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Full text of "The Electrical review"

fflARSWELL Co., Limit- 
BookbiiKlers- 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/electricalreview84lond 



Index to the Electrical Rev 
Julj 4th, 1919. 



THE 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW 



Vol. LXXXIV. I 

JANUARY 3 -JUNE 2 7, 1919. 



LONDON : 

THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. LTD.. 
4. LUDGATE HILL, E.G. 4. 



Index 10 the Electrical ReTu 
July 4«h, 1919. 



i. CI 11 ^ 11 n ; 

Published by the Propkietdrs, 

A 4, LUDGATE HmL, E.G. 4. 




.lui-Y 4. I'.H'.t.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Lut of «u6-(iea<«B»»:— AtjTHoRs, Banrrcptcy Proceedings, City Notes, Contracts Closed and Open, Correspondence, Institction and Lectcre Notes, Legal, 
Lighting and Power Notes, Liquidations, New Companies, New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant, Obituary, Officlu. Retdrns, Railway 
Notes, Reviews, Telegraph Notes, Telephone Notes, Tramway Notes, War Items. 



A BORTIVE ilrike, 634 

Atad^muj des Science^, iin^ineers in 

the. 18 
-Accumulator trade combination. .-Vn- 



othei 



14 



Accumulators, German, «j 

.Admiralty el.'Clrical engineering stag 
dinner. 41 

Advertising liritiali goodi for export 
trade, ()fi2 

Advertising. Engineering, 98 

Advertising, World polities and, 232 

" A. E.G." : Anathema expected gener- 
ally, 140 

A. E.G. and the Bergmnnn Co., The 
situation of the, 2G2 

A. E.G. peace conference. The. 382 

Aerial Derby, 760 

.Aeronautical Engineering, 508 
.Agriculture, Electricity in, 3D. 540 
Agriculture in Italy, Ele 



and 



engineering work. The effect of, 

bv H. E. Yerbury, 484 
Allen' immigration, 534 
.All-metal passenger cars, bv F. E. 

Gobey and G. Hughes, 582 
Alternating 



Alt. 



All 



^rnators, Comr 
Marshall, 312 
minium, 1)8 
minium. Into: 
in. 563 



603 



ling, by C. W. 



onal competition 



Orii.rr suspend.-<I. 13 
America, Ri?turning to peace produc- 
tion in, 43 
American Bosch Magneto Co.. 42 
American electrical export trade com* 

pany. An. 98, 320 
American Electric Furnace .Vssociation, 



569 






Engir 



and French 



.Authors — 

Abell, VV. S.. on Experiments on the 
application of electrical welding 
to large structures, 305 

Ad.ind, F. £., on The Still engine: 

A new prime mover of high eflfi- 

■ i.ncy and British origin, 643, 720 

A.W.nbrooke. G. L.. on Dielectrics 
in electric fields, 314 

AlUock, Harry, on Industrial recon- 
struction and the metric system. 



an foreign trade plans. 125 
an General Electric strike, 104 
an Government sales of copper. 



Chalmers. 10 

Amplifiers, Vacuum-valve, 771 

Anglo-Italian industrial relations, 661 

Anthracite duff. Briquetling, 299 

Appointment of British agents overseas, 
661 

Appointments Board, The l.E.E. Elec- 
trical, 240, 269 

Apprentices. Help for. 730 

.Arc-lamp globes. Renovation of dis- 
coloured. 122 

Arc welding A.C, 589 

Arc welding. Regulations for Electric, 
by H. .M. Savers, 436 

Argentina. The trade outlook in. 440 

.Armstrong-\\'hitworth, 347 

.Army, Electrical energy in the, 57 

.Artillery fire. Wireless control of. 495 

.Artisans, The grading of electrical, 47 

Asbestos control order cancelled, 100 

.A.S.E. ballot for a 44-hour week, 724 

A.S.E. Secretary, 569 

.Association scheme of the Society of 
Engineers (Inc.), 731 

.Athens, Important exhibition at, 398, 
470 

Atom of electricitv, 693 

Australia and British goods, 291 

Australia, Battery manufacture in. 695 

.Australia, Electricity supply in. 251 

.Australia, Hours of labour' in. 47 

.Australia. Imports of machinery into, 
409 ■ • 

.Australia, Importation of rubber-coverod 
wire into, 629 

.Australia, Manufacture of tramcars in. 
291 

Australia, National electricitv supply 
in, 527 .1. 

Australia, Standardisation in. 246 

Australian copper, 292 

.Australian copper mines close down, 

Australian-made cables. 725 

Australian metals, 29R 

.Australian works visit. 234 His 

Australians and trade with (iermany, 44 



.AuTHOKS — continued. 

Allen, H. S., on Electrical changes 
produced by light, 63 

Austin, E., on Regenerative direct- 
current electric railways, 705 

Avton. F.. on The electric automobile 
for commercTal use, 609; Presi- 
dential address. l.M.E.A. annual 
convention, 738 

Baker, Charles A., on "Rules" im- 
posed bv electric supply authori- 
ties, 449. 481 

Barclay. Dr. S. F., and S. P. Smith, 
on The determination of the effi- 
ciency of the turbo-alternator, 275, 
334, 423 

Barnes. A S. L.. on The present 
L'l.-ctrical outlook in Canada, 359, 
389. 42 L 

B.-lling. C. R.. on Tariffs on im- 
ported manufactured goods, 769 

Bengough. G. D., and O. F. Hudson, 
on The corrosion of condenser 
tubes, 467 

Bibbv, J., on Iron and steel electric 
furnaces, 136, 166. 176. 677 

Hone. Prof. W. A., on Coal con- 
servation. 499 

Booth. \V. K , on The Booth-Hall 
<-lectric furnaces, .591 

Brown. C. L., on .Methods of " earth- 
ing " three-phase systems. 62 

Bujama. H.. on Fault localising; A 
few hints, 432, 532 

Caldwell. J., and H. B. Sayers, on 
Electric welding developments in 
Great Britain and the United 
Slates. 305 

Castle, G. C, on El«tric furnaces 
in the laboratory, 173 

Chalmers, .M.. on .America's electrical 
trade, 10 

Constantine. H. R.. on Co-ordination 
of research in works and labora- 
tories, 393 

Cross, A. S., on The electrical equip- 
ment of H.M. factory, Gretna, 
619, 652 

Currie. .A., on Meter repairing as a 
vocation for disabled soldiers, 
526 

Dunn, H. H„ on The eli-clrification 
of seed. 89 

Eason, A. B.. on Methods ol prevent- 
ing the transmission of vibration 
in buildings, 684 

Ellis, A. G.. and J. L. Thompson, on 
Large power transformers, 545. 
578, 610 

Field, M. B.. on The navigational 
magnetic compass considered as 
an instrument of precision. (i6, 
110, 122 

Fleming, A. P. M., on Planning a 
works research organi.<iation 119, 
285. 486 

Fuller, Major A. C, On The Fuller- 
phone and its application to 
military and civil telegraphy. 515 

Girdlestone, J. C, on Carbon brush- 
holders, 53 

Gobey. F. E.. and G. Hugh.s. on 
.All-Metal passenger cars, 582 

Goodall. Commander S. V.. on Weld- 
ing as a process in ship construc- 
tion, 304 

Goody. H. .M.. on Searchlights. 227; 
on Searchlight equipment and 
operation, 463, 532 

Greaves, H. A., on .Application of 
electrical 



of 



711 



ing 



e.ad. W. H., and E. A. I.aid- 
law. on The telephone service of 
large cities with special refer- 
ence to London, 641 

Harrison, J. B., on Electrical device 
for checkiivj; the steam consump- 
tion of small power mixed pres- 
sure turbo^generators, 577 

Heath. Sir Frank, on The organisa- 
tion of scientific research. 247 

Heaton, T. T., on Electric welding, 
167. 249 

Highfield ]. S.. on The supply of 



612 



fulle 



erpr: 



ionalisation of 
314; on The 
of tramway 



plant. 403 

Hudson, O. F.. and G. B. Bengough. 
on The corrosion of condenser 
tubes. 467 

Hunter-Brown. P.. on Carbon 
brushes; considered in relation 
to the design and operation of 
electrical machinery, 23, 54, 108, 



Authors — continued. 

Hughes, G.. 8: F. E. Gobey, on All- 
metal passenger cars, 592 

Ingham, E.. on Seizures of Diesel 
engine pistons, 451 

Kaula, R. J., on Surface condensing 
plant for large power stations, 
4.53, 483 

Kennedy, D. Ross, on Research 
publicity, 654 

Laidlaw. E. A., and VV. H. Grin- 
stead, on The telephone service 
of large cities, with special re- 
ference to London, 651 

Marshall. C. W., on The measure- 
m demand, 172; 



312 



Con 



ling 



F. J., on Reconsi 
The time for clear thinking and 
straight talking, 259; on Litera- 
ture of scientific management, 513 

Mensforth, H.. on .An example of 
industrial co-operation, 658 

Mercer, R. G,. on Electric furnaces 
in the Lnited Kingdom. 580 

Mercier. C on The elc-ctrification of 
eed, 118 



Mun 



D. 



Ele. 



nstruction; the right men 
in the right places, 399; the field 
of the electrical contractor, 494 

O'Meara, Lieut.-Col. W. A. J., on 
The functions ol the engineer, his 
etfucation and training, 219. 249, 
426 

Opperman, J. T., on Electric trans- 
port veh'cles, 424 

Parsons, K. H.. on The coal con- 
sumption of steam power plant. 



300 



Wha 



Pells, .Major E. A., 

meant by efficiency methods ? 38 ; 
on Scientific management factors, 
174; on The human factor in effi- 
ciency methods, 228; on The de- 
termination of standards. 284; on 
The application of standards, 402; 
on Specialised control, ,523; on 
Wage systems in relation to 
efficiency: 589; on Incentives to 
Efficiency, 688; on Costing in 
relation to efficiency, 718 

Philip, A., on Testing transformer 
oils, 175 

Phillips W. D. B.. on A travelling 
light, .11 

Rvmer-Jones, J., on Balancing the 
su5p--ndid coil of a marine gal- 
vnnomeier, 492 

Sahlin. Axel, on A new type of elec- 



fun 



591 



Sayers. H. B., and J. Caldwell, on 
Electric welding developments in 
Great Britain and the United 
States, 305 

Savers, H. .M.. on Regulations for 
electric-arc welding. 436 

Segundo, Ed. C. de. on Fuel economy 
from the householder's point of 
view, 390 

Shaw, A. J., on The use of high- 
pressure and high-temperature 
steam in large power stations. 83 

Smith, J. R.. on The application of 
electric welding in ship construc- 
tion and rep,'.irs, 306 

Smith, Prof. C. A. .Middlelon. on 
British electrical trade in China. 
61, 90, 116; on Seven years in 



Eas 



eflectit 



iipres: 



Smith S. P.. and Dr. S. F. Barclay, 
on The Determination of the effi- 
ciency of the turbo-alternator, 
275, '334, 423 

Stobie, v.. on Large electric sled- 
melting furnaces. 709 

Stubbings. G. W.. on .Sonn' notes 
on power factor indicators. 4'.Vi; 
on Some considerations reiiv''- 
ing the mathematical training of 
engineering students. 6.56 

Sylvester, C on The trouble man's 
■ " trouble." 770 

Taylor, F. H.. on The training of 
■ disabled men, 529 

Thompson. J. L.. and A. G. Ellis 
on Large power transformers. 
545, 578, 610 

Thum, E. E.. on NoKs on electrical 
precipitators. 331 

ThorrowgcKxI. W. J., on The salvage 
of Lcchlanch^ cells. 743 

VValker. Prof. Miles, on The supply 
of single-phase power from three- 
phase -systems. 195. 221. 350, 308; 
on Thi- supply report and the 
electricilv induslrv. 739 

Walmsfey, 'T.. on Non-condensing 
engines in central power stations. 
524 



Authors — continued. 

Whipple, R. S., on Some notes on 
the electro-cardiograph, 360; on 
Some notes on electrical methods 
of measuring f>ody temperaiures, 
392 

Wood, Capt. .N. H., on The propul- 
sion of the modern submersible 
torpedo boat, 543 

Verbury, H. E., on The effect of air 
and water on materials used in 
engineering work, 434 



BALANCI.NG the suspended coil of a 
marine galvanoiTieter, by J. Ry- 



jASKitvftcv Proceedings — 
Connold, R. E., 69, 210 
Karle. F. J., 441. 503. 695 
Hawdon, A. F.. 14, 9S, 182 
Hill. H. W .. 233, 291 
McCombc. W. J. 630 
Matson. A.. 98. 182, 264 
Mayfield, C. 69, 98, 124. 1S2. 29t 
Smith, W. T„ 321, 470 
Soesan, M. .M. 264 
Steel, E. S.. 441 
Taylor, A., 124 
Thomson, L. A.. 440, 533 
Wallace, R. W.. 09 
Wilson W. H.. 470. 662 



Barcelona, Electrical exhibition at, 409 
Batteries, Starling and lighting, 596 
Battery, A light-weight, 18 
Battery manufacture in .Australia, 695 
Battery standardisation, 764 
Battle' of the systems. The. 198 
Belfast extension scheme, 547 
Belgian Charleroi electrical works. 

470. 564 
Belgian companies, .New, 190 
Belgian engineers ostracise the enemy, 

603 
Belgian importers. Names of. 661 
Belgian industries. 501 
Belgi.an metal trust. 725 
Belgi;in reconstruction, 415 
Belgian supply company during enemy 

occupation. A, 160 
Belgium, Metric .system in. 661 
Belgium Resumption of Iratle with, 

13 
l>.lgium. The retreat through, 470 
Belgium, Trade with, 290 
Belluzzo steam turbine The, 361 
Benevolent Institution, The Electrical 

Trades, 28. 73, 104, 122, 145, 179, 

28:), 358, 381 
Bergmann Co.. The situation of the 

A. E.G. and the. 262 
Berlin, Municipalisation in. 490 
Berlin tramways technical staff. 130 
Birmingham, Electricity suoplv at, 255 



Bii 



indu 



-iai fa 



535 



Birmingham, .New library at, 409. 563 

Birmingham rails contract -for the 
U.S.A., 348 

Birmingham. Work conditions in, 534 

Black list withdrawn. 502 

Bo<l\ teniperatures. Some notes on elec- 
trical methods of measuring, by 
K. S. Whipple. 392 

Bolivia. Trade with, 154 

Bombay, International exhibition at. 
629 

Footh-Hall electric furnace, by W. K. 
Booth, 591 

Borrowing bv local authorities, 414 

Bosch Magneto Co., The American, 43 

Bo\s' Welfare Association, 629 

Bribv's. Roy:il visit to, 694 

Brazil, 123 ■ 

Brazil, .Advice to intending exporterl 
to, 153 

Brazil, Our trade with. 681 

Brazil, The electrical trade of, 202, CS» 

Brazil, Tr.ade statistics of, 590 

Brazilian delegates in Great Britain, 
Tour of, 209. 414, 725. 760 

Brazilian machinery market. Investi- 
gating the, 18 

Briquetting anthr;icite duff, 299 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



• li i.v -1. l;i|',i. 



laciurti'-i' Association. ;jo2. 'Si'-i, i&) 
British Entinwring Standards Associa- 
tion, 3^ 
British firms onlv, 377 
British industriLS fair, 238, 34S 
British-Italian trade and industry, 13 



British 
376 



for British firms, IbO, 



British Westinghouse war rclitl, (iii) 

Brown-Bovffi contracts, 182 

Brush-holders. Carbon, by J. O. 
Girdlestonc. 53 

Brushes, Carbon, considered in relation 
to the design and operation of 
electrical machinery, by P. Hunter- 
Brown, 23, 54. lUS, 2B6 

Building costs, olH) 

Bureaucracy. The dangers of, atrti 

Burnley Technical Institute. 7li3 

Business correspondence with Ger- 

Business' ' influenza, 714 
Busine^is training for engineers, 481 
Businesses. Opening new electrical, 8(i 
Businesses, Permits for new, 319 



/'^ ABLE censorship handicap. A, 18 

Cable codes and overseas trade, 12 

Cable, Dielectric loss in, 39 

Cable industry. Labour in the German, 

555 
Cable standardisation in Germany, 487 
Cable. The Pacific, 129 
Cable unprotected. Colliery. 268 
Cables, Improvements in electric. 765 
Cables. Silvertown. 408 
Calcium carbide. 100 
Calcium carbide order suspended, 291 
Caledonian canal. The, 299 
Canada, British manufacturers in, 534 
Canada, Hvdroelectric power in, 437 
Canada. -Notes from, 434, 493 
Canada, Scientific research in, 475 
Canada. Technical men for future de- 
velopment, 502 
Canada, The present electrical outlook 
in. by A. S. L. Barnes, 359, 389, 
421 



Canadian generating stations. Output 
of U.S.A. and, 488 

Canadian I.E.E., Proposed, 764 

Canadian industry. Joint control of, 
409 

Canadian mission in London, 502 

Canadian strikes, 667 

Canadian trade inquiry, 503 

Canadian water-power appeal 413 

Canals, British. 427 

Canml coal, Oil from, 373 

Cape Town City Council and enemy 
subjects, 233 

Carbon brush-holders, by J. O. Girdle- 
stone, 53 

Carbon brushes, considered in relation 
to the design and operation of 
electrical machinery, by P. Hunter- 
Brown. 23, 54, 108, 286 

Carbon electrodes. Qualities of am- 
orphous, 764 

Cardiff, Roval Agricultural Show at, 
634 

Cardiograph, Some notes on the elec- 
tro-, by R. S. Whipple, 360 

Catalonia, Electrical development in, 
313 

Cars, passenger. All metal, by F. E. 
Gobey and G. Hughes, 582 

Catenary suspensions. Railway, 483 

Channel funnel. The. 73, 299. 318 

Charleroi electrical works, The Bel- 
gian. 470 • 

Chemical actions in the lead 
lator, 547 

Chemical engineering, 352 

al works fire loss in Ge 



694 



any. 



China, Electrical appliances for. 693 
China and Siam, Exports to. 209 
China. British electrical trade in, by 
Prof. C. A. Middlelon Smith. 61, 
90. 116 
China. Exports to, 290. 347. 377. 502 
Chinese market for machinery, The, 

202 
Christmas tree. Electrically illuminated, 

190 
Church lighting. The lighting of 
Pusey House Chapel, Oxford, 401 
Citv and Guilds technological examina- 
tions, 383 
City electrified, 569 



CiTV Notes — 

Adelaide Electric Supply Co., 161. 

543. 767 
Alby United carbide factories. 77 
Alderley & Wilmslow electric supply. 



543 

Alldavs & Onions Pneumatic Engi- 
neering Co., 21. 357 
Alley &■ Maclellan, 607 
Altrincham Electric .Suppiv, 607,702 
Aluminium Corporation, 67, 768 
Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), 
479 



Telephone & Telegraph 

Co., 419 
Anglo-American Telegraph Co., 50, 

448, 542 
Argentine Tramways & Power Co., 

479 
Armstrong. Whilwonh & Co., Sir 

W. G., 419 
Aster Engineering Co. (1913), 639 
Auckland Electric Tramways Co., 



Automatic Jclcphune Manulacturing 

Co., 301, 3id, 356 
-Averv, \V. T., 768 
Babcock \' \\ikx>.<c, 607, 64U 
Barcelona Traction, Light & Power 

Co., 274, 671 
Barnsley & District Electric Traction 

Co., 735 
Bath EUctric Tramways, 608 
Bell Telephone Co., of Canada, 49, 

388, 479, 703 
Birmingham District Power and 

Traction Co.. 703, 732 
Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad 

Co., 244, 768. 
Blackpool, St. .Anncs & Lytham 

Tramways Co., 49 
Bombay Electric Supply & TVam- 

ways Co., 418, 670 
Bournemouth & Poole Electricity 

Supply Co., 245, 301. 329 
Braby, F., & Co., 245 
Brazilian Traction, Light & Power 

Co., 671 
Brisbane Electric Tramways Invest- 
ment Co., 607 
Bristol Tramways & Carriage Co., 

387 
British Aluminium Co., 329, 386 
iiritish Columbia Electric Railway 

Co., 385, 418 
British Engine. Boiler & Electrical 

Insurance Co.. 386 
British Electric Traction Co., 704, 

764 
British Electric Transformer Co., 

608, 638 
British Ever-Ready Co., 543, 575 
British Insulated & Helsbv Cables, 

301, 329, 355 
British L. -M. Ericsson Manufactur- 
ing Co., 245, 327 
British Trade Corporation, 133 
British Westinghouse Electric and 

.Manufacturing Co., 574. 605 
Bromley (Kent) Electric Light and 

Power Co., 419, 511 
Brompton & Kensington Electricity 

Supply Co., 329, 3S5 
Browett, Lindley & Co., 703 
Bruce Peebles & Co., 300, 328 
Brush Electrical Engineering Co., 

575, 607 
Calcutta Electric Suppiv Corporation, 

106, 189, 543, 639, 734 
Calcutta Tramways Co., 704, 735 
Callender's Cable & Construction 

Co., 768 
Cambridge Electric Suppiv Co., 189 
Canadian General Electric Co., 274, 

671 
Castner-Kellner Alkali Co., 671 
Central Electric Supply Co., 189, 217 
Central London Railway Co., 188 
Charing Cross, West End & City 

Electricity Supply Co., 273, 301 
Chatham & District Light Railways 

Co., 244 
Chelsea Electricity Supply Co., 245. 

357, 417 
Chesham Electric Light & Power 

Co., 640 
Chile Telephone Co., 50 
Chiswick Electricity Supply Corpora- 
tion, 575 
Chloride Electrical Storage Co., 640 
City & South London Railway Co., 

188 
City Electric Light Co. (Brisbane), 

512 
City of Buenos Ayres Tramwoys Co. 

(1904). 161. 189. 543 
City of London Electric Lighting 

Co., 244, 300 
City of Oxford Electric Tramwavs, 

274 
Clarke, Chapman & Co., 273, 576 
Clones Electric Light & Power Co., 

301 
Clontarf (Dublin) & Hill of Howth 

Electric Tramway Co., 218 
Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co., 

356 
Colombo Electric Trainwnvs and 

Lighting Co., 671 
Compagnie G^n^rale d'Electri- 

citi, 76 
Compania .indina de Electricidad 

Sociedad Anonima, 387 
Compania .Anglo-.^rgentine de Elec- 

tricdad, Sociedad .Anonima. 77 
Companies struck off the register, 

50. 77, 245, 671 
Companies to be struck off the re- 
gister, 447 
Consolidated Electrical Co., 448. 478 
Constantinople Telephone Co., 132 
Cordoba Light & Power Co., 21 
Cork Electric Tramways & Lighting 

Co., 21, 735 
Costa Rica Electric Light & Traction 

Co., 161 
County of London Electric Supply 

Co., 274, 300, 354 
Coventry Chain Co.. 768 
Craigpark Electric Cable Co., 543 
Crompton & Co.. 188, 216, 767 
Crosslev Bros.. 189 
Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co.. 179 
Danish .Accumulator Works, 703 
Davis & Timmins. 301. 355 
Delabole Electric Light & Supply 

Co., 77 
Delhi Electric Tramways 4 Light- 
ing Co., 671. 734 
Dictograph Telephones, 512 
Direct Spanish Telegraph Co., 330, 

357 
Dir.-ct U.S. Cable Co., 49 
Direct West India Cable Co., 301 
Doulton & Co.. 386. 671 
Dublin & Locan Electric Railway 

Co.. 511 



Dublin United Tramways. 77. 189. 

217 
East London Railway Co.. 133 
Eastern Extension, &c., leiegraph 

Co., 419 
Eastern Telegraph Co., 419, 767 
Edison Swan Electric Co., 20, 189, 

301, 479, 607 
Electric Construction Co., 607, 639, 

670 , 
Electrical & Industrial Investment 

Trust, 330 
Electrical Distribution of Yorkshire, 

217, 272 
Electrical Utilities Corporation, 448 
Electro-Bleach S: Bv-Products, 273, 

767 



Fellows .Magneto Co., 638 

Fife Tramway, Light & Power Co., 

217, 243 
Folkestone Electricity Supply Co., 

418 
French companies, 20, 132, 162, 244, 

574, 039. 661 
Fuller .Accumulator Co., 419 
Fuller's Carbon & Electrical Co., 

419 
Fuller's Wire & Cable Co., 419 
Galashiels & District Electric Supply 

Co., 357 
Gandy Belt Manufacturing Co., 301 
Gateshead & District Tramwajs 

Co., 330 
General Electric Co. (U.S.A.), 734 
German companies, 77, 244, 418, 574. 

702 
Globe Telegraph & Trust Co.. 301, 

543 
Glover. W. T., & Co., 511, 543, 605 
Great Northern Telegraph Co., 703 
Greenwood & Batlev, 161, 245 
Hadficlds, 356 

Halifax & Bermudas Cable Co., 301 
Hastings & District Electric Tram- 
ways Co., 330, 385 
Henley''s, W. T., Telegraph Works 

Co., 419, 478, 479, 510 
Humphrey Pump Co., 21 
Hydro Electric Power & .Metallurgi- 
cal Co., 671 
Globe Telegraph & Trust Co., Ltd., 

768 
Imperial Tramways Co., 767 
India-Rubber, Gutta-Percha, & Tele- 

graph Works Co., 
Indian Electric Supply S: Traction 

Co., 511. 573 
Indo-European Telegraph Co., 272, 

419, 542 
International Light & Power Co., 

189 
Isle of Thanet Electric Tramways 

and Lighting Co., 162. 244 
Isle of Wight Electric Light & Power 

Co., 357 
Jackson, P. R., & Co., 357 
lames Keith & Blackman Co., 735 
Jarrow & District Electric Traclicm 

Co., 274 
Johnson & Phillips, 543, 606 
Kalgoorlie Electric Power & Lighting 

Corporation, 273, 671, 703 
Kaministiquia Power Co., 50. 512 
Kensington & Knightsbridge Eelctric 

Lighting Co., 245, 273 
Lanarkshire Tramways Co., 387 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., 



448 



Plat 
640 



Powe 



Ele. 






Ltd., 



Launceston & District Electric Supply 

Co., Ltd., 608 
Lima Light, Power & Tramways 

Co., 21, 418, 607 
Liverpool Overhead Railway Co., 106, 

218, 245, 271 
Llandudno & Colwvn Bay Electric 

Railway, 162, 18'9 
London & South-Western Railw^ay 

Co.. 243 
London & Suburban Traction Co., 



Railway Co.. 188, 



162. 

London Elect 

243, 447 

London Electric Wire Co. .t Smiths. 

London United Tramways, 50, 133, 

357, 448. 574 
Mackay Companies. 735 
Madras Electric Supply Corporation, 

703 
.Madras Electric Tramways (1904), 

479, 511 
.Manila Electric Railroad & Light- 

ing Corporation, 330. 735 
Marconi International .Marine Com- 
munication Co.. 49, 418, 479, 

543, 575, 734. 766 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of 

America 189 357 
M.irconi wireless Telegraph Co. of 

Canada. 735 
Mather & Piatt, 218, 245 
.Melbourne Electric Supply Co., 132, 

161, 543 
Melton Mowbray Electric Light Co., 

479 
.Mersey Railway Co., 245 
MerthVr Electric Traction & Light- 
ing Co., 703 
Metropolitan District Railway Co., 

188. 244 
Metropolitan Electric Tramways, 

Ltd., 573 
Metropolitan Electric Supply t^o., 

273 328 
Metropolitan Railway Co., 162, 189 



.■jtr Noils-, u,iliiii.e.i 
Mexican Northern Power Co., 671 
.Middleton Electric Traction Co., 419 
Midland Electric Corporation (or 

Po\yer Distribution, 3-29, 356 
MincheaO Electric Suppiv Co., 419 
Mirrlees Bickerion i Diiv, 735 
Mirrltvs Watson Co.. 35t'i, 419 
Montevideo Telephone Co., 419, 479 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power Co., 

106, 161, 512, 768 
Nairobi Electric Power & Lighting 

Co., 735 
National Boiler & General Insurance 

Co., 245 
National Electric Supply Co., 189, 

217, 704 
National Gas Engine Co., 189, 217 
Newcastle & District Electric Light- 
ing Co., 273 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electricity Sup- 
ply Co., 245. 329, 386 
New GeneraJ Traction Co., 767 
Newmarket Electric Light Co., 357 
New York Telephone Co., 419 
New York Traction, 447 
Nitrogen Products & Carbide Co., 

Northallerton Electric Light & Power 

Co., 273 
Northampton Electric Light & Power 

Co., 244 
Northern General Transport Co., 418 
North Metropolitan Electric Power 

Suppiv Co., 575 
North of Scotland Light & Power 

Co. 511, 543 
North Wales Power S: Traction Co., 



245 



Notting Hill Electric Lighting Co., 
272, 329 

Oldham, Ashton & Hyde Electric 
Tramways Co., 543, 576 

Oriental Telephone & Electric Co., 
543, 636 

Oxford Electric Co., 245, 301 

Para Electric Railways & Lighting 
Co., 356 

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Co., 
189 

Peel-Conner Telephone Works, tin 

Petters. 735 

Potteries Electric Traction Co., 179, 
639 

Prospectuses ; International Light 
and Power Co., 217; British Elec- 
tric Translornier Co.. 356; .Mid- 
land Electric Corporation Uir 
Power Distribution, 387; Electric 
Construction Co.. 387; Anglo- 
Portuguese Telephone Co., 387: 
Major & Co., 447; Fuller's United 
Electric Works, 447; Manganese. 
Bronze & Brass Co.. 511 

Provincial Tramwavs Co.. 768 

Puebia Tramway ' Light & Power 
Co., 133 

Ramsgate & District Electric Supply 
Co., 543 

Rangoon Electric Tramwavs Si Sup- 
ply Co.. 767 

Ransomes. Sims & Jeflei 

Reading Electric 

Rhondda Tramw 

Richardsons, Wesigarlh & Co., 640, 
702 

River Plate Electricity Co., 512, .575 

Robev & Co., 357 

Rushden & District Electric Supply 
Co., 245 

Ruston & Hornsby's, 735 

St. James' & Pall Mall Electric Light 
Co., 189. 217. 272 

Salisbury Electric Light & Supply 
Co.. 357 

Scarborough Electric SuppPy Co., 
356 

Shanghai Electric Construction Co., 
543, 638, 704 

Shawinigan Water & Power Co., 387, 
575. 703 

Shropshire. Worcestershire & Staf- 
fordshire Electric Power Co., 274, 
735, 767 

Siemens, Bros. & Co.. 607. 671, 733 

Siemens-Schuckert group, 132 

Simplex Conduits, 329 

Smithfield Markets Electric Supply 
Co., 217, 244 

South London Electric .Supply Cor- 
poration, 245, 300, 356 

South Metropolitan Electric Light 
and Power Co., 217. 273, 575 

South Staffordshire Tramways Co., 
330 

Stewarts & Lloyds. 330 

Stock Exchange notices. 21. 512. 576. 
671. 703. 767 

Submarine Cables Trust, 607 

Swansea Improvements S: Tr.imroads 
Co., 704 

Swiss companies, 574 

Telegraph Construction & .Mainten- 
ance Co.. 189. 244. 271 

Tottenham District Light & Power 
Co., 189 

Traction & Power Securities, 245 

Light & Power Co.. 245, 



273 
703 



(M.E.T.) Omnibus C< 
s. Light & Pow. 



nan Trr 
Co., 357 

Tynemoulh & District Electric Trac- 
tion Co., 479 

Tyneside Electrical Development Co., 
273 

Tyneside Tramways & Tramroads 
■ Co.. 245, 273 

Underfeed Stoker Co., 77 

Underground Electric Railway Co., 
188, 216 244, 301 

United Elertric Tramw*vs of .Monte- 
video, 766 



.iiLv -1. I'jr.i.j 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



CiTV Notes — continued 

Unilai Kiver I'latc Telephone Co., 

"03, 735 
L'rban Electric Supply Co., 574 
Vera Cruz lilectric Light Ji Fewer 

and 'Iraction Co., ISU, 218, (i07 
\icker5. 328, «S, 5i3, 575 
Viclceri-.Metropolitan amalgamation, 

355. U04 
Victoria halls & Transvaal Power 

Co., 5U, 47a. 708 
Vulcan Boiler & General Insurance 

Co., 2i5, 735 
Wavgood-Otis, 767 

Wa'ste Heat S: Gas Electrical Gener- 
ating Stations, 356, 417 
Western Telegraph Co., 640 
West India Electric Co., 41S 
West India & I'anama Telegraph 

Co., 575 
West Kootenay Power & Light Co., 

31 
West London & Provincial Electric 

Supply Co., 63y 
Western Power Co. of Canada. 448 
Westminster Electric Supply Cor- 

poration, 133, 217, 272 
White. J. O.. 5: Co., 767 
Windsor Electrical Installation Co., 

357 
Winnipeg Electric Railway Co., 388 
Wtxjd 5: Cairns (Edinburgh). 41'J 
Wvcombe (Borough) Electric Light 

it Power Co., 41'J 
Yates & Thorn, 21 
Yorkshire Electric Power Co., 243 
Yorkshire (West Riding) Electric 

Tramwavs Co., 106, 162, 703 
Yorkshire (Woollen District) Electric 

Tramwavs Co., 735 
Zurich Bank (or Ekcirical I'nder- 

takings, 161 



Civil 



408 



Whitley Council, lor the, 
182 



" C.M.A." label design, The n. 

Coal Commission, 75a 

Coal conservation, by Prof. W. A 

Bone, 498 
Coal consumption of steam powei 

plant, by R. H. Parsons. 200 



Coa 



Pow 



381 



indusi 



The, 2111 



700 



„ucd 



53a 



Coal cutters. Electric, 175 

Coal exports committee, 203 

Coal, Export of, 597 

Coal for industrial and dome; 
603 

Coal, gas, and electricity ratior 

Coal mining notes, 303 

Coal output, 372 

Coal output in 1917. Irish, 13 

Coal storage. Submerged. 332 

Coal tar or coke oven by-products (re- 
turns) order, 403 

Coalition Government, The, 17 

Cobkntz, The women ol, 48 

Codes and overseas trade. Cable. 12 

CollulJil lu.l, 572 

Coniui.ri. . A .Ministry of, 124, 186 

Conim.-rii.l Staffs' Association, 228 

CoiimiunuMtions, \ Board of Imperial, 
310, 699 

Commutator machines. Polyphase, 445 

Compass considered as an instrument 
of precision The navigational mag- 
netic, by M. B. Field, 66, 110, 122 

Compass, The wireless, 487 

Compensation for officials, 226 

Condenser tubes. The corrosion of, bv 
G. D. Bengough and O. F. Hud- 
son. 467 

Condensing plant. 760 

Condensing pl.mt for large power sta- 
tions. Surface, bv R. J. Kaula, 
453, 483 

Conductivity of metals at low temper..- 
ture, Super-, 415 

Conference of British Manufacturers, 



Consular reports, 143 

Consuls and trade development. Our, 2 

Continuous wave land wireless sets, 
657 

Contracting Industrial Council, Elec- 
trical, 105 

Contr.icting industry. The electrical, 
149 

Contr.ictor. Th,> fi,-ld of the electrical, 
by D. S. .Monro, 494 



Hackn> 

Halifax, 413, 53a, 660 

Hamniersmllh, 72, 213, r>3'J, 099 

Heywood, 72 

Holmtirth, 72a 

Huddersfield. 444 

Hull. 763 

Ilford, 10, 38U 

India Ollice, 103. 238, 331. 475 

Isle of Thanet. 6U1 

King's Lynn. 413 

Leeds, 5fj8 

Leicester, 267 

London, 213, 331, 413. 444. 475, .507. 

539. 308. 060. 72J 
Malvern, 729 
Manchester, 207. 413 
Melbourn-. 474. 634 
Morcambe, 539 
Murrumburrah. 634 
Newport (I. of W.). 351 
Office of Works. 103, 351, 475, 763 
Poplar, 475 

Post Office, 103. 238, 351, 475 
Preston. 157, 763 
Reading. 444 

Richmond-on-Thames, 634, 763 
Rothcrhani, 601 
St. Helens. 380 
Salford. 267, 539 
Sheffield. 183 
South Africa. 103 
Southport. 72 
Stepnev. 3.".1. .539 
Stirling. 763 
Stoke-on-Trent, 157. 539 
Sunderland. 103. 213 296, 444, 601. 

666. 729 
Swansea, 72 
Taunton, 475, 001, 763 
Walsall. 1S5 

War Office. 103. 238. 475 
Watford. 729 
West Ham, 666 
Weymouth, 351 
Wil'lesden, 128 
Winchester, 2' 3, 324. 363 
Windsor. 16 
Wolverhampton. 72. 444 



Contracts, Extras in engineering; An 

important d<M:ision, 433 
Contracts, Municipalities and enemy. 



•oNTRACis Opes— 

Aberdeen, 46, 72, 103, 266, 633, 666 

Atherton, 633, 666, 729 

Australia, 16, 46, 72, 103, 128, 212, 
237, 295, 324. 351. 380. 444. 507, 
539, 568. 601, 033, 606, 698, 729. 
763 

Aylesbury, 72. 103, 183, 237 

Ballinaslbe. 633. 666 

Barrow-in-Furness, 237 

Batley, 507 

Battersea, 412 

Bedford, 324. 444. 507. 729. 763 

Belfast. 72. 103. 128. 237. 763 

Belgium. 103. 212 

Bethnal Green. 666. 698 

Birkenhead. 098. 729, 763 ( 
ngham, 157, 351, 412 



Australia. 10. 213. 380. 444. 474. .139, 

601. 729, 763 
Aylesbury. 412 
Barnes, '331 
Barnslev, 213. 474 
Barrow: 413 
Batlev. 185. 666 
Uiltersea. 72. 213. 413 
Birkenhead. 666 
Bishop's Castle, 729 
Bolton 568. 699 

Bradford, 72, 185, 290. 324. 444. 699 
Burnley. 763 
Canadi. 267 
Cape Town. 103 
Chorlev, 539 
Coventry, 703 
Croydon, 001 
Dartford. 444, 568 
Doncaster, 413 
Hover. U4 
Dublin, .jOS 
Eastbourne. .508 
Gillingham. 72 
Glasgow, 40. 103, 213. 380, 474, 5(17, 

666, 763 
Government contracts, 103, 238, 331. 

474, 633. 763 



Bii 



412 



Bradford. 296 

Hriy, 601, 633 

Brisbane. 380. 444 507, 339. 368 

Bury. 568. 001, 633 

Chorlev. 474 

Colne,' 729, 763 

Darlington, 729, 763 

Dublin, 16, 212, 206, 412, 633, 668 

Dundalk, 412 

Dundee. 157. 185 

Eastbourne. 380 

East Ham. 237 

Eccles, 633, 600. 698, 729 

Edinburgh, 444, 066 

Glasgow. 103. 066 

Gravesend. 729. 763 

Grimsby. 324 

Halifax. 72 

Hammersmith. 72. 183. 238. 412 

Hampstead. 10, 46 

Heywood. 001. 033. 666 

Hull, 033 

474. 601. 633. 666 



Ilklif 



508 



Ips 

Islington, 238 
King's Lynn. 
Kirkcaldy. 763 
Lambeth'. 539 
412 



Leeds. 72. 237 

Lincoln. 157 

Liverpool. 1113. 466, 324 

Loftus, 633 

London, 16, 40. 103, 128. 1.57. 185, 

238, 290, 351, 412, 444. 474. .507. 

339. 7-29 
London County Council. 444, 474. 

.507, 539. .568, 001 
Macclesfield, 238 
Maidstone, 568 
Manch-ster, 103. 157. 212. 324, 507, 

539, 568. 601, 633, 060, 698 
Mansfield, 185 

Melbourne, 16, 72. 103. 237. 351 
Metropolitan Water Board, 474 
Middlelon, 633, 060 
Natal. .507, 539. 3li8 
New Ross, 103 
New Zealand, 001, 633 
Office of Works, 103. 331, 412 
Oldham, .568. 001 
rjrl,. 006. 698. 729. 763 
P,,ri,..i,mth, 185, 729, 763 
Pud,.!, 380 

Ou..Twlind. 212, 237, 295 
Rhonddi, 183, 633 



loMKACls OrkS-Cor.l::::„J 
Rochdale, 238 
St. Marylebone, 157 
St. Pancras. 128. 1.37 
Sale, 351 

Salford. 212. 474. 703 
Sheffield. 10. 40. 72. 193 
South Shields. 474, 72J 
Spain, 16, 4(i, 72, W.) 
Stepnei, 137, 18a 
Stockton, 238 
Stretlord, 1U3 
Swindon, 213 
Sydney, 10, 72. 103. 128. 295. 324, 

507, 508, "03 
Tasm.inia, 001, 633, 060, 098, 729, 

763 
Taunton, 185 
Templemore, 507 
Tuam, 033 
Tuamgraney, 12S 
Tyncmouth, 412 
Uxbridge, 46, 72 
Warrington 46, 72. 103, 267, 601, 

633 
West Ham, 729, 703 
West Hartlepool, 033, 666, 699 
Woolwich, 060, 699 



Control of metals, machinery, and 

plant, 12 
Control, Specialised by Major E. A, 

Pells. 523 
Converter plant control order. 1918, 

264 
Cooking (energy consumption of elec- 
trical ranges). 413 
Cooking on tramcar. Electric, 528 
Co-operation, 381 
Co-opera 



fac- 



31 



Co-ordination of research in works 
and laboratories, b\ H. R. Con- 
Co-partnership and profit-sharing, 293 

Copper, 661 

Copper, .American Goy-rnment sales 
of, 377 

Copper, Australian. 292 

Copp'-r from the fields of battle. Scrap, 
13 

Copper market, The, 409 

Copper mine, shut down, 760 

Copper position. The L'.S., 321 

Copper scarcity, 737 

Copper sulphat'e order, 1918, 469 

CoitHE.sPO\DENCE — 

Association for technical stalls, by 
"Five of them," 279; by N, 
Wvld, 288 

Association of Officers and StafI 
Members of Electricity (Power 
and Supply) Companies of Great 
Britain, bO O. M. Andrews, 231, 
375; by 'C. Vernier, 288; by 
O. L. Peard, 318 

Balanced three-phase furnace, by 
James Whitcher, 177 

Base rate and bonus, by " Caught 
in the Net," 625 

British fair play, by " Borough Elec- 
trical Engineer," 40 

Carbon Brushes, by National Carbon 
Co., 689 

Charging electric truck batteries, by 
H. W. Bosworth, 28 

Circular letter of inquiry. The. bv 
W. A. Toppin, 153 

City .ind Guilds technological ex- 
" aminations, by F. E. Rowland, 
439 

Colossal blunder, by F. A. Swann. 
776 

Consumption curves for power sta- 
tions, by R. Wheeler. 405 

Control of 'electricity, by " E. M. 
F.," 363 

Crompton-Burgin Dynamos, by 

Crompton & Co., Ltd., 532 

Definition of electrical resistance. 
The, bv C. H. Wright. 4«8 

Deliver 1 bv " Imperial." 287 

Demand better than 100 per cent 
load Lactor. by C. Orme Bastian. 
498. 499 

Early wireless telegraphv , bv A. A. 
Campbell Swinlon. 138. 278; by 
G. Marconi, 179; by H. G. An. 
drews, 289 

Educational reform, b\ Charles 
Bright. -289 

Electric pressure regulators, by " En- 
gineer," 40; by Lynton i Lvn- 
mouth Electric Light Co., 14; 
by C. Turnbull, 117 

Electrical contractor. The, by H. 
Fowler, 23, 95, 178, -206, by G. 
Wallace, 140; by H. Marryat. 
152; by "Amused," 178; by 
" Live and Let Live." 178 

Electrical contractors. The field of, 
bv " One of the Pioneers," 562 

Electrical engineering in the Army, 
by H. Payn, 96; bv "Major, 
R.E.," 96; by " M. M. E.," 279 

Electrical trades union. The future 
of the, bv "Constitutional," 204; 
bv "J. 'J. M.," 205; by "An 
E'.T.U. Worker," 203; by J. W. 
Woolley, 230; bv S. O. Hoad, 
230; by M. Bovle, 280 

Electrically-propelled battleship "New 

Mexico,'' by W. P. Durtnall. 318 

Electricity and the model home, by 

E. T. Williams, 623 
Electricity on board ship, bv Wm. 
H. M.assey, 65; by W. P. Durt- 
nall, 65, 150 
Electricity Supply Commercial Asso- 
ciation, bv G. R. Smith, 376 
Electricity supply progress, by J. C. 
Williams, 97, 139 



Electricity suppl>. The origin ol,. 

by Frank Bailey, 689 
Electricity suppl.v, '1 he new Ministry 

and, by L. L. Robinson. 317 
Electrified seed, by " Wide Awake," 
152 207 280, 318; by C. Mirrcier,. 
177, 231, 28a; by E. Ras mond- 
Barkcr, 231 
Employes and the Electricity Sup|)ly 

Bill, by J. H. Wright, 059 
Engineers and demobilisation, by 
Cr)stal Palace Old StudenU' 
Society, 152 
Engineers' salaries, by A. J. .-^.bia- 
ham 05; by " Electric," 95, '288; 
by •'' Pract.-ch," 95; by E. J{. 
Bishop, 90; by "Old Inspector," 
139; by J. Cookson, 140; by 
••X.Y.Z.," 152; by "Pitman," 
178 231; by F. Trapnell, 200; by 
R. J. Forsyth, 231; by "Ultra," 
279 
E.P.E.A. award. The. by C. 1. 
Smith. 468. 531. 625. 089; by R. 
Sidwell and "Nil Desperandum," 
498; by H. A. Harding, 501; by 
Wessex, 394, 059; by "Change 
Over," 625: by " Shift Engineer." 
059. 723; by Ulster McReavie, 
689; bv H. A. Harding, 723 
E.P.E.A. in contemporary trade and 
labour disputes. The policy of 
the, by W. A, Jones, 231 
Export vision. The, by J. E. Lea. 

204 
Fault localising, by "Ajax," 6,); by 
J. F. F. Dalston, 497; by A. E. 
Inderdown, 497; by H. Bajama, 
532 
Future of the shiftman. The, by ' A 

Shiftworker," 40 
Great Northern telegraph route. The, 
by Great Northern Telegraph 
Co., '206 
Greater London electricity supply, 

by J. C. Williams, 40 
Hong-Kong electric supply, by C. A. 

Middlelon Smith, 531, 532 
Housing schemes. New, by W. A. 

Turnbull, 318 
How not to obtain a situation, by 
"Static," 279; by "Two Sides,' 
289; bv " Wake Up," 405 
I.E.E. and national electricity sup- 
ply bv " Associate Member,' 
IM; by C. H. Marshall, 150; b» 
the Suffolk Electricity Suppl.» 
Co., 151; bv W. Fennell, 206 
I E E. Council.' The election of, by 
"An Associate Member," 561; by 
" P. A. M.." 593 
I.E.E. examinations. by " Junior 

I.E.E.." 660 
Import restrictions, by V. Caillard, 

207 
Importance of the home market, by 
Engineering «: Arc Lamps, Ltd., 



363 



An 



Industrial co-op.- 

of, by H. Mensforlh, 6o8 
Mains department. The, by " Sub- 
station," 151 , , ,. 
Mechanical equivalent af heat, by 

" Ignoramus," 595 
Meters and small curr.;nts. by G. B. 

Lincolne, 497 
Moisture in low-grade fuel by 

Leonard P. Morinan, 6a; by F. 

G. Fryer, 140 
National building schemes and olec- 

trical equipment, by R. Hardie. 

230 
Need of co^jperati.in .among he 

smaller manufacturers, by H. C. 

Siddeley, 40; by E. L. Bray, 64; 

bj W.'Pensibene P.rez, 1.30 
Overtime for shift engineers, by 

" Max Demand," 363 
" Posts for Demobilised Engineers," 

by Capt. W. S. Shaw, 625; by 

"Demobbed," 025 
Presidential address to the I.E.E. 
al Centres, by M. Boyle. 



7-22 



for 



Protective associate -. ---._ _, 

nical officials. A, by Non 
Technical," 95; bv " Power Com 
pany Clerk," 130', 205; by "An- 
other Non-Technical." 139; by 
" Electrical Supply Clerk." 139; 
by " Accountant and Chief 
Clerk." 151; by "Electrical.' 
151- by The Clerical Assistants 
Association. 151. 230; by "Sup- 
porter." 177; by "Accountant," 
205; by G. R. Smith. '206. 230; 
b\ "Another Supporter," 206; by 
"Three Spires," '279; by Ben 
Griffiths, 279 

Pulverised coal for boiler firing, by 
" Mechanical Engineer." 229 

Purchase of .appointmenls. The, by 
B. W. Gothard, 27 

Pure V vulcanized rubb<'r for Hex, 
bv J. Robinson. 6-23 

Re-eifiplovment of engineers, by 
Sapper Black, 204 

Repayment ol loans, by " Interested," 

" Resettlement," bv R. J. Thomp- 
son, 776 

Re-settlement of officers. The, bv 
"Warrant Officer, R.E.," 132: 
by "Ex-Sapper." 278, 318: by 
"Fed-up." 288; bv "One who is 
proud to h.ive held a Commis- 
sion," 313; bv " R.E. Subaltern," 
.303; by "Gunner." 375; by 
" E W. A.." 375: bv H. Bligh 
Hill. 404; by " Still Trying," 56% 
594 



TBE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[.IlLY -1. lit lit. 



Kolor currently of slip-ring motors, by 
"Rotor," 376; uv C. Jonis, Ito; 
bv N. \\. Walker, 46li 

Royal Albert Hall, The, by \V. 

Rules for electricity supply, by Wat- 
son, Marsh & Co. tHampsteadJ, 

Scientific illumination, by G. E. 

Moore, 4U3 
Scolt-connccted transfornKrs, by J. 

D. Doyle. 776 

Searchlight Hquipmenl and Opera- 
Uon, by J. A. Chapman, 497; 
by H. M. Goodv, 532 

Shorter working week. The, bv H. 
H. Morton, 9a; by W.' H. 
Streeter, 14U; by P. Ballre, 130; 
by " Inquirer," 150; by John 
Vincent, 179, 229; by " Shift En- 
gineer," 207; bv " bcottish Engi- 
neer," 363 

Smcwth V. undercut commutators, by 

E. H. Marlindale, 403 
Southampton appointment, The, by A. 

Reeve, 595; by '* Not a Candi- 
date," 659 

"*' Stale salary expected," by " .Appli- 
cant," 177; by " Disgusted," 207; 
by "interested," 207; by ".Anti- 
Cheapness," 207; by " C. A. B.," 
307 

Station engineers and representation, 
by ** liack-pressure," 97 

Strike precautions, by A. J. Nicholls, 
288 

Strike, The abortive electrical, by 
" Member, E.T.U.," 178; by 
"Shift Engineer," 178; by 
Twickenham and Teddington 
Electrical Supply Co., 178; by A. 
Bridges, 178; by " Observer," 230 

Sundnv payment in power stations, by 
"A. B.," 659 

Tax the bachelor — of science, by 
" B.Sc," 439 

" Tavlor svstem," The, bv F. Mau- 
rice. 65; by H. Bujama, 97 

Telephone and telegraph line construc- 
tion, bv " G. F. S.," 439; by 
D. R. Broadbent, 468, 561; by 
Thos. F. Barlow, 531 ; by " Tele- 
graphs," 531 

Telephone calls at the Patent Office 
library, by A. H. .Morse, 278 

Three-phase distribution, bv C. Turn- 
bui», 318 

Three-phase problem, by " W," 278 

Trouble with magnetos, bv " Spar.\." 
497; bv Alan William's, 532 

War bonus' awards, bv J. Vincent, 376 

"Waste, by " Reader." 561 

V\'estinghouse manager and engineer- 
ing output. The, by " An Old 
Foreman who benefited some by 
H.M.'s lectures," 64 

Working speeds in radio-telegraphy, 
by E. Ravmond-Barker, 6, 59, 
775; bv M'arconi's Wireless Co., 
724 

Corrosion of condenser lubes. The, by 
G. D. Bengough & O. F. Hudson, 
467 

Costing in relation to efficiency, by 
Major E. A. Pells, 718 

Costs of management in small under- 
takings. 730 

Coventry technical college scheme. 501 

Credits 'on behalf of enemies, Opening, 



D 



1VL1GHT saving in U.S., 764 



Decimal Association, 700 

De.:*. Development of the river, 647 

Demobilisation, 13, 43, 47 

Demobilisation and employment, 100 

Denmark, Exports to, Restrictions with- 
drawn, 759 

Denmark-Sweden tunnel, 590 

(Development .Association, The Electrical, 
225, 466, 764 

'* Dex " oil cooler. The, 313 

Dielectric loss in cable, 39 

Dielectrics in electric fields, by G. L. 
.Addenbrooke, 344 

iDiesel engine amalgamation, 408 

Diesel engine pistons. Seizures of, bv 
E. Ingham, 451 

Direct-current electric railwavs. Re- 
generative, bv E. Austin, 703 

Disabled men. The E.T.U. and, 764 

Disabled men. The training of, 522 

Disabled men. Training o7, by F. H. 
Taylor. 529 

Disabled soldiers' and sailors* electrical 
engineering classes, 764 

Disabled soldiers. Meter repairing as a 
vocation for. bv A. Currie, 526 

Disinfectant, Electrolvtic. 240 

Dissolutions. 42. 100. 123, 234, 2«3, 292, 
410, 471, 535, 565, 597, 630, 695, 
760 

Distributing powers in London, 199 

Divi>ional engineers of the R.N.D., The, 
311, 317 

Domestic electrical appliances, 713, 



Dumping, To prevent, 134 

Durban library. Trade publications for, 

439 
Dust bellows. 759 
Dust recovery plant. Lodge fume, and, 

501 
Dust precipitation. Electrostatic, 40 



Duuh E.,^t lndi^^. EUctric„l IraJe in, 

Dutch electrical industry, 651 
Dutch embargo on German goods, 209 
Dutch post-war industries, 43, 347 
Dynamo, The, by A. Whitmore, 159 



EARTHING " three-phase svt- 
lems, .Methods of, by C. L. 
Brown, 62 

East Asia, Some impressions and re- 
flections, by Prof. C. A. Middleton 
Smith, 555 

Ebonite substitute, German, 441 

Eclipse of the sun, 508 

Edinburgh strike. The, 214 

Education and training, 'J'he functions 
of the engine<-T, his, by Licut.-Col. 
W. A. J. O'Meara, 219, 249, 426 

Educ;itional, 18, 370, 603, 668 

Efficiency, Costing in relation to, by 
.M.ijor E. A. I'ells. 688 

Efficiency, Incentives to, by Major 
E. A. Pells, K.E,, 688 

Efficiency methods. What is meant by ? 
by Major E. A. Pells, 38 

Efficiencv, The human factor in, by 
.M.ijir E. A. I'ells, 229 

Egypt, Trade statistics of, 427 

Eighi-huur day in iron and steel works, 
70 

Eight-hour day on the Continent, 75 

Electric automobile for commercial use, 
by F. Ayton, 609 

Electric power supply and the war, 74 

Electric shock. Experiments on, 577 

Electric supply authorities, " Rules " 
imposed bv, bv Charles .A. Baker, 
44J, 481 

Electric vehicles, 609, 635 

Electric vehicle committee, 508, 699 • 

Electric vehicle trials. 603 

Electric welding, 17, 741 

Electrical appliances for China, 693 

Electrical development, American so- 
ciety for, 667 

Electrical development. The Food 
.Ministry interested in, 569 

Electrical Development .Association, 
The, 225, 466, 764 

Electrical energy, The price of, 337, 
683 

Electrical engineering classes for dis- 
abled soldiers and sailors, 764 

Electrical equipment of modern small 
houses. The, 708 

Electrical equipment of the U.S.S. 
" New Mexico," 587 

Electrical golf, 635 

Electrical lockout. The threatened; Dis- 
pute ended, 7G5 

Electrical Power Engineers' .Associa- 
tion, The award of the, 352 

ELECTKic.y. Review and the war. The, 
372 

Electkical Review. Ltd., 171 

Electrical stimulation of rainfall, 571 

Electrical Trades Benevolent Institu- 
tion, The, 73, 104, 123, 143, 179, 
289, 338, 361 

Electrical trades' crisis in London, 444 

Electrical Trades Union and the 
E.P.E.A., 241 

Electrical Trades Union ballot result. 



Ele 



382 



al Trades Union dispute. The 
, G.P.O. elec 



Electrical Trades Uni 

Iricians and the, 382, 508 
Electrical training of demobilised offi- 



El. 



760 

ctrlcally-heated boilers, 731 
ctricians and engineers in newspaper 

offices, 268 
ctricily for farmers. 73, 369, 636 

ctricilv in horticulture, 328 

clricit'v in mining, 603 

■ctricit'v Supply, Joint Industrial 

Council for, 544 
ctricity. Standards for the measure- 
ment of, 341 
■ctricity supply and the I.M.E.A., 
617 
Electricity supply and the miners' 

threatened strike. National. 239 
Electricity -Supplv .Associations, Stand- 
ing conference of, 104 
Klectricity supplv at Birmingham, 253 
Electricity supplv at Shanj-hai. 747 
Electricit'v .Suopiv Bill, The, 553, 570, 

686. 719, 750' 
Electricity Supplv Commercial .Asso- 
ciation, The. '3.i2, 381 
Elcctri.m su,.]ilv development. 430 
Electriii!\ -Li|>i>l\, tire.iter London. 2.VJ 
Electric. !v .uii(i;v in Australia, 603 
Electriiit\ -u[ijii\ in Germany. Govern- 
ment rtor^.inisation of, 281 
Electricity supplv in N.E. London, 711 
Electricity suppfy in Sheffield, 3, 33 
supply in South Yorkshire, 



El 



316 



the Midlands, 



upply 

National, 306 
Electricity supply industry. National 

Industrial Council for the, 171, 

522, 344 
Electricity supply industry. The 

A\'hitiev report and the. 736 
Electricity 'supply. National. 58. 87, 94, 

113. 128, 171. 195, 198, 203, 267, 

296, 325, 338. 352, 398, 425, 554, 

559. 624 
Electricity supplv progress in wartime, 

30. 107. 303' 
Electricity supply regulations, 554 
Electricity supply. The past, present. 



Ekclricin, Ih. supph cl. bv J. S. 
Highficld, 612 

Electricity supply undertakings and 
priority certificates, 209 

Electricity undertakings. Shorter work- 
injg week for employes in, 73 

EltxMricity works. The salaries of elec- 
trical stalls at, 261 

Electricity -,;. gas, 346, 366 

Electrification and signalling, railway, 

Electro-analysis, A substitute for plati- 

Electro-cardiograph, Some notes on the, 

b> R. S. Whipple, 360 
iilectrochemical scheme. An. 134 
KUclroculture at Chester, 383 
Eleciroculture in bondage, 522 
Electrodes, Qualities of amorphous 

carbon, 764 
Electro-Harmonic Society, 47, 324 
Kledrolvtic disinfectant, 240 



ulvti< 



26 



Exhibitit 



Electromedical appar; 

of. 383, 446 
Electrostatic dust precipitation. 40 
Electruthermic processes, 52 
Elements, .Melting points of the, 297 
Emcol D.c. motors, 230 
Empire's resources exhibition, 603 
Employment in the City, 661 
Eniplo'vment of British labour 



433 
Enemy 



uflage, 397 
Enemy contracts. Municipalities and, 

20'9 
Engineer. The functions of the : His 

education and training, bv Lieut. - 

Col. W. A. J. O'Meara, '219, 249, 

426 
Engineering, .Aeronautical, 508 
Engineering Golfing Society, 603 
Engineering trades (new industries) 

committee. Report of the. 92 
Engineering war bonuses, 725 
Engineering work. The etJect of air 

and water on materials used in, 

by H. E. Verburv, 484 
Engineers object to female labour, 370 
Engineers' salaries. Chief, 104 
Engineers' salaries. Supply station, 73, 

Engineers, Technical Society of, 503 
English Electric .Amalgamation, 14, 208 
Erith's municipal kitchen, 461 
Excess profits and trade. 597 
Excess profits and the law of rating, 

170 
Excess profits duty, 99, 408. 334 
Excess profits orders, 290 
Exhibition at .Athens, Important. 398. 

470 
Exhibition al Barcelona, Electrical. 

Exhibition at Glasgow, 123 

Exhibition at Olvmpia, Engineering, 
134, 759 

Exhibition, British scientific products, 
22, 63, 129, 267, 410, 699 

Exhibition of electromedical apparatus, 
383. 446 

Exhibition, Swiss. 440 

Exhibitions at home and abroad, 429 

Experiments on electric shock, 577 

Export free list, 319 

Export licences, 501 

Export of coal, 597 

Export prohibitions and restrictions, 12, 
42, 68, 98. 123, 134, 181, 209, 233, 
263, 290, 319, 347, 377, 442, 469 

Export restrictions. Department of, 
408, 596 

Export trade. 724 

Export trade. .Advertising British goods 
for, 662 

Export trade commissioners, 377 

Export trade effort. Manufacturers' or- 
ganisations combine for, 209 

Export trade. The importance of Bri- 
tish. 320 

Export vision. The, 141 

Exporters. The Overseas Trade De- 
partment and, 291 

Exports and imports of electrical goods 
during October, November, and 
December, 1918, 107; during Janu- 
ary, February, March, and .April, 
1919, 646 

Exports to Denmark, ■ Restrictions 
withdrawn, 759 

Exports to Europe, 364 

Exports to Gerrran .Austria and Poland, 



400 



■pARAD.AY House dinner, 765 

Karadav Society, The. 277 

Farm. Electricity on the. 73, 569, 636 

Fatalities. 74, 104, 130, 160, 186, 213, 

269. 297, 323, 356. 414, 445, 476, 

308. 571. 668, 701. 731, 764 
Fault localising : A few hints. By H. 

Bujama. 432 
Federation of British Industries, The, 

42, 153 
Feed-water, Elimination of oil from, 

75 
Female labour, 760 

Fiat electrical .uressnries, Testing, 83 
Fibre resourr.s. InJi.m. 182 
Financial l.i. i'i';.- (nr ir, .1. . 24 
Fires. 42. 1'^ IJ."., IM. J;13, 264. 297, 

410. .171, .'.Ml, i;iia, :■>:, 

Flexible copper tubing. tj25 
Foreign trade. 43, 290, 409, 563, 725 
Foremen. ,A progress manager's first 
talk with his, by W. J. Hiscox, 



■rtnien » i-.t \\ estinghouse vve.ikv, 

industrial, 296 
•rty-four-hour week. Engineers b.illot 

on, 209, 333, 377, 629, 662 
>rly-seven-hour week lor engineers. 

The, 19, 43, 98 
ance. Eight-hour dav in, 154 
ance. Electrical orfiinisation in, 347 
ance. Restoring devastated, 99 
ance. The requirements of. 14 
ance's electrical bill against Ger- 
many, 458 
ench accumulator company, 347 
ench and Belgian industrial recon- 
struction, 630 
ench colonial wireless stations, 486 
ench Commercial Bureau in Sp.iin, 

534 
ench companies. New. 42, 269, 290, 

377, 409, 501, 596, 629, 661 
ench electrical industry. The, 290 
ench import restrictions withdrawn. 



?nch machinery. Enemy restora 
of, 70 

:s. Restoration schei 



759 



Amei 



-ench reconstructio: 

gincers and. 42 
■ench standardisation of elec 

machinery, 627 
ench water power, 413, 700 
■ench working hours, 470 
lel and Lighting Order, The, 47 
jel control, 536, 569 



31, 



198 



1 the householder's 
point of view, bv E, C. de Se- 
gundo, 390 

Her social welfare, 69 

Uerphone and its application to mili- 
tary and civil telegraphy, by Major 
A, 'C. Fuller, 515 

rnace, A new type of electric, by 
A. Sahlin, 591 

rnace in the Philadelphia Mint, Elec- 
tric, 393 

rnace. The Booth-Hall electric, bv 
W. K, Booth, 591 

rnace. The Green electric steel, .327 

rnaces for Mexico, Electric, 476 

rnaces in the laboratory. Electric, bv 
G. C. Castle, 173, 238 

rnaces in the north of Soain, Elec- 
tric, 37 

rnaces in the U.K., 1918. Electric, 
by R. G. Mercer, 380 

rnaces in the Stales, Electric, 731 

rn.ites in Uruguay, Electric, 41.> 

rnaces, Iron and steel electric, bv J. 
Bibbv, 136, 166, 176, 617 

rnaces, Large electric steel melting, 
by V. Stobie, 709 

Power factor of arc-tvpe 



Future of the 



298 



ctrical industry. The 



GALNANOMETER, Balancing the 
susper.ued coil of a marine, bv J. 
Rymer-Jones, 492 
Gas V. electricity, 346, 366 
Gattie svstem, 'ihe, 203 
G.d.les. Sir A., and permanent trade 

policy, 661 
Generator, Rebuilding a 25,000-KW. 

Parsons, 324 
Generators, L. and W. mt-lors and, 316 
German accumulators, 443. 689 
German Bosch business, 693 
German cable industry. Labour in the. 

German copper w^orks' troubles, 319 
German dependency on foreign mine- 
rals, 439 
German economic situation and tenden- 
cies ill Britain, The, 59, 68 
German efforts to recover lost trade. 

43 
German electrical activity, 320 
German electricity works and tram- 
ways, Municipalisation of, 431 
German expoil orders, Declme in. 458 
German export trade plans, 564 
German goods, Dutch embargo on, 209 
German industrial notes, 378, 723 
German industry on the load to ruin. 

398 
German Institute for Weak Current 

Technology, 627 
German mining industry. Electricity in, 

634 
Gerin;!n ministry for foreign trade. 

New, 209 - 
German nitrogen syndicate, 569 
German organisation of technical ex- 
perts, 37 
German over-zealous agents in Hol- 
land, .334 
German prices advancing, 319, 347 
German profit-sharing proposal. A, 262 
(lerman retreat, Another, 693 
(ierinan situation, Walter Rathenau on 

the, 51 
C'ruian steel trade. Co-partnership in. 



■ade propaganda in Holland, 

age demands retard business, 

ar profits, 42 
ire prices advanced, 441 
■ireless development. 737 
.■ireless svstem. The future 



Jl'ly 4. I'JIO.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



-Cermun-., Aiistr;]lians anJ tr^Jc with, 

44 ' 
-Gtmiany, Business correspondence 

whh, 725 
.Gerin;in}', Cable standardisation in, 487 
Oi-i'iiKiny Chemical works firu loss, 

any, Effect ol high wages and 



shon 



Ud 



any, ElLCtric vehicles in, 41j 
Cerniany, France's electrical bill 

against, 458 
Germany, Government leorganisaiion 

of electricity supplv in, 281 
Germany, Industrial paralysis of, 439 
German}, Lamp prices in, 210 
-Germany, Prices advancing in, 290 
Germany, State and technical research 

in, 47 
■ Germany, State electricity works in, 

3J9 
.Germany, The change-over in, 70 



The 



199 



Germany's industrial future. 153 
Gibraltar Straits tunnel, 5tJ9 
Glasgow, An exhibition at, 125 
Glasgow, Turbine plant for, 409 
Globes, Renovation of discoloured arc- 
lamp, 122 
• Gondola car, An eleclricglly-welded, 444 
Government electrical equipment to be 

sold. 292 
Government, The Coalition 17 
G.P.O. electricians and the E.T.U , 

382 
■Grading of electrical artisans, Thi-, 47 
Greece, British trade with, 104 
Greene electric-steel furnace. 527 
Gretna, The electrical equipment of 
H.M. faclorv, bv A. b. Cross. tjl9, 
652 



H 



liAT radii 



Heaters, Flexible electric, 753 
High-pressure and high-temperature 

steam in large power stations, The 

use of, by J. h. Shaw. 83 
Holland, German trade propaganda in, 

43 
Holland, Imports into, 501 
Holland, Over-zealous ag.-nts (German) 

in, 531 
Hopkinson Chair of Thermodynamics, 

540 
Horticulture, Electricity in, 528 
Hospital closed. Electrical. (ifiS 
House, Electrical, lia 
Houses, 'fhe electric equipment of 

small modern 708 
Housing, Industrial, 377 
Housing by public utility societies, j(J3 
Housing problem in U.S., 580 
Housing schemes. Industrial, 40a 
Human factor in efficiency methods, by 

.Major E. A. Pells, 228 
Hydro-electric plant, A small, 593 



T LFORl:>, 



Rot: 



4'JU 



alia- 



Illumination Committee, .National, 66? 

Illuminating Engineering Society, 
U.S..A.. 509, 764 

Immigration, .Alien. 534 

Imperial communications, 310, 699 

Imported manufactured goods. Tariffs 
on, by C. R. Belling, 769 

Imports and exports of electrical goods 
during October, November and De- 
cember, 1918, 107; during January, 
February, March, and .April, 1919, 
646 

Imports, Prohibited. 352 

Imports Restriction* Committee, 409 

Import vestrictions removed, 563, oOG, 
628, 660, 694 

Import restrictions withdrawn, French, 
759 

Imports, To restrict, 125 

Importation of rubber-covered wire m 
Australia, 629 

Incentives :o efficiency, by Major E. A. 
Pells, 688 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical .As- 
sociation Annual Convention, 352, 
508, 569, 682, 738, 754 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical .■\s- 
sociation and electrical imports, 63 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical .As- 
sociation. Electricity supply and 
the, 617 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical As- 
sociation in Scotland, 764 

Indemnity in electrical machinery. 
War,' 365 

India, New electrical companies in, 441 

Indian fibre resources, 182 

Indian Society of Engineers, An, 192, 
413 

Indicators, Some notes on power factor, 
by G. W. Stubbing^, 435 

Industrial Administration, 628 

^Industrial and trade questions, A 
banker on, 125 

Industrial Council for iho .lectrirlly 
supplv industry, A national, 114, 
171, 522 

Indu-lrial co-operal!iin. An example df, 
585 

Industrial essay compefition, 634 

Industrial Ltague, 629, 668, 683. 693, 
759 

Industrial lighting, 611 

"Industrial meetings on Tower Hill, 
700 

■Industrial Reconstruction Council, 100, 
351, 507 

Industrial relations, 693 

Industrial research, 299 

Industrial situation, .146 

'.Industrial situation and " Whitleyism," 
Th. . n3 



Indu^tri.il silu.aiun, Sir Robert Had- 

lield'!, views on the, 181 

Industrial statecraft, 226 

Industrial tour ol Brazilian delegates. 



Industry, The future of the electrical, 

87 ■ 
Inquiries, Italian trade, 061 



.American Welding Society, 635 
.Apprenticeship and Skilled Employ- 
ment Association, 636 
.Association of Consulting Engineers, 

668 
.Association of Engineering and Ship- 
building Draughtsmen, 240 
Association of .Mining Electrical En- 
gineers, 104, 240, 476 
Belfast Association of Engineers, 104 
Birmingham and District Electric 

Club, 47, 240, 326, 476 
liirmingham Metallurgical Society, 74 
Boys' Welfare Association, 62S 
ijradford Engineering Society, 214 
Bradford Textile Society, 382 
British Engineering Standards .Asso- 
ciation, 602 



130 

Chief Commercial Officers' Associa- 
tion (electricity supply under- 
takings), 159 

(-'hiel Technical .Assistants' Associa- 
tion, AiU, 699 

Consulting Engineers, The Association 
of, 765 

Diesel Engine Users' Association, 326, 
540, 730 

Electrical .Association of .Australia, 18 

Electrical .Association of .Australia 
{Victoria section), 509 

Electrical Power Engineers' .Associa- 
tion, 47, 158, 269. 382, 002, 647, 
730 

Faraday Society and Rbntgen So- 

Faradav ' House Old Stidcnts' Asso- 



Huddersfield Engineering Society, 158 
Illuminating Engineering Society, 

352 
Institute of Cost .Accountants, 414 
Institute of Metals, 209, 509 
Institution of .Automobile Engineers, 

326 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 507 
Institution of Civil Engineers in 

Ir.-land, 74, 476 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, 18, 

4T, 130. IWl. 214, 240, 269, 297, 

:a."i 3.12, ;iK2, 414. 476, 507, 509, 

.-.40. .'.rii i«j2, ia:>, iiur, 675, 700, 

722. 730' 
In.^lilulion of Electrical Engineers 

(North. Eastern Centre). 002, 635 
Institution of Electrical Engineers 

(NorJi Midland Centre). 5*0 
Instiluiion of Electrical Engineers 

|N.-\V. Centre), 104, 414. 730 
Institution of Electrical Engineers 

(Scottish Centre), 104, 214, 476, 

570, 700, 722 
Institution of Electrical Engineers 

(Western Centre), 382, 570 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 

130, 507 
Institution of Municipal and County 

Engineers, 570 
Irish .Association of Electrical Station 

Engineers, 414 
Iron and Steel Institute, 382, 509 
Junior Institution of Engineers, 130, 

297, 352, 507 
London Associi.tion of Foremen En- 
gineers, 570 
Manchester Association of Engineers, 

104, 130 
National .Association of Supervising 

Elictricians, 158, 297 
National I'-oremen's Association of 

Engineering and .Allied Trades, 

.240 
.Wwcasllo Rotary Club, 701 
North-East Coast Institution of En- 
gineers and Shipbuilders, 570 
Nottingham Society of Engineers, 

104, 240 
Phy.slcal Society of f^ondon, 214, 297, 
■ 352 



540 

Ro\al .Society of Arts, 186. 214, 240, 

■ 507, 672 
.Society ol Chemical Industry, 445 
Society of Engineers and .Metallur- 
gists, 269, 445 
Society of Engineers, 297, 382, 507, 

•w'O, 700 
Socirtv of Technical Engineers, 414, 

445. 507, 635 
South African Association of Munici- 
pal Elicirical Engineers, 445 
South Alrican Institute of Electrical 

Engineers, 240. 382 
Stok.-on-Trcnt Engineers' Associa- 
tion, 269 
West of Scotland Iron and Steel In- 
Wireless .Sorie'v for Sheffield, C36 



.titution ol Ekclrical Engineers and 
wireless telegraphy, Tne, 353 

titution of Electrical Engineers, 
annual meeting, 075 

.litution of Electrical Engineers an- 
nual report. 618, 022 

.titution ol Electrical Engini. rs elec- 
trical appointments board. :;40. 269 

.litution of Electrical Engineers 
council nominations, 397 

liluiion of Electrical Engineers 
dinner and conversazione. 082 

titution of Electrical Engineers, 
elections, 555 

titution of Electrical Engineers in- 
formal meetings. 254 

litution of Electrical Engineers, In 
iMemoriain service, 752 

.titution of Electrical E.igineers pro- 
ceedings, 311 * 

litution of Electrical Engineers; 
Royal Charter scheme, 650 

titution of Electric.il Engineers, 
•ial, 115, 129 

transformers. 



549 
n^urance scheme : Trade risks with 

Russia, Government, 759 
nterceptor. \\'ireless, 445 
nternational Ele-ctrotechnical Commis- 
sion, 269 
nternational exhibition at Bombay, 629 
nventions. Royalties for war, 297, 346 
onisalion. The present position of the 



the 



of. 



output, 1917, 13 
sh water power, 569, 764 
n and stecfl, 408 

n and steel output and stocks, 99, 
409, 440, 502, 661 
n and steel prices, 14, 98, 154 
ron, Cold-blast pig-. 376 
ron ores. New method of smelting, 

744 
talian companies, 68, 223, 292, 694 
talian foreign trade. To di velop, 470 
talian industries during the war. New, 



itandards for elei 
, 98 

inquii 



al ni.achi- 



, 661 
lian tr.ade and industry, British-. 13 
aly, 348 

aly. Electricity in agriculture in, 90 
aly. Hydro-electric work in, 467 
aly. Trade openings in, 501 



T AMAK 


A. Op, 


ning for sn 


ill e 




pla 


nts in. 


123 








d Ger 


iianv, Resu 


iiptic 


trade 


betwee 


n, 566 




Japan 


Electrica 


developmen 


t in. 


Japan 


se 


competition, a64 




, apan 


se 


copper 




v. 7 


. apan 


S L 


ectrica 


progress. 


.19 


ohan 


l.sh 




ke. End of 


662 


Joints 


in 




res, A mode 


rn te 


hi 


gh 


resistan 


ce, 75 





K 



INEMA Operators, Orga 
603 
atograph trade. The, 629 



and gen 



316 



Kitchen, Erith's 
Krupp's profil-sha 



Laboratory, Electric furnaces in the, by 

G. C. Castle. 173, 238 
Laboratory and the workshop. The, 500 
Labour, Government pledges to, 475 
Labour situation, A banker on the, 182 
Lamp competition from the Continent, 



Ele 



Ma 



of 



Lamp i\l 

Great Britain, Ltd., Electric, 503, 

535, 660, 694 
Lamps, Committee on miners', fi70 
Lamps, Miners' electric safety, 268 
Lamp prices in Germany, 21() 
Lamp works. New, 320 
Lamp works. Philips glow. 263 
Land for business uses. Valuation of. 

44 
Land wireless sets. Continuous-wave, 

657 
Lantern slides, 42 
Lead accumulator. Chemical action in 

the, 547 
Lead market, 628 
Leclanche nils. The salv.ige of, by \V. 

Thorrowgood, 743 

Ll^c.Ai,— 
Ansett 1'. Siemens Bros. & Co.. 319 
Armorduct Manufacturing Co., 208 
Atlantic Cable Leas,-. .534 
Battery makers fined. 775 
Bosch 'electrical p.. tents, 180 
Bourne End Electrical Installation 

Co., 2.33 
Braulik v. Davis, 774 
British Accumulator Co., 179 
British Thomson-Houston Co., f. 

Duram. 468. 571, 594, 691 
British Wcstinghouse Electric and 

Manufacturing Co., 208 
Calmont King & Co. v. Groom, .W4 
Colllerv cable unprotected, 208 
Comp.nsation claims, 180, 445, 469, 



Con 



562 

724" 



for . 



telegraph wires, 
lers' awarti, 627 



Dublin tramw.-iy worker 

Fraser and Ch.ilmers. 562 

Gilling li. Epsom U.D.C., 239, 261 

Harris -... Grant Hughes. 180 

King V. City of London Electric 

Lighting Co., 627 
Lake Hotel Co. v. Kirry Electric 

Supplv Co., 469 



.ti-.AL— roNIi.iucrf 
iMarconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. ». 

The Crown, 594 660, 691 
Meagher & Hayes v. Cork Electric 
iramway & Lighting Co., 319, 
375 



502 

Metropolitan Electric Supplv Co-, 233 

Miner Fined. A, 627 

Osram Robertson Lamp Works v. 
Cryseico, 027 

Phelps V. Metropolitan Electric Sup- 
ply Co., 532, 533 

Prigot a. Electric & Ordnance Ac- 
cessories Co., 562 

Scott .Anderson V, Clayton it Shuttle- 
worth, 541 

Stealing electric lamps, 569 

Stobie -.■. Newcastle-on-Tyne Electric 
Supply Co., 533 

Strike prosecutions, 232, 270 

Tramway passenger's claim unsuc- 

Unlicensed' tra"mcars, 724 
Unprotected motor. An, 157 
Unwin f. Arnold & Sons, 468 
Weld-Blundell :•. Stephens, 157 
Wood f. Connolly Bros., 627 
Workmen's compensation cases, 508, 
534 

Library, .A public technical and com- 
mercial, 348 
Library at Birmingham, New, 409, 563 
Licensing of electrical imports, 601 
Licensing of electricians, 241 
Light, A travelling, by N. D. B. 

Phillips, 11 
LFght, Electrical changes produced bv, 
by H. S. Allen, 63 



,4XD Power Notes — 
Aberavon, 535 
Aberdare, 504 
Aberdeen. 125, 410 
Aberystwvtli, 100. 234, 410, 471, 504, 

727 
Accrington, 44. 182, 264, 293, 378, 

442. 535, 566, 598, 663 695, 727 
Aldershot, 234 
Arbroath, 70, 321, 471 
Arctic, Electric light in the, 70 
Ardslev, 70 

Argentina, 44, 155, 727 
Armagh. 100. 504, 598 
Arron, 293 
Ascot, 14, 535 
Ashton-under-Lyne, 70, 321 
Atherton, 234 
Athy, 70 
Aughton, 321 
Australia. 44, 70, 234, 293, 321, 378, 

471, 504. 566, 630, 663 
Austria, 322, 630 
Axbridge, 348 
Avlesbury, 100, 210, 471 
Ayr. 504, 598, 760 
Bacup, 293 
Baildon, 348 
Ballymena, 182 
Ballymonev, 70 
Ballynahinch. 630, 663 
Banbridge, 70 
Bandon, 322, 378 
Banff, 182 
Bantry, 471 
Barmborough, 264 
Barmouth. 234 
Barnes. 155 

Barnslev, 101, 210 348 
Barrow-in-Furness, 44, 155. 605 
Bath, 566 

Batley, 14, 210, 536, 727 
Battersea, '230, 265, 349, 378 
Battle, 125, 234, 293, 348, 504, 695 
Bavaria, 349 
Beccles, 125 
Beckenham, 234 
Bedford, 101. 695 
Belfast, 44, 70. 125, l.W. 182, 210, 

442, 598, 663 
Belgium. 211 
Benfieldside, 101 
Bermondsey. 472 
Bexhill, 126 
Bexley, 264 
Bideford, 348 
Birkenhead, 663, 696 
Birmingham, 101, 211. 235. 204, 378, 

410, 471, 603, 717 
Blackburn 293, 442, 536, 695, 719 
Blackpool." .'504, 727 
Bmlmin. 101 
Bulton. 14. l.M. 204. 410, 506. 603, 

727, 760 
Bootle, 322 

Bournemouth, 14, l.';5, 410, 566 
Bovcv Tracev. 70 
Bradford, 70', 101, 182. 2(i4. :H2. 471, 

.■598. 696 
B'ad ford-on- Avon, 155 
Brandon. 183, 293, 566 
Bray. 204, 504, 630. 696 
Brentwood ,':06 
Bridgend. 410 
Bridlington. 410. 566 
Brighouse. 663 

.504, 761 



Br: 



211 



Brisbane. 293 

Broadstairs, 727 

Broughton. 155 

Burnh-v, 183, -264, 378. 536. 566. 663, 

727 
Burton-.in-Trent, 211 
Bury 126. 211. 235. 471. 504. 630, 

'696. 727 
Bury St. Edmunds, 211 
Callington, 7-27 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[.in.v 4, I'.ir. 



LiL^Hiiso AND Power Noits- 

Canlerburv, 183, 293 
C.irmjr:ilJn, 41U 
C:rr...rwii. j04 
C i:ii.^-uii.Shunnon, 23.". 
L .4!..;r. ... in 
Castlelun, 23u 
Cavan, 410 
Ceylon, tia6 
Chclm^lord, 44. 2(J4 
Chel:<.'nhani, 1»J. 442 
Cherilon, 442 
Cherticv, S4'J 



Chtf 



■ZlA 



CheslerAcId, l!t3, 41U. 471 

Chobhaiii, 727 

Chorley, 663 

Cippenham, 410 

Clacton-on-bi:i, ti30 

Clayton, tHH} 

Colch<.sier, 203. 727 

Colne, 378. 7(il 

Cork, 536 

Coventry, 23.'.. 2G4. 36G. 598. 727 

Cranbrook. 63U 

Cravlord, lUl 

Credilon. 44 

Crewe. 727 

Crook, 471. 727 

Crowle, 505, 761 

Crovdon. 44, 504 

Dalrv. 761 

Darlington, 322, «30, 727 

Dartford, 70, 211, 203, 443 

Dartmoor, 340 

Darwen, 566, 664 

Denbigh, 566 

Dennv, 6%, 761 

Derbv, 442 

Devon, 505 

Dewsburv, 183, 505, 031, 696 

Doncaste'r. 44. 442. 631. 761 

Dorking, 536 

Douglas, 70. 696, 727 

Dover, 44. 211. 471. 727 

Dublin. 70. 183. 442, 536 

Dundalk, 378. 471. 598. 064 

Dundee. 183. 211. 264. 471, 505, 536, 

566, 598, 761 
Dungannon, 696 
Dunstable, 155 
Durham, 566, 761 
Dutch East Indies, 664 

Ealing, 211, 536 

East .Anglia, 322 

East Cowes, 442 

East Grinstead, 183 

Eccles, 101. 126, 761 

Edinburgh. 101. 126. 15.-., 1S3, 211. 
235. 265. 349. 378. 761 

Egham, 15. 101. 378 

Elland. 631. 696 

Ellesmere Port. 293. 412. 696 

Ennis. 126 

Epsom 211. 349. 472. 598. 631 

Eton. 349. 566 

Ewell, 761 

Exeter, 472 

Falkirk, 15, 631 

F.irnworth, 598, 664 

Faversham, 205, 293. 349. 472, 631 

Fermoy . 155 

Ferrybridge, ^28 

Fife, 664 

Folkestone. 442. 536. 696 

Formosa. 505. 696 

France. 183. 211. 235, 349. 598, 6S4, 
696, 728 

Fuel control, 536 

Fulham, 322 

Gelligaer, 293 

Gerr^anv, 126. 211, 2G4. 4*2, 504 

Gillingh'am, 101. 349. 599 

Glasgow. 70, 155. 378. 698 

Godalming. 442 



nthan 



211 



end. 70 
Gravs. 472 
Greenland. 631 

Grimsbv, 44. 265. 322. 472. 631, 761 
Hackne'v, 183, 294. 566. 599 
Halifax; 235. 265. 411. 536. 664, 696 
Hammersmith, 211, 233, 322 
Hardingstone, 322 
Harpenden, 101 
Harrogate. 472 
Haslingden. 70. 263. 378. 472 
Hastings. 211. 233. 322, 442. 536, 599 
Hatfield. 322. 378. .330. 728 
Hebburn-on-Tvne. 322 
Hebden Bridge. 211 
Henlev 293 
Hereford. 183. 566. 631 
Heme Bav. 265. 378 
Heston and Islewonh. 631 

Hevwood. 70. 203. 536. 560. 761 

Highley. 505 

High Wvcombe. 442 

Holland.' 504 

Holrafirth. 728 

Holvwood. 322 

Hornsev, 378. 472 

Horwich. 728 

Houghton-le-Sprinc. 70, 728 

House of Commons. 183 

Hove. 101 

Huddersfield. 183. 233. 322. 349, 536, 

031 
Hull, 44. 211. 263, 503, 599. 631 
Hungary. 101, 349 
Ilford. 13, 44. 155. 265. 378. 566 
India, 70, 293. 349, 378, 411, 505 
Ipswich, 13, 44, 411 
Ireland, 101. 205, 090 
Irvine, 472 
Isle of .^rran. 293 
Isle of Wight, 349, 472 
Islington, 205. 349 
Italv. 126. 235. 293. 501. 728 
Keighley. 211. 505, 536 
Kendal. 45. 155 
Kensington. 211 



,iauii.« A.SU I'owtK Noik»-,vuH.jued. 
Kidderminster. 536 
Killarnej, 411, 472 
Kilmallock, oM 
Kilmarnock, 293 
Kinghorn, 235 
King's Lynn, 101, 349, 442 
Kingslon-on-lhames, 45, MHi 
Kirkby-in-.\shheld, 761 
Kirkcaldy, 101, 472 
Kirkcudbrighl,hire, 211 
KnottinglcN, 442 
Korea, 293 
Lambeth, 379 
Lancashire, 101 
Lancashire and Cheshire, 126 
Lancaster, 235. 37S. 536. .'•UO 
Larkhall, So5 
Leeds, 155, 183, 293, 322 
Leicester, 265, 536 
Leintwardine, 505 
Lerwick. 472 
Letterkennv. 322, 411 
Lewis, lOi 

Lichfield, 293, 472, 664 
Lighting restrictions, 12. 17, 43. 411 
Limerick. 70, 2jJ, 411, 472 
Lincoln, 211, 56U 
Liverpool, 70, 155, 211, 411. 631 
Llandudno, 664 
Llandyssil, 536, 761 
London. 45. 101. 120, 133, 183, 211, 
235, 265, 294, 322, 34:), 378, 472, 
505, 536, 566, 599, 631, 664, 696, 
761 
London Council Council and E.L. 
loans, 101, 378 

Londonderry, 70, 211 

Loughborough, iiijii 

Low Moor (Bradford!, 728 

Ludlow, 536 

Luton, 15 

Lytham, 45, 294. 728, 761 

Maidenhead. 599 

Maidstone, 411, 505 

Malvern, 322, 442, 599 

Manchester, 71, 183, 26.3. 294. 506, 
567. 599, 604. 696. 728, 761 

Mansfield, 15. 233, 349 

Masham, 211 

Matlock, 101, 211, 322 

Maybole, 411 

Methlev, 15 

Middlesbrough, 379 

Middleton-in-Teesdale, 235 

Mitcham. 442 

Monkwearmouth, 291 

.Morecambe, 153, 265 

Morlev, 183. 567. 728 

Motherwell, 507, 761 

National electricity supph, 45, 236 

Navan, 101, 697 

Nelson, 15, 536 

Nenagh, 599 

Newark, 15 

Newcastle-under-Lyme, 43, 411 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 631 

Newport, 155 

Newry, 230 

New South Wales, 293 

New Zealand, 126. 536. 631 

Nigeria. 631 

Normanton. 15. 599 

North Wales. 155. 503 

Norway. 120, 530 

Nottingham, 156, 349, 411, 505 

Ocker Hill, 472 

Oldham. 15. 71. 120. 155. 631 

Paisley. 322 

Pembroke (Co. Dublin). 411 

Penicuick, 761 

Peterborough. 71, 155, 205, 379, 536, 
064 

Plymouth. 631 

Pontefract. 265 

Poplar. 101. 155. .505. 701 

Portrush. 350. 442, 697, 728, 761 

Portsmouth, 126 

Portstewart. 379 

Portugal. 598 

Portumna. 183. 631. 604 

Presteign. 064 

Preston. 156 

Public lighting. Cost of, 411 

Queensland, 504 

Radclifie, 472 

Rathmines, .307 

Reading, 350 

Redcar, 442 

Reigate. 6<)4, 761 

Rhvl. 101 

Rhvmnev, 472 

Richmond. 599 

Ripon. 156. 379. 472. 537 

Rochdale. 43. 230. 294. 322. 330. 442. 

472, 537, 728, 761 
Rotherham, 45, 126, 294, 697 
Rothwdl, 567 
Rugbv, 379 



Ru 



567 



Spalding, 156 

Spenborough, 101 

Spennjinoor, 43 

Staflord. 102. 599 

StaHordshire. 1U2 

Stalybridge. 205. 631 

Stamford, 599 

Stepney, 101. 183. .336 

Stirling, 126 

Stockport, 697 

Stockton, 379 

Stoke Newingion. 322 

Stoke-on-Treni. 183. .i22, 537 

Stretlord. 45. 71. 156. 442 

Stroud, 567 

Sunderland, 472 567, 728, 701 

Sussex, 664 

nbe, 472 
45, 71, 212, 236, 294. 411. 



599 
Sweden, 1,35, 211, 235, 293, 341. 373, 

504, 728 
Swindon, 102, 330 
Swinton, 350, 472 
Switzerland, 690 
Sydney, 70, 321 

Tasmania, 183, 293, 378. 171, 630 
Taunton, 120. 212. 6:!1 
Templemore^ 503 



761 
102. 379. 505 
322 



Tonbridge. 212. 761 

Torquay. 442. 761 

Transport Hill, Municipalilics and 

the, 349 
Trim, 472 
Truro, 126 
Tuam, 212, 762 
Tunbridge Wells, 45, 762 
United States, 15, 45, 184, 291, 632 
Unsworth, 505 
Uruguay, 126, 294, 031 
Victoria, 321 
Wages, 379, 411 
Wagga (N.S.W.), 566 
Wallasey, 102. 294. 536 
Walsall, 71, 212, 236, 567, 399. 6:K 
Walthamstow, 156, 411, 307 
Warminster, 379, 702 
Warmley, 35J 

Warrington. 134, 330. 412. 472 
Warwick. 142, 664 
Walerford. 236, 265 



\Va 



■ille 



472 



Watford, 71, 156, 263, 112. 337, 703 

Wellingborough, 291 

Wellington, 156 

Weoblev, 601 

West Hartlepool, 599, 697 

Wexford, 126. 212 



\\c 



762 



Whitslable, 71 

Wigan, 265, 291, 097, 728 

WiUesden, 1.56, 230 

Windsor, 032 

Wolverhampton, 71, 212, 472, 762 

Woolwich, 101, 473 

Worcester. 184, 599. 604. 0:17. 72S 

Workington. 294. 507 

Worle. 442 

Worthing. 71. 184. 507 

York, 45. 230. 537. 064 

Yorkshire. 184, 212. Ill 

Lighting efficiency. 490 

Lighting of Pusey House Chapel. Ox 

ford. The. 401 
Lighting problems. 282 
Lincoln housing scheme. 667 

Liquidations— 
Accuratact Magnetos. 471 
Armorduct Manufacturing Co., 154 
Asbestos Manufacturers Co.. 630 
Balcke & Co.. 263. 471 
Beck Engineering Co.. 471 
Blackwall Engineering & Weldini 

Works. 471. 503 
Bonecourl -Surface Combust 
British Continental Electricity Co. 

321 



663 



a. 441 
St. Anne's. 472 

St. Helens. 71. 294. 379. 111. .367. 601 
St. Heller. 236 
St. Marylebone. iri 
St. Pancras. 294 
Salford. 45. 101. 136. 263, 379 
Selkirk, 701 
Shanghai, 537 
Shanklin (I. of W.), 761 
Sheffield, 230, 599 
Shipley, 156 
Shoreditch. 101, 211 
South Africa. 230. 265. 219. 322, 379, 

111, 599, 697 
Southend, 350, 472 
South Moulton. 101, 322. 604. 761 
.Sculhporl, 1.36, 211, 172, .303 
South Shields, 183. 294 
South Staffordshirv. 728 
South Wales. 183. 211. 236. 537 
Southwark, 379 
Spain. 15. 1.33, 211. 233, 264, S93, 

.304, 536, 728 



Monometer Manutacturing Co., 565 

National Provincial Electricity Cor- 
poration, 377 

National Research Syndicate, 100 

Osram Robertson Lamp Works, 321 

Pearsons (Electricians), 377 

Pneumatic Tool Co,, 377 

Portable Electric Motors, 210, '234 

Radium, 182 

Rcsisto Electrical Manufacturing Co., 
410 

Robertson Electric Lamps, 292 

Rotherham Electric Engineering Co „ 
234 

.Schultz, G., «: Co., 535, 505 

Standard Cable Manufacturing Co,, 
263, 503 

Tourtel Adding Machine Syndicate,.. 
123 

n ramwavs & General Works Co., 410 

Iniversal Cheap Cables, 471 

\actite Wire Co., 030 

\ernon Ward (Consolidated), A, 535 

Vulcanised Fibre, 095 

Welsbach Light Co. of Australasia. 



695 

Westinghouse Electric Co 
Weslinghouse Metal Fil-i 

Co., 760 
Wolf, R., 292 






Literature of scientific management, by 

Frank J. Maurice, 513 
Local authorities. Borrowing by, 414 
Lodge fume and dust recovery plant. 



London County Council. Capital ex- 
penditure. 442 

London County Council Committees, 
347 

London. Distributing powers in, 199 

London electricity supply. Greater. 239 

London traffic. 003 

Lyon & Wrench motors and generators. 



M 



s fair. The. 233 
ACHIN'E Tool Associ; 



Machine too! and power in.ichinery 

order, Suspension of, 628 
Machinery and plant, Control of- 



Magneto z'. coil ignition, 590 
Magnetos The exportation of, GH 
Malaya, British warning, U 





M.'i 


or E. A. Pells. 174 




M.i 


nagf 


jneni. Scientific. 270. 


324 


M; 




ment society, A scit 


ntih 


M, 


nrh. 


ster district, Eleclri 


nl 




in. 


320 




M; 


nche 


ster strike. The, 239, 


209 



Manufacturers and contractors 
Manufacturers : British confen 
Manufacturers, Co-operation 



for Briti 
for expo. 



ih, 92 



anisations combine- 
effort, 209, 232 
lephony, demonstra- 
tion at Chelmsford, 673 
iterials. Examination of, by " X-ray" 
679 



The effect of ; 
H. E. Vcrbur; 



ngine 



British Engineering Standards, 263 
British Huhn Metallic Packing Co., 

100, 410 
British Telegraph Instrument Co., 

182 
Brown Bavley's Steel Works, 695 
Calor Co.,' 292 
Canadian British Engineering Co., 



Cedes Electric 

Connollv Bros, 700 

Consolidated Diesel Engine Manu- 

facturers, 630, 095 
Coventry Engineering Accessories 

Co., 100 
Cramp's Patent Reversible Turbine, 

563 
Devonport & District Tramway Co., 

210 
Electric Lighting & Engineering Co . 

14 
Electrical Works (Mullers), 234 
Electricity Supply Co. of Spain. 441 
Engineering Accessories Co., 100 
Engineering Proprietary, 720 
English Electrical Co., 42 
Expanded Metal Co., 14 
Falk, Stadelmann & Co. (Australia), 

695 
Ferguson, Pailin & Co., 123 
Fr.aser & Chalmers, 154, 321 
Gell Telegraphic .Appliances Syndi 

cate, 597 
I.arne Electric Light Works, 410 
Leitner Electrical Co., 68, 123 
Macintosh Cable Co., 123 
Merton Metallurgical Co., 171 
Metal ,1 Machinery Syndicate, 151 
Mirfield Oarage & Electric Worlcs, 
68, 663 



Mathematical Training of Engineering, 
students. Some considerations re- 
garding ' the, by G. W. Stubbings, 



of, by C. W. .Marshall, 172 
Melting points ol the elements, 297 
Memorial, Institution of Electrical En- 
gineers' war. 115. 129 
Memorial service. Institution of Elec- 

tric.il Engineers in. 752 

Mercury rectifiers. Parallel connection 

and voltage regulation of large, 191 

Metals, .Application of electrical energy 

to the melting of, by H. A. 



711 



Me 



allurgical coke. 

er. A new 
er reading: 



perature. Super-con- 

298 

and plant. Control 

tion of, 117 
iron, steel and iron- 
uspended. 531 
c. three-wir... 131 
Photographic 



:d soldiers, by A. Curi 

Watch the. 190 
- of preventing the tr 

ibrations in buildings, 



for dis- 
!, 526 



in the United States,. 

Industrial reconstruc-- 
.. by H. Alkock, 79 



Midlands, 
in th( 
Mine explosit 



' electric safety lamps, 
' lamps. Committee on 
Electricity in, 371' 



Jn.v k I'.U; 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



Minis, The French ; Ktslor;ilion 

».:hemes, 758 
Mini^lry oi Commertc. A, 124. ISO 
Winislry of Ways and Communicauons, 

■ he, 337 ' 
Mini report, The Royal, 239 
^listrust and trust, b'49 
Modder circular shaft ^^clion. Electrical 

equipment of the new, ()2(j 
Molybdenum, Thermal expansion o(, 

298 
Morgan's patent electrically-heated 

crucibles, 342 
Motor, A diminutive electric, 19 
Motors and generators, L. S \V., 3J6 
Motors, The Emcol D.C., 250 
Motors without resistance, Starting of 

large D.C., 415 
Multiplex telephony and telegraphv, 

165 
Municipal Electrical Engineers, South 

African Association ol. 491 
Municipal Electrical Association Con- 
vention, incorporated, 352, 508, 569, 

082, 738, 754 
Municipal Electrical Association, UUc 

tricity supply and the Incorporated, 

617 
Municipal Electrical Association in 

Scotland, 764 
Municipallsation in Berlin, 490 
Munitioners change over. The juvenile. 

68 
Muscle Shoals nitrate plant, 524 

NATIONAL Association of Supervis- 
ing Electricians, 214 

.S'ational electricity suppiv, 58, 87, 94, 
115, 128, 171, 194, l98, 203, 239, 
267, 296, 325. 338. 3.";2, 398, 425, 
554, 559, 624 

National electrical supply in .Australia, 
527 

National electricity suppiv in the Mid- 
lands, 306 

National electric system for Spain, 459 

National industrial council for the elec- 
tricity suppiv industry. A, 114, 522 

Nationalisation ind the F.B.I. , 378 



erpri 



by G. H. Hoole, 314 

Navigational magnetic compass con- 
sidered as an instrument of prt-- 
cision. The, by M. B. Fiel.l. 66, 
110, 123 

Naval ratings, 018 

Navy, Pay of electrical ratings in, 667 

Navy, Wi'remen in the, 324 

Never again ! A French electrical re- 
ply to German traders, 662 

T^EW Companies — 

A. C. Cutting & Welding Co., 573 
Acetrical Engineering Co., 354 
Anglo- .Norwegian Electro-Chemical 

and Finance Co., 766 
Anode, 300 
.Armstrong, Whitworth Development 

Co.. 510 
Ashdown & Wright, 478 
Bale Si Hardy. 604 
Ballvmonev Light & Power Co., 417 
Ballvnahinch Electric Light ami 

Power Co., 604 
Bandon Milling & Electric Lighting 

Co., 670 



Mo 



478 



Barraclough, Parker, 670 

Beal, William & Co. (1919). 188 

Beardsall, W. E., S: Co., 70 

Bingham, Charles, & Co., 478 

Birch. John, & Co., 604 

Birr Electric Light & Powrr t'o., 
106 

•Bolton Chemical Plant .Manufactur- 
ing Co., 573 

Boothroyd, H. T., 132 

Boolhroyd, Fort Glasgow, H. T., 
572 

Boothroyd Repairs, 510 

Boulton' .Magnetos. 478 

British Election. 188 

British Engineers' & Traders' S'vn- 
dicate, 670 

British Glass Blowers. 573 

British Overseas Supplies, "20 

Brown. Boveri & Co., 132 

Caldwell. Ford & Co.. 417 

Calworth, 20 

Cannon Motor & Electric Works, 638 

Carey-Gavey Syndicate. 13*2 

Central Electric (Handsworth), 573 

C. L. I. Manufacturing Co., 638 

■Crabtree. J. A., & Co.. 510 

■Craymer Unloaders, 572 

Dalton Auto Engineering Co., 242 

Dawkins. James. & Co.. 417 

Devon Hydro-Electric i Development 
Co., 510 

Driscoll, P. J.. & Co. 417 

Dvnelex. 384 

■Electric Equipments, 3.-,4 

F.lectric Productions Co.. 161 

"Electric Tapes. 49 

Electric Vehicles, 106 

^Electrical Utilities, 573 



Elc. 



49 



Enamelled Wires, 242 
'Engineering Industry, 732 

Engineering Publications, 4!) 

England. George. 49 

Ernest Wainwright (London). 702 

Ernsmore Engineering Tool Co., 215 

Eural Patents, 572 

Evans. R. A.. 384 

Ferguson. Pailin. 242 

Ferguson. Wm. J. (Redditrh), 638 
Terro-Arc Welding Co.. 478 

Feuerhe.rd's Motor*. 766 

Firth Tiertan Co.. 300 

Flexile Metal Co.. 300 
■Fluxio Welding Co.. 478 

Franco Signs. 161 
Trench & Foxw.II. 3.-.4 



Fuggle, R. F., 572 

Fuller's United Electric Works, 354 

Furze W. J., & Co. (Manchester), 

188 
Grafton Dynamos, 354 
Groves, Albert, it Co.. 004 
G. V. Syndicate, 242 
Gwalia, '573 

Hall it Town's Instrument Co., 478 
Halwains, 732 
Hand, R. B.. & Co., 766 
Harris Electro Mttals, 76 
Hinchclilfe (S.). 004 
Homo, Ltd.. 20 
Ignitions, 573 ' 
Indicators, 702 

Insulation & .Metal Filaments. 4/8 
Integral Oxygen Co., 20 
International' Electrical & Mechanical 

Supplies Co.. 20 
Inventions S; Research, 76 
Ironclad Switchgear Co., 215 
Ivor Electrical Co., 354 
Jackson. W. E., & Co., 732 
Leeds Autocars. 670 
Liverpool Copper Wharf Co., 20 
Llanellv Electrical Engineering Co., 

478 
Louih Dernier & Hamlyn, 670 
Manchester Armature Repair 



702 



Co., 

s, 354 



Manchester Engineering Age 

.Manufacturing Engineers. 106 

Marpole it Frisbv, 242 

.Marrvat S: Scott, 478 

Marshall, B. S., 242 

Marston. Billirglon. 384 

Matt. Jennison. 242 

Maxwell, Arthur, 188 

Metal Industries, 766 

Metal Tubes & Fittings, 242 

Monson. Henry J., 572 

Morse, C. H., & Co., 300 

.Motor Exchange S; Mart. 384 

Moulson & Anderson. 702 

Mvlan & Smith (Engineers), 670 

National Electric Co. (Birmingham), 
354 

None Engineering Co.. 384 

Newington Electrical Co., 242 

Norfolk Engineering Co.. 637 

Norrington & Landon, 604 

Northern Electric Wire C... 188 

Oertling. C, 070 

Oslev, Lawrence & Co., 638 

Partington, W., S: Co., 732 

Patent Electric Shot-Firing Co., 384 

Patents Mart & Trade Agency. 242 

Pearson, E., & Sons, 271 

Pearson. S., & Co. (Contr.acting De- 
partment), 215 

Penrose Lifts, 573 

Picketts. 242 

Planet Electrical Co., 384 

Portable Electric Motors (1919). 417 

Premier Electrical Engineering Co , 
478 

Prendergast Electrical Engmeermg 
Co., 384 

Prideaux & Co.. 766 

Radi-Arc Electric Welding Co., 186 

Radiation, 732 

Radio-Communication Co.. .I.i4 

Rapid Accumulator Co.. 702 

Rotherham It Co.. 702 

Redman. C. & -Sons, 131 

Rip Plugs, 300 

Robertson (Belfast), John, 004 

Saunders Electrical Co.. 038 

Signal Electric Co., 702 

Smith F., & Son (Southampton). 702 

South of Ireland Electric (Arc) Weld- 
ing Co.. 732 

Suplvawl, 766 

Tate, L. G., & Co.. 20 

Taylor & Fetters. 76 

Th'anet Electric Co.. 3S* 

Thompson. J.- (Motor Pressings). 20 

Thompson. John (Wolverhampton). 20 

Thurlow Wholesale Electric Supplies, 
638 

Tok Manufacturing Co.. 4(8 

Traflord Park Traders' A»^ocialion,j73 

Trolleybus, '271 

Turbines. 63' 

Turquand & Kew. 131 

Twiss Engineering & Electric Trans- 
mission, 215 

United Electrical Works, 478 

Vactite Wire Co. (1919). 766 

\-ir.rov Dvnamo it Motor.. 247 

\irkers-Petters, 638 

\irtor Engineering Co. (Culling- 
worth). 670 

Victor Plating Co.. 604 

Walishaw Clock Co.. 471 

Warrington Electric Co.. 242 

Webster. Mitchell. 702 

Wellman Smilhowen Engineering 
Corporation, 573 

Wright, Dyson & Co., 417 



ical bus' 



Op.ning. 86 



Plant — 
Arc lamp. Hand-feed, 193 



rompres^r-i. 620 
charging equipmei 



Safe 



223 



.127 



Cable "drum. A " spring', 138 
Callender-Frampton service system, 690 
Commutators. Rolling. 67H 
Cooking apparatus. .New electric, 137 
Crucible. .\n electricallv-heatcd, 26 
Electrode annealing, 261) 
Eleclromobile tipping truck, bio 
Elmbank electrical specialities. 4bb 
Farm electric lighting set. An Ameri- 



w Electkic.1l Devices, Fiiiim,: 

PLaST— coiiliiiueii. 
' Finsbury " dolly press, 333 
ias meter, .An electrically-ope: 



500 

Higgs Bros.' electric motors, 406 

High-pressure discharge appar.uus lor 
wireless telegraphy, 615 

Lamp reel. An automatic, 26 

Lighting fitting, A novel, 25, 42 

Locomobiles, British, 400 

.Manograph. Low o^ciI!og^aphic, 395 

Mining switch, A new, 193 

Pixielite strip, 678 

Portable generating set, 149 

" Rawlplug," The, 248 

Rolling commutators, 078 

Ross anti-vibration and shock-proof 
device, 148 

Rotary transformer, -A new, 194 

Salvage, Scientific, 362 

Shunting locomotive, .An electric ac- 
cumulator, 81 

" Simplex " heaters, 627 

" Simplex " heating and cooling fit- 
tings for ships, 307 

Solder pot, ]mpro\ed, 362 

Spark recorder used in testing .ip- 
paratus, 35 

Spring terminal for accumulators, 148 

Street lighting at Oxford, 82 

•■ Swarren " conduit coupling, 307 

Tandem resistance for bioscope arcs. 



•• Victory " bell push, 362 
Warehouse truck. Electric. 193 
Welded pipe, A large electrically, 

260 
Welders, Electric, 333 
Welder's mask. A, 248 
Welding plant. Portable. 583 
Westinghouse colliery lran>lormer. 



73 



362 



Wild-Barfield electric furna 
Wire-splicing tool, 55 
Woodhouse automatic clutches, 224 
" W. R." consumption indicator, 406 
" Xcel " heating apparatus, 500 

N<wtoundland, Trade statistics of. 41 
" New Mexico " Electrical equipment 

of U.S.S., 587 
Newspaper offices. Electricians and 

engineers in, 268 
New Zealand, Electrical dcv.lopments 

in, 145 
N.w Zealand, Trade statistics of, 737 
New Zealand water power. 446 
Niirate plant. The Muscle Shoals, 524 
Nitrogen fixation in Germany, 603 
Nitrogen industry. The war and the, 

112 
Non-condensing engines in central 

power stations, by T. W.ilmslev, 
Non-lerrous Metal Industry Act. 12, 42, 

70, 124, 153, 234, 297, 320, 377, 

408, 469, 596, 630, 663, 760 
Non-ferrous metals. Stocks of, 47, 180, 

290, 409. 563 
Norway, Engineers' wages in. 43 

stries. In defence of, 



rwegi: 
232 



o 



Brri'ARV- 



..., E.. 271 

iieaslev, P. S., 702 
Best, t"., 354 
Hibbv, H., 271 
Hlok'e, W. E.. 572 
Bois. H. J. G. du, 417 
Borchardt, C 447 
Buchanan. J. H.. 131 
Bvford. H. T.. 270 
Calihrop. Sir Guy, 243 
Cooke, G.. 242 
Cordrev, W., 188 
Crooke's. Sir W., 417, 447 
Crossland, E. W 
Davidson, Sir J 
navies, J. H 



384 



B.. 25 
son. W. H, 
ards, A.. W« 
on. C. P.. -- 
Sir J. B.. 20 



354 



Krh.ird, Dr 



669 



P. F.. 215 

P.. 242 



248 



Fiat 



ric genera 
New, 465 



Ev 

Falken 

Foster. Prof. G. C. 1K« 
Oreville, A. E.. 20 
Hagger, G-. 76 
Heald, ].. 270 
Hecklev, J. R.. 49 
Henley'. G. R.. 417 
Hibbe'rdine. W . 131 
Hirst. Lieut. H. H . 242 
Holl.and. J. E.. 131 
Holt, R.. 49 
Horrell, L. E.. 4'l 
Hunter. A. IX. .".10 
Inglebv, E. C. 161 
lackso'n. E.. 49 
Jona. Commendalore. 
Kiralfv. Imre. 510 
Larkins. A. B.. 131 
Uneham. W. J.. 478 
MacDonaUI Sir I. H 
McGeoih. W.. 732 
MangnaM, T.. 20 
Mann. G. H.. 327 
Mason. J. B.. 104 



766 



DbIIUAKV— COlKiliUfJ. 

.McDonald, D., 669 
.Mirovitch, Prof. Fedorofl, 637 
.Mott, H. R., 241 
Negretti, H. P. J., 131 
Owen, E. C, 20 
Perrott, W. D., 242 
Redwood, Sir B., 669 
Revrolle, A. C, 270 
Ru'sbridge, S., 384 



W., 327 



H., 510 
J. P.. 300 
L'nsvvorlh, A., 354 
Walker ~ "' 
Walker, E. O.. 21 
Walter, A. J.. 447 
Ward. ' ' 



Salt! 



Tho 



19 



105 



Whitaker, G., 105 
Wilde. H., 384 

Officers' guide to civil careers, C^J3 
Officers, The re-settlement of. 85 
Officers, The training of enginer. 87 
Official receivership i'n bankruptcy. 629 



Alderlev Sr Wilmslow Electric Sup- 
ply', 766 
Aluminium Corporation, 161 
Anti-Rust & Metal Deposition Co., 

242 
Auxiliary Engineering Co., 215 
Banbury & District Electric Supply 

Co.', 101 
Bankfoot Power Co., 038 
Barbados Electric Supply Co.. 242 
Bastian Electric Co., 242, 385 
BLickpool & Garstang Electric Light 

Railway Co., 242 
Bogota Tel'ephone Co., 132 
Bornett, S., & Co., 573 
Bourne End Electrical Installation 

Co., 300 
Bourne Valley Manufacturing Co., 

British Overseas Supplies. 20 

Bromley (Kent) Electric Light and 
Power Co., 706 

Brooker Manufacturing Co.. 242 

Bulhrs. 242 

Burma Electric Tramways & Light- 
ing Co.. 168 

Caerphilly Electric Supply Co., 188 

Calworth, 20 

City of Buenos Aires Tramwais Co., 
638 

Citv of Oxford Electric Tramways, 
'76 

Cleveland & Durham Electric Power, 
132 

Commercial Telephone & Electrical 
Co., 188 

Corona Lamp Works, 573 

Cosmos Engineering Co., 385, 573 

Cox, Harry W., & Co., 188. 478 

Crompton & Co., 354 

Dargue, Griffiths & Co., ,i73 

Direct Spanish Telegraph Co.. .573 

Drake & Gorham, 132 

Duroglass. 478 

Durrel, Walker it Co., 573 

Dynamic Electrical Co., 354 

Eagle Electric Light & Power Co., 



300 



Maint.na 



Electrical Contr, 

Co., 354 
Electrical Distribution oi Yorkshire, 

271 
Erskine, Heap & Co.. 573 
Evans, O'Donnell it Co.. 385 
Ferguson, Pailin & Co., 76 
Cell Telegraphic Appliances. 354 
Grimsby Electric Vehicle Co.. 132 
Hare. C. H.. S: Son. 354 
Hartley, Hodgson, 242 
Henley's Telegraph Works Co.. W. 

T., 215 
Homo, 20 

Integral Oxygen Co., 20 
International' Electrical it M.ehani- 

cal Supplies Co.. 20 
Jennings. 'T. A.. .573 
James Keith & Blackman Co.. 638 
Landaulet Co., 573 
Liverpool Copper Wharf Co.. 20 
Lobito. Benguella & Catumbella 

Electric Light & Power Co,. 47S 
London Eljctric Warehouse Co.. 766 
Mather St Piatt. 766 
Mersey Power Co.. 132 
Midland Electric Wire Co.. 766 
Montreal Tramways St Power ( o., 

Munster Electric Lighting Co.. 308 
Musselburgh it District El<ctric 

Light & Traction Co.. 132 
Nairobi Electric Power S: Lighting 

Co., 132 
Newquay Electric Light S: 1 ow.r 

Co., 385 
Nuneaton Electrical Contracting Co., 

*?» 
Omega Lamp Works, 510 
Oriental Telephone S: Electric Co., 

Penrith Electric Supply Co., 478 

Power Engine-ring Co., 385 

Power Speciality Co., 4(8 

Powis D.. & Sons. .'i73 

Premier Lamp & Engineering ( o., 

242 
Prie-lnian Bros,. 510 
Rangoon Electric Tramway Supply 

Co., 271 
Rawlinps Bros., 76, .573 
Renew Electric Lamp Co.. MB 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[.Ulv i. Ill HI. 



OmouL Rruuii — cantiMMtf. 

KhondJ,! Iraiiuvjjs Co., 70 
RicharJion. .\. U.. i Son. 573 
Robinson i H..nJ. Elcclricjl Co., 



573 



7Ij6 



Rushn 

Russell, J., &' Sons, 47H 

Seear, Stott & Co., l'S2 

Sentinel InslrunK-nt Co., 7() 

Severn Engineering Co., TG 

Sheerness i District Ul^tlrie Power 

and Traction Co., Itil 
Siemens Bros. & Co., 3^ 
Silent Electric Clock Co., 351 
Smith S Mortimer, 215, 573 
Tate, L. C. i Co., 2U 
Tilling-Stevcns, 573 
Thompson, J. (Dudlev), 20 
Thompson, J. (.Motor Pressings), 20 
Thompson, J- (Wolverhampton), 20 
Thompson Bros. (Blackburn). 510 
Thompson & Gingell, 573 
TraSord Engineering Co.. 213 
Tramwavs, Light ft Power Co., 573 
Vandervill. C. .\., & Co., 132 
Wiqgleswonh. F.. & Co., 638 
Waste Heat & Gas Electrical Gene- 
rating Stations, C38 
Westinghouse Cooper-Hewitt Co., 

354 
Westinghouse Electric Export Co., 

385 
Westminster Electric Supply Cor- 
poration, 417 
White, Jacobv it Co., 573 
Wiring, 417 ' 

Woking Electric Supplv Co., 300 
Wycombe (Boroughl Electric Light 

and Power Co.. 573 
Yorkshire (W.R.) Electric Tramwavs 

Co., 38o 
Z Electric Lamp .\!anufacturing Co., 



Officials, Compensation for, 23B 

Oil, British,, 611, 700 

Oil from cannel coal, 372 

Oils. Testing transformer, by .-V. Philip, 

Openings for British manufacturers. 

New electrical, 92 
Orwell electric vehicles. 774 
Osram companv formed in Berlin, 

New, 42 
Output, \\"orking hours and, 2G3 
Overseas, The appointment of British 

Agents. 661 
Overseas Trade Committee, 630 
Overseas Trade Department and Bri- 
tish advertising abroad, 628 
Overseas Tr.ade Department and ex- 
porters, 291 



I.ACIFIC cable. The, 139 



** Paragon " thermo-electric ship pro- 
pulsion patents, 290 

Parallel connection and voltage regula- 
tion of large mercurv rectifiers, 
191 

Paris, British industrial delegation in, 
291 

Paris Mav-dav celebrations. 540 

Parliamentarv,' 269. 298, 352, 414, 636 

Patent applications. 69. 154 

Patent law amendment, 128 

Patent Office librarv clo.<ing time, 18 

Patent regulations, ' 69 

Patent restoration. 124. 563. 596. 759. 

Patents applied for, 1919, \ew, 56, 84, 
112. 140, 168, 196. 224. 252, 280, 
308, 336, 364, 396. 428, 456, 488, 
520. .552, 584. 616. 64S. 680. 712, 
744. 776 

Peace celebrations, 541, 763 

Peace preparations at BeartJmore's, 662 

Peat industrv, Prussian, 456 

Peru, Import trade of, 306 

Petrol-electric vehicle. The Stevens, 



557 
Philadelphi! 



,t. Electric fun 



Philips glow lamp works, 263 
Photographic meter readings, 149 
Photography in warfare. Electricity 



I'Dwei >i-aien^. Surface timdeniing 

plant lor large, by R. J. Kaula, 

453, 483 
Power transformers. Large, by A. G. 

Ellis and J. L. Thompson, 545, 

578, 610 
Power transmission by magnetic belts, 

736 
Precipitators, Notes on electrical, by 

L. E. Thum. 331 
Price of electrical cnergv. The, 337, 

Prices after the war, 348 

Pre-war practices. Restoration of, 630 

Pre-war and present prices of electrical 

energy, 634, 717 
Priorities cancelled American, 103 
Prioritv certificates, 209 
I'rioritv closes down, 500 
Priority of Work Order. 1917, 195 
Private arrangement, 262 
Problem, An electrical. 269 
Produciiun, Industrial unrest and 

great. -r, 263 
Professional Workers' Federation, The, 

239 
Profit-sharing, Co-partnership and, 298 
Profit-sharing in principle, but no 

profits to share, 376 
Progress manager's first talk with his 

foremen. A. by W. J. Hiscox, 452 
Propulsion of ships, The electric, 29, 

587 
Propulsion of the modern submersible 

torpedo boat, bv Capt. N. H. 

Wood, 548 
Protection of .-Vustralian industries, 725 
Protection of oil tanks from lightning, 

569 
Provincial Electric Supplv Committee, 

635. 726 
Prussian peat industrv, 456 



Pietermaritzburi*. Sites for new fac- 
tories at, 13 

Pig-iron. Cold-blast, 376 

Pistons, Seizures of Diesel engine, by 
E. Ingham, 451 

Plain speaking, 309 

Plant, Control of metals machinerv 
and, 12 

Plant life and wireless, 508 

Plant, The fuller utilisation of tram- 
wav, bv G. H. Hoole, 403 

Platinum in Spain, 42 

Platinum in electro-analvsis, A substi- 
tute for. 593 

Poland. .596 

Polvphase commutator machines. 445 

Port Elizabeth, 100 

Portugal. Hydro-electric power develop- 

Pottery electrical men's wages, 68 

Power consumption of National indus- 
tries. 158 

Power factor indicators, Some notes on, 
by G. W. .Stubbincs. 435 

Power factor of arc-tvoe electric fur- 
naces; 298 

Power from three-phas^ syst.^ms. The 
suoplv of single-ohase, bv Prof. 
Miles', Walker, 195! 221. 230'. 30.S 

Power station coal consumption, ,381 



R 



ADI.\T10X, Heat. 17 



Kadio-.active Substances Control Order 
suspended, 100 

Radio-telegraphy in the U.S. Navv, 
268 

Radium bombardment, 699 

Rails contract for U.S. .A., Birming- 
ham, 348 

Raihvav catenarv suspensions, 483 

Railwav electrification and signalling. 



Ashover. 184 

Australia, 45, 664 

Belgium, 472, 697 

Brazil, 71, 76-2 

Canada, 500, 600, 665 

Central London liailwav, 45 

Chile, 379, 762 

Coventrv, 600 

Cumberland. 71 

France, 127, 184, 294. 600, 06.5 

Glasgow, 600 

Hungary, 350 

Hvthe, 156 

India, 294 

Inverness, 350 

Italy, 45, 71. 127, 212, 0G5 

Jamaica, 567. 632 

Lancashire, 127 

Light railwavs, 473 

Lincblnshirc, '212 

Liverpool, 45, 102, 412, 506 

London, 71. 102. 127, 156, 184, 212, 

236, 293 323, 330, 379. 412, 443, 

473, 338, 632, 698, 762 
London, Brighton & South Coast 

Railwav electrification, 13, 102 
Manchester', 1,56, 184 
Mansfield, 380 
Norway, 330 
Penge, 665 

Railwavmen's working hours, 127 
Romnev Marsh. 184 
South Africa, 16 
Spain, 127. 236. 411, 697 
Sweden, 350 
Switzerland, 411, 762 
Thornton, 16 
United States, 266, 443 



Railwav tracks. Electric snow melters 
for; 194 

R.lilwavs, Nationalisation of, 74, 138, 
180' 

Ranges, Energv consumption of elec- 
tric, 413 ■■ 

Rathenau on communism, .533 



Rating. Excess profits and the law of, 

170 
Rationing Committee disbanded. 42 
Reconstruction and the metric svstem. 

Industrial, bv H. Allcock. 79 
Reconstruction Electricil engineering. 

The right men in the right places, 

by D. S. Munro. 399 
Reconstruction lectures and confer- 

Reconstruction. The time for clear 
thinking and straight talking, bv 
F. J. Maurice. 259 

Rectifiers, Parallel connection and 
voltage regulation of large mer- 
cury. 191 

Refractory Metals Order revoked, 12 

Regenerative t^.c. electric railways, by 
E. Austin. 705 

Relav automatic telephone svstem. The, 
149 

Research in Germany, State .and tech- 
nical, 47 

Research in South Africa, Scientific, 



Reaearcli in works and labi.r.iU.i ie>. 
Co-ordination of, by H. R. Con- 
stantine, 393 

Research, Industrial, 1299 

Research organisation Planning a 
works, bv A. P. M. Fleming, 118, 
■285, 486 ' 

Research, The organisation o( scien- 
tific, bv Sir Frank Heath. 247 

Research, '£60,000 lor engineering, 129 

Research Publicity, by D. Ross Ken- 
nedy, 654 

Resettlement problem, The, 534 

Retarding factors, 348 

RiiVtiiws— 

Aircraft Identification Book, 292 

Applications of Electrolysis in Chemi- 
cal Industry, by A, J. Hall, 271 

Arithmetic lor Engineers, bv C. B. 
Clapham, 321 

British Dominions Year Book, 1919, 
503 

Electric Lighting Costs, 1914-1919, 
598 

Electrical Contractors' Yiar Book, 
100 

Elcctricitv and Magnetism for Be- 
ginners, by H. Pender. 407 

Electrolvsis and Its Mitigation, by 
E. 'B. Ros;. and B. McCollum, 



471 

Elementarv Mathematics and their 
.■\pplic'ation to Wireless Tele- 
graphy, bv S. J. Willis. 271 

Engineers' Year Book for 1919. by 
H. R. Kempe, 503 

Gyrostatics and Rotational Motion, 
bv A. Grov, 407 

Magnetism and Electricitv for Home 
Studv, bv H. E. Pen'ro.=e, 12 

Manual 'of Electrical Undertakings 
and Directory of Officials, ?10 

Manufacture of .-Xluminium. by J. T. 
Patlison, '271 

A/ec/iaiiical World Electrical Pocket 
Book for 1919, 410 

Ihvsics for Technical Stud.-n's, bv 
' W. B. Anderson, 519 

Practical Electrician's Pocket Book 
for 1919, 321 

Practical Telephone Handbook and 
Guide to the Telephone Ex- 
change, bv J. Poole. 519 

Radio-Communication : Theory and 
Methods, by J. Mills, 11 

Scientific Industrial EfBciencv. bv D. 
T. Farnham. 669 

Tables of British D-cimal Coinage: 
Metric and British Weights and 
Measures, by A. J. Lawson, 234 

Rhine : Exports to the Left Bank of, 

Rhineland, British Trade with. 596 
Rhineland, Engineering mission to 

the, 353 
R.N.I). The divisional engineers of 

the, 311, 317 
Rochdale, Dispute at, 563 
Rochdale strike incident, 214 
Runtgen .Societv, The, 63. 196 
Rolling mill. A Government. 296 
Rolling mill plant. Large, 283, 340 
Rotarv-convertcr installation at Ilford. 

496 
Rouinania, Serbia and Siberia, Trade 

with, 182 
Roval Agricultural .Show. Cardiff, 634 
Ro\al Arch Masonrv. 508 
Roval Arms. Tradesmen using the, 38 
Ro'valties for war inventions. 297 
Rubber trade. Hours of labour in the, 

210 



authorities, bv Chas. A. Riker, 449. 

481 
Rupee tester. An electrical. 403 
Rural industries, 458 
Russia. Business representation in. 



and Halske works in. 



Russia. Sic 
459 

Russia : Trade risks with ; Govern- 
ment insurance scheme.- 759 

Russia, Trade with, 320 

Russian engineering works. Require 
ments of. 48 

Russian ports not yet open to trade 



Rus! 



661 



lilwa 



The plight of. 731 



SAFEGUARDS in the workshop. 
563 
" Safetv First " movement. The. 116, 

190, 215 
Salaries, Chief engineers', 104 
Salaries of technical staffs. The, 282, 



Scrap copper from the fields of battle,. 
13 

Searchlight equipment and operation, 
bv H. .M. Goodv, 2-27, 403 

Searchlights, High 'c.f.. 134 

Seed, The electrification of, 114, 269,. 
358; bv H, H. Dunn, 89; bv Dr. 
Chas. 'Mercier. 118 

Seizures of Diesel engine pistons, by 
E. Ingham, 451 

Serbia, Siberia and Roumania, Trade 
with, 182 

Seven years in East Asia : Some im- 
pressions and reflections, b\' Prof, 
C. A. Middleton Smith, 553 

Shaft pressing, 544 

Shanghai : Electricity supplv at, 747 

Sheffield and District Wireless Society, 
765 

Sheffield, Electricitv supplv in, 3, 33 

Sheffield's war acti'vities, l> 

Shell detector, 214 

Ship construction and repairs. The ;'.p- 
plication of electric welding in, by 
J. R. Smith, 306 

Ship construction. X-rays applied to 
concrete, 390 

Ships : Electric welding of, 552 

Ship. Electricity on board, 48, 135 

Ships, The electric propulsion of, 29 

Shorter hours' movement, I he, 124 

Siam, Exports to China and, 209 

Siberia Serbia and Roumania, Trade 
with, 182 

Siemens and Halske during the war, 
263 

Siemens and Halske Co. on the situa- 
tion. The, 116 

and Halske works in Russia, 



459 

Siemens and South Africa, If 
Siemens-Schuckert on the 

The manager of, 258 

Signalling patents. Mine, 18 

Signalling ; Railway electrific 



745 



Silv 
Single-ph:> 



able 



rnm three-phase 
.K of, bv Prof. 
.Miles w I, I, pi., .'21, 250.' 308 

Single-ph.i- -.juiM. ;.. ii;. motor with 
unitv puu.i Ijclor. 602 

Small tools Order suspended, 263 

Smelting, Electric, 298 

Smelting in British Columbia, Electric, 
4S8 

Smethwick, Electricity supply at, 368 

Snow-melters for railway tracks. Elec- 
tric, 194 

Sodium as a copper substitute, 402 

Soldering aluminium 730 

Soldier, The grievance of the unskilled' 



Soldiers' 
ing 



30 



trical cngi. 
764 



332 



South Afrii ,, II iiri. ,1 -uoplies to, 377 
South Alii... ''. 1 niiii. r.-search in. 751 
South Afric.n A„uti.ni.jn of Municipal 

Electrical Engineers. 491 
South African electrical market. The. 

99, 124, 597 
South African tour of British industrial 

centres, 210 
.South African trade inquiries, 409 
South .America Enemy propaganda in, 

99 
South American market, 742 
-South American markets. The struggle 

for, 233 
South .American Trade Commissioner, 

535 
South American trade, U.S.A. and', 459 
Southampton aopoinlment, 636 
Southampton, Electrical wages at, 535 
Spain, Electric furnaces in the North 

of, 37 
Spain, National electric svstem for, 459 
Spain, New industrv in, 262 
Spain, Platinum in.' 42 
Spain, Recent French and .American 

activities in. 554 
Spain's resurrection is indubitable, 725 
Spanish companies. 233, 348, 629 
Spanish railwav construction work, 629 
Specialised control, bv Major Pells. 

523 
Specifications, On. 521 
Specifications. Published. 56, 84, 112, 

140 196, 2-24, 232, 280, 308, 336, 

364! 396, 428, 4.56, 520, 552, 584, 

616, 648, 680. 712. 744. 776 
Sphere photometer. The. 302 
Spitzbergen : Mineral deposits of, 630 
Splitdorf magneto (new), 736 
Staggered hours. 78 
Standardisation in Australia, 246 
Standards Association, Canadian F.n 

gineering. 410 
Standards, The application of. bv Major 

E. A. Pells. 402 
Standards. The determination of, by 

Major E. A. Pells, 284 
.Starting and lighting batteries. " Ex- 



ide 



596 



Salaries, Supplv 

224, 261, 352 
Sales of Government property, 700 
Salvage of Leclanche cells, 743 
Schoop process. The, 445 
Science Guild. British, 607, 730, 764 
.Science. International. 18 
Scientific management. 270. 324 
Scientific management factors. by 

Major E. A. Pells. 174 
Scientific management societv. A, 98 
Scientific management. The literature 

of. bv F. J. Maurice. 513 
Scientific' Prodi;cts Exhibition. BritisTi, 

22. 63. 129. 267, 410. 699 
Scientific research, The organisation of. 

by Sir Frank Heath. 247 
Scientific Societies, The Conjoint 

Board, 764 



engineers' 75, Starting of large_ D.c. motors without 



Statecraft. Industrial, 226 

Statics in wireless telcgraphv, The 
elimination of, 407 

Steam consumption of sm-ill-power, 
mixed-pressure turbo generators. 
An electrical device for checking 
the, by J. B. Harrison. .577 

Steam in large power stations. TTie 
use of high-pressure and high-tem- 
perature, by J. H. Shaw. 83 

Steam power plant. The coal consump- 
tion of. by R. H. Parsons. •20U 

.Steel exports. 154 

Steel, Iron and. 408 

Steel output and stocks, Iron and. 99. 
408, 409, 440 

Si eel prices. Iron and. 14, 263 



•In.v 4. rji;).] 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



Still engine. The : A new prime mover 
o( high efficiency and British origin, 
by F. E. Acland, t>43, "20 

Stoke-on-Trent, Water-power plant pro- 



duct] 



319 



Strike, American General Electric, 104 

Strike at Johannesburg, 415 

Strike at Pretoria, 415 

Strike, London electrical averted, 520 

Strike prevented in Berlin, 662 

iitrikes, 9S, 135, 214, 239, 269, 291, G99 

.Strikes and the supply of electricity, 

142, 159, 169, litb, 197, 239 
.Students. Some considerations regard- 
ing the mathematical training of 
engineering, by G. \V. Stubbings, 
636 
-Submarine Cabte Operators' .Associa- 
tion, 158 
Submarine detection by wireless, 477 
Sun. Eclipse of, 508 
Super-station efficiencies, 523 
Supply authorities, " Rules " imposed 
by electric, by Chas. A. Baker, 449 
Sweden and the black lists, 502 
Sweden, Exports to. Restrictions with- 
drawn, 759 
Sweden, Water power in, 685 
Swedish company, A new, 125, 661 
Swedish electrical industry, 123 
Swiss electrical machinery industry, 502 
Swiss exhibition, 440 
Sydney, Contract conditions at, 534 
Sidney, Trade commissioner at, 290 
S\»tems, The battle of the, 198 



TARIFFS on imported manufactured 
goods, by C. R. Belling, 769 
Tar Oils Control Order suspended, 98 
Technical Engineers, Society of, 509 
Technical experts, German organisation 

of, 37 
Technical Inspection .Association, 481 
Technical staffs, The salaries of, 282 
Technical Trades at Westinghouse, 725 
Telegr.^ph Notes — 

Abbreviated addresses, 16 

Aerograms, 538 

Argentina, 102, 443, 473 

Atlantic cables, 506, 665 

Australia, 16, 350, 538, 568, 632 



the 



666 



568 



able work during 



Cable breakdowns, 46, 237 

Cable censorship, 237, 266. 443, 474 

Cable delays, 127, 185, 266, 295, 380, 

443, 538, 568, 601, 698, 762 
Cable repairs, 295 
Cable ship honours, 412 

ada. 295, 001 



Chii 



568 



Colombia, 380 

Control of wireless. 46 

Czecho-Slovakia, 632 

Duplex wireless, 538 

Egypt, 350. 412 

Enemy cables 350 

Figures in cablegrams. 212 

France. 102. 127, 26G, 380 

Germany, 266, 380, 412, 474, 632 

Holland, 266 

India, 323, 474. 506 

Isle of .Man, 323, 474 

Japan. 538 

Marconi Co. and the w.ir. 323 

Marconi invention. New, 762 

Mexico, 127 

New Zealand, 538 . 

London-Paris wires, .»38 

Pacific cable traffic, 102 

Poland. 323 

Police wireless installation, 72 

Post Office record year, 380 

Postal workers' claini>, 212 

Post Office wages, 412 

Post Office war work, 763 

Red Cross tree cables, 698 

Snowstorms, 46, 72, 128, 323, 351, 

506, 538 
South America, 4ti 
Spain. 29.'i, 323, 474, 5'06 
Sweden, 102 
Syria, 412 

Telegrams from the war zone. 412 
Telegrams to enemy coimtries, 46 
Telegraph censorship, 295 
Telegraph Communications Board, 

29S 
Telegraph messengers, 212 
Telegraph operators, 474 
Telegraph service. Thi . 156, 266, 538 
Telegraphic delays, 633 
Trans-Atlantic cables. 102 
Underwater wireless, 89 
Iniled States, 16. 72. 102. I.'i6. :«.S. 

331. 380. 474. 538-9. 633, 666, 

698, 729. 763 
Lriiguay. 103 



We. 



Indi< 



295 



Board, 128 

Wireless call signals. 443 

Wireless direction finding stations, 

666 

Wireless in the air service, 266, 323 

Wireless on ships, 633 

Wireless operators, 324. a'il. 443. 474 



Wireless service. New. 185 
Wireless strtions arbitration. 568 
Wireless stations. Secret, 763 
Wireless telegraphy, 295, 601, 633, 



n-iliiosi NCrts— 
Australia, 568, 600 
.Automatic telephones, 

568, 600, 698, 729, 
B'.igium, 473 
Buenos Ayres, 323 
Canada, 601, 665 
China, 568, 665 
Constantinople lelephoni 
Continental telegrams, . 
Future of war [elephoi 
Guernsey, 350 



Ha 



16 



50a 

London telephones. 666 
London exchanges. New. 72 
London-Paris wires, 538 

Video, 698 



.Mor, 



127 



Telephone rmcienry, 143 
'Telephone line interferon 
Ing 569 



-Multiplex telephony, 127 

New telephone lines and stations. 506 

Post Office deficit. 568 

Post Office employes. 568 

Post Oflice war work, 763 

Postal workers' claims, 212 

Priority abolished, 323 

Snow 'storms, 46, 72, 128, 323, 3jl, 

506, 538 
Spain, 474, 506 
I'-leohone breakdowns, 323 
Telephone cables damaged, 237 
Telephone call delays, 237 
Telephone (Inefficiency, 729 
Telephone installations, 443 
Telephone service. The, 156, 237, 538 
Telephone irregularities, 601 
Trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, 323 
Trunk telephone delays, 46 
Underground telephone cables, 474, 

506 
United States, 16, 102, 156, 380, 474, 

538-9, 633, 666, 763 
Uruguay, 128 
Wireless telephony, 103, 128, 237, 266. 

295, 351, 443,' 506, 601, 633 

Telephone service of large cities, with 
special reference to London, by 
E. A. Laidlaw and W. H. Grin- 
stead, 641 

Telephone system. The relay , 
149 



165 
Temperatures, Some notes on electrical 

methods of measuring body, by 

R. S. Whipple, 392 
Tester, .An electrical rupee, 405 
Testing Fiat electrical accessories, 83 
Tests. .Accurate timing in electrical, 

477 
'Ihermo-electric ship propulsion patents, 

" Paragon," 2j0 
Three-phase systems, .Methods of 

" earthing," by C. L. Brown, 62 
Three-phase systems. The supply of 

single-phase power from, by Prof. 

Miles Walker, 193, 221, 250, 308 
rhermodvnamics. The Hopkinson 

chair' of, 340 
Ticker and telephone, 17 
Timing in electrical tests, .Accurate, 

477 
T.O.K. rotary switches, 726 
I'orpedo boat, The propulsion of the 

modern submersible, by Captain 

N. H. Wood. R.A.F., 548 
I'rade associations and combinations, 

630 
Trade. .A banker on engineering. 123 
1 rade and industry, British-ltalian, 13 
Trade commissioners to be appointed 

by the F.B.I-, 153 
■f'rade development. Our consuls and, 2 
I'rade, Financial facilities for, 24 
Trade, Foreign, 43, 290, 409 
Trade inquiries. Overseas, 408 
Trade journal. The functions of a, 254 
Trade marks, .Applications for British, 

68. 233, 320, 501, 597 
Trade missions abroad. Government, 

408 
Trade openings in Greece, 597 
'Trade policy. Sir A. Geddes and per- 
manent,' 661 
Trade, Removing the shackles on, 366 
Trade representation abroad, 233 
Trade risks with Russia, Governmcnl 

Insurance scheme. 739 
Trade statistics of Brazil, 590 
Trade statistics of Egypt. 427 
Trade sialisties of Newfoundland, 41 
Trade union amenities. 367 
Trad.: union restrictions. 69 
Trade with !>< Igium, Resumption of, 

13 
Trade with Brazil, 662, 681 
Trades Union and disabled men, 1 h.- 

Electrical, 764 
Trading with the eneniv. 42, 98, 123, 

180. -233. '290, 347, 410 
Training and education. The functions 
of the engineer, his, by Lieut.-Col. 

W. A- J- O'Meara. 219, 249, 426 
Training, Engineering, 143 
Training, Industrial, 186 
Training facilities. Delayed, .i71 
Training of able-bodied sailors and 

soldiers, 130 
Training of disablcKl m.n. The. 522 
Training of engin...r officers. The. 87 
'Training of engineering students. Som*- 
<on,id. rations regarding the, by 
O- W- Slubbings, 656 



Tkamwav Notes— 
Aberdeen, 15. 505 
.Arcrington.^43, l-'>6, 762 
Allerton. 323 
Ardslev, 762 
Argentina, 71. 664, 762 



.Ashton-under-Lyne, 323, 728 

.Australia, 15, 127, 2y4, 567 

Baildon, 350 

Barrow, 294, 442 

Barry, 411 

Bath, 472 

Belfast, 71, 102, 127. 472 

Belgium, 156, 184, 472, 665 

Bexlev, 156 

Bingley, 350 

Birmingham, 184, 411, 537, 399, 665, 

762 
Blackburn, 15. 71. 102, 265, 665, 697, 

728 
Blackpool, 71, 102, 212, 379, 303, 337, 

697 
Bolton, 45, 184, 665 



Bo't 



323 



Bournemouth, 411. 3y0 
Bradford, 71, 102. 184, 212. 33U, 

472, 537, 567, 697 
Brentford, 236, 473 
Brighouse, 13 
Bristol, 599 
Buenos Avres, 665 
Burnley, 184, 379, 762 
Burton'-on-Trent, 323 
Bury, 184, 537 

Canada. 136, 184, 306, 367, 600 
Chesterfield, 567 
Chile, 71 

Colne, 156, 265, 367, 632 
Conductors, Duties of, 379 
Conductresses, 788 
Cork, 156, 728 



600 



Crovdon, 473 

Dar'wen, 411. 367 

Dewsburv 48, 127, 294, 411, 473 

Doncaste'r, 15, 184. 330, 411. 367, 697, 

762 
Dover, 184 
Dublin, 294 
Dundee, 729 
Ealing, 567 
Edinburgh, 236, 294, 323, 411, 442. 

473, 762 
Egypt, 127, 323 

Electric Vehicle Conimltlee, The, 16 
Exeter, 506 
Farnworth, 473 
Fleetwood, 697 _ 
France, 71, 665, 728 
Glasgow. 71. 156, 473. 337. 697, 762 
Gloucester, 71 
Golcar, 537 
Grimsby, 71 
Halifax', 15, 2:31). 265. 442. 473. .W7. 

697 
Haslingden. 71. 127. .J37 
Hastings, 567, 6ii5 
Hebburn-on-Tyne. 600 
Hevwood, 442. 367 
Hoimfirlh, 729 
Huddersfield, 127. 236, 263, 442, 506. 

632 
Hull, 184, 506, 337. 600 
Huntingdonshire, 15 
Hvthe, 156 
llf'ord, 15. 136. 729 
India. 762 
Ipswich, 15 
Isle of Man, 632 
Isle of Thanet, 412 
Italy. 212, 236, 294. :V.O. 442 
Jamaica, 567 

Keighlev, 45, 473. ."lOe. 600 
Kirkcaldy. 294 
Lanarkshire. 537 
Lancaster, 697 
Leeds. 43. 71. 350. 537 
Lincoln, 45, 71, 2:16, 412. .567 
Liverpool, 184, 236. 379. 412, 506, 600, 

697 
Llandudno, 16 
Lourenco Marques, 698 
London. 16. 127. 184. 212. -236, 266. 

323. 330, 379. 412. 443, 473, 306; 

537, 567, 600, 632, 665, 698, 729, 

762 
Maidstone. 45. 184. 380 
Malvern, 698, 729 
Manchester, 71, 266. 473. 506, 600. 

632. 663 
■Mansfield. .567. 632 
Mers..v Docs. 16 
Monmouthshire, 295 
Mor.-camb-. 127 
Morlev. 323 

Musselburgh. 71. 237, 323 
\ewcastle<.n-Tvne, 71. 412. 443, 338 
New Zealand '323, 632, 729 
NortKnmptm. 184. 2:t7. 266. 323, 443, 

473- 367. 600 
Norwich. :iT0 
Peterborough. 295 
Plymouth. 567 
Pontypridd. 473 
Portsmouth. 266, 367 
Portugal, .337 
Prescot. 295 
Preston. 665 
Rawlenstall. 237 
Rea<linc. 380 
Rochd.-.le. 443. 473 
Roth.rhnm. 698 
St- Helens. 18.'.. 295. .'67. 665 
Salford. 43. 136 
Sandgate, 367 
Scotland, 237 
Sheffield. 4^ 237. 306 
Shipley. 567 
South Africa. 1(P2. 3.50 
Southampton. ' 3.30 
■Soulhport. 72 
iJoulh Shields. 71. 295 
Spain- 127. 156. 184. 236, 323. 411. 

506. 665 
Snen Valley. 506 
Stainland. 156 
Stalybridge 127 
Stepney, .'»38 
Stirling. 16, 127 



Stockport, 295 
Stockton, 71, 185 
Stoke-on-Trent, 380 
Street accidents, 538 
Sunderland, 102, 156, 665 
Switzerland. 411 
Swindon, 330 



Tha 



412 



a by, 16 
Tramwaymen's hours, 350 
Tramways iB. of T.) Cotnn:i;tee 237 
Transport Bill. The, 538 
United Stales. 185, 323. 443, 665 
Wages, 16, -237, 266, 293, 350, 412, 

537 
Wakefield, 295 
Walkden, 45 
Walthamsioi*, 665 
Warrington, 185 
West Hartlepool, 212 
W'esion-super-Mare, 16 
Wharfedale, — 



Wc 



412 
323 

A'ork, 663 

Tramway plant. The fuller utilisation 

of, by G. H- Hoole. 403 
Transformer, .A 60,000-KW., 374 
Transformer oils. Testing, by A. Philip. 



Transformers. Insula 
549 



for 



Transformers. Large powe 

Transformers. Large power, by A. G- 
Ellis S: J. L. Thompson. 545, 578 

Transhipment of goods in the United 
Kingdom, 596 

Transition problems, 650 

Transmission, Electric, 746 

Transmutation of metals, 117 

Transport Bill, The, 253, 311, 325, 376. 
414 

Transport charges, British, .'iOl 

Transport questions, 763 

Travelling light. A, bv N. D. B. 
Phillips. 11 

1 ubes. The corrosion of condenser, by 
G- D. Bengough & O- F. Hudson, 
467 

Turbine plant for Glasgow. 347. 409 

Turbine, The Belluzzo steam, 361 

Turbines, The reliability of large, 310 

Turbo-alternator contract, 69 

Turbo-alternator, The determination of 
Ihe efficiency of the. by S. F 
Barclay & S. P. Smith, '273, 334, 
423 

Turbo-alternators, .Accidents to. 446 

I'urbo-generators. .An electrical device 
for checking the steam consump- 
tion of >mall power mixed pressure, 
by J. B- Harrison. 577 

Tyneside and new industries, 181 



UNCERI'AINTV and unemploy- 
ment, 663 

I'nemployment, .An appeal to em- 
ployers, 502 

Unions for joint action, London, 667 

United Kingdom, Transhipment o( 
goods in. 596 

I niled States and Canadian generating 
systems. Output of, 488 

United Stales and foreign electrical 
trade. 99 

United States and S. .American trade 
459 

UnittMl States copper position, 320 

United States electrical developments, 
320 

United States export plans, 378 

United Stales export trade. Govern- 
ment financial .issistance for, 320 

United States Navy, Radiotelegraphy 
in the, 268 ' 

United States 
don, 267 

United States, The metric system in 
the, 268 

United States, Welcome home in the, 
186 

Unskilled man as a soldier. The griev- 
ance of the, 30 

Uruguay, EJeelric furnaces in, 415 



"VTACUUM-XALNE amplifiers. 771 

\'alve-gear. Electrically operated, 730 
Nehicle costs. Electric, 246 
N'ehicle progress. Electric. 404 
\'ehicle. The Stevens petrol-electric, 

557 
Vehicles in Germany. EliHtric. 415 
Vehicles. Orwell electric, 774 
Vehicle, The nomencl.-.turc of electric, 

147; bv C. T. Oppirman. 424 
Vibrations in buildings. .Methods of 

preventing Ihe transmission of. by 

A- B. Eason. 684 
Victory march of London tcoops, 655 
\ oltag'e regul.ilion of large 



liflc .Attach^ in Lon- 



r.clifiers. Parallel 



w 



-AGES regulations, 535 



Wages and shorter hours in Germany, 

Effect of higher, 153 
Wages in Manchester district. Elec- 
trical, 320 
Wages in Norway. Engineers', 43 
Wages, Pottery electrical men's, 68 
Wage problem 'in industry. The, 270 
Wage systems in relation to efficiency, 

bv Major E. A. I'ells. 589 
War.' IVfinilion nl the end of the, 124 
124 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[Jnv 



:!un a( Eleclricnl 
supply progre»:> 



W ::■ : on materiiiU us'-'d i 
ii^ «ork, Th- eficcl 
In H. E. Verbur*. 484 

\\ ,t,?r po\v>r, Krenih. #13 



\\.,t 



pov 



34.'; 



Water pawrr in Sivtdcn. CSJ 

Water power. Irish. 7m 

W'.iter Dower on th. River Duero. The 
utilis.nlion of, 427 

Water-power pl.Tnt production at Stoke- 
on-Trent, 319 

Water softening, 421 

'570, "764'" '°'"""-"""''"'°"- 
Wavs and Communications The Minis- 
try of. 23!) 
Weak current lechnoloiiv, German In- 
stitute for. 627 
Welded gondola car. .Vn electrically. 



444 

Weldinji 



process 



bv Comtnander S. 



't 



WcUin;; Jcvulupments in Great Ijrilain 
and the Inited States, bv J. Cald- 
well & H. B. Savers, 305 

Welding. Electric. 17'; bv T. T. Hea- 
lon, 167, 24» 

Welding, EUctric arc, b- H. M. 
Sayers, 43fi 

Welding in ship construction and re- 

Eairs, The application of electric, 
V J. R. Smith, ami 

Welding to large structures. Experi- 
ments on the application of electric, 
be W. S. .Abcll. 30."i 

Welfare, 1-uller social, ftl 

WeUare work, iMl 



Welfare 
AX'estingho 
tton, : 
Westingho 
Westingho 
Westinghfl 



•ork. 



Real, 31!) 
electric export 



deputa- 



mass meeting, GMi 
war relief fund, 289 

work^, Industri.tl fore- 

29« 



for Government 



Whitlev Councils, 74C 
Whitlev Cc 

tablishments, 760 
Whitlev Councils for the Civil S 

A\'hitley report and the elcMrtricit 
piv industry, bv Alderma 
W'alker, 7.'iG 

" Whitleyism," The industrial 
tion and, 113 



Wholesalers' l-tJeraliun, lil^cui.,.:. M. 
U*illcsdcn *' welcome home." .A. 408 
Wills, 20, 242, 327, 447, 478, 51!), .'i72 

766 
Winding equipment An electrically 

driven, 4CU 
Wire-drawing industries, The, 31 
Wireless and pl.int life, 508 
Wireless and the solar eclipse-, 571 
Wireless artillery fire control, 495 
Wireless compass. The, 487 
Wireless development during thi' ivar 



438 



Wirele 
Wirele 



sly-directed aircraft, 603 

direction finding apparatus, 



550 

Wireless in the air sernce, 47, a71 
Wireless in the war, 88 
Wireless interceptor, 445 
Wireless progress in wartime, 489 
Wireless sets. Continuous-wave and, 

657 
Wireless Society. Sheffield and District, 

765 
Wireless stations. French colonial, 486 
W'ireless, Submarine detection bv, 477 
Wireless system. The future o'f the 

German, 651 
Wireless telegraphv after the war. 366 
W!r!-Iess telegraphv. The elimination 

of statics in, 407 



lelcyraph). The l.li.L. 



353 

Wireless telephony, Marconi, 67:) 

Wireless weather, 539 

Wiremen in the Navy, 324 

Wires, A moilern test (or high n ,isi- 
ance joints in line, 75 

Women as engineers, 75 

Women cable makers. Wages of. joj 

Women engineers, Wages of. 378 

Working hours and output. 26^^ 

Working hours, French. 470 

Working week for emplovt^-s in elec- 
tricity undertakings. Shorter, 73' 
— ipcnsation, A committee 
596 



Workii 



en, 698 
Works research organisation. Plan- 
ning a, l.y A. P. M. Fleming, 119, 



X-R.^VS applied to concrete shiir 
construLUion. 390 
X-ravs. Examination of nraterlals by, 

679 
X-rays in industry, 240 
X-ray plant. Mobile. .525 

"VrORKSHlRl-'^ RIectrirUy supply iij' 
X SoM-h 31G 



Printed by Wsi. Cate, Ltd.', 147-150. Gt. Saffron Hill. E.G. scad Publislied by the Proprietors. Tbf. BLECinic 



Ltd. 4 LiKlsate HilI.E.C i. 



THS 



HIIjEOTK/IO^Xj K/E'VIE-W- 



Vol. LXXXIV. 



JAXUAKT 3, 1919. 



No. 2,145. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



1919--THE NEW ORDER. 



Vol. r^XXXIV.] CONTENTS : January 3, 1919. (No. 3,145. 

Page 

1919— The New Order 1 

Sheffield's War Activities ... 2 

Our Consols and Trade Development 2 

Electricity Supply in Sheffield (i7/?;»-.) 3 

Americas Electrical Trade, by M. Chalmers 10 

A Travelling Li^ht. by N. D. B. Phillips, Lieut. R.E. (illiix.) ... 11 

Reviews ... ,,, ... ... ... ... ... ... 11 

Business Notes 12 

Notes 17 

City Notes 20 

Stocks and Shares 21 

Market Quotations 22 

Carbon Brushes : Considered in Relation to the Design and 
Operation of Electrical Machinery, by P. Hunter-Brown 

(ilius.) iconcluded') 23 

Financial Facilities for Trade 24 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant {illus.) 2.5 

Electrolytic Processes {i7/(M.) 26 

Correspondence — 

The Purchase of Appointments ... ... 27 

The Royal Albert Hall 27 

Charging Electric Truck Batteries 27 

The Electrical Contractor 28 

Electrical Trade Benevolence : An Appeal 28 

Contractors' Column Advertisement page xxiv 



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TO "ELECTRICAL REVIEW" READERS. 

Owing fo the continued increase in the circulation 
of the ELECTRICAL REVIEW in recent months, an 
increase which has become accelerated since the 
signing of the Armistice, we cannot guarantee that 
casual copies will be available. The only way to 
make sure of securing a copy regularly as issued, is 
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[1] 



We stand on the threshold of a new era. The war is over, 
for practical purposes : peace will be restored in a few 
months, and we look forward to a period q£ intense activity 
in the electrical industries. Are we ready tor it ? 

Great changes are in progress in the organisation of some 
of our principal manufacturing concerns : huge combina- 
tions are being formed, with immense capital at their com- 
mand, which will enable them to deal with the great 
undertakings which are confidently expected to be launched 
in the near future : there will be abundance of work to be 
done both at home and abroad — but other nations will be 
seeking orders, too, and we must be prepared to meet their 
competition in the open markets of the world with the 
three weapons : high quality, low price, and quick delivery. 
Xow, British manufacture is the hall mark of good quality, 
and we trust that our excellent records of the past in this 
respect will be maintained and excelled in the future ; but 
low price and quick delivery depend not upon design, work- 
manship, and material so much as upon efficient organisa- 
tion — first of the individual workshop, and, secondly, of 
the whole industry. 

The war has taught us many lessons, the gist of which 
has been impressed upon our memories by arduous efifort 
and prolonged— sometimes painful — experience. One of 
the most significant of these is the fact that we, as a nation, 
can do anything that any other nation can do — and do it- 
better — when we realise the necessity of its accomplishment.. 
We have also learnt— what we well knew before, though we 
did not appreciate it at its true value and importance — i 
that rapid and economical production depends u{X)n 
quantity production ; what we could do when we applied 
this precept to practice was demonstrated by our astonishing 
output of munitions of war, a performance which amazed 
the world. That output was produced, in the firet instance^ 
regardless of expense, for the cost was a minor matter, when 
rapidity of production was a matter of life and death to 
the nation ; but later, when the emergency had passed, our 
output was also cheapened, in spite of war wages and 
scarcity of material. But above all, the fact stands ont 
that our factories throughout the land were organised td 
work co-operatively. Thus we won the war — and we won 
it largely by efficiency of organisation and collective 
operation. 

Precisely the same principles will govern the result of the 
industrial conflict which is now about to open. Production 
in quantity, efficient organisation, and " team work " on the 
largest scale are the essentials to success in the world- 
competition that lies before us. Are we reacli/ ? 

The great combines to which we have alluded will be 
mainly concerned with the manufacture of heavy and costly 
apparatus, and with the execution of large contracts which 
can only be successfully handled by concerns equipped with 
almost limitless resources and personnel ; of the necessity 
for such qualifications, in order to compete with the huge 
organisations of the United States and Germany, the past 
history of our electi'ical industry affords abundant evidence. 
But it is neither necessary nor desirable that smaller firms 
should endeavour to emulate the example of their big 
brothers, and to make " everything electrical " : nor is it 
necessary that the big concerns should trouble themselves 
with the production of apparatus that are manufactured 
on a repetition basis, and can therefore be turned out in 
(juantity by the smaller ones with equal economy and 
efficiency. Let us not forget the lessons of the war. 

For 20 years, like a voice crying in the wilderness, we 
have urged our manufacturers to co-operate — to collaborate 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW- [voi.84. xo. 2.u., .unuaby 3, ion.. 



— to lay aside petty jealousies and help one another — in a 
\vord, to ori/miise, the industry, which means in a large 
measure to specialise ; four yesirsof war have but eonlirnied 
the wisdom of our i>reaching — but do we see any symptoms 
of real eonvei-sion amonsjst our manufacturing friends r We 
gravely fear that Peace is bringing with it but a renewal 
of the old individualism which, whatever its merits in the 
past. H'ill not serre in the fiitiiri'. It is not yet too late to 
mend our ways ; now, indeed, is the very time, whilst we 
are changing over to peace production, when our industries 
could be most easily organised for victory in the trade war. 
We are not s|^)eaking merely to the gi'ea't combines, but to 
the smaller firms also— to those who, having built uji 
thriving businesses in certain lines, cling to them with the 
just pride and afffttion of the creator. It is, perhaps, at 
once the pride and tin- misfortune of the electrical industry 
that it is as yet so young that the originators of designs 
which have attained high reputation still retain j^ersonal 
-<:ontrol over their creations, and carry on their businesses 
rather as a hobby than as a source of revenue. But the 
interests of the nation should prevail over the inclinations 
of the individual, and it is the patriotic duty of every man 
to ask himself whether by sinking his individuality to some 
extent he can promote the national welfare. AVe repeat, in 
c-onclusion, that organisation anti specialisation on the part 
of electrical manufacturers is the key to success in the trade 
war — and we see no evidence as yet that that key is going 
to be used. 



Ix presenting to our readers to-day 

Sheffield's. ^ t ^\ i ^ • i j i / 

War Activities account of the electrical developments 

in Sheffield during the war, we may with 
advantage draw attention to the splendid record of the city 
^ one of the principal factors in winning the war. (Jf the 
Hvorld-wide reputation of Sheffield as one of our most 
important steel-producing centres, we need not speak ; the 
\Uty was also noted for its manufactured products based on 
steel as the raw material, and for its electro-plated goods. 
During the war the industries of the city underwent a 
complete transformation, and it became a huge manufactory 
•of munitions, employing over 120,000 workers on this class 
■of production, of whom some 30,000 were new to the life of 
the workshop. The output of the city was doubled, and 
•the railway traffic during the year ending June last was 
35,000,000 tons. Innumerable new works were built and 
existing works extended on a large scale, new steel furnaces 
were started, and electric steel furnaces to the number of 
about 60 were constructed. The great steel firms were 
reorganised and brought together, and combinations were 
formed to secure control of all the raw materials necessary 
to the increase of output and to the cheapening of pro- 
duction. Since the armistice unemployment has not over- 
taken the industrial population ; on the contrary, the city 
is up to the neck in work, with orders in hand for many 
months to come. Sheffield, in fact, not only played a 
leading part in the war, but is going to do so also in peace 
time, and may be depended upon to hold her own with all 
comers. 

The phenomenal progress of the electricity supply depart- 
ment, under the management of Mr. S. E. Fedden, has 
already been commented on in these columns ; between 
. 1014 and 1 'J 1 8 the revenue increased five times and the output 
seven times, the capital expenditure was doubled and the 
net profit increased ten times. When the present and pro- 
spective extensions have been completed, the plant capacity 
will have been increased from 28,000 kw. in 1914 to 
146,000 KW., making it one of the four largest under- 
takings in the Kingdom. 

In the face of these striking advances in the industrial 
■fortunes of Sheffield, it is interesting to reflect that the 
■city contains hundreds of small rnanufacturing firms, each 
in pre-war times confining its attention to a very restricted 
range of products, and that an intensely conservative spirit 
reigned in the community. The fact that changes so vital 
and fundamental have been effected in so short a time is 
striking evidence of the inherent adaptability and capacity 
of the British character, and augurs well for the future of 
the country in the difficult times that lie ahead. 



Sheffield tii-st became a steel centre because of its many 
small water powers, which provided the necessary power to 
forge swords and bayonets ; gradually extending its scope, 
the city began to make steel for itself, and then to manu- 
facture from its steel many other products besides military 
weapons. It is curious to observe how by a return to its 
primitive occupation the spirit of the city has been revivified 
and its energies have been aroused. Well has Hieffield 
" done its bit I '" Jlay its prosperity nefer wane. 



Our Consuls 
and Trade 
Development. 



Discussion has been renewed in the 
Press on the question of the qualifications 
of British Consuls. The (jovernment 
Department concerned with these appoint- 
ments did not feel able to fill the offices while so many 
excellent men were away with the Forces. Now that speci- 
ally recjuired men are being released, we presume there need 
be no further delay : certainly few things in connection with 
trade are of greater importance now that the war is ended. 
We observe that special plans are on foot for ensuring that 
men selected foi' such posts shall have suitable experience in 
touch with our industries, and the business world will be 
eager to know the details, so that they may judge the like- 
lihood of their being able to rely upon, and co-operate 
with, the new officials in making their efforts for British 
trade expansion throughout the world. In the course 
of speeches that have been delivered lately by critics 
of the past Consular Service, one speaker mentions 
Consuls whom he has known who had no knowledge o4 the 
weights and measures of the country to which they were 
sent ; another instances Consular appointments in Russia 
given to men who knew nothing of the Russian language. 
No doubt the Government, which is pledged to establish the 
Consular Service upon a new basis which will ensure its 
efficiency, will see that these, and the many other defects of 
the past, are not continued. From what we can gather, 
there is no probability of any undue haste being shown in 
connection with this important matter. To secure that a 
sufficient number of adequately trained men of the right 
type are available at their appointed posts will necessarily 
take some time, but we hope that those responsible 
will not let the grass grow under their feet. We ought 
soon to be having a series of official reports from the 
different markets if the business world is to be adequately 
assisted in strengthening our export trade connections, but 
manufacturers will be unwise if they fail to make very 
energetic efforts on their own behalf. They will not 
need much official assistance in reviving connections which, 
unfortunately, have in too many cases been allowed to lapse 
under war conditions. No doubt they are using the foreign 
postal service pretty freely just now, and are arranging 
tours for their travelling representatives, as well as pre- 
paring printed literature regarding their manufactures for 
the use of their agents on the spot and for sending direct 
to likely purchasers. Happily trade organs which have 
maintained their efficiency against great odds during the 
past four years have been available for Colonial and foreign 
trade publicity right along, and during the coming months, 
before Consuls or foreign representatives can be at their 
pnsts, or new catalogues and publicity literature can be 
ready, these organs will fill more actively than ever before 
the role of business-getter. They are sometimes criticised 
by those who have an axe of their own to grind or who are 
incapable of understanding other people's war-time diffi- 
culties and who imagine that the paper situation has been 
equally serious in all countries. But we believe that .speak- 
ing generally the British manufacturer and trader will make 
the fullest possible use of all tried available facilities in 
these days when thousands of potential purchasers abroad 
want to know what we are going to do out of our increased 
productive capacity to help to satisfy their crying needs. 

We observe that the British Trade Commissioner who 
has completed a tour of Eastern Ontario finds strong senti- 
ments in favour of British goods, but he points to a lack of 
British publicity effort such as is necessary if_ we are to 
face the aggressive selling methods which may be expected 
to characterise the foreign competition that is coming. 



Vol. 84. No. 2.145. ja-ntarv 3, 1919.] THE ELECTIUCAL REVIEW. 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN SHEFFIELD. 



Wk have on previous occasions recorded the progress of the 
electricity supply department of the Corporation of 
Sheffield,' and have pointed out the vast scope for the 
development of this branch of the Corporation's activities 
that was afforded by the great industries of the rapidly- 
oTowing city : but no one, we should think, could ever have 
foreseen the extraordinaiy increase in the importance of the 
department which has taken place during the war. In 
1912. when we last described the works of the undertaking, 
the output was under 17 million units per annum ; in the 
year ending March 2.jth, 1018, it was no less than 172^ 
millions — an increase of over 900 per cent. Up to the 
outbreak of war, the progress of the undertaking was 
normal and steady, the output for the year ending March, 
1914, being 26h million units ; during the war, therefore, 
the output has increased by nearly seven times, while the 



perform his own section of the work under the general 
supervision of the chief. In a word, the organisation of the 
whole undertaking was such that it was capable of e.xpan- 
sion even to ten times its pre-war capacity without a 
hitch — provided that the necessary plant could be obtained 
at short notice. 

At the outbreak of war in August, 1914, the department 
was preparing to meet the normal increased output, and a 
new .■<,3oO-KW. turbo-alternator was in course of erection at 
Neepsend, while the contracts for building extensions and 
the installation of the necessary boilers and auxiliary works 
were in progress. The first effect of the declaration of war 
was a heavy drop in the demand for electric power ; the 
output fell off by one-third of the normal demand during 
the first week and one-fourth during the second, 'but in 
the third week the normal output was regained, and from 




Fig. 1. — Neepsend Power Station : Interior of Turbt.se Room. 



annual income has reached the amount of £639,607, the 
balance of profit alone being larger than the total revenue 
in 1914. Naturally, this rapid expansion has not been 
accomplished without imposing a vast amount of work uix)n 
the staff, and it is interesting to observe that the whole of 
the extensions of plant and mains have been carried out 
" according to plan " by the department, on the lines laid 
down by the general manager and engineer, Mr. S. E. 
Fedden,'M.InstC.E., as long ago as 1904. This could not 
have been accomplished without effective organisation : but. 
fortunately, Jlr. Fedden had so organised the undertaking, 
and so trained his staff, that when war broke out, and the 
demand began to advance by leaps and bounds, all that was 
necessary was to carry out the plan of campaign already 
outli ned, each head of a department being in a position to 

* Electrical Review, July l.')th, 1904, and August 30th and 
.September 6th, 1912. 



that time onwards rapid and continuous progress was made. 
Applications fn" supply began to pour in at an unprece- 
dented rate, and it soon became evident that additional 
plant would be required to cope with the growing demand. 
The installation of the plant above mentioned was nushed 
on as qnickly as possible : but owing to the dislocation 
caused by the mobilisation of the Army, and the resulting' 
difficulties in obtaining materials, it was not until March, 
191."i. that the new set was able to run on load. In the- 
meantime, in Xoveinber, 1914, preparations were made to 
install a second 8,500-kw. set, with the corresponding boiler 
plant, to meet the 1916 demand, and orders were placed for 
the necessary plant. 

To ad'l to the difficulties of the situation, two of the 
largest gtnerating sets at Neepsend broke down just befort 
Christmas, 1914, when the heaviest load of the year fell 
due. Cominuity of supply was inten-upted only for a few 



%A 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,145, January 3, 19iy. 




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Vol. 84. No. 2,145, januarv X 1919.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



minutes, and by bringing into use the whole of the avail- 
able plant in all three generating stations, the general supply 
■of the city was fully maintained : much of the plant had been 
lying idle for years, but it had been maintained in excellent 
condition, so that it could be brought into use at a moment's 
notice. The rush of ajiplications for electricity supply 
continued, and in June, 191."), it became necessary 
either to decline further applications, or to install addi- 
tional generating plant immediately. A 2.000-Kw. turbo- 
-■alternator, intended for a Russian colliery, which was 
practically ready at the maker's works, was commandeered 
by the Ministry of Munitions, and afforded temporary 
relief, but this was obviously inadequate to cope with the 
increased demand, and steps were taken to ascertain what 



train of about 40 trucks of coal broke a coupling ind ran 
the full length of the siding, crashing into the steel frame- 
work of the new boiler house ; this accident entailed a delay 
of six weeks in repairing the damage done to the steel work. 
The load on the station continued to increase, and new 
applications to pour in, and it was seen that even with the 
new plant then on order the capacity of the stations would 
be unequal to the demand, so at the beginning of January, 
liH6, orders were placed for another 8,500-kw. turbo- 
alternator and the corresponding boilers, at an estimated 
cost of £137,000, which was raised by the Ministry 
of Munitions for the purpose. At this time the existing 
plant was working continuously on overload to cope with 
the demand : no time was available for overhauling and 



CSTY 



SMEFIFBELE) 




Fig. 8. — Sectional Elevations of Neepsend Power Statiov. 



further plant was obtainable : it was found that a i),000-KW. 
set was in course of construction for a South American 
I'ailway, and this also was commandeered by the Ministry, 
which also provided the capital required to pay for this set 
and the additional boilers and other apparatus necessary to 
its ojieration. At the same time the buildings were being 
extended to practically double the size of the existing 
station, as rapidly as possible, the work being carried on 
without cessation. Large arc lamps were used to illuminate 
the site at night, in spite of the lighting restrictions then 
in force, and in frosty weather coke tires were lighted every 
few yards near all concrete and brickwork, to prevent delay 
in the work. The large extensions in progress necessitated 
the handling of heavy structural steelwork at great heights, 
and the interworking of cranes, light railways, and moving 
machinery in an area congested by the working gangs of 
some 20 contracting firms, but no serious accidents occurred 
to life or property, except one on the railway siding, when a 



inspecting the piano, and it was not surprising that in 
March two generating sets broke down, necessitating the 
restriction of supply to certain large consumers to night 
work whilst repaire were in progress. The strain on the 
staff during these trying times may be imagined ; but 
everyone loyally worked " all out " to overcome all diffi- 
culties and to maintain continuity of supply in face of 
the ever-mounting demand of the City's munition factories. 
The rate of progress is well illustrated by the following 
table : — 

12 months ended 

March 25th— 1914. 1915. 191G. 1917. 1918. 

Capacity of plant . . 28,225 31,725 42,225 59,725 68,245 

Units sold .. .. '26,546,718 44,873,342 77,868,027 126,476 858 173,451,007 

Coal consumed, tons 44,187 70,3 11 131,123 194,101 244,312 

Cost of coal . . £17,820 £35,005 £86,437 £146,3,'i6 £2^8,777 

The relative positions of the four generating stations 
belonging to the Sheffield Corporation are indicated on the 
accompanying sketch-plan (fig. 4) ; it will be seen that the 
original station at Sheaf Street, and the tramway power station 



THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. [Vol.Sl. Xo. 2,145, January 3. l<>l!t. 



at KeUiam Isluud, are situated at the centre of the ciu. hut 
when the necessity of erectinsr a hiitre installation became 
evident, it was decided to make use of the natural advan- 
tiures of the site at Xeepsend, on the north-west of the city. 




-Plan of Sheffield, showing posiiions op 
Generating Stations. 



panyins plan (tii;. I'l ; it will be noticed that in the first in- 
stance the boilers were arranged alongside of the turbine 
room, and this arrangement was satisfactory so long as the 
generating sets were of coniparati\ely small output, but the 
installation of larger sets in the newer part of the station 
necessitated the provision of additional boiler houses teed 
off from the main range, and in the completed station the 
steam-raising plant covers a far larger area than the turbine 
room. The latter consists of one long room divided near 
the centre by a, passage extending also through the 
boiler house, and the whole of the plant and switcligear is- 
so laid out that the building and its contents can readily be- 
divided into two independent stations, in order to afford 
protecti6n against breakdown which might otherwise affei-t 
the whole of the plant. At present, however, the station is 
run e/i bloc. 

The power-station building, in its completed form, covers 
an area of about 2i acres; the turbine room is 384 ft. in 
length and 7('. ft. wide ; and the boiler houses, as shown in 
the plan of the station, are arranged along one side and ohl- 
end of the engine room. The great leiigtii of the building- 
is. perhaps, best illustrated by our view of the exterior 
(fig. .5), which also shows the eight cooling towers at the 
south end of the site, and the ash heaps beyond the station 
towards the north and east. Adjoining tlie main buildings 
are the pump room for the cooling towers, stores, mes& 
rooms, &c. At the south end of the site, behind the 
cooling towers, the hill-side has been levelled and made 
into a yard for storing coal in the open ; this is served by 
a self-propelling steam crane, which stacks the coal with 
the aid of a two-ton grab, and also delivers it to the hcppers. 
when required (a second crane is about to be provided). 
Our illustration (fig. (i) shows pait of the loal yard and the 




Fig. 5. — Exterior of Neepsend Power Station. 



and about two miles from the central 
area. It was then anticipated that the 
future industrial load, which was con- 
fidently expected, would develop in that 
direction : as it turned out, the demand 
for power and heating arose chiefly in 
the north-east, and it is in that (juarter 
that the new station is being erected 
at Blackburn Meadows. The distance 
of transmission from Xeepsend, how- 
ever, is not great — about 3^ miles to 
the industrial area — and the excellent 
facilities afforded by the site for the 
supply of water and coal, and the 
dispo.sal of sshes. amply compensate for 
this slight drawback. The station is 
built close to the river Don, on the 
flank of a hill, which enables the trains 
of coal trucks to be run in above the 
boilers, thus dispensing with costly 
machinery and labour for handling the 
coal. Ample space is available in the adjoining valleys 
for dumping ashes, and a large yard is provided for storing 
coal. The station is built on rock foundations ; the clay 
excavated from the site, being of excellent quality, was made 
into bricks on the spot, and utilised for building the station. 
The lay-out of the buildings is shown on the accom- 




Fio. 6. — Sooth End op Power Station, and Coal Yard. 



crane, together with the end of the station buildings knd 
of the covered sidings and coal bunkers. The sidings are 
fed by a branch from the Great; Central Railway, and provide 
ample accommodation for storing full and empty trucks, 
which are handled by means of nine reversible capstans, each 
driven by an 18-h.p. motor : the coal is weighed ia 



Vol.84. No. 2,145, January 3, I'MO.] THE ELECTRICAX, REVIEW. 



the trucks on a weigh-bridge before entering the coal store, 
and is measured into the hoppers of the mechanical 
stokers. Normally four or five train-loads arrive at the 
station daily, and are dumped either into the bunkers 
through iron gratings, which prevent large pieces of coal 
from passing to the shoots, or into the hoppers which feed 
most of the boilere directly. In order to handle the trucks 
across the five tracks, two traversers, each driven by a 0-h.p. 
motor, are provided ; each traverser is equipped with a 
capstan driven by the same motor and capable bf hauling 
in either direction, and traverses the coal shed from one side 
to the other. The trucks are hauled up ramps on to the 
traverser, and the control is so arranged 
that it is impossible to carry out any 
operation in the wrong way. No ac- 
cident has ever happened iu connection 
with these traversers, although they 
are used by unskilled labour, male or 
female, and they have given great satis- 
faction. They \vere made by Messrs. 
Ransomes tt Rapier, of Ipswich, and 
one of them is illustrated in fig. !>. 

The hoppers are arranged as shown 
in the plan and sectional elevations, 
from which it will be seen that the coal 
is delivered from the railway trucks 
to the- stokers without any handling ; 
from the hoppers it passes into measur- 
ing chambers and through breeches 
pijies to the stoker hoppers, and the 
operation of the coal valves automatically records the 
(jnantity of coal fed to the gi-ates, by volume ; the 
record is found to agree closely with the measured weight. 
The bunkers of the first eight boilers had inclined floors, so 
that they could be completely emptied by gi'avity ; in the 
later extensions the bunkers were made rectangular iu 
vertical section, to increase their capacity, the coal Iteiiig 
trimmed into the shoots when the stock is low. The coal 
stored in the main bunkers is similarly trimmed by hand 
when it is necessary to di'aw upon the reserve. The last 
extension of the boiler house is situated at a higher level. 



returned. A pneumatic ash suction plant has also been in- 
stalled, which carries off the ashes and discharges them into 
receivers above the ash hoppers ; the air is exhausted by 
Roots blowers, one of which is shown in fig. 7 ; the blowei' 
is driven by a motor, and gives a suction of 4-in. to 5-in. 
water gauge. The air is drawn from the top of the receiver, 
while the ashes are delivered into the latter below a water 
spray, which damps down the dust ; an air washer is pro- 
vided in the suction pipe. The Roots blower is capable of 
handling iO tons of ashes per hour. There are two sets of 
blowers and ash receivers ; one set has two receivers, either 
of which can be brought into use, and the system is so 





ir Fig. 7. — Roots Bluwek hik Asu-handlinu Plant 

across the end of the turbine house, and to supply it with 
coal an elevator has been installed, together with a tray 
conveyor running the length of this boiler house ; the 
housing of this conveyor, which was supplied by Messrs. 
Babcock & Wilcox, is seen in fig. 6. 

To remove the ashes from the basement of the boiler 
houses, a hand-operated tramway is provided, and the loaded 
trucks are pushed on to a lift which elevates them to a 
hopper, into which the ashes are tipped ; after the truck 
has been put on the lift and locked in position, the whole 
of the operation is automatic, until the empty truck is 



Fru. S. — Ropeways and Ash Tips. 



arranged that a duplicate service is provided foi' all parts "f 
the boiler house. The pneumatic system is in regular use, 
the tramway being held in reserve. 

From the receiver the ashes fall into the same hopper as the 
ash trucks discharge into, and thence they are fed into 
skips on aerial rope-ways, made by Messrs. R. White and 
Sons, of Widnes, which were fully described in our issue 
of April Oth, l',)f5. There are in all three of these 
rope-ways, leaving the station at either end and at the 
middle of its length ; in the later installations the opera- 
tion of the rope-way is largely automatic, the loaded skips 
being pushed on to an inclined rail- 
way, down which they gravitate to the 
ciihlc-way, automatically gripping the 
hauling rope, which carries them out 
to the dumping ground. After de- 
positing their loads at a spot where 
the tripping gear is fixed, they return 
to the station, and are automatically 
freed from the hauling rope. 

The system of aerial rope-ways is a 
striking feature of the landscape at the 
rear of the station buildings ; still 
more j'emarkable are the veritable 
mountains of ash which have already 
been built up in the adjoining valleys, 
and which can be seen in figs. 5 and 
?. When it is Ixirne iu mind that 
Llic coal li'oni which the ash was de- 
rived must have occupied a bulk frniri 
(I to 10 times that of the ash, some idra 
can be formed of the immense (quanti- 
ties of fuel that are consumed by a large 
power station. 

Two of the rope-ways leave the east 

side of the building and cross the Great 

Central Railway o\er safety bridges : 

one of them is the most intricate of its 

kind in existence, at one point turning 

an angle of 140 . These rope-ways can each handle .'0 tons 

per hour. The third leaves the north end of the station, 

and can deal with 10 tons per hour. In some places the 

tip is already 100 ft. deep by I mile long. The tipping 

ground covers an area of 40 acres. 

An 18-in. culvert has been provided at the bottom of the 
valley to drain the land, and manholes in connection there- 
with are being carried up to the top of the tip, 140 ft. from 
the soil. Test shafts are provided in the mass of the ash 
heaps, being built up as the deposit grows, to enable the 
temperature of the dump to be measured, 

D 



THE ELECTRICAL llEYIEW. [Vol.84. No. 2,U5, January 3, 1919. 



The tipping is regulated so that e\entiially the whole of 
the area will be uniformly filled, and the surface will be 
levelled by explosives, or otherwise, when that stage is 
reached. The light iron towers which carry the rope-ways 
are, of coui-se, gradually buried under the pile. 

Make-up water for the boiler feed is derived from the 
town mains, and is of a very soft (juality, the total hard- 
ness being 1 to 2^. Make-up water for the cooling 



4 

'•1 


1 





Fig. 9.— Electric Travkrser. 

towers is obtained from the River Don, and averages about 
12° of hardness. In the winter months sufficient cooling 
water is derived from the Don without the use of cooling 
towers. The large quantities of water dealt with give 
considerable imprtance to the equipment provided for this 
purpose. The intake from the river is close to the north 
end of the power-station buildings ; the main channel is 
14 ft. wide, and the depth of water is '.) ft. Nearer the 
station the channel is 
20 ft. wide, and the 
water passes first 
through raking screens, 
which stop the larger 
leaves, twigs, &c., and 
afterwards through a 
revolving disk screen, 
made by Messrs. F. W. 
Brackett & Co., Ltd., 
of Colchester. In ad-- 
dition, there is a 
Brackett duplex re- 
volving band screen 
for use at times of 
flood. From the clean- 
ing apparatus the water 
passes into a lai'ge 
reservoir, 20 ft. wide 
and 18 ft. (> in. deep, 
.4'unniiig the whole 
length of the building 
beneath the switcli 
rooms, and divided 
into three sections, 
which can be shut off 
from one another bv 
sluice gates. No. 1 
section is nearest the 
river : No. 2 is pro- 
vided with a by-pass 
from the river — a 3-ft. 
pipe, which derives a 
supply from a separate 

inlet, through a leaf comb, by Messrs. Whitehead & Poole, 
of Radcliffe, and a Brackett revolving band screen. The 
third section is at present without separate connection 
with the river. Sediment rapidly accumulates in the 
reservoir (which is primarily a settling tank), and therefore 
it is necessary to lay off the sections in turns, on Sundays, 
to clean them out. A weir crosses the river below the 
intake, and trouble was experienced through the bed of 



the river silting up, but this was overcome by providing 
a sluice gate ; this is opened at flood time, and the resulting 
current effectually scours the basin. 

The far end of the reservoir receives the cooled water from 
the towers, which forms a torrent of imposing dimensions 
when the station is working at full loiid in the summer, 
twice as much water passing over the towers as is consumed 
in the whole of Sheffield in tlie same time. 

The hot water from the condensers is discharged into 
channels which run alongside of the building, the pipes 
being carried down beneath the water surface to secure the 
benefit of the siphon action. From tliese channels the four 
pumps derive their supply ; they are situated in a roomy 
building at a level below that of the channels, so that 
they are self-priming, and are of the Worthington centri- 
fugal type, each capable of lifting I'lCO.OOO gallons per 
hour; they are driven by two Crompton and two Fuller 
motors (if I'.'iO u.i". each, controlled by Reyrolle svvitchgear 
and liquid starters. The interior of the ])ump room is 
shown in fig. 10. 

The cooling towers were bnilt hy Messrs. Bradshaw and 
Co., of Manchester, after the outbreak of war ; seven of 
them are capable of dealing with 330,000 gallons per hour 
each, while the eighth is rated at 375,000 gallons. Each 
pump serves two of tlie towers. The average amount of 
cooling is about 18' F., and the loss of water by evaporation 
is not more than 2 per cent. The circulating water is 
periodically changed by discharging it from the cooling 
towers to the river through a 4-ft. pipe. 

In addition to the four pumps above-mentioned, there 
was provided in connection with the earlier section of the 
power station a Worthington pump rated at 770,000 gallons 
per hour, which is driven by a Lancashire Dynamo Co.'s 
motor with vertical shaft. 

The boilers are all of the Stirling five-drum type, with 
internal superheaters and (with the exception of the first 
four) Green economisers ; they are of four sizes — Nos. 1 — 4, 
32,000 lb. per hour ; Nos. 5—8, 3s,ooo Ih. ; Nos. 9—14, 




Fig. 10. — Pump Koom for Cooling Towers 



iOfiOi) lb., and Nos. 15-28, 50,000 lb., from and at 212'-" F. 
As shown by the plan on page 4, they are divided into 
three groups, Nos. 1 to 14 forming No. 1 boiler 
house and No. 1 extension, Nos. 15 to 24 No. 2 boiler 
house and extension, and the remainder No. H boiler 
house. Thirteen boilers are fitted with underfeed 
stokers, and 15 with chain-grate stokers ; and all the 
boilers work with induced draught, the waste gases 



Vol.84. No. 2,U5, January 3, 1919.] (THE ELECTRICAL REVIEWo 



being discharged into steel chimneys. Steam is generated 
at 200 lb. per sq. in., and superheated about 150° F., the 
temperature at the stop valves being about 540' F. 

The fans are in duplicate, two to each chimney ; either 
suffices for three boilers on light load, or two on overload. 




Fig. 11.— Ln'teeiok op No. 3 Pu.mp Room 

They are of the " Sirocco " type, made by Messrs. Davidson 
and Son, Ltd., of Belfast. The induced draught is main- 
tained at about g in. water gauge at the back bank of tubes : 
the pressure of the forced draught on the underfed furnaces 
is 2 in. 



provided by the Stirling Boiler Co., Ltd., and Messrs. John 
Spencer, Ltd. The pipes are mainly of riveted steel. 

Feed water is supplied by four pump rooms ; No. 1 pump 
room, at the north end, contains one Hall steam-driven 
pump, capable of delivering 10,000 gallons per hour, and 
two motor-driven turbine pumps, made 
by the British Electric Plant Co., Ltd., 
each capable of supplying 20,000 
gallons per hour. No. 2 room is near 
the middle of the boiler house, and 
contains four Hall steam pumps and 
one B.E.P. pump. No. 3 is in No. 2 
boiler house, and contains three B.E.P. 
pumps ; and No. 4 pump room, at the 
south end of the station, contains two 
B.E.P. pumps. We give a view of No. 3 
pump room (fig. 11), which is a pattern 
of orderly arrangement and accessi- 
bility. Duplicate feed piping is pro- 
vided, direct to the boilers and through 
the ecouomisers, with a by-pass round 
the latter. The southern section of 
the station, with its boilers, pumps, ic, 
can be run as a separate station, entirely 
independent of the rest of the plant. 
The turbine pumps are driven by two- 
phase motors of 100 h.p. each. 

The working of the boiler house and 
condensing plant at Neepsend is of 
exceptional interest, as every effort is 
e.xerted to secure and maintain the 
highest possible efficiency and economy. 
A strict watch is kept over every item 
in the boiler house. Every week the stock of coal in hand 
is checked, and samples of the coal are taken daily, samples 
of the ashes every watch : the works chemist has a well- 
equipped laboratory under the switch rooms, and carries 
out complete tests of the calorific value and composition 




EiG. 12.— No. 3 Boiler House, Neepsend. 



The whole of the boilers are connected to a main steam 
header 12 in. in diameter, but can be divided into two 
sections, if desired. The chief contractors for the pipe work 
were Messrs. Alton & Co., Tjtd., of Derby ; portions were 



of the coal and ashes from each boiler house ; each foreman 
stoker is held personally responsible for keeping his results 
up to the standard level. The temperatures of the feed 
water and flue gases at both ends of the economisers and in 



ao 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Voi.si. No. s.us, januaby 3, ipid. 



the uptakes, tlie tcnii^teratures of the furnaces, and of the 
circulating water entering and lesiving the towei-s, &c., are all 
i"ecorded, and the fine gases are analysed daily. Samples 
of the boiler, feed water and the circulating water are 
taken and analysed daily, and the draught-gauge readings 
are recorded. 

The econoniisere are fitted with National circulators, and a 
by-pass is provided from the hot to the cool end, to ensure that 
the water at the cool end shall never be below 120" F. ; live- 
steam heating is also provided for the same purpose. All 
the boilers from No. 1 to No. 14 are fitted with Venturi 
meters ; the latter could not be obtained during the war 
for the boilers installed later. Ten of the new boilers are 
fitted with feed regulators supplied by the Crosby Feed 
Regulator Co., which are said to have proved very reliable 
and efficient. 

A weighing machine is provided in the boiler house for 
accurate fuel-consumption t€sts. 

Practically a continuous "heat balance" is maintained, 
and for 12 months past the efficiency of the steam-raising 
plant has been kept alx)ve 70 per cent, all the time. 

The condenser leakage is tested three times a day ; for 
this operation the Dionic tester is to be adopted. 

Each turbo-generator is provided with a Lea recorder 
iind au indicating wattmeter, so that a consumption test can 
be taken literally at any moment. Several times, by means 
of this continuous test, incipient trouble in the turbines 
has been detected, and prevented from developing into a 
serious fault. The average consumption of the whole 
station is 15 or 16 lb. of water per KW.-hour generated. 

Besides the foregoing tests, the laboratory is equipped 
for testing fire bricks and other refractories, the flash point 
and viscosity of oil, Ac. 

The running data, coal and steam consumption, &c., are 
worked out daily, and are reported to the station super- 
intendent and the general manager the first thing in the 
morning, and if any departure from the normal high 
standai'd of efficiency is noted, an immediate investigation 
follows. 

(To be contimml.) 



AMERICA'S ELECTRICAL TRADE. 



r.v MALCOLM CHALMEIIS. 



WKiTiNfi ,in the Electrical Review of November 2ud, 
1!I17, I showed how the war's effect on the British and 
German electrical industries had given a gj-eat impetus to 
the American industry, and that the exports of electrical 
goods from the United States had gone up by leaps and 
bounds, more than doubling themselves in three years. 
The figures for the year ended -Jiuie 30th, 1018, hew- 
ever, show that this wonderful improvement has not 
been maintained, the exports during that year, in spite 
of the general increase in prices which had taken place, 
being only about 4 per cent, larger than in the previous 
year. The following figures show the development since 
the outbreak of war, a.s compared with the last pre-war 
year : — 



Year ended .June 30th, 1914 

„ 1915 

191G 

1017 

,. „ 1918 



£5,312,000 
4,187,000 
6,399,000 
10,931.000 
11.393,000 



The increase last year over the previous year was thus 
only £4G2,000, whilst the 1916-17 trade was £4,532,000 in 
advance of that for li)15-16. Taking into consideration 
the fact that prices have risen considerably in the year, 
it is almost certain that the ^•olume of trade during last 
year was really less than during the previous year. The 
reason, of course, is not far to seek. The entry of America 
into the war made large demands on the electrical industry 
in common with other American industries, and a rigorous 
supervision was kept on the export trade by the Crovern- 
ment, in order that ample supplies might not be lacking 
both for the American and the Allied Armies. 

Turning to the detailed figures, we find that the tendency 



has not been uniform throughout the industry, increases in 
.some items being counterbalanced by considerable decreases 
in others. Thus, whilst there were apparently largely 
increased exports of metal filament lamps, transformers, 
meters, telephone instruments, and motors, there was a 
considerable decline in the exports of insulated wire and 
cables and electric locomotives, and smaller ones in the 
ca.se of telegraph apparatus and arc and carbon filament 
lamps, whilst batteries and dynamos, having in view changes 
in prices, were probably shipped to about the same extent as 
in 11)16-17. Certain items appear in the list for the first 
time, the exports, if any, in earlier years being included 
under the general heading, " other electrical goods." Among 
these a fair export trade was done in carbons, heating and 
cooking apparatus, magnetos and sparking plugs, and 
switches and accessories. In the following table the 
details for 1017-18 are given as compared with 1016-17 : — • 
1916-17. 1917-18. Inc. order. 

Batteries £(127,000 £698,000 -t- £71,000 

Carbons ' 318,000 — 

Dynamos A: generators... 532,000 .■)60,000 + 28,000 

Fans 101,000 171,000 + 70,001) 

Heating and c olo k i n g 

apparatus * 111,000 — 

Insulated wire & cables... 1,498,000 1,191,000 -307,000 
Interior wiring supplies 

(inc. fixtures) 234,000 319,000 + 85,000 

Lamps : Arc 3,300 2,700 - 600 

Lamps : Incandescent, 

carbon filament ... 33,000 30,000 — 3,000 

Lamps : Metal filament 446,000 663,000 + 217,000 
Magnetos, sparking 

plugs, &c * 660,000 — 

Meters and measuring 
instruments ... , ... 216,000 332,000 + 116,000 

Motors ... 1,228,000 1,375,000 + 147,000 

Rheostats and controllers * 44,000 — 

Switches and accessories " 464,000 — 

Telegraph apparatus (inc. 

wireless apparatus) ... 112,000 61,000 - 51,000 

Telephone instruments... 407,000 535,000 +128,000 

Transformers 263,000 466,000 + 203,000 

Electric locomotives ... 117,000 34.000 - 83,000 

bi,her electrical goods ... 5,112,000 3,359,000 — l,753,000t 
* Included under ' Other Electrical Goods " in this year. 
t Allowing for the value of goods included under this heading 
in 1916-17, but. shown separately in 1917-18, there was an actual 
decline of £156,000. 

It is, unfortunately, not possible to estimate the full 
effect of price fluctuations on these figures, as quantities 
are only shown in a few cases. Of these arc lamps, carbon- 
filament lamps and electric locomotives were exported to a 
considerably less extent, but in the case of fans and metal- 
filament lamps there were actual increases in the export 
figures over the figures of the previous year. The average 
prices, however, had risen during the year. Thus the 
number of fans exported last year were 54,022, at an average 
price of £3 3s. each compared with 38,396, at £2 1 Is. each 
in the jirevious year, and 32,S16 at £2 15s. in the last pre- 
war year ; 14,865,800 metal-filament lamps were exported 
last year, with an average value of loid. esich, as compared 
with 10,703,531 in 1016-17, valued at lOd. each, and 
840,261 at Is. Id. each prior to the war. Carbon-filament 
lamps were 35 per cent, dearer and arc lamps 06 per cent, 
dearer than in 1916-17. 

As regards markets for Aniefica's electrical goods, Canada 
is easily first, that country taking no less than £2,112,000, 
or nearly 20 per cent, of America's total exports in 1016-17, 
and although similar particulars for 1917-18 are not avail- 
able there is little doubt that this figure was well main- 
tained. Chief among the classes of goods sent to Canada 
were batteries, dynamos, fans, lamps, motors, transformers, 
and telephones. Another good group of markets was Latin 
America, which in the aggregate took more than Canada — 
namely. £2,653,006 — the principal countries contributing 
tu this total being Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba. Ameiic;i 
han also improved her position in Australia and New 
Zealand, China, and Japan • whilst the United Kingdom. 
France, Italy, Spain, and India are other good markets 
for American electrical goods. 

In spite of the comparative slump last year, the figures 
quoted above are sufficient to demonstrate the strong posi- 
tion that the American electrical industry has built up for 
itself in the world's markets since 1914. It must not be 
forgotten, moreover, that the home market is a very large 



Vol. S4. N'o. 2,U3. Jancakv :i 1919. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



11 



ooe, and, thanks to a highlj protective tariff, it is almost 
entirely supplied by home products. The import trade is 
practically confined to a few lamps which were imported to 
the extent of about £136,000 in the last pre-war year, 
whilst last year the figure was less than £ 18,000. 

•Some idea of the size of the American electrical industry 
may be g-athered from the fact that in lUl-t, the date of 
the last census of manufacturers, there were 1,030 con- 
cerns in the United States manufacturing electrical goods, 
with a combined capital of over £7-4,000,000 and employ- 
ing some 118,000 persons. The value of the output of 
these concern-; wa- about £70,nOri,000 in '1914, being an 
increase of :.u per .em. ovei- the con-e.^pcinding figure for 
the previous census, five yejirs earlit-r. Since 1914 America 
iius pi-.(Ctiially had the world's markets to herself and. as 
we have seen, has more than doubled her export trade in 
that time. During the war, moreover, the motor-car in- 
dustry has developed marvellously, the output in 1917 
being nearly two million cars as compared with about half 
a million in 1914, and the consequent increased demand on 
the electrical industry for batteries, magnetos, coils, spark- 
ing plugs, starting gear, and lighting sets must have teen 
tremendous. Altogether, it seems as if the United States 
will be a very serious competitor against British electrical 
goods in the future, not only in markets such as Canada 
and Central and South America, where her close proximity 
to the markets will give her an advantage, but also in such 
countries as Australia, Xew Zealand, and British India. 
The €|uestion of the possible position in our own country 
must also not be lost sight of, and British manufacturers 
will need to study the question very seriously, if they are 
to regain the markets lest to them on account of the 
restrictions on export trade rendered necessary by the war. 



A TRAVEI LINO LKIHT. 



Er N D E PHILLIPS. Liect. RE. 



A coxVEXiExr method for lighting a hospital operating 
table is illustrated in fig. 1. It consists of an ordinary 
counterweight fitting fixed to a block, on the upper side of 
which two grooved pallevs are screvred ; these CTooved 







FLEX TO 
CflllUG fOSS 






Fiex TO i/tna- 



J^»' 



i 1.. 1. — iB.WELLi.su LiGHl i un Ul -^-K.^ 1 i.S., i.\Bi.i 

f iG. 2 CiJfSET).— A Simpler Abrasqement. 

wheels run on a taut wire of No. 10 or 12 s.w.g. This 
wire is fastened at one end to an eyebolt in a beam, and at 
the other end to an eyebolt E, the latter threaded sufficiently 
to allow of its being tightened up by the nut. 



The flex to the counterweight fitting is suspended from 
a ceiling rose, leaving sufficient slack to enable the fitting 
to be rim as far as necessary in either direction. The ceil- 
ing rose should not be placed directly over the taut wire, 
but to one side of it, so that the flex will not foul the 
fitting when in its mid position. 

Fig. 2 (inset) is a simpler arrangement, convenient for 
lighting a drawing board, or similar purpose. It consists of 
a small bobbin-insulator, round which the flex from ceiling 
rose to lamp is bound, and sliding on a taut wire T. 

These devices, although rough and ready, were found 
very serviceable in France, and in many instances proved' 
economical by enabling one light to -nffice where more 
wonld otherwise have been neeiiwi . 



REVIEWS. 



Radio Communication, Theory, and Hefiwds. Bv J. Mnxs. 

Pp. -m-. 1-30 figs. London: Hill Publishing Co., Ltd. 

Pric« 7s. 4d. net. 
This book is cme of peculiar interest. It is the substance 
of a course of 'ectures given by the author during the 
.summer of 1917 to a company of the U.S. Reserve Signal 
Corps troops. The men concerned were, it is txue, volun- 
teers from the employes of the Wesrem Electric Co., but 
the author srates that they differed widely in the extent of 
their previous training in electrical engineering. The authca- 
claims to have adopted " a method which involved practi- 
cally no mathematics except elementary algebra, and pre- 
supposed but a hmited knowledge of physics.' Wt in thf^ 
very first chapter we find such expressions a.5 



In two introductory pages, the author removes the in- 
expert reader's dread and ignorance of the vector operator j 
and the differential operator p in about the simplest manner 
we have ever seen, and as w* have here the substance of 
lectiu-es designed to bring men, some of whom were rela- 
tively jguoranr, into lighting trim :i.s quickly as possible, 
we presume, that th<" author was eqn.nlly successful in 
faniiliari.-ang them with the other mathematical expressions 
mtroduced so swiftly to their notice. That is nothing diort 
of a remarkable achievement. At the worst, this book is 
of great value to those alr&idy well grounded m mathe- 
matics, and if it IS really of praoticaJ value to students not 
so grounded, then the treatise is ot quite extraordinary 
utihty. It 15 always haid for one who has mastered ininal 
difficulties to determine vrbether a given treatment rersoves 
ah the obstacles hkeiy to be encountered by the beginner, 
Dut from aii the oircumstiances associated with thi5_ vcicine 
.re believe that it imparts an exceptionai degree ci_preci9fc 
iniovriedge with unasuai rapidity and snfiicient detail. 

Historical matter is excluded, and so. too, is matter of 
piirely academic and speculative interest.^ Simiiariy.no do- 
tted descriptions and instaructions are given as to tee con- 
struction and operation of apparatus. Primary attention is 
devoted to fundamental principles and methods, but one is 
seized by qualms as to whether these are not too frequently 
presented in a fundamentally mathematical manner. Chap 
ter I is devoted to alternating currents and. starting off witii 
quite elementary conceptions, ends up with conjugate vec- 
tors and vector impedance. This, in 24 pages, leaves the 
reader rather breathless unless he has had the text amplified 
by a good deal of lecture work, which is doubtless the inten 
tion. Cnapter II deals with the telephone receiver, its 
characteristics from the "wireless" point of view, and the 
circle diagram for motional impedance. Two and three 
element vacuum tubes and vacuum amplifiers are next con- 
sidea-ed, after which there is a chapter on the detection and 
measurement of high-fiequency currents. The heterodyne 
receiving system is included, together with some equations 
(three lines long) for conjugate vectors. 

The production of damped sinusoidal currents and the 
phenomena of resonance are dealt with in Chapter Y, which 
is excellent, but frankly bristling with algebra. The very 
important Chapter TI, on undamped high-frequency ctrr- 
rents. is in much more practical vein, and gives a very usefid 
treatment of high-frequency alternators and the Poulsen arc. 
Chapter MI, on radio-telegraphy and telephony, snirveys 
aunple and complex oscillators, types of aerials, ground sys- 
tems, and the general methods of wireless telegraphy and 
teiephonv. Ttie final chapter is concerned with practical 
appliances rjid methods of radio-telegraphy and utilises its^ 
space to excellent advantage. There is an appendix on trans- 
mission over wire circuits— excellent in the masterly nature 
of the survev effected, but involving hyperboUc functions, 
and certatnlv demanding amplification by a tutor before it 
could be absorbed bv the reader for whom the book is in- 
tended. -\ selection of graded problans concludes the volume, 
and these, together with the rest of the book (which ia 
admirably produced and well up to date), form a good baaia 
for lecture treatment. 



12 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.84. No. 2,145, January 3, 1919. 



Magnetism and Electricity for Home Study. By II. E. Fen- 
HOSL. I'p 015 -t xiii; -.H") ligb. l.i.mloii : The Wireless 
Press, Ltd. (lyitf). Price 5s. aet. 

This book has been prepared prunarily for the use of ■wire- 
less students, and is intended to auguieut their knowlpdge 
of the eJeniontary prinL-iples of magnetism and electricity. 
The usual nietho<ls of treatment are set aside iu favour of 
the electron theory, upon whici the author admittedly makes 
some severe demands, but which he regards as a s;itisfactory 
means of overcoming the genuine dislike of mathematical 
reasoning which ho has I'omid to exist in a large body of 
students. From an introduction by El. T. Pisk, of the Aus- 
trahan Wii-cless, we learn that Mr. Penrose hashad a wide 
experience as instructor to vaj-ious tyi)es of NaiVy, Army, 
and Mei-cantile wireless students, and that the object of the 
bot>k i.^ " th.at ajiy jierson of .any age could obtain a thorough 
grasp of elementarj principles without previous acquaintance 
with the subje<-t." 

Ill 5U lessons the whole subject of electricity ai\d magnet- 
ism is dealt with in a curiously discursive manner. We are 
led by awe-inspiring senUinces up to the {wint at w'hich wo 
are bidden bo " regard the universe as floating in an infi- 
nitely great ether ocean," and then, without warning, aie 
commanded to " suspend a bar 'magnet from some convenient 
point in such a manner th.at it is free to turn," and merely 
arrive at the fact that unlike poles attract ! 

Some, of the chapters are useiul ajid straigMfoi"wai"d to a 
degree, and the analogical treatment sometimes achieves a 
remarkable success. But on the whole the introduction of 
tlie ether would appeaa- to muddle rather than clarify the 
treatment. The best chapters a.ppear to us to be those in 
which the author follows more orthodox methods, and among 
these are the lessons on hysteresis, measurement of e.m.f. 
and current, D.c. generator, electrolysis, and accumulators. 

We agree with the introductoiy statement that the lay-out 
of the book is imique, but, after a careful penisal, we are 
unable to find much virtue in this uniqueness. Bather, we 
are inclined to the opinion that Mr. Penrose would have done 
betteir had he been more orthodox, and we would obsen'e 
that some of hi.s here.sies are entirely unforgivable. For ex- 
ample :— : 

" If two spheres a and D be subject to the same charging 
force (a having twice the supea-ficial area of b), the charge 
produced on a inuist be twice the chai-ge on b." (P. 303.) 

" .A. point wQi-th remembering in connec-tion with the in- 
crease of resistance with temijeraturc is that the resistivity 
is not ail'ected." (P. -208.) 

"The unit of force is that force which, acting for one 
second on a mass of one gramme produces an acceleration of 
one centimetre." (P. 500.) 

While this definition of force may be merely lap.iu.i plumm, 
the two former errors a.ie followed by further sta.tememts 
which, by re-staiting and enlarging upon them, preclude the 
assumption that they a.re shps. Our suspicion that the'author 
is something of an amateur physicist is confirmed when we 
read this lemaikable outburst: — "Mass may be defined as 
the density of a unit volume of a given substance. In other 
words, it IS the amount of substance cx>ntained i>er unit of 
voluine. For instance, a 1-in. cube of beeehwood does not 
contain so much matter as does an inch-cube of lead. The 
electromagnetic unit of mass is the gramme (1 oz. = 28.3495 
grammes)." 

We now begin to understand the cause of "the genuine 
dislike of maithematical reasoning " evinced by the author's 
students — and v.e fear that a wide use of this book would 
entangle many other students in a similar mathematical 
hopelessness. 

While there are many good points in this book, its many 
shortcomings, errors and peculia.ritie.s make it impossible for 
us to recommend it as a. suitiible book for the use of elec- 
trical students.— P. H. S. K. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



The " Electrical Review " Index. — As it is still neces- 
sary to effect every possible economy in paper consumption, tlie 
index to Vol. 8H of the Electrical Review, which will shortly 
be printed, will be supplied only to those who, through the post, 
specially apply for it. To sueh it will be supplied for 3d, post 
free. Any reader or advertiser at Home or Abroad who requires a 
copy for bindingr, or for other purposes, is asked to make early 
application therefor to the Publisher, Electrical Review, 
4, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 4. 

Control of Metals, Machinery, and Plant, «&c.— The 

following- recapitulation of the modifications in the control of 
materials and machinery which have been made to date by the 
Ministry of Munitions since the cessation of hostilities, is issued 
for the guidance of manufacturers : — 

Prwritii.—ia) Ordinary civil orders may now be placed and 
executed in Class C without priority permits or certificates. No 
further applications need, therefore, be made to the Priority 
Department of the Ministry of Munitions unless it is desired for 
national reasons to raise the priority of an order. 

(A) Uncompleted contracts for the Admiralty, War Office, and 
Ministry of Munitions, which have been placed in Classes A or B, 



need no longer lie jfiven the priority attaching to them under the 
Order of Priority of March 8th, 111 17, except in cases where the 
contractor is notified in writing; or by official notice in the Press 
that a particular classification is still required to be given to any 
particular contract. 

Mi-titli. — 0;"l .Mi'il'ijication of Control. — 1. Iron, steel, and non- 
ferrous metal may be ordered, supplied, and used for Class orders 
without priority classification or reference number from the 
Ministry of Munitions : and stocks purchased and held by Govern- 
ment contractors may be used for any class of work. 

2. Xo permit is now required for the maiuifaoturo or sale of iron 
and steel wire or wire rope for home trade, and until further notice 
manufacturers of forgings, stampings, and dustings in iron, steel, or 
malleable iron are at liberty to accept orders for priority below 
Oliiss.B. 

S. The Control Orders forbidding dealing in non-ferrous metals 
without a licence, are suspended in the case of tin, copper, brass 
(including swarf and scrap), cupro-nickel, scrap, si>elter, lead, 
jilatinum. chrome ore and type metals. 

\. All restrictions as to the sale or purchase of calcium carbide 
have been removed, subject to a maximum price to consumers of 
i;40 per ton for quantities of 1 cwt.. and over. 

(''") E-rpoii f.ifrni-c.i. I. Manufacturers must still continue, as 
hitherto, to obtain licences for export for articles made of steel and 
non-ferrous metals covered by the various schedules of the War 
Trade Department, but every effort will be made to grant these 
licences as freely as possible. 

((•) Prices. — 1. The maximum'prices of steel for home trade are 
to continue at their present level until February 1st, 1919, when 
the direct subsidies paid by the Government on steel will cease, 
and a corresponding increase in price take place. A schedule 
of the prices to come into force on February Ist can be obtained on 
application to the Ministry of Munitions (C.I.S.P., Room 104, 
8, Northumberland Avenue, S.W. 1). The present maximum prices 
of pig iron are to remain unchanged until April .30th, 191'.), but 
post-war conditions are not yet sufficiently stable to warrant a 
fixing of prices after that date. 

2. A schedule .of fixed report prices for pig iron and steel, to 
take effect from November ISth, 1918, has been issued, and can be 
obtained on application to the Ministry of Munitions, as above. 
The prices, which are based upon the existing home prices, plus 
the subsidies paid by the Government, will remain in force until 
further notice. Upon all exports of pig iron, unmanufactured 
steel, and certain classes of semi-manufactured steel, a drawback 
will be collected by the Board of Customs and Excise, equivalent to 
the amount of the subsidy already paid by the Government on the 
articles in question. The items on which the drawback is charge- 
able are those whose prices are controlled and included in the 
schedules referred to in the jireceding paragraph. Application for 
the schedule showing the amount of the drawback to be collected 
should be made to the Board of Customs and Excise, Lower Thames 
Street, London, E.G. 

3. The following is a schedule of the present prices of non- 
ferrous metals from holdings of the Ministry : — 

Per ton, buyers. DeiiTered, works. 

Copper, electrolytic i'125 — 

Brass ingot to Government specification 93 do. 

Spelter, G.O.B. . . 57 do. 

Beilned, 999 per cent 61 do. 

Aluminium 200 do. 

Soft pig-lead 40 ex steamer or ex store. 

{The existing schedule in relation to manufacture in lead is abolished.) 

Nickel i*195 ex works or warehouse. 

Antimony* 55 do. 

These prices are subject to usual extras for small parcels. 

Plant and Machinery. — Restrictions as to dealing in, and prices of, new and 

second-hand machinery and treadle lathes have been withdrawn ; but pur- 

cliases of new machinery can only be made from firms holding trading permits 

Irom the Ministry of Mimitions. 

Contractors in possession of plant and machinery owned by the Ministry of 
Munitions are at liberty to use it for civil work, provided they notify the 
Superintendent Engineer in their' area within one week from the date on 
which it was first used. If the contractor does not ultimately wish to pur- 
chase the machinery he will be required to pay a reasonable hire not to exceed 
the rate of 2) per cent, per annum on the cost price of the machine. 

The Crane Order, prohibiting the sale or supply of any cranes except under 
permit, and the Motor Engines and Vehicles Order prohibiting the manu- 
facture except under permit, are revoked. 

Owners of steam. driven lorries and trailers are no longer required to make 
returns of charges of ownership. 

Lighting Restrictions.— The B. of T. gives notice that 

the Lighting, Heating and Power Order, 1918, restrictions, have 
been removed as from December 23rd, 1918. 

Refractory Materials Order Revoked.— The Minister of 

Munitions has revoked the Refractory Materials (Maximum Prices) 
Order, 1917, as from December Slst. 

Export Prohibitions Relaxed.— A further list of relaxa- 
tions in export restrictions appears in the London Gazette for 
Decemljer 27th, 1918, 

Non-Ferrous Metal Industry Act.— The Lotidon Gazelle 

for December 21th contains a further list of licences granted under 
this Act. 

Cable Codes and Overseas Trade.— A communication 

from the Army Council to the Comptroller-General, Department of 
Overseas Trade, states that it is not possible to relax the restrictions 
relating to the use of telegraphic codes without the concurrence of 
the principal Allied Powers who have co-operated in the censorship 
durinsr the war. The Army Council recognise the importance to 
the commercial community of allowing greater latitude in the 
use of cable codes, and the question of relaxation is bow t)eing 
discussed with the various Allied authorities. — Board of Trad^ 
Jonrnal, 



Vol. 84. xo. 2.145, jAxtTARv 3, 1919] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



13 



AlDininium Order Suspended. — The Minister uf Muni- 
tions has suspended until further notice the Aluminium (Returns) 
Order, 1917, and the Aluminium (Scrap and Swarf) Order, 1917. as 
from December 24th. 

Resumption of Trade with Belgium.— The Board of 

Trade calls attention in its Journal to the fact that the restrictions 
imposed by the Trading with the Enemy (Occupied Territory) 
Proclamation no IoDg:er apply to trading with Belgium, and that 
consequently the obligations to obtain a special licence under that 
proclamation, as well as the requirement to pay the purchase price 
for goods imjrarted from Belgium, into a blocked account in thi.s 
country, are now dispensed with. Imports from Belgium into 
this country must, however, be accompanied by certificates of 
origin and interest issued in the usual form by a British Consular 
officer. Imports into, and exports from, Belgium are further con- 
trolled by the re<:iuirement of a licence issued by the Belgian 
authorities, particulars with regard to which can be obtained from 
the branch of the Department des -\ffaires Economiques which has 
been opened at lln, Cannon Street, London, E,C.4. 

Sites for New Factories at Pietermaritzburg. — The recent 

expansion of industrial activity in the Union of South Africa 
has, amongst other results, induced certain municipalities and 
similar public bodies to offer specially favourable terms to manu- 
facturers in the way of water and power rates as well as sites for 
the establishment of industries. The Trade Commissioner for the 
Union has been notified that the Pietermaritzburg Corporation is 
prepared to offer suitable sites on very reasonable terms, and to 
submit plans with additional information as to supply of labour, 
raw materials, railway communications, &c. The water rate 
varies from Is. i>d. per 1.000 gallons for a monthly consumption of 
2.50,000 gallons to 9d. per gallon up to 12,000,000 gallons. Elec- 
tricity can be supplied on a graduated basis of from 3d. to 'S4d, 
per unit, and for industries of a kind not already established a 
reduction will be made of 33 i per cent, off these charges. 

Christmas Wishes and Social Functions. — A Christmas 

staff and works function, arranged by the Social Committee of the 
AnTOMATic Telephoxe Manufacturing Co., Ltd,, and held at 
the Britannia Rooms, Cunard Buildings, Pier Head, Liverpool, on 
Friday, December 20th, from 6,30 to 10,30 p,m., took the form of a 
dance and whist drive. The function was a complete success. 
Some 300 guests attended. 

The St, Helens Cable and Rubber Co,, Ltd,, of Warrington, 
issued their Christmas wishes to " Our Fighters at Home and 
Abroad " in the form of a pamphlet containing a list of the names 
of 24 of their men who have made the supreme sacrifice in the war, 
and of 170 others who are "still going strong," Particulars of the 
work done in connection with the Works' Comfort Fund are 
followed by a number of appropriate messages from the different 
departments to the men still with the fighting Forces, 

British-Italian Trade and Industry. — The Bulhlin of 

the British Chamber of Commerce for July (Inc.) which has come 
to hand contains a numlier of appropriate " Victory " messages. 
It is recognised that Britain and Italy should now fight side by 
side in Peace as they have done in war, and in this connection we 
make the following extracts from an article which immediately 
follows the messages referretl to : — 

" During the wai many industries in Italy have undergone con- 
siderable development, , . , The principal engineering industries, 
production of motor cars, aeroplanes, Arc. have made great strides. 
In fact. Italy now claims to possess the largest automobile industry 
in Europe. Among other industries which may be singled out as 
having received a great impetus from the war, and which were 
practically non-existant in Italy up to 1915, may be mentioned the 
manufacture of fire-bricks, i:c., in connection with the metallur- 
gical furnaces, the production of scientific and ojitical instruments, 
electric reflectors, and ignition magnets for automobiles. The 
manufacture of certain chemicals has made progress, and there are 
several new schemes under consideration more or less connected 
therewith, e.g. : — 

1. The institution of a big bank to favour electrical undertakings and hydro- 
(electric plants after tne war, the building of electric machinery to be specially 
aided, 

3, The formation of a military technical cor])s of a, 030 engineers. 

3, Various schemes re the electrolytic zinc industry. 

4, The nomination of a Special Committee to foster the development of 
nitrate products, 

u. 8cfieme to discipline the rationing of electric power and to encourage 
building plants, ' 

6, The creation of an Invention and Research Office and an Office for War 
Chemicals, 

The enterprise of Italians will lead to the development of in- 
dustries on a large scale, and much of the machinery and raw 
material required will be imported. Among the developments 
expected, the following will probably be taken in hand first : — 

1, Enlai-gement of ports and consti-uction of whan-es, &c,, necessary to 
relieve congestion, so as to provide for proper development of shipping, 

2, Overhaul of the railway system, and the electrilication of lines. 

3, Utilisation of fiu-ther water power for tlie creation of electric energy, and 
the building of requisite reservoirs, 

4, Fuller cultivation of the land, and the reclamation of wastes for agri- 
cultural purposes, 

jj. Adaptation of factories used for munition making for industrial purposes. 

In connection therewith, a large demand is certain to arise for 
machinery and engineering plant, constructional iron and steel 
and building materials, agricultural machinery and implements, 
rolling stock, mill and factory furnishings, &c, 

Xot only commercially, but also financially, intellectually, and 
politically, relations between Britain and Italy should be much 
closer, more intimate and efficient than in the past. On both sides, 
Government and Parliament corporate bodies, associations of every 



sort ; scientific, literary, sporting : steamship companies;, industrial 
and commercial firms and private individuals should, as far as lies 
in their power, favour-, promote, support, foster, and encourage 
relations of every kind, and especially financial, economical, and 
commercial, between the two countries. 

Although the British Empire itself offers such an immense field 
to British manufacturers, it should be in their own interest to 
devote much more attention to Italy before the Teutons are in a 
position to recommence their work of "peaceful penetration" as 
far as new conditions will allow, recollecting that Italians are 
more than ever anxious to develop their commercial relations pre- 
ferentially with the British Empire, to which Italy is tied by 
traditional sympathy. British firms should not fail to : — 

1. Send out commercial travellers, or appoint agents, in order to see buyers 
on the spot and find out exactly what kuids of goods they, the customers, 

•want. 

2. Supply agents, when necessary and expedient, with a certain stock of 
goods from which to execute small orders promptly and supply part of large 
orders in order to retain clients. 

3. Correspond in Italian, have catalogues printed in that language, and 
quote prices in the currency, weights, and measures of the country. 

Italy is one of the most important countries with which Britain 
may hope to develop business on a much larger scale than in the 
past. The British Empire has goods Italians want, and Italy has 
commodities that the Empire needs. Economically Italy is growing 
by leaps and bounds, and her strides during the war in some 
respects have been prodigious ; this, with the economic education 
which war brings to the peasant soldier, will have its favourable 
reaction on the Italian market, benefiting both her and her 
customers and clients." 

Letters from the Forces.— In a recent letter from a 

correspondent with the R.A.F. abroad, the writer says: — "Many 
thanks for the Reviews, which have always reached me most 
regularly. I am shortly on my way to ' Blighty," and I take this 
opportunity of thanking you, on behalf of my chums and myself, 
for your generosity, which has not only been a help to us and to 
the Forces in which we are proud to serve, but has been the means 
of enlightening us regarding the numerous changes in the electrical 
industry and the conditions of home, so that we shall not be total 
strangers in our Homeland when we return." 

New Italian Industries During the War. — According 

to the most exact recent news obtainable, about 2,500 millions of 
lire (100 millions sterling) of new capital have been invested in 
Italian industries diu'ing the war. approximately as follows :— 
Transports, land and sea, 54.5 millions ; siderurgical industries, 432 
millions ; electrical industries, 405 millions ; banking. 278 millions ; 
mechanical engineering, 267 millions ; chemical and electrochemical 
industries. 217 millions : mining industries, 178 millions ; auto- 
mobile industry, 100 millions ; textile industries, SO millions. 
This only goes as far as June, I'.'IS, while it is well known that 
since then many limited companies have greatly increased their 
share capital (one company by as much as lire 400,000,000). and 
does not take into account at all other private companies and part- 
nerships. The true sum total is, therefore, more likely to l)e 3,500 
million lire, say, 140 millions sterling. -fl«/?f^'/' of the British 
Chamber of Commerce for It.tly. 

Scrap Copper from the Fields of Battle.— A question 

which is now occupying the minds of exjjerts is how much of the 
precious metal can be salved on the battlefields of three continents. 
It is asserted that something like 3,000,000 tons of copper lie on the 
battlefields of Belgium and France, not to mention the thousands of 
tons in Russia. Serbia, the Balkans, Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, Pales- 
tine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other places where the dogs of war 
were let loose by the ex-Kaiser, It is said that of the scrap copjer 
in France and Belgium, at least 1,000,000 tons can be recovered, or 
about equal to one year's output of the United States. It is now 
known that for five years prior to the war Germany purchased at 
least 200,000 tons per annum for herself and her Allies, and her 
purchases were so skilfully camouflaged that the destinations of 
the copper were seldom suspected. Germany is now practically 
denuded of copper, and the Peace Conference will probably see that 
she gets none of the battlefield scrap. 

Irish Coal Output in 1917.— A White Taper just issued 

shows that in 1917 the output of the coal in Ireland was 95.646 
tons, and the value t;87,164. Of this. Sm.301 tons were anthracite, 
mainly from the Kilkenny mines, the figures for Kilkenny Ijeing 
61,742 tons : Queens County, 14,156 tons; and Tipperary, 4,403 
The Roscommon mines produced 12,4X7 tons, for which £1 per 
ton was paid at the pit head. In coke, 395,368 tons of coal were 
used, producing 188,704 tons of coke. Iron ore was produced to 
the extent of 54,533 tons, valued at 1 14.266, The average of iron 
obtained was 38'44 per cent., and the quantity of pig iron 20,972 
tons. In Sligo. 16 tons of zinc ore were obtained, and 5 tons of zinc 
obtained by smelting. The figures of the coal output in the year 
just closed will be considerably in advance of those of 1917, the 
efforts to meet the shortage having considerably increased the 
output in the east and west, and at present some coal is being got 
from the Tyrone field at Dungannon, The shortage of coal in 
Ireland is being severely felt, the greater part of the imported fuel 
being obtained from Scottish mines. 

Demobilisation. — The War Office announces that officers 

and men cannot at present be demobilised from certain 
corps in the Army, as they are essential to the work of 
demobilisation. The fact that employment awaits an individual 
will be recorded with a view to his being demobilised as early as 
possible. The corps in question are : — Royal Ai-my Service Corps, 
Ordnance Corps, Veterinary Corps, Remount Corps, Army Pay 
Corps, Director.xte of Military Railways, France, 



14 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.si. no.2,u.-..Januakv3, iui». 



Iron aod Steel Prices. — The Minister of Munitions has 

issiieJ certain information aupplementintr the notices which have 
already appeared with retrard to home and export prices of iron 
and steel. 

Country of Origin.— A I?ill requiring all goods to be 
marked clearly with the name of the country of oriffin has been 
pajiijetl by the Australian House of Assembly, which prevents 
(icrnian ^'oods, after passing the Customs, from tein? labelled 
" Made in Australia.' — Thr 7'iinis. 

Another Accumulator Trade Combination.— An im- 
portant auialijamation of interests haa just been effected in the 
accumulator manufacturing business by the combination of the 
New Peto i: Radford Accvmclator Co. with the Pritchett 
AND Gold and Electrical Power Storage Co., Ltd. The 
first of these concerns has been identitied with the pxoduotion of 
jxirtable accumulators fur iiiotor-<'ara since the early days of 
motorinsr. The Pritchett \: Gold concern, which has been em- 
pliiVed on work of a heavier character, is itself a war-time amal- 
^'luiiation of the old Pritchett .V Gold Co. and the Electrical Power 
."^tora-^re Co., the cooperation of interests beiuf; arranged lus a step 
towards economy of prminction and the establishment of the bnsi 
ncss on a lartfe scale. The second amalf;amation is, we understand, 
the conse<nience of the recotjnition that the portable accumulator 
busine.s.s is destined to become an imi)0rtant one, and the .acquisi- 
tion of the Peto 4: Radford business wa-s considered to afford an 
opportunity of starting in, and so specialising in, this class of 
trade. The proprietary name of Peto & Radford is not to disappear, 
as the portable accumulators will continue to be produced under 
that name and under the supervision of Mr. William Peto and Mr. 
G. R. N. Minchin, though eventually the manufacture will be 
transferred to the large works at Dagenham, Essex, where building 
extensions are already in hand. 

The Requirements of France.— It is stated that priority 

is now allowed in France to the importation of steel, copper, zinc, 
lead, aluminium, machinery, tools, electrical appliances, .tc, 
required for the liberated regions. 

British Malaya: Warning. — Prospective rubber planters 

are cautioned against proceeding to Malaya without first securing 
definite appointments. It is also necessary to remember that the 
cost of living has adviinced there, as elsewhere. 

Tramcar Driver Fined. — For driving a Corporation 

tramcar to the danger of the public, Walter Wilson was fined 20s. 
at Barrow last week. It wa.s stated that, instead of going to the 
ix lints at the tenniniis, and crossing on to the other line, he returned 
at an ex.easive speed along the same line, passing another oar 
going in the same diiection. 

Trade Annonncement.-MR. I'. Vo[i>iq has commenced 

fcr.ainess as an electrical enginper at4;-(, Roelvnck Road, Rochester. 

For Sale.—' 'Idliarn <.'or]iurati<in Electricity Works Las fur 
disposal four Willans-.Sieniens 740-KW. seta, eight drybaiVk marine 
type boiiera, with underfeed stokers and snperlniater.?. For par- 
tiiidaiii see onr advertisement pages to-day. 

Munition Workers' Carol Party.— The Musical Society, 
which is run by the staff and employes of the O.sraji-Robertson 
Lamp Works, Ltd.. of Brook Green, completed just prior to the 
Christmas holidays a very successful oarol-singing campaign on 
behalf of St. Dunstan's Hostel. The amount collected in five 
nights was £ 1 10, which is probably one of the largest collections 
ever made by a carol party in so short a period. The party con- 
sisted entirely of munition workers. 

Liquidations. — Electric Lirhting & Engiseering 

Co., Ltd. - Meeting, .Tanuary 2tth, i;)lli, at 4:!, Castle Street, 
Liverpool, to hear an account of the winding up from the 
liquidator, Mr. R. T. Langdon. 

Exi'ANDED Me'jal Co., Ltd. — Meeting of creditors, York Mansion, 
S.W. 1, on .Lanuary 'th. 

Bankruptcy Proceedings. — A. F. IIawdon, electrical 

engineer, Gosforth. Application for debtor's discharge to be heard 
at Newcastle, .Tanuary 16th. 

Book Notices. — The Christmas number of J'/ir M. A- ( '. 

Apjii'fiit'icr.^' Ma</iuiiie contains so much that is interesting and 
entertaining, that it is difficult to pick out items for notice ; as a 
matter of fact, it takes up too much of our time, and we shall have 
to review it from the table of contents in future ! Mr. Sam Mavor 
writes of Baku. Mr. Bousfield of Alsace-Lorraine, Mr. Davies of 
'■Iron,' Aid. Duncan Watson of his apprenticeship, and Mr. P. 
Black of the education of skilled craftsmen ; and there are 
numerous short articles and notes, and spirited illustrations. The 
interesting announcement is made that Messrs. Mavor & Coulson 
will give a gold meJal next Christmas to the best fifth-year 
apprentice, to be selected by the apprentices themselves. 

" Electricity and Magnetism for Engineers." Part 1 : Electric 
and Magnetic Circuits. By Harold Pender. Pp. xi -I- 380 ; 98 figs. 
London : Hill Publishing Co., Ltd. 1918. Price S3 net. 

"Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers." Vol. 57. 
No. 277. December, 1918. London : E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd. Price 
73. — This issue contains a paper on " Dynamical Theory of Electric 
Engines ' (Tenth Kelvin Lecture), by LI. B. Atkinson, and the 
Chairmen's addresses at the following centres : Irish (Mr. J. P. 
Tierney* ; Western (Mr. H. I. Rogers) ; North-Eastern ;,Mr. A. P. 
Pyne) ; North-Western (Mr. A. P. M. Fleming) ; Scottish (Mr. J. F. 
Nielson) ; and North-Midland (Mr. R. H. Campion). 



Calendars and Diaries.— Messrs. PECKUAiM, Ducamp 

AND Co., of i and 5, New Compton Street, Charing Cross Koad, 
London, iW.C. 2, have prepared for 1919 one of their useful desk 
reminders with daily memoranda space, which is ample for ordinary 
business purposes. 

The AN(iLo-ME.\icAN Petroleum Co., Ltd., of Ui, Finsbury 
Circus, London, E.C. 2, have issued a wall calendar with monthly 
date slips, below a reproduction in fac-simile of a drawing of the 
IMexican Eagle Oil Co.'s famous gusher Potrcro No. 1, which has 
just ceased to yield. Beneath the date slips there is a jiicture ol a 
British squadron, and a (juotation from Lord Fisher on the value 
of an oil fired fleet. 

From the HART ACCUMULATOR Co., Ltd., of Marshgate Lane, 
Stratford, London, we have received, as in previous years, a deak 
blotting pad. Each sheet bears at tlie left and right-hand sides a 
complete calendar for 191 '.I. 

Catalogue. — The MoiiAiAiNN MANiii-AcTi'itiNCJ Cu., 
Ltd., Chelmsford. — .Abridged edition (36 jiages) of their catalogue 
of Hoffmann steel balls and rollers and ball and roller l)earingH. 
There is a thumb index to sections. .Sizes, puicBS, and code-words 
are set forth clearly in table form. Copies of the list can be 
obtained on ai)i)lication. 

The^' English Electric " Amalgamation. — The amalga- 
mation arrangements foreshadowed liy the chairman at Dick, Kerr 
and Co.'s annual meeting have now Ijeen completed, and circulars 
have been issued to the shareholders giving details. A new com- 
pany has lieen formed, named the English Electric Co., Ltd., which 
has already acquired all the shfiresof the Coventry Ordnance Works, 
Ltd., and the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co., Ltd., both of 
which are private concerns : and an offer is now made to Dick, 
Kerr's shareholders to exchange their shares on terms which are 
strongly recommended by the directors, who are backing their 
opinion by accepting the offer themselves. 

The English Electric Co., Ltd., concerning which we gave some 
particulars in our " New Companies Registered," last week, has a 
registered capital of i;5,000,00ii, of which less than •C2,00o,O0O will 
have been issued when the proposed exchange with Dick, Kerr 
shareholders is comjdeted, so that it is evident that the directors 
have the intention of consideraljle further expansion. As it is, the 
company will be one ol the princijjal electrical manufacturing con- 
cerns in this country. The Board is a strong one. and representa- 
tive of the leading engineering industrials. As a matter of fact, 
the directors themselves can through their other connections 
materially support the company with orders. It is interesting to 
note that three of our main-line railways are i'epresented on the 
Board, by Sir Charles Ellis for the Great Eastern Railway, Mr, 
Hichens for the London and North-Western, and Mr. Bernard 
Firth for the (ireat Northern. Equally important is the repre- 
sentation of our shipbuilding and owning interests, with Mr. John 
.Sampson as a director of Harland i Wolff, and Sir Alexander 
Gracie of the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., together 
with the rh airman and Mr. Hichens repraaenting respectively Job u 
Brown & Co, and Oammell. Laiid .v (Jo. 

We announceil, a week or twti ago, that Mr. Evan Parry had 
resigned his post of Chief Government Electrician in New Zealari.i. 
The reason for thia resignation is now apparent, for Mr. Parry haa 
been appointed engineer-in-chief of the English Electric Co , Ltd. 
That he will be heartily welcomed home to Old England again by 
hia many electrical friends, foea without saying , 

D.K. Operatic Society. — The employc-s of Messrs. Dick, 

Kerr i; Co., Ltd., Preston, have formed an amateur operatic society, 
and last week the members gave a series of very successful per- 
formances of " H.M.S. Pinafore " in the Empire Theatre, Preston. 



LIGHTING AN D POW ER NOTES. 

Ascot. — Puoi'dSEii I'RiCE Increase. — The F^lectricity 

Co. has apjilied to the B. of T. for an order to increase the maximum 
price of electricity from lis. 8d. up to 20 units, and Yd. per unit 
beyond, to 12s., and Is. per unit. 

Batley. — Price Incjreare. — The electricity charges un- 
to be increased by a further 20 per cent, from February Ist, thus 
raising the charge for lighting to ho per cent, above the pre-war 
rate, and that for power and heating to 7.5 per cent. 

Bolton. — Proposed Linkin(;-ip. — The Corporation has 
decided to apply to the L.6.B. for sanction to a loan of £7, .500, for 
the purpose of connecting its electricity supply system with that 
of the Lancashire Electric Power Co. ; it is proposed to enter into 
a mutual working arrangement for 10 years. 

Bournemouth. — Price Increase. — The E.S. Co. has 

notified its intention to increase the price of electricity to SJd. per 
unit, a total war-time advance of 33 i per cent. 

Canada, — Water Power. — A company has sought 
authorisation from the Quebec Government to proceed with a 
hydro- electric development on the Riviere des Prairies, Island of 
Montreal. The preliminary plans provide for a development of 
40,000 H.P. Federal sanction has already been obtained, subject to 
modifications of the original plan, and provincial authority is 
required for the use of the bed of the stream. The power house 
will be on the south shore of Jesus Island, and the preliminary 
plans provide for nine units. The project will raise the water level 
some 1 5 ft., and will interfere with the sewer outlets of Montreal. 



Vol. 84. No. 2,145, jAsnABv 3, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



15 



Continental. — Spain. — A concessioii has been granted for 
thf utilisation of the Eiver Guadalpeo (Izbor), near Melegres, for 
the generation of electricity. 

Egham. — Street Lighting. — The U.D.C. has decided 
to enter into a 10 years' contract with the Egham and Staines 
Electricity Co., for street lighting. 

Falkirk, — Proposed .Joint Supply. — Representatives 

of the Burghs of Stirling. Alloa. Grangemouth. Bo'ness, Lin- 
lithgow, Denny. Bathgate, and Armadale, and the County Council 
of Stirlingshire have been asked to confer with the Falkirk T.C. 
regarding the provision of joint electrical plant. 

Ilford. — Proposed Extensions, — The electrical engi- 
neer has been instructed to report ti. the Corporation upon tht- 
:ilt^rationa :ind ;idditions reiinired in lonnection with the plant. 

Ipswich. Year's Workinu. -Tliere \va.s a snrplns of 

£i,l''i on the working of the Corporation Electricity Department 
for the year ended March :'.lst la-st. of which £ I, .588 was credited 
to the reserve fund, and £474 to the liquidation of the adverse 
balance on the previous year's working. The income was £5."), 720. 
compared with £3H,.")8M in the preceding year, and the working 
expenses were i;40,3ii4, against £26,82'> ; capital charges absorbed 
£12,848. Units sold increa-sed from 4.83(;.171 to (J, 797,374, of 
which 843,227 were for lighting, against 7:ii 1,821 : .'j,245,494, against 
3,444,886, for power : and 708,653, against 060,464, for tramways. 
The capacity of the undertaking was 3,511 Kw., and the maximum 
load recorded was 3,113 KW. The generation cost was ri4d. per 
unit, and the total cost ^excluding capital charges) was l'423d. 
The average price per unit, excluding meter rents, A;c., was l'772d. 
The year's operation of the electric vehicle garage showed a surplus 
of £44. 65 per cent, of the energy sold for power purposes was 
consumed by controlled munition factories. In his report, the 
electrical engineer (Mr. F. Ayton) states that the coal cost per 
unit sold was ■828d., against ■678d.. due almost entirely to the 
overloaded condition under which the plant was worked, and to 
the fact that much of the output was generated by the old recipro- 
cating plant. There were many occasions during the year when, 
owing to the poor quality and poor supply of coal, the undertaking 
was unable to maintain suHicient steam, and had to appeal to the 
large power users to ease their demand. The item for." repairs 
and maintenance" increased from £1,756 to £3.533. 50m-k\v. 
rotary converters, with transformers and switchgear. were installe<l 
at the power station and the Duke Street sub-station for converting 
current for transmission to the foundry district. The plant had to 
be obtained in a great hurry, and the only suitable plant thatconld 
be found n a-s of a make which had not proved reliable or satis- 
factory. The plant was started on May 3rd, and gave trouble 
from the first On .Tuly 25th it broke down, and was out of 
commission until October Ut : it was also out of commission from 
December l?th until January 29t'h The repairs have been carried 
out at the makers expense 'but the breakdowns involved the 
eroppiuF 01 very important plant .tt the- Orsveii worts an.t a 
t onsequent K.ss of reveniie. 

LutOD.- LuAN .Sanl'TIOn.— The E.C. ha.-^ ubtaiaed L.G.B. 
sanction to borrow £2,000 (repayable in 25 years) for extension 
of mains for providing additional supply of electricity to Thernrn 
Electric Ltd-, and Frioker's Metal Co. 

Mansfield. — Price Increase. — The T.C. has increased 

the charges for electricity by a further 23 per cent., making 50 per 
cent, over pre-war rates. 

•- 1 Methley. — Proposed Bilk Supply, — The U.D.C. - haa 

asked the Yorkshire E.P. Co. to submit terms for a supply of elec- 
tricity in bulk. 

Nelson. — -Proposed I,iNKi.\o-rp. — .\ joint meetintr 
lietwpen representatives of the Xelson and Colne Corporations has 
been arranged to consider proposals for the interconnection of the 
electricity supply systems. 

Newark. — Prov. Order. — The T.C. ha.s decided to 
oppose an application by the Newark Gas Co. for an E.L. prov. 
order. 

Normanton. — E.L. Sche.me. — The T.D.C. lias decided to 

push forward with the electric lighting scheme. 

Oldham. — Fire. — A fire broke out in the generating 
station at Asia Mill, HoUinwood, last week, and considerable 
damage was done to the plant by the collapse of the roof. 

Mill Driving. — Referring to the application from three large 
mills for a supply of electricity, the chairman of the Electricity 
Committee stated that he believed that the demand for electricity 
was about to develop very considerably, and the Committee should 
seriously consider its whole position. 

United States. — Hetch Hetchy Scheme. — The Hetch 

Hetchy project, when completely developed, includes dams, tunnels, 
pipes, and aqueducts of sufficient capacity to deliver and distribute 
400,000,000 gallons of water daily to the San Francisco Bay region 
from its mountain supply in the High Sierra situated 160 miles to 
the east. In addition to this, the completed project as now pro- 
posed includes the development of a number of attractive power 
sites. This completed project will undoubtedly represent an invest- 
ment of approximately 125 to 140 millions of dollars. A descrip- 
tion of this project as it appears to-day is given in the Jouriuil 
uf Slectriciti/ for November 15th. 

In his report of March, 1916, the City Engineer of San 
Francisco sets forth a statement showing that .in outlay of 



$44,14 7,000 will be necessary to complete the project sufficiently to 
deliver to San Francisco a domestic water supply of 60,000,000 
gallons daily, and to erect at the Moccasin Creek power plant an 
initial installation of 37,500 kw. Since these estimates were made 
prices have advanced to such a degree that it is reasonable to 
expect an outlay of 860,000.000 will be necessary for this work. 
To acquire a distribution system such as the Spring Valley and 
the necessary reserve reservoirs an additional $40,000,000 will be 
necessary. To eventually complete the project so as to deliver the 
400.000,000 gallons daily, and in addition to erect power lines and 
build all the other necessary appurtenances will require at least an 
additional $25,000,000, or "even $40,000,000. That this completed 
project may cost between $125,000,000 and 8140,000.000 does not 
in itself condemn the undertaking. Tersely put. the outstanding 
facts are these — Some 20 cities and municipalities in the San Fran 
lisco Bay region need improved water facilities, and the need is fai 
greater than is generally rralisefi. While the Hetch lieti^hy pro 
ject has l>een reported on by eijierts. its alternative jiossibilities oi 
development have never been properly weighed in careful analysis. 
The power phase of the situation, while attractive on the surface, 
has never been completely and thoroughly examined. The project, 
as a whole, is admittedly larger than San Francisco of itself 
can reasonably finance or, without supplying other municipalities, 
reduce to a paying investment. The urgent and dangerous situa- 
tion that may arise from a season of water shortage extending 
over a two-year period, which may arise at any time, must not be 
overlooke<l. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Aberdeen. — Proposed Light Eailway. — The Corpora- 
tion Electricity Committee has reported in favour of the con- 
struction of a light railway between the electricity works and the 
docks and railway station, for the conveyance of coal ; the 
estimated cost is £20.000. 

Australia. — Strike. — The tramway employes at Perth 
(West Australia) have struck work for higher wages. 

Blackburn. — Strike. — The employes of the Corporation 
tramway department, who are members of the Amalgamated 
Tramway Workers' X'nion. have refused to work with the members 
of the Municipal Employes TTnion. and struck work on Monday 
last. The strikers have asked the Lancashire District Council ul 
the Workers Tnion to declare a strike uf tramway workere 
throughout the county. They have also railed out the men 
engaged on carting ooal to the electricity works, thus ttreateninj 
the supply for lighting and power. 

Brighouse, — Proposed Tramwais. — A .9nb-C.:.miiiitt€f 

iias been appointed to interview the o'bairman of the Huddersneia 
TrauiwavD ('Vimmittre wit'h regard to the proposed trumways to 
itastrick. 

Doncaster. — Proposed Extensions.^ — The T.C. ha= 

decided to c^rry out improvement schemes in the barough, IncindicF 
the extension of the tramway system : 'the total co=t is estimated 
at £600,000, 

Halifax, —Track Renewals,— The Tramways Com- 
mittee has^ given instructions for the repair of the tramway track 
between Hipperholme and Brighouse and between Brighouse .and 
Bailiffe Bridge. 

Huntingdonshire. — Proposed Light Railway. — The 

C.C. has decided to ask tlie Norm;in Cross Brick Co. to cooiierate 
with the Council in the provision of a light railw.iy for the 
district. - 

Ipswich. — Year's Working. — For the year ended 
March 31st, l!il8, the revenue of the Corporation tramway depart- 
ment amounted to £34,817 and the expenditure to £27,071, com- 
pared with £25,567 and £21,922 respectively in the previous year. 
Loan redemption amounted to £2.413, against £2,340 ; interest to 
£3,244, against £3.315 ; .ind war allowances to employes to £611, 
against .C672. The net jirofit was £1,478, against a loss of £2,672 
on the previous year's working ; 625.224 car-miles were run. 
against 567,503 ; 6,069,777 passengers were carried, against 
6,246,820; 708,6.53 units were used, against (560,464 ; 1134 imits 
were used per car-mile, against TKU ; the total working expenses 
per car-mOe were 10'392d., against 9'271d. ; and the total revenue 
per car-mile was 13'3ii5d.. against 10'812d. Energy, obtained from 
the electricity department, cost £5.211, or 2d. per oar-mile, against 
.£4,300. The manager (Mr. F. Ayton) estimates that the whole of 
the track will require renewing, at a cost of £42,500. next year, 
and also recommends that certain useless or unprofitable routes be 
abandoned. 

Ilford. — Supply of Electricity. — The Corporation 

electrical engineer and tramway manager has been instructed t.i 
endeavour to obtain a supply of electricity from ueii^ hbouring trum- 
way authorities, in order to meet any emergencies which may be 
caused by breakdowns. 

L.B. & S.C.R. Electrification. — A copy of a resolution 

passed by the Brighton T.C, to the effect that the Council is 
strongly of opinion that the electrification of the main line from 
London to Brighton should be proceetied with at the earliest 
possible moment, has been forwartled to the company. 



16 



THE ETiECTRICAL REVIEW, [Voi. S4 no. u.u.-.. jaxuahy s, 1919. 



Llandudno.— Supply ok Ei.kctkiuitv.— A luw iigree- 
ment, by which the U.D.C. is to supply electricity to the Llandudno 
and Colwyn Bay Electric Railwny Co. on a sliding scale based on 
the cost of fuel, comes into operation on January 1st. 

London.— JI.E.T.— The Metropolitan Electric Tramway 
Co. has given each employe a day's pay in celebration of the 
Armistice. 

Fare In-cre.\se.— The London United Tramway Co. increased 
it« fares on January Ist to Id. for two stages, in place of three. 
There is no change" in workmen's fares for the present. Should 
the change not result in the increase of revenue that is required, 
the matter will be further considered in two months' time. 

Developme.vt Co.MiiiTTEE.— Early this year a conference of 
representatives of municipal tramway authorities in the Metro- 
politan area will be held to consider the following resolutions, 
which were adopted at a recent meeting of the Metropolitan 
Association of Tramway Managers :— (1) That the Metropolitan 
Association of Tramway JIanagers, which includes in its member- 
ship managers of both municipal and company-owned tram- 
ways. l>e dissolved ; (,2) that a new association be formed 
consisting of municipal authorities owning and working tramways 
or motor vehicles ; that the municipal authoritieii be represented 
by not more than two members each and the managers of the 
undertakings ; that the meetings of the Council be held quarterly ; 
that meetings of the managers be held at least once a month ; and 
that the managers act jointly in an advisory capacity to the Council 
on all matters which affect the common interests of the under- 
takings in the Metropolitan area. 

Mersey Docks. — A big scheme for the electritication 
of the Mersey Dock Estate has been adopted, with a view to the 
extended introduction of electrically- worked, mechanical appliances 
on the dock quays ; the cost is estimated at £123,!t00. 

South Africa. — Railway Electrification. — The report 
of the General Manager of Railways and Harbours for 191S states 
that the services of a London firm of consulting engineers had 
been secured to report upon the proposed electrification of certain 
sections of the Union railways, and a representative of the firm 
had already been to South Africa to study local conditions and 
collect data. 

Stirling. — It is proposed to lay a light railway from 
Stirling to Port of Monteith. 

The Electric Vehicle Committee.— ^Ir. E. E. Hoadley, 

the engineer and manager of the Maidstone Corporation electricity 
supply department, has been added to the Electric Vehicle Com- 
mittee as an additional representative of the Incorporated Muni- 
cipal Electrical Association. Another addition to the Committee is 
Lieut.-Colonel Frank Garrett, of Messrs. Richard Garrett & Sons, 
Ltd., Leiston, Suffolk, who takes the place as a representative of 
electric vehicle manufacturers of Mr. Meaden, of Wolseley Motors, 
Ltd., Birmingham, who are no longer interested in electric 
Tehicles. 

Thornaby, — Prov. Order. — The T.C. has decided to 
apply for a prov. order to construct and work tramways within its 
area. 

Thornton. — Railway Extension. — The Lancashire and 
Yorkshire and London and North-Westem Railway Companies have 
notified the Council of their intention to promote a Bill for the 
construction of a branch railway, to be called the Cleveleys branch. 

Wages. — The National Transport Workers' Federation 
has forwarded the following demands on behalf of its members to 
the Municipal Tramways Association and the Tramways and 
Light Railways Association : — The working week to consist of 44 
hours, including signing on and off, and every employe to be 
guaranteed a working week of 44 hours or payment for the same ; 
no day's work to exceed eight hours ; a reduction of the worliing 
day not to entail a reduction of existing wages ; no " spread-over " 
duty to exceed nine hours, inclusive of meal times or relief ; all 
Sundays, national holidays, and overtime to be paid for at time- 
and-a-half -rates : 14 days' holiday to be granted annually, with 
pay. The two Associations have agreed to meet representatives of 
the Federation early this year to discuss the proposals. 

Weston-super-Mare. — E.xtensiox of TniE. — The pro- 
moters of the Western Junction Light Railway Order, 1910, have 
applied to the B. of T. for an extension until December 31st, 1919, 
for the completion of the unconstructed lines authorised by the 
Order. 



TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 

Abbreviated Addresses. — The Postmaster - General 
announces that from January 1st the use in foreign telegrams of 
abbreviated addresses will be allowed. The registration of new 
abbreviated addresses for foreign telegrams has been sanctioned. 

Australia. — As a result of the finding of the Navy Com- 
mission in connection with the purchase of a wireless station by 
the Australian Government, Senator Long has resigned his seat in 
the Senate. The Commission expressed the opinion that Senator 
Long received £2,400 in consideration of his political influence. — 
The Times. 



Haiti,— The telephone systems of Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic have recently been connected. It is now possible to 
communicate between the principal towns of the two Republics. 

United States. — The first extensive strike of telephone 
workers occurring since Government control of wires was assumed, 
which involved operators and electricians at Norfolk, Va., was 
settled on November 1st, upon a direct demand addres9e<l to the 
strikers by Postmaster-General Burleson, who said that no strike 
could bt- recognised in the (Jovernment service. Employrs had 24 
hours in which to return after leaving their positions, and the 
management of the company involved had orders at the end of that 
period to fill all places left vacant with other workers, and to 
report the names of those leaving the service. 

The P.M. G. has appointed Committees to make recommendations 
with a view to standardising the rate schedules of telephone and 
telegraph services throughout the States. 

The restrictions heretofore placed on telephone extensions have 
been revoked. — Trhplioiie Enghuer. 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 



OPEN. 

Australia.— f^YDNEV. — April 28th. City Council. Supply 
and erection of power-house switchgear. Specifications from Elec- 
tric Lighting Department, Town Hall, Sydney. 

Melbourne.— March lOth. CityCouncil. One 5,000-KW. frequency 
changer, high-tension switchgear. Specification (£ 1 Is.) from City 
Electrical Engineer. 

Dublin. — Electricity Committee. Erection of a fan house 
at Pigeon House Fort Station. 

London. — Hampstead. — B.C. .January IGth. Twelve 
months' supply of electrical engineers' stores and oils for the Elec- 
tricity Station. Mr. A. P. Johnson, Town Clerk, Town Hall, Haver- 
stock Hill, N.W. 

Spain. — The municipal authorities of Albaida (Province 
of Valencia ) have lately invited tenders for the concession for the 
electric lighting of the town during an unstated period. Tenders 
have also been invited for the concession for the electric lighting 
of the Town of Pedrochi (Province of Cordoba) during a period of 
five years. 

Sheffield. — lanuary 7th. Corporation Tramways and 
Motor Committee. 50 double-decked, top-covered, vestibule tram- 
car bodies with trucks. Mr. A. R. Fearnley, General Manager, 
Division Street. 



CLOSED. 

Australia.^Commonwealth Department of Defence : — 

Electric motors for dock pumps, Commonwealth Dockyard, £5,796.— 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., Ltd. 

llford.— U.D.C. :— 

23-H.p. motor and starter, £145.— W. H. Sugden. 

Windsor.— T.C. :— 

Pulsometer pump aud 56-».p. motor and mains. — \Tindsor F.lectrical 
Installation Co., Ltd., £775. 



FORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



Junior Institution of Engineers.— Friday, .January .^rd. At 3il, Victoria 
Street, a. W. At7.30p.m. Paper on "Concrete Ships," by Mr. P. M. Prazer. 

(Nortb-Eastern Sectioni. — Tuesday, January 7th. At the Mining 
Institute, Newcastleon-Tyne. At 7.45 p.m. Paper on " Design of 
High-speed Generating Units," by Mr, C Bonner. 



Institute of Marine Engineers.- Tuesday, Januaiy 7th. At the Minories 
E. 1 At i; p.m. President's address. 

Boentgen Society.— Tuesday, January 7th. At the Royal Society of .ii-ts. 
John Street, W.c. At «.!.'> p.m. Paper on " Electrical Changes Produced 
by Light," by Mr. H. s. Allen. 

Association of Engineers-in-Charge.— Wednesday, January 8th. At 7.:)0 
p.m. .\tSt. Bride's Institute, Bride Lane, E.C. Paper on "The Transport 
;ind Handling of Fuel," by Mr. J. H. Anderson. 

Industrial Reconstruction CouncU.— Wednesday, January 8th. At the 
Saddlers' Hall, Cheapside, E.C. Lecture on " Industrial Unity," by the 
Bt. Hon. G. H. Roberts, M.P. 

Greenoel< Association of Electrical Engineers.- Thursday, Januai? 9th. 
\t 22, West Stuart Stivet. At 7.45 p.m. Paper on " An Hour with Ultimate 
Electricity," by Mr. P. C. Kerr. 

Institation of Electrical Engineers. — Thursday, January 9th. At the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S.W. At 6 p.m. Lecture 
on " The N'avigational (Magnetic) Compass as an Instrument of Precision," 
bv Mr. M. B. Field. 



Manchester Association of Engineers.- Saturday, January nth. At the 
Grand Hotel. At 6.30 p.m. Paper on " Iron and Steel Electric Furnaces," 
by Mr. J. Bibby. 



Vol. 84. No. 2,145, January 3, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



17 



NOTES. 

The Coalition Government. — We believe that all who ure 
anxioas taat tne lianas ot tliose who have to represent Great- 
Britam at Uie Peai^e Uoulerence should be streuytheued, and 
that our Stateauieu should know that the nation la sohd be- 
hind theiu in the lieavy and dehcate work that hes before 
them, liave hailed with satast'action the success of the Ooah- 
tion Goveinment at the polls. The avowed object of Mr. 
Lloyd (joorge and those prominently associated with him was 
to cleai' piiity squabbhiiy from the pohtical arena, especially 
dunug tne jx-riod of reconstruction. Most of us had Decome. 
utterly .-jick ot the clogging of the wheels of reasonable and 
legitimate legisJation by party discussions and diiierenL<-,ii. 
The party machuie now hes broken beyond immediate le- 
pair. The new Pa.ihament will have an oppoi-tunity of show- 
ing what it can do for the good of the nation as a whole 
lieioie Jt again splits up, as, we suppose, it inevitably must 
.-uoher or later — being a human organisation, and one which 
can only be elhcieutly run if there is a strong opposition a^ 
a corrective force — mto groups and parties, in the iiLEC- 
Tiac.4L He VIEW of February loth, 19io, we remarked: "If 
we have needed a coalition for securing unity in war, and 
require it for guaranteeing the interests of all in secui"ing the 
rignt ix'ace, we shaJl more than ever find it essentiaf (or 
securing unity and guaranteeing the interests of all in the 
period of reconstruction." In our issue of August '2nd, 1918, 
m referring to the deplorable skiUed labour strike that had 
just ended, we said: — "There is unquestionably a need for 
a strong Government with the nation behind it, and if a 
Parhamentary Election is going to secure such for us tiie 
sooner it takes place the better. If there is a loose rein after 
the war, or if ther-e are blunders due to vacillation, the way 
to ruin will be short and steep." The new Government is 
not yet formed; the new Parliament is only a few days old. 
But we suppose that it comes nearer than ever Parhament 
has done before to being a body wherein, comparatively 
speaking, " none were for. a Party, and aJl were for the 
State." We venture no predictions, but the voting of the 
people of England, Scotland, and Wales tills us with con- 
lidejice for the coming days, for there is obviously a general 
demand for stabhity and Peace at Home, and the forces that 
mate for Bolshevism, though noisy, and to some extent 
dangerous if left uncontrolled, are unhkely to be able to 
summon a following of any proportions while the Govern- 
ment at the helm shows itself both strong and tactful. 

Lighting Regulations. — Mr. IT. H. Thompson, manager 
of the Kingsway Theatre, has been fined £5 at Bow Street 
for unlawfully hghting a number of electric lamps of 25 and 
100 c.r. at the entrance of the building for the purpose of 
advertisement and display. The Magistrate, after inspection, 
heJd that the lights were in excess of what were necessary 
for mere safety. He said 'that the Advertisements Order was 
m force for effecting economy in coaJ consumption, and the 
matter muat be judged from that standpoint. 

Electric Welding. — In .the Journal of the Engineers' 

Club of Philadelphia, Prof. Comfort A. Adams says, with 
reference to rigid versus non-rigid sy.stems of welding, that 
the U.S. Shipping Board Sub-Committee on Research re- 
ported that the conclusion was that if two pieoes of metal 
were allowed to lie loosely and free to move, they would 
warp and distort in thek relative position during the process 
of welding; but if they were clamped rigidly, the stresses 
w;hich were set up were taken up almost entirely by a shght' 
giving of the weld, so that when the parts were i^eleased 
there was no tendency for them to spring out of shape, ror 
was there any apparent lack of strength which could be re- 
gained by supposedly releasing the strains by annealing. 
With reference to overhead work, the consensus of opinion 
was that, except for intermittent spots, overhead welds were 
extremely unrehable. It was difficult to deposit the metal 
at all without great fatigue on the part of the operator, and 
the quality of the work was markedly inferior. The conclu- 
sion had been come to that overhead welding shoidd not 
be depended on at all, it was only suitable for temporary 
tacking. In connection with a certain welded ship. Prof. 
Adams gave figures, reduced to a ton basis, which had been 
worked out us to the probable cost of the steel hull. The 
cost wvls divided into two parts, namely, welded and other 
parts, and was con.-iidered a conservative estimate of the cost 
of preparing plates for welding and assembling. The total 
cost of labour, power, and electrodes, apart from the cost of 
steel itself, was $63. .5(1 jier ton of steel in the hull. In that 
ship there were only -i.SlK) tons of steel, instead of '2,800 tons, 
which would be used in the ordinary riveted ship. Iteduced 
to the same basis of tonnage, the co.st was only $52.50 per 
ton for the purpose of comparison. The cost of the riveted 
6hip to-day was in the vicinity of $80 per ton. The average 
epeed of welding was ,5 ft. per hour, not allowing for the 
long waits of actual work; the amount of metal per running 
foot was 0.6 lb., and the current 150 amp. at 20 volts. The 
power was estimated to cost 3.6 cents per ft., bare electrodes 
7.2 cents, and labour 13 cents. Total cost of weld per ft. 
was 23.8 cents. The cosrts were taken from English practice. 
The programme for pennissible welding as outlined at Hog 
lalaiid covered a total number of about 225,000 pieces, which 
it was estimated could be riveted at a coat of about $245,000, 
ftod welded for about $99,000, or approximately 60 per cent. 



of the cost of riveting. One reason why the completely 
welded ship was not being reahsed at the present time waa 
the effect) of ci-ystallisation of the joints under vibration 
stresses. Most arc welds, although not all, were, relatively 
.=I)6aking, brittle, and ship designers and the classification 
societies were cautious and afraid of the brittle joint. 

Heat Radiation. — In a letter in Aalure, of Dectmler 
26th, Ur. J. A. Haa-ker gives particulaa's of some experiments 
whicih he made at the National Physical Laboratory in con- 
nection with some work on radiation from surfaces, which 
show that the colour of a hot surface at relatively low tem- 
perature has very httle influence on the amount of radiation 
leaving it. 

In a series of experiments the sides of a thin cubical metal 
canister were painted in panels of varying colour, the in- 
terior of the cube being filled with rapidly stiiTed oil electri- 
cally heated. The amount of pure radiation leaving each 
kind of surface at a series of steady temperatures up to about 
•200 deg. C. was compjired with that coming at the same 
temperature from a " black body " constituted by a re-en- 
trant tube with appropriate diaiphra-gms. The exterior of 
the tube was washed by the hot oil. For temperatiu'e differ- 
ences in the region of 100 deg. C. it was found that : — 

1. A bright surface of ordinary tin-plate only gave off an 
amount of radiation equal to 5-10 per cent, of that from a 
" black body." The quality of the optical perfection of the 
surface was of little impoi-tance so long as it was bright. 
A metal surface treated with galvanit of various kinds showed 
effects of the same order as tin-plate. Burnished copper 
well cleaned with metal pohsh gave a lower intrinsic radia- 
tion than tin. 

2. A coat of almost any paint, regardless of colour, brings the 
true i-adiation up to from 80-90 per cent, of that of a " black 
body," and a quite thin layer of paper vainish or of celluloid 
varnish, so thin and transi>arent as to be almost impercep- 
tible to the eye, applied over the bright metal, has almost 
the same effect. 

3. A layer of tissue-paper or wallpaper pasted over the 
bright surface, or a coating of whitening or limewash, shows 
the same kind of effect in restoring practically the full 
I'adiation so long as the coating is thin. 

4. If the surface of the cube be metalhsed with aluminium 
paint, the pure i-adiation is reduced to from 45-55 per cent, 
of that of a " black body." Much depends, however, on 
the kind of vehicle used for the aluminium, and different 
samples of aluminium paint, though giving results similar 
in appearance to the eye, differ considerably in the effects 
produced. Bronzing and such-Uce processes produce inteii-- 
mediate effects. 

In some later experiments, with which Mr. Ezei' Griffiths 
was associated, a study was made of the total heat leaving 
surfaces, with the view of obtaining some data as to the 
relative eft'ects of conduction, convection, and radiation in 
ordinary still air/ From these experiments it would appear 
that in the case of low-pressure steam radiators in the region 
of 100 deg. C, almost exactly half the heat leaving the verti- 
cal surfaces, if these are of an ordinary character or painted 
in the usual mannei-, consist.s of pure radiation, the re- 
mainder being the combined effect of conduction and con- 
vection. Therefore, if, as is a. very common practice, the 
I'adiators be raetallLsed by painting with aluminium paint, 
the amount of heat reachmg the middle of a room wanned 
by such radiators will lie lowered to half, or double the 
amount of heating surface will be required to produce the 
same radiation effect as if the siurface were black or of bare 
metallic iron. 

Reconstruction Lectures and Conferences. — The follow- 
ing aiTangements have been made by the Industrial Recon- 
struction Council :^ 

Saddleks' Hall, Lectures, Wedmesdays, at 4.30 p.m. : — 

January 8th.—" Industrial Unity," by Rt. Hon. G. H. Roberts, M.P. 

January 22nu. — " Industrial Reconstruction in Government Departments," by 
Judge Edward Paoy. 

February .^th. — " The industrial .Awakening," bv Mr. E. J. P. Benn. 

February 19th. -"The Responsibililv of Trade Unions in Relation to Indus- 
try." bv Rt. Hon. J. R. Clynes, M.P. 

March 5th.—" Industrial Changes Caused by the War," by Prof. A. W. 
Kirlcaldy. 

March I9th. — " The Functions of Government in Relation to Education," 
b; Rt. Hon. H. A. L. Fisher, M.P. 

Hall of Institute of JournjU-Ists, Conferences, Tuesdays, at 6 p.m. : — 

January 14th. — " Reconstruction or Restoration," by Major H. J. Gillespie. 

January 28th.~" Tt(e Workers' Interest in Costing," by Mr. M. Webster 
Jenkinson. 

February llth.— " The Place of the Merchant in British Industry," bv Sir 
Charles McLeod. 

F'ebruarv 25th. — " Welfare Work." by Miss Newcomb. 

March llth.—" Labour Conditions in Relation to Future Industrial Pros- 
p<-j-itv." bv Capl.iin J. O'Gradv. M.P. 

March 25th.—" Industrial and Educational Reconstruction," by Mr. F. W. 
Sanderson. 

Ticker and Telephone. — In an interesting paper read by 
M. Gondet, before the Societe Fran?aise de Physique, allu- 
sion is made to the possible applications of the ticker em- 
ployed in wireless telegraphy, the function of which is to 
produce intemiptions of current of a frequency capable of 
producing a musical note. A ticker of this type, used in 
conjunction with a telephone, could often be employed in 
practice, instead of a galvanometer, as a convenient means 
of detecting small continuous currents of the order of 1 micro- 
ampere upwards. A sketch is given of a Wheatstone bridge 
arrangement using the ticker and telephone which is re- 
cx>iiunended for industirial work. 



18 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW, 



[Vol. 84. No. 2,H.-), Januauv 3, 1919. 



Volunteer Notes. — Royal Ensiseers Vor.r.vTEERa, 

LoKDON Army Troops Companies.— Headquarters : Baldertou 
Street, Oxford Street, W. 1. 

Regimental Orders No. 1, by Liout.-Colonel C. B. Clav, V.D., Commanding. 

Monday, January 6th, to Saturday, January 11th.— Drills as usual. 

C. HiGGiss, Capt. R.E., Adjulant. 

Engineers in the Acadimie des Sciences.— The 

Academy has elected M. Kateau to membership of the uew Division 
of .Vjiplications of Science to Industry. M. Leblanc was the first 
member elected. 

Educational. — Uxiverisitv ok Sheffield. — Some 

particulars are g:iven in the SheiHeld IiulejiemUiit of the remark- 
able work that has been done by the University during the war 
In addition to the manufactnr*^ of sfauge.^i and shells m the 
F.ngineerinc Department, the production of cupro-nieiel was 
.levelo|ie.l experimentally by tli.- Xon-ferrnii.-i and r.tectronietal- 
Inrtri.'iil Uepartmenta, with ino>| iiniiortanl result.'.: tlir total 
output was l.Hoi tons. 

The Electrical Engineerinfr Department, with the local staff of 
the Aeronautical Inspection Department, has tested and rei)orted 
upon 27 samples of magnetic steels. 141 standard magnets, l.">0 
tests on non-magnetic (nickel steel) steels, and :i,->.00u magnets. 
Since December. 1916, the staff of the Applied Chemistry Depart- 
ment has been engage<l on investigations ou carbonisation of coal. 

In the Electro-metallurgical Section, wounded officers, previously 
trained in non-ferrous metallurgy, are employed on work in con- 
nection with the engineering repair shops "in France— building 
up worn-out parts or rejected material by the electro-deposition of 
thinner or thicker films of various metals to restore them to normal 
dimensions. 

The Tniversity has taken a prominent part in the foundation 
of the Officers' University Training Classes, a movement which 
promises to be of extreme value in enabling the wounded officer to 
take a useful place in the industrial development of the nation 
after the war. The Sheffield University was the first to establish 
a training course. Up to the present, 59 wounded officers have 
attended the course in the Faculty of Engineering, and 134 in the 
Faculty of Metallurgy. 

During 1917 the staff of the Electrical Department advised and 
assisted the members of the local Anti-aircraft Defence Corps in the 
construction of frame-work required for the training of officers 
and men in the use of appliances for the location of aircraft. 

These are only a few of the many important services rendered by 
the I'niversity to the State and to the city. 

Inquiry. — A correspondent wants the name of a firm 
that will undertake the repair of various .small electrical meters 
and measuring instruments. 

Socials.— A verr successful ball wa.% held on Dec-ember 
iyth at the Barracks, Grove Park. Kent, to celebrate the end of 
the Great H'ar it was arranged exclusively for " lads and lasses 
of the Transport and Workshops Company" at Xo. i Reserve, M T. 
Xiepot A.S.C. Grove Fart by kind permission of Lieut.-Col. P. H. 
Kitaon, A.S.C, Commanding Depot, and Capt. C. Crowther, A.S.C, 
Commanding Company. The hall was tastefully decorated under 
the supervision of Lieut. Cockerili The electrical effects for the 
occasion were lent by the General Electric Co.. Ltd. 

The Bradford and Otiey District Branch cf the Engineering- 
Foremen's Mutual Benefit Society held their annual social evenins: 
in the dining and recreation rooms attached to the works of Messrs. 
Thwaites Bros., Ltd.. Bradford, last Saturday week. There were 
170 members and g-uests present. At the whist drive which 
followed the repast the prizes were distributed by Mr. P. J. Pybus. 
of the Phsnix Dynamo Co., Ltd., who paid a handsome tribute to 
the manner in which foremen had performed their duties during 
the very difficult and strenuous war period. The evening's enjoy- 
ment was contributed to by musical friends, and the " annual " 
was a great success. 

The Cable Censorship Handicap. — An actual example of 

the heavy handicap that is placed upon foreign trade transactions 
by the continuance of the cable censorship is given in the following 
letter, which appeared in the Times on Wednesday : — 

Sir,— On the 16ll. inst. I chartered the ss. Tnizan ilam, then at Durban 
awaiting orders to load a cargo from British East Africa to Japan, at a freight 
of about £20,000. We immediately attempted to get a priority cablegram 
through to the captain, instrneting him to proceed to his loading port on the 
British East African coast, but having received instructions to go on to 
Mauritius, m case no orders were waiting for him at Durban, he sailed from 
Durban on the 18th for Mauritius. We then cabled instructions to Mauritius, 
but, again through the delay on the cables, the captain found no orders waiting 
tor hmi at Mauritius on his arrival there on the 24th-i5th, and, on the 2fith, 
atiU having no orders, he sailed for Colombo. The steamer is, therefore, 
now beyond recall, and cannot fulfil her charter from British East Africa, thus 
entailing a double loss to the trading community— namely, to the owners and 
the shippers of the cargo. It is taking quite seven or eight days for the deli very 
of commercial cables to South African ports and Mauritius, a'ud another seven 
or eight days to get a reply, whilst to get a cable reply from Japan takes 
anything from three to four weeks. How can international trade be maintained 
under such disabilities? 

D0NAI.D Macleod. 



iustitutioo and Lecture Nute.s. lu.siliulion of Elec> 

tiicai Engiaeers.— Th^ ' Institution Notes in the Journal for 
December announce that the Council has elected Mr. Percy R. 
Allen and Mr, Walter Judd to be Members of Council in place 
of the late Mr. J. 0. Callender and Lieut. W. L. Preece ; and Prof. 
A. E. Kennelly, D.Sc, of Harvard University, U.S.A., to be an 
Honorary Member of the Institution. 

The President, having visited and addressed meetings at the 
British Territorial Centres, states that the action taken by the 
Council in the direction of improving the status of the former Local 



Sections has already proved most beneficial ; the fundamental idea 
of the Council is that the Institution has no sections, but is one 
and undivided in whatever part of the country a meeting may bi^ 
hold, and it is clear that the steps taken to give effect to this idim 
are already meeting with a large measure of success. 

The Council has decided to recognise the Electrical Power 
Engineers' Association as the protective Association for engineers 
qualified to hold a responsible position directly concerned with the 
liroduction, transmission, distriliution, or utilisation of electrical 
energy. 

The expression " direct current " will in future be used in place 
of " continuous current " in all official publications of the Institu- 
tion ; this decision is in accordance with our own preference, 
which we have expressed on previous occasions and acted on when 
possible. 

A list of the members of Oomniittet-s iippointed by the Counoil 
for ]91.'(-19 is viveii in the .lom-iml, um well as » list of representu 
lives of -the Institution on other bodies, the Roll of Honour 
MilitaO' Honours Awardeil, lueinbers on Military Service, and Pro- 
motions, Transfers, ice, of members on service. 

At Swansea, on Saturday last, Mr. W. Burr, borough electrical 
engineer, delivereJ an illustrated lecture on medical electricity. 

Electrical Assoclatiun of Australia. — At Melbourne, on 
Xovember 2'ith. Mr. M. C. Timms read a paper on "Submarine 
Cables." 

International Science. — The Tinias of December iMst 

gave particulars of the new international organisation for the 
promotion and co-ordination of scientific and industrial research. 
The first Conference was held in London in October, at the instance 
of the Royal Society, and decided that it was desirable that the 
nations at war with the Central Powers should withdraw from the 
existing international conventions and establish new associations. 
The representatives of the United States recommended that 
" National Research Councils " should be formed in the different 
Allied countries, with constitutions similar to that of the U.S. 
National Research Council, and that from them should be formed 
an " International Research Council," in whose hands the whole 
work of international co-operation in science could be placed. 
This proposal was adopted at the meeting in Paris on 
November 26th, and an "Executive Committee" of five members 
was nominated, with an "Administrative Bureau "to be established 
in London. The president of the Committee is M. E. Picard, one 
of the permanent secretaries of the Academic des Sciences ; the 
other members are : Dr. G. E. Hale (United States) ; Prof . Volterra 
(Italy) ; Major Lecointe (Belgium) ; and Prof. A. Schuster (CJreat 
Britain ). 

Mine Signalling Patents. — PaUnt Application. 

No. 116,4211, Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and 
Charles Remington, was recently opposed by the SterlinR^ Telephone 
and Electric Co., Ltd., upon the grounds that the invention claimed 
therein has been claimed in their prior Patents Nos. 112,497 and 
19,S5i of 19 il- The application in question discloses a mine sig- 
nalling system in which several onsetters are enabled to indicate 
signals upon a single indicator before the engineman. One onsetter 
upon signalling monopolises the indicator to the exclusion of the 
other onsetters, who receive busy signals should they commence 
signalling, until the signal set up by the first onsetter has been 
cancelled by the sngineman complyint there— ith. The Controller- 
General heard the contending- parties in this matter or. Decsmber 
12th. Capt. Odell appearing for the opponent; and Mr, Tomlin for 
the applicants. The applicants contended that the inventions 
claimed in the opponents' patents were quite different from ths 
invention described in the applicants' specification, and this 
view was upheld by the Controller, —ho decided to dismiss ths 
application, with costs against the opponents. 

Appointments Vacant. — Mechanician (£2:jO + £120) 
for the Post and Telegraph Department, Nigeria ; mains engineer 
for the R.E. camp at Upton Lovell ; cable jointer for the Rawten- 
stall Corporation. See our advertisement pages to-day. 

Investigating the Brazilian Machinery Market — An 

investigator is shortly to be dispatched to Brazil to ascertain the 
conditions and prospects for the sale of British engineering pro- 
ducts in that market. He will go on behalf of the Department of 
Overseas Trade and the British Engineers' Association, who are 
acting jointly 

Patent Office Library Closing Time.— "Htudent" writing 

to thy Thiirs urges thiit the Patent OIHce Library .^iboiild 
now revert to its pre-war hour of closing (10 p.m.), «o as io 
give Naval and Army officers who are unable to pur.sue their 
.studies during the da.ytime an opportunity for access to it.s 
extremely valuable collection of technical work.';. The pre- 
sent hour of clo.sing is 5 p.m., and we hope tbat the authori- 
ties will seiiously consider "Student's" suggestion. 

A Light-weight Battery.— Mr. N. D. Sturges, of New 
York City, has produced a, lig-ht-weight storage battery which 
meets the rigid requirements of the airplane designers. It 
is said to be the lightest battery ever manufactured for watt 
hours per ib of elements. According to Indian InduntT.t:^ and 
Poivei. the battery is capable of a steady output of 20 watt- 
hours per lb. of elements, which is claimed to exceed that of 
any other battery' ; and it is only half as heavy as the average 
automobile starting battery, which weighs about 80 lb. The 
over-all dunensions of the aii-plane battery are : Length 9i 
in., width 6J in., height 8i in. The plates are 1/16 in. in 
thickness, nine to a cell, and six cells to a battery, or a, total 
of .54 plates. The baf^y has an output of 50 ""^.Derefl a.t 
12 volts for 30 minutes. 



Vol.84. No. 2,u5, JANUARY 3, 1919.] THE ELECTEICAL EEVIEW, 



19 



The 47 Hour Week for Engineers.— It is amiouneed 
that the ioUowing arrangements have been made in connec- 
tion with the introduction of the 47-hovir week on January 
1st, pending further discussion between the Employers' Fede- 
ration and the Trade Unions : — 

1. The day shift shall terminate at the present hour of 
stopping in each establishment, unless otherwise a-greed be- 
tween the fiiTu and their men. 

•2. Where necessary, in order to make up 47 hours on ac- 
count of a 12 o'clock Saturday, half an hour extra shall be 
worked on one evening of the week, unless otherwise 
aJTanged between the finn and their men on a "IT-hour basis. 

3. The rate of men whose normal w-orking week of 58 
hours is in excess of the normal district week — e.g., 54 — 
shall be enhanced as if they worked the normal district week. 

4. Time rat-e per hour to be increased for day-shift men 
according to amount of reduction in houi-s. 

5. Night-shift to be paid on enhanced day rate. 

6. Night-shift hams to remain as at present, pending re- 
adjustment. 

1. Premium bonus- earniugs shall be calculated on enhanced 
day-shift rate. 

8. No change shall be made in piecework prices or list rates. 

It is understood that the Clyde engineers voted by a majoi'- 
it.y against the 47-hour week. The Scottish Trade Union 
Congress has by a majority called for legislation for a 40- 
houi's week, preferably five days of eight hours. 

Grimsby engiueerLag aid allied trade workers downed tools 
on Wednesday as a protest against the 47-hom-s week having 
been brought into operation. .According to Press reports the 
men object to dinuex--time being the only break duiing the 
day's work. 

According to the Leeds Mercury, a conference was held on 
Friday last between the Sheffield and District Engineers 
Emplojers' .Association and representatives of all the local 
Unions parties to the joint recommendation of November 
19th, to consider questions arising out of the apphcation in 
the district of a 47-hour working week. An arrangement 
was arrived at under the terms of w-hich, as from January 
1st, the hours of the day-shift shall be as follows: — 8 a.m. 
to 12.30 p.m., 1.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., Monday to Friday in- 
clu.sive. Saturday, 7..30 a.m. to 12 p.m. Regarding the night- 
shift, it was arranged that this should commence at 5.30 p.m. 
and finish at 6 a.m., with breaks for meals a-s at present, 
this to be a temporaiy arrangement i^ending the holding of 
fiuther conferences to discuss the question of night-shift and 
men working on the shift system. 

Miners in the South Wales district are discussing the ques- 
tion of a six-hour day iu the mines, and the local Federation 
is seeking an interview with the Prime Minister on this and 
other iiiatter.s. The Cleveland miners have decided to bring 
the same point before the Miners' Federation ; they also want 
income-tax exemption up to £200 a year for miners; the 
abohtion of piece-woik ; increased old-age pensions, and a 
reduction of the age-limit to 60; also the early abolition of 
all female labour at the mines. 

A Diminutive Electric Motor. — An electric motor of 
extremely small dimensions has appeaa-ed on the market, says 
the Polatcchnische Rundschau, a supplement to Elektrotech- 
nische Rundschau. The motor is enclosed in a shell of 3 cm. 
diajneter and 1 cm. l<-ngth and weighs 1.50 gm. The shaft is 
arranged s<j us U> hold thiols that are required by dentists. and 
burgeons, but the device should he of great use for other 
purposes, such as boring small holes in metids and rare 
stones. The motor ciii be driven by direct or alternating 
inrrcnt, and runs at a. maximum speed of 5,(K)0 n.r..M. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

Ths Editors invite electrical engineers, whether connected with the 
technical or the commercial side of the profession and indmtry. 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of the 
Electrical Review posted as to their movemenii. 



Central Station Officials. — Rochdale Electricity Com- 
mittee has recommended that the salaiy of Mr. F. H. RtJDD. 
the manager of the electricity works, be increased by ±'50 
per annum. He was appointed in August, 1917, at ±400 
a yea.r, and in August last this was increased by ±50, with 
a promi.se of a similar increase next .\ugust. In view of the 
extra work Mr. Rudd has ix^rfoniuxl the committee recom- 
mends that the incrwist- should be given at once. 

The Australian ComiiwHwealth Gazette states that Mr. R. 
N. Partington, Deputy State Engineer. Electrical Engi- 
neer's Branch, ha.s bef-n appointed Deputy Chief Electrical 
Kngiueer at ±700 per annum, and Mr. J. P. McGhnn, Stale 
Supervising Engineer, has been appointed Deputy State 
Engineer at ±606 per annum. 

Mr. F. Bdcklev, general manacer of the Wigan Corpora- 
tion tramways, has been appointed general manager of the 
Bury Corporation tramways dei«irtment. There were 43 
applicants. 

On the occasion of their silver wedding, Mr. J. McLean, 
night shift foreman at the power house, Hamilton (tram- 
W'ays), and Mr.s. Mcljean, were entei-tained by the power 
house employes and received presentations. 

Mr. F. G. Cooper, electrical engineer of Colne, has ac- 
cepted a position at Sheffield. 



Mr. F. W. Green, shift engineer at the Bootle Corporation 
electricity works, was presented with a cut glass salad bowl 
and a pouch of tobacco on leaving to take up a similar 
position with the St. Helens Corporation. Mr. T. D. 
Clothier, borough electrical engineer, made the presentation. 

Mr. F. W. Ketley, who has resigned his position as mana- 
ger of the Norwich Electric Tl-amways Co., has been pre- 
sented by Norwich City Police Force with a silver dgaiette 
box. 

Mr. C. F. Wells has resigned his position with the Swin- 
don CoiTwration, having been appointed assistant engineer 
in the sales department of the Yorkshii-e Electric Power Co. 

General. — Sir W. Guy Granbt has accepted a seat on the 
board of the County of London Electric Supply Co., Ltd. 

Mr. J. K. Morris, of the Kentish Shipbuilding & En- 
gineeiing Co., has been elected a du-ector of the Whitstable 
Electric Light Co., Ltd.. 

On the occaision of the retuement of Mr. W. T. Hodgkins 
from the iX)sition of works manager at Fai-aday Works 
(Gent & Co., Ltd., Leicester) the w-hole of the works and 
office .staff and employes presented him with a tiavelUng case 
and a Swan fountam i^en. Regret at his dpjvartnre was 
given suitable expression to by some present who had known 
Mr. Hodgkins during his long i)ericH;l at the works, where 
he passed from the stage of^ apprenticeship to that of works 
managei'. 

On New Yea.r's Day, at the works of Messrs. Everett, 
Edgcumbe & Co., Ltd., a presentation, in the foi-m of a 
handsome case of pipes, was made to Mr. Browning, chief 
of test, whose subordinates desired to give expression to 
their high esteem. The Test constitutes a very important 
paj't of the well-known factory at Hendon. where Mr. Brown- 
ing has for many years directed the actixities of the testing 
staff. Suitable speeches were made by members of the Test, 
and by Mr. Browning in reply. 

The Manchester Guardian says' that the new managing 
dii-ector of the British Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Co., Col. LiJvCOLN Chandler, has resigned his position at 
Trafford Pai'k owing to faiUng health. Col. Chandler is a 
director of the Metropohtan CaiTia.ge, Wagon & Finance Co., 
and he has been the representative on the British Westing- 
house board of the Metropolitan and,Vickers' interests. Cap- 
tain Hilton, of the same group, has taken ovei' the mana.ging 
directorship at Trafford Park. Major Chandler, son of CoJ. 
Lincoln Chandler, remains as the new joint secretary of the 
British Westinghouse Co. 

Mr. Cecil Leigh, F.I.C, for many years chief chemist of 
the Binningham Metal & Munitions Co., Ltd., has been 
appointed general manager of Me.ssrs. Thermit, Ltd. 

Mr. R. \V. Dalton, oui- Ti-ade Commissioner in New Zea- 
land, is beginning his torn" of the provincial industiial centres. 
He w-ill attend a number of Chambers of Commerc-e, starting 
at Norwich on Januai-y 7th and 8th. Bristol, New^wrt. 
Swansea, and Birmingham will follow, after which he will 
go to Lancashire, Ireland, and Scotland. 

The Metallic Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd., of Birming- 
ham, de.siie to inform the tnide that Mr. W. T. Bower is 
not now acting on theii" behalf. 

New Year Honours. — In the New Year Honours List 
we observe that jMr. Percy W. L. Ashley, .Assistant Secre- 
tary, Department of Industries and Manufactures, Board of 
Ti-ade, is appointed a C.B. (Civil Division). Mr. Edward 
Ra\kn, Assistant Secaelai-y to the G.P.O.. receives a similar 
honour. Mr. James Fraser, M.Iust.C.B.. Chief Commis- 
sioner for Railway and Tramways. New South Wales, ap- 
pejirs in the Colonial Offic<'. List with tiie apixiintment of 
C.M.G., as does also Mr. W. R. .\Iohkis. l.S.O. Secretary, 
Post and Telegraph Dcpai'tment, New Zetilauil. 

Roll of Honour. — Lance-Corporal L. .\. Knight. S. Wales 
Borderers, who has died in hospital at Rouen from wounds 
received in action, was with the St. Helens Cable & Rubber 
Co., Ltd., Wanington. 

Second Air Mechanic G. Penketh, R.A.P., who has died 
from, influenza, in France, was an armature windei' with 
Messi-s. J. P. Hall & Co., Ltd., Oldham. 

Lieutenant G. T. Lyall, Canadian Home .\rmy. who has 
been awarded the Victoria Cross for most conspicuous bravery 
and skilful leading during the operations north of Cambrai 
on September 27th, is 26 years of age, and a native of Man- 
chester. He was trained as a naval engineer, but owing to 
deafness left the .service, and in TJ12 went out to Canada 
as an electrical engineer. 

ljance-Corix)ral H. Stanley, " K.E., who was employed in 
tlie Bradford Post Office eugine^^ring department, has been 
awarded the MiUtary MedaK 

Obituary. — Mn. Stephen Slllon. — We regret to learn that 
the death occurred s'uddenlv on December 22ud. from heart 
failure, of Mr. Stephen "Prescott White D'Alte Sellon, 
M.Inst. C.E., the well-known consultmg engineer, of West- 
minster. In the years of his engineering trainmg he was 
brought into contact with marine and railway engineeiing 
and main drainage work, but about 35 years ago he began to 
take a'n interest iu electric tramway and light i-ailway work, 
and this intere^ extended to several practical scheme.', and 
was continued in hi.') c-Jiiwcity as a consulting engintv-r. 
Some of his early operations in this connection included the 
firsfc piece of electric trolley line at Leeds; later he wa.>i 
concerned with the manufacture, by one of the principal 
electrical engineering companies of the time, of electric 



20 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2.145, January 3, 1919 



traction matexi'al. He also acted as enyineor to the British 
Electric Traction Co., Lt-d., lor some years. He was seledted 
at ditieient periods to serve on Government commissions 
such as those investigating Irish industrial developments aad 
tramway traffic questions. Several years ago he cave evi- 
dence before a Paaliamentary Committee regarding the public 
ec-onomies that would result from a pohcy of co-operation 
between gas and electric lighting undertaJiiugs. 

Mr. E. CcNLiFFE OwKN.— We leani with regret of the 
death of Mr. Edward CuuUffe Owen, C.M.G., which has 
occurred at Lcmghborough. at the age of 61 years, after a, 
very long illness. Mr. Cmiliffe Ow'en was called to the Bax 
in 1880, but he will be rememberetl in electrical circles by 
reason of his long connection with the Metropolitan Eleotiic 
Supply Co., of which he was secretary, and the active part 
that lie played in some of the electrical exhibitions held in 
London not very many years agq. 

Sir J. B.\.\TER Ellis. — There ha« passed away at New- 
csistle-u|X)n-Tyne Sir Joseph Baxter Ellis, who was a member 
of the City Council thexe for some 38 years, was the first 
mayor of the citji, and was brought into touch with some 
of our readers diiring the five years of his chairmanship of 
the Tramways Committee. He was 76 years of age. 

Mii. J. Hubert Davies. — We regret to learn that Mr. J. 
Hubert Davies, chainnan of Messi's. Hubert Davies & Co., 
Ltd.. passed away at Capetown on December 12th. Mr. 
Davies. who was only 61 years of aige, and was an M.I.E.E., 
M.LM.E., .i^.M.I.C.E., &c., was in his early days a de- 
signer in the offices of Woodhouse & Rawson. About thirty 
years ago he went out to South Africa for Messrs. Farrar 
Bros, in connection with cortain electi'ical mining installa- 
tion , and thenceforth South Africa became his home. At 
first he acted in a consulting engineering capacity, but lateir 
he turned his attention to the commercial side, and entered 
into partnership w'ith Mr. Spain, forming the finn which 
becjime so well known, and which was subsequently converted 
into a limited company. ITie concern carried out public and 
private electrical and engineering contracts of considerable 
magnitude, and the company had headquajters at Johannes- 
burg, with branch offices in London and at Cape Town, 
Durban, and Salisbury. The strain of a very busy and en- 
terprising life told upon him to such an extent that his 
health had been faihng for a number of years, and we 
understand that the end when it came in December was not 
a surprise to those in his immediate circle. 

Mn. Thomas Mangnall. — The death occuiTed on December 
19th, at the age of 68 years, of Mr. Thomas MangnaU, of 
Manchester, for twenty years secretary of Electromotors, 
Ltd., Openshaw. 

Mr. A. E. Greville. — The Times records the death, at the 
age of 72 years, of Mr. A. E. Greville, an Isle of Wigtit 
solicitor, who followed science as a hobby, and is described 
as "the inventor of the GreviUe electro-thermic treatment 
which is stiU in use at Harrogate, Bath, and Buxton." 

Will.— ITie lat« Mr. J. F. G. Par.sons, R.F.A., who was 
killed in April last, director of Messrs. C. .\. Parsons & Co., 
and the only son of Sir C! A. Parsons, left ill, 418 gross. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



Homo, Ltd. (15^,306). — Private company. Regisitered 

December 19th. Capital, £2,000 in £1 shares. Electricif and general engi- 
neers, manufacturers, importers, exporters of and dealers in machinery and 
tools, &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are -.—A. Rist, 53, Cecile 
Park, Crouch End, N. 8, engineer; A. C. Doo. 33, Ferme Park Road, N'. 4, 
engineer. First directors : A. Rist and A. C. Doo. Registered office : 24-27, 
Rood Lane. E.C. 3. 

Integral Oxygen Co., Ltd. (152,332). — Private company. 

Registered December 20th. Capital, £16,000 in 10,000 non-cum. prel. shares 
of £1, and 12,000 ord. shares of 10s. each. To acquire the interest of 
Arthur Lyon & Wrench, Ltd., in their agency arran^'ement with the Inter- 
national Oxygen Co. of the U.S.A., to t.-ike' a licence from the American 
company to this company to manufacture and sell certain patent apparatus, 
to acquire any interest in inventions relating to electrolytic apparatus for 
the production of oxygon and hydrogen. The subscribers (each with one 
pref. shared are : — T. L. Reed Cooper, 10, Gordon Road, Ealing, electrical 
engineer; E. L. W. Bvrne. 29, Gainsborough Road. Bedford Park, W. 4. 
engineer. First directors : H. T. Wrench, E. L. W. Byrne. T. L. Reed 
Cooper, and a nominee of the International Oxygen Co. of U.S..^. Mana- 
ger ; E. L. W. Byrne. Registered offive ; 38. Victoiia Street, S.W. 

British Overseas Supplies. Ltd. (1.52,347). — Private com- 

p.my. Registered December 21st. Capital. £20.000 in £1 shares. Importers, 
exporters, merchants, and factors of goods and merchandise of all kinds, 
Src. The subscribers (each with one share) are :— F. J. Robinson, !)1, Holy- 
head Road, Coventry, engineer's sales manager; W. .Seal, 67, Wentworih 
Road, Harborne, Birmingham, electrical and mechanical engineer. First 
directors : F. J. Robinson, W. Seal, and S. T. Peirson. Solicitors: Browetts, 

Liverpool Copper Wharf Co., Ltd. (152,354).— Private 

company. Registered December 21st. Cipital, £2.500 in £1 shares. To 
take over the business of James Lewis & Son's Copper Wharf Co., Ltd., 
hitherto carried on in Liverpool (now in liquidation), and to carry on the 
business of wharfingers of copper, silver, and other ores, precipit;ite regulas 
matte, and other metalliferous products, &c. The first subscribers (each 
with one share) are :— A. H. Lewis. Danesfield, Marlow, Bucks., gentleman ; 
G. D. Lewis, 5. Fenwiclc Street, Liverpool, merchant. First directors: A. 
H. Lewis, G. D. Lewis, and J. A. Wilson. Registered office : 5, Fenwick 
Street, Liverpool, 

Calworth, Ltd. (152,394).— Private company. Regis- 
tered December 24th, Capital, £1,000 in £1 shares. Manufacturers of and 
dealers in electrical .Tnd other accessories, instruments, aoplianres and novel- 
ties, ic. The subscribers (each with one share) are :— H. C. Caidecourt, 18, 
Rrookfield. West Hill, Higheate, N. 6, pianoforte factor: A. V. Butterworth, 
13, Allisqn Road, .\cton, W. 3, engineer. The first directors are : H. C. 
Caidecourt and A. V. Butterworth. Acting secretary : A. H. Howard. Soli- 
citor : B. F. Browne, 17, Hart Street, Bloomsburv,' W.C 



International Llectncal & Mechanical Supplies Co., Ltd. 

(152,370).— Private company. Registered Decembor 23rd. Capital, £500 in 
£1 shares. To carry on in Birmingham or elsewhere the business of manu- 
facturers of, dealers in, and letters to hire, j-epairers, cleaners, storers, and 
factors of electrical and mechanical contrivances, machinery and accessories, 
and lubricants, cements, solutions, an 1 enamels for use therewith, manufac. 
tuTcr.s of articles in wood, metal, composition, ceinen:, china, plaster, cellu- 
loid, pulp, paper, and cardboard, builders and owners of motor cars, aero- 
planes, ships, and vessels and their fittings, S:c, The subscribers (each with 
- W. Griffith, ii-, Soho Road, HanJf .vorth. Birmingham, 



Road, Erdington, engineer. Tlie 
Registered office; 40, Herald 



one share) 

accountant; A. J. Lytheer, 66, Newi 
:,ubsoribers are to appoint the first di 
Chambers, Martincau Street. Birmingh 

John Thompson (Dudley), Ltd. (152,333).— Private 

company. Registered December 20lh. Capital, £100,000 in £1 shares. 
EnginecTS, founders, smiths, inacfiinists, irftenlors, designers, and iiuinufac- 
turers of boilers of all kinds ami parts thereof, mar ufacturers of roofing, 
bridges, tanks, cisterns, galvanising baths, iron and steel canal or other 
boats, creosbting cylinders, forgings, tubes, pipes, requisities for railways and 
tramways, sporting and ath^^etic goods, anti-fouling compositions, soaps, fats, 
and oils, &c. The subscribers leach with one share) are;— J. Thompson, 
Ettingshall, Wolverhampton, engineer; A. E. Thompson, Ettingshall, Wol- 
vtrrhiimpton, engineer. Permanent governing directors; J. Thompson, A. E. 
Thompson, W. J. Thompson, and S. J. Thompson. 

John Thompson (Motor Pressings), Ltd. (152,334).— 

Private company. Registered December 20th. Capital, £100,000 in £1 shares. 
Objects : As title. Power is also L'lken to carry on various busim-sses 
similar to John Thompson (Dudley), Ltd. The subscribois and directors 
are the s.inic as in the last-named runipaiiy ^(qv.). 

John Thompson (Wolverhampton), Ltd, (152,345). — 

Private company. Registered Deceniher 20th. Capital, £230,000 in £1 
shares. Objects and other particuUirs similar to John Thompson (Dudley), 
Ltd. (q.v.) 

Leonard G. Tate & Co., Ltd. (152,372).— Private com- 
pany. Registered December •23rd. Capital, £1,000 in £1 shares. Electrical, 
mechanical, and hydraulic engineers and contractors, brass founders, metal 
workers, tool makers, mechanists, metallurgists, &c. The subscribers (each 
with one share) are :— R. L. Tate, Sylata, North Park Gardens, Gerrards 
Cross, underwriter; I,. G. Tate, Vineyard House, Richmond. Surrey, elec- 
trical engineer; A. E. Catchpole, 17, Broxham Road, West Norwood, elec- 
trical' engineer. First directors : R. L. Tate and A. E. Catchpole. Regis- 
tered office : 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 



CITY NOTES. 



I'he Societe IndustricUc dcs Telephones 
French rejwrts that despite many difficulties en- 

Compauics. countei'ed in procuring coal' and other 
raw materi;ds, a further increase was made 
in the number, of manufactures produced in 1917-18. An 
extension of the telephone works in the Rue des Entrepre- 
neurs was made, and further expansion was projected as soon 
as circumstances would jiermit. Gwing to the exceptional 
depreciation of the machinery and i>lant — through intense 
working, it was necessary to write off i£100,(XX), leaving net 
profits of fl68,(X)0. The sum of £52,000 has been placed 
to the reserve of the contingency fund, and a dividend de- 
clared at the rate of £1 12s. j>ei- share. 

The directors of The Electro-MetaUurgie de Diveti, reixyrt- 
ing on the year ended on June 30th, 1918, sita.te that business 
with private customers remained very limited, the company's 
activity having continued to apply to manufactures for the 
national defence. New manufactures were underUiken at tli;' 
instance of tlie Army authorities, including the production 
of tubes of duralumin, whicli was the proix^rty of one of the 
company's subsidiaries, but this branch would be disctiii- 
tinued as scxtn as the Government demand came to an enil. 
Including £9,800 brought forward from 1916-17. the accounts 
show net profits of ±'178,000, and a dividend at the rate of 
£2 8s. per share has been declared. The reserve fund hii.s 
been increased by £40,000 to £280,000, and the sum of 
£29,000 has been carried forward to 1918-19. 

The report of the Compagnie Generale d'Electricite for 
1917-18 states that all the manufacturing works .suft'ered from 
the restrictions and the transport difficulties, and two works 
on mihtary contracts were stoii>ped at the request of the 
Ministry of AiTuaments. The liberation of Lille revealetl 
the fact that the important ThumesnU works had been 
completely damaged and pillaged by the enemy, and the 
network of the Amiens Electricity Go. also was greatly 
damaged. As net profits the accounts indicate the sum tJf 
£192,000, as compared with £162,000 in 1916-17, and the 
dividend is at the rate of £2 per shai'e on the whole of the 
share capital, whereas in the previous year the 50,000 old 
shares received £2 per share and the new share.s £1. It is 
now projxised to increa'se the capital from £1,400,(X)0 to 
£2,000,000. 

The annual meeting was held on Mon- 
Bdison Swan day at \Vinche.s(ter House. E.C. Mr. C. .J. 
Electric Co., Ford, who preisided, said that the gro,=s 
Ltd. profit for the year was over £100,000 in 

excess of that of the previous twelve 
months. The net profit, after allowinr for the usual charges, 
was in excess of that eanjed for many yeai's past, and 
amounted to £130,000. Unless the additional capital which 
was provided by the issue of preference shares had been 
available, such results would not have been pos.sible. That 
achievement had been augmented by the gradual improve- 
ment of the company's plant and organ isiition. ITie negotja- 
tions with the Revenue authorities relating to the excess 
profits duty had been of a protracted nature, and had the 
original claim not been greatly modified there would have 
been no possible chance of the dirpcfrvrs being in a position 
to recommend the jvav-ment of a dividend on the ordinary 
shares. As to the future prospects of the company, now 
that peace had come, all they asked was to be allowed to 
carry on their business in their own way, free from any 



Vol. 84. No. 2,145, januaby 3, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



21 



inteifeirence or control by Government departments. Manu- 
facturers had patiently submitted to all manner of petty and 
annoying restrictions and interference by oiiicials, who in 
most instances ha-d preNdously had no commercial training, 
without complaint, feeling that in calmly submitting they 
were doing their bit and helping to win the war, and as 
fai' as that company was concerned, they had placed the 
whole of their resom-ces at the dis{X).sal of the country. It 
was to be hoped that the Government would find some 
means of raising revenue other than the present excess profits 
duty, or that in uny event the tax would be very s-ubstantially 
reduced, as such a tax was a serious deterrent to industrial 
development. If an arrangement could be come to under 
which shareholders should receive, first a reasonable return 
upon their capital, and, after fair reserves were provided, 
the balance went to the Government, it would be a far mwe 
equitable arrangement than the present. If this countrj- 
was to keep its place in the commercial world, large sums 
would be required for new industries, and if the present 
ratio of excess profits tax, or even anything Uke it, was to 
remain in force, new entoi-prises would be strangled in their 
inception — in fact, he did not think the naoney would be 
forthcoming to give effect to them. An equallj- important 
question was the dumping in this country of foreign goods 
to be sold here at prices in most cases below that at which 
they were produced. Before the war that process ijarticu- 
larly affected the electrical industry, but reading between 
the lines from statements which had be<>n made by respon- 
sible Minister's, it seemed as if at last the Government had 
become alive to the impoi-tance of the question, and he 
thought that the shareholders would agree that some form 
of modified tariff was necessary and should be one of the 
first measures of the new Parhament. Again.st that, how- 
ever, he might say that quite recently an inquiry had been 
sent out by one of the departments of the Board of Trade 
to the electric lamp manufacturers of this country, asking 
if -there was any immediate prospect of the imixji-tation of 
smaller candle-power lamps in order to save electric cunent, 
and suggesting that these should be obtained from Holland 
as the seas were now open. That was not very encouraging 
or promising. English lamp manufacturers were perfectly 
able to make smaller candle-power lamps, and no doubt 
they would have done so long before this, except for the 
fact that the whole of their lamp output was under the 
control of the Government, and a vcjy large proportion of 
their production was requisitioned by the Government. He 
mentioned that fact in order that shareholders might be 
aware of the treatment which the electrical indu.stry. and 
probably many other industries, were likely to receive at 
the hands of ccirtain Government departments unless the 
interests affected took a. strong stand. The board had in 
view a general policy of expansion, feehng, as they did that 
in the near future if a company like that intended to hold 
its own it must be in a position to supply direct from its 
own factories practically evei^' class of electrical goods _ from 
the: smallest to the largest. That would neces.sdtate the 
employment of further capital, and it was therefore the 
intention of the directors to make a further is-sue at an 
early date. In connection with theii- schemes of expansion 
it would interest them to hear that the directors had praoti- 
ca.lly concluded negotiations for obtaining a large interest 
in a well-known and old-established finri of cable and elec- 
trical wire manufacturers, and in view of tlic nioi'e than 
probability of the nationalisation of the railways of 'this 
countiy. and the further probabihty that if tbis CHUie about, 
a great imjietus would be given to the electrification of the 
existing hues, they were hoping that, ajiart fi'om the parti- 
cipation in what was already a profitable business, their 
association with the firm in question would prove l>eneficial 
to the company. They were also carrying on negotiations 
which, if successful, would give them an mipoi'tarit interest 
in the. manufacture of all classes of heavy electrical 
niJichinery. His colleague. Mr. Giminghani. was shoi'tly pK>- 
r-eeding to the United States for the parixise of negotiating 
t«ruis of manufacture and sale by the company of a well- 
known electrical contrivance for which they hoped to obtain 
a large sale. Having referred to the extensions which the 
company was carryin.l out at Ponders End. the chairman 
concluded by paying a tribute to Mr. Hunter and the staff 
generally for the zealous way in which they had cnnduct.ed 
the affaiis of the company during the past year, and which 
had contributed to the satisfactory balance slieet they were 
able, to present. 

Mr. E. B. EUice-Clark. in seconding the motion, endorsed 
the i^marks of the chainnan regarding the services of Mr 
Hunter and the staff, and said that the work of 'Mr. Ford 
and the other directors also dese.n'ed special mention. 

The report was adopted. 



Cordoba Light & Power Co., Ltd. — Notwithstanding the 
strike of the tramway employes, there w-as an improvement 
in the results during the year to September 30th, 1918, of 
^32,038. This has resulted in a profit of aei4,317 after meet- 
ing interest on the debenture stock and promissory notes, 
as compared with a loss of £17,721. The improved result is 
due in part to the extension of the electric supply business, 
but chiefly to the increased supply of water in the San Eoque 
I l am and the corresponding reduction in steam opei'ation. 
But for the strike of the ta'amway employes the improvement 
would have been more marked. According to the Financial 
Times, it has been found necessaiy to postpone the issue 
of the annual repoi-t untO it will include the accounts up 
to Maj-ch, 1919. 

West Kootenay Power & Light Co. — Year ended August 
31st, gross receipts, $614,819; operating expenses, $181,891; 
net balance, $432,927. Dividends 7 per cent, on preferred 
and 8 per cent, on the common stock; $93,274 put to plant 
depreciation reserve. A meeting of shareholders last July 
increased the authorised capital stock from $2,500,000 to 
$.5, .500,000. 

Humphrey Pump Co.. Ltd. — The directors' report for 
the year mentions a continuance of adverse conditions due 
to the wax. The financial results, although showing a email 
loss, are substantially better than those of the previous year. 
In view of the exceptional circumstances the directors have 
not di'awn their fees. 

Stock Exchange Notice. — Dealings in the following have 
been approved by the Treasury : — North Metropolitan Electric 
Power Supply Co., £250,000 6 per cent, cumulative prefer- 
ence shares of £1 each, Nos. 349,981 to 599,980, and £9,980 
6 per cent, cumulative preference stock 

Cork Electric Tramways and Lighting Co., Ltd. — 

According to the Financial Times, payment of dividend on 
the preference shares will be postixmed until completion of 
1918- accounts. 

Manila Electric Railroad & Lighting Corporation. — 

Dividend of 1^ iier cent, for the quarter to December 31st on 
the common capital stock. 

Yates & Thom, Ltd. — Dividend of 7i per cent, on the 
ordinary shares. 

Lima Light, Power & Tramways Co. — Dividend IJ per 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



.\lldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering Co., Ltd. — 

The accounts for 1916, 1917, and 1918 e^innot yet be pre- 
sented. For the year ended .\ugU5t 3rd last a further in- 
terim dividend at the rate of 7J per cent, (making 10 per 
cent, per annum) is recommended; also a further interim 
participating dividend on the 6 per cent. " B " cum. pref. 
shares at the rate of 1 per cent, (making 7 per cent, for the 
year). No further dividend in respect of the last financial 
year is recommended. The name of the company is shortly 
to be changed to AUdays & Onions, Ltd. 



New Tear's Eve, 1918. 
JnsT at the end of last year, 1917, appeared the interim report of 
the Coal Conservation Sub-Committee on the supply of electric 
power in Great Britain. Sweeping sug^'estions were made by the 
Committee for the amalgamation of authorities, and it was 
estimated that a saving of 100 million pounds in cash and 55 
million tons of coal could be effected under the scheme proposed. 
From the point of view of the Stock Exchange market, these 
suggestions have had no effect whatever. They were too large for 
imagination to grasp during the war period, and it was felt that 
nothing practical was likely to be put into operation until Peace 
had been signed and the country had settled down again. Still, 
the Committee's first report has remained steadily in view, and has 
been supplemented by others which tend to bring the scheme 
into a nearer focus. 'The new Parliament may be called upon to 
deal before very long with the whole question frOm a national 
standjioint, and 1919 may see developments of the greatest interest 
to all those concerned in the subject. 

Throughout the greater part of the year the market for elec- 
tricity supply shares has been quiet and dull, but as the blessed 
figure of Peace came more clearly into the picture, there 
was a greater disposition to pick up shares, and prices 
advanced substantially. The railway stocks have been swayed 
on the one hand by labour troubles, and on the other by 
the prospects of nationalisation. Both these factors have played 
more or less indirectly upon the Undergrounds, though they have 
had a material influence over quotations of other railway stocks. 
In the Telegraph market a steady improvement has taken place. 
and, with the further rise in the Income Tax. attention has been 
more and more directed to stocks and shares upon which the divi- 
dends are paid tax free. In the foreign group. Mexicans have 
provided the most lively features. Prices have been run up and 
down, according to the hopes and fears as to settlement in the 
country ; but on balance, the former have greatly prevailed, and 
Mexico Tramway 5 per cent. Bonds, which were 27i a year ago, are 
now all but 40 points higher, while Mexican Light and Power 
Preferred shares, which were 29, have added 20 points to their 
price in the interval. The Anglo-Argentine Tramways group is 
also decidedly better, and British Columbia Electric stocks, which 
gave way heavily during 1917, have more than recovered their 
losses, the Deferred stock, which was 2S a year ago, now being 17 
points up, .Vmongst Manufacturing shares, various schemes of 
capital rearrangement and bonus distributions of shares have taken 
' place, with the result that prices stand considerably higher, 
actually, after making the necessary allowances. We append a 



22 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.Sl. No.2,U.-,, January 3, 1919. 



few of the principal changes throughout the year in the various 
markets dealt with in these notes ' — 







HoMK 


Electricitv Comp.vniks. 








Slocks or 
Shares. 


Dec 

aist 

1917 


Dec. 
31st, 
1918. 


Rise 
or 
fall. 


Ordinary 
Shares. 


Dec. 
31st, 
1917. 


Dee. 

aist, 

1918. 


Rise 
fall. 


Brompton 
Charins Cross .. 
Chelsea. . . 
City ot tiondon . . 
County of London 
Kensington 


6» 

t 
2,' 

}^ 

5g 


P 

13 

s* 

Telec 


+ ij 

+ i 

+ ' 

IHPHS .» 


London 
Metropolitan 
St. James' 
South London . . 
Westminster 

ND Telephones. 


1 

f 
3 

eg 


I' 
7J 


+ i 
-J 
+ i 


Ang.Am.Pref. .. 
Cuba Submarine 
E. Extension . . 
E. Telegraph .. 
Globe Tel. Ord. .. 
Great Northern . , 


95} 

130S 
18i 
36 


99 
10* 

id 

157.< 
Uj 
S3 


+ 9\ 

+ 7 
I3* 


Indo-European . . 
Marconi .. 
United R. Plate.. 
W. India & Pan. 
Western Teleg. . . 


n 

151 


1 


46 

+11 








Home Rails. 








Ceil. Lou. Assen. 
Metropolitan 
Met. District . . 


60.1 
11; 


V 


+ .■"> 
+ «J 
+ 10 

ireic;h 


Under. Old. 
do. "A" 
do. Income .. 

fKAJIS., 4,-. 


16 

5/. 
81 


3ji 
8/9 
92* 


+ 1} 


A.Arg.Tr.lstPrf. 

Brazil Tractiou. . 

B. Col. Klcc. Prl. 

do. Preferred.. 


2* 
30' 


1,'. 
f.7 
67.5 
30 


+ 1,^;, 

+ 12 
+ 25 
+ 20 


Mex. Trams. 1st 
Mex. Liglit Voiu. 

do. Prct. 

do. 1st . . 


17A 
2'l" 
32.1 


M 

38 
49 
70 


■1 39.1. 

1 2(M 

+2ir 

+ 37.'. 



M.vxCE.UTliiis.;. 

Babcock i Wilcox 3} S'J + ,^! Elec. Construct.. . IJ IJ + 4 

Brit. Aluminium l\% IJJ + .\J Gen. Electric .. VJi VJh -' 

B. West. Pref. . . 2}J 2.4 - tX Henleys . . . . 16* 2J + Hh 

Callenders .14* 10* -i India-Rubber .. U] 17 +2f 

Castnei-Kellnei . . SJJ Sg -,'._. Telegraph Con. . . 41* 48 +6* 
After-war problems there will no doubt be many during the 
coming year, as the country changes over from war conditions to 
those of peace. There should be, however, wide scope for expan- 
.sion in most industrial directions, and the expectation that elec- 
trical undertakings will take a full share in these developments 
lends sincerity to the offer of all good wishes for a very Pros- 
perous New Year. 

SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 
Home Electmcity Companies. 
Dividend Price 

■ . Dec. 31, yield 

1916. 1917. 1918. Rise or fall. p.c. 

Brompton Ordinary 9 10 7J — ifi 18 

Charing Cross Ordinary .... 5 4 35 + j 5 10 4 

do. do. do. 44 Pref... 4J 4i 3i — 6 13 4 

Chelsea 3 6 1 — 65 4 

City of London 8 8 13 — 6 3 1 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. ..66 lOJ - 5 18 5 

County of London 7 7 UJ — 6 5 7 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. 6 6 loj — 5 18 5 

Kensington Ordinary .... 6 7 5J — 5 19 2 

London Electric Nil Nil Ij + J Nil 

do. do. 6per cent. Pref... 4 5 4 — 6 5 

Metropolitan 3 4 3 — J 6 13 4 

do. 4* per cent. Pref. .. 4J 4J SJxil — 6 18 6 

St. James' and" Pall Mall .... 8 9 7| — 6 6 4 

Sooth London 5 5 3 — 6 13 4 

South Metropolitan Pref 7 7 20/6 — 6 16 7 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 9 7i +J 644 
Telegraphs and Telephones. 

Anglo-Am. Tel, Pref 6 6 99 — 6 10 

do. Def li li 234 — 6 9 6 

Chile Telephone 8 8 7* — 568 

Cuba Sub. Ord 7 7 lOJj — *6 13 4 

Eastern Extension 8 8 15^ — »5 3 3 

Eastern Tel. Ord 8 8 157J — *5 1 7 

Globe Tel. and T. Ord 7 7 14} -^ •4 16 6 

do. do. Pref 6 6 lOt — 6 14 3 

Great Northern Tel 24 22 33 — J 6 13 4 

Indo-European 18 13 68J — 5 11 

Marconi 15 20 4jxd + J 4 4 2 

Oriental Telephone Ord 10 10 2J — 4 9 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 7| — *5 1 7 

West India and Panama .. .. 6d. 1/3 Ij; — 'S 12 6 

Western Telegraph .. .. 8 8 IBj + } •4 17 

Home Rails. 

Central London Ord. Assented . . 4 4 65^ — 6 8 2 

Metropolitan 1 31* +1 B 5 6 

do. District Nil Nil 26 - Nil 

Underground Electric Ordinary.. Nil Nil 3g — Nil 

do. do. "A" .. Nil Nil H/9 -Sd. Nil 

do, do, Income ..6 4 9'2i +11 *4 6 r. 
Foreign Trams, Ac. 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Pref. ..66 IJ — 664 

Anglo-Arg. Trams. First Pref. .. 5* SJ 4,',. — _ 

do. do. 2nd Pref. . . 5j — 3| -f J — 

do. do. 5 Deb 5 5 74| —1 6 14 3 

Brazil Tractions — — 57' +1 — 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 10| - 5 11 7 

British Columbia Elec. Rly.Pfce. 5 '5 67i — 7 11 5 

do. do. Preferred Nil Nil 50 —2} Nil 

do. do. Deferred Nil Nil 4.'". -1) Nil 

do. do. Deb. . . 4^ 4J 62 — 17 3 

Mexico Trams 5 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 67 — Nil 

do. 6percent. Bonds.. Nil Nil* 63* —2} Nil 

Mexican Light Common . . . . Nil Nil 38' — Nil 

do. Pref Nil Nil 49 — Nil 

do. lat Bonds.. .. Nil Nil 70 —1 — 

Manufacturing Companies. 

Babcock & Wilcox .. .. 15 16 3;,', — ;. I 1 t 

British Aluminium Ord 10 10 1 ; ,' + ,' 5 8 1 

British Insulated Ord 20 20 2* ' — 4 9 

British Westinghouse Pref. . . 74 74 2* — J ti 

Callenders 20 25 1(^ — 5 19 1 

do. 5 Pref S 5 5|xd — 5 2 4 

Castner-Kellner 22 20 3|xd — B 18 6 

Edison-Swan, " A " .. .. — — i + iV 7 10 

do. do. 4 per cent. Deb, . . 4 4 7i4xd — 6 6 

Electric Construction .... "Ti 10 14 — 800 

Gen. Elec. Pref 6 6 lo|^;d — 6 5 4' 

do. Ord 10 10 174 — 'S 12 8 

Henley 25 25 2? — 6 11 2 

do. 44Pref 44 44 4 — 6 la 6 

IndU-Rubber 10 10 17xd "— 'S 17 8 

Telegraph Oon M SH 48 '— •6 

•Dividends paid free of Income Tax, 



MARKET QUOTATIONS. 

It should be remembered, in making use of the figures appearing 
in the following list, that in some oases the prices are only genera), 
and they may vary according to quantities and other circumstances. 

Wednesday. January 1st. 



CHEMICALS. Ao. 



a Acid, Ozalio per 

a Ammoniau Bal per 

a Ammonia, Muriate (large crystal) , 

a Bisulphide of Carbon . . . . , 

a Borax , 

a Copper Sulphate , 

a Potash, Chlorate per 

a ,, Perchlorate .. .. , 

a Shellac per 

a Sulphate of Magnesia . . . . per 

o Sulphur, Sublimed Flowers .. , 

a .. Lump 

a Soda, Chlorate per 

o I, Crystals per 

a Sodium Bichromate, casks ., per 



lb. 



METALS. *.c. 

c Brass (rolled metal 9* to 12* basis) per lb. 

c „ Tubes (solid drawn) . . „ 

c 1', Wire, basis ,, 

e Copper Tubes (solid drawn) ., ,, 

g „ Bars (best selected) . . per ton 

t „ Sheet „ 

B „ Rod , 

d „ (Electrolytic) Bars .. „ 

d II II Sheets .. „ 

d I, ,1 Wire Rods ,, 

d I, II H,0, Wire per lb. 

/Ebonite Rod 

f II Sheet „ 

n German Silver Wire .. .. ,, 

A Gutta-percha, fine „ 

A India-rubber, Para fine . . . . „ 

f Iron Pig (Cleveland warrants) . . per ton 

I „ Wire, galv. No. 8| P.O. qual. „ 

V Lead, English Pig ,, 

t Mercury per bol, 

« Mica (in original oases) small . . per lb, 

e ,1 II I, medium ,1 

« H II II large .. „ 

</ Silicium Bronze Wire .. .. jier lb. 

r Steel, Magnet, in bars .. .. per ton 

t Tin, Block (English) . . . . „ 

n II Wirci Nob. 1 to 16 .. .. pet lb. 



1/5 
i'HO 
ii77 

iis 
ill) 
a/1 



eim 




£im 




£121 


t3 Jc 


£161 




£13'J 


£3 de 


1/3; 


id. .le 


8/- - 




2/6 




2,6 





Nom. 

'.Id, to I li 
.'.,' to 10/. 
li tD S.^/inp, 



a O. Boor A Oo. 
e ThoB. Bolton & BonSi Ltd. 
d Frederick Smith & Oo, 
e F. Wiggins & Sons. 
f India-Rubber, Gutta-Percha and 
Telegraph Works Oo., Ltd. 



(JaotstiODB Bnpplied by— 



g JameB & ShakeBpeare. 

h Edward Till & Co. 

I Boiling & Lowe. 

/ Richard Johnson & Nephe 

n P. Ormiston & Sons. 

r W. F. Dennis & Co. 



Something in tiie Stew.— Messrs. Johnson A- Phillips, 
I .td., the well-known cable manufacturers, have received from one of 
their business friends in the North an extract from a letter from 
" Somewhere in France " : — 

■■ Food, also, is nothing to growl about, even though you do find 
something in your jam tin full of stew, which turns out to be a 
piece of Johnson & Phillips's cab tire sheathing. Our cook is a 
good advertiser ; he said, in reply to our query, 'Nothing but the 
best goes into m>/ stew.' " 

In passing us this communication. Messrs. .1. & P. remark tbat they 
have heard of many of their manufactures being used for other 
than their legitimate purposes, but they think this is the first 
occasion on which anything tliey produce has been utilised as au 
ingredient for stew. Such is the penalty of quality — the toughness 
of the material in question was evidently au irresistible temptation 
to the Army cook, wlio naturally despaired of ever finding meat to 
match it. 

British Scientific Products.— la ucconluncu witii tlic|ilan 

previously announced in our pages, the Exhibition of British 
Scientific Products, which was so successfully held in London last 
autumn, has been taken en hloc to Manchester, where it is housed 
in the College of Technology. This proceeding has been made- 
possible by the public-spirited action of a number of Manchester 
business men, who have contributed to a guarantee fund. The 
Exhibition was opened on December 27th. and will remain open 
till .January Hth. The exhibits, for the most part, are identical 
with those shown in London, which weie leviewed in our columns 
;it the time. 

An t.T.L. Dispute. A ilisputt is in pi'ogiess in th': 
North Lincolnshire ironstone area between employers and members 
of the Electrical Trades Union. It appears that 160 men '' downed 
tools " last Friday, affecting, it is said, about 6,000 workers, because 
the employers would not agree to certain demands Without arbitra 
tion. The demands were for an increase from 9jd. to Is. i>er hour, 
together with all awards granted by the Ministry of JIuuitions and 
the Committee on Production. One report states that the em- 
[iloyers offered a concession which would bring the men concerned 
into line with Sheffield rates, which are fully_ equal to rates p.aid in 
iron and steel works throughout the country. 



Vol. 84. No. 2.U5, January 3. 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



23 



CARBON BRUSHES: CONSIDERED IN 

RELATION TO THE DESIGN AND OPERATION 

OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. 



By r. HUNTEE-BROWN, A.M.I.E.E. 



(Abstract of paper read before the Institution of Electkic.\l 
Engineers.) 
i Coital tided from \'ol. S3, page 640.) 
Selection of Grade. — The available grades of brushes, may 
be divided into four classes : graphite, cai'bon, electro-gra- 
phitic and copper-graphite. The first mentioned con.^st of 
practically all natural graphite and are distinguished by their 
very high electrical and thennal conductivity and low co- 
efficient of frictaon. Their sphere of use is primarily on 
high-si>eed coinmutafors and on slip-rings if the cuiTent 
density and radiating surface peiToit. 

The carbon grades may contain a considerable proportion 
of graphite at one end of the series, diminishing to no 
gi-a.phit« at aU at the other end. Generally sjieaking, they 
have a higher conUict drop than graphite brushes. 

The electro-graphitic bi-ushes are made from carbon which 
after kilning is convei-ted (including the binding material) 
into artificial graphite in the electric furnace. The charac- 
teristics of the material aro radically changed by this treat- 
memt. The electrical and thermal conductivities are greatly 
increased, and the material becomes softer, yet can be made 
very tough. It al.90 becomes very much more refractoi-y ; 
such brushes are therefoaie specially useful where circulating 
currents are excessive or overloads severe; this class is lai'geiy 
used for traction work. Heavy circulating currents can he ccn- 
trolled to a cer-tain extent by using a high-resistanee brush, 
but it not infrequently hapi^ens that the surface of the brash 
is eaten away by the action of such cuiTe.nts. and it is then 
necessary to employ a highly refractory bnish. The copper- 
graphite brushes contain copper, with or without other 
metals, and graphite to the extent of from 5 to 60 i>er cent. 
This series of brushe,« is required for shp-ring work and to 
a certain extent for low--voltage plating and similar dynamos. 
It is characterised by its low'-contact drop and high-cariying 
capacity. 

The most important property of a brush is its current- 
cairrying capacity. The actual current in a brush is usually 
vesry different from the nominal owing to the laxge num- 
ber of disturbing influences. In the cas^ of car-bon brushes 
in paj'allel, the two parallel parts each consists of con- 
tact, brush material, connection of brush to flexible, flexible 
and teniiinal connection. The contact resistance is noiTnaUy 
gi-eater than the sum of the other four components, and the 
contact di'op is by no means proiKnirional to the current. 
A roughness on the commutator, a Uttle dust under a brush, 
or some similar cause might easily raise the contact-drop 
curve of an individual brush .siilBciently to cause it to take 
only half as much cuiTent as its neighbour. 

Another fruitful cause of imequal load distribution is 
unequal pressure applied to the brushes. Pig. 2 (Vol. 83, 
p. 639) gives a curve of contact drop plotted against pressure 
applied to the brush. Tlie same iwsitive brash as was used 
in thaf test was also t^e-sted for contact drop at various cur- 
rent densities, first at li lb. per sq. in. and then at 5 lb. per 
sq. in. The resulting curves are drawn in full lines in fig. 4. 
In the case of two sets of brashes, say 2 in. long X 1 
sq. in. section operating in pai-allel, the total drop in the 
tenninal, flexible connection and maiterial at 40 amps, per 
sq. in. would be about 0.2 volt, and w'ould vary directly as 
the current. The broken line curves in fig. i include this 
extra drop, and thus show- the total brush drop at H and 
5 lb. per sq. in. respectively. If the two brashes were 
nominally working at 40 amps. i>ei- sq. in. it is evident froni 
the curves that the total current of 80 amps, would be divi- 
ded between the two brushes in the prop<Jrtion of 24 to 66. 
It is not uncommoai in practice to meet with variations 
of pressure as greait as 1^ to 5 lb. on the same machine. 
The different brushes on one spindle or on one slip-ring 
may share the load very unequally, and with a wave-wound 
armature for the same reason there may be very unequal 
distribution of load between spindles of the same polarity. 
In practice we do not get ideal straight-line com- 
mutation, with the result that the distribution of cun-ent 
across the face of the brush is veiy unequal, in fact, vei-y 
often an actual rever.sal of cuiient occurs, current flovping 
into the brush at one par-t and out at another. 

The carrying capa.city of a bruii is determined by its per- 
missible temperature ri,se. Tlie loss in the brush does not 
depend solely upon the nominal cuiTent, and the facilities 
for dissipating the hea.t generated are very indeterminate. 
.\ny figures given in brush manufacturers' schedules can 
only afford an approximate guide, and their chief value is 
relative. Indeed, the latter may be said of all brush data, 
since the brash itself is only one of many factors entering 
into the problem. 

In the case of turbo-altm-nator rings the peripheral 
speed sometimes appears to be unnecessarily high. The 
diameter of the rings is sometimes made larger than 
the shaft demands, and there is certainly no need _ to 
push out the diameter in order to obtain sufficient radiating 
surface to ' dissipate the heat. To meet the alteiied 



conditions introduced by turbo machinery it ha.-; been 
necessary to develop new gi'ades of bi-ushes. The characteris- 
tics required are a low coefficient of friction, high carrying 
caiTacity, and absence of abrasiveness, also prefei-ably low 
inertia as well. This restricts the selection to brushes in the 
graphite class. 

Built-up mica precludes the possibility of a hard sp<>t 
extending light through the sheet, and in this res[)ecf, it 
is to be prefeiTed to the pure sheet. On the otihei- hand, 
excess of the adhesive used may lead to trouble. On high- 
speed commutators (and be it noted the majority of brush 
problems a^e conceirned with such) the mica is invariably 
recessed. 

In the case of slip-rings, the composition of the material 
used ha^ an important bearing upon the behaviour of the 
brushes. Many mixings have been tried, and doubtless 
there is little to choose between several, but it may be men- 
tioned that Admiralty gimmetal (88 per cent, copper, 2 per 
cent, zinc, 10 i^er cent, tin) has been found exoelfent in 
eveiy way. Steel and malleable iron possess marked dis- 
advantages. Their thennal conductivity is lower, and even 
w-hen clean the contact drop with ii-on or st-eel is some 30 per 
cent, gi-eater than with bronze. Also " fiats " are vei-y apt 
to develop. 

If the current to be collected is large, low contact drop 
becomes of si^ecial import-ance, and a highly metallic grade 
must be chosen. If the current is comparatively small, and 
the ring surface relatively liberal, it is frequently advan- 
tageous to use a pure graphite, brash. 

Laboratorj' tests are of great assistance, especially when 
studied in relation to the i>erformance of the grade under 
actual operating conditions, ^'iih the help of the necessary 











1 ! : 








i.Ki-\ 






-vv'Ss'^^ 




■:-^ 


'r<^^3'- 




.y 







































Fig. 4.— Contact Dnop of Carbon Brush Co.m.ai.m.ng no 
Graphite. Speed 3,500 ft. per min. 

data, relating to a machine, it is usually jx)ssible to select 
a suitable grade; however, similarly machines exhibit curi- 
ously marked idiosyncrasies and demand brushes to suit 
theii' individual tastes. The ultimate test aa to suitabihty 
must be made on the machine itself. « 

Operation. — The tendency to chatter is reduced by tilting, 
the brush either against or in the direction of rotation. 
There appears to be no universally best angle for the brush. 
Expeiiments have shown, however, that if the brushes are 
set traihng, the angle from the radial may advantageously 
be from 5 to 15 deg., whereas if the brashes are set reaction, 
it should be consddei-ably larger, say from 20 to 35 deg. ^Vhen 
the angle approaches the maxunum it is advisable to round 
off the shai-p edge of the brash to prevent it from digging 
into the edge of the approaching segments. The holdea-e 
should be set as close as possible to the commutator-, say 
I in. therefrom. This affords a valuable means of cooling 
the tip of the brush. 

Bedding is an operation that is frequently canied out in a 
most slipshod manner. The work should be finished with 
fine caji"borundum cloth pulled across the face of the brush 
in the direction of rotation. After bedding, all dust should 
be carefully removed. The machuie should then be run on 
" no load " for some time, and the current gradually in- 
creased so that it is not out of all proix>rtion to the amount 
of the contact between brush a.nd collector. The pressure 
should be as uniform as possible, and a suitable spring bal- 
ance should be used for definitely measuring Ithis. The two 
piimary difficulties in operating brashes are to maintain inti- 
mate contact between brush and collector and to ensure a 
reasonablv equal distiibution of current betwe<^n the various 
brashes. "Fig. 2 (Vol. 83, p. 639) shows that to prevent the 
latter trouble arising the pressure must be made uniform, 
thi-oughout. The actual value should be the minmnim re- 
quired to maintain efficient contact between brush and col- 
lector. This will vary from li lb. in a well-balanced turbo 
dynamo to about 2 lb. in an ordinary indushial motor: 
whilst in a traction motor subject to .severe vibration the 
pressure required may be as much as 6 lb. per sq. in., or 
even more. To prevent the formation of ridges on the com- 
mutator the brashes should be staggered. The correct 
method of doing this is explained in the lower portion of 
fig. 6. 

It is highly inadvisable to mix different grades indis- 
oi-iminately on the same machine. Occasionally with 
difficult commutating machines or with vei-y low-voltage 
dynamos it may prove advisable to mount brashes of one 
quality in all the positive holders, and of another quality in 
all the negative holders. Also, in the ca.sc of slip-rings a 
few graphite biiishes are sometimes mounted on the same- 
ring with metalUc brushes; the sole function of the graphite 



24 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 84. No. 2,145, jandarv 3, i9i<*. 



brushes is to lubricate tbe ring. Owing to their contact 
■drop being so much higher than that of the inotalUc brushes 
they will carry no current whatever, ami therefore inci- 
dentally there Ls no need to (it pucIi brushes with Hexibles. 

The rate of wear of the colleotor is dei>Mntcnt upon the 
material it is made of, the quahty of the bnish. current 
density, and the intimacy of contact between the brush and 
collector. If the brush is too abrasive, obviously it will 
^ause excessive mechanical abrasion. On the other hand, if 
it is insufficiently abrasive to keep the mica Hush, copper 
picking is very likely to i-esult, proud -mica being one of 
the most fruitful causes of this troublesome malady. It i< 
<iifficult to explain all the phenouiena asax-iated with copper 
picking, but that it is due to s<imethiug akin to eloctrolytic 
action is clear from a consideration of the following : — 

If a conmiutator is equipped with brushe-s arranged so 
that the positives and negatives sweep different tracks, and 
if the machine is run with no current, the two halves of 
the commutator will maintain the same apiieaaajice, ajid the 
wear caused by abrasion will be relatively ve.ry slight. If 
then current is pasi^ed through the armature the portion of 
the commutator under the positive brushes (speaking in a 
motor sense) wdl assume a dark polished api)earanoe, as 
though carbon or graphite from the bushes passed in the 
•directiou of the current and were deposited on the surface 
uf the copper. The portion of the commutator under the 
negative brushes will retain a bright coppei-y colour amd 
beconie more or less raw in appearance. The i-ate of wear 
under tbe negative brushes will be very much increased com- 
pared with that observed when no current is flowing, pei'- 
haps by several hundred per cent., showing that, due to the 
action of the current, paildcfes of copper are passing away 
from the surface of the commutator in the direction of the 
current flow. The minute particles of copper passing in the 
.«aine direction as the cuirent usuaJlv do not adhere to the 



=1CDC=1CDC=)CI1C3 



C3C3CZI CD uneven 
C3I— Ji— icnL_ii :m 



Fig. 5. — Methods of 
'Staggering Brushes. 



1 1 1 1 1 L^gg 



Fig. 6.— Wear ok Slip-ring 
AND Brush. Pressure 4 lb. 

PER SQ. IN. 



face of the brush, but someitinies they are firmly deposited 
on the contact surface as though the latter had been copper 
plated. It is difficult to determine exactly" the conditions 
under which copper will be deposited on the brushes. Un- 
doubtedly the action is promoted by lack of perfect contact 
between brush and commutator, and it increases with the 
current density. Pooi" contact may result from insufficient 
pressure, chattering, or more frequently from high mica. If 
in addition to poor contact between brush and copper the 
current density is high, the conditions are favom-ajble for 
deposition of copper on the bnish, and when once the first 
speck is deposited the process becomes cumulative. 

When brushes aie staggered to prevent the formation of 
ridges on the commutator this should be done so that each 
track is still swept by an equal number of positive and nega- 
tive brushes. Fig. 5 shows the incx>rrect and also correct 
methods of staggering brushes. 

The presence of circulating cuirents appears to account 
for the fact that positive as well as negative biiishes are 
liable to become copper coated as circulating currents paiss 
into each brush as well as out of it; it is probable that if it 
■were not for the circulating currents the current density 
in the brushes would seldom be high enough to bring about 
the conditions necessary for the depasition of copper. 

Where persistent copiier jricking occurs an improvement 
may be effected by a change in the quality of the bi-ush on 
lines suggested by the above; but in general the " electro- 
'lytic " action .should be reduced to a minimum by ensuring 
good contact between brush and commutator, and by avoid- 
ing excessive current density, whether caused by the work- 
ing current or by circulating cuiTonts. The problem is 
■closely connected with the design of the brush holder, the 
•quality of the mica, the sha.fte of the pole tips, and the 
various other factors determining ..the extent of the circu- 
lating currents, as well as the density in the brushes due to 
the working current. 

In addition to the electrolytic action described, a oei"tain 
burning action occurs, oven when there is no visible si^ark- 
ing. This is dependent upon the intimacy of contact and 
cun-ent density, and affects both jwsitive and negative. 
There is a very close connection between the cur- 
rent density and the life of both bnish and collector. 
Fig. 6 shows the relative amounts of wear produced at 
various current densities by an ordinai-j' carbon brush. The 
tests were made on bronze slip-rings. The process ra^pidly 
becomes cumulative. Tliat excessive commutator wear may 
be cau.sed by the brushes being insufficiently abrasive to 
•ieep the mica flush has been proved i^epeatedly by over- 



coming such wear by deliberately replacing the brudies by 
another quality of a. more abrasive character. The wiser 
course to adopt with large machines, and the absolutely 
niH-e.ssary course in the case of very high speeds, is to i^ecess 
the mica. When this is undertaken, ho^vever, the woi'k 
must be very well carried out or the results will be worse 
than before. Ihe depth of the groove should not be giiea.ter 
than the thickness of the. mic-a., and the latter should be 
cleanly removed so as to leave a gixiove icctangular in sec- 
tion. Tlic edges of the segments should then be very Klightlj 
bevelled. The slots should be regularly cleaned out. 

When the mica is well recessed a high-grade non-abrasive 
graphitic brash may be used, and the wear of both commu- 
tator and brusli i.s reduced to a minimum. 

The rate of weaa- of the brush also is very largely affected 
bv the cunent density. In fig. 6 curves relating to pure 
ca.rbon brushes aixv given which show how very marked 
this influence may be. 

Modem high-grade graphitic brushes axe practically swlf- 
lubricating, and wherever possible it is advisable to abstain 
from applying lubricant to the commutator. Frequently 
the conditions are rendered unnecessarily difficult through a 
lack of appreciation of ' the factors essential to succe.saful 
operaition on the part of the attendant rather than from 
mere wanton neglect. 

Close attention to what may appear trivial mechanical 
details should be emphasised, for expeiience shows that it 
is not as generally recognised as it should be how muoli the 
life of both brushes and coUeotor may be increased and the 
genei-al performance improved in this way. 

Commutators are never mathematically circular and a very 
small mechanical defect is sufficient to cause a- momentary' 
separation between the brush and the collector. It is of 
vital importance that the brush should be free to foUow up 
any slight irreguUuities. Close attention to the condition oif 
the brushes and bnish gear leads not only to a saving in 
time, but alsf> to a ma,rked reduction in maintenance co.'sts. 

Standardisation. — Designers in America, are of the opinion 
that very considerable latitude must be left to them in the 
selection of brush dimensions. The dimensions of the actual 
block, however, are only the beginning of the problem. 
There is the question of fittings to be considered. If brushes 
are really to be standardised as regards their metrhanical 
design a certain degree of uniformity in the design of holders 
becomes necessary, so as to permit uniformity in the length 
and po.tition of flexible, and also in the type and .size of 
terminal. When it comes to a question of quality this would 
appear to defy all efforts at .standardisation, except jjoesibly 
on exceedingly breed fines. Even standardisation of machine 
design w'ould not completely eUminate the difficulties here, 
since the differences in bnish properties are so subtle and 
yet so pronounced in their influence on the behaviour of a 
machine that it seems fundamentally impossible to harness 
them in a specification. 

A certain measure of Btandai-disation is possible within pre- 
scribed limits. Any recommendations that could be aippli- 
cahle to all types of machines, however, must necessarily be 
on such very broad lines that they could scarcely be desciibed 
as standardisation. It is theu'efore wise to proceed by stages, 
including at first only the mechanical design of the bru.sh and 
aipplica.ble only to machines intended for a certain class of 
work, such as motors and genera.tors (excluding turbo 
dynamos) for shipboard use. This is the sphere in which the 
benefits of standardiaition would naturally make themselves 
most felt, and by proceeding cautiously in this way it may 
in time prove practicable to introduce recommendafaona of a 
more comprehensive character. 



FINANCIAL FACILITIES FOR TRADE. 

The Committee on tihe Provision of Financial Facilities for 
'liade After the War was appointed jointly by the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer and the Minister erf Eeconetrutitioo 
in November, 1917, imder the chainnanship of Sir Richard 
B. Vassar-Smith, of Lloyd's Bank^ They introduce their 
Repoi-t (now publi.9hed by the Ministry of Reconstruction) 
by expressing the emphatic opinion that the primary factor 
in repairing the wasfiage of capital caused by the war hes 
mainly in increased production and actual sa.png. 

Discussing the financial requirements of industry after 
the war the Committee foresee : — 

(fl) A considei-ably more than normal demand for working 
capital owing to the higher cost of labom- and materials, the 
nece,ssity for giving longer credit, and the anticipated expaii- 
sion in the volume of trade due to the fact that the basis 
for potential commercial output, as compared with pre-war 
output, has been very gixjatly enlarged during the war by 
the extension of existing works and the building of a very 
large number of absolutely new ones. 

(6) A greater than uoi-mal demand for extended credit-s 
for the purpose of replacing at higher cost machinery and 
plant which has fallen into disrepair. 

(c) Demands in connection with the reconversion of plant 
.'uid works. These in many cases may be on the border line 
between working credit facilities and new ca,pita] require- 
ments. 



Vol.?!. No. 2,145, January 3. 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL KEVLEW. 



26 



I 



(J) New fixed capital lequirercents for extensdons or new 
works. 

The Committee point out that the ahility of industry to 
■cope with these unusual financial problems during the re- 
construction period will be most limited in the case of 
•entirely new finns which have come into existence owing to 
the demand for war matei'ial. They have been urged 
strongly that it was not in the national interest to allow 
these finns to peter out, and that every inducement should 
be given them to contmue in business even to the extent, 
if ne^wssaiT, of giunting State financial assist^ance. The 
Committee express the opinion that it might be regarded as 
unjust to enable such finns by me;i.ns of State aid to com- 
I)et-e with old-estabhshed finus in the same industries, and 
.also that it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to 
guard against wastefulness and inefl;cient management. The 
solution in these cases appears to them to lie in the estab- 
lishment of new industries, the capital for whicli should be 
furnished by the investor or by the indiWdual partners in 
the business. The a.biLity to attract the necessary ca.pitai 
will depend upon the inherent soundness of the proposition 
an each case. 

The Committee further point out that it would be of great 
assLstance to manufacturers in making plans for the future 
if the fnture policy of the Government were made known as 
early a.s possible in regard to: — (a) Fiscal pohcy, (b) ration- 
ing of raw materials, (r) the break clause in connection with 
the termination of munition contracts, {d) the disposal of 
national factories and surplus stores. 

Before discussing meajis of providing credit faoihties after 
the war, the Committee give » shoi-t explanation of oui' 
credit system as existing before the war. 

In normal times the amount of credit varies with the 
amount of gold, the ne<.'e.ssity for keeping the gold standard 
effective acting as an automatic check upon the expansion 
of credit. As the balance of indebtedness of this countrj- 
with foreign countries becanje unfavoui-able, arid the ex- 
changes in consequence moved again.st- us, it became profit- 
able to export gold to pay debts abroad. 'ITie consequent 
shrinkage in the amount of gold in the country, and the 
reduction in the Bank of England i-atio of reserve to lia.bili- 
ties necessitated a rise in tlie Bank rate, which in its turn 
brought about a general rise in rates of interest. This rise 
in interest rates had a twofold effect. It attracted gold to 
this country, and induced gold, which would otherwise have 
been exported, to remain; secondly, it induced iieople to pay 
off loans, and discouraged the raising of new ones. If the 
drain of gold was severe enough to make money " tight." 
it became difficult to renew existing loans, and this caused 
the sale of goods and produce upon which the loans were 
secured, so bringing about a fall in prices, which encouraged 
exports and discouraged imports, so that the situation was 
gradually adjusted. 

Further, from the point of view of purely internal trade, 
the fact tliat gold was the only legal tender was equally 
effective in preventing an undue expansion in credit, banks 
l>eing obliged to maintain a projier relation between the ex- 
tension of credit facilities and their available supply of gold. 
Thus the gold standard acted as a wholesome, restraint upon 
over-trading, and often adjusted situations which, unchecked, 
might have developed ibto a se%ere commercial crisis. 

The position to-day is entirely different. As there is no 
free, international market in gold, the oiX'ratJon of the foreign 
exchanges has been interrupted, while at the same time the . 
internal gold circulation has been replaced by a cuiTency 
note issue. .\s there is no legal hmit to the amount of 
currency notes which may be issued, there is therefore no 
automatic check upon the expansion of credit. The ve.i"y 
large extent to which expansion has taken place is shown 
by the fact that whereas the total deposits at the banks of 
the United Kingdom, exclusive of the Bank of England, 
amounted at the end of 1913 to £ 1,07(1. 000 .(XW. the amount 
■of deposits is now nearly f '2.000.000,000. The enonnously 
increasing purchasing power thus created has, in the Com- 
mittee's opinion, been one of the main factors contributing 
to the general rise in . prices. 

In regard to the position after the war, the Committee 
express the opinion that it is essential for the reconstitution 
of industi'y and commerce to impose restrictions as soon as 
]K>ssible upon the creation of additional ci'edit by the res-tora- 
tion of an effective gold standa.rd. To attempt to lebufld 
industry by the further indiscriminate expan.sion of credit 
would endanger our ix>sition as the financial centre of the 
wcaid, and ■(\ould inevitably lead befoi'e long to grave dis- 
aster. The Committee accordingly .seconded the cessaTion 
of State boiTowing as early as pos.sible, all available money 
ijeing required for the financing of commerce and industry. 
The Committee also consider that any Goverament guai-antee 
to bankers to enable them to i^rovide by means of cjedits foi' 
fixed capital expendituj-e for the reconsftitution of industry 
is undesii-able. as being likely to occasion a- further expan- 
sion of credit foUo^ve<l by an additional rise in prices. It 
is ai<?o recommended with a view to the gradual reduction 
of credit inflation, arising from the enormous volume of 
nhort-dated Government debt, that the State should under- 
take funding operations .nt an early date for this purpose. 

As to banking facilities for caiTying on ordinary businesses, 
the evidence submitted to the Committee led them to the 
opinion that the situation might safely be left in the bands 
of the banks. To enable the banks to give facilities for 



extended credit it is recommended that every facility should 
be given by the Government to enable the banks to issue 
any new share capital which may be found necessary to 
strengthen their position. It is tionght that the lutioning 
of available supphes of raw materials vnll provide a valuable 
guide to the banks in selecting the directions in which loans 
will be best secured and are most urgently required. 

The policy of trade organisation which is now in evidence 
is welcomed by the Committee as furnishing a sound basis 
for the granting of credit facihties to industry. They also 
beheve that if a portion of the new issues of shares which 
wMl be necessary for many manufacturing estabiishmenta, 
in the form of preference shares giving a good- return in 
dividends, were reseried for the workpeople in these estab- 
lishments, it would materially assist- both financially and in 
other equally important directions. 

The Committee consider that the continuance of some 
measure of State control over new issues is desii-able for a 
certain period, and that, with a view to the fuither preven- 
tion of unsound piomotions, the Companies Acts might be 
strengthened. The enormous potential increase in the num- 
l>er of small investors, 2S .shown by the figures published by 
the National War Savings Committee, and the importance 
of the encouragement of this tendency for the rapid recon- 
version of trade and industry, are emphasised by the Com- 
mitt-ee. as is also the necessity for genuine saving to make 
good the destruction of capital during the war. 

In regard to State aid. while the Committee do not i-e- 
commend the guaranteeing of banks by the Government en- 
the investment of pubhc money in loans to persons who have 
been unable to obt-ain them from other quarters, it is con- 
sidered that cases of hardship may arise in connection with 
firms who have undertaken, under considerable 'press-ure 
from the Government, the manufactui-e of munitions of war. 
To meet such cases the Committee suggest- the establishment 
of a small committee of Government officials and business 
men in leading industries to consider claims of this kind in 
the first instance, or to act as a tribunal to which applicants 
can make appeal. The Committee are also of opinion that 
it would be of very great assistance to manufacturers and 
others, who had been prevented from forming adequate 
reser\e^ by the present high rate of Excess Profits Duty, if 
arrangements could be made by which a proportion of the 
tax would be retained for a period as a loan upon terms 
likely to secure early repayment. 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINQS, 
AND PLANT. 

Readerg are innted to submit particulars of 7tew or improved 
dericei and apparatus, which will be published if cowndered of 
sufficient interest, 

A Novel Lighting Fitting. 

Mr. E. W. Fletcher describes in the Transactions of the 
South African Institute of Electrical Engineers a novel light- 
ing fitting which he has found to be very satisfactory for 
special positions. As will be seen from the sketch, fig. i.the 
principal features of the fitting are high insulation of the 
lampholder, ease with which a holder can be replaced, and 
fi'eedom from vibration. The holder is carried on a fibre 




Fig. 1.— A Novel Lighting Fitting. 



ling, so that any ordinary holder that has a shade ring can 
be used, and the insulation is much higher than is the case 
with in.sulat-ed bushings. Another point is that the leads to 
the holder can be left slack, and a new holder can be fixed 
witbout any difficulty : anyone who has tried to fix a new 
holder on to a fitting with a nipple w-here enough slack wire 
cannot be got down the pipe will appreciate this feature. 
The spring suspension of the holder prevents loss of lamps 
through their faUing out of the holder, and is also a valuable 



26 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. LVoi.84. no.2,i45. januauv x i:h: 



feature iu tbe c-a.se of 'half-watt lamps. The fuse-box attached 
to this littiiig consists of a round c-;ist-ii'oii watertight box 
tittei'l with Donnan iV Smith's thumb fuses, the leads being 
arraiifjed to ejite.r at the bottom thj-ough bushings, and leave 
through the top. Ample space is allowed so that a fuse cyii 
be leplaeed without buining the lingers or short-cii'cuiting 
with the sides of the box. 

An Automatic Lamp Reel. 

An aaitoraatic exteaision reel for ekvtuic lanui)s designed to 
be used in factories is shown in the acconiiwnying illustra- 
tion, fig. '2. which is taken from Industrial Manageiitenf. The 
Tlie reeJ itself is !1 in. in diainetei- by '2 in, in width, and is 
provided with '25 ft, of iviiiforc-od lord. The support for tihe 
itvl is provide<l witli a swivel joint iierniitting the cord to 
leiid off in any direction. It is provided with an automatic 
lock so that any [xsition of tlie reel and any amount of im- 
wound cord mav be held. The automa'tic lock catcihes and 




The ixitcait water-c(xiled toniiiiials which make coul«ict 
direct with ext<>nsions to the top and the base of the crucible 
are of punmetal, machined on the inside, and made in halves 
hinged together, and jwovided with tightoning bolts to en-wire 
perfect t-onbict. 

The bottom water-cooled tenninal is supixvrted by a cone- 
pointed pin fixed vertically in the centre of a sling hanger 
cairri*'d from the bottom piate. By this means any variation 
whioli might iwssibly (K-ciir in tlie vertical alignment of tlie 
crucible is automaticjilly atljustcd. The top watt^r-cooled 
tenninal is maintained Lx-ntnil anil stmidy by ineaii.s of two 
airms, bored and fitt«^d with steadying .spiral spring.^, which 
.■^lide on vertical guide-r<Hls with adju.sting nuts attaclie<i to 
the plant. The anus are in.sula.tcd from the tcrminjd. 

A .slate or hainl-timber t<>rminal board is rigidly fixtvl tO' 
one of the stajula.id.s, and is fitted with thimbles for taking 
the cables. Suital)le llexible leads connecting the board to 
the wat<r-cooled terminals a.re supplied with the plant. .'V 
similar arrangement is provided for the water-cooling i>fjx's. 
'Hie top extension of the crucible forms a conv(Miient charging 
hopper for metal, aaul is provide*! with a. s]HM'ial i-cfr,i('tor\ 
cover, A drain .spout is fiijed at the front of the plant as :u 
.safety outlet for tl'.e metal .sJiouJd a crucible fail. 

The interior of the plant comprises a thickness of insu- 
lating nia.t<^ria.l ejntirely covetring the steel casing, and a 
Batterfea t.iiangle ( A ) brand refractory .se<-tional lining. 
The sjinall si)ac(» between the lining and the cnioible is filled! 
with suitable refractory and iion-condnctinB material, 
• The heat efticdency of the electric eiiicible being high, the. 
cust of ixvwer is corresix>ndiugly low, whilst the ease of 
handling, cleanliness of oiiera.tion, and the accua-a.te regula- 
tion of the teniiperature, and consequently the good quality 
of metaJ obtained, a.ie outstanding features of merit. The 
company has several flesigijs of crucibles still imder om- 
sideration, but the broad principle iu all of them is .shown 
by the above diagrams. 'Phe company has also succe.ssful]y 
produced tubes which are hea.ted electiically in a siniilaj- 
manner, and can be used for the manufacture of gases of 
various kinds, for the reduction of oxides, and for mau.r 
othei- metailurgical purposes. 



i'lG, •!. — Al'tom.wic L.\Mr Reel. 

holds the cord through a slow backward movement alter it 
has been unwound to the de.sired length. To rewind, it is 
mei'ely necessai-y to give the cord a slight pull, which un- 
locks the catch, and the reel then 'automatically rewinds tthe 
Ard as the person holding the lamp waJks towards the reed 
holding the lamp in his hand. This device is manufactured 
by the Cincinnati Specialty Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

An Electrically Heated Crucible. 
The accompanying diagram, fig. 3, ,shows a melting plant 
adapted for use with a patent electricaJly-heated crucible of 
1.50-lb. capacity brass, \vith ,special pouring six>ut. The crucible 
itself sei-ves as the resistor through which the electi-ic current 
is pa.ssed. and is so designed that the maximum heating 
effect is produced in the zone where actually requii-ed. 



ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES. 




Pig. 3.— Side .4nd End Elev.wions of. Electrically-Heated 
Crucible. 



The plant shown, by the Morgan Crucible Co., Ltd., 
Battersea Wor-ks, Church Road, London, S.W., is aiTanged 
for use with continuous current, but can be arranged for 
single-phase or for one phase of a thii©e-phase circuit. The 
current taken is approximately 1,000 amps., and the voltage 
approximately '20 to 40 volts. The plant is aiTanged to tilt 
about the centre. Any of the well-known means of regulat- 
ing the electric supply can be used. The body is constructed 
of a cylindrical steel casing bolted to cast-iron top and 
bottom rings, suppoi-ted on centre trunnions, to one of which 
is fitted a worm-wheel engaged with a worm, and the tiltdng 
gear is operated by means of the hand-wheel. 



All of the metols which ar-e derived to-day in commeax-ial 
iiuantity from their fused salts by electrolysis are those ex- 
ceptionally electropositive metals, w?hich either cannot be 
obtained at all in appreciable yields by strictly chemic^id 
jneans, or can be obtained thus only with great difficulty 
and ait grea.t expense. The following particulars aa-e taken 
from the Generml Electric Uevieiv for Kovember, which coai- 
tains interesting aa-ticles on this subject. 

SociiiDii. — SocUum is obtained at the cathode by the electro- 
ly.<as of either fased caustic soda (NaOH) or of fused common 
salt (NaCI). Tlie foiTuer is of advantage because of its much 
lower melting point, and becau.se the escape of the gas freed 
ait the anode do«s not have to be considered. Chloiine gas, on 
the other hand, cannot be allowed to escape pj'omiscuously, 
and .so must be used to make bleach, 
' or collected for government purix)ses. 

The Castner pix>cfess, which employs 
NaOH, is the best known, and is 
oi>ei-ated in America at Niagara Palls- 
by the Electi-ochemical Co. 

The principal details of the Castner cell 
ai'e shown in fig. 1, p. 27. The cui-rent 
enters through the iron anode which 
surrounds the top of the vertical iron 
cathode. This cathode extends up 
through the bottom of the cell, passing 
through a cast-iron pipe or collar which 
is attached to the bottom of the cast- 
iron box which holds the moilten elec- 
trolyte. The space between ca.thode 
and iron pii>e is sealed by filhng it up 
with the melt, which is then allowed to 
freeze. A. fine nickel gauze diaphragm 
is in.sert.ed between anode and Ciithotle 
to prevent globules of sodium from 
reaching the anode and reacting with 
the water vapour fonned there. The 
molten sodium is collected inside of the 
chamber from which the gauze dia- 
phragm is hung. In practice tbe charge 
is kept in a molten sta.te by projjer regu- 
lation of the cunent density. Heat radiation is reduced by 
suitable brici lagging. The electrolysis mu.st he perfanned 
at a fairly constant temperature of 315 to 320 deg. 0. This 
is onlv 15 to 20 deg. C. above the melting point of the cans- 
tic soda. Even a.t S25 deg. C, the yield falls nearly to zero. 
About 4.5 volts (2.2 volts decomposition voltage) are required 
per cell, and a. direct cun-ent of 13 to 17 amps, per sq. in. is 
used. "Tlie cm-rent efficiency is pa-obably about 45 per cent, 
and the energy efficiency about 22 per cent. About 0.50 
metric ton jterH.p.-year is estimated from the data at hand. 
The main cause of the low efficiency is due to the fact that 
waAer is formed at the anode, which, if it does not react mth 



vuiM. xo. 2.u5,Jancarv :^. ii.ii..] THE ELECTRICAL KEViEW, 



27 



.. .liiuiii already deposited (which is apt to reach the autnle 
. ..a^onaJly), is itself decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen 
greater or less extent. 

.\Iost of the sodium made is used to manufacture sodium 

;inide and sodium peroxide. The metal has also been tried 

.!■ drying transformer oils. About '2,000 tons were made in 

a: United States armually before the war. 

I'ahium. — The cell comprises an iron box with water-coole/1 

.ttom, through which projects an insulated conical iron 

ithode. Inside the box and insulated from it is an annulai- 

iibon Uning which ser\-es as anode. The temperature of 

ic bath and of the cooling water is so regulated that the 

111 bottom is covered with a thin protective layer of solidified 

r.t. The deposited metal is drawn in stick form as soon a.s 

lined and sufficiently soUdified at a speed equal to the rate, 

. ciepo.sition. One advantage of this method of removing the 

l>osited metal is the smaller tendency for metal fog to fonu 

hich sometimes occurs at excessive temperatures and under 

• ludng conditions. Addition of oxidLsing agents to the bath, 

! neutral «ilts in some cases, will destroy the fog. The 

vplanation of the phenomenon is not certain. It consists 

i (he sudden rise from the molten metal (cathode) into the 

1 -ed 'electrolyte over the metal of dark clouds whose colour 

!>ends upon the nature of the cathode metal. These clouds 

•in to dissolve in the melt. It is probable that the clouds 

.nsist of colloidal suspensions of very finely divided particles 

i the fused metal. The effect of the fog is to reduce the 

irrent efficiency of the process. 

The metal is at once obtained in pui-e, solidified massive 

form. The electrolyte consists only of fused calcium chloride 

{CaCl,) held at a temperature of 780 to 800 deg. C. It is 

-umated that one of these ceUs may take as much as 2.5 

.Its, the decomposition voltage being only 3. '21 volts. The 

•I'y high current density of 6.50 amperes per sq. in. is used, 

iiich would account for the high voltage. Practically 80 

- r cent, of the potential drop is at the cathode. Prom this 

;:iia, assuming a current efficiency of SO per cent., an energy 

efficiency of only 10 per cent, is obtained. The yield per 

H.P.-year is thus only 0.1 metric ton. But little infonnation 

lia.s been pubhshed about the proce.ss. The present output 

;>-ir year is small, probably not over 250 lb. 




A. cast-iron pot set m bnckwork b, c, nickel anode: 

D, cathode, e, metal cjhndei receptacle for sodium: 

F, liberated .sodium. 

Fig l'. — Castneb Sodiu.m Furnacr. 



Magnesniin. — The metal is marketed in both iK)wder and 
lick form. For an electrolvte a mixture of fused dehvdraited 
iniollite (KOI, MgCL, 6H.0) pln.s one mol of salt (NaCl) is 
-•■d. During the electrolysis MgDl, is added, and a certiiin 
lount of calcium fluoi-ide (CaF,). The tempeiuture of the 
•it. is probably 750 to 8lX) deg. C. From laboratory experi- 
■nts, a current efficiency of 75 per cent, may be assumed. 
1''. energy efficiency is probably below 40 per cent. An 

■ •■rage of 9 volts per cell is estimated. Available data- would 
licate a yield of about 0.37 metric ton per KW.-yeai". 
\luminium. — In America the Hall 'process is used, while in 

' illand and on the Continent the somewhat similar Heroult 
cess is worked. The Hall cell consi.sts of a rectangular 

' t-iron box, lined with carbon which ac;ts as cathode until 
• bott<jin is covered with the molten aluminium, wliicli 
•n sei-ves the same purpose. The cunent is led into each 
'! thiTjugh a, seri.es of graphite rods which ,arc distribut<»d 
lormly in the cell, dipping down into the fused elc-ctrolyte. 
iiost to the layer of molten aluminium at the bottom. Tlie 

■/hen aluminium is removed ix'.ri<jdically by tapping. The 

■ ^'d clfctrolyfe consists of cryohte (.\1F,, 3NaF), to whicli 
i'|Ugli pure ahirmniuui flourido (AlF,) is added to bn'nd the 
■it to the foi-mula AlF,, 2NaF and of pure alumina (.XLO,). 
!!• alumina is the .oolute and the cryolite the solvent; in the 

i--i*d melt the alumina is decomposed into aluminium at the 

li;ode and oxygen at the anode. The dex-ompo.sition voltage 

ALO, is less than that of either NaF or AiF,. which ex- 

I una why it nnd not its solvent is electrolysed. Alumina 

'■< to bo continually added to the melt to compensate for 

1 it decrMnpope^l. The normal current efficiency is supix>sed 

l>e 90 to 95 per cent., but in many works it is not over 

' l)er cent. An average efficiency of 75 per cent, is about 

'/at. With a voltage drop of 5 to 6 volts per cell (assuming 



2.2 volts decomposition voltage), this would bring the energy 
efficiency to 30 per cent. The yield per H.p.-yeai- amounts 
to about 0.3 metric ton. Much of the loss is due to metal 
fog foiTuation, the teniperature of the bath bemg some 900 
to 1,000 deg. C, which is maintained by the heating effect 
of the current, while aluminium melts at about 665 deg. C. 
The anode losses are high, as the oxygen libei-atcd at the 
anode reacts with the graphite, forming carbon monoxide 
before cstaping. The anode effect (the anode becomes 
covered with a fihri of gas ttirough which the current is 
able to ixiss only by the aid of the formation of a great 
number of nu'aute arcs, which play between electrode and 
electrolyte) has always to be guardwl against by keeping the 
bath in proper working condition. The principle of the 
Heroult process is the same as in the Hall process. The cell 
is circular instead of I'ectangular, and the individual anodes 
are of much heaner cross section. Each cell takes about 
7,000 amperes at 7 volts. 

Figures showing the change in the cost of aluminium are 
of interest. 

Method of Reduction. 
Old chemical (St. Claire DeviUe) 
Old chemical (St. Claire Deville) 
New chemical (Castner) 
Electrochemical (Hall) 
Electrochemical (Hall) 



Year. 


Pi-ice per lb 


1855 . 


.. $90.00 ... 


1886 . 


.. 12.00 ... 


1889 . 


4.00 ... 


1889 


2.00 ... 


1911 . 


.20 ... 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letters receired by ut after 5 P.M. ON Tuesday cannot appear until 
the following xoeek. Correspimdents skouLdjorward their communi- 
catiom at the earliext poxjcible nwmeTit. No letter can be publixhed 
unlets we hate the writer's name and address in our /ussession. 



The Purchase of Appointments. 

Surely it is an error of judgmwit on the part of the Elec- 
TKlCAL Keview that the advertisement under Box 62-i8 in the 
cmrent issue was accepted, or have you purposely brought 
it to light? 

If it does not come within the Corrupt Piactices Act, such 
an offer is running very close to it. 

To my mind it is a despicable form of bribery, and whilst 
I cannot imagine anyone entertaining the offer who has the 
interests of an undej-taking at heart, th« person who does 
so for his own interest should ponder well over the adver- 
tiser's boast of an " unblemished character." 

Is this what wo are to expect from these " well known " 
engineers of the " profession " (sic), who by reason of their 
• xeeedingly good pay whilst in the safe employ of the Minis- 
try of Munitions have been able to save sufficient to make 
such oilers? 

\Viiat chance have our real engineers still "out there" 
against coiTuption of this kind? We look to you, Mr. Editor, 
to see fair plav. 

B. W. Gothard, A.M.I.E.E. 

Klectrical Engineer, 
Aldcrahot Gas, Water, £ District Lighting Co. 

Electricity Works, Faraborough, December ^rd, 1918. 

[We entii-ely a'gree with our correspondent; such offers as 
the one he refers to are highly objectionable and contrarv' to 
the public intere.st, besides being unfaii- to those who are in 
competition with the advertiser. Unfortunately we were 
not aware of the in.sertion of the advertisement until after 
its publication, but steps will be taken to prevent a recur- 
rence.— Eds. Elec. Kev.] 



The Royal Albert Hall. 

Referi-mg to thi.s incident, permit me to amphfy shghtly 
the remarks of " Electric Supply " in your issue of 6th 
inst.. and to point out that the action taken was provoke<l 
by the attempt of the management to break a conta^act 
entered into for the letting of the Hall. It is to be hoped 
that it may be a useful, lesson to those who have been in 
the habit of suppressing, and who wish to continue to sup- 
press, fre..' spcocli. free publication, and free assembly. It 
may ah^j be pointed out that no public inconvenience was 
sustained by the method adopted to prevent such suppres- 
sion, as would have been the case by shutting down various 
electric ligliting stations if this had been carried out. 



Gloucester, December 23rd, 1018. 



"VV. Sisfon. 



Charfjing Electric<Truck Batteries. 

The article appeaijuig in the ELECTRicAt, Review for Decem- 
ber 20th describes a very ingenious method which has been 
adopted for charging an electric-truck battery in the case in 
whici the u.=ers of the battery were unable to obtain a small 
motor-generator set. 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. S4. xo. l-.hs. januauv :!, i;u!.. 



The <-iit:iiic(.-r wuc. ti.-vi.-t'il tins uietliod. and tlie autoiuaitic 
gear which is describ«l, is i.eitainly to be t-oiijjni tula tod upon 
the successl'ul and economical solution oi his difficulty. 

Now that the iwiKesibility of obtuining suita.blc chuj-gnig 
plant has been roraovcd the disidvantaijes of the method 
describwl should be cleiuly uuderst«x)d before any user who 
is installini; electric trucks dei-iiles to copy it. 

If the battery is conuected directly to the luaous, either m 
series with a motor, or in series with a resistance, it is siib- 
jecteti to the full line pressiire to e-arth : that is to say, in 
the case, of a 440-volt, 3 wire supply the vt)ltage to earth will 
be 220 volt's. 

In many cn.ses these electric trucks are fitted with msulated 
wheels. a"nd in these cases there is a very considerable 
danger of obtaining a shock from any part of the truck to 
tvirth unless an earthing core has been provided on the 
charging plug. Unfortunately, many of the importe<^l trucks 
are provided with plugs in which no pro^^sion is made for an 
•^rthing core. As there is usually slight moisture round 
the battery there is almast- sure to be a leakage to the frame- 
work of tlie truck, and the danger is a very real one. 

The recommendations of the Electric Vehicle Association 
are very strongly in favour of the provision of an earth core 
on the chai-ging" cable, and if this recommendation has been 
cai-ried out, or if the truck wheels efficiently earth the frame- 
work, the danger of shock is eliminated. 

.\ still more serious objection is then, however, met with, 
as the battel? itself will now have to withstand the volta.ge 
to earth, and several cases have already occuiTed in which 
the leakage over the outsides of the battery while charging 
has been such as to cause serious damage. The following 
extracts are taken from corre.spondence witii two of the 
principal makers of truck batteries when deaUng with the 
(juestion of the use of a method of charging which had the 
same disadvantages as the method now under discussion : — 

(a) " The great disadvantage is that the battery must, be 
subject to the full 200 or 250- volt pressure to earth, and this, 
in am- opinion, makes the method quite undesirable. It is 
not a question of great risk of shock, but the pressure is too 
high for tho walls of the cell containers." 

(b) "We are afraid that the fact that the battery is sub- 
ject to 220/250 volts to ea,rth is a decided disadvantage, 
pairticularly when it is borne in mind that the outside con- 
tainer of the cell is alive. The method of insulating the cells 
from earth is only designed to deal with much lower pres- 
sures, and we would not take the responsibility of recom- 
mending the batteries to stand up regularly to a higher 
pressure." 

It is true that in the case described in the article the 
mains pressure is only 250 volts, but in the rnajority of caises 
the supply is at a higher pressure, and even in the case of a 
2.50-volt .supply it is quite usual for one main to occasionally 
become earthed, in which case the full pressure to earth is 
available on the other main. 

It would appear, therefore, that while tlie ingenuity of the 
method described is fully recognised, it should be regarded 
as a war measure only, and not good practice for use under 
normal conditions. ||_ yf^ Bosworth. 

London, December lith, 1918. 



The Elecirical Contractor. 

On the brink of a boom in electrical installations in private 
house, factory, or wherever it may be, perhaps a. word or 
two on this subject may be useful to both intending installer 
and customer. 

It has, unfoi-timately, occurred in very many instancea 
which I have personally become acquainted with, that the 
first object of the contractor has been either by hook or by 
crook to book the conti-act. This over, he has " made good " 
by employing boys, improvers, or any other cheap labour- he 
could get hold of. 

What has resulted? The quality of the installa&n has 
suffered in consequence, and the customer has paid dearly 
in the long run for acceipting a cheap tender. Again, it 
.seems quite the usual thing for an intending customer, after 
being " quoted " for cei-tain work to be done,_ to give the 
job to another less conscientious contractor who says he can 
do the job for so much less. 

The customer, not being versed in electrical matters, is 
not in a position to decide which it will pay him best to 
accept — the one that is a Tittle dearer in the first place, or 
the one that becomes a maintenance job indefinitely. 

The loopholes for the cheap contractor are : Young cheap 
labour, inferior cable and material. This kind of thing 
occurs where a number of contractors are pricing for certain 
work without a S]5ecification di-awn up by a practical man. 
It is the custom at pre-sent among customers who have not 
a lot of money to expend on electrical work to bite at the 
lowe.'?t price — very often to their .sorrow. 

I am afraid that the coming boom wiU bring a lot of 
cheap contractors into the electrical line, and it may be some 
time before the bad quality of the in.stallation is fotmd out. 

It seems a pity that so many rubbishy qualities of elec- 
trical material are allowed on our markets to tempt the dis- 
honest contractor — Japanese lampholders. ceiling roses, &c., 
-\merican cable, and cheap iron conduit are the curse of any 
decent contractor. Why not estabhsh definite standards 
which contractors would have to adhere to, and find it im- 
possible to depart from? 



There will be sufficient W(jrk and to spare yi the near 
future, without dishonest under-cutting, which leaves the 
customer to pay tlic piper. The Pha>iiix Pire Office i-ules 
cjiiition the intending customer against accepting the lowest 
tender without first acquainting him.self with the quality ol 
tho material and workmanship about to be put in. 

My chief rea.son for writing these short notes is that they 
may lead to something being done in the matter by the 
loading contractors to clo.se the door to the " Do-yom--job-at- 
any-price-man," who will otherwise become a. menace to 
consumers of electricity. Let our motto be a " Straight 
price for a proper job," and the betterment of the electrical, 
profession. ||_ powler. 

Liverpool, December 29th, 1018. 

[The exclusion from the. market of inferior materials is 
one of the objects of the proix>scd " National I'rovtng 
House," which is in course of organisation under the segis 
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, with the co-opera- 
tion of the National Physical Laboratory and other public 
bodies. The guarantee under penalty of good workmanship 
and material provided by the Electrical Contractors' Asso- 
ciation conesponds to tho admii'ahle aims expressed in the 
la.st paragraph of Mr. Powder's letter. Thus something is 
being done to improve the situation, but we agree that this is. 
only the commencement of the work that is nece.ssary. — 
Eds. Elec. Rev.] 



ELECTRICAL TRADE BENEVOLENCE: 
AN APPEAL. 



Mk. C E. Hunter, the chairmaji of the Electrical Ti-ades- 
Benevolent Institution, is making a special effort on behalf 
of that organisation and fund, and he asks for the co-opera- 
tion of the trade. He has issued an appeal in which he 
states that the invested funds are only iy.fXlO odd and the- 
total revenue for the ixist yeai- was only i'TSl. We beUeve 
that everybody will agree with him that it is desirable to 
put the Fund on a better basis, " worthy of the most pro- 
gresdve business in the kingdom." He is eager to mark 
the period of his office by raising a large sum which will bear 
some relation to the impoiiance of fhe electrical ti'ade. Most 
of our readers are aware that the institution cannot at pre- 
sent pay pensions save out of revenue. That is one very 
good reason foi" building up a big invested capital. Another 
important reason for .supplementing the present resources- 
is the increase in {he cost of living and the correspondingly 
decreased value of grants if limited to the pre-war amounts. 
The present invested capital was collected prior to the war 
largely at the annual festivals, Ijut during the past four or 
five years while there has been a period of great activity for 
most departments of electrical engineering industry, the 
time has not been convenient for festival dinners or energetic 
propaganda schemes. Those who ought to be interested in the 
maintenance of this fund have hardly been able to plead 
poverty, and we believe there are some who to-day could put 
the institution in a far more satisfactory po.sition without feel- 
ing the pinch. What has probably weighed with some people 
during the war has been the fact that industrial activity 
has lessened the immediate demands, but as the circular 
before us points out, after the overstrain on electrical pro- 
duction engendered by the war, claims on the fund wiU 
become heavier, and the resources should now be 
strengthened to enable them to be ready to meet whatever 
needs may arise. It is not inconceivable that there may 
yet be occa.sion to give some kind of assistance to discharged 
and disabled men from the Forces. We hope that contribu- 
tions, large and small, will flow in to Mr. Hunter's offices at 
123-125. Queen Victoria Sti-eet, Ix>ndon, E.G. 4. It is our 
intention to pubhsh a hst of all the " Hunter " subscrip- 
tions and donations in the Electrical Eeview. 



Tramway Employes' Working Hours and Conditions. — 

Early in the New Year the two Tramway Associations are 
to discuss with repre-sentatives of the National Transport 
•Workers' Federation the following proposals, which have 
been advanced by the lattea' organisation, foj new working 
conditions for employes on municipal and company tramways 
of the United Kingdom : — , , , < 

That the working week .shall consist of 44 hours, inclusive 
of .signing on and signing off. 

That eveiT,' employe shall be guaranteed a working week of 
44 hours or payment equivalent thereto.^ 

No day's work shall be in excess of eight hours. 

In no circumstances shall a I'eduction in the working day 
entail a reduction in existing wages. 

No spread-over duty shall exceed nine hours, inclusive of 
meal times or relief. 

.■Ml national holidays, Sunday, and overtime labonr to be 
paid for at the rate of time and a half. 

All employes shall be granted 14 days' hohday annually, 
with pay. 



rrxiB 



EXjEOm?/IC-A.Ij I^/E^IE'STT-. 



Vol. LXXXIV. 



JANUARY 10, 1919, 



No. 2,146. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol. LXXXIV.] 



CONTEXTS: Januarj- 10, 1919 



[Mo, a,i4fi. 



THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION OF 
SHIPS. 



The Electric Propulsion of Ships 29 

Electricity Supply Propfress ... ... ... ... ... 30 

The " Grievance ' of the '' Cnskilled " Man as a Soldier ... 30 

The Wire-Drawing Industries 31 

Fuel Economy ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Co-operation Among Smaller Manufacturers ... ... ... 31 

Electricity Supply in Sheffield {ilht.<.) (concluded) 32 

Electrtc Furnaces in the Xorth of Spain... ... ... ... 37 

What is Meant by Efficiency Methods .' by E. A. Pells 38 

Electricity in Agriculture (iV/t/*.)... ... ... ... ... 39 

Correspondence — 

Electric Pressure Regulators ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Greater London Electricity Supply ... 40 

British Fair Play .' 40 

The Future of the Shiftman 40 

The Need for Co-operation among the Smaller Manufac- 
turers 40 

Admiralty Electrical Engineering Staff Dinner 41 

Trade Statistics of Xewfoundland 41 

Business Notes 42 

Legal 46 

Notes 47 

City Note* 49 

Stocks and Shares 50 

Walter Rathenau on the German Situation 51 

Electrothermic Processes Qlhig.') 52 

Carbon Brush-holders, by J. 0. Girdlestone (illiti.') 53 

Carbon Brushes : Considered in Relation to the Design and 

Operation of Electrical Machinery , 54 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (iWajs.) 55 

New Patents Applied for, 1918 5fi 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 5ti 

Contractors' Column Advertisement page xxiv 

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Ix the annual Report of the Secretary of the U.S. Navy, 
made public in TVashington in the second week in 
December, it was announced that "the most striking 
engineering ■ accomplishment during the year was the 
completion of the electrically-propelled battleship Xeir 
Mexico," which can be described as the most power- 
ful naval vessel afloat. She displaces 32,000 tons, as ■ 
compared with the 27,500 tons of H.M.S. Queen EU-abeth. 
The result of the trials of this battleship, it is said, 
confirms the judgment of the Department in adopting 
this type of machinery for the battle cruisers, and marks 
an engineering advance which will aifect battleship con- 
struction the world over. Secretary Daniels in his Report 
says : — " The wisdom of this decision has been amply 
vindicated by the performance of the Xew Mexico, which 
has been tested in every way, her trials including many 
more than those specified in the contract. She has failed 
in none of them ; the operation of her machinery has been 
highly satisfactory in every respect, and to-day, in this 
unique vessel, the United States Navy has a battleship 
which has no peer in the world's navies, not only for 
economic propulsion and less liability to serious derange- 
ment, but for her military superiority in greater manceuvr- 
ing power and increased under-water protection." Mr. 
Daniels is further reported to have said that all capital 
ships of the future U.S. Navy are to be electrically 
propelled. 

It will be recalled that the decision of the Navy Depart- 
ment led to the bitterest criticism, not only from engineers 
pecuniarily interested in other types of machinery, but also 
from others eminent in their profession who had no pecuniary 
interest, who feared that an experiment was being embarked 
upon which would be fraught with national calamity. This 
report, then, is a stri king tribute to Rear- Admiral (iriftin, chief 
of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, and his able assistants, 
who gave approval to this new method of propulsion, and 
who, despite the storm of protest, never lost faith in the 
ultimate triumph of electricity. The Electrical World, 
commenting on the Report, states that had the system of 
electric propulsion been perfected and standardised a year or 
two earlier, without a doubt the entire new United States 
merchant marine would have been equipped with it. 

On reading such statements as the above, a question that 
naturally suggests itself — seeing that electric driving has 
been found satisfactory in other Navies, and that it can be 
safely said that with proper design and application electric 
driving is a well-tried and successful feature of both gun and 
turret operation, as well as the actual propulsion of ships of 
war — is : what are we in this country doing in the matter ? 

On January 9th, 1014, we expressed our opinion in these 
columns with regard to the statement that H.M.S. Inrincihie, 



[29] 



30 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.S*. No. 2,H6, January lO, 1919. 



the only modern capital ship in the British Xavy fitted with 
electric power throughout, was to undergo a long refit, at a 
cost of nearly £200,000, to replace the electric gun-operating 
gear by hydraulic mechanism. This, it should be remem- 
bered, was not on account of any failure on the part of the 
electrical gear, but simply because the British Admiralty 
was. and is, an institution with historic prejudices — pre- 
judices that die hard. At the time we preferred to regard 
the refit merely as an incident, which in no way reflected 
on the adaptability of electric power for all purposes on a 
naval ves.sel, such adaptability, in fact, having been already 
demonstrated where traditional methods had less influ- 
ence. Of the countries that, in the year previous to the 
nrar, had secured the advantages and efficiency that are con- 
sequent upon the use of electricity on board ship, progi'essive 
France topped the list, followed clos^ by the U.S:A. and 
Germany, and then by Austria, Russia, and Japan in tm-n. 
Great Britain's place, it is sad to relate, being at the very 
end of the list. 

This being so, we are tempted to inquire whether it is 
compatible with the dignity of the profession of electrical 
power engineering in this country patiently to endure such 
a state of affairs. Are we going to sleep over it ? Or are 
we going to do the right thing — and do it now that we 
have the chance ? 

' In our opinion, the reconstruction of our shipping affords 
a unique opportunity of demonstrating the adaptability 
and efficiency of electric power on board ship, and it 
behoves all concerned to see to it that the opportunities 
which are at hand are seized upon. A start in the 
right direction, it is true, has been made, as shown by the 
equipment of the firet British sea-going electrical merchant 
ship, the s.s. Wuhtij Cas/le (described in our issue of 
May 17th. 1018), and we trust that this will prove to be 
only the forerunner of many similar enterprises. It is to be 
hoped that prejudices will have been severely shaken by the 
events of recent years, and that in consequence the powers 
that be will be in a better position to appreciate that such 
innovations as we have referred to ai'c, in the interest of 
progress, not to be ignored. 



In our " Correspondence " columns 
'^'"rSess"'''"^ to-day we are gently taken to task by 
Mr. J. C. Williams, of Erith, who has not, 
however, quite correctly interpreted our meaning ; he says 
we referred " particularly " to the adoption of the tliree- 
phase system, but, in .fact, we merely cited this as one 
example, out of the many that could readily be put in 
evidence of the general rule — that a small municipal 
undertaking is inherently unable to take any risk ; it 
must follow the beaten track, which is to say that it 
must not be enterprising. Only the lan/e undertakings can 
aflford to experiment, and our argument was directed to 
showing that, as the municipal boundary system inevitably 
implied the multiplication of small undertakings, it neces- 
sarily hampered technical progress, besides producing the 
other ill-effects that we mentioned. 

We congratulate Erith on having adopted the three-phase 
system so long ago as 1 903 : but even then Erith was hardly 
a pioneer, for electrical transmission and distribution on 
the three-phase system was in use in the United States 
in 1804 for lighting and power (with self-starting a.c. 
motors), and the Dublin tramways were provided with three- 
phase transmission and rotary-converter sub-stations in 1806. 
Manchester is precisely one of those large undertakings 
which can materially affect progress, and it has done so ; 
though the five-wire system, unfortunately, did not fulfil 
expectations, it was an enterprising departure, and in other 
ways the city has certainly contributed valuable items to 
electro-technology. 



As for the steam turbine, it was fostered and developed 
mainly in the works of the Newcastle and District Electric 
Lighting Co., from 1888 onwards ; the Cambridge Electric 
Supply Co., Ltd., from 1802 ; and the Jiletropolitan 
Electric Supply Co., Ltd., from 1804. So far as we can 
ascertain, Halifax adopted the turbine about 1001, not 
1807 : and before 1880, oOO Parsons turbines had been 
built, aggi-egating 4,200 k\v. 

Amongst other penalties that we have paid for excessive 
sub-division is that of being tied down to the use of direct 
current. Where power is transmitted r» or 10 miles — still 
more, 50 miles — the use of the three-phase system is most 
convenient, appropriate, and economical of capitiil and 
labour. But when every little townshiji must ha\e its own 
little station, with its own little staff, the advantage of a 
storage battery as a reserve is obvious, and psirtly from 
this cause, partly owing to the prevailing fashion, the 
D.c. system became the rule in this country. On the 
Continent, on the other hand, three-phase is practically 
standardised. Few of our stay-at-home engineers realise 
how very far behind other European countries we are in 
this respect. 

Wherever a supply system extends over a large area, the 
three-phase system has been almost universally adopted ; 
and wherever three-phase supply is available, three-phase 
distribution is the most suitable and economical method 
to employ. Consequently, on the Continent, where supply 
companies have been allowed to develop far more freely 
than in this country, the three-phase system is in common 
use. Moreover, the use of overhead conductors for the 
transmission system has familiarised the public with the 
idea ; hence the prejudice against aerial lines which is 
rife in this country does not exist abroad, and overhead 
lighting and power mains ai'e as common as telegraph or 
telephone lines. 

Here, therefore, we have the Board of Trade Committee 
advocating those very things — widespread supply areas, 
concentration of generating plant, and overhead mains=— 
which on the Continent are commonplace. 



An important sentiment, which we 
The " Grievance " j^j^^g j^^g anticipated would find forceful 
" Unskilled " expression after the war, is contained in a 
Man as a Soldier, report issued by the National Amalga- 
mated Union of Labour. The skilled man 
was for a long time protected from compulsory military service 
by his essential occupation. It had to be so. The unskilled 
man was -compelled to go and fight, suffer hardship, and 
perhaps die, and his family often suffered pecuniary loss, 
and will continue to do so. The skilled man, on the other 
hand, Wiis required — and sometimes, we admit, desired — to 
stay at home earning good wages. The later stages of the war 
necessitated that from certain trades even skilled men should 
be called away to join the fighting Forces ; it was occasionally 
only the threat of military service that made them ready to 
end some of their disputes which held up war supplies. 
Now that the war is ended, it is recognised that " no class 
has been harder hit by the war than the so-called unskilled 
man." The Union mentioned above says that the unskilled 
'men's Unions raised no protest at the time, but in days to 
come unskilled men will expect somewhat different treat- 
ment from that which has been meted out to them in the 
past. " If they are good enough to be called on to die for 
their country, they have a right to look for something very 
different from the hardest and dirtiest wofk and the worst 
wages, which have been all that their country has hitherto 
had to give them." 

The Shp(field Irnhpendent, commenting on the matter, 
says : — " The unskilled man is often such from no fault of 
his. He is the victim of circumstance. Fate is unkind. 
So quite light-heartedly, when danger threatens the 
country, we look to the unskilled man to stand in the 
breach. The unskilled man does his bit, but having done 
it, is it reasonable to expect him to come back to the 
country — his country, poor chap ! — and submit to " the 
hardest and dirtiest work and the worst wages ? " 



Vol. 84. No. 2,146, January 10, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW/ 



31 



There is an important point, however, that the Union 
and the Sheffield paper both appear to overlook — namely, 
that in the early days of the war the skilled man joined up 
for active service very readily. Indeed, more men of this 
class joined up under the voluntary system than proved to 
be in the national interest when we found how vitally 
necessary the production of munitions iu engineering and 
other works was if we were to hold the line against the 
enemy. It would be unfair to overlook the fact that at 
certain, stages of the war it became imperative that skilled 
men should be " called back " from Prance and from the 
Home (,'amps in order that they might follow their industrial 
calling. ( )n the other hand, the unskilled man who went 
away to light and comes back still unskilled will feel his 
jiosition keenly in presence of the dilutee, whether man or 
woman, who has had the opportunity of becoming more or 
less skilled while he himself has been fighting. "Will the 
uiLskilled fighter agree to undergo training and become a 
skilled man or dilutee ? And shall we all resolve to work 
together to take advantage of the industrial boom that 
ought to come along, so that there may be work for all ? 
We can find many bones of contention if we are so minded, 
and questions such as the above can only be settled satis- 
factorily if everybody shows good feeling and a resolution to 
arrive at a fair and ecjuitable solution of the problem. The 
national promise to do well by those who have fought for 
us must be fulfilled. We stand under quite as gi'eat an 
obligation to them as we do to Trade Unions who claim the 
fulfilment of Government promises respecting the reinstate- 
ment of their pre-war rules and restrictions. 

So far as electrical, mining, and other engineers are con- 
cerned, the number of men who have willingly made the 
supreme sacrifice, or who have been wounded or maimed in 
the war, must ha\'e been very large. Our own weekly Roll 
of Honour, published for several years past, has shown how 
great the electrical losses have been. We do not know 
whether it will ever be possible for the authorities to classify 
the casualties of the war according to trade or profession, 
but, if such is ever done, we do not think that the engi- 
neering sacrifice of life and limb will be small in comparison 
with those of other sections of the community. After all, 
the war — " an engineer's war," be it remembered — could not 
possibly have been won without the technical skill and know- 
ledge which became increasingly essential in practically every 
department of the war operations, land, sea and air, right 
down to the last. 

„, . , The transition from war trade to peace 

The Wire-Drawing , , ■ ,, e ^ ■ ■ a 

Industries trade in the wire manufacturing indus- 
tries should not be attended with quite 
the same difficulties that other trades will experience, but the 
most enterprising firms will probably be well advised to 
leave nothing undone that can be effected as early in 
advance as possible. The suggestion that each important 
firm should be represented in future by a first-class repre- 
sentative, experienced in the trade, has, we believe, resulted 
in the decision of several firms never again to present 
foreign competitors with practically a clear field for opera- 
tions. Many of the most formidable (lerman competitors 
attributed no small share of their success in these markets 
to the efficiency and thoroughness of their representatives. 
With the view that a first-class representative stands for 
efficiency in sales organisation, and not necessarily for cut- 
throat competition, this section should more than justify 
itself wherever it is introduced. 

The apjwintment, also, of representatives and agents for 
foreign markets is a matter that can lose nothing by being 
attended to well in advance. The decision to have nothing 
to do with promiscuous Russian and other foreign repre- 
sentatives is, doubtless, a judicious one ; and several British 
firms will probably conjointly appoint a sole representative 
whose qualifications and credentials are beyond dispute or 
criticism. 

A further section to which increased attention will be 
devoted in future is that of the merchant representation. 
Hitherto some of the British firms have offered no preferential 
terms to merchants, as is done with profit in other trades, with 



the result that German and American competitors, adopting a 
policy the exact reverse of this, have benefited considerably. 
Most of the leading firms in this country have greatly 
extended their output capacity during the war, and one of 
the chief anxieties of the future is undoubtedly the neces- 
sity for increased turnover to justify the capital expenditure, 
ilany of the leading American firms have also extended 
their productive capacity, but on a still larger scale, we 
understand, than many of the British firms. The result 
seems bound to be increased competition between the two 
countries. The necessity for increased efficiency in the 
sales section of all British firms thus becomes the more 
apparent. 



Fuel Economy. 



The announcement of the Coal Con- 
troller that the altered conditions now 
liermit of an increased supply of gas and electricity for fuel 
and lighting to domestic consumers will be heartily welcomed 
not only by the consumers themselves, but also by the 
electricity supply authorities ; and as at the same time the 
restrictions upon the installation of gas and electrical fittings 
are completely suspended, their pleasure will be shared in 
by electrical contractors and manufacturers. The restric- 
tions which had to be imposed during the past year have 
greatly hindered progress in this important branch of the 
electrical industry, and while on patriotic grounds they 
were patiently endured, their removal will confer great 
benefit upon a large body of workers. The step has been 
made possible by the moderation of the heavy demands upon 
gas and electricity for industrial purposes, consequent upon 
the Armistice, which has enabled a larger supply to be 
placed at the disposal of household consumers ; in industrial 
areas the power demand has naturally fallen off enormously, 
affording a welcome opportunity to the station staffs to 
overhaul the plant and carry out the many necessary repairs 
which have accumulated, in readiness for the resumption of 
the load when manufacturers have compfeted their arrange- 
ments for changing over to peace production. 

The situation in the contracting business has been very 
uncertain since the Armistice was signed, as many of the 
Government contracts which were in progress came to a 
standstill, and, while there was plenty of civilian work in 
contemplation, customers were not disposed to move very 
energetically .in the matter until the conditions were more 
favourable ; the removal of the restrictions, however, will 
clear the air, and renewed activity may be confidently 
expected to result therefrom. 



We desire to di'aw special attention to 
Co-operation ^ letter from Mr. H. C. Siddeley, which 
mong ma er .^ppgjj^.g j^ ^^^ .i Correspondence " columns 
Manufacturers. , „ . , 

to-day. Our own views on the pressing 

need for the smaller specialist manufacturers to take serious 
action in the direction of co-operative effort in either pro- 
duction or salesmanship, or both, expressed in these pages 
many times during the last four years, were reiterated in 
our leading article of last week. The comments- — whether 
critical or advisory— of the technical Press generally 
occasion a good deal of discussion in the circles directly 
interested in the particular matters ventilated, but under 
the heavy pressure of work imposed by war munitions 
production, and because of the uncertainty which hung over 
everything while hostilities continued, men of weight and 
experience have often been " too busy to write," or disinclined 
to do so, until the times were more propitious. The war being 
practically at an end, the subject of co-operation seemed to 
us to be one of the firet for serious discussion in this New 
Year, and we trust that now that our manufacturers have 
got their heads deeply into their arrangements for securing 
a long period of profitable industry in both home and export 
trade, those who are best qualified to deal with the subject 
will follow the excellent lead set by Mr. Siddeley, and 
express their views through , the medium of our pages 
without delay. There is a time, when coming together;. in 
conference may reasonably be expected to lead to definite 
conjoint action. 



32 



THE ELECTRiaUj REVIEW. [Vol.84. No. 2,H6, January lO, 1919. 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN SHEFFIELD. 



(Concluded from page lO.j 



The generating plant is housed in a lonsi, lofty room, well 
lighted from the roof and one side wall : the original 
switchboard, of the cellnlar type, is mounted on a gallery 
crossing the north end of the room, but the new switch- 
board is arranged along the west side wall, with a gallery 
in front of it, from 
which gangways srive 
access to the driving 
platforms of the large 
generating sets. Be- 
neath the switchboard 
gallery are the offices 
for the station super- . 
intendent and the 
operating staff, and 
the chemical labo- 
ratory. The room is 
lighted with half- 
watt lamps. The 
walls are faced with 
white enamelled 
brick : the roof is 
carried on steel frame- 
work, and is match- 
boarded to prevent 
the dripping of con- 
densed moisture on 
the generators, for 
which purpose also 
iron screens are sus- 
pended over the gene- 
rators. Two cranes 
are provided — one to 
lift aO tons, the other 
with two lifts of 50 
and 10 tons respec- 
tively. 

The generating 
plant comprises ten 

polyphase sets. In the earliest part of the station two 
1,J00-KW. Parsons two-phase turbo-alternators with revolv- 
ing armatures were installed, but these have recently been 



replaced by two Parsons 2,000-kw. two-phase geared turbo- ' 
alternators, the turbines running at .'>,000 r.p.m. and the 
generators at l.."iOO im-.m. We give a view of these sets in 
tig. 13. The increased economy of the new turbines has 
enabled them to be mounted on the original ],500-K\v. 




Fig. 13. — Parsons 2,0ii0-kw. Geared Turbo-Alternators at Neepsend. 



TOuJensers without detriment to the vacuum obtainable. 
With the exception of these two sets and Xo. Ca, which are 
mounted at floor level, all the turbo-alternators are set on 




Vol.84. No. 2,146, January 10, 1919.1 THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



33 



concrete pedestals above the floor, as shown in our illustra- 
tions, the floor level of the basement being only a few feet 
above the level of the river. 

No. 8 set is a Willans-Dick, Kerr 4,500-KW. turbo- 
alternator, the turbine in this case being of the pure 
reaction type ; Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are also Willans-Dick, 
Kerr sets. No. 4 of 6,000 KW. and Nos. 5 and r. 
each of 8,500-KW., with combined impulse-reaction 
turbines and Willans condensing plant. No. 6 con- 
densing plant is of the Willans-JInller extraction type, 
which does not require a separate air pump.* Nos. 3 to (i 
have six-pole fields, and run at l,0(iO R.p.m. Nos. 7, 8, 
and 9 run at 1,.")00 R.p.m. ; of these the first two are 
Parsons sets, of the pure reaction type, rated at 8,500 k\v. 
each, and have both electrical and steam auxiliaries. We 
illustrate Nos. (! and (U in fig. 15, and No. 9 in fig. 14 ; the 
last is provided with a Contraflo condenser and Kinetic air- 
pump, made by Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. 

Set No. 6a is a Westinghouse-Rateau turbo-alternator 
of 2,000 KW. capacity, generating at 3,300 volts, 50 cycles, 
three-phase, at 8,000 r.p.m. The turbine- is of standard 
design, and consists of a velocity element followed by several 
Rateau stages, working under a steam pressure of 200 lb. 
per sq. in. gauge, superheated 150° F., and exhausting 
into a vacuum of 28i in. at full load. 



three-phase, 3,300/11,400-volt, oil-insulated, self-cooled 
transformers. 

Set No. 9 is a Westinghouse 9,000-KW. turbine running 















/ 


700 
600 
600 












/ 










/ 


/ 










/ 


/ 










/,vH 


/ 


300 

?on 








<y^ 


f 


y 


£2ST_PER 




-^ 




r 

^ 


y 


100 


,,NITS SOl-0 


:^^ 


.i^^^ 


^ 























1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 191 



Fig. 16. — Progress Diagram op Sheffield Electricity 
Department. 

at 1,500 R.P.M., and coupled to two Siemens alternators. 
The steam and vacuum conditions are the same as those for 




-Willans-Dick, Kerr s.'jOO-kw.. and Westinghouse 2.000-kw., Tdrbo-Gexerators. 



The armature winding of the generator is of the con- 
centric type, matle up of separate bars and end connectors. 
The bars are insulated with mica and impregnated before 
they are placed in the semi-enclosed slots. 

The rotor is of the smooth cylindrical radial-slot type, 
the field core being forged solid with the shaft. The field 
coils are held in the slots by means of metal wedges, and 
the connections are held by means of steel and bronze rings. 

The surface condenser is of the double-flow type. The 
air and extraction pumps are of the Le Blanc rotary 
valveless type, driven by a 20-h.p, motor at 1,440 r.p.m. 
A separate lift pump for further raising the condensate is 
driven by a 5-h.p. motor at 1,440 r.p.m. A centrifugal 
circulating pump is driven by a separate motor. 

The generator is electrically connected to two 1,250-K.v.A., 

* See Electrical Review, September 26th. 1913. 



the 2,000-K\v. turbine described above, and the general 
design of the turbine also follows the same lines. 

The electrical portion of this set was supplied by 
Messrs. Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works, Ltd., and was 
built at their Stafford Works. The plant was ordered in 
the autumn of 191.') for very urgent delivery, and certain 
parts existing in the works of the contractors were diverted 
by the Ministry of Munitions for the execution of the order. 
Thus it became necessary to make up the total output 
required by combining two 4,500-KW. alternators coupled 
in tandem and running at 1,500 r.p.m. The machines are 
wound for 6,600 volts, and operate in conjunction with 
transformers stepping up to 1 1 ,400 volts. 

The turbine set throughout is fitted with solid couplings, 
and the two alternator-transformer units are permanently 
connected in parallel with each other, and are supplied with 
e.xciting current from one exciter. 



34 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,140, January 10, 191!). 



Each machine has a normal rating of (5,925 k.v.a. at any 
power factor between 0'6r> and imitv, and the machines 
deliver three-phase current at 50 cycles, with a temperature 
rise on normal full load not exceeding 45° C. 

The design of the generators follows the makers' standard 
practice, ventilation being on their well-known axial system, 
and the rotor core and shaft ends consistin<r of one solid 




Flu. 17. Frokt Viev^' of SwiTCH(;t;AR. 



forging. The machines draw their cooling air through wet 
air Alters of the revolving drum type, supplied by Messrs. 
Heenan & Proude. 

The transformers to which each machine is connected are 
of Messrs. Siemens's three-phase water-cooled oil-insulated 
type, with a transformation ratio of 
t), 600/1 1,400 volts, and a temperature 
rise on normal full load of .Jo" C. 
Each transformer is fitted with the 
makers' patented expansion vessel to 
prevent sludging of the oil. 

No difficulty whatever has been ex- 
perienced in operation with the some- 
what unusual tiindem arrangement, 
and we understand that the plant has 
responded in the most satisfactoiy 
manner to the heavy demands made 
upon it during the war period. 

The apparatus for cleansing and 
cooling the air supplied to the 9,000- 
KW. set consists of two 90-in. diameter 
"Heenan" air filters, arranged in 
paiallel, and driven by one motor, de- 
veloping l H. p., through machine-cut 
spur and worm gearing. Each of 
these filters dealing with 20,500 ch. 
ft. of air per minute, the combined 
capacity of the set amounts to 41,0o0 
cb. ft. per minute. 

The machines each contain two 
filtering and cooling cylinders, built 
up of galvanised steel by Heenan and 
Fronde's patented process : these are 
slowly revolved through water con- 
tained in the filter tank, which causes a thin film of 
water to adhere to the plate surfaces. The air passes 
through the narrow annular passages between the successive 
layers of plates, and is thoroughly scrubbed before issuing 
at the outlet of the machine to pass to the alternator. 



Means are provided for scraping out of the tank thje sedi- 
ment resulting from the extraction of the mechanical 
impurities from the air entering the filters, and moisture 
eliminators are fitted to prevent the passage of loose moisture 
to the alternator. 

The governing gear of No. 0, which is operated by an oil- 
relay system, has prbved particularly satisfactory, and may 
be adopted for other sets when a 
convenient opportunity occurs. The 
governor is c'ontrolled from the switch- 
board by an electric motor. An emer- 
gency oil-pressure system is provided, 
which is operated liy a Worth ingt«n 
steam pumj). 

Each of the generating sets, is pror 
\ided with clecti'ically-driven two- 
phase auxiliaries, controlled by. switch- 
gear mounted near the tui'bine : in ad- 
dition, Xos. 7 and 8 sets have steam tur- 
bine-driven air and circulating pumps. 
.\os. (JA and ',) are the only sets pro- 
vided with air filters. All the turbines 
are fitted with steam separators on the 
main steam pipes, and Nos. 1 and 2 
have motor-driven cooling fans mounted 
alongside of the bed-plates. 

All the generating sets are provided 
with their own exciters, mounted on 
an extension of the alternator shafts. 
The reciprocating air pumps are all of 
the Edwards type. 

The aggregate output of the plant 
at full load is .j',i,.")00 kw. 

The generating sets are cleaned b\ 
women, whose work is highly spoken 
of ; they have been engaged on this 
duty for four years, and take a pride 
in their work, which, we understand, 
is done better than by men. 

The switchgear is mounted on the 
west wall of the turbine room, on a 
gallery which extends two- thirds the length of the 
building; the floor of the gallery is on a level with 
the foot-pJates of the large generators, with which it 
communicates at intervals by means of gangways. The 
gallery crosses the passageway which bisects the turbine 




Fig. is. — Reykolle Ironclad Switchgear. 



room, and in order to provide for the admission of loaded 
wagons, a drawbridge with counterweight is provided, which 
is normally lowered, comiecting the two sections of the 
switt^h gallery. The whole of the switchgear is of Messrs. 
Iteyrolle's make, and is operated by hand ; the wall is faced 



Vol. 84. Xo. 2.14.5, January UK mx] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



35 



with white enamelled briuk, and the instruments, switch- 
handles, &(.-., are mounted directly on it, as shown in our 
\iew, t:g. 1 7, All the generators, are provided with ilerz- 
I'rice protective gear, the operation of which also opens the 
csciter circuit. 




Fig. 19.— Revrolle Ibonclad Switch ; Sectional Elevation. 

The feeders are eijuipped with Keyrolle's overload and 
leakage protective system, and are being changed over U> 
the split-conductor system of protection as the opportunity 
arises, two similar cables being grouped together for the 
purpose, and treated tus one. 

The ironclad switchgear itself is placed in two rooms 
behind the corresponding sections of 
the switchboard ; the latest of these is 
shown in fig. is. The switches are 
of a very substantial type, provided 
with lioiler-plate-steel tanks and ma- 
chined Hanged joints ; the tanks con- 
tain a large volume of oil, and all 
three phases are housed in one tank. 
These tanks and top plates are de- 
signed to withstand internal i^ressures 
of -100 lb. [)er S(|. in., and a system of 
\'ent pipes is provided to allow for the 
exhaust of gases. All the conductors 
are completely enclosed in metal 
chambers, and are run in solid in com- 
ix)und, or surrounded with oil. X<i 
insnlatoi-s arc exposed, and thereby 
cleaning and other maintenance costs 
are avoided. 

Two main bus-bars are provided, 
which can 'oe interconnected by aswitcii 
capable of carrying the maxinium 
capacity of the station, or run separately 
(the normal condition). The switches 
are arranged, as shown in fig, I'.i, .so 
that by changing a contact plug, which 
lits into a socket with a bayonet joint, 
they can be connected to either bus- bar, the operation 
of changing over, when the switch has been run back, 
being a matter of seconds. An indicator is provided 
to show whether the switch is on the top or bottom bar. 
Above the bus - bar contacts is seen the iron vent- 
pipe. The switches in the newer part of the station 



embody various improvements over those installed earlier, 
the generator panels being of a heavier type and the handle 
gear of an improved pattern, with lever and rod connection 
instead of wire rope : moreover, the automatic mechanism 
is contained in the switch hood instead of being mounted 
on the switch wall. The jwtential transformers are 
situated between the draw-out switch sections and the bus- 
bar sections of the gear, and cannot be got at without first 
racking out the swit<:'hes : and the bus-bar contacts are 
automatically covered when the switch is drawn out, so 
that* accidental contact with any live part is impossible. 
The switchgear, as a whole, is of very massive construction, 
and ha.s fieen aptly compared with heavy hydraulic 
machinery. 

Provision is made for dividing the new part of the bus- 
bars from the old at the central passage-way by a hand- 
operated oil-break switch : the bus-bars can also be 
sectionalised by means of couplings between the panels if 
recjuired. 

The switch room has a concictc roof and tloor, and is 
well lighted from the side. Coloured lamps on the front 
of the board show whether the switch is in or out, and 
on which bar, as the position of the handle does not give 
this information. ^ 

Rotary synchroscopes are provided, carried, with the volt- 
meters, on brackets which enable them to Ije seen from 
cither end of the gallery, Tlluminated signalling boards 
are suspended above the cranes in each half of the station, 
which enable the attendants to signal instructions to the 
drivers ; to call attention to these boards through the roar 
of the running machinery, various devices were tried, 
without success, but a Klaxon horn .solved the difficulty, 
and has proved completely satisfactory. Illuminated signals 
in the boiler house are also provided. 

The old switchboard is now used entirely for the control 
I if the station power plant, which is driven by two-phase 
motors ; it is coupled with the main board through three 
i',0O0-K,v.A, sets of 8cott-connected transformers reducing 
the pressure from 11,000 to 2,000 volts. The auxiliaries are 
worked at 2,000 and 200 volts, and are controlled by 
Reyrolle switchgear, with Berry transformers when 
necessary, Uuplicate supplies are taken to the pump 
rooms from the main and auxiliary boards to ensure 
continuity of operation. 

An automatic intercommunication telephone system of 
the dialling tyjie gives ready communication between all 
parts of the station. 




— SWITCUUILVK IN Sl.lI-SXATION {.MAIN .S\\ Ui;]l "N Ll i 1 ;. 

While the station is practically complete, there remain 
a few finishing touches to be added. A fitting shoj 
is to be erected, but in the meantime, a room below 
the switchboard is used for this purpose. There is 
an admirably arranged fire-proof oil store adjoining the 
station, with five underground tanks in concrete, three 

D 



86 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.84. 



No. 2,146, January 10, 1919. 



beinu; of 1.500 gallons capacity and two of 500 gallons 
oacb. The oil is raised from these l)y Bowser sclf- 
nieasnring pumps, with which a miswke is practically im- 
jKis^ihle. Near the store is tlic welfare and amiiulance 
department, presided over by two capable women attendants, 
who deal with some l.i'oo cases a year — most of them, of 
course, of minor importance. A piiy ottice is also provided, 
and a system has been adopted which enables the whole of 
the employes to be paid in nine minutes. Fire pumps are 
installed in the tower pump house, which are used to keep 
the cooling tower timbers siiturated inside and outside, 
every tower being sprayed once a week ; these pumps also 
serve the tire hydrants. 

In addition to the extensions at Neepsend, of course all 
other departments had to expand in proportion. The 




Fig. 21.— Load Charts. I'.il-t and 191S. 

Plains Department had to make provision for distributing 
the extra amount of current generated, which involved the 
laying of 91 miles of cable, the erection and equipment of 
new sub-stations in diflferent parts of the City, and the in- 
stallation of additional switchgear and other controlling 
apparatus in many of the existing sub-stations. During 
the war period new works under the purview of the Plains 
Department were put in hand representing an expenditure 
of approximately t2;!G.27G. 

Here, as elsewliere, the progress of work was limited by 
the shortage of labour. When caiTying out large feedei-- 
cable extensions from Neepsend to the east end of the city, 
the work was proceeded with at night by lighting the 
trenches. Advertisements were issued for week-end work, 
to attract men who were free from other employment only 
at that time, and special arrangements were made for paying 
them on the spot each Sunday night, (lood results accrued 
from this procedure, and the completion of the work was 
considerably expedited thereby. 

Another innovation which was introduced as a result of 
the necessity of working with such a fine margin between 



capiicity and demand was a complete private telephone 
system connecting the department directly with most of the 
large electric furnace installations, spi'cial facilities being 
granted by the Ministry of Munitions for the construction 
of these lines. The advantage of this intercoiniectinn was 
that, in cases of emergency, such as a breakdown at the 
station, shortage of coal, or any other contingency, the 
department was able immediately to control the heavy 
demand for furnace requirements during the continuance of 
the difficulty, and thereby to prevent the necessity of shutting 
down one or more sections of the general supply. 

Female labour was introduced into the work of the 
department, with very creditable results ; women arc 
performing work, in some cases, of the roughest description, 
under conditions far from ideal. The department had no 
women employes on its. books in 191 t ; the female staff 
now numbers 150, engaged in such duties as coal handling, 
stoking, boiler cleaning, ash handling, general labouring," 
engine-room cleaning, coal weighing, stores assistants, 
switchboard operating, motor-car cleaners, as well as an 
office staff of 48 and 4 meter resulers. 

In Slieffield the mains are mostly laid in cast-iron pipes, 
a fortunate circumstance, as during the war it was possible, 
in many cases, to draw new cables into spare j)ipcs which 
were available, thereby avoiding a considerable amount 
of excavation ; only a few armoured cables are used. 

The cables are paper-insulated, lead-covered and vary 
in size from 0'025 sq. in. concentric to 0-5 concentric for 
high-tension, and 0'025 three-core to 0"25 three-core e.h.t. 
The centre part of the City, together with some of the outlying 
districts, is given a two-phase supply ; part of this is 
supplied from the old Sheaf Street station, all of which 
is two-phase generation, the other districts being supplied 
from Neepsend through Scott-connected transformers, which 
vary in size from 2.')0 to 2,000-k.v.a. From the end of 
1914 to March 25th, 1918, 65 miles of 3-in. pipes 
were laid, and 51 miles of e.h.t. and h.t. cable was 
drawn in, together with 20^ miles of low-tension cable. 
All the K.H.T. feeders out of Neepsend are 0*25 three-core 
E.H.T. In several cases two of these feeders have 
been arranged for split-conductor working, foi-ming a 
10,000-K.v.A. feeder. We give a view of the switchgear 
in a typical sub-station, showing one of the large split- 
conductor switches ; the load on these switches varies 
between (i,000 and 10,000 k.v.a. The main switch 
is capable of carrying 750 amperes, and the breaking 
capacity is put down at 100,000 KW. This sub-station 
was erected before the war, and is now associated 
with an electric furnace, sjiare land ha\ing been available 
on the site belonging to the Corporation. Thus the furnace 
was brought to the sub-station, the steel works growing 
up round the latter — an inversion of the usual procedure. 
Messrs. Reyrolle's switchgear, of the type similar to the 
smaller sizes(illnstrated), is used on all the e.h.t. sub-stations. 
The outgoing circuits have overload protection, the trip 
gear being operated by a primary battery. 

Ninety-iive per cent, of the cables used in Sheffield are 
of Messrs. W. T. Glover's manufacture. The e.h.t. cables 
are provided with the maker's patent test sheath, the value 
of which is much appreciated. A novel method of identi- 
fying the cables, devised by Mr. W. .J. Howard, mains 
engineer, is about to be brought into use in all the new 
feeders to be laid to the Blackburn Meadows station ; it 
consists in drawing on the lead sheaths one, two or more 
corrugated ribs on the external surface, by means of which 
a cable can be identified, not only by sight, but also by 
touch. This corrugation, running the whole length of the 
cable, can be seen at any opening that may be necessary 
thus avoiding the use of labels, which are often lost, or 
illegible when required. The mains are laid along a 
frontage of 195j miles, there being 43(i| miles of 3-in. 
pipe laid in this frontage, together with 38 miles of 4-in. 
pipes, into which are drawn 185 miles of h.t. and e.h.t. 
cable and l(i8 miles of low-tension cable, exclusive of the 
traniway feeders. 

The total number of eleotric furnaces connected to the 
mains is 5 1 ; these are of \arious types — namely, 27 Heroult, 
14 Greaves-Etchells, 8 Electro-Metals, and one each of the 
Rennerfelt, Kjellin, and Chetwyn types. There are also 12 
rolling mills connected, the largest motor being of (jOO H.P., 



voi.sj. xo.-M 10. JANUARY 10, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



37 



A.c. There are 217 motore on hire, agsrregatiug S55 H.r., 
and 52 cookers, rated at 327 kw. The load is continually 
growing, the maximum demand having increased from 
lL'..ii:i K.v.A. in ini4 to o8,90n K.v.A. in 19is, as will be 
seen on the accompanying load curves (tig. 21). The 
station load fa<'tor has remained during the four years 
practically constant at 40 per cent. 

The "emergency station" which is lieing erected at 
Blackburn Jleadowswill contain plant of 2)^,1 miOkw. capacity, 
the boilere being of Stirling and Clarke-Chapman make, and 
the turbo-generatore by Parsons, Willans, General Electiic 
Co., and the British Thomson- Houston Co. Spray coolers 
have been adopted instead of cooling towers. 

The Sheaf Street station is rated at 4,iioii kw., and 
Kelhani at ."i,72.") kw. A new station is in contemplation, 
to be of no less than 100,1100 kw. capacity, so it will be 
seen that Shettield is not going to rest on its laurels. 

This article would not be comjilete without some refer- 
ence to the other side of the subject — from the consumer's 
point of view. The undertaking, like others, has felt the 
effects of the increased cost of coal and labour, and the 
higher rate of income-tax ; but, owing no doubt to the 
greater economy attained with the newer generating plant, 
the consumer has not felt them to the same degree. The 
a\erage prices obtained during the past five years arc as 
follows : — 

I'JiS. 1917. 1916. 1915. 1914. 

Light and heat ... 2-32d. 2-22d. 2'17d. 2-34d. 254d. 

Power 'TPd. Hd. -Tld. •;2d. 'TSd. 

Total avcratre price 'SSd. Sod. 'SSd. 'STd. ri3d. 

It will be seen that there was a marked reduction in the 
average price for lighting and heating from 1914 to 19 Ki, 
and the present price is lower than in 1915 ; power charges 
also fell somewhat, but now exceed the pre-war average. 
The over-all average price, however, has fallen by 2 1 per 
cent., and an analysis of the figures indicates that the power 
output in 1914 was o'") times the lighting and lie;iting 
output, wherea,s in 1918 the ratio was no less than IG : 1. 

The tariff which is in force is given briefly below : — 
Lighting, 4d. per unit, or 4d. per unit less 50 per cent., 
subject to a minimum payment representing 4), hours' use 
per day, for 3(55 days a year, of the maximum number of 
lamps in use at one time ; domestic rate, all purposes, 10 per 
cent, per annum on the net assessment, plus ^d. per unit ; 
outside lighting, 2d. per unit ; picture tneatres, 3id. \)er unit 
for lighting, l^d. per unit for lanterns or power : works 
lighting. Id. per unit, subject to an agreement ; heating. 
Id. or id., subject to minimum payment ; power, according 
to mode of use, 2d., Hd., or l^Ci. (continuous working), up 
to 1 3'7 units per day, with discounts up to 40 per cent, for 
205 1"7 units per day. 

An alternative charge for power of £4 per k.v.a. of- 
maximum demand, plus ^d. per unit, is offered for high- 
pressure supply in l>ulk. It is interesting to note that 
electric furnaces are charged at the jxiwer rate. The 
tariff was increased in 1916 and 1917 liy the addition of 
10 per cent, to charges over 2d. per unit and 33^ per cent, 
to charges of 2d. and under ; and from September last the 
latter increase was raised to 45 per cent. 

In addition to the supply undertaking, the department 
carries on a considerable contracting business, the accounts 
of which are kept distinct from those of the supply : in 
1917-18 the revenue of this branch was £47,923, and 
the working expenses were £44,393. The department was 
responsible for the installation of (;,356 H.v. of motors, 
out of a total of 18,291 H.p. connected during the year. 

The diagram on page 33 (fig. lfi)ishows graphically the 
progress made by the undertaking during the six years which 
have elapsed since we last gave details of its progress ; it 
will be seen that development has taken place at a 
phenomenal rate. Throughout the whole of the pro<"eedings 
connected with the work of the extensions, the Electricity 
Supply Committee showed that it was fully alive to the 
urgency of the situation, and never hesitated tn depart from 
official procedure in the interests of the undertaking and to 
meet the national interests, whenever it was necessary to do 
so, and allowed the engineer to carry on unencumbered by a 
too close regard for adherence to rigid regulations, which 
may be very necessary under peace conditions, but at times of 
emergency often have a retarding influence, with no 



compiensat'ng advantage. We trust that the city will con- 
tinue to advance, and that the electricity supply department 
will both contribute to, and share in, its prosperity. 

A total of 194 employes left the, department for service 
with His Majesty's Forces, of whom 21 have been definitely 
reported killed. 

In conclusion, we must express our thanks to Mr. S. E. 
Fedden, engineer and general manager of the undertakinp, 
for facilities for preparing this article, to Mr. H. E. 
Yerbury, deputy general manager, ]\Ir. Cuthill, assistant 
engineer, j\Ir. Taylor, constructional engineer, and to all 
the membere of the staff, who most courteously afforded 
us assistance and information. 



ELECTRIC FURNACES IN THE NORTH 
OF SPAIN. 

[by (juk special correspondent in spaik.] 



A coMPANV (Altos Hornos de Vizcaya) has recently 
installed an electric furnace in its works at Baracaldo, 
near Bilbao, for the production of specially refined steel. 
The furnace is of the " Electro-Metals " type, producing 
25 tons of steel at eiich charge. The plant has been running 
experimentally for some months, but the staff is now con- 
x'ersant with its working, and is operating the furnace 
continuously when the snpply of materials will allow of it. 

Three-phase current is supplied by the Sestao power 
house, and is transformed to two-phase by means of two 
transformers coupled up in " Scott " connection. 

The furnace is built of refractory brick strengthened on 
the exterior by steel slabs. The furnace bottom is of calcined 
and crushed dolomite. Two charging doors and one tappini: 
liole are provided. The furnace crown, in the form of an 
arch, is of one piece of steel with a brick lining. The 
whole furnace is mounted on trunnions, and tilted by means 
of an electric motor. 

The working pressure is 70 volts. The arc is struck by 
hand, and hand regulation is continued for some minutes, 
when the automatic regulator is put into^ service. The 
average consumption of energy works out at 450 kw. -hours 
jier ton of steel obtained, but it is hoped to reduce this 
figure a.s the staff gets better acquainted with the peculi- 
arities of the plant. A complete operation of the plant 
takes about four hours. The best record has been seven 
charges in 24 hours — 17^ tons of steel. 

Up to the middle of September nearly 300 tons of fine 
steel had been produced, in spite of great difficulties in 
obtaining materials of good (|uality. Occasional lack of 
coal at the generating station was also a drawback. It is 
hoped that the return to normal times will enable the furnace 
to be run continuously during the coming year. 

There are one or two other electric furnaces now being 
established in the North of Spain. Messrs. F. Echevania 
and Sons, of Bilbao, have under construction an Heroult 
furnace of five-ton capacity at their Recalde ironworks. 
Current will be supplied by the Sociedad Hidroelectrica, of 
Bilbao. A small American furnace is also working in 
Pasajes (Guipuzcoa), and another in Araya (Alava). 
Another electric furnace for the pi'oduction of ferro- 
manganese is l)eing erected in the province of Teruel. 



German Organisation of Technical Experts. — The 

German Ecotoraic Union and the Society of German Certificated 
Engineers have together formed a working association of economic 
and technical experts. The extent of the objects of the new society, 
in 80 far as these are of general interest, is not known. All persons 
with technical knowledge and experience have been called upon by 
the society to devote their services to the best advantage of the 
community under the present changed conditions. — Sn-ial' Prn rix, 
November 28th. 



38 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. st. no. 2.141;, jaxuaky lo, i-jin. 



WHAT IS MEANT BY EFFICIENCY 
METHODS? 



By E. a. pells, Majob, R.E. 



EFFiriENCY is a frightful bogey word, and ceitaiiiiy docs, 
not mean "slavery," as I once heard a labour agitator say, 
for "slavery.." in the sense of the word as he meant it, is 
most inefficient. It means, on the contrary, the maximum 
result with the mininiiim of efiort. 

Some yeare ago, I'\ AV^inslow Taylor, an expert American 
engineer, began to study the e.xpenditure of effort which is 
designated " work." He carefully studied the amount of 
etfort a man had Ui put into his work, and the time he 
sjx-nt on each separate action ; after which, he studied each 
individual movement, and by careful arrangement of the 
appliances the worker had to use in bis work and a careful 
training of the worker to eliminate all waste movement, 
he was able to increase the productive value of the worker 
by from 2.') to .")0 per cent. 

Now, this sounds all very well from the general stand- 
jKiint ; but one will ask, how did the employe get on !' 
Supjrosing each operative increases the amount of work he 
docs by 50 per cent., which is half as much again, then for 
every three men that were employed before, one is dispensed 
with and thrown out of work. 

Tjet me answer the question in parts. First, the emplo3c 
gets practically the whole of the extra value of the increased 
output, for the employer gets his reward in the added 
efficiency of his plant, although he must have a margin to 
cover the extra depreciation which usually follows a " speed 
up." Secondly, the worker does mf u-ork any harder — 
that is, he does not make any greater effort than before : 
hut the difference is, that the whole of his effort is a useful 
one — all due to the new methods taught him by the 
efficiency engineer. So it is not 50 per cent, extra work — 
it is 50 per cent, extra result from the same amount of 
work. In fact, instances have occurred where output has 
been increased by 30 j)er cent., hours reduced by 12 per 
cent., and wages increased 15 per cent., which, considered 
carefully, shows a great advantage on the side of the 
operative; Thirdly, in all cases where "scientific manage- 
ment " or " efficiency methods " have been introduced under 
the " Taylor System "' that ha\e come under my purview, 
nevei' in a single instance has any employe had to be 
dispensed with, and a very little thought will indicate the 
reason. The incfeased productivity at reduced cost which 
the employer enjoys enables him to compete in the world's 
markets very successfully, and demands increase so rapidly 
that he is enabled to extend his works and increase, instead 
of decrease, the number of workers he employs. 

There is a further interesting {xjint arising out of this 
which I should like to bring forward. Presuming that 
these methods are introduced into the whole of the 
industries in a particular country, the manufacturers of 
that country could then undersell all comers in their home 
markets, and foreign competition would not bother them. 
< >n the top of this, the purchasing value of the workers' 
wage would be greater, and an era of prosperity would exist 
such as never existed before. 

But, one will say, surely the employer, when he finds out 
what a fine thing the worker is making of it all, will want 
to reduce wages ; he will find reasons for this which will 
appear plausible, and then down goes the pay. 

And! my reply will be, down goes the employer who 
could show such a lamentable lack of knowledge of human 
nature. Cutting in rates is one thing that the efficiency 
engineer will never agree to. I know that in the old days, 
happily gone beyond recall, the usual way a manufacturer 
would economise was by cutting his wages bill, and conse- 
ijuently cutting the throat of the goose that laid the golden 
eggs, for one seldom finds that such methods have met with 
success. They have, however, given us a perpetual mis- 
trust of Capital, as such, and it is a recognised axiom in 
Trade-Union circles that the interests of Capital and 
Labour are diametrically opposed. This, I contend, is a 
complete fallacy, and but a very little study will prove it 
such. The fact is indisputable, that we all depend upon 
the success of the country's industries to a greater t5r lesser 



extent, and the individual can only be truly prosperous if 
the country is also. Therefore, it is obvious that anything 
that tends to promote that prosperity must also promote the 
jirosperity of the individual, thus clearly showing that 
" Scientific Management " properly apj)lied must make for 
the ultimate good of both employer and employe ; and 
whilst it is liringing tiiem prosperity, so it is bringing 
prosperity to the country they live in. 

It may be asked, now, why is it necessary to make time 
studies, motion studies, and put in a system which appt^ars 
to be very elaborate to achieve all this ; surely this could 
be attained without a lot of elaboration •- There is raised 
a very interesting point. It will have been noticed that 
games recpiiring skill of any kind recpiire a certain amount 
of practice and careful coaching by those who know the best 
way of doing these things. What do we say when we see a 
man on the football field who apparently has no idea of the 
game ? It, of course, dejiends a gi'cat deal on our cajiapity 
for sarcasm or the extent of our vocabulary. A\'e expect 
the men to be carefully trained and taught their places in 
the team. In all other kinds of sjiort we expect the same 
thing, and object loudly and strenuously if it is not so ; yet 
we often place a completely untrained man in a workshop 
or on a job, and expect good results. " Scientific manage- 
ment" wants to alter all this ; and by carefully studying the 
methods and times of the best workers, we can arrive at 
what is, one might say, " championship form." Then, by 
carefully teaching each of the other ojxjratives these methods, 
we must ultimately greatly impro\e the general work of the 
shop or factory as a whole. Certainly it may be seldom that 
any of the men really approach " championship form," but 
when they do why shouldn't they reap the benefit ? Why 
should they be prevented from getting the real \alue of 
their talents just because they lie in the paths of industry 
instead of those of sport ? If a man is an expert in any 
kind of sport he can make a fairly good thing out of it. 
Then let us bring the same kind of feeling into industry ; 
and where a man is head and shoulders above his fellows, 
let him reap the benefit. The idea of the efficiency engineer 
is to put such a man in as a coach or instructor of the best 
methods, and surely this is a good idea. When doing this, 
we do not just let the man be made a foreman. That niay 
entail a higher standard of education than your wonderfully 
skilled manual worker possesses ; so, therefore, it is unfair 
to him. ]\Iake it an entirely separate job, and then see 
how soon he will justify his existence. Even if your best 
workmen do not desire to act in this capacity, they must 
reap the full benefit of their extra proficiency in larger 
wages, which will bring in its train a higher standard of 
self-respect, better housing, and happier home conditions. 

A (juestion may arise, what becomes of the dullard ? 
My answer is, there are no dullards ; there are lots of square 
pegs in round holes, and the effect of " scientific manage- 
ment" is to find all the right holes for the right pegs. I 
remember one instance of a man being sacked from job 
after job as absolutely useless and a fool, and yet that man 
finally became a skilled horse-keeper, and the veterinary 
surgcm who employed him valued him most highly. It 
was just th3 (juestion of finding the right place for him. 

There is a place in the world of industry where the great 
utility of "scientific management" will prove itself in 
time ; by collecting and collating data it will be the means 
of placing many workers in occupations where they can 
realise a comfortable competency, instciwl of always grovelling 
along as " weaker brothers" all their lives. 

Finally, the ability of a community to pay high wages 
dejiends more upon the avoidance of waste than upon 
increase of accumulations. The avoidance of waste in 
ojx;rative effort, time and fatigue, and employer's materials 
and power, means prosperity for the employe, employer, and 
the Empire. 



Tradesmen Using the Royal Arms.— The Lomhn Gazelfe 

for January .Srd contains lists of tradesmen in London and else- 
where who hold warrants of appointment to Royalty, with 
authority to use the Royal Arms. These lists, as we suggested 
some years ago in connection with certain great public celebrations, 
should be of service to firms who will make a speciality of electrical 
illumination and device work when Peace rejoicings take place in 
a lew months' time. 



Vol. 84. No. 2,146, January 16, 1919, 
^ 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



39 



ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE. 



6EVER.tL seiemes for electric ploughing have rec-ently beeu 
tried, but each .system seems to have been designed with the 
idea that the .sole oBject to be accomplished is to .secuie a 
.suffirieut pull on the plough, and, except that the .steam 
engine is i-eplaced by aji electric uifrtoi-, tliey differ ver.\ 
little froui the Fowler system. 

Ill applyruy electricity to agricultuie it should he remeni- 
lieied that the main object is agriculture, and iiot merely the 
application of electricity, and that a )ir.st essential is g<x>d 
drainage. / 

kxs. interesting system devised by Mr. G. F. Cooke, 
and described in patent specification No. 114,109, consists 
of elevated rail tracks which are i)ei'nia.ne,ntly ei^ected 
parallel to each other on opposite sides of the area to be culti- 
varted, the tracks being designed to can-y travelling electric 
motors, by which all the necessary hauling operations can 
be performed, from the draining and ploughing of the sod 
to the harvesting and trans|X)rtation of the produce. 

These tracks sene three di.stinct purjxises : firet, they fonn 
the main drains; .secondly. supix>rt« for the travelling motors; 
and thirdly, a ligbt ra.il\vay. by means of which the seed aiid 
IVrtihsci-s may be carried to the .soil and the crops traais- 
lK>rt(^l; they also, incidentally, serve to divide the land into 
^uifctlhle areas, so that waste of land for hedges, ditches, and 
iciads is rendered unneces-sary. The distance between the 
Hacks may lie as groat as haJt a mile, hut, wherever possible, 
this dis'tance .sliould be unifomi. Where tJie land is .slightly 
imdidatory. the level of the track may be presei^ved by 
making the supports longer or shorter, as the case may he. 

Tile tinck consi'stis of two steel rails, f. .shape in section. 



Either d.c. or k.o,. may be used, and where DC. is avail- 
able it may be supplied to the rails direct, if their total 
length does not exceed one or two miles. If tho total length 
of rail is long, ur the current heavy, it may be supphcd by 
means of an insulated cable ; the rails are divided into 
sections and connected to the cable as required, suitable 
switch boxes being arranged in the lail supports. The cur- 
rent would be supplied at about .'JIK) volts pre,ssuie, .series 
motors being used, coutrolIe<l by ordinary tramway-type con- 
trol le.rs and re.sist<uices. 

Where the total length of rail is very great and the load 
cxtremeJy heavy, .single-plia.se aJteriiating current has several 
advanta.ges. An insulated high-tension cable can lie canied 
inside the supports, from which tappings may be taken at 
suitable, intervals to .step-down transfonuers which reduce 
the pressure to about 3.50 volts, at which pressure it is fed 
to the conductor rails. With this .sy.stem, single-phase com- 
mutator motors would be neces.sai-y, controlled by tramway- 
tyi>e. controllers and auto-tran.sformers. 

The three-phase system has similar advanta,ges to the 
single-phase system from the point of view of transmission 
over long distance.s, but requires at least two conductor rails 
and an earth return, and two. .sets of in.sulators. 

The greatest advantage claimed for this system of elevated- 
rail tracks is that its in.stallation would lead to the estab- 
lishment of agriculture on a more permanent, as well as a 
more inten.sive, liasis, as not only is the application of elec- 
tricity to the machinery of agricidture made most> eas>', but 
the .system proviiles at the same time a i^eiinanent means of 
soil drainage and of transporting the produce. 

The diainage of the soil caji be quite easily effected by 
means of a mole draining machine, hauled from the track by 
the same motors as u.sed for hauling the plough, the con- 




1 .— SiXTiON.Ai. Ei,i\Mii'>, (IF Support of 
Rail Track, .amj Co-ncki.te Drain. 



Fir,. 2. — Sfctio.n'ai. Sii>e View and End View of Traveller. 



which are secured to the upper ends of A-shaped supports, 
preferably steel or ferro-conorete castings; the lower ends 
:ire buried in a suitable foundation, which also forms the 
main drain; two lighter rails are secured t<i the supi»rts 
near the ground — these sen'e to maintain the vertical posi- 
tion of the traveller. Tlie supixurts project about 4 ft. above 
the. surface of the ground, and the track rails are .so .secured 
to them that a slot is left between the rails, tlhiough which 
a collector projects on to two conductor rails, which arc 
mounted on .suitable insulators inside the track rails. 

Bach track .sen'es both as a horizontal and lateral support 
for an electrically-driven winding drum, which is arranged 
to travel along the rail as the' cultivation pmceeds, and is 
.ilso provide<l with a brake by means of which it is locked 
to the rails during the hauling oi^erations. 

The implements are hauled by meadis of a wire rope. 
v.iiich is slightly longer than twice the distance between the 
tracks, the two ends of the rojie being ,'^^cured to the imple- 
ment, whilst the rope it.self is carried across the field and 
coiled two and a half times round each winding dnim. By 
this means the necessity of coiling the cable evenly on to 
the drums is eliminated, whilst, it is claimed, securing a. much 
higher and more uniform hifuling speed and longer life of 
the rojje. The power is also applied at two points of the cabTe 
'siraultaneouslv, thereby se<iiring a .50 per cent, higher power 
faotoi' than where one engine is idle half the time, as well 
.■IS making a lighter system possible. All the implements aire 
iluuble-ended, i.e., ca.palile of working whilst^ travelling in 
••ither direction, and as they can be hauled right up to the 
tracks, there is no tiuie'lo.st in turning, and no subsequent 
finishing of w^ide he;idlands is neces.sary. 

The total weight pre.s.sing on the land is that of the imple- 
ment only, and there is no setting or removing of tackle, 
and no cai-tage of fuel or water. 



Crete main drain being provided with suitable branch drains 
into whiidi the mole tliuins can discharge. 

Most of our agricultural districts ai-e within 10 miles of a 
railway, but tlie annual cost of the neces-sary caj-tage almost 
equals that of plougliing, and any system which offers facili- 
ties in more than one direction must of nc-cessity cost less 
than a single puri>ose .scheme. Several schemes for the con- 
struction of light railways for agricultural produce have been 
proinoted. but the chief obstacle a.ppea'rs to be the cost, and 
only s(jme 500 miles have been so far construoted, at a co.st 
of f7,000 i>er mile. 

.A.ssimiing the cos-t of constnicting the elevated rail tracks 
to be the siime, viz., £7,000 pei- mile, this ^ives the cost per 
acre at about £30, for which sum the land is not only 
drained, but hedges, ditches, and roads, and the cost of their 
maintenance, are eliminated, while the advantages of cheap 
power are made available at all times, and several altemative 
Tont<>'S provided for transport. 

^^■e understand that a company, named Electroculture, I^td., 
is being foniied to oiXM'ate the patent, and hopes to have 
tracks ready shortly for demon.stration. ^^ 



Dielectric Loss in Cable.— -^n instance is cited in the 

hUctricid l!i-i-iiw, of Chicago, of very long iO.OOO-volt under- 
ground cables breaking down reiieatedly, even when the 
kilovolt-ami)ere load was quite in.sufficient to cause over- 
heating. It was noticed that the line liroke down after it 
had been in service for a certain time, almost ii-respective of 
load. The can.se of failure was cuinulative heating diie to 
dielectric losses and consequent reduction of dielectric 
strength. By cutting pressure off the line at intervals si-> as 
to piwent cumulative heating, the numlier of breakdowns 
was ie<luced by 75 i>er cent. 



40 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.84. No.2,ur„ January lO, 1919 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

rMtvrt ret'eired hy vs after 5 P.M. ON Tuesday cannot appear until 
the fMinviHa wotk. ( i>rrespmuient> >h.>uld /orward their commuit,- 
catwna at the earliett pouible mometU. A» letter eaii be piiMisned 
iinleti we have the writer i luime and addreat in >mr /iisseasn'a. 

I:>ectric Pressure RefJulaJors. 

1 slu.iil.1 1«- givaUv oblijjtMl il any of yoiii' ivuder.'* <oul(l 
give uHi their views on the queistion of the iiistoHatum ol 
eleitrie pie.^sure i-e^julators. , , • .. i , 

The piirtK>se for wliich I require a reguJatoi- is to regulate- 
the ninniiig of an instaUation driven by a. water turbine 
that is aJso fitted with a governor, but 1 m-ed haadly point 
out to many users of this type of aipixia-atus that even the 
very be.st of \\at<'i-turbine governors are not very quick in 
aetion so that as absolutely aecurat*^ i-unning is desired, 
some additional form of elec.tric governor must be installed. 
Most of the apparatus offered for this puriK>se apjiears to be 
at an extremelv high price, but even this is not very iin- 
iiortant provided thev c-any out wliat is nlauned for them. 

In '^penkiii" nf the question of the regulation ot the spet-d 
,,l n giiv.'iiiiMl \vat<M- turbine. I am not, of course, alluding 
to th.".|u."sti(in of turbines ojM'rating under very high heads, 
as naturally- a turbine that is governed Ity detlecting the ]et 
that is working at high pressure wdl. of cours<', govern 
ae*'uratelv. but in the turbine under disciussion the lu\id is 
--Miall and th.-reforo the regulation is slow-acting. I .shaill 
be glad to lie favoured with other linns' exi>erienc<^ with the 
nse^of ele<lrii- pressure governoi-s under similar conditions. 

Engineer. 

.hin.tiini -liul. l'.)IO. 

Greater London Electricity Supply. 

In voiir las-t, week's leadei-, dealing with the above .subject, 
reference was made to the lack of enterpri.-*' and progres-sive- 
ness on the l)art of smaller uudertdkings owne<l by local 
authorities, ixirticularly in regard to the a<loption of three- 
l>lia.«e traiisiiiLs.'aon and distribution. 

It iiia.v interest vou to know that the Erith Urban Dls- 
trict Council, e-'stahlished as far back as 1903 a .standard 
three-phase sy.stem of. generation ,n.nd distribution (profes-' 
i^ional advi.'^'r's, Messrs. llawtayne & Zedcn). 

Manchester, with its iiopulation of three-quarters ol ji 
milhou, had a. few years previously adopted a. lovv-pre,s.?ure 
live-wire system, which many thought in those days iniight 
become a standard, and Manchester was always rathei- proud 
of its enteii)rise. But the "battle of the systems" will be 
fresh in the memory of most of your readers. 

.■Xgaan, in regard to steam turbines, the Halifax Corpora- 
tion had steam turi)ines in u.se about the year 1897, and, 
although writing from memory, I doubt whether any of the 
(ireaiter London cxinqMnies had turbines in.stalled prior to 
that date. Possibly Halifax and Erith may be merely excei> 
tions that prove the rule, nevei-thele.s.9— /''mi justitia mat 
cirAnni. 

J. C. Williams, 

Enyiiiccr ((■ Maiiagcr. 

Electricitv Supply & Tramway Dept., 

Eirith, December 31sf, 1918. 

[We refer to this suliject in our leading columns.— Eds. 
Ei.F.c. Ri:v.] 

British Fair Play? 

As the I.M.E.A., to which my Committee belongs, ex- 
pressed the opinion that chief technical officej's should not 
be members of fne E.P.E.A.. 1 .sent in my resignation of 
inemlier-hip of that Association. Later, at another meeting 
of the LM.E.A., the following resolution was proposed, .se- 
eonded, and cai'rieil unanimously : — 

"That, in the opinion of this Association, the higher offi- 
cials employed in municipal electrical undertakings should 
ha\e an increase in salary at least equivalent to the war 
awards." 

Munieipal Electricity Committee members only tof>k part 
in the di.s<-ussion and voting. When this recommendation 
caine before my Commiittee, they, knowing that I had re- 
signed my membership of the E.P.E..\., tunied it down, 
although at the same meeting they ofieied an increauSe to 
members of the staff belonging to the E.P.E.A., and the 
workmen belonging to the E.T.r. This .shows the sort of 
-consideration we get if we do not belong to a ."rtrong associa- 
tion. For myself, as I thought that " SjuK-e for the goose 
sliouUl lie sauce for the gander," I immediately withdrew my 
resignation from the E.P.E..\., and proiX).se to continue a.s 
;i member until an association is fonned which can enforce 
llie riglits of the chief technical oflicers, although it is 
rather awkward for the chief (however much he may sympa- 
thise with them) to belong to the same association as the 
■stafl', but at pre.sent he apparently has no other alternative. 

It is this sort of unfair treatment on the part of employers 
which absolutely forces their staff and men to join protec- 
tive ass<K'iRti()ns. 

Rorouj4h Electrical Enj^ineer. 

.lanauiii ulU . I'.ll'.l 



llie 1 uture of the Shiftmun. 

I cajiiiot but view with alarm the apathy of shiftmen over- 
til.- prolilenus involved in the matter of recoil structiou ; whilst 
olb.i- employes are gaining material advantages, the shift 
niiin is left practicaJlv in his old |K>sition. ' 

I cauiu>t understand th.> action ol the RlectiicaJ Trades 
I nion, the National I'liioii of Knginemen and Firemen, and 
tlie Workers' Union in ac<-epting a Atj-hour week for shift 
nien. whilst a.pplying for a. .n-hoiir we«>k for other employes; 
smely they rtuiiiot 1h^ voicing the views of .shiftmen, who 
lor years have been working a oti-hour week. 1 should think 
the tinu' is now ripe for a univer.s!il 47-liour week. 

I'luloubtedly the -shiftmen are not so well organised as 
they might be owing to the fact that they are distriluitcil 
over the country, and arc attaclie<l t<> .sevenil dilferent trade 
unions, which do not, apparently, thoroughly understand tlie 
individual .situation. 

Cannot something he done to bring these men into closer 
■iinit\ , and .so bring their grievances before the committee 
net up to iiUiuii-e into the conditions thait prevail, and to .see 
that these nu'rf get their due in any reforms that are to be 
made in the matt<'r of recon.struction '.' 

A .Shiftworker, 

JaHuanj ill,, 1919. 



The Need for Co operation Amon^ the Smaller 
Manufacturers. 

I have i<'ad with giea.t interest your leader in your lir.st 
i.ssiie for this y<sir, and think you have touched on a subjwt 
which is of primary interest and impoi-tanoe to the British 
■electrical iiulu.stry. 

The feature of British enterprise in the past has been the 
number of relatively small firms who are engaged in the 
engineering industry, ami this has unfoitunately prevent«l 
the pi-odiK-tion (rf standanl gear in sikii iiuantities as would 
eniible them to c(jmi>ete successfully in foreign markets a« . 
a.gains-t their hirgcr foreign coiiqietitors. 'J'he question of co- 
oi)erative elVort between such finiis in order that they may be 
able to tackle the. wide problems which await them at the 
present time is, therefore, one which ,diould re<'eive seiioiis 
attention from all such inanufacturers. 

The large combination which we .see being fonned a,re un- 
doubtedly a step in the right direction, as they will enable, 
British manufactureis to compete .siuc<-essfully for the larger 
contractis which will he placed when conditions are agajii 
normal, but the further .siibjec-t whicih you mention — that is, 
of co-operative elVort« between ■ specialist manufacturers — is 
also of equal iniixulance. Tliey ate not concerned with the 
same i>roblcins a« the large combinations, b'ut it i.s esseJitial 
that their etiorts should be co-ordinated in .such a way a.s 
to en;ible each maker to produce hi:s standard apparatus in 
such c|ii;iiititifs as to enable hini to comi>ete in price with his 
'l'orei;jii r(iiii|iititors. 

Su( ii>,-lul |>i(Kluction is the first ste:p in any manufactur- 
ing iiidustiy, as without efficient production no sidling organi- 
'SJition caiii be carried on satisfactoiily. It seems, therelinv. 
'that .such firms shoidd so limit their i-ange of production that 
they can introfluce proper methods for quantity production 
in those lines which they continue to manufac'ture. ' At the 
'.same time, it will be neces-saa-y for them to as.s(x;iate tliem- 
i.selves with other firms who have adopted a similar policy in 
order that collectively they may produce such quantities of 
t^ach cla.ss manufactured that the cost is brought down to 
meet the international coini>etitian. 

What, I think, is required, is some means of inten.se 
's|>ecialisation with regard to production, and a collective 
cli'ort as regards the .selling. &i>e<:ialisation in production 
necessitates joint organisation for .selling, beeaus*^ it is neees- 
sary for any sales organisation to have command of a com- 
plete range of apparatus in order to be successful. 

It is for tTiese rea.sons that I welcome the publicity which 
you have given to this matter as your New Year's message, 
and as one* particularly interested in the .success of small 
'Specialists' manufactui'es, I tiiist that the subject may be 
taken up by British inanufacturers to see what steps can be 
taken with a view to their associating together to carry out 
the object you have outlined. 

H. C. Siddeley. 
London, W.C. 2. Jnii luuu 111,. 1910. 



Electrostatic Dust Precipitatiou.— In an article on this 

subject /iK/H.f^r/rtt Management .says that a copper-.smelting 
I company installed a precipitating plant at a. cost of $113,9(.W. 
I The ojierating expen.ses ()X)wer, labour, supplies, &c.) were 
I $]4,fJ(K) a year; but the value of the copper .dust collected 
i was $180,018 a. year (all figures based on pre-war prices). 
! Cement plants can also sliow a good return even f>n .such low- 
I value material as raw cement dust, but of .sjjecial importance 
; is the fact that many cement plants can collect many tons 

of pot:ish pel- annum, which is valuable at all times, and 
i inmienselv .so at preatmt. One cement plant, with a precipi- 
\ tating equipment that co.st $180,000 to in.st.ill and $10.39.5 a. 
' vear to operat4', obtained recoveries of cement dust worth 

$2."),000, and ii.itasb ucrtli $r,(\,in) » year (also pre-war 

prices). 



voi.si. xo. 2,146, JA.XCARV 10, 1919.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEWo 



41 



ADMIRALTY ELECTRICAL ENQINEERINQ 
STAFF DINNER. 



PRESEXT.iTION TO Mr. WoRUINGHAM. 

At Cannon Street Hotel, Ixindon, on the 'ind inst,, the Ailmir- 
alty Electrical Engineering Staff gave a complimentary dinner 
and presentation to Mr. C. H. Wordingham, C.B.E., 
M.Inst. C.E. (President of the Institution of Electiical Engi- 
neers), on his relinquishing the olSce of Director of Electrical 
Engineeiing, Admiralty. As aheady announced in these 
columns, Mr. Wordingham has resigned the directorship in 
order to resume practice as a consulting engineer, but has 
been retained by the Board of Admiralty in a consulting 
capacity. — 

At the request of the staff, Mr. Wordingham presided over 
the festivities, and the pixjceedings were graced by the pres- 
ence of Mi-s. Wordingham. The tonipany nnnil)ere<i upwards 
of 200, including Mr. A. D. Con.stable (Assistant Director of 
Electrical Engineering, now acting in charge of the DeiMrt- 
ment), Mrs. Constable, Mr. E. T. Williams, Mr. W. Mc- 
Clelland, Mr. L. J. Steele, Mr. Z. Kingdon. Mr. Hunt, Mr. 
R. Wightuian, Mr. F. Purser Fletcher, Mr. F. C. Forster, 
Mr. W. P. Scott, Mr Melville AckeiT. Mr. Frank Moi-ton. 
Mr. R. W. Willis. Mr. T'ttley, Mr. E. E. Rogers, Mr. H. R. 
Green, Mr. J. Shaw, A-c. 

Proi>osing tlie health of Mr. Wordingham, Mr. Constable 
reviewed the progress of the Department during the past 15^ 
years, remarkmg that Mr. Wordingham had completely revo- 
lutionised the electrical equipment of the Navy, which was 
unequalled in any navy in the world, and had helped the 
Navy to carry through the iiecent supreme test without any 
serious breakdown. When Mr. Wordingham first joined the 
Admiralty service, he had only two a.^^-iistants, both of whom 
were present that evening, and now the staff numbered 
something like 'Ml of all ranks. Mi'. Wordingham was pos- 
-sessed of extraordinaiy energy, but foi' which he could not 
have accomplished half of what he had done for the Navy. 
He had been as.sociated with Mr. Wordingham closely at the 
Admiralty for six years, and could te.-itify to his straight- 
forwardness of character, honesty of purpose, and genuine 
sympathy with the members of his stafl', and all who came 
to him for a helping hand. Voicing the feelings of the whole 
ot the .staff, he said they regretted exceedingly Mr. Wording- 
ham's dep>art.ure, thanked him for his unfailing courtesy and 
consideration to them, and wished him long life, happiness, 
and tlif success which he deserved. In conclusion, he asked 
Mr. Wiirdingham's accept,ince of a presentation (a hand- 
some gokl watch, together with a framed photogiaph of the 
staff' and an illuminated album containing the autographs of 
the sub.scril>ers) as a small token of the esteem and affection 
in w hic'h he was held by the entire staff, and as a memento 
of the Department and of the work done by him at the 
."Admiralty. 

In acknowledging the gift, Mr. Wordingham said he would 
always treasure it with affection as well as gi-atitude. Mr. 
Constable had referred to the fact that l.jj yeai-s ago, when 
he was practising as a consulting engineer, he was invited 
by the .Admiralty to take charge of the Electiical DepaJtment 
then being formed. There had ju.st been pieseuted a reix>rt 
by a committee on the electrical working of plant and gear in 
His Majesty's ships, and that i-eport was intended to be the 
basis of the work of the new department. He found that 
report exceedingly useful; when it happened to tally with 
what he wanted to do he refeiTed to the rei)ort. and when- 
ever he did not want to do what the report said, he left it 
severely alone ! In the early days, in order that the official 
trials of a ship might be passed it was necessary to eviscerate 
the electrical gear and put it into an oven. If a test was 
made, say, within 1'2 hours, the test was satisfactory and 
the gear passed; if they waited too long they had to do it 
all over again. Obviously one of the fir.st things he had 
to ilo, therefore, was to get rid of iu.sulating material that 
would absorb water. When he entered the sen'ice one of 
the chief materials in use was " Ambroin " ; he had made 
the acquaintance of that German material before, and he 
knew it to be the very worst of its kind in existence. " My 
feelings towariis the Germans then, " he ct)ntinued, " were 
the same as now. and I was quite determined that .Ambroin 
was going, and it went very quickly. It was thoroughly bad, 
and it was being used in a thoroughly bad way. Contrac- 
tors were complaining bitterly of the high prices W'hich they 
had to pay the (lermans for that insulating material for use 
on H.M. ships. There is no Ambroin in use now in the 
Navy, and there has not been any used for a great nmidier 
of yeai-s." Practically none of the standard cahles in those 
early days had wires in stranding numbers, and there were 
a Very large number of cables to cover a comparatively small 
range. He introduced standard sizes of wihle and standard 
stranding numbers, but he was told that his new cahles 
would be so ,stiff that it would be impossible to put them 
int<^> the sliips. He did not agree: those cables were made, 
and he ditl not think anybody ever found out the difference. 
They had ordinary commercial standard cables instea<l of 
the old-fashioned ones ! A.i the work grew, it very soon 
became evident that they had too many c.ibles. and that if 
thev wanted to go along on the old .sv.stem they would have 



to enlarge the ships in order to get the cables through the 
bulkheads. That led on to the ring-main system, about 
which there had been a good deal of controversy, but which 
still survived, and which had survived the actions that had 
been fought in the great war. His experience was based 
upon work on a large scale, and he was accustomed to heavv 
underground paper-insulated ciahles. He had abandoneii 
rubber as being anathema altogether. So when the ring- 
main system of distribution came in, he ventured to intro- 
duce annoured paper-insulated c-ables. Again he was told 
that he knew nothing about ships, and that it was quite 
impossible to get these underground mains into use — but 
they went there aU tlie .same, and it was an interesting fact 
that from the time the first ring-main paper-insulated cables 
were put in to this day, so far as he knew, there had never 
been a fault on them. The first thing which stnick 
one was that the Admiralty as a whole, including shipbuild- 
ing firms, ix)ssessed all the attributes of "mass." It was 
a. terrific task to alter anything which was already in motion, 
and it was a tenific task to .start this mass moving. That was 
good in itself, because it prevented violent fluctnations, but 
it was a frightful job to get any reforms made when thase 
i-efoniis were nee<fed. Then, again, one was impres.sed by 
the hugeness of the Admiralty machine, and the maivellous 
organisation which knit together aU the several deiwrtments 
and ensured that the work which affected a nundier of 
departments was dealt with by them, and that all those 
w-ho should know dii] know what was going on. He had 
nothing but admiration for the way in which this extra- 
ordinarily diflicidt matter had been worketl out. The Admir- 
alty Contract Depaituient was a mo<iel for every (iovern- 
ment Department to copy. Concluding, Mr. Woiilingham 
proposed the toast of " 'The Admiralty Staff," coupled witli 
the name of Mr. E. T. WnxiAMs (Assistant Director of 
Electrical Engineering), who responded in a few well-chosen 
.sentences. 



TRADE STATISTICS OF NEWFOUNDLAND. 



The following figures, showing the imports into Newfound- 
land dming 19IG-17 of gootis which are of interest to elec- 
trical contractors, are extracted from the recently-issued trade 
statistics. The figures for 191-5-16 are added for purposes 
of comparison, and notes are given of any increa.ses or 
decreases. 

1915-16. 

Dols. 

nierial, (£c.- 

1.000 

10,00(1 

86,trO(l 



lladiatorf, electric light 
From United Kingdom 
,, Canada 
'*„ United States 
Other countries 



1916-17. 
Dols. 



1 .( Xin 



Inc. or dec. 
Dols. 



l.tMl 



lO.iKKI 

.58.0)0 
I.IXIO 



Total ... 


4~.im 


lll,tXX> 


-1- 


64,000 


Mnchinenj for mining p 


urposts. — 








From United Kingdom 
Canada 
„ Unitt'd States 


... - l.tKK) 

•2,(HXI 

'2,<HKI 


.5.5.000 
26:5.fKX) 
Gil.OOt.l 


" -1- 
-1- 
+ 

+ 


•54.000 
26:^,00(» 
67,00(1 


Total ... 


5,(IOt) 


389.'Xto 


3.84 .fKX» 


Const luctional material 
local industries. — 


and machinery 


for 






From United Kingdom 
Canada 
.. United States 
Other countries 


i,u)0 

7,o<:io 

it;,0(Ki 


■2,0(X1 

i8.oa) 

•257,000 
•2,(Kl0 


+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 


1,000 

11,000 

241,0(KI 

2,000 


Total ... 


•24.(K10 


•279.(X)0 


255,000 


Oils, lubricating. — 
From United King<lom 
■ .. Canada 

Cnited States 


•2,(Xki 
9,(KI0 

.5S,(k;ki 


l.(X»0 

7,000 

.33, (XXI 


- 


I.OIKI 
2.1X10 
25.00<i 


Total ... 


69 ,000 


41,(X)0 


2.S,CK10 


Mdlerials for Western I 


'nioii Telegraph 


Co.— 






From United Kingdom 
.. United States 
Canada 


7.(HK1 
6.0I1O 
3,fH)0 


l.fNX) 
('..CKIO 


- 


6,1 too 
3, (XXI 



Total 16,0(K1 7.(XKI 

(Iliads for .lnijlo-.\meri(iw Telegraph Co. — 

From United Kingdom ... 1,000 .500 

„ United States ... 2.tHKl 2.5lKi 

(?anada — - 5lNl 

Total 3,11110 3.50(1 

Materials for n-irele.^s trlegraphij.— 

I'rom Canada 5,000 n,(XIO 

,. Unite.l States ,.. — 3,(KXI 

Tntid .-. ... 5.0(XI 12.(XKI 
Dcllai - Is. 2ci. 



.5(K1 
otX) 
500 



4,(X)0 
3,000 



7,0(ltl 



42 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. si. No. 2,1 lO, January lO, 191 s. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



New French Company. — La Societe le Materiel General 

tlectririui? M.G.E. is the name of a new company which has lately 
been formetl in Paris (l.'i. Rue iles Petits Hotels), with n capital of 
£19.200, to rairy on an electriial enfrinocrintr buaineR-s. 

Social. — '■ 'l'« mark the termination of tlic war," tlio 
directors of the Rochdale Electuic Co., Ltd., electrical engi- 
neers, Shawcloxi^h, Rochdale, entertaine<l their eniployi'a to supper 
on Friday. About so ;.'nest3 were present. A whist drive preieiipd 
the supper, and dancin^r followed. Mr. Walter .Scolt, chairman of 
directors, presided, and the speakora included Mr. W. I). Watson, 
raanairing director. Mr. W. L. Asliworth, manaKer, and Mr. 
Uenderson, secretary. 

Fire. — On tlie evenini; of .laimaiv 1st tiri' Itroke out at 
the works of Slesars. Barracloutrh Bros., electrical eusrineers. 
Perseverance Works, liri^rhonsc, catilca l)eiii>r burnt. 

The American Bosch Magneto Co.— 'I'iic works ami 

bnaineaa of the American Hosch ('o.. at .Sprinptield. Mass., which 
since May last have been in the hands of the U.S. Alien Property 
Cuatodian, were recently put up for aale by aui-tion. There were 
five bidders for the property, which was e\entually secured for the 
sum of tSUO.OoO by Mr. H. P. (iriffiths, of New York. The 
purchaser, who ia reported to have Ixjught entirely on his own 
account, is stated to have made a jrood barg-ain, a conservative and 
unofficial estimate of the value of the concein and its assets beintf 
one million aterlinjr. 

New Osram Company Formed at Berlin. — The D.A.Z.. 

Novemlx>r 22nd. stated that the Osram Co.. Ltd., had been regis- 
tered, with premises at Berlin, and a capital of Mk. :iOii,000, for 
the purpose of manufacturing;- electric bulb3 especially witli the 
Osram trade-mark, and other electrotechnical articles. 

German War Profits. — German iiuliLstrial companies 

may yet come to feel that it would have been better for them if 
they had had to pay Excess Profits taxes, as have British manu- 
facturers. The Ki'lnixi-hr /ritiimi of November 2(;th stated that 
the People's Marine Council was ileraanding an explanation from 
the Government about the dealings of the " Z.E.G. " ^Central Pur- 
chasing Association), which tad made enormous profits imlawfuUy 
at the expense of the nation. The Kulnixr)ie Xcitiun/ strongly 
advocated the holding of an inquiry, and the com|)ulsory publication 
by the Z.E.G. of its profit and loss account and balance-sheet.' 

Export Restrictions Removed. — The Lomlun Gazftk for 

January Hrd contains u further list of relaxations in exjjort 
prohibitions. 

Trading with the Enemy.— The Lumhm (lazellf for 

January 3rd contains a further liat of persons and bodies abroail 
with whom trading is prohibited, or whose names have now been 
removed from the list. 

A Novel Lighting Fitting.—With referente to this 

device, which we illustrated last week, we understand that the fitting 
wasdesigneil and manufactured by Mkssrs. W. Li'cv & Co.. Ltd., of 
Oxford, who exported it to South -\ f rica. This method of spring sus- 
pension of the lampholder has also been used by the Wardle Engineer- 
ing Co.. Ltd, of Manchester, in its " Beatark " fittings, and has 
proved very satisfactory. The company now uses a specially de- 
signed shade ring-type porcelain lampholder in a metal disk. 

Catalogues wanted for Belgium.— Mr, .\. (Joilumbien, 

of 2, Woodlands Road, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, who is shortly 
starting electrical business in Belgium, desires to receive catalogues 
and price lists. 

American Engineers and French Reconstruction. — The 

arrival in Paris of a n)i.s.siou of .Vii.eiicim engineers to confer 
■with French engineer.s on the .-iubject of reconstruction is 
annoniu-ed in the French Press. Thi.s mi.ssion iinchule.s rtele- 
gate.s of tile United States Society of Oivil Engineers, tlie 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Electrical Institute, 
and tho In.stitute of Mines. The Mi>s.sion is t<i visit the 
liberated areas, and will work in five sections, a.s under : — 

J. Port and canal improvements. 

'2. Pa'con.stniction of roads. 

'■\. .\gricnltnre. 

4. rtilisntion of w,it<>r-power resource.s. 

6. Teelinical education. 

— Board nf Trndc Journal. 

Platinum in Spain. — Platinum to tbe extent of from 2 to .S 

grammes per metre has been verified to exist in the Serrania de 
Ronda, as the result of three years of exploration conducted at the 
instance of the Spanish Government. The Serrania is an eruptive 
volcanic range. 1.4o0 sq. km. in extent, which thus far outstrips 
the platinum fields of the Ural Mountains, which are only ."lOsq. km. 
in extent, have never yielded more than 1 gramme per metre, and 
is tending to exhaustion. 

Football Notes. — The return matcli between tlie 

Magnet F.C. and the Waygood F.C. was played on Saturday last, 
and resulted in a win for the former by tj goals.to 2. For the 
winners Dyke scored three goals, but the ground was so bad that most 
of the players covered themselves more with mud than with glory. 



The Federation of British Industries.— I'rom the lUtlhlin 

of the F B.I. for January 2nd, we note that the total membership 
of the Federation is now as follows —163 Trade .issooiations, l.l 
.■Vssociationa of controlled establishments, and 822 firms, making a 
total of 1 .tiOO. 

Lantern Slides. — KeferiinL^ to our inciuiry for lantern 

aliiles fcir the instruction of .\rmy men, Messrs. Newton .V Co., of 
37. King Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 2, inform us that they are 
making preparations for the immediate production of lantern 
lecture sets on the general subject of engineering, and have 
obtained permission to reproduce photographs from well-known 
firms for this purpose. They send us a copy of their "(Catalogue 
of Lantern Slides," Part II, which gives particulars of many 
thousanda of slides dealing with educational and scientific aubje<!ts. 
but doea not include the seta above mentiontil. 

Rationing Committee Disbanded. \Vitii the general 

release from Government control of raw material U8e<l in industry, 
the necessity for rationing disapjiears, and the ('ivil Industries 
Committee through which that rationing has been exercised is 
now to lie disbanded. I'he Committee was appointetl by Dr. 
Addison, then Minister of Munitions, in February, 15117, under the 
name of the Priority Advisory Committee. Its duties were to in- 
vestigate the claims of iiulustriea threatened with hardship or 
extinction owing to the shortage of raw materials, and to make 
arrangements whereby they might at least be kept alive, even 
if not maintained at their former level. The Committee comprised 
some departmental ofticials, hut was composed mainly of business 
men. The chairman was Mr. John Wormald, of Mather A; Piatt, 
Ltd., engineers, Manchester. 

In accord with the Controller of Priority, the Committee from 
the beginning undertook the rationing of manufacturers already 
grouped together in traile associations or capable of being grouped. 
It investigated the affairs of 91 trades, in 78 of which a rationing 
system was established. In addition, the Committee from time to 
time, by arrangements with the Minister of Reconstruction, in- 
vestigated claims made to him for materials, plant, and machinery 
required in preparation for the resumption of peace-time work or 
for the starting of new industries. We understand that from the 
outset the Committee worked on the principle of winning the 
co-operation of the tradei-s themselves. No decisions were 
ma<le without consultation with representatives of the in- 
dustries concernei, and the meetings between the two sides 
were full and frank. The Committee originated the system 
of appointing, as official r.ationing authorities, independent persons 
of high standing, chiefly firms of chartered accountants. This 
system is understood to have worked to the general satisfaction of 
the tradei-a rationed. To ensure that the supplies of raw materials 
should be forthcoming, the Committee workeil in closest touch 
with various Government Departments ; a close liaison has also 
been maintained with the A\'ar Trade Department for the purpose 
of correlating manufacture to export. The Committee has met 
for almost two years twice a week regularly, and in its earlier 
months three times a week. The chairman, Mr. Wormald, has 
given the whole of his time to the work, aaaiated by Mr. Frederick 
Simmons, and by Miss Frxser as secretary, with no other staff. 
For its service3 the Committee has "been warmly thanked, not 
only by the Government, Ijut also liy the traders whom it 
rationed. It is generally considered that this Committee has 
furnished a striking example of what can he effected in adminis- 
tration by appointing one man of experience and of approved 
business ability and by allowing him to .select his own colleagues. 

Catalogues and Lists.— Thk Eyuip.\iENT and Enoin- 

KHRiNd Co., 2 and :!, Norfolk Street, Strand, London. W.C. 2. — 
Catalogue, consisting of several illustrated lists giving descriptive 
jiarticuLars of the E. and E. electric arc welding plant and the 
scope of its repair work, the E. and E. magnetic system of electric 
arc welding, and details and prices of arc welding accessories .and 
operators' sundries and metallic electrodes. 

Messrs. Simi'LK.x Conduits. Ltd., Garrison Lane, Birming- 
ham. — Publicity postcard, giving particulars and price of reflectora 
for industrial lighting. 

QuASi-.\BC Co., Ltd., 3, Laurence Pountney Hill, London, 
EC. 4. — Two illustrated pamphlets : one of 32 pages contains full 
particulars of the Quasi-Arc system of electric welding for iron 
and steel, while the other, of Id pages, contains notes on the system 
as applied to shiji construction. 

Non-Ferrous Metal Industry Act.— The London On-ftle 

for January 7th contains a list of further licences granted under 
this Act. 

Dissolution and Liquidation. — Pkckham, Ducamp 

AND Co., electrical engineers and manuf.acturers. 4 and 5^1 New 
Compton Street, W.C. 2, and Campbell Works, Campbell Road, 
Twickenham. — Messrs. G. S. Peckham and J. Ducamp have dis- 
solved partnership. Mr. Peckham will continue the New Compton 
Street Ijusiness and attend to its debts. Mr. Ducamp will continue 
the business at Twickenham, and attend to debts there. 

Encji.i.sh 'ELKmacAL Co.. Ltd. A meeting will be held at :l, 
Abchurch Yard, E.G., on February 10th, to hear from the 
liquidator an account of the winding up of this company, which 
was formed many years ago, and whose business is now absorbed 
in the Dick, Kerr organisation. 

A Westinghouse Reunion.— Rx-Westingliou.se men are 

holding their first reunion dinner on February 14th. at the 
Connaught Rooms. London. Any ex- Westinghouse man who has 
not received an invitation is asked to communicate with Mr. L. S. 
Rii^hard.son, 14, Sydney Road. Richmond. S.W., who will be please»l 
to furnish all particulars. 



Vol.84, xo. 2.146. .Tanuauv 10,1919.] THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



43 



Plant for Disposal. — The Central Eleetric Supply Co. 
has for immediate sale one 1,560-KW. and one 780-KW. Willans- 
Oeilikon reciprocating- engine and generator complete, and two 
1.050-KW. L.p. Oerlikon turbo-prenerators, 6,000-volt. three-phase. 
Sheffield Corporation Tramways Committee has for disposal a 
number of Dick-Kerr tramcar controllers. For further particulars. 
see our advertisement pafre.s to-day. 

Ball Bearings Order Suspended. — The Minister of 

Munitions has suspended the Ball Bearinprs Order, 1917, as from 
January 7 th, 1919. 

Foreign Trade. — The December Figures. — The official 

returns of imports and exports durin<r last month contain the 
followin^j electrical and machinery fissures : — 

December, Inc. or 12 moiithn, 1918. 

Imports. 1918. dee. Inc. or tier. 

£ £ £ 

59.122 - 40.4211 

792,892 4-102,493 



Electrical jroods, A:c. . 
Machinery 

Exports. 
Electrical jroods, &c. . 
Machinery 



— 285.S91 
•f l,837,.-ill 




» 



244,379 -f- .'i6,.".94 - 773.740 

1.174,320 -45,374 -.3.420.331 

Trade Announcements. — Mr. H.Ashdo^\'n, late manairinjf 

director of Enterprise Manufacturings Co., Ltd.. has opened up a 
new works, Ashdown Electrical Co., as electrical engineers, at 
8, New Inn Yard. Shoreditch, E. 

Mr. Harry Mo.ss. of Bradford, has been demobilised, after 
serving with the Forces (R.E.'s) since 1916. He is immediately 
re-opening his business at 116, Horton Grange Road. Bradford, 
and invites manufacturers and merchants to forward catalogues 
and price particulars of all lines. 

Reconstruction Problems. — No. 10 of the series of 

twopenny Ixjoklets issued by the Ministry of Reconstruction deals 
with " Labour Conditions and Adult Education." 

Book Notices. — The Christma.* number of the quarterly 

( liloriJe ('hroiiicle. published by the Chloride Electrical Storage 
Co., Ltd., Clifton .Junction, contains appro]>riate Peace notes, 
references to Chloride staff changes, excellent photographs of Mr. 

D. P. Dunne, secretary of the company, and Mr. E. C, McKinnon. 
the engineer, letters from men with the Forces, Chloride men's war 
honours, and other interesting matters. 

" Proceeiiiidis of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers." 
Vol. X.XXVl'f. Xo. 12. December, 1918. New York : The 
Institute. Price $1.00. 

" Electrical Ignition for Internal-Combustion Engines." By 
M. A.Codd. Second edition. Pp. vii -^ 164 ; 12u figs. London : 

E. A; F. X. Spon, Ltd. Price Cs. net. 

" Manual of Electrical Undertakings and Directory of Officials." 
1918-19. Vol.X.XII. London Electrical Press, Ltd. 228.6d.net. 

Dutch Post-War Industries. — Discussing in he Iniiemnir, 
November 'Jnd. the then conditions of trade in general, and 
the iueans nece.4sary to protect Dutc'h trade against the 
tendency on the part of most Governments to make theii' 
home markets secnre against, foreign coinpetitiou. I). J. \V. 
\aii Dougeu refers at length to what has taken plaee in 
l'',ngland, such as the re-orgauisaition of the Con.siilar Service, 
tile nitiTKluction of State supervision in lat-tories. and the 
aniaJgamation of the engineering interests, .and reionmuMids 
tliat similar raeasnre.s should W. tsiken in Hollajid. 

Engineers' Wages in Norway. — The niinimum wage 

fthediilr li,i engineers th.at wa« accepted la^-t year by the 
Nonve.gi:iii Engineers' Association, very .s<X)n needed altering 
swing to the increause<l cost of living. This has now been 
itried out and a new schedule <\st;iblislied by the IvalKnir 
lepairtment, according to which tlie minimum sallary for 
engineers in public .«er\'ices ranking in the grades of eugineer- 
:i.s.sistants and directors, rar.ge.s from Kr.4,0CiO to Kr.l.5,0(Kl 
|)er annum. The rates now fixed aie to be looke<l upon as 
luiniraum rates, and therefore if it is desii-ed to obtain the 
services of highly qualified men for certain important poe^ts, 
considerably higher .salaries nru.st be oftcred. At the sajne 
time the Engineers', .\.isa-iation put forward proix>saJ,s with 
regard to the salaries of managers and engineers on the 
State railways. Kr.3(),0(l0 is to be the yearly salary for a 
general manager, and departmental managers will "receive 
Kr.'20,fKKI.— Terdois Gang, November 20th. (Kroner = 
Is. ]Jd.) 

German Efforts to Recover Lost Trade. — -^s an indication 

of the eiidt-avours wiiirli the Geniians nre waking and pro- 
j^rse to make for the purjxi.se of ivcovering their lo.st trade. 
it is of interest to note that they are circularising and 
ilisijat<liing agents to firms and bu.siness men in neutral 
<<)Untrie3. oflering to buy shares, or lend money on stock or 
goodwill as security. These circulars seem to have been sent 
broadcast to I-Iolland, Denmark. Norway. Sweden, Spain, 
and Switzerland;, and many agents apparenth' are only 
awaitmg their opportunity t<j crass the .Atlantic as represen- 
tativi-s of banking syndicate's and industrial e.stablishinent.s, 
inihidiug even Krapp's, the va.st airmament firm at Essen. 
Inless the Allies get' to businc,s.s very rapidly w'hen once the 
Peace Ctjiifi-rence has been I'airly .sttiitetl i>n its course, our 
commercial men and manufa< tiirers generally may find fiiem- 
Bf^lves severely ha.rni>ered by these GenuaJi attempts to 
' peg out claims " by the u.se of money and machinery which 
rightfully are the projiertv of the nations that have been 
deva.sta.te<l.— B/riiu'iiy/Knii Poai. 



German Trade Propaganda in Holland. — The Economic 

.Association for Gennaji-Uutch Trade recently informed the 
Deutsche Allgemeine Zeituiig, December 1st, that Germany's 
trade relations with neutral countries were reviving now that 
peace was approaching and the export prohibitions were 
cancelled. This was especially evident in the numejoua ap- 
plications from persons resident abroad for appointments as 
agents of German firms. It wa.s of the gi-eatest importanee, 
both to the exporting anil imiKjrtmg countries, that .suitable 
liersonw .should be cJiosen, and as regaids Holland the above- 
named association placed it.self at the dispasal of interested 
IMirties in both oountrie-s, and was pi^epared to give confiden- 
tial information as to the reputation, business ca,pacity, &c.. 
of i^ersons who had applied already for .such agencies. 

The 47-hours' Week : A Strike.— About 2,000 engineers 
employed at the Thonibiiiy wYuks of the Phcenix Dynamo 
Manufacturing Co., Lt<l.. Brad ton I. came out on strike on 
January liud. in prote~st again.st the system of clocking in 
imder the new 47-hours' week agreement, which involves a 
istaii at' 7.30 a.m., and no period of gi^ace for late-comei-s 
except thase who are lialile to delay by train and other 
special reasons, to whom .si>ecia1 pa,s.ses are granted. On this 
day, the first on which the new aii-aingement wa,s acte<l 
upon, about 70 or SO workers were kn-ked out, but owing to 
severe weathei- the works manager admittecl them. The 
employes, liowever, met iu.side the works and decided to 
strike against the system. Tliey contend that the firm vio- 
lated the old agreement, and should have conferred with the 
workers lx?fore adopting the new course. The employers, on 
the other hand, contend that the men broke an agreement 
under which local confei'eno^s .are to be held on disputes, 
laiiling wliich a central conference is to be held, but w'ork .is 
not to be inteiTupted. On b'riday. the day following the 
istiike, a confei-ence of the piii-ties was held, and it was 
agreed that work should be resumeil on the Monday morn- 
ing, and that on that moniiiig a fuither conference should 
be held on tlie (wints in dispute. 

Small Traders and Demobilisation. — At the invitations 

of the ilayors of Southwark and Lambeth, a meeting of 
small employers of labour was held at the Southwark Town 
Hall, with the object of enabling the l-ocal Advisory Com- 
mittee to get into closer touch with them. At pres^ent the 
minor iuduati-ies, the small tiuder or "one-man business" 
owners are not represented on the committee, and consider- 
able diiiiculty has occurred in asc-ertaiuiug what men they 
require from the demobilised Forces. .\s a result of the meet- 
ing two representatives were .appointed to serve on the com- 
mittee. Mr. J. T. -Curamtugs, manager of the Borough 
Ijabour Exchange, said there was quite a mistaken idea 
abroad as to what was meant by " pivotal " men. They must 
be men upon whom other men depended for their woii. 
They must be the organisers of the work, and inu.st be re 
leased at once if they desired to avert a vast number of 
unemployed men walking the streets. There wa.s no need 
for men over 4.3 years of age in the -■Vnuy to put in applica- 
tions foi' ivdease nor for men in haspitals, as these weie 
being deniobiUsed. Men home on leiive could also get their 
discharges if applications W'ere file<l. They would not have 
to go back to France. The "one-man businesses" were 
woiTving tlie. committee. They had received hundreds of 
applications for the release of the.se men, and they would 
Ije relea,s»'d immediately after the pivotal men. But when 
the committee scrutini9e<l the forms for the ixdease. of many 
of these so-called "one-man bu.sine-ss " owners it was im- 
possible to ixi.ss them, though they dealt honest.ly with the 
genuine ownexs. .Applications ha<l l>een leceived from men 
describing thentselves as owners of "one-man businesses " 
w4io were couimission agents, uew.si>aper sellers, and similar 
occupations, who were anxious to get out of the Army. These 
were not genuine "one-man business" owiiers, who would 
be of .service to the country. 

Returning to Peace Production in America. — -\ number 

of electrical manulactiirers who have devoted a large i)art 
of their manufacturing faciliti<w to the production of .shells 
and other munitions are changing their plants back for 
turning out theii- normal electrical products. I^ittle diffi- 
culty is being experienced in doing this except in isolated 
cavses. Tlie cancellation of goveniuient contracts for .shell 
production has caused the Wagner lilectric Manufacturing 
Co. of that city to dismiss l)etween 800 and 1,000 employes 
engaged in this work within the last eight or t.en days; 
about 300 being laid off in one day alone. The company 
was one of the first St. Ixniis manufacturei'S to engage in 
munition work after the start of the war. — .American F^lec- 
trical Heeieir. Det>ember 14th, 1918. 

After Many Years. — An incident which should not be 
permitted to jxi.ss unnoticed was reported to the Finance 
Committer of the Leeds Coi-poration last Friday. .About: 35 
years ago the finn of J. & H. McLaren, owners of the Mid- 
land Engine Works. L^eeds, had to make an anange- 
ment witli its creditors, who received os. in the jXHind. A 
firm of lyondon accountants has ju^st written to the. Corpora- 
tion st,ating that although no legal obligation i-ested upon 
them, it had been one of Messrs. Mcfjaren's life ambitions 
to pay olf their liabilities in full, and they had now placed 
an their accountants' hands an amount sufficient to pay the 
balance of 153. in the pound. — Engineer, 



44 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol.84. No.S.HG. January lO, 19i;>. 



Australians and Trade with Germany. — In a letter dated 

November iUh. iiiul adiiivss^Hl to the \ ietoiian Eiiiployeis' 
l-eJenitiou, MeJliouriie, Mr. i'. J. Pringle, geueraJ manager 
ot the Electric Supply Co.. of \'ictoria. sugge.^^t.^ that em- 
ployer,?' associations " sliould at once finalise the futare action 
in regard to trading witli Genuany and AvLstria. It would 
s»'em that some foinu ol aippeaJ by lamphlets and meetings 
>hould bring IH-Iore our members the necessity, both from a 
M'lf-prese.rvatioii and a loyal |x.int of view, that gixxls nianu- 
nutuifd in or in any way ci>nnect<>d with tlKWc^ countries 
should be batnieil. A clearly delined attitude expres.'*t>cl as early 
a.s ix>ssible seenis desirable. rndoubt.edly there ai« manv 
[xM-.son.s and firms sulficiontly unprincipleil to again act as 
agents for goods nianiifactured in these countries. If a 
clearly defined policy i.<! a<lopt<yl against such a piTK^edure. 
It will det<M- many from acting in thi.^^ ca|>a<itv." Jle further 
sugge.^its that the paiiiphl.-t.s and illustrated .sheets pivpar.-il 
by the Miiuiiii Standard in rega,r<l to t;ermanv and the ti-ade 
Mue.^tiim .shmdd be reprint.nl. and distribut^Hl'to members on 
the undenstanding that such shall be fi-auie<l ajid i><>nnanentlv 
:nid prominently hung in their places of bu.sine.ss^:' J^e.st w.i 
lorgt^t." He continHes : — 



■ fo 



wliicli shauM ucconipan 
.ind abroad, Ihit IlifV i 
(.i.lurs. UnlMs tlu-v a 



gilt also bi? given to l\m drawing up of statem.'nl' 
ill ordir.s lo nianufacluriTs and agents, bnlh li.r 
not slwking gocKjs of German or .'\uslrian niani 
preparwl lo sig-i su.li a stali-ni.^nl in 111.- .iflinn: 
ilh ihi'ni. Mv lompanv inl.'nd lo a. 
. . >f suih a proreJur.: «ould b,- .-nlir..] 

-1 unless 11 .s nior.- or l,ss g.noial an.) a<-.ompani.-,l .vi'lh a dill ■•duralio 
J .lear evplanalion of ih,- dant^.r ol anv olh.-r coorse being follow, d " 



bill the 



Valuation of Land for Business Uses.— The Ministry 

of K»H.-onstructi.in has now i.s.sii,Ml the second rejiort of tli'e 
(Vmimittee upon the ActpiLsition and Valuation of Umd for 
1 ubhc PurpoS4>s. The fir.st report, which was i.'«u<><l \aM 
.(auuary. recommended measures for cheai)ening, shortening 
and simplifying pi-ocedure for obtaining compul.sory [xyweis 
for tlie acquisition of land, a procedure so cumbeVsome as 
to involve a delay cjf many month.s, and costs of anything 
from £^M upwards. Tt was made abundantly clear, more- 
over, tha.t the committ.H; interpreted the term " public " 
purjvi.ses in the widest sense, to include private, indu.stri.il. 
and busine.<s enterprises of public utility, as well as tin' 
enterprises of public bodies. In its .second report the 
committee devotes attention to a suitahle svstem for tin- 
valuation of laJid coiupulsorily acquired. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 

Accrington. — Wages. — The eniplojc'.s of the Corporation 
electricity department have been granted a further bonus of .5s. per 
week, making 28s. 6d. a week, plus 12i per cent., as from December 

7th. Uil.s. 

Argentina.— BoKNOs Ayrer. — Owing to a dispute 

between the Primativa Gas Co. and the municipality over the non- 
payment of the company's bill, the supply to all municipal 
buildings, except hospitals, has been cut off ; the Thiiex states that 
the municipality intends to install oil and electric lighting. 

Water Powkr.— The Legislature of the Province of Mendoza 
has sanctioned plans for the development of the province, includ- 
ing water supply, sewers, and hydro-electric power ; the cost is 
estimated at Sl:!,OiiiJ.OilO m/n. — Uerifu- nt the Hirer I'lute. 

The Minister of .\griculture, who recently visited the Iguazu 
Falls, states that they are in no way inferior to Niagara, and con- 
siders their utilisation for the generation of electricity to he a 
feasible project, which should be undertaken as soon as possible. 
He recommends the appointment of a Commission of Engineers to 
investigate the i>roject. The falls are «00 to 700 milts distant from 
Buenos .\yres. — Pull Mall (lazetle. 

Australia. — Sydney. — The N. Sydney CouticiJ has passed 
a resolution urging the Government to utilise the water powers of 
the Nepean, Warragambi, Grose, and other rivers for the production 
of electricity and the development of the water supply. 

Sale — The B C. has decided to make inquiries with regard to the 
provision of an electric lighting scheme for the district. 

LisiiORE.— The electrical engineer has reported upon the 
question of a municipal electricity scheme for the town. The 
report states that there are 250 creameries within a 30 miles' radius 
of Lismore, each of which might be expected to install a 4 or 5-h.i>. 
motor, and co-operation with neighbouring municipalities is 
recommended. 

COBCRG.— The T.C. has arranged to borrow £13,000 for the pro- 
vision of an E.L. installation, and is to take a bulk supply from the 
Melbourne City Council for ten years. 

Electricity Supply and Staxdardisatiox.— a conference of 
engineers and managers of electricity supply undertakings, held in 
Melbourne, reported that as the supply of electricity to small 
private consumers usually resulted in a loss to supply undertakings, 
it was necessary that a monthly minimum charge for each service 
be made. Asa supply uhdertaking might be called upon at any time 
to give a stand-by supply to premises also supplied from a sejjarate 
source, and the stand-by might not be used to an extent sufficient to 
prevent the supply undertaking losing in connection therewith, 
the conference recommended Ih.at future legislation should include 
protection for undertakings which refused to give or maintain a' 
stand-by supply : this legislatioii should follow the lines of 



Clause 15 of the British E.L. Act, lHOii. The conference supported 
the principle of standardisation as applied to the electric supply 
industry, and was of opinion that British standardisation should 
be adopted, as far as possible, in Australia. The Advisory Council 
of Science and Industry was advised that the conference was of 
opinion that the ("ommonwealth should, at the earliest moment, 
establish a Bureau of Ele.;trical Standards. 

Barrow-in-Furness.— Waues. — The '1\0. has increased 
the wages of the employes of the electricity department in receipt 
of wages not exceeding iliOii jier annum by fis. per week. Con- 
sideration of an application for an advance of .t(i5 per annum by 
the chief Corporation officials has been deferred. 

Skwaue PiMi'iNii. — The applicatioii of electricity to the sewage 
pumping plant is to be proceeded with as soon as possible by the 
T.C. Health Committee. 

Belfast. — TnuiiNE Breakdown. — With regard to the 

breakdown of one of the turbines »t the T.C. electricity works 
some weeks ago, a report by Mr. J. H. Rider stated that the break- 
down was due to purely accidental causes, and there had been no 
neglect or want of skill on the part of the emjiloyrs. 

E.VTENsloNS. In connection with the Harbour power station, the 
coustructi.m of which was pushed on at the retjuest of the Govern- 
ment, in order to facilitate shipbuilding, the chairman of the E.L. 
Committee has stated that the negotiations in progress justify them 
in believing that they will be put in the same financial position 
by the Government as if they had waited another couple of years 
before undertaking the extension. 

Chelmsford. — I'hich Increase. — The B. of T. has 

authorised the Electric Supply Corporation to increase its charges 
for electricity from (ijd. to SM. per unit. 

Street Liuiitini;. .\s the contract with the E S. Corporation 
for the lighting of the North and South Wards expires in March, 
1920, the Gas Committee has recommeniled the Lighting Com- 
mittee to consider the advisability of lighting the wards by gas. 

Crediton. — Proposed E.L. — The U.D.C. has decided 
to obtain exiiert advice as to the provision of an E.L. scheme for 
the town. 

Croydon. — Price Increase. — The T.f!. has decided to 
further increase the charges for electricity by 25 per cent., a total 
advance of 100 per cent, on pre-war rates. 

Doncaster. — Prov. order. — The T.C. has decided to 

apply tor an order to supply electricity in the parishes of Adwick- 
le-Street, Carcroft, Bentley, Kirk Sandall, Armthorne, Cantley, 
Rossington, Wadworth, Loversall, Edlington, Conisborough, and 
Denaby. 

Plant E.xtensions. — The electrical engineer has been instructed 
by the T.C. to prepare a report on the additional plant required in 
connection with the proposed extension of the area of supply and 
the tramway system. It was also decided to ascertain Whether 
any of the collieries in the district would be willing to furnish 
supplies of electricity, if required. 

Dover. — Supply to Admiralty. — In order to induce 

the Admiralty to increase its payment for electricity, the Electricity 
Committee has decided to threaten that the rate for the establish- 
ments outside the contracts will be raised to the maximum unless 
the .\dmiralty meets the Corporation in the matter. 

The price of energy for charging electric vehicles has been 
increased from l'8d. to 3d. per unit, and for power from 3d, to 3id. 

Grimsby. — Strike, — The application of the engineers 

at the electricity works with regard to working hours having been 
refused, they struck work on Friday evening last. The whole of 
the municipal electricity supply ceased, involving the stoppage of 
the tramways. .\n offer of assistance from the Naval authorities 
was accepted, and a contingent from mine-sweepers was put in 
charge of the station. 

Hull. — Street Lighting. — The Works Committee has 
instructed the electrical engineer to present a report on the 
extended use of electricity for street lighting. 

Ilford. — Proi'OSED Loan. — The L.G.B. having refused 

to sanction the application of the U.D.C. fo}' permission to borrow 
£ 10,000 for a scheme for the utilisation of the steam from the 
refuse destructor, the electrical engineer has been instructed to 
submit another scheme, with a view to a further application 
being made. 

Ipswich. — National E[,ectricity Supply. — On the 

recommendation of the chief engineer, Mr. F. Ayton, the E.S and 
Tramways Committee has passed a resolution, with instructions 
that it be forwarded to the President of the B. of T., to the effect 
that the Committee, having considered the report of the I,M.E.A. 
to the B. of T. upon electric power supply, dated November 2yth, 
1918, expresses its agreement therewith, except in regard to 
Clause 2, wherein the .Association recommends that the District 
Electricity Boards should be so constituted as to be wholly inde- 
pendent of the influence or control of commercially-owned elec- 
trical enterprises ; and that in order to secure this object, it is 
urged that the District Electricity Boards should consist of repre- 
sentatives of local authorities and large consumers, lo the exclusion 
of the supply companies. The Committee strongly dissents from 
this view, and holds the opinion that the District Electricity Boards 
should consist of representatives of the undertakings concerned in 
electricity supply, and that where there are company-owned 
undertakings, these should not be excluded from representation on 
the boards. 



Vol.84. No. 2,146, jaxuaky 1(1, i9i!>.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



45 



Kingston-upon-Thames. — E.L. Failure.— For the 

tliird time in a few weeks the Corporation's electric light snpply 
failed on December Hist. 

In speaking at a meeting of the T.C. on the difficulties which 
had attended the supply of electricity during: the past few weeks, 
the chairman of the E.L. Committee said that they were first faced 
with the breakdown of the condensing plant, and. owing to the 
iaferior quality of the coal, it was impossible to maintain sufficient 
steam, and the works had to be closed down. Following that, two 
o' the lartrest steam alternators broke down, the coils being- burnt 
out. and later another set broke down. Also, during the past three 
months, both the Diesel engines had been out of working order, 
and other difficulties were caused by the overloading of the plant ; 
it was only due to the determined effort* of the acting electrical 
engineer and staff that the supply had been kept going at all. He 
expected that the first ne^i^urbine would be working regularly early 
in January, and he hoped that would be the end of their difficulties. 
Alderman Hall said it was a lamentable thing that they e%'er had 
the two German engines, which at present were incapable of work. 
A British firm had now agreed to supply a new compressor for the 
four-cycle Diesel engine. 

Kendal. — Price Increase. — The E.L. Committee lias 
increased the price of electricity for power purposes by charging 
2{d. per unit for 2,000 units per annum and over, instead of 2jd. 
for s.OOO units and over. 

Lighting Restrictions. — The Controller of Coal Mines 

has given notice that the conversion equivalent for gas, in terms 
of fuel, has been increased to l.S,750 cb. ft. per ton, and for elec- 
tricity to 1,000 units per ton. The allowance of gas or electricity 
for lighting purposes under Clause 8, or the special assessments for 
lighting under Clause 12 of the Household, Fuel, and 'Lighting 
Order, IWIS. has been increased by 2.5 per cent. Clause H9 of the 
Act. relating to restrictions on ga.s and electrical fittings, has been 
suspended. The concessions only relate to England and NN'alea. 
and take effect from .Tanuary 1st last. 

London. — East Ham. — Street LmHTixr;. — Wlien tlie 

lighting restrictions are removed, the E.L. Committee has decided 
to install l.oOii-c.P., half-watt lamps in place of the arc lamps 
previously used for public lighting, and has recommended that the 
work of fixing the cables, which will be carried by the tramway 
standards, be put in hand. 

Latham. — 1'roposed E.L. — At tlie la.st meeting of the 
U.D.C.. the chairman said he hoped the Council would push on 
with the electric lighting of the town. 

National Electricity Supply.— The P.. of T. Bill for the 

provision of cheap elec^tricity is to be introduced into the House of 
(Commons at the earliest possible date. A Central News repre- 
sentative states that " Mr. Lloyd George is anxious to get the 
scheme into working order, and it is now only a question of how 
soon the necessary Bill can be introduced into the House." 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. — Mains E.vtensions. — The 

T.C. has received L.G.B. sanction to the borrowing of £1.250 and 
£8.")0, for the extension of the electricity mains. 

Rochdale. — Proposed Bulk Sui>i>ly. — The E.T^. Com- 
mittee has recommended the T.C. to obtain terms from the Oldham 
and Bury Corporation for a supply of electricity in bulk. 

Rotherham. — Owing to the delay in the erection of the 

new power station causing an accumulation of the sinking fund, a 
Sub-Committee has recommended the T.C. to promote a Bill to 
postpone the sinking fund periods with respect to the loans raised, 
to pay interest charges out of capital, and to alter the periods 
granted by the L.fi.B. for the raising of loans until the new station 
is completal. 

Salford. — Wai;es. — The award of .".s. per week ifranted 

to the engineering trades by the Committee on Production, dated 
November Jtth, 1 91 8, has been extended to employijs at the electricity 
works. 

S.^LE OF Plant.— The Electricity Committee has given in- 
structions for the sale of the second I.OOO-KW. turbo-alterator. 

Price Increase..— The T.C. has accepted the offer of the M.an- 
chester Shiji CanafCo. to pay an increase of Hi per cent., making a 
total of 20 per cent., on the charges for electricity. 

Stretiord. — Terms of Purchase. — The sum pi'ovision- 
ally agreed upon for the purchase of the undertaking of the 
Trafford Power and Light Supply Co. by the U.D.C. is .4:184.342; 
this is subject "to ratification by the shareholders of the companv 
and the L.G.B. 

Spennymoor. — Street Lighting. — The U.D.C. has 

decided to have 74 public lamps lit by the E.L. Co. 

Swansea. — Plant E.ktexsions. — The Director of 

Electric Power Supply has consented to the T.C. renewing its 
application for additional boiler plant, A:c . in three months' time. 

Tunbridge Wells.— "Street LiGHTiN(i.— The T.C. has 

fixed the following charges for lighting public lamps with elec- 
tricity : — 1,200 C.I'., £24 per annum each : 3O0 C.P., £15 : 100 o.i-., 
£5 ; no C.P.. £:< ; clocks, £10 10s. 

United States. — IIetch IIetchv Scheme. — On Decem- 
ber Hth San Francisco closed the sale of J 1,000,000 of HetchHetchy 
bonds to the Anglo and London-Paris National Bank. The pur- 
chaser also took an eight-month option on the remaining $8,000,000 



of 4 5 per cent, bonds now authorised for sale. The j; 1,000,000 to 
be immediately available will cover construction costs during the 
next six or eight months. The 88,000,000 would cover the con- 
struction of the dam and the first section of the aqueduct. An 
effort will be made to complete the work as far as the Moccasin 
Creek power development as soon as possible, so that the G6, 000 H. P. 
to be generated there will be available for the city's use. 

York. — WATEit PiiwER. — The Electricity and Tramways 

Committee has decided to proceed with a scheme for the generation 
of hydro-electric energy, and has recommended that the necessary 
permission be obtained ; a site has been rented at Naburn Locks, 
on the River Ouse. 



TRAMWAY A ND RAI LWAY NOTES. 

Accrington. — At a meeting of the T.C. on Monday, a 
resolution was adopted condemning "the tramway employes for 
refusing to work on Christmas Day. .Alderman Higham, chairman 
of the Tramways Committee, said that another year the cars 
would certainly have to be run on Christmas Day. 

Australia. — Melbourne. — In November a trial run was 
successfully made on the new electric railway between Newmarket 
and Essendon, and a speed of 50 miles per hour was attained. 
Energy is supplied from Newport at 20,000 volts A.C.. and trans- 
formed to 1 ,.')00 volts D.c. 

Bolton. — At a general meeting of the membei's of the 

Bolton Branch of the Tramway and Vehicle Workers' Amalga- 
mation, held on Sunday morning, it was decided to give financial 
supix)rt to the Blackburn tramway strikers, and also to take a 
ballot during the week as to giving moral support by. ceasing 
work when called upon to do so by the Executive Council. 

Central London Railway. — The B. of T. has further 

extended the time for the completion of new works under the 
C.L.R. Act, 1913, for a year. 

Continental. — Italy. — The fii-st stone of the new electric 

railw.ay between Rome and Ostia was laid on December 30th. 
The King was present, and signed a commemorative tablet, which 
was enclosed in the stone. The project includes the building of 
a harbour and a seaside residential resort within half-an-hour s 
run of Rome. 

Dewsbury. — Proposed New Lines.— The Corporation 
has deferred consideration of an offer of the National Electric 
Construction Co. to construct tramways to Shaw Cross. 

Keighley. — Wages and Fares. — In view of the recent 

award of the Committee on Production increasing the wages of 
tramcar drivers and conductors, the T.C. has decided to increase the 
fares to Id. per mile. 

Leeds. — Fare Revision. — The Tramways Committee 
has recommended the T.C. to apply for powers to increase the 
tramway fares to Id. per mile, with a minimum charge of 2d. for 
any distance exceeding •{ mile, and to increase the charges for goods 
traffic by 1 00 per cent. 

Lincoln. — New Cars.— The T.C. hii.s decided to apply 
to the L.G.B. for sanction to a loan of £6,000 for the purchase of 
three tramcars. 

The engineer has been instructed to report on the conversion of 
the existing tramways to the overhead system. 

Liverpool. — Strike. — Owing to the fact that the 47-hour 
week granted to the railway men on the 1st inst. does not apply to 
them until February 1st, the skilled workers at the Formby power 
station of the L. it Y. Railway Co. struck work on January 2nd. 
Traffic was stopped on the electrical lines in the Liverpool area, 
and the electric trains on the Liverpool-Southport line were 
replaced by steam trains, which, however, were not illuminated. 
At a meeting on Monday the men decided to resume work on Tues- 
day, providing the N.U.R. obtains a satisfactory settlement of their 
grievance, but threatened to resume the strike on Saturday if it 
was not settled. 

Maidstone. — Proposed E.xtensions. — The T.C. is to 

consider a scheme invohing an expenditure of £100,000, for the 
extension of the tramways to Chath,am. , 

Salford. — "Wages. — The award of 5s. per week granted 
by the Committee on Production, dated November 9th, 1918, has 
been extended to the employes of the tramways department ; the 
estimated annual cost is £1,220. 

Sheffield.— Snowstorm.— Much damage was done to 

tramway trolley wires by the snowstorms last week-end, the 
service being completely disorganised. At Mansfield a tele- 
phone wire fell across the tramway trolley wires. A horse which 
trod on the wire received a shock and burns. 

At Halifax a girl came in contact with a fallen "charged " wire. 
and received burns. 

Walkden. — The colliers — with the relea.se of men from 

the -Army and Navy, their numbers are now growing — in Walkden 
and ;uijoining coalfields are now agitating for the provision of 
more cars in the afternoon to take them home as they leave work. 
They complain that the service proviiie*!. whilst better than it used 
to 1)0, is often inadecjuate. 



46 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.84. No.s.ufi.jANUAuv lo, isi-t. 



TELEGRAPH AN D TEL EPHONE NOTES. 

Cable Breakdown. — An official of the Eastern Telegraph 
Co. informed a newspaper representative that teleg^rams to the 
Far East were beiui; delayed H} days, owin>r to the breakdown of a 
cable on Sunday last . it was expeiteil that the service would In- 
restored in a few days. 

Control of Wireless. — It is stated in the daily Press 
that an understandin^r h;is l)een come to between the Allies to 
exercise permanent Government control over all wireless communi- 
cations. The U.S. Government is goins further than thi.s, and 
proposes to actjuire all the shore wireless stations at an expenditure 
of £1,00(1.1100. They will all be under the control of the Navy 
Department, and all Gennan stations erected on U.S. territory are 
to be ajipropriated. 

Snow Storms. — niiriug the snow storms hi.st week-end 
the telegraph and telephone services in the Midlands and West of 
England were seriously interrupted. Communication between 
Bath and parts of Wiltshire, Somersetshire, and (Uoucestershire was 
cut off. Sheffield was practically isolated, while Manchester was 
cut off from 22 of the 40 larsre towns with which there is usually 
communication by telephone, Telefrraphically also the city was 
completely isolated from at least a dozen large towns. In Yorkshire 
and Derby.shire 10,(100 wires are down. 

South America. — A new wireless station on Martin 

Garcia Island was declared open for public service on October 2itth 
last. 

Telegrams to Enemy Countries. — lentil further notice 

no jirivate telegrams of any description can be accepted for trans- 
mission to enemy countries. Telegrams for soldiers, addressed to 
their units, without indicating place of destination, will be 
forwarded whenever jiossible from the base. — Tlie Timex. 

Trunk Telephone Delays. — Many complaints by busi- 
ness men at the delays on trunk telephone calls -were considered, 
last week, by the Post and Telegraph Committee of the London 
Chamber of Commerce. The Committee decided to call a meeting 
of the London Telephone and Telegraph Committee of the Chamber 
with a view to action being taken. 

In connection with the complaints, the Assistant Secretary 
to the Telephone Department, G.P.O., has explained to the daily 
Press that the delays are caused by the priority given to Govern- 
ment calls ; also long-distance lines have been appropriated by the 
Government. New construction for civil purposes has been 
practically suspended for three years. As the necessity for 
priority is daily decreasing, and approi>riated lines are being 
returned for general use, conditions are now being improved. 
Plans are being prepared for the construction of new lines, and it 
is expected that the system will soon be back to normal conditions. 



FORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



CONTRACTS OPEN A ND CLOSED. 

OPEN. 

Aberdeen. — Cor]Mration Electricity Department. Five- 
ton tipping wagon for coals. Electric vehicle preferred, but not 
esaential. See " Official Notices " to-day. 

Australia. — Svdnev. — April 28th. City Council. Supply 
and erection of power-house awitchgear. Specifications from Elec- 
tric Lighting Department, Town Hall, Sydney. 

Melbourne.— March 10th. CityCouncil. One 5,000-KW. frequency 
changer, high-tension switchgear. Specification (£1 Is.) from City 
Electrical Engineer. 

London.— Hampstead.— B.C. .January Ifith. Twelve 
months' supply of electrical engineers' stores and oils for the Elec- 
tricity Station. Mr. A. P. .Johnson, Town Clerk, Town Hall, Haver- 
stock Hill, N.W. 

Sheffield. — Corporation AVater Department. Two 3-ton 
steam locomotive cranes and one .'i-ton electric locomotive crane, 
D.c, 4(10—500 volts. See " Official Notices " to-day. 

Spain. — The municipal autboritie.s of Santa Eufemia 
(Province of Cordoba) have lately invited tenders for the con- 
cession for the electric lighting of the town during a period of 
ten years. 

Uxbridge. — January 21st. U.D.C. 26-h.p. a.c. motor 
for the sewerage works. Mr. W. T. Harvey. Clerk, 63, High 
Street, Uxbridge. 

Warrington. — January 28th. Electricity and Tramways 
Committee. One 300-KW. and one .500-KW, rotary converter. See 
'■ Official Notices" to-day. 

CLOSED. 

Glasgow. — T.C. Tramways Committee, Recommended : 

Steel tires.— Jno. Baker & Co. 

Ti-oUey bushes.— Fleming, Birkby * Goodall, Ltd 

V.I.R. cable.— Livei-pool Electric Cable Co., Ltd. 

Asphalt buckets.— P. & W. M'Lellan, Ltd. 

Copper bonds.— B.I. & Helsby Cables, Ltd. 

Trolley wire. -F. Smith A Co., Ltd. 

40/36 C.T.S. cable.— W. T. Henley's Telegraph Worku Co., Ltd. 

Lead-covered cable.— B.I. &. Helsby Cables, Ltd. 

Iron castings. — Carron Co., British Hydraulic Foundry Co., Ltd., R, 

Howie & Co., David King 4 Sons, Ltd. 
Malleable iron castings,- A. Shanks &Son, Ltd. 



Electro-Harmonic Society. — Friday, .fanuar<r lOtta. At H p.m. At the 
Holboin Ri-stauraQt (Venetian ('hainber). Sinoking concert. 

MBDchester Association of Engineers.— Saturday, January llth. At the 
iliaiui ll.it.l. Ai 6.30 pin. I'aper on "Iron and Steel Electric Furnaces," 
liy .Mr. J. liibby. 

Birmingham and District Electric Club.— Satnrdav, January lltli. At the 
ilmiid llciU'l. Anp.iii. I'lcNi.liiitiiil uddi-css un •' Problems of the l-"iiture," 
by Mr. W. II. Viirnoiii. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. Tuesday, January 14(h. At 5.30 p.m. At 

<:i. (;<'or^;i> strrct, s.\N . 1. oidiuary meeting. 

Industrial Reconstruction Council.— Tuesday, January 14th. At (i i>.m, At 
the Institute of .lounmlists, Tudor Street, E.C. Confeiencc on " Recon- 
struction or Restoration," to be opened by.,^Iaj(ir II. .). (lillespie. D.S.O. 

InstllutloD of Electrical Engineers (North Midland Centre)— Tuesday, 
January 14th. At 7 p.m. At the Metiopole, King Street, Leeds. Paper on 
-'Carbon Brushes: Considered in Relation to the Design and Operation of 
Klectrical Machinery," by Mr. P. Hunter-Brown. 

(North-Western Centrel.— Tuesday, January 14th. At the Engineers- 
Club, Manchester. At 7 p.m. Tenth Kelvin Lecture on " The Dynamical 
Theory of Electric Engines," by Mr. LI. B. Atkinson. 

(Scottish Centre).— Tue-iday, January 14th. At the Princes Street 
station Hotel, Edinburgh. At 7 p.m. Paper on "The Supply of Single- 
phase Power from Three-phase Systems," by Prof. Miles Walker. 

(Students' Section). —Friday, January '24th. At 7 p.m. At the 
Northampton I'ttlytechnic Institute, Cierkeiuvell, E.G. Paper on "A 
Geneva) Hutlini- of Telephony," by Mr. H. T. Body. 

Belfast Association of Engineers.— Thursday, January lOth. At the Municipal 
Technical Institute. At 7.45 p.m. Paper on " Electric Welding," by Mr. 
K. Edwards. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain.— Friday, January 17th. At T\.X p.m. 
At Albemarle Street, W. Lectuie on " Lic|uid Air and the War." by Prof. 
Sir. Jas. Deyvar, P.R.S. 



LEGAL. 



The Trade Mark " Meooihit." 
Before the Controller of Patents (Mr. H. Temple Franks), in the 
Patents Court, London, on Thursday, an application was m.ade l)y 
Albert Taylor and John Moores, trading as .John Moores iV Co., manu- 
facturers and suppliers of insulating materials at Brougham Street 
Works, Bl.ockfriars Roatl, Salford, Manchester, for the avoidance or 
suspension of the trade mark " Megomit," registered under 
No. 211), 03.3 in Cla-ss 50, for "electrical insulating material in 
which mica forms the base and the predominating ingredient," and 
also for the avoidance or suspension of sucli part of the Tra<le 
Mark No. 270,.S11 as consisted of the word "Megomit,' registered 
in Class .'lO for " an electrical insulating material covered hy that 
class, mica being the predominating substance therein."' 

Mr. E. J. Trustram, who appeared for the applicants, said that 
the registration of the marks was by Meirowsky & Co. Akt. 
Gesellschaft, of Cologne, dealers in and manufacturers of mica ; the 
registration of No. 216,08:! was on August 2nd, 1898, and there was a 
renewal in r.)12. No. 276, .SI I was registered on October 28th, IHO."). 
The manufacture of these mica electrical insulating materials 
had formed part of the applicants' business for many years. Before 
the opening of the war they found it impossil)le to develop .and 
increase the sale of mica insulating material, being everywhere 
met by the German megomit, to which engineers and others had 
Ijecome accusto.iiLd. Since the war they had endeavoured todeveloji 
their trade in this line, but although they had somewhat iflcrease(i 
their business, they were still met on every hand with inquiries for 
megomit. Engineers knew that megomit contained mica. The 
applicants knew that their mica plate contained mica, and was 
more than efjual to megomit, but they could only ([note for their 
various kinds of mica ]>late and micanite and explain to 
customers that they could not sell them as megomit. 
The specification or formula for the applicants' mica plate 
entirely corresponded to the specification or formula for megomit. 
With one exception only the whole of their mica and micanite was 
manufactured locally. The exception came from America anil 
Switzerland. If they were allowed to sell their mica goods as 
megomit they could secure many orders, and largely increase the 
local industry. The Controller said that if there was to be avoidance 
of the trade marks it would have to be on the ground that it was a 
bad trade mark, as being the only practicable name for a specific 
article. For years, apparently, this substance had been largely sold 
as micanite and megomit, an(J the Germans had not monopolised 
the whole trade, as in the case of " aspirin." 

After some discussion, the Controller said that it would- be 
impossible to say that megomit was the only practicable name of 
a specific article, without which it would not be possible to sell 
the article, and they had laid down the rule that suspension could 
only be granted where the trade mark was the .only practicable 
name of the article manufactured. Megomit was used as the name 
of a brand made in Germany, and it could not be transferred to 
anybody else. It would not he fair to avoid the mark altogether. 
In the case of aspirin, this had undoubtedly become the only name 
by which the public would buy the article. Under these circum- 
stances, he thought at the present stage the application could not 
be granted. The applicants, when asked for megomit, should say 
it was German, and could not Ije got. and in that event the 
customer should be patriotic, and buy English goods. 

Eventually the hearing was adjourned for further information 
to be, submitted to the Court. 



Vol. 84. Xo. 2,146, Jaxuakv 10. 



1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



47 



NOTES. 

State and Technical Research in Germany. — Aaonlin^' 

to Welthiinilel. December ilth, the Imi)erial Economic Office proposes 
to ext<?nd its functions to include the examination of scientific and 
technical methods of development, and offices are to be opened 
to collect material and assist in the solution of important practical 
problems. The first of these offices is to deal with the further 
utilisation of coal, with the object of increasing the productivity 
of available stores. Similar offices for other sections of industry 
are also about to be opened. 

Hours of Labour in Australia.— There is a possibility of 

industrial turmoil in Australia in 191".i. because members of Unions 
are demanding a 42-hours' week and higher wages, but the Govern- 
ments of all the States are confident that Bolshevism will not 
become a serious menace. — The Tii/iex. 

Educational. — Battersea Polytechxic. — A course of 
12 lectures on "'Solutions of Alternating Current Problems by 
Symbolic Methods." will be given on Friday evenings, commencing 
January 17th. The evening courses on D.c. and A.C. Engineering, 
(Jeneration. Transmission and Distribution, will commence on 
•January ISth. Daycourseson January 14th. Forfurtherparticulare. 
see our advertisement pages to-day. 

The Electro-Harmonic Society.— The smoking concert, 
which will be held at the Holborn Restaurant in the Venetian 
Chamber to-night (Friday) at 8 p.m.. will be presided over by Mr. 
\V. W. Bradfield, C.B.E. The artistes will be :— Mr. Leonard 
Lovesey. tenor ; Mr. .Vrnold Stoker, baritone : Mr. Wilfred James, 
bassoon ; Mr. Walter Newman, humorist ; Mr. Arthur Brough, ven- 
triloquist ; Mr. Thomas Sidney, entertainer at the piano ; Mr. 
Bernard Flanders. A.R.A.M., solo pianoforte and accompanist. 

The Grading of Electrical Artisans. — A correspondent, 

discussing the relative status of "' wiremen," ''electrical fitters." 
and " electricians," remarks that there are many difficult questions 
when dealing with labour matters ; to him it is obvious that to be 
just to both master and man. they should be graded in rates. 
The present method of rate fixing is unjust to both master and 
true craftsman. The lower grades of craftsmen are certainly not 
worth 50 per cent, more than the labourer, and, personally, he has 
found the best of the labourers far better than many of the 
craftsmen. 

The lower grades of craftmanship always call for the greater 
numbers, and. as a result of present methods, are overpaid in 
comparison with the labourer ; the lowest grade of labour should 
be the basis i.e., for the living wage. 

It certainly appears to us desirable that the terms above 
mentioned should be defined and classified, and this is rightfully 
the function of the Electrical Trades I'nion, which, it it claims to 
be a craft Union, ought to know and state the exact grade of every 
one of its members. It wUl be remembered that in the Committ^ 
on Production's award of last November the three classes were 
lumped together. 

Demobilisation. — ilr. T. W. Cole, secretary of the Pro- 
vincial Electric Supply Committee of the United Kingdom, writing 
under date January 8th, says : — " You were good enough to publish 
a letter of mine on the above subject in your issue of November 2!ith, 
1918, in which I said that my Committee had taken the matter up 
with the authorities so as to ensure that the electric supply industry 
was placed among the " key industries," so as to be entitled to 
priority in regard to the return of their men in the Army. I 
have had further correspondence with the Demobilisation, autho- 
rities, and imdertakings will be pleased to know that Public 
Utility Companies (Group No. ^i5) have now been placed as one of 
the industrial groups open for making up drafts for Demobilisa- 
tion subject to certain provisions which have been notified in the 
daily Press." » 

The " Tanks " Inaugural Dinner. — The new social 

body — the Tanks -Vssociation -held its inaugural dinner and 
concert at the Connaught Rooms, on Monday night. It has been 
formed with the object of bringing together at least once a year 
those who during the war were connected with tanks, those 
eligible for membership being members and ex-members of the 
Jlechanical Warfare Department, officers and ex-officera of the 
Tank Corps and armoured cars, and representatives of the firms 
engaged in the manufacture of tanks and their components. 
Lieut. -Colonel Sir A. G. Stern, to whose initiative is largely due 
the Government's adoption of tanks as an arm of the Services, is 
president of the new Society, and the vice-presidents include, 
among others. Sir William Tritton, Major-General EUes. and Vice- 
Admiral M(X)re. The aims of the Association are philanthropic as 
well as social, and it is proposed to establish a scholarship in the 
engineering profession for the children of members. 

Wireless in the Air Service. — Addressing the London 

Chamber of Commerce, on Tuesday last, on the commercial air 
service which is likely to be organised in the near future, Major- 
General Sir F. 11. SykcB. Chief of the Air Staff, declared that the 
problem was largely one of navigation, meteorology, and wireless. 
.\n organisation capable of centralising at the starting (xjint all in- 
formation about the immediate weather conditions all along the 
route was essential. A development, which would be of the 
greatest use for enabling machines to fly in all weathers, was the 
direction-finding wireless apparatus carried in all aircraft for ascer- 
taining the bearing of ground wireless transmitting stations. This 
method was at present secret, and was developed in the service during 
the war, .\ircraft so equipped could fix their position frequently. 



and could report to their base|at any moment where they were, what 
course they were steering, or if they were in any difficulty. The 
ground transmitting stations were, in fact, a form of aerial light- 
house, unaffected by fog and with a range of 600 or 700 miles. In 
his opinion, it was essential that the development of wireless tele- 
graphy should take place along broad imperial lines. British 
aircraft would soon be as widely spread as the British Empire. 

Volunteer Notes. — Royal EngineeeS Yolunteers, 
London Army Troops Companies. — Headquarters ; Balderton 
Street, Oxford Street, W. 1 . 

Regimental Orders No. 2, by Lieut. -Colonel C. B. Clay, V.D., Commanding. 

Mondav, January 13th, to Saturday, January 18th, drills as usual. 

C. HiGGiss, Captain, B.E., Aiijiitanl. 

Stocks of Non-Ferrous Metals.— The Ministry of Muni- 
tions publishes the following particulars of the stocks (exclusive 
of old metals and scrap) in this country in the possession of the 
Minister on January Ist : — 

Tons. Tous. 

Copper 36.000 Soft pig lead 62,8.52 

Spelter, G.O.B. ... 22,273 Nickel 2,096 

Spelter, refined ... 8.017 Antimony regulus ... 3.508 

Aluminium ... ... 11,957 

It is intended, the Ministry states, to publish at monthly intervals 
the stocks held on the first day of each month. In addition to the 
above, the Minister holds large quantities of scrap, mainly brass, 
of which it is impossible to give any particulars at present. — 
The Times. 

The Fuel and Lighting Order.— The ("oal Controller 

has announced that, commencing with the New Year, the allow- 
ances of gas and electricity for fuel and lighting under the 
Household Fuel and Lighting Order, 1918. will be increased by 
25 per cent. For the present this concession relates only to England 
and Wales, and does not apply to Scotland. At the same time, it 
is proposed by arrangement with the Ministry of Munitions to 
suspend all restrictions on the fitting of gas and electrical 
equipment. Economy of coal is still necessary. 

In accordance with this decision, the conversion ccjuivalent for 
gas in terms of fuel wUl be increased to 18,750 cb. ft. to the ton, 
and for electricity to 1.000 Board of Trade units to the ton as from 
the meter readings taken for the close of the quarter ending 
December 31st last (except in those cases in which a higher con- 
version equivalent has already been specially agreed.) The allow- 
ances for lighting under Clause 8, or the special assessments for 
lighting agreed under Clause 12 of the Order, will from such meter 
readings be likewise increased by 25 per cent. Further, the Con- 
troller agrees to the suspension of Clause 99 referring to the 
restrictions on gas and electrical fittings as from the 6th inst. 

Institution and Lecture Notes.— Birmingham and 

District Electric Club. — The arrangements for the first half of 
the 1919 session are as follows : — 

January 11th.— Presidential address, " Problems of the Future," by Mr. 

W.'H. Vamom. 
February 8th.— Paper on *' Signalling." by Captain F. H. Woodrow, R.E. 
February 22nd.^ — Annual Dinner, Grand Hotel. 
March .Sth.— Paper on " Electric Welding as a Commercial Proposition," 

by Mr. H. W. Wolton (vice-presidentl. 
April'iath.— Paper on " Electric Converting Plants," by Mr. F. Gould, 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. — In order to enable the 
necessary arrangements to be made, members wishing to dine to- 
gether at the Waterloo Restaurant, Charles Stieet, Haymarket, 
after the I.E.E. Meetings, are asked to send their names to the 
Institution Offices, notlaterthan the Wednesday morning preceding 
the meeting. Owing to food difficulties, the proprietor of the 
restaurant is unable to cater for an unspecified number of visitors. 

Chadwick Public Lectures.— Mr. A. H. Barker, B.A., B.Sc, is 
delivering a course of three lectures on " Fuel Economy and 
Health. " at the Royal Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. 2, 
on Mondays. January 6th. 13th, and 20th, at 5.15 p.m. The 
ground covered on the three occasions will be : — " The Heat 
Requirements of the Human Being " : " The Heat Requirements 
o£ a House " : '' Heat Economies. " 

Electrical Power Engineers' Association. — A meeting wUl be held 
at the White Lion Hotel. Coventry, at 6.45 p.m. to-day, for the 
purpose of forming a South-Eastern Section of the Jlidland 
Division. All engineers interested will be cordially welcomed. 

The Liverpool Section of the Northern Division has arranged for 
a smoking concert to be held at the Bee Hotel, Liverpool, at 7. p.m. 
on Wednesday, J.anuary 15th. Each mcmljer will have the privilege 
of bringing one friend. Tickets may be had from members of 
Committee or corresponding members. 

Appointments Vacant.— >^hift engineer (77s.) for the 

Farnworth U.D.C. Electricity Department : shift engineer 
C78s. 9d.) for the Woking Electric Supply Co.. Ltd, ; instructors in 
mechanical and electrical engineering for the Stoke-on-Tront 
Education Committee : charge engineer (70s. -I- 23s. 6d. -t- 12i per 
cent.), for the Croydon Corporation Electricity Department : 
shift engineer (37s. 6d. + 20s. -t- 12J per cent.), for the Peter- 
Iwrough Corporation Electricity Department : meter mechanic and 
test-room assistant (£4), for the Newport B.C. Electricity Depart- 
ment : chief assistant engineer, for the Bo'ness Electric Power 
Station ; sub-station attendant (35s. + 28s. lid. + 12'. per cent.), 
for the Walsall Corporation Electricity Supply Department . meter 
tester (45s. + 2Ss. 6d. -t- 124 per cent.), for the Barrow-in-Furness 
Corporation Electricity Works ; shift engineer (93s. rtd.^i. for the 
Warrington Corporation Electricity and Tramways Committee ; 
charge engineer (£175), for the Worcester Corporation Electricity 
Works : mechanical and electrical engineer (£350), for the Docks 
Committee of the Bristol Corporation ; mains superintendent 
(£425), for the George Town. Penang. Municipal Electric Light 
and Tramways Department. See our advertisement pages to-day. 



48 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. st. no.2,hg,.ianuauv lo, idih. 



The Women of Coblentz.— The Times coritspondeiit 
with the AracricftQ Army at t'obleutz, in the course of a recent 
disimtch, says : — " Already in <'obIentz there is considerable 
unemployment, and larpre numbers of demobilised soldiers are 
anxious to oust women from the well-paid positions they hold as 
tramway-car conductors and in other municipal services, a.s well as 
in industrial and commercial undertakings. Despite all the efforts 
of the German authorities to induce the women and frirlR to so back 
to household work, little or no progress is being made. The women 
refuse to resume their pre-war status in the community. 

Electrical Development in Japan. — Statistics cdiiipiltd 

liy the .lapano.M- Depjirtiucnt ol .\i:iic-iilliiro .'^how, .siy.s tllic 
■lourhal of Etn-I riiitu, that nliiKisl ll'i |ht coiit. ol .hipan's 
hydro-electric and steaiii-oloctri<- iiouoi- lU'Vi-lopiuciit t<H)k 
place durinfl the I'l montlis prior to IIUS. The total ua.t<n- 
power development ooiiiplct«l was llli,.'i.s.") k\v., witli uiumiu- 
plet^ed projects under way aiuountint; to 317. 1:U k\v. Siini- 
Jarly, the steani-elei'trio ix>uor sho«c<l coiijivleted i)rojcct« to 
theauioimt of 118, SHW kw., and uiicoiiiiilet'ed of 1.58,7*1 kw. 
In couiparin},' this power deveJopnient iirognuniiio of 1.U1I.'243 
KW. with the completed and uncompioted prosranimo of the 
■previous ye;ir it was found that the Nwir liJlS sliuwed an 
increase of loC.iW KW., of which 73,1S| kw. wa.s for water 
lX)wer, ami 83,140 kw. for steam ix>wer dovelopnu'iit. Tlie 
total number of electrical ent<>.rprises. including jiower and 
railway, was ti87, I'epresentinj^ a. capitali.sation of ahout 
$:W.T,(XH 1.0(10, which comjiaired with the .sjime (late of the, i)i-e- 
vious year showed an increase of 139 <'nt<"rprises \\ith a capi- 
talisation of $.3'2.59.5.ttOO. An itlt>a of the magnitude of .'«>nie 
of thes<> onteri>rises may be (xleanod from a statement of thiee 
tvpical iK>wer installations of tlu^ Tokio Eie«ibrical Lijiht Ci>., 
the Inawa.shiro Hydro-Electrio Co., and the Ujigawa Electric 
Co., the lirs't two supply in Tokio a.nd the lust the great 
industrial centre of Osjika, as follows; — 



I'okio Light No. -J 
Inawashiro No. 1 
tjigawa 



Capacity 
(kw.l 

;i),0(xi 

•io.OCKI 



Max. Distance 

voltage. (miles). 

.55,000 .50 

1I5.0(K( 140 

Oii.lKKJ 30 



Electricity on Board Ship.— Hefcning to the British 

.■-e'ction of the. .Allieil Fleet takiny over that portion of the 
KuM.'^ian Black Sea Meet wljich had been seized by the Cer- 
mans, a. Pre.ss corresi>ondent says thait all the machinery on 
the battle.ship Vo/,;« wa.s electricaJ, and the whole a.rr.mge- 
ment of the .■-hip iliflennl from anvlhing known in the 
Brit.i.sh Navy. 

Requirements of Russian Engineering Works. — The 

X.A.Z., November Lst. in coninienting oji the requirements 
of the Russian engineering indu.'jtry, remarketl that under 
nurinal labour conditions 14 million ixxxls of laetiil would be 
needed. Up to the present about 4 million iKxjds of fresh a.nd 
'JtOO. million poods of old metjil have been registeied. 'llieie 
is a suttii-ient quantity of copper forthcoming. The amount 
of pig-iron e.ssential is estimated at 13 million poods, which 
laii only be.supphe<l when the coal .shorl^ige is relieved. Owing 
to lack of coal a. numher of woi'ks in Tula, and Toiubov lia.v<' 
had to close down. The Petrograd Soviet ha« isanctioned 
K.1'2 million for purcha.'ang machine parts and technical 
mat^irials in Scandinavia. 

Referring aippa.rently to the saiin' matter, the Dniixchr 
Jllfienieifir Zriliing of Nov. ijlh sjiid that the C<>mmissairies 
of the Petrograd communal adiiiints-fiation had decided to 
purchase machinery and materials from various undertak- 
ings in Sweden, and ha<l V()ted P>.l'2 mill, loi- the [nirpote. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

Tin Editors ini'Ue electrical engineers, whether connected with the 
technical or ths commercial side of the profession and indm-try. 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of the 
Electbical Review posted as to their movemenis. 



Central Station and Tramway Officials.— Mr. P. M. 

Plktchf.r, chief a.s.sistant electricaJ "engineer at the Rochdale 
Corporation electricity works, has been apjwinted electrical 
?ugineer.to the Darwen Corjwration. 

Rotherhani T.O. ha.s decided to increase the .salary of Mr. 
E. Cross, the borough electrical engine<'r, by twi) amiual 
;nstaimentss of fl'25, making a maximum of i'l,(KHl per 
annum. 

Mr. B. E. Ho.ADLKY. borough electrical engineer at Maid- 
stone, has been installed Worshipful Master of the Belve- 
dere Lodge of Freematsons. 

Bangor T.C. has decided to increase the .salary of the elec- 
trical engineer by £20 a year, the present boniis being con- 
tinued. 

Donca,stei- Corporation Special Electricity and Tramways 
Sub-Committee has recommended that the (lay of the shift 
<'ngineer at the power station be increased to £4 i)er week, and 
that the increment due to Mr. J. W. Hibbebt in November, 



lyl'J, .shall take effect as from January 1st, I'JI'.I; that .Mr. T. 
I'orr'.s siilary l>e increased to i;"27i5 per aiimum Iroin .la.iuiary 
1st; and that the borough elix-trical engineer's salaix be iii- 
viea.-vd from .t'.).5li l)y an amount eipiivalent to ■28^. (id. \te\- 
week, plus I'iJ |>er lont.. with a dediu^tion of i.'.5(.l. The Town 
Council, ui conniiitte<\ has adjourned the propo,sal .so far a,s 
(oiicems the Ixriough engineer, |vnding a re[xirt- by the 
l-inancf Comniitt4'e upon a re«.'ent circular of the l>ocai (!ov- 
ernmeiit Board dealing generally with certain war allnw- 
iinces for administrative, technical, and clerical .staffs of Imal 
authorities. 

Exeter T.C. has increa.-ed the sidary of (ho tramway mana- 
ger from .i'3O0 to i£3.J0 per annum. 

PiiK-hdalc Town Cijuiuil has approved the Electricity Com- 
mittee's reconmiciidation to increii.se the .silary of Mr. P. II. 
Liuini, the borough electrical engineer, from ,i'4.50 to .±'.5<K) a 
year, a.s from NovcnilH'r 1st hust, thus anticipating the iii- 
ciea.se promised for next .\ugust. 

Mr. R. r. B.AILEV, resident engineer, Ncchells gcneraling 
station, Cori)oration of Birminghajii electric supply dep.irt- 
ment, h;is resigned in order to tiike up the appointment of 
Birmingham representative lor Messrs. Brown-Bavlev's Steel 
works, Ltd., Sheftield. 

Having regard to the extra work coiiseiiiu'iit upon the 
shiutage ol stiiff ait the power station, and tlie incrca.^iiig 
difficulties which have arisen duiing the wa.r, the Northamp- 
ton Tramways Cbmiuiittee proposes that Mr. Camuhon, the 
traniway manager, shall be granted an honorarium of ±'1()0. 

Hoishajn U.D.C. has inci-eaeed the salary of Mr. H. L. 
CoiTAM, electrical engineer, to £300 per annum as from De- 
cember 3ist, 1918. 

C'heste.rlield T.O. has acwpti'd the resignation of Mr. R. L. 
.\tL\.Mi, electrical engineer and tramway manager, and has 
decided to appoint him consulting engineer at a .sulary of 
£100 l>er annum. 'The Electricity Committee rwoinmends 
that no appointment to the vat-ant jKwition be' made a,t pre- 
sent, but that Mr. Toiti.n, assistant clectritnil engineer, be in 
chaj'ge of both departments. 

Mr. Mahk Rumdij;, chief electricaJ engineer of the Dublin 
Corixnation , has tendered his resignation on the gronnd of 
ill-health. He became engineer and manager of a large 
chemical works in Portsmouth in 1874, and some years latei- 
joined the Bell Telephone Co., which, in ISSO, amalgamated 
with the Edison Co., of New York. \Vhen tJie EdLson Syndi- 
cate started in London, the New York cUrectors a>ppoiiit<-d 
Mr. Ruddle- one of their engineers, and under his direction 
the lirst .sy.stem of urtderground cahles was laid down, l/aiter, 
\\ hen the Edisuu S.vndica.te started a. local company at Man- 
chester, he became its chief engineer, and subsequently he 
was engineer to the Metropolitan Electric Lighting Co. His 
association with Dublin municiiKil affairs l>egan '28 yenirs ago. 
He was engineer of the mains under Sir .Mex. (then Mr.) 
Kennedy, and aftorwanls acted under Mr. Hammon<l, whom 
he succeeded ;i> rii^^imn -in-chief. Mr. Ruddle was chair- 
man of the In.-ii I ii-titiitinii of Civil Engineers for two yiNirs, 
anri he had filled the chan luanship of the Duldin Bra.nch of 
the Institution of Electricail Engineers. Thewilary attached to 
the ofhce which he has vacated is £750 jjer annum, with a 
war bonus of £150. 

St. Helens Town Council on 'Wednesday confirmed a de<i- 
sion of the Electricity Committee, appointing Mr. B. T. 
liAWKlNS chief electrical engineer, in the vacancy creat<'d by 
the resignation of Mr. E. M. Hollingsworth, the .salary to lie 
ii'M) {>er annum. It was also decide<l that the staff at tlic 
«'lcctiicity works be rearrange*!, with increases, a.s follow.^ : 
— Mr. C. E. Creoii to be mains supeiiiitendciit (£300), Mr. 
P. N. R. Baker station superintendent (£3(lil), Mr. II. C. 
Duncan chief clerk (£260), Mr. H. J. Ureer, motors and in- 
stallation iusi:iector (£250), the salaries to be paid without 
any bonus. Various increase-s of salary were granted to the 
ol'tice staff of the Electricity Committee. Mr. E. M. Holling,s- 
worth, who is teiking up work under the United Alkali Co., 
has been retained by the Tramways Committee in an advi- 
sory capacity for six months at a fee of WM). This is in 
connection with the negotiations for the transfer uf the tram- 
ways from the company to the Corporation. 

General. — The Muiiclicstcr Gnnrdiun .states that Lieut. -Col. 
Lincoln Chandi.ei!, who. as mentioned here Ja.st week, has 
resigned the managing director.ship of the British Westing- 
house Co. at Trafford Park, hais been co-opted on the general 
boiw-d of the comjiany. k iwrtion of the 10 per cent. cum. 
pref. share scrip created undei- the recent reorganisation of 
capital was being offered to the employes la.st week for sub- 
scription under casy-jwyment terms. 

?vlr. T. W. Shaw has joined the staiV of Messrs. Cunniiig- 
liam, Ltd., and will have charge of their motor repair depart- 
ment. 

,\lr. .1. A. Woons has resigned his ixisition as chief engi- 
neer to the Newi-a.stle Breweries. Ltd., and has jwned the 
.staff of the British Electrical A Manufacttiring Co.. of 2. St. 
Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle on-Tyne, Sunderland, and 
London. 

.Md. K. R. .Jephcoit, the new M.P. for the Y'ardley Divi- 
sion of Bii-mingham, is chairman of the Birmingham Cbr- 
ixiration Electric Supply Committee. 

Swansea Corporation Electricity Committee has elected Col. 
.-Vi,F,.\A.NDER SiNCLAm chairman, and Aid. James vice-chairmaii, 
of the Committee for the ensuing year. 



Vol.84, xo. 2,u6, jandaky 10, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEWo 



49 



sir. E. 1.. SHErHERD, who lias been with the Midland Elec- 
tric Corixinition lor Power Distribution, Ltd., Ucker liill, 
Tipton, for between six and seven years (and previously lor 
live years at the St. Helens generating station), has resigned 
liis position in order to become electi-ician on the outside sfcilf 
nf the electric crane and lift dei»i"tment of Messrs. Holt ami 
Willett-s, of Crarfiey Heath. 

Mr. \\'. B. Crawley, who has been connected with Mes.sr.s. 
Ferranti, Ltd., for 27 yeare, has now been appointed their 
sales repre.«entati\e for meters and instruments in the South 
of England. Mr. Crawley's district will not include the 
London telephone area, as clients in that area, ade already 
being attended to by the company's London branch office. 

Messre. G. Du.nc.\x M.ixx, S. E. SHEERiHN, and F. E. 
rEN[iEB<j.\ST have resigned their positions as sales managers 
m the Midland Counties for Mes-srs. V^ritys, Lt<l., with whom 
they had over -57 years' combined service, and are now tra<l- 
ing as the United Elec'trical Co., at NewhaJl Chambers, New- 
hall Street, Binningham. They have been appointed sole 
selling representatives in the Jlidland Counties by Messrs. 
S. G. Leach & Co.. Ltd.. London, and are also representing 
Messr.«. ^\"right & Wood, of Flahfax. 

.\ Nottingham iwper .states that Sir John Snell, having 
taken up a Government appointment, is unable to advise the 
combination of the lix-al authorities of Nottingham, Derby, 
Ijeice-ster, Mansfield, and other East Midland towns on the 
cjuestion of electric p^)wer supply. It is, therefore, proposed 
to retain his partner, Mr. Riijer, in his place. 

We are asked by Mr. .\. G. CnoraR. M.I.E.E., to let it be 
known that he is nob the Mr. F. G. Cooper, of Oolne, who, 
as stated in our last issue, has accepted a position at Sheifield. 
Mr. .\. G. Cooiwr left Cohie, where he was borough electrical 
engineei-, in July last, and joined the Inventory Staff of the 
Engineering Deirajtment of the Ministry of Munitions at 
Manchester, where he is now employed. 

Mr. C. M. Feroiso.n has rejoined the stall of Messrs. Janjea 
Gordon & Co., of : Queen's House, Kingsway, W.C. '2, in 
charge of their steam power department, where he will be 
pleased to .see old friends. 

Mr. J. F. McEntee, \\;hi) has been elected M.P. for South 
Monaghan in the Sinn F'ein inteirest. was appointe<l assistant 
I 1.', trical engineer under the Dunda.lk Urban Council in 1914. 
He tix>k pairt in the Irish rising of Easter Week, lOIfi; was 
tried in resiie<^-.t of the murder of a. ix»hoeman and acquitted ; 
was deported and relea.sed, but was re-arrested, and is among 
the Irish leaders now interned in England. 

War Honours. — The followinii j^entlenien, to whom the 
EEECTiiiCAE Ekview offers its congi-atulations, appear in the 
li.sts pubhshed yesterday of those who have been app<^)iut<^d 
1o, or promoted in, the Ch-der of the British Empire for war 
services: — 

Mr. C. L. Budd, C.B.E., member of the Non-ferrous 
.Materi.ils Department of the Ministry of Munitions, Mr. J. 
.McLaren (chainnan of J. & H. Mci-aren, l^eeds), Mr. W. 
Thoiu (director of Yat^'s & Thom, Blackburn), and Mr. John 
Woniiald (managing .director of Mather & Piatt, Ltd.), are 
made Kiiijilifs Commatiilcis (Civil Dicisinn). 

Mr. G. H. Banister (Vickers, Ltd.), Major J. L. Benthall 
(\'ickers, Ltd.), PrincjiXil J. C. M. Garnett. of Manchester, 
Mr. G. E. Chadwyck-Healey (Director of Materials and 
Priority, .\dmiralty), Mr. W. W. Lackie (city electrical engi- 
neer, Glasgow), Mr. D. S. Marjoribanks (Sir W. G. .\rm- 
strong, Whitworth &. Co.). Mr. S. L. Pearce (city electrical 
engineer, Manchester), Mr. P.. P. Sloan (managing director,- 
Newcastle-on-Tyne Elec-tric Supply Co., Lt-d.), become Co>ii- 
iiinnders {Civil Division) in the Order. 

There is also a lengthy list of Otficers and Members. 

The Order of the British Empire has be<;n confeired on Mr. 
(lionGE Webster, manager of the EUx'hdale Corix>ration 
tramways, for work in connection with the war. Mr. Webs- 
ter was for two yeai-s the hon. secwtary of the Eochdalo 
Shell Factory, and was afterwards elected a member of the 
board of directors. ^ 

Second-Lieutenant H. Hopkinson, R.A.S.C, whose name 
ap))eais in the list of M.B.E. ^Military Division) of the .\i-my 
Honours, and also in Sir Douglas Haig's dispatch dated Nov- 
ember 8th, 1918, was sales engineer to the Walsall corpora- 
tion electric supply department. 

Congratulations to Brigadier H. W. Thornton, E.E. (T.F.), 
manager of the Great Ea.stern Railway, on his appointment 
as K.B.E. (Military Divi.<;ion). 

Roll of Honour. — More than a year ago we announced that 
the Militai-y Medal had been awarded to Lance-Corporal J. 
.'V. Barlow, an employe in the public lighting department of 
the Stepney borough electricity undertaking. Tjance-Corporal 
Barlow has now been awarded a bar to his Jlihtary Medal 
for further conspicuous bra.vei-y in action. The official refer- 
ence to the matter reads : — 

L'ralcr voiv llPnvv sl.rll fir.- ut Klein Zill.'lj.-kc-. .ni .Scpliiiibpr Mill, IHIS. 
lliis N.C.O. went to 111.- <is.iisti.n.e of ;i |>;,rtv o( mm iinti pack mulps who 
li.i'l all been either fcille.l or wounds .1. Withiiiil ;inv ,n5sist,inrp he eol ;ili 
the wounded to a pl.ice of safety and dressed them, ami remained with Iheiu 
"iilil the arrival of slretrher-bejji ers to remove Ihtni. Bv his action he un- 
'.uliledly saved the lives of the wounded men. Mc showed great courage 
"\ tenacity of purpose, and absolute fearlessn.-'ss. and is at all times a 
'erful and willing soldier. 

Private J. Nelson, Manchester Regiment, who has died 
from influenza whilst a. prisoner of w^ar in German Poland, 
was employed by Messrs. Charles Macintosh & Co., Ltd., 
Manchester. 



Private J. Hardma.x, 6th Manchester Regiment, reported 
as having died in a German hospital, and Corporal W. J. 
Cawley, Roviil WeLsli Fusiliers, kille<l, \^ere both emplovt!'S 
of the British Westinghouse Co., fjtd., Trafford Park. 

Private Vi'. Lonshale, \^■est Riding Regunent, formeily a 
train driver in the employ of the Leeds CoriX)ration, who was 
condemned to death for striking a sentrj- while a prisoner 
of war in Geiinany, anived home on Saturday last. 

Obituary.— Mr. J. R. Heckley.— The death occurred on 
January 3rd at Shetfield, suddenly, of Mr. J. R. Heckley, of 
Messrs. Vickers, Ltd. The deceased gentleman had been 
with the .company for 50 years, latterly as secretary. 

Coln. Richard Holt.— We regi-et to announce "the death 
of Coun. Richard Holt, J. P., Chairman of the Blackpool 
Electricity and Tramways Committee, which took place on 
FViday, 3rd inst. Coun. Holt, who was also Deputy-Mayor, 
had been a inspected member of the Blackpool Town Council 
tor some 17 years. During his pubhc career he had always 
worked ha.rd for the well-being of Blackpool, a.nd his loss 
win be keenly felt by many of the public bcxlies of the town. 
He wa.s held in the highest esteem by everybody, and the 
electricity and tramway department in particular has been 
deprived of the services of a chaimian who was everything 
tha.t could be desired. 

Mr. L. E. Horrell. — The death has occurretl fitmi in- 
juries sustained through being run over by a tjixi-csih, of Mr. 
Louis Edwin Horrell, electrical engineer, of Gaisington 
(Oxon.). He was 37 years of age, and was on the staff at 
the Milton power .sta-tion. 

Mr. Edward J.^ckson.— The funeral took place on Satur- 
day, at Bamt Green, near Birmingham, of Mr. Fklward 
Jack.son, a direct<ir of the Midland Railway Carnage and 
Wagon Co., who had been for (iO yeajs identified with that 
concern. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



blectncars, Ltd. (152,4*0 -—Private company. Regis- 
tered January iind. Capital £13,000 in 100,000 " per cent, cum pref partici- 
pating shares of £1 each and 300,000 ord. shares of Is. each. Manufacturers 
of and dealers in carriages," omnibuses, trucks, tractors, lorries, locomotives, 
tramcars, motors, vehicles, submarines, launches, boats, barges, &c., and 
.specially those using storage batteries for motive power. Tlie subscribers 
(each with ont- pref. share) are :— Brig.-Gen. H. C. L. Holden. 2, St. John's 
Park, S.l£. 3; J. G. Mommer, 12, Grove End Road, N.W. 2, engineer; C. T. 
D. Burcnall, 5. The Sanctuary, S.W., solicitor; A. W. Burchall, 5, The Sanc- 
tuary, S.W., solicitor; J. K. Christie, 14, Colville Road, \V. 11 clerk; J A 
Braik, 20, Cambridge Road, S.W. 19; C. Vines, 178, Venncr Road. S.E.2(J, 
solicitor's managing clerk. No persons had consented to act as directors 
to January 2ml. Registered office: 2-3, Duke Street, St. James's, S.W.I. 

Engineerinj; Publications, Ltd. (152,498).— Private com- 
pany. Registered January 3rd. Capital, fl.OOO in £1 shares. To enter into 
an agreement, the parties to which are not named; in the articles as 
originally piinled this was stated as an agreement with K. V. O. H. Lash 
or Lush, but the name has been erased. To carry on the business of pub- 
lishers and proprietors of newspapers, journals, magazines, books, and other 
liter.-iry woi-ks, printers, stationers, advertising agents, &c. ; also to establish 
competitions and insure (gratuitously or otherwise), or .irrange lor the grant- 
ing of free insurances. The subscribers (each with one share) are:— J li. 
I'assmore, 8, Parksidc J\venue, Wimbledon, printer; H. Randall, Earnshaw 
Cottage, Esher, Surrey, proprietor. Royal Worcester Warehouse Co. J''irst 
directors: H. Randall and J. E. Passmore, e^ch of whom mav retain office 
while holding 20 shares. Registered office : 93-4, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

Electric Tapes. Ltd. (10,185).— Private company. Regis- 
tered December 23rd in Edinburgh. Capital. i'B.OOO in £1 shares. To carry 
on the business of manufacturers of and dealers in -ubber, asbestos, and 
insulating materials. The subscribers (each with one share) are :— J. C 
.Sinclair, 47, Waterloo Street, Glasgow, rubber and asbestos manufacturer; 
A. J. Terry. 3, Haydoii Street, Minorics. E. 1, rubber and asbestos manufac- 
turer. I'Trst directors: J. C. Sinclair and .\. J. Terry. Registered office: 
47, Waterloo Street. Glasgow. 

Georj^e England, Ltd. (152,455). — Private companv. 

Registered January 1st. C:ipital, £4,000 in £1 shares (.100 7i per cent. pref.). 
To take over the business carried on at \V;ilton-on-Thames as George Eng- 
land, and to carry on the business of manufacturers of electrical, steam, gas, 
or other motor vehicles and aircraft; aerodrome, aero .school and club, han- 
gar, garage, and shed proprietors, &c. The subscribers (each with one 
t.liare) are:— F. H. Aarons. The Firs. Fir Road. Kenley. Surrey, solicitor; 
L. P. Poller, 28, Brookfield. West Hill. Highgale. N.6. solicitor. First 
directors : G. England and E. C. G. England. Registered office : Broad 
.Street House, E.C. 2. 



CITY NOTES. 



Blackpool, St. Annes & Lytham Tramways Co. — The 

balance sheet shows liabilities on the 5 per cent, debenture 
stock and interest accrued to date, i'197,375. On the I'evenue 
account, the items show traffic exi>enses £11.048. general ex- 
l>enses £4.5(14. general repairs and maintenance £13.184. power 
expenses ±'5.'274. The traflic receipt^s (less £30,993 paid to 
Blackpool Corporation) amounted t<i £63,6130. \ ]>rofit of 
£10,348 was made. f7.:")(X1 was [>aid in interest on delieiituro 
'stock, anil £l.o(tO to sinking fund. The adverse balance wa« 
reduced from £10,433 to £39.08:'') 

Direct United Sta.tes Cable Co., Ltd. — Interim dividend 
'2s. per share (4 per cent, per annum), less tax at 6s., for 
the quarter. 

.Marconi International .Marine Communication Co., Ltd. 
— Interim dividend of 5 per cent., being 1^. i:>er share, less 
tax at .5s. 9d. 

Bell Telephone Co. of Canada.— Ouarterly dividend 2 
per cent., less tax. 



50 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, ivui.si. xo. 2.1 lo, janiakv lo. 1:11:., 



An^lO'American Tele^^raph Co., Ltd. — l?;ilanoo dividend 
<•!' i'l Ids. |vr r.Mit. 'i>!i tlie ix>Ms<>lida-t<>(l ordinary st<X'k for 
tlio. year, los.s iucouio-tax at 5s. lOJil. lialano- dividend of 
£1 UV. on tlie luefcrrod st<x-k, Iciss incoino-tflx at <is. First 
and final dividend of £1 10s. iiixm the deferred st<K-k. le.ss 
ineoine-tax at •>«. "Jd. Tliese dividends, tofiether with tbtKS=e 
already paid, will "amount to £S 1.5.';. jier eent. on tho con- 
tM^ilidated ordinary stock, £H per cent, on the preferred stock, 
a-nd £i 10s. per rent, on the deferred stock for the year 1918. 
.\ bonus of Is. Od. per cent, is to lie paid on the undivided 
ordirrary stock, and :is. fid. yvcr cent, on the deferred stcK-k. 
tree of in<>)in.' lax. 

Companies Struck off the Rej^ister. — rh<- followinjj coni- 
pjinics have been struck off the repi-Ntcr. and arc aiii>rdin^!ly 
di.ssolved : — 

Conlractors' and F.ngiilPcrs' Publications. I. Id. 

nirkson Corlhosv Steam 'I'lirbine Dcvplopnu-nls. I-ld. 

ItTicii-nt Healing ,K: Ventilating Co.. Ltd. 

Il:irvcv Electro-Chemical Co., Ltd. 

lligli-Spcetl Prinling Telegraph Co.. I. Id. 

KeiKJsh Toivn Motor .t Electrical Eneineerin;; Cu.. I.l.l. 

Mi<l -Sussex Electric Light it Power Co.. Ltd. 

\i.rlliE.islern Electric Smelling Co.. Ltd. 

K.idiuin Electro Emanation Co.. Ltd. 

Telephone Accessories Co., Ltd. 

Chile Telephone Co.. Ltd. — Inleiini dividend 6 per cent. 
[HT iinnuni, free of l.ix. on oidimarv shares fop the half- 



London United Tramways. Ltd. 

m .lanuary 2ird of the preference 
lienture stock holders to coii.-iidcr a- 



-Meetings are lo 1h- held 
shaiehnlders and the de- 
«herae of arranj'enie.nt. 



Victoria I'alls & Transvaal Power Co., Ltd. — Dividend 
for six months on the (irefercncc shares at the rate of 6 jier 
i-eiit. per aiunini. less tflx. 

Kaministiquia Power Co. — Dividend ;it ihr rale of 8 jn^r 
cent, pev aiuuini for tin- iiuarter. , 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 

ToE.SD.^v Evening. 
MlLrr.\Rt a'nd civil unrest hail a dullish effect upon Stock 
Exchange inaa-ket^s, and. in particular, has made Ilome Eail- 
\\a.\- .st<jcks heavy. The industrial .secttions are, however, in 
considerable favour, and even those which were at first weak 
on the signature of the Amiistice are now recovering^, and 
enjoying, their full shade of ix>pular support. Evidently not 
all the money in the counti-y is going into diamonds and 
other precious-stone investments, because the provincets aire 
■suhs-tantial buyei-s in the Stock Exchange. When Ti'easury 
le.striotions arc relaxed in regard to new issues, there will be 
a rush, judging from present exiierience, for anything good 
enough to oiVer the public a fair channel for money. 

liabour troubles started early in the new yeai' on the Brigh- 
ton Railway, and the electrified ix>rtion of the I.ancashu'e and 
Yorkshire Railway. 'That it Jiiight spread to a much wider 
circle aftorde<i reason for putting dov\Ti prices of Home Rails. 
The outstanding exc-eption of sta'ength is .stdl the Under- 
ground Elix-tric Railways of London income bond is.sue, the 
price of which has risen IJ further to 04 on the hoipe of the 
dividend getting nearer to the full 6 i)er cent, distiibuted in 
1916. -\s the coupons are paid free of tax, the 6 per cent, 
would be exjual to 82 l>er eent. gross, and although it may be 
rather opbimistie to expect the in^esient 4 i)er cent, to jiunp 5U 
per cent, next month, the conditions of travelUng ix)int to 
an early increase over the fonner rate. The otlier pui-ely 
electric railway stocks are a.bout the same as they were. 
London Electric shares ai'e higher at 4, and Underground 
A' 10 .-.hares rose to 3^. It may be mentioned, in passing, that 
■the details of the United Stii,te.<» electrically-])roi>elled battle- 
ship City 0/ Mexico have a.roused mild interest in the Stock 
Ext-hange. 

While there is not inuc-h business iloing in the shares of 
home electricity comiwnies. Lioinptons have risen i to 7i. 
and C'it.v of Ixmdon at l^i are the fraction l)etter, while other 
recent rises have b<'en fully maintained. South Metropolitan 
lircference hardened to a guinea.. Themanufactui-ing shares arc 
also firm, .\ttention may usefully be called to the misleading 
(•li:ii:K-tcr of .some of the titles <.>f electricity issues in the 
StiK-k Ext|hange Ufiicial Liat. For example, Edison-Swan o 
per cent, debenture stock is still calkxl 4 per cent., and General 
Electric i>refeience, the dividend on which wa.s recently 
lai.-ii^d to 6h V^r cent., are retained in the lis-t as being 6 per 
cent, shares. Other instances might be cited, and, in spite 
of the protests which have l>een lodged to the appropriate 
department of the Stock E.xchange whioli attends to these 
matters, nothing has been done to put them right. By way 
ol prot*',st. certain of the quotations have been withdr.iwii 
■iltogether. the dealers refu.sing to .supply them, on flic 
^'lound that while titles are wrong, it is useless to give 
1'ncPt. No doubt the Sto>:k Exchange officials are suffering, 
like everyone else, from shortage of staff and other war condi 
Tioni, but the necessary alterations are so shght, and yet io 
important, that it is high time they should l^ made. 

-•V considerable business has been done during the last few 
days in the 6 per cent, cumulative preference shares of the 
North Metropolitan Elecllric Power i Siipplv Co. The com- 
pany is in a good financial position, .^nd, although the war 



conditions necessitated a U'duction of the ]'2 |>er cent, divi- 
ilond ixtid in 1913 and 1914 t«i JO iX'r cent, for tin- thive suo 
c<x>ding yc<i.rs, it is not at all unlikely that the J"2 [X^r cent, 
will be. ri'suinetl before long. The pr<'feivnc«> tlivideiid is 
well covered, and at 18s. the yieUl works out to £l> ]3s. 4d. 
ix>r cent, on the nionev, tlivideaids being due on April 30th 
and Octolwr 31st. 

Telegraphs anil Telephones have regained their finnucas, 
and advances have been .secured by Eastern Extensions, 
Westerns, EastcMii Telegraph ordinary stock, Globe prefer- 
ence, and one <u- two tithers. Great Northern Telegraphs, 
howevei', have lo,st 10s. at 3'21. Callenders continue to rise, 
and are ,5s. up at lOJ. Marconis have, gone back to 4S. and 
.Xmciicaiis arc a little easier at ;30s.. Marines being quoted 3J. 
.\mongst other manufacturing shares. Babi-oiks at 3J are 
I/IG harder. Edison-Swans at 15/16 arc 1/16 lower. A de- 
mand has arisen for Edi«on " B " ,shaiiy>is, which were .sup- 
liose<l to be about 3d., until a. buyer of several thousmd 
shares (-.iine along and foiintl that ho could not get them, 
even with a bid of Is. a. share. 

In the foreign group there are no changes to record, with 
the exception of a. ]xiint fa.ll in Mexican 1 light preferred 
shares, which has reduced the price to 48. Mexican issues 
generally are, however, a. g(Kxli.«!h market, and much is ex- 
l)erfed from the probable action of the finited Statt^s Govern- 
ment as .soon aa the .\mciiian tiiMnw have mostly returned 
home. There is a. dis[X)sition to buy Brazilians, but ent<M- 
l>rise is somewhat curbed by the .slight feeling of dulncws 
that has .sprea<l over markets by ix'si.son of the labour ditti- 
culties at. home. togeth<M' with the ncw.s from Russia. A 
shaip fall in the price of copper, the metaJ, had no eB'ect 
upon prices of tho comixmies conne«-t<Kl with it. The rubber 
market is better, and a. featurt^ of the past few days has been 
resumed buying of aannaineut shares, a movement that ha.s 
synitMthetically influenced prices in the iron, coal, amd «teel 
section. 

SHARE LIST OK ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 

HoUE Electricity Coupamieb. 

Dividend Price 

' . Jan. 7, Yield 

1916. 1917, 1919. Rise or tall. p.o. 

Brompton Ordinary 9 10 li -|- J £6 15 ? 

Charing Cross Ordinary .... 5 4 ^ — S 10 4 

do. do, do. 44 Prel... 44 44 8| — 6 13 4 

Chelsea 3 5 4 — tj54 

Citv ol London 8 8 13* -I- J fi 9 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. . . 6 fi lOj — .5 18 5 

County of London 7 7 III — (i .'> 7 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. 6 fi lOJ — 5 18 5 

Kensington Ordinary . . . . fi 7 5J — 5 19 a 

London Electric Nil Nil IJ _ Nil 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref... 4 5 4 — 6 5 

Metropolitan 3 4 3 — 6 18 4 

do. 4* per cent. Pref . .. 44 44 8Jxd — 6 18 B 

St. James' and Pall Mall .... 8 9 74 — 664 

Soutlj London 6 5 3 — 6 18 4 

South Metropolitan Pref 7 7 21/- 4 6d. 6 13 4 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 9 7i — 6 4 4 
Telegraphs and Telephones. 

Anglo-Am. Tel. Pref 6 6 99 — 6 10 

do. Def 14 14 234 - 6 9 6 

Chile Telephone 8 8 78 -I- i 5 5 

Cuba Sub. Ord 7 7 10* — *6 13 4 

Eastern Extension 8 8 1.5S + J •5 2 5 

Eastern Tel. Ord 8 8 l.'iSi +1 »5 1 

Globe Tel. and T. Ord 7-7 14t — *4 16 5 

do. do. Pref 6 6 104 + J 5 14 3 

Great Northern Tel 24 22 32* — j 6 15 

Indo-European 13 13 584 — 5 11 

Marconi 15 20 48 — i 4 6 6 

Oriental Telephone Ord 10 10 2* -I- J 4 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 s' -1-4 '5 

West India and Panama .. .. 6d. 1/3 in — '3 12 II 

Western Telegraph .. .. 8 8 16| -(• J M 16 3 

Home Bails. 

Central London Ord. Assented ..44 654 — 622 

Metropolitan 1 31 — .* 3 4 6 

do. District .. .. Nil Nil 26 -- " Nil 

Underground Electric Ordinary.. Nil Nil 8* +J Nil 

do. do. "A" .. Nil Nil S/9' — Nil 

do. do. Income ..6 4 94 -tlA *4 5 1 
Foreign Trasis, &c. 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Pref. ..6 6 4J — 6 6 4 

Anglo-Arg. Trams. First Pref. . . 5* 54 4["„ — — 

do. do. 2nd Pref. . . 54 — ' 3J — — 

do. do. 5 Deb 5 5 74| - 6 14 8 

Brazil Tractions — — 57 — — 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 105 — 5 11 7 

British Columbia Elcc.Rly.Pfce. 5 5 674 — 7 11 C 

do. do. Preferred Nil NIL 50 — Nil 

do. do. Deferred Nil Nil 45 — Nil 

do. do. Deb. . . 4i 4i 62 — 6 17 8 

Mexico Trams 5 per eent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 67 — Nil 

do. 6 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 53* — Nil 

Mexican Light Common . . . . Nil Nil 38' — Nil 

do. Pref Nil Nil 48 —1 Nil 

do. 1st Bonds.. .. Nil Nil 70 _ _ 

Manufacturing Companies. 

Babcock & Wilcox .... 15 15 3| -I- ,'.. 400 

British Aluminium Ord 10 10 l;,': — 5 3 1 

British Insulated Ord 20 20 2i — 4 9 

British Westinghouse Pref. . . 74 74 2* — 6 

Callenders 20 25 10;' -t- { r, V.I 1 

do. 64 Pref 5 5 Sg-.i! — 5 2 4 

Castner-Kellner 22 20 3Jvd — 6 18 6 

Edison-Swan, " A " .. .. — — ^^ -^■ ,' 8 

do. do. 4 per cent. Deb. ..4 4 744 — 5 6 

Electric Construction .... 7* 10 IJ — 800 

Gen. Elec. Pref 6' 6 10|xd — 6 5 4 

do. Ord 10 10 174 — '5 12 8 

Henley 85 25 2i — 5 11 -i 

do. 44 Pref 44 44 4 — 5 12 6 

India-Bubber 10 10 17xd — 'S 17 8 

Telegraph Oon 90 ao 48 — 'S 

•Dividends paid free of Income Tax. 



Vol.84. No. 2,HB, January 10, 1919.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



51 



WALTER RATHENAU ON THE GERMAN SITUATION. 



An Alleged Average of £7 per Week in the Berlin Engineering Trade. 



Some remarkable speeches have been delivered by Herr 
Waltfir Rathenau, chairman of the A.E.G., during the 
course of the war, but now that the Germans have been 
defeated the tone of his observations has completely changed. 
In the course of a recent interview with the representative 
of a New York newspaper, the chairman expressed the 
opinion that •' Germany is ruined for several generations ; 
ruined politically, industrially, and economically." This 
purely political statement has been made for American con- 
sumption, no doubt, in the hope that it may exercise the 
desired political effect in the United States. On the other 
hand, the speech which Herr W. Rathenau made before the 
shareholders at the recent general meeting was intended not 
only for home consumption, but also for that of Great 
Britain and her Allies. An abstract of the speech is given 
below, and one of the most noteworthy statements therein is 
the remark that with the adjoption of the 8-hours' day the 
wages of the mechanics and engineers in the district of 
Berlin now amount to about £7 per week. The abstract 
is as follows : — 

Herr Rathenau stated that on the last occasion when he 
addressed them they were on the eve of the Russian peace 
offer. At that time he remarked that they could assume 
that the war had entered into liquidation, and he added 
that he wished no " final calls " would be made in con- 
nection with the liquidation. It would have been impos- 
sible for him to have expressed himself more distinctly, 
although it might be that his observation had not been 
listened to. In the meantime, the most serious " final 
calls " had been made upon them, and they would have 
have great difficulties in settling them. The directors had 
estimated the dangers and the duration of the war quite 
seriously, and had not withheld the estimate from the share- 
holders. They had never entertained optimism, but had 
regarded it as their duty to serve the country as well as they 
were able, and keep their plant at the disposal of the 
country. They had not accepted war contracts in order to 
earn war profits, but in order to protect their fighting front. 
In the interval a great revolution in the country had taken 
place. The directors had welcomed the revolution, and 
believed in the new realm ; they believed in the possibility 
of a changed order of things. They were willing and 
ready, in community with all orderly forces, to co-operate 
in the reconstruction of the country. In order to strengthen 
their opinion, and to show they believed in the order and 
the constancy of circumstances in connection with the 
character and the convictions of the German nation, they 
had decided to recommend the payment of the Peace rate 
of dividend. They would have to reckon in the future 
that the fate of the company, as well as the destiny of the 
entire German industry, would no longer depend solely 
upon economic opportunities, but predominatingly on 
political events. 

Much had been said recently concerning the nationalisa- 
tion of industries — catch-words and general theories being 
largely brought into play. It was possible, he said, to 
organise industries so that an increased participation in them 
could be granted to all parties, workmen and officials in 
particular, both in the material results and in the 
determining controlling factors of the community. But 
the sup|X)sition for any new order was a condition which 
would augment the productiveness of industries. It was 
impossible to place increasing burdens on their industry, 
according to general political wishes, and leave the future 



to chance as to whether the industry could, or could not, 
bear these burdens. The first problem was the develop- 
ment and expansion of productiveness, and the speaker 
failed to see any fruitful proposals in that direction in the 
public discussions. He believed in the possibility of in- 
creasing productiveness and its efficiency if they excluded 
the losses through friction to which they were subject at 
present. The losses in material, transport, and labour could 
and must be overcome. In contradistinction to this idea, 
however, the burdens were growing provisionally in such a 
measure that they could only be borne with great difficulty 
by all industries, but could no longer be borne by the 
Berlin engineermg industry in particular. The Berlin 
manufacturers might be reproached for having been too 
yielding in regard to the demands made upon them by 
officials and workmen. The speaker believed, however, 
that it had been well to follow the policy of conciliation 
which had been pursued in Berlin, in so far that it had been 
said that peace in industry should be maintained at the seat 
of the Government in these times of crises in favour of the 
general community. 

It could not be concealed, however, that against these 
sacrifices had to be set provisionally a weakening of their 
productiveness. It was easy to calculate what that meant 
when the wages of workmen to-day, reckoned on the eight- 
hours' working day, were said to amount to over 7,000 
marks (£350). That implied, with a number of workmen 
which the speaker would only estimate at 300,000 in 
Berlin, a charge upon their national income of £ 1 00,000,000. 
It was obvious that such a burden could not be demanded 
permanently by a comparatively small section of the 
population, as the entire- national income amounted to 
£1,750,000,000. It was necessary to keep in view, and 
say to the public without reserve, that the growing 
demands meant not only serious economic dangers, but 
also serious political dangers. They must be clear on the 
point that the aversion to Berlin was growing. If Berlin, 
as it seemed, came out of the ranks in so far that wages 
were granted there which could not be obtained in the 
country, the aversion to Berlin would not disappear, but 
increase ; and the dangers of a separatory division of the 
country would not decrease. At the same time, however, it 
would be a serious danger to German economic life if the 
great Berlin industry were to be so far weakened as no 
longer to form the factor which it constituted In the whole 
economy. 

The chairman further remarked that exaggerated demands 
made by those at present employed in the engineering 
works in Berlin were a disadvantage to the returning 
soldiers. If now, and so long as the companies were able 
to bear them, the wages of the individual were so much 
increased that a general decline and a reduced efficiency of 
the works awaited the returning men, the latter would 
seriously complain that in their absence the works had been 
so weakened as to leave no work for them to do. The 
country was faced not only with internal economic dangers, 
but also with the conclusion of a peace which they did not 
know and which might place upon them enormous burdens. 
One thing alone could help them in such times : orderly 
reconstruction of industry in the sense expressed by the 
speaker — namely, the extension of productiveness and the 
most complete solidarity of all operating factors in the 
country — between employers and workmen and! between all 
professional classes. 



52 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.84. No. 2,u6, jancary lo, loio, 



ELECTROTHERMIC PROCESSES. 



As a science electrothertuics has been the means of develop- 
ing several distinctive types of electric arcs, and has indicated 
methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition. Thus 
many new compounds and metals have been discovered and 
commerciaUsed, whfle severaJ products have been manufac- 
tured better and cheaper in the electric furnace than in the 
previously useil fuel-tired furnaces. It will therefore be of 
interest to briclly consider a few tj-pical procesi^^s, the follow- 
ing particulars being taken from the General Electric Hevieiv 
of November, 1918. 

Calcium Carbide (CaC.). — Calcium carbide was one of the 
earUest commercialised electric furnace products. The forma- 
tion is represented by the reversible reaction shown in (a) ; 
simultaneously the two side reactions shown in ,(b) and (c) 
occur. In each case, as the temperature is raised the reaction 
proceeds to the right. 

(<i) CaO-l-3C=Caa+CO 

(6) 0aC, = 0a.-l-9C 

(c) OaO-)-C=Ca.-l-CO. 
The charge consists generally of good quality lime (56 parts) 
and low ash (under 3 per cent.) anthracite (30 to 39 parts), 
crushed to pieces one or two inches in diameter. Coke is 
generally used. Phosphorus ahould be avoided and the stul- 
phur kept low. 

The product is not pure CaC,, which in reality is a colour- 
le.'B, transpaj^nt substajice, but is a dark grayish-black 



f^^^m 




A, charge; B, steel shell; c, brick lining; d, carbon and 

tar hearth; E, electrode bundle; F, steel grating; G, 

tapping hole. 

Fig. 1. — Calcium Carbide Fur.vace oi- the Tappixc. T\te. 

crystalhne material, contajniiig about 13 per cent. Ume and 
carbon, and also impurities in small amoimt retained from 
the original charge. 

Calcium carbide furnaces are all of the arc type, but vary 
greatly in capacity and in the method of operation. A. 
furnace of the tapping tyi)e is shown in tig. 1. In order to 
supply the large currents used ('2S.00O ami>eres at 50 volts) it 
is customary to use a bundle of electrodes. A carbon-tar 
mixture is tamped in the bottom over some steel grate bars, 
fonuing a conducting hearth. The electi-ode contacts are 
wa.ter-cooled. Each unit is mounted on wheels and a tap 
hole Ls provided for drawing the sluggish molten carbide. 
Some furnaces of similar consta'uction do not po.ssess the tap 
hole, in which the operation is intermittent, the charge being 
removed after solidification. The furnace used for a time liy 
the Union Carbide Co. at Niagara Falls is of quite diffei'ent 
construction from the others. It is called the continuous 
tvi>e furnace and i.« shown in fig. 2. It consists essentially 
of two slowly revolving concentric drums. The furnace makes 
about one-third revolution per day. The outside plates ai-e 
removable where the electrodes enter, and at the point wheie 




Fig. 2. — Continqocs 

Type Calciuji 

Carbide .Furnace. 



Fig. 3. — Carborundum. 

FUR.\.\CE. 



the sufficiently cooled carbide is broken up .and taken out. 
At other points the plates holrl the charge in place. The 
end plates are fixed. Only single-phase furnaces have thus 
far been mentioned, but large three-phase units of 7,000 h.p., 
45,000 amps., 80 to 100 volts, are in operation in Europe. 
The energy required to produce calcium carbide varies from 
1.7 to 2 KW.-hour per pound. 

Carborundum (SiC). — ^The chemical reaction resulting in 
the formation of carborundum is generallv represented to be 
SiOj+3C = SiC-f2CO. Tone, of the Carborundum Co., how- 
ever, claims it is to be fomied in the folloi\ing manner, from 
the sihcon and the carbon monoxide vapours that are pre- 
sent : 3Si-|-2CO = SiC-l-SiO,. It probably is formed in vary- 
ing degree by both reactions. In addition to the production 



of carborundum, monox (SiO), silicon, sjloxicon (Si™ Cn 0) 
and graphite are fonned under suitable conditions. All of 
these reactions are reversible. 

SiO,-l-2C=SH-2CO 
SiC =Si-fC (graphite) 
SiO,-l-C =SiO-l-CO. 
The carboi-uudum furnace charge is generally represented 
to be (in percentage parts by weight) thus: — 

Sand 51.2 per cent., coke 35.4 per cent., sawdust 10.6 per 
cent., salt 1.8 per cent. The sand is giound silica 99.5 per 
cent. pure. The sawdust is used suuply to give porosity to 
the charge in order to allow the carbon monoxide an op- 
portunity to escape freely. The salt reacts with some of the 
impurities, formmg volatile chlorides. Coke, or ground 
material from a previously used charge, is used as a cojiduct- 




uiu ry.'>t;illised carbide; B, carboa'uudum ; c, carbon core. 
Fig. 4. — Transverse Section oi'' Furnace Showing 
Relative Positions oi' Contexts after Run. 



ing core around which is packed the new charge. The core 
and charge are built up on a permanent foundation with 
replaceable sides of brick. Connection between core and 
electrodes is made by means of finely ground coke powder. 

The standard furnace consumes some 2,000 h.p. It requires 
about 250 volts at the start., but at the end of a run only 
75 volts, when it takes 20,000 amperes. The temperature of 
the core may reach 3,000 deg. C, but the zone in which the , 
carborundmn is formed (next to the core) should be between 
1,820 and 2,220 deg. C, the temi>eratm-es at which the oa.r- 
bide begins to form and to decompose. The largest furnaces 
are 30 ft. long, and yield about 7i tons of carborundmn. 
.f^fter a furnace run, the products of the reactions are foimd 
located in the order and approximate proportions as repre- 
.sented in figs. 3 and 4. 

The .siloxicon compounds are inferior to carborundum in 
quality, and do not find vei-y extensive applications. They 
are formed in the furnace in the annular zone outside of the 
carborundum, where the temperature is not high enough for 
the formation of the ca.rbide. 



Char 
Coal 




A, heartii ; B, shaft : c, head ; D, ch;u-ge of charcoal ; 
E, opening for feeding broken carbon to serve as 
conductor; F, sulphur; h, opening for conducting off 
carbon bisulphide gas; j, annular space filled with 
sulphur; k, carbon electrodes. 
Fig. 5. — Cross-section of the Taylor Carbon Bisulphide 

FURN.iCE. 

Silicon. — While it is possible to manufacture .silicon in a 
resistance furnace, as indicated in the carborundum furnace 
reactions given above, the method is not practised conimer- 
L-iaUy. Instead, a furnace of the arc tvpe, using a chaj'ge of 
sand (SiO,) and coke (C) is used. Si6,-(-2C = Si+2CO. The 
Carborundum Co. taps a 650- to 900-lb. pig every few hours. 
The grades made contain from 90 to 97 per cent. Si. The 
furnace is built of fire brick with a carbon lining, and con- 
.snmes about 1,200 H.P. 

Graphite. — Graphite is made in a resistance furnace, very 
.similar in form to the carborundum furnace. The present 
furnaces far graphitisiog carbon iu bulk possess a central 



Vol. 84. Xo. 2.14G, January 10, 



i9ii».] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



53 



core, surrounded by the charge mixture of granulated coke, 
or of anthracite, or of petroleum coke, together with the 
caiaJyser, iron oxide. In some cases, the ash from the 
anthracite or cx>ke will catalyse the reaction. At least 1 to 
2 per cent, of Fe^Os is required. 

A great proportion of the Acheson graphite is made into 
electrodes. These are graphitised from the molded mixtm-es 
of carbon binder and catalyser, compressed into shape under 
high pressure. The carbon electrodes ai-e loaded in a series 
of piles in the furnace, spaces between piles being filled with 
ground coke to increase the resistance. 

In the conversion of the bulk graphite about 90 per cent, 
of the charge is changed over. All of the charged electrodes 
are converted. The furnaces compare in size with the caa-- 
borundum furnaces, the lajrgest consuming 1.000 h.p. At the 
end of the run (20 to 24 hours) about 9,000 amperes at 80 
volts are passing. The product resulting from the high tem- 
perature treatment is quite pure (99.9 + per cent. C.) due to 
the volatihsation of the impm-ities. 

Carbon Bisulphide (CS,). — The electrothermic manufacture 
of carbon bisulphide well demon stra.tes the advantages of 
electric heat, and employs a most ingenioas fui'nace. It is 
said that the original furnace was oi>erated for the first two 
and one-half years with but one shut-down for cleaning. A 
cross-section of the furnace is sho\vn in fig. 6. It is 40 ft. 
high. 

The reaction consists in the union of sulphur (volatilised 
and highly heated by an electric arc) with incandescent coke, 
according' to the equation C-i-2S = 0S,. The coke is fed in 
thi-uugli the head of the furnace at i at such a rat« as to keep 
the shaft B well filled. The sulphur is fed into the arc zone 
in molten condition, after being melted by -waste heat of 
radiation in passing down the annulai- passages f outiside 
botli shaft and hearth. The OS, is cooled by heating the 
coke as it descends into the reaction zone, and. is taken off 
through the furnace head at h, and condensed. 

The heat is supplied by two-phase current, the ai'cs playing 
between two pairs of carbon electrodes placed 90 deg. apart. 
The space around and above the electrodes is filled with pieces 
of graphite, broken bits of carbon, &c. (d), to protect the 
electrodes (k), which are consequently subjected to very little 
wear. As the furnace walls are gas-tight no CSj vapours 
escaipe. About 4,000 amperes are supplied at 60 volts, and 
0.u2 KW.-hour per poimd of OSj is required. 

Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen.— Considerably moa-e than 
3,000 technical articles dealing with this problem have ap- 
peared to date. The difficulty of discussing the subject in a 
verv few words is thus at once evident. 

The methods of fixation depending upon the direct oxidattion 
of atmospheric nitrogen are carried out in three different 
types of arc furnaces, all of which are in commercial opera- 
tion. Though the furnaces are all of different types, there 
is no great difference in the yield of NO gases obtained. 



Two other processes may be mentioned that are really 
chemical rather than electrochemical, although electric heat 
is used at points in each process, not becau.se exceedingly 
high temperatures are required, but because temperature 
control is es.sential. The Serpek process fixes nitrogen 
through inter-action with alumina and carbon. The nitrogen 
comes from the air, the alumina from bauxite, and the 
carbon from coal which is heated with the bauxite to calcine 
it. The reaction temperature has between 1,800 and 1,900 
deg. 0., and the reaction itself is Al.Oj-f 30-fN, = 2AlN-t-C30. 
The aluminium nitride is convertible into ammonia through 
treatment with steam, and the ammonia may be converted 
into nitric acid. 

The Haber process cailses nitrogen and hydrogen to unite 
du-ectly through the a.gency of some catalytic agent, according 
to the reaction N,-i-3H, = 2NH3. 

Iceland L. Summers's compai-ison of power consumptions 
for the several processes is as follows : — 



Direct oxidation of atmospheric N at 5 per 
cent, efficiency 

Cyanamid process — carbide 66 per cent, 
and cyanamid 99 per cent, efficiency ... 

Serpek process • 

Haber oa.talytic process 



Per lb. of N. 

30.0 KW. -hour 

7.5 KW.-hour 
.5..5 KW.-hour 
0.7 KW.-hour 



The reaction which results in the formation of NO,^ from 
O and N, is a reversible, one, .so thait the concentration of 
the NO (which is small at best) is rigidly dependent upon the 
temperature, in accordance with the equilibrium law. 

.\t the equilibrium temperature the oxide is decomposed as 
rapidly as it is formed above the equihbrium concentration. 
If the oxide once fomied can be removed rapidly enough and 
cooled to 1,500 deg. C, further decomposition is slight. The 
commercial arc furnaces are, therefore, all de.signed to permit 
of the removal of the ga^aea- from the zone of high temperatin-e 
as rapidly as possible, A rapid movement of air through the 
arc is required, resiilting in the maximum temperature of the 
arc l)eing unobtainable and a low efficiency for the process. 



CARBON BRUSH-HOLDERS. 



By J. 0. GIRDLESTONE, M.I.E.E. 



I DO not think it necessary to make any apology for again 
bringing up the question of bioish holders for motors and 
dynamos. It is just one of those details, frequently over- 






FiG. 6.— 20-TO.M, 3-PHASE, HeroClt Electric-steel Pdrnace 

PlTTEP WITH THREE 12-IN. GRAPHITE ELECTRODES. 



1 & 2.— Westminster Brush Holders 
FOR Motors and Dynamos. 



k 



The SchonheiT furnace gives the highest concentration of 
NO, but the Eyde furnace gives a little higher output of NO 
per KW.-hour. The electrode wear is very rapid in the 
Pauhng furnace, and the slowest in the Eyde. The power 
{actors are close on 70 per cent, for all fumacea. 



looked, which make all the difference between satisfactory 
rannin'g and the reverse. Motors of quite excellent design 
are often fitted with faulty brush holders, and the whole 
machine mav be condemned for this imperfect detail. 
It might be expected that with the large experience gained 



54 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. si. no. 2,hg, ja.m;aky lo, nun. 



by makers, and the hundreds of thousands of machines in 
us6, some standard p;ittem would have been evolved, but 
this «i not 30, although I am inclined to think that there is 
a distinct tendency to gravitate towards the type described 
below, which has now been in successful use for some years. 
During the last eight or nine years many thousands of 
these holders have been supphed for all kinds of mai-hincs, 
from large turbo dj-namos and alternators to small motors, 
and I do not knovp of any one case where they have been 
a failure. They can be made to suit practically any machine, 
but owing to lack of imiformity, cannot very well be stocked 
in standard sizes, and so have to be nia<le up to suit require- 
ments. The only dimensions required when ordering for any 





nf 


D 


Cd 


"\. 




\ 


\ 


-fej 


^ 

^ 




1 

1 cm 


1 1 


-* 


1 


^ 




-liiE!"- 


1iT 


r... 


\\y 


•i-i 


-iiJJ 


'1^'^ 


'—Hi 


1 
1 

■ -1 





Fig. 3.— Heavy Brush Holder for Tcrbo-Generatoes. 

particular machine are: Diameter of brush spindle, distance 
ii-oiu centre of ispindle to surface of commutator, number of 
holdei-s required, and size of carbon brush. 

It is advisable that the brush box be as close as possible 
to the commutator, allowing the brash to project about \ in. 
only. With the old type of swinging-arm brush holder flash 
overs were frequent, but thei'e is much less risk of this 
occurring with the holder illustrated, the brush being but 
slightly in advance Of the spindle. 

In the holder as .shown the brush is kept in intimate con- 
tact with the commutator by the spring enclosed in the 
tubular screw. A light pressure is found sufficient to prevent 
any tendency to jump, even when the commutator is slig'htly 




Holder for a.c. Slip-rings. 



out of truth, a condition fatal to most types of brush gear. 
The holders should be inspected at intervals to ensure that 
the brush is working freely in the box. 

The illustrations show four brush holders made by the 
Westminster Engineering Co., Ltd. 

Fig. 1 shows the ordinary type of holder for motors or 
dynamos; it consists of a gunmetal casting, the box part 
niade an easy fit for the brush. The pressure is applied 
directly' over the oejitre of the brush by means of a spiral 
spring inside the plunger which is itself a sliding tit in the 
adjusting screw. The spring is thus entirely enclosed and 
the pressure is exerted in a line passing directly through the 
centre of the brush. 

Fig. 2 shows a sdmOar holder, but with the box portion 
adjttsta.ble to allow for wear of the commutator. The sUding 



portion is secured to the fixed part by a nut and spring 
washer, and can be moved down as required. 

Pig. 3 shows a heavier type of holder as supplied for 
turbmes. The wire passing through the adjusting screw and 
spring permits the spring tension to be accurately measured 
by me^ms of a spnnc balance. This holder is most sub- 
stantially made, the plunger being generally of mild steel. 

Pig. 4 illustrates the tyjw generally used for a.c. sUp rings, 
which type also has vortical adjustment. This pattern has 
been applied to a number of machines previously using 
copper brushes, with most satisf.actory results. A copper- 
carbon brush is generally used in such cases. 



CARBON BRU5HE5: CONSIDERED IN 

RELATION TO THE DESIGN AND OPERATION 

OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. 

At Bii-mingliaiu, on Deoembei- ISth, 1918, Mr. P. Hunter- 
Brown's pai)er (an abstract of which appealed in our issue 
of December 27th) was read and discussed before the Soutu- 
MiDLAND Cektrf, of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
Mr. A. T. Bartlett, in a written communicaition to the 
discussion, said he was much interested in the author'.n 
theory of air suction being the cause of the increase in the 
coelEcient of friction at lower speeds; with perfect laboi-a- 
tory conditions it was quite conceivable that there might be 
a measure of " optical " contact, as it were, between the 
brash and the commutator, but this was not likely to be 
obtained in practice. He suggested another reason for the 
shape, of the friction cun'e, which was that in practice 
brashes were not really in good contact all the time; at the 
higher speeds this imperfect contact was increased. He 
described an exi>eriment he made some 12 years a.go, vpheai 
engaged on the commutatdon difficulties of direct-current 
turbo-generators. A commutator with all its segments orm- 
nected to a common ring was mounted on a special ishalt. 
The common ring was connected to a slip ring, so that cur- 
rent from an outside som'ce could be passed into the commu- 
tator, and leave at the brushes pressing on the commutator 
in the nomial manner. Very special attention was given to 
truth, surface, and balance of the commutator at fuU sjieed, 
and also to the bedding of the brushes. Readings were then 
taken with the following result: — One brush was first put 
down and loaded up to its normal cun-ent density, the drop 
was measured, which could be represented by unity. A 
second brush was then put down, and the current doubled 
in order to eliminate any effect of change of current density. 
The drop was then rougtly one-seventh. A third brush was 
put down with less change, the figure being then about one- 
filth. He thought the only explanation was the one he had 
given, viz., that brushes were off the commutator for a con- 
siderable time, and this caused the retarding effect of the brush 
to be decreased. No doubt copper "picking" was due to 
electrolysis, but he thought tha.t an irregular- cuiTent distribu- 
tion was more often the larger factor. Electrolysis, or a pseudo- 
electrolytic effect, imdoubtedly occurred; he came across a 
really definite case some ten years ago. A heavy-current 
low-volta.ge generator was fitted with copper graphite bra.shes 
with a large copper content. On its trials, altea- runnin.g 
about 10 hours the commutator developed a salmon-colaured 
matt surface, and the bnishes, if not the commutator, began 
rapidly to be transfeiTed in the fonu of powder to the bed- 
plate and macliine geneially. The trial had to be stopped, 
and afterwards a careful examination of the brushes and 
commutator was made. The surfaces of the iwsitive brushes 
were quite metallic and bright, whilst the negative bru.sih 
sm-faces looked as though they had been painted with dead 
lamp black. No ti-ace of the copper content was visible; it 
had apparently been transferred to the commutator exactly 
as in uoi-mal" eilectrolysis. The negative brushes were i-e- 
placed with graphite brashes, and the machine then ran 
most successfully. 

Mr. M. Kahn, in a written communication, said the fol- 
lowing indicated the physical explanation of how current 
wa.s ti-ansmitted from the brash to the collector. The volt- 
age drop between collector and brash was compara.tively 
constant over a large range of current density, and showed 
a mininnum value below which no current passed. If one 
compared the curve for the drop in the author's fig. 1 
with corresponding cmwes of electric arcs one found a 
gi-eat similarity. Another indication was the pheno- 
■ menon called copper picking. On the face of it, 
this featm-e looked like an electrolytic action. A similar 
action wa.s also found in the electric aa-c, the material of 
one electrode being carried in the direction of the flow of 
cun-ent to the other electrode. A third indica.tion was the 
dift'erence of contact drop between the positive brash and 
the collector and the negative brush. Mr. Hunter-Brown 
had not gone into that (juestion. The phenomena mentioned 
showed that the flow of cuiTent from a carbon brash to at 



No.2.i46,JAKUABvio, 1919] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



66 



collector differed entirely from the conduction of electaicaJ 
energ}' along a metallic conductor. It seemed to take the 
form of a large number of minute electric arcs which were 
not visible to the eye. With increasing voltage between 
brush and collector, the energ>' in such arcs increased very 
much more than the voltage, as could be seen from the 
author's fig. 1. - An increase from 2 to i.o volts doubled the 
current in the contact surface. An increase of voltage of it 
per cent, produced, therefore, an increa.se of energy of '250 per 
cent. The ai-cs became visible when the voltage between 
brush and collector was increased beyond a certain limit; 
they were, however, always present, although they might 
not" be visible, wherever current passed between brush amd 
commutator, and might cause wear, copper picking, and dis- 
integration, even though the machine might appear to collect 
perfectly. It followed that the phenomenon of epaxking 
dei)ended on the voltage drop at any point between brush 
and collector, which could easily be proved by measui-ing 
that drop when sparking occurred. 

IVIr. W. N. King .said he noticed tha* no reference had 
been made to a well-known property of carbon which had 
an important beailng on the subject under discussion, \Tz., 
the negative temperature coetficient Two pro min ent ex- 
amples of this effect had come under his obsei-va.tion in large 
dii-eet^current generators, one of 1,.30<.> kw., and the other of 
1,1100 KW. capacity. In each case tix>uble was experienced 
with commutation at fuU load and over. Severe sparking, 
flashing, and overheating of the brushes occuned. One brush 
after another in a row would take more current than the 
others, and became red hot with cumulative effect due to 
the negative teroperature coefiident, until the brush or 
flexible lead burned away. In one of the cases mentioned 
the trouble was eliminated by substituting Morganite "Lank 
3 " for carbon brushes. It would be interesting to know 
whether the temperature coefficient of the Morganite brush 
was negative, and how it compared with carbon. 

I\Ir. W. P. HiGGS said the author refen'ed to atmospheric 
conditions in one or two places in the paper. The speaker 
knew of a 2.3-h.p. motor, 160 volts, the peripheral speed of 
the commutator being about 3,000 ft. per min., which was 
installed on two girders, 8 ft. above the floor, about two 
years ago. The brushes would run about 10 days, and then 
(■oUapse all at once. Many different qualities of brushes were 
fitted, with no improvement. The commutation with regard 
to sparking was perfect, and it was a machine of which he 
had made dozens of the same construction, mechanically and 
electrically. The machine was taken off its girders and put 
on a concrete foundation in the same shop, but the trouble 
still continued. It was raov^d into another shop, and had 
been running satisfactorily, with the s;ime bi-ushes, for 1"2 
months. A second machine was installed where the fir.st 
one was taken from, an exact duphca.te, and the same trouble 
occurred. He thought he was right in putting the trouble 
down to atmospheric conditions. 

Mr. W. Law SON hoped that such an exceedingly prac- 
tical and valuable paper would come under the notice of all 
manufactmers of electrical machinery. In his opinion it 
rested with the manufacturers to provide their machines with 
bi-ush geaj so designed that when fitted with a specified 
form and grade of brush a much higher degree of immunity 
from brush troubles than had so far been obtained would 
accrue. Unfoi-tunately, these troubles could not always be 
detected on test, they fi"equently did not arise until after 
the machi7ie liad been in service for some time, and it 
was left to the purchaser to determine by experiment how 
liest he couJd get over the ti'ouble. Tliat was not a.s it should 
be, and he believed the pa.per would lead to a closer study 
of the que-stion, and would ultimately result in the elimina^ 
tion of most brush troubles. Until that happy state axrived, 
the question of standardLsation should be approached with 
the utmost ca.ution. In the paper, the excessive wear some- 
times produced on the top of the brush by the pressure finger 
was ascribed to electrical rather than mechanical effect. It 
was difficult to account for it in that way, as the greatex 
part of the current pas.sed along the flexible connection. In 
none of the cases that had come to the speaker's notice had 
there been any evidenee of electrical effect. The experiment 
which was described as proving the existence of some kind 
of electrolytic effect was extremely interesting and important, 
but it called for further investigation. He had notice<l 
an analogous effect, and one that was not explained, or even 
referred to, in text-bpoks, in' niet<»rs of the mercun'-motor 
type. In this case there was an amalgamated copper disk 
immersed in mercury. Two copt>er conductors amalgamated 
at the ends made contact with the mercury, and the current 
passed from one conductor through the mercrrry and the 
copper disk, and out by the other conductor. Under certain 
raxe conditions electrolytic action took place ; one of the 
copper conductors was eaten away, and a heavy deposition 
of copper by transference took place on the copper disk. He 
had never known of such a thing hap[)ening with a meter 
of less than 50 amperes capacity, .so th.it it apix^red there 
was a critical value of current below which no deposition 
could take place. Had the author observed a similar charac- 
teristic in the electrtilytic effect which he mentioned? Fur- 
ther investigation might estabhsh an analogy between these 
two effects, and also throw some light on the possibility of 
there being some relation between the speed of the condnotor 
and the strength of the current determining the condition 
under which electrolytic effects could take place. 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINQS, 
AND PLANT. 

Beadert are invited to mhmit particvlars of new or improved 
devices and apparatus, which will be published if considered of 
sufficient interest. 

A Wire-Splicing Tool. 

Mr. C. H. WiLLEY describes in the American Electrical 
Review the tool shown in fig. 1, which is found suitable for 
isphcing small wire which is too stiff to be readily bent with 
the fingers; it is about 8 in. long, and at the widest paiii 
is approximately 3 in. wide. The curved head or holding 
part is about IJ in. wide. This head is bent to form a. semi- 
circle having a diameter. of about J in. The grooves in the 
flanges on each side should be deep enough to hold the wu-e 
without slipping out and the shoulder of the flange should 
be low enough to permit the ^\ire to be grasped easily. The 
operation of the tool can best be explained by the illustration 
a.s sho^^Ti in fig. 2. One of the wires to be sphced should be 




Fig. 1.— Handy Splicing Tool (Top). 

Fig. '2.— Method of Starting Splice (Left). 

Fig. 3.— Finishing Splice (Right). 

bent at right angles and the tool placed over it at the bend. 
The other wire is then put in position and both wires are 
held in place with a pair of pliei-s. By turning the sphcing tool, 
as shown in fig. 2, the wire to be bent can be wound tightly 
around tlie other wire. .After this the other wire can be 
bent, and the operation repeated, except that the'tool mujst 
be turned in the opposite chrection. One distinct advantage 
which a tool such as this possesses is that the finished joint 
is free from the usual outstanding ends which very often cut 
through the insulation after being in service a short time. 

Sparii Recorder Used in Testing Apparatus. 

In the ElccMcal WorlJ. Mr. F. W. Springer describes a 
portable recoi'ding insfeinment #shown in the accompanying 
illustration (fig. 4) which was designed and built in the elec- 
trical engineering department of the University of Minnesotji 




Pig, 1. — .\i'i'.\K.4TLs KUR Recokding Simult.\.neous Re-\dings. 



some time ago for recording the readings of any indicating 
instrument. Its principal use is in testing electric cai's, 
elevators, and starters or conti-oUers used with various types 
of .A.c. and D.c. motors. 

Edison three-spring phonograrph motors operate the paper 
reels an(t drums and the spark distiibutor. A laminated 
Ijoard holds SO baxe copper wires unifonnly spaced, and laid 
in snutable slots. The distributor is driven by one of the 
shafts of the spring motor, although it could be driven by a 
special electric motor connected with a storage battery if 



66 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,H6, January 10, 1919. 



desired. .\n H-slot gear-shift is provided, which, together 
with the centrifugaJ governor cm the spring motor, allows a 
pai>er speec oi iroiu is in. to 4 ft. (5 cm. lo 1.'2 m.) per minute. 
The slow speed is used for railway work and the high speed 
tor tesimg .*.c. motor startere ana the like. A common 
two-oell automobile hghting and starting battery is a satis- 
factory source of energy tor the spaxk coils. The battery 
should be insulated in order to avoid unnecessary and dan- 
gerous differences of potential between the recording in- 
struments and the neiglibounng lines and earths. In case 
of railway tests the apparatus should be connected with the 
Ime on ttie earth side, or the apparatus and operator should 
be placed on an insulated platform to be considered as an 
ajtihaal earth of the hne t>eing tested. Three-phase tests 
may be made by using a polyphase wattmeter, but as most 
tests for which such a recorder might be used are either 
single-phase or balanced three-phase systems, a single-phase 
wattmftter only is provided. The current coil is cut in on 
one line leg and the potential coil may be connected to an 
artificial neutral. In a.c. work, of course, the shunts arc 
replaced by one current transformer. In d.c. tests the watt- 
meter spark is usually cut off. The outfit is equipped with 
a o-amp., 150-volt, single-phase Weston wattmeter, a Weston 
miUivoltmeter ^-ith shunt, and a d.c. voltmeter atid miUi- 
voltmeter of the same type. Pin switches are used for con- 
trolUng the sparks to the individual instruments. A vibrat- 
ing jump-spark coO is connected successively to the various 
broom-straw insulated instrument pointers by means of the 
distributor and the non-spillable iron mercury cups and 
binding posts. The miUivoltmeter is connected through an 
adjustable resistance to a suitable D.c. magneto for recording 
speeds. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1918. 

(NOT TET PDBLI8HED.) 

Compiled expressly for this journal by Messrs. Sbpton-Jonbs, O'Dill and 
Stbphsns (successors to W. P. Thompson & Co., of London), Chartered 
Patent Agenu, 285, High Holbom, London. W.C. I. 

20,921. '* Elecuical controlling apparatus for aircraft." T. F. Ukew&iek. 
DeCA:niber lUlli. 

20.yjr. " Ltver-operated change-over switches for telephone exchanges, &c." 
M. B. RiCHTEK. Decemoer Kith. tGermany, December 17th, lyl7.J 

20,9<i0. ■' Hlectrically-operated abrading machines." N. G. Olson. De- 
cember 16th. 

20,!jtjl. " Electrical connectors or .terminals for stranded conductors." 
Bkjtish Westlnchousb l^LECTRlc & M.iNLiFAtnuKiNG Co. A.SD K. Bkooks. De- 
cember 16th. 

2U,abJ. " Electric arc lamps." H. B. Grvixs & W. Heape. December' 
ISlh. V 

2U,976. " Automatic starting and short-circuiting device for asynchronous 
motors." V. U. F. Andersen & A. F. B. Fuerson. December 16th. 

20.988. " Electric accumulators." H. F. Joel. December 16th. 

20.989. " System of telegraphy and apparatus therefor." E. A. Davis. 
December 16tb. 

20,999. '* Electromagnetic apparatus for recording signals." E. S. Carev. 
December 16th. 

21,009. ** Means for attaching and coupling magneto-electric machines to 
engines." b. L. l>AiLEt, VV. W. Douglas A,: Douglas Motors, Ltd. De- 
cember 17tH» 

21.017. " Electric motor construction." F. Foster. December 17th. 

21.018. " Armature cores." J. B. Bushnell .V Bushnell Magneto Co. 
December 17th. 

21,020. " Electric switch." W. JoiCB. December 17th. 

21,022. " Reverse electric motor." C D0UG1.AS & S. Holuwav. December 
17th. 

21,030. " Means for supporting lamps, shades, &c." H. M. Macnaughton 
Jones. December 17th. 

21,033. " Means for illuminating magneto compasses, scientific instru- 
ments, &c." C. F. Ryland. December 17th. 

21.052. " High-tension insulators with metal hood." Fabbrica Isolatori 
LivoRNO & J. t. PoLLAK. December 17th. 

21.053. " Insulators." Fabbrica Isolatori Livorno & J. E. Pollak. De- 
cember 17th. 

21.109. " Wheel for collecting power from overhead electiic wires or cables 
and wire-carrying wheels." \V. H. Poweu. & E. W. Waggeit. December 
18th. 

21.110. " Electrical switches." R. T. Norton. December 18th. 

21,115. " Sparking plugs for internal-combustion engines." Castle Motor 
Co. & P. Greensmith. December 18th. 

21,139 " Visual electrical indicators for collieries, &c." J. King. De- 
cember 18th. 

21,158. " Starting switches for electric motors, &c." G. J. Money. De- 
cember 18th. 

21,177. " Ignition systems." Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co. De- 
cember 18th. (U.S.A., December 22nd, 1917.) 

21,229. " Magnetos." E.I.C. Magnetos, Ltd., & W. T. Turner. De- 
cember 19th. .» 

21,252. " Telephone switchboards." J. H. Taylor. December 19th. 

21,269. " Electric bell or buzzer." C. W. H. Honor. December 19th. 

21,281. " Glands for electric cables, shafting, &c." G. A. Ashworth. 
December 19th. 

21,283. " Electric switches." V. E. Joyce & Park Royal Engineering 
Works, Lid. December 19th. 

21,285. " Production of high-frequency electric currents." F. J. Brougham 
& M. Deutch. December 19th. 

21,288. " Telephone boxes, &c." D. Dapontb, T. F. Newman & E. Tonet. 
December 19th. 

21,290. " Electric switches." H. W. F. Ireland & H. Lucas. December 
19th. 

21,298. " .-Vpparatus for electrically controlling railway signals." A. 
MoNARD. December 19th. (France. December 20th, 1917.) 

21,307/8/10. " Insulators for high-tension electric cables." Fabbrica Isola- 
tori Livorno & H. Wade. December lyth. 

21,309. " Means for fixing electric cables to insulators." Fabbrica Isola- 
tori Livorno &: H. Wade. December 19th. 

21,311. " Magnetos." Compagnie Generale de Magnetos. December 19th. 
(France, July l2th.) 

21,363. " Electrical generators and electrical motors." J. Shepherd. 
December 20th. 

21,373. " Lamps for vehicles, &c." E. G. Camelinat. December 20th. 

21,391 " Wireless signalling systems." British Thomson-Houston Co. 
(General Electric Co., U.S.A.) December 20th. 

21,407. " Apparatus for electricallv controlling railway signals." A. 
Mokard. December 20th. {France, May 28th.) 

21,417. *' Electromagnetic transmission and reception arrangements." W. 
E. Barbeb. December 20th. 



31,435. " Connection of flexible cables or leads to electric lampholders, &c." 
C. A. Miller, F. J. Millbr & E. A. Sanders. December 21st. 

21.457. " Commutators for dynamo-electric machines." E. J. Haruan and 
E. LE Bas. December 21st. ' * 

21.458. " Dynamo-electric machines." E. T. Harman & E. LE Bas. De- 
cember 21st. 

21.466. " Measurement of alternating-current power." Ferranti, Ltd., 
AND G. Wall. December 21st. 

21.467. " Electric starters for internal-combustion engines." A. H. Midg- 
LBV & C. A. Vandervell & Co. December 21st. 

21,477. " Raising frequency of alternating currents." B. Cluzeau. De- 
cember 23rd. (France. February 15th, 1916.) 

21.489. " Dynamos." H. Leitnek. December 23rd. 

21.490. " Means for obtaining single-phase alternating electric currents 
from three phase or vice versa." A. M. Taylor. December 23rd. 

21,506. " Electric arc lamps." A. G. Way & Westminster Engineering 
Co. December 23rd. 

21,541. " Electric furnaces." D. F. Campbell. December 23rd. 

21,547. " Electric cooking or heating vessels. &c." C. H. Lautii. Decem- 
ber 23rd. 

[Patent No. 20.285. mentioned in the Electrical Review for December 30lh, 
p. 616, was the joint application of E. H, Whittall & B. J. Rees, not of the 
former alone, as stated in our list.] 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 



The numbers in parentheses are those under which the specifications will 
be printed and abridged, and all subsequent proceedings will be taken. 

XBX7. 

3,394. Regulating or controlling systems for electric motors. Electric 
and Ordnance Accessories Co. & J. Etchells. March 7th, 1917. (121,138.) 

13,225. Apparatus for the reception and utiusation of electric current 
impulses and suitable for wireless or other telegraphy and telephony. 
W. J. Lyons & Selective Signal Co. September 14th, 1917. (121,144.) 

15,505. Electric muffle furnaces. W. F. Jones. October 2ath, 1917. 
(120,944.) 

15,821. Test sheath joist for electric cables. C. J. Beaver & E. A. 
Claremont. October 30th, 1917. (120,948.) 

16,154. Cells for electric accumulators ok batteries. Etablissements 
de Dion-Bouton Soc. Anon. Ja.iuary 11th, 1917. (112,927.) 

17,410. Electric igniting torch. A. E. Long St H. Seal. November 26lh, 
1917. (120,960.) 

17,431. Electric cables. W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co. & H. 
Savage. November 26th, 1917. (120,962.) 

17,471. Engine starters. V. Bendix. November 26th, 1917. (121,155.) 

17,675. C0.MMUTATORS for dynamos or motors. H. C. H. Smyth & Trede- 
lect Engineering Co. November 29th, 1917. (120,982.) 

17,823. Starting mechanism for magnetos ok internal k:OMBUSTiON engines. 
L. Johnson S; J. T. Roberts. December 1st, 1917. (121,168.) 

17,849. Dynamo-electric machines. Bruce Pebbles & Co. & H. E. Webb. 
December 3rd, 1917. (121,170.) 

17,871. Electric speed^:hanging mechanism. J. Carlier. December 3rd, 

1917. (120,987.) 

17,941. Leading-in wires or conductors of incandescent electric lamps, 
HIGH-VACUU.M APPARATUS, AND THE LIKE. F. Hoge. December 4ih, 1917. 
(121,173.) 

18,043. Ignition starting apparatus for internal-combustion engines. 
Soc. d'Electricitc Nilmelior. March 2nd, 1917. (115,801.) 

18,057. Magneto impulse devices for starting purposes. B. Lawrence. 
December 5th, 1917. (121,181.) 

18,102. Wood separators for secondary electric batteries. Chloride 
Electric Storage Co. S: B. Heap. December 6th, 1916. (121,188.) 

18,349. Electrical separation of suspended particixs from gaseous bodies. 
H. A. Burns. December 11th, 1917. (120,994.) 

18,490. Electrical instruments of the recording type. E. Fawssett. De- 
cember 13th, 1917. (120,999.) 

18,495. Engine starters. V. Bendix. December 13th, 1917. (121,000.) 

18,954. Testing of insulated electric c.vbles, wires, and the like. P. M. 
Bennett, J. F. Watson and Callcnder's Cable & Construction Co. December 
21st, 1917. (121,204.) 

19,098. Sparking plugs for intern,\l-combustion 
J. E. Gimbert. December 27th, 1917. (121,008.) 

191S. 

31. Electric heaiing elements. L. G. Cauntei 
(121,210.) 

386. Electrically-propelled vessels. F. 
(121,211.) 

557. Silencing pads from telephone or speaking-tube earpieces and tj\K- 
stoppees. a. C. Brown. January 9th, 1918. (121,016.) 

1,031. Electric heating apparatus. Automatic Telephone Manufacturing 
Co., C. H. Archer & G. W. Simistex. January 18th, 1918. (121,214.) 

1,567. Plunger-type brush-holders for dvna.mo-electric machines. Phoenix 
Dynamo Manufacturing Co. & A. H. Bennett. January 26th, 1918. (121,217.) 

1,690. Cooling or ventilation of dynamo-electric machines. G. A. Juhlin 
and J S. Peck. January 29th, 1918. (121,218.) 

1,942. Wireless valves. C. J. Blue. April 22nd, 1918. (121,220 ) 

2,040. Air-cooled sparking ,plug. . J. H. Chapm 
(121,222.) • 

2,912. Electrically-operated FRitn-lON clutches. 
Boothroyd. February 19th, 1918. (121,229.) 

3,283. Electric controllers of the barrel type. 
Pipkin. February 25th, 1918. (121,041.) 

3,478. Attachment op telxgraph wires to the insulators of telegraph 
POLES AND LIKE SUPPORTS OF AERIAL WIRES. W, A. Davis. February 27th, 

1918. (121,044.) 

4,275. Electrical condensers. W. Dubilier. January 16th, 1918. (121,050 ) 

5,110. Electric motor controllers. Igranic Electric Co. (Cutler-Hammer 
Manufacturing Co., U.S.A.) March 22nd, 1918. (121,057.) 

5,286. Dynamo-electric machines. W. F. Higgs. February 13th, 1918. 
(Divided application on 2,573/18.) (121,058.) 

5,322. Circuit-breakers. Igranic Electric Co. (Cutler-Hammer Manufac- 
turing Co., U.S.A.) March 26th, 1918. (121,059.) 

6,707. Machine switching telephone exchange systems. Western Electric 
Co. & L. Polinkowsky. April 20th, 1918. (121,247.) 

10,769. ELECTIiOMACNETIC REi_*V FOR RAILWAY SIGNALLING AND LIKE PURPOSES. 

Tyer & Co. and F. W. Leake. June 29th. 1918. (121,088.) 

11,230. Electromagnetic relays. British Westinghouse Electric & .Manu- 
facturing Co. August 7th, 1917. (118,603.) 
15,306. Devices for detachably connecting electric conductors to the 

TERMINAi.S OF MAGNETOS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL APPARATUS. G. F. JoSeph and 

A. G. Harding. September 20th, 1918. (121,105.) 

15,701 Ignition dynamos. C. T. Mason. June 28th, 1917. (Divided appli- 
cation on 9,305/ir.) (181,106.) 



Ljungsi 



January 2nd, 1918. 
January 7th. 1918. 



February 5th. 1918. 

Walker & H. T. 

ritys. Ltd., & W. G. 



TIXB 



ELEOTK/ICA-Xj I^E'VIE'W. 



Vol. LXXXTV. 



JANUAKY 17, 1919. 



No. 2,147. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol. LXXXIV.] 



CONTENTS: January 17, 191U- 



[No, 3,147, 
Page 
... 57 



Electrical Engiaeeringr in the Army 

Electric Supply — Why National .' ... ... ... ... ... 58 

The German Economic Situation and Tendencies in Britain ... 59 

British Electrical Trade in China, by M. Smith 61 

Methods of " Earthing " Three-phase Systems, by C. L. Brown 

(illi's.) 62 

Exhibition of British Science Products at Manchester 63 

The Rontg-en Society 63 

Correspondence — 

The Xeed for Co-operation among the Smaller Manufac- 
turers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

The Westinghouse Manager and Enerineeringr Output ... 64 

Electric Pressure Regulators 65 

The "Taylor" System 65 

Fault Localisation ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Engineers' Salaries ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Moisture in Low-Grade Fuel 65 

Electricity on Board Ship ... ... ... ... ... 65 

The Navigational Magnetic Compass Considered as an Instru- 
ment of Precision, by M. B. Field (i7/«.«.) 66 

Business Notes 68 

The Electrical Trades Benevolent Association 73 

Shorter Working Week for Employes in Electricity Departments 73 

Notes 74 

City Notes 76 

Stocks and Shares 77 

Market Quotations 78 

Industrial Reconstruction and the Metric System, by H. Allcock 79 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (illus.) 81 

The Use of High-Pressure and High-Temperature Steam in 

Large Power Stations 83 

Testing Fiat Electrical Accessories {illiix,') ... ... ... 83 

New Patents Applied for, 1918 84 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 84 

Contractors' Column Advertisement page xxiv 

The electrical REVIEW. 

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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN THE 
ARMY. 



Some time ago we took occasion to comment on the short- 
comings of the military authorities at the Front in con- 
nection with the supply of electricity to om- various 
consuming departments — such as hospitals, workshops, offices, 
&c. — which was usually effected by means of innumerable 
little petrol-electric sets dotted about, instead of properly 
designed central installations put down for the purpose of 
meeting all the local requirements. Such installations 
might have been of quite a temporary character, capable of 
being transported to any position where they were needed 
and quickly set in operation ; but apparently every depart- 
ment had to shift for itself in this respect, and the only 
method of doing so known to them was that of setting up a 
miniature supply system for each one. There appears to 
be a decided gap in the organisation of the Royal Engineers 
and in their training at this point : they are not taught, 
like the French Engineers, industrial technology, and while, 
as we most gladly bear witness, they are unexcelled in the 
arts of military engineering proper, they have not appreciated 
the fact that there is now no line of demarcation between 
military and civil engineering — the whole is one and 
indivisible, and until they master the principles of electro- 
technology on modern lines, they cannot claim to have 
completed their training. 

As a matter of fact, electrical engineering is, or ought to 
be, a very important branch of training for military pur- 
poses ; for want of an adequate knowledge of this subject, 
there has been waste and loss on our side that must, in the 
aggregate, have run into millions of money, and must have 
greatly diminished the efficiency of our fighting forces, with 
the inevitable result of inefficiency in war — the loss of 
many precious lives. 

We mentioned, in the earlier stages of the conflict, that 
the part played by electricity in the war appeared to 
be very circumscribed — confined, apparently, to telegraphy 
and telephony, local lighting, and searchlights — and that 
was, in fact, the case on our side of the lines ,- but what 
about the uses to which it was put by the enemy* ? Now 
that we have been able to inspect his handiwork, we find 
that he attached the greatest importance to the use of elec- 
tricity for lighting and power, and that his work was 
marked by a very high degree of technical skill and able 
administration. No haphazard methods were allpwed, and 
it was not left to each unit to devise its own little supply 
system ; on the contrary, the work was carried out 
methodically and thoroughly, on economical lines, and with 
great rapidity when an advance was made. But the most 
striking and significant feature of the work is the fact that 
the supply was transmitted over great distances from large 
generating stations, at high pressures ; while we have not 
been able to obtain particulars of the system in detail, we 
iinderetand that literally thousands of miles of high' 



[57] 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [voi.sj. No. 2,147, jANnxKY n, loia. 



pressure overhead lines were installed by the Huns for the 
supply of all requirements for lighting and power. The 
three-phase system was employed, and the transformer sub- 
stations were established in farms, dug-outs, and other 
places where their presence was not likely to be suspected. 
Apparently the electrical staff worked independently of any 
other unit, and carried out its work on practically per- 
manent and up-to-date methods ; and so complete was the 
system and ample the supply of electricity, that even 
civilians in the occupied districts were allowed to share in 
its benefits. 

So far as we are able to ascertain, the use of overhead 
transmisrion and distribution on our part of the Front was 
a negligible quantity, though our French Allies adopted it 
freely and systematically. Moreover, we have heard that 
even when our lines were advanced in the wake of the 
departing Huns, no use was made of their electrical system ; 
incredible as it may appear, we gather that the same old 
" system " — save the mark I — of dumping down a little 
petrol-electric set wherever a few lights were wanted was 
still practised, although the elaborate enemy installations 
were practically intact and crying out to be used I Sad 
tales have come to our ears of valuable electrical apparatus 
— including large generators and transformers, probably 
looted from French or Belgian undertakings — left rotting 
in the rain, without even a waterproof cover over them, 
owing to the inability of our military authorities to appre- 
ciate the value of the goods ; and of stores of smaller 
electrical apparatus abandoned to the ravages of the civilian 
population, who, with a livelier intelligence, did not let 
slip the opportunity. Such incidents, while they horrify 
the civilian engineer, bear out our contention that in future 
electrotechnology in the broadest sense ought to form an 
essential part of the training of a Royal Engineer officer. 

According to our information, the electrical work of the 
Huns in the regions which they have now evacuated was so 
thoroughly well done, and so admirably thought out, that 
it would constitute a valuable object-lesson to our'owiv 
electrical engineers, and it would be well worth while for a 
party of the latter to visit the districts in question and 
make a careful investigation of the methods and apparatus 
which have been so efficiently employed by our enemies. 
We submit the suggestion to the Council of the I.E.E., 
with the warning that the opportunity should be taken 
while it serves. 



The Board of Trade Electric Power 
Why National ? "^"PP'y Committee's Report has resulted, 
since it was first published, in a plentiful 
crop of criticisms, technical, commercial, social, and political. 
The diecussional potentialities of such a report are, of 
course, unlimited. We do not, however, propose to exploit 
any further fields of detailed criticism at the moment, but 
merely to draw attention to the one broad principle which 
constitutes the raison d'e/re, as it were, of the scheme 
recommended in the report, and which will, perhaps, tend 
to become obscured under the mass of indiscriminate con- 
troversy. The scheme proposed is a comprehensive one, of 
a "National " character, and if it cannot be carried out by 
"private, enterprise, the project is to be financed out of 
the public exchequer. As such a proposal involves a 
serious charge on the country, it is important to keep in 



mind the justifying principle upon which alone the Com- 
mittee puts forward the scheme — namely, that it is of 
Natiopal importance that there should be available a supply 
of cheap power adequate for the expansion of existing indus- 
tries and for the encouragement of industries altogether 
new. The " National importance " of the scheme is Jimlled 
to its industrial aspect. The text of the report in this 
respect runs as follows : — 

That when British indueti-y is subjected to the test of keen 
international coiitpetition after the war, its success will liejjend 
upon the adoption of the most efficient methods and machinery, so 
as to reduce manufacturing,' costs as much as possible. 

That a highly important element in reducing manufacturing 
costs will be the general extension of the use of electric power 
supplied at the lowest possible price, and it is by largely increasing 
the amount of power used in industry that the average output 
per head, and, as a consequence, the wages of the worker, can he 
raised. 

Now when the Bill, which the Board of Trade will intro- 
duce to give effect to the recommendations of this Report, 
comes to be argued out in the Committee stage, it is of the 
utmost importance that this governing and limiting prin- ', 
ciple shall be kept prominently in the foreground. Almost 
everyone agrees with the soundness of the governing prin- 
ciple here enunciated. It is a truism to insist that the 
future of the country is bound up with its commercial 
development and prosperity in the few years immediately 
ahead of us. This is the end to be achieved ; and, as the 
Board of Trade Committee's Report clearly shows, the object 
of the scheme there put forward (in fact, the only justification 
advanced for putting forward a scheme at all) is this alone. 
When, therefore, the project in detail is laid" open in the 
Bill, it must be checked point by point by this principle, 
and whatever alternative suggestions may be evolved during 
the progress of the Bill, they must be judged solely by their 
adequacy to attain this end. State trading. State financing. 
State control are, per ,se, none of them principles under this 
Report, but merely possible means towards an end — namely, 
industrial development. Further, the principle logically 
provides a limitation to the proper extent of the scheme. 

We have emphasised the necessity of keeping this prin- 
ciple clearly in mind, in view particularly of the way in 
which the daily Press has raised a cry of cheap electricity 
for everybody, which will tend, perhaps, to become in- 
creasingly suggested as the real purpose of the scheme. 
The cry is an echo from the London County Council 
scheme of 1914, when particularly inviting prospects were 
held out to the London householder. It is interesting to 
note that, in justification of the scheme then prepared for 
London, the Council's consulting engineers (Messrs. Merz 
and McLellan) put forward mainly the " domestic " argu- 
ment, mentioning the " industrial " aspect as incidental. 

The Coal Conservation Sub-Committee reported some- 
what expansixely on the domestic side, but the Board of 
Trade Committee wisely included domestic uses only as of 
secondary and subordinate consideration. It cannot, there- 
fore, too clearly be borne in mind that the Board of Trade 
does not propose any State finance or support to the end 
that private householders should have cheap electric cooking, 
heating, vacuum cleaning, and so forth, none of which, 
however desirable, can be claimed as of national conse- 
quence in the same sense as cheap and universal electric 
power. In fact, if the Board of Trade had committed 
itself to the proposition that it was so necessary that the 
country should use electric cooking and electric heating 
that even State aid should be invoked for that purpose, it 
would have landed itself in the dilemma that it was catering 
either for the luxury of the few or for the necessities of 
everyone — the latter case leading to the inference that the 
Government considered it of pressing national importance 
that every gas stove and gas cooker should be scrapped at 
the earliest possible moment ! ' This, however, was not the 
intention of the Board, which has done well in basing its 
Report on a clear and unequivocal principle. 

That the supply of electricity for domestic uses will be | 
greatly cheapened and extended, and that important 
economies of fuel will result, together with other well- 
known benefits, goes without saying : but these are inci- 
dental advantages, and should not be mistaken for the main 
purpose of the scheme. 



Vol.8i. Xo. 2,147, January 17, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



59 



THE GERMAN ECONOMIC SITUATION AND TENDENCIES IN BRITAIN. 



Germany, whether repentant or unrepentant for the mis- 
deeds of those who caused and waged the world war, is 
to-day paying part of the penalty that Prussian militarism 
has imposed upon it. There is now no faltering in the 
relentless tread of Nemesis. Our own newspapers tell 
us from day to day of the struggles that are 
taking place in Berlin and other places in which 
the " Government " and the extremists respectively 
strive for supremacy. The former appeare to stand for 
orderly revolution, while the latter seek to feed the fires of 
Bolshevism. While it is impossible for anybody to forecast 
what will be the ultimate issue of things in Russia, or what 
form the new order will take either there or in Germany, it 
is certain that industrial revolution is in full swing in both 
countries, the consequences of which will be felt there, and, 
indeed, practically everywhere for long years to come. ' The 
developments that have occuiTed in this country in the 
course of the last few months would in pre-war days have 
been regarded as a revolution ; but large and sweeping as 
they have been here, they have been effected -without 
violence save to the ideas of men. It may be said that the 
reasons why our own changes have been brought about in 
comparative quiet are found in the fact that we have won 
the war, while Germany and Russia have both lost it ; that 
in both those countries the people have suffered years of 
serious privation ; that the influence of Tsarism and 
Kaiserism has left the millions smarting under a sense of 
wrong imposed by authority : and that the prospective 
burden of the future is insufferably heavy. We 
must add to these an important factor, namely, that in 
England during the period of the war the lesson has been 
brought home in season and out of season, that if industry 
is to continue to be carried on for private profit the employes 
must labour under more humane or civilised conditions and 
receive better wages. The transition period has brought 
many problems up for settlement already, and we cannot 
expect to pass through the inevitable period of disorganisa- 
tion and unemployment and the progress of demobilisation 
without further marked changes occurring. ■ If we 
believe that the German people will before long 
come to. see that their safety, whatever their burden of 
liabilities, lies in a sane policy of industrial security, 
we certainly are more entitled to hold that the sound 
common sense of the British race will guide us all, whether 
as employers and employed, or as classes and masses, 
in the right direction. There is, happily, little room for 
doubt that, given harmonious relations, there is plenty of" 
work awaiting us in this country as soon as we can reverse 
the machinery of organisation from war to Peace. But, as 
Mr. Wardle, M.P., remarked last week, what we need, in 
order to secure content and prosperity, is industrial unity ; 
'• industrial Peace " he described as merely negative. 
" Industrial unity " is a constructive and active policy 
which means not mere quietness, but the making in quiet- 
ness of progress toward a state of things in which industry 
is made to yield a proper return to all the interests concerned 
with it. 

We have been greatly interested in the views ex- 
pressed in many of the German newspapers dm-ing the 
past month or two concerning some of the movements that 
are proceeding in German industry, and we think they 
might be considered with advantage by those who are re- 
sponsible for influencing or leading the thought of those 
connected with similar matters in this country. The 
demands of the workers in all countries are very much 
alike — in some the violent seek to take the kingdom by 
force, and' the battle sways sometimes uncertainly. We 
have in our own midst those who openly avow that peace 
along the lines of the Whitley Report is not what they 
desire ; unity between Capital and Labour is the one thing 
that they do not seek : they wish to abolish the masters and 
the capitalists once and for all, and if we promote friend- 
liness at this juncture the realisation of their hopes will be 
deferred, perhaps, never to recur under such favourable 
circumstances. We do not believe that this element is one 
of great strength numerically, but the peculiar thing about 



it is that some of them are described as clever and cultured, 
with which combination there also appeal's a willingness to 
be as ruthless as any Prussian militarist, if by such means 
their end can be attained. We believe that history, if it 
deigns to take note of their efforts, will condemn them as 
being equally short-sighted, and altogether wrong in their 
calculations. 

The events that have been taking place in Germany may 
be described briefly' by our giving a summary of a few 
outstanding matters. In December last the Thuringian 
Industrial Union called for the restoration of economic 
security and stability. It referred to the extraordinary rise 
in the cost of production that must follow on the satisfac- 
tion of the demands then made by workers in all fields of 
' employment. The home demand for all kinds of goods 
was reasonably to be expected to fall, owiug to the rise in 
prices, and tlie industries would be unable to compete in 
the foreign markets with countries which did not have to 
cope with such increases in wages. The Union pointed out 
that the suggested control of industry would only make 
matters still worse, owing to the lack of technical know- 
ledge and commercial experience on the part of the workers. 
Some leaders in Germany are not slow to point out, as 
leaders of Labour and social reform here have foreseen also, 
that nationalisation of industry can only be gradual, and 
requires'decades to be carried out. Mr. Arthur Henderson 
himself, when pinned down to the expression, "control of 
industry," showed that his use of it was onfy meant to be 
immediately, or at first, applicable, in the main, to public 
services. 

We read that Geheimkommerzienrat Ventzky, of 
Graudenz, is said to have handed over the control of his 
business to his employes in return for an interest of 3 per 
cent, being paid on his capital. Herr Walther Rathenau, 
of the A.E.G., whose views were printed in our last issue, 
is reported to have handed over his private furtnne of a 
million pounds to the State. These, and other similar 
occurrences, are, no doubt, concessions to the demands of 
the mass of workers who are determined to have better 
wages, and who look chiefly to the profits of the capitalists 
to yield them without working out the simple sum which 
would show the smallness' of the share of the individual 
worker. But why do they demand higher wages just 
now ? Chiefly to meet the increase in the cost of living 
imposed upon them by reason of the war which their 
leaders have brought upon them. The one demand due to 
necessity, made while they are in anger with authority, 
leads them to make other demands which they consider will 
mend mattei-s permanently. But what are the hard facts 
of the situation right up against which they are now 
brought ? Germany has to pay the cost of the war. How 
is it to be done ? 

One proposal under discussion is State Bankruptcy. 
The cancellation of loans would, " at a stroke," free 
Germany of one-half of her liabilities ; but it is said 
{Weltwirtsrhaft Zeifiin;/, December 13th) that such a step 
would be a monstrous injustice to citizens who have 
helped to finance the war. One Ferdinand Rinkel, of 
Cologne (in Kobiische Zeitung, December 7th) estimates 
that "the national wealth of Germany is now less than half 
what it was before the war. " The State obligations exceed 
the whole national wealth, and it needs no gift of prophecy 
to foretell an approaching catastrophe." He calls for 
appropriate economic measures to be clearly stated, in 
order to dispel prevailing uncertainty, or there will be 
disaster. He hears out of the welter of economic clamour 
three phrases : — " Death to capital — eight hours' working 
day — higher wages." He finds fault with the authorities 
who are in power because they do not make the situation 
of impending national bankruptcy clear to the workers,_ and 
persuade them to accept lower wages, instead of inciting 
them to further demands. Industrial and other under- 
takings will be unable to pay heavy taxation, and the State 
will, therefore, lose part of its revenue. Even threats alone 
to burden capital with heavy imposts depreciate the value 
of shares, &c., to such an extent that " the State will be 



60 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.S*. No.2,147, January 17,1919. 



unable to impose heiivv duties on capital, for the simple 
reason that only part of it is left." He instances a manu- 
facturer who si.t months airo had made a million marks by the 
war, which he invested in Stock E.vchange securities, with the 
result that he now only possesses, at most, a property worth 
-50,000 marks. One writer advances, as a measure for 
increasing the national revenue, the imposition ,of high 
taxes upon the goods to be sold by producers. This would 
mean that the cost of production would be increased by the 
entire sum of the taxes, and the selling price would be 
raised accordingly. And where would the consumer be 
then, who already finds the cost of living so great that 
he makes heavy demands ? Thi^ same writer advocates 
improved production as the test method of increasing 
the efficiency of the economic system. He would eliminate 
all concerns working at a loss — possibly, in the natural 
course of things, may we suggest, they would eliminate 
themselves — he would reduce the cost of transport to a 
minimum (still paying transport workers high wages and 
running shorter hours ?) and would obtain the highest 
possible yield with the lowest possible outlay " by concen- 
trating and systematising business concerns.'' " In this way 
increased revenue and decreased revenue will be available 
for the payment of interest, so far as f/iei/ irere not required 
for increased /raf/es for lalioi/r." He is unable to deter- 
mine whether this increased economy of working is 
to be obtained from nationalisation of the means of pro- 
duction or by means of State-controlled syndicates of private 
business concerns." 

We notice that a certain Prof. Franz Eulenburg, of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, favours a levy on capital, yet he says that 
" Germany's position and credit abroad would be endangered 
for all time if she failed to recognise the validity of her 
war loans." He says that popular opinion is decidedly in 
favour of the burden of debt being partly redeemed by a 
levy on capital, instead of shifting that burden on to 
shoulders of future generations, especially as vast accumu- 
lations of capital have resulted from the profits made in the 
war. As we ha\e several times suggested German manu- 
facturers may yet wish that they had been required to pay 
Excess Profits duties during the war. 

One George Bernhard, however, has been expressing a 
totally different view from that held by Eulenburg, 
holding that a levy on capital to any extent, even if 
it only affected reserve funds, would lower the capacity 
of production of all undertakings carried on in the form 
of joint-stock companies, and would have a restrictive 
effect on the entire economic system. If a very consider- 
able part of the capital of the business man and manu- 
facturer is taken away from its owner " the growth of 
capital is checked, and with it the possibility of any exten- 
sion of industry and trade, and, at the same time, a heavy 
blow is struck at the producing capacity of the nation." 
" The provision of new machinery, and especially the ex- 
tended application of new processes, and also the speedy 
changes necessary in the case of new costly methods of 
production, demand unlimited possibilities in the way of 
providing the requisite fund." 

So much for taxation questions in their relation to in- 
dustry. Returning to the wage question, it is protested 
that inflated wages are being paid in German shipyards by 
order of the Government. The Government is itself paying 
a proportion of what are described in the German Press as 
" ridiculously high wages," and it is deplored that ships 
cannot be built as cheaply as in other countries under such 
circumstances. Another criticism of the wage situation is that 
there is hardly a perceptible difference between the wages 
paid to skilled and unskilled workers. This may mean that 
a skill which hardly differentiates between incapacity and 
efficiency will crowd workers into employments which 
require little knowledge, and cause a shortage of labour for 
work which demands special qualifi3ations, and, conse- 
quently, is used to command higher remuneration. 

But notwithstanding all that international statesmen and 
others are saying about the increased wages and the better 
conditions that must henceforth prevail — with which we, 
and, indeed, everybody, must agree up to a certain point — 
we believe it to be an economic inevitability that excessive 
■wages must fall and abnormally short working hours must 
eventually be lengthened, unless something in the form of 



universal international understanding is arrived at so that 
the same drawbacks confront all competing peoples. The 
man who asks for, and receives, higher wages is adding w 
the cost of the necessaries of life for himself if all men 
are out for the siune advances. There can be little 

satisfaction in handling £5 a week in place of 508. 

if you have to spend double. This seems to be — with, of 
course, exceptions in certain trades — what must certainly 
happen unless there is a universal will to work harder, with 
the impro^-ed opportunity of doing so with less fatigue 
that more efficient machinery and methods will present. 
Of course, we all expect, after the experience of w;ii' 
time, that shorter working hours will improve the individual 
efficiency if the change is adopted in the right spirit, ami 
if the movement is not carried too far ; but, unfortunately, 
as we have seen in the recent 47-hour disturbances, there 
is a disposition to raise new obstacles at almost every turn, 
and to gain some new point at the employer's — or may we 
say industry's !' — expense. There is a will to agitate for 
better conditions and higher wages without calmly looking 
to the end which lies beyond it all. We seem to lack either 
the ability or the willingness to see beyond the ends of our 
noses. It seems as though men are indifferent as to where 
it will all lead them ultimately, so long as in the present they 
can secure what they want. We feel that whatever course 
events take, violently revolutionary or otherwise, the present 
tendency is only temporary, and that abnormal or unreasonable 
advantage secured liy any mass of workers out of present 
peculiar conditions, will in a few years disappear. But we are 
all walking in the dark just now, feeling our way as we go, 
stumbling and then recovering : but there are at work eco- 
nomic forces which will decide whether we shall fail to 
recover after one of our stumbles. Many statements are 
made by our public advisers, which are acceptable because 
they reflect our desire to make things better for the 
millions of workers whose lives have been very drab and 
uninteresting in the past. We all yearn for a general im- 
provement, and sometimes we are told that no industry 
should be allowed to continue unless it can yield to those 
employed in it a living wage and humane conditions. Per- 
haps in actual working it might appear that the closing 
down of a works and the sacrifice of capital would mean the 
unemployment of thousands of workers. Never mind that 
say our advisers — such a business should not be allowed to 
continue. AVe used to say that half a loaf was better than 
no bread — not so now. We repeat that we are as 
anxious as anybody to see wages higher and hours 
shorter if these things can be secured without killing 
the goose that lays the golden eggs. As Mr. Hichens 
recently suggested, let us not be " off and away " before we 
have thought whence we are going. Has the Govern- 
ment plans for securing permanent well-being of the 
nation as a whole before it steps in and decides tba"^ 
this, that, and the other change must be introduced on 
a specified date ?, . And have the Trade Unions, which ought 
to have the well-being of the industrial life of the nation so 
largely resting upon them, given a sufficient thought to 
permanence and stability of industry, and to the inevitability 
of the effect of high wages on the cost of living ? A 
moderation of their own demands might conceivably make 
for their own ultimate advantage. Have they also thought 
that the return on investments, upon which tens of 
thousands of comparatively poor people depend is reduced 
by half, as in the case of the value of wages ? 

We are undoubtedly only at the beginning of our dis- 
cussions of the problems of industry. They will become 
more and more general in the coming months, and more 
and more acute as millions of men return and want to find 
industry prosperous enough to absorb them at the satis- 
factory wages that non-fighters have been receiving. AVe 
shall require to develop our trade to the utmost that lies 
within our power ; we shall require to operate as efficiently 
as possible — capital, organisation, and labour ; but we shall 
have to act in co-operation — in " Industrial Unity," or 
much that we have will be lost, and some things that we 
aim at will never be achieved. 

Germany has her own problems to settle. We have ours. 
Perhaps we shall be assisted in our own deliberations by 
studying such enemy experiences and opinions as we have 
endeavoured to set forth above. 



Vol. 84. No. 2,147, Jaxuaby 17, 1919.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Gl 



There are two German pre-war sayings that occur to us 
as we write : " Hope is the poor man's bread," and 
" Laughter is the poor man's plaster covering up each dire 
disaster." But " hope " and " laughter " will not meet 
t^e case of any of the peoples to-day. Koth, the 
German Chief of Demobilisation, recently said, " Hard 
work is the only salvation of the German people." 
But it is not only true in the case of Germany. Every 
Briton has got to put his shoulder to the wheel, and if he 
determines to push it for so. many fewer hours a week, and 
receive so many shillings a day more, he must push all the 
harder. 



BRITISH ELECTRICAL TRADE IN CHINA. 



I. — Thk Opportunities. 



By prof. MIDDLETOX SMITH. M.Sc, M.I.Mech.E., 
Hong-Kong. 



The alert Editors of the Electrical Review have evidently 
been thinking about the markets of the Far East, at the 
beginning of the fifth year of the war, despite the anxieties 
and difficulties of the people in Great Britain in general, 
and of those responsible for trade publications in particular." 
They have been wisely anticipating and preparing for the 
period of reconstruction. " England expects " in these 
times of her engineers and manufacturers not only that 
" this day " they will do their duty, but that before the day 
of demand they will prepare for the duty demanded of them, 
if it comes next year or even the year after. In all of our 
engineering work there is the period of planning ; the 
drawing office stage of the business. We have to think 
things out, to collect all of the data possible, to make up 
our minds as to the best methods to be used in translating 
the designs into practical work, before the ideas are crystal- 
ised into the lines and instructions which go from the 
drawing office. It is in the hope of supplying some sug- 
gestions to electrical manufacturers and other readers of 
this journal that the invitation of the enterprising Editors 
is accepted. As the Americans say, they want " to make 
wise " their readers concerning " our " chances in China, 
and they ask for information- that will help the trade in 
Great Britain. That is the object of this contribution. 

For more than six years the writer has been working with 
the Chinese for most of the year, travelling about the Far 
East in the long vacations, writing to all who are connected 
with engineering work out here, meeting some of the most 
prominent Britons and Chine.se, making notes on this great 
problem of trade in China. The subject of British trade 
prospects in the Far East has been a matter very much in 
mind. Seeds were sown many years ago in Birmingham by 
that remarkable man, Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, and the Far 
East has developed them. In a never-to-be-forgotten 
conversation before the days of the Tariff Reform crusade, 
Mr. Chamberlain talked of the engineering trades, the 
future of the Empire, and overseas markets to a young 
demonstrator in the University which he bad created. He 
was practical, if a visionary. Like an architect who plans 
a structure he saw the building, even the details of the 
materials for the building long before there was anything 
more tangible than thoughts. He was, beyond all else, an 
organiser. He realised that each year would make engineer-, 
ing products more and more important as articles of 
commerce. 

" Does it Pay .' " — " What doi they know of England," 
cried Kipling, " who only England know ? " Yes, if you 
want to appreciate the land of Magna Charta, the land of 
Newton, Watt, Faraday, and those othere who have done 
things which will leave a mark on the pages of history for 
all time, leave your England and travel round the world. 
You will not forget those of your countrymen mentioned 
above ; but you will learn about others. You will find the 
trace of the British engineer and administrator from 
Vladivostock to Singapore from Shanghai to Cairo. You 

* These articleB were written just before the war ended. — Eds. E.R. 



will not gain a cubit iu stature, but you will hold yourself 
more erect : you will find a new fibre stiffening your 
thoughts ; yon will, if you are connected with enginsering 
work, recognise that you are in a profession or trade which 
is " cleaning up " the" Universe, which is doing something 
great. You will see the striking contrast between the way 
of the Anglo-Saxon and that of the men of other nations— 
especially the Orientals. You will become so proud and 
confident of the men of your own race that you will cease 
to show any traces of aggressive pride about them. You 
will accept it as you accept other wbrks of Nature — as 
something almost inevitable. But it exists. , 

If you visit China you will, indeed, realise what has been 
done.and the possibilities of what can be done. Just as 
there 'is a new Europe, so is there a new China. Nothing 
is more striking than the complete change in outlook of 
the whole nation concerning machinery and modern in- 
dustry. The attitude of the Chinese to-day when compared 
to that of 20 or even 10 years ago is astonishing. 

They have asked about all of this modern apparatus the 
question that the keenest traders of the world would 
naturally ask. They said, " Does it pay ?" and the answer 
has come from Japan, Hong-Kong, Shanghai, and even 
inland China. Always the answer has been, as the 
politicians say, " in the affirmative." In that mysterious 
manner of the East, of which we understand little, but 
which is as effective as a newspaper with a circulation of 
millions, the story that it does pay, the examples of how it 
did pay, have sped through China. The keen trader is, of 
course, naturally suspicious of being " let in," and on more 
than one occasion the Japanese drummer has let him in. 
Yet he is still keen, and he wants to make money. They talk 
about the almighty dollar in the United States. In China 
the dollar is s"uper-al mighty. And the Chinese of to-day 
are beginning to think that Western science manufactures 
and multiplies the super-almighty dollar. They are aanxious 
to find out how it is done. 

British Assets. — There is nc doubt that the Chinese have 
a very great respect for the British nation. The history of 
the British in China is too long to discuss here, but the 
most influential Chinese do realise what the British have 
done, not only for China, but in the Straits Settlements, 
Hong-Kong, and Shanghai. " It is our honesty that keeps 
us going," said a shrewd British official to me. a few days 
ago ; " the Oriential respects the Englishman because he 
gets justice and the square deal from him.'" It is also our 
energy that keeps our trade going. 

Perhaps the most remarkable piece of administrative 
reform work ever carried out was that of the Chinese 
Maritime Customs. It was the work of Britons, Sir 
Robert Hart being chiefly responsible. Sir Edward Grey 
has proposed it as a pattern for the administration of back- 
ward countries. It has been recently copied for the 
organisation of the Salt Gabelle, in China, by Sir Richard 
Dane. These two Departments are the only two revenue- 
producing, or official sources of national income, free from 
corruption in China. 

The first British Chamber of Commerce wa-s founded in 
Canton about 80 years ago, and there are now many other 
similar institutions— about 20— in China. These are 
determined to help British trade. 

The Chinese Consular Service of Great Britain has a 
splendid reputation for everything but business training. 
Its servants have been men of high character ; some of 
them have been great sinologues. One of them. Sir 
Harry Parkes, was a Great Englishman, " a man of 
push and go," who did wonders for our interests in China 
40 of 50 years ago. The Chinese, be it understood, respect 
our Consular Service for its honourable tradition and the 
scholarship of many of its members. 

The British have always had most of the external trade 
of China in their hands. They have opened up the country 
to steam ; they have introduced machinery : they initiated 
and carried out the steam shipping trade of the rivers and 
the coast. They have provided the largest bank in China. 
Actually a British bank determines each day for China the 
vital question of exchange — how many dollars in China go 
to the pound sterling ; in the four years of 1913-17 that" 
number fluctuated from about 9 up to 13 ; and three months 
ago it was down to oh- Those figures irive some idea of 



62 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.Sl. No. 2,147. January ir, 1919 



the importance of exchange as well as of British interests 
in China. 

Beyond all else the most valuable asset of the British in 
China is their reputation for the square deal. " The 
Chinaman's word is his bond " was the boast of the old days 
when the British practically held a monopoly in trade in 
China. Hundreds of thousands of pounds' worth of busi- 
ness was carried on between British and Chinese traders, 
and never a bond, but the word of each. The times have 
changed, but the old reputation remains. There are British 
firms in China whose verbal \\ord is iicrepU'd for millions 
of dollars, and whose p»p<'r is like that of the I'ank of 
Enifland in liondon. 

The local share market in Hong-Kong reflects British 
prestige. This Colony is the headquarters of at least 
one hundred British companies trading out here, includ- 
ing '• the Princely House " and " the Bank." The 
largest insurance (-ompany in the British Empire has 
its headquarters and its board of directors in Hong-Kong. 
Its shares were worth about £10, some 30 years ago — the 
local quotation to-day in Hong-Kong is more than $120 : 
at the rate of exchange that is about £150. The Chinese 
rush to invest money in British companies, or in property 
in Hong-Kong, or in the treaty port Settlements, managed 
by the British. The most famous mining administration 
in China is managed by the British — its Chinese share- 
holders are delighted with their dividends. No other 
nation has such a wealth of experience with the trading 
Chinese as our own. The Chinese are demanding Western 
machinery and applied science : the British have valuable 
assets in China, as enumerated above. AVill they supply 
the bulk of the machinery needed in China 'i The oppor- 
tunities are magnificent. Yet there are difficulties. They 
will be discussed in^the next article. 



this plate being surrounded by coke and sunk about C ft. 
in damp ground ; a perforated metal cone may be used as a 
substitute. In addition, it is strongly advisiible to earth 
on to the circulating-water pipe system, thus providing a 
precautionary measure at small cost without disadvantage. 

All copper earth wires or tapes should be zinc or lead- 
sheathed, and run in pipes for protection ; here it would be 
well to point out that careful periodic examination of earth 
wires is necessary, and resistance tests may conveniently be 
carried out from time to time. 

•1. In this case the connection from the neutral bus-bar 
or generator is on to a metallic or carbon resistance, iuid 
through this resistance to the earth plate or cone uml 
duplicate to water pipe, exactly as stated above ; the carbon 
resistances are preferable, as they appear to withstand sudden 




Fig. 1. — Carbos-Powder Tvpe Resistance. 



METHODS OF " EARTHINQ 
SYSTEMS. 



THREE-PHASE 



By C. L. BROWN, A.M.I.E.E., Lt. R.E. 



It is now recognised as advisable to " earth " the neutrals iji 
all but small systems, in which cases it is optional : the 
adv'antages being : — 

The voltasre between any phase and earth is reduced to 58 per 
cent, of the volts between phases. 

A fault to earth on an unearthed system would be most certain 
to develop into a short circuit between two phases. 

An earthed system lends itself more readUy to protective g'ear, an 
earth or leakage being: at once located. 

On an earth occurringr on one phase it must be imrmediately 
attended to, so avoiding delay, with possible serious trouble as a 
consequence. 

Preferable where electric furnaces are on the system, where 
leng-thy and heavy short circuits are liable to occur. 

In many cases the neutral points of generators are 
earthed direct, but it is recommended that, where machines 
run in parallel, a neutral bus-bar be installed and earthed ■ 
in place of each generator separately : the question of 
currents due to triple-frequency harmonics circulating 
between machines is of no great importance as far as this 
is concerned, and, if objection were raised on this account, 
small resistances could be placed between each generator 
neutral point and the neutral bus-bar. The methods of 
earthing are :— 

1. Direct to buried earth-plate. 

2. Through metallic or carbon resistance. . 

3. Through transformer. 

The I.E.E. rule re size of earthing conductor for con- 
necting between neutral bus-bar and earth, also between 
generators and neutral bus-bar, should 'be adhered to — i.e., 
1/14 s.w.G. wire, or equivalent sectional ai-ea in smaller 
wires, per 50 amperes working current ; it is usual in large 
installations to use copper tape, say 1 in. x ^ in. 

1. This simple method is well known, and consists of 
connecting the earth wire or tape from neutral bus-bar, or 
generator neutral, if the former is not provided, direct to the 
earth plate or cone ; the former may be a copper plate up to 
6 ft. square (for large plants, say, 120,000-KW. capacity), 



loads better ; in any case, the resistances for large stations, 
should be capable of dealing with heavy currents of short dura- 
tion according to the capacity of the station and the nature of 
the loads. The carbon resistances may consist of units in. 
series-parallel, and may be arranged so that it is a simple 
matter to add to them if necessary, say, when increasing the 
capacity of the station : when loads consisting of electric 
furnaces are added, it will sometimes be found necessary to 
amplify the earthing arrangements. 

The resistance shown in fig. 1 is of the carbon-powder 
type ; in this instance it is built up of 200 units, the 
total being of about 500 amperes' carrying capacity on 



120.000-KW. CTATIOM D'JS EAR",. S-=H 




USES V Y Y 60-:<V.'. Tr./.MSFORMER 





TO BELL AND INDICATOR CIRCUITS 
EARTH 

Fig. 2. — Method of Earthing Throdgh a Transformer. 

an 11,000-volt, 3,000-KW. system ; the capacity of such' 
resistances may be roughly found from the formula ; — 
Capacity in arnperes 

= KW. (of station) x 1,000 X v/ 3 -r volts, 

= 1,730 X KW. 4- volts. 
It must be remembered that as carbon possesses a- 
negative temperature coefficient, the current will not rise- 
above a value which is just sufficient to open the circuit- 
breaker, with a consequent minimum of shock on the system 
and a correspondingly less chance of heavy surging ; with the 



Vol. 8J. No. 2,U7, January 17, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



68 



resistances having a positive temperature coefficient, their 
total resistance must naturally be less than in the case of 
carbon ; more current must pass to ensure the circuit- 
breakers operating immediately, and before the resistance 
increases due to heating sufficiently to prevent the breakers 
working, the result being a prolonged overload and 
probable burn-out; therefore, where metallic resistances 
are installed, they should be designed so that the current 
to earth would be greater than in the carbon type, in spite 
of having to lireak a heavier current and a greater chance 
of suiging. The careful setting of time lags on the breakers 
will assist in overcoming the difficulty. 

3. The method of earthing through a transformer is 
quite in favour ; lig. 2 is a diagram showing a typical 
arrangement. A .50-k\v. capacity transformer of the bus-bar 
voltage is connected to the main bus-bars through fuses, 
the latter being advisable to guard against a burn-out, should 
a very heavy short not clear itself in time. The transformer 
primary is star wound, the secondary being delta oi- mesh 
wound on open circuit ; the neutral point of the primary 
winding is connected to a substantial earth-plate, as pointed 
out ill (1 ), also to water-pipes. In addition, a small coil may 
be fixed round a convenient part of the earth wire, which 
would become energised on an earth current or leakage of 
predetermined value passing, thus ringing a bill, which 
may be ti.xed in the engineer's office. This may be improved 
upon by fixing the coil wires to an instrument indicating 
the strength of the current to earth. 



EXHIBITION OF BRITISH SCIENCE PRODUCTS 
AT MANCHESTER. 



The instructive exhibition held at King's College last sum- 
mer,* the, purixjse of which was to indicate to the public, and 
more paxticularly to manufacturers, the great services British 
science rendered to British industry during the war, has 
very properly Ijeen transferred to Majichester, where for the 
past fortnight it has attracted a. large and appreciative local 
pubhc. The exhibition was organised by Sir. F. S. Spiel's 
under the auspices of a local committee, presided over by 
Principal Gai'nett, and it was held in the College of Tech- 
nology, three floors of which were utilised for the purpose. 
The exhibition was not an exact repUca of that held in Lou- 
don, anil while in some respects, notably chemical glassware 
and optical instruments, it feU shoi-t of the parent one, in 
other respects, dyes, textiles, and thermal appajatus may be 
instanced, the exhibits were both more numerous and more 
representative. 

The electrical section illustrated principally the notable 
advances made in the production of magnetos, insulating 
matenals, lamps, carbons, electric heating apparatus, and 
instruments — niachinei-y had to be excluded. In all these 
cases we were largely, and in some instances entirely, de- 
pendent upon Germany, and the efforts made, under the 
s^tress of wax conditions, by our manufacturers aided by our. 
men of science to render this country, so far as possible, in- 
dependent of foreign supplies will form an impressive chapter 
in the history of British industrial etfort. 

With regard to the individual exhibits, we need here only 
make brief mention of such as were not shown in London. 
The collection of magnetos and magneto parts, Hlustrating 
the whole complex process of magneto con.stniction, wa.s a 
remai'kable one — quite the most complete that we remember 
having seen. In addition to the splendid and " live " col- 
lection shown by the British Ignition Apparatus A.ssooiation, 
and contribute^ to individually by each of the ten finns con- 
stituting that Association, separate exhibits of great merit 
were shown by MesWs. Vickers, Ltd.. Siinnis Motor Units, 
Ltd., and a local firm, the Eunbaken Magneto Co., Ltd. 

In carbons, a wide variety, nijde of high-grade carbon, wa.s 
<'>:hibifed by the Morgan Crucible Co.. Ltd. Besides the 
well-known Morganite brushes, these included magneto car- 
bon for the distributors and slip-rings of aeroplane and auto- 
mobile magnetos, battery carbon rods for )iocket fiashlamiis 
(since 1914 this firm has produced a hundred million of these 
rods), carbons for electric welding arcs, and telephone car- 
bons for transmitters and receivers. This fiim also now- 
makes electro-graphitic electrodes for use in electric furnaces. 
For many purposes these are preferable to— their hfe is longer 
than— the ordinary amorphous carbon electrodes. .-Ml of these 
accessories came from the Continent or from .'^merir^ before 
the war. 

Most of the present types of electric heating elements wer^ 
hown by the British Electric Transformer Co.. Ltd.. and 
ihf Fdison-Swan Electric Co.. Ltd. The former exhibit in- 
duded the electrir cun heaters for keeping lubricating oil 
i''om freezing in Vickers and Lewis guns when used on aero- 
planes. Electr ic heating apparatus- for medical and other 

• Ei.F.c. Rrv., August 16th. 191P. and subsequent issues. 



purposes was shown by Messrs. E. M. Evans >t Son, Ltd., 
of Manchester. 

A splendid coUeotion of scientific 'instruments, both for 
works and laboratory practice, was exhibited by Messi's. 
Chas. VV. Cook, Ltd., of Manchester. The collection included 
the various electroscopes designed and used by Sir Ernest 
Rutherford for the accurate measurement of a. /J. and -/ 
rays, and a massive electromagnet, also used by Sir Ernest, 
with a capacity of 16,0CKJ gauss. The workmanship and finish 
of this fiiTu's apparatus is beyond _j)raise. Pyrometers and 
electrical instruments were also shown by the Foster Instm- 
ment Co., Ltd., the Record Electrical Co.. and the Cambridge 
Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd. The Cambridge fiiTu exhi- 
bited,' among other things, an electrical distance theiToo- 
meter outfit for centralising and reading temperatures from 
any number of positions, and an aeroplane radiator thenno- 
meter for taking teniperatmes of coohng water. Mr. A. E. 
Moore, of the College of Technology, had on view his con- 
centric standard dynamometer watt-meter for heavy cur- 
rents, described in the Electrical Review of Jime 8th. 1917. 

The Fuller .\ccumulator. Cable & Carbon Works showed 
in connection with their batteries and lamps a charging rack 
for replenisliing the accumulators of miners' lamps. The 
W'ardle Engineering Co.. Ltd., of Manchester, had "on exhibit 
many types of reflectors designed to meet varying industrial 
requirements. In every case a polar curve recorded the 
characteristic distribution of Ught. 

Messrs. "\V. T. Glover & Co., Ltd., among other examples 
exhibited a six-core " Diatrine " paper-insulated and lead- 
i^heathed cable, suitable for an ll.{XK)-volt circuit, provided 
with Glover's patent test sheath, by \vhich injurious e£fect,s 
from outside and leakage from inside the cable a.re bouiid 
to be intei'oepted by the test-sheath conductor. 

The exhibit which perhaps attracted most attention w^u.s 
the ingenious winding machine — used principally- for the fine 
coils required in wireless work— shown in operation by the 
Igranic Electrical Co.. Ltd. In thi^ machine the fine insu- 
lating cotton yam is interwoven between the layer! of con- 
centrically-wound wire, and the two are wound simul- 
taneously. By an ingenious cam mechanism the yarn also 
builds up insulating end cheeks, .so- that the coils are self- 
supporting. The machine is provided with automatic fault- 
defecting and indicating devices. 



THE RONTQEN SOCIETY. 



At the meeting of the Rontgen Society on January 7tb, Dr. 
H. S. Allen, D.Sc., gave an address, accompanied by man* 
experiments, on electrical changes produced by light. He 
said that according to the modern view matter was assumed 
to be built up of di.sei'ete electrical charges. With the nega- 
tive electron they were all acquainted, but as to the ulti- 
mate positive charge they were still in ignorance. Yet there 
was no doubt that there was an ultimate positive charge, 
and that matter itself was comixised of these positive anti 
negative electrons; so that any eleetrical change might m- 
clude a whole series of chemical changes, and, in fact, it 
was dithcult to see whether any change with which they 
were acquainted in conneetion wdth matter was not an elec- 
trical change. Photo-electricity was a wide term, but it 
might be restricted to signify the liberation of electrons by 
light, a phenomenon which first began to be noticed more 
than 30 years a-go. Dr. AUen went on to show that a body 
which was positively charged retained the charge when 
illuminated by ultra-violet light, but when the charge -was 
of the opposite sign, there w-a-s immediately a discharging 
action on exposure to such light. In the c-ase of wave-lengths 
of Ught longer than the characteristic frequency of the metal 
sodium, cori-esponding to the green light of the spectrum, 
thei-e was no emission of electrons at all, but with hght of 
shorter wave-length than this — that is to say, from gi'een on 
towards the blue and -violet — electrons were emitted. With 
regard to the phenomena, of luminescence, he said that these 
were divided into two classes according to the length of tune, 
for which the luminescence continued. If the luminescence 
ceased with the cessation of the exciting cause, the term 
lluorescence was used, and if it continued after the stimulus 
had been withdrawn it was know-u as phosphorescence. 
Luminescence was due to some electrical action. The theory 
was that the exciting light produced photo-electric separation 
of the electrons, w-hich in .some cases returned almost at 
r)uce to the parent atom, and on their return brought about 
emission of hght of somewhat longer -n'ave-length, which was 
known as fluorescence, while others did not return imme- 
diately, being entangled for a time in the suiTounding mole- 
cules of the substance, and these on their more tardy return 
to the original support gave rise to phosphorescence. There 
was also such a thing as delayed phosphorescence, which im 
phed that the ei»,ctron3 had become attached to foreign atoms, - 
and remained there pending some fresh stimulus; the ex-, 
planation of the lament image of the photographic plate might: 
be found in this theory. ■ 

In the course of the discussion. Dr. Leox.ard Levy., said 
that if two preparafiona of zino sulphide were preparM 'n 
exactly the same -nay, save for the variation "f rine little 
factoi-. while both samples "would fluoresce briUiantly when 



64 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.s4. No.2.147. jakuarv n, 1919. 



exposed to green light, yet when exposetl to red light, in the 
one case the tluoreseence would be undiminished, and in the 
other case practically extinguished. It was ditticult to eee 
why so small a ditlorence in preparation should cause such 
radical ditference in behaviour in one respect and not in 
others. 

Prof. A. \V. Porter thought that probably no pure sub- 
stance ever did fluoresce. It was a statement bard to prove, 
but it was borne out by the fact that the fluorescent pro- 
perty of any substance seemed to depend upon the presence 
of traces — even extremely minute traces — of impuritj'. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Lltt»rt rectired by ui after 5 P.M. ON TUESDAY cannot appear until 
the following loeek. Correspondsntt shmild forward their communi- 
catioru at the earliest possible moment. No letter can be published 
unless we hare the writer's Jiame and address in cmr jn'ssessio-n. 



The Need for Co=operation .Vmon^ the Smaller 
Manufacturers. • 

I tni?t you will find fjiace for a reply to Mr. Siddeley's 
letter in the current is?ju of your paper on the subject of 
co-operation. 

Mr. Siddeley's remarks are, on the face of them, quite 
unexceptionable, but I think it is advisable to look a little 
further, and consider what is likely to be. the effect on the 
national character of carrying out the policy of specialised 
production and combination which he advocates. 

I would a.sk you two questions: — What enabled us to beat 
the Boche? and Why was .A.merica so slow in getting started? 
I think the answers to these questions are complementary. 
We beat the Boche by directing to a common end the in- 
tense individual initiative of each British man or woman. 
The Americans were, so slow in getting to w-ork because, 
owing to specialised production on a large scale, they lacked 
the training which alone can proiluce this individual initia- 
tive and expert knowledge. In this country there was an 
immense number of small firms, each with its technical staff, 
and eaeh capable of enormous expansion. Each little firm 
provided a nucleus from which radiated the ever-widening 
circles of increased production. 

It is notorious that the Americans suffered from lack of 
skilled men, and that they are the slowest nation in the 
world to get going in anything that is not their standard 
production. 

Our national syskcm has produced, in fact, a people who 
could catch up, and pass, in an astonishingly short time the 
nation which had planned and organised war for 40 years. 
In spite of the w-aj-ning which America had, and the experi- 
ence of the other nations who had been at war for more 
than two years, they not only made many of the same mis- 
takes, but many additional ones, and had not. in their first 
1"2 months, produced anything comparable to the efforts of 
Britain or France. 

If you turned the national capacity for manufacturing in 
this country into a few gigantic concerns, you would gradu- 
ally lose what really constitutes the genius of our people, 
namely, the individual capacity of each man. Tliis is what 
has occurred in .-Vmerica. Tliese arguments apply to every 
field of endeavom-, industrial, financial, or militairy. It is 
not true to state, as you did in your leading article "of Janu- 
ary 3rd, that the immense output obtained during the war 
was due to co-operation between different concerns. It was 
due to the enonnous expansion of manufacturing capacity. 
Each individual has produced per head (with the exception 
of the managing staffs) a great deal less per day during the 
war than in peace-time. Further, it is a great mistake to 
iniagine that the large fimi produces cheaper : in fact, the 
limit of economical labour cost is very soon reached, and it 
is only in supervision., tools, &c., the cost of which can be 
spread over a larger number, where economy may be se- 
cured. For instance, any individual man working his whole 
time on one job will produce at the same cost, whether he 
is one of two, or 20, or 200. 

In the direction of supervision, one foreman can onlv look 
after so many hands, so tha't if 100 is the limit, there is 
nothing to be gained by having 200 men and two foremen. 

T think that the following .statements are generally true: — 

1 . The industi-y of this country has been built up, and is 
oven now carried on. chiefly by small concerns. 

•_*. Standinc chnrg<'s are generally heavier in comparison 
l<. output with larger firms tha.n with small. 

:i. Each individual of the staff of a small firm is more 
cOicient and does more work. 

4. Small finns arc more flexible and adaptaible. 

•"i. Small firms make a larger average profit on their tain- 
over than large ones. 

6. In quick d^verv and promptness in everv department, 
a small firm .scores all along the line. The only direction in 
which a large firm scores is in its advertising and selling 
departments.. 

Combinations without capital fusion have not proved satds- 
factpry in electricaJ concerns. The number of articles would 
differ so greatly in design that uhles,s you can completelv 
eluijinato a large proportion, you will get no economy in 



siipciviaiou and designing st^s to set against the cost of 
the central management which is super-imposed on the 
original ones. 

.Another vitally important advantage possesse<l liy the 
small firms is the relation between the m;uiagement and the 
men. I think it will be found to be true that the cases of 
trouble with the men in the smaller firms diuing the war 
aje extremely rare, and the output per head of the manual 
workers has been much larger. 

Again, excessive standardisation is against improvement 
and progress. Every firm knows the temptiition not to intro- 
duce improvements when it involves scrapping standard pat- 
terns. Tlie \^hole fact of the matter is that, having to turn 
out millions and millions of articles all alike has sent the 
country quite mad on organisation and standardisation. 1 
should very much doubt if the actual output of all the elec- 
trical finiis, of purely electrical machinery and accessories 
during the war, has largely been increased. Engineering 
products are not hke whea*, or pipes, or otlier articles in 
universiil use. which are not likely to change in 'character. 
The successful large combinations such as cotton spinnea^s, 
cotton thread, and linseed oil have not been instrumental in 
lowering prices, but, on the contrary, have been successful 
because they have kept the price.s up, due to a practical 
monoiX)ly of pro<liiction . 

The large eleetrical concerns in this country have been 
notoriously unsuccessful compared to the smaller ones. The 
Ciovemnient interference with engineering industry merely 
increased production, and prevent<'d the u-se of materials 
and niachinei-j- on goods not connected with the war, and 
has not piwliiced any economy, but rather the reverse. It 
was chiefly of use in providing unlimited capital for the ex- 
■pansion of concerns. The large finns are. in their unwieldy 
character, red tape, and in general inefficiency very hke the 
Government. I do not wish to suggesi; that there is no.t 
room for vast improvement, but it seems to me that the 
directions in which our efforts at improvement should be 
made are in improved education and training of individuals, 
increased efficiency in our factories, and co-operation be- 
tween the masters and the men due to common intei-est. 
Once you educate the men to see that they can only main 
tain a. higher standard of livnng by increased production, and 
when they are given an interest in the profits of the firm 
for which they work, we shall isoon begin to secure more 
efficient production. The danger of losing the British charac- 
teristics of initiative and tenacity by vast combinations and 
inefficient State control are, to my mind, most serious. 

.\lx>logising for the length of this letter, 

E. N. Bray. 

London, N.E.. January Uth, 1919. 



Tiie Westin^house Manager and Engineering Output. 

I read the note on the above subject in your issue of 
December 27th with interest in the most vital points men- 
tioned by Mr. Mensfort'h, in his reference to the futm-e of 
our engineering industry. I agree that there mu.st be years 
of ample trade ahead, as we mu.st manufacture to carry on 
.and pay our dues. Referring, however, to his lemarks re 
Ca' Canny methods and restrictions. I agree from personal 
experience that both have been very much in evidence for 
some time, but Mr. Mensforth does not make any remark 
as to their cause, though he knows a. deal, having v-^iich olose 
touch with his own employes, through the medium of his 
Works Ihiprovement Committeemen. .\s the average artisan 
knows so little of how departments or factories have to be 
handled to make, them pay, the remedy is to take the em- 
ployes in hand somewhat on the same lines as he did with 
his own foremen, and teach them a. little of what it is 
necessai-y for them to know ; let him understand what his 
faults cause, and how loss or waste time reflects on the 
profitable side of any business. To get attendance at these 
meetings would be a big job, I suppose, unless they were 
made attraetive. Perhaps the shop stewards being elected 
up and down the coimtry, or workshop committees, could 
assist. 

Referring to customers placing orders, was not an order 
sent abroad some years ago on account of the employers 
fomiing 'he Eleetrical Engineering and Allied Ti'ades Asso- 
ciation? Now the workers are. watching the number of 
firms who are linking up from time to time, and wondering 
how it will affect them later on. Regarding the skilled m^n's 
Union, I do not believe any instruct or .advise restrictions on 
output, but they do realise that maximum output is the 
employers' interest, but. in many case.^, not the skilled men's 
interests, as the number of men who are in receipt of wages 
in excess of the standard minimum rate is very .snuill. But 
if the emploj'er will put down modem machineiw and pay 
more on individual abihty than he has done, the same as 
.\merica. as he mentions, then I believe the 47 hours and the . 
dividend of employers would be assured. I say : Clear the 
mists from the Unionist's eyes, and let him see things more 
clearly, and understand why. and demarcation, another • 
serious obstacle, may he removed. T might also add: Keep . 
their gates more onen to other firms, so that firms can always 
be kept up with the latest improvements, as has been done 
during the development of munition manufacturing. 

An Old Foreman who Benefited Some 
by H. M.'s Lectures. 



Vol.84. No. 2,H7, January 17, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



65 



HIectric Pressure Regulators. 

Wo are inclined to think that your correspondent, "Engi- 
neer, 'will not lind an automatic voltage regulator successful 
with the class ot turbine he de-scribes. 

Our own experience has been wholly unsatisfactory Wc 
tirst m.stalled a Tirrill regulator, and kept to hand govorn- 
mg, the turbine attendant keeping the si^eed normal "within 
about 2 per cent, with a penodicitv indicator to guide him ■ 
this arrangement T\orked very well with a load that wa^ 
previously giving us considerable trouble. After the war 
started we had to adopt automatic governing, owing to shoi-t- 
age of men, and we installed one of Messrs. Gilkes's turbine 
oil-pressure governors; this governor is quite useful but we 
have tried about every eombinabion of adjustments that is 
iwssible on these goveraors, but cannot get it to work with 
the Pirnll regulator in circuit, or, shall we say, it wott-ks faa- 
more than is needed. 

It is only fair to Me,ssrs. Gilkes to add that the alternator- 
rotor does not provide more than about one-half the Hy- 
wlieel erteet that is i^lly needed, nor have we a relay relief 
vaJve on the. turbine; on the other hand, Messi-s. Gilkes's 
cugmeer inentioned that in another in.stallation they had to 
a bamdon the electnc regulator owing to the turbine hunting 
i^'ixed up as we are now, we depend entii-ely on the gover- 
nor for those portions of the day when the load & not 
subject to rapid changes, but on other occasions we have to 
come back to hand govemmc and the Tirrill regulator a 
very poor makeshift, as when the governor would be of the 
gr^test sen'ice to us we are imable to u-se it 

With an electnc pressure regulator m circuit the speed of 
a machine will vary to a gi'eater extent for a given load 
change than without one in circuit, as the turbine makers 
say the variation in speed is out of all proportion to the 
phango of load, and the governor deals with it as a heavy 
load change when in fact the change of load mav not exceed 
say. i or 2 per cent. ; the eon.sequence is excessive and con- 
tmuous himtmg. 

It appears to us that the only condition that will meet the 
't'hot '"^ "^f, addition of a tly- wheel at least double the weight 
that would be used nwmally. We know there are oatsea 
w^rl^r,, l'T''™°'"''i/'°°/;!'''''/°? .'"eh-pressui-e jet turbines are 
working very well with electnc pressure regulators in circuit 
but our turbmes are hke "Engineer's," with heavv "ate 
gear to operate, where the speed can vary considerably be- 
fore the governors can correct it. 

Lynton & Lynmouth Electric Light Co., Ltd. 

J , , P. T. KlMMINS. 

Lynton, January llf/;, 1919. 



The " Taylor System." 

The iron heated by Major Pells in your current issue 
should be struck while it is hot. "-uirent, is,sue 

Too httle is known about Fredk. Winslow Tavloi-'s work 
m this country, and if we are to have our share of Se 
worids w_ork in the future we have to catoh up not ondv 
America, but France, too, in the matter of scientific t^an^ge- 

^1\7^^'^'''' ^^^u? '^'''' introduced into France 10 vears 
ago at one wel-known automobile works, and others 
promptly followed suit, until-two years before the war- 
Taylor himself was invited by the French Goveniment to 
aTOls '" ^ '^^ °rg='Di^»«on of one of their Sw 

'V■?^Z'^lZZ'*'^■ *^'' ^lif PpvaJiing hupression here that the 
le^vH ,V^ 1 ' \^''\''^ "glonfied card index" (I ha.ve 

leaid It so descnbed by a leading engineering manufVc 
turer). and he fact that until recentlv-if^notrtm the cas^ 
-t has been introduced into only one ■English works 

, " T.T™ """^h'l "^' '^'^¥'2 ') ^ ^'^eee-^* ^^ foiina,tion of 
po.ses: ''"' °'' «oc'«ty for study and propaganda, pur- 

w^«' Mv , , F. M;aurice. Sec.Lt., K.L.R. 

Hemion, N.\\ . 1. Januarn mii. 1919. "■■^■n. 

Fault Localisation. 

ductor*/;? '^f'^,*^"^ "*'*>°'' °^ locahsing a break an one con- 
rO^l- r MTi'-°°1''r^°r'^ telephone cable with no 
'unns—i.c, sound insulation? 

January 13th, 1919. 



Ajax. 



Engineers; Salaries. 

uea-r'S ''L!^'''''"^ insurance^ company, ElectricaJ Engi- 

>M%n,^l^r. ""• ^^P^"« of A.c. and D.c. machinerv 

ihf« i°w P raaning. Commencing silarv i'1.50 iK^r anSum' 

louLria-, ?'"• ''\^^ in^'fr-^^^^-o-drng to'merit^' 

re'ei,^ of over l^K T ""' *'''** '^?^''''^ ''^'^''' ^^ ^^re i" 
-' W J SIl'*-^^- P'^',''^?"'"' a"^l "f- now applvmg for 
abo-v^ for th^ increase' I think that the monev offer^.d 

Hebr%'mone4X'^lS'"b;e'f ''l '"f """^ '^^"^ ''' 
Paiiv " and ne,r=nn!n',. T ^'^fj '^' „ 'wading msurance com 
•30s. a week.' '^"^'''"''"> • ^ ^""^"W rather work on a farm for 



Moisture in Low. Grade Fuel. 

In many generating stations and works where iiiecliani.-il 
stokers are m operation (especially so in the case of t'ho,-e. 
at chain-grate, type) it la the practice to bum- veiV lojv 
grades ol^ fuel, m many cases the residue of coal-wa^hin- 
plants. These low grades arc delivered t6 the consumer m 
a more oa- less satura>ted state, and are thereby the cause of 
a not inconsiderable amount of loss. 

Let us take for illustration a, ca.se where fuel contains .5 
per cent, of moistnre, i.e., in every pound of tlje mixture 
delivered here wilJ actually be .9.5 lb. coal and .0.5 lb wate, 
Suppose the calonfic value to be 12,000 b.th.u per 'b (div 

t^\h *i!r.'J!f T^ ^"?«'' °^*''* ^^'^'"''^^ "i" only 'contain 
.Jj lb. ot coal, the calonfic value will only be 11,400 b th u 

SWuSplTU'. "^ "'^^^^ ''"■ '^- ^' *!>- -'^n.-.;; 

Again the moisture fed into the furnace will have t,> b<. 
evaporated, wluchv^-j 11 entail a further loss of heat imit.- 
We wiU assume, that the tempera.ture on entenng the fur- 
IS^^ ^^ de«- i^-.. then each lb. of water will reqmre'i 2+ 
966-50 = 1,128 units for evaporation at atmosp&ric pa-eT- 
sure We>ve seen that the mixture contains 5 per Sn 
iT^ V1r'4;- """"^ '"*" will contain 112 lb.; therefore ir2x 
tifh^.f T'.f *=^P™**='^ in evaiwrating moisture piv- 
sent m a ton of the mixture, neglecting the further lo>ci i,, 
superheating the steam generated 

Collected losse.s = 



By loss of weight 
By evaporating 

Totail loss per ton 



1,344,000 units. 
126,336 units. 

1,470,336 units. 



„Jltu '''• "if ^'for^' roughly a loss of 5§ per cent, which 
might be partly recovered, to say nothing 5f extra cost of 
handling this type of fiiel danger of holdhig up i^b^Lns 

m 'hetted'lLl^^s^^- ''^^' '^^ ^^^ ^«---° *« — '-k 
The question is, does the low first cost of this type of fuel 
wLf T-f P'-f^-^n-^e to f"el of a higher grad^ ha^v^^g 
. higber ca onfic value and smaller percentage of ash, there 
by being also cheaper to handle^ If so, vrould ifc not pLv 
to msball some method of saving the los^ of evaporation^ • 

Uimace:' The moisture would have to be extracted bv 
evaporation or mechanically, a^d evaporation shoX be 
avoured, as waste heat could be used. It is very doubtfid 
if the saymg would justify the expenditure of heat ne«San 
to operate a. mechanical process, such as, for instanS^he 
,':'Zf^p"T'^ f«r drying grain, where centrifugal f^«..i: 
.successful, heat bemg brought into contact with the fuel 

Zfilt 1 '"''"^ Y^^ ""2""^^ ""^ ^ ^"^ of conveyor belt, the 
atter being de.signed to allow the passage of hot s^ 
tlirough the body of the fuel. Of courCoafe would haK 
be exercised to prevent the fuel being conveyed to the 
c«nbustion. '^ '^"'^''''''' ^^^^^ ^ f^crlitate spontaneous 

Cardiff, Januanj mh , 1919. '''"""" ^^ ^"""'"'.• 



Electricity on Board Ship. 

A paragraph at the top of page 30 in your issue of the 10th 
inst reminds me that, over 30 years ago, I carried out sue 
ces.sful exi^nments at Shee.rness and Shoeburyness wft^ gM_ 
t rainmg gear which was tested and approved bv the War 
Othce, who ordered platfoms for heavy guns at Dover and 
Spithead toits to be provided with fittinis for motors am 
other apparatus, designed by me; but a, fresh man was i. 
pointed to Woolwich, and,' as he preferred comj°rei^I.a=^" 
the eJectncal scheme was shelved. ««.<-udu, 

The AdmiraJty was informed of what had actually been 
done by electnoity at Shoeburyness with its own 35^ 
nJ^rv .^?'- ^f ^-^"^ gi^niakers favoured hydranhc mach - 
nary, and .so there was nothmg doing " for me' 

As 1 am not financially interested in anv one method r{ 

n,i!,\^''T'^''°' '^'" ^'P'^ '"'^°«' ™® to '^^^A niv disagree- 
ment with your view that "the electrically-propelled battle- 
snip .... marks an engineering advance"? 

Twyford, Berks., January im, 1919. ^^"'' "•/*^'''=>' 



Electricity Wu 



A. J. Abraham, 

(Iriieral Manager 
•inni \(\ih. 1919. 



M> attention has been drawn to t(he interesting leadm" 
aiticle^appea.nng m your issue of the 10th inst. on the sni" 
ject of the electncal propulsion of the U.S. battleship New 
Mexico. * 

As the inventor of the .polypha,se aJternatiMg-current sv<- 
leui of .ship propul.-iou used on the .Vrw Mexico .^nd for 
wuich system patents were granted Ur. me m no' less than 
1!> countnes. long before the Amencan engineer.. eVeS 
dreamed about the new .ship propulsion methods. I must 

espectfully protest against the .statements of Secretarv 
Daniels when he states, before the Ameri.-an Senate that 

L'-M '" to Amencan intelligence and invention that the 
woild owes this much more etticient means of «-arship pro- 
pulsion and handhng, together with all the manv advantages 
which come in the train of evohifiiorf 



66 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.84. No.l-.u?, jandary n, laia. 



All thii advantajjes which the Sew Meiico h;is iiudoubt- 
rdly shown as regards ecouoiuy iu fuel, handling, and miU- 
lary improvement ivere poinW out by me before the large 
meeting of Naval Engineers at Chatham in 1909, at whidi 
meeting my friend Mr. Purser Fletcher (now Assistant Direc- 
tor of Electrical Engineering at the Aduiiraltv) took the 
chair. ' 

The only difference was that I estimated that there would 
be a, saving in fuel in the case of a battleship installation 
<jf my "Paragon " system of '26 per cent.; I was not far 
out, aa it now appears that the actual saving in fuel, com- 
pared with the old-fashioned steam turbine-driven ships, has 
proved in the Xeir Mexico to be no less than 'lo per c«ut. 

It was to my oflice in Bush Lane, in 19ti',1, that my friend 
.\Ir. Holiiirt (now consulting engineer to the (j.E.C. in 
.Vmericn, who have supplied the machinery for the Sew 
Mexico) came with his assistant, to learn all about the 
" Paragon " system, as he said he was amaze<l at the claims 
which I was then making concerning my invention. He 
wa*', however, perfectly satisfied with the explanation which 
1 was fortunately able to give him. thanks to my foieign 
travels in c<jnnectiou with steam turbine tests (then kept a 
great .stvret in this counti'y). 

-\lthough the .American engineers should get great credit 
tor their e.xcellent work, which I, for one, will grant both 
Mr. Emmett and Rear-Admii-al Grilfin, both of whom are 
well acquainted with my claims as inventor of this original 
ship propulsion system, and although many letters have been 
received by me from many foreign countries recognising me 
as such, I note with regret that no mention is made of my 
work in this connection, even although I have successfully 
contested patent applications for my system; the result of 
the l&st case was pubhshed in the Electrical Review on 
.\ugust 1st, 1913. 

In my opinion, it is the lack of knowledge of modem poly- 
phase alteraating-current work in the British Navy which 
is the reason of the slackness in the adoption of the,=e new 
ideas, coupled with the fact that builders of the ships aje 
looking after their own interests, because they think that 
they will loser orders for the plant which would otherwise 
be made in their own .'hops. 

William P. Durtnall. 

Late Lieut., R.N.V.R. 
H.M.S. Vernon. 

London, S.W.. January IXtii. 1919. 



f?^, 



E NAVIGATIONAL MAGNETIC COMPASS 
CONSIDERED AS AN INSTRUMENT 
OF PRECISION. 

Bv M. B. HELD, O.B.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. 



The problems involved in the mariner's compass are of 
great variety; we have, for example, problems of an essen- 
tially practical nature in mechanics and mechanical con- 
struction, the wear and tear of materials, the effects of 
vibrations of sm exceedingly complex character; considera- 
tions of fluid Triction, vjscosity, and fluid motions: teires- 
trial magnetism; the magnetism of iron and steel; the fields 
of force and sjstems of magnetic potential due to compli- 
cated arrangements of magnets or the equivalent; and so 
forth. 

Ordinarily, we expect a magnetjc needle to tell us the 
direction of the magnetic force in the region in which it is 
placed. If the field in question is the undisturbed field of 
the earth we may expect any well constructed and suitably 
supported needle to give us correctly the direction of the 
meridian Its precision will depend upon the accuracy of 
woikinanship. and freedom from pivot friction, and its 
error may be reduced to the same order as the error of un- 
aided observation. 

In the case of the nangational compass very much more is 
required. In the first place, the ship itself is magnetic, and 
the magnetic force at any selected station not only differs 
in direction from the meiidian, but as the ship swings round 
the force undergoes cyclic changes, both in magnitude and 
direction. Further, the amount of the deviation of the 
magnetiic force from the plane of the meridian not only 
depends upon the course the ship may be steering ' at the 
time, but also upon hei' aljsolute geogi-aphical position. 

Again, the ship's shape and proportions, the locality in 
\vhich she was built, the direction of her head while uider 
lonstruction. in short, her past histoi-v, and particukrly her 
lecently past history, are all factors that influence her mag- 
netic state. 

Thus, the duty we require the compass to perfonn is no 
easy one; surrounded as it is by disturbing influences, we 
reouire it to ignore every mJsleading suggestion and to point 
iinhesi,tatingly to the magnetic north. 

If we annul by magnets, or otherwise, the effect of all 
the reagnetisra of the ^hip. a_nd this .-innulment remams 
etfectiy© on all courses, with the ship upright or listing, and 
at all .parts of the earth, we obtain complete compensation; 



01-, again, if we neutralise the east-w'esterly component of 
the ship's magnetism, and the neutralisation is effective 
under the above conditions, the compass is completely com- 
i)en sated. 

Iu practdce, we annul some of the components of the ship's 
magnetism, and neutralise the east-westerly force of others, 
in such a way that the compensation is very nearly com- 
plete on all coui'ses, no matter whether the ship be upright 
uY not, and the correction remains good at all parts of the 
earth— provided the so-called permanent magnetism of the 
ship remains ixumaaent, and the so-called induced magnet- 
ism is strictly proportional to the inducing force, and 
vanishes when the inducing force is withdrawn. 

Unfortunately, we find that the i^ermanent magnetism is 
not pensianentlii " i)enuanent," and the induced magnetism 
ia not indantly " transient." and our complete compensation 
is to this extent incomplete. 

Much of the in-rmanent magnetism said to be " ham- 
mered " into the ship in the course of building Ls " shaken " 
out of her during jier first few voyages, while magnetism of 
a semi-permanent character is " picked up " by a ship sail- 
ing for days together on a given course, and is only gradu- 
ally lost, it may be over a period of hours, or even days, 
when the course is materially altered. 

Further examples of pe.rmanent magnetism being 
" shaken '-' out of a newly-buOt ship are furnished by the 
great change in the magnetic character of a new warship 
when undergoing gun-fiiing trials. 

The precision of the navigational compass is. thei'efore. 
not only dependent upon the accuracy with which its " cor- 
rectors " perform their function of compensating for the 
ship's normal magnetism, but it is also dependent upon 
what Lord Kelvin called " unpredictable irregularities duo 
to variatdons of the permanent magnetism, and to retention 
of some of the transient magnetism when the inducing influ- 
ent^ is past." 

N'o instrument is altogether immune from impredictable 
irregularities, and just as the jxiinstaking observer is ever 
on the alert to detect an aberration, to measure its amount, 
and to trace its origin, so the caa-eful navigator will be on 
the watch for changes of the magnetism of his ship, and will 




* Abstract of lecture delivered l>efore the Is-sTiTCTroN of 
Electrical Engineers, London. .Tanuarv 9th. 1919. 



Fig. 1.— Co-\ip.\ss Binnacle, showing Correcting Devices. 

regularly avail himself of opportunities afforded of taking 
sun, moon, or star observations for the purpose of checking 
the readings of his compass.' 

Lord Kelvin became intensely interested in the mariner's 
compass; he began an article in "Good Words" in 1874, 
and after dealing with the historical ixirtion of the subiect, 
the article stopped — to be continued only after five years. 
When he broke off his article "he. ha^ arrived at the conclu- 
.sion that the marmer's compfes, is used in iron ships, 
ought to be an insti-ument of precision, but was not. and he 
set himself the task of devising -a new compass which might 
fairly ^lay claim to be an insti-ument of precision. In con- 
cluding the article, he described tihe improvements in the 
construction of the mariner's c-ompass and its accessory 
apparatus which he had devised during the intervening five 
years. 

In lf>i9, Aiiy (later Sir George Airy), Astronomer Eoyal. 
wrote a jiaper on the deviations of the compass in iron ships, 
and propouniled means for a.pproxiinately conectly compen- 
sating a compass (with shoi-t enough needles, and small 
enough magnetic moment) for errors which arose, due to the 
ship's magnetism. Airy's method was quickly adopted in- 
the iron shi|is of the merchant senice. Certain difficulties, 
however, soon became manifest to expert compass adjusters, 
arising from the use' of magnetic correctors, and it was 
found impossible in certain cases to obtain a correct coni- 
pensation. 

Errors of two kinds were mtroduced by the design of 
compass employed, one depending upon the length ' of the • 
needle, the other upon its magnetic moment. 

When selecting a suitable place for a compass station on 
board ship, due care is taken that the neare.st iron is at a 
relatively gr^t distance, so that if magnetised, it gives rise 
to a magnetic field at the compass station which may be 



Vol.84, xo. 2.147. jaxuarv 17. 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



67 



regarded a.s uniform over a region considerably larger than 
that swept out by the compass needles when rotated on the 
card pivot. Moreover, the nearest iron must be sufficiently 
remote to ensure that there is no sensible attraction of the 
needles due to magnetism induced in the iron by the needles. 

When the^ conditions are duly observed, the position .ol 
equilibrium of the uncompensated card does not sensibly 
depend upon whether the needles be long or short, or 
whether their magnetic moment be large or smail. but 
merely upon the direction of the resultant magnetic field 
acting at the compass station. 

The compensation of the compass by Airy's method is 
effected by placing magnets and masses of iron near the 



potential lines are exhibited in tig. 2 for the case where the 
line joining the centres of the spheres is E.-W. (magnetic); 
it will be seen that this field is by no means uniform., A 
uniform field would be represented by a family of straight, 
parallel, and equidistant equipotential lines. We thus "em- 
ploy a non-uniform field, such As that shown in fig. 2, to 
correct the compass for the deviation produced by_ a per 
tectly uniform field ariidng from some effect of ship's mag 
netism. 

Kg. 3 shows the eqnipotential lines due to the magnetisa- 
tion of the globes when the ship is steering a quadrantal 
course. 

Fig. 4 represents the effect when the ship is on an easterly 
or westerlv course. In all cases, 2, 3, and 4, the interesting 
part of the field i= where the dotted circle? ^rc drawn ; this 




I'ui. -2. — Equipotestial Limes in NEiGHBonRHOoD 
Compass, Ship ox N.-S. Coubse. 




Fig. 4.— Eqoipotentul Lines, Ship on E.-W. Codese. 



compass in positions calculated to produce magnetic forces 
in the region swept out by the card needles, which exactly 
counter-balance the deviating forces, due to the magnetism 
of the ship's ironwork. In order that the system may not 
become unwieldy ajid impracticable, it becomes necessary 
to place magnets and iron masses of considerable size very 
near the compass, in fact they are incorporated as part of 
the compass binnacle (see fig. 1). 

Now, the magnetic fields to which these give rise are by 
no means uniform over the region swept out by the needle.s 




Fig. 3.— Eqcipotential- Lines, Ship ox Qdadrantal Course. 

of a long-needTe card, with the result tliat a shoi-t needle 
will have a different position of equUibrium from that of a 
longer needle. * 

For example, it is usual to employ two cast-iron spheres 
attached to the binnacle for the correction of one of the 
<'ffects of ship's magnetism, viz., the quadrantal effect. 
These spheres may be 8 in. diameter, placed on either side 
of the compass at about 12 in. from the card centre, and 
level with the card. They become magnetised by the earth's 
field, and behave, so far as external points are concerned, 
as extremely short maghets of definite magnetic moment 
always pointing along the', line of resultant magnetic force. 

Now, we may draw the lines of magnetic force and line.s 
of equal potential -values due to such a system. Equi- 



is the position of the compass card. The smallest dotted 
circle represents the area swept out by needles 4 in. long; 
the intermediate circle corresponds to 6-in. needles, the 
largest circle to 8-in. needles. 

■file un-unifonnity in this region is sufficient to account 
for appreciable secondary errors when using needles of con- 
siderable length. 





Fig. 5. — Equipotentul 
Lines in Plane ok 

C.-VRD 50 CM. 

ABOVE Magnet. 



Fig. 6. — Equipotential 
LrsES Due to 
Flinder's Bar. 



Fig. 5 illustrates the family of equipotential lines in 1;he 
plane of the card due to a corrector magnet placed 20 in. 
below the card. In this case the field of force is very nearly 
uniform over the region iiJ which we are interested. 

Again, another effect of ship's magnetism is compensated 
by what is termed the "Flinder's bar," a long, straight, 
vertical bar 3 in. in diameter, perhaps 16 in. long, and only 
10 in. from the cai-d centre, the upper eni being usually 
nearly level with the card. 

Such a bar becomes . magnetised by the vertical compo- 
nent of the earth's field, and gives rise to lines of equal 
potential in the plane of the card, as represented in fig. 6, 
again a field of force very far from uniform. 

Further, these ii-on correcting masses are suflSciently near 
for a needle of lai'ge magnetic moment to induce magnetic 
effects in the con-ectors, which, reacting upon the needle, 
will sensiblv affect its position of equilibrium. 

W'e have then to remember that con-ectors, while introducing 
magnetic forces which neutralise those due to the ship, intro- 
duce additional forces which may produce deviations. ^ de- 
pending on. (a) the length and arrangement of the magnetic 
needles, (b) the magnetic moment of the needles. 

{To be continued.) 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. Lvoi. st. no. 2,147, januahv 17, i-.uh. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



Italian Companies. — There lias been formed at Turin 
the Sooieta Idroelettrica Valle del Liri. with a capital of 100,000 
lire, for the development of certain water rigrhts. The company is 
an offshoot of the Societii delle Cartiere Meridionali. 

The Societa Anonima Lijjure Piedmontese di Elettricita e Gazhas 
removed its offices from Turin to Genoa. 

The Societii Meridionale di Elettricita has decided to increase its 
capital from fiii.OnO.OOU to 8o.0ii0.0o0 lire, with eventual aug-menta- 
tion to 100,000,000 lire. The scope of this company's operations 
cmliraces the Provimes of Calabria, Basilicata, and Pufflia, and 
will eventually extend to Lybia and the East. 

In order to improve and enlarjre its installations at Vizzola and 
Turbijro, the Societa Lombarda per Distribuzione di Energ^ia 
Elettrica, of Milan, has increased its capital from 2t),00o,o00 to 
32, .100.000 lire, which sum is eventually to be increased to 52,000,01") 
lire. 

Applications for Britisli Trade Marks. — Appended is a 

summary of the recent applications for British trade marks in 
connection with the electrical industries : — 

Brook Cword combined with desig-nX Xo. 3Sf>,004, Class 6. 
Electric motors. E. Brook. Ltd., Empress Works, St. Thomas 
Road, Huddersfield. November nth, 1918. 

Aurun. No. 38.5.347, Class li. Electric accumulators and 
iK'vtteries. .lohanne M. Cornelis, trading as the Bell Battery Co., 
Laburuham Grove. High Road, Ilford. September 27th, 191S. 

Cosmos. No. 37S.82I). Class li. .Stationary dynamos, motors, 
controllers, electric-brake mechanism, and stationary magneto- 
electric machines and their parts. British Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Norfolk Street, London, W.C. July 4th, 
1918 (to be associated). 

Chromel. No. 385,155, Class 8. Electric resistance elements. 
The Hoskins Manufacturing Co., Lawton Avenue, Detroit, I'.S.A. 
Septeml)erllth, 1918. 

Edison Everything Electrical (and design). No. 385,519, Class 13. 
Electric lamps, fittings, sparking plugs, fusible cut-outs, switches, 
and electrical accessories. Edison Swan Electric Co.. Ltd., 
123-5, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. October 9th, 1918 (to 
be associated). 

Weldrics. No. 385,561. Class 13. Electrodes for welding 
purposes and electrical fittings. W. H. Boorne. Bush Lane House, 
London, E.G. October 11th, 1918. 

E. and E. Magnetic Arc-welding System ( and design). No. 385,425. 
Class 16. Electric arc-welding plant. The Equipment and 
Engineering Co.. 2-3, Norfolk Street, Strand. London, W.C. 
October 3rd. 1918. 

Autogeh. No. 385,800, Class 48. Adhesive tapes for electrical 
insulating purposes. David Brown, jun., 45, Hope Street, Glasgow. 
October 25th, 1918 (to be associated). 

Our Letters from tlie Forces.-^Among our corres- 
pondence from men with the Forces this week, is a letter from a 
• Staff-Sergt., R.E., " in Scotland, in which the writer says : — " I 
wish to thank you for so kindly sending me a copy of the Review 
regularly each week. The Review is much appreciated in this 
office, and helps to keep one in touch with electrical matters whilst 
on Active Service. Until one's return to professional duties the 
Review is pro\-ing itself to be a valuable link between the 
' military engineer ' and the electrical engineer in civil life ; but 
will service in H.SL Forces be recognised by those who have the 
settling of appointments in their hands .' " 

Early Door. — According to an article in tlie SlieffieJil 

DtiiUj Independent on the Sheffield workers' demands for a shorter 
working -week, the decided unpopularity of a 5.30 p.m. finish is 
due to the consideration that staying at work the extra half hour 
after five o'clock means to many men that they cannot get home, 
have their teas, and dress up in time to get to first-house amuse- 
ments, or even to other gatherings and entertainments that start 
at a later hour. "There is reason to believe that a solid attempt 
will be made sooner or later, and probably in the not distant future, 
for a 44-hour week. " 

Of course, we all agree that " All work and no play makes Jack 
a dull boy. " It has been found in cases profitable to close a works 
on Saturday, so that the employes could devote themselves unre- 
servedly to football or cricket. Let us close early at night, so that 
they may go to the theatre or the kinema : What else matters .' 

Dissolutions and Liquidations. — Miufield (Iaeage 

AND Electric Works. Ltd. — Winding up voluntarily. Liquidator, 
Mr. H. Appleyard. Market Place. Dewsbury. Meeting of creditors. 
.January 22nd : claim.? by February 7th. 

Leitner Electrical Co., Ltd., Maybury. Woking.— First 
meetings of creditors and contributoriea, January 2l8t, at Carey 
Street, W.C. 

Trade Announcements. — Mr. F. W. Atkins, wlio has 

been discharged from the Army, has commenced business as an 
electrical engineer at Harford Road. Lampeter, Cardiganshire. 

Mr. J. Pais, electrical engineer and contractor, having been 
released from the Forces, has resumed business at 101. High 
Street, Hythe, Kent. 

Mr. E. F. Brett, electrical engineer, having returned to Don- 
caster, has resumed business at the back of 144, St. Sepulchre Gate. 

Mr. J. P. Coats, electrician, having been released, has resumed 
business at 17. East Street, Okehampton, Devon. 

Export Restrictions Relaxed. — The Ijondon Gazette for 
■Tanuarv Iflth contains a notice of further relaxation of export 
restrictions. 



Pottery Electrical Men's Wages. — By an award of the 

Court of Arbitration, the wages of the Electrical Section of the 
National Society of Pottery Workers at Hanley have been increased 
to oO per cent, over pre-war wages The workers wanted the 
12J per cent and 7) percent., which are now merged into thi.- 
60 per cent., to be granted in addition thereto, as they contended 
that these bonuses were granted to encourage good time-keeping. 

The Exportation of Magnetos. — The Board of Trade 

announces that magnetos and component parts thereof have been 
removed from List B (export prohibited to countries outside the 
British Kmpire) to Li-st C (export prohibite<l only to neighbour- 
ing enemy countries). 

The Jnvenile Munitioner Changes Over. — It is a con- 
dition lor rtHvipI (it out-ol-work xmy tiiat demobilised imini- 
tion workers oi from 15 to 18 years ot age slioiild attcjiri ;it 
si)ecified educational centres for a certain ptniod jx-r tluy. 
There are 10 of these centres open in Loudon, and by tln' 
end ol next week there may be 16 or 17. .\ good deal ol 
very u.seful, and at times more or le.ss interesting and not 
unexciting, work ha.s been in progress at some of these 
centres for severaj weeks past. The rough-and-ieady young 
munition worker finding his or her occupation, like Otheilo's. 
taken away, does not consider it the most congenial change in 
the world to att^end " at -school " and lieconie " a eliild " 
again after earning several pounds a week and living in 
cxjrapqrative atfliience. Sense of independence ha.s grown, 
restraint been tliinwn to the winds, and with a year or two of 
gi-owing iiujxyrtance, these war-workers have developed into a 
new element in society whic<h if not wisely guided might be, 
in the.se volcanic times, a little troublesome. Yt>u cannot put 
old heads on to young shoulders, and it is excusable if these 
young people feel flattered, by the artificial value that lia« 
been placed upon their services during the war and by the 
action of the Government in assuring them of out-of-work 
pay. If they can only be brought to see that there is a 
bottom to the public purse as well as to their own, and to 
imder.«tajid that the payment of the.se donations is an aot of 
national generosity rather than of obligation, something may 
be done to gradually bring them to examine where their real 
intere.sts lie, and to induce a fair proportion of them to spend 
their days'of enforced idleness in improving tlieir minds and 
in other ways fitting themselves for the i>ermanent occupa- 
tions of life. It is inevitable that the years of munition- 
making sliouJd leave a parked impression upon their habits 
and characters, but the undesirable parts of the impression 
may be modified or even turned to good account tmder 
capable leaderslhip. It was remarked at an Educational Con- 
ference in London on Monday that the work is in mamy 
ways the continuation school problem. T'liat may be, but 
those responsible for it have a duty which at this moment 
is more important even than that, and requires patience, 
experience, and tact. 

The German Economic Situation. — In onr article on 
another page to-day we quote a German authority as reprov- 
ing the Government for favouring the excessive demands of 
the woi'kers. Tlie DaAy Mail states that demands for extrava- 
gant mcreases in wages have reached such a stage that the 
Socialist Government of Prussia has issued an official and 
di-astic "rebuke to the working classes. It sets forth that 
wages, especially during the war, climbed to such a level that 
the moment is now rapidly approaching when expenditore 
will exceed income in such trades as the mines, railways, 
and ,aUied industries. Workers are warned that if they con- 
tinue to press for still higher wages German industi-y will 
collapse and univoi"sal ruin spread through the land. 

The Shorter Hours Movement.— The Times of Tuesday 

contained a useful review of the " Shorter Hours " agitation 
that is now spreading throughout mast industries of the 
country. It is written by our contemporary's Labour Cor- 
respondent, and concludes thus : — 

"The question of hours, of course, is bound up with tiie 
thorny question of wages and ti-ade union 'safeguards,' and 
both of these questions have a vital bearing on the possi- 
bility of securing that enlarged output wliich, according to 
accepted theory, is the key to industrial prosperity. Already, 
in the engineering and shipbuilding industries, the reduction 
of the working week from 54 hours to 47, without interfer- 
ence with the wages of men paid at a weekly time rate, has 
cieated dissatisl action among the men in those branches of 
the trade where piece-rates are paid, and they are calling for 
an adjustment ol theii' rates to counter-balance the decrease 
in hours. This problem, and the kindred question of the 
restoration of trade union conditions, are too large to be dis- 
cussed here, but, in the case of the trades which have to 
face foreign competition, though not to the »>ame degree in 
the other cases, they are inseparable from the question of 
hours, and aliould therefore be tackled concurrently. The 
spirit in which Xhe^ are faced by all parties, and the speed 
nnd smoothness with which they are solved, will have an 
impoi'tant, if not a governing, influence on the industrial 
outlook of the coming months." 

Mr. George Steel, the works manager of Messrs. C. A. 
Vandervell & Co.. .\cton Vale, suggested to the .staff that 
they should hold a secret ballot on the 47-hour week. The 
shop stewards, in conjvmctdon with the management, super- 
vised the voting, which resulted in the 7.30 to 5 p.m. scheme 
being selecteil by a very large majority. Not a sdngle paper 
was .spoiled. 



voi.si. no.2,i47,jaxuakv 17, 1919. THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



69 



Fuller Social Welfare. — The second concert and dance 
of the season arranged by the Works Social Welfare Committee ot 
the Ftller ACi'CiJULATOR Co., Ltd , Chadwell Heath. E., was 
held at the Canteen. Woodland Works, on Tuesday, January 7th. 
llr E. G Lind presiding. The programme was entirely provided 
by the employes. So far. the interest taken in these events by the 
workers has been very keen, so that both of the entertainments have 
been a great success. The somewhat difficult nuestion of funds to 
cover the cost of any entertainment, Arc, which might Ije arranged, 
was solved by the workers themselves, who suggested that a col- 
lection be made at any entertainment, and this method of covering 
out-of-pocket expenses has teen perfectly successful. The Fuller 
Social Welfare Committee has been in operation for alx)ut two 
months, and is not only arranging for concerts, dances and 
entertainments, but any employe can put before the Committee 
suggestions for the improvement of the working and social condi- 
tions, with full confidence that questions thus brought forward will 
receive every consideration. When the Committee was first formed 
representatives from various departments of the works were elected 
to represent the workers on the Committee. The Committte has 
already teen the means of arranging improvements in certain 
factory conditions, and is negotiating with the local authorities 
respecting improved services to the works, which will not only 
benefit the factory in particular, but the community in general. 
The directors of the company have very considerately met any pro- 
posals that have been advanced, and they have materially helped in 
negotiations with the local authorities. 

D.K. Recreation Park at Preston.— Messrs. Dick, Kerr 

AND Co., Ltd., of Preston, have purchased the Ashton Park Estate, 
Preston, which consists of about WO acres, with a view to developing a 
portion as a recreation park for their employes. It ia possible 
that a part may be utilised for providing housing accommodation 
on garden city lines. 

Belfast Electrical Men Want 44-Hour Week.— The 

electrical workers of Messr.s. Hari.and & Wolff, Messbs. 
Workman" i: Clabk, and other big Belfast firms, have sent deputa- 
tions to these firms in connection with proposals for a 44-hour 
week. 

Patent Application. — Steel Utilities (Inc.) has applied 

for restoration of Patents 22.087 and 22,06.S of 1913, granted to 
T. P, Payne for " Improvements in metal punching machines." 

Patent Regulations. — The acceptance of complete speci- 
fications delayed under Paragraph IS B of the Defence of the 
Realm Regulations will commence in March next, when cases 
dated 191,5 and earlier will te accepted ; cases dated after 191."i will 
be dealt with in .\pril and onwards. 

The Patent Ofiice undertakes to supply weekly, as published, all 
specifications allotted to any particular class or heading. For this 
purpose a selected list of headings must te supplied, and a deposit 
account opened. 

Xotifications and documents relating to foreign patents, designs, 
~and trade marks, which are unable to be forwarded abroad, may 
now te deposited in the Patent Office (Room 27), with the object 
of recording the intention of {he depositor to do any act or file any 
document on a certain date at any foreign patent office. Xo 
guarantee is given that such procedure will te of advantage to the 
parties concerned. 

Photographic copies of documents. &c.. in the Patent Office 
Library may te obtained at the following rates : — Half-sheet, 
(13 in. X 9 in.), negative. Is, ; positive. 2s. Whole sheet (13 in, x 
.18 in,), negative, 28, ; positive, 4s. .Vpplications cannot be accepted 
which would infringe copyright unless the consent of the owner 
of the copyright is obtained. 

Calendars and Diaries. — Now that the paper restric- 
tions have teen to some extent relaxed, we suppose electrical firms 
will te placing their orders for calendars, diaries and pads. Other- 
wise, their friends will feel that something is wanting throughout 
the year. An artistic calendar has been received from the 
Buffalo FoRaE Co., Ltd., Buckingham Gate, Westminster, S.W. 
The bewitching charms of " Uoria " will temporarily pacify us for 
the lack of other calendars this year. 

The Sr.v Electrical Co., Ltd., of 11.S, Charing Cross Road, 
London, W.C. 2, are unable to send out refills for their desk memo, 
calendar this year, owing to paper restrictions. Instead thereof, 
for this occasion they have sent out a very acceptable wall calendar, 
with small monthly slips beneath, " A World nf Beauty," printed 
in colour. It does not bear their name, a fact which will te 
quite sufficient to impress upon the recipient's mind from whom 
it was received. 

Messrs. Thermit. Ltd,, of ii75, Commercial Road. London, E. 14, 
have, as in previous years, sent us one of their pocket memoranda 
books, containing the usual matter relating to their system and 
calendars for 1919 and 1920. 

Messrs. Pirelli, of 144. Queen Victoria Street. London. E.C.. 
have produced an excellent wall calendar in their usual form, with 
a block of daily date slips placed beneath a coloured picture of the 
Allied Colours being speeded on to success on a Pirelli tire. 

We have to thank Messrs. .]ohsson\ Phillifs, Ltd., Charlton. 
for a very useful desk blotting-pad and diary, with memo, slips, ic. 
providing for a variety of wants in a very convenient way. 

Munition Plants for Sale. — The ^Ministry of Mnnitions 

. is offering for sale a considerable quantity of plant of various de° 
criptions which has teen used in the manufacture of munitions 
bnt may te useful for ordinary trade purposes ; also the national 
projectile factories at Renfrew, known respeotively as " Ypres 
and " Aisne." 



Turbo-Alternator Contract.— Messrs. Dick, Kerr and 

Co., Ltd., have recently secured a contract for the supply ot a 
3.000-KW,, 3,000 B,p,M., turbo-alternator set, together with con- 
densing plant, to Messrs. Cammell, Laird Jc Co., Ltd. The turbine 
will te of the Willans-Zoellv type, to operate on steam at 160 lb. 
pressnre, superheated to ooO' F.. and the condensing plant of t'te 
surface type with the Willans mtary system of air extraction, the 
circulating, ejector, and extraction pumps teing driven by an 
auxiliary turbine which will exhaust into a feed heater. The 
turbo-alternator, by Messrs. Siemens, will supply three-phase 
current at 3,300 volts, 50 cycles, and will te fitted with an over- 
hung exciter. 

Trade Union Restrictions. — The Times Labour Corres- 
pondent states that the Bill for redeeming the Government's 
pledge that Trade Union rules and workshop customs shall be 
restored, has teen di'afted by the Ministry of Lateur, and will come 
before the new Parliament at an early date. He says that the Bill, 
as drafted, requires that employers shall restore the .4<ifiix quo as 
and when required by the Trade Unions concerned, and the Govern- 
ment will presumabl.v be armed with powers to coerce any evasive 
employer. He adds later that the Unions are disinclined to enter 
upon discussions or negotiations until the Government pledges are 
legislatively confirmed. Our readers, however, will rememter 
that Mr. Barnes, in some of his speeches, has advanced proposals 
for a bargain in which the restrictions are to te sacrificed by the 
men in exchange for shorter hours and other improvements in 
conditions. But the men, who are stated to demand legislation 
before negotiation, have not waited for legislation tefore they have 
embarked upon a widespread and growing movement for shorter 
hours. 

Bankruptcy Proceedings. — R. E. Coxnold. late elec- 
trician (now a memter of the R.X.A.S.), Canterbury. — Last day for 
receipt of proofs for dividend January 25th. Trustee, Mr. J. 0. 
Morris, O.R.'s Office. iS.Sa, Castle Street, Canterbury. 

Roger W. Wallace, barrister-at-law, for many years a director 
of London electricity supply and other companies, applied for his 
discharge from bankruptcy on Tuesday last. The Receiver had 
referred to bankrupt's rash and hazardous speculations. The 
discharge was suspended for three years. 

Chas. Mayfield. electrical engineer, Clifton, Bristol. — Creditors 
petition filed. December ISth. Receiving order matle .January 10th. 

Book Notices.—" How to Deal with Different Kinds of 
Fires." By Sidney G. Gamble, F.S.I., A.M.Inst.C.E. January. 
1919. Pp. 50. London: The Committee, 8, Waterloo Place, Pall 
Mall, S.W. 1. Price :is. 6d.^Those generally in charge of works 
and property cannot te expected to have either the necessary 
experience or knowledge to enable them to handle advantageously, 
or deal efficiently with, an outbreak of fire, especially if the 
materials are not the ordinary combustibles. For this reason the 
British Fire Prevention Committee has issued this "Red Book." 
No. 2ol. in the preparation of which it has had the co-operation 
of Mr. Sidney G. Gamble, late second officer of the London Fire 
Brigade, who has had a life-long experience of handling fires ot 
every description. The first part of the book gives general inform- 
ation on the subject and the effect of water, steam, chemicals. A:c.. 
applied from different forms of fire appliances. Fires of frequent 
occuiTence are dealt with in this part. The second part of the book 
takes numerous materials and kinds of fire in turn alphatetically 
from .\. alchohol. to z, zoological collections, including many 
chemicals, explosives. i^;c. L^seful scientific data have teen added, 
with an appendix on spontaneous combustion, and a list of enact- 
ments tearing on the fire question. A limited number of copies 
can be obtained from the offices of the Committee, 

Must lie Trade in Tenth.-:/ By A. Watkins. Hereford : Watkins 
Meter Co. Price 3d. — In this" brochure the author advocates 
"'octaval." in preference to decimal, coinage. He finds fault with 
our present coinage, and insists on the merits of binary division, 
for which he thinks the Anglo-Saxon race has an instinctive 
affection. The proposed octaval coinage consists of the sovereign, 
divided into eight half-crowns, which in turn are sub-divided into 
eight groats (of 3fd. present value), and these again into eight 
" cents " (n id.). Xeedless to say. a special arithmetic is required 
to deal with this coinage, as the digits ^ and 9 are not used except 
for full sovereigns. To pursue the matter further would te to 
w.iste space. 

■ Annual Report of the Director of the Bureau of Standards." 
Year ended June 30th, 1918. Washington : Government Printing 
Office. 

"Science Abstracts." Sections A and B. Vol. XXI, Part 12. 
December 31st, 1918. London : E. & F. N. Spon,Ltd. Price Is. Gd. 
net each. 

Xo. 3 of the I 'mil 11 Juiirmil has been issued by Messrs. Higgs and 
Hill, of Crown Works. South Lambeth Road. S.AV. ; it contains a full 
account of the extensive public building works activities of tlie 
firm— huts, hospitals, aerodromes, gun and searchlight stations — 
and of the employes" war funds, canteen arrangements. Roll of 
Honour, ice. 

Social.— The employe's of tlie.<SiLioniViTE Insilator 
Co., Ltd . f pent a pleasant evening at a New Year party. A numter 

of ex-eniploye>) of the Southall factory were present, and hearty 
appreciation was shown of the arrangements made by Mr. Dowton, 
works manager, and Mrs. Jordan, manageress. 

Football. — The match between the Magnet F.C. and 
Claremont F.C, played at Tulse Hill last Saturday, ended in a 
victory for the latter by 6 goals to 2. The ground was in a very 
bad condition. 



70 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.si. No.2,i4r,.iAsuARv u. i9i!>, 



The Change-Over ia Germany. — The Iledderuhcini 
Copper ii South German Cable Works Co. states that the 
change over from war to peace work in itself has not been 
very difficult, as the matter has chiefly concerned the pro- 
duction of semi-finished manufactures for peace purpo>ses 
instead of for war work, necessitating the output of tine 
instead of coarse work. The adoption of the 8-hour.s day- 
would (iroatly increase the cost of productiitn in the long run. 
The directors of the Voigt & Hacflner AG., of Fran k fort -on- 
Main .<t;it<> that although vei-y t-onsiderable anny ordere have 
Ijeen cancellod tlie transition to iieaoe work has been com- 
pelted ea.«ily. a^s an urgent demand prevails for the company's 
manufactures in connection with central station requirements. 
'Phis fact apphes not only to the home market, but a deniaiid 
iilso < xist.-- from Holland, Switzerland, .ind fw^andinana. 
although this l)U.siiie.s.s is said to be endangered through the 
interferemv of the .■Mlics with the German export trade. 

Enemy Restoration of French Machinery. — The Jiui/i/ 

Telegraph correspondent at Paris quotes a Ck>rman wireless 
as saying that all was ready on Monday in (ienuany for the 
delivery of plant, machinery, and implements for the des- 
troyed factories and works in tlae North and East of France. 
These incJude 6,440 electric machines of 117,000 h.p., and 300 
other machines, and at the depot of Bremen 4,500 machines 
and implements, valued at 20,000,000 marks, of Swiss origin, 
■svhich can be placed at the disposal of the Entente a.s com- 
pensation. Besides this, there are 400 tons of le;ither belt- 
ing, 100 tons of .similar textile fabrics, and 00,000 other 
articles in leather for special industries. All these can be 
placed immediately in fhe hands of the Entente Powers. If 
the situation remains unchanged in Upper Silesia 40,000 
tons of zinc can be given over without delay. 

Our contemporary quotes General von Winterfeld as say- 
ing : — "The German Government declares itseJf prepared t-o 
restore that machinery which was removed from the occu- 
pie<l tenitoi-y which can be returned forthwith, and also that 
macliinery which was sold to Gennan war industry, the re 
purchase of which is pos.sible in accordance with agreement 
wifli its rightful present owners. The preliminaiy work for 
the giving back of that machinery has already been com- 
menced. ... In all drcumstances. refusal must be made 
to the demand that machines which were carried off shall 
be replaced by the giving up of machines which are abso- 
lutely essential to Gennan industry, for thereby the economic 
waj' deprecated by President Wilson would be carried on in 
another form, and within measm-able time Germany would 
bf- excluded from the world's markets. 

Eight-Hour Day in Iron and Steel Works. — A meetine; 
of employers and workmen from the Midlands, Shropshire, 
Ijancashire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire was held in Binning- 
ham on Monday to consider the eight hours qliestion. .\bout 
8.5 iron and steel works were represented, and after a long 
discussion the principle of an eight-hour day was agreed 
upcm, and a committee was appointed to woi'k out details. 
Work under the new system will begin on the first Monday 
in Pebraary. There will be a re-an-angement of wages. — 
Dailv Chronicle. 

Non-Ferrcus Metal Industry Act. — The issues of the 

Loiidiin Giizeite for .January Kith and Uth contain further additions 
to the list of licences granted under tlie Act. 

Australian Trade Commissioner in London. — Tjient.- 

Oolonel Hurley has been appointed a Trade Comiiissioner to repre- 
sent the interests of the State of New South Wales in London, 



LIGHTING A ND POW ER NOTES: 

Arbroath. — Street Lighting. — The Lighting Com- 
mittee has postponed until next season a proposal to light the 
streets with electricity. 

Ardsley. — Street Lighting. — The U.D.C. has invited 
the Electrical Distribution of Yorkshire to quote terms for lighting 
the public lamps adjacent to the mains. 

Ashton-under-Lyne.' — "Wages. — An increase of ;'>s. per 
week is to be paid to the employe's of the Corporation electricity 
department, in accordance with the recommendation of the Associa- 
tion of Lancashire and Cheshire Electricity Undertakings. 

Athy (Co. Kildare).— Proposed E.L.— The U.D.C. has 
decided to apply for a loan tor an electric lighting scheme. 

Australia. — Sydney. — The E.L. Committee has recom- 
mended the City Council to authorise Messrs. Preece, Cardew. 
Snell & Rider to obtain tenders for boilers, coal and ash handling 
plant. &c.. required at the electricity works : the estimated cost is 
£85,000. 

E.L. Schemes. — The residents at Yeronga (Q.) have requested the 
Stephens Shire Council to distribute electricity within their area. 
The X. Fremantle (W.A.) Council is obtaining a loan of £4, .500 for 
the distribution of electricity, which is to be obtained in bulk. The 
Merredin (W.A.) Roai Board is inviting applications for the right 
to install an E.L. scheme in the town of Merredin. — Tender.''. 

Banbridge.— Proposed E.L.— Tlie U.D.C. is to consider 
the question of applying for an E.L. prov. order at its next 
meeting, 



Ballymoney. — Proposed E.L. — A company, with a 

capital of £8,000, has been formed for the purpose of establishinR 
an E.L. scheme in the town, and a site for the power station is 
under consideration. 

Belfast. — Mains E.\TENSiONS.-7-Subject to satisfactorj 
agreements as to the price to be charged for energy, and to the advice 
of Sir John Snell, the Electricity Committee has decided to extend 
the mains to the Montpottinger district, 

Bovey Tracey (Devon).— Street LKarriNo. — The 

U.D.C. has accepted the offer of the E.L. Co, for public lighting, at 
t2 lOs. i)er lamp per annum. 

Bradford. — PRorosED New Plant. — The Electricity 
(Committee has recommended that application be made to the 
L.G.B. for sanction to borrow .C'iiiu.lL'.') for additional plant at the 
works at Valley Road and Rolton Roml, as follows :— Turbo- 
generator, complete with condensing plant and auxiliaries ; three 
tioilers, tans, chimneys, pipes and boiler-house extension ; four 
forced-draught cooling towers ; extensions to suction ash plant ; 
three rotary converters at Bolton Road works ; cable-ducts from 
Bolton Road works to Valley Road works ; portal)le coal elevator. 

Dartford. — Battery Maintenance. — Tlie U.D.C. has 
decided not to agree to the increased payment applied for by the 
Premier Accumulator Co. for the maintenance of the battery at the 
electricity works. 

Douglas (Isle of Man).— Proposed E.L.— A proposal 

before the T.C. to consider the question of purchasing the E.L. 
plant at the Knockaloe P. of W. Camp for municipal purposes was 
defeated. 

Dublin. — The E.S, Committee has accepted the guarantee 
of Dublin Shipbuilding, Ltd., North Wall, to take a supply of elec- 
tricity for a period of 10 years, in accordance with arrangements, 
with the Admiralty. A site for a sub-station at North Wall has 
been obtained. 

Loan Sanction. — The Committee has obtained L.G.B. sanction 
to a loan of £32,000 for extensions and the provision of new 
plant. 

Electric Light in the Arctic. — The ,/oiininl of Eler- 
tririti/ states that Mr. MacMillan and his party of explorers 
took a marine generating set with them into Crocker Land on their 
last expedition. It was installed at their lodge, and proved to be a 
splendid fortification against the six-montha-long nights. A head- 
light over the front door threw its beams 10 miles over the ice, 
and the electric globes inside were an improvement over the 
murky gloom of their old stand-by, the blubber lamp. 

Glasgow. — Proposed E.vtensions. — The estimated costs 
lor the erection of new plant and additions to existing 
plant for the T.C. electricity department are as follows : — 
Waterloo Street, £15,000; Poss'ilpark, £5,000; Polmadie, £5,000; 
Linthouse, £4,000 ; Dennistoun. £3,000 : and Springburn. £3,000. 

Hospital Lighting. — The gas and electricity engineers are to 
report to the T.C. on a proposal to supply electric light at Belve- 
dere Hospital, in place of gas. 

New Sub-Station, kc. — The Electricity Committee has recom- 
mended the transference of ground from the tramway department 
at the Whitevale depot for the extension of the electricity sub- 
station, and at the Kinning Park depot for the erection of a new 
sub-station ; also that the Partick destructor works be transferred 
from the Cleansing to the Electricity Department. 

Gravesend. — Proposed Extensions. — The T.C. has 

decided to apply to the L.G.B. for sanction to aloan of £ 25,000, for the 
provision of a 2.000- Kw. generating set at the electricity works. 

Hasltngden. — Year's AVorking.— There was a gross 
profit of £1,313 on the working of the Corporation Electricity 
Department for the year ending March 31st last. The net profit 
was £100, against £208 in the previous year, and this has been 
carried to the renewals fund, which now amounts to £991. 

Heywood. — Proposed Loan. — The T.C. has decided to 
apply to the L.G.B. for sanction to a loan of £11,00) for the com- 
pletion of the bulk supply scheme and the provision of new e,h.t, 
mains. 

Houghton-le-Spring. — Street Lighting. — Owing to' 
the increased charges for gas, the U.D.C. has asked the E.L. Co. to 
tender for street lighting. 

India. — AYater Power. — The Maharajah of Gwalior has 
sanctioned an investigation into the Sindh hydro-electric scheme, 
and a special survey division is being organised, which it is hoped' 
will be in a position to submit the necessary data to the Durbar for 
approval within six months. — Indian Knijineefinn. 

Limerick. — Price Increase. — The Corporation has; 
increased the price of electricity from 8d. to 9d. per unit. The. 
pre-war price was 5d. 

Londonderry. — Xew Slb-Statiox. — The electrical 
engineer has reported that, owing to the overloading of the main" 
cables, it will be necessaay to provide a substation in the Carlisle* 
Square district, 

Liverpool. — Li an article on reconstruction problems in, 
Liverpool, Sir Andrew Petrie recommends the construction of ai 
new electric power station at Garston and the extension of thaj 
tramway system. 



Vol.84. No. 2,147, January 17, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



71 



Manchester. — E.L. Failure. — An underground explo- 
sion in Albert Street, last Saturday, damaged an electric cable and 
severed about 600 telephone wires. The electric supply was 
temporarily cut off in the district. 

Wages —\t a meeting- of the T.C.. last week, Councillor Dag:nall. 
in askin? for permission to make a rearrangement in the payment 
of bonuses to officials of the Electricity Department, remarked that 
there was a great deal of unrest among the electrical workers of the 
Corporation, and some officials were leaving for better and more 
remunerative work elsewhere. The Council agreed to send the 
question back for further consideration.'; 

Oldham. — Bulk Supply. — The Electricity Committee 
has decided to quote for a supply of electricity in bulk to Rochdale 
Corporation. 

Proposed Extessioss. — At a meeting of the T.C.. last week, it 
was stated that, at its next meeting, the Council would be asked to 
sanction the borrowing of about £250,000 for the extension of the 
electricity undertaking. 

Peterborough. — Year's Working. — During the year 
ended March :ilst. 1918, 999,.511 units were sold by the Corporation 
electricity department, against 915.142 in the previous year. One- 
fourth of the output was used for lighting purposes and three- 
fourths for power. The load factor was 190.5 per cent., compared 
with 1899 in the preceding year and about 1.") per cent, before the 
war. The total cost was 2'666d. per unit, including working costs, 
l'523d., and capital charges, 1143d. The financial result was a net 
loss of £551. 

St. Helens. — Proposed Loan. — The T.C. has decided 

to apply to the L.G.B. for sanction to a loan of £2,000 for the 
extension of the electricity mains to the new works of Messrs. 
Vickers, Ltd. 

Stretford. — Loan Sanction. — The T.C. has received 
L.G.B. sanction to a loan of £2fi,100 for electricity purposes ; 
*; 1.125 is for the purchase of a site for a sub-station : £3,500 for 
the erection of a sub-station; £12,725 for rotary converters and 
switchgear ; and £ 8.750 for mains. 

Swansea. — Price Increase. — ^The Electricity Com- 
mittee has increased the charges for electricity by a further 12j per 
cent., a total of 25 per cent, over pre-war charges. 

Walsall. — Proposed Loan. — The T.C. has decided to 
apply to the L.G.B. for sanction to a loan of £11.000 for elec- 
tricity purposes, including transformers and switchgear, £2,322 ; 
mains extensions, £5,537 ; services, £363 : and a rotary converter, 

.< 2,778. 

Watford. — Proposed Loan. — The U.D.C. has decided 

to apply for a loan of £15,000 for the installation of a 1,250-KW. 
set. 
Whitstable. — Proposed Municipal Control. — The 

U.D.C. has decided to ascertain whether the Electricity Co. is 
prepared to dispose of its undertaking to the Council. 

Wolverhampton. — Mains Extensions. — Subject to 

L.G.B. consent to the necessary loan, the electricity mains are to be 
extended, at a cost of £4,755. 

Worthing. — Proposed Loan. — The T.C. has decided to 
apply to the L.G.B. for sanction to a loan of £ 16,392 for the exten- 
sion of the mains and the provision of a Diesel engine and a 
transformer, and a loan of £7,293 for the extension of the electricity 
supply to Broadwater. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Argentina. — Strike. — Owing to the general strike, all 
railway and tramway services have been suspended ; several tram- 
cars have been burnt by the strikers. 

Belfast. — A Si.x-day Week. — The Corporation has 
granted the tramway employes a six-day week, in place of the seven 
days worked at present. 

Blackburn. — Strike. — The strike of tramway employes 
threatens to spread over the whole of Lancashire. It originated 
over some employes, who were not members of the Tramway and 
Vehicle Workers' Union, working on Christmas Day. These men, 
who belong to a different Union, are still working, and a 50 per 
cent, service is being miintained. The Colne branch of the Union 
has voted in favour of a strike. A one-day strike took place at 
Accrington, consequent on the through-running of the Blackburn 
cars ; the men returned to work on the understanding that no 
Blackburn cars should run into Accrington until the dispute was 
settled. The 33 Lancashire and Cheshire branches of the Union 
have been asked to take a ballot on the question of a general strike, 
and are said to be generally in favour of a strike. The time-limit 
fixed by the T.C. in which employi's would be reinstated if they 
returned to work, expired at noon on Monday, but only three men 
had then returned. The strikers expressed their determination to 
hold out until it was made a condition of employment with the 
tramway department that the men should join the Union. 

Blackpool. — Tramway Purchase. — The Bill promoted 
by the Corporation for the purchase of the undertaking of the 
Blackpool and Fleetwood ,Tramroad Co. contains proposals for 



linking-up the system with that of the Corporation, at an estimated 
cost of £15,000. The total price is £284,000, including £4.000 
compensation to the directors as fire years' fees, and £10,000 to 
Mr. John Cameron, the secrefaiy and manager of the company. 
The sale took effect from January 1st last, but the company is 
carrying on until Parliamentary sanction to the transfer is 
received, 

Bradford. — New Trajicars. — The Tramways Com- 
mittee has given authority for a trial car to be built, 6 in. less in 
height than the present cars. 

Track RENEWALS.^The Tramways Committee proposes to in- 
form the L.G.B. that the relaying and doubling of the tramway 
track from Tyrrel Street to'Listerhills Road is urgently necessary. 

Brazil. — Proposed Electric Railway. — The Chamber 
of Deputies is considering a petition for a concession to construct 
an electric railway from Cascalheira to Oyapock, — Finuncier. 

Chile. — Strike.' — Men employed by the Chilean Electric 
Tramway Co. at Santiago are stUl on strike. General labour unrest 
is evident throughout Chile. — Tlie Timex. 

Continental. — Italy. — The Societii Elettrica Bresciana 

proposes to increase its capital from 25,000,000 lire to 34,000,000 
lire for the purpose of extending its electric raQ way network in 
the Province of Brescia. 

France. — Owing to the River Seine overflowing and flooding 
the streets, the tramway service in several districts of Paris had 
to be suspended last week. 

Cumberland. — Proposed New Railway. — It is pro- 
posed to construct a railway along the Cumberland coast, from 
Silloth to Maryport. 

Glasgow. — Goods Traffic. — The Tramways Committee 
has inaugurated a parcel service on the Glasgow-Uddingston 

route. 

Gloucester. — Wages. — The T.C. lias increased the war 
bonus of technical assistants employed by the tramway department 
to 28s. 6d. per week, and of all other employes from 18s. to 24s. 

Grimsby. — Strik e. — The strike at the municipal electricity 

works came to an end on Monday, last week, and the naval con- 
tingent, which had maintained the supply, was withdrawn. The 
new agreement is for a 47-hour week, with one break daily for 
meals. 

Haslingden.— Year's Working. — -For the year ended 
March 31st last, the gross profit of the Corporation tramway depart- 
ment was £2,386, against £933 in the previous year, 

Leeds: — (tOODs Traffic. — The facilities on the Cor- 
poration tramway parcel delivery system have been extended, 
and a through service has been established between Leeds. Brad- 
ford, Halifax, and the heavy woollen district. 

Accident. — Tramway traffic was greatly disorganised by fog on 
Monday. Xn unknown man was knocked down and killed by a 
tramcar. 

Lincoln. — Surface-Contact System. — Owing to the 
burning out of an underground cable, part of the Corporation 
surface-contact tramway system became electrified on January 
6th. Several persons had narrow escapes, and a horse was killed 
before the pressure could be cut off, 

London. — Central London Railway. — The B. of T. 
has extended the time for the completion of the enlargement of 
the tunnels and for the exercise of certain financial powers autho- 
rised by the C.L.R. Act, 1914, by one year from July 8th, 1919. 

Threatened Strike, — Owing to the refusal of the Railway 
Executive Committee to extend to them the 47-hour week 
granted to the railway, the workers at the Chelsea power station 
threatened to strike at 5 p.m. on January 9th, but on the chairman 
of the Committee (Sir Herbert Walker) agreeing to meet the repre- 
sentatives of the E,T.U. on the 13th inst.. the strike notice was 
withdrawn. The strike would have affected- all the London tube 
railways, with the exception of the Central London. 

At a conference on Monday between the E T,U, and the Railway 
Executive Committee, it was agreed to establish a 47-hour working 
week for day workers on all railways as from January Ist, and a 
48-hour working week in all generating and sub-stations in the 
United Kingdom, to come into operation on Februiiry 1st. W.ages 
are to be adjusted on existing rates. 

Manchester. — New Tramcars.— The Tramways Com- 
mittee has commenced the construction of 100 new tramcars. 

M-usselburgh. — Proposed E.vtexsion. — A scheme is on 
foot for the extension of the tramway system to Tranent. 

Newcastle-on-tyne. — Accident. — Traffic was much im- 
peded by dense fog on Monday: a merchant's trolley was. run 
iato by a tramcar and cut completely in halves. The driver and 
horse of the trolley were injured, but not seriously. 

South Shields. — Proposed Extensions. — The Tram- 
way Committee proposes to proceed with an extension scheme 
sanctioned in 1915, and the sanction of the Treasury to the 
necessary loan is being sought. 

Stockton. — Proposed Extensions. — The R.D.C. has 
decided to oppose the Bills of the Stockton and Middlesbroug.. 
Corporations to construct tramways in the parish of Billinghan.. 



72 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 84. No. 2,147, januarv 17, 1919. 



Southport. — Year's 'Workisct. — The report of the 
Corporation tramway depirtment for the vear ended March last, 
shows receipts ot £'i-2,o^2. including £1,513 from three months 
running of the Southport Tramway Co s undertakings, which has 
now been acquired by the Corporation On its own system the 
receipts showed an increase of £3.310, and constituted a record. The 
gross pront of £ 1U,26:^ was the highest ever reached ; but after paying 
the whole of the capital charges, there was a net loss ol £IU3. 
The total car-mileage was .")73.!i9S. Passengers carried on the 
Corporation system increased from 5,020,088 to .".,SO»,;mVO, and 
520,492 units were used, or '927 per car-mile. 



TELEGRAPH AN D TEL EPHONE NOTES. 

A Police Wireless Installation. — The 7'. h/h/ 7'. A;//' 

gives an outline of the work done by the wireless telegraph branch 
of the Xew York Police Department. It shows that merchandise 
estimated to be worth ^400,000 and at least 25 lives have been 
saved, in the two years the department has been in operation. The 
wireless tower is on the roof of the police headciuarters, and the 
sea-going end on board the police boat Pativ!. which covers the 
harbour. Two thousand messages have been handled, the head- 
quarters being able to receive messages from a distance of 1,500 
miles, and to transmit them 300 miles. 

Automatic Telephones. — An automatic e.\ohange is to be 
opened shortly at Stockport. This will be the twelfth in the Pro- 
vinces since the first, at Epsom, the nearest to London, was opened 
in May, l;il2. 

New London Exchanges. — According to the daily Press, 
several new telephone exchanges are to be opened shortly in 
London, several of which will be automatic exchanges. 

Snowstorms. — During the snowstorm at the beginning 
of last week the telephone exchange at Hipparholme caught fire 
owing to broken wires coming into contact with overhead tramway 
wires. 

A detachment of R.E 's helped to repair the broken telephone 
and telegraph wires at Manchester. 

Owing to the heavy fall of snow and consequent breakdown of 
the block telegraph wires in Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire, 
there was considerable delay to passenger trains. 

United States. — The Federal Court dismissed the suit 
by the Commercial Cable and Commercial Pacific Cable Companies 
to restrain the United States Postmaster-General (Mr. Burleson) 
from taking over the cables, on the ground that it had no jurisdic- 
tion in the matter. — Finuifier. 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 



OPEN. 

Aberdeen. — Corporation Electricity Department. Five- 
ton tipping wagon for cjals. Electric vehicle preferred, but not 
essential. See "Official Notic3s" January 10th. 

Australia.— Sydsey. — April 28th. Citj Council. Supply 
and erection of power-house switchgear. Specifications from Elec- 
tric Lighting Department, Town Hall, Sydney. A copy can be 
seen at the Inquiry Office of the Department of Overseas Trade 
(.Development ,.*c Intelligence), London. 

Melbourne.— March lOth. City Council, One 5,000-KW. frequency 
changer, high-tension switchgear. Specification (£1 Is.) from City 
Electrical Engineer. ' 

Aylesbury. — B.C. 200 to 400-Kn'. internal-combustion 
engine and dynamo complete. See " OlEcial Notices '' to-day. 

Belfast. — February 24th. Filectricity Department. One 
50-ton overhead travelling crane, one 5-ton overhead hand crane, 
and two 3-ton travelling electric cranes;. two 24-in., one 
5 in. and _ one 3-in. electrically - driven centrifugal pumps; 
five cast-iron water storage tanks. 

Halifax.— The Electricity Committee has instructed the 
Electrical Engineer to obtain quotations for the supply of a coal 
conveyor. 

Hammersmith. — B.C. The Electricity Committee reports 
that Messrs. Cory Bros. & Co., Ltd., the coal contractors, notify 
that owing to the increase in the cost of lighterage, their prices 
will be advanced all round 3d. per ton from December Ist, bringing 
the total cost of coal as follows : Hucknall 27s. 10}d. per ton : 
G.T.H. peas 30s. 2^1. ; G H H slack 2 js, iii. : Aberclwyd 303. 3Jd. ; 
G.H.H. peas 31s. 2id. 

The Committee reports that on the question of the diversion of coal sup- 
plies the Coal Controller states that the necessity for the diversion arose 
out of the national emergency, vvnich left the Department no alternative 
bat to suspenS deliveries to thoje undertakings more favourably placed, lo 
assist in maintaining in the public interest the continuation of the requisite 
light and power in the districts affected, and it was anticipated that any in- 
convenience or additional expense thereby caused to those undertakings 
and Corporations who were in a position to render this assistance, would 
be accepted as inseparable from the gravity of the national situation. -^ 



Leeds. — The Tramways Committee has been authorised to 
accept a tender for a negative booster for the Crown Point 
Sfenerating station, at a cost not exceeding £2,600. 

Sheffield. — Corporation Water Department. Tavo 3-ton 
steam locomotive cranes and one r. ton electric locumotive crane. 
D.o., 4i;0/500 volts. See " Official Notices ' .January 10th. 

Spain.- The municipal authorities of Biinui (Province of 
Valencia! liave lately invited tenders for the concession for the 
electric lighting of the town during a period of five years. 

llxbridge. — -lanuary 21st. 1\D.C. 2.5-h.p. a.c. motor 
for the sewerage works. Mr. W. T. Harvey. Clerk, 63, High 
Street, Uxbridge. 

Warrington. — January 28th. Klectricity and Tramways 
Committee. One 300-K\v. and one 5ii0-KW. rotary converter. See 
" Official Notices" .lanuary lOtli. 



CLOSED. 

Battersea. — B.C. The Electricity ( 'oramittee recommends 
that the price of coal supplie,d by the contractors, Messrs. Rose, 
Smith & Co. and Messrs. Foster & Co., be further increased by 3d. 
per ton, in consequence of the increased wages granted to dock 
workers, kc, liy the Committee of Production. 

K.H.T. switchgear, £420. General Electric Co., Ltd. (accepted). 

Bradford. — Electricity Committee. Accepted : — 

steelwork for air filter house.— Red pith, Brown & Co., Ltd. 
Switchgear.— A. Reyrolle & Co., Ltd: Bertram Thomas. 
Batterj booster set. — Mather & Piatt, Ltd. 
Building transformer chamber.— T. Obank & Sons. 

Tramways Committee. Accepted ; — 
Three Venturi water meters. — G. Rent, Ltd. 
Cast and steel crossings. — Hadtleltis, Ltd. 
Copper rail bonds. — Britannia Lamp & Accessories Co., Ltd. 
Rail planer blades.— Taylor & Parsons. 

Gillingham (Kent).^T.C. Charging plant for electric 

dust carts : — 

General Electric Co.. Ltd.— a.i . and ii.c. control gear or separate panols 

(acceptedl, i4U',). 
British Tliomson-Houston Co., Ltd. — Ditto or one panel, £38.'). 

Heywood. — The Corporation has accepted the tender of 
the Rail Welding Co., London, for the repair of 230 rail joints on 
the tramway system. The work will cost about £1,000. 

Southport. — The Tramways Committee has recommended 

the acceptance of 18 standard 4-wheel trucks, at ,i;l.SO each, 24 
30-H.P. car motors, at ilijjeaoh, and three open toast-rack car bodies, 
at £480 each. 

Swansea. — -The Corporation Electricity Committee has 
accepted the tender of the Stirling Bjiler Co., for two water-tube 
boilers, price £22,440. The pre-war cost it was stated would have 
been abjut £10,000. The tender provides for the removal of the 
present four old Lancashire boilers. 

Wolverhampton. — T.C. : — 

Two 3JJk.v..\. transformers, £839, plus £81 for contingencies.— British 

Electric Transformer Co. 
Stanchions for carrying boiler flues, £69. — Gibbons Bros. 
Gangways, ladders and railways, for the new boiler bouse, £114.— 

Hebertson & Co. 



FORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



Royal Institution of Great Britain.— Friday^ January 17th. At 5.30 p.m. 
.\t Albemarle Street, W. Lecture on " Liquid Air and the War," by Prof, 
Sir Jas. Dewar, F.R.8. 

Junior Institntion of Engineers.— Friday, January 17th. At 39, Victoria 
Street, fl.W. At 7.30 p.m. Paper on "Recent Improvements in Electric 
Lamps," by Capt. R. S. Mullard, R.A.F. 

iNorth-Eastero Section). — Tuesday, January aist. At the Mining- 
Institute, Newcastle. At 7.1.0 p.m. Paper on " Design of Heavy Switch- 
gear." by Mr. F. A. Orchard. 

Ulominating Englneeriog Society.- Tuesday, January 2l8t. At the Royal 
Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi. At 8 p.m. Discussion on " Modern 
Practice in Office Lighting," to be opened by Mr. A. Wise. 

ladustrial Beconstmction ConncU. — Wednesday. January 22nd. At tiie 
Saddlers' Hall, Cheapside, E.G. At 4.30 p.m. .Ljcture on "Industrial 
Reconstruction in Government Departments," bv his Honour Judge 
Edward Pan-y. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. — Thursday, January 33rd. At the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, 8.W. At6p.m. Lecture 
on " Planning a Works Research Organisation," by Mr. A. P. M. Fleming, 
O.B.E. 

'Students' Section).— Friday, January 24th. At 7 p.m. At the 
Northampton Polytechnic Institute, Clerkenwell, E.G. Paper on " -\ 
General Outline of Telephony," by Mr. H. T. Body. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers.- Friday, January 24th. At 6 p m. 
At the Institution of Civil Engineers, Gt. George Street, S.W. Paper on ' 
"Electric Welding," by Mr. J. T. Heaton, and other papers on oxy- 
acetylene welding. 

Greenock Association of Electrical Enginesrs.— Saturday, Janaary 2r>th. 
Visit to Messrs. A. F. Craig & Co.'s Engineering Works, Paisley. 

Manchester Association of Engioeers.- Saturday, January 2>th. At 6.30 
p.m. At the Grand Hotel. Discussion on " The Past, Present and Future 
of Electricity Supply," to b3 introduced by Mr. S. L. Pearoe. 



Vol.84. xo.iM4-,jANiAKY 17, U.11..] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



73 



THE ELECTRICAL TRADES BENEVOLENT 
ASSOCIATION. 



Thl lt..llovviijg J3 a first list of ccaitnbuliuLis lui ani^uiit.: 
ul 10s. and over received in response to the appeal made oij 
hehalf of this Institution by ilr. Hunter, the Chairman : — 



I 



F:j5t London Rubber Co. 


1 


1 


1, 


Osram-Robertson Lamp 






Arthur H. Allen 




10 


n 


Works ... 


21 





C. Franklin Tubbs 


1 


1 




W, Canning & C6 

J. Macintyre & Co., Ltd. 


1 1 
3 3 





v. Delebecque 


1 


1 





LP.S. Electrical Co. ... 


1 1 





Fred. Crane Chenii.;il 








A, Hawkins & Sons ... 


1 U 





Co., Ltd 


1 


1 





A. West Si Partners ... 


1 1 





Christy Bros. & Co., Ltd. 


1 


1 





Dubilier Condenser Co., 






\V. Lawson 




10 





Ltd 


ID 





\V. ,\'. Warrlloiv 


1 


1 





Rouch & Penny 


1 1 





E. S. Byng 


10 10 





Gilbert Carpenter 


1 1 





T. \V. Smith 




10 





F. Smith & Co. (Man- 






.\. W. Kimber 


10 








chester) 


2 2 





Handcock, Dykes and 








Cunningham. Ltd 


1 1 





Trotter 


1 


1 





E. B. Ellice Clark 


10 10 





W. H. Willcox & Co., 








R. Wilson Smith 


1 1 





Ltd 


3 


3 





E. G. Byng 


10 10 


u 


\V. Sisson & Co., Ltd. .. 


1 


1 





L. G. Byng (Esors. of 






.A. E. Gott 


1 


1 





late) ' 


100 





F. VV. Parks 


1 


1 





F. A. Hill S: Co 


2 2 


u 


Reynolds & Bradwell ... 









Jackson & Bovce 


1 1 





Guv Curnev 


2 


2 





\V. O. Roopcr 

A. Graham & Co 


1 1 





--. D. White 


5 







10 10 





Theodore Settle 


2 








Mrs. H. Avrton 


2 





I.awton & Sons 


1 


1 





W. J. P. Orton 


1 





\-. G. Middleton 


1 


1 





M. Deacon, J.P ,. 


5 





\V. H. Patchell 


1 








A. Seward & Co.. Ltd. ... 


1 





r. Atkins 


1 


1 





J. R. Hewitson 


10 





H. Snowdon 


1 


1 





Walsall Hardware Mnfg. 






(i. T. Baxter 




10 


6 


Co .. 


5 5 





.1. S. Child 


2 







Phoenix Electric Co. ... 


3 3 





L. V'andervelde 


2 


2 





Smith & Croft 


2 2 





Chiswell & Co 


1 


1 





T. W. Lench. Ltd. 


2 2 





(1. H. Bishop 


1 


1 





F. A. B. Lord 


■J 3 





H. G. Trust 


1 








G. E. Hood 


2 2 





r. J. Phillips 


1 








L. Hurburgh 


1 1 


u 


Carless, Capel & Leonard 


1 


1 





Pope's Elec. Lamp (n.. 






-Metropolitan Rlv. (Gene- 








Ltd 


1 1 





ral Manager'ls Office. 








T. S. Watnev 


2 2 





Baker St. Station) ... 


2 


2 





J. J. Roche ft Co 


1 1 





T. P. Shilston, B.Sc. ... 


1 








Julius Sax & Co., Lid. ... 


1 1 





John Ashby 


1 


1 





G. Stephen Corlett 


1 1 





R. Paul 


10 








H. McDarrah 


1 1 





H. P. Girling, M.LE.E. 


1 


1 





.\cil McLean 


10 


ti 


Carter & Harrison 


1 


1 





Elec. & General Work,. 






K. H. Jenkinson 






u 


Ltd 


1 1 


u 


Selson Eng. Co., Ltd. ... 


2 


2 





Norman Dickson, Pringle 






Farrow & Jackson, Ltd, 




10 





and Co 


1 1 





C. E. Foster 




10 


6 


Wholesale Fittings Co., 






Economic Elec. Co. (T. 








Ltd 


2 2 





E. Jones) \.. 


1 


1 





Dussek Bitumen Co. ... 


1 1 





Benjamin Elec. Co., Ltd. 


10 10 





Eustace Thomas 


1 1 





K. P. Wilson 


5 








H. W. Smith & Co. ... 


10 





W. H. Fletcher 


2 


2 





T. Wardrobe 


1 1 





The London Elec. Firm 


2 


2 





H. W. Kefford 


1 1 





T. J. Digby 




2 





Fuller Electric & Mnlg. 






C. Langdon & Son 




10 


6 


Co .. 


2 2 





E. Dixon 


1 


1 





D. Assersohn 


1 1 





G. Braulik 


1 


1 





Dowsett S: Jenkins, Ltd. 


1 1 





D. Shanks & Co., Ltd. .. 


2 








J. C. Gilkes 


10 





Cress,ill Mnfg. Co. ... 


5 


5 





J. Findlay 


n1 1 





Kaleb Hendin 


1 








E. C. de Segundo 


1 1 





R. J. Natlin 


1 








H. G. Solomon ... - ... 


1 1 





Simplex Conduits, Ltd. 









Caskell & Grocott 


1 1 





American Hard Rubber 








Calmont, King & Co. ... 


2 2 





Co 


2 


2 





Locke Lancaster and W. 






.'\. R. Tudman 


1 


1 





W. & R. Johnson and 






J. W. Jachman & Co., 








Sons, Ltd 


2 2 





Ltd 


2 


2 





J. M. Doughty 


1 1 





H. White & Co 


1 


1 





Duram, Ltd 


10 10 





Barlow & Alden, Ltd. ... 


1 








Hugh Mountain 


2 





J. H. Fonell 


1 








J. H. Heathman 


10 





Lacv, Hulbert & Co. ... 


2 


2 





J. Scrivener 


1 1 





A. j. Wrighi, Ltd. ... 


2 


2 





W. Frain 


10 10 





E. .Mathews & Co 


2 


2 





Alex. Laurie & Co. ... 


5 5 





Basebe. Sadler & Co., 








David Kirkaldy & Son ... 


1 1 





Ltd 


1 


1 





British Ever-Ready Co. .. 


5 5 





W. E. Bradshaw 




10 





Major W.n. Parker ... 


1 1 





F. Chase 


1 


1 





Pearson Bros 


1 1 





Baugham & Co., Ltd. ,.. 
T, Francis & Son 




10 


6 


S. Wolf & Co., Ltd, ... 


1 1 







10 





W. M. D. Pell 


2 2 





H, Marryat 


10 








Best & Lloyd 


10 





•<;ramner & Cheshire ,,. 


1 


1 





Oliver Pell Elec. Miifg. 






J, W. Yaleslev 


1 


1 





Co. Ltd ^. 


2 2 





T Ludgate 


1 


1 





J. A. Ritchie 


1 1 


















Shorter working week for employes 
in electricity undertakings. 



haiwe received. from Mr. W, J. Webh, London District 
cretarj- of the Electrical Trades Union, a copy of an agree- 
ment between the electricity undertakings ot London on the 
ome haiid, and the illectrical Trades Union, the National 
Union of General Workers, the Workers' Union, and the 
National Amalgamated Union of Enginemen, Firemen, 
Mechanics, Motomien, and Electrical \\'orkers on the otiier, 
in respect of a shorter working week for men employed in 
electricity undertakings. We have also received a copy of 
the agreed rates for a 47-hour week for day workers. In 
ihe case of shift workers, the rates to be paid are on a 
■)ij,'i8 basi.s. Practically the same agreement has been come 
to in respect of the railways in the United Kingdom, except 
tiiat the 47-hour week for day workers started on January 
ist. The following are the agreements referred to : — 



He Electricity Undertakings (General), London District. 
Claim by four Unions for il-liour ueeh without reduction 

in pay. 
Mr.ETi.vo eetwees Employer .\nd Union Representatives 

Aw.«D •2, 772, Par.\graph 13. 
Matter: ariiing out of Meetings he]d on December 30tfc ai.j 
January ind, 1919, at the County Hall. 
The Employer and Union Eepresentatives are willing to 
accept an Award of the Court of Arbitration embodying the 
following : — 
1. 47-hour week in the c-ase of day 'workers. 
'2. 48-hoiir week in the case of shift workers, subj'ect to- 
la) The 48 hours being an 'average" week's work where 
mutually agreed upon between the employers and employes 
of individual undertakings. In any case where details can- 
not be agreed the matter should be referred to a joint meet- 
ing of the employers and L'nion representatives (.\ward 2,77'2, 
Paragraph 13). 

(6) Shift wcffkei's to interchange occupation according to 
shift relief. 

(c) In the event of any undertaking not being able to put 
the >5horter hours into operation on Febniary 1st, 1919, 
through shortage of labour, the Unions will remove any 
restriction on their members working a longer week at 
normal rates up to o6 hours, or such week as at present 
worked, until such time as the undertaking can obtain the 
necessary qualified men, but the Unions desire to restrict 
such time to March 1st. 

If sufficient qualified men aie not available by March 1st, 
the matter to be again con.'adei'ed by the joint meeting of 
the employer and Union representatives (Award "2,772, Para- 
graph 13). 

3. Date for Commencement of the Nciv System. — Hours, 
rates, and conditions remaining as per Award 2,772 until 
— day workers, 47-hour week from February 1st, 1919; shift 
workers, 48-hour week from Februarj' 1st, 1919. 

4. Basic Rates. Aicard 2,772, Parujirapli 8. — Hourly rates 
under this heading to be adjusted from February 1st, 1919, 
as under : — 

Day workers in ratio of 54 : 47. 
Shift workers in ratio of 56 : 48. 

.\ sub-committee of two on either side to revise these, 
hourly rates for submission at an early date to the Joint 
Meeting of Employer and Union Representatives (Award 
2,772, Paragraph 13). 

Agreed R,ates. 









Deciiual 






Aw 


ard -2772 


rate. 


.\greect 


Grade. 




i-ate. 


64 : 47. 


rate. 


Fitter 


.. Os. 


lO^d. 


12.06 


Is. Od. 


Jointer 


.. Os. 


m. 


10.91 


Os. lid. 


Plumber jointer 


.. Is. 


Od. 


13.78 


Is. l|d 


Armature winder 


.. Os. 


lO^d. 


12.08 


Is. Od. 


Cable ganger 


.. Os. 


lOd. 


11.48 


Os. lljd 


Pubhc lighting foreman 


.. Os. 


lOd. 


11.48 


Os. lljd 


PubUc lighting leading hand Os. 


9id. 


10.91 


Os. lid. 


Public hghting attendant 


.. Os. 


8d. 


9.19 


9.2 


.\i'c lamp trimmer 


.. Os. 


8id. 


9.76 


Os. 9id 


.Meter inspector and tester 


.. Os. 


lO^d. 


12.06 


is. Od. 


Meter repairer 


.. Os. 


lid 


12.83 


Is. Old 


Meter fixer 


.. Os. 


S{d. 


9.76 


Os. 9id 


Meter reader 


.. Os. 


8d. 


9.19 


9.2 


Overhead linesman 


.. Os. 


9Jd. 


10.91 


Os. lid. 


.\asistant storeieeper 


.. Os. 


8d. 


9.19 


9.2 


Battery fitter 


.. Os. 


lO^d. 


12.06 


Is. Od. 


Battery attendant 


.. Os. 


9d. 


10.34 


Os. lOid. 


Conduit system : 










Leading hand 


.. Os. 


8id. 


9.76 


Os. 9|(f 


Cable hand 


.. Os. 


7id. 


8.61 


8,6 


Fitter's mate 










Wireman's mate 










Electrician's mate 


.'; Os. 


8d. 


9.19 


9.2 


Jointer's mate 










Telephone electrician 


;; Os. 


lOJd. 


12.06 


]s. Od. 


Telephone hnesman 


.. Os. 


9Sd. 


10.91 


Os. lid. 


Boiler cleaner 


.. Os. 


Shd. 


9.76 


Os. 9Jd 


Labourer, indoor 


.. Os. 


7d. 


8.04 


Os. 8d. 


Labourer, outdoor 


.. Os. 


nd. 


8.61 


8.6- 


Cleaner ... 


.. Os. 


7d. 


8.04 


Os. Sd. 


Ash hopper & conveyer man 


.. Os. 


S^d. 


9.76 


Os. 9id. 


Coal handling 










Coal weigher 


,. Os. 


sa. 


9,19 


9.2 


Shunters and tippers 











The Channel Tunnel. — According to the daily Press. 
Sir Francis Dent, general manager of the South-Eastem and 
©hatham Railway, strongly supported a Channel tunnel a,s 
opposed to a train ferry before the Select Committee on 
Transport, The highest estimate, he is repoi'ted to ha,ve said, 
of the cost of the tunnel was 25 millions, and the working 
of the tunnel by electricity would be "extraordinarily cheap." 
He did not think the train ferry "a business proposition.'' 
It woulil not compete with a- direct steamer in can-ying 
perishable goods, nor could it cari->' anything hke the pro- 
portion of passengers and quantities of goods carried by the 
present passenger boats. He was quite satisfied that the 
service could not be developed commercially nor could any- 
thing like the speed be attained. 



74 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.s^. no. 2,147, jANUAKYiT.iflin. 



"ELECTRICAL REVIEW" SMALL 

ADVERTISEMENTS: 

EARLIER CLOSING TIME. 



Special attention is directed to the alteration in the time 
for receipt of small advertisements for the Electrical 
Review. Owinfc to the great increase in their number, 
and to enable the journal to be produced punctually to 
time, copy for such advertisements must be received here by 
;j p.m. on AVednesday, instead of on Thui'sday morning, iis 
hitherto. This notice relates to Official Notices, Patent 
Notices, Situations Vacant, Situations Wanted, Partnerships, 
Agencies. Articles for Sale, Articles Wanted, &c. 



NOTES. 

Volunteer Notes, — Royal Engineers Volunteers, 
London Ariiv Troops Companies. — Headquarters : Balderton 
Street, Oxford Street, W. 1. 
Regimental Orders No. 3, by Lieut.-Colonel C. B. Clay, V.D., Commanding. 
Monday, January 20th, to Saturday, January 26th, drills as usual. 

C. HioGiNs, Captain, R.E., Adjutant. 

Nationalisation of Railways.— The Prime Minister is 

reported to have stated that the plans of the Government for the 
future control of the railways will be among the first measures to 
came before the new Parliament. 

Gift to Promote Industrial Unity.— According to a state- 
ment made by Mr. G. N. Barnes, M.P., at a dinner of the Industrial 
League, Sir Wm. Dupree, of Portsmouth, has given £20,000 to the 
funds of the League, in recognition of the importance of its work 
in encouraging co-operation between employers and employed. 

Institution and Lecture Notes. — Irish Water Power. 

— Mr. J. Challoner Smith, in a paper read at the Institution of 
Civil Engineers in Ireland, on the question of Ireland's water 
power, said that the fluctuations in the volumes of the flows rendered 
it extremely unlikely that the large continuous powers necessary 
for great electrometallurgical or kindred plants could be obtained 
within the limits of reasonable outlay. Many sites existed, 
however, at which useful powers for lighting, milling, tec, might 
be provided, under skilful design and supervision. 

Electric Steel Furnaces.— Mr. H. Etchells, of Sheffield, read 
a paper on "The Function of the Electric Furnace in Modern 
Engineering Practice," before the members of the Birmingham 
Metallurgical Society, on Thursday, last week. In order to 
appreciate the fuel efficiency of the electric furnace at its true 
significance, he said, one must not think only in terms of the number 
of electrical units per ton of metal melted or heat-treated, but this 
should be resolved actually into terms of the weight and quajit.y 
of fuel put into the fire-grate at the generating station. When 
electric power was generated with 30 per cent, efticiency at the 
generating station, electric furnaces would compete as regarded fuel 
cost with other types. Mr. Etcliells insisted that the electric 
furnace had revolutionised the science of casting. Midland manu- 
facturers could now be assured that homogeneous, unsegregated 
castings, free from blow holes, could be produced in sizes varying 
from a few ounces up to several tons, and this would tend to 
cheapen production in all directions and eliminate expensive 
forging and pressing operations. 

Fuel Economy and Health. — On January 6th, Mr. A. H. 
Barker opened a course of Chadwick Trust lectures on '^uel 
Economy and Health," at the Royal Society of Arts. Dealing 
with the heat requirements of a human body, he estimated the 
average requirements for the well-to-do person in conditions of life 
similar to those prevailing at the present day as about two tons of 
fuel per annum, and for the poorer classes about three-quarters of a 
ton per annum ; these quantities could not be reduced otherwise 
than by improving the efficiency of the plant commonly employed. 
To calculate the requirements of temperature and humidity in the 
surrounding air suitable for so changeable a mechanism as the 
body, was impossible, and the matter could only be treated empiri- 
cally. Mr. Barker described in detail recent American experiments 
to determine the most suitable conditions from the point of view 
of comfort, and concluded that the four desirable elements of fresh 
air were freedom from dust and germs, from undue elevation of 
temperature and humidity, and from undue uniformity and stillness. 
The second lecture related to the heat reijuirements of a house. 
Mr. Barker compared the different methods of warming a 
building, and discussed their advantages and disadvantages from 
the user's point of view. A radiator method of warming, he said, 
used only about one-quarter of the fuel required by an open fire for 
equal heating effect. He next discussed the appliances used for gene- 
rating heat for heating, cooking, and hot- water supply, and p .inted 
out the features which led to extravagance and economy. He 
stated that whereas the present domestic requirements of the 
entire nation required the consumption of 3u million tons of fuel per 
annum, the same requirements could be served by the most 
economical modern appliances, used in a most careful manner, by a 
consumption of approximately 6,000,000 tons. 

The last lecture of this course will be given on Monday next. 

Educational. — Lougheorourh Technical College. — 

Under the direction of the Principal (Mr. H. Schofield, M.B.E.), an 
Instructional Factory has been built and equipped at Loughborough 



for the training of semi-skilled munition workers, under the 
control of the Ministry of Munitions. Now that the war has 
come to an end, the Committee thinks that it is most desirable that 
the organisation and equipment should be retained in their entirety 
as a national, institution for engineering training. With this 
object in view a memorandum has been prepared, showing exactly 
how the resources of the Loughborough College might behest utilised. 
The factory forms part of the parent institution, and is operated 
under the Principal as general manager, with the co-oporation of a 
works manager and works superintendcr.t, all of whom have had 
a wide experience of practical engineering and scientific training. 
The works are run on productive lines, and at present give occupa- 
tion to some nOO trainees ; actual engineering contract work is 
accepted, and carried through from the estimating department to 
the inspection department. The equipment of the works is com- 
plete in all respects, with up-to-date tools and appliances. The 
memorandum gives full particulars of the training courses, equip- 
ment, kc. 

Electric Power Supply and the War. — In a letter to 

municipal and private electricity undertakings, Mr. Winston 
Churchill says : — 

■■ Now that the war has been won, it is my pleasant duty, aa 
Minister of Munitions, ,to testify to the part that has been taken 
by all those who have been responsible for electric power supply 
throughout the war. 

"The over-riding needs of the British Armies have required the 
output of war material on an unprecedented scale, and in every 
class of supply the demand has been met. But this achievement 
would have been impossible without the effective and ungrudging 
co-operation of the principal electrical undertakings of the country. 
The demands made upon you have been exacting, and I recognise 
to the full the increasing difficulties that you have been called 
upon to surmount in maintaining and augmenting the supply of 
electric power on which the great indu=!trial centres have 
depended. 

■' I therefore desire to convey to you, and through you to all 
members of your staff, my sincere thanks for the valuable services 
you have rendered to the Ministry of Munitions." 

The justice of this official tribute to the wonderful work done by 
our electric supply undertakings will be acknowledged by all who 
are aware of tlie extraordinary efforts that have been put forth by 
the managers and staffs, and the strenuous conditions under which 
their work has been carried on — conditions which would have been 
regarded in peace-time as unthinkable. We have on several occa- 
sions directed attention to the excellent record of the central 
station engineers in war-time, and we are glad to know that it Is 
recognised in official quarters. 

Fatalities. — " Accidental death " was the verdict returned 
at the inquest concerning J. Lindley (2H), woollen spinner, who 
died from electric shock received in the hoist-cage at Lockwood 
Mills, Huddersfield. The evidence showed that he was attempting 
to open the hoist-gate by depressing the catch, and the gate had 
become electrified by the displacement of the lock, through which 
a lOO-volt current was transmitted. 

At the inquest into the death of Mrs. Ehoda Macnamara (23), of 
Oldham, killed by falling 24 ft. while oiling an electric crane 
at the Middleton Road goods yard of the L. & Y. Railway, the 
Coroner said it was questionable whether such dangerous work was 
suitable for a woman, and he suggested the taking of measures for 
more effective protection. 

At an inquest at Hyde, last week, on Frank Potts (26'), a miner, 
who met his death suddenly at Kingston Colliery, Hyde, on Decem- 
ber 28th, it was stated that a hell wire for signalling ran just 
under the electric cable. While holding the hell wire he apparently 
received a fatal electric shock. It was stated that the signal wire 
was now being transferred to the opposite side of the brow, so aa 
to avoid the possibility of contact. Verdict, " .'Vcoidental death." 

Several boys were playing with a fallen telephone wire that 
crossed over electric cables behind the Turbine Gear Engineering 
Works, near the Joint Electricity Board's sub-generating station at 
Hyde, on Monday, when they felt electric shocks. All the lads at 
once let go of the wire except Ernest Wimpenny (10"), son of a 
collier, who stuck and cried out. The other boys ran and told his 
parents, and shortly afterwards he was found dead. 

Concert. — The Electrical Trades Benevolent Institution 
last year inaugurated the system of Local Advisory Committees, 
and appointed on the Management Committee gentlemen in 
different provincial towns in order that these Local Advisory 
Committees might be got to work. In Cardiff, Mr. Hobbs. of the 
General Electric Co., Ltd., who has for many years supported the 
Institution, was duly elected on the Management Committee, and 
formed a Local Advisory Committee, which includes :— Mr. W. A. 
Chamen (South Wales Power Co.). Mr. R. Howard Fletcher (con- 
sulting engineer), Mr. A. C. MacWhirter (MacWhirter tV Sons, Ltd.), 
and Mr. J. P. MacTaggart (Siemens Bros. ^>c Co.). These gentle- 
men organised a concert, and secured the services of the Royal 
Breconia Glee Singers, who on Saturday, January 11th. gave ah 
excellent concert at the Whitehall Room, Cardiff, to a crowded 
house. With subscriptions and the result of the concert, practically 
100 guineas will go to the Institution. We wish the Institution 
every success in its new policy, and trust that the example of 
Mr. Hobbs will be followed in "other centres, so that not only will 
the Institution have the advantage of the increased income result- 
ing from their energies, but it will also get into closer touch with 
those members of the industry who require the assistance of the 
Institution. Local Committees will probably get to work at 
Birmingham, Bristol, and Glasgow ere long. 



Vol. 84. No. 



LM47, JANUARY 17, 191!!.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW^ 



75 



Fuel Economy. — The EleL-tricity (Restriction of New- 
Supply") Order has \>een revoked aa from January 10th. 

Appointments Vacant. — Assistant engineer, for the 

Singapore Electric Tramways, Ltd. (StoO per month), application 
to company's office in London ; junior assistant engineer, also 
wireman, for the Burnley Corporation Electricity Department : 
assistant electrical engineer (£360 + £75), for the Federated 
Malay States ; assistant instructors in electrical engineering and 
installation maintenance and repair work for the Ministry of Pen- 
sions Training Scheme at the Croydon Polytechnic ; draughtsman 
for the Battersea B.C. Electricity Works ; chief engineer for a South 
Coast generating station. See our advertisement pages to-day. 

Supply Station Engineers' Salaries. — At a meeting 

liet-.veeu the Standing Conference and the E.P.E..\., on the 
8th inst., the following recommendation was agreed upon : — 
\Vc, the Standing Conference of Electiicity Supply .\sso- 
ciatious, recommend the constituent associations to agree to 
an award of C'om-t of .Arbitration to pay as from March 31st, 
r,U8, to technical engineers on the staffs of the undertakings 
lituu and including the grade of junior charge enigneers to 
.iud including the deputy chief officiaJs (that is to say, ex- 
cluding all the grades for which basis rates were settled by 
the award (\t,ll'2) Electrical rndertakings (General) London 
District) the salary paid at July 31st, 1914, plus merit and 
gi'ade increases between that date and March 31st, 1918, 
plus -20 pex cent., plus an additional sum at the rate of £90 
l)er annum, waj.- advances and war bonuses to be merged in 
the above. 

This an-angement to be operative until March 31st, 1919, 
ur such other date as may be mutually agreed, and in the 
lueantime the Oonferenoe and the E.P.E.A. to meet and 
proceed to si^ttle basic rates of remuneration for the various 
grades as above, pending which sectional discu-ssions as to 
linaic rates shall be adjourned. We understand that applica- 
i^ion has been made to the ilinistiy of Laboty for the issue 
ijf an award in the terms of the above recommendation. 

Women as Engineers. — One of the pressing problems of 
the demobihsation of munition workers is the finding work 
for the junior admmistrative stall's and the educated fore- 
women who were in special demand during the war, and 
whose' salaries averaged about £i a week. The present de- 
mand for skilled and unskilled women in civil industries i.s 
mainly in domestic work and in laundries, and cannot reach 
the class a.brf%'e referred to. It would appear that they are, 
though a smaller section, hkely to be more difficult to suit 
than other, workers. Many educated women who took up 
' ugineering to make muniticjns are also wondemg what they 
will be able to do in the future. They desii-e to stay in this 
kmd of Avork. to which they have become accustomed, but 
so far there is no scheme to utilise their services. Many of 
them are skilled fitters, and are a.sking for opportunities to 
remain in work for which they have proved their capacity. — 
Times. 

The Eight- Hour Day on the Continent. — The eight- hour 
day movement has been making great progi'e.ss in different 
Continental countries during the pa.st two months. ,\t War- 
«iw a decree w^as pulilished in November instituting an 
eight-hour day. .Aeenrding to the Noiva Refonna, the work- 
men in all indu.strial, economic, and trade industries, in all 
branches pf conununication, whether on land or water, and 
in all commercial enterprises, are to work ,a maximum of 
eight hours (not counting mtervals for rest) except on Satur- 
days, when it is to be six hours. With the approval of the 
i.omuiune the .six-hour day may be changed from Saturday 
to another week-day. .\ceording to Glos Narodu '(December 
2nd) the Cracow gasworks have instituted au eight-hour 
working day, though this will cost Kr.260,000 yearly; and 
have also decided to increa.se wages by 60 per cent., the cost 
to the gasworks being Kr.290.00(). The sum of Kr.2.50.000 is 
t-o be allotted to provisioning the w-orkmen. At Luxemburg 
the Government introduced the eight-hour working day 
.-iystem on December 1st, the mea.sme affecting all big in- 
dustrial works, includirig in particular the iron industry. 

In Germany, according to the Government proclamation 
of November 12th, the eight-hour day was to be introduced 
i>n January 1st, 1919. There are to be certain exceptions, 
decided by the Imperial Labom- Office, in the interests of cer- 
tain etonomic and social needs of the nation, .\ccording to 
ffozialc Praxh (November 28th), in Bavaria the new ministry 
for social welfare has been considering the best means of 
avoiding serious disturbance in economic matters, and has 
adopted the eight-hotir day among other principles. Wher- 
•A-er, owing to technical obstacles, the introduction of more 
labour does not lead to increased production, employers and 
workers must agree to a 4S-hour week, ending at noon on 
Saiturdav. anv extra hours work being naid for at overtime 
rates. The demand for a 44-bour week is reco'?nised and 
wijl^ be dealt with as soon as the difficulties of the present 
crisss have been overcome. Where shorter working hours 
slreadv exist, no lengthening must be allowed. In general, 
the Government aims at shortening hours of work, in no 
case allowing them to exceed eight per day. 

Welthandel (November 29th) says that an understanding 
between the trade unions and the employers' federation of 
the north-western group of the T'nion of German Iron and 



Steel Industries has been reached with regard to the introduc- 
tion of the eight-hour day in the industry. Where circum- 
stances permitted, this was to take place on November 25th, 
and where technical difficulties admit only of a gradual intro- 
duction, this is to be effected corresponding to the arrange- 
ment of the works. But, in any case, the measure is in- 
tended to be carried out completely by April 1st, 1919. 

Another journal says that the metal industry in the M. 
Gladbach-Rheydt district has decided to adopt the eight-hour 
working day system and to raise the hourly .scale of wages 
coiTespondingly . 

Electricity on the Farm. — The daily Press states that 
Mr. A. T. Cock, of Ford Farm, St. Clear, Cornwall, has 
threshed out 15 sacks per acre of electrically-treated wheat, 
and 12 sacks per acre of untieated wheat. The sti-aw of the 
treated crop was one-fifth more than the untreated. Barley 
grow'n by Mr. T. Maye, of Charleton, Devon, gave an in- ; 
■(.■rease of more than one-fifth over untreated, and another 
crop of barley grown by Mr. A. E. Stidson, of Barton, yielded,,,-*" 
half as much again as the untreated. "^ 

The Auckland- Weekly \ews states that towards the end 
of 1917 Mr. Birks, engineer of the Lake Coleridge hydrcj- 
•electric scheme, approached the Board of Governors of the 
Canterbury .-Vgricultural College with regard to more exten- 
sive use of electric power on the farm. Mr. Birks fixed up 
the plant for a demonstration of threshing by electric power, 
and in aU 34 acres were threshed. The outfit required con- 
twisted of a portable ti'ansformer supphed from the h.t. wires 
along the roadside, a few- hundred feet of insulated cable 
leading to the motor, and a motor on a portable sledge, 
strong and heavy enough to act as a base. The drive w-as 
by an ordinary belt. The transformer stepped down the pres- 
sure from 11,000 to 400 volts. The motor used wa.s of 15 
H.P., while the maximum demand indicated w-as 12 h.p., and 
the average to run the plant used for the demonstration was 
9 H.p. The running cost, if 12 h.p. was used, would work 
out at (taking town prices) 2s. 3d. per hour, which would 
compare more than favourably with steam. The advantages 
of electric drive from the point of view of the College are 
the ease and simphcity of manipulation, the steadiness of 
the running, and the lack of tendency to shift or get out of 
line — the motor remaining absolutely steady on its stand. 

A Modern Test for High Resistance Joints in Line 

Wires.— Mr. .M. A. Noss, of New York, writes in the 
I. li T. Ago as follow-s ; — -A bad section, fully five miles long 
and thirty-three miles from the testing station, was reported. 
FoUowing the usual method, a hneman was ordered to walk 
tliis section, count the joints in the wire, and to cut out 
joints that looked bad. He removed nineteen joints; all 
looked bad, but there was only one that .showed high Resist- 
ance when brought in and measured. He then devised a 
special fomi of miUiammeter having three coils connected to 
one + tenninal, the resistances of which were 100, 10, and 1 
ohnis. With this insti-ument the lineman v\ ent over this section 
again, and by shunting one to three joints, or a section be- 
tween poles at one time, he was able to see at a glance if 
the joint or section was of high resistance, and by the rule 
of proportion could figure the actual resistance of what he • 
had shunted. He knew when starting out the amount of 
current on this wire, or he could cut the miUiammeter in 
the circuit at any time and find out. 

On the trip he removed 37 joints measuring from IJ to 
192 ohms each, or a total of over 600 ohms. While he was 
doing this the wire wa-s kept in service. He neither inter- 
fered' with the working of the wire nor bothered the chief 
for instructions. He knew what he was after and could see 
it when he peached it. The trouble was on an old No. 6 
iron wire. Tlie test here described reduces the normal cur- 
rent thi-ough the joint under test, inviting a defect to de- 
velop. This instrument may also be used for testing fuses, 
and as a low reading voltmeter for testing batteries or any 
other low-voltage tests. 

Elimination of Oil from Feed-water. — In a paper read 
before the Department of Marine Engineers of the Royal 
Institution of Dutch Engineers by J. C. Dijxhoom, the im- 
portance of perfectly clean feed-water for steam boilers is dealt 
with. Ordinai'y apphances do not succeed in ''completely 
removing the oil, because it is in an emulsive state and 
(hvided into globules of less than 1/1,000 millimetre dkmeter 
which can pass thiough the finest filtering medium. Various 
preoipitants are mentioned, but success depends in every 
case on .subsequent filtration of the water through large sanil ^ 
filters. The tiny globules of oil can be made to coalesce by 
passing an electric current through the water, and the autlior 
describes au apparatus he has designed for this purpose, using 
continuous current at 110 volts whilst the water flows through 
the feed pipe. The electrically treated water is then sent 
through a pressure filter consisting of perforated cyhndera 
covered with cloth and enclosed in a stroncr vessel provided 
with inlet and outlet stop valves. Such a- filter has very little 
effect on ordinary feed water, but, aa the electric process 
described above causes the oil-globules to coalesce, the whole ' 
of the oil is effectively retained, leaving pure water only to 
pa.ss through. A pressure gauge on the filter indicates the 
condition of the filter cloth, which must be changed when 
filters. The tiny globules of oil can be made to coalesce by 
the pressure rises much above boiler pres-sure. — De Ingenieur. 



76 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol.84. No. 2,U7, January 17,1010. 



A.S.E. and League of Nations. — 'I'lic Ditily ChionUle 
.^tutt's that iiieinlxis of tho Aiualgamated Society of En- 
;:iiiwrs ai'e about to take ii vote on a proposed levy of 3d. 
|KM- man to meet tho cxjienseg of propaganda in favour of 
.1 League of Nations. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

Th» Editors inrite eltctrical engineeri, whether connected with the 
technical or the commercial tide of the profeision and industry, 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of th» 
Electrical Review posted at to their mocements. 



Central Station and Tramway Officials The Wi^ran Tramways 

Committee recommended that the new jreneral manajrer, in 
succession to Mr. F. Buckley, who has been ajipointed tramway 
manager at Bury, should have a commencing salary of toOO, 
rising by annual increments of £2o to ttiOO. Alderman Fletcher, 
after referring to Mr. Buckley's valuable work at Wigan, said that 
if Bury, with fewer cars, could afford £."iOO for his services, Wigan 
could pay that sum to its manager. The poorest-paid manager in 
the tramway world was receiving £400 a year. The Council 
referred the minutes back. 

The Xorthampton T.C, has presented an honorarium of £100 to 
the tramway manager (Me. J. Camerox), in recognition of 
valuable services rendered during the war. 

The Perth Corporation Electricity Committee has recommended 
an increase of *;2.5 per annum to Mr. C. J. Lindsay, electricity 
treasurer. 

General.— Mr. J. M. Kennedy, O.B.E., M.Inst.C.E., has resigned 
his position under the Ministry of Munitions as Superintendent of 
the Government Rolling Mills, Southampton, in order to rejoin his 
firm, Messrs. Kennedy A: Donkin, consulting engineers. Mr. Kennedy 
was primarily engaged as chief engineer on the construction of the 
factory mentioned and its power house, the work being carried out 
by direct labour ; subsequently, when the factory had been working 
some months, he was appointed superintendent. On the conclusion 
of hostilities the staff and employes, numbering over 2,000, presented 
Mr. Kennedy with a silver tea service, as a mark of the goodwill 
which existed among all ranks. 

Mr. Herbert Vickers, M.Eng., has been appointed chief 
assistant to the testing department at Faraday House. 

Mk. W. J. Terry, recently supervisor of purchases for the 
B.T.H. Co., Ltd., has been appointed secretary of the London 
Electric Wire Co. and Smiths, Ltd., London and Salford, as from 
.Tanuary 1st, 1919, and he will also assist in the management of the 
London undertaking. 

3Ir. W. T. Bower, late of the Metallic Seamless Tube Co., Ltd., 
and the Metallic Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd., has accepted an 
appointment as managing director of the Electrical Components, 
Ltd., switchgear and heating manufacturers, 36, Cannon Street, 
Birmingham. 

Captain W. Hall and Captain F. B. C. Sutthery, A.M.LE.E., 
Tyueside electrical engineers, have been seconded for service under 
the Admiralty, with effect from September 23rd, 191K, and 
October 3rd, 1918, respectively. 

Mr. W. Anderson, who has been with the General Electric Co. 
{.Glasgow branch) for over 12 yearr, has resigned his position in 
order to become joint manager of Messrs. Wood & Cairns, Ltd., at 
their Glasgow branch. 

Mr. Sidney J. Ebbutt, one of the London outdoor represent- 
atives of W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co., Ltd., has been 
released from military service, and resumed his duties with the 
company on 13th inst. He has been a sapper in the London 
Electrical Engineers, R.E. (T.) for two-and-a-half years. 

Roll of Honour. — The death took place at Dar-es-Salaam, East 
Africa, on December 23rd. of Lieut. Geoffrey H. Wilson. R.E. 
Signals, of cerebral malaria. The dead officer, who was only 34 
years of age. was the founder and proprietor of the Manchester 
Armature Co.. Pendleton, Manchester. After some months of 
volunteer service with the French Red Cross, he received a commis- 
sion in 191.3, and in May of the following year was sent to East 
Africa. 

The Military Cross has been awarded to Lieut. W. B. Cockbain, 
Machine Gun Corps, of Keswick, who was, prior to the war, engaged 
on the electrical staff at the Forge Engineering Works. 

Private G. Gerrard, 1st Manchester Regiment, who died 
from pneumonia on December 27th, was employed by the British 
Westinghouse Co., Ltd., Trafford Park. 

Private Alfred Ratcliffe, Trench Mortar Battery, who died 
whilst a prisoner of war. was formerly employed in the electricity 
department of the Burnley Corporation. 

Sergt. J. L. Mei.by, R.G.A., who has died in France from 
pneumonia, was formerly with the B.T.H. Co., Ltd., at Rugby. 

LiBCT. R. F. Petschlek, R.E., has been awarded the Military 
Cress for gallantry in the field. Lieut. Petschler enlisted in 1915, 
and rose from the ranks. When he enlisted he was chief esti- 
mating engineer in Messrs. .Johnson & Phillips's switchgear 
department ; previously he held positions with the British 
Westinghouse Co. and with Messrs. Ferranti, Ltd. 

Obituary Mr. G. Hagger. — Mr. George Hagger, who was for 

24 years .secretary of Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, Ltd., and the 
King's Norton Jletal Co., Ltd., passed away on January 12th at 
Whitstable, aged 74 years. 



Inventions & Research, Ltd. (152,470).— Priv.Tic ooni- 

()jny. Regi5t«re<J January ind. Capital. i~20,0(K) in £1 shares. Owners r>( 
l.atenls. xhools, laboratories, and workshops tor experimental and r«seartli 
work. &c. The subscribers iMch with one share) are:— J. R. Kemer, Cilnar.l 
Building, Liverpool. sawmiU proprietor: K. A. Corbet, Regent Palace Hotrl. 
n .. gentleman; \V. .\. C. Sandlord-Thompson, 4, Cambridge Place, Kensinn 
ton, engineer; S. Fitzgerald. 3. Thorpe Wood Avenue. Svdenham, engineer 
First direitors : J. R. Remer, R. A. Corbet, \V. A. C. Sandlord-Thompson. 
and S. Fitzgerald. Registered office ; 4.(j. Milner Street, Cadogan Square? \V. 

W. E. Beardsall & Co., Ltd. (152,506).— Private com- 

nany. Registered January 3rd. Capital, £4.000 in £1 shares (2,000 pre- 
Icrencc). Elcctric.il and mechanical engineers and contractors, manufac- 
turers ot r.iilw.ny, tramway, electrical, and other apparatus, suppliers of 
electricity, &c. The subscribers are: W. E. Beardsai;, 130, Urmston Lane, 
Siretford^ electrical fittings manufacturer (one ordinary share); VV. E. C 
Dean, 77. School Road, Stretford. purchasing agent (one ordinary share); 
<■. A. Buckley, 2 Booth Street, Manchester, solicitor (one preference share). 
Permanent directors : VV. E. Beardsall and W. E. G. Dean. Solicitor : C. A. 
Huckley. 2. Booth .Street, Mancheslir. 

Taylor & Patters, Ltd. (152,551).— Private (x>mpainy. 

Registered January 8th. Capital, £25,000 in £1 shares (12,500 8 per cent, 
cumulative pref'^rencej. To take o\er the business of merchants and manu 
l.icturers of mica, micanite, celluloid, asbestos, and vulcanised fibre shades 
for electric and gas fittings and other goods carried on at 40, Hatton Garden, 
E.C.. as •' Taylor Si Co." The subscribers arc : J. M. Pelters. M.Inst.C.E., 
85, Palace Court, W. 2 (one preference share); Miss J. Taylor, 26, Brookfield, 
West Hill. Highgate, N. 8, mica merchant (one ordinary share). First 
directors : .S. Blofield, Miss J. Tavlor, H. N. Lindlev, and J. M. Fetters. 
Solicitor : P. C. C. Francis, 19, Great Winchester Street, E.C. 

Harris Electro Metals Co., Ltd. (162,542).— Private com- 
pany. Registere.1 January 8th. Capital. £5,000 in 4,7,".0 preference shares 
of £1 each and 5,000 ordinary shares of Is. each. To acquire from T. R. 
Harris the business of certain inventions, and to carry on at or near Thorn- 
hill or elsewhere the business of electro-depositors of .netals, metal extractors 
and refiners, mechanical and electrical engineers. &:c. Thj subscribers (each 
with one ordinary share) are : T. R. Harns, Calverley Villas, Dawlev Road, 
Harlington. engineer; J. Harris, Windsor Street, .'Vtterclifle Road, Sheffield, 
chemical engineer. The first directors are: W. B. Woodhouse, H. Ellison, 
T. R. Harris, and J. Harris. Solicitor: W. H. Clough, Town Hall, Cleck- 
heaton. 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



Severn Engineering Co.. Ltd. — Particulars of j£3,500 

debentures created December My. WIH. filed, the whole amount being now 
issued. Property charged : The comp;iny's property, present and future, in- 
cluding uncalled capital. No trustees. 

Sentinel Instrument Co., Ltd. — Martgage on freehold 

premises at Byker, Newcastle-on-Tyne. to secure £2,000. Holders : F. E. 
Hannay and E. Hannay, South Shields. 

Z Electric Lamp Manufacturing Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction 

in full on September 30th, 1918, of first and second debentures, dated August, 
1!I09. and September, 1910, secured bv various deeds, securing £25,000 and 
£10,000 respectively. 

Rawlings Bros., Ltd. — Charge on company's interest in 

certain under-leases and tenancy agreements, and on its book debts, stock, 
plant, fittings, furniture, &c., to secure £8,750. Holders : Mrs. M. Rawlings 
«nd others. 

City of Oxford Electric Tramways, Ltd. — Satisfaction to 

the extent of £1,200 on December 12th, I91S, of charge dated 1914, securing 
£46,000. 

Oriental Telephone and Electric Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction 

to the further extent of £856 on December 18th, 1918, of debenture stock 
secured by trust deed dated " 1905, and supplementary deed of acknowledge- 
ment dated 1907, securing £200,000. 

Ferguson, Pailin & Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction in full on 

October 21st, 1918, of charge d.iled November 14th, 1916, securing advances 
by Williams Deacon's Bank. 

Rhondda Tramways Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction to the ex- 
tent of £4.700 on December 12th, 1918, of charges dated 1911-15, securing 
i'250,l»IO. 



CITY NOTES. 



The directors of the Coiupagnie Genti- 
Compagnie riile d'Electricite, of Paris, reporting or 
Generale the year ended on June .30t.h, 1918, state 

d'Electricite. that all the company's manufactuxinf; 
works suffered from the restrictions and 
the transport dilificiilties. The estabUshment erected at Saiiit- 
Jean-de Brave, near Orleans, for the manufacture of rifle 
grenades was changed over by ortier to the production of 
other articles, whilst the erection of the Vineey works (steel 
plant, rolling mills, ajid tube plant) wa-s stopped, except in 
the ca^ of tubes, at the request of the Ministry of Arma- 
iiients, although the former would be started in the new 
I'lnancial year. Concerning the Sooiete de I'Accumulateur _ 
Tudor, the report mentions that on the Uheraticm of LiUe, ' 
in October, 1918, it was found that the Thumesnil works 
had been completely pillaged by the enemy ; almost all the 
plant had been remoued, and what remained was put out of 
service. The situation of the supply undertakings in which 
the company is interes-ted . which was serious for most uf 
them, became aggra\atet] in the ca»e of that at .\mien's. Tbn. 
net profits aj-e returned at £192,000, as compaxed with 
il62,000 m 1916-17, and a. dividend has been declared at the 
rate of 10 per cent, on the ordinary share capital of f 1,400,000'. 
liemg the same rate as m the preceding yeajr. M. Pierre 
-\zaria, speaking at the recent general meeting, remarked 
that peace would be favourable for the company. In the 
meantime they had to pass through a particularly difficult 
period. For the moment there was no longer any war, and 
special manufactures were coming to an end. But this was 



Vol.84. No. 2,u-, JANUARY IT, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL KEVIEWo 



77 



not peace, and the directors had not at disposal yet either 
the framework and the specialised labour or the raw and 
semi-finished materials which were necessary. The tube 
factory, for instance, had been ready to start for weeks past, 
but was awaitii\g the delivery of coal and steel sheets. It 
was therefore essential that the transport crisis came to 
an end. The directors proposed as soon as circunist-ances 
would permit to erect a works complementing the Rai aod 
Tiliieres establishments which chiefly treated copper and 
aluminium and their alloys, and which were congested with 
work. 

The Helios Ehktrizitats A.G., of 

German Cologne, is still in course of being wound 

Companies. up, and the liquidators report for 1917-18 

shows that the loss of i'419,000 shows no 

change as contrasted with the preceding twelve month.s. 

The A.G. fur Elehtrizitats Anlagen, of Berlin, records net 
profits of ^631 ,000 for 1917-18, or practically the same as in the 
preceding year. The dividend at 6 per cent, on the ordinary 
share capital of £500,000 is also at the same rate as in 1916-17. 
The account-s of the Siemens Elektrische Betriebe A.G.. 
of Berlin, which owns various supply works, show net profits 
of i'97,000 for 1917-18, as compared with £83,000 in the pre- 
ceding year. It is proposed to pay a, dividend of 5 per cent, 
on the old shares as in 1916-17, and '21- per cent, on the new 
shares. 

The financial statement of the Wotan Werke A.G.. of 
Leipsig, indicates net profits of £59,000 for 1917-18, as against 
£30,000 in the previous year. A dividend at the rate of 25 
Iior cent, has been declared, together with a bonus of £7 10s. 
per share, this dis-tribution contrasting with a 40 per cent, 
dividend in 1916-17. 

The report of the Fabrik Isolierier Drahte (Vogel) A.G., of 
Berlin, states that the net profits in 1917-18 amounted to 
£1.35,000, as against £63,000 in the previous year, the divi- 
dend being at the rate of 18 per cent., as in 1916-17. The 
company's subsidiary at Vienna has now been transfeiTed to 
an Austrian company, with a paid-up capital of £125,000. 

The Rliein. Elektrisitais Gesellschaft (late Rhenish Schuc- 
kert Co.). of Mannheim, has just declared a dividend at the 
rate of 5 per cent, out of net profits of £50,000 in 1917-18, 
being the same rat* as in 1916-17, when the net profits were 
£46,O0O. At the recent general meeting it was stated that 
the company's undertaking and its subsidiaries had been 
greatly expanded during the war, and very acceptable cir- 
cumstances would arise if the possibility soon occurred, as 
was hoped, of i^esuming installation and station work. 

The Elektriziiafs A.G. vorm. Schuckert d Co., of Nurem- 
berg, reports gross profits of £486,000 in 1917-18, as contrasted 
with £466,000 in 1916-17. After setting aside £179.000 for 
depreciation, as against £166,000, and making provision for 
the tax on coupons, the accounts show net profits of £372.000. 
iis oompai'ed with £375,000 in the preceding yeai', these 
ligures including the balance brought forward in each year. 
The directors recommend a dividend of 8 per cent., being the 
same rate as in 1916-17. ' 

The accounts of the Siemens-Schurkert Werke, of Berlin, 
have been issued for the year ended July 31st, 1918. Includ- 
ing the balance forward, the gross profits are stated to be 
£1.347,000, as compared with £1,325,000 in the previous year. 
After defraying general expenses and interest on loans, the 
net profits are £791,000, as agaiiist £793.000 in 1916-17. per- 
mitting of the payment of a dividend of 10 per cent, to each 
of the two partners, as in the preceding year. The sum of 
£125,000 has been placed to the reserve fund, as in 1916-17, 
nnd £25,000 to the contingency fund, whilst the bonuses to 
officials and workmen have risen from £100,000 in 1916-17 to 
£150,000 last year. 

The accounts of Siemens if: Halske A.G., of Berlin, dealing 
with the year ended on Julv 31st, 1918, show gross profits of 
£887.000, as contrasted with £895.000 in the previous 12 
months. Having provided for general expenses, interest on 
loans and depreciation, the net profits are reported at 
£697,000, as against £643,000 in 1916-17. It is proposed to 
pay a dividend of 12 per cent., being the same rate as in 
1916-17; to allot £1.50.000 as economic assistance to the staff 
foir the year, .a.nd to pav bonuses to officials and workmen 
to the extent of £90.000, as compared with £60,000 in 1916-17. 
and to carry £61,000 forward. 



Stock Exchanj^e Notices. — .Applications have been made 
to the Committee to allow the following to be qiloted in the 
Official List :— _ 

Erinoid, Ltd.— 440.0(X1 shaa-es of .5s. <>a<'h, fnllv [wid (Nos. 
1 to 440,000). 

Marconi International Marine Communication C^i.. Ijtd. — 
r<«,0(X) shares of £1 each. fuUv-paid (Nos. 1 to 6ai.000). 

AngloPoTtuguesp Telephone Co.. Tvtd.— 150,000 .shares of 
£1 each, fully paid, Nos. 1 to 150.000. 

Buenos .\ires Lacroze Tramways Co.. Ltd.— £65,400 a ddi 
tional 5 per cent, consolidated mortgage debentm-es. 

Alhiy United Carbide Factories. Ltd. — Interim dividend 
6 per, cent.' on the ordinarv shaa-es. 

Nilrojjen Products and Carbide Co., Ltd.— Interim divi- 
dend 9 per cent. 

Underieed Stolier Co., Ltd.— Interim dividend :\t the rate 
of 5 per cent., less tax. 



Compaiiia Anglo^Argentine de Hlectricidad, Sociedad 
Anonima. — For the year ended July 31st, 1918, the revenue 
amounted to $2,904,021 m/n., compared with $2,741,084 
m/n. in 1917. Working expenses increased by $600,00Ci. 
compared with a. normal year, one item alone, oil, increasing 
from $25 per ton in 1915 to $165 per ton in the year under 
review. .Applications to the towns supplied by the com- 
pany for increased tariffs were only very slightly successful 
in a few instances. The credit balance was $402,950 m/n., 
of which $150,000 was placed to the depreciation and re- 
serve fund, $100,000 to the contingency fund, $50,000 to 
writing down " issue of debentures," $20,000 to sjiecial 
amortisations, $16,754 to legal reserve fund,, $11,697 to wiit- 
ing down improvements to $1. $8,271 to the board and 
syndic ftmd, and $46,228 was brought forward. In view of 
the uncertainty of the iXDsition, the Board did not recom- 
mend the pa)'ment of a dividend. — Eeview of tlic River 
■ Plate. 

Companies Strucli Off the Register, — The following com- 
panies have been struck off the registei" and are accordingly 
dissolved : — ■ 



Chinnervs, Lid. 

CcMjperativc Publicity Co.. Ltd. 

Cordinglev's Calculators, Ltd. 

David Wilson's Patent Noiseless Winch Co., Lid. 

Electric Lamp Repairs, Ltd. 

Illuminated Posters, Ltd. 

J. M. Shock Absorbers, Ltd. 

Lounge Electrics, Ltd. 

.Manchester Cable Co., Ltd. 

Printex .Accumulator ('o., Ltd. 

'jniversal Electric Canoe Co., Ltd. 

Dublin United Tramways, Ltd. — Final di\^idend at the 
rate of 6 per cent, per annum, less income tax, for the half- 
year to December 31st (making 5 per cent, for the year) on. 
the ordinary sfaxik, and a bonus of Is. per £10 unit of ordinary 
stock, free of income tax. £35,000 is set aside to meet de- 
fea'ed replacements of cars and renewals of rails, and £15,000 
to reserve fund. £3,'262 is carried forward. 

Delabple Electric Light & Supply Co., Ltd. — There is a 
profit on the year's working of £59, and a balance carried 
forward of £31. 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



Tuesday Evening. 

Thi: serious disorders which have owurred in Buenos Aires 
had the eliect of making the markets in Argentine issues 
decidedly weak. These are, however, amongst the few de- 
l)aj-tments that exhibit any signs of dulness round the Stock 
Exchange. In point of fact, prices in most markets axe hai'd, 
and have a tendency to rise. There is plenty of money about 
for investment, nor has the fact that this is the last week 
when National War Bonds can be obtained in their presen't 
shape had any particidar influence in checking investment 
m other directions. The industrial market shows strength 
in most of its sections, and further I'ises have occurred 
amongst electricity s-upply shares. 

No diminution in the buoyancy of Undergi'oimds is notice- 
able. Prices continue to mount. Districts have risen 2 to '28, 
and Metroix>litans recovered a point to 32. In Underground 
income bonds and the Is. shares a large volmue of business 
is in progress. The price of the bonds has advanced to 95 — • 
is better, in fact, than might be inferred from the official 
quotation, while the Is. shares aire up to 10s. 3d. Those 
optimists who anticipate the immediate resumption of a 
t) per cent, dividend on the income bonds may be well ad- 
vised to inotlerate their prophecies, but in the more or less 
near future, no doubt this dividend will be paid. Transport 
facilities in London are taxed to their utmost capacity, and 
there seems little enough hope of relief to the imha-ppy strap- 
hanger. All this, of course, is to the good of the holder of 
Tube securities, whose comfort increases in corresponding 
ratio with the discomfort of the traveller. We hear interest- 
ing rumours of schemes in preparation for the provision of 
light railways in coimtry districts. The Ministry of Recon- 
struction is alive to the opportunities oft'ered by the materials 
now freed by the conclusion of the war, and financial support 
is not Ukely to prove wanting. 

Anglo-.'Vrgcntine Tramways prefea'enoe shares, and both 
classes of debenture stocks, have given way somewhat sharply 
on the strikes and disorders in the sta^ets of Buenos Aii-es. 
The markets for t.he.se issues had been previously so good 
that it was difficidt to get the otTer of stock. Strikes havo 
changed all that, and although the difficulties are declared to . 
have been composed, prices are still weak. To a. minor ex- 
tent, the dulness has spread to Brazilian and other South 
Vmericaiu secmities, although up to the present Rio Tramway 
bonds remain quietly steady. There is little doing • m tlie- 
Mexic-an group, the tendency being for prices to give w^ay iii- 
the absence of interest on the part of the purchaser, or of ' 
any news worth the name from the coimtrv itself. Mexico ' ' 
Tramways sixes are IJ lower. Braziliari Tractions shed- w 
point to 56, but the prefen'ed at 94 are 1 to the good. 

North Metropolitan Power preference shares, of w^hich 
mention w^s made here last week, have been readily ab- 



78 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi.si. no. 2,147, januakv 



sorbeJ, and we believe it to be a fact that the total number 
of shares olTered are now all placed. The price has improved 
to 18s. 9d., and seeing,' that the shares have mostly gone into 
the hands of the genuine investor, the quotation will probably 
mount to the neighborhood of 20s. and stop theie. 

The electric supply market is a good one. Buyers have 
again come forward, professing that they care little for im- 
mediate dividend nrospects, but that they are content to 
wait with a view to the undertakings regaining their formea- 
prosperity within a- year or tw-o. Therefore, even if the 
forthcoming dividend announcements shoufd prove to be dis- 
appointing, they are not likely to have any adverse effect; 
upon the prices of the shares, and the present buying move- 
ment is on behalf of individual investor fully aware that the 
ne.\t batch of dividends is not likely to be a good one. 

Marconi shares have been a weak spot. The parent issue 
fell to -15. and Americans went back abruptly to 27s. 6d., 
though Majines arc fairly well maintained at Si. Li default 
of any detiiiite reason to account for the drop, a- vague 
rumour got into circulation as to possibiUties of cainfjetition, 
but nothing certain is known. Apart from Mai-conis, the 
general market is a good one. Anglo-American Telegraph 
preferred rose to within 10s. of par, and tho rest of the list 
maintained the advances' secured last week. India-rubbei" 
bhares have improved 5s. to 17J, and amongst industrials 
connected with the electrical manufacturing companies, Edi- 
#ons are a go<'<d spot at IDs. 3d. Babcock & Wilcox rose to 
31. Electric & General investment prefei-ence improved to 
3J. Cordoba Light & Power ordinary went up 9d. to 3s. 9d. 
Melbourne Electric first preference at 5i are i higher. The 
market for rubber .shares is generally steady, ami there is 
stOl a good deal of buying of the popular shares. Tho arma- 
ment group keeps finn, hut base metal descriptions are in- 
clined to move downwards, as the prices of metals further 
gave way. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES 
HoMK Electricity Companies. 

Dividend Price 

■ .Jan. 14, 

1916. 1917, 1919. Rise or fall. 

Brompton Ordinary 9 10 72 — 

Charing Cross Ordinary .... 5 4 35 — 

do. do. do. *i Pref... 4J 4J 3j + § 

Chelsea 3 6 4 

City of London 8 8 13^ — 

do. do. 6peroent. Pref. .. 6 6 lOi — 

County of London 7 7 111 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref. 6 6 lOJ — 

Kensington Ordinary .... 6 7 6 + J 

London Electric Nil Nil 18 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref... 4 5 4 — 

Metropolitan 3 4 3 — 

do. 4* per cent. Pref. ..4^41 SJ — 

St. James' and' Pall Mall .... 8 9 7J +4 

South London 5 5 3 — 

South Metropolitan Pref 7 7 21/- — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 7 9 li + J 

Telegraphs and Telephones, 

Anglo-Am. Tel. Pref 6 S 994 <- * 

do. Def li li 234 — 

Chile Telephone 8 8 78 — 

Cuba Sub. Ord 7 7 10* — 

Eastern Extension 8 8 1.58 — 

Eastern Tel. Ord 8 8 1.58J 

Globe Tel. and T. Ord 7 7 14* — 

do. do. Pref 6 6 lOJ — 

Great Northern Tel 24 22 83$ — 

Indo-European 13 13 68* — 

Marconi 1-5 20 4^ — J 

Oriental Telephone Ord 10 10 21 — 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 8' — 

West India and Panama . . . . 6d. 1/3 IH — 

Western Telegraph . ..." 8 8 16§ — 

Home Rails. 

Central London Ord. Assented ..44 6BJ — 

Metropolitan 1 32 +1 

do. District .. .. Nil Nil S8 +2 

Underground Electric Ordinary. . Nil Nil SJ + i 

do. do, "A" .. Nil Nil 10/3 -^ >(, 

do, do, Income .. 6 4 O."* +1 

Foreign Tbams, &a. 

Adelaide Sup. 6 per cent. Pref. ..66 4| — 

Anglo-Arg. Trams. First Pref. . . 6* 5J 3J + {;., 

do. do. 2nd Pref. . . 5J — 85 — i 

do. do. 6 Deb 6 5 72i -2 

Brazil Tractions — — 56 —1 

Bombay Electric Pref 6 6 10| — 

British Columbia Elec. Rly. Pice. 5 5 67* — 

do. do. Preferred Nil Nil 50 — 

do. do. Deferred Nil Nil 45 — 

do. do. Deb. ., 4i 4J 62 — 

Mexico Trams 5 per cent. Bonds. . Nil Nil 67 — 

do. 6 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 62 — U 

Mexican Light Common . . . . Nil Nil 38 — 

do. Pref Nil Nil 4H ~ 

do. Ist Bonds.. .. Nil Nil 70 • — 

Manufacturing Coufanies. 

Babcock & Wilcox .... 15 15 Sj + J 

■British Aluminium Ord 10 10 ifj — 

British Insulated Ord 20 20 2* — 

British Westinghouse Pref. . . 7i 7i 2* — 

Callenders 20 25 10| — 

do. 6J Pref 5 5 58 — 

Castner-Kellner 22 20 3| " — 

Edison-Swan, " A " .. — — 19/3 -l-ed. 

do. do. 4 per cent, Deb. ... 4 4 74J — 

Electric Construction .... 7* 10 ll — 

Gen. Elec. Pref 6" 6 10| 

do. Ord 10 10 17J 

Henley 25 25 2i 

do, liPiet 4 ^ * 

India-Rubbet 10 10 17i 

Telegraph Oon, 30 90 48 ■ 

' Dividends paid free of Income Tax. 



'4 16 

5 14 

6 IS 
S 11 



•5 

»a 12 

•4 16 



♦5 12 8 

6 11 -J 

6 la 6 

•6 16 



MARKET QUOTATIONS. 

It should be remembered, in making use of the figures appeariog 
in the folio winj; list, that in some cases the prices are only general , 
and they may vary acoordin(f to quantities and other circumstances. 



Wednesday, January 15th, 



CHEMICALS. Ao. 



o Acid, Oxalic per lb, 

a Ammoniac Sal per ton 

a Ammonia, Muriate (large orystnl) i, 
a Bisulphide of Carbon .. .. „ 

a Borax ,, 

a Copper Sulphate ,, 

a Potash, Chlorate per lb. 

o ,, Percblorate .. .. „ 

a Shellac percwt, 

Sulphate of Magnesia .. .. per ton 
a Sulphur, Sublimed Flowers . . ,■ 

a ,, Lump ,, 

a Soda, Chlorate per lb. 

a ,, Crystals per ton 

a Sodium Bichromate, casks .. per lb, 

METALS, &c. 

c Brass (rolled metal 2" to 12" basis) per lb. 
c 11 Tubes (solid drawn) ,, ,, 

c I, Wire, basis „ 

c Copper Tubes (solid drawn) .. ,, 

g ,, Bars (best selected) .. per ton 

g „ Sheet ,, 

g „ Bod „ 

d II (Eleotrolytio) Bars .. ,, 
d II 11 Sheets .. „ 

d II II Wire Rods „ 

d „ II H.C, Wire per lb. 

^ Ebonite Rod , 

/ „ Sheet 

n German Silver Wire .. .. ,i 

A Gutta-percha, fine „ 

h India-rubber, Para fine . . . . i, 

f Iron Pig (Cleveland wan ants) .. per ton 

1 „ Wire, galv. No. 8, P.O. qual, „ 
^ Lead, English Fig ,, 

f Mercury per bot, 

e Mica (in original oases) small . . per lb. 
e II II II medium „ 
e II n II large ., „ 

cf Silioium Bronze Wire .. .. per lb. 

r Steel, Magnet, in bars •• .. per ton 

« Tin, Block (English) 

n II Wire, Noa. 1 to 16 .. .. per lb, 



£14 
iei& 



i;is 




li to 1/4 




1/3 




1/6J 


Ud. dec. 


£lit, 




eur, 


i-15 deu. 


£1'» 


£15 due-. 


£100 


£17 dec. 


£161 




£11.1 


£17 dec. 


1/li 


IJd. dec. 



I)om. 

9d. to 4 U 

5,. to 10/- 

12,6 to 25-/ ft up. 



£1 dec. 
£1 dec. 
2V1. dec 



a O. Boor & Co, 
c Tbos. Bolton & Sons, Ltd, 
d Frederick Smith & Co, 
e F. Wiggins & Sons, 
f India-Rubber, Qutta-Peroha and 
Telegraph Works Co., Ltd, 



QaotatioDS supplied by— 



g James & Shakespeare, 

h Edward TiU & Co, 

I BoUing & Lowe. 

/ Richard Johnson & Nephew, Ltd 

n P. Ormi8toi^& Sons, 

r W. F. Dennis & Co, 



The Demand for Electrical Material in China. — The 

use of electric appUauces is naturally hmited to those citie.- 
and districts where electric power is obtainable, and the con- 
stant growth of this trade under these circumstances is pro- 
uiising. A gi'eat many electric power plants have been un- 
able to get machinery during the past year to take care of 
natural increases in consumption, and new contracts for cur- 
rent have been subsequently refused. With an increased 
import of appliances under such circumstances we can only 
infer to what size the business would have grown under 
normal conditions. The following figures show the increase 
in the value of the imports of electrical materials and fittings 
during the three years up to 1918: — 







1916. 


1916. 


1917. 






Haikwan 


Haikwan 


Haikwan 






tael^. 


taels. 


taels. 




Japan 


84.5,053 


1,699,111 


2,,563,557 


— 


United States 


314,403 


614,321 


908,960 




Hong-Kong 


259,585 


339,992 


381,287 


5 11 7 


Great Britain 


403,851 


710,744 


379,693 


7 11 5 

Nil 
Nil 


Canada 


3,181 


73,863 


58,941 


All otheir countries .. 


283,339 


130,681 


85,953 



Total imports .v 2,114,415 
Ee-export.s ... ''^ '"'"-'^ 



71,525 



3,568,712 
137,141 



4,.378,391 
351,148 



Net imports 



2,042,890 3,431,571 4,027,243 
— Journal of Electricity, U.S.A. 

Staggered Hours. — At a recent meeting: of the Boston 

section of the A.I.E.B., L. L. Elden, electrical superinten- 
dent of the Boston Co., said that to add 15,000 Kw. to the 
existing plant capacity during 45 winter days it would be 
necessa^ry to change the T-.orking homrs of about thirty in- 
dustrial plants only about thirty minutes. The above saving 
represents about one-sisth of the total estimated peak load 
of the Boston system for the winter. The comparatively, 
small change in closing hours required to realise so sub- 
stantial an increase in available station rating was something 
of a surprise to those investigating the possibilities. — EIbc- 
fncal World. 



Vol. 84. No. 2,147, January 17, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL EEYIEW. 



79 



INDUSTRIAL RECONSTRUCTION AND THE METRIC SYSTEM. 



[The necessary expansion of our export trade, coupled with the imminent establishment of new industries and of new 
standards in did industries, calls for a reconsideration of the claims of the international metric system as the universal 

language of quantity.} 



Bv HARRY ALLCOCK, M.I.E.E. 



EcoNOiMic considerations now render the expansion 
ol our export trade just as necessary in the national 
interest as was the production of munitions duriny 
the war. 

Great Britain is no lonyer the sole workshop of 
the world, and as most of the other producing 
nations are faced with the same economic problem 
it follows that international competition will be 
e.xceptionally keen. \\ e have not only to secure 
our re-entry into those overseas markets which 
have been temporarily lost during our concentra- 
tion on war work, but also to create new markets 
for British goods throughout the world. No effort 
must be spared, and all hampering influences must 
be eliminated. 

Hitherto the general charge has been frequently 
made that we have not sufticiently considered the 
convenience of our overseas customers, and tliat, 
in particular, we have hampered our own prospects 
by failing to submit our otters in the language of 
the country concerned. 

In this connection we are apt to forget that, 
although there are scores of spoken languages, 
there are no.w substantially onl}' two languages of 
quantity, viz., the British Imperial system and the 
international metric system of weights and mea- 
sures. 

If either of these systems were adopted by the 
whole world as the sole language of quantity the 
conduct of international trade woidd obviously be 
greatly simplified, and it is clear that Great Britain 
more than any other coimtr}' would benefit from 
such imifonnity due to her special dependence upon 
her world-wide export trade. 

Looked at from tins point of view, it would ap- 
pear that sooner or later Great Britain must aban- 
don the British Imperial system, because even its 
stoutest supporters would refuse to undertake the 
impossible task of inducing the world to adopt it. 

On the other hand, apart from its inherent ex- 
cellence as a system, the points in favour of our 
adoption of the International metric system mav 
be briefly summarised as follows : — 

1. Education. — The committee recently appointed 
by the Prime Minister to inquire into the position 
of Natural Science in the educational system of 
Great Bptain (Cd. 9,oii) reported: " That the pre- 
sent chaos of English weights and measitres causes 
waste of time and confusion of thought, and that 
there are strong educational reasons for the adop- 
tion of the metric system." 

2. Science and Industry. — The scientists of the 
whole world including those now working in the 
so-called " non-mietric " coimtries ha\x already 
adopted the metric system. The experiences of war 
have proved the advantages of close co-operation 
between the scientisit and the industrialist, and to 
that end it is desirable they should both work in 
the same system. 

3. Technical Progress. — The ordinary' rate of 
evolution in many industries has been accelerated 
by the experience of war to suich an extent that 
"the best practice" of pre-war days is already 
obsolete. Extensive "scrapping" of ' patterns, 
&c., is inevitable, and a unique opportunity of start- 
ing afresh .on the metric basis in thus provided. 

4. Commercial Progress. — Just as in labour 
matters both employers and employed now fully 
realise the impossibility of returning to pre-war 
conditions and practices, so also on the commercial 
side are British manufacturers now disposed to 



develop new industries and to set up new standards 
in old industries, instead of merely reverting to 
the output of their unaltered pre-war product.^. 
By basing all new developments on the metric 
system, manufacturers would help themselves as 
well as the nation. 1 

5. Overseas Constiiuers: — Our overseas custo- 
mers may be considered under three heads, viz.: — 

(a) OuiT Colonies. 
{b) Our Allies. 
{c) General. 

(a) Colonies. — This, trade is reasonably presen-ed- 
for us (no matter what system of weights and mea- 
sures we employ), both by ties of national sentiment 
and by the Govennnent's declared policy of Colonial 
Preference. It may also be observed that the 
Colonies have frequently expressed their desire to 
adopt the metric system whenever the United King- 
dom does so. In the Dominions Royal Commis- 
sion Report of 1917 the following statement with 
reference to the metric system was published : 
"There is clearly in the Dominions a considerable 
body of opinion in favour of the chang^e. So far, 
however, all efforts to induce the community of the 
Mother Country to agree to the change have proved 
unavailing." We should accordingly not jeopar- 
dise our Colonial trade by adopting the metric 
S3-stem. 

(b) Allies. — All our European Allies have already 
adopted the metric system, and by now followihg 
their lead in tltis matter we should not only en- 
courage them to entrust to British firms the'tem- 
porar}- work of restoring and re-equipping their 
waiT-damaged factories, but we should thereby 
foster a spirit of permanent alliance by promoting 
the development of inter-allied trade t6 its fullest 
possible extent. 

(c) General. — If we regard the peoples of the 
entire world as potential consumers of British goods 
we must necessarily adopt the international metric 
system, because its use is now obligatory in some 
34 coiuitries (representing approximately half the 
population of the world), and legally permissive in 
practically all other countries. 

In addition it is recently reported that Russia 
(where hitherto its use has been merely pemiissive 
as in England) has decided to render the employ- 
ment of the metric system comptdsory throughout 
that country after a short transition' period. 

Even if they strenuously object to the metric 
system, British manufacturers and merchants thus 
cannot avoid its use,, and the only escape from their 
present obligation to employ two systems — involv- 
ing increasing-ly frequent conversions from one 
to. the other — is for them to abandon the British 
system. 

In the face of these arguments, it may well be 
asked, " Why does Great Britain continue to post- 
pone her inevitable adoption of the metric 
system ? " 

" Objectioxs. 

Apart from our innate conservatism the principal 
objections hitherto advanced are here 'eiuunerated, 
together with a few comments under each head ; — 

I. That the use of the metric system, is already 
legally permissive in this country, and that it's 
alternative use side by side vith the British system- 
should result in the , ultimate iurvivd} of the better 
system zinthout compulsory legislation being in- 
troduced. 



80 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.84. No. 2,147, January n, 1919, 



The flaw in this argument is that it is impractic- 
able to have, for instance, two sets of scales in 
different systems in concurrent use on a shop- 
keeper's counter. The system in possession, how- 
ever bad it may be, will never disappear except 
under compulsion. 

2. That those who desire the introduction of the 
metric system should lead the way by conducting 
their own business solely in that system-. 

Without some clear indication that the Govern- 
ment will later enforce the general use of the metric 
system this suggestion is unreasonable, becauiSe 
our industries cannot be regarded as watertight 
compartments. Any industry so acting in advance 
of other industries and transport authorities with 
which it is in daily contact, would merely penalise 
itself by its vokmtary isolation. In this respect 
the position is analogous to that of the Daylight 
Saving Reform, from wliich no benefit could be 
derived until it was made compulsory. 

3. That the obligation to supply spare parts and 
renewals of machinery made to British measure- 
ments prevents British manufacturers from, nozu 
adopting the metric system. 

This objection evidently arises from an unwar- 
rantable assumption that our adoption of the metric 
system would necessarily involve altered dimen- 
sions of machine parts. Such is not the cause, 
because obviously any dimensions now expressed 
in inches and parts thereof can readily be expressed 
in millimetres and parts thereof. 

The suggestion that metric equivalents can only 
be shown by employing six figures or so after the 
decimal point is shown to be without practical 
foundation when we remember that a tolerance of 
even one-hundredth part of a millimetre (o.oi mm.) 
demands much more accurate work than is usually 
obtainable in our machine shops. Furthermore, it 
may be observed that equivalents expressed even 
so approximately as to the nearest whole milli- 
inetre — thus dispensing entirely with the decimal 
point — could not differ from the original Imperial 
dimensions, by more than one-fiftieth part of an 
inch, and evejn this degree of accuracy would suffice 
for the majority of dimensions excluding, of course, 
those of machine bearings and the like. 

Finally, it should be remembered that the obliga- 
tions to supply spare parts of existing machines has 
never yet prevented the progressive manufacturer 
from altering his designs from time to time so as 
to embody improved features. Many such changes 
are likely to be made at the present time, due to 
the war-accelerated evolution in technical progress, 
and to the new outlook of British manufacturers in 
the consideration of their peace programmes. 

4. That thf opposition of the textile trade is an 
insuperable objection. 

The British textile trade and its nomenclature 
claims to be so firmly established throughout the 
world that it is immune from the international com- 
petitive influences to which other British trades are 
subjected. Assuming this to be the case, it is, in 
itself, no reason why other less privileged British 
industries should be perpetually handicapped. 

The Swiss watch industry, which similarly held 
out against Switzerland's adoption of the metric 
system was accommodated by being specially 
exempt from the compulsory provisions of the 
Swiss Metric System Act. Ultimately the Swiss 
watchmakers reali'sed that they had denied them- 
selves advantages enjoyed by their fellow country- 
men, and tliey accordingly came' into line volun- 
tarily by themselves adopting the metric system. 

Furthermore, according to the recent report by 
the Committee on Commercial and Industrial 
Policy (Cd. 9.035): "Of the yarns exported in 
1913 about one-third was taken by Germany " 
• (already a metric country), and " rather more than 
half of the total exports of piece goods went to 
British possessions." None of this trade would be 



jeopardised by our adoption of the metric system, 
and in any case the sale of textiles in terms of the 
metric system is a relatively simple procedure 
already widely practised. 

5. That if we now adopted the metric system we 
should be at a disadvantage in competition with 
Germany. 

The metric system is not a German system, but, 
in spite of the anti-French sentiment then existing, 
Gerinany adopted the metric system from France 
immediately after the hVanco-Prusslan War. Since 
that time 24 other countries have likewise adopted 
what is now truly described as the International 
metric system, and we accordingly remain a " non- 
metric " country to our own serious disadvantage. 

If it be' argued tliat until they became expert in 
the use of the metric system British maiuifacturers 
and merchants would be at a disadvantage as com- 
pared with similar classes in Germany, it may be 
observed that such a temporary handicap must be 
faced sooner or later, and, this being' the case, it 
would be a positive advantage: for us to accept it 
now. 

At the present time the sentiment of the world is 
anti-Gennan, due to Germany's callous diisregard of 
international and human laws during the^ war. We, 
however, cannot rely on such a sentimental pro- 
tection favouring us indefinitely, and should there- 
fore act promptly, and get through our transition 
troubles before Germany is rehabilitated in the 
world's esteem. 

6. That while our trade with " metric " coun- 
tries might be stimulated we should jeopardise our 
trade with " non-m£tric " countries. 

This suggestion evidently arises from a super- 
ficial survey of official statistics which show that 
our pre-war exports to " metric " and "non-metric" 
countries respectively were approximately equal. 
This bare statement needs modification owing to 
the factors detailed above under the heading "Over- 
seas consumers." 

By eliminating the valueisi of oiir exports to ouir 
Colonies and to Russia from the " non-metric " 
side of the balance sheet, and by noting the prospect 
of closer trade relations wilth our European Allies, 
the volume of " non-metric " trade sinks into comi- 
parative insignificance. There is no evidence to 
show that any of our "non-metric" tradei would 
be jeopardised by our adoption of the metrit sysi- 
tem. 

7. That the United States still retains the British 
system. 

It is necessary we should appreciate that tlie 
manufacturers of the United States have hitherto 
been primarily concerned in supplying the needs of 
their own country and of the English-speaking 
"non-metric" coimtries comprised within the 
British Empire. 

The passing of the Webb-Pomerene Act (legalis- 
ing trade combinations for export purposes), and 
other indications, show that America now aspires 
to be an exporting nation in the widest sense, and 
it ils accordingly not surprising to find that Ameri- 
cans are now regarding the metric system with 
increasing favour. Vide appended extract from 
Board of Trade Journal, December 19th, 1918. 

There can be little doubt but that whether the 
United Kingdom' or the United .States first adopts 
the metric system, the other would rapidly follow, 
and, having regard to our relatively greater dei- 
pendence upon our export trade, it is obviously in- 
cumbent up'on Great Britain to make the first move 
although it would not be surprising to find the less 
conservative Americans taking the lead. 

Government Action Needed. 
Assuming that in the national interests, the ex- 
portation of manufactured goods must be increased, 
it is obviously the duty of the Government to faciH- 
tate international communications. 



Vol. 84. No. 2.147, jaxuasy 17, 1919.1 THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



81 



From the above notes it is clear that our use of 
the international metrit system would be a useful 
step in that direction. 

The Act of 1897 legalised the metric system in 
tliis countr}-. but experience has sho\\Ti that further 
Government action is required to bring it into 
general use. 

It is accordingly suggested that the Government 
should forthwith announce that, having regard to 
its desire to simplify education, to assist in the 
re-establishment of British industries on a scientific 
basis, and to promote the deveilopmeiit of British 
export trade, it has decided: — 

I. 'l"o encourage the more widespread uise of the 
international metric system both in the United 
Kingdom and in the British Empire generally by 
officially recommanding all British manufacturers 
hereafter engaging in new industries or introducing 
new standards into existing industries, to base their 
operations on the metric system on the distinct 
understanding that the Government will adopt that 
system as the sole legal system of weights and 

measures as and from fa date, say, 

five years hence) or upon such later date as Par- 
liament may then decide. 

2. To specify hereafter the requirements of all 
Trovemment Departments in terms of the metric 
system wherever possible, and to reconunend other 
public and semi-public buyers (e.g.. Home and 
Colonial Governments, mvmicipalities, railways, 
harbours, &c.) to follow their lead in the national 
interest. 

3. To require the railways and other transport com- 
panies to accept consignments of goods described 
in terms of the metric system without demanding 
a statement of British equivalents. 

4. To prepare the way for the complete chatige- 
o\er from the British Imperial system to the Inter- 
national metric system ; — 

{a) By forthwith extending the practice already 
adopted of establisliing metric standards by Order 
in Council, e.g., on October 14th, 1913, the metric 
carat of 200 milligrams was ordained the legal 
standard of weight for precious stones and pearls). 

(b) By forthwith abohshing all apothecaries 
weights in favour of metric weights throughotit the 
entire trade in fine chemicals and drugs. 

(f) By forth\\-ith abolishing many of the multiples 
of existing British units, and by requiring all quan- 
tities to be expressed of units of single units in- 
stead of in a complex of units, e.g., to express 
weight in lb. instead of in tons, cwt., qr., lb. 

5. To proliibit the modification of -existing 
British imits or the introduction of any new units 
other than metric units. 

6. To publish all official British trade statistics in 
tenns of the metric system, retaining for a few 
years their British equivalents where necessary. 

7. To require all scholars in public elementary 
schools to be efficiently taught the international 
metric system. 

8. To require all applicants for appointments ir; 
the Ciril Service and other Government Depart- 
ments to have a working" knowledge of the Inter- 
national metric system. 

9. To advise the Overseas Governments of the 
British Empire and of the United States of America 
that the British Government has decided to adopt 
the international metric system as its sole legal sys- 
tem of weights and measures, and to invite them to 
take similar action, so as to secure its establish- 
ment as the universal language of quantity at the 
earliest possible date. 

10. To act promptly along the above lines, so that 
British manufacturers and merchants may frame 
their peace programmes with full knowledge of the 
Government's intentions, and by their extended 
voltmtan.' use of the metric system anticipate its 
compulsory employment by the entire community. 



Extract from the Board of Trade Journal dated December 
ISth, 1913, page 781. 

United St.^tes of Amekica. 

International High Commission and the Metric System. 

" More extensive use of the metric system in the trade and 
commerce of the United States is recommended in a resolu- 
tion adopted by the United States section of the International 
High CommisKion, of which Secretary McAdoo is chairman, 
according to a statement issued by the Treasury Department. 
The statement follows : — 

"The Commission has regarded this subject as of parti- 
culai- importance in the United States. It is, of course, un- 
necessai-y for the United States section to recommend to the 
Latin-American sections of the CommLssion anything in con- 
nection with the metric system, which is exclusively in u.se 
throughout Latin-America. 

■" One of the main obstacles to documentary tmiformity as 
between the United States and Latin-.\merica. is to be found 
m the fact that the United States does not make the use of 
the metric system obhgatory, and consequently its consular 
documents have to allow the use of that system merely as 
optional. Any unifoim sj^stem of classifying merchandise, 
however, will require on the part of the United States 
thorough-going and complete adherence to the metric system. 
Use in Trade. — Of more importance than statistical and 
administrative questions is the use of the metric system in 
trade. Now that the United States is being drawn- into 
closer and more vital commercial relations by the rest of the 
world, and particularly with Latin America, her manufac- 
turers and exporters will be obhged, the report- states, to 
meet the demands of their prospective customers in a some- 
what more accommodating frame of mind than hitherto. 
Only the EngUsh -speaking nations still have to adopt the 
metric system of weights and measures, and among them the 
British Empire, or at least Great Britain, seems to be giving 
serious consideration to the necessity of making a change." 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINQS, 
AND PLANT. 

Feadern are invited to submit particvlars of new or improved 
devices and apparatus, which toill be published if considered of 
sufficient interest. 

An Electric Accumulator Shunting Locomotive. 

We illustrate herewth a new electric battery locomotive, 
recently built at the Hon\ich works of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway Co., which Ls now being used for shunting 
purposes at the company's electric power station at Clifton 
Junction. The motors are capable of hauling three loaded 
•20-ton coal wagons, or a load of 90 tons, on an inehne of 1 in 
189, in addition to the weight of the locomotive, which is 
17 tons 18 cwt. The locomotive was built in substitution for 
five electric capstans, and it is capable of dealing with twice 
the load at twice the speed, as compared with cai>stans, as 




Fig. 1. — Accumulator Locomotive uor Shunting. 

well as doing it at a lower capital and operating cost. The 
locomotive can be operated by one man, and, when the work 
is not continaons, this man can perform other duties, as 
the machine can be left mthout any attention, although it 
is ready at a moment's notice to perform shunting work. 
The equipment consists of two British Thomson-Houston 
motors, of 18 h.p. each, at hourly rating; the gearing has 
a ratio of 4.6 to 1. The battery consists of 120 Chloride i.m.v. 
6-t\T)e " Ironclad-Exide " cells, the capacity of which is 
71 Kw.-hour at the 4^-hour rate. The total weight of the 
battery is o.OtO lb. The type of cell used is that commonly 
employed by the Chloride Co. for road vehicles, but in this 
instance the ebonite containers are made with thicker walls 
than in cells of the standard pattern. It is claimed that 
if the working instructions are adhered to, a life of any 
thing up to 1,000 cycles of charge and discharge may bo 



82 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Vol.Sl. No. 2,147, January 17,191!'. 



expected from thia battery, and, with careful treatment, a 
mileage of 25,000 miles has been secured from similax bat- 
teries without any electrical repairs being necessary. The 
battery is divided into two parts, so that the two portions 
can be used in paj-allel, to give a voltage of 120, or in series 
to give 'MO volts. The capacity of the battery will admit 
of 3.2 hours' continuous shunting, or a 4-hour continuous 
JTm " light " on the level, at an average speed of 20 miles 
per hour. Duiing the dinner hour it is usual to give a 
boosting charge, which will give back to the battery 40 per 
cent, of its total eharfre, i~.iising the shunting capacity to 4} 
hours. The motors are controlled from the cab by a. series- 
parallel controller on the motors at 120 or 2-10 volts. " There arc 
ten notches on the controller for both voltages; the r20-volt 
supply is used for sluiiiting purposes, giving a speed of about 
4 J miles per hour, and the 240-volt supply for i-unning from 
jilace to place at 20 miles ix-r hour on the level. 'ITie tractive 
<'ffort at the tread of the wheel up to 2.3 mile^ per hour is 
.1, 40(^1 lb., and at 4 miles per hour 2,500 lb., at the hourly 
rating. The wheel.< are 3 ft. in diameter, spaced 9 ft. apart, 
and the total length over buffers is 21 ft. 11 in. The loco- 
motive is fitted with the vacuum brake as well as a hand 
brake. The vacuum is produced by means of a small elec- 
trically driven exhauster worked from either half of the 
battery. There is a commodious cab, and the engine has a 
vei-y neat and workmanlike appearance. 

Street Lighting at Oxford. 

Oxford is the first city in England in which the new form 
of illumination by Holophane refractor lanterns in conjunc- 
tion with gas-filled lajnps has been adopted for public light- 
ing. These refractor lanterns have been inti-oduced to solve 




Fig. 2.— H0L0PH.4XE Eefr.^ctor Lantern. 



the problem of securing imiform lighting and of reducing 
the diversity factor to a minimum. At Oxford the main 
streets are illuminated by medium-size Holophane refractoi- 
lanterns provided with 300-watt gas-filled lamps, on old ajc- 
lamp posts 22 ft. high. The spacing ratio varies from 7.9 
to 13, and the illuminating diversity factors from 7 to 17 




lantern refractor complete, and fig. 3 shows the refractor in 
section, indicating the application of the Holophane prin- 
ciple. The horiiiontal illumination recorded at the road 6ur- 
face is shown in fig. 5. 

The Holophane lanterns axe ma<le substantially of cast-iron, 
enamel-coated, green outside and white inside, and stove<l. 
They are weather-proof, and provided with ample ventila- 
tion, and they have no screws, hinges, or working paa-ts 
exposed to the weather. The refractors are made of trans- 
parent glass with prismatic refracting surfaces designed on 
the lens principle, allowing the light to pass through and 
directing the illumination in the diiection desired. They are 
in two parts, one fitting inside the other, the two portions 
being sealed together to make a dust and weather-proof 
union. The prisms or lenses being on the inside close to- 
gether, and the out.side and inside surfaces of the complete 
refractor being perfectly smooth, the lanterns can be cleaned 
easily. The refractors are very stout, and ain be roughly 
handled without fear of breakage. When fitted on the lan- 
teirns they can be easOy opened for replacement of lamps or 
lor cleaning purposes. Holophane refractoi-s have been in use 
for some time in connection with railway, dock, harbour, and 
other Go\'crmnent lighting schemes. The large saving eflected 
l)y the use of these lanterns in place of arc lamps, the avoid- 
ance of glare, acd the uniformity of illumination make them 
particularly suitable for street and other outside lighting. 
They are of British design and manufactm-e throughout, the 
makers being Messrs. PIolophane, Lin., of Westminster, 
S.W. 

New " Tricity " Oven. 

Our Ulu-stration, fig. 4. shows the new fonn of oven made by 
the British Electric Transformer Co., Ltd., Hayes, Middle- 
sex, which, now that labour' and materials have been re- 
leased, the company is placing on the market. The oven, 
whicii differs in several points from the oiiginal " Tiicity " 
design, was designed and tested some time ago, but due to . 
war conditions it has been in abeyance. The new oven, in 
which fixed side elements within the oven and solid lagging 
between the double sides have been adopted, has an internal 
capacity of 2J cu. ft., the loading being : Maximum, 1,350 
watts; medium, 750 watts; and lnw, .175 watts. 




Fig. 4.— New "Tricity" Oven 

Six 250-watt elements are fitted, two on each side at the 
bottom, and one on each side on the top; the elements are 
of the gQled type, the resistance wire being wound on mica 
strip and enclosed in caising. The elements stand out so as 
to throw heat direct on the food being cooked, and allow for 
circula.tion behind. They ai-e all easily replaced. The oven 
is made of sheet steel, having a cast-iron front and door 



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Fig. 3.— Eefr.actoh in Section. 



wnpiTniMTAI. DISTANCE, I'l rrPT 

Fig. 5. — Horizontal Illdminatick at Egad Surf.\ce in Oxford. 



respectively, the maximum illumination being 0.495, and 
the minimum 0.027 and 0.02S foot-candles at the pavement 
level. Pi-om these figures it will be seen that with this 
system a remarkable unifoiinity is obtained. There is an 
absence of glare, as with the refractor the virtual illuminant 
is increased to the size of the refractor. The posts are pit> 
vided with brackets for 60-watt gas-filled lamps and refrac- 
tor lanterns, for use after 12 p.m. Pig. 2 iHustrates the 



frame; the lagging is slag v\'ool, and the unit is complete with 
a cast-iron control panel consisting of 3-heat switch and 
" Zed " fuse. While the manufacture of the ovens is pro- 
ceeding, we understand that the company is in a difficulty 
with regard to switches, and until a supply of the latter is 
available the ovens will have to be kept in abeyance. It is a 
great pity that we should have to depend on suppUes from 
overseas for such an essentiaJ item. 



Vol.84. xo.2,i47,ja-nuarvi7, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



83 



THE USE OF HIGH-PRESSURE AND 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM IN LARGE 

POWER STATIONS. 



At Glasgow, on December 10th, Mr. J. H. Shaw's papei- 
(an. abstract of which appeared in our issue of July 19th, 
1918) was read and discussed before the ScomsH Centre 
of the IxsTrrDTio.v oi' Electrical Exgkeeks. 

Mr. W. .T. Poole said that turbine makers had anticipated 
the developments now under discussion. As far as boilers 
were concerned, makers could be relied on to take care of 
themselve-s, but when it came to pipe work ^nd accessories 
it was sincerely to be hoped that history would not repeat 
itself. The increase in temiserature proposed by Mr. 
Shaw was a veiy big one. Even now could anyone say that 
there was such a thing as an inch-valve suitable for, say, 
high-pressure drains which would behave satisfactorily for 
any length of time under a pressure of 450 lb., and a tem- 
perature which might vary between 100 and 700 deg. F.'.' 
He suggested the provision of adjustable tension rods, not 
across the expansion piece, but all the way between the 
stop valve and the main header. These tension rods would 
absorb the thrust., and would at the same time allow the 
expansion head to fulfiJ its proper function while maintain- 
ing the valve on the superheater and also the header at their 
relatively correct distance apart. 

Staif-Sergeant L. M. Jockel thought they might expect 
some developments for the improvement of the lower limits 
..f temperature and pressure. They required greater know- 
-edge of the metals employed, particularly in flanges and 
bolts. He had had considerable trouble even with 160 \h. 
pressure and '2<X) deg. .superheat in this connection, and 
thought this matter should be more stringently dealt with 
m specifications. The stress put upon bolts was unfair to 
anything but bolts of a sjpecial design. It would be unwise 
to jump to very high pressures and temperatures; for near 
future requirements '2.50 to 275 lb. per sq. in. and a total tem- 
pei'ature of 650 deg. I', was quite sound practice. The hne 
of development in turbines should be towards the two-cylin- 
der type, with separate h.p. and l.p. turbines. It was abso- 
lutely necessary to spht the turbine into two sections. The 
L.p. could be used alone in the event of emergencies, and the 
H.p. portion could be specially constructed to suit high pres- 
sure and temperature conditions, while the l.p. cylinder, being 
of double flow", would offer marked advantages in regard 
to blade reheving area and diminution of end thrust. 
The condenser water heads* could be deigned so that the 
tubes could be cleaned in sections without shutting down the 
turbine or the condenser itself. 

Mr. E. B. Mitchell said it would be interesting to know 
if the series of failures in America of large turbo-altemator 
sets had anything to do with high pressure or superheat.* 
The work which had been done at Rugby, and which was 
soon to be done at the North Tees station of the North-East 
Coast Supply Co., would no doubt go fai- to provide accurate 
data upon which further advances could he made. He 
agreed that the us*^ of higher pressures would mean the use 
of steam pipes of smaller diameter. Mr. Shaw's figirres for 
a ■20.000-KW. set at 200 lb. and 800 deg. E. gave the steam 
supply pipe as 14 in. in diameter. This seemed to be on the 
.-^mall side. The 15,000-mv. sets at Dahnamock station, which 
would be put into commission this year, would have 16-in'. 
pipes, and the pressure was to be "275 lb. at the boDer with 
700 deg. F. temperature. Whilst admitting that the bofler 
of the futiuv might be one of the flash type with no reserve, 
it was regrettable that it should be so, as a boiler which held 
;i good body of water was a great asset in a station where 
sudden peak loads had to be dealt with. He agreed that the 
old method of arranging for ring mains on steam-pipe sys- 
tems %\'as bad, and would be difiicult to maintain with 
jiresent-day pressures and temperatures, apart altogether from 
its inefficiency. With piping designed on the unit piinoiple, 
the author stated that " a small equalising main need only 
be provided at the end of the boiler house. The speaker 
took that to be meant for equalising purposes only. Would 
it not be well to have this pipe at least equal to the pipe 
supplying one turbine unit so that the overload capacity of 
the boDer could be utihsed to the fullest extent, and each 
section of boilers need not neces-sarily run its own tm'bine 
I inly? The size of the pipe connecting boUer-house sections 
;it Dalmamock was 16 in., although it was not designed quite 
'>n the unit principle, but one section of eight boilers fed 
mto a common receiver from which steam was supplied to 
two turbine units, and it was these receivers in each section 
of boiler house which were connected together by a 16-in. 
pipe. Steam pipes having welded flanges had given, in Glas- 
;;ow T.C. experience, excellent results at the moderate pres- 
sures and temperatures now in use, but there seemed to be 
a (X)ntrary opinion favouring riveted flanges. ' 

Mr. A. Page said he had worked out the overall efficiency 
loa! to units on the bus-bars for several of the cases given 
in the .schedule*. The highest on 100 per cent, load factor 
was 22. '2 per cent., and last year in the Glasgow area the 
efficiency of coal to units sold was only 8.6 per cent. There 
was ample room for improvement here in this direction. Mr. 

*See Elec. Rev., April 12th, and October 4th and 25th, 
1918. 



Shaw appeared to put the internal efficiency of the turbine 
rather Mgh, and the steam consumptions were certainly better 
than the figures given by manufacturers when quoting. The 
assumption of constant boiler-house efficiency in making cal- 
culations was hardly justified, and it would require a great 
deal of demonstration to convince engineers in the West_ of 
Scotland that a 28-in. vacuum could be maintained using 
cooling towers on a large scale. He was surprised to find 
that pipe manufacturers supported the retention of welded 
pipes and flanges. 

Mr. A. E. M'CoLL said power houses were at present em- 
ploying steam pressures much lower than those of Mr. Shaw'a 
figures, and with a lower boiler-room efficiency, they were 
obtaining overall heat efficiencies shghtly higher than those 
given by the author. While it was not clear that a good 
case could be made out for a jmnp to the maximum pres-' 
sures advocated, there was no doubt that an increase in pre- 
sent practice was just.ified. Engineers generaUy were con- 
tent with a good, instead, of the best, vacuum, and condensers, 
in many cases, were giving better vacua than the turbine 
could proi>erly deal with. A portion of the increased ex- 
penditure which the author advocated might profitably be 
employed in obtaining lower absolute pressirres where the 
facihties were available, and a better overall heat efficiency 
would result. This did not apply to stations having cooling 
towers, and there might be justification here for the em- 
ployment of the highest pressures. 

Mr. J. H. Sh.^w, in reply, said he saw no reason why 
st«am pipes should not be designed to take care of all the 
longitudinal stress. It was a wrong policy to do away vrith 
economisers and put in air heaters. As to ratio of water to 
steam, he had got 44, 45, and 46, though he did not think a 
designer would guarantee those figures. The breaking of bolts 
was due more to repetition of higher stresses than to high 
stress. Expansion joints were going to be one of the troubles 
with high-pressure steam. There was a lot to be said for and 
against welded flanges. 



TESTING FIAT ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES. 



As an example of the painstaking care necessary in electrical 
work, the methods adopted in the Fiat motor car factory are 
interesting. This firm decided that all its cai-s should have 
both electric Ughting and starting, and immediately set to 
work to build up an important electrical department. 

In every branch of the electrical works there is an in- 
spector who controls the quahty and workmanship of every 
article, according to a system common to the whole factory. 
In addition, there is a special laboratory foi- purely electrical 
tests. Thus, in order that there shall be no doubt as to the 
quahty of the insulation, every collector, armature, and 
^\inding is passed through a measuring appai'atus. The 




Fig. 1. — Fmt Electric Lighting Sets on Test. 

windings of the armatures of both djTiamos and motors are 
e'xamined in a special way by means of a magnetic field fed 
by an alternating current which induces a cuiTent in the 
single spirals, "rhese induced currents show by their in- 
tensity whether any defect exists in the armature winding 
or insulation. 

The individual component* having successfully passed their 
tests, the completed motor is mounted on a bjnch and tested! 
by means of an electromagnetic brake on the Pasqualini 
I».tent. During this test the motor is made to run imder 
maximum load. Following this there is a separate test_ of 
the engagement and disengagement of the starting pinion 
with the gears cut on the flywheel. Instead of a petrol 
motor, there is an electric motor fitted with a flywheel 
similar to that used on the cars. The i?tarting motor is 
clamped down to a bench, and the engagement of its pinion 



84 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,147, January 17, ISiy. 



wiHb the electric test motor is noted. The use of an electrio 
instead of a petrol motor for this test enables the resistance 
to be varied at will and provides complete accuracy of con- 
trol. After liavxng gone through the load and starting testa 
each starting motor is sent back for e.\i)ert examinataon. 

The cuncnt regulators, the cut-outs, electric horns, 
tremblers, all important accessories composed principally of 
a winding of fine wire with multiple (spirals, are examined 
separately with a view to prot>er insulation. The two main 
regulators aiie enclosed in a metal housing, to which the 
eleven wires for the lamps, horns, &c., are connected. After 
being adjusted, each regulator is inserted between a dynamo 
and a storage battery and practically tested in order to see 
that it operates correctly undei' varying engine speeds and) 
various intensities. 

The most interesting test is that which includes the dy- 
riamo. lamps, and all the electric instruments and the wiring. 
Sets of 14 dynamos are mounted on a sjiecial stand (fig. 1, p. 
8.'5), and are driven by their own belts from shafting. Each 
djTiaino supplies current through storage batteries to the full 
set of lamps used on the oaf, with the regulators, fuses, 
ammeter and voltmeter forming a part of the car equipment. 
In crther words, the complete equipment as it wOl be estab- 
hshed on the car is put under test. The dynamos are run 
a.t varying speeds, in order to correspond to the actual working 
on the car, for a period of two hours. During this time the( 
dashboard instruments, which are mounted on a bench op- 
posite the dynamos are subjected to as much vibration aa 
they would undergo with the automobile engine running at 
full speed. The Wbrations are obtained by attaching the 
instrument board to a shaft with an unbalanced flywheel. 

There is a final test which is only possible when the car 
manufacturer makes his own electrical appUances. The re- 
gulator and cut-out are mounted on the front of the dash- 
board, the ammeter and switch are mounted; aU the wires 
are cut to the right length and the terminals made, so thatl 
the dashboards go to the assembly shop with the electrical 
work fully completed. The assemblers merely have to bolt! 
the dashboard in position and connect the wires to then 
lamps, the dynamo, and the batteiT. But before these com- 
pleted dashboards are sent out of the electrical department they 
are tested by connecting up the wiies to a standard set of 
lamps, dynamo, and battery, and operating them for a short 
time. This avoids all possibility of a defective installation' 
finding its way to the assembly shops. 

Einally the road testers verify the geeeraJ working of the 
electric instaUatioos when the chassis are taken out for their 
general road tiials. 



NEW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, 1918. 

(NOT YET PUBLISHED.) 
Compiled expressly for this journal by Messrs. Sifton-Jonss, O'Dbll and 
Stkpubns (succe&sors to W. P. Thoiiip«on & Co., of London), Chartered 
Patent Agents, 285, High Holborn, London, W.C. 1. 



2i,549. '* Electrical heating appliances." J. G. Loza^o. December 23rd. 

21,559. " Electromagnetic drive lor wheels, pulleys, 4c." R. N. Lennox. 
December 23rd. 

31,561. " Telephone exchange systems." C. A. W. Hultman. December 
23rd. 

21,568. " Electric lamps, &c." J. BuRKI. December £3rd. (Switzerland, 
October 8th.) 

21.589 " Metallic conduits for electric wiring." F. S. Rippingiu-b. De- 
cember Mtb. 

21,5112. " Sparking plug tor explosion engines." R. Hureau & E. Ruillet. 
December 24th. (France, December 26th, 1917.) 

21,610. " Incandescent electric lamps for automobiles, &c." Butlers, Ltd., 
AND A. Reeves. Dectmber 24th. 

21,614. " Cut-out device for use in electrical installations." General Engi- 
neering Co. & A. QuiNN. December 24th. 

21,628. " Electric welding." J. B. Murrav & T. E. Mt;RRAV. December 
24th. 

21.631. " Electric welding." T. E. Murray. December 24th. (U.S.A., 
October 4th, 191/.) 

21.633. " Method of electric welding." T. E. Murrav. December .24th. 
(U.S.A., February 6th.) 

21.634. " Processes of electric welding." J. B. Murrav. December 24th. 
(U.S.A., March 22nd.) 

21.638. " Group-switching arrangements for automatic or semi-automatic 
telephone exchanges." C. A. W. Hultman. December 24th. (Sweden, De- 
cember 24th, 191-.) 

21,640. " Sparking plug." H. E. Brodekick. December 24th. 

21.643. " Luminous electric switches, bell pushes, &c." S. G. H. Long. 
December 24th. ^ 

21.644. " Electric switches." L. Benvbnuti & G. Cigolini. December 
24th. 

21,653. " Automatic temperature control for electric irons." S. L. Golds- 
BROUGii. December 24th, 

21,667. " Wireless telephone transmitters." L. B. Turner & R. H. VVag- 
.VER. December 24th. 

21.680. " Magneto-eiectrlc machines." A. M. Au-bn & R. B. North. De- 
cember 24th. 

21.681. " Interrupter devices for magneto-electric machines." A. M. Allen 
AND R. B. North. December 24th. 

21,698. " Generation of electricity." C. M. Walter. December 30th. 

21,731. " Railway-signalling apparatus." K. Cunningham. December 30th. 

31,769. " Direct-current converters." R. van Cauwenberche. December 
30th. (France, September 24th, 1917.) 

21,776. " Automatic electric water-heaters." G. P. Dennis & J. Law. 
December 30th. 

21.779. " Call indicator for telephone systems." Aittomatic Electric Co. 
AND .\l-tomatic TELEPHONE MANUPAtTTURlKo Co. December 30th. 

21.781. "Twin sparking plug." ]. Wilkib. December 3Dth. 

21,783. " Means for actuating Ignition magnetos for starting internal.com- 
bustion engines." J. SuiiH, December 30lh. 

21,804. "Sparking pluBi (or Internal-combusiion enginei," W. Stbap, 
Otcambsr SOth. 



21,807. " Electrical devices or motors." M. V. O'Learv. December SOth. 

21.811. " Method for transforming kinetic cnergv in gases into electrical 
energy, and manner for utilising Litter for carrying.out gas reaction." C. 
Petersen. December SOth. (Norway, January 8lh.) 

21.812. " Electric lamps." F. Lewis. December SOth. 

21.813. " Electric clocks." Covenirv Electric Clock Co. & T. Rushion. 
December 30th. 

21,815. " Lifting magneu." F. N. Pickett. December SOth. 
21,831. " Electric furnaces." E. Fenton. December SOth. 

21.862. " Article for preventing crossed wires, rods, &c.. vibrating or rub- 
bing on one another." S. W. I'emberton. December 31st. 

21.863. " Electric furnaces." E. Waring & W. Waring. December 31st. 
21,869. " Dynamos." H. Leitner. December 31st. 

21,894. " Electric arc furnaces." U. Magini. December 31st. (Italy, De- 
cember 31st, 1917.) 

21,897. " Construction of magneto-electric machines." G. M. Turner 
December 31sl. 

21,913. " Electric switches." E. Abegg. December 3Isl. 

21,:il4. " Electric switches." C. E. Foster. Dicember 31st. 

21,922. " Detection and generation of sound, &c., waves." R. A. Fessen- 
DtN. December 31st. (U.S.A.. December Slsi, 1917.) 

21,930. " Automatic telephone exchange svstem." W. C. Davev & Ster- 
ling Telephone & Electkic Co. December 31st. 

1918. 

lators." W. A. T. Twist. January 2nd. 

tch fuiei." F. G. Wakburton. January 
2nd. . ' 

65. "Submarine telegraph cables." F. G. Creed. January 2nd.. 
84. " Electrification of seeds and apparatus therefor." J. HEWE'rr & J. J. 
H. Sturmev. January 2nd. 

139. " Ignition systems." Davton Engineering Laboratories Co. Janu- 
ary 2nd. (U.S.A., January 2nd, 1918.) 

140. " Ignition systems." Davton Engineering Laboratories Co. Janu- 
ary 2nd. (U.S..\., January 2nd, 1918.) 

165. " Electric fuses." Simplex Conduits, Ltd., & L. M. Wateriiouse. 
January 3rd. 

200. " Obtaining single-phase alternating electric currents from three- 
phase and vice versa." A. M. Taylor. January 3rd. 

216. " Dynamo-electric machines." E. J. Harman & E. le Bas. January 



3rd 



Remy Electric Co. 



219. " Distributor devices (or ignition apparati 
January 3rd. (lU.S.A., April 4th 1917.) 

221. " Electrode holders." P. \v. Fawcbtt & J. Wightman. January 3rd. 

222. " Electric furnaces." P. W. Fawcett & J. R. Hovle. January 3rd. 
226. " Magnetos." Soc. DEs Meteurs S.U-mson (Systeme Canton-Unne). 

January 3rd. (France. January 23rd, 1918.) 

248. " Electrical resistance." W. Geary & L. Satchwell. January 4th. 

253. " Sparking plugs for internal-combustion engines." A. Wilkinson. 
January 4th. 

276. " Electric switch for burglar alarm." C. NissEN. January 4lh. 

293. " Electrical heating devices." J. P. Annacker & T. H. Rv,\N. Janu- 
ary 4th. 



PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS. 

The numbers \n parentheses are those under which the specifications will 
be printed and abridged, and all subsequent proceedings will be taken. 

191T. 

8.926. Method of and apparatus for the elbctri(:.\l treatment of gases. 
L. Bradley. June 21st, 1916. (107,369.) 

13,108. Appar-itus for heating water by electrjcity. J. H. Robinson and 
W. O. Workman. September 13th, 1917. (121,302.) 

13.136. Brush gear for electric dynamos and motors. J. C. Todnian, 
T. L. R. Cooper & A. A. Lyon. September 13th, 1917. (121,304.) 

14,654. Electhical cut-out. W. H. Illingworth. October 10th, 1917. 
(Cognate applicauon 6,007/18.) (121,305.) 

16,244. Electrical signalling systems. Sterling Telephone & Electric Co., 
F. G. Bell & W. C. Davey. November 7th, 1917. (121,308.) 

16,261. Electric accumulators. H. Leitner & W. H. Exley. November 
7th, 1917. (Cognate application 4,529/18.) (121,309.) 

16,475. Elecirically-heated clothing or fabrxs. Igranic Electric Co., 
A. H. Curtis & S. R. Wright. November 9th, 1917. (121,310.) 

16,581. Maximum-demand controller and load-indicator for BLBtn'Rlc 
POWER installations. C. C. Gow. No'vember 12lh, 1917. (121,312.) 

18,046. Commutators for dynamo-electric machines. H. Chitty. Decem- 
ber 5th, 1917. (121,320.) 

18,172. Engine starters. V. Bendix. December 7th, 1917. (121,324.) 

18,343. Miners' electric hand uvmps. A. H. Railing & A. E. Angold. 
December 11th, 1917. (121,337.) 

18,438. MuLTirLE elecikic switches. V. E. Joyce & Park Royal Engineer- 
ing Works. December 12th, 1917. (121,345.) 

18,442. Electric transformers. British Thomson-Houston Co. & F. W. 
Cooke. December 12th, 1917. (121,346.) 

18.497. Engine starters. F. B. Dehn (Eclipse Machine Co.). December 
]3lh, 1917. (121,349.)! 

18,683. Electric cable grips. W. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Co., W. 
H. Nichols & E. Moore. December 15th, 1917. (121,358.) 

18,963. Magnetos and like dynamo-electric M,\CHtNEs. J. F. Poynter. 
December 2Ist, 1917. (121,364.) 

1918. 

945. Method of and apparatus for m.wufacturing lead linings for 
accumulator boxes, cistern boxes, .ynd the like. W. G. Claughton and 
J. W. Claughton. January 17th, 1918. (121,383.) 

1,032. Electric relays. Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Co. & p. T. 
l?.ites. January 18th, 1918. (121,385.) 

2,572. Cooling of /U.ternatinc-current motors. W. F. Higgs. February 
13ih, 1918. (121,399.) 

3,883. Mechanism for regulating the electrodes of electric furnaces. 
\'. F. Turner & 'J. Walker. March 6ih, 1918. (121,409.) 

6,257. Electric welding and riveting apparatus. Thomas Spot Welder 
Co. October 8th, 1917. (120,028.) 

7,724. Machines for SLorriNC. commutators and other arhcles. F. E. 
Aurand. May 11th, 1917. (115,849.) 

8,574. Electric motor control. British Thomson-Houston Co. (General 
Electric Co., U.S.A.) May 23rd. 1918. (121,427.) 

10.201. Multiple-ftlament elsciric incandescent lAMPS. British Thom- 
son-Houston Co. (General Electric Co., U.S.A.) June 20th, 1918. (121,432.) 

10,462. System of electrically-indicating on board ship the depth of sea 
WATER. Y. Kawakita. June 2.5th, 1918. (121,434.) 

10,654. Electromagnets. M. H. Goldstone. June 28th. 1918. (121,435.) 

14.943. Method of electric-u. treatment of cases. L. Bradley. June 
Slbt. 1916. .(Divided application on 8.926/17.) (119,236.) 

14.944. Apparatus for the electrical treatment of oases. L. Bradley. 
June 21st, 1916. (Divided application on 8,926/17.) (119.237.) 

14,947. Method op and apiiarafus for the electricai, trbatment op oases, 
I,. Bradley. June g)>l, 1916, (Divided application on 8,986/17.) (n9,«38,) 



TUB 



E1XjEOTI2/IOJLXj 12/E'VIE-W. 



Vol. LXXXIV. 



JANUAET 24, 1919. 



No. 2,148. 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Vol. LXXXIV.] 



CONTEXTS: January 24, 1919. 



[No. 3,148. 
Page 



The E«-Settlement of Officers 

" May I Start a New Electrical Buainees Yet .' " 

National Electricity Supply 

The Taainingr of Enffineer Officers 

The Future of the Electrical Industry ... 

Wireless in the War {iUux.) 

The Electrification of Seed, by H. H. Dunn 

British Electrical Trade in China, by M. Smith 

Xew Electrical Openingrs for British Manufacturers ... 

Xational Electricity Supply ... 

Correspondence — 

Electrical Contractingr 

The Shorter Workinfr Week... ... 

A Protective Association for Xon-Technical Officials 

Engineer Surveyors' Salaries 

Electrical Enpineerin? in the Army 

Electricity Supply Pi-op:ress ... 

The " Taylor " System 

Station Enjrineers and Representation 
Business Notes ... ... ... 

The Electrical Trades Benevolent Institution 

Notes 

City Notes 

Stocks and Shares 

Exports and Imports of Electrical Goods during October, 

November and December, 1918 

Electricity Supply Progress in War Time (sontinued) 

Carbon Brushes : Considered in Relation to the Design and 

Operation of Electrical Machinery 

The Navigational Magnetic Compass Considered as an Instru- 
ment of Precision, by JI. B. Field (ithj.i.') (continued^ 

New Patents Applied for, 1918 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 

Contractors' Column Advertisement page 



95 
9« 
06 
97 
97 
98 
104 
104 
lOli 
106 

107 
107 

108 

110 

112 

112 

xxiv 



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TO " ELECTRICAL REVIEW" READERS. 

Owing to the continued increase in the circulation 
of the ELECTRICAL REVIEW in recent months, an 
increase which has becKime accelerated since the 
signing of the Armistice, we cannot guarantee that 
casual copies will be available. The only way to 
make sure of securing a copy regularly as issued, is 
io place a definite order with a newsagent, or else 
to subttcrlbo direct Io the Publisher, ELECTRICAL 
REVIEW, 4, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 4. 



THE RE-SETTLEMENT OF 
OFFICERS. 



One of the biggest problems in connection with the whole 
subject of demobilisation is : " What shall we do with our 
officers ? " To sing their praises in superlatives is needless 
to-day— 'twere but to paint the lily ; the long record of 
their brilliant and self-sacrificing achievements has already 
covered them with glory. The question now is not so 
much what do we think of them : nor is it what are we 
going to give them— that is settled np to a point nationally, 
and they do not ask our sympathy. As in the case of the 
private, so in the ca.se of the officer — perhaps more so ; " he 
does not want your sympathy— find him a job." Suitable 
employment and training for employment— these we are 
under solemn obligations to provide them with. It is stated 
that there are 400,000 men " of the officer type," and that 
they represent practically the best brain-power of the nation 
between the ages of 18 and 45, or thereabouts. It is useless 
pretending that the signing of the Armistice found us ready 
with properly developed plans for this or any other part of 
the work of general demobilisation. We had talked much 
about what we were going to do, and had put many things 
down on paper, but, as we have frequently stated, in refer- 
ring to the aspirations and visions of reconstructors, some 
little thing may occur at the vital moment to junible up the 
whole mosaic. Yet there can be, to our minds, little doubt 
about it that demobilisation along industrial lines is the 
sanest, because it is the safest course, and we believe that it 
will not be difficult to persuade the men to see it so, and to 
acknowledge that it is in their own interest. We welcome 
this week the publication of a new pamphlet. No. 12, of the 
" Reconstruction Problem " series issued by the Ministry of 
Reconstruction, because it puts forward fully and fairly the 
whole subject of the re-settlement of Army and R.A.F. 
officere. We consider it to be the duty of every employer and 
of every manager to secure a copy, and study the difficulties 
of the problem at once. We hope also that a copy will be 
put into the hands of each of the whole 400,000, while those 
who are interested in the future well-being of any particular 
officer will be unwise to overlook it. In this vast army of 
officers, as this pamphlet states, are comprised the whole 
Tniversity and Secondary School class, as well as the 
pick of the brains outside that class — " men who were 
.selected from their fellows by reason of their intelligence, 
capabilities, and qualities of leadership." No doubt a very 
large number of them are " pivotal " men badly needed in 
business and the professions, but many of them were never 
in any business or profession at all when they joined the 
Colours. Perhaps a large percentage of them were at 
college or school, and the years spent in the Forces are 
those which would otherwise have been devoted to efforts 
to launch out upon a career in life. Speaking generally, 
the man who was singled out for his intelligence, 
capabilities, and leadership in the Army should be a very 



[S5] 



86 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. S4. No. 2,148, January 24, 1919. 



desirable man in civil employment, as calculated to assist 
the nation in the direction of increased efficiency. Who 
denies the need for such qualifications in commerce and io 
industry to-day ? TVe used to have interesting discussions 
in the old days regarding the suitability of university men 
for business ; well, we ought to have no difficulty in finding 
them if we want them now. But the problem is not one merely 
of university or secondary school men. There are others 
who were in very different circumstances, and were raised 
from the ranks on natural or acquired merit, which in their 
humbler civilian circumstances they had been denied the 
opportunity of developing. They will not return to civil 
life the lads or men that they were, and in many cases, 
though they have been deprived of years of business 
training, experience, or education, they may return to other 
positions in the same businesses fitted to fill far more 
responsible duties. For example, even an office Iwy of 
wayward ways may speedily develop the aptitude which may 
fit him for successful service " on the road " after he has 
got right down to the ways of the business with the older 
intelligence and the initiative that the Army ways may 
have encouraged in these years of impressionable mind. 
We suppose there is hardly a business in the country where 
this question is not exercising the minds of those in 
authority. They saw the lad leave them perhaps raw and 
timid ; watched his progress under the influence of the 
training camp ; noted the change in the tone of his 
correspondence ; observed Vith pride and satisfaction the 
soldierly bearing, the quickness and the " liveliness " 
of the " boy " ; welcomed him home from the 
Front with the older atmosphere of a maturer thought- 
fulness and seriousness. And now the prospect of the 
return of the officer of " intelligence, capability, and 
leadership" to the "place kept open" is before them. 
It goes without saying that the conditions of industrial, 
commercial, and professional life have not altered in such 
a way that a large proportion of the 400.000 men can be 
absorbed under such circumstances that they will be able to 
continue the social position that distinguishes the officer 
from the general run of the men in the ranks — wealthy men 
and men of position as the latter have often been. Some 
hardness of lot is inevitable in cases, though it will be 
softened for a time by the gratuity provision. They will 
be assisted more satisfactorily from the national point of 
view, and in their own permanent interest, by the system of 
training and education that has been established as part of 
the policy of resettlement. Buf the early perplexity of 
some men arises from the doubt concerning the kind of 
career that they ought to adopt. They have arrived at 
years when they, in the ordinary course of events, would 
have practically completed their training. With the utmost 
goodwill in the world towards such we cannot but endorse 
the wise words contained in this pamphlet where it says : — 
" The average young officer . . . will be spared many dis- 
appointments if he makes up his mind to the fact that he 
has to make a new start, no longer as a cog in a vast 
machine, but as a competing individual." No longer will 
his pay automatically stand to his account at Cox's ; " from 
the day the physically fit officer puts on civilian clothes he 
has to fight his own battle for his bread and butter. His 
earnings will be proportionate to his value as a civil 
worker." " It is not likely that there will be many 
• cooshy ' jobs to be stepped into — the competition will be 
too keen. Training, education, character — tliese are tlie 
factors that are going to count." 

It is well that the situation should be put thus frankly. 
The man who has fearlessly faced the Enemy will not be 
downhearted as he comes up against this difficulty. He 
will not have to go alone, for the Ministry of Lalxiur 
established about a year ago an "Appointments Depart- 
ment " to advise candidates as to the career for which they 
are best qualified, to provide information regarding methods 
of training, and to bring employers and those seeking em- 
ployment together under favourable conditions. This reads 
very encouragingly, and perhaps when the Department is 
able to deal with matters along the lines of these aspirations 
we shall make good progress. It may not, from what we 
hear, be working very efficiently yet, but it will need tn 
hasten' its improvement if it is to contribute that assistance 
in guiding men to their proper destiny that we all desire it 



to contribute. Everyone must recognise, however, that no 
Government Department, whatever its degree of efficiency 
or its wealth of good intention, can ever achieve great 
things in so difficult a matter unless there are present two 
things : — (1) A determination on the part of employers to 
afford suitable opportunity for men to qualify themselves 
and a willingness to give the spirit of enterprise free scope 
in connection with their businesses ; (2) a due appreciation 
by the men of the necessity for making one more gallant 
effort — namely, to equip themselves for a new career by 
taking advantage of the facilities provided for their educa- 
tion and training. 



"May I Start 

a New 

Electrical 

Business Yet?" 



From a number of inquiries that have 
reached us during the last few weeks, we 
judge that some of our readers are un- 
certain whether they are yet free to open 
new businesses. We are not at all sur- 
prised, for it is not easy to keep oneself fully informed 
regarding the multitude of official notices concerning the 
withdrawal of restrictions. The Press, which during the 
period of hostilities suppressed so much interesting informa- 
tion by desire of the Censorship authorities, is not able t<i 
devote much space to present-day matters for which the 
Government desires publicity. The result is that unless the 
public read many daily papers, or make a regular study of 
either the London Gazette or the Board of Trade Jovrnnl, 
they don't know exactly where they are. The with- 
drawal of restrictions, speaking generally, is most 
welcome, and most of our readers would be thank- 
ful if the pace of their retreat could be accele- 
rated : but steadiness must be assured as far as 
possible. There are very good grounds why electrical 
men want to get rid of all restrictions on business develop- 
ment. We are all on the tip-toe of expectation. There is 
much leeway to make up, and there are new opportunities 
presenting themselves of which we want to take advantage. 
The withdrawal of restrictions on the carrying out of new 
electrical installation work has, naturally enough, induced 
contractors to get a " move on " with their plans for 
resuming ordinary business operations. The demand for 
power for munition works having fallen off, domestic and 
non-munition industrial work can be considered by the 
supply authorities ; but the many contractors who are with 
the Forces, and whose businesses have been left in other 
hands to be kept alive, or have been closed temporarily 
in their absence, would not like to know that their business 
interests were to be further jeopardised by new competi- 
tion because they are not fortunate enough to secure 
early demobilisation. As our " Business " pages have 
shown, a number of such men have returned, and 
probably more will speedily follow as " pivotal " or " one- 
man business" men; but electrical men of certain types 
are still required with the Forces for particular duties. 
Notwithstanding these circumstances — and, of course, these 
men will have our sympathy, and, we hope, our practical 
consideration — there should soon be good work for electrical 
contracting businesses, of both the larger and the smaller 
descriptions. This opportunity ha-s been recognised by 
several of our correspondents who want now to " make good," 
and they therefore ask what they are at liberty to do. The 
answer to their chief question is that the Retail Business 
(Licensing) Order of 1918 is still in operation. This Order 
prohibits the opening of any retail business without a 
licence issued by, or under the authority of, the Director- 
General of National Service being obtained. Where there 
is near at hand a closed or affected business of another 
electrical man who is with the Forces, there is, we should 
suppose, little chance of the licence being granted, but 
where there is virgin soil, possibly the Director-General 
would give the applicant every consideration, because pre- 
sumably he is concerned, as everybody else ought to be, 
in assisting developments which will help the return to 
normal trading operations, and will provide employment for 
some of the vast bodies of men whose period of " national 
service " may be expected to come to an end before very 



Vol.84. no.2,hs,jakuakv2^, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



87 



At last the report of the Committee 
National formed by the Institution of Electrical 
Supply/ Engineers to consider the proposals for 
the reorganisation of electricity supply 
has come to our hands, and we reproduce it in extenso 
elsewhere in this issue. We are glad to find that its recom- 
mendations are in harmony with the views that we have 
e.xpressed as to the necessity of the immediate appointment of 
the Board of Commissioners, and that, unlike the various 
reports on the Reports of which we have published abstracts 
during the past few months, it is a thoroughly practical, 
business-like, and impartial expression of well-considered 
opinion. The proposal to appoint live Commissioners is 
approved, but, in accordance with the strong feeling which 
has been evinced in the country, it is advised that all of them 
be permanent or appointed for long periods, and independent 
of all other interests, and that the appointments be made 
sufficiently attractive to secure the very best men in the 
country. It is urged that general legislation to set the 
business of electricity supply on a new basis is impracticable, 
and that the most urgent necessity is to appoint the Com- 
missioners as an advisory board, to guide undertakers in 
carrying out new developments, and to advise the (jovern- 
ment on legislative matters connected with the electrical 
industry. It is interesting to note that the Committee 
would grant no administrative powers to the Commissioners, 
who apparently would take over the duties of the Board of 
Trade and the Home Office, but would exercise no initiative 
except through Parliamentary action. 



The publication of om- leading article 
The Training of ^^ j^^^ ^^^gj. ^^ ^^^ subject of electrical 
Engineer Officers. , . ■^ , 

engineering in the Army, has elicited 

further information which, while it amply confirms our 
main contention — " that in future electrotechnology in the 
broadest sense ought to form an essential part of the training 
of a Royal Engineer officer " — also indicates that the con- 
ditions obtaining on our side of the trenches had a good 
deal to do with the differences between the methods adopted 
by our Engineers and by the enemy. For instance, we 
understand that on the British Front there were few, if any, 
large generating stations within reasonable distance of the 
fortified areas, the only large supply undertakings in the 
western districts being those situated at the Channel Ports : 
the Huns, on the other hand, were in possession of such 
industrial towns as Lille, Douai, Laon, &c., and of the coal ■ 
fields of Northern France and Belgium, which greatly 
facilitated the develo])ment of electricity supply in the 
occupied districts. Further, the Huns made a point of 
destroying the French towns on our side of the line, whilst 
we abstained from shelling the French towns in German 
hands, out of consideration for the interests of our Allies. 
Hence it was far easier for the enemy to carry out extensive 
schemes of electricity supply than for ourselves. But 
where more favourable conditions prevailed — as at the 
ports above mentioned — not only did our Engineers make 
use of the existing plant, but they also carried out exten- 
sions on a considerable scale, and developed the use of 
electric light and power in base hospitals, laundries, 
bakeries, workshops, ttc. While our statements with 
regard to the use of large numbers of small petrol-electric sets 
were correct in respect of the acti\e Front, where much of 
the work had to be done under emergency conditions, better 
arrangements were made in the more stable areas out of 
range of enemy operations ; as far as possible the small sets 
were replaced by oil-engines and dynamos of suitable 
rating, on a semi-permanent basis, and in many cases the 
local A.c. supply was brought into use, some 200 trans- 
formers, aggregating about 7,500 k.v.a., having been 
supplied for this purpose during the last 18 months of the 
war. In order to comply with local requirements, a con- 
siderable amount of high-pressure underground cable was 
laid in preference to overhead mains, but the latter were 
employed freely in the back areas. 



Apparently some of the most serious difficulties met 
with by the Royal Engineer officers in charge of such 
work — who were professional engineers in civil life before 
the war — were due to the factor to which we directed 
attention in our issue of January 10th— the predominance 
of direct-current practice in this country. Owing to this 
circumstance, the supply of high-pressure insulators was 
extremely scanty, and it was equally difficult to obtain 
electricians acquainted with a.c. work. Transformers of 
suitable voltages were also uot readily obtainable, and our 
standard types of switchgear, &c., while admirably adapted 
for permanent home installations, were absurdly out of 
place under war conditions. As time went on, these diffi- 
culties were overcome ; and when the Armistice was signed 
((uite a ntimber of schemes were under way which, if they 
had been completed, would have put a different complexion 
on the appearance of our electrical practice at the Front. 

We made it clear in our first article* that it was not our 
intention to reflect on the professional ability of our Royal 
Engineers — our explicit purpose was to jx)int out the 
defects which had been revealed in the system under which 
they were trained ; as we then pointed out, those defects 
could be made good by commissioning men who in civil life 
were engaged in such work, provided that they were given 
a free hand ; and where this was done, excellent results 
were obtained. But it was naturally difficult for the officers 
in high quarters, trained under the old system, to appreciate 
the point of view of the professional electrical engineers, 
and to realise the importance of adopting modern methods. 
We are glad to think that this difficulty also has been 
largely overcome, and but for the sudden cessation of 
hostilities we should have seen a great improvement in 
electrical practice at the Front. 



Tlie Future of 

the Electrical 

Industry. 



It hardly needs arguing to-day that the 
electrical industry is a " key " industry. 
Our readers know it ; we believe that the 
official mindthat has had to investigate such 
matters knows ; we believe also that even the general public 
knows a little bit about it, though whether it understands the 
real importance of the electrical industry to the industrial 
and common life of the United Kingdom, and to the security 
of the entire Empire, we are in some doubt— it never has 
been taught the lesson. The Branch Committee of the New 
Engineering Industries Committee of the Ministry of Recon- 
struction is composed of men in direct connection with the 
electrical industry, and their findings should carry weight 
with all— the industry itself, the official mind, and the 
public. But the public must be brought to know somehow 
what those findings are, and the reasons for them. Their 
heads are too full of other things just now— so are the 
columns of the daily papers, and the technical Press they 
.seldomread. We reproduce the report of the Electrical Branch 
Committee, in full, on another page of this issue. Tlie chief 
conclusion arrived at is that, in order to secure the full 
development of the electrical industry, whether in existing 
or new lines, there must be some measure of Go\'ernment 
protection in the home markets against dumped and sweated 
goods. We commend the complete statement to the careful 
attention of all our readers. There is no department of 
British industry for which the prospects are more brilliant 
than the electrical branch, provided that the safeguards 
against ruthless attack from outside are adequate. Anti- 
enemy sentiment will not die at once, but that alone will 
not suffice. We may, through the Peace Conference, be 
brought into nodding acquaiotance with Germans again 
when they are committed to paying the full price for all 
their crimes. Nobody can yet foresee where Bolshevism 
and Socialism will leave them or the peoples of any other 
nation ; but their efforts to secure their export trade 
position may be expected to be as enterprising and 
unscrupulous as in the past. We, have got to be prepared 
against that. 

* EleotbioaIi Bstibw, May 21th, 1918. 



88 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 84. No. 2,h8, Ja.nuabv 24, i9iu. 



WIRELESS IN THE WAR. 



Sdioulab indeed it is t» reflect that but for our command 
of wireless telesrraph.v, the British Empire, long ere this, would 
have been rent asunder, and we ia these islands would have 
been writhing, crushed under the heel of the brutal Hun. 
Yet it is absolutely true. That wireless communication 
has played an important part in every field of war is, of 
course, a matter of common knowledge ; not only have its 
functions been important, but also its ojxn-ations have been 




[French Official. 

KiG. 1.— Wireless Station at Mktz. 

in the highest degree romantic — to it were entrusted on a 
thousand occasions messages of world-wide interest, of the 
most tremendous import : by wireless the outbreak of war 
was proclaimed, the signing of the Armistice was announced : 
the despair of the heroes of Kut — the surrender of the 
Turks ; the arrogance of the German High Command 



have been averted, and this country would inevitably have 
been starved into submission, despite the utmost eflforts on 
the part of our glorious Navy. 

To recapitulate the numberless services that have been 
rendered to the nation by wireless telegraphy— and tele- 
phony — during the war would be impossible ; it wsis active 
and effective over land and water, in the air, and (we are 
now told) even below the surface of the sea. 

.Just as the art of aviation has been developed by four 
years' warfare out of all knowledge, so have astonishing 
advances been made in the technology of wireless tele- 
graphy and telephony, so that contiimous communication 
ciui be maintained even with aeroplanes, in spite of the 
deafening roar which prevents ordinary conversation when 
aloft, and airmen can actually call up telephone subscribers 
in their own offices and talk to them. 

We are all anxious to learn the details of the new methods 
which have been developed, but no doubt we shall have to 
wait until the seals have been attached to the Treaty of 
Peace. In the meantime, let us not forget the debt which 
we owe to the science, and let us congratulate ourselves that 
Mr. Marconi, when he arrived in this country as an un- 
known young man with a mysterious " box of tricks," was 
not disheartened by the lack of enthusiasm for his proposals 
with which he was met in official circles, but persisted in 
the evolution of wireless telegraphy within our borders 
despite all obstacles until success crowned his efforts, with 
the result, fortunately for us, that when war broke out this 
country led the world in the development of wireless com- 
munication. 

The Germans were not far in the rear : they made the 
most extensive use of wireless telegraphy throughout the 
war, and had it not been for " circumstances beyond their 
control," it would have been of priceless value to them in 
destroying our commerce ; their communication with 
their colonies was maintained in each case until we were 




ch OfflewlA 

Fio. 2. — Base of Lattice Mast. 



(French Official. 

Fig. 3. — PoDLSES Transmitting Appabatus. 



informed the world that the Allied cause was lost — the 
United States Government declared itself on the side of 
civilisation and liberty ; but, above all, and most important 
of all, the British Navy maintained communication with 
its innumerable component elements in every part of the 
world. And that is why we say that the role of wireless in 
the war was of pre-eminent importance to the Allied cause 
■ — for without it the submarine menace could not possibly 



actually able to seize the stations or to compel the staff to 
destroy them. We are told that a German airship made a 
trip from Bulgaria to the Cameroons to carry ammunition 
to the enemy, but on arriving there was warned by the 
wireless station that the game was up, and returned home 
without landing —a remarkable achievement. We illustrate 
herewith a trophy of historic interest — the wireless installa- 
tion at Metz, which has been reoccupied by our French 



Voi.si. xo.l>.i4s.jancarv 24, i<u9.] THE ELECTKICAL KBVIEW. 



89 



-7' 



Allies, after an alienation of nearly half a century. The 
station itself is built below ground level, as shovm" in one /'' 
of our views (fig. 1) ; there are two aerials, one supported on *' 
timber mast, the other on the peculiar " Eendahl " mast of 
steel lattice work, of which the base is illustrated in fig. 2. 
The wooden mast is 300 ft. high, and tapers from 32 sq. in. 
at the base to 12 sq. in. at the top;-, it stands on a concrete 



THE ELECTRIFICATION OF SEED." 



By H. HAMMOND DUNN, F.L.S. 




Fig. 4. — Telefcsken Tbassmittisq Station. 



^H 




^1 


^^wJm* ^***^ 


PP 


^^^1 




^^^pl^^ 


HBs! 


' 


^^H 




^Kf 




f-^ 


RH^^ 


R^Siiim 


Bl ^S^^ 


1 ^\ 


i^H ■'^9^B 


nfluyi 


^^ 


^^'' 


j^ 


HI 




K^EwA. 


^g 


y 



Fig. 5. — Receiving Apparatis. 

block. The steel mast is built up of triangles of steel 
tubing, making a very light structure, 80 metres high. 
Other views show the Telefunken and Poulsen transmitting 
sets, and the receiving apparatus. 



Underwater Wireless. — A dispati-h to the New York 

Tiuie>' states that Navy Department officials have discloped how 
undercfround and throusrh-water wireless has been put to practical 
use durinjr the war. This was heretofore a carefully g^uarded 
secret. This development resulted from the private research of 
James H. Roprers. of Hyattsville, Maryland. In practical use the 
new system has so far been employed only in receivinsr messages. 
Radio messages sent from powerful stations in Europe are being 
read at underground receiving stations in the United States in 
some cases better than when caught by elaborate and expensive 
air stations. By the adaptation of the Rogers theory submarines 
under water can intercept radio signals sent from shore, and with 
a crude apparatus the scientist succeeded in transmitting signals 
2 miles from a submerged wire simulating a submarine. Officials 
state that it is possible that underground and water transmission 
can be developed to a considerable extent. — Pall Mall Gazette. 



Three years ago my attention was drawn to a series of 

field experiments which were being conducted on Mrs. 

Duke's estate at the village of Godmanstone, near 

Dorchester, with cereals, the seed of 

which, previously to being sown, had 

been electrically treated. 

I got in touch with the inventor of 
the process, Mr. Henry E. Fry, who re- 
sides in the village of Godmanstone, and 
found that he had been experimenting 
with electrified seed, and had come to the 
conclusion that he had achieved success. 
On the eve of the following harvest, I 
accompanied a few well-known agricul- 
turists on an inspmction of crops grown 
from electrified seed, and the marked 
difference between the produce of the 
treated and the untreated fields of oats 
and wheat convinced us " that there 
was something in " Mr. Fry's invention, 
which he had patented under the title of 
" The Wolfryn Electrochemical Process." 
Some five plants for the treatment of 
electrified-seed corn were installed by 
the beginning of 1918, the largest being 
at Poole (Dorset). The seed is treated 
by being placed jn a tank containing 
liquid chemicals. The lank is connected, 
up to the electric supply, and immediately! 
the seed is placed in the tank the elec-j 
tricity is turned on, and passes through! 
the grain, the process continuing from 
three-and-a-half to six hours, according! 
to whether the seed corn is barley, wheat, 
or oats. At the expiration of the period 
required to treat the seed, the ctirrent is 
switched off, and the grain is conveyed 
from the tanks to a kiln — up to the 
present a malt-kiln has been found the 
best — and is^dried. at _an . even tempera- 
ture. The seed is then sacked up and 
sent out to the farmer. 

Xearly 2,000 acres of electrified-seed 
corn were harvested in 1 9 1 8. One farmer 
grew as much as 300 acres, whilst others 
ranged downwards to as low as one acre. 
So much has been said in the past 
concerning the application of electricity 
to farm crops, that it was only to be 
expected that a considerable amount of 
interest would be taken in the results 
< French oguiai. of the 1918 harvest of grain grown 
from electrified seed, and much criticism 
brought to bear on the process. 
At the end of .July and the first week in August I had 
the pleasure of conducting three parties on a tour of inspec- 
tion of some of the crops grown in Dorset from electrified 
seed, and they included, amongst others, representatives of 
the Governments of the United States of America, India, 
South Australia. Brazil, and Japan, several well-kno'sjn 
agriculturists and representatives of the London daily and 
agricultural Press. 

A few days later an investigator — not appointed by the 
patentees nor liy any person interested in the process — came 
into Dorset, and took measurements of the standing corn, 
which was cut in his presence, and he afterwards conducted 
the threshings himself. The results of his investigations 
were as under :-•— 

Mr. W. W. Lovelace, Piddlehinton, Dorchester, gain on wheat 
from the produce of electrified corn over untreated, 12 bushels per 
acre. 

Mr. C. Foot, Bincombe, Dorchester, gain on wheat, 6i bushels 
per acre. 

Mr. H. J. Cake, Burton, Dorchejter, gain on barley, 16 bushels 
per acre. 

Mr. W. W. Lovelace, Pidd'ehinton, Dorchester, gain on oats, Sj 
bushels per acre. 



90 



THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,148, January 24, 1919. 



Mr. H. Legg, Blashenwell, Oorfe Castle, gvin on o«ta. 18 bniheli 
per acre. 

Messn. S. 4 H. Smith, RoUington, Corfe Castle, g-aln on oats 
19i bushels per acre. 

The investigator, who was connected with one of the 
« ell-known agricultural colleges, arrived at these figure? 
after milking most careful tests from plots picked out bv 
himself from fields ranging from 2i to 20 acres. Other 
results, given by farmere themselves, after threshing, are as 
under : — 



BRITISH ELECTRICAL TRADE IN CHINA. 



II. — The DiFFicrLTiES. 



Mr. S. Hawkins. Whitestone I'arin, Exeter, gain ou wheat... 
Jlr. A. T. Cook, Ford Farm, St. Cleer, Cornwall, frain on 

wheat 
Mr.W. F.Smith, Godmanetone, Dorchester, (rain on wheat... 
Mr. A. H. Bloore. Leatherhead, Surrey, gain on wheat 
Mr. R. S. Hicks, Welbraham Temple, Cambridge, sjain on 

oats ... 

Mr. B. Godwin. Moreton, Dorset, train on oats 

Mr. W. F. Smith, Godmanstone, Dorchester, gain on barley 



ushfls 

8{ 
12 

5} 

5 
12 



Messrs. Holman A Son, of Totnus, South Devon, also 
report that two of their customers had gains on barley of 
50 per cent, and 21 per cent, from the produce of electrified 
seed over the untreated. It is not an exaggeration to state 
that 00 per cent, of electrified seed has produced gains over 
the untreated produce in the harvest of 1918. 

The seed should be josoi-in -the ground within • So- days-of 
treafeftientr 

The visible effect to the eye of electrifying the seed is to 
blanch it ; thus red wheat after treatment becomes pale 
red, whilst white wheat becomes a purer white. 

Another effect of the process on the seed is that the 
weight per bushel is diminished. 

Great care is needed in properly drying the seed after its 
removal from the tank ; if the grain is not properly dried 
failure is almost certain to result. 

In addition to a gain on the produce of the grain there 
is usually, but not always, a substantial gain in the quantity 
of straw per acre from electrified seed. 

There is usually but little difference to the eye in the 
appearance of the crops gi'own from electrified and untreated 
grain until after the plant has come in ear, and the most 
marked difference which I ha\e noted is the tillering pro- 
jjerties of the plants grown from electrified seed. 

At pressnt, the process only applies to wheat, liarley, and 
oats, but Mr. Fry is experimenting with potatoes, maize, 
rice, tomatoes, and vegetable seeds, and has already achieved 
much success. 

No account of the electrification of seed would be com- 
plete which did not bear tribute to the publicity given to 
it by Dr. Charles Mercier, the famous brain specialist, whose 
letters in The Times and other well-known journals aroused 
so much interest in the " process " last spring. It was a 
great pleasure to Mr. Fry and his friends to know that Dr. 
Mercier was able to visit several farms and inspect the 
crops grown from electrified seed on the eve of last harvest. 

Mr. H. L. Bromby, the engineer to the process, has also 
accomplished much "spade"' work, and it is due to his 
untiring efforts that some 25 plants for the electrification 
of seed corn have been, or are being, installed in this 
country. 



Electricity in Agriculture in Italy. — A writer in 

Annali d'Ingegneria e d'Arcliitettura discusses the necessity 
for the wider application of electricity to agriculture, espe- 
cially for ploughing, threshing, pressing hay and straw, and 
for pumping water for irrigation purposes. He describes the 
construction of an experiment,')! network, comprising 40 km. 
of high-tension conductor with 20 distributing centres, in- 
stalled on the Roman Caiiipagna with the collaboration of 
the Rome municipal electricity works. From the first, thresh- 
ing and pressing operations were carried out with mobile 
transformer houses and electric motors mounted on carts, at 
a cost from 10 to 15 per cent, lower than where steam-power 
■was used, A number of orchard owners have installed motor- 
driven pumps for irrigation purpose.-;, and with these the cost 
of irrigating a hectare of grbund is from 3.5 to 50 lire per 
month, according to the hft of the pump. Owing to the un- 
even character of the ground in the neighbourhood the 
author suggests that, to save expense, large tracts of ground 
should be in-igated from one centre. Experiments made with 
electric ploughing showed the system to be convenient and 
practical, provided the work was carried out with method. 



11^ I'ROF. MIDDLETON SMITH, M.Sc, M.l.Mecti,t. , 
Honir-Konc:, 

It would be absurd to under-rate the peculiar diffi- 
culties of the China trade. It is, for example, use- 
less for a firm in Great Britain to send a re|)re- 
sentative out to China and expect him to send home 
arders within a month or two of his arrival. A 
successful local doctor in Hong-Kong' came out 
lo the Colony, and was nearly a year resident here 
before he commicnced to practise. He was col- 
lecting friendships and making acquaintances. 
'■ Friend pidgin." as we call it, goes a very long- 
way in the I'ar East. 

The climate is so very different to that " at 
home" that it takes some time to get used to it. 
Once you get over the period of being " a griffin." 
or a stra'nger, all goes well. But the conditions of 
life in China are also different irom those in Europe. 
The ways of the Chinese are said to be " strange 
and peculiar," and so the}' seem to the Westerner 
at first. After a time he understands. The handling 
of the Cliinese, from the man of commerce to the 
official, or even to the household servant, needs 
experience. You must pay for it. 

The exchange difficulty should not be minimised. 
Fortunes in business can be, and have been, made, 
and lost, in exchange transactions. An example 
was given in a previous article of the fluctuations. 
But there is a system of " buying gold " ahead. A 
few weeks ago the writer "fixed exchange" a 
year ahead for his long leave in England in 1919 at 
a 3s. 8d. dollar, or say at 5.4 dollars to the pound. 
When Bulgaria and Tttrkey went out of the war no 
local bank would fix it for a month ahead. To-day 
the dollar is at 3s. 3d. It would be possible for the 
writer to " sell ahead " and make about from £10 
to £12 on every 100 " fixed " without using a penny 
or a dollar in the transaction, except the profit. 
But if the dollar had gone to 4s., the laugh would 
have be^n the other way. A local business man 
" fixed exchange " for a year ahead at a 2s. 4d. 
dollar. When the year had passed and he took up 
his deal, the dollar was at 3s, 3d. If he had not 
" fixed," -but liad waited, he would not have lost 
lid. on each 39d. bought. Let us call the loss 
about 28 per cent. There is. of course, a very dis- 
tinct amotmt of chance operating in these matters, 
and the Chinese gamble on the exchange as all 
Orientals love to gamble on anything. The shrewd 
Inisiness men cannot alwfays be sure about ex- 
change, but they have experience that the new- 
comer has to buy — sometimes dearly, 

A great difficulty of tlie British is their excessive 
dislike to throw a sprat in order to catch a mac- 
kerel. That must be done in Cliina. The Chinese 
like the sprats! — by them "they are tickled to 
deaith," as the Americans say. Any firm that wants 
to reap the harvest of trade in China must spend 
money in so-wing and watering the soil. Style 
means a good deal i'n China. There are many dif- 
ferent ways of advertising, but they all cost money. 
The Chinese, and for that matter the European 
" old China hand," dislikes meanness or cheese- 
paring. The thing must be done well if it is to be 
done at all. " Nothing succeeds like success " is 
particularly true of business in China. The most 
valuable asset of any commercial concern is a gene- 
ral halo of prosperity around its " taipan," of chief 
manager. 

Therefore, the concern ambitious for the China 
trade must be prepared to spend money in the early 
years — to throw the sprat. The mackerel swarm in 
the seas of China trade; the sprat will catch it 
all right unless the sprat is too skinny, or the line 
is held by nerveless hands. Not only must the 



Vol. 84. No. 2,148. januart 24, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



91 



liands be capable, but they must be experienced 
cQnceiTiing China. " ' ' " 

.-Vnother difficulty is the language problem. There 
is now a fashion for young men to " come out 
from home " to firms, and to attend the Chinese 
language schools of the local chambers of' com- 
merce. That is excellent in its way. But observa- 
tion rather goes to show that by the time a man 
has mastered the technicalities of engineering work 
he is not keen oh studying what is about the most 
difhcult language on earth. C)f course, he ought 
to do it, and he should be encouraged to do it. 
Yet it is probably cheaper in the long run to supply 
a British technical man with a Western educated 
young Cliinese assistant. That is the plan that 
the writer would put into force if he were exploit- 
ing machiner)- in China. For these young Chinese 
know their own countr}-men as no European of less 
than about 20 ytfars' residence in China knows 
them. 

Finally, the difficulty with British machinery is 
that it is all too good. The Chinese do not like a 
heavy capital expenditure. They find it difficult 
enough to raise the money — they have great faith 
in the shares of British companies, but they will 
not readily co-operate with each other. They do 
not want brass bearings if cast-iron lined with 
white metal is good enough. They do not care a 
button about appearances. So long as the wheels 
go round and the price is the lowest — that is their 
purchase. It is futile to talk of educating them 
above that sort of thing in a year or 'so. It will 
take time — but do not let us lose the markets mean- 
while. And do not forget that the Chinese like to 
have plenty of time allowed to them before they 
pay up. 

The Japanese. 

A great difficulty facing the British in China to- 
day is the competition of the Japanese. It is 
always best to be quite frank about these matters, 
and the best friends of any Oriental nation are 
those who speak out. But it is unfair to hide the 
good, and throw the searchlight only on to the 
bad points. 

The writer has travelled in Japan, and he came 
out to the Far East decidedly pro-Japanese. Are 
not these amazing people our pupils — did not Sir 
Alfred Ewing. Ayrton, Perry, Robert H. Smith, 
and other men so well known in our engineering 
profession introduce the science of engineering 
into Japan ? Do we not rather flatter ourselves as 
we refer to Japan as the "Britain of the Far East" ? 
Are they not our Allies? Yes — all of tliose things 
are true. Japan is, for the tourist, a delightful 
country-. The Japanese are a nation of devoted 
patriotism and remarkable adaptability to Western 
progress. They are splendid organisers. But in 
political and economic matters the Japanese have 
done some things that need a good deal of ex- 
planation. 

let it be bluntly said at once tliat the Japanese 
are unpopular ut China. The Chinese feel them- 
selves powerless, but they have long memories. 
The European traders in the treaty ports have 
many stories about the Japanese, and very few of 
them are in their favoiu". Decidedly, the Japanese 
are unpopular in China. 

There are two recent political actions of Japan 
which must make the Briton pause. When our 
country was at grips with the biggest menace to 
its hfe — when the day? were dark and we had not 
America with us, there suept through Japan a 
violently anti-British Press campaign The mili- 
f.ary party of Japan was in power — no patriotic 
Briton out here at the time will ever forget that" 
attempt to damage om national prestige, in the 
Far East, at the most critical moment of our his- 
tory. It was, as the phrase goes, " not playing the 
game." If the Tapanese novernment did not in- 



spire it, some of us think it could have pre- 
vented it. 

The ambitious island power of the East has 
acquired more wealth than any other nation be- 
cause of the war. Fortunes have been made out 
of munitions and ships. She is our ally; she turned 
the Germans out of Tsingtao, and she swept the 
seas to protect her own and our commerce. But 
in 1915 she made demands oh China' which 
astounded the oldest residents out here." An acute 
American observer, Paul Myton', who has lived 
in the Far East, wrote of those demands at the 
time as follows : — 

'■ The programme of Japan in China, as an- 
nounced from day to day during the last few 
months, is simply stupendous. The mind is over- 
whelmed in its consideration. The world has never 
known anything like it before, and our own petty 
declarations of the Monroe Doctrine on the Atlan- 
tic and the Open-door Policy on the Pacific be- 
come mere kindergarten babbling by comparison. 
For not only does Japan demand of Chma her most 
valuable concessions, industrially and commer- 
ciali'y, including railways' and mining franchises, 
but she would prohibit China from hereafter ceding 
such concessions to other countries; thus practi- 
call}- making herself not only the absolute political 
master of China, but, indeed^ the lord trustee of 
all her domain, and in demanding that the Japan- 
ese be employed to the highest rank of the army, 
of the navy, and of the police, as well as to the 
highest positions in the Customs and Departments 
of Finance, they attempt to gain an advantage in 
the. perpetuation of that hitherto unheard-of powei- 
which is so tremendous in its possibilities as to be- 
wilder the mind in an attempt to find even a moder- 
ate comparison to it in the long historv' of the 
world's great conquests." 

If the British are Allies of Japan, they are, and 
always they have been, good friends of China. 

The thing which makes the British man of ccm- 
merce feel so sore in China is the fact that the 
Japanese trader uses methods which he himself 
will not use. It is useless enumerating examples. 
The cotton manufacturers in Lancashire have 
publicly complained. Imitations of British goods 
are said to be sold as British in a most unblushing 
manner, although they have been made in Japan. 
The electrical trade of Japan has increased by 
leaps and bounds during the war. So long as the 
orders arc obtained in open competition, and the 
goods sold are what they are described as, every one 
in China wishes Japan " Good luck." There is any 
amount of room in the enormous potential market 
of China for the output of Japanese. American, and 
British factories. All that we ask for is a fair field 
and no favour We are, indeed, proud of any good 
work done by the Japanese. But they must not 
expect British men of commerce to sit quiet while 
they exclude them, by so-called diplomatic methods, 
from the China trade. Their record in Korea and 
Manchuria before the war may have been of small 
moment to British statesmen, but it did not please 
British traders. 

Let us "keep our end up" in China, and make 
a bold bid for the external commerce of the coun- 
trv. We can succeed in fair competition with 
Japan. We shall only be too pleased to see Japan 
"prosper; we want to be friends with her: we ad- 
mired her pluck in the war against the Russians, 
and we have a right to remind her that wr " kept 
the ring" lor her while that struggle went on. 
But there are certain definite Anglo-Saxon ideals in 
politics and trade, and we will not depart from t'hem 
to please anyone. Ail we ask for is open competi- 
tion and the fair deaL We, have paid too deajly 
in this generation because we wilfully kept blinker^ 
over our eyes. It can do Japan no good in "the 
long run to use trade methods which are titterly 
at variance with .^nglo-Saxon- ideals. "We" linve 



92 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No. 2,1 is, January 24. li.l'.i. 



full confidence that lier statesmen and commercial 
men will realise that — the sang^uine think that 
already they do so. The British want to trade with 
Japan as with China; co-operation must be the 
policy of the future in political affairs; and clean, 
^ood-humoured coinpetition in the markets of 
China. As a fact, the latter really means co-opera- 
tion, for the greater the stimulus the more will be 
the trade that goes on. Britain opened the oyster 
of Chinese trade, but there are plenty of pearls 
lor everyone. We most certainly do not want to 
exclude any legitimate competitors from the mar- 
kets of the world. The British trader and manu- 
facturer can hold their own against all comers il 
all comers play the game squarely. 

i'hese words are written in no spirit of malice, 
nor even of hostility, to Japan. They may seem 
harsh to those who are blinded by the dazzling 
brilliance of the Rising Sun. They will be agreed 
to by 90 per cent, of the Britons in the Far East. 

The political difficulties of China cause trade diffi- 
culties. The Chinese themselves are by no means 
free from blame, for they have failed to produce a 
(rOvenimeTit which can govern. It may be true 
that a country gets the government it deserves; but 
China could be a wonderful market if the system 
of the Maritime Customs Service were extended to 
all the Chinese Government Departments. 

The British traders in the Far East think that in 
the past our own British Government has " let us 
down " badly in China. Even Lord Salisbury made 
us " lose face '' in the late nineties, and to " lose 
face " in China means complete humiliation. Per- 
haps the greatest difficulty before the British trader 
in China can be solved only in Downing Street. It 
is therefore essential to be alert in London as well 
as in Cliina if any of the golden eggs laid in China 
are to be gathered. But, commercially, there arc 
very few geese in China. On the other hand, there 
is a great deal of gold and other minerals. 
Jap.\nese Electrical Goods. 

The fact of the matter is that the Japanese elec- 
trical goods are not doing the engineering profes- 
sion very much benefit in China. To put it bluntlv. 
so far as the observation of the writer goes, they 
are shoddy. They have been selling at high prices, 
and Japanese wires, lamps, &c., bought in Hong- 
Kong have been very unsatisfactory. The climate 
of the Cliina coast finds out any bad spots in cables, 
instruments, &c. Remeiriber. that for some three 
months in the year the humidity of the atmosphere 
is about 90 per cent. Japanese wire had to be used 
by the writer — he could not get other. But it gave 
him plenty of ti-ouble. 

The Japanese are in danger of overlooking the 
fundamental principle that in all engineering work 
time tells the tale. The Chinese buyer is ignorant 
— he just buys the wire or the lamps because they 
are cheapest. Some of us are using up our ener- 
gies in the endeavour to explain that tests are 
essential. Slowly, but surely, the Chinese of the 
coast ports is " getting wise " on this point. But 
the Japanese are going inland and getting orders 
for complete installations in remote towns and vil- 
lages. When the plant is in all goes well for a 
few months. Later on the failures will discourage 
the Chinese. 

The Briton goes to the other extreme. He is 
too apt to forget that this is a very rough-and- 
ready country. He does all right in the Treaty 
Iiorts, where the trained British engineers appreciate 
his refinements. But don't waste money on paint if 
the goods go up counfr\-. And please see that the 
;.;oods sent out are ready for use. One British firm 
sent out plant that had never been "'assembled." 
If it had gone inland it would never have been 
used. It took modern machinery in Hong-Kong, 
and also expert European supervision to make the 
plant " gee." 

The following example proves that the Chinese 
arc Iceen on electric lipht : — 



In 1914 the Hong-Kong Electric Co. sold 614,750 
units. In 191O it sold 5,177,109, and it was com- 
pelled to refuse any new coimections because its 
plant was badly overloaded each night. On the 
one hand, consumers have been indignant because 
they must not put in a new light anywhere. On the 
other hand, tlie local shift engineers have read 
about life in the trenches with envy. They had a 
\ery bad time of it without a scrap of spare plant. 
The growth of demand by the Chinese was too 
phenomenal for calculations; it might have been 
met but for the war. Perha[is in 1920 the figures 
of 1916 will be doubled. 

It is the saine everywhere. The Chinese lo\c ,1, 
blaze of light. .V Chinese restaurant uses three or 
four times as much as one in London; a brilliant 
light and violent noise is the Chinese aid to diges- 
tion ! 

American competition will help us. Our Anglo- 
Saxon trade rivals work well with us in China. 
They do good pioneer work, 'i'hey show us how 
to " push " things, but they will forgive an ad- 
mirer for reminding them that they have not had 
anything like the experience in trade or in engineer- 
ing that the Briton has had. But they will be with 
us in the maintenance of the ideals of our profes- 
sion. Their technical goods may be less finished 
than ours, but it does not disgrace the reputation 
of engineering work. Americans give me the im- 
pression that they expect much bigger profits on 
their capital outlay than do the British. Wherever 
they go they spread the gospel of the English lan- 
guage and the " get-on-with-it " point of view. 
']"hey have made up their minds to get into this 
market, but there is any amount of room for 
them and for us. It is absurd to suppose that they 
can drive us out. We may slip off the car because 
we are asleep, but they will never push us off. It 
is right to add that, usually, they are more popular 
with the Chinese because they are rather less of 
what they call " the higher brow " type than the 
average Briton. They do not hesitate to mix 
freely with the Chinese. We suffer just a little in 
China from the traditions of the Anglo-Indians. 

llie next article will deal with the rewards open 
to British engineers and nianu-facturers in China. 



NEW ELECTRICAL OPENINGS FOR BRITISH 
MANUFACTURERS. 



There has been published this week the report of 
the Engineering Trades (New Industries) Commit- 
tee appointed by the Ministr}- of Reconstruction. 
Pressure upon our space prevents us from dealing 
this week with the whole of the ground covei/fed. 
We therefore limit ourselves to tlfe section relating" 
to electrical machinery and apparatus. The Branch 
Committee responsible for this matter consisted of 
the following : — 

Alessrs. J. Taylor, O.B.E. {chairinaii) ; H. Taylor (hon. 
sec), Mather & Piatt, Ltd.; L. B. Atkinson [Cable Makers' 
Association) : A. F. Berry [British Electric Transformer 
Co., Ltd.); n. Dumas [B.T.H. Co., Ltd.); G. E. Pingrce; 
D. N. Dunlop [B.E.A.M.A.); B. Lonflbottom [Electromotors, 
Ltd.); R. H. Schofield [Ferranti, Ltd.); S. D. White [General 
Electric Co., Ltd.); F. Hird [Siemens Bros & Co., Ltd.). 

The report reads as follows : — 

The branch Comniittee was directed to consider a pre- 
liminai'y li.st oC articles funii.shed by the main committ«». 
\N'hich was afterwaa-ds modified to the following : — 

.Adaptor.?; arc lamp globes; auto horns and buzziiis; auto- 
mobile lighting acce.ssoiies; bell relays; batteries; brass cap.s 
I'lir electric lamp.^ ; cables; oar lighting sets; ear starting sets; 
laibons; ceiling rn;es; clocks and clockwork for recorders; 
'ounterweights and pulleys; cut-outs (all kinds); distributioai 
i)oards; dyriamos; electric bells, indicators and their acces- 
sories ; electric cooking and heating apparatus; electrical 
measuring instruments of the indicating and geographically 
rer-r-vding tvpps arid pp'-fe of th? same; electric truck and 
vehicle motors ; electroliers ; fittings (small, of all kinds); 
fla.sh lamps; flexible metallic tubing; fuse boards; fuses; fans 
— tahle, ceiling, and propellex; glassware — heat-resisting and 
non-heat-resdsting ; hand lamps; holloware for lighting pur- 



Vol. 84. No. 2,148, Jandari 24, .1919.1 THE ELECTIUC'AL KEVIEW. 



93 



poses, including leliectors aod shades, lanterns and fittings; 
indicators; induction coils; insulating materials of aJl kinds; 
irtsulators; ix>rcelain and glass; lamp bulbs; lamp holders (all 
kinds) ; lightning arresters for large high-voltage overhead 
transmission lines; magnets, permanent; magnetos; metalhc 
filament lamps; motors; nickel secondan' cells; primary cells 
(various descriptions); porcelain balance weights; portable 
electric drills, small; portable electric grinders, buffers and 
pohshers, small; power Limiting reactance coils ; pushes; re- 
sistance wire and strip; sparking plugs; static transformers 
for electrical energy; street fittings; switches (all kinds); 
s\Aitehgeai', extra-high-tension. Open-air sub-station equip- 
ment suitable for fixing on poles. — Telephone switchboards; 
apparatus; acce-ssories and kindred apphances, including min- 
ing telephones, mining bells, and mine signalling apparatus; 
vacuum cleaners; wall plugs and sockets (all kinds); water- 
tight fittings; wire (enamel-insulated). 

The committee is satisfied, as a result of its investigations, 
that the majority of the items in this list cannot correctly 
lie described as "either not made in the United Kingdom 
before the war, but were imported or were made in the 
L'nited Kingdom in smaJl or insufiiceint quantities." As 
regards most of the items, ample maiurfacturing facilities 
undoubtedly exist, and, in many cases, existed before the 
war, for meeting the whole requirements of the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and, in certain cases, for taking 
care of the export trade to other countries. These facilities 
were not, however, fully employed owing to the itnportation 
of articles from abroad. 

Certain items rightly appeaj-ed in the above-mentioned hst, 
:ind as a result of the activities of the committee, intima- 
tions have been received of intention to undertake the manu- 
facture of the following articles; Car lighting sets; car start- 
ing sets; electric truck and vehicle motors; fans — table, 
ceiling, and propeOor; motors, small ^-h.p. and less; small 
portable electric drills; small portable electric grinders, 
buffeis, and polishers. The labour employed in the produc- 
tion of these ailicles would be chiefly women supervised by 
skilled men. The concerns who propose undertaking the 
manufacture of the above articles aie already established 
in the electrical industry, and intend simply to add them 
to their present lines of manufacture. 

Certain items appear in the preiiminaiw list which it ap- 
jjeai's ad\isable to treat separately from the general run of 
items in the list, because they are either not manufactured 
by the average electrical manufacturing concern, or, if so, 
are, as a rule, the product of an entirely separate factory; in 
this categoi-y fall: (1) Carbons; (2) insulating materials; 
(3) magnetos; (4) porcelain for electrical requirements; (5) 
glaoswai'e for arc lamps; (6) .sparking plugs. (Items 1, 2, 4, 
.-ind sre not products of engineering industry, but are essen- 
tia] to the manufacture of electrical machines and apparatus.) 

(1) Carbons. — A special report- hae been presented by the 
branch committee, entitled " The Manufacture of Caabons in 
Great Britain, with special reference to Arc Lamp Carbons," 
which is printed as an appendix to this report.* In view of 
the vital importance to the country of this industrj', as 
proved by the position which existed at the outbreak of war, 
the branch committee strongly recommend that measures be 
taken by the Government to ensure the continuance of the 
industry. Certain Government departments and pubhc au- 
thorities should reverse their former policy, and in the 
national interest purcliase only British-made carbons. 

(2) Insidaling Materials. — The manufacture of insulating 
materials can scarcely be considered as falling within the 
scope of the engineering trades, but ample supphes of satis- 
factory- insulating materials are absohitely essential to the 
carr\ing on of the electrical manufacturing industry. 

"Insulating materials" includes a very wide variety of 
product.s. for example: — 

1. {a) Ebonite; {b} magneto distiibutor materials; (c) com- 
posite materials other than the aboTe. 

2. (a) Cable papers and papers generally ; (6) leatheroid 
and fibre. • 

3. (a) ilica and mica products: (6) porcelain; (c) glass. 

4. (a) Varnished cloth, silk, and paper; (h) adhesive tapes; 
(c) varni.=hes and compounds; many of which wexe. to a great 
extent, if not wholly, imported from abroad prior to the out- 
break of war. Considei-able progress has been achieved 
during the war in overcoming the deficiency, but the collec- 
tive opinion of the industry indicates that : (a) An enormous 
aniouut of re.search work is neceseaiw- fO Manufacture in 
this cotmtry cannot be successfully estalilished without State 
assistance and support. The brancli committee finds that 
many firms are preparing for increased production of insu- 
lating materials, and is of the opinion that the development 
of this industrj' is al)solutely essential to the ultimate success 
and permanency of the British electrical manufacturing in- 
dustry. The branch committee recommends that electrical 
manufacturers should purchase in futm'e only British-made 
insulating materials where obtainable, and thereby foster thi^; 
I 'ranch of industry. 

~ '8) Magnetos.— Thii, .subject has already been dealt, with in 
the " Interim Report on oertam Eis.=^ential Industnes " (Cd 
^1032-1918). Magnetos are now adequately made m this 

'The Conimittee. in their appendix report, pomt out that 
bad it not Ijeen for the action of one firm in continuing to 
make arc lamp carbons at verv considerable loss to them- 
selves, the country would have had considerable difficulty in 
meeting the demands for searchlight c.nrbons. 



country, and the exclusion of German magnetos is recom- 
mended for a period after the war, except under hcence, 
together with the imposition of a duty on all imported 
magnetos. ■ 

(4) Porcelain for Electrical Requirements. —This can be 
divided as follows: — 

(a) Porcelain for accessories such as ceiling roses, fuses, 
lampholders, switches, &c. 

(6) Porcelain insulators for high tension transformers, 
switchgear, transmission hnes, &c. 

(c) Porcelain for heating and cooking apparatus, sparking 
plugs, itc. 

The branch committee met representative manufacturers 
of the British jwrceladn industry, and a resolution was passed 
unanimously, strongly recommending immediate co-operation 
between porcelain manufacturers and electrical manufac- 
turers, with the object of promoting standardisation of parts, 
research, ^tc. This co-operation has since been established. 

(5) Glassware for Arc Lamps. — Cila.ssware is an essential 
part of the arc lamp, and c-an be divided into two classes : 
(1) Heatresistirig glass; (2) non-heat-resisting glass; both of 
wliich came exclusively from Germany and .\ustria and were 
manufactured in moulds and not hand-blown. The method 
of manufacture of heat-resisting glass was practically un- 
known in the United Kingdom before the waj-. During the 
past three years some progress has been made in this direc- 
tion, but it is represented to the branch committee that 
unless Government support is forthcoming glass manufac- 
turers will not be in a position to supply arc lamp glasses in 
sufficient quantities after the wai'. 

(6) Sparking Plugs. — Sparking plugs for internal combus- 
tion engines were manufactured in considerable quantities in 
this country before the war, but the quantity of finished 
sparking plugs imported was probably greater than the num- 
ber manufactured here. In the case of the British Colonies, 
the bulk of the plugs were of foreign manufacture. The 
manufacture of sijar'king plugs is a very specialised trade, 
which, in the opinion of the branch committee, should be 
encouraged in this counti-y. 

Exira-high-Tensioii Switchgear. — The development of elec- 
tric power for industrial purposes and for operating railways 
will, in all probabiUty, cause a demand for extra-high-tension 
switchgear for working pressures of 2-5,000 volts and upwards. 
The fact that such switchgear has not yet been manufactured 
on a commercial scale in the United Kingdom has led pubhc 
authorities in the past to place their orders for such gear 
abroad, usually in C«?rmany or the U.S.A., on grounds that 
the work must be given to a concern which has " success- 
fully done similar work before." This position seriously 
affects British export trade, because foreign competitore have 
been able to bring forward to the detriment of the British 
manufacturers, not only their greater experience, but the 
tact that British pubhc authorities were in the habit of 
placing their orders for such gear abroad. British mantifac- 
turers of switchgear should be encouraged, because they have 
the capacity for such work, which represents merely a step 
beyond that which they have been doing successfully for 
years past. 

Dependence upon Other Industries. — The electrical industry 
is dependent upon other industries for certain reqtiirements, 
amongst which are the following : Refined oil for trans- 
formers and s\\itchgear; sihcon steel for geneititors, motors, 
ti-ansformers, ic. ; glossware, such as lamp shades and lamp 
bulbs; flexible metallic tubing for industrial electrical fittings. 
The war has disclosed a shortage of the above materials, and 
the branch committee urges the trade associations affected to 
con-sider the establishment in this cotmtry of the necessary 
productive capacity. 

Effect of Restrictive Legislation.— The electrical industi-y 
represents probably the highest development of apphed 
science and mechanical engineering. It originated, broadly 
speaking, in Great Britain, and shovild have been nationally 
fostered and supported, but. on the contrary, it-s develop- 
ment was hampered by .stupid repressive legislation. It was. 
on the other hand, fostered and supported in other countries, 
where it consequently progressed rapidly and prospered. To 
prevent this country from developing the home industry and 
obtaining its due share of overseas trade, foreign competitors 
deliberately tried to strangle the industry. Credit should 
be given to the British manufacturers who undei" such con- 
ditions struggled to maintain their pasition. It was well 
known at the time war broke out that the capital employe<l 
in the industry was very poorly remunerated, in consequence 
of which it was diflicult to obtain financial support. 

Effect of Unrestricted Imports. — The free importation into 
this country of manufactured goods ha.s always fonned a veiw 
serious hindrance to the development of the electrical manu- 
facturing industrj-. Efficient production depends upon speciali- 
wtion and the scale on which manufacture can be conducted. 
The intecurity of the home market brought about by the fact 
that foreign mauufaotures can at any time be introduced 
into it for the purpose of deliberateh checking or destroj-inp 
home manufacture by sale at an unreasonably low price, dis 
courapes the uivestment of capital in production on the scale 
necessary, to obtain the highest efficiency, with the result 
that costs arc not lowered as they should be by manufacture 
on a large scale. The power to Nvithstand foreien competi- 
tion by keeping selling orices low is thereby lessened, so 
that the whole system of free importation of mtinufactureil 
electrical goods, without reference to the condition.' nndei- 
which they may be made has seriously hampered the de- 



94 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. LVol.Sl. No. 3,1 is. January •>!, ism 



\elo(>rneut of h<Mue. tuaDulacturet-. in the absence of which 
It is. flilticutt fo di.> foivijfn h-jide. and to deveJop to ite full 
t-xtent tV tiade wiihin tlio Eiiipiiv. The free importation 
'it electrical plant and appanitii.s has made it neceseary U> 
shaae our home market with foreigncri, who. operating iii 
iheir own home markets protected by tarill^ and fostered 
nationally, produce ou a far larger scale than the British 
manufacturer; in face of such conditions the industry cannot 
lie expected to thrive ; every effort it may make can be im- 
inediatt'ly checked by foreign comix-titor^ and the home 
producer has no weapon with which to defend himself. 

The branch committee finds from the evidence placed 
be.i'ore it that it is essential to establi.<h confidence in the 
future of the electrical manufacturing industry by assuring 
It the .support of the home market, without which the manu- 
taotnior? practically all agree that it is hopeless to expect 
;m>- great development of the industry alter the war unless 
some measure of protection is available. The branch com- 
mittee accordingly passed the following resolution unani- 
mously: "That wair experience and the finding of various 
industiiul committees having proved to demonstration that 
tiu' electrical industry is a ' key ' indu.'^try. the recommenda- 
tions of the Electrical Branch Conmiittee will therefore 1><' 
I'a^ed on the assumption that the electrical ))ro(lucers of this 
i-mmtry are entitled to receive from the GoveiTiment pro- 
ti'otion in the home markets against dumped and srweated 
^iKxls. 

Supplll of Electrical ilachincrii for National Power Stations. 
— In the event of the Government adopting the recommenda- 
tions of the Electric Power Supply Committee's Report (Cd. 
'.1(1(52). the branch committee recommends the establshment 
of .1 permanent .-Vdvisory (>)uncil. This Council should be 
mainly composed of leading British electrical eng-ineers en- 
;.'aged in actual manufacturing, iMid mth a view to keeping 
the Council always up-to-da.te there shouM he compulsory 
I'e.tirement of a certain proix>rtion of the mi'iubers at reason- 
ably short intervals. The l^ranch oommitt'ee further recom- 
iiieilds that the Advisory Council should lie eonsulteJ in the 
lirst instance with regard to the gentlemen it is proposed to 
•i-pixiiul as Electricit\ Commissioners -who should be iechni- 
ivilly competent — and should continue (i« a Standing Advisory 
I'ouncil to the Elei-tiirity Couiniissioinrs. with. a view to en- 
suring that national dev<^lopment and progrt^ss are in con- 
fornuty -with the late.-t workshop, methods of fjtiantity pro- 
duction. 



NATIONAL Ei-ECTRICITY SUPPLY. 



We have received the following very important statement 
from., the Institution of Electrical Exgi.neers, in the form 
of a lettei', dated January 1st, 1919, and addressed to the 
Rt. Hon. Sir Albert H. St:inley,.P.C., M.P., President of the 
Board of Trade ; — 

Electric Power Supply. 

1. On June 27th. 1918, the Council of the Institution of 
lUectrical Engineers took into consideration the reports of 
the Committees appointed by the Board of Trade on Electric 
Power &UT>plv (Cd. 9.(X)2) and Electrical Trades After the 
War (Od. 9,072). ' 

'2. These Official Reports embody recouunendatious leading 
to drastic revision.s nf the conditions under w-hich the elec- 
trical supply industry had l>een carried on in Great Britain. 

Recognising that the future course of development in elec- 
tricity supply for induslrial and domestic purposes, in elec- 
tric traction, in electrical manufacturing, and in many other 
lira.nches of electrical business depended on the chai'acter of 
the legislation bated upon these reports, the Council was 
convinced that the Institution of Electrical Engineers, as 
the body including and repre.senting those engaged in all 
.sections of the electrical industry, should endeavour to obtain 
and to collate the opinions of these sections on the funda- 
mental issufs involved. 

In view of the vital iiuixjitancc of a cheap and abundant 
>upply oi electricit.\ to the engineeiing and other industries, 
the Council decided to form a s)>ecial committee, and to iu- 
cluile therein reiuesentatives of the most importimt con- 
sumers of electric power. 

3. Each of the following bodies uas invited to nominate 
tv\o representatives, who, with the President and four Vice- 
Presidents c.f the Institution of Electrical Engineers acting 
cx-officio. would constitute the Committee : — 

The British Electri<v>l A- .\Uied Manufacturers' Association. 

The .Association of Consulting Engineers. 

The Federation of British Industries. 

The Cable Makers' .Vssociation. 

The IncoriX)rdted .\s.s(k iatiou of Kh'ctric Power Companies. 

The Provincial Electric. Supply Committee of the TTnited 
Kmgdom 

The Tramways and Lirfit Railways AssociatioD. 

The British Electrical Federation, Ltd 

EdmondSoQs' ' JSlettricity (Corporation, Ltd 

The Iron and Steel Institute. 
' The Conference of Directors of the London Electric Supp!" 
'OompanieE. 
- The Electrical Contractors' Association. 

The Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association. 

The .\<:<;oci.'it:on of Municipal Corporations. 



1. M a preliminary meeting of the Committee, held on July 
29tU, 191S, it was agreed that each .tssociatiou repreeented 
should give separate and independent consideration to the 
reports of the two Board of Ti-ade Committees, and should 
draw up theii' recommendations as to the main lines which 
future legislation should follow. The Incorporated Municipal 
Electrical .Association and the .Association of Municipal ([Cor- 
porations had, however, decided to submit .'eparate reports 
to the Board of Tiado, and were not represented on the 
C'ommittee. 

o. The reports of the remaining Associations were duh 
prepared and laid before the Committee, after having beeai 
adopted in most cases by the respective Councils of the 
.Associations. They accordingb' embody the considered 
opinions of the accredited representatives of several large 
gi^ups of electric supply undcrt^akings, the great majority of 
oloctrical manufacturers, consulting engineers, and the mast 
important users of electric poncr for Industrial purix>ses in 
(ircat Britain. 

G. Some of the reports were less detailed than others, and 
it is therefore not possible to present a combined opinion 
uix)n all tlie matters dealt with by the two Committees of 
the Bojird of Trade. On no iX)int of primary importance, 
however, is any material difference of opinion displayed. 
Substantially on the main issues relating to present electrical 
legislation tbe various A£i'ocia.ti->ns showed an impressive 
unanimity. 

7. The following views aaid recommendations in regard to 
electric power supply more (particularly are, therefore, pre- 
.sc^nted as expi-essing the united conviotaons of the (jommittee, 
and through it of the many sections of industry which it 
represents : — 

(a) Tlie restrictive conditions einboditMl in the Electric 
Lighting .Acts, the Tramways .Act, the Light Railways Act, 
.■uid the vaxious Acts relating to electiic powei' supply have 
had a most detrimental effect on electrical progress in Great 
Britain. This legisIatitMi has led to the multiphcation of 
small arbitiury, and uneconomical areas of electricity supplj' 
and systems of electric traction; it has discouraged the in- 
vestment of capital in electrical undertakings by imposing 
limited tenure with unattractive terms of expropriation, and 
various other onerous conditions; it has placed obstacles in 
the way of grouping undertakings into comprehensive sys- 
tems of supply and transix)rt ; it has, generally, prevented 
British electrical engmeers and manufacturers from realising 
in their own country the highest achievements of which 
their technical skill and productive capacity were capable, 
and it has, in consequence, put them under a serious handi- 
cap in the competition for export business against coiintries 
in which the conditions have been more favourable for suc- 
cessful commercial demonstration. 

(b) The evil effect of past legislation, emphasised so strongly 
by both the official reports, necessitates drastic reform of the 
enactments referred to, hotb in the spirit and the letter, if 

•the industry is to fidfll its function of providing cheap and 
ainiudant electricity for industrial, agricultural, and domestic 
purposes, and for the development of electi-ic traction on 
railways, light railways, and roads. 

ic) In addition to releasing electi'ical enterprises from the 
existing disabiUties the chief necessities of the situation are : 
(1) the treatment of the jiroblem of electiical generation and 
distribution on broad lines, and (2) the provision of .simple 
forms of procedure in obtaining powers for electrical utih- 
ties of all kinds. 

(d) In order to secure these and other essentials of ordered 
progress, the proposed appointment of a Board of Electricity 
(jommissioners is welcomed, subject to the provisions ex- 
pressed below. 

ic) The Committee is strongly convinced that, owing to 
the complexity of the technical, administi'ative, and financial 
problems involved in a comprehensive scheme of electric sup- 
ply reform, it will be found altogether impractica.ble to deal 
directly with the task of reconstruction by means of general 
legislation covering all the points at issue. It accordingly 
urges that immediate action should be confined to the crea- 
tion of the Board of Electricity Commissioners, which should 
have powers and functions iis outlini.'d in the following pa.ra- 
irraphs. There should be a gradual development in the estab- 
lishing of the administrative machinei-y as the necessity is 
felt, otherwise the industry may be hampered in the future 
by excessive organisation to the same extent as it has been 
in the past by the conditions which have been referred to. 

U) This Board should 'be a tribunal of skilled men, free 
from political iniluence, charged generally with the duties 
of (1) examining all proposals for the extension and con- 
solidation of existing electrical enterprises, (2) recommending 
to the Board of Trade and to Parliament, for authorisation, 
'themes which are on the soundest financial and engineering 
lines, and (3) advising the Government on legislative matters 
for the encouragement of the electrical industry. 

((7) The functions of the Board should be exclusively judi- 
cial and advisory. Strenuous objection is urged against the 
granting to the Board of administrative powers over^ elec 
trical undertakings, and also of authority to appoint District! 
Boards in the event of such bodies being constituted. In 
this respect the powers of the Commissioners should be 
limited to examinmg schemes brought before them for deal- 
in c with the various districts. 

ill) The preparation of such schemes, whether company, 
municipHl. or joint, should be left as a matter of free and 



Vol.81. No. 2,H8, January 24, 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



95 



natural development to the initiative of undertakers who 
would formulate such schemes (it may be rival schemes), and 
put them forward for the * consideration of the Commis- 
sioners, who uould report to Parliament upon any Bills in- 
tended to carry them into effect. Opponents would be en- 
titled to be heard against such Bills in the usual way. 

(i) The Board may be empowered to deal with the electrical 
rules and regulations administered by the Board of Trade 
and the Home Ofdoe, and it may also act as arbitratoi' and 
as a court of record for the electrical industry. 

(j) The Eailv.ay and Caiial CoffimLssion is siuggested a.-) a 
general model for the constitution and powers of the Board. 

(k) The number of "Commissioners on the Board should bf 
live, and in all cases the appointnientKS should be permanent, 
or for long periods, and' .should be on such conditions as 
will attract men of the highest ability. knov\le.dge, and in- 
dependence. One member should be skilled in legal affairs 
and in sifting evidence, one in finance, one in the problems 
i>f electrical manufacture, and the others with experience 
111 eagineering and the management of electrical undertak- 
ings. 

(/) \\'hiie in the main the work of the Board wUl consist of 
formulating the piinoiples of procedure in the course of elee- 
trical progress, and of recommending the legislative amend- 
ments and the specific schemes which are in agreement with 
these principles, it may be necessary in some cases for the 
Board to propose the enforcement, by Parhamentai-y autho- 
rity of arrangements for interconnection or amalgamation of 
supply undertakings. 

8. Recommendations have been made by various associa- 
tions represented on the Committee regarding specific matters 
dealt with in the reports of the two Board of Trade Commit- 
tees, but it ij3 felt that the.se problems will receive a satisfac- 
tory solution as a result of the formation of an independent 
aothoritati\'e Board of Electricity Commissioners, which is 
the ci'ucial matter at this stage. 

I am directed respectfully to ui'ge on behalf of the com- 
iiiittee that legislation adverse to the views of the laxge 
proportion of the iudust.ry and of the consumers which the 
committee represents may not be introduced without its 
being accorded an opportunity of discu.ssing the matter with 
you . 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) P. F. Eowei-l, Secretary, I.E.E.. 
On bolialf of the Committee. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letters reeeived by us after 5 P.M. ON TUESDAY cannot aj/pear until 
tite following week, Cffrrespandents should forward their coiiLmv/ii- 
cations at the earliest possible moment, No letter can be published 
unless we have the writer's name and address in our jiossessiim. 



Electrical Contracting. 

Under this heading a few weeks back, I expres.sed through 
your " correspondence " my desire to see established a 
proper basis for electrical installation work, whereby all con- 
tractors or other persons fitting in an installation of eJectrig 
lighting, &c., would have to adhere to a ST>ecification drawn 
up by some authorised body. 

I was pleased to see in yotir footnote to that letter that 
the matter was being taken up immediateJy liy the Institu- 
tion of Electrical Engineers. I am more pleased to 'see. 
howevei-. that the matter has been taken in liand by the 
supply authorities of this district, who, I a,m informed, are 
- now vested with power from the Government to act in the 
interests of intending customers, and protect them : against 
rubbishy wiring, &c. 

I understand the [wsition has been aggravated by the fact 
that just recently several large installations which were 
being put in by the class of individual I mentioned in my 
previous letter have been condemned, and have had to be 
stripped out as unsound. 

The annoyance to the customers can best be imagined ; 
s<ime might siy it served them right for letting out the work 
in such a careless manner. However, being the representa- 
tive of a large contracting firm myself, perhaps I had better 
leave my own opinion unsaid. 

.- The .supply authorities infonn me thait only bona fide 
qualified contractors, who are both in a. position as regards 
experience, and from a financial standpoint, to undertake and 
carry out an installation which will comply with severe tests, 
.and- be m every way satisfactory to them, and absolutely free 
from the danger of fire, will be allowed by them to commence 
such work. 

I endorse their precautions most strongly, and knowing 
wil>b them that, the whole iMsition of electrical work, speak- 
ing generally, is about to be lifted up to a level which it 
never thought to reach in this country, it is \\\> to someone 
in authority to see that it does reach that level, and, more- 
over, remains there for good. A person badly needing elec- 
tricity on the premises and not in a position financially to 
I)ay for a pro[X?rly installed SfM-vice should bo aesisted, to my 
mind, by the .supply authorities, i.e., by the Government. 
If such assistance is not extended to enterprising persons, 



and they are debarred from having a cheap job put in by 
someone out for that class of work, they will possibly turn 
to some other means of obtaining light and energy. 

We want to encourage people to go in for electricity, and 
prepare them for the time when little else will be oistain- 
able. Under the reconstruction scheme for housing, I be- 
lieve most of the houses will, as they should, be electri- 
cally equipped, as iu the States, where the electric sewing 
machine, mangle, boot cleaning machine, &c , are as coinmori 
as ditch water. • 

The lighting specification for this property should hcie 
and now be fixed and standardised by Government, and let 
out to bona fide contractors working iiii<1er supply authori- 
ties' regulations. 

H. Y. Fowleri 

Messi:s. Waiiag & GUlow. Ltd.,, 

. Electrical Contractors, Liverpool. 

[We do not know wh;it iK>wers liave bwn -conferTcd on 
the Liverpool electric suj'ph- authorities by thi^- Govenimeiit . 
or under what statutory authority they could be so granted ; 
under the Electric Lighting .\ct<s supply undertakers- have no 
legal conti-ol over contractors, though they are authorised 
to refuse to connect unsuitable installations to their mains. 
-Financial assistance to intending consumers is out of; the 
question.— Eds. Elec. Rev.] 



Tile Siiorter Worliing Week. 

In view of the 48-hour week becoming operative for power- 
station and sub-station shift men in the London District on 
February 1st, 1919, the method of working adapted by the 
Manchester electricity undertaking as from January Lsit, may 
interest, your- readei'S. .\ copy of which is enclosed. 
Harold H. Mortoii, 

Sec, No. 1 Branch. 
lx)ndon, S.E., Januaru mii, IWO. 
Shorter Working Week. Shift Working. Method as 

ADOPTED BY THE CiTV OF MANCHESTER FOR POWEB-STATIOX 

AND Substation Employes, on an Average Week of 

47 HonRS. AS FROM JANUARY 1ST : — 

Day. 1st week. 2nd week. Srd week. 

Tuesday ... 11 — 7 a.m. 3— 11 p.m. 7 — 3 p.m. 

Wednesday ... 11—7 „ 3—11 „ 7— 12 noon. 

Thursday ... 11—7 .. 3—11 ,. Off. 

Friday ... 11-7 ., 3—11 ,, 7— 3 p.m. 

Saturday ... 11—7 ., 03. 7-3 „ 

Sunday ... 11—7 „ 3— 11 p.m. 7-3 „ 

Monday ... Off. 3—11 ,. 7-3 „ 
The above gives two 48-hour weeks aad one 43-hour week, 

or a 47 average over a cycle of three weeks. 



A Protective Association for Non=Technical Officials. 

1 would like to draw attention through your columns to 
n matter which, to the writer, appears to be on© of con- 
siderable importance to a large number engaged in tihe elec- 
tricity suppiv industi-y, i.e., the need for an' association on 
the lines of "the E.P.E.A. for those engaged on the " non- 
technical " side of the industiT— <;hief clerks, accountants, 
cost clerks, advertising men, i-c. .'Vn association on the 
lines indicated to cater for the welfare of this class of em- 
ploye would api>ear, in view of forc-^hadowed developments, 
a. necessity. .As it is, we have no organisation to protect our 
interests. Cannot one l>e brought into being? 

" Non=Teclinical." 

Jcinuary lltk, 1919. 

[An attempt was made a icw years ago to form such an 
association, but without .sucX'ces. Probably the present is a 
more propitious occasion. . We shall be plea.sed to have the 
views of otlier readers on this subject.- Ed.s-. Elec. Rrv.] 



Engineer ^Snrveyors' Salaries. 

Mr Vbraham's letter in last week's Review desea-ves the 
thanks of all engineer surveyors employed by msurance 
coini>anies. As Mr. Abraham remarks, there is no doubt it 
is a standing disgrace to the insurance companies concerned. 
The salaries paid are totaUy inadequate to the knowledge 
required, and the writer, as . an electrical surveyor of 16 
years' standing, is now getting the princely salary of £230 
iind ±'50 bonus. I am a member of the Engineer Surveyors' 
Association, which includes both mechanical and electrical 
surveyors, and my opinion is that if it had not been for the 
above Association! the insurance companies concemed would 
not have increased our salaries as much as they have done 
during the past two yeairs. \\'ha.t is required is that someone 
like Mr. Wordinghaiti .should take up the cause of us poor 
surveyors. The companies pay 25 to ■■'■'■* pev cent, dividend, 
so it "is not a case of " cannot aiford " 

Electric. 

Jannarv 18th. 1919 . 

Mr. Abraham's letter in your current issue, regarding the 
salary offered to electrical engineers to act as inspectors for 
a leading insurance company, will lie endorsed by men who 
know what a man in such a po-sition really ought to under- 
stand. 



96 



, [Vol. 84. No. 2,1-lS, January 24, 19H). 



I'or a iiiau to be coiupetoiit to judfje other people's wcffk 
it is reasonable to expect him to be something oi a past- 
luaster in such work; in addition to sound practical experi- 
ence he' should possess a, keen sense of perception to get at 
the points that matter 

lit the survey of plant troiu au iiisura.aLe |.ioiut of view, a 
iLian with the riahl gualities would observe points which 
uoiild nor catch rne eye of the inspector ol the "rules and 
(emulations " type until soniethin;; happened later which would 
attract his and everybody else's attention, but which happen- 
iaji would be avoided by the man who really possesses the 
experience, and can sec pot<>ntial trouble in time to prevent 
,t developiuij. 

llijh technical knowledsic is of little value without yeais 
..I troiibl<^sonie experience when it is up to a man to dis- 
.uininate between a ^(mhI and a bad job, es|i<xnally when 
the latter is of an obsiure nature; yet a !j;ix)d technical bnow- 
'<^dye is essential, therefore the man foi' such work arf an 
ii^urauce awipany's. insixvtoi- (^hould l)o one with iv.'ll- 
'la lanced quahtiea; these being technical knowledge and zeal 
•>ractical experiencei — [jeiception and sound judgment — im 
agination and logic— jetennination and tact. 

.\ll the5«> qualities are i-equired to enable a man to see 
weak points in a job or in the case of a breakdown to siy 
what h.is been the cause, and how it can be repaired without 
wasting money, or in other words, without making a coiu- 
paratively sraall job into a large and costly one at the in- 
surance company's expense; an "inspector" who is buyint; 
his experience (also at the insuiunoe company's expense) will 
not Itte difficult to bamboozle by a more expei-ienoed man. 
whose object is to get more out of tho company than is just , 
so, after all, the in.surance company is not likely to profit 
by paying such low salaries. 

Had the advertisement not .stated the salary, but left it 
^or the applicaiits to state what they required, I think there 
would have been appUcatious from really qualified men, 
iiut not at floO plus £25 war bonus, even with the vague 
iiroraise of increase according to merit. 

" Practech." 

■Iiinuury, 1919. 

1 am glad to see the question of engineers' sal.iries was 
Viken up by Mr. A. J. Abraham in last week's issae. 

1 am a student of electrical engineering, and for the last 
live years most of my spare time has been util.sed for 
•ec'nnical advancement. Upon perusing the advertosi^ment 
columns of v\;^ekly engineering journals, and seeing the low 
salaries offered for various technical posts, I often wonder 
if I am not working in a "blind alley" direction, and 
whether my time could be spent in more profitable em,")loy- 
ment. 

I think if engineers in responsible positions would fix a 
.ninimiim .salary for men who can prove that tliey have 
.recognised technical and workshop quahfications, then .some 
tiling nimld be done to raise the status of their profession. 

E. R. Bishop. 

I)e\(mport, Januarn mii, 1910. 



Electrical En^ineerinj^ in the Army. 

Voiir leading article in the current issue on " Electrical 
Y'ligineoriug in the Army " is extremely interesting to those 
who have been engaged on electrical work in France. You 
are quite correct in stating that for the most part power and 
lighting was supplied by numerous i^etrol-electric generating 
sets, but I think the conditions on our side of the line were 
rather different. It must be borne in mind that the Gei- 
in.ins had numerous large towns in their hands which had 
i.iige ixiwer stations. Some of the.se were in range of our 
iuns, but were not shelled by us, whilst the few stations on 
our side of the line were destroyed in the early days of the 
war. I think you will find that at om- bases advant-age 
was taken of the French high-tension systems to illuminate 
our camps and depots, and in a few cases fair-sized power 
stations were erectetl where French supply was not avadable. 
These stations, however, were equipped with d.c. plant only. 
One fact remains certain, and that is that advantage was 
not taken of the services of the large nmuber of electrical 
■'ngineers in the Army, the great majority of whom were 
employed on searchlight work only. In the later days of 
the war, I believe, there was a " petrol economy department" 
which used to make arrangesments to take current from 
the French power stations, and scrap the petrol-electric sets. 
I'robably the armistice put a stop to the development of this 
branch of the E.E.'s. 

H. Pavn. 
Exeter, January ISf/i, 1919. 



.1 am very glad to see that you a.re taking up the question 
of .-our shortcomings in the field with regard to the use of 
electricity, as compared with the Germans. 

I am afraid, however., that many ]>eople will construe your 
remarks as a rellection upon the ability and knowledge of 
the many electrical engineers who sen-ed throughout the 
war with His Majest\"'s Corps of Royal Engineers. I am 
sure you do not intend tliat they should be misunderstood 
in this way. 

The gi^at trouble we were always up against was " tradi- 
tion " wrapped up in red tape. Tradition in its right place 
is a splendid thing. It makes men face dangers and stand 



up tu hardships, but as a drag on initiative uud an obstacle 
to advancement, it is certainly not in "the right place. 

In September, 19H, a brotljer officer and I spent a fail 
amount of money in carrying out experiments, the results 
of which would have been very valuable in connection with 
telegraphy and telephony for military purposes. Having 
protected the idea — to do which we had to get permissiori, 
which was jjianted — ue submitted tho idea to the War 
Office. Somewhere in the early part of 1915 the invention 
was finally turned down by "The Director of Artillery \\ 
Before the end of the war the idea was discovered in use 
by the (Jermans, and ^^ e then copied it ! ' 

This is not an isolai-ed instance of the definite discourage 
inent of the technical oliicer, and aft<*r a few such, one gives 
it up as a- bad job, and conforms In ivgiilations very strictlv . 
thus cea.sing to be a tluiiii in the side ot mie's sup<'riors. 

Now ! I'riticJsm alone never built aaiylhiiig, but I feel 
sure that the only solution is to definitely d(partment«li.s<^ the 
Corps of Royal Engineers, so that we may liuve s))eciali>tis 
in.stead of .Ia4-ks of all trades. 

Major, R.E. 

Ixindon, January IStli, 1919. 

[We endeavoured to make it clear, both in the ^ntnle 
above referred to, and in that of .May 'iltli, 1918, that we did 
not wifih to cast reflections on the Royal Engineers theui 
selves, for whofae indomitable courage anil professional skiU we 
have repeatedly expressed the greatest admiiatiim; what we 
aimed at in our criticisms was the systctii which sent tho.=e 
heroes of the old .Irmy into the field without an adequate 
training in up-to-date electrical engmeering. In the former 
article we said : " It may be thought that the problem can be 
solved by commissioning as officers men who in civil hfe 
are engaged in such work, and this is ]>prfect.ly true, but only 
on one condition — that they are invested with full powers 
to carry out their plans without interference. This, we be- 
lieve, has not been the case." Oiu' correspondent, " Major, 
R.E." — witli every word of whose letter we wholly agree- 
emphasises the truth of this .statement, while he quite rightly 
defends the professional electrical engineers who were serving 
with the R.E.'s against any accu.oatioii of inefficiency; W'e, 
of cour.se, made no .such accusation — as will be seen from 
the above quotation, we claimed for them freedom from the 
tyranny of " tradition," to which our correspondent so feel- 
ingly refers. Had their services been projjeiiy utilised, im- 
mense benefits would have been derived from them by the 
.\llied nations in respect of saving of life, economy of expen- 
diture, and an earlier end of the war. — Ens. Ei.rc. Rev.] 



Electricity Supply Progress. 

The courteous manner in which you dealt with my pre- 
vious letter emboldens me to crav.e your indulgence in order 
to carry the subject a- little further. 

To my mind, and to be quite candid, your otherwise useful 
criticism of the Cireater- London .Authorities' report was 
rather six>iled by just a perceptible tinge of prejudice in 
favour of company control, and a somewhat contemptuous 
reference to the efforts of the small local authorities, scarcely 
justified by the facts. 

I did not, of course, claim that either of the two authori- 
ties mentioned in my letter were " pioneers," but merely 
in.stainceu these in support of my contention that small local 
authorities were just as ready as the companies, to adopt 
modern methods. I note you question the date of the Halifax 
installation, but perhaps this is not very material to tho 
point. 

There is nothing very surprising in the fact that the 
Newcastle and District Supply Co. " fostered and developed" 
Messrs. Parsons's turbines. The coini>any naturally fonned 
a convenient outlet for Messrs. Parsons's activities. Moi^e- 
over, it was not uncommon for manufacturers to provide 
machinery for the supply companies, accepting in payment 
thereof an equivalent value in the supply companies' shares, 
and this aiTangemeirt often enabled supply companies to 
make progress. 

You emphasise your view that "only large undertakings 
can aiiord to experiment," but I think it is ojjen to question 
whether either large or small municipalities are justified in 
expending any fonnidable sums of public money for ex- 
perimental purposes, and even company shareholders have 
been known to kick against the employment of their money 
for the purpose of launching untried schemes. 

About twenty years ago or thereabouts, very much the 
same arguments were used in regard to local authorities, and 
any little township not having a provisional order or which, 
having obtained one, refrained from putting it into opera- 
tion, was sure to l>e branded a- "unenterprising" or "lack- 
in public isphi't. " 

It should also be remembered that in the majority of 
ca.ses these aiuthorities employed the most expert professional 
advice available, and surely they should not be too much 
blamed for 'being guided acc^a-dingly. 

The fact that we have been greatly outpaced on the Con- 
tinent, and particularly in the United States and Canada, is, 
1 think, indisputable, tat this was not altogether attribut- 
able to company control. It was in a great measure due to 
the freedom witli w'.Lich these companies were allowed to 
develop, almost according to their own sweet will, whilst at 
home we have always been handicapped (municipalities and 



Vol.84, xo. 2.US, jasdary 21. 1919.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW ^ 



97 



companies) by sluggish legislative tnacLiiieiy and harassing 
restrictions placed upon us by Government departments, 
mostly lor the protection of private interests. Under th« 
Jilierent conditions it is doubtful whether the U.S.A. com- 
panies v.ould have been any more successful than our own 
authorities. 

Further, and writing with some fair expeiience (not being 
exactly a " stay-at-home "), I do not believe that overhead 
transnii.s.9ion, so common in the States, could have been 
developed in this country' to anything like the same extent, 
nor yet that its adoption would have saved the situation. 

One ol the greatest stumbling blocks to progress in this 
cxjuntry is, I think, traceable to the inherent conservatism 
of the British factory owner. No tariffs, however ingenious, 
would induce him to scrap his beam engines, counter shaft- 
ing, &c. Even the large firms when they did decide to 
adopt electricity remained in " splendid isolation," and pre- 
fen'ed to put down their own compad-atively small plants 
rather than have anything to do with the central supply 
authority. There aie thousands of such plants all over the 
country, and unless these people can be converted, induced 
or coerced into taking their requirements from a central 
source, no national scheme can be altogether successful. Not- 
withstanding all their difficulties, however, it cannot be 
denied that many small municipahties have developed theii' 
undertakings enormously. 

Take, for instance, the Eotherham municipality. Bother- 
ham commenced its supply in May, 19Ui (this time I am 
certain of my dates), iu a very modest way indeed, and 
although commercially successful from its inception, the. 
annual output up to 1914 never exceeded five or six milhon 
imits, therefore it cannot be regarded as one of the large 
undertakings. Yet Eotherham has now provided itself with 
the first supty -station in the kingdom, and bids fair, to sur- 
pass the activities of even the " Great North-East Coast " 
combination (on whom be jieace). The credit for this achieve- 
ment IS surely attributable to mimieipal enterprise, well 
. directed, and supplemented by capable administration. 

The general assumption that .small kical autliorities are 
aiixioiLS to hang on to ineliicient and obsolete generating 
stations will, in my opinion, prove to be entirelj' oiToneous. 
Accu-stomed for years to defend themselves against encroach- 
ment on the part of then- avaricious and more iwwerful 
neighbours, these authorities are naturally suspicious as to 
any infringement of their rights. The circumstances sur- 
rounding the appointment of the Board of Trade Committee 
and the method of investigation sub.sequently adopted by the 
committee itself, did not tend t-o allay these suspicions. On 
the contrary, antagonism was aroused, not altogether con- 
lined to local authorities, which should, and might easily, 
have been avoided. Given a sound .<ichemc, however, and 
equitable treatment, the .sanall local authorities wiU be found 
as ready to co-operate as either' the companies or the larger 
municipalities. 

Let our new Electricity Commissioners be real "live men," 
unhampere<l by ix>Utics or private interests; give them a. free 
hand to retain what is good, and discard the inefficient, 
whether such belong to a company or municipality; let them 
not be tof> much guided by the reports of the Coal Conserva- 
tion Sub-Conmiittee or the Committee on Electricity Supply: 
better .stili, let them forget that these pn^ous documents 
were ever issued, and I for one am optimistic enough to be- 
lieve that an era of phenomenal prosi^erity for the electricaJ 
industry as a whole will be assured. 

J. C. WiUiams, 
Engineer and Manager. 

Electricity Supply & Ti-amway- Dept., 
Erith, January 15th, 1919. 

[Mr. Williams has cei'tainly carried the subject furthei-; 
we are reminded of the gentlemen who was found in i>osses- 
sion of a pig some miles froni its home, and said it was " only 
a joke " — the magistrate held that it was " carrying a joke 
too far." NVe are tempted to answer his letter in detail, 
but must restrict our.selves to the following brief comments : 

Our admitted prejudice iu favour of company control is 
shared by not a few engineers in municipal employment, 
besides many such who have ti-ansferred their senices to 
companies with advantage to themselves in more ways than 
one. 

We did not suggest that there was anything " surprising " 
in the fact that the Newcastle and District Co. fostered and 
developed the Parsons turbine ; quite the reverse — it was a, 
particularly apt illustration of what could be done by a 
comoany, but could never have been done by a municipality, 
and the fact that companies can pay for machinery in shares 
strengthens the argument. In his next paragraph. Mr. Wil- 
liams emphasises the inherent obstacle to municipal enter- 
prise — the fact that publicly coutrolli''' !i" ' -vtnkings are 
not spending their own money; and il n profes- 

sional advisei-s have had to avoid experii uough we 

could readily name instances in which i,,, :.... ..a.s trans- 
gressed, w-itli very unfortunate results to the undertakings). 

Mr. WilUams agrees that the rapid iirogress made abroad 
was due "to the freedom •nith which these companies were 
allqw^ed to develop"; we, of couise, agree that both munici- 
palitie.s and companies have suffered from legislative and 
administrative restrictions, but the ix>int which we had in 
mind was this :" that on the Continent and elsewhere abroad 
companies were allowed to supply over large areas, including 
towns witlnn those areas, whereas in this ((luntiy our (iow.t 



compames were excluded trom the big towns in the^r areas 
by the action of the local authorities, and thvis their develop- 
ment was hampered, and is hampered to this day. 

The demand for facihries for overhead transmission has 
been endorsed by the municipal authorities. 

The British factory o^Mier is sensitive enough when hit> 
pocket is touched; had a cheap supply of power been avail 
able at liis door, he could not have afforded to ignore it. 

The extraordinary development of electricity supply under- 
takings during the war was due to extraordinai-y circum- 
stances; the municipal authorities rose to the occa^on splen- 
didly — but what progress would they have made if the war 
had not happened? 

Havirig been granted statutory powers, the small local 
authoiities are justified in maintaining their rights agajinst 
infringement ; but they admit, through their representatives 
— both engineers and councillors — that the system is all 
wrong, that electricity supply should not have beeji confined 
within municipal boundaries, and inferentiaUy that those 
statutory powers should never have been granted. 

With tihe last i>aragraph of Mr. WilUams's letter, almost 
every word of it, we cordially agree. — Eds. Elec. Eev.] 



The " Taylor System." 

I would Irke to be allow'ed to make a few remarks regard- 
ing Major Pells's article on " What is meant by Efficiency 
Methods? " 

Major Pells has voiced what has actually been in the 
minds of thousands of engineers. Where in past years it 
has been the practice in a good many industiies to attempt 
to fit a man into a job, in .some cases waisting their own 
and their employe's time getting the man used to a clasn 
of ^vork he has never before had any experience in, in futm-e 
it must be the task of every^ employer, not to find the job 
lor the man, but to get the man lor the job. 

Many a young pupil or apprentice after serving his time 
has been forced, ag:iinst his wish, to seek other fields in 
search for improvement, often having to remodel all hLs 
ideas to suit new conditions, and waste a year or so before 
he becomes as useful in his new job as he was in his last. 
t would suggest to any firm that adopted Major Pells's idea 
(if an efficiency engineer, that it would be well advised 
to make use of its rnost apt pupils or apprentices for this 
purpose. 

Regarding the electrical ti-ades, now' that the wages earned 
are being placed on a footing equal to that of other industries, 
the call for inci'eased efficiency and economy will be moro 
urgent than it has ever been before, and it will become neces- 
saiy tor all employers to study the .smallest detads that lead 
to efficient -norking, and thu.s help reduce the working costs. 
Employes are keirt too much in the dark regarding their 
respective values to any undertaking. It is seldom that any 
employe knows how his efforts have added to or reduced 
the working costs. More light on this subject would keep 
the efficiency problem fresh in the minds of the workers. 
How many times has a stoker, switchman, or driver, been 
able to point out to his station engineer' the way to improved 
methods? Although it is early yet fo say that pJant efficiency 
has reached its maximum, ior the present it appears to be 
at a stand.still, and while this is so the only path to increased 
efficiency is for the engmcers and men to work together, and 
for all employes to take an active interest in the work. 

Some years ago I worked under Major Pells before ho 
commenced his Army career. Then his idea of combating 
foreign competition was by Tariff Eeform. I am pleased to 
.see that he has so far altered his opinions as to reahse that 
there are other means of attaining this end. 

- H. Bujama. 

London, N.W., January Uih, 1919. 



Station Engineers and Kepresentation. 

Whilst viewing with admiration the "spade work" of the 
pioneers of the above section of the E.T.U^, and extending 
due credit to their achieveinent-s. it is nevertheless generally 
felt that following the influx of central station men. such 
IX)wers as the ..loint Industrial Committee ahoidd have been 
reconstructed, as the existing constitution is certainly not 
representative .so far as those men are concerned, and it 
is regrettable to note that efforts from these channels to 
rectify this important deficiency are strongly opjxised by 
.sub-station representatives, who claun to " know all about " 
central station men and their conditions. 

I used to imagine that trade-union members elected their 
delegates, but I have yet to learn why a sub-station engineer 
is most- fitted to negotiate matters concorniug station en- 
ginecra. 

Backpressure. 

Januani. 1919. 



German World Trade Schemes. — The Fnoikfihter 

/piiiiiiij learns that a limited liability company has been formed iu 
(rermany, with headquarters at Diisseldorf, for the purpose of 
reconstructing the world trade relations of industrial undertakin^ts 
and of re-estftblisliin<r aprencies and warehouses abroad. The firm 
has Iioeu started by the Mannesmann Tube Works, which formerly 
played a Ipadinc part in the tube trade on the woild market. — 
]l„',n:l of- I'ni.lr .l,'H,',i,il. 



98 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 84. No.2,H8, January 24, 19in. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



Our Letters from the Front. -A Majuj. E.A.O.C.. 
iMlt8i — ■ Please accept my thanks for your klndneaa lu sending me 
» Oop.T of youT valuable iournal, as you have done, diirini; the past 
~4S m6nths out here The paper has been extremely welcome, 1 
e*Q assure you, -is you oau imagine when one has served over thret^ 
years continuous service ont on this Western Front how "rusty ' 
line must l>e as regards electrical matters. 

It may be imagined by many that we are haviutr a slack time of 
it : I can assure you that our particular branch is just as busy as 
ever, but of course under better conditions, inasmuch as we are free 
from bombing and shelling. 

It is to be hope<l that the electrical manufacturers and others 
allied to the jrrcat industry will remember that we shall all be 
seeking- jobs before long ; our experience may not be up to date as 
regards sjiecialist work, but the experience gained is invaluable, 
whatever branch one has been connected with. 

I am now stationed in one of the Belgian towns which is sur- 
loundeti by an area teeming with factories and coal mines : in 
most cjises the Hun has taken away the machinery. The business 
to be done out here when things settle down will be simply 
enormous, and those manufacturers who have a good stock of 
apparatus will clear their stock out in a week ; I am speaking of 
plant, large motors, switchgear. iV;c. 

The Institution of Electrical Engineers might evolve some 
scheme of " liaison " with the electrical profession over here, so as 
to assist those who will have to do business at an early date. 

There appears to be very little copper wire about here, as the 
Uun took that, so that copper wire contracts ought to 1» a good 
line for someone. 

Italian Standards for Electrical Machinery. — An Itidian 

standard for electrical machinery is to supersede German standards 
in the requirements of Government Departments in Italy. By a 
decree published in the Goz-ftta I'lhcinle of December 12th, all 
electrical machinery ordered by Italian Government Departments 
is to conform to the standard regulations (for testing) compiled by 
the Italian Electrotechnical Association in 1916. Before the war 
German vA.E.G.) standards were in universal use in Italy. This 
decree crowns the efforts of the Italian Electrotechnical .Association 
to bring Italian standards into application in Italy. The text of 
the decree, and a copy of the standard regulations (in Italian) can 
he consulted at the Department of Overseas Trade (Development 
and Intelligence). 73, Basinghall Street, E.G. -l.—Bmird of Trad,- 
Jinirnal. 

Compensation Claim. — In support of a claim by the 
Phonopore Construction Co., before the War Losses Commission, 
in respect of the occupation of the firm's factory at Southall. Mid- 
dlesex, the claimants stated that the War Office took possession 
of their factory for a period of 17 months, and that this occupation 
resulted in direct loss and dislocation of business. 

Telegraphs and Trade. — The London Chamber of Com- 
merce, through the Council, has forwarded to the Prime Minister, 
the President of the Board of Trade, and the Postmaster-General, a 
memorandum urging upon them, among other things, the great 
importance of the resumption of cheap and rapid means of com- 
munication. The complete freedom of cable communication, the 
unrestricted use of cable codes other than those now authorised, 
and of registered telegraphic addresses, are necessary in order to 
rehabilitate the United Kingdom in the markets of the world, to 
increase production, develop exportation, and so on. While the 
withdrawal of code restrictions might facilitate the resumption of 
enemy commerce, it would confer upon our own international trade 
an immeasurably greater advantage, " and the sooner the with- 
drawal the greater will be the ratio of that advantage." 

Prices Advance. — The Enterprise ilANUFACTURiNO 

Co., Ltd.. announce an advance of 15 per cent, in their list prices 
of motors, owing to continual advances in labour and material. 

Trading with the Enemy. — A further list of names of 
bodies and persons abroad with whom trading is prohibited, or 
whose names have now been removed, is published in the London 
tiniette for January 17th. 

Export Restrictions Removed. — The London Gazette for 
January 17th contains a further list of relaxations in export 
prohibitions. 

Tar Oils Order Suspended. — The Ministry of Munitions 
has suspended the operations of the Tar Oils Control Order. 1918, 
08 from January 15th. 

Engineering Advertising. — In order to assist firms in 
the engineering industry to produce a higher standard of advertise- 
ment in the Press. Messrs. S. Davis & Co., of .SO and 31. St. 
Swithin's Lane, London. E.C.. have issued a booklet in which they 
show, printed on a very high-class art paper, examples of a number 
of advertisements designed by them for well-known manufacturers. 
We have long held that the preparation of advertisements for the 
technical Press has been more or less neglected by some firms. A 
newcomer or underling, of no experience either of publicity or of 
engineering, pitchforked into such responsible duties, cannot be a 
success unless he be one of nature's great prodigies. If firms are 
not disposed to afford a specialist who will be both efficient in the 
performance of his work and happy in his relations with the Press. 
they had better by far enlist the assistance of one of the several 
firms who are qualified in both of these ways, and are prepared to 
secure good results. Messrs. Davis will send a copy of this booklet 
to any reader on application. 



American Electrical Export Trade Co. — A Central 

News dispatch to an evening paper states that the International 
General Electric Co. has been establisheil in America by charter, 
with a capital of S2O,0OO,OO(j. The incorporators are identified as 
the General Electric Co., and it Is believed that the new company 
(vill engage in foreign trade. 

Fire. — A fire occurred ul the works nf ihe Siluminite 
lusulator Co.. Ltd., Southall, on the evening uf January I6th. 
causing damage estimated at about* 1.000. The machinery was 
9a\-ed. and work is being carried on as usual. 

The E.T.U. and 47 Hours.— According to the Daily 
Di.yintrli (Manchester), an analysis of the voting of the engineer- 
ing and shipbuilding trade (in which 337,029 voted for and 
159,SS7 against) shows that the Electrical Trade Union voted as 
follows : —For, 1,605; against. 2.295. The Instrument Makers 
voted : For, 1.52.-< ; against, 1,102. 

47-Honr Week Strike. — lu London, l."i,0(»O engineering 
employes are on strike, among their grievances being the fact that 
since the working of the 47-hour week was introduced certain 
shop privileges have lieen eliminated ; such as the 10 minutes' 
interval for morning refreshment. A conference of the employers 
and the employed took place on Monday. Surely this is a point 
that could, and should, have been foreseen and considered by both 
sides when the 47-hour week was agreed upon I 

A Scientific Management Society? — The suggestion 

that a society be formed for the study of scientific management, 
and for propaganda on the subject, has already received a certain 
amount of support, as a result of recent contributions to these 
columns. " Increased production '' has been a favourite topic in 
both the technical and daily Press for some time past, and it is felt 
that some association of those interested would be helpful for the 
interchange of ideas and the gathering of information on the 
subject. The field of activity for such a society would probably 
be a large one, but it is felt that the nucleus of the society, rather 
than its initiators, should decide what its policy should be. All 
those interested in this proposal are requested to write to the 
Electrical Review (marking envelope " S.M.S."), so that notice 
of an inaugural meeting may be sent to them. 

Socials. — The fuse department of Messrs. Fbrkantj, 
Ltd., electrical engineers, HoUinwood, held a tea, concert and ball 
at Failsworth, last week, when presentations were made to the day 
and night foremen, Mr. John TillotSon receiving a timepiece, and 
Mr. Hartley Hicks a smoker's cabinet. 

The annual dinner of the operative staff of the Royal Arsenal 
Central Power Station took place at Pinoli's on Saturday last, Mr. 
G. W. Paine presiding. The toasts and musical programme were 
much appreciated, and at 10.30 p.m. " Auld Lang Syne " concluded 
the festivity. Messrs. Rolls, Stroud and Grant acted as Committee. 

Bankruptcy Proceedings. — Andrew Matson, late eiec- 

trical engineer. 69, Ewbank Street, Stockton-on-Tees, late 10, Hard- 
wick Terrace, Stockton-on-Tees. — This debtor applied on Tuesday, 
last week, at the Court House, Bridge Road, Stockton-on-Tees, for 
his discharge from bankruptcy. The Official Receiver (Mr. Mere- 
dith Hardy) stated that the debtor filed his petition in 1917. His 
liabilities were £219, and his assets realised £29. A first and final 
dividend of Is. 5Jd. had since been paid to the creditors. It 
appeared that the debtor started business as an electrical engineer 
at 10, Hardwick Terrace, Stockton-on-Tees, about 18 months prior 
to his failure. When he started he had a capital of .£20, borrowed 
money, which he repaid. At his public examination he admitted 
that he had never been in a position to pay 20s. in the & since he 
commenced business, and that all his liabilities had been incurred 
with that knowledge. He attributed his failure to having 
commenced business with borrowed money, illness of his wife, 
keen competition, and loss on contracts. Mr. C. L. Townsend, for 
the debtor, said that since his failure he had been working in the 
mercantile marine, and had accumulated a little money, which 
would put him in the position of starting with capital. He was 
prepared to pay an amount which would provide for a further 
dividend to his creditors, if it could be spread over a short period 
so as not to interfere with his capital, as he wished to start at once. 
His Honour Judge McCarthy granted the discharge, conditional 
upon the payment of £20 within a period of three months. 

Chas. Matfield, electrical engineer, Clifton, Bristol. — Adjudi- 
cation order made January 15th. 

A. F. Hawdon, formerly an electrical engineer, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, nowawireman in the Navy.— At Newcastle-upon-Tyne Bank- 
ruptcy Court, on January I6th. Judge Greenwell granted an applica- 
tion for discharge. The discharge was suspended for two-and-a-half 
years. 

Iron Prices. — The Minister of Munitions gives notice 
that the advance of 15s. per ton in the price of bar iron for home 
sales, which was announced on December 30th. 1918, as coming 
into force on Januai-y 1st, 1919, also applies to prices of rolled 
edges iron, sheared-iron tube strip and iron plates and sheets for 
home sales. 

Aluminium. — The price at which the Government are 
prepared to sell their stock of aluminium has been reduced to £150 
per ton for 98/99 per cent, ingot, at which price steps have been 
taken to stabilise the market. Arrangements have been made in 
regard to these stocks that they shall be disposed of in such a way 
as to avoid dislocation in the aluminium industry. 



Vol. 84. No. 2.H8. jakuarv 24, 1919.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



99 



Excess Profits Duty.— The report of the Committee 
on tlnanciaJ Kieks Attached to the Holding of Trading 
Stocks is now pubhshed by the Ministry of Recon- 
struction. They regard it as most desirable that the posi- 
tion of industry should be specially strengthened when on 
the threshold of a period in which markets have to be 
reorganised or created, and in which industrial conditions 
are m the highest degree uncertain. The most hopeful hne 
of approach to a solution of this problem hes, they think, in 
;i reduction of the present rates of excess profits duty. The 
present M per cent, duty, they consider, encourages extrava- 
gance and discourage enterprise, the reward being paltry, 
while little mai'gin is left for renewals, development, and 
the capture of new markets, to say nothing of the establish- 
ment of reserves against bad times. 

The committee recommend two alternative remedies :^ 

1. A reduction in the excess profits duty from 80 per cent, 
to 6b per cent, for the accoimting period approximating to 
the year 1918 now in course of asses-sment, on the under- 
standing that the duty so remitted is retained in the business 
and not distributed. This reduction might be accompanied 
by the withdrawal of the first concession m the White Paper, 
which was largely a result of the I'aiaing of the duty to 
SO per cent. 

2. If this course is impracticable, the committee suggest 
that part of the duty now to be paid should be treated as a 
suspensory reserve for a period of five years, the amount 
so treated to be represented by a special kind of War Loan 
to be held on joint accoimt by the Government and the tax- 
payer. The amount of this reserve should be 20 per cent, 
of the average excess of profits in the last two years of the 
duty. -After five years this reserve should either revert 
finally to the State or, in certain specified cii-cumstances, 
become wholly or in part the property of the taxpayer. 

The committee recognise that they have been unable to 
formulate any scheme of rehef for those w-ho pay no excess 
profits duty. They also consider that a business which has 
denude(i! itself of its " immanent stock " at the instance of 
the Government, to meet immediate needs, has a claim for 
consideration which is~best preferred to, and granted by, the 
department of State to which the assi.stanc€ was rendered. 

Enemy Propaganda in South America. — The Timex 
has received from a Buenos Aires correspondent a. charac- 
teristic exaiaple of the unblushing continuation of German 
propaganda immediately after Germany had lo.«t the war. 
The following is a translation of a circular issued by German 
agents in Argentina for a new weekly paper, price about 6d. : 

We t.Tke the liberty of bringing lo your notice our new illustrated weekly 
journal, .\eue Welt, which will appear on January 1st. This paper will not 
serve for the usual novels and other light reading, but will occupy itself 
-j-ilh all questwns oj present and future interest to Germans in South 

The leading questions of the day will be dealt with, and in addition we 
shall produce the ' literary prarls of our leading poets and writers, as well as 
original articles of the highest class. We shall not be influenced by poli- 
tical events in the Old and New World, as we do not wish to divide our 
ranks by party politics, but instead to strive lor one end : — 

Protection and funhering of German Kultur and German trade in South 

\\"e shall hope to reach every Gcrma 

The iVeue Welt is no party politics ( 
in the interests oj all Herman South 
Germany, Austria, Switzerland, or Rus! 

We wish to be German in the broadest sense of the word 

We do not uish to destroy, but to construct I 

.Ml suggestions in this sonse are welcome, and for adv( 
subscriptions please go direct to Publishers, Seue Well. 

Restoring Devastated France. — The Paris correspondent 
of the Tivies says that a congiess of French and American 
civil engineers has been discussing during the last fortnight 
a series of vast works designed to enlarge certam French 
ports, repair roads and mines, canalise certain rivers, and 
generally perfect the national outfit. With regard to the 
repair of the devastated mines, it is estimated that it will 
take one year to pump out the water, and machinery of 
30,000 H.P." is being set up for that purpose. Even then it 
will take two years before the mines can be set going, and 
five- before a normal output wiU be reached. The Rhone is 
to be made navigable as far as Lyons, and big inigation 
works are contemplated. The Rhone v.-i\l, it is calculated, 
be able to furnish electric power to the extent of 750,000 h.p. 
The neces.sary capital vn\l be sought in France and .America, 
and it is suggested that the State should assume charge of 
these works, and entrust their execution to Franco-American 
societies. 

The Federation of British Industries has issued No. 2, Vol. 
II, of its Bulletin, one of the aildcles in which discusses the 
Lyons Fair, which is to take place early in March, as an 
opportunity for British finns to come to tte help of France 
in re-establishing her industries. 

TJie Electrical Market in South Africa.— In the course 

of an aiticle on South Africa's Great Market for Electrical 
Equipment," the British and South African Export Gazette 
says : — 

"That the market in South Africa for machinery, cables, 
fittings, and other material for electric hght and power pur- 
poses is one which is well worth looking after may be judged 
from the fact that for a recent five-year period the average 
annual value of such imports, exclusive altogether of tele- 
phone and telegraph cable and wire, amounted to as much as 
£1,086,340. It is all the better worth looking after now that 
Germany is unlikely to be able to compete for many yeare 



rcle in South .America. 

1. No, it enters the Neui World 

ericans. -.vhether their origin be 



to come on anything Uke the old favourable terms of the 
past. Great as the strides are which have been made in 
electrical development throughout the Union, Rhodesia, and 
British and Portuguese East. Africa, it is even yet orily in 
its infancy, and when railway electrification is seriously 
taken in hand in the Union, as it seems certain to be at no 
very distant date, and the large new industrial equipments 
already projected are permitted to be undertaken, the plant 
and materisd for which an urgent need will have been created 
must represent very much more in annual value than the 
gross total of all the electrical imports which South Africa 
has in the past drawn from other parts of the world. Rela- 
tiveiy small as the beginnings which have been made may be 
rated, however, there are to-day scattered tkroughout South 
.Africa no iewer than 53 plants, each busily occupied in 
supplying electricity either for power, Ughting, heating, or 
cooking." 

The writer goes on to give a summaiw of the principal elec- 
trical systems serving the mine districts and the larger cities. 

The U.S. and Foreign Electrical Trade.— In the course 
of an editorial, entitled "The Foreign Trade Door Open," 
the New York Electrical World says that it is high time that 
the American nation made a substantial beginning in learn- 
ing what it required to know on the subject of foreign trade. 
The writer remarks that present American foreign trade 
knowledge rests largely ^^ith the companies which have done 
an international business for many years, notwithstanding 
unsympathetic laws and laW-makers, and they have paid a 
price lor their information. " Certainly the big companies 
have done much in the past to build a reputation for this 
country in foreign lands. They have put distributive organi- 
sations in the leading countries where sales are posable; they 
have established connections, men and agents trained in their 
products and the needs of consumers; their names and output 
are known favourably. They have faced European competi- 
tion for yeais; they are able to market apparatus and sup- 
plies where that competition ^ists. Probably they can con- 
tinue in much the same way as they have done. But with 
expanding circles of consumers in other countries it is to be 
hoped that they will develop the size of their business in pro- 
portion . They are entitled to benefit from their pioneer work. ' ' 

But our contemporary is also interested in the case of the 
smaller manufacturers. It sa.ys:— "With the small com- 
panies in the electrical industry the desirabihty of building 
export business under the new domestic and world condi- 
tions is also clear. They have a lai-ge productive capacity; 
they can meet competition as tie large companies meet it: 
they have their individual problems of keeping labour em- 
l)loyed at good wages. Under the old conditions they lacked 
suincient points of contact with buyers in foreign countries 
to make a profitahje business easy, if indeed it was practic- 
able at all. They could not afford to finance exploitation of 
foreign possibihties as readily as companies of greater re- 
sources. But now that Congress has opened the way for 
co-operative organisations in foreign trade through the enact- 
ment of the Webb law they can initiate a movement to repre- 
sent a number of units in the electrical industry." 

Iron and Steel Output and Stocks. — Tlie followin<r 
figures are issued by the Minister of Munitions : — 

A. Stocks of Iron and Steel. — The total stocks in the hands 
of the Government available for disposal at the end of De- 
cember, 1918, were as follows : — 

Government stock at end 
of December, 1918. 

80,000 tons. 
. 210,000 tons. 
19,800 tons. 
5,000 tons. 
10,000 tons. 

These figures, which include all stocks of U.S.A. steel in 
this country, only represent stocks in the hands of the Gov- 
ernment still to be disposed of, and do not include stocks in 
the hands of private firms, neither do they inchide stocks of 
forgmgs and semi-finished .shell. 

B. Outstanding Commitments from Overseas. — The bulk 
of the Government contracts in U.S.A. for iron and steel have 
been cancelled, and the existing stocks of shell steel at Ameri- 
can ports and steel works are being disposed of in the Ameri- 
can market. The only outstanding commitments still due 
to arrive in this country are : (1) 40,000 tons of basic pig- 
iron from U.S. .A., the whole of which has already been allo- 
cated to its final destination, (2)- 7,500 tons of wire rods from 
U.S. -A. and 2,500 tons from Canada, and (3) 4,000 tons of 
pig-iron from Sweden. 

C. Output.— The average weekly output of pig-iron and 
steel ingots and. casting in the United Kingdom during the 
last six years is as foDows : — 

Pig Iron. Steel (Ingots & Castings). 

1912 ■ 168,000 tons 131.000 tons. 

19l;< 200,000 tons 147.000 tons. 

191.1 173,000 tons l.il.OOO tons. 

IQlj 169.000 tons 161,000 tons. 

igifi 174.000 tons 173.000 tons. 

1917 179.000 tons 187.000 Ions. 

1918 175,000 tons 184,000 tons. 

Output during the latter half of 1918 was seriously mter- 
fered with by the influenza epidemic in July, and the Armis- 
tice in November. The average output figures for the firs^ 
half of the year were 181,000 tons of pig iron and 192,00 
tons of steel. 



Pig iron (SwedisK) 

Shell steel billets (suitable for re-rollihg) 
Ships piales (purchased in U.S.A.) 

Bright steel : 

Bar iron (Swedish) 



100 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol.84. No.2,14S, January 24, isn*. 



Demobilisation aad Employment.— Our readere do not 

raqime to be told that the task of reinst^iting our soldiers 
And sailors in civil life is a colossal one. Machinery exists 
tor ptnl'orming it, howevei', and it is to be hoped that intend- 
ing oujployers and employes will arail themselves of it. Tlie 
Employment Exchaugos. assisted by the Local Advisory Com- 
mittees, which rfpre.«?nt equally the interests of both partiovs 
ia every neighbourhood, are said to have the organisa- 
tion ready for use. The st;ilTs of the Exchanges have Ixvn 
considerably strengthened in order to meet the extra strain 
thrown n|K>u them. It is not generally known that branches 
have been set up to deal with discharged men only, while 
special ifections for disabled men have been established in a 
great umnber of cases. As far as possible, the work in these 
new additions to the Exchange system is carried on by men 
in the .«ame iiosition as tho.=e w'hom they are helping back 
to civil employment. Discharged raea. with no small pro- 
l>oition of disabled among them, superint-end the placing of 
(lischiirgod and disabled men. It has been found that the 
los^ of an arm, of a leg, of two legs, and even of eyesight, 
is no insurmount^ible obstacle to the peii'formance of efficient 
work, given the employers who will employ the men. 

The Industrial Reconstruction Council. — The report 
for It'ilS summarises the work accomplished in the setting 
up of joint bodies on the Whitley principle. The concluding 
words of the chairman (Mr. E. J. P. Benn) read thus: — 

In enlering the New Year the Committee once agnin appeal for help in 
c^irrying on thf campaign. W'e need moiiev, we nociJ personal service, we 
need the active influence o( all who wish' to sec our great country still 
greater. One of the most powerful i;iciors towards this end would be uniird 
t'lTort in the field of industry. Our safety is menaced by extremists on either 
side, and it is for the majority who are genuine in their desire for indus- 
trial pe.ice to rouse themselves to meet the danger. Let us be as eager for 
construction as the Bolsheviks are for destruction, and we need have no fear 
for the security of our civilisation. 

Electrical Openings at Palma. — Mannfacturers of elec- 
tiical tramway plant and electric motors suitable for adapta- 
tioji to s;iihng ships are invited to send cataJogue^ and priee.s 
to tiie Camara Ofiuial de Camercio, Indu&tria y Navegacion, 
Palma, Balearic Isles. The Acting British Cou.'iul at Palma 
states that several important orders have been recently placed 
by this company. — Board of Trade Journal. 

Port Elizabeth. — We have received a copy of '• The 
Trade and Commerce of Port Elizabeth," published by the Elec- 
tricity and Industries Department of the City Council. Mr. B. 
Sankey. the City Electrical Engineer, is one of the editors of the 
publication, which sets forth a large amount of information and 
includes many excellent pictures, which would interest those who 
want to know anything concerning the general facilities offered by 
Port Elizabeth from the industrial, residential, electric power, and 
other points of view. 

Catalogues and Lists.— Messrs. Thacipsk. BEr.L, axd 

Co., Ltd., 44/46. Leadenball Street. London. EC. 3.— Illustrated 
descriptive circulars dealing respectively with standard A c. motors, 
and D.c. dynamos and motors, also electric stop motion, manu- 
factured by Jtessrs. .James Tate, of Harris Street, Bradford, for 
whom they are sole agents. 

Messrs. Electrical Composents, Ltd., 36, Cannon Street, 
Birmingham. — Illustrated price leaflet of their convertible electric 
fire stove. 

Trade Announcements. — Mr. Harry Moss has taken 

new and larger premises at 82, Leeds Road. Bradford, with show- 
room, 4:c. All communications should be addressed there. 

Me. T. R. Topping, electrical engineer, has now resumed 
business at his former address — Station Road, Wigan. 

Owing to the expiration of the lease of their present offices in 
Manchester, Messrs. Drake A: Gorham, Ltd., are removing on 
January 27th to 29, Piccadilly, Manchester. Telephone Xo. 3700 ; 
telegraphic address, " Accumulator, Manchester," both unchanged. 

Mr. C. M. Simpson, manufacturing electrical engineer and 
wholesale supplier, having been released from the Army, ia 
reopenine imcnediately at 4, St. Augustine's Place, Tramways 
Centre, Bristol. 

Book Notices. — The Electrical Contractors' Year Book, 
l'.il8-iy. Londoit : The Electrical Contractors' Association (Inc.). 
Price 2s. 6d. — This, the first issue of the year book, was prepared in 
April last year, but, owing to printers' delay, was not published 
until October, and we understand that it is, consequently, incom- 
plete ; another issue ia in preparation, for publication in .July of 
this year. The copy which we have received for review came to 
hand recently, and the general secretary, Mr. Leonard G. Tate, 
has just settled down in the new offices of the Association at 
11-13. Southampton Row. The organisation 'of the electrical 
contractors of Great Britain embraces, in addition to the E O.A., 
the National Electrical Contractors' Trading Association, Ltd. 
(X.E.C.T.A.) and the Xational Federated Electrical Association, 
with a Council and o Seers common to all three. Mr. H. .1. Cash 
beinjT the president. Lists are given of the personnel of the 
various committees, sectional Boards, and branches of the organisa- 
tion ; lists of members of the respective Associations follow, and an 
interesting historical sketch of the career of the Association, from 
its formation in 1901 as the outcome of correspondence in the 
Electrical Review, is given. The varied activities of the 
Association form the subject of a short article, which is followed 
by an account of the year's work of each of the Associations 



during 1917. Finally, the working rules adopted at various centres, 
and the pre-war rates of wajies, Committee on Production awards, 
ic, up to August lOth, 1915, are given. The year book is a 
welcome addition to electrical literature, and will lill a place which 
has long been waiting for it on the contractor's bookshelf. 

"The Decrease in t'ltra-Violet and Total Radiation with VnnnK- 
of Quartz Mercury Vapour Lamps. " By W. W. Coblcntz. M. H. 
Long, and H. Kahler. Washington : Government Printing Oflice. 
Price 5 cents. 

The Kdinhuviih lleeieui. \o. 467. Vol. CCXXIX. .lanuaiy, 
1919. London : Longmans, Green it Co. Price Gs. net. 

"Post Office Electrical Engineers' .lournal." Vol.11. Part IV. 
January, 1919. London : H. Alabaster, Gatehouse & Kempe, Price 
la. net. 

" Wires and Cables. " Pp. 270. Illustrated. Montreal : Eugene 
F. Phillips Electrical Works, Ltd. 

" A Treatise on Gyroatatics and Rotational Motion." By Andrew 
Gray. Pp. xx -(- 530 ; 122 figs. London: Macmillan .V; Co., Ltil. 
Price 12s. net. 

We have received from Messrs. H. Dtmod 4: E. Pinat, Paris, their 
list of scientific and industrial books, amongst which are many 
electrical works. We note that the foreign subscription to Lii 
Terlintqiie Mifienie, that excellent review of science applied to 
industry, which resumed publication a year ago, has been 
raised to 42 francs to new subscribers, 

" Enfi'nieeriiKj Directory." Xo. lio. October, 1918. London : 
Engim'i'rinij. Ltd. Gratis. 

Calcium Carbide. — The ilinistor of Munitions aiinnnnccs 
that on and after February 1st. 1919, the maximum prices for 
dealings in calcium carbides are amended, and will be as follows 
for quantities of 110 1b. and over, exclusive of carriage charges, 
namely — £30 par ton for lump sizes; £30 10s. per ton lor granu- 
lated sizes up to 15/25 mm. 

Dissolutions and Liquidations.— Coventry Engineer- 
ing Accessories Co., Ltu. — This company is winding up volun- 
tarily, with Mr. C. B. Lee, 4, St. Anne's Road. Coventry, electric.-il 
engineer, as liquidator. 

National Research Syndicate, Ltd. — Winding up volun- 
tarily. Liquidator, Mr. E. N. Wise, of 6, Cavendish Squan'. 
London, W. 

Engineering Accessories Co., Ltd.— Meeting of creditors on 
January 27th, at 18, Hertford Street, Coventry. 

Alfred Graham & Co., electrical engineers. St. Andrew's 
Works, Crofton Park, and Kilmorie Works. Kilmorie Road, Forest 
Hill. S.E. — Messrs. A. G. & E. A. Gr.aham have dissolved partner- 
ship. Debts will be attended to by Mr. E. A. Graham. 

Hatcher Brcs. *: Large, motor and general electrical engi- 
neers, Johnson Street, East Ham. — Messrs. T, C. Large, A. M. 
Hatcher, and H. G. Hatcher have dissolved partnership as from 
.September last. Debts will be attended to by Mr. T. C. Large, 
who will continue the business. 

British Hchn Metallic Packing Co., Ltd., London, E.C. — 
First and final dividend 2(ls. in the £. 

Hafod Oil and Grease Co., oil and grease manufacturers. 
Earl Street. Swansta.— Messrs. J. Richards and W. H.Reynolds 
have dissolved partnership. Mr. Reynolds will attend to debts and 
continue the business. 

Radio-active Substances : Order Suspended. — The 

Minister of Munitions has suspended the Radio-active S'.ibstanoes 
(Control) Order, 19 is. 

Raw Asbestos Order Cancelled.— The Admiralty has 

cancelled the Raw Asbestos Order (including crude and asbestos 
mine fibres) made January 6th, 1918. 

Calendar. — Messrs. E. P. Allah A- Co., of 107-109, 

Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 1, have issued a desk calendar with monthly 
date cards amidst brilliant surroundings of red and gold. 

Catalogues Wanted. — Messrs. Lowth & Smith, elec- 
trical and mechanical engineers, 49, Deansgate, Manchester, ask for 
catalogues of all classes of electrical apparatus. 

Copper Prices. — Messrs. F. Smith & Co. report 
Jan. 22nd : — Electrolytic bars, sheets and rods, no alteration. 
Messrs. James & Shakespeare report January 23rd : — Copper 
bars, sheets and rods, £ 132 per ton. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Aberystwyth.— Price Increase. — The Electricity Cc- 

has informed the T.C. that, from the next reading of the meters, 
the price of electricity for power will be increased to 3d. per unit 
net. 

Armagh.— Proposed EL. — A meeting of the local 
Workers' Union has called upon the T.C. to undertake an E.L. 
scheme. 

Aylesbury. — N^ew Plant. — The T.C. has decideti to 
install new plant at the electricity works, at a cost of about 
£17,000. 



Vol.84. No. 2,148, January 21, 1919.] THE ELECTKICAL KEVIEW. 



101 



Barnsley. — Price Increase. — The T.C. has decided 
that, in future, fhe tariff to bulk supply consumers taking a c. 
supply is to be on the following basis : — 6s. 6d. per month per 
K.T.A., plus Good, per unit, based on coal at 16s. per ton, with an 
increment of '0025d. per Id. increase in the price of coal. 

Bedford. — Year's ^tVoRKixG. — The total income of the 
Corporation electricity depiirtment for the year ended March 31st, 
1918, was £40.308. and the working expenditure £28,.o6.>. Loan 
redemption amounted to £8,750 and interest to £3,405 ; £9.50 was 
• transferred to the reserve fund and £1.0GO to the suspense repairs 
account, leaving a net deficiencyof £2,423. During the year, £23,425 
was spent on additional buildings, plant, A:c. : 6.0U.028 units were 
generated, of which 5,462,838 were sold, including public lighting. 
73.0110; sewage pumping. 301,986 ; lighting, 591,782; and power, 
4,193,140: 142,323 were used on the works: and 1,035.867 were 
unaccounted for. The maximum demand was 2,590 K\V. 

Benfieldside (Durham).— Propo.sed E.L.— The U.D.C. 

has resolved to arrange for the lighting of its area with electricity, 
and has voted i;700 towards this purpose. 

Birmingham. — Extensions. — Lust week the Electricity 

Committee, accompanied by Mr. C. P. Sparks, who was acting for 
the Ministry of Munitions, in conjunction with which the Com- 
mittee is working, visited the new power station in course of 
erection at Nechells. Nearly £60,000 was spent on the undertaking 
before the war, but construction was then suspended until a few 
months ago. The estimated cost of the station, up to an iritial 
capacity of 30,000 KW., is £1.338,710, and sub-station equipment 
and mains, including a linking-up main to Smethwiok, is put at 
£287.430. The Committee has decided to install two. 15,OUO-KW. 
turbo-alternators at once. 

Bodmin. — Proposed E.L. — A meeting, held last week, 
and presided over by the Mayor, decided to consider the question 
of an E.L. scheme for the town. 

Bradford.— Proposed E.L.— The Baiklon U.D.C. has 
inquired with reference to a supply of electricity for lighting from 
the Corporation. 

Calne. — Prov. Order. — At its next meeting the T.C. 

is to consider the question of applying for an E.L. prov. order. 

Continental. — Hungary. — The Ministry of Trade has 

prepared a memorandum dealing with the question of supplying 
the whole country with electric power, which states that the coal 
supplies of Hungary amount to 17 milliard quintals (quintal = 
220 J lb. average) ; the water power is estimated at I '7 million H.P.. 
which might be increased to three million, and 72 milliard cb. 
metres of natural gas and 1,200 million cb. metres of peat are 
■available. In 1913 the consumption of coal amounted to 1S3'4 
million quintals, a-s against a coal output of 102 7 million quintals ; 
of these 839 million quintals were consumed by industry, 58 3 
millions for the production of power, and 412 million quintals for 
traffic purposes. Electrification according to modern principles 
would bring about a great saving, even if the power requirements 
of industry and traffic were covered by means of energy produced 
from coal. In the last few years before the war the production of 
1 H.P. required 3'7 kg. of coal, and the State Railway trains con- 
sumed O'll kg. of service coal per kilometre. Should electrification 
be introduced, one-half of the former amount and one-third of the 
latter amount would be saved. During the war the output of coal 
has considerably declined, while the consumption has increased. 
Even with an increased output, the necessity of import can only 
be obviated by electrification. To carry out this scheme in its very 
first stage duplicate plant must be erected — one driven by water 
producing 180,000 KW. and one by steam producing 150,000 KW. 
The cost would amount to 840 million kronen, of which :U0 millions 
would have to be covered by the State, especially as the cost of 
electrifying the railways must be estimated at 170 millions. Steps 
should be taken to secure the execution of this programme as soon 
as possible in view of the great coal shorta.ge.-^Pester l.loyd. 

Crayford.— Street Lighting. — The P.C. has arranged 
with the West Kent Electric Co. for the public lighting of the new 
estates at Northumberland Heath and Barnes Cray. 

Eccles. — Inquiry. — Owing to the increased working- 
costs at the electricity works, the Electricity Committee has 
decided to hold an inquiry on the subject. 

Edinburgh.— PoRTOBELLO Station. — Subject to the 

Government's reconstruction scheme, the T.C. has received per- 
mission to proceed with the erection of the new power station at 
Portobello. The scheme provides for three 1 0,000- KW. generating 
sets, and the total cost is estimated at nearly £1,000,000. .V Sub- 
Committee has recommended that the work be proceeded with 
immediately. 

Egham.^STREET Lighting. — The public lamps on the 
main road are being converted from gas to electricity, by the 
E.L. Co. 

Gillingham. — New Plant. — The T.C. has secured a 
loan of £12. Oils for the installation of a Diesel engine at the 
electricity worka. 

Harpenden. —Proposed E.L. — The U.D.C. has appointed 
a Sub-Committee to meet representatives of the North Metropolitan 
E.P.S. Co., with reference to an E,L, scheme for the district. 



Hove. — New Services. — The T.C. has decided that 
when new services are being installed, the consumer shall piy for 
so much of the mains as are on private property ; previously the 
Council has borne the cost of services up to 36 ft. from the main 

Ireland. — Loans. — The L.G.B. for Ireland has informed 
local authorities that it can now consider applications fo7- loans to 
carry out urgent public utility schemes. 

King's Lynn. — Supply to Shipyard. — The T.C. has 

agreed to supply electricity to the new shipbuilding yard at West 
Lynn at the following rates : — Power, 25,000 units and over per 
annum, 1 i|d. per unit : 200.000 and over, l|d. per unit ; lighting, 
up to 6,000 per annum. 6d. per unit ; over 6,000, nd. ; plus 10 per 
cent, on all charges, and a coal clause. 

Proposed K.xtessio.ss. — The electrical engineer has reported 
that the present plant will be insufficient in the coming year, and 
has recommended that tenders be obtained for one I,00O-KW. turbo- 
generator, with condensing plant, one 400-KW. rotary converter, 
one Lancashire boiler, and an induced-draught fan. 

Electricity Charges. — An applic;ition by power consumers 
for the remission of the last 10 per cent, increase on electricity 
charges has been rejected by the E.L. Committee. During the war, 
charges for lighting have increased by 50 per cent., and for power 
by 95j per cent. 

Kirkcaldy. — Proposed Extensions. — The borough 
electrical engineer is preparing plans for the extension of the elec- 
tricity works. 

Lancashire. — Wages. — An application by the employes 
of 26 Lancashire and Cheshire municipalities for a further bonus 
of lUs. per week, in addition to the present bonus of 20s., has been 
considered by a Court of Arbitration, and an award of 4s. Od. per 
week has been made. 

Lewis. — Proposed E.L. — Lord Leverhulme, who is the 

proprietor of the Island of Lewis, has acquired the Stornoway Gas 
Co.. and proposes to develop the E.L. prov. order held by the com- 
pany for the supply of electricity to the town, and for power in 
connection with canning, guano, and oil factories, which are to be 
erected on the island. 

London. — Poplar. — The B.C. has approved the selection 
of Mr. E. M. Lacey to prepare a report on the joint supply of elec- 
tricity for (1) Poplar and West Ham, and (2) the whole of the 
N.E. London area. The borough electrical engineer has been 
directed to prepare a report on extensions of boiler-house plant 
required for next winter. 

Stepnet. — Loan Sanction. — The L.C.C. has sanctioned the 
borrowing by the B.C. of £12,000 for temporary sub-stations and 
mains. 

E.P.S. C0M.MITTEB AND LoAN.s.— In connection with the pro- 
posed centralisation of electricity supply, the L.C.C. Finance Com- 
mittee has agreed to a request of the B. of T. that all applications 
from local authorities for the extension of generating stations shall 
be submitted to the Board before sanction is granted, in order that 
such applications may be considered from the electricity supply 
point of view, as apart from the financial. 

Woolwich.— Price Increase. — The L.C.C. Fire Brigade Com- 
mittee has sanctioned the payment to the Woolwich B.C. of an 
increase of Ijd. per unit for electricity for lighting purposes, and 
id. for power. 

Shoreditch. — The Lighting Committee has recommended that, 
subject to the consent of the B. of T., the agreement with the 
Stepney B.C., for the bulk supply of electricity, be extended until 
March 31st. 1919, unless the turbo-alternator plant at the Whiston 
Street works be running before that date. 

Matlock. — Proposed E.L. — The T.C. is considering an 
electric lighting scheme for its area. 

Navan (Co. Meath). — AYorkhouse LioHTiNG.-^Mr. Scott, 

engineer to the B. of G., has been instructed to prepare a speci- 
fication for increasing the E.L. installation to meet future 
requirements. 

Rhyl. — Street Lighting. — The U.D.C. has decided to 
replace the arc lamps previously used for street-lighting purposes 
by 1.000-c.P. half- watt lamps. 

Salford. — Wages. — The T.C. has protested to the Com- 
mittee