permission 
to exhibit subject to certain restrictions. 

The ordinary activities of the Association have been largely suspended 
since the formation of the machine tool department of the Ministry of 
Munitions, and more especially since all machine tool works became con- 
trolled establishments. The Association has rendered some assistance 
to the Ministry of Munitions, and the Secretary of the Association is the 
secretary of the machine tool department. 

In view of the fact that the existing classification of machine tools for 
Customs purposes is ver\' imperfect in consequence of which the Board of 
Trade returns are very misleading, representations have been made to the 
Board of Trade, and a promise has been given that the matter shall 
receive attention after the war, during which no alterations are being 
made to the classifications. 

Negotiations have been opened with the Briti.sh Electrical & Allied 
Manufacturers' Association with a view to the re-adjustment of certain 
trading practices as between machine tool makers and electrical manu- 
facturers. While it is not possible to continue usefully the negotiations 
at present it is proposed to resume them after the war. 

A recommendation was made to the members as to the attitude to be 
adopted to firms having connections, direct or indirect, with alien enemies. 

Dynamicables' Anniversary Meeting and Dinner. — We are informed 
that this will take place at the Trocadero Restaurant at 7.30 p.m., 
Wednesday, the 12th inst. Mr. C. P. Sparks will l>e in the chair. 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE WEEK. 



FRIDAY. AprU 7th (to-day). 

N.E. CO.A.ST In'.stitutios of Engineers .\xd SHirBriLnER-s. 
7:30 p.m. At the Lecture Theatre, Literary and I'hilo.sophical 
Society, Westgate-road, Ne\vcastle-on-Tyne. Address l>y Mr. 
T. C. Elder, "The Business Side of Science: Its Part in the 
Coming Economic Crisis." 
SATURDAY, April 8th. 

ThK RoY.\L 1 NSTITCTION. 

3 p.m. At Alhemarle-street. \V. Lecture by.l'rof. Sir J. J. Thorn- 
con, F.H.S., on " liadiations from Atmns nml Klc< troiis." 
(Lecture V.). 

BlUMIN'OHAM ANU Dl.STUUT ELECTr.U (LIB. 

7 p.m. .Meeting at the Swan Hotel, New -street. Pajx^r by Mr. 
\V. II. Whitehousc on " Staudai-d Time and Its Distribution by 

'rclcgra]il)." 

THURSDAY, AprU 13th. 

InSTITITION ok Ei,K( TKirAL EXGINKKIIS 

S p.m. .\t Victoria Endiankmcnt. W.C. Disi iismom on "The 
Present I'osition of Electricity Supply in the Cnite<l Kingdom, 
.111(1 the Steps to be t.iken to Improve and Strengthen it." 



ENOINEERINQ INSTITUTIONS VOLUNTEER TRAINING CORPS. 

Oltii er Ciimmantling, Lieut. I ol. <'. H. <'li\, \. 1> 

The following orders have been issued for the week commencing 
April 1(1. imc. 

Drills. ry.'2o to 7:2."» : 7:26 to 8:2.'>. 

Monday. .\]iyi\ lOtli. S<'ctions I and 2. Technical ; Sections 3 .ind 4. 
Sipiad and Platoon. Signalling Class and Recniits. 

Tuesday. Ajiril 11th. S<honi of Arms, 6 to 7 p.m. 

Thursda .-. .April 1.3th. -Shooting for Sections 3 and 4. 

Fritlny. .\pril 14th. ^Sections 3 and 4. Technical ; Sections 1 and 2 
Sipiad and Platoon. Sicnalling Class and Recniit.H. 

S.»turday. .\pril l.")th. -Adjutants Instruction Claw at 2:3(1 p.m. 

Sections for Technical Parade at Headquartore. Lon<lon Electrical 
V^nginMTs. 4(». Hcgt'ncy-stn-ot. S.W. 

Sections for Shooting Parade at Miniature Ranges. 

Unless otherwi.s<< .stated, nil parades at Chester Houwv 

Mcmlx-rs who have not yet bivn mcasuri'd for uniforms must call on 
Samuel Bros., Ludgate-hill. as soon as possible. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



MECHANICAL STRESSES IN TRANSFORMERS.* 

BY J. F. PETERS. 

Summary. — The; distribution of the leakage field and the stress due to 
the groups of coils in certain cases is considered. Formulae are then 
derived for the magnetic forces between coils and the radial forces opera- 
tive when coils arc out of centre, as well as the forces acting on the leads, 
is dealt with. Finally, the attraction of rectangular leads placed close 
together is discussed. 



The mechanical stresses in transformers are caused by the stray- 
magnetic fields that pass through the windings. These fields are 
caused by the load currents and are proportional to the product of 
these currents into the number of turns in the windings. The mag- 
nitude and distribution of these leakage fields depend, in addition 
to the number of turns and the current, upon the groupings or inter- 
spacing of the primary and secondary windings and upon the dimen- 
sions of the core and coiJs. 

As a preliminary step toward arriving at the value of the mecha- 
nical stresses, it is well to consider the distribution of the leakage 
field. A cross-section of one-half of a shell-type transformer having 
four primary and four secondary coils is shown in Fig. 1. There are 








Fig. 1.- 



-DiAGRAM Representing the Magnetic Conditions in a 
Shell-type Transformer. 



to the M.M.F.s would be in the direction indicated by the arrows. 
The mechanical force, due to the local field in a group of coils, on a 
conductor located at 6 in coU 2 would tend to draw this conductor 
toward the centre of the group of coils 2 and .3. 

The stress due to the field in any group of coils, due to its own 
M.M.F. tends to draw the conductors closer together. In addition 
to the field in the individual groups of coils, there are magnetic fields 
directly across the opening. These fields are caused by the com- 
bined M.M.F.s of the primary and secondary groups. Con.sider the 
space between coils 1 and 2. Coil 1 has a M.5l.F. producing a field 
in a clockwise direction, while the M.M.F. of coil 2 produces a field 
in a counter-clockwise direction. With a symmetrical grouping 
which is assumed in this case, so far as the space between coils 1 and 2 
is concerned, the M.M.F. of coU 3 is cancelled by coil 4, that of coil 5 
is cancelled by 6, and that of coU 7 by coil 8. This leaves the M.M.F. 
of coil 1 or coil 2 (they being of equal values, but in opposite direc- 
tion) to produce a field down across the opening between coils 1 and 
2. This M.M.F., and also the magnetic field, graduaUy decrease as 
the outer surface of coU 1 is approached, becoming zero in the space 
between this surface and the iron. The magnitude of this field is 
plotted in the lower part of the figure. 

With the current in coil 1 flowing downi through the paper and 
with the magnetic field in the direction indicated by the arrows, the 
conductors in coil 1 would be forced toward the left of the figure. 
Since there is no magnetic force in the oppo.site direction on coQ 1, 
this force must be balanced by a brace against the side of coil 1. 
Considering the force on the other coUs, that between 1 and 2 tends 



e 







3 4 



li M IS 





Fig. 3.- 



-Magnetic Conditions in a Shell-type Transformer with 
Unsymmetrical Grouping of Coils. 



two distinct leakage fields superimposed. One is due to the indi- 
vidual groups of coils and the other is due to the combined primary 
and secondarj^ groups. 

i,«E An element of M.M.F. has a magnetic field surrounding it. The 
lines of this field, if magnetic material is absent, will be circles mth 
the element M.M.F. as a centre. If a second element of M.M.F. is 
near, it, too, will be surromided by circular lines of force, but the two 
fields will combine and the resultant will be an elliptically- shaped 
field, as sho-mi by Fig. 2. If magnetic material such as iron is in the 



Fig. 2. — Magnetic 
Field Surrounding 
Two Elements of 
M.M.F. 



neighbourhood, the lines of force will tend to crowd into the iron and 
further distort the field. Referring to Fig. 1, the contour lines of 
force indicated at a have approximately a circular shape in the centre 
of each group, while as they advance outwardly they become more 
distorted, tending toward the shape of the coils. 

Considering the instantaneous direction of current in the primary 
coils 1, 4, 5, 8 as being down through the paper, and that of the 
secondary coils 2, 3, 6, 7 as being up through the paper, the fields due 

* From the " Electric Journal," sUghtly abbreviated. 




to move coU 2 to the right, but there is an equal force between 3 and 
4, tending to move 3 to tho left. Therefore, these two forces balance 
each other. In like manner the force between 5 and 6 balances the 
force tending to move 4 to the right, and the force between 7 and 8 
balances the force tending to move 6 to the right. Therefoic, aU of 
the forces are balanced except those tending to move coU 1 to the 
left and coil 8 to the right. When the coU arrangement is not sym- 
metrical — that is, when the groups do not all have the same number 
of ampere-turns — the repulsion between some of the iimer groups will 
not be balanced by equal and opposite lorces between other groups. 
Referring to Fig. 3, which represents an imsymmetrical grouping, aU 
coUs having the same number of ampere-turns, the force between 4 
and 5 is greater than that between 1 and 2, since the group 5, 6, 7, 8 
has more ampere-turns than 2, 3, 4. The extra force between 4 and 
5 is transmitted through the group 2, 3, 4, and is added to the force 
between coUs 1 and 2, which produces an extra force tending to move 
coil 1 to the leit. 

The M.M.F. producing the field down across the space between 
coUs 1 and 2 is equal to the ampere-tmns in coU 1. If / is the effec- 
tive current, iV is the number of turns in coU 1, and «=the effective 
length of the leakage path in centimetres, the maximum density of 

this field in gausses at the right-hand edge of coU 1 is B= ' ^^^ — \ 

The flux density of the field varies from a maximum at the right-hand 
surface to zero at the left-hand surface of coil 1. The average 
density then is : — 

27r\/2/xV 



5,. =' 



10 o 



(1) 



THE ELECTRICIAK, APRIL 7, 1916. 



(2) 



The force in dynes acting on a conductor carrying current when in 
a magnetic field, is : — B\/2INl 

'^ ^^ 10—' ' ' 

where / and N are the same as in the foregoing and I is the length of 
the turns in centimetres. C!ombining (1) and (2) : — 

„ 47rPNH 

^= lOOa ^^^ 

Assuming I to be of a sine-wave form, then F is a sine* function, 
and the average force over one-half cycle is : — 

F -^^^^^^ (4) 

"^■~ 100a ^ ' 

for (1) and (2), a and I are in centimetres, but in (4) one is in the 
numerator and the other in the denominator, and, therefore, they can 
be expressed in inches without altering the value of F. Expressing 
the force in pounds (4) becomes : — 

^"'•^ ax 10- ^^^ 

In the above expression I is the average length of that part of the 
coil onr which the foce is desired, and a, the effective length of the 
leakage path, is the per cent, average width of the primary' and 
secondary coils plus a small amount due to the ends of the leakage 



2hihz C 



-^ approximately, where h^ and A, ^^e the widths of 



the primary and secondarj' coils and C is the distance from centre to 
cdntrc of adjacent coil groups, as indicated in Fig. 1. The force 
against the outer group of coiJs is that due to the largest group. For 
instance, referring to Fig. 3, each coU contains 16-7 per cent, of the 
total turns of either the primary or secondarv'. Starting from the 
left-hand side, coil 1 — 16-7 per fent. nnd coils 2, 3. 4 — 50 per rent. 











f 


1 




1 




j 


^ 










I 


5 


\ 


V^ 


1 




1 











s 



Fi(i. 4. 



Fio. 6. 



Diagram of mechanical stres-sos between ])riniary and secondary coils 
JTi a (fm'-typo transfornuT. when the i-icctrical centies coincide (Fig. 4) 
iiiui wiun lli<y do not coincide (Fig. a). 

•Subtracting 1 from 2, 3, 4===.W -lG-7=^33-3 ; therefore, the stress 
between groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, 6, 7 is that duo to 33-3 per cent, of the 
total number of turns. This should be used for y in (5) to get the 
force against the .suiiporl on the left of coil l,or that against the right 
of coil 12. 

Usuallv the force on that ])art of th*? coils within the iron of shcll- 
tyj)e transformers is nf)t of great importance, as the compression 
of the coils and spacing strips between coils is well within a safe 
limit, and the iron pnncliings forming the ends of the opening will 
resi.st the tendency of that ])art of the coils to move outwardly. 
That part of the coils which extends i)eyond the iron, however, must 
bo su|)ported by some method of clamj)ing or bracing. An effective 
method of bracing connists of heavy wooden blocks backed with 
boiler plate placed against the outer face of the coils. Slructiinil 
iron channels or angles extend across the block, and tie rods e\t<'nd 
from the ends of one structural iron brace to tlu' ends of the other. 
With this method nf bracing, the frames snpi)orling the core nveive 
no stresses from the winding. Also, there is no tendency to di.stort 
the coils, since there is always an equal and opposite force against 
the outer coils on each side of the transformer. 

In the core type of transformer with cylindrical concentric coils, 
the force between primary and secondary' is radial. The force on 
the inner coils is toward the core (one of con\pression). and on the 
outer coils is away from the coir (one of tension). If llu« i-lectrical 
centres of the primary and secondary windings coincide there is no 
force tending to move th(> coils in a direction parillel to their axis, 
and. therefore, \w necessity f(U- bracing against end thrusts. The 
compressive and tensile strength of the coils are, in genen^l. ample to 
H'sist the radial forces. If the coils nrv rectangular, the fonH> U'- 
tween coils tends to force the ont«T coil into cylindrical shajH*. In 
large units this force may be large enough to injure the coils. Small 
units, however, can be built of rectangular coils and safely withstand 
the short-cii-cuit sli-esses. 



It is a very difficult matter to have the electrical centres coincide 
under all conditions, especially when the windings have taps provided 
for changes in voltage. When the centres do not coincide, the 
mechanical force tending to separate the primary and secondary 
windings can be resolved into two components, one radial and the 
other parallel with the axis of the coils. It requires only a slight 
shifting of these centres to produce an enormous force tending to 
move the coils in a direction parallel with their axes. 

The radial force in pounds between coils. Fig. 4, is approximately 

Pay. = V 107 ' ^^^1* I is the average length of turns in both coils 

and a is the effective length of the leakage path, both dimensions 
being in the same units. With the electrical centres shifted, as indi- 
cated in Fig. 5, the total force will be approximately the same as 
above, but the radial force now is P„j. cos 6, and there will be an end 
thrust on the coils of Pav sin B. It is sometimes a difficiJt matter to 
brace the coils against this end thrust without materially interfering 
with the ventilating ducts for the windings. 

Another phase of mechanical stress that should be taken into con- 
sideration in the design of transformers is the force on the leads ex- 
tending from the coils to the outlet connections. This is of impor- 
tance only where large currents are involved. Since under short- 
circuit conditions the current may reach 20 times normal value or 
mere in large trai^sformers of low voltage, the mechanical force on 
the leads may be of sufficient magnitude to WTeck the supports, unless 
they are liberally designed. This force can be calculated in the fol- 
lowing manner : — 

Let I be the length of the leads and a their separation centre to 
centre, 7^ the current in one lead and I^ the current in the other in 
amperes. Then with no iron around the leads, which is generally the 

case, the flux density at lead 2 due to lead \=B=—y- ^— i. where 

^ 2-a < 10 

a is in centimetres. The force in dynes on lead 2. either attraction or 
repulsion, is 

j,_^V2I,Bl iJJ.l 

10 ~axlOO' ^ 

in which I and a are both to be expressed in the same units. This 
gives the maximum force. The average for a cycle is one-half of this. 
The average force in pounds is : — 



21 J ^l 
445 ox 10** 



(7) 



If 1 1 and 1 2 are the currents in the leads at opposite ends of the 
same winding the force ■will be one of repulsion. In this case 
/i=/2 oi" ^^^^ force varies with /o. If /j and /j are in the leads of 
the same polarity the force will be one of attraction. If 7, and 7, 
are in different phases of a three-phase transformer, then the force 
is one of attraction if the currents are 60 deg. ajmrt. and one of rejjul- 
sion if 120 deg. apart. When the leads ujider consideration are in 
different phases of a polyphase transformer, then the force, whether 
attractive or repulsive, is projwrtional to the product of the currents 
multi])lied by the cosine of the time angle between the currents. The 
force can, therefore, be expressed as one of attraction, a,-? it is attrac- 
tion for all angles less than 90 deg. and for angles greater than 1X» deg. 
the cosine is of a minus value, and a minus attraction is a repiilsion. 
The exj)ression then for the force of attraction between two conductors 
carrying currents of the same frcquciicy is : — 



_ 27,7s i cos fl 
•*~ 4450X10*" 



(8) 



E() nation (8) is ai)plicable when the leads are circular or if of rect- 
angular shajie when they are separated several timers their width 
(when a in l'"ig. G is several times b). When the leads are rectangular 



Fio. 0.— Cross- 
sbctios of 1u:<t. 
ANcrLAR Trans- 
form KR Leads. 



ajid close together, a« shown in Fig. 6, the force of attraction can 
be calculated by the following expression : — 



P.^r= 



2/,/jOos eal 
" 445fe« • 10- 



[!'•"-«-»'"«■('-?)] <»> 



(»here the angle tan"'/» n is in radians. When a is considerably 
Urger than h. log,(l - fc' o') is approxiniattly zero, and tan "*6/o is 
approximately e<jual to 6 'o. I'nder these conditions (9) takes the 
!»:unc form as (8). The derivation of equation (9) is not given. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



THE METHODS EMPLOYED FOR THE WIRELESS 
COMMUNICATION OF SPEECH.* 

BY PHILIP K. COURSEY, B.SC. 

Summary. — Conduction and induction m( thods ; also photophones 
and thermophones arc considered, and their limitations discussed. The 
essentials for success follow, and in conclusion the author deals with 
arcs, gaps and high-frequency generators and transformers. 



After a discussion of the earlier methods of attacking the problem 
of wireless telephony, the author considers the different ways in 
which suitable waves are produced. This leads to the more recent 
arc methods. 

Arc Methods of Generating Oscillations. 

If we take an ordinary continuous-current arc, and, while main- 
taining the arc length constant, we vary the current passing through 
it, and at the same time measure the P.D. between its terminals, we 
obtain what is called the characteristic of the arc. In the case of 
all ordinary arc discharges this characteristic is what is called a 
" faUing " or " negative " one, that is to say, when the current is 
increased the voltage .falls, and rice versa. Hence, if we connect 
across such an arc an oscillation circuit containing a condenser, there 
will be a sudden rush of current into the condenser tending to charge 
it ; this current rush will momentarily cause a decrease in the arc 
current, with, as a result, a corresponding rise of the P.D. across the 
arc terminals. This voltage rise tends to further charge the con- 
denser to a voltage above the normal running voltage of the arc. It 
then begins to discharge, and this discharge current is in the same 
direction through the arc as the supply current, and hence causes a 
fall in the arc .P.D. by reason of the increased current. This further 
facilitates the condenser discharge. As the condenser completes 
its discharge, the arc current falls and the P.D. rises again to 
its normal value, when the cycle is repeated over again and con- 
tinues indefinitely as long as the supply is maintained, and the arc 
retained of a constant length. 

Hence the condenser will be continuously charged and discharged, 
at regular intervals depending on the inductance in the circuit, the 
capacity of the condenser, and the length and other conditions of the 
arc ; in other words, continuous oscillations will be set up in the 
circuit by virtue of this action of the arc. 

It follows from considerations of the arc characteristics that we 
require an arc which has a very steep characteristic in order to pro- 
duce oscillations of wireless frequencies with any degree of readiness. 
By inspection of the characteristics, we see that they become much 
steeper for small arc currents, while at the same time for a given 
current a longer arc at higher voltage has a steeper characteristic, 
and hence in general low-current arcs oscillate better than heavy 
current arcs. 

As a rough guide for experimental purposes it will generally be 
found necessary to limit the supply current value to not more than 
about 2 or 3 amperes when employing arcs in air between ordinary 
solid arc lamp carbons, if it is desired to generate oscillations ap- 
proaching wireless frequencies. With lower frequencies the supply 
currents may be increased. The arc length must also be kept very 
short. On the other hand, if very high frequencies are desired for 
experimental purposes it will be generally found advantageous to 
employ special carbons for the arcs. Some grades of graphite rods 
are very suitable for this jjurpose ; while the employment of com- 
pressed air or other gases round the arc often leads to considerable 
advantages from the point of view of the steadiness of the oscillations 
that are produced, as well as their intensity. The ratio of the 
capacity to the inductance in the oscillation circuit is also very 
important ; a rough guide to begin with may be taken as ratio of 
inductance to capacity = about 100, when both are measured in 
absolute units (centimetres). This figure is, however, liable to very 
considerable variations to obtain the best effects, depending on the 
arc employed, on the supply voltage, and current, and more especially 
on the gas surrounding the arc. The use of a suitable choking 
inductance in the supply circuit to the arc is also important to secure 
more vigorous oscillations by confining them to the oscillation circuit 
and preventing them going back on to the supply mains. 

It has been suggested that the use of the powerful magnetic fields 
customary in the Poulsen apparatus, has a greater utLli,ty than that 
of causing a mere steadying of the arc ; and that the strong field 
really causes vibrations or oscillations to be set up in the arc, after 
the manner of arc interrupters, the arc being actually blown out by 
the magnetic field in some cases, and then automatically restruck 
again by reason of the applied voltage being sufficient to jump the 

* Abstract of Paper read before the Students' Section of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers. 



small ionised space between the electrodes. Some such action as 
this may possibly take place in the Poulsen apparatas. F. Merc»-r, 
in a Paper recently rearl before the Phy.sical Society of London* 
on this subject, came to the following conclusionH :— 

1. There is a definite value of inductance for any given capacity 
which gives a maximum current in the shunt circuit. 2. The effect 
of increasing the gas pressure becomes more marked a.s the electric 
pre.ssure is increa.sed, but as the gas presHure rises the steadiness of 
the arc diminishes. The effect i.s somewhat similar to that obtainerl 
by increasing the arc length. .3. Any effort made to increa.se the 
output by the use of a magnetic field, or by altering the arc length, 
or the resistance in .series with the arc, is detrimental to the steadiness 
of operation. These conclusions were of necessity obtainefJ from 
experiments on copper carbon arcs, and they do not apply to any 
and every type of arc oscillation generator without modification. ' * 

Dr. Fleming's " Oil- Arc.''— In the oil-arc a number of arcs between 
carbon and copper electrodes (copper positive) are .struck just over 
the surface of a heavy oil. The heat generated by the arcs causes 
vaporisation of the oil, and consequently an atmosphere of hydro- 
carbon vapour is created round the arcs. Xo magnetic field is 
employed, and the oil generally provides sufficient cooling, without 
having to resort to water cooling, but a water circulation through 
the oil may be provided if desired. The arrangement has been 
constructed for powers up to a maximum of about 2 kw. ; but it is 
probable that modifications would have to be introduced to enable it 
to be available for much high powers. In connection with the 
operation of arcs of this type, i.e.. copper carbon arcs, it is interesting 
to note that it is not essential that the copper electrode should be 
positive and the carbon negative, as is usually supposed, and as ia 
customarily the case, for example, with the Poulsen arcs, as advantage 
are often found in using the reverse connection. This is often more 
especially the case when difficulty has been experienced in starting 
up the arc and obtaining stable oscillations. Under these condirions 
a reversal of polarity will frequently cause strong oscillations to be 
set up, which persist w hen the polarity is again reversed back to the 
normal direction. 

When an arc is running in air there is always a burning away of 
the carbons ; if, however, the arc is placed in an atmosphere which 
is rich in carbon (hydro-carbon gases), the gas wiQ be decomposed 
by the heat of the discharge, and carbon deposited on the arc elec- 
trodes. It is thus possible to have an arc in which the carbons 
" grow " instead of wearing away when in use. • 

The Colin- Jeance Arc Generator.— This is,inthemain, verj- similar 
to the Poulsen apparatus, consisting of three copper-carbon arcs con- 
nected in series, and burning in an atmosphere composed of a mixture 
of acetylene and hydrogen in such proportion that the normal wear of 
the carbon electrode is compensated for by the deposition of carbon 
from the gaseous atmosphere. The mixture of gases may be con- 
veniently generated from a mixture of calcium carbide and calcium 
hydride, and the usual voltage necessary varies between 500 and 
750 volts. 

The author refers to the use in this case of an intermediate circuit 
tuned to the oscillation frequency. He points out that the frequency 
in the shunt circuit does not depend merely on the values of capacity 
or inductance in that circuit but also on arc length. This is on 
account of the resistance of the arcs not being neghgiblc. 

To meet this case a formula has been de%ised by G. Xasmj'thf and 
is as follows : — 



2n\/ \lC 4L'- \ 



where n is the frequency, L is the inductance in henrys, C is the 
capacity in farads, E is the resistance in the oscillation circuit in 
ohms, A is the current through the arc, I is the length of the arc, and 
c and d are constants depending on the -lature of the arc electrodes, 
and on the nature of the gas surrounding the arc. 

Hence it is e\ident that quite small changes in the arc length, 
supply current, &c., will produce changes in the frequency of the 
oscillations. This variable frequency is a great drawback to most 
arc transniitters. 

The author then deals with the Dubilier and the T.Y.K. arc. 

Short Spartc Methods of Generating Oscillalions. — He poiiits out 
that the action of the so-called " quenched " spark-gaps depend on 
ionisation, and if very rapidly worked they would be suitable for 
telephony. 

Sj^ark-gaps of this kind form the basis of the Lepcl, Telefimken, 
Peukert and other patents, and are based on the results of experi- 
ments of M. Wien on the quenching effect of short spark-gaps. 

The Lepel Gap. — This consists essentially of two metallic discs^ 

* •' Proc." Phys. Soe. I-ond.. 26, p. 372, June, 1914. 
t Physical Review, 27, p. 117, 1908. 



8 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



separated l>\- a paper ring which, placed with their faces verj- close 
together, form the electrodes of the spark, antl which are often made 
to form the ends of shallow boxes to enable water cooling to Ix- 
employed to remove the heat of the discharge. 

When in ofjerution the gap should be connectwl in series with 
suitable choking inductances and resistances to limit the flow of 
current from the sujjply mains, and also to determine and regulate 
the spark frequency. 

A spark frequency of the order of 10,000 per second or more can 
usually be obtained, and the discharge that takes place in the gap 
is rjftcn d<-' ciltcrl as an arc. 

The 'icJ' fiinken and Peukert systems, and the methods of exam- 
ining oscillations, by means of the Braun cathode ray tube are con- 
sidered ill the PajK'r. 

T/i^ M'irconi iJi^c JJi-icfiarger for Generating i' iidainped Wares. — 
The arrangement of apparatus is very much that of the usual Marconi 
Ktufldcd disc discharger fcfl from direct curn-nt. In this instance, 
however, the spark frequency is arranged to be much higher than the 
usual, and at the same time a numljer of such discs are arranged on 
the same sliaft. with their studs or confaits so displaced rc-Iatively to 
one another that the sparks will occur on successive discs at regular 
intervals during the spaces on the first disc. Each disc is preferably 
arranged fo <lischarg<' thrr>ugh its own condenser and oscillation 
circuit, independent of the (jthers, the effects of them all being 
summed uj* in a secondary circuit connecter! to the aerial in the usual 
manner. If. now, we soarrang*- theo.scillation frequency of each circuit 
that one comijlete wave (or at the most two) of ciirnnt takes j)liice 
i n the inter\'al Ijetwet^n the spjirk on one disc and the next spark on 
the next disc, the effect of the second spark will reinforce that due 
to the first, and the oscillations will be maintained. If the sparks 
take place every complete wave, the oscillations will Ix" to ail intents 
and puriKi.ses undam|M-d. but if ever)- second wave, there will be a 
slight diiiiiniition «)f am|)litude every alternate wave— much as may 
probably Ix; the ejiso with some of the short spark dischargers de- 
scribed above. Such an arrangement should be capable of <le«ling 
with considerable |K>wer if jiroiK-rly designed, while the oscillations 
produced would be eminently suit<-«l for wireless telejihony. The 
system, in fact. amounts to an attempt to accomplish in a regular 
mechanical manner what hapiK-ns in effect in some of the short 
quenched sjiark dischargers — i.e., to ensure that each fresh imjuilse 
(lue to the |iius.Hiig«' of a s])ark shall exactly synchroni.se with the 
exi.sting os<illati(»ns in the circuit. To a considerable extent this 
occurs automatically in the short-spark mctho<is by reason of the 
reactions which take jilace Ix-tween the currc-nts in the various cir- 
cuits : but. nevertheless, some irn'gularities will generally occur. 
The great objection to the mechanical method apart fmro the 
difhcultic.s of the high s|M>«-ds re(|uirc<l for the discs is the difficulty 
!»f maintaining the discs nmning at a jK-refctly definite atid constant 
s|K'cd. This is essential if the method is to wtirk projMrly in order 
tiiat the successive impulses Hhall synchronise pi-oiH-rly with one 
another. It n-nders im|MTative srjme very sensitive form of speed 
govcnmr that will maintain the discs nmning at a constant speed. 

Till- author ne.xt deals with vacuum oscillation gen«'rators. The 
work of Dr. Fleming is n-ferriKl to. and the employment of many 
vacuum bulbs in tlie .Arlington Monolulii transmission of r).(KM> 
miles is mentione«l. 

!{eferring to the fact that high fn'<juencies are obtained either by 
adding or niiiltiplying process«'s. the induction motor field is cit<'<l as 
an example of doulile frecjuency pnxluction. and the Coldsehmidt 
niteniator is also dealt with. 

Frrtiiifiiri/ MiiUipUirx. The most im|H»rtaiit reprcentatives of 
this class an- the transformer fn-quency raisers, in whi< li use is nwwie 
of the fact that the magnc'tising eum-nt of a transformer working «»n 
a sine wa\e K..M.F. is generallv very far fiom U-ing a sine Hurv«-. 

The e.\a«t shajM- of this curn-nt curve de|iends on the stale of 
magnet ic! sat unit ion of the magnet core, and may Iw vari<Ml. within 
limits to suit the nM|uin'ments. The Fourier analysis of the ul.,»ve 
curn-nt iiirve shows that then- is a jtntminent thinl liarmoiiie pn>sont 
in the curn-nt wave. This will generally Ik- found to lie the ease. 

It is |H)sMible by suitably designed lune<l oscillation cin-uit* to 
stn-ngthen this tlnnl Imrmonie by n-sonanee. and tlu-n-fon- to olitain 
from a given alternating current K.M.F. «if appn)Mmately sinusoHlal 
wave form a curn-nt of three times the fn^quency of the origmal 
supi)ly. This «Mirn-nt may Im- utilis4>d in a similar maunrr to prxnlue*- 
another of thnn- times its <»wn fnMpiency — t.r. nint limes the initial 
fretp.eiK y. ami so on. 

(■oin|Miring this metlxKl with the Innjuenoy nd«len« previously 
descri'M'd. it is se«-n al once that a vers- much mom rapni inultijilieA- 
tinn of the fn><|Uency is obtained ; thus, thn^^ stagj-s would rnis«' the 
fn-quency "27 times. The gn-at limitation to this method is that it is 
not very easilv a<laptal>le to liandlinK large |niwers. since the ina|t- 
notising curmut of » iran.sformer is quite small. 



The author then deals with methods of modulating the transmitted 
wave. 

Heceiving Apjjaratus. — This generally differs but little from the 
apparatus used in wireless telegraphy. The detector, however, 
should I*e such that its indication.s are proportional to the energy 
received, as otherwise distortion of speech results. The varioas 
detectors — Slarconi's magnetic, Perikon zincite-bomite and car- 
borundum — are then descril>ed. Amplifiers are then referred to as 
of the microphonic and vacuum types. 8. G. Brown's relay is 
typical of the former type, and to the second class belong the 
** Audion " and " Pliotron." 

Ill (oiicjii-ion. tlic aiitliorsummari.ses the results achieved. 



TESTS ON OIL SWITCHES.* 

BY DB. WYSSLING. 

Danger of fire arises from excessive current densities in parts of an 
installation or in the productiqn of arcs or .sparks in the neighbour- 
hood of inflammable materials. The fonner causes can easily be 
eliminated by the u.se of fu.ses or circuit-breakers as far as concerns 
the external circuits, but there is no protection against overheating 
in the generators. Such overheating may cause the generators to 
catch fire, but the fire would usually be locali.sed by the methods 
adopted for installing the generators. The main danger lies in the 
possible sj>read of fire througli the insulating covering of the 
cables connected to the machines. Where bare wires cannot be 
u.sed it is therefore e.s.sential to lay cables in such a manner that they 
cannot act as carriers of fire ; this may be effected by embedding 




Fic. 1. 



them in wind or running them in fireproof jmrtitions. The main 
originators of tin- an> the instruments in which sparks and arcs are 
pnxluced in their normal ojK^ration, and it is found that most fire^s 
originate in oil-switches in which arcs are formed in immediate con- 
tact with inflammable oil. Th«- programme of the Commission 
divides the scojm- of its investigations mto thnn' hea<lings. The pro- 
vision of means of extinguishing fires, the improvement of the general 
arrangenu-nf of installations an<l tli<- study of the action of oil- 
swit<hes with the objet t of impn)ving their construction. The hist 
hemlitig has I»een fully dealt with in the first rejxjrt and the second 
re|>ort is i-oneented with tin- other two heao 

Heganling the means of extinguishing > -<|mrate rejxirt has 

liei-n publinhe<l,t and further tests are in progress which will form the 
subject «if a later n-jiorf by the ('ommis.sion. The information at 
pres«-nt availal>ie shows that .solid materials, such a,s sand or bicar- 
itonate of s<Kia. are uutst effective, where they can rest on horiBontal 
surfiices. For vertical surfai^\s and five conductors, liquids must l>e 
um'<l. and in many ea^M-s the employment of water in large quantities 
IS the U'st. if the electrical supply can be shut off. Some chemical 
extinguishing fluids have the drawback of producing dense smoke. 
It is |)ossible that gaws. such as carl>onic acid, stored in readiness, 
may pnive to l»e the most effective means of lighting fire. The im- 
pn)vemcnt of the met'-"'' ■■( mounting all apparatus .xnd jvirticu- 

• Boing an ahdlmct i-: .^ >onil Hcjiort of the (Vmimissinn on High- 
Tcimmn Ap)>Mr«IUN and Fire iVotec ti<>n. ap|M)inte<i by the Schwei/.er. 
Ki' ' 'in. Verrin an«l VorlMUid Schwi iwr. Klcktriritiitswcrke. The 

n ) ,H nr* m !•>•- " Hnlloiin " (X,,. H of Ittl.i) <if tlic Schwcizi t. 

Kl'■^^^•o>t«•«•l^n.^ >>.th<' .'XsMK-iat ion SuiKsoden Klectriciens. 

f'Hullrtin t Veroin II.. p, :U»:i. MM.1. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



larly oil-switches and of the general arrangement of buildings used 
for electrical installations forms the main subject of the second report. 
It has been found necessary to leave openings in the oU-containers 
of oil-switches to prevent the containers from bursting when int(!mal 
explosions take place. It is, therefore, necessary to take y)recautions 
to prevent the oil issuing from such openings from spreading. Cellu- 
lar sub-division by solid walls and the provision of oil wells on the 




Fig. 2. 



ground form the best protection. Fig. 1 shows an oil-switch in a 
cellular compartment with an oil-well, and Fig. 16 shows the well 
partly filled with sand or gravel to cool the heated oil. The cooling 
of the oil and extinguishing of flame may also be effected by placing 
perforated metal covers over the well. A further method is shown 
in Fig. 2, in which pipes are provided to carry off burning oil. 
The same figure shows a flap-opening for giving a relief to the pres- 



u 








Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



sure produced by explosions in the chamber, the flap being arranged 
so as to close itself to stifle a conflagration within the chamber. A 
number of other illustrations are given in the report showing pos- 
sible methods of carrjdng out the ideas referred to above. 

The admission of volumes of dense smoke into the switch gallery 
may hinder the attendants in their efforts to extinguish a fire and 
damage the gear to such an extent that the supply has to be inter- 



A 






.] 




/ 




1 



/ 



<?) 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



rupted for considerable periods. To prevent this the switch-cells 
may . be provided with chimneys, and the room occupied by the 
switch-board attendants should be shut off from the rest of the build- 
ing. In new installations it is desirable to arrange for a possible air- 
tight sub-division of the switch-rooms into sections, and the cells in 



which the switches are containe<I should be «hut off from the Kwltch 
gallery both at the front and at the back. \Vi- ' ' ' ■ .v 
be used to enable the switches to \n: M.-cn by th' ■» 

should enter and leave each air-tight compartment through porce- 
lain stuffing boxes. 

The greatest switch troubles arise on the switching off of short- 
circuits, and it is, therefore, desirable to reduce the short-circuit 
power before breaking the circuit. This may I- ' ^ • •'- intro- 
duction of reactance or preferably ohmic rr- \n in 
Fig. 3, the reactance or resistance Snwyj rr,. 

Existing switches may be adaptwi by '' • ,. ; ._. , .>y 

the addition of auxihary switches k)i red by relaj-8 

with suitably adjusted time-lags. Th*- waUA-^ of Fii/s. .3 and 4 may 
be modi.fied, as shown in Figs. .5 and «, so as to use common resist- 
ances for a jroup of switches. It is also poKsible to connect a single 
oil-switch with enclosed resistance so a-i to control a L " -i. 

In order to prevent the full short-circuit \n>wt-T of : re 

in a station from feeding into a short-circuit the 'bus bars may be 
sub-divided between the different generators by an- " .■*, 

resistances or reactances. The.se methods will \, a 

subsequent report. 



DIESEL ENGINE USERS' ASSOCIATION. 



The March meeting of this Association was held at the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers, and a further list of engineers havii ol 

of Diesel engine plants in this country and in other pi re 

elected members. 

Attention was drawTi to the forms which had fjeen circulated 
among the members of the Association in connection with the annual 
return of costs of maintenance and costs due to mechanical break- 
down. 

Tar Oils and Paraffin as Fuel. — This subject was further disciLssed, 
and the president, Mr. Geoffrey Porter, gave some particulars con- 
cerning the unfavourable results which had been obtained in mixing 
tar or tar oils with orcUnary crude oil for use in Diesel engines. 

Mr. W. Fennell introduced the subject of the use of parafiBn oil 
as fuel. In the discussion which ensued the opinion was expressed 
that paraffin could be quite suitably used as fuel at times when its 
price showed any advantage as compared with the price of other 
fuels. It \\as necessary to run at a lower blast pressure w hen using 
paraffin. 

Accident at Smithfield Markets Electric Supply Co. (Ltd.) — The 
following particulars are extracted from Mr. P. H. Smith's report to 

Lloyd's underwriters : — 

An accident occurred on the plant of the Smithfield Markets Electric 
Suppty Co.'s power station vori' shortly after midni<.'ht on Fcbruar." l». 
1916, and, unfortunately, one of the drivers was killed. The lOroiuT!* 
jury returned a verdict of '" Accidental death," no blame being attachotl 
to anyone concerned. They added a rider recommending the adoption 
of certain precautionary measures which are enibotlied in Mr. Smith's 
report. 

The compressor attached to the engine is of Messrs. Rcavell & Co.'s 
standard qiiadruplcx type, comprising four cylinders — viz., two K>w. 
pressure cyUnders, one intermediate and one high -pressure. The air is 
drawn into the low-pressure cylinders through slots in the piston pin. and 
is then compressed, glassing into the low-pressure receiver or purwe-pot 
through copper pipes immersed in the water jacket of the i-nniprt>s.*f>r. 
This purge-pot contains a drain and regulating valve, and a • ve 

set at about 100 1b. per sqiiare inch. The air from the h , - ire 
purge-pot is drawn into the intermediate-pressure cylinder past a valve 
through another cooling coil. Then it is compressed and deliveriHl |>ast 
another valve into the intermediate-pressure purge-pot. which is almost 
identical with the low-pressure pot, except that its relief valve is set to 
blow fieely at ."500 lb. to 400 lb. pressure. From the intermediate- 
pressure pot it passes into the high-))ressnr«^ stage, from which it is 
delivered to the small bottle, being cooled immediately after passing the 
high-pressure delivery valve. 

The compressor is so designed that, under normal conditions and when 
])umping its full capacity, the absolute terminal pressures of the various 
stages are approximately : Low pressure, HO lb. ; intermediate pressure. 
240 lb. ; high ^iressure, blast ])ressure. 

A feature of the design to which wo call particular attention is the 
construction and 'ocation of the intermediate-pn>ssure plunger. This, 
being, so to speak, inverted, i-eceives an excess of lubricating oil. which 
when the engine is standing collects in the inverted piston, and can. in 
actual ]Mactice,get past the rings into the cylinder itself. The rings are 
forced tight against the cylinder walls, not merely by their own springs, 
but by air pressure passing behind the rings, the air being conducted 
thereto by four small holes communicating from the inside of the cylinder 
to the ring grooves. 

It appears that this construction greatly facilitates the ingress of the 
oil to the intermediate-pressure cylinder when the engine is allowed to 
stand, and as seeminii to corroborate that the oil actually takes this 



10 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



path it is worthy of note that in most cases these holes soon choke up. 
In the case of the compressor under examination, two out of the four 
holes were choked. Further evidence of the ingress of the oil in this 
manner is supplied by the extraordinary' condition of the high-pressure 
valves, which were both verj' heavily carbonised in 30 hours' running. 

Under normal conditions, the machine is a three-stage compressor 
developing terminal pressures approximately as follows : Low pressure, 
60 lb. abs. ; intermediate pressure, 240 lb. abs. ; high pressure, blast 
pressure. 

Assume that either or both the high-pressure valves are not properly 
tight, then there is a leakage tending to increase the intermediate- 
pressure terminal pressure. If either or both valves become wholly 
inoperative, then the machine becomes two stage, the intermediate 
pressure showing the blast pressure (if the relief valve is inoperative) and 
the low-pressure showing normal pressure. 

Assume next that the intermediate-pressure valves become defective 
'i and leak, then the low-pressure terminal yjressure increases. If either 
or both intermediate-pressure valves become quite ino])erative, the 
machine becomes two-stage, showing apprf)ximately 240 lb. in the low- 
pressure and intermediate-pressure ])ot8 (again assuming that the relief 
valves do not operate). Now let us investigate the possibilities of the 
machine becoming a single-stage machine. Assume both high-pressure 
valves inoperative. Under these conditions we have shown that the low- 
pressure terminal pressure may reach a maximum of (iO lb. absolutr, and 
tin- intermediate-pressure terminal ])ressure is that nf the blast; but the 
low-pressure terminal pressure is approximately the intermediate- 
pressure suction pressure. Now, suppose the compressor is running 
slowly with the low-pressure drain valve fully open. Then the pressure 
in the low-pressure ])urge-pot will not greatly exceed atmospheric pressure. 
Hence, on the assumption that the high-pressure valves are both in- 
operative, the pressure in the intermediate-pressure cylinder would be 
raised from slightly above atmospheric pressure to the blast pressure 
in a single stage. 

These conditions apparently prevailed to an indefinite degree at the 
time of the accident, for at the inquest driver Baker remarked that he 
had 8tart<'d the engine in the usual way, the drain valves on the com- 
pressor being o])en. Then, when the engine commenced to fire, he closed 
them and irnmefliately turned to the blast bottle. He had just com- 
menced to throttle tin- blast to re-charge the bottles when the exjdosion 
occurred. His estimate of the number of revolutions of the engine to 
the time of the exjjlosion is only 20. To this I advert later. 

7'Iu' C'lu-if < if the Arritlf'iil. — -What happened was that the intermediate- 
pressure i)urge-i)ot burst. The jxit was of good average quality iron, and 
was of even thickness. Assuming its tensile strength at 7 tons per 
square inch, its bursting pressure would lie about 2,400 lb. per square 
inch. Hence, no pressures ordinarily pii-vailing in the compressor would 
be likely to cause its fracture. 

I therefore submit that the ])ressure originated from a spontaneous 
ignition of oil vapdiir in the intermedintc-])ressure purge-pot. To avoid 
confusion of thought, 1 define this ])articular example of spontaneous 
igniti(m as " the inflammation of oil vajiour and air by int^-rnal or self- 
contained means, the t<'m])erature nectjssarj' to ])roduce the ignition 
arising from the heat resulting fn>m tlie comj)ression of the air in the 
in t<'rii led iate -pressure stage." 

Provided that tlie oil is ver>' liiicly divided it may combine with 
oxygen with suflicient rapidity t(i cause it to ignite, notwithstanding 
that the surrounding t<'n)i)crature is well below the ignition jjoint of oil 
vapour. For cxaniple, a pile of oily wa*tc in an engino room is liable to 
ignite sj)ontiuieously. This digression is introduced merely to show that 
one need not iieeessaiily have to account for an explosion by pun-lv 
nintliematieal eali nhitions, thotiuli <in eert;iiii warranted hypotlieses 
it will Iw >'hf)wn thiit the coiniires.sion tem])<'rature far exceeded the Hash 
jioint of the oil. 

Assuming that the Hush point of the oil were as high as 450'^F., the inlet 
tempernturi- to thi- immediate pn'ssun- only XO'^F.. and that the eom- 
])ression follows the law 

/T'-^' A'. 

then tlie intermediate-pressun* stage has to eoni|)re»s the air to one- 
fourteenth rtf its original volume to attain 4.'><) K. as the terminal tem- 
perature. If the compressor had been working at its full ca]>acilv, this 
is the (Mjuivalent of raising the jtressure in tlie internu-diate pressure singe 
from roughly 'HI lb. aliw 'hite to SIMI lb. This of itself is <(uitc feasible ]>ro- 
vide<l that the inl<'riue<linte-pressnn> relief valve was inojierativo. 

The evidence is that the internie«!iate-])n'ssun' n'lief vahc did not 
blow, so that it is ver>' probable thai the terniinnl intermediate-preHMire 
was well below .*<(•<) |li., as, on testiiii; the inlemiediale pn-ssiire valve it 
conimenced to lift at 'A'A) lb. probably the \nlve would not have lifte<l 
under KMl lb. pressnn' at the time of the accident : but nssiiming. 
now, that the terminal interineiliat«'-jin"ssure was 'MM lb. wlii-n thi- 
exidosion oecurn>d, or well l>i'low the pn-ssun* at which the valve was 
noniinally .set. wi' find that the initial pn-ssurc wonid have been 10 ll>. 
gauge pressur«> to have resulted in the attainment of 4riO F. terminal 
teniperaliir' under tin- assum])tions spe.-ified above. 

I'roni a study of dilTennf drivers 1 am strongly of opinion that in the 
time elapsing l>etween Maker's closing the lo« .jin-ssiire drain valve and 
lu.ning to the bottles the low-jiressun' pn ssuri' had not attained even 
tliis figure. Hence, on this hypotlu-sis. we find a vcn pofwibjn e:(]d.ina 
tion of spontaneous i;;nition arising. The only other analytical niethiHl 
I We of ai counting for the ]dieniinienon is io assume that tlie reliel valve 
was entirely inojK'rntivc. ami then' are inadequate gn<unds for making an 
hvpotlirsis SCI swec)iin^. 

'Vrtai:»ly the relief valves on the other eompn>ssor» had lifted at 
dilTen-nt times, and there is no nvonl of their having evr lifted on this 



particular compressor; but, on the other hand, one cannot prove a point 
by employing negative evidence. 

As to the positive proof of an ignition explosion, it should be men- 
tioned that the fractured purge-pot showed a black deposit on an other- 
wise clean fracture, some soot or similarly finely divided black deposit on 
the fingers when insc^rted in the pipes communicating with the purge-pot^ 
and also a similar dir from the inside of the purge-pot. It should be 
noted in this latter connection that the inside of the Chelsea purge-pot 
recently examined did not dirty the fingers at aH 

Hence I conclude that an ignition explosion occurred, and base my 
recommendations accordingly : (</) Fit pressure gauges on both low and 
intermediate-pressure purge-pots. It has never been my experience that 
valves fail without giving ample warning by causing the pressure to rise 
unduly. The warning generally extends over several days, and in the 
worst cases I have met with the warning has well exceeded an hour. The 
gauges should read fairly high to minimise the chances of their bursting- 
in the event of being subjected to abnormal pressure. For this reason the 
dials must be large, say (5 in. or 7 in. ; the low-pressure gauge should 
record (>00 lb. or more, and the intermediate-pressure 1.2()0 lb. As a 
further precaution. I would recommend that they be fitted with long pipes 
and have a throttle valve fixed immediateh' below them. (6) The holes 
leading behind the intermediate-pressure rings to be plugged. This will 
probably j)revent the oil gaining easy ingress to the intermediate-pressure 
cylinder, and so reduce the heavy carbonisation of the high-jjressure 
valves, (r) Fit on a large relief valve to the intermediate and low- 
pressure pots. The jiresent valves are onh' 10 mm. diameter, and the 
greater part of this area is choked with the wings of the valve. The type 
of valve, which Messrs. Banks, Warner & Co. are recommending lifts, at a 
predetermined pressure, and should remain well off its seat until the 
])ressure has drojiped to a lower figure predetermined by its design. 
Wliatever form of valve is fitted, it should be designed so that it can be 
readily tested for sticking, (d) Relief valves should be tested perio- 
dically for hfting pressure, (c) There may be some advantage in fitting 
a non-return valve between the high-pressure deUverj' and the bottle. 
This valve should be fitted as close to the high-pressure outlet as is con- 
venient. (/) Drivers in charge should make a habit of feeling the tem- 
perature of the purge-pots. The low-pressure is always the hotter when 
the machine is in good order, but when the high -pressure valves become 
defective the intermediate-pressure becomes warmer, (g) To safeguard 
the water jacket it is advised to work with an open top to the com- 
pressor, or where this is difficult to fit. then in place of the dia])hragmor 
relief valve usually fitted it is advi.sed to place a stand ])ipe 4 in. to 6 in- 
diameter, of sufficient height to obviate " head "" difficulties. 



DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN COMMUTATINGr 
ZONE OF DIRECT-CURRENT MACHINES. 

BY CL. SHENFER. 
(Electrical Laboratory of the Imperial Technical School, Moscow.) 

Summary. — The author, on the basis of a series of osoillograms. 
arrives at the conclusion that the magnetic lines of force of a commutating 
]K)|e ])ass through the iron of the armature core and not across the teeth 
and slots, avoiding the iron of the armature core, which latter tlieory 
is the on" accepted by several authors. 



Latterly thore have been different hypotheses as t<i the 
inajiner in wliicli the maj;netic lines of force arising from the 
commutjiting poles of a direct-cnrrent machine travel ; thus, 
in rontradistinction to the old theon', according to which the 
lines ;)f magnetic force of the commutating poles pass through 
the armature core. Worrall. L. Hinder, R. Rit liter and others* 
have advanced the theory that the magnetic lines of force 
with sparkle.ss commutation d<^ not enter the armature core at 
all, hut pa,s.s across the teeth and annature slots. In Fig. 1 
is given the magnetic figtire. according to Worrall. of a com- 
mutating pole ; from this figure it is seen that in the upper 
part of a tooth situat<Ml under the commutating ]»ole. magnetic 
lines of force, arising from the winding of the ctmxmutat.ing 
l»olc. run frrm below in an upward direction, while in the upper 
]>art «if the to«>fh magnetic lines arising from the armature 
winding run fmm above in a downwanl direction. In this 
way the lines of force arising fmm the commutating |>ole and 
those arising from the core meet in some nevitral plane, and 
then travel a]»]>roxiniately parallel t-o one another, passing 
a( ro.ss the teeth and slots. 

The eflfect of the conxmtitating }>oles is a.s if to squeeze out 
the lines of force of the armature reaction flux, which are. 
therefore, compelled to pas.s across the teeth and slots, and do 
not reach the air-gap at all. 

••• The Physical Theory of fV.mmutation," by G. W. Worral. M.Sc.. 
M.Kiig.. Thk Elkctrician. 1913. p. Tl.'j. Tnk Ei-KcrHtciAN. 1913. p.. 
1175. •• Eletroteknik und Maschinenbau. " 1913. No. \K H>. 17. 2<'., 34i. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



11 



The compensation of the reactance voltage induced in a 
short-circuited coil at the moment of commutation according 
to thi.s representation is described as follows : — - 

As the core revolves, the conductors situated in the lower 
part of a slot (nearer to the armature core) intersect the lines 
of force of the armature reaction flux, and in these conductors 
reactance voltage is set up. The conductors in the upper part 
of the slots intersect the lines of force of the coramutatiiig pole, 
and in these conductors is set up an E.M.F. in opposition to 
the reactance voltage. 

Each coil of a two-layer armature winding (which we have 
to do with in most cases in actual practice) consists of an equal 
number of conductors situated in the upper and lower part.s 
of the slot ; in all the lower conductors of a short-circuited coil 
reactance voltage is induced, and in all the upper conductors 
^n E.M.F. , which compensates this voltage. 

In accordance with this theory there should be some cylin- 
drical " neutral " surface not intersected by either the lines 
of force of the commutating pole or the lines of force of the 
armature core, which would form, as it were, the boundary of 
these two magnetic fields. 

No E.M.F. at all will be induced in any conductor coinciding 
with this surface on entering the commutating zone. The 
position of this " neutral " surface depends on the excitation 
of the commutating poles. As the excitation increases, the 
" neutral " surface approaches the base of the teeth, and vice 
versa ; with decrease in the excitation it approaches the heads 
•of the teeth. 



In one of the armature slots of the machine were placed 
three conductors (Nos. l, 2, 3, Fig. 2), in the upper, middle 
and lower part of the .slot n;-,pf'ctivr'Iv. . 

The terminals of these c.xploiing ooaductore were connected 
to slip rings, one fixed at the bar;k end and one at the com- 
mutator end of the armature. When the armature revolved, 
E.M.F. 3 were induced in these conduct^>r.s, 
and the curves were photographed by means 
of an oscillograph. 

Fig. 3 gives a diagram of connection,s. 
Here »S'=shunt winding, Z)= com mutating 
pole winding, ^=armature, ft=8tartiag 
rheostat for the motor, 5r= changing switch 
for switching off winding of commutating 
poles ; /?«, R,i, Ra are rheostats for regulating 
current in shunt winding, winding of com- 
mutating poles and of armatun- -'vely. 

Exploring conductors 1-3 are connected by m^; : rings 

a, b, c, and brushes d, e, f with the loops of the oscillograph. 

A testing battery, B, regulating rheo.stat r, voltmeter V, and 
change-over switch F are employed for calibrating the o^rillo- 
graph. After each photograph of a curve the loop of the 
oscillograph was brought into contact with the battery, the 
tension of which was measured by the voltmeter F, and a 
deflection in millimetres of the spot of light was ob.servable on 
the drum of the oscillograph. In this way it was possible to 
determine the scale of curves on the oscillograph. 




Fig. 2. 




f 



• • 



^^^v^;i-\ X 



I v\/vvwwvwwww 






R 



^^KfflfflW 



Fig. 1. — Diagram showing Distribution of Flux in Commutating 
Zone (according to Worrall). 

Such, in brief, is the hypothesis stated by Worrall and 
Binder. These authors, however, bring forward no experi- 
mental data directly supporting their theory, and it is very 
desirable that such data should be given, for if it turned out 
that the magnetic field were really such as it is represented 
in Fig. 1 it would be necessary to change completely the 
usually accepted computations for commutating poles. There- 
fore the author of the present article has made an attempt to 
solve this question experimentally. 

The experiments were made with a " Lahmeyer " shunt- 
wound motor with commutating poles, of which the following 
is^the specification : — - 

Horse-power 5 

Terminal voltage 110 

Normal strength of cunent 5 Amji. 

Speed, revs, per min., R 200/1,200 

Number of jioles 4 

Armature : 

Diameter, D 312 mm. 

Length 1 50 mm. 

Air-gap 2 mm. 

Commutator : 

Diameter ; 245 mm. 

Number of segments 207 

Number of brush spindles 4 

Number of brushes per spindles 2 (10x20 mm.) 

Armature Winding : 

Series drum winding in 69 slots 

Number of conductors per slot 12 

Number of armature conductors, N 828 

Commutating Poles : 

Width of pole 22 mm. 

Length of pole, Z 110 mm. 

Winding 68 turns per pole 




YiG. 3.— Diagram of Connectioxs. 

The oscillograms thus obtained are shown in Figs. 4-8. 

In the oscillogram, Fig. 4, two curves appear, photographed 
at one and the same time, namely, the curve of E.M.F. induced 
in the conductor (No. 1, Fig. 2) placed in the upper port, of 
the slot, and the curve of E.M.F. induced m the lower con- 
ductor (No. 3, Fig. 2). Before taking the oscillogram the 
loops of the oscillograph were brought, by means of rheostats 
(ri, 7-2, Fig. 3). to the same sensibility. In Fig. 4 we see that 
the curve! of E.M.F. induced in the upper (No. 1) and lower 



12 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APRIL 7. 1916. 



(No. o) conductors differ very dightly (in some parts these 
curves even coincide), which shows that tlie magnetic figure 
under the commutating pole, a.ssuraed by Worrall and Binder, 
is not in accordance with the facts. If tlie assumptions of 
the.se authors were right the curve of E.M.F. (No. 3) in the 
region of the comrnutating poles would not coincide with 
curve No. 1, but would follow the dotted line in Fig. 4. 
This and the other o.scillograms. Figs. 5-9, prove that the lines 
of force of a commutating pole, after traversing the air-gap, 
enter the core of the armature, in accordance with the old 
theory of .\rnold and others. 



does not give any idea of the magnitude of the magnetic field 
in the commutating zone, as the E.M.F. e is the difference 
between two E.M.F.s — the E.M.F. induced by the magnetic 
field of the commutating poles and the reaction voltage 
induced by the slot field. If the ohmic resistance of the short- 
circuited coil is zero, and the magnetic flux arising from the 
l)ack end of the armature is also zero, then with sparkless com- 
mutation e should also be zero. 



Fio. 4. 





tf 



ClRVK OF K.M.F. (I) IN UpPKB and (3) IN lyOWEK CONDICTOK. 

• g pole Je—47 amperes. 



In tli<- (iscillograni, Fig. 1, the attention is .struck bva .slight 
divergence of the curves 1 and 3 in the region of the com- 
mutating pole. This may restilt from the magnetic lines of 
force of the slot field passing for the most part through the 
upper part of the slots and fnuu t<»p to top of the teeth, .so that 
the number oi magnetic linos of Torce surr<»unding conductors 
1 and 3 are almost eqiial. In order to protect the exploring 



Fir:. 7. — (A) Ccrve of E.^LF. is Upper Conductob axd (B) Ci-rve of 
Resultant (Difference) E.^LF. is Upper and Lower. 
/a = 54 ampere?. /c= 57 amperes, Ie—0-5 ampere. R=470. 

To determine how much greater is the actual influence of 
the magnetic induction under the commutatir g poles than that 
which is obtained on the basis of the o.scillogram, the magnetic 
characteristic of the commutating poles of the machine was 
taken separately {see Fig. 6). We will endeavour, on the basis 
of this curve, to determine the actual magnitude of the mag- 
netic induction B in the neutral zone of the motor to arrive a. 




Fi... .1- C'lTRVK OK K.M.F. (1) IN Upper and (2) in Middle Exploring 

roNDrrroR. 



c 

cur 



in TOmmutating pole-50 ftrnperes, exciting 



conductor fr<.m the action of (Ik- slot field it would have been 
necetwary to place it above the tops <.f the t.eetli which, from 
the smallnejw (»f the air-gap, was «lillicult to etT«'ct. 

The oHcillograni. Fig. 1, was photographe<l while the machine 
e.\penmenfe<l on was worke<| as n niofor. tl„. annattire current 
/ being :\H.i, <ominiitjitiiig poles winding current Ir -47A, 
exciting current /,^0-85.4. and the speed in revolutions per 
minute I{ . :y.M). The current in the commutating poles winding 




«,000 














^^ 




- 


o.ouo 




















4.000 






y 


y* 












3,000 




/ 


r 
















^ 



















Fig. 8. — (.4) Curve or E.M.F. in Upper Conductor and (B) Curve of 

Resultant (Differkncv) E.M.F. in Upper and Lower. 

/a^60 amperes, /fO, /#=0-8 ampere, /? -310. Strong sparking at the trailing edge 
of brusii. 

the conditions under which the oscillogram, Fig. 4. was ob- 
tained. The number of ampere-turns of one coinmut.ating pole 
under these conditions wmII be n«. /f =68x47=3,2(K) ; the 
ntimber of ampere-turns of the armature winding per ])ole will 
Ite ir . .\, where r is the iMtle-pitch of the ma«hine = 24-5 cm., 
and A is the number of ampere conductors per centimetre of 
circumference ; as 

A=.V./,.-rZ>. 

where /. the <urrent per armature path — J/o ; therefore 

24-5 828 I 



\xA^ 



= 61/<,=51x 38=1,940. 



400 800 I 250 I 600 2.000 2.400 2.800 3.200 

AT 
Km rt. 

wius lix<Hl at this strength, so that the mean volt«ge l^otwcen 
the tHlge,s of the hnmhes. measured bv means of two exploring 
copper bn, • „d a v.' .. «,u, ,.on.. The line traced 

in the os< I at a a 0-4 I" from the xem line givo.H 

the scale. In the o.^rillogr«m No. 4 the E.M.F e .sot up in the 
exploring rondurt4.r as it parses under the rommut.ating polo 



2 ;rx31-2 2 
Bearing in mind that the magnetic flux in the neutral zone 
arises from the difference between the ampere-turns 

». /c-Jj-.^/i=3.200- 1,940= 1260, 

on the basis of the magnetic charact^^ristic of the coinmut.a- 
ting |>oles. we find the magnetic induction B. corresponding 
to the number found for the ampere-turns, is 5.2(H). 

If we wished to calculate the magnitude of the magnetic 
induction in the noitral plane on the basis of o.scillogram, 
Fig. 4. we .shouKl arrive at a figure considerably smaller than 
that just obtained. As a matter of fact, the E.M.F. induced 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, lOlG. 



13 



in the exploring conductor when passing through the neutral 
zone may be expressed as follows : 

e=B A.s . 10-8 (1) 

where ?=length of commutating pole in centimetres and 
s=peripheral speed in cm. /sec. (in the present instance 

7T.D.R y r. 31-2x390 ,■ n^ x. 

s= = ::r, =635) ; irom equation (1) we have 



n 



60 



I . s 



108, 



11X635 

or, taking the value of e derived from the oscillogram as 
0*196 volt, we get 



B= 



0-196 



108=2,810, 



11-635 

i.e., nearly one-half less than the value obtained above on the 
basis of the magnetic characteristic of the commutating poles. 



p#"M" 




.'» «/ «- > i »(N^ -»*%^ lf~^^ n t f'^' 



Fig. 9. — (A) Curve of E.M.F. in Upper Conductor and (B) Curve of 

Resultant (Difference) E.M.F. in Upper and Lower. 

/a=13 ampere.5, /c = 13 amperes, /^=l-7 amperes, /?— 370. Brushes dis placed 5-5 
commutator segments in direction of revolution. Slight sparking. 

In Figs. 7-9, at the same time as curve A of the E.M.F. in 
one upper conductor was photographed (giving in a cenain 
degree a magnetic figure of the induction in the air-gap), there 
was photographed also the curve B of the difference of E.M.F.s 
induced in the upper and lower conductors (giving some 
indication of the change of magnitude of the slot field in 
different parts of the armature). For that purpose the back 
ends of conductors 1 and 3, Fig. 2, were connected together, 
and the free ends connected up with the loop of the oscillograph. 

In order to judge of the form of those parts of the curves 
B described during the period of commutation, in Figs. 7-9 
is marked the duration C of the short-circuit. 




YiQ, 10. — (^) Curve of E.M.F. in Upper Conductor and (.B) Curve of 
Resultant (Difference) E.M.F. in Upper and Lower. Brushes 

Raised. 

In each of the oscillograms. Figs. 7-9, the scale of curve B 
is approximately five times greater than the scale of curve A. 

The oscillograms Nos. 7 and 8 were taken with brushes in 
normal positions, and No. 9 with brushes displaced 5-5 com- 
mutator segments in the direction of rotation of the motor. 
The fact that the teeth appear in this oscillogram may be 
explained, firstly, by the reaction of the current in the short- 
circuited coil, and, secondly, by fluctuation in the resistance of 
the magnetic circuit arising from the teeth of the armature. 
This latter fact is shown by the oscillogram in Fig. 10, taken 
with the brushes raised, where the teeth are also observable. 



SIR J. J. THOMSON ON RADIATION FROM ATOMS 

AND ELECTRONS. 

(ContinupA from jyuje 911, Voi.lLXX VI.) 

The iodirif; vapour cxjwririKiit of \V«kxI f 

looking at the problem. When the light i...,.,.^. .,j.„. .,. ...j,,..r 
was of ona particular wave-leni?th the line Hijec-trum of iodine wait 
seen, Ijiit when the inciflent Hght waw of any other w.i h 

quite dilfereiit series of lines were ob«er\-ed. The«e 
resonance effects, like those heard when a piano wa« beit <1 

in a room containing apparatus tuned to di e 

might be an irreguhirity in the vibration.s of ti. -. .iC 

vapour. As long as the incident light and the iodine \ibrationi! 
kept in phase without interruption, there wa.s n*' - and 

no ab.sorption of energy with vai>rjur ; if there w |«tion, 

light energy brought up would be converted into Homething and be 
absorbed by the iodine. 

If the irregularities repeated at regular intervals, serieo of equi- 
distant lines (satellites) would appear on lx>th sideo of the original 
lines; they would be related to the oritr ' ' ' 'tig in 

intensity with greater distance, and the di.-; k&ik 

with the frequencies of the internal irregularity. These irregularitie-i 
might be ascribed to the coili.sions of the iodine moleeules : ' • 'i- it 
explanation had proved insufficient. The phenomenon <■. r»; 

probably be likened to those presented by a .spiral spring, weightefl 
below by a cross-bar. When the bar was pulled down the spring 
vibrated, but the vibration was of two kinds, up and down and 
torsional ; as the up-and-dowTi motion quieted down the torsional 
rotation became more pronounced, to give way again to the former up- 
and-down motion, and so on. Thus there was a periodical How of 
energy, backward and forward, of vertical vibration into torsional 
vibration and vice versa, in the spring. The original up-and-down 
motion corresponded to the ordinarv iodine lines ; the superimposed 
absorbed energy gave rise to the satellites. This .•« 'i. Sir 

Joseph added, was not necessarily the correct explanat. AixkI's 

complicated spectra, which, it should not be forgotten, were only 
observed in the neighbourhood of absorption lines ; but irregularities 
in the medium might give ri.se to complicated spectra. 

Text-books, Sir Joseph remarked finally, said little about absorp- 
tion, and the usual reference to the ab.sorption of acoustic waves by 
tuning forks did not explain anything as to light. A tuning fork 
absorbed sound waves of the same frequency as it emitted. Bat t he 
case of light, like that of the forced spring vibrations, was not merely 
one of resonance ; in their ca.se a transformation of energj- was 
required, and absorption occurred only when there was interruption 
or irregularity in the medium. Opacity of a substance indicated 
that interruptions occurred at short intervals ; in transparent botlies 
the interruptions were separated by long intervals. 

In the third lecture Prof. Thomson considered the comparatively 
simple case of Hght emission by substances at ordinary temperature 
and not exposed to electric or other disturbances — phosphores<.-enoe. 
The phenomena of luminous paints had not escaped the notice of the 
alchemists, whose writings were interesting. The lecturer exposeil a 
series of test tubes tilled with whitish jxjwders to the arc lamp for a 
minute ; the tubes then shone in the different colours of the spectrum, 
from red to violet. By holding the tubes in front of a projected 
spectrum the colour of rich tube could be determuie<l : the chief 
phosphorescence would become apparent in the ultra- \-iolet region. 
The powders were all solid solutions of sulphides, and seemed to 
contain at least three substances; the. colours were verA- sensitive 
to traces of other metals, and the tubes probably showed uifferent 
colours mainly owing to their impurities ; but zinc sulphide seemed 
to phosphoresce by itself. To prepare the sulphides, mixtures of 
salts were dissolved and precipitated together so that sensitive com- 
plex compounds were formed : mixing the already fonnod sulphides 
would not answer. Lenard and Klat^ (since liXM) had thrown 
much light on the problem. Their active complex wmjxnmd was 
of the type ArC.B„, which formed molecular grou|v. ; these wert- aUi 
the centres of the absorption of the exciting light ra\-s, the latter 
being active only at certain parts of the sjiectrum. so that only 
certain w\:,ve-lengths stimulated absorption and phosphorest^em^e ; 
copper had two absorption bands in the ultra-Wolet, the npgion 
between them being inactive ; every metal had its own bands. 
which shifted slightly in the presence of other metals. The Ix'st 
metals were the heavy metals of high valency, magnesium being 
the lightest of the active metals. To produce phosphorescei.ee, 
absorption of light energy by the substance had to Ih> stvurvl in the 
first instance ; that energy causcil some change in the complex 
substance, which wjis converted into an unstable compoimd, the 
latter reverting ipiickly or slowly to the original complex: the 
phosphorescence took place during t his ret uni. Under t he excitation 
by light the complex probably shot out an electron which settled on 



14 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 1, 1916. 



an electro-negative substance like sulphur, giving rise to a new 
arrangcM.ient ; the electron then returned like a thrown up stone, 
the stored energy being that of the incident existing light. 

If that explanation were correct it might be possible to stop 
phosphorescence by cold, e.g.. Phosphorescent tubes, dipped into 
liquid air, lost their brightness, but slowly became bright again as 
the substance warmed up once more; thus phosphorescence 
admitted of cold storage, so to say. Substances like a paraffin 
candle and a piece of egg shell were not phosj>horescent under 
ordinary conditions, but Ijecame so if cooled in liquid air after ex- 
jxisure to light ; the glow vanished soon, whilst in the sulphide tube 
it remained visible for many minutes. Jn these ca.ses (paraffin) the 
return was too quick to mark phosphorescence, unless it was arrested 
by cooling. There were other ways of producing phosphorescence, for 
instance, by kathode bombardment, i.e., by driving negative particles 
into the substance. Under this bombardment Iceland spar gave a 
reddish phospliorescence. fluorspar a bluish light. The interestmg 
case of Huorspar had been studied by .Morse; by stimulating this 
mineral with the light from sparks between electrodes of aluminium, 
zinc, &e., he obtainerl spectra of sharj) bright lines l>earing no relation 
to any known sjR-ctra, one of the few citses where solids gave Ijright 
lines. Didymium was another case, the didymium gla.s8 of Crookes 
giving lines where the solutions of the pink and of the green salts 
showed absorjjtion (in tliose regions). If these observations were con- 
firmed, the case of fluorspar would be similar to that of Wood's 
va[K)urs of iorline and sodium. 

Thermo-luminescence, Sir Joseph proceeded, was a kind of 
phosphorescence in which the complex substance formed by the light 
was so sta!»le that the n-turii was very slow unless stimulated by heat. • 
A m>lid solutirxi of manganese sulphide in calcium sulphide (a 
yellowish jxjwder) was first lionibarded by kathode rays ; it phos- 
phoresced green for a few minut<'s. When it had turned dark again 
it was gently heated over a Buiisen burner, when it became luminous 
once more, for a longer period. The case was the opposite to liquid 
air cooling: if heat were not ajiplied, the retun> would spread over 
days. 

(iases were also plu>hphf)rescent. To demonstrate this Sir Joseph 
made use of a gla.ss cylinder wound with a few turns of a primarv' coil, 
and |ila( cd the glass bulb containing the gas at 
low pressure inside the cylinder, so that the 
gas itself formo«l the secondary. ()xyg<'n 
glowed the di.scharge of an induction coil, and 
the glow continued after the discharge had 
iM'cn stop|N-d. but vanished when the bulb was 
heatwi over a burner. This exjK-riment will 
again Ix- referred to. To show the |ihenome- 
non in nitrogen a bulb wiut u.sed wlio.se neck 
widened out alsjve into a cylindrical chamber 
for two spark-elect nodes (Fig. .'<); t his chamber 
was encasi'd t<( stop tlu; glan-. When the 
discharge (NiMsed. a cone of gnM>nish-yellow 
light was seen t<( issue through tlie 

neck. The explanation of the phenomena for gases was prob- 
ably the same an forMf)lids, complex comiK»unds or modiHcationa 
being formed. 

Ill the CUM* of liquidn the phenomenon was generally eall(>d fluor- 
escence, but there was no real diffen-nce Ix'tween i)hosphore8cenco 
and (luores<ence. except that (lie Miion-sceiice of liquids las(<'d only 
iw long as the excitation. Thus, when red eosin jxiwder Mas dropjHHl 
into water, long streams «)f IxMiutiful grin-n light, following the single 
falling particles, and a green cloud surnniiiding the ma'-s of ]N>\\i|(>r. 
were oliscr\cd ; l>ut that stop|M-d at oner when the lantern almve 
the wat^'r was shut o(T. Aeeonling to the law of Stokes, the lluor- 
es<ciit light was of gn-ater wave length trian (he exciting light ; 
that law held gciieralls . but exceji(ions (o i( wen- knouii ( W(mkI ). The 
eoniiectioii lH'(ween tlimn'scence and chemical conNtitiition was im- 
|)ortan( for (hecn'a(ion of ar(ilicial dyes. Therewe waii(<Ml lirs( of all 
soiiietliing to absorli ligh( (with alisorption bands) : (he subs(Hnee 
should be coiii|>lex to yiehl an uiistalile inodilication ; and we wanted 
a visible liiniiiiescenee, not in the ultra violet. In (his eonnertion 
Sir 'loseph n'fernnl to his suggeN(ion of dividing substan<-es into two 
elapses: (I) Uncharged Inidies con(aining atoms and molecules not 
showing free charges. lK'»ause (lie |Nisi(ive and n»'gati\e charge* 
balnne<«<i one another: (2) charged lKKlir»». whose atoms held 
fnH» charges, some negative, some positive, ^ . i i,.^ 

wiMV charged, others uncharge<l. ritrn violet „ .j :. in 

uncharge*! rom]M)und would discharge negative partielns and eonvert 
it in(n a chnrgi'd Isxly. whicli would return t<» its m .] ,-,»u. 

<li(ion. That would help 1<> explain the nMatmns 1.. tlnor- 

enoTMiT and eonstitution. 

There was a gn>at deal of evuience now. ,'sir .losepli further said. 
• hat the grrator (he amount of energ\- which (he neg«(ive i>ttrticl(\!« 




Yiu. 3. 



acquired, the shorter would be the wave-length, and the more blue, 
therefore, the light emitted. Id the above-mentioned experiment 
with oxygen, the oxygen molecules inside the bulb close to the wall 
were in a strong electric field (being close to the primary outside), 
and the gas nearer the centre was in a weaker field. Watching the 
glow in the bulb carefully one could see that the colour was not 
uniform ; an outer blue ring and an inner red ring could be dis- 
tinguished. There was thas a connection between the energj' put 
into the system and the kind of light it emitted. This was in 
accordance with Planck's relation that the frequency was propor- 
tional to the actual energy, red radiations requiring less energy than 
blue radiations. 

{To be continued.) 



EBRAxrsL — The words ''System I." and "Sj-stem II." in Fig. 2 
in our account of these lectures in our last issue should be inter- 
changed. 



METHODS AND APPLIANCES FOR THE ATTAINMENT 
OF HIGH TEMPERATURES IN THE LABORATORY. 



At the last meeting of the Faraday Society, held on Wednes- 
day, March 15, at the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
an interesting informal discussion took place on this subject. 
The chair was taken by the President, Sir Robert Hadfield. 
F.R.S.. and Dr. J. A. Marker, F.R.S., of the National Physicai 
Laboratory, opened tlie di.scussion. , 

The President, in introducing the subject under discussion, referred 
to the difficulties ex])eriuienters used to labour under in trxing to melt 
small quantities of metals like steel or copper in the laboraton^ before 
modern apphances, such as would be described by Dr. Marker, were 
dcvi.sed. He then went on to emjihasise the importance of laboratory 
hijrh-temperature furnaces in connection with the standardisation of 
pyrometric determinations, and he gave a short historical sketch of 
devei()])n)ents in jivrometrx'. beginning; with Wedgwood.s work in 1782, 
and referrinfr ])articiilariy to the work of le Chatelier and Osmond in 
France, and W. Siemens, Roberts-Austen and Callendar in this countn% 
coming down to the more recent work carried out by some who would 
take |iart in the jircsent discussion. 

J)r. .F. A. Harkeh. in opening the discussion, said his object was to 
draw atti-ntion to some of the more diflicult point* in this subject. He 
dealt almost exclusively with the carbon resistance furnace. The diffi- 
culty with this ty-pe of furnace was to obtain carbon of the proper quali- 
ties, and it was satisfactory- to know that in this country- the CJeneral 
Klectric Co. had a stock of carbon tubes for this purpose. Carbon for 
electric furnaces had a very- variable s])e(ific resistance from p\e 

to another. (Jrajihite hail, roughly, one-fifth the specific r< of 

carbon. It yvas much mt)rc uniform and contained very- much less 
inorganic impurities. It differed chieHy in that its hardness was of quite 
a different order, and it could be cut on a machine like hard wood. 
Witii carbon, on the other hand, the lathe tool lost it,s edge directly, 
and it was ini|)ossible to cut rings or patterns, imle.ss the si)ecimen was 
particularly tra(tai)le. The temperature coefficient of carbon was 
practically nil for the fir.st ])art of its running up. and then Ixrame 
strongly nejtative. Provision had to be made for the fact that the 
voltage had a tendency to fall rather than ri.se. and the current conse- 
quently to go up. For certain inii-jioses when using graphite it was 
IxMter not to make a i>laiii. straight < ondnctor. but to make it into a 
sjiiral or zig-zag. One of the diflicultics was that at high t<'ni])erature a 
neck was likely to form just inside the clamps, and irregularities of heat- 
ing took place, which n-sulted in a poor lite, and there was a gn^at ten- 
dency for the whole thing to break in cooling off. Provision had also to 
Ih- made for the carbon monoxide furmed in the furnace to Ix- <piickly 
burnt. The material of which most tulx-s wvre ma<ie contained inor- 
ganic iiiatt<T up to about 2} ju'rcent.. whilst a thoroughly poml specimen" 
contained about | per cent. This could nearly all 1k' burnt out by 
heating quickly to 1 .800 dejj. or 1.5HKI deg. The nee«i for completely 
c-ndosini; the carb<in furnace was very great, and at the National 
Physical I^aboralnry- some years ago Mr. hiden built the Malls of such a 
furnace of reinfort-ed concrete, which was coi. ' '\ Ix-ttor than 

bri< ks for |»n'ventin)j the carbon monoxide from nto Ihe atmo- 

sphen*. At the same time f<ir laboratorv purj>ows it was ess<Mitial to 
have an a]iparatuK of not quit<' so |MTmanent a character. «n<l in this 
e«>nnection he exhibit4<<i a new form of funiac* which Mr. Ivlen had made. 
The diflen-nee b<'tweon n pood and bad tvpe of funiaoe was all in the 
nniall details. In (he rarbon tulx- funiace. for instaiKH^. it was not at 
all e«»_\ t<> kiM-p till- thill ■ liv unlcs'- ilic i-nds wen- water- 

cooled. No < ondu< tor I , . , urrent tlciiMty with a bjjj tem- 

|MTntun' (fradient could (jo on working very long and maintain steady 
i<indi(ions. S<K)ner or later it caused a big increai*e in the voltage 
drop where the cop|x^r conductor joined on to the en<l». and trouble 
foUowtMl. Rurh «.« jrreat !<> al heating at thi- contact. In this new furnace, 
water < <K>ling had \icvn appli«sf not only to the elertr<Kles but also to 
the ends. Ixs auw' the furnace was enclose*! in in aluiuinuini bomb 
arranginient. and (he ends which were b(>lt<>d on to (he bniul> wen- fas- 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APKIJ. 7. 191f3. 



15 



rcncd by a packing ring which had to be kept cool. The maintenance 
of the insulation of the carbon tube- was also important. One way 
was to have another tube round the carbon tube with an air space 
between, but for high-tension work this was thoroughly bad. He had 
found the simplest and best thing was to use the grade of lampblack 
used by paint makers, filling up all the space around the carbon tube 
for a radial distance of 3 in. This had been found to be by far th(! most 
satisfactory material for ranges of temperature above 1,500 or 1,600. 
Another point in connection with the new furnace was the important 
one of economy. It was necessary to obtain high temperatures with 
small power, and in order to get over this satisfactorily a small portable 
transformer had been made which could be used in the laboratory. 
There were 80 turns of primary made up in the simplest way and three 
secondary turns capable of being coupled in series or parallel. The 
primary was split so as to be used at 300 volts and downwards, and 
currents could be obtained up to about 1,000 amperes. With the insu- 
lating soot which he had mentioned the 1 kw. which was necessary to 
maintain the temperature of 2,000°C. in the furnace only heated the 
outside wall to something over 100°C., so that there was no need for 
elaborate precautions. 

The President pointed out that one of the furnaces exhibited was to 
be sent to his works at Sheffield. 

Dr. Harker added that Messrs. Hadfields were going to do with that 
furnace just what had been done with it at the National Physical Labora- 
tory, namely, standardise optical pyrometers. At the National Phy- 
sical Laboratory there was a furnace like the one shown mounted beside 
a bench on which all pyrometers for verification were put and slid along, 
the indications being compared with those of the standard. 

Mr. R. S. Whipple dwelt on the difficulties he had experienced with 
optical pyrometers owing to the fact that many optical materials came 
from Germany and that it was difficult to get truly monochromatic 
glass. With regard to Dr. Marker's furnace, what struck him was the 
way the temperature could be maintained constant. He described 
some electric furnaces he had seen in America used for gear-hardeninjf. 
Thermocouples passed through the furnace on to the work, which was 
simply brought up to the recalescent point, as indicated in a Northrup 
recording pyrometer, and then taken out and quenched. It was a 
beautiful technical application of scientific phenomena. 

Dr. W. RosENHAiN, F.R.S., said the problems mentioned by Dr. 
Harker became more difficult when one dealt with a larger space in which 
it was desired to melt things. The application of electrical heating for 
making optical glass was at present under investigation, but he would 
refer to some general difficulties in the use of high-temperature furnaces. 
One was the presence of carbon compounds ; he wanted a furnace as 
tractable as Dr. Harker's which would be free from carbon. On a small 
scale a tungsten wire vacuum furnace was effective, and he had melted 
pure iron (1,525+5°C.) in such a furnace. But the tungsten became 
brittle and a fresh winding was necessary for each run. Granular 
tungsten resisters might be used, and so might a carbon resistance 
furnace with an inner tube, an indifferent gas between the two and a 
shghtly oxidising gas in the inner space. The drop of volts between 
metal clamps and electrodes in electric furnaces became serious with 
large currents. He suggested coating the carbon with copper, alu- 
minium or iron, as the case might be, by the Schoop spray process, 
burnishing the coating to give a good metallic contact. The possi- 
bilities of gas furnaces were often overlooked. He described two types 
which he had found useful — the Segar furnace, and one they had evolved 
at the National Physical Laboratory. The former, which required a 
30 ft. chimney, worked quietly and steadily ; but for high temperatures 
he used a special type of injector burner for use with compressed air at 
100 lb. per square inch, and with this temperatures up to 1,800°C. were 
obtained. 

Mr. C. R. Darling remarked that the furnace first described would be 
very useful for laboratory purposes for melting small quantities of metals. 
He pointed out some of the drawbacks of platinum-wound furnaces. In 
the furnaces of Dr. Harker's type he had found magnesia bricks satis- 
factory for outside lagging. LTj) to 1,000°C., furnaces wound with nickel- 
chrome wire gave good results. A furnace 1 ft. long, using a 1 in. tube, 
consumed only ^ kw. 

Mr. H. G. Lacell agreed as to the value of nickel-chrome winding. A 
kieselguhr tube wound with ribbon of this material could be rigged up 
in a few minutes. He had given up gas-heating for any temperature 
below 1,000°C. 

Mr. H. A. Kent had been using a lime furnace for melting platinum 
and iridium working beyond 3,000°C. ; but he had recently obtained 
excellent results with a crucible of pure zirconia, using an oxy-hydrogen 
cyclone burner. He hoped it would be possible to make here pure 
zirconia in granular form ; if so, almost any temperature could be ob- 
tained with suiiace combustion. 

Mr. A. J. Webb said he had obtained good results with the Brayshaw 
burner, with which he had accidentally melted a large piece of platinum 
with an air pressure of only 20 lb. and the ordinary gas supply. Mr. 
Kent had introduced a good burner similar to Dr. Rosenhain's, in which 
gas was blown in at the side. 

Mr. S. N. Brayshaw said it was possible with his burner to melt small 
quantities of platinum with 3 lb. air pressure. Noise was of the essence 
of a good burner ; the gas and air had to be sent into the furnace not 
only mixed, but in a state of violent agitation. The turbulence of the 
explosive mixture in gas-engine cylinders was a parallel phenomenon. 
He gave a descriptive sketch of the burner which bore his name. 

Dr. H. C. Greenwood thought there was nothing better than charcoal 
for insulating carbon tube furnaces, and he held a brief — for many pur- 
poses — for the rougher type of furnace built of bricks and charcoal. He 



described a simple device for the calibration of pyrometer?. With 
regard to large furnaces, something wa« wanU-d between the an f uma/ e 
and the steel-melting furna'c, and when; a c,' 

sphere was not required tin- ^ras furnace h.id gf i 

melted 100 lb. of German silscr at l,2i)t) ('. in a re«i»tanee furnac<r with 
a number of resistors in series. 

Mr. F. Twvman suggested the u«e of gelatine screen* an a Kab«titute 
for red glass in optical pyrometers. 

Dr. W. RosENHAiN remarked hen^ that at the National FhyificaJ 
Laboratory they were experimenting with / and he hoped Miiaf.-- 

thing would emerge that would Ur g<-n(rail . ,le. 

The President beUevc^d that ven,- high prr:»«ure hUuitM would have a 
great future. Bessemer had worked on them at one time, and he va« 
glad the idea was being taken up again. 

Dr. J. A. Harker, in reply, said that until they had zirconiA tabes 
alundum could be u.sed as a substitute for carbon whf-n- that wa* oiuait* 
able ; but it was more expensive than carbon, and • was not 

gastight. He hoped that lampmakers would maK tungaten 

tubes, as they would be extremely useful. In hi.s carbrjn-tube furnace. 
to prevent the soot from falling into the s-jnral gr<K)ve it wa« only neces- 
sary to wrap filter paper round the tube. Its ash kept the soot from 
falhng. The present uncertain quality of coal-gas was a difhcnlty in 
gas furnaces. 



INSTITUTE OF mDUSTRY. 



On Thursday, March 30, a meeting convened by the Institute of 
Industry took place at the Savoy Hotel, London, to discuss a project 
for forming a central body to co-ordinate all national movements 
for protecting and furthering the interests of BritLsh industry- and 
commerce. 

Mr. F. J. Nettlefold (Messrs. Courtaulds, Ltd.), who occupied 
the chair, said the Right Hon. Sir Edward Carson, at a luncheon 
given by the Institute on Jan. 12, appealed to the business men to 
co-ordinate and consolidate all national movements such as theirs 
into one powerful national organisation, and so avoid waste of effort 
and energy. The court of directors had that object in \iew, and 
believed the organisation would readily lend itself to that purpose. 
There was sitting daily in Berlin an organisation representative of 
all trades, and composed of the cleverest brains of industrial Germany, 
ready to complete a programme for the conduct of the economic 
struggle wliich would commence directly the war came to an end, 
and we should be ready with a similar organisation, so that the 
leaders of industry in this country might have had time to consider 
the best commercial policy suited to aU trades. There were already 
throughout the country organisations representative of each trade. 
Individually, although extremely valuable, they could achieve verj- 
little towards advancing our general commercial policy. Collec- 
tively, they would form such a body of expert opinion as is required 
and would be invaluable to any Government. The meeting that day 
was convened in order that they might consolidate their forcts. and 
provide a central representative organisation promptly to start the 
work which Berlin was already doing. The committee was autho- 
rised to state that the sole object of the directors was to bring into 
existence the necessary organisation to deal with our economic 
future after the war. They wished to see the board composed of the 
most able business men of the country, and desired it to bt- distinctly 
understood that everj'one of tfiem was willing at any time to stand 
aside to give place to men who might be better able to advance the 
programme which had been outlined. Mr. Peddie, the foimdc" of 
the Institute, and who was maiul}' responsible for the excellent pro- 
gress made up to now, had placed his resignation in the hands of 
the directors, in order that, in inviting the co-ojx^ration of those 
present and of other similar organisations, they might l>e otTcred the 
advantages of a central association whose machinery was free and 
unfettered by any existing agreement as to management and i-on- 
duct. The institute had no politics, and its jKilicy, which had 
received considerable publicity, had been generally ap{)aned. The 
first question was naturally one of finance. It wouUl U- nooessary 
at the outset to have an assured minimum income of to.lXX) a year. 
It wa-i proposed that it should be raised by inviting donations of 
£1,000 each, and that the capital should remain uitact and invested. 
the interest only to be used as income for the purposes of that 
association. They might also invite annual subscriptions of large 
amoimts for a period of years, and there would also In? smaller 
amomits subscribed by the membei-s themselves. It wi»s suggested 
that associations, and groups of associations, should send their depu- 
ties to take counsel together, and through the various ramifications 
they might at last come to a committee of maiuigeable size, each 
member of which might voice ihe opinions of the trade he repre- 
sented. They had heard much during the li\st few yeai-s of a busi- 
ness Pariiamcnt. The way now proposed was the only way this 
could materialise. It was useless to expect such a thing in the 



16 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



House of Coninions. (Hear, hear.) It was not only so-called key 
industries that deserved special attention, but even,' industry that 
was capable of giving employment. The strength of a rountn- 
largely d<;pended upjn the number of people who could be employed 
at a wage which enabled them to maintain a decent standard of 
living. That created a large home market from which all indus- 
tries benefited. He recommended that no permanent appointments 
should be made until they had arrived at the best form of board to 
adopt. They should put aside all personal ambitions and petty 
jealousies and have one object in view — the general good of their 
native land. (Applause.) 

Mr. OonFKEY Isaacs (Marconi's Wireless Tclej^raph Co.) said in Berlin, 
as the rcKult of the conference of the ablest business men of Germany, 
there were contracts now being made in wveral neutral countries with the 
object of securing as nearly as possible a nif)no|»ojy of certain ]>roduct8 
from th<' date when ])eacc shall be declared. an<l also endeavours were 
being made by numerous jjroups to charter all neutral tonnage for <.hrce 
years from the declaration of peace, and other matters were being orga- 
nised in Germany to meet the position which would arise from the 
moment peace was declared. We ought to be doing the same thmg 
without delay. If we merely continued to talk about the organisation 
of our economic int<'rcHts we miclit be too late, as we had l>een before. 
He- asked those ])r«^nent not to wait to .s<-<' whether the Institute of Indus- 
try was going to be a success, but to ])ut their shoulders to the wheel 
to make it a success. As the representatives of the industry* and com- 
merce of the rountrv they-could wield whatever ]»owcr they pleased in 
the countrj'. anrl in that way they couWl be assured that they wouUl not 
havr- trj fare acon<liti'in fif things such as they had had to face in the jiast. 
The whole of (he industry and coninicrcc of this country would be at 
stake aft<r the war. If they a( t<'d together they would find a satisfactory 
solution. If they li-ft thi-s<- n)att<-rs t») the tender mercies of (government 
dej)artments and conflicting ])olitical parties in the Hfiu.se of Commons 
he need not t<'l! them what would Ik- the result. The Institute of Indus- 
try' invited every trade organisation in the countrA^ to join and send its 
representatives to one central organisation. He hoped thay would be 
able to finri ")00 who would each jtut up t.KJO. There were several there 
ready to start that list. 

Mr. Fkank Waunkh (President of Silk Association of CJreat Britain 
and Irelanrl) moved : "That this mer-ting of manufactunTs and .other 
representative men closely connected with all i)hases of industrial 
activity in the I'nited Kingdom fully endorses anrl ap])rovcs of the state- 
ment of ])olicy out lined iiy the chairman at this meeting to-day. and 
they cordially ajqirove and welcrmie the pro])osal that all national 
movements of a similar nature should amalgamate their forces with a 
view to ( reatini; a strong central organisation" ; and, "That this meeting 
recommends all |)ei-Kons or companies int«'rested in the industrial life 
of tlie I'.ritisli Kinpirr- to supjKirt the Institute by becoming members, in 
order to stiiiiuiate action in the (lirccti<in desired." 

.Mr. W-irner. contiiniing, said he repres<-nt<'d one of the trade organisa- 
tions which, as the chairman said, existed throughout the country. 
During the few years he had held the jjn-sideniy of that association 
he ha«l had the gn'atest flilhculty in getting any (Jovernment depart- 
ment to rec(»j;niw any jiolicy the association deemed necessary. He 
went, on the previous day. to a department wit ha ver>- reasonable n-cpiire- 
nienl, but lame away without anything sati.sfying. That must go on 
in ronnection with their national policy unless they combined. .Just 
as a trade association was a rallyiuK point for a ])articular trade they 
wanted that Institute to iK-come the rallying point for the associations. 
If the business men of the conntr>- did not cond)ine and decide what the 
business policy of the lonntrv shouM Im- it would Ix- decided u))on by 
thos<' who had proved in Ihi- past to he (juit*- inca|>al)le of guiding or 
constructing su( h a policy. (Hear, hear.) They not only want<'d such 
a central body for dealing with the policy that must follow the war. 
but also to continue such policy. He thou^rht (lie broa<l principles 
\ipon which the Institute of jndtistiy was hasj-d made it a good rallying 
,H)int for a < intra! Ixwiy to construct the business policy which wa** vital 
to the country. 

The ( uAiitMAN said he wishe*! it to he distinctly understcMid that tho 
Institute of Industry <lid not wish to pose as tho institution into which 
nil the others would come. It was op-n to th<l^e who cnm.- in to make 
their own arrangements a'tcrwanls. 

Col. Casski.i. (President of Institute <if Chemical TfH-hnologv) said ho 
felt that it was very proper tiiat tiie nsolut iiui pro|Mised shoulinie ]tasM>d. 
It was important that there should he a rnllymg |Miint wli. re every 
industry couki turn for advice and assistance. The chemical industry 
wns in a stato of <lisorgani.'iation. He did not blame the manufacturers 
for this, but it was essential that iiianufa« 1 iirers should iippre< iate that 
without organiseil scientilii' etTort it momM be im|Missili|e to «<iinpete 
against so highly ori;anise<l a <ounlry as (iermany. With regnni to the 
(lovernment Depnrt inents he <lid not know w huh wns the w<in«t. It WAa 
duo to the e\ il system umler which they had grown. Knun the time « 
civil servant nveived his ajtpuntment prnc tit ally no mentnl eflorl was 
neces.sary nn<l tli(> result was that they were iiicapablr of working elTiK-- 
till lly for the national interests. .Vnythnifj nioic inept, more worthless 
than the system of ;he (M.vernmenI Departments «ilh whuh he h.iil had 
tle.ilings could Hot In. conceived even in (;illrrtian o|>om. He would 
plank down his small subscription with pleasure and endoAvour to get 
his colleagues to su)>port the olijeits of the Institute. 

Mr. W. Howxiii) bvnoKovK (National Fe<ipration of Kurnitnn- Manu- 
fnetuHTs) sjiid he noticed there wns no pn>i>os:d made so fnr that the 
various federations should sul>s( rihe as institutions, it miKht l>e 



possible to get .50 or CO federations to put up 100 guineas a year each. 
Perhaps a sliding stale corresponding with the financial condition of the 
fetleration could be devised. 

Mr. DroLEv Docker (Midland Carriage & Wagon Co.) said he was 
interested in an association whose objects were almost identical with 
those of the Institute of Irdustrj-. He understccd the idea was to form 
one large association which woukl have suflScient power to enable business 
men to exercL'-e the influence they ought to have in the afpairs of the 
country. The movem.ent would have his support and that of the asso- 
ciation with which he was connected, and, he felt sure, that of all other 
trade associations in this country. His association had already between 
;{0 and 40 members who had all undertaken to .subscribe £1,0(X) each. 
That nucleus ought to bear fruit and carry weight. He suggested that 
a conference should take place between the Institute of Industry and his 
association — which belonge<l to the ^lanchester group — and out of that 
might come one big as.«ociation which even the Government would have 
to recognise. The politicians mu.st be kept out of it. He thought it 
would be possible for capital and labour to work together after the war 
as they had done in the trenches. 

Mr. ( ' \ssri s suggest e<l that a few gentlemen, including Mr. Docker and 
Mr. A. W. Tait, should be appointed to draw up a scheme. On April 14 
Mr. Hughes was to address a large meeting at Glasgow and he was 
an.xious that the joint oreanisation should be off ci.diy representetl there. 
Mr. A. W. Tait (Ferranti Ltd. , said he was associated with Mr. Dudley 
Docker in connection with the association which Mr. Docker had mi'n- 
tioned. He agreed that men representing the industries of the country 
and the capital investc^d in those industries should come together as a 
central body to look after the vital interests of capital and labour. 
\<iriou.- associations had been started with excellent ideals but they did 
not go very far. That was why Mr. Docker had started his association 
and got together men who could give questions vital to industry their 
time and attention and back it up with money. Nothing would be done 
for industry unless industry <lid it for itiself. They must have brains and 
money of the best quality an<l in the largest quantity. To talk about 
living on the interest of £!0(».0(K) was puerile. A thousand men putting 
down £.50 a year each would give a revenue of £50.(K)0, and if it was not 
worth £.50 to anyone having anything to do with industrA- he ought not 
to be there. He supported Mr. Docker's projxisal that there should be 
a conference of the parties responsible for the three movements to see 
whether a strong central organisation could not be evolved. 

•Sir Alexander yTENNiNO, on behalf of the Surveyors' Institution, 
said the Institution would be pleased to do what it could to assist the 
movement. 

The Chairman said one direction in which the Institution would be of 
great value was in regard to education. The f.5.(K)fl a year income to 
which he had referred was merely the minimum with which they could 
make a start. They would require very much more. 

Mr. Sf.MMER.s said he represented organisations connected with the 
steel indu.strv. He would like to know whether it was intended to invite 
the co-operation of labour or to be a body, which, although not antagon- 
istic to labour, would resist what were considered unjust claim? by labour. 
If that w?re made one of their principles, labour would be antagonistic. 
A paragraph in .Mr. Docker's pamphlet might he interprete<l to mean 
that the organisation would be antagonistic to labour. 

The Chairman and .Mr. Docker both said there was no such intention, 
but the former said before inviting the co o|)eration of lalnmr they must 
have a body jinqjerly organised. Labour already had a very large and 
powerful body. When they had a ])owerful IxkIv also the two combinetl 
wouhl be an irresistible force. 

.Mr. .\Ll.co<K(Manchester)said the ideals of the Institute were a pprove<I 
bv all. They should link up the jire.sent successful sectional organisa- 
tions. Wheii a man was asked to join an association he wanted to know 
the subscriptifui and what he would get out of it. If it were shown that 
as the result of the .AssociatiruiV work he would get a more ready market 
for. sav. his steam engines, he would be ready to subscrilx*. He sug- 
gest «h1 that the central association should derive its funds by tapping the 
resources which the sectional organisations had no<lifticulty in obtaining. 
It tiiigltle suggested to the existing organisations that they should set 
aside 1(1 ]M*r cent, or some such pro])ortion of their income for the central 
organisation. 

The resolution was put and cnrrie*! unanimously ami the vote of thanks 
to the Chairman concludcti the proceedings. 



NEW CHEMICAL LABORATORIES AT UNIVERSITY 

COLLEGE. 

The fneilities for canying out research work and for training men 
in the higher branches of chemistfA' at University College have 
recently Ikhmi considerably extended by the raising, on a site imme- 
diately to the north of the main college buildings, of laboratories 
which atf sjvid to Iv without eijual in Kunijie. I..;irgely owing to the 
energy oi the pnivost. Dr. T. (iregorA" Foster, a sum of close upon 
CKKMHX) was e<iIlerto<I for the purpose by meml>ers and friends of 
the ( "olleire. 

.Much still remains to Ih^ done before the buildings can Ik- fully 
utilised. The large<»t defect« yet to be siipplic-d are the lalwratory 
equi]unent and ajiparalus. the pmvision of the necessary eh^trical 
mai hinerv aiui cin wits, and the equipment of the department of 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



17 



physical chemistry. In order to remedy these defects it is estimated 
that a sum of £14,000 is required at once, and for the development 
of research work during the next three years a sum estimated at 
£6,000 will be required, making the total still required £20,000. It 
was to further the raising of this amount that Captain the Hon. 
Rupert Guinness, M.P., tlic treasurer of the equipment and endow- 
ment fund, invited friends of the college to inspect the buildings on 
the 31st ult., after luncheon. Before the inspection was over the 
provost was able to announce that towards the £20,000, Sir Ralph 
C. Forster, Bt., who had already been a munificent donor, had 
contributed £5,000. 

The new laboratories have been erected from designs prepared by 
Prof. F. M. Simpson, F.R.I.B.A. The site fronts upon Gower-place 
and has a frontage of 315 ft. The area covered by the buildings is 
about 17,500 sq. ft. 

The building comprises a half-basement, ground, first and second 
floors. The western portion of the half basement is occupied by the 
laboratories and research rooms for physical chemistry. At the 
eastern end is a room about 50 ft. square, specially designed for large- 
scale operations, such as the examination of a new process with a 
view to its utilisation for manufacturing purposes. Adjoining this 
room is a well -fitted workshop for the construction of apparatus for 
the departments of chemistry and physics and for the use of students. 
On the same floor are rooms for the production of liquid air and 
hydrogen for low-temperature research, and for the main chemical 
stores. The cellarage of the houses that previously stood on the site 
has been adapted for the storage of corrosive and inflammable 
chemicals. 

The entrance hall and main staircase are in the middle of the ground 
floor. To the east are two lecture theatres and preparation rooms, 
the library, the private room and laboratory of the Professor of 
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry. The large lecture theatre 
occupies the whole width of the building and is fitted with tip-up 
seats accommodating 240 persons. It is well lighted, having 
windows on both sides, and possesses excellent acoustic properties. 
The small theatre accommodates 1 10 persons. 

Immediately to the west of the entrance hall is the museum for 
the exhibition of important chemical products, and next to that is 
the main inorganic laboratory for second-year students, with rooms 
adjoining for operations involving noise or fumes, for balances, and 
a store for the chemicals needed on this floor. The laboratory and 
the balconies have special fan ventilation. The tops of the benches 
are of unglazed, highly compressed tiles, which are fire-proof ; they 
are easily kept clean and do not increase the breakages, as was feared. 
Beyond this laboratory is a group of research rooms for the assistant 
members of the staff and for research students. 

On the first floor, westwards, are the private room and laboratory 
of the Professor of Organic Chemistry. Adjoining these are the 
organic laboratory, combustion room and balance room at one end, 
and a group of research rooms at the other. To the east of the main 
staircase are the organic theatre, the organic chemical stores, an 
apparatus store, a dark room, a spectroscope room, a service room 
and lavatories. 

At the east end of the second floor is the laboratory for first-year 
students, providing bench accommodation for 1 00 to work at a time. 
Balance and store rooms immediately adjoin it. West of the main 
staircase is the department of pathological chemistry. This depart- 
ment is devoted entirely to post-graduate and research work ; it 
comprises a general laboratory, a research room, operation and post- 
mortem rooms. To the west are six research rooms for general 
chemical research. 

The general ventilation of the building is controlled by four 
separate fans, the flues from each room running to a main duct in 
the roof. The laboratories and research rooms have glazed brick 
walls ; they are amply supplied vrith fume cupboards, which are 
ventilated by separate flues in which the draught is created by gas 
flames. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS. 



The " Electrical World " recently published an instructive article 
by Dr. Stratton on the growth of the Bureau of Standards since 
its enlargement about 1900. In a prefator3^ statement he mentions 
that the Bureau is in constant touch with every branch of American 
industry, and is having the sincere co-oi)eration of technical societies, 
industrial concerns and scientific laboratories. The work being done 
is grouped under a scheme of organisation, and includes absolute 
physical measurements, weights and measures, pyroraetry and fire- 
resisting properties, chemistry, engineering instruments and inves- 
tigations, structural engineering and metallurgical work. 

One of the main activities of the Bureau is the testing of materials 



for the '^iovemniciit. i-dr •, the i 

Panama Canal work were here. I 

incandescent lami)8 at various (^rtvemment factories were inK|j«rcte(L 

The testing for the public is con' ' * • ' " ' "■ .-aa 

does not compete with private I- .are 

also certificated, and, HJnce America in dejiendent on Kurope for 

optical glass at prestrnt, glass fumaccH have \>c<m inxtajled. 

The Bureau i.s also in close touch with the clay and |X)ttery 
industries, and there i.s a decide<l tendency on the part of the cement, 
paper, textile, rubber, paint and other imlu»trie« to co-ofjerate with 
the Bureau in fixing standarrls of quality. In thi>« resjject the 
Bureau appears to be much further ahead than the KimUar imttita- 
tions in this and other countries. 

The younger people employed in the Bureau receive a mrnimnm 
salary of £95 a year, and are encouraged to attend the ' 
and after five or six years of this training they rank .. ^.. ..,,„.,.. ,.^ 
regards promotion. 



DIMENSIONS OF ELECTRICAL UNITS.* 

BY JI. ASCOLI. 

The present memoir was \\Titten in April, 1914, but publication 
was postponed on account of the European war. The author em- 
phasises the necessity of retaining what Riicker used to call th.- 
" suppressed " dimensions, such as those of dielectric constant and 
magnetic permeabflity, more especially when units have to be 
defined and names assigned to them. This is especially to Ije borne 
ill mind in view of the proposal to use the same unit for such hetero- 
geneous quantities as magnetic fi°ld and magnetic induction. Prof. 
Ascoli protests against the long prevalent \iew, originated by the 
Paris Congress of 1881, that there is any specially fundamental 
character in the units of length, mass and time. Any of these can be 
replaced by others, and systems can be devised in which ma.>.<. for 
instance, is replaced by density or elasticity. The verj- fact that 
the dimensions of electromagnetic quantities, expressed in terms of 
L, M and T, are different in the electrostatic and electron! . 
systems respectively shows that a fourth quantity has beei! 
omitted. But this fourth quantity may be any one of those that 
enter into the electromagnetic list of quantities. The author 
characterises as " extravagant " the assertion that an esse^ti^illy 
electromagnetic quantity like inductance should be homogeneous 
with a length, or that resistance should be measurable in metres per 
second. It is like " measuring the height of a mountain in henries 
or the speed of a train in ohms ! " 

The author gives examples of a number of other systems in which 
the units may be arranged. For instance, magnetic pole strength 
may be assumed as the fourth fundamental quantity, and fractional 
indices thus made to disappear. The same result follows the 
adoption of current as a fimdamental unit as proposed by Giorgi. 
It is sometimes of advantage to introduce the " constant " of Biot 
and Savart's magneto-electric force as the fourth quantity. 

When any quantity is expressed by its fidl dimensions, these are 
identical in whichever sj ^tem they are expressed. 



Refuse Collecting by Electric Vehicles.— Mr. J. A. Priestley, 

in a report presented to a sub-oonuuittee of the Sheflield Cor- 
poration, refers to the results obtained with electric vehicles 
fitted with Edison batteries in Comparison with horse-drawn 
vehicles. These were used for collecting dustbin refuse, and 
he finds that when the total mileage does not exceed three per 
journey the horse-drawn vehicle is the most economical, but 
above that distance the electrically-propelled vehicles show 
a decided superiority. The following are some of his figures : — 

District. No. T. No. II. No. III. 

Cost per ton, electric ... os. OSd. ... 2s. 3 ^d. ... Is. 10-3d. 

„ horse 7s. 0-4d. ... 3s. 3-2d. ... 2s. (v2d. 

He states that in Sheffield, where the system of day and 
night work is in vos,nie, the electric vehicle is a pronounced 
success, and he recommends the extension of the method 
where opportunitv oflters. more especially as it ivndei-s possible 
the centralisation of the work, and the use of one destructor 
capable of dealing wirh all th e refuse of the city. 

*Abstiactof an articl- in " L'Elettrotccnxa" f.r Nor. 25th. 1915. 



18 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



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FACTORS IN SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. 

One effect of the war is that public attention has been 
directed to the science of production — a science to which, 
prior to the war, little attention had been given in this 
country. Without fear of contradiction it may even be 
stated that with few exceptioas many of our industries 
were carried on without reference to the science of produc- 
tion. The manufacture of munitions during the past vear 
by firms unaccustomed either to the use of gauges, or to 
repetition work and rigid inspection, will mat^riallv 
strengthen our engineering. By some it is argued that 
severe restrictions are imposed as regards accuracy of 
dimensions and. to a certain extent, this may be so ; but 
those competent to form an opinion assure us that on repe- 
tition work accuracy is easily attained provided that the 
method of production be correct. The enormous sums of 
money expended by private firms in the manufacture of 
gauges and tools, which at first sight appears to be largely a 
dead loss, ma\ , in reality, be regarded as being devoted to a 
big educational campaign. A direct re.sult of this campaign 
has been the enforcing of a discipline which, of it« kind', is 
as severe as that demanded of a soldier or sailor. 

Little more than six month.s ago a strong committee, 
known as the Health of Munitions Workers Committee, was 
appointed, with the concurrence of the Homk Secretary, 
" to consider and advise on (luestions of industrial fatigue, 
hours of labour, and other matters affecting the personal 
health and j)hysiral efhciency of workers in munition.-* 
factories and workshni>s." All matters affecting the 
personal health and physical efficiency of workers properly 
lielong to the science of production. Attention to these 
matters not only les.sens the cost of production, but also 
increa.ses the wage-earning capacity of the worker. Both 
are highly important factors in promoting the welfare of 
the working classes. We take it that no one will deny 
either man or woman the right to live comfortably by 
exerci.sing his or herability, and. with thrift, to provide for 
old age and sicknes.s. If it be .so. lessening cost of produc- 
tion .should give rise to greater employment, and. in the long 
run. increasmg the wage-earning capacity of the worker 



THE ELECTIUCIAN, APRIL 7, lOIG. 



10 



should undoubtedly pi-oinoto thrift. The decrease of 
pauperism may be taken as evidence of the importance of 
these matters. 

Of the 10 memoranda already published by the Health 
of Munitions Workers Committee for the Minister of 
Munitions, amongst the most interesting are the tour 
recently prepared dealing respectively with " Industrial 
Fatigue and its Causes," " Special Industrial Diseases," 
'• Ventilation and Lighting Munition Factories and Work- 
shops " and " Sickness and Injury." In connection with 
the first-named the Committee express the hope that the 
studv of industrial fatigue and the science of management 
based upon it, which is now being forced into notice by 
inunediate need, may leave lasting results to benefit the 
industries of the country during succeeding years of peace. 
We also hope and believe that the deliberations of the Com- 
mittee will yield lasting results to benefit our industries. 

At the moment, one of the most important problems 
awaiting solution is that of industrial fatigue. In an able 
article in the " Daily Mail," of the 31st ult., Mr. B. Tillett 
discussed the position on the Clyde, and went to the root 
of the matter by stating : "In the first place, these men 
. . . have for 20 months been working at full pitch 
day in and day out. Long hours and overtime have been 
the rule and not the exception. Body and brain alike 
have been fatigued. Weariness due to physical strain, 
temper due to the greyness of their lives, have made them 
fit subjects for the promptings of revolt." In dealing with 
the best remedy for the present discontent, Mr. Tillett 
urged : " First let the hordes of moralising busy bodies 
who so sedulously preach to labour cease their activities, 
and do something of benefit to the country. Calm down 
the men somewhat by ceasing to nag them. . . . Then 
overtime and Sunday labour should be ruthlessly cut down. 
Both mental and physical recuperation is necessary for the 
men. Flesh and blood cannot go on as many men have had 
to go on for the past 20 months without breakdowns and 
possibilities of disaster." 

That such is the case is evident from a perusal of the 
memorandum dealing with " Industrial Fatigue and its 
Causes," and the memorandum appears at an opportune 
time. Excellent illustrations of signs and symptoms of 
fatigue are given. Thus: " Two officers . . . recently 
. . . competed in making equal lengths of a certain 
trench, each with an equal squad of men. One let his men 
work as they pleased, but as hard as possible. The other 
divided his men into three sets, to work in rotation, each set 
digging their hardest for five minutes and then resting ten, 
till their spell of labour came again. The latter team won 
easily." Equally convincing are the following figures 
which serve as illustrations in the section devoted to tests 
of industrial fatigue. 

" In a specific instance before the Committee a group of 
five male volunteer Sunday workers . . . were able 
in eight hours (or seven hours free of meals) to exceed the 
average day's output of eight week-day men who work 14 
hours (or 12| hours free of meals). These five men worked, 
no doubt, at a ' sprint,' which could not perhaps have been 
maintained daily. But there can be little doubt that ihey 
could repeat their eight hours' effort on, say, four days in a 
week ; and if so, the startling result follows that they could 
do in those four days rather more than the whole week's 
work of an equal set of men adopting the other system of 
hours. . . . Would these five volunteers be ' slackers ' 
if they did a full week's work judged by the 14-hour standard 
or more, but had three holidays per week . . . and 
slept longer at night ? " 



At another large factory the manager . , , in pro- 
posing to aim at " .sprint," and hopes to get the .same out- 
put from 7}, liours' work a.s from the present lOi hours' 
work. He instituted a competition as to which .shift and 
which group of men could do mo«t as an experiment. He 
found that a small bonus ' increased the output oi a group 
of boys 120 per cent." 

A further illustration is given of a shop built and staffed 
so as to produce o,(XK> of a particular stwk article of war- 
fare per week from which, notwithstanding the ine.xperience 
of the new haiuls, 1;J,(X)0 ol these particular articles are now 
pioduceu weekly. The workers need have no fear that the 
solution of these problems will have anv effect other than a 
beneficial one on them.selves. It may he that thev, them- 
selves, will, consciously and unconscioiLsly, solve manv of 
the problems connected with the science of production. 
Improvements resulting from a proper application of such 
science will add to the dignity of labour, and will ulti- 
mately make toil into a kind of Heaven, as as.surediv it 
should be, to be worth while. Many of our readers w ill agree 
that the world stands in urgent need of such toil. 



DRY CELLS.* 

BY \V. R. COOPER, M.A., B.SC. 

(Concluded from p. 909, Vol. LXXVI.) 

Summary. — The author gives an account of recent investigations on 
dry cells and the materials that are used. He then refers to varioas 
methods of testing. 



The Reliable Cell— This cell is made by the Associated 
Battery Co., and has some unusual features. The con- 
tainer is of galvanised iron instead of zinc, and is covered 




Vi,;. 9. — Section of the REU-vaLE i. eli- 



B — Sack element. 

C^Carbon. 

E— Insulating layer. 

F^Turkish towellinR. 

G^ Excitant crystali. 

H ' Bituminous seal. 

S=^ Sawdust. 



K-- Cork stopper. 
V=Vent tub«. 

Y = Oalvani3ed-iron container. 
Z^Zinc. 
Ti = Positive terminal- 
T • Ne«;ative terminaL 



on the outside with a paper wrapper. It is protected 
internallv at the bottom bv a thick bitummous layer 
and the walls are also protecttnl by a bituminous itxUmg. 
This container is rectangular in section. The carlwu 
element is in the form of a sack, and surrowuling this is a 
cylindrical sheet of zinc. Between the sack and the zmc 
is a laver of Turkish towelling, and the space between the 
zinc and the container is packed with excitant crystals. 
The cell is finished off with a layer of sawdust, then some 
* liYom a forthcoming edition of " Piimary Batteries." (Copyright.) 



ao 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 1, 1916. 



thill 'itiivas and finally a iMtiiniinoiLs seal, through which 
there Is a corkrtl aixrture on the one .side and a vent ou the 
other, as seen in Fig. '■'. 

T/ic M'.O. Cell.— I'hi: W.O. cell, which is made by the 
.\tla.s Carbon <& iiattery Co., differs from the cell last 
d«5scribed in that an eartlienware jar is ib;e<I as the container. 
The sack clcriicat is sunounded by a cylindrical .sheet of 
zinc, and between the two Is a sheet of paper. Thi.s sjjace 
also wjiitain-s exciting .salts. The cell Ls finished ofT with a 
layer of sawdust and a bituminous seal, there being a layer 
of carfllxjard l>oth above and below the sawdust. No vent 
i.s pi-ovided. A .section of the cell is given in Fig. 10, 




I'lC. 10. St<TI(lN (iK rilK W.O. t'EI-I.. 



B -Strk e!<mient. 

C 

C '.rystaU. 

H ■. '"31. 

K Cor. 



W ^ Sheet of paper. 

Y Eirthenware jar. 

Z Zinc. 
Ti - ^ Positive terminal. 
Tj- Negative terminal. 



f'oHi/Kir/wH of [\'it and l)rii (^elh. — A comparison of 
the performance of wet afid drv f.,i»{'lan(he cells reveals 
the fact that dry cells are superior from the point of view 
of cjipiicify for a given weight. In order to obtain such 
a compari.son it is. perhup-i, best to rely uj)on the data given 
in any one maker's list (rather than on a variety of tests) so 
as to compare cells whir'h are presumably of the same 
standard of manufacture for all tyjies and are, therefore, 
fairly cnm])arable. The following table has been ]>repared 
on this b.i.'^is, crlls of the (leneral Klectric ('( . being select e<l 
for the pur|M>se. The weight of wet cells can only be stated 
very ap|)r<>.xinjately, as this varie^s with the amount of, and 
strength of, the electrolyte. By ** useful life " is meant the 
number of <luvs taken for the voltage of the cell to fall to 
O-T-') volt whei run continuoiu^ly on a H» ohm circuit. The 
last column gives the figure (d)fained by dividing the useful 
life by the weight of the cell, or, in other words, the life 
per p(Muid. 

II 



Ponxm Pot liTrlnnch^ (pint). . . .,; j i ■ ■ 

('Ar)H)rciiiN(pint) i 4{ ll> 

('»riMik (|iiiit ) \ 4 

ritriMin I'ol lii<('lniirW(i|tiiirt) \, 
.\«i:l"Hirri»lr Itlook (ipinti) ... I lit 

("<ir|M»rnu« (tuiurl) K jli 

('arK«k (<|UArn <4 ll. 

I'c.nMii. I'll! b-i I . : 7 ll> 

.\)Illlr>nirrali< HI III \h 

<* •'•' (.1 |.ii.t m !' 

<«M Sll.. 

('«nwk (H-pinl) | 8{ llv 

No. .1 (; F (■ ,u.\\< llh. 1|..' 

N.>. 8», ' 2lh"i2 

No, 1 t..l.A . ,..^,i,ii,. 5 lb. 




.7... 



•U»4- 



h^h 



1 -M III! 


1 ., 1 


lift* in 


li(r - 


,|,.v. 


......1. 


•ii 


1 J 


4 


95 


i:. 


3-5 


■| 


16 


4} 


11 


n 


1 H 


:tft 


A2 




'.5 




1 


'•1 


!« 


10 


%0 


Hi 


OS 


" 1 


1 4 




« 


3J 


(34 



From these figures can be seen the great advantage of the 
sack form of cell over the other types of wet cell. Agglo- 
merate cells do not show up so well as the ordmary porous 
pot cells on this basb. It is noticeable that the dry cells 
are much sui)erior to the wet cells, and that this superiority 
Ls obtauied with a smaller weight. Thu>, the No. 1 dry cell 
weighs only 5 lb., whereas the average 3-pint wet cell 
weighs 8 lb. and gives a considerably less efficient result. 
The No. 1 dry cell has about the same weight as the average 
quart-size wet cell. It is seen that the efficiency in all 
types generally increases w ith the size of cell. 

In the matter of first cost, wet cells generally have an 
advantage. For example, the list price of a No. 1 G.E.C. 
cell is 3s., whereas the prices of the 3-pint wet cells are 
Is. lOjd., 2s. 3d. and .3s. 9d. for a porous pot cell, an agglo- 
merate block, and a carporous respectively. The price of 
a fi-block agglomerate is .is. Gd,, but that of a 3-pint Carsak 
cell is only 3s. 

A dry cell has the disadvantage that when it is ex- 
hausted it is of no further use and must be thrown away, 
miless the manufacturing company makes an allowance 
for old cells, which is j^omeiimes the case. Wet cells can, 
of course, be re-charged But fresh electrolyte does 
very little to put new life into an exhausted cell. It is 
necessary to renew the depolarising material as well, and 
not infrequently the zinc also. Consequently the supposed 
advantage of being able to re-charge a cell is not a very 
great one, and, on the other hand, ihe dry cell is greatly 
superior in that it is always ready for use and is exceedingly 
easy to handle. 

TE.STIXO Dry Cells. 

The testing of dry cells has assumed some importance as 
a distinct branch of cell testing owing to the fact that these 
cells are used in enormous quantities aid for very different 
cia.sses of service. For this reason a g)od deal of attention 
has been given to the subject. 

The object of tests is generally to obtain romparatiie 
results, so that one kind of cell may be compared with 
another, orro that different batches of the same kmd of cell 
may be compared so as to ensure a certain standard of 
manufacture, rnfortimately. different kinds of tests do 
not always leail to the same c()ni])arative results, and there- 
fore a test should be selected having some relation to the 
character of the work for which the cell is required. Thus 
for .sonu» purposes an intermiitent test may be preferable 
to a continuous test. It need scarcely be remarked that 
the precise service conditions under which a cell is to bo used 
can rarely if ever be rej)rt)diued as test conditions, and even 
if they could the test would l)e too prolonged to lie u>.;eful. 
But it is <lesi ruble tti be able to deduce the life in service 
from the lifetm test with someshow.i^f jirobability. 

.Vpart from comparative lif>> tests, other tests are usetl tt) 
determine whether a cell is in good condition and whether 
it deteriorates on o]x'n circuit. 

Trstii l(, Drterwinr the Cnn^fUion of a Cell before Use. — 
These tests inchule the mea.surement of K.Al.F. (which 
.should vary fnmi 15 to 1() volts) and internal resistance, 
8uch information is not of anv jireat value 

A third test is what is known as the Sliorf Cirruif Test. 
It is in common use in the United States, but it has been 
subjected to a gn'at deal of criticism on the ground that 
it may Ix' h-irmful to the cell and gives information of only 
doubtful value. Taking the average .Vmerican cell, which 
is (i in. high by 2| in. tliameter. it is found that the current 
on short-circuit, when the cell is new and good, varies from 
18 to 25 amperes. Inferior cells give currents as low as 10 
amperes. This remark, however, does not apply to Enghsh 



THE KLKCLUKJIAN, Ai'KH; 7, l!)IG. 



21 



cells. Aineiican practice and English practice differ so 
much that the product of these countries cannot well be 
compared. In the former everything seems to be sacrificed 
to high initial current, whereas in this country the best 
qualities and preparations of materials are selected with a 
view to producing a cell with the longest useful life. A 
current ranging from 5 amperes in the middle sizes to 12 
amperes in the large sizes is undoubtedly sufficiently high 
for ordinary requirements, and dry cells can be made which 
give such currents on the short-circuit test, and will give 
also a maximum output and possess the useful character- 
istic of maintaining tlieir condition when kept in store for 
a very long time. 

This test gives an easy rneans of determming if a cell is in 
good condition, provided the behaviour of the particular 
brand of cell is known. It also forms the basis of what is 
called the Shelf Test. The longer a cell is kept in 
stock the smaller is the short-circuit current. In the 
United States it is considered that the short-circuit current 
should not fall below 10 amperes after storing (" on the 
shelf ") for about 12 months. The curves in Fig. 11 have 
been given by C. Hambuechen* as showing the variation 
of the short-circuit current as a cell is stored. 

For the short-circuit test to have any true meaning it is 
necessary that the ammeter should have a definite resist- 



Table I.—Kjjpxl of Temperalarf. on. HhflJ Lift oj (JdU (0 in. y 2J iu. 

diamekr). 

Tempcratuio at which Short-circuit current at 

cells were .-stored. 2i> ('. after .j montba. 

0' Ig-l 

25^ 17-4 

•W 05 



0-4 



100 
90 
80 



« 70 

60 

1 50 

o 

^- 40 



<o 



30 

20 

10 



































"^ 


==;^ 


^^^_ 
























"^^ 


^$^ 


^-^ 


- ^0 ■,. 






















<:::; 




k^, 


'^-'V> 




















^ 


tr^ 


^^c^ 


r^ 




















^ 


■n n 


^-. 






















\ 


\^ 
























V, 



















































1 



5 6 

Months. 



IC 11 12 



Fig. 11. — Vabiation of Shoet-Circuit Cubeent with Age of Cell. 

(Hambuechen.) 

ance ; otherwise the results might vary with the ammeter 
selected. A committee of the American Electrochemical 
Society have recommended that the resistance, including 
the leads, should be 001 ohm, correct to within 0002 ohm. 
Comiection must be made by the cell terminals, and it is 
suggested that the maximum swmg of the needle should be 
taken as the short-circuit current. This direction should 
scarcely be necessary, as a very dead beat instrument should 
be used and the circuit should be closed only just long 
enough to secure a readmg. It is stated to be an advantage 
if the leads terminate in a strip of lead, as this improves the 
contact with the terminals. 

The value of the short-circuit current depends appre- 
ciably upon the temperature. It is found that the current 
rises (for the size of cell above mentioned) by about 1 ampere 
for each 10°C. rise in temperature between 10°C. and 80°C. 
Cells are particularly sensitive in this way at low tem- 
peratures. 

Shelf life is affected considerably by temperature. This 
fact is illustrated by the figures in Table I., which are given 
by D. L. Ordway.f They refer to cells tested after 
keeping for five months at the temperatures indicated. 

* " Trans.," American Electrochemical Societj^, Vol. XXI.. p. 29"'. 
•j- " Trans.," American Electrochemical Society, Vol. XVII., p. 341. 



There is, therefore, good rea.son for storing cells in a coot 
place. 

The short-circuit to.^, although it gives an indication of 
age or def-^ctive condition, gives no measure of the service 
capacity. The figures in Table If., due to D. L. Ordway,* 
illustrate this point. Here the " old " cells were nine 
months old, and the capacitT was foimd by discharging 
continuously on a 2-ohra circuit down to 0-25 volt. 

Table II. — Short-circuit Current and Service Capacity of" yew and Old 

Cells. 
New Cells. Old Celts. 

Short-circuit current 22-4 amperes 3-6 amperes. 

Service capacity 24-9 ampere-hours 20-2ampere-hrs. 

On the other hand, the short-circuit current ob\nously 
gives an mdication of the internal resistance, and for thi 
reason some conclusions may be drawn as to the ingredients 
in the case of a new cell. For example, if the current is 
imduly high we may conclude that an excessive amoimt of 
low resistance carbon or graphite has been included, thus 
reducing the manganese peroxide below the proportion 
which is desirable for gocd dcpolarisation. But if the 
current is unduly low it is probable that cheap materials 
have been used. 

The short-circuit test, although commonly used in the 
United States, has not found much favour among English 
manufacturers or users. Dry cells are not intended to give 
large currents, and it is felt that indiscriminate testing by 
short-circuits can do no good to a cell and may do harm. 
Moreover, such a test is not a measure of the life obtain- 
able ; in fact, if the current is above a certain figure the 
outj ut in service will probably be low. 

Life Tests.— There is much to be said for simplicity 
in t(sts, and for this reason a continuous test, by running 
on, ^ ay, 10 ohms, has been popular. Results are sometimes 
stated in ampere-hours or in watt-hours, but generally the 
user is more concerned simply with time. In other words, 
cells are generally used on constant r^^sistance circuits, and 
so long as the current is maintamed above a certain value 
the result is satisfactory ; but current above this value, and 
the voltage necessary for this excess, are merely so much 
waste from the user's point of view. Hence time, rather 
thaj: ampeie-hours or watt-hours, is important. 

For some purposes, such as ignition, cells may be testo«i 
in stuies, but generally speaking it is preferable to test cells 
sing y, rather than in series, because the average obtained by 
the 5eries arrangement is not necessarily the same as the 
average obtained by testing the cells separately and avenig- 
ing I he results. 

Kaliance should not be placed on a small number of tests. 
If the comparison is important it is better to run a series of 
test:; over six months or a year. The following results (due 
to AV. B. Pritz^ • of 10 monthly tests on nvo brands of 
cell illustrate this pouit f : — 

No. of Tests 1 2 3 4 .") (> 7 8 9 10 Average 

Brand A 42 35 38 33 60 45 48 35 06 48 45-0 

Brand B 30 37 24 25 27 40 48 42 40 40 35-3 

On a continuous test the character of the curve depends 
upon the value of the resistance that is tised for the circuit. 

* Loc. cit. 

t Report of Committee of American Electrochemical Society. Alao 
W. B. Pritz, 'Trans.." .^mcucau Electxochemical Society, Vol. XIX., 
p. '31,1911. 

D 2 



22 



THE ELECTKICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



If the nai'iHimicH in low, hay, 2 ohiiw for an ordinary size cell, 
tlu; volta^^c falls rapidly because the deixjlarlsation Is iji- 
Kufficient to ni«;et the needs of the case. With a high 
re:->iHtance the fall is much less rapid. A low resistance test 
would not be ase<i for testing a cell intended to be used for 
only small currents. 

The effert (i an intermittent test i.s lo give a cell time to 
recover and consequently the result obtained Is materially 
flifffffnt from that ob.'ained by a continuous test. This Is 
empha>^i.-ed by the curves in Fig. 12. which are due to 
i>. L. Oiflway.* These ti»sts refer to a circuit of 10 ohnts, 
the re. uLh beiiig i»biaine<l with three cells in series on each 
\('<\. f'urve A show.; a coiitinnMiLs test, wh<'rea;-; curve B 
refers to a test in which the cells were on circuii: for five 
minute* in each hour. Only the times the cells were (»n 
circuit are taken into account in plotting the results, and 
consequently the hours shown are not unduly long. In the 
ease of <Mirve (' the c(»nditir)ns are the same as for curve H 
e.xeept thai the test was only r\m for eight hours ])er day 
and for six (or even fewer) days per week, or in other words 
llie time for recuperation wa« increased ami the total time 
for the test (including the intervals of rest) was longer. It 
is noticeable that cells on intermittent service are able to 
stand up beticr than on continuoiLs lu^e for a considerable 
time, but eventually the jwsition of affairs is reversed. 
Curiouslv enor .;'•. when the intervals arc increased, as in 



1 

r^.^ I 



4-2 

3-6 

CO 
«» 
Vi 2-4 

1-6 

1-2 

0.6 



40 bO 120 IbO 200 

KUJ. 12. CoMrAIIISON l>r iMKItMITTKNT \M( ( 'n.STlMOl s Tk.sts. Tiikkk 
C'kI.IJ*. TliKOLliU a UHMH KXTKItNAI, KKSlNtASCl:. (IJrilway.) 

Clil.r A r'..f.1i'.!ir,ii- Hi .Iji.i 



Tl>6 tiitic UfcCit n tiMt abtuallyoncircutt. 



Atvl «ix (sometimes flvo) J.iy. i«t week. 



cur\e (', tin- ichmII is not so ^^imd. This i.s appan'iillv due 
to (he f««t that the time of the ti-st is then so fur e.xtended 
thii. deterioration of tin- <ell sets in Ihrougli ageing. and this 
view is .Hni.jMirlitl bv the fac! that Inith curves H and (' fall 
lO'ire iplickly below curve \ »a t lie r«'sistan<e of the circuit 
is increase*! (»•*/.. if u circuit of 2(> (dims is use<l instead of 10 
ojiins). the <luration of the ti'st b« ing therebv exteiidcxl. It 
must be lK)rm' in mind that water is fornietl in the action of 
a jell aiifl thus a (lischarge up to a certain value mav be 
be.neticirti iii l<<'eping a cell in condition. Whereas il onlv 
sin ill dis( liarye.s are taken at long intervals a cell tends to 
suffer from ageing to a greater extent. 

Similirlv. it will be understood that the service ca]»acity 
of ,1 rell dej>euds ui>«Mi the tennH'rature at which it Is used. 
The life is increasixl by raising tiie tein|X'ralure if the ser\'ice 
is hoavv. But if the service is light a Imw tenn)erature is 
preferable So <u> lo reduce the effert of ageing. This is 
^hown by the n^sults in Table IV.. due to 1). L. Ordway.* 
In thej.e tests the cells were dischargixl do^vn to 05 volt, and 
It will l>o notion! that the temiwrature at which the maxi 
mum life is obtaiiuNl varie.-; witli tli.< . urr.-ni 1;«1-.>m from the 
cell. 



Table 111 —Effect of Tcmperalurc on Life of Cells (G i«.x2J in. diam.) 

Ttiiiix;raturc at which Life on Life on 

cells were tested. 2 ohm circuit. 

0°C. 4<^} hours 

25X' <J0 „ 

50°C 70 „ 

7.5-C 6.5 „ 



32 ohm circuit. 
1,800 hours. 
1,-550 
1,2.50 „ 
1,390 „ 



Table IV. — R'Antire Copacit;/ of Cells at Various Fates of Discharge 
{S. W. .Melsom). (The values are in watt-hours, except where otherwise 
stated. V.B. means T.D. at beginning of daily discharge, and V.E. 
means P.D. at end of dailj- discharge.) 



Test 






Cells. 




No. 


1 


A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


1 .5 mins. j)er hour on .5<»ohnisto 0-9 volt 


lot) 


93 


83 


28 


r T) mins. per Ixturon 1 oliin. Cells new. 


100 


59 


43 


1 


2«^ Ditto after (J months" .storage 


100 


58 


50 


... 


I Ditto after 12 months" storage 


100 


53 


42 


... 


[ Si.v hours \>ct daj- on 5 ohms — 










3^ HvV.E 


100 


71 


68 


47 


I Jiy mean of \'.B. and V.E. curves ... 


100 


50 


50 


35 


r 


Continuous at 20 milliamjieres — 










4< 


By amix-re-hours. Cells new 


100 


43 


3»j 


30 


' Bv watt -hours. Cells new 


100 


45 


40 


29 


[ 


Bv watt -hours after 8 months" .storage 


100 


50 


45 


5 


Continuous on lOohm.s — • 












To 0-7 volt 


100 


75 


53 


60 


5S 


To 0-.5 volt 


100 


7(5 


55 


60 




To 0-7 volt after (i months' storage ... 


100 


59 


44 


28 




To 07 volt after 12 months" storage 


100 


67 


.50 


2 


6 


Continuous on 100 ohms to 0-9 volt... 


100 


68 


51 


35 


7 


Continuous on 500 ohms to 1-3 volts 


100 


102 


87 


10 



Table V.— Showing the Effect of the Different Tests given in Tabk IV, 
on the Capacity Expressed in watt-hours. 







Cells. 




Test No. 










A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


1 


43 


40 


36 


12 


2 


44 


26 


19 


3 


3 


12t) 


63 


63 


46 


4 


10.5 


47 


42 


31 


5 


(>4 


49 


35 


38 


6 


107 


73 


55 


38 


7 


70 


66 


... 


... 



That the comparative rcouUs may vary considerably 
according Xu the test adoi>t(xl is shoN\ii by the results in 
Table IV. Tliese were ohtaintxl by S. W. Melsom* at 
the National Physical I^iiboratory. Four ty|>es of cell were 
selected, the size being 7 in. l)y 2.^ in. by 2.1 in. Four cells 
of each make were submitted to each test. In the Table, 
the 1 vj»e .\ is regarded as gi\ing 100 per cent, value and the 
other types are expressed in terms of this. It will be n<»ticed 
thai generally, though not alw.avs. the onb-rof merit is the 
same ill all the tests, but the extent to which one type is 
belter or wois«' than another varie.; a great deal, F<tr 
example, ty|)<' I) w;is consistently low except in test ."), It 
is evident that .some cells show up better on a continuous 
than on an intermittent test, and vice trrsa. This ])oint is 
emplKisised by Table V., in wj-.ich the watt-hours are given 
for the different tyiH's. It should be nottnl that the voltage 
liini.s are rot the same for all the it\sts. and this in itself will 
cause some «lifferences, but the variations are in many cases 
much greater than can !»< accounted f<ir in this wav. Cells 
.A, (' and I) all give the maxnuum outpm on the intermittent 
test of six hours j>er day. but cell B gives its maximum on a 
continuous test on 100 ohms. 

.\s to what test should be employed depends on the nature 

c»f the work for which the cell is requiretl. A Committee of 

the American Electrochemical 8ociety has considered the 

whole question carefully and has recommended a number 

of tests which we give brieflv below : — 

/. T€tfpko»ff Smirf. — Disrhargo three ccUf. connected in series, 
thtouffh V> . liin'i remtAncc for a period of two minutes, each hour, 

1 .*«».," FafMUy Society, Vol. Vm., p. 1, 1912. 



f 

I 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APKIJ. 7, 19JfJ. 



23 



(luring 24 hours per day and seven days per week, until the closed circuit 
voltage of the battery at the end of a period of contact falls to 2-8 volts. 

The following readings are taken : — 
[ 1. Initial open circuit voltage of the battery. 

2. Initial closed circuit voltage of the battery. 

3. Closed circuit voltage at the end of the first discharged period. 

4. Closed circuit voltage at the end of a discharged period after three 
days, and weekly thereafter. 

Report the results as the number of days during which the closed 
circuit voltage remains above the limiting value of 2-S volts. 

Fig. l.'{ shows a representative discharge curve obtained from a battery 
of three 2t in. x 6 in. (6 cm. X 15 cm.) cells of a well known brand. The 
curve passes through the values of the closed circuit voltage at the ends 
of the contact periods. 

The test should be conducted in a dry place, and normal room tem- 
perature should be maintained as closely as possible. 

II. Ignition Service. — Discharge six cells connected in series through 
16 ohms resistance for two periods of one hour each per day, seven days 
per week. The periods should be 11 hours apart, but in cases where the 
circuits are not automatically controlled, the first and the last hour in the 
working day may be chosen for the discharge periods and the discharge 
omitted on Siinday, without materially affecting the results. 

The following readings are taken : — 

1. The initial open circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the 
battery. 

2. The initial closed circuit or working voltage, and the initial impulse 
of current which the battery is capable of forcing through a 5 ohm coil 
connected in series with an ammeter, and in parallel with the l(i ohm coil. 

3. Closed circuit voltage and impulse current through the 0-5 ohm coil 
at the end of the first period of closure, at the end of the si.\th period, at 
the end of the 12th period, and after every 12th period thereafter. 

The test is considered completed when the impulse current at the end 
of a period falls below four amperes. Re])ort the resiilts as the number 
of hours of actual discharge to the limiting value of impulse current. 

5-0 
■4-5 

40 
'3-5 

3-0 

2-5 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



^ 20 
1-5 



3=!p~j.o-_.^J^— 



336 672 1,008 1,344 1,680 2,016 2,352 2,688 3,024 
Hours on Test. 
Fig. 13. — Repre-Sentative Discharge Curve of Cells on Telephone 

Test. 

III. Flashlight Batlerks. — Discharge the battery to be tested through 
a resistance of four ohms for every cell in series, viz., eight ohms for a 
two-cell battery and 12 ohms for a three-cell battery, for a period of five 
minutes once each daj' until the closed circuit voltage at the end of a 
discharge period falls to 0-75 volt per cell, viz., 1-5 volts for a two-cell 
and 2-25 volts for a three-cell battery. 

The following readings are taken : — • 

1. Initial open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. 

2. Initial closed circuit, or working voltage. 

3. Closed-circuit voltage at the end of the first, third and seventh 
periods of closure, and after each seventh period thereafter. 

Report the results as the number of minutes during which the battery 
was discharged through the resistance to the given end point. 

Miscellaneous Services. — In addition to the telephone and ignition 
services, which are by far the most important services in which dry cells 
are used, there are numerous other services, among which may be men- 
tioned the operation of automobile horns, sewing machine motors, small 
fans, toys, massage vibrators, cigar lighters, bells, buzzers, &c. In the 
aggregate these miscellaneous services consume enormous numbers of 
cells, but they are so numerous, and there are such variable conditions 
prevailing in each kind of service, that it would be useless to attempt to 
develop standard tests covering them. 

It is not difficult for anyone particularly interested in any special 
service to arrange a suitable test for himself. Care should be taken to 
make the conditions of test, viz., number of cells, resistance in circuit, 
period of drain, &c., approximate those of the service in question. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

tCopies of the undermentioned works can be had from The Electrician Offices, post 
free (unless otherwise stated), on receipt of published price, adding 3d. fc-boolcs published 
under 2s. and 5 per cent, for books published net. Add 10 per cent, for abroad or for 
foreign books.] 

" Electric Bells and Telephones." Edited by Bernard E. Jones. 
(London : Cassell & Co.) Pp. 156. Is. net. 

" British Destiny. The Principles of Progress." Bv D. N. Dunlop. 
(London : The Path Publishing Co.) Pp. xi.+ 113. 3s. (id. net. 

" A Treatise on Electricity." By F. B. Pidduck. (Cambridge : The 
University Press.) Pp. xiv. + 646. 14s. net. 



EDfJR KFFEOT OF PL.\TE COXDKXSERS. 

TO THE ErJlTOK.S OF THE ELECTRICIAN'. 

Mr. (!. J. Wat.soii in The Ei.ectkiciav, March 24th, has 
raised (lonl)ts as to tlio aj^iecancnt between the mea.suretl 
capacity o£ a plato condcnncr and that calculate fr(Mii the 
formula C^AjiTtd. 1 would pftint out that th" correction for 
the spreading out of the lines of force at theedjiesfof the plate.n 
may be very appreciable indeed in ca.ses where the radius of 
the platt is only moderate}// large compared with the distance 
between them. G. KirchliofE (" Gesammelte AbhandlunKen," 
p. 112) gives a formula by which this correction may be cal- 
culated for circular })lates of given area, thickness and distance 
apart. In the case of very thin plates his formula reduces to 

^^=r-^(i+-^ioge-^), 

i7id\ m- ^ ed /' 

where r is the radius of the plates, d is the distance between 
them and {■: is the base of the \a])erian logarithms. I'sing this 
expres.sion and Mr. Watson's figures of plates, 1 ft. square and 
J in. apart, the increase in capacity amounts to 4-8 per cent. 
It must also be remembered that square plates will give a still 
further spreading effect at the corners, and also no accmmt has 
been taken of the coriection to be applied for the capacity of 
each of the two plates to surrounding bodies. This may he 
considerable and will have a greater proportional efff.t tbo 
greater the distance between the plates. 

Taking these three factors into consideration, errors amount- 
ing to the figure mentioned by Mr. Watson, viz.. 2') per cent., 
may easily arise. 

Liverp()ol, March 28. G. E. Bairsto. 



EFFICIENCY OF PROJECTORS AND REFLECTORS. 
to the editors of the electriciax. 

My attention has been drawn to the report in your issue of 
March 17th of a Paper on the above subject, read before 
the Liverpool Engineering Society, by Mr. Hayden Harrison. 
As this contains some extraordinary statements, perhaps you 
will be good enough to spare me space in your columns to 
criticise some of them. 

Mr. Harrison states that the cause of the increased intrinsic 
brilliancy cf the half-watt typs Za»(;j is due to the reduced area 
of the light source. I venture to think that it is more probably 
due to the increased temperature of the filament. If an 
ordinary incandescent lamp is taken and half the filament is 
removed, the intrinsic brilliancy of tlie balance (when carrying 
the same current) is not /:ft'ected. It would appear that Mr. 
Harrison is confusing the efficiency of reflectors with their 
ability to concentrate tlie light in any particular direction. 
The reduction of the divergence of the b'sam of a search'ight 
does not necessarily imply any increase in efticienoy of the 
reflector, but generally, that the light source is more wholly 
contained within the focus of the reflector, assuming, of course, 
that the latter is properly designed. The efliciency of re- 
flection is obviously entirely dependeKi on the surf-.ice that is 
employed. 

Contrary to what Mr. Harrison states, it is generullv agreeil 
that strong local lighting without general illuminarii»n is a 
great mistake, because the eye does iu»t woik well under sn.h 
conditions. 

I am naturally more concerned with Mr. Harrison's remarks 
regarding indirect lighting since his reference to the " be-^t 
known system " undoubtedly refers to the " Eye-R st '' system, 
for whiclr mv company is responsible. It will probably be of 
interest to your readers to learn that the efficiency of the 
" X-rav " reflectors which avc employ is in the region_of 86 
per cent, instead of Mr. Harrison's assumed figure of TO per 
cent., and further, that various competent authorities return 
the reflection efficiency of a good whitewashed ceiling as over 
80 per cent, instead oi 70 per cent., thereby showing a total 



24 



T{{E ELECTPJOTAN. APRIL 7. lOlG. 



overall offirienr y of reflprtion of prar-.tically 70 per rent, instea'l 
of 5() per cent., as stated in the article. 

The valuf- of a iji/'ithfniatifal proof la piactically destroyed 
when the more important factors are assumed, and even if we 
ignore the qutstion of efficiency of reflectors and ceilings for 
the time heirg the fact that the author has ansanied that the 
light from the ceiling is equally di.strihuted in all directions 
is quite suffirient to render his arguments valueless. 

T'oming down for a moment from theory to practice, I will 
just quote jmiticulars of one "Eye-Rest"" installation made 
under roiiditions by no means ideal, of whirl) d.-fnil.-d |i;ntif'- 
ulars are available, as follows :— 

Floor area, 2,484 sq. ft. Average intensity (mean of 71 
independent tests) 1-74 ft. « andles : therefore, lumeim on 
working plane equals 4,322. 

10, KXj-watt lamps at 827 lumens=-8.270 
8, 40-watt lamps at 294 lumens=2,352 

10,622 

4 322 
Total overall efficiency, therefore, equals ''^= 40 per cent., 

which compares fjuite favourably with Mr. Harrison's theoretical 
figure of I l-G per cent. 

Judging by this, and other jMiblic utterances of the author 
of the Paper, it is evident that lie is prejudiced against indirect 
lighting, and it is therefore unne(;e.s.sary tit discuss his general 
comments thereon in detail. Suffice it to gay, that thousands 
of uwrs of the '" Kye-rest " system in both this and other 
countries appreciate that it has advantages which cannot l>e 
obtained by any other means. 

.Mr. Harrison appears to be under the impression that the 
« m|tloymciit nf a r«fh'(t<»r and lamp which will give an approxi- 
mately parallel beam, is the best manner of dealing wi h'. at 
any rate, the great maj(»rity of lighting problems. Without 
entering into any discussion as to the suitjtbility of su.h an 
arrangement for the majority of cases, it will probal''y be 
Milliciept to draw attention to the fact that such a combination 
is, as u rule, far from efficient, since the reflector only sul tends 
a verv small angle «)f th" light source, and therefore cralv a 
small proportion td the K.tal light is reflected. The .nulti- 
plying power of the reflector is. in itself, n«» ind»x of the 
efficiency of the whole as a lighting unit. From experi.nents 
which 1 have made with reflectors of this nature it .vould 
appear rather that the means necessarv to prevent divergen'e 
ot the beam of light, and therefore to secure a high beam ( andh - 
power, tend to reduce the efllciency of the unit. 

Rugby. April 3. H. | •. Whk.\t. 



PATENT RECORD. 



TA* foUowitM abstract from tome of 

tptciattv LomrilfJ bv Mkl-.k-. Mh a k - 



altkt / Mcnt UJ.u iht 1^ mil ■ 

iri.r>8o Ai • 

■,M. •<•>.' H 

34,074 Mbyei' Tr 
2.004 Chsli La' • 

3.32'^ iBNKf.- .' 
3.410 Bf: 



SPECIFICATIONS PURLISHKn. 

: I* Ik' arpttcattan was lodttd 



uNlihrd hauf been 
. <,..^iurti Fattm ^gtHls, 



'rit^Uvt leclioni 



«rll«hU. (7 7I5.> 

iuifor«xh»u»i 



4.600 Heasi;. Elert.^ 

5,V2S Mo.NTAOUE. It-- . : -t^- 

7.633 BRisiiLEY. Controi oi eiectnc molors. 

8,42i B.^iiTisH Thomson-Houston Co. (General Electric Co.) Electric incandescent 

lamps. 
8.860 Railing. Garrard & Greenkalgh. Electrical resistances. 

.- u '?; Cc. 'General £]ectric Co.) JC -ray devices. 

;e comprising the combination- of a sealed envelope 
.. that a sutstantially pure electron discharge may be 
: ted -.0 be independently heated, an anc<le deprived of 
'.g member located adjacent said cathode, an electrical 
:ne space intermediate between said electrodes, and an 
.e«n said conductor and one of said electrodes. 

-ling systems. 
and methods of and means for resuscitating the 



9.346 B~ 


—- 


■ ■^■ 




A 








ccnQu 


cior su: 




electr 


c= 


conr 


10 


2" ~ 






11 


- 






11 


Oii . 







14.746 A ^ -acturing Co. 

apparatus. 
17.116 Heiberg. Electric table lamp. (1/9/15.) 
1 7.413 S.m:th. Electrical apparatus for heating liquids. 



& Archer. Electric-heating 






APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS 

'^'-- •■ •-' ■ '• • '-'ztions {except those marked t) are not open to 

' Complete Specifications. Those marked * ere 

.^ . ... -^:: attached to them, it they have not been published 

previously in the ordinary course. Names within parentheses are those of communicators 
of inuentior^. When complete Specification accompanies application an asterisk is affixed. 

February 14, 1916. 
2.164 Bl'rce. Telephone transmitter. 
2.176 Phillips. Electric switches or couplings. 
2,179 King. Electric torches or poctcet lamps. 
2.201 WoRDiTJOHAM. Systems for distributing electric energy. 

February 15, 1916. 
2.212 Pearse. A- .: electrically-operated mine signab, &c. 

2.242 V/ILLI^.•<s&; er. 

2.253 Knioht. A _u.i.i > =:i.i.'-ie. 

2.256 Baxter. E 

2.261 B.T.-H. Co. i; _ __ - :-.th. Regulation of induction motors. 

2.266 O'Donnell. Eiectricaiiy-operated indicating apparatus for signalling apparatus 

on railways. 
2.283 M-L Magneto Syso. & Watson. D>'namo-electric machines. 

February 16. 1916. 
2.293 Julian. Electrical fire and burglar alarm. 

2.328 Dushman. Electrical discharce devices. (20/2/15, U.S.) 

2.329 B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co.) Producing alternating currents. 
2.339 Fuller. Telegraphy and apparatus therefor. 

2.312 Cell. Heav - ' ■• '-— 

2.345 Bbiry. Ei- 

2.347 Berry. Oi^- - _... 

2.350 Kuhn-Frei it Weinmahn. Electric pocket lamps. 

F"- 17. 1916. 

2.375 Hops. Combined plu?, sec itch devices for electric circuits. 

2.361 Rt'.-SELL. Accumulator-chii _ -.ems for vehicles. 

2.383 Pollak. (Sdc. Anon, des Etablissements L. B14riot.) 

r.itus. 
2.400 G'i.!AOE& HtiRAN. Electric buzzers. &c.. 
2.402 Artj:/. Si?n^llinB by electromagnetic waves. 
2.405 Gr\y. Electric switches. 

February 18. 1916. 
2,44"* t=.' - "■ ■■ 
2.4; 
2,4-:- 
2,46S Br.wn. 



Electro-magnetic appa- 



p■M"'.J,r^^.*,r ' ^e.^ 



Telephony. 



2.478 FiLOEs. El. 
2,49: Cot. Elect- 
2.524 DiKON. Transi-in. 



r,!.,-.,^ -)„. 



■-breakers. 

t ctrostatic machines. 

February 19, 1916. 

:i :. ,1 to electrical -A-aves cr impulses. 
February 21. 1916. 



(19,7/15. U.S) 



2.547 L^NCASHIKE DYNAt.tr ^ 
7^^? A:.T, Lr i Rmlino. :.: 

\si Arc Co. & Strchwe: 
r.-H.Ca (G.E. Cnt D 



of manufacturing same. 

Dynamo-etectric machinery. 
-r electric welding. 

systems. 



!5. U.S.) » 

;;fri. I frr -j. irelf.? telegraphy and tele* 
pnony, eie 
2,6<X) Lasdvs & 1 :n -compensating 

device. (22,2, 15. Gcir.-.»;.i.) 

F<"b-jr,rr ?5, 1916. 



' i\-\-i P. 



ij-/'' r r.r, 



:.bOC HuLiuAK. Auluniid. 



temal-oombustion engines. 
r, l1 tutjUiiT p|r,-t,ic»1 conductor conduits to 

•■••-■• "lectrical variations. 



(23 '2, 15. Sweden.) 



TV. kc. 
.Is. 



3.4^ 

3.52J I.- 
1 



V Ls Ni.'iit. 1 
>ctTlc push buttons. 

'.'F pt; /o,: SCMR Ti.-p«>.. T»ieiw,VK M> 



<4J K-itijs. S:-;ci,ii6h; 



' ^*. \-jA . r» . lB , I CiT'L JTC f' 



(23/4 'IS. U.S) 

M J91f> 



-. aratus. 

trains. 
i^'-.-wnTi for wtreless Signals. 



1916. 



4.172 V. 



K' lie; k'i<s.Ji,uiivAi I 



4c, for telephones. 

'rumffits, 

C6.1 Cenerjrtfon of motive HuM. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APllII. 7, 1010. 



25 



(JDIWERCIAL^^DUSTRIAL SECTION 



atmaeai^MmtBBiatamm 




CONTENTS. 



Commercial Topics 25 

Imports and Exports of Elec- 
trical Manufactures 26 

Lkoal Intelligenck 26 

Business Notices 26 

Bankruptcies, Liquidations, 

&c 27 

Electricity Supply 27 

Lighting and Power Notes . . 27 

Traction Notes 28 

Telegraph and Telephone 

Notes 28 

Empire Notes 28 

Foreign Notes 29 

Miscellaneous Notes 29 



The Round Table 1 

Electric Lighting at Ballatcr 

and Ellon. Illustrated. 2 

Automatic Control for Cap- 
stans and Winches. Illus. 4 

Concealed Lighting in a 

Church. Illustrated 6 

Tenders Invited 30 

Tenders Received & Accepted 30 
Companies' Meetings and 

Reports 31 

New Companies, &c 33 

City Notes 33 

Electrical Companies' Share 

List .- 34 



COMMERCIAL TOPICS. 



British Banks 
and Trading 
Facilities. 



Sir J. S. Harmood Banner, M.P., chairman of 
the General Investors & Trustees (Ltd.), made 
an interesting speech on cur banldng system at 
the recent meeting of the company. He said 
he was thoroughly in accord with those who had pointed out that 
the work of financing on fixed and not liquid capital was not one that 
appertained to the banks of this country, which were receiving 
deposits of necessity bound to be available at any moment for return 
to the customers who had placed them with their bankers. When 
it was suggested to create some wonderful new financial institution, 
controlled by bankers and assisted by the Government, as the proper 
method of dealing with finance development on the termination of 
the war, he ventured to point out that both the Government and 
bankers were ignoring the magnificent work which the trust com- 
panies of the City and the country had been most successfully per- 
forming, so far as safety and their resources permitted, in giving their 
services for the pro^asion of capital which it was not within the pro- 
vinces of banks to find, and, in fact, acting as buffers to the banks. 
He believed that the combined capital resources of the trust com- 
panies of this country exceeded one hmidred millions, and they had 
been of enormous assistance in the development of trade and com- 
merce, not only in this country, but in all parts of the globe. It was 
quite true there were sojne tilings which trust companies could not 
do, as it was true, also, there were matters of the same description 
which banks could not entertain, but which were both encouraged 
and assisted by the German system of banking and finance ; but 
to his mind it was a question whether it was not due more to the 
want of Government assistance, protection and support, such as 
Germany had given to her commerce, than to any other cause which 
had prevented the trust companies and banks entertaining the 
financial proposals which the German bankers were ready to take up. 
For instance, the Allegemeine Electricitats Gesellschaft before the 
war offered to supply electrical installations for to^\^ls and for 
manufacturing firms on terms of 10 years' credit and payment by 
instalments. That work was financed by <jerman bankers, but he 
ventured to say that neither the bankers of this country nor tlic trust 
companies would have entertained financial j)roposals of that 
description. Again, as they all knew, smelting, the manufacture of 
aniline dyes and other industries were lost to this country entirely 
by the encouragement which was given by the (jlovernmcnt au<i the 
l)ankers of Germany, as against our own laissez-faire policy. 



After-War 
Trade. 



At a meeting of the Council of Leeds Chamber 
of Commerce last week Mr. John McLaren, the 
representative of the Chamber on the Executive 
of the Associated Chambers, stated that two of the most important 
questions discussed at the recent meetings were those relating to the 
establishment of a Minister of Commerce and to the Consular service. 
He approved of the establishment of a Minister of Commerce, but 
we must be rather careful how we multiply Ministerial oifices. As 
to the Consular question tliey wore all in absolute agreement. One 



of the best things that could hapfien to t>»«» pommerre of tliin Pountr\- 

woukl be a radical change in tin- ' - «Tvife. He ;» 

frankly and gladly that all our Con^.i.- ••■ .> n<junfl, but thev ■..-. .. ". 
have the ex])erience. He hojx^d that by the time tho. war wa« over 
we should have our Statesmen agrecfl ujxm a pfjlicy. V 
Mcre j)ropliesving that at the end of the war we kHou. . ;. - . 
industrial upheaval. He agreed that, unlesH the matter •»« care- 
fully handled, there might be. After we have got ri- ' ' .- 
foes we might have some industrial warfare among J' 
he did not see any need for that, and capital and laV^iur otifrht iieri- 
ously to consider the question, and try if |»fjHsible, to ' -tart 
after the war in producing commodities for - . , -ing 
Germany, after the Mar, were wiped off the .slate, would the present 
factories in Englar.d, Belgium, France, and even the United States, 
be cp..pable of dealing with the excess of buBines.s that should come 
to them ? He did not think so. We had to look about to see how 
we could extend our existing workshops and prepare for the starting 
of new ones. . There were a large number of industries foreign to us 
upon which we were dependent on Germany for supplies. Without 
those supplies we were not prepared to-day to say that we cuuld 
supply those goods which we had been purchasing so largely fr.iu 
Germany, because our factories were either not built or not equipjjcd. 
He mentioned that because the Americans had a fund of £10,(HJ0,tXK.» 
raised by business men ready for the end of the war to promote the 
establishment of new industries and the extension of existing ones. 
We should want twice that sum. We had talked enough, and it 
was time our talk was cr\-stallised into somethin'g like action. 



It is reported that the demand for electric 
cooking and heatiiig apparatus in the U.S.A. 
is developing very rapidly. In the first six 
weeks of the current financial year it is stated 

that the appliance department of the General Electric Co. has sold 

more than 1,700 electrical ranges. 

* * * * 



Development of 
Electric Cooking 
in the U.S.A. 



Wireless 

Telegraph 

Research. 



In an annomicement made by Marconi's Wire- 
less Telegraph Co. (Ltd.) it is stitetl that 
Senator Marconi has been enc,aged in important 
research work in Italy and that the results 
obtained are far reaching and will have an important beoring on the 
future of wireless telegraphy and telephony. Senator Marconi is 
applying for patents which will probably be applied at once in Italy 

to military purposes. 

* * * * 

General jn-ogress in the province of mechanii;»l 
Railway Goods (,.i^nsport is tending to bring to light the many 
Termini. discrepi-ucies which exist at the goods termini 

of the principal railway companies. Could the charges made by the 
railways in the handling of goods, say, from a given factory in the 
north "of the country to a warehouse, say, in London be sepa >»tely 
analysed they would show that the terminal charges were in exw^ss 
of the on-rail changes. Some difference is naturally to bo Kx^keii 
for, but not such as to indicate an exceedingly high proportion in 
favour of the rail. The entii-e problem of terminal hamlling of p^-'U 
has been made the subject of considerable study, but. stnui- x 
enough, bv individuals outside, rather than insule the employ of thr 
railwav lu'idertakings. Not a few of the schemes which have Unn 
})ut fcirward are cither too I'ostly or too drastic to adnut of their 
adoption. Such was held to be the opinion befoiv the war. It 
would be rci. onable to suiijkisc that under war conditions the state 
of affairs would be exaggerated, yet sudi is not proving to be the 
case The railw ay undertakings have not. probably, caret! to admit 
that (we are presuming i)re-war conditions for the moment) while 
mechanisms can dLsplacc labour on locomoti%-es. in signal boxes and 
in the manufacture of rolling stock, obstructions of every kind hav. 
been placed in the wav of their use to supplement practically un- 
skilled labour in the handling of goods. Now that the war has put 
labour at a premium the railway companies are compelled to turn 
to mechanical transport devices, and their use of battery vehicles 
and small industrial batteiy-driven trucks and tractors is a note- 
worthv stei) whi( h will have far-ivaching consequenrt>s m the future. 
In the United States, whciv the " clectnc ste\ etloiv." as theelectne 



26 



THE ELECTRICIAK, APKIL 7, 1916. 



baggage truck is designated, is coining into extensive use, the rail- 
way companies are obtaining operating data regarding the handhng 
of goodhi at their l<niuMi iii a form in which it could not jireviou.sly 
be presented, 'i'he unit by which computations can Ije arrived at 
as to cost of handling is a simple and onl\' slightly variable one. 
For the handling of an electric, unskilled lalxjur, not excluding female 
labour, can be employed, and ever}' machine will do the work of many 
hands. Some of the data which are becoming available are proving 
confliisivcly that no science anfl little or no organi.sation have been 
applied to the terminal handling of gcKxls. The entire technical 
effort has been exerted upcjn the rolling stock and track, a fact which 
explains the high handling charges for all rail-borne goods. It is still 
early to prophcoy that an immediate change is likely to come over the 
lack of method of the railway companies in the handling and re- 
liandling of goods, but in the battery-rlriven truck and tractor they 
have a ready means of increasing the efliciency of de|xjts, and thereby 
of reducing the charges on goods. Such economies as are effected 
must go to the reduction of the charges, and not to the swelling of 
shareholders' jjrofits. The introduction of e()iiitabie goods charges by 
the railways is just asim|K»rtant a part in the ca|jture of (German trade 
as the general organi.sation of manufacturers for a similar purjxjse. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF ELECTRICAL 
MANUFACTURES. 
From March 27, 1910, to March .M, lit 10. 



Til view of the increased interest wliicli is Ixinn taken in the subject of 
th(! importation into and the exportation of Kh'ctrical Manufactures 
from th<^ I'nitcd Kingdom, we resume our weekly lists. (See-also note 
ttt foot of K.vport.-i.) 

IMPORTS. 

L' ■:: U.S.A.: Elec. macMrier/. i.\.Q^2: dec. lamps, £63 ; elec. motor?. £846 : 

\wir'.- .:, : .i.le. £882 ; carbon candles, f.668: unenumeraled. £9.182; Holland: Elec. 
lamps, £4.209-401 pkps. France: UnenumeraTed, £160— 49 pkgs. Switzerland : EXtc. 
machinery, £68; unenumerated. £40. Italy: Wire and cable, £865. Japan: Elec. 
lamps, £423: unenumerated. £513. 

Manchestbr.— i/.5.i4. .• Elec. light carbons, 35 pkgs. 

EXPORTS. 

To Australasia.— <4ttc*/fl/i(/.- L'ner.-;. .-;_•• ;, £118. Melbourne: Elec. machinery, 
£56; unenumerated. £94. Sydney: Wire and cable, £1,037 ; elec. machinery, £54 ; 
unenumerated. £207. /'^r/A.- Elec. lamps, £183: unenumerated. £23. Christchurch: \Jt\- 
enumerated, £18. Dunedin : Wire and cable, £1.358: unenumerated, £102. Lyttelton : 
Unenumerated, £180. Brisbane: Unenumerated. £122. Nelson: Unenumerated, £54. 
Adelaide: Unenumerated. £24. Napier: Unenumerated, £101. 

Africa.- Durban: Wire and cable, £626; unenumerated, £56. Zanzibar: Unenu- 
merated, £59. 

South and Cbntral America.— Bu^ws Ayres: Wire and cable, £6,322; un- 
enumerated, £499. Va/;iar<j/io.- Unenumerated, £55. /?(o rfe ya«f;ro.- Wire and cable. 
£428; unenumerated, £40a /?os(Jr;o.- Unenumerated, £1,103. Santos: Unenumerated, 
£47. 

' -.ted, £132. 

!38. 
ur.'Tiumerated, £26. 
A AND Straits Settlements.— flomfcay.- Wire and cable, 

. • . .^jO: unenumerated, £131. Calcutta: Elec. machinery, £201 : 

£24(5. Ceylon: Unenumerated, £136. Rangoon: Unenumerated, £122. 
inghai : Unenumerated. £44. 

Am'.ierdam: Wire and cable. £266; unenumerated, £145. Rotterdam: 
'. . £.107 

66; unenumeraled, £73. Dieppe: Unenumerated, 



U.S.A.— New York: 
Gibraltar.— Wire a 
West Inimt- " ' 
India, Cev 

£l,.';.v) .■'- 

un''- 



r 

n 

Uri. 

Fran r 
£174. A/Ofv 

D''NMARK 

Russia, l 

Portugal Wir 

SfAlN. — Mai Ufa / Unenur ■ 
Sweden. Gothenburg: U: 
Canada.- Montreal. Onr-nu:: 



h. 

■'•■ fl75 
Uneni. 17. 

. . unenumerated. £30. 



1. £187. StockhcJm: Wire and Cable, £572. 
C84. St. John's: Telegraph material, £95. 



FOREIGN GOODS (duty paid and free). 

flomfcay .• Unenumerafv). t71. Buenos Ayres: Unenumerated. £72. CapeTown: 
Unenumeraled, £31. Marseilles: Unenumorated, £671. Faris : Unenumerated. £36. 
Rotterdam: Unenumerated. £527. 

IN TRANSIT. 

CapeTown: Eler. lamp>!. £I.2<X) ,'.,'... .../,. Elec. lampj. £680. Sydney: Elec 

lamps, £420. Shanghai : Elec. kIow lamp.t. £147. 

NoTK. The InrRp nunilMT of itomi« in thew nnirinlrrturnR under the 
miHicadint; hi-ntiint; " iiiKiiiimrrntcij " r«'Ut«> txi what \r^ (h.-icrilnd iin 
*' elertrieal goo«l.H " nml " elcctrirni innttTiAU." 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

Read v. Stella Conduit Corpn. 

I^ntt week tiuH (iiMc Clinic JH-fiin- tlic ( .mrt <>( /\)i)ionl (the M.iwtor nf 
the HoIIn. 1/11(1 .luNlice l'hillm)iin> and .Mr. .Iiistuc .Snrgant) an n]i{>enl 
I'.v pliimtilT-* from n ]U<l);imMit of Mr. .lu.Htioo .)oyc<Mlt<.miw<m)t the notion. 

i'laintilTH lir<iU|2ht the action ngnin.<«t «lefrndant*i f-r an injunction. 
dnmnKCM and nncillim- n'lief for the al|p^r<l mfnnu'-mr-nt i>f 1«»ttrp« 
pulciit No. l.S.:t7.". of 1<1(|.-. granted to .Ih.h. Wni. HnMik." .in.l AllM-rt 
Kdwnrd Head fur tm iinproxod mcanx for coinKN ting Inlndnr rlocthr.il 
<'..ivliii> tnj,.f-i),cr nnd for cnnct ini; the said rWtrical oonduit.n to the 
lutinijM. M„ch .IS cIIh.«k. til.... jtiiK-tjun boxes, switohou. in<>]K>rtinn Jwixrs 



and the like, the invention enabling the said parts to be effectually 
.secured together without .screwing." The claim was for an appliance 
for connecting the ends of two electrical conduits or fittings consisting of 
two longitudinall.v divided sr^cket-like clips formed to;Tcther with a cross 
slot Ix'twecn theiii. the clip.'^ bcin<.' made; with lugs and tightening screws 
or bolt.s and of the i)roper internal diameter to suit the respective tubular 
conduits or fittings on to which they were to be clamped. 

Plaintiffs alleged that defendants, by making, supplying and offering 
for sale of fittings for electrical conduits described by the defendants as 
■ Stella Grip Fitting.s " were an infringement of their letters patent. 
Defendants did not deny the allegation of infringement, but pleaded 
that there wa.s no suVjject matter in plaintitTs" invention, the alleged 
invention being simjilv to make a connection, and was simply using the 
old method of fastening at two end.s. It was a tight fastening, and the 
same a.s that used in a bicycle head. Mr. Justice .Joyce held that the grip- 
ping arrangement was a well-known and common one, and as there was 
no invention in the us<> of the ])atented appliance, the patent was invalid. 

.Mr. A. .1. Walter. K.C, Mr. Colefa.x K.C., and .Sir Denham Warming- 
ton appeared in support of the a])peal ; and Mr. T. Terrill. K.C, and 
Mr. Arthur Gray for resjxmdent company. 

Mr. W.\LTKR contended that there was subject matter in the plaintiffs' 
invention, there being disadvantages in using screws which plaintiffs' 
invention obviated. He admitted that there were many anticipations, 
but the%' were for all kinds of different things. He .submitted that the 
j)laintiffs were entitled to the relief they claimed. 

Mr. Terrell (for respondent) contended that, having regard to the 
bicycle head attachment and Whitehead's .specification there was no 
subject matter in duplicating that, and that was really all that plaintiffs 
had done. The method of damjting used in the bicycle iiead attach- 
ment was common knowledge and known to every engineer. 

At the comlusion of the ar'juments their lord«hips n-served judgment. 



Samuel Theo. Baldry v. Sun Electrical Co, (Ltd.). 

At Lambeth (Ixindon) County Court on Monday plaintiff (aged 14 
years) sought (through his father. Joseph Wm. Baklry) to recover com- 
pen.sation for injuries. 

Applicant was employed by respondents as a learner in November, 
191.'), his average weekly wages being 9s. lOd. He was waxing vulcanite 
blocks at their works on .Jan. 21 when he was calie<l by another boy, 
namcii Harris. He left his bench to speak to him. when there was a 
dispute about a small piece of metal as to whether it was a steel .^having 
or solder. He was returning to his bench when he was struck in the bail 
of tlie right eye with a piece of steel shaving. He could not see where it 
came from. He was taken to the Royal Kye Hospital. St. (Jeorge's- 
circus, whiTC his eye was removed, and he reinaine<l as a patient until 
Feb. 1. In cross-examinatifin. plaintiff admitted it was lutt ])art of his 
work to touch the steel shavings. 

Another boy (Hector Robb) said they brought the article to him for 
liLH opinion. He replied that anyone could see it was a piece of st-eel 
shaving and threw it away over his shoulder. He heart! applicant cry 
out. and tlien found the sliaving had struck him in the eye. 

.Mr. Sh.vkf.speake (for resjKiiidents) said the boys had nothing to do 
with the metals with the exception of bra.ss, as they were working on the 
waxing of vulcanite blocks. If boys wer.' larking, and an accident 
occurred, the (V)urt of Appeal had decided that such accident <lid not 
arise; out of or in the course of their employment. an<l tiicrefore did not 
come within tho scope of the Act. 

•Judge l'.\HKV said if that was so. they might as well shut out boys from 
the operation of the Act. as they were always larking. If apjtlicant had 
not been employe*! there he would not hav<' met with the accident, and 
that to his min.l meant arising out of and in the course of their employ- 
ment. In view of the importance of the case and the likelihood of an 
ajijH'd. he reserved his judgment. 



BUSINESS NOTICES. 

A firm of engineering nienhantK in Wosteni Australia .-^.dvertiRe 
that they an> desirous of adding a first-class oloctrical agency to 
their busine^M. .Applications to .Mes-srs. Hopcraft & Hrojulwnter. 4, 
I'enclnnch .'.venue. l>ondrn, K.C. Sec an (iiirfrli.initenl. 

Sale by AUClion. Messis. Mo\. C.ipp & (o. will .soil by auction 
on .\pril 12 ;it I p.m.. machinery. cieetric;:lly-«lriven lathes, fumi- 
lun\ i^c. on the promises of tlio Light F-h-etric Motor Co. (Lf<l.). 
Farnh.".ni-rojul. .Moa<|s l;:no. .Snt-n Kings. Ilford. On vit'w moniing 
of sr.lo. Cat.-dogues of the auctioneers. 21H. l.,«»wer Clapton-road. 
Ixindon. N.K. Srt alio an advetiioement. 

Plant for Sale. In an advertisement particulars .iro given of 
Be( tiiid hand Parsons" steam turlx) sets which .ire ofTered for sjvle. 
.\n .-Klvertiser offers a 5 kw. Herrv transfonner for sale. 

Plant Wanted. -.\n advertiser wants motor-generators. I'y'iO kw., 
44u to ."»■»(• volts d.c. motors, iK)-IIO volt, compound -wound 
generators. 

Mo.'t.srs. Arrol-.Tohnston (Lt<l.).Dinnfries. .".dvertise for two second- 
hand steam d\nainos (one of T.'i kw. or HHl kw. and one of .'VKt kw.). 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APKIJ. 7, I'JlG. 



27 



BANKRUPTCIES, LIQUIDATIONS, &c. 

A first and final dividend of 2().s. is payable at tlic O. R.'s, ;}.'$, (.'arey- 
street, London, W.C, in the liquidation of Electro-Steel Foundries 
(Ltd.), Booth-street, Uarlaston. 

Claims against the New York Hamburg India Rubber Co. (Ltd.) 
are to be sent to the Controller, Mr. Harry E. Clark, 7, Sf. Mildred- 
court, E.C., by April 30. 

Deed of Arrangement. — A deed of arrangement executed by Israel 
E. Poy.ser (trading as the Liverj)ool Electrical Co.), 5.'), Renshaw- 
street, Liverpool, was filed on March 21. Unsecured liabilities £43. 
Assets £158. Mr. P. S. Booth, 2, Bixteth-street, Liverpool, is trustee. 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 



EXTENSIONS. 

Bo'ness.— The Council recently iipplied to the Secretary for Scot- 
land for sanction to borrow £14,500 for the proposed extension of the 
electricity works. 

Since making the application the Deputy Town Clerk submitted a 
proposal for a loan for the required amount to various banks and insur- 
ance companies, but as the replies had been so unfavDUiablc the Council 
resolved to ap])ly to the Public Works Loan Board for a loan for ^i) 
years, or alternatively for 20 years for carrying out the work. The Board 
have now intimated that they cannot comply with the application. 

East Ham. — The mains are to be extended in order to give a suj^ply 
of current for ^lower to premises in Manor Park-road. 

The question of increasing the price of current for public lighting has 
been dcferretl for the ])resent. 

Ilford. — The electrical engineer (Mr. A. H. Shaw) has been autho- 
rised to proceed with the extension of mains to su})ply a number of 
houses in course of erection. 

Salford. — The Electricity^ Committee recommends the Council to 
authorise the cost of the proposed sub-station in the Greengate 
district to be defrayed out of moneys to be obtained from the sale of 
l.t. cables which will fall into disuse, the balance to be credited to 
capital account. 

The C!onimittcc proposes to enter into agreements with six persons for 
the supply of current at tariff rates, and it is also proposed to enter into 
an agreement with the Peel-Connor Telephone Co. for the supply of 
energy for a period of 10 years. 

GENERAL. 

Bridlington. — After the June quarter the charges tor electrical 
energy will be : — 

For general lighting : Up to 500 units per quarter, 5id. per unit ; 
up to 1,000 imits, 5d. ; up to 1,500 units, 4|d. ; and exceeding 1,500 
units per quarter, 4d. per unit. For heating and cooking : Up to 100 
units per quarter, 2d. ; exceeding 100 units per quarter, 1 Jd. jjcr unit. 

City of London. — At the meeting of the Court of Common Council 
last week Mr. C. H. Collett moved that the Streets Committee be 
instructed to take the necessary steps to oppose the application of 
the Charing Cross, West End & City Electricity Supjjly Co. to the 
Board of Trade for sanction to increase the maximum lighting rate 
in the City from 5d. to 5^d. per unit during the period of the war and 
for 12 months afterwards. 

Mr. Collett argued that the charges of the company to-day varied 
so much, as there were preferential rates which ranged from l|d. to 3d. 
per unit. The icsult of this was that the small consumer had to pay 
considerably more for his light than the large consumer. The balance- 
sheet of the company for 1915 showed that it suffered a reduction of 
only about £2,000 in its earnings compared with 1914. 

Mr. Samuel, chairman of the Streets Committee, said that the com- 
pany's position was that it was paying 60 per cent, more for its coal, and 
the cost of labour had considerably increased. 

After discussion, the resolution was carried. 

Eastbourne. — The Council has decided to jiay, without prejudice, 
f.nd as an c^ct of grace, £20 to the widow of one of the men killed in 
the recent collision of a motor cab with a street box in Seaside, and 
£10 to the parents of a soldier who was killed on the same occasion. 

Edinburgll. — At last week's meeting of the Electric Lighting 
Committee it was reported that the applications for a supply of 
electricity for the previous three weeks were equal to 11,801 8 c.p. 
lamps, ag<?,inst 0,202 for the corresponding period of 1915. 

The total applications for the year to date were equal to 90.508 8-c.p. 
lamps, which showed the increasing demands for current notwithstanding 
the war. There were intimations of a larue numlier of applications for 
electric power in connection with pul)lic works, present and prospective. 

Kingston-on-Thames.— The Lightmg Committee reports having 
further considered the mode of charging for the supply of electric 
current, and states that it has adopted the following scale : — 

IJghtitiff. — First 3,000 units a year, 6^. per unit ; second 3,000, fid. ; 
thini 3,000, 5.ld. ; fourth 3,000, 5d. ; all' over 12,000, 4 id. 



BfMement Liqhlintj.—Vmi .'J.OOo uniUi, 3<J. ; SM-ond 3,WJ0, 2J«l. ; all 
over 0,000, 2\i\. 

Powp.r, Hi'Uliiifi itnd (Jofjkinij.^ Vint lO.WjO, IJd. ; Recond \(iSfi**. 
1 kl. ; next .=>r),or>0, IJd. ; second TAiSHHi. IJd. ; all over \2f),iHii), Id. 

Leeds.— The rVuincil has rerlu'wl the rates from 10s. Id. to ^. in 
the £ by t tking £(iO,<KK> from the tramway earning.'* and bv -aving 
£l7,0fM) on street lighting and £13,0f)0 on ritreet repair 

Malton. The Northern Counties Klectricity Supply < o. pro|jo»(e 
fo increase the charge for electric current by 2<J|ier cent, from April lU. 

Manchester. .Mr. Rohs Clyne has given notice of motion for the 
next meeting (,f the Council expressing regret that " a requeiit male 
to the Electricity Committee for large HU}iplieri of current by a ftmi 
intending to contract with the Covemrnent for a product of great 
importance, to be supplied from a c jnteniplated new work* in Slan- 
chester, was not brought before the Committee as a whole for con- 
sideration as to possible ways and means to meet the demand in 
([ucstion," aid directing that in future all pro|x>-.i!s. offern, or 
requests of like importance shall be projKTly submitted to the dU- 
cretion of the (Jommittee before accejitance or rcfuua'. 

Marylebone (London). — The estimate.s of the Electric .Supply 
Committee of their income and expenditure for the year ending 
March, 1917, were submitted to the Council yesterday (Thursday). 

The revenue is c:;timatc(l at £218,795 and the total exi-crnbture 
£21 5,802, leaving a credit of £2,933, after providing for a re<lu(-ti<in of 
£47,440 in capital indebtedness. The .sales of current are i-)«timati<l at 
15-9 million units. The net result of the working of the sal«-s. 4c.. 
department is expected to be a net balan(c of £31-0. instead of a debit of 
between £2.000 and £3,000 as hitherto. 

Poplar (London). — The Council recently authoris<-d an increaie of 
10 per cent, in the charges for electrical energy. 

Reigate. — The (Council has rescinded a previous resolution in- 
creasing the price of electric current for heating from Id. to l]d. |jer 
unit as from April 1, and ha.; adopted a rejwrt of the Electricity 
Committee recommending increrj.ses of 15 j)er cent, for energy for 
lighting and power, and the raising of the charge for heating from 1<I. 
to l^d. per luiit, plus a 15 per cent, increase. 

Stirling. — Last week the Council authorised an increase of \'2\ 

])Gv cent, in the scale of charges for electric current. 

Torquay. — Last week the Coimcil decided not to light the town 
during the months of May, June, July and August. It is anticipate<l 
that during this period a saving of £725 on public lighting will be 
eft'ectcd. 

Worthing. — On Tuesday the Council considered a report of the 
Electricity Committee on the Diesel engines at the electricity work.*. 

The committee reported that the Electrical Engineer had had under 
consideration the question of equipping one of the Diesel engines with an 
additional fuel pump, at a cost of £160, to enable the engine to be worke<l 
with tar oil as well as residual petroleum, which would not only eff»it a 
considerable saving by the consumption of a cheaper fuel oil, but would 
allow a choice in future between two oil markets. The Countil wen- 
recommended to authori.se the committee to have the pump in.-'talled. 

The report and recommendation were adopted. 



IllillllH 



I 

LIGHTING & POWER NOTES. 



Electricity in Mining.- -At the recent meetmg of the San Salvador 
Spanish Iron Ore Co. (Ltd.) the chairman, Mr. C. S. Quartenn.iiir 
said that the conversion from steam to electric |R)wer had prjve«l 
very satisfactory indeed, ;i:id it was very fortunate that the chatigr 
was effected, otherwise the present prices for coa!, plus freight, would 
have rendered the working of the mines practically prohibitive : 
whereas electric current was costmg them no more thaii in normal 
times. The production of washed ore for the year showed a fa'ling 
off, but when one considered that they ha 1 been working only one 
of their lines, and that for a i)eriod of only eight months, the output 
was really very .satisfactory. That was due pitrtly to an impn>ve- 
ment in the quality of the earths treated, |KUtl.\ to the electric install:'.- 
tion and partl\- to" the energy displ;i\ed by their manager and .staff. 

At the meeting last week .Mr. Edgar Taylor gave jxirticulars of the 
progress and discoveries made during the year. 

They had heard in Februarv that the new high lift pump w as delirering 
water "sati-sfactorilv from the 2.000 ft. level to suHjum'. and that all the 
pumpinir niachincrv was then being operated by electric power. .\t 
Oriental shaft the new electrical wiuciing engine at surface was enx-ted. 
and the shaft it.self had been adapted for quick hoisting. A mueh larger 
ciuantitv of tailings was dealt with in the new plant, and there was an 
iiicrea.«c in the cost of the Cauvery power during the last half-year. 

Hospital Lighting.— The ('hildivn's Committee of the Metropolitan 
Ayslums Board has reported upon the defective condition of the 
electric lighting installation at the ChUdren's Infirmary, and certain 
alterations, I'ie., are to be carried out at a total cost of £215. 



28 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



Leigh (Lanes./ The Rural Counril has « ntered into an arrange- 
incnt with the l'ilkingt<jii ('olliery Co. for the Kujjjily of eleftrieal 
energy for jjumping at the LoAvcr Green neverage workR. 



TRACTION NOTES. 



iiiiiiiiiiii 

Bournemouth. — It is reported tliat the municipal tramways de- 
jjartmciit ( ;inic<l nearly 18,WX»,(XiO jwssengers during the year ended 
Manhrn-. 

Coventry. -The Council have increased the salary of the engi- 
n(!('r a:i(i iipinawr of the tramways (Mr. T. R. Whitehead) fnjin t.">()0 
Uf tOOO |)('r annum. 

Ilford. — In view of increased running expenses and the jjresent 
])n)K|j(rity of the distri(;t, the Iranivyays manager has advised his 
c >uiuiittee to c.msider the question of alojiting the jienny universal 
fare, and suggests that the scheme should he put into operation for 
the period of the war. 

Leeds.The total receij)ts of tiic tramways dei)artnient during 
the year ended March 'M were £41,ir>0 in excess of those for 1!»14-1.^), 
equal to r.n increase of 9J per cent. 

The dwrcasc in the car -mik-s run was llT.liltJ niiicB. fir ]'2',i per cent., 
but, in spite of thf decline in mileage, the number of passengers carried 
exceeds all rcfonls, the total being lU3,4i')3,801. The receipts per car- 
mik- \viit lip by lIHTd., or 10X4 percent. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. -At the meeting of the Corjioration en 
W ((liicsd.iy ll:e 'i'ramways Committee rejiorted that il.'>,142 had 
J:ecn cx|;cn<led in excess of the sum of i.Hl.TOO authorised by the 
C<,rj)oration Act of Mil 1, and recommended that application be made 
to the Hoard (if Trade for sanction to borrow that amount. 

The cxpcnditiin- on construftion of tramways had been £4.004. and 
stn-ft works tll.OtS. Thf- I'ojnniittcc also n']iort»-d that cxpcpditurc 
under thi- Traiim.ivs Order of \'M'A. amounting to £1(1, TRi), liad liccn 
incurred in the conKtruetion and c(pii])mcnt of tramways, and recom- 
nicn<U'd that a]>i>hention be made to the Board of Trade for sanction to 
borrow this sum also. 

The ri |iiiit was M(|opt4>d. 

Northampton. The Council has been recommended to have the 
curved tram-trackfl in Mercers' Row &nd Abington street relaid. 



g TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE NOTES. J 

llllllllllillllllllllllllllllillllinillllllllllilllllllllllLn^^ 

Australian Telegraph Service. — The Eastem & Associated Tele- 
gni.ili ( 'ipiii|i;!-iie> ; •inniiiici' tliat they will sliortly o|;en their fiwn 
pulilie uliiee III .MelixiunK", .Australia, which will le connected by 
spccift! wire with their direct cable hystem. thus " speeding up " the 
tra IS nisriion of r:'Mcirni!Uscxe|i::;i!/eiI with .Melbourne " via Kasteni." 
Further in form ;,t ion of the scrviee < ..ii be obtained by ajiplying to any 
of the eomiwiny'H Ktaiions. 

Telephone Chnrges. At la>( week's nie^-ting of tlu' ('orj)oration 
the S|M(i,il (oiiiiiiiitee on Telephones n-|iorted that they had ijcfore 
them the wvsolutions pasHt>d at the i>ul)lie meeting held on Feb. 9 
jmitesling agaiiiHl the iiKrcasc jn chatges for the unlimited telephone 
Hei\ iec, and the letter of the Post master ( leiieial dei lining to receive 
a dc])Utation nn the subject. 

'I'he Coniniitt e recotiitiiendeii il . n c ord Ihrir jtrotcst 

ngnillHt the iiuuiii'T in wiiieli the in .id Ikmii ilinioxed, and 

without sub' liaviiii; Imtii l mm tippdrt unity of making 

representiitii>r. _ illieni.inie with pn-vioiifi ussuranecs from 

tin- I'oHtninsicr (Jencrai. ami to intimate to him that the Corporation 
n-served their right to fjike. after the termination of the war. such st«)is 
nM they nii'.dit deem a«lviHnbl". with tlir view of hnvin); the i|itu;;es 
iiii'ilitiiij .iiiii il (Ii'i I i>niiii i,.)iv iif 111 • ..) rviei* aiit-n-d and amended. 

Telegraph and Telephone Breakdown. 1'h<' rcient hn«.w storm 
seems !«> have played havjie with the telegraph .uul tele|)h(.ne lines 
throughout the eountrv. 

Commiinic aiion with all diHtriet^. morn ]tnrtienlarly llie induslrial 
to\vn>4 in tln' north. eM|Mi lally Mani lieMer. UiverpiNil. jlmdfonl. I/m-iIh. 
N'e\vea«tle, (Ilas^ow niul Kdiniiiir):h, wan •'• iTit«'rfen'd with. Tin- 
work of n-«lorinn eonuininicntion is jir<M < ■ wiv. nnd mnn\ Iouum 
in I lie north an- still without adei > m ,, 
Chester eonmiereinl cin'tcx nn> <l< i ii 
Lendoli and Mai i a|>li anil leli |i| • nc )iiii|ii»-i''.. 

The ease of 1/ i .,( the ilnnint" •'• << Tt, i..«n is still 

entirely cut o|T from !iie nnd tolephoir Royal 

KnuiniMTH and (he b I. ,-M , linnerrs nn* at w ' it 

1>roi>n>H» in slow «m Heeonnt of the eom]tlete wi. 

It is ho]x<d that a sint;!.. i.-k-i-raph w in" from !.■ . Mill 

l>o eompli'ted Infoiv lln- . mi ,.f the wrek. Tli. _ - Will 

lake ai Irasi n inontli Ixfon- they enn l»i> rentored to normal c<indilion. 

Tientsin Trlrphonp System. A deseription of the new telephone 



system at Tientsin (China) api^earod inja recent issue of the " Fa^ 
Ea.stem Review." 

TIk' new central batt'-iy telep!i(.iie syst'-m for Tientsin, ordered from 
the Western Electric Co. by the Clunese Government in lfll.3. was ]mt 
into oj>L-ration in .June. 1014. The old magneto system consisted of three 
central offices located in Tientsin City, the British Concession and 
Hopci, but for the new system only one central office is used — viz., on the 
Tientsin City bund near the boundary line of the Foreign Concessions. 
The main switchlioard consists of 1.3 three-position eight-jwnel sections 
and one thrce-pancd section, and is of the company's Ko. 2,001 central- 
batterj- multiple type with lamp signals. The switchboard lias a capa- 
city of 10,000 lines, and is at pre^c-nt equipped for 4,000. The first posi- 
tion of the subscrilxT switchboard is equipped with 1.5 toll--;witch'.ng 
tnmks for connecting city subscriber lines to toll lines. The second 
]>osition has a i>artial equipment of regular subscriber cord ci'cuite ami 
also some special cf>rd circuits for handling the rural lints. The rcnlain- 
ing positions, except the last, are equipped each with 17 pairs of regular 
cord circuits for completing connections between city subscriber lines. 
The last position is equipjx'd with cf)rds for testing. Each section has a 
ca]>acity of 10,000 midtiple jacks, KiO trunk jacks and 4R0 answering 
jacks with lamps. At present there are equipjxd in each section 4.000 
m.ultiple jacks, 40 trunk jacks and 300 answe'ing jacks with lamps. 
Eacli operator takes care of 100 incoming lines, and can reach any one of 
the 10.000 multiple jacks for calling purposes. There is also a two-posi- 
tion toll or long-distance switchboard equipped for 20 toll lines. 

The distributing frames and apparatus racks are in the terminal room 
on the first floor directly bi-ncath the switehboanl. All the wires from 
the fiibsc-ibcrs' telephones are terminat:d on pititectors, consisting of 
carlwm blfick arresters and heat coils. All switchboard circuits arc 
fused. Current for operating the switchboa.rd and stihscriliers* tele- 
phones is ohtaimd from storage batteries located in the ba-stment. There 
are two main 24-volt batteries, each consisting of 11 Chloride type cells. 
Also, there ate two smaller auxiliary batteries of 11 cells tach to obtain 
4S-volt current for long-distance transmission. There are two separate 
generating sets for charging tlu- l)atteries, one a motor generator taking 
current from the city mains an<l the other a generator Ixdted to a pro- 
ducer gas engine. All wiring for the power apparatus and batteries is 
carried in steel conduit laid in the floors of the building. All lex-al wiring 
in the switchboard sections is fornied into cables, and all wiring between 
the switchboards and the distributing frames and racks is carried in 
cables protected by a fire resisting covering. The wires to subscribers' 
telejihoncs are can-icd in 300-])air steel armoured underground lead- 
covered cable, to junction bo.xes mounted on steel poles in the various 
districts. The Tientsin system is under the management of Mr. Tsai 
Ch' e, managing director, and Mr. K. Rothe. superintendent and 
engineer, the assistant engineer being Mr. K. T. Long. 



EMPIRE NOTES. 



lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllMlllllli 
Australasia. — Mell>ourne Coimcil recently decided to install elec- 
trical recording meters in coniuH-tion with the chilling chambers at 
the city abattoirs at a cost of £:?()0. 

The Post mast er-tW-neral of the Commonwealth (.Mr. \V. Webster), in a 
recent communication to the Hobart " Daily Post." said, in justitieation 
of the proposed telephone charges in the Commonwealth, the average 
wage paid to the telephoni.sts was 13-87d. per hour, whereas in America 
the average was 9-0!)d. and in England (r2od. The cost of the meeha- 
nie d section was 21-.">ll>d. in .Australia. 10071d. in Englar.<l. and l(v20d. 
in the I'.S.A. It had been slated that if the rates were reductnl the 
number of subseribers would jmibably increase, but the larper the number 
of people connected to the exehanpes the less was the profit on the under- 
taking. In Sweden, Switzerland ami Denmnrk the rates were low. but 
liil.iiiir ( (1st (uily about one-third of what it cost in .\ustralia. so that the 
rales were relatively higher. In ,\nu>rica (where the cojiditions more 
nearly approxiinate<l to .Xustralian conditions) the rates were from 200 
to 'iW per cent, higher. .\ deputation had askinl him to consider the 
(piestion of turning over the system to private enterprise, hut in America 
the telephone systems were run by private enterprise, with the result he 
had mentiiuied. 

It is stated that, owing to the (.irbons re<'ently punhasiil by Sydney 
Coiineil in Kngland not proving satisfaetory. the engnu-er projxises to 
substitute Nitn» lam|is for thi- are lamps, in whieh it was pro|»osed to use 
tlioMe earlions in certain localities when' the failun> of a circuit of lamps 
w ill not have a serioiiN ••ITivt. 

The .\' 1 F.le«trie Stii-l Co. (Ltd.). wIikIi has Ikhu forme<l in 

Stiuth ,\i for the pur|Kise of installing elnlrn furnaces in the 

]irinei|>al .state!« of the t ommonwealth for the inanufactiin* of steel from 
east hcrap, has nt its bend Mr. Teesdale Smith. It is ho]MMl to envt the 
tirst plant in Sy<lney in May, the next in Mellxiurne in .lune or .luly. and 
the tliinl in Western Australia in 0< tol>er. 

Several yn.ini ago Mr. .1. H. (;ill < s undertook to produce marketable 
K|>elter <ii M\ the complex on of Wesicni 1 n^iii.'^nia. .-ind Complex 

(•reH (I,ti. .'rme<l. A long iiitervHl snpiiM r,<<l owing to the neces- 

sity of obtHimng eWtric pciwer nt a cheap rate, and as the Tasmanian 
tJovernment of that time divlined to undertake this task the Hy<ln»- 
Electric Power & Metallurgical Co. tackled the question. However, the 
tompany was unfortunat- in its finances, and its hydro-clivtric schiMue 
has now IxM'U a< quire<l by the (;<ivernnient. Conli«lenee in the Cillies 
jin^cfw never wan*-*!, ami it was deridi^ to erect a diMnonst rating unit of 



THE ELF/TRICIAK, APIUL 7, 1916 



39 



tlH> ])Iant, fif such capacity that tlio commercial practicability of the |)ro- 
ccss woulil l)(! adeqiiatt^ly tcstcid at East Carnberwcll, near .M;>il)ourii(?. 
it is stated tiiat a few weeks ago the directors of th(! conijiaiiy were al)l« 
to make a fine exhibit of their product in a Melbourne shoj). i>rok(?n Hill 
ore had been previously dealt with satisfactorily, but on th(i present 
occasion the very refractory ore of the Rosebery district of Tasmania 
was handled. The ore contained zinc 39 per cent., lead 12-0 per tent., 
iron 80() per cent., copper 0-4() per cent., sulphur 28 per eont., arsenic 
0-14 per cent., silica 9 per cent., gold 4 dwt. ])(!r ton, silver 13 oz. per ton. 
After a month's run the directors stated that sufticient data had been 
obtained to indicate that the process is capable of economically treating 
these refractory ores, the product being a spelter 99-91 per cent, pure, 
wiiich is superior to the standard fixed by the Britisli (Jovernment for 
munition purposes. 

The WoUongong (N.S.W.) correspondent of the " Australian Mining 
Standard," writing in February, says the electric safety lamps which 
weie to arrive for South Bulli colliery before the war, have now l)ccn 
received. At the Excelsior colliery, in the Bulli seam, the ventilation 
is accomplished by a fan, which is to be operated electrically, and which 
has a cajjacity of 50,000 cubic ft. of air per minute. A Bellis & Morcom 
engine, coupled to a 100 kw. generator, does all the pumping and ven- 
tilating work. A new electrically-driven fan to put in 80,000 to 100,000 
cubic ft. of air per minute is also to be installed. 

Barcaldine (Queensland) Council has decided to borrow £5,000 to 
complete its electric lighting and water schemes. 

The question of adopting electric lighting in Mrboo North (Victoria) is 
being considered by the Council and also the Mirboo North Dairy Co. 

The Government of New South AVales has decided to proceed at an 
early date with the development of a State coal mine at Lithgov/, where 
there is an extensive local demand on account of the proximity of the 
steel and iron works. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

Illlllilillllllllllilliillllllllllllllllllllllllll 

Argentina. — The National Census Commissicn has asked eJl elec- 
tric supply underta,kers in the Republic for particulars of the systems 
of generation, motive power, uses for which current is supi)lied, 
capital invested in the undertakings, and output in first year of work- 
ing and in 1914 respectively. 

The Ministry of Marine have approved regulations formulated by the 
electrical section of the Ministry's Direccion General de Material. The 
object of the regulations is to unify types of electrical materials employed 
in the na^'y and to ensure a careful technical selection of same. The 
regulations arc sub-divided into sections relating to incandescent lamps, 
lamp fittings, conductors, fuses, circuit breakers and commutators, 
switches, cells and accumulators, ventilators and arc lamps. Each 
section occupies a leaflet containing the exact specifications as to the 
conditions with which the material must comply. Three of tlie pam- 
])hlets have appeared, dealing with incandescent lamps, lamp fittings 
and conductors and fuses, and six niore are readj^ for the ])ress. 

Of these ranges, 600 were for Salt Lake City and other points served 
by the Utah Power & Light Co., and 400 went to Texas towns served by 
the Texas Power & Light Co. Many of the others also went to various 
western and southern points. The electric light and power companies 
in the West are offering special rates for electric current for cooking, with 
the result that there has been a large increase in electric cooking in 
many of the western towns. 

Brazil. — A consular report for 1914 st?<tes that the electrification 
of the tramwav'S at Parahyba was completed in February, 1914. 

The Alagvas electric tramwajs were inaugurated in June, 1914, but 
were not completed by the end of the y(iar. Imports into Pernambuoo 
included 442 metric tons (against 233 in 1913) of accessories for elec- 
tricity and lighting, vahied at £62,133 (against £33,671). 

Chili. — A Decree has been issued granting permission to the Chile 
Exploration Co. (a United States s3Tidicate) to instal an overhead 
5,000-volt electric i)ower transmission line from Chuquicamata to 
El Banco and to the San Salvador station of the An tofagasta- Bolivia 
railway (about 5| miles). 

A decree has been issued conceding to Don H. U. Gundiiui pciinission 
.to establish a telephone system connecting Combarbala with lihi])cl, 
Ix)s Vilos, Salamanca and Petorca. 

Norway. — " The Financier " says many new companies ;!.nd 
authorities are being started for the utilisation of the waterf;'J,Is in 
Norway in order to generate electric energy for industrial requirements. 

Hangersund municipality has recently bought a waterfall for half-a- 
million kroner capable of supplying 30,000 h. v. The current will have to 
be transmitted 42 miles. 

The A/S Hoyangfaldeno Norsk Aluminium Co. has been formed at 
Christiania with an authorised capital of 10 million kroner. Work on 
the construction of the power stations has already commenced and the 
first 20,000 H.p. will be developed as quickly as possible, to provide for 
the production of 4,000 tons of aluminium per year. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Fredriksstad Elektrokemiske 
Fabriker it was resolved to increase the capital from 350^000 to 700,000 
kroner, and to pay a dividend of 15 per cent, for 1915. 

Philippine Islands. — It is stated that a large sugar refined is to be 
built at Isabela, Occidental Negros, by the Uovemment Sugar 



Central iioard. TendfTK have \}een invited for the envtion of a 
l,0<X)-ton mill which will Ix- driven electrically. 

Tunis. — -An exhibition h' I :4t the Tuni.^i-:i ' 'ovcm- 

nient Officf; in Paris (jf c- unan and Au«tri»n g(x>d» 

imported into Tunis prior to the war. 

A handbofjk issued in connection with the exhibition oontaias a preface 
by the I'rcsident of the French Thainljor of formuT'-'- at Tiini". in which 
the reasons for the succ(;.ssful development of ' In 

in Tunis are discussed. It is stated that owir . ir 

commercial representation German and Austrian tirmH eutablished a 
predominancy in all branches of commerce and indu»trj- in Tum.«. Dur- 
ing the last few years German and Austrian travolh-rs bwam^ mon- and 
more numerous ; they quickly learned ' ' ' ; 

then, amply su])plicd with samj)lcs and cii y 

uj)on consumers. The (Jerman traveller t-ndeavoun-d to • t 

re(iuiremcnts of customers, and did his best to indue* hi- , , 'o 

take up the manufacture of new lines according to pattemx he nubmitted. 
and to turn f)ut at prices cheaper than those of competing firmj*. Cata- 
logue prices, in francs, were subject to discounts of from 45 to W) per 
cent. Prices were always free of all charges such a.s frei- e 

and packing, and same included deli%'cry at customers' nd 

cu.stoms duty. Periods agreed for payment varied from I to U) month-s 
and sometimes longer. Among.st the good.s c-atalogucd were electnc 
lamps and accessories, ironmongery, colours, varnishes, machinery and 
steel goods. 



'llll! 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



Alien Enemy Patents. — Messrs. Reavell & Co. have applied for 
the suspension of patent No. 3,525 of 1912 for tiu-bine compressors 
or pumps granted to Lawaezeck & Aerzener ^laschinenfabrik Ges. 

The Rapid Magnetting Machine Co. has applied for the suspension of 
three patents (Nos. 14,082, of 1908, 19,230 of 1911, and 4,595 of 1913) 
relating to the magnetic separation of ores and apparatus therefor. 

Contraband of War Regulations. — On March 30 His Majesty in 

Council ordered : — 

(I) That the provisions of the Declaration of London Order in T'ouncil 
No. 3, 1914, shall not be deemed to limit the right of His Majc-tity to 
capture goods upon the ground that they are conditional contraband, 
nor to affect the liability of the additional contraband to capture, 
whether the carriage of the goods to their destination be direct or entailing 
trans-shipment or subsequent transport by land ; (2) that the provisions 
of Art. I. (ii.) and (iii.) of the said Order in Council shall apply to absolute 
as well as conditional contraband ; (3) that the destination referred to 
in Arts. 30 and 33 of the said Declaration, in addition to any presumption 
laid down in the Order shall be deemed to exist if the goods aj-e sent to or 
for a person who, during the present hostilities, has forwarded imported 
contraband goods to territory belongincr to or occupied by the enemy ; 
(4) that in the cases covered by -Vrts. (2) and (3) of this Order it shall lie 
upon the owner to prove that their destination was innocent ; (5) that 
art. 19 of the Declaration of London shall cease to be put into force. 
Neither a vessel nor her cargo shall be immune from capture for bn^ach 
of blockade upon the sole ground that she is on her way to a non-blockaded 
port. 

Legal Notice.— Claims agamst the estate of Montague H. B}-thway 
(deceased), formerly electrical engmeer, of Claremont, Hale-road, 
Hale, but servuig in H.M. Naval Air Service at the time of his death. 
are to be sent by May 20 to Messrs. Tat ham, Worthmgton & Co., 
1, St. James-square, Manchtster. 

Local Loans. — On March 31 the Treasury decided upon revised 
rates of interest on loans granted out of the Local Loans Fimd 

Rates varying from 5 per cent, to 5} per cent, have beeii fixed for 
housing, small holdings and harbour works, and the rates for oth.^r loans 
on local rates arc : Not exceeding 30 years. 5 ]>er cent ; not excecilini: 
50 years, 51 per cent. 

More Enemy Firms Wound Up.— Up to date the Riard of Trade 
have oidcred the winding uj) of 87 comiia'ves or firms controlled by 
alien enemies : — ■ 

The latest list includes : \eithardt & Hall (Ltd.). iron and steel im- 
porters, 41, Eastcheap. London. E.C. : Hadenfeldt & Co.. general 
merchants. 4. Cullum-strcet. Londim. E.C. ; (Justav Hoscnmann. hanl- 
ware merchant. 194-200, Bishopsgate. London, H.C. ; Eug.-n Kiidcnburg. 
shipi'iig and lorwanlincr aijcnt.' 14-20. St. Mary A\c. l>>iulon. lH". : 
C. K. H. ]\l-dler. X-ray tube maker. 47. Red Lion-stnvt, l>>ndoii. U.C : 
London Electron \\ o-k:? Co. ( Lti'. ). Regents Dock. Limehouse, iiondon. K. 

Tribunal Cases.— At Blackiwol Api)eal Tribunal, on Man^h W. the 
general nianager of the Tower supported the application for exemp- 
tion of the chief assistant to the electrical engii\eer and the electrical 
engineer. 

It was stated that 70 of the company's men were serving and they had 
not appealed for a single man. Temporary exemption was granted untU 
the end of October. 

At Erpin<^ham last week Lord SutHcld through his agent applied for 
exemption for his electrician, asicd 28. single, who had charge of a valuable 
electricitv and yas plant at Gunton Hall. The claim was made on the 
ground that ih(~man could not be ivplact>d. The appeal was refused. 



30 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



iiiiiiiiii 



IIIIIIIHI 



TENDERS INVITED. 



Switchgear, 

.Samori) Corporation require tenders by noon April 17 for 
the supply, delivery and erection of Three-phase Extra-high- 
pressure and low-pressure Switchgear for three 5,0(MJ kw. sub- 
station equipment. Specifications, &c., from the hurgh 
electrical engineer, Mr. .J. A. Robertson, Krederick-road, Salford. 
See an advertisement. 

Electricity Meters and M.D. Indicators. 

The ('oun<il of tin- City ot .MELBOURNE (Australia) invite 
tenders for the supply of Electricity Recording Meters and 
Maximum Demand Indicators. Specifications, conditions of 
contract and form of tender from the Agents for the City Council, 
Messrs. McHwraith, McEacham & Co. Pp\-. (Ltd.), Rilliter- 
s(|uarc-buildings, London. K.C.. fo whom tenders are to be sent 
by noon of .Monday. -May I. See also an (idrerli.seiiie.nt. 
Motors and Transformers. 

\\'ai;kin(;T()N Klcctricily and Tramwivys Conimiltee re(|uirp 
It ndcis by iiotn April 1 1 for supply of Mtjtors and Transformers. 
S[)ecifications from Horough Electrical jmkI Tramways Engineer. 

The CiiiEi- CoMMissioNKK HH{ X.S.W. Railways and Tra.m- 
WAVs, Sydney, ictjuiies tenders by noon May 24 for sup])ly, 
erection and niivinlenanee of Hi (fi(l() v.) d.c. Motors, Avith Field 
Rheostats, kv., (,r (.(Ifcrn.ilively) .Motors with iiitci pole wind- 
ings. Speci(ic;rtions, &c.. from the Klectrical Kngincer. (»1. 
Huiiter-Htreet, Sydney, .X.S.W. 

Arc Lamp Carbons. 

'i'cndcrs are invited for the supply of o.'i.'J.OOO Arc Lamp 
Carbons to the (,'ity of MELBfU'UNE (Australia). Tender form 
copy of specification, conditions of contract, &c., from the 
Agents for the City Council, Messrs. Mclhvraith, McEacham k 
Co. Ppy. (Ltd.), Hilliter-s(|uare-buildings, London, E.C., to whom 
lenders arc to be sent by noon .April 1 1. 

Turbo-Alternator, Gas Producer Plant, &c. 

'J'Iks .\kw Sotth Waijvs (;overnment Railways and Tram- 
ways Department invite tenders for the supply and erection of 
n 2.r)tK) kw. Turbo-Alternator for the Zarra-street (Newcastle, 
X.S.W.) ]M)wer house. Specification (Xo. 470) from the Elec- 
trical luigineer, X.S.W. (Jovemment Railways and Tramways, 
(11, Hunter street, Sydney. Tenders to Chief Commi.ssioner for 
Railways and Tramways, Philli|)-street, Sydney, by noon May .3. 

Wanoanti (.\'.Z.) Morough Council re(|uire tenders by noon 
May !> for the suj)i)ly a:id erection of Additional Plant .-it their 
tramway jx)wer house, including Pressure-type (Jas Prodiicer 
I'l.Mit. (las Knginr-, Klcctric; (lenerator and Switchgear. Speci- 
(Kati'in. iVc. from the Town Clerk. 
Street Lighting. 

San Kklix de Ci'IXola (Province of Cerona) Municipality 
re(|uire tenderii by April !(» for a concession for lighting the town 
b\- electricity or ga-i. 

Tramway Construction, &c. 

The Duck 1(111 ( icncral de Obras Piiblic.is. .Ministerio de 
K()ment((. .Mm hid, rc(|iiii,- tcn<icrs by .Mav lit for the construc- 
tion and working, for (M» years, of a:i electric Tramway in 
HiLHAo. fonnccling the existing syst«'m with the Irala-Harri 
district. .Minimum rolling stock recpiired to commence is one 
motor and one trailer coach for jMiRHPngprs. and one motor goods 
i-oach and two tnviler goods wa-^ons. An option on the «'on- 
cession is held b\ the Soiiedal Traiivia I'rbaiio de Itilba i. 

.loHANNKsHiRi! (Tfaiisvaal) Council retpiire tenders l)y noon 
June (1 for supjily of two .Manganese Steel Cro.sHings. Speei- 
tication. \-c.. from the .Muniiipai Olbces. .Inliaimesliuig. 

Tramcars and Electrical Equipment. 

DiNLDiN (.N.Z.) City Council retpiire tenilers by .'> p.UL .Mav 
17 for six Klectric Tramcars and sections of Cars (Botlies. Elec- 
trical K(iui|)menf8 and Trucks). Si)eciHeation8, &c., from the 
Town 1 1 ill. Diiuedin. 

Sub-St.^tion Equipment. 

The ViCToiuAN Railway Commission kr.s require fenders by 
lla.UL .April L'fi. for the su]>j)lv of Electrical Equijiment and 
Accessories for .sub station for the Sandnngham HIack R( ck 
tramway (contract Xo. 29.7(12). SpeoificationH and forms of 
(ei\d(>rfrojn the Vietori m Raihvav Commissioners. M'-lboume. 



Telegraph and Telephone Material, &c. 

Tenders are invited up to April 15, 1916, for the supply, 
deliver\' and erection at Rockhampton Telephone Exchange 
(State of Queensland) of a Common Battery Multiple Switch- 
board (Schedule 362), or an Automatic or Semi-automatic Switch- 
board and Associated Apparatus (Schedule 361), for the Austra- 
lian Commonwealth Postmaster-General's Department. 

The Dejjutv Postmaster-(ieneral, Melbourne, requires tenders 
by 3 p.m. AJjril 18 for supply of 8,.5(K) Fuses (schedule 1,299) 
for the .Australian Commonwealth Postmaster-General's Dept. 
S])ccification from Deputy Postmaster-General, Melbourne. 

Tenders will be received until 3 p.ra. April 26 b}' the Deputy 
Postmaster-General, Brisbane, for supply at Toowoomba 
Exchange (Queensland) of five Sections of Trunk Line Switch- 
board (Schedule 342) for the Au.stralian (Commonwealth 
Postmaster-General's Department. Sjiecifications, &e., from 
the Deputy Postmaster-General. 

Car Lighting Material, &c. 

Tiic \i( ToKi A.N Railway Commls.^ioners require tenders by 
1 1 a.m. .April 26 for Car Lighting material, including i.r. Cable, 
Switches. Lamp Cartridge Puses, Plugs. Sockets. &c. (contract 
.Xo. 29,784) ; and by 1 1 a.uL May 10 for Motor (Generator and 
Accessories for Battery Charging of Baggage Trucks, also 
Switchboard and Connections (contract Xo. 29,79()). SjX'cifica- 
tions from the ( oniini.ssioners" Offices, S|)enccr--itn'(t, Melbmime, 
Victoria. 

Varnish Impregnating Apparatus and Storage Battery. . 

I'he Victorian Railway Commissioners, Spencer-street, 
Melbourne, require tenders by 11 a.m. -April 19 for the supply 
and erection of a Complete Plant for Impregnating Electrical 
Ai)])aratus with Insulating Vaniislies and Solid Comjxjunds 
(Contract No. 29,678.); also a 1,000 Ampere-hour Storage 
Battery (Contract Xo. 29,743). Sjx'cilicat ions, forms of tender, 
&c., from the offices of the Commissioners. 



= TENDERS RECEIVED AND ACCEPTED. 



Salkord. — The following tenders have been accepted by the 
Tramways Committee for annual supplies : — 

Car Arrr.i.wric^ {KUrtriad). Jn.odaliiK/ Materinh, d-c. — W. M<(l(HX'h 
& Co. (approx. value of contract, £49). W. T. Henley's Tolcgraj)li Works 
Co. (£H). (icncral Electric Co. (£3<)7). L. .Andrew & Co. (£4(h. British 
Wosti:»ghouse Co. (£1,2(K)). .Micanitc & Insulators (Ltd.) (£*iU). North 
British Kublier Co. (£73), (Griffiths Bros, (insulating vami.shcs) (£29). 
C. .Macintosh & Co. (£($). Brit i.sh Insulated & Helsby Cables (1 in. P. & B. 
ta|H-. £.■><>). Siemens Bros. Dynamo \N(>rks (£i<!t). l.e Carbone (Lt<l.) 
(£4(i). n. Nor))nrv& Co. (£114). (Jabriel & Co. (£4UU W. Bovddl & Sons 
(£4()). 

Cor Arcrs.sorir<i (Mrrhmiind). — W. .1. Ritchie & Co. (£294). National 
Riil & Tramway .Appliances Co. (£<i(i7). .Anti-.Attrition Metal Co. (Babbit 
metal. £3-l(l. lOs.). Brown- Bavlevs Steel Works (steel tvrcs. six months. 
£<M2. Ids.). 

Hfirs. ynxj--. PuUnfl.*, rfr. British Insulato<l & H<lsby Cables (£212). 
Watlinnlon V Co. (£i(M»). .1. H.dl (£8). British Westinnliousc Co. (lipht- 
iiiiiK arresters, (£.'». .'is.). 

Iron ttnd SInt. .1. Kidil & Sins (fa-W) and Vickers Limite<l {£(i7). 

Sfiirud Cor Arrfsxtirif-i. British Wes(ingh«>u>e ('o. (list price."'). 
WcHtin^jlionsi' s|K'<'ial accessories (£7(MJ). 

il Iff. Stildrr. I.riid iind Tin. British lns\ilatcd ,V Helsby Cables ((»4). 
L. .\ndr< w & Co. (£137). B. .lohnson. Clapham & .Morris (£72). 

Sprciat Vnint* and rnr»M.«Af.«.— Nobles & Hewn* (£292). 

7'ro//r»/ Cord. — \.. Andrew & Co. (£46. 10s.). 

The Tramways Committee has also accepted the tender of Scholey k 
Co. (at £1.0.Vi) for a s\ipply of steel tram tyres. 

The follow ing tenders have been accept e«l by the Electricity Ccm- 
niittee : British WcHtinghoupo Co., two l.(K)(t kw. rotarj- convciters, 
£.">..">{HI : (Jeneral Electric Co.. one 500 kw. rotary converter. £1,.579. 158. ; 
Bnbcock & Wilcox, two water-tube boilers. £11.544. 

LoNPON CoUNTV CorNcii-— The Asylums Committee have 
accepfe<l the tender («t €83. 17.s. 8d.) of A. K. Coodwin & Co. for 



THE ELECTKICIAN, vVPRIL 7, 1910. 



31 



elvetrical .sundricn ; aiul of Pope's Electric Lamp Co. (£70) for 
electric lamps. 

Leyton. — Tlie quotation of Siemens Bros. & Co. (at £172) has been 
accepted by the Council for the sujjply of 2^ miles of service line 
cable (several sizes). 

Battery Maintenance. — The Metropolitan Asylums Board jjro- 
poses to renew the contract witli the Pritchett & (iold & Elcctrica.1 
Power Storage Co. for the maintenance of the battery at theGrove 
Hospital for five years at £75 per annum. 

DuNDALK.— The Council have accepted the following tenders for 
12 months' supply of electrical supplies : — 

Ucnerai Electric Co., incandescent lamps, switulios, pole bracket.s and 
insulatons, and lighting accessories ; Siemens Bros. & C'o., service joint 
boxes and accessories; W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co., house 
service fuses ; Ferranti Ltd., house service meters. For cables and wires 
no contract has been let. 

Clouce.ster. — The Council has accepted the tender of Edgar 
Allen & Co. for the supply and supervising the fixing of points and 
crossmgs for the light railways department. 

Bolton. — The following tenders have been accepted b^ the 
Electricity Committee : — 

Warcing Bros., oils, &c. ; .Jas. Orrell, paints, &e. ; T. Mosero]) & ('o., 
asphalte oil ; G. Reason, waste ; E. Higson, sundries ; Bolton Briek Co., 
trough covers ; J. & F. Webster, casings, &c. 

Melbourne (Victoria). — The Council has accepted the offer of 
Machin & Co. for testmg set at £25. 10s., and has ordered two sets 
of spare parts for 4,400 turbines from Willans & Robinson at £207. 

Sydney (N.S.W.) — As the supply of consumers' meters (240 volts 
s. phase) under existing contract is still delayed, the Council have 
authorised the purchase of the following meters from stock in 
Sydney : — 

From Standard Waygood Hercules (Ltd.), 76 2|-ampere, 31 5-ampere, 



10 lO-ainpcn!, two 2U ampcro ; and from Amitraliau Oeiicral Electric 
Co., 299 o-amfterc meters. 

Foreign Contracts Secured by British Company.— Messrs. Ferranti 
Limited, Kingsway, VV'.C, and Hollinwood, L^ncs., write as follows : 

You have frequently em[)hasisf(l in tho columns of your paper the 
necessity for the expansion of foreign trade, and therefore we think you 
will he interested in th" fallowing list of orders received by this firm from 
abioad during the last few week^ : — 

France, switchgear and transform^-r?. value of order £1.5,0(»0 ; Den- 
mark, transformers and meters, £7,000 ; Holland, transformers and 
switehgcar (inchiding two 4,000 k.v.a.), £:i,.500 ; China, meters, £S,OOC ; 
Russia, in;trum'»nts and rnet'-rs, £2,.5C0 ; Spain, meters, £I,.tOO; 
Austral^, meters, £4,000: S. Amerira. meters. £1.0W: India, meters, 
£l,r)00 ; other countries, meters, £2,000 ; a total «»f £^(),<K>0. 

Lamp Contract. — In our Lssue for Feb. 2.*J we announeed that the 
Midland Railway Co. had accepted the tender of the General Electric 
Co. (Ltd.) for the supply of Osram drawn-wire lamps for the ensuing 
six months. We are asked to .state thAt this was for a portion only of 
their requirements, and not for the exclusive supply of metal tilament 
lamps to the Midland Company. 

Commonwealth Contracts. — The following tenders have been 
accepted by the Australian Government Deajjrtraents : — 

Victorian Railwiii/v. — Stothert & Pitt, electric cranes for Ballarat and 
Bcndigo workshops, at rates ; British Westinghousc Elec. &, Mfg. Co., 
frequency changers and rotary convcrtcis for Spencer-street and Elwood 
sub-stations, at rates ; R. W. Cameron & Co., battery signal machines, 
£36. 18s. and £35. 18s. each, and Ackley brakes, at rates ; McKenzie & 
Holland, electric point and lock detectors for five years, £18. 2s. fkl. each ; 
Austral Otis Eng. Co., yellow flame arc carbons, £12 per 1,000 ; Noyes 
Bros., toggle insulators for St. Kilda- Brighton electric railway, .5s. 3d. 
each ; Gibson, Battle & Co., 15-ton electric crane, &c., at £1,59« ; 
Forman & Co., railway and electric tramway crossing, £229, and steel 
anchor bolts for overhead equipment, at rates. 

Department of Defence. — W. G. Watson & Co., two electric motors. £214; 
and Crompton & Co., two electric motors, £164, for the small arms 
factory, Lithgow, N.S.W. 



FINANCIAL MATTERS. 



COMPANIES' MEETINGS AND REPORTS. 



BARTON- ON -HUMBER ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— At the recent 
meeting the Chairman (Mr. F. Hopj)er, J. P.), in moving the ado])tion of 
the report, said that in common with all lighting companies they had 
suffered from the lighting order. The number of consumers was steadily 
increasing, and when the war was over the success of the company was 
assured. 

BRITISH ALUMINIUM CO. (LTD.)— Mr. A. W. Tait, wiio prcsideil at tiie 
meeting on Friday last, said that their works were controlled estal)lisii- 
ments. The year's trading profit, after making provision for excess 
profit duty and adding interest and dividends, revenue from estalc^s ajid 
transfer fees, was £312, .546, compared with £272,255, an increase of 
£40,291 over 1914. Those results were the best which tiio company 
had shown since it was originally incorporated in 1894. The conditions 
were, however, absolutely abnormal, and were entirely due to the excep- 
tional demand for war purposes. Owing to this abnormal demand the 
whole of the company's output liad, since August last, been under the 
absolute control of the Ministry of Munitions, and the supply had been 
reserved for the use of the Government and its contractors for munition 
purposes. The ordinary domestic demand for general commercial 
purposes and the requirements of the export trade, on the development 
of which considerable time and money had been spent by the company, 
had nece.->sarily been closed down meantime, and at llie conclusion of tiie 
war they would have energetically to endeavour to get back to their 
ordinary business, which had meantime been stopped. His opinion was 
that the recent uses and developments would go a long way to make up 
for any falling off there might be in the ordinaiy <lcinand, due to the 
unavoidable and necessary period of recuperation required ))y all the 
countries which had been involved in the war. Fmtlur, there was no 
doubt that the experience gained during this war would open up a demand 
in certain directions in the future which would considerably broaden the 
uses and applications of the metal. The sales had been approximately 
the same as those of the previous year, and that was accounted for not 
by any slackening in the demand but owing to a shortage in the antici- 
pated production, due to abnormal weather conditions in the West of 
Scotland and in Norway during the summer of last year. Prices for the 
metal showed substantial advances during the year, but those advances 
occurred particularly during the last six months, and, as it had always 



been tho practice to cover the requirements of our regular customers at 
fixed prices for the whole year, the average which was obtained was 
considerably below current pi ices at the end of the year. Costs of pro- 
duction had been very materially afl'ected owing to heavy inereasos in 
labour charges, the cost of raw materials, freights, insiu-ances and other 
expenses. The importance to the company of the freight question was 
shown in the fact that he mentioned last year that they dealt with over 
200,000 tons of seaborne freight per aiuniin, apart from railway freights. 
With regard to labour, tiiey were suffering, in common with all other 
Imsinesscs, from the shortage of the available supply and the increasing 
needs of the country. 'I'licr variotis works had been fully employed 
during the year, and the additional plant for the manufacture of carbon 
electrodes at Kinlochlcveu works was completed aiul put into o^ieralion 
bcforvi the closo of the year. The erection of the new alumina works at 
Burntisland, which should have been completed by this time, had made 
slow ])rogress, entirely due to the shortage of labour and materials, and 
it would bo some months vet before those works could 1h> put in operation. 
By the application of thesinking f \md, the i)rior lien debentun-s had Ikh-u 
rc'duced by £9.400 during the year, reducing the amount outstanding to 
£772,600. and the debenture stock had been ix-duccd to_t:660,6iH>. The 
depreciation reserve account had been incioased to £250.tHX\ and the 
reserve account had also been brought up to £2.50.000 by the appropria- 
tion of £70,000 from the profits of the year. The necessity for makmg 
ample i)rovisit)n for rc.-<erves had been acceutuatetl by the abnormal 
conditions now ruling. The directors had reconunended an increase \i\ 
the dividend on tho ordinarv shares to 7 i>er cent., a-ainst 5 (ler cent, m 
1914. and the board would take into favourable consideration the question 
of the institution of tlie declaration of interim dividends on the ordmar>- 
share capital. Th(^ results were uiulouhtcdly satisfactory, ami amply 
justified tiie poli(y of tlie gradual building up of reserves whi.'h had Ihhmi 
one of the main principles adojjted by the lucsent l)oard. 

BROMPTON & KENSINGTON ELECTRICITY SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— Mr. 

H. R. Beeton, who presided at tho meeting on M.nulay. said that although 
their output had more than doubled ui tho past 13 years, their profits 
for last \ear weie the lowest for any year in that peruxi, and it had only 
been after considerable discussionjand some difference of opinion that 
the board had recommended the pa> meut of their usual dividend of Ul 
per cent. The justification for such a course was that they had husbanded 
their resources in more prosperous years, so that they foimd themselves 
to-day with more than half of their capital represented by mams, with 



32 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



reserves of ])rofits ;inioi]nti:i({ to upwards of 00 per cent, of tlieir capital 
invested in their business, witli no debenture debt, and with \'> years of 
their tenure still to run. But although they had restricted themselves 
to 10 })er cent, dividend when it v/ould sometimes have been possible to 
pay Miore, they could not, of fourse, maintain the rate if their .scale of 
profits were to remain permanently at its present level. The present 
condition of things was due to a concurrence of adverse influences, and 
mainly to public restriction and private economv in lighting and to 
inerea.sed cost of y)roduction con.sequent upon the war. Thev continued 
to be able to provide for their capital expenditure without increasing 
their capital. Although a ))rofitable return on the capital invested in the 
Accessories Company with a view to encouraging the use of electricity 
for heating and cooking had been further postponed owing to the war. it 
was largely due to such expenditure that, in a purely residential area like 
theirs they had succeeded in virtually maintaining their output in sjjite 
of restriction in lighting. When their new turbo-generator, the deliver}' 
of which had been delayed by the priority demanded by Government 
from the engineering shops, was installed they looked for considerable 
economy in working to comy)ensate them in some jneasure for the in- 
creased cost of coal. They w(?re carrying on both in their offices and at 
their works with smaller and less experienced staffs than ever before, 
while their allowances to those who had gone to the war and their bonuses 
to those who remained continued in operation. Although the ])rogre».s 
of the Accessories f'om])any had been retarded by the war, its capital 
account had nr)t bceji extended and its re.-iilts showed an imy)rovenient 
which was likely to grow. The restaurant, whic h continued to serve as 
an excellent advertisement as well a" an experimental laboratory, now 
enjoyed a custom which, in spite of the increased price of food, made it 
self -supporting. The showroom sales had been prejudiced by the pre- 
vailing shallf)wness of the public jmrse ; and the stove department, 
whilst fnrni.^hing some important cof)king installations, had been largely 
diverted to the |)roduction of munitions. The experience of the first 
three months led him to conclude that the results of the present year 
would not be substantially worse than those of the past year, and if the 
coal positron, which was iindoubtetlly precariotis. was not aggravated, 
they might be rather better. 

BROWETT, LINDLEY & CO. (LTD.)— After ck^ducting 1,£{K»7 for 
nttirest, writing off i(i,:}l() for dej)reciation and making provision for tax 
and duty, the net jtrofit for 191") is £14.010, leaving the outstanding 
debit £7,(»!K). The directors submit a scheme for readjustment of capital. 

CLEVELAND & DURHAM ELECTRIC POWER (LTD.)— Mr. .las. Falconer, 
M.l'.. who i)resided at the meeting last week, said that the gross ])r<jfit 
for the year amounted to £31.157, com])ared with £.'J(i.S,'J8 in 1914. The 
diminution of £5.(581 was due to the exceptional way in which the company 
had been aflected by the war. The revenue of the three combined eom- 
])anics in wl'.i<!i the companv was inlercslcd. had been £ I ;} 1 .9;!."5 in 191.'}, 
£14I.1S2 in 1914, and £I51,.1I2 in 191."), indicating int peases of £10.000 in 
each of the f wri years. In their f-ase, however, there had been a diminu- 
tion in the volume of business done without any corresponding diminu- 
tion in th(> amount of planf rrcpiired to meet the demand. The com])any 
had been seriouslv hit in the cost of jintduction. In 19K1 the figures were 
£91.<):i9.in 19l4£'9."..9l4.and in 191 .l£l I(l.:5'i8. Those increases were due 
to two causes. In the first place, the amount of current which they had 
develojicd at the wastf-heat stations had lic'ii seriously reduced by the 
fa<'t that hematite iron had been largely substituted for Cleveland iron, 
and thus gases v/hich had been available for the waste-heat stations had 
be<'n \i\rm: y reduced. In thi* al)scnce of the rcijuired amount of Avaste 
heat, energy had to Ijc supplied throu;.'h conl fires at Crant'ctown. Thus 
the coal l)ill li.ul gone up from £K4.") in 19IU to ilti.fOl in 1915. an increase 
of over £15,0(1(1. Those figures sliow<'d the cNt laoi'dinary \ahi'> of waste 
heat to the company. Notwithstanding the ai)parent adverse result on 
the year, it was testimony to the stability of the company that it had 
nHvintained its NU]iplies to c«insumers. ' Aft<T jiayini; delienturc interest 
£10,972 wasavailablf fur nllocation.and it was proposed to ]>a\a dividrnd 
of 2 per cent, mi the picfereticc sh.'ircs. ;ind to larry forward £S,.")7I. 

FOLKESTONE ELECTRICITY CO.v LTD.) The i hairman(Ald. C. Spurg -n) 
stated at (he meeting last wi ek that, consiilering the abnornuil < iretun- 
stances innler which the company luid l.ren working iluring tltc past 
year, the linaiuial results were in every way sat i.sfactcry. The ligliting 
restrictions, &c.. had lestrirled the ie\enue and their ••xpenses liad in- 
creased. The most iniportanl factor of the latter was coal, and apart, 
from the extra outlay incurred during 1915 under that heading, they were 
faced with a still heavier increaseil cost on siijiplics for the immediate 
futtne. 

W. T. GLOVER & CO. (LTD.) - The n«Hult of the trading for 1915 is 

a credit balanic of £54,4.'{H. Is. Id., and with ' s. lOd. bnnight 

forward the total is £fi2.38S. Is. lid. I)e«luci tors' n-nnmera- 

tion and exiienses. interest on 4| |)er cent, hrst mortgage «ielM>n- 
tuiv and on 5 jier cent, second mortgage fJel-H-ntniv sto<ks. writing 
£fi,ft4(). lOs. lOd. off investments, and appropriatinj; t4.(MM» for iinyment 
to trusti-es of sei'ond niortgaire dclK-nture slis-k. th<" balan>~e is 
£43,511. 7s. .'Id. After payimj the year's dividend on the 5 per cent, 
cumulative )irefen-nr(> shans. transferrinu t2.5<»(l to first mortgage 
debenture redemption fund, paying a dividenil on the •'idinaiy shai-es 
at rate of 5 per cent, (less tax) and tran.sferiinti £2(».(MH» to nMt ve fund, 
the bnia'icr to be carried forwnnl is £1I.7(H. 3« lid. During (he past 
year the works have been, and are still, iargrly engaged on the ninnii- 
facture of cables, wires. &r., directly or indirectly for th> . of 

the war. A plot of land of rather mon^ than 9 acres op. m- 



pany's premises has Ix-en purchased for the general development of the 
business, which of late years has suffered by the works being greatly 
congested. A portion of this land is thought to be in excess of the com- 
pany's probable requirements, and it is proposed to sell such portion to 
the Traffcrd Power & Light Supply (1902), Ltd., in whose welfare the 
company is largely interested. 

ISLE OF WIGHT ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD,)— At the end of 
1915 the equivalent of l.>t..")47 .'{.'{-watt lamps was connected, an increase 
of 8,729 ,'}3-watt lamps over 1914. The result of the year's trading, 
including £2,374 brought forward, is a profit of £12.867. After providing 
for interest and sinking fund on debentures (£5.500) and 5 per cent, 
dividend on preference shares (£2,.500) the balance is £4,867. Of 
this sum £3,500 was placed to renewal fund and £1,367 carried forward. 

At th(! meeting the chairman stated that visitors seemed to have for- 
saken the island for the time being, though why they should have done 
so was very difficult to explain. Most of the South Coast watering places 
had had almost record .seasons last year, but the fact of having to cross 
the Solent seemed to keep people away from the Isle of Wight, although 
it was in the opinion of many one of the safest places in the Kingdom. 
In addition to the absence of visitors, the severe lighting restrictions had 
affected them very ad%ersely. Although they had added a large number 
of additional lani])s the consumption of electricity had fallen from 
1,279.000 units sold in 1914 to 1.1(J0,000 units in 1915. The decrease 
(154,000 units) being entirely in the lighting units, as they sold more 
units for power than in 19l4, owing to the demand for power from tho 
Newport and ("owes station by consumers. Their receipts were £21,012. 
against £23,00(). and the costs were £12,024, against £11.102, the profit 
being £8.988. compare<l with £1 1.904. Coal and oil had cost £.)3I more, 
wages £236 more and repairs to plant and machinery £24() more. On 
the wiring account they had made a profit of £820. or £424 more than last 
year. They have donea good deal of wiring work. and that was the only 
bright item in the year's accounts There was small chance of seeing 
much improvement during the war, and their expcn.ses would certainly 
be much heavier during the current year, as now they had to pay more 
than 80 per cent, increase on pre-war prices for coal. They increased 
the price to power users by 10 per cent, a year ago, but deferred makine 
any increase in the charges for lighting as long as possible. They had 
had to give notice that the price to lighting consumers would be increased 
by 15 per cent, and that a further 10 per cent, increase would be made to 
jjower u.sers as from April 1. 

LIVERPOOL DISTRICT LIGHTING CO.jLTD.)— The annual meeting was 
held last vi-ek.and in nio'.ing the adoption of the rei)ort and accounts, 
the cliairnian (Mr. (has. Mcl^iren) said that the company had done better 
than they expected. Owing to the lighting restricticms they e.«timated 
that they ftokl 40,000 units less than they would have done, or a loss in 
revenue of £850. As a .set off the\ had been sucees.sful in obtaining power 
contracts resulting in the sale of 1(>S.000 units, so that then' was a net 
increase of 68.000 in the numlx r of units sold during (lie year. Tliat was 
the largest inci-ease the (•<)m|)any had ever made. It was obvious that 
they coidd not obtain the same ])rice from the power consumers for large 
contracts as from other consumers — the price agreed was the cost at 
which the consumers micht rea.sonably have expected to manufacture 
for themselves had they installed their own plant, makiiii; »lue allowance 
for ca])ital expcnditjire. The result was a net in< n-ase in income of £16S. 
Owing to the increased cost of fuel, waires, &c., there was a total increase 
of costs of £.560. and the net result was a reduction of jirofit «f £3o2. 
I'nfortunately fuel had again risen, so that they must bo prepared for a 
further increa.se in costs in 1916. To counteract that they had followed 
the lead of Liveryiool Corporation, and had increasfMl their charges by 
12.', ))er cent, all rotnid. Their working cost."* had In-en kept down to 
£852, which im ludeii layini; cables and .service lines, meters. Jti-.. wliile no 
serious capital expenditure was antieipatecl for 191(i. The direitors were 
now considering the question of coal storage, with a view to providing 
further rr.-MTves of fticl. They wen- paying a dividt nd of 4 |mt ernt, for 
(lie viar. 

MADRAS ELECTRICTRAHWAYS 1 1904) LTD.) At (he annual meeting 
last week the ch.iirinan (.Mr. A. M (^uill) said the a4'rounts showed * 
moderate im]ini\ einent u|n'U tlmse of the pre<<-<' i. For the first 

seven months of the y< ar (he (rathe receipts wt-ri ' . nt. less than for 

the corrcs|xiiiiliiig pericd of I'll I. Ili.wever. dui in- the last ti\e months 
of (he year there was su'h a marked improvement that for the whole year 
they had an in»rease. Iwith in traffic and net nToipts. The passengers 
carried were 18.509.877. against I7.(>22.219. The total amount at erriiit 
of profit and ^iss was £22.498, compared with £21.522 for 1914. an in 
crease of £976. The net jirotit was £11.030. 1' :i<l witi 

brought froni last yei»r. the amount available Wii- Then 

re<ommend dividends of (» jx r (cnt. per nnimm <m the preference and 
ordinary shares. The Ix^anl were glad to be able to recommend an in- 
crease in the rate of dividrnd on the ordinary shares. The majority of 
the Madras C«>rporati> ' . >! ' ' ■•» praying (Govern- 

ment to increase the i > ny. If the petition 

were iininled it would be a luench ui (.nth. •■ is now cMyible were 

ngriHHl w ith the ( orjK)nition when the lines \ . and were confirmed 

in tlii> various (Jovernment orders. The fares in M.idras were as low as, 
if not lower, than cm any tramway in the world, and much lower than 
they were entitled to charge under (lorernnient orders. If further 
bur^lens were innmse*! ujion their desire to maintiin an efl'v • \ ier 

the existing low fares might be defeated. Hcsides.it w<' "me 

difficult to obtain capital for the cnnteniplit<^ extensions. 

NORTH BERWICK ft T' ' UOHT ft POWER CO. (LTD.) 

At the ivcent annual n VtoI. ^i: K. ."^i hafer, moved 



THE ELECT lUClAN, Ai'UlL 7, JOJfi. 



33 



the a(I()]>ti()H i)f tho rojiort and act'ouiitM. For the past year it was state" 
that th(!re Jiaci been a fonsidcrablc im^roase in tho number of consumers' 
and further additions were anticipated during the current year. 

OLDHAM, ASHTON & HYDE ELECTRIC TRAMWAY (LTD. )—Th'! revimuc 
for l!)ir) amounted to £34,82;} (compared with £:{3,:3!38 in 1914) and th(! 
exjxmditure (including £1,000 for debenture interest and £1,500 placed 
to provision for renewals), £2;5,0()2. 4s. 2d. (again.st £20,024 in 1014) 
leaving a net profit of £9,761 (againsst £7,374 for 1914), which, added to 
£1,021 brought forward, makes an available balance of £10,782. The 
directors propose to place £3,000 to reserve fund, to pay a <lividend at 
rate of 5 per cent, per annum on the cumulative preference shares (£2,r)00) 
and a dividend at rate of fi per cent, per annum on the ordinary shares 
(£3,000), leaving to be carried forward £2,282. Os. 9d. 

SHAWINIGAN WATER & POWER CO.— The gross earnings for 1915 
were SI, 920, 143, and after meeting all fixed charges the net revenue 
(including .S39,472 brought forward) was $1,208,505. Three quarterly 
dividends of IJ- per cent, each and one of If per cent, have been paid, 
§279,683 placed to reserve, §100,000 set aside for depreciation and 
815,000 appropriated for insuarances, &c., leaving $26,690 to be carried 
forward. 

SLOUGH & DACHET ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— In moving the 
adoption of the annual report at the recent meeting the chairman (Mr. 
H. L. Prior) said that they had actually sold 239,000 more units than in 
1914, although the revenue increased by £669, there was a reduction in 
the profit, as coal and oil fnel cost £1,100 more, vyages £93 (including war 
bonus to staff), repairs £137, and rates and taxes £267 more. Those 
four items made an addition to the costs of £1,597, and as the revenue 
increased only by £669, the profit had suffered to the extent of £900. 
Tho additional units, unfortunately, were not sold for lighting but for 
power, chiefly supplied to Messrs. Peters under a contract made before 
the war. The cost of production when they made that contract was far 
below what it was to-day. At that time oil was 42s. per ton. During 
last year the average cost was 90s., and at present it v/as up to 170s. per 
ton. If the average price for the whole supply for power and lighting 
had been maintained at 2d. per unit on their output of over 1,000,000 
units they would have received an additional £2,000, and in that case 
they would have been in the happy position of recommending an in- 
creased dividend. The balance available for distribution was £3,949. 
On the reserve fund there was a credit balance of £8,588, and out of the 
profits for 1915 they v/ere adding £1,250, which v/ould bring the reserve 
fund up to nearly £10,000. They were again increasing the price .of 
current for light by another ^'d. per unit. At the same time the people 
using the current were actually getting their light far cheaper now than 
when electricity first came in, because metal filament lamps had reduced 
the pric3 of the current at least 70 per cent, or more. They had added 
a good many new customers, but they would only reap the full benefit of 
these when thsy resumed their former conditions of lighting, and the cost 
of production came down to its normal level. They recommended a 
dividend of 4 per cent., which was a drop of 1 per cent. 

UNITED ALKALI CO. (LTD.)— The report for 1915 shows that, after 
transferring £15,000 to debenture redemption fund, the profit is 
£326,986, an increase of £124,904 over 1914. and £32,462 was brought 
forward. The directors transfer £75,000 to reserve, and, after bringing 
preference dividend to date, recommend a dividend of 5 per cent, on the 
ordinary shares, carrying forward £50,379. 

URBAN ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— The gross profits for 1915 
amount to £68,513. 5s. 7d., compared with £68,961. 17s. in 1914, and 
after deducting expenses the balance is £65,311. 18s. Id. The amounts 
required for interest and debenture stock redemption absorb £43,423.5s.2d. , 
leaving an available balance of £21,888. 12s. lid., v.hich the directors 
recommend should be applied in paying a dividercl of 5 per cent, for the 
year on the preference .-hares, and in placing the balance (£9,389) to 
reserve for depreciation. The 13 electric supply undertakings controlled 
by the comjjany had at the end of the year tiie equivalent of 920,505 
33-watt lamps connected, against 830,519 in 1914 and 760,319 in 1913. 

WOKING ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— The total revenue f<ir 1915 
was £20,331 and the balance on the year's working was £9,681. The 
expenditure on capital account is £139,635 and depreciation and renewals 
fund is £14,469. Mr. John Ashby, in proposing the adoption of the 
report and balance-sheet, said that the year's revenue was the highest on 
record. With balance brought forward (£653) and income tax accumu- 
lations (£124), the available total was £10,4.58. After paying interest on 
debenture stock, &c., and the dividend on the 6 per cent, cumulative 
preference shares, the balance was £4,656. 8s. 7d., and it was decided to 
place £1,750 (against £1,500) to depreciation and renewals fund and £900- 
to reserve, and after allowing for certain smaller items payment of a 5 
per cent, dividend on the ordinary shares was recommended, leaving to 
be carried forward £693. The number of consumers was 2,101, and 8 c.p. 
lamps connected 106,360, an increase of about 10,000 lamps for the year, 
the largest increase they had ever had. Their expenses had been more, 
partly owing to the war. The cost of coal had increased £205 for the 
year, but they had sold 31,841 more units of electricity than in 1914. 
That had only been brought about by careful management, and they had 
to thank Mr. Bowdcn for the time and attention he had given to the 
works department. The increase in sales was due to a large extent to 
the extra number of cookers, &c., sold during the year, there having been 
a great demand for cookers andheating apparatus exclusive cf the hghtins. 
As to the question of the electric lighting supply for Chobham, he said 



that although fill .1 inw i iii' "oiniiiiiN had had the right of nup::''- - 'his 
current to .Vlimbridj;c and rather parts of Chobham, the area b' o 

the Asc^ot Ek^ctric- Lighting (>)., wh'. • coa-tentcd to the Wukiuj^ 

C(jmpany continuing the supply on t lif. 



NEW COMPANIES, MORTGAGES AND 
CHARGES, &c. 

NEW COMPANIES. 

CONNER & MAGNETO IGNITION (LTD.i ( 143,4.56)— Rce. ^larch .30. 
capital £52,000 in 50,000 preference shares of £1 ea ' •• ' "">• 

shares of Is. each, to adopt agreements with the ! .le 

Works and with M. S. Conner to carrv on the V>usine.>is of proprietors and 
manufacturers of and dealers in aeroplanes, motors, vaas an<l other 
vehicles, magnetos and other ignition apparatu.s, and eleotric lightint; and 
starting appliances, &c. Private eom-)any. First directors an.- H. 
Hirst, .r. Fraser and M. S. Conner (managing director). Reg. oftico : 
Midland Bank Chambers, 71.\, C^ecn Victoria-street, E.C. 

CYMOGRAPH (LTD.) (143,323)— Reg. March 18, capital £1.(XK) in £1 

shares, to carry on th(> business of mechanical and electrical engineers, 
manufacturers of implements and other machinery metallurgi.st.H, Ic. 
Private company. [leg: office : Busii-lano House, Cannon -street, E.C. 

HEADON & MARSHALL (LTD.) (143,410).— Reg. March 27, capital 

£2,000 in £1 shares, to adopt certain agreement.^, to carrj' on the business 
of mechanical engineers, manufacturers of and dealers in apparatus used 
in connection v/ith steam, electrical or petrol motive power, manufac- 
turers of and dealers in motors, motor cars. &c. Private company. 
Fu-st directors are W. F. Headon, A. J. .Marshall and A. Headon. 

LAUNA B^IRISH ELECTRICAL CO. (LTD.) (143.140.)— Reg. Feb. 28. 
capital £1,000 in £1 shares, to carry on the business of electrical ami 
general man ifacturers and contractors, designers, makers and pro- 
ducers of electrical glow lamps, ai)pliancS3, fittings, cables, flexible wires, 
&c. Private company. FirstdirectorsareF. Dove (permanent governing) 
and D. Schofield. Sec., M. J. Dove, and reg. office, 61, Call-lane, I-e<:ds. 

MARCUS ALLEN & SONS (LTD.) (143,444 ;—Reg. March 29. capital 
£10,000 in £1 .shares, to carry on the business of mechanical, chemical 
and electrical manufacturing engineers, brass and iron founders, &c.. as 
formerly carried on by M. Allen at Old Trafford. near Manchester. 
Private company. First directors are M. Allen (gov. director, v.ith £500 
per annum as remuneration), \. M. B. .Vllen and T. W. Allen (all per- 
manent subject to each hokling 100 ortlinary shares). 

PHONOPORE CONSTRUCTION CO. (LTD.) (143.445)— Reg. March 29, 
capital £4,175 in 4,000 ordinary shaies of £1 each and 3.500 founders' 
shares of Is. each, to carry on the business of manufacturers of military 
telephonic and phonoporic instruments, munitions and all articles used 
in the manufacture thereof or used in connection v. ith warfare on land or 
sea, engineers, &c., and to adopt an agreement with Justus Eck. Private 
company. .Justus Eck shall be one of the first directors, and shall hold 
office permanently subject to holding 1,500 founders' shares. The New 
Phonopore Telephone Co. (Ltd.) shall be entitled during the continuance 
of a lease referred to in an agreement dattnl Jan. 7, 1916, to be repre- 
sented on the board by tv/o directors. Justus Eck is chairman. Reg 
office : 53-57, Park-street, Southwark, S.E. 

"WALTER ROBB (LTD.) (? 13,493)— Reg. March 31. capital £10.000 
in £1 shares (9,000 A and 1,000 B). to take over the business of an elec- 
trical engineer carried on bv Walter Robb at \Vak(>fieId. Private com- 
pany. Fir.st directors are W. Robb ((lermanent ) and H. F. Buttcnshaw^ 

MORTGAGES AND CHARGES. 

GENERAL SEATING CO. (LTD. ) —Two charges on comjianys property. 
(present ar.d future), botii dated March 2, 191(>. to secure not nmr,- than 
£1,650 and £1,550 respectively. Holders : H. Britlain and A. J. Nnith. 

ORFORD ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD.)— Issue on Dec. 10. 
1912, of £20, and on March 17, 1916. of £130. debentures, parts of a serire 
of which particulars have already been filed. 

RUNSAKEN niAGNETO CO (LTD.I— Particulars of £1.000 debentur-.»s 
creited Feb. 11, 1916. have been filed, whole amoun; being now issuinl. 
Property charged : Company's undertaking and property, present and 
future. No trustees. 



CITY NOTES. 



MEMCRAK DA (April 5).— Bank rate 5 per cent, (smce An?. 8. 1914). 
Consols 57 -iV. Stocks and Shares Ticket Days April iL and :.. lay 
Diys, April 13 and 28. Pric? of ailv.^r. 29|d, 

BRITISH DYES (LTD.; -Dr. M. 0. Forster. F.R.S.. chairman of the 
Technical comiuittee, and Mr. Joseph Turner, manager of the company s 



34 



THE ELECTIUCIAN, APRIL 7, 1916. 



works, havo acccptc*! s»ath on tlic hoard, and Dr. J. ( '. Cain lias been 
a{)fKjiiitf;d <hiff ( hcmist of the now works at present under construction. 

CONSOLIDATED SIGNAL CO. (LTD.) — An interim dividend for the half- 
vear to i*(l>. I'i on the preference nhares at rate of 6 per cent, per annum 
ha.s Ix-ffi dcclaicd. 

FALKIRK & DISTRICT TRAMWAYS CO. (LTD.)— The net revenue for 

year endcfl 0<t. 10 last (inrludini; iHT! Inowjhl forward) was £'>.f<\'i. A 
dividend of (i ]>rr rent, has been declared and £7iiH carried forward. 

MARCONI 8 WIRELESS TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— The company announce 
that Scnatore .Marconi has been cnga;j:e<l in research work in Italy, where 
he has been able to carry out some imjiortant experiments and tests. 
He advisr-s tliat the rcKuHs f)btaijied are far reaching' and directly cf)ncern 
the future practice of the entire science of wireless tele;.'ra|d>y and f<'le- 
phony. over bf)th lon^ or short distancf s, no matter whether conducted 
by means of ordinary' spark, (juendied sparks or continuous waves. He 
is now enj.'ajrcd in makin<; applications for the pat'-nt.'^. which will jiro- 
bably be applied at once in Italy to military purposes. Hy these means 
results li(-rctofoio iinpossddf will be obtained. 

MARCONI WIRELESS TELEGRAPH CO. OF AMERICA iLTD.)— The gross 
carninj.'s for l!)ir>wci( till .001). a^'ain^t £l."iO.<;iMl in 1!»I4: other income 
i;21,00(r, a;.'ainst £:;(».()(K>. Tlic sum of £22.10(1 is j.latcd to reserve, 
comiwred with £24,4(Hj, carryinf: £;i.'>.400 forward, against £29,800. 

SUBMARINE CABLES TRUST. — Notice is given that the cou|)on due on 
.\piil ir> will III- pail! li\ Messrs. (;iyn. Mills & ('<i., (i7. Lorn bard street, 
E.C., between 10 a.m. and noon, and after that date between 10 a.ni 
and 2 p.m. 

METAL PRICES. 

Mswrs. I. B. Cirnham Si Sinn. 132, Upper Tham«-street, London, E.G., quots under 
date, April 4, the following as the present basis prices of 



ELECTRICAL COiWPANIES' SHARE USl.—Oonliriued. 



Nev/ Metals. per lb. 

Solid Drawn Brass Tubes 17d. 

Solid Drawn Copper Tubes 18Jd. 

Brazed Copper Tubes laid. 

Brazed Brass Tubes I9d. 

Brass Wire 16id. 

Copper Wire 18d. 

Rolled Brass 161d. 

Brass Sheets Ifcjd. 

per ton. 

Copper Sheets £148 

Spelter C93 



per ton. 

EnglUhLead £35 10 

Antimony Nominal. 

Old Metals. per ton. 

Clean Cjpper S:rap £102 

Clean Brass Scrao £6310 

Braziery Copper Scrap £92 

Old Lead £28 

Old Zinc £W n 

Hollow Pewter £120 

Black Pewter £85 

Gun Metal £84 



Mr. A. Joseph, Earl-street. London-road, Southwark, London, S.E., quotes under date 
April 4, the following approximate prices of Scrap Mbtais :— 



per ton. 

Aluminium Cuttings £112 

Clean Mixed Brass £67 

Ctnan Conper £100 

Braziery Copper £90 

Gun Metal £78 



per tan. 

Old Lead £29 10 

Tea Lead £27 10 

Old Zinc £64 

Hollow Pewter £120 

Shaped Black Pewter £85 

Mr. Joseph can supply solder at the following prices per ton : Plumber's Sslder (in bar 
or strip). £80 ; Commercial Tinman's Solder, £115; Blowpipe Solder, £120. 



ELECTRICAL COIVIPANIES' SHARE LIST. 

What were known m " offioiai quotatioai " are not now iuuel, bit, 
we nivo below the latent prions at whioh aotual transaotioat took plaon 
on Of before Tuenday, Ajml 1 Tht graatoit aire is taken in oompilia ' 
these figuroj. but tho dittioultj of Toritioatioa is now muoh iaoroased. 



5|Di»f 

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Electricity Supply. 

Bournemoiitli fj. ft 'ile Ei.L. Ord 

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Chelsea Eler. Supp. Co. Ord 

Do. do. Deb 

City of London Elec. Lt. Ord. 

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Do. 4»"„ Orbs. 
County o( llnndon Ord. 
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Electricity Supply— con^- 

St James' & Pall Mall Ord 

Do. do. Pref 

Do; do. Dsbs 

Urban Elec. Supp 4i% Do. St ...... 

Waste Heat & Gas Ele;. Gen. Stations.. 
Westminster E.S. Corp. Ord 

Do 44**' Cum. Pref 

Electric Railways & Tramways. 

Britisn Elec. Traction 5% Debs 

Do. 6% Cum. Pref A'j'" 

Central London Gjar. Assented Ord. .. 
Do. do. Assented Def. Ord. .. 

Do. 41% Pref 

Do 4% Deb. St 

City & S. London Deb 

Do. Pref. 1896 

London Electric Ry. Ord 

Do. 4% Prof 

Do. 4% Deos 

Metropolitan Ry. Con. Ord 

Do. 3t% Pref 

Do. 3^% Convertible Pref 

Do. 3i% A Debs 

Do. 31% Debs 

Metropolitan Dist Ry. Ord 

Do. 4% Prior Lien 

4i% First Pref 

6% Perp. Debs 

4% Debs 

4% Debs. (1903-5) 

4% Guar. Stock 

Electric Manufacturing, &c. 

Babcock i Wilcox Ord 

Do. fc% Pref 

Brit Aluminium Ord 

Do. Prior Lien Debs 

Do. 6%Pref 

Brit. In.ulated & Helsby Ord 

Dc. 6% Cum. Pref 

British L.M.Ericssion Mfg. Cm.6% Pref. 

British Thom^n-Hou:ton Db 

Brit Wftstinghouse Pref 

Do. 6% Prior Lien Debs. 

Do. 4%MortDeb. St 

Callender's Cable, &c.,Co. Ord , 

Do. 5% Pref 

Do. 4}% Debs 

Dick, Kerr at Co. 6°'o Pref 

Edison & Swan U.Elec.Lt A. £3pd... 

Do. 4% Deb 

Elec. Construction Ord 

Do. 7% Cum. Ref 

Do. 4% Debs 

General Electric. Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

W. T. Henley's Telegh. Wks. Co. Ord 

Do. 4i% Cum. Pref 

Do. 4|%Db 

India Rubber, G. P. «ic., Ord 

Do. Pref 

Tele§h. Con. & Main. Co 

Do. 4% Debs 

Vickers Ord 

Do. 5% Pref 

Do. 1st Debs 

Do. 44% 2nd Debs 

Willans & Robinson B. Cum. Pref.,, 

Do. 1st Mt. D?b. St 

Telegraplts. 

Anglo American 6% Pref. Ord 

Do. Def. Ord . 

Commercial Cable 4% Debs 

Cuba Submarine Ord 

Do. 10% Pref 

Direct Spanish 10% Prel 

Direct United State: 

Eastern Tel. Co. Ord 

Do. 3J% Pre; 

Do. 4% Debs 

Eastern Extension Tel. Co., 4% Debs... 

Do. Ord 

Ct. Northern TeL Co 

Indo-European 

Marconi's Wireless Tel. Co 

Do. 7% Pref 

West India 8t Panama Ord 

Do. 1st Pref 

Western Telegh. Co «. 

Do 4% Deb. St 

Western Uninn 50 yr. Bis 

Telephones. 

Monte Vlioo Tclophn. Old 

'(.il Telephone Ord 

Dl^ St 

t Do. St 

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Jan. July 



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Mar. Sept 
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t El d Ividfrd or Inlntsl. 



* And 134% bonus, t Es divideod or Interett 



THE ELECTRICIAN: 



THE OLDEST WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND FINANCE, 

ESTABLISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861 ; Second Series (Weekly;. 1878 
Joint Editors: W. R. COOPER and H. H. LROUGHTON. 



No. 1,978. 



r Mo, 2. i 
Lvot. LXXVII.J 



FRIDAY, APRIL 14, 1916. 



Price Sixpence ^^'f^^ 

Abroad 9i.. or 2> cerds, or l/r.. or ft^. 



CONTENTS OF THE CURRENT NUMBER. 



Notes 

Arrancrements for the Week . . 

Mr. A. P. M. Flemiii<i' on 
Industrial Research 

BLight and Ilhihiination. By 
L)r. C. P. Steinmetz \ 

•Design of Million-Volt Ex- 
perimental Transformer. 
Bj'G.L. Bayley. Illustrated 

'Transformer Design. By F. M. 
Denton, A. C.G.I 

TheUse of Continuous Current 
for Terminal and Trunk 
Line Electrification. — Dis- 
cussion 

"The Electricity Supy)ly of 
Great Britain. By Ernest 
T. Williams 

The Business Side of Science : 
Its Part in the f'oming 
Economic Crisis 

An Enclosed Cadmium- Vapour 
Arc Lamp. By Henrv Jf. S. 
Sand.Ph.D.,l).Sc lUus. .. 



35 
58 

39 

40 

42 
43 

46 
48 
50 
51 



52 
53 



The PRODUCTroK ok Lu; ht 

Reviews 

Principles of Direct Current 

Machines [Langsdorf]. 
An Introduction to the 
Principles of Physical 
Chemistry [Washburn]. 
Large Accumulator Sub-Sta- 
tion of the Metrojiolitan 
Electric Supply Co. Illus- 
trated , 54 

COKRESPONDENCB 57 

Metro politanElestricSupply 
Co. (R. Fitzmorris). 

Methods for Determining 
the Grading of Starting 
and Brake Resistances 
for Series-Motors (F. 
Erens). 

Poynting's Theorem and 
ifysteresis (A. Press). 

The " Electrician " Commercial 
and Industrial Section — 59-68 



isr OT£: s. 



A Million-Volt Experimental Transformer. 

The thousand kilovolt-anipere, million-volt transformer 

linstalled at the Panama Pacific Exposition, described else,- 

where in this issue by Mr. G. L. Bayley, is of interest to engi- 

Jieers on account of the originality shown in its design and its 

performance under abuse. The author describes in detail the 

-construction and arrangement of the windings and the oil 

insulation arrangements, and describes a number of tests 

which show that very severe conditions were imposed on the 

vUnit. It is to be regretted that there was not sufficient time 

to carry out the experimental work that had been planned, but 

.no doubt this will be possible when the transfoimer is re-erected 

in Chicago. In the meantime, from the experments which 

were conducted it is evident that the simple construction 

adopted is a suitable one for extra-high-tension transformers. 

Engineers will find it difficult to imprc've upon the open-type 

concrete pit in which the transformer was installed, and the ease 

with which the transformer was repaired, after many of the 

insulating spacer's had broken down, is noteworthy. Although 

the generally accepted view is that oil in the open air absorbs 

water, with this transfoimer it was found that the dielectric 

strength, which originally was 18,000 to 20.000 volts with an 

air-gap of 0-2 in. between 0-5 in. diameter spheres, rapidly 

increased under the electrostatic stress accompanying operation 

to 40,000 volts, at which value it remained constant'. 



■Organised Industrial Research. 

IxTERE.ST in industrial research continues to be shown by 
an ever-increasing circle of people, but, as yet, those most 



NOTICE.— GOOD FRIDA/ WEEK. 

"THE ELECTRICIAN " will be published on THURSDAY next 
instead of on Friday. Communications intended for that issue 
must reach the Offices not later than WEDNESDAY MORNING'S 
POST. 

Alterations to existing Advertisements and Copy for new Adver- 
tisements must reach the Publisher as much earlier as po;sible, but 
not later than TUESDAY MORNING. Official Announcements and 
"Small" Advertisements must be sent in not later than noon 
on WEDNESDAY. 



concerned are, with few exceptions, silent. Up to the present 
the majority of our manufacturers have taken no active part 
in the discussion. We give elsewhere an account of Mr. 
A. P. M. Fleming's recent lecture on the subject at Manchester, 
under the auspices of the Cotmcil for the Organisation of 
British Engineering Industry. Although on many points we 
are in entire agreement with Mr. Flemixc;, there are, never- 
theless, certain matters to which we take exception. It must 
be tacitly assumed that American firms invest money in re- 
search in order to profit thereby. Everything in the American 
character serves to indicate that the assumption is a correct 
one, and the investing of money in order to profit thereby is to 
the credit of the American people. Now, if certain American 
firms find it profitable to spend £100,000 per year on research 
connected with their share of a particular industry, we a.-^k 
what expenditure will be needed on centralised laboratories f(.r 
the requisite research in all the industries of this country i 
At the risk of some overlapping we should prefer to see cen- 
tralised research laboratories for each industry, each laboratory 
being situated in the centre of the distri( t in which the par- 
ticular industry is pursued. Ni^arly 12 months ago we urgtd 
the formation of technological museums and libraries in every 
industrial town in the country, and we are firmly convincetl 
that these would be of inestimable value to our industries. 
Undn- existing conditions we fill our museums with dead 
things and fossils. Instead of our museums being packed. 
almost to bursting, with the dead, we ought suvclv to endeavour 
to pack thenr with the living. 

We have libraries in our cities and towns, and in prartically 
all our villages ; but if any studenc desires information oa a 
particular industry it is necessary for him to search in London 
at one or other of the great libraries. To us it seems incredible 
that special information of this kind can oidy be obtained in 
London— in a city in which industrial activity should bo 
limited by Act of Parliament. But we make it easy for our 
people to read light literature. If the question of economy 
arises, library committees economise by refusing to buy books 
costing more than a few shillings each, and this rules out all 
serious works on technology. These matters are mit dealt 
with by Mr. Fleming, but the thoughts crowd in on us on 
reading his Paper. The most questionable pait of the latter. 
in our opinion, is the suggestion that patents should be takoii 



36 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APRIL U, 1916. 



out on behalf of the Govemment. Surely Mr. Fleming 
cannot be serious in suggesting that patents should be taken 
out on behalf of those who, inespective of party, both by 
])rerept and fxauiple, have gulled our people into the belief that 
an Empire ran be founded and conducted by the adoption of 
a " wait-and-see " policy. Working under every conceivable 
disadvantage our traders have built up industries of unparall- 
eled magnitude, and our scientists working under similar 
conditions have made most of the fundamental discoveries 
that have been made. All we ask of the State is a sum annually 
r<|ual to the cost of three Dreadnoughts. As a return for this 
our scientists and engineers will pr'ijiiise tf) make war impos- 
sible, and will undertake to put our industries on a sure 
foundation. By trusting the Stat^e. the peo])le of Britain are 
to-day paying close upon five millions sterling per day. By the 
time our people extricate themselves from the d«nger zone into 
which they have been led by their politicians, we hope and 
believe they will be able to rely on themselves, so far as irdus- 
trv is concerned at lea.st. And we urge ihcm, both ( apital and 
labour, to organise and to co-operate in older to d«mand from 
the State a sum equal to the cost of three Dreadnoughts 
annually, so as to enable them to live decently and 1o reap the 
fruits of their labour. 



Colwyn Bay and the Board of Trade. 

Tho.sk who are of the opinion that people ride on the tops of 
tramcars for the purpose of looking into the bedrooms of houses 
en mute will be slmrkfd to learn that this will >hoitly be 
prtssible at f'olwyn Bay of all places on earth, .ludging by 
the r-videuee that was given at the Board of Trade incjuiry. it 
appears that certain of those whose privilege it is to live on the 
car route .strongly resent the proposal made by the tramway 
(•omj)anv to run double-deck cars. We are exceedingly glad 
to note that silly and frivolous evidence lias had no effect on 
the Hoard, and we understand that after making minor altera- 
tions it will lie |»o.ssible for double-tleck cars to be used at 
Colwyn Bay. We com])lim(nt the ("om])any on its success, 
and we believe the decision of the B(ard of Trade to be a s<iund 
one. To tho.se who desire nmre privacy in their bedrooms 
than that afforded by opacpie blinds we would ric<mmend 
another asvluni. 



Mutual and Self Inductance. .Mr. S. Butteiworth. writing 
III till' ( uiiiiit i,-.sii(. ul tilt' '• riiiiosopliical .Magazine," discusses 
a ■■ .MeflKwl for Deriving .Mutual and Self Inductance Series." 
Ill iIm- articif will lie f<iund various expre.s,si()ns in the form of 
.series for the .self-induction (((efficients of both loii^ and short. 

< oll^ 

Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering. Last week 
flip l.'5<>t!i award of certificates was held at this .school, the 
presentation lieiny made by .Mr. .1. 1*. Barber. The occasion is 
of mole than usual interest owing to the fact that it is the last 
of the series in the old South Tower over a ]>eriod o*^ 4.'i years. 
The school is aliout to move to more convenient ])reinises close 
at liaiiil 

"Journal" of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

In view of ;lie ( ;n\ cininrn! IC--1 1 i( lions in K'^aid to the sujiply 
of ]ia])er. and alH> owing to the great increase in its cost, the 
('onneil have decided to reduce the amount of matter in the 
■■ .louinal." and to jjublish it monthly. in.Hlead of fortnightly, 
until conditions are again norniaJ. The Ih.sI forlniKhtly Part 
(No. 2.57) WHS dated March 1 . I'.Mf.. 

Modern Developments of Water Power We have rei cived 
.1 . i.|»\ III .Ml, A Siei^ii ^ ra|Mi oh tliir im|)ortaut subject. 
As many of our readers will remember, the .\uth«)r was awarded 
the Be.H.semer ]»rize by the Society o( Kngineers. The Paper, 
whirh as an analvsis and compilation of yeneral hxdraulic 
tniliiiii- i>n<'in.'ii Ml.' id uni<|ue for the conditio"- nf li\ .Ii.iuIk - 



to be met with in this country and in the colonies, may be 
obtained from the Author at 32. Victoria-street. London, S.W. 

The cost is 2.s. post free. 

Maximum Frequencies of X-Rays, — Mr. A. W. Hull, 
writing in the " Physical Review," .states that measurements 
from curves of energy distribution -in X-ray spectra at 
constant potentials show that the maximum frequencies up to 
](X),(X)0 are given accurately by the quantum relation — i.e., 
they are proportional to the voltage. There is no tendency 
for the fre(piency to fall jfi at the higher voltages, such as 
Rutherford reported from work with absorption methods. 
The highest freqtiencv observed was 22-8 x 10*, with a V(5hage of 

Shot Firing. -\ii informative technical Paper, entitled 
■ >'\u>\ Firing in Coal Mines bv Electricitv Controlled form 
Outside." by Messrs. H. H. Clark, N. V." Breth and C. M. 
Means, has recertly been issued by the Bureau of Mines 
(U.S.A.). Details are given for operating and constructing 
nine different kinds of sy.stems. A general discussion then 
follows, bringing out the more preferable and reasons foi 
selecting the same. Suggestions for outside .shot-tiriim 
systems are then ^iiven. with a correct description of the ways 
in which they should be operated. Costs of installation and 
essential features are then given as a final section. 

Leakage of Current From Electric Railways. — In a Paper 
recently publisiied liy the Bureau ot Standards tlie theory of 
the leakage of current from electric raUway tracks i^ developed 
mathematically. A.ssuming, first, a single track of uuiform 
construction, and. later, a track whose sections vary in con- 
ductivity, leakage resistance and loadintr. the effects of rail and 
leakage resistance and of the length of the line on tlie distribu- 
tion and amount of leakage current are calculated for system* 
with both grounded and ungrounded negative 'buses. Curves 
are plotted showing the effects of the principal variables in the 
formula' developed. The conclusions with respect to elec- 
trolysis to be drawn from the formulas aiid curves are dis- 
cu.ssed and tabulated. The Paper contains 14 figures. 

Flicker Photometer. Messi-s. H. E. Ives and E. F. Kings- 
bury liave ail article in the " Philosoj)hital Magazine "' on 
" The Theory of the Flicker Photometer." Among the 
experimental results referred to there are the following : ('/) 
Different ratios of light to dark expo.sures require varying 
critical speeds. At high illuminations a maximum occurs for 
approximately equal light and dark intervals, but the curves 
connecting relative period of light and dark intervals, but the 
curves coimecting relative period of light exposure and critical 
speed are not symmetrical. (6) The relationship between 
illumination and critical speed is represented by critical speed 
-0 loir illumination- /^ where (( and /* are constants, a being 
"losely the same whatever the relative light and dark expo- 
sures, and 1) varying with the relative exp(»sure. (c) When a. 
flickering illumination is superimpo.sed on a steadv one the 
critical trecjuency is connected with the mean illuminatioiv 
by the same logarithmic relation, but the constant (J varie* 
with tlie ratio ol flickering to steady illumination. 

Fortieth Anniversary of the Telephone. On March 7, 
ISTO. tlie hrst telephone patent was siiiiied l»y the rnited States 
])atent authorities. Forty years after, on the 7th idt.. the 
|(»tli aiiuivei-sary of this "official" ]>irtliday was celebrated 
by a banquet at Washington of the National (ieographical 
Soeiety. at which Dr. .V. (Jraham Bell, the inventor and one of 
the board of managei-s of the society, was ])resent. along with 
several secretaries of the U.S. GkivernmsMit. .\ll the speakers 
devoted themselves to the subject of the telephone, and many 
long-distance communications were received in the banqueting 
room, .\mong others, the General in command at El Paso, 
on the Mexican bonier, sjwkc to General Scott. Interim Sec- 
ret-ary of War. sitting at the dinner table, stating that all was 
quiet on the bonier. Sir R. Bonien. the Canadian Premier, 
.speaking from Ottawa sent a mes.sjif:e t » the meeting. In his 
own .'speech. Dr. Bell said he was overwhelmed by some of the 
exain]»les of lonv^-distam e telephony demonstrated at the 
meefint; mo(le>.tl\ di'< hiring that he ilid not s.-c wh.Tt lie li;ul 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 191 G 



to do witli the results achieved, inasmuch as many minds had 
(•(intributed to the development of the telephone of to-day. 
He foretold, however, the possibility tliat, some day, the tim<i 
ini»ht arrive when the people of the United States would be 
j,l)l(. to sinj^ the " Star Spangled Banner " in unison. 

Regeneration of Sulphated Storage Cells.— A Paper on 
this subject was contributed recently to the " Journal of Phy- 
sical Chemistrv," hv Messrs. G. A. Perlev and C. W. Davis 



tube and jtroduced th'i ciicii.^..- ,,. j»M-.,uie ne'.e.^.-arv to re.sK-i- 
the lower surfaee o£ the nif rcury to its normal "level. The 
value of gravity was measured bv the length of the needle 
immersed. A practir-al difficulty in regulating the po.sition 
of the needle led to the adoption of a different method of 
adjustment. In this case the level of the mercurv in the lower 
line was regulated by introducing or extracting mercun- through 

„„„,.,..--.....-, .... -- „.-......_„„„.. ... „. two side tubes, one of which was of eoarse bore fori ' ■ rh«- 

The authors have pieviouslv shown tliat sulphated storage initial adjustment and the other of fin.- bore for p...^..> -., of 
cells ■ - •- - -1-..— 



lis can be regenerated satisfactorily if the battery acid is 
re])laced by a solution of sodium sulphate. Upon the passage 
of a normal charging current, the lead sulphate is reduced 
wltJiin 60 hours, even in badly-sulpliated grids. This method 
has .since been tried by others with uniformly good results. 
It was conceivable that some other salt might give deposits 
that were good enough to justify its use, and, accordingly, 
some experiments liave been made with other sodium salts. 
The experiments point to the following general conclusions : 
(1) Sodium sulpliate is the best salt to use m regenerating 
po.sitive and negative storage-battery grids. (2) Dummy 
])(!-! live grids on the outside of the negative plates diminish 
the time of reduction. (3) Hydrolysis of the lead salts formed 
in sodium hydroxide solution yields large and troublesome 
quantities of lead monoxide. The active material of the grids 
- removed to a considerable extent. (-1) With sodium sulphite 
solutions, a hard crystalline material is deposited at the cathode 
which causes buckling of the grids. (5) Reduction in whole or 
p ])art of a sulphated grid results by the use of a solution of 
sodium sulphate, carbonate, phosphate or sulphite. (6) Good 
mode deposits from sulphated grids can be obtained only 
nth sulphate, carbonate and hydroxide solutions. Rela- 
ftively high anode corrosion with sodium hydroxide solutions 
makes these useless. 

Reversible Change of Remanent Magnetism with Tem- 
perature. — Dr. G. Elias has a Paper on the above in the " Pro- 
[ceedings" of the Koninklijke Academic van Wetenschappen te 
Amsterdam. When a magnet is heated it loses magnetism, 
[.and when cooled again to its initial temperature the mag- 
xetism increases, but not quite to its original value. With 
repeated operations of this type these differences become 
Ismaller until a cyclic state is reached, and the changes become 
•reversible. This reversible change is the one investigated. If 
[j/j and 1/2 ^1'^ tlie magnetisations at temperatures / ^ and <2) tlien 
3I,=M^{l-a{U-f,)], 
md the coefficient a was positive, as found in the experiments 
)f Ashworth and Durward. For steel the highest value found 
tov a was 0-0014, and cast iron 0-0029. Negative values for 
)iano wire had been found by Ashworth. The spontaneous 
piiagnetisation of the " elementary crystals," which Weiss 
|:egards as the building stones of the iron, decreases with the rise 
)f the temperature according to the formula 

il//i¥o=cotha-l/a, 

k'here a=30il//TJ/o, Mq is magnetisation at absolute zero, 
that at temperature T, and 6 the Curie point. If by means 
^of this formula we calculate the change between 10 deg. and 
KiOdeg., taking the Curie point as 757 deg., we obtain 4-2 per 
' cnt., which agrees very well with the experimentally found 
value of 3-9 per cent. The results Ashworth found for steel 
were confirmed experimentally, the highest value for a being 
0-0015. The author determined a for different parts of the 
same magnet, and found that a near the ends is less than in the 
middle, since the demagnetising force at the ends is greater. 

Determination of Gravity at Sea. — Prof. W. G. Duffield, in a 
recent Paper read -before the Royal Society on this matter, 
discusses a method which depends upon balancing a column of 
mercury against the pressure of a constant volume of air con- 
tained in a bulb. Tlie w^hole apparatus is maintained at as 
constant a temperature as possible. The height of the column 
varies inversely as the value of gravity. In an early form of 
the apparatus the adjustment of the air volume was made by 
raising or lowering, by means of a magnet, an iron needle im- 
mersed in the mercury in the upper part of the apparatus, 
^his lowered or raised the level of the mercury in the vertical 



delicate measurement. A high .sensitivitv could be attained 
by making the diameter of this tubf small and that of the 

vertical tube large. A small pump was u.sed for extr '' ' 

mercury. The con.stancy of volume was indicated b 
contact between the mercury and a pointer, a trembling coil 
and telephone completing the circuit. Tlu- apparatu.s wa.s 
tested on a voyage to Australia and modified in Adelaide in 
accordance with experience gained. It was further tested 
during part of a return voyage under very unfavourable con- 
ditions, nevertheless the results indicate the suitabilitv of this 
type of instrument for future observations of L'ravirv at sea. 

Production of Ferro-Silicon in the Electric Furnace. - 

According to " Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering," a 
furnace for the production of ferro-silicon. wliich is designer! 
for the utilisation of lower-grade raw materials than generallv 
used, has recently been patented by Mr. H. ('. HarrLson. It is 
a combined combustion and electrical furnace, a cross-section 
of which is shown in tlte accompanying figure. The furnace 



P 



M 



TT" 




has 12 electrodes extending down into the hearth (1). as 
shown, the connections and adjustments needing no explana- 
tion. The roof (3) has manholes (10) Avith gas-tight closures 
(11) ; supported directly above the roof op.ning (i) is a stack 
combustion chamber (12). Radial tuyeres connected to a 
bustle pipe (15) open through the lower end of the stack. The 
stack may be cooled by a water spray from pipe (16). The 
charge is made up of mill scale, intermingled with dense im- 
permeable briquettes of ground sand and coke. The carbon is 
slightly in excess of <"hat required for the reduction of the silica. 
A charge consists of approximately Ui9 parts of mill scale, 
269 parts sand and 139 parts coke (80 per cent, carbon). The 
pre-heating of the charge is effected in the portion of the coliunn 
above the tuyeres by the combustion of the carbon monoxide 
rising from below. The charge is introduced in the form of 
briquettes and a temperature of about 2.000°C. is needed in the 
final zone where the silicon is reduced. Air is introduced 
through the tuyeres to effect combustion of the excess carbon 
monoxide not used in reducing iron. The process is operated 
continuouslv. 



38 



THE ELKCTRICIAX, APRIL U, 1916. 



Black Body Radiation, A Painr has recently been pub- 
lihhcd bv Mi. \V. W ( . (blent/., of the Bureau of Standaixl-^. «1n 
■ I'reKent StatUK of the Determination of the Constant of Total 
Hadiation fioiii a Blark Body." 

The fiffll jjiirt ol tlii>« l'tt|.(r givcx a Kiiinmary of the incthctlK metl ami 
Ihe value* of the wnKtant of total radiati.iii oblair.«-<l \>y variou^ 
oK^fTvcn*. CorTPftionjtforloKKCHbyrfflwtioii.foratinr Kjiherjc absorption, 
.uiil for lack of blatkrewt 'rf tlie'radiator *<ti- applied, .\fter makinji 
to Th«- iiioHt reli. ' ■ ■ i..- lar^;*- variation^ 

. .oiihtaiit have ■: value of the lo- 

eltK-K-nt which m of the onler of 

<T 5'7 ' 10"'' Willi I 111. •.•ji. 

Thia Paper tiivi-n ahu> the eoneetion (al>«»ut I fer cent.) for lack of 
Maekceaa *' of the n diatioi ^ from an iinpaii.tcd j».r<elain tufe n di«tor 
and for the atiiK/npherie ahMirption in 12 n.etie of air containing a c'eter- 
inir.ed amount id water va|>our. the rcciator l.cing at about l^i^OC. 
Th- data obtained in a (fieviouH I»ajer have fren toriected for loffet* by 
diffuse rif^-'tion from the re<ei\er m <l (onibii »d to fiiw a value of the 
!(()' 'he Mi-eal!i-<l Stefan Holt/iniiiin «^.iii.tai.l | of tc.tal rjdiation 

froii . Indy, «•• determii.Ml b\ iM-ai.i> of an al holute theiii.opi'e of 

the ty|.e previoLiily diiw ril wl. 'II. •• (<»rrettion appliid to all the data 
for difluM> reHet-tion in taken »» I eiiijj l-.*» |er lent. Thix lorrettion may 
le 01 to 0-3 per tent, too hi;.di for lampblack, but it will eliminate, in 
jMirt. atmoHpheric abKorplion aid tie {-i f>ib!e lack of blackr<hh of the 
r> diator. 

t»f the l.'i ic<ei\erH »i>e«l. tliii c wiie know ii to I c dcfc* ti\c. ai.d leteixer 
N'o. I (which wan or.e of ihe>e f hice) wait iiMfl mainly f< r relative n:ea»iure- 
menta on the efTiH-t of uiiinx »aterenoIp<l diapbra^imi* having difTerent 
o|enin(;«. The n ean value of the radiation loiihtant (tfinectctl by lo 
per lent, for reHe<tion) aa determine*! by 12 rwciveni and reprc^enting 
.t4H |Miirit of metfHiirementa ia 

ff 5-77 -• 10 " watt en). » Jeg."'- 
If «e exclude rtHpivcnt No*. 8 and 9, whirh ia pprmieaible in view of the 



fact that they v. 
totiij rndinti'iii 



* 11 to 1 1- defective, the value of the e< efficient of 
!ing the mean of :.04 fiaim of determinations, is 
ff^5-74>;IO '» watt cm.-»di»g.-', 
wh '"■ r than the value obtaii (<1 for all the leceivers. 

Th. . the ircaii of all the data tabulated in Table .*> of 

the Hulletin ol the Bureau of Stat <lai<U. \'ol. XII.. paj;e ."j3I. e.\- 
(e|i(inf( the nieaMuren.entH in which there wiia nu slit in front of the 
re«eiTPr, in which tnoiicture waH pretrnt. at d in which an tinblacker.cd 
rail ■ •«!. All the detiimii ' ne jji\en the hsn e weight 

III ' ■■an \«lr«-, K«' h tii .ill c- repre^ents two ^et8 of 

'1 in a I i.inplcte determination c<ir>iMir:;' 

!■■ in the retener wih heated electritnliy 

at ii when it waa heated r. ally. From the data at hard it 

n|i| earn thai the value of lh< • ii c oi.Klant ia of the order of 

a 5- 75/ 10 "watt em. ' deg.-* 
or tf I-37'» • 10 " gr.-eal. ein."' deg.-*. 

fmng I'lanek'- • ■•■<<n m d MillikanV value of the unit ele< t lie charge . 

thi* value of th' lit of total m diation irdicatea that the conHtai.t 

of •! ectnil radiation »» > I4..'!00 cm. deg. 



PERSONAL. 



Sir Willinm CriNilcpa. O.M.. K.H.S.. unci Ijuly ('nuiken cpleliriitetl 
thrir diunioiul winliling t>it tho loth inat. 

S-nhor I' TV , h«>««n ap|NiintiHi Dm-etor- 

fJriieral of _ ■ ■ ^ .If. 

\ N«M-<iiiil lial of niPinlirra aimI aaMtrialr iiieniliorx of the liiHtitiition 
of Klecincftl KiigiiuTric who hiixe clii>tingiii'<h(>«i themselves in the 
lielil i« given in the ■liiuriiul ° of the Inatitutiiiii for .ApnI. TluKe 
*rr Aa f nl low a :--.!/ i7i//trv <'ro*i: liput. A. C S|mrkM. K.K. Men- 
liintrti in !■ '! .ir A S. Aiigwin. H K. ("apt. H. Can-v- 

TlioiiKwi, |{ 1.1, >fi«. It K , l.icnl I! K Mull ••III. I>i\ i-i<»iiiil 

Kiigiiiprni, K.X.I). 

Aoti up of lux ■ (•riMip, Mr. i'-. W. P. I'age. 

who fill :. , .. Ifia betMi etigAge<lchirMy on piiblic-Htion ami 

othrr to'hnictil work in the pnltlicaiion dp|tartnipnt of the tteneral 
KlfH^tric (*o. (Ltd.). haa rnliatofl III the l/mdon Klrelncal Kngintvrx. 



APPOINTMENTS VACANT AND FILLED. 



-N jiuiior »hift rnffii»r««r i« ri 
Nr« helU. Mirr 



|iFr aniiiin> 
rvlArv. K' 



tho now tpm]«>rary Malion. 

J lo £JO0 

* ' e Soc- 

r and 

liirioiiigbMin, bv 



1 ..I. 



.\u 






l»opf.) to If.' 

k). 14. Male 

>n ia nM|uifTC| fnr tho (««ld tVin*! i;nrrmmpp' Wfitor- 
' with fr« n>. A; iii 

K-". '. '^i -^ I^ildoii. .- << . 



A draughtjsman !.■« wanted for electrical iii-strunient work in t^ 
Government department at Port.sinouth. See an advertisement. 

A first-clas.s foreman armature winder, used to a.c. and d.c. wind- 
ing, is advertised for. 

Heywocd Corporation lequire an assistant for their motor and' 
meter departn.ent. foiumencing wages £2. 10s. per week. Appli- 
cations to Borough Electrical Engineer. 



Prof, (djliert T. .Morgan lias been ap|X3inted to the chair of chemistry 
in the Citv and (iuilds Technical College, Finsbury. in succession to 
the late Prof. R. Meldola. 

Mr. J. B. I'eace. fellow and bursar of Emmanuel College, has lieeii< 
apjKjinted manager of the Printing Uei>artment of the C^'i'bridge 
Cniversit\- Press, in succession to the late Mr. John Clay. !*• Jll»^ ^ 

Mr. W. H. S. Clarke, now distribution assistant at Xew|x)rt (Mon)^ 
has I een aiijxjinted installations a.S8istant at a commencing salary of 
£l4<t j»er aimum. .Mr. C. E. Illingworth, at present senior engineer- 
in-charge at Lanarth-street works, has been promoted to be directljr 
reK|K)nsible to the electrical engineer (.Mr. A. Xicholls Moore) for th© 
siijK'rvision of those works, the Mill Pa-ade substation and certain* 
of the transformuig stations, at £130 jjer annum. 



INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES. 



Institution of Ehctrical Engineers (Manchester Section).— The^ 
annual general meeting of this Section of the liistitutinn of Electricajj 
Engineers was held on Tuesday, April 4th. The chairman (MT.tB.J 
Welbouni) presided, and there was a good attendance of member 
\'otes of thanks were accorded the chairman, hon. secretary and! 
assistant secretary for their work during the session. The Com- 
mittee of the Engineers' Club were also thanked for the use of the 
club jiremises for the holding of the meetings. The voting took 
place for the chairman, hon. secretary and committee for the nextJ 
sessicjii. and resulted as follows. viz-X'hairman. -Mr. .A. E. McKeuziej 
vice-chairmen. Messrs. C. J. Beaver. A. P. M. Fleming : committee,"| 
H. Allcock, Dr. \\m. ("ramp. Prof. A. B. Field. A. C. Livesay, S. L. 
Pearce. .1. S. IVck. H. A. Ratcliff. .1. A. Robertson. H. D. SMHons, 
Aid. Win. Walker. l>rof. .Miles Wnlker and S. .1. Watson. At the 
close of the meeting a lecture on "" Recent Researches in X-rays " 
was given bv I*rof. Sir E. Rutherford, of the .Mi'.nchester Universitv- 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE WEEK. 



S.W. 

at iv 



FRID.W. AprU 14th (to day). 

I'uvsir.M. SortETv. 
■J /Kill. At liii|'iiiiil College of Science. Smith Kensington, 
rapi-r on "The Variation of Roistaiire with Voltn.-i- 
Kci tifying ('< ntact of Two Solid Condm tors, with .A]'|ihcations 
to theElcctric Wave Detector." by 1>. Owe n. B.A.. H.Sc. ; al**.] 
I'a|-er on " The Electrical Capaoitv of a Cold leaf KlectroscojH',"' 
by T. HaiTiitt. A.K.C.S., D.Sc. 

ThK I'.OYM. IssTITt TIO\. 

.I-.W p.m. .\t .Ml'ciinarle.stnrt. W. Disccmrse by Prof. Sir .1. .1. 
Thomson, F.R.S., on " (ienosis and .\bsorption of X-Rays." 

InsTITI TloN oK MKfH.WUM. KncINKERS. 

fi }i.)ii. .\x the Institution of Civil Engineers. (Jrvat George street,. 
S W . .\muiai Ceneral Meeting. 
SATUBDAT, April IStll. 

I'lM. BoVAl Tnstitition. 
■ i ji.ni. At .Mbi I inarh street. W. Ijcctuif by Pn>f. Sir J. J. 
Thomson. !•'. U.S., on " Hadiations from .\toms and Electrons ""' 
I l<i( tun- \ I.) 
TUESDAY. April ISth. 

Institition of Civil. KNcMVKKKS. 
■j.-iO i>.ni. M (;nnl (.'eorge-sttxMt. S.W. Annual Ceneral Meetuu 
of Corporate MiinlMT.s only, 

ENGINBBRINQ INSTITUTIONS VOLDKTEBR TRAINING CORPS. 
Officpr Commanding : Lieut.Cc.l. C. B. Ci..\y. V.D. 
The following onler* have l>ern issued for the wcH'k commencing April 
17. I1»l(i : r . I 

Drills : •i.2.*> lo 7.2.'>. 7.2.% to S.2."> ]).m. 
Monlay. April 17th. S. .tions 1 and 2. Technical; Sections .i and 4^\ 

Spiad Signallinc clnvs and Platoon. 
Tuewlay. April Isth. «i to 7 p.m.. School of Anns. 7.1.'j to 8.15 ji.m.J 
Re. nut Drill. 

nmlay. Sunday. Monday. April 2l8t to April 24th.— Easter 



Sr 



I 

M.i 



r Technical. Parade at Headi|uarters. I/indon Electric 
tr. n. , .1. V -tn^t. S.W. 

Mil )taradrsat Chester Houw. 
- '•'"• o.'*' I't yet liecn mca.«.iin''cl for uniforms must call 
Samuel Bros.. Lud^ate Hill, aa soon as possible. l\i_Mncnts 
unifonno to be made to the Adjutant. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1016. 



39 



MR. A. P. M. FLEMING ON INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH. 

rnder the auspioes of the Coujicil for the organisation of 
Biiti.sh Engineering Ijulustrv, a lecture on "" Industrial 
Kesearch " was given in the Mancliester School of Tedinology 
on Tuesday, April 4. The chair was taken by Mr. ('has. Dav 
(Messrs. Minlees, Bickerto]\ & Day), who mentioned that at 
the works in whicli he was interested a small laboratory was 
provided in which new ideas were tried and develo])ed i)efore 
being finally adopted on oigines su]iplied. Tlie laboratorv 
certainly ccst somethijig to run and maintain, but it paid for 
itself in many ways. It was a mistake to embody new ideas 
without first having tested and given them a thorough trial. 
He said the last person to try expeiiments on was a customer. 

In what follows we give Mr. Fleming's lecture in extenso. 

While research is receiving increasing recognition as an essential 

P factor in industrial work, little attention has been given to the manner 
in which scientific resources in this country can best be directed to 
meet national industrial needs. A description of the manner in 
which the United States is dealing with this matter may be useful in 
throwing .some light on our problem, and incidentally the evidence of 
the progress in that country of industrial research may be inspiring 
to English manufacturers who may be somewhat sceptical as to the 
value of science in industry. 

The term " industrial research " is often very loosely applied, and 
it is necessary first of all to define what it really comprises. One 
may consider it to be focussed in a simple fundamental principle 
that an industry depends for progress on a continual influx of new 
knowledge, and it may be conceived that industrial research embraces 
all means whereby this new knowledge having application in industry 
can be obtained, whether it is from the accumulated experience of 
individual workers ; or from the efforts of trained investigators 
directing their efforts to the solutioix of manufacturing problems 
impeding the progress of industry, requisitioning where necessary 
the aid of contemporary science ; or whether from new discoveries 
resulting from investigations in pure science which ultimately find 
their applicaticn in industry. 

Industrial research in the United States is mainly accomplished 
by mdividual firms, although a good deal is done in the universities 
and national institutions. With certain exceptions, noted later, 
t':e greater part of the university work, however, is directed to pure 
science investigations having no immediate commercial object. 

As regards the work of individual firms, during the jiast 10 years 
there have been very con.siderable sums spent by the leading manu- 
facturing corporations to provide facilities for scientific investigation. 
Annual expenditures for this purpose of £25,000, £50,000 and even 
£100,000 are not uncommon. The lePvChng firms possessing private 
research laboratories include the General Electric Co. ; at 
Schenectady ; the Westinghouse Electric & IMfg. Co., East Pitts- 
burg ; the Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, Xew York, this firm 
representing the manufacture of photographic chemicals and 
apparatus ; the Du Pont Powder Co. ; the American Rolling Mill 
Co., producing sheet iron and steel ; the National Electric Lamji 
Association, representing a large number of electric lamp manu- 
facturers ; the General Chemical Co. ; the General Bakelite Co. ; 
the United States Steel Corporation ; the Edison Laboratories ; the 
Pennsylvania Railway Co., which deals with all lands of materials 
and investigations pertaining to railway requirements ; and many 
others. 

[Among the important features of the work of many of these 
laboratories is the equipment of full- scale manufacturing plant 
« which enables discoveries in the laboratory to be fully tried out and 
I manufacturing methods perfected, relieving the manufacturing 
i depaitments from the hampering effects of new developments. 
I Many of the laboratories also are equipped for the manufacture on a 
i commercial scale of some of the commodities developed from their 
I discoveries which are not of a character adapted to production in the 
\ manufacturing departments. The laboratory production in such 
^ cases is continued until it reaches such dimensions as to justify the 
starting of a separate works. There is a growuig tendency in many 
of the research laboratories to devote more and more attention 
to the investigations in pure science having no immediate com- 
mercial object m view, with an appreciation of the fact that almost 
,- invariably such investigations le.sult in some industrial application, 
Jl sometimes resulting in the development of entirely new industries. 
» Prominent examples of this kind are represented by the work of the 
^ General Electric Co.'s laboratory, at Schenectady, and the National 
Electric Lamp Association. In connection with such work, a very 
broad-minded policy is shown by the publication of the scientific 
investigations carried out. It is also noteworthy that these research 
laboratories serve as very effective advertising means by inspiring 



confidence in the niindH of purchaiieni a* .i n-^ulf nf -m d vi-jl.!^ 
evidence of scientific working. 

There apfjears to he no doubt that the»«.- );tUjratonc.^ Iia\f jifo. ■ 'i 
iinancially successful, not only in that they afford the gr»-at.-t 
possible assistance to the work.s with which they are connected in 
solving Muinufacturing troubles, developing new III. ' ' ' !-. 

tools and making fliKcovr-iies which rehiijt in iii-w ii. 
ments, but also in the direct rnanufaeture and mile in many r.-a«e>» of 
valuable products straight from the lahoratorv. 

A great deal of the re.search work for tl:e UniventitieH in de%-ote<i t« 
purely scienti-hc investigations arising in connettion with the pre- 
]iaration of degree theses by stcdents, and from work done by the 
staff in the-r spare time. Apart from this, however, many inve!»tiga- 
tions directed to the .soiuticn of particular manufacturing |)roblenL>» 
are carried out for private firms, ;uid in a number of com^^ e.\|)eriment 
stations have been arranged, the staff of whuh devote all their time. 
or at least most of it, to re.search investigations. Prominent 
examples of such cx[;eriment stations are those uf the lllinoiji .State 
University; Mas.sachu.setts Institute of Technologj- now in- 
corporated with the School of Fingineering. Hirvar(i Univerwty : 
Ohio State University, the experiment .station of which ban recently 
been inaugurated ; and the I niversities of Iowa. Kamir..«. &c. 

In connection with Columbia University, it i.s projxjscd to erett a 
laboratory specifically devoted to research, the cost of which, it 'n* 
estimated, will be of the order of £1."}0,CC0 for buildings j.nd equip- 
ment, and it is expected that an endowment fund for exten.sion and 
maintenance of from £400,000 to £1,000,000 will be re<piiretl. Thi.s- 
proposal appears to be inspired to some extent by the sufces.s of the 
research laboratories as.sociated with the large industrial coriwration* 
already referred to, and it is realised that there are many .smaller 
manufacturers who are unable to support individually the burden. 
of such laboratories who would be glad to avail them.selves of the 
opportunities which this university research laboraton.- would afford. 
An important feature of the proposal is the intention of devoting 
means to the collection of all possible information bearing on the- 
industrial problems that are likely to be considered. 

The most striking features of the research work of the universities 
is this provision of research facilities and th? use of a staff of highly 
trained scientific men who can devote th"ir whole efforts to .scientific- 
investigation without the handicap of a great deal of teaching work 
and as well as of financial anxiety. It is also noticeable that in- 
creasing numbers of young men who have taken their bachelor's 
degree proceed to a doctor's degree, possibly on account of the 
increasing number of opportunities for employment now pre.sentetl 
by the increasing number of research laboratories for men of the 
highest scientific training. 

While the students them.selves do not generally participjite m thc- 
investigational work of the experiment stations, this work cannot 
fail to be of considerable inspirational value. The researches of the 
experiment stations are freely published and in connection with the 
Illinois State University already over HO important bulletins have 
been issued, some of them comprising the most authoritative work 
on the subjects with which they deal. 

The work of the Mellon Institute of Iiulustrial Research, a.sso- 
ciated with the University of Pittsburg, has often lieen described in 
the English Press. Manufact'uers are invited to bring their pro- 
blems to the Director of the Institute and to provide fellowships to 
support the men who will carry out their investigations. Usually 
these fellowships may be tenable for a period of one or more years 
and be of value of from £100 to £400 or £5tM». accoixling to the nature 
of the mvestigation. The Director then selects suitable men from 
the universities or other institutions, who proceed to the maimfao- 
tuier's works, study the problem under practical coiuiitions. and then 
carry out the investigational work in the laboratories providotl by 
the Institute under the supervision of a jx>iManent scientitic staff. 
Some 75 researches have already been carried out during the i>ast 
four years, including such subjects as coppu- leechintr. cement manu- 
facture, timber preservation, smoke prevention, glass pnHluotion. 
bread making, paper manufacturing. &c. 

Important fvrtures of the work of the Institute compri.sc tiio 
educative infiuence it has on the mauufa-tuivi-s in focussing their 
attention on the possibilities of industrial rest>arch. and the fact that 
many of the yomig men who have successfully carritnl out rest«an-hes 
have been absorbed uito the industry with which they btvame tom- 
porarilv associated, and ui this way l>ecome powerful advocates for 
industrial research. To a limited extent this ]UMcess tends to the 
permeation of industry with young men having keen appreciation 
of the application of science in industry. 

Of the national institutions, the mo.st imyxirtant is the Bun\»u of 
Standards, which at present does a gi-eat deal of investigivtional work 
for the Government departments and is pivjxired to carry out 
researches where it can be shownr that these are likely to benefit an. 



40 



THE ELECTRICIAX. APRIL 14. 1916. 



appreciable section of the publie, in which case it is done at the public 
expenw. Already in this connection much valuable work has been 
done in such subjects as the manufacture of refrigerating machinerj-. 
IjajK-r making, investigation of alloj's, &c. A series of publications 
is issued by the Bureau of Standards, conij)rising poj)ular and tech- 
jiologiral bulletins, and bulletins recording the results of scientific 
jii\<'>figations. 

J'he Department of Agriculture is of some interest in that it carries 
on a scheme of investigational work on national lines. Connected 
with it are some hundreds of experiment stations in different parts 
of the States which deal with experimental work relating to the 
growth of crops, including fertilisers, pests, &c.. cattle breeding, 
including the treatment of various diseases. Bulletins are issued 
to the agricultural communities, both in [KipuLir anfl scientific form, 
and the organisation provides for lectures dealing with special 
features of interest to different sections of the agricultural com- 
jMunity. 

While there is as yet no national j>lan of indu.strial research there 
are tendencies in that direction, some of which are directed to linking 
up the efforts of the universities, the extension of the exi-criment 
station schetne t<» a number of universities and colleges, and the 
co-ordination of t-lie work of some of the existing laboratories con- 
nei ted with industrial (oiiccrns. In this <(;nne(tion there is always 
the (•vi<lcnc<' of the successful working «)f the l>e|)artment of Agricul- 
tur to serve as an inspiraticm to those who desire to see national 
scientific facilities made api)licable to num\>fa'turin2 interests. 

The work done in the I'nitcd States is of considerable value to us 
in this country in enabling us to shape our own schemes with refcr- 
^•nie to research, and although this country is considerably behind 
in the development of such schemes, some advantage accrues in 
beiuL' ai»l«- t<» make use of the experien'-e the States have already 
gained. (Jf that experieiK-e fiJI use should be made. 

The 'listinguishing feature of work done in America is that it is 
mainly in the hands of private companies, and is carried out in order 
that oiu" company may more effectively compete with another. The 
dc-velopment of the internal resources of the country has occupied 
most attention, and little work has been done with a view to en 
iouraging exjKirt tra«le. Jn this country our exjxjrt trade is of the 
first importance and it is here that the country most feels the pincli 
of ('crman eomjK-tition. The op|K)rtunity. therefore, ari.ses to make 
the greatest possible advantage of laxity in the i)ast and at the same 
time to take steps to conserve our overseas trade. 

This can only effectively be done by co-oiKTating and |s>(jling our 
scientific resources, which have hitherto lacked organisation. 
Doubtless each inanufactunT will in future provide himself with a 
small labciratorv where manufacturing diflioilties jx-culiar to his 
own works can Iw .solved, but the big advances in the future can only 
c(»me by eonct-nt rating advance<l res<-arch in a large central insti- 
tution. The materials. t<iols and jirocesses which are common to 
^my industry would Im- ronsidered in such an institution and efforts 
•devot<'<l to improving them for the common IwMiefit of the industry. 
I'mcesses which are the moiio|K»ly <tf any individual firm would ha\«- 
to be left out of su<h a schenn-. Differences of factory organisation 
-liud management and methoils of distribution would still enable 
manufai) urers to coniix'te among each other, but the whole industr\- 
would lie lifted to a higher plan'- through discoveries arising from 
work done at a nwearch iuHtitution, which would enable foreign 
'('om)><-tition to be me; most successfully. 

Such an institution would comprise a lalsiratory for eacli of the 
great industries — engintH'ring, shipbuilding, soap making, dyeing, 
rubber. pajM-r. metal and textile maiuifactun'. mini:ig. Ac. housed 
ill a hirge (cntral biiildini:. Minli of the work done would be along 
lines of pun* scieiu-e investigation ho jis to ensure priority of new 
applications in industry. Patents would l>e taken out on In'half of 
the (JoNcinmenl. and manufactun'rs in this country or the colonies 
licenseil to manufacture at a nominal charge. 

The lulvantages «)f such a wlu'ine ov<'r n HVntom of isolat<*<l labora- 
tories in different <enln>s are ns follows : - 

(1) Work wouhl be done without the overlapping which inevitably 
occurs among a iiuiuImt of diffeifut institutions and which n>su!t« 
in great lack of economy. 

(2) Administrnlive expenses would l»o kept to a minimum. 

(H) Sir,«e OIU' research freijuently leads to ■' - piite mi-i " I 

originally, if all the work wen' done in one : fn'sh ii 

tioiis could Ih' carried out with the lea«it Ioks ni nine and the greatest 
possible efficiency. 

(•4) The problem of eolle;'fing information on jimblomn eonsidered 
would 1h> reduce<l to a minimum by housing copies of nil matter 
Tei)uin'd in oiu* library. 

(.*») Tlu' problem of distribution of information woiiM in the same 
■way give as little tniuble as |>o!isible if handled by a burrau atta?he;l 

to tlu' iiwt it 111 lull 



(6) It Ls of the greatest pcssible value to have a number of men 
engaged in research problems housed in one building where op{K)r- 
tunities arise for frequent meetings. The stimulation arising from 
intercourse in this way can scarcely l>e over-estimated. This would 
be very largely lost in a sy.stem of isolated laboratories. 

The advantage* the above scheme presents over anv' pro]X)sal to 
distribute the research work among the universities are equallv 
obvious. The universities are now mainly teaching centres and the 
research work done by students is of little real value except to the 
students. Lecturers and jirofessors are gen':'raUy too much occupied 
with teaching to devote time continuously to research, and the com- 
j)lexity of modem research demands above all things continuity of 
application. If the universities adopt the plan of having two 
separate staffs, one for teacliing and the other for research, then there 
would be an obvious gain in transferring the research workers to 
the central institution where the best pos.sible equipjnent and facilitie> 
would be obtainable. At present good research workers at the 
universities are often sjxjilefl by having to undertake teacliing. while 
really capable lecturers seldom nuike Hrst-class research men. 

F)nglish i>eoiiIe seem to possess a certain industrial genius which 
assured them priority in t!ie industrial world in the past, and the 
records of her inventors and discoverers lead to the belief that what 
has hapix'ued in the past may with suitable organisation l>e rejieat'd 
in the future. 

In view of the fact that industrial research can be made to pay for 
itself, it would l>e an excellent investment if manufacturers in thi.-- 
country would devote the necessary j)ercentage of the gro.ss prolits 
J! rising from industrial processes required to collect and maintain u 
research laboratory jilannr^d on a comprehensive scale. 

A critical survey of the work already accomplished in the States 
affords evidence in favour of the success of such a national attempt 
at iiulustrial research, and ultimately such a scheme might be ex- 
tended to embrace not only the interests of this country, but also to 
link up the efforts mule in our overseas dominions; such as those 
of the recently established Bureau of Science and Industry for the 
("ommonwcaltli of .Australia. 



LIGHT AND ILLUMINATION. 

BY DR. C. P. .STEIKMETZ. 

Suiiimnrif. — After a proliiniaar\' survey of the problem, the emission 
of li._rlit by various filaments in vacuo and in prases is considered. The 
limitations in the various cases are dealt with, and the trend of recent 
progress referred to. 



After referring to illumination as a most encouniging brandi of 
engineering, it is jwinted out that the artificial production of light is 
quite a recent invention. Light appears to be a by-product when 
heat is generated. Noises and nnisical notes are then compared 
to illu.strate definite frecjuency. and the author proceeds to consider 
atoms in motion, and tlie effect of high temjx^rature ;us a mmle of 
generating rapid o.scillations. and consequent emis.sion of light. 
The use of electricity for jirodutmg light, first by heating a platinum 
wire, is then referred to. and the advantages of the carl»on filament 
jKiinted out. The (jucstion then arises : Why could not the carbon 
be operated at a higher tenijierature and thus at higher efficiency ? 
If instcJKl of nmning at a temperature of l.StHtdeg.. re<^uiring 
t."> watts jH'r candle-jxiwcr of light p.o<luce<l. the carlnin was raised 
to 2..')(H1 deg., the candle-ixiwer would be doubled for the same watts. 
Hut the limitation there was, not that the filament melts or lx)ils. btit 
eva|Kirat»'s. We know materials can evajHirat*' Ih'Iow their l>oiling 
]Kiint. for example, that waterat ordinary- temix>rature^ will evajxjrate 
within a few days, and that even ice and snow below the melting 
jKiint gradually di.sapix'ar. The carlxui liiament at l.SlXtdeg. 
Ik'Iow the Mielting and lH)iling jxiint, also slowly eva|X)rated. the 
carlnin ya]>our being deju^sited (»n the lamji bulb. With continuous 
evajKiration the liiament got thinner, then-by the tenijierature went 
dowii and the light I)ecame less. The dejiositoil earlxm vajwur also 
obsfruct4'<l the light. If the filament were r.iiscd to 2.o(X)'('. the 
t«'m]ieraMire would rapidly go down thnuigb i \i c <>i\c thinning of the 
filament by evajwration. ami the dejxwito*! carU^u on the glolw would 
blacken it to such a degree that even the filament it.self would only 
faintly Im' seen thtnugh the gla.ss. 

So we were limited .i,s to the o|ierating temi)en»tnre of the earlion 
filament because it had to be ke]it Wow the melting or Ixiiling jxiint. 
where the rate of eva|xiration docs not tuiduly re«Iuce the light 
pnxluction. and efficiency of that production, within n reasonable 

• Abotract of l*Bi>er read l>efore the Klectiica! Section W S.E. and 
Chicago Section A.I.E.E. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1016. 



41 



time, say, 500 hours or so. That was the limitation to the efficiency 
of the old carbon filament light. 

■l The problem later was to make it possible to run carbon at higher 
temperature without undue evaporation, and thereby get higher 
efficiency. Carbon is a rather indefinite body. There is carbon and 
carbon; for instance, the carbon obtained from bamboo fibre, the 
carbon from silk strands and that from cellulose, and so on. The 
material obtained by carbonising fibre evaporates rather rapidly, but 
carbon deposited from gasoline at high temperature is of another 
kind, which does not evaporate so easily, and thus can be run at 
higher temperatures. Therefore, if a shell of carbon from hydro- 
carbon vapour is deposited upon the carbon filament produced from 
fibre, it can be run at higher temperature with equal falling off in 
light and blackening of globe, but we will get a higher efficiency. 

About 10 or 12 years ago another useful modification of carbon was 
found, represented by the so-called metallised carbon filament, which 
to some e> tent possesses the strength and resiliency of a hard-drawn 
metallic wire, and evaporates still less rapidly than the earlier 
carbon. 

But the temperature of the metallised carbon lamp is still a long 
way below the temperature of boiling. We can produce light by 
running the temperature of carbon up to the limit, that is, to the 
boiling point, nearly 4,000°C. We cannot do it with a filament, 
however, but must use the arc lamp, in which the current passes 
through hot vapour in the space between two slightly separated 
carbon rods and raises the tip of the positive carbon to the boiling 
point. The light emitted has the efficiency that would be obtained 
at about 4,000 deg. ; all the evaporation takes place at the positive 
carbon, and probably 8 or 10 per cent, of all the vibrations radiated 
are visible. Thus the arc lamp would give a very high efficiency 
were it not that an excessive amount of heat energy is conducted 
off by the carbon rods and carried away by the air. 

The problem thus became one of finding something that can stand 
higher temperatures than carbon under all practical requirements. 
Tantalum, osmium and tungsten are all metals of extremely high 
melting points, but they have a characteristic advantage over carbon 
in that their rate of evaporation is much less at high temperatures. 
Tungsten, unlile carbon, can be run up high in the temperature 
scale nearly to the melting point with very little evaporation. So you 
see that the melting point, or boiling point, and the evaporating 
point have no necessarily fixed relation for different substances. 
Benzine and water, for example, boil at about the same temperature, 
but a plateful of benzine will evaporate long before a plateful of 
water. If carbon and tungsten are kept at the same high temperature, 
the carbon will evaporate rapidly,while evaporation from the tungsten 
will be very much slower. Therefore we can run tungsten at much 
higher temperature than carbon with the same evaporation, although 
really the tungsten would melt before the carbon. 

In respect of the three metals mentioned, osmium proved very 
good as the illuminant in a lamp, but is too rare to be generally 
used. Tantalum gave good results, having a higher resistance than 
carbon, but has been superseded by tungsten because the melting 
point of the latter is much higher, and it can thus be run at a higher 
temperature, and it is now used in all lamps having metallic fila- 
ments. The so-called " Mazda " is a tungsten lamp. Since the 
tungsten lamp can be operated at a much higher temperature than 
any carbon lamp, a greater percentage of all the vibrations produced 
come within the visible three-quarter octave. 

Two per cent, is, however, very little. Most of the vibrations are 
still outside the visible range, either too slow or too fast. So the 
further problems has been somehow to get a still liigher operating 
temperature. In the carbon and tungsten lamps a vacuum has been 
used. Naturally, the lamp having a carbon filament must at least 
be exhausted of air to prevent its combustion, but that is not the 
fundamental reason for the vacuum, because the lamp -bulb might be 
filled with a gas in which carbon will not burn, such as nitrogen, 
hydrogen, or argon. But to maintain the carbon filament in such 
a gas at the temperature it would have in a vacuum would require 
much more energy. By conduction and convection the gas will 
carry away a very large part of the energy supplied to the filament, 
which will be given up to the glass globe and dissipated iselessly, and 
therefore a much greater energy consumption is required if the 
filament is to be maintained at the proper temperature. Without 
the extra supply of energy the filament would not attain a light- 
giving temperature. So the reason for the vacuum in incandescent 
lamps has been to avoid the enormous loss of energy through heat 
conduction and convection were the globe filled with a gas. 

The use of a vacuum, however, is disadvantageous, because it 
facilitates evaporation, and thus sets a lower and less efficient limit to 
the temperature to which in practice the filament should be raised. 

Now, suppose that instead of having a vacuum in a 100-watt 
tungsten lamp it is filled with inert gas, say, nitrogen at atmos- 



pheric pressure. To maintain the filament at the same teriij<-n 
ture as before will require more energy, Ixrcauw- much of the h*'i t 
is carried away by the gas, the presDure of which, however, will 
cause the evaporation to ],i- much less, therefore the filamei.t lati 
be rai.sed to a still higher temperature with an evajxjration uo 
greater than with a vacuum. The premure haw raised the Ijoiliiig 
point and reduced the evaporatif>n rate for efjual temperature*. 

Assume the evaporation in a vacuum to Ije »4uch an to limit the 
life of the lamp to 1,0(K) hours at the temperature producwl by 
100 watts, then .with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure we could 
u.se, say, 200 watts with the .same rate of evafxjrationand blackening. 
But this would raise the temperature, so that while IW waits will 
give 200 candles, 200 watts would give 600 candles, were it not »' • 
the nitrogen carries a lot of heat away from the filament. Cun-j 
quently an additional 100 watts must be supplied to make up for this 
loss and raise the temperature sufficiently to givo the ' 
In this way the candle-power of the lamp ha.s been in- : _ . ; ..i 
200 candles with an expenditure of 100 watts to 600 candles for SWi 
watts with the same evaporation, blackening and life, which meaas 
an increase in efficiency over the vacuum lamp from 1 f .indie per 
watt to 2 candles per watt. », i. , , ^w-'w * < ^tli 

Now, suppose we take another lamp, .say one requiring 2" J wattH 
with a vacuum. If filled with nitrogen, the temperature could be 
raised, probably not so high as to get .six times as much light, becauise 
a 20-watt filament is so thin that the evaporation, even at the 
lesser rate due to the pressure, would wear it away too fast. Further- 
more, the percentage of energy lost through the gas is very much 
greater, because the surface of a thin filament in contact with the ga.<i 
is much larger compared with its volume than in the large filamentn 
of lamps of high candle-power. Whether the loss of energy due to the 
gas will be more or less than the gain made by the higher temperature 
and higher efficiency depends upon the relation of surface to bulk of 
the filament. With a filament in the form of a closely -wound helix, 
where there is a relatively small surface to carry away heat, the gain 
may be considerable. But with a straight filament of exceedingly 
small wire there may be only an insignificant gain, and even a los.s. 
In the big units of 300 or 500 watts, verj' much more is gained than lost 
by using the gas. The gas-filled lamp represents a compromise basetl on 
allowing a big loss by heat conduction and convection by the gas, which 
is more than compensated by the higher temperature permissible. 

While large lamps may be fUled with nitrogen, in the smaller type 
of gas-filled lamps, say, 100-watt lamps, in which nitrogen would 
result in no appreciable gain, it pays to use argon. 

In the gas-filled tungsten lamp, the eflSciency is raised from the 
5 watts per candle of the early carbon filament lamp of Edison to 
2 candles per watt, an increase in the ratio of 10 to 1, due to the 
gas pressure keeping down the rate of evaporation and permitting 
a higher operating temperature. 

True selective radiation was found out some years ago by Auer 
von Welsbach and utilised by him in greatly improving gas lighting. 
In investigating various elements he discovered that the rare oxides 
of some metals, as thorium and cerium, when heated to incandescence. 
give out much more light than materials in general, say, for example. 
carbon or platinum, at the same temperature. Thus these materials 
have the curious property at flame temperatures of producmg an 
abnormal number of vibratr^ns of high frequencies falling within the 
visible three-quarter octave. Such oxides are in practice formed 
into a mantle, which is heated by a Bunsen flame, resulting in an 
increase of lighting efficiency much greater than is obtiU>iable 
directly from gas. The high efficiency cannot be due to the temjera- 
ture, because the temperature of a gas mantle is relatively low. 

The question arises, is it possible to gain the same advantage for 
the incandescent lamp that has been obtained in gas light I ' 
Welsbach mantle by using such a selective niaterial for i 

Now, in the Nernst lamp the temperature is much higher than 
the gas flame, so that we obtain, say. 20 times as nnich light ;is iroiw 
the gas flame. And since the mantle gives 10 times as much light jis 
the gas flame and the Nernst filament gives 20 times as much 
light as the gas, the increase in etficiency of the Nem.<t lamp. 
partly due to selective radiation and partly to the liigher temjioraturc. 
is only 50 per cert. So the Nernst filament is more efficient than 
the carbon filament at the same temperature, but the increase is verk* 
small compared to the ir.crease in tlie Welsbach mantle. The per- 
centage of light added by hnuincscence in the Nernst filament is 
probably the same as that in the mantle, but the filament itself 
gives so much more light, duo to the higher temperature alone, that 
eventually very little is gained. 

Let us see which of the gases and vapoui-s give a large percentage of 
visible rays. Atoms of the same material, for instance mercurj- 
vapour, will give the same vibrations regardless of whether the 
temperature is high or low. With higher temperature the intensity 
will increase, but the frequency remains the same, just as with the. 



42 



THE ELECTPJCIAX. APRIL 14. 1916. 



violin string the note in the same whether the string is bowed 
heavily or lightly, only in the former case the intensity or volume of 
sound will Ih: greater than in the latter, it will l>e louder. So with 
atoms of vaj>our; whether they l>e highly heated or not. whether a 
large or a small current is sent through them, they still keep the same 
frfj'^uenoy of vibrations, onl)' more or less intense, and thus giving 
more or less light, although there will also l>e other vibrations too 
fast or Uhj slow to come within the visible range. 

In order Ut secure efficient lighting in this way, that is, by lumin- 
escence, wf should select those chemical elemei>t.s that happen to 
have a considerable j)ercentage of their natural vibrations in the 
visible range. There are practically three of them : mercury, 
calf iuii) and titanium. In mercury va[X)ur the green colours pre- 
dominate, in calcium the orange and re<l, and in titanium vajxjur the 
atomic vibrations have frequencies fairly well distributed over the 
whole visible range. With any one of theni. under favourable con- 
ditions, as much as 20 j«;r cent, of the total radiation comes within 
the visible range, the three-quarter octave, which is several tinx 
more than can jxjssibly Ix; obtain<-d from an incandescent lx)dy at 
any temjKTature, even at the temjxrature of the sun. There is. 
therefore, a jxissibiJIty in this direction of an efficiency in ligiitin. 
materially higher than is fxjssible with incandescence. 

This brings us to the final consideration of the question : What 
improvements are possible ? Take the gas-fillt<l " Mazda " lamp 
with which 2 candles jkt watt are obtained. Possibly the economy 
may Ik- increas<-d by gfjing to a still higher temiK-rature, close to the 
melting iK>int of tungsten, and there is still quite a latitude jK-miis- 
Hible in this (hn-ction. It would mean higher gas pressure to keep 
the evajK)ration flown, and a trans|)arent glolie of different com- 
IK)sition than at prcM-nt used, because the gas would l^e verj- much 
hotter. 1'hc-n the loss from heat conduction and convection under 
the greater gas jjre.ssure would be much increased. A better gas 
for the jiurjiose than nitrr)gen might he. ust'd, ])erhaps argon. Pos- 
sibly an improvement up to '.i candles ]x>r watt could be obtained, 
but the jiroHjMTct of any substantial gain is limited. 

.Another question is: Can we find a material, a metal, having a 
higher melting i)oint than tungsten ? Doubtless, it must be an ele- 
ment, because for chemical reasons the melting point of any com- 
jKiund of two materials must lie somewhere between that of cither 
of the materials entering into it. For exani]>Ic, all tungst<'n com- 
poundu have lower melting point« than tungsten it.self. all carl)on 
(•oin|K>uiuls have lower meltintr ]M>ints tlian carbon. an<l so on. 

In conclusion, we may hope to increase the «'(fi<iency from 2 
candles, to 3 or 4 candles jkt watt by incandescence. In the case 
of the linninoiis s|M'<tni?n produced liy an electric current fiowing 
through a gas or vajM)iir there is no theoretical limitation In-cause 
definite rates of vibration rcwult. With the most efficient vapours, 
fiutse of mercury, calcium or lilaiiiiim. we (an ]irol)ably get some- 
thing like H to 10 candles jM-r «att under favoural)le conditions, 
an efficiency much higher than can ever projteriy be e.\|H( ted from 
incaiKlewenl radiaticm. but this Ih under the most fav<iurable lalsira- 
tory (ondilioiiH. not im yet at all attaiiiiibie in any are lamj) in c«mi- 
mercial practice. It shows, however an«l n«»w we are eonsiiiering 
theon-tiod iH.ssibiliticH that within the range of luminescent light- 
ing, exemplified III tlu' vacuum tuiw. and in the luminous are and 
(laming arc. then^ is no theoretical limitation of efficiency, whili- in 
iin;indiM(i-nt lighting then- is a limitation s<'t by the unavoidable 
jirodiKtion of all kinds of viliralion. «if which the us«'ful embrace 
only thn-*' quarters of an m-tave. Hy luminese<-n<-e we may. as 
nlmidy state<l. proimbly attain an efficiency of H candles jx-r watt, 
l)ut should some new way <if imMluiing lumineHconw !«• discovcrecl 
by which all the vibrations would have a fn-quency. say. ls-lw««<'n 
four and six hundn.l millions of millions «if cycU-s iht hc. (MkI. alM.ut 
m candles |Hr wiilt would U« obtaine<l. This can lie done. iKTauso 
thi- fin«flv i\<H'» It. but we <lo not vet know how he d«M\H it. 



DESIGN OF MILLION-VOLT EXPERIMENTAL 
TRANSFORMER.* 

BY O. U BAYbKY. 

Tlie I.IHM) k.v.a. hijih t««nsion tnuisfoM " ' tlie Panama- 

Pacific Intenialional Kxjio.Hition for u '> wi«h high- 

tension exixrinuMif al work is of intorppt to cnginwm on account of t he 
»>riginality .shown ir. its design and c(»n»tru. ' ' ' - -1 

iHTformance under abuse. As sliown in tl" 

tions. the transformer is of the core typo with all of t ho c.iis mounted 
on one leg of the net ^\m\\^^\ t^ire. The (^>m is Ifi in. by 

1« in. in section, and t . ing ha,s a clear length of 7 ft. with a 

olonr height of 40 in. Tho weight of the transformer, which is 

32.0»Olb..isearri.Nl ' ' ' " ' ' ' 

• From th. I.. V. . ^ : 



Construction and Arrangement of Windings. — The most rawiical 
departure from standard practice is found in the construction and 
arrangement of the windings. All coils are circular in shape and 
machine-wound with flat conductors which are separated by paper 
insulation. Each low-tension coil consists of 44 turns of 0-281 -in. bv 
0020-in. copper ribbon Aslth two layers of 0006-in. paper between 
conductors. The high-tension coils, with the exception of the 
graded end coils, are each made up of 212 turns of 013o-in. by 
0008-in. aluminium foil \*'ith three laj-ers of 0006-in. paper between 
turns. The paper u.sed is slightly wider than the conductor, and 
great skill has been shown in the construction of the coUs. 




Tk;. 1. ViKW Dl'KINU EkECTIOX SHOWING LoW-TENSION CoiLS IN 

Place. 

The low-tension coils, of which there are 122. are spaced \ in. 
apart and form, when a.ssembled. a unit 67 in. long, 23 in. inside 
diameter, and 28 in. outside diameter. Each coil is wound for 
1.1 oO volts, and two coils in series form a group, of which there are 
()1 connected uj) in jiarallcl to copper 'bus bars. The claim is made 
that the use of the series-])arallel .system of connections results in a 
uniform <listril)uti()n of voltages among the high-tension coils. One 
of the bus i)ars is grounded to the frame and earth, thus interjxjsing 
a ground shield between the primary and secondary windings which 
effectually prevents any static disturbance from reaching the low- 
len-sion windings. 




..fit. 



Km. 2. — ViKW siiowiNu Hioh-tb,xsios CJoils and Paper Insulating 

TlBR. 

The I!H) high-tonsion coils are connected in series by a top-bottom 

nectiim methcHl in order to distribute uniformly the stress between 

IS. The sjKU ing l>etw»'«Mi <^>ils is 7 .'{2 in., and when the coils are 

assembled they form a tulx* 71 in. long, 43 in. inside diameter and 

.'il in. outside diameter, due terminal of the hiph-ten.sion winding 

is gn.ninde<l to the frame and earth, while the other is protected 

against dioloctric rupture of «»il and adja«.x*nt insulating materials by 

'ling placed alxtut it a generously proijortioned electrostatic 

.1x1 ring or shield. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



43 



TIic general assembly of the transformer is shown in Fig. 3. The 
low-tension windings were slipped over the top yoke of the magnetic 
circuit and separated from the high-tension coils by means of a paper 
tube of unusual proportions. This tube is 92 in. in length, G in. 
thick, 42 in. outside diameter, and weighs approximately 2,(J()0 lb. 
Special interest attaches to this tube as the impregnating and winding 
were done in a large steel-plate cylinder under a high vacuum. All of 
the mechanism for winding was installed in this cylinder, and glass 
openings were provided for observing the process. 

Oil Insulation Arrangements. — The transformer was installed in an 
open-type concrete tank or pit lined with galvanised iron. The 
depth of oil over the electrostatic shield was 6 in., and 225 barrels 
of oil were required. The surface of oil in the tank had an exposure 
of 288 sq. ft., and some fear was felt that there would be considerable 
absorption of moisture from the air. Contrary to expectations, the 
dielectric strength of the oil improved after the transformer had 
been operated for a short period. Before use, the oil tested from 
18,000 volts to 20,000 volts with a gap of 0-2 in. between 0-5-in. 
diameter spheres, but under the electrostatic stress accompanying 
operation the dielectric strength rapidly rose until on test the oil 
stood a voltage of 40,000, at which value it remained throughout the 
period of operation. 




Fig. 3. — View of Complete Tbaksfoemek showikg Shield- 
ring AND Paper Insulating Tube. 

The high-tension lead was brought out vertically through the oil 
to a clear height of 1 1 ft. and there connected by means of a horizontal 
lead 100 ft. in length to an aerial-screen or network of wires supported 
25 ft. above the ground and exposing an area 50 ft. by 50 ft. to the 
earth. An adjustable horn-gap discharge to earth was installed in 
the main lead to the screen, connection to the ground being made 
through a water jet. The network and conductors were supported 
and insulated by tarred ropes, electrostatic shields being placed at 
the points where connections were made between the ropes and the 
conductors. 

Severe Conditions Imposed on the Unit. 
The conditions were ideal for high-frequency oscillations, the 
system being nothing more or less than a wireless oscillation circuit 
on a large scale. With about 450,000 volts, and the horn-gap 
discharging, standing electrical waves were established throughout 
the system, which were made evident to the eye by a corona glow 
ha\-ing well-defined nodes and loops spaced about 8 ft. apart. Each 
loop of visual corona was about 10 in. in diameter, which phenomenon, 
with due regard to the distances from surrounding objects, indicates 
that standing waves having potentials of 2,000,000 volts must have 
existed. This extreme punishment severely strained the insulation, 
and as a consequence, at a later time, when the same circuit conditions 



t!Cr'\^'?' ''''-'"'."''''^'■''■••' '^'^ i"^"'-ting Hpacer. wer* broken 
down. Lndor normal conditiorw thefl*> - - Irl be n- 

stand only y,(XKJ voltH, but on hu>>w^, ,..y uto-. ■-> 

volt.s each, thus indicating that the Htn^ between coil, at break- 
down was eight times the normal. In Mpite of the Io«« of the«e 
spacers, others were quickly subHtitut^J, arul in little more than a 
day s time the traasformcT wa-s opei un. The ea« and njwd 

with which the repairs were made i. :;..;<• the ereat advanUae of 

an open type of con«truction, as without doubt any traodbrmer 
having taped coils couM not havr, undergone HimiUr panichmefU 
and been repaired in such a short time. 

Another advantage in thi« type of construction wa>» that the con- 
ductors were all expo.sed to the oil and the heat generated in the 
windings was rapidly transferred to the oil. The arrangement <rf 
the coils was such that a rapid circulation of the oU u powdble and 
under test it was found that the difference in '■ Vem 

the windings and the oil at full load was about :, -ence 

did not appear to increase materially at overioads, owing doabtJem 
to the mcreased circularion of the oU at the higher temperature. 
Ihe transfer of heat to the oil and the circulation of oil arr.und the 
coils was so perfect that the danger of over-heating wa.s eliminated 
with satisfactory means for cooling the oil. 

With a supply voltage of 500,000 to the wire screen the electro- 
static field beneath and adjacent thereto wa.s so strong that a vacuum- 
tube held within the field would glow and sparks could be drawn from 
metal bodies, which were insulated from the ground. When an 
arcing ground was established at the horn-gap, the electrostatic 
held was so intense, owing to surges, as to cause an involuntary 
bending of knees on the part of those standing in the vicinity of the 
screen. At night, the corona effects were most impressive, jpartica- 
lariy in the transformer house, where the conductors and ba^jket 
screen were aglow. The ozone from the discharge was quite notice- 
able. 

In attempting to bring this transformer up to its rated voltage of 
1,000,000 it was found that at 600,000 volts the oscillations or surges. 
probably resulting from the corona discharge and heavy leading 
current, caused short-circuiting between coils and from co'ils to the 
grounded lining of the tank. At such times the arcing around the 
high-tension coils gave the transformer the appearance of a' 
furnace working under oil, and the ability of the coils to \v. .. . ..d 

such treatment without breakdown was one of the most impressive 
features of the trials. For charging the aerial lines and .-Jcrcens, 
which were composed of several hundred feet of wire, about 4tM) k.v.a. 
was needed when the voltage was around 500,000. The transformer 
was made at the personal expense of Mr. C. H. Thordai- 1 

valuable assistance was rendered by Prof. H. F. Fischer u 
tests and overcoming many of the difficulties encountered. I'n- 
fortunately, the installation was completed at so late a date that it 
was impossible to carry out the experimental work planned. The 
transformer, however, is to be erected in -Mr. Thordarson's laborator\- 
in Chicago, and no doubt technical data of value will result from his 
experiments. 



TRANSFORMER DESIGN. 

BY F. M. DEXTOX, A.C.G.I. 

Summary. — A general discussion is given of the natiu-e of the problem 
of transformer design, and the author sets out Arnold's method of dosign 
for constant potential transformers. He then deals with the ct>nditions 
ensuring maximum electrical and commercial ofticiencies. and di#ou!is*\< the 
advisabiUty of designing power transformers for minimum cost. A rule 
is developed by the aid of which designs of |xnver transfornu-rs may U* 
based wjKin conimereial efficiency ratiier than xnxm minimum cost. Tho 
author then gives an outline of the mothcii of design proposed by 
Arnold in 1910 and a comparison of Arnold's later and oarlit-r ■ •' ^. 
Comparative designs are worked out and a schedule is given. I" i\ 

Arnold's method of 1904. 



To a studeat the subject of engineering design is usuallv 
disappointing. Wlieu he looks forward, say, to the design of 
transformers, having already obtained a knowletlge of the 
theory of the apparatus, its chaiaoteristios and its materials of 
construction, and having become accustomed to definite 
mathematical reasoning in which the road from data to result 
is fLxed and unchangeable, he feels that to design a transforaier 
will be possibly a dilhcult but surely a definite procesj> in which, 
unless he fall into culpable error, he will work direct from the 
data to the definite result — the one and onlv correct desijm. 
It 

Vi 



aata to the ctennite result — tne one ana oniv correct desijm. 
It pains him to discover that his first design comes out all at 
variance with the specification, and that he has to hammer it 



c2 



44 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APEIL 14, 1916. 



into shape by mucli tiial and error, and it surprises him to 
discover that other designs wJiich look very different from his 
own are equally in accord with the specification. 

The nature of the problem of transformer design may be 
considered step by step. 

The specification usually gives KVA capacity, frequency, 
voltage, efficiency and regulation, whilst sometimes the no-load 
current is specified, and always, of course, the cost must fall 
within fairly narrow limits. 

If the specification involved nothing except, say, the voltage, 
an unlimited number of designs would be possible, for the only 
condition would be that the ratio of the turns should be con-ect. 
The weight of coppei' and the weight and dimensions of the iron 
might have almost any values. 

The specification of current as well as voltage would only 
make the design more definite in .setting a limiting minimum to 
the section of the copper, since obviously the copper would 
have to be so thick as not to be damaged by the heat produced 
in it. Such a transfoniier would, within ordinarj' limits, be 
suitable for any frequency. 

The efficiency condition, although it would sweep away the 
majority of the po.ssible designs just spoken of, yet would leave 
a wide choice. Unless the relation of copper lo.ss to iron loss 
were fi.xed there would still be numerous alternative designs 
available ; some would have much copper and little iron, 
others much iron and little copper. 

The fixing of the regulation would not greatly limit the 
mimljcr <(f ])ossible designs, since the regulation might be 
varied between wide limits by simply changing the shape or the 
relative disposition of the ]»rimary and secondary coils, with- 
out altering the other factors. 

If the magnetising current were also fixed, a few of the 
othenvi.se possible designs would be eliminated, but since a 
slight change in the section <»f the inm (])rodu(ing a correspond- 
ing change in the ilux density) might greatly affect the reluct- 
ance of the magnetic circuit, ana therefore the magnitude of the 
magnetisijig current, with but little effect upon the efficiency or 
the regulation, it follows that many alternative designs would 
still be availalile. 

The remaining condition^cost — might be satisfied by a 
multitude of different designs. From among those electrically 
available it might be po.ssible, for instance, to choose two of 
equal co.st, one of which, th(iugh much heavier than the other, 
wmild be much easier to a.s.semble and therefore more economical 
of labour. 

The line of thought just outlined is intended to show that, no 
matter how logical may be the method of design, there is 
always much left, to the choice or even to the mere fancy of the 
designer. Tliere are many variables whose exact value has 
out little effect ujmju the s])e(i(ied iharact eristics of the 
ajtparatus, and there are many different designs which will 
satisfy tlie same specification. 

It. is on account, of this unavoidable latitude Ln design that, 
sueji a variety of methods are in use. Since for many of the 
quantities involved a number of alternative values are avail- 
al)le. all leading to good results'*, it is usual to assume for such 
quantities trial values >wuh as have provtxl satisfactory in 
ajipaiatus already designed. To some extent tlien every 
pract liable method of design l)ec(mies a method of trial and 
error. 

Sctnie designers go to the e.xtreme of basing a design solely 
upon trial. Such crude nu'thods, if coui)hHl with patience 
aiul perseveraju'c, lead to sucM-e.Hsful re.sults. and they are 
]»o])ular This is unforttinato. for such methods ten<l t^) ret^ird 
jirogress. Improvement, seldom follows, except, from intelligent 
understanding, and this comes only from thought. The metliod 
of trial and error is e.^senf iaily lavi.sh of labour and s]iaring of 
thought.. It i,s the method of the nntrauied savage, and in 
mat tei"8 of daily life the favourite method of us all. We rC8])ert 
its usefulness, but at the same time feel ])ride and pleasure in 
pvodu(^ing its convei-se the tnethod which derives the perfect 
(le.Higi\ l)y a logical ])rocess l>ased upoJi first prijiciples. 

In transformer design trial methods are especially succe-ssful, 
becnijfo whilst there is difficulty in predetermining the 



dimensions which .shall produce a desired result there is none in 
predetermining with fair accuracy the results which will 
follow from given trial dimensions. In fact, if a man had 
sufficient patience and a little common sense he might design a 
transformer .solely by trial and error, using no more elaborate 
ba.sis for his first trial design than, say, a random sketch. 

Methods ofTransJonner Design. — If the core of a transformer 
is traversed by an alternating flux of maximum value O, the 
change of flux during one-half wave is from zero to O, and 
again from O to zero, a total change of 2C>, the average rate of 
change being 20 divided by 1/2/where/ stands for the cycles 
per second. It follows then that the average voltage induced 
in each turn of both primary and secondary windings is 
(4/OxlO~*) volts, and that the root-mean-square EMF 
induced in t turns is 

E=4/(D<XlO-»X)5:, 

where h stands for the ratio of the roct-mean-square ordinate 
to the average ordinate of the flux wave. 

If 1 2 be the secondary current output of the transformer, the 
volt-ampere capacity will be 

VA=EJ[^=ikf{t.,<^)I^\Q-\ 

This statement is the basis of all transformer design. The 
differeice between the various methods of design lies ofter in 
the way in which the individual factors Cl) and / of the product 

(!)/=( IM/4A// 10-8) 

are determined, and it is obvious that ^ransformere all for the 
same KVA rating will be widely different in general proportions 
according to the relative values that have been chosen for O and 
/. A design in which Ois relatively great and t .small, will 
usually have a relatively high proportion of iron to copper and 
vice versa. 

One method which fuids much favour is that which .starts 
with an expression for the weight of the iron in tenns of the 
KVA capacity, the frequency and the method of cooling. The 
weight of the iron having thus been chosen, trial dimensions are 
taken for the core and a value is assumed for the flux density. 
This method is brief and straightforward, and when used in 
conjunction with good tables of heat emissivity ensures 
satisfactory conditions both of temperature rise and of iron 
loss. It is here being classed among the " trial and error " 
methods, but in the important matter of temperature rise it is 
superior to the method of Arnold, which will shortly be dis- 
cussed, as t>'pical of the theoretically more logical methods. 

Perhaps the most usual method of all is that which assumes, 
at the outset, a value for the " volts per turn " of the trans- 
fonner. From this assumed value the number of turns and 
the amjtero-turns follow at once. Then the value of the flux 
is got fritm the IvM.F. equation. Values for Ikix density and 
of current density having been assumed a trial value is deduced 
for the cross section of the core. A.ssumptioii of the depth of 
winding and the .space factor leads to the dimensions of the 
window, and thus the preliminar" design is roadv to be checked 
for losses, regulation and temperature ri.se 

In this method the KVA capacity is generally con- 
sidered as a jilausiblo criterion for the choice of " volts per 
turn." l'erha])s the best of the volts per turn equations is 
that which states 
Volts per turn— a constant X v/ (the volt-am])ere capacity 

ol the transformer). 

From the E.M.F. equation 

E=4-41(D(/"1(»^ 



we have 
and 



or 



whence 



Volts per turn-- MMl>/l()-«. 

/•; 
4-4i/ao-«' 
i:(i> _Ki «i> 

4-44/flO-«"' / 4-44// 10 »' 

// , *J> \ 

- // Volt amperes V 

"^-JK . ^v 

^ \ 4-44/10-" / 



0)2 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



45 



and the expression for the volts per tnrn becomes, 

i.e., volts per turn=i/(volt-amperes)xvU-4:4-^10'8J. 

Thus it is seen that the statement volts per turn °^\/VA 
implies that (^f/It) is constant, or that ^//^, the flux per 
ampere-turn, is inversely proportional to the frequency. Now 
the flux per ampere-turn will be great when the cross section 
of the core is great, and so the transformer in which O/Zf is 
great will be heavy for its output. But from the E.M.F. 
equation it is seen that for a given voltage and number of 
turns O is inversely proportional to the frequency, and that 
therefore the weight of iron in a transformer of given capacity 
and voltage is likely to be inversely as the frequency. The 
statement ((^/It) °^{l/f) is thus seen to be not unreasonable. 

Not all those designers, however, who use the volts per turn 
basis follow even approximately the condition just named that 
volts per turn shall be proportional to the square root of the 
volt-amperes capacity of the transformer. Reference, for 
instance, to Hobart's " Design of Static Transformers " shows 
the following values of volts per turn and KVA :— 

2-2 2-4 
60 70 100 

JT7< 1-5 1-85 2 2-25 2-4 

[KVA 10 30 45 70 95 

(V/t 13 18 24 30 35 40 52 65 

XKVA 500 1000 1500 2000 2-500 3000 4000 5000 

■ giving for the constant named in the above equation the 
following values : — 



on^fV/t 1-4 1-8 2 
^^^UF^ 10 30 



50 CO, 



ArnoU's Method of Transformer Design. — {See E. Arnold's 
" Die Wechselstromtechnik," Vol. II., 1904 eflifcion.) T' 
taken as typical of the logical methods the method of A... . 
involves, as no doubt all really practicable methods mast, a 
certain amount of trial and error. 

In this method distinction is made between lighting traiw- 
formers and power transformers. The former are for more or 
less intermittent loads, in which a long period of full load is 
followed by a considerable period in wliich, whilst the load in 
negligible and consequently the copper los.s snxall, the iron losss 
has still the same value as for full load. For such transformers 
the best average electrical efficiency is obtained by .so desi<?n- 
ing the transformer that the iron loss is .smaller tl *' '• 
copper loss. By power transformer is understoo^l one 
when not on full load, will be entirely disconnected from both 
the load and the source of supply. For the best ;• 
electrical efficiency it must be clesigned so that the <:■ 
losses are equal to the variable lo.sses. The condition of 
electrical efficiency for a power transformer would be satisfied 
by making the iron loss equal to the copper loss, since the 
former is about constant and the latter variable. 

First will be given that part of Arnold's method which 
applies equally to both lighting and power transformei-s. It is 
intended that most of the symbols used shall be self-explanatori". 
The E.M.F. equation, common to all transfonners, reatls 

E^i-UftmO'^, 
and if " m " be the number of phases for which the transformer 
is to be built we have also 

mEI=4:-4:4:mftimO-^. 

Let the ratio 0//<, the flux per ampere-turn be called " C." It 
readily follows that 

K VA =444/»z( O^/C) lO'ii, 



KVA 

ViVA) 

V/t 
KVA 

V/t 
KVA 

VJVA) 

V/t 



10 30 60 70 100 
71-5 95 122 120 132 



whence 



O: 



V 



(KVACm^\ /(KVAC^ 

V 444/m J~ V \44-4/m/' 



10 30 



66-7 
500 
54-5 



92 



45 
106 



70 95 
118 128 



1000 1500 2000 2500 
55-6 51-4 47-3 45-2 



3000 4000 5000 
43-5 38-5 34-5 



the constant varying from 34-5 to 132. The logic underlying 
this wide variation is not apparent ; yet all the designs here 
given by Hobart are such as have proved successful in actual 
practice. 

Amongst trial and error methods is also that of Prof. 
Fleming, given in his classic book on transformers. Here the 
copper loss and the current density are assumed, and from them 
the total length of copper wire is calculated. A trial value is 
taken for the flux density, and the cross section of the core and 
the size of window readily follow. By this method several 
trials will usually be needed in order to find designs giving 
suitable iron loss, weight of iron and total cost. 

The methods above outlined are typical of the trial and error 
methods. A more detailed outline will now be given of 
Arnold's method, which may be taken as representative of the 
few really practicable methods which are to be found amongst 
those claiming to be theoretically logical. Attempts have been 
made to treat transformer design as a mathematical problem 
for which an absolutely general solution may be found. Of 
these attempts perhaps the best known and most successful is 
that of Bohle and Robei-tsoo, given iu their book on " Trans- 
formers." Methods of this sort do nob, however, find favour 
with the practical designer. The man of the mathematical 
method finds that the cross section of a really well-designeo 
transformer should be like that of an apple, and he thinks it an 
annoying and entirely accidental circumstance that engineering 
methods demana a rectangular section ; they oo, however, 
demand it, and the mathematical method, soul-satisfying 
though it is, has to accommodate itself to practical demaids 
[and becomes just as mundane as, and a good deal longer than, 
the ordinarv methods. 



The quantity C must now be expressed in teims of the 
densities of flux and of current, and the weight of iron and of 
copper. Let E,={G,/KVA) be the kilogrammes of iron per 
KVA, and let " Q " be the iron cross section in square centi- 
metres, corresponding expressions for the copper being Ku 
={Gk/KVA), and " q " the copper cross section in square 
millimetres. 

Let LiXm be the total length of a mean line of force in the 
core, in centimetres, and Lk the mean length of a turn of the 
copper (the average of piimarv and secondarv). Then we have 

7-8 Lftn 
and Ku X KVA=2mtqLk X 8-9 X 10-^(1 /sq), 

" s " being the current den?ity in amperes per square milli- 
metre. Then, 

KJCVAs 

^^~2xS-9Lk>n ' 
Lk Ei B 
Li Ku 100/ 

The correctness of form of thi.s equation is almost obvious for 
C^CD/It and O is equal to QB, which is proportional to E,B L-. 
whilst ITocqst and qt is proportional to Ku'L^. whence (l>It is 
proportional to EiB/Li divided bv K-usiLk. that is. to 
LkEiBjLiKuS. 

It follows also from the equations just given that 
CBsK.,EiKV AjLkLi is a numerical constant. 

Poiver Transfor'ners.—THic reasonmg now to bo introdueetl 
is applicable only to power transformers. The specification 
for a power transformer always includes : The KVA capacity. 
the primary and secondary voltages, and the frequency. 
For such transformers the coixfidon for minimum cost, as 
given by Arnold in his 1904 edition, is that Ef/Ku shall be 
equal to £*/£,-, where £k and .£: signify respectively the cost* 
per kilogramme of copper and iron (includirag insulation and 
all labour for the finished transfonuer). Thus for a given 
line of power transformers the ratio of the weights and there- 
fore of the volumes of iron and copper should be constant. Aixd 



and finallv, 



(7=2-28. 



46 



THE ELECTPvICIAX, APRIL 14, 1916. 



I 



from this it follows, if the transformers are of similar type and 
pattern, that the ratio of the mean length of the magnetic 
fdrcuit should bear an approximately constant relation to the 
mean length of a turn. Thus in applying the equation 
C=2-2^Lf:EiB I L,KulO()s to power transformers Lk'L, may be 
combined with the constants 2-28 and 100, and the equation 
written C =^{1 /■/){£ iBjKuS), in which 7 is a constant depending 
upon the type of the transformer. Comparison of the two 

expressions for C shows that 7=44-'. Tlie element of trial 

and error introduced by the choosing of a value for 7 is un- 
avoidable, and makes the process of design much longer than it 
otherwise would )>e. The value first chosen for 7 proves 
seldom to be the value which accords with the first trial 

L, 
dimensions, but it should be remembered that the value 44 j 

can readily ))e changed by changing AS. the ampere-turns per 
centimetre of height of the core. The volume of the iron of the 
transfomier in cubic centimetres divided by m times the iron 
cross section in square centimetres, gives L,- in centimetres, 
whilst Lk is the average of the lengths of a mean tuni in the 
primary a)»d in the secondaiy. Arnold gives for the con.stant 7, 
when ordinary iron is used, values ranging from 100 to 125 for 
8ingle-])hase core-tx^je transfonners. and from 60 to 100 for 
three-pha.se core-type, whilst 50 is the value assigned to shell- 
type transformers. For transfonners in which alloyed iron is 
used the values of 7 should be much lower. Appended to the 
srheduleof alternative designs, given later, is a table in which 
the values of 7 have been worked out for six of the transformers, 
built with alloyed iron, of which particulars are given in Arnold's 
1910 edition. He gives no proof of the condition for minimum 
cost .stated ab(n-e, but the matter may be considered thus : 
The most economical di.stribution of iron and copper will be 
that from which slight deviation may be made without effect 
u])on the total co.st. Tliat is to say, if the weights of iron and 
co])per have been properly chosen it will be found that to change 
tlie weight of the iron by, say, 1 per cent, (making, at the same 
time, the necessary corresponding change in the copper) will 
produce jio cliange in the total cost. Xow if the section of 
iroji and so also its weight were reduced by 1 per cent, the liux 
would be similarly reduced (in order that B might remain 
unchanged), and the turns would, therefore, have to be in- 
creasf'd l>y 1 ])er cent, (since the K..M.F. mu.st remain imchanged) 
with a similar incrca.se in the weight of copper. The condition 
that this decrease of 1 per cent, in the weight of the iron and 
increase of 1 ])cr cent, in that of the copper .shall produce no 
change in the tot^iil co.st is obviously that 1 per cent, of the 
t<(tal weight of intn shall be worth as much as 1 per cent, of the 
tot^il weight of the copper, or that 

(Co.st of iron /co.st of co]>por) (weight of coj)per/ weight of iron), 
and therefore that I'^iKu Ek iEi- 

Trial values for B and * must now be cho.sen ; .suitable 
values lie usually ])etween the limits, 

£or7?,„„, 8,(KKI to l.^.fHMi lines y)er.s(juare centimetre for ordinars* 
iron, or 1().IK)(» to 14,2(K> for alloye<l iron, 

for s 1-2 to 1-8 amperes per square millimetre, or in < asos of 
.s])ecially well-cooled design.s .« maybe taken as high 
as 2-5 amjjeres ])er H<j»mre millimetre. 

The fact(»r detennining the limits allowable for B and s is 
temjteniture rise. For each value of B there is. for everv 
lamination thickness and fre(|uency, a definite figure for the 
watt.s iron loss per kilogramme of iron, dejjending upon the 
(|n)ility of the ir(»n. Similarly for each value of .v there is a 
delinite figure for the wattJ* cojjper ]o.s.h per kilogramme ctf 
coj)])er. Hoth los,ses appear, of course, in the form of heat, and 
this heat must be carried away at such a rate that the tempera- 
ture of iron and <M)]i]»er shall be below that at whi(-h either 
the quality of the inm will be alTecteil. the in.sulation of the 
copper be burned or the resistance of the windings be greatly 
increased. Experience Ims shown that even when iising water- 
cooled transformers the flux and current densities ought not 
greatly to exceed the limits nametl above. 

liHicioncy of cooling depends largely upon the ratio of .surface 



to volume of the hot body, and with bodies of similar shape, 
such as transformers of similar tj-pe, this ratio is greater for the . 
small bodies than for the large. This consideration would lead to > 
the choice of higher values of B and 5 for the small transformers. > 
In practice, however, the higher values are usually found in the 
larger designs. The reason for this is that the larger trans- 
formers are at such a great disadvantage in point of cooling 
surface that the method of cooling used for the smaller designs 
— natural air cooling — is found inadequate for the larger sizes. 
In other words if the larger sizes had to be designed for natural 
air cooling it would indeed be necessary to use, for them, lower 
values of B and s. It is found, however, more economical to : 
provide artificial cooling, by water or by air-blast for the larger i 
designs, and so efficient does the cooling then become that | 
values of B and s may be used exceeding those allowable in the ! 
natural draught designs of smaller capacity. Comparative i 
figures for B and s should alwavs take into account the method 
of cooling employed as well as the capacity of the apparatus. 

(To he continued) 



THE USE OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT FOR TERMINAL 
AND TRUNK LINE ELECTRIFICATION. 



The following is an abstract of the discussion of Mr. N. W. 
Storer's Paper at the Manchester meeting of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers on the 21st ult. An abstract of this Paper 
appeared in our issues of the 17th and 24th ult. 

The Chairm.\n (Mr. B. Welbourn) endorsed the plea which the author 
made for some attempt to be made before too late to .secure the stand- 
ardisation of voltage and collector systems in this country. It was 
to be hoped that, in connection with railway electrification work, we 
should not have a repetition of what had happened in the electric supply 
industry. 

.Mr. W. A. Bakxe^, in reference to standardisation, thought the Paper 
bristled with debatable points, and was, jjerhaps, a little in advance of 
time. Its value was not lessened thereby, as it sounded a note of 
warning against the confusion which would arise from a multiplicity 
of sy.stems. It was unfortunate for standardisation that direct-current 
electric traction had progressed from low to high-voltage, and had not 
yet reached finality, \\hilst high- voltage equipment would deal with 
low voltages, the reverse was not the case, and before standardisation 
could take place in the principal items connected with electric traction 
it was necessary to standardise voltage. An imj>ortant jwint to be 
considered was tiiat direct-current traction was competing very strongly 
with alternating-current traction in the only advantage the latter 
{Missessed, namely, high-voltage transmission — and on this account 
it would not be policy at the present time to .standardise, ."^ay, 1.2U(> or 
even 2.40U volts. tIu' author stated that 1,500 voUs was about the 
maximum voltage which could be used on a four-jwle railway motor, 
whereas on the Holcombe-Brook section of the L. & Y. Railway motors 
were operating successfully with 1,800 volts across their terminals. 
Another jxjint against standarfli.sation at the present time was that 
such a course would tend to stop progress, a jwrallel case being the 
standardisation of the t ft. SUn. gauge for railway tracks, which had 
seriously ham|>ered thi; progress of the steam locomotive. This jwirit, 
however, had not i)een lost sight of in this country, and the question of 
location of the thinl-rail had been brought before a meeting of railway 
engineers held in the I^iiUvay Clearing H(uise. London, as long ago as 
.March, l!Hi:<, when it was <lecided that the most advantageous position 
fur the third rail was .-inch that the contact surface be 3 in. above the 
track rail, and that the liorizontal <listance between the centre of the 
track and the centre of the thinl-rail be 3 ft. IIJ in. This was adopted 
for an overrunning shoe, and it was thought that 000 volts would not 
ho exceedi-d for direct -enrrent electric traction. The alwve recommen- 
dation had Ikk-u adopte<l by railway comjwnies who electrilied since 
100:1 : ill fa<t, the Liver|X)ol Overhead Rjiilway change*! over their 
svHtem from a central thinl-rail to the standanl. which permitted the inter- 
running of trains with tiie LiveriK>ol-.South|xirt section of the L. A: Y. 
Railway. During the |wj;t two years, however, the direct -current 
traction motor had Ixvn treatly improved, so much so that the 1.200volt 
moto"- was prob.'ibiy more reliable than (KKt-volt motors of lU years ago. 
The iMKlvolt thinl-rail was not sufticientiy safe ami well protected to be 
uso<l at 1.2<X) volts, and the prolilem had Ihnmi to decide whether to keep 
to the 0(H»volt system, with its attendant transmis.sion losses, or to 
(le|>art from the standanl in order that the rail should l>e thoroughly 
pn)tecto<l against accidental contact with the statf. The question of 
' "1 construction was not considereil owing to the many disad- 
. On the .M.in(lie>tcr Bury section of the L. »V. Y. Railwaj-, 
wliere 1.200 volts was in operation, this had UmI to the adf>ption of the 
side t^uitact rail adequately protect«i along its entire length, and this 
progress had nullitieti the earlier 8t«ndanl set up. This side rail was 

mounted in the •: - Mtivc ]x>«>ition as the standard, and. apart from 

the question of n. could be u»e«l with an overruiuiing shoe. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1910. 



47 



In the s(!ction dealing with control the authoi' had shown diagrams of 
arrangements of gear to operate at various voltages. With the arrange- 
ments shown, 56 and 30 switches respectively were required, the 
greater number of which would have to be designed for the maximum 
voltage of 2,40i). It was undesirable to carry these under the car, and 
therefore roo.'U would have to bo found on the car floor. This space, 
together with that occupied by the equipment for regenerative control 
and the apparatus mentioned for changing the position of the shoe, 
would seriously limit the passenger -carrying capacity of the car, and 
would cost more for maintenance and running charges. It was pro- 
bable that in trunk line electrification any one railway company would 
adhere to one system, and only inter-running trains would be affected. 
The speaker suggested that such trains be ordinary stock worked by 
electric locomotives which would be changed at the junction of two 
systems, and where through coaches only were involved, trailer coaches 
should be used in conjunction with motor coaches in the usual way. 
The author had pointed out that the unsaturated motor would operate 
more efficiently than a saturated motor on a frequent stopping service. 
Whilst this was true, an examination of Fig. 1 showed that the tractive 
effort for a given current was less, and therefore the acceleration less, 
a state of affairs which was not desirable for the service in question. If 
the same acceleration was require<l with the unsaturated motor it would 
have to be larger — a difficult matter to arrange in high-pressure cars 
owing to the limited space available. The choice of motors depended on 
the relative importance of efficiency of working and efficiency of service. 
Mr. Fergtsox thoroughly endorsed the author's view in regard to 
standardisation, and considered that the first step should be to stan- 
dardise line voltage. The inter-running of trains over systems em- 
ploying different voltages had been amply dealt with in the Paper, and 
the numerous diagrams indicated the complications to be expected, 
also the relatively large number of switches required. In maintaining 
equipments of this kind, however, it was well to remember that, so far 
as the main control was concerned, it was only necessary to deal with 
a number of similar contactors or reverse-type switcheo, all of which 
were fairly well known pieces of apparatus ; hence the maintenance 
was only increased by multiplying the number of similar pieces of 
apparatus. The case of auxiliaries for high voltages and various voltages 
was very different, and by far the most difficult part of the problem, 
necessitating as a rule new types of apparatus, more or less exploited 
and undeveloped. The author had described an easy way out of the 
difficulty by using storage batteries connected to the negative side of 
the circuit, thereby permitting the employment of standard compressor 
motors and blower motors, as well as standard control voltages. This 
obviated the difficulties which ensued from the employment of dyna- 
motors, double commutator motors and other such devices. Regarding 
field control, the author defined very clearly the starting point for such 
considerations in stating .in connection with the shunt motor : " More- 
over, no greater speed variation is possible with it than with the series 
motor, because this depends on the armature and the allowable ratio 
between the field and armature ampere-turns necessary to secure 
stability." The field-controlled motor and also the non-satiu-ated field 
motor was used primarily as a means for reducing the energy con»ump- 
tion in the rheostats. The author went into considerable detail to 
illustrate how the rheostatic losses increased, and the curve given 
seemed to follow a square law. The reduction of energy loss in the 
rheostats could be accomplished either by accelerating on the rheostat 
with a strong field motor and weakening the field immediately the 
strong field motor curve was reached, or bj' designing a motor without 
field control but with a non-saturated field. In the former case, if the 
limit defined by the author did not exist, then the obvious thing would 
be to make a slow-speed motor with a ratio of full field to armature 
ampere-turns of about I-I or i-2 and then weaken the field considerably 
so as to obtain the deshed schedule speed ; by so doing, however, the 
aforesaid ratio immediately became too small, making the motor very 
sensitive and liable to ffash over. It was necessary, therefore, to decide 
upon the lowest ratio for safe operation in the weak field condition and 
then work backwards by strengthening the field as much as possible 
for the full field curve. Unfortunately, in strengthening the field, 
saturation was so soon reached that the drop in speed and saving in 
energy loss was not so great as desired. In the case of a non-saturated 
field motor there was seldom trouble with regard to minimum ratio of 
field to armature ampere-turns, as the air-gap was usually fairly long 
and absorbed considerable ampere-turns. In a motor of this type the 
best economy was obtained when the accelerating current was made as 
high as possible, as the speed at which the motor curve was reached 
came down comparatively quickly as the accelerating current increased. 
There were, therefore, two effects : (1) Increasing the acceleration and 
consequently decreasing the time on the rheostat ; (2) reaching the 
motor curve at a lower speed. In the case of equipments having to run 
at comparatively high speed on the suburban parts of a railway, say 
2 to 4 miles between stops, and also on city lines, with only -J mile stops, 
the field control was the proper thing ; but in deciding such a question 
for a particular case it was to.be remembered that field control required 
extra switches and extra cables, involving additional capital cost and 
maintenance, and there were cases where it would be advisable to put 
the money and material into building a large motor having a non- 
saturated field. The author had pointed out that a field control motor 
or non-saturated field motor could not be obtained at the same cost 
as a standard motor, and the speaker entirely agreed with him in stating 
" that if these points were thoroughly borne in mind the manufacturers 
of the nonsatmrated field motor would not be penalised on account of 
small ratings, or on account of greater Aveight with equal ratings, and 
the railway company would operate with greater efficiency." 



Dr. VV.M. C'li.vMP said the Pap<>r naturally divided itnelf into two r^-- 
the first part referring to th- »v of the Msries motor for ru' 

electrification, cHpecially aH r._ -.-rque characteri-rf'' -^ Ti.,.r.. 

several points requiring explanation. For itiKtance, • i 

upon what were calle<l Haturate<l and • • 

indication was given &a to the fXiint at ,-, 

saturated and non saturated was drawn. lViiiu|« Mr. I'e. k. *.,oUi 
give some idea of the ratio of field tondition« in the two rah«*. I^t»T 
the author referred to the " nhm'/inhnfrnti " of »hunt fields. Did thin m*^n 
that the field did not respfmd so quickly to curr»;nt c-h- •■ ^ >icAme of 
the greater self induction due to the large numl^^r of • .*, or wm 

some other meaning attached to the expresfiion ? TK 
point in this section of the Paper was the plea mad»- \ 
revised specification for railway motors. It wac 
one-hour rating did not produce that motor whi' ■ 

railway electrification, and whether the plea for the ui i an 

against the saturated was justified or not, one thing was 
that a case had been made out against the ratine of rail* 
the one-hour basis. It was to be hoped that t! 
Engineers or the Engineering Standards ( orn, 
question with the object of sanctioning a more rational 

tions. Such a basis had already been suggested by i;.. . „., 

Papers, " Journal " InstE.E., \'ol. XLV., iOlU, and Vol. XLVIIL. 1911. 
and the test basis laid down there was much fairer than *' '..mr 

rating usually adopted. The author also raiswl the qu. r.- 

generative control, and gave some diagrams, f)ne of v. -.;•,• 

V-I2r/ plotted against V, V being the initial velrK-ity of > ■ .ii»^ 

per hour. The speaker then discussed some of the curves in the Paper. 
He thought the second part of the Paper was a most eloquent '■' ■ • <■ - 
.standardisation, and showed into what confusion railway e.. 
would be thrown if some control was not quickly exerci..ied. It .-.houia 
be remarked incidentally that the adoption of the single-pha.se sysitem 
would obviate many of the difficulties mentioned : in fact, the Paper 
might be tiuned into a demand for the single-phase system so lont' m 
there was no co-ordination between the railway companies as regards 
voltage. In the single-phase system only frequency nee<ietl to be 
standardised, and that only within certain limits, which should not be 
difficult to decide upon. Series-parallel operation of tr " -• or 
motor windings would meet all other variations. It was •. .- t-j 

construct trains on such short lengths of line as existed in this countrv, 
with so much complicated apparatus to change from one railway com- 
pany's system to another. If it were necessary to have voltages varjing 
over the range suggested by the Paper, the continuous-current system 
should not be adopted at all. The only solution seemed to be som** f^rm 
of control which would prevent a company- adopting a system 
from that adopted by another company without showing good • 
the difference. '^%-W 

Prof. E. W. Marchani said, with regard to the ditTerence between 
saturated and unsaturated motors, it would be of interest to have some 
idea of the limits of flu.x-density in the two motors, as it was only a matter 
of degree of saturation. The saturated motor was obviously a cheaper 
machine than the unsaturated motor. The author had put forwanl th<' 
series-parallel controller as having been developed mainly on the ground 
that it enabled speed regulation to be easily effected. One of the main 
advantages of series-parallel control lay in the greater efficiency on 
starting. The maximum possible efficiency in starting with series- 
parallel control and two motors was 67 per cent. — that was to say, 3.'> per 
cent, energy was wasted in the rheostat, whereas starting with ordinary- 
rheostatic control the loss was 50 per cent. What was the maximum 
current obtainable from a trcUey ? Taking the ordinan.- limit accepttxl 
in this country of from 150 to 200 amperes, it was clear that ver^k* high 
voltage would be required on the trolley -wire in order to obtain the 
power required to drive a railway train. Regarding the question of the 
continuous-current voltage p'^ssible on a dynamo or motor. Mr. ('atter<i'n- 
Smith had experimented so.ae four or five years ago, using a nu't"«r 
designed to work under compressed air at 200 lb. per square inch. The 
armature was designed for 3.000 volts, and he succeeded in getting an 
out^Jut of about 3 kw. from the machine, which was two pole anJ had a 
commutator only 4 in. in diameter. The design of the b<\»rings w-a~ » 
most difficult matter on account of the pivssun^ of 2(,)t> lb. per s«j«;»re "> m 
on one side and nothing on the other. The experiments were n 
a view to use the machine for high-voltage continuous-current ■. 
but the mechanical difficulties involved were too serious to warrant nnich 
hope of final success. Regarding stands t lisat ion. Aid. Walker had. 
at one of the annual dinners, rcforiTd to the desirability of standar\luun« 
electric railway equipment, but a ivpn>sentative of the n 
said this would be a mistake as it would stop all proi;n>ss. 
had been reversed by the author in recommending the standardisation of 
motors, and undoubtedly it was a great stop forwi-rd. 

Mr. A. P. M. Fleming asked for an explanation of the expression 
"less trouble than might be expected" as applied to hiiih-voltage 
working. He expected a great deal of trouble with these high voltages, 
particularly in view of the extremely ai-duous conditions under w' • ' 
railway services operated in regard to moistuK'. dust and oil. ^\ .-■'■ 
were the maintenance costs likely to be. using voltagivs of 3,00*> ir 
5,000 ? It was also of interest to know whether the men-ur>- vapoui 
control was really successful, also what were the limits of its use and at 
what voltage it became necessary economically to use such an apiwratus. 
At what vdtagc was it the practice^in the States to use insulateil instead 
of grounded returns ? 

Mr. C. H. WoRUiNGHAM was invited by the chairman to address the 
meeting, and whilst he did not feel in a position to discuss the Paper, 
he most strongly deprecated the nationalisation of railways. Every 



48 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL U, 1916. 



countn wliich had natiofuiliscd its railways had done so to its own 
detriment. Once the feeUng of competition was removed, bad as 
railways might Jx; in certain respects at present, they would Ik- infinitely 
worsf; if nationalised, and it might be said without doubt that a (jovem- 
ment J>r:|)ailment was not in a gofxl position to conduct trading opera- 
tions huc<-essfully or with advantage to the public. Regarding stand- 
ardisation, it was to l>e recognised that din-ftly standardisation took 
place progress was to a certain extent limited. A great deal dejM-ndefl 
upon the method of standardisation. Taking general standard.-, such 
a;- dealt with by the Engineering Standards Committee, it was es.sential 
to ( onfiii'- standardisation chiefly to (juesticns of interchangeability. and 
not to attciii])t to standardiM- design. In connection with railway work 
a great deal could be done in the way of standardisation, and it jiaid to 
standardise details which could Ix' common to various it<-ms of jilant 
without tying design too much ; but by ado]iting a rigid standardisation, 
mechanical or electrical, then- was a grave danL'er of stifling progress. 

Mr. J. S. Pk<k said that, whilst he had n-ad the I»apcr on Ix'half of 
the author, the folhiwing n-marks should be taken as an expression of 
liis (.Mr. peek's) own o|)inion. J>oubtlrss the author wouhl desire to 
reply to the discussion himstilf. Hegarding tlie remark of Mr. Bamos 
that it was not advi.sable to standardiw voltage at the j)resent time, the 
Hix-aker agreed that, at any rate, it was not possible to standardi.se com- 
pletely, as by so floing progress might Ix- seriously hampered ; but if 
certain provisional t-taiidards were ado|)ted, say. tiU<», \,'2W and 2,W0 
volts, it woiijil pn-vent one railway < ompany from adopting, say. 1,200 
volts, and an a<ljacent company l.:«XJ volts, l..">(Mt or other (xld voltage, 
which s<'emed at the moment to ]iossess sonu' special advantage. I'niess 
some effort was made to standardise, ver\ soon there would be the same 
multiplicity of voltages that exist<>d in the States, where they had 'AH), 
MKI, T.'iO. 1.2(10, 1,'jOO. 2,400, :},000 and .'"),<MK» volts. In this country- we 
had (iOO volts, which was mon- or less standard for low jin-.'isures, also 
l.20(» and l.."»00 volts. .Mr. Hames" sugL'cstion of using electric loco- 
motives operating only <m their own system seemed a verj' important 
solution of the problem. If the railways were ever amalgamated, one 
i>{ the first things would Ix- to adopt a standard voltage, which would 
necessitate s( rapping a large amr)unt of cxix-nsive e(|ui])ment. Why 
should n<»t standard voltages l>e a<lopt<-d, as would Ix' the case if all the 
railways in this c ountry were under one; management ? Regarding the 
niultijllicity of switches n-ferred to by .Mr. Barnes, the author ])robably 
UM'd this as a horrible example of what might be requind if voltages 
continued to be multiplied. Itegarding the .saturation of field and ratio 
of (jild to arnuiture ampen- turns, n-fern-d to by Dr. Cramp, the speaker 
could only refer to Mr. rannell's re( cut i'apcr, where the theoretical limit 
for uiisaturat<d and saturated motors wen' shown. The <)uestion of the 
shunt motor being mon- Miisitive to fluctuations in line voltage was 
cx|ilained by the si|f -induction of the shunt motor field, due to many 
turns of fine win-. Ix-ing nnich higher than that of the series motor with 
a few turns of large wire. If the line voltage went off and was suddenly 
thrown on again, or whenever then- were large fluctuations in line 
voltii'.'c, there was a tendency for very large rushes of curn-nt to (x-cur. 
The Held of the sliniit motor was sluggish in building u|i, and the ven." 
hea\y armatun' < urnrit distorted the field and was a)it to produce 
tiashing. Contrary to Dr. ('ramjj's idea of a figun* in the Pajwr. this 
seenied a very usc-ful figun', as it indicated jxTfectly clearly tlie height 
to wliii h the track at tlie station should be c-levated in onler to pull up 
the train without braking when running at diflcn'nt speeds. The- first 
<ur\c showed the total storage enc-rgy, and there was a certain amount 
of rotational energy taken into account. The m-cond curve in the Taper 
was the total available ston-d energy after deducting the amount 
roniaining at a s|M-ed of 10 miles jht hour. The thinl showed the ston-d 
energy less the loss due ti, n-hiHtance as the train slowed down. The 
lowest curve was simply tin- anunuit of energy which c-ould Is- returned 
to the line, assuminjj S<l per (int. efficie.iey in motors. Dr. Marchant 
askeil for the maximum current wliich could Ix" iiillc-cled from a trcdley- 
win*. The figun* varied a gocxl deal, and was de|M'ndi-nt u)ion tin- lyix- 
of trolley and si/e of wire ; but 2r»0 to 2(K» am|H'rc-s c-ould be- collected 
without muc h dinicully even at high sjMH'ds. .An advertisement scmio 
time- ago Hhowed a double pantograph trolley which would collect 4,(MMI 
ampercfc at 10 miles pc-r hour. The e\|ii'rimeiit of niimin-j a "<mall 
."l.tMHi \((lt commutator under c-om; ir was very inti In 

n^ply to Mr. Kleming, the author |. mi ant that he ■ ., ;;il a 

certain amount of troublc> with the .^.tHM' itrul e(|uipinent, but had 

had none. The author had written Mi \>k to hjiv that t' ' 

difliculties they had exjK'rienced mo far wen* due toearlhM on the n 
due Ici running: lliroiigh mIunIi and snow. ^ ^ll. 

IV'ck did not Ihuik there were any ligures . I on 

the 2,4(M) or ;t,0(M) volt ei|uipments. It was cbiliciilt to get much infor- 
mation when a new road was first )iut into m-rvice. Heganiiiig inenury 
va]»oiir ecuuTrters the s|M''«ker could nay wry little, nithouuh they 
ajipeared to Iw nearly ill i luimn'rrial s1ih|m>. A c-<>rf ' ' ' 

converters were" nininng in parallel with (KMImiIi i 
siipplyiiid railway lines, but ilellnite informatinii 

the voltage at which insulated tx'tum was iisecl. .1 , - '^ 

Rwan\ insulated ri'liirn wn* only used when there yrn.n fear of rlwtrolvsi*. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



" On the Helntion of Import^) to Kxi>ort*," by .1. Taylor IVddie. 2ad 
edition. (1/nidon: l.c>ngnmns. ( ireen * Co.) I*]!, xix, f 14H. r»).. net. 

"The Dynamical Theory of (iaws." by J. H. .leans. 2nd etiition. 
(Cambridg, . The UnixTncity l^rvHs.) rp." \4. -f 43rt. DW. net. 



THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF GREAT BRITAIN.* 

BY EKXEST T. WILLIA3IS. 

Sumni'irij. — I. Introduction. II. A propo.sed Electricity Board for 
the control of the electricity supply of the country and for the co-ordina- 
tion of the various electrical interests. III. The generating stations 
problem. IV. The distribution of electrical energy in bulk. V. The 
distribution of electricity in detail. VL Procedure \o bring the scheme 
into operation. VII. Summary. VIII. Condasion. 

I. IXTRODUCTION. 

As originally submitted this Paper dealt with three aspects of the 
subject of ■■ the electricity supply of Great Britain," \'iz. : — 

(a) A review of the present state of the electricity supply industry ; 
{b) A review of the new conditions brought about by the war and of 
the urgent need for electrical engineers to work together for meeting 
the coiintrj-'s need for a cheaper and more extensive electricity' supply, 
and (c) a projxj.sed scheme to meet tliis need. 

The Councils decision to hold a general discussion on this im- 
jxirtant subject made it desirable to reduce considerably the ground 
covered by the introductory Paper, and for this reason sections (a) 
and (b) have been almost entirely deleted. 

The progress of the electricity supply industrj- has been one of 
fairly well defined stages, viz. : — . - -^i^ 

(I) Small private plants ; (2) larger plants supplying a group of 
consumers ; (3) supply undertakings dealing with very limited areas ; 
(4) town supi)lie8 absorbing many of the smaller systems in outside 
areas ; (;>) power sciiemes. 

If the policy of centralising the generatuig plants in larger power 
stations has been economically sound, even though this involves 
transformation losses and additional mains, then why should we 
hesitate in taking the ne.xt logical step of considering the eventual 
re])Iacemerit of the large number of small, costly, comparatively 
inefliicient electric supply stations by a few modem interconnected 
power stations for dealing w ith the electricity supply of the country 
as a whole ? 

.Such a method of dealing with the problem would result in the 
following advantages: — 

■ (a) Cheap sites, 
, , . , \{b) Reduced cxiJenditure on buildings. 

( 1 ) I>c3wer capital costs per. ^^j La generating units. 

unit of output due to ... L^^ Decn^ased percentage of reserve 

^ plant. 

' (a) Higher load factor. 
(b) Higher plant factor. 

(2) Lower \vorking costs_ (r) Lower fuel costs. 

j)er unit due to | (rf) Lower establishment and labour 

I charges. 

V (c) Lower maintenance costs. 

.\gainst this must be set the increased cost of bidk distrib;;tion 
mains ami transforming plant and the loss in cftieiency due to the 
transformation. 

H we arc to attain something of the po.sition clearly |>o.ssible for 
the electricity supply industry, it will be by taking (Jreat Britain a,s 
a whole and so ordering our development from year to year that by 
gradual steps the transition from the pn\sent conditions to those 
suggested will Ik* economically brought about. 

The an'a of (Jreat liritain is eoniiiaratively sm.ill. but no couiitry 
offers Ko great promise for a sound and economical electricity supply 
if taken as a xvhole. 

In considering this ])n>lilein we may dixide it into three main 
.sections, namely, (n) Technical considerations : (b) linancial issues; 
(r) Inuus of organisation. 

After ean'fiil considi'ration and nnieh thought the author has come 
to the eonc<lusion that the lirst of these sections offers the least 
difliciilty. and that the second is one in which we can largely be 
guided by prt «>n( exjierienc-c .ind knowletlge. It is the thinl .section, 
"the basis of organis;itic)ii." which most urgently demands our 
atteiiticin. The more deeply we consider the subject the more 
np|varent and convincing drxvs it become that it is the fundamental 
principles of organisation ami e4<t:il)lishinent which must be settled 
on a sun- foundation, if we are to make the Ix^st progress and sec the 
consummation of the ideal for which we*4iiin. 

It is not assiiincvl that the pro|s>sals herein made give the ideal 
arrangement. We c annot start dr uoi^y and ignore. even if we w ished 
to do so. what has alpt'a<ly lieon done, the capital investetl. t he natural 
V ' ' end the human ^ '\ hound up 

^* , Itisonlyrigi /d recognise 

timt the prominent |K)sition occupied by the industry and the 



Itefore the Institution of K 



lit at the o\ ■ 

^' I Illy in II 



I on 
I inxisi iMiiii'tom" 



rs. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APllIL 14, 1016. 



49 



•splendid progress of a few short years have been due to the courage, 
energy and foresight of those engineers, and others, who have been 
the pioneers. The honour due to them we fully concede, and the 
right of vested interests we clearly recognise ; yet while doing this 
we need not, nay we must not, lose sight of the fact that the electric 
supply industry is not on the most efficient or satisfactory basis and 
is not playing that fuller beneficial jiart in the lives of our people that 
it deserves and that they have the right to expect. 

II. The Public Control of Electricity Supply. 

The public control of electricity supply is at present vested directly 
in Parliament, in the Board of Trade, in the Local Government 
Board and in the Home Office. It is desirable for the highest success 
of our scheme as a whole that this control shall be co-ordinated by a 
central body directly responsible to Parliament. It is most desirable 
that such a body shall not be an existing Government Dejiartment 
having various other interests ; also that it shall not be a Govern- 
ment Department at all in the accepted sense of the word and acting 
under the multifarious restrictions with which Government Depart- 
ments are essentially bound. At the same time tliis central body 
must have all the weigat of Government authority and be able to 
authorise or raise big loans on Government security at low rates of 
interest. 

It would be desirable that the President of the Board at the outset 
at any rate, should be a man of wide luiowledge and experience in 
public affairs, and a man whose name carried weight and confidence 
with the public and men of affairs. Like the other members he 
should preferably be a paid official and expected to devote most of 
his time and interests to the work of the Board. Finally, the Board 
would have its permanent Secretary in whom — under the President 
-the organisation would be centralised. This is shown diagramma- 
tically in the following diagram : — 



Looking into the future, we can mn a number of verj- large power 
stations, mostly owned by and worked under the Bf>a'rd, supplying 
into a bulk network spread over the country. 

It does not require to U- dftnoa-^tnitwl tliat the lower the price at 
which we can supply electric energy the greater will U- •' ' |. 

and conversely, the greater the demand the lowxr the . a 

we can supply. The result is thus cumulative, and it w safe to «ay 
that if the cost can Ije brought low enough the demand »-iH be kg 
great a.s absolutely to dwarf the present load. The two ih\-i item.i 
of generating cost at present are the cat 

is very evident that under favourable coi. ... .. .. , „• 

demand these can be reduced to a small fraction of the present 
average generation costs throughout the rountr>-. 

Important as are the capital and working costs per unit, there is 
a third item which has a direct bearing on these and one which our 
scheme would take full advantage of ; this is the plant factor and 
the load factor. 

Under the scheme outlined we do not interfere with the present 
stations and the capital invested in them. 

IV. Bulk Distributiok. 
The third item of electricity supply Ls the "di-stribii 
tricity in bulk." For convenience of reference' we wi. 
bulk-supply network into main and subsidiary. The main network 
should be the property of the Board, which with its powers would 
have the right to carry its overhead or underground main.s through 
any district. The subsidiary network might belong either to the 
Board or to existing undertakers according to circumstances. For 
example, there appears no reason whatever why the power companies 
and the large mmiicipal undertakings should not themselves supply 
current ia bulk on their own m-^ins, taking the supply from their own 
power stations, from the Board's bulk n-^twork, or from both. 



Proposed Electricity Board. 
President. 

Secretary. 



6 Elec. Enp;. Managers. 



Responsible for the entire 
electricity supply in their 
respective districts whether 
directly or indirectly under 
the Board. 




Responsible for all legal 
advice, agreements, ar- 
rangements, &c. 



Responsible for all ac- 
counts under the Board and 
for auditing the accounts 
of all offices in the various 
districts under the elec- 
trical engineer managers. 



Responsible for adNnsing 
on the raising and repay- 
ment of loans and the work 
in connection therewith and 
generally for financial ques- 
tions coming under the 
Board. 



Responsible for rrjin'- 
scnting the Board in I'.'- 
liament and for atteii 
Parliamcntan.- f'ommit;..- 
and other departments of 
the Government. 



To the Electricity Board proj^osed in the foregoing clauses all the 
questions relating to the electricity supply of Great Britain would 
be referred. It would become the authority — imder Act of Par- 
liament — on all the various questions and issues involved in the 
supply and application of electricity. Matters now dealt with by 
the Home Office, the Board of Trade, the Local Government Board 
and by Parliament itself, would be gathered together under its con- 
trol. The only reservation would be the right of appeal from the 
Board's decisions to the higher authority of Parliament. 

III. Generating Stations. 
Never before in the history of our country has it been so evident 
that we must conserve our capital and resources. Our suggested 
scheme would, therefore, at the outset interfere with present 
generating stations to the minimum extent. When, however, 
stations under municipal control reached the limit of their capacitj-. 
or desired to replace their obsolete plant, they would require to 
obtain the Board's authority for the expenditure. 

It would be for consideration whether limited coirtpanies should 
be brought compulsorily under this ruling or not, for they are placed 
imder different conditions from municipalities, and generally would 
prefer to purchase their current in bulk, if by so doing they could 
obtain it at a lower cost, than to sink further capital in their existing 
generating stations. 

We have referred to a bulk network. What stations would feed 
^into this network and under whose control would they be ? It is 
lown that there are several large stations in the country which are 
'highly efficient, modern, and capable of extension in large; units. 
These stations would be the initial ones in our greater scheme which 
would be planned in order to embrace them. They would be inter- 
connected by a bulk supply network into which they would supplj' 
their surplus power. 



The bulk network would have to be designed •with a view to 
ensuring reliabihty of supply, so that if any one power station failed 
it would not affect the main supply, or if any one section of the bulk 
network was destroyed the supply of current woxdd go on automati- 
cally to the subsidiary network. This rehability of supply is of the 
utmost importance, taking the premier place even before low cost. 
In the past we have seen disastrous results due to large jxnver - 
or bulk networks failuig, and one of the strongest argument- 
new scheme would be its greater reliability, owing to the number cf 
stations and the alternative routes of cables. If the railway and 
large industrial power demands, mmes, pumping stations. do«.-ks. &c.. 
are to be entirely dependent on the electricity supply of the coimtr>-, 
that supply must be absolutely reliable and caiwble of meeting the 
exigencies of all possible cases save /orrf niajiwe. 

There is a further reason why the bulk-supply network generally 
should come directly under the Board, and that is because the 
question of giving a supply in any part of the country will nHjuire 
to be regarded not alone from the stamlpoint of whether it wii! jxiy 
to run the electric mains for the immediate demand, but also from 
the larger standpoint of whether giving such sup|>ly is for the good 
of the country as a whole. In tliis way many districts would be 
given a cheap supjily of electricity which imder the ordinary- oomnier- 
cial conditions of a company operating in a smaller area would not 

obtain. 

V. The Distribution of Electricity in Detail. 

Fmally, we come to the transformation and distribution of elec- 
tricity in detail ; that is to say, the last step in supplying current to 
the small and medium size consumer. On the whole, tliis place is 
being well and efficiently filled by the present undertakings tuid. with 
the e'xception of removiiig a few anomalies and arranging for develop- 
ments to be on lines which will tend to greater miiformity throughout 
the countrv, our scheme would not interfere with the present arrange- 



50 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14. 1916. 



ments. It is in this direction that we shall obtain the support of the 
present supply authorities, viz., by letting them retain those parts 
of their own undertakings which are essentialh' local. It matters 
little to them whether they generate their own current or receive it 
as a bulk supply at a much lower cost, but it does matter to them 
very much whether their undertaking is taken over or not. 

Again, we meet the human factor in this matter, which it would 
be fatal to ignore, for if those at present interested directlj' or in- 
directly in the existing undertakings can clearly see that our scheme 
will not be detrimental to them, but otherwise, we shall readily 
receive their support. Take, for example, the electricity supply of 
a town with a generating station which would not be ab.sorbed into 
the scheme, but which would gradually change into a transforming 
station and depot under the same control whether municipal or 
company. By that date, and with the help of the cheap bulk supplj- 
obtained from the Board, the electricity undertaking would ha\ e far 
outgrown its present importance, so that all the energies of the 
present and additional staffs would be absorbed in dealing with the 
transformation of the bulk supply and its distribution throughout 
their area. When we consider that practically all indoor and out- 
door lighting will be effected by electricity, also that most mechanical 
power, conveyances, cooking and heating v»iil be electrical, and that 
the present areas of supply' will generally be considerably extended, 
the importance of that town's electrical undertaking will be com- 
paratively much greater than at present. 

In the author's opinion one of the indirect results of our scheme 
would be the resu.scitation of our canal system. Canal routes would 
in many cases be suitable for carrying distributing networks into 
various districts, and cheaj) power alongside the canal would increase 
the value of the land adjoining both for agricultural and industrial 
purposes. The u.se of cheaj) power would soon make it.'^elf felt in the 
developuKuit of mechanical propulsion on canals, and there can be 
no doubt that a revived and efficient system of transit along canals 
would be an economic factor of great importance to the country. 
Hitherto, the question of electrica' propulsion has been partly held 
back by the cost of the electric jHjwer system, but when power mains 
are running along canal routes for other purposes t e problem will 
be simj)Ii(icd. 

JSimilarly tl)e great agricultural interests of this country, which it 
is BO important to revive, would receive a great stinnilus from a cheap 
electricity .supply. In other lands electricity is being largely adopted 
in agriculture ; and much is to be gained by its aid for lighting, 
power, heating and transport. Not only directly but indirectly 
must we as.sist agriculture l)y reducing the cost of artificial ferti'iser.s, 
whether as by-jHixiucts of generating stations worked with gas-fired 
bo lers or thr.iugh the cheap supply of current to electrochemical 
industries. 

VI. Piu»rKi)i?RK TO Hiu.NC THE Schemk into Operation. 

It is felt that the time is now riiK- to launch this or a similar scheme 
on to the public notice. There is evidence on every side that men's 
min<ls arc ain ady actively employed in considering what can be done 
to enable the nation t<i support the l)ur(!cn brought about by the war. 
In what ways can the nation prevent waste and economise, an in 
what manner can production be increased ? Fortunately, the 
electricity sn|i|)ly jjrobieni can play a leading part in botli these 
departments, and because of this there ha.s never been a more 
favourable time in which a iniited electrical profession could rapidiv 
obtain public interest in and public .sujiimuI for its schemes. In the 
words of the Right Hon. .A. H )nar I.41W, M.P. : — 

" I hoiK> (tliey) will realise that the war has made a gn' it difference, 
that it has made everylh-ng plastic, that things which were im- 
po.ssible before are easy now. and that al)ove all it may be fo nd that 
a big st«'p is not more diflicult than a small one." 
Or to quote the Right Hon. Kdwin S. Montagu. .\l.l'.. Financial 
Secrel.irv to the Treasury : 

"Though no man could say liiat the onlyend of the war »vhich wjus 
tolerable to us wjw in sight, yet we ought to 8««e that we were ])n<- 
pared to think of all the enormotis problems which awaited us when 

the war was over He pn|>.inHl to lind coming out of 

the war a different world from the worid which went into the war. 
and be prepared, therefore, to search your hearths and your minds a,K 
to the steps which you denin- your country to take wlien we rebuild 
what has been devastated by a war into whirh we were fon^o<l." 

Whilst the whole ,subj(>ct nnpiires to Ih< hamlliMl iu s\ coTiipli-te an<l 
eoni|)ri'hensive manner, yet it is most desiralilc to k(vp in nund the 
main i.ssues and not to intrtKluee various quest itms and complications 
with which it will be the business of the Klectri. ity R.anI to deal. 

A po.ssible se(|Uence of procedure is suggested as follows : — 

(1) I)iscus.si(m lM<fore the Institution. TerhnicAl Societies* and in 
the 1 Vss : (2) the formation of the Pn-liminary ronimittoo of the 
Institution will) i-cpivsent alive outside memlH^rs to draw up a report 
and projKwals for jire.sentntion to the Prime Minister ; (.3) (he pnunpt 



consideration of the report and proposals by a Parliamentary Com- 
mittee with the as.sistance of the Preliminary Committee ; (4) the 
pre.sentation of the Praliamentarj' Committee's findings to the 
Cabinet ; (5) coasideration by he Cabinet, and if approved a Bill 
to be drawn up without delay ; (6) passing of an Act of Parliament ; 
(7) formation of the Board. 

VII. St^OIAKY. 

f^'It should be clearly understood that our proposed scheme is not 
for the nationalisation of our electricity supply, nor is it for the 
municipaU.sation of that supply. Its true function is the co-ordina- 
tion into one body of the control of the electricity supply, assisting 
existing undertakings whether municipal or company owned, and 
taking upon itself only tho.se functions of generation and -distri- 
bution which are es.sential to the furtherance of wise development 
and a supply at the lowest cost. 

It should also be clearly imderstood at the outset that our scheme 
proposes no confiscation of the rights, privileges and property of 
either electricity companies or mmiicipalities, and in the event of its 
being recognised as essential in certain special cases to take any of 
these over, that full compensation shall be paid not only of the value 
of the actual plant but of reasonable allowances for potential values. 
This course is considered to be the only sound, logical and equitable 
one ; for while on the one hand it will prevent a number of under- 
takings with obsolete plant being put as a burden on to the shoulders 
of the Board, on the other it will remove all fear of unfavourable or 
detrimental treatment from those authorities or companies who have 
been successfully working for present and future results. 

In order that these principles shall be ensured, they would be 
embodied into the projxssed Act of Parliament under which the 
Board would be formed and would act. 

In the past there have been three schools of thought, each advo- 
cating its owii ix)licy as the best. These are, first, those who would 
nationalise all public institutions of any kind. They do not reaUse 
the enormous succe.ss and courage of private enterprise and the 
extent of indebtedness of the countn,- to it. They see some obWous 
failings and propose nationalisation as the cure for all ills. They 
fail to see or understand the essential restrictions and limitations of 
national institutions. 

Again, those who have ad^'ocated municipalisation to the exclusion 
of other control, have been able to make a good ease in many in- 
stances from one standpoint only. 

Then there has been the third school which has determinedly set 
its face against public institutions interfering with private enterprise, 
clearly jwinting < ut that the duty of the State should be limited to 
governing. 

The author of this Paper ha\ing occupied resjwnsible jwsitions in 
Government, municipal and private concerns, and having seen the 
inner workings of each, ventures to submit the opinion that each has 
its pro])er sphere of action which it alone can best jx^rform, and that 
the highest eflieieney and greatest progress are only attained when 
the.se interests work together in the common cause, none trying to 
usurp the plac • of the other but all recognising that the success of 
the whole means success of each in its owii department. 

VIII. Conclusion. 

And while we build may we not hope to work to a lietter plan ? 
Can we not see the dawn of a new era when an efficient electricity 
supply at low co.st and with the new means of transjxirt will enable 
men to work imder better economic and more humane conditions 
in the country instead of exteudmg the already densely packed 
towns? .\ futurt> in which we shall lx» eon.serving our resources to 
the utmost and by greater efficiency 1k' preparing for the next war. 
which will Ik* industrial and waged l>etween the economic forces 
rismg both in the East and in the West. T^et it not b said of us 
that we failed. 



THE BUSINESS SIDE OF SCIENCE : ITS PART IN THE 
COMING ECONOMIC CRISIS. 

Mr. T. C. Elder (of the British Electrical and Alliecl Manufacturers' 
.\s,'*ociation) delivered l.i.st week, at Newca.«tle. an addre.ss liefore the 
N.E. ("o.ust Institution of Enginet>rs and Shijibuilders. for the purjxise 
of ojxMiing a discu.'*sion. 

Mr. Elder first referred to movements towards co-ojieration. The 
fact that 2'.i technical societies and instituti<ms had attended a con- 
ference summoned by the Royal Society j had decided to form a joint 
l)oanI of scientitic societies for several jmrposes. and that many 
suggestions had flowed into Whitehall. Mh(>r«'. like .•*ome rivers in 
travellers' tale.s. they had disapjx'aretl. showed that war had en- 
couraged a more healthy sentiment. 

Science and inclustrv had. in the pa-^t. exjireKsed unkind opinions 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



51 



of each other, and the relationship seemed, like some inexplicable 
friendships, to be based on mutual contempt. We should not allow 
ourselves to think that business was carried on by a more or less 
wasteful and slovenly opportunist adjustment between people who 
did not know what they want or what was good for them. Before 
August, 1914, such controversies were carried on with little practical 
result. Ordinary times were, however, gone, and industrial policy 
would have to be revised with a bold and sweeping attack in the 
future, instead of the cautious, defensive policy of the past. 

Regarding engineering, the present position compelled us to con- 
trive drastic reform in many respects. Huge new works had sprung 
up, forests of machine tools had been planted, and an American 
estimated there would be a great improvement in efficiency later on 
throughout the whole range of engineering from pig iron to safety- 
razor blades or watch-springs. At the end of the war we should 
have the machinery, but whether we should have the markets for 
our output was another matter. 

Anyone could make a speech about the importance of technical 
education, but little was said about the cultivation of the scientific 
habit and method in departments of industry and commerce. If 
one examined the chief departn ents of a factory, the bookkeeping 
of the accountant was methodical and accurate, but the neighbouring 
departments concerned with ascertaining what things have cost, and 
what they can be sold for, were frequently managed with a good deal 
of guesswork. In actual manufacturing the popular delusion that 
the less we turned out the richer we became partly defeated the 
opportunity for scientific increase of output. Experts who could 
go into an average works and go through the technical designs, show 
better and cheaper methods, and sift the machinery and tools, were 
decidedly scarce. Their services were not to be obtained for a few 
annual guineas. Recently the various Institutions had joined them- 
selves into a board and manufacturers had firmly seized the idea of 
association, although they might be slow in following it out to its 
logical conclusion. An Institution, whether civil, mechanical or 
electrical, which did nothing but as a technical debating society was 
deceiving the public and the nation. The kind of manufacturers' 
association that was wanted was one that would act not as a sedative, 
but as a tonic. Above all, if the Government yielded to the universal 
demand for a Ministry of Commerce, let it free itself from the dismal 
Board of Trade programme of regulating restricting and facilitating. 
The scientific purpose of manufacturers' associations was to 
generalise from a wider range of particulars than that which came 
before a single firm, and such associations would give help to members 
in regard to purchase of materials, conditions of labour, technical 
improvements and sale agencies in foreign markets. 

Look at the coming crisis in the engineering industry. For a few 
months we had had probably the most amazing trade boom on 
record. Yet, with all tliis disturbance, what practical consideration 
had been given to the future destiny of this gigantic instrument ? Not 
until within the last few days had a Board of Trade committee been 
appointed as though the problem had just been officially discovered. 
It was the duty of science to remove indifference and distrust, even 
if it required the outposts of scientific instruction to become as 
common as churches. What we required to do was to mix business 
with patriotism, politics and science, so that industries which were 
indispensable to peace and prosperity should be given full freedom 
of development for the unchallenged security and material progress 
of all the territories of Britannia 



AN ENCLOSED CADMIUM-VAPOUR ARC LAMP.* 

BY HENRY J. S. SAND, PH.D., D.SC. 

The ^uthor first refers to the importance of ha\'ing well-defined 
wave-lengths at our disposal and the work of Lowry and Abram. 
Having been engaged for some years in attempts to construct a 
cadmium-vapour lamp suitable for more general purposes, I decided 
to apply the experience gained to the design of a lamp that would 
meet the requirements of a laboratory appliance as completely as 
possible. The lamp which I have constructed for this purpose is 
run at a fairly high temperature, the metal being melted by means of 
a Bunsen burner before starting, so that the arc may be struck by 
tilting ; and the temperature of the lamp is maintained high enough 
to keep the metal in a molten condition and to prevent condensation 
of metal-vapour on the glass. 

The principal difficulties to be overcome consisted in the removal 
of dissolved gases and oxide from the metal and in preventing it 
from adhering to the glass, which would lead to fracture of the lamp 
on heating and cooling. As the lamp is constructed of quartz glass 

* Abstract of Paper read before the Physical Society of London. 



there was also the difficulty of obtaining an efficient vacuum-tight 
seal for the leading-in wires, but this difficulty was overcome in a 
perfectly satisfactory manner by the lead-seals described about a 
year ago.* The general appearance of the lamp is shown in the 
figure. It will be seen that it con.slsts of a quartz tube bent into an 
inverted U in such a manner as to give rise to a short cathode chamber 
A and a long anode chamber B. Each of these chambers is con- 
tinued in a leg consisting of a thick-walled capillary through which a 
tungsten wire pas-ses, the lead seals «, « being fitted at the ends of the 
legs. 

The method of filling the lamp is as follows : A small amount of 
ignited zirconia having been introduced, the lamp is attached to the 
pump, tuC piece of cadmium having previoasly been placed in a 
side tube connected with the pump by a tube con.stricted to capil- 
laries for the purpose of filtering the metal. An alternative {dan is 
one in which the capillaries are dispen.sed with and the metal is placed 
in a cage made of iron-wire gauze, by means of which the oxide is 
filtered off. The quartz glass exit tube to the pump is usually con- 
nected to the latter by a ground glass joint disposed at right angles 
to the plane of the Paper, thus allowing the whole lamp to be tilted 
while evacuated at the pump. After the lamp has been carefxilly 
exhausted the metal is melted and allowed to run in. During this 
process it is freed not only from oxide, but also verj- largely from 
dissolved gases. If desired, the metal may be further boUed while 
the lamjj is still at the pump. The lamp when drawn off is now read}' 




Cadmium VAPorR Lamp. 

for use. A convenient plan for setting it up consists in holding one 
leg in a clamp and taping the insulated leading-in wires and ter- 
minals on the shank of the clamp, so that they may not be twisted 
off on tilting. This tilting is effected by rotating the shank of the 
clamp in its boss head. As already mentioned, the lamp is started 
by heating with a Bunsen burner from the top imtil the metal is 
well molten. When started from the cold it usually fights up even 
before tilting. It was usually run on a lighting circuit of 100 or 200 
volts with a resistance adjusted to take a current of 5 to 7 .imperes 
on short-circmt. The voltage on the terminals of the lamp is low, 
usually about 30. 



Memoirs of the Kyoto Imperial University.— From the 

College of Engineering we iiave received copies of the Memoirs 
recently published by tbe University. Of the five Papei-s of 
interest to engineers those dealing \nih. " The Induction Motor 
Under Cyclical Operation " and '" Leonard Control Applied to 
Mine Hoists" have already been noted in these columns. The 
other three Papers referred to deal respectively with " Dis- 
turbing Actions of a Shaft Governor." " Tests on Combined 
Bending and Torsional Strength of Cj^st-iron " aiid '" Trans- 
mission Losses in Telephone Lines." The last-named Paper, 
by Mr. Morisaburo Tonegawa, will be read with interest by 
students of telephony. After a short general discussion the 
author considers the case of a uniform line in n magneto system. 
He then deals with the case when the telephone line consists 
of more than one uniform line and with transmission losses in 
the toll and trunk lines connected to common battery sub- 
scribers' loops. Finally the application of the above-mentioned 
theories is given to the "lines chiefly used in Japan at the present 
time. No less than 32 tables accompany the Paper, and those 
dealing with the constants of the Japanese telephone lines are 
likely to be useful to those seeking to trade with Japan in 
telephone material and apparatus. The diagrams throughout 
the whole of the memoirs are excellent and the press work is 

highly creditable to t he publishers. 

* " Proc," Phys. See, 1914, 26, 127. 



52 



THE ELECTRICIAX, APRIL 14. 1916. 



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Further rortu^ 



I No. 4-* (. 
<>r Gar. f-- 
„ :.>); No. 01 (A' 
M thUlUtof'THR . 



KS appeal e±cn »-e*k 



THE PRODUCTION OF LIGHT. 

The production of li<;ht artificially is one of those processes 
which has for years been renowned for its inefhciencv, and 
i.s, therefore, a problem to which scientific attention is fre- 
quently directed. A considerable advance has. however, 
been made during the last 10 years or so, both in the arc 
lamp and in the incandescent lamp, to render the methods 
of light production more worthy of scientific progress. 
J'jveu so, the eiliciency seems absurdly low. Taking the 
incandescent method of producing light, this inefficiency 
is inevitable owing to the fact that the greater part of the 
radiation so produced is in the invisible part of the spec- 
trum, and mu.st remain so however high the temperature 
that we may hope to reach in practice. Doubtless some 
further advance may be made by running tungsten at a 
still higher temperature, or by using it in larger masses, as 
in the new Ediswan lamp. Or perhaps some other metal, 
such as chromium, mav hr xvM'd. In anv ca.se, however, it 
does not seem I hat we sliall go lieyoiid •^> ■" 1 candles per 
watt by tliLs means. 

But we are not limited t-o incandesteiu c The other 
means of attacking the problem is by stimulating the vibra- 
tions of the atotn itself. Here we come to electromagnetic 
radiation. By suitable methods the wave length of electro- 
magnetic waves, such as are used in radiotelegraphv. can 
\m- reduced to a very small figure, and if it were only po.ssible 
to continue the process we should eventually reach tlie 
wave-length of light, rnfortunately. there is still a con- 
siderable gap between the shortest electromagnetic wave 
.so far prnductnl and the longest wave-leiiL'tli in the sixx'trum 
of light. It is. therefore, necessary to adopt other methods, 
and that which promises the greatest pn>spect of success 
so far is the stimulation of these vibrati(in« electricallv in 
•_'ases. Fortunat4'ly. the sjxTtrum of the light produced by 
the electric discliarge in vacuum tubes does not extend 
down into the region of heat waves, and. therefore, the pos 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



53 



sibility of producing a suitable light from this point of view- 
is much greater — at least a high efficiency appears to be not 
impossible in this direction, whereas it is physically im- 
possible by means of incandescence. There are, howevci', 
other difficulties. The spectrum so produced may l)e dis- 
continuous, and it may be lacking in certain wave-lengths 
which arc highly desirable, and thus the light £o produced 
may differ very much from daylight. The mercury spec- 
trum is a case in point. 

These and other aspects of the ])roblcm are brought out 
in an interesting way by Di-. C. P. Steinmetz in a Paper 
which we i-eproducc to some extent on another page. There 
is, however, one point of view on which Dr. Steinmetz docs 
not touch — namely, the commercial gain attained by very 
high efficiencies. It must be remembered that the charge 
made for a supply of electric light does not consist simply 
o: a charge for the electrical energy 4hat is used. There 
arc other costs, such as the capital charges on mains and 
services, the taking of meter readings and the rendering of 
accounts. There are also establishment charges which 
have to be borne. These items are largely independent of 
the (quantity consmned. Consequently, if the amount of 
energy that is required became very small for a given amount 
of light, it would still be necessary for the charges made for 
this light to be maintained above a certahi figure. It is for 
this reason that some engineers are in favour of basing their 
tariffs on the amount of illumination that is supplied rather 
than on the amount of electrical energy that is necessary 
for operating the lamps. Obviously, if such a taiiff were 
adopted an improvement in the efficiency of light produc- 
tion would give no benefit to»the consumer. Of course 
this state of things is remedied to some extent by the 
tMidency to higher illuminations. We can iinagine that in 
the days of the rushlight the juesent-day illuminations 
would have been looked upon ;vs (|uite unnecessary and 
extravagant. It may still be that highei- illnniinations will 
bo used or that indirect methods of illumination will become 
general, in which case a still larger amount of energy will 
hi required for a given floor area. On the other hand, the 
illumination cannot be increased indefinitely without being 
harmful to the eyes, unless it can be n"'ade more nearly to 
approach daylight illumination, notwithstanding the great 
discrepancy in the number of foot-candles in the two cases. 

Apart from internal illumination, Avhere the commercial 
incentive for greatly increased efficiency seems likely tofall 
off, there is still a possibility of using very large units for 
external illumination, provided these can be made to give 
their light very efficiently. There are also other possibilities. 
Thus, it was suggested only the other day, in a discourse at 
the Royal Institution, that artificial light should be used 
to increase our agricultural output. Here it is clear that 
the use of artificial illumination on such a scale as would be 
necessary in order to produce any results of value would 
involve pi'ohibitive amounts of electrical energy unless the 
efficiency of light production were very much higher than 
it is at present. Whether such an idea has any practical 
agricultural value we are not prepared to say. So far as we 
are aware, the successful application of electricity to agri- 
culture has hitherto taken the form of unidirectional electric 
discharges, and it may, perhaps, be doubted whether mere 
illumination will produce the desired effect, though possibly 
ultra-violet sources of light might prove beneficial. In this 
and other directions, however, there will still be an incentive 
t) find m.ore efficient means of light production, m.eans not 
merely efficient in themselves, but in which the lamps to be 
used are comparatively inexpensive in first cost or have a 
very long life. 



REVIEWS. 

[Copies of tha undermentioned works can be had from The ELecriiciAN Offices, po«t 
free, on receipt of published price, adding 3d. for bookj pubUshM under 2». Ada 

10 per cent, for abroad or for foreign books.] 



Principles of Direct Current Machines. I'.v .\. S. La-nu^dubf. 

(Loiid'.ii : llill I'uhli-.tiiii;^ (o.j I'l-'. .will. . 40*. I2.h. ttd. net. 

The (jpinion has been expressed that (he preparation of text- 
books on electrical engineering should be supcrviKcd or ron- 
t rolled by a conimittec of cngincfis and teachers, and w« 
endorse 1 lie opinion. This book is om- of a .scrifS of text-bouk» 
outlined by a committee! rompo.sed of engineers whu.se names 
and works arc as well known in this ronntry as in America. 
The chairnian and corisultin;; editor is Pn>f. }[. K. Clifford, of 
Harvard, and the other members of the coininitte*- an; Profn. 
Elihu Thomson, H. J. Rvan, H. N. Norris, M. C. Beebe, E. J. 
Berg, P. M. Lincoln and G. W. Patterson, and Mr. W. I). 
Weaver, a former editor of the " Electrira! World."' The 
author is Professor of electrical engineering at the I'niversitv of 
Washington, and a Fellow of the Anicriean Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. 

This book of eleven chapters has been jircpared with the 
object of placing before junior and senior students of electrical 
en<,nneering a reasonably complete treatment of fuinlamental 
priiui])les. instead of attempting to touch tjie " high spots," 
attention has been concentratexl upon certain important* 
features which ai'e vital to a thorough grasp of the subject. 
J^'or example, the book ( ontains in Chapter HI. a full derivation 
of the rules covering armature windings (following Prof. 
Arnold), in addition to the usual description of typical wind- 
ings ; C'liajiters VI. and VII. include a considerable amount of 
new material concerning the operating: characteristics of 
generators and motors : and in Chapters VIII. and IX. there 
lias been developed a much more extensive treatment t»f the 
im})ortant subject of comnuitation than has been heretofore 
easily accessible to students of the type for whom the book is 
intended. To many students the information contained in 
each of the chapters mentioned will be worth more than the 
cost of the book. In the selection and arrangement of the 
material dealing with commutation care has been exercised in 
the elimination of those miiuite detailsjand excessive retiue- 
ments that are more likely to confuse than to clarify. 

,\ noteworthy feature of the book is that although the 
methods of the calculus have been freely \ised throughout, the 
mathematical analysis is preceded, wherever possible, by a 
full discussion of the physical facts of the problem and their 
relations to one another. The problems at the end of each 
of the first lU chapters have, for the most part, been ilcsigned 
to make the student think for himself. These problems are 
preferable to those in which a student feeds figures into one end 
of a fornuda and extracts the result painlessly from the other 
ciul by means of a slide ride. The eilucational value of direct 
substitution ])roblems is neghgibly small, and the solutiMii «»f 
niaj>v sucli ])r()l)lems is apt to be hamiful to students. \\ e can 
recommend the book to those students of electrical engineering 
Yvlio desire to obtain a sound knowledge of the fundamental 
principles of direct-current machinery and appjii-atus. 
An Introduction to the Principles of Physical Chemistry. By 

R. W. Uashbukx. (London : Hill t'lil-iisiim-; Co.) Vy. \\\. : il5. 
lo.x. not. 

The purpose of this book is to present the principles of 
modern physical chemistry in the form of a systematic course of 
instruction and training." While designed primarilv for those 
who intend to become professional chemists or physicists, it 
will nevertheless be useful to those who wish to obtain a u.sahlc 
knowledge of the subject. The author rightly presents the 
subject in such a manner as to requiit the student to do a 
large part of the reasoning for himself. 

A knowledge of elementaiy chemistry and goncial j^hysics 
is assumed asNvell as a training in mathematics which mcludes 
the elements of the calculus. The author is entirely out of 
.■vmpath V with those authors who assume a somewhat apologetic 
attitude, and who explain that students must take on faith 
•■ these few derivations." With thislack of sympathy we cordially 



54 



THE ELECTUICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



agree, and we welcome tlic autlior's statement that if a student 
h<)])cs to employ the laws and principles of the suljject in an 
intelligent and confident manner, he is strongly advised to 
acquire the elements of the calculus before 
attempting to secure any special training in 
jilivsical chemistry. It is well that those 
who intend to take up chemistry as a pro- 
fession " after the war " should know that 
the ahility to earn a living wage necessitates 
a good deal of preliminary work. 

Apart from the author's use of malho- 

niatics, however, we like the book, because the 

treatment is sound, and because an endeavour 

has been mad'i to get duwii to the bed-rock 

o; the suVjject. As implied by the title, no 

attempt has been made to deal with labora- 
tory work, and it is assumed that the book 

will be used in conjunftion with a closely 

(correlated laboratory course. We venture to 

lliitik tliat many of those wlio use this modern 

book would welf'oni'' praciical guidance by 

the author and for this reason we Iiope that 

a companion volume is contemplated. 

The most radical departure from the 

faiscom which has prevailed heretofore in 

most text books on the subject, is in con- 
nection with the manner in which atomistics 

and iMoleciilar kinctit^s are treated. These 

systems are treated by the author as facts 

already established beyond the possibility 

of rea.sonable doubt, and. together with 

thermodyi'.amics. are made (o serve as 

the framework for the development of the whole subject. 

In many cases the development of the princij)les, and in 

a'.l ca-ses their applicaticms, are ])re.sented in the f(»rm of 

jiroblems, of whicli the book contains a considerable number. 

The name index, in addition to the subject index, will be found 

useful by many readers. We can unreservedly recommend 

the bodk to all those who are well grounded in cliemistry, 

j)hysics ajid mathematics, and who desire to pave the way to 

bigger books on this most important subject. 



The ampere-hour efficiency at all rates is guaranteed to be 90 per 
cent. The watt -hour efficiency is guaranteed to be not less than 
75 per cent, at the live-hour rate, 72 per cent, at the two-hour rate 




LARGE ACCUMULATOR SUB-STATION OF THE 
METROPOLITAN ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. 

It JH KoMic years Binie the largeut battery of ucrunjuhitors in this 
country v,ii» put down at .ManchoHter for the purpose of meeting the 
peak load, and in the intcrv.il then- has l)t<cn ampir time for engineers 
to satisfy thcm.Melves tlial .inch an investment can la- justiiicd. We 
now have to record that the Mctn)|x)litan Klectric Supply Co. have 
recently c(iniplef«'ii a new lialt ry Kul)-Htati<in. which tvintains what 
iH prolialily the bccond hirgi st hallery in Hie < imntry. from the point 
of view of anifHTo-hourH, applierl to this cIh*<s of work. 

The siihstation is in Kanie street. Holltorn. and ha«< lieen ere( ted 
in order to imrea.sc the plant in that district. Provision is m.tde in 
the linildinv for four complete imtlerip«, one of which has Ik-om 
inst.dled in llie liaNcnH-nl. It hius Iwen .supplied hy the Chloride 
Kleclricai Storage Co. (Ltd.). The battery coiisist.s of III) (ells of 
their C.V.W. 2» tyiK« accnnuilator in lead-lined pit<hpine Ikixob. the 
eajiacity varyinkj with the rat«- of disrhanie iw folhiws : 

1.20(t i\\\\]». till 1(1 111. IK- to IS Milt- )t( r cell l2.(HMt nmp. hours. 
L'.(Hin .. 1-78 .. l".C(Mt 

:<.snii .. -J 17 7.t!<Mi 

(i.OOO I 1 •••■- ., <>.<HHI 

H.(M10 .. :(.■) miniit. -. 
ri.tKIO I ninnilc 

l.">.tMi<i niomontnrily. 

The norma! maxinnim charging rate of the o. Mei\ i^ I.UKi ani- 
jM'ivs; the n\aNnnnm ionlmno<i.H chargnig rate is 2,r.7<» amiH-rps; 
the nuixinnim charging voltage is 2-0 volt,s |n>r Cell. 

The |>.isilive plates an- of the well known Vlant^ <.vpr. !.tippliofl l»y 
llit> Chloride Company, ami the negative plates are of tin- Uix ty|ie. 
The plates are sejmrated l»y wood «lowrls e.irrying Ix^ard m |«.trators. 
«n«l an« sns)>ended on stout gla«s sl-dis rating on. and held m fwisilion 
by. lead whoes. 



Fig. 1. — View of Battery Room. 



and 70 per cent, at the one-hour rate. The general data of the cells 
;ire as follows : — 

Nnmher of positive ])latos per cell 26 

negative .. „ 27 

Dimensions of p«)8itive plates HiJ in. x 4(iJ in. X ^ in. 

negative „ Ui^ in. y 4(1;' in. x ,^ in. 

Overall dimensions of cell 21 J in. x49|i in. xO.iJ in. 

Hei<;ht of cell overall 68J in. 

Weight of jjositive plate 90 lb. 

„ full ncfrativo ]ilate 41 lb. 

„ end nejiativo i>late .'{4 1b. 

„ plates in one cell 3.4."»2 lb. 

„ acid in one cell 1.700 1b. 

cell complete with aeid «.08U lb. 

Appro.x. weight of complete batterj' exclusive of stands. 298 tons 1 1 cwt. 

It will lie noticed that the plates are unusually deep in projxirtion 
to the width. Each cell is supi>ort(>d on 12 glass insulators of the 



C»X*.^'^'T<" 



■fe^^ 



iht 







ft^ 



■ ,J. .,.M,I I 



1 




L. 



1^*'- v-x"'. -, 



Fio. 2 — 8KCTI0N.V1. Klkv.\tion ofChu>bide C.V.W. Celt 

" nuishrooin " type. The .stands are of pitrh-p nc. and ;m- supjKMted 
on strong >jla7.«il e;«rthenware insulators. The ditTenMit n>ws of colls 
are eonneotitl together by means of flat copper bars bol'«"<l to copper 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL U, 1010. 



oo 



take-offs cast into tho channel bans at end of cells, each connection 
being composed of four bars, each 4 in. by ] in., an air s])ace being 
left between each bar. These bars are suspended from the ceiling 




Fig. 3. — View of Battery Room showing Suspension of Conductors and Suction 

Trunk Ventilator. 

b_y means of iron rods insulated from copper by globe strain insulators 
and insulated turn -buckles. The battery is als > connected to the 
boosters and switchboard by means of similar bars, the bars being 
well painted. Figs. 1 and 3 give a good idea of the battery and Fig. 2 
shows the details of a cell. Owing to the unusual depth of the cells 
the necessary floor area is corre pondingly reduced. 

The battery-room floor is of special construction, as seen in Fig. 4. 
Metalline bricks are laid on edge in rows of sufficient width to carry 
the glazed earthenware insulators for supporting the battery stands. 



floor and making a solid foundation for the batteries. TIic arrange- 
ment is well shown in Fig. '.i, in the lower p-irt of which the coa->truc- 
tion is seen in detail on an enlarged scale, .Metalline bricks are non- 
porous, and therefore are not [*netrate*J by acid ; 
on the other hand, they are strong. Thii* niethfxl 
of coastruction, therefore, provides the neceswary 
stren^^th to carry tho weight of the cell.s, and at the 
same time affords protection from acid action on 
the cement below. 

A sump is provided in the floor, into which any 
acid can be brush(;d and neutrali.-icfl Ixfore pump- 
ing into the drain. 

On the roof of the building are tw(j .■i«MJ.gallon 
tanks containing distilled water, which is di.s- 
tributed by pipework about the battery room, 
and is taken to the cells for toppin/ ' .f 

rubber hose with a wooden cock a v 

end. 

Two motor-driven boosters to deal with the 
present battery have been installed, suppiie<i by 
the Electric Construction Co., of Wolverhampton. 
Each consists of one intcrpole motor of llii b.h.p., 
210/240 volts at .500 revs, per min., and two i nter- 
pole boosters, the lields of which can be reversed 
so as to boost up or dowii, each capable of giving 
1,890 amperes at lG-7 volts continuously, 2,.3<JO 
amperes at 12 volts for two hours and 3,(XK) 
amperes at 10 volts for one hour, the boosters being 
separately excited off 210/240 volts, and each 
having one commutator which is ventilated 
through slots in the centre o' the commutator 
between two s eel rings. This plant is seen in Fig.6. 
The machines are connected by Zodel-Voith 
flexible couplings, have four bearings on one 
combination bedplate and are fitted with carlxjn 
brushes. 

The efficiency of each booster for the loads above mentioned is 
69 per cent, at 1,800 amperes, 62 per cent, at 2,.'500 amperes,'and 
56 per cent, at 3,000 amperes. The efficiency of the motor is 91 per 




'^ t^. P ?^^ ,Zerc/ 





Elevation. 

) 



Side E^levation. 

■^ 5 Feet. 



Metalling Bricks. 



pP^^ 



f Acid Proof As p!'::!tc ■ 
<X^^'"''^'^. Floor 



_j 






M 



Detc 
Fig 




Level 



Meta lline Brick r) 



' "■■.:■ ■ ■ • yCemen :' Screed -% '-i ■ \ 

- 'oVi-o; ■■■»:;;« ■■:»-:V z:'": ¥^V;;^ 



5 of Metalline Brick 

. -1 — Details of Flooring 



Setting. 



These bricks are laid in grout in rows 9 in. wide directly on the cement 
screed of a concrete floor. A space of about }t in. is left between each 
brick, which is iilled in with cement to a depth of about 1 in. from 
the bottom of the bricks. Acid-proof asphalt compound of a thickness 
of 1 in. is laid over the whole of the cement linish to floor. A iillet 
is formed round the bricks to 1^ in. above the level of the surrounding 
asphalte and ironed against the rough surface of the bricks. The 
.i in', spaces between bricks are also filled with this compound to tht; 
iQvel of the toj^face and sides of bricks, thus forming an acid-proof 




Ylf.^ i).-rNKOATlVE B00S1^.-B,UTEKy.. SwlTCHBOAEp. . . 

D 2 



56 



THE KJ.KCTRICiAN, APKII. 14, 191(3. 



♦ „•«». «.wl. U^,^u.r wlu-ii yiviiiL' -WJ kw The hwitclitrear for bottom 'bas bar, the battery through two 4,000-aiiii)ere switches 
Tu ,rtr t , Zt :r: ,'nSiS.I :.; ,lr<:.H^J o< .he i,. v^r^m o„ d..,,,- ,x,le, a„d .ho .ucon, H„d .=«lens ...rough .„i.ch 
,^'hin.r'nL .ur.i,.g »»i.ch co„«i».. .,( um- i,..,.rl„.k..<l ..la.- Ium,, each feeder having two fuses m imrallel. 




J.'],;. (). — Views ok Hoosters anp SwiTCHBo\ni). 



Iinak kiiiff fwil<lic-, and Ihr boDstrr Held regulators are of the 
|NMlcHtal |Htl«-iiti<mieler tvjM-. These iiiuehiiu-s are mxn ill Fig. 6. 

One batterv nnlkuiK I (M)Nt<T. su])|ilied by the Klectric < oust ruction 
Co.. ha.s jil«!) Iwen installed, consisfinn of an iiiterjKjIe motor for 
220 voltM, eonnei'tofi through a tiexible coupling to an iutcrpDle booster 
givint; I. •")'•<• ani|M'res at !<• \nlts wlini nnining at ."»".') revs, jmt inin. 
The nia< hiiie.s are pro\ ide<l wit h four l>eanngs, and are mounted ujkhi 
a eoml>ination be<lplate. together with the noccHsary Kwit<-hgear. 
The iHHi.sicr in coniH't le<l up to <op|wr bars su|i|M)rled l>y globe strain 
uiMulilors under the l)a;«'ment eciiing. as shown ui Kig. 2. Portable. 
Hexibh' h-atln an- uwhI im euniieetioiiH fnun thr-s*- bars to the n-lls. 



Twelve tif the conijiiiMys feeders, forming part of the network 
in Eagle-street, were cut, both ends of each feeder being brought 
into the station and connected to the 'bus bars through iieigh1»ouring 





Plan 
Kio. 7.— Dktaiu* or Amxktkh Swit« mk.v 



■ t "-»! 



r^ 



!^*i 



The HWitchgear. supplied by the Hntiith Thom.Min Houston Co.. 
con.sistj* of one main l»oAnl (or fer<len«. nv ■• mhI Ivittrry. ohm 
negative and batterv iwnel. oiiP positive ai. v |>Bnrl and one 

inslDiiuent jviml. The niaui swit< hlx>anl. slmwn mi Fig. fi. .nc»>ni- 
nuidaloj* the battery eonne< tioni«. lield and n>ot»»r <-<inuretions and 
24 triple tMinerntrie foedrn*. It enn<u8ti« of nix ff^rdrr imneU. one 
ntn'or and battery ]vinel an<l one jvinel earrying four l.'WNi amjirn' 
divulmg swit(-hes for dividmg the feetlrrn mto two sTrtion.-". the 
MiMitral Imr having a «Y»vrring plate fur thin purpnwp. Thorp are 
double ]>OHitivo and neg.itivi> in pjier "biin hnrn. («» nrraneed th.it 
lo dprs or tuttery and motors lAn U^ •onu'-clecl on to cither lop or 






c 
C 



^•<4il 



Fio. 8. — DKT.\n. or S.OOO-amvkrk Swrrrn. ' 



— _ . 


J 






- - _ . 








.i 


~ 



dl 



~ ^ 



•f 



fuse,-. Thv feeders r.in. therefore. Ik* l>oosted up i».s requin-d. and the 
battery current lo available in the feeders in either or lK)th directionb. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1910. 



57 



The triple concentric feeders are of either 0-8 sq. in. or 1 sq. in. 
in section. Ammeters, voltmeters and switches for these arc pro- 
vided on the board. ni^ ' k^h^u ■ 

The negative booster and battery switchboard and the positive 
ditto are at opposite sides of the machine room, as shown in Fig. 6. 
The negative switchboard is shown in Fig. 5 Mounted on it are two 
5,000 ampere switche.s for No. 1 Ijoo.ster, two o.OOO ampere 'rwitohe-i 
foe \o. 2 booster and one 8,00()ampero switch lor the battery con- 
iM'clioii, f<Mir voldncters. one recording voKinclcr and omv. iccoirbiig 
iunmeter. The switches on llu^ ]H)sitive switchboard arv similar to 
those on the negative panel, the instruments being two voltmeters, 
one ammeter and one charge and discharge Aron watt-houi- irieter. 

These switchboards are arranged so that either the first or second 
machine, or the two in parallel, can be connected to the existing 
l)attery or to a second battery. An instrument panel carrying live 
ammeters is fixed by the side of the positive panel. 

1'wo interesting details of the svvitchgear are shown in P^igs. 7 and 
8. The former shows the linked switches for putting an ammeter 
on to any one of four feeders. The instrument is coimected to tlu^ 
common terminals A^, A^, and each, shunt to a prJr of terminals, 
H,, B2. Since the drop is most important in such cases the con- 
tacts are made of ample area. Fig. 8 shows details of one of the main 
switches. In addition to the hinge-bolt A, the blades arc slotted so 
as to embrace a bolt B. If over-heating occurs both these bolts can 
be tightened up when the switch is closed. 

The basement is ventilated by means of two fans belt-driven from 
a motor, one a low-press j re fan drawing air from outside and dis- 
charging into the basement through wooden trunks situated on the 
floor and carried nearly the full length of the building at either side ; 
a portion of one of these trunks is shown in Fig. 1. The other fan 
is a high-pressure one, drawing air through a wooden trunk fixed to 
the ceiling of the basement and discharging at the top of building ; 
a portion of this trunk is shown in Figs. 1 and 3. In this case, owing 
to the acid nature of the air, the drxught is of the induced type, 
the shaft being restricted where the fan discharges. 

The building consists of a basement, ground, first and second 
floors. The basement and ground floor were each designed to carry 
two batteries similar to the one now installed. The iirst floor was 
designed to carry all the boosters required for the four batteries, and 
also the necessary switchgear. For the present, however, the 
boosters and switchgear are erected on the ground floor, thus saving 
a considerable amount of copper. 

>* The contractors for the building were Messrs. Geo. Andrews & Co. 
The steelwork was supplied by Messrs. Drew, Bear, Perks & Co., 
the architect being Mr. J. W. Stanley Burmester. The building and 
plant were erected under the supervision of the Metro jjolitan Electric 
Supply Co.'s engineers, to whom we would express our thanks for 
their courtesy in giving us full details of the installation. 



under the direction of a man of commercial experience. A3 a 
matter of policy this is, of course, following the mo.st approved 
practice. But it still leave.'? open the main que-^tion —viz., for 
the Board to refomi themselves. 

Worce.ster .\pril 7. R. FiTZMOP.Ri?. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



METROPOLITAN ELECTRIC! SUPPLY CO. 

TO THE EDITORS OF THE ELECTRICIAN. 

I am sure that everyone with any real business grasp of the 
problems of electric supply will share your attitude of 
" astonishment " at the statements forthcoming at the annual 
meeting of the Metropolitan Company. 

It is not a case where any good can come from suggesting 
personal blame. The indispensable fact stands, however, 
that things are not going as they ought to go. The obvious 
course is to begin reformation at the top, and it is at the top — 
namely, the Board — where one can justly suggest an obvious 
emendation. For instance, it is a fact that there is not on the 
Board one man who is bij profesfiion a specialist on electricity 
supply. The problems which are involved in running such a 
company as the Metropolitan demand such men, and a modi- 
cum of such should be represented on the Board. Until such 
man or men are put on the Board there is no hope of the com- 
pany steering into less troubled waters. 

It is clear that there are a good many points in the com- 
pany's policy, and even system, that come under just criticism. 
However, the thing at present is to get the company out of its 
mess, and this can only be done by a supplementing of the 
Board in such particular. 

Incidentally, we can at least give credit to the Board for 
their exercise of business acumen in the attempt to separate 
the engineering from the business side, and to put the latter 



MKThODS I'oK DKTKRMfNIXfl ThK OHADINU OF 
STAHTIN(5 AN!) I'.KAKK PwKSI.«<TAN«'ES KOlt 

SKHIKS-MOTOltS. 

TO TUK EDITORS OF TIIK EI.EfTRl" l A n . 

In the issue of The Electricia.v of March 3r(l there i» an 
article by Dr. C. C. Garrard giving metlifxln for calculating and 
graphically detennining tln^ starting re.si.stancef« for direct- 
current nu)t()rs. The authf)r treats fir.^fc the Hhunt-motor an 
the most simple case, and then gives a graphical methcxl for 
the series-motor due to Brag.stad. Thi.s method start.*? from a 
supposition which is iu)t cr)rrect ; it suppo.;'-.^ that the }»ack 
E M.F. remains constant at the nu)nu'.it of changing over from 
contact to contact. This would be ai)proximately exact if in 
the starting ])eri()d the field-magnets were near saturation. 
Railwaymen know that in most cases, es])pcially i>u railway.-* 
or tramways with some steep gradients wh^re motor.-? of 
relatively great power are used, this does not conform to the 
facts. Further, it is not practical to take /<- (being the curn-nt 
at which the torque is equal to the opposing tongue) as th" 
minimum current during the sfarting period, because it takes 
too much time at each step of the controller for the current to 
fall to Ic. Therefore, the method as given in The Electriclw 
on p. 773 gives a rough appro.ximation which only in a few cases 
may be considered. as sufficient. 

It may be, therefore, of some u.se to call att^jution to an 
article, which I published in 1899 in the '■ Elektrotechnisciie 
Zeitschrifi:,"' p. 277, wiierein I gave an exact method for the 
calculation and graphical determination of the starting resis- 
tances for series-motors. To use this method it is only ne-es- 
sary to know the magnetising curve of the motor -that is to 
say, the curve of the back E.M.F. as a function of the current 
at a constant speed (the most practical course is to take the 
speed of one rev. per min.). 

This article gives first a discussion of the limit^s betwo?:i 
which the current must fluctuate during the starting period. 
Then it deals with the calculation and graphical construction 
of resistances in the most usual case of a series-parallel c<;»n- 
troller. It treats of the case when, after all the starting- 
resistances are cut out, the speed of the motor is accelerated by 
diminishing the magnetic field. The shunt-resistances that 
must be switched into the field-winding are determintnl. It 
shows further that the grading of resistances for a shunt - 
motor is onlv a special case of the method for series-motors. 

Finally, tiiis Pai)er gives an exact nu-thod for «letermining 
the brake resistaiu-.es for series-motors. Tliis part of the 
article is important, because it permits us to detennme the 
E.M.F. which may occur when, at a given sp.n^tl. the electric 
brake is thrown on. Railway and tramway men know that 
when the speed is high the tension can b-come very high aud 
dangerous for the motor and car equipment. The methixl 
above mentioned permits us to calculate this tension exactly, 
and so it is possible to take the necessary prec.vutiou-^^^ 
Arnhem (Holland), March 29. 



F. Krkxs. 



POYNTfNCrS TFTEOREM AXO ItV>iTKRE>iIS. 

TO THE EDITORS OK THE El.ElTRUl.\N. 

Poynting's theorem, which expresses the fa-t tluit in aiiy 
region thc'ftux of energv is in a direction at right angles t^> t^ 
directions of the f )rces E and H, has heretofore been develoj^ed 
without taking into account the work done by cvcUc electro- 
static and electronuignetic hvsteresis. 

In the following the above hysteresis is taken into accomit 
by means of a hvsteresis operator, which is a fimction of tht 
Q„. operators discussed in a Paper on iron losses m IHE r.LLc- 
TRiciAX of July 23, 1915. 

Thus, if H=^H,„ax. sin pt, and . ^ , . 

( aiSin^jZ+aa^'^^^/^'fJ 



58 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL U, 1916. 



then it is possibl^^ ^'> Aiitn B=/iH, 

where /r //, , l «i-r/^i^-j+(a3+^-3jj^3+i • " 

Then, (using Heaviside's notation, see his '' E.M.T.,'' Vol. I. 
Chap, ir.) :— 

with the understanding that fx and c are now scalar differential 
time operator functions. 

The magnetic, activity therefore becomes : — 
_^/B _ . _ fIB. , d 



fit 



-Hcu,lE^;.-^-=5/',„m- 



On the (itlier liand, the electric activity is given by 

EcurlH_c''fE=.kf-(E2). 
dt - dt 

Thus, the total electric and magnetic activity, wliich includes 

the hysteresis losses, are given by an energy convergence 

functiori 

—div W = -H curl E+E curl H. 

By means of the operator V it can be shown that 

divW-^div lEH \yT,T3.. 
Such operator y being in |)ait scalar : 

v.EH «i> n.e;;« 

which can easily bo transformed into 

V ' EH H<urlE-EcurlH^div I'EH, • 
or W-IEH. 

ITowever, the extension of the theorem of divergence given 
ih Hcavisidc's '• K.M.T.,"' Vol. I., ]>. 1<)1, formula (148) can be 
written in the foUowing form : - 

f^VO'/C-j N(),/B, 

where the ( ) indicates the operand, in this case it is W- Thus, 

1 ''('.Er-; : .',„HVC 1 W<IS. 
) Z'll - ■' ' s 

1 1 E and H be in lh<' surface d8 then the Hii.K of energy to 
make up for the activity within the ench)sed surface is at right 
anph's to such surface. 

New Vork. A. Pkess. 



PATENT RECORD. 



The f •' 
ipeciai 
70 an.i 

V/ff 
at the I . 



BPECIFICATI0N8 PUBLISHED. 

•ft -J n:r ,' /',' '; -:i'icaUons recently puNisfud hai/e been 
Mi'.vi. ■! :.. i. ij U Pryor, Chartered Patent Agents, 

the application was lodged 



1914 : 

13,951 NaTMUSIUS * Wr;T: ItrT-.m-T 

for motall 
24.056 Sharvan. / 

applicsti' t 

24,170 Bbrry. E: ■ radiator? 

1915 r 
?47 Mki.scMB-Smith. Magncto-clci 



-■.i-WbkkeCes. Electric (urnaMS 

- I resenc« of electric conductors. (Cognate 



3.841 



r lighllnii, charKlng and ignition 
& Electric Co.. Bbli, Ik Barclay. Electric itep-bystep 



3.856 L . ,R Akt.-Ors. 

A; ' thi' FT'Dri' 

curr 
wh( 



3,i;i.. 1 

3,932 S 9 

3.94<J Hahkl. u. In. .4 df 
3.950 Db Kori-st & L v. 
*.M-I H.-^iT A SvTM Oil-.- 
4.2?V Wa:'F. (L'-'- <!5 > I- 

4.401 W" ■ • ■■ ■■ 

4.432 li 
A 

thro«»-lin 

tlip two 

centrallimbul Uioc»iic. 



..H 



t and apparatus lor windlnR the armatures of electric 



n»r«y«»»w 'P'JM.* 



n 



5,017 Baronig&Wood. Automatic telegraph transmitters. 

5,628 RuDD. Electric lamp locic. 

SJbb V/ooD-KA.nD. Train-signalling and trair. -control systems, 

6.723 RosEHBERc. Equalising field windings for multipolar dynamo-electric machines. 

7.492 Railing & ioE.' Electric soldering irons. • 

8.353 North. Tield telephone and telegraph apparatus. 

9,428 B.T.-H. Co. (G.E.Co.) X-ray apparatus.- . , .. 

An X-ray tube of increased capacity is provided by rotating the tube as a whole 
and deflecting the cathode beam out of line with the axis of rotation, thus renewing 
the surface subjected to the discharge while keeping the focal spot fixed in space. 
10 803 Emil Habfeley et Cie. Vacuum drying and impregnating device, more espe- 
cially suitable for treatment of the coils of electrical machinery and apparatus. 
(24 7/14 ) 
13,754 Standard Company. Stationary electrode for igniters. (26/9/14.) 
l."; 989 Markt Terminal for electric switches, couplings and the like. 
1 7 690 British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. Electrically-controlled electric 
circuit-breakers. (29/12,14.) 

1916 Specifications. 
100,086 Baumaijn, F. P. Dry battery. (16/2/15.) 



ic-current commu- 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS 

Note.— The undermentioned Applications {except those marked t) are not open to 
public inspection until after acceptance of Complete Specifications. Those marked • are 
open to inspection 12 months after the date attached to them, it they have not been published 
previously in the ordinary course. Names within parentheses are those ot communicators 
of inventions. When complete Specification accompanies application an asterisk is affixed. 

February 28. 1916. 

2.920 Steven?. Means of control for petrol-electric cars. 

2.924 Green. Controlling the ignition period in magneto-electricmachines. 

2.945 Peti/.eky &SHERIF.'--. Electrical contacts. 

2.950 McKenzie & Holland & .Wood. Block instruments for railway sienalling, &c 

2,961 CiDDEN. Electrolysis ofsolutions of alkali chlorides. 

2.968 Fuller & Fuller & Fuller. Galvanic batteries. 

2.976 Constantinesco & Haddon. Variable capacity for wave-transmission systems. 

2.977 Marks. iLander'-.Frary & Clark.) Electric heaters. 

2,986 CAllender & Callender's Cable & Construction Co. Electric cables. 

February 29, 1916. 
3,002 Kerr. Railway, &c., signalling 
3,006 Lambert. Ships' telegraphic apparatus, &c. 
3.029 Hamilton. Electric battery lamp. i^ 

3.036 B.T.-H. Ck3. &' Shuttleworth. Polyphase alternating eMpic 
tator machines. 

March 1,1916. 
3,052 O'GoRMAN St Whiddington. Electric condensers. 
3,057 Green. Magr;eto-electric machines. 
3,059 Grccctt. Cleat for carrying two separate wires or cables. 
3.062 Austin. Sparking-plugs for internal-combustion engines. 
3.067 Etchells & Greaves. Electric furnaces. 
3,074 Mardbn-Ranger. Searchlight gun. 
3,076 Strohmenger. Electric welding or fusion-deposition of metafe 

3.087 Brock & Hirst. Electricswitches, especially for con trolling electric motors. 

3.088 Stobie. Reducing electrode consumption in electric steel-melting furnaces. 
3,114 Schneider. Regulating voltage of direct-current dynamo. 

3.122 HoLLisTER. Magneto-electricmachines. 

March 2. 1916. 
3.134 Clarke. Condenser for laboratory purposes. 
3.161 Walker. Battery cells. (17/3/15, U.S.) 

3.164 Ewen & Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Suspending and insulating elec- 

trical conductors. 

3.165 DOWSETT& Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Studs or electrodes of electric 

dischargers. 
3,192 Chitty Dynamo-electric machines. 

March 3, 1916. 
Ford. Power transmitters. 
Boothroyd & Callender's Cable & Construction Go. 

electric wiring systems. 
B.T.-H. Co. (C.E. Cka.) Driving mechanism for machines. . 
Ewe;: & Marconi's Wifeless Telegraph Ck). Measuring instruments, relays, &C. 
Walker. P 

aring apparatus. (4/3/15. U.S.) 
, .... .j.iLiCope Co.) Voltage-regulating systems for electrical 



3.224 
3.227 

3.230 
3.233 
3.234 
3.254 
3,255 



Earthed concentric 



Wunsch. 

CiLLMOR. 

circuits 



3,266 
3.286 
3.294 
3.298 
3.299 

3.331 
3.334 
3.33o 
3.346 

3.363 
3.364 

3.376 
3.37^ 

3..' 
3.J 



Mar;h 4 
Neil. Signalling appliances fc ■ 
Edwards & Woor>. Electric-c . 
B.T.-H. Co. (G.E.Co.) Electric i: 
Midclev & Vandekvell t Cc. El' 
MiDOLBv 8i Vandervbll ii Co. Hie 

March 6. 1916. 
Stevens. (k)ntrol fr -ctric cars. 

EcK & KnaiT.tn. • A 

Cornbillb. Incanat-n III 'iv^iric lamps. 
JoBL & Mawdslby. Dynamo-electric machinery. 

7. 1916. 
Neil. SiRnallingappliani ■ ri«!s. &c 

(^atbs. £''■■•"-•■••' — 
Davis. M . 

F: l;Mi';,j. ' -liv^ior of sr« , '... 



1916. 
&c. 
rc»ls. Sic. 

• arc devioe&, 
;ies. 
-:cnsicn magnetos. 



ating-current 



3.391 I- F. Co.l Vacuum apparatus. 

3.394 S; : ;-. a:. " •''Tn*. 

3,410 Oi r^HAM. '■ 

3,413 Dawson 4tH ....... v ..; ..,,... ;..s for electric motors. 

March 8. 1916. 
*' ' '-j'rlclamps. 



3.- 

3.i., 

3.460 Brown. 



.Sic 



3.490 Nkiu 



Sipr 



V,„ , V. 1916. 
■^s for collieries, ftc 




5)t^-': 


5 Genna»»y.) 
-y.) 

•.on. 


•■^ 


• equipments. 




•ranpements for telephone 



3, Mo (.^l.AFKE. All ;.::,: -.i:- ;._ 

3.^ . ^ V - ■ 

3 

3.i- r 
3.599 F' 

3.' 

9^.b2i Dghin. (Site J. S.liiViit'i e\ Cie.) Eiiamellinb and colourlhie electric lamp bulbs 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



59 



0)MMERCIAL^|^DUSTRIAL SECTION. 



CONTENTS. 



Commercial Topics 

Imports and Exports of Elec- 
trical Manufactures 

Lkgal Intelligenck 

Educational Notes 

Business Notices 

Liquidations, &c 

Electricity Supply 

Traction Notes 

Telegraph and Telephone 
Notes 

Foreign Notes 

Miscellaneous Notes 



59 

60 
60 
61 
61 
61 
61 
63 

63 
63 
63 



The Round Table 

Robey Semi- Portable Steam 
Engines. Illustrated .... 



Industrial Lanterns. Illus- 
trated 10 

" Reason " Manufactures. 
ID ustrated 11 

"Efesca" Lanterns. Illus- 
trated 13 

An Interesting Portable Plant. 
Illustrated 14 



Tenders Invited 64 

Tenders Received & Accepted 65 

Municipal Accounts 65 

Companies' Meetings and 

Reports 66 

New Companies 67 

City Notes 67 

Electrical Companies' Share 

List _ 68 



COMMERCIAL TOPICS. 



Progress of 

Automatic 

Telephony. 



At the recent meetmg of the Automatic Tele- 
phone Manufacturing Co. (Ltd.), the chairman 
(Mr. James Taylor, J. P.) gave an interesting 
account of the progress made by the company 
in equipping automatic telephone exchanges. He sa'd that 
during the past year they had succeeded in bringing into service 
automatic telephone exchanges at Rosario (Argentina), Newport 
(Hon.), Accrington and Chepstow, as well as several smaller but 
important exchanges. With regard to the smaller exclianges it 
might be interesting to note that in cases where a 24 hours' day was 
being worked it frequently became desirable to install an automatic 
exchange as compared with eight hours a day conditions, because 
three operators instead of one were displaced. The company had 
in hand important automatic exchanges at Portsmouth, Paisley, 
Leeds and Blackburn. These exchanges were in an advanced state, 
but owing to the war progress was slow. The Leeds exchange might 
be further delayed on account of a large extension, but it was hoped 
that the other three would be completed and brought uito use during 
the current year. He also stated that all the automatic exchanges in 
use in this country, as well as in Argentina and in India, were working 
quite satisfactorily. Further progress will probably be checked by 
the war, as the Post Office, though convinced that automatic appa- 
ratus can give a satisfactory service, may like further experience 
under normal working conditions. 

* * * * 

-J. _ , , . , The Government have appointed a Commission 
Indian Industrial ^ i ^^^ ., •■ i..- 

i^ , ""^""*' ^Q examme and report upon the possibilities 

Development. ^^ further industrial development m India, 

with special reference to possible openings for the profitable em- 
ployment of Indian capital and the development of the resources of 
the In dian Empire. 

Though the Commission will not meet until October, the chairman (Sir 
Thomas Holland) is going to Bombay to make a prcliminarj' tour and 
arrange for a promjit investigation. It is to be hoped that the changes 
in Imperial and international relations rendered inevitable by the war 
will provide opportunities for Indian development. In addition to the 
chairman two other members will go out to India and assist in making 
local investigations. These members are Sir Horace Plunkett and 
Dr. Edward Hopkinson, M.A. . Dr. Hopkinson is well known to our 
readers as managing director of Messrs. Mather & Piatt and deputy- 
chairman of the Chloride Electrical Storage Co. He is a viee-president 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, a member of the Institutions 
of Civil and Electrical Engineers, &c., and is well qunlifi( d to act as a 
member of the Commission. 

* * * * 

Registration '^^^^ Government have decided that the Regis- 
of Firms tration of Firms Bill cannot be treated as a non- 

contentious measure, and under the circum- 
stances there is not much chance of the Bill becoming law in the 
current session. We regret this, because we think the measure could 
be so modified in Committee as to become quite a useful piece of 
jegislation. 



Trade of the '^:' intcreHtiug k,k-.< 1. wa^ .i \>yU,rd 

Fmnirp affpr Crewe at the recent luncheon _ in honour 

the War ^^ ^^^ ^^"' ^^ 'Thonia« MacKimzie (High Com- 

missioner for Xesv Zf-aland), thf Hon. W. P. 
Schreiner (High Commissioner f(jr S<juth .-Vfrica) and the Ifon. Sir 
G. H. Perley (Acting High (Commissioner for Canada). 

Lord CuEwK said that he believed that the result of the war wouW be a 
closer connection between the Old Toiintiy and tin- I)(jininionH. The 
most ardent evangelist of a new (iscai system woiild admit that the pro- 
ject of an econon'iic union between tlie differei.' ' ' tf 
coukl only be carried out by surmounting great < >t 
only the domestic relations of different parts of the Kinpir-, i -.r 
extensive relations (jf the Empire and other countries. J h' no 
upholder of our existing system who would not be prepared to admit 
that those difFiculties demanded further study and examination in comse- 
quimce of this vast convulsion, which had atlected not merely the com- 
mercial relations but all the relations of the whole world. !;■ ' ' ;re 
we should be bound to consider a closer union, with pra. ne 
annihilation of distance as regards ordinary communication. If we ever 
got a cable service or wireless system both cheap and universal — and va»t 
improvements had taken place and would be suie to take place in the 
possibilities of individual communication, and the time mii^ht come 
when the shortest and cheapest route to the Dominions would be through 
the air —the time might not be very distant when a closer form of union 
between the Dominions and oursch-es might be projwunded. 

Sir Geo. Per;,f.y agreed that steps should be taken to make the 
Empire self-contained and economically independent ; and Sir TnoM.\.s 
MacKen/.ih also agreed that a scheme for closer union shoidd be evohTd. 



Patent Law 
Reform. 



American 

Profit-sharing 

Scheme. 



At the recent annual meeting of the Society of 
Dyers and Colourists the new president (Dr. 
R6eas), in returning thanks for his election, 
referred to the present position of our patent law. He said he had 
been particularly interested in the question of patent law as affecting 
the chemical and aniline colour mdustry. The patent law as it was 
to-day was in favour of the foreign manufacturer and against the 
best interests of the home manufacturer, and they would all agree 
with him that one of the first things that wouid have to be done to 
help the industry in which they were much interested would be to 
alter that law m such a way that that crying injustice might be done 
away with. He was quite satisfied that, with reasonable assistance 
in various directions, there was no reason why the colour industry 
should not be established on really successful lines in this country. 

* * • * 

The directors of the General Electric Co., of 
New York, have recently decided to give aH 
emplo3ee8 who have been with them for tive 
years or more a bonus of 5 y^r cent, of their 
annual salaries. The com]Mny employs over l>0,tK>0 ixrsons, and 
fair proportion of this number will share hi the ilistribution. 

It is stated that the bonus has nothing to do with any incidental profits 
made from war orders or with present good carninas. s;\ve so f.ir a-- tho 
profits have given the proper financial basis- ui>on which to mitiate the 
profit-sharing pohcv. It would appear to be- the oiiinion of the hoaT<l 
that after labour anci stockholders have each had their share of mconie 
the balance remaining beloncrs not to the stockholdei-s alone, but partly 
to stockhoklors and partly to labour. The right of sto.khoKle.- i> nvo-- 
niscd in the form of a stock dividend, and the ight of labour will nowrbo 
appraised in tho extra remuneration or profit -shanng s<-heme. IW' 
proposal was a i)urelv voluntary step, but it seem- to us to -h'^w |ho 
breadth of vision and businc^ss capacity ot the men wiio arv ei>nlrvUiing 
the company. While no promise is made as to the eont. nuance ot 
thcschcnUit is reported that it will be ivgularly continued so far as the 
earning capacity of the company permits. 

* * * * 

From thne to time we have refon^ to the 
Australian importance of cultivating the Australian market 

Electrical Trade. ^^^^ electrical plant and supplies. Tho uses ^f 
electricitv are extending ui tho various States, and we l^^l^^^^^ ^^at 
there will be a fuie field for electr.cal manufacturers and oxporter^ 
in the Commonwealth and hi New Zealand. In nwny du^tricts tlie 
old stocks of electrical goods are running out a,id fresh '^"1HJ'«"« «^ 
now urgently required. (Government doi>aitmonts and local antlio- 
ritics are entering tlio electric supply field, thus creating a demam 
for electrical maclunorv and plant. The advertis^Muont of tho hrtu 



GO 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



1 



of engineering merchants in Western Australia which appears in 
another column is a good illustration of this point. The firm desire 
to add a first-class electrical agenc\- to their business, as, owing to 
the large power station erected by the West Australian Government 
in Perth, the use of electricity is bound to increase rapidly for both 
jKjwer and light. In this cormection it is interesting to note that 
Bince the war Japanese manufacturers have quadrupled their exports 
to Australia. Xotwithstanding the high tariff, this has been possible 
f)ecause of the cheap labour and organisation in Japan. Among 
the articles exported by Japan to the Commonwealth ar» electric - 
light apparatus, insulators, glass, scientific instruments, pfjrcelain, 
&c. There is a strong des-ire in Australia to heljj the Mother Countr3- 
and to give a preference to British goods, liritish manufacturers, 
m'Tcharits and exjKjrters should take advantage of llu' prosetit trend 
of things, and they should do everything jK)ssibI<- ; « cxtciid their 
business in the f 'commonwealth* 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF ELECTRICAL 
MANUFACTURES. 
From April 1, 1910, to April 8, 1918. 



In view of the incrca.scd interest which is being taken in the subject of 
the importation into and the exportation of Klcctrical Manufactures 
from the United Kingdom, we resume our weekly lists. (See also note 
at foot of p^xportH.) 

IMPORTS. 

Grimsby.— Z)««mj>-Ar .■ Electrodes, 95 j. ■:.;_. 

Liverpool.— i/.5./4..- Carbon electrodes, 176 pkgs. Spam: Elec. carbons, 49 pkgs. 

iXiUDOti.— U.S.A.: Elec. machinery, £1,414 ; elec. lamps, £171 ; elec. motors, £334 ; 
wire and cable, £282: unenumerated, £2,375. Holland: Elec. lamps. £9,429-1.010 
pkgs. ; incandescent elec. larros. 178 pkgs. ; elec. elow lamps, 32 pkgs. ; wirecable, £440 : 
unenumerated, £3,998. Fran^t : Insulating material, pk^s. 42 ; unenumerated. £188 
60pkKS. Swit2rrland: Elec, machinery, £1,706 ; unenumerated, £91. Italy: Wire and 
cable, £223 ; elec. machinery, £160 ; elec. wire, 23 pkfs. Japan : Elec. lamps, £300 : 
unenumerated. £347. Denmark: Unenumerated, £145. Sweden: Elec. lamps, £1.559. 

Manchester. U.S.A.: Elec. lamp bases, 28 pkgs ; unenumer.-i'e-f. 134 pkf"^. 

Southampton.— /=Aa««.- Elec. batteries, 10 pkgs. 

EXPORTS. 

To Australasia. Au:k!and: Elec. * ..,„ , .n.j.s. 2.464 (No.): wire and cable. £398 : 
elec. machinery. £123; telet^raph material, £28; unenumerated. £129. .Melbourne- 
Elec. machinery, £1,321 ; wire and cable, £2,429 ; unenumerated, £614. Sydney: Wire 
andcable, £2.319; elec. machinery, £445; elec. rIow lamps, 10,950 ( No.) : unenumerated, 
£1,249. ferlh: Unenum'-raled, £73. Chrislchurch: Wire and cable, £292: un- 
enumerated, £484. /)u«^(//«.- Unenumerated, £361. LyUe'.ton : Elec. machinery. £421 ; 
wire and cable. £1,288. Briihane: Wire and cable, £172 ; telegraph material, £46 ; un- 
enumerated, £443. Adelaide: Wire and cable, £215 ; unenumerated. £1.025. Napier: 
Unenumerated, £16. /yoAor/.- Wire and cable, £106 ; unenumerated. £165. Newcastle: 
Elec. motors, £798. Gnborne: Unenumerated, £88. Wellington: Wire and cable, £213 ; 
elec. machinery, £619 ; unenumerated, £1.237. 

Afk\c\. Durban : Elec. machinery, £129. Cape Town: Elec. machinery, £171; 
unenumerated, £133 ; wire and cable, £390 ; unenumerated. £626. Chinde: Unenumer- 
ated, £10. East London: Unenumerated. £«}4. Port Elizabeth : Unenumerated, £475. 
Beira: Elec. machinery. CI36 ; i,: •■■d, £45. Delagoa Bay : Unenumerated. £66. 

South AND Cp.htral America 'yre-.: Wire and cable. £891 ; unenumerated, 

£1.064. Hiode Janeiro: Unenuii, ..i^i. Colon: Unenumerated. £35. Guayaquil: 

Unenumerated, £80. Monte Video: Unenumerated, £89. 
U.S.A. New York: Unenumerated, £171. 
Monocco.- CaraNanca : Unenumerated. £45. 
Fici.- Unenumerated £73. 

Wrst Indies Trinidad: Unenumerated, £46. Demrrara: Unenumerated, £70. 
Jamaiia: Uneniimerat»d, £138. 

•■- '■•■-- - '■ ■ V.' nd cable, 

£1,271; 

■. . L. ,. t21 : un- 

18. Singapore: Wire and cable, £207 : 
C29. 
mateiiat, £49; unenumerated, £456. Hongkong ■ 



India, Cpv '■ -China a-- 
£207 elec. n. 107; unev 

wire and c,,i . : . . ; , unenur 
enumerated. £283. Karathi: U- 
unenumerated, £384. Bankak : i 

China. Shanghai : TeloKraph 
Unenumerated, £151. 

HfiLLAND. Amsterdam: Wire and cable, CI25; 
Wire .and cable, £300 ; unenumerated, £161. 



unenumerated, £397. Rotterdam: 



France. Parr.: Unenumer.i 
meratcd, £147. Dunkirk: Ui ■ 
Calais : Elec. cable, £998 ; unei. 

Denmark. — Copenhagen : Un-- 

Crbbck. -/"frtrKj .• Unenum" 

Norway. — Christiana: W 

Spain. Barcelona: Unr- 

Italy. Gfnoa : Unenun 

Egyit. Alexandria : W 
and cable, (.?°'' nr t i:n,. 

SwFnBN. 

Canaha. 
Pniimerated, i.2.\^i'^. 

l^\^u. -Yokohama : Unen timers teH. £423 



'"i-rpe: Elec. machinery, £25: unenu- 
.'89. Boulogne: Unenumerated, £51. 



113; unenumerated, £332. 



£213: unenumerated, £295. Fori Said : Wire 

' 188. 

■ *. Sl./okn's: Elec. machinery £177: un- 



FOREIGN GOODS (duty |>aid and free). 



I'iiri' ■ tin....,,m<r-atH fl ?!'' R'tfertfrrn- • L'r- 



Bombay: .Unenumeratel, fM 
enumerated, £24. Amsterdam: r 
Calcutta: Unenumfiated. £1 16. 

Colombo: ('■ ■- ' ■ " ' 

enumerate.^ • 

fiangosn: U.. ;...;-_.;.;, . 



IN TRANSIT. 

Mtlbournt: Elec lamr?. £559. AUIaidc e:- l.mr-.f54*J 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 



Warranty with Secondhand Motor.] 

In West London County Court rccentlj-, the Electric Generator Co- 
sued the Forge Motor Works Co. for £9 paid on a false warranty.' 

The solicitor for plaintiff* explained that, in answer to an .idvertise- 
iiiciit of a s«'(iiii<lliainl iin>t<ir wliicli defiiidaiits had for .'^ak'. Iii.s client.'* 
opened ii]i (■orix'.'<])on(lenee, and defendants jiuaiant<ed tl\e motor (a 
JiH.P. one) to be in good working order, and quoted the price at £9. 
Plaintiffs made the stipulation that if the motor was found on testing to 
Ik' defective they were to be at liberty to return it and have their money 
back. A cheque for ill was sent, but the motor was not despatched to 
them for a fortnight. When it did arrive they hajijM ncd to be excep- 
tionally busv and could not test it. When thi.s was done, however (in 
H» days), it was dis<-oven'd that it was practically useles.s. Defendants 
d<'eline<l to return the £9. alleging that the machine should haVe been 
letiirned iiiunediately. 

Kor jjefendants. it w.is said tiip motor had Iwen u.sed to drive a band 
saw. Jt was about I. ") years old. Defendants" manager said his firm had 
never used it or tried it. ami they iiad paid £7 for it : it had l)eeu disposeti 
of to them to give place to two ni'W mc»tois for more e.\tensive worL His 
firm would have repaid the £<t if the jilaintitTs had returned the motor in 
reasonable time. 

His HoNoiR : But it took you three weeks to deliver it. and yf>u can't 
complain if they retained it the same time. 

Dkfenu.WT : liut they have not returned it yet. 

.ludgmcnt was given for jilaintifTs for €0 (to Ik- jiaid when the motor 
was retume<l). with eoets. 



NoTr. — The JarRr num1»er of item« in thrsr official rrinms under the 
mislending beniling " iiiuiuimerated " jTUto to what io ilescrilirtl nn 
*' oleptricRl good.^ " iind " elertriral mntrriAU." 



Magnetic Separation of Wolfram. 

On Friday la^t I lie I'ateiit Court lieaid tlie apjiiieation of the Rapid 
Magnetting Machine Co. (I>td.) for a licence to use three of Krupps 
jiatents for a magnetic sejiarator for treating onvs. The jtatents are 
14.082 of 1908. 2(t.2:{(» of MM I. and 4,r)<).j of 1<I13. 

.Mr. }|unter firay ajipeared for a])]>licants ; Sir (leo. Croydfui Marks. 
M.I'., re|)n'.s<'nted .Me.^srs. Kdgar Allen & Cfi. (who o]i])osed) : and .Mr. 
{{uslien (.Messrs. Has<dtine. \jvVv & Co.). the ])at<'nteos. who also o)ii»osed. 

.Mr. (Ikav said the jiatents were held by a firm who.se name they heard 
from time to time in that Court, and he M-ldom had a more jileasjint task 
in seeking to get Cerman jiatents sus|ieiided than in the jin-sent ea.>Je. 

Sir (Jko. C. M.\kks said he int<'n(le<l a]ii)lying for a dozen jiatents in 
connection with that machine at a future date, and he di<l not know how 
the a]iplicants thought they could get on with only thn>e. 

.Mr. (Ikav .-^airl that they had made a judicious sideetion. TheRaj)idCo. 
was ineor])orated in MMIIJ and it sii])])lie(l many jiublie dejiartments and 
eomj)anies. Its catalogues showed 14 different tyjies of magnetic .s<^jia- 
rators, made in KMI or more different sizes, and ranging in ]>rice from 
£2(1(1 to £l.tHIU. The princi])le of the machine ajiplied for was that of a 
numlMT of magnet ]>oles ])laced in a ring over which rotated a disc- 
shaped magnet i.sable liody. The electro-magnets Ixdow. with the 
attached pole -pieces, were e.xcitcd by c-oils. and a rotating shaft, to wliicli 
the upper ring or di.sc-.'ihajied armature was attaclie<l. ran through the 
eeiitn- of the circular iron body which carried the magnet--. B«-tween 
the magnets and the armatun* rotating above them the material, from 
which the metal was to be drawn, was fed in from a hojUM-r. Rotmd the 
underside of the i-evolvins.' piei-e went concentric magnetisiible axially- 
adjustable rings, wedge ^hajied lielow. at graduated distances from the 
magnets. Tile oiiterm<i'-t ring-edge was the furthest away from the 
liori/.oiital pole surfaces, and therefore ]irodiiced the weakest zone in 
the magnetic lii-ld. This attracted jiarticles of the hi;;lu'st permeability, 
whereas tlio inner ring-edge was nean-st the pole -surf a<-es. iiroduced the 
strongest zone, and < <in.sc(piently attracted substances of lower jwr- 
meability. Thus, the materia! was irraded midway iM-tween the magnets, 
the attracted ]iarti( les fell nlT the rings, the jilace of minimum magneti<' 
int<'nsity having Im-cii reached, and wen' carried away in different direc- 
tions in their He]iarat<'d and graded form. In the 1911 patent the 
armatun'-rings wen- fixed, and the " field " below was fixed, ami there 
was a curious zig-zag sliajied trough running from the centre through 
whiili the on- travelled. It was this trougji now that revolved. The 
p'sull was that the on- ilid not " stick." but it was carried away equally 
ill graded >i/<'s. It w;is an adjustment <if the sjime )irinci]de and an 
imjirovenx-nt. and it was eulle<l the dry treatment. There was a furthir 
mcMlitiention known a« the wet treatment, when- water was played upon 
the points of 1l e wedj;e shaped rings to drive off the ore .as it got out of 
the lielil. 

Sir Ck.ii. C. M \i;ks < om)il,iiiieil that ajiplicants" man.iging direi tor had 
written a k'tter to the technical j<nimals. easting doubt on the s)>ecial 
value of that machine, niid he rould not understand why he now came to 
nsk for a lieeneo to maiuifac turn it. 

Mr. (Jrav : BcrauM" the jiublir wanted it — mifiguide<lly and foolishly 
they wanted it flnci !ii« finn h.-id nutn* experience than any other for 
mnkiu',: ami H-llinu it. Tlie\ sugirested the usual royalty of ^^ per cent, on 
the nellini; ]»ni-e. nnil would give n\\ undertaking that the price at which 
they w'll shall l>e at least not mon' than the ]>rii^^ charged by the patentees 
lH>fore the war. Krupps Hold them here, through their ngrnts. before 
war bmke nut. A gentleman from the Malay States, who said it was 
time to rultivato the ^^■^H( as a ticld for mattietic wparators. had ex]>res.sod 
bis preference for n Wotheril or an rilrirh. l>e( ause. as it hapjxMied. 
strangely enough, it was all you could s«v in the Shool of Mines ; there 
was not .nn Knglish machine there at present, and anybody who eanto 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APIUJ. 14, l!)10. 



61 



from the colonies to see the latest development in appliances for mining 
work was humiliated to find not a sinrrlo British machinr^ rccommcnflfd. 

Mr. H. H. TnoMi'SON, mana<,'inj,' director of the Rapid (,'o., stated that 
he was not aware that the Ullrich macliincs were required in tliis country 
and had actually been ordered on behalf of tlic British Government, and 
that facilities have been given tiiat that machine mij^ht be copied. 

Sir George : And in consequence of facilities having been given to 
rn|)\ tlic machine Messr.-;. Edgar Alltn Sz Co. nr<' making it. If Messrs. 
I'Mgjir Allen & Co. may have m licciirc lor m. r> ])(i cent, royally loo, thai 
will sim])lify malteis consiiUiMlily. \Vc arc prepared lodcvclo]) the sale. 
'J'lie (iovernmcnt allege they Ikuc found that no mac^hinc will do what 
that one does. 

Mr. Thompson : I tell the Government we will do everything the 
German will do, absolutely. Perha])s this is a good o])portunitv for the 
])ublic to know that the Government are not investigating a liritish 
machine whicli will do anything and everything that can be don(^ by a 
(ierman machine. He insisted that it was an extraordinary tiling that tlu^ 
Govr^rnmcnt had not a British magnetic^ si^parator at the Imperial 
College of Sc-icnce at Sonth Kensington. if is fitin had only i)ushed their 
liigh-iiili'nsity magnetic sepaiator since tlic war broke out, and had not 
had the opportunity to make the authoiitics a present f)f one. 

Mr. (iRAV : 'This ]jlacc. being liie home of the electric magnet, 
it is hidierous to say that the Gcnniins (an uuike them anything like so 
well. 

An adjournment was asked for by Mr'. Knslicn to bring into Court Mr. 
Walter Sully, whose wife's daughter was tlic inventor Ullrich's wife, in 
order to .say he had practically concluded arrangements, when the war 
binke out, for erecting a factory foi sup])lying the machines in-this country . 

The Controller : Why doe.sn't In; come to this Conrt and get a licence 
at 15 per cent, instead of paying 20'! I am afraid his evidence would not 
be much use without his documents. If he cannot carry on the business 
I (lon't see wh}' he should wish to oppose. What did he ])ropose to sell at ? 

Mr. Rushes : A two-field machine at £420. Of this Cl.^O would be 
premiums ; 15 per cent, would go to Krupps and 15 per cent, to Mr. 
Ullrich. At any rate 5 per cent, is sheer forfeiture. 

Mr. Gray : I don't know. We shan't have the advantage of the 
drawings and his exclusive licence — and we shan't get the parts from 
Germany. W^e shall have no ])rofessional assistance. 

Mr. RusHKN, in reply to a iiuestion, said a four-field machine under 
Mr. Sidly's scheme would have cost £700 and a six-field £1,050. 

Mr. Thompson : And we shall su])piy at from £200 to £1,000. 

The Controller said he thought the a})plication satisfactory. The 
only question was the royalty, and lie shouhl hear more about that next 
week. In the ]>ublic interest he thought it advisable that the machine 
i should be made in this country, and clients' letters he had seen showed 
the estimate in which it was held. The applicants desired to say : 
" We can supply an efficient British-designed machine, but if any cus- 
tomer is unpatriotic enough to require another ty|)e we can give him it." 
Thiur ])Osition was quite intelligible. The machine must be made in 
this country to meet thedemands, and. that being the position, he thought 
the Rapid Magnetting Machine Co. should liave tlieir licence. 



future profits if the profits wcm (sufficient. The sinking fund u (or lb» 
future to b(! diviflcfl into two part", half to \x: paid in any event an^l the 

other half only if the profitn were sufiicient. 



Munitions Tribunal Appeal. 

On l'rida\' last Mr. .Tiisticc Atkin heard an appeal by the iMicanite & 
Insulators Co. (Ltd.) from the decision of a Munitions Tribunal that they 
were not an engineering firm within th(^ meaning of the ]\lunitions of 
War Act, and therefore it was unnecessary for an emplo\ e to have a 
certificate on leaving I heir employ. 

Mr. Alex. Nielsun (for appellants) said that they were the makers 
of insulatois and insulating materials for dynamos, &c., that 95 per cent. 
of their work was for Government contracts, that during the last day or 
two workers in that trade had been put in the exempted list, and skilled 
men in the Army had 1)een fetcheil back. Appellants' works were the 
only works of any substance to make inicanite in this country, and he 
argued that that brought them under the definition of munition works. 

Mr. Comyns (!arr ajjpearcd for the Ministiy of Munitions, and evidence 
was called. 

In giving judgment, his Lordship said the finding of the tribunal was 

that ai)pellants' business did not consist wholly or mainly of engineering, 

and therefore a leaving certificate was not necessary. But appellants 

, had tendered evidence to indicate that their business was of a wide and 

I different kind, and he was .<;atisfied from that that they were engaged 

'exclusively in making by means of machinery articles which were the 

necessary parts of dynamos and other machines which were used for war 

[purposes and for the production of power. Under those circumstances 

[the question aro.se whether it was right or wrong to find that they were 

not engaged in engineering. The meaning of the word '" engineering " 

had to be read in connection with the definition of munitions works in the 

Act. That definition applied to a factory or workshop engaged in 

manufacturing arms, explosives, the repair of arms, naval and military 

buildings, and the supply of light, heat, water and power to such build- 

iings. Having regard to that, became to the conclusion that the finding 

i of the tribunal was incorrect, and that their decision must be set aside. 



Re Ciade Electricidaddela Provincia deBuenos Ayres.— Last 
Iweek Mr. Justice Ne\'ille sanctioned a ])etition by the company to a 
scheme of arrangement. It was stated that the com])any had got into 
difficulties with its sinking fund. There was one scries of 600,000 5 per 
Icent. gold bonds. The scheme provided that in 1910 and 1917 the 
[interest was to be at the rate of 4i per cent. In 1919 it was to be G per 
Icent., but except for that the interest was to go on at 5 per cent. The 
jsinking fund was to be suspended until 1910 except in so far as the net 
[profits were sufficient, and the sinking fund was to be recouped out of 



EDUCATIONAL NOTES. 
University ol Liverpool, in the faf:iUv of pnj(in<-«-,-inK of ihi« 

univorsil \' there are full c.-iiirses in civil, •■'■ ' ' ■ d 

engineering, naval architecture, marine _ „ 

physics, &c. The sjjecia! matriculation examination or the entrance 

examination must be pas.sed in order to secure " ■'.- 

ecnirses in the faculty, and [)ros|(eefns<'^ m;i\' !«• o 

registrar, Mr. f^ivvarfl Carey. 

Crystal Palace School of Engineering. '\'\n- home of thi* m tiool 

will in fiilnre be n* Anerleyhiil. >.\\. 

Education after the War. The President of the Bfmul of fvducation 
lias appointed a, l)e|)artinenta! Committee to consider what KtepH 
should be taken to make jjrovision for the education and in»tnicti<jn of 
children and young persons after the war, regard being had jjartico- 
larly to the interests of those - 

( 1 ) Who have been abn(<rnially em|)Ioyed during the war ; 

(2) who cannot immediately find advantageou.s employment ; 
(.'}) who require special training for employment. 

The chairman of the Committee is .Mr. H. I^ewis. M. P.. and there are 
14 other members of the Committee of which Mr. .,'. Owen, H..M. Ia«pe< tor, 
is secretarA'. 



BUSINESS NOTICES. 

A firm of engineering merchants in Western Australia ad\ertHe 
that they are desirous of adding a first-class electrical agency to 
their busiiiess. Applications to Messr-s. Hopcraft & Broa^lwater, 4. 
Fenchurch-avenue, London, E.C. See an advert'iMempnt. 

Plant for Sale.- Gas driven electric station plant, eon.sisting of 
two gas engines (80 h.p. and 100 H.P.), two gas producers, d>-namos. 
storage battery, switchboard, &c., is adverti.sed for sale. Particulars 
from the manager. Corporation Electricity Department, .Mr. C. 
Nelson Hefford, 1, Whitehall-road, Leeds. 

In an advertisement particulars are given of second-hand Parsons' 
steam turbo sets which are offered for sale. 

An advertiser offers a 5 kw. Berry transformer for sale. 

Plant Wanted — An advertiser requires a turbine engine in first 
class condition. Applications to " Phillipps," 31, Bishop-sgate, 
London, E.C 

An advertiser requires large quantities of steel tubes and lamp- 
holders, various sizes and ]iattents. 

LIQUIDATIONS, &c. 

Collings-Bishop (Ltd.) is being wound up vohmtarily. and Mr. 
E. W. J? W^est, 67, Queen Victoria-.street, London, E.C, has been 
appointed liquidator. 

A meeting to receive an accoiuit of the winding-up of Inventionsand 
Appliances (Ltd. ) will be held at ;U), Chureh-st. ,W. Hartlepool. May 15. 

Mr. J. H. Stephens, (i, Clement's-lane. Ixmdon. E.G.. has l>een 
appointed liquidator (without a coniniittee of ins|)ecti(itO of the 
Adnil Electric Co. (Ltd.). Artillery-lane. London, E.C. 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 



EXTENSIONS. 

Accrington.- The Council have authorised certain extensions of 
the electricity supply works at a:i estimated cost of £15.000 or 
£16,000. 

Bexley.- The Urban Council have decide ": to extend the electric 
supply eible to Halcot. 

Bradford.— The Electricity Committee is putting down jwlditional 
plant at the Valh v-road electricity supply works, and the L-CJ. Boanl 
have been asked to sanction the bonowmg of the necessiiry money. 

Carnarvon.— Owuig to the increasing demand for electrical energy 
the National Electric Construction Co. is j^utting downi an additional. 
Diesel oil engine set at a cost of £2.780. 10s.. and the Councd have 
applied for sanction to borrow this sum. 

Rotherham.— The Town Clerk has received a certificate under the 
Munitions of War Amendment Act in resi)ect of the electricity 

undertaking. .... , 

The Electric Lit'htinsr Committee proposes to pun^hase an athlitional 
rotarv converter (at £«90) to meet the demand fnmi Tmsley. The cost 
will lie defraved out of the renewals fund. 



62 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



Sheffield. — Electric suppl}' mains are to be extend: d in various 
pa ts of the city at a cost of £479. 

The Tovn rirrk has hfon authoriwd to complete the purchaw of a 
plot of ground at the junction of Fulwood and lindcliffe \alc-road.s as a 
Bite for a sub-station. 

Watford. — The Urban Council have ap|)lied to the L.G. Board for 
Kunftioii 1o a loan c;f £3,.'iWi for the electric supply department. 

Wolverhampton.- -The Electricity Committee reports that owing 
to the continual ciemand for electrical energy- it is necessary to make 
extensions to the generating plant in order to cojmj with the load 
whicli will he required during the winter of 1917. 

Havin;4 cc)nsid(rccl reports of the electrical enginecT (Mr. S. T. Allen) 
the (^'ommittee rccommenclK extensions of the boiler house ])lant (at 
£17,HiO), including two water-tube boilers, each having an evaporative 
capacity of 40,000 lb. of steam per hour, mechanical stokers, &c. (£8,0(KJ). 
feed, steam and blow-cjfr pij)ing, forced drauglit, fc-ed ])um]) and c-oal and 
ash-c-onveying plants, &c. The Committee also recommc-nds that appli- 
<;ation be madcr for sanction to borrcnv the above-mentioned sum, and 
that a tender be accc ]»ted for the supply c)f two boilers, two superheaters 
and two sc;ts of mechanical stokers, at £8,221. l.')s. be accepted. 
• It is also pro|)osccl to a])ply for permission to borrow £fi,fiOO for de- 
fraying expenditure cm extensicms to mains, &c. 

GENERAL. 

Aberdeen. --In reply to an apjjlication hy the Aberdeen District 
I Commit tee for an abatement in view of the disccmtinuance of tlie 
public lighting cf Culter, the Town Council have decided to allow an 
abatement of one-half the annual charge per lanij) for electricity 
supply during such period as the lanijjs are not being utilised, l)ut 
the charge for maintenance (lOs. jjer o() <\\). lamp j)er annum) will be 
ccmtinued. 

Battersea (London). — The Electricit}- Committee has been in com- 
munication with I'ulham as to the supply of energy in bulk. 

The engincc-r (.Mr. F. A. Bcmtl) has rc-pc»rted as to tests made by 
arrangini; fc)r Knlham to give a supply of energy during .lantiary, Feb- 
ruary and .March. The tests have proved satisfac tory and the Committee 
is, therefore, arranging for a continuance of this suj)ply during the year 
ending March, 1917. 

Belfa.st. At the last meeting of the Corporation, Councillor 
MeCaughcy, in presenting the minutes of the Tramways and Elec- 
tric-ity Committee, explained that they were not at present keen on 
giving stand-by sujjplicrs of electrical energy, esjiecialiy as they had 
no great margin to deal with. 

The Committee felt their first duty was to the shopkeepers and other 
coiisiim<-rs who todk curn-iit all the year round. They were being badly 
hampered in the way of cx])cnditurc in order to meet the ordinary 
demancis of the pid)lic. In n'gard to the wages and bonus (jtu'stion. he 
was anxious to secure uniformity, and in ngard to contracts being given 
to cross-Channel firms the Committee had, as they were bound to do, 
ac((|)lcd tlic lowest tenders. 

Coal Supplies. A circular letter has been issued to the engineers 
of electricity works by the Tneorjjorated Municipal Kleetrical Asso- 
ciation, stating tint the r.oard of Trade had now instituted commit- 
tees on coal and coke supplies in districts throughout the country, 
and suggesting that local authorities should ap]ir()ach their local 
coiiiinittec. 

Dartmouth.- -The local electric supply comjiany has increa.sed tlio 
charge for electric current for power by 10 j)er cent. 

Fuel Economy. A meeting of fuel |)roducers and fuel users was 
held in Shcllicld la.st week to consider the (piestion of fuel economy 
after the war. The meeting, which was held under the auspices of 
the ShedieM Sdiiety of Kng neers and Metallurgists, was presided 
over by I'rof. Arnold, and Inf. \V. A. iione was among those present, 

l*rof. Arnom) said at present it wiw no nse. from n prncticnl point of 
view, in Sheflield to consider the waste gas froni beehive ovens, as the 
beehive coke was, si> far. the only reliable coke for melting crucible steel. 
The waste iiiergy of the South \ nrkshire coalfield woid<l have to 1m> 
harnessed, cither as gas or as eh'ctrical enemy, for iron or stei 1 nu'Hing. 
machine driving and lighting. He thouuht the elertrieal proposition 
W'nild lie the best course. 

I'rof. Honk said our whole ecomunie fntun* was de|K'nd< nt on our 
ability to mainlnin abundant supplii-s nf nlntividy cheap loal. Onlv 
2-i\ ]>er cent. <if the total coal n'^crves of the world wen- liM-nted in (iieat 
Urilain. and tli(> (piestion of the better ulilisjition of our coni supplies 
was one of very serious economic importance. \N"c' now trans-icted 70 
l>er cent, of the s(>nbome coal trade of the world. An export dtity of Is. 
per ton could be imposed without in the le«s! injuriiv^ the trade. It 
would profhice a fund of l'.'),(MM>.<M)n )>cr annum, and lie sug;;! sted that 
this shoidd be cariuarUi-d i>y thi" Tn-asuiy feu linani Iul' largo scale 
<>\|)(>rimeuls in the dii-ection of fiu-l economy and Un tlie jirm ision of loans 
for inslallini: eft>cient fuel -consuming appliances. 

I'rof. I,. T. () Snv.A .-qioke of the orcmomies which niieht l>e cfTec ted by 
extending the use of by-product coke ovens. He ur^etl the iiTipi>rtnn(>c> 
of invest i^rat ions with a view to producing n fcatisfa" ton- sloojmeltiin. 
eoke fnuu by jtroHuct ovens. If the steel uuMluf.K tur^ would meet 
the eoke maker with an open mind, the time ought r^uieklv to rome when 



the beehive oven would disappear from England. A large amount of 
coke oven gas was being wasted in the neighbourhood. It could be used 
for the production of jiower in the same waj* that gas obtained from the 
retort was used, and al.so for the generation c)f eleetricity. At Wham- 
diffe Silksttme Mr. G. Blake Walker had used the surplus gas from the 
ovens in order to electrify the colliery. 

Mr. G. Blake Walker spoke of the tremendous amount of coal that 
was lost to the countiy through the ciLstom of working only the best coal. 
It was essential that thej- should deal with inferior coals, and that cAuld 
Ik* done by the u.se of wasters and gas producers. In his opinion, what 
had been done in Durham would have to be done in that district — elec- 
tricity would have t<i l>e .sold vcrj' cheaply and substituted for the 
])rc.sent wasteful use of steam. He thought it not impossible that by the 
u.se of a central power station electricity might be produced at a cost of 
0-2.Td. per unit, which would facilitate economies at the collieries them- 
selves, and the expansion of the use of electricity for heating and other 
purposes in Sheffield. He believed it to be a thoroughly uneconomical 
thing for everj' manufacturer to produce his c)wn power. 

Prof. Riri'ER also aclvocated the distribution of electricity from a 
central power station. There was almost unlimited power available in 
the great coalfield surniunding Sheffield. If they could bring current 
in at the figure menticmed by Mr. Walker it would make an enormous 
difference to the city. The present industries would be vivified, and a 
number of new ones would be induced to arise. 

Mr. S. E. FEDnEN, manager of the Corporation electricity department, 
urged that the su])])ly of electricity and power throughout the countrj' 
should l)e vested in the hands of the Government. Big i)ower houses 
should be put down in suitable places, and we should have an Electrical 
Mmister. He also urged that the way to secure efficiency and economy 
in the use cjf power was to stoj) dumping, which would enable the works 
to carry on at a good lc)ad factor and at reduced standing charges. 

Several other speakers took part in the discussion. 

Fulham (London). — The Electricity Committee recommends that 
Mr. G. Hicks, assistant mains supermtendent, be also apjxjinted 
suiMJrvisor of meters at a salary of £1G0, rising to £200 a year. 

Hammersmith (London).^The Board of Trade has consented to 
power not exceeding 2UU kw. being supplied to the Council's under- 
ground sub-stations. The premises of 57 additional consumers have 
been recently connected to the mains. 

Lighting of Warktn3n's Dwellings. — Dublin Corporation have 
decided to ado|)t electric lighting for the workmen's dwelling.s to be 
erected imder the New Spital fields, North Lotts and Xewfomidland 
Street housing schemes. 

Rathmines. — In order to economise in street lighting it has been 
decided that every alternate electric lamp is to be left imlighted 
during the cunvnt ye:ir. 

Sheffield. — The L.(J. Board have extended for one year from 
.Marcli :}l, HH6, the time limited by the Sheffield Corjwration .\et, 
l!)12, for the continuance in force of the provisions of sec. l.'iO (2) of 
that act enabling the Corjxiration to borrow by way of temi>orarv 
loan or ovenlraft for pro\i(Hng temiwrarily during any financial 
year for certain current expenses. 

Torquay. — The Electric Lighting Committee rejKirts that the con- 
snuiptiou of electrical energy for the first two months uf the current 
year created a record, whilst tiic figures for 191. 5 showed a net profit 
of £1.200. which had been used in extending the services and the 
buiune.ss of the electric sup])ly undertaking gi^nerally. There was no 
possibility of the i)riee of electric current for lighting being redueecl 
at present. 

Walsall. — A certificate under the Munitions of War (.\mendment) 
Act has been received in n'S|)eet of the eleetricity tmdertaking. 

The Electricity Committee ha« decided to place certain sums reeei\-ed 
on thi- Side of su)>«-rs«'dcd ]ilant to n sivcial account Ui Ik- utilised in 
n-paymcnt of thi- outsfanciing debt on )>lant. 

Westminster.— The St. .lames" & Pall Mall Electric Light Co. h.as 
Jidvised the City Council of their inability to renew the existing eon- 
traef for the supjtiy of cnirrenf to the Couneil's pn^mis«^s. and that 
they will Ix- eom|H'lIe(l frotn .lune 24 next to « barge the su]>j»Iy for 
lighting at 4<L jier unit net. It is not proiKisod to increase the charge 
for jMiwer supply. 

Wigan. Ilie (' uneil ha\-e decided to ai)|s.uit .Mr. H. Di. kins<in" 
city electrical engincn-r of LiverjKH»l. subject to the sanction of Liver- 
pool Cit3* Council, as consulting engineer to prepare a rejwrt on -the 
present |K>sition of the electric supply undertaking. 

Wimbledon. -It is ]»rop<ised to make a 10 j cr cent. incHMse iji the 
ehatges f,,i (he supply of energj^- to ordin.>r\ (dMsnincis fur the 
ensuing six months. 

It is not eiinsidenvl desinible to enter int.i contacts this year for 
l>eriodicaI supjilies to the electricity department. OflFers have been 
obtftined f mm a number of firms for the supply of varioiin goods, and it 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



# 



is proposed to accept these and to purchase the remainder of the supplies 
as required at the lowest prices obtainable. 

Worksop. — Tt is repoi'ted that the electrical engineer (Mr. J. P. 
Crow'tlior) lias been given leave of absence to join the Army, and he 
will be paid half his salary during his absence, while the electricity 
works will be placed in charge of the station superintendent (Mr. J. 
Fletcher), who will get an additional salary of £25 per armum. 



proposed to eiect a Hmaller station for eliipping. It is expected that the 

new station, which will he equipped on the name i • ' at 

Xoucn, v.'ill be ready ill the auUiiiin, and the c'^t rt'ill 



TRACTION NOTES. 



Burnley. — The Tramways Committee has increased the charges 
for all privileged tickets by 7J per cent. 

Colwyn Bay. — It is stated that the report of the Board of Trade 
mspector (Col. Druitt) has been presented. 

Ool. Druitt favours the use of double-deck tramcars being allowed to run 
on the electric tramway between Old Colwyn and Penrhyn Bay, subject 
to certain parts of the track which are showing signs of sHght settlement 
being re-packed. Col. Druitt states that ho found the line for the most 
part very well laid and equipped, and recognised the difficulties of the 
company in obtaining the necessary labour for maintenance during 
the war. 

Dover. — Owbig to the great difficulty m getting coal from the 
railway station the borough electrical engineer (Mr. L. W. Woodman) 
suggests the use of tractors to transport the coal to the works. 

Mr. Woodman also suggested that the matter of increased storage 
capacity should be again considered. It Avas, however, decided to refer 
the matter to the chairman, the vice-chairman, councillor Barnes and 
Aid. Lewis as a sub-committee. 

Ipswich. — In future the tramcars will stop rmming one hour after 
sunset. 

Motor Road Sweepers. — Recently the Shoreditch (London) 
Borough Council were charged with duty on an imported motor road- 
sweeper, but owing to the protest made by the Council it is now 
announced that motor road-sweepers will in future be regarded as 
exempt from the ad valorem diity. 

Middlesex Tramways. — Metropolitan Electric Tramways (Ltd. ) 
has asked the Board of Trade for sanction to run trailer cars. 

Nelson. — The Electricity and Tramways Committee has decided 
to place on record its ajJisreciation of the gallantry of Corporal J. W. 
Smit.T, a tram conductor in the employ of the department, who has 
been awarded the D.C.M. 

Perth. — The Corporation have granted an increase of 2s. per week 
to their tramcar drivers. 

Rotherham. — ^The Tramways Committee recommends the Cor- 
poration to exercise the option to purchase the additional 11 bogie 
tramcars from Oldham Corporation. 

Tramway Strike. — The strike which broke out on the South Metro- 
politan Tramway Co.'s system last week, owing to a dispute as to 
the emplo_\Tnent of women tramcar drivers, continues. 

On Tuesday it was announced that the Board of Trade had intervened 
in the dispute. It was suggested that the points at issue should be 
referred to arbitration, but though the South Metropolitan and the Lon- 
don United Tramway Companies were willing the Croydon Corporation 
to whose system the strike had spread) refused. At Croydon about 200 
drivers and conductors of the Corporation tramways came out in 
sympathy with the South Metropolitan workers, who originally struck 
because two women had been taught driving. Only 18 cars were running 
in Croydon on Tuesday, against the usual 60 or so, and on Wednesday 
the service started at 8 o'clock with only ten cars and finished at 8 p.m. 
The increased wages and other concessions asked by the workers would 
(it is stated) cost £10,000 a year, or a 2,U1. rate. 

Tramway Transfer. — It is proposed to lease the tramways in 
Swinton and Pendlebury Urban District to Salford Corporation. 

The lease provides that the Corporation shall reconstruct and equip 
the tramways for electric traction ; the period of the lease is 21 years ; 
the Corporation to pay the Lrban Council a rental sufficient to pay off 
in equal annual instalments in 21 years the capital outlay incurred in 
the purchase of the tramway and the costs in connection therewith. 



m TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE NOTES. 



Radiotelegraphy. — " Engmeermg " announces tiiat a large new 
wireless station is about to be erected at Ooresater (Norway), and 
that the contract has been let to the Gesellschaft fiir Drahtlose 
- Telegraphic of Berlin. 

The station, which will have masts of TOO metres in height, is intended 
W coire^spondence with the large European wireless stations. It is also 



llllliililllllllllllllll 



FOREIGN NOTES. 



Spain. — The Ministerio de Koniento has granted per- to 

Don Tomas Garmendia to utili-sc, at the rate of 2,.'>T(J iitre.'i ^/ : ad, 
the waters of the Reburdiejos and iSejts HtrearaH, in the district of 
Los Tojos (Province of Santander) for the production of electric 

power for ndustrial purijoses. 

Swedish Exports. — Manganese ore and gas meters have been added 
to the list of goods which are prohibited for exportation from Sweden- 
Swedish Water-power Plants. — The Swedish Water-j)ower AB»x-ia- 
tion has ])ublished a pamphlet, by Mr. Axel Rap[)e, (m new water- 
power plants in Sweden in 1915. 

The total is 2"',000 h.p., exclusive of the State works at I'-irju.-^ ;ind 
Alfkarleby, and the jjurjjoscs for which the new plants are u.se<l include 
the iron and mining industry, 9,000 h.p. ; timber, woo<l pulp and f>ap*T 
industries, 12,000 h^p. ; chemical industry, 1,.500 h.p. ; textile industry, 
500 H.p. ; and sundry purposes, 5,000 h.p. 

Venezuela. — The Ministerio de Fomento has granted penui.s.sion 
to La Cumaca Electrical Co. , of Valencia, State of Carabobo, to erect 
electric power transmission cables and to construct telephone Ines. 
The Ministerio de Fomento has granted permission to General Leon 
Jurado, of Coi-o, to construct a telephone line (about 31 miles) in Silvaand 
Acosto, Falcon State. Telephone concessions have also been granted to 
Senores Umerez and Herrera, of El Consejo.for a hne (of about miles) 
in the Ricaurte district of the State of Aragua, and to Visitacion Lugo 
and Manuel Gomez, of Lagunetas, for a line of about 9 miles in the 
municipality of San Pedro, State of Mirrnda. 

The Ministerio de Fomento has granted permission to Senor Alfredo 
Jahn, of Caracas, to construct a telephone line, about 25 miles in length, 
connecting his lands in the Department of Vargas with the capital. 

illlllllllilillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllii 

m MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. g 

ffllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllliy^^ 

Alien Enemy Patents.— Messrs. Edgar Allen & Co. have applied for 
licenses imder eight patents granted (in 1909, 1911 and 1913) to 
Fried. Krupp Akt. Ges. Grusonwerk for magnetic separators. 

It is amiomiced hat the British Thermit Co. (Ltd.) has obtained 
a licence to use eight of the Thermit patents. 

Application for Extension of Patent.— Messrs. F. G. Creed, W. A. 
Coulson and Creed, BUle & Co. have petitioned the High Court to 
extend the term of letters patent No. 22,653/1902, and notice of 
opposition must be lodged before May 23 at the chambers of Mr. 
Justice Sargant. 

Contracts with Alien Enemies.— Gateshead Coriwration have 
adopted the resolution recently passed by Manchester Corporation 
not to enter into contracts with persons of German or Austrian 
nationality or companies controlled by similar persons. 

Last week Salford Cori)oratic.i^ also decided to adopt the resolution 
recently passed by Manchester Uity Council— viz.. "No contract shall 
be entered into with any person of German or Austrian nationality." 

Electricity Supply Undertakings and Munition Works.— By Sec. 9 
(1 ) (D) of the Mmiitions of War ^Amendment) Act. l!>Ui. the Mmister 
of Mimitions has authority to certify undertakuigs supplymg light, 
heat, water-power or tramway facilities to be of unixirtance for 
carrvmg on mmiition work. 

The effect of granting such certificate is that the undertaking will bo 
subject to the provisions of Part 1. of the ]Mu-\:tions of War Act. liUo. 
which prohibits strikes and lock-outs. Under see. -t of the Munitions 
of War Act 1915, certified undertakings may be declared oontrollert 
establishments, but the :\linistry of :Munitions docs not pnn>oso_to take 
this course at present. The provisions of the Munitions of Wat Acts 
relatin"- to Icavins; (>ertificates will apply to undertaku ;rs so ct-rtiheil. 

More Enemy Firms Wound Up.-The Board of Tr^vde has now 
issued orders for tbewmding up of 100 com,vanies or firms controlled 

bv alien enemies :— ,,.,,•■ ion 

The latest list includes Ferrum (Ltd.), agents for hydranho pii>o.s, L^O. 
Winchester House, Old l^road-street, London. E.C.: Alio it to.. a^nMits 
for aluminium foil, 4. (^Iiarlos-stivet. Hattou tiarden. U^mion. L.t.; 
Berkcfeld Filter Co. (Ltd.), 121, Oxford-stnH>t. London. \V: M=»;^„'»'"^^"- 
fabrik Augsburs-Nurnberg A.C.. Caxton House. \\ est minster 5>.W; and 
P. M. Krebs & Co. (Ltd.). dealers in heating apparatus, &c.. i. Old 
Gloucester-street, London, W.C 

Supplementary Examination in Electric Light Switching.— At the 
end of this month the results of tlie competition just closed wi U te 
published in this journal. Meanwhile we are asked by Messrs. A. F. 



64 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



Lundberg & Sons to announce the fact that, owing to the success 
of this competition, a surjjjiementary examination will be conducted 
shortly on the same sets of problems. 

Particulars will be issued to old and intending new com])etitors early 
next month, and meanwhile tliosc who have a copy of the February- 
examination pamphlet should keep it by tliem. Those who have not 
can obtain one on appHeation to the firm at 477-487 Livprpool-road, N. , 
within th" ncNt thrff ivi-rk 

Trading with the Enemy. The I'.it.iMn 'ji., |,. |j,|,;iiiimiii has 
issued recently several instalments of a statutory list of linns of 
enemy nationality or association with whom all dealings In- j;ersons 
carrying on business in this countr3- are jjrohibited. 

Transactions with such firms are prohibited, subject to the same 
penaltii's as transactions with firms in enemy countries, exc-ejjt in cases 
where .a gen<Tal or special licence has been <.'rantcd, ])(Tmittin<: the trans- 
action. A|)pIiciition for licences should be a<i(ires.s«-d t(; the Controller. 
Foreign Trade l><i)artment. i^incaster House. St. .lames'; jyondoii. S.W'.. 
giving name and address of a|)|ilicant. name and adflre.ss (jf the buyer, 
date of order of goods, nature of the goods, jjrosjjective date and port of 
Hhipment, &c., if ready for shipment, marks and numbeis, and 
name of the actual consignee, whether the goods are .sea.son goods, 
and if so when season commeiucs. all other ( iirrcnt onlers frt-m same 
buyer. 

l'"urthfr lists of fums and peisons in I'.cutral countries witii wiiuni 
trading by persons in the I nited Kingdom is jjrohibitcfl weic (jublislicil 
in the " i/mdon (lazette " of A\)t\[ ~. These include the followini; : 
Nfthcrliiiid'' : Allgemeine Electricitiits Cesellschaft. .AuT^terdam ; Conti- 
nental Caoutchouc k (;utta Peicha Co., I'rinsengraeht 1U77. .\msteidain ; 
O/onwerken " Nederland,' S< hiedam. 

Thr- following is removed from a previous list : Crt-fc : Karl W'-her, 
Athens. 

Tlie following is a variation of an entry in the list ])ublished I'eb. 20 : 
NHli'rliiiKf.y : Deventer (Mas .Maatxcliappij (N.V.) Deventer. shouM 
read : Deventer (Mas .Maatschappy N'orliccn .1. J'ouvels Coelingh (.N.\ .) 
Deventer. 



Trading with the Enemy. — The Controller of the Foreign Trade 
Dej^artment wi.shes to impress uix)n houses engaged in foreign trade 
with neutral countries the necessity of complying with the Royal 
Proclamation of Feb. 29, 1916, containing a statutory list of firms of 
enemy nationality or association with whom dealings by persons and 
firms resident or carr\-ing on business in this country are prohibited, 
and to the subsequent additions which have been made to the list 
bv Onlt^rs of Council and )>nbli.';heii in the I><iiid<.n ( Jrizettt- " of 
.NJarch id .iiid '2i and April 7. 

it is desiivd to ])oint out that all transactions w th i>cr.sons or firms on 
the statuton,' 1st are str etly ])roh:bited under similar penalties to those 
attaching to transactions with persons or firms in enemy countries, except 
under a general or sjiecial license granted by the Foreign Trade Depart- 
ment. It is al.<o desin'd to ])oint out that transactions with pennons or 
firms on the statut<»ry list include, as well as actnal sales to or purchase 
from such ]iersons or firms, all correspondence therewith in regard to 
])ast or ])ending business, and the receijit or payment of money. 

'J"he Controller wishes to warn all concerned of the necessity of making 
themselves accpiainted with, and strictly observing, these regulations, 
as notwithstanding a jirevious notice and the jiublication of the lists in 
various trade journals, a larije number rif individuals and firms appear to 
be unaware of their obligations in the matter, and of the penalties to 
which they are rendering themselves liable by neglecting them. Hou.ses 
engaged in foreign trade with neutral coiintries are strongly advised to 
ensure that they ol)tain the lists as they ai)|)ear by ordering them to be 
supplied regularly. .\ll ajiplications for litciiMs should be marked 
■ A|)plication for License ' on the enveIoi)e anrl addresst'd to the Con- 
Irolle.. ForciL'n Trade Dei)artment, I^ancaster House, St. .lames'. S.W. 

Tribunal Cases. — -At Burnley last week an electrician made appli- 
cation for bis motor repairer and armature winder. 

The .M.vvoii : It will be easy to have tliis work sent away '! — Not at 
present. \Vc are doing woik for firms on (iovernment work. 

.■\j)ji!ieation was refused. 

At Cui)ar and St. Andrews an electrician emidoyed at Guardbridgc 
Paper Works wa-s granted until .June 30. 



TENDERS INVITED. 



Water Tube Boilers. 

renders are invit«d l)y tb(> electricity department of tlic 
County Horougli of Wkst Hakti-KTooi. for the su])))ly and 
erection <jf two Water-tube Boilers, with Sujierheaters and 
ISIeelianieal Stokers. Conditions of contract, specificatioiLs and 
form of lender from the borough electrical emrineer. .Mr. .1. W. 
Spark, and tenders, addres.scd to the Town Clerk, nnist be de- 
livered by .\])ril 2S. Spp an adrrrlisewent. 

Switchgear. 

Sai.riiii) CorjMirafion rerpiire ten<]ers by noon April 17 for 
the HUjiply. delivery and erection of Three jihase FiXtra-high- 
])ressnre and low-pressure Switchgear for three .'i.tKMI kw. sub- 
station e(|nipnu'nl. Siweilicalions. \'i-., fnmi the burgh 
electrical engineer, .Mr. .1. A. lioberlsmi. i-'rederiek road, Salford. 

Electricity Meters and M.D. Indicators. 

'I'lie Couniil of the ( il\ of .M Ki.Mi HKNi: (.\usfralia) invite 
tenders for the supply of Mlectricily H<'((>rduig .Meters and 
Maximum Demand !ndi<;.,torH. S(K'<itieiiti()ns. tVe.. from the 
Agents for thr- City C(inn<il. .Me.ssrs. .Mellw.iith, .McKaeliarn k 

' Co. Ppy. (Ltd.), Milliter s(|narebnildings. LmdonjK.C.. io whom 
tenders are to be sent by noon, .May 1. 

Turbo-Alternator. Gas Producer Plant, &c. 

Tho .Ni.u Soirii W Mis ( .<i\ i;kn.mi;nt Uailw.iys and Tram- 
ways De|)artnu'nt invite tenders for the 8up])ly and erection of 
u 2,500 kw. Turbo .Alternator for the Zarra street (Newcastle, 
iS'.S.W.) power bouse. S|K'eificatioM (No. 470) from the Klec- 
trical lOngineer, N.S.W. (Jovt'mment Railways and Tramways, 
(il. Hunter street, Sydney. T(>n<lers to Chief Commissioner for 
Railways and Trainways. Phillip street, Sydney, by noon .May .'$. 

WANdANt'i (N.Z. ) Horough Council recpiire ten<ler» by noon 
May 9 for the snj)ply an<l .^reetion of .Additional Plant at their 
trantway |)ower hou.se, including Pn>ssurety|K' (Jas I'roducer 
Plant, (!as Kngiiu'. HIeetrie (ieni-rator anil Switchgear. Speci- 
lication, iVe., from the Town Clerk. 

Sub-St.^tion Equipment. 

Jhe \i( TduiAN Railway Commis,sionkr.s require tenders by 
11 a.m. .April 2(1, for the suppl\ of Klectrical K<piipn'.ent an<l 
Acces-sories for substation for the Sandringham Ulaek Rock 
tramway (contract No. 29.702). Sj>ccilication» and ftmns of 
lender from the V'ietoriin Railwav Commi.'wioners. Melhoume. 



?ramway Construction, Tramcars, &c. 

Tiie l)irecci()n (General de Obras Piiblicas. Ministorio do 
]'\)mento, Madrid, retpiire tenders by May 19 for the construc- 
tion and workijig, for (>0 years, of an electric Tramway in 
Bilbao, connecting the existing system with the Irala-Barri 
district. ^Minimum rolling stock recpiired to commence is one 
motor and one trailer coach for jwssengers. and one motor goods 
coach and two trailer goods wagons. An option on the con- 
cession is held by the Soeiedad Tr.invia I'rbano de Bilbao. 

l)i-\Ei)ix (N.Z.) City Council recpiire tenders by .') p.m. May 
17 for six Electric Tramcars and sections of Cars (Bodies. Elec- 
trical Kquipmcnts and Trucks). Sjiecific.ations, fee, from the 
Town Hall, Dunedin. 

.IdHANNKsnrKd (Transvaal) CoiuM'il require tend(>rs by mxin 
dune ('• for snjiply of two Mangancs** Steel Crossings. Six^ci- 
(i( atioii. iVc. fniin the Ahnticip.il Ofiiccs. .lobannesburg. 

Telegraph and Telephone Material, &c. 

Tb<' l)e|nily Post master-! ieneral. .MellMuinie. recpiires tonilers 
by :{ p.m. A])ril 18 for su])ply of S..VKI Kuses (schedule 1.299) 
for the Ar.sTKAi.i AN" Common wKAi.Tii Postmaster-tJener.irsDcpt. 
Si)eeilication from Deputy Postm.aster-CJeneral. Melbonme. 

Tenders will be receive<l until 3 p.m. A]iril 2(» by the Deputy 
Pot-t master-General, Brisb.-ine, for sui^jily at Toowoomba 
Exchange (Qtieensland) of live Sections of Tnmk Line Switch- 
bo.ard 'Sehctlule ;J42) for the Atstraman Commonwealth 
Po .tmaster-tJenerars Department. S|>erifications, ie., from 
the De|nity Postinaster-fiener.al. 
Car Lighting Material. &c. 

The \i(T(iKi\N Hmiww Commissioners nMpiire fenders by 
11 a.m. .April 2(» for Car Lighting materi.-vl. including i.r. Cable. 
Switches. Lamp Cartri<lge Fuses. Plugs. Sockets. Ac. (contract 
No. 29.7S4) ; an«l by 11 a.m. .May 10 for .Motor (Generator and 
Accessories for Hattery Charging of Paggage Tnicks. also 
Switchlxwinl and Connections (contract No. 29.790). Sijeeifica- 
tions from Spencer street. Mell>onme. Victoria. 

Electric Elevator. 

The \ KToRiAN RAILWAY (ViMMissioNERS rcquiri^ tenders by 
1 1 a. in. .May 17 for the supply aufl erection of a 2-ton Electrically 
o|iera(ed (ioods Elevator at the .^olimont ear she<l. Sjx'cifica- 
tionsfroni the CommiwiinnerH' Ofliee. Sp«»neer-Rtrpet, Mellxiume 



THE ELECTRICIAN, AI'lllL M, V.m. 



65 



Water Softening Plant. 

VValthamstow Urban Cuuiicil rccjuirc tcndcns by .") p.m. 
April 26 for the ,suj)j)Iy and erection of a Water-softening Plant, 
to deal with 5,000 gallons of water per hour, for the clectiicity 
d partment. Specitieation, &c., from the Engineer, electricity 
department. Priory-avenue, Walthamstow. 

Wiring and Fittings. 

Manchester Gua'dians require tenders by April 17 for 
Elcitrical Materials required in connection with the additional 
electric lighting of the main side of the Withington Institution. 
Particulars from the Acting Master of the Institution, Xell- 
lane, West Didsbury, Manchester. 

PoRTSMOi'TH f'orporaticn want tenders by 10;i,m. April 18 
for the installation cf Elee'tricity Supply in the extension of the 
Infectious Diseases Hospital, Milton. Forms of tender, &c., 
from the Borough Eiigiiecr. 

Boiler Plant and Economiser. 

Warrington Electricity and Tramways Committee require 
tenders by noon April 2(5 for sup])ly of Boiler Plant and 
Economise:'. Specification from Borjugli Electrical Engineer. 



TENDERS RECEIVED AND ACCEPTED. 



Portsmouth. The corjioration h;is ;;(ccpted the foUovvhig 
liMiders for stores for the trr,mways department : - 

Jiromall Patents (-o., insulating materials; Scholcy &: Co., steel 
tianiway lyres (£.'5. 19s. per tyro) ; Spiccr Bros.. P. li. Jackson & Co., 
Micauitc & insulators ('o., Mica Mfg. ('o., (ieiToral Electric Co. and Carr 
\irot>., insulatin<f tajx-s ; British Thomson-Houston Co., incandescent 
lamps ; Fleming, Birkby & Coodall and F. Smith & Co.. overhead lino 
material ; Engelbcrt & Co., Vacuum Oil Co. and Worsingham & Co., 
lubricating oils, &c. 



KwrHESTKK. ilif! (jij.irrlians have atccptf.1 IImj tender of R. 
Springer, at t."*?. |(K, for coinpktini? the wiring of the Withington 

Instit tion. 

Liverpool.- T/ic tender of J. ('.. XieholJM (Ltd.) ha« ^jcen accepted 

for six months' Kui)p!y of gla.sH to the lighting defiartment. 

Sheffield. —Tne following tcnderK have U-vn recommenderj to 
the City Council for acceptance : 

W. Marlow & Sons, erection oi .Sidnev-.itr».-«-t »ub Ktation. £I.OIO. and 
erection of Stanley-street sub-.station. £1.21>i; M' '• - ' '' in- 
creasing efficiency of the si.x-ccll unit at Luml« 75 
per cent., £1,029; Edis n Aecumulators (Ltd.;. J :ou via^ou. UJUO 
2-ton wagon, £1,00(J. * ' 

Westminster. The guarrlians have accepted the tendeni of 
Po])es Lamj) Co. for six months' ; ujjj.ly of rifftri'- larn]*. and that 
of the General Electric Co. for eleetricjd fitting:;. &.>. 

Wolverhampton.— Tnc p:icctricity Committee rccjmmendB the 

Council to accej)t the following tenders : — 

Brush Electrical P:ngineering Co., two transformers (?Jit) kw. ••a<h). 
£399.I0s. ; A. lleyrolle & Co., switchgear. £79«i ; Stirliii;; BoiUrro.. two 
water-tube boilers, two superheaters and two .sets of mechanical »tokent 

£8,221. l.js. 

Cardiff. — The tender of the Cental Electrie Co. ha« l*en 
accepted for the supply of electric lighting sundri'^s to the Welsh 
Metropolitan War Hospital, Whitchurch. 

BiNGLEY. — The Council has accepted the tender of the Eleetrii al 
Apparatus Co. for 12 months' supply- of liou.sc .service meters'. 

KEKiHLEY. The Council hm accepted the tender of Mather & 
Piatt (£122. L5s.) for a 32 H.r. motor for driving a pump on the Hecce 

Mill Co.'s estate. 

Aruentina. — The Post and Telegraph Dcpjirtmcnt ha,s been 
authorised to ])urchase .500 insulators from Colson, Brtxikhouse k, 
Pync (Buenos Ayres), for S42.) m n. and ."Jo.tJiJO kilos of No. 7 wire 
from H. Fuhrmann & Co. (Buenos Ayres) for $5,96.3.75 m n. 



FINANCIAL MATTERS. 



MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTS. 



Dover.— The accounts of the electricity (lejjai'tuuuil lor Hk^ yea.r 
ended March 31, 1915, show total c;!.])ital exjieuditure £191.907, of 
which £(3,227 has been repii.id. 

Year's revenue was £29,bt)9, and working and general expenses «ere 
£11,070, gross protifc being 14,598. The net surplus, after jnoviding for 
capital charges, was £3,080. Units generated Avere 1,778,787 and sold 
1,518,657. 

Huddersfield. — At a recent meeting of the Corporation the electricity 
department accounts for the year ended Dec. 31 were approved. 

The gross piolit was £3,442 (against £4,()2(> for 1914). of which £1,292 
(£1,925. 12s. 3(1.) was tiansfcrrcd to ilejncciation and continjj;encies 
account and £2,150 (£2,1(»0) to relief of rates. :i)c])reciation and con- 
liniiencies account shows a balance in hand of £8,17t> (£8,090). 

Aid. Marsland, who moved the adoption of the accounts, said the 
quantity of fuel used had increased from 20,781 tons iji 1914 to 28,242 
tons in 1915, an increase of 36 per cent., and the cost had risen from £11,215 
to £19,634, increase of 75 per cent. The n verage cost per ton was 13s. 11 d. 
(against 10s. lOd. for 1914), and so far this year it was just over 15.s. 
Wages at station increased £884, caused by extra cost of liandling coal, 
line to delay in con)i)l(^ting the coal-elevating and storage ])lant, which was 
now working; to the payiuent to men on military duties, and to the 
increased wages granted to employees. Units sold were 10,536,374, 
increase 30-5 per cent., due to the large demand for power. A large part 
of the energy used had been taken by consumers who had been working 
at night and had considerably improved the load factor. 

Aid. Wheatley contended that almost the whole of the increase in the 
cost of fuel was due to the requirements of the power consumer;-, and that 
it would bo no hardship if an adjustment of pricco to themjwcrc m.ade.t 
The diSerentiation wac; carried too far and became almoct a subsidy. 
The committee alao proposed to allot £2,150 in preparation for a subsidy 
of the rates. As the committee had only £8,000 or £10,000 with which to 
meet any catastrophe they should have put the sum to the contingencies 
fund, which should be built up. 

Coun. Buckley thought large and small consumers should be placed on 
the .same terms, with the variation of a small discount. 

In reply, Aid. Maksi.and said fuel costs were higher when supplying 
light only, due to the losses on the works during the daytime, when light 
wao not required; but the serious difference was due to the standing 



( barges which had to be met by the average use of the Ughts for one hour 
per day, whereas the power (■onsuiner could meet the chaises by sprradmg 
(hem over an average of eight hours per day. Without the opportunity 
which the power supply gave them of increasinj; their output the cost of 
lighting would be very much more. The metallic filainent lamps reducctl 
the cost of current io the iimsunier l)y twnthirds. and the half-watt 
lamps now reduced the cost to one-half. 
The minutes were then adoiited. 

Ilford.-The accounts of the tramways depiirtment for the ye*r 
ended March 31, 1915, last. s';ow tot-l capit •' expenditure £149,573 
(no increase), of which £50,043 has been repaid. 

Revenue was £31,980 (against £25.792 in 1914) and workuig expends 
were £23,520 (£20.878), gross profit being £S.46t» (£4.914). instalments of 
loans required £5.251 (£5,069), and inteivst £3.7S6 (£3.969). Total 
revenue per car-mile was S12d. (7-4Sd.) and working e.\|H'nses iKTcar- 
mile. including i)ower, were5-97d. (5-877(1.). I'assengerM-.irrioil ou Ilfoni 
system were 9,203,077 (against 8.036.5.-»2). and ear-miles run in llfoni 
773,490 (827,8()3) and in Barkmg 104,323 (nil). 

Marylebone (London). — The revenue account of the electric supply 
department for the quarter ended Dec. 31 last shows totjd income 
£69,991 (increase £5,832 over corresponding (piarter of 1914). 

Revenue from consumers, includiui; meter rentals, was £60.469 (in- 
ecraso £5,920). Working and general expenses wen> £21.636 v>iuTe«.Ms 
£2,197). Avoraue piice per unit was 3075(1. (against 2-97*1.). and ex- 
penses were l-042d. (l-012d.). Average cost ot coal \rr tun was 22s. 1.1.. 
compared with 14s. 3.\d. in 1914, representing an extra oxpenso of £3.H>S 
on the 8.131 tons us^d". Special war expeiuses were £1.0S1 (against £923). 
Tho Electric Supplv Committee report that in roforence to advertise- 
ment for tenders for ^ix months' suuplies. a num»>'^r of tenders were 
received piacticaUv all of wliich ar-^ subj.vt to special reservations thie 
to prevailing conditions. So far as small house c.il)lo5. flexible cords. 
rubber goods and iusulatmc materials are concerned tho prices quoted aro 
indefinite, and the committee have decided not to accept any tender, but 
to buy in the open market as occa3 on arises. 

Tho committee has intormed tho secretary of the National AmaJga- 
mated Union of Enginemen. Fiiemeu. Motormen. Mechanics and Electrical 
Workers that the application of members of the said union m the 
( 'euncil's employ Un- an advaiu <> of 4s. per week cannot l>o .uranled. 
Oldham. The net prolil on the tramways for 1915-lG was £3.985. 
Out of the moss revenue £.-..225 was paid in allowances to dependents 
of men with the colours; £1.000 was .^pentouan extension to HoUinwood 



66 



THE ELECTRICLVN, APRIL 14, 1916. 



dey>ot and i548 for an injpiovement in Hipix^nden-road. Thf groKS 
profit wnn over £I0,<XJ0, which is considered one of the mo^l satisfaetory 
results in the history of the undertaking. On the three motor "ba-^eB 
1 here had been a ir,hs of £720 on the year. 

Rochdale. — The total receipts of the Corporation tramwa-vs were 
£82,84(» for the J 2 months ended March, an increase of £4,477. 

'J'he ear-rniles run were 1 ,nOO,<J87, a decrease of HH.oS'j mi'e:' ; I.'l,70.5.87 1 
jjaKWiipers were carried, an increase of 298,5/53. 'I'iie receipts were 
nearly I2\il. per car-mile run, more than Id. per mile in excess of 1914-1.5. 

Wigan. — The revenue ci the niunici]ja! trainway.s for the past year 
■wa.s £79,419, against £7/>,270 in 1914-lo, an increase of £4,218. 

'J'he pasHcngerH carried were 14,f)50,03o, comf>ared with 13,811,709 
(increuHe 838,:i20), but the car-mileage was only 1,4-10,017, against 
1,495,78') (deereaHe of .55,109). The expenses per car-mile were l?-13d., 
against 12-07d. per mile, an increase of 1-OOd. 



COMPANIES' MEETINGS AND REPORTS. 



ALTRINCHAM ELECTRIC SUPPLY (LTD.; Mr. ('. .1. lord presi.lcd at 
the meeting last week, and t^taterl that <luring the past jcar further 
deix-ntures to the amount of £5,000 Iwul been issued in order to provide 
the iieeessarA' ea|)ilal for extensions of ])lant. &e. The results were nf>t 
equally favourable as in 1914, mainly due to increased cost of coal and 
economies •■xereised by ])rivate consumers. In additifm. many firms 
who it was antiei])ated would have been consumers of current for jiower 
had <xj)erienced difli<tdties in obtaining delivc ry «>f their ])lant, and that 
had the elTeet of s<imewhat restrieting tin- amount of current which the 
dire.ctors had hoped would have been sold for that ])ui)>(ise during 1915. 
The- ihnirman reminded the shareholders that in 1915 he intimated that 
steps were br-ing taken to obtain a fresh provisional f»rder. having for its 
sole obj«'ct the remodelling of their ( apital. That step a])pearcd to have 
been wholly niisinteq)rpted by some local authorities, in consequence of 
whi< h op|)ositi(in was tiled with the Hoard of Trade, who. in consequence, 
refus<'d to sanction the provisional order. No additional jiowi-rs what- 
ever had b(<'n sought under the order in (|Ucslion which would possibly 
afTeit the rijjht of the IikhI authorities or the ]iosition of the com])any's 
eustomei-s, and he felt that that gratuitous intrusion of the local autho- 
rities into a matter which was ])\irely a domestic one, and affected solely 
the inlensts of the company's shareholders, was much to be regretted, 
and (lid not t<'nd to assist the friendly n'lationshiii which it was very 
desirable should exist between the comjmny and the local bodies. 

BRITISH WE3TINGH0USE ELECTRIC & MFO CO. (LTD.) -Thechairman 
(.Mr. .1. Aiuiaii I'.ryi c. .M. j'.), in moving the ado))tion of the annu;d n-port 
at the meeting lastw eek, stated the balance cnrri<'d forward (£44. 0;i2) 
n'prownted an incn-ase of £!Hi.51 1 over last year. A large carr>- forwanl 
wa« neeessarj- in view of the legislation of last wssicm. I'nder the 
Finance (No. 2) Act of 1915 then- was imposed a tax of .'lO per e<'nt. of all 
excess profits uf businesses whose accoinits were made u|> from Sep- 
tember. 1914, to .Inly, 1915, and as their accounts were made up on 
Dec. m. 1914, the la \ fell ope in the jirofils made by them in th<'Vear 1914, 
and was, iherefnrc. rclros|ie(ti\e. The tax was imposed largely in 
deferenc-e to the demand of workmen that their labour should not be 
exploited by mnnufncturers making excejjtion.il j»rotits thn-ugh war 
conditions. If the tax had lK-<'n im]Kised soh-ly on jirotifs due to the war 
no excc]>lii)n could have been taken, but it s)i ' it 

would ha\e bei n ditlicnlt, if not im|>oKsible, to <l iig 

from the war from profits made during lhr> war. .Nalurally. the Treasurv 
c-hose tin- c<(urw whi<'h not only was nimpler, but Indught a great deal 
more Krist to its mill, and acconiingly the tax was im|ioscd on ell busi- 
nesses which had made more j.rolit d\iring the war than bcfoie it. Ihit 
it wns evident that in the ca»«' of a very large numlsr of busincHws the 
result was most unfair. It was unfair ni nil i-ases where n business was 
in a state of ilcvlnpnicnf and when- (Ite Lirger jirofits in 1914 had no 
neci'ssary connection with the war. and whrn*. indeed, in many eoxes 
they would have be<-nslilllnrgerl»ut for the w«r. That WBs|>re-<'minently 
their own case. The" war lM>Knn on Aug. 4, 1914, and their nccoiinln were 
closed on pec. .'M. 1914. They had. tlii i ' ulv five 

months I if the war. during I he first i if win udvscd 

and dnrini: the last four of \%hi< b ii uns r\' diltii ult to < undue t 

owMig to the loss (if nuich of their skilled lal" . v l'\ niiting and 

jiarlly from the sudden demnndn of thi» (lovernn . which, by 

etiormcus wages, templed a«ny ninny of llien c'l im n Moi-ctivcr. 
during the last four moiitlis nf 1911. not milv Ubmir but inntiTinls 
advanced in jiriic, s(i thai their c ht- 

more, in a bii-incss like theirs, i' 'ter 

the order wns taken, and it might l>e said that iii'ii<' it their piofits in the 
year 1914 wen- due to orders taken during the war mouth* of that year, 
or even to orders taken in tho prewar mimlho of that year. Not only 
were their larger |)roflts of 1914, u i ' •' i,,,( 

due III any m-nse to the war. but «■ uld 

have bei n had there been no war. \ w; n- I tfi 

the Government half of the excess | t 1914 e .ut 

of the lhn<> pre-war years 1911, MM-! and I9i:i mendy U>< nuM>. as the 
WHult of hard lh«>t|ght and hnrtl work, their profit* hamxm^il to I>e on an 
•M^ltUing ncnlc, while other concn-rns whic h had rea« he«| their ch.velop- 



ment sooner were, though making far. larger profits than themselves, 
entirfdy exempt from the tax. Surely nothing more unfair can be 
imagined, yet the Chancellor turned a deaf car to evcrj- argument, and in the 
Budget which he ha- j.:: t introduced he proposes to increase the injustice 
still further by raising the tax from 50 to 60 per cent. Thej- would, 
therefore, see that a large provision was necessars' against the uncer- 
tainties of the situation, and he was by no means sure that if the report 
had been. delayed till after the Budget their directors would not have 
decided upcn a still greater provision. The net profit was £176,7.52, 
against £151,027 for 1914. an increase of £2.5,125. That was not so large 
an increa.se as that shown in the 1914 accounts over those of 1913, but 
under the circumstances it might be considered satisfactory. With 
regard to their business generally during 1915. their total orders received 
(comjjared with 1914) showed an increase of about 73 per cent., but that 
included cme large single order for the electrification of an important 
railway, amounting to about £.5iKJ.O0O, to which there was no correspond- 
ing order in 1914. After eliminating those two items, the general orders 
still showed an increase over 1914 of some 30 per cent. A considerable 
])art of that increase was prrjbably due to the absence of German com- 
jietition. from whi' h th«-y had sufFcR'd so muc h in the past. They must 
hc)]»o that when ]teace was concluded that comiietition would be scotched 
for some time to come. Both their domestic and Ccntin^ntal orders 
shcjwed a good increase, but as was only natural, having regard to pre- 
vailing conditions, their export sales showed some fallins off. The 
incn-ase in orders was not an altogether cimixed blessin<x There was 
considerable contjestion in their wcjrks. as shown by the fact that their 
orders in hand at Dec 31 were far in excess of what they v.irc in 191-'. 
They had had the minimum of friction with their worki)eoi)le, and 
generally speaking the most whole-hearted assistance ; and nuuh credit 
was due to the tactful manner in which those in charge had dealt with the 
many difficult ])roblems presented by present conditions. The labour 
as a whole was naturally less efficient than Ix'forc the war. owing to the 
number of skilled men who joined the colours or took other em])loymcnt, 
but in that respec-t they believed that they were in no worse a position 
than their neighbours. The principle of the dilution of labour had had 
to be pursued. The em})loyment of women had been largely extended 
with sati.sfactorx- nsults. and might be carried further. Orders were still 
coming in well, and at the moment were sli^rhtly in excess of those at the 
corresponding period of last yc-ar, but it must be remembered that tie 
large railway order in 1915 to which he had alluded towns anexceptirna! 
one. Customers were aware that considerable delay must inevitably 
take place in the completion of their orders, and it might conceivably 
hajipen that much of the profit which should ae-crue to them on the orders 
in hand might not be available in the ( urrent years balance-sheet. Last 
year he discii.ssed at some length the destructicm of cajiital likely to be 
caused by the war. and hazarded an estimate of 5.(MXt million jiounds. 
That estimate was by some considered excessive, but to-day it ajipeared 
absurdly moderate. The figures of war expenditure were everx' clay 
becoming more colossal, and. alas, every day liecomes more appalling 
the waste of young life at its most productive stage-, life without which 
fresh wealth eoulel not bc^ created. Certainly. therefon\ they must look 
to a climinished i>urchasing power in the world, and a cons''i|uent depres- 
sion in industrx'. but that depression would itrobably not show itself 
immediately after the war ended, and he still held to the view he ex- 
])n-ssecl last year that even when it did come it might not afTect, at least 
at first, industries such as theirs, which were- neeosnrx- fcr the jiurpo.ses 
of rcconstriietiiin and the ei-euiomical workiiii; of other industries. 
es)»eeially as in their ]>artieular business the presstire of (Jerman com- 
petition was not likely to Ix- so seven*. It w.as partly due to their antici- 
]>ation of post-war conditions that, with a view to broadening the basis 
of their business, tliey acffuired the controlling; interest in the French 
eomjiany. In France, as in Kngland. tiermnn c('m]>etition was before 
the war exce>cdin'.;lv keen, while nflcr the war it v\as even ' Iv to be 

felt than here. The Italian company, in which the>y h( : i:gh the 

French company) a eontn>lling intercut, was also fully eniplovcd. but 
then< also the post war pros]>ee ts were good. The use of electrical 
apparatus both for railway and other j>uriM>s<-s ni>]>c>ared like^ly to inciraso 
lar^rdy. while in Italy also a diminution of (;e-rman i eimpetition ai>]>eared 
probable, tbouuh jicrliaiis not to sci great exlenl as in France. They 
would see that, in view of the iidverse conditions under which thcv were 
at present working, their Indies of any e-onsiderable development of their 
business must depend on the ending of the war. Of that ending there 
was at present no sign. 

BRUSH ELECTRICAL ENQINEERINO CO. (LTD i ' ■. 

static t|l:lt llii- \iilllllK' lif <illt]illt h.i> I'ce-n IM.lll. ' _' V. ;^ 

shortage tif skilleei Inbourand heavy increa.M-.-m << si e>l tnelaixl materialn 
have all tenehsl tn oilM-t the iniptovement thai wemld ei1heTwi> ■ '■■■■ 
In'i'.n np|>ikn-nt in tin- net earninas. .\fter pni\idiiii! for in Kcriil ( 
mainlciinii ' " ' i vi 

loans, thci. It 

is r( . oinmen(ie»l tiiai i^.tKiu bi ion. £_.1'4 1 in pay- 

ment of the further I ]■ • ■ . m holders of the i:or 

eeiit. prior hen ]Mir1ici) , are entitled out of 

the first net pmtil- . ><i >ii\u.. imi m .i \ \car. that £5.0(K) be 

placed to general .uid £9.521 cariii"! fdiw.inl. The sum of 

£3l.'.Hi3 has Ix-en ex)M.'UUi^ on capital account during the year. 

CAMBRIDGE ELECTRIC SDFPLY CO. (LTD.)— The profit for 1915 (in- 
olu.lni;: t-'.t>47 br<iUi;ht foiu.iid) was il2.(Kt6. After placing £3.000 to 
depreciation account, the directors have de < lared a further dividend of 
3 p«'r (~ent.. m.tkint: 5 ] ' for the y< .u. e< i ' 'i (I jK-r cent, 

for each of the two pre- ars, (^arrying (ci \ 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APlilL U, UilG. 



67 



CITY OF SANTOSIMPROVEMENTSCO. (LTD.)— The net revenue; in H)15 
wa.s £11,1^9. and witli t(),()28 brought forward, the total was £78,1587, 
compared with £88, 7(5!) in 1!H4. Th(! reduction in revenue is entirely 
due to the fall in the value of tlio milreis. After transferring IJo.OOO to 
reserve and setting aside £4,000 to tramways renewal account, a dividend 
of 3 ])er cent, on the ordinary shares is rceom mended, leaving £7,017 to 
be carried forward. The number of ])assengers carried on the tramways 
was 14,870,770, a decrease of 47.5,58(5. The number of ])ublie electric 
lamps was 1,373, an increase of 35, and the number of j)rivate consumers 
2, (>!)!), an increase of 339. The number of motors wars 248, an increase 
of 3!). 

CLEVEDON, PORTISHEAD & DISTRICT ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.l— 

In their n ]iort for 1915 the directors state that the growth of the uiick^r- 
taking has been satisfactorj' in spite of the very unsettled conditions 
prevailing, the gross revenue of the company being almost exactiv dou])lo 
that of 1914. The number of consumers connected to the mains in I'ortis- 
head inen-ased from 130 to 179, and the new sub-stati(^n at ]:5ower Ashton 
is now complete and is supplying tlie South Liberty Colliery. Owing 
to difficulty in getting delivery of their apparatus, the colliery company 
were not ready to receive the supply until Michaelmas. This su])])ly has 
proved very .satisfactoiy, and the colliery comi)any are already ])titting 
down further motors which will considerably increase their rate of con- 
Kum])tion. The total receipts were £!,737, compared with £887, and, 
notwithstanding the increased c,osts for fuel and other expenses, the gross 
l)rofit was £096, eom])ared with £444. After deducting interest i:nd othiM' 
sundry charges the net profit was £487, com]iarcd with £344, and this 
with the balance brought foivvard (£72) makes a total of £558. The 
direct(irs reconnnend payment of the dividend on th(> 6 ])er tent, pre- 
ference shares and a dividend of 2i per cent, on the ordinary shares, to 
applv £150 to depreciation fund, to write down ^preliminary expenses bv 
£100 and to carry forward the balance of £36. 12s. lid. The number of 
units sold during the year amount to 209,524, compared with 5G 090 in 
1914. The directors express their indebtedness to Messrs. Christy Bros. 
& Co. for advancing the sums necessary to complete several very lucrative 
extensions. An application to the Board of Ti'ade for leave to extend 
the mains through the village of Long Ashton has been made. 

CORK ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS & LIGHTING CO. (LTD.)— The re venue for 
1915 was £63,905. 4s. 9d. and expenses were £42,415. Is. 7d., leaving 
£21,490. 3s. 2d. Adding balance brought forv/ard (£2,480. 10s. 7d.), and 
deducting interest on debentures (£4,600) the balance is £19,370. 13s. 9d. 
The two half-yearly dividends on the 5 per cent, cumulative ])reference 
shares absorbed £6,163. 10s. ; a sum of £6,500 was added to reserve for 
depreciation and renewals, £1,776. 10s. lid. written off wiring consumers' 
premises, &c., and £889. 19s. 5d. written off investments. The directors 
recommend that the balance of £4,040. 13s. 5d. be carried forward. The 
lighting and power business continues to show satisfactory progress, 
agreements for 147 connections being concluded during the past year, 
the additional connections representing a total gain of 405 kw., com- 
pared witli 467 kw. in 1914. The year's revenue showed an increase of 
£2,301. The lighting and power revenue was £1,920 in excess of that of 
1914, but the traction revenue showed a small increase of £52. The 
other items show an increase of £329. The expenses were £42,415, com- 
pared with £37,958. The large increase was entirely due to operating 
under war conditions, the high price of coal and war bonuses and allow- 
ances involving increased charges amounting to £5,800. The directors 
have written off out of revenue £1,777 against wiring consumers' pre- 
mises, repair shop equij)ment, plant on loan, &c., and £890 to bring down 
investments to market value. They have also set aside £6,-500 to reserve 
for de])reciation and renewals, and the net revenue shows a material 
reduction, and the directors regret that they are unable to recommend a 
dividend on the ordinary share capital, as it is necessary to carrv- forward 
a larger sum than usual to provide against the still further increase in the 
price of coal and other materials during the current year. As expenses 
increased to such an abnormal extent the company's lighting and power 
tariff was raised from July 1 last, but the additional charges to the con- 
sumers represents a very small percentage of the increased cost of 
operating. The year's capital expenditure (£l,6(i3) has been mainly for 
house services and cables. Delivery of the 1,250 kw. Curtis turbine 
referred to in the previous report wiU be made shortly. 

W.T. GLOVER & CO. (LTD.)— The chairman (Mr. A. L. Ormrod) presided 
at the meeting on Monday and said that the com])any had arrived at so 
sound a position that in a time of unexampled national strain the directors 
were able to produce a stronger balance-sheet than ever before, with a larger 
profit, resulting from an increased turnover, and they had been able to 

^render great service to the State. Much as they wor»Icl have liked to have 
ione so, they felt they could not recommend a higher dividend. Mon-^y 
ras wanted in the business ; raw materials were never higher in price, 
lor the ditHcidties of obtaining them so great, and they nnist have such 
lateriak; in the works. Last year they made £54,438 on tiieii' trading. 
If he deducted the interest on the first and second debenture stock and 

fthe amount to be paid on the preference capital the figures showed that 
"ley earned nearly 37 per cent, on their ordinary capital. The share- 
koldsrs were going to receive 5 per cent., or less than one-seventh of the 
imoimt actually earned. The balance of 32 per cent, was not wasted : 

lin course of time full advantage would be reaped from the great bvdk of 
fit. Their debentures were being redeemed, and the ordinary shares 

lyear by 3'ear were getting into a better position, either by an accession 
of assets or by a diminution of charges in front of them or by a combina- 
tion of both. They were glad to be able to give the Government some 
excess jirofit for the national needs. It did not do to point a finger at 
other traders who were more leniently dealt with as regards excess profits. 
They received interest on their holding of debentures and dividend on 



;r 

■,y 



k**. H'* would axk tho 



. .1, ...I 



v^r wa« 



prefercnc(; shares of tli<- TratTorrl Power f 

ordinary shares, bceau.s*- the deni;ind.( for 

were continuous. They w' ' ■ 

period had suffered from <•> 

had to fitrhl with their hands tied tchind 

British public and British (>>rpr>ration». ,. v 

over, not to support fJerman induHtri's or th .»t tho 

expense of British, but to guppo"! firmw sucu a.-. iji'iVL-rj, %tnish wa* 

British to the core. 

WYCOMBE (BOhOUGH; ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD.) — 
During 1915 the conn'( lion-, lo th'- ''imiihhv - inaui-« f -< inwn 2^ii-'t kw. 
to 2,392 kw., an increase of 137 kw. Including £IW. i.. 8<i. brought 

forward, th year's j>ro(it is £7,065. 2s. 3d., and after pav ,,n 

debentures and outstanding accounts* (£:i,2()3. 'h. Id.) • m 

£3,801. 14s. 8d. The directors re<< ' ' ,t 

rate of 2}, per cent, for the year (ab . :>« 

p!ac'.dto rcs'-ivcfor renewal.-, Icavin'j £^0l. 1 t-<. &d. lo l>c'arrj«-d forward. 

YORKSHIRE (WOOLEN DISTRICT) ELECTRIC TRAMWAY (LTD.,— Tho 
past year's revenue was £71. .593. ir;ompared with £f'>5.38.'i for 191-4. A 
sum of ,£4,000 has been placed to reserve (against *" " ' ' ' ■■<l 

of 4i per cent, p-^r annum on the ordinary- shan .) 

is recommended, carrying fonvard £2,948, against £2,OJ>7. 



NEW COMPANIES. 

ASSOC I ATION OF BRITISH MOTOR & AIRCRAFT MAKDFAC rURERS (LTO. ) 
(143,.';07). — Reg. April 4 as a company limited by guarantee with !00 
members, each liable for £1 in the event of winding up, to prctfct the 
British motor and aircraft industrj'. Management is vested in an execu- 
tive committee, the first members of which are E. Manville and A. 
Spurrier. Only persons engaged in the British motor and aircraft 
industry are eligible for membership of the committee. Secretar\' : 
H. Wyatt. Reg. office : 173, Fleet-streei, E.G. 

H. G. COOPER (LTD.) (143,-526).— Reg. April 6, capital £2,000 in £1 
shares, to take over the business of an electrical engineer and office 
furnisher, carried on by H. G. Cooper. Private company. First direc- 
tors are H. G. Cooper, G. S. Edwards and Alice H. Cooper. Reg. office : 
0, Fen-coui-t, E.C. 

JAMES SMITH HOISTING MACHINERY CO. (LTD.)— Capital £10.000 in 
£1 shares (1,000 founders' and 9,000 f)rdinar>-), to carry on business of 
manufacturers of and dealers in hoisting machinery and cranes of all 
kinds, engineers, founders, &c. Private com]iany. First directors are 
G. H. Buckley and C. E. Partridge (appointed by holders of onlinarj- 
shares), and J. Smith (appointed by holders of founden," shares). 

E. POWELL (LTD.) (143,534).— Reg. April 7. capital £4,000 in £1 .shares, 
to take over the business of an electrical engineer, motor and cycle agent, 
&c., carried on by E. Powell at Tunbridge Wells. Private company. 
First directors are E. Powell, scnr. (permanent), E. Powell, jnnr., and P. 
Powell. 

SELECTIVE SIGNAL CO. (LTD.) (4,3.30).— Reg. in Dublin on April 4. 
capital £5,000 in £1 shares, to acquire any inteivsts in patent rights, 
licences, &c. Private company. First directors are W. -I. Lyon— W. 
Conan, F. P. Griffith and G. M. Meares. Reg. office : 17. Westlaud-row, 
Dublin. 



CITY NOTES. 



MEMORANDA (April 12;. — Bank rate 5 per cent, (since Aag. 8, 1914). 
Consols 57i Consols Pay Day, May 4. Stocks and Shares Ticket Davs, 
April 27 and May 1 1 . Pay Days", Aprii2S and :May 12. Price of silver. 29." d. 

CALCUTTA ELECTRIC SUPPLY CORPN. (LTD.)— Tho number of units 
sold to consumers during the four weeks ended Feb. 2.5. 1916. aniounteil 
to 1,362,833. compared with 990,763 in the corn\-^poniling four wivks of 
1915. 

DIRECT UNITED STATES CABLE CO. (LTD.'— The bojml have n-solved 
to pay a iinal dividend of 2s. per share (lo.^s tax at 3s. 2d.), payable on and 
after "the 29th inst., and making with the three interim »lividrnd-ialr\'ady 
paid a total distribution of 4 per cent, for the year ended March 31. The 
transfer books will be closed from the 12th t.> 26th April. inelusf.-e. 

EASTERN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— It is announced that, subjeet to 
final auilit, the directors at the forthcoming general meeting to be held 
next month, propose to recommend the payment of a final dividend o{ 
£2. 5s. per cent, and a bonus of 2 ])vi cent., both tax fn-e. making, with 
previous payments on account, a total distribution of 8 i^r cent, on the 
ordinarv stock for the vear ended Dec. 31. 191.5. 

EASTERN EXTENSION AUSTRALASIA & CHINA TELEGRAPH CO. LTD.) 
Subject to iinal audit, the directors at the iorthconung general mi-et:ng 
to be held next month, pi-opose to recommend the payment of a hnal 
dividend of 4s. 6d. per share, together with a bonus of 4.<. ]mt share. 
both tax free, makiirg with pnnious payments on account » t^^al «|'-*- 
triburion of 8 per cent, on the share capital for the year ended Dec. Jl, 
1915. 

GIANT'S GAUS5,WAY. PORTRUSH & BUSH VALLEY RAILWAYS TRAM- 
WAY CO —The net revenue U.v 1915 was £60S. and. aUor mooting mort- 
gage charges, cS:e., the adverse balance of VI.5S brought ftuward, was 
re<luced to £88. 



(}8 



THE ELECTKICIAN, APRIL 14, 11)10. 



LANCASHIRE DYNAMO & MOTOR CO. (LTD.)— It is announced that, 
owirijr to various cauws, tlie oornjiany's balance-sheet cannot be is.sued 
until (some weeks later than usual, but the directors have decided to jiay a 
further interim dividend of 4J per cent., tax free. 

LEAMINGTON & WARWICK ELECTRIC CO. (LTD.)— The accounts of 
liil.j sh<i\v ail jivailabk- sum (after traii.--f(iiintr £1.0(^0 to renewals account 
and in'ludinf^ £1,827 broujiht forward) of £5,38.'{. A dividend of 5 ]kt 
cent, has been declared, compared with 3 per cent, for 1914, and £1,883 
has been carried forward. 

MONTEVIDEO TELEPHONE CO. (LTD.l—An interim dividend at the rate 
of ))iT cent. jjcraiDiiiin. less tax, lias 1 rcn declared ( n the ordinary shares 
for the past half-year. 

ORIENTAL TELEPHONE & ELECTRIC CO. (LTD.)— The direc t<,r<i recom- 
mend (sulijcct to final audit) jiayiiiciit of the foilowin;; dividends : At 
rat<! of 6 ])er cent, per annum on the preference shares for llie half-year 
ended ])cc. 31 last (less ta.\), and a final dividend of (J i)er cent, on the 
ordinary shares (ta.\ free), making a total of 10 per cent, for the year. 

RIO TRAMWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD.)— The direitors hav<- 
dcriaird a ijiiarteily <li\i'li lid of 1 j |i' r . rnl. r.n the issued capital sttxk. 

SAO PAULO TRAMWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD.) -The directors 
lia\c (1(1 liiicd ii (li\iil( 11(1 of 2', )i( I ( (III. on tlic ( oiiiiiinii stfM'k. 

SIR W. G. ARMSTRONG, WHITWORTH ft CO. (LTD. Tiie directors 
annouiKc that, as it will not be jio.ssiblc under e.\istinji circumstances to 
comjjlete the iyi5 accounts for sonic time, they jiave decided to pay liie 
final dividend cm the; ])reference shares (less ta.\), and a further dividend 

of Is. S(l. per sliaic (tax free) on the ordinaiy shares. 

WESTERN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.) -The dirci toi-s will i*c aide to rcc.un 
mend to the shareholders at the ne..\t jjencral nu-etin;;, should the present 
lU't revenue be maintained, the j)ayment of a bonus of - per cent., whidi. 
toj,'ether with the cmlinary ilividcnd of f) i)er cent., will make a l<»tal 
distribiition of K jier (cnt. (tax fn-e) for the current financial year. 



ELECTRICAL COMPANIES' SHARE LIST.— Continued. 



METAL PRICES. 

Messrs. J. B. Girnhim & Sons. l.<2, Upp;r Tnames-street, London, E.G., quote under 
date, April !l, the following as the present basis prices of 



New Metals. per lb. 

Solid Drawn Brass Tubes 17d. 

Solid Drawn Copper Tubes 18Jd. 

Brazed Copper Tubes Idjd. 

Brazed Brass Tubes 19d. 

Brass Wire Itjd. 

Copper Wire 18d. 

Rolled Brass 161d. 

Brass SheeU 16id. 

[■er ton. 

Copper Sheets CM8 

Spelter £97 



lier ton- 

Entjlish Lead £35 

Antimony Nominal. 



Old Metals. 



Clean Cspper Scrap £100 

Clean Brass Scrao C66 

Braziery Copper Scrap £92 

Old Lead £27 

Old Zinc £fcO 

Hollow Pewter £120 

Black Pewter £85 

Gun Metal £82 



per ton. 





















10 





(1 
























Mr. A. Joseph, Earl-street, London-road, Southwark. London, S.E., quotes under dale 
April 1 1 , the following approximate prices of Scrap Metai 3 : — 



per ton. 

Aluminium Cuttings £120 

Clean Mixed Brass £70 

r>.inC')nper £102 

Br.iziTy Copper £92 

Gun Mct.il £80 



per ton. 

Old Uad £29 10 

Tea Lead £27 10 

Old Zinc £70 

Hollow Pewter £130 

.Shaped Black Pewter £X) 

Mr. Joseph can supply solder at the following prices per ton : Plumber's Solder (in bar 
or strip). £60; Commercial Tinman's Solder. £115; Blowpipe SoMer, £120. 



ELECTRICAL COMPANIES' SHARE LIST. 

What wore known an " oflioial quotations" are not now iaauod, bu I 
W6 give bolow the latent prioen at whioh actual transaotions took plaoo 
on or before TiicHday, Apiil I 1 . The Rroatost care is taken in oompiling 
these figure*, but the difticulty of verification is now much increased. 



NAME. 



Pfle«, Ratb 

fun. PKR CKHT 

April 11. YlBLDBD. 



St. 



Electricity Supply. 

Boumemoutli & V< "le fi.L. Otd 

tDo. 4i% Cum. Pref 

tDo. 6% Cum. 2nd Pref 

Bromptnn & Kensington Ord 

Do. 7% Pref 

Central Elec. Supp. G. Deb. St 

Charing Crow West End & City Deba... 

Do. 4J"pProf 

Do. Ord 

Do. City Pref 

Chelsea Elec. Supp. Co. Ord 

Do. do. Deb 

City of London Elec. Lt Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

Do. 5% Deb. St 

Do. 4t% Debs 

County of London Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

Do. 1st Dob 

Do. 2iid Deb 

Edmundson's Elec. Supp. 4)% Dabs...' 
KonsliiRton and K.nightsbrldceOrd. .. 

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Waste Heat & Gas Elec. Gen. Stations. 
Westminster E.S. Corp. Ord 

Do. 4J%Cum. P.-ef 

Electric Railways & Tramways. 

Britisn Elec Traction 5% Debs , 

Do. 6% Cum. Pref 

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Do. do. Assented Def. Ord. . . 

Do. 41% Pref 

Do 4% Deb. St 

City & S. London Deb 

Do. Pref. 1896 

London Electric Ry. Ord 

Do. 4% Pref 

Do. 4% Debs 

Metropolitan Ry. Con. Ord 

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Do -■ 

Do. 3i% A Debs. 

Cto. 3i% Debs 

Metropolitar. Dist Ry. Ord 

Do. 4% Prior Lien 

4i% First Prof , 

6% Perp. Debs 

4% Debs 

4% Debs. (1903-5). 

4% Guar. Stock 

Electric Manufacturing, &c. 

Babcock & Wilcox Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

Brit Aluminium Ord 

Do. Prior Lien Debs 

Do. 6%Pref 

Brit. Insulated & Helsby Ord 

Dc. 6% Cum. Pref 

British L.f^.Ericssion Mfg.Cm.6% Prof. 

British Thom'^n-Houston Db 

Brit Westinghouse Pref 

Do. 6% Prior Lien Debs. 

Do. 4% Mort Deb. St 

Callender's Cable. &c., Co. Ord 

Do. 5% Pref 

Do. 4J% Debs 

Dick, Kerr & Co. 6°o Pref 

Edison & Swan U.EIec.Lt A. £3 pd 

Do. 4% Deb 

Elec. (construction Ord 

Do. 7% Cum. Pref 

Do. 4% Debs 

General Electric Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

W. T. Henley's Telegh. Wks. Co. Ord. . 

Do. 4J% Cum. Pref 

Do. 41% Db 

India Rubber, G. P. &c„ Ord 

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Telegh. Con. & Main. C>) 

Do. 4% Debs 

Vickors Ord 

Do. 5% Pref 

Do. 1st Debs 

Do. 4t% 2nd Debs 

Willans & Robir.son B. Cum. Pref..... 

Do. 1st Mt. Deb. St 

Telegraphs. 

Anglo American t% Prel. Ord 

Do. Def. Ord 

Commercial Cable 4°o Debs 

Cuba Submarine Ord 

Do. 10% Pref 

Direct Spanish 10% Pref 

Dlroct United States 

Eastern Tel. Co. Ord 

Do. 3J% Pref 

[>o. 4% Debs 

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Wastam Telc(?h. (k) -.... 

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April 
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Jan, July 
Jan. July 
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May 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 

July 
Jun, Doc 
Fob. Aug 

Jun. Dec 
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* And 131% bcniu. t Et dividend or intorsst 



THE ELECTRICIAN: 



THB OLDEST WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OP 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, INDUSTRY, SCIENCE ANb ILNANCE. 

ESTABLISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861 ; Second Series (Weekly). 1878 
Joint Editors: W. R. COOPER and H. H. BROUGHTON. 



No. 1,979. 



r Wo. 3. 1 

LVol. LXXVII.J 



FRIDAY, APRIL 21, 1916. 



Price Sixpence ^''-,'7'' 

Abroad >d.. cr i$ UKts, or l//- y t$e/. 



CONTENTS OF THE CURRENT NUMBER. 



Notes 69 

Arrangements for the Week . . 71 

Electrical Diagrams. By P. 
Rayner-Smith. Illus 72 

Insulating Oils 73 

Electric Welding. By Julius 
Sauer 75 

Magnetisation by Rotation. 
By S. J. Barnett. Illustrated 76 

Transformer Design. ByF. M. 
Denton, A. C.G.I. — Continued 78 

The Electricity Supply of 
Great Britain. — Disctission. 80 

On Radium Antenna;. By E. 
Leimer 82 

New Method of Determining 
Ionic Velocities. By Con- 
stance Harrison Griffiths, 
B.Sc. Illustrated .... 82 

Flywheel Effect 84 

Performance of Diesel-Engine 
Plants in Texas. Illus 84 



Elkctrictty Supply in Great 

Britain „ 86 

Reviews 87 

The Electric Rail\vay[BuckJ, 
Principles of Dynamo-Elec- 
tric Machinery [Bailey]. 
Sir J. J. Thomson on Radia- 
tion from Atoms and Elec- 
trons. Illustrated 88 

"Speeding Up" in an En- 
gineering Factory. By R. 
Rankin, B.Sc. Illustrated. 90 

Correspondence 92 

"Methods for Determining 
the Grading of Starting 
and Brake Resistances for 
Series-Motors " (Charles 
C. Garrard). 

Physical Society 92 

Legal Intblligencb 93 

Parliamentary Intelligence 94 
The "Electrician" Commercial 
and Industrial Section . . 95-102 



N^O T JB S. 



Loan Periods for Accumulators. 

For some years it lias been the custom of tlie Local Govern- 
ment Board to permit loan periods which are distinctly short 
for certain classes of plant. For example, the period for 
meters is five years ; for arc lamps it is also five years, and for 
accumulators seven years. With regard to the first two items, 
perhaps no great exception can be taken. In the case of 
accumulators, however, a period of seven years is extremely 
short, especially when it is remembered that maintenance 
contracts considerably in excess of seven years are almost the 
invariable rule. Consequently, the effect of such a period is 
to leave an asset which .should be of very considerable value 
for some years after the loan has been paid off, and after the 
time when nominally, according to the conventional idea in 
such matters, the item of plant is of no value. Generally 
speaking, it is scarcely worth while to raise loans for short 
periods ; and this may partly be the object of the policy, 
namely, to encourage the purchase of such plant as meters and 
arc lamps out of revenue. In the case of accumulators, how- 
ever, the effect of an unduly short loan is to make this plant 
appear, from the financial point of view, in a much worse light 
than it would with more ordinary business methods. We are, 
therefore, glad to note that the British Electrical & Allied 
Manufacturers' Association has now induced the Local Govern- 
ment Board to extend the period from seven yeais to ten 
years, which will certainly afford some relief from the conditions 
we have indicated. 



Electric Welding. 

In the present issue will be found an account of some of the 
modern processes and machinery employed in the art of 
electric welding. It is quite possible that this method will 



always be to some extent limited in its application by circum- 
stances connected with the nature of the work and the !«»< al 
facilities available. But some kinds of manufart-- • ■ 
ce-sses can be quite easily dealt with, even under 
where no special arrangements have to be made beyond th»- 
supply of electric energy and the provision of simp!*.* and 
suitable plant. The earlier processes were devised on the 

assumption that special plant was hardly n ■■■ -•♦ 

with a more extended use of the electric weld, r 
that an unskilled worker with an automatic or semi-automatic 
machine can do in a day much more work than was formetiv 
done by highly-skilled labour. Welding machinery of t' - 
kind is now a matter of general intere.st. .seeing that the \v. i- 
ing of sheet-metal, chains and other small objects is now can >"i 
out in factories by routine methods and unskilled labour. 
When it comes to a matter of repairs, this always needs careful 
work, not of an unskilled kind, and for this class of work t! 
are also various rival methods, sivin^ results on which it \\< 
be difficult to imiprove, ard among which a choice mu>; 
made according to conditions. With a proper lay-out, there 
is no question that the electrical method is very suitable f«>r 
many classes of work, and will become increasingly important. 



Electricity or Energy : Which ? 

Entitled ■"Some Mechanical Analogies in Electruit> ■• - 
Magnetism." Prof. W. S. Franklin contributes to the 
issue of the "General Electric Review" an article w : 
students of electrical engineering would do well to read. Apart 
from several excellent analogies between mechanics and elet-- 
tricity and magnetism, there is one showing that it is n»it <•'• 
tricity that one uses but work or energy. The almost univf. -.^ 
misunderstanding of the matter is illustrated by Prof. Franklin 
by considering a mechanism in which a pulley drives another 
pulley by means of a belt. "' A person knowing nothing it all 
about machinery, and especially a peiKun liaciiuj no -■ 
words to use in describing such an arromiement. might .> 
the continuous stream of leather cimiing off the driving \n 
and decide to call this pulley a leather generator, and the 
driven pulley a leather motor. Everyone knows, however. 
that a driving pulley does not generate leather: it gives up 
work or energv. and the work is transmitted to the driven 
pulley by the belt. It seems very ridiculous to speak of a b*lt 
pulley as a generator of leather, and it is equally absurd t.» 
speak of a battery or dynamo as a generator of electricity." 
This will be disconcerting to those who are of the opinion that 
for a few coppers they can buy a unit of electricity, and it will 
be equally disconcerting to those who believe they can sell 
electricitv. 



'■Seek and Ye Shall Find." 

Till the other dav we shared the pessimism oi a ctiuiu. 
section of the dailv Press. The fact that a commi-^^i-n in the 



70 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APRIL 21. 1916. 



Roval pjHgineer.s lias lefciitly Ijeeii ^^lanted to a higlilv qualified 
engineer of our acquaintance alters the outlook. In view of 
this, who shall say that " square pegs in round holes '' is the 
rule and not the exception ? To our knowledge, equally able 
engineers are available by the score. Men who at the present 
time are helping to win the war either by .•scrubbing barrack- 
room floors or by engaging uy)on work that cc)uld be more 
cfticieiitly performed bv charw(jmen. labourers or navvies. 
Tlie lesult of employing laymen on engineering work is that 
some of our " patriots " employed by the War Department are 
paying their men ,; . an<l are attem{)ting t(t charge their country 
<J/; for the work. All in good tinif we liopc to ^mlili-li tin- 
figures. 



when prices are cut fine, as they usually are. would lead one 
to the conclusion that there are less expensive methods than 
the construction of full-size models of the locomotive for 
settling the positions of details. 



Amateur and Professional. 

r.NhKR the heading "Tragic Results of .\mateur Work" is 
given an arcount. in a recent issue ot the " .lournal of Gas 
Lighting." of the death of a youth through an electric shock 
owing to a 2l)0-volt electric lam]> falling into the water in which 
he was having a bath, and causing it to " bec<.me alive." The 
liiin|i. it was statecl. vns fi.xcd b\- the deceased's brother, who 
was an amateur at electrical woik. Aciording to our con- 
temporary: "At the iiupiest the coroner (Mr. .]. Kexyox 
PaRKKS) commented on the fact that there did not appear to 
be any regulations to picvent people making unauthorised 
connections to electric ligiit fittings. He thought this tragic 
incident should be a lesson to peo])le not to interfere with elec- 
trical work." We exjiress thanks to our <-ontem])orarv for 
giving jniblicity to the coroner's sensible remarks. At the same 
tinre we s«'em to remember that en several occasions j)eopIe 
have roiiic to an untimely end in tlieii- bath rooms owing to the 
defective installati(»n. by professed gas fitters, of gas-heated 
water boilers and other abominations. It is only fair to the 
ainat<'iir to record the fact that the work of llw piofessional 
occasionallv t'ives rise to tiJiL'ic results. 



Full Size Models. 

\\ [lis Presidential .Vddiess to iIk' Institution of Locomotive 
Kngineers, Mi. It Iv I, M.mnski.i. suggestetl the advis.ibility 
of constructing: a luil-si/.e model of the cab and boiler front 
when a design tor a tiew class of engine is l»eing prepared in 
order t«» setth* tlie best an<l most convenient position for the 
details. .Mtliuugh such a inodd may serve some useful ]Mir- 
])Ose. it is doubtful whether the suggestion will In- favourablv 
received by tlio.se who make loromotives i.i ((.mpeiition with 
titlier tinns. l''or ( ertain jiurpoHes models are invaluable, but 
«uie would imagiiu' that, in the ca.sc of a locomotive, the monev 
expended un ;i full-size wood iiiid canvas model of the footplate 
ami cab could be used lo nuK h Itetter purjio.se mi studving one 
of the luanv |)ro!»lenis < nmiected witli the design, constructictn 
or ])erfoiniance of the locomotive. If the construction of a 
model lie necessarv for settling the position of details on the 
Lootpliilc 111 ii l<i( niiiotive. then such inodeU art- equallv neces- 
sary ill niiiny other cases, botji niechanicHl aiul electrical In 
these the draugli'smjin i-an see. in its three dimensions on the 
drawiiig-iioaid, the mai liine which he has designed ns surelv 
as if he were standing in front of the machine. In a«ldition to 
niiikin.', .\ mnilrl nf tlic ( all. HI the axHr of a tank engine Mi. 
^L\i'N.>i-:i,i, advocates the making of a model of the boiler, side 
tanks and coal bunker to ensure that the tank."* do not undidv 
interfere with the outlook from the footplate. Here, again, 
we believe that the properly qiialifii'd draught.sman is well able 
to attend to these matters. It is to be regn>tted that as t.|iOi*e 
(>xtriioidiniirv views were brought forward in the couf.'H' of a 
Presidential .\ddresvs other engineius were debarred from <lis- 
enssing them. We venture to think that the opinions of those 
whos,. Itusiuess it is to secure n satisfactory margin of profit 



"Archives d'Electricite Medicale." We have received 
No. fill for Mardi. li'lG. which contains a series of articles, 
dealing with the siesmophone in deafness, extraction of bullets 
from the skull, and other Papers of interest to medical readers. 

Hydro-Extractors. The " Textile .Mercury " refers to a 
hydro-extractor fni use in chemical dyeing, or bleach works, 
made by Me.ssi-s. T. Broadbent & Sons. Ltd.. Huddersfield. A 
wire cage (U* basket is revolved raj)idly. and the moisture 
thrown off by the articles in it is caught in a cylindrical casing 
and drained off. The rotor of the electric motor is mounted 
on a sleeve revolving about the spindle of the machine. To the 
upper parts of the sleeve are attached friction shoes which are 
controlled In' centrifugal force and from a friction clutch with 
the spindle. The starting of the machine is quite automatic, 
and the attendant cannot damage the machine by switching 
on to<i (piicklv. 

Centrifugal v. Ram Pumps. The " Iron and Coal Trades 
Review " reported recently a discussion at the meeting of the 
.Mining Klectrical Engineer.s at Manchester, when Me.ssi-s. Izod 
(.y Rouillards Paper <ni ' Centrifugal Pumping Plant of the 
l)url)an Roode))ort Deep. Ltd., was read. It was pointed out 
(referring to high lifts) that for equal outputs a ram pump had 
to run for a certain time before its higher efficiency turned the 
balance of costs in its favour. Quartzite grit in the water 
might ruin a centrifugal impeller in 2f hours. A case was 
referred to where an impeller driven l)y an >'^0 h.h.p. motor 
worked against a very low head. It .sometimes went in one 
direction, sometimes in the other. This was presumed eijther 
to be due to leakage or to the fact that the impeller of cast-iron 
may have become magnetised by the stray field of the motor. 

Skin Effect in Strap Conductors. Mr. F. B. Dwight 

writing on tiie above in the '" Electrical World." gave a curve 
calculated from the experimental results obtained by Messi-s. 
A. K. Kennelly, F. A. Laws and P. H. Pierce as shown below. 
The thickness of the straj) should not be more than one-tenth 
the width, and there must be an air space between it and the 
leturn conductor greater than the width of the strap. The 
curve applies to a single straj), and not to such cases as ven- 
tilated "bus bars. The resistance referred to in (//?)' is the 
resistance at the temperature in cpiestion, and / is the fre- 
quency in cycles per second. Owing to the fact that the skin 
etfect for straps shown in the figure approaches its asymptote 
and liecomes a straight line, considerable labour is saved in 
calculating the same efTect for this portion of the curve for 
round wire. The ctirve applies to all sizes of strap, and the law 

2-2 



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100 200 

Skin Effbct Curves ron STR.\r .\Nn \\ jrk Plottkd to show 

THK StRAIOHT I.IXE FoRM. 

is t he same a.s that (or wiiv. The curve for .strap is an emi»irical 
one. whereas that for wire or cable is c\ . t. The results for 
strap condiictors aix* ajtpinximatelv cori( . 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIJ. 21, 1916. 



71 



On Avoiding Collision at Sea. In a recent Paper befcjie 
the Royal Society, Prof. H. C. Pluinmer gives a metliod whicli 
is of greater simplicity, both in idea and practical dftaii, tlian 
Joly's, by introduciiig tlie lolative speed of the two sliips. 
The speed and course of an approaching ship being com- 
municated by wireless, the relative speed is easily obtained 
without calculation by a combination of scales, whirh is, in 
fact, identical witli Prof. Joly's collision predictor. The one 
ship may then be considered stationary and the locus of the 
approaching ship at successive signals becomes a series of 
concentric circles. In the case of impending collision the rate 
of approach is a maximum along a radius and equal to the 
relative speed. Two methods are suggested for comparing 
the indications of the signals as received with this critical speed, 
the one involving the use of two direct-reading scales, the other 
an equivalent arithmetical operation of the simplest kind. 



OBITUARY. 



Killed in Actiox. — Second Lieut. James C. .Smith was killed 
on March 27. The deceased ofHcei' was educated at All Saints' 
School, Bloxham. He became an electrical engineei', and shortly 
after war broke out joined a Public School Battalion. In Februar\ , 
1915, he received his commission, and in February, 191(j, he went to 
the front. 

The death is also announced of Lieut. Douglas Tweedx-Sniith, 
Royal Fljdng Corps (second son of Mr. R. Tweedy-Smith), who died 
on April 10 at the Red Ci'oss Hospital, Xetley, aged 19 years. He 
was a member of the London University O.T.C., and on the outbreak 
of war he received a commission in the 15th Middlesex Regiment, 
and was appointed cpiartermaster of a newly-formed battalion. He 
was transferred early last year to the Royal Flying Corps. He was 
educated at Palmer's College, Grays, and his twin brother is Second 
Lieut. Leslie Tweedy-Smith, of the East Surrey Regiment. Mr. 
Tweedy-Smith's eldest son, Alan, was killed at Loos on Oct. 13 last. 



APPOINTMENTS VACANT AND FILLED. 



Belfast Corporation invite applications for the appointment of 
general manager of their traniAvays Salary £800, rising to £1,000. 
Applications to the Town Clerk (on forms supplied) by May 13. 

A junior shift engineer is required at the new temporary station, 
Xechells, Birmingham. Commencuig salary £104, rising to £200 
.per annum. Applications (on forms to be obtained from the Sec- 
retary, Electric Supply Dept. ) to cit}' electrical engineer and manager 
(Mr R. A. Chattock), 14, Dale End, Birmingham, by 24th inst. 



n 

..I 



III 



Mr. W. H. Collier, B.Sc, has been appointed lecturer in engineering 
at the Ballarat (Victoria) School of Mines, in succession to Mr. 
Hoadley, resigned. 

Oldham Tramways Committee have selected Mr. P. Priestley, 
general manager and engineer of the Mexborough & Swinton Tram- 
ways Cb., for the position of manager of the Corporation tramways. 



armour. The effect of use on the iiiHkie of a gun wajj illuMtrHted bv 
photograj.hs showing the • iToKion " and the cracking whicli o. . ur 
as the result of the high te;n|icrature of the explotfion gax-,. The 
lecturer then j>roceeded to describe the nio<l»ni pro<.eH» of gun- 
making by thf; aid of a ncrien of <infniHt<,^'raj>h |»icturf« of thf moJ*t 
interesting aM<l striking Htage« of the prix-cw*. The*e t-'- 'I L«?n 
prepared and lent to him by the courtesy of M.^n». \ Ltd.), 

at whose Sheffield works fliey had been taken. Th»- ner .with 

the blast-furnates in whiih the iron ore in reduied hv tl. ,i vokt- 

and limestone ; next eane the o|;en-hearth wterl fumac<> and thf 
processes of filling were shown, and | articular attention v 
to a picture whicli clearly showerl the Ujiling " of the rn...: . 
within the furnace. Throughout the variouK Htagnt of the p.r 
including tiie refining of the iron to transfonn it in' 
stages of forging, hardening and teni|.ering, tht 
popular terms the scientific reason for each «tep, illuirtratinK hn re- 
marks by a series of photf/niicrographs showing the nii' ■ -rf 
^ of the steel at each stage, and showing how each «te|( - -.jf 
' the steel nearer to the idea! condition of jerfeet homogeneity. The 
lecturer naturally avoided reference to those eonfif!' * ' " •■ n. 
which relate to the most recent products of the .steel i. 
directed to the i)roduction of guns, but as an imiication oi th« 
tion in which modem jjractice tended, he showed the extr.-.: • i. 
minute micro-structure which can be produced by pro{ier tre.itn:.-iit 
in modern special or "alloy steel.s." The extreme iin|iortanoe of 
accun-.te scientiHc control, both of conqKisitions, tem|)era!un-s and 
rates of cooling, throughout the process, was strongly enipha.*i.sed 
and illustrated. By means of the .series of cinematograph tilnih the 
gun was followed through its \arious stages, from the freshly eaist 
ingot weighing 80 tons, through the processes of " cropping " and 
■ trepanning," as the first piercing of the ingot to fonn a njugh tul* 
is called, on through the forging press until it attains its requisite 
length — in some cases over 70 ft. Then follow the machining o|jera- 
tions, and then what is. ])erhaj)S. the most delicate |>art of the pro- 
cess — hardening and tempering, in which the roughly machined tul* 
is heated to a uniform and carefully regulated tenqjerature in a tall 
chimney-like vertical furnace, from which it is lifte<l at the proiier 
moment to be plunged into an oil-l^ath contained in a ck*ep ivlin- 
, drical well. The process of rifling and the finishing of the outside. 
after the ajiplication of the wire-winding, were also shown. Finally^ 
as a relief to the more .severely technical jKjrtions of the lecture, .-ionie 
films were shown illustrating the testing and tiring of big guns. 

Sir Robert HADFtELn. in pro]iosin^j: a vote of thanks to the Uvtun-r. 
sup))lementcd wliat lie had sa'd by .*( me further interestiua infurination 
v/ith regard to the achievements of modern artillery'. Hi- s|>okf. f"i 
example, of IH in. American guns tirimr a slieli of 2,4tKi lb. wcitiht a ili- 
tance of 2 1 miles, and of 12 in. arm()ur-])late fired at from a di.<Jtanie of 
1. I miles being cracked but not perforated. The wire-wound nun de- 
scribed b\ the lecturer was found to be the finest in the world, and it had 
the advantage of hoing chcai)(>r than enemy iiattcrns. It wa.- i ' !iy 

realised that the life of a lar<:e iriin. ha.std on the time of acti. ts 

not more than three seconds. A cniious fact was that the .-..'tl a".-H-d 
cap used on modern shell expanded so ia])idly on striking an ohje t as 
to allow the complete shell to pass through it. In referring to the un-at 
importance of metallur.<;y in gun-making engineering. Sir Robert Hadtit-ld 
told of a loin, shell which can pass thnnmh 1.") in. armour plate in no- 
more than j~^ of a second, and of a (> in. sh d! fitte<l with a modem cap 
which he had seen fiii-d ihn-e times before the sliell was broken. 

Royal Institution.— ^The I), y Lectures after Ejister will include 
two by Dr. T. M. Lowry on " Optical Research and Chemical Pro- 
gress," and two by Prof. W. H. Bragg on '• X-Rays and Crystals." 
The Friday Evening Discourses wdl be resumed on May 5. and ;riU 
include a discourse by Sir J. .M. Davidson on •" Eleetrieal Methtnls iu. 
Surgical Advance," and one by Prof. C. tJ. Barkla on '" X-Hay>." 



INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES. 



Faraday Society.— Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S., of the National 
Physiccxl Laboratory, recently delivered a lecture, illustrated by 
cinematograph pictures, on " The Making of a Big Gun." The chair 
was taken by the president. Sir Robert Hadtield, F.R.S. The 
lecturer began by contrasting the " big guns " of olden times with 
the gigantic weapons of to-day. The older guns were made of cast- 
iron, and guns of that material reached their highest development in 
the American Civil War. The conditions existing in modern guns 
were illustrated by sectional diagrams relating to guns of fairly recent 
date, in which pressures of 18 tons per sciuare inch and muzzle velo- 
cities of 2,500 ft. per second occurred. To resist these conditions, 
the best possible steel was required, and even that only served for a 
comparatively short time. The work of modern guns was illus- 
trated by some photographs of gigantic projectiles which had been 
recovered intact after penetrating greit thicknesses of modern 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE WEEK. 

ENGINEERING INSTITUTIONS VOLUNTEER TRAINING CORPS. 
Commanding Ottieer : Lieut. -Col. C. B. Cuw. 
Orders for we- k commencing April 24. 1!>U> .— 

Drills : l).25 to 7.25. 7.2,-) to S.2.->. 
Mondav, April 24th. — Easter Training at Otfonl. 
Tuasday, April 2.->th.-^ School of Arms, (i to 7 p.m. Ke.ri.its tmU. 

7.15 to S.lTi p.m. , , r. •. - .- 

Thur-sday, April 27th.^-Shooting for Sections 3 and 4. Rci-nut8. .x4.> 

Friday, April' 28th,— Sections :{ and 4. Teehnical. Sections 1 and 2. 

Squad and Tlatoon. Siuna!lin<;('la.ss and Recruits. 
SaturdaN . April 29th.-Adiutar.ts- Instru-tion Class at -.:vO p.m 
Sections for Technical : Parade at Headquarters. l>.ndon hUxtncal 

Emdneers, 4l>. Re<:encv-stivet. S.\\. . 

Sections for Shooting. Parade at .Miniatuie Ranw-es. Inless otherwue 

stated, all parades Va Chester House. 



72 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS. 

BY P. RAYXER-SMITH. 

In considering any standard scheme for uni- 
jonnity in drawing electrical diagrams such as 
that propounded by Prof. Kapp in The Elec- 
TRi'iAX of March 10, UilO, it would he well to 
<<jnsider the new series of electrical symbols pre- 
paied this year by the United States Patent Office 
as a chart for draughtsmen. 

These number 89. but their scope is not the same 
as that of Prof. Kapp's series. They do not deal with 
arrows or the like as applied to f^.M.K. current, 
and so on ; but, on the other hand, they include 
nianv jnatters not in the other series. On the 
wholes they are very expressive and, generally 
speaking, simple ; but in some instances their 
drawing would take a comparatively great time. 

Referring to the diagrams Nos. 1 to fj for wires 
aiul certain switches are conventional and good. 
1 and J are simpler than the Kapp symbols. The 
knife-switch synibol. G. might be simplified by 
substituting a plain thick line for the handle, which 
a.-i it is shown involves the drawing of an aic. The 
switches 7 and 8 are good, and so is the resistance 9. 
The non-inductive resistance 10 is simple, but 1 1 is 
not ver\ suital)le for an impedance. The t\i)e 
shown in 13 is mudi better, although more difficult 
t<» draw. 12 calls for no comment, nor 14, except 
that the core might be represented by a straiglit 
line 

The symbol chosen for the condenser iji l(j is the 
same as that used by Prof. Kapp, but it would be 
better to substitute for this the other form, which 
call be cpiite well drawn without confusing it with 
a battery. IH, the pile regulator, is practically 
never required. The set of circuit-breakers, 19. 
23 and 24, are complicated, but almost necessary 
if it is intended to go to the refinement indicated. 

20 to 22 show convenient conventional symbols. 
There is no especial jjoint in Nos. 25, 20, 27 and 28, 
dealing with relays ; but 29 and .'iO are not very 
clear. It would be better to black in the projecting 
end of the core. .31 to 35 are all good and much 
more convenient for drawing than the instrument 
symbols of Pr(»f. Kapp. 36. for the hot-wire 
.i]»|)aratus. sh«»uld not be required. Conventional 
lettering could be eni]tloved instead. The same 
a])plies to .37 to 39. 

The lamp series, l<i to 13. are by no means good. 
Plain circles can be used for incandescent lamps, 
whether lighted or not and crosses for arc lights. 
Xos. 44 to ')(\ call f<ir no s]M'cial comment, as 
they are self-explanato'v. 57 is liable to be con- 
fused with 3(t. .58 to (32 arc quit« good, but 
general. (53, the thcrino-ehvtnc generator, is not 
often required, and (i5 would be confused with 62. 
The motor and generator series, 66 to 81. arc all 
explicit, but it doe.s not follow that it is uece.H.sary 
to employ them in every diagram. ()ft.en a <'on- 
vcntional sign as tJ*') would I'e sullicienf. i»ut when 
more detail is retjuircd it is well jirovided by the 
symbols given. 

The transformer figure, 82, i.s open to the same 
(lilicism as the iin]»edance II. The auto-trans- 
former in 83 is satisfactory, but the series trans- 
former 84 is not clear. The rectifier 86 and the 
.asymmetric cell 86 ran readily be understoiKl. but 
85 is somewhat difficult to draw well and quirklv. 
The trans{oin\ers 87 and 88 are open to the same 
criticism as 82. There is no special point in 89. 



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THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21. 1910. 



73 



INSULATING OILS * 



' The Sub-conniiittee have considered the suggestions receised with 
regard to the proposed tests, which in the first place are being Hmited 
to transformer oils. An abbreviated account of the tests, most of 
which have been in jiractical use for some time, will be found beloM . 
The points that now require investigation are :— 

(1) How far are the results consistent when made by different 
observers on the same sample of oil ? (2) Could the results of the 
tests be relied upon to indicate with certainty the behaviour of the 
oil under practical working conditions '! 

The Institution has received a grant from the Advisory Council 
for Industrial Research for this work, and the Sub-committee 
propose, therefore, to put the experiments in hand at once, especially 
in view of the delays caused by the war. 

In order to judge the suitability of an oil for use as a cooling 
insulating medium it is necessary to know its characteristics in the 

I following respects : — 
(1) Tendency to sludge, (2) loss by evaporation, (3) flash point, (4) 
viscosity at different temperatures, (5) chemical reactions, (6) den- 
sity and coefficient of expansion, (7) cold test (sohdification). (8) 
moisture absorption. (9) dielectric strength. (10) specific resistance, 
(11) thermal transference. (12) specific heat. 
The detailed methods of investigation for each characteristic 
recommended in the following pages may be first briefly reviewed. 

General Review. 

Sludging. — The object of this test is to obtain an idea of the 
tendency of the different oils to form solid deposits when they are 
subjected to the action of heat and air. This action is considerably 
influenced by the presence of cerjtain metals. The method recom- 
mended is a modification of that used by Dr. IMichie. The oil con- 
tained in a flask is subjected to the action of heat and oxygen for a 
given time, a piece of the metal in question of given surface area 
being present in the oil during the test. It would be of interest to 
obtain comparative figures for copper, iron, lead, tin, zinc and 
aluminium, and, in view of the importance of copper in electrical 
work, data should also be obtained for tinned copper, silver-plated 
copper and copper covered by insulating material, such as cotton. 

Besides the formation of solid deposits in the oils after these have 
been subjected to the conditions of the test, note should be made of 
any corrosive effects on the metals, the formation of water and acids 
and the extent to which the oils have darkened in colour. The 
depth of colour of the oil can be accurately measured in degrees on a 
permanent colour scale by means of Lovibond's tintometer No. 7 set 
for standardising merchantable petroleums. 

Loss by Evaporation. — Two different methods of carrying out this 
test are described. A definite volume of oil is heated in a beaker 
at 100°C. for eight hours. In one method the body of the beaker is 
immersed in the heating bath, its open mouth being exposed to the 
air of the laboratory but shielded from draughts. In the second 
method the beaker is carried in a revohang tray in a hot-air oven. 
The result is expressed in terms of loss of volume and ratio of surface 
to volume of oil, the height of beaker wall above oil surface at the 
commencement of the test being stated. 

"Closed" Flash Point. — The temperature at which vapours 
accumulating above the oil in a closed vessel become inflammable 
is determined by means of either the Pensky-lNIartens or Gray's 
instrument. The oil is rapidly heated to about 25°C. below its sus- 
pected flash point, the heating being continued beyond this at the 
rate of 2J deg. to 3 deg. per minute. At each additional degree of 
temperature the cover is opened and a flame inserted. The lowest 
temperature at which flash occurs is thus determined. 

Viscosity. — The standard method in Great Britain for this deter- 
mination is that of Redwood, which notes the time in seconds 
required for a definite volume of oil to run through an aperture of 
fixed dimensions. Measurements are made at 15-5°C., 50°C., and 
80=C. 

Chemical Reactions. — The oil is tested for acidity and alkalinity. 
An iodine test is also recommended, as it is believed that tliis test 
gives a good general indication of the tendency to sludge. 

Density and Coefficient of Expansion. — The density is determined 
at the three temperatures 15-5°C., oO°C. and 80°C. by means of 
specific gravity- bottles or pynkometers, preferably of the Sprengel 
tube type. From this data the coefficient of expansion is obtained. 

Cold Test. — This test determines the temperature at which the 
oil commences to congeal. A knowledge of this characteristic is 
"f importance in connection with oil switches used in exposed 
situations and cold climates. 

* Abstract of a report of a Committee of the Institution of Electrical 
Ensineers. 



Moisture AhsorpI ion.— 'Ihia testt in made to detenaine the t^-nd.-. v 
of an oil to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, and in n 
taking dielectric (breakdown) test» ujjon the originally dn* oil afifcr 

successive interval.s of c.\p(jsure. 

Dielectric Strength and Sped fir HMiMlavrf—TUfte ar«> familiar 

laboratory tests. 

Thennul Transferenrf. .\.,ii,, n. 
able reganUng the relative twjiing i - 

of different viscosities, but it i.s felt that more exact mfornuitir>n 

would be of value, and a method of inv •■_■ - nded by 

the National Physical Laboratory' is her 

Specific Heat. -The method of |>erformjng thin test i>« left to the 
judgment of individual experimenters. I) • ' ' ' ' • I 

at \-rrfC., oO^C. and SO'C Reference is - 

upon this subject. It is suggested that speciticheat le^XM at 15-5 «'. 
might with advantage be made ujxm the oils both in t^ - - / ' 
condition and after drying, but for the test at higher t. 
dried oil {see .section 10) should be employed. 

Te.sts. 

Sludging Test. — This investigation should Ik- conductetl a^foliown: 

One hundred cubic centimetres (100 cubic cm.) of the sample an- 
introduced into a clean, dry, round- bottomed flask, haWng a n<-. k 
11 in. to 12 in. (28-0 cm. to %{)■'•> cm.) long and \ in. (19 mm. inten. .i 
diameter, and a bulb of 2-75 in. to 3 in. (70 mm. to 76 mm.) diameter. 
which has a capacity of 200 cubic cm. 

Next is introduced a piece of pure sheet copper havine a 
"planished" surface (bright rolled and ix)Ushe<l). and a r' 

of 0004 in. (0-1 mm.), and measuring 1 ,^ in. ,'2^ in. (3 cm. > 

A fresh piece of copper should be used for each test. The total area 
of the copper, which equals 282 sq. in. (18-19 .sq. cm.), is immersetl 
in the oil. 

To introduce the strip it is wrapped round sufficiently to overlap 
itself slightly and to slide easily down the neck. The copper strip 
must be so bent that when in the flask the edges spring aptirt. 
leaving an opening about J in. (6 mm.) wide to facilitate circulation. 
The coiled strip stands vertically on the bottom of the flask. Before 
introduction the surface of the copjjer is carefully polished clean by 
means of washleather and a little soft polishing paste. 

The whole of the bulb of the flask is immersed in an oil bath, and 
the neck jiasses through a hole jirovided in the lid of the bath. The 
bath can be heated by gas or electric current, and must be fitted 
with a thermostat heat-regulating dexice and a motor-driven stirrer, 
so that the temperature is even throughout and can be maintained 
constant to within +1°C. of the selected temperature. 

The neck of the flask, which projects above the Ud of the oil bath. 
is water cooled by means of a water jacket 10 in. or 11 in. (25-4 cm. 
to 27-9 cm.) long, connected to the water supply in the usual manner. 
The mouth of the flask is fitted with a rubber bung ha\ing two hole>. 
and carrying two glass tubes of 0157 in. (4 mm.) internal diameter, 
which are respectively the exit and inlet tubes for passing a stream 
of oxj^gen through the oil. 

The exit tube ends nearly flush with the inside of the bung, whilst 
the inlet tube reaches to within J in. (3 mm.) of the bottom of the 
flask, and passes axially through the cylinder of copper, which thus 
aids in the distribution of the oxygen throughout the body of the oil. 
The portions of the exit and irl^t tubes outside the fiask are bent to 
a convenient angle for connection to the follownig apparatus : — 

Before entering the flask the oxygen is made to bubble through a 
layer of oil of 2 in. (51 mm.) depth, contained in a " tell-tale " bottle 
of 8 oz. capacity, which is fitted with a two-hole rubber bung carrjii.g 
two glass tubes for inlet and exit of the gas. 

The inlet tube is of 0-313 in. (7 mm.) internal diameter, and 
reaches to within \ in. (1-3 cm.) of the bottom of the l>ottle. 

The exit tube is of 0157 in. (4 mm.) internal diameter, and projects 
not more than } in. (6 mm.) inside the bott!' . It is coupled up to 
the inlet tube of the flask. 

The inlet tube of the tell-tale bottle is joined up to the following 
jDurifying train : — 

The oxvgen supply as purchased should bo of not less than 99 per 
cent, puri'tv, and it "is fi-rther purified befoiv entering the tell-tale 
bottle by passnig it through three wash bottles comaining rvspee- 
tively Cciustic soda solution of specific gravity 1-355. 10 jxr cent. 
silver nitrate and pure strong suljihuric acid. 

The sample in the flask having boon placed in the oil bath, and 
joined up to the tell-tale bottle and oxygen supply, is then raised to 
the temperature selected for the experiment. It is maintameii at 
this temperature for a continuous jx^-iod of 45 hours, and during the 
whole of this time a steady stream of oxygen is p^.j^sed through it. 
The rate of flow of the oxvgen, as showni by the bubbles at the 7 mm. 
inlet tube of the tell-tale bottle, is adjusted to three bubbles iier 



\ 



74 



THE ELECTRICIAX, APRIL 21, 1916. 



second ; this is equivalent to 6-7 litres (0-23 cubic ft.) jjer hour 
measured at 20''C. 

For the purposes of this research each sample should be tested at 
(H), 70, 80, fX), 100, 110 and 120''C., duplicate tests being taken at each 
temj)erature. The amount of sludge, or, if no sludge forms, the 
change of colour (darkening) produced is determinetl for each test. 

At the end of the 4') hours' reaction the oil is cooled and diluted 
M'ith petroleum spirit in the ratio of 3 volumes of petroleum spirit 
to 1 volume of oil, taking care that all the deposit is removed from 
the flask. The whole quantity is mixed and transferfcd to a Jjeaker, 
which is then covered and allowed to stand 12 hours for the sludge 
to settle out completely. The liquid is then dccantetl through a fine 
grained filter pajx-r and the }>re<ii)itatc of .Klii<lge thoroughly washed 
on to the pajjer with petroleum spirit, and further washed until free 
from oil. 1'he petroleum spirit used f<jr the experiment should have 
a sjK'ciHc gravity at ]'>■'>('. of 0-70 to 0-72. and not less than 7.'5 jkt 
(ciil. by volume should distil over below 110 ('. {2."{0 F.). 

By means of hot benzol (j>ure benzene, <',,H,,, Hj)ecific gravity at 
1. ■»•;■)"'( '., 0-88")) the sludge is then washed from the filter pajx-r into a 
weighed vessel and its weight ascertained after evajK)rafing off the 
benzol and drying at KK/'C. until of constant weight. (As the residue 
when dry is usually very hygrosco])ic. the eva|)oration should l»e com- 
menced on a wutei' bath anri tlic drying <(inij)lct«'d in a water oven.) 

Knowing the sjK-cific gravity of the oil and the volume taken for 
the tcht, the result can be calculated out and should be stated as 
the percentage by weight of sludge yielded by the oil. All the resiilts 
obtaincfl for each j)articuliir sample are then jilotted on .squared 
)/«ijK'r with tem]K'ratures as abscissa- and percentages of sludge (by 
weight) as ordinate.s. 

Change of Colour. — In those cases in which no weighable precipitate 
is obtained the change of colour should be recordwl. An instrument 
sjK'cially devised f(jr this purpose is l^vibond's " tintometer," known 
as " Xo. 7 set for standardising merchantable petroleums." By 
means of this instrument the dei)tli of colour in the sample under 
investigation is matched to a corresjxjnding shade in a series of 
coloured glasses numbered accorfling to the depth of colour. 

Evditfiidlioii {Loxa on Healing). The evajK)ration is determined 
by ascertaining the loss in weight produced by heating a standard 
weight of oil for eight hours at lOO'C. 

Two (lifTercMt mcth(Kls now in use for this purpose are descrilw^d — 
namely. Dr. .Micliie s (oluene vajK)ur-batli nietli(Kl. and the B.T.-H. 
(Vmipany's (mtating oven method). 

('lo.'itd Fhi.sh J'oinl. This is to be determiMe<l by means of either 
the I'ensky. Martens or (Jrays instrument, under the standard con- 
ditions as sjiecilied in Sir lioverton Bedwcwxls Ijook, " A Treatise 
"111 I'etnileiim." 1(113 edition (for (;ray".s tests .yee Vol. II.. p. 260; 
.Mid for the I'ensky .Martens tests \'ol. II., pp. 238 and 2bT). Stan- 
dardised thermometers should lie used for this test. 

The fr)llowiMg pro<e<lure in the meth<T<l «>f employmg the (Jray 
apparatus has been founil to \ield satisfa<t<ir\ results in practice at 
the .National I'hysicid Laboratory. 

,\ rough determination of the flash |MiiMt i> tirst made; a fresh 
sample of the oil is then put into the oil cup and is heated rapidly to 
within about 20 deg. of the flash |Ktint first «»bserved. The rate of 
heating is tiieii reduced to about 2\ deg. or 3 dep. |>er minute, and 
I lie test llatiic i> .ipplie<l to the oil vapour at each degree rise in tem- 
perature, in the usual way. until the tlasii occurs : this tem|ieratiire 
is then n-corded and the neie.'<sarv thermometer correction is ai)plied. 
The me;in of t liree concordant results <»n fresh sninples of oil is t.ikeii 
as the desired flash |K)int. 

y i.Hrnnili/. ■ The viscosity is to be <lcteriiiii.e(l l>y means of a 
standardised Hedwood ' iscometiT at e.ich of the following tem- 
|)eratures : — 

1.->.VC. (0(t F.) :.0°C. (122 F.) H0'(\ (176'=F.) 

The method is given in detail in Sir Boverlon Hedw<M)d"H treatise. 
" Petroleum and its I'roiiucts."" Vol. II.. pp. IMMI (Mrj (.xecond e<lition). 
Care must l)e taken in the use of the instrument at tem|H'ratures 
aliove that of the air. 

The viscosity should be exjin'sseil at the time in s^voikIh r<*(|\iin-(| 
for the outHovv of .VI cubic cut. of tlu* sample. Standanliscd ther 
mometers shoiihl Iw used for determining the temjuTatun's. 

<"llKMI«-AI. TksTS. 

(n) .\riililif. — 2."> grammes of the original oil are shaken tip with 
ItMJ cubic cm. of neutral ethyl ali>ohol (eontnining nr» jkt cent, by 
volume of aMhy<lrous alcohol). I <'ubir em. of a 1 jirr (M-nf. alcoholic 
solution of pheu')! ]ihtlialein indicator itt a«lde<i. and the li(|uid 
titrated with apie »us N HiKDH (doinnnufil austio putashl. and 
llie result rc|),>rted at the number of m'lligramini-t of K<)H p.ris 
sium hydrate) repiired ]x*r gramme of oil. 

('') .Ilk I'inltif. —2-') gramm -s of the origiuii' oil an> s'l.iki'ii up with 
10) cubic cm. of WM'-ni dis! ,lle<l w.it"r. the li'piid is roiled, .rul 






1 cubic cm. of a 01 {>er cent, solution of methyl orange indicator is. 
added, and if the solution reacts alkaline it is titrated with X lOHCl 
(deci-normal hydrochloric acid), and the result reported as the 
number of milligrammes of KOH (potas.sium hj'drate) equivalent to 
the acid used jx-r gramme of oil. 

(•:) Iodine Ahforplion Value. HiibVs Process. — This '"constant" 
is determined by follow ing the general directions for the Hiibl method 
as described in " rhemical Technology and Analysis of Oi\s. Fats and 
Waxes.'" by Dr. .). Ix-wkowitsch (Vol. I., j). 311. 1909 edition ; Mac- 
millan & Co.), but u.sing from 10 to I -2.5 grammes of the oil, with 
10 cubic cm. of chloroform and 50 cubic cm. of the standard iodine 
solution, anfl allowing the reaction to proceed for not le.ss than IS oi 
more than 24 hours. 

Density and Other Te.st.s. 

liensitj). Coefficient of Volumetric ExjMinfion. — These two deter- 
minations are combined in a way which only requires accurate 
sjK'cific gravitj' determinations of the oils. 

The density is to be determined by means of specific gravit\ bottles 
or pynkometers at each of the following temperatures, and compared 
with pure water at the same temi)erature. 

l.>-.rC'. (60 F.) ."iO'C. (122=F.) SO'C. (I76F.) 

A pynkometer of the Sprengel tube tyjje will probably be found 
very convenient. \\'ith due care the probable errors on the specific 
gravity .should not exceed -0001. 

Cold Test. — For this determination a volume of 2o cubic cm. of' 
the oil is placed in a thin-walled glass test tube of 6 in. length and 
1 } in. internal diameter (capacity=150 cubic cm.). The oil must be 
free from moisture. 

A cork carrs'ing a standardi.sed thermometer reading from —40*^0. 
( 40°F.) to ^40-.'-,T'. ( - 10.>"F.) is lightly fitted into the mouth of 
the test tube .so that the bulb of the thermometer is situated in the 
centre of the oil. The graduations of the thermometer sliould be 
engraved upon its stem, and should read to J ('. 

The test tube is then immersed in a suitable freezing mixture so 
that the whole of the oil is surrounded by the latter. The oil is 
stirred until nearly solid and then left until no sign of fluidity 
remains. The test tube is then removed from the freezing mixture 
and allowed to warm slowly with constant stirring by a thermometer 
until the tem]XMatiire is rea'.hed at which the oil will flow from end 
to end of the tube, which tem]jerature is recoixled as the cold test 
tem])erature. 

.Moisture {Absorption). — The term moisture as here used excludes 
"free water "" — i.e., visible water or finely subdivided water or 
emulsions which w ill separate as distinct layers if the oil is {jenuitted 
to stand undisturiied for. say. 48 hours in a room at I.l-.l'C. (60'F.) 
to 2.") (". (77 F.). I'^u- siH-h instances the term " fn>e water"" sliould 
be used. 

It is considered that there docs not exist .my really accurate and 
.satisfactory (juaiititative method for estimating the minute j^er- 
centages of moisture held in solution by mineral oils, which cai^es 
them to be termed " iiiidrv "" in the electrical sen.se. Dr^'ing by 
heating tlHMiil to l(Kt Cor 1 1 0'^C. drives off sunc of the more volatile 
constituents of the oil as well as such moisture. Chemical methods / 
are of no value. 

The ])re.sence of moisture can Ije qualitatively demonstrated by 
means of the dielectric strength test, using the standard method given 
below. Therefore the object of the following test is to ascertain the 
iclati\fJiM)wei"s of oils to aiisorb moisture from the atmosphere after 
they have l)een dried and proved to be sn in the electrical sense by 
means of the standard dielectric test. Although this test is primarily 
(pialitative. yet. since the (jualitafive etTect of traces of absorl>ed 
inoisttire ujxm the dielectric strength is already knowni approxi- 
mately, it can also be interpreted up to a certain jxiint in rough 
r|iiantitative t«>rms. 

The method of jxMforming the test is as follows : — 

Some of the oil .is originally received is first tested for its dielectric 
stHMigtli by the standard method Ih'Iow . 

Four and a half litres of it in the siiuic condition are then put 
into a clean. dry enam«-lled ircm [Kin which has a flat bottom roughly 
12 in. in diameter and vertical sides fi in. d«vp. This is then heated 
for four houi-s to a tem]XTature of 100 ('. It is then cooled and s 
of it tested by the «lielectric te.st. The oil used for this test isreje '-i. i 

The four hours" drying at K)O^C. is rejx-ated and followed by a 
■ lielectric test. This process is rejvated until no further significant 
increase in the dielectric test is produced. .\t this stage the oil is 
considere*! ixrfertly dry in the electrical sense. All portions of the 
oil which have Ikm-u subject^nf f > the dielctric test should be re- 
je 'teil ; they are not fit for further u.se. 

The oil remaining from the above tests is then exposed to the air 
of the labo- c hour, the we' " nv bulb • ' 

n )te<l a'ld 1 -t!vncth aia-n iied. V i 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, lOKi. 



iO" 



air to the surface of the oil should be arranged for, but the oil must 
be protected from particles of dust, &c., during the whole- testing 
process — i.e., both during ' drying " and " absorbing." 

The remaining oil is now exposed to the air for 24 hours ; wet and 
drv-bulb readings are taken at least twice during this period, and 
then the dielectric test is repeated. 

This ])rocodurc of 24-hour exposures and testing is continued uniil 
the dielectric test has fallen to a vahie so low that the oil would be 
considered to be below a safe one for any insulating purposes (or 
the rthole 4i litres have been used up). The results are to be plotted 
as a curve having dieleeti'ic values as ordinates and time as abs'jissa?. 

Note. — If the value of oil required for each dielectric test is 
250 cubic cm. (about 8|oz.), 16 or 17 tests can be made from the 
quantity originally dried. 

IJieledrlr Strength. — This test should be made with ^ in. d'ainetcr 
(12-7 mm.) spheres with a .'eparation of 0-15 in. (3-81 mm.). I)u))li- 
cate tests should be made. The spheres can be made of brass, but 
a pure metal of high melting point, such as platinum oi- tungsten, 
would probably wear better. The electrodes should be immersed 
in the oil to a distance of not less than l^ in. from the surfa"e. 'J'he 
volume of the oil used per test should not be less than 250 cubic cm. 
(roughly 8i fluid oz.). The temperature of the oil shoidd be between 
15-5T. Wl 20°C. 

The containing vessel and the electrodes must be made absolutely 
clean and dry before performing each test, and great care taken to 
avoid any contamination of the next oil examined. For this reason 
horizontal electrodes are probably preferable, but whichever method 
is used it must be so arranged that the electrodes can be readily 
removed bodily from the containing vessel for the purposes of 
cleaning and drying them and adjusting the gap distance, if the 
electrodes become pitted by the action of the spark they should be 
renewed. 

The voltage at which sparking first commences, and also that at 
which complete breakdown wdth continuous sparking occurs, should 
be recorded. 

The oil used for this test shoidd not be used for any other research 
tests. 

Specif c Besislatice. — This test should be made upon the oil as 
received, and also after perfectly drying it in the manner detailed 
under " Moisture." 

It is not thought necessary to specify the full detads for this test, 
but it is very strongly recommended that the tests be always con- 
ducted upon very thin films of oil between electrodes in order to 
avoid excessively high values ; the latter have no practical 
significance. 

The temperature at which the standard speciiic resistance test 
is to be performed should be between 15-5°C. and 20°C., and as near 
15-5°C. as possible with the apparatus. 

Thential Transference. — A ligure illustrating simple convection 
flow is given in the article, after which there is an application of 
Poiseuilles' equation for flow in capillary tubes. 

If the relation were .sho\vn to be roughly true, the determination 
by direct experiment of either (1) the thermal transference coefficient 
or (2) the values of the speciiic heat, the density and the coefficients 
of viscosity and expansion, Avould serve to decide the value of an oil 
for use in a transformer from the point of view of its cooling effect. 

The above notes on thermal transference must be regarded as a 
suggestion for an experimental investigation, and the conclusions 
arrived at require verification at a convenient opportunity. In the 
meantime the coefficient of thermal transference as here deiined 
might be employed in estimating the suitability of any oil of which 
the physical constants had been determined. 

Specific Heat. — The method of performing this test is left to the 
judgment of individual experimenters, but it should be taken at 
15-5°C. (60°F.). It would be advantageous to determine the efl'ect 
of increase in temperature upon this value over arrange of tem- 
perature from 15-5'r. (60°F.) to 80°C. (176°F.). 



ELECTRIC WELDING.* 

BY JITLTUS .SAUEE. 

The arc method of welding employs only'direct^cuiTenf at a 
voltage between 40 and 65, the current varying from 100 to 800 
amperes. The common methods are those known by the names of 
Bernados, 81avianoff and Zerener. The Bernados method is very 
simple : One electrode is connected to the weld, and the other 
^ consi.sts of a movable carbon. Between these an arc is started, A\hich 
^^auses^usion at the Avelding point. It is'mainly used for \\elding 

^^p * Abstract of an atriclein the " Elcktrotechnische Zeitsch-ift." >''■;. 43 
■^and 44, 1915. 



cylmders of fairly thick i.laUsfortranTwavntir joints, and for n-jjair- 
uxg defectH in «t€el ca.stin^. But *nuill pieces of carbrjn fmin tii«r 
electrode are torn off and endK-ddwl in the weld. This mak** thi- 
weld harder than the surrounding m.jtal. The iirtK.-e*, can, therefore, 
oidy be employed in ea.se.s where thi» variation in harrJn'*« u pet- 
missible, otherwise we niu.-st have re' '. • .■ t . 

This .differs from the ii*;niados pi , 

electrode i.s not made of carbon, but of the Hanie metal an that u««fl 
for the weld. Almost any metal '-an U- u-«ed, I. 
j)loved on grey cast iron and steel castin^'^. lii 
rcpaircfl in this way, and suiKT.'icia! blowiioki* and cira'.-lu can be 
made good. There is a temijerature fall of '.MXrC. fr ' • 

to the negative electrode. I>iffifultl\ fu.sible metal-. 
are therefore connected to the jKjsitive polo, and th«» nr-garn'e pole 
is joined to the more e;'sily fusil)le me^al. With easily fus-ihh- wfM-. 
like copi^r and cast iron, the opjxisite plan w used. On the Zen-n- r 
[)lan the two carbon electrodes are pla-ed at an ac-ute angle, and a 
magnet is used to blow the arc downwards on the wjd ; plate mttal 
can be welded in this way, as on the autofeenou« procesw. For ;dl 
these methods direct current is used. Formerly a .shunt '. 

giving 1 10 volts was employed in combination with .series n^.- , 

batteries, &c.. which cau.sed a .steady loss. Lately machiner* tdvinvt 
65 volts have been used, and these are "so constructerl that o- 
circuit the voltage disapj)ears. So-called " cros.n-Held "" ui 
have been constructed by the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft 
in sizes giving 200, 460 and 800 amperes. The operation b. com- 
pletely sparkle.ss on short-circuit. .Machines have al.so been ma'jr 
on the Kramer patent, being partially self-excited and partially 
separately excited. The separate excitation .senes the {jur{)o.-^ of 
limiting the current on short-circuit. As for the amount of energA- 
and time required to repair castings, it is not easy to give any general 
figures. As a rough estimate, it may be stated that two kilowatt - 
hours are required to fuse 1 kg. of iron. In a certain case a c-a.*t-iron 
ring, weighing 165 kg., was cracked in the middle. The gap requiretl 
2-4 kg. of material, which consisted of cast-iron rods with a high 
silicon content, 10 mm. in diameter. The current amounted to 
500 amperes, the voltage was 50, and the energy- consumption was 
4-2 kw. -hours, the job lasting half an hour. In order to avoid internal 
stresses the work was heated by burning charcoal. Plates can also 
be cut by the arc process, which gradually melt.* the metal. In all 
these cases the metal is fu.sed and the weld is effected in this way. 

The electrical -resistance method is. however, quite different in 
principle. The heat is internally generated at the welding point. 
We may take the case of the welding of a tyre as typical. At the 
]3oint of junction there is a high resistance when the two butt ends 
are brought together ; this causes the local generation of heat and 
the consequent weld. The voltage required for the operation is ver\- 
low, and varies according to the section from 2 to 8. The current. 
however, may amount to several thousand am])ei"es. and alt' 
current is almost exclusively employed, seeing that the tra: - 
is a very convenient method of generating a large current at a low- 
voltage. The transformer is usually placed inside the weM • - 
machine, and the secondary cables iti-e made as short as jws.^i ■ 
On the primar}' side there are usually se\'eral tappings in order to 
produce suitable variations in the voltage and tempen^ture at 
the weld. If a special alternator is used it is a good plan to provide 
this also with tappings, so as to fiave a double method of regulation. 
The fact that the heating takes place locally only at the point w here 
the weld is to be made tends to economy in energy consumption, the 
two butt ends being pressed together and heated by the pa.ssage of 
the secondary current through the imix?rfect contact at the joint. 
Metallurgically considered, there are great advaiitages from the fact 
that no impurities enter the joint, as no auxiliary electrodes are ustnl. 
The temperature can also be adjusted with givat exactness, and the v 
is, therefore, no question of burning the metal. The inside of the 
metal at the joint is also thoroughly heated, because the heat |w.-<ses 
from the inside of the metal to the outside. The author gi\-es 
photographs of several typical machines of this kind. Ouc of the 
photographs shows a machine for welding the rims of the wh- 
motor car, having an output of 40 k.v.a.. ami l)ei.\g suit., 
welding sections up to 1.000 sq. mni. The secondary,- voltage is 
4 volts, and at full load the current rises, theivfore. to lO.f^-' 
Another photograph shows a larger ma'hine of the 
suitable for sections up to 6,000 sq. mm., and with an output of 
200 k.v.a. The electrodes, to w hich the w dd is d imped, arc cooler! 
with water. The links of chains can be welded in the s^ime way on a 
semi-automatic machine, of which a photograph is also given. By 
pressing on a lever the attendant iiasses fiwn one link to the next, 
and 15 liidvs can be welded in a min ite out of metal 5 mm. in dia- 
meter. All sorts of small welds can be made in the same wiiv, 
levers, coniiecting rods and the like, it being necessary so to design 
the parts that the heat is e lually distrib.Jted on both sides of the 
weld. Generally speaking it may be said that a weld is best made 



76 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APRIL 21. 1916. 



SLH quickly a« poKsible. f'xinx'S are given showmg the factors on 
which the variations of energy consumption depend. The distance 
J^etween the clan)ps should be kept as short as fX)ssible. The follow - 
ijig table gives particulars as to the energy consumption and time 
icquired for weldirig t>Tes of a given section — viz., 9 mm. by 9 mm.. 
or 81 sq. mm. — and shows how this depends on the diameter of tlie 
tyTc or ring. The smallest diameter is 20 mm., and it is increased 
Jill the diameter becomes infinite or the ring becomes flat. 

Table I. — Sh.wing the Time and Entygy Consumption required/or Welding 
HiiigH of Different Diameters hnnng a Section of 9 mm. by 9 mm. 



Diameter of 
ring in iiini. 



Power applied. 



Second required. 



20 


. 20 


60 


4r> 


18 


6-0 


90 


17 


5-75 


1.50 


16 


o o 


220 


15 


5-25 


320 


13 


50 


ijOO 


12 


4-75 


850 


10 


4-5 


•00 


9-5 


40 



Another kind of weld is " spot welding," in which the welds are 
'made in sheet metal at a series of points. The secondary winding 
of thi.s transfonner is brought to two electrodes ; the lower is fixed. 
1r<l may be regarded as a kind of anvil, while the upper arm is 
movable, and performs the functions of a hammer. The hammer is 
moved by the agency of a pedal. When the pedal is dej)ressed the 
Iwo j)lates of sheet iiietid arc pressed together, and a further motion 
of the pedal closes the primary switch. T.ie sheet metal is thus 
heated at the jK)int of })re8sure, and a Mcld is formed at this 
jKjint. As soon as the jx-dal is released the primary switch is ojiened. 
the pressure is removed, and the sheets can be moved into a new 
jKjsition for a fresh weld. Machines of this kind have been verj- 
quickly introduced into jiractice owing to the manj- conveniences 
they afford. The two plates merely need to be superimposed, and 
there is no neetl for any adjustments of correspondbag holes in the 
<lesign ; the weld, too. is very quickly made. A photograph is given 
^>f a spot weMing machine witli an outj)ut of 7") k.v.a., on which an 
Jinskilled oj)erator can make 12,0<X( sjKjt welds in a day. Different 
kinds and sizes of tiiese machines are made, with outputs from 
I kw. to 40 kw. With the larger sizes of sheet metal, the pressure 
must not be removed t(K) quickly from the weld, which must be 
allowed to cool Kufficiently to secure adhesion. A device for this 
piir|M)se is usually pro\ided. .so that the mechanical j)ressure remains 
when the voltage is switched off. A photograph shows an apparatus 
for stt^aming ]H)tatoeH constructed entirely in this fashion. With 
]iiat<'s 10 HUM. thick the voltage falls from 2 to \'2~) during the 
making of the weld ; with the butt-en<l method the voltage rises 
instead of falling. Curves are given showing the variation of energy- 
coiisuiMption witli jdates of difTen'ut thickness, and also the variation 
in the time rerpiired for tlic ojn-ration. The tiuergy consun)ption 
is apt in practiic to be foiuwl to Ik) a very variable quantity, depend- 
ing on the circumstaiM cs of the case. A good deal tunis on the 
HhH|K>, conligunition and si/e of the metal on which the weld is to be 
made. I'nder certain conditions it may act electrically as a choking 
coil, «'sjH'<ia!ly if it forms a elosetl circuit on itself, and the self- 
induction al.so de|>ends to some e.\t<'iit on the art-a of the surfaces. 
If there are large mas,se.s f)f inm Iwtween the electrode arms, this 
affects the courw of the i)rocoedingH. and the author gives curves 
showing what may be exj»ect<Ml under these conditions. The sjxjt 
weld gives a very stn)ng joint, which may be 50 or 80 jxsr cent, 
stronger than one nuwle on a kind oi rivele<l joint. If two jilates 
0-7 mm. in thickness are wel<le<l liy two sjwt welds luul then toni 
apart the fone re(juir(>d to break the joint is WO kg. ; if the same 
])latcs are riveted with riveUs '2rt mm. in diameter the bri>aking fone 
amounts to alnuit .'{2."» kg. Watertight seams can In* jtrcxluced with 
.spot welds if t lie points are sufliciciilly clo.se to one another. If roiillv 
good watertigh.l joints an* nef-dinl, the jKjint wi-ld may bo impn^veii 
on by u.sing a kind f>f nillor as the elect nxle, and here we get a weld 
.'dmost continiiously along a line ; the roller (-an lie worke<i by hand 
or by a motor ilriven device. S|H'cial machmes have i>een con- 
.•itrueted for welding iron cylinders, and these range in sixes up to 
those suitable for sheet inm !•.'> nun. thi( K " ' ■< cylinder^ fi.Kt mm. 
long. With a machine of this kin<l it i , i'le, ni f.icto^i«.^s for 
enamel ware, to nuike as many as 2.4(M» I>asin9 m a day, ooch standing 
'AW mm. Iiigh. 'F'he attendant ha-s <»nly to pi ux' flie cylinders in 
jMi.silion and to kivp the machine in o|RTatii'i». ro-ti<ms of the 
moimtings for arc lamps can l>e miulc in this way : The jvirt* arc 
cut out of sheet metal, then the weld is made, and tinaliy tie ' 
is shajMMl. if nece.>^sary. 1)V pn\'i.sin>i it in wtxxlen moulds. Tl. 
•of these various o})eration9 is that the metal is more weakened by 



the pressing and shaping process than by those connected with the 
making of the weld. When torn apart the weld often remains 
intact, while the breakage takes place at some other part. Brass 
bands can be welded with great neatness, so that when they are 
polished no trace of the joint remains. With brass the energy con 
sumption is about half as much again as with iron. The machines 
must Ije arranged to work w ith very light pressures, and the delicac-\ 
of the operation is therefore much greater in this case. The article 
contains a number of illustrations of machinery manufactured for 
the.se purpo.ses by the Allgemeine Electricitats Glesellschaft, and of 
some of the finished products turned out by these methods. 



MAGNETISATION BY ROTATION.*. 

BV S. J. BAKXETT. 

Summary. — The author discusses the theorj- of magnetisation by 
rotation, and the converse effect. Exjx'riments on the magnetisation of 
steel rods by rotation are described, and the effect predicted is believed 
to have been found. Some subsidiary exjieriments are also described in 
the PaiKT. 



In 1909 it occurred to the author, tvhile thinking about the origin 
of terrestrial magnetism, that a substance which is magnetic (and. 
therefore, according to the ideas of Langevin and others, constituted 
of atomic or molecular orbital systems with indi\-idual magnetic 
moments fixed in magnitude and differing in this from zero) mu.st 
become magnetised by a sort of molecular g\Toscopic action on 
receiving an angular velocity. 

Thus, consider a cylinder of iron, with zero magnetic moment in 
its initial state. If it is given an angular acceleration about its axis, 
each indi\-idual .system, which we may suppo.se for simplicity to 
consist of a number of electrons revohing in ti.xed orbits with con- 
stant average velocities about an oijpositely charged nucleus, will 
change its orientation in such a way as to contribute a minute 
angular momentum, and therefore, a minute magnetic moment, 
])arallel to the axis of the cyhnder. If the revolving electrons are 
all negative, in conformity with most of the experimental evidence, 
the cylinder will become magnetised in the direction in which it 
woiUd Ije magnetised by an elecfric current flowing aroimd it in a 
direction opposite to that of the angular velocity im]wrted to it. 
This corresponds to the direction of magnetisation of the earth and 
the sun. 

Preliminary ex])eriments made at the Tidane I'niversity of 
Louisiana at the time this idea occurred to me apjieared to show, 
though doubtfully, a very minute effect of the sort in question, 
hater observations made in much the same way. but with an attempt 
at improvement in apparatus, failed to conlirm this result with any 
certainty; and further investigation of the subject was postponed 
until better facilities were available. 

In 1912 a similar idea was advanced by f>chuster t in his presi- 
dential address before the Physical Society of London. He also 
apjK^ars to have been led to his views l\v considering the origin of the 
<'arth"s magnetism. The author then refei-s to Schusters hyiw- 
thesis that the rotation determines the magnetic intensity which may 
or may not cause magnetl-sation aceonling t<i ( ircum.stances. 

It occurred to the author that the ctTet t under investigation was 
the converse of the effect predicted and look(><l for by O. W. Richanl- 
son. in 1907-8 — viz., the production of rtM ition by m.agnetisation ; 
and it became aj)jiarent that both effect> were immediate conse- 
quences of an idea advanced long ago by Max well, + who constructed 
ap]iaratus for exjierimcnts upon the subject as early as 1861. 

-Maxwell pivoted an elect mmagiu>t in a frame, .^ as to Ix; free to 
rotate al)out a horizontal line through it> centre of mass and per- 
]K'ndicular to its magnetic axis. With the magnetic axis making an 
angle 6 \.\\\\ the vertical, the frame was rotated at a high .sjieed, and 
changes in (t were hxjked for. No change was found. 

A (juantitative th«irv is th^n developed, and it is shown that 
if u> is the angular velocity of the molecular sj'stem S7 the angidar 
\elocity of rotation of the Ixxly, tlieu the intrinsic intensity of rota- 
tion io given by :- — 

Z/.-2— [l-fj^cos^?^^' (1) 

The values of 12 exjxrimentally attainable ar<' so small in comimrison 
^^ ith o> that the ."^econd term is negligible. 

If wt« assume that ( in has the value onlinarily accepted for the 
negative electron in slow motion — vi«., - 1 -77 < 10', and put I2=2»rn, 

• From the " Phvsioal Review." Vol. VI . N".-. 4, OctoUr, 1915, 

t " IVoce* dings.'- ]'! • < - London, Vol. XXIV., p. 121, 191 112. 

j"EI<ctri«Hy .intl > "i^- \ 573. 



M 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 191G. 



I i 



where n is the angular velocity in revolutions per second, we obtain 
for the intensity per unit angular velocity : — 

///«^ —7-1 X 10" gauss per rev. per second ... (2) 

' This is on the assumption that the negative electron alone is 
effective. If the influence of the negative electrons is preponderant 
the number in (2) gives the maxirmnn magnitude of II jn, attained 
when the negative electrons alone are effective. 

!»5 The relation of proportionality must hold also between the angular 
velocity and the magnetic flux density and intensity of magnetisa- 
tion, which are very minute and, therefore, proportional to the 
intrinsic intensity ; but these quantities will depend not only upon 
the intensity but also upon the material and shape of the rotating 
body. Thus, in the case of a diamagnetic substance it is shown in 
the Paper that the effect in zero. 

In one set of experiments the magnetic circuit was almost wholly 
of iron, but the reactions masked the minute effects looked for. In 
another series of experiments, which lias given definite and conclusive 
results, two nearly similar rods of steel shafting (A and B, Fig. 1 ) 
were mounted with their axes horizontal and approximately at right 
angles to the magnetic meridian, and two similar coils of insulated 
\\-ire were mounted about their centres. These coils were con- 
nected in series with one another and with a fluxmeter, and were 
oppositely wound like the coils of an ordinary U-shajjed electro- 
magnet, so that any variations in the intensity of the earth's field, 
acting in the same way on both rods, might produce no effect on the 
fluxmeter. One of the rods, which will be called the compensator, 
as A, remained at rest, while the other, called the rotor, as B, was 
alternately rotated and brought to rest, the change of flux being 
determined by the fluxmeter. 



-H67U 55.7- 



-M6-8^ 



I 



I*-- 



-30--- 



Coif 



^ 



6-9h 



15 



Rod B 



l!=di^ 



Huxmeter 

' N 




^ 



"~f 

70 



Rod A 



_r 



^%h- 



84-6 Vto-ai 



if 



produced by the solenoid alone ua, j f; jx?r cent, of that piwlu.t^J 
by the solenoid and con 

A .second experiment was ii(cf-,.,arv to determine thi^ dffleMion at 
8 metres, produced by Ii,„ and /„ the flux •len.^ity and inten.sitv of 
magnetisation produced by the rotation, and the result obtained was : 

Bo^l-1 /\(yi maxwells jx-r square <■ 're per millimetre. 

The mteasity of magnetisation at th- 1 .section of th<- r<,t.,r 

per millimetre deflection, denoted by /„ is approximately 

Io=Bf,Hiz. 

With the apparatus, over 25 sets of observatioas were obtair.e'J 
The rotations of one group were made with rotor A, most of them at 
about 50 revolutions per second, two at about 18 revolutions per 
second. Ea.h of the groups gave a mean result (<V ' 
tion) in the direction predicted by theorj- on the a-s.-" , :. .. _. ... 
revolving electrons are negative, the mean deflection (reduced to 
8 m. scale distance) per unit speed being about 004 mm. ; but the 
discrepancies were large, partly on account of imperfect comj^en-nation 
of the earth's inten.sity owing to the large distance between rotor and 
compensator, partly on account of non-uniformitv and i - ' t 
compensation of fluxmeter drift, and partly on account of m- .1 

vibration and other cau.ses. 

An elaborate series of precautions were made, and arrangement-^ 
altered, in order to eliminate error, and the experiment repeatt-tl. 
From these results Fig. 2 was obtained. The large circles designate 
the observations which needed no reduction for speed differences : 
the smaller circles and cro.sses, those for which reductions were made. 
The circles designate observations made with end 2 of the rotor 
east ; the white circles corresponding to tho.se made with the com- 
pensator end A east, the black circles to those made with c-oui- 
pensator end B east ; the crosses designate obser\-ations made with 
the rotor end 3 east and compensator end A east. 

The continuous straight line in the figure is drawn with a slope 



^J 1 

























j .'^^^^ 








-ir'''^ 






^ 


1 1 t 


^^ 


1 1 



10 



30 



35 



40 



Fig. 1. — Arrangement of Steel Rods. 



15 20 25 
Speed in R.P.S. 

Fig. 2.- — Differential Deflection' and Speed. 



45 



The approximate dimensions of the rods A and B, as they were 
used in nearly all of the work, are shown. The dimensions of the 
two coils used in most of the work are also indicated in the figure. 
Each of these coils was wound on a brass bobbin with about 5,000 
turns of No. 14 D.C.C. copper wire, the winding being made very 
regular on account of other investigations for which they were pri- 
marily designed. A third coil, of somewhat different construction, 
■was substituted for one of the coils in some of the experiments. 

In the first part of the work the rotor was mounted in brass bearing- 
pieces inserted in bronze castings bolted to the cement floor of the 
laboratory, all parts being accurately fitted so that there was as little 
play as practicable. The rotor was driven by a brass rod 1-4 metres 
long and 1-1 cm. in diameter, itself direct-connected to a counter- 
shaft and pulley system driven by belt from an alternating- current 
motor of the repulsion type. The countershaft and puUey system 
Avas entirely of brass, bronze and wood, and moved in brass castings 
bolted to the floor, with thin iron sleeves for bearing pieces. The 
motor pulley was similar to that of the countershaft, except that it 
was mounted on an iron sleeve. 

The fluxmeter was a Grassot instrument provided with a concave 
mirror with approximately 2 metres radius of curvature. It was 
mounted on a slate shelf cemented into the laboratory waU, and the 
scale distance was usually 8 metres. 

In order to eliminate residual drift and other extraneous dis- 
turbances, readings were ordinarily taken in sets of eight, as follows : 
Two with comiter- clockwise or negative rotation (as seen from the 
west end of the rotor) four -with clockwise or positive rotation, and two 
more with counter-clockwise or negative rotation, the order of the 
positive and negative rotations being sometimes reversed. 

To determine H^, the intrinsic magnetic intensity of rotation per 
millimetre of fluxmeter deflection at the scale distance 8 metres, a 
series of experiments were made, and these showed that the deflection 



obtained by dividing the sum of all the differential deflections for the 
observations which needed no reductions by the sum of all the corre- 
sponding speeds, and thus gives the weighted mean deflection i^er 
unit speed, on the assumption of proportionality between them. 
This quantity is 0046 mm. per revolution per second. 

The broken straight line is drawn in the same manner for all the 
observations made with the earth's intensity compensated, reductions 
having been made when necessary, as indicated above. From this 
line the mean deflection per unit speed is 0-050 mm. per revolution 
per second. 

From the figure it appears that the deflection is proportioniil to the 
speed within the limits of the experimental error. Within these 
limits this deflection is independent of the orientation of the rotor or 
compensator or the distance between them. The average departure 
of the differential deflection for a single set Lvm the ordinate of the 
(broken) straight line corresponding to the speed is 12 per cent. 

The intrinsic magnetic intensity of rotation, and the chiuige of 
magnetic flux density, per miit speed were foimd to be about 

—3-1x10' gauss per revolution per second, 
and — 1 -9 X 10-* maxwells per square centimetre per revolution 
per second respectively. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

rcopies of the undermentioned worKs can be h.i from The Ei.ECTRiaj« Ofice. pwt 
free (Jnless otherwise stated), on receiptor publisned price, f^<^^s3d.iorboo^pxih^YM 
under 2s. and 5 per cent, for books pubUshed net. Add 10 per cent for abroad or lor 
foreign books.] 

"An lutioductoiT Course of Continuo)»s-current Engineering, by 
A.Hay.D.Sc. 2nd edition. (Loudon: Constable & Co.) Pp. xu.-r3bO. 
Gs. Gd. net. 

" Elementary Strength of JIaterials."' By E. S. Andrews, B.hc. 
(London : Chapman & HaU.) Pp. viii.-2lG. 4s.Gd.net. 

c2 



78 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 2L 1916. 



TRANSFORMER DESIGN. 

{CoiUiHued jroin p. 10.; 

BV F. M. DEXTOX, A.C.G.I. 

Summary. — A gr-neral rliBCusKion in given of the nature of the jifMem 
of traDKformei flesigii. and the author wts out Amolfr.s method of design 
for coiiHtant jKjfential tranHformers. He then deal* with the conditions 
eiihurinjr max iiinniielretr leal and (oniniereialeffieiencies. and diseusM-s the 
advi«ah)litv of designing (»ower trannfornierK for niininiuni cowt. A rule 
is deve|o|j<«i h\ the aid of whieh designs of jKJwer transformers may >>e 
haM'd ujion commercial efficiency rather than ujxm minimum cost. The 
author th'-n gives an outline of the metho<l of design pro|>osed by 
Arnold in HMO and a comparison of Arnolds later ami earlier methods, 
f 'omj)arative designs are worke<l out and a wlu-dule is given. l);is<<l upon 
Amrjlds metlxxl of HHi4. 



Lif/hting TmiisJonnerK- The .specification for a lijiliting 
Iransfonuer u.sually include.s : The KVA capacity, the primary 
and secondary voltajies. the fre(|uency. the ])ercenta>ie iron 
lo.s-s (/y,), and the electrical crticieney //. The conditiim <•£ 
ininiinuni eost determined, for the power transfftnner, the 
wav in which the formula 

(' 2-2^Lf,I':ji LKu KHt.v 

slujuld \)i' ap|)licd. The minimum eo.st condition was held, to l)e 
niiue imi><)rtaiit than that of ma.ximum pos.sil)le efficiency, and 
tiie e.xact divisifin of the lo.s.se.s between the iron and the copper 
wa.s not made a determininfi factor in the de.sij/u. The wi.sdom 
of this will later he discussed. In the case of a li},ditin<; trans- 
former, however, the j)reci.se value of the iroji loss must be 
regarded as part of tlie .specification since this is a continual 
source of loss, and its value j^reatly affects the economy of 
workinj:. Tims it comes that in a line of lighting; transfonnei-s, 
all of api)ro.\imalely tlie .same tyjie. the ratio of volume <»f iron 
to volume of copj)er, and that of Lk to Li. may V)e not even 
a])|)ro,\imately constant. The followinjj; additional con- 
biderations are thelefuie needed : 

where Lk i« the mean length of a turn in centimetres, Q is the 
cross secticm <»f the core in square centimetres, and k^ is a 
constant depending upon the type of the transformer. The 
truth of the .statement is obvious : the mean length (»f a turn 
embracing a cor«' of given shape of cnt.ss-section is ])ro])ortional 
to the s<pnire root of the area of the <-ore. Further 

L/=A-2v/;^V(/jy,+/j7,);/A; k^s (2SfJ,sf/,) 

where Li is one */»th of the total mean length of a line of force 
in centimetres. .V is the number of pha.ses per window (A' is 2 
for the ordinary three-pha.se core-type transformer having two 
windows), t stands for turns, (j for .s(|uare millimetres copjx'r 
f>e«'ti<m. n for amperes ])er square millimetre, and/* for copper 
.space factor (the rati<» of the tot^il copper <io.ss section ])er 
window to the total area of the window). This .statement is 
like the preceding one, the flux in this case (onning a belt 
around I he copper, just as in the former ca.se the copper fonued 
a belt around the tlu.x. Combination of the.sc ecjuations and 
the jireceding onen. /[•, -md k^ being included amon^'st the 
constant cnumtities, gives 

ji being a constant (b'jiending on the type «if the trHn.sforni' 
The choosing of a value for // introduces an element of trial ami 
eiror into the method. //depeu«ls tipon the relative dimensions 
of iron and co|i]>er in the lini.shed t ransfuriner, and cannot be 
knowji exactly utitil the complete design is known. I'sunlly, 
however, the designer knows from pre\ ', ' value 

// is likely (o have in a given < ase I <if /.-, 

and A'j. (i may be written 

/?-7.7n<i(f»)" 

The (k'Mvatioa oi tin-? e.\pre»»ion (or ? '• ■ ' " -• 

Li( A I' B 

In the (>(-]nitti,>ii (' 2-2S - , 

Iji Ak IvHJ.v 

/.* IS lUe length ol a mean turn in centimetres, \\\\\W. < ' \& 



the total lengtli of mean path of the flux in the iron cores, and 
we may write 

7-8 X ^ X Li X »j =1 .000 X K VA x Ei 
l.(X)0 KVAxEi 

''' ^-'7-8 LiXm' ' 

and 8-D-','^L;:=-X A^rj xA'«Xl,00O. 

• II " stands for the number of limbs in the transformer and 
■• A' "ms the number of phases per window. For a .single-phase 
core-tvpe transfonner " n " is two and "' A' '" ojie, whilst for a 
three-phase transformer with two windows. " ii " is three and 
'• N " two. 

From the equations Z,Jt=A-,\ Q and Z/=A-2\ (2//iA' */>c) 
we have Lir L, = ky k^\ (,Q><fk 2A7,/j). and if we inseit in this 
la.st equation the values of Q and of s 21 ^t iX derived in the 
])revious paragiaph. we find 

L, ^ Ay 200x7-8 m ku ' 
Inserting this value of L^iL] in the equation for C the latter 
may be written ^^ y^ ^(^i\'( ^'Y-h^ 

and comjiarison of this with the [i ecjuation shows that 

By aid of this equation /i may be found for any transformer 
whose linear dimensions are known. The equation Lk=ki\^ Q 
says that Aj is the mean length of a turn in centimetres divided 
by the root of tlie iron cro.ss section in squaie centimetres, whilst 
the equation for Li says that A'j is equal to one «jth of the total 
length of flux ])ath in centimetres divided by the root of one 
hundred times the cross section of a window (in square centi- 
metres). Arnold gives values for ji as follows : 

Single-i)liase core-tyjie fansformcrs 40 to To 

Th'"ee-pliase core type 2."> to oO 

.SlieJl-type transformers IS ho 'M> 

Here again the choice of trial values for B must be left to the 
di.scretion of the designer. As the iron loss has usually to be 
made small the limits allowable are as a rule lower than the 
limits for power transformers, .suitable values <»ften lying, for 
40 to 60 cycle transformers of, say, 10 KVA to 6<» KVA 
ca])acity between -i.oOO and 7,000 lines per square centimetre, 
or with larger syiocially-cocded transfonnors. between 7.000 
and ".t.(i<K) when ordinary iron is used, or between I«.«A>0 and 
1 1 .000 when alloyed iron is used. The current density must be 
deduced as follows : 

The ])ercentage co]>])er loss p/^ is Ma I*iA \ A. where Ha. is the 
total copper loss in the transformer, and may be written 

]Vk=m ;{i-f o-()ot r)/57oa} A> ;/,^(.'.-,9,)- '/,+^.'..(^•.,'/o)^72! 

-2().s-A'„A'l'.f. 
or 6=l-%\ (pkl'Ku), 

where T the tem])eraturo rise above room temperature is 
assumed to be lO'C and A> is a constant, here assumeti to 
be I •!."). l)y which allowance is made for power loss in the 
windings resulting from the inecpiality ttf ( urrent density in the 
• loss .section of the co])j)er <aused by echly EMFs. 

.N'e.xt. a relation is found between the weights of iron and of 
copjier in t'*ims of £^. and £*/. By combining the equations 
deduce«l for the general transformer it can be .shown that 

(fl>/lo«)'-(x (KVAf,))E:K„=a, 
;» iiunieric;il constant. This may be written 

E: A\(fl,^)l*=f|10» /»-\ (KVAfi:) 

a c<instaHt (or a given transformer of given KVA and /a. 

Curves of tot.il (eddy plus hysteresis) iron loss for ordinary 
\i' -us 0-."}o mm. thick show that, approxima.ely. the 

])i ..;..^e iwr loss for a transformer may l)e written 
/, TV liiAT f^(fr, KMA' rp)--' i-vO\/?ifi5£;. 

ndjii ing these with the equation: A,.A«(fi.^)'*=constant, 
and «=1'1»6(7U A*u)*, we find BiKu{Bs)^'^ is proportional to 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1910. 



79 



Ei^'^^Ku^'-^, it beinji assumed that p, and />t are given ; that 
is to say, Ei^'^^Ku"'-'' is constant, or Kui^i^'-^'^ is constant, foi- 
plates ()-35 nun. thick. The condition for luiiiinauni cost of 
material and labour luav then be found thus : 

Total co»t=EJ<VA£f+KuKVA£k. The total cost will be 
a minimum when (l{EiiLi-\-Ku£.k)=0, in which eciuation. since 
KuEj^'^^ is a constant, we may write for Ku the cxjircssion 
q!E,"'^'^, and the ecjuation becon^es 

,J\Ei£, + (g/E/>-^^)£k', ldEi={), 
the solution of wliich is 

E,-jKu~^0-36£klU 

This is the condition which must be satisfied when usin<i 
plates 0-35 mm. thick. For plates 0-5 mm. thick the cori'e- 
^ponding condition would be 

E,iKu=0-i6£k/£i. 

With modern alloyed steel {see a Paper read by Woolridge 
before the Am.I.E.E., in February, 1911) the exponent of B 
for total iron loss approaches, for densities of the order of 
] 0,000 to 12,000, the value 2, and the condition for minimum 

cost of a transfornver becomes more nearlv — " =- , the same 

A',, £,.■ 

< ondition which holds for power transformers. 

In the design of lighting transformers the procedure, there- 
fore, is as follows : 

Fii-st the cpiality and thickness of the laminations are 
chosen, then a value is assigned to B, and from the iron loss 
curve u'i is found the iron loss per kilogramme of iron. The 
total iron loss for the transformer having been giveii in 
the specification, the weight of iron per KVA, E„ and the 
total weight of iron in the transformer follow at once. The 
designer must next estinrate the ratio £a:/£/. This ratio depends 
rrpon many factors, the relative importance of which can be 
learned only by experience. In addition to cost of raw 
material there n^ust be taken into account cost of labour, 
■degree of skill of the workers, processes of manufacture and 
availability of up-to-date machinery. Arnold gives the 
following values for the ratio £a:/£; : 

For 10 A'r.4 to 50 KVA transformer.^ £/,;£, 4-7.") to 4-2r> 

For larger transt'ormers 4-5 to 3-5 

Then by applying the formula of the preceding paragraph Ku, 
the weight of copper -per KVA, and the total weight of copper 
' are at once obtained. Next s and C are found by the appro- 
priate formulae given above. In the formula for C a value has 
to be assigned to fk, the winding space factor. In Arnold's 
tables^;: ranges in value between 0-45 for 2,000 volt to 0-22 for 
30,000-volt air-cooled transformers, and 0-26 for 2,000 volt to 
0-14 for 20,000-volt oil-cooled transformers. 

The schedule appended to this article is a concise statement 
of Arnold's method, as applied both to lighting and to power 
transformers. 

The equation given for the leakage reactance drop is 
expressed in the symbols used in Kapp's book on Trans- 
formers, to which, on this point, Arnold refers. The 
determination of the inductance of a coil fron its dimensions 
.is very difficult if great accuracy is required, but the 
•use of Kapp's formula to find the leakage inductance of the 
windings of a transformer is found cj^uite satisfactory. The 
inductive drop in a transformer is usually of the order of I to 4 
per cent., and in the determination of such a small cpiantity 
-an error of even 10 per cent, is of no great consequence. A 
-method which will predetermine as 1-1 per cent., a drop which 
proves to be actually 1 per cent., is sufficiently accurate for 
practical purposes. 

An instance will serve to illustrate the accuracv of Kapp's 
.method. The following are the details of a "2,350 KVA 
42-cycle three-phase 9,000-40,000-volt transformer, which, 
when tested, was found to have an impedance voltage of 
2,030 volts (that is to say, when the 9,000 volt side ^^as short- 
circuited an applied voltage of 2,030 volts was required to send 
the normal full load current of 33-8 amperes through the 40,000- 
volt winding) : 

(D = I6-7xl0«, <i=745, 7i=33-8 amperes. 

6=3-7 cms., ai=2-8cms., a2=3-8 cms. 
^=242 cms. ^=85 cms. 



whence the percentage inductive drop. 

The resistances Wfri- 

rj— 2-34 ohms ) , 

n f\Qi- 1 whence /,' 

r., =0-086 olim ) 



.>.:>|.,M,S6ri|^j*} »-<'*"»'n^ 



per phase. 



and the percentage resi.stanct- aro(> (or 33-H ampereH 
,^ .33-8 y\-i)\ 

r=l()(|_ 



■0-6 per pent. 



V3 



X 10.000 



The percentage short ciicuit voltage should therefore he 
v' ;(4-8)2+(0-6)2, =4-83 per cent. 

The voltage found by experiment was 2.030 volts, or ol i»er 

cent. 

In illustration of the application of the .schedule the «ompiete 
design is worked out for a 500 KVA 5(J-cycle 6 6<JO-144J-volt 
three-phase transformer. For the pui-pose of compari.son the 
design is tieated first as that of a power transformer and then 
as that of a lighting transformer. Headers who may refer to 
Arnold's book, 1904 edition, will find a somewhat similar 
design worked out for a 600 KVA transformer. In this 
design Arnold has made a serious error, he has assumed a verv 
high flux density (5=14,500), such as would lead to a no-loail 
current, equal to about 15 per cent, of the full-load current, but 
through a slip in the calculation the value has come out less 
than 2 per cent. 

It will also be noted that the value £t £/=3-25, which Arnold 
assumes at the outset, does not agree with the final value found 
iox E'ijK,, ( = 2-56/l-09), so that the design as worked out is 
not the cheapest possible. 

For comparison with the method just outlined a brief state- 
ment of the procedure recommended in Arnold's 191(» edition 
may be given as follows : 

Having decided upon the type (whether core or shell), and the 
method of cooling to be employed, take a trial value for the 
ratio GijGk, and for the values of B and s. Then find Q from 
the ecpiation, 

Gi 



^ fBs I 



fBs 

a trial value being chosen for ('. losing various values of .-IS 
find the corresponding values of h, and then. a.s.suniing/T. find 
the width of the window ami check Gi Gfr which need only be 
accurate to, say, 10 per cent, of the value finst chosen. 
The derivation of the Q equation is as follows : 

E^4:-UftBQlO-^ 

I=sq, 
KVA=^-UftBQsql(y^^ 

=^C itqQlO^^^, if B and .< are constant. 

The weights of iron and of copper may be e.xpressed thus : 
Gr,=g/,7-8x 10-3 ],gs^ /. being the tot^^l iron length. 
Gk=2tqh^-^ X 10-5 kgs^ /^ being the mean length of a turn, 

GilGk=' , . , which, as /, 7^- is usuallv const.ant. 

may be written 

^'=C..^10^. 
Gk -irq 

Tliis, when combined with the KVA equation. •:'ves 



Q=C 



^(-|r) 



an equation which holds for all types of transformer. 

Approximate values for (' are usually as follows : 

rO-"> for .■<iuale-i)lia,-;o (nmsfonners ha vine round coils. 
J 0-()l forsinu'lephasotransfonnershavinnroctaiisnilar wiU. 

Core type -^ ^^ .j- ^-^^j. ,i,',.o(-. phase traii.-;formers havini: rouiitl itiils. 

h»-47 for thne-pha.se trausformors having rectangular coils. 
/0!> for single-phase transformers. 

Shell tyi)e -^^j.,; f,,p three jihase transformers. 



80 



THE ELECTRICIAN, .\PEIL 2L 1916. 



-Appropriate values suggested by Arnold for the ratio 

Gi;Gk are : 

Lighting Transformers. 

Oi!Gk. 

KVA. ^ 



'^) 

l^argcr 



(Jrdinarv iron. 
2 to :j 
to 4 



U]) to l/KK). 
Largf-r 



Power Truntijormtri. 

3-."» to 4-.% 

4-.') to .■)•.■> 



A 1 loved iron. 
1-8 to 20 
20 to 2-2 



IS to 2-2 
2-2 to 2-8 



Suitable limits for B and .s- are i^iveji in the scliedule at the 
end of this aitirh'. 

The theoretieal condition ensuring minimum cost is'deduced 
as follows : 

Gi=(\QI, aii.l Gk < 'J<lh. whence Gfik^^C^V^Qlqhh, 

(' , T,]k and sitioe 7 is assumed constant, 



G,Gh 
G,<h 



fBs 
KVA 

G,rh=c\-f.fQ. 

fBs 



h 



Here writing /;t = ^'fl\ Q we have 



|{<']*la(ing Q by its value found for the Q equaticm, we liave 

that is tf> sav, 6V6';t'=^ constant. 

(' 
The total cost is Gjii-{-Gk^k" - iL,-y(Jk^, which, when 

ditTerentiated with respect to 6';t and set ecjual to nought. give«, 
as thf ((iiidition for miniinuni cost, 

Gr^i,- 

Till' ( hicf practical distinction between .Vrnold's IDlO method 
iuid that of I'.tol is that in the earli«'r method the designer was 
asked- to stat^' from exj)erience the ratio £*/£,, and was given 
values for •' or f(»r [i, both of which de))end upon the ratio I, Ik, 
whilst in the later method the designer is given values for 
Gi/Gk and also for <\ which again depends on ////;t. Prac tically, 
therefore, the methods are much alike ; there is, at any rate, no 
dilTerence in princi])le between them. 

In the theoretical discns.sion of the condition for minimum 
cost there is, however, a radi<'.al ditTerence. for whereas in 19()4 
the designer was t«»ld that, both theoretically and practically, 
the ratio of weight of iron to weight of copj)er in a power trans- 
former should be made ecpial to that of the })rice of copper t-o 
the price (tf iron, he is told in IJtlO that the ratio of the weights 
should, theoretically, be only nni'-thinl of that <»f the prices, 
and thai practically he had better not worry about price ratio 
at all, but simply a.H.siinie a certain valtie. taken fntni previous 
designs, for the ratio Gj to 6^. 

In view of this ,som< what un.sati.sfactorv position it is of 
interest t«» carefully compare tht two methods of searching for 
the minimum cost condition, which give such widely different 
results, and if is hope<l by this comparison to show that the 
I'.KM method is the correct, oiu- whilst tin- HMO metl.<Kl is ba.scMl 
u|Miii wrong asHum]ttions. 

.\rnolds l'.t|i> met hod. just given, nuiy be cxprcwed in words. 
as follows ; 

In seiin hing for the cheapest design for a transfonner of 
given ty]»e and rating a trial design might be t«kon. and bv 
modifying its dimensions altenn>ts might be made to cheajien it. 

in making such modifications ;\rn<dd assumes that tho 
ratios I, h and /,^ \ Q ought t«t be con><t!«nt. whilst. o( course, 
B an«l .V are to remain con.stant. 

lid the trial desiyii be. sav. a core-tyji" transformer, and 
let an atfem|)t be made to cheapen it by miKiifying the cro.'ts- 
section of the core (Q). Let Q l>e increa.s«Nl by. say. 2 per rent. 
Then, if we assume h°^\ Q. we see that Ik will be increased bv 
1 per cent. Mu( /,- tk is to be kept constant, honre /,. must be 



increased by 1 per cent. Thus, G,- will have been increa.5ed by 
(2—1 per cent.)=3 per cent. Now, h, having become 1 per 
cent, greater, Gk would become 1 per cent, greater if the num- 
ber of turns remained unchanged. As, however, Q and, there- 
fore (1), have gone up 2 percent., the turns must be reduced 

2 per cent, to keep the voltage right. The effect on Gk of the 
increase of 1 per cent, followed by this decrease of 2 per cent., 
is a decrea.se of 1 per cent. We then see that whenever the 
■weight of iron is changed by 3 per cent., that of copper will 
suffer a 1 per cent, change of opposite sign. This imples that 
G, X Gk^ must be constant, for when this product is constant a 

3 per cent, increase in G, must entail a 3 per cent, decrea.se in 
Gk^ — that is to say, a 1 per cent, decrease in Gk. The'condition 
for minimum cost is then, obviously, that G, Gk^£k 3£;. 

This condition is quite different from that given in 19<»4 for 
power transformers namely, that the ratio of the weights 
should be the reciprocal of that of the costs — and it must now 
be shown how the difference arises. But first it is interesting to 
reniark that whereas Arnold in 1904 proposed that the ratio 
G,lGk .should equal £.k £;, and stated that this ratio could readily 
be estimated by each firm, his propo.sal in 1910 is that G,,Gk 
should, theoretically, be equal to £.k 3£/. but that thi>; ratio is 
almost im])os.>,il,le of predetermination, and that it does not 
form a .suitable criterion for the choice of G',iGk. He advises 
the designer to assume a value for this ratio, based upon pre- 
vious designs, the values advised (for power transformers) 
being of the order of 4 to 6 for ordinary iron and 2 to 3 for 
alloyed iron. The values are quite at variance with the 1910 
ratio £a^;3£,, yet agree fairly well with the limits 3-.5 to 5-5 (for 
ordinary iron) given in the liX)4 edition as the value of £* £/, 
to which Gi Gf. was to be made equal. 

(To he continued.) 



THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



The following discus.sion took place upon .Mr. Erne.st T. 
Williams" Paper * on the above subject at the meeting of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers on the 13th inst. 

Mr. ('. H. Mkhz said he wished Dr. Ferranti. who had ])ut Ix'fore them 
.some years ago what .some of them considered the idea!, had l>een there to 
o))on the disf\issi(>n. It was first put forward by Dr. Ferranti in sub- 
stance 20 years ajro. and had been n' viewed by ('<tmniittees of Parliament 
and otliers. and tlicn^ had l>een endless schemes for attainint: sfimethin-j 
of the ideal for lariie districts, and yet there liad not been muih progress 
made. It was well, in considering the reason for this, to face the fact*. 
Mr. Williams snirgested that the technical and financial sides were simple, 
and that the diHicnIty was one of organisation. He lie<;gpd to differ 
from him. He thought the reason greater ]irogre«s had not Ix^en made 
was that the ])r<>f('ssion as a whole was not (onvinced that the ideal was 
the right one. If that was .'■o, they had l)etter begin by seeing whether 
some of them wcn^ wrong and whether the majority were right. It 
could not Ik* aryueil that a thing was right or wrong for thi.* country 
Ix'caiisc it was right or wrong for other countries. The more he had 
travelled the mon- he had been dis.satisticd with what was almost the 
avernKc Kn;:lish "iigineering attittide. Any idea that the mattor could 
Im- prove<l as to what couUl be dt.ne from cx|H'rienec in other countries 
might to be got rid of. The I'nited Kingdom was in « difTen-nt position 
froni anv other countr\' in regard to electrical distribution. It was ver\' 
liitfcn-nt from (Icrnmny iis reyai-ds gcograpiiy. and totally differi'nt from 
the rnil<il States. ( »ur an-a was much mon- congested, and tlie (ongested 
.nnN(>< wen" nnich closer together. This seemed to point eniphatically 
In the electrical <i|)eration of tho railways within a reasonable time. an<l 
also to a general distribution system. With n-ganl to security of supply, 
HO long a.s it was a question of su)»plying a certain area fr(>m a power 
station tip to .">.(MMi kw. or so. the ipieslion did not come very jmimi- 
nently forward, but we had advanced so far thai consitlerable communi- 
ties de)tcnded u)i(.n power stations for their -upplirs of i>ower. heating 
and lighting which wen" \ital ttt the area. If large arenas wore allowed 
to continue to <lnpond u|Kin one central station there would l>e sonio 
s«Tious rnllapso : the more given area.« depcndcil u]>on electric supply, tho 
mon> important it woulii lx> that they should not i>ut all their egcs into 
one basket. .Xnsume a situation, which wa^ iniite connnon. whrri> there 
wen> four station-^ in adiac<"nt district.". In each station ."».(H>0 kw. sots 
wen- in»talleil an<l the numlxr of these in ca< h station was gradually 
e\tend<-<l to eiuht -Mt.tHMl kw. Kach of the f<nir anas tlopended on one 
citation. If a Wimh were dn>p|M'd on that station, or there wete some 
interferenif with coal di-liver\- or failure of tlic • inulating water system 
the condition of allairs in that an-a would be serious. Sav tliep' were 
two s)Mtrr nets in each station and spare capacity of :W ^kt cent. Work- 

* Thk Ei.F.crRiciAX. .\pril II. ^v 4v{. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



«1 



ing these stations separately, capital cost, operating costs and wa;ic.s were 
higher than if they were worked in combination. He thought th(^ four 
stations should each contain throe units of 15,000 kw. each, and that they 
should be connected by a trunk system of mains. Assuming the Inad on 
ai li station to be 30,000 kw., there would be one complete spare station 
toi the four areas and four si)are sots, as against two for each area in the 
first case, and spare capacity in the four stations of 50 per cent., a lower 
lapital cost and a very much lower o|)?rating cost. He was satisfied 
tliat that was the safest and the most oconomioal system. Instead of 
assuming 5,000 kw. and 15,000 kw. units for the two cases, perhaps 
to-tlay 10,000 and 30,000 would be bettiu-. With the larger \mits which 
could be now used, a coal economy ])cr unit sold of from 30 to 00 ))(!r cent, 
could be made, compared with what could be done with independent 
stations. Actual plants were being laid down which would attain such 
results. Tt was commonly said that doubling the size of generating units 
effected 10 per cent. eoonom\, but that was not so. It was becoming 
more and more ap])arent that in a small station one could not go in for 
the special refinements (or complications if one liked to call them so) 
luccssary to get the highest economy. The improvement in load-factor 
resulting from connecting up big areas was also of paramount importance. 
He showed on the screen the North East Coast I'owcr Co.'s a^erage daily 
I'lad curve, which showed that it was easy to get up to GO per cent, and 
.i\cr. The first thing necessary was for tlie technical side of the busi- 
ness to more or less agree as to what were the right lines to go iipoii. 
I'ailiaraent could not be expected to come to a proper soluticm if they 
wire divided amongst themselves as to how the matter should be tackled. 
In that respect they might borrow somethino- from other countiies. The 
thing was to get it to be a fashion to deal with such a question by certain 
methods. They did that well in Air.erica. It was the fashion in many 
, areas to take supplies fiom jjublic stations, and if the engineers adopted a 
fashion of dealing with their systems in the same way, a great deal would 
be accomplished. 

Mr. R. A. Chattock said the lines upon which Mr. Williams had gone 
were similar to what he (Mr. Chattock) recommended about two years 
ago in his address to the l.M. E.A.. and had developed the idea on sound 
lines. The only way in which consumers could bo attracted was by 
. reducing the price of current. The ordinary British manufacturer 
I would not think anything about " fashion " if it was going to affect his 
* pocket. He wanted a cheap, plentiful and reliable supply. The idea 
that he could get it and that prices were going down was what they should 
stimulate and follow up. In the industrial areas in this country the 
power sold per head of po])ulation was only about one-tenth of what 
could be sold it the supply were developed on ))roper lines, but they were 
gradually approaching that end in the way they were developing the 
supplies. Small stations supplj'ing at high prices were hampering that 
development, and a scheme such as Mr. Williams proposed should be 
brought forwarrl and run not to make large profits, but to attract con- 
sumers, and if necessary face a loss for some years. The money should 
be found by the community, because it was necessary for the develop- 
ment of the industries of the country. As the output increased, the cost 
of production decreased, and it was only carrying that to a logical con- 
clusion fully to justify the scheme Mr. Williams put before them. He 
did not think, however, that old, uneconomical stations should go on 
running ; it was better to face the conditions that these must be cut out 
as generating units, though they could be used as distributing units. 
An arrangement such as the four connected stations suggested by Mr. 
Merz was what they would come to. but he thought those stations would 
approximate to 300,000 kw. capacity each or more, because if the price 
were really a popular one the demand would increase enormously. The 
large stations would have to be put fairly close to the large centres of 
industry', so that the minimum amount of current would have to be 
transmitted to a distance. Probably drastic powers would have to be 
obtained to prevent the cost of obtaining wayleaves for the trunk lines 
from crippling the scheme. He was afraid Parliament would hardly be 
able to deal with such a scheme at present, but it should be got ready to 
put before them when they could deal with it. 

Mr. J. S. HiGHFiELD said he agreed that engineers and financial 
people should come to an agreement before putting forward a scheme, 
but when Mr. Chattock said they were not to earn any profits, and that 
they were to raise money on somebody's credit and lay mains all over the 
country he was horrified. They had been labouring hard to get a profit, 
and if it was suggested that they should go back to the dreadful old days 
when there was no profit he thought that was wrong. If money were 
raised on municipal or Government credit the interest would have to bo 
found. It would have to be shown that they could put down plant and 
mains and earn an early profit. He did not agree that the present posi- 
tion of electric supply was so defective as had been suggested. The 
supply over large areas of the country, was good, and manufacturers 
availed themselves of it, and when new factories were started the electric 
l)eople were on the doorstep to offer a supply. It was wrong to belittle 
what had been achieved. The curve shown by Mr. Merz of what had been 
done on the North East coast was an example of magnificent engineering 
and financial courage. He did not suppose any part of the world could 
show anything better. That system should be extended gradually. He 
did not agree, however, that a lot of money should be spent simply 
because they could put four stations like those described by Mr. Merz in 
different corners of the country and wait for profits until houses were 
planted about them to make a load. Mr. Williams suggested additional 
legislation, but the industry had suffered from legislation. Mr. 
Williams rather discarded histoi-y, but many of the great industries had 
been develo])ed by private enterprise. Whenever the (iovernment 
stepped in to help them it generally caused trouble. It would be well to 
remove the damage done by past legislation. The railway companies 



and ga-s supplies start<;d with '■ r. ire. Th«,- lU r- 

allowed free competition, and, a : .,•• d in a <-<;rtai. \i- 

of wasteof capital, it brought into the h<-ld tw<i promot/-nf, two-:...; --,. 
and so on, and the devel(»pment was much quicker than it wjuM i. .\e 
been under a monoiKjly. The same applied to the ^an r<>m]»a.n'u^. If the 
same liberty had been given to electrical und«-rtak»-r« thev would \>e in • 
better position to-day. He did not undemtand to whom' th<- Ix^ard prO" 
po.sed by Mr. Williams would \n; f ; . : , ^^. 

mutually destructivr; j)owers, a ver\ »«/• 

the power to erect stations. If it wen- re»trut»-«i to the juo i tc<-h- 

nical side, .so that it cauhl act as a skilful guirl.-, it mij^ht ■. . : ..L. An 
improv(!d Board of Trade, inde|>endent of pohticiaim. riiiaht bf r*f uji«- to 
every trade. A Board of Trade eonsi.stinz of men like Mr. Tr«»tH-r 
would remove half their difficulties and they would L«-t on. If that %»m. 
Mr. Williams' suggestion he heartily approve! of it. 

Mr. H. FAR.vnAY Proctor said the s* heme proprMtr^l wa- a h-ipP^' 
medium between nationalisation, municipalisation and private 
ship. The |)ublished tables of costs showed that there hbould \m .... 
overhauling of the present system — or lack of 8>-steni. In London 
charges varied from 8d. to 3d. for similar purpo,v;.«, and tl. ' - - b«» 

united efforts to bring things to a more ])arallel batiis. '» 

get a move on, and get a board formed as the author sii. 
them get a scheme out for the whole kingdom. If it w 
Institution there were .so many interests that they would each want to 
run their own .scheme. Mr. Williams's .scheme had the merit that it did 
no injustice to existing undertakings. They could maintain their own- 
identities so long as they were justified by their < <,st.-i. Tl ild 
generate their energy or buy from the board. r)r if tht-ir co-; -w 
enough they might find a good consumer in the boanl. The- _ '»f 
existing ca])ital assets at once would mean the introduction <>t .ity 
that would ]iostpone the scheme almost indefinitely. He agn.*ed with 
the author that local authorities should be subject to the control of the 
board as regards the expansion of their existing station, but the author 
was not e((uall\' definite in dealing with the works of limite<l companifv 
If the terms were equitable they should be equally applicable ti. ><>m- 
])anies. They had better err on the side of over-comi>ensiition to each 
of those authorities or companies rather than let the indu.-'trk" ■•uffer. 
Such a .scheme as the author put forward might enable some of the small 
though desirable undertakings to be developed with the object of creating 
new industrial areas. The railways and canals, coal sup])lies and power 
supplies all ought to be co-ordinated and organised under one governing 
body. 

Mr. W. B. WooDHOiSE said the previous speakers' opinions were 
extremely diverse. He thought Mr. Merz's remarks really mo>t to the 
point. The electrical engineers should first of all agree as to what wa» 
to be done. Electricity su])ply was (mly one link in the bitrtrei: prf>bleni 
of the fuel economy of the country, but it was an indispensablelink. It 
would be necessary for the engineers and also the chemists, merallur'.:i>ts 
and geologists to get together in consultation. That had bet-a >t irted, 
and he hoped the active steps the B.A. were taking wouhE have .^ime 
beneficial result. He hoped it might be said that electrical engineers 
were agreed as to the broad principle of interconnection and centralisa- 
tion. The problem was very much a financial cme. Cheap capital could 
only be got if satisfactory security and the prospect of a reasonable 
return were given to the investor. Large experiments would have to bf 
carried out in conjunction with the chemists and metallurgists and all 
other people who tried to extract valuable properties from coal, anrf, 
therefore, it was not a suitable thing for Government management. 
National funds should not be used in speculative ventures. (»n the 
other hand, a great deal of the work was non-speculative, and if the 
State could finance that without taking a hand in the management — 
in the way of loan capital— it would be beneficia! to the i)ii.posed dewlop- 
ment. He could not go so far as to say that the basis of organisation 
should be settled first? The imi)ortant" thing was to bring home to the 
public what the present evils were and what the futuif prospects were. 
The public must be etlucated to !,ppre.iate whatever the electrical engi- 
neering industrv put forwartl as the great formula or dogma that was to 
be followed. That was the first step— to agree upon what they want«^l 
to tell the public about and to keep on telling them. 

Mr. C. H. WoRDiNcHAM said the value of the Paper was augment*** 
b(Hause Mr. Williams views the situation from a detached position, aod 
had no axe to mind. He (Mr. Wordingham) had seen power supply 
from both sides of the hedge. It was he who projcL-ted the tir>t pow.r 
scheme in this country— which had develojR-d enoriuou>lv atul^ he 
gave evidence in opposition to the first power scheme brought • . n- 
Parliament. A number of the power compaities seemed to be m 

from purclv philanthropic motives. Mr. Merz's exposition w.-»> 

from what was originallv put forward by the power .-omfuiny pro- 
moters, concentraticm on "one station. The ival s^nnt was to sjel a Dig 
tliveisitv. which might not be got even in a lai-e station. Ihe m.v>t 
suecesf^ul powei station owned by a comi>auy m tlii> eountr> uui * 
number of power stations linked up to s<-rve a comparalivelv small an-a. 
which he believed was the secivt of its success. He would d^l'"'-;'^' 
stronolv {i.)vernmcnt interference with that sort of enterprts,-. He did 
not b'ciicvc it ])ossiblc for a (Jovernmcnt department to run anv com- 
mercial concern (he did not mean national concern) .mi cominer. 
An element of success in a scheme .>f that kind was the power o. 
in-r. If the cheap supplv they believe.l neces-saiy was to be pr..Mdetl lU 
could onlv be done bv the ablest men working un ettennl. 

Mr W" L M M)oKN said, although hewassun> the author in hi- de>« rip- 
ti(m of the Hv.lro- Electric Commis.sion of Toronto had given «" honest 
reflection of what ha.l been irp.vsented to him he (Mr. M«*»."^'n> Jf * 
bound to warn the members against a^-eeptiug that de.-^ription a.* aiMU- 



B2 



THE ELECTRICIAN, XPFdL 2L 1916. 



raU'. H«' was familiar witli the o|>«-rati< n« of the r'oniiiii!->i<'ri, aud hf 
never met a iiiok- r<| rolur.hible body. It had jjower to adjuduate on 
queHtionx aricin;: Ix-lw'tn ron.sumen* and i<u|f])ly undertakeis, it had 
<hari;f of N-fit-lation affecting the induKtiy, and at the same time it was 
■B hijj)])lv authority able to enter into competition with <.therundertakeiK. 
It wan cru.«h nj.' o»t eiitcijiriw; everj- branch of industry was suffering, 
and the consulting engineeiw were gra<lually disa|i|>earing — a result he 
«ould not contemplate in thin eountr>'. If the author took the Hydn ■ 
Electric rV)nimisMi< n of Ontario an an augurj' of su«e( ss of ■^ui h a contein 
here he ihoight he was bitterly mistaken. If the b<Kly |iro]»owd to Le 
forincrj were divested of the fun* tion of opeiation if might ])rove us<-ful 
once ti.e eii^/ iierrs had decided ii))r>ii what th<-y wanted. 

.Mr. T. Kol.KS said he thought the electrical i»rofes>ion were ajiiiecl 
Upon the nec( ssi'ty of a general seheme, and that if e\eiy electrii al sujii)ly 
engineer were Kure of being in charge of one at the supplic> under the ]no- 
posed *lieme he would support th<* m hen.e. As Mr. Williams said, it 
wan tlie hull an factor. It wa.. ask'ng tin- engineers of the smaller 
/.latic.ns to CI mn it profewsii iial liaiikari on the altar of patrioti in to 
ask them to suppoit sii< h a s< heme. The municipalities would not be 
williiiL.' to hand over their undertakings iiiih s- just i au«- was shown. 
The electrical eommitteinu n and < hairiiK n ha<l n<>t ha<l it put to them. 
The engineer had not i)ut it to them bi-cause he was afraid it would 
affect his own job. If the Institution could get the sympathy of the 
'■ngim*eis for the fcheiiie the engine<*is would get the symjiathy of their 
« ommitt<es. It was time the matter «as lifted fioiii the (.lane of talk to 
the- plane of action. If the Institution would take up th s matter and 
look into it it would add to the dignity of the Institution and Ix-ncfit the 
electric supply industry and the <onsumeis. 

The I'hksidknt saicl .Mr. .Mer/. taught him and a great many otheis 
11 yeais ago the real factois and the esw-nc e of the business, but we 
Mfn' still -tumblini: over the same ground. The- real reason was not 
thai the eiiiiineers did not recognise what was the- right piincipe. .As 
Mr. Hole s Miid. it wa» the human fac tor. If a supply was ot'i-n-el in 
bulk at Ud.. Id. or ^d.. the eng neer of the e\isting station si-f to work 
to show he I ould maintain a supply for less. Some I ody had to be set 
up to deal with ihise people-. If the industry was going to giow tin-re 
was plenty of use for all the- p<-op|c- who wen- of i iiy us<' at all. The 
wheme had to come aloiit. The- real )ir!nciple was the- e eiiu entiation 
of fiic-l and the- iihiny of that fui'l in mii-Ii a way that the- by-products 
wen- eibtaiiied for the ci.emical industiy. Cheap jeower was important. 
I»ut the e-onser\ati(in of fu«'l was of far gn'at4'r importance. IVojiJc 
from the provinces thorght that in l>ondon thinu's wi-n- all anyhow. It 
was not Ko. rHces from Sd. to ',ii\. had Im-c-ii mentionc-d. but it was 
]M».sibl>- to buy pow(-r in l>indoii at fiae-tioiis of a pc-iiny. Things wc-rc- 
not so bad in l/cinelon as many pc-op|i- thought. lb- hoped peopjc- 
throiiuliout the- i'ountr\ would c-onsidc-r what stc-ps they could take to 
help to solve the prolilem de-alt with in .Mr. Williams's Paper. Th<- 
author's i\-p|y to the discuHsion would appear in the °° Journal." 

A vot«' of thanks to the- author. |iieiposecI liv the- I'nsidenl. lonc ludc-cl 
tfhe meetiiiii. 



ON RADIUM ANTENNiE. 



UN K. I.KI.MKK. 



Oil the ii'siills of S/ilaiil With lacliiiiii I ci.'tteil light iiiiig cciiieliictciis 
iM-ceiiiiing known to the alltbor be was li-el to coiisiclel the ]K)ssibility 
that radium might exert miine etfeet u|m)ii the reception «)f radio- 
t«-legraphii' signals. 'I'he fitMt teiitati\e ex|n-riiiieiits seemed to gi\c 
evidence of |)ositive e fleet s ; but as the allthor was cdiligcci to clis- 
i'diitiinie them in coii.Hi'qiieneo nf the wi'.r he now publishes his roHult.s 
with a \ lew to stiiiiiilatiiig further n-seareh and also obfaining 
JiMlepeiideiit c-onliitiiaticin of bis own coiicliisions. 

The tintt experiments wete made with an indiMtr antenna eon- 
i<istiiig of a woimI hmI 2<* mm. in diameter and '.I metn-s long, closely 
Mciiincl thioiighoiit Its length with wire O'J mm. diameter, enamel 
4(>ate<l. the rod iH-iiig din-cted towaids a Honding station, Kl<. alKiiit 
• IIH) km. distant from it. This antenna whm siis|N-iidei| in a nMim. 
The ren-iving set used compriMd a fraloiia detector. 4,<NHl ohm 
lele|iliciii<-s. and /i tuning coil .*i(l mm. iti diameter and haxing K(NI 
till lis of I)' 4 mm. enamelled win-. No siKnals were audible from KL 
nt any position (Ui the tuning eoil: SignaU wen*, however, at niiee 
clistiiictlv audible as sihiii as a sealc-d gl.-ss tiilx- containing radium 
broniidc of .Vt.tMMt units (and thus very wefk) was bmught near. The 
.MignaU vanished when the Nhtiiil ii>Hiatnnee \iiu« 22ll ohms, UNJnf; the 
sliuiiteel telephone method. The tuning was nut at all slmrp. and' 
.■showed no ma Milium f»>r any length of iinlmir*! wire iK'twt-en W 
■liiid 120 nielroK. A ehrnKr in the iMisitirtn of the mdiiini did not 
|irodlice iiiy noticeable difTenMiees ; but the oHelllalion had .i 
marked effect. At anules uieater than • .'W* cleg, the recepticiii 
rea.N«Ml eiitin-ly. 

Knconr;iged b\ tbesi- lesiiil.-. the i-iithor ec>iitiimed his n 
tiniis ill Older to eleterminr the elTeet of railium on t>nliiiar\ 
The anteniin eonsinted of two parallel I a mm. plumphor-bmnw 
wires held I metn» njwrt an»l 8 metrv«« nU>vo the gmnnd. dinM'tfMl 

• .\l>sii >. I ..f Ml article in the " Kleklr\itechni»chc Zeit*»hr<f' " \- ' 
NNW 1 



towards the station FL. as was also the connection to the receiving 
set. For this latter the same tuning coil was employed ; but an 
electrolytic replaced the galena detector, and in place of the tele- 
jihones a special moviag-coil mirror galvanometer, of 500 ohms 
resistance and period two seconds, was used. The signals utili-sed 
were the 10-se<ond time signals from FL, the wave-length of which 
was 2.3.50 metres. With the best tuning and .56 metres the telephones 
gave 80 ohms for silence : the galvanometer showed 20-21 micro- 
amperes. With the antenna disconnected the current through the 
fletector was 0-7 microampere. On the radium tube being brought 
near to the free end of the antenna the galvanometer reading was 
.50-.'>:{ microamperes : to reach this ma.ximum the tuner had to be 
shifted from .56 to 48 metres. In this jjosition the reception without 
radium was cjiiite as mistimed as it was in the ;56 metres position with 
radium. When the radium was fa.stened at the mid point 'of the 
anteima no recejition w;!s jxi.ssible, even with the telephones. With 
the radium arranged at the connected end of the antenna the current 
through the detector increa.sed to 3.5-:W microamperes at the 40- 
metie tniu r position. All the results have been definitely confirmed 
as a result of numerous control experiments, made under conditions 
as nearly .similar as possible. 

These experiments show that by suitably bringing up radium in 
j)roximity to the antenna the vibration image of the latter is changed 
in the flirection of an aj)parent shortening of the wave ; furtlier, 
that a eon.siderablc increa.se in signal strengtii, as measured in the 
detector circuit, is occasioned by the proximity of radium, which 
must in any ca.se be caused by a higher i-eceived primary current. 

The proximity of radium to the tuning eoil it.seif has. however, 
the effect of rendering distinctly worse the previously distinct tele- 
))honic reception, without it being jwssible to discern any definite 
niistuniug, and tliis ai)i)lies whether the radium tube Ih» insulated or 
earthed. On the other hand, the r:\dium tube has no noticeable 
effect on any of the other parts of the reieiving equipment. 



NEW METHOD OF DETERMINING IONIC VELOCITIES.=^ 

BV CONST.XNC K H.\HHIS().N CKIKIITHS. H.SC. 

S'liiiiiuir!/.- In the method deseril;e<l th • total chauiie in weight of the 
cathode, and the elt-ctrolyte in its i.eighbouihood, is fciur.d by tiirect 
weighing. Hittorfs migration ratio is plotted, and the results comi«red 
M ith those cjf other ■.■.\|;eriiiU"nters. 



TUKORV OK THE METHOD. 

I>et the diagram represent the cathode and the containing vessel. 

I>et ///, be the mass of tlie cations jxr cubic centimetre ; ii em. sec. 
the eom|X)nent of their velocity upwards relatively to the liquid ; 
III., the mass of tiie anions j>er cubic centimetre ; i' cm. .sec. the com- 
|Kineiit of their velocity downwards relatively to the liquid : r the 
( iirn>nt in am|x>res ; and A the area of cross-section of the lower end 
of the electrode ves.sel in scpiare centimetres. 

Consider tlu- pa.ssage of ions across the section /'. Then h>«ii of 
ii'fiij/il in electrode ves.sel j>er .second would equal 

{in^r- iiifh)A grammes 
if the lic|iiid w«'re at rest. .Allowances must be made for the move- 
ment of the lic|uid. Ix-t 7 the c|uantity in coulombs of ele<trieit_\ 
required to de|>o.sit 1 gramme of cations ; then mass of deposit per 
second r If grammes. If the den.sity of the dejHJsit is d. inrrensf 
nf njiniie nf tierlnile jK-r second r qd cubic cenliinetre. Total iiui.<s 
of Mill in cathode ve.ssel diminishes at the rateof (m,-(-»Mj).4egm./8ee.. 
sine*- //ij.le graniines of anion leaxc the vessel per seeoiul. and there 
.irealwaysecpial niimlM-rs of |«>sitive and negative ions in the licjuid 
<n the eathcnle vessel. When a .salt is dis.solved in water there is in 
general an iiirmisr in volume. \jc\ fi the increa.se in volume pni- 
diic fd by dissoh ing I gramme of silt. Then decrea.se in volume of 
s<»l»tion in '-pswl- (i«, • m^)Avti cubic centimetres. 

.-. T«ital ileeirn.se in xoliimi* in ve.>».sel (wi, mj).4i*3-r '/'/ cubic 
••entiiiu't n-s. 

Inchaiiged licjuid to this amotint will, tberefoiv. enter the vessel, 
.iiid if its density isp the gain in weight will Ik» 

i»i, • »iij).Ir,^ r qd p gramme.s. 
. . Total Uvm in weight of the sus|iende<l .system 

- (ii»,r -M»,Mb4 ;(»w, ^ »M,).-lt"/l — r, 7*/; ,, grammes. (I) 

'FTiis ix one relation. Xe>w there is a secoiui tx'lation. l>»t 

.V iiumlM'r of gramme e<juivalents of <*op|)er |(er culiic centimetiv 

and I cjiiantity of oh^Mrieity «*.«M>einto<l with I gramme equivalent : 

then aV«(m '\\ total eurrent in ami- • • • .• (2) 

• .\b«tr«et of I'.ipi i.-i.,l before the I'bx-Mu XK-ietv of Ix>n«lnn, 
M.»rch24th. 



THE ELECTRICIAX, APRIL 21, 1016. 



83 



Therefoi'e,"we have the two equations 

{)n.,r — ini>()A— {nii rm.,)Av8 -c/qd} p 
= total loss of weight of suspended system per second. 
Ne{u+v}A=^c. 
An alternative method of considering the theory is then given, and 
the same final result obtained. 

Apparatis. 

In the diagram. B is the plan of a l)ahuu(' frorn whicfi hangs the 
cathode K and the cathode vessel ('. 

A is the anode and anode vessel, and 7' tiic tank which contains 
the solution used for the experiment. 

Cathode. — The cathode consists of a disc of coppei- 2-7 cm. dia- 
meter, perforated by two holes fitting loosely into the cathode 
vessel ('. The rathnde vessel consists of a glass tube 8-9 cm. long and 
2-7 cm. diamtei'. open at the lower end. The upper end of the 
<athode vessel is narrowed and terminates in a piece of 2 mm. bore 
tubing about 3 cm. long. 

Suspension of ('(dhode. — The cathode and cathode vessel are sus- 
pended by means of gutta-percha-coated copper wire. This wire is 

Beam of Balance 
t 




Fk;. .1. 



Fici. 2. 



attached to the cathode at its lower end. The insulated wire passes 
vertically up from the cathode and through the 2 mm. bore tubing 
EF, into which it Hts tightly, and is sealed. Thus, the cathode 
vessel is completely closed at the top. About 34 cm. above the 
<athode vessel the suspension wire terminates in a hook which 
jiasses over a glass rod suspended from a balance pan. Electrical 
connection with the cathode is effected by means of two platinum 
points attached to the suspension wire near the top. 

Anod-e. — The anode consists of a spiral of thick copper wire with a 

I lacing of thin wire across two diameters to hold the turns of the 

spiral in place. Froni the centre of the spiral and continuous with 

it, being part of the same wire from which the spiral was made, a 

^ -wire passes down vertically till clear of the anode vessel, then bends 

: round, and passes up through the liquid and out at the top of the 

tank. All this wire, after it leaves the anode sjiiral, is coated with 

gutta-percha insulation. The anode vessel consists of a piece of 

;glass tubing 8 cm. long and 2-7 cm. diameter. The anode just fits 

inside it at the lower end. 



Siippftrl Hod. The wire to the anrxl*- ve*«s^l an/1 the anode ve«ael 
itself are bound tightly to a Unit ghiH.s rrxl; li. which Hupports th-^m 
and holds them in the requinMj j»OHition. Thi« rrxl w cUinpe<l aUr.<. 
the level of the tof) of the tank by two firm clip* which are carriif.1 
by a vertical bar li.xe«i in ;i strong stand. 

The anode ve.ssel in set vertically under the cathode ve««el ho that 
the di.stance aj)art of thf two v«-ss«.|h is aitout .'Jem. Thi« u doiw 
before the tank is jilaced in (K)sifion. 

CurrenI Leads to Calhr^Je. The su«i)enxion wire of the cathode 
is cleared of insulation at a fK.int near th»- top. anfl round it at thi.'* 
point are tightly wrapped twfj pieces of copfx-r wire. Thpt*^ are Ijent 
as in the diagram and terminate in two platinum jiriintri. dippintr 
into two cu[)s of mercury connected toj/cther by ;» thiik «.: ■ 
wire. Into )ne of these cuj)s dijw a wire connecte<J to tli. negai... 
terminal of the cell. The mercury cups are supported by a shelf of 
wood fixed to a stand of adjustable height. By rai.njng or 
tie stand the platinum points are immersed in the cup* the 
is allowed to pass, or they hang free in air, ami weighings are ma/Je by 
the balance. 

Bidanre. — The balance used w;i< ;> S^.r-torius, and would weigh 
with accuracy to 0-0001 gramme. 

The tank is a cylindrical gla.ss jar. having a capacitv of H I- 
and contains the solution of copper sulphate us*'d for the exj. . 
ment. Over the surface of the solution is placed a layer of caj^tor 
oil (about 100 cubic cm.), for it was found that the weiehiM' ' 
b}^ means of the balance were very inaccurate when the su»- ■ :. 
wire pa.s.sed straight into the copper sulphate .solution from the air. 
but that when the layer of castor oil was placed over the surfac-e the 
weighings were very consistent. The temperature of the .solution 
in the tank is taken by means of a thermometer suspended in the 
solution, so that its bulb is clo.se to the cathode ves.sel. 

The foregoing apparatus — tank, balance, cathode, anode, &c. — 
are arranged in a room kept at constant temperature by mean.s of a 
thermostat-regulated gas stove. The wires from the cathode anfl 



0-75 




0-60 

1 1-01 1-02 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1-10 111 112 113 1-14 115 
Density of Solution. 

Fu;. 4. 

anode are connected to two terminals, and from these wires proc^etl 
to a table outside the thermostat room, and on this table is arrangetl 
the rest of the circuit, consi.sting of a 4- volt secondary cell, a key. 
an adjustable resistance, and a Paul millivoltmeter in p<\rallel with 
I ohm. 

A detailed description is given of the method of procedure and 
preliminary weighing. 

After an interval of about one nour after the preliminary weighing 
another weighing was taken at a noted time. The tempemture was 
also read. The mercury cups were then raised so as to make I'ontact 
with the platinum points, and the current was put on at a definite 
time and rapidly adjusted to the desired value. 

Readings of the current, time and temperature were then taken at 
intervals. 

After a time, which varied from about two to four hours, the 
current was stopped. The mercury cups woie lowered and the 
weight was rapidly taken. After about an hour another weighing 
was taken to get the rate of change of the weight after the experi- 
ment. The mean of this rate of change and the rate of chiUige before 
the experiment was taken to be the average rate of change of weight 
during the course of the experiment. 

The average current diiring the time of the expierin\ent wa.>* 
found by taking the average current over the intervals between 
each two consecutive readings, multiplying each of these averages 
by the number of minutes in that interval, and finally obtainijig the 
average current per minute from all the results so obtainetl. 

A specimen experiment is given in the Paper, with full detiiils of 
calculations. 

The results obtained by the author are compiired with those 
obtained by Hittorf, Melelka and Kirmis by means of curves. The 
comparison would appear to justify the method, but there is con- 
siderable divergence between the residtsof preWoii* experimenters. 



84 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 2L 1916. 



FLYWHEEL EFFECT. 



Entitled " A Comparison of Motor Armatures of Different 
Diameters," Mr. E. A. Rew recently contributed an article to the 
" Electric Journal."' After referring to the inertia of bodies and the 
"centre of gyration," the author proceeds to discuss " fl\-vvheel 
effect." If the weight of a cylinder per unit volume C ifi multiplied 
by the total volume, then W Crrr^L. The moment of inertia 
WK^^..\CnlJ*L. Consequently, it is evident that while y.* varies 
•while Z, "remains constant, the so-called fl\'wheel effect will var^' 
with IJ*. 

Within certain limits, and excluding forced ventilation, the output 
of an armature varies as lJ*L. 

Tf we consider two armatures rated equally, say. Z.'^/, -3,070. and 
wciglit of fach armature is l,.WJ ll>..thenif t lie flywheel effect istal'U- 
lated for an armature of J) - 16 in. and L-= 12 in., and D 22-5 and 
/>- 6in., we finrl in the one case WK- 2iH) and for the other .")72. 
While the diameter of one armature is only 40 jx»r cent, greater than 
the other, its Hywheel effect is |)ra<ti(ally double. In the one ca.se. 
therefore, the stored energy is double that of the other. This is of 
importance when a motor is accelerating or decelerating, since 
when two armatures are to lie used in this way it is .seen that the 
stored energy is jjrojKjrtional to D- and the heating effect to If*. 

The time re<juire<I to accelerate an armature from rest to full- 
sjM'cd or to decelerate the same from full-speed to rest unrler any 
given ton|Uc is 

00147A'irA'* 00I47.VM7>»= 



< = - 



'/>/ 



HTg 



in which / = time in Reconds, A' revolutions per minute full-sj)eed. 
(J -gravitational acceleration, T torque in foot-])ounds. H7\- Hy- 
wheel effect, II' weight of armature in jxiunds, J) diameter of 
armature in feet. 

Conse<|uently, for armattin-s <if tlii' same speed and torque rating, 
and tin- same weight, the time re(|uired to accelerate or decclcrat<' 
fi/^'. In the case of two armatures with an hour's rating, each 
armature having a torque of S".") lb. ft., / 0-.'3I7 second for one of 
them, and for the other / 1-02. 

For he;ivy duty reversing service, entirely enclosed, the motors with 
a (•ontinur)us loading, say, five hours, the normal tonjue is about 
.'{<M) lb. ft. and the time for complete reversals are in the two cases con- 
sideretl 2-'> s«'eoM<ls. and .") seconds resjM'ctivclv. Reversals evcrv 
10 seconds are common in steel-mill ojKTations. so that while one 
motor would have its output availalile during 75 jier cent, of the time 
the other would Ik* available for useful work for only .50 per cent, of 
the time. 

Tn the design of armatun-s the scr\'ice to which it is going to Im- 
sul>je(t<'<l is the primary consideration. Motors which are to be 
used for nipiil reversing service or scdden starts and sto|)s. such as 
motors used for roll tables, cranes, screw-downs in rolling mills, 
ore unloiiders. jinil planers, when- the m«)tor reverses for cixh cutting 
stroke, the tlyulieel elle< t. and consequently the armature diameter, 
should be ke|>t as low as |M>ssible. In other cases, such as that of 
punches, shears ami rail straighteners, a high flywhe«'l effect is 
desirabl(> in «irder that the energy store<l in the nitating jmrts may 
force the tool through the material at the ex|H>nHe of a slight drop in 
sjH'cd. In practice it is customiiry to make up the necessary Hywlieel 
effect by inntnlling .i suitable (lywiieel. 

Again, in the case of motors for continuous working. II vwhoel effect 
is of little im|x>r1ance, anrl other considerations govern the design of 
the annalure. 



PERFORMANCE OF DIESEI^ENGINE PLANTS.* 

IIV R- 11. nrKDK'K. 

Till' author de.Hcribes at s<uue length the wor'Aing of ^ev^ al 
Dicsel-en jiue ])'ants. 

Kight Diesel engine installations in Ninall electrical generating 
stations in the Stale of Texas an* oiwr«te<l by (he Texas Power & 
Light Co. Tests have Ix* n conducted at these plants and o|)erating 
records ke|)l which show irsults of jMTformance and op«<rating prac 
lice in modern |)lants of this ty|M«. 

The I'aris mstallation consists of an initial equipment of thn>e 
Mcintosh iV S-ymour Diesel engines mt<><l at .VMiii r.each. Thew units 
an' of the fotn cylimler four stn»kc <vcle drsiini ojierating at lf>4 
ivvs. jxr mill., and din'cll\ ninnecteil to three 4;i7 k.v.«. 2.:U«» volt 
thnn'-phase (50-eyelc altenmtors. Two 'X'l kw. induction mo|<ir-driveu 
sets and one .{.*> kw. U'lt -driven exciter set are pnovidett. the latter 

• .Vbstrnot of '.an nrticlr in the ••Kleclrical World." 



being driven from the generating unit. Compressors and water- 
circulating pumps are integral with engine.:-. The apparatus is 
hou.sed in a steel-framed plastered building 82 ft. 6 in. long by 
.52 ft. 6 in. wide and .3.3 ft. high to the eaves, with a flat concrete roof 
and concrete floor. Outside the station on a wooden pole switch 
and "bus structure are in.stalled three 2.50 k.v.a. 2,400 to 24.000- volt 
single-phase transformers and three 75 k.v.a. 2,200 to 0.600-voit 
single-phase transformers with air-break switches. 

The station feeders at this plant are arranged to pro\nde energy at 
24.tKX)-volt three-j)hase alternating current for a transmission line ; 
6,600-volt three-phase alternating current ; 2,300-volt three-phase 
alternating current regulated : 2, .300- volt three-phase alternating 
current unregulated ; 2,.30(J-vo]t single-phase alternating current 
arc service, and .50t)-volt direct -current railway .service. 

An oil-storage tank of .360 barrels capacity and a cooling tbrwer 
of the atmospheric tyi>e. exposing 5.100 .sq. ft. of cooling surface, are 
provided for the ecjuipment. 

The Diesel-engine installations operated in central stations con- 
trolled by the Texas Pcjwer & Light Co. ha%e a total rating of 
5..">45 H.p. The chief reasons influencing the utilisation of Diesel 
engines in preference to steam or other tyjX's of prime movers in. 
the.se small i.solated generating stations are summari.sed as follows:: 
( I ) Abundance of low-i)riced fuel oil ; (2) efticicncy of Die>el engines 
at low station factors ; (.3) comparatively low labour costs : {iy 
flevibility of plant -that is, the ability to meet unusual peak-load, 
conditions without lo.ss of time or operating economy : (5) al>sence 
of stand-by los.ses other than interest on investment when units are 
not in service : (6) ea.se of transfer of equipment frcjm any isolated 
station which may be picked up by a transmission line extension to 
another i.solated station who.se increase in load warrants the instiilla- 
tion of additional equipment. 

\\'hile it is practically imjK)ssible to lay down definite general rules 
for the .selection of Diesel engines in preference to steam or other 
types of prime movers for small central stations, or to prescribe the 
limitations as to the size of jilanf where Diesel engines arc applicable 
over and above other tyjx^s of equipment, because of the many 
\arving considerations entering into each problem, among which are 
character of load, availability of proper fuels and laViour. investment 
allowances and tlic like. 

A table is given showing that the cost of a Diesel plant of 1.000 kw. 
is £J..59(). as against £2.652 for steam ; the annual saving for the 
former is. however. £1,776 over the steam jilant. 

The approximate cost of another representative Diesel station, 
erected by the Texas Power A Taght Co. in the latter part of 1914 at 
Tyler, Texas, is given. This jilant includes an initial installation 
of two second-hand Busch-Sulzer Delsel-engine sets built ia 1907- 
I9O0. each ccmsistina of two three-cylinder four-stroke cycle 225 h.p. 
engines, directly connected to one .300 kw. 164 revs, per miii. three- 
jihase 60-cycle 2,300-volt generator. One 17 kw. induction motor 
driven exciter .set and one 20 kw. exciter belt-driven set operated 
fmm one of the engines were also jirovided. The necessary auxiliaries, 
such as air compressors, water and oil pum)), cooling tower and the 
like were included. 

TE.STS (IN I)|KSKI,-EN(;IXK KQflPMENT AT THE P.\RIS SjATtoN. 

The results ot rigid tests conducted at the Paris plant are given. 
This Stat ion is considered the most modern type, and is representative 
of present-day construction and arrangement for the efficient 
o|)»'iati(»n of Diesel engine installations. The apparatus tested 
consisted of three 4.37 k.v.a. Diesel engine driven alternators already 
descril)ed. Four test.s were conducted on each unit, varying in 
length fnim one hour to four hours, each macliine in turn Inking sub- 
jei-ted to full-load. thn'c-()uarters-load. half-load and qu.trter-load 
tests, and the.se loads held as nearly constant as jiracticable. As the 
three generatiu'i s<'ts were reipiin-d for service almost continuously 
it was nit feasible at times to secure the test loads exactly IW per 
<'ent.. 75 per cent.. .'VI jx«r cent, and 25 jier cent, of unit rating : but 
these loads were appn>ximate<l and carricl throughout ea< 1i test with 
n-asoiiable const ,iiicy. A taiile of results for one set of tt -*- is eiven 
Ix'low 

The fuel oil is kii »wii as '" desulpluiriscd. and is cinplovi a ;u prac- 
ticall; all of the Diesel engine stations o|Hrated by the Texas Power 
.V: Light Co. The oil was pum])ed from an outdoor storage tank, 
weighe<l in a barrel on a ])latforin s;ale and re-pumiXHl therefrom 
to small indiMdii.d enginesupply tanks. 

The curve of average fuel consuni|»tion for the tests as shown in 
the figure is given in " gross B.T.T. jier kilowatt lumrs . *• d." 

In us ng the term " gntss B.T.l'." refen-nce is made to ; I'le 

allowain^e f<)r any unavailable latent heat carrie<l off as uncondensed 
water va|xmr in exhaust gases (representing the iiroduots of com- 
bustion of hydmgen and oxygen) for v.hich no allowance has l>een 
made. It in<4udes any uuch latent heat which mav have existed for 






THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



85 



Table I. — Summary of Tests on Paris [Tex.) Diesel Engim. 



Approximate load 

K w. (average) 

Load factor (kw. ), % 

K.v.a. (average) 

I ,oad factor ( k. v. a. ) , % ■ • • 

B.-H.P. (average) 

Kw. -hr. generated (total) . . 

Time start 

Time stop 

Duration of test, hours . . . 
Power factor (average) ... 
Kw. for excitation (av. ) . . . 
Fuel oil consumed (gal. ) . . . 
I^'nel oil consumed (lb. ) . . . 
Fuel oil consumed (B.T.U.) 
I'uel oil per kw. -hr. (lb. ) . . . 

B.T.U. per kw.-hr 

B.T.U. per b.-hp.-hr 

Generator efficiency, % ... 

Thermal efficiency, "o 
Water for cooling(tot'l gal. ) 
Water per minute (gal. ) . . . 

No. units in operation 

Station load (average kw.). 
Station factor (average) ... 



Unit No. 1. 



Table II. —Actual Unit Production Costs, Prtria awl Tykr Dietel Stniio,,;,^ 
SepUmber 1 to December 31, 1915, 



1. 



3. 



Full. 
340 •« 
97-5 
400-7 
91-7 
481-3 
1,299-3 
2:29 
6:18 
3-81G 
0-85 
8-1 
1110 
7830 
15,321.744 
0-603 
11,792'0 
8,a420 
92-6 
28-9 
14,6530 
64-0 
3-0 
635-0 
60-5 



3-fourths. 
253-3 
72-5 
301-5 
69-0 
359-8 
891-1 
7:13 
10:49 
3-517 
0-84 
6-91 
77-0 
543-0 
10.621 ,080 
0-609 
11,930-0 
8,396-0 
91-8 
28-6 
11,606 
55-0 
3-0 
697 
64-2. 



2. 



Half. 
168-9 
48-2 
211-1 
48-2 
240-2 
577 
2:53 
6:18 
3-417 
0-80 
7-64 
56-0 
396-0 
7,789,616 
0-686 
13,5000 
9,491-0 
89-5 
25-3 



3 

660 

62-8 



Quarter. 
86-1 
24-6 
117-9 
27-0 
1271 
101-9 
11:37 
12:48 
1-183 
0-73 
7-42 
14-0 
98-5 
1,923,803 
0-966 
18,8790 
12,7950 
83-0 
18-0 
4,436-0 
62-5 
2-0 
370-0 
35-2 



the reason that in analysing fuel oils the usual type of calorimeter 
was used, in which such latent heat is surrendered and included in 
the results of analysis. The lower curve in the figure shows the curve 
referred to and shown above converted into thermal efficiency, in the 
determination of which allowance has been made for electric generator 
efficiencies. It actually represents the power delivered to the 
generator coupling in proportion to power supplied to the engine as 
fuel oil. 

One of the chief faults with the guarantees made by Diesel- engine 
manufacturers and operators seems to be the tendency toward 



20 



:: 16 

a. 
C£j 12 



a. 



* ^^ 



40 



a. 



20- 



Ok 



20 40 60 

Engine load pey cent. 



80 



100 



Average Fuel Consumption per Kilowatt-hour and Theimwal 
Efficiency of Paris (Tex.) Diesel Engines. 

narrow specifications for fuel oils. Practically any crude or semi- 
refined oil having less than IJ per cent, sulphur content, 2 per cent, 
water and 30 per cent, asphalt may be safely used in Diesel engines 
if filtered. This statement is qualified to the extent of setting the 
fluidity at a free-flowing and free-pumping point. Usually oils 
ha\Tng a specific gra^-ity below 16 deg. to 17 deg. Baume, as below, 
require heating to aid their feeding to the engine pumps properly. 

With the exception of the Diesel engines at Paris and Palestine, 
the splash or crank-case system of lubrication is employed with 
indiflferent success. In some instances oil alone is used in the crank 
case, and in other cases the lubricating oil is floated on water. Neither 
system can be considered particularly efficient or satisfactory com- 
pared -with the forced-feed lubrication used on the more modern 
engines at Paris and Palestine. 

Labour Item in DiE.SEL-EN(iiNE Plants. 

The question of labour has frequently been considered the " bug- 
bear " of Diesel-engine operation. It has been the writer's ex- 
l)erience, however, that any careful mechanic well versed in the 
theory of internal-combustion engine operation can handle any 



Article. 



Data — 

Station output (m. kw.-lir.; 

Ratintf of plant (kw.) 

Station factor, per cent 

Total fuel oil (gal.) 

Pounds oil per kw. -hr. outjiut 

B.T.U. per kw.-hr. output 

Production co.sts per kw.-hr. — 

All labour 

Fuel oil 

Water 

Lubricants and waste 

Miscellaneous supplies and ex])en«e 

Maintenance of engines 

Maintenance of buildings 

All other maintenance 



Pariii. 



Tyler. 



l,.V{.->-f> 

I,0."»4JO 

-,Ui 

1 49,072 •() 

0-«72 

13,I0<J0 



•^ 



!^ 



0-29Hd. 



•KMl (I 

2h-.-. 

78,455^1 



0-NlHd. 



Table III. — Estimated Obtainahlc Operalln;/ Ui-'<nUs and pru^l., 
Costs in Diesel-enrjine Electric Stations of from 1 ,<X)0 kw. to 2,(X>0 kir. 

Data- 
Station factor, per cent -"iO-lJ 

Fuel oil — • 

B.T.U. per kw.-hr. output 13.300-0 



(Jallons i)cr kw. -hr. output 

Cost per gallon, cents 

Labour — 

Man-days per mean kw. -hr. output 

Cost pel- man-day 

Lubricating oil — • 

Gallons per kw. -hr. outpu t 

Co.st per gallon, cents 

Unit costs : Production costs per kw. hour — 

All labour 

Fuel oi 1 

Water 

Lubricants and waste V 

Miscellaneous supphes and expenses , 

^laintenance of engines | 

All other maintenance J 



0-<»9.T 
30 

0-46 
2 80 

0-(MM»7 
.30-0 



0-279d. 



Diesel engine satisfactorily with a mininunu of difficulty. In tlie- 
Paris and Tyler stations the average cost i>er man-day is lUs. to 15s. 

Engine Maintenance. 

The wide diversity of maintenance costs between the stations, a 
ratio of 0-04 to 4-48, is accounted for by the facts that the Paris 
engines are of more modem design than the Tyler engines, the former 
having beeii operated but eight months, while the latter have done 
miscellaneous severe intermittent shop duty over a period of six to 
seven years. 

It is of interest to note that upon close investigation of numerous, 
accidents to Diesel engines practically all of them have been traceable 
to one of two causes— the neglect of mechanical features and faulty 
mechanical design. The cliief cause of troubles seems to have been 
the former, which is the direct outcome of carelessness on the pi»rt 
of operators, and which, if practised in the ojieration of steam or 
other type of equipment, would have been fully as senous. 

The length of life of the Diesel-engine parts has been estimated ly 
those famiUar with their operation as follows : Bed and frame, 20- 
years ; crank shaft and governor, 10 yeai-s ; cylinder Unmgs. si.v 
years; wrist-pin brasses, five years; cylinder heads, four years; 
pistons, piston pins, valves and gears, three yeare : piston rings.. 

one vear. • i ^ * ->a 

Summarised, this information shows a life eqmvaleiit to .0 years 
with one-third of the original cost exi>ended on mainteuanoe dunng 
that period, which estimate may be consideml conservative. 

Actual Operating Costs. 

In the determination of costs under this heading, the actual 
monthly records of t)ie Texas Power & Light Co. for the 1^"*;^^=^ "^'^^J 
have been consulted, and a.-e practically standai-d m P»»>»'-"*' 
practice. The Paris and Tyler i.ustallations have been se lecte.!. .md 
Table II. sets forth the production costs. Ihis table sho«* co.^t 
pel kilowatt-hour' delivered at the switchboard for those plants. 
covering periods of four months each. rr ku nr «.,w 

To sunimarise the foregoing d.ta and statistics. Table " /^P'T: 
sents a fair estimate of operating results and costs -hich shouU ^.» U 
in a modern Diesel-engine electric generating station of l.WRt k.x.a.. 
to 2,000 k.v.a. 



86 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



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ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

W t' .soiiictiiHcs coiiijjliiiiciit our.selve.s upon tho cheapness 
of electric power in this countrv. On the other hand we 
often reach tlie conclusion that the present state of affairs 
is very far from ^ood. .Vctiially the truth lies between these 
two e.xtreines. There is no doubt that a great deal of very 
yood wf)rls' has l)een done, and that conse(|iientlv the cost of 
electric power in this countrv is less than it is in many 
others. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that there is a 
L'leat tleal that is on the wrong lines. If we look at the 
problem as a whole we know, on the one hand, that the 
greatest economy is obtained l)v the use of large power 
stations interconnected so that the capital costs are reduced 
to a minimum, and when full advantage is taken of divei-sity 
factor aiul of refinements to give efheient production. By 
means of large stations instead of the many small ones, a 
very nmrked saving of coal — put at '.\0 to (iO per cent, by 
Mr. C. H. .Mkuz can be effecied. and this alone is an im- 
portant matter from the national point of view. On the 
other hand, we find that progress has been hampered in 
many ways. For e.xample. the cost of Parliamentary 
procechire has entaile«l great waste of monev in an industry 
where money is liv no means too plentifid. The Hoard of 
rra<le. although nominally having the interests of trade at 
heart, adopts an attitude which is not in sympathv with 
present-day re<piirenientfl. a.s was verv evident from the 
fate suffered by the recent Bill of the Yorkshire Kle<trir 
lN»wer('o. Lastly, there is the opposition of small munici- 
|)alities to any large scheme which mav render it unnecessary 
for them to havr small stations of their own. such stations 
having the supposi'd virtue of relieving the rates. These 
smaller municij»alities. as a nde. have been unable to grasp 
the fact that it is far better to allow other peo])le to pn»dju'e 
the electric power if by so doing thev can have it cheaper 
thenjseives. It is not merely the present advantage, which 
may for the moment I e small, but the advantage some years 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



87 



hence which should be coTisid(>red. The net result of these 
influences has been much delay in the normal progress in 
electricity supply. 

Last week an interesting discussion on this subject was 
held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and was 
opened by Mr. E. T. Williams, who put forward a scheme to 
remedy these defects. The scheme suggested by Mr. 
Williams is notable for the broadminded way in which he 
proposes to leave those people who are already engaged 
in the business more or less alone, but at the same time to 
create an Electricity Board with the object of co-ordinating 
the supply throughout the country. An abstract of this 
Paper was given in our last issue, and from this our readers 
will see that the proposed Board would have the power of 
dictating to all electricity undertakers, of connecting 
together large generating stations by means of transmission 
networks, and of operating and electing power stations where 
desirable. Such a Board would prevent the extension of 
uneconomical generating stations, which would in due course 
tend to become sub-stations taking a supply from the high- 
tensiou network belonging to the Board. 

In any such scheme there are two most important points 
to be considered. One of these is the human factor. It is 
an undoubted fact that if the engineers of smaller stations 
see their livelihood threatened thereby they will naturally 
do all they can to oppose any such scheme. This is only 
human nature, and we think that Mr. Williams has been 
wise in trying to safeguard the interests of these men. The 
second point is that any Board that is formed should not 
have the power of operating power stations. Mr. Williams 
suggests that this power should be given. In our opinion 
any such power would be a grave danger to existing concerns, 
against whom the Board would be free to compete, at an 
enormous advantage. It is obviously wrong that the 
Board should at the same time have judicial rights and the 
rights of competition. In this connection a warning was 
given by Mr. W. L. Madgen, who stated that the results of 
the Hydro-Electric Commission of Ontario, which has such 
powers, has been very harmful. 

As to what should now be done, we agree with Mr. C. H. 
Merz that the first thing is for the engineers themselves to 
come together, and to decide what is wanted from the 
technical point of view. It will be hopeless for us, as 
engineers, to approach the Government unless we have a cut- 
and-dried scheme. It is impossible to look ahead for more 
than a certain number of years, but there should not be any 
great difficulty in preparing a scheme which would hold 
good for, say, the next 10 years. This would include linking 
up certain of the largest stations and a decision as to the 
desirable voltage to adopt. Having gone so far it appears 
to us that the natural course to follow would be to proceed 
with the scheme to a limited extent, dealing only with those 
portions which show a likelihood of giving a financial 
return in the near future. Any scheme of this kind should 
be run on sound financial lines, and not with the idea that 
we are free to dip into the public purse and to obtain money, 
the return on which is of no consequence. Having decided 
upon a scheme for some years ahead, and the initial links 
which should be laid down at once, the supply industry 
would be in a position to approach the Government for the 
creation of an Electricity Board of a purely judicial 
character, to supersede the Board of Trade and Parlia- 
mentary procedure. 

Although the discussion at the Institution was com- 
prehensive and to the point, the number of members 
attending was much smaller than the importance of the 
subject warranted. We should have liked to have seen the 



lecture theatre filled to overtlowiiig. We onlv hope that 
now the subject has ber-n rai.sed the Council will not alh/w 
it to drop, it is a great opportunity for the In.stitution to 
take up a matter of national importance, and to see it 
through to a definite conclusion. 



REVIEWS. 



[Copies of the undermentioned works ran be had from The El?."- 
free, on receipt of published price, adding 3d for boolc; publi;r» 
10 per cenv. for abroad or for foreign boolcs.] 



K^.'. 



The Electric Railway. By A. .\I. Buck. (Londrai : Hill Publishing 

Lo.) Pp. xi.-l-.'ifJU. 12.S. 0(1. net. 

Although there are several excellent treatises dealing with 
electric traction, these are more for tiie .specialist than for the 
student. It was to meet the need of an adetjuate te.xt-book for 
the instruction of advanced students taking electric railway 
courses that the book under review was prepared. The 
author assumes an elementary knowledge of mechanics, and 
purposely limits the scope of the book Vjy not dealing at any 
length with power plant and transmission line work. Car- 
house design and ecpiipment are entirely omitted, for, while of 
prime importance in electric railway operation, they are topics 
of limited scope which have no direct bearing on the other 
factors which make up a railway system. Such points are 
already very fully covered by recent works on the subject. 

Of the 18 chapters the first is introductory, and the second 
deals with the mechanics of traction. In this chapter the 
author presents his facts in such a way as to make them easily 
understood. The next three chapters are devoted to railway 
motors and control. In some respects it would have been 
better to give a broader treatment of these subjects. Chapter 
IV. on motor construction would be greatly improved by the 
inclusion of dimensioned sectional drawings of a number of 
typical railway motors, and by referring at greater length to 
ventilation and kindred subjects. In the chapter on control, a 
detailed description of the multiple-unit system and apparatus 
connected therewith would be appreciated by many of the 
students who are likely to use the book. 

Power requirements and braking are discussed in Chapters 
VI. atid VII., and it is evident that pains have been taken not 
to get stiidents out of their depth. These sections are well 
written, and many useful curves are given. The next three 
chapters dealing with cars and equipment, electric locomotives, 
and self-propelled cars, call for no special comment. One 
would, however, like to see more references to British practice 
and many more detailed drawings. To track construction 
only nine pages are given, and these, in our opinion, could have 
been used to better advantage. Chapter XII. on the distribut- 
ing circuit is good, but here again the work would be improved 
by the inclusion of selected e-xamples, showing the practice in 
this country. Our engineers have set a high standard in these 
matters. 

Sub-stations, transmission circuits, and power generation are 
briefly dealt with in the next three chapters, and as stated above 
the scope of these chapters has purposely been limiteil. 
Chapters XVI. to XVIII. cover respectively signals, systems of 
traction and matters connected with the engineering pre- 
liminaries. The student will find plenty to interest him, and 
the underlying principles of electric railway design and 
operation are clearly expressed. It is possible that by e.xpaud- 
ing certain of the sections the book would appeal to a wider 
circle of readers, but in a book intended primarily for students 
it is desirable not to give too full a treatment. To those 
desirous of obtaining a'clear insight into the elements of the 
subject the book can be confidently recommemied. 
Principles of Dynamo Electric Machinery. By B. V. Bmlky. Ph.D. 

(London: Hill I'lihlishini; ('<>.) Pi., xv. -r3l4. 12s.lHi.net. 

The purpose of this book is the present-ation of a clear 
physical conception of the phenomena which t^ike place in 
electrical machinery. An attempt is made to teach the student 
two things about "each machine studied. These are : ^^ hat 



88 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



the machine will do, and why it does what it does. The author 
has made but sparing use of mathematical demonstrations 
because he is finnly ronvinced that a clear physical idea of the 
actions which take place should be obtained before an attempt 
is made to apply mathematical analysis. 

We agree that physical conceptions are of fundamental 
importance, but, at the same time, we are of the opinion that 
it is desirable, in an engineering book, to give many numerical 
exercises so as to enable a student to gain an insight into the 
magnitudes of the quantities involved. This is recongised by 
the autlior and examples are given at the end of each, of the 
imj>ortunt cha]»ters. Many of these examples appear to have 
been framed with the object of determining whether a .student 
lias understood the text. 

Of the Ui chapters, the first 10 are devoted to the considera- 
tion of continuous-current machinery and apparatus. This 
repn-sents roughly one-third of the book. The author's treat- 
ment of the dynamo, motor and allied subjects leaves little to 
be desired. We think, however, that it would have been 
advantageous to include a number of .scale drawings so as U) 
give the reader some idea as to the arrangement and .shape of 
parts. Such drawings are preferable to half-tone illustrations 
in a book intended for engineering students. 

■"haj)ters XI. to XiX. deal with alternating-current prin- 
ciples, apparatus and machinery. In addition to the matter 
usually given in elementary books on alternating currents the 
author departs fmm the beaten track. His treatment of the 
oj)eration of alteniuting-eurrent machines will be welcomed by 
many who have experienced difficulties on attempting to read 
more ambitious works. This applies ecpially to several of the 
chaj»ters dealing with continuous-current machinery. The 
book can be reccHumeiuIed to those desirous of obtaining a 
thorough knowledge of the elementary principles of dynamo- 
electric machinery. 



SIR J. J THOMSON ON RADIATION FROM ATOMS 
AND ELECTRONS. 

T^isf Krid.iy Sir J. J. Thomson dclivired the hist of liis six Hoyal 
liiHtitiitioii h'ctiires on " I'.admtion from .\l.ims and Kh-ctrouH," th<' 
lirHt f hn«e of which we have already noticed. We piibhsh to-day an 
iicconnt of the twn sMc<cediny lectiin's. 

In tlie fourth h'l time Sir .1. .1. ThoniHon dealt with the im|X)rtant 
fpieHtioiiH whether an atom or a molecule of a pitt would Ik* rendered 
luminous by any disturliunce of ajipropriate kincl. however Hmall. 
or wh<'tlier the di.sturhan(<' had to exieed a (i-rlain niininnini value 
iK'fon* any lumiiioNity wouhl Ik* giveti out. The atom mi>:ht vit»rat<i 
like a viohn slrinj;, which ^ikvc out sound uiuh-r the least disturl>an('e: 
or it mi^ht liehave like a In-II with a heavy penduhim ( lapper. uhich 
would not ennt miund uiiIchs the enerjfv of the diKturliaiicp worn 
xulhcieni to make the rhipper Htrik*- the Ih'II. '{'he <|uestion \va*< very 
ini|M)rtant with n-Npeit t » the <p'iantuin- theory, aci ordui;; to whi« h 
the ener^v of li^lit wan made up of detinite units, ho that it wcuiid Ik> 
UH im|M:s.siii|c to e.M'ite li^ht hy ienH than one of them- unitt* as it 
would he to ohtain a niaNN of matter of le«H than oiu* atom. The 
j'ariy ar>;u!nents h.ul I een !• ii the comparative study i>f 

the luminositicH of tianic. arc itn . , .^|M>ctra. In the an- s|m-( trum 

eortain lines wore mm'U whi<*h were not obBcrvitl in the tlame s|M'etnim, 
and in the spark s|ie(tnim. anain. new hiP ■ cl up. That 

ncemeil t<i iniluate that certain Inies only apjn . in the enerj^y 
of the disturhance exe«'e<lecl » <t'rtain delinilo value. Hut them» 
|>hi-n<uuena could not vtive a ill ' to the (piestion. F!ami>s 

were gases; in >{ases some ni' it\ with small, and somi' 

with large velocilioH; and the eonditinnn wpnr not Huitaiilefor mnkiiig 
delinite kinetic measiiiemenlM. In anew and N|HirkN the eonclitionit 
wcTc not any more fa\our.ilih-. 

Within the last few yean*, however, exprrimonld hnd Ihhmi dcvinod 
in wliich precise, definite amounts of rncrr ! • ' ,y 

lo prodiiic dclinil«< olTecls. S|M>ctra of tl. ,<•. 

each consi.MtinK of a sinKJe line <tn!y. ha«l bwn dinrovennl by .1. 
Fra'uk and (J. Hertz, ami this light emiwioii w.i<i r\ritc<I. not hv 
teni|x'ralnre nor hv the ejectrir dischanie. hut t>v kath< de rays pn»- 
diiced in a d(>(inile tiehl of fonn*. all mo', in^' at the oame delinitr sjie^nl. 
The rays wen< derived from a Wi-hnelt kathoile. iHMiftistinp of a s|ir<-k 
of lime or l>arium oxide on n strip of platinum which was hentiMi l>y 
the curn'iit of a l< tiery. this hatti>ry circuit Ihmiu: s(.|K«rato from the 
l>ull» cinuil. I'nif Tliom.son rvp'arkoil that ho could not demon- 



strate the full experiment, but he could .show that the colour of the 
light emitted varied with the speed of the rays. The negative 
particles would shoot out in straight lines from the speck S (Fig. i) 
on the platinum .strip, and their speed coul 1 be calculated; the 
particles knocked against the residual gas molecules in the bulb, and 
made the gas luminjus along their path. Oppcsite S was fixed, 
obliquely to the rays, the plate P; when P was negativeh' electrified, 
the particles were deflected in a luminous parabola. Owing to this 
deflection, the particles would be >lower at point 2 (nearest the plate) 
than at 1, and as a result the glow was blue at 1 and reddish at 2. 
In the experiments of Franck and Hertz the bulb contained mercury 
vajKiur, and the plate P was omitted, since thej" wanted rays all at 
the same speed, which thej- increased verj- slowly by raising the 
battery {Kitential. They watched the spectrum. As long us the 
potential remained below o volts (4-9 exactly), nothing but an ill- 
defined continuous sj)ectrum ^ was seen. At 4-9 volts the ultra- 
violet mercury line of 2,536 Angstrom luiits (known to be the first 
number of a series) flashed up. Xow the energy of the negative 
particles at that mjnient — i.e., the energy which a negative 
particle (or elementary quantum of electricity) would acquire when 
failing through a jxjtential of 4-9 volts — was exactly the energy 
necessary, according to the quantum-theory, to produce light of that 
frequency (corresponding to the X =2,536), the light energy being 
equal to 6-6 X 10 "-"^ ■' frequency (understanding by frequency, in the 
C.jntin^ntal .sense, the number of vibrations per .second), and the 
spectrum produced under these conditions was the simplest possible, 
since it consisted of one single line. 

When, afterwards, the potential of the platinum strip S was raised 
above 5 volts, the spectrum still consisted of one Une only, until 
12-5 volts were reached. Then, according to J. C. McLennan, of 
Toronto, the spectrum suddenly became complex, showing, in fact, 
all the ordinary mercury lines, and some of these, it was peculiar to 
note, were on the red side of the X 2,536, and hence of smaller fre- 
quency and smaller energy. One might have expected that the red 
lines, requiring less energy, would turn up first ; but it resulted that 
more than twice the 5 volts which had brought out the single ultra- 
violet line were needed to cause the emission of lines in the red part 
of the spectrum. Something more than the mere energy equivalent 
seemed hence to be wanted to bring out the red lines of the spectrum ; 
perhaps the atom had first to be altered in some way. Continuing 
those exjKTiments with vapours of other metals, McLennan observed 
the following further single-line spectra : — ^ 

Zinc 3.075, A. 

("adniium 3,260 ,, 

.Mairnesiuiii 2.852 ,. 

.\nd each of these lines, like the mercury line 2.536, formed the first 
numlx>r of a series of that particular spectrum. Thus the series of 
lines which spectrostopists distinguished in s|>ectra had a physical 
meaning. So far as Prof. Tliomson knew, these four vajxiurs were 
the only ones which had yielded single-line spectra. The further 
search would be very intcrestinir. and it would l)e still more interest- 
ini; to determine the stages at which the lines made their apiKvirance. 
If that were achieved, the sorting out of the series and the classifica- 
tion of the different spectra of cme and tlie same element might 
l»erome niuch clearer. 

(Qualitatively, the lecturer continued, the contiection l>etween the 
amount of energv sujiplied and the luminosity couhl further l»e 
illusi rat<'d with the aid of the ex|>eriments desi ril)ed at the end of the 
third lecture, in which a spherical bulb, charpcd with some residual 
iiiis, was bnniKht near a primary c^oil of a fe\\ tunis wound round a 
plas8 cylinder. When the l>ulb was filled with iivdroficn at low 
pn'.ssnre and slowly .ipproiiched. a ditTusc luminosity was first 
observed. At a certain distan -e a bright rinu' suddenly fliushed tip 
in the bulb. an<l that ring disu]t]H>are<l airain w lien the distance was 
ajtain incn-ased. When spectniscopic (»bser\ at ions w ere made during 
thew exp«'rimrnt,s. it w;m> found that the lirst ditTu.se glow was 
aeeoinpjinir«l l»v the very complex secondary (handed) sju'clruni of 
liy«lroKen. whilst the bright rinji j^low emitted the well-known 
primary (Hue) .sjiecfriim of hydrogen. Otlier gases gave similar 
phennnipna. In each ease the hright rinj: was observed at a certain 
disl.ini-e l>etwecn l<ull> and coil, the distainc l.cinp characteristic for 
the iins. The kIow . of course, marked the discharge through the gas, 
which actod iw a Kpcondary circuit. When the bright ring was seen 
the iras was a fairly poixl (xindnctor. and much nion- energy was 
absorlxMi l>y the liiiili (wliich then l>eca!ne hot! than during the first 
diffunc diHohargp : thus the connection between energv* and lumin- 
osity \\ ' this way also. TIkw di-i harpes (the diffuse and 
the rin. -i. the changes in the condu. tivity of the gas with 
the field stn'iiftth. and the changes in the sixcira had l)een studied by 
R. Wachsmuth. The P< turer showed some of Wachsmuth's spectra 
of hydrogen and mercury. 

.Xnother way of exemplifyinp the discontinuous character of the 
lumiiiosity was to arrange <lischarge tubes in su-h a way that the 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



89 



effects of either kathode ray bombardment or of positive ray bom- 
bardment, or of both together, could be observed in the same tube 
The kathode particles were of very small mass, but of high specil ; the 
positive particles (atoms of the gas) had larger masses, but smaller 
speeds. The effects need not be the same, even if the energies were 
the same in the two cases. Thus, a vertical helium tube was pro- 
vided with a stricture in which the kathode was mounted ; this elec- 
trode consisted of a short tube with a horizontal perforated disc. In 
this tube the negative particles moved up towards the anode, and 
produced a bluish-green beam in the upper tube, whilst the positive 
particles moved down and gave a reddish beam in the lower part of 
the tube. Similarly, two different colours could be distinguished in 
a neon tube. Then a spherical bulb was shown in the centre of which 
a peculiar kathode was mounted (Fig. 5) ; it consisted of two small 
equilateral triangles of aluminium pinned together at their corners 
so as to leave a triangular space about 2 mm. in thickness between 
them. From such a kathode, negative as well as positive particles 
were shot out, the pinkish positive rays issuing in streams from the 
oorners of the triangles (or the space between them), and the blue 
kathode rays from the middle of each side (Goldstein ; Kunz, 1908). 
Another tube was of inverted T shaj^e ; the anode was in the 
vertical limb above, the perforated kathode lower down, and in the 
horizontal limb (which was connected to a charcoal tube) was lying 
underneath the kathode a piece of platinum foil, on which some 
lithium chloride was fused (the salt is hygroscopic); struck by the 
negative particles the salt emitted a blue glow, struck by the positive 
particles (by reversing the poles) it gave a red glow. It was peculiar 
that in such experiments the spectra of the metals came out much 
better when a salt , than when the metal itself was being bombarded. 
Thus the liquid alloy of potassium-sodium showed specks of the 
{never missing) oxide in yellow glow, whilst the bright metallic 
surface appeared black vinder the bombardment. 

Red 



Blue A Blue 



been suggested that the rosfjective particle4 ginig rwe to the two 
peaks were atoms and moieculcH of hydroj^en, which i*hould have 
this velocity ratio. The interpretation of thow curves rerjuired verj' 
great caution, and Sir .foseph rlid not accept thi>» view. Referring 
to his positive ray analysis* he pf>:ntefi out that a tream of mixed 
positive particles striking a photo^aphic plate would, in »trr*ng 
magnetic nd electric fields, be sifted out aocorfling to nia«i and 
velocity of the particles into a .series of {>a^a^x>lif; tra^-es, which at 
some distance from the origin would look Ilk' 

The lightest particles (hydrogen atorrw) woula _ _ :ir 

away from the abscissa, the heavier particles {t.tf., residual mercury 
vapour) close to the abs-i.ssa. If the parti'I^s rif un*-. tm. 
the same velocity, the line would contract to a s{)rri,-k. 
hydrogen-at m trace (as well as other traces) sometimes showed 
thick portions like beads; anfl those beads seemed 'lu' 
cules breaking up into atoms after passing through the',_ - ;ie 

kathode, but had continued to move with the smaller velocity of the 
molecule ; the velocity was at any point of the curve given by the 
ordinate, and the positions of two beads gave that ratio \/2 : I ; but 
it was not necessary for this reason to assume that molecules gave 
out the same spectrum as atoms. 

Now all the Balmer series lines of the primary spectrum of hydrogen 
were found to be displaced in these experiments, and all by about the 
same amount, whilst the also visible lines of the secondary' (banded) 
spectrum of hydrogen were not displaced. Since positive ray 
analysis proved that various hydrogen particles, H (atoms), H, 
(molecules), and H, (the paculiar, otherwi.se unknown compound) 
al passed through the canals, and were all displaced, the .secondarj- 
spectrum could not be due to any such particles. How did the 
secondary spectrum originate ? lonisation by coUision possibly 
came in, an atom or molecule losing an electron by the bombardment 
and acquiring a positive charge. That those atoms or molecules 
did not belong to the bombarding particles themselves, however. 




Red 



Red 



Blue 
Fro. 5. 



In all these bombardments the particles had to travel at a speed 
exceeding a minimum before luminosity was excited, which set in 
suddenly, and this speed or the corresponding voltage was rather 
high for salts of lithium and sodium, being of the order of 600 or 700 
volts, whilst it was 4-9 volts only for mercury vapour, as stated. 
That fact confirmed the conclusion that the luminosity of the atom 
could only be excited by the communication of definite amounts of 
energy, and that the luminosity was discontinuous and not simply 
prof;ortional to the disturbance. That was one point gained. Before 
we could go further we wanted more information on the nature of 
the luminous particles. Were they atoms or molecules or something 
more complex ? Doppler's princijale enabled us to investigate -that 
question. So far as the observer was concerned, the light given out 
by a body at rest was not the same as the light emitted by the body 
when itself moving. When the body approached the observer, the 
lines of the spectrum appeared displaced towards the violet ; when 
the body receded from liim, the lines were displaced towards the red. 
From the displacement the velocity of the moving body could 
be deduced. Xow in the discharge tubes the particles of the gas 
(neon, hydrogen, &c.), which emitted light and showed spectra, were 
moving at speeds of 10 or 100 cm. /sec. ; Stark had found thtit the 
lines in their spectra were displaced, and since atoms and molecules 
moved at different speeds, it w^as possible to gain some information 
as to the nature of the particles. 

In these experiments. Sir Joseph continued in the fifth lecture, the 
positive particles passed through the openings (canals) in the kathode 
into the further part of the tube and then directly into the spectro- 
scope. Some lines of a spectrum were then foimd displaced, others 
not. Thus, in the case of a hydrogen tube the spectrum of hydrogen 
changed as very roughly indicated in the diagram. Fig. 6. Instead of 
the original hne of the " rest " spectrum R, a wider spectrum, Rj, was 
observed, almost completely separated from R by a dark gap, and 
having two peaks instead of one. The displacement and the broad- 
ening proved that the luminous particles were moving, and that they 
were the hydrogen particles shot through the canals. These particles 
were a mixed lot, moving at very different speeds ; hence the con- 
siderable broadening and the two intensity peaks ; these latter marked 
velocities which were approximately in the ratio \/2 : 1, and it had 




Fig. 6. 

was showai by an experiment in which the tube contained two 
difEerent gases on the two sides of the kathode, so that gas I. was shot 
through the canal into gas II. ; the spectroscopic observations con- 
ducted as before then showed that the lines of gas 1. were displacetl, 
but not those of gas II. But the interpretation of these phenomena 
was difficult, and there was no unanimity so far. There w;\s acute 
controversy, in fact, as to the question, whether the particle which 
gave rise to the lines was the positively charged hydrogen pirtide 
or the particle which had become neutral again by the falUng-in of 
an electron. Yet it would require very strong evidence to i-onvinoe 
the lecturer that the positively-charged atom gave out the lines. For 
the Zaeman effect i presently to be discussed) showed tiiat it wa^ the 
vibrating electrons, and since they had various rc;isons to iissume 
that the hvdrogen atom contained one electron only, the jKisitively 
charged atom of hvdrogen could only be one which had lost its 
electron. His (Sir Joseph's) own \-iew was that hoWv opinions were 
in a certain sense right. The vibrating atom had first to lose its 
electron and thus to become positively charged, to emit a spectrum 
line ; but the light was really only given out while the • lectron was 
coming back, during the period of its collision with an atom or mole- 
cule. Tiie mere expulsion of the electrons -ail not product the 
luminosity. Strutt had driven the free electrons out of gj»s which 
was being bombarded, by placing the gas in a stnv' 
and he had hardlv observed any diminution of the b!:_ 
was other evidence. In Fig. 6 a gap was noticed bt^twtH>n the nret 
spectrum and th'. displaced spectrum. As the velocity of the 
particles was increased that gap bc-amc «-ider, but the mcrements 
became smaller and smaller, and finally a furtlier increase "» velocity 
had no more effect. Similarly there was a lower limit for the «ndth 
of the gap. Those relation had an analogy in ionisatiou ; lomsjUion 
by rays required a certain minimum speed of the ra>-s, and it also 
failed when a maximum sjx^ed was exceeded ; so the lununosity 
might be limited to the moment in wliuh the ekH-trtm returned. 

A heroic application of Doppler's principle had recently been 
suggested bv Fabrv and Perot; the idea w,vs one f t»»^^ ^^" "^71 
looked too^simple until actually tried. They applied Doppler . 
principle to a gas luminous imder ordmary^conditions. The gas 



* See The Electrici.\n, Vol. LXXUL, page 26. 



D 2 



90 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



particles were in kinetic motion. When the spectrum of that ga^ 

was observed, some gas particles would move towards the observer, 

some away from him, and the breadth of a line would depend ujxin 

the relative velocities. In general the breadth' corresponded to the 

average velocity (Rayleigh) ; if the vibrating particles were of light 

mass, they would move faster, and the line should be broader ; if 

the particles were heavy, they would move less rapidly, and the 

broadening should be smaller ; and from the breadth of the line the 

mass of the particles could be deduced. But too many conditions 

aflfected the velocity in a gas carrying electric discharges ; if the 

method really proved reliable it would be more generally applicable 

than Stark's method ; it would be advisable to comjjare the results 

of the two methods. 

(7'o ht roiichtded.) 



"SPEEDING UP" IN AN ENGINEERING FACTORY * 

BV R. RANKIN, B.SC. 

Su)iiinari/. — The author discusses the logical basis of bonu8 systt-ni?^ 
of payini'nt. The results obtained with the system adopted and thr- 
(lifiii'iiltic-s encountered are dcKcribed. 



At the outbreak of war in 1914 the writer, like many other engi- 
neers, found himself in the jMJsition of having to deal with large 
contracts, completion of which was necessary at the earliest po.^.'^ible 
moment. To deal with such contracts, in the face of the ."-ajiidly 
fleereasing supply of labour, was a task requiring careful considera- 
tion and sfjeedy action. 

At first sight it might appear that work of this nature belongs 
more to thr- commercial side of a bu.siness than to the technical 
side ; actually, however, the work is, for the most part, technical, 
as these iif)tes will show. In the case dealt with what was done, 
on the whole, was that laboratory methods were aj)plied. not to 
the carrying out of scientific c.xix'rinients of the usual kind, but to 
e.xjK'rimenfs with that somewhat refractory material the workman 
and his ways. Such methods have Ix-en adopted in America to a 
considerable extent with good results, and it Ls being realised here 
alwj that the development of scientific workshop production is one 
of tlm most important problems in the province of the engineer. 

Tlic first step which had to be taken was to devLse a sfx-cial method 
of j)ayment by results, or to adapt some of the existing methods ; 
the next and mure rlifTicuIt stejjs were to find out the amount of work 
which could be ilone in a given time Jind to ifd (lie u.nkinen to 
accept the system decid«'d u])on. 

The nnresl prevailing in tlie labour niarkit at the jhtiikI ni ques- 
tion made it parlieularly difhcull to carry out reforms. The result 
was that most firms were taking on as many men as they could 
possilily get, and. in such instances, jiaying them all tln-v asked for. 
As more men iieeanie lu-eessary for the .\imy. and as more men 
•nlisted, it Ijeeamo increasingly evident that some other steps would 
have to be taken to inen'a.se out[)Ut and at the same time allow the 
maximum number of men to enlist. H<>fon' the ste|»s described here- 
after were taken in the works with which the writer was connected, a 
large numlH-r of extra men were employed ; in fact, to such an extent 
was this so th/it the accommodation in the works was utilised jtrac- 
tically to the full both night and day, and yet it wiim fcnuid imiMtssilile 
to (leliv«-r orders by thr- dat«'s s|N'cilied and antiei|Nit4>d when pro- 
mised. The works being full, in rlue courw> a demand wjw made all 
round f«tr mon- money. The tiemand in this instance was for inerease<l 
rales of pay. the main n-ason for this JM-ing that, in fornjer years, 
higher rat«'s of |»ay luul Ikmmi in hirce. .\lt hough tliis wa.s not in 
accordance with the pn-vailin>; custom of |uiying a fixed "War 
bonus," it wjis decided to increas*' the rates to some exti^nt after 
preliminary investigation showed that e<»nsiderably inereastMl out- 
puts were ]M)ssilile all romid aiirl after Huch incn>ase<l outputs had 
actually l»een obtnmed in some de|iartments. 

In the former years refernnl to alsive. wlien liigher rates of pay 
were in force, a n<M>d deal of work was done on the piecework 
system. Inder this system the maximum wages eanie<i were '.V.i{ 
JKT cent. mon> than W(»uld have l»oen <»ame<l by men working at 
the flat, base rales. .As is almost invari " " " ' inj{ nn 

this system le<l to limitation of out put. .. nay Ik- 

l>ermis.sil)le hen' n-garding the straight piece- w«»rk iiyRtcm. It wouhl 
indeed be n>markable if limitation of i ' ' ' ' 1 to limita- 

tion of output. Linntation of earrn hixn little 

to eommeiui it. in the writer's opinion. l>n straight pieop-work a 
ujan's eiirnings are din-dly pn>is<rtional to the nmotmt of wurk he 
turns out. He g«>ts jviid a certain sum |>er pii^^e of wurk done. and. 
if tile piece cost fixed by the employer is < otisi<lere<i satisfaotorA' 
for a given initput. it seems ne<TSR«rily to follow that it - - • ho 

• Alislra. 1 i>f ;i Paper rcAd bclor" the ,lunior InHtiiuiinii nf i 



even more satisfactorj' for a larger output, for the more quickly the 
A\ork is turned out the smaller are the overhead charges against it. 
Limitation inevitably also leads to faking of time records where 
monej' is easily made' on some kinds of work but with difficulty on 
others. 

Straight piece-work is not a great success. It possesses sim- 
plicity, but this is not altogether an advantage. In fi.xing the price 
for a piece of work the employer, so to speak, tells the men what 
he thinks he can afford to pay for it, and this puts a weajwn in the 
men's hands at once. It fosters the habit among them of calcu- 
lating to their owti satisfaction what a piece of work shovdd cost 
their employer, and working accordingly. In fact, instead of .selUng 
their ability to work to their emploj'er, they very soon practically 
sell pieces of work to him. which, to the author's way of thinking, 
is absolutely wrong in ])rinciple. The employer who bases piece- 
work prices on what tie can afford to pay for labour is only looking 
for trouble. It docs not follow that what he can aflfordto pay to-day 
is what he ^nll be able to afford to pay tomorrow. 

SatisfactorA' fixing of piece rates is not an easy matter. If the 
price is set high, the employer usually cuts it .sooner or later; if 
it is set low by guesswork, or estimatior not fully backed up by 
data, the men will not accept it. It is extremely difficult to get 
them to work in earnest on work for which a price has not been 
fixed. They will not work hard, and so find out what can be done, 
Ijcfore the price is fixed ; and after it is fixed the\" will not work 
hard in order that cutting may be avoided, or at least jxjstponed. 
It is ver^' easy for them to linger over their work, particularly over 
the intervals between the component parts of a complete operation, 
and observation by ordinary' means, or by an3one other than a 
thoroughly practical observer, is in most cases of no use in detecting 
the extent of this. The analytical method of rate fixing Ls the only 
one to be relied upon. 

To ensure a minimum wage and to level up discrepancies due to 
faulty rate- fixing or other causes, the men are sometimes paid at 
the standard base rates when the amoimt earned per hour on piece- 
work falls short of this rate. In such cases a workman is usually 
compelled to make up for lost time or shortage of output by turning 
out a larger output j)er hour on his succeeding work. He can earn 
nothing higher than the base rate imtil his lost time or shortage is 
made up. If necessary, the time to be made up can Ise spread over 
several succeeding jobs, but only when it has been wiped out or 
comijensated for can a higher rate than the standard base rate be 
earned. This method of working does not appear to be conducive 
to honesty in the making out of time records, and faking of the-se 
records may give the cost clerk, or rate- fixer who estimates, verj' 
wrong impressions of wh<at labour costs should be. 

After consideration, it was decided that the system of jjayment 
devised by Harrington Emerson could be adapted so as to meet 
the conditions obtaining. Only the skeleton of the system was 
available, i>ut this was worked out in some detail, and it will be showii 
that it is a much simpler affair than it appears to be when presented 
in the usual form in which the writer first encountered it. 

In order that an accurate knowledge might lie obtained as to the 
amount of work jxissible per hour, recourse was had to the serxices 
of a stop-watch. This was emjiloyed as in Taylor's System of 
Scientific Management, but without excessive attention being paid 
to small details on account of the urgency of the matter. In the 
jiroduction of any piece of work, each subsidiary oiieration going to 
make up the complete oiH'ration was timed. An analysis was then 
made so a« to show which of those subsidiary' operations {a) were 
taking: too long, (h) were unnecessary, (r) could be done by boys or 
unskilled labour. 

I'iKin the results of the analysis of the work a rearrangement of 
the ineth<ni of working was m.ide when' ]>ossible and neces-^ary. and 
it Wiis then that the gn^atest difficulties were exjierienced. for 
although it (oiild be provefl to the workmen that they would be 
much l><-lt<'roff financially, they went on strike on several occasions. 
A firm attitude, however, and the voice of reiuson prevailed in the 
en<l, and the system was got under way. and in ojieration proved 
most lienelicial to all concerned. 

Tlie folhiwing |)oints were laid downi as essential for the success 
of the scheme : — 

1. .\ projier idea had to l>e obtained of the amount of work that 
eouhl Ik> done in an hour ; 

2. A reasonable advance on jirevailing mtes of pay should l»e made 
if the amount <if work was done which was shown to lie reasonably 
|M>Ksible : 

.'V .X rea,sonable minimum rate of pay should be guarante<'d : 

4. Tliere should l>e no cutting of wages or increase in the amount 

of work set as a ta*k unless working ■nctliods or ajipliances were 

altere<i : 

3. The hkiIkxI of jiayment should encourage the men to do their 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



91 



best, and at the same time, by resulting in a decrease in labour cost 
with increase in work done, render it undesirable that alterations 
should be made in the rates of pay ; 

6. Untrained men just starting should not be considered equal to 
the more skilled workers, and yet should be paid at a reasonable rate, 
rewarded according to industry and encouraged to improve their 
efficiency ; 

7. Owing to the nature of the work; a time allowance should be 
made for washing, &c., before meals ; an allowance should also be 
made for the worker's personal requirements. 

Brief!}', the system adopted to the requirements of the works is as 
follows : The amoimt of work which can be done per hour by a 
good worker, working at a good pace, is ascertained and taken as 
a base to work on. The amount he does in one hour is set as the 
task which it is expected will be done, and a definite rate of pay is 
decided upon for this rate of working, this rate of pay being a 
certain percentage higher than the prevailing base rate. This per- 
centage was fixed at 20 per cent. If the task is done in less than 
an hour the workman gets one hour's wage at the base rate plus 
an amount, at the base rate, corresponding to 20 per cent, of the 
actual time taken to do the task. If the task takes longer than an 
hour the man is paid at the base rate for the time actually taken 
plus a bonus equal to an amount, at the base rate, corresponding 
to a fraction of the time actually taken, this fraction being 20 per 
cent., when exactly one hour is taken for the task, and vanishing 
when the time taken reaches some predetermined period in excess 
of an hour. The point at which the bonus becomes zero was fixed at 
an hour and 20 minutes. If more than one hour and 20 minutes is taken, 
the base tate alone becomes operative, no bonus being payable. 

Basing the bonus on the time taken, not on the time saved, may 
not seem to be rational, but what follows shows that it is quite 
somid. It should be observed that, when the task is done in less 
than an hour the full hour's wage plus the bonus is paid for the task. 
In systems in which the bonus is based on the time saved the wages 
paid consist of the amomit corresponding to the period taken only 




Case II. : t ~yone hour — 

r X{T-t) , 

''-«('" ler'}-. , ■ '•'» 

,=i./,=„{,+^}. ,e, 

c=p!N=ptn=P n=aln[\-^^'^-^Y . '7' 

X being taken as 0-2 and T as .^ hours the equations become 
Case I. : 

P=a(l+0-2<) (2-) 

p=r/o-2^-\ f3') 

c=a n (l+0-2t) (4») 

From (4*) it is seen that c clearly diminishes as t diniinLshes. 
Case II. : 

P=a<(l-8-0-60, '■'''( 

p=a{h8-0-6t), 0', 

c="(I-8<-0-6r^) 7 ) 

n 

„ dc a 

From (71) -= {I-8-1-2/). 

at n 

Since the range of values of f for which equation (7') holds Is 
from t=l to t=^, the value of dc/dt is positive, and hence, for in- 

2-2 1-6 30 



2-0 



1-8 



1-6 



a 
0.1.4 



1-2 



VO 



^ 1-5 



1-4 



1-3 



(3 

-1-2 

0. 
o 

"^ 1-1 



1-0 



.25 



C-20 

s: 

5 

to 

a 
£10 









\i 








e 




Bonus Rate \^ 








,.t 












\ '^y 










V%1 


4i 


fr'- 










\ 








^ 


e'" 


^^-^^A 
^^^><^\ 






100 



■3 2 



■§s 



90 






i20~ 

i .0 

i5"i 



10 ■? 



85 o 
a: 

80 



1 5- 

0, 







10 



20 30 40 50 60 

Minutes taken to do 1 hours' task. 



70 



80 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. — Bonus System of P.^yment. Cctrves SHo^^^^■G Parttci-l.vr3 

OF Wages and Costs. 



plus the bonus. This is what constitutes the difference between 
the two principles. If in the latter case payment were made for a 
full hour plus a fraction of the time saved the labour cost per piece 
of work would increase instead of diminish, with increase in the rate 
of production. 

Let a=. Pre vailing rate of pay per hour before introduction of 

system. 
„ «=Number of pieces set as one hour's task. 
„ iV^=Number of pieces actually done per hour. 
„ a;=Fraction of time taken paid as bonus if time taken ;:^one 

hour. 
„ x'= Fraction of time taken paid as bonus if time taken > one 

hour. 
„ / = Time actually taken to do one hour's task=?i/iV hours. 
„ T=Time taken to do one hour's task at which bonus vanishes. 
„ P= Actual pay per task under bonus system. 
„ ^=Actual pay per hour under bonus system. 
„ c= Actual cost per piece under bonus system. 
It is postulated that x' shall vary from x when the time taken to 
do one hour's task is exactly one hour, to zero when the time taken is 
\\ hours, the variation following a straight-line law when plotted 
on a time base ; x is constant. Exactly what is postulated is shown 
diagrammatically in Fig. I. 

If t ^^ one hour bonus fraction=a;= constant. 

If < =^ one hour bonus fraction =a;'=m» in diagram 

^^ mC T-t ... 

=ABx =x 1) 

_ AC T-1 

Case I. : t^ one hour — 

P=a{l+xt) (2) 

p=P/t=a{x+l/t), (3) 

c=pt/n=P/n=a/n{l+xl). (4) 



creasing values of t, the piece cost increases, or, what is the same 
thing, for decreasing values of t the piece cost decreases. 

Fig. 2 shows the effect of this scale. Actually, the prevailing rate a 
varied with the experience of the men and the nature of the work. 
In each case the prevailing rate was taken as a basis, and a cur%-e 
plotted showing actual rate of naj^ as a function of time per task or 
number of pieces done per houv. By means of those curves and a 
slide rule the wages of the men were calculated. 

The system of payment amoimts to paying a certain figure for 
a fixed number per hour and so much jier piece when the fixt-d 
number is exceeded. This aspect of the s\-stem was not enlarged 
upon to the workmen, but stress was laid on the fact that the more 
they did per hour the greater was the rate of pay per hour. and. 
not only so, but the more quickly they worked the more rapid was 
their rate of increase of pay. This apjx^aled to them forcibly after 
they grasped it to some extent, and the writer believes that the 
system was far more successful in operation than any system would 
have been which they could have undei-stood thoroughly. With the 
latter the temptation to " play up " the system might iiave been too 
strong. 

It may also be observed from the foregomg considerations that 
the more work the men do per hour the more nearly the piece cost 
approaches a/n, which is the limit. Tliis fact may be useful in 
starting such a system of payment hi cases where the stop-watch 
leads to mutiny," provided a fair approximation can be made to 
the permissible cost or the possible rate of workuig ; but in such 
cases it is well to leave an opportunity for alteration in the task by 
arranging that methods of working may be altered. Xo altera- 
tions in methods of working should be effected in those cases mitil 
the system of payment has been established. 

(To be concluded.) 



92 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APEIL 21, 1916. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



" METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE GRADING OF 
•STARTING AND BRAKE RESISTANCES FOR 
SERIES-MOTORS." 

TO THE EDITORS OF THE ELECTRICIAN. 

Mr. F. Erens is in error when stating that the graphical 
method for determining the grading of the starting resistance 
for a series motor contained in my article in your issue for 
March 3rd " starts from the supposition that the back E.M.F. 
remains constant at the moment of changing over from contact 
to contact." The method involves no such supposition, and 
I said so in my article. When dealing with the shunt motor 
this assumption is made, which is, of course, perfectly allow- 
able. When dealing with the series motor, however, I said 
(page 773, middle of left-hand column) "" With the series motor 
the back Pj.M.F. may increase when changing over from one 
contact to the next." I then went on to say that if the field 
magnets are near saturation the same assumption as for a 
shunt motor may be made with a series oue. As, however, it 
is not always correct to do so, I gave the method originated by 
Bragstad wliich is quite independent of any such assumption 
and may be used for determining the grading for any ma.ximum 
and minimum values of the starting current that may be fixed 
u})on. 

The method likewise does not depend, as Mr. Erens would 
seem to suggest, upon the operator waiting until the starting 
current drops to /<■ (the current at which the torque is equal to 
the opposing torque.) If it be not desired to wait so long on 
cacli contact then, if the maximum current is not to be ex- 
(^eeded, it will be necessary to have a larger number of steps. 
This follows directly from the diagram (Fig. 2 in the article). 
It will be seen in tliis case that the two sloping lines in the left 
half of the diagram come closer together, and in order to get 
from the bottom to the top theie will be a larger number of 
stc])H in the zig-zag line. It will thus be seen that the method 
is quite general in character. One first of all .settles what are 
the limits of current one wishes to work between and from the 
diagram the necessary number of steps is determined. Bv 
taking I ,_ ('(|ual to the current at which the tonpie is equal to 
the (»j»p<»siiig t(»r(|ue one obtains the mininuim possible number 
of steps one must have if a larger starting current than It is 
not to be used. The statement, therefore, of Mr. Erens that 
■■ The nu'tliod gives a rough approximation " is wrong and if 
Mr. Erens will be so good as to look into the matter again I 
think he will agree with me. 

Suttdii Coldlicld. .\pril 17. Charles C. Garrard. 



PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 



At a meeting hold on March 24. IHIO, iit the Tniperial College of 
Science. .Mr. K. K. S.mith. A.H.C.S.. Vice-l'n'sideiit. in tlie Chair, 
a I'aper entitled 

"A New Method of Determining Ionic Velocities" 
Wiis read by Mr.s. C. II. (Iitri iiTHs. B.Sc. 

In the e.\|M'rinients d(.^c^il)e(l the cathode, wiijch consi.st.s of a 
horizontal copper disc |K'rforat4'd with two HoIch, ih mounted in a 
cylindrical ^lass lni)e oju-n at tlie lower end. The whole is sns|>ende(l 
from the beam of a halance. and is immei>>ed ni a ves-sel of cop|R'r 
sulpliate. The anode iH u cop|»er Hpiral lixe<l in the electrolyte some 
distance below th<' mouth of the cathode vchs*-!. From the rate of 
change of weigiit of tiie .sn«|K'n<icd hVHti-m during the |Ni,Hmige of a 
current the ionic voloeiticH can he del«>rniine<l.* 

Dr. S. W. .1. Smith (hscnssed the Pn]»er at nome length. HIn romarkM 
will a|)|)car in tlic " I'rocccdimzN." 

Mr. F. K. SMrrn adniind the niann<'r in Mhi.li sinnil diflii nlticj. !ia<l 
bei'Ti t)vorcoinc. Si>ine \ear.'< ano he lia<l ri.-tcrn<iiicil the elect r<K'honucal 
ecuiivnlent of silver with the anode «> upend*-*! from the beam of a 
halaiice. Tf Mrs. (Irit^iths int<'nded rontinum^' thew exprrimentj*. ho 
wnnid suupcst tlic use of such salt* ns silver nilrnto rather thnn cn]»]u'r 
H\dpliatc. 

Mr. .F. 11. SiiWHV communicated the foliowint: remnrks : It may bo 
notcii that llie use of a relation. imi>licit in the nax-ninK hut tiot actually 
cmi>loyc(l. leads to a simple fonnida for <alculitin" f «ifli..iit n.. 
nocrssity of separnto dotorminations of w , and wiy 1 " 

* .\\\ extended abstract of this Paper B]»iK"arson an ea'her itagoot mu- 

]ircs<-iit iss\ic.- -F.ds. F.. 



lengthy calculation, and incidentally avoids the necessity for relying on 
data in Landolt obtained by other workers. The relation is that the 
current JVe( U-\- V) is also equal to Tn^q( V-r T). (In fact, from the values 

c 
given, A^e=34-36 and Wi9=3412.) If. then, we substitute V for V 

in the equation 

cp 

in-^L' — nSpV-\ =Tr(loss in weight observed), 

qd 



ni^V 



we have 



,F- 



m^q 



Fj-nSpF-f— =Tr, 
qd 



or 



I.e. 



c cp 
F(m, + w?2— w5p) = ir-f — — ; 
q qd 



Vn{l-Sp) = W+ 



■(•-'.) 



The quantity 5 is derived from the statement that " total mass of salt 
in cathode vessel diminishes at the rate of (tn^ — »t2)Av gms./sec." Now 
this diminution is not by the elimination of salt qua salt, but in the form 
of already dissociated ions. The calculation of 5, from the variation of 
density of a solution with concentration, lumps together undissociated 
and dissociated salt. If we may suppose the ions to be of great density, 
the value of 5 would be ver\' smalL If we neglect 5 and re-calculate F, 
we find for experiments (12), (9), (3) and (fi) respectively the values 

6-339, 3138, 4011 and 1-.561 ( X lO'^), leading to the values for— ^ 

11 + v 
0-6.?S4, 0-6561, 0-6627 and 0-6634. For the lowest concentrations these 
agree with other workers' figures. Metelka"s results for densities 1-019 

V 

and 1038 suggest similarly constant values of for various concentra- 

M + r 

tions. and are also in good agreement with Mrs. Griffiths" figures (a.sthus 
re-calculated). 

Dr. Griffiths, replying on behalf of Mrs. Griffiths, expressed thanks 
for the interest taken in the Paper by Dr. Smith and for his rational 
criticism. He agreed that further research was advisable on the density 
of eleetrol\ tically de]>ositod copper, and thought that Mrs. Griffiths 
might be able to measure e.vperimentaliy the integral volume changes 
calculated in the Paper. She had already given some thought to these 
subjects. He was of the opinion that the space above the cathode was 
ample, and that the value of 5, in so far as its value depended on changes 
in the concentration of the solution of copper sulphate was correct. If 
tlie variations in concentration had been so groat as to vitiate the Aalue 
of 5. then, owing to the equalising effect of diffusion, an appreciable 
change would have taken place in the weight of the cathode vessel and 
contents after the conclusion of an ex]ieriment. 

Mrs. Griffiths has coinnnmicatcd the following comments on ^Ir. 
Shaxbv"s remarks : The mathematics in the scccmd and third ]>aragrai)hs 
a])])cars to be correct and is interesting, Ijiit the first paragra])h would 
seem to be somewhat misleading in that the m'cessity is not avoided for 
relyin<r on data (dealing with concentrations) obtained by other w-orkers. 
Mr. ShaxVjy avoids the necessity by making an hypothesis in the last 
paragraph which is not justifiable, for when the current has ceased the 
value of 5 ( annot de])end on the process whereby the salt has lieen 
rliniinatcd. Kven iluring the ])a.ssage of the current the prcx-ess can have 
only an inappreciable ofTect on the value of 5. 

A Pajjer entitled 
"Note on an Explanation of the Migration of the Ions " 

was read by Dr. S. W. .1. Smith, M.A., F.R.S. 

The object of this Note is to show liow a familiar diagram. a)i}x»ar- 
ing in many text -books, can be iinj)roved in a way which makes it 
easier to appr«Miate what hap|>ens at the electrodes in the simpler 
exain|»les of Hitt<irrs method of determining the migration constant. 
.\u attempt is made to give precision to an idea which is .sometimes 
vaguely exprei«8c<l and frequently ignored. 

Mr. 1). OwKN considenHl that the usual <:raj)hical metluMl expressed 
the integral etle<t sim]>ly and .satisfactorily unless pressed in detail. The 
analysis of paragraph three of the Paper, whilst adding precision to the 
conclusions, did not modify them or " explain " them. The fact of the 
existence of a volume distribution of electricity near to the electrodes 
implio<l an increased ]Kitontial gradient which play'?<l a part in the actions 
iH<\irrin^' ii' those regions. 

Dr. WiM.MWs sugi;csted that, if Mr. OwcnV view were correct, it should 
■ be |K>ssible In <lete( t the ]>otential gradients to which he referred. 

Mr. F. K. Smith romarki«<l that Dr. Smith's Paper dealt with a real 
(lifticulty. and one which teachers of electricity had to face. He remem- 
bere<l giving leottm«s on the subject to very elementary students, and. 
fr'clinu' <liK''atislie«l with the explanatory dia;:rams in text books, had 
adopted another form of explanation. In de.iling with the ]ihenomenon 
the negative ions wen- never sai<l to bedischargisl. Thogeneral argument 
followed was to regard matter as iK'ing in four states — solid, liquid, 
gaseous and ionic. It was already ooncc<le(l from analogies that oop])or 
ions and metallic copper difien'cl Ijecausi- <.f a ditTeronce of eli-ctrical 
energies. Cnnvcrfion fmm one into anotln r < nuld Ih' bnmght about by 
ulding or s(d»ti -ctrical ■ Thus, in the eloftrolysi* of 

.<>p|)er sulphate wjthcoi, iriKles. the electrode at high 

jx>tonlial lost energ^• liy conversion of a put of itself into positive ions, 
and the negative electrode gained energy from the solution duo to 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, vm. 



93 



positive ions giving up their charge and being converted into the metallic 
form. 

Dr. Smith, in reply, said : In the original draft of the Note, as sub- 
mitted to the Society, he had hazarded the opinion that ])erhaj)s the 
Authors, who used the diagram, wished it to be understood tliat the 
excess ions shown at the ends of the chains wore removed by excess 
potential gradients. Ho had deleted this conjecture, and had substituted 
a footnote (which was, in fact, a quotation), because he had been unable 
to find any proof that this was tho view taken. In any case it was un- 
satisfactory. Mr. Owen seemed to imagine that there was some virtue 
of simplicity about this view which made the analysis unnecessary. 
This was not the case. Tho problem was not merely to state how a 
Hittorf migration experiment might be suppo.sed to begin. It was as 
necessary to show clearly what occurred while it continued. This was 
the object of the Note. The analysis was the simplest general 
method of expressing the fact that some of the ions which take part in the 
electrolytic process are fed into the circuit near the electrodes, and are not 
brought there by the potential gradients. Views which " explain " the 
facts, while ignoring this, have been the cause of needless confusion in tho 
minds of students. The analysis showed, for example, that con- 
duction could not proceed as it began unless for every (u-'rv) cations 
deposited v cations and v anions were fed into the circuit at the cathode. 
If the cathode region had to draw upon itself for this supply of ions, the 
concentration near it would rapidly fall and the " polarisation " at the 
cathode would rise in accordance with the well-known relation connecting 
the contact potential difference with the concentration. Diffusion, how- 
ever, always played an essential part. When it was promoted by con- 
vection, a slight reduction in the concentration of the solution round the 
cathode would be enough to set up an appreciable diffusion current which 
would be maintained in the way described in the Note. This was 
the current which supplied the necessary molecules to the cathode space. 
The relation between this diffusion current and the electric current could 
be represented by the equation kn^vi/(u-\-v)e, where k is a diffusion 
constant, Ji is the concentration gradient at the cathode, ; is the electric 
current density, and e is the ionic charge. 

If notwithstanding this re-expression of his views, which he had thought 
were adequately conveyed in the Note, Mr. Owen still insisted that the 
usual graphical method was satisfactory, he could think of no better 
method of convincing him that it was not than to ask him to examine 
more closely the consequences of his own view as expressed at the 
meeting. He would then be led to the conclusions stated in the Note. 
Since the point had been raised, it should, perhaps, be noted that there 
was an obvious clerical error in the proofs of the Paper whereby N, N' and 
N" had been printed throughout instead of SN, S'N' and S"N" respec- 
tively. With regard to the question raised by Dr. Willows, he was of the 
opinion that measurable potential differences of the kind described did 
not exist. He was glad that the Chairman was of the same opinion as 
himself with respect to the diagrams and descriptions usually given. 

A Paper, by Dr. S. W. J. Smith, entitled 

"A Method of Exhibiting the Velocity of Iodine Ions in Solution," 

was taken as read. The method was shown. 

Dilute solutions of potassium iodide and potassium chloride of 
equi-molecular concentration have almost the same electric con- 
ductivity. They are, therefore, of interest in connection with the 
direct measurement of ionic velocities. The Paper describes a 
smiple method of observing their common boundary. It is only 
necessary to add a little mercuric chloride to the potassium chloride 
solution. An extremely thin layer of mercuric iodide then forms 
where the two solutions meet. The method is particularly con- 
venient for lecture purposes, and an approximate value of the ionic 
velocity can be obtained in a few minutes. 

The Paper gives examples of the use of the method. The current 
is first passed in the direction which causes the iodine ions to travel 
towards the chloride. The chlorine liberated at the anode in this 
case supplies a means of re-determinmg the velocity of the ions when, 
the current being reversed, they move in the opposite dii'ection. 



>nd let them igbt 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

Krupp Magnetic Separator Patents. 

On Thursday last Messrs. Edgar Allen & Co. (Ltd.) applied to the 
Patents Court for a licence to use nine patents— viz., 14.082 of 1908 and 
29,230 of 1911 granted to Herr Ullrich, and the following in the name of 
Krupp— 17,459 of 1909, 29,201 of 1911, 29,224 of 1911 and 4,595, 14,426, 
14,427 and 24,355 all of 1913. 

For the apphcants. Sir Geo. Croydon Marks, M.P., said his cUents had 
in hand an order for three Ullrich magnetic separators which wore 
urgently required for the manufacture of tungsten for use in th(' produc- 
tion of high-speed steel, the machines to be similar to the Ullrich sepa- 
rator in the Bessemer Laboratory at the Imperial (k)llege of Science. 
Messrs. Allen were desirous of executing the order and also of developing 
the manufacture of those machines for general commercial purposes 
He offered a royalty of 5 per cent, on the net selling price. 

Mr. Temple Franks, the Controller of Patents, askoil whether 
Ullrich's patents were owned by Krupps. 

On Krupps' behalf, Mr. Rushes (Messrs. Hasletinc, Lake & Co.) said 



he understood that rilri/'h - :-• — •- * ♦•- - - 

He wa.H not able to wiy ti 
firm had received 
oppose. He beli' 
and Ullrifh, but LIhu ii v, 

The CoNTRoi.i.KK : Ft!.!, i^Itv 

it out betwef;n them ax to whir 

Mr. Kl-shen rcfommendfd i , j,. i . 
all Krupps had done in thi- matt'-r in ' nMrfcaC tkmt 

had bcf-n made. It wa-* httl< i.. 

Sir Ok<j. Croydon Mark>i : \Mt^ no *»U- vet. yf\mhtr 

all the large steel makers in tl, .Hoping the 

high speed steel and tungsten i. ...^ ..., •' fK-v.»o f-. 

command the pnxjess set out by Knippii. ()j 

had Krupj)s tried to licence thoM9 ma^hincA U-f<.r. i 

not been sold. 

The CoNTKOM.KR : Therr- i.H an ii: 
machine in the lmp(!rial College r>f 
Krupps' agent tried to (;et the machme out, but • 
what they were about, and did not let him Knr <■- 

the only person concerned in the utili«ation of m- 

ties had on exhibition there. The Rapid <'<> 
manufacture a British magnetic machine that .•. 
for the German — " as good as, or lx'tt«T than " 
of that fact, it would not Ik- right to treat Krui.; 

of royalty as something unique. It is hardly ep*Kh-ni *• 

another machine quite as gofxi. The Rapid Co. had ,»--.-•• . , v.-.r** 
patents. I think they had better follow the example of the E(l|;»r AUra 
Co., and take the lot. 

The Rapid (.'o.'s managing director, Mr. H. Hubard Thompson, wbo 
was present in Court, said he would do so. 

The ('oxTROi.LER : There would be only one .j per c-ent. royalty p«id 
for each machine, and that would not go to Krupps. It would lie paid tn 
the Public Trustee, and the Government or the ikiard of Trade w<jaWl 
decide what was to be donf with it after the war. He thou;:ht a ef»od c»»j 
had been made out, and should recommend the Bf»ar<l of Trad*- to /rant 
each applicant a licence to manufacture the LTIrch mat hint- at a total 
royalty, as offered, of 5 per cent. That was the royalty most ommIIt 
adopted by the Court. 

Lion Spring Co. v. Carleon Electrical Co. 

In the City of London Court last week, Ix-fore hi> Honour 'lo^jg^ 
Atherley -Jones, K.C., plaintiffs sought to recover CJ9. Is*. 4<L for 2o.0W 
percussion springs and 25,000 detent springs, supplied to their !<pe<-ifica- 
tion, at Is. (id. per gross, for the (iovemment. Defendants had a «oa- 
tract to supply the springs to the Government in May last year. The 
work was carried out, and defendants refu.sed to pay. as the spnnjjs were 
not made in accordance with the specification, as they were t<x> weak, and 
some of them were returned. Plaintiffs said the Government in.spector 
agreed to pay for the springs because they were made before the speciBca- 
tion drawing was altered. 

The defence was that the springs had not been accepted by the Govern- 
ment, and therefore plaintiffs could not expect to be paid. 

Plaintiffs' Works .M.\nai;er said the springs were inspected by » 
Government official at their works, sealed up by him, and forwarded to 
the Government premises in London. 

The official, however, when called, admitted that his inspet-tion w*a 
not final. 

Judge Atherley-Jones said that beinjr so, plaintiffs could not recorer, 
and must be non-suited, with cost-;. 



Workmen's Compensation. 
Last week Judge MeUor, of the ManeWcstor County Court. . 

reserved decision in an arbitration in which Mrs. H. Robin.<oii 

£300 as compensation for i'e death of her husbiind. n-sultim: frvm 
injuries sustained in July while working for Messrs. Wm. SutclitTe A S..n. 
The Judge said the (|uestion he had to decide was whether th- i\r^i !mhI 
into court by respondents was or was not adequate, l-t" 
had been argued that the grade and wages of the workman -■ 
basis of compensation whether the workman regularly followe.! 
employment or no'., and whether he earned H a wet«k or ♦"! ■ - 

whatever sum was the average wage of an euiiineor. Th. '. to 

such a contention was that a hard-workinu' man mi-' " ^ 

tion in case of injury than the lazy man who ■>nly w 
the year, because in the first case holidays ami slope 
considered, while in the second ■ nly tho numlxT of w . .. 
considered. The worknuin in that ca.-^« v as 63 years of a-e. .wid ■ 

comfortable home and numey comin-: in fn>m a <* 

wife and daughter he only worked at his trad.- wh. 

to do so. anc' for three or four years lu^d i • 

week. Citing opinions of judgt>s to the eii , ,, ^ . .i-... i 

to the particula. circumstances of each caso. he held that tho ll.*> p*.d 

into court was adequate and made an awanl aoconlingh. 

Read v. Stella Conduit Corpn. 

On Friday the Court of Apiio>l t«he .Master of t!i 
Phillimore and Mr. Justice SargintWleliverxHl a iH> 

this case upon the appeal of plaintiffs from a judgment ol -Mr- Ju^^.* 
Jovce. The facts were stated in our issue of the <;»)«"•*'<• ^P" -'»\,„ ., 

Mr. Justice Saroast delivered the judgnuMtt of he Court. He sa.d 
that apart from one small variation plaintiffs appliance was the same 



94 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



whether it was used for connecting a tube and a fitting or for connecting 
two tubes, and in the latter case whether the two tubes were of equal or 
unequal diameter. What was the invention as claimed by plaintiffs ? 
8o far as each junction taken by itself was concerned the method de- 
scribed in plaintiffs' sixicification was undoubtedly old. It was in sub- 
stance the arrangement used for clamping or locking the adjustable 
steering handle jwst of the ordinary safety bic\'cle shown in White- 
house's patent. No doubt in view of this refreshingly short and intelli- 
gible claim, in plaintiffs' specification it was not for a method or appliance 
for effecting a single junction or connection of this nature with one tube, 
but for an appliance for connecting together the ends of two tubular 
electrical conduits or fittings in the manner described. Did that double 
connection as distinguished from a single connection disclose sufficient 
subject matter or sufficient invention to support the letters patent. In 
the Court's judgment they did not, and the appeal would be dismissed, 
with costs. 

American Radio-Telegraph Patent Case. 

We are informed that in the Marconi-Simon radio-telegra])h patent 
case the American Court of Appeal decided, on March l.'^^last, that^wners of 
jjatents alleging infringement of rights by contractors to the United 8tat<s 
cannot interfere with the execution and delivery of a])i)aratus by suing 
the contractors, but they may obtain relief onlj- from the Government. 
In the case in question the Marconi Company sought an injunction to 
prevent Emil J. Simon from producing 2') wireless sets for submarines 
of the United States Navy on a contract awarded him for deliven,' by 
Jan. 1, 1910. Plaintiff company alleged infringement of the basic 
Marconi patent, while defendant maintained that any action should be 
brought against the Government itself for demanding the precise arrange- 
ment in its specifications. 

Mr. Walter H. Humphrky (acting for defendant and also for the 
Secretary of the Navy) urged that the court action was a menace to 
national safety, as it threatened to prevent dohven,' of a])paratus neces- 
sary to the Navy and would force disclosure of valuable secrets of 
adjustment and operation discovered by Government experts. In a 
letter from the Secretary of the Na\y, which was submitted to the court, 
it was stated that the Government desired that its work should not be 
interfered with. 

Judge Hough, of the United States District Court, based his decision 
on a previous ruling of the United States Supreme Court in the case of 
Crozier v. Krupp. and was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals, 
to the effect that no cause for action of any kind arises against a con- 
tractor to the I'nitcd States (Government through the use of a patented 
invention in cai'rying out such contracts. The use of a patented inven- 
tion by or for the (iovernment was a u.se by the Government as a licensee 
(under an Act of Congress of June 25, 1910), and the only recourse ))laintiff 
had owing to such use was by action in the Court of Claims against the 
Governm(^nt for royalties, as was y)rovided by th(! Act of 1910, which 
made the; Government a licensee by law whenever it made use of a 
patented invention, and provides for full < ompensatlon in all cases. 

Re Cedes Electric Traction (Ltd.)— Upon the petition of the 

Tudor Accumulator Co. (Ltd.) Mr. Justice Neville made an order on 
1'uesdav for the compulsory winding-up of the Cedes Electric Traction 
(Ltd.).' 



PATENT RECORD. 



PARLIAMENTARY INTELLIGENCE. 



THE RECENT TELEGRAPH .BREAKDOWN. 

In tlu^ House of Commons last week the PostmasterCJcni-rnl (Mr. .1. A. 
Pease) stcled, in reply to a ((uestion, that the imjjortanie of .securing 
unint(rrui)t((l telegraphic ecmimunieatidn by means of underground 
lines had l)ccn kept in view by suce<'ssive Post inaslets General, and an 
underground te|e!.'rii](li system, which cost aboul t:2,(MMl.(HHI. w;»s now in 
use. Taking llx' telegra])h and telcplioni' syst<'ms together, the total 
length of aerial wire in use was not less than one niiilioti miles, ('om]ian-(l 
with over two million miles of underground win-. The cost of ])utting 
the remaining trunk telegraph lines un<lerground would jirobnbly exceed 
t.i.dOd.OOO.aud the annual charge for int<'n'st and (hprecialion (taken nt 
(> per cent, oidv) would be tISO.OdO a year, eompareil witli an average 
annual cost for storm repairs for the past lO yi-ars of l'2."i. P.MI. of whirli 
£(),700 luis been in n-speet of the main trunk lelegraph lines. It would, 
moreover, be im])ossible to carrv out tluit work at pn-sent owing to (he 
shortage of labour and other eireumstanees ennnoctod with the war. It 
had l)een necessary to suspend the schemes in progress for (he eons(nietioti 
of luldilional telegraph ami telej)hoMe undergroinid lines. Communien- 
tiou with li(i;iu<l \va^' not wholy iiit<MTupteil by the recent storm, althouuh 
some of the l:niil lines connecting the Irish rabies were broken down. 



PROPOSED LIMITATION OF ELECTRICITY AND GAS SUPPLY. 

Ill reply to a question, it was stated mi the House of •'oinmoiis on the 
i:tth iiist. tiiat it was not jiroposi d to limit the use of ele. tricity and ^-as 
for ligliting ]>urp()S(>s after a stated hour. 

Dr. AnnisoN (for the Ministry- of Munitifuis) also added that rare had 
alirady been taken that the recpiinMuents of munition factories sliould 
rank bi-fore all other eonsideratioiv* 



APPLICATIONS FOB PATENTS 

Note. — The undermeniioKed Applications (except those marked t) are not open to 
public inspection until after acceptance of Complete Specifications. Those marked * are 
open to inspection 12 months after the date attached to them, if they have not been published 
previously in the ordinary course. Names within parentheses are those of communicators 
of inventiorj. When complete Specification accompanies application an asterisk is affixed. 

March 11, 1916. 
3,629 Taylor. Changing frequency of alternating currents. 
3.631 Sanderson Wave motors. 

3.657 McBerty & Weste.=jn Electric Co. Impulse-control systems for automatic 

telephone exc'r.anees. 

3.658 British Westi;; chouse Electric & Mfg. Co. Starting mechanism for auto- 

mobiles (6 4 15. U.S.) 

3.659 British Westinghcuse Electric & Mfg. Co Starting mechanism for auto- 

mobiles. (24/3/15, U.S.) 

March 13, 1916. 

3.680 Wsstwood. Electric lamps. 

3,707 Beaver & Clarej/.ont. Leakage protection device for electric cables. 

3,726 Green. Manufacture of electrically-welded link chains and cables. 

3,736 & 3.737 Herink & Rel.iY Automatic Telephone Co. Automatic and semi- 
automatic telephone systems. 

3,739 B.T.-H. Co 'G.E. Co.) Coil supports for electrical apparatiis. • 

3,743 Compare & Ccmparri Wireless Control Synd. Oscillators or vibrators for 
wireless telegraphy. &c. 

3,745 Soc. Francaise Radio- Electrique. Alternators for production of high- 
frequency electric oscillations. (13 3, 15, France.) 
March 14, 1916. 

1 .795 Salmson. Contact apparatus for electrical connection of magnetos. 
3.758 LuNDELL. Telephone exchange systems. (19,'3, 15. U.S.) 

3.767 Davies. Projectile ignition devices. 

3,769 HoBLEY & Hooper Electrical indicators, &c. 

3.777 K'NGSLAND. Apparatus for obtaining synchronous motions at a distance. 

3.7u0 DouLTON & PoDMCRE. Tools for internally shaping telegraph insulators, &c. 

3.789 Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Measuring instruments, relays, &c. 

3.796 Salmson. Interruption device and method of mounting cams for magnetos. 

3.797 Salmson. Mount for magneto distributors. 

3.798 Salmson. One-piece framing for magnetos. 

3,817 Soc. Anon, des Etablissements L. Bleriot. Explosion engines coupled to 
dynamo-electric machines. (10/4 15. France.) 

March 15, 1916. 
3.835 Clay. Electric lamps. 

3.859 Joel & Mawdsley. Dynamo-electric machinery. 
3.869 Holt. Stationary contacts for electric switches or circuit-breakers. 

March 16. 1916. 
3,896 Conner & Kahl. Magneto-electric machines for ignition in internal-combustion 

ehgines. 
3,919 Soc. l'Eclairage Electrique. Machine for cutting bars or tubes. 8/9/15, 

France.) 
3,922 Hackley & Western ElectricCo. Automatically-operatingswitchformachine 

switching telephone systems, &c. 

March 17, 1916. 
3,938 Hall. Electric flash-lamps. 

3.948 Titterton. Apparatus for transmitting signals or messages. 
3,954 Hailwood. Miners' safety lamps. 

3.969 Hensman. Grapnels for raising submarine telegraph cables. &c. 
3,976 Bayles & British Insulated & Helsby Caplbs. Electric cables. 
4.006 Proksch. Apparatus for testing electric cir'-' • ?2 3 15. Austria.) 
4.019 Millersh-Jackson Starting and general ■ for automobiles. 

4,026 Randall. Deflector for deflecting light in t .ngs. 

March 18, 1916. 
4.035 Honeyman & Lane. Treating articles electrolylically. 
4.049 British Ever Ready Co. & Sheppard. Casings for electric batteries. 
4.067 Le Noir & Simpson. Magnetos. 

March 20, 1916. 

Rottenburg. Electric contact keys, electric buzzers, kc. 

Berry. Route indicating and signalling devices for railways, 8tc- 

Claremont it Tanner. Joint for electric cable. 

B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co.) Manufacture of incindescent lamps. 

Signal Ges. Submarine sound-producers. 

Jones. Electric-arc soldering. 

Brown. Sicuring electric lamps, &C., in sockets. 

Lyon. Searchlights. &c. 

March 21. 1916. 

Soc. l'Eclairage Elbctriqub. Machine for cutting bars or tubes. 

B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co.) Shaping wire. 

Clark, Longford, Longford. Morris & Sphinx Manfg. Co. Electrical con- 
densers and condenser systems. 

Glbnn & O'Donnbll. Railway signalling. 

riASSBLT. Process for electrolysis of alkali chlorides. 

Gilbart. Griffiths, Gilbart & Co., & Griffiths. Sparking-plugs for internal 
combustion engines. 

Stonb & Co. Indicating state of adjustment or output of dynamo-electric 
machines. 

March 22. 1916. 

Bloom. Electrical treatment of liquids and fluids, and products resulting 
therefrom. 

B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co.) Electric transformer*. 

Baily. F ...,;,,,.. . . .,.,,, 

Brass F ' -lamps. 

Allbn t ;. .achines. 



4.096 
4.104 
4,109 
4,110 
4,111 
4,115 
4,136 
4,143 

4.180 
4.182 
4.184 

4.186 
4.190 
4,192 

4.196 



4.240 

4.247 
4.254 
4.279 
4,283 



March 23. 1916. 



and manufacture thereof. 



rs and transformers. 
4.JJ7 National Safbty AfPi-iANc* Co. Automatic block-signal systems. (30/6/15 
U.S») 
Krupp AKT-r. " separators. (22/10/15. Germany.) 

Pitman St R* 

~ 1 1 1 ill ior- vehicles. 



4.338 
4,342 
4 34.! 
4.34. 
4.34t 
4,351 



4.363 
4.373 
4.376 

4 3» 
4 402 
4.407 
4.413 



Qv G«». Radio-quarU lamp provided with a reflector. (12/2/15, 

& 



Thvnnk, Applicitian of tui 

Hf- " " 

Cha 

tt ■•. . . 
BT.-H 

P.-^TT'- 

Mv 
Bf, 



walls, itc 

.-demand indi::ators for elec- 
•n for electric circuits. 

c fla^h-larap attachments. 



4.453 BT.-H Co. (G.E. Co.» Ua : 
4,467 CuBDATARtAH. Mafnrtos. 



THE ELECTRICL\^, APIUL 21, 1010. 



95 



I QJMMERCIAL^^DUSTRIAI SECTION^ 



CONTENTS. 



Commercial Topics 95 

Imports and Exports of Elec- 
trical Manufactures 96 

Business Notices 96 

Liquidations, &c 96 

Electricity Supply 96 

Lighting and Power Notes . . 97 

Traction Notes 97 

Empire Notes 97 

Foreign Notes 98 

Miscellaneous Notes 98 

The Round Table 15 

Electric Self-Charger Vehicle. 

Illustrated 16 



A.C. and D.C. Small Power 
Motors. Illustrated 17 

" Preparedness " 18 

A New Cord Absorber. Illus- 
trated 19 

Engineering Work in China. 
By Prof. Middleton Smith. 20 

Tenders Invited 99 

Tenders Received & Accepted 100 
Companies' Meetings and 

Reports 100 

City Notes 101 

Electrical Companies' Share 

List „ 102 



COMMERCIAL TOPICS. 



Contraband 
of War. 



Restrictions 
Upon Exports. 



A Royal Proclamation was issued on the 12th 
inst. making certain additions to and amend- 
ments in the list of articles to be treated as 
contraband of war. 

The following are now to be treated as absolute contraband : — 
Gold, silver, paper money and all negotiable instruments and reaHsable 

securities ; metallic chlorides (except chloride of sodium), metalloidic 

chlorides, halogen compounds of carbon ; starch, borax, boric acid and 

other boron compounds. 

It is further ordered that no gold, silver and paper money henceforth 

captured shall be treated as conditional contraband. 

* * * * 

By an Order in Council further restrictions are 
imposed upon exports and the exportation of 
the following is prohibited to all destinations: — 

Pig-iron of all descriptions. The following railway material : Steel 
rails, steel sleepers, steel springs, steel wheels and axles. The following 
shipbuilding material : Boiler tubes, condenser tubes, steel plates and 
sectional materials for shipbuilding. Soap containing more than 1 per 
cent, of glycerine. Steel in bars, angles, rods and shapes or sections ; 
steel blooms, billets and slabs ; steel bridge, boiler and other plates not 
under ^ in. thick ; steel girders, beams, joists and pillars ; steel ingots, 
steel tubes of all descriptions ; steel wire, except barbed and galvanised 
wire (the exportation of which remains prohibited to all destinations 
abroad other than British possessions and protectorates). 

The exporation of the following is prohibited to all destinations abroad 
other than British possessions and protectorates : — 

Aluminium sulphate and alumino -ferric ; files ; lacs, not including lac 
dye ; soap (soft) containing 1 per cent, and less of glycerine. 

The exportation is prohibited to all foreign countries in Europe and 
on the Mediterranean and Black Seas, other than France, Russia (except 
through Baltic ports), Italy, Spain and Portugal) : Asphalt and solid or 
liquid bitumen ; petroleum and its products not already specifically 
prohibited ; soap (hard) containing 1 per cent, and less of glycerine. 

^ ^ T* *l* 

Rni h r n ' ^^ ^^® pleased to notice that the Brush Elec- 

musn Lompany s ^^.^^^j ^^^^ ^j^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ j^^^gj^^. ^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ 

°^ ' a somewhat chequered one, has made progress 

during the past year. Though the trading profit only increased from 
£60,600 to £61,400, and the net profit from £7,100 to £7,300, these 
figures (we are told) do not give an adequate idea of the volume of 
orders or of the year's turnover. High wages, the shortage of skilled 
labour and the heavy increases in the cost of fuel and materials have 
aftected the company like all engineering and manufacturing firms, 
and their natural effect has been to keep down profits. The com- 
pany should, however, benefit from the trading expansion, and in 
view of the recent reorganisation of capital the shareholders, who 
have not had a dividend for 10 years, will now reap whatever advan- 
tages may arise from the improved business position. 

^ *!* "t* *l* 

Electrieitv There are no signs at the present time of an\- 

<;nnnlu Piihlinitv a,ctivity whatever on the part of electricity 

ouppiy ruDiicuy. g^p^j^^ interests in the country in giving 

publicity to the electric service. So far as we can gather, the 

operations of the newly formed Development Committee of the 



mi ft. I- rt/tt 






The 



Iff 



...d. 



I..\I. K..A. have temp«jrarily ceaaerj. lU 
lamp make 8 and a certain number t,'. 
of vacuum cleaner makerH arifi •• 

service ai3 not being pret<.s4.*fl U-f 

strong contrast is the cam^iaign of the Brj 

As-sociation. This body has j. 

in taking space in every form ' 

which it considers to be of value in furthering iu it 

wording of many of these adver' 

impression that certain domcHtif 

possible with gas, and certain definite pffectn and r 

produced by this agency. The phri _ ' 

create a mental atmosphere anumgHt i, 

be highly detrimental to electricity supply ii 

of thing goes on long enough it will prrxluce th'- •■.■■ ■ •> 

are responsible for it are desirous of obtaining. It i» * 

the publicity work in connection with electricity - 

in hand, and jtromulgated on at least a.s exten;*!.' •. 

undertaken by the British Commercial Gas Association. 

interests, both Company and .Municipal, are able to 

war time to trumpet the merits of their wares througi. 

the electricity supply undertakings should be able to foUow snit. 

There are some minds in electricity supply which ! view 

that because the gas advocates make use of the daily p , ■ -vould 

be unprofessional, or even infra dig, to do the same. On no occasion 

has any agreed programme for lay press adverti- : ' i put forward, 

much less undertaken, in the interests of electri. . i'l >'• '^ '-'' "**' 

sufficient to presume that the electric service is in no need of advert '»- 

ing at a time when the charges for electrical energy- .i^ ' 'i- 

sistently increased throughout the country, and siile b\ - it 

increase there is a very energetic pro(>aganda for increasmg the u»e« 

of gas. At the outbreak of war there were indications of rapid 

progress in the department of the domestic electric 8er\-ice, and none 

recognised this more clearly than the gas undertakings. Central 

station engineers must see to it that the gas men. who are better 

organised and more commercially-minded than themselves, .should 

not deprive them of the fruits of the labours in which they d 

considerable vigour before the war broke out. The pre.-H;.: ...;u- 

paign in the interests of gas is the largest hitherto attempted, and thi« 

fact should tring the electricity supply industry sharply to its 

senses. 

* * * ♦ 

In accordance with the practice for H.M. IVade 
Commissioners in the British Self-(Jovemmg 
Dominions to visit the Unitetl Kingdom offi- 
cially from time to tinie. st> that manufacturtr* 
and merchants may have the o;^port unity of consulting them on any 
matters connected with their business, or of obtaining informatKm 
as to the possibilities of extending their trade. H.M. Trade ConuuLs- 
sioner for Australia (Mr. G. T. Milne) is now in this coiuitry. and on 
the 17th, ISth and 19th uist. he mterviewed by appointment rp|»re- 
sentatives of firms who expressed a desire to see him in LAjmlon. 

Immediately after Eistcr Mr. .Milne will lommeme to vi-i' 
and industrial centres in the provinces which have bet>n il. 
most advantageous to visit in view of the applicatic; - 
received from firms in or near tluise centres, and f -<>!n 
merce. The itinerary includes Bristol, Ncw|H>r' 
mingham, Wolverhampton. Walsall. Coventry. I. 
Dcrbv, Stoke-on-Trent, Dublin. Liverjiool. Manchf.-tor. 
Huddersficld. Brailford. Leeds. Newcastle, Edinburgh. Duiv 
fermline and Cdasgov. in the orilcr named. 

* * * * 

TIC A Aih The "Electrical World" '-• 

u.i>.A. ana tne p ^^ ^.^^^^^1^ j^^j^ j,^.^,,^ .i^j, ,i 

South American ^^ Foreign ami IXnnestic Commerce as .sjmvial 
Market. ^ ^^ investigate the markets for eUHtrical 

goods in South America. 

Mr. Snuth will report both on the pn>sont conditions as woU «.« the 
future prospects in the South American market for e!.-. •" ' : ^^is oi au 
character. His reiXMts will (it is hoivd) enable the .\ -nanuiac- 

turer to cultivate intelligentlv the South Amenc.ui markci. At pr,><,..nt 
Mr. Smith is visiting a number of American c it u«s in onler to interview 
manufacturers and to ascertain what ground American hrms interested 
in foreign trade vould like to have him to cover in his investigation. 



United Kingdom 
Trade with 
Australia. 



ft, 



tndr 

^>n ma 
' n 



i. 



96 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF ELECTRICAL 
MANUFACTURES. 

From April 10, 1916, to April 15, 1916. 



In view of the increased interest which is being taken in the subject of 
the importation into and the exportation of Electrical Manufactures 
from the United Kingdom, we resume our weekly lists. (See also note 
at foot of Exports.) 

IMPORTS. 

CooLB.— Holland : Elec. lamps, 25 pk^s. 

Hull. — Holland : Electrodes, 32 pkgs. 

Liverpool. — U.S.A.: Unenumerated, 5 pkgs. Spain.- Elec. carbons, 67 pkgs.; 
unenumerated, 5 pkgs. 

LONDON. — U.S.A. .■ Elec. machinery, £2,380 ; elec. lamps, £90 ; carbon candles, £970 ; 
telephone material, £8,745 ; unenumerated, £3,193 — 639 pkgs. Holland: Elec. lamps, 
£9,659 — 522 pkgs. ; incandescent elec. lamps, 103 pkgs. ; threaded electrodes and pins, 
255 pkgs. ; unenumerated, £30. France: Unenumerated. £1,572. Switzerland: Elec. 
machinery, £178 ; elec. lamps, £1,000 ; unenumerated, £1,017. Italy: Wire and cable 
£1,244; elec. wire, 73 pkgs. Japan: Unenumerated, £211. Denmark: Unenun.erated, 
£195. 

EXPORTS. 

To Australasia. — Melbourne: Elec. machinery, £1,315; wire and cable, £45 , un- 
enumerated, £1,547. Sydney : Wire and cable, £1,065 ; elec. machinery, £1,641 ; elec- 
power transformers, £1 ,030 ; unenumerated, £3, 147. Christchurch : Unenumerated, £36. 
Dunedin : Elec. machinery, £165 ; unenumerated, £125. Lyttelton : Elec. machinery, 
£107; wire and cable, £98 ; unenumerated, £117. Brisbane: Elec. machinery. £123 ; 
unenumerated, £100. Adelaide: Unenumerated, £109. Napier: Unenumerated, £79. 
Newcastle: Elec. machinery. £931. Wellington: Wire and cable, £219 ; elec. machinery 
£241; unenumerated, £2,249 

Africa.— Durban : Elec. machinery, £763 ; wire and cable, £156 ; unenumerated. £356. 
Cape Town: Wire and cable, £241 ; unenumerated. £367. East London : Unenumerated 
£153. Port Elizabeth: Elec. machinery, £790 ; unenumerated, £142. Beira : Elec 
machinery, £100. 

South and Central America. — Buenos Ayres : Wire and cable, £26 ; unenumerated, 
£1.609. Rio de Janeiro: Wire and cable, £27 ; telegraphmaterial.fi 18 ; unenumerated 
£406. Santos: Unenumerated, £514. Bahia: Unenumerated. £31. 

\J.S.A.~Neu> York: Elec. machinery, £91 ; telegraph material, £202 ; unenumerated, 
£318. 

Malta.— Wire and cable, £101 : unenumerated, £188. 

Gibraltar. — Unenumerated, £59. 

West Indies. — Barbadoes : Unenumerated. £31. 

India, Ceylon. Indo-China and Straits Settlements. — Bombay : Wire and cable, 
£324; elec. machinery, £93 ; unenumerated, £1.629. Calcutta: Unenumerated. £673. 
Ceylon: Unenumerated, £184. Karachi: Unenumerated, £122. Singapore: Wire and 
cable, £349 ; elec. machinery. £78 ; unenumerated, £746. Port Swetenham : Telegraph 
£28; unenumerated, £1 10. Penang : Unenumerated, £14. 

Chw K~Shanghai : Wire and cable, £63 ; unenumerated, £28. Hongkong: Wire and 
cable, £2,056 ; unenumerated, £492. 

HohL^riD.^ Amsterdam : Unenumerated. £2,037. Rotterdam: Unenumerated. £146. 

France. — Treport : Unenumerated, £139. Dieppe: Elec. machinery. £86 ; unenu- 
merated, £165. Dunkirk: Elec. Machinery. £1.040. Calais: Unenumerated. £21. 
Bordeaux: Wire and cable, £1,420 ; unenumerated, £4,333. Havre: Elec. machinery, 
£82 ; unenumerated, £33 

DENMf^KK. -Copenhagen : Wire and cable, £2,995 ; unenumerated, £320. 

Rvssi A.~Petrograd: Elec. machinery, £603. Vladiuostock : Wire and cable. £808. 

Spain. — Cadiz: Unenumerated, £97. 

Portugal. — Lisbon: Wire and cable, £109 ; unenumerated, £453. 

Egvpt.- Port Said: Elec. machinery, £58 ; unenumerated, £343. Port Sudan : Elec. 
machinery, £55. 

SwBDBU.— Stockholm : Wire and cable, £150. Gothenburg: Wire and cable. £130. 

Canada. — St. John's : Unenumerated, £99. Nova Scotia : Telegraph paper. 82 cwt. 

JAPAU.— Yokohama: Telegraph material, £274 ; unenumerated, £850. Tokio : Wire 
and cable, £215. 

FOREIGN GOODS fduty paid and free). 

Bombay: Unenumerated, £14. Adelaide: Unenumerated. £302. Rotterdam: Vn' 
enumerated, £16. Amsterdam: Unenumerated, £227. Cope 7"o«/>;.- Unenumerated. £85. 
Z);>ppe.- Unenumerated, £35. Christiana: Unenumerated, £240. Dtt;'ia« .• Unenumerated, 
£589. CopewAagcrt.- Unenumerated. £93. £. Lo«rfo»i.- Unenumerated, £80. Port Eliza- 
beth: Unenumerated, £42. Melbourne: Unenumerated, £65. Sydney: Unenumerated. 
£77. Singapore: Unenumerated. £201. New York : Elec. machinery, £268 : unenu- 
merated, £284. Gothenburg: Unenumerated, £1,070. 

NoTK. — The large number of items in these official returns under the 
misleading hea<ling " unenumerated " relate to what is d('scrilx?d as 
" electrical goods " and " electrical materials." 



Lord Ordinary on AprU 14 ordered that answers to the petition must 
be lodged within eight days from that date. 

Composition. — A composition of 5s. in the £ jmable to the credi- 
tors of John Taylor Peddie, mechanical engineer. Exhibition-build- 
ings, Aldwych .Site, London, W.C., at the offices of Messrs. EUes, 
Salaman, Coates & Co., 1 and 2, Bucklersbury, London, E.G., has 
been approved. 



BUSINESS NOTICES. 

A firm of engineering merchants in Westeni .Australia iwivortise 
tliat llicy arc desirous of adding a first ■cla.'^s electrical ageiicv to 
their huKine.s.s. Appli(afi(Ms to .Messrs. Hopcraft & Broadwater, 4, 
Fenehureh-avenue, London, E.C. See an advertisetneni. 

Mr. ('IjiikIc W. Hill has removed to !•!. Old (^ueen-street, West- 
minster, Ijondoii, S. W. 

Messrs. .Toh6 Kerroira A- Kilhd. !."). lina Nova. R.-iifc. Brazil, 
advertise that they desire to represent British manufacturers of 
electrical app.iratus. machinery, tools and materials. 

Plant Wanted.— M«'ssrs. Meail, \Vright.son & Co. (Ltd.). Teesdale 
Iron Works, Thornaby-on-Tees, advertise for generating plant of 
250 H.r. to 51)0 ir.r. foriOO 5(M) volts, d.e. 

An advertiser rcMpiires two or three d.e. motors. I n.r. to '.] ii.r.. 
for 100 volt cinuits. 

LIQUIDATIONS, &c. 

A meeting of <Toditors of Xorman \- IJoanl (Lt<l.) (in vol. Ii(j.) will 
be held at Cannoii-Nlreet Hotel. Iy<indon. K.C. on April 2«. 

A petition has been pr(>sented to the Court o\ Sessicm (First 
Division). Kdinburgh. for tlie appointnu'nt of .Mr. Wm. U. (Jalbraith. 
C..\.. (ila.sgow. as voluntary li(piidator of the Light Electric .Motor 
Co. (Ltd.) along with Mr. David B. I^urie. 4;iO. St. (.'eorge's. street, 
(ilasgow. the present voluntary li(piidator. .\n interlocutor by the 



I 

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 



EXTENSIONS. 

Accrington. — The L.G. Board have sanctioned the scheme for the 
extension of the electric generating plant and the erection of a new 
chimney and Hues at the destructor works. The new generating 
plant will cost £14,000, and the boiler, chimnej- and flues £7,000. 

Altrincham. — The Altrincham Electric Supply (Ltd.) has success- 
fully j)ut into commission its first turbo-alternator set, which is one 
of 1,8.50 k.v.a., by the British Thomson-Houston Co., with Cole, 
Marchent & Morley surface condenser and Rees-Roturbo pumps. 

Barnes. — Electric supply mains are to be extended to the Beverley 
.vorks of Dehon, Godar & Co. 

The firm will pay the cost of the work, provided the Coimcil refimds 
.50 per cent, of the then market price of the cable if the firm vacates the 
factory- in the next 18 months, the cable then becoming the property of 
the f'oiiiicil. 

Birkenhead. — The L.G. Board have refused to sanction a loan of 
£6,400 for additional electrical plant, mains, extensions, &c. 

Bolton. — The Corporation have received sanction to a loan of 
£2.281 for the electric supplj' department. 

Cardiff. — The Electric Lighting Comlnittee have decided to extend 
the Hayes sub-station, at a cost of £1,200. 

Swansea. — Mains are to be extended to Morgan-street, Hafod, at 
an estimated cost of £150. 

Wolverhampton. — Last week the Corporation sanctioned the 
expenditure of £17,1(50 on extensions of the generating plant to eoiie 
with the load required during the winter of 1917. 

Councillor Gibson said the demand for electricity had been so rapid 
of late that it was ab.solutely necessarj' to take steps to secure an ample 
su])ply as soon as possible. 

It was al.<o. decided to make a general increase of 10 ]>er cent, on all 
electricity accounts where it may be legally made, such increase to date 
from the quarterly reading of the meters taken in June next. 

GENERAL. 

Bridlington. — .A revised scale of charges for the supply of electrical 
energy will come into force after June 24. 

For ligiiting. the charge will be 5Jd. per unit up to 500 unit* per quarter, 
5d. per unit uj) to 1.000 units. 4Jd. up to l.-JCK) units, and 4d. ]>er unit 
exceeding 1 .^(Kl units jtor (piarter. For iuating and < ooking. 2d. i>erunit 
will be charged u)) to 100 unit* per quart<T. and 1 Jd. ]>cr unit exceeding 
loo units i>cr (juarter. 

Brighton. — It was rejHjrted to the Council last week that the 
engineer and manager (Mr. .lohn Christie) had advised the acceptance 
of an ofler by a linn actijig on Ix'half of the (iovemment autliorities 
to jjurchase four l)oilers (with the option of a fifth) and two Willans 
engines and generators, with a section of piping and the old feed 
pumps at Xorth-road work.s. 

The offer wa>i t.").")0 ]x'r boiler and £l,2.Vl per engine, making a total of 
£4,70(>. This mailiinerv was originally p\irchased between 18517 and 189!) 
at a cost of ll l.(KMi. :»n<l as the loans wen- obtained over a period of 21 
years they were now nearl\ extini:uishe<l. The plant would never 
again Ik* n-qnired at Xorth-roaii. and in Mr. Christie's opinion the otTer 
was an exee]»tionally t'ood one for s<»e«ind-hand i)lant of that cla.ss. 

The Council then-ftin* decided to a<'«-e)>t same. The ])UR-haser is to 
dismartle and remove the machinery at his own exi>ense ; payment is to 
!)(• made at rate of 10 ])ereent. of the punli.ise prit-e on acceptance, and the 
bal.inre within 14 days after the jilant lias Ik-cu handed over to tho 
Hailway Conqmny. 

The Lifihtim: Cummittee have elerted their Chairman (Councillor 
Lintott) and the Knginoer (Mr. John Christie) to nqircsont the Con>ora- 
tion at the busine.'is meetin!r» of the Im un>oratod Municipal Electrical 
Ass<M<ia(ion. to Im* hold in I^mdnn on June ~'2 and 23 next. 

Islington (London). —The Lighting t'ommittoo has adopted the 
Elect ri(al Knguii«<'rs suggesticm that for certain arc I.xnips high 
eandlejMiwer metJillie til.iment iamjis shouhl 1k^ substituted in the 
glolM's. The annual saving (exclusive of energy) Is estimated at a 
mininnnn of 1"S.">. 

Municipal Loans. — We are iiifonuod tliat the Local tlovemment 
li«»ard has. on an application made by the B.E.A.M.A., extended 
the jM^riod for the repayment of loans in n^speet of storage Iwtteriea 
from sevfu years to 10 years. 8Jitisfa( lory guarantees l>eing given. 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1016. 



97 



Poplar (London).— The Electricity Committee is of opinion that 
a temporary increase of 10 per cent, for current for power and public 
lighting is necessary. 

It would be pcssiblo to carry on the; undertaking at the jdcscnt rates 
of charge without incurring any Iosk on the year's working, but it would 
then become necessary for the Committee to decline to supply intending 
consumers, as funds would not b(! available for laying services (for which 
loans cannot now be raised) and installing meters and wiring;. It is 
estimated that the proposed increase, after making allowance for pro- 
bable decreased demand, would enable a surplus of not less than £'>,()()() 
to be earned, while if coal is obtained at 2s. (id. per ton less than estimated, 
the estimated surplus would be £10,000 for the ensuing year. An annual 
surplus of not less than the latter sum is required to meet all demands 
upon the undertaking and maintain the policy of providing for new ser- 
vices, meters, &c., and the writing down of plant out of revenue. It is 
not considered desirable to increase the charges for private lighting. 

The Committee proposes to instal, experimentally, a Cumberland 
electrolytic process on a Babcock boiler and economiser at the works at 
a cost of £200. Should the process achieve the results claimed for it,*the 
Committee anticipates that the cost of installation can be met in a year. 

The Council are recommended to grant a war bonus to their staff of 10 
per cent, on present normal salaries and wages (including emoluments) 
under £200 per annum ; 7i per cent, on £200 and under £300 ; and ~> per 
gent, on £300 and upwards. In the case of the electricity department it 
is proposed that those who have received war bonus or increase due to 
the war should have the amount made up to 10 per cent., and should a 
profit bonus be available at the end of the ensuing year the aggregate 
amount paid as war bonus during the year, as proposed, to be deducted 
from each individual share in profits. 

Rhyl. — The Council have empowered the electricity committee 
to carry out, at a cost of about £200, certain alterations of the Diesel 
engines to enable them to use tar oil fuel instead of crude paraffin. 

Southend-on-Sea. — Owing to the increase in the price of materials, 
the Electric Light Committee has agreed to pay the contractors for 
the supply of joint boxes, an extra sum of 2icl. per box in respect of 
250 boxes recently ordered by the Electrical Engineer. 

Subsequent to the decision of the Council in January last to pay 
£1,680. los. 3d. to Callender's Cable & Construction Co. for cable ordered 
in December,' 1914, in connection with the proposed supply of cm-rent 
in Leigh (payment for which had been delayed in consequence of the 
L.G. Board withholding sanction to a loan) a portion of the cable had been 
commandeered by the Government. The company has offered either 
to replace such cable now, undertake to replace it at the termination of 
the war at tha original contract price, or credit the Corporation with the 
value (£480), plus £210, being the increased value of the copper at the 
existing market price, thus reducing the amount payable to the firm to 
£990. los. 3d. The Committee has decided to accept the last-named offer. 

Watford. — The Urban Council is applying to the L.G. Board for 
sanction to the borrowing of £3,300 for the electric supply depart- 
ment. 

West Ham. — The electrical engineer (Mr. J. W. Beauchamp) 
reports having obtained quotations for further automatic protective 
devices to be used in connection with the three main generators, and 
that he proposes to put these on order immediately. 

The Council's contract with the Fuller Electrical & Mfg. Co. for the 
supply of motors for the sales department terminated at the end of March. 
Mr. Beauchamp invited nine leading firms to send in quotations, but only 
four replied. Out of these the Fuller Co. was the only complete one, 
their prices (although much higher than last year) being slightly lower 
than any one of the other three on most of the items, and slightly higher 
on two or three o:.her items. The firm intimated, however, that they 
would not enter into a contract, and reserved the right to increase prices 
by a month's notice. Under the circumstances the engineer proposes 
to continue to buy from the company until such time as it seems de- 
sirable to make another contract. 



LIGHTING & POWER NOTES. 



Electricity in Quarries. — The report of the Inspector mader the 
Metalliferous Mines Act (Mr. Hugh Jolmstone) for the Midland & 
Southern Division of England for 1914, was recently issued. 

It states that the total output of minerals during the year showed a 
decrease of 30,312 tons. Electrical plant of a total of 5,835| h.p. was 
employed, 4,422Jh.t>. above ground (for winding, ventilation, haulage 
and miscellaneous purposes), and 1,413 h.p. below ground (for haulage, 
pumping and miscellaneous work). 

Electrolytic Treatment of Zinc. — In a statement issued by 
'Amalgamated Zinc (de Bavaj^'s) (Ltd.), the dii'ectors report that 
investigations are proceeding in America regarding electrolytic 
treatment of zinc concentrates. Commercial possibilities of the 
process contemplated depend to a large extent on cheap power, and 
the chairman has obtained from the Tasmanian Government a satis- 
factory offer under which all power recpiired will be su])plied by the 
hydro-electric department. 



Emergency Lighting ol Passenger V^Mb.— Tt i* r. 

Lnited Slates Stc;i.iiibo;if, lri-i»>-< tioii .^v-rvice haii 
regulations as to emergency li|?ht« on }MUMenger 8hi[/- 

The emergency radio-trdi-graph -* - ^ -■ 
source of {Kjwer to operate th<-ir 
storage battery shail be prop' ■ 
has been designciJ, and it is 

the charging circuit wh.-n th<- battery ha» >>«?n ctvargtrd. 
equipjrtd with overload and underkiiad automatic «*;•■ ' - 
excessive charging. Should an accidi-nt require the 
lights, an officer or wheelman on the bi ' 
push button on the steering head of tb 
placed in the main passage wayM, in th- |. 
rooms, ever the doors leadinjr to the di<k-, 
lifeboat deck.,, on the boat deck in imm«(liat«' vioinity of 
rafts, and the auxiliary current eircuito are ah' - - ' ' 
lights. These lights are arrange<i on three- < . 
leading to the charging panel. On th" f' 
used , on the jjassengcrdeck .'i-amfjere fus»-s, 
fuscB. In the event of an accident, should the water 
deck circuit, the lower fuses will blow, allowing the h^.. 
decks to remain lighted. The auxiliary litjhtn can h>e »o 
illuminate the Ufeboats, .so that in case of accident. 

Ilford. — The public lighting estimate for the ensuinj 
shows an allowance of £1,000 for reduced lighting. 



- »!i ijiuj^ry 
rd>Y that the 
.' pan«| ba«fd 
tutr^maticaDj 
Thb bo«rd u 



'«are 

-tat«- 

ithe 

and 

-ipial 



-I'j-' 

pU(.-e<i aa to 



.."..J 



TRACTION NOTES. 



I 

Plymouth. — The Board of Trade have sanctioned the boirowinff 
of £111,706 in respect of the y)urcha.se of the Devonjjort 4 Di-" 
Tramways Co.'s undertaking, the tenn for repajTnent being 'V> vr.^r-. 

The cost incurred by the Corporatioi. in connection with the traniwav- 

arbitration was £7,73.5. 

Croydon Tramway Strike. — This strike still continueti. the Cor- 
poration having declined to submit the dispute to arbitration. Over 
20 cars are ruiming at present. 7 

Manchester-Bury Electric Railway. — On Monday the electric 
service between Victoria Station, Manchester, and Bury, on the 
Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway was inaugurated. '^ 

Women Tramcar Drivers. — Southend Light Railwax- < . mmuiee 
has decided to endeavour to Hnd suitable women antl girls with a 
view to employing them as terajx)rary tramcar drivers. - --^ y, 

J 

EMPIRE NOTES. g 

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIillllllllllllllllllllllllH^ 

Australasia.— The 18th half-yearly accoimts of the Adelaide 
Municipal Tramways Trust (for the six months endeti -Ian. 31 
last) have been handed to the Commissioner of Public Works, 
Adelaide, for submission to Uie tiovenior. 

The total amount of the advances from H.M. Government i>: 
of construction of electric tramways is £l,r>.32.2(i7. of which il.-i _.v. ; . 
outstanding, and the amount of capital expenditure over balanc* of 
advances bv H.:M. Govemnu nt is £21H>.S09. The total ivvenue for -^- 
half-year was £lti0,463 (compared with ll.")7.U9 in the six m. 
ended Jan. 31, 1915), operating expenses wciv £97.20»i 
and total appropriation £ti4.o79 (against £ti2.431), ir 
sinking fund and £9.121 (against £S.t58t>) reserve for renewals, m..- , 
the tolal cxpendituiY £1(U,7S« (£l.")9.012). Revenue |H>r ear-mik- a.i^ 
16()08d. (15020d.) and operating exi)enses were 9t»Sld. (i>-22o,L).^ 

The chief ensineer and general manager (Mr. \V. (.1. T. <• 
states that reserves amount to £2S7.iU9 ( including sinkin- fund *- 
Reserve for renewals amounts to £97.42t>. and the oi 
have been made against this rt>serve amount t • £I.S13. \» 
for insurance amount to £7,92(i. The net deficit for the h 
meeting all statutorv charges was £1.322. but wages paid i.- .- 
of employes who have <>niisted for active servu-o aniounteil t 
Surplus revenue over operating exjienses was S- • .v> )> 
cost. After meeting all obligations to date the wi 
purciiase monev (£87,030) has been paid. I'nder uorn 
revenue wouUrhave been at least £U».540 more, but ti . 

retrencluucnt, and no num have been put on short time. l>urinj: th«» 
Trusts nine vears' ownership of the .system «he revenue ha-sl^n 
£2,120,02(1, aiid e.xpemlitu.e. including statutory eharves. t- . i io.mh, 
leaving balance of appropriation account available £3.h>4. 

The last half-vearlv report of the Broken Hdl l>y. to. states that .t 
was recently decidcl'to add four mon- oix<u hearth furnace to • 
already in operation to increase the output of steel, and also toe- 
more rolling miUs, a.ul to add a further l.tXW-kw. generating plant at the 

power sU|jm.^^^^ (N.S.W.) coiTos|Huulent of the • -Wstralian Miiung 
Standard " states Ouit the electric safety lamp made by th- W «> - 
Lamp Co. and adopted by the South Bulli colliery is found to^ - 
factory .^iviu" a bettor light than the oil lamp, while the work of keopmg 



98 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



it in going order is less. The majority of the employees express apprecia- 
tion of these lamps, of which there are between 500 and 600 in th^ mine. 
At a recent meeting Sydney (N.S.W.) Council decided not to accept any 
tender for annual supplies of electrical accessoriej, wires or cables. It 
was announced that the electrical engineer would shortly recommend 
that no further extensions of overhead mains be made until bare copper 
conductor is purchased at a price more near the normal than is poRsible 
at present. 

Electric Smelting in Newfoundland.— It is stated that an electric 
smelter was recently installed at St. .Johns, Newfoundland, and in 
the initial test on copper ore from the Little Bay Copper Mines the 
plant Morked admirably and a high grade of copj)er was ])roduced. 
The plant will smelt about 1 ,0(X» lb. of ore ])er hour, and is owned by 
the Hydro Electric Smelting Co. (Ltd.). 

India. — ■ Indian Engineering " says Ootacaniund Municipal 
Council has resolved that the question of electric lighting of that 
town with suction gas-driven plant must stand over in consequence 
of the high i)nce of suction gas engines and the probability that they 
might not be obtainable at all at present. Nevertheless, Mr. Jackson, 
of Messrs. Siemens Brothers, will visit the station and investigations 
will be carried on. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 



Argentina.— The "Review of the River Plate" says a public 
electric light service has been inaugurated at Diamante fEntre Rios). 

The Ministry of Finance has authorised the Direccion General of the 
Port of Buenos Ayres to arrange with the Ccjmpania Italo-Argentina de 
Electricidad for the sus])ension of the works of renewal of ligliting material 
for three years, the executive power reserving the right to remove the 
su.spensi(m at any time in which case the comjjany would be required to 
resume tlie works within seven months from date of notification. This 
decision represents a saving of ?2:},000 gold per annum, so long as the 
arrangement subsists. 

China. — It is desired to obtain samples and models of engineering 
products of United Kingdom manufacture for the engineering school 
of Peking I'niversity. The consulting engineers (whose name can be 
obtained from the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall-street, Ix)ndon, 
E.C.) desire to get into communication with United Kingdom manu- 
facturers who would be willing to present the necessary a])paratus 
eitlier free of charge or on specially favourable terms. 

Chosen.—Seoul Mining Co. — The following extracts from the 
report of the Directors of the Seoul Mining Co. for 11)14 arc taken 
from the " Far PLastern Review " :— • 

The erection of the electric power plant has been completed under the 
direction of the managing engineer of the electrical dei)artment. Mr. H. 
Maki, and is jxTforming its full expected .-service with comi)!ete regu- 
larity. Ill the report on the Conipaiiys .Swan Concession at Holkol it is 
stated that the change from steam to ele( trie motive power has been made 
at the Suan mine and mill. an<l the plant is working satisfactorily. In 
his report on the power jilant Mr. Maki says the oarly jiart of the year 
was not suitable fr)r outdoor work on account of the" weather, but" the 
erection of the steelwork for the jiower-house liiiilding was completed 
during .May. The transmission line from the generating .station to the 
half-way lioiise was completed in May. but a ll(»o(i in .July washod away 
4 miles of the transmission line, which lias since been re-ereetcl uinm 
higher ground. At the time of the floixl some of the equipnuMit was being 
transported uj) tin; river to Tain Howie aii<l tlie heaviest transformers 
were under water when j.hucd |.-)ft. .il)ovo the usual water level of the 
river. These were dried out and no injury was done. The transmission 
line was com[)leted and ready for use in October. The generating station 
equipment consists of i\\u-v baileries of waler-tulx- boilers with sujkt- 
heaters and chain-grato stokers, two feed-water jiumps, two .steam-feed 
water heaters and two stoker engines ; two l.dUO kw. turlx. ;:eneralin" 
sots with direct -con iiected exciters, live switchboard jmiiels, four 400 k. v-.C 
power traiisforiners. four ;t(» k.v.a. auxiliary motor transformers, two 
electric mot()r-<lriven surfact- conden.sers aiid two intake pUin)H<. one 
6-ton electric wharf crane and one 12-tnn travelling crane. 

One wooden pole line was erected for the tninsmission of 44.000 volts. 
thi-ce-]ihaso current from generating station to I'aini Chmijj. a distance 
of :{4 miles, from which point the lines diverge to the Sxtarie and the 
Tul .Mi Cliiing substations, where the voltai,'i' is sfep|MMl down to 440 
volts. At the Soctarie substation there are four I.^O k.v.a. transformers, 
four 150 k.v.a. .stei»-down tran.sformers. three switchboanl j»nneis with 
instruments to control incoming and outgoing innver and measuring 
instruments, and Hi dilTerent si/cd mill motors witli panels. 

The llolkol sub station is e(|ui|i]>e(l with four ".'i k.v.a. air rompres.'«or 
motor transformers, two |>ancls w itli instruments fm 'i>nt rolling incoming 
power from the Soctarie sub station and synchronous motor of 21(1 n.r. 
for air compre.ssor. The Tul Mi Chung sub-statioiiH are in eoiu>e of 
construction. At the generating station one l.OtHt kw. generating set 
was ready to operate in October last. 

('hot, II lliiilwni/^.- In the report on the Chosen ISailwnvs Un the year 
ended M,u\\\. 1014. the Dire.tor of tho Railway Mureiui states that 
amongst the improvements during the year was the pquip]iing of three 



carriages with electric lights and fan.s. The telegraphic apparatus in- 
stalled numbered 137, telephonic 934, and blocks 267. Kailwaj- tele- 
graphic stations numbered 144 ; railway messages dealt with were 
3,702,410, and public messages 247,777- There are two generating 
stations with engines of 830 h.p. and generators of 466 kw. There are 
34 arc and 6,297 incandescent lamps. Besides, those installed in 
carriages numbered 1,97.5 in all. 

Light railways and tramways in Chosen in operation at the, end of the 
year wjre five, namely, the system operated b}' the Nikkan Gas & Electric 
Co. and four others ojjerated as private concerns. The aggregate capital 
of these light railways and tramways totalled 10,426,600 yen, of which 
.■). 748,095 )'en was j>aid up. The mileage open to traffic was 237 miles, 
of which 16 miles were worketl electrically (in Keijyo). The mileage to 
be opened hereafter amounts to 181-2 miles, including 7 miles of electric 
tramway in Fusan. At Kyuzan workshops, on completion of air com- 
pressor station newlj- built, three sets of boilers and two sets of com- 
pressors were erected and set to work, and in the erecting .shop a set of 
goliath cranes was fixed up. The motive jiower was supplied by two 
sets oi dynamos of 224 kw. (one as standby |, and there were 15 sets of 
motors (649 h.p. in all) and two sets of air compressors of 106 h.p. 

In all 1.30 carriages were equipped with 1.975 electric lights and 130 
with motor fans, their motors being 59 and batteries 1,416 in number 
respectively, increases of 40 in carriages, 710 in lights, 69 in motor fans, 
18 in generators and 432 in batteries. The total amount of current 
generated was 1.184,068 units, while tho total expenditure was 29.31785 
yen, of which 59-2 per cent, was for fuel 

Electric Zinc Refining in Norway. — H.M. Mmister at Christiania 
stales t'lat the electric refining of zinc, which has been developing 
on a gradually increased scale at Trollhattan for some years, has now 
reached an outjjut of over 6,000 tons of refined zinc j)er annum. 

Refining is also Ijcing carried on at Sundlokken. Increa.'sed facilities 
are required for smelting the ore, and it has now been decided to secure 
the neces.sarj- water-power from the Glomfjord waterfalls, in Nordre 
Helgeland, Nordland. These falls have been purchased by a company 
formed for the purjio.se, and are expected to yield 12.5,000 h.p. The 
works are expected to be completed by 1918. 

Portugal. — A Bill was recently presented to the Portuguese 
Chamber of Dejnities to authorise the municipality of Amarante to 
borrow 120,000 escudos (about £17,500) for a hydro-electric mstalla- 
tion for the production of power for lighting and other"purjx)ses, the 
construction of a market, water supply, &c. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



British Industries Fair. — The Board of Trade have decided to hold 
this fair in London next year from Feb. 26 to March 9 inclusive. 
Having regard to the .satisfactory result*! of the two British industries 
fairs already held, it is proposed to organise the 1917 fair on similar 
lines ; ]>articii)ation will, therefore, be confined to manufacturers and 
admission restricted to wholesale buyers. 

\City of London Fires in 1915.— The Coroner for the City of London 
and Soutbwark (Dr. F. ,T. Waldo) has submitted his annual return 
to the City (\)r|K)ration for 191.'). 

Dr. Waldo states that with respect to his duties under the City of 
lyondon Fire Inquests Act, 165 fires (compared w ith 139 in 1914) had been 
officially notified to him. In 148 cases the caiise of the fires was deter- 
mined and in only 17 fires did the cause remain unknown. In the case 
of 26 fin's (against 11 in 1914). Dr. Waldo states that, with the exjiert 
assistance of the City Klectrical Knguieer. he had bcxn able to decide 
that those fires wen- due to defective electrical arrangements. In more 
than one instance during the ])resent war sus))ici<m had fallen on alien 
<nemies, but iiupiirv- had fortunately cleared up tlie matter sat i.sfactorily. 
The coroner is »)f ojiinion that the CitA' of Ixm<ion Fire Act (1SS8) should 
be ext<'nd<'<l to the whole of the eountr>-. as suggested by the Home 
Oflice Departmental Committee in 1909. ^^ 

Defence of Realm Regulations. -.\ new regulation, which has been 

made iiiid.i the Dcftiuc of the liealin Acts, states that : — i 

Any person charged with having in his jMis-sossion or control any 
tungsten ore or pnxlucts then-from. high-sjioed steel, or scrap therefrom, 
molybdemnn. vnnadiiim. cobalt, nickel, or any .dloy \ised in the manufac- 
tun- of high-sjK-e*! steel or any other metal rcipiiriMl for the ])ro<lurtion of 
war mnV-rial. which may rea.sonably Iw siisjx'i tisl of iK-ing stolen or un- 
lawfully obtained, wlxxloes not give an aeeoiint satisfactory to the CVjurt, 
sliiill lie guilty of a summary tiffenee against tlu' regulations. 

Inquest. — .An inquej^t wan heUl on Friflay at Pool (Cornwall) on 
Thus. Symons, who wa,s reeendy killed at K;«st Pool Mine. 

A witness said that on the morning of the 12th inst. a stay wire had 
iMvome loow. and Symont«. who took hold of the wire, immediately fell 
to the ground. The stay wire was swayinu with the wind and when it 
touehefl the electric win's it transmitted spurKs. Deciviscni was fetched 
to it because he knew something was wron.j. 

Mr. R. H. Beukiman, mill suiierintendent. said the man had been 
evidently " electrocuted." It wa«i a wound wire stay, and it had not 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



99 



been treated to be non-conductive. Of course, it was never intended 
that it siiould come into contact with live wires. It would not be 
deceased's duty to touch the wire, but witness believed he went to put 
the wire so that nobody should b(! hurt. Symons should have reported 
it to the electrical engineer. There was a pair of rubber gloves on the 
premises which deceased could have obtained to handle the wire with 
•safety. One of the employes used the gloves to remove deceased from 
the wire. He also tried to revive him by resuscitation. 

Mr. D. D. Belcham, electrical engineer, said other than by outside 
covering, there wasno method of making stays non-conductive. Covering 
was impracticable for wire stays. Symons had no right to touch the wire. 
It should have been reported to the electrical staff. 

A verdict of " Accidental death " was returned, and no blame imputed 
to anyone. 

More Alien Enemy Firms Wound-up, — Up to date the Board of 
Trade have ordered the winding -up of 103 businesses controlled by 
alien enemies. The two latest are the Rhineland Mfg. Co. (Ltd.), 
importers of ball bearings, 69, Wells-street, London, W. (controller, 
Mr. L. F. CJoodricke, 10, Coleman-street, E.C.) ; and Xitsehe & 
Gunther Optical Co. (Ltd.), manufacturers of optical instruments, 
&c., 66, Hatton-garden, London, E.C. (controller, Mr. B. E. Mayhew, 
Alderman's House, Bishopsgate, E.C). 

Mr. XV. G. Jefferys, 56, Coleman-street, London, E.C, has been ap- 
pointed to supervise the winding-up of Ferrum (Ltd.), 198 and i99, 
Winchester House, London, E.C 

Trading with Enemy Firms in Neutral Countries. — The "London 
Gazette " of April 14 contains further lists of firms and persons in 
neutral eoiuitries with M'hom persons in the United Kingdom are 
prohibited from trading. 

Amongst the firms mentioned are : Argentina and Uruguaij. — Siemens 
Schuckert (Ltd.) (Compania do Maquinaria e Instalaciones Electricas), 
and Sociedad Anonima Argentina Hidraulico Agricola. 

Tribunal Cases. — At the Lancashire County Tribunal last week, an 
electrical engineer, aged 26, appealed on the grounds that his 
technical skill woidd be of more service to his country than his 
service in the army would be. The ajjpeal was dismissed, and the 
military representative was instructed to recommend^ the man for 
the Royal Engineers. 

At Worksop last week the electrical engineer of the Urban Council, 
Mr. J. P. Crowther, withdrew his application for exemption, and said he 
had enlisted in the Electrical Corps of the Royal Engineers. The 
application was granted, and the Tribunal granted temporary exemption 
to the station superintendent and also to two stokers, the cable jointer, 
and the fitter. The only single employee (the meter tester) was put 
back to Sept. 1. 

" Manchester Guardian " Chinese Supplement. — With the issue of 
our contemporary for the 18th inst. was published a well- illustrated 
and interesting supplement dealing with China and its commercial 
possibilities. 

It contains special articles dealing with (inter aha) The New Outlook in 
China, The Possibilities for British Commerce, British Engineering Oppor- 
tunities in China, The Enemy Trading Question, English Dyes in China, 
The General Economic Position in China, Government Railways, The 
Civil Service, &e. The articles, which have been written by experts, 
contain much interesting information concerning the commercial and 
industrial position of China. The article on British Engineering Oppor- 



I to M;ir< h -H, vkitti in> 



tunities in China ■ ■ 
field and lay a Htn 
pcrtnai.cnt footing m thi . oiiiitc, 
Imports. — The following arr; < 
material and apparatuH ui>fK)rtf?<: 
1916, and (6) the 
crease or decrfM-' ,. 

Electrical machinery', (f/) tKO.ftTO (d. 
crease £I76,9.'j2) ; inViudini/ 
aeroplanes, motor earn and ■ 
£4r,,04<» (d((nas<! £19,.-|29) ; an-i 
(«) £()(), .-)98 (decrease i2(i,<Xi2) 1 1,, . 
graph and telephone cables other than «ir 
£462), (Ij, £22,t)89 (increase; £i7,4«2) ; t. 
ratus, («) £24,137 (increa.s^" £20.ftS«), ih 
other electrical wires anfl cableK, nibSx-r ir 
£2,068), (6) £29,94.-> (inereas.- £1:5,61.-,) ; w, 
(decrea.se £2.001), (h) £1,404 ((le,r<;i-i- t4.>>:i2): 
(increase £l,.j20), (6) £26,.-)t>l (inc rea^- £.-,.s:{2) ; Jl 
(increa.se £9,o4.5), {b) £49,2«l (irrcrea.«<- £l4.t;<»4); a 
.searchlights, (a) nil (decrease £.'U>4), (h) ni! ' 
lamps and searchlights (other than earbon- 
(6) £19,.599 (increa.se £77.3) ; ])rimar\- and - 
(decrease £2,895), {h) £.5.3,144 (inerea-.- £17. ■ , , 
instruments, (a) £2,493 (increa.se £488), (h) t- 
switchboards, («) nil (decrea.se £.545), (6) £24h 
trical goods and apparatus unenumerated, (a) t- 
(6) £72,025 (increa.se £36,437). Total of eleetn. ii 
other than machinerv and uninsulaterl wire, (■; 
£48,783), (h) i330,805'(in.rcase £137.2.36). • 

Exports. — The exports of electrical machinerv, material. 
during March, 1916, and (b) from Jan. 1 to March 31. with in. 
decrea.se compared with corresponding [jeriods of 1 9 1 .5.wer 

Electrical machineiy, {a) £104,277 (decrease £li,t)87). 
(increase £9,337) ; including railwav and tramway motor- 
(decrease £4,624), (6) £11,917 (decrease £6.659); other 
motors except for aeroplanes, motor cars and cycles, (a) •. 
£46), (6) £168,227 (increa.se £37,891) ; and electrical n 
meratcd, («) £40,811 (decrease £7,109). (fc) £128,113 (d. . - 

telegraph and telephone cables, submarine, {a) £42.87«i (decrva.-i«> £12.733), 
(6) £68,670 (decrease £61,805); other than submarine, (n) »;"■<- 'u; .{j^. 
crease £18,560), (6) £159,156 (increase £71,208) ; telegraph a iie 

apparatus, (a) £22,509 (increase £9,026). (fc) £69,922 (imrea-, i:;:.:20); 
other electrical wires and cables, nibber insulated, ('/) £4<.i,'t74 'in<r»^!* 
£19,718, (6) £in,521 (increase £4t).S31): with other in- 
£62,404 (increase £34,852), (6) £175,687 (increase £f«,078) - . , 

£1,198 (increase £674), (6) £2.262 (increase £743) : glow lamps, (a) 
£15,390 (increase £4,772). (6) £39.375 (increase £9.4,%?) ; arc Ian • - ' 
searchlights, (a) £1,832 (increase £1,623), (6) £4.141 (increase i 
parts of arc lamps and searchlights (other than ca;" 
crease £67), (6) £2,955 (increase £635) ; primarv and 
(a) £19,609 (decrease £2,431). (6) £57.982 (increase £2,4MS) : ra. - 
measuring implements, (a) £14.591 (decrease £432). (6) £44,t>4:? . , 

£4,035) ; transformers, («) £1.206 (decrease £3.901), (6) £13.^- n» 

£3,968): switchboards, («) £2,114 (decrea.^e £4,493), (6) £15.:2.;.. ni.n-ase 
£1,183) ; electrical goods and apparatus uncnumerated. (a) £44,282 /in- 
crease £13,963), (b) £141.379 (decrease £7.8(U). Total of ele 
and apparatus, other than machiners* and uninsulated win-, 
(increase £51,203), {b) £906,744 (increase £186,011). 



475 



TENDERS INVITED. 



Boilers and Economisers. 

Tenders are in^^ted by the electricity department of the 
County Borough of West Hartlepool for the supply and 
erection of two Water-tube Boilers, Superheaters and Mechanical 
Stokers. Specifications from borough electrical engineer (Mr. 
J. W. Spark) and tenders to Town Clerk by April 28. 

Warrington Electricity and Tramways Committee require 
tenders by noon April 26 for su2)ply of Boiler Plant and 
Economiser. Specification from Borough Electrical Engineer. 

Turbo-Alternator, Gas Producer Plant, &c. 

The New South Wales Government Railways and Tram- 
ways Department invite tenders for the supply and erection of 
a 2,500 kw. Turbo-Alternator for the Zarra-street (Newcastle, 
N.S.W.) power house. Specification (No. 470) from the Elec- 
trical Engineer, and tenders to Chief Commissioner for Railways 
and Tramways, Phillip- street, Sydney, by noon May 3. 

Wanganui (N.Z.) Borough CouncU require tenders by noon 
May 9 for the supply and erection of Additional Plant at their 
tramway power house, including Pressure-type Gas Producer 
Plant, Gas Engine, Electric Generator and Switchgear. Speci- 
fication, &c. , from the Town Clerk. 



Tramway Construction, Tramcars, &c. 

The Direccion General de Obnis Piiblicas, Ministorio de 
Fomento, Madrid, require tenders by Xay 19 for the coustruo- 
tion and workuig, for 60 _\ears, of an electric Tnim»-Ay in 
Bilbao, connecting the existmg system with the t .ti 

district. ^Minimum rolling stock nM|uired to eommi:. ne 

motor and one trailer coadi for iMJssongi^rs. and one motor goods 
coach and two trailer goods wagons. .\n * • •' con- 

cession is held by the Sociedad Tranvia Url>a!i 

DuNEDiN (a\Z.) City Conned require tenders by 5 p.m. May 
17 for six Electric Tramcars and sections of Gary " ' . Eleo- 
trical Equipments and Trucks). SjH-oitications, . :;i the 

Town Hall, Dimedin. 

JOHANNESBVRG (Transvaal) Council require tenders by uih.u 
Jmie 6 for supply of two Manganese Sttvl Crossings. Speci- 
fication, &c., front the 3Iiuiicipal Oftices. Johannesburg. 

The Public \\orks Dept.. Madrid, will rece vo tenders until 
noon May 30 for the Construction antl Working, for IW years, 
of an Electric Tramway in Meulla (North Africa). The 
minuninn rolling stock required is 16 coaches, with motors and 
accessories. An option is held by l\in Felipe Ezquerro. 



100 



THE ELECTRICIAN. APRIL 21, 1916. 



Sub-Station Equipment. 

'J'lio VicTOKiAX Railway Coidhssionees require tenders by 
11 a.m. ^pril 26, for the supply- of Electrical Equipment and 
Accessories for sub-station for the Sandringham-Black Rock 
tramway (con ti act Xo. 29,762). 

Motor Generator, &c. 

The V^icTORiAN Railway Commissioxers require tenders by 
1 1 a.m. May 10 for Motor Generator and Accessories for Battery 
Charging of Baggage Trucks, also Switchboard and Cormections 

(contnict Xo. 29,796). 

Water Softening Plant, 

Walthamstow Urban Council require tenders by 5 p.m. 
April 26 for the sujjply and erectic.n of a Water-softening Plant, 
to deal with 5,000 gallons of water per hour, for the electricit3- 
d partment. Specification, &c., from the Engineer, electricity 
department, Priory-avenue, Walthnmstow. 

Generating Plant, Mains, Transformers, &c. 

\\'i(;an Electricit\- Committee recjuire tenders by A]jril 26 for 
h.t. Three-core Cable, Transformers and Switchgear. Speci- 
fications, &c., from the Borough f^lectrical f^ngineer. 

Oamaru (X.Z.) Borough Council requires tenders by 4 p.m. 
June 2'i for the sujj])ly of Overhead Mains and Street Lighting 
Equipment (contract Xo. 2) ; Power Station Kquijmient (Peiton 
Wheels, Alternators, &c.) (contract Xo. 3); Service Meters 
(contract Xo. 4) ; and Line Transformers and Accessories (con- 
tract Xo. 5). Specifications, &c., may be obtained at the 
Council's offices on deposit of £1. Is. for each contract, i^^ . 

Joint Boxes, &c. H' 

The Town Clerk, municipal offices, .Johannesburg, will 
receive tenders until noon June (> for the suj)ply of 500 c.i. Joint 
Jioxes and 200 Hanks of Trolley Roj)e (contract Xo. 112). 
Specifications, &c., from the municipal offices, Johannesburg. 

Steam Pipes, &c.^ : 

Salfori) Corporation want tenders by noon May 8 for high 
))ressurc Steel Steam Pipes and Separator ; and c.i. Pipes and 
Valves. Spccilications from the Borough Electrical Engineer. 

Electric Cable, Cranes, &c. 

The South African Railways Administration require ten- 
ders by noon May 1 for the Sujtply of I -Mile of 0-9 sq. in. Single- 
stranded Coj)])er Conductor of Armoured and Lead-sheathed 
Pa|ier-insiila(('(I Cable, suital)le for 660 volts d.c. (contract Xo. 
TOO) ; ami luitil nooti Ma3- i5f()r the supply of two 50-ton Electric 
Overhead Travelling Cranes for new erecting shop at Salt River 
workshops (((mtract Xo. 701). S])ecilications and forms of 
tender from the Secretary, Tender Board, South African Rail- 
way's Headquarters Offices, Johannesburg. Tenders for the 
cranes will also be received up t(j .May 15 by the lliph Com- 
missicmer for South .Africa, :J2, Victoria-street, London, S.W., 
at whose office also sjjocifications may be obtained. 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiy^ 

m TENDERS RECEIVED AND ACCEPTED. = 



Barkow-in-Furnkss. — The Corporation have accepted the 
following teiuU-rs : — 

f"i(icncral I'^lcctric Co.. switches, &c. ; Hri(i>li liisujuti'd iV Hcjsby 
('ablcH, joint boxes an<l cut-f)uls ; ('liainlx'rlaiii \- Mookhnin. niftcrP ; 
i'Vrraiiti (i>t(l.), ]irc)iayiiK'nt meters; Drake iV (Jorhaei. luetul lilnment 
lamps; J'opcs KIcctric banqi Co., carbon tilinneiit lanijiH ; Writy's 



(Ltd.), motors ; A. F. Goodwin & Co., wire, &c. ; Dussek Bitumen Co., 
insulating compound and bitumen ; New Conveyor Co., ash conveyor. 

Burnley. — The Guardians have accepted the tender of F. Thorn 
ton & Co. for the supj^ly of electrical goods. 

Manchester. — The Tramways Committee have accepted the 
following tenders for .stores, &c., for the year ending March next : — 

General Electric Co., metal and carbon filament lamps, switches, bells, 
cells, telephones, &c. ; Drake & Gorham, metal filament lamps ; L. 
Andrew & Co., mica segments, tapes, soldering fluid, &c. ; British 
Westinghouse Electric Co., motor and controller parts, coils, bushes, 
lightning arresters, gear and pinion wheels, &c. ; Electro Mechanical 
Brake Co., resistances and parts ; H. Wallwork &: Co., grids : Dyer & 
Young, commutator segments and controller fingers ; P. R. Jackson & 
Co., coils ; Kay & Co., brush holders, worm bushes, bolts, &c. ; Engineer- 
ing .Supplies Co., controller fingers ; S. Gratrix & Brother, bell pushes, 
globes, &c. ; Mason & Brown, bells and parts ; Micanite & Insulators 
Co., mica cones, commutator sleeves, &c. ; G. Schultz & Co., mica tubes, 
washers, &c. ; Pinchin, .Johnson & Co., varnish, &c. ; Morgan Crucible 
Co., carbon brushes, crucibles, &c. ; E. A. Longrish & Co., carbons ; A. 
Wiseman (Ltd.), overhead equipment insulatint; material, &c. ; Fleming, 
Jiirkby & Goodall, trolley wheel bushes, &c. ; Connolly Bros., cable ; F. 
Smith & Co., copi)er cable and strip and steel wire and cable ; British 
Insidatcd & HeLsby Cables, copper wire. 

The tender of the British Thomson-Houston Co. has also been accepted 
for three months' sujiply of motor and controller parts, motor cases, field 
coils, brush holders, &c. 

RATH3iiNE.s. — The Urban Council have accepted for 12 months" 
sujiply of house service cable, house service and fuse boxes and meters : 

British Insulated & Helsby ('ables, cables at schedule prices ; and 
Reason Mfg. Co., electrohtic meters, at schedule prices. The tenders for 
house s Tvice and fuse boxes have not been settled yet. 

St. Helen.s. — The Council have entered into a contract with the 
Tudor Accumulator Co. for renewing and maintainmg the storage 
battery at the electricity works. 

Swansea. — The Electric Lighting Committee has accepted the 
tender of Ferranti (Ltd.) (at £66) for the supply of a three-phase 
transformer, and that of Thomas & Evans (at £530) for wiring the 
Br\nmill and Cwmbwrla schools. 

TvNEMOUTH. — The Electricity Committee recommends the accep- 
tance of the tender of the Macintosh Cable Co. for the supply of 
1 10 yds. three-core armoured cable 7/18 conductors, and for 110 j'ds. 
7 18 twin cable. 

Barnes. — The tender of the Pirelli (General Cable Works (at 
£187. 5s.) has been accepted by the Council for the supply of 440 yds. 
of three-core distributing cable. 

Westminster. — The Ciuardians have acce|)ted the tenders of 
Pope's Electric I^mp Co. for lamps ; and the (Jeneral Electric Co. 
for electric fittings, &c. 

Southend-on-Sea. — The Corjjoration are recommended to accept 
the tender of the British Insulated & Helsby Cables for the supj)ly of 
() miles of overhead trolley cable at Is. 4 d. i>er pound. 

Sydney (X.S.W. ) — The Council recently decided to purchase from 
Standard Waygood. Ltd.. six current transformers for Westinghouse 
10.000-volt sAvitchboard ; from the Australian (ieneral Klectric Co.. 
six ditto, ft>r B.T.-H. 10,(MM)-volt .switchboard: from Xoyes Bro.-*.. 
six ditto, for Ferranti 5,000-volt switchlmard ; and six ditto, for 
F(>rranti lO.OOO-voIt switchboard : also a eom|)lete sjiare exhauster 
for the suctiim ash-nunoving plant at the juiwer house from l^ibeock 
iV Wilcox, the contractors wlio supplied the |ilant, at £S45, f.o.b. 
(Jasgow. and to jmy the firm the cost of shipping to Sydney and 
delivery to site, including dutv and insurance, amounting to al>out 

£:{(;s. 



FINANCIAL MATTERS. 



COMPANIES' MEETINGS AND REPORTS. 



CANADIAN GENERAL 00. (LTD.) Tlie j!r..HM profit for l!tl."> is 
Sl,2l!),r)i;{. aiKl afti>r ileiluctinij interest and S4I(i.2'22 for depreciation, 
the net profit is 8764, H7.S. Diviilends of 7 Jht cent. \\\\v lieeii paid on 
both the preferemc and oi<linnry siian»8. le!»vin«; S<>t>.:i.'»fi. and increnxing 
the nnilividcd prnlit to SI .n(t7.1 "lO. out of wlii<li S"'<t(>.oO() l,„(.« to reserve'. 
raising that fnnil to s:i. (Mill, Odd. aiiil fs7<l7.ll!l re:ni mm to te carried 
forward. 

HOLSWORTHY GAS & ELECTRICITY CO. At tlie ic.m men mi: n 
was rrpoitrd lliat tlw total reicipts from I lie jjns luidertakinvr wen- 
£I,(M1.") and from clc<t licit y supply V^'.Kt. .\ dividend of 2 prr rent, was 
declared, and the chairman (Mr. .1. M'T. Dickson) said the incren.^e in 



llllll 

the |)ri«e of coal, the reduction of public li^htinu and economy by ]»riv.it<' 
e<msumers ha<l preatly affected them. 

MARCONI WIRELESS TELEGRAPH CO. OF AMERICA -The report states 

that for the M'ar l'.M."i (Ix-fon' allowing; for n"-<i\cs) the not income is 
.S2SS.<.MM. cotupare<l with $271. SSS for 1»14. While propnss lia.s l>een 
hampen'ii by the reslrirtion of ocenn tr.ivel. and the postponement of the 
>b«r>oni Transatlanlii wmd<«!»s wrvice owim,' to the Kurf)|)ean war. 
nevertheless snlistanlinl iniprovenient.s havi- Imm'u made. The new 
policies of standardising windes-s e<piipment and cimtractinp for it.s use 
on a ba.'»is which pnivide.** a fair rettini for the s<'.r\-icp rendered are now 
well established with shipowners. Important erononiies in ojieration 
have Ihmmi etTected and havo ri-sidtod in a sul>~tantial saving. Then- are 
nearly .VMl ships ecpnpjn"*! with Marconi a]>|iaratus. the majority of such 
eipiipmenis Iwini; leas<>d at the oomjiany's new n-ntal rat«>> for a term of 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1010. 



101 



years. A considerable increase in tlu^ number of contracts had been 
'made, and among the largest may he mcnti(m(Ml the equi])mcnt of 30 
ships oi the Standard Oil ('o., and a contract for standard installations on 
36 larf'O power barges about to bo oyjcrated on the Mississi])))i Itivcr. 
That largo equipment of Marconi api)aratus on inland river barges (the 
largest of which approximates ;j,00() tons) is the most interesting and 
promising development of the com])any's marine service during the year. 
Since the beginning of 191() 3.5 shi])s have been equiy)ped with Marctmi 
apj)aratus. Notwithstanding that ])ractically all ])assenger traffic to 
and from European countries has been suspended, and that American 
shipping has been withdrawn from tiie Pacific;, the receipts from message 
trnftic during 1915 were only about 8 per cent, less than for 1914. There 
has been no change in the commercial status of the trans-Atlantic stations, 
tiic higli power equipments remaining closed to busin(!ss on account of tlic 
war. The British Admiralty still holds for Imperial Government use the 
English plants constructed to ojieratc with the company's Bclmar and 
New Brunswick duplex stations, and thus far, because of the war, it has 
been impossible to open similar direct service with Norway and Northern 
Europe through tlie newly completed high power stations at Marion 
(Mass.) and Chatham (Mass.) Reliable and rapid service has been main- 
tained between stations in California and Hawaii, and the volume of 
traffic shows steady improvement. The Hawaiian stations are two-way 
stations, being constructed so as to work with California and .Japan 
simultaneously. The Japanese Government recently notified that its 
new wireless stations at Funabashi and Otchisi, near Tokyo, are complete, 
and tests are now being made daily with a view to early inauguration of a 
l)ublic service, spanning 5,(500 miles of tho Pacific. Negotiations on 
traffic regulations are now in progress with the .Japanese Government 
Department of Communications, and it is expected that by means of the 
.Japanese (government cables the service will be extended to China, 
Manchuria and other Far Eastern countries. The new circuit connecting 
the United States with Alaska was opened in August, 1915. All of the 
year's production of the factory at Aldenc (N..J.) has been rented, sold to 
patrons, or installed on steamships, in addition to which a number of 
sets have been manufactured on special order for the U.S. Government. 
The management of the company has effected a substantial reduction in 
exyjcnses of *1 11,054. The income derived from investment of surplus 
funds amounted to §87,010, and adding $17,922 interest on stock sub- 
scription, the total income from these sources was $104,932, against 
$150,274. The reduction is explained by the liquidation of investments 
necessitated by capital expenditures. The reserves set aside out of the 
1915 profits for depreciation have been determined on practically the 
same basis as in 1914. After setting aside all reserves, the net profits 
amounted to $177,316, an increase of 18-.30 per cent. This amount has 
been added to the surplus, increasing that account to §541,887. 

ORIENTAL^TELEPHONE & ELECTRIC CO. (LTD.)— The gross earnings 
during 1915 (including dividends and interest from subsidiary companies) 
amounted to £90,630. 17s. 6d., to which . should be added certain pay- 
ments made under the deed of compromise dated June 9, 1915. amounting 
to £15,481. 3s. Id., and with balance from 1914 (£56,136. 8s. 2d.) the 
total is £162,248. 8s. 9d. Deducting working expenses, maintenance, &c. 
(£38,654. 12s. 9d.), depreciation of securities (£5,500), interim dividends, 
debenture interest and redemption charges (£18,367. 15s. 6d.), leaves 
£99,726. Os. 6d. The directors recommend payment of a final dividend 
of 3 per cent, (less tax) for the year on the preference shares (£1,500), and 
of 6 per cent, (tax free) on the ordinaiy shares, making 10 per cent, for 
the year (£10,758. 15s. 7d.), the transfer to reserve account of £70,000, 
andto staff pension fund of £2,000, leaving to carry forward£15,467. 4s. 1 Id. 
The company's exchanges continue to expand and show improved 
revenues. Underground cabling extensions are in progress at Singapore 
and Madras, from the operation of v/hich additional revenue will accrue 
to the company. The Indian local companies show considerably in- 
creased revenues. The Bengal Telephone Co. hufi paid the same dividend 
as for 1914 (7 per cent.) and its directors have decided to purchase a 
central site in Calcutta for erecting a suitable building thereon, in which 
will be installed a new switchboard equipment. The Bombay Co. has 
paid a dividend of 20 per cent., against 16 per cent, for 1914. Both the 
Telephone (jo. of Egyi^t and the China and Japan Telephone & Electric 
Co. have had a satisfactory year ; the former continr.es to pay the pre- 
A-ious rate of dividend of 10 per cent., and the latter 10 per cent., against 
5 per cent, for 1914. 

POTTERIESELECTRICTRACTIONCO. (LTD.)— The reventie for 1915 was 
fl3(),167. Is. 2d., the traffic receipts (£119,872) showing an increase of 
£4,789, compared with 1914. After deducting all expenses, including 
£11,2(59 for debenture and other interest, the balance is £40,872, com- 
joarcd v/ith £35,825. Adding £1,698. 15s. lOd. brought forward the 
available balance is £42,570. The directors recommend that £8,036 bo 
placed to reserve and £10,000 to renewals account, that a dividend at 
rate of 5 per cent, per annum be paid on the preference shares (£12,250). 
and a dividend on the ordinary shares at rate of 3 per cent, per ainium 
(£7,350), leaving to be carried forward £4,935. The receipts fi-om the 
operation of the tramways and omnibus services showed satisfactory 
increases during the second half of the year. Owing to the shortage of 
labour working conditions were exceedingly difficult. The negotiations 
with Stoke-on-Trent (Corporation for the postponement by the Corpora- 
tion for a definite period of their rights to purchase certain portions of 
the company's undertaking, have not so far resulted in agreement. 

SOUTH WALES ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION CO.— Under the 

working arrangement with the Treforest Electrical Consumers Co. (Ltd.) 
the working expenses in connection with this undertaking are now 



home by that company; then- in no revenue account U, U- ^ulirnitt'd '.^r 

lUir>. The dirrf;torH, however, r«-|><.rt that th«? bu 

shows a material incrcuM- durini; th«- y«ar, thi- un . 

28,967,6.56 compan*d with 26,.j|0,|0H in I'.tU. ad h 

units. After payment of all . f, 

debenture stock and making 

Huq)lus amounts to i<)~r>t',. :',-, ^.i 

in(h'btcdn(;sH of tl3,.'>00 to i ert;tiii tii" 

extra charges having Ix-en providMl for, th ' 

to be made f)f the interest on the- old del, (,. . 

ending December 31 last (t.'i.OOi)), leavint; £1.7'. 

account, and making, with baiai. ; 

£3,999. Sani^tion wa« obtained <l. 

i.s.sue of an additif.nai m>.()iH) r,f 5 |»cr cent, pnor lien debenturv <tt'*lt and 

this stf)fk ha ' been didv pla'cfl, 

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH CO.— The rcfjort ffrt- th» •— • —l"! 

Dec. 31 last shows operating revenues, 851,171,7f>5 ; 
expenses, inchiding reserve, rents, &c., !M0,972.'''. ' ' ;. 

to which is addeil §1,303,925 income from loai. 
811,50.3,179. Interest on bonds absorUd >>l.;j;; 
§10,167,591, which, with surplus at D.-eeniber, i ■ 
adjustment of surj)lus, §169,819, makes .S23,h69.3.31. 
§4,986,364, leaving surplus at December, J91.5, .Sl8.H^:.:..". -- 
revenues increased by §4,907,019. Income from loan* ar 
ments increased 27^ per cent., and net income increaaed $4,7y»i.rjT, 
or 89 '3 per cent. 

WOLSELEY MOTORS (LTD,)— The report for 1915 states ths*. •tf'fr 

providing for all expenses, contingencies and depreciation of 

&c., and after charging repair.s and maintenance to revenue, li.t ^ 

for the year has resulted in a net profit of £172.893. The director* 
recommend payment of dividend of 7 per cent, on the r ' ' -. 

and a dividend of 20 per cent, on 300, (K>0 ordinan.' 
placing £30,000 to reserve, and carrying forward £6,513. 



CITY NOTES. 



MEMORANDA (April 18). — Bank rate 5 per cent, (since Aug. 8, 19141. 
Consols 57^. Consols Pay Day, May 4. Stocks and Shares Ticket Days. 
April 27 and May 1 1 . Pay Days.April 28 and .May 12. Price of silver. -iM i(d. 

ANGLO-AMERICAN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— The directors have 
declared an interim dividend for the ((uarter ended March 31 of l.w. 
per cent, on the ordinaiy stock and £1. 10s. per cent, on the preferred 

stock (less tax at 3s. 2d.), payable on May 1. 

BRAZILIAN TRACTION, LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD.)— A quarterly 

dividend of 1 per cent, has been declared on the ordinan.- stock. 

CEDARS RAPIDS MFG. & POWER CO. —The gross earnings for 1"'" 
were §685.593. OpcratiiiL' expenses, including rentals. general exi 
and taxes, absorbed §48,295, and fixed charges §392,246, leaving a Mir- 

plus of §245.0.52. 

EASTERN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— The company announce the pay- 
ment by warrants on .May I of interest for the half-year eii'" " ' -'> 
on their 4 per cent, mortgage debenture stock. The trai,^ : 
the debenture stock will be closed from the 2(;th to 29th insi. inclu»i\i-. 

GREAT NORTHERN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— At the gen 
which will be held at Copenhagen <iii .May 6. tho board w. 
pay a total dividend and bonus of -2 per cent, for the year 19l.">. 
the 5 per cent, already paid, ami to transfer to n-sorvo and n-n. a 
(reduced by £233,202. 10s. 9d. on account of depreciation of soi-urit - 
and to the' pension fund £138.888. 17s. 9d.. ami £22.222. 4s. tW! -• - 
tively. It is also proposed to transfer t27.777. 15s. 7d. to ren' 
for cable steamers and to set aside £83,333. lis. OiL for cxtraoiainiiy 
income taxes. 

INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGKAPH CO. (LTD.)— The directors have cUvlin t 
an interim dividend in resitect of the yivir ending Dec. 31. 1015, at the 
rate of £2. I2s. (id. i)cr share, tax five. 

KALGOORLIE ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHTING CORPN. iLTO.) — 
The directors have declared a dividend on tlir an* at rate 

of 4 per cent, iter annum for the six months ci\i. 

LA PLATA ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS CO. ^LTD.)— The accounts for I'll:.. 

after ineluding £'',614 Inuught forward aiui ' " 

stock and other interest, shov. ;'. balamc of £1.:. 
recommend to be can'ed forward. 

LYMINGTON ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER CO. (LTD. 
from 1914. the profit for 1915 i> 12.447, and after 1 ^ ^ 
interest, &c.. placing £800 to reserve and paying t lie divi.lcn.i ..» the 
5 per cent, preference shan>s. the balance ( l^.U) has Invn carruti (orvrarti 

READING ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.) The accounts for 1913 show 
that, after paving debcniuiv interest. &c.. and st^ttmg aside t.l...<>»» for 
dcprcciati.m, a credit balance of £1.2(52 brought in was rtHlm-ed to 14,>3. 

SUBMARINE CABLES' TRUST.— Notice is given that in accordance with 
the terms of the trust deed, tenders art> invited fn^n the cortihcate- 
holders of certificates to be redeemed out of suqdus income, accrued to 



102 



THE ELECTRICIAN, APRIL 21, 1916. 



15th inst., at a price not to exceed £120 per certificate. Certificate- 
holders desirous of surrendering their certificates on these terms, should 
communicate at once with the secretary (Sidney Collett), Electra House, 
Finsbury-pavement, London, E.G. 

TELEPHONE CO. OF EGYPT (LTD.) — A dividend of 6 per cent, (tax 
free) has been declared on the prefeired and deferred shares, making 10 
per cent, for the year ; £7,905 has been voted for directors' additional 
remuneration, and £193,469 forward. 

VICKERS (LTD.) — A circular has been issued to the shareholders 
statinK that it has been impossible to complete the accounts for sub- 
niission at the usual time to the ordinarj- general meetinff. which the 
articles of association provide should be held not later than in the month 
of April. The directors are, therefore, compelled to ])ostpone the meeting 
to a later date, when the accounts will be submitted. Recognising, 
however, the inconvenience which would be caused if payment of the final 
dividend for the year were also postponed, the directors ftel justified in 
declaring a further dividend of Is. (id. per share (ecjual to 7J per cent., 
tax free) on the ordinarj' share capital in anticipation of the dividend 
payable for 1915. This, with the interim dividend already paid, will 
make a total distribution of 2s. 6d. per share, equal to 12J per cent, for 
the year. 

WINNIPEG ELECTRIC RAILWAY CO.— llie net earnings for 1915 were 
Sl,:{.'} 1,7:57, compared witli !Si.(iS5,09.3 for 1914. After providing for 
fixed charges and dividends amounting to 9\ fxir cent., the net result was 
a deficiency of $:388,898, reducing balance brought fm ward to S782,598 



ELECTRICAL COMPANIES' SHARE Llil.— Continued. 



METAL PRICES. 

Messrs. J. B. Garnham & Sons, 132, Upper Thames-street, London, E.C., quote under 
date, April 13, the following as the present basis prices of 



Nev/ Metals. per lb. 

Solid Drawn Brass Tubes 17d. 

Solid Drawn Copper Tubes 18}d. 

Brazed Copper Tubes Idjd. . 

Brazed Brass Tubes 19d. 

Brass Wire Ibfd. 

Copper Wire 18d. 

Rolled Brass 16ld. 

Brass Sheets Ifcjd. 

per ton. 

Copper Sheets £150 

Spelter £97 



per ton. 

English Lead £35 

Antimony Nominal. 



Old Metals. 



Clean Copper Scrap £100 

Clean Brass Scrap £66 

Braziery Copper Scrap .... .. £92 

Old Lead £27 

Old Zinc £60 

Hollow Pewter £120 

Black Pewter £85 

Gun Metal £82 



per ton. 



Mr. A. Joseph, Earl -street, London -road, Southwark, London, S.E., quotes under date 
April 17, the following approximate prices of Scrap Metai s : — 



per ton. 

Aluminium Cuttings £100 

Clean Mixed Brass £72 

Clean Cooper £108 

Braziery Copper £98 

Gun Metal £86 



per ton. 



Old Lead £30 

Tea Lead £28 

Old Zinc £76 

Hollow Pewter £135 

Shaped Black Pewter £95 



Mr. Joseph can supply solder at the following prices per ton : Plumber's Solder (in bar 
or strip), £80; Commercial Tinman's Solder, £115; Blowpipe Solder, £120. 



ELECTRICAL COMPANIES' SHARE LIST. 

What were known as "official quotations" are not now issued, but 
we give below the latest prioos at whioh actual transactions took place 
on or before .Monday, Ajiril 17. The greatest care is taken in compiling 
these figures, but the difficulty of verification is now much increased. 



lA 


Last 


I 


Divi- 


dend 


10 


6% 


10 


44% 


10 

5 
5 


hfl/ 

1 /o 


St. 
St. 


11 


5 


2,'3 


5 


5% 
4J% 

4% 
44% 


5 

5 

St. 


10 


870 
6/0 


10 


St. 


5% 


St. 


44% 


10 


a 


10 


St. 


44% 


St. 

St. 

5 


f 


St. 


5 


St. 
5 


3% 


St. 


44% 


St. 


0^^ 


St. 


'^ 


1 
4 


1^ 



NAME. 



I Pric*. 
I Mon. 
April 17. 



Rate 
PER cent 
Yielded. 



Electricity Supply. 

Bournemouth & Pcole E.L. Ord 

fDo. 44% Cum. Pref 

TDo. 6% Cum. 2nd Prof 

Brompton & Kensington Ord ■ 

Do. 7% Prof 

Central Eloc. Supp. G. Deb. St 

Charing Cross West End & City Debs 

Do. 44% Pref , 

Do. OrJ 

Do. City Prel 

Chelsea Eloc. Supp. Co. Ord 

Do. do. Deb 

City of London Eloc. Lt. Ord 

Do. b% Pref 

Do. 5% Deb. St , 

Do. 44% Debs ] 

County of London Ord 

Do. 6% Prof 

Do. 1st Dob 

Do. 2nd Deb 

Edmundson's Eloc. Supp. 44% Dobs... 
Kensington and Knightsbrldgo Ord. .. 

Do. Deb. St 

London Eloc. Supp. 6% Prof 

Do. 4% Mort. Debs 

Metropolitan E. Supp. Ord 

Do. 1st Mort. Deb 

Midland Elec. Corpn..lst Mort. Dob. St 
Newci-stlo & Dist. E.L. 6% 2nd Dbs . . 
Novi.castlo-"on-TyneE.S.5%2dMt.Db.St 
North Metropolitan E. P. Supp. 6% Pr«< 
South London E.a Ord 



i5' 

9J 

611 

7 

81 J 
80 

34 

2n 

4| 

87 
Hit 
10 
98 
80 

lO^t 
lOJ 
66} 
97 
75 
5 
79 J 

2,-.t 
80 
99 
994 
91* 

I 

3ib 



s •. 


d. 


6 10 


2 


4 10 





6 3 


1 


7 6 


9 


5 





4 16 


6 


5 





7 


4 


7 15 


4 


8 9 


5 


4 6 


b 


S 3 


5 


b lb 


2 


6 '1 





5 2 





5 12 


6 


6 IS 


9 


5 17 


I 


5 4 


2 


4 12 


9 


6 





7 





5 1 





7 1 


2 


5 





b 3 


1 



DrvIDBND 

DuK. 



5 It 
5 I 
b 

5 9 
b 

6 10 



Mar, Sept 
Feb, Aug 
Fob Aug 
Mar, Sept 
Mar, Aug 

Jan, Julr 

Aug, Fob 
I un , Dec 
Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 
Feb. Aug 
Mar, July 

iun. Doc 
un, Dec 
Mar. Sept 
Fob, Au< 
Jan, July 
My. No» 

July 
Feb, AuR 
Jan, July 

Jan, July 

Mar, Aug 

Ian, luly 

Jan, July 

Mar, ^opt 

Mar, Sept 

Apl. Oct 

1 Mar, Sept 



i Lasti 
a Divi-I 

M DEND 



NAME. 



Frlc*, I Rate 
Mon, I PBR cent, 
April 17. YiBLDBD. 



5 8% ' 

5 7% 

St 34% 

St 41% 

1 &% 

5 7% 

5 44% 

=*• i 5% 

St I 6% 

St Wo 

St 4% 

St. 4% 

I!: II 

St 4% 

St. 1% 

St 34% 

St. 34% 

St. 34% 

St 34% 

St. 
St. 
St. 
St. 
St 
St 



4% 

St. 4% 



1 
1 









St. 








2 








100 


10 





St. 


.0 





5 








5 








St. 








1 



} 14% 
6% I 

r«i 

^ 6% 
5 15% 
5 3/0 
1 6% 
44% 
74% 
6% I 

.^> 
15% 

2/b I 

44% 

6% j 

4 % I 
b% 

, a 

.3 10% 

5 20% 
. 5 2/3 I 
St I 44% 1 

10 10% ; 
10 5% 1 
12 20% 1 

100, 4% : 

1 '*%! 

1 6d. 
St. I 4°/ 

no 

4% 
4% 



St. 
1 
1 

St. 



St. 
St. 



& 



St 30/0 

St 14% 

St 4% 

10 5% 

10 10% 

5 5/0 

10 4% 

St 70/0 

St 17/6 

St. 4% 

3t 4% 

10 7% 

10 22% 

25 13% 

j 10% 
>1 7% 

10 1°^ 

10 6 

10 1% 

St 4 

•• 44% 



Electricity Supply— coni. 

St. James' & Pall Mall Ord 

Do. do. Pref 

Do. do. Debs 

Urban Elec. Supp 44% Db. St 

Waste Heat & Gas Elec. Gen. Stations.. 
Westminster E.S. Corp. Ord 

Do. 44% Cum. Pref 

Electric Railways & Tramways. 

Britisrj Elec. Tractio.n 5% Debs 

Do. 6% Cum. Pref 

Central London Guar. Assented Ord. .. 

Do. do. Assented Def. Ord. .. 

Do. 44% Pref 

Do 4% Deb. St 

City & S. London Deb 

Do. Pref. 1896 

London Electric Ry. Ord .'. . 

Do. 4% Pref 

Do. 4% Debs 

Metropolitan Ry. Con. Ord 

Do. 34% Pref 

Do. 34% Convertible Pref 

Do. 34% A Debs 

Do. 34% Debs 

Metropolitan Dist Ry. Ord 

Do. 4% Prior Lien 

Do. 44% First Pref 

Do. 6% Perp. Debs 

Do. 4% Debs 

Do. 4% Debs. (1903-5) 

Do. 4% Guar. Stock 

Electric Manufacturing, &e. 

Babcock & Wilcox Ord 

Do. 6% Pref 

Brit. Aluminium Ord 

Do. Prior Lien Debs 

Do. 6% Pref 

Brit. Insulated & Helsby Ord 

Dc. 6% Cum. Pref 

British L.M.Ericssion Mfg. Cm.6% Prof. 

British Thomson-Houston Db 

Brit. Westinghouse Pref 

Do. 6% Prior Li* Debs 

Do. 4% Mort. Deb. St 

Callonder's Cable, &c., Co. Ord 

Do. 5% Pref 

Do. 4J% Debs..; 

Dick, Kerr & Co. 6% Pref 

Edison & Swan U.Elec.Lt A. £3 pd 

Do. 4% Deb 

Elec. Construction Ord 

Do. 7% Cum. Pref 

Do. 4% Debs 

General Electric Ord 

Do, 6% Pref 

W. T. Henley's Telegh. Wks. Co. Ord. , 

Do. 44% Cum. Pref 

Do. 44% Db 

India Rubber, G. P. &c., Ord 

Do. Pref 

Telo^h. Con. & Main. Co 

Do. 4% Debs 

Vickors Ord 

Do. 5% Prof 

Do. 1st Debs 

Do. 44% 2nd Debs 

Willans & Robinson B. Cum. Pref.. . . 

Do. 1st Mt. Deb. St 

Telegraphs, 



Anglo American 6% Pref. Ord 

Do. Def. Ord 

Commercial Cable 4% Dabs 

Cuba Submarine Ord 

Do. 10% Prof 

Direct Spanish 10% Prof 

Direct United States 

Eastern Tel. Co. Ord 

Do. 34% Pref 

Do. 4% Dobs 

Etastorn Extension Tel. Co., 4% Dobs.. 

Do. Ord 

Gt. Northern Tel. Co 

Indo-European 

Marconi's Wireless Tol. Co 

Do. 7% Prof 

West India & Panama Ord 

Do. 1st Pref 

Wostorn Telogh. Co ^ . . . 

Do. 4% Deb. St. 



St. 
St 



5 

S 

St 



1 1\&. 

1 10% 

44 



8% 



10 6% 

10 6% 

103 5°, 

.. 4*^ 

100 b% 



5 

St 

10 6/- 

st 44% 

IS 



Western Union 50 yr. Bis 

Telephones. 

r:onto Video Tolephn. Ord 

•Oriental Telephone Ord 

Do. Db. St _ 

Telophn. Co. of Egypt Db. St 

United River Plato Ord 

Do. 5"o Cum. Prof 

I Do. De!v Stk ,.... 

I Financial and investment. 

Globe Telegh. ii Trust 

Do. b% P( 

Mackay Companies' Common 

Do. $100 Pref 

Submarine Csbl.- Trust Gorts 

j Colonial and Foreign Electric 

I Adelaide Elec Supply b\ Pref 

Do. 5% DeLv. , 

Bombay E S «tT6% Prof , 

Do. 44% Dei 

, Calcutta E. S Corp. Ord , 

Da 5%Pref , 



5tt 

5« 
74 
63 

14 

5i 

78i 

71 

66 

64i 

991 

93i 

72 

624 

2A 
64 
05 
261 
77* 
741 

e2i 

83i 

<0| 

92 

702 
108i 
714 
704 
68 

214 
144 

lAt 
89 

lOA 

i 
91 
2At ' 
100 
65J 
III 

*4 I 
98 

Li 
59' 

ii 

1 
72 
11 

9* 

l44t 

41 
874 

9« 

74 
35 
554 

Mi 
} 
80 
994 
414 
504 

984 

21* 

69 

7A 
13 = j 

74! 

5i 
'.41 
631 
79 
77i 

»4A . 

35i 
4?i 

li 

\t 

144 
77* 
991 1 

in 

83 
6 

M' 

841 

10« 
lOAt 

624 

70 
124 



£ s. d 
6 17 8 

6 

4 14 

5 8 

7 10 

6 1 
5 U 



6 4 
8 9 
6 1 
6 4 
4 10 

4 5 

5 13 11 
8 

6 1 3 
6 5 
4 14 4 

3 16 11 

4 10 4 
4 13 9 
4 4 6 
4 4 1 



4 ' 

6 7 

5 10 
5 12 
5 13 
5 17 



4 

4 
4 
5 
6 
7 
5 
6 
4 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
4 
7 

5 
7 
7 
5 
9 
6 
6 
4 
5 
10 
6 
6 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4 
9 
7 

6 

7 
5 
6 
7 
6 
6 
4 
5 
S 
S 
5 
6 
6 
4 
3 



15 

9 
U 
12 
12 

3 
15 
17 
18 11 

5 5 





1 

9 
10 
11 
13 

4' 

7 

11 

1 

10 
17 
14 

2 

1 
15 
18 

6 

4 
14 


10 
12 
18 

1 
2 
15 11 




8 

9 
10 
8 

3 

8 

1 
10 
4 
1 
9 
9 
3 
7 


3 
3 

5 
9 
5 

10 




1 

5 
13 
18 
19 
10 

1 

3 

5 

3 
10 
10 

u 

8 16 10 
7 12 11 

5 
5 3 7 
4 10 3 



6 
1 
< 
6 
3 
8 
3 

10 
8 

11 
4 
2 
8 



6 12 5 

5 8b 

5 U 

5 8 5 

b 13 

5 10 

5 6 



DtTIDRKD 

Du& 



Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Jan. Dec 

Apl, Oct 
Mar, Aug 

Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 

Apl, Oct 
Feb, Au? 



Jan; July 
Jan, July 
May. Nov 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 
Mar. Sept 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aug 
May, Nov 
Fob, Au? 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Mar, Sept 

Apl, Oct 
Apl, Oct 

Mar 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Aug, Feb 
Jan, July 
Mar, Sep 
Feb, Aug 

April 
Apl, Oct 
Ja.n, July 
Jan, July 
F'ob, Aug 
Jun, Dec 

Sept 
Feb. Aug 
Jun, Dec 

May 
Jan, July 
Jan, luly 

July 
Jun, Doc 
Fob, Aug 

Jun, Dec 
Feb, Aug 
Apl, Oct 
Mar, July 
Jan, July 
May, Aug 
May. Aug 
Jun, Dec 
Jiin, Dec 



Fb,My,Aug,N 
Fb,My,Aug,N 
Ja.Ap,Jly,0 
May, Nov 



Ia,Ap,Jly,0 

Ja,My,Jly,0 

]a.My,Jly,0 

May, Nov 

Feb, Aug 

Ja, Ao.Jly.O 

Ja, My.Jly 

Mayi Nov 

April 

; July 

I May Nov 
May, Nov 

Mr.Jly.O.Dec 
Jun, Dec 
May, Nov. 



Nov. 
Apl. Oct 



4 
4 

2 1 



5 11 

5 19 

6 1 
5 14 

4 16 



Supply, & c. 

4a b 10 8 



954 

101 

874 

b* 

41 



5 4 9 

5 18 6 

5 2 10 

7 5 5 

5 14 3 



Jan. July 
Jan, July 
Apl, Oct 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 

Sp.Dc.Mr.Jn 
Sp.Dc.Mr.Jn 
Ja.Apl.Jly.O 
Ja,Ap,Jiy,0 
Apl, Oct 

Mar, Sept 
Jun, Dec 

Jan. July 
May, Nov 
Mar, Sept 



t Ex dividend or Intereit 



*And 134% boniu. t Ex dividend or intereit 



l<- 



THE ELECTRICIAN: 



THE OLDEST WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND FINANCE. 

KSTABI.ISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861 ; Second Series (Weekly), 1878 
JorNT Editors: W. R. COOPER and H. H. BROUGHTON. 



No. 1,980. 



r No. 4. 1 
Lvol. LXXVII.J 



FRIDAY, APRIL 28, 1916. 



Price Sixpence ^j.. 

Abroad 9d.. or » ctntz. ■:r \tr., » fipt 



CONTENTS OF THE CURRENT NUMBER. 



Notes 103 

Arrangements for the Week . 105 

A Mode of Studying Damped 

Oscillations by the Aid of 

Shrinking Vectors. By 

Prof. David Robertson, 

D.Sc. Illustrated 106 

Tests on a Polyphase Con- 
tinuous-Current Converter 
of 3,000 kw. Capacity. By 

C. F. Holmboe. Illustrated 108 
"Speeding Up" in an En- 
gineering Factory. By R. 
Rankin, B.Sc. — Concluded... 110 

Transformer Design. By F. M. 

Denton, A.C.G.I. — Con<zmt£fi 113 
Service Branches from Extra 

High-Tension Circuits. By 

D. M. MacLeod 116 

Sir J. J. Thomson on Radia- 
tion from Atoms and Elec- 
trons. lUus. — Concluded .. 118 

An Extraordinary Bill 120 

Reviews 121 

Experimental Wireless Sta- 
tions : Their Theory, De- 
sign, Construction and 
Operation [Edelman]. 
Elements of Heat-Power 
Engineering [Hirshfeld 
and Barnard]. 



Reviews — Continued. 
Machine Design [Smith and 
Marx]. 

An Unusual Foundation for a 
Turbo-Alternator. By G. L. 
Knight. Illustrated 122 

On a General Bridge Method 
for Compar