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i 



•leti -.0 tlie Electrical Rev 
July 5th, 1918. 



THE 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW 



Vol. LXXXII. 

JANUARY 4 — JUNE 28, 1918. 



LONDON : 

H. ALABASTER, GATEHOUSE & KEMPE, J 

4, LUDGATE HILL. E.G. 4 



liulel lo tiie Kifcuiiai 
July 5th, I9I'-. 



i onb cn : 

Publishes by the Pkoprietoss, 

AT 4, LUDGATE HiLL, E.C. 4. 



[^\ LIBRARY 
\o>~''DEC' .^ 

mr ^'r' IK 






July 5, 1918.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Ti.f ni „.t, k.„ii.^. --Authors Bankrcptct Proceedings, City Notes, Contracts Closed and Open, Correspondence, Institution and Lecture Notes, LegaI., 
Lighting AND POWER Notes, Liquidations, New Companies, New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant, Obituary, Official Returns, Railway 
Notes, Reviews, Telegraph Notes, Telephone Notes, Tramway Notes, War Items. 



A 



BER'llIAW Cement Works, 34 



Accident, Glasgow tramcar, 110 

Accidents in mines. The use of elec- 
tricity and electrical, 333 

Accumulator manufacture in Norway, 
323 

Accumulators, Controlled supply of, 2'Z7 

m ' . , 

Aeroplanes, Electrical equipment ol 



Gon 



542 



After the war. export trade, Co-opera- 
tion for, 190 

After the war trade and standardisa- 
tion, 160 

Agriculture, Electricity in, 88, 257 

Air compressors and Diesel engines, 
Lubrication of. 33 : 

Air pumps. An investigation of. 41 

Air pumps for high vacua. High effi- 
ciency, bv E. Jones, 21 

Algeria, Coal' in, 308 

A. E. G. stocks in Australia, Disposal 
of, 107 

.\Ilowances. Income-tax, wear and tear 
and obsolescence, by J. J. H. 
Stansfield. 436 

.Alternator short-circuit currents. Limit, 
ing. 136 

Aluminium in .\ustria-Hungory, 491 

Aluminium worlcs, New, 270 

Aluminium in transformers, 292 

Aluminium in U.S.A., Price of. 227 

Aluminium industry, French bauxite 
and, 58 

Aluminium, Troces'ses for the manu- 
facture ol, 221. 263 

.\malgamated Society of Engineers, 87, 
107 

Amalgamated Society of Engineers, 
Hull station engineers and the. 161 

.Amalgamated Society of Engineers and 
man power, 73, '183 

Amalgamation. An electrical, 179 

America, Battery -j. magneto ignition 



An 



an electric steel furnace, A large, 



American engineers and the forces. 136 
American exports of electrical gooils. 

298 
.\inerican generating systems, Output 

of large. 471 
American price for copper, 516 
American water power, 315 
America's electrical Christmas. 8!) 
Anglo-Italian trade relations, 131 
Appointments vacant. 16. 41, 64, 89, 

112 13.5, l(i1. 182. 208. 232. 257. 

27a; ,305. 329. 3."i2, 375. 398, 424. 

447, 472, 495. 519. 543. 567, .593 
Appi.nliceships f..mmercial. 443 
ArhilLiticn. Conciliation and, .593 
Association c.l Urilish Electrical En- 
gineers (Eleclricitv Supply Section), 

544. 5U7, 582. 606 
.Association ol Electric Power Engin- 
eers. 137, 146. 152. 160. 182. 256. 

278. 326, 377, 448. 470. 544. 568. 

584. 593, 615. 
Association of Gre.it Britain and France 

(Industry and Economics), 376 
Asynchronous g^enerators, 363 
Atmospheric nitrogen production in 

England. 183. 352 
Australia. British manufacturers in, 

434, 455 



a, British manul.-icturing in, 579 
ia. Disposal of A. E. G. stocks 



Australia, Electrical 



ufactur 



149 



Electrical standards 
Engineering training in, 256 
Import trade of. 86 
Remuneration of professional 
in. 111 



Sale 



of electrical cables 
ion Electric Co." 



Australis 
Australi; 
Australi; 



contracts, 515 
electrical trades, 465 
industrial agreement. An. 

lian industrial organisation, 233 
lian trade, Japan and, 491 
, Electrical developments in. 240 
, Linking-up in Germany and, 
L 

i-Hungary. Aluminium in. 491 
in electricity supply. Legislation 



Allcock. H.. on Great Britain's in- 
terest in the metric system of 
weights and measures, 196 

Andrews. L., on The overseas dis- 
tribution of engineering appli- 



.\rnold. A., 



405 



Steam condensation. 



" Atlantic," on Some interesting 
f.icts relating to lamp renewals, 

BaldwTn, F. G. C. on Telephone ex- 
change transfers and their or- 
gaiusation. 172 

Barclay, S. F., on The mechanical 
design and specification of the 
turbo-alternator rotor, 395, 319, 
357 

Barham, G. Basil, on Industrial re- 
search, 93; on Electrical shoe- 
making. 319; on Lubrication and 
electrical plant. 509 

Bennett. C. M., on The saving of 
fu<I, 430; on Clinker dams, 507 

Bonnctt. L. B. & J. M.'Drabelle. on 
An automatic hydro-electric plant, 

Caldwell. Capt. James, on Notes on 
welding systems, 77, 117, 501 

Cumberbatch, E. P., on Diathermy : 
The use of the tiectrical current 
to raise the temperature of the 
body in the treatment of disease. 

Drabelle, J. M., & L. B. Bonnelt. on 
An automatic hydro-electric plant, 

598 
" Ex-Shift Dog," on Reminiscences. 

4, 27, 51 
G.arrard, C. C. on Switchgcar 

standardisation, 197, 337 335 
Gillott, W. A., on Electrical cooking 

as applied to large kitchens, 93. 

118, 479 
Harding, L., on A curious case of 

wear bv a lubricating ring, 148 
Hnrrison. 'I.t.-C.mdr. H. T.. on 

.M.thods of dirteting and coiicen- 

lialing light, 223 



.\u iHOKs — continued 

Hedges, K., on Tubular earths for 
lightning conductors, 411 

Bering, C, on A new principle in 
the flow of heat, 214 

Hibbard, H. L., on The application 
of electricity to various auxili- 
aries on ^ipboard. 22 

Hodgson, E. S., on Some considera- 
iions on the British electrical in- 
dustry after the war, 28 

Hunter, T. M., on Gas firing boilers, 
28, 72, 95 

Hutchison, D. M. W., on Cable fault 
localisation in practice, 52 

" Imperial," on A British ideal for 
manufacturers, 508 

" Imprimatur," on The promulgation 
of improvements in design and 
manufacture, 340 
• Jacobs. C. M., on Electrical signal- 
ling and control of railways, 69, 
70, 359, 503 

Jones, E.. on High efliciency air 
pumps for high vacua. 21 

Knox, Dr. R., on Single-impulse 
riidioeraphy (instantaneous), its 
limit.alions and possibilities, 382 

Lackic, W. W., on The Dain 



po« 






223 



' Legal Contributor." on The war 
and charges for electricity, 364 

Macleafi, Prof. Magnus, on Kelvin 
as a teacher, 167 

McKinnon. E. C. on Large batteri.s 
for power purposes. 412. 436 

Marchant. Prof. li. W.. on Some 
transient phenomena in electrical 
supply systems, 525 

Marshall,' C W., on A novel trans- 
former analogy, 28; on Disabled 
soldiers as meter repairers in 
Glasgow Corporation electricity 
department, 429 

Morgan, E. S.. on Electrical develop- 
ments in Italy, 220, 243, 267 

Murgatroyd, F., on Iron commuta- 

Newlands, .A., on Watcrpower in 

Great Britain, 125 
" Power Station Engineer," on 

National electricity supply, 171, 

213, 309, 317, 339 
•' Research," on Disabled soldiers 

and their employment, ,532 
Rice. E. W., Junr., on Railway elec- 



-ifica 



of 



fuel, 358 

Rolhera, L., on Rolling mills and 
the electric drive, 165 

■* Rover," on Consumers' complaints, 
147 

Rvmer-Jones, J., on On computing 
the speed of receiving » telegra- 
phic message through submarine 
cables. 556 

Savage. H.. on The sl.ind.ird resist- 
ance and temperature coeffiojent 
of pure .mne-iled copper, 486 

Smith. P. H.. on Two essential con- 
ditions for burning tar oil in 
Dies.l engines. 575 

Slansfield. J. J. H.. on Income-tax : 
Wear and tear and obsolescence 



alio 



43K 



the 



390 



Ove 



ade after 



Stubbings, G. W., on Some notes 
on coal testing, 5; on Tempera- 
ture effects in D.C. meters, 195; 

lion switchboards. 573 

Thornton, I'rof., on Insulation under 
direct and alternating current, 
particularly as regards moisture, 
262 

Trotter, A. P., on Illuminating en- 
gineering, 8; on Nomenclature; 
Continuous current versus direct 
current and voltage versus pres- 
sure. 268 

Turnbull, C, on A British electrical 
proving house, 4,53, 477. 487 

■' \V. G. N.," on The selection of an 
electricity meter, 75 

Wardle, P.. on Joints on triple-con- 
centric to three-core lead-covered 
cables, 389 

Watson, S. J., Presidential address 
at the I.M.E.A. annual conven- 
tion, 1918, 622 

Wetlmore, E. B., on The control of 
Large amounts of power. 244, 285, 
310, 334, 366, 454. ;i74 

" Whistlefield." on Leaves from an 
engineer's log : 1, The munition 
workers, 219; 2, The trials of 
Sandy McNab. 261 

" X," on Resistances fur starters and 



roUe 



100 



Autoiiiatir hydro-electric plant. An, by 

J. M. Drabelle S: L. B. Bonnett.i 

598 
.Autoin.ilic telephone exchange, Leeds, 

483 
.Automatically operated synchronising 

station. 'An, 279 
Award, The 12^ per cent., 85, 183, 233, 

423 
Awards, Prize, 15 
Awards, Wages, 256, 278 
Aylesbury, Extensions at, 365 



B^ 



posi 



pol 



BANKuriMCY Proceedings — , 

Birkctl. W. D., 563 

Connold, R. E., 491 ] 

Coster, S. S. & Co., 202 , 

Damey. C. 394 
Kahn, W. J. 36 

Felgale. A. E., 227, 394, 589 , 

Hipkins, G. E.. 60. 179. 302 
Mountain, M. B. (The Economy .Ap- , 
pliances & Engineering Co.), 391 i 
Ogilvic, C. B.. 60 

Smith, W. T., 60. 132. 179, 611 ' 

Storey, W.. 227, 394, 589 .i 

Banks, After-war electrical trade and 

Industrial, 273 

Batteries for power purposes. Large, ■ 

by E. C. McKinnon. 412. 436 j 

naltifies from Norway. No dry. .302 ! 

Battery manufacture in Spain, 420 •( 

B 



THE ELECTMOAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[JuLT 5, 1918. 



SdUer> V. magneto ignition in Americ;i. 

Bauxite and aluminium industry. 

l-runch, 58 
H.Tvarian water powers. The utilisation 

of, 301 
l*.<-pievolent Institution, The Electrical 

Trades — Annual meeting, 455 
li.iicvolent Institution, Electrical Trades 

— The special appeal, tCi, 25a, 4KI» 
Hii.ninjihain manufacturers and the 

Uhilley Report, 161, 592 
Blackpool linkin^-up scheme, 377 
Blade clearance in turbines, Obscrvin;*, 

4-W 
Blast-lurn.icc gas, Ulectrical cleaning 

o(, 327 
Kn.ird of Trade Electria Power Supply 

Committee's report, Jl8, 534, liUli 
Board of Trade Trainwavs Committee, 

•Jhe, 122, 162, 184, 209 
Boilers, Gas firing, by T. .M. Hunter, 



29. 



95 



Bonus, Building trades and the, 376 
Bonus, Electrical workers', 41, 110 
Bonuses and bacon, 376 
Bonuses, Munition workers, 8!) 

industry. Syndication in t 



624 



Brazil, 227 

l;.azil. Rubber stocks in, 251 
Hiazil, Trade statistics of, 400 
lirighton Electricity Works award, 424 
Kriiish Association meeting cancelled, 

232, 470 
British dye making induslr;. The de- 
velopment of the, 550 
Riiiisb Electrical and Allied Manufac- 



:iatit 



ing, 257, 287, 293 
British Electrical and Allied Manufac- 

tiuers' Association, List of new 

members, 207 
British Electrical Engineers, 315 
British Electrical Engineers (Eleclriritv 

Suppiv Section). Association o(, 

327, 544, 567, 582, 606 
British electrical industry after the 

w.ar. Some considerations tin the, 

by E. S. Hodgson, 3t 
British electrical proving house, .^, bv 

C. Turnbull, 453, 477, 487 
British l-:ngineers' Association, 233. 568 
British engineering standards, Adop- 

tiun abroad of, 404, i"i3 
Brilish ideal for manufacturei's. A, by 

" Imperial." .508 
British fndu.slries Eair. 1918. 36, 232, 



Br 



rcrs in Australia, 
ng in Australia'. 579 



Building trades 'and the 



f~* ABLE ducts. Cooling. 470 

i-able fault localisation in practice, hv 
n. M. \V. Hutchison, .d 

Cable laying. The Ministry of Muni- 
linns and restrictions on !.'». 23:^. 
472 

Cable, Relaxing old. 326 



able 






567 



Cables. Computing the speed of receiv- 
ing a telegraphic message through 
submarine, by J. Rymer-Jones, ,556 

Cables. Glover's detective and protective 
devices- for, 604 

Cables in Australia, Sale of electrical. 
■.6U 

Tables. Inrre.asing the earrving rapa- 
city of underground, 367 

Cables. Joint boxes and terminals for 
split conductor, 3, 65 

CaHes, Joints on triple-concentric to 
three-core lead-coveied cables bv P. 
Wardle, 389 

California. Linking up in, 208 

Callender's hospital and distress lund. 



pies, 184 



136 
Calorised iron lor therm 
Cai.aila, fixj)orts from, 51 
Cana<l-,r. Notes from. 392 
Canada, Water-power ('evelopnirnl in. 

399, 470 
Canadi.in fuel situatioii, .'»92 
Canal, A projected .'American ship. 399 
Canals relieving railways of traffic. 3.56 
til station employes, Wages of. 



14 
Central 



alisa 



361 



Lead and copper fron 



of electric power. 207 
Charges for electricitv. The war an.l. 

by Lr.g.al Contributor, 364 
Ch.'ese-niaking in a power house, 495 
Chester. Electrii-culture at, 101 
Ch.sterfield Electricitv Works, Exten- 
sions at. 328, 511 
fhicago. Electric truck service in. 363 
Chicago. Ehctiical progress in. 326 
Chile. 516 

Chile. Electrical imports of, 251 
.China. Competition in electrical trad.- 

in. 610 
China. Import trade of. .514 
City &• Guilds ul l.ondon Institute. 112 



:iTY Notes — continued. 
Altrincham Electric Supply Co., 427, 

451 
Aluminium Corporation, 596, 618 
American Telephone & Telegraph Co., 

355 
.■\nderston Foundry Co., 524 
Anglo-.Amcrican Telegraph Co., 91, 

380, 451 
.\nglo-.\rgentine I'ramways Co., 571 
.Anglo-Portuguese Telephone Co., 476, . 

499. 5-22 
.Argentine Tramways & Power Co., 

4-27 
.\uckland Electric Tramways, 428 
Austrian companies, 498 
Automatic Telephone Manufacturing . 

Co., 28:i 
Avery, W. & T.. 630 
Babcock & Wilcox, 474 
Barcelona Iraction, Light & Power 

Co., 595, 619 
B.-ith Electric Tramways, 427 
Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroail 

Co., 188 
Bombav Electric Supply &'' Tramways 

Co'., 331, 571 
Bournemouth & Poole Electricitv 

Supply Co., 335, 259 
Brazilian Traction, Light & Power 

Co., 571 
Brisbane Electric Traction & Light- 
ing Co., 499 
Bristol Tramways & Carriage Co.. 

283 
British Aluminium Co., 284, 307 
British Coalite Co., 19. 427 
British Columbia Electric Railway 

Co., 18, 67 
British Electric Traction Co., 524, 

596. 619 
British Electric Transformer Co.. ^ 

403, 426 
British Engine, Boiler & Electrical 

Insurance Co., 380 
British Ever-Ready Co.. 451. 475 
British Insulated & Helsby Cables. 

187, 235, 283, 330, 475, 571 
British L. M. Ericsson Manufactur- 
ing Co., 211, 262 
British Trade Corporation, 115 
British Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Co., 3.55, 427, 449 
Bromlev (Kent) Electric Light and 

Power Co., 331, 403 
Brompton & Kensington Electric 

Supply Co., 284, 330 
Brotherton Tubes & Conduits, 547 
Browett Lindley & Co.. 427 
Brush Electrical . Engineering Co., 
.523. 572. 619 

Port & City Tramways. 



19 



& Light 



Burmah Electric Tr 

ing Co.. 19 
Calcutta Electric Suppiv Corporation. 

140, 284, 331, 476,' 499, 546. 595 
Calcutta Tramways Co.. 571. 619 
Callender's Cable & Construction Co., 

258 



Charing Cross. West End, & Citv 
Ele.:tricity Suppiv Co., 2.58, -281. 
354 

Chelsea Electricity Supply Co.. 331 

riiile Telephone Co., 19 



Chiswick Electr 



186 



Supply Corpora 



Co. 



City of Buenos Aires Traniw 

(1904). 115, 163. 427 • 
City of London Electric Light Co.. 

'211, 259: 330 
Clarke. Chapman & Co., 331. 428. 

620 "^ 

Clevel.ind & Dunham Electric Power 
Co.. 331 
(Ivde Valley Electrical Power Co.. 



307 



Light. 



Colombo Electric Tram 

ing Co., 595 
Compagnia de Electricidad de la Pro- 

vincia de Buenos Aires, 332 
Compagnie Generale d'Electriciti, 115 
Companies struck oft the register, 19. 

44. 92, 451. 523 
Consolld.lted Electrical Co.. 355 
Cordoba Light. Power Si Traction 

Co.. 19 
Countv of London Fk^tric SuppK 

Cb.. 67. 258 
Coventry Chain 'Co., 19 
Craignark Electric Cable Co., 4.51. 

476 
Crompton &• Co.. 44, 331 
Crossley Bros., 163. 234 
Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co., 403 
Davis & Timmins. 235. 281 
Delhi Electric Tramways & Lighting 

Co.. 571 
Direct Spanish Telegraph Co., 258, 

283 
Direct United States Cable Co.. 43. 

379, 428 
Doulton S: Co., 547 
Dublin S: 'Lucan Electric Railway 



A.l.-laid.' F.lecll-ic Supply Co.. 91, 114. Dublin" United Trar 

428 i™ 

Ald.-rley & Wilmslow Electric SuppK 
Co.. 402 *^ 

Allen (E.lgnrl 8: Co., 619 



try Notes— co.ilimicd. 
Eastern Telegraph Co., 282, 619 
Edison Swan Electric Co., 67, 476 
Electric Construction Co., 499, 523 
Electrical & Industrial Investment 

Co., 235 
Electrical Distribution of Yorkshire, 

187 
Electro-Bleach & By -Products, 187. 

379, 403 
l-:yered & Co., 428 
l-'tlloyvs Magneto Co., 59U 
l-'ile Tramway, Light & Power Co., 

187, 211 
Folkestone Eletrtricity Supply Co., 

355 
Eraser & Chalmers, 283 
French electrical companies, 18, 44. 

115, 187, 466, 475, 547, 573 ^ 
French Thomson-Houston Co., 475, 

523 
dandy Belt Manufacturing Co.. 91 ' 
General Electric Co., 67 
General Electric Co. (U.S.A.), 522 
Germ.-in Electrical Companies, 43, 

331, 402, 475, 523 
German Lahmever Co., -283 
Globe Telegraph & Trust Co., 187, 



G|. 



619 



East London Railway Co.. 115 
Eastern Extension. Australasia 
China Telegi-aph Co.. 283. 620 



W. T.. & Co., 259, 355 
Great Northern Telegraph Co. (of 

Denmark), 475 
Hadfields. 283 

Hastings & District Electric Tram- 
way, 307 
Henley's Telegraph Works Co., W. 

T., 211, 307, 355. 401 
Hill of Howth (Co. Dublin) Electric 

Tramway Co.. 163 
Hong Kong Tramway Co., 163 
Humphrey Pump Co., 19 
Imperial Tramways Co., 619 
Indian Electric Supply & Traction 

Co., 499 
Indo-Eliropean Telegraph Co., 379, 

450 
Industrial & General Trust, 546 
Isle of Thanet Tramyvays & Lighting 

Co., 92, 4'28 
Italy, 332 

Johnson & Phillips. 379, 402, 427 
Kalgoorlie Electric Power & Lighting 

Co., 139, 163, 571, 618 
Kaministiquia Poyver Co., 44, 67 
Keith (Jas.) & Blackman Co., 595 
Kensington & Knightsbridge E. L. 

Co., 211, 359, 354 
Kidderminster & District Electric 

Lighting Si Tr.iction Co., 499 
I.a Plata Electric Tramways, 547 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co.. 403 
■ Lancashire United Tramways, 187 
Launceston & District Electric Suppiv 

Co., 355 
l.cyves & District Electric Supply Co., 

499 
Lim.i Light, Power S: Tramways Co., 

44, 331 
Liverpool Overhead Railyvay Co., 67. 

187. 210 
Llandudno Si Colwyn B.ay Electric 

Railway Co., 163, 187 
I.lanellv Si'District Electric Lighting 

and Traction Co., 187 
London & Suburban Traction Co., 

163. 522 
London Electric Railway Co., 186 
London Electric Suppiv Corporation, 

334 
London United Tramwavs, 283. 427 
Lvmington Electric Light Si Power 

Co.. 402 
Mackay Companies, 307 
M.idras Electric Tr.imyvavs (1904), 

284. 403 
Manila Electric Railroad S: Lighting 

Corporation. 284 
.Mansfield & District Tramwavs. 211 
Marconi International Marine Com- 
munication Co., 619 
Marconi Wireless Co. of America, 

380. 547 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. 91 
Mather Si Piatt. 163, 187 
Melbourne Electric Suppiv Co., 91, 

113. 428 
Melton .Mowbrav E. L. Co.. 259 - 
Mersev Power Co.. 331 
.Mersey Railway Co., 187 
Mertlnr Electric Traction S: Light- 
inn Co., 499 
Metropolitan Carriage, W'agoti and 

Finance Co., 499 
Meiropofitan District Railway Co.. 

186, 211 
Metropolitan Electric Supply Co.. 234. 

2.58 
Metropolitan Electric Tramyvays. 4'2" 
Metropolitan Railway Co., ll'5, 140 
.Midland Electric Corporation for 

Power Distribution. 332 
Minr-hr-ad Electric Suppiv Co., 476 
Mirrlees. Watson Si Co., 307. 331, 524 
Monte \ideo Telephone Co.. 402, 4'27 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power Con- 
solidated Co., 620 
Montreal Light, Heat S: Power Co., 

11.5, 451, 6'20 
Nairobi Electric Poyver ' & Lighting 

Co, 476 
N'alional Boiler S: General Insurance 

Co., 187 
National Electric Supply Co.. 187, 211 
National Gas Engine Co.. 140. 163 
N.-uhausen Aluminium ('o.. 283. ' 403 
New General .Tr.action Co.. 571 
Neyvcaslle &■ Dlstrirr E. T.. Co. 235. 
383 



ITV NOTKS— COIl/illOcJ. 

.Ncyvcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Suppiv- 

Co., 163, 259', 306 
Newmarket Electric Light Co., '307 
Nitrogen Products & Carbide Co., 451 
North Metropolitan Electric Power 

Suppiv, 427 
North of Scotland Electric Light and 

Power Co., 451 
.Northampton Electric Light & Power 

Co., 211, 259 
Notting Hill E. L. Co., 235 
Uldham, Ashtun & Hyde Electric 

Tramways Co., 403 
Oriental felephone & Electric Co., 

139, 596, 619 
Oxford Electric Co., 235. 259 
Para Electric Railways & Lighting 

Co., 335, 331, 403 
Paris Supply Companies, 139 
Peebles, Bruce, «i Co., 235, 282 
I'eel-Conner Telephone Works, .j47 
Pernambuco Tramways S: Power Co.. 

595 
Potteries Electric Traction Co., 499 
Prospectus— Tecs Power Co., 283 
Provincial Tramways Co., 524 
Rainsgate & District Electric Supply 

Co., 311 
Keddaway, F., S: Co., 428 
River Plate Electricity Co., 427, 451 
Robev Si Co., 284 
Rushden Si District Electric Supply 

Ruslon,' ""proctor Si Co. and R. 
Ilornsbv S; Sons— amalgamation. 
563 
St. James's Si Pall .Mall Electric 

Light Co., 141, 188, 210 
Salisbury Electric Light &i Supply 

Co., 331 
Sao Paulo Tramway, Light S: Poyy cr 

Co., 91 
Scarborough Electric Supply Co., 284, 

331 
Shanghai Electric Construction Co., 

499, 5-23, 546 
Shropshire, Worcestershire Si Stafford- 
shire Electric Poyver Co., 499 
Siemens & Schuckerl Companies, 91 
Siemens Bros. Si Co., 570 
Simplex Conduits, 533 
Slough S: Datchet Electric Supply 

Co., 283 
Societe Industrielle des Telephones. 

18 
Smithfield Markets Electric Supply 

Co., 187 
South London Electric Supply Cor- 
poration, 163. 236, 282 
South Metropolitan Electric Light 

and Poyver Co., 188, 235 
South Metropolitan Electric Tram- - 

ways and Lighting Co., 427 
South Wales Electrical Power Dis- 
tribution Co., 524, 594 
Stewarts S; Lloyds, 259, 331, 428 
Stock Exchange Notices. 67. 115. 23.5, ' 

619 
Submarine Cables Trust, 571 
Sunderland District Electric Tram- 
ways Co.. 307 
Swansea Improvements & Tramways 

Co., 595 
Swedish Elektca Works, 475 
Swedish Vo^a Co.. The, 333 
Telegraph Construction Si Mainten- 
ance Co., 163, 211 
Telephone Co. of Egypt, 571, 595 
Traction Si Power Securities Co., 187 
Tramways, Light Si Power Co., 311, 

235 ' 
Trowbridge Electric Supply Co., 595 
Tucuman Tramyvays, Light Si Power 

Co., 307 
Tyneside Electrical Di velopmenl Co., 

332 
Tyneside Traiflways Si Tramroads 

Co., -211, 235 ■ 
Underfeed Stoker Co.. 44 
Underground Electric Railyvays Co. 

of London, 235 
United River Plate Telephone Co., 

547, 571, .594 
Urban Electric Supply Co., 436, 521 
X'enezuela Telephone Si Electrical .Ap- 

pliances Co., lU 
Vickers, 380, 403 
Victoria Falls S: I'ransvaal Power 

Co., 19, 619 
\ulcan Boiler Si General Insurance 

Co, 571 
Waste Heat' Si Gas Electrical Gen- 
erating Stations, 307, 331 
Water Softeners, 43 
Wavgood-Otis Co., .595 619 
Western Tr-legraph Co., '3.58. 547 
Western Union Telegraph Co., 67, 

West India Si Panama T. legraph 
Co., 427, 499, 523 

West India Electric C:o.. 4(13 

West London Si Provincial Electric 
Supply Co.. 498 

Westminster Electric Suppiv Corpora- 
tion, 115, 187, 258 

White. J. G. S: Co., 595 

Willans Si Robinson, 358 

Wind.-rmere Si District Electric 
Suppiv Co., 383 

Windsor Electrical Inslali.ilion Co., 
284 

Wood Si C.iirns (Electrical Factors, 
Edinburgh), 284 

Yorkshire Electric Power Co., 91, 
139, 186 

^'orkshiri (West Riding) Electric 
Tramwavs Co., 19, 307 

Yorkshire (Woollen District) Elec- 
tric Ttamways, 572 



July T). 1918.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



Clinker djiiii. bv C. M. Benn.u, r.U7 

Clutch. A constant-torque magnetu-. Hi 

Clyde engineers, 64 

Coal and peat supplies for power, 3r»9 

Coal conservation, Electric power sup- 
ply and, 110, 286. 431 

Coal Conservation Sub-Commillee, In- 
terim report of the — National elec- 
tricity supply, 1", 25, 4a _ 

I M,[l Conservation Sub-Committee's re- 

< ..,,.1 control, 255 

Coal, Dirt in, 592 

Coal economies in Germany. 579 

Coal in .Mgeria, 308 

Coal mines regulations, .New, 328 

Coal, Powdered. 280, 370, 495 

Coal, I'r. ventable waste of, 391 

Coal rations for industries, 593 

Coal. Shortage of, 542 

Coal shortage. The value of electric 



pow 



260 



bv G. W. 



Cual testing. Some n 
Stubbings. 5 

Coke in the Metropolitan area. Supplies 
of gas. 41. 1111 

Combination rumours, 178 

Commercial apprenticeships, 443 

Commercial Bureau in London. French. 
610 

Commercial libraries, 3G 

Commissioners for the overseas mar- 
kets, Exp-rt, 202 

Commonwealth Edison plant. Attditions 
to the, 548 

Cotnmulators, Iron, bv F. Murgatrovd. 
54 

Computing the speed of receiving a 
telegraphic message through sub- 
marine cables, by J. Rymer-Jones, 
556 

Conciliation and arbitration, 592 

Condense, \ fifty thousand so. ft., 
503 ^ 

Condensers for high-pressure service. 
Wet, 280 

Conductor cables. Joint bnxes and ter- 
minals for split, 3, 65 

Conductors in Germany, .Substitutes for 
overhead copper, 602 

Conference of Metropolitan authorities 
owning iclectricitv undertakings, 279 

Conference 'in India, Electrical, 351, 
.551 

Constantinople tramway and electricity 
unilortakings, 592 

Consumers' complaints, bv " Rover," 
147 

Contracts, .Australian, 515 



Co.NTRACTS Closed — 

Australia, 14, 85, ,325, 469. 591 

Barnes, 14, 493 

Barnsley, 181 

Belfast, 469 

l>exhill-on-Sea, 135 

Bolton, 39, 159, 469 

Bradford, 14, 159, 254, 374, 469 

Brighton 14 

Cavan, 325 

Colchester, 566 

Derby, 14, 135, 254, 325 

Eastbourne, 35, 85 

Gillingham, 566 

Glasgow, 39. 85, 181, 230, 325, 374, 

517, 566 
Government contracts, 85, 109 206, 

2311, 277, 396, 493, 614 
Hackney, 39 

Hammersmith, 63, 234, 254, 542 
Hereford, 135 
Hull, 14, 614 
Ilford, 14 230, 423 
India, 614 
Ipswiclr, 615 
Kettering, 469 
Lancaster, 14 
Leeds, 39, 109 
London, 39. 63. 85, l:!5.. 181 230 

254. 397, 542 
London County Council. 85. 135. 397 
Luton, 397 
Maidstone, 566 
Manchester, 447 
Melbourne, )4, 85, 325 
Metropolitan .Asylums Boaid, 181 
Now Zealand, 63, '306 
Newport (Mon.), 254 
I'erih (W.A.). 325 
Poplar, 85, 591 
Salford. 39, 63, 230, 542 
.Sheffield, 39, 254, 351, 447. .566 
.South Africa, 542 
Southend, 304 
Southwark, 230 
.Spain, 85, 423 447 
Stepney, 63. 304. 51(1 
Stoke-on-Trent. 254 
Swansea, 135, 254 
. Sydney, 14, 325, 469 
Tasmania, 14 
Walsall, 63 
Walthamstow, 230 
Watford, 39 
West Hani 109 
Willesden. 85 
Winchester, 374 
Wolverhampton, 63. 159, 2.54, 351, 

469, 566 
York, 542 



r.acts, Manufartun 



and pre-wa 



ONTRICTS OpEU—^outinueii 
Adelaide, 62, 85, 109, 134, 1.59 
Argentine, 13, 38, 62 
.\shlon-under-l.vme. 517 
Australia, 38, 62, 85, 109, 134, 159, 

181, 230, 254. 277, 303. 325, 351, 

374, 396 423, 447, 409, 493, 541 
Belfast, 109,' 159, 181, 206, 230, 493, 

517, 541 
Bol.-on, 13. 38, 230, 254 
Brisbane. 433. 447 469, 493 
Cavan, 159, 181, 206, 614 
Crovdon, 135, 159 
Darlington. 2.54. 277, 303 
Dublin; 159, 206, 230, 351, 374, 614 
Eastbourne, 254. 277 
Edinburgh, 277, 303 
Erith, 469, 493, 517 
Fleetwood, 206, 230 
Fulham, 591, 614 
Glasgow, 423, 517 
Hali'ax, 277 

Hul.ike St WeM Kirhy. 423, 447 
Isliiii-ton, 374, 396, 423, 447, 469, 493 
Keighlev, 14. 206 
Lan.-asler 230, 2,54. 541, .565, 591 
Leith, 423 
London, 135, 159, 230, 374, 396, 423. 

447. 469, 493, 541, 565, .591. 614 
London County Council. 135 1.59, 

565 
.Macclesfield. 181. 206, 230, 254 
Malvern, 351 
Manchester, 14, 39, 62, 85, 109, 135, 

181, 206, 230, 254, 279, 303, 469, 

493, 591 
Melbourne. 38, 62, 85, 109, 159, 181, 

230, 277, ,303, 325, 351, 374, 396, 

423, 447, 469, 493, 541 
Middleton, 303 
Moreiambe, 591, 614 
Newcastle-under-Lvme, 493, 517, 541 
Newport /(Mon.). 109, 135, 159, 374. 

39G . 
New Zealand, 614 
Office of Works, H.M., 159. 206. 230. 

423. 447 
Plymouth. 351, 374, 396 
Portsmouth, 181, 206. 230 
Redditch. 396, 423, 447 
St. Pancr.is. 541 
Salford, 135 
-South .Africa, 517 
Spain, 39, 62, 330, -.25, 396, 423, 541, 

565 
Spenborough, 303, 325 565 
Stockton-on-Tees, 230 
Tipperary, 14, 39 
\\'arrington, 85, 135, 159, 181, 423, 

447, 469. 517, 541, 565 



Contracts, Revision of charges under 
existing, l»i 

Control after the war, 3 

Control of large amounts of power. 
The, by E. B. Wedmore, 244, 285, 
310, 334, 366, 454, 574 

Control on railways. Electric signalling 
and, by C. M. Jacobs. 69 76. 359, 
503 ■ 

Controllers, Resistances for starters 
and, by " X," 100 

Cookery, liconomical, 241 

L'ooking as applied to large kitchens. 
Electrical, by W. A. Cillott, 93, 
118, 479 

Cooking at a newspaper office. Electric. 
■ 294 

Cooking, Electrical, 257 

Co-operation for after-war export trade, 
190 

Co-operation, Gas and electric. 162 

Copper. .American price for, 516 

Copper conductors in Germany, .A sub- 
stitute for overhead, 602 

Copper for electric wire in Sweden. 305 

Copper from enemy central stations. 
Lead and, 361- ' 

Copoer, The alleged discovery of a sub- 
stitute for, 88 

Copper, The electrolytic refin 



■ Kiwi 



Copper, The standard resistance and 
temperature coefficient! of pure, 
annealed, by H. Savage, 488 



Contracts Open — 

Aberdare, 181, 206, 3.30, 254 277, 303 
Aberdeen, 277, 303, 325 



Association ol British Electrical En- 
gineers, by "Doubtful," 393; bv 

E. R. Pausov, 417, 441; by G. C. 
Law, 417; by G. P. Sutton, hon. 
sec, E.P.E.A., Midland Section, 
623 

Award and clerical staffs, The 12i 
per cent., by " Chief Clerk," 152; 
bv "Another Chief Clerk," 176; 
bv "Diversity Factor," 200; by 
" Inquirer," 200; by the Assist. 
Gen. Secretary, National Union 
of Clerks, 224; bv " T -chnical 
Clerk," 441; bv ' B, Griffiths. 
W-lsh Organiser, National Unien 
ol t.lerks. 463 

Battery rule. Prof. Walker's, by W. 

F. Dunton, 81, 111 
Billingsgate and decimal coinage, l.s 

" Decimal." 559 
Bonus. The 12J per cent, bv T. W. 

Cole. 81 
Braided cables. Distinctive colours 

for, bv W. T. Henley's Telegraph 

Works Co., 24; by " T.." 33; 

by^H. Pain, 55 
British* ideal for manufacturers, bv 

" Briton," 559 



Cable breakdowns, bv D. ,\l. W. 

Ihilchison, 82; by C. Beaver. I.)l) 
Chiel engineers and their reiryiper.,- 

tion. by Duncan Watson, 101 
C.T.A.A. and the E.P.E.A.. by th ■ 

Chairman, C.T.A.A., 301; by the 

Hon. Sec, C.T.A.A., 343 
Coal economy and national health, by 

C. O. Bastian, 586 
Coal consumption in large generating 

stations, by A. S. L, Barnes, 585 
Coil V. magneto ignition, by E. G. 

I'ord. 273; by "Unsettled," ,«2 ; 

by J. R. Parkinson, 410 
Communications with aircraft, bv 

Graham & Latham, 102 
Coinp.ir.iti\e costs of steam and elee- 

rii, .hlve. by Tom Hood, 248 
' I.'iiii'.n. .A question of, by th<- 

'^ I .1 V , Electrical Contractors' 



\.-,. 



102 



616 



D -preriation, bv ".Subscribers." 1.52 

Dust coal, bv •■• Chile," 23 

i:eonom> of large steam turbines, bv 
A. H. Law, 440 

Electrical Power Engineers' Associa. 
tion and the Association of British 
Electrical Engineers, by E. B 
I'ausev, 417, 441 ; by G. C. Law, 
417, 560 

Electric power supply in Great Bri- 
tain, by F. W. Purse, 199 

Electric propulsion of ships, by S. S. 
Cook. .559; by W. P. Durtnall, 
586 

Examinations in " Electrical Instal- 
lation Work," by A. P. Lund- 
burg & Sons, 129; by W, Ellerd- 
Styles, 152; by K, Warner, 176 

Faults, by F. C. Raphael. 102 

Foreign languages and trade, by H. 
Allcock, 493 



Futi 



of 



all-! 



The, by W. J. U. S'owTer, 538 
■man influence^n the Swiss elec- 
trical industry,, by G. Wuthrich, 



559 

Heating long tubes electrically, by 
E. .Scott Rivelt, 248 

Illuminating engineering, by S. O. 
Cook, 33, 81; by A. P. Trotter, 
55 

Industrial combination bv H. F 
Smith, 511 ■ 

I.E.E. and the proposed .A.B.E.E., 
by R. C. Atkinson, S. Simpson. 
R. D. Spurr. G. Morgan, A. R. 
Chator and P. Furness, 585; bv 
T. Mason, 633 

Joints on triple-concentric to three- 
core lead-covered cables, by P. 
H. Williams, 416; by F. D. Bal- 
shaw, 410; by P. Wardle, 46-3 

I-abour and bulk supply, by Secre- 
tary, Electrical Trades ' Union, 
London Station Engineers, .\o. 1 
Branch, 586 

.Meters on a changed frequency bv 
''Query," 33, 82, 110; by " T," 

National electricity supply, by S. L. 

Pearce, 301 ' • ■ • 

News from Ruhleben, by W. E 

Swale, 224 
Nomenclature, by J. B. Clarke, 301 
Office or 

gineer-in-Charge,'" 22f 

Dpenings lor trade in Palestine, by 
.\. P. Holloway, 224 

Organisation ol electric supply offi- 
eials, by " G.," 200; by' "Or- 
ganiser," 224; by Hon. Sec, 
Chief Commercial Officers' .Asso- 
ciation (Electrical Supply Under- 
takitigs). 248 

Patent licences and European recon- 
struction, by " Monitor," 558 

Production of ductile tungsten, bv 
Speechly, Mumform & Craig, 3S'; 
bv J. Gray, 83 

Prof. Perry's (?) Harmonic Analysis, 

t b) W. F. Dunton, 301 

Proposed Institution of Electrical 
Station Engineers, by "A. M. 
P. A.," 33 

(Jueslion of competition, by Watson, 
Marsh & Co. (Brondesbury), 511 ; 
by E. A. Pinto, 558 

Rarer key minerals. The, by S. J. 
Johnstone, 16 

Riwson, F. L., Re. Mr., by St. 
Helens Cable & Rubber Co., 24, 



trade, bv E. 



160 

Repcrt on post-v 

Berkeley. 463 
K. sistance 'teinper.iturc coefficient of 

copper, by H. Savage. 511 
Resrrictions on the use nf lead-covered 
cable, bv the Secretary, Cable 
.Makers' .Association, S69'; bv the 
Secretary of the L.M.E.A.. 4J'2 
Uotary problem. A, by " R.," 248 
Svv itchboard passageways and " high 
visibility," by C' Cuthbcrtson, 
177 
Telephone calls, by A. Lawton. 624 
Trade in Canada, .bv G. F. Sills, 



CORRESFONDINCI — continued. 

Tiibular earths for lightning conduc- 
tors, bv •'•.Mains .Supt.,'^ 441 

Wages ill central station service, by 
" En .Avant," 81 



Corrosion of turbine bl.ides, 37 

Cui Bono? .555 

Customer.s and population. 111 



DALMARNOCK power station'. The, 
bv W. W. Lackie, 223 
Dams, Clinker, by C. M. Bennett, 507 
Daylight saving all the year round, 

342 
Derimal and metric systems. The, 3i>7 
Decimal coinage, :ES, 377, 398, 470. 

519, .543, .560 
Demobilisation problems, 208, 313 
Defireciatipn and obsnl.'sconce, -Mach- 
inery, 178, 375 
Design and manulacture. The promul- 
gation of imotovements m, by 
" Imprimatur,"' 340 
Design and specification of the torbo- 
alternator rotor. The mechanical, 
by S. F. Barclay. 295. 319, 357 
Diamonds, I'he formation of, 351 
Diatheimy : The use of the electrical 
current to raise the temperature of 
the body in the treatment of dis- 
ease, by E. P. Cumberbatch. 3S1 
Dielectric tests, 356 
Diesel engines and tar oil, 477 
Diesel engines. The lubrication of air 

compressors and, 32 
Di< sel engines, Tv\'o essential condi- 
tions for burning tar oil in, by 
P. H. Smith, 57? 
Dinner to Mr. A. H. Seabrook. Vale- 

dictorv, 453 
Dirt in coal, 592 

Disabled men. Employment for, 531 
Disabled men, Training, 135, 424, 471. 

566,, 593 , 

Disabled soldiers and their 'employment, 

by " Research," 532, 
I3isab!ed 'soldiers as meter repairers 
in Glasgow Corporation electricity 
deoattment, bv C. \\ Marshall, 
429 ■ • 

Dissolutions, 36, 203, 348, 444, 466 
Distribution of enginecr^ng appliances. 
The overseas, by L. Andrews, 405 
Dublin and district and linking-up, 161 
Dublin electricians' wages, 326 
Dutch East Indian market, 155 
Dve making industry. The 'development 
of the British, 550' 



EARTHS for lightning conductors, 
Tubulai, by K. Hedges, 411 
Eeonomic policy, 493 
Economic problems, 49 
Economy, Electric lorries and petrol, 

Edison Battery Co. (U..S.A.), The, 60 
Education Bill, The, 471 
Education, .Science and. 374 
Edurational, 16, 136, 183, 2,55 
Electric appliances in U.S.A., Large 

increase in use of. 206 
Electric cabs at the Hague, 542 
Electric furnace progress, 233, 327, 470, 

Electric industrial trucks, 40 
Electric locomotives. Notes on, 291 • 
Electric lorries and petrol economy, 88 

207 
Electric parcel van, London and North- 
western Railway, 600 
Electric passenger 'locomotives, .New. 

597 
Electric ploughing, 128, 150 
Electric steel furnace, .A large Ameri- 
can, 184 
Electric vehicle attachment. An, .543 
Electric vehicle progress, ,328, 613 
Electric Vehicle Committee, The work 

of the, 270, 518 
Electric vehicle costs. Municipal, 137 
Electric vehicles, Long-lived, 110 
Electric vehicles, "Self-delivirv " of, 593 
Elertrical appliances in the U.S.A.. 

Domestic, 136 
Electrical cleaning o^last.furn.ace gas, 

r-Iectriral Contractors' Assnt-i.-ttion 447 

Electrical conventions, 57." 

Electrical cooking, 257 

Electrical developments in .Austria, 2411 

Electrical developments in Italy, bv 

E. S. Morgan. 220, 243, 267 
'Electrical developments in Sweden, 155 
Electrical firms and the Royal Aims. 38 
Electrical manufacturing in .Australia. 

71 
Electrical plant. Lubricatiun and bv 

G. B. Barham, 509 ' ' 

Electrical resistivities of iron alloys, 40 
Electrical supplies for South .Africa, 589 
Electrical theory of matter, 2.">S 
E'lectrical trades after the war. The 

report of the departmental ctvni- 

mittee, 578, 381. (iOfi 
Electrical Trades Benevolent Associa- 
tion — The special appeal, 65, 253, 

280 
Electrical Trades Union, 518 
Electrical workers* bonus, 41 
Electrically-driven cement works. 34 
Electricity' direct from coal gas, 144^ 
Electricity, Economise gas and, 231 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[July 5, 1918. 



lilixiricilv for ui>undi;d soldiers, 434 
liloctiicity in ilomestic service, 568 
Klectricilv in ship propulsion, 435 
Electricity, Restrictions in the use of 

gas and, 493 
Electricity supply and reconstruction. 
National Coal Conservation Sub- 
committee's report, 17, 25, 45 
Electricity supply, National, 256, 266. 
398; bv "A Power Station Engi- 
neer," 171, 213, 309, 317, 339 
Electricity, The future of gas and, 593 
Electricity, The war and charges for, 

bv Legal Conlribuior, 364 
Electricity to various auxiliaries on 
shipboard. The application of, bv 
H. L. Hubbard. 23 
Electricity undertakings. Conference of 
Metropolitan authorities owninii, 
279 ^ 

Electrification, .\ steel works, 603 
Electrification as a means of saving 
fuel, Railway, by E. W. Rice. 
Junr., 358 ' 
Electrification .of railways, 110, 338 
Electrification piogress in Scandinavia, 

463 
Electro-chemistry in South Africa, 28 
Electro-culture at Chester, 101 
Electro-culture at Warrington, 192 
Electro-culture Committee, Board of 

Agriculture, 182 
Electro-culture, The new, 308, 232 
Electro-Harmonic Society, 14, 137 
Electrolytic pickling of steel, 104 
Electrolytic recovery of tin, 470, 617 
Electrolytic refinement of copper, 88 
Electro-Tnagnetic clutch, 94 
Electro-metallurgy in France, 164. ,';20 
Electro-metallurgy in Sweden. 471 
Electro-plating steel springs, 308 
Electro-therapy, 485 
Employers and Employed. The National 

Alliance of. 162 
Employers' P.irliamentarv Council ami 

the Trade ISoards Bill. The. .';42 
Employment in the iron and steel 

trades. 109 
Engine foundallons. Breaking up. 88 
Engineer officers. Training o(. 481 
Engineering appliances. The overseas 
distribution of. by L. Andrews, 405 
Engineering Council, An, 255 
Engineering Council. U.S., 390 
Engineering industries. New. 337 
Engineering progress in England. 471 
Engineering standards, .Woption abroad 

of British. 404 
Engineering trade overseas. 385 
Engineering trades after the war. The. 

593 
Engineering training in Australia. S-W 
Engineering wages. 616 
Engineers, Association of Electric 
Power. 137. 146. lf;2. 160, 182,' 2.')6. 
278, 326, 377, 448, 470, 544, 568, 
584. 593. 615 
Engineers and the secret character note, 

566 
Engineers. British electrical. 315 
Engineers' club for the Midlands, Pro- 
posed, 520 
Engineers. CIvde, 64 
Engineers' congress at Paris, Civil, .520 
Engineers— Electricity Supply Section. 
Association of British Electrical, 
327, 544, 567, 582, 606 
Engineer's log. Leaves from, bv 
" Whistlefield," (1) The volunteer 
munition' worker, 219; (2) The 
trials of Sandy .Mc.N'ab. 261 
Engineers. Salaries of tramway mon- 

/igers and electrical. 377 
Engineers' salaries. Supply, 304 
Exhibition of women's work. 495 
Export trade combinations. 483 
Export trade, Co-operative effort for. 

131 
Export trade after the war, Co-opera- 
tion for. 190 
Export trade expansion scheme, 531 
Exports and imports of electrical goods 
during October. November and De- 
cember. 1917, 117; lanuary. Febru- 
ary and March, 1918. 501 
Exports from Canada. 538 
Exports of electrical goods, American. 
398 



FAIR. 1918, B*ish Industries, 36, 
232. 274 
Faraday House scholarships. 398 
Faraday Society. The. 9. 104, 370, 549 
Fatalities. 65, 89, 110, 307, 305. 327, 

352, 375. 298. 470. 494, 543, 593 
F^ry primary cell. 111 
Fire alarm circuits, 5.58 
Fires. .J55, 203 

Fish feeding by electric light. 434 
Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The 

353 
Foreign and colonial tariffs on electrical 

goods, 90. 384. 433, 528 
Foreign manufactures. Samples of, 231 
Foreign trade, 63, 182, 278, 398, 495, 

591 
Foreign Trade Department, 538 
Foremen Engineers, London Association 

of, 519 
Foundations, Breaking up engine, 88 
France, 82 

France, Electro-metallurgy in, 164, .'520 
France. Lamp manufacturing in, 371 
France. The electrical regeneration of, 

,242 
Francis turbine, A large high-speed, 

368 



1 buicau in London, 

610 
French Thomson-Houston developments, 

107 
Fuel and Light Order, New, 616 
Fuel econotny, 135, 279, 448 
Fuel economy by saving electricity, 

376, 567 
Fuel economy in Germany, 112 
Fuel economy. Rations and, 314 
Fuel for motors, A n^w, 256 
Fuel oil. Production of home, 3.52 
Fuel rations, Combine.l, 543 
Fuel saving, 291 
Fuel situation, Canadian, 592 
Fuel, The saying of. by C. M. Bennett. 

430 
Furnace, A large .American electric 

steel, 184 
Furnace for melting ferro-manganese, 

Electric, 116 
Furnace progress. Electric, 233, 327, 

470, 56C 



Gas and electric co-operalion, 162 
Gas and electricity, Economise, 231 
Gas and electricity. Restriction in the 

use of, 493 ' 
Gas and Electricity, The future of. .593 
Gas coke as fueL The use of, 328 
Gas engines in a colliery power station 

.508 
Gas firing boilers, by T. M. Hunter, 

29, 72, 95 
Gas, Raising the price of, 16 
Gauges, Screw, 1.3(i 
Generating s,-stems. Output of l.irge 

American,' 471 
Generation and distribution, Geri.iau 

proposals for State, 24 
Generators, Asynchronous. 362 
Generators, Operating temperatures in 



India. Electrical conference in, 351, 551 
liidi.i, Japanese electrical machinery 

and fittings in, 611 
India? Manufacture of electric lamps 

in, 610 
Jiuluction, UnipoLar, 351 
inductive interference with telegraph 

■ ind telephone lines, 280 
Industrial agreement, An Australi;in, 

111 
IndusHi.d banks. After-war electrical 

ir.ide and, 273 
Indusliial combination. 169 



■il. Municipal, 20 



^i:)6 



lan aeroplanes. Electrical equip- 

nent of, 542 

lan electrical syndicate. \ general, 

23 

tan influence in the Swiss slectri- 

al industry, 99 

lan lightning conductor makers. 



231 
Germany, Coal 
Germany, Electric motors in, 26 
Germany, Fuel economy in, 112 
Germany. Substitutes for overhead 

copper conductors in, 602 
Germany, The strikes in, 112 
Glasgow Corporation electricity depart- 
ment. Disabled soldiers as meter 
repairers in, by C. W. Marshall, 
429 
Glasgow, Dick Kerr turbine contract 

for. 374 
Glover's detective and protective devices 

for cables. 604 
Great Britain, Water power in. by .\. 

Newlands. 135 
Greaves-Etchells furnace. 83 
Gun again. The electric, 305, 328 



H 



AGUE, Electric cabs at the. 542 



Hastings linking-up scheme, 448 
Heat, A new principle in the flow 

by C. Hering. 214 ' 

Heating of moulds. Electric, 518 
Hull station engineers and l 

A.E.S.E., 161 
Hull Technical College. 542 
Hvdro-electric development in Spa 

The need for, 533 
Hydro-electric plant. An automatic, 

J. M. Drabelle & L. B. Bonne 

598 

and university 



IGNITION and lighting materials 
for American military motor 
wagons, 371 

Illuminat'ing engineering. by A. P. 
Trotter, 8 

llkmination. Safety first and, 398 

Imperial wireless chain. The, 265 

Import trade of .Australia, 86 

Import trade of China. 514 

Imports and exports of electrical goods 
during October. November and De- 
cember. 1917. 117; January. Febru- 
ary, and March. 'l918. 501 

Imports of Chile. Electrical. 251 

Income-tax, Industry and, ,563 

Income-tax : Wear and tear and obso- 
lescence allowances, by J. J. H. 
Stansfield, 436 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical As- 
sociation and the report on national 
electricity supply. The. .327 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical As- 
sociation—Annual convention. 021; 
Presidential address by S. J. Wat- 
son, 622; Discussion on elertri.- 
power supply, 622 

incorporated Municipal "Electrical As- 
sociation, Manchester meeting, 208. 
618, 602 



Industrial management, 182 
Industrial organisation, Australian, 232 
Industrial problems, 554 
Industrial reconstruction, 170 
Industrial Reconstruction Council, 110, 

231. 279. 376, 593, 615 
Industrial research and the National 

riivsical Laboratory, 231 
liuhistrial trucks. Electric, 4U 
Industries after the war. New electrical, 

181 
Industries, Coal rations for, 593 
Industries, New engineering, 337 
Industries, Report on the protection of 

.ss.nlial. 464 
Industries, The wire drawing, 362 
Intlustry after the war. Some considera- 
tions on the British electrical, b\ 

E. S. Hodgson. 28 
Industry and income-tax, 563 
Industry at Wolvej-hamulon, Electrical, 

589 
Industry, Electric power supply and 

alier-war, 392 
Industry, German influence in the Swiss 

electrical, 99 
Industry in the U.S.A.. The electrical. 

261 
Industry, Mr. Dudlc) Docker and the 

electrical, 551 
Industry, Problems of, 105, 124, 148. 

195' 
Industry, Self-government for after-war, 

615' 
Industry, The British magneto, 580 
Inland transport, 110 
Inquiries, 89, 112, 100, 181, 207, 256, 

Inquiries, Trade. 460, 515 

Institution and Lecti^kk Xotfs — 

.Mien West Engineering Society, 112, 
207 

.Vssociation of Consulting Engineers, 
267 

.Association of Engineering and Ship- 
building Draughtsmen, 112. 207 

.Association of Mining Electrical En- 
gineers, 16, 64, 135, 207, 305, 329, 
448 

Birmingham and District Electric 
Oub, 64, 375 

Bradford Engineering Society, 135 

British Engineers' Associati'on, 279 

Chadwick Public Lectures, Swansea, 
232 

Chief Technical .Assistants' Associa- 
tion, 232, 278, 398, 424, 543 

City and Guilds Institute, 548 

Diesel Engine L'sers' Association, 89, 
183, 398, 519 

Electrical Association of .Australia 
(Victorian Section), 16 

Greenock Electrical Society. 329 

Illuminating Engineering Society, 
161, 543 

Institute of Metals, 89, 207, 305, 616 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 16, 64, 
448 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
89. 183. 356. 305. 329. 398. 424. 
473. 496, 519; Birmingham Local 
S.ction. 161; Newcastle Loc.d 
Section. 398, 449, 496; Yorkshire 
Local Section, 161; Scottish Loc.il 
Section. 183, 329. 375; W'esfern 
Local Section, 256 

Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders in Scotland, 398, 424 

Institution of Gas Engineers, 496 
of Mechanical Engineers. 



207 

Institutii 

593 



of Municipal Engine 

Irish Association of Electrical Sta 

Engineers. 329 
Junior Institution of Engineers, 

448, 567 
Keighley .Asso 



615 



of Engit 



Liverpool Engineering Society, 69, 

398, 424 
Manchester .Association of Engineers. 

112 "^ 

Manchester Steam Users' Association, 

567 
Physical Society, 183 
Rontgen Society. 16. 2.'i6 
Royal Institution, 135, 305 
Roval Marine Engineers. 448 
Royal Society of Arts, 2.56 
Soci^t^ Internationale des Electririens. 

424 



Insillution of Electrical Engineers, 511 
Institution of Electrical Engineers and 
foreign trade. The, 338 



ititution of Electrical Engineers and 
the medical profession, I'he, 381 

.titution of Electrical Engineers — .An- 
nual Meeting, 531, S49 

titution of Electrical Engineers — din- 
iitg arrangements, 68 

aitution of Electrical Engineers 
wiring rules, 352, 495 

aitution proceedings, '289 

truments for central station switch- 
boards, by G. \V. Stubbings, 573 

iul.iling material from fish offal, .552 
vestigation, Com- 



posll 



518 



nsidation under direct and alternating 
current, particularly as regards 
moisture, by Prof. Thornton, 262 

nsulators in guys. The proper installa- 
tion of strain, 375 

nsurance (Unemployed) .Acts, 1911-1916, 
National — Decisions by the Umpire, 
64, 207 



40 



alloys 



Ele. 



ol. 



Italic 



and steel trade policy, .589 

and steel trades. Employment in 

R, 109 

lad-switch deparlnunt at Witton, 

he new, 311 

commutators, by F, Murgatroyd, 

rket, Advice respecting the, 



•250 

Italy, 35, 202, 510 
ItaU, Electrical developments in bv 

E. S. Morgan, 220, 243, 267 
Ilal). Electric welding in, 394 



T APAN and Australian trade, 491 

Japanese electrical m:ichinery and fit- 
tings in India, 611 
Japan's electrical industry, 142 
Johannesburg, Electi-icians' Hi 



V, 

KELVIN asV-teacher, by Prof. M. 
Maclean, 167 

Kiitenias, Government propaganda b\ 
travelling, 123 

Kitchen, Poplar communal, 344 

Kitchens, Electric cuoking as applied 
to large, by W. A. Gillott, 93, 118, 
479. 

Kitchens, National, 3.52 

Kitchens, Travelling tramcars for muni- 
cipal, 111 



AMP bulb composition, Effect of 



the 



■166 



Latnp manufacturing 

Lamp renewals. Some interesting facts 

relating to, bv " Atlantic," 532 
Lamps, Electric pocket. 216 
Lamps in India? Manufacture of elec. 

trie, '610 
Lamps, Miners' safety, 274 
Lamps. ** Gversh(x>ting " with tungsten, 

480 
Lamps, The case for 110-volt, 136 
Language and business, 63 
languages and trade. Foreign, 458 
Lead and copper from enemy central 

stations, 361 
Lead-covered cables, Joints on triple- 
concentric to three-core, by P. 

Wardle, 389 
I.-ad. United States, 348 
Le;(\es from an engineer's log, bv 

'■ Whistlefield " : (1) The munitioh 

worker, 219; (2) The trials of Sandy 

McNab, 361 
Leeds. Automatic telephone exchange, 

483 



Leg,u.— 
Aldworth i: Smith. 155 
A. E. G. Companies to be wound up. 



441. 



Author fined, 568 

Haldock, F. D.. V. Citv of West- 
minster Council ,nd the Charing 
Cross. West End & City Electri- 
city Co., Ltd.— Claim 'for dam- 
ages, 79, 226 

Bennett v. Edey, 272 

B. T. H. Co. V. Duram. 106. 144. 372 

Cable detention. .Alleged electric. 177, 
■201 

Calderwood v. Coniston Electrolytic 
Copper Works and Douvreleur, 
393- 

Calmont, King & Co. v. Brain, 441 

Capital reduction, 419 

Charge of stealing brass fittings, 83 

Clones Light & Power Co. v. Com- 
missioners ol Valuation, 81 

Colliery manager fined, 537 

Cotton spinning patent. Dr. Fer- 
ranti's. 152, 397 

County of London Electric .Supply 
Co. V. James. .345 

Dirty work, 323 

Discipline at an el.'Ctricity works, 
368 

Electric fittings lanJloids' fixtures. 



July 5, 1918.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REYIEW— INDEX. 



LbG.u. — continued 

Electric furnace patents, 305 

Electrical engineer fined, 59, 490 

Electrical firm fined, 59 

Engineer sentenced. An, 111 

Factor) Acts prosecutions, 20, 441 

Farley and Others r. Truscott, 537 

Forbes i<. M. & B. Kinemas, 537 

German agents for ferro-tungsten. 
Sf21 

Great Eastern Railway v. Postmaster- 
General, 321, 443 

Hammond Bros. v. Ch;.mpness, 201 

Harris f. Hinds, 009 

Harrison -J. Morris, 249 

Hemming v. London Electric Rail- 
way Co., 441 

Hcgan & Wardrop :■. R. Offer and 
Sons, 345 

Hume II. Ferranti, 009 

Kensington & Knighlsbridge Electric 
Light <-'o. V. Notting Hill Electric 
Lighting Co., 10. 79 

Lamp stealing, Electric, 110 

Liability for tramway passengers* lug- 
gage, 143 

Lighting regulations. Breach of, 473 

Littleborough U.D.C. v. N'ictoria Dve- 
ing, &c., Co., 155 

Marconi's Imperial Wireless Chain 
Litigation, 249, 271 

Mitchell V, Radio-electric Lamp Co., 
368 

Osram Lamp Litigation, 249, 273, 
441 

Pirtsch's Electric Manufacturing Co., 
321 

Rose Bros. v. Morehen. 368 

Standard Cable Manufacturing Co., 
368 

-Stev^'ns V. Telegraph Construction 
and Maintenance Co., 515 

Sulley V. Withers, 177, 273 

Tampering with electricity supply 
wires, 490 

Thomson & Son (Motor Factors, Ltd.) 
V. Tarrant & Co., 226 

Tynemouth Electric Traction Co., .Ac- 
tion against, 59 

Unfenced machinery, 611 

Use of petrol, 567 ' 

Using current during prohibited 
hours, 393 

Was the liquidator liable?, 616 

White and Others ;■. 1 ne Mayor and 
Corporation of Dover, 41^ 

Whittaker v. Accrington & District 
Gas & Water Board and G. 
Cunlifte & Sons, 227 

Why Brown transgressed, 495 

Wireless spark gap lor curing shell 
shock, 418 

Workman's false time sheet, 249 

Workmen's compensation, 161, 322, 
419, 536 



Legislation in .Austria, Electricity sup 

ply, 390 
Libraries, Commercial, 36 
Liclinowsky's disclosures, Prince, 374 
Light detector for the blind. A, 184 
Light, Methods of directing and con 

centrating, by Lieut. -Comdr. H. T 

Light, The r'ed~09 

Lighting and starting sets for moto 

cars. Electric, 183 
Lighting material for .American mill 

tary motor wagons, Ignition and 



Lighting Notes — 

Abervstwyth. 37, 203. 274 
Accrington, 60. 132, 491 
Aldeburgh, 539 



Alton. 11 
Altrincham. 539 
Ammanford, 274 
.Ardee (Co. Louth), 27* 
-Argentina. 444 
Arklow, 516 
Armagh, 318. 430 
Ashton-under-Lyne, 60 
Australia. 11. 60, 107. 132, 
348, 371, 420. 491. 563, 
Auslrii-Hungarv. 467, 612 
Aylesbury. 11, '302, 349 
Bacup. 107, 156. 323 



274 



11 



Barnes, 60, 203. 395, 611 
Barnslev, 179, 589 
Barrow; 132, 228. 323 
Bath, 179 
Ballev. 516, 563 
Bedford, 37, 156 
Bedworth, 179, 274 
Belfast, 12, 156. 179, 228 

394, 444 
Bcxhill. 421. 466, 611 
Birkenhead, 228, 275 
Birmingham. 37, 83. 179, 

394, 466, 539, 589 
Blackburn, 37. 156, 539 
Blackpool, 37. 83, 179. 203 

444, 539 
Blackrock, .37 



Bolli 



444 



Bonnvbridge, 


251 




Boolle, 1.57. 


'M 


:t:i4 


Bournemouth 


•w 




Bradford, 37, 


107 


i;s 


372 






Bradford-on-,' 


von 


60 


Braintree, 12 


•25 


. 421 






Bray {Wickic 


w). 


179 



LlOHTtNG \orKS — continued. 
Bridlington, 302, 349 
Brierfield, 589 
Brighovise, 302, 466 
Brighton, 203, 228 
Bristol, 372 

Burley-in-W harfedale, 69 
Burnham (Somerset), 83 
Burnley, 107, .")(i3 
Burton-on-Trent, 589 
Bury, 157, 203, 323, 516, 611 
Bury St. Edmunds, 394, 491 
Buxton, 179 
Caerphillv. 516 
Callan (Co. Kilkenny). 83 
Canada, 132. 2."i2. :!4'9, .'.39, 503 
Carlisle. 252 
Carshalton, 7tli^i 
Cavan. 13 
Chelsea, 613 
Cheltenham, 60 
Chile, 539 
China, 302, 4li6 
Clayton, 37, 2."):' 302 
Cleckheaton, 589 
Clyde District, 37, :123 
Coatbridge, .■»39 
Colchester, 180, .539, 563, 589 
Conlinental. 37 UU, 83, 107. 132, 1.57. 

180, -228, 252, 275, 323, 349. 372, 

394, 421, 467, 491, 539, 563. 589 

611 
Cork, 275, 467 
Coventry, 203 
Crewe, 590 

Cromer, 60 ( 

CrDmpton, 394 
Dartford, 275, 349 
Darwen, 132, 228, 372, 467 
Denmark. 467, 589 
Derby, 132, 323, 349. 491 
Dewsbury, 372, 590 
Devizes, 180 
Doncaster, 37, 157, 2.52 
Dorking, 13 
Dover, 275 
Dublin, 37, 83, 132 157, 180, 2S8, 

323, 421, 516, 539, 563, 590 
Dudley, 12, 132, 157 
Dulvefton, 37 

Dundalk, 180, 228, 275, 372, 612 
Dundee, 180, 228, 612 
Ealing, 180, 372 
liast Africa, 467 
East Ham, 421 
Eastbourne, 1.57 
Ebbw Vale, 275, 012 
Edinburgh, 132, 275, 421, 491 
Electricity supply charges, 612 
Elland, 37, 157, 564 
Erith, 157 
Eton, 564 
Exeter, 132. 2.52 
Falkirk, 203 

Farnworth, 157, 203 ' 

Faversham, 539 5:i0 
Fife, 590 
Fleetwood, 491 
Fochabers, ' 180 

France, 107, 132. 228, .394. 421. Oil 
Frinton-on-Sea. 302 
Fuel economy. 394 
Fulham, 83, 204 
Gainsborough 12, 132 
Galway, 493 
Garforth, 157 
Germany, 132. 275 
Gillingham (Kent), 37. 275, 323 
Glasgow, 107. 203, 421, 467. 539 
Gloucestershire Electric Power Co.'s 

Bill, 180 
Grantham, 12 
Greaseborough, 180. 324 
Great Harwood, 612 
Greenock, 12, 372 
Grimsby, 493 

HackneV, 37, 157. 204. 395 
Halifax. 12, 37. 324. 539 
Hammersmith. 60, 157, 252, 445, 539 
Hampstead, 12. 302 
Harrogate,. 60, 4!P2. 590 
Haslingden, 12. 324 
Hebden Bricl;;.-. 12. 539 
Hereford, 180, 275 
Heston and fsleworlh, 516 
High Wycombe, 12, 108 
Hitchin, 228 
Hornsey, 421 , 612 
Horsham, 133 
Hove, 180 

Huddersfield. 203, 275, 302 324 49» 
Hull, 12, 157. 302, 349, 492, 612' 
Hurgarv, 372 
Iceland,' 394 
Ilford, 421 

India, 228, 372, 395. 444 
Ipswich, 612 
Irlam. 1.-7 
Islington. 133 

Italy, 107. 1.57. 252. 275, 349 
Keighlev. 516 
Ketteriiig, 467. 590 
Kilmarnock. 180. 421 
King's Lvnn. 180 
Kingston-on-Thames, 12, 133 
Lambeth, 467, 492 
Lanark, 539 
Lancashire electrtrily suppliers and 

coal, 37 
Lancashire linking-up schemes, 349 
Lancaster, 1.33 
Leeds. 12. 37. 444. 612 
Leeds (near Oldhaml, .195 
Leek, 12, 539 
Leith, 252 
Lewes, 60, .564 
Levton, 12 

l.imavady, 372. 467. .'.64 
Limerick, 180 
Lincoln, SM 



Linking-up schemes, 304 
Liverpool. 133, 157, 228 
Llandudno, 12, 6T3 
London, 12, 37, 60, 83, 133, 157, 180, 

204, 228, 252, 302, 349, 372, 395, 

445, 467, 492, 516, 539, 564, 613 
London County Council, 83, 133, 22», 

349, 395, 445, 467 
Londonderry, 158, 180, 228 
l.ourenco Mar.iu.s, 276 
Lvdnev, 133 
Lye, 276 
Lymington, 444 
Lynton, 445 
Maidenhead, 467 
.Maidstone, 324, 564 
Manchester, 37, 61, 180, 228, 252. 

302, 324, 421. 516 
Mansfield, 324 
Market Drayton. 61 
Marsden, 37' 
Marylebone, 60, 372 
AMdileton, 37 
Midlothian, 180 
Monastcrevan, 37, 83 
Montrose, ISO 
Morecambe, 12, 158, 252 
Morpeth , 372 
.Morley, ,564 
Morocco, 349 
.Musselburgh, 492 
Mvlholmroyd, 83, ,395 
Nelson, 37, 421, 467, 492. 613 
N,:«castle-on-Tyne. 61, 158, 372,, 421 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, 349, 372, 445, 

564 
Newport (I. of \V.), 492 
Newport (.Mon.), 13, 108 
Newquay, 276 

New Ross (Co. Wexford), 564 
New Zealand, 12, 61, 108, 252. 467 
-\ormanton, 108 
Northampton, 12 
Norway, 372, 467, 539, 563 
Norwich, 12 

Nottingham, 61. I,i8, .540, .564 
Nuneaton, 516, .VM 
Oakengatcs, 3U3 
Oldham, 252 
Ormskirk, 276, 395 
Oxford, 303 

Pembroke (Co. Dublin), 2.52, 395 
Pontypool, 349 
Pontypridd, 613 
Poplar, 613 
Portrush, 61 
Portstewart, 158 
Potteries, 228 
i'ower Bills, 204, 229, 252, 324, 564, 

613 
Radcliffe, 108 
Ramsgate, 564 
Ralhmines, 445, 540 
Rawdon, 61 

Rawtenstall, 84, 422 492 
Redruth, 324 

Rochdale. 38. 204, 349, 395, 422. 445 
Rotherham, 84, 324, 445 
Runcorn, 180 
Russia, 37, 612 
St. Annes-on-Sea, 61, 133 
St. Pancras, 83, 302, 395, 516 
Salford, 38, 61, 133, 158, 229 252 

276. 349, 564 
Selby, 540 
Shanklin, 895 

Sheffield, 38, 158, 253, 372, 467 
Shipley, 564 
Shipston-on-Stour, 229 
Shoredilch, 180 
Shropshire Pow.r Co.'s Bill, 158, 395, 

421 
Silsden, 38 

Skelton and Brotton 158 
Slaithwaite, 468, 590 
Sleaford, 590 
Slough, 564 
-South Africa, 133. 180. 276. 467 492 

516, 540 
South Crosland, 61 
Southport, 276. 324 
South Shields. 1.38. 276 
South Wales, 613 
Southwark, 61, 133, 467 
Spain. 37, 180, 491, 539, 563, .WO. 

613 
Spenborough, 61, 204 492 
Stafford, 38, 492 
Stalvbridge, 12, 540 
Slainford', '276, 468 
Stepney, 61, 157, 204, 302 
Stockport, 13 
Stockton-ondTees. 108 
Stoke-on-Trent, 133. 253. 303, 324 
Stoke Newington, ISO 
Stourbridge, 564 
Stourport, 61 
Stroud. 84 

Sunderland. 372. ,564, 590 
Snanage, 303 

Swansea, 38, 61. 253. 395. 445 
Sweden, 1.57, 180. 228, 323, 467, 539, 

590, 613 
Swindon, 468 

Swinton .ind Pendlebury, 204 
Tasmania, 108, 133, 2.5.1, 324, 349, 654, 

611 
Tavistock, 445 
Tetburv, 133 

Totlmoiden, 133, 229, 32», 540 
Tonbridge, 613 
Torquay, 133. 253, 564 
Tottenham. 180 
Turkey. 83. 539 
Twickenham. 395 
Tynemouth. 204 
I'nited States. 13, 108, 133, 180, 372, 



468 



Urugu 



349 



LlCHItNG NoTts — continued. 
Wakeheld, 180, 468 
Wallasey, 133 
Walsall, 61, 590 
Warminster, 62, 180 
Warrington, 590 
Waterford, 62 
Watford, 62, 158 
Wednesbury, :S49 
Welsh water powers, 468 
West Bromwich, 133 
West Hartlepool, 62 
Weston-super-,\lare, 38 
Weymouth, 62, 180, 613 
Whitehaven, 276 
Whittlesea, 

Wigan, 84. 1.58, 253, 150, 564 
Willesden, 84, 3.5U 
Wolverhampton, 1.58. 253, SGt 
Woolwich, 157 

Worcester, 38, 84, 253, 350, 516, 564 
Workington, 253 
Wormil, 158 
Worthing, 158, 565 
Veadon, 38 
Yeovil, 540 
York, 253, .350 
Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s Bill. 

84, 108, 133, 158, 373 
Yorks (West Riding), 38, 63 

Lighting sets (or U.S.A. farm use, 

Standard electric, 136 
Lighting speciJications, Street, 257 
Lightning, Attracted the, 518 
Lightning conductor makers, German, 

538 
Lightning conductors. Tubular earths 

for, by K. Hedges, 411 
Lightning stroke, .A, 16^ 
Linking-up. Dublic and district anti. 

161 
Linking-up in California. 208 
Linking-up in Germany and Austria, 

Linking-up in the United States, 374 
Linking-up scheme, Blackpool, 377 
Linking-up, South Wales and Mon- 
mouthshire, 543, 562 
Linking-up, West of -Scotland, 16, 47, 
56 



I.HilTDATIONS — 

A. E. G. Co., 611 

.Armorduct Manufacturing Co., 60 

.Aust.-^jlian Thermit, 46»i 

.\utomatic Electric Block Signalling 

Co., 466 
Auxiliary Electrical Co., 107, 491 
Balcke & Co., 156, 178 
Bosch Magneto Co., 322, 515 
Brimsdown Lamp Works, 466 
British Adding Machine Co., 491 
British Autogenous Welding Co., 1^ 
British Huhn Metallic Packing Co., 

251 
Brown & Co., 203 
Calmon Asbestos & Rubber Works, 

420, 466 
Calvert's Circulation Fuel Econo- 

miser., 371, 466 
Carbonoid, 394 

Climax Stopper & Ebonite, 60 
Edison .Manufacturing Co., 36 
Electric Lighting & Engineering Co., 

Electric Utility Co., 348 

" Electrician ' Printing 4 Publishing 

Co., 491 
Electricity Supply Co. for Spain, 371, 

444 
Electrolytic Alkali Co., 444 
Elieson Electric Traction Co.. 491 
Galway & Salthill Tramways Co., 

Grondal Kjellin Co.. 444 
J. T. Pickering Hoist & Engineering 
Co.. 611 ^ 

Malta Tramways Co., 515. 589 
.McPhail & Simpson, 83 
.Monomeler .Manufacturing Co., 274 

-Morris & Lister (London), 107 
Pintsch's Electric .Manufacturing Co., 

Prentice Wireless Train Control, 420 
Resisto Electrical .Manufacturing Co., 

R. E. T. Construction Co., 563 
R»lherham Electrical Engineering 

Co.. 60. 107, 203. 227 
Rural Districts Electrical Undertak- 
ings. 156 
Scorch Electrical Co., 563 
Southport Tramways Co., SIS 
Stindard Cable Manufacturine Co 

,148 
Tackley. W. C, & Co., 36 
lechnical Engineering Co., 611 
Theerman. W. P.. &■ Co., SIS 
Turner & Burger, 60 
I nitfd Carborundum & Eleclrite 

Works, 237 
\'aughan Engineering Works, 178, 

227 
Watson's Water Softeners, 420 



I.ochaber Wate- Power Hill, 42:) 
LcMTomotives New electric passenger, 

597 
IxK:omotives, Notes on electric, 291 
London & North Western Railway 

electric parcel van, 600 
London County Council employes, 207 
Long-span construction. Overcoming the 

difficulties of, 566 
Lubricating ring, .A curious case of 

wear by a, by L. Harding, 148 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



Icclrical plant, 

509 

compressofs 
gines. The, 32 
urbirif i-lectiic ship pro 



of 



nd 



iiV 



WT:^ 



Mnnnesium in the U.S.A., 376 
M.i^netic clutch, A coiistanl-torqu 



strial. 568 
in Americ 

Ih.'. 30G 



Batte 



Magneto igni 

::. 3E) 
Magnelo indu. ... 
Magneto manufacture in Sweden, 341 
Magneto*. Ignition, 227 
Manchester Electricity Works and the 

12-1 per cent, bonus. 351 
Manchester meeting of the l.M.E.A , 

208. ")18, 602 
Manganese dioxide. 183 
Magneto industry. The British, 580 
Manufacture. .The promulgation of im- 

Drovtments in design and. bv " Im- 



340 

Manufacturers, ^'^ British 
" Imperial," 508 

and pre-\v 



il for, by 

contracts, 

inuiacturers in Australia. British, 
433,455 , ,^. 

nufacturers. National Union of, 1.% 
nufacturers prepare for the recon- 
struction period, 433 



the Sta 



473 



Metal Industry Act, The Non-ferrous, 
255, 538, 587 

Meter repairers in Glasgow Corporation 
electricity department. Disabled sol- 
diers as, bv C. W. Marshall. 429, 

Meter, The selection of an electricity. 



bv "G. G. N., 



D.C.. 



Meter's. Temperature effects i 

by G. W. Stubbings, 195 
Metric system in the U..S.A.. 464 
M. trio system of weights and measures. 
Great Britain's interest in the, by 
H. Allcock. 196 
Metric system. The. 397. 410. 448. 471 
Metric system. Using ' tlie^ 161 
.MetropoHl 



Me 



519 



111 



Conditi 

Midland Railway electrics, 141 

Mineral output of Great Britain, Notes 
on the, 300 

Mines The use of electricitv and elec- 
trical accidents in, 333 

Mobilisation and demobilisation. Pro- 
blems of, 313 

Molvbdenite in Ontario, 261 

.Moiimouthshire. Linking up South, 
Wales and. 562 

Morocco. Patents in, l.'iG 

Motor, \ new type of enclosed, 31 

Motor-bicycle, A Norwegian electric. 



510 



Mo 



Stan 



Elecric lighting and engin' 
; sets for. 183 
.Motor shafts. Standardisation of. 4.)4 
.Motor wagons, Ignition and lighting 

material for .\meric-m. 371 
Molormen. Medals for, 88 
Motors. A new fuel for, 256 
.Motors in Germany, Electric, 26 
Municipi. Electrical Association. Inrnr- 



Ann 



) 

<y.w Companies — coiithtucd. 
Basche, Sadler & Co.. 90 
Basford Engineermg Co., ■ 
Batteries, 474 
Berry's Electric, 18 
Blackball Engineering Co., 
Uoving Engineering Works 
Hrimirglon Electric Supply 
Bristol Institute of Electn 



by S. J. Wa 

son, 621; Discussion on electr 

power supply. 622 
Municipal Electrical .Association mee 

infi. The Incorporated, 602 
Municipal Electrical .Association, Inco 

porated — Manchester meeting. 20 

518, 602 
Munition workers' bonuses, 89 
Munition workers' health, 496 



N.-VnONAL electricity scheme. Coal 
conserv.ition and the, 110 
N.itional electricitv supply, 256, iQ66 

398, 529 
National electricity supply, b.' " A 
Power Station Engineer." 171. 213 
309, 317. 339 
National electricity supply — Interim re- 
port of the Coal Conservation Sub- 



N:i 



534 



andeered, 208 



New Eleptrical Devices. Eiiiincs , 
Plant — continued. 
Simplex '■patent salt detector, 608 
Sound signals, Receiver for s 



Hr 



. 234 
ish Engii 
569 
I ish Engin 



Co. 



-Iherapcu- . 
(London), 



Standards .\sst> 



IS 



281 



.M.i 



Cass's Molo 
Cooling Equipnieni, ■ 
Crypto Electrical Co.. 
Davies, H., & Co., :: 
E. S. G. & Co.. 185 
East Somerset .Agri 

Co., 569 
Edinburgh Electrical Engineering Co., 



cultur. 



r:W 



281 



Electric Deposit , 
Electrical Components, 474 
Electrical Supplies (Liyerpooll, 
lik-ctro-Leather Industries, 498 



:ker'' 


s Metal 


Co. 


ev Gas, Wa 


ter . 


Co , 


379 




-low 


Remedi 


,es. 



Hightcnsite, 618 
Magneto Spare I'.irt Co., 
Medical Supply Assbciatioii 
Metallic Electrical Engine 

185 
Metallic Electrodes, 118 
.Metallurgists, 546 
Mica & Micanite Supplies, 
Monometer Manufacturing 
Motive Power Iniprovemei 
.Multiple Fus.s, 90 
Nicholson Bros.. 90 
Northumbria Motors, 18 
Nolt, J. H.. & Sons, 474 
Oldham Rubber Mill "" 



210 



arkin 



Moll 



474 



Pebw 

Phcenix Armature Works, 474 
Pratt Bros., Edinburgh, 569 
Pync, Hughman & Co., 18 
Ouain Electric Co.. 474 
Sentinel V\'agon Works. 498 
Smith, Thos., & Sons (Rodlev), 61 
Spencer, J. K. it S.. 474 
Sykes-Morris Submarine .Acoustii 



Light & Power 
474 
& Electric Supply 



B.T.H. 
B.T.H. 
B.T.H. 
215 



Bulkhead fitting. / 
Carbon terminal, 
Carron cookers i 

Club, 295 
Contactor, Tramw 

103 



14:1 



Sub-sl 



ansforn 



Switchgear, Three-phase 6,000-ampere 



561 



able, 462 



Temperature conv 

Terminal box, An improved type 

outdoor, 190 
Terminal box, \ ertical, 153 
Tranicar cooking apparatus, Electr 



440 



kitche 



Ignited Newspaper 
ichboards, 560 



\V. siinghouse lighting il\ 

I'.S. military motor w 

W ild-Harfield electric mufii 

W ild-Barfield furnace for 



'ilisation, 'Mobilising, 



Nickel alloys, 4-20 
.Nickel-copper steel. 447 
Nomenclature — Continuous 
dir.-ct current and volta 
sure, bv A. V. riotler. 
Non-ferrous' metals litences 

587 
Northampton Polyiechnic In 



Norwegian electric motor bic 



from Canada 
from Spain, 



411, 137, 164, 591, 



379 
Tampico Electric 

and Traction, 
Taranto Tramwa 

Co., 618 
Tees Power .Station Co., 185 
Telephone Third Hand. 570 
Traflord Power S: Light Supply, 618 
Tubes (Equipment), 162 
Wakefield, C. C. & Co.. 113 
W'aste Utilisation. 546 
Watertight Fittings, 18 
White Electrical Instrument Co., 185 
Wicks & Dale, 401 
Wigan Electro-Melallurgioal Works, 

474 
Zwickv Patents Syndicate (1917), 43 



;e\v Electrical Devices, Fittings . 

PL.WT— 

Aeroplane lighting sets, 392 
Alloy, A new electrical, 215 
.■\rmature, A nielhod of banding 

23 
.•\utomatic control for high-rated e 

trie furnaces, 462 
Bijur electric 



r^nrru.\RV^ 

Barry, Sir J. Wolfe, 90. 113 
Bissnger, H., .HO 
Blackwell, R. W.. 330, :i5:t, 
Boddy, T., 594 
Bottomlcy, J., 618 
Brodie, J. S., 334 
Carter, G. H., 281 
Clarke, W. H.. 138 
Garnett, C. S., 473, 497 
Garsidc. J. W., 400 
Gcale, E. C, 594 
Gillott, W. 



He 



E. N., 



233 



J. M., 209 



Higham, T. H., 234 



Ho 



nsbv. R. W., 



vard, C. C, 473 
Hughes, W., 497 
Hurlbatt, Lieut.-Col., 400 
Lindlcy, Sir W. H., 17 
Micklewright, F. G., 618 
Newton, E. W., 17 
Padley, Mrs. A. H. E.. 546 



C. S., 473 



113 



Puluj, Prof. J 
Rendel, Sir A. M 
Richards, J. B., 521 
Rook, J. W., 426. 449 
Sayers, R. M., 17 
Sellon, J. S., 90 
Sheehan, T. J., 378 
Siemens. A. E. von. 4 
Stanslield, 330 

itfield, F. W., 330 



Willi; 



497 
'G. H., 330 



[July 5, 1918. 



current-limit reactances, 345 
induction motors. 23, 46*2 
ironclad oil-break switchf^ear, 



le Ensinerrs' 
el:iy operated. 



electricity supply, The 
l.M.E.A. and the report on. 327 , 
National Insurance (Unemployment 
Acts. 1911 to 1916)— Decisions by 
the Umpire, 64, 207 
National Kitchens. 3.52 
National proving house. A, 457 
National Union of Manufacturers (In- 
corporated). 156 
Niagara power comr 
Nitrogen from the air, auB 

New Companies— 
Accumulators (Birmingham). 13 
Adams Bros. (Longton). 90 
Alloy Welding Process. 474 
•Amalgamated Tanneries, 43 
Associated Brass & Copper Ma 
turers of Great Britain, 47' 



Discharge curves of " Bui " cells, 367 
Dust, Electrical precipitation of, 143 
Electric immersion water heater, 561 
Elevator fof shells. Automatic, 153 
E.M.C. fans, 367 
Fractionating hydrocarbons, 143 
Furnaces, .-Xutomatic electric shell- 
heating, 103 
GailTe in'fluence machine. 247 
Grinder, Portable electric, 294 
Heating long tubes. Electrically. 143 
Heating pad, 293 
Hollow flue damper, A new, ."ifiO 
Industrial truck. B.E.V., 191 
Iron, An automatic electric, 394 
Ironclad cubicle switchboard, 462 
Lamp-locking device, A, 101 
I.auraine high-tension magneto, 417 
Magnifying scale deflections, 34.'* 
Motor converter. A large, 247 
Molors, Three-phase live-roll. .57 
Oi: switch. New automatic, 320 
Portable electric kitchen for arni\ 



Vest Sr Co., 90, 281, 330 
Electrical Stores, 281 

um Corporation. 330, 474 
Telegraph Co.. 138 

F. E.^ 618 

Elect 



Barbadoes Electrii 

ti,on, 379 
Baslian Electric ' i 



Supply 



Supply 



138. 163. 186. 



418 



i-ferr 






Bastian Mster Co., 498 
Baxendale Bros., 474 
Birmingham District Powci 

tion Co., 138 
Blackburn, Sterling & Co. 
Blackpool, St. Annes & Lyil 

ways Co., 138 
BldckwelL R. W., & Co., 
Bogota Telephone Co., 43 
noothrcvd, H. T., 18 
Bowran'. R. & Co., 474 
Brazil. Straker & Co.. 379 
Biecknell, Munro & Rogn 

234 
Bridge. D.. &■ 
Brilliant Arc i.a 

Co.. 113, 474 



Official Reiorns^coi 
British Battery Co., 

British Electrii Tra 

British Electrolytic Zinc Co. (Isher- 
wooJ Process), 186, 281 

ulaled & Helsby Cables, 



Br; 



618 

lish L. M. Ericsson Manula 
474 



ing 



ilish Mica Co., 379 
Bromley (Kent) Electric L 

Power Co., 618 
Bullers. 138 
Burgess Hill & District Elei 

ply Co., 474 
liurmah Electric Tramways 

ing Co., 138 
Caerphilly Electric Supply 
C.imbridge Scientific Inslrun 

43 
Central Electric Supply Co. 
trh'amberlain & Hookham, 
Chilean Electric Tramways 



City of Buenos .\ires Tramways Co., 
379 

City of Freetown (Sierra Leone) Elec- 
tricity Co., 186 

City of London Electric Lighting Co., 
"498 

Ciiv of Oxford Electric Tramways. 
'43 

Coatbridge & .Air<lrie Electric Supply 
Co., 90 

Coniston & District Electric Supply 
Co., .130 

Consolidated Signal Co., 186 

Costa Rica Electric Light & Traction 
Co., 186' 

County of Durham Electrical Power 
Distribution Co., 474 

Croinpton & Co., 521 



Co., 281 
np & Engineering 



Cutting Bros., 281 



Drake & Gorha 

Duncan Stewart 

E.S. Co., 521 

East India Trai 

iCgham & Staim 

Electric Train-lighting Syndi 

Electrical Contracts & Ma 

Co., 186, 210 
ICIectrical Distribution of 1 

379 
Eileson Electric Traction Ct 
Ely Valley Lighting Co., : 
Enfield Electric Cable Co., 
English Electrical Co.. 498 
Evans, O'Donnell & Co., 40: 
Kerranti, 210 
Fisher, Humphr 
Folkestone EU 



Electricity Co., 330 



498 



Supply Co., 






Co.. 91 



Electric 
Power Co.. 18 
re Electric Power Syndi- 
cate, 618 
Gosport & .Alverstoke' Electric Light- 



Co., 210 



Co., 



Guildford Electricitv Supply 

Halifax & Bermud.a's Cable' Co. 

Hampson Bros., 234 

Harper & Co., 379 

Harrow Electric Light & Powe 

186, 379 • 
Hill Bros (.Magnetos), 474 
Hong-Kong Tramway Co.. 43 
Howard Asphalte Troughing Co., 401 
' Imperial United Lamp Co., 210, 281 
Insulated Cop & Rivet Co., 43 
Isle of Thanet Electric Tramways and 

Lighting Co., 281' 
J arrow & District Electric Traction 

Co., 43 
Jennings, F. A., 570 
Kalgoorlie Electric Power & Lighting 

Corporation, 91 
Keilh (Jas.) & Blackman Co., 618 
Keynsham Electric Light & Power 

Co., 210 



Co.. 



521 



91 



401 



Lancashire United Tramw 

Larne Electric Light Works, 618 

Lea Recorder Co., 163 

Leon Cornclis, 113 

Lithanode, 570 

London United Tramways, 281 

.Magnesium Metal Co., 521 

Manchestir Fibrine Co.. 570 

.Manganese Bronze & Brass Co., 474 

Maxim Lamp Works, 379, 474 

Mica & Micanite Supplies, 474 

.Musselburgh & District Electric Light 

and Traction Co., 91 
Nairobi Electric Power & Lighting 

ffo.. 43, 91 
New St. Helens & District Tramways, 



18 
Newcaslle-upon-Tvrie Electri 

Co., 379 
Perfect Burglar .Alarm Co., 
Pirelli. 18 

Rapid DislilUilion & Powe 
R.-cord Electrical Co., 618 
Reform Lighting Corpor 
Rliondda 'Tramways Co. 
Rushmore. 18 

Saunders. J. B. & Co., 91 
Sheerness & District ""• 

and Traction Co 
Siemens Bros. & Co. 
Siemens Bros. Dvnai 
Slothcrt & Pitt. '91 



Supply 



43 



lb3 



July 5, 1918.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REYEBW— INDEX. 



Official Returns — continued 
Tees Power Station Co., 570 
Therrao-Electrk Ore Reductic 
pora 



Hi 
234 



i-Ward, A. (Hove), 210. 330. 
\V:ird, .•\. (Manchester), 1«(). 



Worthin'gton Pump ami Machinerj 

Corporation, 474 
Wright & Wood. 330 
Yorkshire Cable Co., IS 
Yorkshire Electric Wiring i Motor 

Co., 570 

Oil, lirilish, 280, 447 

Oil experiments, Fuel. 2ot> 

Oil from coal, BIB 

Oilfield development, Electricity in, 543 

Ontario, Electrical goods for use in, 

20U 
Organ in Westminster Abbey, Electric. 

G16 
Organisation development. Trade, 351 
Ojganiscd eHoit, by A. L. .Stanton, 175 
Overseas distribution of engiqeering ap 
pliances, The, by L. Andrews, 40SI 
Overseas engineering trade, 385 
Overseas markets. Expert commis- 
sioners for the, 202 

Trade Advisory Committee, 



393 



by A. 



trade after the 

Stewart, 390 

Overseas trade of tlie future, 218, 25 

Overseas trade. Our policy on, S87 

Overwork and under-production, 482 

p)APLU, Waste of, 375, 443 

Paris, Civil Engineers' Congress 

applications, 203, 323, 455, 4B5 



i20 



am 



V, 217 



Patent Bill. The 

Patent restorations, 611 I 

Patent revoked, 5B3 I 

Pitlent speeilication amendment, 58!) 



Pal 



503 



Patents ;ind alien enemies, 352, 394, 

471, 589, 017 
Patents and trademarks, 305 
Patents in Morocco, 156 
Patents, .\cw, and published specifica- 
tions. 24. 48. 72. !16, 120, 144, 168. 
1!)2. 2l(i. 24(1, 264. 288, 312, 336. 
300, 384, 4IIK, 432. 456. 480, 504. 
528, 552. 576, liOU, 624 
Peak load. Kct.ping down the, 137 
Peat supplies (or power. Coal .and, 350 
Pentane lamp, C-«rrections for the. 116 
Periscope in the power house. The, 593 
Petrol, Synthetic, 527 
Phenomena in electrical supply systems. 
Some transient, by Prof. E. W. 
Marchant, 525 
Phototeiegraphv, 616 

Plant growth under artificial light, 470 
Platinum from Russia, 593 
Ploughing, Electric, 138, 150 
Poplar communal kitchen, 344 
Portsmouth Dock;a»d school, 111 
Power house. The periscope in the, H'.y.i 
Power, Coal and peat supplies (or, 359 
Power Engineers, Association of Electri- 
cal, 89, 137, 146, 152, 160, 182, 256. 
278. 326, 377, 448, 470, 544, 568, 
584, 593, 615 
Power Engineers' Association, Electri- 
cal, and the .\ssociation of British 
Electrical Engineers (Electricin 
Supply Section). 519, 555 
Power in relieving coal shortage. The 

Value o( e(ectric, 260 
Power plant farthest north, 240 
Power purposes, Large batteries for, 

by E. C. McKinnon, 412, 436 
Power supply and after-war industrv. 



Railway electrification as a means of 
saving fuel, by E. W. Rice, Junr., 



{AiLWAV Notts- 
Australia. 108, 373 
Canada, 62, 108, 445 
Edgware & Hampstead Railway, 492 
France, 540 
Germany, 422 
Hutton Magna, 2-29 
Italy, 276, 517 
Japan, 468 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. ,i2j 
London Electric Railways, '205, 469 
London tube railway breokdowns, 

205, 468 
Manchuria, 373 
Me.Kico, 517 

North London Railway Co., 541 
Post Office Railway, 159 
Railway workers' wages, '277, 303 
-South Africa, 38 
Spain, 373 

Switzerland, 181, 276 
Tube train fire, 229 
United Slates, 134, 3;-.0 
Waterloo & Cilv Railway, 517 



Railway electrics. Midland, 141 

K.riiway results. Electric, 194 

Kaihvav work. Useless, 185 

Railways and welfare work, London 
underground, 472 

Railways, Electric signalling and con- 
trol on, by C. M. Jacobs, 69, 76, 
359, 503 

Railways, Electrificaljon of, 110, 338 

Rations and fuel economy, 314 

Reactors, Taking proper care ol, 599 

Reconstruction Council, Industrial, 110, 
170, -231, 279, 376. 142, 593, 615 

Reconstruction, .National Electricity 
Supply and Coal Consirrvation Sub- 
committee's repori, 1, 7, 25, 45 

Rrconslruction period, Manufatturers 
prepare for the, 433 

Reconstruction, Strength through unity 
during, 146 

R.construction— The world that is to 
he. 97 

Recunslruction, Whilley, 434 

Ki-generation of France, The electrical. 
•242 

R.ininiscences, bv " Ex Shift Dog," 4, 
27, 51 

Remuneration of professional men in 
Australia, 111 

Report of the Board of Trade Commit- 
Trading with the Entmy, 



Electric, 326, 3!l; 
Power supply and 



616 



ipply at ihe I.M.E.A., WIS 
ipply, Eleclric, 178, 447, 4.-.K 



Reviews — continued 

Practical Electrician's Pockel Book, 
1918, 156 

Short Logarithmic and Other Tables, 
by W. C. Unwin, 44^' 

Steam Turbines, by J. A. Moyer, 299 

Tail's Electrical Directory of Aus- 
tralia, 1918, 563 

Telegraph Practice, by J. Lee, 300 

Theory and Calculation of Electrical 
Apparatus, by Dr. C. P. Stein- 
metz, 497 
Ibcory and Operation of Direct-cur- 
rent Machinery, by C. ^L 
Jansky, 498 

Theory of Ihe Submarine Telegraph 
and Telephone Cable, by H. W. 
Malcolm, 119 

The Great Debenture, or Ihe Passing 
of National Unrest, by C. Wal- 
ton, 202 

What Industrj Owes to Chemical 
Science, by F. Butler-Jones, 444 

Workman's Time and Balance Book. 
bv W. F, Chalker, 5B3 



513 



Revision of charges under existing 
contracts, 182 

Ri\etless ship a possibility, .A, 566 

Ko.id transport. Cheap, 543 

Roll of Honour, 17, 42, 66, 90, 113, 
138. 163, 185, 209, 233, 258, 281, 
306, 329, 353, 378. 400, 425, 449, 
473, 497, 521. 545. 569. 594, 617 

Rolling mills and the electric drive, 
bv L. Rothera, 165 

RSntgen Societv, The, 48, 168, 264 

Rosin oil. 130' 

Rotor, The mechanical design and 
specification of the turbo-alternator, 
by S. F. Barclay, 295, 319, 357 

Ro>al visits, 495, 5;J8 

Rubber gloves, High-pressure lest upon, 
305 

Rubber gloves. Protected, 85 

Rubber stocks io Brazil, 2.il 

Russia, Platinum from, 593 

Russian electrical regulations, 48 

Russian electricity works statistics for 
1914, 189 

Russian water-power legislation, 184 

Rust, Protecting castings against, 495 



I'ovvir supply. Electric— Report of Ihr 

Hoard of Trade Committee, 51K. 

534, 606 
Power supply in Scotland, Electric. 

397 
Power, The control of large amounts 

of, bv E. B. Wedmore, 244, 285, 

310, 334, 366, 454 
Precipitation of solids, Eleclric, 185, 

617 
Press, The President and the, .W5 
Prices, .'Xpplicaticl^ to the Board o( 

Trade (or ' 



rroblems of inJu^lrv. 1U5, 124, 148, 

195 
I'loduulion data in wartime, .•,.53 
Professional Workers Union, A, 518 
Progress in the U.S.A., The year's, 239 
Protection in Sweden and England. 

323 
Piovincial Eleclric Supply Commilte'-. 

Proving house, A British electrical, bv 

C. Turnbull. 453, 477, 487 
Piuving house, .\ national, 457 



R.ADIO instruments ai 
mcnts. 593 
Badiogr.aphy (instantaneous), its li 
lions and possibilities. Single 
pulse, by R. Knox, 382 



Report on electrical trades after the 
war, 578 581, 606 

Rpporl on post-war trade. The, 409 
409 

Ri-port on the protection of essential 
industries, 464 

Research and the National Physical 
Laboratory, 231 

Research, Industrial, by G. B. Bar- 
ham, 93 

Research for the Navy. 168 

Research, Prize for paper on the Co- 
ordination of, B15 

Resistance and temperature coefficient 
of pure annealed copper. The 
standard, by H. Siivage. 486 

Resistance, Method of testing earth, 
398 

Resis 



.Mternating-current Eleclricitv and ils 

Applications to Industry, bv W. 

H. Timbie and H. H. Higbie, 

378 
Alunilniiim : F,icts and Figures, bv 

the British Aluminium Co., 274 
British Engineers' Association : Diri-c- 

torv of Members. 36 
Conlinuous-current Motors and Con- 
trol Apparatus, by W. P. May- 
Decimal' Money Tables, by A. M. 

P.wlev, 491 
Diclionarv of Aircrad. by W. K. 

Domniell, 444 
Electrical Engineers' Di.nv, I91K. 

The, :i«i 
Electrical Equipment, hv II. W. 

Brown, 209 
I'Mements of Electrical l^ngineering. 

bv W. S. Franklin, 120 
Engineers' Ye.ir Book (or 1918, bv 

H. R. Kemp.-, 420 
(Hover's \ade Mecum, bv W. T. 

Glover & Co., 2'.>7 
Industrial Engineering: Present Posi- 
tion and Post-war Outlook, bv 

K. W. I.anchesler, 444 
M.ichine Shop Electricilv. H.ind Hook 

of, bv C. E. Clewell. 191 
Manual of Reinforced Concrete. h\ 

C. F. March. 191 
.Mechanical Handling ol Material, bv 

G. F. Zimmer. 300 
.Nlelric Weights and Measures and 

British Equivalents, by A. J. 



466 



.Miniature Electric Light, by B. E. 

Jones, 119 
Power Wiring Diagrams, by A. T. 

Dover, 210 
Prnclical Eleclric Illumination, bv T. 

Clod, 379 



Standardisation, Switchgear, by C. C. 

Garrard, 197, 237, 335 
Standards in Australia, Electrical, 149 , 
Starters and controllers. Resistances ■ 

for, by "X," 100 
Starting sets for motor cars. Electric 

lighting and engine. 183 : 

Steam condensation, by A. Arnold, 347 
Steam pressures. The value of higher, ,i 

567 ■' 

Steam with electrical energy. General- ' 

ing, 137 
Slecl on the R.md, Eleclric, 440 1 

Steel transmissions in the Stales, 268 
Steel, Electric. 39 

Steel, Electrolytic pickling of, 104 , 

Steel in New Zealand, Electric, 54 i 
Steel works, A 35-ton wagon hoist lor, 

363 ; 

Steel works electrification. A, 603 j 

Stepney boiler contract, 305 j 

Straits Settlements, Trade statistics of, 1 

*'' 1 

Sub-station for serving emergency^ 
loads. Portable, 480 j 

Sulphuric acid and fertiliser trades, , 
The, 256 J 

Summer time, 184 ' 

Super-power station. Proposed, 306 

Supply systems. Some transient phe- . 
nomena in electrical, by Prof. E.I, 
\V. Marchant, 525 ' 

Supply works in invaded districts, 315 \ 

Sweden, 60. 178, 394 j 

Sweden — and England, Protection in,; 
323 .. 

Sweden, Copper for electric wire in,*j 
305 :< 

Sweden, Electrical development in, 155j 

Sweden, Electro-iii. tallurgy in, 471 ■'. 

Sweden, Magneto manufacture in, 341J 

Swiss electrical industrv, German in- 
fluence in the. 99 ' ., 

Switchboards, Instruments for central-, 
station, by G. W. Stubbings. 573 ] 

•Switchgear standardisation, by C. C' 
Garrard, 19", 237, 335 " 

Switching examinations. Electric light,. 
16, 65, 375 ■. 

Switzerland, German penetration in,' 
147 

Synchronising station, .An automatic- 
ally operated, 279 " i 

Syndication in the brass industry, 634^ 



CAFETY First, 207 

Safety first and illuminalion, 398 

Safety first in industrial worif, 262, 
495. 520, 592 

Safety lamps, Miners', 274 

S.imijles of foreign manufactures, 231 

Sapdbcrg treatment of tramway rails. 
The, 316 

Scandinavia, Electrification progress in, 
463 

Science and education, 374 

.Science .Museum, Re-opening of the, 16 

Science, The neglect of, 255 

Scientific Congress, 448 

Scientific Products Exhibition British, 
424. 543 

Scotland, Electric power supply in, 397 

Scotland, Linking-up in, IB. 47, 56 

Scotiish Municipal Electrical Associa- 
tion, 89, 374 

S.abrook, Mr. A. H., Valedictory 
dinner to, 452 

Selenium cell as a burglar alarm. The. 



t for ade 



industry. 



Ship proposal, Novil electric, 135 
Ship propulsion by the Ljungstrom 

turbine. Electric, 457 
Shipboard. The application of electricity 

to various auxiliaries on, bv H. L. 

Hibbard, 22 
Ships, The eleclric propulsion of. 435, 

455 
Ships. Electric welding in the building 

of, 472 . 

Sljoemaking, Electrical, bv G. Basil 

Harham, 219 






■^31 



ft'ards 



engii 



ring 



.rks. 



TAR-OIL in Diesel engines. Two 
essential conditions for burning,; 
bv P. H. Smith, 575 i 

Tar oil, Diesel engines and, 280, 4771 
Tar oils, 136, 280 I 

Tariffs on electrical gixids, Foreign- 

and Colonial, 96, 384, 432, 5'28 
Tasmania, Electrolytic production at- 

zinc in, 64 
Tasmania, Water-power in. 328 
Telegraph and telephone lines, Induc-I 
live interfer.nce with. 280 ' 



Telkcr.m'h Notes — 
ISolivia, 350 
Brazil. 517 
Broken insulators. 62, 591 



Chii 



109 



Siam. Trade statistics ol, 370 
Siberia, Electrical trade with. 39 
Siemens Bros. & Co., Reconslitution, 

Ifi, 88, 447 
Signalling and ronlrol on railways. 

Electric, bv C. M. Jacobs, 69, 7K, 

a59. 503 ' 
Sound-range telephones, 617 
Sounders on firm alarm circuits, A.c 

558 
South .Africa, Electrical supplies lor, 

131, .589 . 
Soulh .Africa, Electrochemislry in, 2K 
Smilh African mines, .->3S 
Siiuih Wales, Linking-up in, .543. ."i62 
Spain, 420 

Niain, Babco,:k & Wilcox in. '257 
Spain, B:,itery -inanularture in, 420 
Sp..in. Notes from, 40. 137, 164, 491, 

fil5 
Spiin, The need for hvdio-eleclrir 

development in, 533 
Sp. ed of receiving a tekgr,ipliic mes\ 

sage through submarine rabies. 

Computing the, bv J. Rvmer Jones, 

556 
Standardisation, 495 
Standardisation, Afler-lhe-nar trade 

and. 160 
Stand.ardisation of motor shafts, 454 
Standardisation of tramwav overhead 

const, uciioii, 14 



Decoding telegr.ims, 469 

Delivery of telegr.ims. 423, 517 

Denmark, 13 

Dutch cables. 1.59 

Dutch wireless. 254, 4.93 

France, 109, 254 

Germany, 325, 446 

Great ^'estern Railway, 62 

High-speed wireless, 614 

Illicit wireless, 23Cl , 

Imperial wireless system, 591 

India, 134 

halv, 109 

Jap.an, 13, 354 

Liig in wireless time signals. 303 

Long-range wirete^s, 84 

M.xico. 517 

.Molor-cvcli; wireless. 82 

New telegraphic primer, 350 

Night telegrams, 305 

Norway, 351 

Pacific' cable. The, 13 

Peru, 109, •2.54 

Rumania, 493 



Rus 



230 



Society do Radi.>- I'el.^graphie, 350 

Soulh America. 42;) 

-Spain. '277, 447 . 

Sweden, 351, 493 

Telegraphs and telephones in 1917, 

134, 373 
llni^ed States, 84, 109, 423, 541, 614 
Wireless equipineni ol subinariitt.> 

205 
Wireless operators' demand, 85, 493 

517 
Wireless telegraphy, 230 



Tclephor 
483 



change, la-eds automatic 



Telephony exchange tr.insfers and theii 
organisation, bv F. G. C. Bal.l 
win, 172 

T. lephone lines, Inductivt- inlcrferenci 
with telegraph and, 280 



ThLEmosK No 



Egypt. 134 



THE ELECTRICAL REYIEW— INDEX. 



[July 5, 1918. 



Gun 



446 






Guernsey, 305 

Halifax, 205 

Hull lelephoncs. 614 

India, 134 

Japan, 469 

Leeds telephone service, 41. 159. 277, 

469 
London Telephone Directory. 134 
Motor cycles in telephone service. 

South Africa, 303, 469, 541 

Spain, as, 517 

Telephones in 1917, Telegraphs and. 

131, 373 
United Sates, 351, 423 
Uruguay, 159 
Wireless telephony. 134 



Telephones, Sound range, 617 
Temperature coefficient of pure an- 
nealed copper, The standard resist- 
ance and, by H. Savage, 486 
Temperature effects in D.c. meters, by 

G. W. Stubbings, 195 
Temperatures in large a.c. generators. 

Operating, 488 
Terminals for split conductor cables. 

Joint boxes and. 3. 65 
Terrestrial magnetism, 568 
Test upon rubber gloves. High-pres- 
sure, 305 
Testing earth resistance, .Method of. 

398 
Tests, Dielectric, 356 
Thermo-couples, Calorised iron for, 184 
Time signals between the Eiffel Tower 

and Switzerland, 185 
Time signals. Electric, 111 
Tin and Tungsten Research Board. 231 
Tin. Electrolytic recovery of. 470, 617 
Toulouse, The University of, 542 
Track construction methods employed 

in street widening, 472 
Trade Advisory Committee, Overseas, 

393 
Trade after the war. Overseas, by A. 

Stewart, 3.% 
Trade and industrial banks. After-war 

electrical, 273 
Trade associations, 601 
Trade. .Australian electrical, 465 
Trade Boards Bill, The Employers' 

Parliamentary Council and the, 542 . 
Trade combinations. Export, 483 
Trade Commissioners, Our, 74 
Trade expansion scheme. Export, 531 
Trade, Foreign, 63, 182. 278, 398, 495. 

591 
Trade. Foreign languages and. 458 
Trade in China. Competition in elec- 
trical trade in, 610 
Trade marks. Patents and, 182, 305 
Trade mission, A Government, 136 
Trade of the future. Overseas, 218. 257 
Trade organisation development, 351 
Trade, Our policy on overseas, 387 
Trade, Overseas engineering. 385 
Trade policv, Balfour report on post- 
war. 387. 409 
Trade J^elations. Anglo-Italian, 131 
Trade representation abroad. 538 
Trade statistics of Brazil, 490 
Trade statistics of Siam, 370 
Trade statistics of the Straits Settle- 
ments, 47- 
Trade, The enemy in, 506 
Trade. The Institution of Electrical 

Engineers and foreign. 338 
Tr.ide Union. An enlightened 110 
Trade with Siberia. Electrical. 39 
Trades after the War, The electrical 
— Report of the Departmental 
Committee, 576. 581. 606 
Trades after the war. The engineer- 
ing, 593 
Trades Benevolent Institution, The 

Electrical — Annual meeting. 455 
Trades. Whitley Committees for less 

organised, 266 
IVading with the Enemy— Report of 
the Board of Trade Committee, 
512 
Training disabled men. 135. 424 471. 

566. 593 
Training of engineer officers, 481 
Tramcar conductress complimented, 255 

Tramway crane, 543 
Tramway managers and electrical en- 
gineers. Salaries of, 377 
Tramway Managers. Metropolitan As- 
sociation of, 110, 397 



rtiAMWAY N'OTES — 

-Accrington, 253. 276 

Argentina, 13 62 

Ash ton. 38, 133. 395 

.•Vudenshaw, 350 

Australia, 13, 62, 325. 350. 168 

Air. 373 

Bith. 540 

Belfast. 134. 229, 445. 468. 492 

Binglev. 613 

Birmingham. 38. 253. 276. :103. 324. 
373, 422, 540. 613 

Blackburn. 13, 84. 134. 158. 303. 350. 
445. 540 

Blackpool. 205. 324. 445. 492. 540 

Board of Trade Tramwav Confer- 
ences. 204. 229. 565 

Bolton. 22S, 253, 324, 422, 492, 540. 
565 

Bootle. 253 

Bournemouth. 445 

Bradford, 13, 134, l.^iS. 181. 276. 303. 
350. 373. 395. 445, 408, 540 .590 

Brighton, 590 



iKAMw.w Noils— coiiliriuiJ. 
Bristol, 422 

Burnley, 62, 373, 395, 422, 466 
Burton-on-Trent, 516 
Bury, 205. 395 
Canada, 445, 516, 540. 590 
Cardiff, 423. 445. 613 
Carlisle, 35U 
Colne, 134, 334 
folwick, 108 

i:onlinental, 6~2. 134. 253, 468. 492 
Cork, 334, 432 
Croydon, 158, 517 
Darlington, 253, 324. 565 
Uarwen, 239, 324, 468 
Denmark, 468 
Doncaster, 303. 334, 396 



Do 



590 



Dronfield, 63 

Dublin, 277, 324, 423, 445 • 

Edinburgh, 158, 229, 303, 492. 613 

Elland, 517 

Fuel economy, 396. 517 

Galway, 445, 613 

Germany, 468 

Glasgow, 181, 205, 253, 324, 396, 

517, 541, 613 
Gloucester, 325 
Halifax, 13. 38, 84. 158. 229. 325. 

350, 373. 396, 422. 44.".. 511, 565 
Harrogate, 181 
Hebden Bridge, 108 
Heywood, 422 
Higher fares on tramways, 277, 373, 

422. 614 
Huddersfield. 396, 445, 492, 511 
Hull, 229, 253 
Hyde, 445 
11 ford, 492 
Japan, 468 

Keighlev, 62. 84. 1U8 
Ketteriiig, 468 
Kilmarnock, 442 
Lancaster, 134, 373 
Lancashire and Cheshire and N.W. 

Tramwavs, 13, 62. 416 
Leeds, 13. 62. 84, 134. 159, 205, 277, 

303, 335, 350, 396. 422 446, 492, 

541 
Leicester, 446, 565 
Ley ton, 422 
Liverpool. 84, 134. 158, 205, 253, 

422, 468 541, 565 
Llandudno, 205 
London, 62, 84, 108, 134, 350, 373. 

396, 422, 446. 468. 492. 517, 541, 

590, 613 
London County Council, 84, 108, 134. 

350, 446, 468. 517, 541, 590, 614 
Londonderry. 46S 
Longridge, 469 
Lowestoft, 396 
Manchester, 159. 253, 373. 422. 469, 

565, 599 
Mansfield. 13 
Mexico, 493 
Middlesbrough, 181_ 
Morecambe, 62, 205, 373 
Morley, 446 
Nelson, 422, 469, 492 
New Zealand, 591 
Northampton, 422 
Norwich. 134 
Nottingham. 303 

Oldham, 38 159. 253, 325, 350, 446, 
- 565 
Otiev, 591 
Padiham, 493 
Parcels sen,ice, 303 
Plymouth, 253 
Potteries, 541 
PontvrSridd. 108 
rr.-ston. 422, 493. 541 
Ramsbottom, 4B5 
Rawenstall. 205, 325 
Rothdale, 159 181. 205. 350. 396 
Rotherham, 446, 565 

S;,lford', 303, 446 

Scarborough, 614 

Sheffield, 565 

South Africa. 373, 541 

South Shields. 159 

Southend-on-Sea, 62. 422. 517 

Southport, 84, 181, 205, 229, 253, 
3a2, 373 

Spain, 134 

Spen Valley. 325 

Stalvbridge, 109 

Stolie-on-Trent, 229. 416 

Sunderland, 134, 469 

Swansea, 62. 565 

Threatened tramway strike. 239, 254 

Traffic reductions, 373 
Irivers, 303 
mway and vehicle workers' con- 
ference, 614 



ulorv 



Tr?nsformers. Aluminium in, 293 
Transformers, Large single-phase, 473 
Transient phenomena in electrical sup- 
ply systems. Some, by Prof. E. W. 
Marchant, 535 
Triple<oncentric to three-core lead- 
covered cable, Joints on, by P. 
Wardle, 389 
Truck Bervice in Chicago, Electric, 

263 
T'rucks, Electric industrial, 40 
Tubular earths lor lightning conduc- 
tors, by K. Hedges, 411 
Tungsten and molybdenum wires. 131 
Tungsten I.imps, " Overshooting " 

with, 480 
Tungsten Research Board, Tin and, 

331 
Turbine, A large high-speed Francis, 

358 
Turbine blades. Corrosion of, 376 
Turbine contract for Glasgow, Dick, 

Kerr, 274 
Turbine. Electric ship propulsion by 

th-i Ljungstrom. 459 
Turbine, The world's largest, 471 
Turbine wrecked, A 3S,000-KW., 326, 

341 
Turbines, Large steam, 388 
Ti;rbines, Observing blade clearance 

in, 440 
Turbo-alternator rotor. The mechani- 
cal design and specification of the, 
by S. F. Barclay, 295. 319, 357 
Turbo-alternators, Maintenance of, 494 
Turbo-generator, A 75,000 H.p.. 518 



393 



any. 



UNDER-production, Overwork and, 
483 
" Union " Eleetric Co. of Australia. 

420 
Unipolar induction. 351 
United States Engineering Council, 390 
United States, I.inking-up in the, 374 
United States, Magnesium in the. 376 
United States ordnance base in 

France,, 308 
Ur.ited States Price of aluminium in 

the, 227 
United States, The electrical industry 

in the, 261 
United States, The metric system in 

the, 464 
United States, The year's progress in 

the, 239 
United States, Water power in the. 

184 



VALUEyof " G." in engineering and 
physical work, 494 
Van, London and North-Western Rail- 
way electric parcel, tJOO 
Vehicle attachment. An electric, 543 
Vehicle Committee, The work of the 

Electric, 270, 518 
Vehicle costs. Municipal electric, 137 
Vehicle progress. Electric. 328, 613 
Vehicles, Long-lived electric, 110 
Vehicles, " Sell-delivery " of electric, 

593 
Vickers Ltd., The peace time activi- 
ties of, 424 
\olunteer notes, 16, 39, 63, 87, Ul, 
137, 160, 182, 206, 231, 355, 278. 
304. 326, 352, 376, 399, 425, 447, 
470, 494, 518, 543. 566. 593, 615 



w 



AGES, .Wjustmenl of, 213 



5C5, 614 
Tramwav wages. 13. 68 
I nited States, 446 
Walthamstow, 229. .565 
Warrington, 469. 541 
West Ham, 109 
Whitby and Monksealon, 433 
Wigan, 38, 250, 591 
York, 159, 565 
Yorkshire (West Riding). 109. 396 



Tramway rails. The Sandberg treat- 
ment of. 316 

Tramwav requirements. London Countv 
Council, 308 

Tramwav workers and industri.Tl coun- 
cils,' 536 

Tramwavs Commilt.e. The Bo.ird of 
Trade, 122, 162, 184, 209 

Transformer analogy, A nov^l. hv 
r. W. Marshall. 27 



Wages awards, 356, 278 

Wages. Dublin electricians', 336 

\\'ages. Engineering. 616 

Wages in the gas industries. 207 

Wages of central station employes. 14 

\\'ages of electrical employes, 63 

Wagon hoist for steel works, A 35-ton, 

363, 404 
\\'.ir allowances to municipal " Old 

Bones," 374 
\\.ir Bonds Week, Business Men's, 161 



War Items— 

After -meeting refreshments, ;W3 
.\fter-war .Appointments Departntenl. 

514 
.Miens and national service, 154 
American Bosch Co., 489 
.American war notes. 587 
.\ppointiT\cnt Board for demobilised 

professional men. 489 
.Askwith award and uncertified un- 
dertakings, 537 
.Australian electrical trade. War 

effects on, 
Birmingham, Tank Week at, 35 
Blackburn electricity 'staff's war sav- 
ings, 563" 
■ Bolting the door against Bosch, 587. 
609 
Bombs to Switzerland, 514 
Building alter the war, 537 
Canadian lighting economies. 130 
Canadian war measures, 154 
China. Exports to, 35 86, 154, 177, 

249, 301, 369, 393, 514 
Coal shortage in Germany, 86, 273 
Coal shortage in Prague. 86 
Control after, the war, 587 
Control of imports and e.\porls. 53 



Danish industries at a standstill, 86 
Defence of the Realm Tramway Re- 
■ - gulation, 489 
Demobilisation plans for munition 

workers, 419 
Discharged soldiers as tram driverSi 

201, 369 
Electric lamp glass control : Revised 

order, 443 
Electric supply and the Red Cross, 

443 
Electric supply staffs and national 

service, 249 
/ Electrical Co., The, 489 
Electrical lieutenants, 465 
Electricity supply from the public 

Enemy businesses to be wound up, 
333 

Entertaining wounded soldiers, 514, 
537, 587 

Excess profits on magneto manufac- 
ture, 154 

Exemption applications 10, 35, 58, 
86, 106, 130, 154, 177, 301, 236, 
250, 273, 301, 323, 346, 369, 393 
419, 443, 465, 490, 514, 537, 562, 
587, 610 

Exemptions withdrawn, 346 

Exports from .America, Restricted. 
86 

Exports to China, 35, 86, 154, 177, 
201, 249, 301, 369, 393, 514 

Exports to Switzerland : Prohibition, 
609 

Federation of American Industries, 
587 

French after-war resources, 587 

Genoa treason charge, 231, 301 

German electrical industry during 



the 



326 



German electricity supply undertak- 
ings. League of, 609 ' 

German industrialists' plans, 225 

German power station. Destruction 
of, 14 

German propaganda, 563 

German stocks in neutral countries, 
610 

Germany and raw .-nalerials, 201 

Germany, Fires in, 494 

Glasgow war savings scheme, 369 

Halifax roll of honour, 489 

Hamburg electricity works in diffi- 
culties, 47 

Hull Corporation electricity staff, 
443 

Industrial Council, A German, 201 

Krupps, The fire at, 35 

Labour in Germany after the war. 



Light and powe: 
10 



egulatic 



Lighting and power restrictions, 327 
Lighting conditions in Petrograd. 58 
Lighting economy in barracks, 514 
Machine tools and woodworking 

machines. «L0 
Ministry of -Munitions and mica, 369 
Ministry of Munitions and retort 

carbon, coke oven carbon, and 

pitch coke, 393 
.Ministry of Munitions and small 

tools, 369, 443, 465 
.Ministry of Munitions and tin, 419 
.Ministry of Munitions boiler order, 

443 



Petrograd, Life in, 86, 225 
Power station bombed, 514 
Protected occupations. Schedule of, 

106 
Rathenau, The apprehensive, 424 
Raw Asbestos Order, 35 
Raw materials after the war, 154. 

201 
Reconstruction Advisory Council. 201 
Reconstruction in Belgium, 419 
Restricted Occupations Order re- 
voked, 443 
Restrictions in retail trading, 154 
Restrictions relating to electrical 

converter plant, 346 
Rome, Electrical restrictions at, 10 
Russia, Trading with, 587 
Russian electrical works confiscated, 

154 
Shop lighting rfstrictions, 41 
Strike at Miilheim, 610 
Swedish export prohibitions, 563 
-Switzerland prohibition. Exports to, 

609 
The 1886 company confiscated by 

Bolsheviks, 154' 
Trading with Russia, 587 
Trading with the enemy, 35, 58, 86, 

130, 177, 235, 273, 301. 346 393. 

443, 465, 489. 514, '537, 587 
Tramway and electricity managers 

and military service,' 610 
Tramwavs and war bonus, 562 
Tramways in war time, 10 
Tramwavs of Leipzig, The 86 
Uruguay. 609 

War Lo.in subscriptions, 273 
War committees. New, 106 
W'ar-time economy must be per- 



Water-power, American, 315 
Water-power, Biitish, 121 



.Ill.V 



i'.n8.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



jKr-powtT Luniiliitti-e. ul*> 

iivr-povfLT dev< lopiutn;* in 
399. 4/0 

--power in Co. Donegal, 



\V..lcr-po«er 


n Crial Britain, b 


Wvvlands, 


125 


^Vatf*r-pow=r 


n Tasmania. 328 


Water-power 


n the U.S..1., 184 


Water-power 


n war time, 616 



Water-power reports. New Zealand, 
Water powers. The utilisation 
Bavarian. ,304 



Italy. Electric, 3.14 
he building of ships. Kl'N 



. lilcclric, 328 

.. Notts on. by C.-ipt. 

77. 117, 501 
I Kull.r's Works, 04 

London I'ndergrounil 



Welding rep.iirs 
Welding system- 

J. Caldwell. 
Welfare work :il 
Welfare work. 

Railwavs .-,n 
Whillev Conimillers for Jess organised 



Whiili- 
Whille 
Whiile 



tter of urgency, 50 

V reconstruction, 434 

V Report, The. 137. 305, 42.1 

;• Report. Birmingham ntanuia 
ers and th.-. 161 __ '^ 
. Electric sieel at 255 
113. 185, 618 

drawing industries The. 3<i2 
1 rules. I.E.E., 352. 495 
^s engineer. How to become 



and electricity, 
work. Exhibit! 
men blinded ir 



trades. 266. :i">i 
Whitley Councils. 146 



ch;. 



Ih.- 



rial. X, 






ipparaluii, .1b1 



Printea by Wm. Cate, t/TD., 147-150, Gt. SafironHillt £l.C.»uid Published by the Proprietors, H. Ai.asa9teb, QATSBODfiE A Ejuipe,4. budgate Hill, E.C. 4. 



Indfx to the Electrical Review, 
-Tuly r.th, IMS. 



vxm 



HlILiIBOm^/IOj^nij K/E^VIE'W 



Vol, LXXXII. 



JANUARY 4, 19 IS. 



No. 2,093. ■ 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol. IjXXXII.I 



CONTENTS: January 4, 1918. 



fNo. 2,093. 
Page 
1 



Sational Electricity Supply and Reconstruction 

■Control' After the War 

Joint Boxes and Terminals for Split Conductor Cables (///«»■.) 

Reminiscences. — I., by "'Ex-Shift Do?" ... 

Some Notes on Coal Testm;;. by G. W. StubbiuRS iillitx.) 

National Electricity Supply 

lUuminatinfr Engineerinjj ... 

The Faraday Society 

War Items 

Lefral... 

Business Notes 

Notes 

City Notes 

Stocks and Shares 

Market Quotations 

High-Efficiency Air Pnmps for Hig-h Vacua, by E. Jones Qillus,') 
The Application of Electricity to Various Auxiliaries on 

Shipboard ... ... ... 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (jUvs^ 
Correspondence — 

Dust Coal 

.fli; Mr. F. L. Rawson 

Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables 

New Patents .\pplied for, 1917 ... ... ... 

Abstracts of Published Specifications ... ... 



Contractors" Column 



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THE "ELECTRICAL REVIEW'S" 

ELECTRICAL & ALLIED TRADES DIRECTORY 

(THE RED BOOK), 

1917 EDITION. 



H. ALABASTER, GATEHOUSE & KEMPE, 
4. Ludgate Hili, London, E.C. 4. 



NATIONAL 
AND 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY 
EECONSTRUCTION. 



In out issue of December 21st w€ published, and 
briefly commented on, a summary of the recom- 
mendations of the Coal Conservation Sub-Commit- 
tee, which we described as of the first importance 
to the electricity supply industry. That impression 
is amply confirmed by a perusal of the complete 
report,* which was issued last week. Indeed, the 
matter is of such moment that we strongly urge 
every interested reader to procure a copy and study 
il for himself; as Lord Haldane remarks in a cover- 
ing note to the Prime Minister. " it is scarcely pos- 
sible to exaggerate tlie national importance of the 
problem of a technically sound system of electrical 
supply," and " it is a matter of grave national im- 
portance that action should be taken without delay." 
While the Report is too lengthy for reproduction in 
our limited space in cxtciiso, we are printing else- 
where in this issue a fairly full abstract of its con- 
tents, from which it will be seen that the, Sub-Com- 
mittee has treated the subject on the very broadest 
lines, regarding the problem in the first place from 
the point of view of an ideal organisation, and after- 
wards considering the existing situation and the 
manner in which it should be dealt with in order 
to bring about an ultimate approximation to that 
ideal. 

To put the matter in a few words, the proposition 
is to replace the parochial system of innumerable 
independent electricity supply undertakings by an 
entirely new organisation of national character and 
gigantic dimensions, supervised and controlled by 
a supreme Board of Electricity Commissioners, and 
sub-divided into some 16 districts, in each of which 
the generation and primary distribution of electrica? 
energy will be entrtisted to a single authority. 

One cannot but admire the courage as well as the 
ability of the Sub-Committee which has created this 
colossal scheme. It proposes to reverse at one. 
stroke the policy w'hich has held sway for 30 years: 
to strike off the chains of " municipal boundaries " 
which, more perhaps than any other factor, have 
hampered the development of the electrical industry 
--and therefore almost every manufacturing indus- 
try — in this countrv-; to neutralise the handicap of 
deficiency in water-power by the efficient and econo- 
mical use of coal, facilitating the establishment 
of new industries in this country; and bv enabling 
the output of manufactured products to be doubled 
and trebled, with the aid of electrically-driven, 
machinery, to solve those weighty problems which 
at present occupy the minds of employers anfi 
workmen who look ahead to the after-war condi- 
tions. These are all admirable aims. To what ex- 
tent can they be realised ? 

That the municipalities will regard the report as 
constituting a direct attack upon their cherished 
preserves can hardly be doubted, and it is to be 
regretted that it has been so phrased as to afford 
some justification for that inference. Lord Hal- 
dane himself, the chairman of the Coal Conserva- 
tion Sub-Committee, clearly perceives this fact, and 
by way of anticipation remarks that it should " be 
kept clearlv in mind that whatever conflict there 
mav be between the interests of the local electrical 
authorities which exist at present and the interests 

• " Int«riiii Report on Electric Power Supply in Great 
Britain." Cd. 8,880. Price 3d. net. 



[1] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,09s, January 4, 19I8. 



of a comprehensive scheme, there is no conflict in 
this matter between the interests of the local coni- 
immity and those of the nation as a whole "; he adds 
that the Sub-Committee thinks it " should not be 
further hampered by the mistaken policy of the 
past," thoui;h the necessity of payiny- fair compen- 
sation for existing rights and providing for the 
liquidation of debt is admitted. We gather from 
the numerous reports which we have received as to 
the comniients of numicipal representative^, in the 
Provinces that they have already taken up an atti- 
tude of hostility towards the scheme. As we indi- 
cated in our previous remarks on this subject, the 
Sub-Committee shows a distinct leaning towards 
private entei-prise, to which it attributes initiative 
-and resource, freedom of range, and keenness. 
qualities " conducive to the fullest measure of suc- 
cess." We also pointed out that in some areas a 
demand would undoubtedly be set up for some form 
of municipal control. 

The country is therefore faced with the facts that 
the national interests imperatively require the adop- 
tion of some such scheme as that put forward in 
this report; that the support of the local authori- 
ties for the scheme is es.sential to its accomplish- 
ment; and that, according to present indications, 
that support will be withheld. Is there anv wav 
out of this apparent impasse ? 

It is true that under the stress of war conditions, 
all of us, burgesses and councillors alike, have learnt 
to subordinate our individual aspirations to the 
national needs, and to accept the arbitrary "deci- 
sions of the duly constituted authorities with more 
or less docility; but little can be done towards carry- 
ing the scheme into effect while the war endures, 
no matter how urgent it may be, and therefore its 
fruition must be deferred till peace returns. In 
these circumstances, the powerful influence of the 
local governing bodies will again assert itself, and 
no elected Government can over-ride their opposi- 
tion rough-shod. Hence, to our mind, it is a prime 
essential to convince them of the absolute necessitv 
of a complete departure from our present policv. as 
all electrical engineers are already convinced on 
technical grounds, and no tinie should be lost in 
proving to them beyond all doubt that the national 
interests can be served in no other way, that their 
local interests will not suffer, and that they vvil' 
still remain for the most part masters in their own 
houses. They must part with the functions of 
generation and primary distribution, but from the 
sub-station to the consumer they should retain both 
ownership and control, and to this policv the Sub- 
Committee offers little objection. 

The question of the constitution of the District 
Electricity Supply Authority, however, will remain 
to be disposed of, and we foresee that the munici- 
palities, in spite of the satisfactory experience of 
Tyneside, will never consent to- the installation of 
a private company in this capacity, no matter what 
safeguards and systems of financial control may be 
put forward in niitigation of the offence. In short. 
no organisation that pays dividends under any cir- 
cumstances need be considered. To meet the views 
of the municipalities and remove their objections, 
some form of public control is indispensable. For- 
tunately we have, in the Hydro-electric Commission 
of Ontario, a striking example of such a system of 
control, ^yhich has achieved a remarkable degree of 
success, and has shown that it possesses in large 
measure those administrative qualities which the 
Sub-Committee specifies as indispensable. Under 
the rules of the Commission, the municipalities 
of Western Ontario enjoy preciselv those advan- 
tages which it is the object of the Sub-Commit- 
tee to secure for this country (though the source of 
energy happens to be water instead of coal), with 
the result that Toronto, for instance, is par excel- 
lence an electrical city. This is, we believe, the 
line of least resistance, as well as the line which 



conforms most closely to the trend of present-dav 
ideas, v\hicli cannot be ignored. hVanklv. for our 
own part, we should prefer a company under statu- 
tory control, such as that which was in course of 
evolution for London, with the concurrence of the 
L.C.C., when war broke out; but we foresee so 
many and great obstacles to the adoption of this 
principle in the Provinces, that we believe it wiser 
to adopt the second-best plan on the score of ex- 
pediency. 

Here we must leave the subject for the present, 
but we may direct attention to the views of various 
.luthorities summarised in our " Notes " columns 
to-day, and we hope on a future occasion to com- 
ment on some of the technical features of this inter- 
esting report. 



Sir Alkert Stanley, President of 
" Control " the Board of Trade, delivered an 
After instructive speech to the deputation 

The War, of the Association of Chambers of 
Commerce the other day. The 
deputation was interviewing him for tlie pur- 
pose of explaining objections to the Imports and 
Exports (Temporary Control) Bill. The desire of 
all traders is for trading operations to be freed from 
tlie influence of Government control as speedily as 
possible after the end of the war. The Board of 
Trade, according to Sir Albert's reply to the depu- 
tation, has devoted very careful consideration to 
the period of clianging over from war control to 
normal freedom of operation, and its desire is for 
control to be ended as soon as possible. The official 
\iew is that the period need not be a very lengthy 
one, yet " just as the machine has been gradually 
wound up, so must it be gradually unwound." Too 
hurried a transformation might stop the machine 
altogether. Control will be gradually rela.xed, and 
industry and trade will be able to re-establish their 
position and eventually go " unfettered." These 
observations must not be given a wider application 
than was intended by the speaker. They related to 
the particular measure that formed the subject of 
the interview — the resrictions on imports and ex- 
ports. There may be a sense in which we shall 
never lie able to return to the industrial freedom, 
liowever limited we may have thought it to be, of 
the davs Ijefore the war, but, so far as import and 
export trade is concerned, it is interesting to learn 
from Sir Albert that though the Board has inserted 
a period of three years in the Bill, it does not con- 
template for a single moment that the present 
restrictions in the aggregate will continue for such 
a period, and it will use its best endeavours to de- 
cide ultimately upon some period which will give 
general satisfaction. It is obvious to those who are 
In'ing to take a broad view of the whole situation 
as it will emerge when the happy, anxious days of 
Peace arrive that this subject must be aflected to 
a very large extent by the tonnage position. The 
demands on all the available tonnage for returning 
the Forces to this countrv, to the Colonies, and to 
the States, for bringing in raw materials and food 
for ourselves and our Allies, and neutrals, and pos- 
siblv, according to Peace terms, for starving enemy 
countries, will form a " first charge." Importation 
and exportation of raw materials and food form, 
of course, a large part of the genera! movement 
back to the normal state of affairs, but. even when 
we are not fighting, there will have to be some 
measure of regard paid to what materials and pro- 
ducts are, and what are not, immediately essential 
for the well-being of the nations interested. There 
nuist therefore, be some general plan which will 
involve Government control for a time to assure 
that what are really the first things come actually 
first, and in order that food shortag'e, unemploy- 
ment, and chaos may be avoided at what is bound 
to be a time of extreme crisis. 



Vol.82. No. 2,093. jANUAitv 4. 1!I18. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



JOINT BOXES AND TERMINALS FOR SPLIT 
CONDUCTOR CABLES. 



The success of the Merz-Hunter protective system, par- 
ticularly in the ca-sc of e.h.t. electric light and jMwer 
installations, is undoubtedly resulting in the increased use 
of three-core split conductor cables of concentric formation 
for three-phase work, this form apparently being the most 
popular of the several alternative methods of arranging the 
.split conductors (see fig. 1). 

But it has been found that whereas prospective users of 
this system are generally fully accjuainted with the principles 
upon which it is based, they are not always fully advised as 
to the best method of jointing and terminating the special 
cables made use of, and therefore a few remarks upon this 
subject may be of general interest, especially as improper 
jointing may render the system ineffective. 

To arrange the feeders so that the split conductors of 
«ach phase have equal impedance, the cable may be divided 
into a number of convenient lengths, the inner conductors 
of one length being connected to the respective outer 
<'onductors of the adjacent length. 

This arrangeuient also prevents interference with the equal 
<livision of current between the two conductors of each 
phase by unequal inductive effects due to out-of-balance 




Fio. 1. — Section op Thkkk-cokk Sit.it-conductor Cable. 

currents in the feeder itself, and to currents in adjacent 
feeders or earth. 

It will be seen that a special form of joint is called for, 
but excellent results have been obtained from a joint of 
simple construction, whicli ha.s given every satisfaction up to 
iO,000 volts working pressure, and is made up as follows : — 

After stepping back the lead and insulation in the usual 
way, two short lengths of braided copper of a total section 
equal to one of the conductors are bound and sweated to 
each inner conductor ; the two pieces of copper braid are 
then threaded through apei'tures provided in the hard-wood 
separators (fig. i), the ends of the inner conductors being 
separated from one another by a diaphragm left solid 
ii\ the centre of the wood block, and are bound and sweated 




Fig. 2. — Hai!I)-\vooo Ski-auatoh. 

to the outer conductor of the adjacent length. The braid, 
lies loosely along shallow grooves on the outside of the 
separators, expansion and contra<-tion of the conductors thus 
being also provided for (fig. 3). 

The joint on each phase is then surrounded by a paper 
tube, the three tubes of the completed joint being bound 
together, centralised by means of spreaders, tig. 4, and the 
whole enclosed in a lead sleeve and filled up solid with 
insulating compound in the usual manner. 

Joints made in the manner described by jointers of 
ordinary experience in k.h.t. work, having no special know- 



ledge of the refinireinents < f .split-conductor joints, have 
with.^toiid Ij, (1(1(1 volts between split conductors for five 
minutes and I(I(».(K)() volt.< between phases and bei;\veen 
phases and earth for 1.') minutes, at a temperature of 
170° F. 

Special apparatus for terminating split-conductor cables 
has been devi.sed by the majority of firms who specialise 
in this chiss of work, but one design only which is known 
to have given complete satisfaction will Vje dealt with in 
this article. 

The terminal box in question is the outcome of extensive 
experiments carried out with the object of discovering the 
most efficient means of complying with a stringent specifi- 
cation, issued in connection with the protective system 
under consideration ; it successfully withstood a test of 
100,000 volts for 15 minutes between phases and between 
each phase and earth and 1.5,000 volts between split con- 
ductors for five minutes. 

As will be seen from the illustration (fig. 5), the terminal 
box is provided with a new type of bottle-shaped porcelain 




Aeraxgemext of .Joint. 



insulator, which was deNelojied to resist the concentrated 
stress set up within and around the insulators, owing to the 
positions they necessarily occupy in relation to the con- 
ductors. These porcelain insulators .support the sjxjcial 
fittings and insulators. Patent Xo. 106,573 1917 (fig. 6), 
by means of which the conductors are separated, and whicli 
make it possible to reduce the size of the terminal to the 
dimensions of an ordinary terminal box for three-core, three- 
phase E.H.T. cable. 

The method of jointing, as is apparent from the illustra- 
tions, is particularly simple, the apparatus being so 
designed that after stepping back the lead and insulation in 
the usual manner, the cores may be cut off two or three inches 
above the top of the porcelain insulators ; a paper rein- 




FiG. 4.— Section of Joist. 



forcing tube is then j)laced in the position shown, and tajxid 
to each phase. The insulation on each phase is removed in 
accordance with the illustration (fig. 6). and the looping fit- 
tings are connected to the copper tubes, bound and sweated. to 
theouterconductors. Theporcelain insulators, being designed 
to pass over these fittings, are next placed in position, the 
sockets for the outer conductors being clamped to the tops 
of the copper tubes, which now form the outer conductors. 
The tubular portions of the insulators separating the split 
conductore are then inserted into the cop|ier tubes, and the 
special screwed jointing ferrules (provided with diaphragms 
in the centre to jirevent moisture creeping down the strand) 
secured by means of grub screws, and sweated to the inner 
conductors of eacli phase, which should be sweated solid. 
The topmost portion of the smaller insulator is uext placed 
in position, the whole arrangement being finally secured by 
tightening down the knurled nut provided on the screwed 
portion of the ferrule terminating the inner conductors. 
The box is partially filled with compound by means of the 



THE ELECTRICAIi REYIEWo [voi.82. no. 2,093, ja^-uabt 4, ms. 



oval cover provided in front of the box, tlie top of tlie box 
and tbe j)orcclain insulators being filled with eompound by 
means of a head of compound maintained in a funnel pro- 
vided for the purpose to a height sufficient to seal the paj)er 
insulation oti the cores ; this height is determined by the 
height of the funnel and vent pipe, both of which are 
removed after contraction of the compound has taken place. 
The space above the compound level forms expansion 
chambers, which allow for the expansion of the com- 
pound filling under working conditions, an air vent being 
provided in the knurled nut. 

It will be noticed that the box itself has solid walls at 
the top to prevent compound leaking under any circum- 




FiG. 5. — Terminal Box. 



Fig. 6. — Section op 
Special Terminal. 



stances, and to facilitate' the fixing of insulators, while the 
bottom portion of the box is split at the centre line, so that 
the cable can be arranged in the back half of the box after 
the insulation has been removed from the cores without the 
trouble of threading it through a hole in the casting. The 
screwed brass wiping gland is arranged so that it can be 
bolted up between the top and bottom portions of the box 
after the wiped joint has been made, the gland being secured 
by means of a special nut provided with earthing lugs ; the 
wire armouring is secured and earthed on to the brass gland 
by means of malleable iron grips. — J. 



REMINISCENCES.— I. 



Bt "EX-SHIFT DOG.' 



The monotony of shift work in power houses has been the 
theme of many a growl at various times, but looking back 
over some few years so spent, there are many incidents and 
episodes which are vividly remembered as being exciting 
and by no means lacking in variety. Priming boilers, 
machines running away or burning out, intermittent 
recuiring short-circuits, and occurrences of that nature, are 
certainly not every-day events, but they do happen ot-casion- 
ally, and undoubtedly break the monotony of an otherwise 
routine but strenuous existence. Many other items of smaller 
importance also tend to destroy any tendency to vegetal*, 
and it is these affairs from which the most useful lessons 
can often be learnt. 

Episodes of both great and small significance frequently 
also have their humorous aspects. During the never-to-be- 
forgotten railway strike of 1912, for instance, a- certain 
power house was guarded against possilile attack by regular 
soldiers of undoubted valour, for inflammatory meetinc^ 



were expected to be held upon a neighbouring common. 
.Just within the big doors and a little to one side peacefully 
hummed a 1,000-KW. rotary converter, one of the first of 
the self-synchronous type put to work in this country ; a 
group of soldiers often lounged about the open door when 
off duty, while the sentry continued his stolid tramp 
outside. A heavy short caused the usually good-tempered 
I'otary to flash over badly one day with several thousands 
of kilowatts capacity behind her. The worthy soldiery,. 
although they doubtless would have faced (and, perhaps. 
since have done so) the worst of Krupp's " frightfulness '" 
cheerfully, broke and fled, overcome by such unexpected 
and little-understood noise, smoke, and confusion ; and even 
the sentry took cover behind the wall, probably expecting 
to see the whole place collapse amid thunder and lightning. 
Although the writer was exceedingly busy for a quarter of 
an hour after this occurrence, the spectacle of the khaki- 
clad figures dashing away in all directions still lingers very 
plainly in his memory. 

Many less noisy episodes take place which are never 
reported. A night shift at a small a.C. station was run by 
a reciprocating engine set and a water-tube boiler of very 
liberal capacity compai-ed with the load carried. The staff 
consisted of a charge engineer, a driver, and a fireman. 
The two former became engrossed in the wee sma' hours in 
an inspection and discussion of some new machinery, and 
trusted to their hearing that all was well with the plant, 
until they were startled by the apparition of the fireman 
running into the engine room and shouting : " Look out for 
your volts ; I've let the fires out ! " The driver rushed 
to his engine, the charge engineer and stoker back to the 
boiler house. Steam was already back to 1 00 lb. instead of 
150, and the last remaining fire was disappearing over the 
dumping bars. The pawl drive of the mechanical stoker 
had slipped and driven the fire forward at a prodigious 
speed, which had escaped the notice of the fireman until 
too late. Energy and a supply of oily wa.ste averted a 
shut down, but the volts were low and the frequency more 
so, in spite of the cut-off gear being set at its lowest. The 
steam chart was easily " faked," the volt chart passed 
without comment, and the fireman — given his chance — 
developed into an excellent and reliable mm. 

The prevalency of the practice of " faking " is dying out,. 
it is to be hoped, but still one occasionally meets cases of 
its delil)erate retention. A certain CO, recorder would 
to-day give the same result — a convincingly varying line — 
if it were supplied with fresh air in lieu of flue gas, and an 
ingenious cardboard strip, intended to facilitate the reading 
of a vacuum gauge at a distance, can be so placed that its 
weight causes the indication of at least 2 in. extra vacuum : 
but these are exceptions, and, apart from the honesty of the 
personnel, the adoption of stricter supervision and of 
checking recorders has made faking more difficult than in 
the past. 

It is the usual practice to run the most economical plant 
the longest possible periods, and in one case the largest unit 
had also the lowest consumption, even at the light night 
loads. Consequently this set, a turbo-alternator of 1,50ft 
KW. capacity, frequently ran for several weeks at a time. 
At the end of a week it was found, however, that the 
circulating pump and air pump motors, which were D.c, 
required attention to their brush gear and commutators. It 
came to be the practice, therefore, to run another turbine, 
and motor this unit for half-an-hour or so each Sunday 
morning while having the pumps shut down. At first the 
Tirrill regulator, normally on the big set, was carefully 
taken off and transferred to the extra machine, but after » 
time, someone with the courage of his convictions motoi-ed 
the unit, and allowed the Tirrill to continue its work by 
means of wattless motoring currents, an arrangement 
which-was perfectly satisfactory in practice. The switch- 
board was fitted with both ammeters and kilowatt meters,, 
and the latter had a set-up zero, so that it was possible to 
read directly the reverse power required to drive the turbine 
(a matter of about 200 kw.) and at the same time to watch 
the Tirrill regulation upon the fields, and the circulating 
currents between the machines. The operation of synchro- 
nising the second set, motoring the big unit, and, after the 
pumps had received attention and been restarted, changing 
back to normal, could thus be done without causing the 



Vol.82. xo.2,093,jaxu.vry4, iflis.i THE ELECTRICAL EEVTEW. 



slightest departure from the usual straight voltage record 
which the Tirrill provided. The writer has not heard of 
any other instance in which a regulator is kept on a motor- 
ing machine as a matter of routine ; hut, of course, it is 
nothing wonderful theoretically, and may possibly be done 
elsewhere. 

Circulating pump motors are occasionally troublesome, in 
so much as they are often somewhat inaccessible, usually 
very relia ble, and so do not receive much attention. Ver- 
tical shaft motors with centrifugal pumps have sometimes 
been installed, and are a useful precaution when the engine 
room or c^denser pit is below the level of a neighbouring 
river or canal. In one case during the erection of some 
new plant a large and heavy valve was dropped by accident 
upon cast-iron circulating pipes ; the condenser pit was 
below the level of the canal, and the pump motors were 
flooded out, causing a-complet'e shut-down. In another case, 
a circulating pump refused to start in an emergency, and 
merely blew its fuse repeatedly upon attempting to operate 
the starter. An investigation showed that a greaser cleaning 
around it with more zeal than knowledge that same morn- 
ing had broken the shunt lead between pole windings. 
Steam-driven condensing plants are neither so economical 
nor so suitable in other ways for power stations, but in the 
modernised form they are coming into general favour again 
on account of their reliability. 

In large plants the auxiliaries are nearly always driven 
at high speed by small and independent turbines, a very 
compact and simple arrangement, and not so wasteful 
as might appear, since the exhaust steam is afterwards used 
either in the main turbine or for heating the feed water. 
A small steam-driven condenser, dealing with the exhaust 
from other pimips, fans, &c., had an annoying habit of 
stopping — a not uncommon failing of that particular type 
of reciprocating engine— and, moreover, was naturally run 
almost dead slow when on auxiliaries only. While stopped, 
the condenser became considerably water-logged, of course, 
and if not very carefully drained before restarting (and 
time was precious), used to eject hot water fro^ii its relief 
pipe to a moderate height and tlioroughly drench the 
devoted person of the engineer at its stop-valve. The 
motor-driven set at this station was a condenser outfit for a- 
500-K\v.' turbine, driven by a reputed 30-h.p. motor, single- 
phase, and of weird design, having commutator and slip- 
rings, and consuming 17 amperes at 2,000 volts at all loads ! 

Reverting to electrical matters, one sometimes comes 
across curious arrangements of gear and occasionally 
lamentable ignorance among attendants. The writer was 
once asked by the attendant in sole charge of a 1,000-kw. 
sub-station near London, containing e.h.t. remote-control 
gear, rotaries, and a fairly complicated D.c. switchboard, 
for an explanation of the working of the rotaries' trans- 
formei's ; he was obviously suspected of joking when he 
mentioned casually that, of course, there was no direct 
connection between the primary and secondary. " How, 
then, can the electricity get through to the rotary r " was 
asked protestingly. Yet that attendant carried out his 
duties by rule of thumb quite satisfactorily, and, at the 
time, was earning nearly 50 per cent, more salary than the 
writer, besides being his senior by quite IT) years. On the 
same undertaking the e.h.t. bus-bars were of polished 
copper, and had to be regularly vaselined in order to prevent 
oxidisation '. Further, the fuses for the D.c. bus-bar volt- 
meters were installed close to the instruments, so that when 
a selector switch broke down, as one eventually did, there 
was no check to the short-circuit until the 3/20 cable fused, 
causing considerable burns to the person operating the 
switch. Ammeters were also,mouiited with bare terminals 
for shunt leads in such a position that the earthed arms of 
a •' Navy-'phone "-type telephone could easily reach them, 
with disastrous results to the instruments. 

In another station a rotary converter was separately excited 
by a small D.c. generator, belt-driven from it, and the belt 
was exposed and without guides or strikers : although this was 
supposed to be a temporary expedient, it remained in use for 
over IS months to the writer's knowledge. During that 
time the belt came off on sundry occasions, and caused con- 
siderable variations in the supply, if not actual siiut-downs. 
In yet another station the staff once solemnly filed up the 
commutator of a high-speed exciter while it was standing ! 



50ME NOTES ON COAL TESTING. 



By G. W. STUBBINGS. 



The large proportion of the total cost per unit represented 
by fuel in even the most modern and efficient electricity 
works has now directed attention to the fact that the 
calorific value of coal is a factor of prime importance in 
determining the price that should be paid for the same. 
As coal is really a form of potential energy, the practice of 
buying coal by weight, although unavoidable, is not, strictly 
speaking, logical. Thus it is customary to insert a clause 
in coal contracts requiring a specified minimum calorific 
value, and not infrequently a sliding scale is adopted, by 
which the price to be paid depends upon the calorific value. 
Tliis very necessary procedure has necessitated the system- 
atic testing and analysis of the various consignments of coal 
as they are delivered, and this testing has frequently to be 
carried out by those to whom this class of work is none 
too familiar. The operations of analysing and testing 
coal really require a more or less thorough training in 
technical chemical work ; but a conscientious man who has 
had some experience in laboratory work can, after a little 
practice, obtain very good results. 

Directions more or less detailed are to be found in all the 
standard text-books on technical chemistry. There arc, 
however, several points that may be useful to those under- 
taking fuel testing in central stations — points which, per- 
haps, are too familiar to those trained in chemical work to 
require mention in the text-books, but are not so well 
known to electrical men. 

The complete test of a sample of coal usually comprises 
an approximate analysis to determine the percentages of 
moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash, and also a 
direct determination of the calorific value of the fuel by 
burning a small quantity in a suitable calorimeter. A 
determination of the percentage of sulphur is sometimes 
made ; but this is not usual, or frequently called for. If 
it be required, directions are to be found in all the standard 
text-books, and the process is quite straightforward to those 
competent to carry out the usual analysis. 

A word may first be said regarding the directions for 
obtaining a legitimate sample of the fuel to be tested. The 
directions as given in the books seem to the uninitiated to 
be superfluous and tedious. It camiot, however, be too 
strongly urged that unless the most careful attention is 
paid to these directions, all the subsequent work may be 
quite useless. The chance shovelful taken from the truck 
that sometimes suffices, is absolutely useless as a sample. 
The full directions should be carried out if results worthy 
of the name are reijuired. The method of preparing the 
sample is also of the highest inq^ortance, and the coal must 
be ground sufficiently to pass through a sieve of the requisite 
fineness. Great care should be taken that no specks that 
have failed to pass through the sieve are inadvertently mixed 
with the final sample. 

For the determination of moisture a weighed sample, 
from 1 to 2 grammes, is dried at a temperature of 110^ C. 
for half-an-hour. The sample is then cooled in a desiccator 
and weighed. The drying is continued for a further 
quarter-of-an-hour, and the sample is then weighed again. 
This is repeated till the weight does not further diminish : 
it may rise slightly owing to oxidisation, but in this case the 
lowest weight is taken as the correct one. It is important 
that the drying temperature be not above that given ; at a 
temperature even moderately iiigher, decomposition takes 
place, and some volatile constituents are given off. No 
attempt, therefore, should be made to hasten the process by 
raising the temperature. It is, moreover, absolutely neces- 
sary to cool the sample in a desiccator. The desiccating agent 
necessary is concentiated sulphuric acid, which acid should 
be renewed at regular inter\als, sukI before it shows signs 
of discoloration. It should be borne in mind tluit the 
sample of coal, after drying, is in a condition rapidly to 
absorb moisture from the atmosphere, and that, unless a 
desiccator be used, the result will be of little value. 

A determination of stirface moisture should be made if 
the sample, as taken from the tinicks, has been surface dried 
before preparation. This te&t ie mads by expojing a 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEWo [voi. 



Xo. 2,0!tS, January 1, mis 



weighed sample of the coal, as taken from the triu-ks, to a 
temperature of 70° F. for 24 hours. A correction lor this 
surface moisture will have to be made to the final analysis. 

The determination of the volatile constituents and of 
the ash is fairly straightforward. In testing for ash the 
process of ignition is sometimes hastened by occasionally 
allowing the crucible to cool, thereby allowing air to be 
drawn into the interstices of the heated mass. It is also 
possible, with care, so to arrange the jjosition of the 
crucible as to obtain a slight movement of air across the 
coal, the combustion being thereby hastened. This draught 
must, however, be very slight, or some of the ash will be 
blowMi out of the crucible. The weighing and re-heating in 
the ash test must be repeated till a constant weight is 
obtained. The appearance of the sample is no guide as to 
the degree of completion of the ignition, the only sure sigii 
being constancy of weight after 10 minutes' re-ignition. 
Cooling must take .place in the desiccator, as the highly 
porous ash will absorb moisture with avidity. 

The direct determination of the calorific value of the 
fuel is carried out by burning a weighed quantity in a 
calorimeter, and observing the rise of temperature of a known 
(luantity of water. In some calorimeters the oxygen necessary 
is passed directly into the cotnbustion chamber : in another 
system the oxygen is supplied by intimately mixing with 
the coal a definite quantity of sodium peroxide. Owing to 
the heat of the subsidiary chemical actioiis taking place 
with this method, the actual weight of coal used is less 




E IN SECONDS 



Figs. 1 and 2. — Heatinc; and CoouNt; L'cKVKf 



than the nominal, in order that this extraneous heat may 
be compensated for. In view of the complexity of the 
chemical action between the coal and the sodium peroxide, 
and its possible variation with the class of fuel being tested, 
it would seem that this method is not one yielding results 
of the highest accuracy. It possesses, however, the 
important advantages of simplicity of working and cheap- 
ness of equipment, and while the results are not, perhaps, 
quite so good as those obtained with a more expensive 
apparatus, they are, nevertheless, very useful when obtained 
by a careful observer. 

As the range of the temperature of the water in the 
calorimeter is small, not usually much over 10° C, it follows 
that the initial and final temperatures must be observed 
with great care if accurate results arc desired. The water 
in the calorimeter must be stirred till the reading of the 
thermometer is constant, before the combustion is started. 
After the combustion of the coal the water must be con- 
stantly stirred, and the reading of the thermometer carefully 
observed till it begins to fall. Until the fall of temperature 
commences there is no certainty that the whole heat of com- 
bustion has been communicated to the calorimeter and its 
contents. As some considerable time is taken for the final 
tcrajieratnre /<) l)fi peached, \ii foDpws fcl)at. as tl)e caJorijne.ter 



is during this time above the temperature of the surrounding 
air, it is constantly losing heat. 

This loss of heat can be greatly reduced by standing the 
calorimeter on some non-conducting substance, and by 
having its exterior brightly polished. A correction for loss 
of heat by radiation can. however, be made with consider- 
able exactness, and if results of a high degree of accuracy 
be aimed at, this correction may well be applied. The 
procedure is as follows : From the moment the com- 
bustion is complete, readings of the thermometer are taken 
at regular intervals of, say, 20 seconds, till the temperature 
begins to fall. Two readings are now taken at ft interval 
of two or three minutes, and from these readings the rate of 
fall of temperature in degrees pei' 20 seconds can be obtained 
for the temperatures intermediate between these two readings. 
According to Newton's law of- cooling, this rate of fall of 
temperature is proportional to the excess temperature of the 
calorimeter over that of the surrounding air. A curve of 
rate of fall of temperature can now be constructed, as fi.g. 2, 
the temperature /'. at which the cooling is zero, being, 
of course, that of the surrounding air, and the curve being a 
straight line between a point corresponding to these condi- 
tions, and another point corresponding to the observed rate 
of cooling at the maximum temjierature. The original time 
and temperature readings are now plotted, and a curve is 
obtained similar to fig. 1. The average temperature during 
each 20 seconds" interval being obtained, the fall of tem- 
perature during this period is obtained from fig. 2, 
and this loss of temperature is added to the tem- 
perature ordinate corresponding to the termination of 
this interval. Thus, the fall of temperature corres- 
ponding to the temperature at a time a being found, 
this amount is added to the ordinate i? / to gi\e a new 
ordinate b /'. By repeating this for each 20-sec. interval a 
new curve is obtained with a flat top, the flat portion 
corresponding to the constant temperature that would have 
been attained had there been no cooling, and giving the 
corrected final temperature. 

It should.be remembered that throughout the whole of 
the analysis and test of the fuel, patience and methodical 
procedure are most likely to obtain accurate results. 
Chemical work is very different from electrical, and the 
speed with which electrical measurements can be observed 
offers a great contrast to the comparatively lengthy process, 
of even an elementary chemical examination. Bearing this 
in mind, and conscientiously following the directions given 
in the standard text-books, Mie ordinarily well-trained 
electrical man should obtain results good enough to enable 
the purchasing of coal to lie managed on a rational and 
scientific basis. 



NATIONAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 



IxTEniM Report of the Coal Coxservatiox 
Sub-Committee. 



In our issue of December 21st we published a summary of 
the interim report of the Coal Conservation Sub-Committee 
of the Reconstruction Committee on Electric Power Supply 
in dreat Britain, which was prepared by a sub-committee 
appointed to deal with Power Generation and Transmission. 

The complete report which has now reached us is exceed- 
ingly interesting, and we think that very few of those 
who have studied the problem of electricity supply in this 
country will be drsposed to disagree with the broad prin- 
ciples enunciated therein. 

The following extracts will4)e of interest : — 

Summary. — The coal consumption involved in the produc- 
tion of motive power iu the United Kingdom amounts at the 
present time to SO.OOO.OOO tons i^er annum', equivalent in 
vahte to. say, f40.fKM.0(X) at pit head. 

In the industrial reorganisation which must take place on 
tlio termination of the war the further development of power 
i.s of great importance. The present use of motive power per 
employe is only about half that iu the Tnited States of 
America. , 

It is only by largely increasing the amount of power used 
in industrv (by two or more times) tliat the average cnitput 
per head (and as a consequence the wages of the individual) 
can be incresised. Power may be, most elTicicntly apphed to 
jndnsto' hy the medium of electricity. 



Vol.82. Xo. 2.0;i3, January 4. 1918. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Technitally aud econoiiiically the electrical eneifzy can be best 
provided by a comprehensive system, as may be amply proved 
from experience gamed in tbo.'se part.s of the'world where such 
systems are in existence, notably in Chicago (Illinois), on the 
Aorth-East Coast of England, on the Rand, and in certain 
industrial districts of Germany. Power production- in large 
suivr-plants. with generating machines of .jO.tKKJ H.r. or more., 
will not only be far more economical than in a large number 
of .smaller plants, but will ultimately involve great economies 
of ca|>ital by .securing a better load and a more efloctive use 
of the plant. Such super-plants, if suitalily situated on large 
sites, would make in |x>.ssible — .^o far as.it was economical to 
do so — to extract the hy-;):(.'diict.-- in the i-liapc of oils, motor 
spirit, &c., from the coal Dclore using it as fuel, thus avoid- 
ing to a Jarge extent the neees.sity of imixnting them. 

I'he super-plants would feed into the main trunk distribu- 
tion system, which must be laid down throughout the coun- 
try. For this purpose the country .=hould be divided into some 
16 districts, throughout each of which there should be a 
standard periodicity and trunk main voltage. 

Ihis main tmnk distribution system would collect any 
waste power available wherever situated, and deliver it where 
it could be profitably used. It would also, by saving the co.st 
of transport, niak;^ it commercially po.s.sible to bring much 
coal to the surface, which i.s at present wasted and left in 
the pit, and which under the new conditions would be turned 
into electrical energy ;it or near the pit head. 

The saving in coal throughout the country would, in the 
near future, amount to .5.5.(.HlO,(HKI tons ix>r annum on the pre- 
sent output of manufactured products. 

If the coal so saved v.ere used for the protluction of further 
power it would be pos-^ible to generate continuously not less 
than I.5,000,0(_KI H.r., which would more than compensate for 
the absence of large water powers in this country, and admit 
of the manufacture here of many products which are at pre- 
sent only made in America and on the Continent. 

The pre.sent svstem of electrical jxiwer di.stribution through- 
out the countrj . which is undertaken by over 6(KI iiuthorities 
in as many separate districts, is technically wrong and com- 
mercially uneconomical. The present average .--ize of generat- 
ing station is only .5,0(K) H.P.. or about one-fourth of what 
should now l)e the smallest generating machine in the power 
station. 'The "Power Act" legislation inaugurated some 15 
years ago has not had the desired re.sult on account of the 
restrictions imposed uiwn the power companies. 

A national system of electric ixjwer supply would greatly 
facilitate the ele.ctiification of railways with its attendant 
advantages, .save large .sums of money r.t present .spent on the 
tiansport and di.stiibution of coal, and bring within reach of 
the community as a whole the creat benefits of an increase 
in the use of electricity for domestic purposes, advantages 
which, taken together, are perhaps of more value than the 
direct coal saving. 

It is estimated that to-day the production of i)ower, includ- 
ing railways, absorbs at least .sO,(;0;i,tllKl tons of coal. 

The average coal consumption per horse-power hour 
throughout the country has been halved during the la.st 25 
>ears. In spite, of this, the total amount used has increased. 
A consideration of the probable futme development of British 
industries shows that it is not so much h\i rrdiiriiit] our total 
coal consumption as bll increasing our industrial output for 
a giren coal consumption flint projirrss trill he made. T'nless 
this result is attained we shall be faced with the necessity 
of doubling our coal output or reducing our coal exports to 
nothing. But the present coal consumption wonld, if used 
economically, produce at least three times the present amount 
of power. 

It is olivious that improvement in the conimeicial prosiK'rity 
of a country — that is to .say, the average purcha.sing power of 
the individual — depends on increa.sing the output per head. 

Now it is possible to increase the output per head by harder 
work on the part of each individual, but there is far greater 
promise in increasing his output by givinc him more machi- 
nery to multiply the effectiveness of his efforts. 

The following table from the Census of Production shows 
the extent to which output is dependent uyxm the use of 
ix>wer : — 

Average net output, 
per head. 

Under £.^0 

£.50 and under £7n 
£75 .. .£100 

£100 .. £12.5 

£12.1 ., £1.50 

£1.50 ., £175 

£175 .. £200 

' The small amount of power used per hand employed is explained by the 
fact that this Broup includes trades such as the tobacco industry, where a large 
proportion of female labour is employed. 

In the L nited States the amount of power u.se(l per worker 
is .56 per cent, more than in the United Kingdom — if we elimi- 
nate workers in trades where the xise of power is limited, or 
even impi;ssible. we' shall probablv find that in the T'.S..^. 
the u.se of power, where it can be used, is nearly double 
what it is here. The best cure for- low wages is more motive 
power. Or, from the I'-'-'Tiufacturer's point of view, the only 
offset against the increasing post of Inboiir is the more exten- 
.sive use of motive power. Tii •' '■ - ' '• in of the work- 
man's problem, and alao that ol Lij i::niplo.ver. is the flame. 



Males, 
per cent. 

of all 
employed. 


Females. 

per cent. 

of all; 

employed. 


H.r. of engines at factories, 

per 100 employed. 
In all estab- ' In 
lishments. factories. 


3T9 


68-1 


21 


92 


40-0 


fiO-0 


50 


(u 


724 


27-6 


97 


lis 


90-2 


9-8 


100 


189 


98-0 


2-0 


26t! 


269 


64-0 


36-0 


81* 


89* 


92-0 


•8-0 


215 


221 



viz., the greatest possible use of power. Heace, the growing 
importance of having available an adequate and cheap supply 
of power produced with the greatest economy of fuel.* 

One question which has been .settled conclu.sively during 
the past 15 years is that the most economical means of apply- 
ing power to industry is the electric motor. In the factories 
put down for the production of munitions during the war, 
95 ix-r cent, of the machinery is driven by means fif electricity, 
and it is only !* question of time for all jxjwer to l)c jyiplieii 
in this way. Thus, the problem is not so much how to ap|)ly 
the power to the tool or proce.ss, as the case may be, but 
how best to generate the electric i)ower. 

Broadly siieaking, there arc two alternative methoils, 
namely, what may be termed the individualistic metliod and 
the collectioe method. In the first case, each manufacturer 
generates his own electric power, generally in a power station 
situated in his works ; in the second the power requirements 
of a large number of individuals, in fact, of the community, 
are pooled and dealt with collectively. 

In the case of the individual method the plants are small, 
occupied for a small portion of the day only; as a conse- 
quence, the capital cost is of undue importance as compared 
with the cost of coal, with the result that cheajx^r and less 
economical plant is used since it pays to save money in 
capital and spend it on coal. 

In the case of the collective method, the economy of carry- 
ing out electrical transmission on a large scale enables the 
plant to be placed on a site offering the best water and trans- 
port facilities — conditions essential to economy. The pooling 
of loads admits of the use of large electrical generating 
machines, which is also essential to economy, and the load 
is of .such a nature that the number of generating machines 
ill operation can lie regulated to suit the requirements of the 
load throughout the day. Due to the absence of coincidence of 
the requirements of the various factories supplied, the amount 
of energy produced per horse-iX)wer of plant installed is much 
greater. As a consequence, the cost of coal is the predomi- 
nating factor in the total cost, and installation of the most 
«'conomical plant is justified. The natural tendency in the 
case of the collective method is, therefore, to concentrate 
on co;il economy ; on the contrary, the tendency in the case 
of the individualistic method is to econftiiise in capital and 
waste c-oal, especially in a country like England, where coal 
is relatively cheap. 

Now it is certain that arrangements ought to be made in 
the near future for the manufacture in the United Kingdom 
ol many products necessary for the development of the iu- 
du.strial community, which are not now. made here, and 
which require large amounts of electric power at very low- 
cost. In any case, after the war plants will have to be 
erected for generating power cheaply in order to deal w-ith 
these proeeiises, and it is submitted that the oiiportunity 
should be taken for combining tho.se plants with the plants 
necessary for the supply of the general power requirements 
of the country. This would reduce the cost of electric power 
to a minimum for both purpo.ses. and, what is jverbaps more 
jniixjrtant, free a large amount of the coal output for use in 
the generation of electricity for these special processes. The 
two must be done together. There .should be no delay in 
the erection of such plants, but the sites .should be chosen 
.M) a.s to admit of the " super-pow-er stations" w-bich it -will 
he neces.sary to erect being also suitable for working in with 
a iKiwer sy.steni for the whole counti"v-. 

If the n'lanufactuier can obtain a reliable .supply of power 
as cheaplv. or more cheaply, from an outside source than by 
putting lip plant himself, he is able to save his capital for 
u.-*' in his own particular trade. Moreover, power can be 
delivered to the individual manufacturer with greater econoniy 
in the use of coiil from a collective system than from a series 
ol individual plants, for the economical generation of elec- 
tricitv implies the use of large prime movers, and the econo- 
mical size of generating machine is .substantially larger than 
the requirements of any one of the largest factories. 

It is broadly true to say that, as regards the country as a 
whole, the requirement-s of each municipal area, each rail- 
w-.'.v. and .each factory are dealt with .separately, w-ith the 
resiilt that the average size of generating machine employed 
is certainlv not more than a tenth— and probably not more 
than a tw-entieth— of what it ought to be. Under such condi- 
t--.>ns, eeonomv in coal con.suniption is impossible. 

.\ con.spicuous example of the neees.sity of the multiplica- 
tion of individual power plants, which has arisen from the 
fact that no large central supply was available, is afforded by 
the recent addition to the [xiwer .stations of London of eight 
railwav power stations, of an average capacity of •34.350 KW., 
within a distance of four or five miles from Hammersmith, in 
addition to "ii other power stations alreadv existing. 

With the exception of Lots Road, all these additional sta- 
tions are badlv situated as regards water facilities, and they 
might all have been advantageously combined on one site 
with great econoinv of capital, labour, and coal. 

The ixxsition of large local authority undejtakihgs in the 
Midlands is most unsatisfactory. Their power station sites 
have been primarilv selected from the point of view of retain- 
ing the works within the city areas, so that th e "rates on 

• Unless cheap power is available tli- tendency must be to 
develop thase industries where the output per head is smail 
rather than those, such as. for in.stance, electrochemical pro- 
ducts where the output per head is large— industnee \rbjcb 
a-c daily bc-om'm ; of in(-i-easing n:'.finnnl impn-ffJlcP 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,093, January 4, 1918. 



such works may be retained by tlie apcratiug local authoiity. 
None of the undertakings of Birmingham, Liverpool, Man- 
chester, or Sheffield have sites with projier water and con- 
densing facilities. The whole of the.se undertakings use cool- 
ing towers. The.se undertakings generated during the last i'3 
jnonths between 000 and 700 miihon units. While the pre- 
wnt position is most unsatisfactory, the future expansion 'if 
these undertakings gi^■es rise to still greater apprehension. 
Important extensions on new sites arc already projected, the 
additional plant proix)sod aggregating tome 300,000 KW. to 
•100,000 K\v. Ill the case of Binnmgham, the new site chosen 
is ^yithin the city boundary, and the condensing facilities are 
iiiiiit4Ml t<i coiiling towers, ami c)\vii3g to shortage of water 
sui)ply raw sewage effluent will have to be u.sed for "make- 
up " puriKwes. lu the case of Sheffield, the new site, whi>.-h 
is the subject of a. Parliamentary inquiry, adjoins the city 
l)oundary, and *.-oohng towers for dealhig with a .50,000-KW. 
(U'maiid will have to be used during lone periods of the year. 
If (Hjwer* is to bo suiiplicd throughout the country at tin; 
lowest possible price, the following conditions must be 
secured : — 

1. The power users in each industrial district nuist be sup- 
plied from one common inter-connected electrjcal power dis- 
tribution system. 

2. Large generating maehines, not less than 20,000 h.p., 
mu.st be u.sed, and they must be erected in the best jwssible 
positions for economical production. In the more important 
industrial districts generating machines of 50,000 h.f. might 
be advantageously used. 

3. Power available from surplus gas or waste heat should 
be turned into electrical energy on the spot in IcK-al plants 
which would feed into the main distribution system. N.B. — 
.^s regards waste coal — i.e., coal which it does not at present 
pay to bring to the surface — this could, where trausiwrt was 
the ruling consideration, also be used on the spot. 

To-day, if » coUiery owner has small and poor coal in his 
colliery which it does not pay him to bring up because it 
cannot stand the freight, or a coal of high calorific value, but 
too friable to stand transport, ho cannot under existing condi- 
tions contemplate turning it into electricity at* the pifs mouth 
t — extracting the iiy-products in doing so — because, except in 
certain areas where a trunk main system exists, there is no 
market for the elerfricity, there being no mcans'of trans- 
mitting or distributing it. 

There arc impor,fc:int additional advantages to be .secured 
from the erection of plants on nxjmy and efficient site,s rather . 
than on crowded and inefficient sites, apart altogether from 
those re.sulting from the increase in the size of the plant. 

Apart from the saving in fuel, centralised iM)wer production 
is essential if the capital charges and labour costs are to be 
reduced to a minimum. 

At the pre.sent time the supply of electricity in Great Britain 
is dealt with by some 600 undertakings. The average gene- 
rating plant capacity of those undertakings which have power 
station.? is 5,000 h.p., or about one-fourth of the capacity of 
one single generating machine of economical size, and about 
one-thirtieth of the size of what may be considered as an 
economical " power station unit." The following table gives 
.some particiilars of electricity supply in London : — 

London Electricity Supply. — Position in 1913.* 

Central Greater 

area. Lender, 

No. of authorities 39 70 

No. of g'enerating station.st 11 7o 

Averajre size of stations ... ... 7,616 KW. 5.28.5 kw. 

Average size of units ... 787 KW. 632 KW. 

No. of types or systems of generation 31 49 

No. of frequencies ... ... ... 8 10 

\o of Vf Ita 'p?i '^'®°^'^*"°'^ ■•■ ■■• '^ ■'" 

'' (.distribution ... 21 24 

No. of methods of charging and prices 50 70 

' Slight changes (have taken place .since I'JIS, when the above table was 
prepared for the L.C.C., but it has not been considered necessary to revise the 
"'"'" ''' ^ the general situation remains unaltered. 



It is not suggested that a scheme of power ilis-ti'ibution for 
the whole country can be treated as an orduiary engineering 
Jiroject and commenced <h. novo, but it is urged that th<; 
time has now arrived for the matter to be con.sidered compre- 
hensively, and for the reorganisation of the existing indis- ; 
criminate power supply systems to be undertaken on correct 
lines. The main transmission system must be alternating 
current, three-phase, at a high voltage — no engineer would 
dispute it — but a more difficult question is that of frequency ; 
in Great Britain no leiss than 10 frequencies are employed 
to-day. 

A division of England and Scotland into areas having fre- 
quencies of 50, 40, and 25 cycles respectively represents the 
least amoimt of scrapping of existing plant consistent with 

■* The use of electricity for motive power purposes has 
been specially emphasised, but electrical smelting and electro- 
chemical processes are becominc increasingly important. They 
have, however, only been developed to a. small extent in this 
touutry up to now, due to the fact that it has not been 
possible to obtain electrical energy at a low enough price. 
The electric refining of steel, among other matters, is known 
Ui be urgent. In addition, there ar*- the various domestic 
uses of electricity, such as heating, cooking, and power. T\hich 
are capable- of rapid development. 



development on right lines. Roughly speaking, England, soutl 
of a hne between the Huinber and Carlisle, could be run ai 
50 cycles, with the exception possibly of the Black Country 
between this line and .the Cheviots might remain at 40 'cycle- 
whilst the whole of Scotland could be standaj'dised at 25 cycle.-^ 
The chief difficulties are, however, not technical ones, but 
what may be called poUtical. 

In order to illustrate the inefficiency of the present system 
a. list of the average pi'ices received in the Lancashire indus- 
trial district is given in the following table, and compared 
with the average price paid bv consumers on the Morth-East 
Gfmst. 

AVUKAlJE PHlCliS ClIAUOKi) |ci (cixsiJlKKS rjV ELECTRICITY , 

Unoektakimis in the Laxcashirk Area. 

Private Public Traction Total' 

supply. lighting. supply. supply. 

I'enee Pence Pence Pence 

per unit, per unit, per unit, per unit. 
182 1-88 ri3 1-50 

102 2-11 103 r02 
217 218 113 TTl ' 
1-31 1-33 1-27 1-29 i 
2-27 111 113 1-49 ': 

■90 -50 -551 '80 " 

103 — no 1-05** 
•67 2-24 rOS -72 -- 

r3u :>uo 1-25 , 1-29 : 

165 — — 1-65 -, 

1-33 — 101 1-20 , 

1-50 2-26 119 1-38 ' 

■72 1-37 122 -85 \ 

142 1-99 r.50 1-44 • 

•67 110 -50 -66 ■ 

2-59 1-75 1-15 ] 

1-95 1-39 1-58 

111 ris 1-49 ' 

nio 1-63 2-00 '■ 

317 127 1-29 .• 

- 2-00 3-42 ■.' 

2-69 1-23 r03 i 

4-35 1-32 1-32 j 
ipital chfu-ges. 



Liverpool Corporation 

Manchester Corporation .. 

Eccles Corporation 

Salford Corporation 

Stretford Corporation 

Stockport Corporation 

Bolton Corporation 

.Bury Corporation ... 

Hey wood Corporation 

Leigh Corporation 

Rochdale Corporation 

Wigan Corporation 

Ashton Corporation 

Oldham Corporation 

Stalybridge Joint Board... '67 

.\ocrington Corporation ... ri2 

Blackburn Corporation ... r63 

Burnley Corporation ... 2'00 

Colne Corporation 2'25 

Darwen Corporation ... 122 
Nelson Corporation ... 2'68 

Rawtenstall Corporation... ri6 
Middleton Corporation ... I'Sl 
\ Does not include anv t 



The figures as to the cost of electrical energy throughout 
this imixd'tant industrial area may be compared with thos^ 
for the North-East Coast district of England, where th^ 
entire area, .somewhat larger in actual square mileage, andi'' 
much smaller in population and in power requirements and.i 
therefore, less advantageous from a .supply point of view, isi 
served by a group of power companies from one inter-con-, 
nected electrical distribution system. The average price paicl 
for electi'ical energy is less than ^d. jier unit, and the use; 
of electric power per head relative to the population is threei 
times as great. ■ 

[To he roiicluilcd.) ] 



ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING. 



By a. p. TROTTER. 



(/-;.//riir(,s jriiiit I'rcsidcnlkd Address to Ihc IllU.MINATING .' 
Enci.neeri.n'g Society.) •;■ 

\Yhen uur members are called upon to advise on the lighting^ 
of some place or building, or to carry it out, they examine 
the conditions and consider the requirements; they recom-; 
mend the most advantageous method, and calculate the appro-] 
priate arrangement of lamps. If the job is one of some iin-, 
portance, a specification is drawn by a con.sulting engineer,; 
tenders arc invited, the best on© is sidocted, a contract is' 
made, and the work is carried out by a contractor. The^ 
results are checked by a photometer, and the cUent is toldj 
that the job is finished. Then he comes and judges whether] 
the lighting is "good or bad" merely by using his eyes!; 
This is one of the difficulties of our branch of engineering, < 
and its warns us not to rely too much on rules and formula;,, 
and that we must interpret the readings of the photometers.; 
with discretion. The instrument may make a definite state- 
ment, but we must consider the context. 

The eye only is the judge. Even if an instrument should 
one day be invented which would indicate a quantity of light' 
on a scale like a thermometer, our client's opinion of the' 
lighting will not be materially influenced. Illuminating engi-l 
neers must therefore give some attention to the subjective, 
••ind to physiological interpretations of sense-impressions. ■; 

The National Illumination Committee of Great Britain is| 
a body affiUated to the International Commission on lUumi-J 
nation. It was constituted in 1914 by the co-operation o£^ 
our Society with the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the^ 
Institution of Gas Engineers, and of the National Physical i 
Laboratory, to carry on and to develop the work which had ! 
been begun by the original International Photometric Com- ' 
mission. . . \ 

The Committee has given preliminary consideration to aj 
unifonn international method of rating and marking all^ 
sources of light, and to the nomenclature of photometric' 
tei-ms. It invited a number of laboratories and private indi-, 
viduals to investigate the relation between the height of the,' 



Vol. 82. No. 2,093, JANUARY 1. 1918.] THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



fliiino of a Hefner amylacetate lamp and its luiniiious int-eu- 
sity, with the object of settling the lieiyht at which it would 
give a light equal to one intei national standard candle, that is 
to say, to l.iii times the light of the usual 40 mm. flame. 
Five reports were received, and these, together with an 
American paper and Liebenthal's original work, gave a mean 
result of 44.2 mm. for the height of the flame. Excluding 
two for special rea.sons, the remaining five are within the 
range of half a millimetre, or about two per cent, of light. 
While this is a satisfactory performance for a lamp introduced 
so long ago as 1884, it is not suflicient for scientific work of 
precision. 

It is not possible at the present time to discuss freely the 
de.sirabihty of darkening the streets of towns during war 
time as a protection against air raids, or the degree or mode 
of darkening if this is cou.sidered advisable. 

The original anti-air defences of London were hurriedly 
thrust upon the Admiralty, and there was no time to go into 
new and difficult questions, ^ancl, of cour.se. there was no 
experience to give waruing^ of the accidents which did in 
fact re.sult from over-darkening. The need for some modifi- 
cation .soon became apparent. In November, 1910, I was 
sent for, and was asked to consider certain points which 
wei'e put Ijefore me, and, with an oflicer of the London dis- 
trict, I iu.siJected various parts of London in which the lamps 
had been obscured in various ways. In one street I measured 
an illumination con.siderably less than one-ten-thousandth of 
a foot-candle. I was asked to consider how much light could 
be allowed without revealing the topography of the district. 
In order to study the question more carefully, I was invited 
to make an aerial reconnais.sance from a balloon at night. 

A stiff east wind was blowing, and threatened to carry the 
two balloons which ascended to the west. Tliey were there- 
fore so balla.s-ted that we shot up at once to 3,500 ft., where 
we found ourselves in the calm which sometimes lies between 
an east wind and a higher reverse cun-ent. There was plenty 
of time to study the lighting over a district of some five or 
six miles in diameter. The night was clear, cloudless, and 
moonless. The most .striking feature was the unmistakeable 
contrast between the black river and pai-ks and the dim 
shimmer of the gloomy houses. Innumerable windows with 
drawn blinds gave the appearance of a granular film of 
brightness nearly equal to that which would have been pro- 
duced by an illumination of 0.1 foot-candle. At that date, 
the streets were easily traceable by the patches of light below 
the screened lamps. The sight was very beautiful, and it is 
sufficient to say that the a'athorities are of opinion that it is 
imix>ssible to hide such a city as London by reducing the 
street-lighting. On the other hand, this does not apply to 
small towns, for, during a run of 40 miles into the country, 
after the waning moon had ri.sen, at the trailing height of 
3.50 ft., it was impossible to distinguish between houses and 
haystacks. A small town and .several villages were cros.sed 
without being seen. I ci?n confidently as.sert that it is pos- 
sible to obliterate, a small town by extinguishing all street 
lamps and by careful shuttering and screening of the win- 
dows. But this .screening must bf intelligently .carried out. 

In the warfare of the future we must exjiect sm-prise 
attacks by large air squadrons. It will be nece.s.sar\- 
for engineers to consider the best means for control of 
street lighting, and. indeed, of all outdoor lighting, from 
the source, and provision for immediate extinction, when 
called upon by the military authorities to take this step. 
An independent street lighting system affords an excel- 
lent method of giving warning of an air-raid at night. 
There are very few instances of separate mains for street 
lighting, but a relay system for the control of electric lamps 
has been successfully tried, and seems to be applicable for 
this purpose. It must be remembered that our coast towns, 
and indeed those neai- the coast, are visible from a consider- 
able distance at night in peace time. Enemy aircraft, de- 
prived of the guiding lights of towns, have often liopele.s.sly 
lost their way, and have scattered their bombs on open fields. 
Complete darkening uf the whole country is undesirable for 
many reasons, even if it were possible, but a carefully con- 
sidered reduction of lighting is in many cases well wortli 
much inconvenience and .some risk of accidents. 



THE FARADAY SOCIETY. 



■At the December meeting of the Society a miscellaneous col- 
lection of papers was discussed, concerned mostly with prob- 
lems of applied physical chemi.stry. The most "important to 
the engineer was that contributed by Mr. .\i.ex.\ndf.h 1j. Feild, 
United States Bureau of Mines, on " Tlie Viscosity of Blast- 
■furnace Slag and its Relation to Iron Metallurgy." 

The paper records a brilliant experimentil ivsearch under- 
taken by Mr. Feild ; the construction of an apparatus in which 
the viscosity of molten slag- can be measured at furnace tem- 
peratures, namely, up to some l.WK) deg. C. The method is an 
adaptation of that of Margules u.scd for the viscosity of liquids. 
In the form adopted by Mr. Feild, it consisted essentially of 
two concentric cylinders of Acheson graphite, of which the 
outer one, containing the molten slag, was rotated at one 
revolution per second, when the torque exerted on the inner 
one, really a graphite rod hanging on a steel suspension 



ril>bon. was a ineasurc of the viscosity of the fluid between 
thenj. A mirror on the suspension system recorded with 
great accuracy the amount of j,}vist, and hence the viscosity, 
once the law of the apparatus was known anil it lia.i .een 
calibrated against a viscous fluid, such as castor oil, of known 
viscosity. To maintain the slag and the visco.simeter at high 
temperatures the apparatus was contained in an electric fur- 
nace of the granular carbon resistance tyiie, the heating zone 
being 3 in. in diameter and (i in. long, and the outer furnace 
shell 14 in. in diameter and 18 in. long. The large size of 
the latter allowed of high heat insulation. The resister mate- 
rial was held in the zone between two concentric alundum 
tubes, surrounded by magne.site chips, . and outside of all 
kieselguhr for insulation. Graphite ring electrodes brniii;,.!. 
the current into the heating zone from a transformer giving 
voltages ranging from 40 to IfK), the maximum current being 
110 amijeres. The atmosphere of the furnace, like that of the 
hearth of a blast furnace, was a mixture of carbon monoxide 
and nitrogen. The temperature of the slag was measured 
by means of an optical pyrometer of the Holborn-Kurlbaum 
type, sighted directly upon the surface of the rotating slag. 

Mea.sinements were made with eight types of commercial 
slags, and also .some synthetic sla^s, at a temperature of 1,500 
deg. C, and the viscosities varied from S-iO to 480 (H,0 at 
'20 deg'. C. = 1). The relation between viscosity and tem- 
I>erature was also studied, the curves connecting them being 
found to approximate to rectangular hyperbolas. The high vis- 
co.sity of slag can probably be chiefly attributed to its silica 
content; anyhow, a very high silica content is certainly accom- 
panied by high viscosity. Examination of quartz ciystals by 
Bragg's method of X-ray analysis points to an unusually com- 
plex structure, three .silica molecules being associated with 
each point of the space-lattice. This polymerisation tendency 
J oust be the fundamental cau.se of the extreme vi.scosity of 
silica and of the high vi.sco.sity of silicate combinations. 

Tlie practical applications of these measurements and their 
further consideration are obxious. Tlie fuel economy of a 
blast furnace is to a great extent dei^endent upon the fluidity 
of the slag, for this must attain a certain value before the 
FeS can diffuse from the iron into the .slag, and the CaS 
formed diffuse away with suflicient rapidity to prevent the 
reverse reaction, that is to say, before desulphurisation can 
take place and iron be produced. A slag requires a minimum 
tempeiature of 1,400 deg. C. to attain a working fluidity; no 
iion will he pi'oduced in the furnace unless the temperature 
distribution is .such that it can acquire this temperature. 

The work so far recorded by Mr. Feild is merely an indica- 
tion of the importance of the subject, and its bearings on 
metallurgy.' The wider aspects of the jiroblem of slag vis- 
co.sity and its effect uixin desulphurisation are now engaging 
the attention of the Bureau of Mines, and further reports 
will be awaited by metallurgists with considerable interest. 

Tlic CoHceiitrafiim of Sidpliinic Acid. — An interesting appli- 
cation of physical principles to further industrial efficiency 
was described by Prof. Alfred W. Porter, F.E.S., in a paper 
on "The TheiTnal Properties of Sulphuric Acid and Oleum." 

The exi.sting data on heats of solution and dilution, and 
evapiu'ation of these acids apply only to atmaspheric tem- 
peratures. ^^'ar requirements have necessitated their being 
concentrated at high temperatures in enonnous quantities, 
and the question of .small improvements in efficiency has be- 
come of financial importance. Prof. Porter has ingeniously 
extended existing data to temperatures of '20(1 deg. C. and 
over by indirect methods, either from vapour pressure by 
means of Glapeyron's fonnula or from thermal capacities. The 
values obtained are tabulated and represented on charts in 
such a way as to be readily available for factory practice. 

The other papers presented were chiefly of chemical interest. 

The next meeting of the Society will take place on January 
14th, 1918. and will be devoted to a general discus.sion on 
" The Setting of Cements and Plasters." 
■. Anniul Gener.vl Meeting. 

The annual general meeting was held on December I'ith. 
The le-signation of the Treasurer, Dr. F. MoUwo Perkin. who 
had acted in that capacity since the formation of the Society 
in r.l(l3. was received with niuch regret. Mr. Robert Mond. 
F.R.S.E., was elected as his successor The following officeis 
and members of Council were also elected : — 

President : Sir Robert. Hadfield, Bart.. F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents: \V. E. Bou.sfield, K.C.. F.R.S., Prof. F. G. 
Doniian. F.Pv.S.. Dr. Eugene Haanel, Prof. A. K. Huntington, 
Dr. T. Martin Lowrv, F.R.S. 

Council : W. R. Cooper, Dr. C. H. Desch. Dr. J. A. Harker. 
F.R.S.. Emil Hat.schek. Cosmo .Tohns, Prof. Alfred W. Port<>r. 
F.R.S.. E. H. Ravner, .\. Gordon Salainon, Dr. George Senter, 
Cav. Magg. E. Sta.s.sano. 

The report of the Coiincil stated that in .spite of adverse 
(onditioMs the past year liad jvrhaps been one of the most 
fruitfid in the history of the Society, whether mea.sured by 
tlie interest of the meeting? held, the value of the work pub- 
lished, or its .activities in the wider field of .scientific and tech- 
nical progress. ■ 

Early in the year the Society presented a memorandum to 
the Mini.stry of Munitions on tlie production of .synthetic 
nitrogen comixiunds. and as an outcome of a conference which 
took place between repre.stnitatives of the Society and of the 
Munitions Inventiinis Department of the Ministry, a Nitrogen 
Products Committee of the Department was formed. 

Tlie Society lins pre.<!ented to the Department a serie.s of 
sectional reports on many of the aspects of the proble'm under 



10 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. S2. No. 2,093, jakuary 4, 1918. 



consideration, drawn up by Messrs. W. R. Bousfield, W. R. 
Cooper, E. Griffiths, F. M. Perkin, and F. S. Spiers, and it 
has also initiated some experimental work. 

The Society is conducting a research on "The Setting and 
Disintegration of Salts and other Crystalline Substances," for 
which it has iweived a grant from the Department of Scien- 
tific and Indu.strial Research. 

tieiieral discussions held in the course of the year included 
one on "Methods of Obtaining High Temperatures in the 
Laboratory." and another on "Refractory Materials," which 
proved to' be a. function of outstanding importance, attracting 
}\idespread interest. 

In conjunction with other Societies, the Faraday Society 
was instrumental in calling together a conference to discuss 
means for carrving into effect a scheme of co-ordination be- 
tween the variou-s bodies interested in refractories research 
and standardisation. Later in the year a second oonf^v.n-.- 
was held, which re.sulted in the appointment of a Provisional 
Organising Committee to draft a scheme for a proposed Asso- 
ciation for Refractories Research for the consideration of the 
industries concerned. 



WAR ITEMS. 



Light and Power: A War Regulation. — The following is 
a new Regulation which has been published under the De- 
fence of the Realm Act ; — 

11a The MinisKT of Munitions, wilh a view to maintaining or increasing 
the sLipplv of light, heat or power for the purpose of the production, repair 
or transport of war material, or tnv other work necessary for the successful 
pio^cution o( the war, mav by order direct, that lights of any specified class 
or description shall be extinguished or their use restricted to such extent, 
between such hours, within such area, on such premises, and during such 
perioil as may be specified in the order, and it anv person having control of 
iiny light, or occupying, 
ch.-irge of premises ^n, on 



ntrol of. 



nanaging. or being in 
hich any light is used 
uch order he shall be guilty of a summary 
offence against these regulations : . , ,. 

Provided that this regulation shall not apply to any light required to be 
kept lighted bv a competent naval or military authority, or other officer 
.luihorised bv him for the purpose, or under any order made under Regula- 
tion 11 bv the Secretary of State, or the Secretary for Scolt.tnd. 

Tramways in War=time. — The following new ReguUition 
has been issued under the Defence of the Realm Act ; — 

After Regulation 7bb the following regulation shall be inserted ;— 

7n»ii. (1) The Board of Trade, for the purpose of making the most cfli- 
cient use of the materials or plant belonging to a tramway or light railway 
undei'taking with a view to the successful prosecution of the war, may by 
order require the whole or any part of the rolling-stock, materials and 
plant, including permanent way, of any such undertaking to be placd at 
ih.-ir disposal or at the disposal of any person or body of persons named by 
them. 

Where .my such order has been made the Board or any such person or 
body of pel-sons may take possession of such portions of the rolling-stock, 
materials or plant of such undertaking as they may require, and may 
r. move them and make use of them for the purposes of any other tramway 
or light railway. •» 

(2) .\nv order made under this regulation may be revoked, extended or 



-led 



requir 



iply with the 



of an 



orde 



(3) If any person f,iils to con 
under this "regulation or wilfull 
such order he shall be guilty of a summary offence against these regulations. 

■ Electrical Restrictions at Rome. — .A new set of regula- 
tions controlling the use of electricity for lighting and heating 
has just been issued by the municipal authorities at Rome. 
Exits ol' theatres, concert halls, &c., will only be allowed 
one lamp, not exceeding 60 watts. The present lighting of 
shop windows and show cases is to be reduced by 50 per 
cent., by discontinuing half of the lamps at present in use, 
and keeping the candle-power of the remaining half at the 
pre-sent value. No further extensions will be permitted, 
either by changing the c.P. of the lamps or otherwise, in the 
heating and lighting installations of shops, offices, public 
buildings, c*i:c. The use of cun-ent for heating is forbidden 
between 4 and 10 p.m. 

Hxemption .Applications. — .\n appeal was made at Leices- 
ter for an electrician at a Itx-al kmema (C3), previously re- 
jected, who is substituting a Class -A man now in the Navy, 
and who has undergone an operation for appendicitis and 
l>eritonitis. Exemption was refused. 

.\t Radcliffe (Lanes,), exemption was applied for an assist- 
ant electrical engineer, apprenticed to a firm domg practically 
all Coverninent work, and who had been discharged from 
the Army after four months' fservice. The api')eal was le- 
ftised as from the end of January. 

The Lancaster Tribunal have granted six months' exemp- 
tion to an electrical in.stallation engineer (42, C 3), who is in 
charge of the installation at a mansion convei-ted into a mili- 
tary hospital. 

.At Southampton, the Corporation tramway department ap- 
pealed for exemption for five employes. The manager said 
that substitutes — discharged .\rmy men — had been .sent, but 
they left. One was given six months with a view to substi- 
tution, and the others were each temporarily exempted for 
a similar period. 

^Ve.st Kent .Appeal Court has granted 'one tnonth's exemp- 
tion to H. W. Whitaker (18, Grade 3), assistant electrician at 
the Theatre Royal. Chatham. 

Before the East Kent Appeal Court, exemption was claimed 
for H. G. H. Deade (39, CI), stoker, with the Isle of Thanet 
Traction & Lighting Co., Ltd., and he was given until June 
17th. 

An appeal was niad^ by the Military against exempfion 



held by F. Stillingfleet ('24, Bl), electrician at L'nderley 
Hall, near Kendal. Major Hope Brown, for the. Mihtary, 
contended that there was no need for an electrician at the 
Hall, but the estate agent replied that the man was in 
charge of the turbine for the electric lighting, and was a 
valuable man. The appeal was dismi.ssed, and the exemption 
confiiTned. 

Dorset Appeal Court heard an appeal liy the National Ser- 
\ice Representative against temix>rary exemption until Febru- 
ary 28th allowed to H. J. Barrow (30). electrical wireinan 
with Messrs. Brooking & Co., electrical engineers, of Wey- 
mouth. Captain Chubb suggested that Barrow would be an 
excellent man for the engineers. The appeal was disallowed, 
and the exemption confirmed. 

.At Peterborough, exemption was claimed for P .Woodman 
(42, B2), tramway traffic inspector, and E. A. Sewter (81, 
B 2), mechanic on tlie tramway maintenance and repairing 
staff. Each was allowed three months. 

The Essex Appeal Court heard a Military appeal against 
exemption untD March 1st aflowed to G. A. Weston (38, B 1), 
electrical engineer, Westtliff, Southend-on-Sea. He has 
charge of the electrical fittings at hospitals and council 
schools, and the exemption was granted on the ground of 
domestic hardship and national interest. The appeal was 
refused, and the exemption confiiTued. 

On a National Service review, the Chippenham Tribunal 
has granted exemption until April 15th to P. Foyle (41, 
Class A), who is in charge of the electric plant at the cloth 
factory. 

-At Lewes, the Electric Supply Co.. Ltd., appealed for re- 
newed exemption for R. Woodward (27, general service), shift 
engineer, on the ground of certified occupation. Captain 
Selby .A.sh objected, as appellant had not attended the Volun- 
teer drills. Woodward explained that the other assistant was 
away on Admiralty work. He was supposed to relieve him 
(applicant) at 6.30 p.m., but sometimes he had to wait until 
8 p.m., and sometimes until 10.30 p.m. He had to remain 
until the other man came. He sometimes had to work 14 
and 16 hours per day, and he had to work on alternate Sun- 
days. The exemption .was renewed until April 4th, appel- 
lant to join Section B of the Volunteers. 

\t St. Ives (Hunts), Me.s.srs. Enderby & Co. 'appealed for 
S. J. Allen (Bl). engineer in charge of new electrical driving 
plant and machinery, and four months were conceded. 



LEGAL. 



Kkxsingtox i: Knightsbkidge Electric Lighting Co.. Ltd., 

i: The Nottixg Hili, Electric Co.. Ltd. 
The hearing of this action was continued before Mr. Justice 
McCardie on Thursday. December 20th. 

Mr. Tomlin. K.C. for the Xotting Hill Co , detailed the findings 
of Mr. J. Swinburne, which were published in the Elec- 
trical Review of October 12th, and concluded by submittlnpr 
that the Arbitrator's award was wrong, and he had not correctly 
construed the agreements. 

Mr. Vesev Knox, on behalf of the Kensington and Knights- 
bridge Electric Co . submitted that the award should be upheld. 
Counsel argued that the point taken by Mr, Tomliu with regard to 
the Kensal Town supply — viz.. that it could not have been given 
unless it was given by the Metropolitan Co. — was not open to him, 
and that Mr. Tomltn was not entitled to put before the Court the 
statement of facts on which to found his argument. The maximum 
power taken last year by both the companies was less than half 
of the capacity of the joint station, and there had always been an 
enormous surplus of current. There never had been any question 
of limitation of output. Mr. Tomlin had claimed that the Netting 
Hill Co. had taken 600.000 watts, and had done all that they were 
required to do ; but that was a misapprehension of the object of 
the relevant clauses, as these dealt with the limitation of the 
maximum demand. The clauses limited the amount which during 
a certain specified period could be taken from the joint station. 
The joint station had. at all relevant times, been ready and 
willing to give any supply required by the Netting Hill Co. 

Mr. Justice McC.\rdie said that difficult matters were arising 
with regard to the facts found by the arbitrator. If they were to 
get on with the hearing, they must try to formidate some common 
basis of facts. 

Mr. Tomlin said that the capacity of the joint station had beefl 
increased from time to time, and, instead of being limited to 1.800 
KW.. it was now 9,000 KW. His clients had. in regard to the to al, 
always taken a fair proportion provided for in the agreements. 
There hail been times when the station had not been in a position 
to give them all that they wanted. 

The hearing of the case was continued on Friday. December 21st, 
and Mr. Tomlin. K.C replied on behalf of the Notting Hill Co. 
He said the root question in the case was : \\'hat was the contract 
the Notting Hill Co. had entered into, and what had they contracted 
to do ! If they had contracted to do something that was within 
their powers, and had not carried it out, they were liable in 
damages, but if it was not within their powers, they were not liable 
in damages because there was no contractual obligation of which 
there had been a breach, as they never had the contractual capacity 
to bind themselves by any such obligation. Upon the agreement 
there were two limitations— the supply was to be within the 



Vol. .s2. xo. 2xm. JA.NUARV 1. 19KM THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



11 



statutory area, and there was to be " a reasonable amount " taken. 
As the Kensal Town area was outside of the statutory area, if he 
was ri^ht. that concluded the whole point in his favour. Counsel 
also submitted that it could not be contended that as the arbitrator 
had found damages there was an end of the matter. The award 
had been framed in an alternative sense by Mr. Swinburne. The 
Kensinjfton Co. could only found a claim on a breach by the 
XottinfT Hill Co. of a valid obliyation, and they had to show that 
there was an obligation of which there was a breach, and in respect 
of which a claim for damages arose. There had been a supply to 
an area outside the statutory area which was ultra rirex. and the 
Kensington Co. were now seeking to say that the Xotting Hill Co. 
were bound to take the supply from the joint station " for any 
purpose " — even if it was illegal or ultra tires. 

At the close of the arguments, as mentioned in our last issue, 
Mr. Justice McCaedie reserved his judgment until the 1918 
sittings. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



Catalogues — ^Iessks. Vickek.s, Lth., Elei/trical Sales 

Department, Vickers House. London. S.W. 1. — We recently mentioned 
a number of pamphlets which had been issued in foreign languages 
by this company as part of its foreign propaganda scheme. 
We have now received some further examples of this collection. 
One is a tJO-page brochure produced in the same excellent style, 
containing a considerable number of finely executed half-tone 
views of the electrical machine shops of the company and 
typical examples of its electrical machinery manufactures, in- 
cluding A.C and c.c. generating plant, rotary converters and motor- 
generators. c.C. and A.C. motors, and motor-driven machinery. In 
all cases there is brief letter-press in several languages. A special 
Russian edition of this brochure is now in the press. Two little 
blotter slips, with illustrated backs, are printed in colour, about as 
artistically as anything of their kind that we have seen. 

Calendars, &c.— ^^^Iessrs. Peckham, DucAiir & Co.. of 

9U, Charing Cross Road. W.C., have prepared a useful desk 
Reminder Book of very presentable appearance. Each page con- 
sists of a week's ample daily memoranda spaces, and will either 
turn over at the top or tear off. 

From Messrs. Ale.x. Hawkixs i: Soss, of London Road. South- 
wark. S.E. 1, we have received an artistic wall calendar, small 
monthly date slips being fastened beneath a charming reproduction 
in colour of " The End of a Perfect Day. " 

The Hart Acci'MrL.\TOR Co.. Ltd..- of Marshgate Lane, 
Stratford, London, in accordance with their now long-established 
custom, have prepared a desk blotting pad. with the calendar for 
191S arranged in two halves on either side of the pad. 

The Westminster Tool axd Electric Co., Suffolk House. 
Laurence Pountney Hill. Cannon Street, London, E.G. 4. — Small 
hanging wall calendar with monthly slips for I!U8. ' 

From Messrs. Hill, Tptox ..t Co., Ltd.. of 22. George Street, 
Oxford, we have received a wall calendar with distinctly printed 
monthly slips, lighting times and moon changes Ijeing indicated in 
red ink. 

The Sux Electrical Co., Ltd., of 118-120. Charing Cross Road. 
London. W.C. 2, have prepared a set of refills for their desk 
calendar for 1918. They will be pleased to send a set to any reader 
who has the metal base ; unfortunately, as the circumstances of 
the time preclude the manufacturing of more metal bases at present, 
they are unable to forward complete calendars. 

Once again we are indebted to the British Thomsox-Housto.v 
Co.. Ltd.. of Rugby, for one of their large, businesslike wall sheet 
calendars. On each monthly sheet for 1 9 1 8 there are printetl. as before 
in smaller type, the dates for the preceding: and the following 
months. A bird's-eye view of the Rugby works, and a half-tone 
illustration of plant made* by the company, appear on each sheet, 
together with addresses of the B.T.H. branch offices. 

Messrs. Taylor & Cuallex. Derwent Works and Foundry. 
Birmingham. — Wall calendar for 1918, with a set of perpetual 
changing date cards. 

Messrs. Simple.ic Conduits Ltd., of Garrison Lane, Birmingham, 
liave again sent us one of their useful pocket diaries, which not 
only admirably serves its main purpose, but also contains a quantity 
of engineering information and data. In atldition we have received 
an ingenious ashtray, representing one-half of a .^^implex four-way 
box, and an excellent leather pocket wallet, all of which items we 
highly appreciate. 

Trade Announcements. — Messrs. Wooiaough, Laxo, 

Ltd.. of Acton, have changed their name to Lang & Squire. Ltd., 
but the management of the firm is unaltered. Mr. Woolnough has 
liad no interest in the company for some years. The company is 
now in a much stronger position to give prompt deliveries. 

In connection with the death of Mr. W.m. Joh.nsox. it is announced 
that the business of Messi-s. Wm. Johnson A: Co., electrical con- 
tractors, of 49. Leopold Street. Sheffield, will be continued under 
tlie management of Mr. H. J. Burdett. 

Liquidations. — Resisto Electrical JlAiaTAcTiRixo 

Co. Ltd. — Creditors must send particulars of their debts, &f., 
to the liquidator, Mr, De Westley Layton. Tliorner's Chambers. 
Ingram Court, Fenchurch Street. EC. :!, by January ISth. 



Book Notices. — " The Function and Place of Adver- 
tising in Modern Business Economics," with particular reference 
to the attitude of Government Departments to advertising. Issued 
by the Council of the Association of British Advertising Agents, 
London. .^ 

We have received copies of further issues of the B.E.A.M.A. 
.loiirual. printed in Spanish and Russian respectively. London : 
H.E..4.M.A.. Oakley House, Bloomsbury Street. London. W.C. 2. 

"Radio Communicatiuu Theory and Methods." By J. Mills. 
London : Hill Publishing Co. Price Ts. 4d. net. 

■Central Stations." By T. Croft. London: Hill Publishing 
Co. Price 10s. lid. net. 

• Lighting Art." By M. Luckiesh. London : Hill Publishing 
Co. Price 10s. 6d. net. 

■" Circular of the Bureau of Standards."' Xo. G8. Public 
ITtility Service Standards of Quality and Safety. Washington : 
Government Printing Office. 5 cents. 

The "Electrical Engineers Diary." 1918. Edited by J. H. 
Johnson. M.I.E.E. London : S. Davis A; Co. Price 6s. 

Auction Sale. — Messrs. W. Houghtox & Co. will sell 

by auction on January 30th. at the Mart, Tokenhouse Yard, various 
leasehold properties in Gt. Marlborough Street, and Foubert's Place, 
suitable for electrical engineers and manufacturers. See our 
advertisement pages to-day. 

For Sale. — -Leeds Corporation Electricity Department 
is inviting offers for a quantity of surplus plant, including 
engines, alternators, and condensing plant. For full particulars see 
our advertisement pages to-day. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Alton. — Pkov. Order. — The U.D.C. has decided to 
oppose the application of the Aldershot Gas, Water, and District 
Lighting Co. for a prov. order for electric supply to parishes in 
the area of the R.D.C.. in view of the fact that the Council before 
the war gave instructions for an electrical scheme to be prepared 
for Alton and adjoining rural parishes, and had postponed the 
scheme on account of the war. 

Australia. — Uralla (X.S.W.) Municipal Council has 
applied for authority to carry out an electric light scheme. Armidale 
City Council has received a further offer to install electric lighting 
in the town from the Hellgrove and Armidale Water-Power 
Electric Co.. which, under an old Act of Parliament, possesses 
legal authority to supply electricity in the district. The company 
proposes generating by water power at a site lOi miles from the 
cit.v. 

The Lighting Committee of the South Grafton Municipal 
Council has recommended acceptance of the electric lighting pro- 
posal of Mr. J. X. Webber, of the Clarence River Timber Co. ; 
under the scheme the Council will have the right to acquire the 
distributing system and battery to be erected, at such time sis the 
Xymboida hydro-electric supply is an accomplished fact. 

The city electrical engineer at Goulburn, N.S.W., has reported 
favourably on the question of substituting electric for steam power 
at the water works pumping station. 

A conference of a number of towns, convened by the Goulburn 
Chamber of Commerce, is urging the Government to proceed with 
the Burrinjuck hydro-electric scheme. 

In the Railways Bill now before the Victorian Parliament, pro- 
vision is made for the sale of electrical energy in bulk by the 
Railway Commissioners : strong objection is lieing taken to the 
measure by the Melbourne City Council, because it would be 
possible for the bulk-supply business of the Council, on the expira- 
tion of agreements, to, be transferred to the Railway Commissioners, 
and thus injuriously affect the financial stability of the Council's 
undertaking : also because it would emjKiwer the Commissioners 
to supply electricity to the Board of Works pumping station, the 
Harbour Trust, the new post office, and the Government cold 
stores, which are at present supplied by the Council. The 
Railway Commissioners, it is argued. Would have power to 
■ pick and choose" their consumers, and would naturally take the 
largest and most profitable. It is therefore urged that the Bill 
be withdrawn and that a conference be held between the Railway 
Commissioners and the Electric Supply Committee of the City 
Council, with a view of introducing an amending Bill to the next 
session of Parliament. 

Mr. H. Frew, civil engineer, Brisbane, recently laid before a 
special meeting of the Townsville Council. Queensland, a scheme 
for a septic tank generating septic gas an^^ providing power for 
electric light. Mr. Frew laid two proposals before the meeting — 
one a full installation, which would cost £23.400, and a smaller 
scheme, costing £ 1 3,900 for installation. 

Aylesbury. — The T.C. hits undertaken to supply Mr. 
Jas. Putman, of Haydon Hill, at a cost of £270. Mr. Putman pay- 
ing £200 towards the cost, and guaranteeing at least £1.5 a year 
for 10 years. Current is also to be supplieii to the mill of Mr. E. P. 
Collier at ,?d. per unit. 

Ballyshannon. — -^'i application from cottage tenants to 
the D.C. for the introduction of electric light in the dwellings, was 
met by the chairman (Mr. T. Gorman") with the remark that if a 
10 yei!"!- iiuirantee were given, no objection would be offered. 



12 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [vui. .s2. .\u. -Am. jakiary i. ms. 



Belfast. — The recent strike at the power station was 

settled by the men afrrjeins- to return to work on the understa'nd- 
injr that if the Order of the Mjnistrj- of Munition? is extended to 
aemi-skUled and unskilled men. the Corporation will act on it as 
from the date applying: to skilled men. The electrical service was 
maintained by volunteer workers from Corporation departments. 

Braintree. — Proposed E.L.. — Both theCrittall Manufac- 
turing Co.. and the U.D.C.. have given notice that they are applying 
for powers for electric lighting. It is estimated that the contest 
will cost the ratepayers £300, equal to an addition of 4d. to the 
local rates. 

Branstone. — Tutburv R.D.C. has consented to the 
Burton-on-Trent T.C. erecting a high-tension overhead line for the 
supply of current to a new factory. 

Cavan. — Mr. J. F. Tierney. C.E., has reported to the 
B. of G. on the purchase of plant for the proposed installation of 
electric lighting in the workhouse, estimating that over £300 had 
been saved by the transaction. 

Dorking. — Price I.vceease. — The Electricity Co. ha* 

increased the price of current for lighting from the date ef the 
next Quarterly meter readings by a further '> per cent., making a 
total advance on pre-war rates of 20 per cent. 

Dudley. — Price Increase. — The Electri" Lighting 
Committee, on the application of the Power Co., recommends the 
Council to agree to an increase in the price of electricity by 12j 
per cent. 

Gainsborongh. — Prov. Order. — The r.D.C. has decided 
that it is expedient to oppose the application of Mr. Jas. Marshall, 
of Messrs. Marshall. Sons lV Co.. Ltd., for a prov. order. 

Grantham. — Price Revision. — The Urban Electric 

Supply Co. announces that from January 1st consumers supplied 
on the weekly payment system will be charged 2d. in the Is. extra 
.per week for the eight winter months, instead of Id. as at present, 
and slot meter consumers will be charged 4d. in the Is. extra, 
instead of 2d. 

Greenock.- — Year's Working. — The annual report by 
Mr. F. H. Whysall, burgh electrical engineer, on the working of the 
Corporation electricity undertaking during 1916-17. shows that the 
total output sold amounted to over 21 million units, an increase of 
irS per cent, on the previous year. Greenock took 16.S74.344 
units. Port Glasgow 2,y8S,2i;2 units, and traction absorbed the 
remaining 1.263,035 units. The total income for the year was 
£96.843, whUe the gross profits amounted to £42,062. and. after 
meeting interest and sinking fund charges, and providing £.5,000 
for depreciation, there remained a net surplus of £I0,S31, as com- 
pared with £6.998 in the previous year. The average total works 
cost was ■C16d. per unit, as against ■659d.. although the average 
price of coal was Is. per ton more than during 1915-16, the reduc- 
tion being entirely due to economies in generation, as a result of 
careful tests to ascertain the best conditions of working in the boiler 
iouse and engine room. The total connected load was 27.279 KW.. 
and the maximum load 7,783 KW. The loail factor improved from 
28'99 per cent, to 3102 per cent., while an increasj of 'Old. over 
last year was obtained in the average price received per unit for the 
whole supply. The two new 30.000-lb. boOers installed in Decem- 
ber, 1916. and the new cooling tower of 310.000 gallons per hour 
capacity have enabled considerable economies in generation to be 
made. The refuse destroyed at the destructor amounted to 15,063 
tons, wages costing 23. Oid. per ton destroyed: 1,064,135 units 
were generated by the steam raised, and the value of these at ■35d. 
per imit was £1.552. 

During the past year the installation and hire department has 
sent out electric heating apparatus having a capacity totalling 
393 KW. : altogether 282 motors and other appliances, representing 
466 KW., were installed by the department during the year. The 
capital account now amounts to £404,841, of which £96,857 has 
been repaid: of the net surplus £7,781 has been added to the 
reserve fund, which now stands at £41.200. and £3,050 has been 
transferred to the burgh general assessment account. 

Halifax. — Price Increase. — The Electricity Committee 
proposes to increase the charges for lighting and heating by 12J 
per cent. 

Haslingden. — Price Revision. — The General Purposes 

Committee has had under consideration the price paid by the 
Corporation for electricity, and decided that the following amended 
scale of charges should come into operation on January 1st. 
viz. : — Lighting ]nirposes. 5d. per unit ; heating and ordinary 
power consumers, a further increjise of 10 per cent, on original 
scale price, making a total increase of 25 per cent. ; tramways, a 
flat rate of IJd. per unit, as and fromApril 1st, 1917. With regard 
to the increase in the price per unit to be charged to special power 
consumers vmder agreement, they had agreed to forego the terms 
set out in the respective agreements, and were prepared to pay an 
additional figure based on the Acerington Corporation's works costs. 

Hebden Bridge. — The Council, in Committee, has 
decided to oppose the Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s Bill. 

High Wycombe. — Street Lighting.— Subject to an 

approved agreement for street lighting, the T.C. has accepted the 
6ffer of the Electric Light and Power Co. to accept £ oilO instead of 
£600 in respect of street lighting for 1916, and the pending action 
at law has been stayed for one month by the company without 
prejudiae. 



Hull. — Xew Plant. — Ou Saturday last the Lord Mayor 

officially started a new 5.000-KW. Dick. Kerr turbo-alternator at 
the Corporation electricity works. The turbine is of the impulse 
type, running at 1.500. R J. M. and exhausting into a surface con- 
denser : it is coupled to a ().600-volt. three-phase alternator, with 
an overload capacity of 25 per cent, for two hours and 50 per cent, 
for five minutes. Two large water-tube bfiilers have been added 
in the boiler house, equipped with inclined grate mechanical 
stokers designed to burn 2. tons and 30 cwt. of low-grade slack 
respectively per hour. An electro-hydraulic coal tipper and 
telpher grab have been installed in connection with the overhead 
bunkers. 

Kingston-on-Thames. — The Electricity Committee has 

received a reply from Edmundson ? Electricity Corporation, stating 
that while the company is not prepared to alter the essential terms 
©f the offer, if the Committee would indicate in what respect it 
considered the offer not acceptable, the company would carefully 
consider any suggestions which might be put forward. 

The Committee has informed the Council that it was such 
essential terms that were unacceptable, so that if the company 
desired to reopen the matter it was for it to make proposals more 
satisfactory in essentials. 

Leeds. — Linking-vp. — The Ministry of ^Munitions has 

recommended the consideration of a linking-up scheme in con- 
nection with the Leeds and Bradford electricity undertakings, and 
the subject is now being considered by ihe officials concerned. 
The application from the Corporation for consent to the carrying 
out of the scheme of electricity extensions has been refused by 
the Jlinistry. but authorisation has been granted for a 6.000-KW. 
plant, at an estimated cost of about £35,000. The Electricity 
Committee has conditionally accepted a tender for the work from 
Messrs. Richardsons. Westgarth 4c Co.. at £29,790, and sanction to 
the tender is being awaited from the City Council. 

Leek. — Proposed Loan. — The I'.D.C. has decided t<;i 
make application to the L.G.B. for sanction to borrow £1,250 to 
provide additional plant for the electricity works, the Ministry of 
Munitions having consented to issue a certificate for it. 

Leyton. — Price Increase. — The r.D.C. has decided to 

advance the price of electricity for light and power from the com- 
mencement of the Lady Day quarter by ISj per cent., making 
a total increase since the war of 331 i)er cent. The charge 
to the tramways department is to be further advanced by 5 per 
cent., making a total of 10 per cent. 

Llandudno. — The Council has received a report from 
^Ir. Patchell on the supply by the Council of electrical energy to 
the Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway. Mr. Patchell 
decided that the traction business had not yet been done at a loss, 
although the margin of profit had almost disappeared : an increase 
in the price of energy supplied for traction and lighting was 
desirable, particularly as the top price might not yet have been 
reached in fuel. The Council might give the Electric Railway Co. 
notice to terminate the arrangement for the supply of current for 
tractton purposes, or it might accept the company's offer of 
increased rates in consideration of a modified form of Sunday 
running. Before giving notice to the company of discontinuance 
of traction supply in 12 months' time, the E.G. was authorised to 
re-open negotiations, and to report at the next meeting. 

London. — Hamp.stead. — The Council has decided to 

abolish the maximum demand system of charging for electricity, 
and six months' notice is to be given to those consumers of elec- 
tricity now charged upon that system to terminate their agreements 
at midsummer. 1918. 

Morecambe. — Price Increase. — From ilarch :31st the 

price of electricity will be 3Jd. instead of 3d. per unit for power, 
and 6 id. instead of tid. for lighting, with a minimum charge of 
10s. lOd. per quarter on all lighting consumers and of 5s. lOd. per 
quarter on power consumers. 

Newport (Mon.). — Price Increase. — The Electricity 
and Tramways Committee has recommended a further increase of 
15 per cent, on all electricity charges excepting bulk supply 
contracts. It has also decided to cancel until further notice the 
two-rate meter scale, as it was found that a very large number of 
smaller consumers were taking advantage of the scale to obtain 
their supply at exceptionally low rates. 

The electrical engineei- reported totheCommittee that serious t'elay 
had occurred in the delivery of extension plant at the East power 
station ; the matter is to be taken up with the Ministry of 
Jfi-.nitions. 

New Zealand. — In the Government Public Works state- 
ment authority is proposed to be taken for the raising of £136.000 
for the development of water power. — Tenders. 

Northampton. — Price Increase. — The Electric Light 
and Power Co. announces a further increase in the price of power 
of 10 per cent, as from the Christmas meter readings. 

Norwich. — Price Increase. — The City Council has 
decided to make an addition of 5 per cent, to the charges for elec- 
tricity for lighting and heating and 10 per cent, for power as from 
the reading of the meters for the Christmas quarter. 1917. 

Stalybridge. — Price Revision. — The .Toint Board has 

decided that the following alterations be made in the charges for 
electricity as from January 1st,: — Lighting. 4id. per unit, less 
5 per cent. : mill and factory lighting. 3d. per unit net : heating 
supplies, IJd. per unit net ; theatre and cinema tariff, plus Ad. per 
unit : cotton mill power supplies, 5 per cent, on standard scale, 



Vol.82. Xo.2,09.^ January 4, 1018.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



13 



Stockport. — The electrical engineer reported that he had 
offered to fix lamps on the tramway overhead equipment in the 
Cheadle and Gatley district at £S each, and to maintain and liffht 
the same at a further cost of -£3 per lamp. The Cheadle Council con- 
siders the charges too high, and asks for a reconsideration of the same. 

United States. — To assure an adequate supply of electric 
power for factories the Government has requisitioned the electric 
power produced, imported, and distributed by the Nia^gara Falls 
Power Co., the Hydraulic Power Co, of Niagara Falls, and the Cliff 
Electric DistriJbution Co. There had been some adjustment to war 
industries before, but the new order will intensify the arrange- 
ment. — Daily Clironicle. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Australia. — The Melbourne Tramways Board Hill 

extending the term of the present Board until October .Slst, 1918, 
has passed the third reading in the Victorian Legislative Assembly. 
The report of the N.S.W. Railway Commissioners for the Septem- 
ber quarter on the working of the Government tramways, is par- 
ticularly interesting, as it shows the effect of the strike. The 
gross earnings were £3-t(i,539 as against £482,337, a decrease of 
i6135,798; working expenses amounted to £31-1,030, as against in 
1917 £394,030, a decrease of £80,015 ; and the net revenue was 
£32,500 as against £88,292, a decrease of £55,792. The car-miles 
run were 3(809.354 as against 6,463,650, a decrease of 2,654,305, 
and the passengers carried 48,308,318 as against 71,714,876. — 
Sydney Daily Telegrapli. 

Blackburn. — Traffic Figures. — During the 27(5 days 
running" in the year 1917-18 up to and including Boxing Day, the 
receipts on the tramways amounted to .£58,880, an increase of 
£9,546 on the takings for the same period a year ago. 

Bradford. — The Christmas holiday tramway receipts 
show a four-days' total £1,026 in excess of those of 1916, 

Owing to some abuse of the privilege, the free travelling tokens 
granted to soldiers at the local recruiting offices have been 
withdrawn, 

Halifax. — Revised Fares. — It is understood that tram- 
way fares are about to be advanced by 50 per cent., and that 
transfers are to be abolished, and various otlier modifications of 
the service introduced, owing to the difficulties of the times. 

Accident. — A serious runaway tramway accident occurred last 
Friday, resulting in the death of a cart driver from injuries and 
the electrocution of one of his horses. The rails were greasy, and 
tUe car got out of control whilst descending a hill, and crashed 
into the back of a coal cart : the car subsequently collided with a 
switch-box filled to one of the tramway standards, and when the 
box was smashed and the cables fused the shaft horse was killed l)y 
electric shock. The car left the rails, but remained upright, and 
nobody on board was hurt 

Wages, — The War Wages Committee has declined the recent 
applications by the Amalgamated Association of Tramway Workers 
for increased wages. The Committee has also suljmitted the 
following resolution for the a])proval of the T.C. : — " That the 
Halifax Corporation view with alarm the continual applications for 
increases of wages and war bonus from the employes engaged by 
Corporations and other public bodies, seeing that the rates of 
increase of wages already given are, in the opinion of this Cor- 
poration, in excess of tlie actual increased cost of living, while 
continual accretion Of the wages bill is tending to produce unrest 
in other sections of the community. Further increases will compel 
Corporations to have recourse to State assistance, and this Cor- 
poration urge the Government to give the matter their earnest 
consideration, and at the same time to give instructions to the 
Committee on Production that, in deciding any future applications, 
the Committee must fix a time limit within which no further 
applications should be considered ; and. further, that a copy of 
this resolution should be forwarded to the Pi-ime Minister, the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, the President of the L.G.B,. the local 
Members of Parliament, and also to the various County Borough 
Councils in the West Riding, asking such Councils to pass a similar 
resolution, and forward the same to the above-mentioned Govern- 
ment Departments and to their local Members of Parliament." 

Lancasliire. — Despite the unpopularity of their action 
and the serious inconvenience caused to the public, the tramway 
employes of Manchester, Salford, Rochdale, Burnley, and other 
towns in Lancashire refused to work on Christmas Day, 

Leeds. — Parcels Service. — At a meeting of the Tram- 
way Traffic Sub-Committee, it was reported that a Committee had 
been formed in connection with the use of the tramways for the 
distribution of parcels in the suburbs, and a number of representa- 
tive tradesmen have been invited to join it, with a view to restrict- 
ing the use of motor-cars and horse vehicles owing to probable 
further drastic reductions in petrol supplies and feeding stuf's. A 
scheme has been formulated, and this is awaiting the approval of 
the B. of T. 
'Mansfield. — The T.C. has asked the Light Railway Co. 

to pay an increased price for energy supplied. 

Tramway Wages. — .applications arc to be made on 
behalf of tramway employes of 1 9 authorities in Lancashire and 
Chesliire for a further advance in wages of 10s. per week. 



TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 

Argentina. — A wifeless station has been set up at Plomer, 

in the Argentine Republic, under the supervision of the firm of 
Siemens-Schuckert. It has a range of 15,000 km., and thus can 
communicate with Nauen, near Berlin. Trial messages trans- 
mitted from Germany were received at the Plomer station, althougli 
not sufficiently clearly to be intelligible^ owing to the intense 
atmospheric phenomena. — Indusfria e Invenciones. 

Australia. — The telephone service shows a profit of 
.£18,000, as compared with a loss of £270,000 during the previous 
year. — The Times. 

Continental. — Denmark. — The Valdemar Poulsenskc 
Syndekat has taken over the Aktie-Selskab Dansk Telefonfabrik. 
and will now exclusively make the smaller wireless installations for 
ships. The company is stated to have already a large number of 
orders in hand, for delivery immediatelv on the cessation of 
hostilities.— 7<'i«;.',i Tiili^lirift. 

Japan. — H.M. Commercial Attache at Yokohama writes 
that the Japanese Department of Communications wishes to estab- 
lish in future a large new wireless station, which will develop the 
same transmission power as that at Funabashi, which is the 
lai'gest plant in Japan. Wireless communication between Japan 
and Hawaii and the United States is steadily increasing, but at 
present the Funabashi station is the only one that is open to public 
use. The Funabashi plant, however, belongs to the Japanese 
Navy, and it fs reported that the Department of Communications is 
desirous of establishing a new station exclusively for the benefit of 
the general public, at an estimated cost of about £71,500. It is 
also reported in this connection that the Department has decided 
to erect a wireless .station in the Ojika Peninsula, Akita Prefecture. 

The only important concern making wireless apparatus in Japan 
appears to be a company at Tokio. which ^ said to be very busy at 
present constructing wireless sets for the large number of ships 
now being built in Japan. The company ft a fairly new one, with 
a capital of £25,000, of whicli half is paid up. The apparatus 
which it manufactures is known as the "Japanese system," and is 
said to be a combination of various European and American 
inventions, — B. of T. Journal. 

The Pacific Cable. — The report of the Pacific Cable 
Board for the year ended March 31st, 1917, shows that the receipts 
were £336,774, the expenditure £155,848, and the surplus, after 
placing £90.000 to the renewal fund, was £90,926. Of this sum 
£77,545 was paid in respect of interest and sinking fund, and 
£9,150 to the renewal fund for the New Zealand cables, leaving a 
net balance of £4,231. In the previous year the contribution to 
the renewal fund was £30,000, and this year a special contribution 
of -C 10,000 has been made to the provident fund, to meet the de- 
preciation of securities. The surplus will be applied to the reduc- 
tion of debt. The traffic receipts increased by £26,127, and the 
expenses by £13,951. The renewal fund investments at March 
31st were valued at £291,067, with cash in hand £73,829, and 
cable valued at £05,293. 

Throughout the year the cables suffered no interruption and 
required no repairs; the long sections were working at full load 
day and night during the whole year. The landlines also have 
worked well. Electric lighting and power plant is being installed 
at the Suva station in place of the existing acetylene gas plant. 
Sir Wm, H. Mercer retired from the Board, and was succeeded by 
Mr. H. C. M. Lambert. The special war allowance to the staff has 
been increased to 20 per cent, of net salary for the year 1917 : and 
as most of the members were entitled to extended leave, which, 
under war conditions, could not be taken, leave rights have been 
commuted to the value of £3,500. 

During the year nearly nine million paying words of inter- 
national traffic were transmitted by the Pacific Cable, as well as 
650.000 words relating to wounded members of the Field Forces 
gnatis ; the traffic exceeded that of the pre\ious year by H million 
words, and has practically reached the limit of capacity with 
existing types of apparatus. The Board also carried 1.795,2(10 
paying words between Aiistralia and New Zealand and the Pacific 
Isles. At times of congestion it has been found necessary to sus- 
pend certain services, or to transfer a portion of the traffic to the 
Eastern Co. The week-end telegram service has been suspended 
since .luly, 1916, in the outward direction, and since November, 
1916, in both directions. The outward deferred Press service has 
been suspended since August, 191(i, and the deferred ordinary ser- 
vice on outward traffic since June, 1917, but it is hoped that the 
latter mav l)e restored in the near future. 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 



open; 

Argentina. — February 23rd. Rosario Municipality. 
Establishment of telephone service within the municipal raiiins. 
Conditions on application. 

Bolton. — January loth. Electricity Committee. One 
7,500-KW. turbo-alternator with condensing plant. Se« OfiScial 
Notices " December 7th. 



14 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 82. no. 2.093, janvarv 4. v.ns 



Keighley. — Jaiiuary 9tb. Electricity Departmeut. In- 
duced draught plant. See " Official Notices " December 2Ist. 

Manchester. — January 16th. Electricity Committee. 
Rotary converter or motor converter plant. See "Official Notices " 
De.-onjher 28th. 

February 2nd. Waterwoi-ks department. Electrically-driven 
radial arm crane. See "'Official Notices " to-day. 

Tipperary. — January 11th. New battery for the Union 
electric lig-hting- plant. See " Official Notices " December 21st. 



CLOSED. 



Australian Contracts. — Mr. H. R. Harper, city electrical 

eng-ineer. Melbourne, has sent us the following- information regarding 
recent tenders, for electrical plant ; — In November. 1916, the Council 
advertised for tenders fcH- a 7. .iOO-K.v.A. turbo-alternator, returnable 
March. 1917. When tenders came to hand, however, it was decided 
to postpone consideration of them, in view of the decision of the 
(iovernment to consider the inauguration of a State supply of 
electricity in bulk, generated on one of the brown coal fields for 
which Victoria is noted. 

The tender for a 2,U0r)-KW. rotary converter put forward by the 
Australian General Electric Co., for a set made by the General 
Electric Co., U.S.A., at £6,601, f.o.b., was accepted. In view 
of the impossibility of obtaining any plant from British manu- 
facturers until after the war, the order was placed with an 
American firm, as it was essential that this plant should be in 
operation for next winter. 

With the object of carrying out tests with inferior coals, the 
Council, in May, 1916, placed an order with the Erith Engineering 
Co., London, for two Erith Riley stokers complete with fans and 
hydraulic controls. The Erith Co., however, were unable to obtain 
a priority certificate for the manufacture of these stokers, and as 
the Sanford Riley Co., ^U.S.A., were able to guarantee delivery 
within a reasonable period, the order has recently been transferred 
to the American compaify. 

MELBorRXE. — Electricity Committee. Accepted tenders : — 
l.ODO 500-watt gas-flUed metallic filament lamps. £850.— AustraUan General 
Electric Go. 

Two 3-phase, 100-K.v..t. transfonners, £299.— Sutherland & Ashman. 
•200 lanterns for gas filled lamps, ±'668 — R. Brrce & Co Pty., Ltd. 
Sydset. — Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and Sewerage. 
Electrically-driven air compressors for the N. Sydney Works. 
IngersoU RandCo.. .t6.291. 

Electric Lighting Committee. Tenders recommended : — 
Australian General Electric Co.— 3,lO0 6-amp., a.c. metera, £4,050; l.'OO 
10-amp, do., £1,362 IDs. ; 200 25-amp. do., £295 ; 40 50-amp. do., £89 lOs. 
and spare parts (£100), making the total tender price £i.987. These 
prices do not include ocean freight or insurance, estimated at £460, 
which will be paid by the Council.— renders. 
Victorian Railway Department. Tenders accepted : — 
Bare h.d. 17/18 s.w.o. copper cable, 2s. ICd. per lb.: rubber-insulated e.l. 
cable, 7/18 s.w.o., £63 10s. per mile ; 7/20 s.w..,., £41 per mile.— W. T. 
Henley's Telegraph Works Co., L,ttl.— Tenders, 
Tasmania. — Launcestox. Citv Council. Accepted tenders :— 
8,651 metal filament lamps, £ 60.— Edison Swan Electric Co., Ltd. 
3.'200 „ ,, ,, £243.— Australian General Electric Co. 

7,'250 ,, ,, ,, £5j3.— Aust. General Electric Co.— Tenden. 

Barnes. — U.D.C. Cable : Pirelli-General Cable Works, 

Limited. 

Brighton.— B.C. Electrical fittings: Mr. H. J. GallierF, 

Brighton, £13. 

Bradford. — Guardians. Contract with Waygood-Otis, 
Ltd., for maintenance of lifts, continued at increased charge 
of 20 per cent. 

Derby. The T.C. has accepted the following tenders for 

the electricity and tramway departments : — 
Babccx & Wilcox, Ltd.— Boiler, £1,500. 
C. A. Pai-sons, Ltd. — 1,0.10-k\v. turbo-alternator. £24,003, 
T. W. Bracket! & Co., Ltd.— Water screen. £35^. 
Firth, Blakeley, Sons Jt Co., Ltd.— Chimney. £231. 
Holmes Bros., Ltd.— Tramcar wheel tires, '£53. 

Hull. —T.C. E.\tra-high-tension switchgear : British 
Westinghoiise Co., Ltd., .£1.281. 

Ilford.— r.D.C. 1,000 tons of nutty slack coal for the 
electricity works: Messrs. Blackman l<c Co., £1 Is. lid. per ton. 

Lancaster. — T.C. Boiler repairs and electric welding at 

the electricity works : J. L. Gordon, Liverpool, £H.">. 



FORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



Rnyal Institution of Great Britain.— Saturday, January 5th. At 3 p.m. 

-At Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W.l. Christmas Lectures, "Our Useful 

Servants: Magnetism and Electricity": (Lecture V ) "Electric Dynamos, 

Motors, Transfonners and Railways." Tuesday, January 8th, (Lecture VI) 

'■ Electric Telegraphs and Telephones." 
nstitution of Civil Engineers.— Tuesday, Jauuary 8th. At 5.30 p.m. At 

Gr. George Street, S. W. Papers on •' Rail Creep," bv Mr. F. Reaves, and 

" Creep of Rails," by Mr. H. P. Miles. 
Liverpool Engineering Society.— Wednesday. Januai^ 9th. At 8 p.m. At 

the Roval Institution. Paper on " Refrigerator Installation for Carriage of 

Ships' Provisions," by Mr. J. B. Wilkie. 
Association of Engineers-in-Cliarge -W^ednesday, January 9th. AtSp.m. 

At St Bride's Institute. Ludgate Circus, E.C. Paper on " The Human 

I'aclor in Modern Pioduct.'on.'' 



Institution of Electrical Engineers.— Thursday, January 10th. At 6 p.m. 

At the Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S,W, Paper on 

" Electrical Signalling and Control on Railways," by Mr. C. M. Jacobs. 
(Scottlsb Local Section).— Tuesday, Januarr 8th. At 7 p.m. At 

Princes Street Station Hotel, Edinburgh. Paper on "Electrical Cooking 

as -Applied to Large Kitchens," by Mr, W, A. Gillott. 
Greenock Electrical Society— Thursday, January 10th. At 7.45 p.m. At 

22, West Stewart Street. Paper on "Small Private Plants," by Mr. G. T. 

Morrison. 
Electro-Harmonic Society. — Friday, January 1 1th. At 8 p.m. At the 

Holbom Restaurant (Venetian Chamber!, Smoking concert. 
London Association of Foremen Engineers. Saturday, January 12th. At 

7 p.m. At Cannon Street Hotel. E.C. Presidential address by Mr. R. M. 

Campbell. 
Association of Mining Electrical Engineers (West of Scotland 

Branch!. —Saturday, January 12th. At 4.30 p.m. At the Royal Technical 

College, Glasgow. Paper on "Cable Complaints," by Mr. J. H. C. Brooking. 



OUR^ HALF YEARLY INDEX. 



As it is necessary to effect every possible economy in ■■ 

paper consumption, the Index to Vol. 81 of the Elbc- | 

TRiCAL Eeview, which will be printed in the course of a few i 

days, will be supplied only to those who, through the post, i 
specially apply for it. To such it will be supplied for 3d. 

post free. Any reader or advertiser at Home or Abroad ■ 

who requires a copy for binding, or for other purposes, is i 

asked to make' application therefor promptly to : The ', 

Publisher, Electrical Review, 4, Lndsate Hill, London, i 
E.C. 4. 



NOTES. 

Electro-Harmonic Society. — The next Smoking Concert 

will be held at the Holborn Restaurant, in the Venetian Chamber, 
on Friday. January 11th. at 8 p.m. The artistes will be as fol- 
lows : — Mr. Anderson Xicol, tenor : Mr. Harry Morton, concertina : 
Mr. Ben Lawes. humorist ; Mr. Arthur Backner. musical mono- 
lofjues C" Rubinstein at the Piano ") : Mr. Robert Pitt (^baritone 1. 
and Mr. Lanyton Marks Chumorist and pianist), in ragtime duets 
and humorous "Business"' at the piano: Mr. Bernard Flanders, 
.\.R.A.M.. sole pianoforte and accompanist. 

Destrnction of a German Power Station. — The Times 

states that by the explosion at an explosives factory at Kirch- 
baumvasen. near Karlsruhe, last week, a large new electrical 
station, furnishing power to the Imperial Xitric .\cid Works, wa.s 
completely destroyed. 

The Wages of Central-Station Employes. — Mr. H. 

Faraday Proctor, hon. secretary of the I.M.E.A., recently circulated 
to the engineer members of the Association a memorandum 
relating to wages and awards. 

The memorandum states that the awards of the Committee on 
Production are only binding upon the parties to an agreement 
which was come to between the Engineering Employers' Federation 
and certain Trade Unions, except that they have also been made 
applicable by an extending Order issued by the Ministry of Muni- 
tions to certain undertakings. Those members who have not been 
advised that their department is one of the undertakings to which 
the extending Order applies, are not bound by the awards of the 
Committee on Production. 

At a meeting held at the JILnistry of Munitions on December 
10th. when the I.M.E.A. was represented by Mr. Beauchamp and 
Jlr. Proctor, it was explained that the 12j per cent, award, and 
also the awards of the Committee on Production, did not, broadly 
speaking, apply to such undertakings, although they might be 
certified undertakings under the Munitions of War (Amendment) 
Act. and it appears desirable whilst such conditions exist that any 
ailv.ances granted should be made on purely local grounds. If any 
particular awards are followed a precedent may be formed, and in 
the event of other awards being made compulsory upon electricity 
undertakings, the one series of awards might be super-imposed on 
the other awards, although such was not the intention. 

The 12^ per cent, is to apply oaly to men in the engineering 
trade and moulders. Referring to tramway and electric supply 
undertakings, it was stated that where undertakings had repair 
shops, the repair shop would come under the " engineermg trade," 
but the remainder of the works, such as the generating station, 
was not " engineering trade.' The award does not. therefore, 
appear to be absolutely compulsory outside the reimir shoi>s. unless 
a precedent has been or is created. 

Standardisation of Tramway Overliead Construction. — 

A sub-committee of the Municipal Tramway Association upon the 
question of " Standardisation of Overhead Construction " has held 
a meeting at Leeds. The work of this Committee is of a very far- 
reaching and important nature, dealing as it does with the standard- 
isation and drawing up of the specifications for every overhead 
fitting used in tramway work, including trolley wires and trolley 
wheels. The object to be attained is to standardise everything 
possible, so that after tlie war tramway undertakings will be able 
to get good deliveries and reasonable prices due to the fact that 
manufacturers will not have to keep such large stocks. At the 
present time there are as many as .iO to lui) different forms and 
types of one fitting — each engineer having his own ideas and the 



Vol.82. No. 2,093, JANUARY 4, 1918.] THBJ ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



15 



manufacturer.^ haviny to hold a stock of each. The work will 
occupy a considerable time and will necessitate collaborating- with 
the American Tramway Standardisation Department and with the 
British Enyineerintr Standards Committee. 

The Coal Conservation Sub-Committee's Report. — 

As miffht be expected under the circumstances, the electric supply 
proposals involved in the above report have called forth consider- 
able comment in different parts of the country. 

Aid. Pearson (Bristol), hon. solicitor to the I.M.E.A.. pointed out 
that that body had never opposed a scheme for improving- the 
electrical supply of the country. He regretted that the Coal Con- 
servation Committee, on which there was no municipal repre- 
sentative, had issued a report which they might reasonably expect 
to have received from the Board of Trade Committee on Electrical 
Power Supply now sitting ; also that it favoured company as 
against municipal working- at a time when this matter was being- 
considered by the latter Committee, and particularly that the 
operations of one company are dealt with, as proving, in some 
degrree, the correctness of the opinions set forth in the report. 
Cheap electricity was necessary to progress, and cheap money was 
essential to success ; the latter could more easily be obtained by a 
municipality than a company, and still more easily by the 
G-Overnment. 

Mr. H. Faraday Proctor (Bristol), hon. sec, I.M.E.A., agreed with 
most of the proposals, but took exception to comparisons of muni- 
cipal and company working in favour of the latter. The question 
was, however, one for the B. of T. Committee now sitting. He 
welcomed the idea of larger areas. 

Mr. S. L. Pearce (Manchester) interviewed on the subject, men- 
tioned that the Lancashire and Cheshire authorities already had a 
scheme for their area very much on the lines suggested in the 
report ; this would require the approval of the B. of T. and it 
might be that the larger scheme would absorb the local one. but 
until the B. of T. Committee considered the whole matter it was 
difficult to forecast the result. 

[It is worth noting here that at a recent conference of 31 autho- 
rities of Lancashire and Cheshire interested in the local scheme, 
the liuking-up proposals were agreed in principle, but the second 
portion of the proposals, relating- to the constitution of one 
financial authority to take over the responsibility of the existing- 
undertakings, was rejected by 21 votes to lU. ] 

Mr. Harrison Barrow (Birmingham), discussing the report, 
objected to the favouritism being shown to private entei prise 
because " it seemed to be ar. attempt at reaction from municipal to 
capitalistic control." The proposals woul.l result in a great 
monopoly, and the company directors would apparently have 
entire control subject to some rather nebulous National Commission. 
He entirely agreed that the present municipal areas of electricity 
supply were unsatisfactory. 

Mr. S. E. Fedden (Sheffield), at an interview, admired the scheme 
on paper and from the point of view of coal saving, but doubted 
whether it would give Sheffield cheaper electricity. The Xorth- 
Ea*t Coast Jiower scheme was not a fair criterion on which to base 
judg-msnt for the entire country. The majority of the big 
industrial centres, like Manchester, Birming-hara, and Sheffield, 
were not touched by tidal waters, and in such places cooling towers 
would have to be erected. Distant stations would involve tremen- 
dous transmission difficulties unless the Government acquired the 
land compulsorily. The existing vested interests would be another 
huge obstacle. For Sheffield he thought the project was outside 
the realms of practicability for the present, and it would be 
suicidal for them to delay their present scheme for a plan which 
was but in the theorotical stage. Their new power station would 
give them over 100,01)0 KW., making, with the existing plant, a 
total of l(;S,0(iO KW. 

Mr. W. A. Chamen (South Wales EPS. Co.) interviewed on the 
question, said there was no doubt that, if worked to the best 
advantage, the requirements of Cardiff, Newport, and those of his 
company could Ije best supplied from one large station ; t he three 
engineers, in these cases, were agreed on this in principle. [Mr. 
Nichols Moore (Newport) has. however, since pointed out th-at this 
was only agreed as one of three possible solutions.] One large 
power station would also supply Swansea, Neath and Llanelly more 
economically, lie had no knowledge of much waste heat in South 
Wales, as the collieries used it themselves, but there was an oppor- 
tunity of putting down by-product plant in connection with super- 
stations. The question of the method of applying the scheme 
rested with the B. of T. He lidded that the South Wales Linking-up 
Committee would issue its report shortly. 

Mr. R. P. Sloan (Newcastle E S. Co.), interviewed on the report, 
mentioned that the North-East Coast power companies had on 
order some 27,OO0-n.i". generating sets, which would be installed 
on a site on the River Tees, where accommodation would be pro- 
videcj for a large coal carbonisation plant. The Newcastle C'o. had 
for some time been expei-imenting on low-temperature coal car- 
bonisation, and lately on a faii'ly large scale, and they hoped to 
tffpct large economies. 

Concerning the control of electrical undertakings by a Board of 
Commissioners, Mr. Sloan thought that if the Board acted in a 
judicial rather than executive capacity it would be beneficial to the 
supply industry. In his opinion, the problem of supplying electricity 
throughout a large area was totally different to that of supplying 
large towns ; the North-East Coast power companies, and possibly 
one or two other power companies, were the only undertaking's 
which had the necessary experience to any great extent. The 
generating and supply of electricity should be under one control, 
whether municipal or company. 

Both Mr. Sloan and Mr. Starr (of the Clyde Valley Power Co.) 
disagree with certain statements made by Mr. Lackie (Glasgow) 



defining the position of municipal undertakings in regard to 
cheap electricity supply. 

Mr. Lackie considered that the progressive reduction in the cost 
of electrical energy must be increasingly in favour of municipalities 
on account of the manner in which the latter were compelled to 
repay borrowed capital. 

Tiie Ministry of Munitions and Restrictions on Cable 

Laying. — Correspondence has passed between Mr. H. Faraday 
Proctor, hon. secretary of the I.M.E.A., and the Directf r of 
Electric Power Supply regarding a communication, dated December 
8th, relating to the use of cables for the connection of additional 
consumers. 

The letter from the Ministry of Munitions states that until 
further notice the Ministry of Munitions will raise no objection 
to additional connections being made to supply mains, subject to 
compliance with the following conditions : — 

1. That adequate generating plant capacity is avaUable. 

2. That no lead-covered cable is used on the connection. 

3. That the cost of the connection (including any mains exten- 
sions) to be borne either by the undertaking or by the consumer 
does not exceed £10. 

4. That the manager forwards to the Director of Electric Power 
Supply at the end of each month a list of consumers connected 
during the month, giving name, address, purpose, kilowatts 
installed, and cost of connection. 

It is not desirable to connect new consumers who already have 
alternative methods of obtaining light, heat, or power, or business 
premises not used for direct or indirect war work. No connection, 
the cost of which will exceed £10, or in which lead-covered cable 
is required, may be made until the sanction of the Department has 
been obtained. 

In reply to an inquiry from Mr. Proctor, a further letter states 
that it is desirable that existing stocks of lead-covered cable should 
be husbanded as carefully as possible. Lead-covered cable should not, 
therefore, he used for making house connections, except in accord- 
ance with the directions set out above. 

In reply to Mr. H. A. Howie, manager of the Walsall Corpora- 
tion electric supply department, the Director of Electric Power 
Supply said that even in the case of direct war work accompanied 
by a certificate, no connection the cost of which exceeded £10 
should be made without the sanction of the Department. A certifi- 
cate for any expenditure must be applied for. and be granted direct 
to the manager. No new cable could be purchased without a 
permit, and when it was necessary to order additional cable, an 
application should be made stating the length, type, and cost of 
the cable required. 

On December. 22nd Mr. Proctor wrote to the Direotor as 
follows : — 

"With further reference to your letter of December 8th, 
I have been X'equested by sundry of our members to ask you to 
give your kind consideration to the suggestion that the £10 limit 
which you impose as the maxin.um to be expended on the cost of 
connecting a consumer should apply only to the cost of the cable 
alone, or, at the worst, to the cost of all material, cable, duct, 
boxes, &c. — that is to say. excluding the cost of all labour, super- 
vision, and establishment charge^ from such £10 limit, for the 
reason that work carried out under the conditions you mention 
will no doubt in every undertaking be carried out by the regular 
maintenance staff -that is to say, no further call upon the labour 
market would be made in the execution of such work. I trust 
that you can see your way to agree to this." 

In reply, the Director of Electric Power Supply said : — 
" I am directed to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 
22nd inst.. and in reply thereto am to say that the £ 10 limit does 
not necessarily prevent the connection of a consumer, but it 
necessitates an application to this Department for sanction. In 
every case where the limit exceeds £10 and electrical undertakers 
consider the circumstances justify their submitting an application 
to me for decision, the same will always receive every considera- 
tion. In the meantime, however, I am willing that the £10 shall 
exclude labour, fo long as no outside labour is employed, and you 
may advise your members to this effect. It was not intended that 
the limit should include supervision and establishment charges." 

The following is a copy of a resolution passed by the Harrogate 
Electricity Committee on December 31st. 1917 : — 

"That the Committee protest against the arbitrary interference 
with the conduct of the local electricity supply as set forth in the 
communication from the Ministry of Munitions of December 8th 
last and interpreted by the subsequent correspondence. Economy 
in the use of lead for new cables may Ije desirable, but the use of 
lead-covered cable alieady in the local stores might reasonably be 
left to the discretion of local undertakers. The monthly return of 
business asked for entails considerable extra work, and in view of 
the imperative call for man-power for the direct prosecution of 
the war, it is difficult to appreciate either the need for such data 
or how a staff can be found in a Government Dei)i.rtment to give 
time and attention to such comparatively minor and unimportant 
details." 

Prize Awards. — The Acadt-nue des Sciences has awarded 
the Gaston Plante Prize to M. Henri Armagnat for his experiraentaj 
researches in electricity. The Hughes prize has been awarded to 
M. Am(-d(-e Guillet for physics, especially a study of damped 
vibrations. 

The Royal Dublin Society's Boyle Medal has been awarded to 
Prof. J. A. McClelland, Sc.U.. F.R.S., for research in many branches 
of science-, but primarily in those which deal with ionisation as 
resulting from additions of electrons to gaseous molecules, or 
aggregates of such, and the more recently discovered forms of 
radiation associated ju-e-eminently with radio-activity. 



16 



THE ELECTRICAL REVLEW. [Vol. S2, Xo, 2.093, January 4. :918. 



Volunteer Notes. — CuaNXY op London Volunteer 

Ex(;inei;rs (Fikld Companies). — Headquarters. BaUlerton Street. 
Oxford street. \V. 1. 

Orders tor the week ending January I'ith, 1918, by Lieut.-Colonel C. B. 
Clay. V.D.. coromandinK;- 

OpiMr for the IFefl-.— Lieut. W. J. A. Watkins. 

>>x( for Duty.—Secona Lieut. H. G. Goldine. 

Monday, .January 7th.— No. 3 Company, 6.30— S.30. Recruits' drill, G.30— 8.30. 
Signalling Section, 6.3C— s.:JO. 

Tuesday, January 8th.— Lecture on "Demolitions" at 6.30. Physical 
drill, 7.30. 

Wednesday, January 9th. — No. 1 Company, entrenching, &c., at 0.3D. 
Recruits' drill, 6.30. . 

Thursday, January 10th.— No. 2 Company, entrenching, ic, at 6.0. Recruits, 
6.30. Signalling Section at 6.30-«.:». " Ambulance Section at 6.30— S.30. 
Medical examination of recniits at 6.30. 

Friday, January 11th. — Musketry, 5.30—8. 

Saturday, January 12th.— Knotting, lashing and splicing at 2.45. Musketry, 
2.45 — 4,45. 

All drills will be at Headquarters unless otherwise stated. 

(By order) Macl£od Yearslet, Capt. and Adjutant. 

" The Rarer Key Minerals." — The following letter came 

to liauil after our " Corre-spondence " columns had been closed : — 

'■ In your i.ssue of December 2.Sth la«t a letter appears from the 
British Thomson-Houston Co, commenting: on a report of myrecent 
lecture upon the above subject, and statins that I was misinformed 
regarding- the production of ductile tung'sten filaments in this 
country before the war. This is not the case, however, as the 
statement made at the lecture was to the effect that before the war 
ductile tung'sten filaments v,-ere not being produced on a com- 
mercial scale in this country /rum tlif ore. This fact is sub- 
stantiated by the details in the letter from the B.T.H. Co. 

"The /(■««/ stages in the manufacture of the filaments were 
certainly carried out in this country before the war. but. so far as I 
could ascertain, no firm was at that time manufacturing' ductile 
tungrsten filaments from tiingrsten ore. The imported manufactured 
products which were, at that time, used by the various firms as the 
star i III] /hiiiif. were pure tungstic oxide or tungrsten rod, 

■ It would appear from their own statement that the B.T,H, Co. 
had to devote at least a year to invest ig'ation before they could 
bridgre the g'ap between tungrsten ore and' their previous starting- 
point, i.e.. pure tungstic oxide. 

"SvDXEY .T, Johnstone, 
" Js'ew Barnet, .hinunnj 1 a. 1 91 .><." 

Scottish Linking-up Proposals. — The West of Scotland 

Committee, dealing with this matter, has issued its conclusions : it 
proposes to divide' into four electrical groups an area which 
includes the counties of Renfrew, Clackmannan, Linlithgrow, and 
portions of the counties of Ayr, Lanark, Dumbarton, and Stirling-, 
One of these groups comprises the Glasgrow Corporation area and 
that of the Clyde Valley Power Co, : the linkingr-upof the Glasgrow 
tcjoup would cost about £16,00(1, and the estimated savin? therebv 
is put at f 10,000 a year. 

Institution and Lecture Notes.— The Rbntgen Society.— 

At themeetin? of the Riintgen Society on December 19th, Prof. 
J, \\. Xicholson, F.R.S , read a paper in which he described some 
recent work by 31: de Broilie, of Paris, with regard to the discovery 
of absorption spectra of X-rays, The rays after being: g'enerated are 
separated off into a spectrum by a crystal which acts, as a diffraction 
grating-, and the spectrum of the radiation is recorded on a photo- 
g'raphic plate. Into the p,%th of the radiation various elements, 
usually in the form of very thin sheets of metal or sheets of paper 
painted over with compounds, are interposed which are capable of 
absorbing the rays to a varying extent, and thus the spectrum of 
the particular metal or other interposed substance is obtained. 
Prof, Xicholson showed lantern slides of very many of these 
absorption spectra, and said that the general result was to establish 
the essential identity of X-rays and ordinary light in every 
respect except in the order of magnitude of thewave length. In 
this respect there was a complete difference ; the spectroscopic 
investigations had again proved che extreme smallness of the wave 
length of X-rays, which was practically of the same magnitude as 
the radius of an atom. One remarkable example shown was the 
X-ray spectrum of tungsten aui of certain other components, and 
in this instance the p-jsitions of the various lines were as marked 
as in the ordinary specti'um of visible light, which indeed it very 
much resembled. At the same meeting Mr. Charles A. Schunck. 
PCS., read a paper on " The Region of the Ultra-violet Spectrum 
of Greatest Therapeutical Effect." As a result of working with 
carbons, metallic tungsten, and the mercury-vapour lamp, and 
judging the therapeutical effectiveness by the production of an 
erythema reaction. Mr, Schunck came to the conclusion that the 
region of greatest effect was among the very shortest wave lengths, 
from 2,,JiO to 2,380, Dr, .Sydney Russ. however, combated this 
view, and thought that too much attention had been paid to these 
very short wave lengths, and that the very active germicidal region 
between wave lengths 2,!1(;0 and 2,sso had been overlooked. 

Electrical Association of Australia (Victorian Section) On 

November 1st, at .Melbourne. Mr. Victor Xightingall read a papRr. 
illustrated by experiments, on "The Possibilities of the Lumin- 
escent Lamp by the Discharge of Electrons in High Vacua." 

Institution of Civil Engineers.— On Wednesday the Institution 
of Civil Engineers completed the hundredth year of its existence, 
haying been established in 1818 at a raeeting.of eight engineers at 
the Kendal Coffee House in Fleet Street. 

At the next ordinary meeting of the Institution on Tuesday. 
January 8th. before the discussion of papers, a statement comme- 
morative of the founding of the Institution on January 2nd. 1818. 
will be made, present conditions precluding more formal celebration 
of the centenary. 

Association of .Mining Electrical Engineers At a meeting of 



the Yorkshire Branch on Satimlay last, at Barnsley, a paper on 
" Economies in Colliery Electrical Plant "' was read. It was 
estimated that electrical power to the extent of somethiflg like one 
million horse-power was at present in use in British collieries. 
The principal directions in which economies could be effected were 
in the utilisation of low-grade coal and gas from by-product plants 
for steam-raising purposes. 

South African Institution of Engineers The following awards 

have been made for the past session : — Institution's Gold Medal 
and Certificate : Mr. Andrew Fenwick. for his paper on "The 
Deterioration of Curtis-Rateau Turbine Blading," Central Mining- 
Rand Mines Award : Messrs. T, C, Otley and Verney Pickles, for 
their joint paper entitled " Boiler-house Operation and Jlainte- 
aance," Price Award : Divided between two theses, entitled 
respectively "Comparative Merits of Steam Turbines and Recipro- 
cating Engines," by Mr. M, Kindinger, and " The Lay-out of a 
Distributing Station, with Special Reference to Safety Measures." 
by Mr. W. H. F. Tredre (student members). 

Appointments Vacant. — Two charge engineers for the 

Hereford Electricity Works; charge engineers {,50s.) for the R.E. 
York. Command ; power station staffs for the Ordnance Depots, 
aerodromes, and military camps in the Southern Command : 
switchboard attendant (.51s,) for the Battersea B,C, Electricity 
Department ; shift engineer (42s, -f) for the Swansea Harbour 
Trust ; sub-station attendant (49s,) : cable jointer for the Staly- 
bridge, ice. Joint Tramways and Electricity Board : assistant 
engineer, shift engineer, and draughtsman for Edmundson Elec- 
tricity Corporation ; switchboard attendant (3.5s. -I- 1 for the Wal- 
thamstow L'.D.C, Electricity Department ; shift engineer for 
Keighley Borough Electricity Works ; shift engineer for Eccles 
Corporation Electricity Department, ^ee our advertising pages 
to-day. 

The Siemens Shares. — The Daihj Mnil states that after 

long negotiations between the Board of Trade and several syndi- 
cates of would-be purchasers, " a contract has been entered into 
for the sale of the German shares in Siemens Bros,, Ltd,, of Wool- 
wich and .Stafford, electrical engineers. The successful syndicate 
consists of British-born subjects. It is their intention to carry on 
and expand the business, which has been supported by Government 
war contracts." 

Raising the Price of Gas. — In the Bill by which the 

South Metropolitan Gas Co. proposes to alter its powers, the com- 
pany asks that its capital may be increased by £1.000.000. and for 
the purposes of dividends that the sliding-scale charge shall be 
increased from 3s. Id. to 33. 7d. per 1,000 cb, ft. This increase is 
■■ to continue for twt) years after the termination of the war " 
or such longer period as the Board of Trade may determine, — Daily 
Chr.iilirle. 

Educational. — Recoguisins: how important it is that 
technical education should be fostered. Messrs. J. Stone & Co., Ltd., 
of Deptford, .S E., are encouraging the boys employed in their 
works to take full advantage of the valuable facilities afforded by 
the evening classes of the L.CC, and other institutions in the 
neighbourhood. Prizes will be awarded on the results of the 
class work, and to induce those who are not already attending 
such classes to take advantage of the scheme and begin their 
technical training at once, the company is paying the fees of a 
numb'^r of boys for whom three new special classes are now being 
opened. The L.CC, officials have very readily undertaken the 
organisation and tuition for these special classes, and it is hoped 
that the encouragement given the boys (over a hundred are 
affected by the scheme) will have permanently good results. 

Advanced Electric Light Switching. — A few weeks ago 

we commented on the issue of a new Preliminary Grade Exam. 
Paper in Electric Light Switching ; we have now received a new 
paper dealing with the Advanced Grade. The first line of the first 
question reads, " Modern tumbler switches have either 2. 3, 4. .5, or 
6 terminals," and will remind many people that their knowledge 
of this fact, and' all that it leads up to, is imperfect. The paper 
comprises U questions in all, and examinees may work 8, 9, or to 
of them The questions c:)ver an extremely wide range. For 
example, Xo, 3 deals with the testing and sorting of wires when 
the time comes to fit the switches of a certain circuit ; No, 5 with 
tube wiring: Xo, 8 with C,T,S, ditto; and Xo, 11 with earthed 
concentric. Other questions relate to the uses of special tumbler 
switches in heater, small motor, ancMnstrument circuits. Anyone 
can obtain a copy of the paper by applying to Messrs, A. P. 
Lundberg- i: Sons, 477-489. Liverpool Road, London, N. 7, 

Re-Opening of the Science Museum. — The Science 

Museum. South Kensington, was re-opened to the public on Tuesday 
last, after having been closed to them for nearly two ySars ; 
it has, however, been open without interruption for students. The 
greater part of the Museum will be open free on every week day 
from 10 a,m, to 5 p.m., and on Sundays from 2.30 p.m, to 5 p,m. 
The collections contain many unique objects of great interest as 
representing discoveries, inventions and appliances that have been 
of first-rate importance in the advancement of science and industry, 
and it is gratifying that these are again available for inspection by 
visitors to London from all parts of the Empire, In our opinion 
the closing of this and other science museums was a grave error on 
the part of the authorities. 

Calendars Wanted.— Lieut. F. L. Cater. A.jM.I.E.E., will 

be glad if manufacturers will send some 1918 calendars for work- 
shop and office use, addressed to him as follows : — 8><2 M.T. Com- 
pany, A.S.C.. Halkin Street, London, S.W. 1. 



Vol. *;•>. No. 2.093. January 4, 1!>I8.] THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



17 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 



Central Station and Tramway Officials. — Mr. Robert 
HuMER, who has occupied the position of station engineer 
for the greater part of the 19 jears that he has been asso- 
ciated with the .\berdeen Corporation electricity department, 
recently tendered his resignation. On December -itith the 
.■^talV and employes held an informal meeting in the works 
to bid him farewell. Mr. Bell presided, and expressed regret 
at Mr. Plunter's departure. The other si)eakers were Mctsis. 
Clark. Burnett, McKay. Ro.'ss, Fj-fe, and DowTiie. Tn tlu' 
name of those i>re.-ent Mr. Bell, on behalf of the stalT and 
employes. pie.M'nted Mr. Hunt-er with a gold albert and a 
suitably inscribed .--ilver matchbox. 

.\ letter has been received by the I^eds Tramways Com- 
mittee from the Board of .\dmiralty thanking the Gorpoia- 
tion for placing the services of Mr. J. B. H.amiltox, the 
tramways manager, at their disposal during the past year, 
and paying a high tribute of appreciation to the excellent 
work which he has done, and the knowledge and abiUty he 
has displayed. The .Admiralty express the hope that his ser- 
vices may .again . be placed at their disposal if required, 
although in the meantime he has been transferred to 
the Board of Trade in connection with the Tramways Con- 
trol Committee appointed to deal with congested tramway 
Control C-onnnittee appointed to deal with congested tramway 
trathc in munition areas. In that olfice it is hoped Mr. 
Hamilton may be able to assist the Tramways Committee in 
ol)taining essential labour and material from districts in 
which at the moment they are not so urgently required. The 
Committee have conveyed to Mr. Hamilton their congrat^ula- 
tions on the Admiralty letter, and have extended to him the 
privilege of placing his s<>rvices at the disposal of the nation, 
keeping in touch meanwhile with local matters. 

The Newport (Mon.) Council has confirmed a recommenda- 
tion of the Electricity Committee that Mr. Nichols Moore be 
;;ianted a further increase in salary of £50 jx-r annum as 
from .January 1st. 

The Todmorden Council has granted an advance of £50 jwr 
annum in the salary of the borough electrical engineer, Mr. 
.JOSK.I'H BoiCE. 

Uenei-al. — We regret to learn that Mr. .T. H. Harrison, of 
Messrs. Davey, Paxman it Co., Ltd., London, was seized 
with paralysis down his left side on December 7th. He is at 
present living at 20, Ablx>y Eoad, Brighton. Although he is 
now better, it will be a long time l>efore he is about again. 
We are .sur<' that Mr. Harri.-Aiu's numerous friends and 
ailinirers in the electrical world will be anxious to join with 
us in sympathi.sing with him in his enforced inactivity, and in 
expressing a hope that his recovery may be as speedy as 
ix>.ssible. 

Mr. Lee Murray has removed his offices from 10, Norfolk 
Street, Strand, W.C. "2, to 56, Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S.W. 1. 

Mr. H. W. Teeton, electrical engineer, who is in business 
at Hauley, has received a commission in the Motor Trans- 
port, A.S.C. On the outbreak of war he was mobilised with 
the Staffordshire Yeomanry, and on the expiration of his 
time in .January, 1016, he entered the .\rmy Service Corps 
as an electrician^ After 18 months" service in France he was 
recommended bj' his Colonel for a commission. He has now 
gone to the Ea.stern theatre of war. In his absence his busi- 
ness is being carried on by his wife. 

Mr. Herbert R. Ivemi-, on the staff of the Yorkshire Elec- 
tric Power Co., has been appointed electrical and mechanical 
engineer to Messrs. J. H. .\ndiew it Co., Ltd., Toledo Steel 
Works, Sheffield. 

Roll of Honour. — Wc regret to record that the younger 
Mill of Ml. C. G. Tegetmeier. of the British Elec'tric Trac- 
tion Co.. Ltd..— .\lax Teget.meiek, of the London Regiment — 
lias been killed in action, aged '20 years. Privat-e Tegetmeier 
\\as on the .staff of the British Electrical Federation. 

The Military Medal for braveiy and devotion to duty by 
keeping telephone lines in repaii- under sliell-lire has been 
awarded to Signaller T. C. OwEX. King's Shroi>shire L.I.. 
who was an electrician with Messrs. Smallwood & Co., of 
Slucew.sbury. 

Corporal .J. Cleator. who has died of wounds received in 
action, served his apprenticeship with Mr. John EUwood, 
electrician, of Whitehaven. 

Private G. McKelvey, repoi-ted killed after being missing 
since April, was, up to his enlistment, a meter inspector in 
the electricity department of the Ilford I'.D.C. 

Rifleman W. Passmore, who has died in a French hos- 
pital from the effects of gas iX)isoning and bronchitis, was 
an electrician at Swansea. 

Corporal C. \V. Horlev. Sherwood Foresters, who has 
died of wounds, was in the winding department of the B.T.H. 
Co., at Rugby. 

Private S. Hcghes, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, who was an 
electrical engineer at Llanfair (Montgomeryshire) when he 
enhsted at the outbreak of war. has gained the Military 
Medal for repaiiing telephone wires under heavy shell-fire. 

Drummer H. Pickles. West Y'orks. Regiment.' who is in 
hospital with trench fever, was employed bv Mr. Harrv Moss, 
electrician. Bradford. " • " 

Piopeer W. A. Ha\-es, RE., who has been killed at the 



Front, was with Messrs. T. Gamett & Co., electrical engi- 
neers, Manchester. 

Private T. Habri.ngtox, Connaught Rangers, awarded the 
D.C.M., was a motorman on the Bury Corjwration tramwavs 

Lieut.-Col. A. B. Lavtox, South Lanes. Regiment, who has 
again been mentioned in dispatches, ' was electrical engineer 
arid departmental manager at the works of Messrs. J. Cros- 
held & Sons, Ltd., Warrington. 

Private G. H. Parkixsos, of the K.S.L. Regiment, who 
has died of wouiids, was employed by Messrs. Baxendale and 
Co., Ltd., Manchester. 

Private G. Wai.keh, of the Middlesex Regiment, who has 
Im-cii awarded the Military Medal, was in the sutjerintendiiig 
engineer's oltice connected with the l^n-ds Geiier-il l ost > -k .■ 

William Howakth, electrical artificer, has lost his life by. 
the sinking of the armed boarding .-iteamer Sfcplim Funiegs 
111 the Irish Sea. He was H years lA age. .md pnor to iommg 
the Jsaval Reserve was an electrician with a M:MKhf .ster !irni 

Private Xewtox. Jx'icestershire Regim.nt. who has falleii 
in action, was engaged as electrician at Swynnerton Hall. 

Private R. S. Loxgdex, of the electrical department of the 
North StatlordshuM Railway Co., has been killed in action. 

Sapper P. Hirst, foiiuerly in business as an electrician at 
Huddersfield, ha.s been wounded. 

Lance-Corjxiral J. Lyxch, one of the emploves in the Stock- 
port electricity department, has been awarded the D.C.M., 
and the Council has forwarded its heartv congratulations 

Lieutenant (S.R.) Egertos ,J. W.\rd, A.M.I.E.E., Royal 
Iri.^h Regiment, mentioned in Sii- Douglas Haig's recent dis- 
patch for gallant sei-vice on the Westem Fiont. was on the 
.staff of the Para Electrical- Railways it Lighting Co., Ltd. 
Brazil. " ' 

Obituary.— Sir W. H. Lixdley.— The Times records the 
death, which occurred at Putney on Sunday, at the age cf 
b4 years, of Sir WilUam Heerlem Lindlev, M.Inst.C.E.. who 
had fOT very many years been engaged in a prominent capa- 
city in connection with Continental waterworks, electrical 
undertakings, sewerage works, itc. Among other works with 
which he was concerned were the electricitv works at Elber- 
feld. The Times .states that " the regard "in which he was 
held m German engineering circles is shown by the fact 
that he ;icted as president of the Engineering Standards Com- 
mission of the German Gas and Waterworks Engineers, and 
also of the commission on stray electric currents from tram- 
ways. He became a member of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers m 1878, and- received a knightho(jd in 1911 on the 
ground of the services he had rendered to the Roval Com- 
mi.ssion on Canals and Waterways, for which he "prepared 
elaborate reports on the waterways of France, Belgimu, and 
Germany, with some notes on tho.se of Holland." 

Mr. E. W. Kewiox.— The death (xcurred on December 
■mh. at the age of 44 years, at Monkseaton. of Mr Ed^ar 
Williams Newton, of H.M Postal Telegraphs. 

Mr. Reubex Marchaxt Sayers.— We much regret to an- 
nounce the untimely death from typhoid fever of Mr R M 
Sayers, A. M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E.," partner ui the lirra of 
Messrs. Clark, Forde, Taylor & Erskine-Murrav. Mr. Savers 
was educated at St. Paul's School, and was t"ramed in ele«- 
. trical and engineering work at the City and Guilds Institute, 
Sou_th Kensington, of which he was a prominent student. In 
1897 he joined his firm as an assistant engineer, and for '30 
years has been associated in the important works which they 
have undeitaken. Those, whose privilege it had been to 
know hun intimately for all of those years know that his 
abilir\- and charact.tn- earned everyone's esteem, and the many 
letters received are eloiiuejit testimony of the regard felt for 
him as an enginein- and as a man who endeared himself to 
all T^th w^hom he came in contact in the course of his career. 
Sayers's first work on submarine lables was in conuecii.iii 
w ith the laying of the Bermuda-Turk's Island-Jamaica Cable 
111 1898, and in the 19 ye;irs following he led a busv life, 
acting as chief assistant, and afterwards (in 1910). when he 
became a partner in the firm, on many cahle-laving expedi- 
tions, amongst which may be mentioned the Pacific cable 
aiid the laying of the Commercial Co.'s cables as under: — 
Fayal (Azores) and Canso (No\a Scotia). Wcst<)n-su|)er-Mare 
and Wat<Mvill(- (Ireland). New York and Havana, diversion 
of Atlantic cable to St. .John's, Newfoundland, extension of 
St. -John's-Canso cable to New York, and .several succe.ssful 
deep-sea repairing expeditions, in all of ^^•hich he carried out 
the work undertaken to the full siitisfaction of his firm and 
of the cable companies for whom he was acting. Mr. Sayers 
lH-)sses.sed abilities in such a marked degree, and was so 
earnest in all he undertook, that he \\ ill leave his mark on tl..- 
calling which ho had cho.sen, and for which he was especiallv 
fitted by sound knowledge, ability, and charm of manner. 
He contributed paix^rs on electrical subjects to the technical 
journals, and amongst those we have in mind are: " t's*- cf 
the Electrometer in Cable-te.sting." "Temperature Coefficient 
for Loss of Charge of Paraffin Paper Condensers," &c., itc. 
Quite recently he attacked the difficult problem of computing 
the depreciation, of submarine cables, and his death has de- 
prived us of an important paper on this subject. His ser- 
vices to the various cable companies for whom lie has .ncte 1 
have be<ni recognised in the fullest and niost sympathetic 
way. He was not a man who courted publicitv. but the 
amount of "spade work " (liat he did for his firm and Jheir 
clients is most highly spoken of by those who tleplor* the 
loss of a dear friend. ,, 



18 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. S2. xo. 2.093. jancarv 4. i9u<. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



Watertight Fittings, Ltd. (149,159).— Private company. 

Kegislpie.l Uecembcr l»lh. Capital, £1J,000 in £1 shares. Manufacturers 
of and dealers in watcrlight fittings in connection with the supply of elec- 
tricity for lighting, heating, and power, or in connection with anv trade, &c. 
Ihe subscribers (each with one share) are :— R. Eyre, Rvland Worlcs, Chester- 
field, merchant; J. J. Eyr,:, Holywell Street, Chesterfield, house furnisher. 
1 he first directors are to be appointed bv the subscrib'^rs. Solicitor ; W. E. 
Wak.rley. Chesterfield, Derby. ^ 

Bern's Electric, Ltd. (149,161).. — Private company. 

Registered December 18lh. Capital, foO.OOO in £1 shares. Electrical and 
^en^ral engineers, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) arc : — H. H. 
i:"rrv. 8li. Newman Street. W., engineer; V. G. Kcrly. lU. 11. .\usiin Kriars. 
It.', solicitor. Th.- first directors arc to be appainud by the subjcribcrs. 
K,;i^..|.^l office: Mi. Newman Street. Oxford -Streil, \V. 

Ncrthurabria Motors, Ltd. (149,201). — Private companv. 

K.:.;i...,erLj December 31st. Capital. £25,U0O in £1 shares. Electrical, mecha- 






vcle 



electric). &T. The subscribers (each with, one share) 
irthlands, Horbury, near Wakefield.athletic goods 



and 
s, rheostats, and electrical appa 



: :— W. O. Sykes, 
ufacturer; S. Cos. 
8, Cotton Street, Wakefield, cashier. The first directors are to be appointed 
bv thi- sub5scribers. Solicitor: J. Charlesworth, The Crofts, Horbury, near 
\\ak<ti.-ld, Vorks. 

Pvne, Hughman & Co., Ltd. (1,638f).— Particulars filed 

December IDth. 1917. Registered in Calcutta March Isl, 1916. to take oviT 
the business of Pvne, Hughman & Co., and to carry on the business of 
engineers builders, contractors, ironfounders, electrical engineers, ship, boat, 
carri.nge, and motor builders, &c. Capital, Rs. 3,10,000 in 3,100 shares of 
Rs. lUO e.nch. British address : 329, High Holborn, W.C, where F. M. 
Short (manager in the United Kingdom) is authorised to accept service. 

British Expert Engineers & Precision Tool Manufac> 

turers. Ltd. (149,193).— Private companv. Registered December 20th. Capi- 
tal, £4.000 in 1.400 pref. shares of fl'each and 390 ord. shares of £5 each, 
and 26 founders' shares of £25 each. Precision tool manufacturers, electrical, 
heating, mechanical, and general engineers and metal workers, &c. The 
subscribers are : — E. A. Brnnton. 37, Church Lane, Hornsev, N., engineer, 
14 founders' shares; F. C. 'Dowsett, 100. St. George .Avenue, Tufnell Park, 
N., engineer, 12 founders' shares. The first directors are : — E. A. Boynton 
and F. C. Dowsett. Registered office: 22, Crtjss Street, Islington, N. 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



Rapid Distillation & Power Co., Ltd.^Charge dated De- 
cember 6th, 1917 (supplemental to charge of .November 27th. 1917), securing 
£13,462 of and all moneys whicJi may be paid by Lieut-Col. W. G. Morden 
and C \\". Small under :i certain guarantee. Property charged : The com- 
ent and future, e.\cept uncalled lapital. 



cept 

Ltd. (.39.920).— Capital, 

shares of £5 each. Return dated 
10,000 ord. and 8,000 pref. shares 
£53,510 considered as paid on the 



. — Capital, 

of 10s. e.ach. 



p;ny"s und'^rtaking .ind prop^Tly. present 

Chamberlain & Hookham, 

£100.000 in 10.000 ord. and 10.000 firef. 
June 14th. 1917 (filed November 20th). 
taken up; £36,490 paid on 7,398 pref.; 
rcmaindc-r. 

Breckneil, Munro & Rogers, Ltd. (79,7( 

£20.000 in 2.000 pref. shares of £.3 each and 20,000 ord. sh: 
Return dated Nove:nber 19;h, 1917. 1,05S pref. and 14,829 ord. shares taken 
up; £5.673 10s. paid on 1.058 pref. and 767 ord.; £7,031 considered as paid 
on 14.162 ord. .M-jrtgages and charges : £7.900. 

Pirelli, Ltd. (103,088).— Capital, ^40,000 in ,£.3 shares. 

Return dated October 26th, 1917. .^11 shares tak^n up; £40.OUO paid. Mort- 
gages and charges : Nil. 

New St. Helens & District Tramwavs Co., Ltd. (59,426). 

- Capit.il. £150.000 in 20.U0O pref. and 10.000 ord! shares of £5 each. Return 
dated November 9th. 1917. 15.980 pref. and 9.0U0 ord. shares taken up; 
£125.410 paid, including £510 on 1,02U shares forfeited. Mortgages and 



char 



Nil. 



Blackburn. Sterling & Co.. Ltd. (61.302).— Capital, 

£12.n00 in £1 shares. Return dated Julv 27th, 1917. .All shares taken up. 
£8,10(1 paid ; £3,900 considered as paid. .Mortgages and charges': .Nil. 

GuUdford Electricitv Supply- Co.. Ltd. (36,725),— Capi- 
tal. £55,000 in 25,000 pref. "shares of £1 each and 6.000 ord. shares of £3 
each. Return dated September 10th. 1917. 18.856 pref. and 3.059 ord. 
shares taken up. £'1.153 paid, including £2 on two ord. shares forfeited. 
Mortgages and charges : £40,000 (£25,000 first and £15,000 second mortgage 
debentures). 

Drake & Gorham, Ltd. (70,275).— Capital, .6125,000 in 

£1 sh .r. s. Return dated November 22nd, 1917. AM shares taken up. £85,000 
paid; fl'I.OOO considered as paid. Mortgages and charges: Nil. 

British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. (49,855).— Capital, 

£2.998.397 15s., of which, to Julv 6th. 1917, £712,741 5s. had been issued as 

6 per cent, cumulative participating preference stock and £1,326.263 10s. as 

ordinary stock. Total amount paid : £2,039,007 15s. .Mortgages and charges 
outstanding at date named ; £1,866,042. ' 

Ely Valley Lighting Co., Ltd. (78,637).— Capital, .£5,000 

in £1 shares. Return dated November 15th. 1917. 3.471 shares taken up; 
£3,473 10s. paid, including £2 10s on 10 forfeited shares. Mortgages and 
charges : Nil. 

Frinton=on=Sea and District Electric Light & Power Co., 

Ltd. (70.689).— Capital. £10.000 in 7.300 pref. and 2,700 ord. shares of £1 
each. ■ Return dated Julv 26lh. 1917. .Ml shares taken up; £10,000 paid. 
Mortgages and charges : £10,000. 

Yorkshire Cable Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction in full on Nov- 
ember fith. 1917. of debenture dated June 19lh, 1912, securing £1,200. 

Satisfaction in full on November 6th, 1917, of debenture dated October 8th, 
I 114. securing £800. 

D-benture dated December lOlh. 1917. to secure anv sum, not exceeding 
11.000, which W. Stell and R. R. Stell may be called upon to pay under 

guarantee. Propertv charged : The compaiiv's undertaking and propertv, 
! )uding uncalled capital. HP.. 

Rushmores, Ltd.— Particulars of ^30.000 debentures 

.:ea:ed December 19th. 1917. filed pursuant to Section <I3 (3) of the Com- 
pani.-s (Consolidation) .Act, 1908, the whole amount being now issued. Pro- 
perty charged : The company's undertaking and property, preMfit and future. 
iiK-ludin^ uncalled capita). No tnjsfeo- r / r 



H. T. Boothroyd, Ltd. (99,742).— Capital, ,£20,000 in 

£1 shares (15,000 ord. and 5,000 pref.). Return dated December 3rd, 1917. 
10,002 ord. and 2,800 pref. shares taken up. £2,802 paid on 2,800 pref. and 
two ord. ; £10.000 considered at paid on 10,000 ord. .Mortgages and charges : 
£7,509. 

Enfield Electric Cable Co., Ltd. (131,995).— Capital, 

£30,000 in 41 sh.ires. Return dated Nov.mb.r 6lh, 1917. ;e.8U0 shares taken 
up. £32,800 paid. .Mortgages and ch:irges : £35,000. (\ arious enemy hold- 
ings have been eliminattd during 1917.) 

Dartmoor Electric Supply Co., Ltd. (110,871).— Capital, 

£2.000 in 10s. shares (reduced ironi £4.000 in «1 shar.- in 1916). Return 
dated June 30th, 1917. .Ml jliares l.iken up. £2.000 p.iid. .Morcgage> an.l 
charges: £1,000. 



CITY NOTES. 



The jeport of the directors of the 
The Societe Hocictc InduKfnelh ties t'etcpkones, of 
Industrielle des Farts, whicli has an ordinary share capital 
^ Telephones, of Hl'lUXW, and owns .several \\orks for 
the manufacture of telephone and sub- 
marine cables, ebonite, electrical apparatus, ic, was submitted 
to the general meeting held on December 1.5th. It deals with 
the year- ended on June iJUth. 1917, and states that the con- 
tinuation of the %^ar caused an increase in the consumption 
of telephone cables, and of all other products inimred for 
purposes of national defence. The company s effoic.T ttill lui- 
rher to develop the production were redoubled, and the turn- 
over notably increased. .\s, hc^vever, the general exiienses 
thd not advance in the same proportion the net p.onts per- 
mitted of the payment of a dividend of il l'2s. I'er share, 
notwithstanding the con.siderabie rise in wages, raw materials, 
and of taxation. If this immediate result .was satisfactory, 
the situation was not without causing pre-occupation on 
account of the excessive wear and tear of the machmery and 
plant. The scarcity of trained workers had compelled the 
company to entrust the plant to a personnel who were fre- 
ijuently inexperienced, and the necessity for day and night ■ 
working increased the depreciation. -\s a consequence, it 
was proposed to apply a sum greater by ±'40,(K)(J than in the 
previous year to the writing down of the installations. This 
augmentation was not excessive when it was considered that 
the almost complete renewal of the equij^nient would be 
necessaiy after the cessation of hostilities, and that as its 
original value would be completely redeemed by that time 
the expenditure on replacement would then exceed twice 
the pre-war cost. It was for this purpose that the directors 
also a.sked, after the payment of the dividend, the transfer 
from the balance of ±'64,000 to the prevision fund which was 
formed in the previous year. As was mentioned in the re- 
port for 1915-16, it was c.s.sential for the company to have 
availalde the necessary resources for the reoiganisation of the 
works after the war in order to ensure the future prosperity 
of the undertaking and maintahi the position which it had 
occupied in the industrial world for '25 years. It was, there- 
fore, intended to proceed by way of extensions, so as to 
avoid any interruption in working, and obtain the best 
arrdiigements. Sites had been acquired for these puriwses 
adjoining the works in the Rtie des Entrepreneurs et de 
Ix^vallois for the exten.sion of telephony and apparatus, and 
adjacent to the Bezons works f<jr new shops and the transfer 
of a portion of the iiibber manufacturing. The accounts 
.show a ercdit balance of i;313.(HX). .A.fter placing fUKl.OtXI 
to the depreciation fund, ±''29.(X)t) to the legal reserve fund, 
±(i4,(l!.HI to the prevision fund, and making other appropria- 
tions, the balance pennits of the payment of £1 V2s. i>er 
share, or at the rate of 13^ [ler cent. 

The directors' report for the year endi-.l 
British June, 1917, shows that after making pro- 

Columbia vision for renewals maintenance .^'101,459, 
Electric RaiN income-tax =615,000. and addition to capi- 
way Co., Ltd. tal auK)rti.-.ation fund i'2,76'2, the net 
revenue is £'160,844, plus f6,860 brought 
forward, and £44.000 tiansferred from reserve (in order to 
make the dividend payment), making ±'211.704. Interest on 
debenture and (lebeutuie stock for the year absorb £132,671. 
and dividends already paid on the 5 per cent, cumulative per- 
petual preference stock fi:r the year £72,000, leaving £7,033 
to carry forward. The above figures represent an improve- 
ment of approximately £'26.0(X) over the results of the pre- 
vious year. The report of the Government Commissioner on 
liis investigation i>f the question of transportation in the City 
of Vancouver and the surrounding districts in its findings 
and recommendations justifies the past policy and operations 
of the company, and is not only an answer to criticisms, but 
upholds the contentions cf the directors and management i» 
regard to the .Titney competition. Xegotiations are now pro 
ceeding with a view to making aiTangements for giving effe*- 
t<i the Comnii.s.si<)iier"s recommendations, antl. pending th' 
outcome of these negotiations, the directors are of opiniof 
that it is not advisable to deal further with the situatioi 
arising out of the recent amendments to the Vancouver I>i 
corporation Act explained in the statement issued to th 
stockholders in July last. .A. further statement will be issue 
to the stockholdei-s as soon as the arrangements have het 
completed. For the fir.st four months of the cuiTent yei 
the gross earnings show an increase of approximately $146.81 
This increase has, however, been more than absoi'betl by f 
fieasvd expeDees doe to higbw wages tod uicreaEed cogj 



Vol.82. Xo. 2,093, Jantary i, 191S.; 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



19 



materials, in consequeDce of which the net earnings for the 
period show an approximate decrease of $2,648. liaving re 
gard to the uncertain outlook for the immediate future, it 
IS prudent to postpone the payment of the interim dividend 
payable -January 1.5th, 191S, on the 5 per cent, cumulative 
perpetual preference stock. If, however, at the end of the 
hnancial year an improvement in the operating results is 
shown, the whole or part of the dividend may be distributed 
in July next, and a resolution giving authority to the directors 
to draw on the reserve fund so far as may be nece.ssary for 
this purpose will be submitted to the annual meeting on 
January 4th. 

Speaking at the annual meeting, the 
British Chairman, Mr. W. J. Fisher, .said that 

Coalite the future of Briti.'^h,. industry must be 

Co., Ltd. largely influenced by the price at which 

power on a large scale Jould be suppUed 
in the form of electric cmTent if, as a nation, they were to 
compete, successfully in the manufacture of products which 
in the past had to a considerable extent been obtained from 
countries in which water ppwer was available. The board 
had been anxiou.sly considering how to provide for the rapid 
erection of Coalite plants all over the counti-y, and, had de- 
cided to arrange for the development of the process on a 
royalty basis with a financial group. An agreement of this 
nature had been made with Low Temperature Carbonisation, 
Ltd., which was creating an entirely new organisation with 
a view to future developments. Should this arrangement 
prove .succes.sful the quantity of coal carbonised by their 
process would gi'eatly exceed 700,000 tons jier annum. The 
ultimate result could not be doubtful. The report of the Coal 
Conservation Sub-Committee advocated the siibstitution of gas 
fuel in place gf crude coal for the produc»tion of electrical 
energy. The proposal was to divide the country into dis- 
tricts, and create large generating stations whence electrical 
energy could be distributed. For the full attainment of this 
ideal the distillation of coal at low temperatures was indis- 
pensable, and this wouW materially strengthen the position of 
this and its alhed companies. 

During the year there, has been a defici- 
Cordoba oncy in the supply of water from San 

Light, Power Koque Lake, and in conseqiience over '2-5 
and Traction i'>er cent, of the energy required to supply 
Co., Ltd. the customers and tramways was gene- 

rated by steam. At times it was neces- 
sary to curtail the supply of current to coii.sumers, and in 
consequence of this and of a strike on the tramways in sym- 
pathy with the railway strike, the taking of the subsidiary 
companies were reduced by about ±'3,-500, while the exti'a 
expenses due to .steam operation alone were over i'34,000, or 
i'11,000 more than the previous year. As a result of the 
abnormal working expenses, says the Financial Timcx, the 
profits were not sufficient to meet all the charges, and the 
profit and loss account shows a loss of ±17,721. This has 
been deducted from the amount brought forward, leaving a 
balance, of ±8,ft30, which the directors recommend be carried 
forward. 

Sir G. A. ToucHE, M.P., presided at the annual meeting on 
Monday. He said that perhaps no companies had been hit 
worse in the war than those operating abroad in countries 
where it was necessary to import fuel. Had there been 
anything approaching a nonnal rainfalL they would have 
been, not altogether, but in a large measure, independent of 
the fuel problem, and of some of the worst trading results 
of the war. The eft'ect of the drought would be understood 
when he mentioned that the expenditure on the operation 
of their steam plant, which was ±'985 in 1915, rose to ±23,70(i 
in 1916, and to ±35,000 ir. 1917. It would be contrary to all 
experience to expect so great a failure of water three years 
in .succession. If they could revert to a position where the 
hydraulic energy was nearly sufficient they might see a 
swift change in their fortunes. During the whole year the 
situation in Cordoba, and, indeed, in the Argentine generally. 
had been one of exceptional difficulty, but the results of the 
.six months ended September 30th. 1917, had been consider- 
ably better. The gross receipts of the combined busine.s,st^s 
had amounted to ±1-58,806. compared with ±162,460 in 191(i, 
and ±157,-590 in 1915, and considering the difficulties of the 
year, such takings were not unsatisfactory. Their misfor- 
tunes, however, stood revealed in the growth of expenses. 
In 1915 they were ±74,270, in 1916 ±100,-539. and in 1917 
±111,-532. The present position of affairs in the Argentine 
was rather more promi.sing. They must not look for norm.Tl 
I'esults while the war lasted, or for .some tuue after, although 
they might hope for an amelioration of the conditions caused 
I'V the drought. 

Venezuela Telephone & Electrical Appliances Co., Ltd.— 

Profit ±18,2:-!7, plus ±11.222 brought forward. After provid- 
ing for debenture interest, &c., and ±2,399 for excess profits 
iluty, the directors propose a dividend of 8 per cent, on the 
IJieference shares, putting ±6,000 to reserve for renewals and 
'It'preciation, and carrying forward ±15,067 to undivided 
profits account. For the previous year 30 per cent, was paid 
"11 the preference shares, leaving arrears as from October 
1-t, 1910. while during the present year holders of the prefer- 
f nee .shares released their right to all arrears of dividend up 
ii> June 30th. 1916. in consideration of the transfer to them 
i.'l' certain .shnre.s in another mm\iany.—Fin<incia] Times. 



Buenos Mrts Port & City Tramways, Ltd. — The report 
for the period from June 18th, 1915, to June 30th last states 
that through the receiver statements of working in Buenos 
Aires have been received, and the accounts are based upon 
the figures so supplied. For the period of one year and 12 
days to June 30th, 1916, the result, after allowing for certain 
charges by the receiver m Buenos Aires and London, showed 
a surplus" of ±9,335, and for the year ended June :30th, 1917, 
a surplus of ±3,810. The total sum in respect of interest on 
the 6 per cent, debentures remaining unpaid amounted at 
June -SOth, 1917. to ±108.406. No scheme of reconsti-uction 
has yet been formulated by the receiver of the debenture 
holders, and, according to the Financial Times, the directors 
cannot hoj^? that any effective .steps can be taken for tliis 
purpose until after the termination of the wai-. 

Companies Struck Off the Register.— The following have 
been struck off the register and arc dissolved: — 

Easltrn Elt-ctric Co., Ltd. 

Electrical Engineering & Motor Co. (Carlisl. ), Ltd. 

Marine & General Oil Engines, Ltd. 

Standard Bolt & Nut Co., Lid. 

Transport Development & Power Syndicate, Ltd. 

X.L. Electric Co., Ltd. 

Burmah Electric Tramways & Lighting Co., Ltd. — Profit 

for year to July 31st, ±9,498. ±3,0U0 is put to reserve for 
depreciation and ±500 to reserve for depreciation of invest- 
ments. Dividend. 6 per cent, on preference shares, against 
5 per cent, for each of three preceding years (leaving arrears of 
53 per cent.), and carrying forward ±.500. — Finayicml Times. 

Humphrey Pump Co., Ltd. — War conditions have again 
adversely affected the company's business. The company has 
been engaged for some time on a general engineering con- 
tract for the Government. The profit and loss account 
shows a deficiencv of ±5,913, making the total deficiency 
±32.2.-^. 

Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co., Ltd. — Six months' 
diviflend at the rate of 6 per cent, jjer annum, less income- 
tax, on the preference shares. 

Yorkshire (West Riding) Electric Tramways Co., Ltd. — 
Final dividend at rate of 6 per cent, on 6 per cent, cumula- 
tive preference shares. 

Chile Telephone Co.. Ltd. — Interim dividend, 3 per cent., 
tax free, on ordinary .shares. 

Coventry Chain Co., Ltd. — Dividend for the year on the 

ordinaiT shares 10 per cent., and a bonus of 5 per cent., less 
tax. 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



Xew Year's Day. Hi is. 
By far the most important event of the year of electricity finance 
befell at it.? very end. in the publication of the interim report by 
the Goal Conservation Sub-Committee on the Supply of Electric 
Power in Great Britain. "A haphazard multiplication of small 
generating- plants situated not at points where generation can be 
effected most cheaply," is the sweeping description of present 
arrangements for electricity supply, with over (iOO undertakings 
to deal with them ; 70 separate generating stations in Greater 
Loudon, working 4',1 different .systems of generation. The Sub- 
committee suggests Hi districts for Great Britain, with one 
authority in each district to deal with all the generation and main 
distribution, and it estimates that a saving of one himdred million 
pounds in cash and 5.5 million tons of coal could be effected under 
its proposals. 

Such a huge scheme has beeu the dream of far-seeing electrical 
reformers for at least twenty years. Various efforts have been 
made to work it out on a modest scale, but slender success has met 
every attempt. What the scheme, if brought into practical 
politics, will mean to existing companies, noliody knows, and the 
Stock Exchange List of prices remains tmchanged from beginning 
to end. 

Substantial variations in prices "have occurred, however, since 
the end of 1916. London lig-hting shares show a large preponiler- 
ance of rises over falls ; the Telegraph list is equally satisfactory 
to holders. Home Railway stocks have given way. and so have 
many of the issues in companies dealing with transport abro.ad. 
Manufacturing shares wind up the year well, and hftvc useful rises 
to their credit. The British Insulated has divided its £5 shares 
into £1 shares, .and, on the basis of the former, the price is fi.'is. to 
the good, while General Electrics are £t'> up. Consideration of 
our usual comparative tables will leave a comforting effect upon 
those who feared, twelve months ago, that the third year of war 
would play havoc with the fortunes of companies engaged in 
electrical or allied work, and this e.xperience may be of hopeful 
augury in regard to the New Year just lieginning. We accord- 
ing^ly present the following selections from our regular weekly 
Lists of Stocks and Shares : — 

Hume ELKCTUiriTV CoMl'.VSIKS. 





Dee. 


Dec. 


Rise 




Dee. 


Dec. 


Rise 


Ordinary 


•J'.ltli. 


.Slst, 


or 


Ordinary 


aith. 


.Slst, 




Shares. 


I'.llt;. 


1917. 


tall. 


Shares. 


191G. 


1917. 


(all. 


Bronipton 


lia 


(^ 


- 4 


London Electric . 


. IS 


1 


- ? 


Charing Cro8« . . 


■.li 


4 


+ a 


Metropolitan 


2» 


at 


+ 1 


Chelsea 


;l 


2j 




tit, .James" 


A 


7 


+ 1 


City cf London . . 


llil 


l.S^ 


+ l| 


South London . . 


aj 


a 


+ } 


(■^onntv of London 


lOi 


11 


+ I 


Wcstmin'iter ., 


. :■? 


CJ 


+ ; 


Ken inirtoii 




H 













20 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVLEW. [Vol.S2. Xo. 2,003. January i, 1»18. 







fELEGRAPHS AN 


D TlLErilO.NES. 










Dec. 


Dec. 


Rise 




Dec. 


Dec. 


Rise 


Ordmary 


asith, 


31st, 


or 


Ordinary 


2ilth, 


31st, 


or 


Shares. 


1916. 


itin. 


fall. 


Shares. 


1916. 


1917. 


fall. 


Ang.Ain.Pref. 


9,i* 


9S), 


— 


Indo-European . . 


49* 


52* 


+ 3 


Cuba Submarine 


H+ 


Mf 


+ 1 


Marconi . . 


•-i* 


SA 


+ + 


E. Extension 


14 


15 


+ 1 


Oriental Telep. . . 


^^ 




+ ii 


E. Telegraph 


140^ 


ISO* 


+ 10 


United R. Plate.. 


6(« 


+ * 


Globe Tel.K Trust 


12* 


1,S5 


+ li 


W. India & Pan. 




1|« 


+ 1.1 


Great Northern .. 


37 


36 


-1 
Hume 


Western Teleg. . . 
Rails. 


134 


loi 


+ H 










Under. Elec Ord. 


2* 


li 


- * 


■Assented 


(i5)i 


6(M 


— 5 


do. do. "A" 


6/6 


6/- 


- 1/6 


Metropolitan 


25 


22} 


-2? 


do. do. Inc . . 


92* 


81 


-ll-i 


Mel. District .. 






- 4 














FOKEIGS TU 


IMWAVS, 4c. 








Au'^lo- Arg. Trams. 








B. Col. Elec. Def 


.35* 


28 


- ■J^ 


First Pref. 


H 


2i 


- » 


Mexico Trams 5 «, 


32* 


27* 




Brazil Tractions 


4M 


45 


- 4 


M'x'can L'gt Com 


17H 


+ 10 


B. Col. Elec. Price 62i 


m 


-20 


do. Prel. . . 


1.T* 


39 


+ 134 


do. do. P'ferrd iOk 


30 


-1U4 


do. 1st Bonds 27i 


32* 


+ 6 






iLlXCFACTrBIXG CoMPAXIES. 








Babcock & WUcox 21i 


3J 


+ A 


Edison Swan If. p. 


18 


2* 


+ * 


Brit. Aluminium. 


14 
11' 

2i 


1^ 


+ A 


Elec Constructior 


i.S 


li 


+ I'i, 


Btit. Insulated . 


3 


-1- 3i 


Gen. Elec. Ord. . 


m 


19| 


+ 6 


B. West. Fret. . 


2U 


t.t 


Henlevs 


16 


16) 


+ i 




13 


14* 


India-Rubber 


,m 


u| 


+ i 


Castner-Kellner . 


. Si" 


5 '^ 


- A 


Telegraph Con. . 


38 


+ 3* 



In these days of paper shortajje. when many clients will, perforce, 
miss the receipt of the customary Stock Exchan<re OfEcial List 
from their stockbrokers, we hope that tlie above catalogues of 
quotations may prove of more than ordinary use. but this hope is 
subsidiary and insigrnificant compared with the cordial wish of a 
more happy and prosperous New Year to the patient followers of 
these notes. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 

HOHI BLBOTBIOITS OOKPAKISB, 

Dividend Price 

, ^— V Dec. 31, Rise or fall 

1915, 1916, 1917. this week, 

Brompton Ordinary .... 10 9 6^ — 

Charing Cross Ordinary ..56 4 — 

do. do. do. 4JPref.. 44 44 Bi — 

Chelsea 4 8 2i — 

City of London 8 8 ISJ — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. 8 6 lOj — 

County of tiondon .... 1 7 11 — 

do. 6 per cent. Pref, 6 6 ICJ — 

Kensington Ordinary .... 7 6 bi — 

London Electric B Ml 1 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. 6 4 B4 — 

Metropolitan 8 8 8t — 

do. 44 per cent. Pref. 44 44 83 — 

St. James' and faU MaU ..8 8 7 — 

South London* 6 6 3 — 

South Metropolitan Pref, . . 7 7 21/6 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 7 til — 

TiLBaaAPBB AND Tblsphones. 

Anelo-Am, Tel. Pref 6 6 tjj —4 

do. Def 88/a 14 a^a — 

ChUe Telephone 8 8 7ii — 

Cuba Sub. Ord 6 7 9i — 

Eastern Extension .... 8 8 15 — 

Eastern Tel. Ord 8 8 1504 — 

Globe Tei. and T. Ord 17 13i — 

do. Pref. ..6 6 IO4 — 

Great Northern Tel 22 24 St! — 

Indo-European 13 13 624 — 

Marconi 10 16 SJ + -fg 

Oriental Telephone Ord. . . 10 10 8 — 

Dnited R. Plate Tei. ..- .. 8 8 6}^ — 

West India and Pan Cd. 6d, 1,^., — 

Western Telegraph .... 7 8 loj — 

HoHK RAn.8, 

Central London, Ord. Assented 4 4 6O4 — 

Metropolitan 1 1 ^2^ +4 

do. District .. .. Nil Nil Iti + j 

Underground Electric Ordinary Nil Nil ij — 

ao. do, "A" .. NU Nil 6/- — 

do, do, Income 6 4 81 — 

FoBBioN Tbamb, fto, 
Dividend 

1915. 1916 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Pref, 6 6 4^ — 

Anglo-Arg. Trams, First Pref, 64 54 2i — 4 

do. 2nd Pref. . . 64 — 2j — 

do. 5 Deb. .. 6 • S 6ij -1 

Brazil Tractions . . .... 4 4 45 — 4 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 9| — 

British Columbia Eleo. Rly. Pfce. 6 6 4iS — J 

do. do. Preferred Nil NU SO — 

do. do. Deferred NU Nil 28 — 

do. do. Deb. 4i 4i 56 — 

Mexico Trams 5 per cent. Bonds NU Nu 274 —5 

do. 6 per cent. Honda NU NU a7i —5 

Uexican Light Common .. Nil NU 17^ — 

do. Pref NU NU 29 — 

do. 1st Bonds .. NU NU 3^4 — 

MAHTTFAOrURlNa COKFAJIIBB, 

Babcock & Wilcox .... 16 15 3i + ,>. 

British Aluminium Ord. .. 7 10 l;' — ' 

briusn Insulated Ord 174 20 3 — 

tiritisn Westmghouse Pref. .. 7g 7) 2^^ — 

UaUenaers 20 H) Hi — 

ao. 6 Pref. .. .. 6 o isd - 

Oaslner-Jieiiner . . . . . . 22 *0 d;^^xd — 

l^aisua awan, tiUly paid . — — 'i^ — 

do. do. 4 percent. Deb. 4 4 7oiXd +I4 

fcllectric Construction .... 74 74 1^ — 

Gtu. Klec. Pref D luj — J 

do. Ord 10 10 lai — 

Heiuey 26 26 16j — 

do. 44 Prel 4i 44 i — 

fnaia-I'.aooer 10 10 14^xd — 

TelegrapbiOoD 20 2U 4i) — 

* D:Tid?nds paid free of Income-tax, 



NU 

6 6 8 

4 12 4 
6 13 4 

5 14 6 

6 13 4 
6 10 6 
6 9 8 



•6 6 8 
•0 6 4 
•j 1 10 
6 17 1 
6 11 6 
6 3 10 
4 14 9 
3 6 8 
•5 17 6 



MARKET QUOTATIONS. 

It should be remembered, in making use of the figures appearing 
in the following list, that in some oases the prices are only general, 
and they may vary according to quantities and other circumstances. 

Wednesday. January 2nd. 



CHEMICALS, tc. 




Latest 
Price. 


Fortnight'i 
Inc. or Deo. 


a Acid, Oxalio 


per lb. 


1/6 




a Ammoniac Sal 


per ton 


£75 




a Ammonia. Muriate (large crystal) 


,, 


£58 




a BisiUphide of Carbon 


,, 


eaa 








£38 
£67 10/- 




a Copper Sulphate 


„ 


SO/- inc. 


a Potash, Chlorate . . . . \ . 


per lb. 


2/6 




a „ Perchlorate 


,, 


2/- 




a SheUao 


per cwt. 


£18 




a Sulphate of Magnesia 


per ton 


£16 




a Sulphur, Sublimed Flowers 


,, 


£35 




a ,, Lump 


,, 


£26 




a Soda, Chlorate 


per lb. 


104d. 




a „ Crystals 


per ton 


120/- 


,, 


a Sodium Bichromate, casks 


per lb. 






METALS, &c. 








c Brass (rolled metal 2- to 12" basis) 


per lb. 






c „ Tubes (solid drawn) 








c „ Wire, basis 


,, 






c Copper Tubes (solid drawn) 




1/65 '0 ini 




g „ Bars (best selected) 


per ton 


£117 




g „ Sheet 


,, 


£147 




g „ Rod 


,, 


£147 




d „ (Electrolytic) Bars 


„ 


£125 




d „ II Sheets .. 


„ 


£152 




d II II Wire Rods 


,, 


£133 




d 1, „ H.C. Wire 


per lb. 


im 








3/- 

a/6 




f „ Sheet 






n German SUver Wire 


,, 


2/3 


,^ 


/i Gutta-percha, fine 


„ 


6/10 




A India-rubber, Para fine . . 


,, 


2/10 


4id. inc. 


i Iron Pig (Cleveland warrants) . . 


per ton 


Nom, 




/ „ Wire, galv. No. 8, P.O. qual. 


,, 


£42 




» Lead, English Pig 


,, 






g Mercury 


per bot. 


Nom. 




e Mica (in original oases) smaU . . 


per lb. 


6d. to 3/- 




e „ II II medium 


,, 


8/6 to 6/- 


,, 


« ,, It >i large .. 


„ 


7/6 10 14/- (jt np. 




d Silicium Bronze Wire . . 


per lb. 


1/84 




r Steel, Magnet, in bars 


per ton 






» Tin, Block (English) 








n „ Wire, Nos. 1 to 16 .. 


per lb. 


4/- 





(Quotations supplied by- 



a O. Boor & Co. 
c Thos. Bolton & Sons, Ltd. 
d Frederick Smith & Co. 
e F. Wiggins & Sons. 
f India-Rubber, Gutta-Percha and 
Telegraph Works Co., Ltd, 



g James & Shakespeare. 

h Edward TiU & Co. 

I BoUing & Lowe. 

/ Richard Johnson & Nephew, Ltd. 

n P. Ormiston <£ Sons. 

r W. F. Dennis i Co. 



Factory Act Prosecution.— At the Hay ward's Heath 

Petty Sessions, on December 31st. the Burgess Hill District 
Electric Supply Co. were summoned for two infringements of th& 
Factory and Workshops Act. by employing a young person after 
prohibited hours on November 17th and 18th. It appeared from 
the evidence that Frederick Goldsmith, aged 17 years, worked for 
the company on November 17th. starting work at y.30 or 10 a.m., 
and leaving at 1 p.m. ; he returned between 3.30 and i p.m., and 
went on till 10 p.m. On November ISth he started at 3.30. and 
worked until 10.30 p.m. For the defendants, it was stated that the 
company was a small concern, and it was unfortunate for them 
that those cises had arisen, but it was all in consequence of 
the depletion of labour owing to the war. and the necessity to 
fill the ranks of the Army. The company before the war had four 
men working in day and night shifts in the engine room, and only 
one of these was now in the employ of the company. Mr. Prior, 
the manager, was now left with only a man and a boy to run the 
machinery. They had tried their very best to replace the men, 
but could not until lately, when they secured a discharged 
soldier. The electric light at Burgess Hill was a public necessity, 
and had to be kept going at all hazards. It was urged that there 
were grounds for mitigation of any penalty which might be 
imposed owing to the great trouble the company had had to fill up 
the vacancies on the staff at the works. 

Mr. Edward Prior, the manager, said that before the war he had 
four able-bodied men in the engine room. Three had joined up. 
He could not get other men. and took Goldsmith on in their place. 
He had now taken on a discharged soldier. He had been working 
under great difficulties, and would be glad to fill up his staff. 
They had to shut down the works at 10.30. The lad Goldsmith 
was taken on in place of a man. and they expected him to work the 
same hours as a man. There was not so much current used in war 
time owing to the restrictions on lighting. The Chairman said the 
Magistrates took into consideration the great difficulty there was 
in obtaining labour, also that the electric works were of public 
utility. There must, however, be a conviction. Defendants would 
be fined 10s. in each case, and Is. 3d. costs would be allowed in 
each case. 

A Municipal Industrial Council.— Li'"(loii boroughs 

are being asked to set up a joint Industrial Council, representing 
the City Corporation and the City and Metropolitan Councils, and 
their workmen, to deal with differences as to wages and conditions 
ot employment. — Daily Chronicle. 



^^ 



Vol.82. No. 2,093, January 4, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL EEVIE"V* 



21 



HIQH-EFFICIENCY AIR PUMPS FOR 
HIGH VACUA. 



By E. JONES. 



{Abstract of paper read before the Liverpool, Engineering 
SociETy, December 5th, 1917.) 

Olaiuing that the " multij'ector " air-pump has come to stay, 
and wLll challenge the supremacy of the reciprocating and 
rotary types, the author gives a detailed description of the 
Leblanc steam-operated ejector air pump in its present form. 
Kg. •! is a sectional drawing of the complete apparatus. 
Steam is admitted into a receiving box through a strainer 
fitted -with brass wire gauze of 40 to 60 mesh in two coils. 




Fie. 1. — Section ok Leblanc Ml'ltijector Air-pump 



jiiTanged to be staggered so that it is almost impossible for 
foreign matter to pass through. The first stage nozzle plate 
is fitted with a ring of nozzles directed at a particular angle 
towards the axis; the nozzles are made to a high degree of 
accuracy, and are locked in position by a copper locking plate. 
The steam from the first-stage nozzles, with the air entrained, 
passes into the first-stage diffuser, the bore of which is 
accurately machined to provide for the proper compres.sion of 
the air. The second-stage steam receiving box has a central 
core forming a continuation of the fir.st-stage diffuser, with 
an outer annular space to permit the steam to feed the second- 
stage nozzles, and is provided with a strainer similar to that 
on the first-stage box The nozzles in the second stage are 
more numerous and of larger size than in the first stage, and 
(hscharge into a mixing chamber which opens into a diffuser. 
whence the steam and air pass to the outlet. The whole of 



In the casi^ of the eje<-tor here illustrated, the total quantity 
of st-eam used equals «05.4 lb. per hour. The net heat ex- 
)>enditure in the pump equals 35,277 b.th.u. This pump 
would dpal with 33, 48, 60, and 80 lb. of air per hour at 9.5, 
93, 91, and 88 per cent, of the theoretical vacuum respec- 
tively. 

The calculations relating to steam nozzles are exactly in 
accordance with well-known and established laws, and siinil.ii 
to calculations used in the design of turbine nozzles. It i:- 
seldom required to make any changes on these nozzles whoi) 
testing an ejector. The design of the diffuser is a more com- 
plex question than that of the steam nozzle. In the dilluser 
both steam and air are being dealt with, flowing at (hflerent 
velocities and in a state of aggregation varying at each in- 
fant. It is es.sential to have the steam nozzles machined 
accurately ; if this is not done the amount of operating steam 
will exceed the calculated figure, and the overall efficiency ■>f 
the pump will sulfer. The high velocities engendered in this 
type of pump account for the small bulk of the apparatus; 
and since there are no moving parts, high velocities of the 
oi>erating steam, .and fluid drawn from the condenser or other 
V'^sel being evacuated, are not objectionable. 

■_'ue must be taken to fix the nozzles in the nozzle plate at 
-r li an angle that the steam is directed well into the diffuser. 
and that the nozzles are placed at a 
proper distance from the throat of the 
diffuser. The latter has an important 
effect on the air-dealing capacity of 
the apparatus. If it is desired to deal 
with a large quantity of air at a com- 
paratively low vacuum, it will be 
found that by placing the nozzle.-; 
farther away from the diffuser the 
pump will deal with a greater quantity 
i)E air than if they are placed close up 
to the diffuser entrance. 

No useful purpose is served by sup- 
plying an ejector with superheated 
steam. Nevertheless, wet steam is not good for the efficient 
working of the ejector, and a small amount of superheat is 
always preferred. 

In order to obtain the best results, the heat contained in 
the steam and air leaving the pump must be utiH.sed, and the 
common practice is to use it to heat the boiler feed water. Tf 
due care is paid to the recuperation of this heat energy, it 
will be difficult to find a more efficient air-pump. 

Certain slots, or holes, arc placed on the second-stage dif- 
fuser and communicate with the atmosphere. If the ejector 
is working at a low vacuum and dealing with a large quantity 
of air, these holes are unnecessary ; but if a high vacuum is 
desired, and the quantity of air being dealt with is small. 
such connections ."-.erve a useful purpose by admitting a cer- 
tain volume of air from the atmosphere to fill the space in 
the diffuser, and thus prevent the formation of eddies which 




Pig. 2. — Arrangement oi' Tukbo generator and Condensing Plant with Moltijector Air-pv 



the apparatus is constructed of gun-metal ; there are no intri- 
cate castings, and the parts are light and easily machined. 

The weight of air dealt with depends upon the weight of 
steain used, and the minimum steam pressure adopted in 
practice ie 80 lb. per sq. in. (gauge), though ejectors can be 
designed for lower pressures. The air is entrained by fric- 
tion, and the amount that can be entrained depends on the 
kinetic energy of the steam. Given the operating steam pres- 
sure and the quantity of steam to be used or the weight of 
air to be extracted, the necessary calculations, of which ex- 
amples are given in the paper, present no difficulty, ample 
data being available for the use of the designer. The angle 
of taper for all the steam nozzles used in these pumps is 
six degrees, aoad for the diffusers from 3 to 10 degrees, being 
determined in the latter case by experiment. 



would occur were the holes not there. The amount of air 
thus admitted, if any, is automatically regulated by the space 
available in the diffuser, and does not require a valve of any 
kind. 

The apparatus illustrated in fig. 1 represents a complete 
Mirrlees-Leblanc multijector dry air pump. In an ideal in 
stallation the work involved in putting the plant into com- 
mission is a minimum, as it would only be necessary to make 
three ordinary )iipe joints — one connecting the pump to the 
vessel to l>c evacuated, one to the steam supply pipe, and a 
third to the discharge pipe. Such installations are, howevei, 
exceptional. The pump can be placed in iny convenient 
position, which ij never a difficult proposition when the 
small space required is taken into consideration. 

The discharge from the pump should, if possible, be led to 



22 



THE E LI'XTUICAL H I*: V 1 1' W. [Voi. 82. No. 2.0ns, januaky 4, lois. 



:i I'ojd heater arranged to allow the air lontuined in the dis- 
iliarge to escape to the atmosphere, while the condensed 
^t<'aIn drains away to the feed tank, where it can l)e utilised 
as a make-up supply for the hollers. 

If the operating .stejmi supply is at very high pi-essure, or 
liahle to variation, it is advisable to use a reducing valve on 
the steam inlet pipe range, designed in such a manner as to 
maintain a constant pressure on the ejector side of the valve. 

The steam strainers should occasionally l)e taken out and 
cleaned with parai'fin, or other agent, and it is advisable to 
keep a spare strainer cleaned and i-eady to be put in at any 
time. As the pump can be overh.iuled and put together again 
m three or four hours, and as there are no moving parts 
whatsoever, the working expenses arj practically nil. There 
is nothing on the pump that can wear out and require re- < 
placing. 

Two installations are at work in the Greenock Corix>ration 
electricity department, in conjunction with two S.OOO-KW. 
Westinghouse turbo-alternators. They are able to obtain the 
maximum vacuum and go on to full load in five minutes. 

The chief application of this apparatus is in conjunction with 
the various types of condensing plant, and up to the present 
time the number of installations fitted, or under construction, 
represents about 500,000 KW., or, expre.ssed in pounds of steam 
condensed jier hour, equals 9,000,000 lb. approximately. 

Generally in all surface condensers for modern requirements 
a high degree of vacuum is necessary, and a comparatively 
>nuill quantity of air has to be dealt with, which makes it 
po.ssible to use an ejector absorbing only a small amount of 
heat, thus adding considerably to the overall efficiency of the 
plant. For jet barometric and evaporative condensers the 
>:ime high degree of vacuum can be maintained, but naturally 
the air-dealing capacity for the same .s^eam duty as a surface 
condenser has to be increased to deal with the extra quantity 
of air brought into the system with the injection water in 
jet and barometric condensers, and at the joints in evajwra- 
tive condensers. In order to reduce the size to a mininmm, 
an iutercooler is sometimes used, and by this means the tem- 
perature, and consequently the volume of the air, is rendered 
as low as possible. 

There are numerous existing installations working with in- 
-efficient air pumps and low vacua where it would be a very 
e;;sy matter to install a multijector and effect a considerable 
siiving in the annual coal bill. Wbethe'- this would be done 
l);'st by scrapping the old pumps altogether or fitting a spaall 
ejector to act as a vacuum augmentor would depend entirely 
on the prevailing conditions, and each particular case would 
lequire special investigation. 

Pig. 2 .shows diagrammatically a typical condenser installa- 
tion fitted with multijector air pumps for a surface plant for 
: iud service. 



THE APPLICATION OF ELECTRICITY 
TO VARIOUS AUXILIARIES ON SHIPBOARD. 



'l HE following is an abstract of a pajwr by Mr. H. L. Hiti- 
i^.'.RD read before the Society oi-- N.^v.il Architects .anii 
.\1arine ISngineers, iSew York : — 

The marine engineer and the seafaring man in general are 
naturally conservative in the ailoption of new and untried 
apparatus, the time is rapidly approaching, however, if not 
already here, when the results obtained will justify the con- 
;-ri-uction generally of vessels electrically equipped in all or 
iiumy of their iMwer applications. 

Two or three years ago, the Christian X created much 
interest on its first voyage with its oil-propelled engines and 
electrically-operated auxiliaries. The Chile, constructed b>' 
hiunneister & Wain, of 13,400 tons displacement, and pro- 
vided with oil engines of 3,0(10 H.r.,'was equipped throughout 
\iith electrically-oi>erated auxiliaries, both for engine-room 
and deck machinery. Three Diesel engine-driven, GO-KW. 
generators furnished direct current to the auxiliaries at '220 
volts; one of these sets was sufficient to supply auxiliary 
power while at sea. and two were used while handling cargo 
in port. At least one generating set was, therefore, always 
available as spare. 

In the engine-room equipment were included motor- 
oi^erated fans, a motor-driven centrifugal, circulating water 
pumps, bilge and sanita^ry pumps, ballast pumps, engine- 
turning motor, motor for operating tools in repair shop, &c. 
In the deck equipment, electrically-oi>erated steering gear, 
deck winches, and anchor windlass were provided. 

As far as we have been able to ascertain, the result of the 
ojjeration of these equipments has been in every way satis 
factory on this vessel, and an interesting article as to the 
general performance of the vessel was contained in the Febru- 
ary issue of MotoTship. In a visit to this ve.ssel the writer 
noted the construction and distribution of the electrical equip- 
ment, and although it was perhaps somewhat clumsy in 
design, the engineers in charge appeared well pleased with its 
performance, and had encountered no particular difficulties. 
.An article appearing in the March issue of Mntorship bv 
Mr. G. E. Smith, chief engineer of the .\merican Engineering 
Co., reviews this situation, and makes the significant remark 
that " the writer is firmly of the opinion that within a very 
short time all auxiliaries on motor ships will be electrically 
driven." 



.\l last year's meeting of the Society, a paper by Mr. 
Frear was presented, covering a description and results ob- 
tained from the oil tanker La Brea, which was apparently 
the first instance of electrically-operated cargo pumps on a 
tank ship, and, as indicated in Mr. Fiwir's paper, the results 
were very gratifying, particularly when compared t-o her sister 
ship, the Los Aitgelcs, equijiped with reciprocating engines 
and steam pumps in contrast with the geared .steam turbine 
and electrical pumps on the La Brea. 

Among the most striking examples of the u.se of electricity 
on merchant vessels are the boats being constnicted and pro- 
jected by the Pennsylvania Shipbuilding Co., New Jersey. 
This company has under construction six tank steamers of 
about 7,500 tons displacement, which will be propelled by 
geared sti'ain turbines, and their auxiliaries oi)erated by elec- 
tricity throughout. The electrical equipment on each, of these 
vessels will consist of the following : — 

Two 100-KW., 3-phase, OO-cycle, 220-volt steam turbo-gene- 
rating sets; one anchor windlass, '25-H.p. slip-ring type motor; 
one forced draught fan, '25-H.P. slip-ring tyiJe motor; one 
steermg gear equipment, 15-h.p. squirrel-cage type motor': 
two cargo oil pumps, 80-H.i'. squirrel-cage motors, 3-speed, 
pole changing ; two deck winches, 15-H.P. squirrel-cage type 
motors; one warping winch, 15-H.P. squu'rel-cage type motor; 
one oil transfer pump, 5-H.p. squirrel-cage type motor; one 
forward bilge pump, 5-h.p. squirrel-cage type motor; one bilge 
pump for pump room, 5-H.P. squirrel-cage type motor; one 
circulating water pump, 5-h.p. squirrel-cage type motor; one 
,work.shop motor, 5-h.p. squii'rel-cage type; one refrigerating 
plant, 5-h.p. .squirrel-cage type motor; one oil tank ventila- 
tion blower, 5-H.P. squirrel-cage type motor; one fresh water 
pump, 5-H.P. squiriel-cage type motor. * 

In addition to the above tankers, two cargo vessels of 12,000 
' tons displacement will soon be laid down, each of which wOl 
have an equipment of auxiliary motors similar to the above 
tank vessels with the exception of th° deck winches, which 
will consist of three of 25 h.p. and eight of 15 h.p. It is fur- 
ther contemplated that these two cargo vessels will be elec- 
trically proix-lled and operated by two turbo-generating sets, 
each set furnishing current to a 1,.500-h.p. motor, the two 
motors being geared to the single propeller shaft. 

In addition to these vessels, this company contemplates the 
construction also of six cargo boats propelled by geared steam 
turbines, and with electrical auxiliaries similar to the above. 
For the above vessels open-type alternating current motors 
will be provided throughout, and watertight enclosing cases 
furnished for the deck motors, with the particular view of 
protecting them from exposure to moisture; but the cases 
can be removed, if desired, when the vessels are in port, to 
give' the motors ample ventilation. 

The majority of the motors will be operated from a common 
switchboard in the generator room, and in most cases no 
means is provided for starting or .stopping the motors at the 
auxiliai-y. A particular exception is the case of the anchor 
windlass, which has its controller near the motor on deck. 

It will be noted that altornating current has been employed 
through(jut on the above vesisels, and those advocating the 
.same point to the necessity, in the case of the tank vessels, 
of using the alternating current squirrel-cage type motor, 
with its freedom from moving contacts in places exposed to 
the possible presence of oil vapour. With the same object, 
the controlling devices, as described above, are all centralised 
■'n the generator room. On these ve.sdels also an interesting 
form of deck winch is u.sed for the first time, employing a 
constant ninning motor and a set of planetary gears, so 
arranged that, by the oi>eration of a lever and two brake 
bands, the load can be stopi^ed or the speed of the winch 
varied while the motor continues to operate at constant 
speed. 

In ctmtrast to the alternating current used on the above 
vessels, the Texas Oil Co. is soon to construct a tank vessel 
of approximately 6,000 tons displacement, propelled by fuel- 
oil engines, and provided with direct-cun'ent, '230-volt motors 
on its auxiliaries. The principal auxiliary equipments on this 
vessel will be as follows, although a few additional items will 
probably be eventually supplied : — 

Six 30-h.p. variable speed cargo pump motors, enclosed 
type, variable speed; one '20-h.p. fire-room bilge pump motor, 
enclased type, constiint speed; four 6-h.p. constant speed en- 
closed type motors for operating auxiliary pumps; two refri- 
gerating machines, 3-h.p. enclosed ty{>e motors, variable speed ; 
<'ne 10-H.P. steering gear motor, open type, constant speed; 
two cargo deck winches. '20-H.P. enclosed type, compound 
wound; one '20-H.p. capstan, open type, compound wound; 
one '25-H.P. windlass, enclosed type, compound wound. 

The six cargo pump motors and the bilge pump motor, all 
we undenstand located in the same compartment, will be 
operated from controllers on a common switchboard in the 
generator room, similar to the anangement for the Penn- 
.sylvania Shipbuilding Co.'s tankers. In addition, however, 
watertight push-button stations will be located adjacent to 
the motors, which will .stop the pumps when desired, to be 
again started from the generator room. The cargo pnmn 
motors and the motors exposed on deck will be probably 
provided with enclosing cases, furnished with forced ventila- 
tion, or this forced ventilation will be carried directly into 
the enclosed motor frames. 

In addition to the two cargo vessels at the Pennsylvania 
Shipbuilding Co.'s plant, which it is intended to propel elec- 
trically, we are familiar with electrical installations on four 



Vol. s2. No. 2..11H. j.^xt ARv 4. i>)i8.i rHJE eLE.CTEICAJ REVIEW 



23 



nil barges under construction at New Orleans by the Petro- 
leum 'fiansport Co. The.se boats are twin screw, each pro- 
l>eller being driven by a 3<.K)-H.I'.. 4.S0-volt. 'i-iihase, liO-cycle 
motor, the two motor.s being operated by one turbo-generat 
ing set of similar voltage and frequency. Tbe.'^' motoi-s are 
operated by automatic contactor controlKr.s fioin a common 
master station, two control levers giving straight-line motion 
.-imilar to the valve levers of the usual reciprocating engine 
installation. 

While the geared steam turbine has shown some excellent 
results and the use of the heavy oil engine for propulsion 
purposes will probably be extended, a combination which 
may receive a good deal of consideration in the future in this 
connection, especially for equipments of average size, is the 
operation of one or two generating .sets by oilengines instead 
of steam turbines, the generators to operate the pioijelling 
motors as at pre.'Jent. Such an arrangement provides the 
advantages of the use of fuel oil. at the same time retaining 
the flexibility of the electrical drive and permitting oil engines 
to be used without reversing features. 

The progress made is noteworthv. esi>ecially in view of the 
opposition which has been encountered by the use of elec- 
tricity until recently from many of the steamship companies, 
siiipvards. and manufacturers of .steam apparatus. 

Numerous .si>etitic advantage.s are apparent in connection 
with such installations in the merchant marine, including 
frequently a saving in .space and weight in the installation 
of the aiixiliaries them^dves. a very nmch hit.her eflicioncy 
of operation, and consequent .saving in total fuel consump- 
tion, the elimination of long and objectionable lines cf steam 
piping, which on certain classes of cargo vessels are nearly 
alwavs installed above deck, and lesult in continual steam 
condensation : also, on certain of the auxiliaries, particularly 
those requiring varying speed and load conditions, the elec- 
tric motor offers souie distinct advantages over the use of the 
steam engine. 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTiNGS, 
AND PLANT. 

Readers are inrited to lubmit particulars of new or improved 



derices and apparatus 
sufficient interest. 



chick will he published if conaidered of 



B.T.H. Vertical-Spindle Induction Motors. 

We have recently received from the British Thomsox-Holston 
Co., Ltd., Eugby, list No. 2. ISO of vertical-spindle induction motors, 
these machines being specially built for vertical direct connected 
driving where two or three-phase .\.c. is available. 

These vertical induction motors are supplied in all sizes from 
2i to 450 H.P.. and consist of a stator suitably designed for the 
speed and supply circuit, and a rotor of either squirrel-cage or 
slip-ring type. 

The latter type of machine has its advantages in starting under 
load with reasonable current, and permits of speed variation by the 
insertion of resistance in the rotor circuit. 




Fig. 1. — B.T.H. 30-H.i'., Dkii'-proof Vekthai. 
IsDrcTiox Mqtok. 

The squirrel-cage motor, on account of its simplicity and 
absolutely sparkless operation is specially suited to certain industries 
:md situations, especially where a possibly heavy starting current 
is not open to objection. On account of the latter feature it is 
treuerally used for small powers, but a starting device can be used 
to prevent the rush of current at starting, at the expense, however. 
.if the starting torque. 



Standard machines for two nr three-phase, 40, .">0. or tiO-cycle 
circuits, are supplied for pressures between !l.5 and .'iSO volts. These 
machines are rated at 40° •'. temperature rise under continuous 
full-load conditions, and emlwdy the well-known features of B.T.H. 
(instruction ; they are reversible by interchanging the stator leads, 
and the three-phase machines can be supplied with three or six 
terminals, the latter for use with star-delta starters, while the 
two-phase machines similarly can be provided with four or eight 
terminals, the latter for use with series-parallel starters. 

Full particulars are given of H.P., spe€<l type, &c., of all these 
motors. 

A Method of Banding an Armature. 

The accompanying illustration shows a metho<i of banding arma- 
tures that does away with the old scheme of using two pieces of 
fibre as a clamp or twisting the band of wire around a nail to draw 
it tight enough, which necessitates the completion of a band when 
once started, and further obviates the removal of a band should it 
not be sufficiently tight. It will also be found that should the 
coils project alxive the core in the banding space, they can be 
graduall.v pressed down without driving with a hammer and fibre 
wedge, thus eliminating one of the frequent causes of short- 
circuits when the coils are verv tight. 




Fig. 



-B.\xnixG AX Armature. 



To use this method, fasten one end of the banding wire to a coil at 
one end of the winding at A. and lay the band on hand tight in 
one piece : then pass the finishino- end of the banding wire through 
the pulley B. and fasten it to the winding at the other end of the 
armature, as shown at c. Attach a weight w to the pulley, 
according to how tight the band is refjuired. and turn the armature. 
When the armature is turned, no matter how fast, the banding 
wire will follow in exactly the same place as it was laid by hand, 
consequently the band must be placed on in the first place per- 
fectly straight. When the weight has travelled to the other end 
of the armature, if the bands are not satisfactory, turn the arma- 
ture in the opposite direction, and keep on repeating the operation 
until tight enough. 

This ma.v be repeated as many times as deemed necessary, and 
more weight may be addetl as the process is continued, until 
sufficient pressure is obtained without breaking the banding wire. 
On account of being thus able to apply a gradual pressure, the 
coils can be gradually pressed down into the slot, should they be 
high, with probably the assistance of a very light tapping with 
hammer and fibre. — R. Thistlewhite, in the' Mechniical World. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letters receired by vs after 5 P.M. OS TUESDAY cannot appear until 
the followinq week. Correspondents should forioard their communi- 
cations at the earliest possible moment. Ao letter can be published 
unless we hare the writer's name and address in our possession. 



Dust Coal. 



One of the permanent troubles of the housekeeper is the want of 
a satisfactory way of l)urning the dust coal which accumulates 
in every coal cellar and. in spite of all efforts, invariably increases. 

With fuel at its present prices, and stock limited, the matter has 
become of importance, and it should he worth while to systemati- 
cally collect it. and. by converlinsr it into briquettes of suitable 
size, secure its economical consumption. 

I have long thought that every coal bunker of importance should 
be supplied with a small form of briquetting machine, while in 
many parts of the country such a machine could possibly travel 
from house to house in much the same way as in France the cider 
press is moved from house to house of small towns and villages, 
often operating in the street itself. 

I make the suggestion in the hope that it may be possible to 
devise some such machine at no ^Teat cost, and am certain that its 
use would be advantageous to both the householder aiul the country 
jjenerally. There arc probably thousands of tons of dust coal in 
cellars practically wasted. 

Perhaps, though, your readers may be able to suggest a new and 
satisfactory method of burning it without recourse to any such 
machine. I have tried various ways, and have not found a 
practical one. 

Chile. 

December 21.rf. 1917. 



24 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. S2. No. 2,093, January 4, 1918. 



Re Mr. F. L. Rawson. 

We understand that a number of people are under the impression 
that the above is connected with this company, in consequence of a 
statement made by him at a recent meetinfr of the I.B.E. referring 
to his office as " Consultinp; Enjjiueer to the St. Helens Co." 

Will you kindly allow us to clear our name from such a mis- 
understanding; by statinj; that Mr. Rawson has never had any 
connection with this company. 

We have investigated the matter, and find that the company to 
which Mr. Kawson referred is one using ''St. Helens" as part of 
its uAme, and that it claims to obtain gold from sea water. 

St. Helens Cable and Rubber Co., Ltd. 
H. T. Brooking, (lenmil M/tuni/n-. 

Warrington, December 2S>th, 1917. 



Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables. 

Referring to Mr. T. D. Spark's letter on the aliove subject, in the 
Electrical Review of the 2Sth inst.. it has beeu our custom for 
many years to supply cables having an outside compounding of a 
third colour, in addition to red and black, where desired. The 
most convenient colour, and the one which is usually adopted, is 
white, but other colours, amongst them yellow, could be supplied 
without difficulty. 

W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co., Ltd. 
.7. Bishop, Manager, Sales Depurtwcitt. 

London. E.G.. Decemher Mst, 1!)17. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1917. 

(NOT YET PUBLISHED.) 

<;ompiled expressly for this journal by MesSks. W. W Thomi'son & Co., 
Electric Patent Agents, 285. High Holborn, London, W.C, and al 
Liverpool and Bradford. 

18.704. •' Sparking plug." E. Lax. Decejnber )7th. 

18,729. "Electric petrol or fluid gauge." J. Goodley. December 17th. 
18,731. •• Means for cooling commutators of electrical machines." E. C. R. 
M.iRKS. (Akt. Ges. Brown, Boveri ct Cie.) December 17th. 

18.745. "Control mechanism for electrically-propelled vehicl.'S." lNni.:sTKlAl. 
.Ai'PciANcES. Ltd., & J. G. Robinson. December 17th. 

18.746. ' Controllers for motors of electrically-propelled vehicles." Indi's- 
TKiAL Appliances, Ltd., & J, G. Robinson. December 17th. 

18,748. " Machine switching, telephone systems." L. Polinkowskv and 
Western Electric Co. December 17th. , 

18,750. " Sparkins; plugs." J. Courtier ,1- V. Courtier. (France, July 
12th.) December 17th. 

18,753. " Dynamo-electric machines." M. L.vtouk. December 17th. 

18,763. " Means for utilising waste heat in electrical machinery, &e." 
H. F. J. Thompson & T. H. Wood. December 18th. 

18,778. " Electric arc lamps." H. S. A. Rvdbbrc. December ISlh. 

(Sweden, November lllh, 1916.) 

18,789. "Systems of electric cut-outs." British Tmom.son-Houston &■. 
(General Electric Co., U.S.A.) December 18th. 

18,796. " Automatic telephone systems." .Automatic Electric Co. and 
.Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Co. December I8th. 

18,800. " Electrolytic processes," E. A. Cunningham. December 20th. 

18,816. " Means of illuminating magnetic compasses, 8:c." C. F. Rvland 
December 19th. 

18,847. " Cradle for supporting electric cables and their fittings." H. 
H; ADES. December 19lh. 

18,860 & 18,861. " Rotary field magnets." B. Ljungstrom & F. LjUNc- 
strom. December I9th. (Sweden. December 19th, 1916.) 

18,876. " Electric, arc furnaces." H. Co.lTES & Watford Electric and 
MANUFAcruRiNc. Co.^ Deccmbcr 19th. 

18,881. " Magnetic liquid compass,,s." M. B. Field. December 20tb. 

18,890. " Telephone writing tablet or pad-holJcr." C. W. H. Westell. 
December 20lh. 

18,900. " Electrolytic processes." Chance ft Hunt, O. E. Mott & T. A. 
Smith. December 20th. 

18.920. " Audion or lamp-relay or amplifying apparatus." M. L.^TOUK. 
December 20th. (France. December 20lh. 1916.) 

18,923. "Automatic switch for wind-driven electric supply plant." W. P. 
1*krry. December 21st. 

18,935. " Magnetic blow-out fuses." G. H. Nekp and Switciicear and 
(.'owANS, Ltd. December 21st. 

16.953. " Electromagnetic clutches." A. Soames & W. Langdon-Davies. 
December 21st. 

18.954. " Insulated electric cables; wires, &c." Callender's Cable and 
Construction Co., P. M. Bennett & J. F. Watson. December 21st. 

18,963. " Dynamo-electric machines, &c." J. F. Povnter. December 
21st. 

18,976. " Apparatus for transmitting and distributing electrical energy." 
G. E. TURNBULL & A. V. L. Hubert^ December 21st. 

18,993. " Spring drive lor magnetos, &c," G. E. Bradsiiaw & A. B.C. 
Motors, Ltd. December 22nd. 

18,995. " Sparking plugs." G E. Bradsiiaw. December 22nd. 

19,004. " Trollev guide for electric trams." W. Bareatt. December 22nd. 

19,011. "Electrical steering of vessels." J. H. Balcombe & T. Dawson. 
DecembeT 22nd. 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 



The numbers in parentheses arc those under 'which the specifications will 
he printed and abridged, and all subsequent proceedings will be taken. 

isie. 

7,936. Portable Electric Batterv. A. Sandrini. June 5fh, 1915. (100,643.) 

12,168. INS-ULATION of Elbctric Cables. H. Tietgen. August 28th, 1916. 
(111,496.) 

12.305. Apparatus for Converting or Transforming Electric Currents. 
K. T. Wang August 30th. 1916. (111.497.) 

15,137. Electrolytic Cells. F. G. Wheeler. October 30th, 1915. (102,049.) 

17,170. High-frequency Signallihc. particularly applicable to Wireless 
Telephony. Western Electric Co. December 1st. 1915. (102,503.) 

17.213. Recordinj Apparatus. D. B. Mori^on. November 30th, 1916. 
(111,531.) 

17,453. Boosting in Electric D^stributikg Systems. H. A. Gill. (U.S. 
Light & Heat Corporatipn.) December 6th, 1916. (111.543.) 



17.4,>1. D\NAMO-ELECTKlc MACHINES. H. A. Gill. (U.S. Light & Heat 
Corporation.) December 5th, 1916. (111,544.) 

17,681. DvNAMO-ELECTRic MACHINES. British 'I'homsonHouston Co. (Gene- 
ral Electric Co., U.S.A.) December 8th, IDIB. (111,551.) 

17,702. Electric Ovens, Hot Cupboards, and the like, J. S. Langford. 
January 14ih, 1916. (103,476.) 

17,820. lu-ECTROMAGNET FOR LIFTING Materiai.s. ,\. D. Riviere and Soc. 

Centrale d'Enterprises A. D. Riviere et Cie. D.cember llth, 1916. (111,554.) 

17,872. Rotary Distributors, particularly toR use in the Igniiion of 

Internal -combustion Engines. Etablissements de Dion-Bouton Soc. Anon. 

January 26lh, 1916. (103,817.) 

18,323. Manuf.«ture of Filaments for Incandescent Electric Lamps. 
Weslinghouse Metal Filament Lamp Co. (Westinghouse Lamp Co., U.S.A.) 
December 21st, 1916. (111,569.) 

18,398. .\-RA\- Apparatus. G. R. Hogan &• II. P. M.icLagan. December 
22iid, 1916. (111,570.) 

18 1*7. 
255. Process of Electric Welding. T. E. Murray. February 18th, 1917. 
(104,500.) 

1,307. Strip-perforating Mechanism for Code Telegraphy. H. H. Harri- 
son and Creed & Co. January 25th, 1917. (111,582.) 

1,880. .Spark Plugs. C V Arnold. F'ebruary 7th, 1917. (104,334.) 
3,606. .Automatic Signals for Railways. R. i.. Edwards & H. Edwards- 
M.Mch 13lh, 1917. (111,608.) 

3.916. Electric Bells. Sterling Telephone & Electric Co., F. G. Bell, 
and W. C. Davey. March 17th, 1917. (111,609.) 

4,637. Interrupter Mechanism for Electric Circuits. O. Mutto. March 
30lh, 1917. (111,414.) 

5,246. Tanks for Electrical Transformers. A. Schaanning & J. L. 
Thompson. April 13th 1917. (111,621.) 

5,301. Control of Dynamo-electric Generators. British Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Co. (Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 
U.S.A.) April 14lh, 1917. (111,623.) 

5,358. E,.ectrical Insulators. G. V. Twiss & Bullers, Ltd. April 16th. 
1917. (111,624.) 

5,365. Thermal Electric.\l Relays and Circuit Controllers. E. A. 
Graham & W. J. Rickets. April 16lh, 1917. (111,420.) 

5,644. Lanterns or Casings for Incandescent Electric Lamps. H. T. 
Wilkinson & Wardle Engineering Co. April 23rd, 1917. (111.629.) 

6,374. Starting .Apparatus for Motou-car Engines. Akt. Ges. Brown. 
Boveri, et Cie. May 29th, 1916. (106,820.) 

9,108. Electric Signalling Devices. J. Atherton. June 25th, 1917. 
(111,640.) 

9,165. Electro-pneumatic Brake System. W. V. Turner. DecembSr 6tir, 
1916. (111,439.) 
9,294. Engine Starter. V. Benedi.x. June 2Sth, 1917. (111,440.) 
9,470. Electric Switches. A. H. Midgley & C. A. Vandervell 4 Co. 
June 30th, 1917. (111,258.) 

9,963. Telephone Exchange System. Western Electric Co. (Western Elec- 
iric Co., U.S.A.) July 10th, 1917. (111,261.) 

10,129. Electric Batterlss. Edison Swan Electric Co. & S. S. Bird. July 
12lh, 1917. (111,444.) 

10,162. Mine Sign.»llinc Apparatus. J. Milligan. July 13th, 1917. 
(111,642.) 

10,423. Cord Grips 
19th, 1917. (111,447.) 

11,226. Electric Motor Control Systems. British Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Co. (Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., U.S.A.) 
August 3rd, 1917. (111,265.) 

11,420. Ignition Device; for Tnternal-combustion Engines. W. O. Ken- 
ninglon. August 8lh, 1917. (111.644.) 

13 073 Wireless Telegr.\phv and Telephony. Western Electric Co. (West- 
ern Electric Co., U.S.A.) September 12th. 1917. (Addition to 102,603.) 
(111,649.) 

14,369. Electric Motors. H. L. Ta 
application on 15,363/16.) (110,359.) 



Electric Conl 



C. G. .M. Bennett. July 



July 19th, 1917. (Divided 



15,901. SlIADEHOLDERS FOR ElECTRIC La: 

31st, 1917. (111,653.) 



T. H. A. Bn 



October 



German Proposals for State Generation and Dis- 
tribution.— a brochure on the " Form and Aims of a National 
Electricity Supply," written by Ludwig Aschoff. has recently been 
published in Berlin. The author outlines a far-reaching scheme 
of nationalisation for electricity generation and distribution, and 
considers it desirable that this fresh source of Imperial revenue 
should be tapped forthwith ; " the immediate unification of public 
electricity supply is most desirable on political, social, and financial 
grounds." Both generation and distribution are embraced by the 
author's proposals, which are that generation should be taken over 
by the .State and distribution by the provinces. Independent 
current supply in individual communities would be permitted by 
State concession in speci.al cases only. Administration and 
ojjeration would be on a broad and efficient commercial and 
scientific basis. A national Electricity Board would deal with 
matters concerning the State and provincial authorities and local 
Councils would be appointed to represent current consumers in- 
each province. One of the primary duties of the National Board 
wouM be to regulate tariffs so as to secure a suitable net surplus 
and then to apportion the latter between the authorities concerned- 
Obviously, this scheme goes a good deal further than projects for 
the nationalisation of generating stations alone, as has been 
contemplated by several publicists. 

Aschoff estimates that complete unification of public electricity 
supply in Prussia on the above lines, without raising the present 
prices for enersry and without levying a tax, would yield about 
£8,000,000netrevenue, say 10 years hence, on an estimated ouput of 
17,000 million units (compared with not quite £1,000.000 on 
2,100 million units in 11)13 and 1914-15"). It is not possible at 
present to discuss the author's estimates in detail, but, as remarked 
by the Bulletin of the Association Suisse des Eleotriciens, it would 
have been more to the point to have compared receipts, expenses, 
net profit, and working conditions for, sav, 13i:i under («) the- 
present sub-divided system of generation and distribution ; and (*)■ 
unified working such as is proposed by the author, A comparison 
of this sort would be moi-e definite and more capable of discussion 
than one involving the probable state of electricity supply in the 
period 1<126— 1930. 

Entertainment. — On December 27th, the Blackpool 
Tramways & Electricity Employes' Institute entertained the wives 
and families of employes on actiye service to a concert, tea. and 
Christmas tree in the Winter Gardens, About 300, principally 
children, were present. 



TJXIB, 



K!i:jE]Om?/IO.A.Ij I^/E^IE^W" 



Vol. LXXXII. 



JANUARY 11, 1918. 



No. 2,094. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol. LXXXII.] 



CONTENTS: January II, 1918. 



THE REPORT OF THE COAL CON- 
SERVATION SUB-COMMITTEE. 



The Report of the Coal Conservation Sub-Committee ... 

Electric Motors in Germany ... 

Reminiscences. — II., by ''Ex-Shift Dofr " 

Some Considerations on the British Electrical Industry i 

the War, by E. S. Hodjjson 

A Novel Transformer Analog:y, by C. W, Marshall {iUi<s.') 
Gas Firing Boilers ... 

A New Type of Enclosed Motor (;;;?(.«.) 

The Lubrication of Air Compressors and Diesel Engines 
Correspondence — 

Proposed Institution of Electrical Station Engineers 

Illuminatinpr Engineering 

Meters on a Changed Frequency 

Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables 

The Production of Ductile Tungsten 

Electrically-Driven Cement Works {illus.') ... ... 

War Items 

Business Notes 

Notes 

City Notes 

Stocks and Shares 

National Electricity Supply (««/((•/« A-(/l 

West of Scotland Linking-up 

Trade Statistics of the Straits Settlements 

The Rontgen Society 

New Patents Applied for, 1917 

Abstracts of Published Specifications ... 

Contractors' Column ... ... ...Advertisement ] 



. 4(; 
. 47 
. 48 
. 48 
. 48 
: xxii 



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Wii dealt at some length, in our leader of last week, 
with the general aspect of the far-reaching pro- 
posals contained in the above report. Needless to 
add, the carrving-out of these proposals will necessi- 
tate the practical solution of many technical ques- 
tions of a highly controversial character, and, as 
is almost inevitable in such cases, we shall probably 
arrive at a compromise, of a more or less accept- 
able nature, but representing something very dif- 
ferent from the picture which one might conjure up 
in imagination after a perusal of the report. The 
Sub-Committee, in its desire to emphasise the ideal, 
has, perhaps intentionally, glossed over the tech- 
nical and financial features of its scheme, which, 
however desirable, will not appeal to the engineer 
unless its practicability can be demonstrated. 

Many of the recominendations contained in the 
report may be assumed to be based on experience 
gained by the North-Ea«t Coast Power Companies, 
and, without detracting in any way from the excel- 
lent work carried out in that super-electrical area, 
one may question whether tlie conditions obtaining 
there can be reproduced in more than one or two 
other areas. The Tyneside district certainly offers a 
specific example of unified control on a large scale 
of a number of interlinked generating stations, the' 
two largest of which, however, fall considerablv 
short of the size of super-station defined in the re- 
port, and this despite the intensive electrical deve- 
lopment of the area, in which some 350,000 h.p. is 
connected to the system. 

Admitting, however, that we shall of necessitv 
concentrate our generating capacity in large-unit 
plants, the question of sites for the latter arises. 
Every engineer will agree with the desirability of 
building these large stations on important water- 
ways, as suggested in the report, in order to obtain 
adequate condensing facilities, if the additional cost 
of coal transport and electrical transmission does 
not render that course impracticable. Several of 
our leading municipal undertakings have made 
arrangements to erect large generating stations — of 
the order of 100,000 KW. or more — and as regards 
those situated inland and adjacent to colliery dis- 
tricts, the question resolves itself into the relative 
cost on the one hand of transmitting 100,000 KW. 
o\er a distance of, say, 20 to 40 miles, from the 
nearest suitable waterway, or, on the other, of artifi- 
cially cooling the condensing water on the inland 
site. In any case, inland waterways of the size re- 
quired for the type of super-station indicated in the 
report are few and far between, while in some in- 



[25] 



26 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [voi.s2. xo. 2.034. jaxuarv n. ms. 



stances their use would involve considerably in- 
creased coal transport — an important matter where 
the annual tonnage runs over the hundred thousand 
— as well as extra transmission cost. 

It has to be remembered that the modem power 
station has been a product of evolution; the all-big- 
imit plant has only become possible where it is pro- 
jected, because the load conditions have been suit- 
able; and as super-stations of any kind cannot profit- 
ably be brought into use tmtil the necessary load is 
available — and existing- turbine stations are unlikely 
to disappear until their operating perfonnance can be 
bettered — it is evident that the general use of such 
.big stations will be a question of time and circum 
stances, on which the financial questions involved 
^vill have an important bearing. 

The report is somewhat obscure on these points, 
as we gather (a) that "the linking-up of adjacent 
power stations sliould be encouraged." as a step in 
the direction of greater economy, provided it is 
appreciated that it is only a step: (b) that the pro- 
posed electricity commissioners should at once 
make '" arrangenxents " for the g'-eneration of powe'- 
on a large scale, preferably from super-stations; 
and (c) that plans should be prepared for the con- 
struction " immediately after the war " of the first 
instalment of large super-power plants. 

Apart from the question of providing acceptable 
controlling bodies for the proposed areas of supply, 
the necessity of dealing firmly with the programme 
of future construction appears to be one of the 
most pressing matters of the moment. 

Exception will doubtless be taken, in municipal 
circles, to the comparison of average prices charged 
by electrical authorities in the Lancashire area with 
the average price obtaining on the North-East 
Coast system. The figures for private and total 
supply are misleading, because the proportion of 
domestic and small power users to the total is far 
greater in the general run of local undertakings 
than in the case of the North-East Coast area, 
where bulk supplies preponderate; on the other hand, 
it is precisely tliis preponderance of bulk supply 
which gives us a true indication of the fuel economy 
in the area, with which, of course, the Sub-Com- 
mittee is primarily concerned. It will be noted, 
however, that some Lancasliire towns (Stockport 
.8d., Bur>- .72d., Ashton .85d., Stalybridge .66d.). 
despite their comparatively small areas and outputs, 
supply at prices which, all things considered, bear 
comparison with those on the North-East Coast, and 
doubtless from the same cause, i.e., the great pre- 
ponderance of power supplies in large blocks. 

Too much importance nnist not l>e attached to 
these isolated examples of low average total cost; 
the North-East Coast prices evidently work out at 
a still lower average for industrial purposes, and 
that over a very large area, which is of greater im- 
portance to the welfare of the electrical industry- as 
a whole than low prices in individual localities. 

The estimates of fuel saving in the report are 
based on the assumption that on the average 5 lb. 
of coal is consumed per h. p. -hour at the present 
time. On the North-East Coast it was found that 
an average of 7 lb. had been used, but colliery areas 
are notoriously wasteful of fuel, and in the textile 
districts of Lancashire and Yorkshire, which are 



probably the largest power consumers in the coun- 
trAv, it seems probable that considerably under 5 lb. 
per H. P. -hour is used. The Bradford citj elec- 
trical engineer has, in fact, given figures which he 
has obtained from 1-8 different textile works cover- 
ing the staple trades of the district, and using over 
28,000 I.H.P., which show an average coal consump- 
tion of only 2i lb. per h. p. -tour. These figures 
are presumably obtained from large installations, 
and the question will naturally be asked whether 
they are representative of the textile districts as a 
whole. To put the matter in-another way, is the Sub- 
Committee justified in basing its estimates for the 
whole countrj' on an average of 5 lb. of coal per 
H. p. -hour, when what was probably one of the 
most wasteful districts onlv required an average of 
7 lb. ? 

( )ne of the most important factors in the develop- 
ment of electric power supply on the gigantic scale 
contemplated by the Sub-Committee is the question 
of wayleaves, to which we have repeatedly drawn 
attention in these columns. The provision of statu- 
tory facilities for carrying overhead lines across coun- 
try is an absolute j(«c qua noii to the success of the 
scheme, particularly in the case of trunk lines operat- 
iner at pressures of the order of 50,000 or 100,000 
volts, wliich will be necessary if the generating sta- 
tic ns are situated at a considerable distance from the 
areas where the supply will be utilised. Whether 
such a line be erected on a special right-of-way 
acquired for the purpose, as in the Cnited States, 
or carried across land in private ownership, the 
difficujties of which Mr. Vernier gave such striking 
examples in his paper before the I.E.E., will pre- 
sent insuperable obstacles without the intervention 
of the Legislature. Even if the Sub-Committee's 
proposals ^^-^-^ not been put forward, the solution of 
iMis problem would have remained of vital import- 
ance to the electricity supply industry. We are told 
by Dr. Addison in a prefatory note to the Report 
that the legislative aspects of the whole matter are 
being investigated bv the Board of Trade Com- 
mittee on Electric Power Supply, and we trust that 
no effort will be spared by the leaders of the industry 
to impress upon the Committee the extreme urgency 
of this question, which is essentially one that can 
be adequately dealt with only by ad hoc legislation. 



Some time ago we referred to the 
Electric Motors i"t™duction of compulsory notifica- 
. „ ' tioni by makers and owners of 

in Germaoy. ^ -' ^ - ^ 

dynamos and motors m Germany, 

W.I-.: the object of their being requisitioned by 
the military authorities as occasion might arise. 
Now a fresh notice has just been issued, intimating 
that inquiries have resulted in the discovery that 
many motors which ought to have been reported 
have been withheld by the owners, possibly in ignor- 
ance of the order issued in June last. 

The notice lays emphasis on the fact that a return 
must now be made of all motors of an output of 
J H.p. and upwards, excepting those which are used 
in establishments engaged on w-ar work, and those 
used for the operation of lifts which are in regular 
service. If advantage is not taken of the present 
opportunity, those persons who neglect to make a 
return are threatened with the legal penalties pro- 
vided under the law. in the event of further inquiries 
resulting in the finding of non-reported motors. It 
would appear from these circumstances that the 
comparative scarcity of copper, in face of the great 
demand, is reaching a stage when the dismantling 
of motors will have to be taken in hand, although it 
has to be borne in mind that the peace-time copp^er 
production of Gennany w'as approximately 42,000 
tons per annum. 



T»l. 82. No. 2X191. .Jx^VAK\ U. Uil^i.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



27 



REMINISCENCES.—Il. 



By -EX-SHLFT dog.' 



■•• Exi'ERiKNCE teac-bes." so the proverb avers, and frequently 
mistakes in operation call attention to deficiencies in design 
<ir equipment,' and cause alterations which not only prevent 
the repetition of the mistake, but tend to promote more 
reliable running thereafter. But also experience wrongly 
understood causes much trouble, and it is necessary 
thoroughly to grasp the whole circumstances of the case 
before arguing general principles from a particular 
experience. A certain station used pumice-stone freely 
Hud satisfactorik for polishing the commutators of both 
reciprocating and turbo-generators, and, misled by this, the 
writer applied carborundum stone in like manner to the 
surface of a direct-coupled turbo-exciter, with the result 
that the sparking and vibration it was hoped to cure were 
made very much worse. The harder abrasive was successful 
eventually, however, when it was guided firmly and used 
after the mamier of a lathe tool to take out the irregularities 
of the surface. In this connection it is a practical tip of 
some importance in the running of turbo-generatore to 
grind up exciter commutators at working speed, or rather 
over, as turuing-up in a lathe is seldom quite satisfactory. 
High-speed commutators should be made true under 
working conditions of speed and support. 

The usual power-station plant produces a considerable 
amount of noise, and therefore visual signals are often 
employed instead of, or auxiliary to, acoustic ones. The 
process of calling the Chief by means of a messenger is 
rather antiquated, and a system of bells or coloured lights 
in and around the station can, by means of a simple c(jde, 
lie made useful for this service and for others of a like nature. 
Telephone call-bells are also sometimes reinforced by 
coloured lights in prominent positions : but the most 
original use of visual signals with which the writer is 
acquainted was in connection with a system of circulating 
water pipes. The layout of the plant and its development 
had brought the circulating system into a rather complicated 
.state : there were a large number of valves spread over a 
conBiderable area, and also alternative suctions. A mistake 
occurred whereby a condenser suction was opened on to a 
cooling pond and forgotten, while the delivery returned 
elsewhere. The pond was quickly drained dry, of course, 
and the incident resulted in the following convention : — 
A certiiin arrangement of valves was adopted as being 
-normal," and the valve key was then deposited in a rack 
iu the engine room. Any alteration made to the circulating 
system necessitated the use of the valve key, and the key 
was allowed to remain on one of the affected valves until a 
return to '• normal '" conditions was made. The absence 
of the weight of the key in its special rack allowed a relay 
to close a circuit whereby a red light was lit in a pro:ninent 
position, so that there was no excuse for forgetfulness of 
the state of the circulating system. 

At another station the circulating water was entirely 
cooled by towers, and the routine procedure was to drain 
off about a foot depth of water from each tower per day in 
order to keep down the concentration. Several times the 
drains have been opened and forgotten, resulting in loss 
of circulating water and vacuum : and it may be useful to 
note in this connection that it is not neces-sary for the water 
level to reach that of the suction, for vortices may be 
formed some time before then, and a momentary gulp of air 
entrained with the water may easily cau.se a centrifugal 
pump to drop its suction. In one case in which a loss of 
circulating water occurred, the generating unit was allowed 
to continue running exhausting to atmosphere, and as there 
was no foot valve fitted to the \vater suction nor steam inlet 
Talve to the condenser, tlie latter became very hot. AYhen 
the tower pond had refilled sufficiently, the circulating pump 
was restarted, with the result that the end doors of the con- 
denser were cracked asunder, and a certain amount of damage 
was done to the tubes. After\rards a non-return valve 
wafl fitted to the suction, and a town's water supply provided 
for flooding the condenser water space if necessary. Another 
■case of lost water was due to a violent gale, which, im- 
pinging at just the right angle u[>on towers st^inding in an 



exposed spot, literally blew all the water out of them. 
These towers during one hard winter became so thickly 
coated with icicles that the air inlet at the bottom was very 
restricted, and the cooling efficiency fell off to a remarkable 
extent before the cause was discovered ; it took several 
labourers some hours to clear it and .so restore ■normal low 
temperatures. AVet air filters as often fitted to turbo- 
alternators are very liable to become similarly frozen up. 
and, in fact, in really cold weather it has been found im- 
possible to keep these running, in spite of steam heatiiiL'' 
coils and a temperature of spray water as high as r>.") F. 
The great danger is that if the eliminator plates become 
anything approaching solid with ice the suction of the 
generator rotor will pull the water in the trough through in 
its liquid state, a proceeding not calculated to increase the 
insulation resistance of the stator and rotor windings. A. 
certain 3,000 r.p.m., 2,000-volt, 3,000-KW. alternator of 
Swiss design and construction has been swamped twice iu 
this way with no serious results, and is — like the aunt of 
our youth— still running. 

Frost, too, has been known to interfere with the supply 
of make-up water for boiler feeding purposes, and this is 
an important point to watch in severe weather. An under- 
taking in which there are employed a number of large 
water-cooled transformers achieves two results by sending 
its make-up supply first around these cooler coils and 
around the oil coolers and bearing systems of the large 
turbo units, before admitting it to the feed tank ; it thus 
conserves heat units usually wasted, and prevents any danger 
of storage tanks freezing. 

A battery of insufficient size in a small station is a delu- 
sion and a snare. The temptation to shut down all prime 
movers at times of light load is irresistible, and probably 
that proceeding is justifiable in the early days of a station, 
or where the load is entirely lighting, and therefore easy to 
foretell ; on the other hand, in a lighting station the heavy 
top loads necessitate heavy feeder fuses or breaker settings, 
which are out of proportion to the capacity of the battery 
when it alone is supplying the bars. To prevent a fault 
interrupting the whole supply under these latter circum- 
stances, it is necessary to substitute small feeder fuses, 
whenever entirely depending ujxin the battery. In a very 
small fetation this was regularly done, but on one occasion 
it transpired that during running hours a fault on a large 
installation had blown its consumers' fuses. The contractor 
called in was a man of resource, and, failing to find 
the fault immediately by usual methods, proceeded to blow 
fuses galore upon it, in the expectation of smelling it out. 
apparently. However, iu the meantime at the station the 
small feeder fuses were inserted, and the plant shut down 
upon the battery. The brainy contractor located his fault 
at length, but the station engineer was horrified to find, 
upon his return from a plant repair joi> remote from the 
switchboard, that the entire town's supply was being main- 
tained through one remaining feeder fuse, and that one was 
cherry red I The feeders were interconnected by the dis- 
tributors, of course, but probably one more attempt by that 
enterprising contractor would have meant total interruption 
of supply. 

With heavy loadings or h.t. a.C, fuses ai'e not now used, 
of course, for feeders or other puqwses ; breakera in the 
case of D.c. and auto oil switches for a.c. having taken their 
places. Reverse current breakers are very useful in d.c. 
stations of decent size, for isolating the battery and works 
power from the main bars. In a large mixed D.C. and A.c. 
station all auxiliaries were D.c. motor driven, while the 
battery was of such a size as to be useless for dealing with 
even one of the outgoing feeders. The battery and works 
auxiliaries were therefore isolated on to special bars, and 
arrangements made that certain sets could also be connected, 
if required. These bars were then coupled to the raaiu 
bars by means of a reverse current breaker. Normally, the 
works power flowed through this breaker, and one could 
even discharge the battery, and so relieve the system of a 
part of the works demand, if desired ; but in the event of 
a heavy short or a D.c. shut-down, the battery, attempting 
to supply the main bars, would thereby isolate itself on to 
the works auxiliaries, and so safeguard their supply and 
facilitate recovery. Previously there was but little D.c. 
trouble, and this arrangement was generally considered 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.82, No. 2,0!>4, January n, ISJg. 



somewhat iinnuocssary, but, within about three weeks of its 
bciiiE^ fitted, the device sa\'ed the station no fewer than five 
times, and was thenceforth regarded as an excellent idea. 
So does experience modify conclusions. 

A.c. oil switches are usually more or less remote control- 
led, either electrically or mcchanicalk, afid their operating 
coils and plungers, or relays, are fitted on the switchboard 
face. Relays ought to be self re-setting, especially for sub- 
station nse, although time-limit fuses are not considered 
objectionable. A heavy short once brought out all the 
interconnecting switches between two stations, including 
several in sub-stations. One station happened to ba.shut 
down, and had only banked fires — it was night and the 
minimum load period. The other replaced one feeder, but 
the second was faulty. The sound feeder had opened also 
at a snb-station, and the attendant attempted to replace it 
without first re-setting the relay. He was unused to the 
gear, and it took 20 minutes to make him understand by 
telephone what to do. A demand of about 1,200 KW. had 
to wait for those 20 minutes. 

Isolating links should be near the switches or apparatus 
isolated, or, at any rate, in the same compartment. If 
unavoidably in a remote situation, the guard screens of the 
apparatus and of the isolators should be interlocked. A 
concrete example of the necessity for this may be cited. 
A power station's outgoing feeders (e.h.t.) are arranged 
in duplicate upon the " distribution-house " system, so that 
one feeder of each pair is taken from one side of the house ; 
in this way, by paralleling the duplicate feeders outside and^ 
isolating, quite a considerable number of switches and 
quantity of bus-bar gear can be made dead for cleaning and 
repairs. The station transformers were fed from either or 
both sides of the " house," and could be coupled as required 
l>y isolating links in their vicinity and remote from their 
switches. One side of the " dis-house," as it is usually and 
colloquially termed, was made dead in order to carry out 
some alterations, and that ])articular station switch was 
opened after paralleling by means of the links. The 
Resident himself was nearly killed through touching'some 
current transformers which were alive liy feeding back 
from the opposite feeder switch, rid the links. This experi- 
ence resulted in labels being placed upon the screens of these 
cubicles, warning operators to be sure of the positions of 
the station links before commencing work ; but this precau- 
tion was not sufficient to prevent a repetition of the affair 
under slightly different circumstances. At a later date the 
feeders were paralleled outside and one side of the " dis- 
house" was made dead for some cause, and the charge en- 
gineer, being called away from another job for the purpose, 
proceeded to " flash " the bars before attaching the temporary 
earth leads which were always in use while work was in pro- 
gress on any e.h.t. gear. This was done by making fast one 
end of a stout piece of cable to a good earth, and touching 
all bars within reach with the otiher end. To the charge 
engineer's suiiirise, there was a heavy flash when this was 
done to some bare leads, and the opposite feeder switch 
opened violently ; then, and only then, did he remember the 
isolating links in the basement on the outgoing feeders. 
These had not been opened, and hence the leads were alive 
up to the switch terminals, feeding back from the opposite 
side. It should not have been possible to have opened the 
screens around the gear until those links had been with- 
drawn. Luckily, owing to the care taken in " flashing," 
no one was hurt and no damage was done except for the 
interruption of supply on those duplicate feeders. Mental 
aberration of this sort is difficult to provide against, but 
every effort should be made to have simple interlocks 
where, as in this case, they are obviously called for. 
Familiarity, of course, tends to breed carelessnes.s, if not 
([uite contenipt, although in the old days of screwed plug- 
bars the writer has often investigated the temperature of these 
plugs with the naked hand on a 3,300-volt system, using 
no other insulation than that provided by standing upon an 
ordinary wooden chair. 



SdME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE 

BRITISH ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY AFTER 

THE WAR. 



Electrochemistry in South Africa.— New works for the 

production of carbide and electric carbons on a larsre scale have 
been established at Genniston, South Africa. 



Kv E. S! HODGSON. 

Jlost electrical manufacturing concerns are probably too- 
oocupied on war orders at present to give much attention to 
the develoi)ment of trade on the conclusion of peace. Yet 
the question is one that must be tackled vigorously now, or 
just as soon as the influx of urgent war work diminishes. 
There is evidence from some sections of the German 
technical Press that the Germans have this matter well to 
the fore. They realise that considerable difficulty will be 
experienced in regaining the fortunate position they held 
previously, owing to the ]irogress made by Briti.sli manu- 
facturers and the speeding-up methods which the Americans 
liave adopted as the result of their entry into the world 
conflict. 

The French electrical industry, too, is waking up to the 
realisation that its manufacturers were left far behind before 
the war, owing partly to the policy of German penetration, 
and partly to a certain lack of facilities for higher technical 
education. That they also will look to the conclusion of 
peace to give their activities the necessary impetus, there is 
no doubt. The same, or practically the same, remarks, 
apply to Italy. 

It may well be asked whether British electrical manu- 
facturers will be preiMi'cd to give serious consideration to 
the question of coml)ines after the war — a feature to which 
Germany owes in no small measure the success she attained. 
At all events, a general selling combine amongst the smaller 
manufacturers is worth considering. Such combine would 
fie able to employ common representatives in the several 
European and overseas countries. These representatives 
should, "Of course, be men possessing high technical 
training and undoubted business qualifications. Their 
business would be to keep well in touch with the 
authorities in the countries to which they are accredited, 
report on developments, openings for trade, &c., and to 
advise promoters of development schemes as to the best 
plants for their purposes. In this latter connection they 
could work in consultation with the experts, in order to 
secure the necessary harmony and close co-operation. 

The smaller British concerns — />., those who have "not 
travelling representatives in the different countries — would do 
well to gi\-e more attention to the translation of their cata- 
logues into, foreign languagps, and to the spending of a 
certain amount on useful propaganda work. This is a 
point that has, unfortunately, been too much neglected in 
the past, and the importance of which is hardly yet realised. 
Some firms, endowed with the spirit of enterprise, are 
already doing this on a large scale, which will probably 
justify the trouble and expenditure involved. Greater 
encouragement might be given to young, technically-trained 
men to study foreign languages. At present a man who is 
able to wi'ite two languages fluently, in addition to his own, 
very often finds that the time spent in acquiring that know- 
ledge has been wasted, owing to the insularity of the British 
manufacturer. How many Englishmen are there to-day, for 
instance, who could correctly translate a complicated elec- 
trical specification into, say, French, Italian, or Spanish r 
In that direction, too, the (iermans were well ahead of us 
before the war. There wei'c very few firms who were not 
able to give, promptly, (|Uotations in the leading European 
languages. They found that it paid to do so. When, nay, 
a Spaniard receives a specification from England written in 
English and bristling with technical terms, it is not to be 
wondered at that he should pass it into the waste paper 
ba.sket, unless, of course, there should be any particular 
reason why he prefers the British article. 

The amount of new electrical machinery required when 
peace comes will be considerable. Further, Spain and Italy 
are taking up in earnest the question of developing their 
hydraulic resources, and here a vast field is open to Britisli 
enterprise. If all the schemes mature, there is sure to be 
an increase in electric traction and in the application of 
electricity to steel production. The South American 
Republics, again, are a.s yet practically untapped in regard 



Toi. 82. No. 2,094, January 11, uas.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



29 



to industries in which electric power will be of importance. 
It will Jhus be seen how necessary it is that competent men 
should be sent out to these countries to study conditions on 
the spot and to report as soon as possible after the declara- 
tion of peace, in order that manufacturers may be able to 
make their pi-eparations in good time. Unless this is done, 
the Germans will tind the field open again for their policy 
of penetration and monopoly. 



A NOVEL TRANSFORMER ANALOGY. 



Bv C, W. MARSHALL. 



The principal characteristics of the static transformer can 
be demonstrated in a very simple way by means of a lever. 
A weightless lever would ha\e properties corresponding to 
those of an ideal transformer. The lever arms are the 
primary and secondary wiudincfs, and the fulcrum is the 
core. The arm-lengths and acting forces are respectively 
proportional to the voltages and currents. The analogy is 
easily developed to include features of a commercial trans- 
former, such as magnetising current and transformation 
losses, the former being represented by a constant bias 
weight and the latter by pivoting the lever on frictional 



SECONDARY 



( .. VOLTAGE 



0^ 



FORCE OR CURRENT 



//////////////' //y/////////////////////y//// 



bearings. Transformer impedance is demonstrated by vary- 
ing the stiffness of the lever arms. A flexible lever 
corresponds to a high-impedance transformer — i.e., one 
which can pass only a limited current with a given voltage, 
while a rigid lever represents a low-impedance or high- 
regulation transformer. 

An auto-transformer is distinguished from an ordinary 
one by having both acting forces on the same side of the 
fulcrum. 

The illustration of more advanced properties, such as 
the phase displacements in delta-star transformers and the 
separation of losses, requires somewhat more elaborate 
models, and the development of these should prove an 
interesting example for students. An illustrative example 
is given below : — 

Teaksformer. Lever. 

Capacity 20 k.v.a. 200 grammes. 

Trans, ratio 200/100 Arm ratio ... 20 cm./lO cm. 

Applied enersry cur- Forces 100/200 gm. 

rents 100/200 Bias weight ... 10 gm. 

Magnetising- current 10 ampL'. Adjust bearing friction to suit. 

Total losses 1 kw. Choose lever beam so that it 

Impedance 10 % sags to the supporting plane 

with forces of 100 x 10 and 
200 X 10 gm.— (.<■., 10 times 
full loail. 



GAS FIRING BOILERS. 



The paper read by Mr. T. M. HuxNTEr on this subject before 
the Institution oe Electrical E.ngixeers was discussed by 
the Manchester Local Section on November -iTlh. 

Mr. T. R. Wollaston said the author's 0,000 cu. ft. of gas 
ix^r ton of coal represented G.TfKl.lXK") therms. The same coal 
could be gasified to give 17,0(H"l,rit»0 tbenns. or six times the 
amount of electricity, and the by-products, in which coke and 
coalite would not be included, would probablv aggregate 
equal or greater value. Two or three references in the paper 
irnphed that gas-fired boilers should work at .'O per cent 
ehiciency. The " Bonecourt " worked at over 90 per cent , 
?° 1 1 J 1^^^ satisfied that when the problem was properlv 
tackled by skilled boiler makers at le;\st 8-5 .per cent, would 
be rc^ichcd. Ihif with a iiroduce.r effioiencv of 70 per cent 



(which would also be consistently obtained) would give sub- 
stantially 60 per cent, all-round efficiency, equal to what 
some electrical stations were now working at without by- 
products. He had carried out a series of tests on gas-fired 
Lancashire boilers vA\\x producer gas and with Bunsen type 
burners, of a type which Mr. Hunter had since improved; 
the tests lasted for neaily a week, and an average of 17 per 
cent. CO; in the gas, never any CO, and never more than 
3 per cent, excess O was obtained. 

Dr. Cramp said there was no particular advantage from tha 
point of view of the amount of coal used in firing a boiler by 
gas. Gas could be used for boiler purposes either in a pro- 
ducer which was entirely apart from the boiler, or in a pro- 
ducer which was part of the boiler. The second proposal 
Mr. Hunter's paper did not touch upon at all. Many plants 
ought to be burning their coal more economically, and pro- 
ducing less smoke. For such cases, a producer attached to, 
or forming part of, the boiler was a method which should 
not be lost sight of. It was tnie, in that way one did not 
get the advantage of by-products, but such producers had 
been successfully built, and it had been shown that by their 
means greater economy in the consumption of coal per lb. of 
steam was obtained. Th^ author said nothing at all about 
the use of coke for boiler firing; that was sm'ely an alter- 
native. The author pointed out the loss wihch occurred due 
to the fact that the whole of the hydrogen in the coal had 
to be oxidised, producing water which must be kept above 
the temperature at which it evaporated. If an economi.^r 
would stand the condensation of the water on its sides, the 
temperature of the gases could be reduced, and very much 
more heat could be got out of the flue gas. The economiser 
tubes were attacked by the condensed water because the 
water was not pure, but there were plenty of metals in use 
in chemical works and other places which would stand strong 
and weak acids of the nature of the acid which was pro- 
duced. The author referred to the use of hot fireclay radia- 
tors, and that kind of thing ; there was, however, a form of 
radiant energy which was not touched upon — radiant flames. 
Was it possible to use a flame, not of the Bunsen type but of 
the radiant type, arranged in the ordinary boiler tube, and 
thus get the radiancy needed without the use of this radiating 
fireclay? The question of the use of high-velocity flue gas 
was not really one of boiler efficiency at all ; it was one of 
evaporation per square foot of surface, and the question 
whether it was best to u.se it or not was very largely one of 
capital cost. With regard to the Le Chatelier fonnula quoted 
in the paper, there was some doubt whether it had ever 
been sufficiently proved. It was a comparatively easy matter 
to design a Pitot tube v\'hich could be used to give accurate 
results. Mr. Hadley, in his paper on the Rand Mines, 
described a beautiful insti-ument which was used in South 
.\frica for measuring compressed air, and the same princiiile 
might be adopted in this case. There was, of course, the 
difficulty that with a Venturi throat, gradual choking-up might 
result, but with the ordinary form of Pitot tube there was 
no trouble due to choking of that sort. It was at least as 
important to measure the air as to measure the gas, and it 
was the mixture that mattered. Mr. Frith some time ago 
designed and put into operation in Sheffield, in connection 
with a gas furnace, an apparatus for measuring both gas 
and air which had enabled combustion to be carried on in a 
perfectly regular manner, and in a way which was much 
more satisfactory than was jxjssible before. 

Mr. E. F. WixSTAXLEY said the paper contained a list of 
calorific values of gases, and a, statement to the effect 
that in this country we quoted the number of therms 
in 1 cu. ft. at GO deg. F. and 30 in. Hg. ; in the 
table, however, the therms , were given for 32 deg. F. 
and 30 in. Hg. This was an important matter, as 
anybody using these tables in the Enghsh units would find 
himself about 6 per cent, out in the estimation of the calorific 
value. There were mistakes in the calculated temperatures, 
and a big mistake with regard to the loss in efficiency due 
to the presence of water vapour ; the loss to the flues was 14.5 
jjer cent, and 18 per cent, respectively for the dry and moist 
ga.ses, against the author's figures of 21 and 29. S per cent. 
With this correction, there was only a difference of 4.5 jier 
cent, in the output from a given quantity of gas. and not 12 
per cent., as stated. Finally, the drop in efficiency wa.s 
nearer 5 per cent, than 9 per cent., as stated, and the drop 
m evaporation only 13 per cent., and not 21 per cent. 

Mr. S. L. Pearce s;iid that from the national point of view 
there could be httle doubt that to burn raw coal was quite 
unsatisfactory, but from the central-station engineer's point 
nf view it was by no means demonstrated up to the present 
time that by the adoption of gas firing the engineer would 
be able to produce a unit of energy at a lower cost than at 
present. The problem might bo heljied to a solution by the 
. experimental station.s which would be established shortly at 
East Greenwich. He emphasised the fact that the two aims 
were by no means identical, and that, whilst we might be 
doing the right thing from the national point of view by the 
adoption of gas firing, it did not follow that it would enable 
the central-station engineer to provide energy any cheaper. 
He had not been able to take advantage of by-product gas, 
whether from coke ovens or from blast furnaces. Therefore, 
there w-ere two alternatives — either to put down producer 
plant in it.s entirety, or else purchase gas. The author him- 
self did not appear to be over-sanguine in regard to thfi 
former, hev.uise it had been found that bteiim could Ke raisert 



30 



THE ELECTlilCAL KEVIEW. [Vol. 82. No.2,004, January 11, lOlS. 



more cheaply from the coal direct, even after allowing for all 
the income from the sale of by-products. With regard to 
the possible utilisation of town's gas, as a basis he assunaed 
that no electrical authority, purchasing town's gas of which 
the calorific value was about 500, could afford to pay more 
than about 25d. pev 1,000 cu. ft. Did the author think it 
at all likely that gas authorities would be in a position to 
otler gas at that price to the eleetrical authority'? If they 
could not. he siiw very little chance of that co-operation 
which had been advocated in certain quarters. With regard 
to producers, he did not want to say too much, because he 
hoL«?d that before very long, and in a place not many miles 
from there, it might be possible to install experimental plant 
working in conjunction with modern marine boilers. As to 
the suitability of gas for boiler tiring, he was not at all im- 
pressed by the figures the author gave, in which he talked of 
its being possible, with suitable combustion an-angements, to 
obtain evaiwrations of 5J lb. per sq. ft. At one of their sta- 
tions they were putting down boilers of a marine type from 
which they fully anticipated getting 7-i- lb. per sq. ft. 

Mr. S. .r. Watson said the author dealt with the use of 
gas for firing boilers, which at once raised the question 
whether that was the most efficient method of using gas. On 
the Continent the waste gases from coke ovens or blast fur- 
naces were used direct in lai-ge gas engines, and from the 
point of view of thermal efficiency there was no doubt that 
better results were obtained in that way than by burning 
the gas under any fonn of boiler. By making use of the 
blast furnace gas, some of the large iron works had been able 
to reduc« the cost of manufacturing iron by something like 
4s. or 5s. a ton. The gas engines were mostly of large size, 
and consequently exceedingly eflicient thermal results were 
obtained. The question of gas firing boilers was very largely 
one of securing a steady flow of gas; the amount of gas sup- 
plied from a blast furnace fluctuated within tremendous 
limits. The efficiency of a Lancashire boiler would be very 
low without an cconomiscr, and with considerable moisture 
in the flue gases the rate of deterioration of the usual type 
of ecouoiniser tubes must be exceedingly high. On the whole, 
he was inclined to agree with Mr. Peaice that there was 
little likelihood that gas-producing plants for the firing of 
boilers were going to be substituted generally for the present 
metliod of coal firing. When gas was a. by-product instead 
of one of the principal products, the position was quite dif- 
ferent. With regaid to the transmission of gas over appreci- 
able distances, the distribution of gas over large areas could 
not be effected without suffering a severe loss. Mr. Hunter 
juentioned fhat the cost of producing one ton of steam was 
abfiut Is. 3d. from coke-oven gas. Coke ovens were invari- 
ably established at or near collieries, and the cost of Is. 3d. 
approximately corresiwnded to coal at lO.';. a ton. He did 
not imagine that the class of coal which would be used for 
generating steam at a colliery would .have a value of 10s. in 
normal times; it would probably be more like 4s., or in some 
cases even less, so that the comparison in this particular 
instance was not a very happy one. 

Mr. Daniel Adamson s;nd that the water-tube boiler had 
emphasised the necessity for clean water, and the large gas 
engine the necessity for clean gas. and given clean water and 
clean fuel the possibilities in the way of improvement in 
boiler design were almost beyond our dreams. One such im- 
provement would be the adoption of the Lancashire mujti- 
tubular boiler. He showed a diagram of a boiler four of 
which were made 30 yeai's ago, and were still at work giving 
good results. The feature of the design was an enclosed com- 
bustion space which avoided loses by air leakage or radiation, 
combined with a reasonable amount of heating surface, suit 
ably aiTanged for cleaning. The smaller tubes could be swept 
through while the boiler was at work, and they were made 
with ferrules, so that they could be removed for scaling and 
replaced without damage. The large lower tube was for 
cleaning the combustion chamber of flue dust without stop- 
ping the boiler. If covering the brickwork with tar had been 
found to be satisfactory in general use, it seemed to be a 
valuable hint to all users of boilers. The author mentioned 
several methods of increasing the output of the boiler, but 
he thought that most of thern were illusory compared with 
the fourth method, especially if clean fuel and water were 
available. Referring to Dr. Nicol.son's experiments, in one 
portion of the paper the author said the gases were reduced 
from 1,260 deg. C. to 425 deg. C. in the passa^ through the 
flue. That was not quite correct. There was a brick plug 
in the flue, but the reduction of the temperature in passing 
that brick plug was from about 1,260 deg. C. to about 700 
deg. C, and the 425 deg. C. was the temperature after the 
gases had passed through what was called the evaporator, 
which was the next element in the arrangement. When the 
gases had gone through the economiser. which was the third 
step, the temperature was brought down to 135 deg. C. The 
author stated that sufficient heat was transmitted to evaporate 
36 lb. of water per sq. ft. of the flue tube per hour; the 
original report of Mr. Michael Ix>ngridge showed that over- 
40 lb. of steam were evaporated per sq. ft. per hour, and 
ptated that the essence of the system was the saving of 
heating .surface by using high gas velocities. His own view of 
Dr. Nicolson's esoeriments was that thev put boiler deagn 
on a scientific basis. 

Aid. W \LKER said the question had occurred whether there 
ti-oiild be any increa-^' of efficiency if the temperature of the 



primai-y air were raised, and if so, whether it would not be 
possible in a central power station to make use, for that 
purpose, of the heated air from the alternators; the deciding 
factor would be cost of piping as against increase of efficiency. 
The ratio of the space requiied for the producers to the space 
required for the boilers which they served in many cases 
would be decisive as to whether or not gas-firing could be 
installed. As the space required for the producers for very 
large boilers going up to 100,000 lb. evaporative capacity per 
hour was greatly in excess of that required for the boilers 
themselves, it would alter the lay-out of the station and 
necessitate the covering of much more land. He did not 
agree with Mr. Watson that if gas was to be used at all, it 
ought to be used in internal-combustion engines; the over- 
all thermal efficiency of the internal-combu.stion engine had 
been e^jualled by that of the boiler plus turbine in the case of 
large sets. The high initial cost of gas engines, together 
with the troubles in running them and other incidentals 
thereto, were convincing that the future was with large steam 
turbo-alternator sets. In a central power station, the place 
where increased efficiency was to lie obtained was the boiler 
house. The series of papers which had been read on ,steam 
raising agreed that from 80 i)er cent, to 85 per cent, efficiency 
ought to be obtained. If this could be done by producer gas 
or town's gas, then the question of by-products would assume 
extreme importance. Before so radical a change as that advo- 
cated in the paper was adopted, experimental work on fairly 
large boilers ought to be undertaken. 

iir. T^ERiiV said that a very large experimental " Bone- 
court " boiler was put in at the Skinningrove Ironworks. It 
was fired with gases from coke ovens. The efficiency, on 
several tests, was maintained at 92 per cent. ; '2 J per cent, was 
deducteil for the fan, so that the efficiency was 90 per cent. 
No other Ijoiler yet designed came near that in heat efficiency 
It was so .siitisfactory that the Skinningrove Co. ordered a 
second boiler. They were 10 ft. in diameter, and 4 ft. long 
between the tube plates. ■ Every tube had a short plug 
through which a narrow pi|)e about 3 in. in diameter was 
led. These pities were paekcd with lefractoiy material. The 
gas was allowetl to flow in ami lighted. Ignition took place, 
and the refractory material g(jt heated up for a length of 3 ft. 
Then the gas was turned on again, and the flame combus- 
tion took place, with the result that the whole tube inside 
became an incandescent mass. An evajwration of 20 lb. per 
sq. ft. of tube surface was attained. A fan w-as required to 
draw gas through this refractory material, and it was found 
that the fan required about 17 in. water gauge to give satis- 
factoi-y results. A marine boiler put in at the Birmingham 
Battery Co. evaixirated 11,<.XK) lb. an hour, and the efficiency 
was just about the same. At the present time boilers were 
being designed for Government purposes capable of carrying 
1,250 lb. pressure. The only thing against the system was 
the innate conservatism of engineers, who did not like any- 
thing new until the man next-door had done the experi- 
mental work, and then they were willing to benefit by his 
experience. The " Bonecourt " boiler was the most scientifi- 
cally designed boiler known. The temperature was graded, 
and it was possible to get down the temperature of the gases 
discharged at the end of the boiler to just a few degrees above 
the steam temjierature. 

Mr. Hunter, in reply, said he had not put the results of 
actual tests in the paper because it was very difficult to get 
results of tests of gas-fired boilei-s that were absolutely reli- 
able. Large boilers fired with coke-oven gas, without econo- 
misers, gave an efficiency of 85 per cent. They were further 
tested by an outside engineer some tw-o years or so after 
they had been set up, and he found that the efficiency then 
on ordinary working was 83 per cent. The exhaust tempera- 
ture, of the gas was considerably Ijelow the steam tempera- 
ture. From that point of view they compared favourably 
with the " Bonecourt " boiler. It was quite time that those 
who were preparing alloys should produce an alloy for the 
tubes which would enable manufacturers to make a smaller 
economiser and give a very high additional efficiency with gas 
firing and clean fuel. Only last week a man who had been 
ten years in Germany, and had seen some of the best prac- 
tice there, gave a figure for clean blast-furnace gas working 
on a boiler of the Lanca.shire type with economiser; 82 per 
cent, was the efficiency they obtained. He had known works 
in this country which approached that figure, but really, be- 
fore the war the Germans were ahead of us in gas firing. His 
experience had been mostly with I,ancashire boilers in the 
open air without economisers, and the best efficiency he had 
found with a Lancashire boiler with economisers w-as a little 
over 75 per cent. It might have been considerably increased 
with a more perfect plant. 



The Selenium Cell as a Burglar Alarm. — A sensitive 

selenium cell has been devised by Dr. 0. Hannach. of Berlin, which 
is able to actuate an alarm sisnal when illuminated by the flame 
of a match at a distance of 10 metres ; it can easily be concealed 
in a room, and has the advantapre that it can be situated, with its 
wirine. at a distance from the safe or other valuables that it is 
intended to protect, in an inaccessible position ; as a burglar can 
hardly work without a lijrht. the idea appears to be a good one. 
Moreover, the same device would prove effective as a fire alarm. 
It has the drawback, however, thct it can only be used in rooms 
thftt arc normally in darkness. 



Vol.83. No. 3,094, January 11,1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



31 



A NEW TYPE OF ENCLOSED MOTOR. 



The advantages of totally-«nclosed motors over the open 
type or serai-enclosed have been obvious to electrical engineerB 
fiDr many vears past, especially in cases where the atmosphere 
is charged" with dust or deleterious matter. The chief factor 
which has prevented the universal adoption of the totally- 
enclosed motor is the limitation of output due to the increased 
heating of the motor. The general con.sensus of opinion is that 




^ 7 % ^ K~~3 /a 4- 1 ^ ^ 6 
//ours 

Fig. 1. — TEMPER.4TURE Rise, " Emcol " Motor. 



totally enclosing a motor reduces the peraiissible h.p. output 
to 40 per cent, of the permissible output of the same sized 
motor of the open or protected type. Ihis rule applies to 
motors up to 40 h.p. For larger motors the output is still 
more restricted by totally enclosing. The total heat which 
can be radiated from a motor is ])icinri:t!(inal to (he surface 
of the motor, and it is obvious that this does not increase in 
the same ratio as the cubical contents of the motor, whereas 
the i>ermissible output of an open-type machine is nearly pro- 
portional to the total volume. It is found th^at the restric- 
tions of output by totally enclosing on large "motors of 100 
H.p, upwards are sufficiently severe to make this type of motor 
unpractical on account of its unwieldy size, weight, and ex- 
pense. This, translated into £ s. d., means a greatly increased 



Fig. 3.- -Motor with Casing Removed, showing Am 
Ch.\nnels and Fan. 

initial cu.st of in.stallation and upkeep. In addition, the effici- 
oncy of tlu' totally enclosed motor is generally lower tlian 
that of the open Ivpe, especially on light load?, due to the 
increased size of the motor. Size and weight are also in manv 
cases a deteiTent in the use of the totally-enclosed type. This 
is especially the case in marine installations. 

Attempts have been nvjdr. (r, overmme the.<-e objections, 
the pipe-ventilated motor being a well-known instance, but 



the necessary trunking is sufficient to. prevent the extensive 
use of this type of motor. It is necessary in this type of 
motor to run trunking to a sujiply of clean air, and as this 
is often taken from outside, the motors may be adversely 
affected by moisture being drawn into the motor; this some- 
times takes place after motors are shut down. Latterly, 
other inventions have appeared in which the air is circulated 
from in.side the motor through various systems of cooling 




Fio. 'i.— " Emlol " Squirkel-cage Motor. 




95 
qo 



65 



<5>X5 





'Porrer Facrbr 



/ron •^ ^r/c/vo/7 /ossei 



/"a n / >*es^s- 



Ji.0 



to 



//orsc f^rrtsr 

p,G 4.— Performance Curves, 10-h.p. "Emcol" Motor; 
4-POLE, 50-cycles, 3-phase. 

devices and returned to the motor after cooling. These 
devices have proved partially successful, hut they all require 
an app.'iratus of considerable bulk external to (he motor, necd- 
mg spaee \^hich is not alTvavs available. In other words, the 
total bulk of the motor and cooling system is quite equal to, 
and generally greater than, the space occupied by a standard- 
tvpe enclosed motor. 
Recentlv Mr .?, A. H. Mossay and Mr. H. C.'IJ. Jaqoby 



32 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [v<,i. 82. no. 2,09+, janoaryu, 1918. 



have jointly attacked the problem in a. uovel and practical 
manner, and have produced a motor which is maunfactured 
under the trade name " Emcol." It is totally enclosed, and 
complies in every re-spect with the detinitions of a totally- 
enclosed motor as defined by the Admiralty standard specih- 
catioU''for electric motors for use on H.M. ships, and with the 
Britisfc Standardisation rules for electrical machinery. 

They claim for their motor that the output for a given 
temperature rise is even greater than that of an operi-tyi>e 
motor of equal bulk and weight. The cost of production is 
praeticallv the same as for the ordinary standard open-type 
motor. The makers anticipate that in the near future the 
gi-eat inajniity i;f I'uotors will be iiiaiiufacluicd un these lines, 



diiecd iu proix)rtiou to the .square roots of the loads, so as 
to give the best cl'ficiency on the reduced load. 

The results may be roughly summarised as follows : — 

1. The output of an "Emcol" motor with a given tem- 
perature rise is the .same as, or better than, the output of a 
.standard open-tyi)e motor of the same weight and bulk. 

'2. The output of the " Ejncol " motor is two and a half 
times larger than the output of a standard totally-enclosed 
hiotor of the same weight and dimensions. 

We undei-stand that the invention is fully protected by 
pat-cnts, and that the Eiiclo-sed Motor Co., Ltd.. has beeu^ 
formed to deal with the patents, grant licences. &c. Manu- 
facturers interested should couu[iunicat<; with this company. 




THE LUBRICATION OF AIR COMPRESSORS 
AND DIESEL ENGINES. 



Fig. 



— Diagram Snowixti Am Circulation in Motor: 
Dotted Lines .Show External Air Currents. 



it being obvious that if the totally-enclosed motor can be pro- 
duced for the same price as the oi>eu type, this latter will 
die a natural death. 

The chief characteristic of the invention to which we refer 
is the circulation of the air inside the motor through a cool- 
ing system cast integrally with the frame in such a manner 
that the external dimensions are not appreciably increased. 
In the case of a.c. motors the cooling chambers are virtually 
channels cast in the webs which support the laminae, so that 
the actual weight of a housing buUt according to this method 
is not greater than that of the ordinary standard motor. The 
cooling channels are cooled by drawing cold air from outside 
through another series of channels ingeniously arranged so that 
the cooling air entirely surrounds the hot-air channels. The 
crux of the invention consists in crossing over the two cur- 
rents of air so that the cooling air is also in contact with 




Fig. G. — Motor Dismantled, showing Air Channels 
Frame and End Shields. 

the outside of the stator laminse. By this means a very large 
area of cooling surface is obtained. The cooling air does not 
enter the motor in any way, but merely blows through the 
space between the outside periphery of the laminae and the 
removable cover. 

In D.c. motors the cooling system consists of chambers oast 
in the magnet ring in such a manner as not to interfere with 
the distribution of the magnetic flux. 

Our views are taken from photographs of a 10-H.l'., 3-phase 
motor, the electrical portion of which was a standard de.sign 
for 10-H.p., 4-pole open type, 50 period machine, which 
on a six hours' full-load test, showed a temperature rise of 
only 54 deg. F. on the winding, the temperature rise of the 
air inside the motor being 46 deg. F. When overloaded to 
14 H.P. the final temperature rise was 65 deg. F. on the wind- 
ing, and of the air inside, 59 deg. F. 

For purposes of comparison, tests were taken on the same 
motor with the cooling system rendered inoperative, so as 
to bring the motor under the condition of an ordinarv totally- 
enclosed motor. The results of these tests are shov^'n by the 
curves. 

It should be explained that as the motor would onlv carrv 
a reduced load under these conditions, the voltage wasre- 



At the meeting of the Diesel Engine U.sers' Association on 
November loth lubricatiou questions were discussed. A note by 
Mr. J. Veitch Wilson dealt with the subject from the point of 
view of an oilman with a prolonged experience in the lubrication 
of internal-combustion engines at home and abroad. He found 
general agreement that lubricants for Diesel engines should be 
pure mineral oils. The presence ot,a liberal supply of oxygen leads 
to the decomposition of vegetable oils, producing fatty a<?ids and 
causing the oils to gum ; in the power cylinders of well -designed 
internal-combustion engines free oxygen is practically absent, and 
in many such engines fatty oils are used with satisfactory results. 
In the air compressors the conditions are entirely different, and it 
appeared reasonable to the author that fatty oils or compounds 
should be excluded from them ; nevertheless, he found that in 
some cases the addition of a small proportion of fatty oil to high- 
class pure mineral oil put an end to deposits and sticky valves, and 
"•ave complete satisfaction. 

While in steam engines using steam superheated to 600° or 
ti7M° F, a cylinder oil of flash. point not lower than those tempera- 
tures was used, an oil of 40(1° F. flash point gave satisfaction in 
internal-combustion engines, though the temperature of explosion 
might reach 2,000° or 2.500° F. The explanation of this anomaly 
appeared to the author to lie in the cooling of the cylinder walls in 
the latter case by a water jacket: so that their temperature did not 
exceed 250° F. : there inie-ht also be a fiameless zone close to the 
■wall, due to the chillinaeifect of the water jacket, so that the 
lubricating oil never reacJed the temperature of decomposition. 

Mr. G. W. F. Horner also read a paper, giving particulars of his 
experience with an installation of Diesel en^rines and compressors. 
In 1911) trouble occurred due to a deposit in the I. P. purge pot, 
which caused escessive wear of the H.P. compressor piston and 
rings : a brownish substance, looking like rust, dried out in the 
H.P. stage, and acted on the working parts like emery powder. 
The oil used and the deposit were examined for the author by a 
chemist ; the former -n'as found to be a pure mineral oil, and the 
latter was chiefly oxide of iron, which apparently was formed in 
the purge pots in the presence of aii , carbonic acid, and water. To 
prevent this action, the author had the purge pots painted with a 
rust and acid-proof paint consisting of :i lb. English flake iron to 
1 lb. of boiled linseed oil ; the result was most satis- 
factory. The author concluded that the formation 
of the gre,ater po) tion of the iron oxide took place 
in the I.P. cylinder and purge pot, and that the pro- 
tection of the iron and steel surfaces by the paint 
described was advantageous. He found the internal 
surfaces of the air receivers rusty, with a deposit 
similar to that in the I.P. purge pots, and had them 
also cleaned and painted. 

In the discussion. Mr. R. L. QuertiER pointed 
out that Mr. Horner's plant was close to the sea, 
where the air contained moisture and salt. He 
recommended a mineral oil containin.s; a small per- 
ceutafre of animal oil for the compressors, in prefer- 
N ence to mineral oil alone. 

Mr. W. Fennell considered that if the working 
conditions of the compressor wei-e good, standard 
oils of widely different characters could be used with success : the 
working temperature should be capable of regulation, and a small 
discharge of air should be allowed from the intermediate purge 
pot. He doubted whether it could be assumed that the inner skin 
of the cylinder liner was always at a temperature iielow the car 
bonising point of oil. 

Mr. E. Shackleton pointed out the danger of throttling the 
air suction, which had led to explosions in the intercoolers due to 
the volatilisation of the lighter fractions of the lubricating oil in 
the partial vacuum. Owing to tho liability to the formation of 
troublesome deposits in engines burning heavy oils, a tlTinner 
lubricating oil should be used in these engines, and water injection 
was advantageous. 

Mr. C. 0. Milton pointed out that pure mineral oUs could 
easily be cleaned by heating in contact with boiling water, and used 
again ; compounded oils were not so readily cleaned. Filtering and 
settling; arrangements such as were used in power stations were toe 
alow in view of the large quantities of oil to f)e dealt with. For 
air compressors, experience was overwhelmingly in favour of a 
suitably compounded oil. Water condensed from the air w.as_ the 
cause of the trouble, as it -ivashed the pure oil o^ the metal 
surfaces. 

Mr, Napier Prentice had had trouble with H.P. piston rings 



Vol.82. No. 2.o!ij..TANrARv II. r.iis.^ THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



33 



supported by fioatin>r carriers, which was obviated by adoptiutf a 
tightly fittincr sleeve in the carriers. 

Mr. J. Milton had experienced trouble due to changing from 
compounded to pure mineral oil in the air compressors. 

Mb. J. W. G. Brouker agreed with Mr. Quertier that moist air 
laden with salt was favourable to rusting, and tended to the 
formation of hydrochloric acid. 

Mr, P. H. Smith yave details of practice at Leatherhead. showing 
the great importance of guarding against the formation of acid in 
the compressor, which led to burst H.P. copper coils and leaking 
blast-bottle fittings ; by increasing the L.P. pressure and reducing 
the H.P. maximum temperature, and using a lubricating oil which 
gave very little acid reaction, the acid in the blast-bottle had been 
greatly reduced, and the failures of parts minimised. 

Commenting on Mr. Horner's communication. JlR. J. Teitch 
AViLsox pointed out that, on changing from one oil to another, 
deposits might be dissolved and discharged, bringing discredit on 
the latter oil, which wa^ actually clearing the cylinders of 
troublesome matter. Replying to the discussion, he pointed out 
that while mineral oils were not saponifiable. most of them 
produced troublesome emulsions when mixed with water. For 
cleaning used oil, two settling tanks were useful, one to receive the 
oil from the engine while the other was at rest ; the oil from the 
latter should be pa'^sed through a sieve, and used for bearings and 
machinery, but he did not recommend it for cylinders. Compound 
oils could be cleaned in this way. 

Mr. Horner likewise discussed Mr. Wilson's paper, expressing a 
preference for the use of mineral oil throughout. Replying to the 
discussion, he emphasised the fact that chemical actioi) was the 
main cause of the troubles with his engines, which were removed 
by painting the parts affected, 

Mr. J, H, Garratt communicated some notes on his experiences 
at Singapore, where he traced an excessive formation of acid to the 
use of foul oil from the crank chamber for lubricating the com- 
pressor. To indicate when the H,P. air pipes were corroded to a 
dangerous extent, the pipes were drOled half way through with a 
V-shaped drill point, causing a very slight blow when the sm-face 
wore down as far as the point of one of the Vs, Owing to wear, 
the blast receiver's had to be discarded, and, as they could not be 
replaced from England, the engines were run without them with 
successful results." 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letters received by vs after 5 P,M, OS Tdesday cannot appear until 
the foUoivinq tceek. CorreHpondents x/ioidd forward their commnni- 
catiom at the earliest possible moment. A'o letter can be published 
unless we have the writer s name and address in our possession. 



k Proposed Institution of Electrical Station Engineers. 

As one of those who attended the meeting at Hammersmith of 
senior technical officers of electrical power undertakings of Greater 
London, I had hoped with others thai the foundations had at last 
been laid for the building of an association which would include 
in its membership every qualified engineer, ranging from chief to 
junior, engaged in the electric power oupply of the United 
Kingdom, 

For some reason or other the movement does not seem to be 
progressing : whilst one cannot ascertain from whence the opposi- 
tion is arising — it is apparently there ; the enthusiasm and keen- 
ness seem only to be shown by the junior staff. Senior and chief 
officials, as usual, either think it beneath their dignity to take any 
active part in the morement, or are apathetic ; this attitude is 
most unfortunate. :us the time has never been more opportune, or 
the need greater, for such an as.sociation. 

As one of the arguments put forward by the disinterested is that 
no general desire has been expressed for such an association other 
than by the promott-rs of the meeting, it would no doubt assist its 
successful launching if the chief engineers and senior technical 
assistants in the Provinces, who would support such an association, 
sent their names to the hon, secretai-ies of the respective London 
Associations, the names and atldresses of which you, no doubt, 
would give, I believe that this support has already been given by 
the staff of provincial stations. 

In conclusion, I sincerely hope that the chief engineers of the 
United Kingdom and their .senior officials will not let this great 
opportunity go by of forming a live Association, the object of which 
would be' solely the protection of interests, and, in a few years' 
time, find that they are the only ones who have no opportunities of 
having any redress against grievances which all in the electrical 
■world realise will arise. 

Can it be due to a " hidden hand '' influence that is interested 
that such an Association is not formed .' 

A. M. P. A. 



Illuminating Engineering. 

I venture to question the wisdom of Mr. A. P. Trotter's remarks 
in his presidential address to the Illuminating Engineering Society, 
as reported in your issue of 4th iust. 

It .seems to my mind to encourage the idea that a qualified illu- 
minating engineer has done his duty to himself in accepting the 
sense of sight as judgment from one whose mind he h,is omitted to 
tutor in its requirements. 

Low " diversity factor " and diffusion of sources being the two 



import.ant conditions for a high standard of illumination, it is well 
known that the uneducated will more frequently interpret the loss 
of intrinsic brilliancy as reduction in illumination, and subordinate 
diversity factor (which is insufficiently preached) to foot-candle 
intensity. Moreover, whilst the eye can at once distinguish a 
diffused source from an intensely brilliant one, it is little able of 
itself, unaided by instrumental measurement, to rate the value of 
the diversity factor in an installation. 

Whilst the eye as an instrument can be relied upon to test 
whether a preconceived impression has been accurately conveyed 
to the brain, good illumination is not so much concerned with 
impressions as with effects upon the muscles and nerves created 
by those impressions, and these should be the qualities which an 
engineer elucidates to his clients as being essential to rapid vision 
and greater physical endurance. 

More liberal education from engineers, direct to the public, on 
the action of light upon the eye. will better assist the illuminating 
engineering movement and promote increased commerce. 

Sydney 0. Coolt. 

Glasgow, January 7th, 1918, 

[In justice to Mr, Trotter, we must point out that our report 
gave only brief extracts from his long and interesting address. — 
Eds. Elec. Rev.] 



.Meters on a Changed Frequency. 

A company is desii-ous of obtaining a supply of electricity in 
bulk, and would like the opinion of your readers as to how it will 
affect the me-ters : — 

1. Present supply is single-phase — 220 volts, 40 periods ; the 
new supply will be at 50 periods. What would be the error of the 
meters if connected to the .50-cycle supply, the voltage teing the 
same ,' 

2. Could the voltage be adjusted to make the meters accurate .' 
If so. what would be the voltage .' 

Query. 



Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables. 

With reference to the letter signed " T. D, Spark," in your issue 
of December 2Sth, the leading British cable manufacturers make 
white-braided rubber cables as well as red and black. White- 
braided cable is made chiefly for the Tropics, and in India practi- 
cally no red braiding is used, as, for some reason which, I believe, 
has never been satisfactorily explained, the rubber perishes more 
quickly with red than with either white or black braiding, in 
Tropical climates. 

January 2nd, I'Jl^. 



The Production of Ductile Tungsten. 

As solicitors for Duram. Ltd.. the well-known manufacturers of 
ductile tungsten for filament lamps and other purposes, our 
attention has been called to the letter of Mr. John Gray in your 
issue of December 2Sth, and to his statement that " British 
Thomson-Houston Co. were supplying their whole requirements of 
ductile tungsten for Mazda lamp filaments in 1912 by manufacture 
at their Rugby works." 

Mr. Gray's statement will -be received no doubt with amusement 
by many lamp manufacturers in this country, but there is really no 
excuse for the inaccuracy of his statement, inasmuch as Mr. Fraser, 
the secretarv of the British Thomson-Houston Co., in an affidavit filed 
by him in the action hrought by that company against Messrs. Duram, 
Ltd., for infringement of their Patent No. 21.,'il3 of 190fi, which 
action was dismissed by Mr. Justice Astbury and the Coiut of 
Appeal, swore that between October Ist. 1912. and September 30th, 
1913, the total production of tungsten wire drawn at Rugby, 
as evidenced by the production sheets, was ,-i,?<35,6S6 fett ; 
of which more than two-thirds— viz., 3.S24.247 ft.— were drawn 
from tungsten rods and coarse wire imported from the General 
Electric Co. of America. 

The total production of finished wire manufactured and drawn 
in its entirety at Rugby was only 2,011,839 ft., and the value of 
much of that for lamp-making purposes can be appreciated, since 
the production sheets show that quantities of this were in lengths 
of less than 100 ft. 

Allowing for wastage only 20 per cent., which would be very 
generous at that date, and allowing 3 ft. to a lamp, the British 
Thomson-Houston Co. only made wire in its entirety for 530,490 
Mazda lamps during the period mentioned. It will, in addition, be 
noted that this period includes nine months of 1913. whereas Mr. 
Gr.iy speaks of 1912, when his company could hardly have been 
more successful. 

Having had his attention calletl to the matter, Mr, Gray would 
not wish us to omit to notice that the secretary also admitted the 
importation of lamps from America iluring the same period. 

Having proved the inaccuracy of Mr. Grays statement, we may 
be permitted to add that our clients. Messrs. Duram, Ltd.. are, and 
have for some time past been, manufacturing millions of metres of 
drawn tungsten wire at Hanwell, and are far more competent to 
supply the whole of the requirements of the United I(ii»gdom than' 
the British Thomson-Houston Co. 

Speechly, Mumford & Craig, 

London, W.r.. January ^fh, 191!;. 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,094, January 11, 1918. 



ELECTRICALLY-DRIVEN CEMENT WORKS. 



ISJ a paper read before the Institution Of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders in Scotland, by Mr. B. J. Day, the works of the 
Aberthaw and Bristol Channel Portland Cement Co. were described 
in some detail, the latter including particulars of the electrical 
equipment — the works being electrically driven throughout from a 
private power station. 

The processes employed in cement manufacture have been 
described several times in our pages : that employed at Aberthaw 
is the wet process. The works have been erected on the limestone 
beds, and the quarry has been ojiened at the nearest point, allowing 
space for a six-kiln plant, capable of turning out 360.000 tons of 




Turbine Plant at Aberthaw Cement Works 

cement annually, though the first installation consisted of a two- 
kiln plant to deal with 120.000 tons of cement per year. 

The materials are quarried by a steam navvy and broken up in 
two jaw crushers, being then delivered to wet mills, consisting of 
four-ball and four-tube mills. 

At Aberthaw four of the largest size mills have been installed, 
each pair of ball and tube mills being driven by a separate 3.i0-H p. 
motor. The latter are installed in a motor house distinct from the 
mill house, and drive extensions of the mill shafts. The slurry 
obtained from the mills is delivered to two storage tanks of a 
sufficient capacity to manufacture 600 tons 
of cement, in which the mixture is adjusted 
to the correct proportions. The slurry is 
subsequently pumped into two revolving 
kilns, each 200 ft. long. 10 ft. diameter in 
the burning zone and 9 ft. diameter in the 
parallel section. Each kiln is gear driven by 
an electric motor, at a point about half way 
in its length, the gearing giving a maximum 
speed of one revolution in .').") seconds. 

The clinker delivered from the kilns, after 
being cooled, is passed through grinding 
mills consisting of preliminary ball - tube 
mills and finishing tube mills, and the 
finished product is conveyed to a 10,000- ton 
silo consisting of 20 .'idO-ton bins. 

The electrical arrangement of the clinker 
grinding house resembles that adopted for 
the wet mill. One of the most impoitant 
items is the plant for the preparation of 
pulverised coal for the kilns. 

Each ton of clinker requires about 5 cwt. 
of coal ; the latter is stored as received from 
the colliery in bunkers, which discharge auto- 
matically on to conveying plant delivering 
to crushers, which reduce all large lumps. 

The crushed coal is passed through a re- 
volving dryer, and subsequently pulverised in 
ball and tube mills, so that the residue does 
not exceed 5 per cent, on a lUO- mesh sieve. 
Most cement works rely upon one or more 
main low-speed engines for their supply of 
power, supplemented in some cases by one 
or more smaller electric generating sets for 
small machines or outlying machines. The 

main engine drives one or more long countershafts by ropes or belts, 
or both. The effect of this is to cramp the whole of the works, and 
necessitates laying down various machines where they can be most 
easily di-iven. The result is numberless small cross-belts and 
countershafts entailing heavy upkeep costs, besides undue waste of 
power. Compared to many modern cement works, the simplicity 
of the arrangements at Aberthaw appeals to the works manager, 
apart from the economy involved. After having closely studied 
modern methods of manufacture in this country and on the Con- 



tinent. Mr. Day, although it was a novel idea in this country, 
decided to drive the whole of the plant throughout electrically. 
By adopting this system an extremely simple layout was obtained, 
and one that can be extended very easily should trade warrant it. 

Owing to the excellent supply of water, it was decided to lay 
down two turbo-generators, each having a capacity of 1,."jOO kW. 
The steam-raising plant consists of five 30-ft. Lancashire boilers, 
each fed by elevators which deliver coal from the storage bunkers 
to the hoppers on the front of the boiler, from whence it passes to 
Bennis stokers. The boilers generate steam at 180 lb. pressure, the 
steam being superheated to about 600° F. A Green economiser is 
installed, and the draught is provided by an induced draught fan 
and compressed air on the Bennis system. A Sulzer turbine-driven 
boiler feed-pump exhausts into a condenser fitted in the hot-well 
tank ; with this arrangement the whole of 
the latent heat is recovered, and the thermal 
efficiency is a maximum. 

The generating plant consists of two 
1,500 -KW. Escher-Wyss turbines driving 
Brown-Boveri and Siemens generators re- 
.-il>ectively. with direct-coupled exciters, and 
supplies three-pha.se current at 50 cycles 
and :i.0O0 volts. A wet air-filter is provided 
for the alternators, as trouble is experienced 
with cloth filters in cement works owing to 
the cement dust adhering to the fine hairs 
on the cloth. The condensers are of the 
counter-current surface type, with rotary- 
type pumps. Each set has its own condensate 
pum]) and dry-air pump, electrically driven. 
Over the hot-well is fitted a notch tank con- 
nected to a Lea recorder. 

The condenser circulating pumps are in- 
stalled in a small pump house close to the 
river, each driven by a 40-H.P. motor. The 
pumps do not require this power except at 
starting, as a siphon pipe has been installed 
connecting up the outlet of the condensers 
to a water seal at the same level as the pump 
house ; so that really the pumps have to 
deal with the friction in the condensers amd 
piping, plus a short suction head. In the 
pump house also are installed two Rees- 
Roturbo pumps, each motor-driven, for the 
general water supply of the works. A large 
quantity of water is used, not only in the 
raw grinding mills themselves, but also all mill and kiln bearings 
are water-cooled, thus economising lubrica nts. 

All motors above 50 H.P. are supplied direct at 3,000 volts pres- 
sure ; all smaller motors and lighting at 220 volts. The main 
switchboard, by the B.T.H. Co , consists of 13 panels, controlling 
both generators, and two 400-KW. oil-cooled transformers supplied 
by- the British Electric Transformer Co. From this board are also 
run separate circuits to the crusher -house, raw-mill, clinker-mill, 
and coal-mill : as it is essential that there shall te no possible inter- 
ference with the running of the k ilns, each is separately supplied 




Kaw-Mill ."Motor House, .Vberthaw: a si.milar arrangement is 

ADOPTED FOR THE ClINKER MILL. 

from the main board direct. Distributing switchboards are fitted 
m the raw-mill, clinker-mill, and coal-mill ; each mill unit is 
separately controlled, and can be stopped immediately by pressing a 
button on the feed platform. All the above switchgear is of the 
totally enclosed dust-proof oil-immersed type. 

Tlie low-tension board consists of 10 panels with 1 2 power circuits 
and 9 lighting circuits. 

-\s is well known, the dust-laden air in a cement factory is full 
of highly hygroscopic particles of dust, which are injurious to 



Vol. 82. No. 2,094. January 11, 1018.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



35 



insulation, and special precautions must be observed to prevent dust 
reaching the winding's. For all largre motors above 100 H.P., 
special motor rooms have been provided, in which the motors aie 
installed, which can be made practically dust-proof. Each motor 
ilrives a ball and tube-mill unit throusrh belts attached to specially 
extended countershafts. All motors over ."lO h.p. and up to lUO h.p. 
operate at 3,000 volts pressure, and are of the pii>e-ventUate(l type ; 
motors over 5 b.h.p., and up to 50 b.h.p.. opei-ate at 220 volts pres- 
sure, and are also of the pipe-ventilated type. All 5-h.P. motors 
and smaller are of the totally enclosed type ; with this arrangement 
it is obvious that the air passing to the motor windings can, 
whenever necessary, be completely controlieti and filtered. 

The switchgear throughout is of the dust-proof type. The 
low-tension distributing boards consist of cast-iron boxes mounted 
on brickwork bases and are dust-proof. All the cables are of the 
B.I. & H. three-core paper-lead type laid in brick ducts with cement 
slabs over, one main cable trench being carried through the works. 



Tank ^yeek at Birmingham. — The staff and employes of 
the Birmingham electric supply department showed very 
practical interest in "Tank Week," by which well over six 
inilHons were obtained, thus establishing a record for this 
lountry. The electric .<?upply emplove^i headed the list of thn 
Corporation departnient.s with a contribution of i'10,000. the 
fe'a.s department following with i;7.40-5. The Electric and 
Ordnance Accessories Co.'s employes invested ±'5'2,6o3, 

A feature of Birmingham "Tank Bank" week was the 
sub.scriptions from the working classe.s, who took full advan- 
tage of the various schemes different firms put into operation 
to enable their employes to participate. Staff and employes 
(if Messrs. J. H, Tucker & Co. were able to purchase War 
Saving Certificates, repaying the firm for them by easy 
weekly instalments of any amount, as low as 3d. per week 
per certificate, with all the advantages as regards interest as 
though they had paid immediately the full purchase price. 




Gexerai- Pi.as of the Tin^r Installation" op the Ei.EcTRiCALLV-nRiVKN Cement Wop.ks. Abeuthaw. 



A total of 42 motors of 731 H,P, is included in the installation, 
including eight 350-H.p. and two 100-H.P. machines. These 
motors are of Swedish G.E., B.T.H., and Siemens make, and Mr. 
Day mentions, as a feature of the installation, that accurate tigm-es 
have beeu obtained with the electric drives of the power re(iuired 
per ton of output with varying degrees of fineness from the 
different machines. [We understand that the plant has been 
extended recently, — Eds. Elec, Eev.] 



WAR ITEMS. 



Raw Asbestos Order. — Under Iho Defence of the Re^ilm 
■•Vet it is ordered that no person or conjpany shall sell, supply, 
or deliver any raw asbe.stos, including asbestos crude and 
asbestos mine fibres, or purchase or negotiate or take delivery 
(if any raw asbestos, &c., except under licence or permit 
issued by the Admiralty, Those engaged in the manufacture 
or s;ile of asbestos or asbestos products will be required to 
make returns. 

Exports to China. — ^The " London Gazette " for January 
Sth contains a list of further persons and bodies in China to 
whom exports may be consigned. 

The Fire at Krupps. — The Dutch new,spaper " Handels- 
blad," in reference to the fire at Krupp's Essen works last 
month, says damage estimated at some millions of marks at 
least was done and over 303 electric motors were made 
totally unusable. — Times. 

Trading with the Enemy. — The " I^ndon Gazette " for 
January 4th contains further lists of persons and bodies in 
the following countries with whom trading is prohibited : — 
.\rgentina, Bolivia. Brazil, Central America, Chile, Culsa, 
Greece, Netherlands, Ketherland East Indies, Norway, Peru, 
Spain, and Sweden. 



In the event of an employe leaving before the whole of the 
instalments are paid off (1) the employe can pay off the 
balance, or (i) the firm will repay In full the instalments 
already paid and retain the certificates. The result was appli- 
cation for the handsome total of 4. .500 certificates, in addition 
to the firm's own contribution of i'"20,000. 

Exemption Applications. — An electrician (40, B2), who 
api^ealed at Brighton, was given two months' exemption. 

At Shefltteld, an appeal was made by G. West (37. 3), 
electrician, and he was given exemption until March 31st. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 

Italy.— Tliorc im-s been forineil, at Bovi,'sa. tlie ."^x-iet^'i 
Auonima C'erettise Tanfani, with a capital of 5,iK)0,000 lire, its 
objects being the construction of rope railways, aerial lines, tele- 
graph lines, cranes, ic. 

Societa Auonima Italiana Carboni Elettrici is the style of a com- 
pany, with a capital of 4,000.000 lire, established at Rome, for the 
manufacture of electrodes for electric furuiices. 

With the title of Societ.a per lo Svilupix) della Cianamide e di 
altri Prodotti Chimici, a company has been formed at Rome, 
under the auspices of the Banca Italiana di Sconto, with a capital 
of 12..-.ori.000 lire. 

Suction Gas Plants for Sale.— Tlie Ton Pentre 

(Rhondda Valley) Co-operative Society and the Ynyshir cGlam.) 
Woijcmens Hall and Institute have each a complete suction gas 
plant for disposal For particulars see our advertisement pasea 
to-day. . ' , 



36 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vul.S2. Xo.2,uui, January ll,191S. 



The New Board of Trade Journal.— The first issue of 

the litiiinl 'of Trade Joiiniid and Comimrcial Gazette (sixpence 
weekly) in its altered form appeared on January Hrd. It contains 
a "foreword" by the President of the Board of Trade and in a 
series of special articles there is <riven a jrood deal of informative 
matter such as the industrial and trading community will doubtless 
welcome. In our opinion it Rives promise of beinu' of considerable 
service in assistinff traders and in encourapring trade development. 
The article on " After- War Trade :' Reports of Departmental 
Committees" brings together the objects, personnel and work of 
these committees in a concise form, though still leaving our thirst 
for information respecting the detailed doings and conclusions of 
.some of these committees unsatisfieil for the present. In due 
course, however, even this want is to be supplied to some extent in 
a series of special articles whieh we naturally await with interest. 
A first article on "The Patents and Designs Bill," which came 
before the Commons in November last, describes the provisions ami 
purpose of the measure, and it is to be followed by another 
explaining .some of the clauses not covered in this opening 
contribution. The article on " C'ommercial Information : Methods 
of Distribution " ought to be carefully read by everybody in the 
electrical industry so that they may know exactly what the new 
Department of Overseas Tratle (Development and Intelligence) is 
either already doing or is prepared to do for them in support of 
their own export trade efforts. The other contents of the ./(/«»•««/ 
include a large collection of trade news, information collected from 
different parts of the world. Government notices affecting trade, 
and Customs' Regulations and Tariff changes such as reailers of the 
old journal had long been accustomed to. We prefer the new and 
less monotonous looking manner in. which the information is served 
up. We wish those who are responsible for the conduct of the 
publication every success in their endeavours to make the .Journal 
an official record of increasing value. Under war-time conditions 
no journal can do all that it would. Paper restrictions necessarily 
hamper us all, a most regrettable circumstance seeing Ithe vital 
necessity for having all our trade armour and weapons ready for 
the days that are to come. 

The British Engineers' Association. — An offii ial 

Directory of Members (1917). has been issued by the British Engi- 
neers' Association, of 32, Victoria Street, Westminster. S.W. 1. 
price 53. It is a volume of over 400 pages, in a stiff white cover, 
with patriotic design in suitable colouring. The letterp;(ess i.s 
printed in three languages — English, French and Russian. The 
fact that membership is a guarantee of British origin of manu- 
factures is the first point put forward, and an invitation is given 
to engineering visitors from the Colonies and Allied or neutral 
countries to call at the offices in London. The book is divided into 
several sections, which ai'e led up to by an introductory statement 
concerning the Association and its work. Part I consists of a 
Directory of Members and their addresses, also telegraphic 
addresses and codes. Part II classifies their manufactures accord- 
ing to the British alphabet, and Part III according to the French 
and Russian alphabets. The remainder is devoted to a very large 
collection of illustrated announcements or advertisements by 
certain B.B.A. Members. The Association invites applications for 
copies of the Dh-ectory from consulting and managing engineers, 
municipal engineers, merchants, railways and tramways, and other 
important users of engineering plant and materials, both at home 
and overseas. 

Dissolutions and Liquidations. — Edison Manufactur- 
ing Co., Ltd.— Meeting February »ith, at liil. Wardour Street, 
London, W. 1, to hear an account of the winding up from the 
Liquidator, Mr, A, F, Wagner, « 

H, R. Latha.m A: Co., electrical and general engineers, 16-18. 
Vauxhall Road. Liverpool. — Messrs. H. R. Latham i>c F. Wilde have 
dissolved partnership as from June 2.3th, 1917, Debts will be 
attended to by Mr, H, R, Latham, who wiU continue as general 
engineer at the above address, Mr. Wilde will carry on business 
as the Liverpool Electrical Engineering Co.. at 20, Vauxhall Road, 
Liverpool. 

Adams, Beardsall & Co,, electrical fittings manufacturers, 
East Stanley Street, Salford, and Manchester, — Messrs. F. W, 
Adams & W, E, Beardsall have dissolved partnership, Mr. Adams 
attends to debts, kc. 

Carsox & Evans, 121a, Bunhill Row, London, E.C. 1.— Messrs. 
F. M. Carson tS; T. Wozencroft Evans have dissolved partnership. 
Mr. Carson will continue the business as F. M. Carson, and will 
attend to debts. 

W. C. Tackley & Co.. Ltd.— Meeting called for February 2nd 
at the High Street. Croydon, to hear an account of the winding nj) 
from the Liquidator. 

Drum ExaiNEERiNf: Co., Bradford, engineers and pump manu- 
facturers. — Messrs. W. I. A: C. E. Johnson have dissolved partner- 
ship. Mr. C. E. Johnson will attend to debts and continue the 
business. 

Electrical Firms and the Royal Arms. — The followinsr 

electrical firms are included in the list just published in the 
London Gazette of concerns having authority to use the Royal 
Arms by reason of their holding warrants of appointment to 
H.M. the King :— Edison Swan Electric Co.. Ltd., the Hart 
Accumulator Co., Ltd,, Messrs, A, P, Lundberg A; Sons, Messrs, 
Burt, Escare \- Denelle, Ltd, (electric fittings and bronze manu- 
facturers), and Messrs, Perry & Co,, Ltd, Messrs, Tasker, Sons and 
Co,, telephonic and electrical engineers, Sheffield, have also tlie 
right to use the Arms under a warrant of appointment from the 
late Queen Victoria. 



Book Notices. — The Chiistmas number of the M. ami C. 

Apprentieex A/a(/ir;i/ie is quite a thick volume, and contains a wide 
variety of reafling matter, A portrait of Mr, Henry A, Mavor is 
accompanied by an extremely interesting and well - written 
biographical sketch of this versatile and talented pioneer in elec- 
tricity supply and the electric propulsion of ships. Mr, W. W. 
Lackie, an old apprentice of the firm, contributes an article con- 
taining excellent advice to apprentices ; as for the rest of the 
contents, ■ including the numerous illijstrations, we can only say 
that there is something for everybody, and the whole deserves the 
highest commendation. ■ 

A new publication of tlie X'.S. Bureau of Standards (Circular No. fiS), 
entitled " Public Utility Service Standards of Quality and Safety," 
contains a brief outline of the public service activitie.-< of the Bureau, 
together witli lists of the publications bearing on the various 
subjects which have been issued by the Bureau, The sub-headings 
giving the public service activities are : — Standards for Electric 
Service, Standards for Gas SerWce, Standard Methods of Gas Testing, 
National Electric Safety Code, Electrolysis Mitigation, Further 
.\ctivities. Those interested may obtain a copy by addressing a 
request to the Bureau, at Washington, U,S,A, 

riie Klectrical Enijineerx Ttiiinj, 1918 (S. Davis & Co. Price 6s.), 
which is now in its tenth year, contains a large amount of new 
information, and is really quite an encyclopa-dia of engineering, 
containing sections on the generation of electricity, its uses for 
motive power, lighting, cooking, and heating, and the installation 
of telephones and bells, as well as official rules and regulations, a 
useful list of London streets in which mains are laid, and a table 
of electricity supply s^uthorities in the United Kingdom. The 
range covered by its contents is extraordinarily wide, and it is 
well prinj/ed on good paper, the sections being distinguished by 
different colours. The diary portion contains eight days to an 
opening, aijording ample room for notes, and sectional ruled paper 
is used for this part. An edition bound in limp covers, without the 
memorandum pages and blotting pad, is also issued. 

Calendars and Diaries. — Messrs. Thermit, Ltd., of 

675. Commercial Roatl. Limehouse. London. E. H, have sent us, as 
usual, one of their pocket calendars and note-books for the year. 
" Thermit '" welding information is given in the opening pages. 

Messrs. Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works, Ltd.. 38 and 39, 
Upper Thames Street. E.C. 4, have prepared for their friends, and 
for any reader who writes in. sending his trade card, or applies to 
one of the company's bi'anch organisations, the Wotan pencil 
economiser ; a useful pocket novelty closely resembling a fountain 
pen in appearance, and enaljling any pencil to be used up to the 
last A in. It is provided with a split-tapered bush to accommodate 
pencils of varying thicknesses, &c. This little article reminds the 
writer to " Use Wotan La^ips for Economy.'' 

Messrs. Alfred Herbert. Ltd.. of Coventry, have issued their 
1918 calendar in the same size but in slightly different style from, 
that of the art paper calendars of recent yeai-s. The covering page 
gives a view of Ford's Hospital at Coventry, and the rest consists 
of boldly-printeil monthly date sheets, the upper half of which is 
occupied l)y a view of the firm's works or the equipment thai'ein. 

Catalogues. — British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., 

Rugby. — Twelve-page descriptive list (No. 4.221), describing their 
automatic circuit-breakeft for A.c. and D.c. circuits. The list is 
fully illustrated, and, as usual, contains tabulated dimensions, 
dimension drawings, and shipping specifications. 

Messrs. C. A. Vaxdervell & Co., Ltd.. Acton, W. 3. — January 
moon chart for postcard service. 

Commercial Libraries. — At a meeting of the Bir- 
mingham City Council, on Tuesday, it was decided to establish a 
Commercial Library, and to proceed with the necessary work at an 
estimated cost of £1,500. The library wOl contain British, 
Colonial, and foreign directories ; telegraph codes : maps ; annuals 
relating to various countries : Consular reports ; and books on com- 
mercial 1 iw, accountancy, business methods, and organisation. 

British Industries Fair, 1918. — As it is {xjssible that 
the new accommodation for the British Industries Fair (Glasgow), 
1918. may not be entirely completed by February 23th, and as it is 
of great importance that the British Industries Fairs in London 
and Glasgow should be held simultaneously, the Board of Trade 
have decided to jiostpone the opening of both Fairs for two weeks. 
Accordingly the period for which the British Industries Fairs in 
London and Glasgow will be open will he starch 1 1th to 
March 22nd. 

Bankruptcy. — ^'- -T. Fahn, consulting engineer. ^Liida 

Yale. — First and final dividend. Is. lljd. in the K. 

Trade Announcements. — One of the hitest business 

amalgamations coafcequent upon the war is the incorporation of 
Messrs. WhittaSr A; Co., of White Hart Street, Paternoster 
Square. E,C,, with Sir Isaac Pitm.a.n i: Sons. Ltd. Messrs. 
Whittaker. of whose firm Mr. A. 3. Rayment is the sole surviving 
partner, the other having given his life for his country, have long 
been known as publishers of scientific and technical books, and 
their catalogue contains many important electrical works. Messrs. 
Pitman will enjoy the benefit of Mr. Rayment's experience and 
his knowledge of what is required by scientific and technical 
students, as he intends to direct from_ their offices the new depart- 
ment thus added to their undertakings. 

The name of the Oliver Arc Lamp, Ltd., has been changed to 
the "Oliver-Pell" Electric and Manui-actueing Co., Ltd, 



Vol.82. No. 2,0U4, January 11, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



87 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Aberystwyth. — E.L. Schejie. — Mr. Carrington, of the 

Kheidol Lead Mines, lia.s submitted an electric lig'ht sclieme to the 
T.C. It is proposed to erect a power station in the Rheidol Valley 
close to the mines, and supply current to the town. The T.O. has 
appointed a Committee to visit the site and report on the scheme, 

Bedford. — The T.C. has disposed of the old plant in No. 1 
engine room at the electricity works to Mr. P. Stanton for £300. 

Belfast. — The resolution of the Corporation authorising 
the Tramways and Electricity Committee to take t.he neeessary 
steps to g'ive effect to the recommendations of Sir .lohn Snell. 
inolndinf; the application for the sanction of the L.G.B. to the 
provision of iCtiO.OOO for equipment for the electricity station, was 
the subject of severe strictures at the meeting on the 3nd inst. 
Conncillor Alexander attacked the proposal, objectinff to the 
expenditure of so lar^e a sum Of money under the present manage- 
ment. Alderman Tyrrell said the expenditure arose out of the 
breakdown of No. 10 turbo-generator. Arrangements were nearly 
complete for the installation of a new 5,000-KVV. set. 

At the local Munitions Tribunal recently, the Corporation 
proceeded against 97 men of the electricity department for 
having taken part in a strike in connection with a difference 
as to the rate of wages, in contravention of the Munitions Act. It 
was reported to the Court that the men had returned to work, and 
leave was asked to withdraw the summons, which was granted. 

Birmingham. — The City Council has adopted a i-eport of 
the Labour Committee granting to all employes of the Corporation 
a further war advance in wages. A proposal was approved altering 
the general in.structions of the Council, and appointing a Special 
Committee for dealing with salaries, so as to avoid the necessity of 
puljlic discussions on the merits of the prmcipal ofticials. 

Blackburn. — Proposed New Station. — On the invita- 
tion of the Electricity Committee, the chairman and vice-chairman 
of the Gas Committee have joined a special Sub-Committee of the 
former body which is considering the question of the necessity of 
proceeding with the work of construction of a new generating 
station. 

Blackpool.— An additional supply of electricity for light 
and power is required at the King's Lancashire Military Con- 
valescent Hospital, Squire's Gate, and the Electricity Committee 
has agreed to lay the new main required on condition that the 
military authorities will pay one-third of the cost. 

Blackrock.— Prov. Order.— The B. of T. has extended 
the Electric Lighting Order for a further period of one year. 

Bradford. — The Electricity Committee recommends that 
a new generating station be erected on the Esholt estate — a large 
Corporation estate used in part by the sewage undertaking ; the 
city electrical engineer is to prepare plans and estimates, with a view 
to application to such Government Departments as may be con- 
cerned for sanction to carry out the scheme. 

At a mass meeting on Sunday night last, all classes of Corpora- 
tion employes rejected the proposed Corporation increase in the 
war bonus. The matter affects Ijetween 4.000 and .5,000 workers, 
and they now ask that the matter shall be referred to arbitration. 

Clayton.— Prov. Order.- The District Council is still 

discussing the futirre of the electricity supply ; at a meeting 
last week, the Council decided to be tied down to nobody, 
though it is felt to be quite likely that Clayton will be incorporated 
in Bradford after the war, and the Council is to apply to the 
L.G.B. for a prov. order to supply electricity on its own account. 

Clyde District. — The Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co. 
has greatly increased its output during 1917, and the total con- 
nections to the company's system are now equivalent to 1 10,000 H.i'. 
Another 7,000-h.p. turbo-generator has been added at the Clyde 
Mill station, with considerable additions to the steam-raising plant 
at Yoker, and it is anticipated that there will be in operation at the 
latter station by next autumn a 20.000-h.p. turbo- xlternator. The 
average price of power for the past year was 'SUA. per unit. 

Continental. — Russia. — A recent issue of the Xoroi/p 

Yreiiniii .states that for want of fuel the electric lighting of Petro- 
grad has been reduced. The Electric Equipment Co. (formerly 
'• Helios ") will deliver current to subscribers between (> a.m. and 
12 midnight only. The Belgian Co. is now delivering current 
during the night only for street lighting, military headquarters, 
Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates, and some town 
hospitals. It will not .supply current to subscribers before li p.m. 
until it receives fresh supi)lies of fuel. The 188<1 company has 
also reduced its output. 

Si'AlN.— The Timrx states that Madrid is now without light 
owing to want of coal. 

Doncaster. — The R.D.C., last week, decided to 
the new Bill of the Yorkshire Electric Power Co. 



1 ippose 



Dublin. — The Electricity Committee has recommended a 
further increase in price for lighting of Jd. per unit, and of ',d. per 
unit for power. The Committee pointed out that the deficit last 
year was £1,.57."), but that there had been a net loss of income on 
premises destroyed during the rebellion of £G,018. The exceptional 
expenditure due to the war included £10,085 extra for coal. 
Increased charges brought in an extra income of £13,298, leaving a 



balance of £12,886, which, with the exception of £1,575 deficit, 
was made up by Improved business. The Committee has made 
certain representations to the Council in regard to the Council's 
attitude to the electricity undertaking, and asks that the Council 
will confer on it emergency powers to enable it to take the neces- 
sary steps for the maintenance of supply during the war. otherwise 
it declines responsibility for the conduct of the undertaking. 

Dulverton.^WoRKHousE Lighting. — The B. of. f!. 

has decided to have- the elecU-io -light installed at the'workhouse. 
at a cost of £-35 for -2.") Hghts. - - ,--■_■ 

Elland.^-PROPOSED Loan. — The Council has instructed 
the clerk to take the necessary measures with a view to borrowing 
£2,000 for electricity. extensions, and has approved an advance in 
wages of all regular Coimcil workmen to 15s. above pre-war rates. 

GUlingham (Kent).— Price Increase.— The T.C. lias 

decided to further advance the price of current for lighting by 1 
per cent., a total increase since the war began of 50 per cent., and 
for all other purposes by 20 \tev cent., a total increase of <J0 jier 
cent., as from the meter readings taken at the end of December last. 

Halifax. — Price Increase. — At the T.C. meeting, the 
Electricity Committee proposed an increase in charges for lighting 
and heating of 12J per cent, and of 20 per cent, to power con- 
sumers not under agreement. In moving that the recommenda- 
tion be referred back, Councillor Swaine urged that the cost was 
little more than Id. per unit, but the lighting consumers were 
charged 4d., and instead of rushing up the price, it would be 
better to give facilities for introducing electricity into as many 
homes as possible. If there was any increase, it should be for 
power only. Alderman Spencer, replying to a discussion, said the 
increase was modest in proportion to the increased costs. The 
lighting consumption was only 1.400,000 units out of a total of 
16,704,000. The amendment was defeated and the recommendation 
approved. 

Lancashire Electricity Suppliers and Coal. — It was 

reported on Tuesday in Manchester that many municipal Elec- 
tricity Committees in E.ist, Central, and South-East Lancashire 
intend backing up the Salford Town Council in its protest to the 
Coal Controller against the last increase of 2s. 6d. per ton in coal 
prices. The imposition is deeply resented in Lancashire municipal 
and industrial circles. 

Leeds. — Extensions. — At a meeting of the City Council, 
last week, it was announced that, as a result of the Ministry of 
Munitions, sanctioning the purcha.se of a 6.000-KW. turbo-alterna- 
tor, but declining sanction to the big extension scheme, the work 
which may proceed includes the removal of two 15-year old 
1,400-KW. machines and the substitution of the one. sanctioned. 
The work wQl cost about £35,000, and it is hoped it will be 
completed in time for next winter's demand. 

London. — Hackney. — The Electricity Committee has 
accepted the tender of Messrs. C. A. Parsons & Co.. Ltd.. and has 
requested the Finance Committee to take the necessary steps to 
prociu-e a loan of £40,000 for the purchase of the machinery, &c.. as 
follows : — 7,500 K.v.A. turbo-alternator and auxiliary plant. £32,395 : 
foundations and platforms, £1,500 ; pijwwork and cablework, 
£1,500 ; switchgear, £1.102 ; contingencies, £3,503. 

Manchester. — At the last meeting of the Finance Com- 
mittee, the city treasurer waa authorised to borrow .t 20,000, repay- 
able within 25 years, for purposes of the electricity undertaking. 

The Electricity Committee has recommended the Council to 
grant to the adult male skilled and unskilled employ^ in the elec- 
tricity department a further bonus of 5s. per week recently awarded 
by the Committee on Production, and recommended that the 
question of whether or not the semi-skilled and unskilled em- 
ployes in the department are entitled to receive the bonus of 12J per 
cent, recently granted to certain engineers, be referred to the 
Ministry of Munitions to determine. 

Marsden. — E.L. Proposals. — The D.C. has considered 
the Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s request for comment* on. or 
amendments to, the prospective Bill in Parliament, and considers 
that it should retain freedom of action with regard to any supply 
of electricity to the district, and the clerk was instructed to reply 
accordingly. 

Middieton (Lanes.). — Increased Charger. — At the 

last meeting of the T.C, a letter was read from the Manchester 
authorities with reference to the proposal to make increa-sed 
charges for bulk supply of electricity .tiiken from them. The 
Middieton Council has decided to increase the charges for electricity 
for power and lighting purposes to consumers by 12-' per cent, 
from January 1 st last. 

Monasterevan. — The Local Land and liabour Associa- 
tion has passed a resolution pledging its support to Mr. Griffith, of 
the Monasterevan Electric Co., in connection with the electric 
lighting of the town. 

Nelson. — -A Sub-Committee appointed to consider the 
second report of the Committee on Inter-Communication of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire Electricity Supply systems, has passed a resolu- 
tion agreeing generally with the propo.sal to link-up the electricity 
undertakings, but not with the second portion of the report pro- 
posing the conferment of additional powers upon a i)roposed joint 
board in regard to the establishment and control of future and 
existing power stations and high-pressure transmission lines. 



38 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,094, January 11. 191 8. 



Rochdale. — The T.C. lias expressed its high appreciation 

of the yfnerous action of Messrs. Thomas Robinson & Son, iu 
voluntarily agreeing' to annul a clause in their electricity contr.-vct 
made with the Corporation before the war, and to substitute the 
Committee's new scale of charges from April 1st next to March 
next year. It was stated that this would mean a difference of 
.tSOci to the Corporation per year. 

Salford. — Loan Application. — Application is to be 

made to the L.G.B. for permission to borrow £1,000 for land for 
electricity premises, and i;i),200 for mains and services. 

Sheffield. — Loan Sanction. — The town clerk reports 

reueipt of sanction to the borrowing by the Corporation of 
£(i02.000 in connection with the proposed electric power station 
at Blackburn Meadows. 

LlXKlXG-UP. — At a meeting- of the Electricity Supply Com- 
mittee it was reported that a further meeting of the Joint Sub- 
Committee with reference to electricity supply to Sheffield. Rother- 
ham. and other adjacent areas hatl been held, when certain terms 
wei'e approved iu connection with the proposed linking-up scheme 
between Sheffield and Rotherham : such terms provide that the 
total cost of cables and transformers, together with suitable 
metering arrangements, estimated at £.30,000. should be appor- 
tioned equally between the two Corporations, and that the main- 
tenance of the inter-connecting arrangements should be undertaken 
by either Corporation, as may be agreed, the cost being appor- 
tioned equally between them, and that the supply should be avail- 
able as may be agreed between the respective engineers. It is 
proposed that all points of difference arising out of the proposed 
agreement be referred to arbitration. It is also propo.sed to make 
an application to-the Ministry of Munitions for a free grant of a 
portion of the total cost of. and incidental to, the linking-up 
arrangements ; Mr. Gridley, on behalf of the Ministry of Muni- 
tions, has suggested that two sets of 20.000 to 25,000 kw. should 
be placed on order, one for Klackbiu-n Meadows station, and the 
question as to the allocation of the second set not to be definitely 
settled at the moment. It is understood that the cost of the scheme 
will be approximately £1,000,000. The Electric Supply Committee 
approved the proposed terms. 

Silsden (Yorks.). — The Council, last week, considered 

the Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s new Bill, but in view of the 
recommendations of the Government Reconstruction Committee in 
regard to national electricity supply, the Council left the matter 
over until the February meeting. 

Stafford. — The Corporation has issued a special appeal 
to the residents to exercise the strictest economy in the use of 

electricity. 

Swansea. — The Chairman of the Electricity Committee 
stated that the sanction of the Government had been obtained to 
the extension scheme in connection with the electricity plant, for 
the purpose of supplying the docks, *:c. ; the sanction had been 
given on priority, and he considered this an indication of the 
importance attached by the (government to the Swansea scheme 
and its probable scope in regard to the proposed new provisions for 
combination of electric light undertakings. 

Weston-snper-Mare. — Price Increase. — The Electric 

Supply Co. has given consumers notice that the price of energy 
tor lighting has been increased by Jd. per unit, and for heating and 
IJOwer by ]d, per unit. 

Worcester. — At the City Council meeting, Mr. W. J. 
Hill referred to the report of the Coal Conservation Sub-Committee, 
and expressed the view that Worcester was not likely to be 
affected by the national scheme for many years. The Council 
accepted a recommendation to install new pumps and machinery at 
the waterworks and to utilise electricity rjore for pumping. A 
sum of £750 will be contributed by the electricity department 
towards the cost of cable, transformers, switchgear, and buCdings, 
A:c. There would be a guaranteed minimum demand of 400.000 
units per year. 

Yeadon. — The Council has decided to deal in Commjttfee 
with the Yorkshire Electric Power Co.s prospective new Bill in 
I'arliament, along with a Bill by a local gas company. 

Yorks. (West Riding). — The Law and Parliamentary 

Committee of the West Riding County Council recommends the 
Council, that unless satisfactory clauses or amendments are intro- 
duced, the Bill being promoted by the Yorkshire Electric Power 
Co., Bills by the Rotherham and Sheffield Corporations, and 
Lighting Orders asked for by the Sheffield and Halifax Corpora- 
tions and the Guiseley, Clayton, and (Jueensbury District Councils 
shall be opposed in Parliament. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



for an extension of one year on the period of 21 years, at thd 
expiration of which the municipal authorities were empowered to. 
acquire the company's undertaking. 

Birmingham. — -A. scheme is being formulated by which' 

it is hoped to carry goods on a rather extensive scale on the tram- ; 
ways. The object is to reduce the number of horses and mechanic- j 
ally driven vehicles employed in the city in connection with thej 
retail trades, having regard to the shortage of provender and 
petrol. ; 

The debate was resumed on Tuesday, at a meeting of the City • 
Council, on the important report of the Public Works Committee, | 
which made drastic proposals for the substantial widening of : 
the chief main arterial roads. The width proposed is 120 ft., _ 
and it is proposed to adopt a separate sleeper track for tramways. ; 
The scheme would be carried out over a long period of years, 
authority being given to the Public Works Committee to buy up . 
building frontages and sites of premises as leases fell in. Street 
widenings had hitherto been of a piecemeal character. Mr. Neville 
Chamberlain expressed the view that tramways laid in macadam 
roads were doomed, and that there would l>e an enormous develop- 1 
ment of sleeper track tramways, which were in reality light rail- \ 
ways, for passenger and goods traffic. The scheme was approved. \ 

Halifax. — The T.C, last week, sent back for further i 
consideration, the War Wages Committee's resolution viewing with 
alarm the continual demands of labour for more wages, and urging ' 
the Government to take measures to put a time limit on the j 
possibility of further applications after advances have been] 
granted. | 

Eare Rkvision. — The T.C, after considering tramway fares in , 
Committee, has instructed the town clerk to ask the Tramways 
Control Board to urge the Government to empower local tramwaY , 
authorities to increase their fares Ijeyond the limits prescribed by j 
the local Acts, with a minimum charge of 1 Id. The resolution ; 
further provided that in the event of such powers being obtained, • 
the Halifax fares lie increased by 50 per cent., except those of ■ 
children and of the stage between the Post Office and railway ' 
station. It is proposed, under this idea, to issue tickets to children [ 
on the lines of workmen's tickets. The fare from the Post Office , 
to the railway station is to be increased from id. to Id. as from 
January 7th. the transfer system is to be abolished, and the West 
End circular route is to l>e discontinued. The Council further 
decided to ask the B. of T. for power to increase the motor-bus, 
fares. 

Oldham. — The Tramways Committee was last week 
empowered to purchase a new electrical bus for the Coppice Post, 
Office service. Councillor Cheetham said their history of 'buses ' 
had been unfortunate. They had never been profit-earning, and 
during the past 12 mouths they had disposed of two out of theirl 
three buses. The objection to the remaining one was not that it 
was gas-driven ; in other towns electrical 'buses were satisfactory, [ 
and they had their own experience of an electrically -driven tower 
wagon, on which, reckoning electrical energy at lid, per unit, the! 
cost of running was r4d. per mile. I 

South Africa. — According to the British South AJrii-an] 
KrjHirt (iazette. Sir William Hoy says that the electrification oi\ 
the S.A. railways is a question which his department intends to I 
tackle seriously. The Johannesburg-Dui ban line may receive first I 
attention. i 

Wigan. — Accident Inquiry. — At the adjcftirned inquest, 
on the two victims of the runaway car accident at Pemterton. the' 
driver of the car said he noticed a defect in the hand-brake before 
the accident. When the trolley was being changed, the car com-] 
luenced to run back ; he called to the conductress to replace the 
trolley, so as to make the magnetic brake available, but she faOed, . 
and in the scuffie he dropped his power handle. Fearing a collision, 
he jumped from the car. He admitted there were two other brakes 
he might have used, and knew that he was taking a risk in con- 1 
tinning the journey after finding the brake was defective, but | 
thought he could control the car. The jury returned a verdict ot 
" Accidental death," adding that in their opinion the driver was 
deserving of censure for not using more discretion. They also 
recommended that in future conductors and conductresses shouli 
be instructed not to remove the trolley pole until told to do so by 
the driver. The Coroner remarked that there seemed no doubt that 
had the motorman stuck to his post he might have been able to 
save the two lives. 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 



Ashton. — Tramway Purchase. — Owing to the war, it 
has not been found possible by the Ashton Corporation to carry 
out the purchase of the Oldham. Ashton, and Hyde Electric Tram- 
ways. An application, however, ia now to be made to the B. of T. 



OPEN. 

Argentina. — February 23rd. Rosario Municipality 
Establishment of telephone service within the municipal radius 
Conditions on application. 

Australia. — Melbourne.— April 5th. Department o 
the Navy. Motor-driven hydraulic pump. Director of Nar 
Contracts. Melbourne. 

Bolton. — January 15th. Electricity Committee. On 
7,500-KW. turbo-alternator with condensing plant. See " Officii 
Notices " December 7th. 



Vol.82. No. 2,094, January 11, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



39 



Manchester. — January IGth. Electricity Committee. 
Rotary converter or motor converter plant. See "Official Notices " 
December 28th. 

February 2nd. Waterworks department. Electrically-driven 
radial arm crane. See "Official Notices" January 4th. 

Spain. — The municipal authorities of Astilleros (Province 

of Santauder) have lately invited tenders for the concession for the 
electric lijjhting- of the town during- a period of four years. Tenders 
have also been invited for the concession for the electric lighting 
of the town of Albaida (Province of Valencia). 

Tipperary. — January 11th. New battery for the Union 
electric lighting plant. See " Official Notices " December 2l8t. 



•CLOSED. 



c;,000-K\v. turbo- 



Bolton. — Tramways Committee. Aron Electricity Meter, 
Ltd. Additional meter at the Spa Road generating station for 
measuring energy for tramway purposes. 

Glasgow. — -Tramways Committee : — 

Dyes & Young. — Commutators. 

Micanite ti Insulators Co., Ltd. — Leatheroid. 

Leeds.— Electricity Committee, 
generator : Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. 

London. — Hackney. — B.C. Electricity Committee. 
Accepted tender : -One 7,500-k.v.a. turbo-alternator and auxiliary 
plant, £32,395 : Messrs. C. A. Parsons & Co., Ltd. 

Salford.— Town Council. British Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 3uO-k.v.a. transformer, at £380, and an 
E.H.T. switch cubicle, at £265. 

Sheffield. — City Council. Electricity and Tramway 
Departments : — 

E. Taylor Ltd. — Construction of penstock and flushing chamber. 
Wellennan Bros.— Erection of sub-station Upwell Street, £i!iO. 
S. P. Bowaer&Co,— Oil storage and measuring system, togetherwith pumps, 
piping, t&c. £4J6. 

Watford.— U.D.C. :— 

Brush Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd.— Turbo-alternator, £8,980. 
Stirling Boiler Co.— Boiler, f 1,750. 



FORTHCOiVlING EVENTS. 



Electro-Harmonic Society.— Friday, January 11th. At B p.m. At the 

Holborn Restaurant (Venetian Chamber), Smoking concert. 
Junior Institution of Engineers.- Friday, January 11th. At 8 p.m. At 39, 

Victoria Street, S.W. Paper on " Construction of Post-War Aeroplanes," 

by Mr. F. W. Halliwell. 
London Association of Foremen Engineers. Saturday, January I2th. At 

7 p.m. At Cannon Street Hotel, E.C. Presidential address by Mr. R. M. 

Campbell. 

Association of Mlalni; Electrical Engineers (West of Scotland 
Branch). — Saturday, January t2th. At 4.80 p.m. At the Royal Technical 
College, Glasgow. Paper on "Cable Complaints," by Mr. J. H. C. Brooking. 

Birmingham and District Electric Club.— Saturday, January 12th. At 
7 p.m. At the Swan Hotel, New Street. Presidential Address by Mr. J. J. 
Richardson. 

Instltnlloo of Electrical Englaeers.— (Manchester Local Section).— 

Tuesday, .January loth. At 7 p.m. At the Engineers' C ub. Paper on 
" Electrical Signalling and Control on Railways." by Mr. C. M. Jacob. 
IllnmlnatinI engineering Society.— Tuesday, January LOth. At 5 p.m. At 
the Royal Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. Paper on "Ten 
Years of Illuminating Engineering," by Mr. L. Gaster. 

-Tuesday, January loth. At 7 iiO p.m. Visit 

Pelfast Association of Engineers. -Thursday, January 17th. At 7.45 p.m. 
At the Municipal Technical lustitute. Paper on " Past, Present and 
Future of the Internal-Combustion Engine," by Pi-of. J. H. Smith. 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers.— Friday, January ISth. At 6 p.m. 
At thjB Institution^of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S.W. Papers 
Land," by Mr. L. A. Legros, and " Utility 
'"- " by Mr. A. Amos. 



OUR HALF YEARLY INDEX. 



As it is necessary to eflfect every possible economy in 
paper consumption, the Index to Vol. 81 of the Elec- 
trical REViE\y, which is now printing, will be supplied only 
to those who, through the post, specially apply for it. To such 
it will be supplied for 3d. jwst free. Any reader or advertiser 
at Home or Abroad who requires a copy for binding, or for 
other purposes, is asked to make application therefor promptly 
to : The Publisher, Electrical Review, 4, Ludgate Hill, 
London, E.C. 4. 



NOTES. 
Electrical Trade with Siberia. — In the course of an 

article on " Industrial Opportunities in Siberia," published in 
Biixxitt, Mr. C. W. Purington says : — In my various trip? through 
the Siberian communities I have frequently inspected small steam 
and electric installations, and have found the electric ones, almost 
without exception, of German manufacture ; while the steam units 
are usually of the German locomobile type. In the city of 
Vladivostock a large and handsome building stands facing' the 
harbour on one of the main streets. The entire building was 
occupied by a great electrical firm of Berlin. From this office the 
company directed, not only the civil installations throughout the 
Primorsk or coast province of Siljeria, but also the principal electric 
installations of the Russian Government. In order to install a 
150-KW. Am.erican generator at Nikolaievsk in 1910, special 
permission was necessary from a firm of German manufacturers. 
Is this incident likely to be repeated .' I think not. The building 
of that German company to which I refer is, I have no doubt, 
boarded up as tight as the German Embassy at Petrograd, and the 
German staff of the company are in safe keeping until the close of 
the war. 

I can give one example of the former use of German electric 
machinery by a gold-mining company using some 20 generators and 
over 100 electric motors for miningpurposes.inconnection with five 
hydro-electric plants that are almost exclusively of German manu- 
facture. This company has now decided not to purchase another 
pound of German machinery of any shape or description. Centri- 
fugal pumps, direct-acting pumps, hoists, electric and steam 
industrial locomotives, excavating and conveying machinery are 
subject to the same comment. .Fuse caps, quicksilver, special 
steels, tools of all descriptions haVe been tor years purchased by 
the Siberian gold-mining companies from Germany. The Russians 
say: "Never again." 

Volunteer Notes. — Londox Army Troops Companies, 

VOL0NTEKR Engineers.— Headquarters, Balderton Street, Oxford 
Street, W. 1. 

Orders tor the week ending January 19th, 1918, by Lieut.-Colonel C. B. 
Clay, V.D., oommandinK :— 

Officer of the IVecJ:.- Second Lieut. H. J. Golding. 

Monday, January 14th.— No. 3 Company, 6.30—8.30. Recruits' Drill, 6.30-8.30, 
Signalling Section, 6.30—8.30. 

Tuesday, January 15th.— Lecture on " Demolitions," 6.30. Physical 
Drill and Bayonet Fighting, 7.30. 

Wednesday, January 16th.— No. 1 Company, Drill, Knotting, &c., 6.3;— 8.30. 
Recruits' Drill, 6..S0. 

Thursday, January 17th.— No. 2 Company, Drill, Knotting, 4c., 6—8. 
Recruits' 6.30— S..-)0. Signalling Section, 6.30—8.30. Ambulance Section, 
6.30—8.30. ' 

Friday, January l8th.— Musketl-y, 6.30—8. 

Saturday, January 19th.— Entrenchments, &c., 2.43— 4.4S. Recruits' Drill, 
2.45— 4.4.'-.. 

Special Notices.— All drills and parades will be at Headquarters unless other- 
wise stated. 

Recruits will attend for Engineering Instruction with the Companies. 

(By order) Maolkoo Yearslkt, Capt. and Adjutant. 

Electric Steel. — The London Foundry Co., Ltd., who.se 
works are near Enfield, with one electric furnace at work, in five 
months made a net profit of £0,200 ; but the rate of profit in the 
fifth month was more than double that in the first month, and it 
is estimated that with two additional furnaces in operation a net 
profit of £60,000 a year will be attained. The company makes 
high-class steel and steel alloys, mostly nickel steel, nickel chrome 
steel, and high-carbon tool steel, from scrap steel. In addition to 
the foregoing products, the whole of which are required for war 
purposes, steel wheels and other castings for motor lorries are 
made. 

In view of the pressing demand for the company's products, 
every effort is being made to complete extensions to the works, 
and within a few months, with three furnaces each of S tons 
capacity, and new generating and foundry plant, the output of the 
works will be lillo tons of steel per month. Th? orders in hand are 
said to be sullioient to keep the present plant working at its 
maximum output day and nigitt till next August. 

An article by Mr. John A. Ilulden in the //-»« tnii! Cmil Tniilex 
Reeiew states that a few years ago steel turnings could be bought 
for 30s. per ton -. the price to-day for the same metal is about 
£4 per ton, the raw material for the manufacture of electric steel 
in the arc type of furnace consisting almost entirely of turnings. 
Fifty 3-ton electric furnaces would consume annually 1.50.000 tons 
of stfeel turnings. For producing electric carbon tool steel, mild- 
steel turnings from shells are in much demand. Xickel-sfeel 
turnings are used for the manufacture of nickel-steel ingots. With 
a suitable grade of scrap no addition of nickel may be required, 
because in any type of electric furnace there is no oxidisation of 
nickel. Similarly, nickel-chrome-steel turnings may be profitably 
converted into nickel-chrome-steel ingots. In acid-Iine<l furnaces 
there is little or no loss of chromium ; in fact, the reactions in this 
furnace are comparable to those of the crucible process. In basic- 
lined furnaces chromium may he retained or eliminated. In the 
former case the phosphorus would not l)e so completely oxidised, 
but, nevertheless, it would be confined to safe limits. It follows 
that for the cheap production of alloy steels, such as nickel and 
nickel-chromium, scrap turnings containing the necessary elements 
should be used. 

From an economic point of view, it is undesirable that alloy- 
steel turnings should be used in charges where the alloying 
elements are not necessary or desirable. Many engineering estab- 
blishments do not keep all these varieties of scrap separate. Fifty 
tons of 3 per cent, nickel-steel scrap contain £300 worth of nickel. 
Taking 50 tons as a weekly average, it represents potentially 
£15,000 per annum. 



40 



THE ELECTEICAL KEVIEW, [voi. S2. xo.2,094. jamarv ii, i9i8. 



Electric Industrial Trucks. — Statistics prove that the 

electric industrial truck can replace from three to five men. who 
are thus released for meeting unusual demands for men— and more 
men. and these economic units also show an increase in the 
handling speed. 

New uses for the industrial truck ore constantly being found, 
''everal years asro the U.S. Government adopted them for use in its 
arsenals, and followinff England's precedent, practically all the 
f:vctories makiufr munitions are now usin<r these '' electrics," and 
are finding them indispensable. Some manufacturers use conveyors, 
but the munition men found that the storage battery ti-uck met their 
requirements much more suitably, first, because the electric industrial 
truck could do all and more than a convevor at a much less cost : 




In-dv?tri.\i. Tkucks C'arryim: 41 



iMi.iNi:. 



secondly, because there was the danger of friction with conveyors : 
and thirdly, because trucks are more mobile. Special models have 
been designed with separate compartmeuts for the transportation of 
shrapnel and other shell, and laa-ge numbers of these trucks are 
being operated by women. 

The trucks are made small enough to operate in the aisles of 
factories and storage warehouses, to run on elevators and into 
freight car,', yet their standard capacity is two tons. Many of 
them carry loads up to l'II.Odu lb . and can climb grades too steep 




Electric Indi- .atrial Trick ix Ajieeicax Factorv. 

for hand trucks. Elevating transfer trucks have also been 
developed which can pick up. carry away, and set down loaded 
interchangeable platforms, thus eliminating hand labour in 
loading and unloading the trucks. 

A prominent petrol car company has a fleet of 49 electric industrial 
1 rucks, and in its plant, which cqyers about 1 1 acres of floor space, 
the average hauls are l.iO ft., and these little trucks successfully 
pull loads up 12 percent, grades. The entire fleet is housed- in 
an f<0 X 80 ft. garajfe. The operating record of a two-ton truck 
was kept during one inonth. and the average cost per ton-mile was : — 
Labour. S20+U : power. S06(i ; maintenance. SOlO : investment 
and depreciation.- .S017. making a total cost per ton-mUe of .S2133. 
This truck averaged :V7 miles per day loaded, plus the same mileage 
empty, and its average daily total tonnage was 141. A single 
example of the labour saving effected in one department of this 
plant plainly proves the economy of the industrial truck. Eighteen 
men were formerly needed to unload storage batteries from ireight 
cars ; eight men with one electric industrial truck now do the 
same work, and do it faster. 

British Electrical Propaganda. — The British Electrical 

and Allied Manufacturers' Association has issued two special issues 
of the B.E.A M..\. Ji'io/iiISof piopiganda purposes in Spain and 
Ru^ia on behalf of British manutacturers. They contain articles 
calculated to impress readers in these two countries with the 
ability of our electrical manufacturers to cater for the electrical 
requirements of Russian and Spanish-speaking purchasers. In 
addition to special articles on such subjects as railway electrifica- 



tion and textile factory installation work carried out by British 
engineers, there are numerous illustrated notices of machinery and 
apparatus manufactured by BE.A.M.A. members. We hops that 
the circulation of literature of this description will help to 
strengthen the position of our firms abroad at the present im- 
portant stage of our history. 

The Position in Spain. — A correspondent in Spain 

writes : — The shoi-tage of coal is causing serious trouble to many 
supply companies. For the past month the " Compania Sevillaila 
de Klectricidad." of Seville, has received only half the quantity 
necessary for the normal output, and many factories in the 
district were shut down for lack of motive power. Rioting of the 
unemployed workmen followed, and an attack was made on the 
jmwer house, resulting in nothing more serious than broken 
winilows. An arrangement has now been come to. the consumption 
of energy for lighting purposes being restricted to certain houis. 
and the coal thus saved is being used for the day power load. 

In order to prevent shortage of current in the mines of Murcia 
anil in other industries employing thousands of workmen, the 
" Sociedad Hidro-Electrica de Espana" has been ordered by the 
Government Commission of Supply to refuse public supply between 
the hours of mid-day and 2 p.m. at its steam-driven power houses 
in the provinces of Murcia, Madrid. Valencia, and .■\licaate. For 
the same reason the tramway services m JIadrid and '\'alencia are 
to be .stopped between 1 a.m. and C. a.m. 

In La Union (near Cartagena) the merchants have sent a jijlilion 
to the supply company demanding an eflicient supply of current 
within two days, failing which they will shut down their factories 
and close their shops, will organise a procession in the streets, and 
will, further, refuse to pay accounts for energy supplied. 

Electrical Resistivities of Iron Alloys. — -^ recent 

article by Mr. T. S. Fuller, of the Research Laboratory of the 
General Electric Co. (U.S.A.). in the Heiienil Elect rir J!erien\ con- 
tains some interesting data on the above subjtct. obtained from an 
investigation of the electrical resistivities of a series of iron alloys. 
Most of these were melted either in an atmosphere of hydrogen or 
in a vacuum : the component metals used were Swedish iron. 
Goldsmith chromium and manganese, nickel, and cobalt. 98-99 jier 
cent. pure. Portions of the UiO gramme melts were swaged and 
drawn down to wire of 01 in. diameter, and all the alloys mentioned 
are sufficiently ductile for wire drawing. The samples were 
annealed, and the resistance measured at room temperature by 
means of a potentiometer using the null method. 

Alloys can be divided into three characteristic groups as regards 
resistivity ; in the first (examples being tin-zinc, tin-lead, tin- 
cadmium. iV;c.). the resistivity can lie calcidated directly from the 
components, if the concentration by volume is known ; in the 
second group (gold-silver, copper-nickel, iron-nickel. i^c.\ the alloy 
resistivity is much greater than that of either of the components. 
The components of the first group represent a mechanical mixluie. 
in the second group they are in solid solution, in a third group 
they are present in a semi-miscible state, that is. one in which two 
series of solid solutions are separated by a gap : examples of this 
group are copper-silver, copper cobalt. Jcc. All the systems con- 
sidered by the author belong to the second group. The- iron-nickel 
alloys range in resistivity from the values for iron and for nickel 
up to a maximum of Siili microhms per cm.'' (Fe fi(i p.c. Xi 34 pc). 
The alloys containing large amounts of iron are readily oxidised, 
and should not be used unprotected at temperatures above 
4o0-.-,0ii° C. 

The iron-chromium series ptesents only a small difference in 
resistivity for alloys containing 10. 20 and 30 per cent, chromium ; 
the addition of 10 per cent. Or increases the resistivity five-and-a- 
half times, and gives a value 32 times the resistivity of copper. 
The more Cr present the greater the resistance to oxidation at 
high temperatures : alloys containing 20 per cent, or more of Cr 
may be safely used up to 800"^ C. Alloys containing 80 p.c. Fe and 
20 p.c. Cr, and 78 p.c. Fe and 22 p.c. Cr. have a resistivity of GO 
microhms per em\ 

The addition of about 30 per cent, of cobalt to iron about doubles 
the resistivity . like the iron-nickel -series, the iron-cobalt alloys 
are readily oxidised at high temperatures, and should not be used 
above 400-500° C. 

Data of the iron nickel-chromium system shows resistivities 
ranging from 11 '8 to 12 microhms per cm.'' for nickel and iron 
individually, to 113 microhms per cm.' (Pe 20 p.c, Ni 55 p.c. Cr 
2.''> p.c, or Fe 10 p.c. Xi 53 p.c, Cr.. 37 p.c), this figure being liti 
times the resistivity of copper. 

The only alloys of this group which are not highly resistant to 
high temperature oxidation are those containing large amounts of 
Fe and less than- 20 per cent, of Cr. All others resist oxidation to 
a high degree. Those alloys containing large amounte of Ni and 
20 per cent, or more of Cr are the most resistant to o^dation, and 
may be used at temperatures up to 1.000° C. Alloys containing up 
to and including 37 per cent. Cr were made : this is the limit of 
forgeability. The iron-nickel-manganese alloys have resistivities 
up to 103 microhms per cm.' (Fe 55 p.c. Ni 3ti p.c. Mn 9 p.c, or 
Fe 53 p.c. Ni 36 p.c. Mn 1 1 p.c). These alloys are readily oxidised 
at high temperatures, and should not be used above red heat. 

What has been said of the iron-nickel-chromium system applies 
equally well to the iron-nickel-chromium-manganese alloys. Those 
having a lugh nickel and chromium content are resistant to oxida- 
tion at high temperatures, and may he safely used up to 1,000° C. 
Resistivities of 111 microhms per cm.' are obtained with Fe 42 pc. 
Ni 39 p.c, Cr 16 p.c. Mn. 3 p.c, or Fe 34 p.c, Ni 50 p.c, Cr 10 p.c, 
Mn (i p.c. 

Six tables, showing the resistivity of alloys of varying com- 
position, are included in the article. 



Vol.S'i. Xo. 2,094, January 11. 11H8.] THE ELECTRICAL EEVIE^V. 



41 



An Investigation of Air Pumps.— The important depar- 
ture by the Xorth-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders in appointwig' a Committee of expert eng-ineers to test 
apparatus offered by manufacturers and accepted by the Council 
has resulted in a very comprehensive report on the working of air 
pumps, such as are used in connection with the condenser plant of 
steam engines. The manufacturers in this case were Messrs. 
Richardsons. Westgai-th i: Co., Ltd., and the tests were carried out 
at their Hartlepool works. 

The investigations undertaken by the Institution will include 
air pumps of the reciprocating type and of the rotary and jet tyjies. 
The present report deals with tests made on pumps of the recipro- 
cating type only, and the point of chief technical interest is the 
fact that the tests have demonstrated that remarkable influence iu 
the withdrawal of air from a condenser is possessed by a steam jet, 
or a series of jets, when used in combination with such pumps. 

The original conception of combining a steam jet with an air 
pump was due to Mr. James Atkinson, of London, who in 1886 
proposed it in connection with the cooling of liquids under high 
vacuum. In 1902 it was developed by Sir Charles Parsons in his 
vacuum augmentor for use with steam engine condensers, and at 
later dates it has been farther considerably improved by Mr. D. B. 
Morison, of Hartlepool. These improvements, known as the 
Kinetic system, are dealt with in the report, together with the 
" wet ajid dry " and other systems now in general use. 

The report demonstrates beyond question that no mechanical 
contrivance is so simple and so efficient as a steam jet for com- 
pressing a large volume of highly attenuated air through a small 
degree of compression, and. as is already well known to engineers, a 
reciprocating air pump is a very efficient means for discharging mode- 
rate volumes under a high degree of compression. Consequently, the 
correct solution of the problem of air discharge from a condenser 
is to withdraw a large volume of aerated vapour by means of one 
or more steam jets, and compress it through the range of com- 
pression in which the steam jet works with very high economy, 
and then pass it on at such an absolute pressure that an air pump 
or other device can discharge it to the atmosphere also with very 
high economy. 

The report shows that for a given duty the employment of a 
steam jet on the Kinetic system will allow the speed of a given 
pump to be reduced from 60 strokes per minute to 20. and the con- 
sumption of steam to be reduced by one-third, the pump me- 
chanism remaining exactly as at present. Alternatively and 
obviously, an independently driven pump may be made smaller for 
a given duty. 

Restricting Shop Lighting. — The first order has just 
been issued under the new Defence of the Realm Regulation which 
empowers the Minister of Munitions to restrict the use of any form 
of artificial light. On the ground that " it has become necessary 
for the maintenance of the supply of power for the production, 
repair, and transport of war material and for other work necessary 
for the successful prosecution of the war to restrict the use of 
lights for certain purposes in the area." Mr. Churchill has decided 
that in the County Borough of Derby no light shall be used in any 
shop front on any week day. other than Saturday, after 3.30 p.m. 
or during any period of abnormal darkness occurring at an earlier 
hour. The prohibition does not extend to any light approved by 
the chief officer of police as necessary for the serving of customers 
inside a shop, or to any light used solely for illuminating a small 
sign in a shop front to indicate to persons outside that the shop is 
open for the serving of customers. — Da'dij TeJeijraph. 

Electrical Workers' Bonus. — Toward the end of hist 

week it was noi.sed abroad In London that a strike of electrical 
workers in the metropolis was imminent. It appears from the 
newspaper Press reports that the Electrical Trades Union held a 
meeting in Lon-lon on Thursday, January 3rd. at which expression 
was given to tlit' feelings of discontent that existed because their 
members had not receivetl the 12i per cent, war bonus that had 
been granted to the great majority of workers in the controlled 
establishments several months ago. There were threats of a strike 
unless the advance were conceded by the Ministry of Munition?. 
In the course of Saturday Sir George .4skwith got into touch with 
the Union, and proposed that the men should remain at work on 
the understanding that there should lie a conference on the matter 
on Monday. The trouble involved electrical workers in power 
stations and newspaper and other offices, as well as controlled 
establishments. The conference duly took place on Monday 
In an interview which a Dail ij Mail representative had with 
Mr. \V. J. Webb, the District Secretary of the Union, that 
gentleman remarked: — "This 12i per cent, bonus has cause<I 
niore trouble in the Laboiu- world than anything else. It has 
been granted to many of the lea.st indispensable workers in 
other trades, and refused to highly skilled electrical workers. 
Labourers and men who sweep floors are getting more money than 
some of our skilled mechanics." According to a similar interview 
in the Jimrf, the difficulty arose through references to several 
Committees and the apparent lack of finality. As an instance of 
the peculiarity of the advanced wages, reference was made to one 
department where a skilled man was receiving Is. -IIA. per hour, 
while a labourer was paid Is. 3d. per hour and a bonus I The 
right to the Vl\ jjer cent, advance was claimed in accordance with 
the Government order of October last affecting wages in the 
entfineering and foundry trades. 
^ The conference on ilonday is stated to have lasted eiglit hours. 
Sn- George Askwith, as Chief Industrial Commissioner, met repre- 
-entatives of the employers and of the Union. According to the 
T' •ties, the conference lasted so long owing to the reluctance of 
iome.of the employers to agree to inake.th© payment of the bonus 



retrospective. In the end the advance was agreed to, and it takes 
effect as from October 13th last. We are indebted to the Time' 
for the following report of the terms of the award : — 

" All plain time-working e;nployes in generating stations, sub- 
stations, and on mains directly concerned in the generation and 
distribution of electrical energy, including the technical staff, and. 
in the case of electrical contractors, employes engaged on muni- 
tions work, including the technical staff, shall receive a bonus as 
follows : — 

" 1. All workers who have received not more than 20s. war 
advance, the equivalent of 12'. per cent, on earnings : any advance 
given by a pending decision of the Committee on Production, or 
any advance given by agreement or otherwise, equivalent to the 
advance of .5s. granted by the Committee on Production to certain 
trades from the first full jiay day in December, to be added as a 
war advance to the advance already given, and to count as part of 
the earnings from the date of such advance. "■ 

" 2. All workers who have received over 20s. war advance 
sufficient to produce the equivalent of the 20s. plus 125 per cent, 
on earnings, that is to say. any excess in war advances over 20s., 
shall merge in the 12.J per cent, on earnings. 

'' 3. Workmen who have received the equivalent of 20s. war 
advance plus 121 per cent, on earnings, or more, are not affected 
by this settlement. In calculating whether 2O3. has been received 
it shall be taken as 20s. for the normal week as recognised in the 
district. 

" i. Basis rates of wages and conditions of labour shaU remain 
as at present until the withdrawal of war wages and war bonuses. 
This clause is without prejudice to pending negotiations, if any. 
which may have commenced. 

" 5. This decision shall take effect as from the beginning of the 
first full pay the next after October 13th. 1917." 

The result was announced on Jlonday night to a crowded meeting 
of members which was waiting for the news at the Holbom Town 
Hall. 

Leeds Telephone Service. — The transition of the Leed.s 

telephone service to the automatic system, the preliminary arrange- 
ments for which have been in progress for several mouths past, 
wUl be accomplished in a few weeks' time. The actual change 
will be made almost instantaneously, without any delay or suspen- 
sion of the service. Mr. T. B. Johnson, the superintending engineer, 
announces that due notice wQl be given to subscribers as to the 
exact moment of the changing over. In a minute's time the old 
order will be disconnected, and every line in Central Leeds wiU be 
immediately connected to the new system. All numbers will be 
changed to bring them to afigure exceeding 10000 — 2873. for instance. 
becoming 12873. This alteration is to ensure that the initial 
figure will always signify the same thing, and so set the automatic 
machinery in running order. In the case of a subs?riber having 
several instruments, where all but one are engaged, the automatic 
call will come to the disengaged instrument. So far. Leeds is the 
largest telephone exchange in the world to be converted to the 
automatic system, the experiments already carried out in London. 
Portsmouth. Accrington. Epsom, and Hereford all being on a 
smaller scale. The automatic exchange at Chicago, which is 
larger than any in this country, was built directly for the system 
without transfer. 

Supplies of Gas Colce in the Metropolitan Area. — 

Owing to the presence of large stocks of gas coke at London gas 
works, the Controller of Coal Mines has agreed that any consumer 
who has already put in some form of requisition for coal or coke 
under the Household Coal Distribution Order. 1917. may purchase 
in addition, either directly or through his coal merchant, a supply 
of coke not exceeding .5 tons, provided that arrangements can Iw 
made for delivery before February 1st next. This supply of coke 
is additional to any quantity included in the allowance under the 
requisition, and must be gas coke manufactured within the Metro- 
politan coal ares. 

Appointments Vacant. — Charge engineer for Booth; 
Corporation (^ 150 -I- war bonus £31 4s.): temporary engineer-in- 
charge (£3) for' the Bermondsey B.C. Electricity Department : 
assistant engineer, or fitter-driver, for the Sale U.D.C. Electriciiy 
Works ; charge engineer for the Wakefield Corporation Electriciiy 
Department (49s. lid.) : junior shift engineer for Birminghiim 
Corporation (1:130 + extras): test room superintendent for the 
Halifax Borough Electricity Dejiartment. See our advertisement 
pages to-day. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

The Editors inrite electrical emjineers, tr/iether cimnected with the 
teehiii<;al or the conimercial side of the profession and inditslr;/. 
also electric tramway anil raUtvaij ofiicials, to keep readers of Ike 
Electrical Review postedlK to tlieir movements. 



Central Station and Tramway Officials.— Mr. J. B.^rcko; 
Hudson, deputy borough electrical engineer, Bootle. was p.i 
sented with a solid silver tea sei"vice and framed photogriiii 
of the staff on leaving to take up the position of boroti.: 
electrical engineer and manager at Leigh. The presentat.'.i 
was made by Mr. T. Dawson Clothier, the borough electrii ; 
engineer. 

Mr, J. A. Vict, shift engineer at the Manchester Corpor' 
tion's city electrical stations, has been appointed shift engin'i 
at Stuart Street station at £240 per annum. • 



42 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.82. no. 2,094, jan-uartu, 1918. 



Bedford T.C. has appointed Mr AH. B^-^^^'j;' ^^^f *°^'^- 
on Trent as mains superintendent, out ol 20 applicants. 

St Helen". TC. has advanced the salaiT of the electrical 
endn": Sir KM. Hollingsworth, from £3oO to fo7o a 
jX"i'from November 1st last with a ("rther advance ot 
±••25 from November 1st next; and that of Ml. H. C. ^JU-^^N 
commercial assistant at the electncity works, from ^150 to 
i'17.T a vear. from April 1st next. , 

The Mauche.ster Citv Council had before it on >\ed- 
neidav last week a resolution of the Tramways Committee 
sanctioning he transfer of Mr. J. M. McElroV, the. general 
manager ol- the tramways department, from the Admiralt> to 
he B'c^rd of Trade, so as to enable him to ,^<'S-,'^ ''", .l^-o,*;" " 
uittoe of tramwav experts recently appointed b> the Bodu , 
ad that the lequest of the Adu.iialty that the> may be pei- 
mtted occasion. llv to utilise Mr. McElroy's .sc.rvice.s tor 
IS ^^wk in connection with the 4<"P^»tT°V".^'y^'i''M. 
h^ been serving be acceded to, it being understood that Mr 
McEl™ V wU attend in Manchester to all matters of special 
importance arising in connection with the work of the Tram- 

wavs Ck)mmittee. . • » i t * ^u„ Qt..ivhriili>e 

Mr C H Davies. station sui>ermteudent to the btal\)iiat,t, 

Hvde Mossley and Dukinfield Elec^tricity Board, who re- 

ceiitlv received an appointment under the Adiiiiialt> \\ds 

presented with a silver tea senice by the electrical s aft oi 

the "ffl before finally relinquishing his duties at Stalybndge 

^''Thr^^.rk E C. reports that the engineers at the generating 
station have applied for an increase of wages, and recom- 
mends that thev- be granted £50 each ptn- annum, in addition 
to war wages aftd bonus. The Committee explains that the 
claims of the Anny for young men, and the enormous amount 
o mudtions work, have made the demand for trained engi- 
neers so great that they are able to command considerably 
higher salaries than has hitherto been the case. The Com- 
mittee Imports:-" Since the last meeting ot the Commi ee 
one of the engineers has resigned, and should the Committee 
be unable to retain an adequate and comi>eteut qualified statl 
the undertaking would cease to be in a position to s^upply 
electricity. Apart from the laws ot supply and demand, t lie 
Committee feels that the charge engineers have specially 
responsible work at times like the.^e, when air-raid warnings 
have to be dealt with, and sup<'rvisiqn has to be i-ar^'lul'V 
canied out, and thev think the Council will realise that the 
alternative to meeting the request of these ofhcers for an in- 
crease of salary must undoubtedly be avoided. 

On his resignation from the electrical staft of the Dublm 
I'nited Tramwavs Co. (Ringsend l>ower station), Mr. J. 1 . 
Walsh has been presented by his colleagues with a golrt 

Mr \V M. M11.E.S. analvtical chemist to the Sheffield electric 
supply department, has been i>ermitted to undertake analyses 
of coal samples for the Coal Control Department, which w^ll 
pay him an honorarium at the rate of £oO per annum. 

General.— The directors of the North British & Mercantile 
Insurance Co. have i-ppointed Mr. John E. Bell, A.I.E.E., 
who received his early training at Newcastle Branch, and 
for some time past has been employed at the company s 
Edinburgh office as electrical inspector and surveyor, to be 
second officer at the company's Newcastle branch, with the 
title of " sub-manager." . 

The Lnndon Gazrite contains the following announcement : 
— ■■ Royal Engineers, T.F., Second-Lieutenant to be Lieu- 
tenant,' H. NiMMO. Deeeml>er '21st, 1917." Lieutenant Nimmo 
before joining the Armv was ofticiating head of the electrical 
branch of the Burma Public Works Department. Previously 
he was with the Rangoon Electric Tramways & Supply Co., 
Ltd.. and the Irrawaddv Flotilla Co.. Ltd.. of Rantroon. 

Mr. L. Fhavne Boyf.s, for some time chief outside repre- 
fentative for Scotland for the General Electric Co., Ltd., and 
well known in Clvde shipbuilding circles, subsequently repre- 
senting the British General Electric Co.. Ltd.. of Australasia, 
in Adelaide, South .\u.stralia. Is now Investigator and ."^s-sistant 
to Advisers, Priority Permits Branch, New Zealand Muni- 
tions Department, Wellington. 

The marriage took nlaee at Melmerly Parish Church, on De- 
cember •29th. of Mr. Robert John Halliburton Beaty, 
.\.M.I.E.E.. and Miss Edith Westmorland. 

Mr. .\rthur Willmott. A.M.I.E.E.. has resigned his posi- 
tion (after 11 years) as works manager of the Electric and 
Ordnance Accessories Co., I-td. (Vickers. Ltd.), Birmingham, 
and i.s taking up the post of General manager with Messrs. k. 
A. Lyon A; Wrench. Ltd.. Victoria Road. Wille-sden. 

War Honours.— We congratulate the following upon the 
recognition that has been accQ»ded to them in the War 
Honours List, published on TuesBay last, for their services 
rendered in connection with the war : — 

Order of ilic Uritish Empire. Knight Commanders 
(K.B.E.):- 

A J. I)..riii:in. r.sq.. i h;iiriii.ui. DoriiLin. LoiiK & Ci... I.I.I. 

I.i.ut.-C'i.l, Hcnr; Fo«lrr. rlii.l nn-cli;inica1 cnciivr, MiJlaiiJ K.iilwiiv, und 
-.•.riiltrn.l.-nl ..( iho Roval Aircraft Factorv. Farnboiougll. 

limes MrKerhnie. Esq!, manacing director cl Viikers. Ltd.. Barrow. 

1 ol. A. M J. Oeilvie, C.B.. R.E.. Second Swrn.ir, ,„ the I'ost Office. 

r. r.. r. Prcston. Es".. (hiirtnan. J. Stone i to . Ltd. 

1:. I. Si'wirl. E^q . Public Trustee. 

P. K Stothert. Esq.. West of EngUnd Muniiiors r>oard. 

W. Rr^-ati Thcmso". Eso . Director o{ Auxiliarv Ships' Engines, Con. 
troller't Di'p.'.rtment, .Admiralty, 



Commanders (C.B.E.) : — 

K. W. Allen, Esq. (W. H. Allen. Son & Co.. Bedtord). „,:,..,„ 

Maiur C. J. B. Cooke, chief mc-chan.cal engineer, L. & ^'O '^nl '^' 
\ •■ Hadlev Esu Assistant Controller ol Inspection of Munitions. 
T r' Mirsden Esq rjlanaging director, Flatt Bros. & Co.. Oldham. 
H F I ' Maunsell? Esq., mechanical engineer, S. E. & Chatham Ra'lw^);- 
T.- WorThing'on. M.. la^e Chief of the Uoard of Trade Commercial IntelU- 
gcnce Department. 

Officers (O.B.E.) :— __ , , 

\ F B.rriman. Esq., cliief engineer, Daimler Co., Ltd. ,,. . . , 

IJ. A. B. Jmn«, Esq . late HeSd of the Aluminium Vcl.on. Ministry ol 

^'■y^a'constable. Esq.. Superintending Electrical Engineers^ Department. 

■^''""'^'j'.'' iilenny, Esq., Cliiet StafI Officer, Commercial Intelligence Depar". 

. uou.Jrsjll. lisq.. superintending Engineer. G.P.O. 
' \ HarKer Esq OJ.Sc., F.R.b., Munitions Inventions Department. 
\V. E irelandrtisq. late Chief Engineer. Metropolitan Munitions Com- 

"'p.'Matthey, Esq., managing ^'\!^'<>'-i'>*'r'°\^lt'^%%^°- Admiralty 
1 McC^Hery Esq., Superintending fcleetrical Enginee-r s Dept., Admiralty, 
{y McCleiland, Esq., tl.-ctrical Engineering Assistant to Director of DocK- 

• ^i^'M^a^;?;^E:q.f1:;' m!I^;s. .Babc«:k & ^Vi^ox, Ltxf. 

F ijobinson Esq.. manager, Vickers, Ltd., Sheffield. , „. . 

F; E Smith', Esq., SuperTntendent, Electrical DepartnrK-nt, National PhysLS 

'"j'^Tav'lJr, Esq., manager, Mather & Platt, Ltd. 

H Walker, Esq.. Clark, Chapman S: Co., Ltd. „ . ^ ^, 

"■ " Carnegie, Esq., Commander ot Cable Steamer Pdlrict Slc:.r.,l. 

The list also contains a lengthy section of Membeis 
(M.B.B.). 

Roll ol Honour.— The Grimsby Town Council has congratu- 
lated Lieut. -Col. Vionolks, the borough electncal engineer, 
on his recent promotion, and Sergeant Nuttall, an employe 
of the electric lighting station, uiion wmning the D.O.M 

Gunner C. Nelson, R.F.A., who has died from wounds, 
enlisted when la years of age, and when employed as an 
electrician at Blackpool Tower. t„.,..w. 

Private H V. Atkinson, Lancashire lusdiers, lormcrly 
an employe at Burnley tram shed, was killed in action on 
Decemoer •25th. the day before he should have had the 
nlihon of the Militarv Medal pinned on his breast. 

Private ,T. M.kintosh, of the Border Regunent, who has 
been killed in action, was an apprentice with the British 
\Ve.stinghou.se Co.. Ltd., Trafford Park. , . ^ ■ 

Captain F. B. F. Hargreaves, South Lancashire Regiment, 
recently reported missing, is a prisoner of war in Germany, 
and sutlcring from slight wounds. He was the chief account- 
ant to the Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad Co., Ltd 

Private L Holland, Grenadier Guards, who has fallen in 
action, enlisted whilst with Messrs. Bullers, Ltd., electrical 
china manufacturers, ot Hanley. . , ^ , _ , , „ 

Cable OiJerator S. A. Bremner, ot the Eastern Telegraph Co., 
1 td has died from consumption contracted whilst on service. 
Captain P. H. Di Marco, A.M.I.E.E.. B.E., formerly gene- 
ral manager of the Barnsley & Di.strict Electric Traction Co.. 
has lelinquished his commission on account of wounds and 
ill-health and is granted the honorary rank of Captain. On 
leaving Barnsley. he joined the headquarters staff of the 
British Electrical Federation of London. . 

Private L. J. Carter, Essex Regiment, formerly with the 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd., has, on account of 
wounds, had his right leg amputated. He is in hospital at 
Port Said. ,■ . j t tu 

Sergeant A. W. HuGHES, R.E., who enhsted from th. 
Ru<'bv workers of the B.T.H. Co., has been mentioned in 
dispatches bv Sir Douglas Haig. and has been given a card 
of recognition from the General Commanding the Division for 
distinguished conduct in the field. . 

Private .1. H. Brooks. South Lancashire Regiment, tor- 
merlv on the staft' at the electric sub-station on the Holcombe 
Branch Railway, Ramsbottom, has died in hospital at Oswes- 
trv from pneumonia. . r ^i 

Private T. Gibson, late of the telegraph department of the 
Glasgow A- South-Westem Railway Co., has fallen in action 
in France. t, t^ T^ j 

Captain (Temp. Major) Harrv Richardson, K.E., Dundee, 
has been awarded the Military Cross. The Major is the 
general manager and engineer of the Dundee Corporation 
electricitv department, and has been at the Front for two 
and a half years. He has been previously mentioned in dis- 
patches fordi.stinguished senice at the Front. 

Sapper R. F. I'nsworth, R.E.. who has died in Salonika, 
from dysentery, aged 19 years, 'uas employed at the works 
of the Corlett' Electrical Engineering Co.. Ltd.. Wigan. 

Private R. C. Cranston. Lancashire Fusdiers, killed m 
action on Christmas Dav. was formerly employed in the offices 
of the British Westinghouse Co.. Ltd.. Trafford Park. 

Sergeant J. Cresswell, Lancashire Fusiliers, who has been 
killed in action, after being three times wonnded, was an 
electrician with the Midland Railway Co. 

The Milit;)i-\- Medal has been awarded to Lance-Corporal G. 
Preciocs, West Yorks. Regiment, who was with the Bradford 
Corporation tramways department. , . , , 

Private R. Hills, Umdon. Regiment, formorly m the general 
..die.' of the India-Rubber Co.. Sihcrtown. has been killed 
in action in France. Corporal \\'. Brown. R.F.A.. has been 
eeverelv wounded, Lance-Corporal G. Peters. Royal Fusiliers 
and Rifleman W. Ovens. KE.R., have each been wonnded 
a second time. AH were in tbe proofing department at SJver- 
toivn. 



Vol.82. No. 2,0!»1, January 11, 1918.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



43 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



AmaliSamated Tanneries, Ltd. (149,2(8).— Private com- 
pany. Registered January 1st. Capital, £3,b00 in 3,000 6 per cent. pref. 
shares of £1 i-ach, and 20,000 shares of Is. (id. each. To ta]<e over the 
business carried on by the British Electric Tanning Syndicate, Ltd., at Lang- 
port, Somerset, and to carry on the business of tanners, dealers in hides and 
tanning materials, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are :— S. L. 
livaiis. The Tannerv, Langport, tanner; J. Brown, Huish lipiscopi, Lang- 
porl, tanner. The first directors arc :— S. L. Evans and J. Brown. Regis- 
tered office : The T.mnerv. Huish, near Langport, Somerset. 

Zwicky Patents Syndicate (1917), Ltd. (149,248).— Pri- 
vate company. Registered December 38lh. Capital, £1,000 in £1 shares, 'lo 
adopt an agresment with a syndicate of similar name (in liquidation) to 
acquire patents, to manufacture and deal in articles capable of being used 
in connection with electricity, heat, water, gas, ventilation, sanitation, con- 
struction, and otherwise, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are : — 
W. H. Cole, .50, Brownswood Road, N. 4, solicitor's clerk; G. Kingsley, 
Winchester House, E.C. 2, merrhanr. The first directors are to be appointed 
bv the subscribers. Solicitors : Richardson, Sowerbv, Holden & Co., 5, John 
Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



Hong=Kong Tramway Co.. Ltd. — Salisfactioiii to tht ex- 
tent of FsOO on June 35lh, 1917, of Irusl dee^ dated July 1st, 1903, securing 
£195,000. 

Jarrow & District Electric Traction Co., Ltd. — Satisfac- 
tion to the e.\tent of £IU,«00 between October 1st, 1913, and December 12th, 
1917, of debentures d.ited August 3rd, 1910, securing £15,000. 

Nairobi Electric Power & Ligliting Co., Ltd. — Satisfac- 
tion to the exlenl of £4,000 on Decembor 31st, 1917, of debentures dated 
1913-15, securing £20.000. 

Insulated Cap & Rivet Co., Ltd. — Debenture dated De- 
cember 21st, 1917, to secure £3,000 ehargcd on the company's interest in cer- 
tain premises at Junction Kuad, Highgale, and its geiK-ral assetii. Holders : 
Rolls-RoNce, Ltd. 

Bogota Telephone Co., Ltd. (69,059).— Capital, .^645, 000 

ill 20,000 pref. and 2.3.0OU del. shares of £1 each. Return dated November 
2!ltli.. 1917. 20,000 pref. and 18,607 def. shares taken up; £29,607 paid on 
11,000 pref. and 18,607 del.; £9,000 considered as paid on 9,000 pref. Murt- 
g.iges and charges : Nil. 

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd. — Cliari<o on 

the comp.iMv's un.l.Ttaking and ass. Is (sulijeet lu £12,000 deb-nturei aullio- 
lised), d;.lcJ Decembor 17tli, 1917, to secure .ill sums owing to H. Darwin 
in respect of his guarantee of the conipaiu's banking account for an amount 
not exceeding £10,000. 

City of Oxford Electric Tramways, Ltd. — Satisfaction to 

rhe extent of £1,100 between Febru.irv 22nd and December 13th, 1917, of 
charge dated February 20th, 191i. securing £46,000. 

Rhondda Tramways Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction to tlie extent 

of £4,300 on December 14th, 1917, of charges dated 1911-15, securing £250,000. 

Bogota Telephone Co., Ltd. (69,059).— Capital. .£45,000 

in 20,000 pref. and 25,000 def. shares of £1 each. lielurn dated November 
29th, 1917. 20,000 pref. and 18,607 def. shares taken up. £29,607 paid on 
11,000 pref. and 18,607 def.; £9,000 considered as paid on the remaining pref. 



Mori 



ages 



and cha 



Nil. 



Brecl(nell, Munro & Rogers, Ltd.— Capital, J20,000 in 

2.000 pref. shares of £5 each and 20.000 ord. shares of 10s. each. Return 
dated November 19th, 1917. 1.058 pref. and 14,829 ord. shares taken up. 
£5,673 IDs. paid on 1,058 pref. and 767 ord.; £7,031 considered as paid on 
the remaining ord. Mortgages and charges : £7,900. 

Christy Bros. & Co., Ltd. (90,039).— Capital, ^12,000 in 

9,000 ord. and 3,000 def. shares of £1 each. Return dated August 31st, 1917 
7,926 ord. and 3,000 def. shares taken up. £1,826 paid; £9,100 considered as 
paid. Mortgages and charges : £4,600. 



CITY NOTES. 



German 
Companies. 



The A.G. fill- ElcHrizitdts Anlagcn, of 
BcrUii, which has a share capital of 
ioOO.OOO, and loan.s amountinf; to i;'294,000, 
reports a decline in the gross profits on 
the company's investiiients in supply undertakings for the 
year 1916-17, and an increase in the working expenses. As 
net profits, the accounts exhibit the sum of £31,000, as com- 
pared with £4*2,000 in 1915-16, and the directors recommend 
a distribution of 6 per cent., this contrasting with 8 per cent. 
in 1915-16, and in each of the four preceding years. 

The accounts of Siemens £ HaUhe A.G. for the year ended 
on July 31st, 1917, after allocating £75,000 to the S'ieraenstadt 
War Care Foundation, as in the previous year, show net 
profits of £643,000, as compared with £6-25,000 in 1915-16. It 
is proposed again to pay a dividend of 12 per cent., to transfer 
£100,000 to the special reserve fund, as in the preceding year, 
grant £60,000 as bonus to staff and workmen, and place 
£'25,000 to the disposition fund, leaving £64,000 to be carried 
forward, as against £60,000 in 1915-16. 

The rejxtrt of the Elektrische Liclit nnd Kraftanhgen A.G.. 
of Berlin, which is an investment company, refers to the 
year 1916-17, and gives particulars concerning the position 
of various Russian undertakings, as well as that of the con- 
cerns in Germany in which the company holds interests The 
accounts .show net ))iofit.s of £91.000 on an i>rdinarv sliart^ 
I'apital of £1,.5<KI.0(HI. ant) loant^ of £1,8:30,000, as cttntrasted 
with £93.0i\) in the. preceding vear. It is propoi^ed to va\ a, 
dividend of 5 per cent., being the same rate as in 1915-16 and 
in each of the two previous years. 

The financial statement of the Siemens-Schuckert Werke in- 
dicates pros,? profits of £1,310,000 for tbo year ended on 



July 31st, 1917, as contrasted with £1, '274,000 in the preceding 
year. After deducting general expenses and interest charges, 
the net profits are returned at £793,000, as against £7(35,00<J 
in 1915-16. The dividend is at the rate of 10 per cent., as 
in the previous year; £1'25,000 is transferred to the reserve 
fund, as in 1915-16, £100,000, as against £75,000, allocated as 
bonus to the staff and workmen, and £'25,0(K) put to the dis- 
position fund, as in the previous year. The Wiir Care Founda- 
tion receives £75,000, and £18,000 is carried fonvard, these 
contrasting with £75,000 and £15,000 respectively in the pre- 
ceding twelve months. 

The accounts of Siemens Eleki rkche Betriebe A.G., of Ber- 
lin, exhibit net profits of £83,000 for 1916-17, as compared 
with £83,000 in the preceding year. The directors recom- 
mend the payment of 5 per cent., as in 1915-16. 

The Bergmann Elektrizitiits Unternehmnngen A.G., of 
Berlin — the financial undertaking of the Bergmann Co. — 
states that the construction of the Magdeburg-Schonebeck 
suburban line had to be suspended owing to the war. The 
recovery of a portion of the outstanding debts cau.sed the 
ileficit to be reduced from £'21.000 to £14,000 on a paid-up 
capital of £300,000. 

The lihein Schuckcrt Gesellschaft, of Mannheim, reports 
net profits of £46,000 for 1916-17, as contrasted with £45,000 
in the previous year. A dividend of 5 per cent, is in con- 
templation, being the same as in 191.5-16. It is now intended 
to change the title to that of the Rhenish Electricity Co., and 
to extend the scope by embarking on the construotion of 
electrical and other machinery. 

me ll'o^on Werke A.G., of Leipzig, reports the allocation 
of £14,000 to depreciation in 1916-17, as against £5,600 in the 
previous year, leaving net profits of £30,000 and £16,000 in 
the two years respectively. A dividend at the rate of 40 per 
cent, has been declared on the share capital of £40,000, thi.-, 
comparing with '25 per cent, in 1915-16. As a result of the 
great demand, the company acquired machine-tool works at 
riagwitz, and the share capital is being increasetl to £80,000 
for the extension of this undertaking. 

The du-ectors of the Berliner Elckfri::itats Werke A.G., of 
Berlin, which undertaking is now purely an investment com- 
pany, state in their report for 1916-17 that the A.E.G. at pre- 
sent owns four-fifths of the ordinary share capital of 
.£'2, '205, 000, and they give a list of the securities held in 
various supply works. The net profits are returned at 
£'243,000, as contrasted with £2'26,000 in 1915-10. After the 
payment of 4i i)er cent, on the preference capital of £1,000,000, 
the balance peiToits of the distribution of 8 per cent, on the 
ordinary shares, as against 7 per cent, in the preceding vear. 

Tlie report of the Bayerische Stickstoff Werke A.G\, of 
Munich, which deals ^yith the year ended on May 31st, 1917. 
states that the operation of the company's own works and 
of tho.'ie under its management was influenced by the diffi- 
culties associated with the war, so that the full output was 
not reached in every case. A number of new plants for the 
production of carbide and of cyanamide were erected on the 
company's process for foreign account. After allocating 
£34,000 to depreciation, as again.st £46,000 in 1915-16, the 
accounts show net profits of £77,000, as compared with 
£73,000, and a dividend of 14 per cent, has been declared, 
being the .same rate as in the previous year. 

The financial statement of the Elektrizitdts A.G. vorm. 
Srhuckert £ Co., of Nuremberg, for the year ended July 31st. 
1917, has been issued, and shows gross profits of £466,000, as 
ctmipared with £516,000 in the preceding year, exclusive of 
£80,000 and £76,000 brought forward in the two vears res- 
])ectively. After deducting £171,000, as against £189,000 for 
general exi>enses, interest on loans, taxes and depreciation, 
and coupon tax, the accounts .show net profits of £375,000, as 
contrasted with £403,000 in 1915-16. It is proposed to pav 
8 per cent, on the share capital of £3.500,000, this rate coni- 
paring with 8 per cent., 6i per cent., and 6J per cent, in the 
three preceding years resi>ectively. 

The directors of the Telephon Fabrik .4.G. vorm. J. Ber- 
liner, of Hanover, report an increased tutnover in 1916-17 
and the possession of large orders for the Government. In 
connection with the C. Lorenz Co.. the company formed in 
Vienna an undertaking for electrical, physical and optictil 
apparatus, and subscribed £'20,000 as one-half of the share 
capital. The company was .still without any reliable in- 
formation concerning its foreign undertakings, .^fter writ- 
ing off £39,000 for depreciation, as against .£31,000 in 1915-16. 
the accounts indicate net profits of £99,000, as cnntrasteii 
with £1'23,000, and a dividend of '2.1 per cent, is proposed, as 
in the previous year. It is intended to increasse the share 
capital by £125,000 to £375,000. 



Dublin United Tramways (1896), Ltd.— 5 per cent. iM^r 
annum (5s. jier share) on ordinary shares for half-year; £7,000 
to reserve and renewal fund; £15,000 for renewal of rails; 
£11,500 written off investments; £13, .161 carried forward. 

Direct United States Cable Co., Ltd.— Inleiim divitlend of 
'2s. |irr i-haiv. I-'.-;- tax at ."it-., being at the rate of 1 per cen(. 
per auntut), for tbi; quarter cntled Decembor 31st. 

M'ater Softeners, Ltd.— The -iccounts lor the vear ended 
June 30th, 1917, after wntmg off £383 for depreciation, show 
a profit of £4,748, which reduces the debit balance to be 
carried forwanl to £13,433.— F/unncw/ Times. 



44 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 82. No.2,094, jasuart ii, isi*. 



Underfeed Stoker Co., Ltd. — Interim dividend at the 
rate of 5 pev cent., less tax, for 1917. 



Lima Light, Power & Tramways Co. 

cent, on the shares, less income-tax. 



-Dividend of li per 



Companies Struck Off the Register. — The followinfi have 
been struck off the register, and are dissolved ; — 

CIcTrtono .Antiseptic Telephone Drum, Ltd. 

Electrolysers, Ltd. 

Electromechan, Ltd. 

Metallic Alloys, Ltd. 

Tvrone Power Co., Ltd. 

Universal Electi-ic Contracts, Ltd 

France. — The Scx-ietc Knerfjie ElecLrique du Sud-Ouest, 
of Paris, is increasing its capital from ±'960,000 to ±1,200,000. 

Kaministiquia Power Co. — Dividend, 3 per cept. (at the 
rate of 8 pev cent, per annum) on the common stock for. the 
quarter to January 31st. 

Crompton & Co., Ltd. — •\\'arraiits have been posted for a 
dividend on the preference shares at the rate'oi 7 per cent. 
j>er annum for the half-year ended September 30th, 1917. 



5T0CKS AND SHARES. 



TuESD-iY Evening. 
The strength with which Stock Exchange markets opened 
the New Year received further imi)etus from the speech of 
the Premier last week-end. This had a good efl'ect all round 
the Stock Exchange, inducing buying in many depai'tments, 
and infusing a sentiment of cheerfulness into the House as 
a whole. It quickened business not only- amongst high-class 
securities, but in the industrial market as well, and a number 
of the best-class commercial shaies stand higher on the week. 

Electrical shares have not been overlooked in this connec- 
tion. British Insulated rose to Si, India-Pvubi>er shares to 14i, 
and in those cases where prices have not been altered the 
difficulty is to buy shares, rather than to sell them. The 
disappointing market is still tiiat for Home Railway stocks, 
where the gleam^ of strength imparted by a little investment 
after New Year's' Day quickly gave place to a reaction amongst 
prices and a falling away of bu.siness, although the li.st has 
retained part -of the improvement registered when the Stock 
Exchange restarted work on January '2nd. Undergrounds 
have come to the front during the past few days, and the 
Income Bonds of the big company are better at 82, while the 
Is. shares put on a few pence at 5s. 3d. Metropolitans are 
1 up, and in this connection it may be mentioned that Lonclon 
United TramA\-ays 1 per cent. Debenture stock has gained a 
point at 36i. Districts, however, are dull at loi. 

Investors are, of course, putting as much money as they 
can into the various sources of war borrowing, but "there are 
.some who have sufficient monejf left over to average securi- 
ties which they hold at higher prices, and there is something 
of a famine in the gOt-edged stocks m the Home Radway 
market. A few hundred pounds of Metropolitan District anil 
London Electric 4 i>er cent. Guaranteed, which can be ob- 
tained at 69J, affords a return of 5 per cent, on the money. 
London Electric 4 per cent. Preference can be bought at (33. 
and District 4§ per cent. Preference at 69, giving returns of 
6i and 61 per cent, respectively. There is a fair amount of 
Central London Guai-anteed 4 per cent. Assented Preferred 
available at 62, offering an investor ±6 lis. 6d. per cent, on 
his money. 

The list of electrical supply sbaj'es is very steadv, without, 
however, any change having occurred worth mentioning. 
We have discussed with various financial authorities the pros- 
pects of the industry as they may be modified in the light 
of the sub-committee's report on the coal conseiTation scheme. 
The consensus of opinion leans to the idea that the proposals 
for saying coal and money, put forward l)y the sub-committeo, 
are likely to fare in practice no better tha'n the variou.s 
schemes drawn up to the same end in past vears, and that 
the difficulty of obtaining anything like central control and 
organisation is greater than the sub-committee imagine. 
Therefore, from the point of view of practical politics, the 
.scheme is regarded as interesting, but Uttle more, anil the 
likelihood of its having any effect upon shares in existing 
companies is scarcely discussed as w-ithin the province of 
present-day possibilities. 

The recently-threatened strike amongst electrical workers 
was without influence upon market prices, the opinion bein" 
general that composure of the differences was only a matter 
of tune. 

The report of the British Columbia Electric Railway Co 
summarised here last week, afforded satisfaction to the market 
and those mtimately connected with this company The re- 
suites m the way of dividends were much about the same 
as had been anticipated, and, except for a httle inquirv for 
.some^of the prior-charge stocks, no particular tendencv fol- 
lowed the issue of the report. Anglo-Argentine Tram« are 
stiU weak in consequence of the postponement of the divi- 
dend on the Fu-st Preference. shares, but Brazil Tractions 
are a bettor market, <hanks to the stronger tone that has 



developed amongst bonds of the Brazilian Government and 
various other securities connected with Brazil. The feehng 
towards Mexico also is rather more hopeful, and those who 
were deploring the fate of the utility companies as being 
sealed until the end of the war are beginning to ask whether 
there may not be .something to " go for " before i)eace is 
signed. Of course, with prices so low as they are now, there 
are not many sellers, so that any little inquiry for stock exer- 
cises a sharply favourable effect uix>n prices. Mexico Tram- 
ways bonds of both clas.ses are 5 points higher. 

.\stonishment is the prevailing .sentiment in regard to the 
remarkable proposal placed before holders of Brisbane Elec- 
tric Tramways shares by the authorities in Queensland. As 
things stand at present, the company can be taken over on 
a profits basis, but the calm suggestion is. made that the com- 
pany should reduce its fares (and therefore its profits) with- 
out alteration in the basis of its being taken over. Naturally ■ 
the board have entered a strong protest against the injustice 
of such a plan, and we can hardly supiwse that it will be in- 
effective. The incident is unfortunate, to say the least of it, 
and the price of the ordinary shares has fallen 10s. to 6J. 
Calcutta ordinary are better at 7, and the 5 per cent. del?en- 
ture stock of the Electrical Supply of Victoria is 2 points up 
at 92. 

Telegraph issues are quietly good, and Chile Telephones 
strengthened to 7^. Marconis recovered to 3 3/16, Americans 
to 25s. 9d. The armament group is harder. Rubljer shares 
have shaken off most of their December dulness, and the 
copper market is also stronger. Chemical shares show an 
ea.sy tendency, with Castner-Kellners 3/32 lower at 3 5/1(5. 
At the same price, Babcock & Wilcox are 1/10 to the good'. 



SHAKE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES, 

HOHB BLSOTRIOITY OoUPAHlSf. 

Dividend Price 

^ ■ * ■\ Jan. 8, Rise or (all 

1916. 1916. 1918. this week, 

Brompton Ordinary .... 10 9 6i — 

Charing Cross Ordinary ..66 4 — 

do. do. do. iiVtel,, H H ^ — 

Chelsea * 8 3| — 

City of London 8 B IBi — 

do. do. 6 per cent, Pre!, 6 8 10^ — 

County of London . . . . T t 11 — 

do. 6 per cent, Pref, 8 8 lOJ — 

Kensington Ordinary .... 7 6 6| — 

London Electric u I^il 1 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref, 6 t 8) — 

Metropolitan 8 8 Sj — 

do. 44 per cent, Pref, 4) H ajxa — 

St. James' and Pall Mall ..86 7 — 

South London B 6 8 — 

South Metropolitan Prel. . . 7 7 21/6 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 7 6| — 

TaLKSBATHB AND TIUIBOHBI, 

Anglo- Am. Tel. Pret, .... 6 8 Soi — 

do. Def 8i;8 1) 23% — 

Chile Telephone 8 8 1^ -f j", 

Cuba Sub. Ord 6 7 9j — 

Eastern Extension .... 8 8 15 — 

Eastern Tel. Ord. .. .. 8 8 150i — 

Globe Tel. and T. Ord 7 7 18| — 

do. Pref. ..8 6 lOj — 

Great Northern Tel aa 94 SB — 

Indo-European IS 13 62^ — 

Marconi 10 16 8['j -I- ^ 

Orisntal Telephone Ord. .. 10 10 B — 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 6y — 

West India and Pan 6d. 6d. V,, — 

Western Telegraph ....7 8 ISj — 

HoHB Ruu, 

Central London, Ord. Assented 4 4 60i — 

Metropolitan 1 1 ast + I 

do. District .. .. Nil Nil ISJ + i 

Underground Electric Ordinary Nil Nil Ig — 

dc. do. "A" .. Nil Nil 5/3 -i-Sd. 

do, do. Income 6 4 i'2 +1 

FoBiiSH Trams, ic. 
Dividend 

1916, 1918 

Adelaide Bap. 6 per cent, Pret. 6 8 4i — 

Anglo-Arg. Trams, First Pref, Bi H H — 

do. and Pref. .. 6j — 9J — 

do, 6 Deb, ..6 6 634 -1 

Brazil Tractions 4 4 46 —1 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 9i — 

British Columbia Eleo, Rly. Pfce. 6 6 4^ — 

do. do. Preferred Nil Nil 30 — 

do. do. Deferred Nil Nil 28 — 

do. do. Deb. 4i 41 66 — 

Mexico Trams 6 per cent. Bonds Nil Nil 324 ■^5 

do. 6 per cent, iionds Nil Nil 8^4 +5 

Mexican Light Common . . Nil Nil IT4 — 

do. Pref Nil Nil 29 — 

do. Ist Bonds . . Nil NU 324 — 

MAmVAOTUBINa COHIAimB. 

Babcock 4 Wilcox . . . . 16 16 3j\ + ,>, 

British Aluminiiun Ord, .. 7 10 l^;^ — 

British Insulated Ord 174 30 9i -t- i 

British Westinghouse Pref, . . 74 74 2iJ — 

CaUenders 20 90 I44 — 

do. 6 Pref 6 6 4 — 

Caslner-Kellner 99 90 Pj-j — j'j 

Edison Swan, fully paid . . — — 2s — 

do. do. 4 percent, Deta. 4 4 754 — 

Electric Construotion .... 74 74 li — 

Uen. Eleo. Pref 6 6 10+ — 

do. Ord 10 10 19J — 

Benley 96 96 16i — 

do, 44 Prel. ...... 44 44 4 — 

India-Habber 10 10 144 + J 

Sale«rapb Oon. 30 90 414 — 

* Dividends paid free of income-tax. 



Yield 
p.c. 

£6 18 6 

6 5 

6 18 4 

6 9 1 

6 9 

6 18 6 

6 7 8 

5 18 6 

6 11 1 
Nil 

6 6 8 

4 12 4 

6 13 4 

6 14 6 

6 IS 4 

6 10 6 

6 9 8 



•6 6 8 
•6 6 4 

♦6 1 10 

6 17 1 

6 11 6 

6 8 to 

4 14 1 



Vol.82. No. 2,004, JANUARY 11,1918.1 THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



45 



NATIONAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 

Interim Keport of the Coal Conservation 
Sub-Committee. 



{Concluded from page 8.) 

While it might be feasible for local concern.?, whether muni- 
cipal or company, to retain, as sei»rate bodies, the ownership 
of mains and the business of supplying Ughting and small 
power consumers, the generation and main transmission and 
distribution of electrical energy, and the business of supplying 
power to manufacturers, railways, and other large users, 
must, in each industrial district, be in the hands of one 
organisation. If the lighting and small ix)we.r business were 
left in the hands of the existing authorities, arrangements 
would have to be made by the Commissioners, in settling the 
terms between the new authorities and the existing authori- 
ties to ensure the consumer getting the benefit of any reduc- 
tion in the price of electricity consequent on generation on a 
laige scale. There can be no que.stion, however, that if the 
criterion upon which this matter has to be settled is the 
price of electricity and the consei-vation of coal, the argu- 
ments in favour of handing over the whole business to the 
new authorities predominate. 

The proposal to link up adjacent power stations is a st«p 
in the direction of greater economy, and should be encouraged, 
provided it is appreciated that it is only a step. As a perma- 
nent solution it is not effective, for first, it is impossible to 
run a large number of linked-up stations at the highest 
economy unless they are under the same ownership and 
control, and, secondly — and more important — where such sta- 
tions are under separate control a linking-up scheme, pure 
and simple, tends rather to perpetuate the uneconomical sta- 
tion than the reverse. 

It has been frequently proposed as an alternative to mere 
linking up that bodies should be created which would deal 
solely with bulk supply, existing authorities being compelled 
to tak^all further electrical energy beyond what they can 
generate in their present stations fi-om the new bulk supply 
system, and being allowed to nm their existing stations as 
far a€ they desire to do so far a period of years. The dis- 
advantages are that it would take much longer to make a 
change over to economical generation on account of the 
tendency of the existing bodies to wi.sh to keep their own 
plants. The delay in the transfer of the load w-ould prevent 
tjie greatest economies being effected. When the transfer 
was complete, the existing bodies would be left with indif- 
ferent plants which had become obsolete. 

If the existing stations were owned or operated by different 
bodies they would not be of so much use for stand-by and 
peak-load purposes as they might otherwise be. 

On the other hand, wherever there is unity of ownership 
and control, not only are all the advantages of linking-up 
secured, but the erection on coirect lines of all further gene- 
rating plant required is assured. 

If a comprehensive system of electricity supply were in- 
augurated it may be confidently stated that, on the basis of 
the extent to which power is used at present, a saving of 
.55 million tons of coal per annum can be expected. Taking 
the value of this coal for exix)rt purposes as 10s. per ton, the 
national annual advantage of the change, available for in- 
t^-rest on capital, is, say, ±''27,.50O,CHXt in coal alone. Alter- 
natively, if this 55 million tons of coal were used for ex- 
tended and new industrial processes, some 15,000,000 h.p. 
continuously throughout the year would be available for the 
purpose. 

lliis saving of £27,500,000 per annum takes no account of 
the following additional and important advantages which 
would directly result from the establishment of an efficient 
electric power supply system throughout the country : — 

l.A reduction in the cost of transport in carrying coal. 

2. A possible saving in coal consumption for domestic pur- 
poses (the constmiption for which purpose is now probably 
35 million tons per annum). 

3. The reduction in the cost of coal handling involved in 
house-to-house delivery- and general coal distribution. 

4. The great advantages and economies which would result 
from the more ext-ended use of electricity in the household 
for heating, cooking, and cleaning purposes in the way of 
labour-saving devices, reduction of smoke, increased cleanli- 
ness, &c. 

5. The possibility of utilising the coal at present left in the 
pits or otherwise wasted. 

6. The possibility of extracting by-products, &c., before 
consuming the coal for power purposes. 

7. The increase in railway electrification, with its attendant 
advantages, which a comprehensive electric ix)wer supply sys- 
tem would render commercially possible and profitable. 

AH these savings and advantages taken together .show a 
total po.ssible national advantage which can hardly be put 
at le-ss than £100,000,000 per anum, apart from the manufac- 
turing and industrial advantages of a cheap and efficient elec- 
tric power supply. 

It may be asked why it is that the so-called power com- 
panies have not had a greater effect in developing power 
supply on correct lines. 

The more one considers the matter and examines the facts 



the' more clear does it become that the so-called " Power 
Act " legislation was faulty in certain important respects. In 
the result the electric lighting authorities in the majority of 
imix>rtant districts have, frum their point of view, succeeded 
in practically stopping the growth of the power companies. 
except in one or two cases. Jsot only has the price of elec- 
tricity throughout the country been maintained at altogether 
too liigh a figure as a result of the perpetuation of an ineffi- 
cient sy.stem, but the large and ample power supply has not 
been made avaOable, to the great disadvantage of the nation 
at the present crisis and for future industrial development. 

In order to secure, even on existing lines of development, 
the more correct extension of electricity undertakings as the 
demand grows, it has |^n proposed to appoint electricity 
commissioners. Recommendations have been made by the 
Power Companies' Association to Sir Charles Parsons's Com- 
mittee on this matter, and it is understood that their report 
will deal with it. 

What is required is not only the appointment of commis- 
sioners, but the instruction to them to arrange in each dis- 
trict for the establishment of one electricity body owning 
and operating the electricity supply system, this body, except 
possibly for dealing with lighting and small power con.=umers. 
to take over all existing stations and mains, running the whole 
electric power supply system for the district, and at once 
making arrangements for the generation of power on a large 
■scale, preferably from sujier-stations, erected also for dealing 
with the new processes already refened to. 

This raises the question as to 'whether in arranging for such 
new body to take over the electricity supply business in any 
given area the business should be dealt with by the State, 
by municipal enterprise, by private enterprise, or by a combi- 
nation of these. As it may be useful to consider the different 
alternatives possible, brief reference to them is made in 
an .\ppendix. 

.An analysis of the existing situation in the industrial area? 
of the country indicates that there are very different condi- 
tions in the different areas as regards municipal ownership. 
In some of the areas the important plants are almost entirely 
owned municipally, and in one or two areas the power com- 
panies ah'eady are commencing to own the whole business. 
It would, therefore, apt)ear that one solution is not neces- 
sarily apphcable to every area, and there might be advantages 
^'rom a national point of view in allowing development in 
some districts on one line and some on another. 

What is essential is that the national policy should he 
changed. 

The aim in the future must be to concentrate under one 
authority for each industrial district, firstly, the main distri- 
bution system — that is to say, what may be called the main 
trunk electric roads — and, secondly, the responsibility for the 
location of the generating machinery in the most economical 
positions. 

Recommendations . 

1. It is essential that the present inefficient system of over 
600 districts should be superseded by a comprehensive system 
in which Great Britain is divided into some 16 districts, in 
each of which there should be one authority dealing with all 
the generation and main distribution. 

■2. Centres, or sites, suitable for electric generating purposes 
should at once be chosen on important waterways as the 
future main centres of supply for each of the districts into 
which the counti-y is to be divided. 

3. The sites so chosen should be as large as possible, having 
in view the land available in suitable localities, and should 
have ample water and transport facilities. Land is required 
not only for the power stations themselves — which for the 
.sake of security and safety would have to be suitably sub- 
divided, that is, they would not be contained all in one build- 
ing — but for the processes involved in the extraction of by- 
products from the coal before it is used for the production of 
power, where such extraction is found to be justified. It is 
also required for the development of electro-chemical pro- 
cesses, which may be most conveniently canied on in close- 
proximity to the power plant. This condition entails the site.s 
being chosen outside, not inside towns. (The health of the 
great industrial centres and the congestion of the railway lines 
in their neighbourhood would be rachcally improved by ar- 
rangmg that the conversion of coal into motive power wa.s 
carried out aw-ay from the densely popidated centres.) 

4. Plans should be prepared for the construction imme- 
diately after the w-ar on the.se sites of the first instalment of 
large super-power plants capable, first, of supplying, through 
a comprehensive electric power distribution system which must 
also be arranged for, the exi.sting demands of the community : 
and, secondly, of supplying electrical energy at the lowest 
I)ossible price for new processes and manufactures. 

5. Such plants would be designed so that, as methods are 
perfected for extracting by-products from the fuel, before 
using it for the purpose of the production of electric ixiwer, 
the by-product plant can be combined with the power plant. 
Each site should be laid out with this in view, and with a 
view to the unrestricted extensions of the plant as required. 

6. Power available from surplus gas or waste heat should 
be turned into electrical energy on the spot in local plants 
which would feed into the main distribution system. As re- 
gards waste coal — i.e., coal which it does not at present pay 
to bring to the surface — this could, where transport was the 
i-uling consideration, also be used on the spot. 



46 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol. 82. Xo.2.09i, January ll, ISIS. 



7. Once these plants aic in exist-enco it would be possible 
lor existing authorities, without any risk of being left in the 
lurch, to stop extensions of their own uneconomical stations, 
situated as they mostly arc on cramped and unsuitable sites, 
and to ari-auge to take their power from the main system. 

8. With a view to carrying out the pohcy advocated a 
Boaj-d of Electricity Commissioners should be appointed, with 
full powers to deal with the electricity supply situation 
throughout the country They should have {X)wer. hiter aliu, 

(a) To stop the extension or multiplication of uneconomical 
stations for public supply. 

(6) To arrange for the handing over, on equitable texms, of 
the generation, transmission and main distribution system in 
<?ach of the areas into which the couutry is to be divided, to 
a new electricity body appointed for tnat area. 

(c) To standardise for each area the frequency and voltage 
of the main transmission and distribution system. 

[d] To settle for each area whether such body should consist 
of a Parliamentary company working under adequate control 
as regards limitation of dividends. &c., or one of the other 
alternatives given in the Appendix. 

9. Alternative tyjies of the new electric power organisations 
are described in the Appendix. In reference to these alternative 
types the Sub-Committee are impressed with the special need 
for initiative and resource in the management of the business 
of power supply, and they are of opinion that tlie freedom of 
range and keenness which are distinctive of private enterprise 
wUl be found to be in a high degree conducive to the fullest 
measure of success. The Sub-Committee consider that if the 
nation is to get immediately an efficient power supply, and is 
to take advantage of the temporary lull in manufacturing 
output immediately after the war. State assistance in some 
form may \x ueees.saiy. 

APPENDIX. 

Altebxativi; Types of Electric Powek Orgaxis.wions. 

In considering the composition of the proposed new bodies 
to deal with the supply of .electricity in each of the areas into 
w^hich the country should be divided a number of alternatives 
present themselves, namely : — 

(a) A combination of all companies and local authorities in 
each industrial district (as defined by the CJommissioners). 

(b) Where there is already a power company (statutory) in 
the area, all the other electricity undertakings, both company . 
and municipal, to be taken over by the power company on 
t-erms arranged by the Conuiiissioners. 

(c) Where at present the supply is dealt with by a number 
of comparatively .small undertakings, both company and muni- 
cipal, but where the company undertakings predominate, a 
^ew company to be fonued. ixissibly by an amalgamation of 
existing companies, to which the whole of the undertakings 
in the area would be transferred. 

((f) Where the supply is dealt with as in (c) but the com- 
pany concerns do not predominate, and where local feeling is 
strongly against a purely company scheme, a local board to 
be foimed, representing both company and municipal in- 
terests, and under the control of the Commissioners, which 
would be invested with full power's to take over and carry 
on the whole of the undertakings, both municipal and com- 
pany, in the area. 

(e) Public or joint ownership as in (d) with company 
operation. 

It is taken for granted that under any of these alternatives 
the Electricity Commissioners would have power to fix maxi- 
mum prices and a sUdiug scale of prices and dividends, and 
to control the terms upon which capital should be raised, &c. 

(a) Combination of all Exisiiug Vndertakings. — Although 
«very one of the undertakings in the area, whether company 
or municipal, might admit that only by combination ;md con- 
centration can economy be obtained, the attempts w^hich have 
been made in the past to bring about a combination of exist- 
ing concerns have shown that the interests are so conflicting 
that they cannot be reconciled by the interested parties acting 
alone. It is true that agreements for exchange of ele^tricitv 
have be«n made, but all attempts to bring about central con- 
trol have failed. 

(6) Poiver Company to take over all Undertakings.— A power 
conipany having been formed for the purpose, and equipped 
with the neces.sary statut<iiy powers, appears at firet sight to 
be the right body to entnist with the business of supplving 
the whole of the industrial district in \\hich its own area of 
supply is situated ; and where the power company is already 
established on a sound commercial and technical ba.sis, and 
has shown by its development in the past that it understands 
its business, this method is probably the best (see the report 
of Lord Cross's Committee). 

The statutorj- powers of power companies carry with them 
.such obligations as have been found to be ample to protect 
the interests of the comnnmity, but if further safeguards, in 
addition to the control by the Electricity Commissioners, wen- 
<lesired._ they could be imposed by Parliament. 

(c) New Companji. — Where no ixjwer company exists, or 
where the power company has not developed any very large 
busine-ss, a new company might be formed to take over all 
the existing undertakings. Local privat-e enterprise might be 
encouraged to assist in the formation of the new company, 
with the guidance of the Electricity Commissioners, who 
should also settle the terras upon which the new concern 
would take over and carry on the business, and the statutory 



powers required, which would be embodied in a special Act 
on the lines of the present Power Acts. 

(d) Local Electricity Board. — In an area where municipal 
enterprise predominated, the establishment of a company to 
take over everything, both municipal and company, raight 
create local feeling which would be detrimental to the busi- 
ness. On the other hand, a purely municipal concern would 
be equally impracticable, since the claims of county councils, 
city corporations, and urban and rural district councils could 
scarcely be reconciled. A local board appoint^ed by the Stat*, 
subject to the control of the Electi-icity Conirais.sionei-8, ap- 
pears to be the only alternative available if private enter- 
prise is to be ruled out. The objection to such a method is. 
of cours(\ the usual objection to all purely State undertakings, 
naujely, that they are without incentive for the proper push- 
ing of the business, which in the case of power supply re- 
fjuires enterprise and resource if the best results are to be 
obtained, not only for the power supply business, but for the 
consumer and for the nation. 

(r) Public or Joint Ownernhip ivith Company Operaiion.'— 
By this method economy in capital and interest charges is 
st>(.-ured, whilst the conunercial development of the business 
on proper lines is .secured by the incentive of bigger profits 
which the operating company would have, subject, of coiirse. 
to the .safeguards against high prices in the form of a .sliding 
scale of dividend and prices — auction clauses, &c. 



WEST OF SCOTLAND LINKINQ-UP. 



The report of the West of Scotland Committee for the intei- 
connection of electric supply undertakings, to which we made 
a brief reference, last week, divides the local authorities and 
companies within the .specified area into the following 
groups; — 

Group A. — Paisley, Greenock, and KUmarnock Corporations. 
and Kilmarnock Electric Co. ^ 

Group B. — Glasgow Corporation Electricity and Tramwa\s 
Departments and the Clyde Valley Electric Power Co. 

Group C. — Alloa, Falkirk, and Stii'ling Corporations; the 
National Electric Construction Co., Bo'ne«s; and the Scottish 
OntraJ Electric Power Co., near Falkirk. 

Group D. — Lanarkshire TYamways, Motherwell and Hamil- 
ton Corporations, and Lanarkshire Coimty Council, Cambus- 
lang. Within this area there are also a number of private 
plants, a supply in substitution for which would be the busi- 
ness of the public supply undertakings concerned. 

In regard to Group A, interconnection would necessitate a 
link of 3,7i50 k.v..*., for Greenock-Paisley, and a further 1,875 
K.v.A. link to Kilmarnock, at a cost of £'75.000, with a result- 
ant economy of £5,900 per annum; with Kilmarnock omitted 
the cost becomes £47,300, and the estimattnl saving £5,200. 
The Committee considers that hnking-up between these 
centres is not a commercial proposition at the present time. 

Group B. — Approximate units generated, '281,000,(X)0; coals 
used, 376,337 tons; coal costs, £299,115; average used per 
unit, 3.0 lb. ; per ton, 15s. lid. The three undertakings in 
this group furnish supphes at a periodicity of 25 cycles. Two 
of these are already linked up to some extent, and the com- 
mittee has been informed by the managei-s that it is only 
neces.sary to install from 4,0(k) to 6,000 kw. of static trans- 
formers at the Dalmarnock station of the Glasgow Corjxjra- 
tion to provide a hnk of maximum utility at a co.st of about 
£i6,0tK). Assuming that full advantage is taken of the inter- 
connection between the three, anl allowing a small average 
increiise in economy of 0.1 lb. of coiil per unit generated, the 
annual .saving would approximate £10 ,(.100. 

Group C. — -Approximate units generated. 17.070.000; coal 
used. 32,815 tons; coal costs, £22,503; average used per luiit. 

4.3 lb.; IXT ton, 13s. 8d. The undertakings here all generate 
direct current, with the exception of the Scottish Central, 
whose system is three-phase, ^O cycles, and a portion of Fal- 
kirk Corporation supply, which is similar. 

It is generally agreed that linking-up would have to be via 
the Scottish Central Co.'s mains. The combined week-enc 
load of the group does not exceed 2,000 KW., and could be 
cornfortablv carried by the Scottish Central ; an expenditure 
of £16,000' would be involved, and a saving of about £1,000 
l^er annum made. 

Group D. — The undertakings generate S,985.0(X) units; coal 
u.sed, 21,754 tons; coal cost, £13.031; average coal per unit. 

5.4 lb. ; price per ton, 12s. The undertakings all generate 
direct current, and have similar load characteristics; linking- 
up is not justified, but future requirements should be met by 
H.T. bulk supply. 

In addition, the question of linking-up between groups has 
also been considered, and the following conclusions aarived 
at : — 

• Co-operation between municipal and private entei-prise in 
the electricity supply business has had some success in Ger- 
many. — See Consular Report No. (>~v5 on the Supply of Elec- 
tricity in Germany — Cd. 7,049. A scheme emboti.ying this 
p\'inciple has actually been worked out in some detail by the 
L.C.C. for dealing with London. Its progress was etopix^d 
by the outbreak of war, but the reports and papers relating 
to it are of considerable interest. 



Vol.82. No. 2,091, JA.NUARV II, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



47 



Group E (.\ and B). — The only practical manner in which 
these group.s lui^^'ht be linked up would be by niean.s of a link 
between Clyde Valley ('25 periods) and Paisley (50 periods). 
Calculating on a link of l.OiXl-KW. capacity, the total cost of 
mains, rotary machinery, &c.. was found to be approximately 
£12,870, while the annual saving to be exi>ected from the 
interchange of energy would not exceed ±'1,040. 

Group F (B and D).— The undertakings in Group D are all 
within tlie Clyde Valley area, and the l.anark.«hire tramways 
are already supplied from the Clyde Valley C<j. at several 
point.s. Linking up these groups would 'involve the exten- 
sion of the Clyde Valley Co.'s mains to each of the undei- 
takings in Group D, and the provision of rotary machinery 
and switchgear would cost approximately £15.1K,W. Assuming 
a. supply to be given at week-ends, the fuel saving would be 
equivalent to ,£1,200 per annum. There would be other ad- 
vantages, but the Committee considers that linkmg up foi' 
the single purpose of week-end supply to the stations in 
Group D from the Clyde Valley Co. caniiot in the meantime 
be recommended. ' 

Group G (B and C). — The- linking up in these' two grouiis 
resolves itself into a question of interconnecting the Clvde 
Valley system (25 cycles) with the Scottish Central (50 cycles). 
Having regard to the distance between the systems, and more 
particularly to the dift'erence in periodicity, neee.s.sitating rotary • 
machinery at a new station and special stall', linking up is 
not recommended. The Scottish Central system, however, is 
of the same i^eiiodicity as the Fife Power Co.. whose area of 
supply is included in the East of Scotland 9rea in the map 
issued by the National Electric Power Supply Joint Com- 
mittee, and it is therefore suggested that the district served 
by these two undertakings would be better considered as a 
separate area, making thi'ee areas in the Scottish .section. 

Thus, omitting the capital and .saving involved in Group B. 
the total capital involved in hnking-up would be fll.S.STO. 
and the estimated .saving £9.140 ]ier annum. 

Much greater fuel economy would be ivalised by linking-up 
•v\here conditions were favourable for the purjiose of a sui)i)ly 
in bulk from the larger to the smaller undertakings, and rthe 
Committee recommends that this aspect lie farther inve.sti- 
gated. 



TRADE STATISTICS OF THE STRAITS 
SETTLEMENTS. 



The following statements, showing the imports (not for tran- 
.shipment) of electrical and other materials into the vaiinu-- 
Straits Settlements ports in 1910. are taken froju the rect'iitl-i 
issued official trade statistics. In compiling these .stuti,-.tic_,- 
the first port of shipment is generally accepted as denoting 
the country of production. The values for 1915 are added for 
purposes of comparison, with notes of any increa.ses or 

IMPORTS INTO SING.^PORE. 

1915. 1910. 

Dollars. Dollar 
Jflegrapk and telephone materials. — 
From United Kingdom ... 389.000 
,, United States ... — 

Svyeden — 

Other countries ... 16.000 



Inc. or dec. 
■ Dollars. 



092,000 
18,000 
22,000 
14,000 



+ 303,0<)ii 

+ 18.0(10 

-f 22,000 

- 2,000 



Total 405,000 

* Australia $2,000. 
1 ramtvcn) <t>'d railway materials. — 

From United States ... 165,000 

.. United Kingdom ... 77,000 
.. Other countries ... 13,000 



740,000 



341 .(m 



Total 


255,000 


186,000 


- 


09,(KXI 


Electrical machinery. — 










Prom United Kingdom .. 


. 219,000 


2:32,0(KI 


+ 


13,000 


German V 


2,000 





_ 


2.000 


.. Italy 


5,000 


13,000 


-1- 


8,000 


Netherlands 


17,000 


5,000 


- 


12,000 


United States 


13,000 


16,000 


-f 


3,000 


Japan 


8,000 


15,000 


+ 


7,000 


Other countries 


23,mKl 


.30,0(H) 


+ 


7,000 



Total 287,(KX) 

Engines, boilers, and parh. — 



Froca United Kingdom 
Sweden 
United States 
Other countries 



266,0tW 



8,000 
27,000' 



311,000 + 24,000 



339,0(K1 
100,000 
51,000 
38,000 




Total 



... aOl.OC^ 5-28,000 
* Denmark $5,000. 





1915. 


1916. 


Inc. or dec. 


Lampn and lampware. — 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


From Netherlands 


18,000 


17,000 


- 1,000 


Germany 


.-. 17,000 


— 


- 17,000 


,. United Kingdom 


45,000 


73,000 


+ 28,000 


,, United States 


6,000 


9,000 


+ 3,000 


.lapan 


15,000 


04,000 


+ 49,000 


Other countries 


15,000 


28,000* 


+ 13,000 



Total 116,000 191 ,0a) 

' Su.'dcn $8,000. 
Machinery, other {except sctving inachinss). — 



IMPORTS INTO MALACCA. 
TeUiiraph and telephone materials. — 
From United Kingdom ... 2,000 3,000 

Engines, boilers, a,nd parlx. — 
From United Kingdoui ... 5,000 4,000" 

* Entered through Malay States. 
Electrical machinery. — 

From United Kingdom ... 1,000 — 

Machinery, other (e.rccpt -Hriving ynachines). — 
From TTnited Kingdoiu ... 18,000 67,000 
., Other countries ... 11,000* !?.,000 

Total 29.000 09,000 

• Federated Malay States $10,000. 
N.B.— Dollar = 2s. 4d. 



75,000 



From United Kingdom 

Australia 

.. United States 
Other countries 


502,000 
36,000 
65,000 

116,000 

719,0(X) 
i)an $22,00(J. 


699,000 
25,000 

288,000 
170,000* 


-f 

+ 

+ 

+ 


197,000 
11,000 

223,000 
54,000 


Total 

* Ja 


l,182,(XI0 
.\NG. 


46:3,000 


IMPORTS INTO PEN 




Electrical machineru. — 










From United Kingdom 
„ United States 

Denrhark 

Other countries 


44,(XIO 

2,000 
6,001.) 


55,000 
4,(XXJ 
5,000 
4,00(.i 


-t- 
-1- 
+ 


11,000 
4,000 
3,000 
2,000 


' Total 


52,000 


68,00(J 


+ 


16,000 


Engines, boilers, and partt 


;.— 








F^om United Kingdom 

.\ustraha 

United States 
Netherlands 
Other count lies 


163,000 
*3,000 

' 5.000 
I'.OOO 


247,000 
3,000 

105,000 
5,000 
15,000 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


84,000 
30,000 
165,000 

11,000 


Total 


205,000 


435,000 


2:30,000 


Macliinery, oilier (excepi . 


nr.d'ing macit 


ines). — 






I'Vom United Kingdom .. 
., United States 
Other countries 


88,000 

18,000 

8,000 


90,000 
14,000 
42,000* 


+ 
+ 
+ 


2,000 

4,000 

34,000 


Total 


114,000 


146,000 


32,000 


* Mala> 


States $3:3,000. 






Lumps and lampicarc — 










l''rom Japan 

United Kingdom 
Other countries 


5,0(Xl 
28,000 
8,000 


24,000 
54,000 
8,000 


+ 
-f 


19,000 
26,000 


Total 


41,000 


86,(Wf 


+ 


45,0ai 


Tdciiraph and tcleplionr n 
Fiom United Kingdom 


uilcrials.- 


6,000 


-f 


6,000 


Tramway and railivay mat 


rrials. — 








Fnmi' United Kingdom 
,, United States 
,. Holland 


2,000 
1.000 


9,000 
2,000 


-f 

+ 


7,000 
2,000 
1,000 


Total 


3,000 


11.000 


-f 


8,000 



+ 1,000 

- 1,000 

- 1,000 

+ 49,000 

- 9,000 

+ 40.00<i 



+ 227,000 



Hamburg Electricity Works in Difficulties.— The 

following- notice appeared in llnmhui-tier Xaclirichten. on December 
4th :— " Owing to Vreakdovvn (.Botriebsstorung) in a power station 
of the Hamburg Electricitiits-Werke, it is essential that all motor 
loads be disconnected until further notice between the hours of 
4 p.m. and 9 p.m. It is. therefore, strictly forbidden to run motors 
during this period. In case of infringement of this order, the 
ofiEending installation will be disconnected from the lighting net- 
work." It will be interesting to learn the precise nature of the 
trouble which has necessitated such a stringent order. 



48 



THE ELECTRICAL KEVIEW. [Vol.S^. Xo. 2,094, January n, 1918. 



THE RONTQEN SOCIETY. 



A New Portable X-ray Tube Coxstructiox. 
At the meeting of the Rontg-en Society, on January 1st, Mr, Carl 
Darnell, representing- Mr. W. D. Coolidge, of the Schenectady 
Laboratories, demonstrated a new radiator type of hot-cathode 
X-ray tube, and also a portable X-ray generating outfit to accom- 
pany it. He said that these had been developed in America 
specifically for use at the Front, where portability was a chief 
consideration. The electrical efficiency of existing portable X-ray 
generating outfits was low, but it could be greatly increased if a 
suitable tube were forthcoming for operating directly from the 
secondary of a high-pressure transformer without the use of any 
auxiliary rectifying device. The existing type of hot-cathode tube 
— i.e.. the ordinary Coolidge tube — might fulfil this condition, but 
it would require the use of a large focal spot, which was a disad- 
vantage for radiographic pur{)Oses. The essential condition was 
that heat should be more rapidly withdrawn from the focal spot 
than was the case with the ordinary Coolidge tube, and the 
device of water-cooling whereby this might have been done 
would have interfered with the portability. Experiment proved 
that the most effective and simple method was to build 
a target with a large heat capacity and high heat conduct- 
ivity, and then to provide that the mass of metal should 
be cooled at the time when the tube was to be given its full load. 
The anode of the new tube, therefore, consisted as to its stem of a 
solid bar of copper, which was brought right out through the glass 
of the anode arm to a copper radiator. The head of the anode con- 
sisted of a very small wrought tungsten button set in a solid block 
of specially purified copper, which was electrically welded on to 
the stem. The tungsten button designed to receive the cathode-ray 
bombardment was O'l in. in thickness and i- in, in diameter. The 
complete target with the radiator had a heat capacity considerably 
greater than that of the present standard solid tungsten target, 
and the tube, therefore, for a given milliamperage and voltage 
could be operated several times as long as the other before the 
target was brought to red heat. But an even greater advantage 
was the fact that, between radiographic exposures, the target in 
this new tube copied comparatively rapidly, owing to the delivery 
of the heat to the external radiator. And whereas the older tubes 
radiated a great deal of their energy through the glass of the 
walls, which became quite hot, in this new tube the larger part of 
the energy impacted to the target was conducted out to the 
radiator, so that it was possible to make the glass bulb very small. 
Actually for portable work a bulb diameter of 3| in. had been 
standardised. The passage of inverse current was avoided in this 
tube also by the construction which removed heat from the focal 
spot so rapidly that, in normal use, it never reached the tempera- 
ture at which appreciable thermionic emission of electrons took 
place. The first model of this new tube had been designed to carry 
10 ma. at a 5-in. parallel spark gap for a sufficient time to make 
the most difficult radiographic exposure, and, tor screening 
purposes, to carry a load of 5 ma. at 5-in. parallel spark gap 
continuously for an indefinite period. 

Two portable X-ray generating units, which were also demon- 
strated, have been built round this tube model, and are being used 
in the United States Army. In both of them the tube is operated 
directly from a high-voltage transformer, with no auxiliary rectify- 
ing device. A second paper by Mr. Coolidge and Mr. Moore 
described this unit in detail, and stated that after considering 
various types of apparatus, a gasoline-electric set was adopted, 
furnishing alternating current to a step-up transformer, with the 
self-rectifying X-ray tube operating directly from the latter. This 
gasoline-electric set delivered alternating current at about 4.5 cycles 
and 120 volts to the step-up transformer. The advantages of the 
outfit were control of line voltage, making it possible to duplicate 
electrical conditions and X-ray results very accurately, and the 
ab.9ence"0f moving pai'ts other than the gasoline set itself. The 
new apparatus was discussed by a large number of members, one 
of whom compared the innovation to that of the Kodak in 
photography. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1917. 

(NOT YET PUBLISHED.) 



iipiled expressly fo*" this journal by 
Electric Patent .\gents, 285, High 
Liverpool and Bradford. 



A. r. 



19,04fi. 

19,050. 
vfhicles." 

19,063. 
Co. & A, 

19,064. 
Welch. 

19,065. " Manufacture of carbon electrodes." C. H. Thompson. DecemUr 
24th. 

19,082. " Diaphragms for electrolytic cells." Chemische Fabrik Weissen- 
STEIN & R. Wai-TER. December 24th. (Austria, December 19th, 1916.) 

19,090. " Rectifier for wireless telegraphy.'* J. F. Miller. December 27th. 

19,096. " Controllers of direct-current electric motors for hoisting and 
lowering apparatus, &c." Electric Control, Ltd., & S. Thompson. De- 
cember 27th. 

19.098. " Sparking plugs for internal-co.nbustion engines, &c." J. E. Gim- 
BERT. December 27th. 

19.099. "Telephone transmitters." A. M.arr. December 27th. 

19,108. " Electromagnetic methods of detecting submarines." R. Be-ATTIE. 
December 27th. 



*' Electric lamps." T. W. Cairns. December 24t]i. 

" Overhead trollevs or collectors for electric tramway or r; 

\V. Rees & C. O. Taylor. December 24th. 
" Spring terminals for electric accumulators." Fuller .^ccumi 

P. Welch. December 24th. 

" Electric safety-lamp cases." Fuller Accumul.ator Co. & 
December 24th. ' 



ri.UO. ■■ lilectric cable juntliun liuings." A. ,M. Lovett, A. C. M.uiitvLU 
SI, E. O. rvNE. December 27th. 

lit. 12:1 " Sparking plug ignition wire clip for rotary aero engines, 4c." 
\ . OswiN. December 27lh. 

i:M2(i. " Electric insulators." Soc. Cer-imica Riphard-Gi.vori. December 
7ll>. 

.Means of control for searchlights, &-c." W. A. SrEVEKs. Decem- 

R. Dardelet. (France, December 

eceivcrs." C. Teasdale-Buckbll. 

De- 



ID.l.il. 
. r 27th. 



19,13.'). " Pocket electric lamp." A 
2nd.) LXcembcr 27th. 

19,130. " Telephone and micropho 
December 28th. 

l'),159. " Self-engaging cog for electric machines." R. H. Lame 
■ . mber 28th. * 

19,170. " Electrolytic preparation of metals or alloys in the form of paste, 
iuiig--. or sponge." B. Leech, .\sd H. & L. Sl.^ter. December 28th. 

19.176. " Focusing incandescent electric lamps lor optica] projection pur- 
ii,,>,s." F. C. Jenkins. December 28th. 

19,191. " Electric switches." H. N. D.wis & W^ R. Twice. December 
28th. 

19,195. " Safety devices for interlocking operating pacts of enclosed switch, 
Ac, gear with door or doors of enclosing casing." }. A. HiRsT. December 
29th. 

19.239, " Interrupters or contact-breakers for magneto-electric machines." 
A. M. Allen S: R. B. North. December 23th. 

19.240. " Chain electric welding machines." British Insulated & Helse-; 
Cables, Ltd., S: P. Bucher. December 31st. 

19,252. " Sparking plugs for internal-combustion engines." j. Hill. De- 
cember 31sl. 

19,280. " Party-line ringing systems." Westers Electric Co. (Western 
Electric Co., U.S.A.) December 31st, 

19,290. ** Electric systems for motor vehicles, &c." BijUR Motor LluHTlNt; 
Co. December 31st. ' (U.S.A:, .■ipril 30th.) 

19,304. " Sparking plugs for internal-combustion engines." L. Lavoisier. 
December 31st. ^ 

19,322. " Electric heating apparatus." .\. J. .^llen & L. V. Leonard. De- 
cember 31st. 

19,351. ".Alternating-current el;ctromagnel." D. C. Larso.n. December 
31st. 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 



Th': numbers in parcnthes 
printed and abridged, and 



re lhos6 under which the specification; 
ubs^quent proceedings will be taken. 



i9ie. 

ieel Melti.n 



S. Steinberg & 1. Gr 



9,055. Electric Furn.ace i 
June 27th. 1916. (111,679.) 

9,408. Electric Hand Lamps. J. W. Manley. July 20th, 1917. (111,680.) 

15,500. Construction of Dynamo-electric M.\chines. Sandycrolt, Ltd.^ 
R L. Cleaver & H. E. P6tts, October 31st, 1916. (111,689.) 

15,803. Contact Breakers for Magnetos. Soc. Anon. Appareiltage Elec- 
iriijue Grivolas. December 27th, 1915. (102,936.) 

17,260. PoRT.ABLE Telephone and Sign-uling Apparatus. H, C. Crews. 
December 1st, 1916. (111,694.) 

17,277. ELEcriiic Switches. H. C. Widlake. December 1st, 1916. pil,695.). 

17.450. Electric Lighting Systems applicable to Vehicles. H. .\. Gilt 
ill.S. Light S Heat Corporation). December 5th, 1916. (111,704.) 

17,528. Dyna.mo-electric M.ichinerv. E. S. G. Rees & W. Armistead. De- 
cember 6th, 1916. (111,709.) 

17 62G Dvnamo-electric Generators and Reversing Mechanism therefor. 
J. Stone &: Co. and A. H. Darker. December 7th, 1916. (111,718.) 

17,701. Electric Water or other Liquid Heaters. J. S. Langford. Janu- 
;.ry 14th, 1916. (103,475.)" 

17,856. Control of Electric Motors. J. M. L. Slater. December 12th,. 
1916. (Cognate application, 84/17.) (111,723.) 

17,996. Selection of Electric Currents. .A. Pcrego. December 14th- 
1916. (111,728.) 

16,223. Device for Demonstrating to Classes or Individuals the Rel.^- 
iioN between True and M.^gnetic Bearings. W'. J. N, Fairley. Decembei 
20th, 1916. (111,732.) 

18,386. Method of Energising .Aeri.\l Conductors for Wireless Sign.^- 
I.INC AND OTHER PURPOSES. G. Plaisant. December 22nd, 1916. (111,735.1 

19X7. 

1,555. Electroi YTic Production of Metal Wire and Strip. 



Sparking Plugs. E. Morgan. 



S. O. Co 
31st, 1917. (111,737.) 

2,106. Device for Testing Magnetos ,■> 
February 12lh, 1917. (111,760.) 

2,439. TEMrER.\TURE Compensators for Electrical Control Devices. 
British Thomson-Houston Co. (General Electric Co., U.S..\.) February 19lh, 
1917. (111,764.) 

2,624 Oil-break Electric Switches. R. W. Gregory & Ekctrical Im- 
provements, Ltd. February 22nd, 1917. •111,766.) 

3.160. M.inufactuee of Clay, Plumb.\go and other like articles by Eliciro- 
PEPOSITION on Metal Moulds. B. J. .Mien. March 3rd, 1917. (.Addition to 
2,252/17.) (111,775.) 

5 898. Means for Cleaning the Sparking Plugs of Internal -cq»bustion 
Engines and the like. J. H. Andrew. April 26th, 1917. (111,794.) 

6 399 Mounting and insulating of the Contact Parts of Electric 
Switches. H. H. Berry. May 4th, 1917. (111,796.) 

11,036. Electric Circuit Controllers. Igranic Electric Co. (Cutler- 
Hammer Manufacturing Co., U.S.A.) July 31st, 1917. (Patent ol addition 
not granted.) (Ul,812.) 

11,579. Sparking Plug Tester. W'. Hanman. August 11th, 1917. (111,813.) 

13,098. Resistance Switches for Controlling the Intensity of Electric 
Currents. J. Watkinson & W. Adams. September 12th, 1917. (111,821.) 

13 551 Trolley Wire Systems for use on Electric Railways, Tramways 
AND THE LIKE. P. Dauson & F. W. Fawdry. September 20th, 1917. (111,822.) 

16.756. Electric Lighting Systems applicable to Vehicles. H. A. Gill 
(U.S. Light & Heat Corporation). December 5lh, 1916. (Divided epplicatlori 
on 17,4.50/16.) (111,833.) 



Russian Electrical Regulations.— In view of the project ' 

of law prepared by the Ministry of Trade and Industry on granting > 
freedom to private contractors in the matter of installing electrical ,, 
conductors and constructing installations, the chief Board of Local ; 
Economy proposes to draw up a series of rules for the purpose of i 
protecting the interests of districts and towns from capitalistic ^ 
(contractors in the matter of electrical transmission. , 



TXIB 



HlILiECTI2/IO-A.L I?/E'VIE'W 



Tot. LXXXII. 



JANUAET hs, 191><. 



No. 2,09.'). 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol Lxxxnj 



CONTENTS: Janu 



18, 1918. 



[No. 2,095. 
Page 

Economic Problems ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1!' 

The Whitley Recommendations ; a Matter of Urgency 

Reminiscences. — III., by " Ex-Shift Dog " -"'l 

Cable Fault Localisation in Practice, bv D. M. W. Hutchison 

ov^a«.) ; 

Iron Commutators, by F. Murgatroyd ... 

^rrespondence — 

Meters on a Changed Frequency 

rUomiiiating Engineering 

Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables 65 

West of Scotland Linking-up (;H!(«.) ... ... 56 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (illu.s.') 57 

The French Bauxite and Aluminium Industry ... 

War Items 

Legal 

Business Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Notes 63 

City Notes 67 

Stocks and Shares ... 67 

Electric Tramway and Railway Traffic Returns... 68 

Market Quotations 68 

Electrical Signalling and Control on Railways, by C. M 

Jacobs (t7/K.<.) '. 6!' 

Xew Zealand Water-Power Reports 70 

Electrical Manufacturing in Australia 

■Gas Firing Boilers 

New Patents Applied for. 1917 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 72 

Contractors' Column Advertisement page xxii 



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Cheques and Postal Orders (on Chief Office, London) to be made payable to 
Tbx Bleciucal Review, and crossed " London City and Midland Bank, 
Newgate Street Branch." 



THE "ELECTRICAL REVIEW'S" 

ELECTRICAL & ALLIED TRADES DIRECTORY 

(THE RED BOOK), 

1917 EDITION. 

H. ALABASTER, GATEHOUSE & KEMPE, 
4, Ludsate Hill, London, £.C. 4. 



ENEMY ADVERTISING. 



Thi5 Journal is conducted in the interests of 
British industry and of commercial and technical 
intercourse between the British Dominions and 
friendly nations. Subject to the conditions 
of Peace, its pages will not be available for 
assisting the recovery of markets for German 
and Austrian goads. 



ECONOMIC PROBLEMS. 



During the past few weeks the greater part of the 
world has been discussing inoiiientous utterances 
by leading Statesmen who have laid down the terms 
on which they would be prepared to discuss Peace. 
These statements will be regarded as superseding 
others that preceded them, and they will probably 
form the basis upon which much discussion will 
lake place in days to come. The average lay mind 
is not privileged to know what may be taking place 
in diplomatic circles, but from enemy Press utter- 
ances it appears unlikely that these speeches will 
have an immediate effect in bringing about actual 
negotiations, though ultimately it may be found 
that they have contributed to that end. One im- 
portant outcome, however, and probably one of 
several that they were intended to produce, has 
been the re-establishing of a strong unity of aim 
and effort among our own and Allied f>eoples. The 
strain of war is unquestionably heavy — critically so 
— upon all the peoples of Europe, yet, notwith- 
standing this circumstance, the enemy cannot fail 
to be impressed by the new reinforcement of 
strength that has come to the Allies from such a 
spirit of unity. But the unity has to find expression 
in the carrying into effect of new measures which 
make a further call upon the man-power resources 
of the United Kingdom, and impose new restric- 
tions upon industry. The conferences with Labour 
which made the occasion for the Premier's con- 
sidered speech, have extended over the past ten 
days, and they still continue; it is to be hoped that 
what is required will be made possible with a mini- 
mum of friction, notwithstanding the present 
obno.xious attitude of the A.S.E. Yet we cannot 
fail to bear in mind that even if Lal)our concedes 
all that is hoped for from tlvese conferences, and 
finds the men asked for, Industry will need t» adapt 
itself with the greatest possible care to the condi- 
tions that will follow if we are to avoid evil effects 
upon the revenue-producing industries of the coun- 
tr)'. The need for a strengthening of the Forces is, 
of course, paramoimt, whetlier the remaining stages 
involve more heavy fighting, as seems at the 
nvoment inevitable, or whether months are spent 



[49] 



50 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 82. No. 2.095. ja^n-uaby i», «is. 



in preliminary- and actual negotiations. In addi- 
tion to the maintenance of the fighting forces at 
their maximum possible strength, we have also to 
bring together a new army of men to accelerate our 
rate of shipbuilding. To build new ships witli 
utmost speed now is to help defeat the submarine 
devilry of the enemy, but it is also a measure of 
utmost importamce which will ensure that ships shall 
be available in great numbers for urgent mercantile 
purposes when the war ends. Therefore, tliis new- 
demand has to be made upon Industry and Labour 
to find many thousands of men to accelerate the 
carrying out of the great shipbuilding programme. 
While we are thus compelled to centre our best 
energies upon a continuation of the struggle with 
all the means at our disposal, there are certain 
war questions other than man-power and shipbuild- 
ing which necessarily claim very serious thought 
after three and a half years of terribly wasteful \vzr. 
The financial burden of conducting operations on 
so vast a scale is becoming an ever-increasing 
anxiety in most of the lands that are involved in 
hostilities. There has been no dramatic crash any- 
where such as might have been anticipated, though 
we are more or less in the dark as to what is actually 
the state of affairs in Russia. But though there has 
been no sensational event of that kind, there can 
be no question that the financial problems for all 
the nations in the coming days will be of such a 
character that the old methods of dealing with such 
matters will not suffice. Expert authorities are 
coming forward with suggestions regarding what 
we may have to do in order to pay the interest on 
our heavy- load of war debt, and to reduce the debt 
itself. 

Taxation, as we know it, seems to have practi- 
cally reached the limit, though Labour has advanced 
some sweeping proposals in that connection. It 
is impossible to go on taxing capital, however in- 
vested or held, up to the hilt, without injuring indus- 
try, by wliich we live. Much has been said conceminu 
■' Conscription of Capital." If that means what we 
think it means, it is inconceivable to contemplate 
prosperity of industry, and therefore plenty of work 
for every-body, after such procedure. Those who 
are putting their money into War Loans do so be- 
cause they ha\-e the credit of the British nation to 
depend upon. Industry will be imperilled, in many 
cases actually confiscated out of existence, if we 
confiscate its capital, and such a shaking will have 
been given to the foundations of British credit as 
will prevent it from recovering its equilibrium for 
many a year. 

Where, then, is the money to come from 
to meet the increasing financial burden? We 
are constantly being advised that when we conie 
to the great task of re-establishing: our pre-war in- 
dustries and our foreign trade we shall need the 
fullest co-operation of the forces of Capital and 
Labour, and the assistance, in certain ways, of the 
State. As a matter of fact, something more 
will be needed. Beyond the increased produc- 
ti\'ity that such co-operation should assure, we shall 



require to adopt large ideas for the increase of 
wealth by the enterprising utilisation of the vast re- 
sources of the Empire, and by aiding certain Allie<i 
nations to develop their own resources for their 
own and for world benefit. Conscription of exist- 
ing wealth would not only undermine national 
credit, it would jeopardise industry, lessening 
revenue instead of permanently relieving our bur- 
dens. What seems to be one of the urgent necessi- 
ties of the moment is for the recommendations of 
the Empire Resources Development Committee, as 
set forth in the report issued last year, to be car- 
ried into effect with the utmost reasonable expedi- 
tion. In an address to the Royal Colonial Institute 
last week. Air. H. Wilson Fox, M.P., discussed 
some of those recommendations. He was speaking 
on '■ The Payment of War Debt by Development 
of Empire Resources." He estimated that the post- 
war revenue that the Government would have to 
raise to meet its obligations could not be less thaa 
£600,000.000 per annum, and some new method of 
raising the money would have to be found. He 
opined that taxation of imports was unlikely to 
yield any sum that would go far to meet our needs, 
and expressed the view that the burden of income- 
tax could not be increased indefinitely, while 
the conscription of existing wealth would be a 
dangerous and impracticable expedient. New wealth, 
he went on to say, must be produced under condi- 
tions which would assure to the State itself the 
direct receipt of a substantial share of the profits 
earned. Such a means was to be found in the adop- 
tion of the recommendations of the Empire Re- 
sources Development Committee. 

The reports that have been put before us all <iur- 
ing the past decade concerning the potential weaJtk 
of some of the British Colonies and Dependencies 
have read more like fairy- tales than as busioess 
documents, so vast have been the possibilities that 
they have unfolded before us. The time is coming 
when probably some of the dreams which under 
normal conditions seemed unlikely to emerge into 
actualities may assume definite form under the 
conditions that will in the near future confront bs. 
It may be that, notwithstanding the availability of 
demobilised forces, the need for larger population 
will hamper the Colonies in the fuller development 
of their resources, as it has done in the past. It 
may even be that what has been happening behind 
the lines in France will repeat itself in the future 
wealth creation of the world. Barriers of race and 
colour may be broken down, and labour armies of 
all nationalities may be utilised on great develop- 
ment projects to help to relieve the economic bur- 
dens of all after the war. 

Our own Statesmen and the President ol the 
United States ha-ve laid it down emphatically in 
their recent speeches that there will be no economic 
war after the war, though, as a war measure, snck 
is necessary- and justifiable. Possibly there may yet 
be co-operation of all democratic nations in the 
general development of the world resources lor the 
benefit of the people of all lands. Sir A. Steel Mait- 
land, however, does not appear to see any imme- 
diate prospect of such co-operation. In his speeck 
of Tuesday last he warned an audience of business 
men that competition after the war would be keeser 
than we had ever known it. 



Dr. Addison last week referred 
The Whitley to the urgent need that exists fo-r 

Hecommendatioas: more speedy progress being made 
A Matter with the formation of Indastrial 

of Urgency. Councils, as recommended i« the 

Whitley Report. It is now get- 
ting on for a year since the conclusions ol the 
Whitley Committee were arrived at, and we are 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, jakuart 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



51 



convinced that a number of Labour troubles that 
have devieloped since then might have been pre- 
vented if there had existed suitable machinery for 
dealing with the causes of friction before disagiiee- 
ment had reached a critical stage. There seems to 
have been most regrettable delay soniewhere in 
applying the principles laid down. We are not over- 
looking the fact that the difficulties of the times are 
so great that it is not as easy as it might be in 
normal times to establish new organisations in 
which varied interests are concerned. We are aware, 
also, that in some works, arrangemients already 
exist which provide very well for the maintenance 
of good relations between employer and employed. 
Further still, we know- that there is a very truculent 
element in tlie country which pours scorn upon 
the Whitley idea, and means to oppose its appli- 
cation tooth and nail, because it wants Labour 
abS'Olutely to control industry, and therefore 
despises suggestions for the establishment of 
good relations. The difficulties of the times, how- 
ever, are in some respects an argument on the side 
of urgency, and no stone should be left unturned 
to secure hai-monious working for the remainder of 
the war, as well as after it. The satisfactory experi- 
ence of some manufacturers with their own arrange- 
ments is also an argument in favour of the Whitley 
spirit and its wider application along properly 
ordered lines. The opposition of the obstructive 
clement, while it cannot be ignored, must not be 
treated too seriously, because we believe that when 
Labour as a body properly understands the pro- 
posals, the majority of its supporters have the 
good sense to see that along these lines, rather 
than by the pursuit of ideals in the deplorable Rus- 
sian fasliion, order, harmony, and prosperity are 
to be found for millions of our toilers. Dr. Addi- 
son, as Minister of Reconstruction, occupied as he 
is with a hundred enterprising proposals for paving 
the way to prosperity in the years of Peace, appre- 
ciates the urgency of the application of the Lidus- 
trial Council idea in the interests of industries. 
Though we are calling up nearly half a million more 
men, we need to be prepared for " the dislocation 
which would arise on the proclamation of Peace, or 
even the declaration of an armistice." Organised 
associations of employers and employed will be 
essential in order that the Government may be able 
to confer with the industries on the many problems 
that will be bound to arise. Dr. Addison was speak- 
ing at a meeting at Stoke-on-Trent of the first 
National Industrial Council so far organised; it is 
concerned with the pottery industry. We hope that 
lus appeal for greater expedition will not pass un- 
heeded, though we recognise that there is still a 
greait deal of ignorance upon rne part of the public 
as to what the Whitley recommendations are. 
There is urgent need for propaganda work — making 
these things better known tliroughout the length 
and breadth of the land. The scarcity of paper pre- 
vents the newspapers from printing all that they 
would have published under normal conditions about 
thii and many other matters. Everybody is too 
busy to read much, even if it were published. War 
news is about all that the average newspaper reader 
is interested in at present. It is unfortunate for the 
movement that these things should be so, for, -n 
our opinion, they are a very real handicap. The 
recently formed Industrial Reconstruction Council 
has an important popularising duty lying before it, 
and we have every hope that it will soon be able to 
4o useful work assisting the more expeditious appli- 
cation of the Whitley recommendations as urged by 
Dr. Addison. 



REMINISCENCES— IH. 



By "EX-SHIFT DOG." 



Shift work in power station.s is not often fraught with 
exhilarating experiences, and memories are more often of 
exciting and sad occin-rences, and of regrettable visiis U> 
" the carpet " in the Chief's office ; nevertheless, more than 
once such frivolities as tea parties have been successfnlly 
organised upon quiet Sunday or other afternoons, and 
similar innocent diversions can be recalled by most shift- 
men of lengthy experience. Unfortunately, the topography 
and neighbourhood of the majority of stations do not favour 
the arrival and dejiarture of guests, and usually one must, 
therefore, be content with the company of one's technicaJ 
associates, some of whom do not constitute ideal com- 
panions. However, taken as a class, the technical personnel 
of English power stations is of good social standing and of 
decent antecedents. Company, too, is not always confined 
to the f/em/s homo. Kats, beetles, fleas, cats, and Irall-dogB 
are among improbabilities which come within the scope of 
actual personal experience, the smaller species being the 
greatest nuisances. Poison for beetles may also be objection- 
able for human consumption, and an unsuccessful crusade 
of beetle extermination resulted in a six weeks' dangerous 
illness for the originator of the idea ; fleas are equally 
hopeless in many riverside stations. 

Facilities for the obtaining of circulating water are 
naturally of great weight in the selection of a site for a 
generating station, but the staff will never forgive the 
originators of the plans of a certain station which is imme- 
diately adjacent to the town's sewage farm. Regularly at 
4 a.m. the engine room floor was sprinkled with carbolic 
powder in the endeavour to combat the effluvia resulting 
from cleaning operations next door— a precaution which 
was so far successful that it enabled one with a struggle to 
just support animation. This station also supplied steam 
through a reducing valve, giving 80 lb. per sq. in. from a 
160-lb. supply, to the neighbouring air compressors and 
sewage pumps ; the inauguration of this arrangement was. 
the occasion of much trouble from this valve, which per- 
sisted in alternately sticking open and shut : the effect was 
exceedingly comic in the pump house, but also exasperating. 
It was several weeks before that valve consented to behave 
itself, in spite of all humourings and overhauls. 

Seaside power stations have certain troubles to coutend 
with which do not obtrude themselves upon inland localities. 
Particularly along the " front," salt water spray attacks alt 
polished work refentlessly, and arc lighting is only possible 
by the aid of ([uantities of vaseline upon rods, &.<■. "When 
this state of affairs is aggravated by bad arrangements of 
gear, and neglect on the part of the outside staff, things. 
tend to become chaotic. Such were the conditions when 
and where the writer was apprenticed : and, as the junior 
station man, it was frequently his lot to assist also on out- 
side work. A particular set of arc lamps illuminated a 
busy jetty, and had an unpleasant habit of refusing duty in 
the early winter mornings. Two a.m. once saw the writer 
lashed up to the top of a lattice pole endeavouring to locate 
the trouble in one of these lamps, in pitch darkness and 
heavy rain ; and the language used when eventually it Wiis 
discovered that the day duty arc trimmer had left one lead 
disconnected from its terminal almost obviated the neces- 
sity for any other illuminant. Then immediately after- 
wards, when operating the d.p. knife switch controlling this 
circuit, and with both feet in a pool of water, the handle of 
the switch came away, causing the operator to slip and ^ so 
deposit his hand neatly across the live terminals. The 
arrangement of the control gear, apart from its questionable 
quality, was very poor, and most things were beautifully 
un-get-at-able. Tiive lamp jxiles were of freipient occur- 
rence, and main circuit fuses were well down in the pole 
bases, quite a foot below the level of the door. Fault* of 
all sorts were, of course, common, and arc shunt coils Imrnt 
out with regularity and frequency. 

Scales of bus-bar voltmeters are usually " set up," that 
is to say, they do not indicate when the pressure is more 
than, perhapx, 10 per cent, below or above normal : anti 
this is a practice which is most convenient and desirable. 



52 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIE"W. [voi.82. xo.2,09.>, januarv i8,i9i8. 



But it' tlie paralleliiig gear is not of the balance type, 
wherein equal bus and incoming jiressures give a zero 
reading (and in the case of a.c.) it is also desirable to have 
at least one bus voltmeter with a full scale, together with 
similar instruments for machine pressures. A certain d.c. 
network is supplied by steam sets in parallel with a large, 
but somewhat remote rotary converter sub-station. A com- 
plete shut-down of the directly steam-generated supply 
threw the load of the local district on to the outlying feeders 
of the sub-station, so that the latter's pressure feeding back 
to the station was about 'Jo per cent, low : time was then 
wasted in connecting up temporary voltmeters for paral- 
leling in again, for all the permanent instruments were set 
up and were showing no reading. Except for this proviso, 
large scale voltmeters, steam-pressure, and vacuum gauges 
are excellent aids to accurate and smooth operation and 
regulation, and in an a.c. station direct-reading KW.-meters 
on all machines and the more important feeders are equally 
desirable. Steam-flow meters on boilers, too, are lieginning 
to be realised to be as useful and as necessary as ammetei's 
ujx)n D.c. generators. 

Rotary converters and motor-generators are not oft«n run 
together in parallel on both supply and delivery, but they 
operate very well under these conditions so long as neither 
the speed nor voltage variations of the supply are frequent 
or excessive. Their characteristics are, of course, rather 
imlike in these two particulars, and they tend to alter their 
load distribution rather much if one variable changes 
without a corresponding alteration in the other. Rotaries, 
as a class, require a good deal of tact in operation. A 
certain trio of very large converters (a.c. to d.c.) had a 
nasty habit of occasionally developing surging between 
them, and this usually ended in a fiash-over unless in the 
incipient stages the fields were varied quickly and skilfully. 
To minimise the trouble the D.c breakers were fitted with 
lightly set reverse relays, and it became the practice to 
synchronise the incoming rotary with its volts slightly low, 
in order to ensure that it picked up load on the d.c. side 
immediately. This was being done by routine on one 
occasion when the load was rather light on the running 
machine, and just as the a.c. switch was closed (and it was 
a trifle " late ") a d.c. feeder tripped. There was a slight 
flash from the incoming rotary's commutator, the running 
one tripped on reverse (d.c), and there was no sign on the 
D.c or A.c voltage charts of any irregularity ! On another 
occasion one phase of a two-phase generator, supplying, 
amongst other demands, a large six-phase rotary converter, 
was accidentally oj^ened ; apart from a drop in volts, no 
gi-eat trouble occurred ; all synchronous plant remained in 
step, and normal conditions were resumed without further 
comment when the second phase was reconnected. 

Automatic boosters and regulators are frequently looked 
at askance by the older generation of engineers, but, on the 
whole, they operate well, albeit more than one " automatic " 
booster has been stripped and converted into a plain shunt 
hand-regulated machine after the patience of the station staff 
has been exhausted. Regulators are more satisfactory 
when they are designed together with the exciters upon 
whose fields they operate, and it sometimes pays to keep the 
e.xcitor"s voltixge more or less constant at the regulator's 
l)est operating value, by means of hand adjustment of a 
rheostat in the main rotor circuit. Some old-type regu- 
lators are liable to hunt upon slight piovocation, and one 
experimental model succeeded in giving a very good 
imitation of lightning effects upon the lights supplied ; it 
was, of course, quickly cut out, and never afterwards had 
any opportunity given it to repeat the entertainment. It 
has often been stated that it is impossible to operate 
machines controlled by separate regulators with " astatic " 
characteristics, in parallel : but if the machines, or groups 
of machines, are situated in different stations, it is quite a 
satisfactory arrangement, provided always that the inter- 
connecting lines have sufficient resistance or reactance to 
allow a margin of scope for the regulatore, and the system is 
in actual daily operation. 

Remote control switches are addicted to occasional 
vagaries in their operation, and should be systematically 
inspected and overhauled. In one instance an earth on 
some lighting supplied from the same source as the relay 
operating circuits caused a generator switch, having another 



earth on its control wiring, to trip and immediately close 
again ; the fuse on the lighting sub-circuit then blew, and 
it was not until it had been renewed and the cycle repeated 
that the cause of the very heavy surge was realised, for the 
operation of the generator switch was not ol)8erved in the 
fii'st instance. Similarly, a generator switch once developed a 
very long time-lag in closing, so that when the set was sjmchro- 
nised, the signal lamps lit up for " closed," but the switch 
wasactually only slowly travel ling into contact. The operator, 
noticing the beha\-iour of the synchronoscope. realised that 
something unusual had occurred, and immediately proceeded 
to draw the e.h.t. isolating links. He had drawn two by 
the time the switch actually arrived home, and thus had 
averted disaster, for the neutral was not in this ease 
earthed. Indicating lamps should be on entirely separate 
circuits from the control system, and their contacts Bhould 
preferably be mounted upon the rods carrying the main h.t. 
contacts ; this is so arranged by some makers, but should 
be specified in all remote control contracts. Failure to 
o{x;rate altogether is generally due to lack of attention — 
i.e., journals or clutches remaining dry and seizing, stiff 
toggle joints, and similar mechanical details ; but faulty 
operation is even more dangerous, and is usually the result 
of mechanical wear, sparking at contacts, or electrical open 
or short circuits in the control gear ; occasionally a current 
transformer will be found to have increased its ratio by a 
partial short-circuiting of the h.t. turns, but such caanot 
easily be detected until an actual breakdown occurs. Time- 
limit fuses should be religiously tested for continuity 
before use, and when unsatisfactory, put unmistakably on 
one side : consideraljle tiilie and much energy were wasted 
in testing the parts and functions of a switch whose opera- 
tion was inexplicable, until the whole trouble was eventually 
found in a faulty time-limit fuse which appeared to the eye 
to be perfect. 

All switches, levers, and valves ought to be labelled, but 
such labelling can be carried too far ; and if sketches are 
provided they should be diagrammatic rather than actual 
working drawings, and inscriptions should be bold and suit- 
ably placed. Modern switchboards tend to uniformity of 
appearance, panel by panel, and it is often a fatally easy 
matter to operate a wrong switch, particularly with remote 
control A.c Standing alternators have been switched in 
instead of running rotaries, and similar mistakes made 
which might have been avoided by the use of consjricuous 
labels. A raw improver was once sent to shut down a roof 
fan, and, instead, proceeded to open the unlabelled main 
switch of the driving side of a motor-generator, which 
supplied the excitation to the largest a.c. unit in use at the 
time ; naturally, the results were far from happy, but the 
whole episode might have been avoided by the use of a 
suitable label. 



CABLE FAULT LOCALISATION IN 
PRACTICE. 



By D. M. W. HUTCHISON, M.I.E.E.. B.Sc. 



There are not many methods of locating faults in ander- 
ground mains which are of much use to the mains engineer, 
and really practical information on the subject is not easily 
obtainable. The writer hopes that by giving some of the 
actual results of his own experience in the past, he may be 
of some service to engineers in charge of cable work. 

Several years ago the writer had charge of a cable system 
composed partly of three-core jute-insulated Y.B. sheathed 
cables and partly of lead-covered paper-insulated three-core 
cables. Faults occurred on the system at the rate of about 
one a week ; most of the faults occurred on the V.B. cables, 
which were eventually replaced by pa{)er-insulated lead- 
covered cables. 

A few weeks' work convinced the writer that one of two 
tests would ser^e to locate any fault that could be located 
with certainty ; these were the loop test with a special 
bridge, and a fall of potential (F.P.) test. 

Loop tests, with the dial resistance boxes supplied iu 
so-called " mains testing sets," and search coil tests, were 
found to be very inaccurate, and were abandoned. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, janbary 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



53 



The bridge used consisted of 500 in. of Xo. l(i copper 
wire marked in 10-in. sections by rings of paint on the wire 
itself. This wire was stretched round insulators on a board ; 
the ends were sweated to V.I.R; leads of equal length, pro- 
vided with terminals suitable for attachment to link box, 
fnse bo.\, or feeder pillar fittings, or to cable cores. 

Current for testing was taken from the mains, and a 
resistance of 10 25-c.i". carbon lamps was used ; the 
galvanometer used was that fitted in a mains testing set, but 
later on the millivoltmeter of a Century testing set was 
found to be more sensitive ; a tapping key was used in the 
galvanometer circuit. 

For the P.P. test, a 4-volt accumulator or a bank of 
lamps, a reversing switch, an arc-lamp resistance, and the 
same galvanometer as used in the loop test were all the 
apparatus required. 

On the occurrence of a fault the procedure was as 
follows : — All service fuses were removed, both ends 
cleared, and a Megger test and lamp test^ were made ; the 
fault was then classified as follows : — 

Class (1) All cores shorted and earthed. 

(2) „ „ „ but not earthed. 

(3) Two cores shorted, third good, no earth. 

(4) „ ,, „ and earthed, third good, 

(5) One core earthed, others good. 

(6) Total disconnection. 

In Classes 3, i, and 5 the loop test was used provided 
enough current could be passed through the fault to make 
the resistance lamps glow. 

In Classes 1 and 2, and in Classes 3, 4, and '5 where the 
fault was of sufficiently high resistance to prevent the lamps 
glowing, the F.P. test was tried. 

In Class 6 the method used was cut and try, attempts at 
localisation not being consistently successful. 

It is important that the lamp tests should be made to 
supplement the Megger tests, as may be seen by studying 
the examples given below. 

If a loop test was possible, the equivalent length was 
calculated in the usual manner, and one example will 
suffice to show the method used. 



-> 




} 



Fio. 1. 

E.YA.MPLB I.— Fig. 1 (loop test, Class 3 fault), 3-core V.B. 

cable. — Megger tests. 

-f to E 5,000 (0 -(- to 12,500 0) 

— to K 5,000 (0 - to 12,500 « 

toE 12,500 w 4- to- zero „) 

A lamp test showed that it was possible to light the bank 

of lamps through the short circuit. 

Length of Loor. 
Length of cable ... 4,478 ft. -2 = 4,47M ft. 

cable ... 4,478 ft. -l = 8,05G ft. •2 sq. in. 
„ bridge leads 24 ft. Jg = 215 ft. -2 sq. in. 



... 13,649 ft. -2 sq. in. 
27-29 ft. on ■2 cable. 



Total 
1 in. on bridge = 13,649/500 

The test was made according to the abo\-e diagram, the 
wire from the lamps being moved up and down the bridge 
wire until the millivoltmeter showed no deflection ; the 
bridge leads were then reversed, and another reading was 
taken. 

The calculation is a simple one, thus : zero position was 
found on the average of the two readings to be 154 in. from 
the end of the bridge attached to the faulty cable. 

Distance to fault 27-29 x 154 = 4,202 ft. 6 in., less 
107 ft. 6 in. for one bridge lead = 4,095 ft. of -2 sq. in. 

A check test from the other end gave a slightly different 
position ; the mean was taken, and the fault was found 
30 ft. away, an .error of -67 per cent. 

With a loop test the error in most ca.ses was well under 
1 per cent. 



Example II.— -Fig. 2 (loop test. Class 3 fault).— This has 
been given, as it is a good example of how the Megger tests 
may be misleading if not supplemented by lamp tests. 

Three-Corb V.B. — Megger Tests. 



+ 10 K\ 

— to E 
to e) 



-I- to -^ 

M)(i,()(iO ohms -)- to -zero ohms 
— to ) 



D 



A lamp test, however, showed that it was possible to light 
the lamps through — to only ; they would not light through 
-f to or -f-. to — ^ This could then be classed as a 
Class 3 fault, and a loop test applied. 

The error in locating this particular fault was Hi ft. in a 
length of 451. or 3-5 per cent. ; this large error was due to 
the negative core at the fault being almost entirely burnt 
away. 

Faults of Classes 4 and 5, provided the lamps can be made 
to glow through the fault, are tested out in exactly the same 
manner as Class 3 faults. 

In making loop tests the sine qua non is to have one sound 
(that is, comparatively sound) return ; loop tests should be 
used in preference to F.P. tests where possible, as they are 
less liable to external disturbances. 

In making loop tests it should be remembered that if the 
galvanometer cannot te made to reverse through zero liy 
sliding the wire up the bridge from end to end, there is a 
discomiection in the loop, probably a core burnt away. 

All connections in the loop should be clean and tight, 
and if it is necessary to use a bond at the end of the loop, 
this should be made short and heavy. If it is impossible 
to make good mechanical connections, sweating should be 
resorted to, but good mechanical joints can usually be made 
at feeder pillar and network boxes. 

This brings us to th.e classes of fault where F.P. tests 
were necessary. 




Fig. 3. 

Example III.- Fig. 3 (F.P. test, Method I), Class 4 
fault. 

Megger Test. 

-I- .to E 30,0001 -f to — 35,000^ 

— to E 15,000 [ohms -t- to 35,000 [ohms. 

to B zero j — to zero j 

A lamp test showed that the lamps would not glow 
through the fault, so that a loop test was not possible. 

The reversing switch is an arrangement of three tumbler 
switches, whereby readings of the F.P. between a and 
fault and h and fault can be taken without reversing the 
galvanometer leads. 

A 4-volt accumulator wiis switched on, and readings wefe 
taken quickly ; an average of about six readings were 
always taken. 

The method of calculating the distance to the fault is 
simple, thus : — 

Length of loop, 6,525 ft., equivalent 

Deflection a to fault corrected for shunt . . . 

Deflection b ., „ „ 

Distance of fault from a, 24 X 6,525/64-5 = 

Being on the neutral, this is 

The error wa.< 1 2 ft., or -55 per cent, on length. 

There were no earth deflections in this. tc^t. 

D 



•2 sq. in. 
24 
40-5 
2,425 ft. 
1.212-5 ft. 



54 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. Xo. 2,095, January 18, 1918. 



Example IV.— Fig. 4 (F.P. Test, Method II). 
This is an example of the method which was used for 
faults of Classes 1 and ■>. 



IRON COMMUTATORS. 



Bv FREDEKIOK MTJRGATEOYD, B.Sc. Tech. 




Fig. 4. 

A length of sound cable is connected to the faulty 
length ; this can sometimes be done through link or fuse 
boxes, or otherwise by cutting the faulty cable ; readings 
of the jx)tential drop when current is passed through as 
shown arc taken, and the position of the fault is calculated. 

Megger Test. 
+ to E zero \ + to — 100,0001 

— to E 100,000 Uhms + to zero [-ohms. 
to E 1,000 j — to 100,000 j 

Xo current could be passed through the fault for a loop 
test, so this was treated as a Class 1 fault. 

Length of faulty cable ... (idO ft. 'O") sq. Iti. 

Length of sound cable ... 420 ft. -Oo sq. in. 

Deflection sound cable ... ... L'6'r> 

Deflection faulty cable 19-0 

Length to fault"420 x 19/2(3-5 = 301-5 ft. 

It was found advisable to deduct an allowance of o per 
cent, from the calculated length when using this second 
method with V.B. cables when the faulty cable was earthed ; 
this is probably due to the added resistance near the fault, 
due to the cores being badly burnt. 

Length to fault, corrected = 292 ft. 
Error 1 ft. (5 in. = -16 per cent. 
In F.P. tests there will sometimes be earth deflections, 
and these must be added to or deducted from the galvano- 
meter readings, according as they oppose or help the deflec- 
tion when the test current is on. 

It is a good plan to put a resistance of about 5,000 ohms 
in series with the galvanometer in these tests, and to regu- 
late the test current so as to get a good readable deflection 
when the key is depressed ; this saves a lot of trouble due 
to earth deflections, but all the same, if these are variable, 
it is almost impossible to get a reliable test, and therefore 
it is better to cut and try. 

It is important in F.P. tests to keep the test apparatus 
well insulated from earth, and to see that the galvanometer 
leads are attached to the ends of the cable under test — 
I.e., the testing circuit should not include any unavoidable 
joints : the joint between sound and faulty cable in Method 
II should be a good one. 

In Class 2, faults using F.P. test, Method II, the history 
of the fault has to be roughly taken into account ; if a bad 
burn out is suspected, which rather depends upon the fusing 
of the network and class of cables, a deduction of 3 per 
cent, should also be made, as in Example lY. 

No examples have been given of F.P. tests on Class 3 
and Class 5 faults, but they are only variations of the tests 
given in Examples IV and III respectively. 



Electric Steel in New Zealand. — The Industries Committee 

of the House of Representatives has presented a report on the 
utOisation of steel scrap and waste. The Committee has had under 
consideration a proposal from Mr. Thomas Waddell, of Christchurch, 
to establish a plant for the melting of scrap steel by an electrical 
process. The Committee recommends the remission of Customs 
duty on the machinery for the erection of the electric furnace, and 
is of the opinion that the production of iron and steel in the 
Dominion is a matter which should receive the attention of the 
Government. 



The fact that war conditions in Germany have necessitated 
a limitation of the use of copper and enforced the manu- 
facture of iron commutators in certain classes of machines, 
raises the whole question of the commercial possibility of 
iron for this use after the war. Presuming that an iron 
commutator will always be cheaper than one made of copper, 
theu, provided there are no insuperable commutation or 
mechanical difficulties in operation, we can safely assume 
that the iron commutator as a commercial proposition has 
come to stay. 

Past experience of commutation problems, however, 
should deter us from making final decisions on this question 
from mere theoretical considerations. Commutation prob- 
lems, electrical and mechanical, are so abstruse that only 
practical experience in the operation of iron commutators 
will supply the verdict as to their commercial future. 
And whilst British engineers will naturally watch develop- 
ments in Germany, it would be wise for manufacturers 
here seriously to tackle the question of iron commutatoi-s 
on their own account. 

The chief objection to this use of iron in place of copper 
is that a magnetic material replaces a non-magnetic. This 
means that we are adding to our already large list of com- 
mutation factors, a field produced in the iron segments due 
to circulating currents in the coils undergoing commuta- 
tion. This field is radial, and coincides with the axes of 
the brushes. The effect is ecjuivalent to increasing the 
reactance voltage, as this extra field has now to be ijeutral- 
ised before commutation can be completed. The result, 
therefore, is that with an iron commutator, either the lead 
of the brushes or the interpole strength must be increased. 
This portion of the subject has already been investigated in 
C^ermany, and it was found that in the case of a 100-Kw. 
dynamo" designed for 110 volts at 580 r.p.m., the short- 
circuit voltage in one coil was increased by 35 per cent, on 
replacing a copper commutator with an iron one.* The 
increase required in the interpole flux is stated as 10 to 
15 per cent., and if this is so, it would seem that no serious 
alteration in the mechiuiical design of pole pieces or frame 
should be necessary, since interpoles are usually designed to 
operate well below saturation. 

Apart from the above, the question would appear to be 
one for the brush engineer to solve, and he would find his 
problems very much aggravated. Sparkless commutation 
would be attained with much greater difficulty in view 
of the increased reactance voltage and the extra atten- 
tion requited to maintain a good polished commutator 
surface. Not only would great care be needed in the 
choice of the brush quality, but careful nursing would be 
a sine qua non. In the latter connection, the first con- 
sideration would be that of the mica. It is, perhaps, 
safe to say that the majority of the brush troubles which 
are not electrical in origin, are traceable to obstinate mica. 
Mica protrudes for two reasons ; either it works up due to the 
alternate heating and cooling operations it undergoes, or else 
the brush is insufficiently abrasive to wear it away at the 
same rate as it wears the copper segments. We so often speak 
of " hard " or " soft " mica, that we are apt to forget that 
" hardness " is no criterion of this " rate of wear." For ideal 
conditions the mica's resistance to abrasion should never 
exceed that of the metal segments, and, as already stated, the 
resistance to abrasion of any material bears no exact rela- 
tion to its hardness as determined by any of the usual 
methods. Now, from experience gained in comparing the 
rates of wear of iron and copper or gun-metal rings with the 
same quality of brush on each, we can safely assume that 
an iron commutator would wear less than a copper one 
under the same conditions. It seems, therefore, that a 
more obstinate grade of mica would be possible, and this is 
a distinct advantage. With recessed mica the commutator 
might approximate somewhat to steel rings, with which 
some experience has already been gained. It is well known 
that certain grades of highly-graphitic brushes operate 

' Vide j^lektrot. u. Maichineniav. 35, pp. 273-276, June 10th, 
1917. 



Tol.82. No. 2,093, January 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



55 



excellently on steel rings, giving a good polish to both ring 
and brush contact surface, and producing little ring or 
brush wear. It is quite possible, therefore, that highly- 
graphitic brushes would run well on slotted iron commu- 
tators, and the fact that such brushes are usually a good 
comniutating type encourages this point of view. 

With regard to the difference in friction coefficient 
and contact drops as a result of the change from copper to 
iron, it may be noted that German experience seems to 
show that there is practically no difference in the temperature 
rise of iron and copper commutators woi-king under identical 
conditions. Whether this should be taken as fact, or 
whether German engineers are merely making a virtue of 
necessity, is certainly doubtful. 

That iron commutators would require careful watching 
in operation is obvious, and, in certain situations, such as 
in hygroscopic atmosphere, the formation of rust may forbid 
the adoption of iron. .Bust trouble, however, might be 
satisfactorily overcome by staggering the brushes, so that 
the brush paths cover the whole length of the commutator. 
Tendency to rust is, of course, the main objection to steel 
rings, for it has been found that a slight oxidisation gene- 
rally occurs when the machine is allowed to stand, though, 
a,s mentioned previously, this is usually insufficient per- 
manently to injure the good contact surface of the brush 
or ring. In the case of a commutator the oxidisation may 
usually be eciually unimportant, and the use of an impreg- 
nated brush, by distributing a thin Him of oil as a 
protective coating over the surface of the commutator, may 
be an effectual remedy in cases where the tendency to rust 
is excessive. 

Trouble may occur with recessed mica owing to an 
accumulation of ru^t, or an oil and rust paste, in the slots of 
the segments, but this is not a detail which should present 
any difficulty in overcoming it, and in cases where the 
machine is rarely examined, the remedy would probably be 
to run on flush mica, using a suitable hard carbon brush. 

As stated aliove, the commercial value of the iron com- 
mutator can only be finally settled after actual experience 
in its use ; but judging merely from a tiieoretical stand- 
point, the iron commutator would seem to have a certain, 
though probably a very limited, future. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letters received by vs after 5 P.M. ON TUESDAY cannot appear until 
the followinq week. Correspondents should forward their communi- 
cations at the earliest possible moment. JVi^etter can be published 
unless we have the writer's name and address in our possession. 



Meters on a Changed Frequency. 

The question raised by " Query " in your current issue can only 
be correctly answered after one has heard what particular type of 
meter is in circuit. 

A short time ag:o one of our largest meter manufacturers decided 
to test one meter of each type then on the market, and comparisons 
of all kinds were made, amongs*^ them being that of variation with 
chang-es of frequency. Needless to say, vast differences were 
recorded as between types, and the errors were found to be in- 
creased on inductive loads. 

The figures for two British and two Continental meters (all four 
in general use in this country) were as follows : — 



British Meters 
Half load P.F. I'O. 
^ X f 40 period, 1 per cent. slow. 
<:«) i .50 „ OK. 



c*){^^ 



1 per cent. slow. 
O.K. 



Half load P.F. Vr,. 
4'0 per cent. slow. 
O'l) per cent. „ 
3'5 per cent. ,. 
O.K. 






* Continental Meters. 
period, 3 per cent. slow. i per cent, alow.' 
O.K. O.K. 

„ 2'1 per cent. slow. li'O per cent. slow. 
.. 0'4 per cent. fast. 2'6 per cent. fast. 



Unless, therefore, the majority of meters in question are of Con- 
tinental origin, or the circuits are mostly for povver purposes, there 
is no need for ''Query" to worry about the change of frequency. 
Certainly no method of voltage variation will compensate, because 
AC. meters are all walt-liour meters, and. therefore, as regards 
accuracy are independent of voltage vswiation. 

T 

Urmston. 



Illuminating Engineering. 

The criticism of your correspondent on my address to the 
Illuminating Engineering Society is welcome, and for any discus- 
sion on it I should be grateful. 

Mr. Cook suggests that I encourage the idea that an engineer 
" has done his duty to himself in accepting the sense of sight as 
judgment from one whose mind he has omitted to tutor in its 
requirements." I thought that I had already wandered too far 
into psychology and other philosophical matters, and I hesitate to 
enter into the extremely interesting question of the intellectual 
relations which do, might, or should exist between a professional 
man and his client. Business is started by a statement by the 
client of what he thinks he wants. Sometimes he knows this so 
exactly that the engineer has only to see that he gets it. At other 
times, the engineer must amplify the details by investigation into 
the case, and forms his own opinion, based on technical experience, 
on what he judges that his client really wants. It is rather a 
delicate matter to act as a tutor, or to do more than " elucidate " 
qualities to him. If he " preaches " " subordinate diversity factor " 
and "the loss of intrinsic brillianc.y as reduction in illumination," 
to quote Mr. Cook's words, he may weary, or even annoy, his client, 
unless a good deal of tact be used. May I quote another part of 
my address .' " Even if an instrument should one day be invented, 
as Lambert hoped, which would indicate a quantity of light on a 
scale like a thermometer, our client's opinion of the lighting will 
not be materially influenced. Illuminating engineers must, there- 
fore, give some attention to the subjective, and to physiological 
interpretations of sense-impressions." The boot-maker cannot tell 
where the shoe pinches, but a knowledge of the anatomy of the 
foot will help him to give relief. The oculist may preach to any 
extent, but the patient will generally insist on having glasses 
which help him to see better. And so with all the senses. 

" The more liberal education from engineers, direct to the public," 
to which Mr. Cook alludes, is one of the main objects of the 
Illuminating Engineering Society, and its enthusiastic honorary 
secretary is great on propaganda. But a good deal may first be 
done among engineers themselves if they can be induced to study the 
subject. Like other branches of optics, it offers pegs on which 
mathematicians are tempted to hang festoons of formula, pretty 
problems, and elegant equations, and neologists to adorn with 
lumens, lamberts, and milli-phots. But the more practically 
minded engineer applies simple measurements to actual cases, 
much as we used to design dynamos a third of a century ago, and 
build up experience thereon. 

In this connection I should like to comment on Lieut. Stroud's 
criticism on page 586 of the review on "Modern Arc Lamps and 
Incandescent Lamps." He rightly suggests that in the absence of 
any information about the kind of opal glass, exact comparisons of 
serai-indirect, and of direct lighting are not possible. But in his 
final paragraph he says that " the proper comparison should have 
been made with the most efficient type of open reflector," when it 
will be found that " semi-indirect lighting is 40 per cent . . . 
dearer than direct lighting." The introduction of the reflector 
complicates the comparison. The first question is to find the loss 
of light, if any, due to the use of an opal bowl or hemisphere. 

I use such bowls in my house, and there is one in one of the 
rooms at the offices of my firm. I have made measurements of the 
illumination received on the tables below these lights. At home 
I use Ediswan '' Downlite " lamps in sand-blasted opal bowls, pro- 
cured also from the Edison & Swan Co. The ceiling has not been 
whitened for nearly four years. 

With the bowl, the illumination on the table from one light 
only was 0'62 ft.-candle. On removing the bowl it was 0'65 ft.- 
candle. The direct illumination was, therefore, 5 per cent, greater 
than the indirect. With the bowl in place, the brightness of the 
ceiling nearly over the lamp was equivalent to that of a white 
screen receiving an illumination of 3'(i ft.-candles. With the bowl 
removed it was I'd ft.-candles. At my offices the difference on the 
table was less, and was barely measureable. The brightness of the 
ceiling, which was whitened about four months ago, was 2'8 with 
and I'B without the bowl. 

The light reflected from the bowl to the ceiling, and again 
reflected downwards, depends on the reflecting power of the opal 
glass and on the solid angle subtended by it. The light received 
directly from the under surface of the bowl depends on the in- 
trinsic brightness of the gltiss. In my house the lamps are deep 
down in the bowls. Raising a lamp 2 in. causes an inci-ease of the 
portion of the ceiling illuminated, but reduces the brightness of 
the glass so much that the illumination on the table is reduced 
from 0'65 to 049. I was unaware of the importance of the 
position of the lamp in the bowl until I maide this simple 
experiment . 

A. P. Trotter, 

Westminster, Januanj Wth. 



Distinctive Colours for Braided Cables. 

It gives me very great pleasure to again acknowledge the receipt 
of the good old Review for the period since my last letter. It has 
turned up with clockwork regularity except when we have been ou 
the move, when it follows up a day or so later than usual. It is 
appreciated as much as ever by all the electrical men of this 
section. With reference to the letter on distinctive braidings for 
■V.I.R. cables, by your correspondent Mr. T. D. Spark. I should 
like to add my appreciation of his suggestion. Since I have been 
in France I have used a quantity of yellow braided cable. Perhaps 
it would be more correct to say yellowish-brown. This is the 
colour your correspondent suggeata. but I rather fancy this wir - 



56 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [voi. S2. xo. 2,095, jasuabt is. i»i«. 



was of French manufacture. French electricians use a lot of this 
cable for electrical installations, so it is quite possible that British 
firms manufacture cable of the same colour for the French market. 
Wi.shing' you the compliments of the season. 

Harrj' Payn, 

London Eleetrical L'ngineeni. 
B.E.F.. France, Jannar;/ oth, 1917. 



WE5T OF SCOTLAND LINKINQ-UP. 



In our last issue (.p. HO we published a fairly full abstract of the 
reiwrt of the West of Scotland Committee for the interconnection 
of elet;tricity[8upply undertakings. 



Througrh the oonrtesy of Mr. F. H. Whysall, chief electrical 
engineer, Greenock, and hon. secretary of the Committee, we are 
now able to reproduce a map of the area referred to and a summa- 
tion load curve " showing the combined week-end loads of the 
undertakings concerned for which provision would be made by 
interconnection. We also append a table giving particulars of the 
undertakings in the area covered by the map. Readers are referred 
to our last issue for details of the report, which briefly divides the 
undertakings into four groups — A, B,C, and D — and further into 
joint groups of A and B. and B and D, these being denominated 
E and F respectively. Group A comprises the Paisley. Greenock, 
and Kilmarnock undertakings ; Group B. the Glasgow and Clyde 
Valley Power Co.'s undertakings : Group C. Alloa. Bo'ness, Falkirk, 
and Scottish Central Power Co.'s undertakings ; Group D embraces 
all dii'ect-current undertakings, and no linking-up is proposed ; 
Group E includes the Clyde Valley Power Co. and Paisley ; and 




MAr OF West of Scotland Area ; Boundary Suggested bt National E.P.S. Committee Shown •otted. 



Particulars of West op Scotland Electricity Undertakings. 



Alloa 

Bo'ness 

Clyde Valley Power Co. 

CMotherwell. Yoker, and 

ClydesmUl) 



Falkirk 

Glasgow 

Glasgow (tramways) 



TJ.C 

D.C. 
3-p. 25 c. 



3-p. 50 c. 
3-p. 25 c. 
3-p. 25 0. 

3-p.-6ffc. 



Hamilton ... D.C. 

Kilmarnock ' 3-p. SO c. 

Kilmacolm j D.C 

Lanarkshire C.C. (Cambuslang) D.c. 

Lanarkshire Tramways Co. ... ; D.c. 



Paisley ... 2-p. 50 c. 

Motherwell ... ... ... i d.c. 

Scottish Central Power Co. 3-p. 50 c. 

(Bonnybridge) , 
Stirling... . . ... ... D.C. 



H40 

460 

11,000 



lax. load, 
iv. Winter, 
1916-17. ( 



1)00 
,000 
500 
,600 
500 
300 
480 
,300 
,300 
480 
500 
520 



2,000 

500 

6.600 



• 668 

700 

25,000 



950 
45.000 
18,000 



1,180 
3,500 



2,500 
1,900 
3,000 



1.201 

1,000 

40.000 



1,.500 
55,000 
22,500 



1.180 
5.000 



175 
825 



6.400 
2.940 
6.000 



Gas plant 
800 
33,000 



9.50 
55,000 
18,000 



1,500 
5,000 



200 
1,200 



3.500 
3,200 
3.500 



Spare boilers 
at peak 
load, Kw. 



100 

8,000 



10.000 



700 
1..500 



Leased to Nat. Elec. Const. Co. 

Bulk supplies to Wishaw, Coat- 
bridge, Airdrie. Dumbarton ; 
other towns and villages are 
supplied ; 20.000-KW. exten- 
sion in progress. 

Extensions of 30,000 KW. are 
in progress ; systems are 
linked-np. 

Includes supply to Port Glasgow. 



Supply to towns and villages in 
district. 



850 KW. purchased from Clyde 
V.P. Co. (not included in 
maximum demand). 



Bulk supply to Denny ; other 
towns and villages supplied. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, JANUARY 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



57 



Group F the same company and the Lanarkshire towns in 
Group D. 

The cost of providing links of maximum utility under existing: 
conditions is estimated at £134,870, and the annual saving is put 
at £19, 140, or omitting Group B, the outlay would be £118,870 
and the estimated saving £9,140 per annum. 




SUNDAY 

Composite Week-end Load Curve of Undertakings 
Mentioned. 

The Committee consists of Mr. George Balfour (chairman), Mr. 

F. H. Whyaall (vice-chairman and hon. sec), Messrs. R. A. Brown, 

G. F. MoUer, 6. Salter, J. Wishart, C. F. Parkinson, F. Coutts, 
Roland Marshall, C. T. Astbury, J. Dalrymple. J. White, Thos. 
Ross, D. A. Starr, H. E. Ferguson, H. C. Babb, J. W. Napier, J. W. 
Papworth, W. C. Benson, E. T. Goslin, W. W. Lackie, A. Page. 
F. J. Launchbury, and H. Dixon. 



The method of taking the motor adrift is explained in fig. 2, 
which at the same time displays the special constructional features. 
The external carcase is in two halves, and is of strong and heavy 
construction. With the removal of the bearing caps and bolts 
holding together the two portions of the carcase, the upper 
portion can be lifted clear, carrying with it tbe brushgear and the 
rotor leads. With this done, eyebolts are exposed which are 
permanently secured to the bearing bushes in which the rotor 
shaft runs, the bushes being bolted together inside the shell. By 
attaching the crane slings to these two eyebolts, the bushes can 
be lifted out, carrying with them the rotor and the*'stator. 

The stator is composed of a separate ring of laminations built 
up in a containing frame and [self-contained with the windings. 
After being lifted out of the bottom [half of the jcarcase the rotor 
can be lowered to the ground and slid out of 1 the"stator. This 




NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINGS, 
AND PLANT. 

Headers are inrtted to submit particulars of iieiv or improred 
devices and apparatus, which will be published if considered of 
sufficieid interest. 

Three-Phase Live-Roll Motors. 

The-'standard motor designed for ordinary electric driving 
purposes is totally unsuitable for operating live-roll gear and 
otlier auxiliary machinery in a steel works. The motor must have 
exceptional mechanical strength to withstand the frequent shocks 
experienced in consequence of the heavy loads suddenly thrown on 
the motor, the continual rapid reversing, and through the vibra- 
tion of the gearing. Such a motor must, moreover, be totally 
enclosed to exclude metallic and other dust which abounds in steel 
works, and must at the same time have but small rotational inertia, 
in view of the fact that it may be called upon to stop and start as 
many as 500 times an hour in the course of its normal duty. In 
addition, the motor must be capable of rapid dismantling for 
inspection, overhauling, or repairs, enabling any adjustment to be 
carried out in such a way that stoppage of the plant is reduced to 
a minimum. • 

In three-phase installations a special form of induction motor is 
required to meet the conditions outlined, and the Genekal Elec- 
tric Co., Ltd., have undertaken the manufacture of this class of 
machine ; fig. 1 shows some of these machines, which are the first 
special live-roll induction motors to be manufactured in this 
country, and form part of a large contract for an imjjortant new 
■works in the North of England. 



Fio. 1. — "Witton" Rolling-Mill Induction Motors. 

arrangement makes it possible, in the case of an accident to either 
rotor or stator, to take the machine adrift and insert either a spare 
rotor or stator complete in less than half an hour, without 
loosening the holding-down bolts. 

The conductors are of the bar type both in rotor and stator, and 
are insulated with moulded mica. They are thus capable of with- 
standing high temperatures without deterioration, the insulation 
being at the same time non-hygroscopic. 

In these machines mechanical considerations have first claim i 
the air-gap has therefore been made exceptionally large, being 
O'l in. (radially) in the 75-h.p. motor. Otherwise every care has 
been taken to give a high power-factor, and the machine is so 
designed that the power-factor increases on overload, at which 
time a good power-factor is of the most importance. 

The motors are capable of withstanding a very heavy overload. 
They have a starting torque of 2'5 times normal and a high 
stalling point. Very substantial ^bearing bushes are prorided 




Fig. 2. — ''Witton" 75-h.p. Thuke-phase Live-Roli- 
Motor Adrift. 

lined with white metal, and very liberally designed. The journals 
in a 75-H.P. motor are never less than 5 in. in diameter and 12} in. 
long. The slip-rings are of phosphor-bronze, of very large diameter, 
the brushes being arranged to carry the current continuously 
without short-circuiting. ^ 

In order to permit of rapid acceleration, retardation, and 
reversing, the rotor has been constructed of small diameter, and 
has therefore a small moment of inertia. To avoid breakage of 
the connections, the rotor is mounted on a spider which also carries 
the slip-rings. 



58 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 



No. 2,0a5, January IS, 1918. 



The motor is symmetrically constructed, and the shaft is 
extended equally at each end. Xot only can the drive be taken 
from either end of the machine when first installed, but if by any 
chance the shaft .it one end of the machine becomes damaged, 
the motor can be turned round on its foimdation bolts and can 
then di-ire from the other end, the centres being exactly the same. 
The extension end can also be used, if necessary, for a solenoid 
brake. 

This class of machine is being satisfactorily used in steel works, 
not only for driving live rolls, but also for cranes and other 
auxiliary machinery. 

Automatic Circuit-Breakers. 

The British Thomson-Houston Co.. Ltd., of Rugby, have 
issued particulars of a line of automatic circuit -breakers for A.C. 
and D.c, for use in heavy service up to 6.000 amperes at 650 volts. 
In addition to their usual standard designs, the makers have pro- 
vided a free-handle tripping device and novel features in minor 
details, including a number of attachments to give automatic 
operation on overload, low voltage, reverse, shunt trip, and 
combined overload and reverse, as well as a time-lag on overload 
combinations. Auxiliary switches can be fitted for opening or 
closing an auxiliary circuit when the breaker operates, and any of 
the foregoing attachments can be added to circuit-breakers supplied 
without them, no alterations being necessary. 




j-jP, 3.— B.T.H. 2,000-AMPERE Circuit-Breaker, Tvpe V. 
Form B. Closed Position. 

Double and triple-pole combinations can also be arranged for 
higher ratings. Fig. 3 shows a 2.000-ampere s.P. breaker, with 
overload and time-lag attachments and patint blow-out shield. A 
powerful double-toggle mechanism is employed for closing the 
breakers, of the free-handle and quick-break type, without 
auxiliary springs ; the main 'contacts are of ,laminated copper, 
with auxiliary copper contacts and supplementary cai-bon contacts, 
which are renewable. All arcing takes place at the top of the 
circuit-breaker. The time-lag is of the dash-pot type, adjustable over 
a wide range, independently of the overload rating, and gives an 
inverse time characteristic. 



(Societe d'AIais et Camargue), the Barasse, near MarBeiUes 
(Society d'Electro-Chemie), and Saint Louis, near Marseilles 
(\luininium Franfais). These alumma works absorbed 
100,900 tons of bauxite in 19U, 121,0<:»0 tons m 191'2, and 
143,000 tons in 1913, whereas the consumption in 1909 only 
amounted to 40,000 tons. .Although the tonnage worked up 
in the country increased by over threefold in five years the 
exports were of considerable volume, the figures passmg from 
14 000 tons in 1910 to 151,000 tons in 1911, 138,000 tons in 
19i-2, and 168,000 tons in 1913, which last quantity was m 
excess of the home consumption in that same year. The 
principal customers in 1913 were Germany, which revived 
82 .500 tons, of which 31,000 tons were sent direct, and the 
balance via Holland; Great Britain, 52,600 tons; Belgium, 
10 900 tons, which were probably also sent on to Germany ; 
and the United States, 12,000 tons. It will thus be seen that ■ 
Gennany purchased about 55 per cent, of the French exports, 
and Great Britain 30 per cent. , , . . 

The working of the bauxite deposits at the beginning was 
embarked upon by purely raining companies for the purpose 
of supplying the market with ore, but in the course, of time 
the producers of aluminium began to acquu-e mines m order 
to reduce their prime co.sts. Thus the Societe Electro-Metal- 
luroique Fran?aise, of Froges, obtained possession ot the Laire 
and Beaume-Saint Michel properties at Mazaugues, the 
Societe d'AIais et de la Camargue purchased rights at L^upian 
and Engardin (Tourves). and subsequently secured the de- 
posits at Bedarieux bv the absorption of the Societe Metal- 
lurginue des Pyrenees. The British Aluminium Co. obtained 
control over the Union des Bauxites, whilst the Alummium 
Industrie Gesellschaft. of Xeuhausen, formed a branch under 
the title ot the Aluminium Frangais, and made purchases at 
Thoronet, Vms, Camps, and Mazaugues. The operations ot 
the latter, however, were unfortunate. After havmg extracted 
40 aX) tons the company found that it had made a mistake, 
but subsequently effected the purchase on the Marseilles iiX- 
change of the majority of the shares in the Bauxites de trance, 
with the object of obtaining supphes for the works at iNeu- 
hausen and Chippis. The board of directors of the Bauxites 
de France was reorganised by the Neuhausen company m 
July, 1914, which was the eve of the conflict. . . 

Our French contemporary proceeds to state that the mining 
of bauxite has been- more affected by the war than all the 
other branches of minmg, as, despite. the increase m the con- 
sumption of ahmiinium, the production of bauxite has con- 
Mdeiablv decreased. By way of explanation of this apparent 
inconsLstencv, it is mentioned that prior to the war the com- 
panies had accumulated large stocks of bauxites, which w-ere 
drawn upon when labour became scarce, one company alone 
having stocks on hand amountmg to several hundred hou- 
sauds of tons. Moreover, the domestic '^o'i^™Pt'°° °/j'*Xr 
has decreased, as various aluminium works have adopted other 
1 anchelof ianufact«re. On the other hand he war has 
arrested all exports to Germany. Holland, Switzei land, and 
RiSr whilst the high level of freights rendered busmess 
with thAlnited States out of the question until the issue of 

"Vir^n^r^^Sr^although the w^ has d^" a^^^ 

i^-.^hi z i^^^^pT^iSn t^h^'i^i^ it^d^np 

unfniura were mereb' limited to aviation and automob.li^m^ 
Rut the future would be for ever compromised if the pre-war 
?o cv of con^^uing to supply Gemaany ^ectb^ ^r otherw.^ 
were" continued, and if measures were not taken, .the ne^s- 
pa^r concludes, to limit exports to countries . as,sociated with 
France in the defence of hberty and civihsation. 



THE FRENCH BAUXITE AND ALUMINIUM 
INDUSTRY. 



WAR ITEMS. 



AccoRDiNQ to articles which were published recently by the 
Paris Infonnalivn, the French production of bauxite prior to 
the war represented 60 per cent, of the total output through- 
out the world, the United States occupymg the second posi- 
rion in this respect. The red bauxites mined in the South of 
Pi-ance contain from 57 to GO per cent, of alumina, and only 
from 2 to 4 per cent, of silica, and are therefore highly valued 
by makers of aluminium. In 1913, which was the last year of 
normal working, the production of bauxite amounted to 
309,294 tons, as compared with 196,056 tons in 1910. Out of 
the total, 258,074 tons were raised in the region of the Var, 
43,800 tons in the Herault, 4,270 tons in the Bouches-du- 
Ehone, and 3,150 tons in the Arieze. 

A portion of the tonnage of red bauxite extracted was con- 
sumed in Prance bv the aluminium works spread over the 
Vallev of the Arc, after the ore had been treated m works 
installed in proximity to the deposits at Gajdanne (Socifete 
Electro-Metallurgique Fianjaise), Salindres and Beaucaire 



Trading with the Enemy.— The '' London Gazette for 
January ilth contains a very lengthy list of persons and 
bodies m Mexico with whom trading is- prohibited. 

Lighting Conditions in Petrograd.— The " Times "cor- 
respondent at Petrograd gives the toUowing account of the 
to that prevailed on January 11th and 12th in that city . , 
°:^I am wnting this message by the hght of one^;andle, 
which the waiter warned me would cost two roubles aft (as. 
normal exchange). The gloom of the hotel corridors is inten- 
7teA by lamps the size of nightlights placed at awkward 
turns and corners. Outside it is 20 degrees below zero, and . 
inside one feels that the temperature is about the same. At 
10 o'clock last night the electnc light was turaed off, and 
s nee then exceptmg for five hours' daylight, we have been 
kept in darkness. Many parts of the city are m the same ; 
condition owing to the approaching exhaustion ot tuei. 

Control of Imports and Exports.— A meeting of merchants 
at Birmingham passed a resolution urgmg that, whilst it 
acquiesced in the control of imports and exports as a war 
measure, such control should cease except with enemy coun^ 
tries and subjects at the earliest possible moment consistent 
with national interests. That seems to us to be the same 
attitude as Sir Albert Stanley took up when resistmg opposi- i 
tion to the Control of Imports and Exports Bill. 

Exemption Applications.-The case of an electrical engU 
neer at a war Upital came. up before .the \\est Ridmg ■ 
Appeals Tribunal, at Leeds, agamst the decision of the Marro- 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, janitary 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



59 



gate Tribunal. Applicant was married and B 1, and would 
have to report for service on February 15th. It was stated 
that the Furness Hospital (the place of employment) was 
being used for wounded soldiers, and 15,000 electrical treat- 
ments had been given there. The appeal was, however, dis- 
missed, but the man is not to be taken away until a substi- 
tute had been found. 

.\t the Shorcditch Tribunal, on Fi'iday, the Mayor, Coun. 
H. Busby Bird, J. P.. in the chair, Messrs. Osmond & Mat- 
thews, Ltd., of 13-29, Hearn Street, E.G., wholesale im- 
porters and factors of electrical goods, appealed for seven 
ledger and invoice clerks, a packer, a cashier and salesman, 
a carman, two stock-keepers, and a commercial traveller, the 
last of these also having a personal apijeal. Mr. Wakeling said 
that on the ground that they had sucked the firm as dry as 
ix»sible, he moved that the men be granted four months each. 
.Another member pointed out that there were two clerks, aged 
36 and 40, who were both B 1, but Mr. Wakehng said it 
did not matter; they had been through the lists so often that 
the orange was sucked .dry. Finally it was decided to grant 
four months all round, with the previous V.T.C. conditions. 

At Runcorn, on January 7th, two apprentices, aged 18, were 
appealed for by the Electric Light & Power Co. The Mili- 
tary Eepresentative opposed, on the ground that the youths 
were neither skilled nor indispensable. A representative of 
the company said that after two years' service at the trade 
the youths could not be called unskilled. The Military Re- 
presentative replied that they might be useful to the com- 
pany, but they ought to be in the .\rmy. The Chairman : 
But they are also of use to the Council and public of Run- 
corn. The company's representative said that they had lost 
nine men, and had 11 left. The area of supply included Run- 
corn, Widnes, Frodsham, and Helsby. Conditional exemption 
was granted in each case, with the Volunteer condition. 

At Windsor, on January 3rd, Mrs. Fowler, wife of Mr. H. 
Fowler, electrician, renewed an appeal for the retention of 
F. J. Isgrove (18), apprentice in the bu-siness, Mr. Fowler being 
in the R.F.C. Mrs. Fowler stated that she had been unable 
to find anyone to take the youth's place. The firm was the 
only one of its kind in Windsor, and Isgrove and a lad of 16 
were the only two left to do the work. When her husband 
joined the R.F.C. the conditions were that they should keep 
the foreman, but he had also gone. The Tribunal granted a 
month's respite for arrangements to be made with the Civil 
Liabilities Commission. 

.\t Kendal, the Corporation electricity department opposed 
an appeal by the Military against absolute exemption held by 
an dectrical engineer (41), on the ground that he was en- 
gaged in a public utility service. The certificate was amended 
to exemption until May 15th. 

At Maidstone, three months' exemption was granted to H. 
Upton (30) and H. G. Tomlin (33), both passed for general 
service, coal unloaders at the Municipal electricity works. 

The Sheflield Tribunal has granted exemption until June 
30th to H. E. Maxey (38, Grade 3), electrician at the King 
Edward XTL Hospital. 

.^t Oxford, the National Service Representative applied for 
the withdrawal of exemption held by D. Campbell (38, Bl), 
traffic superintendent; T. Smalley (3'2, Bl), inspector and 
driver; and V. Hill (36, Bl), inspector and driver; employed 
by the Electric Ti-amway Co. The company applied for ex- 
tended exemption for A. W. Oakley (37, Grade 3), unit ad- 
juster and smitli. Captain Sheild agreed to three months' 
temporary exemption for Oakley and Campbell, and in the 
cases of Hill and Smalley he contended that it was no longer 
necessary in the national interest for the men to remain in 
their present occupations. Insi>ectors' work could easily be 
done, as it was in London, by women. It was pointed out 
that the two men were not only inspectors, but experienced 
drivers and mechanics, and were now more important to the 
company then ever they were before. They had six inspec- 
tors before the war; now they had these two, and two 
female ones. They were reduced to the lowest possible 
margin. Oakley and Campbell were each exempted for three 
months, and Hill and Smalley for two months. 

Before the Northants Appeal Court, -the National Service 
Representative opix>sed exemption granted by the Northamp- 
ton Tribunal to F. L. Perrin (26. Class A), electrical engineer, 
who has two businesses, and has a number of contracts in 
hand, on the ground that he had working for him five men 
and a boy. .\ final three months was granted. 



LEGAL . 

Action Against Tynfmjuth Electric Traction Co., Ltd. 
At North Shields County Court on 11th inst, W. H. Brown, master 
boiler-cleaner, and J. A. Southern, miner, brought an action against 
the Tynemouth Electric Traction Co., Ltd., to recover damases for 
personal injuries received in a tramcar accident at Whitley Bay, on 
.Tuly 22nd last. Brown claimed £24 and Southern .t 1 .5. and the 
company admittintr liability, had paid into court £.5 in Brown's 
case, and £3 in the case of Southern. 

Brown stated that while travelling from North Shields to Whitley 
Bay on the top of a car, the trolley slipped from the wire. 
Southern and he were sitting- topfether, and the trolley struck both 
of them on the head. He was ill for some days, and could not sleep 



at night. He did not consult a doctor until August 2l8t, when he 
saw Dr. Mort. of Middlesbrouprh. who gave him some meHicine. 

The Doctor, in reply to the Judge, said he g-ave Brown a " stomach '' 
bottle. 

The Judge said he thought the company had behaved very 
liberally in paying into Court the amount they had done. He gave 
judgment for the defendants. In the case of Southern it was 
stated by his solicitor that the amount paid into Court would 
be accepted. Judgment was entered for the defendants in each 
case with costs. 



Electrical Exoineer Fixed. 
Ar Warrington Police Court last week. Henry Tinsley, electrical 
engineer, of South Norwood, London, stated to be engaged on 
important work for the Government, was charged with having 
made a statement likely to cause disaffection, or to interfere with 
the success of H.M. Forces. 

Mr. Thomas A. Moss, living at the Lion Hotel, stated that on 
November 9th, while having supper there, he heard the defendant 
ask the landlady as to ti-oops leaving the district. The defendant, 
who was staying at the hotel, was heard to tell the landlady that 
the war would soon be over, and we should have to make the best 
terms we could. He also made other statements to the witness. The 
defendant denied having said anything about Germany having 
won the war. What he said was that we had a hard 
engineering problem in front of us, and we had to put our hacks 
into it before we could get through. 

Mr, Dodd. defending, said that if* everybody was to have his 
conversation picked up and brought into a police court we should 
not know where we were. A fine of £ 25 was imposed. 



Electrical Firm Fined. 
At Manchester City Police Court last week, Messrs. A. W. Taylor 
and Co., electrical engineers, New Brown Street, were fined £,'i for 
failing to exhibit a list of employes as required by the Defence of 
the Realm Act. 



BUSIN ESS N OTES. 

Plant for Sale. — Battersea Borough Council Electricity 
Department is inviting tenders for several steam dynamo sets in 
good condition. For particulars see our advertising pages to-day. 

Fire Prevention. — Messrs. Associated Fire Alarms, 

Ltd., of Jewin House, Redcross Street, E.C. 1, have sent us par- 
ticulars of a number of cases in which their automatic apparatus 
has recently prevented serious damage from being incurred through . 
outbreaks of fire. In one instance, owing to the bearings of a 
hoist heating, the dust and fluff over the hoist became ignited, and 
within two minutes the Fire Brigade was on the spot. In several 
other cases the Fire Brigade was directly summoned by the appa- 
ratus in time to prevent the spread of incipient fires, and one 
alarm was given in the course of an air raid, saving an important 
building from destruction. 

Manufacturers' Meeting. — The annual meeting of the 
National tTnion of Manufacturers (Inc.) is to held on Wednesday, 
February 6th, at 12 o'clock, at the offices, t>, Holborn Viaduct, 
E.C. I. The secretary's report which will be submitted for adop- 
tion, shows that the Midland Branch, with offices at Birmingham, 
is making rapid progress. Local manufacturers are being canvassed, 
and many new members obtained. Trade sections of the Associa- 
tion are being formed. The present membership represents 
between £500,000.000 and £(500,000,000 capital and from 8.50,0110 
to 400,000 workpeople. A questionnaire issued by the Association 
shows that a State Bank to help to assist the smaller manufacturers 
is an absolute necessity. 

Cable Works Extension.— The Glouaxter Jounml states 
that the works so successfully carried on tor some years past, 
adjacent to the banks of the river Wye, at Lydbrook Junction, by 
Messrs. H. A. Smith & Co., Ltd., electrical wire and cable 
manufacturers, have been recently enlai-ged, and special 
provision has been made for the comfort and convenience of the 
250 employes. There is a spacious dining hall, cloak and bath 
rooms, lavatories. i>c;c, A social gathering was held at the works 
recently, when the workpeople's appreciation found expression in 
the presentation to Mr. Smith of a solid silver inkstand, while JIrs, 
Smith was the recipient of a silver salver. 

Book Notices. — " Proreediiius of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers." Vol. XXXVI. No. 12. December, 1M17. 
New York : The Institute. Price $1. 

" Science Abstracts, Sections A and B." Vol. XX, Part 12. 
December 3l8t, l'.tl7. London : E. & F. N. Spon, l.\\ Price Is. 6d. 
each, 

■■ Elementary Mathematics and their Application to Wireless 
Telegraphy. ■ By S, J, Willis. London : The Wireless Press. Ltd. 
Price Ss. 6d, net, 

'■ Engmeering Mathematics. " By C. P. Steinmetz. London 
Hill Publishing Co. Price 123. 6d. net, 

"The Silewani-ghat Hydro-Electric Power Project in the 
Chhindwara District." By E, Batcl^elor. Allahabad : The Pioneer 
Press. Prict' 2 rupees. 

" Short Logarithmic and Other Tables. " By W. Cawthorne 
Unwin. London : E. & F. N. Spon. Price Is. Od. 



60 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.82. No.2m^jAxuARv is, 1918. 



Liquidations. — Armorduct Manufacturins Co., 

Ltd. — Creditors must send in particulars of their claims, &c., to 
Mr. J. Paterson, 1, Walbrook, E.G. 1. Controller, by February 1st. 

ROTHERHAM ELECTRIC.il. EXGIXEERISG CO.. LTD. — A petition 
for the winding' up of this company has been presented by Mr. J. 
Grout, of Hastin«rs, and is to be heard at Sheilield on January 24th. 

Turner i; Burger, electrical accessories merchants. London, 
E.G.— The controller, Mr. J. E. Percival. has applied to the B. of T. 
for his release. 

Climax Stopper and Ebonite Co., Ltd. — Meeting- of creditors, 
January 28th. at Great Eastern Hotel, London. E.G. 

Trade Announcements.— ^Iessrs. AV. T. Henley's 

Telegraph Works Co., Ltd., announce that the address of their 
Birmingham branch is now Broad Street Chambers, Bivming-ham. 
instead of Edmund ."Street. 

Mr. Chas. Melvin, who has been discharged from the Forces, has 
started business at 70, Westcomte Hill. Blackheath, S.E. 3, as 
Ghas. Melvix & Co., for the sale of electric lamps, torches, 
batteries, fitting's, &c. He asks for calendars and showcards from 
electrical manufacturers of these lines. 

The Edison Battery Co. (U.S.A.) .-^The Edisox 

B.\TTERY Co.. of Orange. X.J.. U.S.A.. is increasing- its capital 
from £700.000 to £1.000,000. 

Bankruptcy. — G- E. Hipkixs, electrical engiueev, 
Dudley. — Application for discharge to be heard on February .5th, at 
Dudley. * 

C. B. Ogilvie, electrical engineer. Whalle.v Range, Manchester. 
— Trustee. Mr. J. G. Gibson, released January 7th. 

Smith. W. T., electrical and mechanical engineer. Bolton. — 
Receiving order made January yth on a creditor's petition. 

Calendars. — We have received from Messrs. Pirelli, 
of 144. Queen Victoria Street, London. E.G., one of their wall 
cards for 1918. a graphic representation of their tires in the 
motor service of the Italian Forces appearing above a block of daily 
slips with the date in large red figuring. The firm will be pleased 
to send a calendar to any of their business friends who may have 
been overlooketl. 

From Messrs. Home a: Rowland, Troughton Road, Charlton, 
S.E.. we have received a quite artistic little desk calendar, with 
tear-off quarterly date slips, each bearing a coloured representation 
of vessels at sea — in peace-time. 

Concert. — The employes of the Pha-nix Dynamo Co. gave 

a concert in the Central Hall. Bradford, on Saturday last, in aid of 
Relief Fund and the Wounded Soldiers' Fund. The orchestra and 
most of the artistes were drawn from the employes themselves, 
and the aiTair was a pronounced success. The workpeople from 
these works have been very active in their charitable relief work 
during the war. 

Sweden. — A new company has lately been formed in 

Sweden to establish works at Vasteras for the electrolytic pro- 
duction of copper, nickel and cobalt. 

Catalogues and Lists. — Messrs. Cole, Marchext and 

Morlev. Ltd.. Prospect Foundry. Wakefield Road, Bradford. — 
Catalogue So. 52 (82 pp., art paper), containing descriptive illus- 
trated matter relating to their slow-speed horizontal steam engines, 
with piston-drop valves operated by detent gear for superheated or 
saturated steam. All the main parts of the engines are Olus- 
trated, and a general specification and tables of standard sizes are 
given. 

British Insulated and Helsby Gables, Ltd., Prescot. — 
Pamphlet P. No. 149, gives brief illustrated particulars and prices 
of Prescot fuse-boxes (Home Office type). 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Accrington. — The Trades and Labour Council has passed 
a resolution disagreeing with the suggestion of the Goal Con- 
servation Committee that electricity supply should be left in the 
hands .of private enterprise, and expressing the opinion that it 
should be owned and controlled by the nation. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. — The Corporation has gi-anted a 

war bonus of 12s. a week over pre-war wages to its employes : 
Heywood Corporation has given a similar increase, and Blackjrool 
Corporation has agreed to a 1 6s. war bonus in the gas and electricity 
departments, and 14s. in the others. 

Australia. — The Sydney City Council Electricity Com- 
mittee recommends that, owing to the restrictions of window and 
shop lighting, the monthly charge for arc lamp hire only be 
reduced to Is. 8d. per lamp per month during the period the arc 
lamps are not in use. 

The Sydney Electricity Committee also recommends that in 
connection with the supply of electricity to consumers without 
meters as a temporary mea.sure. the following schedule of charges 
be approved : — Lighting, varying from fid. to 2s. 8d. for every 
40-watt lamp, or smaller, per month, and for larger sizes pro 
rata. Power from Is. lOd. to 7s. 9d. per Kw. connected load per 
month (factories based on eight hours' daily workinff). — Tenders, 



Tenterfield (X.S.W.) Electric Lighting works were opened recently 
by the Mayor, Aid. W. F. Stewart, and the light switched on. In 
the course of his remarks the Mayor stated that the cost amounted 
to £8,000. being £2,000 above the original estimate, owing to the 
increased cost of machinery. 

Ballymoney. — E.L. Proposal. — At the monthly meeting 

of the Council, the secretary of the local gas company wrote that 
the charge for lighting would be 7d. per unit and half that for 
power. Mr. J. M'Clenaghan. electrical engineer, who has a lighting 
scheme under consideration, wrote that he would supply electric light 
at 7d. iier unit, with a sliding scale based on annual consumption, 
regulated by discounts for large consumers, and .id. per unit tor 
power. A proposal to allow Mr. M'Clenaghan to erect poles in 
connection with his scheme was negatived. 

Barnes. — Proposed Extensions. — The electrical 
engineer has submitted plans and an estimate for the projected 
extension of the works, together with a report which estimates the 
cost under present circumstances at £12,500; the matter was 
referred to a Sub-Committee. 

Bradford-on-Avon. — The time for making the transfer 
authorised in the Electric Light Order of 1914 is extended to 
January :SOth. HUH. 

Bristol. — Proposed Extensions. — A sjiecial meeting of 
the T.C. was held, last week, to consider a report from the 
Electrical Committee asking for permission to raise further capital 
for extensions. Special interest was centred in the meeting, due 
to a letter having been inserted in the local Press by Mr. Chas. 
Wills (.a former chairman of the Electrical Committee but now in 
the ranks of the Anti-Municipal Traders) calling upon every 
member of the Council to vote against the adoption of the report. 
The report was for the provision of a 6.000-KW. turbo-generator 
and accessories, together with four boilers. In presenting the 
report. Alderman Pearson expressed surprise that Mr. Wills did 
not communicate with the staff to obtain some information with 
regard to the present application to spend £76.000 ; had he done 
so, it was unlikely the Council would have been troubled by his 
letter. In 1914 they applied for sanction to install a C,000-K'n'. 
set. Owing to the energies of the opposition, it was refused, and 
a 3,000-KW. set only authorised by the B. of T. They had room in 
the building for a 6.000-KW. set. but could not put two 3,000-KW. 
sets in the same site. Hence they had wasted the ground in the 
works. In addition, they were now compelled to get the larger plant, 
and it would cost them £10,000 more than three years ago. They 
had also to find a site for it : £10,000, therefore, did not measure 
their loss. 

Burley-in-Wharfedale. — The Council is supporting the 

Keighley Corporation in opposition to the Yorkshire Electric 
Power Co.'s Bill, and has intimated willingness to join with the 
Urban District Councils' Association, or any other organisation, in 
opposing the same. The Council has also decided to support the 
resolutions of the Rural District Councils' Association against the 
Provisional Order applied for by the Electrical Distribution of 
Yorkshire. Ltd. 

Cheltenham. — Price Increase. — The electricity charges, 

which were increased by 5 per cent, last May, are now to be raised 
another 10 per cent. 

Continental. — Turkey. — According to a report from 

Constantinople, received through a neutral country, a good deal of 
speculation in land is just now taking place in both European and 
Asiatic Turkey, in view of the industrial developments that are 
expected to take place when the war is over. This is said to be 
particularly the case at Smyrna, at Konia. and at Eskichir. where, 
in the case of the last two-mentioned towns, projects for the 
establishment of central electric lighting stations and tramways 
are stated to be under consideration. A new electricity station is 
also in course of construction at Liban. while at Karahissar. the 
junction town on the Anatoli.an and Smyrna Railways, a company 
has lately been formed with a capital of T£5o0,000 to establish 
electricity generating stations, sugar *orks, and tanneries in the 
district. 

Cromer. — Price Increase. — The Council has agreed to 

an application by Messrs. Edmundsons to increase the charge for 
electricity for lighting from 25d. to 4d. per unit. 

Harrogate. — The ^linistry of Munitions and the secre- . 

tary of the Municipal Electrical Association having informed the 
Corporation of the intention of the Government to stop further 
extensions of electricity supply except for munitions and national 
purposes, the Lighting Committee has decided to protest against 
what it regards as arbitrary interference with the conduct of local 
electricity supply. 

Lewes. — Electric Pumpinr. — The T.C. has decided to 
install an electric motor at the Pin well pumping station, at a cost 
of £80. 

London. — Marvlebone. — The working of the Council's 
electricity department for the September quarter shows that 
2,873,308 units were sold, a net increase of 127,827 units, or at the 
rate of 4'65 per cent, over September. 191(). The revenue from 
consumers, including meter rentals, amounted to £29.588. an 
increase of £1,275. The generation costs show a decrease of 1'3 per 
cent. Distribution expenses per unit have dropped from 'Kid. to 
■165d.. or practically down to the 1914 level, in spite of the wages 
increase. The balance available for capital charges. Arc, amounts 
to £14,539, as compared with £14,405 for the September quarter, 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, January 18, 1918.1 THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



CI 



1916. For the half-year to September 30th the available balance 
is £32,0fil, as against .£32.350 for the half-year to September, 191G, 
a reduction of £289. As the capital chai'ges are estimated to be 
£1,400 less than last year, the position is considered very satis- 
factory, thouiifh increases in expenditure are inevitable in later 
statements. At the same time, there has been an increase in sales 
rturinor the past few months. 

SouTHWARK. — ANNtTAL REPORT. — The accounts of the electric 
light undertaking- for the year ending March 31st. 1917, show a 
net loss of £8,i(>l, chiefly accounted for by the increase in cost of 
coal and other commodities. &c., restricted lighting, daylight saving 
and the earlier closing of shops. The loss for the year shows an 
increase over the previous year of .£1,983. The number of units 
sold shows a decrease of 135, IU7, or 5 per cent, on last year's 
figures, but the income from the private supply (lighting and 
power) improved owing to the advance in price, the increase being 
£3,291 ; public lighting fell to £1,207 from £3,019 in 1913, and 
after deducting £58(i for maintenance, there was left £(120 as 
revenue from public lighting, barely sufficient to cover capital and 
stand-by charges on this supply. Sales and repairs to consumers' 
apparatus fell from £1,115 to £865. Prices had already been 
raised, and all consumers would come under the coal clause as from 
the 1st prox., except those on the lighting sliding scale, and these 
would be included at the commencement of the next financial year. 
The Newington Electric Lighting Order provided that any 
deficiency of income in any one year was required to be charged 
upon, and payable out of, the local rate, and provision had been 
provided in the current year's estimates to meet an estimated deficit 
of £8,000. 

Stepney. — The B. of T. has notified its approval of the agreement 
entered into between the B.C. and the Bethnal Green B.C.. re hiring 
and maintenance of electric motors, fittings, and apparatus to con- 
sumers in the borough of Bethnal Green. The Electricity Com- 
mittee recommends the purchase of an apparatus for filtering oil 
from the high-tension switch tanks and turbines at a cost of £157. 
The Committee also recommends the Council to dispose of the stock 
of arc lamps and fittings now in store, as it is highly improbable 
they will be reinstated in view of the use of the half -watt lamp. 

The Finance Committee recommends the Council to make appli- 
cation to the L.C.C. for a loan of £4,153, at 5>1 per cent., for the 
purposes of the electricity supply undertaking. 

Hammersmith, — The Electricity Committee reports a net profit 
of approximately £2.500 on the past year's working (to March, 
31st, 1917) of the electricity undertaking. The Committee recom- 
mends that, owing to the increased risk of damage by fire, the 
insurance on the buildings at the electricity works be increased to 
£12.5,000. 

Manchester. — Wages. — At last week's meeting of the 

T.C., Mr. W. T. Dagnall, chairman of the Electricity Committee, 
asked the tow i clerk whether the latest award of the Committee 
on Production would apply to the workers in the electricity depart- 
ment. Lately there had been several awards, and he did not know 
under which one they would have to pay. They would certainly 
have to hand out more money to the workmen, and. as a result, 
there would certainly have to be another increase in electricity 
charges. 

The town clerk, in reply, held that though there was a doubt 
as to whether the electrical workers were included in the recent 
award, he advised that (ihey should recognise the award. 

Market Drayton. — Public Lighting. — The U.D.C. has 

accepted an offer from the Electricity Co. to take £05 in settle- 
ment of its account of £100 in respect of public lighting up to the 
end of 1917. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. — At a meeting of the Newcastle-on- 
Tyne and O.ateahead Chamber of Commerce on the 9th inst., Mr. 
H. W. Clothier presented a report of a Committee which had been 
gent to the B. of T. regarding the question of electric power supply 
in Northumberland and Dui-ham. The report stated that the 
Committee had taken evidence from 41 consumers, large and small, 
in the two counties. " The evidence given by these witnesses is 
unanimously to the effect that they are entirely satisfied with the 
supply of electricity for their various purposes provided by the 
electricity supply undertakings of this district. These witnesses 
stated that they had no complaints whatever to make, and that 
they were met by the supply undertakings in every possible manner 
as regards their requirements. The use of electricity has enabled 
them to effect economy, owing to the low cost of current and the 
adaptability of its use, thus making further industrial develop- 
ments possible. The Committee has noted the restrictions imposed 
by legislation in the past, particularly in the Electric Lighting 
Acts of 1X82 and ISSS, and the Power Acts of 1900 and onwards, 
•which have had the effect of restricting the development and pre- 
judicing the supply of cheap electrical energy. The Conmiitteo 
considers that such restrictive legislation should be amended. The 
Committee is strongly of opinion that in any future legislation 
which may prove necessary in other districts, much could lie gained 
by a study of the existing conditions in Nortliumberland and 
Ihirham, where the fullest advantage is taken of the resources 
available. It is also of opinion that in no case should future legis- 
lation prevent the making of any mutual arrangement between 
consumer and supplier which may appear to both to be a com- 
mercial proposition.'' The report was confirmed. 

New Zealand. — The Wellington Electric Tramways and 
Lighting Department's annual report shows that tramway receipt* 
for last year amounted to £207.916. compared with £197,904 in 
the previous year: working expenses were £145,385, against 
£118,817; capital charges were £43,601, against £41,927 ; and the 



net surplus was £18,960, against £27,120. The expenditure on 
new works last year was £41,571, The total capital expenditure 
to March 31st last was — on. tramways, £752,455; power supply. 
£34,721 ; ligWing, £12,182. Receipts from power supply during 
the year totalled £15,540, comp.-ired with £12,763 in the previous 
year, and the' net surplus was £1,729, against £1,300. The 
passengers cai-ried by the tramway show a daily average of K8.235. 
The difficulties in obtaining materials hampers construction of 
rolling stock to meet the demands of traffic. 

A Bill has been submitt(;d to the House of Representatives, 
called the " State Supply of Electrical Energy Bill," to define how 
accounts in connection with tlie sale of electrical energy are 
to be kept. The Bill provides for depreciation, sinking, and 
reserve funds. The depreciation fund is to be established by 
annual appropriations of not less than 2 per cent, of the capital 
cost of the completed works, l)ut the fund is not to exceed 
one-eifhth of the capital cost. Payments at the rate of 1 per cent, 
are to be made into each sinking fund, but the fund is not to 
exceed the amount of surplus profits derived from the scheme : any 
balance of jirofits is to be credited to the reserve fund, — Aucklmnl 
Wecltlji \eu's. 

Nottingham. — Proposed Loan. — Last week the Citj' 

Council had before it a report from the Electricity Committee 
recommending the Council to apjily for the consent of the L.G.B. 
to the borrowing of £20,000 for the extension of the electrical 
plant. The Committee states thiit the demand for the extension 
arose in consequence of an application for a supply of electricity 
to a factory at Basford doing national work. Subject to consent, 
the City Council has agreed to install plant at the St. Ann's Well 
Road Station, and to lay the necessary cables to enable it to give 
the supply in bulk. 

Portrush. — E.L. Proposal. — At the weekly meeting 
of the Council, the desirability of introducing electric light was 
discussed. The clerk said that the loan for doing so could be 
easily got, as the person who had previously promised the loan had 
plenty of money. 

Rawdon. — The U.D.O., last week, supported the opposi- 
tion of a considerable number of Yorkshire local authorities to the 
Yorks. Electric Power Co.'s Bill in Parliament, on the ground that 
its powers would grant an unfair monopoly to the company. 

Salford. — A breakdown occurred on Thursday morning, 
last week, at the Corporation electricity works, as a result of which 
the main supply was cut off for half-an-hour. The tramways were 
held up, and the works where current is used for power were 
stopped, considerable inconvenience being caused. 

At a meeting of the T.C. it was announced that the Electricity 
Committee proposed to give £156 to the local Red Cross Hospitals, 
instead of allowing them a free supply of electricity. It was 
expected that this plan would result in a saving to the rates. 

South Crosland. — The U.D.C. has under consideration 

the proposal of the Yorkshire Electric Power Co. to apply for Parlia- 
mentary powers to include the township of South Crosljind in the 
area to be supplied. 

Spenborough. — Plant Extensions. — At a meeting of 

the Council, it was reported that the Ministry of Munitions had 
recommended the L.G.B. to grant the Council's application for 
sanction to borrow £8,217 for electricity Extensions, and that a local 
inquiry was not considered necessary. Sanctions had been issued 
for £3,999 for buildings, repayable in 30 years ; £3,888 for rotary 
converter and s witchgear, repayable in 1 5 years ; £ 1 60 for cables, 
repayable in 25 years; and £115 for meters, &c., repayable in 
10 years. The Council is having a detailed .statement prepared of 
income and expenditure, with a view to a general revision of 
existing electricity charges. 

St. Anne's-on-Sea. — Mr. Clothier, electrical engineer to 
the U.D.C.. reports that the crankshaft of another of the enirines 
broke recently, thus putting two engines out of commission. With 
the remaining engines it was impossible to get the full supply, 
and the street lighting ha<l been curtailed in consequence, whilst 
the Tramway Co. had to obtain its afternoon and evenipg supply 
from Blackpool. There had been considerable ditficulty in main- 
taining a sufficient steam supply. It has been decided to confer 
with the L.G.B. and the Ministi-y of Munitions as to the provisiop 
of an additional boiler. 

Stourport. — The U.D.C. has referred to a Committee the 

([uestion of opposing the Shropshire, Worcestershire, and Staffrtrd- 
shire Electrical Power Bill, v,-ith the object of protecting the 
interests of the town, 

Swansea.— At tlie last meeting of the Electricity Com- 
mittee reference was made to the electric lighting recently installed 
in the houses on Tvewyddfa Common. Councillor Richards referred 
to the fact that when the installation of electric light in these 
houses was first suggested some doubt was expressed as to the 
advisability of that course. Events had proved that there had 
been no necessity for those fears, and the occupiers of the houses 
were in every way satisfied, and were thinkinsr of having electric 
cooking and heating installed. 

Walsall. — An agreement is to be entered into with the 
West Bromwich Spring Co. for a supply, at an estimated capital 
cost of £270. A 2(iO-K.v.A. transformer is to be purchased, at an 
estimated cost of £250. 



62 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,095. January 18, 1918. 



Warminster.— The time for making the transfer autho- 
rised in the Electric Light Order of 191+ is extended to January 

:ioth. liU9. 

Waterford. — The Coi-poration has agreed that £300, on 

account of his claim of £886. be paid, without prejudice, to Mr. 
E. M. Lacey in respect of services in connection with the city 
electric lighting scheme. 

Watford. — Proposed Loan. — Sanction to a loan of 
1 1 7,800 for .idditional plant is to be applied for by the U.D.C. 
West Hartlepool. — Lixkikg-ip. — Inquiries for power 

having been received from large local consumers, the Electricity 
8ub-Comniittee recommends that negotiations be proceeded with 
for linking-ap with the Cleveland and Durham Electric Power 
Co.'s system, or in the alternative that extensions be made at the 
Seaton station. Pj-evious negotiations with the Power Co. fell 
through : at the present time the Council is forced to use the plant 
at the old station, which is not modern. 

Weymouth. — Price Increase. — The B.C. has increased 
the charge for electricity by k^. per unit. 

Owing to difficulties, it has been decided to shut down the 

destructor. 

Yorkshire (West Riding).— The West Riding County 

Council is to obtain the views of the West Riding District Councils' 
Association, and of the Municipal Borough Councils in the area, 
on the Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s Parliamentary Bill. The 
AVest Riding Council appears to regard the Bill as giving the com- 
pany an undesirable monopoly. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Australia. — The Queeushind Government has introduced 
a Bill to provide for the purchase of the authorised tramways in 
Brisbane and South Brisbane ; the franchise of the Brisbane 
Tramways Co. expires in September. 1920. The proposal is that the 
Government would issue debentures at 4i per cent., redeemable in 
21 years. 

Burnley. — The Tramways Committee has been approached 
by the local branch of the Amalgamated Association of Tramway 
and Vehicle Workers, with a view to the formation of a Joint Board 
on the lines of the Whitley Report. The Committee is favourably 
disposed to the proposal, and has invited the Association to submit 
details of the scheme. 

Canada. — The British Columbia Electric Railway has 
received particulars by cable that the Eraser Valley district has 
been visited by a severe blizzard followed by heavy rains. This 
caused a coating of ice to form on all telegraph, telephone, light, 
power, and trolley wires, about :^ in. in diameter, and resulted in the 
collapse for great distances of tlie lines and poles. The district 
was covered by ij in. of solid ice when the extreme moderation of 
the weather causetl a sudden thaw, which resulted in the overflow 
of rivers and the flooding of all low-lying country. The company 
is as yet unable to state the cost of repairs, but it will probably be 
aViout ilOO.OOO.^Fi nnncial Times. 

Continental. — Spain. — Application has lately been made 
for a concession for the construction and working of an electric 
tramway between Tarragona and Vails. 

Dronf ield. — The Derbyshire County Council has formally 
refused consent to the Bill of the Sheffield T.C. to construct 
tramways to Dronfield. 

Keighley. — Railless Traction. — The Corjwration rail- 
less traction service is in difficulties in regard to getting repairs 
executed. Of the l(i cars in the service only two are now in com- 
mission at present, which means that the recent one-car service on 
each of the three routes is reduced to a one-car service on two 
routes and no cars on the Oakworth route. The motors, enclosed 
in the rear wheels, are said to be the cause of the trouble, and. had 
they not been interchangeable, the service would have been in worse 
sti-aits before now. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. — "WaCtEs. — The various tram- 
way authorities in Lancashire and Cheshire have received official 
application from the Employes' Union, asking for a further war 
wage advance of 10s. per week for male members and 13s. per week 
for female employes over 18 years of age. At present the men are 
leceiving 12s. a week advance and the women 9s.. and if the new 
application is granted all employes over 1 8 years of age will receive 
22s. over pre-war wages. For"those under 18 an advance of Us. 
is asked. Accompanying the application was a 21 days' notice to 
cease work, unlese the demand is granted, or the case referred to 
arbitration by the Committee on Production. The latter course 
has been adopted. 

Leeds. — The sudden snowstorm on Tuesday evening, last 
week, held up the city tramway service for a considerable period, 
particularly in the out-iistricts. A long string of cars was held 
up in Briggate and Boar Lane for half an hour. The special snow 
plough cars and cars with revolving brushes had to be brought out, 
and it was not until about 1 a.m. that the whole system was 
cleared and the last car got back to the depot. 



London. — An agreement has been come to between the 
London L'nited Tramways Co. and the L.C.C.. for the purchase by 
the latter of the company's undertaking in Hammersmith, at a coat 
of .■£2o.').000. in satisfaction of all items included in the Arbitrator's 
award of February 12th. 1912. The money is to be paid on or 
before the expiration of a year from the termination of the war, 
and the company until then retains the tramways and receipts. 

Morecambe. — Proposed Electric 'Bdses. — The T.C, 

considering an overhead electric tramway system to be too costly, 
has decided, with the permission of a ratepayers" meeting, to pro- 
mote a Bill for the adoption of electric buses to run in conjunction 
with the old horse cars, so that the public can have the choice of 
vehicles. The Bill asks for £28,000. but it is only expected to 
spend about £3,000 at first, having two cars as a trial on the town's 
sea front. For future purposes the Bill covers all the surrounding 
district — Heysham. Carnforth. Lancaster rural area, and a number 
of places in Lunesdale. There has been some little opposition to the 
Bill on the part of the local motor char-a-banc owners. 

Sonthend-on-Sea. — Electric Vehicles. — The electrical 

engineer is to report upon the question of obtaining electric wagons 
for tise in connection with the cartage of coal to the electricity 
works. 

Messrs. Ransomes. Sims & Jefferies recently informed the Council 
that it would be necessary to increase their quotation for electric 
dust vans : it was mentioned in Council that the L.G.B. had 
refused to sanction a loan of £4,150 for these vehicles, on the 
ground that circumstances were not sufficient to justify it at 
present. 

Swansea.— The T.C. has applied to the B. of T. for an 

extension of time to August 2Sth. 1919. for the completion of 
three systems under the Light Railways Extensions Order. 1914. 

The engineer has reported that the delays in the tramway 
service are not due to the Corporation power-station plant, but to the 
defective overhead system and cars of the Tramway Co. The latter 
is unable to obtain materials and labour to cope with maintenance 
and repairs. 



TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 

A Motor-Cycle Wireless Telephone Outfit.— Xews comes to 

hand from the United States that an entirely new form of motor-cycle 
wireless telephone outfit, the invention in part of Capt. F. E. Evans, 
of the Corps now in charge of recruiting in Xew York, is at present 
being tested by the U.S. Marine Corps. It is stated that the 
generator forms an integral part of the motor-cycle, and that when 
it is desired to communicate with an aeroplane or field wireless 
telephone station, all that is necessarv is to lower a frame, which 
raises the rear wheel of the machine clear of the ground, and then 
move a lever, which connects the engine to the generator through 
the medium of a worm drive. The outfit, including the aerial, 
which is of fine steel, and jointed like some fishing rods, is stated 
not to exceed a weight of 12 lb. complete, and. it is added, that it can 
handle messages over a distance of from 50 to 100 miles. Tests 
made with the outfit are said to have proved that skilled men can have 
the entire apparatus connected up and ready to receive messages in 
from li to 2i minutes. 

Argentina. — The wireless station erected by the Ministry 
of Marine at San Julian was opened to public service in October latt 
year : it has a range of 500 km., thus considerably reducing 
the time for transmitting messages between the extreme south of 
the continent and Buenos Ayres. A\Tien the station at I*unta 
Delgada is completed, the whole coast of Patagonia wUl be placed 
in wireless communication. 

Broken Insulators. — During the hearing of a case at 
Lytham. last week, it was stated that in 1916 3,600 telegraph 
insulators on main lines in the Preston section were broken. 
costing £577 for repairs. Last year, in consequence of prosecu- 
tions, the number dropped to 1.500. 

Great Western Railway. — Daring the past year a total 
length of 3 s miles of air-space telegraph cable was laid by 
the signal department of the Great Western Railway, as against 
oj miles in 1916. The number of accumulators recharged for 
working track circuits, electric signals, &c., increased during the 
same period from 45.000 to 53,000. 



CONTRACTS OPEN A ND CLOSED. 

OPEN. i 

Argentina. — February 23rd. Rosario Municipality, j 

Establishment of telephone service within the municipal radius. , 

Conditions on application. ■ 

Australia. — Melbourne. — April 5th. Department of ] 
the Xavy. Motor-driven hydraulic piunp. Director of Navy ' 
Contracts. Melbourne. 

February 2nd. Waterworks department. Electrically -driven 
radial arm crane. See "Official Notices " January 4th. | 

Adelaiiie. — Febnary i7th. P.M.G.'s Department. , 
Telephone material. Schedules 479 and 483. See " Official Notices" ' 
to-day. 

J 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, jandary 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



63 



Manchester. — January 22nd. Corporation Tramways. 
Block tin. J. M. McElroy. Manager. 

Spain, — January 29th. Municipal authorities of Zamora. 

Concession for the electric lifrhting- of the town ; no definite period 
mentioned. Tenders have lately been invited for the concessions 
for the electric li^'htini; of the towns of Villaraite and Posaiia (both 
in the Province of Cordoba), the concession in the first case being 
for ten years and in the second for three years. 



CLOSED. 

London. — .Stepxkv. — Electriuity Committee. Accepted 
tender. E. Foster & Co. 1,200 tons of Suibston nutty slack, at 
2.3s. 2d. per ton. 

HA.M:MERSiirrH. — The Electricity Committee recommends 
that the existing contracts for the supply of coal be renewed where 
the prices can be arranged without increasing the cost under the 
controlled prices at present fixed. 

New Zealand. — Wellington. — The Public Service 

Tender Board has accepted the following tender for 30.000 dry cells 
for telephones : Messrs. Ellis & Co., Ltd., £1,859. — -VefC Zealand 
Shipping and ('nnnnerre 

DuNEDi.v. — Electric lighting of new cathedral, £1,055, Messrs. 
TurribuU i: Jones, Ltd. 

Salford. — Electricity Committee. Accepted, tender. 

British Westinghouse Co., Ltd. Plant required in connection with 
the supply of electrical energy at Messrs. .T. iVIandleberg's new works, 
one 3f3u-K.v.A. transformer, i;350, and one e.h.t. switch cubicle, 
€265. 

Walsall. — The Town C'ouncil has renewed its contract 
with Callender's Cable Co., Ltd., for the supply of rubber-covered 
cable. The following quotations have been accepted by the Council 
for the purchase from the Council of plant : — 

Levenstein, Ltd. — Babcock boiler, Weir pump and two coal elevators, £3,060. 

EUerbeck Collieries, Ltd. — 1,000-kw. generating set and spare parts for 
turbo-generating sets, i'670. 

Clay Cross Co., Ltd.— Harris- Anderson purifier, ±'230. 

John Shannon & Son, Ltd. — Weir feed pump, £100. 

Wolverhampton. — T.C. Accepted tenders : — 

General Electric Co. — Converter plant, i'a.TQ?. 
Brush Electrical Engineering Co.— Two 3J0-k.v..i. oil 
£326. 



; transformers, 



;;FORTHCOMINa EVENTS. 



lastltntion of Mecbanlcal Engineers.— Friday, January 18th. At 6 p.m. 

.\t the Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S.W. Papers 

on "Traction on Bad Roads or Land," by Mr. L. A. Legros, and " Utility 

of Motor Tractors for Tillage Pui-poses," by Mr. A. Amos. 
Janlor Institution of Engineers.— Friday. January I'^th. At 8 p.m. At 39, 

Victoria Street, S.W. Paper on " Power Plants, Maintenance, and 

.Advantages of Steady Running." by Mr. R. Rankin. 
Salford Technical and Engineering Association.— Saturday. Januai-y ]9th. 

At 7 p.m. At the Royal Technical Institute. Presidential address and 

nuisical social evening. 
Koyal Society of Arts.— Monday, January 41st. At 4.30 p.m. At John Street, 

Adelphi, W.C. Cantor Lecture on •• High Temperature Piocesses and 

Products," by Mr. C. E. Darling. (Lecture l.l 

, Wednesday, January 23rd. At 4.3 i p.m. Paper on "Water Power in 

Great Britain (with special reference to Scotland) ; its Amount and 

Economic Value," by Mr. A. Newlands. 
Institotion of Post Office Electrical Engineers (London Centrel.— 

Tuesday, .January 22nd. At 4 p.m. .\t the Roval Society of Arts, John 

Street, Adelphi, W C. Paper on "The Metric System for the Empire," by 

Mr. A. J. Stubbs. 
Institution of Civil Engineers.- Tuesday, January 22nd, At 5.30 p.m. At 

Gt. George Street, S.W. Papers on "Rail Creep," by Mr. F. Reeves, and 

"Creep of Rails," by Mr. H. P. Miles. 
Institution of Electrical Engineers —Thursday, JanuaiT2nh. At 6 p.m. 

At the Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S.W. I. 

Paperon " Telephone Exchange Transfers and their Organisation," by Mr. 

F. G.C. Baldwin. 

(Students Sectionl.— Tuesday, January 22nd. At 7p.m. At Finshury 

Technical College, Leonard Street. Paper on "The Evolution of the 

Thermionic Valve," by Mr. L. R. Smith-Rose. 
Greenock Electrical Society.- Thursday, JanuaiT 24th. At 7.45 p.m. At 

22, West Stewart Street. Paper on "Direct-Current Machine Faults," 

by Mr. J. A. Kinnaird. 
Physical Society of London.— Friday, January 25th. At 5 p.m. At the 

Imperial College of Science, South Kensington, S.W. Ordinary scientific 

meeting. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain.— Saturday, January 26th. At 3 p.m 
At Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, \V. Paper on "The Chemical A 
Light" iLecture III, bv Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. 



ot 



OUR HALF YEARLY INDEX. 



As it is necessary to effect every possible economy in 
paper consumption, the Index to Vol. 81 of the Elec- 
tricaTj Eeview will be supplied only to those who, 
through the post, specially apply for it. To such it will 
be supplied for 3d. post free. Any reader or advertiser 
at Home or Abroad who requires a copy for binding, or for 
other purfxises. is asked to make application therefor promptly 
to : The Publisher, Electrical Review, 4, Ludgate Hill, 
London, E.G. 4. 



NOTES. 

Foreign Trade. —The December Figure.s. — The official 

return.? of imports and exports during last month contain the 
following electrical and machinery figures :^ 



Decimher 

1917. 

99..542 

t;9u.:-i89 



Inc. tir 

dee. 

- 93,2H 

-f 169,T2S 



12 mnnl/m, 19i: 
Jnv. ur dec. 
- .318,134 
+ 87.5,27-1 



Imports. 
Electrical goods 
Machinery 

E.XPORTS. 
Electrical goods ... l.S7,78.5 — .50,010 — l,131.32(i 
Machinery 1,219,094 -435,33.5 — 791,291 

Languages and Business. — In an address delivered 

before the Modern Language Association, M. Cambon. the French 
Ambassador, emphasised the necessity for modern languages as 
part of the equipment of the business man in the coming diiys. 
Such knowledge would be more essential than ever in future, 
because there would have to be much travelling in order that we 
might energetically and enterprisingly recuperate a war-devastated 
world. Such travelling was essential in seeking new outlets, and 
in consolidating useful relationships. 

Volnnteer Notes. — London Army Troops Companies. 

Volunteer Engineers, late County of London Volunteer Engi- 
neers (Field Companies). — Headquarters, Balderton Street, Oxford 
Street, W. 1. 

Oficerforthe IFeefc. —Lieut. P. Bowden. 

Sex- for Z>ut;/.— Second Lieut. F. Gaywood. 

Monday, January -ilst.-No. 3 Company, 6.30—8.30. Recruits' DriU, 6.30— 8.30. 
Signalling Section, 6.3U— 8.30. 

Tuesday, January 22nd.— Lecture on " Demolitions," 6.30. Physical 
Drill and Bayonet Fighting, 7.0. 

Wednesday, January 2Jrd. — No. 1 Company, Entrenching, &c., 6.33. Recruits' 
Drill, 6.30. 

Thursday, January 21th.— No. 2 Company, Entrenching, Ac, 6.0 Recruits' 
Drill, 6.30. Signalling Section, 6.30—8.30. Ambulance Section, 0.30—8.30. 

Friday, January 25th. — Musketry, 5.30 — 8.0. 

Saturday, January 26th.— Musketry, 2.45 — 4.45. Knotting, &c., for the whole 
corps, 2.45—4.45. 

Sunday, January 27th,— Commandant's Parade at Waterloo StatioUj 8.45, 
opposite No 10 Platform. Uniform, haversacks, water-bottles and mugs. 
Mid-day rations to be carried. 

{By order) Maclkod Yeabslky, Capt. and Adjutant. 

The Wages of Electrical Employes. — The meetings 

.ind discussions which have been held during the past four months 
with resrard to the wages of electrical workers have at last resulted 
in the issue of a definite award by Sir George Askwith. the Chief 
Industrial Commissioner ; and although some minor questions still 
await settlement, the principal problems have been solved in 
accordance with the invariable practice of the Government in war 
time — namely, by acceding to all the demands that are made upon 
it. The following are the main features of the negotiations, which 
have been touched upon from time to time in our columns : — The 
first conference was held on September (Jth, with Sir George 
Askwith in the chair, to consider the claims of the Electrical 
Trades Union and the National Union of General Workers, and the 
Associ.ation of Municipal Electrical Engineers of Greater London 
undertook to ascertain the views of the Borough Councils and 
other municipal authorities that owned electricity undertakings in 
the metropolitan area. In the meantime, Sir George Askwith 
suggested that the awards of the Committee on Production, 
amounting to 1.5s. advance on pre-war rates, should be extended to 
the electrical members of the staffs of electricity supply under- 
takings, as from September 1st. The Conference of Local Autho- 
rities met on October 22nd and appointed an Executive Council, 
which agreed to recommend the adoption of the 15s. award, and this 
decision was confirmed by the Conference on November tith, 
taking effect as from September 1st. But the Trade Unions were 
out for the additional 5s. award of the Committee on Production 
and the 12j per cent, award of the Ministry of Munitions also, and 
the Executive Committee proceeded to consider these demands. On 
January 1st a meeting took place between the Committee and 
representatives of the Electrical Trades Union, the National Union 
of Gener.al Workers, and the National Amalgamated Union of 
Engineraen. tec, and Electrical Workers, at which the Committee 
decided to recommend the payment of the additional 5s. as from 
the first full pay week in December, making the full advance on 
pre-war rates £1 : it was also decided to agree to any further 
advance awarded by the Government to the engineering and 
foundry trades, but the question of the 12 J per cent, award was 
held over. 

On January Sth the Electrical Trades Union decided to resort to 
a strike, in order to enforce their demands by shutting down the 
generating stations, but were induced to return to work by an 
assurance that tlie 12 J per cent, dispute would be settled 
immediately, and on Monday. January 7th. a Conference was held, 
under the presidency of Sir George Askwith, to fulfil this under- 
taking. The Greater London electricity supply undertakings, 
railways, tramways, and contractors were represented at the 
meeting, with delegates from the Electrical Traces L'nion : other 
Trade Union delegates also attended, but the Electrical Trades 
Union objected to their presence at the meeting, and apparently 
succeeded in carrying the point. The Union claimed the 12 J per 
cent, for all the sections included in their trade card, while the 
employers' representatives pointed out that they could not deal 
with this matter owing to the uncertainty as to the classes covered 
by the award : the latter also urged that, in ^^ew of the increases 
in wages, which seriously affected the costs of electricity supply, 
the Government should take steps to enable the maximum price to 
be increased beyond 8d. per unit, and to authorise the revision of 
contracts with consumers to meet the extra costs. 



64 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. S2. xo. 2,095, janttaky is, i9i«. 



As reported in our last issue, the Conference lasted for no less 
than eijiht hours, and eventuated in the award of Sir Georpe 
Asknith which we published on page 41 of our last issue. The 
award relates mainly to the 12} per cent, bonus, the only specific 
point which was broucrht before Sir George Askwith. as the London 
municipal supply authorities had already practically agrreed to pay 
the 20s. advance, as well as a larffe number of uadertakintis in the 
Provinces ; but the corollary to the award — namely, that authority 
would be ?iren to raise the maximum price for electrical energy, 
and to revise existinjr contracts, the necessity for which action 
arises out of the back dating of the Commissioner's decision to 
October 13th — was not announced last week. 

In an explanatory letter SirCxeorfre Askwith refers to questions re- 
latinsr to the interpretation of the award, and states that the decision 
is of a jreneral character, and is intended to apply to all employes 
working on plain time in generating and sub-stations, and on 
mains, or otherwise directly concerned in the generation and dis- 
tribution of electrical energy, including the technical staffs, 
throughout the country ; it is impracticable to decide in detail how 
the decision is to be applied to each individual undertaking — each 
must construe it in a reasonable manner depending on the circum- 
stances, and decide to which members of the technical staff the 
award should apply. Thus the question which has divided the 
staffs for so long still remains unsolved —namely, where the line 
of demarcation between the technical man and the trades- 
man should be drawn — and a new bone of contention 
is introduced, for the question arises at once to what rank 
of the technical staff the award shall extend. As we understand 
the terms of the award, its upward scope is not explicitly limited ; 
in fact, even the chief engineer of any electricity supply under- 
taking, no matter how large his salary, could apparently demand 
and obtain an addition of CI a week and 125 per cent, on his 
salary, as a member of the technical staff : it is. however, abso- 
lutely unthinkable, to our mind, that the chief engineer of any im- 
portant undertaking would take advantage of such an opportunity 
to enrich him-self under existing circumstances, seeing that by so 
doing he would not only deliver himself bound and gagged into 
the hands of the Trade Unions which have secured the advance, 
and of which he ought therefore, in common honesty, to become a 
member, but would also lay himself open to a reasonable charge of 
profiteering. The burden of the war should be shared by all 
classes alike, and those who are already in receipt of salaries 
sufficient to meet thevr needs have no right to demand from the 
community any additional payment. 

Another point which arises out of the award is the question 
whether the men employed, for example, as charge engineers, 
stokers, i;e.. in public institutions, such as workhouses, asylnms, 
&c,, or in privately-owned facto«ies, in the generation and distribu- 
tion of electricity are entitled to share in the advance. The award 
is so wide that we believe they are so entitled, but it will be 
necessary for them to claim the advance from their employers in 
the first instance, and if it is withheld, to demand a reference to 
the arbitration of the CommLssioner. as individual cases cannot 
be adjudicated until an actual difference of opinion has arisen. 

As the employes of electrical contractors on munition work 
are included in the award, which is back-dated to October, it will 
be seen that contracts carried out and paid for during the past 
three months will have to be revised, and the purchasers will be 
called upon to pay the ex^ra cost of labour in such cases. 

As for the general aspect of the award, which has been the cause 
of so much disturbance and unrest, we may point out that it was 
due to the action of Mr. Churchill, the Minister of Munitions, who. 
apparently without consulting the Committee of Production which 
was appointed expressly to handle the question of wages, and has 
admirably fulfilled its duties, arbitrarily and unwisely gave the 
12i per cent, bonus to certain sections of engineering workers, in 
ignorance of the existing conditions, with the inevitable 
result that all other sections of the industry naturally 
demanded a corresponding increase, and the last state 
is worse than the first. For thus rushing into a most 
complex and delicate situation he has been severely taken to 
task by his colleague. Mr. G. X. Barnes, who. pointing out the 
disastrous consequences of such a policy, which tends to promote 
slackness amongst time-workers and to discourage piece-workers, 
at a time when the maximum output is required, deprecated strikes 
on the part of men who were earning good wa^res. Undoubtedly 
to strike at this time, the crisis of the war. is an tmpardonable 
crime against ones country ; the striker is an ally of the Hun, and 
will, as Sir Auckland Geddes says, deserve the hatred and contempt 
of his fellow-countrymen. 

Clyde Engineers. — The threatened trouble in the Clyde 

engineering trade over the I2i per cent, bonus, which is regarded 
as unsatisfactory by the men, was the subject of a further con- 
ference at the Jlinistry of Munitions on Saturday with representa- 
tives of the trades concerned. Objection is taken by the men that the 
original offer of Os. ild. a week made by the Employers' Association, 
•which had in many cases been accepted, is now superseded by the 
12i per cent, bonus. They urged that the Os. !ld, should be endorsed 
by the Government if further trouble is to be averted. 

The Minister of Labour telegraphed that he had decided to 
adopt the recommendations of the Tr.ide Union Advisory Committee 
for the Shipbuilding and Engineering Industry as a basis for the 
settlement of all outstanding claims arising from the 12v per cent, 
order. All applicai ions should be made through the Trade Union 
Executive, who were the regular normal channels of communica- 
tion between the Trade Unions and the Ministry of Labour. Xo 
application would be referred for settlement so long as a stoppage 
of work continued. 

Mr. G. N. Barn»s, M.P., addressed a crowded gathering at 



Glasgow, on Sunday. He said that during the last few months 
they had been living on a veritable industrial volcano, expecting 
day by day to "be blown up. The 12j per cent, had become an 
obsession on the part of many men in the shipbuilding yards, 
engineering shops, and other places. These men he placed along- 
side the profiteers. Every time they struck for higher wages other 
people were worsened. Those who struck were the comparatively 
more highly-paid, earning £i or £5 a week, and evei-y time they 
struck the currency was diluted, and the prices of goods rose 
sympathetically, so that the great masses of the poor, incl iding the 
families of soldiers, had harder lives, and had to bear more than 
their fair share of the war. — Ditihj Telegra/ili. 

Last Saturday, the Clyde District Committees of the Societies 
affiliated to the Engineering and Shipbuilding Federation adopted 
a resolution instructing their Executive Council to call upon the 
Government to withdraw the new Man-Power Bill before the end 
of January. Failing this they would ask their Clyde members to 
down tools. They further asked the Government to call an 
International Conference to discuss the question of peace. 

New Type of Enclosed Motor.— With reference to our 

article on this subject on page 31 of last week's issue, the address 
of the Enclosed Motor Co.. Ltd., who are the owners of the patents, 
A:c,, is Finsbury Court. Finsbury Pavement. E.G. 2. 

Cooking Appliances. — A course of three lecture.s on " The 

Principles of Fuel Economy in the Design and Use of Cooking 
Appliances " will be delivered at University College, London, by 
Mr. A. H. Barker. B.A.. B.Sc. on Wednesdays, January 23rd and 
30th, and February 6th, at 7 p.m. The lectures are open to the 
public without fee or ticket. Further particulai-s may be obtained 
on application (accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope) to 
the Secretary. University College, London. Gower Street, W.C. 1. 

Institution and Lecture Notes. — Institution of Civil 

Engineers. — The Council has resolved that its examination in 
Engineering Drawing. Bills of Quantities, and Elementary Know- 
ledge of Specifications, which is at present an optional subject, 
shall be after January 1st, 1 91 !», obligatory for all candidates for 
Associate Membership. 

Association of Mining Electrical Engineers. — At a joint meeting 
of the West of Scotland Branch of the Association and the 
National Association of Colliery Managers, at Glasgow, on 
Saturday, a paper was read by Mr. J. H. 0. Brooking, on " Cable 
Complaints," 

Birmingham Electric Club. — Mr. J. J. Richardson delivered his 
presidential address on Saturday last, dealing with the history of 
electricity and electric lighting. 

Appointments Vacant.— Teacher in electrical subjects 

for classes for training disabled soldiers (,£4) tor the .Croydon 
Education Committee : switchboard attendant (56s. 3d.) for the 
Walthamstow electricity and tramways department : junior shift 
engineer (45s. -f) for the Borough of Warrington electricity 
department ; assistant shift engineer (70s.), also switchboard 
attendant C63s.), for the Borough of Pattersea electricity works ; 
switchboard attendant for the Derby Borough electricity works : 
meter tester (45a. +) for the Borough of Rochdale electricity 
department. See our advertisement pages to-day. 

Welfare Work at Fullers' Works.— We have received 

some reports from this firm which show that while the new works 
are being energetically carried on, the social welfare of the workers' 
is not overlooked ; the reports relate to canteen work, allotments 
scheme, first aid. and the War Saving Fund. We notice that an 
efficient and handsome canteen will shortly be erected ; but what 
is especially interesting is the fact that a canteen providing light 
but nourishing refreshments Has now been successfully carried on 
for 10 months without loss, and at the same time has been entirely 
self-supporting. This fact is useful knowledge for any manu- 
facturer who desires to help his employes without incurring the 
responsibility of an expensively equipped canteen. The other 
reports on allotments, first aid. and War Saving Fund are equally 
interesting and instructive, showing what satisfactory results can 
be attained by co-operative effort. 

National Insurance (Part II) (Munition Workers) 

Act, 1916. — The following are further decisions of the Umpire. 
Contributions are payable in respect of : — 

2.407 X. Workmen described as valvemen. hydaulic main men, 
tar main men. and exhauster men engaged wholly or mainly in 
connection with the operation of by-product plant attached to 
coke ovens. 

2.408 -X. Workmen engaged wholly or mainly in the maniifac- 
ture from rubber or rubber-proofed fabric of gas bags for motor- 
cars. (.Application 502.) 

A 2.410 X. Students at technical institutes receiving training 
under arrangements made by the Ministry of Munitions in any of 
the trades set out in the Sixth Schedule to the National Insurance 
Act, litll. 

A 2,411 X. Students at technical institutes receiving training 
under arrangements made by the Mini,?try of Munitions in any of 
the trades set out in the First Schedule to the National Insurance 
(Part II) (Munition Workers) Act, l:il6, or in munitions work. 

Electrolytic Production of Zinc in Tasmania. — The 

TiiiicK says that satisfactory results are reported from the plant 
erected at Risden, 'fasmania. for the electrolytic production of zinc 
from Australian ore and concentrates. The plant has a daily 
capacity of 15 tons, which it is said can be increased tenfold, and 
the necessary electric power is obtained from the State's Great 
Bear hydro-electric installation. 



Vol. 83. No. 2,095, January 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVEEW. 



65 



The Electrical Trades Benevolent Fund: the Special 

Appeal. — We have received from the secretary of the E.T.B.I. the 
following list of contributions received as a result of the special 
appeal which was made with a view to bringing- the invested fund 
of the organisation up to £10,000. Nearly £200 more is still 
required, and we trust that further special contributions will be 
received by Mr. Hawes in the course of the next week or two, so 
that the trustees can be placed in the position desired : — 

Salomons, Sir David f20 

Vickers, Ltd 21 

Holmes, .J. H 500 

Tufnell Carlton, F 3 3 

Hooper. John P 10 10 

Marrjat, H s li o 

Christopherson. Clifloid i Co a 5 

Hecht, Levis * Kahn 2 2 

Heilbuti 8ymons & Co 10 

Aldens Successors, Ltd 10 

Frederick Smith & Co 2 2 

Callender's Cable and Construction Co. . . . . 21- 

am 7 
Joint Boxes and Terminals for Split Conductor 

Cables. — With reference to the article under this title in our issue 
of January 4th, we are informed that the use of braids for cable 
jointing is covered by Mr. Charles Vernier's Patent No. 15,418/09. s 

Fatalities. — A newspaper report says that William 
Joyce, ti3, foreman fitter at the Scarborough Electric Supply Works, 
ascended to the top of a boiler at the works to look at some seeds 
which he was forcing, when he appears to have tripped and fallen 
to the ground. He was found, later, lying dead. 

An inquest was held at Southport recently on Celia Clarkson, 
wife of a soldier, who had been employed as driver of an over- 
head electric travelling crane at the L. & Y. Railway goods depot. 
Evidence was given that on May 4th last the deceased told her 
mother she was oiling the crane when some electricity " shot out.'' 
which seemed to roll her up like a ball, causing her to fall from 
the cage to the stage below, a distance of 15 ft. She was admitted 
to the infirmary suffering from a fractured spine and paralysis of 
the arms and legs, was discharged on November 14th as incurable, 
and died on .January 7th. A witness said it seemed to her that the 
det^aseil touched a live wire, but the district inspector thought the 
woman fainted and fell from the cage. A verdict of ''Death from 
misadventure" was returned, the jury expressing the view that 
greater precautions should be taken. 

Electrolytic Zinc in Australia. — The plant established 

at Risden, Tasmania, has proved the possibility of the application 
of the electrolytic process to Australian ores and concentrates for 
the production of zinc for mmiitions, heretofore produced within 
the Enjpire only in small quantities. M. Balillieu, chairman of 
the Electrolytic Zinc Co., states that the present plant has a 
capacity of 15 tons daily, which can be increased tenfold. Com- 
petition between the technologists of the Risden electrolytic process 
and the Port Pirie retort furnacing process has already produced 
metallurgical improvements. 

Electric Light Switching Exams. — Many people may 

feel amusement at the idea of a private firm holding examinations 
and issuing certificates in this or any other subject, but the 
President ©f the I.E.E. is not one of these, as may be seen from a 
remark in his address ; if these exams, had met with a poor 
response, it might reasonably have been inferred that the subject 
was one that did not matter, but as — even in such a time as the 
present — Messrs. Lundberg are able to show such results as those 
appearing on another page in this issue, it may certainly be con- 
cluded that the subject possesses both utility and interest. 

We have had the opportunity of inspecting the papers submitted 
by some of the top men in each grade of the last examination, and 
have been very much struck by the amount and high quality of 
the work done by these premier candidates. It is quite evident 
therefrom that something beyond the securing of a certificate and 
a possible book prize must have spurred them on to such efforts 
in such a busy time as the present. Though many of the examinees, 
judging from the papers we have seen, are used to examinations, it is 
certain that the subject prompts many workers to express their 
ideas of circuit diagrams and other matters on paper for the first 
time, and these switching exams, should undoubtedly encourage 
hitherto apathetic individuals to consider the advantages of 
attending classes in " Electrical-installation Work '' at technical 
institutes, and of proceeding in due course to the examination in 
that important but somewhat neglected subject. So much 
neglected is it, that there are to be no City Guilds exams, apper- 
taining to it this session, because of the war. The exam, in " Uas 
Fitting," however, is to proceed as usual I 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

The Editors ini-ite electrical engineers, whether contteoted with the 
technical or the commercial side of the profession and ituluitry, 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of the 
Electrical Review vested as to their movements. 



Central Station Officials. — The Swansea Corporation 

Finance Corarnitiee recommends that the salary of the 
borough electrical enginwr, Mr, W. J, Burr, bo advanced 
by flOO per annum. 
The marriage has takeji place at Eichmond-on -Thames of 



Lieutenant A. J. .James, R.N.V.R., who was on the staff of 
the Bedford Corporation electricity/ works, and Miss K. 
Fowler, of Bedford. 

Kendal T.C. has increased the salary of the electricity works 
manager by £W to £2W per annum. 

Hastings T.C. is increaang the salary of Mr. N. J. Ryan, 
chief assistant electrical engineer, from £180 to i"2'2U per 
annum, and by subsequent increments of i'lO to ±'2.50. 

Walsall Town Council has sanctioned the following increases 
of salary : — Mr. C. W. Cookson, accountant and collector, 
electric supply department, from £188 to ±'214 per annum-; 
Mr. John R. Taylor, chief clerk, tramways department, £'25 
per annum. 

Wolverhampton Town Council has appointed Mr. Chahlks 
WiLLLAM Chaklesworth, of btoke-ou-Ti-ent, commercial 
secretary to the electricity undertaking at a salary of £30() 
j>er annum. 

It was mentioned at a meeting of the Kihnamock Corpora- 
tion Electric Committee that Mr. Bexon, the engineer, was 
an appUcant for a situation under the Biniiingham Corpora- 
tion at a considerably increased salary. With the view of 
retaining Mr. Bexon 's services it was proposed that he be 
offered a three years' engagement at a commencing salary 
of £550 for the first year (being a present increase of £100), 
to rise £.50 at the end of each of the first and second years, 
making "his salary for the third year £650. The Town Coimcil 
has delayed the matter for a month. 

Mr. A. G. Ddrbant, of the Great Yarmouth Corporation 
tramways and electricity departments, has been appointed 
electrical engineer in charge of new electricity works for 
Messrs. John Chambers, Ltd., shipbuilders and engineers, to 
supply their No, 3 Shipyard, and also the Oulton Broad Elec- 
tricity Co., with power and light. 'The tramways manager, 
Mr. F. L. Turner, presented Mr. Durrant with a barometer 
and thermometer, and he received a writing case and wallet 
from the electricity works mains department. 

On Thursday evening last week a big muster of the staff 
and employes of the Bristol Corporation electricity depart- 
ment assembled at the Lectur^ Theati-e of the Museum to 
commemorate the •25th. year of sei-sice of Mr. H. Faraday 
Proctor as engineer and general manager of the depart- 
ment. The chair was taken by Mr. F. W. Proiiser (secretary 
and sales manager), who was supported by Mr. A. J. New- 
man (deputy engineer), Mr. Thos. H. Gait (accountant), and 
Mr. J. Stapleton (foreman of the Feeder Road electricity 
works). The chairman traced the hi.story of the undertaking 
from its inception in 1883. The late Sir William Preece (who 
was apixjinted consulting engineer) was instructed to provide 
an equipment for 20,000 30-watt lamps. The equivalent 30-watt 
lamps installed to-day is 935,000. The " baby " of the Bristol 
Corporation had been tenderly nursed, and had come to 
maturity under the parental guidance of Mr. Proctor, who, 
despite many temptations of more lucrative appointments 
elsewhere, had succeeded in placing the department in a most 
enviable position. 

Mr. T. H. Gait, on behalf of the accountancy and clerical 
staff, tendered sincere congratulations, and voiced the pride 
and satisfaction of the staff' in their " chief " and in the 
electricity department, and remarked that Mr. Pro#or held 
very prominent positions in the electrical world in connection 
with the I.M.E.A. and the I.E.E. The I.M.E.A. owed its 
foundation to Mr. Proctor. Mr. Pioctor's attitude towards 
the staff' and employes had always been most generous and 
kind, especially to those members who were serving with 
the Forces. Mr. J. Stapleton spoke on behalf of the work- 
men. 

Mr. A. J. Newman, in a brief speech, compared the posi- 
tion of the undertaking 25 years ago with its present position, 
.'ind gave the following details : — Number of consumers : 1893, 
'120; 1917, 5,300. Staff and employes: 1893, 30; 1917, 230. He 
.said for one man to "skipper" the good ship "B.C.E.D." 
to its present enviable position was a very meritorious accoin- 
pli.shment. Pie asked Mr. Proctor to accept a silver epergne 
and silver cake tray as a shght token of their loyalty and 
esteem. 

Mr. Proctor, in responding, said he really could not find 
words in Avhich to express his tliaiika to those who had 
arranged the social evening, and for the hojiutiful articles 
with which they had presented him. 11<', was grateful to all 
who had come to mark his 25th year of .service with the Bristol 
Corporation. The day was not very far distant when a 
site would have to be found for the main generating .station, 
as the water in tho Fi'(>(lnr ('anal and River Avon would be 
far too little for ulliMml.' drMlopments. If the recommenda- 
tions of the Coal ( 'mis'i \:ilinii Sub-Committee were adopted 
it would be just pos.sil)le that a large station w-ould be erected 
on the banks of the Severn, where chemicjil and high explo- 
sive, together with spelter works, were being contemplat.ed. 
The Lord Mayor of Bristol in several speeches he had re- 
cently made commerited on the Labour unrest, and advo- 
cated that the heads of all business estabhshments should 
take their start' and employes to their hearts. In the early 
days of this undertaking it was a great pleasure to him to 
know every employe by name and something about him. but 
the increasing growth of the department had unfortunately 
prevented this in the latter years. It was a matter of great 
regret to him that he could not come into contact with them 
more often. He was very glad to say that no .serious trouble 
had evei- arisen with a,ny portion of the staff or employes, and 
he thought this was a fact to be justly proud of. There was 



66 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 82. xo. 2,095. jan-uary is. 1918. 



no reason why there should be any trouble. The Corporation 
had a duty to" fulfil in seeing that the conditions under which 
their employes worked wei'e satisfactory. 

Mr. Chas. Hancock (one of the oldest members of the 
general office) projXjEed a vote of thanks to the chairman, 
coupling with it the ladies of the staff ^\ho had contributed 
to the musical part of the programme. The proceedings closed 
with the National Anthem. 

General. — Mr. H. Barge, engineer at Messrs. Bullivants, 
MUlwall, E., and son of the chainnan of the Poplar Elec- 
tricity Committee, has been appointed Officer of the British 
Empire. 

Mr. G. H. Cutting, of Messis. Cutting Bros.. Ltd., elec- 
trical engineers, of Stamford, has been appointed on the 
Local .\dvi.sory Committee formed to co-operate with Labour 
Exchanges in dealing with 'demobilisation, the employment of 
discharged .soldiers, and the substitution of men to take the 
places of men eligible for the Ai'my. 

Vice-Admiral Sir Reginald H. S. Bacon, D.S.O., has been 
apix)inted by the Minister of Munitions as Controller of the 
Munitions Inventions Department in succession to Colonel 
H. E. F. Goold Adams. C.B. 

Indian Engineering states that Mr. C. La.vdon, Superinten- 
dent of Telegraphs, on expiry of leave granted him on return 
from field service in East Africa, has been posted to the 
charge of the Trichinopoly Division ; also that Sir William 
Maxwell, Director-General, Post and Telegraphs, is at pre- 
sent making a tour of inspection in Mesopotamia in connec- 
tion with postal and telegraphic administration in that area. 

Stepney B.C. Electricity Committee has appointed Aid. 
KiLEY Chairman and Coim. Kosky Yice-Chairman for the 
ensuing year. 

Mr. ToMY Thompson, who is the Swansea district engineer 
for the British Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 
Ltd., is the author of a novel, entitled " Letters to Lady 
Shesheen." which has lately been published at 5s. net by 
Messrs. Mun-ay & Evenden, Ltd., 32, Essex Street, W.C. 

Mr. E. S. Lowes, the secretary of the Southern Brazil 
Electric Co., has been appointed manager of the company in 
London. 

Mr. Frank A. Hammond, of Leeds, who at present holds a 
lx>sition under the Nova. Scotia Tramways & Power Co., has 
contributed to the Yorkshire Post a long account of the disas- 
trous explosion which occurred at Halifax in December. 

Mr. -Tames N. Wilson, the secretary and treasurer of the 
Glasgow Corporation tramways undertaking, has been ap- 
pointed secretary of the Tramways Control Committee ap- 
pomted by the Board of Trade to supervise the whole of the 
tramway undertakings of the country. 

Mr. W. B. WooDHOCSE, chief engineer and manager of the 
Yorkshire Electric Power Co., is to lecture on coal conserva- 
tion and the national electricity sc-heme, and Mr. P. J. 
PVBUS. Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 
managing director of the Phcenix Dynamo Co., Bradford, is 
to lecture on new ideas of factory management, at. the Satur- 
day night " talks " at the Dewsbin-y Central Libei'al Club. 

Mr. T. W. Dunning has been apix>inted Superintendent of 
Telegrams at Southampton, in succession to Mr. E. Long. 

A New Zealand paper states that Mr. R. W. Dalton. H.iL 
Trade Commissioner for New Zealand, will return to the 
Lfnited Kingdom after he has completed three years in the 
Dominion. He will then .spend V2 months touring the United 
Kingdom in order to bring to British manufacturers the 
benefit of his special knowledge of the business conditions of 
the Dominion. 

Mr. William Geipel (W. Geipel & Co.) has publicly an- 
nounced that as from December 10th, 1917, his name is 
changed to William Guy-PeD. 

Mr. J. M. Clark has resigned his position with the .\lloa' 
Corporation to take up an appointment with Messi's. Kelsall 
and Parsons, 'HI. St. Vincenf Street. Glasgow, agents for the 
Lancashire Dynamo Co., George Ellison, Laminated Gears, 
Engineering & Arc Lamps, Ltd., &c. 

Among.st the naval officers brouaht to the .Admiralty under 
the new organisation is Captain Nicholson, the head of fleet 
communication, who was the Wireless Officer of the Gran .1 
Fleet, and in that capacitv was present at the battle of 
•Jutland. 

Roll of Honour.— One of the directors of the Electrical 
.\pparatus Co., Ltd.. Captain E. A. GodsOxN, M.C. of the 
Royal Irish Fu.siliers. has recentlv been mentioned in the 
dispat<-hes of Sir Douglas Haig. Major W. Roberts, R.F.A., 
the company's late South Wales representative, has been 
granted the Military Cross for distinguished service. 

Private A. S. Chantry, Machine Gun Corps, who has 
fallen in action, was engaced in the electrical department of 
the Rotherham Main Colliery. 

Brigadier-General Maxce, who was appointed a C.B. in the 
New Year Military List of Honours, is the son of Sir Henrv 
C. Mance, who has been an eminent member of the electrical 
profession for so many years. 

The Times states that Second-Lieutenant A. W. H. Pdr- 
NELL, R.G.A.. who was nreviouslv j-epovted as missing died 
as a prisoner of war at Winkel St. Eloi. in Belgium, on Nov- 
ember 20th. from wounds received on November lath ated 
24 He was educated at Loughbornugh Grammar School 
suhjnueTitly entering the State Tniversitv at Coethen-in- 
Anhalt. in Germany, for part of his training in mechanical 
and electrical engineering. There he took his diploma with 



honours in all subjects. On his return to England he entered 
the works of Herbert Morris, Ltd., at Loughborough, of which 
his father is a director, and in October, 1914, joined the Motor 
Ti-ansport Service. 

Brigade-Major F. Barritt Hills, R.G.A., who has been 
awarded the D.S.O., is manager and secretary of the North 
of Scotland Electric Light & Power Co., Ltd., Montrose. 

Amongst the new Members of the Order of the British 
Empire is Mr. M.WHEw Adam McLean, shop sui)erintendent 
of the British Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 
Ltd., Traftord Pai'k. 

Mr. Philip E. Parker, of Clitheroe, who has been seiTing 
as a wiielc-K opeialor. is icpoited by the Marconi Co. to have 
been drowned at sea. 

.\mongst the new Members of the Order of the British 
Empire appears the name of Mr. James Connor, works mana- 
ger of Mefwrs. Dick, Kerr li- Co., Ltd., Preston. 

Private W. Roskell, Royal Sussex Begiment, who has been 
killed in action, was an apprentice with Messrs. C. T. Briscoe 
and Sou, electrical engineers, Blackburn. 

Sapi)er J. Fuller. R.E., who has been killed in action, was 
employed by Messrs. J. H. Taylor & Co., electricians, iScc, 
Huddersfield. 

Second-Lieutenant G. E. Cashmore, E.F.A.. who recently 
received the MiUtai'y Cross at the Investiture at Buckingham 
Palace, was a member of the staff of the Birmingham elec- 
tric supply department. 

Captain Norman Taylor, E.E., who has been awarded the 
M.C, is the elder son of Mr. F. W. Taylor, head of the firm 
of F. W. Taylor & Co., electricians, Miln.sbridge, with whom 
he was associated in business prior to Novemljer, 1914, the 
time of being gazetted. He is now in Macedonia. 

Sapper W. E. Greetham, R.E., Cable Section, who is re- 
ported to have died in hospital whilst in India, was appren- 
ticed to Mr. G. Newby. electrical engineer, Harrogate. 

Captain Ford Jones, •\\ho has been honoured with the M.C. 
decoration, was an electrical engineer in Swansea. 

Captain J. Steven Hamilton, of the West Yorks. Regiment, 
second son of Mr. J. B. Hamilton, commercial manager of 
the. City of Leeds, has been promoted to a captaincy, and 
made the recipient of the D.S.O. for brilliant services ren- 
dered with his regiment in a recent engagement. He was an 
assistant engineer to the Leeds tramways department. Four 
of his brothers are also serving (one has been ixjsted missing 
since May 12th last). 

Private W. Harwood, Loyal North Lancashire flegiment, 
killed in action, was on the staff of Messrs. Bullers, Ltd., 
of Hanley. 

Private' J. Bidddlph, Royal Beikshire Regiment, who was 
with Messrs. Taylor, Tunnicliffe & Co., of Hanley, reported 
lui.ssing, is a prisoner of war in Germany. 

Second-Lieutenant J. E. Davies, King's Liverpool Regi- 
ment, who was an engineer at the Rugby works of the 
B.T.H. Co.. has been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. 

Second-Lieutenant J. E. Baskett, R.G.A.. who has died of 
wounds, was at the Rugby works of the B.T.H- Co., Ltd. 

Captain M. D. Cloran, R.G.A., holder of the Mihtary Cross, 
w ho was on the engineering staff of Messrs. Willans & Robin- 
son, Ltd.. Rugby, has been wounded in the thigh, and is in 
hospital at Manchester. 

The death in action is reix)rted of Private W. Roskell, Royal 
Suffolk Regunent, who was in the employ of Mr. T. Briscoe, 
electrical engineer, of Blackburn. 

Mr. \\ iLLiAM Nettleship. who has been granted a commis- 
sion from the ranks as Second-Lieutenant in the R.P.C- (he 
is to be Mechanical Equipment Officer), was in business as 
an electrician, itc, in Bridlington. 

Corporal J. Barlow, lately in the employ of the Stepney 
B.C. electricity department, has been awarded the Militarv 
Medal. 
Major Gordon C. Kenxard, R.E., of the Westinghouse 
. Cooi>er-Hemtt Co., was awarded the Military Cross in the 
New Year's Honours List, for distinguished conduct in the 
field- 
Private R. C. Whewell (21), Royal Scots Regiment, who is 
already the ix)ssessor of the D.C.M. and Military Medal 
decorations, has been recommended for further honours. He 
was employed by the Lancashire Electric Power Co. 

Mr. Clarence Scott, of Leeds, leading telegraphist in the 
Navy, has been drowned at sea. 

Corporal A. C. Chambers, who has been killed in action 
outside .Jerus;ilem, aged 21. after being recommended for 
the D.C.M., was an apprentice with Messrs. Elliott & Co., 
electricians. Oxford, when he volunteered for service in 1914. 
Second-Lieutenant C. W. Caswell. Middlesex Regiment, 
«ho has been awarded the Military Cross, was with Messrs. 
Bamett it Sons, electricians. Kettering. 

Private A. Frost, Royal Fusiliers, previously reported 
wounded and missing, is now reported killed in action. He 
was emnloyed at the Chiswick electricitv works. 

Staff-Captain Willum Alan Eraser.' D.A.Q.M.G.. R.E.. 
reported killed in action, for some time filled an appointment 
as electrical engineer under the Edinburgh City Council, and 
was later borough electrical engineer at Lancaster and Nel- 
son. While at Lancaster he volunteered for service in the 
South .African war, and served through that campaign with 
the Middlesex Y'eomanry. Before joining up for the present 
war he held appointments in America. He had been men- 
tioned in dispatches in this campaign, and was promoted to 
Staff Captain. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,095, January 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVLEW. 



67 



CITY NOTES. 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



Mr. G. P. Norton presided at the 
British Columbia annual meeting last week. He said that 
Electric Railway the decision to postpone the payment of 
Co., Ltd. the interim dividend on the 5 per cent, 

cum. pref. stock had been made in view 
of the uncert-ainty as to the amount of the earnings in the 
immediate futiu-e, and because they could not prudently con- 
tinue to pay the larger portion of that di\"idend out of the 
resei"ve fund. Since the annual report was issued they had 
received by cable the st-atement of income and expenditure 
for the month of November, showing an increase in gross 
tarnings of !ii-52,86-2, and in net income of $31,77'2. Thus the 
gross earnings for the first five months of the current finan- 
cial year showed an increase of just under $'200,000 over the 
rui-nings for the same period of the preceding year, but, un- 
lortunafcely, the increase in the net income for the five 
months only amounted to $29,000, or, say, i'6,000. They 
could, however, take some encouragement from these figures, 
as the increase in gross earnings was due to a very marked 
improvement in trade and business conditions in British 
Columbia, which had every indication of being of a perma- 
nent character. If. therefore, as a result of the report of the 
recent commission of inquiry, jitney competition was 
abohshed, and other conditions were fairly adjusted, there 
was a sound basis on which to build hopes that less difficult 
times were in store. The policy and prospects of the com- 
pany were dependent on the result of negotiations now being 
carried on with the object of bringing about a fair and satis- 
factory re-arrangement of working conditions, based on the 
commissioners' report. i 

The Financial Times states that the 
Connty of County of London Electric Supply Co. 

London Electric has deposited a Parliamentary Bill seek- 
Supply Co., Ltd. iug certain financial powers. The pre- 
amble lecites that in 1913 the company 
\\as authorised to ac<fuii'e a situ and erect a generating sta- 
tion in Barking, and it was the intention to raise capital for 
tlie purchase of the site and the erection of the station, but, 
iiwmg to the war, it was not, and will not now be, possible 
fiir the company to raise the capital on the terms contem- 
plated prior to the war. The preamble further recites that 
the company is desirous of placing itself in a position to pro- 
ceed forthwith, on the conclusion of the war, with the erec- 
tion of the generating station, and with that oljject to make 
all necessary an-angements m advance. The Bill, therefore, 
proposes to. empower the company to " pay out of its capitdl 
interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum upon any shares 
and debenture stock issued for the pui-pose of acquiring the 
generating station site and constructing thereon the works 
authorised." The aggregate amount to be so paid for in- 
terest is not to exceed Jl50,<X)0, except with the consent of 
the Board of Trade. The unis-sued share capital amounts to 
i-30(J,000, but the Bill provides that the interest paid out of 
capital is not to operate as a reduction of the amount paid up 
on the shares or debenture stock, but is to be " charged by 
the company to capital as part of the costs of construction of 
its midertaking." 

Kaministiquia Power Co. — For the year ended October 
31st last the gross revenue was $380,388, operation and main- 
tenance $.55,812, depreciation and renewal reserve $34,000, 
the net revenue being $290,.576. Fixed charges amounted to 
$96,135, leaving a net income of $194,451. Dividends repre-' 
senting 7 per cent, on the paid-up capital, absorbing $1.53,720, 
have been disbursed, and $40,731 has been transferred to 
surplus account. Since the end of the year the company has 
received orders for power for new grain elevators, which 
have been erected, as well as for some industrial plants that 
have been closed down on account of the war, and are now 
re-opening. There are also prospects of one or more pulp 
mills being estabhshed in the locality, and if these mature 
the company will doubtless be called upon to supply the 
electrical power. — Financial Times. 

Liverpool Overhead Railway Co. — Final dividend, for the 
half-year ended December 31st last, at the rate of 5 per cent, 
per annum, less income-tax, on the preference shares, and 
at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum, less income-tax, on the 
ordinary shares, making for the j'ear 5 per cent, on the pre- 
ference, and 3i per cent, on the ordinary shares. 

General Electric Co., Ltd. — A financial daily states that 
in addition to the half-yearly dividend of 6s. per share, paid 
on the preference shares, less income-tax at 5s., on Decem- 
ber 31st, an additional distribution was made of 3s. per share, 
free of income-tax, representing the income-tax deducted in 
December, 1916, and June, 1917. 

Edison & Swan Electric Co., Ltd. — The resolution for 
reduction of capital was confirmed at an extraordinary meet- 
ing held on January 9th. 

Stock Exchanj^e Notice. — .Application has been made to 
the Committee to appoint a special settling day in : — 

United Electric Car Co.. Ltd.— 100,000 7'rej- cent, cumula- 
tive preference shares of £1 each, fully-paid (Xos. 1 to 100,000). 

Western Union Telegraph Co. — Extra dividend of 1 per 
cent., in addition to the regular quarterly dividend of IJ 
per cent. 



TuESD.AY Evening. 
Prices in the Stock Exchange are what the financial jour- 
nalist deUghts to call well maintained. The scribe likes to 
write of cheerful things in matters connected with stocks and 
shares; George Gissing would have made a disastrous City 
Editor. There is that in human nature which makes for 
optimism ; a bear is the most timid animal in the Stock Ex- 
change menagerie. So it is pleasant to say that markets arc 
good. That electric railway stocks are materially better. 
That manufacturing shares are firm as ever. That affair.^; 
in Mexico do flatter a faint hope of improving conditions 
That Stock Exchange busine.ss might easily be worse than 
it is. 

Three years have elapsed since the markets were allowed to 
return to their rightful home, after wandeiing for five months 
in the draughty trench called Throgmorton Street. By far 
the majority of electricity investments stand higher now than 
they did in those early days of 1915. Badly-shaken confidence 
has been restored. Companies have found unexpected deve- 
lopments for profitable working. There is money available 
for use. even in directions other than those of feminine 
luxuries. The war marches to its appointed end. pre- 
mium bonds or no, and the hopeful folk detect slender 
shafts of blue far off on the horizon of the war-laden skies. 
Stock Exchange markets are firm and investments on the 
rise, in spite of the conviction that a 5s. income-tax and an 
80 per cent, excess profits duty may be made to appear, by 
comparison, but easy burdens when the next taxation scales 
are announced. 

The trio of Central London assented stocks, ordinary, pre- 
ferred and defened, rose 2 ixiints apiece to 62i on the 
stimulus of a modest demand. Metropolitan Consolidated 
also proved to be in short supply and gained J. Districts 
lag behind, and the Underground Electric group keeps 
steady. Nothing has been pubhshed of the expected scheme 
for an association to look after the interests of railway stock- 
holders south of the Tweed, on the lines of that formed in 
Scotland for safeguarding railway interests there. • 

The Metropolitan Eadway wiU announce its dividend on 
January 25th, while the declarations of the District, Loudon 
Electric, Central London, City and South London, and the 
L.G.O. will be made on February 7th. 

Brisbane Electric Tramways ordinary have fallen to about 
£5, and business has been done in the preference to 3i, on 
the proposed high-handed action of the Queensland Legisla- 
ture, as outlined here last week. How to object with any 
degree of success from this side, those who are interested 
admit that they frankly are unable to see at present, but it 
will seem a thousand pities if the Queensland Government 
pays no heed to the protest made against its scheme." 

Colonial tramway shares on the whole are very firm, and 
the 4i per cent, debenture stock of the British Columbia 
Electric Railway has gained 2 points. The foreign list' is 
also better, with a welcome recovery in Anglo-Argentine 
Tramways, the first preference at 2 11/16 marking a gain of 
3/16, while the 5 per cent, debenture at t)6 is also harder. 
Brazil Tractions advanced a point to 47, and further sub- 
stantial gains have been secured by Mexico Tramway first 
bonds at 37, which makes a rise of 10 points in the week, 
while Mexican Light first bonds at 37 are 4i up. On the 
other hand, the issues of some of the Canadian industrials 
are lower. Calgary Power shares, for instance, at 27i are 
5 points down, and Canadian Car & Foundry preferred at 
65 show a similar drop. The only weak spot in the Mexican 
group is Monterey 5 per cent, bonds at 26, this being 2J 
lower on the week. ' 

I>ondon electricity supply shares are good, with West- 
minsters at 6| securing a -as. rise. In the manufacturing 
group. General Electric Ordinary reacted 1.5s. to 19. although 
the Preference at lOi are J better. India-Rubber shares have 
again advanced, and a rise .of 10s. in Telegraph Constructions 
took the price to 42, the last-named being due to the divi- 
dend announcement. Other manufacturing shares are mostly 
good, with the exception of British ^^■estinshouse Preference 
at 2|. British .Aluminium Ordinary have risen to 33s. IJd. 

The telegraph Ust shows further improvement in the East- 
ern group, there being rises in Eastern Extensions, Eastern 
Telegi-aph Ordinarv, and Globe Ordinary. Anclo-.\merican 
Preferred is dull at 95. The rise in Oriental Telephones is 
resumed, and the price has hardened to 3J. Marconis have 
swung backwards, business in them bein<: quiet again, which 
has caused the price to revert to 3J. with Americans a little 
easier at 25s. .\ noticeable improvement bns taken place dur- 
ing the past few days in practically all the industrials con- 
nected with Egypt. X. e c II. 

Eubbex shares are quiet, without development of turttier 



(iS 



THE ELECTRICAL RE^^EW. [Voi. 82. No. 2,095, jaxtjary is, i9is. 



features; the price of the material has slipped back to 2s. 4Jd. 
per lb. Base-metal shares are mostly better, those in the 
silver, tin, and copper groups being prominently good. Busi- 
ness throughout the Stock Exchange, as mentioned above, is 
on the mend, and some of the markets which have been 
dormant for many a month are finding a moderate amount 
of activity iu their long-neglected shares. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 

HOMB BlSOTEJOITT GoKFANIBg. 

Dividend Price 

^ * ■> Jan. 15, Riseor t»U 

1916. IB16. 1918. this week. 

Brompton Ordinary .... 10 9 6i — 

Charing Cross Ordinary .,56 4 — 

do. do, do. 4iPrel., 4i 4i 8i — 

Chelsea 4 8 a| — 

City of London 8 8 13J — 

do. do. 6 per cent, Piet. 6 6 lOJ — 

County of London ....IT 11 — 

do. 6 per cent. Fret. 6 6 ■ 10| — 

Kensington Ordinary .... 1 6 6| — 

London Electric 8 Nil 1 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Fret, 6 4 8) — 

Metropolitan 8 8 8i — 

do. 44 per cent. Pre!. *i ih H — 

8t. James' and Pall MaU ..88 7 — 

Sonth London 6 6 3 — 

Soatb Metropolitan Pret. . . T 7 31/6 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 7 6| + j 

TBLS8BAPBS AMD TRLBPHORBS, 

Anglo-Am, Tel. Prel 6 6 95 —:i 

do. Def B3/6 U 38| — 

Chile Telephone 8 8 7i — 

Cuba Sub. Ord 6 7 9i — 

Eastern Estension .... 8 8 16J + J 

Eastern Tel. Ord. .... 8 8 161i +1 

Globe Tel; and T. Ord 7 7 14 + J 

do. Pref. ..6 6 lOJ — 

Great Northern Tel 23 24 " 36 — 

Indo-European 13 13 63) — 

Marconi 10 16 3J — f„ 

Oriental Telephone Ord. . . 10 10 81 + i 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 6J -t- ^g 

West India and Pan 6d. 6d. 1^ — 

Western Telegraph .... 7 8 152 — 

Horn Railb, 

Central London, Ord. Assented 4 4 63) +2 

Metropolitan 1 1 33) + i 

do. District .... Nil Nil 15| — 

Underground Electric Ordinary Nil Nil IJ -|- ) 

do. do, "4" .. NU Nil 6(8 — 

do. do, Income 6 4 62 — 

FOBBIGK TrAJSB, SCO, 

Dividend 

1915, 1916 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Prel, 6 6 4} — 

Anglo-Arg. Trams, First Prel, 6) 5} 3fi + A 

do, 2nd Pret, . . 6) — 3) — 

do. 6 Deb. ..6 6 66 -I- ) 

brazil Tractions 4 4 47 -1-1 

Bombay Electric Prel 6 8 9| — 

British Columbia Elec. Rly. Pice. 6 6 48 + i 

do, do. Preferred Nil Nil 38) —1) 

do, do. Deferred Nil Nil 28 — 

do. do. Deb. <i U 68 -1-2 

Mexico Trams 6 per cent. Bonds Nil Nil 37 +4) 

do. 6 per cent. Bonds Nil Nil 8i) — 

Mexican Light Common . . Nil Nil 17) — 

dOv Pref Nil Nil 29 — 

do. 1st Bonds .. NU NU 37 -1-4) 

MAJItTFACTUBlNa OOKPAIVIKS, 

Babcock & Wilcox 15 16 3^';, — 

British Aluminium Ord. ., 7 10 I'^'i -t- A 

British Insulated Ord 17) 30 8} — 

British Westinghouse Prel. .. 7) 7) 2| — ,i, 

Callenders 30 90 14) — " 

do. 6 Pre! 6 6 4 — 

Castner-Kellner 22 30 Bj, — 

Edison Swan, fully paid . . — — 3^'^ 

do. do. 4 percent. Deb, 4 4 75) — 

Electric Construction .... 7) 7) li — 

Gen. Elec. Erel 6 6 10| + I 

do. Ord 10 10 19 — I 

Henley 36 36 16) — 

do. 4) Prel 4) 4) 4 — 

India-Hnbber 10 10 I4g -i- i 

Telegraph Oon 20 30 43 -f ) 

* Dividends paid Iree ol income-tax. 



6 13 4 

6 9 1 

6 9 

6 18 6 

6 7 8 

6 18 6 

6 11 1 

NU 

6 6 8 

4 13 4 

6 13 4 

6 14 6 

6 13 4 

6 10 6 

6 5 8 



6 17 1 
6 11 6 
6 3 10 
4 16 1 



7 11 6 

6 4 
11 1-2 4 



7 11 6 

6 13 2 

*6 16 9 

•6 14 3 



ELECTRIC TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY 
TRAFFIC RETURNS. 





Month 


Receipts for 


~ m 






Roate 


Locality. 


ended the 


^-S Total to dale. 






(4 nks.) month, 


&%■ 


open. 


, 


' 


X 


X 


£ 




S 


Bristol 


Dec. 38 


22,204 


-(-4,227 


53 2^3,039 


4 29,433 


30-6 






„ 31 


2,603 


t- 381 


62 28,965 


-(- 2,280 


9-te) 






„ 21 


27,458 


■t- 2,311 


51 343,395 


■(■ 33,565 


54-26 








4,116 


-1- 464 


.'.3 


63,888 


+ io,ise 


19-H 




Lancashire United 


„ 26 


9.6ai 


t- 3,966 


51 


122,565 


-(-28,122 


43 




Llandudno-Col. Bay 


., 28 


929 


■(- 108 


4 


929 


f 108 


6-6 




Anglo- Argentine .. 


„ 31 


227,702 


-(■9,728 


.i!> 


2,730,636 


■f 48,221 








„ 26 


22,308 


-(- 880 


17 


92,118 


-(- 7,882 


26 -fid 




Calcutta 


„ 81 


19,386 




62 




-(- 6 






Kalgoorlie, W.A. . . 


Aug. 1 


3,911 


.. 




2i,f65 




ao.5 




Madras 


Sept. 80 


4,695 




31 


41.63!) 


+ 3,691 






Montevideo 


Deo. 


W,025 


■f 2.661 


9 


65,085 


-f 5,317 







MARKET QUOTATIONS. 

It should be remembered, in making use of the figruree appearing 
in the following list, that in some cases the prices are only general, 
and they may vary according to quantities and other circumstances. 



Wednesclay, January 16tli. 



CHEMICALS. &c. 



I Acid, Oxalic per lb. 

Ammoniac Sal per ton 

Ammonia. Muriate (large crystal) „ 

I Bisulphide of Carbon .. .. ,, 

1 Copper Sulphate „ 

I Potash, Chlorate .. .. .. per lb. 

,, Perchlorate .. .. „ 

Shellac per cwt. 

Sulphate of Magnesia . . . . per ton 
I Sulphur, Subliraed Flowers . . „ 

,, Lump ,, 

: Soda, Chlorate per lb. 

,, Crystals per ton 

Sodium Bichromate, casks .. per lb. 



METALS. &c. 

: Brass (rolled metal 2* to 12" basis) per lb, 

: ,, Tubes (solid drawn) .. ,, 

: ,, Wire, basis ,, 

: Copper Tubes (solid drawn) ., ,, 

r ,, Bars (best selected) .. per ton 

I „ Sheet 

r „ Rod , 

/ ,, (Electrolytic) Bars . . ,, 

f ,1 „ Sheets .. „ 

t „ „ Wire Rods „ 

/ „ „ H.C. Wire per lb. 

•EboniteRod „ 

' ,, Sheet , 

I German Silver Wire .. .. ,, 

i Gutta-percha, fine ,, 

i India-rubber, Para fine . . . . ,, 

Iron Pig (Cleveland warrants) . . per ton 

' ,, Wire, galv. No. 8, P.O. qual. „ 

r Lead, English Pig ,, 

r Mercury per hot, 

> Mica (in original cases) smaU . . per lb, 

• ,, ,, ,, medium ,, 
! ,. ,, ,1 large .. „ 

/ Silicium Bronze Wire .. .. per lb. 

• Steel, Magnet, in bars .. .. per ton 
f Tin, Block (English) .. .. „ 

I „ Wire, Nob, 1 to 16 .. .. pet lb. 



Fortnight'! 
Inc. or DeOi 



£75 
£.58 
£23 
£38 
£67 10/- 

2/6 

3/- 
£18 
£16 
£35 
£26 

i;- 

130/- 



l/6f to i;7i 
£1)7 
£147 
£147 
£125 
£152 
£133 
1/3J 
3t 



Norn. 

6d. to 87- 

8/6 to 6/- 

7/6 to 14/- « ap, 

1/8) 



QuotationB sapplied by- 



a G. Boor 4 Co. 
e Thos. Bolton & Sons, Ltd. 
d Frederick Smith & Co, 
e F. Wiggins j£ Sons. 
f India-Rubber, Gutta-Percha and 
Telegraph Works Co., Ltd, 



g James & Shakespeare. 

h Edward Till ,t Co. 

I BoUing tS Lowe. 

/ Richard Johnson & Nephe 

n P. Ormiston & Sons. 

r W. F. Dennis 4 C^. 



Tramway Workers' Wages. — Sir George Askwith, Chief 

Industrial Commissioner, has been meeting representatives of the 
Tramway Workers' Union regarding their demand for an increase 
of war wasres by £1 a week, applicable to all such workers 
throughout the country. There are in this connection something 
like 3.5.0U0 workers concerned, and the demand embraces the whole 
of the municipal and private tramway undertakings in the country. 
The tramway workers have received already advances upon pre-war 
rates of from 8s. to i61 per week. — Mornlnii Poxt. 

I.E.E. Dining ■ Arrangements. — In opening the last 

general meeting of the Institution, the President (Mr. C. H. 
Wordingham). referring to the proposals which had been made 
with a view to the members dining together after the meetings; 
said the Council was favourable to merging the usual Connoil 
dinner into a general dinner. There were difficulties in the way 
of carrying out the proposal at the moment ; they had to decide 
whether they w-ould be leading up to the greater scheme for an 
engineers' club, or whether by starting in a modest way under the 
present conditions, that scheme ran the risk of premature failure. 
It had been decided to consult the general body of members on the 
matter, and although the Coimcil felt that, on the whole, the time 
was not opportune, he favoured the proposal, though recognising the 
difficulties m the way. TUoxe who iri.i/i to iitteiid sve/i diiinern are 
tjsked to 'end in their ntimexto the Si'cretnry. and if sufficient names 
are received, the experiment will be tried after the next meeting. 

The President remarked that it had not been easy to find a 
suitable place to dine at. but that selection had finally fallen on the 
Waterloo Tavern, in the Haymarket. which had the advantage of 
electric cooking, though it was, unfortunately, some distance 
away, and at the present time they would have to share in the 
public room. 

Football. — At Kingston-on-Thames, on Saturday last, 
Sopwith Ladies and Sterling Ladies participated in a game of foot- 
ball on behalf of the funds of the Queen Mary Hospital, Roe- 
hampton. as the result of which well over £ 10 was raised. It was 
a return match between two fine sides, the Ladies from the Sterlinff 
Works, Dagenham, maintaining their undefeated record by gaining 
a two to nil victory after a magnificent struggle, while the home 
Eleven suffered their second defeat of the season, both at the feet 
of the Dagenham Ladies. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,o9.>. J..NU..RV 18, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



69 



ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING AND CONTROL 
ON RAILWAYS. 



By C. M. JACOBS. 



{Abstract of paper read before the In.stitution of 
Electrical Engineers.) 
Electrical methods are generally to be preferred for the 
operation and control of all the indications required by 
drivers and signalmen in connection with the two main divi- 
sions of railway signalling, viz. : — 

1. Block signalling, which has to do with keeping trains 
runnings on the same line of rails properly spaced ; and 

2. Interlocking signalling, the function of which is to ensure 
that the points over which the trains have to pass axe pro- 
l)erly secured, and to govern movements in and about sta- 
tion yards and junctions generally. 

An example of the advantage of electrical methods is to be 
found in the alteration which has recently been effected in 
signal aspects in North America, where the three funda- 
mental semaphore indications "Stop," "Proceed with Cau 
tion," and "Proceed," are now being given by a single arm. 
This is possible only by working the signals electrically. 
Fig. 1 gives a comparison betw'een the British and American 



NJ 



Pig. 1. 

signal aspects. The simplicity of the letter will be apparent. 

The cardinaJ principle of railway signalling is that the 
tendency of failure shall be to cause the " Stop " indicatiou 
to be exhibited. 

It is the business of the signalman to see that the sema- 
phores give con-ect indications, and where there is any diffi- 
culty in his seeing them electric repeaters arc provided; but 
these repeaters are not always as effective as they should be. 
Mere indication of the position of the signal, however, does 
not go far enough. In the case of block signalling it should 
not be pos,sible to place a signal in the "Proceed " position 

when de'cner^LZiCdor dtrectioiL of 
catrcnt tlxrowgh lekiy rev'erfled. 







Fig. 2. 

unless at the same time the signal in advance is at "Stop." 
Fig. 2 shows an arrangement for effecting this, including an 
audible indicator which sounds when the lever and eignal 
are not in agreement. ' 

Where interlocking signalling is concerned, it is necessary 
not only to prevent conflicting signals being off together, but 
also to have the signals in the "Stop " position if the points 
on the route controlled by the signal are not in their correct 
IX)sition. These safeguards can only be made thoroughly 
effective by working the signals, and detecting the points, 
electrically. 

In an installation of electric detection of points and signals, 
a large number of wires have, of necessity, to be run close 
together, and precautions are required to prevent crosses or 
earths from causing the improper operation of the detectoi' 
relays. On this account, and also in order to admit of faults 
l>eing more easily traced, " common " conductors are to be 
avoided, while an independent source of energy for each 
indication circuit is to be preferred. 

The McKenzie ic Holland and the Westinghouse Power 
Signal Go.'s arrangement for this, where alternating current 
with a separate transformer is used for ea«h indication cir- 
cuit, is shown in fig. 3. 

In the event of there being no indei)endent sources of 
energy, each circuit should get cunent from independent 
tappings from the mains. Both these arrangemojits give con- 
tinuous control or indication, and both are reasonably free 
from tfongerous failure due to earth? or crosses. 



Electrical methods of point indication and control are 
mostly confined to power systems of signalling. They are. 
however, being introduced in connection with mechanical 
signalling installations. 

Track Circuit. — Signalling movements are further controlled 
by the presence on the rails of trains and vehicles them- 
selves by means of track circuits. 

The track circuit ideal is to detect anything on w;hoel8 
across the rails. As generally installed, however, WMth a 
4-ohm or 9-ohm relay and a 1-volt battery, a track circuit 
cannot be depended upon to detect anything which does not 
put virtually a dead short-circuit across the rails. The result 
is, that not only is such a track circuit unreliable for taking 
care of a single vehicle (which in combination with an un 
clean rail may mean a. train shunt of anything up to 5 ohms), 
but it may occasionally fail to take care of a light engine, or 
even a complete train. 

Track cucuits may be divided into three classes : — 

(a) Those which may be acted upon by complete trains 
only. 

(6) Those which may be acted upon by a single vehicle. 

(c) Facing-point track circuits, which being short have a 
comparatively high ballast resistance. 

In order that these track circuits may be quite reliable, 
they should be adjusted for minimum train shunts at infinite 
ballast of 5, 10, and 20 ohms respectively. 

The adoption of anything approaching such standards will 
necessitate a higher ballast resistance, possible perhaps only 
by sub-divLsion of the track circuit, a higher re.sistance relay. 




Fig. 3. 

a higher battery resistance, and a tiack battery having a 
higher electromotive force.. 

This will be evident from the curves in fig. 4, from whidi 
can be obtained all the factors for any track cucuit. These 
curves show the shunt required to reduce the current through 
the relay to any fraction of the current which would pass 
through the relay unshunted. The shunt resistances and the 
battery series resistances are in terms of the relay resistance. 

These curves show that the rule that the higher the battery 




o oi o-z o3 0-4 05 06 07 08 0£) 10 

Fraction ot unshunted relay curn-nt 

Fig. 4. 

series resistance the more sensitive is the relay to shunting, 
does not completely repre^sent the law of the shunt as applied 
to track-circuit conditions. 

In track circuiting, the problem is to reduce the fraction 
of the unshunted relay current which passes through the relay 
when it is shunt^nl by 11 predetermined minimum ballast 
resistance (this fraction of the unshunt-ed relay current being 
known as the pick-up current) to a lower fraction known as 
the armature relea.se current, which is usually 60 per cent, 
of the minimum pick-up. The percentage difference between 
the shunts corresixinding to the minimum pick-up and arma- 
ture release is the same for all curves for the same fractions 
of unshunted relay current. For eflicient shunting, the lower 
part of the curves should be used ; the fraction of unshunt<'d 
relay current through the relay at minimum ballast should 
not be greater than 0.2. 

C!onsider the curve in which the batt«ry aeries resistance 
is 0.5 of the relay re.si.stance, and let the minimum ballast 
shunt be 2t» ohms and correspond to 0.2 of unshunted rel.TV 
cuiTent, then the shunt at minimum ballast (20 ohms) equals 



70 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW, [voi. »■>. xo. 2.095, jakuaby is, 1918. 



0.0833 of the relay rcastancf. which nuiko,*; the latt«r 240 
ohms. 

The standard type of track relay of thi.s resistance requires 
about 0.01 ampere as the miniiuuin pick-up current, .so that 
the unshunted relay current must be (i.Oo ampere, to drive 
which through the unshunt-ed relay plus the battery series 
(0.5 relay), i.e., a total of 360 ohms, calls for a battery pres- 
sure of 18 volts. If the armature relea.-^ cuiTent is 60 per 
cent, of the pick-up cuiTent it equals 0.1'2 of the unshunted 
relay current, the corresponding shunt being, from the curve, 
0.045 of the relay resistance, i.e., about 11 ohms. 

It is not sufficient to reduce the difference between the 
pick-up and release properties of the relay, if no regard be 
had to the value of the shunts which produce the maximum 
differences in the currents through the relay. 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



The ratio between the battery series and relay resistances 
enly detennines the voltage of the track battery. The most 
economical arrangement is when the battery series is about 
one-third of the relay resistance. 

Automatic Train Control. — Experience has shown it to be 
desirable that signal control should be exercised directly in 
the cab of the railway locomotive. 

The Great Western" Railway has had in use for the last 10 
yeais a fairly extensive installation of automatic train control, 
a general outline of which will be found in Mr. Acfield's 
paper-* on " Development of Main Line Signalhng on Rail- 
ways." Some further information in regard to it may be 
ef interest. 

Safety in railway locomotion is dependent upon a good 
look-out, and on that account there should be a minimum of 
interference with the driver consistent with the object sought 
to be obtained. This minimum is the indication of the distant 
signal which it is assumed may be missed by the driver. Tlie 
Great Western system has accordingly been purposely limited 
to this signal. Further, the control apparatus should be sub- 
servient to the driver, who must remain primarily re.spon- 
sible for the running of the train; he may be warned in 
such a way that his ti-ain will be automatically pulled up if 
he is not taking notice, but when he is alert there must be 
no question of taking control of the train out of his hands. 

The operation of the control on the train must be dependent 
neither upon a movable appliance on the line (on account of 
the known weakness of movable appliances, particularly 
mechanically-operated signals) nor upop the positive making 




Fig. 7. 

of an electric contact. Also the control apparatus should l>e 
practically tested each time a signalling position is passed, 
and "Proceed with Caution" should then be indicated if 
there is any failure.- 

Fig. 5 shows the latest, aiTangement of the cab apparatus. 
The primary operation is the de-energisation of the electro- 
magnet controlling the valve admitting air to the ti-ain pipe. 
In the case of trains moving at high speeds (80 miles per 
hour and upwards) over a 40-ft. ramp the period of effective 
opening of the switch in circuit with the electromagnet may 
be less than 1/5 second. There has been no difficulty in the 
armature releasing with this period of interruption. Any 
difficulty experienced so far has been to maintain an un- 
interrupted electrical contact with the ramp during the time 
the switch is open. This has been met bv introducing a 
slow-acting relay, a current impulse through which, due to 
the operation of the armature of the polarised relav connected 
with the mass of the contact shoe, is sufficient to cause the 
armature of the slow-acting relay to keep the switch— during 
the time it is mechanically open — short-circuited. 

* Electrical Review. April 16th and iSrd, 1915. 



The slow-acting relay also controls a bell circuit, so that 
when the current is picked up from the ramp the beU sounds 
for a definite period. This is a positive " Proceed ' indication, 
useful in foggy weather and during falling snow, besides 
showing that the apparatus is in order. In some quarters a 
IX)sitiv(?, " Proceed " indication is not considered necessary 
or desirable, Init it may be pointed out that an apparatus 
which only indicates " Stop," in the absence of this indica- 
tion iniplie-s by inference that the signal is at "Proceed," a 
quej)tionable method of signalling. 

The plunger of the contact shoe (fig. 6) is provided with 
a spring having an initial compression of IJ in. under a load 
of '250 lb., and a final compression of 3 in. under 530 lb. So 
strong a spring has been found to be necessarj-, not so much 
for obtaining a good electrical contact between the shoe and 
the ramp, as to keep steady the plunger 
to which the switch is attached and pre- 
vent the latter momentarily ojiening. 
By making a slotted connection between 
the plunger and the switch as shown. 
instead of directly attaching one to the 
other, combined with the characteristics 
of the slow-acting relay, it is found pos- 
sible to u.se a weaker spring, thus reduc- 
ing the wear on the case-hardened face 
of the slioe. The insulation resistance 
between the .shoe and the mass of the 
engine averages about 2,000 ohms. 

The ramp (fig. 7) has an insulation in 
wet weather of about 1,000 ohms. Tie 
line pre.ssure at the ramp is about 18 
volts. It is biuited by the difficulty in 
iiiantaining primary batteries in country 
■^■"~" districts, otherwise a higher pressure 

would be preferable. 
The disposition of the shoe and ramp, 
viz.. in the centre of the ninning rails, is the most practicable 
and convenient, and this, as safe signalling is an important 
factor in railway operation, may become a reason favouring 
the adoption of alternating current for railway electrification. 
The efficiency of agnalling apparatus is largely limited by 
the output which can be obtained from primary batteries. 
There is an enomious number of these cells in use, as each 
signalling circuit usually has its own intlividual battery. In 
large centres it should be more economical, and improved 
apparatus would resulrif, in place of individual batteries with 
limited output, current were obtained from a central battery 
of accumulators. There are also cases where it might be an 
advantage to use an alternating-current supply. 

A good deal more is generally expected of an electric sig- 
nalling appliance than of a mechanical one, and rightly so. 
There is. however, sometimes a tendency to expect what 
almost amounts to infallibility. 

No eleetrical system of signalling can be ab.solutely safe 
or absolutely fool-proof, and unless it be intelligently de- 
signed, installed, and maintain^, it can only be compara- 
tively safer than mechanical systems or a code of rules. An 
electrical system cannot eliminate the human element, be- 
cau.5e it has to be put in and looked after by a human being. 



j 


^. — f 


1 


jo 1 c 


1 



TT 



NEW ZEALAND WATER-POWER REPORTS. 



The hydro-electric possibilities of the Dominion of New 
Zealand have been very much to the front in the last few 
years. A recent Pubhc Works statement submitted to the 
House of Representatives shows that at the completion of 
its second year of working, the n>asinmm load on the Lake 
Coleridge undei-taking reached CiW h.p.. which is in excess 
of the rated capacity of the three sets installed there. 

Since the completion of the financial year, however, a 
fourth unit has been put into service, making a total of 8,{)0(> 
H.P. in.stalled, and a fifth unit of 4,(X)0 h.p., together with 
material for a pipe line, is also on order, though some delay 
is anticipated in obtaining it. During the year the Christ- 
church Tramway Board, and several freezing works and flour 
mills, have been connected to the system ; the feeder lines 
have been .slightly extended, and urgent requests have been 
received for power from municipalities and others on the 
loute of the Christchurch-Timaru transmission. The demand 
for power threatents to exceed the capacity of the present 
machinery, and a contract was to be entered into with, the 
Christchurch Tramway Board and City Council for the ase 
of their steam plant for stand-by purposes. 

On the year's working a balance of ^7.865 was carried to 
net revenue account, and there is every indication that the 
imdertaking will meet its interest and depreciation charges 
during the present year. 

During the year considerable progress has been made with 
the surveys and other preliminary work in connection with 
the development of hydro-electric works in the North Island. 
Surveys have been completed for headworks on the Mangahao 
River, at Arapuni, on the Waikato River, and a survey of 
the transmission line between Shannon and Wellington has 
been completed, whilst a .sur\-ey of a transmission hne be- 
tween Auckland and the Waikato River is in progress. 



Ve}. 82. No. 2,09-s January 18, 1918] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



71 



Investigations have been dit'ected towad-ds determining the 
best method of providing a general supply of electricity for 
the North Island. The indications pomt to the advisabiilty 
of developing three sources, namely, the Waikato Eiver, 
Waikaremoaua, and the Mangahao in the south. Other water- 
power sources will, in all probability, be developed in course 
of time, but these three .sources would constitute the prin- 
cipal source*. A start has been made with the work of ascer- 
taining the power requirements in the Wellington district, 
and a systematic canvass is being made of the power-users 
and theif requirements. 

In a re.ix>rt by Mr. E. Pan-y, the Government electrical 
engineer, on the hydro-electric development of the North 
Island, some particulaj-s of the possibilities of the three 
sources referred to above are given. 

Mr. Parry points out that the best ischeme is one in which 
at the outset three sourues would be developed for supplying 
respectively the Auckland district, the Hawke's Bay district, 
and the Wellington district; these sources would be linked-up. 

Waikaremoana is the be.st source for Hawke's Bay, but as 
the amount of powex i^ greatly in excess of the requirements, 
it should be regarded as a supplementary source for .supply- 
ing the Wellington district. 

As regards the Wellington district, investigation has shown 
the most suitable source of supply for the southern area to be 
Mangahao river, which rises on Mount Dundas. 

By a diversion thi'ough the hiUs for three miles, the fall of 
1,040 ft. between the Mangahao and the loop of the Mana- 
watu, near Shannon, is made available. It is proposed to 
tunnel through the hills into the Tokomaru ^"alley, there 
diverting part of the Tokomaru, and then from the Tokomaru 
Valley through into the Mangaore Valley, where the power 
station would be situated within three miles of the railway 
at Shannon. Observations in a dry season show 25,000 h.p. 
on a 50 per cent, load factor as available, which will be suffi- 
cient for- the district for some time, and can be supplemented 
latei'. The natural extensions of the three transmissions from 
the three sources will ultimately link them together, so that 
an additional supply will be available for the Wellington dis- 
trict from the other sources. 

In course of time it would be possible to provide additional 
ixjwer from the Taranaki district, where there is more than 
one promising source. 

Instead of instalhng a stand-by hydro-electric unit, Mr. 
Parry proix>se.s to utiUse the existing steam plant at Welling- 
ton to provide against temporary interruptions. 

The cost of headworks, power station, and plant for 25,000 
H.p. would be at normal prices ^6420,000, or under £20 per 
H.P., and this illustrates the advantage of concentrating the 
power supply for a considerable district in one source; in a 
smallea- development the cost of the hydro-electric works 
would be excessive. 

In the firet place it is proposed to rim trunk transmissions 
to Wellington, Paknerston North, Wanganui, and Mastei-ton 
as chief centres. 

The cost of providing the trunk and distributing lines and 
sub-stations throughout this area would be £580,000, making 
a total of ±'1,000,000, which expenditure is at the rate of 
£40 per H.p. 

Capital charges at li per cent, work out at £3 per H.p.-year ; 
the annual cost of maintenance and operation would amount 
to £25,000 per annum, or the equivalent of £1 per H.p.-year, 
thus making £4 per H.p.-year for both charges. Experience 
shows that in Christchurch this revenue can be secured with- 
out difficulty, even where economical fuel plants are already 
installed. 

Mr. Parry considers that the Waikaremoana scheme should 
be made dependent upon the construction of the Napier- 
Gisbome Railway, which would open up a better road for 
the transmissions. The Auckland and Wellington schemes 
should proceed s-imultaneously. 

Reporting on the development of the Waikato River at the 
Arapuni Gorge, about 18 miles from Hora-Hora. (for supply 
to the Auckland district), Mr. Parry says this source ha-s 
much in its favour; the capital cost of the ultimate develop- 
ment would be remarkably low, but it would require the con- 
struction c>f a dam 146 ft. high. 

Neither the Kaituna River nor the Waikato River at 
Aratiatia Rapids compares favourably with Arapuni as re- 
gards capital cost per h.p. 

Mr. EOis, of Hamilton, in discussing the matter, says the 
Arapuni site would develop 120,000 h.p., or even 150,000 h.p., 
its drawback being that under the present proposal to put 
in a 30,000-H.p. plant, the latter would have to carry propor- 
tionately heavier capital charges, bringing the cost up to the 
same as the Mangahao plant. If, however, 60,000 h.p. could 
be developed, the all-in cost per H.p.-year would be £2 17s. 6d., 
for 365 days of 24 hours. 

In the discussion on the Public Works eirtimates, it was 
.stated that the Auckland area would in a brief time absorb 
40,«0G H.P. 



An Italiaa Trade Opening.— According U) the Board of 

Trad« Jirurnal, the Acting British Consul at Turin states that a 
local enffineer seeks the representation of United Kingdom manu- 
faotorera of el txical machinery and hydranlic plant. 



ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURING IN 
AUSTRALIA. 



Wk are indebted to the Sydney Morning Herald for the fol- 
lowing extracts from an interesting address delivered on 
November 9th by Mr. Wm. Cokin, the retiring president of 
the Electi'ical Association. The speaker said there was no 
doubt that the war had given an impetus to the manufacture 
in Australia of electrical apparatus, and that orders had been 
lodged with makers in the Commonwealth which would other- 
wise have been placed abroad. It need scarcely be said that 
had the firms been prepared they would have received a 
tremendous volume of work, but at present they were unable 
to quote for anything large. For this they could not be 
blajiied, for no one in Austraha expected the war to come, 
or, if it came, to last as long as it had, but in other respects 
local enterprise had failed in connection with some of the 
simplest of electrical manufactures. Nothing, for example, 
oould exceed the simplicity of the electrical furnace. Had 
the aiTangement projected between the Queensland Govern- 
ment and a Sydney syndicate in 1906 been carried into effect, 
all the carbide of calcium required for the Commonwealth 
would now be manufactured with power from the Barron 
Falls. Imports of this material for the nine years from the 
date of his report to the Queensland Government on this 
matter, i.e., from January, 1907, to June, 1916 (omitting six 
months not included in the return), had totalled 92,186 tons, 
valued in the Customs returns at £1,160,312. Whereas the 
piice of manufacture in 1907 would have been approximately 
.£9 per ton, and probably £11 now, the market price of car- 
bide had risen from about £13 to £30 to-day, and even at 
this price it was scarcely obtainable. During the same nine 
years there had been imported into the Commonwealth caustic 
soda, which could also be manufactured as an electrolytic 
product, totalling 37,848 tons, valued at £451,881. Tasmania 
had now made a start with the manufacture of carbide, as 
well as with other similar industries, but beyond a small 
experimental carbide furnace tried some years ago in Sydney, 
the only serious attempt at electrothermic manufacture in 
New South Wales that he was aware of was the manufacture 
of high-§i'ade steel by the Australian Electric Steel Co. at 
.\lexandna. This company bad laid down a two-ton furnace, 
turning out six tons of steel a day. The venture had been 
.so successful that the company was duplicating the plant. 
They used 2,000,000 units of electrical energy per annum, and 
were making special steel for axles and tires, chrome-steel 
for rolls for steel rolling mills, manganese steel, and other 
high-grade steels. There was a distinct .field for electn'c 
manufacture in this direction, and in the development in New- 
South Wales of the laxge electrochemical and electrothermic 
industries, requiring a steady supply of power, it was prob- 
able that eventually the water powers of the State would be 
brought into operation in spite of the fact that coal was com- 
paratively cheap. 

" Soon after I arrived in Australia," Mr. Coiin went on to 
Siiy, "learning of the large copper production, I naively in- 
quired why it should be sent away, and not manufactured 
here. The reply was immediate, that the whole of the copper 
market was controlled from Germany, and that there was 
no possibility of manufactured copper being produced in Aus- 
tralia. The Prime Minister has been instrumental in reliev- 
ing the country of this incubus, with the result that a start 
has already been made to produce all classes of manufactured 
copper at Port Kembla, and before long all the copper re- 
quired for internal use will be manufactured in the Common- 
wealth. Steel and iron are already available here, and their 
production can be increased to any extent. Further, all 
ela.s,ses of insulating materials (mica, insulating oils and gums, 
&c.) are to be found in Australia. Why, therefore, .should not 
all the turbines, generators, motors, and electrical machinery 
genejaUy required for the development of the Commonwealth 
be manufactured within it? When the war is over active 
competition from established works outside .Australia will be 
intensified owing to many manufactiuing countries making 
a bid for Australian trade. Australia will not be ready for 
some years to manufacture on a large scale, and the only way 
of meeting this competition and fostering local manufacture, 
if Austraha is to produce her own machinery, will be either 
by a heavy protective duty or by reduction in the cost of 
labour. 

" Timid unionism, in its fears for the result of untrammelled 
development, has in the past dictated that in cases, even for 
work which could be carried out by boys, none but skilled 
men should be employed. Surely unionism will learn from 
the object-lessons now before it, and will put its shoulder 
to the wheel for the benefit of .\ustnilia. Again, the limita- 
tion of apprentices is unjustifiable. If there be abuse of the 
apprentice system, let it be made the subject of legal enact- 
ment. There should be always a surplus of learners em- 
ployed at any trade, to allow not only for those who do not 
turn out well or who fail to continue at it. but also to prepare 
for the expansion which must come if .\ustralia is to progress 
as a self-contained manufacturing country. The present sys- 
tem is killing the possibility of expansion." 



72 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,095, January is, 1918. 



QAS FIRING BOILERS. 



Mr. T. M. Huntkh's paper on "Gas Firing Boilers" was 
discussed at a meeting of the Scottish Local Section of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers on December 11th. 

Mr. J. H. R. Kemnal (Glasgow) said it was generally con- 
ceded that there was verj' little advantage in producing gas 
merely for the sake of firing boilers. It could only be made 
to pay if by-products were recovered, and if the value of the 
by-products reached a certain figure. One must bear in 
mind that 'blast-furnace gas was a by-product; there usually 
was smch a surplus of gas at blast-fumaees, that the highest 
possible efficiency was not a necessity to the successful work- 
ing of the plant, and the introduction of refinements to attain 
a high percentage efficiency would not be justified. He was 
prepared to prove from exi^erience that the water-tube boiler 
had a great advantage over the Lancashire boiler for utilising 
blast-fumace gas; the three-flue Lancashire boiler was now 
little used, whereas with water-tube boilers improvements 
had been effex^ted, and they could get rid of dust by steam 
blowers. The hardening of flue dust on the tubes was 
caused by initial neglect. His experience was at variance 
with that of Mr. Hunter, and he thought it would be a gi'eat 
mistake to design a boiler on Yarrow lines for utilising blast- 
furnace gaa. A point in connection with blast-fumace gas 
was that for every 100 theiTus of utilisable gas they had to 
carry a great deal more unutili.sable gas, and that was a. 
reason why large passages were essential. In Babcock and 
Wilcox boilers, by placing the tubes at more than the ordi- 
nary pitch they had got considerably improved results. He 
recalled an instance of washing blast-furnace gas where an 
elaborate installation for this purpose was put in. The results 
obtained were less with the washed than with the unwashed 
gas, mainly due. he thought, to a great deal of heat being 
lost in washing Anothea- method was using gas which ap- 
proached lighting gas in value, and in this connection he 
had been investigating results reported as having been got 
by the Bonecourt boiler. Ho had no means of disproving 
the figures published as to the total efficiency of this boiler, 
but he had considerable doubt as to the results being exactly 
as described, and was convinced that it was impracticable 
except in a few cases. One of the points of impracticability 
was that it could not be made in units above a certain size. 
He did not think it would be capable of producing 20,000 lb. 
of steam per hour, which to-day was looked on as a small 
unit. As an application of the burning of gas under theore- 
tical conditions it was ideal. As to the burning of blast-furnace 
gas under bodexs. one could not say that one particular 
design of furnace was better than another. In the utilisation 
of gas they could not apply any particular practice to all 
■cases. The investigation of each individual case was essential. 

Mr. F. Anslow said it was rorrect to state that gas could 
, be utilised at furnaces and give all the steam power required, 
but while that was so up till a certain period, it was not so 
to-day. The introduction of ammonia recovery plants had 
meant the use of much steam power, and the increase of 
otner power plant had resulted in the recovery of almost all 
recoverable waste heat. He did not think the introduction 
of specially installed producer gas plants for steam raising 
would be particularly profitable. Under present conditions it 
was extremely difficult to form a definite opinion on the 
relationship between the price of coal and that of by-products. 

Mr. W. M. Selvey pointed out that while they could not 
vary the Lancashire boiler, the water-tube boiler enabled 
them to design it, so far as the division of surface was con- 
cerned, to meet any conceivable conditions. What they were 
out for was to get the biggest, output possible for a given 
capital expenditure for the desired purpose. The question 
of utilising waste heat was going to become one of great 
national importance, and they might yet see it run on lines 
parallel to gas-engine stations. 

Mr. Hunter, in the course of his reply, said that if they 
were working with clean gas they could "use economisers in 
a different way than they did in working with coal firing, 
as there was no dust to accumulate. He would never dream 
■of trying to fire a Yarrow boiler with uncleaned gas, because 
they could not get at the passages to clean them. He was 
of opinion, however, that under certain conditions a high 
efficiency with clean gas could be obtained from that type 
of boiler. He agreed with Mr. Kemnal that there was " no 
one combustion arrangement which could be applied to dif- 
ferent cases. He would not say that one particular boilei' 
might suit a particular plant without full information of 
rfequirements. While he was up again.st existing boilers, 
he did not think it would be a commercial proposition to 
pull out Lancashires and install water tubes. The water-tube 
boiler had the pull in burning uncleaned blast-fumace gas, 
bub it paid to clea,n the gas for a Lanca.shire. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1917. 

(not yet published.) 

Compiled expressly for this journal by Messrs. VV. P. TllOMrsON & Co., 
Electric P.itent Agents, 285, High Holborn, London, W.C., and al 
Liverpool and Bradford. 



;." L. G. Gaunter. January 2nd. 
and therapeutical purposes." H. ( 



Ross. 



January 2nd. (France, August 
January 2nd. (France, August 

L. POLINKOWSKY & WESTERN 

SiMPLBX CoNDinrs, Ltd., and 



31. ■' Electric heating 

32. " Electric arc for 
January 2nd. 

34.. " Sparlcing plugs." W. G. Kent & F. Martin. January 2nd 

36. " Systems lor amplification of small currents." British 1 
Houston Co. (General Electric Co., U.S.A.) January 2nd. 

57. " Accumulating and utilising electric energy in the form of 
heat." K. Arno. January 2nd. 

71. " Alternating-ciwrent motors." A, C. Bell & T. R. Bell. January find. 

79. " Arrangement for securing electric contact in overhead trolleys for 
tiamcars, &c." A. C. Fr.\nklin. January 2nd. 

U2. " Electric cojplings." R. W. W'hitley. January 2nd 

120. " Vacuum tubes." G. A. Be.wv,iis. 
1st. 1917.) 

121. " Vacuum tubes." G. A. Beauvais 
•Jth, 1917.) 

139. " Semi-automatic telephone systems. 
Electric Co. January 2nd. 

109. " Electric circulating water heaters 
L. M. Waterhouse. January 3rd. 

180. " Sparking-plug pin." F. E. Moore. January 3rd. 

183. " Electric lampholders." B. J. Grigsbv. January 3rd. 

210. *' Wire attaching device for sparking plugs of explosive motors." A, 
JouvEAU & C. TOURNOUD. January 3rd. (France, August 11th, 1016.) 

213. " Electric welding." E. Jones, A. Ramsdai.e & J. P. Toole. #anu. 
ary 4th. 

344. " Electric conductor." H. George & J. Heblrt. Janu.-try 4th. 
(France, April 16th, 1917.) 

24.'). " Electric transformers." F. E. Berry. January 4th. 

248. " Electric protective apparatus for alternating currents." H. Peahce 
January 4th. 

261. " Free-release circuit breakers." Aij.manna Svenska Elektriska Aktie. 
BOLACET & G. Seligman. January 4th. 

262. " Electri': syrens." .^llm.^nna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolacbt anc 
VV. H. Petersen. January 4th- 

283. " .Attachable hook or holder for electric torch lamps, &c. 
GOLDSTONE. January 5th. 

290. " Process for separating electro-deposited metals from their 
S. O. Cowper-Coles. January 5th. 

306. " Automatic time switches for controlling X-rav exposu 
Newton 8: Wright. January 5th. 



M. H. 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 



The numbets in p.-u-entheses are those under which the specifications wiH be 
printed and .nbridged, and all subsequent proceedings will be taken. 

19I.6. 

17,709. Elkctkical Instru.ment for Indicating Instantaneous PltESStiRES 
OK Currents. J. T. Irwin. December 9th, 1916. (111,886.) 

17.749. Wireless Telegraphy Transmitters. Marconi's Wireless Teleeraph 
Co. & W. S. Entwistle. December 9th, 1916. (111,887.) 

17,803. Telephone Memo-filing Receptacle. S. M. Brydges. Decemfe.*- 
11th, 1916. (111.891.) 

17.929. Electrical Apparatus having Windings. British Electric Trans- 
former Co. & J. Goodman December 13th, 1916. (111,899.) 

17.930. Protective Means for Electrical Apparatus having WmornGS. 
British Electric Transformer Co. & J. Goodman. Dc<kmber 13th, 1916. 
(111,900.) 

17,937. Hich-freqlency .Alternators. Soc. Francaise Radio-Electri^ue. 
September 16th, 1915. (102,738.) 

18,208. Dynamo-electric M.\chinkry. A. H. Neuland. December 19lh. 
1916. (111,915.) 

18,423. Current-saving Devices foe Elfctbic Welding. C. Roulland. 
December 22nd, 1916. (111,925.) 

19 IT. 

18. Electric Cables. British Insulated & Helsbv Cables, Ltd., i J. Brofjier- 
ton. January 2nd, 1917. (111,929.) 

313. Telephone System. Aktieselskabet Elektrisk Bureau. January 16Hi, 

1916. (103,482.) 

468. Sparking Plugs for Internalk;ombustion Engines and the like. 
R. F. Stiller, A. M. Patton & C. Hurst, Ltd. January 10th, 1917. (111,930.) 

752. Single-stroke Electric Bells. G. Henderson January 13th, 1916. 
(103,487.) 

1,080. Electric Termin.ils or Connections. H. C. Bell. January 88ad. 

1917. (111,942.) 

1,748. Electric Bells. J. Davis & Son and W. H. Davis. Fehrusry 3rd, 
1917. (111,948.) 

4,557. Engine Starter. V. Benedis. March 29th, 1917. (111,967.) 

5,254. Electric Current Interrupters, K. Trosdahl. April 13th, 1917. 
(111,968.) 

8,001. Shade Carriers for Electric Lights. C. G. M. Bennett. June 4th, 
1917. (111,978.) 

11,465. Interrupter for Electric Circuits. K. Bosh (firm oO. August 
9th, 1917. (.■\dditlon to 25,880/11.) (111,988.) 

12,054. Machine Switching Telephone Systems. Western Electric Co. 
(Western Electric Co., U.S.A.) August 22nd, 1917. (111,991.) 

12,351. Time-limit Electric Circuit Breakers. Akt. Ges. Brown, Boveri et 
Cie. February 20th, 1917. (Addition to 14,498/15.) (111,993.) 

14,.588. Tool for Clinching Terminals for Electric and other Couplings. 
Ros^, Courtn.\v & Co. and J. A. Ross. October 9th, 1917. (112,000.) 



The A.S.E, and Man Power. — In infcrodin'ins the new 
Military Service Act iu the House of Commons on Monday, Sir 
Auckland Geddea referred to the most regrettable ciroumstaQce 
that the Amalgamated Society of Engineers had refused to take 
part in the conferences which he had been holdin{)( with the Trade 
Unions respeoting'^measures to Ije taken to withdraw young men 
from the essential industries for military service. We cannot 
believe that workers in the eng^ineerinfr industries who have 
rendered such necessary service to the Allied cause during the past 
year or two will fail that cause at the present crisis. Sir Auckland 
has the support and sympathy of the nation in his proposals for 
carrying out the intentions of the War Cabinet, and it would be 
deplorable to think that engineers, of all men, played into the 
hands of the enemy. History would record the fact to their 
eternal disgrace. 



TZXES 



EiLEome/io-^Xj TbJByv-T:Erw 



ToL. LXXXII. 



JANUARY 25, 191M. 



No. 2,09C. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



NATIONAL EDUCATION. 



Vol. LXXXII.] 



CONTENTS: January 35, 1918. 



Kational Education ... 

Our Trade Commissioners ... ... 

The Selection of an Electricity Meter, by W. G. N. 

Electric Sigrnallinsr and Control on Railways 

Notes on Welding Systems, by Capt. J. Caldwell 

Legal... 

•orrespondence — 

Wages in Central-.Station Service 

Cable Breakdowns 

Prof. Walkers Battery Rule 

Illuminating Engineering ... ... ... 

The Production of DuctOe Tungsten 

Meters on a Changed Frequencjj, 

The 12i per cent. Bonus 

Business Notes ... 

The 12J per cent. Award 

War Items 

Import Trade of Australia 

Notes 

CSty Notes 

Stocks and Shares 

Industrial Eeisearch. by G. B. Barham 

Electrical Cooking as Applied to Large Kitchens 
A Constant-Torque Magnetic Clutch (illvs.') 

Gas Firing Boilers 

Foreign and Colonial Tariffs on Electrical Goods 

New Patents Applied for, 1917 ... 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 

4lontractorB' Column Advertisement pag« 



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It is universally admitted that one of the most im- 
portant of the many problems that are pressing for 
solution, in connection with the maintenance of the 
prosperity of this country after the war, and its 
speedy liberation from the immiense burden of debt 
that is accumulating at such a terrific rate, is the 
drastic reform of our system of national education. 
This is a matter which affects our industrial future 
at least as intimately as any other sphere of national 
interest, and w« are very glad to see that this fact 
is fully appreciated by so influential a body as the 
Federation of British Industries, which has recently 
issued a memorandum, drawn up by the Education 
Committee of the Federation, on the scheme put 
forward by the President of the Board of Educa- 
tion. We are informed tliat the memorandum has 
received the support of over 2,000 firms engaged in 
industry throughout the country, a fact which justi- 
fies the claim that it is the first authoritative pro- 
nouncement of industry upon Mr. Fisher's pro- 
posals. 

The Committee emphasises the urgency of the 
question, and in order to secure tangible results as 
quickly as possible, it has wisely refrained from 
advocating unattainable ideals at the moment; the 
greatest stress is laid on the most pressing reforms, 
namely, the improvement of elementary education, 
and the provision of a full secondary education for 
the more able children. The Committee heartily 
supports Mr. Fisher's proposal to establish compul- 
sory education for all up to the age of 14 years, but 
cannot accept his further proposal to impose com- 
pulsory part-time education on all children up to 
the age of 18, which, it is feared, would cause a 
very serious dislocation in many trades at a time 
when smooth working is of the utmost importance. 
As regards Mr. Fisher's views on secondary educa- 
tion in general, however, the Committee is in agree- 
iment with him, and endorses the principle that every 
child in the countiy, of whatever class, should have 
an opportunity of complete education if it is able 
to profit thereby. 

Instead, therefore, of universal compulsory part- 
time continuation education, the Committee advo- 
cates a liberal system of whole-time education for 
selected children. Obviously, it is vastly more im- 
portant that the brighter intellects should be singled 
out for higher training than that an attempt should 
be made to bring all and sundrj- up to a modest 
level of mediocrity; by the former plan eflTciency 
can be attained on scientific lines, and the great 
objection to any system which treats all alike, 
namely, that the clever pupils are kept back by the 
necessity of waiting for the dull ones, surely the 
most deadening and discouraging of all restraints, 
can be avoided. At the same time, the teaching 
staff, which is numerically far short of the require- 



[73] 



74 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [voi. 82. No. 2,096, januaky 25, 1918. 



ments, and is likely to remain so, will be more 
efficiently employed, and will go further towards 
fulfilling the demands, as a teacher can deal effec- 
tively with a much larger class of intelligent pupils 
than of mixed good and bad. 

In this connection the Committee warmly com- 
mends the system of whole-time education for 
selected children which has been adopted by the 
London County Council, and which is credited with 
"very excellent results." On the other hand, the 
Committee is not hostile to the adoption of compul 
son,- part-time education for the children who are 
not selected for the full-time course, provided that 
the greatest care is taken to introduce it by degrees, 
and with full regard to local conditions. The ini 
portance of improved physical training is also re- 
cognised in the Memorandum. There can be few 
of our readers, we should think, who have not 
noticed the extraordinary improvement which is 
effected in the physique of the average young man 
by a few months' training for the Army or the 
\avv, and there is no reason whatever why this 
most desirable advantage should not be available 
to our youth in peace-time also. For many years 
we have held that, apart altogether from the mili- 
tary- aspect of the matter, the adoption of a limited 
system of compulsory universal service would be 
of priceless value in developing the physical charac- 
teristics of the nation's youth, besides imbuing 
it with the qualities of patriotism and discipline. 

In addition to the provision of sound elementarv 
education for all, and of secondarj^ education for a 
selected number of really able children, the 
Memorandum contemplates the adoption of means 
to enable the best of the latter to proceed to a stil! 
higher plane of training at the university or tech- 
nical college, thus affording to every child, of what- 
ever station in life, an equal opportunity of develop 
ing his latent talents and equipping himself with 
the highest resources of scientific and technical pro- 
gress, a principle which cannot be too cordially 
endorsed. Here one necessarily must have regard 
to the fact that many parents of highly-gifted chil- 
dren cannot afford to forgo the earning power of 
their progeny, with the result that only too often 
a promising career is cut short by the withdrawal 
of the child from the educational course along which 
he is advancing. To meet this objection the Com- 
mittee offers the drastic expedient of subsidising the 
parent, in addition to defraying the whole of the 
cost of education, in cases where the need is met 
with. While this method must entail a considerable, 
increase in the expenditure, it cannot be doubted 
that the community would eventually reap a rich 
return from the investment. 

We are glad to note that the Committee realises 
the absolute necessity of raising the standard of 
quality, as well as the numbers, in the teaching pro- 
fession. So long as teaching remains the most ill- 
paid of skilled occupations, as well as one of the 
most arduous and unattractive, it is utterly useless 
to hope for material progress. The multiplicity i;f 
educational authorities, largely due to the rivalr\- 
of religious denominations, but also arising out jf 
excessive sub-division of control, is another matter 
referred to in the Memorandum as calling for 'n- 
^•estigation and reform. Lastly, the Committee 
emphasises the importance of interesting employers 
in educational questions, and securing their financial 
support, to which about 90 per cent, of those who 
have lieen consulted have agreed. 

The Memorandum is in all respects a most useful 
contribution to the study of the subject with which 
it deals; it follows 'to some extent on the lines of 
previous reports, but, without going into excessive 
detail, it appears to adopt a broader view, and to 
secure a better grasp of the existing situation and 
its needs, while its origin, and its foundation on che 
basis of the views of so many industrial firms, lend 
weight to its proposals. No doubt it will receive 



the close attention of the Ministry of Education, 
and of the Central Organisation that was formed at 
tlijc conference of engineers last autumn. 



In connection with the important 
Our Trade measures that have been adopted J 
Commissioners, by the Government for greatly , 
extended assistance to be accorde'i 
to industry through the instrumentality of 16, in- 
stead of four. Trade Commissioners, an announce- 1 
ment has been made this week indicating a number 
of the appointments that have been made. It was ] 
a foregone conclusion that the four experienced | 
officials who in recent years have been serving us so , 
well in a similar capacity should remain and con- ■ 
tmue their good work, though not in every case in "\ 
the scene of their present labours. We believe that ; 
the selection of Mr. C. Hamilton Wickes to remam | 
attached to the headquarters at the Department of '. 
Overseas Trade (Development and Intelligence)- \ 
will evoke expressions s>i general satisfaction. Mr. 
Wickes had had a wide general connection with ] 
commercial affairs in this countn,- for years before ■ 
he went out to represent our interests in Australia, ■ 
and he followed his Australian experience with j 
several years in the vast Canadian field. He is, ' 
therefore, thoroughly familiar with two of our most ■ 
important markets where after-the-war trade deve- 
lopments should be of enormous importance for us : 
at home, but his knowledge is not limited even to ', 
this wide ground, for we suppose there is hardly a i 
Government official who during the last few year.s- 1 
has been brought into more direct touch with our- ' 
manufacturers and their products in the great Indus- ; 
trial and commercial centres of the United King- 
dom. As our readers are aware, he has the added -j 
merit of knowing many aspects of electrical indus- ' 
trial questions as a result of personal investigation. , 
All of these things taken together render him, in ' 
our opinion, pre-eminently suited to fill the office- ; 
indicated above in London during the present more ■ 
or less critical period of organisation and re-organi- 1 
sation. " • 

The Canadian territory is so vast that it can ' 
hardly be efficiently covered for present-day trade- .j 
purposes by one Commissioner. In a short time \ 
Mr. G.' T. Milne, who has latterly been acting in ^ 
Australia, is to transfer his services to Canada, and 1 
will act as Senior Trade Commissioner, with head- \ 
quarters at Montreal. Mr. W. G. Wickham and'' 
Mr. R. W. Dalton will both continue to serve in- . 
their present capacities in South Africa and Nevr j 
Zealand respectively, but Mr. S. W. B. McGnego'-: 
is announced to follow Mr. Milne at Melbourne- \ 
" shortly." He will be a " Senior" Commissioner,.' 
as will Mr. Milne in Canada. As recent announce- j 
ments have indicated, India is to be attended to 'ir' 
future, and in this connection Mr. T. M' Ains-- 
cough, O.B.E.. who has been entrusted with foreign- 
trade missions in the past, shortly proceeds to Cal- • 
cutta to become "Senior" for India. Two new-l 
appointments are these: Mr. F. W. Field, who is" 
now Imperial Trade Correspondent at Toronto, wilfi 
become a Trade Commissioner at the same place, | 
and Mr. L. J. Wilson Goode will serve as Acting | 
Trade Commissioner in South Africa while Mr.) 
Wickham is at home on an official visit. We thus havei 
the names of one-half of the men who are to be our^ 
16 Commissioners, assuming that Mr. Hamilton, 
Wickes continues to act under that title. In the^ 
main, the appointments represent the strengtheningi 
of the ser\'ice by establishing more substantially! 
and satisfactorily the positions of the men of tried" 
experience. We shall await with interest the re'-: 
maining eight appointments, which may bring intoi 
the service men who will command respect at any^ 
rate equal from the industrial and commercial world- 



Yol. 82. No. 2,090, January 25, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



75 



THE SELECTION OF AN ELECTRICITY 
METER. 



Electricity meters are usually bought in quantities on 
period contract terms. This makes a right choice particu- 
larly desirable, because of the large numljers of meters 
involved, the long period vphich must elapse before any 
desired change can be made, and, for reasons of standard- 
isation, the disadvantage of frequent changes. 

Doubtless every meter man has his favourite meter, and 
could give reasons for his preference, but probably few have 
gone to the trouble of accurately " placing " in order of 
merit the various meters submitted for their examination 
from time to time. 

A comprehensive method by which different meters may 
be " placed " is liereinafter described. Some such method 
is necessary if the purchaser is to be certain that the meter 
chosen is the most suitable. 

By carrying out an investigation^^ on the lines indicated, 
and giving position marks to each meter for every quali- 
fication, final totals can be obtained which will settle the 
question without g'ainsay. Thus, if sis meters are being 
considered, the maximum number of marks for each quali- 
fication will be sis, if there are five meters, the maximum 
will be five, and so on. The relative importance of each 
qualification may, of course, vary with circumstances. If a 
certain qualification is regarded as more important than 
others, the position marks of each meter may be multiplied 
be a suitable factor for this } articular qualification-. The 
meter which obtains the greatest total number of marks will 
be the best meter. 

The qualifications of a meter fall under two main heads — 
namely. Quality and Cost. There are certain other con- 
siderations relating to the Commercia] Service given by 
different manufacturers. 

Quality. 

The Quality of a meter may be considered under three 
sub-divisions — \ iz.. Accuracy, Finisk, and Convenience. 

Accumci/ is undoubtedly the most essential qualification 
of a meter, and it assumes its true proportions when it is 
remembered that an improvement of 1 per cent, in the 
accuracy of the meters may result in the collection of 
additional revenue equivalent to a saving of 10 per cent. 
in the coal consumption. 

A meter which is not reasonably accurate belies its 
name ; but in comparing the accuracy of meters it should 
be remembered that not only should the initial accuracy be 
considered, but also the accuracy after service. 

Most supply authorities have facilities for testing the 
initial accuracy of samples submitted, but to estimate the 
ultimate accuracy requires sound judgment, based on the 
design of the meter and the evidence furnished by the 
maker. 

Initial Afcurarij. — To test the initial ifccurai'y tliorouglily, 
variation of registration should be noted with — 

For alternating current meters. 
Variations of load. 

., voltau-e. 
., temperature. 
., ., frequency. 

,, ., power factor. 

,. halanceof load (if 
polyphase). 

Tests should also lie made to a.scertain the starting 
current, to see how the meter is affected by external 
magnetic fields, and, in the case of meters with shunt 
windings, to see if there is any tendency to run on 
shunt. 

An insulation test and a test for overload capacity may 
also be desirable, although it will probably be satisfai-tory 
to take the maker's guarantee for these. 



For continuous current meters. 
Variations of load 

„ ., voltage. 

.. temperature. 



A thorough test for initial accuracy not only reveals the 
qualities of the electrical design of the meter, but helps to 
show up any defects of workmanship causing undue 
friction. 

Accurari/ ufter fiervirc will depend on the quality of the 
materials, the stability of the mechanical design, and the 
type of meter. 

QiiaUtij nf Malerlah. — The permanence of the braking 
magnets is specially important, for if these are not pro- 
perly aged before calibration, their strength will vary, 
and the registration of the meter will thus ije rendered, 
inaccurate. 

The jewels and pivots shou'd be the best obtainable. 
The jewels should be fixed in settings easily adjustable., 
and the jewels and pivots should be easily removed. 

The insulation of the coils and other live parts should 
be examined, and any insulating material used should not 
warp or swell in damp or soften with reasonable rise iu 
temperature. 

Spindles and other metal parts should not be liaVile to 
rust or corrode. 

StaUUtij of Mcrhanlcal Deaiiiii. — The main supportint; 
frame and case should be of material that does not shrink 
or warp, and it should be sufficiently robust to stand the 
jarring incurred during transit without upsetting the cali- 
bration of the meter. 

A clamping device for supporting the rotor independently 
of the bearings during transit is an advantage. 

The holes for the fixing bolts or screws should be large 
enough to admit a bolt or screw capable of withstanding 
any strain that is likely to be incurred. This may be con- 
sideralile in the case of meters of large capacity, owing 
to the size of the cables which have to be connected to the 
meter. 

Tjipe uj Meter. — A rough comjiarison of the probable 
durability of the jewels and pivots may be made by noting 
the speed in revolutions per minute and the weight of tht 
rotor. The meter whicli, has the lightest rotor running at 
the lowest speed will probably show the least wear on the 
jewels and pivots. With a mercury meter the rotor floats 
in the mercury, and the pressure between the pivots and 
the jewels is, therefore, very slight. 

Accuracy after service also depends on the constancy of' 
the retardation due to friction. • In alternating-current 
meters of the induction type this is not likely to vary much, 
as the rotor is very light and the speed low, so that wear 
between pivots and jewels is negligible. The same rem.irts 
ap]}ly still more to continuous-current meters of the mercury 
motor type. 

But in the case of commutator meters, in addition to the 
greater wear of jewels and pivots, due to heavier rotors and 
higher speeds, the variation of the friction between the 
brushes and the commutator may (juite change the 
calibration of the meter. 

Finish is deserving of some notice, for this may be in 
effect a gauge of the quality of the workmanship employed. 
It should be remembered, however, that " finish," like 
" charity," may cover " a multitude of sins " ; in other 
words, a well finished meter is not necessarily an accurate 
one. 

(kinreniejwe. — This may be considered as referring to 
handling, fixing, sealing and reading. 

Hiindtimi. — Heavy meters are not so easily liandled as 
light ones, but a heavy meter with a carrying handle is more 
easily handled than a light one withtut a handle. 

Fi.rim/. — Three fixing holes are more convenient than 
two or four, for the meter can be hung by the top screw and 
levelled up before the othei' screws are inserted. Room 
should be allowed for fixing the screws without the use of 
special tools. 

Se.iftiiif/ should be easily effected, and the seal should te 
in a prominent position, so that any tampering is at om-e 
noticed. 

Rmdini/. — Clear open dials are the best, and it is ]irefer- 
able to have all the figures in a straight line. They slionld 
be easily read, even in a bad light. Dials easily read are 
an advantage ; directly, by enabling the meter readers 
quickly to take accurate readings, and, indirectly, by making; 



76 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. f2. No. 2,090, jajjuarv 25, 1918. 



it easy for the consumer to I'ead his meter, and thus over- 
come the sense of ni3'Stery which inspires distrust. 

Cost. 

The question of cost may also be considered under three 
5ul)-di visions — namely. Prime Cost, Running Cost, and 
Maintenance Cost, and a final decision on the question 
of cost should only be arrived at after an investigation 
has been made under each sub-division. 

The Prime Cost does not require any other i;emarks than 
•a reminder that the tenders should be carefully^ read to see 
■whether the makers' offers all agree with the specification 
as to size, type, etc. Makers are often informed by 
customers that they are " hopelessly out " in jirice when in 
reality the customer is comparing a more expensive with a 
less expensive size or type. 

The Rvnning Cost is important, and may determine the 
;;ype of meter to be used. Thus where the voltage of a 
^•ontinuous-curreut system is constant within narrow limits, 
ampere-hour meters can be used with advantage, and the 
.shunt losses which would be iucurred with watt-hour meters 
are thus avoided. On continuous-current systems there 
are very few cases where the use of watt-hour meters can 
be shown to be preferable. 

Shunt losses should be capitalised, for with many small 
consumers the energy consumed by the meter is an appre- 
ciable percentage of the total energy taken. On the other 
hand, it should be remembered that shunt losses, being 
continuous, are supplied at a load factor of 100 per cent., 
and their cost should be I'cckoned at a reduced rate 10 
correspond. 

MaintenniH-c Cost. — Under this heading may be con- 
sidered the ease or difficulty experienced in carrying out 
■minor repairs on site or in the customer's test room, and 
the facilities offered by the maker for the supply of spare 
parts. 

The first of these considerations depends largely on the 
design of the meter and its suitability for dismantling and 
reassembling by junior assistance. The maker's method of 
manufacture affects this question, for parts are more easily 
interchanged if made by machinery to jig and template than 
if made by hand. 

The second has to do not only with the immediate future 
but is also affected by tlie maker's willingness to maintain a 
stock of spare parts for a reasonable period after the meter 
has been superseded by a new design. 

Commercial Service. 

This covers such questions as delivery, the facilities 
offered by the maker for checking meters supplied by him, 
guarantees, and last, but not least, courtesy. 
■ Delivery is sometimes the ijuestion which decides the 
placing of an order. Customers are advised to consider 
not only the promise of the maker but also his past record 
for keeping to ttie promises made. 

FarilUies for Cheddn;/ Meters on Site. — Some makers 
send their representatives periodically to large customers to 
test and adjust in the customers' test rooms meters which 
•cannot be conveniently dealt with by the customers' own 
■meter men. This practice is of great mutual advantage in 
avoiding delays which would otherwise occur in sending 
meters back to the maker's works, and in enabling the 
maker to keep on good terms with his customers. 

Guarantees. — To hold a maker to the literal terms of h's 
guarantees may be difficult, but old-established firms who 
value their goodwill are generally prepared to stand by their 
goods, even if they do not consider that they are legally 
bound to do so. 

Courtesy. — Lack of courtesy in business dealings, strictly 
speaking, should not influence the choice of a meter, but 
human nature must be considered, and unintentional lack 
of courtesy is often the cause of loss of business. Buyers of 
meters should remember that polite correspondence will not 
affect the meter accuracy, and correspondents should 
remember the wise man's estimate of a •' word fitly spoken." 
Sometimes it is more fitly left unspoken. 

The foregoing considerations are heie summarised in 
chart form, and it is hoped that a reference to the chart 



may occa.sionally le helpful when tenders are being cotisidered 
by jnirchasers of electricity meters : — 

The Selection of an Electricity Metek; 



/ Electri- 
cal 



Errors 
due to 
varia- 
tion of 



Load. 
Voltage. 
Temperature. 
Frequency. 
Power factor. 
Balance of 
load. 



Quality 
denoted 
by 



Accuracy 
viz. : — 



Finish. 



Initial 
accuracy 
depend- 
ing on 



Accuracy 

after 

service 

depend- 



affecting' 



Starting current. 
External magnetism. 
Shunt running. 
Insulation resistance. 
'Overload capacity. 
Work- ] 
\manship [ Friction, 
affecting J 

Durability of materials, jewels, &o. 
Stability " of adjustments, general 

robustness, &c. 
Type. 



Conveni- 



Commer- 

cial 
service 



{Handling. 
Fixing. 
Sealing. 
Rea^ling. 
{Prime. 
Running. , 

Mainte- 
nance. 
j Delivery. 
' Facilities for examination and repair on 

customers' premises. 
I Guarantees. 
' Courtesy. 



ELECTRIC SIGNALLING AND CONTROL 
ON RAILWAYS. 



Owi.NO to the absence of the author, Mr. 0. M. Jacobs, this 
paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers (an 
abstract of which appeared in our last issue) "was read by 

Mr. J. S.4YERS. 

Col. PuiNGLE, in opening the discussion, said it was not 
too soon to formulate plans for railway development after 
the war." He hoped more extended experiments would be 
made with the three-position signal; it was desirable to use 
the upi)er quadrant and orange coloured light. In track cir- 
cuiting reliability was of the first importance, and if some 
)netho<l tor standardising could be de-vised it would be a good 
thing. .\s regarded train control, the Great Western system 
was excellent. Such a system should ■ obviate the majority 
of accidents which were due to signalmen and enginemen; it 
must not be of a type ■which tended to neglect of observa- 
tion of the road, and for this reason cab signalling was less 
favoured, and audible signals with direct action on the 
brakes were now being tried. A large proportion of accidents 
was due to misreading the home or starting signals, and if 
the control only dealt with the distant signals, it only covered 
half the eases. The effect of the control at distant and stop 
signals should differ in degree; at the latter it was necessary 
to biing the train to a standstill, and he felt that it would 
not in such a case be inadvisable to take the control out of 
the hands of a driver. He understood that on the Under- 
ground and Tube Railways this sj'stem had had no ill-effect 
on the drivers. 

Mr. Roger Smith, thought the author's remarks on the 
iwsition of the ramp in train control systems were rather 
ambiguous. Neither direct nor alternating current necessarily 
required the use of a fourth rail in the centre of the track. 
It was ix)ssible that direct-current of moderately high pressure 
would be used here in future, with the running rails aa a 
return. In such a case, if alternating current was necessary 
for the track circuit, he asked whether the cab-signalling in- 
stallation shown in the paper had been adopted yet for the 
use of alternating current on the ramp. If the national 
scheme of electric supply, now being considered, were adapted, 
much more alternating current would be available in the 
future, and he recommended signal engineers to consider its 
more extended use. Higher voltages for track circuits could 
not readily be supplied, except, from pubhc mains. At pre- 
sent batteries had to be depended on in country districts. 
Many thousands of secondary cells were re-charged last year 
by the Great Western Co., although track circuiting was 
sparingly used on that hne. A light battery, which would 
remain on open circuit for the longest possible time, was 
needed. 

Mr. Hdrst considered that the three-position signal shown 
left some opportunity for misreading the indications, although 
this could be avoided by suitable design. It required considera- 
tion ; in America that type was used in very open country, but 
in this country it was difficult to arrange signals at junctions 
to give easy vision. Orange lights had been practically given 



Vol. 82. No. 2,096, jaxuary 25, 1918.] THE ELEOTEICAL REVIEW. 



77 



up by the dealing Hou-se, as it was found to be the worst 
colour for colour-blindness, and a very large number of men 
could not see it. He was glad the author rather condemned 
the use of a common conductor. He (the speaker) had charge 
of the first automatic signalhng on the North-Eastern hne, 
where there was a common wire, and they were always get- 
. ting false indications. The trouble was avoided by cutting 
the line into sections, and through complicated junctions by 
ui^ing a single wire for up and for down lines. The use of 
independent batteiie^ tended to avoid wrong signals through 
faults, which a cenftal-battery system was open to. Auto- 
matic-control apparatus was about the best thing that could 
be devLsed, becau.^ it could be fitted to any class of loco- 
motive; he thought the Underground Railway train-stop was 
not so apphcable to mineral and goods trains. There was 
always the difficulty that apparatus in the permanent way 
might be removed; a mislaid sleeper had inocked off the 
engine apparatus, and in one case a driver ran 60 miles 
without knowing that anything was wr-ong. 

Mr. W. J. Thorkowgood said the upper quadrant signal 
was not univer.sal in America, and only 17 per cent, of the 
.mileage was protected by automatic signals. Daylight vari- 
colour signals were also emijloyed, which were electrically 
iUuminate'd by the signal apparatus; there were also 
po.sition-lamp signals employing white hghts in different 
po.?itions; a hood over the lamp shaded it from the sun. 
Before they swept away our almost universal lower quadrant 
system, they should consider all the alternatives. Many 
thousands of signal rejieaters were satisfactorily used on the 
South- Western Railway ; he saw no difficulty in using com- 
mon conductors for signalling purposes under suitable condi- 
tions, and mentioned that a common positive conductor had 
been in u.se at Olapham .Junction for years. He agreed that 
the shunt resistance usually employed could be vei-y much 
higher, but considered that a battery pressure of 18 volts for 
a single-track circuit was rather high; with a 4..5-ohm relay 
and battery E.si.F. of 1 volt, it was possible with suitable 
regulating resistance to obtain a maximum shunt resistan'je 
day a broader interpretation must be accepted. 

Mr. GoTT was surprised to hear that snch small pressure 
differences were used in electric track circuits. 

Mr. Last .said his exper>ience in railway working led to, the 
conclusion that the greater the .simplicity, the greater the 
efficiency. Electric conti'ol in all its aspects was too compli- 
cated, and it would be disastrous to take away the responsi- 
bility of the signalman or driver. The ordinary mechanical 
signal .system was so simple that nothing could go wrong, 
the only fault being an uncertain indication in hot weather, 
due to wire stretching. 

Mr. Proud pointed out that the paper must not be re- 
garded as .sugge.sting that track circuits were at present un- 
reliable; it had been shown that the 4.5-ohm relay would 
give the shunt recomnf^nded by the author. 



NOTES ON WELDING SYSTEMS. 



Bi' CAPT. JAMES CALDWELL, M.I.E.E., E.E. 



{Abstract of paper read before the Institution of Engineers 

.4ND Shipbuilders in Scotland, January 22nd, 1918.) 
Welding strictly is the art of uniting parts of similar metal 
by pressure at a temperature short of the fusing point. To- 
-day a broader interpretation must be accepted. 

The very modem extension of the term welding to other than 
the ferrous metals includes processes which are in the nature 
of autogenous soldering, and it is veiw difficult now to draw 
the line between welding in the old and strict sense of the 
term and autogenous soldering. 

As applied to the fei-rous metals, some of the modem pro- 
x^sses about to be described involve the addition of metal 
which is fused into the junction, and would he more strictly 
described at autogenous soldering than welding. Practically 
the distinction has disappeared. 

Pure Smith TV'eWm;;.— This, the original method, the only 
. one practical until recently, and then only on wrought iron 
and steel, consists in heating the parts to a temperature at 
which they are plastic, bringing together the surfaces to be 
united, and applying pressure by hammeiing or equivalent 
means. It depends upon the fact that clean surfaces of 
those metals unite under pressure at a correct temperature, 
and that there is a sufficient range of temperatun^ during 
which they remain in a welding condition to permit of the 
nece.ssary manipulation, and that the oxide formed by heat- 
ing fuses at the welding temperature. The principal points 
to be observed are that the surfaces to be united shall be 
clean, the temperature within a certain range, and the 
hammering so applied as to tring the whole of the surfaces 
into intimate contact. 

The cleafiUness of the surface is secured by putting thereon 
.some sub-stanco which will fu.se. thus protecting the metal 
from oxidation, and uniting with any oxide formed into a 
fluid slag or flux, which is expelled under the hammering, 
leaving the cleaned surfaces free to unite. 

In the case of cast iron and certain steels the welding tem- 



perature range is much restricti'd, mainly because the metal 
becomes damaged, or melts by a comparatively small increase 
of temperature beyond the miniuium required for welding. 

Good welding is dependent upon the skill and conscientious- 
ness of the operator, and t^ypn a good opei'ator. cannot be 
certain that every weld he makes is a good one. These facts, 
and the necessity for bringing the parts to be united to the 
forge fire, restrict smithy welding to comparatively simple 
shapes, and to articles of comparatively small cross-section. 
Hcsistance M'elding is a fonn of electric welding which 
is the closest approach to the original smith welding. The .sur- 
faces to be united are approximately fitted, brought ipto 
close contact, and an electric current passed of sufficient 
strength to bring the surfaces to welding heat. Then pres- 
sure is applied to force them into contact and to extrude 
oxide, &c., as far as possible. The heat produced by the 
passage of the. current is greater at the contact smfaces than 
in the solid metal, because the electric resistance, even oi 
well-fitted surfaces, is much greater than that of a similar 
length of solid metal. The heat is therefore localised by this 
fact, and is further localised by u.sing clamping electrodes of 
low resistance, which hold the work as nearly as possible to 
the weld. Owing to the rapidity of the heating, and the 
very small amount of air between the opixysed surfaces, very 
little oxidisation can occur. 

' Butt Welding is apphcable to the welding of rods, bars, 
&c., ti'ansverse to the length of the pieces. The pieces to be 
united are brought to^jther end on, held in proper clamps, 
the current is switched on, and end pressure applied as soon 
as the ends are sufficiently heated. The pressure and eunent 
are maintained until a distinct burr is foiTued round the 
weld, showing that an appreciable amount of plastic flow 
has taken place, and that there is little hkeUhood of any 
oxide which may have been formed remaining in a con- 
tinuous formation to weaken the weld. This weld is in most 
ca,ses hammered whilst cooling. 

Spot Welding is most commonly adopted in this country 
to unit-e sheets or thin plates where a continuous weld or 
joint is not required. TTie two sheets ave placed between 
electrode clamps, which press them together; current is then 
switched on, the surfaces in contact are brought up to weld- 
ing heat, and the pressure is maintained after current is off 
until sufficient cooling occurs. The sheets are then moved on 
to the next spot to be welded, and the operation is repeated. 
Work so welded is, therefore, united by a hne of small welds, 
and may be compared to flush riveted work. Further develop- 
ments of this method comprise the imiting of much thicker 
steel plates, such as constitute the hull of a ship, and experi- 
mental work of this nature is now being carried out in 
.America with a view to substituting spot welding for rivet- 
ing. To make up material displaced under heat and pres- 
siue, which might result in perforation with excessive cur- 
rent, snap heads are sometimes applied to the side of the 
plates, these fonning part of the homogeneous weld. 

Seam Welding is an extension of spot welding, applicable 
to comparatively thin sheet work. The electrodes are rollers 
through which the two sheets are passed, when current is 
applied and the rollers are revolved. The electric cur-rent 
heats up the sheets to welding point as they pass between the 
rollers, and they are thus united along the whole of the 
roller path. This continuous seam joint^is stronger than spot 
welding, is fluid-tight, and the i^rocess is comparatively rapid, 
as it is continuous. The surfaces to be joined must be abso- 
lutely clean, either sand-blasted or pickled with acid. 

It is common to all resistance welding methods that a 
comparatively heavy current at a low voltage is requii-ed. 
For this reason alternating current is used, the supply from 
any avaUable source being stepped down by a transformer, 
which forms part of the welding apparatus. 

Generally, the secondary winding of the transformer con- 
sists of a single turn of heavy copi)er conductor, to the ends 
of which the clamps or electrodes are secured. In most cases 
the electrodes are specially cooled by water circulation. This 
is particularly necessary in butt welding large sections, where 
the cun-ent runs to thousands of amperes, and the welding 
takes an appreciable time. 

Butt welding" was first used on a large scale for jointing 
trainwas rails. Among the smafler work for which it is used, 
the jointing of wire and tubing in manufacture, cable mak 
ing, and windings of electrical machinery has become very 
general. The process is also employed in chain making. 

The u.se of both spot and seam welding is most general 
for comparatively thin sheet articles to be joined by their 
overlapping surfaces. • 

Certain pairs of metals can be united by resistance weld- 
ing, but the welding (or fusion) temperature must overlap 
or approximate for success. 

Fusion Welding. — In the fusion method the edges or sur- 
faces of the pieces to be joined are raised to fusing point. 
Very generally fused metal is added of composition similar 
to the work, so that new and old metal are amalgamated to 
an approximat^iy homogeneous mass. Bom flame and elec- 
tric methods of heating are employed. I\ision welding should 
properly be classed as autogenous soldering. 

Carbon Arc. — Generally known as the Benardos systena. 
The work is connected to the positive lead, and the negative 
electrode is a carbon rod fixed in an insulated holder. .\n 
arc is struck by touching the work with the carbon and 
withdrawing it to a distance varying with the current used. 



78 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,096, Januarys.-,, lOlS. 



The pi-essure icqiiired is about !«J volts, and the current 
from 50 to oOO anit>eres, according to the size of the work. 
The carbons vary from i in. to li in. in diameter to suit the 
current. A regulating rosistaaoe is u.sed to limit the cuiTent, 
and clo.ser regulation is effected by the worker's control of the 
length of arc. 

T'he work should be the positive electrode, as that is tlie 
hottest part of the arc, and because with the opposite 
arrangement carbon is carried from the movable electrode 
to the fixed one, and combines with the fused metal. With 
the correct connection it is claimed that carbon and other 
inpurities are removed from the iron. 

The temperature of the positive electrode of an electric arc 
is vei-y high. In the case of carbon, it is estimated at about 
7,500 "deg. F. In other materials it is limited to the vaporisa- 
tion or boiling iX)Lnt of the metal operated on. It is not 
riec«ssai-y to reach such temiieratures in welding; the carbon 
rod is moved along at the rate necessaiy to obtain good fusion 
to the necessary depth. 

The light and heat from the arc ai-e extremely prejudicial 
to the unprotected eyes and skin, so that the operator must 
be well protected. 

The Benardos arc is ext^-n.sively used for filling blowholes 
in steel castings. The blowhole surface is fused, and metal 
added and welded up wdth the original material. Sound work 
can be secured with due care. 

In making butt joints in iron or steel, the parts are abutted, 
and pieces of scrap of the .same iiaaterial are added and 
njclted to thicken up the joint. Generally this is swaged whilst 
still at welding heat, the carbon and the swage being used 
altemat^ly. Lap joints are made in a .similar way, metal 
being added to level off the angle end of the lap. 

The carbon arc is used very successfully in the manufacture 
of steel oil drums, and has been applied during the last 20 
years by the Steel Barrel Co. at Uxbridge. For this class of 
work the carbon arc seems specially suitable, the thickness 
of the metal generally, and ea.se with which the side seam 
can be supported while welding, preventing the burning of 
holes in the metal. 

When tested to destruction by internal pressure the longi- 
tudinal weld stretches lin niiilnvntiidly hke the original 
metal. Analysis of the wtl.l. il mrtul show that carbon, phos- 
phorus, and manganese aic rciuuvrd from the mild steel, 
leaving nearly pure iron. 

The process requires skill, care, and experience. Swaging 
and annealing are important items, and for work where these 
cannot be applied there are better methods available. 

The carbon arc has been used on cast iron, using a cast- 
iron rod as filling material. 

The operator should aim at holding the carbon at a dis- 
tance which gives a. quiet, steady arc. With too short an 
■ arc the metal boils and spurts. With t<x> long an arc the arc 
wanders, the heat developed is partly wasted in the air-, and 
there is a liability to oxidisation of the hot metal. 'ITie best 
length of arc depends upon the current used. Therefore, the 
current needed must be regulated by the resistance in series, 
and not by varying the length of axe. 

It does not appear that carbon arc welding is in general 
u.se for other than ferrous metals, although copper can be 
welded by this process. 

The carbon arc is used for cutting and holing, sometimes 
with a jet of compressed air or oxygen to assist the process. 
On electric tramways and railways, where current is available 
from a trolley or third rail, it is a very convenient way of 
cutting and holing hard steel " special work," which is not 
amenable to ordinary tools. 

Metal Arc. — In the Slavianoff process, ths carbon rod is re- 
placed by a rod of metal of similar composition to that to 
be welded. The arc temjierature with a metal electi-ode is 
considerably lower than the cai'bon arc, so there is less risk 
of burning the work. 

In a carbon arc, the material of the positive electrode is 
caiTied across the arc in the fonn of vapour, and deiwsited 
on the negative electi'ode. It may be more or less oxidised 
by contact with the air during the passage, therefore, if the 
rod is made the positive pole, metal from it is projected upon 
the work. In a metal arc, besides this action, molten por- 
tions of the smaller electrode ai'e projected bodily across the 
arc. This seems to occur independently of the polarity with 
alternating-current as well as continuous arcs. The point 
does not seem to have been investigated, but it is established 
that continuous'currcnt. with the rod the positive electrode, 
is better than alternating current, though both are in suc- 
i-essful use. The projection effect i» sufficiently powerful to 
overcome gravity, so that welding can be done from below. 
The result is that the material of the rod is transferred, and 
forms the filling metal for the joint. Slavianoff' introduced 
this process, and it was found to be superior in some respects 
to the carbon arc. There is no passibility of carbon being 
added to the welded metal. Suitable constituents can he 
added to the rod to obtain the required quality of metal in 
the weld, matching that of the work. 

The bare-metal electrode has. however, some disadvantages. 
The electrode is necessarily at a red heat for some distance 
from the arc, and therefore oxidises on the surface, and the 
tran-sferred metal is more or less oxidised by contact with 
the air in its passage across the arc. This oxide is liable to 
get into the weld, forming flaws. The bare metal also dissi- 
pates a good deal of heat, thus wasting eijergy. On the other 



hand, the arc itself is much shorter than the carbon ai'c for 
equal currents, and less energy is radiated from it. j 

The bare-metal electrode is used considerably in the United 
States, where some users state that no fluxing is necessaryj 
Other American authorities state that the weld made without 
fluxing is distinctly cold and short, and requires annealing: 
There is very little European exi>erience available as to weld- 
ing with bare-metal electrodes. 

Coated-metal Electrodes. — In the gaseous flux process the 
metal electrode is covered with a fireproof sleeve of non- 
conducting material, so that as the metal is removed by the 
arc the sleeve projects beyond the end of the rod, forming a 
guide for the molten welding metal, the sleeve itself fallingf 
away automatically. This s-leeve also protects the metal froil^ 
oxidisation, and reduces heat losses. . 

It is an improvement on the baa-e-metal electrode, and a 
great deal of satisfactory work has been done with it, namely,] 
in repairing marine boilers, .stern frames, and other .ship! 
parts. It is also successfully used to build up worn parts,] 
such as propeller shafts, w'oni crank shafts and axles, which^ 
a?e afterwards machined to size. i 

The patent claims the use of no particular material for the: 
fireproof sleeve, and no other purposes than those inen-j 
tioned, but the companies exploiting the process claim that iti 
can be made the vehicle of constituents which will givej 
desired characteristics to the added metal. 

Liquid Flux Process. — ^In this process, invented by Stro-! 
menger, of the Quasi-.\rc Co., a sleeve or covering is applied' 
to the material, and the material of this sleeve is such that 
it melts and foi'ms a flux covering the end of the electrode; 
and the added metal, thus protecting both from oxidisation..' 
The flux may contain constituents having a. chemical action' 
upon the fu.sed metal to improve its quahties. As originally,^ 
u.sed, the electrode was laid along the line of the weld, con-, 
nected -to one pole of the circuits, and an arc started at onei 
end which travelled along the line, fusing both the work! 
and the electrode metal, and leaving the weld covered with 
the flux. It was found better, however, to clamp the rod in; 
a holder, moving it by hand along the length of the weld atj 
a suitable rate, and giving it at the .same time a swinging^ 
movement across the line of weld, as is done in blowpipe- 
welding. The arc is formed entii-ely within a sheath of molten ! 
flux, so that the metal is at no time exposed to oxidisation/ 
The arc is vei"y short, about -J in. as a rule. Incidental' 
advantages of this method include smaller heat losses from' 
the arc, and that work can be done with a lower expenditur'ei 
of energy than by any other ai'c methods. . 

The covering material u.sed generally has asbestos a.9 a basis, 
which is impregnated with .sjilts, calculated to combine with 
the asbestos to form a mixed silicate flux or slag of suitable 
viscosity, and with the property of cleaning the metal sur> 
faces from oxide, itc. The viscosity of the molten slag is of. 
importance. It must be sufficiently fluid to permit the free 
movement of the rod working in it, and to free itself from the; 
molten metal, but not so fluid that it is blown away from the 
weld by the gase? escaping from the aj'c. Different makers 
use different compositions, and it is probable that some varia-l 
tion is desirable to suit difi'erent metals. ] 

Some experiments are being made with fluxes of a "ba.sic" * 
character instead of "acid" silicates, presumably to reduce, 
the silicate in the metal. ; 

In .some cases the fluxing material is put on the electrode 
rods in a plastic condition by forcing through dies, and in' 
other makes part of the flux constituents are placed in the: 
fonn of a powder in a tubular or channel electrode. ~i 

The material of the rod can also be varied to suit thej 
work. For example, nickel-plate rods are made for the sjiecial'j 
purpose of welding high-speed tool .steel ifito mild-steel; 
shanks. Comiwund rods are made, and an aluminium ribbon ; 
or wire is sometimes wrapped round the rod, before the flux ' 
coating is applied. Since the fused electrode metal is pro- , 
,tected from oxidisation by the flux, it can be so compounded , 
*as to give a welding material of any desired comjxxsition, 4 
which is of considerable importance when the weld has to, 
resist high stresses, or when the added metal has to act as 11 
reinforcement, or has to be machined to form a working] 
part or surface. 

There is a great deal of experimental w'ork in process on ' 
these lines, and whilst some of the results may have little -i 
more than advertising value, others of material importance] 
have already become known. 

The fluxed-metal arc process is certainly of the greatest i 
promise for constructional welding, as. for example, in ship- 
building. Trials already made on full scale show' that m^ 
some respects it is superior to riveting. Actual experience in- 
ships in service is waipted to show whether these last results 
are borne out in practice, be<;ause no testing machine can j 
reproduce the complete stresses endured by a ship in service. | 
There is already good reason to say that if welding can re-J, 
place riveting, there will be a considerable saving in materi.al' 
and labour in shipbuilding Whether an all-welded ship isi 
practicable or not. this method of w-elding is satisfactory forj 
a large number of constructional details. 

Butt joints must be .suitably prepared by veeing and fitting. " 
Plates under J in. thick need not be veed, as complete fusion ' 
for this depth can be assured. The angle of the V should be: 
no larger than to permit the end of the electrode to get 
well down to the lower surface. In thick work it is usual to-; 
apply several layers to get full thickness. The slag should be . 



Vol. 82. No. 2,0%, JANUARV 2.5, 1918.1 THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



79 



emoved fi'om each layer before another is applied, and the 
:urface brushed bright with a wire brush. 
' The rod is held at right angles to the face of the work. 
3are is necessary to maintain the arc at the proper length. 
I the electrode touches the work it will probably stick. It 
ihould be fed down at the rate at which it melts, ol' the ad'c 
,vill bre<ik from the great length. Excessive length of arc 
;hort of the breaking point tends to produce porous metal, 
rhe raU^. of feed along the joint should be steady, so as to 
)roduce a layer of even thickness. InteiTuptions should be 
ivoided, and when unavoidable — as in coming to the end of 
in electrode — the metal .should be, thinned out for a short 
listance and thoroughly re-fused. 

{To be concluded.) 



LEGAL 



p. D. Baldock v. The Citv op Westminster Council .\nd thh 

DHAKING CKU.S.S, \\ bST Ji.M) A ClTY JSleuiiuc'ity Co., Ltu.— 

Claim koh Damages. 

A.T the Lambeth County Court, on Saturday, before Judge 
Hodges and a jury, Frank Douglas Baldock, ta.xicab propri- 
tor, of Kennington, brought an action for damages against 
the City of Westminster Borough Council and the Charing 
Cross, West End & City Electricity Co., Ltd. The amount 
in dispute was agreed upon between the parties at d648 15s., 
the question for the jury to decide being one of liabiUty only. 

Mr. H. Brandon appeared for the plaintiff, Mr. Lort 
Williams for the Council, and Mr. Barrington Ward for the 
company. 

Mr. Brandon said that on the night of March 20th, 1917, 
one of plaintiff's drivei-s was proceeding with a cab down 
Oockspur Street, Westminster, when he collided with an uu- 
lighted refuge in the road. This was soon after eight o'clock 
at night. It was a very dark night, and was raining. At 
first the action was brought against the Council, but as the 
Council had entered into a contract with the company for the 
lighting of tho streets, the latter had been joined as 
defendants. Where this refuge was .situated he should con- 
sider one of the most dangerous spots in London. The cab, 
which had an officer inside, came out of Northumberland 
Avenue, and passed on the oH' side of the lavatory in Tra- 
falgar Square. It went into Cockspur Street, where there 
were two refuges. The first had previously had a light on 
it, but there was no light on this night, and the cab drove into 
the standard. There was negligence in not having the refuge 
lighted either on the pai't of the Council or their servants, 
the company. The Council admitted that they were respon- 
sible for the maintenance of the standard and the refuge, but 
were not liable for_ the lighting of the streets. If the light 
was out it wa.s their duty to have put up at oace a red storm 
light. A considerable amount of correspondence had passed 
between the Chief Commissioner of Police and the Home 
Office and with the Council with regard to the lighting of 
this particular district, showing that in the opinion of <he 
authorities it was too dark. On the same night shortly before 
this accident another taxi-driver ran into the same standard 
with his cab. which was damaged to the extent of £60. At 
that time there was no light on the refuge. In their defence 
the company .stated that they were going to depend on in- 
structions given under the Defence of the Realm Act that they 
uiust keep the lights low. but that, did not exonerate therii 
or the Council from leaving unlighted a refuge in a dangerous 
thoroughfare. He proceeded to read a long correspondence 
since 1914 between the authorities at Whitehall and the 
Council as to what had taken place over the lighting of this 
area. 

Mr. \\nmi objected to the introduction of matters which, 
he maintained, did not come within a reasonable period of 
the date of the accident. 

Judge HoDGFs ruled that only evidence could be admitted 
appertaining to any other accident on that particular day. 

Mr. Brandox added that sfniie time after the .second acci- 
dent a red .storm light was placed on the standard. 

Evidence having been given, plaintiff's case w-as closed. 

Mr. Ward maintained that there was no evidence of negli- 
gence on the part of the company. It was a fact that the 
elex- trie lamp at this place, which was ordinarily lighted, was 
out of lighting. Under the powers confeiTed upon the Home 
QQice under the Defence of the Realm Act, they had had 
to reduce their lighting, and it was a criminal offence to 
contravene the orders issued from time to time. Plaintiff 
found that one lamp was out in a time of great national 
urgency, but that was not evidence of negligence. 

Leonard James Beit, assistant surveyor to the Westminstei- 
Oity Council, said he had the sujiervision of tiie lighting of 
the citv in his charge under the Defence of the Realm Act 
irom Sept.-iidicr. 1914, up to the prc^^ent time he )iad been 
in constant communicntion with the War Office and the Hnnip 
Secretary with recriird t.n the street lightinc. and he had re- 
ceived various in.striHtions. At one time the hphting varied 
in different parts, but now it was uniform, this arran-re- 
ment being adopted in .Tanuarv, 1917. after a conference at 



the War Office. It was then decided that certain lamps 
should remain out of lighting altogether. They were experi- 
menting for a long time, and whenever the hghts in West- 
minster had been varied this was carried out according t(j 
the instructions of the Government authorities. When they 
learnt that a lamp had gone out,' the lighting company was 
notified, and they sent their men to put up a red storm lamp. 
There was a general an'angemeut between the Council and 
the company that the latter should do this. The usual pro- 
cedure was that when a light went out the police called the 
attention of the company to it. 

Wilfred B. 'Thorpe, distributing engineer to the company, 
said in September, 1914, after consultation with the Hom^ 
Office, the War Office and the Police, they had to vary the 
lighting, the instructions to his company coming direct from 
the Council. He had had complaints about these lamps in 
Cockspur Street that they were giving too much Light, and 
they had to reduce it. They had to put metal shields on the 
lamps, besides painting them outside. The shields shut off 
the ventilation. In order to keep the lamps in order at night 
they were hghted between twelve and one o'clock in the day- 
time to see they were all right. They were again switched 
on at night, and an hour later the standard man passed up 
and down the streets on a bicycle to see if any light was 
out or Imniing badly. They kept a night staff' to attend to 
an\' defect that might be reported, and men were sent out 
to attend to any lamp that had gone out. The first time he 
was told that this particular lamp in Cockspur Street had 
gone out was at 11.30 at night, when it was reported to them 
by the police. By an aiTangement between the company 
and the Council carbons that wore away and had to be auto- 
matically renew"ed were attended to by the company. They 
had to keep the carbons at a "V "-sha{»d position, and in 
normal times the actual pressure kept them in place, but 
they had to reduce the pres.sure, and the results were very 
unsatisfactory. The lamps were never designed for the lower 
pressure. They could not expect thg. lamps to bum steadily. 
He could not explain why this lamp went out at the time 
of the first accident and was re-lit later, as was stated by 
the constable, but a. lamp might go out through the reduced 
pressure and re-light later. They could not have avoided 
or foreseen this lamp going out. 

Mr. Brandon : Can you prevent the lights going out on 
low pressure? 

Witness : I cannot prevent any lamp going out. 

Mr. W. fl. Kingston, your chief engineer, has written 
stating that if the current is reduced the burning of the 
lamp is eiTatic. Do you agree with that? — Yes, up to a 
. certain point. 

He added that he received a report at 11. .30 that this lamp 
in Cockspur Street' required attention and " danger," in con- 
sequence of which a red light was put up. 

.Judge Hodges, in his summing-up to the jury, said they 
should take into consideration the present condition of affairs, 
and that the countiy was at war. By consent the following 
questions were submitted to the jury, their replies being 
annexed : — 



O. : 


Was the accident due to an inevitable accident caused by the diminu- 


t.pn o 


street lighting ?— A. ; "V fs. 


■v.: 


If it was not an inevitable accident, was it due to any negligent action 




part of the Council? — A.; "Yes. 


O. : 


If so, what was the negligence of the defendants?— A. : Their omission 




ntain a light on the refuge. 


O. : 


Was the accident contributed to by the plaintiff by his own neghg- 


ence'- 


-A. : No. 


O.: 


Was the lamp in question on the refuge alight at the time of the 


ncnidp 


nt?-A.: No. 


O.: 


If not, what caused it to go out?— A. : In our opinion there is no 


conclu 


sive evidence as to the cause. 



His Honour reserved judgment until a point of law, which 
is to lie raised by Mr. Lort Wilhams, on behalf of the 
Council, has been argued before him. 



Kensington & Knightsbridge Electric Lighting Co., Ltd., 

('. Notting Hill Electric Lighting Co., Ltd. — Judgment. 
In the King's Bench Division on Friday last, January 18th, 
Mr. Justice McCardie gave a judgment of great intere-st 
bearing on the Electric Lighting Acts, 188'2-1909. and the 
powers of authorities under Provisional Orders, in the case of 
the Kensington & Knightsbridge Electric l^ighting Co. v. the 
Nottiiig Hill Electric Lighting Co. This ca.se, w^hich came 
before the Court in the form of a special case, was argued 
before his Lordship recently, as already reported. The fol- 
lowing is an abstract of Mr. Ju,sticp McCardie's judgment :=— 
The points at issue between these companies arise upon an 
award stated in the foi-m of a special case by Mr. James 
Swinburne. In this Judgment I shall refer to the Kensington 
Co. as the plaintiff's and tt) the Notting Hill Co. as the defend- 
dants. The primary question in the case is the construction 
of a short clause in a written agi"eement between the parties 
dated October. 2,5th. 1900. That clause (so far as relevant) 
is as follows : " So long as any of the stock " — i.e., certain 
debenture stock — " shall be outstanding, eaci of the two 
companies shall from time to time take from the joint station 
all such electrical energy as such company (having regard 
to its other .sourrrs of .supply) may require for the purposes 
of its business in ;!■ cordance with the proMsions of the prin 
cipal agreement." 

Each of the two companies w^as duly registered under the' 
Compaflies' Act in or about 1888. The memorandum of each 



80 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW, [voi. 82. No. 2,096, jandary 25, 1918. 



company gives broad and comprehensive trading powers. 
Each company became possessed of the usual statutory powers 
of supply. Time went on. It became apparent that, in 
order to meet the ever-increasing demand in both areas for 
electrical energy, it would be convenient to the companies if 
an additional source of supply could be provided. Accord- 
ingly, the plaiutilTs and defendants entered into an agreement 
dated July l'2th, 1S99, called the principal agreement, that 
both compani<'S should join in promoting a Bill in Parlia- 
ment for enabling the two companies to establish a generating 
station outside .lie statutory area of supply of both com- 
panies. 

On July VMh. I.S99, an Act was pa.s.sed in order to give 
effect to the contract. The recitals of the Act appear to con- 
template that the supply from the_ joint station shall lie 
given only to the resi>ective statutory areas .of supply of the 
two companies, and Section 5 of the -Act provides (in essence) 
that the two companies "' may respectively distribute the 
energy in such proportions and manner as the two com- 
panies may from time to time determine for the purpose of 
sui)ply within their respective areas of supply, as for the 
time being authorised, or for giving effect to any agreement 
made under the provisions of this Act." 

Shortly after the passing of the above Act the companies 
entered into a further agreement joLotly with the trustees of 
certain debenture stock through the issue of which the new 
undertaking was to be financed. The agreement is dated 
October '25th, 1900 Clause 3 of such agreement has already 
been set out in this judgment, The joint station was duly 
erected at Wood Green. 

By their Provisional Order of 1889, the defendants were 
expressly piohibited from supplying energy or laying down 
any electric line.s or works beyond their area of supply other- 
wise than under the authority of Parliament, or under a 
licence granted by the Board of Trade. Adjacent to, but, in 
fact, outside, the area, of supjily of the Notting Hill Co. (the 
defendants) is a district called Konsal Town. To consumers 
within that district the defendants supplied energy in the 
year 1909. They bona-jidc. but erroneously, believed that 
such consumers were actually within their statutory supply 
area. But they did not procure such energy either from the 
joint station or their own generating sources. They obtained 
it from a whcillv separate source, nnd supplied it at a profit 
to the Kensal Town consmners. The plaintiffs contend that 
a breach of contract was thereby comnrittod by the defend- 
ants. The arbitrator has held that the contention is well 
founded, and in i-espect of such breach be has awarded £189 
damages. 

The defendants, however, submit that their above-named 
acts do not constitute a. breach of Clause 8 of the agreement 
of 1900. _ • _ 

.\nother and still more irriportwnt point arises upon the 
special case. On November 25tb. 1909. the Electric Lighting 
.\ct. 1909, was passed. By Section 6 of that Act the Board 
of Ti'ade was enipowpred to grant licences whereby an under- 
taker could supply electricity to consumers outside his actml 
statutory area of supply. The licence may embody such 
powers and duties as are deemed appropriate by the Board 
of Trade. It is. I think, reaaonably clear that the effect of 
a licence is not to extend an undertaker's statutory area of 
supply.- It will opei-ste only as a valid authority to supply 
electricity (in Bpeci;iJlv permitted ca^es) to consumers outside 
the statutory area- The actual statutory area with its special 
features of rights j>nd duties remains untouched. Licences 
granted hv fbe Board of Trade under Section 6 of the Elec- 
tric LigbtiniT Act of 1909 are commonly and conveniently 
known as " fringe orders." 

In respect of the above-mentioned snoply to Kensal Town 
''orsuiTie,rp in 1909. no fringe order had been cfrant«d. The 
defendants, therefor'^, were acting ultra viret in giving the 
supplvf But in the years subsequent to 1909 " fringe orders " 
M'ere duly gi'anted by the Board of Trade, whereby the defen- 
dants were authorised to supply eleajtricity to various con- 
sumers in the Kensal Town district. Thereupon they sup- 
plied electric energy to such consumerK. But thev did not 
obtain it from the joint station, nor did they obtain it from 
their own generating eources. They procured it from a 
wholly separate source, and supplied it (at a profit) to such 
ron.sumers. The plaintiffs contend that a further breach of 
contract was therebv committed by the defendants. The - 
arbitrator has held that such cont.ention is correct, and in 
resnect of such breach he has awarded .£1.661 as damages. 

The defendants again submit that such last-named acts 
do not infrince Clause 3 of the agreement of 1900. 

The determination of such matters primarily deiiends nnon 
the true construction of Clause 8 of the agreement of 1900. 
The clause is difiScult to construe. The word " require " is 
often of doubtful 7neaning. Its significance must depend on 
the context and on the special circumstances of the case. 

In the light of the .4ct of 1S99. which authorised the erec- 
tion of the joint station, and of the feneral nrovisions of the 
nrincipal agreement of July 12th. 1899. I think that the dp- 
fendanffs in the present case were, prima focie. bound to take 
f''om the joint station all the electricitv in fact needed ^or 
'heir business bayond the amount which they genei'ated at 
thfir own sources of supply. 

Mr. Tomlin contended that the word "business" meant 
'm the cir^-umstancps of the ca.se) the supply of electricity to 
thf defipnd statutory nrea of the defendants. Mr. Knox sulv 
mitted that the word " business " was not so limited, but 



that the sujjply of energy under the above-mentioned "fringe 
orders," and also the supply (though ultra vires) by the de- 
fendants to Kensal Town m 1909 clearly constituted part of 
the business of the defendants. 

In an ordmary case the phrase "Business of a company " 
would indicate the totality of the oi^erations carried on by 
the company for the pi'otits of its shareholders. But the 
word " undertaking " is more appropriate to the services 
rendered' under statutory authoriiy to a .specified area in 
respect of gas, water, electricity, or the like. In the present 
case it is, i think, clear that the word "business" cannot 
bear the usual meanmg indicated above. As already stated, 
the Notting HUl -Go. pos,sesses a Memorandum of Association 
with wide powers. Ine company may use electricity in any 
liart of this country, or even ouLside the L iiited Kingdom. 
it may trade freely in any place. It would also be within 
the powers of their memorandum for the defendants to secure 
a Provisional Order for the supply of electricity to York, or 
Exeter, or Chester. I deem it clear, therefore, that Clause 3 
cannot mean that the defendants are bound to take from the 
joint station all the electricity needed for all the operations 
which may be lawfully undertaken by the defendant com- 
pany as a trading corporation in any jiart of this countiy or 
abroad. It is therefore necessary to cut down the prima Jacie 
meaning of the word "business." What limit, then, is to 
be placed on the meaning of the word';* 

Mr. Knox submitted that the word " business " in Clause 
3 should be taken as meaning the supply of electiicity in 
their defined statutory area, by the defendant coini)any, plus 
the incidental supply by the defendants under fiinge orders 
wtdch might be granted from" time to time by the Board of 
Trade in view of the convenient propmquity of fringe con- 
sumers to the area of supply, and plus also the Supply to i 
adjacent consumers, even though no fringe orders had been 
granted. But the defendants contend that such meaning can- j 
not be yielded to such word in view of the relevant statutory ; 
provision in the earlier agreement and the circumstances 'of 
the case, and that I must, therefore, limit the meaning to i 
the supply of electricity to the defendants' statutory area. 
I'pon tlie whole, though with much doubt, and not without ■ 
regret, I feel that I must accede to this contention of the 
defendants. 

The agreement cannot be constmed apa-rt from the General \ 
.-Vet of 1899, from which alone its efficacy is derived. Both '■ 
the agreement of 1899 and that of 1900 depend for their 
juristic vitality upon the Statute. Nor can the agreement 
of 1900 be con.strued apart from the provisions of the earhec 
agreement of 1899. The two agreements are not ordinary 
commercial documents. They are special contracts made for 
a special purpose under the authority of a pai'ticular Act of 
Parliament. The apparent generality of words in .such agree- 
ments must be limited by the circumstances of the case. 
The question of ultra vires arises in this case. It is a sound , 
rule of law that a document should receive so far as possible 
such an inteipretation as wiU confine the scope of the bargain 
to acts which' may lawfully be done 

St.a'tmg his reasons for upholding the contention of the 
defendants as .slated by Mr. Tomlin, his Lordship said : The 
agreements cannot go "beyond that which is permitted by the 
enabling Statute. Now, if the Joint Act of 1899 be looked 
at it will be seen that the I'ecitals deal in the clearest manner 
with the siiecific areas of the supply of the two companies, 
and Avith such areas only. 

I am satisfied that Section 8 imposes a clear restriction 
" on the distribution of energy generated at the joint sta- 
tion." It cannot be distributed save within the respective 
statutory areas of supply. But the defendants' ai-ea of supply 
was precisely defined by their Provisional Order of 1899. I 
have already pointed out that a fringe order under Section 6 
of the Electric Lighting Act, 1909, does not enlarge the 
statutory ajea of supply. It gives a particular and limited 
privilege in another area. It does no 'more. The actual 
wording of the fringe orders in this case supports the view 
I have just expressed. To my mind, they do not impliedly 
enlarge the area refeiTed to in Section 5 of the Joint Act of 
1899. S therefore think that the defendants were not en- 
titled to employ any part of the joint station energy for the 
purpose of supplying those who were consumers under fringe 
orders. It follows that any agreements between parties that 
energy should be so employed would be contrary to the 
.Joint Act of 1899, and therefore void. .\n agreement to do an 
ultra vires act is wholly unenforceable. 

I hold that the true meaning of the word "business" is 
the supply of electricity within the statutory area. Even if 
the word " business " were to be taken as including a supply 
bv the defendants to external consumers mider the sanction 
of a fringe order, I should .still feel disabled from awarding 
damages to the plaintiff's against the defendants for not 
taking the energy from the joint station. For they were not, 
in my view, entitted to take it, and I could not give damages 
for the non-performance of an act which was beyond the 
powers they possessed. It follows that the award is erroneous 
in respect to the item of i'1.661. 

.\s to Head (B). i.e.. the supply by the defendants to ex- 
ternal consumers in Kensal Town in 1909, it resnlts, in n^ 
opinion, that this part of the award, i.e.. for f 189 damages, 
is also erroneous, subject to the subordinate point hereafter 
mentioned. Such .supply was not a part of the business of 
the defendants within- the meaning of Clause 3. Not only 
would a supply from the joint station for such consumers 



Vol. 82. No. 2,096, January 2.5, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL KEVIBW. 



81 



have been beyond the powers and right.s given by the Joint 
Act of 1899, but the .supply \vas, in fact, in direct contraven- 
tion of Clause 6 of the defendants' Provisional Order of 
1889. 

Two other points arise, on the award. The first point 
arises as follow.s : — One of the consumers in Kensal Town was 
a Roman Catholic School. It was outside the defendants' 
statutory area of supply. But the school was adjacent to a. 
church, and connected therewith. The church was within 
the defendants' area. The defendants conducted their sup- 
ply to the school. They did not directly carry it themselves 
to the church. But the school had connected their fittings 
to the church, and thereby gave it a. supply of electricity. 
Thus a building inside the defendants' area got a supply 
through a delivery of electricity by the defendants to a build- 
ing outside the area. The energy supplied, by the defendants 
to the school was not obtained by the defendants from the 
joint station, but from third persons. Such electricity could, 
and ought to, have been taken, I think, from the joint sta- 
tion. I see no reason for holfliug the defendants free from 
liability in respect of the electricity employed in the Ronian 
Catholic Church. To so hold would offer the defendants a 
simple method of diminishing their obligation under the agree- 
ments of 1899 and 19(X). 

I cannot end this judgment without ix)inting out that the 
award now before me. which is stated in the form of a 
special ca.se, does not contain any finding of fact save in one 
or two circumstances mentioned in paragraph 4 thereof. Mr. 
Swdnbunie is a most distinguished expert, and not a lawyer. 
But I feel that it is- moist desirable, and indeed e-ssential, 
that every special case, whether stated by a lawyer or a 
layman, should contain a statement of evei-y relevant fact 
as' found by the arbitrator. In all future special cases I tnist 
that the facts will be stated with clearness and fullness, and 
that the relevant docun^nts will be sjjecified in such case. 

With regard to the co.sts of this special case, the defendants 
have .succeeded to a lai'ge extent. But they have failed on 
some heads of the award, and several of their unsuccessful 
contentions occupied a substantial measure of time. Hence. 
I think that their costs should b^ taxed, and that they should 
receive two-thirds only of the total costs allowed. 

With regard to the costs before the arbitrator, it suffices 
to say that he has dealt with them in the award with the 
exception of the small point arising (and already mentioned 
in this judgment), as to the supply to the church. 



Clones Electric Light & Power Co. v. Commissioners 
OF Valuation. 

In the C-ourt of Appeal, Dublin, on 17th inst., before Tjord 
Justice Ronan and Lord Justice Molony, an_appeal was heard 
in which the Commissioners of Valuation "appealed from a 
decision of King's Bench Division on a case stated by County 
Court Judge Johnston. The Clones Co. had appealed against 
an assessment of ±'1CI0 upon the company's lighting and power 
equipment as being excessive, and the judge had icduced 't 
to £75. apportioning i'-25 to the buddings. &c.. and MO to 
the mains, poles, and easements. In the King's Bench the 
parties agreed to the value being asei^rtained by reference tn 
profits. The Court, without exiires.sing any opinion as to the 
propriety or applicability of such principle, affirmed the judg- 
ment of the County Court Judge, with costii against the 
Commis-sioners. In his judgment Mr. Justice Gibson had ex 
pressed disapproval of the valuation adopted by the pai-ties, 
on which the County Court Judge had been asked to 
decide. The Cc:\irt aliinned the decision of the King's Bench 
Division, and disniissed the appeal with costs. They stated, 
however, that tbey wei-e not to be taken as expressing any 
opinion on the question in Mr. Justice Gibson's judgment 
as to whether the methixl of valuation adopted was a cor- 
rect method o;- not. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letters received by »/»■ after 5 P.M. ON Tuesday cnniiof appear vntil 
the followinq iveek. Correspondents should forward their communi- 
cations at the earliest possible moment. No letter can be published 
unle.i.s we have the winter's 9uime and addre.ss in our possession. 

Wages in Central-Station Service. 

When I came to "Situations Vacant'' in this week's Rs;viE\v. I 
had to look twice dt the date to make sure it was January 18th, 
191S, and not January ISth, 11113, printed at the top of the pa^e. 

We have thus : — 

Walthamstow. — Switchboard Attendant wanted ; -wag-es .")Gs. 3d. 
for .50-hour week, rising to ()2s., ineludinij war bonus. 

Assuming lion us to be the 20s. + 12J per cent., this is equivalent 
to a pre-October. 1917, rate of 308. per week. 

Rochdale. — Meter Tester ; commencing salary &2 5s. per week, 
inclndinij bonus. 

Assuming as above, this equals a pre-October rate of £ 1 per week. 

WARRlNOTf)N.— Junior Shift Engineer : salary £2 1.5s. per 
week (including war bonus of lOs. per week). 

Erith. — Shift Engineer; salary £130 + 15 iier cent, tonus — 
i.e., 73. 6d. per week. 

TuNBRiDGE Wells.— Shift Engineer; iruges 358. per week -F os, 
per week bonus, 



With regard to the last three ipstances, the Askwith award is 
not being complied with. Why ? 

With particular regard to the last example, further on we 
see — --^ 

TuNBRiDGB Wells.— Wanted, Engine Driver; wages 3.5s. per 
week + bonus (amount not mentioned). 

Will it be more than 5s. .' 

Compare with wages for shift engineer at the same station I 

There are others ! 

In conclusion, a labourer;at 7Jd. per hour, working 54 hours per 
week and receiving 20s. bonus -|- 12i per cent., earns *:157 4s. 3d 
per annum — a little over £3 per week I 

En Avant. 

The 12^ per Cent. Bonus. 

A state of doubt seems to prevail in regard to the application of 
Sir G. Askwith's decision. 

A consideration of its origin, however, lends a principle of guid- 
ance. The decision was given primarily under the Munitions of 
War Act, 191G, this Act covering all electric supply undertakings 
which are certified by the M. of M, 

The award specifies no restrictions qua locality, so is to be con- 
strued as universal throughout the country, in so far as the above 
undertakings are concerned. 

This consideration of the case, of course, excludes undertakings 
not certified by the M. of M., and not parties to ai^ agreement. 
T. W. Cole, 
Secretary, Prorincial Electric Supply Committee 
of the United ly'ingdum. 

Moorgate Court, E.G., January •22nd, 1918. 

[A circular communication to the members of the I.M.E.A. on 
this subject is reported elsewhere in this issue. Other letters, 
received too late for inclusion, have been held over. — Ed.}. Elec. 
Rev.] 

Prof. Wallier's Battery Rule. 

Having heard that the rest of us will think to-morrow what 
Manchester thinks to-day, your readers may be interested in the 
new battery rule by Prof. Miles Walker, of the Manchester School 
of Technology. Some of them, indeed, may find the matter a very 
important one : for this rule is founded on a misunderstanding, 
and Manchester students will certainly lose marks if they use it at 
examinations outside their own school. 

I wrote to the school in October last, pointing out that they 
were wrong in thinking the old rule could be otherwise stated in 
this way : " Make ji ij as nearly as possible equal to rs" ; where 
// is the number of rows in parallel, .^^ the number of cells in series 
in each row. r the resistance of each cell, and ij the external resist- 
ance. They had argued that this " is, of course, equivalent to the 
rule — Make »/ as nearly as possible equal to rsjp " ; and they quite 
rightly rei^jirked that this latter is identical with Prof. Perry's 
rule — ■' Arrange the battery so that its internal resistance shall be 
as neai-ly as possible equal to the external resistance " (" Calculus 
for Engineers.'' page 52). But I drew attention to the fallacy in 
the first part of this argument, and clinched the matter by taking 
the simple example of 26 1-ohm cells and an external resistance 
of 3 ohms -. here the first rule tells us to make .v- = 2, while the 
second tells us to make .■.- = 13, which more than doubles the 
current. 

It was then suggested that I had overlooked the possibility of 

arranging six of the cells in this way _ to suit an ex- 

tei-nal resistance of 4^ ohms, and so on in other cases. But I 
pointed out that these u-regular and inconvenient groups are cleai-ly 
excluded by Prof. Perry's assumption that the biittery resistance is 
/■ sj/i : for this expression does not represent the battery resistance 
unless y/ is an integer ; and it will be seen that the same assump- 
tion is actually made in the above-quoted argument that I had 
received from Manchester. 

I also . showed that the proposed modification of the usual rule 
will sometimes /irercut the student from getting the greatest 
current. Taking, for example, the above c;ise in which the internal 
and external resistances are each equal to 4i ohms, we find that 
the ciu'rent is 5 <'/9 = 0'555 e (where e is the electromotive force of 
each cell) : but the old rule tells us to put the cells all in series, 
which gives us the greater current of tic/loi = 0'571 <-. However, 
as I have elsewhere demonstrated {Mechanical World, dated April 
20th, 1917), Prof. Perry ought to have said, '' Make // // as near as 
possible to r s " ; this very short and convenient rule will infallibly 
indicate the battery (of the usual regular form) that gives the 
greatest current : but we sometimes get only a small fraction of 
this current if we use Prof. Perry's rule. 

Insteail of getting a frank admission that the Manchester 
teaching has been wrong, I ami told that "' this discussion must 
now close until after the conclusion of the war." But the war may 
la-st a long time yet. largely because our professors have been so far 
behind those of Gemiaiiy ; and I therefore hope you will now find 
space for this letter, 

W. F. Dunton. 
Xewcastle-on-Tyiie, .louuaiy 21.v/, 191.'*. 



Illuminating Engineering. 

My previous letter scarcely conveyed, I am afrai<l. the, true cause 
for my criticism on Mr. Trotter's exceedingly interesting address to 
the Illuminating Eujjineeriug Society. 

It related only to his expression, " The eye only is the judge,'' 



82 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 82. No. 2,096, .ianuahy 25, 1918. 



which to my mind is an unfortunate phrase, althong:h a popularly 
accepted one in relation to illumination results. It requires, how- 
eTer. for the majority of the public an analysis or extension of 
thought which is seldom attached to it. and" therefore, misleads 
them mto for^etfulness of the fact that in reality the mind, and 
not the eye, passes judjfment, for the latter is merely a " servant " 
to carry impressions to the brain, the quality or refinement of 
which and their consequent approval by the "mind is determined 
solely by the degree to which it (the mind) has been trained on the 
subject. 

A hifrh standard of illumination is assuredly not readily appre- 
ciated by the mind at the present day. and speaking as a 
commercial man who has devoted much ent^usi.asm to the subject. 
It IS scarcely an esafrsreration to affirm ihat the average man's 
appreciation at first sight is almost in inver.se ratio to the standard 
of excellence supplied, because the eye or mind can but give 
verdicts in proportion to the consciousness of its requirements. 

For this reason did I regret such an expression coming from Jlr. 
Trotter, more so from him than from a less eminent authority, 
because it tends to confirm the popular error that the mind can 
capably express judgment without adequate tuition, and accord- 
ingly, to the despair of commercial men, no demand for a higher 
standard of illumination would be created by the public than has 
satisfied them for ages past. 

We know, for instance, that an installation with a given foot- 
ca|dle intensity and low diversity factor makes a higher standard 
toT maintaining Visual efl3ciency. than one with a higher average 
foot-candle intensity and bad diversity factor. 

I would ask, however, in how many cases would the former 
standard be selected by the public when appeal to the eve were 
made ,' j-r . 

In fact, not even a mind educated on the subject could rely 
"P™ sepse of sight in order to rate the value of a diversity factor, 
which IS, perhaps, of primary importance in at least industrial 
installations. 

I further suggest, from practical experience, that it is an error 
to suppose that the workman at a machine is so satisfactorily 
served by a high intensity of illumination immediately at the 
position of work, as by a lower intensity equally spread "over the 
whole area upon which the eye roams. But the sense of sight 
would convey to most minds a preference for the former. 

Upon such elementary facts Mr. Trotter will doubtless be in 
agreement with me ; but I believe that if, instead of apathetically 
accepting judgment from the eye by the public, more cause for 
ettect were preached in simple language, commercial men would 
readily appreciate and .luickiy demand diffusion and diversity 
factor owing to their important relation to output, kc, and thereby 
the chief obstacles to the progress of the illuminating eno-ineerin"- 
movement would be removed. 
„, ^ Sydney 0. Cook. 

Ulasgow, Jamiarji 21.«f, 1918. 



The Production of Ductile Tungsten. 

I trust you will forgive me for trespassing on vour space . ag-ain 
■ on the above subject, but it seems to me that tiie letter in jonr 
issue of January 11th, signed by Messrs. Speechly. Mumford, and 
Oraig calls for a reply. Notwithstanding the remarks of that firm 
ot solicitors, I think my original statement was substantially 
correct and that it is proven by the following statement to the 
ettect that the total production of tungsten wire drawn at Ruo-by 
as evidenced by the production sheets, was ,-),835 iiS« ft " This 
amount, adopting the calculation of Speechly, Mumford & Craio- 
was ample tor all the lamps made and sold bv the B T H Co The 
amps imported from America were small in number (less than 
1 per cent, of the B.T.H. Co.'s total sales), and they were entirelv 
special. 

However, if it will satisfy Speechly, Mumford .t Craig and the 
amused lamp manufacturers, I will correct my original s'tatement 
so as to make it read as follows :— '■ The British Thomson-Houston 
Co. were supplying their whole requirements of ductile tungsten 
tor lamp filaments in 1912 by manufacture at their Rugby works 
trom material some of which h.id i»een partly treated in 
America. 

After all, it is quite unimjiortant as to whether the whole 
requirements of the B.T.H. Co. were made at Rugby in 1912 1913 
or early m 1914. so far as my original letter on the i)«;/(/ Tehqrfiph 
report ot Mr. Johnstone's lecture was concerned. What was 
material was that the B.T.H. Co. were manufacturing ductile 
timgsteu before the outbreak of war. Thev had been manu- 
facturing It from tungsten oxide for a long time prior to August 
^na, UH, and. bythe way. they started manufacture from tungsten 
ore mined within the British Empire, in the beginning of 
December, 1914. ^ 

Before closing this letter and the correspondence, so far as I am 
concerned. I would like to express my surprise that Speechly. 
Mumtord .V- Craig should now use in this way information acquired 
trom confidential works records, copies of which thev obtained bv 
process otlaw from the B.T.H. Co. in the case which thev mention 
ihese records were secured in an attempt bv the defendants to 
bolster up a plea, which from their own knowledge they were 
miable U) prove that the B.T.H. Co. had not been working Patent 
^o. .1 ol3 of l»Ut,. to an adequate extent in this country, 
i-yidently they could not support the plea, for the issue was never 
tried, and although Mr. Fraser's affidavit may be a public docu- 
ment, the production sheets never became such. It may be of 
interest to state that the defendants were directed to pay the costs 
ot the B.l.H. Co. on the issue. 

The case is still suhjudice, and the remaining- issues deciied upon 



by Mr, Justice Astbury and the Court of Appeal will be reviewed 
by the House of Lords at an early date. 

I need hardly comment on the boastful paragraph at the end ai 
Messrs, Speechly, Mumford A; Craig's letter, beyond saying that the, 
British public may take comfort from the fact that at least two 
eonceriiB in this country are each able to-supply the whole of t^j 
demand for drawn tungsten filaments. ji 

John Gray. ': 

London. E.C.. .Itiiiiuirij iind. 1918. .^ 

. . . I 



Meters on a Changed Frequency. 

Many thanks to Mr. T. Urmston tor his answer on above. Th& 
type of meters now in use are induction meters of the foUowingj 
makes :—Westinghouse, Aron, Siemens. A.E.G., B.T.H. There arifi 
about 800 in circuit, the bulk of which are 3-ampere, installed itf 
colliers' houses. There are no power circuits connected. Are th&? 
figures given by Mr. Urmston actual tests taken with the oO-periodi 
meter on the 40-period circuit ,' 1 



Query. 



Cable Breakdowns. ; 

The Review of September 7th, 1917. contained an article; 
Smilariy entitled to mine of August 24th— namely, " 'V.B. Cable ' 
Breakdowns in the Tropics." 1 

Mr. Beaver therein, after describing his investigations, of which! 
I was not ignorant by the way. goes on to state that the incorpora-* 
tion of a small proportion of high-grade vulcanised rubber with ' 
the bitumen affords " a surprising degree of protection " against'i 
the softening process. i 

Will Mr. Beaver state if cables made in this way have been tried - 
under actual working conditions for any length of time, and, if so,! 
with what results .' \ 

I regret that such a long time must elapse between Mr. Beaver's'' 
article and my letter, but my address will furnish the reason. ' 

D. M. W. Hutchison. \ 

Ku.ala Lumpur, F.M.S., 

Xuremher 29t/t, 1917. i 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



"Ceag" Shares for Sale.— The Public Trustee isi 

offering for sale 2.,i00 preference shares of £1 each, and 22,300 ^ 
ordinary shares of J- 1 each, all fully paid, in the " Ceag " Electric ■■ 
Safety Lamp Co,, Ltd. Tenders have to be delivered by Feb- " 
ruary 8th. ; 

Electrical Manufacturing in Australia.— The Boartf of I 

Trade Jiiiirnal states that a firm of engineers at Victoria, which 'i 
has for some years specialised in the manufacture of pumping ;^ 
plants, has completed arrangements to manufacture electric motors 
up to 50 H.P., on the A, E.G. models. 

The Greaves-Etchells Furnace. — Although this furnace .' 

was not introduced until 191G. says the S/ieMe/tl Daily Telegraph, ^ 

the number of orders it has secured in Great Britain stands second i 

only in the list of makers. The iiumerous plants installed in , 

Sheffield and various parts of the country are employed on alloy ' 

steels, high-speed steels, carbon steels, and steel castings. The \ 

Government of the United States have ordered five of them, of ' 

large capacity, for their arsenals and dockyards, whilst other i 

orders have been received from such world- famed concerns as ' 

the Halcomb Steel Co.. the National Radiator Co., the Singer i 

Manufacturing Co.. Ford Motor Co.. the Stoddart Union Steel Co., i 

the Primes Chemical Co,, and others. That the furnace has a ^ 

great future in America is now assured. Three of the same type ' 

are now on order for armament works in Spain, and one is being \ 

supplied to New Zealand, to be employed in producing steel cast- ■- 

ings from scrap. The furnaces in Sheffield have turned out a \ 

■considerable tonnage of high-speed steel of satisfactory quality. ■» 

Book Notices. — " Journal of the Institution of Electrical 

Engineers." Vol. LVI. No. 270. January. 1918. This issue 
contains the following papers : — "Gas-FiringBoilers," by Mr. T. M. 
Hunter ; " Electrical Cooking as Applied to Large Kitchens," by Mr. 
W. A. Gillott ; " Electricity Supply in Dublin and the Surrounding 
Districts," by Mr. W. Tatlow. 

"The British Engineering Index and Buyers' Manual for 1918 " 
■Compiled by F. J. Turquand. London : E. T. Heron & Co. Price 
10s. (id, net, 

" Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards." No. 309. A 
Method for Testing Current Transformers. Washington : Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Price o cents. 

Charge of Stealing. — Two men, who pleaded guilty to 
a charge of having stolen from the Clyde Valley Electric P"ow# 
station at Cambuslang brass fittings to the value of £100, were 
sent to prison by Sheriff Shennan. Hamilton, for 21 days. 

France. — A new company has lately lieen formed in 

'Paris, with a capital of £80,000 .and the title La Societe de Forces 
Motrices de la Garonne, to acquire and extend the carbide manu- 
facturing business of Messrs. J. Cnrtier A; Co. and to establish 
plant to utilise water power in the generation of electrical energy. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,09c, januarv 25, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



83 



Catalogues and Lists. — Enoineerinr and Arc Lamps, 

Ltd., Sphere Works, St. Albans, — New aix-papre illustrated list of a 
number of specially-designed fittings suitable for use with haU- 
i. watt lamps. The patterns shown are for works and industrial 
lijfhtinff — interior and exterior. Prices, diniension.s, code-words, 
and other details are tabulated. 

Ley's Malleable Castings Co., Ltd., Derby. — Twelve-page 
booklet entitled " Does Time mean Money to You .' " and contain- 
ing: a reprint from the Electrical Review, of September 7th. . 
1917, of the illustrated description of an "Improved Method of 
Time Checkin^r " (TheiLey-AUin System"). 

"Z" Electric Lamp Manufacturing Co., Ltd., .Southfields, 
London, S.W. 18. — Illustrated and priced leaflet of various types 
of electric flash lamps ; also small postal enclosures relating to 
various accessories. 

Liquidations. — McPhail & Simpson, liTD. — Through 
the expiry of the lease of the works at Wakefield and the con- 
sequent disposal of the business and most of the plant, this 
company is winding- up voluntarily, with Mr. G. E. Levie as 
liquidator. Meeting; of creditors, January 30th, at Finsbury Pave- 
ment House, E.G. 

Trade Announcement, — The address of the Sheffield 
branch of the India-Rubber, Ghtter-Percha and Telegraph 
Works Co., Ltd., is now 88-90, Queen Street, Sheffield, instead of 
28, Angel Street. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Birmingham. — National Electric Supply. — In a 

recent interview on the proposals of the Coal Conservation Sub- 
Committee, Mr. R. A. Chattook, the City Electrical Engineer, 
expressed thorough agreement with the necessity of securing more 
efficient production of electrical energy, though differences of 
opinion would arise as to the methods to be employed. The 
division of the country into 10 areas was open to revision ; in the 
Midland area, embracing Birmingham and the Black Country, it 
was not easy to obtain suitable facilities in any one place for the 
large power station required. It might be as economical under 
some conditions to put up several power stations in a district rather 
than to have one only ; it depended largely on water facilities. 

The effect on the charges to consumers of the cost of transmission 
from large stations into the areas of supply had to be borne in 
mind, as the saving in economical generation may be lost in trans- 
mission over a distance. So far as the Birmingham area was con- 
cerned, he did not think it would be possible, owing to lack of 
natural facilities, to generate at one point, though it could be done 
at several points. The preliminary investigation of the develop- 
ment possibilities of an area, and the methods to be employed. 
would involve an enormous amount of work. With only an 
interim report to go upon, it was impossible to go into details of 
control and administration ; there was no doubt, however, that 
given compensation for any interference with existing rights, 
centralisation leading to economical production was to be com- 
mended. 

Mr. Chattock expressed pleasure that the suggestion to gasify 
fuel, &c., is made contingent upon the methods adopted being per- 
fected. At the present time great expenditure in this direction 
would not be justified : and it must not be forgotten that what 
might be best from a national point of view, might not be to the 
advantage of the supply industry. In view of the enormous busi- 
ness organisation to handje, perhaps, eight times the coal now 
required to generate a given quantity of electricity, and to handle 
by-products, tlie present business of electric supply might become 
almost an off-shoot of the larger organisations, with the possible 
danger that the interests of the supply consumers may be 
jeopardised by the possible failure of one or more of the other 
branches. , 

Blaclcpool. — In connection with tlie taking over of tlie 
urban district of Bispham, the Parliamentary Committee h.as 
instructed the electrical engineer to report on the utilisation of the 
existing electricity works. 

Burnham (Somerset). — Price Increase. — The Electric 

Supply Co. has informed the U.D.C. that the price of electricity 
has been increased from lid. to 7d. per unit. 

Callan (Co. Kiliienny). — Fire.— 1 lamage estimated at 

.-tH.OOO resulted from an outbreak of fire at the electric lighting 
station, almost the entire building and plant being destroyed. 

. Continental. — Turkey. — According to a rejiort from 
Constantinople, great attention is at present being paid to the 
question of developing and utilising the water-power resources of 
the country. It is consequently expected that there will be an 
important demand in the country for turbines and allied plant 
after the war. 

Dublin.— The Port and Dock Board has considered a 
report from its electrical engineer on the question of the supply 
of electricity for the use of the Board's appliances. The cost of 
running the power station was estimated in 1904 at .t 2,000 per 
annum ; this liad now increased to £,'),000 per annum, or approxi- 
mately 21d, per unit delivered. The question of thoroughly over- 
hauling the existing plant or installing new, raised the question 



aS to whether the Board should continue to generate its own 
energy or purchase in bulk. The former would entail a capital 
expenditure of at least £6,000 within three years, the installation 
of new plant would cost £14,00o to i;lt'i,000, of which about one- 
half would bo- for reserve plant. In the event of purchasing 
energy in bulk from the city sujiply, the necessary converting 
plant would cost about £r),0l)O, ami the City Corporation should be 
in a position to give a bulk supply at under Id. per unit ; by adopting 
this suggestion it would be possDiIe to make a saving of £2,000 a 
year in running costs and £10,000 in capital expenditure. 

If the Board decided to take over the provision of electric power 
in the reclaimed district, it would lie possible to arrange a 
self-contained system capable of expansion when needed, suit- 
able for the requirements of a commercial district, the energy 
being purchased in bulk on the cheapest and most advantageous 
terms. 

It was, however, necessary to secure a temporary supply for the 
tenants of the Board : such supply should bo capable of expansion 
into a permanent one to that district, and be able to deliver energy 
at a price which would enable the new industries arising to have 
a fair chance of success, and this he considered could only be 
reached if the supply could be given for less than Id. per unit. 
The general proposition of the supply was, however, narrowed 
down to the question of crossing the Liffey ; this could be done by 
submarine cables, aerial cables, or by tunnel, alternative methods 
placed in the order of cost ; the first was unreliable for high 
voltage, while the towers to support the cables would cost approxi- 
mately £8,000, iand a lU-ft. tunnel about £22,000, Whichever 
method of crossing the Liffey the Corporation should ultimately 
adopt, provision should be made for carrying the Board's cables, in 
addition to those of the Corporation. The matter is to be con- 
sidered at a special meeting. 

The Lord Mayor (Councillor L, O'Neill) held an inquiry into 
statements made at a recent meeting of the Corporation regarding 
the collection of electricity accounts, and also investigated the 
allegation that an official of the Council owed an account of tein 
years' standing. The books were placed at his Lordship's disposal, 
and several witnesses were examined, and at the close it was inti- 
mated that a report would be made to the Council. 

London. — St. Pancras. — Mr. Baynes, the chief elec- 
trical engineer, has reported to the Electricity Committee that, 
having regard to the increasing power load, it is desirable to obtain 
two Ljungstrom turbines, at a cost of £3.5,000 ; it is also necessary 
to spend the following amounts : — Foundations, £900 ; switchgear 
and connections, £1,000; pump house and circulating pipes, also 
all other pipe work, .£5,000. If the foregoing were carried out, 
the two Browett-Lindley engines could be done away with, and 
with the present shortage of machinery on the market, probably a 
fair sum could be got for them. With facilities, the makers could 
deliver the two proposed new sets in seven or eight months. The 
present load is over (5,000 KW., but, owing to shortage, they were unalile 
to keep up the full pressure on the mains at maximum load times, 
otherwise this figure would reach some G,.'>00 K\v., and he antici- 
pated a considerable further increase on this figure. During the 
12 months to date, they had generated over 17 J million units, and 
consumed 37.000 tons of coal. By running the two 3.000-KW. 
turbines, with the new boilers helping, they could handle all the 
present load with modern plant, and effect an economy in coal of 
about 14,000 tons per annum, which would secure a saving of 
nearly £22,000. He submitted that the installation of this new 
machinery would be a good commercial proposition, while the 
reduced coal traffic would be of benefit to the railways. In recom- 
mending the installation of the Ljungstrom sets, he found that 
this type was more economical for their purpose ; further, any 
attempts to put in a .^lOOO-KW. set would involve considerable 
expenditure in alterations to buildings, and the provision of a new 
travelling crane. The Committee is in agreement with the engi- 
neer's recommendation, and a deputation is to interview the 
Ministry of Munitions regarding the completion of the coal- 
handling plant at King's Road iStation. 

L.C.C. — The Finance Committee recommends the sanction of the 
Council to the borrowing of £3,000 by the Bermondsey B.C. for a 
rotary converter for the electricity department, and .£.53,000 by the 
Islington B.C., made up as follows : — 5,000-KW. alternator, con- 
denser, and switchgear, .£28,000 ; two water-tube boilers, &c., 
£14,000 ; coal-bunkers and conveying plant, £11,000. 

A conference of representatives of municipal electricity under- 
takings was held at Caxton Hall on January Kith, to consider the 
question of Ijulk supply in the Loudon area ; a further meeting is 
to be held. 

FuLHAM. — The Electricity Committee reports that the power 
station loa<l during the week preceding Christmas reached 4,300 K\v. 
as against 3,000 KW. in pre-war days. 

For the purpose t)f dealing automatically with the ash from the 
boilers at the electricity works, and for conveyinjf coal to the new 
boiler furnaces, the Committee recommends that a suitable clinker- 
handling plant and coal conveyor be obtained, also an efficient coal 
weighing apparatus, at a cost of £ 1,900. 

Monasterevan (Co. Kildare). — Electric lighting has 

lieeu installed at a cost of £3,000. 

Mytliolmroyd. — Prov. Okdkr. — Tlie I'.D.C. has passed 

a resolution agreeing that the Ilalifivx Corporation should make 
application for a provisional order under the Electric Lighting^ 
Acts, 1S.'^2 and 1909, authorising the Corporation to supjily electricity 
within the whole of the urban district, and consenting to the 
granting of such order by the B. of T, 



8i 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol. Si. No. 2.096, January 25, 1911. 



Rawtenstall. — Proposed Loax. — The T.C. has decided 

to applj to the L.G.B. for sanction to borrow .C 5,500 for new plant 

at the electricity works. ■ 

Rotherham. — A to«-n's meeting has approved of the pro- 
posed promotion of-,a Parliamentary Bill in the nest session of 
Parliainent, which, among- other thiny^s. provides for the purcha-se 
of the electricity undertakinjr of the Mexbro' and Swinton ^^ram- 
ways Co. and the extension of the Corporation generating station 
in Eawmarsli Eoad. 

Stroud.— E.L. Powers.— The R.D.C. has decided to 
oppose an application by Messrs. Edwards 4: Armstrong to take 
over the powers of the Gloucestershire Electrical Power Co., formed 
in 1902. and which never cai-ried out the provisions of its Bill in 
the Stroud rural area. 

Wigan. — Hospital Lighting.^ — The Sub-Committee of 

the Board of Ouardians appointed to consider the lijrhtin? arranfre- 
ments of the hospital at Billino'e. has received a report from Mr. 
G. S. Corlett. who is of opinion that the only satisfactory method 
of lighting the hospital by electric lijrht is from a generating- 
plant on the premises. The capital expenditure for the provision 
ofSoi lights would be £1,800. and the workiug- expenses were esti- 
matedat £212 10s. per year. It was further estimated that electricity 
would show a saving of over £500 yearly. The Sub-Committee 
recommended that application be made to the military authorities 
for approval of the scheme, and that they he asked to bear one- 
half of the capital expenditure. 

Willesden. — Negotiations are proceeding between the 

U.D.C. and the Xorth Metropolitan Electric Power Supply Co. for 
the continuation of bidk supply to the Council after March 31st, 
1918. Application is to be renewed to the L.G.B. for permission for 
the Council to install two new 500-KW. rotary converters, at a cost 
of £5,400. 

Worcester. — At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce 

reference was made by Mr. Faii-barn to the proposals of the Coal 
Conservation Sub-Committee. He was given to understand, he 
said, that the Stourport proposal for the erection of a power station 
was rather in anticipation of the scheme which would be con- 
sidered by Parliament. If the Chamber expressed any opinion he 
thought they should take the view that these gigantic stations 
should be owned nationally and not by private undertakings. 

Yorkshire Electric Power Co.'s Bill, — A special meeting 

of the Slaithwaite. (ii^lcar, and Linthwaite Councils has decided to 
oppose the above Bill. The Barnsley T.C. is recommended to join 
neighbouring County Boroughs in opposing it. The Clayton 
U.D.C. has also decided to oppose it. and the Greasborough U.D.C 
in view of its pending application for a provisional order for 
electric lighting, has decided to oppose both the company's Bill and 
that of the Rotherham Corporation. 

The Earby U.D.C. is joining a conference of the urban authorities 
of Keighley, Skipton and Bainoldswick, with a view to joint oppo- 
sition to the Yorkshire Bill. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Blackburn. — The Corporation tramway receipts for the 
nine months of the current tramway year are about £10,000 above 
the corresponding pei-iod of 19 Ui- 17. 

The members of the local branch of the Amalgamated Associa- 
tion of Tramway and Vehicle Workers have tendered notices to 
cease work on February 1st. unless their claims are settled. They 
ask for the payment of a war bonus, in full, as granted by the 
Committee on Production ; the total abolition of fines : the 
employment of discharged sailors and soldiers in preference to 
others : the abolition of " the present competitive current bonus 
system'"; recognition of the Society aud»its officials, and the 
imposing of a condition that all employes in the department, other 
than skilled craftsmen, shall be members of the Association. Mr. 
J. H. Cowell. general manager of the tramways, stated that the 
full war bonus is already being paid. The "" fines " referred to are 
deductions made when, say. employes are late for duty, causing 
others to have to do the work : the current bonus is an award for 
carefulness, and not a competitjton, and work will be found for any 
discharged sailors and soldiera who are fit. All Unions are 
recognised eiinally, and the demand that all shall be members of 
the one Association is a matter for the men. and not the manage- 
ment. There are 300 employes in the department, but it is not 
known how many belong to tlie Association. 

Halifax. — Proposed reductions of the tramway service, 

including advanced fares and the discontinuance of the Warley 
Road route, have raised many protests from citizens and organised 
traders. The Chamber of Trade asked that the fares should not be 
increased until Bradford and HuddersfieM take simOar action. 
Transfer tickets were abolished as from January 12th. but the 
other changes were postponed imtil the Tramways Committee 
has come to a final decision. 

Keighley. — ^^'ages. — The award of the Committee on 

Production in connection with the reiTent wages dispute on the 
tramways, grants to youths under 21 an advance of 7s. Gd. per 
week above pre-war rates, beginning on the first pay day in 
January, payable at the rate of la. 3d. per day or per shift worked. 



Having regard to the statutory rules and orders made by. the 
Minister of Munitions in accordance with the Munitions of War 
(Amendment) Act, 1916, no order is made as to the women's rate?. 
The employes' demand was for the youths and also women to have 
the same atlvance on pre-war rates (l-is.) as was granted the men 
in Xovember, and that Sunday labour be paid at the rate of time 
and a half and all ordinary overtime at the rate of time and a 
quarter. The Committee on Production has ruled that the claim 
for Sunday and overtime pay has not been established. 

Leeds. — Parcels Service. — The tradesmen in the city 
have agreed to utilise to the fullest possible extent the new tram- 
way parcels carrying facilities which are to be established. 
Further steps in the matter were taken by the Tramways Com- 
mittee last week, and arrangements are being made for receiving 
stations in the outskirts of the city. The scheme will be in 
operation in about a month. 

The Tramways Committee proposes to abolish some of the 
stopping places in Boar Lane and Briggate, and to adopt a new 
queue system. 

The Committee has decided to recommend th? suspension of the 
most distant suburban tramway services to Street Lane and Lawns- 
wood. The two districts can be served by way of Moortown or 
Canal Gardens and M'est Park respectively, and the idea is to con- 
centrate more cai-s on busier lines, and also to pull up some rails 
for use in urgently-needed repairs. 

The War Pensions Committee, last week, decided to approach 
the Tramways Committee in regard to the case of a discharged 
soldier suffering from sciatica, who had been employed for 13 years 
in the tramways department, and was promised that his place 
would be kept open, but who. on return, was told there were no 
vacancies. The general opinion of the Pensions Committee was 
that this was a bad example on the part of a Corporation depart- 
ment. The secretary was instructed to prepare a return of 
ex-Corporation workmen who had been unable to get work on 
return from the Army. 

Liverpool. — Wages. — The Tramways and Electricity 
Committee has recommended to a Special War Bonus Committee 
that tramway employes should receive an additional war bonus of 
OS. i^er week for men. and 3s. for women, thus bringing them to an 
amount equivalent to that of employes of other tramway under- 
takings in the district. An application from employes in the 
eleatric supply department for munitions time-workers' bonus, 
recently extended to electrical workers by the Committee on 
Production, has l)een granted. , 

London. — L.C.C. — The Highways Committee has sub- 
mitted to the Council a report dealing with the congestion of 
tramway traflic at Victoria. It is stated that during the busiest 
hours of the day the number of cars departing from the Victoria 
terminus, which is a "' dead end," averages about SO an hour, and 
the number of passengers boarding and leaving the cai-s is greater 
than at any other terminus in London. The Highways Committee 
projwsed. as the best solution of the difficulties, the construction of 
a loop line (-('li Gillingham Street and Wilton Road, but neither the 
Commissioner of Police nor the Westminster City Council will give 
consent. To partly meet the difficulties in dealing with the traffic, 
an additional cross-over is to be installed, which will increase the 
number of cars loading simultaneously from i to 6. 

The cost of applying the bonus of 12i per cent, to persons 
employed on hourly or weekly wages in the electrical branch of 
the tramway department is estimated at £4,025 in the current 
financial year and £9.12.") in 1918-19. 

Southport. — Tramway Pcrchase. — As the result of 
negotiations that have teen in progress for the past year, the 
General Purposes Committee of the T.C. has decided to purchase 
the undertaking of the Southport and Birkdale Tramways Co. for 
the sum of £35.000. as and from January 1st. 1918. the company 
making a payment of £1.200 to the Corporation on revenue 
account, in addition to rent outstanding at the end of 1917. The 
company agrees that the payment of the purchase money may be 
deferred at the option of the Corporation until July. 1922. subject 
to piyment of interest at 5 per cent. The company's lease of its 
lines in Southport would expire in 1922. and those in Birkdale in 
1937. The arrangement for deferring the payment of the purchase 
money is matle to avoid the difficulty of raising a loan during the 
war. The necessary steps are to be taken at once for the transfer 
of the undertaking. 



TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 



Long-Range Wireless. — In connection with Commander 

Cresswell's statement regarding the reception at various Australian 
wireless stations of messages sent out by Xauen and other places in 
Germany, the Aui-lilaiid Wi-ilthj yens states that similar messages 
are received nightly at several of the New Zealand radio stations, 
especially Awanui. which is probably the best eciuipped in the 
Dominion. The distance from Naueu to Awanui is about 12.00ii 
miles. The secret of these remarkable results, which in less 
troublous times would excite world-wide interest, is said to lie in 
the De Forest ultra-audion receiver. 

United States. — The U.S. Nary high-power wireless 

station at Pearl Harbour. Hawaiian Islands, was opened recently, 
and messages were exchanged with Washington, a distance of 
about 5^00 miles.— r. and T. Age. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,096, jAN-nAHY 25, 1918.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



85 



Wireless Operators' Demand.— It is underetood that the 

Association of Wireless Telesraphists, which has a membership of 
ovei 2,000. has presented a demand to the Ministry of Shipping for 
an immediate increase of 100 per cent, on pre-war rates of wajyes. 
The demand has been submitted by the Ministry to the Deck 
Officers' Panel of the Conciliation I5oard, but the Association's 
executive complain that, although their organisation is representa- 
tive of all the highly skilled wireless operators in I the service, no 
representative of the Association has been invited to take part in 
the proceedings. The Marconi Wireless Co. have intimated that if 
a majority of the members express a desire, " recognition " will 
be extended to the Association. — Dailii Teleifraiih. 



Poplar. — B.C. Ferguson's Superheater, Ltd., £250. 
Superheater for Stirling boiler at generating station. Amount 
exclusive of pipe connections, valves, and alterations to existing 
pipes, estimated to cost an atlditional £50. 

Spain. — The muuici]jal authorities of Ptustaria (Province 

of Guadalajara) recently invited tenders for the concession for the 
electric lighting of the town during a period of ten years. Only a 
single offer was received, and was accepted. 

Wiliesden.— U.D.C. Watson, Marsh & Co., £4t; 10s. for 
installing electric light for Health Department. 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 



THE 12i PER CENT. AWARD. 



OPEN. 



Austral!^. — MELBorRXE. — April 5th. Department of 
the Navy. Motor-driven hydraulic pump. Director of Navy 
Contracts, Melbourne. 

February 2nd. Waterworks department. Electrically-driven 
radial arm crane. See ''Official Notices'" January 4th. 

Adelaide.— February 27th. P.M.G.'s Department. 

Telephone material. Schedules 47'.l and 483. See " Official Notices" 
January 18th. 

Glasgow. — The electrical engineer is to ol)tain offers for 
two further sets of generating plant for Dalmarno'ck Works. 

Manchester. — January 2!)th. For supply, Ac., at the 

Stuart. Street generating station, of three-phase motors for cooling 
tower fans for the Electricity Committee. Specifications, 4:c., 
from F. E. Hughes, Secretary, Electricity Department. 

Warrington. — January 20th. Turbo-alternator founda- 
tions for Electricity and Tramways Committee. Borough Elec- 
trical Engineer. 



CLOSED. \ 

Australia.— The Melbourne Tramways Board has accepted 
the tender of the Australian General Electric Co., Ltd., at £39,720, 
for the supply of electric lighting plant and apparatus in the whole 
of the cars employed on the service. — Tenilcrx. 

Eastbourne.— The T.C. has accepted the tender of Maden 
and McKee, Ltd., of Liverpool, for the purchase of 150 KW. of plant 
at the electricity works, at £160. 
R.D.C. Electric cable ; G. H. Watkins, £72. 

Glasgow. — The City electrical engineer has reported upon 

his negotiations with the British Westinghouse Co., for the purchase 
of a second set of turbo-alternators, to the same specification as the 
set at present being manufactured by them for this department. 
The Committee has agreed to purchase from the company a second 
15,000-KW. set for Dalmarnock. at £110,000. 
The Tramways Committee has accepted the following tenders : — 

TvoUey wire.— Fred. Smitli & Co., Ltd. 

Armature coils.— P. R. Jaclison A- Co., Ltd. 

' Government Contracts. — List of new contracts jilaced 

December, 1917 : — 

War Office. 
Chatterton's compound. — General Electric Co., Ltd. 

Generating sets.— Coventry Simplex Engines, Ltd. ; W. H. Dorraan & Co 
Ltd. ; R. K. Lister & Co., Ltd. 

H.M. Office of Works. 

Engineering works, Bramley O.W. Stores; extension of generating plant: 
engine, generators and switchboard, R. Hornshy & Sons. Ltd. : British 
Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd. ; suction plants, H. Simon, Ltd. 

New Science Museum, Food Controller: Lift, Waygood-Otis, Ltd.; St. 
James' Bark Ministl7 of Shipping, electric wiring : Duncan, Watson 
and Co. 

Post Office. 

Protective apparatus. — Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd. 

Telephone apparatus.— British L. M. Ericsson Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; 
Walter's Electrical Manufacturing Co., Ltd. ; Western Electric Co., Ltd. 

Buzzer indicators. — Creed & Co., Ltd. 

Submarine cable. — Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co., Ltd. 

Telegraph cable.— W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co., Ltd. ; Johnson 
. and Phillips, Ltd. ; Siemens Bros, i Co., Ltd. : Telegraph Construction 
and Maintenance Co., Ltd. 

Telephone cords.— London Electric Wire Co. and Smith's, Ltd. ; Peel- 
Conner Telephone Works, Ltd. 

Stoneware ducts. — Doulton & Co., Ltd. 

Insulators. — J. Macintyre & Co. 

Telephone mouthpieces.— Crystalate Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 

Cable distribution plugs.- British Insulated and Helsby Cables, Ltd. 

Saddles for poles. — A Kenrick & Sons, Ltd. 

Pole steps.— Guest, Keen ,t Nettlefolds, Ltd. 

^araftin wax.— Young's Paraffin Light and Mineral Oil Co., Ltd. 

Bronze wire.— T. Bolton & Sons, Ltd. 

Flame-proof wire.— C. Macintosh & Co., Ltd. 

London. — L.C.C. — The Wotan traction type lamps have 
been adopted for use on the L.C.C. tramcars, and a contract has 
been placed with Messrs. Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works, Ltd., to 
cover the total requirements for the ensuing twelve months. The 
number of lamps required wUl be approximately 150,OiJO. 



The members of the Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association 
have received from the hon. secretary, Mr. 11. Faraday Proctor, a 
circular relating to the 12i per cent, and other bonus awards, and 
to progress payments on contracts. , 

With reference to the Award made by the Chief Industrial Com- 
missioner on January 7th, Mr. Proctor has received a communi- 
cation from Sir George Askwith, showing that the 12i per cent, 
bonus has to be paid to all plain time workers employed in the 
Association's undertakings, whether certified undertakings under 
the Munitions of War Act or otherwise. Considerable latitude is 
given as to the application of the Award to those other than plain 
time workers, and the Council is of opinion that, subject to local 
cii-cumstances, the 12j per cent., or some variation of this percent- 
age, will have to be paid generally to other than the time workers, 
of course always excepting those skilled men who have already 
received the benefit under the 12i per cent. Award of December 
last. 

With regard to other bonus awards, the Awards of the Coh)- 
mittee on Production are only binding upon the parties to an 
agreement which was come to between the Engineering Employers' 
Federation and .certain Trade Unions, and other undertakings 
to which a special extending order is applied by the Ministry of 
Munitions. 

Notwithstanding the fact that such Awards are not compulsory, 
it has been found expedient in a large number of undertakings to 
pay bonuses somewhat corresponding with the said Awards, and 
Mr. Proctor states that it is probably desirable that members 
should follow the practice in Ihe district in which their under- 
takings are situated as regards the payment of any bonuses in 
addition to the \2\ per cent., which is compulsory. 

The Council has agreed with the representatives of other associa- 
tions that no payment in excess of 20s. per week, plus the 12-i per 
cent, bonus, should be made until the matter has been considered 
by a conference of the different associations, and urges members tc 
comply with this agreement, with a view to avoiding the setting-up 
of any precedent in any part of the country which may affect the 
whole. , 4, 

Referring to the applicability of the above awards and bonuses, 
Mr. Proctor draws attention to his circular letter of November 1st, 
1917, relating to the payment of engineering assistants, and the 
recommendation " that, as a first step, the bonus awarded by the 
Committee on Production should be paid (where this has not already 
been paid) to all members of the staff." i:c. 

A Committee of the I.M.E.A. has in a forward state the consider- 
ation of the question of standardisation of payments to charge 
engineers, and hopes that information may be circulated at an early 
date. In the meantime, attention is drawn to the fact that some of 
the large engineering firms are paying the \1\ per cent, bonus to 
members of their staff receiving not more than £250 per annum, 
and bonuses from 12^ per cent, down to 10 per cent, on salaries up 
to £.i00 per annum. 

As stated in Sir George Askwith's memorandum, this is a matter 
for the employers themselves to arrange, payments often being 
necessary if for no other reason than to maintain the status of 
officials in relation to those who are working under them. 

A letter has been received from the Chief Industrial Commis- 
sioner to the effect that the " decision " does not apply to boys and 
youths (i.e.. employes under IS years of age). 

With regard to progress payments on contracts, this matter 
is- receiving the attention of the Model General Conditions 
of Contracts Committee. Aa, however, no arr.tngements have 
been made, and no definite proposals have, as yet. been put forward, 
the Council of the I.M.E.A. suggests that no payments be made 
in respect of progress of works remaining on contractors' premises, 
unless a suitable quul pro quo be arranged. 



Protected Rubber Gloves. — The Revue General f 

d'Elevtricitr describes a rubber glove manufactured by the 
Duquesne Liglit Co., of Pittsbtirg. This glove is composed of a 
sheet of rubber 1 mm. thick, covered ami protected by a second 
glove of horse-hide. The gloves are tested by means of a device 
comprising a cnpper hand filled with water, which is placed in the 
glove, and an iron tank filled with water, in which the gloved hand 
is placed. A difference of potential of 10,0iiO volts is applied 
between the water Jn the hand and the water in the tank. Only the 
gloves which this test shows to be properly insulated are passed. 



86 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,096, January 25, 1918. 



WAR ITEMS. 



Exports to China. — In llie " I^ndon (r.-i/fttf- " for Janu- 
ilry ISth thero is a furtiuT list of i>er,s(>ns iind bodies in China 
to whom exports iiuiy be consigned. 

Coal Shortage in Prague. — Prague and the whole of 
Bohemia aa'e suffering' from a serious coal shortage. The 
weather is severe, and tliere is a danger that Prague may 
be left without gas and electricity. — Times. 

Danish Industries at a Standstill. — For a month, says a 
Copenhagen newspaper, Denmark has had no supplies from 
the Western countries, . .ind her industries are coming to a 
standstill. More than one-fourth of the skilled workmen of 
the. country are out of work, and from week to week thou- 
sands of workmen are added to the number of unemployed.— 
Times. 

The Tramways of Leipzig. — Thv " Times " states that in 
Leipzig the number of tramway cais tit for service has 
fallen from 70(1 before the war to 105. The recent snowstonus 
put .58 out of senice, and neither labour nor materials are 
available to repair them. 

Coal Shortage in Germany. — A Reuter dispatch from 
Amsterdam, dated January 19th, .says: — "Berlin is sufferin,!; 
fi-om an enormous dislocation of traffic owing to the recent 
severe frost, which followed a hea.vy downfall of snow. A con- 
siderable iluTuber of the tramway services came to a standstill 
on Friday, and the entire motor omnibus traffic is also inter- 
rupted. The city underground railways are unable to cope 
with the passenget. traffic. Railway communication to and 
from Berlin is likewise considerably interrupted, and a 
majority of the large pronncial cities are cut off from rail 
communication with the interior." 

Restricted Exports from America. — The Ministry;^ of 
Jilunitions are drawing the attention of their contractors' and 
agents to the consequences of the system of restrictions 'on 
export and priority of orders, which the United States Gov- 
ernment is bringing into operation for the purposes of the 
war. The result of .such a system is that pri^'ate firms desir- 
ing to secure export to this country from the United States 
of munitions or materials to be used directly or indirectly 
in the manufacture of munitions will find it inci-easingly 
difficult, if not impossible, to do so except either through, -or 
with the direct assistance of, the Ministry of Munitions or 
other Government Department concerned. — Dailii Telegrapli. 

Life in Petrograd. — The Petrograd correspondent of the 
Times, writing under date January 16th, says : — " The tram- 
ways have ceased running since Saturday for want of fuel, 
and this is a great inconvenience to the population, the tram- 
ways being the only means of communication. . . . Tlie 
electric lighting is uncertain ; on some days a full .service is 
given, and on others whole districts are left in the dark. The 
supply of paraffin, which is u.sed for cooking and lighting. 
has temporarily cea.sed owing to the chief depots being 
snowed up." 

' Trading with the Enemy. — ^The " I^ondon Gazette " for 
January 18th contains further additions to the list of persons 
and bodies in the foll(jwing countries with whom trading is 
prohibited : — Argentina. Paraguay and Uruguay, Brazil, Cen- 
tral America. Chile, Iceland and Faroe Islands, Liberia, 
Morocco, Netherlands,,- 2s'etherland East Indies, Norway, 
Spain, and Venezuela. 

Coal Famine in Germany. — The " Times " correspon- 
dent at Amsterdam .says that the Elieiiiisch-Westfiilische 
Zeituiiy gives prominence to the difficulties in obtaining coal, 
declaring that everyone is suffering from a great coal famine. 
Half a column is devoted to explaining why, while Germany 
has coal, a shortage is inevitable owing to difficulties of rail- 
way carriage and paralysis of water transport due to snow 
and ice. The journal says that the crisis has now reached 
its climax. The jounial, speaking of the situation in South 
Gennany, declares that difficulties aie increasing daily, and 
the " distress there owmg to lack of fuel is indescribable." 

Exemption Applications — .\t Radcliffe (Lanes.) Local 
Tribunal, an electrical engineer, aged 30, married, claimed 
exemption on the ground that it was essential in the nation'al 
interest that his business should be maintained, pai-ticularly 
as the bulk of the work now being done was for works con- 
trolled by the Government, the remainder being for the ex- 
port trade. Conditional exemption was agi'eed to. 

Radclifi'e Tribunal has granted conditional exemption to an 
eleotric fitter (33, Cla.ss \), the only man left capable of 
doing electrical work, and engaged on extensions, repairs, 
and maintenance of electrical inst-allations at w'orks, &c. 

.\t Lewes, the Electric Supply Co. applied for renewed 
exemption for A. J. Cox (32, gamson duty abroad), engine 
fitter and cable jointer. Captain Selby Ash suggested that 
the case should be adjourned for- the National Service autho- 
rities to tiy and find a substitute. , The manager of the works 
(Mr. H. J. WiUiams) .said that he did not think it would be 
possible to find a substitute, as the man was doing the work 
of three separate men at an ordinary station. Mr. Farn- 
combe obsei-ved that an efficient substitute would have to 
be secured before the man was released, and the adjourn- 
ment was agreed to. 



At Ryde, the Isle of Wight Electric Light Co. appealed for 
P. G. Churchill ('ii), claimed to be in a certified occupation, 
and by agreement conditional exemption was conceded. 

The West Sussex Appeal Court has dismissed an appeal by 
the National Service Representative again.st coemption until 
February 'ilst granted to a Brighton electrician (40. B'i), but 
the CoiU't expressed the opinion that respondent should join 
the Volunteers. 

Before the West Kent Api>eal Court, exemption was sought 
by A. S. May (38, C2), of Orpington, whose case had been 
jHit back for him to obtain work of national importance. He 
was stated to have become electrical engineer at the Ontario 
Military Hospital at Oi-pington, and three months were con- 
ceded. 

At Folkestone, there was a review of the ca.ses of Messrs. 
Cripps and Pain, switchboard attendants at the works of the 
Electricity Co. It was complained that they had not carried 
out the required number of drills with the Volunteers, Cripps 
not having put in any. and Pain only 11 out of a minimum 
of '22. Cripps said that the arrangement of hours, eight 
hours seven days a week, did not permit him to give the 
necessai-y time. Aid. F. Hall, for the company, said that the 
men w'ere on work of national impoi-tance, and in a certified 
occupation. The staff at the works was very much depleted ; 
40 had left out of 90. and they must have efficient substi- 
tutes. The Tribunal respited the cases . until February 10th 
to give the men an opportunity of fulfilling the Volunteer 
condition, the alternative being the withdrawal of exemption. 

At Hastings, the Tramway Co. app'ealed for several of their 
staff. Mr. Webb, an electrical engineer (.\ 1), the only one 
in the power house with an electrical training, and left with 
a depleted staff, was granted conditional exemption. The 
thief clerk ('29, Al) was allowed four months, with the sug- 
gestion that someone should be trained to take his place ; the 
depot superintendent at Silverhill (39, C 1) was given three 
months; an ovei'head linesman (37, B 1) and his assistant (31. 
CI), who does the cable jointing work, had conditional ex- 
emption renewed; a driver in the power house was granted 
conditional exemption ; a car-body man was aUowed a final 
two months; a brake examiner {03, B 1) received three 
months final; nine trarncar diivers were given from one to 
tlii-ee months ti&al ; and three men, each in Class C, engaged 
at the depots, were each allowed three months by consent 
of the Military. 



IMPORT TRADE OF AUSTRALIA. 



A REPORT on the position of the import trade of .\ustralia in 
July, 1917, by Mr. G. T. Mil.ne, H.M. Ti-ade Commissioner in 
the Commonwealth of Australia, has just been issued by the 
Board of Trade.* It has been prepared in place of the usual 
annual report by the Commissioner. Extracts are given below 
of .such portions as will interest the electrical and allied trades. 

Competition from the United States and Japan. — The strong 
jxisition achieved by the United States in the Australian 
market has, of course, been rapidly enhanced by the war 
situation, but it would be altogether a mistake to disregard 
the fact that previous to the war that position was, year by 
year, becoming more assured. The branch of trade in which 
the effect Of United States comjietition is most severely felt 
is in that of machinery, one of the most imix)rtant groups 
comprised in America's total being electrical machinery. 

Soon after the outbreak of wal' numbers of Japanese mer- 
chants sent travellers to study the .Australian market, and 
the Japane.se Government supplemented these efforts to in- 
ci'ease trade by dispatching Commissioners. Both the official 
and non-officiaj envoys displayed the greatest activity in .secur- 
ing samples of the goods most in demand, and, although the 
object in view was officially stated to be the supplying of 
such articles as were formerly impoi-ted from Germany, no 
opportunity was lost of securing orders for goods of any kind 
that could be successfully manufactured in Japan. 

Japan's purchases from Australia have nevertheless been 
in excess of her sales, and neither her Government nor her 
manufacturers and merchants will be likely to relax efforts 
to balance the account by shipments of manufactured goods. 

In common with the metal trades generally, there has 
naturally been a con.sidei'able decline in the value of imports 
of machinery. On the electrical side, British finns have 
managed to do a considei"able amount of business, notwith- 
standing the many difficulties by which they ai-e confronted. 
The elimination of the .\llgemeine Elektricitats (Jesellschaft 
(" .A. E.G."), whose competition was of the most formidable 
kind, has left the American manufacturer as our most serious 
competitor. Up to the present no electrical machinery of 
Japanese manufacture has been imported, with the excep- 
tion of a few small motors. For some years a certain amount 
of electrical material has been imported from Sweden, notably 
telephonic apparatus, and, to a less extent, dynamos. A large 
Swedish concern has been giving greater attention to the 
."Australian market of late, and has made arrangements for 
endeavouiing to secure an increased share of the trade. 

With regard to electrical appliances other than machinery,' 
the imports of most of these lines show a falling off. but. 
while the elimination of German competition has tended to 

*Cd. 8,841. Price 3d. 



Vol. 82. No. 2.09i;, January 25, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



87 



strengthen the hold on the market of American and other 
competitors, the British position cannot be regarded as having 
been uns-atisfactory during the war period when all circum 
stances are taken mto account. The trade in electroliers ami 
brackets is comparatively unimportant, as many of these arc 
made, or at least assembled, locally. In met;il fittnigs, s\ich 
as switches and lampholdere, Japan has entered the market, 
but these products are not regarded with much favour, 
although low in price. In heatmg and cooking appliances, 
America- holds the leading/ po.sition, but the imports are small 
in amount, as some of these outfits are put up loc-ally. The 
trade in wire-lilament lamps is very large, and growing- in 
common with other electrical lines, but no figures are avail- 
able to indicate the value of the iraiX)rt trade. It is mostly 
shared l>y the United Kingdom, Tnited States, and Holland. 
Although the.se lamps are manufactui-ed in Japan, they do 
not appear to be exported to this market at present to any 
extent. The Customs duty on these lamps amounts to "20 
per cent, ud calorem if manufactured in the United Kingdom, 
and to 2.5 i>er cent, if from other sources. The intention of 
the Legislature in conceding preference to goods of British 
manufacture has, however, in efl'ect been negatived, because 
the wholesale selling price in Holland of the Dutch lamps, for 
example, on account of lower wages paid, is considerably 
l<-)\ver than the wholesiile selling price in the United Kingdom 
of the British lamp. It has been estimated, therefore, that 
while the duty on the Dutch lamp works out at from '23d. to 
2id. each, that on the British lamp comes to as much as 4id. 
per lamp. On account of this dLsability. firms offering the 
British lamp to public bodies when tendering are placed at 
a disadvantage. Japan has done con.siderable business in 
electrical gla.ssware (shades, &c.). In insulated cable and 
flexible cords, the Japanese makers do not, as yet, hold a 
strong position, but the quality of the goods submitted is 
stated to have improved, although it is .still inferior to those 
of British firms. 

With regard to insulators, the Biitish position has, for a 
long time, been unsatisfactory, as in certain types of insillators 
British prices have been .such as could not compete with 
Continental and Japanese makers. A considerable number 
of in.sulators are now being manufacturecl^in Australia, and, 
whei"e found to be satisfactory, tfhese have a preference in 
contracts i.ssued by the postal authorities. British manufac- 
turers of electrical material are kept well informed of develop- 
ments in the industry through tlicir branches and representa- 
tives, while the British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers' 
As.sociation, which has an Overseas Committee in Melbourne, 
is enabled to watch the trade as a, whole. 

De»iand for Engineering Supplies. — A few remarks should 
be devoted to probable developments in which engineering 
supplies will be in demand, and to the representation of engi- 
neering films. As in all new countries, there has been, and 
is likely to be, in Australia very large expenditure on works 
c^f a public, as well as of a private, kind demanding engineer- 
ing plant and supplies. 

Schemes for the extension of railways, the improvement of 
ports and harbours, water supply and sewerage, imgation 
power supply (such as those of a hydro-electrical kind in 
Tasmania, and the development of the immense brown coal 
deposits in Victoria), held over owing to the war, will be 
undertaken, and the source whence these will be finance'' 
will determine to a large extent where the orders for plant 
will be placed. Road-making on a large scale is being recog- 
nised as one of the most urgent needs of the country. 

The pronounced tendency of the State of Australia to 
control activities which in some countries are directed by the 
private capitalist is too well known to be dilated upon here, 
and there is every pre.sumption that this policy will be con- 
tinued and extended after the war. In the past, Biitisb 
engineering firms have been represented in .\u-stralia. to a 
fonsiderable extent by local firms witli engineering experi- 
ence, although in some cases by firms in which this has been 
lacking. British engineering fimis cannot be reminded too 
often that, if they wish to supply plant and machinery to 
Government Departments and public bodies in Australia, it 
is practically e.ssential that they should be locally represented 
either by a. technical man who devotes his whole time to the 
interests of his firm, or by one or other of the numerous 
reputable finns in the counti-y who are familiar with engi- 
neering work, and are in touch with the Government Depart- 
ments. In the latter ca.se. it is a g(X)d plan for the home 
firm to have one of its technical men on the staff of the 
of the ."Vustralian firm 

One important matter which should be kept 'in view is 
whether a given local firm, which expresses its readiness to 
undettake the representation of British engineering intere.sts 
in the whole of .Australia, is in reality qualified to do s<i. 
Instances could be cited, not only in respect of engineering 
representation, but in regard to agencies of every kinjd, where 
the agent can do justice to the interests of bis principal in 
one or two States only, but in which he has made himself 
responsible for the whole of Australia. Provision against this 
kind of thing can only be secured by making the fullest 
possible investigation; indeed, it may be said that no really 
large and important agency appciintment can, as a rule, be 
satisfactorily made without a visit to .Australia by a partner 
or superior officer of the home firm or companx-, except in 
cases where the Australian finn has a London house, or 
where one of its partners periodically visits the United King- 
dom. If there is oae criticism which more than another ia 



directed against British manufacturers in practically every 
branch of trade, it is the failure on their part to appreciate 
the value of the Australian market, and their consequent 
unwillingne.ss to exi>end the. time and money necessary to 
visit the market. I'bin indifference or neglect lias undoubt- 
< illy contributed to our loss of trade in some directions, and 
is in reality an expression of that tendency to rely on the 
buying houses already refeiTed to. 

Co-opcratiue Selling Organisations. — In the. re-organisation 
(it the engineering and metal industries forced upon the 
United Kingdom by the war, it ha.s become apparent that, 
if United Kingdom manufacturi'rs are to meet successfully 
the -sti-ong comi>etition in tlie markets of the world which is 
anticipated after the conclusion of hostilities, there must be 
a far greater degree of co-ojieration among the firms in a 
given branch of industry than there has been in the past, 
and there is already evidence that this is taking place. So 
much iias beeji written about standardised and large-scale 
production, and the elimination of overlapping in production, 
that it is unneces.sai-y to deal with this question here; it is. 
rather the question of co-operative effort in connection with 
distribution in overseas markets that demands attention. 

The recent formation by certain firms of machine-tool 
makers in the United Kingdom of a trade association which 
has in \ie\v the prevention of overlapping in production and 
co-operative .selling arrangements in overseas markets will, 
it is hoped, be followed by other branches of industry. If 
each of the more important indus-tries in the United Kingdom 
\yere organised in such a way that the association representa- 
tive of that industry would act as a guardian of the interests 
of its members, and XAould. through its expert officers, syste- 
matically study the markets of the world for thefr benefit, 
the result would lie of the greatest possible advantage to 
British trade. Let the officers of the.se associations pay a 
visit for a few months to the piincipal oversea markets, and 
\\ork in co-operation with the resident British ofiicial repre- 
sentative of trade, and they will obtain infonuation of .such 
a kind, and be able to pre.sent it to tho.se interested in such 
a form, as cannot at present either be obtained or presented 
by the official representative of trade who endeavours to keep 
himself informed on the whole range of the import trade. 
In saying this, it is not suagested that the individual manu- 
facturers can afford to relax their efforts, but it must be 
obvious that a systematic investigation of the kind suggested, 
undertaken in the interests of an ihdu.stry as a whole, will 
be productive of better results to British trade than the 
i.solated and, in some cases, imjierfectly conceived efforts of 
the individual firm. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



Physical Society of London.- Fridav- .lannaiv a5th. .\t ." p.m. At the 
Imperial College of acience, South Kensington, S.W. Pi-esiilentiiil aiUress 
by Ml-. C. v. Boys, F.R.S. 

North - Fast Coast Institution of Engini-ers and Shipbuilders.— 

SatuiJav, .lanuaiT aeth. At Newcsstle-on-TTne. At 6 p.m. Address 
hy the Right Hon. C. .Wdison, M.P., Minister of Reconstruction. 

Royal Institution of Gr<>at Brilaio.— Saturday, January 26th. At S r.m. 
At Albemarle Street, Piccadilly. W. "The Chemical Action of Light" 
iLecture II), by Prof. W. J. Pope. F.R.S. 

Friday, February 1st. At 5 30 p.m. At Albemarle Street, W. '. 
Lecture on "Gravitation and the Principle of Relativity," by J'rof. A. 8. 
Edington, F.R.S. 

Royal Society of Arts. Monday, January 28th. At 4.80 p.m. .■Vt Jolm 
Street, Adelphi, \V.C.2. Cantor Lecture on "High Temperature Processes 
and Products," by Mr. C. R. Darling (Lecture II). 

lastltDtion of Electrical Engineers. — iManrbester Local S<rt<«n.l— 

Tuesday, January ;llth. At 7 p.m. .M the Engineers' Club. Paper on 
" Telephone Exchange Transfei-s and their Organisation," l)v Mr. F. G. C. 



NOTES. 



r The A.S.E,— It is stated that tlie membership of the 

Amalgamated Society of Ensrineers at the betriiining: of this year 
was approximately 272,000. .\t the end of 1!)11 it was 121,000. 

Volunteer Notes. — London Army Troops Tompaxies. 
Volunteer Engineers.— Headquarters. Balderton Street, Oxford 
Street, W.l. 



Orders for the week ending February 2nd. 1918, by Lieutj*Colonel C. B. Clay, J 
V'.D.. Commanding. 

Officer for Iht IfjfSr.— Second Lieut. F. Gavwood. 

Monday, January 28th.— No. 3 Company, 6.30— «.30. Recruits' Drill, 6.30-8.30. ; 
Signalling Section, 6..'«— 8.30. 

Tuesday, Jauuaiy 29th. — Musketry insti-uction for N.C.O.'s at 5.30. Lecture \ 
on "Demolitions." at 6.30. Physical Drill .ind Bayonet Fighting, 7.30. 

Wednesday, January SOth.— No. 1 Company," Knotting, Jtc, 6.30— 8.30. J 

Musketry instruction for N.C.O.'s, at 6.30. Recruits' Drill, 6.30. | 

Thursday. January 31st.— No. 2 Company, Knotting, &c., 6—8. Recruits' i 

Drill, e.ai s.:io. Signalling Section, 6.30—8.30. Ambulance Section, 6.30—8.30. ' 

Friday, February 1st.— Musketry, 5.30—8.. j 

Saturday. February 2nd.— Entrenchments, &c., for thq whole corps, 2.45 — 4.45, J 
Musketry instruction for N.C.O.'s. 4 45. 

AU drills will take place at Heudquartei-s, unles.s otherwise stated. | 

(By order) Maouod Ybabslzt, Capt. and Adjutant, ' 



88 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.s^, x,,. -amr,, jan-uary 25, i9i8. 



The Alleged Discovery of a Substitute for Copper.— 

Germivu industrial circles are verymucli interested in Die discovai-y 
of a new alloy which, it is said, will replace copper for technical 
purposes. The new metal is said to have a •rreater density than 
copper and lower elongation, while beinjj an excellent conductor 
of electricity. A certain number of tests have already been made 
on the alloy, and a representative of the A.E.G. is in negotiation 
with the inventor with a view to acquiring the patent rights. 
The A.E.G. will probably grant a licence to a large foundry at 
Lausanne to manufacture the substitute. 

Lack of detailed information forbids us to comment with any 
approach to conviction on the matter, but we may point out that 
hitherto experience has indicated that any alloy of two metals may 
be expected to possess a higher resistivity than one of its con- 
stituents. Hence, while it would be reckless to deny the possi- 
bility of producing an alloy with high conductivity, we are very 
sceptical as to the reliability of the inventor's claim in this 
respect. 

Women and Electricity.— AVben a wonwn is sulky uikI 

will not speak Exciter. 

If she gets too excited Controller-. 

If she talks too long Interrupter. 

If her way of thinking is not yours ... Converter. 

If she is willing to come half way ' .... Meter. 

If she will come. all the way Receiver. 

If she wants to go further Conductor. 

If she would go still further Dispatcher. 

If she wants to be an angel Transformer. 

If you think she is unfaithful Detector. 

If she is unfaithful Lever. 

If she proves your fears are wrong ... Compensator. 

If she wants chocolates Feeder. 

If she sings wrong ... ... ... ... Tuner. 

If she is a poor cook Discharger. 

If she is wrong Rectifier. 

If she is cold to you ... Heater. 

If she gossips too much ... Regulator. 

If she becomes upset ... Reverser. 

— El eci riciil E.i-pi'riiiii'ntei-. 

The Electrolytic Refinement of Copper.— In bhe course 

of his Cantor Lectures on " Progress in tlie Metallurgy of Copper," 
reixirted in the Juurnal of 'the Siiijal Socirty of Art,i, Prof. H. C. H. 
Carpenter gave the following account of the refineries at Raritan, 
near New York : — The metal arrives from Anaconda averaging 
from !>ir3 to 9!l'8 per cent, of copper. It contains also about SO oz. 
of sUver and O'o of an ounce of gold yier ton- The method of 
nrranging the electrodes in the depositing tanks is that known as 
the parallel or multiple system, in which all the anodes in one 
tank are connected to one pole of the circuit, and the cathodes 
situated between them to the other. Each tank has thirty anodes 
and thirty cathodes, and there are three thousand tanks in all. In 
this way each tank constitutes one large anode and one large 
cathode, and the voltage as measured between any two neighbour- 
ing electrodes is the same. The systenr thus allows of the use of 
currents at low voltage, and the danger of short-circuiting is 
lessened. The tanks themselves are arranged in series. Thev are 
distributed on- a series of descending levels, and the liquorTlowa 
from one set to the next by gravity through lead pipes, and is kept 
in circulation by pumps. The cathodes consist of thin plates of 
pure copper corresponding in sizft to the anodes, which are 2 ft. (i in. 
X 3 ft. X 2 in. thick. The current density is about 12 amperes 
per square foot, the voltage is 02, and the temperature of the 
electrolyte 55° C. One anode stays in as long as three cathodes. 
The latter are allowed, to grow until their thickness is -[gg in. 
They are then removed, otherwise nodulising occurs, and this sets 
up short circuits. The anodes last about one month, and are then 
taken back to the anode-casting furnace. From the sludge ia the 
tanks are obtained gold, silver, platinum, palladium, selenium, and 
tellurium. 

The electro-deposited copper, whose purity is from 99'95 to 
9fl'98, still requires one more treatment. The metal, in spite of its 
high degree of purity, is not tough, nor is it in a shape suitable for 
industrial use. It is, therefore, given a final furnace-refining of 
the same character as that which preceded the electrolytic refining, 
and is cast into ingots. When intended for conductivity work the 
metal is cast into wire-bars of varied shape and size according to 
requirements. Some of these are 500 lb. in weight, and measure 
7 ft. X li in. square. Before casting, samples of copper are taken 
and drawn down into wire and tested for electrical and mechanical 
properties. The effect of this final operation is to reduce the purity 
of the copper, owing to the introduction of oxygen, to about 997 to 
99'8 per cent. 

In connection with certain important changes which were made 
in the Anaconda works in 1914-1915, the Cottrell process for 
agglomerating and collecting fine particles contained in gases 
moving at high velocity has been adopted for the recovery of 
mineral values fi'om the flue dust passing out of the new roasters. 

Above the roaster are installed four Cottrell units in a structure 
located oter the main 25 ft. x 25 ft. flue. The units employed are 
of the so-called "box" type. Each contains 21 plates 20 ft. high 
and 24 ft. long, llj in. apart. Each plate is n^ade up of sheets of 
20-in. corrugated iron, the axes of the corrugations being horizontal. 
Corrugated sheets are used in preference to flats on account of their 
stiffness. Between the plates are hun,g steel chains i in. thick over 
all. The gas flows upwards from the bottom, and returns to the flue 
by way of a common down-take, the distribution of the flow being 
controlled by butterfly dampers on the top of the unit. The voltage 



between the electrodes is about 50.000, and the total power con- 
sumed between 90 and 100 h.p. Somewhere about 800,000 cubic 
feet of gas per minute, at a temperature of 200° C, pass through 
the tour units, though they were designed for only half this 
quantity. The dust recovered is aljout 70 tons per 24 hours from , 
the treatment of 1,500 tons of concentrate. A new plant is soon to 
be installed, which will follow the present units somewhat closely 
in design. 

At the mine of the Chile Ex\iloration Co(, situated at 
Chuquicamata, electrolytic copper of a high degree of purity is 
obtained from the ore in only three stitges. The plant is designed 
for a capacity of 10,000 tons of average grade ore per day. The 
latter is crushed to about 1 in. mesh, and leached with sulphuric 
acid. The greater part of the chloride is eliminated by treatment 
in tube mills with metallic copper. The remaining copper is 
precipitated from solution by electrolysis, and the cathodes are 
melted into commercial bars. The cuprous chloride formed in the 
dechloridising drums is worked up into copper, either by smelting 
or by dissolving the chloride in salt and electrolysing, or by 
precipitating as cement cop})er with scrap-iron. tn the original 
plant magnetite anodes were used in the electrolytic process. They 
proved very brittle, and numerous breakages occurred. A substitute 
which has proved satisfactory on the whole is duriron, a high 
silicon-iron alloy. It is not entirely unacted on, but from 1 5 to 20 
times its weight of copper can be dejiosited before it is corroded 
away. Duriron anodes have an advantage over magnetite in their 
mechanical strength, but they have a much liigher over-voUage, 
which is a decided disadvantage, and about 15 per cent, more elec- 
trical energy is required for the deposition of the same quantity of 
copper. The conductivity of the copper produced is from 100'5 to 
101 per cent. Matthiessen's standard. 

From start to finish the process is one of hydrometallurgy. and 
pyrometallurgical processes — ajiart from one alternative method of 
working up the cuprous chloride — are entirely absent. 

Electric Lorries and Petrol Economy. —We learn 

from Xew York that President Wilson is taking personal steps to 
bring about petrol economy without undue disturbance of trans- 
port interest, and has agreed that every encouragement shall be 
given to the continued output of electric lorries both for home 
trade and export tof he Unitpd Kingdom. The U.S.A. Aeronautical 
Department has purchased the rotary engine division of the Long 
Island City factory of the General Vehicle Co. for ,^500.001). but 
the terms of the Government contract expressly protect the 
electric vehicle departments, and every facility will be provided 
for their increased production if required. It is understood 
that the present depletion of transport in the United Kingdom 
largely accounted for the decision not to interfere with the General 
Vehicle C'j.'s export trafle. 

Breaking up Engine Foundations. — Quickjime, wliun 

wet. develops an enormous expansive force that acts slowly and 
almost irrisidtibly.and has long invited use for mechanical purposes. 
Successful efforts to utilise this force have been noted in a recent 
issue of Itoelt Products, which describes its efficient use in breaking 
up heavy brick masonary. Several 12 ft. by 20 ft. piers. 12 ft. high, 
were situated between similar foundation piers for engines in 
operation, and it was necessary to remove them without injuring 
the machinery. Blasting was therefore inadmissible, and hand- 
cutting and breaking too slow and expensive. The work was 
accomplished bydrilling 3 in. vertical holes 3 ft. deep and 3 ft. apart 
in both directions over the entire area of the piers, and filling them 
within (J in. of the top with freshed slaked lime, in pieces \ in. to 
li in. wide. As soon as the lime was thoroughly wet the tops of 
the holes were filled with brick drilling well tamped, and in about 
ten minutes crack* started in every direction, and the entire top of 
the foundation pier was broken into 3-ft. cubes. — foiinial of the 
Itotjiil Sorirtii of Arts. 

Medals for Motormen.— The Medal of the British 

Empire for courage has been awarded to Motorman .1. F. Sams 
and Condnctress E. Anger, of the Southend on-Sea Corporation 
tramways, who remained at their posts durmg the German air raid 
on the town on August 12th. 

Electricity in Agriculture. — i^ome interesting e.vperiments 

in connection with the application of electricity to crop culture are 
being conducted at Liverpool under the direction of Mr. ,1. A. 
Brodie, the city engineer, and Mr. Harold Dickinson, the city elec- 
trical engineer. The experiments are being carried out at Calder- 
stones Park, where a small installation has been set up in order to 
test an area of about an acre. Two patches of land have been 
placed under observation, one being under electrical treatment and the 
other left to Nature. Each plot has been planted with similar 
seed, including oats and barley, and the results are being carefully 
noted. So far the periodical measurements show that the crops 
under electrical treatment are progressing more rapidly than the 
untreatei^ l)ut the trials are not yet sufficiently advanced to afford 
definite results. 

The Siemens Shares.— In reply to a questiou. Sir Albert 
Stanley, President of the Board of Tr.ade, states that the shares in 
Siemens Brothers A: Co., Ltd., vested in tlie Public Trustee, have 
been sold to British-born subjects. No company has been formed 
for the purpose of purchasing the shares. One of the conditions 
of the sale is that tlie articles of association should be altered in 
such a manner as to ensure that the control of the company will 
in future be vested in British subjects, and the Public Trustee 
received assurances as to the continuance, of the business. 



Vol. 82. No. 2.09(;, January 25. 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



89 



Institution and Lecture Notes.— Diesel Engine Users' 

Association. — At the December meeting of the Association. Mr. 
Napier Prentice, engineer and secretary to the Suffolk Electricity 
Supply Co., Ltd., was elected as President in succession to Mr. 
Borter. and Messrs J. E. Edtfecombe. King-ston-ujKjn-Thames. and 
A. W. Money, Chiswick. were elected as the new members of the 
General Committee. Mr. Percy Still was re-elected as honorary 
secretary., and made a statement as to the position of the Association 
and the work dealt with during- the year 1!)17. The total member- 
ship of the Association now numbers Ss, repres('ntingr a total Diesel 
entrinc horse-power of 52,4.51. The new class of "subscribers." 
which was formed towards the end of the year liUfi, now numbered 
.5!!. heinfr an increaseof 40 dnrinir the year. The abnormal increase 
in the price of all classes of fuel oil and the difficulties of obtain'njr 
reyular and suitable supplies, dueto the conditions brought about 
by the war, had received the attention of the Committee. The 
control of tar oil supplies by the Ministry of Munitions, and the 
system of usinjr licences to sellers and purchasers, led to communi- 
cations and interviews with the Controller of Mineral Oil Supplies, 
which had no doubt been productive of amelioration in their 
position. Haviny devoted a considerable amount of attention to 
encouraprincr the production in this country of suitable tar oils for 
use as Diesel eug-ine fuel, under the impression that the economical 
use of such fuel would 'be in the national interest as well as being 
beneficial to the industry, the Association felt that their claim to 
be allowed the comparatively small proportion of tar oil fuel 
necessary for the continuity of the workinf,' of their members' 
undertakings was entitled to some consideration on the part of the 
authorities. Their action in this matter had certainly led to a 
better understanding of the situation by the departments concerned. 
The action of the Association in taking up the subject of the 
granting of better terms in regard to the allowance for depreciation 
of Diesel engines for income-tax assessment had led to a very 
important concession being made by the Inland Revenue authorities. 
The rate allowed for this depreciation had now been increased from 
5 per cent, to 10 per cent., and this increased allowance would 
remain in force for three years after the cessation of the war. The 
standard policy of insurance against breakdown, which had been 
adopted by the .Association some time back had been fully considered, 
and a new clause had been agreed to proWrling for reference to a 
Standing Committee or the Association of any disagreement which 
might arise in the interpretation of the terms of the policy. 

Liverpool Engineeriag Society. — On Wednesday, January 23rd, 
Jlr. Harold Walker read a paper on " Steam Boilers : their Design 
and Construction." 

The Institute of Metals. — The auAual general meeting- will be 
held in London on March 13th and 14th. The Presidential Addi-ess 
will be delivered and several papers read and discussed on March 
13th. whilst further papers, including the Fourth Corrosion Report, 
ivill be read on March 14th. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. — The arrangements for the 
second half of the ciu-reut session include the following items : — 
February 7th, Kelvin Lecture, by Prof. M. Maclean, on " Kelvin as 
a Teacher"; February 21st. Dr. C. C. Garrard, on " Switchgear 
Standardisation" : March 7th, Jh-. E. B. Wedmore. on "The Con- 
trol of Large Amounts of Power" ; March 21st. Dr. S. F, Barclay, 
on "The Mechanical Design and Specification of the Turbo- 
Alternator Rotor " : April 1 1th (joint meeting with the Electrical 
Section of the Royal Society of Medicine), papers on " Medical 
Electricity," with an exhibition of apparatus ; April 25th. Mr. E. C. 
McKinnon, on " Large Batteries for Power Purposes " : May 9th, 
discussion on " A British Electrical Proving House," with an in- 
troductory paper by Mr. C. TurnbuU ; May 2:ird. " Some Transient 
Phenomena in Electrical Supply Systems " ; May oOth, annual 
general meeting. 

At the meetings of the Local Sections the same subjects will 
be discussed. 

Inquiries. — Detailed information conccrriinff the 
" Wilson " process of electric welding is asked for. 

Munition Workers' Bonuses. — An official announcement 

issued on Wednesday last stated that the Government had had 
under consideration questions that had arisen in regard to classes 
of workmen claiming the bonus to munition workers. After 
careful consideration of the advice of the Committee on Produc- 
tion, and of the whole position, the War Cabinet had decided to 
adopt the following as a settlement of claims : — 

1. The 12i per cent, has been given to workmen employed on 
munition work, and paid as plain-time workers in engineering 
shops, boiler shops, foundries, shipbuilding and ship repairing 
establishments, ircn and steel trades, electricity generating stations 
and electrical contracting trades, nut and bolt trade, brass foundries 
and brass works, bridge building and constructional engineering, 
hollow-ware trade, spring-making works, hot-stamping works, 
tube works, and wagon-building works. 

2. As from the beginning of the first full pay week which 
followed January 1st a bonus of 7'. jier cent, on their earnings 
shall be paid to all workmen of 21 years of age and over employed 
ia establishments or trades (other than the iron and steel trades). 
€uid engaged on munitions work who are piece workers, or are paid 
on a premium bonus system or any mixed system of time and piece 
or any system of payment by results, including men working at 
augmented time rates fixed in lieu of piece rates, or by reference to 
results or to output of work. • 

8. The 7i per cent, bonus shall be paid as an addition to any 
other bonus or war advances. No workman shall receive the 7i per 
cent, bonus >vho has already received in some other form some 
equivalent consideration for the 12i per cent, bonus. Where pay- 



ment has been made to workmen pending the general consideration 
by the Government of the position of men paid by results, the 
amoimt shall merge in the 71 per cent, bonus now authorised. 

4. A special conference shall be called of employers and Trade 
I'nions concerned in the iron and steel trades to consider the form 
in which this bonus shall be applied. ' 

5. .\ny claims to participate in the 7'. per cent, bonus shall be 
settled by the Committee on Production. 

The 12J Per Cent. Bonus. — The members of the Committee 
on Production have I>een-appointed by the Jlinister of Munitions 
as a Sjiecial .Arbitration Tribunal (Section 1 (2) Munitions of War 
Act, iyi7) to deal with differences arising on the 12i per cent. 
Order referred to the Tribunal for decision by the Jlinistry of 
Munitions. — Tiimx. 

The Scottish M.E.A. — With a view to safogiiiirdinj: the 

interests of the smaller municipal electrical undertakings in con- 
nection with future developments, the Scottish Municipal Electrical 
-Association has been formed, with Councillor MCallum (Greenock) 
as chairman and Mr. W. C. Bexon (burgh electrical engineer, 
Kilmarnock) as secretary. 

Fatalities. — An im[uiry was held on 14th inst., at 
Bl.aydon-on-Tyne, into the death of Henry P. Poyzer. aged 17 
years, an incline-braker at Blaydon Main Colliery. Herbert White 
stated that Poyzer and he were resting in the mine on the ))receding 
Friday by keeping hold of a metal pipe containing electric cables, 
when they received a shock. Poyzer was killed and witness was 
rendered unconscious. William Blythe. a shifter, said he pulled 
Poyzer off the pipe, but then fainted, and Edward Richardson said 
he pulled White off the pipe. W. G. Armstrong, a fore-overman, 
used artificial respiration upon Poyzer. The jury found that Poyzer 
had been accidentally killed thi'ough having improperly taken 
hold of a steel conduit pipe containing live electric cables, thereby 
causing the ends of the cables to come into contact and inflict a 
severe electric shock. 

Appointments Vacant. — Shift enpneer (£3 +), for the 

Borough of South Shields electricity works : shift engineer (45s. +'), 
and engine driver (35s. -j-). for the Borough of Tunbridge Wells 
electricity dej^rtment ; wireman for the Wolverhampton Cor- 
poration electricity supply department : wireman for the Rochdale 
Union. See our advertising pages to-day. 

Midland Power Station Engineers. — <'n Thureday, 

February 7th, at 7.30 p.m.. at the White Horse Hotel, Congreve 
Street, Birmingham, the annual meeting of the Midland Electric 
Power Supply Engineers' Association will be held. The subjects 
on the agenda are : Address by Chairman ; alteration of name of 
association : future of association, propaganda, &c., and existing 
scales of remuneration. 

America's Electrical Christmas. — Wide-spread reports 

indicate the success of the nation-wide " America's Electrical 
Christmas" campaign, conducted under the general direction of 
the Society for Electrical Development. Unprecedented sales 
activity in all parts of the country, particularly by contractor- 
dealers, resulted in a truly electrical Christmas. All of the 
advertising and sales efforts were built around the suitability of 
electrical appliances as holiday gifts. The Christmas shopper this 
year looked for useful presents, and the advertising by electrical 
interests directed attention to the electric shop. Moreover, this 
year, more than ever before, men in' the industry took their own 
advice and gave electrical presents. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

The Ediiorg inrite electrical finghteerx, whether connected with the 
technical or the coiiunercial side of the profe^sithi and indttstry^ 
aim electric tramway and railway oficiaU, to keep readers of the 
Electrical Review vosted as to their morements. 



Central Station and Tramway Officials. — The salary 

of Mr. Lknest Holt, manager of the Ashton-under-Lyne Corpor- 
ation Tramways, has been advanced £50 i)er annum to .t310. 

Mr. THO.MAS DArcy NASs.iU. engineer and manager to the 
County of Dorset Electric Supply Co.. Ltd. (and to its associated 
companies, the Swanage Co., Lyme Regis Co., and Blandford Co.), 
has been released by the directors of the companies for service with 
the Army, and has been appointed to a Commission in the R.F.C. 

The salary of Mr. W. B. Smith, chief sissistant engineer in the 
(ireenock Corporation Electricity Department, has been advanced 
by £75 per annum. 

Mr. S. a. Russell has been appointed shift engineer at Stuart 
Street electricity station, Manchester, at a commencing salarv 
of £220. 

Mr. \. L. LuNN. a senior shift engineer, has been appointed 
turbine house superintendent at Stuaji Street. Manchester, at a 
commencing salary of £275. rising to £300. 

Holmfirth X'.D.C. has appointed Mr. T. France, of Netherton. 
as an assistant engineer at the electricity works. 

General. — After :?.") years' service -with the Worthington 
Pump Co.. latterly as their resident director at the Newark-on- 
Trent works, Mr. F. B. Jack has resigned, to take up an important 
post at the Sheaf Works of Messrs. Ruston, Proctor i: Co., Lincoln. 
He was (.ntsrtained by the members of the staff, on Friday, 



90 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. S2. No, 2,096, January 25, 1918. 



January ISth, at the Holborn Restaurant, and a presentation of a 
handsome writinfr bureau, with fitting's suitaljly inscribed, was 
made by Mr. J. N. Boot, on their behalf. The continuous growth 
and development ot the company was effectively described by 
Mr. E. W. Husted, in which Mr. Jack had rendered the most loyal 
and hearty co-operation, and, while general regret was expressed 
at the severance of such a long association, the best wishes were 
heartily given for his future success with the 'company he had 
joined. . ■ 

The Technical Education Sub-Committee of the Birmingham 
Education Committee recommends the appointment of Mr. G. A. 
Perrv as temporary Assistant Workshop Instructor for Electrical 
Trades Classes at the Municipal Technical School, at £111^ per 
annum, plus £Id war allowance. 

Capi'. James Caldwell, M.I.E.E., R.E., of Messrs. James E. 
Caldwell, Glasgow, has recently been appointed Deputy Assistant 
Director of materials and Prir)rity at the Admiralty. Originally 
an officer in tlie Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders, he was after- 
wards on the headquarters' instructional staff. Later he was 
attached to the Royal Engineers to supervise the erection of elec- 
trical plant, and was afterwards engaged with the military 
railways section at the War Office. 

We desire to congratulate Mr. (i. E. Chadwvck-Healey. one of 
the proprietors of the E/i//inffi\ on his appointment by the 
Admiralty to be vice-chairman of the Shipbuilding Council and 
Assistant to the Controller. 

Roll of Honour. — Te.mporary Major George CiiEMBNT 

MiLNES, K.O. Royal Lancaster Regiment (who prior to the war was 
electrical engineer at Lancaster), gained his Military Cross " for 
conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during a period of 
several days under heavy shell fire." After standing in water over 
24 hours, some of his men showed signs of wavering, whereupon 
he ran along the entire battalion front, rallied the men. reorganised 
the line, and did a great deal by his p3rsonal example to save what 
would have bacome a bad situation. 

Lance-Corporal F. Shackleton, Traffic Control Unit, who was 
on the staff of the Oldham Corporation tramways, has been 
awarded the Military Medal for bravery in dealing with transports 
under heavy shell fire. 

Lance-Corporal F. E. Wvre, Worcestershire Regiment, who 
has fallen in action, was with Messrs. Belliss it Morcom, Ltd., 
Birmingham. 

Private B. Holmes, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, who was 
on the staff of Messrs. Willans i; Robinson, Ltd., Rugby, is reported 
wounded and missing since November 2Uth last. 

Sergeant Wm. Baker, R.E., who has been awarded the D.C.M., 
was engaged in the telegraph construction department of the 
Midland Railway Co. at Derby. 

Private Walter Church, London Regiment, who has died of 
wounds received In action, was with Accumulators, Ltd., of 
Woking. 

Private R. C. Whewbll, who enlisted in May, 1916, from the 
Outwood station of the Lancashire Electric Power Co., and who 
already possesses the Distinguished Conduct and Military Medals, 
has been recommended for a further honour for gallant conduct. 

Private Walter Fell, Northumberland Fusiliers, who was 
reported missing in December last, and is now a prisoner of war in 
Germany, was employed at the Halifax electricity works. 

Private H. J. Bishop, the Buffs, formerly in the instrument 
department ot the India-Rubber Co.. Silvertown, was killed in 
action in France on November 20th, 1917, aged 19 years. 

Sergeant A. Ddnoan, R.E., who has baen mentioned in dis- 
patches, was on the staff of the Harrogate Corporation electricity 
department. 

Sergeant H. R. Eastwood, Duke of Wellington Regiment, 
who has been awarded'the Military Medal for bravery at the Battle 
ot Cambrai, was employed by the Yorkshire Electric Power Co. 

The Military Medal has been awarded to Pioneer G. Stewart, 
Irish Brigade, for (Jevotion to duty in holding the lines of com- 
munication under shell fire. Before joining the Army he was 
employed by Mr. Edward Dewhurst. electrical engineer, Preston. 

Private John Hklsbv. King's (Liverpool) Regiment, wounded 
and in hospital in Worcestershire, was formerly employed by the 
B.I. and Helsby Cables, Ltd., Prescot. 

Ma.ior J. L. Partington, Royal Engineers, who has been 
mentioned in dispatches, belongs to Norton, Worcestershire. On 
the declaration of war he returned from South America, where he 
was an electrical signalling engineer. 

The Stafford Gas and Electricity Committee this week presented 
a gold watch to Corporal Holme.s, a Corporation employe, in 
recognition of the award to him of the Military Medal. 

We regret to learn that Sergeant-Major Fernand Dele-. 
BECQUE, R.E., has been killed on the French Front. He was a 
brother of Mr. V. Delebecque, of the Walsall Electrical Co., Ltd. 
As a lad he was employed in the test-room of the Langdon-Davies 
Motor Co. He served his conscription in the French Army as 
Brigadier in the 4th Hussars, and had been in the Royal Engineers 
for more than 2'J years. He was stationed at Mauritius and 
Gibraltar. At the latter place he was P.M. of the Calpe Lodge of 
Freemasons and a Past Principal of a Chapter there. 

Obituary. — Mb. J. S. Sellon. — We regret to learn of 
the death, which occurred in London, on Friday last, of Mr. John 
Scudamore Sellon. The deceased gentleman was SI years of age. At 
an early age he joined the business house of Johnson. Matthey & Co., , 
assayers and the refiners to the Bank of England and the Royal Mint, 
metallurgists, kc, founded by his uncle, Percival Norton Johnson, 
1822. He played a prominent part in the researches and industrial 
developments connected with the platinum and other groups of rarer 



metals with which the name of his firm is associated. Towards 
the end of last century he also took an active share, both as to 
technical discovery and industrial development, in electrical 
engineering, being associated with Faure, Brush, Swan, Lane-Fox, 
Volckmar, and others in their early work in lighting and storage. 
In the early days of his connection with electrical matters, Mr. 
Sellon was a frequent visitor at the offices of the ElectricaIj 
Rex'iew, where he consulted the editors upon various interesting 
points. 

The death occurred, on January 6th, at Negapatam, India, of Mr. 
Wm. Fredk. Gillott, loco, electrical engineer to the South Indian 
Railway Co. He was 40 years of age, and belonged to Sheffield. 

Sir .1. Wolfe Barry.— We regret to learn of the death, which 
occurred on Tuesday in London, of Sir John Wolfe Barry, tlie 
renowned engineer. His connection with the railway electrifica- 
tion experiments of 1899. between Earl's Ccurt and Kensington, 
will be within our readers' recollection. His pioneering work in 
engineering standardisation, and his service on Government Com- 
missions respecting tube railway vibration, London street traffic 
and other matters, are parts of a life full of public work chiefly 
connected with engineering. Sir John was for many years chairman 
of the Eastern and Eastern Extension Telegraph Companies. He 
was 81 years of age. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



Adams Bros. (Longton), Ltd. (149,322).— rrivate com 

p.nnv. Registered January oih. Capital, fl.OOO in £1 shans. lo take over 
the business of electrical 'engineers, mejchanls, inanufacturer^ ol and dealers 
in electric, magnetic, telegraphic, telephonic, and (tfher appliances formerly 
carried on by R. .Adams, as Adams bros., at Ford Street, Longton, Stoke- 
on-Trent. The subscribers (each with one share) are :— A. Brier, J02, Trent- 
ham Road, Longton, electrical engineer; T. O. Hayes, 39, Stoke Road, Long- 
ton, incorporated accountant. The first directors are to be appointed by the 
subscribers. Solicitor; S. Hayes, 13, Albion Street, Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Brimington Electric Supply Co., Ltd. (149,377).— R<'f,'is- 

lered January I5lh. C.Tpit.,1, i'.'.i.im in £1 shares. To carry on at liriniing 

of an electric lighting anil suppU 

-H. I'hipps, Brim 



eUewhe 



Derl.i 



Ihe 



W. 



T. G. Bun 



Bri 



g.n 



H. J 



ungto 



Che 



al & Iron Co.; I I 
■r; R. Wharton. Brln 
imingion, Chesterfield, 
n, tlUO. The first di 
.sington. and R. VVhar 



ir-ion, Chesterfield, moulder; H. H. Berer- 
'' ill. assistant general manager of Slavclcj 
i-inn, Brimington, Chesterfield, electrical engf- 
)n, Chesterfield, foreman smith; J. T. Fros', 
: accountant clerk. Minimum cash subscrip- 
IS aa- : H. Phipps, H. H. Beresford, C. E. 
Solicitors : Jonei & Middleton, Chesterfield. 



Harlow Remedies, Ltd. (149,406). — Private companv. 

Regisieiid January IHth. Capital, £3,000 in £1 shares (2,000 pref.). To 
m,,nu(.,. lure and dial in medical and hvgienic specialities, to establish 
Inilrus, ,imj nil,,., i,i,li,uL„.i,, In,' ihi- .ulminislration of electrical ami 

Oil, I, ,1,1. Ml, ,\i Till. M,l,M,il„.,s (i.iih will, one share) are :— VV. Harlow 

1)1,,,. Mil ,1.1 1 s \ I, .:, \\i~i l!,ih„n (iiii'ilins, S.W. 5 ; W. C. Goulding, 
4;l, |.|;,sli„,, r,n,i„,,ii. |...c 2, M.lintu,., I"hi. fn-st directors are: VV. Harlo,-- 
D.ivis. M.I)., and W. C. tmulding (both permanent). \V. Harlow Davis is 
managing director. Kegistired oHice I 2, West Bolton Gardens, S.W. 5. 

Multiple Fuses, Ltd. (149,397). — Private company. 

Registered January ITth. Capil.il. £1,100 in £1 shares. Electrical engineers 
and contractors, suppliers ol electricity, manufacturers of and dealers ii 
electric, magnetic, and galvanic apparatus, rubber, rubber substitutes, asbcs- 
tcs, gutta-percha, silk, cotton wool, linen, thread, fibre, fla.\, hemp, juti. , 
paper, papier niach^, canvas, and other fabrics, insulating and other mate- 
rials, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are ;— E. S. Conradi, H-g, 
Roseberv .\venue, E.C., electrical engineer; J. F. Conradi, 6-8, Roscberv 
.\venue,' B.C., electrical engineer. The first directors are : E. S. Conradi and 
J. F. Conradi. Registered office: 6-8, Rosebery .Avenue, E.C.I. 

Nicholson Bros., Ltd, (149,370). — Private com,panv. 

Regisi.-red January 12th. Capital, £10,000 in £1' shares. To take over the 
business of general, motor, and marine engineers and repairers carried on 
at Great Grimsby and els.'where bv Nicholson Bros., also to carry on th^ 
business ot manufacturers of and dealers in, and owners of, electric gen ■ 
rating plants, motor-d.ri\'en hoists winches, and lifts, complete mobile ele 
trie welding plants, i, iil,. I, ingars, garages, sheds, aerodromes, float:,- 
workshops, &c. I 1,1 ,' 1. h ,ch with one share) arc: C. F. Nicholso , 

,'1. Westbourne, l,,i Irimsby, engineer; J. W. Nicholson, S. 

Cl.iiir. Lambert Ri.nL i.iiiii-l., Managing director : C. !•". Nicholson. Kegi' 
ti il office; ■■ Nibi.i.m. ' l,i,t;i,i..i,Mng Works, Roberts Street, Great Grimsb.. 

Basebe, Sadler & Co., Ltd. (149,362).— Private c»mpanv. 

Registered Janu.arv 11th. Capital, £7,000 in £1 shares. To enter into :in 
agreement with .\.C. B.asebe and J. Sadler (trading as Basebe, Sadler & Co.), 
and to carry on the business of electrical and mechanical engineers anil 
contractors, founders, smiths, machinists, tool makers, brass founders, metal 
workers, boiler makers, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are : — 
A. C. Basebe, 106, Bingham Road, Croydon, engineer; J. Sadler, 51, Mor- 
land Road, Croydon, engineer. The firsf directors are: A. C. Basebe and 
J. Sadler. Registered office: 49, Goschen Buildings, Henrietta Street, W.C. 2. 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



Coatbridge & Airdrie Electric Supply Co., Ltd. — Further 

charge on the company's properly,, present and future, including the Coa- 
bridge undert:iking and the .Airdrie undertaking, and uncalled capital, d:if3-' 
December 20th, 11)17 (supplemental to charge of October 17th, 1906, crea,t?-f 
bv the Scottish House-to-House Electiicity Co., Ltd. the company's prede- 
cessor in title), securing £2,000. Holders : County o( London Electric Supp.y 
Co., Ltd. 

Stothert & Pitt, Ltd. (74,218).— Capital, ^250,000 in 

l.'.O.OOO ord. :ind 100,000 prel. shares of £1 each. Return dated December 5l-. 
ril7 121.7,50 onX and 71,3.W pref. shares taken up; f47,3J0 paid; £145,7;C 
...n.i.lei.d as paid. Mortgages and charges: £2,5,000 first debs, and £30,0!!n 
,,p,nnii ditto (the latter issued as pan of £60,000 registered). 

Allen, West & Co., Ltd. (103,870).— Capital, ,£30,000 in 

£1 shans,. Return dated December 17th. 1917. 28,472 shares taken up; 
£28,472 p;»id. Mortgages and charges: £30,000.' 



Vol. 82. No. 2,096, January 25, 1918.] THE ELECTEICAL EEVIEW. 



91 



Perfect Burglar Alarm Co., Ltd. (112,.522).— Formerly 

known as " Uchtenteld Uurglar .Alarm Co.. Ltd.'' Re-named January 30th, 
1915 Capital, 4'4,000 in 1,0U0 pref. and 3,000 ord. shares o( £1 each. Return 
dated December 5th, 1917. 230 pref. and 1,710 ord. shares taken up; £1 per 
share called up on 1,210 ord., and 15s. per share on 23ft pref.; £500 con- 
sidered iis paid on 500 ord. Mortgages and charges: Nil. Directors ; J. H. R. 
Bright anrl R. .Maitland (both British by birlh). and .Siegmund Lichfield 
(lormwly Lichtcnfeld), naturalised British, of Gorman origin. 

J. B. Saunders & Co., Ltd. (112,037).— Capital, ,£20,000 

in 6 000 '• A " and 14.000 " B " shares of £1 e.ich. Return dated December 
Olh, 1917. 6,000 "A" and 12,000 " B '" shares taken up; £18,000 considered 
as paid. Mortgages and charges : Nil. 

Foster Construction Co., Ltd. — Charge on moneys due 

under certain Uovernment contracts for mine sinkers .and steelwork, to 
secure all nlonexs due or to become due from the company to London and 
South-Western Bank. Ltd. 

Kalgoorlie Electric Power & Lighting Co., Ltd. (91,219). 

— Capitiri. f22.3.()U0 in ir.5,UllU pref. shares ol £1 each, and 100,000 ord. 
_,har« of lUs. each. Return dated June 7th, 1017 (filed November 13th). 
150,000 pref. and 100,000 ord. shares taken up; JE3 10s. paid on seven ord. 
shares; £199,996 10s. considered as paid on the remainder. Mortgages and 
charges: £61,200. 

Halifax & Bermudas Cable Co., Ltd. (28,972) .—Capital, 

£50,000 in £5 shares. Return dated October 11th, 1917. All shares taken 
up; £50,000 paid. Mortgages and ch,irges : Nil. 

Nairobi Electric Power & Lighting Co., Ltd. (87,728).— 

Capital, £50,000 in £1 shares. Return dated December 26th, 1917. 34,050 
.shares taken up; £30,or.O paid; £4,000 consiJerc-d a^ paid. Mortgages and 
charges : £20,000. 

Laing, Wharton, Ltd. — Mortgage debentures dated Janu- 
ary 4th, 1918, to Mcure £700, charged on" the company's undertaking, am! 
piopertv. present and future, including uncalled capital. Holder : Minister 
of .Munitions 

Musselburgh and District Electric Ljght & Traction Co., 

I,td.— Memorandum ol satisfaction to the extent ol iSUO on December H\h, 
1917, of charges dated 1905-9, securing £90,000, has been filed. 



CITY NOTES. 



Melbourne 

Electric 

Supply 

Co., Ltd. 



The report is now i.s.suetl lor the year 
endetl August, 1917. With a view to pro- 
viding for tlie essential capital require- 
ments of the company during the next 
two or thi'eo years a favourable arrange- 
ment was concluded in March last with 
Messrs. Higguis<_)n & Co., of London, for the sale to Messrs. 
Lee, Higginson it Co., of Boston, of $l,'2.50.(X)O five-year 6 per 
cent, general mortgage convertible gold bonds, for distribu- 
tion amongst investors in the L^nited States. The proceeds 
of these bonds were duly received. Further expenditure at 
Melbourne during the year was ±'114,7.56, and at Geelong 
±4,798. The gross profit from the Melbounie and Geelong 
undertakings was £151,304, as against i;143,31.5 in the pro- 
ceding year, an increase of .5i per cent, .\fter pixjvidiug for 
debenture sinking funds, putting ±'1(I,1I00 to resene, putting 
±'•20,000 to reserve on account of income-tax and excess profits 
duty, &c., and writing otf certain sums from bond issue cost, 
sundry items of plant, &c., 7 per cent, is paid on the prefer- 
ence shares anil 10 per cent, on the ordinaiy, free of British 
income-tax. leaving ±'10,67'2, plus ±f3'3,144 brought foi"ward, 
making ±'7'2,817 to be carried forward, subject to any fur- 
ther demands in resjiect of income-tax and excess profits 
duty. Notwithstanding the increasing difficulty of obtaining 
plant and materials, and the rising cost of fuel and labour, 
the business continues to expand. The number of consumers 
at Melbourne, increased fix>m 27,713 to 32,142; lighting from 
'23,901 KW. to 27..5S3 kw. ; motors from 20.106 h.p. to 23,718 
H.P.; units solil from '2:3,902,084 to 28,39.5,000; and the gross 
profit from ±131,673 to ±141,114. At Geelong the number 
of consumers increased from 2,573 to 2,843; lighting from 
2.468 KW. to •2,f>13 kw. ; motors rlecreased from 2,314 h.p. to 
2,'294 H.p.; and units sold fell from 1.519,944 to 1,-505,941; 
imd the gro.ss profit from ±11.641 to ±10.191. The increase 
in consumers connectetl at MelbouiTie was 16 per cent., in 
jiower supply 17 per cent., in total connections 16 per cent., 
in units soltl 19 per cent., and in gi'oss revenue 17 per cent. 

The company has issuetl a circular to 
the shareholders stating that the protracted 
negotiations, with a view to a settlement 
being arrived at with the Post Office, m 
respect of the damages to be paid to the 
company in con.seqiience of the repudia- 
tion on December 30th, 1914. of the Imperial contract, have 
not resulted in producing such an offer as the diret?tors could 
feel justified in accepting. The proceetiings in the High 
Courts, under the petition of right, have therefore been re- 
sumed, and it is hoped tliat the case will be heard early in 
the present sittings. With regard to remuneration for the 
■^rvices rendered by the company, and compensation in res- 
pect of the company's wireless stations, after their having 
performed invaluable services for three years, occasioning 
substantial disbursements an offer was submitted on .August 
8th last to the company to cover both remuneration and com- 
(lensation which the directors could only regard as inade- 
quate and unreasonable. Before the end of last .'summer the 
company were civen to understand that a new offer was 
about to be submitted. ' None has, however, yet l^een re- 



Marconi's 
Wireless 
Telegraph 
Co., Ltd. 



.Adelaide 
Electric 
Supply 

Cc, Ltd. 



ceived, and the company are informed that it cannot be made 
landing the advice of the Law Officers. Without taking into 
account, however, the considerable sums which are esti- 
mated to be due to the company from the Government, the 
busine.ss of the pa.st year lias been satisfacton', and the 
directors feel justitieil in tlechiiing the 7 per cent, preferential 
dividend upon the tuiiiulativ<> participating pr<?ferencc .shares, 
and an interim diviilend of. 5 pt^' cent, on the ordinary shares. 
The reiwrt for the year ended .\ugust, 
1917, shows that ±'40,6'28 was spent on 
capital account. The gross revenue 
amounted to ±154,451, an increase of 13 
per cent. After paying expenses, provid- 
ing for debenture stock servicre fund, all(»- 
catiug ±5,000 to resen-e on account of income-tax and excess 
profits duty, 6 i)er cent, is paid on the preference and 12 per 
tent, on the ordinary shares, free of Briti.sh income-tax, and 
.±1,640 remains, plus ±9,161 brought forward, leaving ±10,800 
to be carried forward subject to any further demands in 
respect of income-tax and exc«ss profits duty. The number 
of consumers increased from 17,732 to 19,.590; lighting from 
13,360 KW. to 14,420 KW.; motors from 9,287 h.p. to 10,'221 
H.p. ; total connections from '2'2,647 kw. to '24,641 KW.; and 
units sold from 8,388.345 to 9,330,495. The consumers in- 
creased by 10 per cent., power supply by 10 per cent., total 
connections by 9 per cent., total units sold by 11 per cent., 
and the gross revenue by 13 per cent. 

The annual reports of the directors of 
this group of companies for the year 1916- 
17 are exti-emely brief. That of the 
Siemens-Schuckert Works refers to 'he 
increased requuements manifested by the 
.\rmy and Navy, and the growing importance of the elec- 
trical transmission of power. The substitutes introduced for 
law materials, which are scarce, were further improved, and 
the production was developed. In this connection it is stated 
that ■ the u.se of aluminium m place of copper will continue 
after the war, and substantially influence the necessity for 
obtaining copi>er from America. The company's dividend, a.s 
previously reported, is 10 per cent., as in each of the two 
preceding year's. In the case of the Siemens & Halske Co., 
the directors reiwrt that the works were chiefly engaged on 
electrical work for the .'Vrmy and Navy, directly and in- 
directly, although the electrode and bfnzine motor works 
were also very active. The demand exceeded the company .-5 
capacity, an^ the orders on hand Showed a considerable in- 
crease. The report further mentions that difficulties of 
working exist, and also in connection with the supply of 
.necessaries to the workers. As recently announced, the 
dividend is 12 per cent., a-s in the previous year. The report 
of the Elektrizitats Gesellschaft (late Schuckwt), of Nurem- 
berg, states that the company's forces were fully occupied 
with preparations for activity after the war, special mention 
being made of the Bavarian water-power community, to 
which reference was made in this journal a few weeks ago. 
The net lu'ofits of ±375,(KX). as compared with ±403,000 in 
1915-16. permit of the payment of a dividend of 8 per cent., 
as in the previous 12 months. 



The Siemens 

and Schuckert 

Companies. 



Yorkshire Electric Power Co. — This company has pre- 
pared a Bill for Parliamentary sanction to make further pro- 
visions with respect to the supply of electrical energy. The 
preamble, according to the Financial Times, states that since 
the company was incorporated in 1901 powers have from time 
to time l>een conferred uixin lix:al authorities to supply elec- 
trical energy within the company's area of supply, but out- 
side, the jurisdiction of such authorities, and it would he 
of pul)lic advantage that the generation of elet;tiical energy 
should be concentrated. The Bill therefore propo.ses to enact 
that " if any local authority, company, body or person be- 
come empowered after .lanuary 1st, 1918, to supply electrical 
energy in any district within the area of supply of the com. 
■ pany .such undertakers shall take from tlie company all the 
electrical ' energy required by them fi>r distribution." The 
terms and conditions are to be agreed, or failing agreement 
are to be determined by the Board of Trade. Provision is 
also made in the Bill for the constitution of joint committees 
and joint boards for the exercise " of all or any of the powers 
of the company and of any local authority " with reference 
to the generation and supply of electrical energy. 

Anglo-American Telegraph Co.. Ltd. — Balance dividends 
of ±1 10s. per cent. uiKin the ordinary consolidated sttx-k, and 
of ±1 10s. per cent, upon the preferred stock, both less tax 
at as., and ;i first and final diviilend of ±1 10s. per cent, upon 
.the deferred stcxk. less tax at .5s. With those already paid, 
the dividends will thlus amount to ±3 15s. per cent, upon the 
ordinary consolidated stock, 6 per c«>nt. ou the prefeired stock, 
and ±1 10s. |>er cent, on the tleferred stock for the year 1917. 

Gandy Belt Manufacturing Co., Ltd. — The directors are 

capitalising p:iit of the reserve fund, and are distributing 

37. .500 ne\^■ I'rdinaiy shares of ±1 each in the prtiportion of 

' one share for every two held. The preference dividend is In 

be increaseil fiom 5} per cent, to 6 per cent. 



Sac Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Co. 

2t per cent, op the common stock. 



-Dividend of 



92 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,09G, January 25, 1918. 



Companies Struck off tlie Register. — The followinf* have 
been struck off the register and are dissolved ; — 

Acton Battery Co.. Ltd. 

Klecttical Sales IVomotion, Ltd 

Lo.idon Battery & Manutacturini; Co., Ltd. 

Mies' Electric.Vl & Clumk-al Culture, Ltd. 

Photo-Telegraph S; Cable Co., Ltd. 

Scandin.ivian Watpr Vawn- & Pap.-r MilN, Ltd. 

I'nited Cablegram Co. of Krantc, Ltd. 

The following will be sti'Uck off within Ihiee njontli.s unleKs 
cause is shown to the contrary : — 



Hh'ichert's Aerial Trans|)Oi 
Urilish Graotzin Light, Lt 
Eclipse Klectric Sign Co., 
lamiricil Works (Miller). 



Ltd. 



Isle of Thanet Electric Tramways & Lightinj« Co., Ltd. 

— .\eeordinj; to the ' Finaiirial Tinirs, the accounts for the 
year ended September 30tli last sliow a loss of .-t'-l.TBl . which 
reduces the credit balance to fie carried forward to .£3,S'25. 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



TdESD.W EVKNING. 

BusiNisss in the Stock Exchange has fallen away a gcwd deal. 
Amongst the principal causes for the decline in animation are 
the excellent success of the Tank ca.]npaign, the news from 
Russia, the uncertainty surrounding aft'airs in Mexico, and 
a general inclination on the part of the public to keep money 
back until the next taxation proposals are unfolded. The 
truly perplexing condition of affairs in Eus.sia is well Ukened 
to a vast cinematograph performance in the hands of in- 
experienced opei'ators, and the latest move on the part of the. 
Bolsheviks in attempting to commandeer Briti.sh-owned mines 
iii the north of Eussia is a new cause for apprehension to 
those w'ho have money invested in the industrial companies 
working in Petrograd and Moscow under the control of 
British hands. It may. be recalled that some time ago there 
was a sensational rise in the price of certain Russian shares 
on account of a contract secured by one of the companies for 
the electric lighting in Petrograd, and, although this is now 
a matter of history, the latest developments in that chaotic 
country are enough to give rise to uneasiness amongst the 
British holders of shares in Russian companies. ^ 

The Metropolitan Railway C!o. is due to declare its dividend 
this week, and the announcement should be out before the 
current issue of this journal. There had been a glimmer of 
hoi^e that, under pressm-e of popular opinion, the home rail- 
way companies might increase their dividentis in respect of 
the last half-year, and, although the Tube companies are 
not State-controlled in the same manner as the big tnink 
lines, anticipation was disposed to look tor the Undergrounds 
to make an effort to fail into line with the rest if the latter 
raised their distributions. There is, however, little hope 
now that this com'se will be followed, and the Stock Exchange 
market looks for a repetition of the 1 per cent, on Metropoli- 
tan Consolidated stock paid a year ago, with the usual 2J per 
cent, on the Surplus Lands stock. The price of Surplus 
Lands stands at 47, which makes the yield, at 2J per cent., 
allowing for accnaed dividend, 6 per cent, on the money, com- 
paring with the 4i per cent, afi'orded by the Consolidated 
stock, so that the former is decidedly the cheaper of the 
two, and only its lack of negotiabihty prevents it standing 
higher than the Ordinary stock does. The Undergrouui-l 
group will declare their dividends on February 7th. The 
District Co. has paid nothing since August, 1882. 35i years 
ago. The Income Bonds of the LTnderground Co. are ex- 
pected to get 4 per cent., which is, of course, paid free of 
tax, and nothing is looked for on either class of the shares. 

Mexicans have been checked in their upward movements 
by the usual cause which has brought them down after pre- 
vious rise.s, namely, that definite information is lacking to 
support the nimours and hopes raised at the beginning of 
the year with reference to the re-es-tablishment of normal 
conditions in the country. Nor is there much enterprise or 
speculation afoot to encourage optimism with regard to 
Mexico or anything else, and, although the prices of the 
various Utility bonds are maintained at their previous levels, 
it is not so easy to sell now as it was two or three weeks ago! 
The weakness of Canadian industrials, including those of the 
light and power companies, is still in evidence, and i-umour 
has it that in some cases, where the concerns have acceptel 
large munition contracts for Eussia, difficulties have arisen 
m regard to then- getting paid. 

Brazilian Ti-actions have gone back to 46, a fall of a point, 
but the .^nglo-Argentme group remains steady, and amongst 
other foreign issues there is no special feature outstanding. 
Shares of the Hydro-Electric Co. of Tasmania have come into 
new prominence, and on Monday touched the highest price 
so far attained duiing the present booinlet in the shares 
.yter reaching 13s. 9d., the price eased off a little to 13s 3d 
having run up just lately from 8s. 6d., to which it reaeteil 
alter the previous nse to 12s, 9d., the same reasons bein'^ 



operative in the present bout of buying as those with which 
we dealt when the shares first began their sensational ascent. 

The electricity supply list is quietly fimu. Attention is 
once iiiore being o;illed to the market, in various directions, as 
olfering a good field for investment for money that looks for 
a 6 per cent, return with a reasonable degree of safety. The 
\N'ar Bonds campaign, however, is certainly telling on this 
ilc^pad-tment. as cm i)thrr ))arts of the Stock Exchange, and wo 
find a decidid ibs|Hi.sitioii, on the part of people with money, 
U> put it inl.i tile \\:ir Bonds, and to take the 5i per cent, 
which these oiler. Both the Adelaide and Melbourne Supply 
( 'oiiipnnies announce excellent results and dividends for the 
yrar just ended. 

Deductions of the dividends from .several of the shares in 
the Eastern Telegraph gioup have made comparatively little 
difference in prices. Clobe Ordinary are k better at 14a. 
Indo-Europeans reacted ^1 to olj, and Anglo-American Pre- 
feiTed is i lower at 94^, the market in this stock having been 
a dull one for some time past. Manufacturing shares are 
good, with rises of i in Callenders and of -J in India-Rubber 
shares. The iron and steel market is a little easier, Bab- 
cooks receding to SJ. Chemical shares are firm throughout, 
more particularly those in companies dealing with soda and 
the like. There is no change in Castner-Kellners at 3 5/16. 
The rubber market is dull and heavy, several disappointing 
dividends conspiring with a further reduction in the price of 
raw material to bring about a weak tendency in prices. The 
base-metal markets, however, are haid, more particularly 
for.' the shares in companies concerned with lead, tin, and 
zinoi Armaments exhibit a dullish tendency, although ammu- 
liit^ion shares ai"e better on the week. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 
Bomb Blsotbioit? OoupANiBa. 

Dividend Price 

/ " s .Jan. 32, Bise'or tell 

1916. 1916, 1918. tbisweek, 

Brompton Ordinary .... 10 9 6) — 

Charing CrosB Ordinary . , 6 B 4 — 

do. do, do. ii Pret., H 4i 8j — 

Obelsea 4 8 9| — 

City of London 8 8 ISJ — 

do. do. 6 per cent, Frei, 6 6 10^ — 

Ootinty of London .... T 1 11 — 

do. 6 per cent. Prel, 6 6 ICi — 

Kensington Ordinary .... 7 6 6| — 

London Electric 8 Nil 1 — 

do. do, 6 per cent. Fret, 6 4 8) — 

Metropolitan 8 B 8| — 

do. 4) per cent. Pref. 4^4) bJ — 

St. James' and Pall MaU ..88 1 — 

Sonth London B 6 3 — 

South Metropolitan Pref. . . 7 7 31/6 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 1 7 6§ — 

TlLSaRAPBS AND TBIiIPHOHKS, 

Anglo- Am. Tel, Pret 6 6 g4f^ — i 

do, Def 83/6 li atig — 

Chile Telephone 8 8 7|-xd — 

Cuba Sub. Ord 6 7 9i — 

Eastern Extension . . . . 8 8 15xd — 

Eastern Tel. Ord. .. .. 8 8 ICO^xd — 

aiobe Tel. and T. Ord 7 7 14| -H J 

do. Pref. ..8 6 lOj — 

Qreat Northern Tel 33 34 36 — 

Indo-European 18 18 61^ —1 

Marconi 10 16 S( — 

Oriental Telephone Ord. . . 10 10 Si — 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 6l — 

West India and Pan 6d, 6d, 1^ — 

Western Telegraph .... 7 8 16$ — 

H6mx Bails, 

Central London, Ord. Assented 4 4 62^ — 

Metropolitan 1 1 33^ — 

" do. District .. .. Nil Nil 16* — 

Underground Electric Ordinary Nil Nil l| — 

do, do, "A" .. Nil Nil 6/3 — 

do, do. Income 6 4 82 — 

FOBBION Tkams, ±0, 
Dividend 

1916. 1916 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Pref, 6 6 4^ — 

Anglo-Arg. Trams, First Pref, ej" 6) 2^ — 

do, 2nd Pref, . . 6J — aj ' — 

do, 6 Deb. ..6 6 66 — 

Brazil Tractions . . .... 4 4 46 — 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 98 — 

British Columbia Elec. Rly. Pfce, 5 6 43 — 

do, do, Preferred Nil Nil 28) — 

do. do. Deferred Nil Nil 28 — 

do. do. Deb. 41 4* 68 — 

Mexico Trams 6 per cent. Bonds Nil Nil 37 — 

do, 6 per cent, Bonds Nil Nil Sii — 

Uezican Light Common . . Nil Nil 17i — 

do, Pret NU Nil 29 — 

do, let Bonds .. Nil Nil 37 — 

MANtjyAOTtmiNa Oomfahibs, 

Baboock & Wilcox .... 16 16 3J — ^ 

British Aluminium Ord. . . 7 10 1;^ — 

British Insulated Ord 17} 30 Si — 

British Westinghouse Pref, .. 7^ 7} 2| — 

Callenders 20 90 14| + i 

do, 6 Pref. .... 6 6 4 — 

Oastner-KeUner 33 30 8j% — 

Edison Swan, fully paid . . — — 3^ — 

do. do. 4 per oent. Deb. 4 4 75^ — 

Electric Construction . . . . 7i 7} li — 

lien, Elec. Pref 6 8 lOJ — 

do, Ord 10 10 19 — 

Henley 96 36 ' 161 — 

do. 4} Pre) H H 4 — 

India-Bnbber 10 10 Hi + i 

Tslegrapb Oon 30 30 43 — 

• Dividende paid free of Income-tax, 



Tield 

P.O. 

£6 18 6 

6 5 

6 IB 4 

6 9 1 

6 9 

6 18' 6 

6 7 8 

6 18 6 

6 11 1 

NU 

6 6 8 

4 13 4 

6 13 4 

6 14 6 

6 13 4 

6 10 6 

6 6 8 



6 12 4 

•7 11 4 

•8 6 

•8 6 4 

•4 19 1 

6 17 1 

6 11 6 

6 6 8 

4 16 1 

8 4 



7 H 

6 12 
•6 16 
•6 U 



Vol. 82. Xo. L'.OW. January 25, 1918.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



{•3 



INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH. 



Bv G. BASIL BARHAM. 



Electrical engineers generally are con\inced that the 
-commercial position of Britain after the war will depend to 
.a great extent on the energy with which she takes up the 
work of industrial research. It seems certain that the 
electrical and, indeed, the engineering supremacy of the 
^future will belong to that country which conducts such 
work vigorously and in a well organised manner, improves 
the products of its workshops by the knowledge thus gained, 
and maintains its lead over all competitors by the simple 
means of continually improving the quality, increasing the 
quantity, and bettering the efficiency of its electrical and 
-other manufactures. 

Good work will undoubtedly be done by the Depart- 
■ ment for Scientific and Industrial Research, but its 
■efforts will be insufficient to enable this country to keep the 
lead in electrical mattere unless it is backed up by every 
firm, both large and small, that is engaged in the industry. 
The proposal is that Research Associations should lie formed 
in various districts, but as the proposal stands at present 
provision is made for only .science, capital, and manufacturer 
to be lepresented. But in such a matter success is not 
possil)le unless Labour is also included, and by that is meant 
unskilled as well as skilled labour. Further, the co-operation 
of shipbuilders, colliery owners, and manufacturers generally 
is necessary, and the efforts of any Association, no matter 
how strong it may seem on paper, are doomed to failure 
unless research laboratories, as completely ecjuipped as 
possible, are fitted up wherever manufacturing work is 
<?arried out on a fairly e.vtensive scale. It is further necessary 
that representatives of the electrical industry should have 
access to these, and should assist in the work carried on, in 
order to determine to what e.vtent electricity can be of 
iissistance either for driving, electrolytic or thermo-electric 
purposes. 

In the United States it is now the custom in the materials 
testing laboratories, in the standardising laboratories, in the 
departments which are interested in the testing of apparatus 
of different kinds, and in the development departments of the 
bigger manufacturing concerns, to allow research work to be 
carried on, and not only to encourage it, but to fit up 
laboratories and workshops for those who, showing promise, 
are d,esirous of carrying out independent investigations. By 
this is meant that in some of these works a youth or man 
who has shown himself possessed of keen intelligence, is 
allowed in the firm's time to attempt to discover new methods 
of working or to improve those already in vogue. This shfiuld 
also be done in this country, with this addition : that a 
higly trained electrical engineer should be retained to assist 
in every way possible the efforts of those who were engaged 
in the research. Many an industrial method could be 
simplified, many an investigatiim hastened and brought to a 
more successful conclusion were this course adojited. 

It is almost common knowledge now that an entirely new 
branch of chemistry, the chemistry of the free atom, resulted 
recently from the exhaustive research work carried out in 
the chemical laboratoi'y of a lar*e electrical engineering 
firm, and the importance of this discovery, from a com- 
mercial point of view, cannot well be over-estimated. The 
invention of many new manufacturing i)rocesses has taken 
place in a number of trans-Atlantic research laboratories, 
and already in the United States the chemical engineer has 
beco7ne a recognised member of the engineering profession, 
solely thi'ough the establishment of research laboratories, 
although he is practically unknown over here. 

Just as is the chemical engineer so is the electrical 
engineer destined to play a most important part in the de- 
velopment of every country's resources. Theirs will i)e the 
task of watching the laboratory experimentalist, of studying 
laboratory processes, with a view to devising stills, retorts, 
electric furnaces, machinery and everything necessary to 
carry out the discovered processes and methods on a com- 
mercial , scale. Should a chemist succeed in making a few 
drops of some new dye, it will be the duty of the chemical 
engineer to devise apparatus that will manufacture it by the 
hundred gallons ; should a new alloy of steel with nickel 



tungsten, chromium, molybdenum or other rare metal be 
discovered, the electrical engineer will find his work in 
devising a furnace that will be able to turn it out on such 
a scale that the steel-making supremacy of his country will 
be maintained against all competitors. Further, should 
some hitherto unsuspected projierty be found in a metal or 
an alloy, it will be the duty of both to devise some means 
whereby it can be turned to commercial advantage. 

Perhaps one of the most important results which would 
be obtained from the extension of a system of technically 
assisted industrial research would be the training ctf men as 
Skilled investigators. Results are seldom or never secured, 
as has been said before, by casual workers in the field or by 
those who engage in scientific work through the sheer love 
of science. The question what commercial use can be 
made of a discovery should always be before the eyes of 
a research worker. Unfortunately that is not always 
possible as matters stand, as the disco\erer may have but 
the slightest notion of the value of his achievement. It is 
in such event that trained assistance, such trained assistance 
as can only be given I)y the chemical and electrical engineer, 
becomes necessary. The experimentalist, as a rule, makes 
it his whole business to find out hitherto unsuspected laws 
of Nature, and simplify them, and increase our knowledge 
and understanding. This is a work to which, as one who 
has had long and profitable e.xperience of it once said, those 
who engage in it must pay undivided attention ; it is foi- 
the technically trained man to take the results and turn 
them to an industrial end. Otherwise we shall find that 
the men engaged in our research laboratories will be investi- 
gators first and all the time ; they will be men who will 
fight their way along the path of knowledge, seeking only 
what lies before them and taking little or no heed of what 
they have done as they passed along. Condensed into its least 
compass, the final object of industrial research work is to 
enable us to use the resources of Nature to better purpose 
to-morrow than we can do to-day, and that is only possible 
if we provide the man who is carrying ont the work with 
trained assistance, to turn his results to the best advantage. 



ELECTRICAL COOKING AS APPLIED TO 
LARGE KITCHENS. 



Ox January 14th the NEWCASiLE-DPON-TiNE Local Section 
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers discussed Mr. 
W. A. GiLLOTT's paper. 

The Chairman, Mr. A. H. Marshall, in opening the discus- 
sion, said economy in eookiug was, at the present time, of 
vital importance, even more important than fuel economy. 
When engineers looked into that question they generally had 
regard to the quantity, or the cost, of the fuel used in cook- 
ing by gas or coal-tire, or the amount of fuel it took to 
generate the amount of electricity used, and then left the 
cooking alone; but there were many considerations that pudi- 
fied comparisons of that kind — for instance, that of thermal 
efficiency — and this was rapidly increasing in the case of 
electricity. 

Mr. PiNKNEY said he thought the sidjj'ect was not receiving 
the attention it ought to have had. The question of large 
cooking installations was one for the engineers. Referring 
to the maintenance figures, he said that, apart from the 
character of the in.staUation, maintenance costs would go 
down, due to better handling by the users. The cooking 
question would have to be met by the supply authorities — 
that was, the question of large kitchens, for the question of 
domestic cooking was a diffei'ent problem altogether. One 
great jwint in electric cooking was that there was no chimney, 
and. consequently, no loss of heat in that way. A great many 
pessimists had said that electric cooking could not be done 
cheaply ; it had been done cheaply, in spit« of everything. 

Mr. W. SowEHBV said he was not an electrician, and he 
spoke on the subject merely as a business man. His firm, 
proprietors of cafts. asked him to take out the costs of dif- 
ferent modes of cooking — coal, gas, and electric; he had to 
go thoroughly into the matter, and report. They knew 
approximat-ely the cost of cooking by gas and by coal, and 
then he applied to the Newcastle Electric Supply Go. He 
said : " We are going to provide .so many persons with so 
many meals; can you tell us what it wiU cost us per meal 
to do the work by electricity? " The company made an esti- 
mate and submitted it. His company were astonished; in- 
deed, they thout^lit .i mistake had been made, but the Supply 
Co. confirmed tluir statement, and said they were prepared 
to go on with tlu' work.' The work was carried out, and he 
might say that after a period of 12 months their costs were 



94 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 82. No. 2,096, January 25, 1918. 



considerably below those furnished in the estimate. When 
they put in the apparatus their friends said, " Ah, wait until 
you get the bill " : they had got the bill, and they were quite 
satisfied. Tlie installation was not fool-proof, and needed care. 
He particularly spoke of the .saving by the use of the calorifier 
in the heating of the water. He believed a good deal of their 
success was due to the fact that they charted their consump- 
tion, and, if the figures wore excessive, raised the question 
with their employes. 

Mr. C. TuRNBDiiL said he agreed both with the lecturer and 
the speakers that there was a great future before electrical 
cooking. He thought one reason why they were not going 
ahead wac that the manufacturer did not appreciate the neces- 
sity of making everything easy of repair; everything .should 
be made so that it would be easy to get at any part, tfe 
should not be surprised, if the amount of cooking increased, 
if it assisted in bringing about the downfall of d.c, and made 
alternating current general, for cooking with A.c. had many 
advantages. 

Mr. GiLLOTT, replying, said he agreed with the speakers 
that electric cooking was bound to extend. Three or four 
years ago he suggested to an electrical company that cooking 
was going to oust from its position tlieir small power load ; 
the suggestion was met with a smile, but, as a matter of fact, 
they had passed it, and he thought that in 10 or 15 years' 
time electrical cooking would be one of the biggest sides of 
electrical undertakings. Mention had been made of thermal 
efficiency ; it reminded him of a gas representative who said 
he could give a customer 9,000 b.th.u. for Id., and that llie 
electric companies could not give 5,000. He was asked what 
was the efficiency. He could not .say. " Would it be 50 per 
cent.? " The gas man thought that would be high. i'et 
their electrical efficiency was 95 per cent. But running cost 
was not the most important item; there were so many advan- 
tages to be obtained in other directions that cooking by . li-i-- 
tricity would be cheaper at ^d. per unit than if they got ,;<;- 
for nothing. It was a bold statement, but he was prtp.i-i-.i 
t-o prove it. 



A CONSTANT-TORQUE MAGNETIC CLUTCH. 



The device described below consists of a differential electi'o 
magnetic clutch or coupling, which may be used to connect 
an electric motor, or other prime mover, to' a dynamo, or to 
connect an electric motor to a mechanical load. It has been 
patented by Messrs. Walter L. Davies and Alfred Soames 
ior controlling (n) the electrical output of a dynamo, (b) the 
mechanical output of a motor. 

Fig. 1 shows it employed in driving a dynamo supplying 
current to an arc welding outfit at Faraday House, and fig. 2 
is a diagram showing the basic principle upon which it 
operates. 

In this clutch there are three coils, a, b, and c ; a and c 
consist of many turns of fine wire, and a is a series coil con- 
sisting of a few turns of thick wire. No part of the clutch 



its polarity is such as to counteract the pressure produced 
by the coil A. 

It will be seen that as the current in coil b increases, i.e., 
as the load is increased, the pressure lietween the clutch 
members decreases, until a point is reached when the pres- 
sure on the clutch is only just sufficient to transmit the loa^ 
without slipping; past this point, the clutch slips. It is 




Fig. 2.— Diagram of Circuits. 

apparent, therefore, that the cuirent taken from the dynamo 
cannot exceed a given maximum, even if it is short-circuited. 
The particular maximum to be reached can be controlled by 
adjusting the excitation of the coil a with a rheostat. 

In the case of a simple electromagnetic clutch with con- 
stant excitation, the coefficient of friction drops rapidly when 
slip commences to take place, and therefore, if the pressure 
remains constant, the clutch wUl sUp to about half-speed if 
called u(x>n to give a constant torque (corresponding, in this 
case, to constant current in the dynamo circuit). To counter- 
act this variation in the coefficient of friction, coil c has been 
added ; this coil is connected across the brushes of the 
dynamo, and its polarity is opposite to that of coil a. 

The effect of these three coils is as follows: — On open cir- 
cuit coil A gives an initial pressure; coil c, which is across 
the dynamo brushes, reduces the pressure produced by a. 
If eun-ent is now taken, the coil b stiU further reduces the 
pressure, until a point is reached when the clutch .slips. 




Kio. 1.— Motor Driving Gener.wor through Electrciagnktic Clutch. 



moves longitudinally ; thus its reluctance remains constant, 
and the variation of the magnetism produced by the coils 
varies the pressure between the clutch members only. 

The action of the clutch is as follows : — Coil a is energised 
either from the mains or from a small exciter on the driving 
shaft, and produces an initial pressure between the clutch 
members which is more than sufficfent to transmit the load. 

Ooil B is connected in series with the dynamo annature, and 



but when the clutch slips the volts of the dynamo decrease; 
this decreases the effect of c, which is equivalent to increas- 
ing the effect of A, and by this means the slip is prevented 
from unduly increasing. Should the current taken from the 
dynamo tend to increase, the action of the series coil b would 
decrease the pressure, and, as a result, the coils b and c 
adjust the pre.ssure so that the current remains practical'y 
constant. 



Vol. 82. No. 2,096, January 25, 1918.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



95 



Since the dynamo is separately excited, its field remains 
constant, and (owing to the clutch) the armature field is 
practically constant at all speeds, therefore there is no spark- 
ing at any speed, and the dynamo can be instantly short- 
circuited from open circuit without any harmful result. By 
suitaljly proportioning the coils A and c, any desired charac- 
teristic may be obtained. 

Since this clutch acts not only as a current regulator, but 
as a kind of mechanical overload release, readjusting itself 
when the overload is removed, its applications are very wide ; 
three of these may be indicated, namely, electric arc weld- 
ing, battery charging, and as a coupling in motor-generator 
sets, especially those used for tramway supply. 

The advantages of this arrangement for electric arc weld- 
ing are as follows: — 

Any dynamo giving sufficient power may be used, and bo 
driven from any suitable source of power, its characteristic 
being so altered as to make it suitable for the work. 

The maximum current to be taken can be set at any 
value within the limits of the dynamo rating. 

When the desired current has been set, it remains practi- 
cally constant from fhort-circuit to the maximum length of 
arc that the volts will maintain ; there is no necessity to 
snatch at the arc when striking it, the electrodes can be 
rubbed together, and the arc drawn out as desired. A short 
arc does not produce a rise of current and consequent burn- 
ing; the operator is thus enabled to give his full attention to 
the work, as the arc cannot ran away from him. 

There is no resistance whatever introduced into the weld- 
ing circuit, consequently the whole of the u-atts generated 
arc used upon ike work; this not only reduces the operating 
cost, but substantially increases the plant efficiency. 

Since the clutch only slips on an overload, the power lost 
by it when running is entirely negligible. 

For controlling the mechanical output of a motor, a similar 
clutch wound with the three coils a, b, and c is used, but in 
this case the b, or series coil, is in series with the motor 
armature, and its action is to make the clutch slip when 
the motor takes the maximum cm'rent it is to be allowed. 
A. very small dynamo is attached in any convenient position 
to the variable-speed side of the clutch, so that its volts will 
vary with the speed; this dynamo energises the c coil, and 
compensates for the variations of friction as previously ex- 
plained. I 

The clutch is obviously suitable for driving any class of 
machinei-y subject to sudden shocks, or to very intermittent 




Fig. 3.— Section of Clutch. 

loading, such as rolling mills, stamping presses, heavy lathes 
and planing machines, shears, &c. It gives complete pro- 
tection to machinery likely to be jammed, such as anchor 
winches, capstans, and 'winding drums for hauling tracks in 
mines. 

The device can also be arranged as a hand-operated mag- 
netic friction clutch. The chief difficulty met with in design- 
ing electromagnetic friction clutches of this type is due to 
the residual magnetism, which prevents the clutch releasing 
when the current is reduced or switched off. 

In the clutch under consideration, the magnetic circuit 
has been made as compact as possible, so much so that it 
will transmit 1,000 watts of electrical power with a consump- 
tion of less than 1 watt, i.e., 1/lOth per cent. loss. The 
residual magnetism of this clutch is over 50 per cent., but 
,owing to the special method of operating it, this residual 
magnetism is completely swept out, on releasing the clutch, 
and it can be operated at any degree of slip and any load 
gradually upwards and downwards between zero and full 
load. 

In consequence of the excellence of the magnetic circuit, 
if desired this clutch may be arranged to be magnetised to 
a higher density than that required to transmit the load, in 
which case the cun-ent can be cut off altogether when the 
clutch is transmitting full load, the residual magnetism being 
sufl:icient to carry the load, and the clutch works without 
any consumption of energy at all, the current being only 
employed to pick up or release the load. 

The clutch itself ia simply a well-designed electromagnet, 
wound with a single magnetising coil, connected to one or 
two slip-rings, and connected to the circuit as follo-wa:— 



In fig. 4 A is a small battery, or other source from which 
a small current may be obtained. This battery is connected 
to the opposite sides of a continuous resistance R, R, R, R. Two 
brushes b,b, are arranged to shde round this, and the ends 
of the clutch coil C are connected to these brushes. 

It is obvious that if the brushes are in the position .x' x 
the clutch receives its maximum current; if they are slid 
round in the direction of y' y. the current decreases to zero 
at y' y, and if they are slid on in the same direction to some 
such position as z'z, the current in the clutch reverses and 
rises in the opposite direction. 



.^Afvv/Xi 




Pig. 4. 



To release the clutch from full load, the brushes are slid 
round fromx x in the direction of z' z until the current .'8 
reversed, and rises sufficiently in the opposite direction to 
sweep out all the residual magnetism. 

Stops are placed at x' .x and z' z : the clutch can then be 
worked with a perfect gradation of slip between, these points. 

In the clutch shown the power consumption over the clutch 
coil and the resistance R, R, R, R amounts to about 2 watts 
per 1,000 watts transmitted. 

We recently visited Faraday House, and had the pleasure 
of seeing the foregoing features fully demonstrated by Mr. 
Davies. We may point out that the clutch is not intended 
to slip continuously, after the style of a slipping-belt drive, 
though it could do so if necessary without. overheating. Even 
on so erratic a load as arc welding, with the arc purposely 
handled in the jerkiest manner, the clutch maintained a 
practically constant current, and in all respects substantiated 
the inventors' claims on its behalf. 



GAS FIRING BOILERS. 



Mr. T. M. Hunter's paper was read before the Yorkshire 
Local Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers 
on January loth. 

Mr. W. Lang (Chairman) said the subject was one that 
interested practically the whole of the coimtry at the present 
day. 

Mr. 0. N. Hefford (Leeds) said he gathered that the paper 
was designed for the assistance of engineers who were con- 
nected with coke-oven processes, or ironworks where waste 
gas existed. He did not draw any information from the 
paper which would encourage one to go in for steam-raising 
from gas-fired boilers where one had to consider the obtain- 
ing of gas purely for that pm-pose. A continuation of Mr. 
Hunter's paper showing how an expert would deal with the 
problem of generating 2,000,000,000 lb. of steam per annum 
from gas-fired boilers, and infonnation as to what capital 
charges would be necessary, would be useful. Such a steam- 
raising plant could not be accommodated in any large centre 
of industry, but would need to be adjacent to some colhery. 
There would have to be an enoraious economy in generating 
electricity if the removal of central stations from towns was* 
going to be justified. 

Mr. Harris remarked that it would be absolutely out of the 
question for steam users in manufacturing towns to make 
use of gas for such purposes. What interested them most 
was what use could be made of producer gas in towns for 
steam raising. He knew quite a number of places that put 
down gas plant years ago. but he could not think of one that 
was now in existence. If the power at an electric light station 
was got from gas firing the plant would have to be very 
large. He de-sirod to know if there was any first-class installa- 
tion of boilers fired with producer gas. Collieries used to have 
large quantities of refuse fuel .such as shale, coal dust, and 
numerous other things which they threw away. Many ;.f 
them were now using that refuse, and getting just as good 
evaporation from their boilers through the use of modern 
appliances as they previously got with ordinary hand stoking. 

Mr. Wilson Hartnell (Leed.s) considered that if consumers 
could get w.istc gases from a coke oven they might use them 
with advantage, but he did not think that could be done 
in Leeds. 

Mr. W. Howard Brown (Bradford) recalled experiments 
made a few years ago with gas from some blast furnaces 
which proved failures. The gas appeared to be all right, but 



96 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 82. No. 2,09.;, ja^xuary 25, 1918. 



there was very little heat in it, and the consequence was 
that before the full load was reached a considerable use of 
coal had to be made to keep the steam pressure up. The 
question of gas firing for boilers was probably not so im- 
portant in Yorkshire as it was in the South of England. It 
would be well if the lecturer could, at some time, give them 
another paper which would deal more with the practice of 
burning producer gas. 

Mr. A. Terry (Leeds) wished to know whether, in view of 
the proposals made by the recent Committee on Electrical 
Supply, the author of the paper proposed that the installation 
should be situated close to the coal mines, and the coal be 
first used in by-product ovens. 

Mr, J. Shepherd (Leeds) observed that the paper was ex- 
tremely interesting, but was disappointing in one way be- 
cause if left unfouched the great problem, which "was : 
" Whei-e power is needed, what is the best way to get it? " 

Mr, T. M. Hunter, in replying on the discussion, said 
with regard to transmission, the transmission of electricity 
was a very expensive matter, whilst the transmission of gas 
was a very cheap matter, and the losses on transmission of 
gas were very small. The American figures for loss in trans- 
mission were from ..5 per cent, up to about 2 per cent., and 
gas there was sometimes transmitted for 100 miles or so. 
Gas was transmitted under high, pressure. If gas could be 
generated outside the towns and transmitted in pipes to the 
existing power stations, those stations would be used very 
economically, and they could generate electricity without in- 
creasing the capital charges. To blast-furnace proprietors, 
gas at the present time was a very valuable product. They 
could not hope that a gas producer plant could take peak- 
loads for steam-raising purposes. They could never press a 
producer plant. Some other method for taking peak loads 
would have to be resorted to. The provision of superheated 
air was very important with regard to gas firing, as it was 
with coal filing. On the Continent thev were far ahead of 
us m this matter. The installation of the Yorkshire Waste 
Heat Co. had been very successful. 



FOREIGN AND COLONIAL TARIFFS ON 
ELECTRICAL GOODS. 



GEE^ADA.— The Board of Trade have received informa- 
tion that the recent Troclamation prohibiting the importation 
of electrical apparatus and other articles— noted in the Elec- 
trical Review for September 7th— has been revoked, 
.u^^l?-^'^'^-^^ * Customs Circular dated August 3rd/16th 
the Mmister of Finance has sanctioned the following inter- 
pretation of the Customs Tariff as regards electric fuses • — 

Electnc fuses complete, with interchangeable workin" 
iwrts, in the composition of which there is usuallv silver in 
the form of connecting wire, forming a verv inconsiderable 
part of the weight of the fuse, are to be admitted under Sec- 
tion 169, point 1 (the duty thereunder is 13 roubles 20 copecks 
per poud). Separately imported working parts of electric 
fuses made of common materials, with wire of low-proof 
silver (below 84 proof) are to be admitted under Section 169 
point 1, in accordance with the Note to points 1 and 2 of 
this Section: and similar working parts of fuses, with wire 
ot high-proof silver, under Section US, point 4, as manufac- 
tures of Sliver (the duty being 9 roubles 90 copecks per funt) 
/.A^°" 7 r®-"^! ^^- avoirdupois; funt = 14.45 oz.; rouble 
(100 copecks) = 2s. IJd. (par rate).] 

rTALY — The revision of the Italian Tariff has reached a 
turther stage by the publication of a law appointing a Parlia- 
mentary Commission for the examination of the new draft 
Uustoms Tariff which the Government is to draw up and 
submit for legislative sanction. The Commission is to consist 
of la Deputies and 15 Senators of the Italian Parliament 
the proposals of the Royal Commission appointed to study the 
question are to form the basis of the new Tariff. 
J^il^i'^'^^ *° ^^^ existing Itahan import prohibitions it 
should be noted that it is necessarj' for importers to obtain 
hcences for the import of British gixids, with the exception 
of certain foodstuffs, raw materials, chemicals, &c. At pre- 
sent, applications for such licences must be submitted by the 
would-be importers to the competent authorities, through the 
medium of Itahan Chambers of Commerce 

rXITED STATES.-FuU details of the .American export 
prohibitions are now available. As was to be expected, the 
hst of prohibited goods is very comprehensive, and includes 
inter aha, all engines and motors worked by electricity all' 
electrical equipment, metals, and wireless apparatus 'and 
accessories. 

Applications for export licences must be made bv the ex- 
porter to the Exports Administrative Board at Washington 
or 11, Broadway, New York. They will be valid for 60 days! 
unless previously revoked. Licences for certain articles will 
only be issued if such articles are destined for actual war pur- 
pose.?, or for purposes directly contributing thereto. The 
prohibitions affect goods in transit through the United States, 
as well as domestic products. For consignments not exceed- 
ing 100 dols. in value, export hcences may be granted under 
special declarations. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1918. 

(NOT YKT PUBLISHED.) 
Compiled expressly (or this journal by Messrs. W. P. Thompson 
Electric Patent Agents, 385, High Holborn, London, W.C, 
Liverpool and Bradford. 



336. 
354. 



"Ign 
7th. 



magnetos for internal^ombustic 



engi. 



A. U. March. 



' Railw 



ailing." .McKenzie, Holland, & Westinchouse Power 
Signal Co. {Union Switch & Signal Co., U.S.A.) January 7th. 

363. " Apparatus for measuring want of equilibrium in galvanometer coil, 
&c." J. Ry.mer-Jones. January 7th. 

379. ''Telegraphic apparatus." E. A. Willson. January 7th. 

386. " Electrically-propelled xessels." F. LjUNGSTROM. January 7th. 

395. " Sparking plugs, &c." G. H. Ward. January 8th. 

404. " Means for attaching mouthpieces of telephones, speaking tubes, &c." 
Tavlor, Tunnicliff Si Co. and E. D. M. Scrivener. January 8th. 

411. " Electron-emitting cathodes, and process of making same." Western 
Electric Co. (Western Electric Co., U.S.A.) January 8th. 

420. " Electrodes for electric welding." Quasi-Arc Co. & A. P. Stroh- 
menger. January 8th. 

Electric lampholders. " J. H. Collings & M. J. F 



8th 



Ja 



423. 



' Electric guns." L. M. 

(U.S.A., May 29th, 1917.) 

431. " Overhead system of electric 

436. " Electric wall plugs. S:c." J 

458. *' Sparking plugs for internal-t 



Bowv 



& W. A. S.M 



Janu 



Sth. 



8th. 



R. Cr.aic. Ja 
nbustion engii 



R. Tavlok. Ja 



474. 



ndescent electric lamps for projection purposes." D. Lely anc 
ENNOOTSCHAP Phjlips' Gloeilampenfabrieken. January Sth. (Ho! 
land, June 3nd, 1917.) 

478. " Transformation of polyphase into practicallv constant direct cur 
rents." O. M. CoRBlNO. January 8th. (Italy, January Sth, 1916.) 

480. " Telephone systems." .\trro.MATic Telephone Manlt.acturing Co 
(Automatic Electric Co., U.S..^.) January Sth. 

533. " Receiving radio-signals." Marconi W1RE1.BSS Telegraph Co. Janu 
ary 9th. (U.S.A., July 19th, 1917.) 

534. " Sign telegraphs, &c., electric advertising devices." H. K. Harris. 
January 9th. 

545. " W'inding with equipotential connections for drum armatures of elec 
trie commutator machines." E. C. R. Marks (Akt. Ges. Brown, Boveri et 
Cie.). January 9th. 

551. " Manufacture of carbon electrodes." B. E. D. KiLBURN (Norsk Aktie- 
selskab for Elektrokemisk Industri). January 9th. 

Audion or lamp relay or amplifying apparatus," M. Latocr. 
)th (France, January 9th, 1917.) 

Silencing jads for telephone or speaking-tube ear pieces and ear 
■ A. C. Brown. January 9th. 

561. " Electric switches." A. H. F. Perl. January 9th. 

574. " Electric switches." G. O. Donovan & W. Donovan. January 10th. 

579. " Electric air purifiur and destructor." \V. J. Calder. January 10th. 

587. " Magnetic separators." H. Cornell. January 10th. (Australia, 
January 12th, 1917.) 

590. " Signalling device for aircraft.' 

600. " Manufacture of electric cables 
January 10th 

609. " Galvanometers for measuring-instrum 
Instrl'.meni Co. & E. C. Hurst. January 10th 

615/6/7. " Electric starting apparatus for 
Lucas & C. L. Breeden. January 10th. 

662. " Electric replaceable fuses." M. H. Goldstone. January 11th. 

673. " Ventilating devices for electrical machinery, &c." Siemens Schl'C 
KERTWERKE. January Uth. (Germany," December Snd, 1916.) 

676. " Wireless signalling systems." British Thomson-Hoi;stom Co 
(General Electric Co., U.S.A.) January 11th. 

684. " Circuit arrangements for operating selecting devices of telephone 



Janu 



stoppers. 



Ebury. January 10th. 
. J. Beaver & E. .'\. Clareuont 



Cambridge Scientific 



vehicle engines.' 



T. Pettigrew. January 11th. 
systems." L. Polinkowskv & Western 



by number impuli 
704. " Machine switching teleph 
Electric Co. January 11th. 
723. " Power generating devices." J. Peterson. January 13th. 
739. " Electrode holder for electric furnaces." J. E. Robinson & C. 
Kavser. January 12th. 
738. " Sparking plugs." D. Collins. January 13th. 

' Magneto-electric machines." L. G. Gaunter & F. W. Suier. J 



757 



12th. 

" Electric transformers, &c.' 
" Sparking plugs for interr 
I2th 



A. ScHAANNiNC. January 13th. 
il-combustion engines." \V. D. 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 



e those under which the specifications 
ubsequent proceedings will be' taken. 

X8X6. 



17,934. Arrangements for Advancing the 
Engines. Soc. Anon, pour I'Eclairage Elecli 
20th, 1915. (102,951.) 

18,144. Magnetos with Fixed Armatures. E. C. 
des Etablissements L. Bleirot). December 18th, 1916. 



^. Marks (Soc. Anon. 
(112,038.) * 



.M. A. Codd. January 9th, 1917 



XSXT. 

436. Induction Coils or Trans 
(112,051.) 

713. Electric Lamps for Motor Vi 
L. King. January ISth, 1917. (112,055.) 

2,340. Process for joining up Electric and other Wires. J. H. van 
\'iersen, an I Slot S: Zwijnenberg. September 3nd, 1916. .(109,433.) 

7,606. Cores for Pupin Lo.\ding Coils, .Magnets and the uke. Western 
Electric Co. .May 26th, 1916. (107,007.) 

8,598. X-R-av Tubes. W. J. Robinson. June 15th, 1917. (113,101.) 

8,726. Device Applicable to the Sprincktontrolled Switches of Telephone 
Receivers. A. S. John. June 18th, 1917. (112,102.) 

8,949. Diaphragm Vibrators or Sounders. H. S. A. Rydberg. June 30th, 
1916. (108,305.) 

14,981. Continuous-current Dynamos. F. Kesellring. June Sth, 1916 
(Divided application on 8,150/16.) (112,116.) 



TXZES 



eleotK/IO-A-Xj :R:Ervx:Ervr 



ToL. LXXXII. 



FEBRUARY 1, 1918. 



No. 2,097, 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



THE WORLD THAT IS TO BE. 



Vol. IiXXXlI.] 



CONTENTS: February 1, 1918. 



[No. 2,097. 
Page 



The World that is to be 

German Influence in the Swiss Electrical Industry ... 

Resistances for Starters and Controllers, by " X " 

Electroculture at Chest